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The place of the Northern Arapahoes in the relations between the United States and the Indians of the… Murphy, James C. 1966

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1 THE PLACE OF THE NORTHERN ARAPAHOES IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE INDIANS OF THE PLAINS, 1851— 1879. by James C. Murphy B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Wyoming, 1937 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of History We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard 'THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study- I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives., I t i s understood that copying, or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of H i s t o r y  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada* Date A p r i l 3 0 t h , I966  A b s t r a c t Whites, commonly c l a s s the Northern Arapahoes as a w a r l i k e t r i b e , but they c a l l themselves a peaceful people. This study represents an attempt to d i s c o v e r the part of the Northern Arapahoes i n the r e l a t i o n s between the United States and the Indians of the p l a i n s from l8£l t© 1879, a n d to determine whether they r e a l l y were a peaceful group. This was a b e l l i c o s e p e r i o d , i n c l u d i n g r a i d s along the P l a t t e , the P©wder R i v e r Wars, the Sand Creek and Washita massacres by whites, and the Fetterman and Custer massacres by Indians. The Northern Arapahoes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mighty Sioux, dreaded by the whites, and w i t h the Cheyennes, c a l l e d the F i g h t i n g Cheyennes by G r i n n e l l , who knew them w e l l . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l works c©ntributed importantly to an understanding ©f p l a i n s Indian c u l t u r e and the s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e and p r a c t i c e s of the Arapahoesj~ Correspsndence w i t h the Indian O f f i c e and a former Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s produced important references ©n Indian p o l i c y , used to c l a r i f y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of m a t e r i a l found i n Government r e p o r t s . Information from general works was crosschecked wherever p o s s i b l e , and each author's p r e d i l e c t i o n considered. H i s t o r i c a l b u l l e t i n s from Colorado and Wyoming, and ether p e r i o d i c a l s gave scraps of i n f o r m a t i o n which, unimportant by themselves, some-times helped i n s o l v i n g problems. Contemporary newspapers, i i i e s p ecially the Cheyenne Leader, also contributed i n this respect, as well as showing the attitude of s e t t l e r s toward the Indians who barred them from the free e x p l o i t a t i o n of lands and resources. An acquaintance with the Northern Arapahoes, through residence ©n t h e i r reservation, contributed toward an under-standing of th e i r character, learning ©f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , developing an interest i n t h e i r history and culture. Although the Pt. Laramie Treaty of l8£l was expected to usher i n f i f t y years ©f peace between the United States and the Indians ©f the pla i n s , three factors f©red$©med the dream to f a i l u r e : the Indian policy ©f the United States with i t s v a c i l l a t i o n s and misunderstandings; public attitude toward the Indians, colored by desire f©r th e i r lands, fear of the braves, and a dogmatic f a i t h i n th e i r own destiny to p©pulate and c i v i l i z e the plains; and l a s t l y , the Indian's way of l i f e , which he was loath t© abandon, as i t s a t i s f i e d his s o c i a l and emotional needs. Misunderstandings contributed to clashes between reds and whites; pressure upon their lands by gold seekers, stock-men and farmers, and the destruction of t h e i r game by immigrants made the Indians apprehensive; forays of hungry braves sn s e t t l e r ' s stock, and thei r reluctance to abandon t h e i r game ©f i n t e r - t r i b a l r aiding f o r horses, scalps and prestige kept the whites on edge. Despite the fact that Federal troops waged war against i v t h e i r SIsux and Cheyenne f r i e n d s a few years a f t e r the Treaty af 18^1, nearly fourteen years elapsed b e f s r e an appreciable number Northern Arapahoes engaged i n h o s t i l i t i e s . Even then a m a j o r i t y of the t r i b e a b stained. During the Powder R i v e r Wars, 1865 te 1868, mere p a r t i c i p a t e d , but never the e n t i r e t r i b e . Only once during the p e r i o d from l8£l to I879 i s there any l i k e l i h o o d that a l l ©f the Northern Arapahoes' fought against the whites-* This was i n the Bates B a t t l e of I87I4,* a n <^ erven here: pos-i t i v e evidence i s l a c k i n g * During Custer's f i n a l days, when hundreds ©f Sieux: and Cheyennes f a l l o w e d Crazy Horse and Sit-* t i n g B u l l , the Northern Arapahoes, almost to a man, r e f r a i n e d from h o s t i l i t i e s . This f a c t , w i t h others of a k i n d r e d nature, f i n a l l y brought r e c o g n i t i o n by the Government of the peaceful d i s p o s i t i o n of the Northern Arapah®es, On the b a s i s of the evidence examined: the Northern Arapahoes shauld be c l a s s e d among the most peaceable of the p l a i n s t r i b e s . V Dedicated te Scalper and Weman - runs - » u t , B i l l and Cle»ne C a l l i n g Thunder •f Ethete , Wyaming. v i Acknowledgments The Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s , l 8 5 3 - l 8 8 l has been of e s p e c i a l value i n the pr e p a r a t i o n of t h i s paper. This i s the c h i e f source through which the year to year movements of the Northern Arapah© bands has been treced, and the a t t i t u d e s i n Indian white r e l a t i o n s have become appar-ent. The Annual Reports of the Board of Indian Commissioners, f i r s t to eleventh, have als© been h e l p f u l i n both r e s p e c t s , as w e l l as the other Federal Government p u b l i c a t i o n s l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y at the end of t h i s paper. The Cheyenne  Leader, I867-I879 n a ^ s c a t t e r e d througk i t s pages much Important data not a v a i l a b l e elsewhere, by means of which the Indian problem was presented as seen through the eyes of p a r t i s a n f r o n t i e r r e p o r t e r s . The works of Le^oy H. Hafen and the co-authors or co-e d i t o r s of the various volumes used, c o n t r i b u t e d much v a l -uable infor m a t i o n concerning the peace and war a c t i v i t i e s of the Northern Arapahoes, among whick appeared the unique peace proposal which Black Bear's band msde to Colonel Sawyers i n the B i g Horns of Wy» ming, a f t e r a t t a c k i n g h i s wagon t r a i n . The w r i t i n g s of Ge©rge A. Dersey, A l f r e d E. Kroeber and Harold E. D r i v e r helped importantly i n developing an understanding of Arapah© s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e . The L i f e , L e t t e r s and Travels  of Father P i e r r e - J e a n De Smet, S. J . , I 8 0 I - I 8 7 3 , e d i t e d by Chittenden and Richardson, gave an e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g and v i i u s e f u l account of the F t . Laramie Treaty of l 8£l, Indians  and Other Americans, by Fey and McNickel presented a p i c t u r e of United States Indian p o l i c y which was borne i n mind throughout the w r i t i n g of t h i s paper, though l i t t i e m a t e r i a l was taken d i r e c t l y from i t . The F i g h t i n g Cheyennes, by George B i r d G r i n n e l l , a f f orded Information which f i l l e d i n the gaps i n the semi-independent a c t i v i t i e s of Northern Arapaho bands. E s p e c i a l thanks i s due t© the L i b r a r i a n s at the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Washington and Oregon i n supplying references not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e c l o s e r by; to the U n i v e r s i t y of Wyoming f o r the m i c r o f i l m , Index to the Cheyenne Leader. 1867-1890; to the Wyoming State H i s t o r i c a l Department f o r the m i c r o f i l m of the Cheyenne Leader, 1867-1879, and the use of t h e i r equip-ment; to the State H i s t o r i c a l Society of Colorado f o r the Rocky Mountain News photostat, and f o r other i n f o r m a t i o n ; and to the L i b r a r y s t a f f of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, without whose p a t i e n t , c o r d i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h i s paper could net have been w r i t t e n . Gratitude i s due ta John C o l l i e r , Sr., former United States Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s , f o r d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n and suggested readings ©n United States G©vernment Indian p o l i c y . Thanks i s als© due to J e s s i e Rewlodge, Southern Arapaho Indian who v i s i t e d i n Wyoming, f o r i n f o r m a t i o n which only an Arapaho could supply, used to c l a r i f y a s i t u a t i o n otherwise d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n . F i n a l l y i s due a be l a t e d expression of g r a t i t u d e to W i l l i a m C. Thunder and h i s w i f e , v i i i Cleone — the l a t t e r a descendant of Henry North, and Ba-yet, the woman who escaped from the Utes i n the e a r l y l360s and married the white man who aided her i n r e t u r n i n g tes her people. These two, W i l l i a m and Cleone Thunder, gave accurate i n f o r m a t i o n when they c©uld, and when unable to do s©, l e d on to other informants whose knowledge of t h e i r people, the Northern Arapahoes ©f Wyoming, was greater than t h e i r own. Table of Contents Chap. 1 A P i c t u r e ©f Troublous Times; A View ©f Indian-White R e l a t i o n s h i p s on the Great P l a i n s ' o f the United S t a t e s , 1851 to 1879. 1 Chap. 2 Tb.e Northern Arapaho Indians. 30 Chap. 3 Treaty ©f 1851 as the Hopeful Promise of a New E r a . lj.8 Chap. Ij. D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and D i s t r u s t Appear, 1851-1861. 56 Chap. 5 The C i v i l War P e r i o d , 1861-1865.' C o n f l i c t Erupts on a Br®ad Scale. 67 Chap. 6 The Powder River War, l8'6£-l868. A Temporary Respite i s Gained. 88 Chap. 7 Land Pressure and Sp«radic Warfare, 1863-1871]-. 103 Chap. 8 The Second Sl©ux War and the Loss af T r i b a l Lands, I87V - I 8 7 8 . 132 Chap. 9 The End ef the T r a i l , 1879. ^ Q B i b l i o g r a p h y 15*9 1 Chap. 1 A Picture ef Troublous Times; a View ef Indian-White Relationships on the Great Plains of the United States, 1851 te 1879 East ef the Rocky Mountains the Great Plains of North America run through the United States from north te south, s p i l l i n g ever the Mexican border at the southern end, and broadening Inte the p r a i r i e provinces of Canada i n the north. The pertien within the United States forms a vast area seme 1300 miles long and up te 600 miles In width. From an elevation ef scarcely 2000 feet at the eastern f r i n g e , they r i s e gradually toward the west, blending with the f o o t h i l l s ef the Rockies at al t i t u d e s ef lj.000 te 6000 f e e t . They embrace the greater part ef the states ef North and South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, include portions ef Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana, and are heme te 7,000,000 people. Except f e r the h i l l s , streams and canyons which occasionally break t h e i r surface, the topography i s smooth and nearly treeless ever thousands ef square miles, and monotonous i n i t s r e g u l a r i t y . At sunrise and sunset shadows str e t c h endlessly, I t seems, across the p r a i r i e , long, dark, ungainly appendages, dis t o r t e d with every v a r i a t i o n ef the ground. B r i l l i a n t sunshine and blue skies characterize the region summer and winter, for the a i r i s dry, p r e c i p i t a t i o n s l i g h t and the evaporation rate high. Unbroken winds of high v e l o c i t y whip s o i l and dry snow from the earth te produce 2 dust storms or ground b l i z z a r d s . Local cloudbursts occur from time to time, f i l l i n g hollows which have been dry f o r years, or generating f l a s h floods and wreaking havoc. Rapid changes of temperature take place: with the approach ®f a cold front the thermometer may drop lj.0, £0 or 60 degrees i n a few hours; conversely, the warming Chinook wind may bring a r i s e of eight degrees i n ten minutes. Open winters are common, but when the b l i z z a r d s t r i k e s , low temperatures, stinging wind and dustlike, b l i n d i n g snow b l o t out the landscape, t i e up t r a f f i c and destroy game, li v e s t o c k and sometimes human l i f e . Yet the tremendous openness, the clear, unobstructed v i s i o n and the wide horizons exert a hypnotic appeal upon the plains dweller. In the days before the f i r s t plow broke the p r a i r i e the land was covered with short, native grasses — as parts of i t s t i l l are — hardy, drought r e s i s t a n t , n u t r i t i o u s , excellent feed f o r buffalo or c a t t l e . Sagebrush covered unmeasured acres; cactus and soapweed (a diminutive yucca) appeared i n spots and patches; blue islands of larkspur b e a u t i f i e d the rangeland In early summer; wild sunflowers blossomed l a t e r i n the season wherever they could f i n d a toehold. Cotton-woods grew along the water courses, where s u f f i c i e n t moisture could be had; box elders yielded sap to the Indians i n l i e u of maple syrup; i n canyons and on rocky h i l l s i d e s grew the ponderosa pine, which, once rooted, withstood b i t i n g winds and draught; the juniper (or red cedar, as i t i s called) was 3 s i m i l a r l y found; lodgepole pines, e s s e n t i a l to the Indians f o r travels and t i p i poles made stands i n the Black H i l l s and other uplands. Today the land supports vast acreages of wheat, corn, a l f a l f a and diverse crops. Dams on the Missouri, Platte and other r i v e r s produce power fo r the region and i r r i g a t i o n f o r favored sections, but dry farming i s f a r more extensive than i r r i g a t e d a g r i c u l t u r e . Unbroken rangeland encourages ranching, and sub-marginal farmland has been reclaimed for sheep and ca t t l e grazing. O i l wells and r e f i n e r i e s have sprouted i n many sections; coal, ir o n , copper and other minerals are mined. The larger c i t i e s such as Denver and Omaha contribute manufacturing, slaughtering, packing and shipping, to produce a d i v e r s i f i e d economy. Although trappers and traders had long since penetrated the plains and Rocky Mountains, census records indicate no white population f o r the region i n l8£0. More than £0,000 1 Indians were estimated. Immigrants to Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a , unable to leap the p l a i n s , followed the long, tedious t r a i l s 2 across them. 1 "Message of the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress," Thirty-second Congress Executive  Document No. 2. Washington, A. Boyd Hamilton, 1051, P. 289. The figure was used by President F i l l m o r e . 2 Charles A. and Mary R. Beard, The Rise of American  C i v i l i z a t i o n . (Revised E d i t i o n ) , New York, Macmillan Co., 1933, 1, P« 612. In l e s s than a month i n 1850 more than 18,000 people crossed the Missouri on t h e i r way to C a l i f o r n i a , where the population had already reaohed 92,000. By i860 i t rose to 380,000. il-The plains themselves were Indian land; great herds of buffalo s t i l l grazed thereon, though whites had reduced t h e i r numbers appreciably — and the Indians resented this i n t r u s i o n . Bands of antelope foraged on the grass, while i n the h i l l s both deer and elk afforded a change of diet to the red men. As yet ns highway crossed the pla i n s , but close to the long tortuous streams, t r a i l s were worn by horse and bullock hoofs, and ruts cut deep by the wheels of many wagons. Though plans f o r a r a i l r o a d to the P a c i f i c received serious consid-eration i n Washington, nineteen years would pass before i t became a f a c t . When the white men k i l l e d or drove o f f game and t h e i r stock devoured the pasture near the t r a i l s , the patience of the Indians wore t h i n . With a thorough know-ledge of the land, with the mobility needed to l i v e from i t , with a l i f e which taught them how to s t r i k e and disappear, the mounted braves held the whip hand. It was a tribu t e to t h e i r magnanimity that many immigrants crossed the plains a l i v e . By 1879 the picture had altered . White men possessed the bulk of the land; unwanted confinement on comparatively small reservations was the l o t ©f the Indians; the buf f a l o , fo r generations the d a i l y bread of the aborigines, had dwindled almost to the vanishing point, and within a few years would exi s t only as a c u r i o s i t y and t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n . Cattle and sheep by the hundreds of thousands had replaced 5 3 the indigenous bovines of the p l a i n s . Oregon's f e r t i l e lands and C a l i f o r n i a ' s gold a t t rac ted thousands of immigrants who went 'round Cape Horn, to the Isthmus of Panama, or across the p l a i n s to reach t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . The discovery of gold i n Colorado, Montana and Wyoming, and the free land of the Homestead Act brought other thousands to the p l a i n s ; and where gold seekers or ranchers moved i n , almost i n v a r i a b l y the Indians were forced to move out . The cross-country stage l i n e and the pony express, each serving an i n t e r i m purpose, came and went; the f i r s t r a i l r o a d to the P a c i f i c operated i n 1869; three more were w e l l under way by 1879* the te legraph had preceded the r a i l r o a d across the cont inent . Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado had at tained statehood; Montana, North and South Dakota and Wyoming would f o l l o w s u i t w i t h i n a few years . Some two m i l l i o n whites made t h e i r homes on the Great Pla ins by 1879. The independence ©f the bison-hunting Indians was gone f o r e v e r . The transformation on the p l a i n s from 1850 to I879 d i d not occur without pain and t u r m o i l , f o r these were troublous times. As the game on wa i c h they depended f o r f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r dwindled under the impact of the whites , the 3 Edward Everet t D a l e . The Range C a t t l e Industry , Norman, U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press , 1930, pp. 100-102. Dale shows that by 1885 members of the ?/yoming Stock Growers A s s o c i a t i o n (founded twelve years e a r l i e r ) owned about 2,000,000 head ©f c a t t l e i n Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, Montana and Dakota. I4. Montana and both Dakota3 gained t h i s status i n 1889, and Wyoming the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . 6 Indians suffered hunger and p r i v a t i o n . Dissension brewed, trouble a r r i v e d and there were few d u l l years . The d i f f i c u l t i e s of three decades w i l l be b r i e f l y descr ibed, as w e l l as several important fac tors behind them. The Treaty of Port Laramie, 1851, ushered i n dreams of f i f t y years of peace; but misunderstanding brought tragedy. The chance meeting of a lame cow and a hungry 5 Sioux begot the Grattan Massacre of l85l|.. A b o a s t f u l young o f f i c e r , bent needlessly upon puni t ive measures, had f a i l e d to l e a r n that cannon and t a c t l e s s blunder would not s e t t l e the Indian problems. The next year General Harney avenged h i s slaughter by c h a s t i s i n g the Brule Sioux. Por a l l e g e d depredations Colonel Sumner attacked and defeated •7 the Cheyennes i n 1857. As the stream of immigrants expanded, 5 George B i r d G r i n n e l , The F i g h t i n g Cheyennes. New York, Charles S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1915, P« 105. The cow had strayed from a Mormon immigrant t r a i n near F t . Laramie i n southeastern Wyoming. When i t was discovered that a young Sioux had butchered the animal , Grattan, f r e s h out of West Point , approached the c h i e f of the Sioux band with guns and t h r e a t s . The r e s u l t was that a matter which could w e l l have been peaceably s e t t l e d ended i n the des t ruc t ion of Grattan and h i s command. 6 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s , 1855, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , lS5b, pp . 39B-1+.01. This w i l l hereafter be c i t e d as Annual Report, wi th the year noted. 7 J . P. Dunn, Massacres of the Mountains, New York, Archer House, 1958, pp. 211 f . 7 the game supply diminished f u r t h e r , Indian alarm i n t e n s i f i e d , and hungry red men helped themselves to more of the white men's s tock. S e t t l e r s 1 fear of the n a t i v e s ' treachery l ikewise increased. In l 8 6 l the C i v i l War brought rumors of an Indian-Confederate States a l l i a n c e , a fear accentuated by the great eastern Sioux u p r i s i n g ©f 1862, when more than 8 700 whites i n Minnesota died w i t h i n a week. By X861+. sporadic depredations i n Colorado I n t e n s i f i e d the s e t t l e r s 1 f e a r s , who gave credence to the report of an i n t e r - t r i b a l c o a l i t i o n to drive the whites out of the p l a i n s . In Colorado near ly every ranch along the road from Julesberg to B i g Sandy, a "distance 9 of 370 m i l e s " was shor t ly deserted. Colonel Chivington 's massacre of f r i e n d l y Arapahoes and Cheyennes at Sand Creek, Colorado seemed a natural r e s u l t , but Indian apprehension of white treachery v a s t l y Increased. Violence bal looned, and fearsome r e t a l i a t i o n f o l l o w e d . Cheyennes, Arapahoes and Sioux ra ided along the P l a t t e ; the Overland Stage depot at Julesberg, northeast Colorado, twice was h i t ; t e r r o r spread 8 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , pp . 128-129. On the western p l a i n s even f r i e n d l y Indians were suspected of t reachery. The eastern Sioux were r e l a t e d to , but not i d e n t i c a l with the Sioux of the western p l a i n s . 9 Op. c i t . Annual Report I86I1. p . 2^ii, The quotat ion i s from the l e t t e r of George O t i s , general superintendent of the Overland M a i l L i n e , to W i l l i a m P. Dole , Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s . 8 10 throughout the Plat te v a l l e y . Since punishment must f o l l o w , General Connor struck the red men i n t h e i r homeland and began 11 the F i r s t Powder River War i n 1865. Indian resis tance to the b u i l d i n g of the Bozeman T r a i l through t h e i r hunting grounds presaged the Second Powder River War, which soon ensued. Peace came i n 1868, fol lowed by comparative q u i e t , but minor c o n f l i c t continued i n Wyoming's Sweetwater mining d i s t r i c t . In the mid-seventies the Indian Bureau boasted that 12 r e s u l t s had " f u l l y j u s t i f i e d " i t s peace p o l i c y . Had the ears of the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s been bet te r attuned to the s i g n a l s of the time, he might have r e a l i z e d that hoof beats on the d i s t a n t p l a i n s marked deser t ion of the agencies by hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne w a r r i o r s , gone to j o i n Chief Crazy Horse and the medicine man, S i t t i n g B u l l , Sioux leaders out to r e s i s t the white man's encroachments. Shivers of excitement ran through the 10. Op. c i t . , G r i n n e l l , pp. 181-182. 11 I b i d . . pp. 2 0 ^ - 2 0 5 . This was the Powder River region of northern Wyoming and southern Montana, where game was f a r more p l e n t i f u l than elsewhere; thus the t r i b e s of Northern Cheyennes and Arapahoes, and the bands of Sioux with which they shared the Plat te Agency spent much time there . 1 2 Op. c i t . , Annual Report 1875, P. 53L The report indica ted that t r a i n s of the Union P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d had been running undisturbed, as Indian d i f f i c u l t i e s had waned. Moreover, although hundreds of miners and p i l g r i m s (In v i o l a t i o n of the Treaty of 1868) had swarmed over Sioux country, i n c l u d i n g the Black H i l l s i n t h e i r search f o r gold , no f i g h t i n g had r e s u l t e d . "And with any k i n d and f i r m treatment" bearing "a resemblance to j u s t i c e , there w i l l be no serious contention with th is powerful t r i b e h e r e a f t e r . " 9 settlements. Then i n 1876 came the news which shocked the n a t i o n , the wiping out of Custer and his e n t i r e command i n the Batt le of the L i t t l e B i g Horn i n Montana. Three fac tors of great importance i n producing t h i s unfortunate state of a f f a i r s w i l l be reviewed. F i r s t was the Indian p o l i c y of the Federal Government. Under the War Department from 1832 to I8I4.9 mismanagement and discouraging 13 r e s u l t s had character ized the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s . Too f requent ly m i l i t a r y force had antagonized the Indians rather than p a c i f y i n g them; so i n I8I4.9, convinced that c i v i l i a n s could b e t t e r cope with the s i t u a t i o n , Congress t ransfer red Indian A f f a i r s to the r e c e n t l y - c r e a t e d Department of the I n t e r i o r . The b e l i e f and hope was that an era of great 1*1-promise would be ushered i n . With kindness subst i tu ted f o r coerc ion, with benevolent and missionary s o c i e t i e s to a s s i s t , the Indians might be guided along the pathway to c i v i l i z a t i o n . The Indian Bureau i n i t s new s e t t i n g achieved i t s f i r s t major accomplishment with the s i g n i n g of the F t . Laramie Treaty ©f 1851, a seeming triumph and v i n d i c a t i o n of the p o l i c y behind i t s own t r a n s f e r . At t h i s time i t propounded a course based 13 Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commission- e r s . 1878. Washington. Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1879* P . 10 . Time and again i n Indian Bureau reports Indian antagonism to the m i l i t a r y Is pointed out . On various occasions they r e -quested c i v i l i a n rather than m i l i t a r y agents. ^ OP. c i t . , "Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress", p . 3 . 10 upen the negot ia t ion of t r e a t i e s w i t h , and the payment of annuit ies to the Plains Indian t r i b e s . ^Hiring negotiat ions in terpre ters would e x p l a i n the treaty p r o v i s i o n s se misunder-standing could net creep i n ; the Indians must be convinced that the government Intended to be e n t i r e l y f a i r . The purpose was t h r e e f o l d : to acquire a r i g h t of way through the Indian lands , to gain the good w i l l o f the a b o r i g i n e s , and to render them s u f f i c i e n t l y dependent upon the issue of annuit ies as to insure t h e i r subservience to the w i l l of the government. With the passage of a dozen years and several Indian campaigns the s o l u t i o n to the problem of the b u f f a l o - h u n t i n g natives seemed n© c l o s e r . By this time the accepted p r a c t i c e was the use ©f f © r c e t© "induce t h e i r consent" t© n e g © t i a t e , then t© make t r e a t i e s with them. Fol lowing President Grant 's inauguration i n I 8 6 9 , a f r e s h attempt to win them ©ver by peaceful means gained s u p p © r t . N©ne the l e s s , the Secretary ©f the I n t e r i o r stressed the f a c t that f © r c e might be 16 necessary; and the B©ard ©f Indian C©mmissloners adv©cated supporting the agents with m i l i t a r y f © r c e when needed, thus 15 Op. c i t . Annual Rep©rt 186J4., p . 10 . 16 Rep©rt ©f the Secretary ©f the I n t e r i © r , Washington, G©vt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1073, p . i l l . He i n d i c a t e d that the purpose ©f the " s © - c a l l e d " peace p © l i c y was t© get the Indians ©n reservations as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e . Resistance on t h e i r part w©uld be countered by the use © f a l l needed s e v e r i t y " t© place them there . 11 s p a r i n g them the ignominy of "being the toys or t o o l s of 17 l a w l e s s savages". B e l i e v i n g t h a t the I n d i a n s ' r e s i s t a n c e to c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s c o u l d not be broken down as l o n g as they had b u f f a l o to hunt, the I n t e r i o r Department opposed c o n g r e s s i o n a l measures to prevent the " u s e l e s s s l a u g h t e r " 18 ©f these animals i n U n i t e d S t a t e s ' t e r r i t o r y . Only when they had vanished from the p l a i n s c©uld the r e d men be c©nfined t© r e s e r v a t i o n s , l e a r n to c u l t i v a t e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l 19 l a n d a l l o t m e n t s , and l i v e l i k e white men. 17 S i x t h Annual Report of the B©ard ©f I n d i a n Cemmlsslon- e r s , 187J4-, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1»75, P* o2. When he t r i e d to count t h e i r lodges i n 187^, Agent S a v i l l e was a r r e s t e d by Sioux Indians new to the Red Cloud Agency, gr©ups which had n©t signed the T r e a t y of 1868. Seven hundred " r e g u l a r " agency Indians came t© h i s rescue - Sl©ux, Cheyennes and Arapahaes. