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Community development : an integral technique in the process of community planning Barcham, Donald William Priestly 1965

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COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: AN INTEGRAL TECHNIQUE IN THE PROCESS OF COMMUNITY PLANNING by DONALD WILLIAM PRIESTLY BARCHAM B.A., University of British Columbia, I963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Community and Regional Planning  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, I960  V  In  presenting  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r British  Columbia,  available mission  for  purposes his  for  I  agree  extensive  without  this  thesis  my w r i t t e n  Department  of  April.  of  I  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y shall  make i t  f u r t h e r agree  this  thesis  for  that  It for  is  understood  permission®  Columbia,  or  that, c o p y i n g or  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  Planning  of  of freely per-  scholarly  by the Head o f my Department  Community and R e g i o n a l  1965  in partial  the L i b r a r y  study*  copying  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  that  r e f e r e n c e and  may be g r a n t e d  of  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  representatives.  cation  this  not be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT In order to ensure genuine public acceptance of both planning proposals and of community planning per se, professional planning practices should involve a high degree of active citizen participation.  The process of democratic action i n contemporary  North American urban areas i s frustrated by the institutionalization of authority and responsibility, and as a result, the usual approach to the resolution of planning problems i s often manipulative and managerial.  Professionals tend to plan for the community  rather than with i t . Planning i s conceived as a six-step process beginning with problem identification, and proceeding through goal formation, survey and analysis, design of a plan, plan implementation, and evaluation and reorientation.  Community development, a process  by which members of a community learn why and how to participate i n the planning and control of changes which w i l l affect them, i s suggested as a technique whereby personal interest and democratic participation can be reinstilled i n today's complex communities, as determining forces i n the planning process. Community development achieves not only a l l the advantages of active citizen participation, but i s concerned also with the progress of the individual, the development of co-operative f a c i l i t i e s , and the strengthening of the process of democratic action. The process of community development involves fourteen  elements, arranged according to seven periods over time, which can be integrated with the planning process.  Although this  integration appears to detract from the efficiency of the usual planning process, i t does create good w i l l and co-operation between citizens and technical planning experts, and provides continuity to the planning process through the conservation of organized community resources. It i s no surprise to members of the planning profession to find that the degree of public acceptance of local government planning proposals i s directly related to the amount of citizen participation which occurs during the evolution of those proposals. But for planners to relate the relative degree of public acceptance of a planning proposal to the number of elements of community development which were evidently utilized, either implicitly or explicitly, i n the evolution of that proposal, i s another matter. From a detailed study of five local government planning proposals developed i n the City of Vancouver, i t i s concluded that community development should be used as a technique i n the planning process, i n order to gain the advantages of active citizen participation, and to ensure that the proposals w i l l be acceptable to the people they are to affect. The responsibility for executing the community development process rests with the technical planners, the local municipal administration, and the leaders of the community i n question. The financing of such a scheme would be shared between the community to be affected, and the municipal government, either  through voluntary subscriptions, or tax revenues, or both. The conclusion based on the analysis of the case studies supports the arguments subtended previously. However, because planning i s action oriented, i t i s concluded that the only true method of testing the hypothesis would be by attempting to apply a community development program i n conjunction with the planning process, i n an actual problem situation.  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Undertaking a post-graduate thesis i s a formidable task, not only for the candidate but also for the people upon whom he i s dependent for aid and guidance.  Throughout the thesis project  Dr. K.J. Cross, Assistant Professor of Community and Regional Planning, provided constructive criticism and encouragement for which I am indebted.  Dr. Coolie Verner, Professor of Adult  Education, was instrumental i n my pursuit of the thesis topic as he f i r s t introduced me to the concept of community development, and subsequently provided me with access to his personal library which proved to be a unique and invaluable source of literature. Mr. H.W. Pickstone, Deputy Director of Planning, and the entire staff of the City of Vancouver Planning Department deserve a special note of thanks for their co-operation and forbearance i n my analysis of the case studies. Finally, I wish to express my thanks to Dr. H. Peter Oberlander, Professor and Head, Community and Regional Planning, for his contagious enthusiasm over the past two years, and to my wife, Carol, for her understanding, encouragement and long hours of typing throughout the same period of time.  With such assistance,  even the most formidable task i s not unsurmountable.  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE 1  THEME, CONCEPTS AND BACKGROUND  1  Theme The Planning Process  ..  2  The Usual Approach to Solving Municipal Planning Problems and the Advantages of Active Citizen Participation  k  Examples of Active Citizen Participation . . . . . . Summary II.  <  e  9 12  «,,  THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS  LU  The Introduction of Change and the Process of Adoption  III.  iii  The Concept of Community Development  16  Community Development and the Planning Process . . .  19  Summary  33  THE HYPOTHESIS AND METHOD OF TESTING  36  Community Development as a Kay to Public Acceptance of Planning Proposals Method of Testing the Hypothesis IV.  ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PLANNING PROPOSALS  36 38 1|6  Proposal One: A Collective Parking Scheme . . . . .  kl  Proposal Two: A Collective Parking Scheme  50  Proposal Three:  Concerning the Future Use of  a Public Works Yard Proposal Four:  . . . . . . . . .  A Scheme to Revitalize Chinatown . .  51 56  vii CHAPTER  PAGE Proposal Five:  The Rezoning of a Light  Industrial Area  .  62  Summary V.  $9  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE PLANNING PROCESS: A CRITICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  66  A C r i t i c a l Evaluation  66  Recommendations  71  . . . . .  Suggestions for Further Study . . BIBLIOGRAPHY  83 8$  viii  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE Summary. Integration of the Planning Process and the Community Development Process  II.  Summary of Case Study Observations  35 .  •  6l  CHAPTER I THEME, CONCEPTS AND BACKGROUND City planning and democratic action are compatible.  The  organizational intricacies of contemporary North American urban areas frustrate the process of democratic action through the institutionalization of authority and responsibility.  City planning  practices should involve a high degree of citizen participation throughout the various stages of preparation of local planning proposals.  As i s pointed out i n this chapter, the usual approach  to the solution of local planning problems i s inadequate, and new techniques must be found to ensure such participation, and ultimately, genuine acceptance of the proposals and the idea of community planning, by those to be affected. I.  THEME  I know no safe depository of the ultimate powers of society but the people themselvesj and i f we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy i s not to take i t from them, but to inform their discretion by education. Thomas Jefferson It i s a basic assumption that the members of a democratic society themselves control that society, and have an active role i n determining their own destiny.  Under these circumstances, the  ^Thomas Jefferson, cited by T.J. Kent Jr., The Urban General Plan, p. x i i i .  2  democratic quality of city planning i s indicated by the amount of informed public participation i n the planning and control of changing situations i n community l i f e .  This study points out why, and suggests  how citizens should participate i n community planning. II.  THE PLANNING PROCESS  There are two concepts of the planning process, one of which may be termed behavioral , the second "technical". n  ,,  The behavioral  concept of the planning process represents the sequence of p o l i t i c a l action which leads to guided change and integrated physical development. For example, F. Stuart Chapin Jr. suggests three stages i n this sequence: 1. 2.  Goal specification Decision-making  3. Plan execution, evaluation and reorientation.* The technical concept of the words "planning process" refers to the stages of creating and implementing a plan, to solve a planning problem. This i s the defined work program of a planning agency, and may be expressed as a five-step process involving: 1.  Research into an identified problem.  2.  Analysis of collected data.  3.  Synthesis of analysed material.  %.S. Chapin Jr., "Foundations of Urban Planning", Urban Life and Form, p. 22U.  3lu  Design of a plan.  £.  Application or implementation of the plan.  The term "evaluation" has been intentionally omitted from step five, as the writer i s convinced that evaluation of completed (whether or not implemented) planning proposals, by the responsible government planning agency, i s a rare occurrence. The technical concept of the planning process i s an integral part of the behavioral concept. The behavioral concept, provides for a democratic p o l i t i c a l framework for determining the goals of planning, for conceptualizing alternative methods of attaining those goals, for executing the plan, for a continuous evaluation of past actions and decisions, and for reorientation of the process i n accordance with changing situations.  The responsibility for the  decisions regarding goal specification rests with the p o l i t i c a l processes at work i n society. The conceptualization of alternative methods of attaining democratically specified goals involves the f i r s t four steps of the technical planning process.  Plan execution  i s normally carried out through the application of government policies which are actually p o l i t i c a l manoeuvres and should not be considered part of the technical process although technical procedures may be involved. Such integration of the two concepts provides a six-stage planning process which i s suited to the p o l i t i c a l framework of a democratic society: 1.  Problem Identification  2.  Goal Formation  3.  Survey and Analysis  h»  Design of a Plan  5>. Plan Implementation 6.  Evaluation and Reorientation  These six stages constitute the total planning process as conceived for the purposes of this study. III.  THE USUAL APPROACH TO SOLVING MUNICIPAL PLANNING PROBLEMS AND THE ADVANTAGES OF ACTIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION.  The Usual Approach The achievement of an objective regardless of i t s goodness i s of no value i n a democracy i f at the same time basic democratic values are weakened, or ignored.  In commenting on his v i s i t to  America i n 1 8 3 0 , Alexis de Tocqueville wrote: These Americans are the most peculiar people i n the world ..... In a local community i n their country a citizen may conceive of some need which i s not being met. What does he do? He goes across the street and discusses i t with his neighbour. Then what happens? A committee comes into existence and then the committee begins functioning on behalf of that need, and you won't believe this but i t ' s true. A l l of this i s done without any reference to any bureaucrat. A l l of this i s done by the private citizens on their own i n i t i a t i v e . 3 In pioneer communities, the spontaneous co-operative group action which impressed de Tocqueville stemmed from an environment hostile  ^Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy i n America, Vol. I, p. 1 9 1 .  5 to familiar customs and traditional behavior; an environment lacking institutional systems and authority; a simple pluralistic society i n which any individual could initiate action to resolve local problems. But i n complex contemporary North American communities, personal interest and responsibility has yielded, for purposes of administrative effectiveness, to formally organized institutional effort, resulting i n the loss of democratic participation. Local government planning proposals usually evolve i n the following way.  As a result of their own awareness of certain  problems, or, upon receipt of a directive from council, and having applied the i n i t i a l four steps of the technical planning process identified previously, the planning agency may submit a proposal to the elected representatives of the people, for their approval. The proposal, though valid, may die here, or be made public through the usual channels of communication, and through some method of allowing the citizens to express their views on the proposal.  The use of  public hearings i s a common technique for this purpose. The techniques vary i n detail from administration to administration. Frequently, the sequence to be followed w i l l be dictated by statute. How the proposal i s publicized and implemented varies also with i t s nature.  Some types of proposals require public hearings, others  require only approval by the local council.  At f i r s t glance, this  procedure appears to be quite democratic, performed as i t i s , through the elected representatives i n the locality.  But, the effort  put forth, i s indeed highly institutionalized, and democratic participation suffers as a result. Under this system, citizen  6 participation i n the planning process i s limited to criticism of completed schemes, which are frightening i n their complexity.  The  citizen i s expected to grasp i n toto, a project which has slowly evolved, step-by-step, i n the mind of the planner, and other technical "experts".  If the proposal i s not accepted by the public, planners  and council wonder why. If the proposal i s accepted, chances are the public s t i l l does not completely- understand i t , or i t s potential ramifications and influences. Certain interest groups may understand, and be largely responsible for either defeating or supporting a proposal.  I t must not be assumed, however, that the desires of such  groups are i n accord with the interests of the community-at-large. Frequently, the same special interest groups are represented at one public hearing after another.  The individual citizen i s s t i l l  reluctant to "fight city h a l l " . Dr. Coolie Verner, Professor of Adult Education at the University of British Columbia, points out that: It i s not uncommon to find communities i n which one special area such as recreation, health, social welfare, or public schools i s developed out of proportion and without regard to total community needs because the leadership i n that institution i s more successful i n manipulating community action to that end.^ Examples are many i n the f i e l d of planning, particularly the day-to-day "project planning" of municipalities, where pressures result i n specific studies being made, to justify the proposals and desires of the p o l i t i c a l and community power structure. Frequently,  ^Coolie Verner, "The Community Development Process", U.S. Community Development Review, Vol. 6, March, 196l, p. 3>7.  