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r f i v e companies ©f tr©©ps were s t a t i o n e d a t P t . R©berts©n (near Chadr©n, Nebraska) t© p r o t e c t the agency. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , when 26 t r e o p s were sent t© suppress another i n s u r r e c t i o n o f n©n-treaty Si©ux, the " r e g u l a r " Indians had t© rescue net ©nly the agent, but the tr©»ps as w e l l . (Op. c i t . Annual Rep©rt, 1875, p. 8 7 . ) 18 C®ngressi©nal Recard. F i r s t S e s s i o n , l87l|-, Washing-ton, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1875, P. ° 2 . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e James A. G a r f i e l d , who became P r e s i d e n t ©f the U. S. i n 1881, als© sp©ke str©ngly a g a i n s t any c©ntr©l measure. The Rep©rt  ef the S e c r e t a r y ©f the Interi©r, Op. c i t . , p. v i , sh©ws t h a t the S e c r e t a r y , als©, fav©red the d e s t r u c t i o n of the buffal© t© hasten the Indians' dependence "up©n the products ©f the s©il and t h e i r ©wn lab©rs". 19 Evidences ©f the extreme importance p l a c e d upon the gospel of i n d i v i d u a l a l l o t m e n t s — completely f o r e i g n t© the c u l t u r e ©f the P l a i n s Indians — may be f©und i n Senate  Document N©. 319, Indian A f f a i r s , Laws and T r e a t i e s , v. 2 , Washington, G©vt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 190I}.. I t Is s t r e s s e d i n the Sieux T r e a t y ©f 1868. pp. 9 9 8 - I O O 3 , the Northern Arapah© and Cheyenne T r e a t y o f 1868, pp. 1012-1015. the Southern Cheyenne and Arapah© T r e a t y ®f I 8 6 7 , pp. 98I4.-985, and i n vari©us ©ther t r e a t i e s . 12 A month, a f t e r the Custer debacle of 1876 m i l i t a r y supervis ion returned temporarily to the f i v e agencies which served the various bands of western Sioux. Proponents of a p o l i c y of force demanded that Indian A f f a i r s revert to the War Department. Backed by t h i s h i g h l y vocal group who b e l i e v e d the Indians should be soundly drubbed, a b i l l to e f f e c t the t ransfer was passed by the House of Representatives, 20 but the Senate held i t up, pending i n v e s t i g a t i o n . With scarcely an exception the Indians were " u n q u a l i f i e d l y " 21 opposed t© i t . Throughout these years Indian p o l i c y was consistent i n only ©ne respect . This has been s u c c i n c t l y s tated by John C o l l i e r , Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s from 1933 to 19^5. "General ly speaking , " he s a i d , "the mere o b l i t e r a t i o n 22 ©f Indianheod was the h i s t o r i c a l p o l i c y . Publ ic a t t i tude toward the Indians const i tu ted a second important f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the d i f f i c u l t i e s between the red men and the white during these years of t r o u b l e , the p r e d i l e c t i o n s of western s e t t l e r s being e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 20 Op. c i t . Tenth Annual Report of the Board of  Indian Commissioners. 187B» P . 9* T he t ransfer was not approved by the Senate. 21 I b i d . , p . 10. 22 Let ter from former Indian Commissioner John C o l l i e r S r . , Jan. 6, I 9 6 2 . 13 It i s not strange that they l o s t l i t t l e love upon those wh©se r i g h t s f requently n u l l i f i e d t h e i r e f f o r t s t® obtain the resources and lands which they coveted, e s p e c i a l l y when they f e l t that the Indians nei ther weuld nor could put them t© proper use . In a d d i t i o n , fear of the warriors ®f the p l a i n s exis ted as an ever-present r e a l i t y t© werk up©n t h e i r emotions. In the press ©f the region periods © c c u r r e d when weekly, and s©metimes d a i l y reports ©f Indian depredations 23 appeared. The f a c t that m©st ©f these were biased and © t h e r s f a l s e d i d not lessen t h e i r e f f e c t . In various h i s t o r i e s ©f the region under study, as w e l l as i n c©nterap©rary reports and documents, the f e e l i n g s ©f the white s e t t l e r s are r e f l e c t e d . Fal lowing the Treaty ©f 1851, Ceutant claims i n the His tory ©f Wyoming, the r e d u c t i e n of the garr ison at F t . Laramie resul ted i n Indian i n s o l e n c e . The red-c@mplexl©ned lords ©f the s © i l , he a s s e r t s , were pleased by nothing except the rabbing ©f t r a i n s and the k i l l i n g and 25 sca lping @f white men. Bancroft contrasts the censuring ©f C©l®nel Chivingten f © r h i s massacre ©f Cheyennes and Arapahoes 23 Mildred Nels©n, Index to the Cheyenne Leader, 1867-1890. (Micr©fi lm) A study ©f the index indica tes that t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y true fr©m 1867 to 1877. 2k C . S. Cautant, The H i s t o r y ©f Wyoming, Laramie, C h a p l i n , Spaff©rd and Mathison, 1«99, P. 3 1 0 . 25 I b i d . , p . 319. 1^ at Sand Creek, Colorado, with, the r e s o l u t i o n of thanks to him 26 which was passed by the T e r r i t o r i a l L e g i s l a t u r e of Colorado! His own f e e l i n g of approval i s apparent. Even Hebard, who wrote at a l a t e r date, seems t© have caught something of the same s p i r i t , although she general ly shows f a r greater sympathy f o r the Indians than do e i t h e r of the o lder h i s t o r i a n s . In her background of the Sand Creek a f f a i r (I86I1), she j u s t i f i e s Governor Evans' assumption that none of the Indians intended to be f r i e n d l y , on the grounds that they f a i l e d to 27 respond to his c a l l f o r them to come i n and confer with him. She says furthermore that when Black K e t t l e ' s Cheyenne's f i n a l l y reported f o r a conference, the governor was f u l l y 28 aware of t h e i r i n s i n c e r i t y . There i s reason to b e l i e v e that both of these statements f a l l short of f a c t , which w i l l be shown i n a l a t e r chapter. Captain H . G. Nickerson, a s e t t l e r and Indian f i g h t e r of the Sweetwater and Wind River regions of 29 Wyoming, r e f e r r e d to the Indians of that area as Inhuman f i e n d s . 26 Hubert H. B a n c r o f t , The Works o f Hubert H. B a n c r o f t , v. 25, H i s t o r y o f Nevada. Colorado and Wyoming, I5ll0-l888. San F r a n c i s c o , the H i s t o r y Co., 188b ( l b § 0 ) , p. 1^ 66. B a n c r o f t wastes l i t t l e sympathy on most of the Indians of the r e g i o n , and none at a l l on the Arapahoes. 27 Grace Raymond Hebard and E. A. B r i n i n s t o o l , The  Bozeman T r a i l , C l e v e l a n d , the Ar t h u r H. C l a r k Co., 1922, v. 1, P. 127. 28 Loc. c i t . 29 H. G. Nickerson, " E a r l y H i s t o r y of Fremont County," State of Wyoming H i s t o r i c a l Dept. Q u a r t e r l y B u l l e t i n , v. 2, J u l y 15, 1924., P. 3 . 15 Since he s p e c i f i e d only that the Indians i n quest ion were h o s t i l e , he probably meant the Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahoes, as the only other Indians present In the 1870s were the Shoshones, who were not considered h o s t i l e . With the founding of Cheyenne, Wyoming, and the p u b l i c a t -ion of the Cheyenne D a l l y Leader i n I 8 6 7 , s i m i l a r r e f l e c t i o n s of the p u b l i c mind appeared i n the p r e s s . Not the leas t of the targets was the (Indian) peace p o l i c y of the United States Government, and the Quaker inf luence w i t h i n the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s . Thus the s p i r i t of c o n c i l i a t i o n which graced the P t . Laramie Treaty of 1868 (ending the Powder River War), drew b i t i n g c r i t i c i s m , ^he e d i t o r of the Leader predic ted that there could be no peace " u n t i l the roving destroyers are whipped into s u b j e c t i o n . . . a n d humbly beg f o r l i f e and mercy on any terms which s h a l l be d i c t a t e d by the I n v i n c i b l e 30 w h i t e s . . . . " At a l a t e r date he coined a gem of s a t i r e i n a s c r i b i n g the murder of a Sweetwater s e t t l e r to "Quaker "31 applesauce" . The r i g h t s of Indians had t h e i r champions, but only a brave person would speak In t h e i r defense. At the i n v e s t i -gation of the Sand Creek massacre one such i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i f i e d 30 The Cheyenne Leader, A p r i l 3 , 1868. (Microfi lm) 31 I b i d . , Sept. 18, 1872. 16 that te "speak f r i e n d l y ef an Indian" was "near ly as much as 3 2 a man's l i f e i s worth" . The h o s t i l i t y toward Indians which t y p i f i e d the press was duplicated by the governor and l e g i s l a t u r e of Wyoming T e r r i t o r y . In his message to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i n November, 1875, Governor Thayer dwelt upon the i n j u s t i c e of e x p e l l i n g miners from the Black H i l l s ( i n Dakota T e r r i t o r y ) , whereas the Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahees c o n t i n u a l l y v i o l a t e d the boundaries set f o r them by the Treaty of 1868. The Black H i l l s wi th t h e i r precious metals , he s a i d , were of no use te the w i l d Indians who prevented t h e i r develep-33 ment. Since 1868 the "Indian marauders" had s t o l e n more than $600,000 worth of stock and s l a i n seventy-three c i t i z e n s engaged i n lawful p u r s u i t s . Yet he knew of no case i n which an Indian had l o s t h i s stock nor l i f e at the hands ef the whites, wi th ©ne exception, the k i l l i n g of four (Arapahoes) 3^ by a s h e r i f f ' s party which pursued them for s t e a l i n g horses . If the governor spoke the t r u t h he must have been unaware ©f a number of such i n c i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g the f l a g r a n t shooting of the Arapaho c h i e f , Black Bear, and ten other men, women and c h i l d r e n i n h i s unarmed party of fourteen who, en t h e i r 32 Condit ion ef the Indian T r i b e s . Report of the Joint  Specia l Committee under the Joint Resolut ion of Mar. 3 . 186^7 Washington, Uevt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1065, p . 31L. 33 Journal of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the T e r r i t o r y  of Wyoming 1075. Cheyenne, D a l l y Leader O f f i c e , 1070, PP. 35-37. 3k- Loc . c i t . 17 35 par t , were engaged In lawful p u r s u i t s . In concluding h i s message, Governor Thayer recommended that the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly embody i t s views i n a memorial to Congress. The Assembly concurred; the memorial was d r a f t e d . The excerpts below w i l l leave no doubt of t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s : "Memorial and Joint Resolut ion of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the T e r r i t o r y of Wyoming, Feb. 23 , I 8 7 6 : While a l l the power ©f the Government has been threatened, and i n a sense used, to prevent white men from trespassing ©n t h e i r lands , s© u s e l e s s l y held by them t© the exc lus ion ©f t h « s e wh© would mine f@r precious metals (which i t Is w e l l knewn ex is t there) these lawless pets have been allowed t© leave t h e i r reservat ions (s® c a l l e d ) whenever they w©uld, t® prey up©n and devastate the property, l i v e s , and peaceful o c c u p a t i © n s ©f these f r e n t i e r s e t t l e r s , with the v i r t u a l consent ©f t h e i r guardians, the agents ©f the Government. While the bloed-seeking brave (God save the w©rdj) and h i s f i l t h y squaw have fed at the p u b l i c expense i n th©se hatch-holes ©f fraud known as agencies, the wid©w and c h i l d r e n ©f the white man s l a i n by the t r e a c h e r © u s Indian have been •bilged t© depend ©n t h e i r ©wn energies ©r the b©unty ©f neighbors f©r the necessaries ©f l i f e . In behalf ©f a l o n g - s u f f e r i n g p e © p l e . . . w e w©uld ask that the Indians s h a l l be removed fr©m us e n t i r e l y , ©r else made amenable t© the c©mm©n law ©f the l a n d . . . . We ask that ©ur delegate . . . may be l i s t e n e d t© and heeded with at leas t as much respect as s©me I n d i a n - l © v i n g f a n a t i c ©f the East . . . . " 3 6 35 Executive Document ©f the House ©f Representatives of  the Third Session of the ^ © r t y - f l r s t Congress. 1070-1071, Wash., G©vt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1071, p . 04.3. 1 'his © c c u r r e d near the present t©wn ©f Lander, Wyoming. 36 MiscellaneQus Documents ©f the House ©f Representatives , F e r t y - f © u r t h Congress, -First Sesslen, 1075, Wash., k © v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 107b, pp . 2 - 3 . The Indians were regarded as the Federal Government's "lawless p e t s " , wh© were n©t held accountable f©r t h e i r a c t i o n s . 18 A f i n a l f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g i t s f u l l share to the misunderstandings and violence of t h i s per iod was the Indian way of l i f e . Unique and d i s t i n c t i v e i n many respects , i t 37 was nei ther understood nor appreciated by the whites . Like the b u f f a l o which they hunted, the p l a i n s Indians separated into comparatively small bands i n the winter , but with the coming of spring they gathered int® l a r g e r groups. The resul tant reunion was a time of v i s i t i n g and happiness; s o d a l i t y or age-group lodge meetings were h e l d . As the lodges cut across band l i n e s , t h i s was the natura l time f o r them t© meet. The Sun Dance, which © r d i n a r i l y was set up at t h i s time, cut across b©th ledge and band l i n e s . The Sun Dance, which went by d i f f e r e n t names i n d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s , l ikewise v a r i e d considerably i n r i t u a l , but i t was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l i g i o u s ceremonial among a l l groups which p r a c t i s e d i t . That of the western Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapah©es bere many points ©f s i m i l a r i t y . Since t h i s paper l a r g e l y concerns the Northern Arapahoes, a few points regarding t h e i r Offer ings Lodge, as t h e i r Sun Dance i s c a l l e d , w i l l be given. It was pledged — or "set up" as they say — by 37 Fey and McNickel , In reviewing U . S. Government Indian p o l i c y from 1787 to 1959* state that none of i t was seen through Indian eyes u n t i l 1928. (Harold E . Fey and D'Arcy McNickle, Indians and Other Americans, New Y©rk, Harper and B r o s . , 1959* P« 6b . ) 19 3 8 ceremonial vow; each p a r t i c i p a n t entered i t l i k e w i s e by vow. It included three and one-half days with nei ther food nor water, u s u a l l y beneath the hot sun of l a t e spr ing ©r summer. The hope of a t t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l power and prest ige through the Sun Dance was evident , but equal ly se was the want of h e a l i n g , p h y s i c a l or mental, f o r s e l f , family or f r i e n d s . Man's dependence f o r existence on food and water were accented throughout the ceremony, while c e r t a i n features s tressed the idea of f e r t i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t© the sun, ear th , mo©n and sex, without which there would be nei ther food f e r man n®r the p o s s i b i l i t y of perpetuating l i f e on e a r t h . The lodges had d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the hunt and @n the march. This was f requent ly a matter ©f s u r v i v a l . When many animals fr©m a herd ©f b u f f a l o were slaughtered and butchered, i t was the f u n c t i o n ©f ©ne of the s o d a l i t i e s - - ©ne composed of men of mature age — to see that every family received i t s f a i r share ©f the meat. Sometimes the impetuous youths @f a y©unger l © d g e , hungering f o r a chance to gain prest ige i n a r a i d or b a t t l e , had to be held i n check f e r the safety of a l l concerned. Men ©f advanced age, always 3 8 In 1 9 3 8 a 'teen-age Arapah© g i r l became quite i l l . Hoping f o r her recovery, her fa ther and her b r © t h e r v©wed t© enter the Sun Dance. She d i e d , but her death could n©t release them from t h e i r pledge. The Arapahoes e x p l a i n i t by saying, "You see, you have already made the v©w It cannot be broken. (James C. Murphy, Personal N©tes Taken on the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 . ) 20 few i n number, men who had been step by step threugh a l l the s e d a l i t i e s , d i r e c t e d not only the ledge ceremonies, i n c l u d i n g the Sun Dance, but many other t r i b a l a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l ; hence society was h i e r a r c h i c a l . The older men and women were generally held In high r e s p e c t . Despite a f e e l i n g of strong t r i b a l k i n s h i p , the various bands with t h e i r ©wn c h i e f s or leaders of ten acted independ-39 e n t l y . They fought with bands from h o s t i l e t r i b e s , joined f r i e n d s or a l l i e s against t h e i r f o e s , ra ided f o r horses, and ranged f a r a f i e l d to v i s i t f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . They were general ly f r e e to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . Bands of Northern Arapahoes, a t y p i c a l p l a i n s group, from time to time were reported from dozens of points between the Republican River In Kansas and the M u s s e l l s h e l l i n Montana, a distance of 800 miles as the crow f l i e s , much f a r t h e r as they had to t r a v e l , that i s mounted on horses and sometimes dragging t r a v e l s leaded with t h e i r ledges and household goods. Pursuing t h e i r migrant l i f e and l i v i n g o f f the chase, a few 39 In I86I4. the Northern Arapah© c h i e f , F r i d a y , took h i s band of l e s s than 200 to F t . C o l l i n s , Colorado, determined to remain at peace with the whi tes . Black Bear 's band of several hundred joined them f o r a time, then l e f t f e r other p a r t s . In the meanwhile Medicine Man's band — about h a l f of the ent i re t r i b e — remained hundreds of miles to the n o r t h , i n the Powder River country, where b u f f a l o were p l e n t i f u l . This w i l l receive f u r t h e r treatment i n Chapter 5 . I4.O G r i n n e l l , op. c i t . , p . 181, records 80 ledges of Northern Arapahoes on the Republican i n 1861^-65, t© v i s i t t h e i r southern kinsmen. Peter Koch reported members ©f the same t r i b e ©n the M u s s e l l s h e l l t© trade In 1869-70. See E l e r s K©ch (ed . ) , "The Diary of Peter K o c h , " The F r o n t i e r , v . 9, Jan. 1929, P . l£6. 21 thousand Indians s p l i t into t r i b e s and sub-div ided int© bands thus occupied untold acres of l a n d ; and upon t h i s the whites cast covetous eyes. For the Indians of the p l a i n s warfare had a d i f f e r e n t connotation than for the whites . True i t i s that Indians slaughtered every man i n Custer ' s command i n I 8 7 6 , and that under desperate condit ions they had been known to "charge on a whole company s i n g l y , determined to k i l l someone before being k i l l e d themselves". In such cases the Indians were b a t t l i n g white men under exceptional circumstances; they d i d not t y p i f y s t r i c t l y Indian warfare. To the warrior of the p l a i n s taking a scalp was more important and an act @f greater bravery than the k i l l i n g of many enemies; successful s t e a l t h and cunning brought greater prest ige than r i s k i n g one's l i f e t© s t r i k e a blow. The bravest act of a l l , ranking f a r above k i l l i n g an enemy, was that of counting coup, that i s touching or s t r i k i n g an enemy with a long, peeled wand of wood which had a feather t i e d to the small end. This was the great p r i z e . The care with which the p l a i n s Indians protected them-selves while d e l i v e r i n g a blow may w e l l be imagined from a j+l Op. c i t . , Condit ion of the Indian T r i b e s , p . 92. From a l e t t e r of Major Anthony a f t e r the Sand Creek massacre, when Southern Cheyenne and Arapah© men, women and c h i l d r e n were shot down without mercy. I4.2 Stanley V e s t a l , S i t t i n g B u l l , Norman, U n i v . of Oklahoma Press, 1957 (new e d i t i o n ) , pp. 9-10. 22 report of an a l l - d a y b a t t l e between Shoshones and Northern Cheyennes ( t r a d i t i o n a l enemies) i n the Big Horn region of Wyoming i n 1877. The former l o s t one man, two women and two c h i l d r e n i n what i s described as one of the " f i e r c e s t " engagements which ever occurred i n the v i c i n i t y ; Cheyenne losses were unknown, but probably comparable. F i g h t i n g between heredi tary enemies sometimes brought consternation to white s e t t l e r s i n the p l a i n s and Rocky Mountain West. In the e a r l y 1860s, f o r instance , Arapahoes, camped i n what i s now downtown Denver (Colorado) In consider -able numbers, went over the mountains to r a i d the Utes . When they returned with the news that the l a t t e r were chasing kk them, near pandemonium broke out i n the sett lement . As la te as 187^ 4- tbe Indian agent at Denver complained of repeated acts of murder on t h e i r " p l a i n s enemies" by Utes who came ks east of the mountains on b u f f a l o hunts. He suggested that a competent and trustworthy party accompany them to see that they hunt b u f f a l o rather than Sioux, Arapahoes, Cheyennes and Kiowas. i|_3 Op. c i t . . Annual Report 1877, pp . 6o£-6o6. I4J4- Op. c i t . , G r i n n e l l , p . 119. k$ Op. c i t . , Annual Report I87J4., p . 272. i|i> I b i d . , p . 273. 23 On the Indian s c a l e e f p r e s t i g e the s t e a l i n g of h©rses fr©m a l e g i t i m a t e enemy was outranked by counting c©up al©ne. Not ©nly was i t considered an "h©n©rable p u r s u i t " , but o f t e n p r o f i t a b l e as w e l l . Horses were Indispensable f o r the hunt, warpath, t r a v e l , and as g i f t s a t weddings and other s o c i e t a l gatherings, and of course f o r t r a d i n g purposes. In I80I4. Lewis and Clark had found the Mandans of North Dakota b a r t e r i n g horses to the A s s i n i b o i n e s f o r axes, arms, ammunition and •t h e r go©ds ©f European manufacture which the l a t t e r t r i b e obtained i n Canada. In t u r n the Mandans traded these south t© Crows, Cheyennes, Arapah©es and others f©r h©rses and l e a t h e r t e n t s . Indeed, i t was threugh the c©mbinati©n of t r a d i n g and s t e a l i n g that horses had g r a d u a l l y m©ved n o r t h -ward through the t r i b e s from Mexico t© Canada. Since h©rses were the m©st valuable b©oty of warfare, i t l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w s t h a t the p l a i n s t r i b e s were u n w i l l i n g to foreg© the pleasure of r e t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l enemies f o r h o r s e - r a i d i n g purposes. N a t u r a l l y enough, Indian agents o f t e n f e l t that t h e i r own wards were picked upon by others, IL7 I b i d . . 1875, P. 753. The agent to the Sioux, Northern Arapahoes and Northern Cheyennes thus c a l l e d I t i n 1875* adding that i t was as d i f f i c u l t to cenvince the Indians that horse-s t e a l i n g was wrong as t© persuade a h©rse-j©ckey that I t i s wrong t© s e l l a neighbor an unsound h©rse. liQ Reuben G©ld Thwaites (ed.), O r i g i n a l J©urnals of the Lewis and Cla r k E x p e d i t i o n . 18014.-1806, New Y©rk, D©dd, Mead and Co., 190lj., v. 6, p. 90. 2k but a study of the records indica tes that r a r e l y Indeed did one t r i b e prove less g u i l t y than another. In i860 the Pawnee agent c i t e d eight unwarranted r a i d s by Brule' Sioux, Arapahoes and Cheyennes i n which h i s charges suffered a loss of t h i r t e e n l i v e s , t h i r t y horses, and s i x t y lodges burned. Doubts of Pawnee innocence i n th is endless cycle a r i s e when a l a t e r report (1862) indica tes that a "recent" r a i d by " B r u l a " Sioux was staged to recover horses which the same Pawnees had s to len from them a few weeks e a r l i e r . Some e n l i g h t e n -ment i s found i n the statement of A . G. Col ley that the pastime i s "a part of t h e i r l i v e s , being taught i t from 51 i n f a n c y " . With the a i d of the m i l i t a r y he had held i n check the Sauthern Cheyennes and Arapahoes of h is agency, but when Utes ran o f f eighty Cheyenne horses w i t h i n a mile of the post , a counter r a i d was s h o r t l y under wayj During the same year (I863) four s o l d i e r s were wounded and one l o s t h i s l i f e while pursuing Ute Indians wh© refused to surrender h©rses " l e g i t -imately" s t © l e n fr©m t h e i r Si©ux enemies. G©vern©r Evans ©f k9 OP. c i t . , Annual Repart i 8 6 0 , p . 317. 50 I b i d . , 1862, p . 97. 51 I b i d . , I 8 6 3 , P. 252. 52 Lac, c i t . 53 I b i d . , p . 2\+l. 25 C©l©rad© T e r r i t o r y endeavored to end the long-ex is tent h o s t i l i t i e s between the Utes on one hand and the Cheyennes and Arapahoes on the other, but the l a t t e r t r i b e s protested his e f f o r t s as "unwarrantable i n t e r f e r e n c e " . The governor p e r s i s t e d u n t i l he had convinced himself that there would be no fur ther t r o u b l e ; but the ra ids continued for a dozen years or more, as the Indians prolonged the enjoyment of t h e i r sport . Prom the beginning Indian p o l i c y had been based upon the premise that the red man must adapt himself to the white man's superior way of l i f e . The whites were concerned l e s t the Indians should not l e a r n to l i v e l i k e them; but the Indians were sometimes concerned l e s t they should . At the conclusion ©f the P t . Laramie Treaty ©f 1851, a gr©up ©f men and w©men fr©m several ©f the signatory t r i b e s were br@ught t© Washingt©n, D. C. and ©ther eastern c i t i e s , © s t e n s i b l y t© impress them with the p©wer ©f the U . S. and the v a s t l y higher cul ture ©f i t s c i t i z e n s . Theugh assuredly impressed, they longed t© r e t u r n t© t h e i r br©ad p l a i n s and the freedoms ©f t h e i r ©wn s o c i e t y . Befere they l e f t the East •ne committed s u i c i d e ; © t h e r s , i t was s a i d , were s© depressed 5lf I b i d . , p . 33. Evans was e x - © f f i c i © Superintendent •f Indian A f f a i r s f©r the area . 2 6 that they might fel low s u i t should they remain longer i n i t s 55 crowded c i t i e s . Despite th is sad beginning, the Indian Bureau f o r more than twenty years stuck to the theory that to see i s to be convinced, and continued to b r i n g p a r t i e s of p l a i n s Indians to the E a s t . Retaining t h e i r optimism and enthusiasm, advocates of the p o l i c y were overjoyed when f i v e delegations numbering from f i v e to f i f t y made the t r i p i n 18?2, and the Board of Indian Commissioners lauded the b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s 56 i n " a l l cases" . L i t t l e doubt was f e l t that the "ease, comfort and luxury" of the c i t i e s would create i n the Indians a desire f o r bet ter things than could be found i n t h e i r w i l d , 57 roving l i f e " . Yet nearly a l l the delegates grew so homesick f o r the p l a i n s that they wanted the t r i p to end as soon as 58 possible J Other i n d i c a t i o n s of the Indians ' preference f o r t h e i r own way of l i f e appear i n various reports of the p e r i o d , e f which several examples are given below. In 1856 agent Twlss of the Worth Plat te Agency found no desire among the Sioux, Arapahees, nor Cheyennes to adopt the white man's l i f e , net 55 Op. c i t . , "Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress," p . 335. Thomas P i t z p a t r i c k , who escorted the Indians en the t r i p , reported that i t would not surprise him at a l l i f others committed s u i c i d e . 56 Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commission-ers , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1072, p . 5. 57 I b i d . , p . 128. 58 I b i d . , p . 12ii 27 59 even to p l a n t i n g corn . Seven years l a t e r , when Governor Evans of Colorado T e r r i t o r y attempted a t reaty with the same three t r i b e s , his emissary informed them that he wished them to s e t t l e on a reservat ion and l i v e l i k e white men; but they 60 re tor ted that they were not yet reduced so low. When the Arapaho, F r i d a y , discovered through unusual circumstances that the milk of human kindness exis ted even among whites , he did not l o s e h is longing for the p l a i n s nor the ways of his people. Lost from his t r ibe i n 1831 at the age of n i n e , he was found by white t raders , sent t© St . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i , and taught t© speak f l u e n t E n g l i s h , t© read and w r i t e . Though duly impressed by the c © n s i d e r a t i © n which he r e c e i v e d , 6l he returned i n a few years t© h i s people . As a y©ung man he assumed the c h i e f t a i n s h i p ©f a small band ©f N©rthern Arapah©es, and with them he remained. An i n t e r e s t i n g speculat ion regarding F r i d a y ' s re turn to his t r ibe appears i n Broken Hand, by Hafen and Ghent, the story of Th©mas F i t z p a t r i c k , wh© d i s c © v e r e d and provided f®r the yeung b©y. The l a d , i t i s s a i d , had f a l l e n i n l©ve with 59 Op. c i t . , Annual Rep©rt 1856, p . 61|_7. 60 Leroy R. Hafen and Francis M. Y©ung, F © r t Laramie and the Pageant ©f the West l83ll-l890, Glendale , the Arthur H . Clark C©. 193b, p . 314. 61 Ler©y R. and Ann W. Hafen, Rufus B. Sage. His l e t t e r s  and Papers l836-l81j.7, Glendale , the Arthur H . Clark C©. , 195b, v . 2, pp. 302-303. 28 62 a white g i r l , only t© be re jec ted because ©f h i s race . Thffiugh previously ready t© remain with the whites and become as ©ne ©f them, the b i t t e r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t dr©ve him back t© 63 h i s peeple . In the l i g h t of f u r t h e r information, t h i s theory seems to be the w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g of ©ne s© sure ©f the incom-parable excellence ©f his own cul ture that he cannot recognize the v a l i d i t y of another choice . Fr iday himself i n l86I|. explained h i s d e c i s i o n i n quite a d i f f e r e n t manner. On f r i e n d l y terms with the Overland Stage Line agents at Latham, Colorado, he t o l d them much of h i s e a r l y l i f e , i n c l u d i n g the years at S t . L o u i s . It was, he s a i d , h i s love f o r the p l a i n s 6l\. and his t r i b e which had made him r e t u r n to h is Arapah© l i f e . Whatever the romantic bent of h i s s t r i p l i n g years may have been, the adult Fr iday followed Arapah© cust©m i n matrim©ny as i n his d a i l y l i v i n g . Though other forms of polygamy were known to his people, the marrying of s i s t e r s ( s o r © r a l p©lygyny) was 62 Ler©y R. Hafen and W. j . Ghent, Br©ken Hand, Denver, the Old West Publ ishing C o . , 1931, P. 271. 63 Loc . c i t . , Hafen and Ghent here quote the Manuscript  J©urna1 of Talbot , a member of John C. Fremont's sec©nd western expedi t ion . 6l\. Frank A . Ro©t and W i l l i a m Elsey Connelly , The  Overland Stage t© C a l i f © r n l a , T©peka, Root and Connel ly , 1901, p . 34-7. 29 65 a preferred pattern. Friday married four s i s t e r s . With the Indian p o l i c y of the Federal Government based more upon good intentions than knowledge and appreciation of Indian ways, with the s e t t l e r s of the West coveting a nearly empty land and Its unexploited resources, with the roving l i f e of the Indians c o n f l i c t i n g with the i n t e r e s t s of the s e t t l e r s , trouble was Inevitable. The red men were numbered only i n the tens of thousands; the plains could supply the homes and wants of m i l l i o n s . A dominant race found the buffalo and the Indians i n the way; they must therefore change the pattern ©f t h e i r l i v e s or perish. The former were slaughtered t© the p©int ©f near-extinction; the l a t t e r were deprived of the lands of t h e i r ancestors, and shunted ©nt© reservations. ^5 Op. c i t . , Murphy, Personal N©tes. Lowie says that the sor©ral form af p©lygyny was the m©st c©mm©n am©ng the plains Indians because s i s t e r s were l e s s apt t© quarrel than unrelated c©-wives. (R©bert H. L©wie, Indians ©f the Plains, New Y©rk, McGraw-Hill B©©k C©., Inc., I95I4., p. bO.) 3 0 Chap. 2 The Northern Arapah© Indians Three p l a i n s gr©ups, the B l a c k f e e t , Cheyennes and Arapahees, though l i v i n g f a r fr©m the homeland ©f the bulk ©f t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v e s , sp©ke Algenkian d i a l e c t s . A cenjecture widely c redi ted but l a c k i n g p e s i t i v e evidence helds that the Arapah©es — l i k e t h e i r Cheyenne f r i e n d s and associates - - deserted sedentary, a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e s , perhaps i n Minnesota, to seek a f u l l e r , r i c h e r l i f e upon the p l a i n s when the a c q u i s i t i o n ©f horses made the change to b u f f a l © hunting highly a t t r a c t i v e . A c t u a l l y , nothing i s 1 known ©f t h e i r place ®f © r i g i n , e a r l y h i s t o r y ©r migra t ions . C e r t a i n features ©f the Arapah® language indica te a s e p a r a t i © n ©f m©re than a thousand years from the woodland Alg©nquins ©f 2 the Great Lakes area and the E a s t . Alth@ugh Canadian r e p © r t s ©f the Gr©s Ventres branch ©f Arapahoes antedate the Lewis and Clark e x p e d i t i © n t© the P a c i f i c by m©re than f i f t y years , these American explorers f i r s t made known the existence ©f the Arapah©es p r © p e r , wh©m they f©und i n the v i c i n i t y ©f the Black H i l l s (S©uth Dak©ta) 1 A . L . Kr©eber , "The Arapaho, Part 1", B u l l e t i n ©f the  American Museum ©f Natural H i s t o r y , 1902, v . XVIII , p . [}.. 2 A . L . Kroeber, "The Arapah© D i a l e c t s " , Univ . af C a l i f o r n i a Publ ica t ions In American Archaeology and Ethnoleg IM, v . 12, p . 73. 31 , 3 i n l 8 o l j . . Because they l i v e d up©n the b u f f a l o they were known 'li-as "Gens de vach" or "cow people". Alexander Henry, who met them i n the same l o c a l i t y i n 18 0 6 , r e f e r r e d t© them as the 5 b u f f a l o Indians. B u f f a l o Indians they were indeed, f o r , by dropping heated stones i n t o b u f f a l o rawhide f i t t e d i n t o holes i n the ground, they b o i l e d t h e i r b u f f a l o meat; d r i e d , shredded b u f f a l o f l e s h mixed with b u f f a l o f a t became pemmican, which they packed i n t o p a r f l e c h e s f o r storage and t r a v e l ; from bones of the bovines they fashioned awls, needles and other t o o l s ; b u f f a l o sinews c o n t r i b u t e d bowstrings and thread; b u f f a l o hides s t r e t c h e d around t h i n , pole frames formed t h e i r t i p i s ©r lodges; b u f f a l o robes served as bedding; and when w©ed was net handy, buffal© chips — ©r d r i e d dung — kept t h e i r heme f i r e s 6 burning. To round ©ut the l i s t — th©ugh f a r from exhausting 3 Op. c i t . , Thwaites (ed.) O r i g i n a l Journals ©f the Lewis  and C l a r k E x p e d i t i o n . l8olj.-l806, p. 190. The A t s i n a . or Gros Ventres of the p r a i r i e , now i n Montana, are an Arapah© group speaking an Arapah© d i a l e c t . They s t i l l i n t e r v i s i t w i t h the Northern Arapahoes. li Loc. c i t . 5 E l i o t Coues (ed.), New L i g h t on the E a r l y H i s t o r y of  the Greater Northwest. New York, F. P. Harper, I097, v. 1, P. 381}.. 6 I b i d . , p. 370. Henry t e l l s of 300 b u f f a l o dung f i r e s smoking i n every d i r e c t i o n at an Indian camp on the p l a i n s . White s e t t l e r s learned to use b u f f a l o chips f o r s i m i l a r purposes. 32 I t — the use ©f p u l v e r i z e d dung i n l i e u ©f diapers should be 7 i n c l u d e d . As t h e i r mater ia l cul ture was based upon the b l s © n , the h i e r a r c h i c a l s tructure ©f t h e i r society was adapted t© a l i f e up©n the p l a i n s . The elder men r e t a i n e d c@mparatively t i g h t , but n©t t y r a n n i c a l c © n t r © l . Since the prudence ©f the y©ung men frequently f e l l short of t h e i r drive f©r p r e s t i g e , some such r e s t r a i n t was e s s e n t i a l , t© h©ld them i n check. A s o d a l i t y system which provided f e r the s © c i a l needs ©f the Arapah©es fr©m adolescence t© ©Id age made poss ible the e f f e c t i v e exercise ©f the necessary c a n t r © l s . These age-greup lodges were so organized that as t h e i r years and experience increased, the members advanced, sometimes as an ent i re group, to the p r i v i l e g e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ©f a higher f e l l o w s h i p . As i l l n e s s , accident and the d a i l y hazards ©f t h e i r migratory l i f e gradually decreased t h e i r numbers, they progressed from stage t© stage with an ever-lessening membership. Reverence f o r age and i t s author i ty was i n c u l c a t e d , and the rash act iens ©f the immature and the impatient f requently were curbed. Deference t© the elders became i n s t i t u t i o n a l ; deep respect and a f f e c t i o n were 7 S i s t e r M. Inez H i l g e r , "Arapaho C h l l d l i f e and Its  C u l t u r a l Backgr©und," Bureau ©f American Ethnalagy B u l l e t i n l ^ b , Washington, G©vt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952, pp. 2d-2Q. 33 rendered to o l d men and women. T h e i r needs and t h e i r d e s i r e s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a t e a t t e n t i o n . From the f o r e g o i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i t may be surmised t h a t s o d a l i t i e s , i n Arapaho s o c i e t y as In t h a t of o t h e r p l a i n s t r i b e s , h e l d a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . Though a c t u a l l y nine i n number, onl y seven were s p e c i f i e d as lodges, f o r the f i r s t two, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r 'teen-age boys and men i n t h e i r t w e n t i e s , l a c k e d r e g a l i a and degrees, thus could not a t t a i n t h i s d i s t i n c -t i o n . Since seven was one of the three s a c r e d numbers i n Arapah© ceremonial p r a c t i c e , the enumeration of t h i s many '8 lodges had r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . S e v e r a l s o d a l i t i e s deserve p a r t i c u l a r n©tice. F i r s t ©f these are the Firemoths o r Crazy Men, who r e v e r s e d t h e i r ways and language d u r i n g the r i t u a l i s t i c p r ocesses and became 9 c l o w n i s h . They would a t t e n d a ceremonial f e a s t , f o r i n s t a n c e , ©nly when requested not t o come. Second i s the Dog Lodge, composed of o l d e r men w i t h t h e i r wives. I t s members h e l d 8 The other two numbers are f o u r and s i x t e e n . Any a l e r t ©bserver of the Arapaho Sun Dance ceremonies and s t r u c t u r e of the Sun Dance Lodge w i l l n o t i c e numerous examples of ceremonial usage ©f these numbers. 9 W i l l i a m C. Thunder, l e t t e r @f Dec. 23 , 1938. Much of the Information'on'lodges comes from t h i s source. The remainder i s taken from A. L. Kroeber, who gives a much more complete account i n "The Arapaho, Part 1 1 " , B u l l e t i n of the American  Museum ©f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . 190[L, v. XVIII. 314-s p e c i a l wartime r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those who were r e c i p i e n t s of the higher degrees. They could not leave t h e i r b a t t l e stations unless ordered to do so by a comrade. The shaggy dog — holder of the highest degree of the lodge — 10 had to r e t a i n his p o s i t i o n u n t i l d r i v e n away by a companion. The t h i r d ©f these, a t the top ©f the s o c i a l pyramid and representing the oldest group of men, was the Water -dripping Sweat Lodge, In which no more than the sacred number seven c©uld h©ld membership. F i n a l l y , the wemen p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s o d a l i t y of t h e i r ©wn, the B u f f a l o Lodge, which apparently lacked age requirements. I n i t i a t e s of the various s o d a l i t i e s were sp©ns®red by ceremonial grandfathers (grandm©thers f © r the w©men), whom they treated w i t h great deference, and from whom they received t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n . This r e l a t i o n s h i p , enduring threughout l i f e , p r o h i b i t e d the grandsen and h i s wife fr@m engaging i n any a c t i v i t i e s , even s o c i a l games, which would b r i n g them into c o n f l i c t with the sponsor. In t h e i r turn , the grand-fathers who d i r e c t e d the i n i t i a t e s received i n s t r u c t i o n s from the o l d men of the Water-dripping Sweat Lodge, ©wners of the seven sacred t r i b a l bags ©r bundles, each representing 10 The D©g Dancers and the members of the © t h e r s o d a l i t i e s also held s p e c i a l Sun Dance r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 35 c e r t a i n powers. In a l l cases the i n s t r u c t o r s received many g i f t s , as w e l l as r e p e t i t i v e expressions ©f thanks from those whom they d i r e c t e d . At what time i n the past d i v i s i o n s ameng the Arapaho groups f i r s t appeared i s a matter ©f cenjecture , but the d i a l e c t i c a l d i f ferences between the Arapahaes preper and the 11 Gr©s Ventres indica te a separat isn of considerable d u r a t i o n . Of mere recent o r i g i n was the s p l i t t i n g of the main bedy int© northern and southern d i v i s i © n s . Of the various theeries © f f e r e d t© expla in t h i s geographic cleavage, seme are ©bviously f a l s e , as w r i t t e n references t© b©th gr©ups antedate the events c i t e d as the causes ©f p a r t i n g . One apocryphal t a l e which has been given c © n s i d e r a b l e credence a t t r i b u t e s the separat ion t® i l l f e e l i n g generated through the s l a y i n g ©f a N©rthern Arapaho c h i e f by a member ©f a Southern Arapah© band i n the 1850s. When i n 1897 be t©ld t© Hugh S c © t t a simpler and more c redible explanation, the Southern Arapah®, Left Hand, denied a l l 12 implicati@ns ©f u n c © n g e n i a l i t y as a c e n t r i b u t i n g f a c t e r . There had been n© q u a r r e l , he s a i d , n©r any unpleasantness between the bands, but the Northern Arapahces merely prefer red to remain i n the ner th , while the Southern Arapahaes came t© 11 A reunien ©f the Gr©s Ventres and Northern Arapah©es occurred fr©m 1818-1823, apparently the l a s t ©f m©re than a few m©nths d u r a t i © h . Smallpox decimated t h e i r numbers at t h i s time. (See Hugh L . Scott , "The E a r l y H i s t o r y and Names of the Arapah©," American Anthropolegist ( n . s . ) 1907, v . 9, p . 553.) 1 2 I b i d . , P. 558. 36 13 p r e f e r the south, where horses were mere p l e n t i f u l . Hew l e n g a time e l a p s e d frem the f i r s t s eeking ef d i f f e r e n t p a s tures u n t i l the s e p a r a t i e n became complete cannet be s u r e l y s a i d , but the d i v i s i o n seems te have developed i n the l a t e e i g h t -eenth e r e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century, c e r t a i n l y not l a t e r than li]. I 8 l 6 , a c c o r d i n g to S c o t t . Although the southern group now shares a r e s e r v a t i o n i n Oklahoma w i t h the Southern Cheyennes, t h e i r h i s t o r i c f r i e n d s , and the n o r t h e r n e r s l i v e on the Wind R i v e r R e s e r v a t i o n i n Wyoming w i t h the Shoshones, they s t i l l f e e l themselves to comprise one people, and they speak the same language. I n t e r v i s i t a t i o n i s common. O c c a s i o n a l l y a Southern Arapaho moves permanently te Wyoming, or a Northern Arapaho to Oklahoma. They mutually r e g a r d the F l a t Pipe, l o n g i n the keeping of the Northern Arapahoes, as t h e i r most sacre d t r i b a l 13 I b i d . , p. 5 6 0 . L e f t Hand's e x p l a n a t i o n i s p e r f e c t l y l o g i c a l . H i s t o r i c a l l y horses moved from south to n o r t h , from Mexico through the U. S. to Canada, both through t r a d i n g and r a i d i n g . 1I4. Loc. c i t . T h i s v e r s i o n of the g e o g r a p h i c a l cleavage d i f f e r s l i t t l e from that of other c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t o r s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n e f W. P. C l a r k , who o b v i o u s l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from L i t t l e Raven, another Southern Arapaho. He concluded t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n o c c u r r e d i n I867, when the Northern Arapahoes r e f u s e d te j o i n i n a war on the whites. (See W. P. C l a r k , Indian Sign Language, P h i l a d e l p h i a , L. R. Hammersly and Co., 1 8 0 5 , P. 4-0.) 37 p o s s e s s i o n . Though hidden by i t s wrappings from p u b l i c view, the pipe holds a prominent p l a c e i n the Northern Arapaho Sun Dance ceremonies. Hung on i t s quadrupod of p o l e s , s a c r i f i c e s or o f f e r i n g s are made to i t by those who have vowed to do so. I t i s approached w i t h as great reverence as i s the c r o s s or a l t a r by a member of any C h r i s t i a n s e c t , and the o f f e r i n g i s c a r e f u l l y l a i d over i t . " Dressing the p i p e " , the Arapahoes c a l l I t . Two names f r e q u e n t l y used to d i s t i n g u i s h the Northern Arapahoes from the Oklahoma group are t r a n s l a t e d as People of the Sagebrush, and Red Bark People, the l a t t e r r e f e r r i n g t o t h e i r p r a c t i c e o f mixing r e d o s i e r dogwood bark w i t h 16 tobacco. By themselves and t h e i r southern r e l a t i v e s they are 17 sometimes c a l l e d the "mother t r i b e . " Por generations the Arapahoes and Cheyennes i n t e r m a r r i e d , camped and hunted t o g e t h e r , and j o i n t l y r a i d e d and fought with t h e i r common enemies. Alexander Henry found them s h a r i n g 18 a campground as e a r l y as l 8 0 6 . How f a r i n the past t h e i r 15 Op. c i t . Murphy, Personal Notes. John S. C a r t e r has w r i t t e n a monograph on the p i p e , "The Northern Arapaho P l a t Pipe and the Ceremony of Covering the Pip e " , Bureau of American  Ethnology B u l l e t i n 119. Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 193«, PP. 0 9 - 1 0 2 . l o Loc. c i t . The Arapahoes say th a t the t r a n s l a t i o n u s u a l l y g i v e n , "Red Willow People," i s a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 17 F r e d e r i c k Webb Hodge (ed.), Handbook of American Indians  North of Mexico, New York, Pageant Book Co. Inc., 1959, P. 72 . (Bureau of American Ethnology, 1907.) 18 Op. c i t . Coues, v. 1, p. 38I4.. 38 amicable r e l a t i o n s h i p began i s problematical. Eventually they extended t h e i r a l l i a n c e to include the Western Sioux; and the three groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the north, pressed raids — whether r e t a l i a t o r y or aggressive -- against the Crows, TJtes, Pawnees and Shoshones. The forays afforded excellent opportunities for the younger braves to slake t h e i r t h i r s t f o r prestige. Names of various Northern Arapaho men and women of a l a t e r day commemorated the exploits of t h e i r ancestors In i n t e r - t r i b a l warfare. Thus Red Plume and In-Among-Thera (brothers) received t h e i r names from a grandfather who had once counted coup on a Crow warrior who wore a red feather; and at another time he had dismounted to f i g h t the Crows '19 on foot — i n among them. Likewise the name of Woman-runs-out was bestowed upon her by a grandfather who, also i n a battle with the Crows, had p i t i e d a woman who ran out of a 20 t i p i with a baby on her back. After the Treaty of l8£l the Northern Arapahoes and Northern Cheyennes shared a common agency with various bands of the Western Sioux. Despite e f f o r t s of the Indian Office to persuade the two former tribes to j o i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i n 19 Op. c i t . Murphy, Personal Notes. 20 Loc. c i t . 39 Indian T e r r i t o r y (now included i n Oklahoma), they stayed i n the north u n t i l United States s o l d i e r s rounded up h o s t i l e Indians f o l l o w i n g the S i t t i n g B u l l campaign, 1876 to 1877. A move to the south was forced upon the Cheyennes, but part of them refused to remain there and broke away to the nor th , where many met t h e i r death from s o l d i e r s ' b u l l e t s . The Arapahoes joined the Shoshones i n Wyoming, and there they may be found today. Throughout the period of turmoil surveyed i n Chapter 1 (1851-1879) the c l o s e s t associates of the Northern Arapahoes were depicted as the f i g h t i n g Cheyennes and the warl ike Sioux, the l a t t e r composing the l a r g e s t , most powerful p l a i n s t r i b e (estimated at 53,000 people) , and the one most feared by the 21 whites . This f e l l o w s h i p , combined with t h e i r reputat ion of being more reserved, treacherous and f i e r c e than t h e i r neighbors, would i n c l i n e one to expect the Arapahoes to be u s u a l l y i n the t h i c k of the f i g h t i n g , i n the f o c a l point of 22 t r o u b l e . Yet t h i s does not seem to be the case. The Northern Arapahoes regarded themselves as peaceful people . In 1875 Black C o a l , then t h e i r most important c h i e f , expressed t h i s t r i b a l f e e l i n g before an i n v e s t i g a t i n g commission at Red Cloud Agency (Nebraska), where the Northern 21 Op. c i t . Annual Report, I87I4., p . 1+. This i s an Indian O f f i c e estimate. 22 Op. c i t . Kroeber, "The Arapaho, Part 1", p . 1+. Cheyennes, several bands ef Sioux, and h i s own t r i b e were served. "The Arapahoes," he t e s t i f i e d , "are c a l l e d the peace t r i b e . I never begin war. When I make peace I always keep 23 i t . Taat i s the way with a l l the A r a p a h o e s . . . . " Whether er net Black C o a l ' s statement i s wholly v a l i d , i t represents f a r mere than a t r i b a l p l a t i t u d e . In the F i g h t i n g Cheyennes G r i n n e l l breaks with popular judgment te present ( b r i e f l y ) a p a c i f i c facet ef Arapahe character . Theugh stubborn f i g h t e r s i n supporting t h e i r f r i e n d s and a l l i e s , he feund them milder and mere easy-*k geing than the Cheyennes. James Meeney, probably the f i r s t noteworthy anthropologist to gain the confidence of the Arapahoes, be l ieved them to be r e l i g i o u s , contemplative and f r i e n d l y , ne i ther t ruculent nor pugnacious, but more t ractable 25 and less mercenary than the general run of p r a i r i e Indians. Despite these and other evidences which w i l l be presented, the few h i s t o r i a n s who acknowledge any peaceful i n c l i n a t i o n among the Arapahoes c i t e only Fr iday i n t h i s respect , and his e f f o r t s te influence his people are general ly regarded 23 Report of the Specia l Commission to Investigate the  A f f a i r s of the Red Cloud Agency, J u l y , 1«75 , together with the  Testimony and Accompanying Documents, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , l b 7 5 , P. 377 . MosT h i s t o r i a n s of t h i s per iod would challenge Black Coal ' s c l a i m . 2\\. Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p . 3» 25 James Meeney, "The Ghost Dance R e l i g i o n and the Sioux Outbreak of I89O", Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of  Ethnology. 1892-93. Part 2, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , l o 9 6 , p . 957. kl as a b o r t i v e . There can be ne cententien as te h i s bent f e r peace; h is importance must be recognized, but there are i n d i c a t i o n s that he d i d not stand alone . The case f e r F r i d a y w i l l be given f i r s t . Though sorely t r i e d by the t a c t i c s of the dominant race determined to occupy his and other Indian lands , he remained a staunch opponent of force i n deal ing with them. There i s no evidence that he ever took up arms against the whites. When fear of a general Indian i n s u r r e c t i o n rose toward a crescendo i n 1863 and rumors magnified the apprehension, F r i d a y , camped with his band at the Cache la Peudre i n Colorado, i n s i s t e d that he would keep the peace, and refused 26 the o f f e r ef a Sioux warpipe. Even the ter rors ef the Sand Creek massacre ef Southern Cheyennes and Arapahoes i n 1861L. f a i l e d to shake him from t h i s resolve , and he took no part i n the raids along the Plat te which fo l lowed, although one band of Northern Arapahoes joined i;he Sioux and Cheyennes i n these. Nor d id he p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Powder River f i g h t i n g , 186^ to I 8 6 7 , though General Conner's puni t ive expedi t ion (186^) brought the l a t t e r into c o n f l i c t with Black Bear 's band, when h i s s o l d i e r s attacle d them on the Tongue R i v e r , a 26 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1863, p . 2£1L. 1*2 27 tributary of the Yellowstone. It was not u n t i l 1868, when peace had come, that Friday's band f i n a l l y was evicted by Federal Government authorities from t h e i r encampment on the far-away Cache la Poudre. He then joined his brethren i n the Powder River region. Afte r Friday, the influence of Chief Medicine Man i n steering the Northern Arapahoes along the path of peace should be considered. This chief, known to whites as Roman Nose, has received l i t t l e attention from h i s t o r i a n s . Among his own people, however, he exercised great authority from the mid 1850s u n t i l his death during the winter of I 8 7 I - I 8 7 2 . During this period he frequently acted as spokesman fo r his t r i b e , and on at least one occasion f o r c e r t a i n bands of Sioux and Cheyennes as w e l l . Like Friday, he abstained from the Platte River h o s t i l i t i e s of l861j.-l865, keeping his band, more than half the entire t r i b e , i n the Powder River country, hundreds of miles from the raids i n question. Also as with Friday, he refrained from taking up arms against the whites following the thoroughly u n j u s t i f i e d Sand Creek massacre of Cheyennes and Southern Arapahoes i n l861f.. Indeed, Indian Office reports indicated that the outrage " e f f e c t u a l l y prevented any more 27 Black Bear's band was probably the one which had aided the Sioux and Cheyennes i n t h e i r raids along the Platte River. The indications w i l l be shown l a t e r . 1+3 advances towards peace by such of those bands which were w e l l - d i s p o s e d " excepting the Arapaho c h i e f "Roman Nose", who had sent word that he was anxious to l i v e with h i s people i n the l o c a l i t y of the " L i t t l e Chug" r i v e r (the Chugwater, 28 about t h i r t y - f i v e miles north of Cheyenne, Wyoming). In response to Governor Evans' o f f e r of the previous summer to protect a l l f r i e n d l y Indians, he had brought his large band a l l the way from Powder R i v e r , where b u f f a l o hunting was s t i l l good, only to be rebuffed on the f l i m s y ground that the L i t t l e 29 Chug was too close to the great routes of t r a v e l . Although Medicine Man's part i n the Powder River Wars remains e n i g -matic , a f t e r the peace of 1868 he avoided c o l l i s i o n with the whites, on one occasion even moving h i s people to the M i l k River Agency i n Montana (which served the Gros Ventres r e l a t i v e s and Crow enemies of the Arapahoes) ra ther than 30 r i s k an open rupture which seemed imminent i n Wyoming. F i n a l l y , a f t e r Fr iday and Medicine Man, Black Coal too, deserves mention i n t h i s regard, though he has more f requent ly been classed as a r a i d e r than as a man of peace. When he 28 Op. c i t . Annual Report. 1865, p . 2 5 . 29 I b i d . , p . 177. F t . C o l l i n s , Colorado, one of the main s tat ions to which Governor Evans of Colorado T e r r i t o r y had requested f r i e n d l y Indians to r e p o r t , was just as close to the main routes of t r a v e l . 30 The move followed the murder of Black Bear and a number of other Arapahoes by an armed band of whites , near the present town of Lander, Wyoming, i n 1871. succeeded Medicine Man, f o l l o w i n g the l a t t e r » s demise, the Arapahoes returned to the Wind River region of Wyoming to r a i d t h e i r old enemies, the Shoshones, whom they blamed f o r c o l l u s i o n with the whites i n the death of Black Bear. Their forays were terminated by a c l a s h wi th United States troops, the Bates B a t t l e of I87I4., a f t e r which Black Coal fought no more. Having made peace, he stuck to i t , even i n l875>, when droves of Sioux and Cheyennes deserted t h e i r agencies to f o l l o w the war t r a i l with Crazy Horse and S i t t i n g B u l l , thus making a mockery of the Indian Commissioner's boast that the process of feeding the Sioux had "so f a r taken the f i g h t out of t h e m . . . " that they would not " r i s k the loss of t h e i r c of f ee , •31 sugar and beef" i n a campaign against the s o l d i e r s . Since F r i d a y as a boy i n S t . Louis had known white men under auspicious circumstances, i t might be argued that both Medicine Man and Black Coal had come under his inf luence and r e f l e c t e d h i s own a t t i t u d e . It might be s a i d , i n short , that without him the ameliorat ing f a c t o r i n Arapaho-white r e l a t i o n s might never have developed. But when the a v a i l a b l e evidence i s considered i t appears that the amicable i n c l i n a t i o n of h is people may have preceded F r i d a y ' s i n f l u e n c e , and that i t d i d not vanish with his death. Moreover, the t r a i t was shared by Northern and Southern Arapahoes, and was not e n t i r e l y r e s t r i c t e d 31 Op. c i t . Annual Report , I87JJ, p . 5". to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the whites . G r i n n e l l has pointed out that the Arapahoes had, i n past time, fought the Comanches, Kiowas and Apaches, not through any r e a l antagonism to them, but rather because they were the enemies of t h e i r own best f r i e n d s , the Cheyennes. The Apaches must have been cognizant of t h i s f a c t , f o r i n 181^ 0 they approached the Arapahoes with the request that they act as intermediaries i n arranging a peace conference between the f i v e warring t r i b e s , the Cheyennes and Arapahoes on one hand, the Apaches, Comanches and Kiowas 32 on the other . The Arapahoes o b l i g e d ; f u l l agreement was reached, presents exchanged, and h o s t i l i t i e s between them permanently ceased. Moving to a l a t e r day — nearly ten years a f t e r F r i d a y ' s death i n 1881 — i t should be noted that a remarkable Arapaho l e f t his home i n Wyoming to carry to h i s southern brethren and others i n Indian T e r r i t o r y , the Ghost Dance r e l i g i o n , which had o r i g i n a t e d with Jack Wilson, the Indian Messiah of Mason V a l l e y , Nevada. Since i t was d e f i n i t e l y a r e l i g i o n of peace as he taught i t , t h i s Arapaho missionary who inf luenced many t r i b e s , might wel l have been c a l l e d the Apostle of Peace. Paradoxica l ly , he shared with the great Sioux warrior of the 33 1870s the name of S i t t i n g B u l l . F i t t i n g l y , perhaps, a f t e r 32 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , pp. 6 3 - 6 6 . 