the comraunity-at-large i s obscured by patronizing the forces at hand. Advantages of Active Citizen Participation To be successful over a period of time, any planning proposal, regardless of how good i t i s from the planner's point of view, must f i r s t be genuinely accepted by the community. Sociologists know that most successful changes are self-motivated. Law, force, or manipulation may result i n the overt public acceptance of a planning proposal, but people's personal values w i l l not be sincere. Under such circumstances, conformity must be policed.  Resistance to  planning proposals i s often due to something deeper than mere disapproval of the new idea. Indeed, i t may be a reflection of a resistance to the concept of planning for the public interest. Resistance to plans i s an indication that the methods and processes are at fault. The naive assumption that any group of persons w i l l f a l l i n with any plan about which they have not been consulted, and which has not taken the social situation into account has been proved false so often i n history that i t s survival i s one of the world's mysteries.5 Citizen participation throughout the planning process ensures that the f i n a l plan w i l l be acceptable to a true majority of the community to be affected by that plan.  The desirability of such participation  i s perhaps widely recognized, but seldom practised.  Apathy, dis-  interest and ignorance must be overcome. Techniques must be developed not only for those purposes, but for ensuring that community resources and energies are put to their best use.  ^J.H. Kolb and E. de S. Brunner, A Study of Rural Society, p.  8 Probably no single technique w i l l have universal application, however, some technique i s preferable to none at a l l .  For, citizen  participation does pay dividends. The Baltimore Urban Renewal Study Board notes that experience has demonstrated that a high degree of neighbourhood and individual participation i s essential i f the gains to be made through renewal efforts are to be sustained and are to provide a foundation for further progress.  In the words, of the Board:  The neighbourhood plan must be based on the desire of the residents expressed through their own leadership. It must be their plan i f i t i s to maintain their support." The Board's report goes on to recognize a fact which other cities might well consider i n assessing their approach to planning proposals, when i t states that:  "Failure to achieve this kind of continuing  resident participation has been the greatest failure i n Baltimore's 7  efforts to date."' A recent seminar i n Hawaii sponsored by the Oahu Development Conference and the Ford Foundation recognized the increasing importance of citizen participation i n planning.  I t pointed  out that forward-thinking planners agree that the citizen should not be subjected to a "hard s e l l " , last-minute campaign, rather that he should be actively involved i n the creation of a plan, not convinced of i t s merit.  I t was suggested that although only the  Baltimore, Urban Renewal Study Board, Report to Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr., p. 6. 7  Ibid.  9  p r o f e s s i o n a l planner can c o n t r i b u t e t e c h n i c a l studies and keep a p l a n moving according to e s t a b l i s h e d planning p r i n c i p l e s , the planner must r e a l i z e that h i s ideas can be enriched by c i t i z e n t h i n k i n g and suggestions.  "He w i l l not attempt or expect to get  good r e s u l t s from c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n which comes only a t the eleventh-hour p u b l i c hearing on a p o l i c y . " A t h i r d t e s t i m o n i a l t o the advantages and d e s i r a b i l i t y of a c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process o r i g i n a t e s w i t h the C i t i z e n s ' C o u n c i l on C i t y Planning i n P h i l a d e l p h i a . The C o u n c i l recognizes t h a t i n h e l p i n g people work toward the planned development of t h e i r c i t y : The process of "how" i s equally important as "what" i s achieved. The r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s are recognized and respected, and a t the same time the i n d i v i d u a l i s modifying h i s i n t e r e s t s f o r the welfare of the group. Community groups are l e a r n i n g t o use the f o r c e s of government to a t t a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y the goals toward b e t t e r l i v i n g which they cannot reach as i n d i v i d u a l s . 9 IV.  EXAMPLES OF ACTIVE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION  C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n can occur e i t h e r spontaneously,  on  a voluntary b a s i s , or i t may be induced and a s s i s t e d by l o c a l government.  One of the best known examples of spontaneous  c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s Chicago's  "Back of the Yards Movement".  °E. Engledow, " A l l Are Involved i n Planning", The Sunday S t a r - B u l l e t i n and A d v e r t i s e r . Honolulu: December 27, 196k, p. A18. ^ C i t i z e n s ' C o u n c i l on C i t y Planning, Annual Report 19gO-I95l> p. 12.  Baltimore's approach to community organization for urban renewal, part of which i s cited above, i s an example of governmentassisted citizen participation.  A lesser known case, where  active citizen participation has assisted i n the planning process i s described below.  Strictly a voluntary movement, i t i s  indicative of the type of organization which can benefit both citizens and civic o f f i c i a l s . The Neighbourhood Association of Back Bay The Neighbourhood Association of the Back Bay, (along Boston's Charles River), i s an illustration of the growth and contribution of a local improvement association i n a middle and upper class residential area.  The progress of the Association  i s indicative of how, once organization has been initiated, a citizen's group may move forward i n determining the destiny of i t s environment. In this case, conservation of the neighbourhood was the goal. The Neighbourhood Association of the Back Bay began as a result of joint meetings of several church organizations. A speech by a realtor, on "The Future of the City of Boston" led to subsequent speeches of local application, by other citizens and civic employees.  After one talk, during which the meeting  was exposed to the efforts and accomplishments of citizens i n other districts of Boston, a motion was passed to appoint a committee to investigate the establishment of a Back Bay Neighbourhood Association.  The committee planned an organizational meeting and invited about seventy-five persons as representative of various interests such as:  schools, churches, rooming-house operators,  professional groups, property owners, clubs, realtors, and tenants.  The f i r s t agenda called for discussion of local land  use problems, and a talk by the leader of an established citizens' association from another part of the city.  The consensus of the  meeting, attended by about f i f t y people, was to proceed immediately with the formation of a neighbourhood association. The ad hoc Planning Committee was transformed into an Organizing Committee to set up the new association. Within two months, by-laws and recommendations were drafted and approved. Because of specific proposals by city o f f i c i a l s to alter the area's zoning pattern, the f i r s t meeting of the Association created a Zoning Committee, to study zoning problems i n consultation with the City Zoning Commission, The City of Boston elects i t s nine councilmen at large, rather than from specific geographical d i s t r i c t s .  Many of the  people f e e l themselves to be isolated from direct participation i n the City's government. Within one year of i t s conception, the Neighbourhood Association of Back Bay had provided an audible voice i n municipal administration for i t s residents. Membership had risen from f i f t y , to seven hundred as a result of successful negotiations with civic o f f i c i a l s , and an all-out membership drive. In that f i r s t year alone, the Association had consulted  w i t h l o c a l o f f i c i a l s , and agreed upon decisions regarding: demolition of o l d b u i l d i n g s ; t r a f f i c and parking problems; a proposed underground garage; and removal o f zoning height l i m i t a t i o n s , t o t h e i r mutual s a t i s f a c t i o n .  The A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  p o l i c y of co-operation on common i n t e r e s t s provides c i v i c o f f i c i a l s w i t h a s i n g l e p o i n t of view from a neighbourhood composed of a number o f fundamental c o n f l i c t s of i n t e r e s t .  For a l l  concerned, the paths t o progress have been smoothed. V.  SUMMARY  A s i x - s t e p planning process, and the usual approach t o the s o l u t i o n of municipal planning problems have been described i n t h i s opening chapter.  Some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h current  p r a c t i c e s has been both expressed and i n f e r r e d i n a p l e a f o r a r e t u r n t o more democratic processes of a c t i o n i n urban planning. Advantages and examples of a c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process have been pointed out. I n reviewing the advantages t o be gained by c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the planning process, reference i s found t o : sincere acceptance of self-motivated change; sustained gains; maintenance of support; enrichment of ideas; r e c o g n i t i o n of r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; and m o d i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s .  By  what methods and techniques could such i d e a l circumstances be created?  How can the personal i n t e r e s t and democratic  p a r t i c i p a t i o n which so amazed de Tocqueville be r e i n s t i l l e d i n  today's complex communities as determining forces i n the planning process?  How can Jefferson's remedy of informed discretion  through education be achieved? The concept of community development as a process by which members of a community learn why and how to participate in the planning and control of changes which w i l l affect them i s described i n Chapter I I . The concept i s new, only as applied to urban planning problems. I t appears to be an ideal technique for assuring public acceptance of local government planning proposals, as i t achieves not only those advantages of citizen participation as outlined above, but i s concerned also with the progress of the individual, the development of co-operative f a c i l i t i e s , and the restoration of the process of democratic action.  CHAPTER II THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Proposed innovations generally follow a sequence of checks and balances before they are accepted by those people they are to affect.  The concept of community development provides simple  sequential steps i n introducing planned changes which evolve through active citizen participation i n the planning process. The concept of community development, and how the community development process and the planning process may be integrated, are described i n this chapter. Details of a fourteen-element community development process which i s used to investigate a postulation i n Chapter Three are presented.  Having established  the desirability of citizen participation i n the planning process, i n Chapter One, community development i s proposed as a technique by which this may be attained. I.  THE INTRODUCTION OF CHANGE, AND THE PROCESS OF ADOPTION "Planned" changes are the most extensive type of cultural  change i n today's societies. complex patterns of behavior.  Change involves the alteration of As most human behavior i s learned,  primarily through instruction, then any attempt to promote changes i n behavior should be approached through deliberate instruction. People resist change i f their attitudes, perceptions, or beliefs are challenged. They are more likely to accept a proposal i f  obvious improvement i s offered. A situation must be created i n which people want to change realizing that the new way i s a better way. The need for an innovation must be perceived i f the innovation i s to be accepted. In introducing changes, simple sequential small steps are best and most effective.  I n i t i a l l y , the community must be made  aware that something new exists, or that a problem requiring a solution exists.  Interest i n the problem or new idea must be  gained, and i f the program to promote awareness i s successful, interested people w i l l themselves seek further information. An appraisal or evaluation of the new idea, or the approach to the problem, i s the next step.  This usually requires a detailed  educational program involving co-operative local opinion leaders as much as possible. Prior to overall adoption of a proposed change, the proposal i s usually given a t r i a l period to reduce the element of risk.  With planning proposals, such a test i s not  always possible, so the experience of others may provide proof of validity.  Should the idea prove to be valuable, individuals  w i l l accept and adopt i t . The foregoing i s a brief outline of what is called the adoption process, and i s suggested as the steps through which any new innovation must proceed before being accepted by the people i t w i l l affect.  In point form, they are:  1.  Awareness  2.  Creation of Interest  3.  Appraisal or Evaluation  1+.  Trial  5.  Adoption  Planned changes then should be approached through deliberate instruction; should take into account the cultural values and past experiences of the group to be affected, and offer obvious improvement to a perceived problem. The planning process should provide for the creation of, awareness of, interest i n , and appraisal of, the new idea by those i t i s to affect. Finally, the new idea must be validated i n the minds of those to be affected i f i t i s to be acceptable. usually f a i l s to do a l l this.  The planning process  Quite often, professional leader-  ship plans for the community rather than with i t . I.  THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  Community development i s the process involved i n educating community members to take deliberate action to achieve community change. Members of the community learn how and why to participate i n the process of change by being actively involved i n changing situations i n community l i f e .  They learn to understand clearly  the issues which are to be resolved. The concept of community development embodies three considerations i n community change. 1.  Community development provides an approach to the  solution of some specific problem which can be resolved at the community level.  I t i s also appropriate to pan-community  problems which lend themselves to being resolved community by coimunity. 2.  In community development programs, the means employed  i s more important than the solution i t s e l f .  "While the immediate  problem may be the provision of off-street parking i n a commercial centre, tentatively solved by the development of collective parking f a c i l i t i e s , the principal objective of the community development program i s that of helping the local people to learn how to solve their common problems. The concern i s with the education of the citizens, rather than the factor of change itself.  In community development programs the citizen's attitude  towards new ideas i s more important than the adoption of a single idea.  This provides a basis for continuity i n the solution of  community problems. 3.  Community development i s only one of several types of  purposive change.^ action.  I t i s frequently confused with community  The sole concern of community action i s the result of  that action; no continuity i s provided.  Community development,  however, i s concerned with the process through which action i s achieved; continuity i s provided. Any program of community development involves four basic steps. "*" At this point, i t i s necessary to describe the four 1  ^See Phillips Roupp (ed.), Approaches to Community Development, p. 16. l^As Suggested By CC. Taylor, "Community Development Programs and Methods", Community Development Review, No. 3, Dec. 1956, pp.  3k-k2.  18 steps so that the relationship of community development to the planning process may be discussed.  The description of these four  steps i s then expanded into fourteen elements to be used i n the examination of a number of selected planning proposals. The f i r s t step involves the systematic discussion of common-felt needs by members of a community.  This recognition  and discussion of needs may arise spontaneously or i t may be induced by an outside agent. The second basic step i s one of systematic planning to carry out the f i r s t self-help undertaking that has been selected by the community.  