33 James Mooney (op. c i t . ) gives the f u l l s tory i n The  Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology 1892-1093, Part 2 . h-6 the decline of the Ghost Dance r e l i g i o n , S i t t i n g B u l l — Hanacha Thiak i n Arapaho — became a Mennonite convert , thus 3k a f f i l i a t i n g himself with one of the h i s t o r i c peace sec ts . F i n a l l y , as noted above, i t was not the Northern d i v i s i o n of the Arapahoes alone which strove from time to time to maintain peaceful r e l a t i o n s with the United States Government. In 1870 and subsequent years , notations of the desirable a t t i tude of the Southern Arapahoes appeared i n the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s . Declarat ions of peaceful intent made at this time were thereaf ter honored by the Southern Arapahoes. S i m i l a r commentaries on the c o n c i l i a t o r y s p i r i t of the 35 Northern Arapahoes appeared i n 1872. Others followed i n 1873, and by 1875 seemed only the course of wisdom to plan to 36 separate them from the more r e c a l c i t r a n t Cheyennes. Subse-quently , when Sioux and Cheyenne warriors l e f t t h e i r agencies to j o i n the forces of S i t t i n g B u l l and Crazy Horse, i t became obvious to t h e i r agent at Red Cloud that the Arapahoes, " . . . 37 almost without exception, remained l o y a l to the government." 3I4. Op. c i t . Murphy, Personal Notes. 35 Op. c i t . Annual Report. 1872, p . 651. 36 I b i d . , I 8 7 5 , PP. 54-6-552. 37 I b i d . , 1877, P. 4-15. kl Following the Custer debacle, the I n t e r i o r Department — long under pressure from s e t t l e r s to open up the northern Indian lands — undertook act ive measures to t ransfer the Northern Arapahoes, Northern Cheyennes and some of the Sioux to Indian T e r r i t o r y , notwithstanding t h e i r opposi t ion to the change. The Cheyennes were compelled to go; but the purported warlike i n c l i n a t i o n of the Sioux, and i t s f e a r f u l p o t e n t i a l toward s e t t l e r s i n the adjacent states and the " c i v i l i z e d Indians" of the area r e s u l t e d i n such a f l u r r y of protest that the plan to s h i f t them was stymied. Congress passed an act expressly f o r b i d d i n g the President to move "any 39 p o r t i o n " of the Sioux nat ion to Indian T e r r i t o r y . Conversely, f i n a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the Northern Arapaho e f f o r t s to keep the peace l e d the United States Government to grant t h e i r plea to remain i n the nor th , rather than coercing them into the dreaded t r a n s f e r . Short ly thereaf ter the Indian Bureau completed arrangements to move them to t h e i r present l o c a t i o n on the Wind River Reservation i n Wyoming, where the Shoshones already r e s i d e d . 38 The Congressional Record, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1877, F o r t y - f o u r t h Congress, Second sess ion , v . 5, p . 1617. 39 I b i d . , p . 1736. l|0 Op. c i t . Annual Report , 1877, p . Ij.59. The Northern Arapahoes feared they would die " i n that miasmatic country" . 14-8 Chap. 3 The T r e a t y of 1851 as the Hopeful Promise of a New Era In 18I+9, w i t h C a l i f o r n i a ' s g o l d r u s h s p a r k i n g a tremendous p o p u l a t i o n boom, and the settlement of Oregon under way, P r e s i d e n t F i l l m o r e proposed a p l a n to b i n d t o g e t h e r the w i d e l y separated e a s t e r n and western f r o n t i e r s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h a permanent highway to cut a c r o s s the v a s t and n e a r l y 1 empty expanse of p l a i n s and mountains which l a y between. A r a i l r o a d , he s a i d , would b e s t s a t i s f y the wants and needs of the people, though he d i d not envisage i t s immediate 2 c o n s t r u c t i o n . Some means must be d e v i s e d to e x t i n g u i s h Indian t i t l e to the needed s t r i p s of l a n d , f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s a l r e a d y had a r i s e n between the thousands of westbound immigrants and the " w i l d " t r i b e s of the p l a i n s , through whose h a b i t a t the 3 p r o j e c t e d r i g h t of way would have to pass. Since the wrath of the Indians had been aroused by the immigrant's d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r game and f o r a g e , the P r e s i d e n t recommended a g i f t of $50*000 to assuage t h e i r f e e l i n g s . In exchange f o r the r i g h t of the Government to m a i n t a i n roads and m i l i t a r y posts i n c e r t a i n p a r t s of t h e i r t e r r i t o r y , a n n u i t i e s v a l u e d at $50,000 should be d i s t r i b u t e d among them f o r a p e r i o d of f i f t y y e a r s . Thus t h e i r g o o d w i l l would be 1 "Message from the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s to the Two Houses of Congress", T h i r t y - f i r s t Congress E x e c u t i v e  Document No. 5 , Washington, p r i n t e d f o r the House of Represent-a t i v e s , 104.9, p. 13 . 2 I b i d , p. I i i . 3 Loc. c i t . purchased, and fear of the loss of t reaty ra t ions would surely e l i c i t t h e i r best conduct toward the whites . Should molestation of t ravelers and t h e i r stock not cease, the p o s i t i v e i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the g u i l t y p a r t i e s must be assured. By l a y i n g the country o f f into geographical or rather " n a t i o n a l domains" the Government could r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y the predators , or at l eas t the t r i b e to which they belonged. Condemning the unsuccessful prac t i ce of coercion formerly pursued by the War Department, F i l lmore stressed the necessi ty of kindness i n deal ing with the a b o r i g i n e s . If the Government would undertake to feed and clothe them, they might be some-5 what gently l e d Into the pathways and ar ts of c i v i l i z a t i o n . Once the dwindling herds of b u f f a l o were gone from the p l a i n s , the Indians must adapt or s tarve , and without a i d they would 6 be unable to e s t a b l i s h themselves, "even as g r a z i e r s " . The contemplated period of f i f t y years (of annuity issues) probably would be s u f f i c i e n t to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of c i v i l i z i n g the native nomads. Congress responded with an appropr ia t ion of $100,000 f o r a great conference to be held at the confluence of Horse Creek and the North Plat te R i v e r , i n extreme western Nebraska, a few k- Op. c i t . "Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress", l 8 £ l , p . 290. 5 The Congressional Globe (Appendix), Washington, John C. Rives , 1852, p . 10 . 6 Op. c i t . "Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress", 1851, p . 290. 50 7 m i l e s s o u t h e a s t e f F t . L a r a m i e , Wyoming, The am i c a b l e a s s e m b l i n g e f the I n d i a n s — S i o u x , Cheyennes, Arapahoes, A s s i n i b e i n e s , Gres V e n t r e s , A r i k e r a s and Crews t e n theusand e f them, was due l a r g e l y t e t h e d e d i c a t e d werk e f Themas F i t z p a t r i c k , agent t e the S i e u x , Cheyennes and 8 Arapahees. The Crews made an e v e r l a n d t r e k e f seme e i g h t hundred m i l e s t e t a k e p a r t i n the c o n f e r e n c e . Though t h e i r h a b i t a t and t e r r i t o r i a l c l a i m s d i d not c o n c e r n the Immediate purposes of the c o u n c i l , t h e Shoshones came i n t o observe and l e a r n . They had been i n v i t e d so t h a t they might w i t n e s s the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government's f a i r n e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the redmen, and i t s s o l i c i t u d e f o r t h e i r w e l f a r e . The i m p r e s s i o n thus c r e a t e d might prove s a l u t a r y i n case n e g o t i a t i o n s s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h them i n the f u t u r e . 7 The agreement w h i c h emerged f r o m t h i s c o n f e r e n c e i s known as the F t . Laramie T r e a t y of 1851. 8 The f i g u r e o f t e n thousand i s the e s t i m a t e o f F a t h e r De Smet, an i n t e r e s t e d o b s e r v e r a t the m e e t i n g . See Hiram M. C h i t t e n d e n and A l f r e d T. R i c h a r d s o n ( e d . ) . L i f e . L e t t e r s  and T r a v e l s o f P i e r r e - J e a n D e S m e t , S. J . , Io0l-lb73, New Y o r k , F. P. H a r p e r , 1905 (c 1 W , v. 2, p. 6?J|. 51 Except for one short i n t e r v a l of anxiety with the a r r i v a l of the Shoshones — t r a d i t i o n a l enemies of the Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahoes — the t r i b e s camped peaceably together 9 during the eighteen days of the conference. On ground which had formerly witnessed enmity, bloodshed and s c a l p i n g among them, the peace pipe passed f r e e l y from hand to hand and mouth to mouth. The conduct of the Indians earned the 10 "admiration and s u r p r i s e " of a l l present . Struck with the evidence of s i n c e r e t y , t rust and hope shown by the Indians, D. D. M i t c h e l l , one of the c h i e f negot ia tors , expressed the b e l i e f that nothing short of "bad management or some untoward 11 misfortune" could ever break t h i s s p i r i t . Father De Smet, whose years of missionary experience with Indians gave him a temporal as w e l l as a s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t i n them, was heartened by the obvious s i n c e r i t y and benevolence displayed by the delegates of the United States Government 12 throughout the meeting. They neglected nothing which would forward the primary object ives of the conference: the cession by the Indians of a p r a c t i c a l r i g h t of way across the p l a i n s , 9 Op. c i t . Hafen and Young, F t . Laramie and the Pageant  of the West, pp. 180-181. A French Interpre ter managed to p u l l a Sioux from his horse i n time to prevent an act of vengeance against a Shoshone who had (formerly) k i l l e d h is f a t h e r . 10 Op. c i t . "Message from the President of the United States to the Two Houses of Congress", l 8 £ l , p . 288. 11 I b i d , p . 29O. 1 2 Op. c i t * Chittenden and Richardson, Father De Smet, v . 2, pp. 675-67b. 52 f o r w h i c h t h e y would r e c e i v e e q u i t a b l e compensation} 1 t h e c e s s a t i o n o f d e p r e d a t i o n s and h o s t i l i t y toward the immi-g r a n t s ; j u s t r e m u n e r a t i o n f o r p a s t i n j u r i e s I n c u r r e d by the r e d men a t the hands o f the w h i t e s ; and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f permanent peace between the t r i b e s of t h e p l a i n s . To m i n i m i z e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g the terms of the t r e a t y , t hese were r e a d a r t i c l e by a r t i c l e , and p a i n s t a k i n g l y e x p l a i n e d to t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s b e f o r e t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o the v a r i o u s I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s . Though f a r f r o m p l e a s e d a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f f u r t h e r m y r i a d s o f i m m i g r a n t s p a s s i n g i n t o and t h r o u g h t h e i r l a n d s , the t r i b e s -men s i g n i f i e d r e a s o n a b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the t r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s and l o o k e d h o p e f u l l y f o r w a r d t o b e t t e r days. The response o f Cut Nose, N o r t h e r n Arapaho, has been s e l e c t e d as t y p i f y i n g f e e l i n g s commonly e x p r e s s e d a t the c o n f e r e n c e . He s a i d i n p a r t : 1 11 w i l l go home s a t i s f i e d . I w i l l s l e e p sound and n o t have t o watch my h o r s e s i n the n i g h t , o r be a f r a i d f o r my squaws and c h i l d r e n . We have t o l i v e on these streams and i n the h i l l s , and I would be g l a d I f the w h i t e s would p i c k ©ut a p l a c e f o r t h e m s e l v e s and n o t come i n t o our grounds; b u t i f they must pass t h r o u g h our c o u n t r y they s h o u l d g i v e us game f o r what they d r i v e o f f . . . . " 1 3 A new day, i t seemed, had dawned i n I n d i a n - w h i t e r e l a t i o n s , a day p r e s a g i n g an e r a o f t r a n q u i l i t y and c o n s i d -e r a t i o n . Peaceable c i t i z e n s c o u l d c r o s s the p l a i n s u n m o l e s t e d , 13 Op. c i t . Hafen and Young, p. 190. R e p r i n t e d by p e r m i s s i o n o f the p u b l i s h e r s , The A r t h u r H. C l a r k Company, fr o m F o r t Laramie and the Pageant o f the West. I83k-l890 by LeRoy R. Hafen and F r a n c i s M a r i o n Young. 53 and the Indians would have l i t t l e to fear from the machin-ations of mischievous whites, f o r they would rece ive the •111. j u s t i c e which was t h e i r due. Having implanted i n the Indian mind the idea that peaceful negotiat ions with the Federal Government could be f r u i t f u l , the treaty planners d i d not intend that i t should wither and d i e . Further steps were needed to impress the p r a i r i e dwellers with the power and numbers of the whites, and the great advantages of t h e i r way ©f l i f e . Therefore , wi th Father De Smet accompanying him as f a r as S t . L o u i s , Thomas F i t z p a t r i c k escorted a delegat ion of important members of the p l a i n s t r ibes to Washington, D. C. Of those, three were Arapahoes, Tempest representing the southern bands, and Eagle Head and Friday from the northern groups. Pleased with the opportunity to introduce the Indians to the rewards of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r , Father De Smet l e d the group to S t . Mary's Roman Cathol ic Miss ion to the Pottawattomis i n Kansas, where the b i s o n hunters were deeply Impressed by the great q u a n t i t i e s of tasty vegetables and f r u i t s . Eagle Head was moved to ask that "Blackgowns" be sent to his own people, so they, too, might c u l t i v a t e the l a n d , and no longer f e e l Op, c i t . Chittenden and Richardson, Father De Smet, v . 2, p . bolj.. 51+ 15 the pangs of unsated hunger. But l i t t l e d i d he r e a l i z e that t h i r t y years must pass before the blackgowns would come to the Northern Arapahoes. Prom Kansas C i t y to St . Louis the party t raveled by r i v e r -boat on the muddy M i s s o u r i . Highly exc i ted by the strange experience, many of the delegates expressed t h e i r wonder at the steamboat, and the numerous v i l l a g e s along the r i v e r ' s 16 bank. In Washington, D. C , s t i l l under the guidance of P i t z -p a t r i c k , the round of tours and receptions made i t u n l i k e l y that the Indians would ever forget the seat of the n a t i o n ' s Government. The most notable occasion may have been t h e i r v i s i t to President F i l l m o r e i n the White House, i n ear ly January, 1852. Here they were presented with f l a g s and s i l v e r 17 medals. Two days l a t e r , the Hungarian r e v o l u t i o n i s t , Louis Kossuth, also honored them with a r e c e p t i o n ; and here too, 18 each member of the delegat ion received a s p e c i a l medal. With each step so c a r e f u l l y planned and executed, the thought that the F t . Laramie Treaty should f a l l to so lve , x5 I b i d . , p . 69O. 1 0 OP. c i t . Hagen and Ghent, Broken Hand, p . 2l+7. 17 I b i d . , pp. 21+9-250. 18 Loc. c i t . 55 • r at l e a s t to g r e a t l y a l l e v i a t e the problems between the Indians of the p l a i n s and the white i n t r u d e r s upon t h e i r lands seemed preposterous. Conceived i n good w i l l and s i n c e r i t y , designed and negotiated w i t h o p t i m i s t i c s o l i c i t u d e , r e c e i v e d by the red men w i t h f a i t h and hope, i t appeared u n l i k e l y that any untoward sequence of events should a r i s e to prevent the attainment of i t s i n t e n t i o n s . The hopeful promise of a new era seemed, indeed, to be at hand. 56 Chap, i\ Dis i l lus ionment and D i s t r u s t Appear, l 8 5 l - l 8 6 l In sp i t e of the f ine s p i r i t and high hopes of the P t . Laramie Conference of 1 8 5 1 , I t was soon apparent that the 1 Treaty would not solve the Indian problem on the p l a i n s . D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , disappointment and d i s t r u s t made t h e i r appearance. The beauties and convenience of ?/ashington, D. C. f a i l e d to create among the Indians the a n t i c i p a t e d desire to adopt the white man's way of l i f e . Amazement, i f i t appeared, was soon replaced by homesickness and a longing f o r t h e i r people, t h e i r lodges , and the unblemished sunshine of the p l a i n s . One member of the d e l e g a t i o n , i t w i l l be 2 r e c a l l e d , committed s u i c i d e . In Washington, too, r a t i f i c a t i o n of the Treaty of l 8 £ l was long delayed. The United States Senate objected to the clause providing for the issuance of a n n u i t i e s over a f i f t y -year p e r i o d , #50,000 worth of goods to be d i s t r i b u t e d annually to Sioux, Arapahoes and Cheyennes f o r that length of time. Using i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l prerogative to modify the agreement, i t reduced the per iod to ten years , with the proviso that the President , i f he deemed i t advisable , could extend i t to f i f t e e n years . (This eventually was done.) The t rea ty , of 1 It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that D . D. M i t c h e l l , one of the negotiators of the t r e a t y , had sa id that nothing but bad management or perverse misfortune could ever mar the s p i r i t of the F t . Laramie Conference. (See Chapter 3, p . 51,) 2 See Chapter 1, p . 2 6 . 57 course, was thereby invalidated u n t i l i t could be returned te the scattered Indians i n amended ferm f e r t h e i r f i n a l approval. Te accomplish t h i s , great obstacles had to be overcome; most authorities state that i t never was referred to the Indians i n i t s amended form, but thi s i s an unfounded 3 assumption. Again r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f e l l upon Thomas F i t z -patrick, who, as his l a s t o f f i c i a l accomplishment before his death, returned the amended instrument to the Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahoes. In November 1853, mere than two years a f t e r the i n i t i a l agreement, he reported q u a l i f i e d success i n gain-ing t h e i r consent. Of those who had approved the treaty i n 18^1, he wrote, seme signed the amended document, one or two were absent and ethers dead. There i s ne mention of the Indians' feelings about the treaty made i n the name of the United States Government which had to be modified two years after they had accepted i t i n good f a i t h . In the communication noted above P i t z p a t r i c k expressed his dismay at finding Arapahoes, Cheyennes and many of the 5 Sioux i n a "starving state". With the bison i n scant supply 3 L i l l i a n B. Shields, f i r s t to break with the t r a d i t i o n a l attitude, shows that the treaty was returned to the Cheyennes and Arapahoes. (See L i l l i a n B. Shields, "Relations with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes te l86l", The Colorado Magazine, 1927, v. IL, p. II4.9.) k Op. c i t . Annual Report, l8£3» P. 366. $ Ibid., p. 368. Pi t z p a t r i c k ' s i t a l i c s . 58 t h e i r women were pinched with want and the c h i l d r e n c ry ing out with hunger. In I85I4. F i t z p a t r i c k ' s successor at the North Plat te Agency c i t e d s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s , warned that the Indians must change t h e i r ways ©r p e r i s h , and advised a p o l i c y ©f force t© b r i n g i t about. Even though s t a r v i n g , they would not v o l u n t a r i l y abandon t h e i r m©de ©f l i f e ; therefere he advocated a thorough drubbing f©r every band 6 fr©m Texas to Oregen. Only a f t e r that could they be expected t© give up the chase and use the plow. The new agent's v i n d i c t i v e n e s s may be bet ter appreciated i n the l i g h t ©f the t r a g i c events preceding h i s remarks. Ab©ut mid-August I85I4., Lieutenant Grat tan, a young army o f f i c e r t o t a l l y lacking i n diplomacy, m©ved s © l d i e r s and carmen i n up©n a Sioux encampment t© take by force a brave wh© had captured and butchered a lame cow, astray fr©m an immigrant t r a i n . When he c a l l o u s l y ©pened f i r e up©n t h e i r 7 v i l l a g e , the f r ightened Sioux a n n i h i l a t e d h i s e n t i r e cemmand. S h © r t l y thereaf ter the new agent met with Northern Arapahees and Cheyennes wh© had a r r i v e d at the agency f o r t h e i r a n n u i t i e s . The spokesman f o r a Cheyenne band, who had witnessed the Grattan massacre, demanded that immigrant t r a v e l ©n the Plat te road should cease, and that f o r the 6 I b i d . lQ$l+, P. 303. 7 I b i d . , p . 301 . This occurred near P t . Laramie, Wyoming. 59 ensuing year the Cheyennes should receive $1+000 In money, the balance of t h e i r annuit ies i n guns and ammunition, and 8 one-thousand white women f o r wives. Not s a t i s f i e d with the impression they had made upon the agent, the band returned af te r dark, galloped close to the agency c o r r a l , and f i r e d three guns. It i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the t e r r i f i e d agent, c i t i n g the Cheyennes as the " s a u c i e s t " Indians he had ever seen, f a i l e d to appreciate t h e i r grim sense of the r i d i c u l o u s . The Si#ux, who i n the Grattan a f f a i r had warred upon United States troops, had to be punished. Without regard to the l o g i c of t h e i r ac t ions , nor the f a c t that but one band of this mighty t r i b e was im pl ica ted , t© the astonishment of several of the bands h o s t i l i t i e s were declared against t h e i r 10 / ent i re n a t i o n . General Harney d e c i s i v e l y defeated the Brule Sioux i n the Bluewater Batt le ©f l8£5, b r i n g i n g the war to a c l o s e . In th is f i n a l f i g h t the c a s u a l t i e s among Indian women and c h i l d r e n ran h i g h , a feature which to© often 11 accompanied Indian warfare i n the West. The importance of whipping the Indians seems frequently to have outranked other considerations i n m i l i t a r y minds. 8 l b * * . . P. 302. 9 Loc c i t . 10 I b i d . , 1856, p . 619. 11 Some of the more notorious ba t t les i n which many Indian women and c h i l d r e n were k i l l e d were the Sand Creek, Colorado, massacre of Southern Cheyennes and Arapahoes i n 1861+, Custer ' s attack upon the same groups an the Washita, Oklahoma, i n 1868, and the Wounded Knee, South Dakota, b a t t l e with the Sioux i n 1890. 6o Although the Cheyennes had p r e v i o u s l y been involved i n h o s t i l i t i e s with Indian enemies, no serious charges of r a i d s or depredations ©n the whites were brought against them u n t i l 1856. In that year they had a brush with United States tr©©ps 12 near Casper, Wyoming, a f t e r a dispute over s t © l e n horses . One brave was k i l l e d , a second arres ted , and the band, doubt-less aware of the Sioux debacle of the previous year , f l e d 13 south to j o i n t h e i r brethren on the Arkansas. Months l a t e r , when a group of Cheyennes prepared to r a i d the Pawnees, shots were exchanged between a f r ightened mail d r i v e r and two young warriors who had approached him to beg tobacco, the d r i v e r 111. r e c e i v i n g an arrow wound. Too la te the Cheyenne leader Intervened, f o r although he saved the whites , Government 1 5 troops attacked his band next morning. R e t a l i a t i o n s f o l l o w e d . H o s t i l i t i e s continued into the summer of 1 8 5 7 , when Colonel Sumner dismayed the Cheyennes with a saber charge, and ended 16 the war against them. N© f u r t h e r h o s t i l i t i e s occurred upon the p l a i n s u n t i l i 8 6 0 , when with Kiowas and Cemanches i n disturbance i n the seuth, m i l i t a r y expeditions t©©k the f i e l d 1 2 OP. c i t . Annual Rep©rt , 1 8 5 6 , p . 6 3 8 . 13 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , pp. 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 . Three h©rses were recovered, but ©ne Cheyenne stubbornly refused t© y i e l d the f o u r t h s t © l e n animal . llj. Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1 8 5 6 , p . 6 5 0 . 15 L o c . c i t . 16 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , pp. 1 1 9 - 1 2 5 . 61 against them. Perhaps no s ingle fac tor caused greater d i s l o c a t i o n of the P t . L aramie Treaty than the discovery of gold i n Colorado i n 1858. The i n v a s i o n of 150,000 gold seekers int© the 17 t e r r i t o r y molested the game and alarmed the Indians . The re turn to the East of more than h a l f of them through Cheyenne and Arapaho hunting grounds, wi th i t s untold damage to t h e i r fo©d supply, Increased the Indians ' alarm. Denver, Colorado, and other townsites were selected and const ruc t ion begun by prospectors on lands guaranteed to the Cheyennes and Arapahoes 18 by the Treaty of 1851. Organized bands of horse th ieves , preying i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y on gold hunters and aborigines caused 19 f u r t h e r tens ions . In February 1859, Agent Twiss ©f the North Plat te Agency, expressed his concern to J . ?/. Denver, Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s , regarding the d i s r u p t i o n i n the gold lands , and proposed that the Cheyennes and Arapahoes cede them to the 20 United States i n exchange for annuit ies to be agreed upon. 17 I b i d . , p . 125. 18 LeRoy R. Hafen and Ann W. Hafen ( e d . ) , Rela t ions with the Indians of the Plains t 1857-1861, Glendale , the Arthur H. C l a r k Co., 1959, P. 173. x9 OP. o i t . Annual Report , i860, pp. 239 and 317. The thieves i n f e s t e d the country between the Missour i River and P i k e ' s Peak, Colorado. 20 Op. c i t . Hafen and Hafen, Relat ions with the Indians  of the P l a i n s , Ib57-l86l, p . 175. 62 Seven months l a t e r he met with Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes and some of the Sioux bands, and draf ted a t rea ty , arranging f o r the cessien ©f large blocks of Indian lands - -i n c l u d i n g the gold f i e l d s - - and t h e i r acceptance of annuit ies and reservat ions , the l a t t e r © o n t a i n i n g good a g r i c u l t u r a l 21 l a n d s . Chief Medicine Man ©f the Northern Arapahees, as spakesman f e r a l l three greups, requested Government a i d i n learning t© farm the lands assigned f e r that purpose. The Arapah© r e s e r v a t i e n , s p e c i f i c a l l y ch©sen f o r them, was t © run aleng the Cache la Peudre i n C©lorad©, fr©m the mountains t© i t s junct ion with the S©uth P l a t t e , an area which teday include some of the r i c h e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n eastern C©l©rad© a f e r t i l e , i r r i g a t e d d i s t r i c t — embracing the c i t y ©f Greeley 22 and the State College ©f Educat ion . Agent Twiss ' e f f o r t s went for naught; the t reaty f a i l e d t® receive Senate endorsement. But the gold lands were not f o r g © t t e n . Less concerned than Twiss f o r the welfare of h i s wards, the new Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s , A. B. Green-wood, journeyed to P t . Wise on the Upper Arkansas i n Colorado. There he met with Seuthern Arapah©es and Cheyennes, wi th the 21 I b i d . , pp. 179-182. 22 Hazel E . J©hns©n, Le t ter of Jan . 8, 1962. Miss Johnson, regional Vice President of the State H i s t o r i c a l Society ©f Colerad©, c a l l s these lands "the cream ©f the c r © p " . Over a per i©d ©f some years the Northern Arapah©es t r i e d t© ©bta in a r e s e r v a t i o n there . 63 expressed aim of persuading them t© part with the unneeded areas of t h e i r reservat ion so they could s e t t l e down and 23 farm, f o r the game was r a p i d l y dwindl ing . He succeeded i n separating the Indians by a supposedly safe distance from the gold f i e l d s , the reute of the Overland Stage L i n e , the pro-posed r i g h t ©f way f o r the f i r s t t ranscont inenta l r a i l r © a d , and the more promising a g r i c u l t u r a l lands of the t e r r i t o r y . Without the a i d of an i n t e r p r e t e r to c l a r i f y the terms of the t reaty t© the Indians, with no evident e f f o r t to determine t h e i r desires nor provide for t h e i r welfare , the Commissioner assumed that they were w i l l i n g t© part with t h e i r lands . Although he expected a l l members ©f both t r i b e s to be b©und by the t reaty , the assent of the absentees ( a l l of the Northern bands and a few of the Southern) was considered t® be ©f n© importance. Thus he pushed through one of the greatest t e r r i t o r i a l grabs of his day, the P t , Wise Treaty ©f l 8 6 l . Thereby Cheyennes and Arapahoes l o s t great t rac ts of the f i n e s t land i n the area for the dubious p r i v i l e g e of gaining annuit ies and r e t a i n i n g an a r i d rangeland i n south-25 eastern Colorad®. When they found themselves barred from the 23 Op. c i t . Annual Report, i 8 6 0 , pp. IL^2-IL$IL. 24- L e c . c i t . Many of the absentees refused t© be bound by the t r e a t y . 25 I b i d . , 1868, p . 3 3 . 6 1 + free use of t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t lands , they vehemently protested 26 the P t . Wise swindle of l 8 6 l . Throughout the d i f f i c u l t ten-year per iod f o l l o w i n g the Treaty of P t . Laramie, the Northern Arapahoes remained at peace with the United States , although they p i l l a g e d l i v e -stock when dr iven by the fear of famine. Neither the pangs of hunger nor the appeals ©f t h e i r f r i e n d s succeeded i n embroil ing them with the Federal t roops . It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that Thomas F i t z p a t r i c k i n l8£3 and h i s successor at the N©rth Plat te Agency i n lQ$l+ r e p © r t e d d i s t r e s s fr©m hunger among the Indians they served. Likewise 27 Agent Twiss found them s u f f e r i n g and s t a r v i n g i n 1855. Yet the Arapahoes remained apart from the Sioux troubles of I85I]-, and the war which fo l lowed. Later , when the Cheyennes were involved i n h o s t i l i t i e s (1856-1857), "the Northern Arapahoes disregarded the pleas of these long-time f r i e n d s and a l l i e s , and gave them n© assistance i n the f i g h t i n g . By the middle of the decade immigrant inroads ©n the b u f f a l o p r e c i p i t a t e d a c r i s i s among the Arapah©es . Hardest h i t were the ©Id and the very young, who, weakened by the lack ©f fo©d and p r © t e c t i © n fr©m the weather, died i n considerable 28 numbers. With smallp©x adding to t h e i r t roubles , they helped themselves t© the eas ies t game at hand, the c a t t l e and sheep 26 I b i d . , I 8 6 3 , P. 130. 27 I b i d . , 1855, P . 398. 28 I b i d . , p . U.03-6 5 of immigrant whites . Their agent had n© d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining t h e i r consent t© withhold t h e i r annuity payments u n t i l the ©wners of the l i v e s t o c k should be f u l l y reimbursed, although i t might take several years t© d© so. In l8£8 and 1859 they were commended f@r t h e i r e f f o r t s to observe a l l P t . Laramie Treaty s t i p u l a t i o n s wi th © t h e r Indian t r i b e s as wel l as with the whites, although the f r i c t i o n s a r i s i n g from the occupation of the gold f i e l d s In Colorado made the ]a t t e r 30 e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t . In welcome contrast to the f r u s t r a t i o n , fear and f i g h t i n g i n th is period of Indian h i s t o r y are reports of f r i e n d l y v i s i t s of Northern Arapahoes l e f t by W. P . Rayn©lds and V. P . Hayden, r e s p e c t i v e l y c©mmander and n a t u r a l i s t of the U . S. Government Expedi t ion to explore the Yellowstone R i v e r . A small group of Arapahoes c a l l e d upon the former i n h i s camp near the present town of Glendo, Wyoming, i n 1859, brought him word of mai l awaiting him at P t . Laramie, exchanged f r e s h meat 31 f o r bacon, and obviously enjoyed the f e l l o w s h i p . Hayden recorded a number of v i s i t s by Northern Arapahoes s i m i l a r i n t h e i r s p i r i t of f r i e n d l i n e s s . 29 I b i d . , p . i|01. 3° Op. c i t * Hafen and Hafen, Relat ions with the Indians  of the P l a i n s , I i j 5 7 - l 8 6 l . pp. 1?0 and I B I 4 - I 8 5 . In h i s report of l«5b (p. 170) the agent admitted d i f f i c u l t y i n holding h i s wards i n check when enemy t r i b e s raided them f o r horses . A c t u a l l y , as shown i n the f i r s t chapter ©f t h i s paper (pp. 19-2 1 ) , none ©f the t r i b e s involved cared to abandon the p r a c t i c e . 31 W. P. Raynolds, Rep©rt of the E x p l o r a t i o n of the Yellowstone R i v e r , Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1868, p . 6I1. 66 Both Raynolds and Hayden were h i g h l y impressed by Chief F r i d a y , the l a t t e r d e s c r i b i n g him as the man ®f greatest i n -32 fluence among h i s people at t h i s t ime. Since Fr iday alone, of a l l the t r i b e , had f l u e n t command of the E n g l i s h language and frequently in terpre ted f o r h is f e l l o w s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that white men have reached t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , but the preponderance of evidence indicates that Chief Medicine Man probably was held i n highest regard by the Northern Arapah© people . He, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was designated spokesman not ©nly f o r the Arapahoes but f e r the Cheyennes and Sioux as w e l l at the treaty conference ©f 1859 (which f a i l e d t© gain Senate appr@val), a r e s p e n s i b i l i t y which w©uld normally be assumed ©nly by the most i n f l u e n t i a l member of a t r i b e . Moreover, h i s f o l l © w e r s const i tuted the l a r g e s t band w i t h i n the Nerthern Arapah© gr©up, cemprising h a l f the t r i b e at l e a s t , and more than d©uble the number ©f F r i d a y ' s f@l l©w-ers at t h e i r maximum. Judging by the ac t iens ©f Medicine Man and F r i d a y during the ensuing years , i t seems prebable that b©th ©f them, thr@ugh the peri©d ©f disi l lusl@nment and d i s t r u s t f a l l o w i n g the F t . Laramie Treaty ©f l 8 £ l , were instrumental i n keeping the Nerth-ern Arapahees at peace with the United States , an achievement ©f no mean d i s t i n c t i ® n . Without m©re d e f i n i t e decumentation, however, t h i s must remain an u n v e r i f i e d cenjecture . 3 2 Op. c i t . Hafen and Ghent, Broken Hand, p . 275. 67 Chap. $ The C i v i l War P e r i © d , l 8 6 l - l 8 6 £ . C o n f l i c t Erupts ®n a Bread S c a l e . During the C i v i l War p e r i e d , l86l-l865, Indian r e l a t i o n s deter iorated u n t i l they reached an unprecedentedly low point during the l a t t e r year . Cheyennes and Arapahoes rankled with the r e a l i z a t i o n that the United States Government, under the P t . Wise Treaty of l86l, had a l i e n a t e d t h e i r inestimably valuable lands i n Colorado (Chapter i+, pp . £ 0 - £ l ) . Gold seekers and land-hungry Immigrants continued to pour in to the t e r r i t o r y , g i v i n g l i t t l e thought to the f e e l i n g s ®r needs ©f the Indians whose lands they n©w p@ssessed. The idea that red men nei ther c@uld n©r w©uld u t i l i z e the s o i l and ©ther resources to good advantage so colored t h e i r view-point that few desired even peaceable Indians as neighbors. The pioneers regarded them as ©ne among many obstacles to be ©verc©me i n f u l f i l l i n g the white man's d e s t i n y , the peopling and developing ©f the p l a i n s . As the s e t t l e r s occupied mere and m©re land f©r townsites, ranches, farms and mines, the Indians made way r e l u c t a n t l y , u n w i l l i n g to be pushed a s i d e ; and the f e e l i n g against them gradually i n t e n s i f i e d . L©ss ®f t h e i r land and the continuous d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r game by the whites l e f t the Indians gravely u n s e t t l e d , worried f e r t h e i r d a i l y needs and f e a r f u l of the f u t u r e . Small groups ©f braves, u s u a l l y y©ung men, sometimes ran o f f ranchers ' ©r immigrants' l i v e s t e c k , thus compensating i n s©me degree f © r the lack ©f game f o r f o o d . C®ntinuance ©f t h e i r 68 age-eld pastime of r a i d i n g enemy t r ibes f o r horses, scalps and prest ige agi tated the s e t t l e r s , who feared that , through accident or i n t e n t , they might become embroiled with one Indian group or another. As mutual d i s t r u s t deepened, the r a i d i n g custom e a s i l y l e d to clashes between reds and whites, mistaken i d e n t i t y and misunderstanding of intent ions serving as contr ibutory f a c t o r s . Attempts by Indian agents and other o f f i c i a l s to persuade the braves to abandon the prac t i ce a v a i l e d l i t t l e , c h i e f l y because i t meant so much to them as a part of t h e i r way of l i f e . Furthermore, the white man's l o g i c contained a serious f law, f o r the Federal Government showed no i n c l i n a t i o n to make peace with i t s Indian enemies u n t i l i t had f i r s t taught them a lesson by drubbing them. Thus the aborigines d i d not f e e l obl iged to keep the peace with t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l enemies, i n s i s t i n g that i t was 1 "a poor rule that w i l l not work both ways". With the outbreak of the C i v i l War i n l86l many Federal 2 troops were withdrawn from Indian country and sent south. This gave the tribesmen ©f the p l a i n s an opportunity t© s t r i k e a t e l l i n g blow at the s e t t l e r s , had they been so minded; but despite d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the F t . Wise Treaty and occasional 1 Op. c i t . Annual Report, I 8 6 9 , P. Sk-* These words were spoken by Medicine Arrow, a Southern Cheyenne. 2 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p . 127. 69 forays by hungry braves, evidence i s completely l a c k i n g that they planned to take advantage ©f the s i t u a t i o n . Yet apprehension soon appeared that the Confederacy might attempt 3 an a l l i a n c e with them to encourage war up©n the p l a i n s . This fear increased as minor a c t i v i t i e s ©f Confederate sympathizers i n the Denver area came t© l i g h t . But i n August, 1862, a f e e l i n g a k i n t© t e r r o r of a l l Indians gripped the p l a i n s . When some 700 whites were s l a i n during a s ingle week of the Eastern Sioux u p r i s i n g i n Minnesota, the ent i re region was e l e c t r i f i e d , even to Denver, Colorado, a thousand miles fr©m the disturbances . To the s e t t l e r s ©f the area the name ©f Indian became equivalent to treachery, and few discr iminated i n th is regard. The e f f e c t of this f e e l i n g upon Indian r e l a t i o n s through©ut the per iod can scarcely be overestimated, The Bureau ©f Indian A f f a i r s , consider ing white s a t i s -f a c t i o n of greater impertance than Indian d i s p l e a s u r e , i n i t i a t e d d i r e c t negotiat ions with these bands of Cheyennes and Arapahoes which had not approved the P t . Wise Treaty, but s t i l l occupied desirable lands i n Colorado and Wyoming. To Governor Evans ©f Colorado T e r r i t © r y f e l l the unsavory task ©f convincing the Indians that by ceding t h e i r other lands and s e t t l i n g on the a r i d Upper Arkansas i n southeastern Colorado with t h e i r southern kinsmen, they could be converted 3 LeR©y Hafen and Ann W . Hafen, Reports from Colerade, the Wlldman Letters of 1859-1865 with Other Related Let ters  and Newspaper"Reports 1859, Glendale , the Arthur H. Clark C Q . 1 9 6 1 , p . 301 . 70 k t® farmers and beceme s e l f - s u p p ® r t i n g . With t h i s end i n view he contacted the northern bands of both t r i b e s even t® the Powder River region i n n ® r t h e r n Wyoming and southern Montana, where b u f f a l o were comparatively p l e n t i f u l , and requested them to report to the Upper or North Plat te Agency near P t . 5 Laramie. There a c ® u n c i l would be held i n the h®pe of persuading them t© j o i n t h e i r brethren on t h e i r barren r e s e r v a t i o n . The prep©ster®us unreasenableness ©f the plan can be better appreciated i n the l i g h t ©f the repart ©f C © l l e y , agent t© the Southern Cheyennes and Arapah@es, that unregulated slaughter ©f b u f f a l © had r e s u l t e d i n the exter-mination ©f every head ©f these animals w i t h i n 200 miles of the r e s e r v a t i © n ©n the Upper Arkansas, and that ©ther game 6 was a l s © scarce . Since n®ne ©f the Indians were w i l l i n g to meve to the r e s e r v a t i o n and attempt t© l i v e l i k e white men, an i n d i r e c t appreach was used and a unique meth©d ©f coerc isn devised . Although the G®vernment was treaty-bound to issue annuit ies u n t i l 1866, those f©r I863 were to be withheld u n t i l the bands concerned should premise t© s i g n e i t h e r the P t . Wise 7 Treaty , ©r ©ne s i m i l a r i n i t s terms, s t i l l t© be d r a f t e d . Many Cheyennes refused t© be coerced, but the Northern k- Op. c i t . Annual Report , I863, pp. 2l+2-2lj.5. 5 L©c. c i t . 6 I b i d . , pp . 252-253. 7 I b i d . , pp . 2l}.9-250. 71 Arapaho C h i e f s , Medicine Man, Black Bear and F r i d a y , attached t h e i r signatures to the promise, a f te r which t h e i r ra t ions 8 were i s s u e d . What went through the minds ©f the three chiefs remains a mystery, f e r n©ne had put his name t© the F t . Wise Treaty, n©r t© another ©f a s i m i l a r nature, and Medicine Man shor t ly afterward made i t p l a i n t© G©vern©r Evans that they would not g© t© the Upper Arkansas. Perhaps they thought bet ter ©f the matter, and exercised the prerogatives used by the U. S. Senate i n r e j e c t i n g t r e a t i e s arranged by the executive branch ©f the Government. At l e a s t It can scarcely be argued that they misunderst©©d the pre l iminary agreement they had made, f o r Fr iday not ©nly sp©ke E n g l i s h w e l l , but 9 c©uld als© read and w r i t e . When J©hn Evans became Governor ©f Colerad© T e r r i t e r y and e x - © f f i c i © regional Superintendent ©f Indian A f f a i r s i n 1862, the idea of an Indian war seems t© have been f © r e i g n to his mind. But the eastern Sioux u p r i s i n g of that summer, which shacked the s e t t l e r s ©f the p l a i n s and made every Indian suspect, must have had a marked e f f e c t up©n his t h i n k i n g . Lacking kn©wledge ©f the Indian mind, he r e a d i l y became s u s p i c i © u s , heeded the counsel of a man ©f doubtful character 8 Loc . c i t . 9 F r i d a y ' s f luent command ®f E n g l i s h has been a subject •f f a v © r a b l e c©mment am©ng whites wh© knew him. 72 rather than that of f r i e n d l y Indians or o f f i c i a l s who knew them bet ter than he, and unwit t ingly helped to set up a s i t u a t i o n which culminated i n l a r g e - s c a l e h o s t i l i t i e s . By 1863 the ta lk of war among both s e t t l e r s and aborigines caused Governor Evans grave concern. In November, about a month af ter Medicine Man had informed him that the Northern Arapahoes, though they opposed h o s t i l i t i e s with the whites, would not s e t t l e on the Upper Arkansas, an i l l i t e r a t e and i r r e s p o n s i b l e white man wh© was married to an Arapah© and spoke the language, persuaded him that the Arapahoes, Si®ux, Cheyennes, Kiowas and Cemanches would unite i n h o s t i l i t i e s against the whites as soon as they could obtain s u f f i c i e n t 10 ammunition i n the s p r i n g . The motives behind the story t o l d by R@bert North, as he was named, are enigmatic , but he convinced the G@vernor that he had gained the f u l l confidence of the Arapahoes i n rescuing a woman ©f that t r i b e from the Utesj therefore his warnings should be heeded. In grati tude for h is rescue of the woman the Arapahoes had given him a b i g medicine dance (Sun Dance) near P t . Lyon (formerly P t . Wise) , i n Colorado, It was there , he s a i d , that he had seen 10 Robert North, elsewhere described as the demented, renegade leader ©f an outlaw band of Arapahoes, was 3a t e r hanged by v i g i l a n t e s or robbers, (See Joseph Henry T a y l o r , F r o n t i e r and Indian L i f e and Kaleidoscopic L i v e s , V a l l e y C i t y , I B 8 9 , pp. 11+0-151+.) 73 Northern and Southern Arapahoes, Cheyennes, Sioux, Kiowas, and Comanches pledge themselves to war together on the 11 whites . Had no massacre of s e t t l e r s occurred the year before i n Minnesota, the Governor might, perhaps, have been less ruled by emotionalism, and sought other sources of information but he accepted North's s tory at face value , and a n t i c i p a t e d trouble i n the s p r i n g . Handicapped by his meager knowledge of Indians and t h e i r customs, Governor Evans d i d not , of course, r e a l i z e that Northern and Southern Arapahoes, with f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r s from other t r i b e s , had come together, not f o r warl ike purposes, but to celebrate the ceremony of the Sun Dance, or the Offer ings Lodge, as the Arapahoes c a l l e d i t , the most meaning-12 f u l r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l of the p l a i n s Indians. Neither was he aware that the Arapaho Sun Dance could not have been given for North, as i t i s always the r e s u l t of a sacred vow, i n t h i s case the vow of a Northern Arapah© w©man wh© had escaped fr©m the Utes, and through the a i d ©f Henry North, not Robert (wh© 13 claimed c r e d i t f e r i t ) , had returned s a f e l y t® her p e © p l e . 11 Op. c i t . Annual Re par t , l86i|., pp. 221+-225. 12 For a b r i e f explanation of the Sun Dance, see Chap. 1. pp. 18-19. 13 Jessie R©wlodge, Let ter ©f June 21 , 1961. This Southern Arapah©, wh© has a remarkable knowledge ©f h i s people 's past , explains that Henry North had a brother Robert. Ik The s t©ry ©f t h i s Sun Dance, i n s h © r t , i s an Arapah© e p i c , s t i l l c©mm©nly kn©wn among both Northern and Southern groups; but i t i s Henry North, not h i s brother Robert, who has an important part i n i t . A d e t a i l e d account, "The Story of a Woman's Vow", i s r e l a t e d by George A . Dorsey i n "The Arapaho Ik Sun Dance". The Northern Arapahoes at t h i s time were not preparing f o r war. When Governor Evans f i r s t came to Colorado he sought to stop the prac t ice of i n t e r - t r i b a l r a i d i n g which s© often kept the s e t t l e r s ©n edge. He rather e a s i l y cenvinced himself — but n©t the Indians - - that they would abandon the custom. The h o s t i l i t i e s which broke ©ut i n the spr ing ©f I86I4. came as an Indirect r e s u l t ©f this p r a c t i c e , rather than the i n t e r -t r i b a l pledge ©f warfare erreneeusly reperted by Robert North. Due to depredatiens i n the Plat te V a l l e y by hungry Sioux and Cheyennes, General. M i t c h e l l , hoping to preserve peace, met the Brule Sioux i n c@uncil near P t . Kearney, Nebraska. But a l l chances ©f success were s p e l l e d when the encamped Indians, i n the dark ©f n i g h t , mistoek a party ©f whites f o r t h e i r Pawnee enemies on a foray , attacked them, and k i l l e d 15 16 s e v e r a l . The t r o © p s responded i n k i n d , and warfare began. 1I4. George A. D©rsey, "The Arapaho Sun Dance" Anthropological Papers "of the F i e l d Celumbian Museum, v . Chicago, 1903, PP. 5 - B . 15 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p . 1 5 L 16 L©c. c i t . 75 Throughout the spr ing and summer intermit tent f i g h t i n g continued, u n t i l various bands of Apaches, Comanches, Kiowas and Southern Arapahoes and Cheyennes were drawn i n , the l a s t two groups, at l e a s t , r e l u c t a n t l y . S ta t ing that unwanted war had been forced upon them, they approached Governor Evans i n an e f f o r t to obtain peace, but met with discouragement, f o r he d i s t r u s t e d them and r e f e r r e d them to the m i l i t a r y f o r 17 n e g o t i a t i o n s . But there, a l s o , t h e i r e f f o r t s were r e p e l l e d . Prom Colorado to Montana f e e l i n g s ran high against the Indians. In the north , Montana and South Dakota were the main f i e l d of combat, and the Sioux the p r i n c i p a l b e l l i g e r e n t s In la te Ju ly General S u l l y ' s troops and a r t i l l e r y caught up 18 with them, defeating them at Knife R i v e r , South Dakota. Closer to the North Plat te Agency and the routes of t r a v e l i n Wyoming and Nebraska, even f r i e n d l y Indians were treated as h o s t i l e s by immigrants, s e t t l e r s and s o l d i e r s , who made l i t t l e e f f o r t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the g u i l t y and the innocent. With the danger of widening h o s t i l i t i e s thus i n c r e a s i n g , Governor Evans decided on an e f f o r t to separate the f r i e n d l y Indians from the h o s t i l e s . In the e a r l y summer of I86I4. he 17 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1865, pp. 23-21L. 18 James McClel lan Hamilton, Prom Wilderness to State-Hood, Port land, Binford and Mort, 1957, PP. 156-157. 76 c a l l e d upon a l l who intended to be f r i e n d l y t© report to designated stat ions i n Colorado f o r p r o t e c t i o n and r a t i o n s . Prom these points they would be unable t© go to the b u f f a l o range ©r otherwise procure the major part of t h e i r food. To h i s disappointment there was l i t t l e immediate response. About 175 Northern Arapahoes under F r i d a y and White Wolf r e p © r t e d t© Camp C o l l i n s on the Cache la Poudre, not f a r from •19 the former's long-preferred camping grounds. Lef t Hand's small band ©f Southern Arapahoes came i n t© F t . Lyon ©n the Arkansas, the other designated s t a t i o n ; but they soon departed again. T h i s , i n the Governor's es t imat ion, confirmed t h e i r h o s t i l e i n t e n t i o n s . But i t i s probable that fear ©f hunger played an important part i n L e f t Hand's d e c i s i o n t© leave , for the area was sadly depleted of game. Even at Camp C o l l i n s , which was f a r more favorably l o c a t e d , subsistence f o r Friday and White Wolf ' s bands proved t© be a perplexing 20 problem. The Governor had small success i n ass igning s a t i s -fac tory hunting grounds, and the funds a l l © c a t e d f © r s u b s i s -tence f e l l short of paying f o r the food they r e q u i r e d . Beef, when procurable , was comparatively inexpensive, but speculators had cornered the wheat and f l o u r market; t h e i r cost was !9 OP. c i t . Annual Report. 1861)., p . 236. 20 I b i d . . p . 223. 77 21 p r o h i b i t i v e . By August of l86Ij. Indian troubles i n Colorado, consider-ably heightened by imagination, had produced a sad e f f e c t . With only one exception, every ranch along a 370 mile s t re tch of the Overland Stage Route i n Colorado was reported to be 22 deserted, t h e i r occupants having f l e d to the nearest f o r t s . In the popular mind Indians were p i t i l e s s savages, ready f o r unprovoked attacks upon the whites and t h e i r possessions. General panic p r e v a i l e d between Camp C o l l i n s and Denver, a distance of nearly seventy m i l e s ; farmers improvised f o r t -i f i c a t i o n s to r e p e l a n t i c i p a t e d f o r a y s . Three women repor t -edly went mad from f r i g h t . Governor Evans, disappointed by the poor response to h i s i n v i t a t i o n to f r i e n d l y Indians, was convinced of general h o s t i l i t y on t h e i r p a r t . F e a r f u l of a t tack, he advised the s e t t l e r s to hunt down a l l h o s t i l e s , and c a l l e d f o r a regiment 23 of one hundred day volunteers f o r the same purpose. With a l l Indians now regarded as enemies, a determination f o r vengeance against the red men replaced f e a r , A party of one hundred armed men headed f o r the Cache l a Poudre with the i n t e n t i o n 21 I b i d . , p . 236. The pr ice of f l o u r at La Porte, advanced from | 6 per Cwt. to $28. La Porte was near Camp C o l l i n s . 22 I b i d . , p . 237. This i s from the report of S U per -intendent G. K. Otis of the Overland Stage Line to the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s . 23 I b i d . , p . 2 3 . 78 af c l e a n i n g aut F r i d a y and h i s f r i e n d l y band af Northern Arapahoes, but the report of a c t u a l h o s t i l e s near F t . Lupton, about f o r t y miles c l o s e r to Denver, turned them i n that d i r e c t i o n , and modified t h e i r purpose. During the f r i g h t e n i n g days of August, l861i., an i n c i d e n t occurred which f u r t h e r incensed the s e t t l e r s against the Indians. This was the capture and a l l e g e d mistreatment of a white woman, Mrs. Eubanks, and her c h i l d , by Indians. L a t e r , when they surrendered the woman and c h i l d to m i l i t a r y author-i t i e s at F t . Laramie, three Sioux were hanged f o r t h e i r 25 c o m p l i c i t y i n the a f f a i r . The Colorado s e t t l e r s , who already h e l d the Indians responsible f o r the d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e i r T e r r i t o r y , grew more inflamed than ever against them, and demanded a general drubbing f o r a l l the savages (as they c a l l e d the Indians) to dr i v e home a much-needed l e s s o n . Colonel Chivington of the Colorado Volunteers, who wished to make a name an an Indian f i g h t e r , u t i l i z e d t h i s demand i n making an unprovoked att a c k upon an encampment of Southern Cheyennes and Arapahoes who were t r e a t i n g f o r peace w i t h the 26 commandant at F t . Lyon. On the advice of Governor Evans to make t h e i r peace w i t h 21+ I b i d . , p. 237. 25 Arapahoes were at f i r s t mistakenly blamed f o r the capture of Mrs. Eubanks. G r i n n e l l , op. c i t . , p. 155, s t a t e s that Cheyennes and Sioux were r e s p o n s i b l e , 26 Op. c i t . C o n d i t i o n of the Indian T r i b e s , p. 5. 79 the m i l i t a r y , these t r i b e s had approached Major Wyncoop at P t . Lyon t© negotiate with him. Encamped ©n t h e i r ©wn r e s e r -v a t i © n , c l©se to the f © r t , they b e l i e v e d themselves t© be under the p r @ t e c t i © n ©f the Federal t r@©ps , and awaited the ©utc©me of t h e i r m i s s i o n . There i t was that Colenel Chivingten and h i s Volunteers f e l l upon them with merci less s laughter , the C©l©nel i n s i s t i n g that n© Indian sh©uld be taken a l i v e , not even a c h i l d , as n i t s w©uld bec@me l i c e . Tw©-thirds ©f these k i l l e d i n t h i s b a t t l e , known as the Sand Greek Massacre, were women and c h i l d -27 r e n . This ended the chances f©r peace i n Cel©rad@. Most ©f the Cheyennes, wh© had suffered the greater number ©f c a s u a l t i e s , f e l t themselves forced to f i g h t against extermination; but ©ne band even n©w refused t© war upon the whites . The Si©ux, how-ever, were e a s i l y persuaded to j o i n i n such a venture, and eighty l®dges ©f Northern Arapahoes ©n the Republican River i n 28 Kansas were induced to unite' with the h e s t i l e s . This band, evident ly Black B e a r ' s , had c©me fr©m P©wder River t© v i s i t the Southern Arapah@es, but f a i l e d t© f i n d them there, f o r a f t e r the Sand Creek a f f a i r they had f l e d f a r t h e r south t© 27 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p . 173. Although reports ©f the number k i l l e d vary g r e a t l y , 100 t© 800, there i s l i t t l e doubt ©f the pr©p©rti©n of w©men and c h i l d r e n k i l l e d . P©r an idea •f Indian resistance i n t h i s b a t t l e see p . 21 i n Chapter 1 . 28 I b i d . , p . 181. 80 29 avoid the troops. Prom December 1861+ u n t i l February 1865", one thousand marauding warriors of the combined t r i b e s t e r r o r i z e d the s e t t l e r s between the North and South Plat te R i v e r s , r a i d i n g Overland Stage Line s tat ions and burning telegraph poles as 30 a part of the process . Julesburg S ta t ion i n northeastern Colorado was struck and plundered twice w i t h i n a few weeks, and on the second occasion was burned to the ground. The r a i d i n g f i n a l l y over, the Indians l i v e d wel l for a while ©n the loot they had taken, but when that was gone the three 31 t r ibes separated t© r e t u r n to t h e i r northern hunting grounds. Most of the N©rthern Arapahoes, during th is period of turbulence and i l l - f e e l i n g from l 8 6 l t© 1865, remained at peace with the whites . With the exception of Black Bear 's band, they could at no time be counted among the h o s t i l e s , and Black Bear 's b e l l i g e r e n c y occurred ©nly a f te r the un-warranted attack ©n Southern Arapah©es and Cheyennes at Sand Creek i n la te November, l861j.. 29 Black Bear i s net named as the cheif ©f t h i s h o s t i l e band, but the l © c a t i © n ©f the © t h e r Northern Arapah© bands ©f any s ize i s ©therwise known at t h i s t ime. Likewise , the 80 l © d g e s , abeut J4.50 pe©ple , Is clese t© the f i g u r e ©f 1+00 given f e r h i s band i n the Reeky Meuntain News (Denver), July 8, 1865. — ; ~~ 30 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , pp. l82-19lf.. 31 Lec . c i t . 81 Among the many reports ©f i n t e r t r i b a l r a i d i n g i n the ear ly 1860s no d e f i n i t e involvements of Northern Arapahoes are c i t e d . Yet i t i s u n l i k e l y that they had abandoned the p r a c t i c e , f o r a few years l a t e r they were known to r a i d Shoshenes, Utes and Crows. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , when Northern Arapahoes i n 1862 found s i x stray mules bearing the Overland Stage L i n e ' s brand, they brought them i n to the North P la t te Agency, request ing t h e i r agent to r e t u r n them to t h e i r owner. This e l i c i t e d the commendation of the agent , who r e f e r r e d to them as the most 32 honerable t r i b e wi thin h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Actions of t h i s nature on the part ©f the Arapahoes probably r e f l e c t e d the influence of the older heads i n the t r i b a l h ierarchy , who wished to avoid trouble with the whites. Chief F r i d a y , with his knowledge of E n g l i s h and under-standing of the whites, was bet ter able to convince Governor Evans and others i n authori ty of h i s peaceful in tent ions than were other Indians. His stand became equal ly c l e a r to h i s f e l l o w s . Within a year of the Eastern Sioux u p r i s i n g , when the p o s s i b i l i t y of war on the pla ins was a topic of common conversation among both s e t t l e r s and Indians, F r i d a y , approached by emissaries on the Cache la Poudre i n Colorado, refused to support the Sioux i n a suggested war upon the whites. At approximately the same time, i n the f a l l of 1863, Chief 3 2 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1862, p . 1J4.. 82 Medicine Man, through a white i n t e r p r e t e r , informed Governor Evans that the matter of war had been discussed at an i n t e r -t r i b a l meeting on Horse Creek, Wyoming. Many favored a war to drive the whites o f f the l a n d , but he and other Northern 33 Arapahoes opposed such a course. But Medicine Man's professions of f r i e n d s h i p were f a r less convincing to the Governor than were those ©f F r i d a y , perhaps because of the language b a r r i e r . Evans suspected him of double d e a l i n g , and reported that Smith, the i n t e r p r e t e r , and C©lley , agent to the S©uthern Cheyennes •31*. and Arapahoes, shared his s u s p i c i o n s . Such a conclusion evident ly was unwarranted, f o r l e t t e r s of Smith and C o l l e y , though i n d i c a t i n g d i s t r u s t of Sioux, Cheyennes and Kiowas, 35 express f a i t h i n the Arapahoes. During the f i g h t i n g i n the north i n 1861+, when General S u l l y ' s forces pursued the Sioux, the greater part of the Northern Arapahoes and many of the Northern Cheyennes remained aloof from h o s t i l i t i e s through t h e i r customary prac t i ce of hunting i n the Powder River area, wel l over one hundred miles 36 from the scene of m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y . When, however, they l e f t the comparative safety of t h e i r hunting grounds to report to the North Plat te Agency, war was a l l but forced upon them by 33 I b i d . , I 8 6 3 , pp. 2ij.0-2l).l, and $11. Governor Evans u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to Medicine Man as Roman N©se, a name which the whites commonly used f o r him. 3I4- I b i d . , p . 5lil. 35 I b i d . , pp. 5V-51+3. 36 I b i d . , 1861+, p . 223. 8 3 immigrants and F t . Laramie troops, who regarded them as 3 7 b e l l i g e r e n t s and took ac t ion against them. But the Indians did not r e t a l i a t e , though they complained b i t t e r l y to t h e i r agent. The smaller bands of F r i d a y and White W©if remained at peace with the whites, although the s e t t l e r s d i d not appreciate t h e i r presence on the Cache l a Poudre In Colorado, a few miles west of Latham, near present-day Greeley. As has already been noted, these tw© responded t© G©vern®r Evans 1 c a l l t© f r i e n d l y Indians t© repert t® Camp C © l l i n s . During these b i t t e r days ©f 1 8 6 1 + , with the stage l i n e t r a f f i c nearly paralyzed because of the Indian scare, Fr iday struck up the acquaintance ©f the agents at the Overland Sta t ion i n Latham, and © c c a s i © n a l l y had Sunday dinner with them. While they ate tegether ©r enjoyed a f t e r - d i n n e r c i g a r s , he regaled them with s ter ies of h i s ear ly l i f e , h is schooling i n St . L e u i s , and ©f gold nuggets acress the Rocky Mountains 3 8 ©f C©l©rad®. In the meantime he pressed G©vern©r Evans f © r his desire ®f many years , a reservat ion ©n the n©rth side af the Cache l a Poudre, land which with i r r i g a t i o n was s®on t® became wonderfully product ive . It may be that F r i d a y ' s y©uthful experiences i n Missouri had equipped him t© judge the f e r t i l i t y ©f s © i l s . At any r a t e , he would not consider a reservat ion 3 7 I b i d . , p . 3 8 7 . This occurred a number of t imes. 3 8 pp. c i t . , Ro©t and Connelly , p . 3V7. QIL on the headwaters ©f the streams t© the nar th ©f the Cache 39 l a Poudre, as the land there was tea reeky f a r a g r i c u l t u r e . But s ixteen white f a m i l i e s had s e t t l e d ©n the land which Fr iday wished f e r h i s t r i b e , and where whites came i n Indians k-0 were u s u a l l y ferced eut. In disregard ©f Arapahe and Cheyenne t i t l e t© the l a n d , t i t l e which the northern bands of the two t r ibes had never surrendered, his request was r e f u s e d . Evidence i s l a c k i n g that the Northern Arapahoes engaged i n h o s t i l i t i e s against the whites p r i o r to the f i n a l weeks of I86I4.. But as already noted, Black Bear 's band of eighty lodges, which had l e f t the B i g Horn-Powder River region of Wyoming to v i s i t the Southern Arapahoes, joined the Cheyennes and Sioux i n the Plat te V a l l e y ra ids a f t e r the Sand Creek massacre of la te November. When the three t r i b e s separated, probably i n March, 1 8 6 5 , Black Bear purportedly returned to the Powder River hunting grounds; but h i s stay i n Wyoming must have been b r i e f , f o r i n A p r i l he brought h is band to Col©rado t© j o i n F r i d a y on the Cache l a Poudre. Thus, a f t e r having taken an ac t ive part i n the Plat te V a l l e y r a i d s , Black Bear accepted Governor Evans' i n v i t a t i o n of the preceding summer f o r f r i e n d l y Indians to report f o r p r o t e c t i o n and r a t i o n s ] 39 Op. c i t . Annual Report, I86I1, p . 2 3 5 . I4.O Loc . c i t . [p. Black Bear must have had about l 6 o braves, as two warriors per lodge were u s u a l l y f i g u r e d . 1+2 Op. c i t . Rocky Mountain News, July 8, 1 8 6 5 . 85 The agent at Camp C e l l i n s assigned him hunting grounds so h i s band could procure subsistence, but as game was scarce and no ra t ions were issued to them, i t i s only natural that he soon departed f o r his preferred hunting grounds i n the B i g Horn MountaiHS of Wyoming. By e a r l y July his e n t i r e band was gone, taking with them White Wolf (or Wolf Moccasin) and most of his f o l l o w i n g , leaving Friday with a group of ©nly 85 i n Colerado. Thr@ugh F r i d a y ' s pers is tence , Governcr Evans seems t© have bec©me convinced that Medicine Man might make a ge©d peace r i s k , and i n the summer ©f 1861+ sent Robert North t© southern M©ntana with his © f f e r ©f p r © t e c t i e n and rati@ns t© Indians wh© Intended t© be f r i e n d l y . N©rth having f a i l e d t© reach him, F r i d a y , s t i l l h©ping f © r a N©rthern Arapah© reservat ion ©n the Cache la Poudre, dispatched several ©f h i s own y©ung men t© persuade him t© c©me s © u t h . In the spr ing ©f 1865, Medicine Man, wh© had remained apart fr©m the h o s t i l i t i e s of the winter m©nths, respsnded t© the Governor's c a l l . As thsugh t© pr©ve that Arapahoes were preponderantly peaceful pe©ple , with h i s f © H a w i n g of 120 1+3 Loc. c i t . The Arapah© r e f e r r e d to as Wolf Moccasin by the R©cky Mountain News i s c a l l e d White Wolf i n the Annua1  Report of the Commissioner ©f Indian A f f a i r s , 1861+, p . 387. The f igure ©f 85 Indians remaining with Friday appears i n the Annual Rep©rt ©f 1868, p . l 8 l . 86 l o d g e s , n e a r l y ?00 p e o p l e , he t r a v e l e d f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n P o w d e r R i v e r a r e a t o t h e L i t t l e C h u g ( C h u g w a t e r C r e e k ) i n s o u t h e r n W y o m i n g , a b o u t t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s n o r t h o f C h e y e n n e . B e f o r e r e p l y i n g t o h i s r e q u e s t t h e G o v e r n o r c o n t a c t e d t h e I n d i a n O f f i c e i n W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , i n f o r m i n g C o m m i s s i o n e r D o l e t h a t t h e S a n d C r e e k m a s s a c r e h a d s p o i l e d t h e c h a n c e o f p e a c e w i t h a l l o f t h e I n d i a n s e x c e p t i n g M e d i c i n e M a n ' s N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o e s ; b u t I f t h i s c o u n t e d f o r a n y t h i n g i n W a s h i n g t o n , i t d i d n o t a p p e a r i n t h e c o u r s e w h i c h was f o l l o w e d . The r e s e r v a t i o n r e q u e s t e d , i t was s a i d , was t o o c l o s e t o t h e g r e a t r o u t e s ©f t r a v e l f o r t h e s a f e t y ©f t h e w h i t e s , a n d was t h e r e f o r e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I t m a t t e r e d n o t t h a t t h e l a n d o n w h i c h M e d i c i n e Man h a d r e q u e s t e d s e t t l e m e n t was t h e i r own b y t r e a t y r i g h t . The co r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n G o v e r n o r E v a n s a n d t h e I n d i a n O f f i c e i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l a y . B e f o r e a n i n t e r v i e w c o u l d b e a r r a n g e d w i t h M e d i c i n e M a n , G e n e r a l C o n n o r was r e p o r t e d o n h i s way w e s t t o p u n i s h S i o u x , A r a p a h o e s a n d C h e y e n n e s f o r t h e i r d e p r e d a t i o n s , a n d t h e m a t t e r was d r o p p e d . T h e i r p i l g r i m a g e a f a i l u r e , M e d i c i n e M a n ' s b a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e P o w d e r R i v e r c o u n t r y , w h e r e t h e r e w a r d s o f t h e c h a s e , m e a t f o r f o © d , a n d h i d e s f © r c l o t h i n g a n d l o d g e s , w e r e m o r e r e a d i l y o b t a i n a b l e t h a n i n t h e C h u g w a t e r v a l l e y . kk O P . c i t . A n n u a l R e p o r t , 186£, p p . 176-177. IL$ L o c . c i t . 87 Throughout the C i v i l War period the independent a c t i o n ©f the bands wi thin a t r i b e , so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p l a i n s Indians, was s t r i k i n g l y apparent among the Northern Arapahoes. Although none of theia were s ta t ionary , Medicine Man's f o l l o w -ers generally frequented the Big Horn-Powder River r e g i o n ; F r i d a y ' s group spent much of t h e i r time on the Cache l a Poudre i n Colorado; White Wolf and Black Bear 's bands followed a more t ransient pat tern , the l a t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y , as i t moved from the Big Herns to Kansas, to Colorado and Nebraska for r a i d i n g , to the Big Horns again, then to Colorado, and back to the Big Horns. Yet the bands apparently kept i n touch with each other, and each seemingly knew where to f i n d the 1+6 others when i t se d e s i r e d . Only Black Bear 's band warred upon the whites . The ethers , about two-thirds of the ent i re t r i b e , kept the peace i n spite of numerous provocations to b e l l i g e r e n c y . 1 + 6 An example of t h i s may be seen i n the f a c t that F r i d a y ' s young emissaries succeeded i n reaching Medicine Man, w e l l over 300 miles away i n Montana, when Robert North, sent ©ut by Governor Evans, was unable t© f i n d him. 88 Chap. 6 The Powder River War, 1865-1868. A Temporary Respite Is Gained. With, the end of the C i v i l War i n l86£, the center ©f c o n f l i c t between red men and white s h i f t e d into Wyeming, but the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y ©f t h e i r in teres ts remained. Colonel C o l l i n s , an experienced Indian f i g h t e r and r e t i r i n g Cemmander at P t . Laramie, pr©bably spoke the mind ©f the West i n recommending that the United States Gevernment construct and g a r r i s © n f o r t s i n the b u f f a l o country ©f Wyoming, whip the Indians int© submissien, cempel them t© sue f©r peace, and remeve them from the mineral r i c h B i g Herns, Black H i l l s and 1 Yell©wst©ne c © u n t r y . When freed from the ©ccupat i©n ©f the Indians (savages and an Impediment to the white man's p r © g r e s s i n h is e p i n i e n ) , the t e r r i t e r y and i t s resources c@uld be cons t ruc t ive ly develeped by the superior r a c e . Although the Government d i d not censeieusly fol l©w the advice ©f the r e t i r i n g C o l o n e l , i t s Indian p © l i c y during the course of the next three years develeped a pat tern i n many respects s i m i l a r t© that which he had pr@posed. Gold , t h i s time i n southwestern Mentana, played an impertant p a r t . P r i o r t© 1865, V i r g i n i a C i t y , the center ©f the d iggings , c©uld be reached ©nly by tw© c i r c u i t o u s routes , but i n that year con-s t r u c t i o n began ©n the Bezeman T r a i l , a much m©re d i r e c t course 1 Op. c i t . Ceutant, p . 1+30. 8 9 from P t . Laramie i n southeastern Wyoming to V i r g i n i a C i t y . In v i o l a t i o n of the F t . Laramie Treaty of 1851, i t cut through the headwaters of the Powder River and the Yellowstone, the famed Big Horn-Powder River area, which comprised the l a s t reasonably good hunting grounds of the Sioux, Crows, and the Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes. Since the antipathy of the Indians was evident at this invasion of the land which had h i t h e r t o been t h e i r s alone, the Government constructed and garrisoned f o r t s through the b u f f a l o country to protect the t r a i l and keep i t ©pen. The Indians had long been dismayed as t h e i r game supply dwindled beneath the guns of immigrants and hide and tal low hunters, e s p e c i a l l y of the l a t t e r , who slaughtered the b u f f a l o i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y and l e f t t h e i r f l e s h to r o t . They were deeply concerned when the white man's l i v e s t o c k grazed o f f the n u t r i t i o u s p r a i r i e grasses ®n which the b u f f a l o and t h e i r horses depended, f © r i n a land i n which ©ne head ©f c a t t l e required t h i r t y acres ©r mere f o r y e a r - a r © u n d pasture, large areas along the t raveled routes were q u i c k l y depleted of t h e i r cover by immigrants' h®rses and c a t t l e , and wind erosion set i n . The grass and the b u f f a l o were t h e i r natura l r e s © u r c e s fr©m which came the bulk of t h e i r food , lodges and blankets , resources which they had used f©r generatians, but never abused. Needless to say they did n©t r e l i s h the prospect ©f a horde of gold seekers t rekking through the heart of t h e i r hunting lands , scar ing away t h e i r game and deplet ing t h e i r resources s t i l l f u r t h e r . 90 Another f a c t o r which contributed to Indian tension and unrest was the cessat ion i n l86j? of a l l Government annuit ies 2 r e s u l t i n g from the Pt . Laramie Treaty. Having received these payments of food, t e x t i l e s and implements since l 8 £ l , Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahoes had learned t© depend upon them. Thus the abrupt termination of the issues i n 1865 made the Indians ever more keenly aware of white inroads upon t h e i r game, and of impending d i s a s t e r i f the supply continued to d i m i n i s h . Perhaps the times were ready f©r a leader who could weld the bands and t r i b e s int© a greater degree of common purpose than they had formerly sh©wn i n the face ©f white i n t r u s i o n . Such a man appeared i n the person of Red Cloud, the sagacious Ogallala Sioux, a chief ©f great cunning and i r o n determination. Backed by many of the powerful Si©ux bands, the Cheyennes, and a part ©f the Arapah©es, he prepared to r e s i s t f u r t h e r encroach-ment upon the land of h i s people . In June ©f 1865 f i g h t i n g broke ©ut i n c e n t r a l Wyoming along the Sweetwater R i v e r , which r i s e s near South Pass on the Oregon T r a i l , through which tens ©f thousands ©f immigrants had passed on t h e i r way to the P a c i f i c Coast . Several skirmishes occurred u n t i l , i n la te J u l y , 1,000 w a r r i e r s , Sioux, Cheyennes and Northern Arapahoes, defeated a small contingent 2 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1868, pp. I4.O-I4.I 91 of s o l d i e r s and k i l l e d t h e i r commander, Lieutenant Caspar C o l l i n s , at the P l a t t e R i v e r Bridge, a s t r a t e g i c point ©n 3 the 0reg©n T r a i l near the present town of Casper. Soon afterward the Indians moved no r t h to t h e i r B i g Horn hunting grounds. How many of the thousand w a r r i o r s i n the a t t a c k ©n C o l l i n s at the P l a t t e River Bridge were N©rthern Arapah©es cannot be t o l d . F r i d a y ' s band was not among them, f©r i t was s t i l l i n Colorad©. Medicine Man's band als© was absent, as i t had not yet returned fr©m the L i t t l e Chug i n southern Wyoming. I t i s probable that the Northern Arapahoes i n v o l v e d were members of Black Bear's and White Wolf's bands, as some members had l e f t the Cache l a Poudre i n Colorado i n the s p r i n g , purportedly headed f o r the B i g Horns, perhaps to j©in the h o s t i l e s . By e a r l y J u l y the l a s t ©f them were on t h e i r way. General Connor, sent to Wyoming to lead the western d i v i s i o n ©f the Powder River e x p e d i t i s n , 3e f t F t . Laramie on J u l y 3 0 , 1865, t© s t r i k e the Indians i n t h e i r hunting gr©unds, punish them f o r t h e i r depredations, and b r i n g s a f e t y t© the Bezeman T r a i l . He i n s t r u c t e d h i s men t© grant n© q u a r t e r , but t© k i l l a l l male Indians ever twelve years of age. 3 Op. c i t . Hebard and Brininsto©l, Bozeman T r a i l , v. 1. pp. I0O-I03. The town ©f Casper, despite i t s s p e l l i n g , was named f o r Caspar C©llins. I4. Leroy R, Hafen and Ann W. Hafen, P©wder R i v e r Campaigns  and Sawyers E x p e d i t i o n ©f 186£, Glendale, the Arthur H. Cla r k Co., I 9 0 I , p. I4.3. Connor's s u p e r i o r , General P©pe, counter-manded these ©rders when they came t© h i s a t t e n t i e n , saying they were a t r o c i o u s . 92 Along the way t© the Big H©rns, where he hoped t© strik e a t e l l i n g blow, General Connor took care l e s t news ©f his appreach might precede him. Few Indians that cr©ssed his path survived; a gr©up of f©rty-tw© Si@ux including two women, and vari©us smaller parties were annihilated. F i n a l l y In late August, cl©se t® the Tongue River i n the northern part ©f Wyoming's Big Horns, the General spotted what he had hoped t© f i n d , a g©od-sized Indian v i l l a g e . It was Black Bear's band of Northern Arapahoes. The troops surrounded i t i n the dark, and when morning came and the Indians were taking down 6 t h e i r lodges to move camp, the soldiers attacted. In true Indian fashion Conner's Pawnee scouts, f a r more interested i n obtaining horses than i n f i g h t i n g , r©unded up t h e i r enemies' p©nies while the completely surprised Arapahoes, unhorsed, strove to pr©tect t h e i r women and children. A l -though outnumbered by the soldiers they fought u n t i l midnight i n the h©pe of regaining t h e i r ledges and supplies of robes 7 and meat, a l l of which were burned by Connor's tro©ps. Women 5 P. G. Burnett, "History of the Western D i v i s i e n of the Powder R i v e r Expedition," Annals of Wyoming, v. 8, January, 1932, pp. 572-57ii . 6 R©bert Beebe David, Finn Burnett, Frontiersman, Glendale, the Arthur H. Clark Co., 1937, P. 8 9 . 7 Op. c i t . Hafen and Hafen, Powder River Campaigns, p. Ij_6. Hafen and Hafen estimate a v i l l a g e of m@re than $00 s®uls, which i s possible i f White Wolf's band was combined with Black Bear's. (It i s referred t© as a v i l l a g e led by Black Bear and Old David, but as Old David i s otherwise unkn®wn th i s may have been the s o l d i e r s ' name fo r White Wolf.) C@nn©r had 800 troops. The 2^0 lodges which most authors reported burned i s pr©bably 93 and c h i l d r e n were counted among the dead, due, i t was s a i d , to the unfortunate fac t that the s o l d i e r s d id not have time 8 to take c a r e f u l aim at the braves. Three days l a t e r an i n t r i g u i n g inc ident occurred which cast Black Bear 's braves i n a more amicable r o l e . Near the present town of Dayton i n the Big Horns they attacked a wagon t r a i n of Bozeman T r a i l roadbuilders commanded by Colonel Sawyers. His small par ty , g r e a t l y outnumbered by the Indians, found i t s e l f i n grave danger u n t i l the Arapahoes, according to Sawyers' j o u r n a l , f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d that th is was a party of workers, with no s o l d i e r s among them, and made them an 9 o f f e r of peace. Sawyers wanted help to get his wagons through; the Arapahoes needed horses, having l o s t the i rs i n the bat t le with Connor. They proposed therefore , that three a gross exaggeration on the part of the o r i g i n a l a u t h o r i t y , which was a common f a i l i n g i n report ing Indian f i g h t s . It i s u n l i k e l y that at t h i s time the Arapahoes, reported by t h e i r agent to be poorly equipped, could have had so many extra lodges for the storage of f u r s . They averaged 5>i? to 6 people per lodge, which should have meant not more than 100 lodges i n the ent i re v i l l a g e . A f e w years l a t e r , when game was f u r t h e r depleted, they crowded two f a m i l i e s , about 10 to 12 people, into each badly worn lodge . 8 I b i d . , p . 1 3 1 . 9 I b i d . , pp . 262-263. 94 of them and three ©f Sawyers' men should g© together t© the General ; If the whites w©uld a i d them i n r e g a i n i n g t h e i r penies they would guaranty safety t© the r e a d b u i l d e r s , And s© i t was agreed. Several Arapahoes v o l u n t a r i l y remained with Sawyers as hostages, pending the r e t u r n of the s i x c © u r i e r s . The suspicious wagoners kept c a r e f u l watch on the many Indians who came into camp to consult with the hostages, but since they were always f r i e n d l y t h e i r fears proved groundless . Next day the three Arapaho messengers returned alone, having encountered a party ©f armed white men who were on t h e i r way t© the r e l i e f ©f the wag©n t r a i n . Since they feared fur ther trouble with the approach of s o l d i e r s , they returned t© Sawyers' camp, reported t© him what had happened, and the 10 ent i re group of Indians moved on. General Connor continued his maneuvers u n t i l he discovered another Indian v i l l a g e i n the Big Horns, which he a ls© hoped to destroy. But disappointment was his l e t , and he was sorely t r i e d when word came from Washington ordering him to des is t 11 from h o s t i l i t i e s and re turn te P t . Laramie. Convinced that 10 Holman, one ©f Sawyers' men, gave quite a d i f f e r e n t account of the Arapah© i n c i d e n t . The g i s t of i t i s that the Indians planned treachery, and were f i n a l l y ordered ©ut ©f camp. Holman's vers ion i s e n t i r e l y reminiscent , r e l a t e d t h i r t y years af ter the event, whereas Sawyers' journal was w r i t t e n at the time the events occurred. (See Hafen and Hafen, Powder River Campaigns, pp. 322-323.) 11 Op. c i t . Burnett , p . 577 95 his shaw ©f force had taught Black Bear a much-needed lessen , he hated t© leave the hunting lands without drubbing ©ther Indians and ending t h e i r depredations. In January, 1866, threugh the sn®ws ©f a f e a r f u l winter , messengers were sent ©ut fr©m F t . Laramie t© i n v i t e the Indians 12 to a peace conference, The Northern Arapahoes c©uld not be reached, and C©l©nel Maynardier, Commander at F t . Laramie, feared that they might continue h o s t i l i t i e s . In t h i s event 13 he w©uld seek Sioux a i d i n c h a s t i s i n g them. But they caught wind of the m©ve f©r peace, and i n la te June, when the sn©ws were gene, sent s ix c © u r i e r s t© F t . Laramie t© make sure that •111. they could share In i t . Several bands of the great Sioux t r i b e appreved the Treaty ©f 1866, but agreements with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes were not concluded. The Government had no i n t e n t i o n ©f abandoning the B©zeman T r a i l f © r t s n@r removing the garr isonsj but r e a l i z i n g that the Indians w©uld b i t t e r l y ©ppose the d e p l e t i o n ©f t h e i r hunting grounds, i t stressed the need ©f great tact 15 In maintaining t r a v e l through t h e i r c © u n t r y . Red Cl©ud's determinatisn and tenac i ty , however, had not been f u l l y considered. Neither he n©r h i s Ogal la la Si©ux would accept 12 Op. c i t . Annual Rep©rt , 1866, p . 2 0 £ . 13 I b i d . , P. 206. 11+ I b i d . , p . 208. 15 I b i d . , p . 211. 96 t a c t f u l t r a v e l ®ver the B©zeman T r a i l , nor r e t e n t i o n of the f o r t s , nor the t r e a t y , n©r peace, u n t i l the road was c losed and the hated f o r t s abandoned. They prepared f o r fur ther war. Red Cloud's f e e l i n g s were brought home strongly to the nat ion on December 21, 1866. A large body of warr iors , who had resolved to drive the s o l d i e r s from t h e i r B i g Horn hunting grounds, slaughtered eighty troops under Colonel Petterman. This inexperienced, b o a s t f u l Indian f i g h t e r had claimed that a s ingle company of s o l d i e r s could defeat 1,000 Indians . Red Cloud's group of Sioux, Cheyennes, and a few Northern Arapahoes, l6 with very l i t t l e a i d from f i r e - a r m s , had proved him wrong. With the help of the Crows, t h e i r erstwhile enemies, Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes defended t h e i r l a s t important game area i n Northern Wyoming and southern Montana. F i g h t i n g continued in to the summer of 1867. In e a r l y August the Indians learned the deadly ef fec t iveness of the new, breech-loading r i f l e s which had replaced muzzle-loaders i n the hands 17 of the t roops . With these weapons the s o l d i e r s twice defeated 18 them, i n f l i c t i n g heavy c a s u a l t i e s . But although Red Cloud l6 Most authors indica te the presence ©f only a few Arapahoes, but Dunn, op. c i t . ' p . 2I4.6, says 100 lodges to©k par t . Dunn i s f requently inaccurate . Hebard and B r i n i n s t o o l , ©p. c i t . , v . 1, p . 339* state that Eagle Head and Black C©al l e d the Arapah© contingent . T a y l © r , ©p. c i t . p . 151, c r e d i t s the leadership t© the white man, Robert North . I? Op. c i t . Hebard and B r i n i n s t o o l , v . 1, pp. 50 and 180. 1 8 I b i d . , v . 1, pp. 70 and l 8 l . These were the H a y f i e l d Fight i n Montana and the Wagon Box Fight i n Wyoming. In the l a t t e r a howitzer a l s © i n f l i c t e d heavy damage. 97 l o s t the b a t t l e s he was t© win the war. As a r e s u l t ©f the a n n i h i l a t i o n of Fetterman's command i n 1 8 6 6 , President Johns©n ordered an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the 19 causes of Indian d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and v i o l e n c e . A c©mmissi©n of c i v i l i a n s and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s met w i t h the Indians, heard t h e i r grievances, and concluded that the establishment of f o r t s and s t a t i o n i n g ©f s o l d i e r s along the Bozeman T r a i l had p r e c i p -i t a t e d the t r o u b l e . The Indians had never agreed to t h i s , and f e l t t h a t , with the consequent e f f e c t upon t h e i r game they must f i g h t ©r d i e ©f s t a r v a t i o n . Again a c@uneil was c a l l e d at P t . Laramie t© end the Powder R i v e r War. In mid-September, 1867 ab@ut three-hundred Indians came i n , l a r g e l y Crows and Arapahoes, wh© were very ' 2 0 f r i e n d l y , and a few Cheyennes. General Harney, head ©f the peace commissien, awaited the a r r i v a l of the Si©ux before proceeding with the t r e a t y , but Red Cloud, wary of the white man's promises, refused to report t© P t . • Laramie u n t i l he had seen the Government tr©©os depart from the posts al©ng the 21 Bozeman T r a i l . He f i n a l l y a r r i v e d i n the s p r i n g ©f 1 8 6 8 . With the s i g n i n g of the Harney-Sanborn Treaty i n May the war was ended, and Red Cleud never fought again. 19 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p. 21+1+, 20 Op. c i t . Cheyenne Leader, Sept. 1 9 , 1 8 6 7 . 21 I b i d . , May 1 3 , 1 8 6 8 . 98 Whereas the Indian O f f i c e i n Washington praised the newly inaugurated p o l i c y ©f conquering the Indians with kindness, the Cheyenne Leader (Wy©ming) commented c a u s t i c a l l y on the "Quaker" inf luence which had i n s t i g a t e d the surrender of the ent i re Powder River area to the Indians, and p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y 22 prophecied continued h © s t i l i t i e s i n Wyoming and S@uth Dakota. The f i n a l peace, the Leader e d i t o r i a l i z e d , would be d i c t a t e d by the i n v i n c i b l e whites, whose destiny i t was to c i v i l i z e 23 the p l a i n s . The treaty barred them from access to the Black H i l l s go ld , as i t was on Indian l a n d ; but , the Leader c y n i c a l l y s ta ted , though the Government proposes, the pioneer disposes . With such an a t t i tude held commonly i n the West, a s t a b l e , l a s t i n g peace could scarcely be expected. ° n l y a temporary r e s p i t e had been gained. As c r i t i c i s m of the soft p o l i c y t®ward the Indians continued, proponents ©f a tougher course r e v i v e d t h e i r demands t© r e t u r n the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s to the War Department. Commissioner N. G. Taylor ©pined i n r e p l y that the proposed t ransfer w©uld be tantamount t© continual war, whereas the true p o l i c y toward the Indians sh©uld be one of peace. 