The scope of an i n i t i a l project must be  within the community's capacity to resolve.  This stage acts to  mobilize the resources of a community, and should lead to local group responsibility.  The organization, responsibility,  initiative and self-confidence of community groups are established i n this stage.  I t i s of no help i f local government agencies step  in and take over, rather they should assist the community i n i t s organization. The third step i n the sequence i s to encourage the complete harnessing of physical, economic and social potentialities of local community groups. At this point, sceptical and mildly interested members become involved.  I t i s a known fact that i f  an innovation i s accepted by a group, cautious individuals are more likely to accept i t also.  By this time, the process w i l l  be established and the project w i l l be nearing completion.  Step four i n the procedure results from the selfmotivated, self-help, experience.  The community and i t s  groups develop self-confidence, competence, and group pride. Aspirations lead to seeking out new projects to tackle. The community has learned how to take part i n controlling change. Community development functions as an education-foraction process.  I t helps people plan and follow a course of  action leading to goal achievement by equipping them with the ability to recognize and define common problems, and to accumulate the knowledge essential to their solution. By i t s nature, a community development program results i n citizen participation.  The concept has been applied  extensively i n underdeveloped countries and i n rural North America, to aid people i n bettering their way of l i f e .  It has  not been used extensively i n urban areas except i n a few widespread instances i n underdeveloped nations, and i n one or two North American slum areas.  Even so, the processes involved were  not always recognized as community development. Although community development programs usually deal with simple problems i n relatively homogeneous communities, the idea could also be adopted i n complex urban areas, i n programs of city planning. The integration of the community development process with the planning process i s detailed i n Section III. III.  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND THE PLANNING PROCESS  Taylor's four-step approach to community development,  described previously, i s one of the best known of many concepts of the community development process.  However, i t does not  provide enough insight into what actually occurs i n carrying out such a program. The need for a generally accepted detailed framework for the process of community development has been recognized recently by Frank H. Sehnert, Community Consultant at Southern I l l i n o i s University, i n his study A Functional IP  Framework for the Action Process i n Community Development. ^ From a summary and analysis of twenty-six different concepts of community development, Sehnert synthesizes their common characteri s t i c s into a detailed procedural framework divided into seven periods i n time. Within these seven time periods, fourteen steps, or "elements" are defined which constitute the complete community development process.  I t i s these fourteen elements within their  chronological periods which this paper suggests can be integrated with the planning process to bring about active citizen participation i n community planning.  The time periods involved have no  fixed length but w i l l vary with the nature of the community or project.  In the overall community development process as outlined  below, the "Operational Period" i s the one which i s most concerned with achieving a specific end within the broader purpose of mobilizing a community to take an active part i n that achievement. -^prank H. Sehnert, A Functional Framework for the Action Process i n Community Development, (preliminary draft, Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s University), 1961.  21  The Introductory Period Democracy gains nothing from e f f o r t s to get p a r t i c i p a t i o n where there i s no b a s i s of i n t e r e s t or competence.13 I n i t i a l l y , someone or some group must be aware that a problem or need e x i s t s w i t h i n the community. then i s the i n i t i a t i o n of the problem or i d e a .  The f i r s t element An awareness of  the problem may be spread by communication with selected persons who  the innovator f e e l s might a l s o be concerned.  Gradually, the  i d e a to do something about the problem takes hold and the f i r s t i n t e r e s t e d persons begin to consider sharing t h e i r concern w i t h others.  L o g i c a l l y , the next element i s the involvement of others  i n the r e a l i z a t i o n that a problem e x i s t s about which something should be done.  Through access to community groups and organiza-  t i o n s , the consciousness and comprehension of the problem or need i s established.  Sehnert suggests t h a t t h i s may be done by holding  a meeting of representatives from various community organizations to promote i n t e r e s t i n the i d e a . ^  His suggestion i s important  to the t h i r d element i n the process which involves l e g i t i m a t i o n of the idea to engage the community i n a process of a c t i o n by gaining widespread approval, reducing opposition and apathy, and c o n s u l t i n g with outside experts f o r procedural guidance.  Using  representatives of organizations allows the ideas to f i l t e r down  •^Arthur Hillman, Community Organization and Planning, p. 37, c i t i n g Neva R. Deardorff, "Planning f o r Youth", Survey ffid-monthly, V o l . 80, No. 121*, A p r i l , 19kk. l^Sehnert, ag. c i t . , p. 96  to the membership, and to be discussed i n turn among non-members. Thus, the ideas seem to come from within the community and are more likely to be acceptable.  Where opposition to launching  into a process of problem solving is met, arrangements should be made to reduce i t by contacting key personalities i n community and clique groups. Within the planning process, this i s the f i r s t part of step number one, "problem identification".  For the professional  planner this may be an easy and obvious observation.  As the f i r s t  three elements i n a community development program, however, how the idea evolves i s of the utmost importance.  The involvement of  the whole community at this stage w i l l prevent the growth of suspicions which may defeat the process before i t really begins. Even with the completion of the introductory period, the problem and the approach w i l l not be totally understood, but part of the community w i l l have recognized that a certain problem does exist, and that the f i r s t steps being taken to resolve i t are their  own.  The Preliminary Period Two elements constitute the preliminary period, the f i r s t of which involves the formation of a preliminary group to initiate the community development process.  A temporary steering committee  may be set up, for example, which appoints several study committees to aid i n developing the program. Sehnert refers to this o f f i c i a t ing group as an "initiating set" which acts to formalize to some  23 extent the undertaking of the process.^ The second element i n this period, and the f i f t h i n the process i s the preliminary study of the present situation. This stage attempts to establish the limits of both the recognized problem, and the community i t affects.  In short, i t i s an  analysis of the present situation leading to an understanding of the profile of the community and i t s problems: the unique qualities of the community are investigated. Within the planning process, this i s s t i l l "problem identification", except that instead of just identifying the problem i t goes on to examine the matrix within which the problem exists. The local decision making process i s examined; a community census taken; relationships between community groups are looked at; community values and attitudes are determined.  It i s  important that the participants obtain for themselves this knowledge of their environment i n order to ward off any false assumptions they may be prone to make. Outside guidance by planners and other professionals may be required here, as the type of information to be gathered and the difficulty of analysing i t may prove to be more than the laymen can handle.  But, as Sehnert  states: Even though outside professional resources are needed to assist the community during this period there i s a  1  % b i d . , p. 101  danger that they w i l l do the job for the community instead of with the community, which can jeopardize the process. If these persons understand the process, i t i s not too d i f f i c u l t for them to adapt their expertness to the needs of the participants i n the community situation. I f they do not understand i t , , their experience may become harmful to the community. " 1  Here, professional resources of the local government and the community-at-large,  supplement and complement the community  situation rather than dominate i t .  I f the community development  process i s to have meaning for the citizen, co-operation among professionals, coupled with understanding of the community development process, i s requisite. In completing the preliminary period as many citizens as possible should be taking part i n gaining an objective look at their community. A l l information pertinent to the problem and the environment should be summarized and openly discussed. Again, the process and problem should be legitimized i n the minds of the people, and the process to date evaluated.  Note that  these functions recur throughout the process, and are instrumental to the educational value of a community development program. With the problem identified, the environment understood, and the people interested, the process advances into the next phase. The Planning Period The one element i n this period aligns i t s e l f with the second step, "goal formation", of the planning process.  l6  I b i d . , p. 10li.  Sehnert  2$  refers to this sixth element as establishing goals and objectives of the process.  Frequently, professional planners  attempt to establish goals on their ownj goals which take the form of specific projects. Within the community development process, however, the information accumulated i n the preliminary period i s used as a basis for establishing goals i n conjunction with the community. Most important i s how to achieve the projects with maximum community involvement.  This requires considerably  more s k i l l and understanding than mere manipulation of people through power and authority. Every professional has an area of specialization to which he i s devoted.  The planner's area of  specialization i s the community as a whole, yet the normal planning leadership pattern i s often manipulative and managerial, for reasons of ease and expediency.  The entire community must have  an opportunity to become involved i n goal formation.  This  requires thinking, consideration, and judgement. The members of a community must be given ample opportunity to exercise these processes.  Planning, after a l l , i s a p o l i t i c a l function and, 17  "politics i s the slow public application of reason".  The  people must be active i n the formulation of goals i n order to think and reason creatively and c r i t i c a l l y . Sufficient time must be allowed for the goals, and objectives to be reviewed, altered, and accepted by various community 17Theodore H. White, cited by T.J. Kent Jr., The Urban General Plan, p. x i i .  groups and individuals. The again recurring legitimation and evaluation, of goals formed and the processes involved, act i n this stage to determine the reasons for dissenting opinions and adverse feelings. A l l facets must be accounted for or further opposition to the program may develop.  Once goals have been  determined and accepted, the community development process proceeds into the organizational period and the training period: two phases which seem to f i t between steps two and three of the planning process.  That i s to say, once goals and objectives have  been formed, further organization and training of community members i s required before proceeding with survey and analysis of specific problems. Organizational Period During the organizational period, the seventh element of the community development process is carried out.  This element  involves the formation of an organizational structure to co-ordinate the process.  This i s a c r i t i c a l component. Sehnert feels that:  The right organizational structure i s so important to the success of the community development process i n a community, that a follow up program needs to be adopted which w i l l check the feelings and opinions of each and every group i n the community to make sure they have o f f i c i a l l y endorsed the structure, or i f not, why not.l" It i s during this period that a l l the community's resources are mobilized.  But no model organizational structure should be  ^sehnert, og. c i t . , p. 113.  imposed. Alternatives should be developed and the citizens should decide which form of organization best suits their own needs.  By  creating the organizational structure, the citizens come to appreciate i t s reasons and importance.  Here, as throughout the  program, competent leadership i n the community development process can make learning more efficient by reducing the element of t r i a l and error. A typical organizational structure might include a new steering committee, special subsidiary committees, and chairmen to report from each.  Groups may be organized by city blocks, by  interest, or for ad hoc purposes.  The structure should be flexible,  not too formalized, and include a representative majority of citizens.  Established local organizations must be considered and  given time to accept and take part i n the new community structure. Again the proposed structure must be validated and evaluated by the citizens by allowing sufficient time for corrections and adjustments to be made i n order to satisfy negative reactions. Well-planned meetings, involving small^ group discussions, not long-winded speeches, can be used to culminate i n the election of officers to head the approved organizational structure.  The  technical knowledge of a professional person can be sublimated i f he becomes an elected officer, and such persons may be more valuable to the process i n a consultative role.  Sehnert i s a  strong believer i n community-wide meetings to advance this period of organization.  At this point, the entire process to date should be reviewed and stabilized.  Misconceptions, doubts and fears can  be allayed, and i f necessary, further outside resources called upon, provided that they do not attempt to monopolize the program. Now organized, community leaders and their appointed or elected assistants must be trained i n the s k i l l s necessary to administer a process of community development. The Training Period The training of elected and appointed leaders i n necessary administrative s k i l l s i s the sole element which occurs i n this period.  The new steering committee, committee chairman, discussion  leaders and recorders, and committee members must a l l be instructed to perform their functions.  Many sources omit this step, but  Sehnert recognizes i t s importance i n enhancing the community development process. During the training sessions, participants learn how to conduct meetings, organize committees and plan agendas.  Types of fact-finding procedures are discussed, and  methods of summarizing and presenting findings are taught. Discussion leaders learn how to stimulate those who do not talk enough, and how to cope with those who talk too much. The use of research reports i n discussions i s also learned.  Recorders  learn how to take concise, meaningful minutes, and how to present them to the general meeting. These concepts and s k i l l s w i l l be new to most participants  29 so they should be encouraged to practice them i n the training meetings.  Undoubtedly, skilled instructors i n adult education,  and small group techniques w i l l be required throughout the period. Such instruction equips those who are uncertain of their capabilities with confidence i n the knowledge that they are gaining a better understanding of their roles. Other types of sessions included for committee members should be organized by the steering committee concurrently with the leadership training in order to strengthen the foundation of the process, and to ensure that community members do not lose interest through lack of participation.  