22 I b i d . , March 18, 1868. Wyoming and South Dakota were then included i n Dakota T e r r i t o r y . With the completion of the Union P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d i n 1869, Wyoming became a separate t e r r i t o r y . 23 I b i d . , A p r i l 3, 1868. 2I4. L o c . c i t . 99 C i t i n g the Sand Creek Massacre @f I86J4. as a mistake ©f the m i l i t a r y , he estimated the cost of the r e s u l t i n g war, only recent ly brought to a c lose , at fl+0,000,000. Within the Indian Bureau, nonetheless, signs appeared of y i e l d i n g t© the pressure ©f land-hungry s e t t l e r s . Preliminary plans were drawn f e r c o n f i n i n g s©me 130,000 Indians ©n tw© reservat ions , thus f r e e i n g the remainder ©f t h e i r lands f o r the 26 whites. One reservat ion weuld cemprise the greater part ©f Oklahoma, the ©ther the western h a l f ©f S©uth Dakota. But i f necessary t© prevent anether Indian war, the l a t t e r might be temporarily extended westward t© the Big Hern Meuntains ©f Wyaming, the unceded Indian land which they had f@ught s© 27 hard t© r e t a i n f©r t h e i r ©wn use! A glowing future was depicted far the red men, St©cking the reservations with c a t t l e , sheep and geats weuld i n s t i l i n them a desire f©r i n d i v i d u a l ownership of land and goods, thus paving the way 28 for the mastery ©f a g r i c u l t u r e and the mechanical a r t s . With the crowning work of teacher and missienary t h e i r rosy future would be perpetuated. Further study Indicates that this was mere g l © s s i n g ©f a hspeless s i t u a t i o n for the Indians, and r a t i o n a l i z i n g ©f the b r u t a l fac t that they must be moved ©ut ©f the white man's 25 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1868, p . 8 . 26 I b i d . , pp . kk-k5* 27 I b i d . , 1867, p . 8 . 28 I b i d . , p . 7 3 . 100 way. The p r a c t i c a l i m p @ s s i b i l i t y ©f preventing s e t t l e r s from 29 e n c r © a c h i n g ©n Indian hunting grsunds was admitted. Fur ther -more, the two eastern d i v i s i © n s of the P a c i f i c R a i l r © a d were r a p i d l y appr©aching Denver, a f a c t which demanded the concen-t r a t i o n ©f the Indians ©n r e s e r v a t i © n s , f a r eneugh remeved 30 from the s t e e l r a i l s t© preclude any danger t© them. Peace, perhaps, would l a s t u n t i l the pressures again became t©o great . The extent ©f N©rthern Arapah© p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Powder River War i s semewhat enigmatic . S©me w a r r i e r s , as already i n d i c a t e d , engaged i n the Sweetwater and Plat te Bridge skirmishes i n June and July ©f 186£, probably members of Black Bear 's and White W o l f s bands. During the same summer General C©nnor attacked a v i l l a g e ®f f i v e hundred ©r mere, Black Bear's band and p o s s i b l y White W o l f ' s . The same bands l a t e r had a brush with Sawyers' wagon t r a i n , fallowed by a unique a r m i s t i c e . N© f u r t h e r record ©f N©rthern Arapah© h o s t i l i t i e s appears u n t i l the time of the Fetterman f i g h t , i n December, 1866. A small contingent engaged i n t h i s a f f a i r . Thereafter the recerds are I n d e f i n i t e , excepting f e r the f i n a l days ©f f i g h t i n g , such as the H a y f i e l d and Wag©n B©x f i g h t s . The bands represented and the numbers engaged i s nowhere i n d i c a t e d . 29 Loc . c i t . 30 I b i d . , p . 73 . 101 F r i d a y ' s band was never numbered among the h o s t i l e s , f o r t h i s group of e i g h t y - f i v e remained on the Cache l a Poudre i n Colorado throughout the period of f i g h t i n g . Despite the fac t that they were des t i tu te - - the Governor of the T e r r i t o r y had been unable to provide them with r a t i o n s — they did not depart / 31 from t h e i r encampment there u n t i l the summer of 1868. They were the l a s t of the Arapah© and Cheyenne bands, Northern or Southern, to qui t Colerad® T e r r i t o r y . They wished to remain i n t h i s land which by r i g h t belonged to them, and l e f t only under pressure, because the white s e t t l e r s d i d not want them 32 there. Medicine Man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t© the Powder River War cannot be s© p o s i t i v e l y s ta ted . He and his band ©f 120 ledges, m©re than h a l f the t r i b e , returned from s©uthern Wyoming t© the Powder River hunting lands during the summer ©f 1865. Whether he succeeded i n keeping any ©f his f©l l©wers ©ut ©f the c © n f l i c t can ©nly be conjectured. Cer ta in f a c t s , hewever, indica te that Medicine Man may have sto©d f o r a peaceful c © u r s e . Nowhere, f o r instance, i s his name menti©ned as a h o s t i l e during the war p e r i o d . This is l ikewise true ©f F r i d a y , who, as already shown, had no part i n the war; but Chief Black Bear and three others of less importance are named as Arapaho leaders 31 I b i d . , 1868, pp. 180-181. 32 Loc . c i t . T h i s news ©f F r i d a y ' s band c@mes from the r e p © r t ©f Gevernor Hunt ©f C©l©rad© T e r r i t o r y . 102 33 i n the f i g h t i n g . As the Northern Arapahoes' most important c h i e f , and ©ne wh© had been t r i b a l spokesman ©n a number ©f © c e s s i o n s , the ©mission ©f his name from among the h o s t i l e s i s very I n t e r e s t i n g . Again l i k e F r i d a y , Medicine Man f a i l e d t© s ign the Harney-Sanbern Treaty of 1868, which ended the P©wder River War, although Black Bear and more than twenty other Northern Arapahoes attached t h e i r s ignatures . This may have espec ia l s i g n i f i c a n c e , f e r c u s t © m a r i l y a major chief who had engaged i n h o s t i l i t i e s against the United States weuld have end©rsed the a greement which breught the c o n f l i c t t© a c l e s e . When the bulk ©f the t r i b e , 119 l © d g e s , a r r i v e d at F t , Laramie f©r the treaty s i g n i n g , Medicine Man and 25 l©dges of his people stayed behind i n the B i g Horns. Whether the li+O t© 1^ 0 people represented by these twenty-five lodges had remained a loof from the war i s s t i l l unknown. During the e a r l y months of the f i g h t i n g (sometimes c a l l e d the F i r s t Powder River War), l ess than h a l f ©f the Northern Arapahoes were i n v e l v e d , but from December, 1866 u n t i l the end ©f h o s t i l i t i e s (the Sec©nd Powder River War), a greater number may have taken p a r t . F r i d a y ' s band stayed completely out of i t ; but more than t h i s cann©t be d e f i n i t e l y s ta ted . 33 These three were " O l d D a v i d " , Eagle Head, and Black C©al. 3I4. Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1868, pp. 253-25+. 35 L c c . c i t . The l e t t e r ©f Charles Geren, Si©ux i n t e r -preter at F t . Laramie (published i n the Annual Report ) , states that 119 Arapah©es a r r i v e d at the f o r t ; but i t i s evident from the rest of h is l e t t e r that 119 lodges was intended. Both c l o t h i n g and tents of the Northern Arapahoes were sadly worn. 103 Chap. 7 Land Pressure and Sporadic Warfare, I868-187I+. The Treaty ef 1868 brought an uneasy peace. Whites were barred from the unceded lands which the red men retained as hunting grounds, and the Government t r i e d t® confine the Indians as f a r as prac t icable to t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s . The I n t e r i o r Department regarded the treaty as an expedient only , and looked hopeful ly toward the day when the buffa lo would be gone, each Indian c u l t i v a t e d his i n d i v i d u a l a l l o t -ment of l a n d , and the broad p r a i r i e s , emancipated from t h e i r h o l d , would be s e t t l e d by the whites . Determined e f f o r t s to dispossess the Indians of t h e i r remaining u s e f u l lands marked the p e r i o d . With the completion of the Union P a c i f i c Rai l road i n 1869 s t e e l r a i l s uni ted the nat ion from coast to coast . Immigrants and household goods could now be moved across the pla ins i n a few days time, i n contrast to the former wagon t r a i n s which consumed weeks of t r a v e l through dust and mud, under condit ions of extreme p r i v a t i o n . With the thousands of s e t t l e r s which the r a i l r o a d brought into the West came scores of b u f f a l o hunters, many drawn to the p r a i r i e s s o l e l y f o r the t h r i l l of shooting the huge bavines , wh®se speedy e x t i n c t i o n was now assured. During 1 a s ingle summer a party of s ix teen k i l l e d 28 ,000 b u f f a l o . 1 Congressional Record, F o r t y - t h i r d C©ngress , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g U f f i c e , 1871)., p . ^106. lOlj. While such unregulated slaughter r a p i d l y forced the Indians to depend upon Government ra t ions f o r t h e i r subsistence, no ©ne has r e c © r d e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n at th is wanton waste when the stench of m i l l i o n s of p©unds of the decaying f l e s h of these animals reached t h e i r n o s t r i l s . In Wyoming, such towns as Cheyenne, Laramie, Rawlins and others which had sprung up during the r a i l r o a d ' s westward progress were assured of permanence. They also o f f e r e d con-venient jumping-off places f o r prospectors , miners and others interes ted i n the natural resources of the r e g i o n , whether they were on or of f the Indian l a n d s . With the i n f l u x of population accompanying the opening ©f the r a i l r o a d and i t s e f f i c i e n t service from the east , the Federal Government created Wyoming T e r r i t o r y , with i t s c a p i t o l i n Cheyenne. This afforded a ready instrument through which miners, stock r a i s e r s and other pressure groups could 2 work; and they were not slow to make t h e i r wishes known. A ready a l l y was at hand i n the person ©f T e r r i t o r i a l Governor J . A . Campbell, reg ional e x - o f f i c i © Superintendent of Indian A f f a i r s , f o r he championed the s e t t l e r s ' i n t e r e s t s from the f i r s t . In his inaugural address to the l e g i s l a t u r e (1869) 2 Op. c i t . Dale , pp. 100-102. Founded i n 1873, the Wyoming Stock Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n soon became the most powerful pressure group i n the area , and inf luenced Wyoming's Legis la ture very s t r o n g l y . Within a few years i t extended i t s operations into Colorado, Nebraska, Montana and the Dakotas. io5 he argued that each Indian should be a l l o t t e d s u f f i c i e n t land. t© support himself w i t h proper c u l t i v a t i o n , but n® more. The 3 remainder should g© t© the whites. The r e s u l t , ©f course, was f u r t h e r pressure ©n the Indian lands, which seemed never t© r e l a x ; and the Indians f e l t the r e l e n t l e s s squeeze. Although Red Cloud gained h i s ends i n the Pewder R i v e r Wars, h i s braves had learned t© appreciate the deadly e f f e c t s ©f hswitzers and breech-leading r i f l e s i n the hands of t r a i n e d s o l d i e r s , and pr©bably w©uld be l o a t h t© face them again. With the t r a n s c s n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d running, capable of moving troops and munitions r e a d i l y to convenient disembarking p o i n t s , the prospect of armed r e s i s t a n c e by the Indians seemed remote. T© ensure astute behavior on t h e i r p a r t , and to pr o t e c t the s e t t l e r s and t h e i r investments, f i v e new f e r t s were garrisoned i n Wyoming, f@ur ©f them cl©se to the r a i l r o a d . From these troops could proceed handily i n t o Indian t e r r i t o r y i f needed. Although the Northern Arapahoes f e l t the pinch ©f the times en t h e i r lands and game, they endeavored to r e t a i n peaceful r e l a t i o n s w i t h the whites. In an attempt ta f u r t h e r such an e f f o r t , they separated fr®m t h e i r Sl@ux f r i e n d s and made tw© t r i p s t© meet with t h e i r traditi©nal enemies, the Sh©sh©nes, t© arrange a peace and ob t a i n the r i g h t ts stay on 3 OP. c i t . .Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 13, 1869. The Governor suggested n® r e s t r i c t i o n on the arasunt of land a white man might held . i o 6 the Wind River Reservation i n Wyoming. The second of these t r i p s was a journey of nearly 700 miles from a temporary encampment on the Musselshel l i n Montana. When t h e i r hopes for peace i n t h e i r new home ended with a burst of violence against them, they r e f r a i n e d from the bloody vengeance which was w i t h i n t h e i r power to wreak on a g^roup of r u f f i a n miners who were seeking to exterminate them. Leaving the Wind River region , they returned to Montana f o r a time, where the press-ures of c o n f l i c t were less obvious. During t h i s p e r i o d , they had s l i g h t a s s o c i a t i o n with the Sioux malcontents, that i s , with the fol lowers of Crazy Horse and S i t t i n g B u l l . In 1873, when they f i n a l l y spent most of the year at Red Cloud Agency, t h e i r agent complimented t h e i r good behavior . Although the pressures ©f the time and t h e i r reluctance te abandon t r a d i t i o n a l ways brought them into c o n f l i c t with Federal troops i n 1871+, few of the charges made against them during th is period can be substant ia ted . They held general ly to a path of peace i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the whites . Of the unceded Indian t e r r i t o r y i n the region three sections were e s p e c i a l l y coveted, the gold t racts of Wyoming's Sweetwater d i s t r i c t , the Black H i l l s of South Dakota and 1+ Op. c i t . Nickerson, p. 3 . They set out, says Nickerson, to annhilate the Arapahoes. 5 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1873, p . 6 l 2 . 107 northeastern Wyoming, and the Big Horn-Powder River country west ©f them, purportedly r i c h i n s o i l and m i n e r a l s . In 1 8 7 2 , a f t e r tw© years ©f d i c k e r i n g , the Federal Government purchased the Sweetwater gold lands from the Sh®shones, thus f i n a l l y l e g a l i z i n g the presence ®f mines, stamp m i l l s f®r crushing © r e , h®mes and the ent i re t®wn of Miner 's Del ight ®n land guaranteed to the Eastern Shoshones i n 1 8 6 8 . This foothold gained, the pioneers demanded the opening of the Wind River and Pop© Agie Val leys to settlement, arguing that f r e s h vegetables for the miners should be produced on the arable 6 l a n d . But the Shoshones would not surrender these r i g h t s . Eastward i n the t e r r i t o r y stockmen south of the North Platte looked covetously across the r i v e r , as though s t r a i n -ing at the leash to enter the cattlemen's paradise from which the Treaty of 1 8 6 8 excluded them. Stung by the apparent unreasonableness of a decree which elevated Indian hunting r i g h t s above t h e i r grazing p r i v i l e g e s , they pressed the T e r r i t o r i a l Legis la ture and Congress f o r a change. Representing a v a r i e t y ©f Interes ts , i n I 8 7 O the newly-formed Big Horn A s s o c i a t i o n determined to explore the s o i l and mineral resources ©f northern Wyoming, despite the treaty and Government red tape which excluded them from the land they 6 The Pop® Agie (pronounced Popes l a ) , near Lander, Wyoming, i s a t r i b u t a r y of the Wind R i v e r . The l a t t e r becomes the Big Horn between Shoshone and Thermopolis, f lowing narth to d i s -charge into the Yellowstone In Montana. 108 7 l o n g e d to u s e . E v e n t u a l l y w i t h the p e r m i s s i o n i f not the b l e s s i n g o f Washington, an e x p e d i t i o n l e f t Cheyenne i n May, e x p l o r e d the B i g Horns, met w i t h no open o p p o s i t i o n from the I n d i a n s , and though i t f o u n d no g o l d , r e t u r n e d I n August •8 w i t h o p t i m i s t i c r e p o r t s . I n 1872 Governor Campbell h o p e f u l l y r e p o r t e d t h a t Wyoming's I n d i a n s , ©r "n©n~pr©ducing savages", would be removed to a reservati©n I n Dakota, thus f r e e i n g 2 0 , 0 0 0 square m i l e s ©f i n c a l c u l a b l y v a l u a b l e l a n d f®r the stockmen, f a r m e r s and 9 miners af Wyeming Territ®ry. A y e a r l a t e r he c o n f i d e n t l y p r e d i c t e d the e a r l y e x p u l s i o n @f a l l I n d i a n s e x c e p t t h e 10 p e a c e f u l Sh©sh©nes ( f r i e n d s ©f the w h i t e s ) from the t e r r i t s r y . S h o r t l y a f t e r , a G©vernment C@mmissi©n met w i t h Si©ux, N©rth-e r n Arapahoes and N©rthern Cheyennes a t Red Cl©ud Agency i n Nebraska, b u t f a i l e d i n an e f f e r t t© persuade them t© r e l i n q u i s h 11 t h d r t r e a t y r i g h t s i n the B i g Herns. I n d i r e c t v i e l a t i o n o f the T r e a t y ©f 1868, and ©ver the p r e t e s t s ©f the I n d i a n s , G e n e r a l C u s t e r i n I87I+ l e d a m i l i t a r y p a r t y t© the B l a c k H i l l s t© make a reugh s u r v e y ©f t h e i r r e -7 Op. c i t . Cheyenne Le de r , Marc 3, I 8 7 0 . 8 I b i d . , August 23, I87O. 9 House J o u r n a l s f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly ©f the  T e r r i t o r y ©f Wyaming, Cheyenne, D a i l y L e a d e r O f f i c e , 1872, p. l 6 . 10 I b i d . , 1873, PP. 25-26. 11 F i f t h A n nual Report a f the Be a r d ©f I n d i a n Commission-e r s , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1873, P. 157. 109 s o u r c e s . L a c k o f o p e n h o s t i l i t i e s f r o m t h e I n d i a n s d u r i n g t h i s a n d t h e e a r l i e r B i g H o r n e x p e d i t i o n l e d t o t h e p r e m a t u r e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I n d i a n d e p e n d e n c y ©n t h e c o f f e e , b a c o n a n d b e a n s i s s u e d a t t h e a g e n c i e s h a d b r o k e n t h e i r w i l l t o r e s i s t , a n d t h a t l a r g e - s c a l e h o s t i l i t i e s w e r e a t h i n g o f t h e p a s t . F r a n c i s A . W a l k e r , C o m m i s s i o n e r ©f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , e n d o r s e d t h e w i d e l y c r e d i t e d o p i n i o n t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f w a r f o r t h e I n d i a n s h a d r u n i t s c e u r s e , a n d a d d e d t h a t a n y h o s t i l e " s a v a g e s " w o u l d be r e a d i l y c r u s h e d by t r s e p s m o v i n g n o r t h a n d s o u t h r e s p e c t i v e l y f r o m t h e U n i o n P a c i f i c a n d N o r t h e r n 12 P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d s . I n 1372 F e d e r a l t r © o p s moved i n t o f i v e f o r t s i n W y o m i n g , o s t e n s i b l y t s p r o t e c t t h e U n i o n P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d , b u t e s p e c i a l l y t© p r e v e n t t h e I n d i a n s n o r t h ©f i t f r o m t a k i n g 13 u n a u t h o r i z e d l e a v e ©f t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s . The a t t e m p t t o t h u s c u r t a i l t h e i r r e a m i n g h a b i t s , i t was h o p e d , w e u l d r e n d e r t h e m more a m e n a b l e t o c i v i l i z a t i e n , and g i v e t h e s e t t l e r s •III g r e a t e r s a f e t y f r o m t h e i r d e p r e d a t i o n s . A d v o c a t i n g a s o m e -w h a t s t e r n e r p o l i c y t h e W y o m i n g p r e s s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e d men be w a r n e d t o r e m a i n o n l i m i t e d r e s e r v a t i o n s o r be s h o t e n s i g h t . The w h i t e s , i t a d d e d c a n d i d l y , n e e d e d t h e i r immense u n c e d e d t r a c t ©f l a n d i n t h e B i g H o r n - P o w d e r R i v e r a r e a . 12 Op. c i t . A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1872, p . 397. 13 I b i d . , p . 79. 1[L S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e B e a r d o f I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r s , W a s h i n g t o n , G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1075, P P . 5-6. 15 Cp. c i t . C h e y e n n e L e a d e r , J a n . 27, iQlk-* 110 Once the b u f f a l o were exterminated the Indians would be forced to depend upon the Government ra t ions issued at the agencies. With only lesser game to hunt there would be l i t t l e need of roaming i n the B i g Horns, s t i l l less i n the v a l l e y of the f a r - o f f Smoky H i l l River i n Kansas, where the Sioux and Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes re ta ined the r i g h t to roam and hunt so long as there were enough b u f f a l o to j u s t i f y the chase. The tribesmen could then be confined to smaller reservat ions , and the f r o n t i e r s of settlement even fur ther extended. These were the main c r i t e r i a by which Secretary of the I n t e r i o r Columbus Delano judged the success of Indian 16 p o l i c y . Under h is d i r e c t i o n the I n t e r i o r Department winked at the t e r r i b l e slaughter of b u f f a l o f o r h i d e s , t a l l o w , tongues, and just f o r the joy of k i l l i n g . Thousands of tons of b u f f a l o meat ro t ted on the p l a i n s . J u s t i f y i n g the prospect of t h e i r t o t a l disappearance, Delano pointed out i n l 8 ? 2 that only the t o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of b u f f a l o could force the Indians to c u l t i v a t e the l a n d . To Delano, t h i s was a h ighly desirable 17 g o a l . Due l a r g e l y to h is opposi t ion , a b i l l designed to h a l t the useless slaughter of b u f f a l o (H. R. 921) met defeat i n the 18 House of Representatives i n I87I4.. The Indians, i t was argued, 16 Annual Report of the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r , 1872, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1«73, P . 3 . The extensIon of western railways was another c r i t e r i o n which pleased him. 17 I b i d . , p . v i . 18 Op. c i t . Fourth Annual Report af the Board of Indian  Commissioners, 1872, pp . 123-131. I l l c o u l d not be c o n f i n e d to r e s t r i c t e d r e s e r v a t i o n s u n t i l the l a s t b u f f a l o had vanished from the p r a i r i e . Prom 1870 to 1875 a l a r g e number of d e l e g a t i o n s from the v a r i o u s p l a i n s t r i b e s v i s i t e d Washington and o t h e r e a s t e r n c i t i e s at Government expense. Adv o c a t i n g t h i s cheap means of c o n v i n c i n g i t s wards that war on the whites was f u t i l e , the 19 Indian Bureau expressed i t s p l e a s u r e w i t h the apparent r e s u l t s . To impress the Indians w i t h the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the white man's way of l i f e , they a t t i r e d them i n the s t y l e of the day, complete 20 with s i l k h a t s , b l a c k s u i t s and paper c o l l a r s . But though they v i s i t e d the zoo i n New York, The Academy of Music i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , and o t h e r p l a c e s of note, they i n v a r i a b l y looked 21 forward to the end of t h e i r t r i p . They yearned f o r t h e i r own s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r homes i n the West. A somewhat s i n i s t e r f a c e t of the t r i p s to Washington was the pressure a p p l i e d on c h i e f s and headmen to give up a d d i t i o n -a l l a n d and accept r e s t r i c t e d r e s e r v a t i o n s f o r t h e i r bands. A group of Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes was s u b j e c t e d to such pressure i n 1873. The Indian Bureau wished them to remove to Indian T e r r i t o r y , to j o i n t h e i r southern b r e t h r e n . Although the Indians s t r o n g l y opposed the p l a n the bureaucrats i n s i s t e d , and e v e n t u a l l y s e v e r a l c h i e f s y i e l d e d to the pressure 19 Op. c i t . F o u r t h Annual Report of the Board of  I n d i a n Commissioners, 1072, pp. 123-133-. 20 Loc. c i t . 21 Loc. c i t . 112 22 and gave t h e i r consent. Washington © f f i c i a l d e m had begun to r e a l i z e that agreement could be more r e a d i l y obtained from the Indians i n small groups than i n a t r i b a l assembly. Once th is lesson was learned i t was not f o r g o t t e n . The technique of congregating many thousands of Indians wi thin a l i m i t e d t e r r i t o r y was foreshadowed by the t r e a t i e s of 1866 with the Five C i v i l i z e d Tribes i n Indian T e r r i t o r y , 23 the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles. Y i e l d i n g u n w i l l i n g l y to Government demands, these t r i b e s were forced t o b reak up t h e i r t r i b a l l y owned lands , accept i n d i v i d u a l allotments f o r themselves, and allow other Indians to se t t le w i t h i n t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s . Five years l a t e r the Indian Bureau recognized the s i t u a t i o n as a golden opportunity to s ta r t the w i l d Indians of the pla ins d e f i n i t e l y and p a i n -l e s s l y upon the road to c i v i l i z a t i o n . Se t t led sn the l a n d , owning i n d i v i d u a l plots of ground, the Arapaho and the Apache would learn from the s u c c e s s f u l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l Cherokee and Choctaw, f o r example, the advantages of farming over the 21+ nomadic mode of l i f e . Thus the p l a i n s Indian problem would be f i n a l l y solved — and the lands over which they roamed would be released to the whites . 22 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1871+, p . 1+6. 23 I b i d . , 1871, p . 1+66. 21+ I b i d . , p . 1+67. 25 John C o l l i e r , Indians of the Americas, NQw York, the New American L i b r a r y , 19i+7, pp. 125-129. C o l l i e r shows that of nearly 1+-| m i l l i o n acres ©f Cherokee t r i b a l lands , i n d i v i d -u a l l y a l l o t t e d against t h e i r w i l l , nine tenths was l o s t t© whites w i t h i n 20 years . 113 By 187I Americans had gained l i t t l e u n d e rstanding ©r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the Indian way of l i f e . Pew indeed had know-ledge of i t s f i n e r s i d e , and the phases which caught the p u b l i c eye were d i f f i c u l t to comprehend. The red man's a t t i t u d e toward enemies of h i s ©wn race was ®f t h i s k i n d . Although Custer's s l a u g h t e r of Southern Arapahoes and Cheyennes on the Washita (Oklahoma ) i n 1868 made l i t t l e s t i r , the whites were p l a i n l y shocked at the massacre ©f Pawnee b u f f a l o hunters by Sioux who were s i m i l a r l y engaged i n l873» ^he Indian Commissioner asked Congress to revoke the l e t t e r ' s r i g h t to hunt o f f t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n , while on h i s own a u t h o r i t y i t was 26 t e m p o r a r i l y suspended. Moreover, he requested m i l i t a r y commanders t© prevent Indians fr©m p a s s i n g without a permit •27 from one r e s e r v a t i o n t© another. Although i n c r e a s i n g pressure ®n t h e i r lands f o r c e d the Indians int© a g r e a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n ©f t r i b a l u n i t y than they had f o r m e r l y known, bands of d i v e r s e s i z e s o c c a s i o n a l l y r e v e r t e d to independent a c t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r the T r e a t y of 1868, f o r example, a few Northern Arapahoes and two Sioux v i l l a g e s j o i n e d Seuthern Cheyennes i n b a t t l i n g F e d e r a l troops i n Colorado, while nearby kinsmen a b s t a i n e d from h o s t i l i t i e s , and o t h e r s , i n t h e i r Wyoming hu n t i n g grounds, were f a r away from the 26 Op. c i t . Annual Report, I873, p. 376. 27 Loc. c i t . 111+ 2 8 f i g h t i n g . The dectrine ©f i n d i v i d u a l land al lotments , s® dear t© those wh© wished to raise the Indians fr©m a "barbarian herd" t© the status ©f c i v i l i z a t i o n , made l i t t l e headway with the red men, wh© i n t h e i r a t t i tude t©ward land ©wnership, as i n s© many respects , clung t e n a c i © u s l y t© t h e i r t r a d i t i e n a l 2 9 customs. Sioux, Arapah©es and Cheyennes ©n the Red Claud R e s e r v a t i © n i n Nebraska, who accepted i n d i v i d u a l allotments i n l 8 7 i + f©und themselves stuck with barren s e l l , worthless 3 0 f@r farming. The climate was t©o dry, and i r r i g a t i a n 31 impract icable . Their f e l l e w s , unfavarably impressed with t h i s example, were l a a t h t© f©ll©w the white man's path. Due t© t h e i r numerical s trength and t h e i r pewer i n war the Si®ux were the Indians most dreaded by the whites . Red Cl©ud, the uncompromising leader ©f the warring t r i b e s -men fr©m 1 8 6 6 t© 1 8 6 8 , by the 1 8 7 0 s exerted a r e s t r a i n i n g influence am©ng his p e © p l e . But the names ©f S i t t i n g B u l l and Crazy H©rse ranked high ameng the malcentents. Depred-ations by and dangers fr©m the Sioux made f ront page news. Numerous items, both true and f a l s e , published i n the western 2 8 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , pp. 2 7 9 - 2 8 1 . 