Meetings and workshops  to define planning and community development further, and forums on citizen responsibility i n community affairs, inject more education into the process and encourage maintenance of interest. Not a l l training w i l l take place during this period, as some individuals w i l l have been trained i n prior stages through the nature of the process.  The length of time required for the  training period w i l l depend largely on the. interest of the people, the nature of the community, and the s k i l l s of professional consultants utilized.  Prior to proceeding with the operational  period, the value of the training sessions, how they could be improved, and how they w i l l contribute to subsequent stages, should be reviewed and agreed upon by a l l concerned. The Operational Period This period constitutes the backbone of the community  development process, and may be compared to the following steps i n the planning process: 3.  Survey and Analysis  k»  Design of a Plan  $.  Plan Implementation  Here also, i s the backbone of the planning process.  The f i r s t of  two elements i n this period i s the administration of research and project committee operations; the tenth element in the process being the carrying out of research operations so that a l l citizens can see tangible results.  At this time, the actual execution of  action towards specific improvements i n the community takes place. Periods leading to this stage have laid the groundwork f o r an intelligent approach to coping with particular problems. Operations during this period must be s k i l l f u l l y co-ordinated. Research operations should be structured to ensure total citizen participation, guided by the advice of professionals, carried out i n an objective manner. Precisely what happens during this period i s dependent upon the goals and objectives specified during the planning period. In a separate chapter, Sehnert elaborates on the components of this operational period as they might be applied i n any program 19  of community development.  7  Basically, what Sehnert proposes i s  the course of action followed by a planning agency i n resolving 19  I b i d . , Chapter V, pp. l U 0 - l # .  31 a planning problem:  i.e. the "technical" planning process.  The  major difference i s that the citizens do most of the work; are kept informed at a l l times; determine which plan to adopt; and are instrumental i n implementing the chosen proposal.  The citizen  i s given every opportunity to participate effectively.  The  planners and associated professionals act as guides i n supplementing the process by providing the community with specialized tools and techniques of problem solving:  a strategic role of competent  leadership to reduce elements of t r i a l and error. By the end of this period, the original problem facing the community has been resolved; but more important i t has been done by the people who are affected, through the community development process.  Community development appears to be less efficient than  usual planning procedures, emphasizing as i t does the means by which the problem i s solved.  In the long run, however, such may  not be the case, for, as C.E. Merriara points out i n his book Q.'ra. the Agenda of Democracy: Effectiveness i s determined not merely by the complete concentration of the power to decide, but also by that general good w i l l and co-operativeness without which wise decisions cannot be made, or, i f made, cannot be carried out.20 The Continuation Period The f i n a l period i n the evolution of a community development  20  C.E. Merriam, On the Agenda of Democracy, pp. 96-97.  program consists of elements eleven to fourteen. Because the project has terminated, does not mean that the process should end also.  Conversely, the continuation period provides  continuity to the process through the conservation of developed community resources. A parallel may be drawn between this period, and step six of the planning process, "evaluation and reorientation".  Neither process ever ends.  The evaluation of the evolution and progress of the community development process i s element number eleven. At this time, the entire process i s c r i t i c a l l y examined i n the light of i t s effects, impressions and uses.  The techniques and  outside resources used are reviewed and judged, as i s the overall success or failure of the entire program. Professional community workers can contribute valuable assistance to this assessment. During this step improvements should be suggested, and areas where further information might lead to a better understanding of the environment delineated. Upon this basis, the expansion of the process i n the community becomes possible. new goals established.  New problems are recognized, and  New leaders and committees are formed.  The process may even be applied to issues of a larger scale, with the impetus emanating from the community which has seen how successful i t can be; and the second time around should prove to be less complicated.  Final consultation with professional advisors i s the next element i n the process.  Sehnert realizes that how or when a  professional consultant withdraws from a community situation i s not clear.  The best leaders, however, w i l l know their task i s  completed when the people say "We have done i t ourselves".  Should  he be retained, the consultant can aid the community i n reorientating the process, and establishing new community groups and positions. The fourteenth and f i n a l element i n a community development program i s one which i s seldom taken i n the planning process, namely, follow up.  Periodic return v i s i t s to the community to  introduce new resources, and to use the successful situation as an example for other areas to follow, maintain contact between the professionals and the laymen. Encouragement to undertake further projects can be stimulated by keeping open channels of technical information from specialists and researchers, to the community level. IV.  SUMMARY  Having traced the process through which an innovation must go, prior to being adopted, the concept of community development, has been described i n this chapter and suggested as a technique to ensure active and continuing citizen participation i n the planning process.  The fourteen elements inherent i n  any community development program have been described, and indications have been given as to how those fourteen elements could be integrated with the physical planning process. Table I, page 35, summarizes this integration i n tabular form. An attempt i s made i n Chapter Three to further justify the use of this technique, by testing a simple hypothesis, through the analysis of a number of planning proposals developed i n a major municipality i n British Columbia. The words of David S. Lilienthal, as applied to citizen participation i n the work of the Tennessee Valley Authority, provide an apt sequel to this chapter. Here i s the l i f e principle of democratic planning - an awareness i n the whole people of a sense of this common and moral purpose. Not one goal, but a direction. Not one plan once and for a l l , but the conscious selection by the people of successive plans I t i s because the lesson of the past seems to me so clear on this score,... the people must be i n on the planning; their existing institutions must be made part of i t ; selfeducation of the citizenry i s more important than specific projects or physical changes.^ 1  21  p. 191.  David E. Lilienthal, T.V.A., Democracy on the March,  35  TABLE I.  SUMMARY INTEGRATION OF THE PLANNING PROCESS AND THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS  PLANNING PROCESS  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS TIME PERIOD  STEPS  I  1.  2.  Problem Identification  Goal Formation  3.  Survey and Analysis  U.  Design of a Plan  5.  Plan Implementation  6.  Evaluation & Reorientation  II  III  Introductory  Preliminary  Planning  ELEMENTS 1.  Initiation of Idea  2.  Involvement of Others  3.  Legitimation of Idea  k»  Formation of Preliminary Group to Initiate Community Development Process  5.  Preliminary Study of Situation  5.  (a) Legitimation and Evaluation  6.  Establishing Goals and Objectives of the Process  6.  (a) Legitimation and Evaluation of Goals Formation of Organizational Structure  TV  Organizational  7.  V  Training  8. Training Elected and Appointed Leaders i n Administrative Skills 9.  VI  VII  Operational  Continuation  Administration of Research and Project Committee Operations  10.  Research Operations Conducted so that A l l Citizens Can See Tangible Results  11.  Evaluation of Evolution & Progress of Community Development Process  12.  Expansion of Process i n Community  13.  Final Consultation  lU.  Follow Up o.w..».  CHAPTER III THE HYPOTHESIS AND METHOD OF TESTING An hypothesis relating community development to the planning process i s proposed below, and a method i s described for testing that hypothesis.  A number of problems which came to  light during the investigation are reviewed, and the f i n a l approach to testing the hypothesis i s described. A few comments on the validity of Sehnert's community development framework i n conducting such an investigation form the concluding section. I.  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AS A KEY TO PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF PLANNING PROPOSALS In order to be successful, any plan, for an area's future  development, regardless of i t s technical merit must f i r s t be acceptable to those who are to be affected by i t s implementation. Examples have been given, illustrating how active citizen participation aids i n the creation of publicly acceptable, and subsequently successful planning proposals. The use of community development was suggested i n Chapter II as a means by which active public participation i n the planning process can be achieved.  The use of the technique would ensure  that the proposals ultimately developed were publicly acceptable; and by the nature of the community development process, democratically developed and implemented.  That the degree of public acceptance of a planning proposal i s directly related to the extent to which citizen participation occurred i n developing that proposal comes as no surprise to members of the planning profession. how to achieve such participation.  The problem i s  The proposed answer to the  problem i s to utilize the technique of community development i n the planning process wherever possible. While the writer was employed with the planning department of the City of Vancouver, B.C., i t became apparent that certain procedures used to involve citizens i n the planning process, were similar i n nature to the elements of the community development process, as outlined i n Chapter I I . For example, briefs were received from local interest groups regarding their criticism of completed proposals; key planning personnel frequently addressed meetings to elaborate, i f not on specific schemes, at least on planning i n general i n the city; public hearings were held, which allowed brave citizens to express their personal convictions about proposed plans.  The most acceptable schemes;  (i.e. those which appeared to meet the least resistance from the people they were to affect), appeared to have involved a higher degree of public participation than less acceptable ones.  As  stated previously, this came as no surprise to members of the planning profession.  But, cursory examination also suggested  that the most acceptable schemes also exhibited evidence of  having involved procedures which could be interpreted as analogous to the elements involved i n a program of community development. On this basis i t seems logical to postulate that: the degree of public acceptance of local government planning proposals varies directly with the extent to which elements of community development are utilized i n the planning process. If proved valid, the above hypothesis could be used to further justify the case being advanced for the use of community development as a technique i n the planning process.  I t was  necessary therefore to develop some means for testing the veracity of the statement. II.  METHOD OF TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS  It was decided to analyse a number of local government planning proposals i n an attempt to assess f i r s t , the degree of public acceptance of each, and second, the extent to which elements of community development (as outlined i n Chapter II) were utilized, either consciously or inadvertently, i n the formation and implementation of those proposals. Three local planning agencies i n the Lower Mainland of British Columbia were approached, and were requested to provide access to pertinent f i l e s and individuals so that the investigation could be carried out.  A l l three agencies were willing to co-operate i n the study,  and subsequently, a number of problems unfolded i n the following respects.  39  Determination of the Degree of Public Acceptance Some objective method of accurately assessing public acceptance of a planning proposal would be most desirable.  I t soon  became evident, however, that within the limitations of time and resources available for the study, i t would not be possible to develop a reliable measurement technique which could be universally applied. Where votes by the community-at-large had occurred, an estimate might have been based upon the proportion of those voting i n favour of a proposal.  However, municipal elections and polls  seldom attract anywhere near a majority of citizens, and the result so obtained might not be a true reflection of overall community feeling.  Furthermore, very few planning proposals  ever get voted on by the people they are to affect, since decisions rest with their elected representatives.  Therefore, to base  conclusions regarding the hypothesis solely upon the few proposals which have been voted on would not be advisable, as there i s no guarantee that such proposals are representative of a l l local government planning proposals. Each of the three planning agencies consulted advised that, considering the d i f f i c u l t i e s outlined below, a subjective approach to determining how acceptable a proposal was, would be preferable, and where possible, might be supported by substantive evidence. P o l i t i c a l and Administrative Variations The p o l i t i c a l and administrative atmospheres of different  municipalities vary greatly. To attempt any classification of planning programs from different jurisdictions, i n terms of their acceptability, might be misleading.  Personalities and power  structures would both affect the apparent relative acceptability of selected proposals.  In some cases, many planning proposals are  blocked by civic administration before they even get to be considered by council, l e t alone the public.  I t i s f e l t that i f several  different municipalities were to be used as sources for case materials, the cases chosen would have to be of the same type i n each area.  For example, a l l proposals studied would have to  relate to shopping centres, or to parks, or to some other consistent category. Significant also, i s the fact that p o l i t i c a l and administrative atmosphere varies not only between municipalities, but also within any one municipality over time.  Although recognized, the  factor of change over time could not be avoided, as the time required to complete a project frequently exceeds the length of time for which administrative, p o l i t i c a l and technical personnel hold office. Scale of the Proposals Municipal planning proposals range from minor changes i n zoning by-laws, to overall master plan schemes. Obviously neither extreme would be suitable for testing the hypothesis: i s too simple, the latter too complex.  the former  It was decided therefore  to restrict the selection of proposals to planning projects such as collective parking schemes, park proposals, and other similar schemes which might be thought of as components of an overall plan.  The "community" involved i n these proposals w i l l vary i n  both size and character. In speaking of community development, the precise definition of the word "community" i s not important. It may be a geographical area ranging i n size from a neighbourhood to a region. Or i t may be a "community of interest", characterized by the particular interest or function i t s members share. It i s the function of the community development process to bring these persons together i n developing an awareness of, and a solution for, their common problems. Community projects vary not only i n type and scale, but also according to responsibility.  The carrying out of a proposal  may be a government responsibility, a private responsibility, or a co-operative task, involving both public and private enterprise. For example, collective parking schemes are a co-operative venture, planned by the municipality and the merchants involved, built, maintained and financed by the municipality, and paid for on a local improvement basis by the property-owners.  Park  and highway projects are usually a government responsibility, seldom involving public participation, or private funds. Occasionally, proposals arise which are s t r i c t l y the responsibility of private enterprise, to implement and maintain.  Proposals for  the reorganization of shopping areas, accompanied by enabling  h2  legislation are exemplary of private enterprise bearing the burden of public decisions. In choosing planning proposals for this study, i t was decided that this facet of responsibility should be kept i n mind as a possible basis for selection. It was necessary to resolve these problems and formulate a consistent approach to testing the hypothesis put forth on page 38. Ultimately, the method described below was adopted as most compatible with the circumstances by which the investigation was limited. The Final Approach to Testing the Hypothesis Limitations of time and resources and variations i n p o l i t i c a l and administrative atmospheres, led to the decision to restrict the study to planning proposals within a single municipality. To do so, was expedient for the investigator, and seemed to provide the most stable p o l i t i c a l and administrative atmosphere attainable, with the exception of changes over time which, as they cannot be controlled, w i l l not be accounted for i n the study. The degree of public acceptance of local government planning proposals was to be estimated subjectively, through analysis of available records, and opinions expressed by planners and public participants. Where possible, substantive evidence (e.g. the per-cent of ratepayers who signed a petition for a proposal involving local improvement procedures) was used to aid i n the assessment of public acceptance.  Proposals were grouped  U3 into three categories:  1.  Highly Acceptable  2.  Marginally Acceptable  3.  Unacceptable  A highly acceptable project would be one which met l i t t l e or no opposition from the people i t was to affect.  Marginally accept-  able proposals were those which met considerable opposition, yet were accepted, at least overtly, by a majority of the citizens involved.  To be classified as unacceptable, a proposal must have  met strong opposition from the community, representing a majority of those to be affected by the proposal, or, ultimately, must not have been implemented. The planning department consulted was requested to provide access to information regarding individual projects which their staff had developed, presumably through the normal planning process.  To aid i n the selection of proposals suitable for the  investigation, the planning agency was asked to classify them according to responsibility; i . e . public, private, or co-operative. Through a detailed analysis of information contained i n planning department f i l e s , plus the aid of the planning staff and key citizen participants, each selected proposal was analysed, i n terms of Sehnert's fourteen element community development process outlined i n Chapter II, to determine the extent to which elements of community development were utilized i n formulating and implementing that proposal.  Prior to proceeding with the  investigation i n depth, i t was thought necessary to provide some  indication as to the validity of Sehnert's framework for such purposes. Comments on the Validity of the Fourteen Element Framework for Research Purposes In commenting upon Sehnert*s functional framework for the community development process, Kenneth Haygood, Chairman of the Community Development Section of the Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. remarked: However, I do think that i t i s possible to define a framework which can be accepted by virtually everyone working i n the f i e l d of community development. Along this line, I think that your CSehnert'sJ conceptual framework i s sufficiently extensive and inclusive.22 From the same source, i t was noted that Charles E. Ramsay, Professor of Sociology, Colorado State University, commented upon the framework i n the following manner. Being primarily interested i n research, I looked at i t Lthe framework^] f i r s t from the point of view of hypotheses suggested for tests. I find that the elaboration and detail i n breaking down the community development process i s most helpful i n this regard. ... I find the framework you suggest for the process of community development helps me a great deal i n evoking a more systematic scheme for evaluation, ^ At the University of British Columbia, Dr. Coolie Verner, Professor of Adult Education, supported the use of Sehnert's  " C i t e d i n a letter from F.H. Sehnert, Southern I l l i n o i s University, to Dr. Coolie Verner, University of British Columbia, January LU, 1963. 2  3lbid.  U5 framework as a guide for testing the hypothesis advanced on page 38.  2ii  In his own validation of the framework, Sehnert applied i t to the analysis of two community development programs i n Southern I l l i n o i s .  He found that the steps, elements and time  periods involved, could be identified through the study and analysis of records, reports and articles compiled during the programs. For this investigation, a pilot study was made of a successf u l collective parking scheme, through analysis of planning department f i l e s , and consultation with persons involved. Results of the p i l o t study encouraged the author to continue with the collection and analysis of other planning proposals, i n an attempt to test the hypothesis that: tbs degree of public acceptance of local government planning proposals varies directly with the extent to which elements of community development are utilized i n the planning process. Details of the investigation are presented i n Chapter IV.  ^Personal interview.  CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PLANNING PROPOSALS From the l i s t of proposals suggested by the City of Vancouver Planning Department, two each were sought according to whether they were: 1.  Highly acceptable,  2.  Marginally acceptable,  3.  Not acceptable.  I n i t i a l indication as to the degree of acceptability of the projects was gained from the experience of the planners involved, and from the author's prior knowledge of certain proposals. Each pertinent project f i l e was studied to determine the chronological order of events, and i t was found that f i l e s themselves do not reflect the total planning process.  Much information  had to be obtained from outside and human sources, i n order to identify adequately which elements of community development were incorporated, either explicitly or implicitly i n each proposal. In a l l , fourteen interviews were necessary; eight with city planners, four with key citizens, and two with other civic officials. It was soon determined that the investigation would have to be limited to proposals involving small communities or neighbourhoods, and only local government agencies.  In attempting  to analyse an urban renewal scheme, i t was found that the partnership arrangement between the three levels of government and the  numerous agencies involved so complicated the issue that i t was Impossible, under the limitations of time and resources, to identify the steps necessary to reveal elements of community development.  Ultimately, five proposals, each an individual  project, were obtained which seemed to represent a range of both public acceptance, and responsibility.  The five proposals examined  also exhibited considerable variation i n the extent to which elements of community development were utilized i n their evolution. I.  PROPOSAL ONE:  A COLLECTIVE PARKING SCHEME  Classified by both the planners and merchants involved, as "highly acceptable", the f i r s t proposal analysed concerned the provision of collective parking f a c i l i t i e s at the rear of stores i n a suburban d i s t r i c t shopping centre. Seventy per cent of the property owners involved signed a petition favouring the proposal. Projects of this nature involve the co-operative responsibilities of the municipality to finance, design, build and maintain the parking lotsj and of the merchants, to determine the extent of the f a c i l i t i e s and pay for them on a local improvement basis. A problem of traffic circulation and parking i n the district was recognized by a small group of the area's businessmen. Furthermore, construction of a nearby integrated shopping centre seemed to threaten the existence of the older, less well-equipped shopping area.  Initiation of the idea to do something about their common  problems occurred when one member of the small group consulted  the local Chamber of Commerce.  The involvement of others had then  occurred, and apparently, the problem was considered legitimate by members of the Chamber of Commerce, as they contacted the local Planning Department by way of a letter to the Mayor and Council. The formation of a preliminary group occurred when the Chamber of Commerce set up i t s own committee to investigate and report on how the problem of parking and circulation might be solved.  Preliminary study of the situation then took place i n  the form of an on-going process of ideas and studies by the Chamber of Commerce committee.  Concurrently, research i n the City Planning  Department led to a scheme to provide collective parking f a c i l i t i e s i n established suburban district commercial centres.  This may be  said to have resulted i n the establishing of goals» and i t was indirectly done i n conjunction with the community. The Planning Department's report suggested also, that each shopping d i s t r i c t should be encouraged to provide i t s own organization to work with city o f f i c i a l s , and to manage the f a c i l i t y :  i . e . i t encouraged  the formation of a co-ordinating organizational structure. The Chamber of Commerce had already taken this step.  City Council  directed that the Planning Department's general report be submitted to various local shopping areas for their comments.  Thus, they  allowed for evaluation and legitimation of goals, and a majority of the shopping areas favoured the new legislation. In the same study area, professional advice was sought by the Chamber of Commerce to administer research and project committee  operations.  The merchants' ideas regarding location and extent of  the new parking lots were submitted to the Planning Department, which i n conjunction with the municipal Engineering Department prepared a detailed layout for the scheme. During this period, the merchants were able to see tangible results through meetings and correspondence with municipal o f f i c i a l s . informed as to details of the project.  Thus, they were kept well Some opposition was met  regarding fences around the project, but was quickly resolved. The proposal took three and one-half years from the time of problem recognition, to the o f f i c i a l opening of the collective parking lots.  The Chamber of Commerce talked with owners of  residential properties which were to be purchased by the city for parking purposes.  Further testimony to the high degree of public  acceptance of the proposal i s given by the fact that no expropriation proceedings were required i n the acquisition of necessary properties. Throughout the development and implementation of this i n i t i a l proposal, ten of the fourteen elements involved i n the community development process can be identified.  In order of occurrence,  they were:  ,  1.  Initiation of the idea  2.  Involvement of others  3.  Legitimation of the idea  k»  Formation of a preliminary group  3>.  Preliminary study of the situation  6.  The establishing of goals  7. Formation of a co-ordinating organizational structure 8. Evaluation and legitimation of goals 9. 10.  Administration of research and project committee operations Research operations conducted so that a l l citizens could see tangible results.  No evidence was found to indicate that any of the other four steps inherent i n a program of community development, had occurred.  The number of elements identified i n comparison with  the other four case studies, 'is summarized i n Table II, page 6 l . II.  PROPOSAL TWO:  A COLLECTIVE PARKING SCHEME  Initiation of the idea for this particular collective parking proposal came from the City Planning Department as part of a larger development plan for the district i n question.  No other  groups or individuals were involved. The Planning Department's ideas filtered down to the local merchants and property owners through a report to City Council. The proposal was rejected by the merchants' association, on grounds that the locations suggested for parking lots were not suitable. Despite the merchants' objections to the scheme, the Planning Department persisted i n i t s proposal, claiming that although i t was not i n the best location, the scheme would help to meet an urgent, immediate need. During the next year and one half, detailed plans and estimates for the scheme were drawn up  by City departments, and a l l that was required was a petition, bearing the signatures of sixty-seven percent of a l l the property owners who were to pay for the project on a local improvement basis*  The petition found no support. Examination of Planning Department f i l e s revealed no other  elements of community development i n the process of developing this "unacceptable" proposal, aside from initiation of the idea. A complication was discovered i n an interview with the current president of the district's Commercial Association.  One of the  reasons the petition went unsupported was that rumours of extensive real estate options and a possible major development involving part of the proposed parking area, were circulating i n the community, and many merchants adopted a "wait and see" attitude.  Since that  time, however, three years have elapsed and the centre i s s t i l l without adequate parking f a c i l i t i e s . III.  PROPOSAL THREE: CONCERNING THE FUTURE USE OF A PUBLIC WORKS YARD  The yard i n question was located adjacent to a suburban d i s t r i c t shopping centre, i n an area which i s rapidly developing as a major high-rise apartment zone.  The ultimate proposal for  the yard i s considered to be "highly acceptable" to those i t w i l l directly affect. In May 1957, the local community association expressed an interest i n the site for parking purposes to serve the nearby  52 r e t a i l area.  Two months later, the community association, i n a  letter to Mayor and Council, anticipated presenting a concrete proposal to municipal authorities regarding the use of the works yard as a parking lot.  This action can be construed as the  i n i t i a t i o n of the idea to put the works yard to a more suitable use.  The involvement of others occurred when City Council replied  that any formal proposals should be made only after the City Engineer had been consulted by the community association.  The  project to put the works yard to community use stagnated for a period of about eighteen months, after which time, two other groups expressed interest i n the site. Early i n 1959, the local community centre requested use of the adjacent works yard for a parking lot and small park site.  At  about the same time, the City Board of Parks requested use of the site for park purposes.  These two actions are considered to be a  repetition of initiation of the idea, to put the still-functioning works yard to a higher use.  As the ¥orks Department had no intention  of vacating the site for several years, interest i n i t s future lagged again for about two years. In April 1962, the d i s t r i c t Commercial Association applied to the City to have the yard removed from the area, and the site converted into a parking l o t .  No action was taken, as the Works  Department s t i l l wished to retain the site for i t s own use, and the Commercial Association failed to gain sufficient support for a collective parking scheme which included the controversial  53 works yardTwo more years passed, and i n January of 196k, the question of the future use of the works yard was turned over, by City Council, to the Civic Development Committee for study and report. Preliminary study of the situation may be said to have occurred when the Commercial Association began to consider alternative parking areas, following a Planning Department report that the yard was considered too far from the shops for use as a parking l o t . Preliminary studies were also being conducted by the Community Centre Association, which presented the Civic Development Committee with a petition representing i t s four thousand members, requesting that the works yard be transferred to the Board of Parks for development and use as a sitting-out and ornamental park area, plus an extension to the community centre parking area. petition contained three thousand signatures, and was  The  supported  by the Director of the Public Library, and the City's Assistant Health Officer.  This action involved the formation of a preliminary  group, which represented a large segment of the community, and established specific goals and objectives, which were apparently a legitimate manifestation of the community's desires. Upon receipt of the petition, the Civic Development Committee instructed that the Planning and Engineering Departments should prepare reports on the possibility of shared use of the site, for retail-area parking, and community centre use, as well as on what alternative uses of the site might be feasible.  The Civic  Development Committee stipulated that these reports be prepared i n conjunction with the district Commercial Association, and the Community Centre Association: i . e . research operations were to be conducted so that a l l citizens could see tangible results.  Having  issued their directive, the Committee was at the same time, controlling the administration of research and project committee operations. The d i s t r i c t Commercial Association was unable to gain sufficient support from i t s members, for i t s proposed collective parking scheme on the works yard site.  In the meantime, a proposal  was submitted to the Planning Department to build a personal care home on the site.  City Council seriously considered rezoning the  site to allow the personal care home to be built, but quashed their own proposal when faced with a committee room f u l l of hostile citizens, opposing the proposed rezoning.  The citizens convinced  the Council that the property was needed for park and parking space. As a result, Council instructed the Director of Planning to prepare a development plan for the site.  The plan was delayed  by negotiations with merchants and a private developer who  had  an interest i n the area, but i t was ultimately proposed that the now vacant works yard be offered for acquisition by the Board of Parks, for joint use as a park, and community centre parking facilities.  On March 5, 1965, the Town Planning Commission  conferred and unanimously recommended that the site be used for park and community centre purposes. About two weeks later, City  55  Council turned the abandoned works yard over to the Parks Board at a price far less than i t s potential worth, to be used as the Planning Department had proposed. Needless to say, the proposal was considered by a l l concerned to be "highly acceptable".  Even the merchants i n the  r e t a i l area were pleased with the f i n a l outcome, as they soon realized that the available parking space, though distant, might ease their own problem to some extent, and they after a l l , had been unable to gain adequate support from their members, to carry out their own proposal. Further evidence as to the acceptability of the proposal i s borne by the three thousand signatures on the petition presented to the Civic Development Committee. Eight elements of the community development process have been identified i n the analysis of the works yard proposal. In order of occurrence, recognizable elements were: 1.  Initiation of the idea  2.  Involvement of others  3.  Preliminary study of the situation  U.  Formation of a preliminary group  5.  Establishing goals and objectives  6. Legitimation of goals and objectives 7.  Research operations conducted so that a l l citizens can see tangible results  8.  Administration of research and project committee operations.  56 The time elapsed since the project was completed i s insufficient to have allowed the four steps i n the continuation period of the community development process to be taken.  Therefore, the extent  to which elements of community development were utilized i n the planning process, must be based on a total of ten, rather than fourteen elements. Eight out of ten elements i s roughly equivalent to eleven out of fourteen elements:  an indication that this  highly acceptable proposal was rich i n elements of community development.  However, there i s no indication at the time of  writing, that evaluation, expansion, f i n a l consultation or follow up, are likely to occur.  The number of elements of community  development evident i n the project i s compared with the other case studies i n Table II, page 6 l . As i t turned out, responsibility for the proposal rests with the Board of Parksj a local government agency.  Had the site  been allocated for collective parking, a co-operative distribution of responsibility would have been indicated.  The personal care  home, i n i t i a l l y favoured by the City Council, would have been s t r i c t l y the private developer's responsibility. IV.  PROPOSAL FOUR: A SCHEME TO REVITALIZE CHINATOWN  In January 196U, City Council received a report from the Planning Department, containing a number of ideas for the rehabilitation of commercial Chinatown. Preliminary evidence showed the proposal to be "highly acceptable", but further  investigation led to i t s being classified as only "marginally acceptable". Initiation of the idea to make Chinatown more attractive, through the provision of pedestrian malls, t r a f f i c diversions, and off-street parking, was intended to stimulate action by property owners and tenants i n the area.  The report concluded that costs  of such an undertaking would be shared, but that the improvement of Chinatown could only be achieved i f i t was wanted. The next step was to find out whether or not such improvement was desired. Involvement of others i n the idea occurred when the Community Planning Association of Canada called a meeting of the Chinese merchants, and had the scheme presented to them by the Director of Planning.  In the meantime, copies of the report had  been sent to other interested groups, such as the local Visitors Bureau and the Chamber of Commerce, who wholeheartedly  endorsed  the project. Prior to the C.P.A.C. meeting, a community newspaper, the Chinatown News, stated on page two i n an April 3rd editorial that the City Planning Department had provided "a spark that might yet ignite the imagination of our merchants. Let i t explode into a windfall."  J  Subsequently, the same newspaper conducted  an opinion p o l l and found that ninety per cent of the people polled i n the Chinese community were enthused about the proposal.  ^ E d i t o r i a l i n the Chinatown News, April 3, 196k, p. 2.  No indication was given as to how many people were questioned. Judging by this criterion, and the interest shown at the C.P.A.C. meeting, the proposal appears to have been "highly acceptable". About a month later, on May 1 s t , 1°61|, another editorial on page two of the Chinatown News claimed; There i s no dearth of capital i n our Chinatown. We lack only men with vision and courage to provide dynamic leadership i n projecting Chinatown into the future. " 2  The statement that the community lacked the necessary leadership i s noteworthy.  Nevertheless, by the end of May, the Chinese  Benevolent Association had established a pro-tern committee to meet with civic o f f i c i a l s .  The formation of this preliminary group  led to a meeting with City planning o f f i c i a l s , during which costs, division of responsibility, methods of financing, and phasing of development were discussed. The delegation approved the proposal, and i n so doing, may have been expressing their legitimation of the Planning Department's goals. However, i t now appears that such was not the case. Having promised concrete proposals within two weeks of the meeting, the Planning Department proceeded with detailed technical investigations by asking the Traffic Engineer to conduct t r a f f i c studies i n the area to be affected by the Chinatown scheme.  Ten  months have passed, and the City's share of the responsibility has bogged down for reasons which are not clear, but which cannot  26  I b i d . , May 1, 196U, p. 2.  be attributed solely to t r a f f i c studies. Although the planners are s t i l l interested i n the proposal, i t i s apparent that some other o f f i c i a l s are not.  Unfortunately, the apparent enthusiasm and  i n i t i a l organization i n the Chinese community have been allowed to dissipate.  As interest appears to have waned so greatly, and as  the only substantive evidence regarding the acceptability of the proposal was the result of a limited opinion p o l l , the project i s classified as "marginally acceptable".  I t has not been rejected  yet, but neither has i t been implemented. A comment by the Director of Planning suggests that the report was universally accepted i n principle; apparently, not i n practice. Only three distinct elements of community development out of a possible fourteen were identified i n this proposal: 1.  Initiation of the idea  2.  Involvement of others  3.  Formation of a preliminary group.  No actual legitimation of goals or ideas could be found, and the only reference to the possibility of forming an organizational co-ordinating structure, was the reference i n the Chinatown News editorial that such resources were not to be found within the Chinese community. A comparison with the other four proposals i s again provided on page 6 l . V.  PROPOSAL FIVE:  THE REZONING OF A LIGHT INDUSTRIAL AREA  For an area showing distinct signs of commercial and  industrial blight, the City Planning Department proposed a rezoning scheme which would change the status of one block from light industrial uses, to multiple family uses, and that of another block, from light industrial to commercial use.  The proposal was the  result of a planning report which was totally void of any evidence of citizen participation, and i s classified as "unacceptable".  The  applicant for the zoning change was the Director of Planning, and i t may be said that he was responsible for the i n i t i a t i o n of the idea. Records show that one hundred and thirty persons were notified of the intent to rezone, and only thirty individual objections to the proposal were received. However, one of these "individual" objections represented forty-eight members of the local Chamber of Commerce who had unanimously agreed to oppose the scheme. Further investigation showed that of the one hundred and thirty people notified, only eighty-six were directly affected property owners; the balance being adjacent owners who were also considered to be "affected" by the proposal.  I t i s apparent  then, that thirty out of eighty-six people directly affected opposed the project. As well as this thirty, at least another eighteen may have objected, by way of the Chamber of Commerce submission.  So, the total number of people opposed to the scheme  can be estimated at approximately forty-eight; or, f i f t y - s i x per cent of the total number affected. This argument i s supported even i f i t i s allowed that a l l  61  TABLE I I . SUMMARY OF CASIE STUDY OBSERVATIONS PROPOSAL NUMBER AND DEGREE OF ACCEPTABILITY  ELEMENTS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Denotes Those Identified Under Each Proposal)  1.  Initiation of Idea  2.  Involvement of Others  3.  Legitimation of Idea  U.  Formation of a Preliminary Group to Initiate Community Development Process  5.  Preliminary Study of Situation  5a.  Legitimation and Evaluation  6.  Establishing Goals and Objectives of the Process  6a.  Legitimation and Evaluation of Goals  7.  Formation of Organizational Structure to Co-ordinate the Process  8.  Training Elected and Appointed Leaders i n Administrative Skills  9. 10.  Administration of Research and Project Committee Operations Research Operations Conducted so that A l l Citizens Can See Tangible Results  11.  Evaluation of Evolution and Progress of Community Development Process  12.  Expansion of Process i n Community  13.  Final Consultation  llu  ONE HIGHLY  FOUR  HIGHLY  MARGINALLY  ACCEPTABLE  ACCEPTABLE  TWO  FIVE  • • • • • • • • • # •  ACCEPTABLE  •  UNACCEPTABLE  COMMENTS  UNACCEPTABLE A l l Projects Must Be Initiated  A Characteristic Element of Community Development  #  Not Normally Found i n the Planning Process N  « n  Follow Up COMMENTS  THREE  •  ;  A Collective Parking Scheme  The Public Works Yard  Chinatown  A Collective Parking Scheme  A Rezoning Plan  as.w.e.  one hundred and thirty people notified were affected. Adding the individual protests to the collective one, yields a sum of seventyeight; or, sixty per cent of the total. Further testimony to the lack of acceptability of the proposed zoning change, i s the fact that i n one block, where twelve land owners were involved, one hundred per cent of them objected individually and strenuously, to the proposed rezoning of their properties. Despite this overwhelming opposition, City Council i n i t s wisdom, and within i t s enabling legislation, approved the rezoning application. When interviewed, one of the principal planners involved i n the preparation of the proposal admitted that perhaps he should have contacted the Chamber of Commerce at the time. The proposal i s classified as "unacceptable", and exhibits only one element of a possible fourteen, of community development; viz., i n i t i a t i o n of the idea. Fortunately, a l l projects do have to be initiated. VI.  SUMMARY  Proposal One, the "highly acceptable" collective parking scheme, manifested ten of fourteen elements of community development i n i t s evolution. Case Study Three, the works yard scheme, also a "highly acceptable" proposal, shows evidence of eight of the fourteen elements of community development. The fourth proposal, relating to the revitalization of Chinatown, exhibited only three elements of the community development process, and i s  63 considered to have been only "marginally acceptable".  Finally,  both proposals Two and Five, the second collective parking scheme, and the rezoning plan respectively, each involved only a single element of community development, and both were obviously "unacceptable" to the people they were to affect. The most frequently recurring elements were: 1.  Initiation of the idea; apparent i n five out of five proposals,  2.  Involvement of others; apparent i n three of the five proposals,  3.  Formation of a preliminary group; also apparent i n three of the five proposals.  Any project, regardless of i t s type, must be initiated by someone. I t i s interesting to note that both the "highly acceptable" proposals were initiated by members of the community involved, and that both the "unacceptable" proposals were initiated by the Planning Department; i . e . from outside the community.  The "marginally acceptable" proposal for Chinatown,  although initiated by the planners, was intended to s o l i c i t citizen participation and to stimulate action by members of the community. Elements coincident i n two proposals were: 1.  Preliminary study of the situation,  2.  Establishing of goals and objectives,  3.  Legitimation of goals and objectives,  U.  Research operations conducted so that a l l citizens can see tangible results,  5.  Administration of research and project committee operations.  Each of these five elements was evidenced i n the two "highlyacceptable " proposals. Legitimation of the idea initiated, and formation of an organizational structure, were found to have occurred only once i n the five proposals analysed.  Both occurred during the planning  and implementation of the "highly acceptable" collective parking scheme. Of a l l the elements composing Sehnert's functional framework for the community development process, ten were identified at one time or another i n the analysis of the case studies. The five which were not found were: 1.  Training elected and appointed leaders i n administrative s k i l l s ,  2.  Evaluation of the evolution and progress of the process,  3.  Expansion of the process i n the community,  U.  Final consultation,  5.  Follow up.  The last four elements listed above constitute the continuation period i n a community development program. The lack of these five elements i n the usual planning process i s not surprising. Seldom are the planners concerned with the administrative s k i l l s of community leaders. It may be argued, however, that a deficiency of administrative s k i l l s on the part of community leaders might ultimately become a matter of concern to the planners, when they are faced with a variety of unresolved intra-community  conflicts.  Each of the five undetected elements are highly characteristic of community development programs, and one would not normally expect to find them being utilized i n the usual planning process, where education of the citizens, and continuity of the process are relegated to a position of minimum attention and concern.  CHAPTER V COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE PLANNING PROCESS: A CRITICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Following a c r i t i c a l evaluation of the preceeding investigation, additional evidence i s introduced i n this chapter regarding the validity of the hypothesis and comments on the respective roles of planners, politicians and people, are made. Emphasis i s given to the fact that planning i n a democratic society can occur only within the limits of the process of p o l i t i c a l action. Briefly, few indications are given as to the role of the planner and others i n making community development work. This particular section i s intended to supplement the more detailed discussion about community development and the planning process presented i n Chapter Two. After some general comments on financing the community development process, the thesis i s concluded with a few suggestions for further study. I.  A CRITICAL EVALUATION  Assessing the Degree of Public Acceptance of Local Government Planning Proposals Although some s t r i c t l y objective means of assessing the degree of public acceptance of a planning proposal may have enhanced the scientific nature of the investigation, i t must be recognized  that not a l l phenomena lend themselves to absolute measurement, "Public acceptance" i s a case i n point, and Proposal Four, " A Scheme to Revitalize Chinatown" supports this contention, being fraught as i t i s , with a myriad of complex underlying factors. The opinion p o l l , which concluded that ninety per cent of the community favoured the proposal, i s an objective measuring device.  It could not account, however, for the sociological  and demographic problems inherent i n the community;  the fact  that most merchants lease their properties from ethnic associations and are not interested i n spending money to improve what they do not own; the fact that most of these merchants are elderly, and their children lack interest i n Chinatown, considering themselves more a part of the larger Canadian community; or the fact that those younger persons who might be interested i n the future of the area have no say i n the matter as Chinese family customs recognize the oldest male as head of the household.  So, the  objectiveness of the opinion p o l l i s of l i t t l e benefit, and may actually be misleading.  Consideration of these factors, plus the  rapid dissipation of i n i t i a l community interest and enthusiasm, was instrumental i n classifying the Chinatown scheme as "marginally acceptable" even though the only available substantative evidence indicated otherwise. In the analysis of the two collective parking proposals, the number of signatures appearing on the required petitions provided objective evidence i n the f i r s t case, to support  how  68 highly acceptable the proposal was, and i n the second case, where no one signed, to indicate how unacceptable i t was.  Again, under-  lying factors belie the true situation. Proponents of the f i r s t proposal ceased collecting names when the minimum requirements were met, as they had become involved in numerous problems of absentee ownership, one of which was created by a landlord i n India.  The merchants were unanimously  i n favour of the proposal, but owners' signatures were required. The question remains as to which group i s most directly affected by the scheme. Lack of support for the second parking scheme cannot be attributed solely to the manner i n which i t evolved, or to i t s technical merit.  Rather, the "wait and see" attitude adopted by  some merchants might well have eclipsed the presence of a more favourable attitude, prior to the rumour of major development i n the area.  Again, the use of a s t r i c t l y objective measurement  could be misleading. Apparently, each proposal must be considered within i t s unique over-all situation, and as many influencing factors as possible must be taken into account. Under such a variety of circumstances i t seems doubtful that any one means of measuring how publicly acceptable a planning proposal i s , could have universal application.  The classification of each of the five proposals  analysed i n Chapter Four was based upon both subjective and objective evidence. It appears that such an approach i s not only  desirable, but necessary. Identifying Elements of Community Development As mentioned previously, i t soon became evident that f i l e s from the planning department did not wholly represent the total planning process.  Considerably more information than anticipated  had to be obtained from persons who were directly involved i n the proposals.  One planner attributed this difficulty to the peculiari-  ties of the particular f i l i n g system. In reviewing the proposed change i n zoning, a number of gaps i n the specific f i l e had to be bridged by gathering information from a second f i l e which dealt with the area i n general, not the specific project. The interviews conducted proved to be even more c r i t i c a l i n identifying elements of community development, than some of the f i l e s that were used. Interviews also provided the sole source of information regarding unrecorded factors and influences which affected the proposals i n one way or another. In order to recognize elements of the community development process, the investigator must be familiar with their nature.  His  interpretation of case study materials w i l l be dependent upon his prior knowledge of the community development process.  As previously  mentioned, each case i s unique and must be studied within i t s overa l l situation.  Although the complexity of the task increases with  the number of available sources, the accuracy and validity of interpretation increases concomitantly.  70 Limitations i n the Scale of Suitable Proposals From the start, i t was intended to restrict the selection of case studies to individual planning projects.  During the course  of the investigation, an urban renewal scheme was considered as a possible case study, but was found to be a program, consisting of a number of projects, not simply a single project. I t soon became evident that such a complex planning program does not lend i t s e l f to the same type of analysis as performed on the other five proposals.  This does not mean, however, that community development  techniques are not suitable for more extensive planning programs. Rather, i t i s a result of limitations i n time and resources for conducting this particular investigation. Conclusions The study would have been more conclusive had a larger number of planning proposals been selected and analysed.  Because of the  high number of unique extraneous factors, and variations i n the amount of information available i n different planning project f i l e s , the investigation could not have been improved by the use of questionaires or formal interview schedules.  Under the circum-  stances, the method used was the most accurate possible but required close scrutiny of recorded data and numerous, rather lengthy interviews. Based solely upon observations derived from the analysis of the five selected planning proposals, as summarized i n Table II, page 61, i t appears that the hypothesis developed i n Chapter Three  71  i s valid, that i s to say:  the degree of public acceptance of local  government planning proposals does vary directly with the extent to which elements of community development are utilized i n the planning process.  This does not infer that the degree of public acceptance  of a planning proposal i s entirely dependent upon the utilization of community development techniques, but that the use of elements of community development i n the evolution of planning proposals w i l l result i n a higher degree of public acceptance of those proposals. This conclusion strongly supports the line of reasoning presented i n the introductory chapters.  I t follows therefore that  the concept of community development should be explicitly integrated as a technique i n the planning process, i f the advantages to be gained through active citizen participation II.  are desired.  RECOMMENDATIONS  Regarding the Validity of Community Development i n Urban Planning The desirability of active citizen participation i n the planning process was established i n Chapter One, and i t was suggested i n the following Chapter that community development i s a technique to ensure such participation.  The analysis of the  case studies suggests that the greater number of elements of community development that there are i n evidence, the more acceptable a planning proposal i s likely to be, to the people i t i s to affect.  Additional confirmation, as to the validity of the  principles and practices of community development i n improvement schemes i n urban areas, can be found i n the comments of the Baltimore Urban Renewal Study Board, some of which are quoted i n the f i r s t Chapter.  An article i n the Community Development Review,  entitled "Community Development i n Urban Areas", summarizes the Board's conclusions regarding citizen participation, i n the following manner. The Board studied a wide range of activities involved i n urban renewal programs and concluded that effective urban renewal cannot be imposed upon communities, but must grow out of f e l t needs and desires. I t was stated that the desire f o r community improvement can be fostered by neighbourhood groups, encouraged by professional community organization advice, and assisted by the concrete willingness of municipal government to aid community improvement activities. If individual citizens and neighbourhood and city-wide groups are to support urban renewal and devote their efforts to i t , the program must reflect their wishes. Community leadership must participate actively i n the establishment and development of plans.27 The explicit integration of a community development program with the planning process i s the best way to f u l f i l l the above requirements when planning for the improvement of urban areas. In a study of over seven hundred communities, Edward Lindemann found that the ultimate success of a project i s not 28  affected by the manner i n which consciousness of need originates. In small articulated communities, the consciousness of need, or 27H.V. Williams, "Community Development i n Urban Areas", Community Development Review, June 1957, p. 3 . 2^Edward Lindemann, The Community, pp. 12l|-125>.  awareness of a problem may arise spontaneously, and lead into the i n i t i a t i o n of community development. In complex communities, however, such awareness may originate through internal or external professional, institutional leadership. This notion i s supported by P.G. Stensland who feels that i n a great many cases, outside agencies and experts can begin "doing something to a community", and that such action may provide a natural starting point for self-help activities.  Stensland points  out quite correctly, that community development does not take place unless the externally planned and organized program of action i s combined from the start with an educational program, the goals of which are understanding, involvement, and evaluation on the part of the affected people.^ Lindemann i n turn, supports Stensland by concluding that: The manner i n which the project proceeds, after i t has once been started i s intimately related to the theory of Democracy, and i s highly important i n so f a r as ultimate success i s concerned.31 The integration of community development and planning as suggested i n Chapter Two, i s further c l a r i f i e d below. The respective roles of the politician, planner, consultant and citizen are suggested f i r s t i n isolation, then for each of the fourteen steps i n the community development process. Some  ?P.G. Stensland, "Urban Community Development", Community Development Review, June 1 9 5 8 , P. 3 U . 2  3°lbid. 3lLindemann, op. c i t . , p. 1 2 5  general consideration i s given also to possible methods of financing such programs. Regarding People, Politicians and Professionals Planning i s a p o l i t i c a l function, and the urban planner must function within the p o l i t i c a l framework of his community. At no time should the planner assume the role of the politician.  The  planner and the politician, however, have much i n common since both are obligated to the community at large: the people.  Other  professionals such as sociologists and engineers who work as consultants with the planners assume the same responsibilities and obligations. In carrying out a program of community development, the professional experts w i l l be required to act at the grass-roots level on numerous occasions.  This must be done either through, or  in conjunction with the elected representatives of the people.  In  cities which have a ward, or other geographical system of representation, the "proper" representative for a specific program w i l l be obvious.  Where councillors are elected at large, a sympathetic  or implicated ear must be sought.  Traditionally, those who hold  the reins of government must be involved prior to i n i t i a l contact with the citizens.  Therefore i t may be necessary f i r s t to  enlighten the politicians about the advantages and methods of community development. But this i s possible only i f each professional i s himself totally familiar with the community development process.  The educational aspects of community development  75 commence at the professional level, not at the grass-roots. Throughout the community development process, the planners and their consultants w i l l be required to play a number of roles. Daland and Parker postulate that the planner has four component roles under the usual circumstances.  As an institutional leader,  the planner f u l f i l l s the maintenance needs of his planning agency. As a professional planner, he i s concerned with the technical activities of research, analysis and design, which ultimately produce "plans".  The planner i s also a p o l i t i c a l innovator,  involved i n persuasion, strategy, and timing, to gain acceptance of his proposals by persons i n the community.  His fourth role,  i s that of an educator, i n attempting to inform the public of the consequences, and potentialities of planning per se, and of specific planning proposals*^  In the process of community  development the planner i s required to play a l l these roles, with somewhat more emphasis than usual, on the educational aspect. Murray Ross points to four approaches which professional workers may be required to take i n community organization.  He  states that the primary role of the professional i n community organization i s that of a guide who helps the community establish, and find means of achieving, i t s own goals. As a guide, the professional worker need not operate as a passive follower, but  ^Robert T. Daland and John A. Parker, "Roles of the Planner i n Urban Development", Urban Growth Dynamics i n a Regional Cluster of Cities, F.S. Chapin and S.F. Weiss, editors, pp. 190-196.  may even take the initiative at any number of points i n approaching a community that has not asked for help.  In his role as an enabler,  the professional worker acts as a catalyst by facilitating some process of organization i n the community.  He focuses thought on  problems which seem to be shared throughout the community, and helps people see the nature of their discontent, and the d i f f i c u l t i e involved i n overcoming them. Ross points out that this role i s as varied and complex as each situation the professional faces. Functioning as a social therapist, the professional helps the people to diagnose and understand the nature and character of their community.  He must involve the community i n a process  which, through self-understanding, relieves tension and removes obstacles to co-operative work. Finally, the professional works with the community as an expert, providing information and direct advice i n areas about which he may speak with authority.33 Planners, community consultants, engineers and others a l l play their respective parts as experts. In a program of community development, the planner may be required to assume a l l or any of these approaches to community problems. Although many of his consultants w i l l be professionals, most w i l l be laymen. Although his roles w i l l be many, they must exclude that of "politician" i f the process i s to conform to the p o l i t i c a l system of his community.  33Murray G. Ross, Community Organization, Theory and Principles, pp. 200-228.  77 Towards Making Community Development Work I n i t i a l l y , small projects should be selected whose products and problems are not complex.  Citizens must be shown how and  why to participate i n the planning process before major projects are attempted which might ordinarily be beyond their grasp. But, to assume them too naive to understand i s to insult their intelligence.  Care must be taken to see that this does not  happen. Initiation of the Problem or Idea.  The planner, politician,  consultant, or citizen may assume the role of innovator.  An  awareness of the problem may be spread by communication with local leaders i n clubs and organizations. The planner or politician may approach key citizens directly i n order to share their concern about the matter.  The community consultant may  resort to more subtle techniques, particularly i f he i s familiar with the power structure of the d i s t r i c t , and by being i n the right places at the right times may start the process on i t s way. The Involvement of Others.  Meetings of representatives  from various community organizations should be called, perhaps by the politician, particularly i f he i s popular i n the area, or by the planning agency. If a community development consultant i s being employed at this stage, he w i l l likely encourage f i r s t persons who are interested to organize their own gathering to promote interest i n the idea or problem identified. Legitimation of the Idea.  This step follows as a result  of the previous one.  Having obtained access to various groups i n  the community, time must be allowed for the idea to take root throughout that area.  If further contact seems necessary with  opposing groups, the planners and politicians should shoulder the responsibility of seeing their innovation through. The Formation of a Preliminary Group. Both elected representatives and professionals should encourage the community ' to form a committee to initiate the community development process. Selection of the committee or "initiating set" should be l e f t to the community, but the professionals should be ready with advice as to what s k i l l s and talents are required. People used to leadership roles are preferable, but outside professionals should not be part of the initiating set. Preliminary Study of the Present Situation.  In helping the  people to understand their community, the planner plays the role of technical expert, social therapist and educator.  Techniques  of carrying out various studies to arrive at an understanding of their environment may be passed on from the planner to the people. The planner advises, explains and guides. ordinates and organizes.  The initiating set co-  The citizens do the work i n conjunction  with the professional resources. Establishing Goals and Objectives of the Process, and the Formation of an Organizational Structure to Co-ordinate the Process. Both these steps must involve as much citizen participation as possible.  As an expert, and an educator the planner may advise  the citizens on the ramifications of alternative goals and courses of action.  The goals must stem from the needs and values of the  community, not from the professionals.  Similarly, the organiza-  tional structure must be chosen, not imposed.  It must meet the  needs of the specific situation, hot of bureaucratic expediency. The preferred organizational structure w i l l depend upon the goals and objectives set out by the community and w i l l vary from situation to situation. His usual role as an administrator w i l l aid the planner i n advising upon this crucial step.  Community-wide  meetings, well-publicized through direct and indirect methods of communications, should be held during these two stages i n an attempt to involve as many people as possible i n the process. Such meetings provide an opportunity for further review and evaluation of the process to date, and can be used to introduce other civic o f f i c i a l s who may be involved i n some aspect of the proposed course of action. The Training of Elected and Appointed Leaders i n Necessary Administrative S k i l l s .  This step, as detailed i n Chapter Two, i s  characteristic of the community development process.  Unless the  planning staff i s skilled i n methods of adult education, i t i s advisable to s o l i c i t the services of adult education specialists to handle the training of the community organization.  While the  training sessions are being conducted, the politicians and professionals must see to i t that public interest i n the process i s not allowed to lag.  This element concludes the f i r s t five time  periods in a process of community development. In terms of the planning process, problems have been identified and goals formulated.  To f a c i l i t a t e explanation, the remaining six elements of  community development are considered i n their respective time periods• The Operational Period.  The two elements constituting this  period require the planner to act as an-expert i n conducting research operations, and as an institutional leader i n helping community leaders to administer the operations of the research and project committees.  His talents as a technical expert w i l l  probably have to be somewhat subordinated to ensure that the ongoing research operations are conducted i n such a manner that a l l concerned can see tangible results.  Professional impatience must  yield to the slower vehicle of democratic participation i f the process i s to have meaning for the citizens.  During the operational  period, the trained citizens become the technical assistants of the professionals, and at the same time, the professionals act as consultants to the citizens. During this period, the politicians involved can pave the way through council for the implementation of the scheme, should i t require either their vote of approval or the passing of enabling legislation.  In stating his case, the p o l i t i c a l representative  knows that he i s supported by a united front. The Continuation Period.  Throughout this period everyone  involved i n the community development process should participate  i n evaluating what has been accomplished, as well as the methods used.  Both the planning process and the community development  process are reorientated towards new horizons.  The organized  community, aware of i t s resources and limitations can be expected to tackle new projects.  The planners and other professionals  w i l l know their job i s completed when the people say "we did i t ourselves".  Here, i s the l i f e principle of democratic planning.  On Financing Community Development The major difficulty i n utilizing community development as a technique i n the planning process, w i l l be one of financing. Obviously, funds w i l l have to be allocated, or perhaps re-allocated to cover the costs incurred throughout the process. The incorporation of community development w i l l require not only budgeting at the municipal level, but fund-raising at the community level as well. At the community level, direct expenses w i l l not be large at f i r s t .  Many essential items w i l l be provided by the people  themselves.  Meeting rooms, mimeographing of information, c l e r i c a l  supplies, and secretarial services may well be provided i n f u l l or i n part i n this manner. There w i l l , however, be a need for funds to cover outlays, such as postage, printing, hall rentals, refreshments and miscellaneous supplies to be used by the community organization.  In some larger American cities, where  some type of citizen participation i s a requirement for workable urban renewal projects, funds have been raised by subscriptions  from business and institutions.  Other possible sources are the  levying of annual dues on people involved, or the soliciting of contributions instead. Social events such as carnivals and card parties have proven successful for other purposes, and should be considered.  Local and provincial governments might be  approached, but should not be depended upon at f i r s t , as they might be contributing at a higher level. At the municipal level, an argument can be made that i t pays to spend a dollar now, to save two i n the future. I t has been illustrated how community development acts to create more acceptable planning proposals.  In many cases, a considerable  amount of staff time and taxpayers' dollars are spent "selling" a proposal after i t i s completed, and inevitably, making alterations to suit the needs of the community.  It i s preferable that  time time and money be spent i n the beginning to ensure acceptable schemes the f i r s t time.  Planners should not be assigned to  community development projects on a part-time basis. They should be allowed continuous contact with the community.  One morning  a week i n contact with the people, as i s the present practice i n Vancouver's urban renewal program, i s not sufficient.  At  least one professional planner should be retained f u l l time as a community consultant.  Other professionals can work through him,  as required, on a consultative basis. In short, the money usually spent i n "selling" a proposal would be better invested i n educating the people who are to be affected by that proposal.  III.  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY  From an academic point of view, i t would be interesting to extend the testing of the hypothesis to a number of other urban centres i n order to determine whether or not the results obtained i n Vancouver would be duplicated elsewhere.  The  conclusions based upon data gathered from separate municipalities could be synthesized to arrive at a general statement regarding the universal validity of the hypothesis. Having used the findings of the Baltimore Urban Renewal Study Board as supporting evidence i n presenting the case for citizen participation, and subsequently, as further support for the hypothesis, i t would be most valuable to assess Baltimore's experience since 19!?6, and to try to establish the extent to which elements of community development have actually been explicitly utilized i n their planning process.  From Baltimore's  experience, other cities might learn the advantages and limitations of such procedures. Planning i s action orientated. Its goals are not to "make plans" and expound theoretical principles, but to resolve problems through the application of sound principles.  The only true test  for the hypothesis i s to attempt to apply a community development program i n conjunction with the planning process, and compare i t s products i n terms of public acceptance, co-operative good w i l l , and ultimate success, with those of a similar control project developed and implemented i n the usual manner, over the  same period of time. Functioning within the p o l i t i c a l system of a democratic society, planners and other o f f i c i a l s who execute the planning process should be concerned with more than the social consequences of planned technological and physical change. Ideally, their concern should be oriented towards planned technological and physical change as a consequence of social action.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Batten, T.R. Communities and Their Development. U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957*  London:  Oxford  Chapin, F.S. and Weiss, S.F. (ed.). Urban Growth Dynamics i n a Regional C l u s t e r of C i t i e s . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1952: de T o c q u e v i l l e , A l e x i s . Democracy i n America. Henry Reeve t e x t r e v i s e d by P h i l l i p s Bradley, New York: Kropf, I9I4.8. Du Sautoy, Peter. The Organization of a Community Development Programme. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962. F a r r i n g t o n , Frank. Community Development: Making the Small Town a Better Place t o Live I n and a Better Place I n Which t o Do Business. New York: Ronald Press Co., F o s t e r , G.M. Change.  T r a d i t i o n a l Cultures and the Impact of Technological New York: Harper and Bros., 19o2.  Goodenough, W.H . Cooperation i n Change; An Anthropological Approach to Community Development. New York: R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1963. Hayes, W.J. The Small Community Looks Ahead. Harcourt, Brace and Company, 19U7.  New York:  Hillman, A r t h u r . Community Organization and Planning. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1957. Hirsch, Werner Z. (ed.). Urban L i f e and Form. Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1963. Kent, T.J. The Urban General Plan. P u b l i s h i n g Company, 196k.  New York:  San Francisco:  L i l i e n t h a l , David E. T.V.A., Democracy on the March. Harper and Row, 1953. Lindemann, Edward. 1921.  The Community.  New York:  Holt,  Chandler New York:  A s s o c i a t i o n Press,  L i p p i t t , R. e t a l . The Dynamics of Planned Change. Harcourt, Brace and Company, 193>S\  New York:  86 Loring, C L . et a l . Community Organization for Citizen Participation i n Urban Renewal. Housing Association of Metropolitan Boston, Inc., Cambridge: The Cambridge Press, Inc., 1957. Merriam, C E . On the Agenda of Democracy. University Press, 191*1.  Cambridge:  Nelson, L. et a l . Community Structure and Change. Macmillan Company, 1962.  Harvard  New York:  Ogden, Jesse. These Things We Tried. Charlottesville, Virginia: University of Virginia Extension Division, 19^7. Roupp, Phillips, (ed.). Approaches to Community Development. The Hague: W. Van Hoeve Ltd., 1953^ Ross, Murray G. Community Organization Theory and Principles. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1 9 5 ^ • Case Histories i n Community Organization. Harper and Brothers, 1958.  B.  New York:  ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS  Cousins, W.J. "Community Development, Some Notes on the Why and How", Community Development Review, No. 7, December, 1957,  pp. 2 U - 3 C  Fitch, Lyle C. "On the Necessary Relationship Between Politics and Planning", Ekistics, Vol. 16, No. 95, October, 1963,  pp. 260-261.  Lock, Max. "The Missing Half of Planning", RIBA Journal, Vol. 72, No. 1, January 1965, pp. 17-21. Mayo, S. "An Approach to the Understanding of Rural Community Development", Social Forces, Vol. 37, December, 1958,  pp. 95-101.  Niehoff, A.H-, and Anderson, J.C. "The Progress of Cross Cultural Innovation", International Development Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, June, 1961;, pp. 5-H» Saunders, I.T. "Theories of Community Development", Community Development Review, No. 9, June, 1958, pp. 27-39. Stensland, P.G. "Urban Community Development", Community Development Review, No. 8, March, 1958, pp. 32-39.  Taylor, C C . "Community Development Programs and Methods", Community Development Review, No. 3, December, 1956, pp. 3U-U2. Verner, Coolie. "The Community Development Process", Community Development Review, 1962. Verner, Coolie. "Adult Education for Tomorrow's World", Adult Education, Vol. 26, No. 1, Summer, 1953. Verner, Coolie, and Hallenbeck, W.C " Challenge to the Adult Education Association", Adult Education, April, 1952, pp. 135-lUO. Williams, H.V. "Community Development i n Urban Areas", Community Development Review, No. 5, June, 1957, pp. 1-U.  C.  OTHER PUBLICATIONS  Agency for International Development: Community Development i n Urban and Semi-Urban Areas, Washington, D.C, the Agency,  196"27  Baltimore, Urban Renewal Study Board, Report to Mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr., Baltimore, Maryland, 19fjo". Boston Redevelopment Authority, Boston's Workable Program for Community Improvement, Boston, 1962. National Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centres, Dynamics of Citizen Participation, New York, 1958. Sehnert, F.H. A Functional Framework for the Action Process i n Community Development, (Preliminary Draft), Southern I l l i n o i s University, Carbondale, I l l i n o i s , 1962. United Nations: Community Development i n Urban Areas, New York, Report by the Secretary-General, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1961, (ST. SPAA3.E/CN.5/356/REV. l ) .  D'. OTHER SOURCES The City of Vancouver, Planning Department, i;53 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver 10, B. C.  The Corporation of the District of Burnaby, Planning Department, U5U5> East Grandview-Douglas Highway, Burnaby 2, B. C. The Lower Mainland'Regional Planning Board, 1+26 Columbia Street, New Westminster, B. C.  

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