2 9 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1 8 7 3 , P. 3 7 2 . 3 ° I b i d . , 1 8 7 7 , P . 1+15. 3 1 I b i d . , p . 1+59. 115 press , t e s t i f y t© the importance ©f t h e i r impact upon the frontiersman's mind. And wel l they might. Custer i n 1873 32 fought Sioux along the Yellowstone River i n Montana. A greup ©f w i l d ones, s o - c a l l e d , new to the Red Cloud Agency and i t s ways, arrested i t s agent, surrounded and immobilized a c o n t i n -gent of s o l d i e r s summoned to h is a i d , and p r e c i p i t a t e d a serious s i t u a t i o n . Some 700 regular agency Indians, probably Sioux, Cheyennes and Northern Arapah©es, rescued b©th agent 33 and troops, thus aver t ing possible tragedy. U n i d e n t i f i e d Indians often were c a l l e d Sioux, and when depredations occurred t h i s t r i b e m©st f requently received the blame. Their unexpected appearance near the settlements produced foreb©dings of trouble among the whites . In I87I+ the erroneous report of a band ©f Sioux on Horse Creek, north of Cheyenne sent shivers of apprehension through the town. But r e l i e f ensued when the Indians were i d e n t i f i e d as Cheyennes and Arapahoes, only f o r t y strong, h e a v i l y laden with d r i e d 35 meat a f t e r a successful b u f f a l o hunt In the Republican v a l l e y . A news report of February, I87I4-, a t t r i b u t e d most of the plunderlngs of the past s i x or seven years to the northern 36 bands of Sioux. Before the end of that year S i t t i n g B u l l and 32 Op. c i t . Cheyenne Leader, Feb. 18, 1873. 33 Op. c i t . Annual Report, I87I+, p . 1 + 5 . 3I+ Op. c i t . Cheyenne Leader, Feb. 18, I87I+. 35 I b i d . , Feb. 19, I87I+. 36 I b i d . , Feb. 6, I87I+. 116 Crazy H©rse had r e c r u i t e d from these and other bands a con-s i d e r a b l e f o l l o w i n g of braves who, l i k e themselves, m i s t r u s t e d the white man's i n t e n t i o n s . Resenting h i s constant pressure to p a r t them from t h e i r l ands, they regarded him as a prime usurper. Determined as they were t c r e s i s t f u r t h e r encroach-ment, i t was, perhaps, more a c c i d e n t than planned i n t e n t which postponed t h e i r great outbreak u n t i l I876. Some h i s t o r i a n s i n s i s t t h a t the Northern Arapahoes als© engaged i n s p o r a d i c warfare a g a i n s t the whites i n the b i t t e r years from I868-I87I}., except f©r F r i d a y wh© v a i n l y counseled 37 peace. Alth©ugh t h i s e v a l u a t l e n i s g e n e r a l l y accepted, i t i s net the e n t i r e t r u t h . There i s reas©n t© b e l i e v e , indeed, that the Northern Arapahaes as a whale were l e s s r e s p o n s i v e t© the b e l l i g e r e n c y of t h e i r Si©ux and Cheyenne f r i e n d s than at any time s i n c e the C i v i l War p e r i o d , when twa-thirds ©f the t r i b e a b s t a i n e d fr©m h o s t i l i t i e s a g a i n s t the whites. A f t e r the s i g n i n g ©f the Treaty ©f 1868, 119 l©dges ©f Northern Arapahaes -- seme 700 souls -- went south w i t h Black Bear to v i s i t t h e i r kinsmen. F i n d i n g t h e i r Cheyenne f r i e n d s embroiled w i t h U n i t e d States t r o o p s , a few Arapahoes and two Sioux v i l l a g e s j o i n e d them f o r a w h i l e , the Arapahoes d e s i s t -i n g a f t e r the defeat ©f General F©rsythe i n the Beecher I s l a n d 38 f i g h t ( e a s t e r n Colorad©). I t Is net recorded whether B l a c k 37 Op. c i t . , Hafen and Ghent, Br©ken Hand, p. 278 3 8 OP. c i t . , G r i n n e l l , pp. 279-281. 1 1 7 Bear was i m p l i c a t e d i n the f i g h t i n g , but the b u l k of these wh© had c®me south w i t h him remained at peace, as als© d i d these wh® had stayed i n the n??rth w i t h Medicine Man and F r i d a y . Black Goal, though f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d as a n t i - w h i t e , i n I869 a s s i s t e d F e d e r a l troops from F t . Fetterman i n p i c k i n g up the t r a i l of marauding Indians wh® had k i l l e d two whites 3 9 on La Prele Creek, near the present town of Doublas, Wyoming. C o i n c i d e n t l y Medicine Man, F r i d a y and a number of other Arapahoes were en route to F t . B r i d g e r (southwestern Wyoming) to make peace w i t h C h i e f Washakie of the Shoshones and g a i n the chance ®f s t a y i n g ®n the Wind R i v e r (®r Shosh®ne) Reserv-a t i o n . But as the Shosh®nes were In the B i g Horns on t h e i r • I4.0 autumn b u f f a l o hunt, the Arapahoes r e t u r n e d to F t . Fetterman. They l e f t word at F t . B r i d g e r that they would r e t u r n i n three months time. S u s p i c i o u s when he l e a r n e d t h e i r o b j e c t , Washakie wondered why the Arapahoes now wished t© d i s s o c i a t e themselves from t h e i r Sioux and Cheyenne a l l i e s ; but he thought b e t t e r of the p l a n when he l e a r n e d of F r i d a y ' s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t . True t© t h e i r w©rd, the Arapahees r e t u r n e d i n February, I87O, and concluded terms f®r a temporary s t a y ©n the Shoshone R e s e r v a t i a n . They agreed t® m a i n t a i n f r i e n d l y 3 9 Op. c i t . , Cheyenne Leader, Nov. 8 , I 8 6 9 . The marauders were s a i d to be Sioux. I4.O I b i d . . Nov. 1 2 , I 8 6 9 . 1+1 Loc. c i t . 1+2 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1 8 6 9 , p. 2 7 ] + . 118 r e l a t i o n s with the Shoshones and the whites, and t© n o t i f y them of the c©ming ©f northern h o s t i l e s . Thus they began t h e i r stay @n the r e s e r v a t i a n , a stay which endured less than tw© m©nths, and ended In an outburst of v i © l e n c e i n vhich eleven Arapahoes were k i l l e d . Historians generally accept the thesis that the Arapah©es were i n s i n c e r e , that they intended nei ther t© keep the f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s which they premised, nor t© n e t i f y Sh©sh©nes and whites ©f impending h ® s t i l e r a i d s . The resul tant i l l f e e l i n g and b l © © d - l e t t i n g i s a t t r i b u t e d t© Arapah© treachery. The exam-i n a t i o n ©f a number ©f f a c t s , h©wever, casts grave d©ubt up©n this c © n c l u s i © n . A possible explanatian ©f why the Arapah©es s©ught harb©r on the Sh©sh©ne R e s e r v a t i © n may be found i n the r e p © r t ©f Agent Daniels that they d i d n©t l i k e t© remain at Red Claud Agency because the SI©ux were apt t© cause them t r o u b l e . He had, he added, found them w e l l - d i s p o s e d and q u i e t . When they f a i l e d to f i n d Chief Y/ashakie at F t . Bridger i n the f a l l ©f 1869, Medicine Man, Fr iday and the greater part ©f the t r i b e set ©ut f a r the Milk River Reservatien i n Mantana, where t h e i r Gras Ventres r e l a t i v e s and Craw enemies were d a m i c i l e d . They l e f t behind the Sioux and Cheyennes, who had been mare deeply embrailed i n h o s t i l i t i e s than they. One i+3 I b i d . , 1872, p . 651. 119 hundred and s i x t y lodges, upwards of 9^0 Arapahoes, were reported un the way; ten lodges reached the agency. But when smallpox s t r u c k , wiping ©ut most of the advance guard, ' l i -the main camp moved back to the M u s s e l s h e l l i n alarm. February saw them again i n Wyoming, s t i l l determined on peace. They faund and negotiated w i t h Washakie, and h o p e f u l l y encamped ©n the Shoshone Reservation. Depredations occurred, and though these were by na means new t© the Sweetwater settlements, the Arapahoes were suspected. St©len horses reported i n t h e i r camp afforded an i n d i c a t i o n ©f g u i l t accepted by the s e t t l e r s as proef, despite the f a c t that s i m i l a r i d e n t i f i c a t i e n ©f s t o l e n stock had proved f a u l t y on various occasions. When on the 31st of March a r a i d r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s af mare horses and three hunter's l i v e s , the miners acted q u i c k l y . Nearby army o f f i c e r s from F t . Stambaugh blamed Cheyennes and Sioux, but the s e t t l e r s held the Arapahoes accountable, though the l a t t e r denied a l l knowledge af the a f f a i r . Convinced that they had "undisputable" evidence af Arapaha g u i l t , 2$0 armed c i v i l i a n s headed f o r t h e i r camp. Of what the evidence c o n s i s t e d there i s great canfusian. Bancroft Indicates that H. G. Nickersan, wha spied ©n the Arapaho camp, faund enough i n i t t© v e r i f y a v e r d i c t af g u i l t , 1 + 1 + I b i d . , 1870, p. 201. 1 + 5 I b i d . , p. 176. 1+6 Lec. c i t . This i s quoted from the r e p e r t ©f Governor Campbell of Wyoming T e r r i t o r y . 120 1+7 but gives ne clue te what he saw. The South Pass News c i t e d the presence In F r i d a y ' s camp ef harness taken from S t . Gary ' s S tat ion ©n the Sweetwater, where the three hunters were 1+8 murdered. But Nickersen's own v e r s i e n of h i s spying t r i p r e a d i l y leads te the cenclusien that the Arapahoes were judged g u i l t y by conjecture o n l y . As Friday was indebted to him f o r a fermer act ef kindness, Nickersen went d i r e c t l y te his camp, set somewhat apart from the main group headed by Medicine Man. This assured him sf protec t ion from the other Arapahoes who c o r r e c t l y surmised '1+9 that he had come te spy. Fearing f e r h is own l i f e , he seems net te have r e a l i z e d that they may have been equal ly f e a r f u l . He saw no s to len horses, ne harness from S t . Mary's S t a t i o n nor ether manifestations ef g u i l t ; but he learned that many young braves had gene ever en the Sweetwater — f e r a b u f f a l o hunt they s a i d . Net u n t i l h is re turn heme d i d Nickerson learn ef the S t . Mary's k i l l i n g s , which occurred en that day. Thereupon, he and ethers , put t ing the coincidences together, convinced themselves ef Arapaho g u i l t . On such f l i m s y evidence the Arapahoes were condemned, and vengeance planned against them. The idea that hungry Indians would leave camp 1+7 Op. c i t . Bancroft , p . 7^7. 1+8 Op. c i t . Cheyenne Leader, A p r i l 21, 1870. The  South Pass News of A p r i l 11 i s quoted by the Leader. 1+9 Op. c i t . Nickersen, "The E a r l y Histery ef Fremont Ceunty", 50 Lec . c i t . 121 for such a sensible purpose as hunting buffalo evidently seemed preposterous. On t h e i r way to clean out the Arapaho camp, the armed band of vi g i l a n t e s raised f o r this purpose met Chief Black Bear and an unarmed group of mixed sex and age, on t h e i r way to Camp Augur to trade. F i r i n g upon them they k i l l e d Black Bear and ten others, and continued on t h e i r way toward the 51 main body of the t r i b e . When dusk f e l l the v i g i l a n t e s halted f o r the night, building great campfires for their l i g h t and heat. Thus exposed they were easy marks f o r Indian vengeance; yet only a few Arapahoes came near, and shot int© the blazing f i r e s , '52 which were then extinguished. The Indians did no more. In their g r i e f and burning anger only a powerful influence f e r peace could have withheld the y©ung braves, as i t did, fr©m violent r e t a l i a t i o n . Whether this was exerted by Medicine Man, Friday, the elders of the Hierarchy, ©r a l l ©f them, n© records indicate. Convinced, that they were the victims ©f white treachery and Sh©sh©ne d u p l i c i t y , the Arapahoes l e f t the regien, most of them heading for Montana and the Milk River 53 Agency. 51 A young bey fr®m Black Bear's party was adapted by an army o f f i c e r and educated i n the east. Under the name of Sherman Coolidge he returned t© Wyoming i n 1881+ as a missionary to his people, 5 2 Op. c i t . Nickerson, "The Early History of Frem©nt County," p. II. 53 F i f t h Annual Report ©f the B©ard ©f Indian Commission-ers, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g Office 1873. P. 8 3 . Friday 122 I t sh©uld be borne i n mind that the Arapahoes were l e g a l l y on the Shoshone Reservation at t h i s time, having approached Governor Campbell of Wyoming T e r r i t o r y and Chief Washakie ©f the Eastern Shoshenes, making a t r e a t y w i t h the l a t t e r which granted them the r i g h t of temperary residence ©n Sh©sh©ne l a n d . But the v i g i l a n t e s were tr e s p a s s e r s l i v i n g i l l e g a l l y on Indian s e l l and e x t r a c t i n g geld t© which they had n® r i g h t . The t©wn ©f Miner's D e l i g h t i t s e l f had been b u i l t about a mile and a h a l f w i t h i n the southern beundary ©f the 5+ r e s e r v a t i e n . Although he f e l t that the e f f e c t ©f the v i g i l a n t e s ' less®n to the Indians had been s a l u t a r y , Governor Campbell ©f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y shewed doubt ©f Arapah© c o m p l i c i t y i n the St. Mary's s l a y i n g when he stated that there was "no means ©f 55 a s c e r t a i n i n g " i t . Lieutenant G. M. Fleming, agent t© the Shoshones, went f a r bey©nd t h i s , f a r he b i t t e r l y a s s a i l e d the v i g i l a n t e s ' acti©ns i n f i r i n g up©n Black Bear's p a r t y , and '56 depicted them as thieves and c u t t h r o a t s . The Commander at nearby Camp Augur, he a l l e g e d , c©uld r e a d i l y have prevented t©ld Commisslener Brun®t that the Shosh©nes had aided the whites i n the Black Bear epis©de. Of what t h i s a i d c o n s i s t e d i s n©t i n d i c a t e d . 5+ Fourth Annual Report ©f the Beard ef Indian Commission-e r s , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1572, p. 51. 55 House Journal ©f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly ©f the  T e r r i t a r y »f Wyoming, Cheyenne, N. A. Baker, 1070 j P. 15. 56 Op. c i t . Annual Rep®rt, l870,.p. 176. 1 2 3 t h e i r murdereus a c t i o n . But i n s t e a d , Fleming charged, he 57 condoned t h e i r deed, with t a c i t a p p r o v a l . Though used to v i o l e n c e i n t h e i r mining towns, Sweetwater r e s i d e n t s were q u i c k to h o l d the Indians accountable f o r ©ut-58 rages which c@uld net be t r a c e d t© t h e i r own brawls. R e s u l t s ©f t h i s a t t i t u d e were sometimes t r a g i c , s©metimes l u d i c r o u s . D i s t r u s t and f e a r of Indians were ever- p r e s e n t f a c t o r s , accented by the c©mm®n p r a c t i c e ©f p r e j u d g i n g the a b e r i g i n e s . Hew many ©f the purported Indian a t r o c i t i e s may have been p r e c i p i t a t e d by miners i n p u r s u i t ©f summary j u s t i c e i s an ©pen q u e s t i o n . When a hunter remained t©© l o n g a f i e l d a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t the r e d men was i n the wind. I f he turned up unmolested b e f o r e Indians were l e c a t e d , the '59 v i g i l a n t e s disbanded, and tragedy was a v e r t e d . But i t d i d net always werk ©ut t h i s way. In 1872 Michael Renan's murder i n the Popo Agie V a l l e y put the s e t t l e r s ' nerves on edge. Blamed at f i r s t upon Arapahoes, i t was probably the work of white h©rse t h e i v e s ; but the e f f e c t was j u s t the same. The next day, while the 57 I b i d . , p. 179. 58 S t r e e t f i g h t s were common. ^b.e l e a d e r of the v i g i -l a n t e s who murdered Black Bear was l a t e r k i l l e d i n one. Goutant (op. c i t . p. 666) l i s t s f i v e f a t a l brawls i n ©ne y e a r . 59 Such an i n c i d e n t i s r e l a t e d by James Chishalm i n South Pass 1868, L i n c o l n , Univ. of Nebraska, i 9 6 0 , pp. II4-8-II4.9. 60 Op. c i t . F o u r t h Annual Report ef the B©ard of Indian  C©mmissi©ners, 1072, pp. 112-113. T^e murderers l e f t Imprints of h i g h heeled beets, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they were whites ©r Mexicans, p©ssibly accompanied by a few I n d i a n s . 12l+ search f o r the murderers was under way, two hunters disappeared, and t h e i r horses supposedly were i n d e n t i f i e d i n Indian hands. Here, i t seemed, was conclusive evidence that the Indians had murdered them. A h a i l of b u l l e t s spattered about the " g u i l t y " braves, but they escaped unharmed, w i t h the a l l e g e d l y s t o l e n horses. Tw© p a r t i e s , independently organized, set ©ut i n p u r s u i t ; and ©ne, mistaki n g the other f©r the h o s t i l e Indians, f i r e d up©n i t , c©ntinuing to sh©ot f e r a considerable l e n g t h ' " " 6 l of time before d i s c o v e r i n g i t s err©r. T e r r e r i z e d South Pass r e s i d e n t s wh© heard the f i r i n g sent word to nearby P t . Stam-baugh ©f 300 rampaging Arapah© and Cheyenne w a r r i o r s , request-i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e tr©ops and a howitzer to r e p e l them. Meanwhile the two "murdered" hunters rode s a f e l y i n t o town ©n t h e i r own horses, having seen no IndiansJ Miracul©usly, no ©ne, n e i t h e r white n©r Indian, had been k i l l e d nor wounded. Such i n d i d e n t s as t h i s i n the Sweetwater r e g i o n cast much doubt upon the v a l i d i t y of the charges against the Arapahoes. One hundred miles away at Rawlins Springs, near the town ©f Rawlins and the Union P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d , f©ur young Arapahoes l e s t t h e i r l i v e s i n a brush w i t h a S h e r i f f ' s p©sse i n 1873. 61 Op. c i t . Nickerson, "The E a r l y H i s t o r y ©f Prem©nt County", pp. J4.-5. 62 Op. c i t . Fourth Annual Report ©f the Board ©f  Indian C©mmissi©ners, pp. 112-113. 12$ The Indians, a l l e g e d l y out t© r a i d the Utes, were charged w i t h shooting a white boy and s t e a l i n g h i s horses. Denying b©th accusations, they claimed they were attacked by the p@sse and t h e i r horses taken with©ut reas©n. An i n v e s t i g a t i n g committee headed by T e r r i t o r i a l Governor Campbell, a f t e r hearing b©th sides ex©nerated the whites and declared the Indians g u i l t y . A study ©f the Governor's r e p o r t , however, i n d i c a t e s that the d e c i s i o n may have been reached before tie hearings were h e l d . The commission, he reported, accepted the sworn testimony of the whites r a t h e r than the s t o r y t©ld by the Indians, as t h e i r "pr©verbial d i s r e g a r d f o r t r u t h " 61+ made i t "ef l i t t l e worth". Other sources t© which l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d a l s o cast d©ubt upon the v e r d i c t ©f Arapah© g u i l t . C©lonel John E. Smith, Commandant at F t . Laramie, s a i d he dissuaded a l l but twenty ©f a larg e group ef Arapahoes fr©m going to Rawlins Springs t© bury the f©ur young men, as he fea r e d they would avenge themselves on an equal number ©f whites. The p o s s i b l e punishment ©f those wh© had perpetrated the outrage against the Indians caused him n© worry, but he 63 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1873, P. 251. 6I4. Loc. c i t . The Arapahoes were als© accused ©f v i o -l a t i n g the Treaty ©f 1868 by t h e i r presence south of the P l a t t e . But as the r i v e r flows n e a r l y due no r t h at t h i s p o i n t , the Indians were west ©f i t r a t h e r than s©uth. 65 "Indian Troubles", Annals ©f Wyoming, January, 1933, P. 757. -'•his i s from Smith's l e t t e r to h i s s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r i n Omaha, Nebraska. 126 feared that Indian vengeance might be wreaked ©n innocent 66 people. In l i k e v e i n the Board ©f Indian Commissioners, a f t e r a v i s i t t s Red Cl©ud Agency, wrote t e r s e l y ©f the " " • 67 " u n j u s t i f i a b l e murder" of peaceable Indians near Rawlins. In s p i t e of t h e i r o f f i c i a l condemnation by Governor Campbell's i n v e s t i g a t i n g c©mmittee Arapaho g u i l t at Rawlins Springs was not a proven f a c t . While seeking t© avoid c@llisi©ns w i t h the whites, the Arapah©es vented t h e i r rage f o r Black Bear's death up©n the Sh©sh©nes, wh©m they accused ©f c o m p l i c i t y i n h i s murder. In a r a i d In 1871 they k i l l e d a Shoshone boy, l e a v i n g coup 68 s t i c k s behind as i d e n t i f i a b l e evidence ©f t h e i r revenge. This represented an example of t r a d i t i o n a l Indian warfare, a game ©f r i s k i n which a man's prestige__was based up©n h i s s k i l l at counting c©up (teuching an enemy w i t h a c©up s t i c k ) , t a k i n g scalps ©r s t e a l i n g horses, and g e t t i n g away unharmed. This was a game which the whites could never understand. Charged w i t h another r a i d i n 1873, i n which two white women i n the pep© Agie v a l l e y l e s t t h e i r l i v e s , the Arapahoes denied the accusation. F r i d a y contended that they had been i n the v i c i n i t y only ©nee since Black Bear's death, the time the 66 Loc. c i t . 67 Op. c i t . F i f t h Annual Report of the Board ©f  Indian Commissioners"^ 1073, p. 2b. 68 I b i d . , p. 83. The f a c t s ©f the r a i d were reported by F r i d a y ; and the c©up s t i c k s were fsund where i t had occurred. 127 Shoshone boy was k i l l e d . I t seems u n l i k e l y that he wi t h h e l d the t r u t h i n t h i s , f o r on the same occasion he volunteered the i n f o r m a t i o n that a small party of Arapahoes, Cheyennes and Sioux, out to s t e a l horses from the Crows, had k i l l e d a white man i n western Montana. E v i d e n t l y unconvinced i n the Popo Agie v a l l e y case, Brunot of the Board of Indian Commission-ers a t t r i b u t e d the women's s l a y i n g to f r i e n d s ©f the young - 70 Arapah©es k i l l e d at Rawlins Springs. But the Wyoming press and the Bureau ©f Indian A f f a i r s blamed i t on the Sioux, 71 naming Red Cloud's son-in-law as one of the p r i n c i p a l s . Neither Arapah© inn©cence n©r g u i l t can be d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the P©p© Agie v a l l e y murders, yet tw© s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s should be noted.. F i r s t , the r a i d e r s on t h i s occasion l e f t no c©up s t i c k s behind, u n l i k e the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t Arapahoes i n t h e i r I n c u r s i o n against the Shoshones. Second, Nickerson,"wh© was i n the v i c i n i t y when the murders occurred, does not i m p l i c a t e the Arapahoes i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n ©f the case, even though he had l i t t l e use f o r t h i s t r i b e of Indians. These f a c t s give suppert t© the c l a i m ©f Arapah© innocence made by F r i d a y , wh© enjoys a r e p u t a t i o n ©f v e r a c i t y . With the death ©f Chief Medicine Man i n the winter of I87I-I872, the Arapahees l o s t ©ne ©f t h e i r strongest i n f l u e n c e s f o r peace. Black Coal, as h i s successor, was l o a t h to embroil 69 I b i d . , p. 2 6 . 70 Lec. c i t . 71 Op. c i t . cheyenne Leader, August l£, 1873, and Annual Report. 1873. P. 612. 128 h i m s e l f i n d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the whites, but f e l t no such compunctions about the Shoshones. By 1873 b i s r a i d s against them were ©f common ©ccurrence. D i s c o m f i t i n g and counting coup upon them may have been Black C©al's o b j e c t i v e s . Although he br©ke down the banks ©f t h e i r newly-c©nstructed i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s , and threatened the workers i n the f i e l d , the Govern-ment farmer who worked w i t h the Shoshones reported no c a s u a l t i e s . The troops, under orders to shoot only i n s e l f defense, found 72 ' n© need to r e s o r t t© f i r e - a r m s . Indeed, the f i e l d workers feared the ever-present r a t t l e s n a k e s as a greater menace than ' 73 the Arapahoes. In I87I+- Captain Bates ©f the United States Army set out to end Black Coal's depredations. With a small command of s o l d i e r s and Shosh©nes he met the Arapahoes ab©ut f o r t y miles east ©f Therm©polis, Wyoming. Forty t© f i f t y Arapaho braves were k i l l e d , and although they made a courageous stand, when the s o l d i e r s withdrew they d i d net attempt t© f o l l o w . With 1100 pe©ple or l e s s i n the Northern Arapah© t r i b e at t h i s time, the l o s s would be c r u e l l y f e l t , s u f f i c i e n t reason, probably, f o r not p r e s s i n g the b a t t l e f u r t h e r . I t may be, i n a d d i t i o n , that the Indians had as l i t t l e understanding or stomach f o r the white man's manner of warfare as he d i d f e r t h e i r s . Whatever the reason, Black Coal's r a i d s were 72 Op. c i t . David, p. 2^7. 73 I b i d . , p. 265. JIL Op. c i t . , Cheyenne Leader, August I87I+. This was the Bates B a t t l e of J u l y L. l87i|, Various sources r e p o r t fr©m I|_00 to 3000 Indians engaged, although the e n t i r e Northern Arapaho t r i b e c©uld muster l e s s than 1+00 f i g h t i n g men at t h i s time. 129 over. Except f o r seven i n d i v i d u a l s at the t i n e to the Custer debacle i n 1876, the Northern Arapahoes never again fought United States troops. Pressure on the Indian lands c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p e r i o d from 1868 to I87I4. to a g r e a t e r extent than i n e a r l i e r years. As more n a t u r a l resources came to p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n the West, growing numbers of s e t t l e r s looked upon the Indians as an impediment to progress, which must somehow be removed. Suspecting the red men f r e q u e n t l y of t h i e v e r y and treachery, the whites o f t e n judged and acted too h a s t i l y , thus l a y i n g themselves ©pen t© s i m i l a r charges. Sometimes s t o l e n h®rses a l l e g e d l y i n d e n t i f i e d i n Indian hands, merely resembled horses known t© bel©ng t© whites. Th©ugh s e t t l e r s occasion-a l l y attacked Indians to f o r e s t a l l suspected d u p l i c i t y , the l a t t e r o f t e n had e q u a l l y v a l i d reasons f o r f e a r i n g them. The biased r e p o r t s ©f Indian a c t i v i t i e s i n Wyoming's press i n d i c a t e a perspective shared by many r©ugh f r o n t i e r s -men of the area. Mere than mere grim humor prompted a j o u r n a l i s t w r i t i n g ©f a s k i r m i s h near S©uth Pass t© say that no whites " f o r t u n a t e l y " nor Indians " u n f o r t u n a t e l y " were 75 ' " • k i l l e d . And only a c a r e f u l p e r u s a l ©f a column captioned "The Indian Murders at P t . Laramie" would r e v e a l that tw© - ' ~ " ' 76 ©f the three p r i n c i p a l s i n the k i l l i n g were white men. 75 I b i d . , J u l y 6, 1869. 76 I b i d . , Jan. 13, 1873. 130 Such r e p o r t i n g of Indian news t y p i f i e s the times, and makes i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to f e r r e t out the f a c t s from a morass of s e n s a t i o n a l j o u r n a l i s m . Despite some lapses the peace for c e among the l o r t h e r n Arapahoes was s t i l l i n evidence from 1 8 6 8 to I87I4-0 Small groups aided t h e i r age-long Cheyenne f r i e n d s against F e d e r a l tr@ops i n 1 8 6 8 , but most of the t r i b e r e f r a i n e d from w a r l i k e a c t i e n s . With the shock of Black Bear's k i l l i n g i n I 8 7 O , the force was badly s t r a i n e d , but d i d not break, f o r the v i g i -l a n t e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s death were not wiped ©ut, though i t was w i t h i n the Arapahoes' power to do s©. Even a f t e r death removed Medicine Man's strong i n f l u e n c e f o r peace, they were u n w i l l i n g t© war against the whites. They must have r e a l i z e d that the s e t t l e r s were the r e a l source of many Arapah© s©rr©ws, yet under Black Coal's l e a d e r s h i p they vented t h e i r s p i t e up©n t h e i r Shosh©ne enemies. These could share, at l e a s t , an understanding of the Indian m©de of war-f a r e , which the whites could not. Yet i t was the f©rays against the Sh©sh©nes which l e d to t h e i r f i n a l c l a s h w i t h the United States troops, i n the Bates B a t t l e mentioned ab©ve (page 1 2 8 ) . E a r l i e r i n the per i o d only i n d i v i d u a l s and small groups had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n h o s t i l i t i e s against the whites, but i t i s l i k e l y that a large p r o p o r t i o n ©f the t r i b e , w i t h the exception, perhaps, of F r i d a y ' s band, engaged the s@ldier-s at t h i s time, i n the b a t t l e which permanently ended Black 131 77 Coal's b e l l i g e r e n t r o l e . 77 There i s no documentary evidence that F r i d a y ever fought the whites." Yet, i f he was w i t h Black Coal when Captain Bates attacked, he may have had n© ©ther choice. 132 Chap. 8 The Second Sioux War and the L©ss ©f T r i b a l Lands, l87l+~l878. When would the magnificent unceded Indian lands, e s p e c i a l l y the m i n e r a l - r i c h Black H i l l s i and B i g Herns, f a l l Int© the aw a i t i n g hands ©f the whites? That was the great question i n the minds ©f western s e t t l e r s fr©m t© 1876.--C e r t a i n they were that despite impeding t r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s and d e f i n i t e Indian ©pp©siti©n, they weuld ©btsin them. Barred fr©m both areas by the Treaty ©f 1868, they had vi©lated i t s r e s t r i c t i v e clauses w i t h few important r e p e r c u s s i o n s . In the autumn of I87I4-, a f t e r General Custer's reconnaisance party returned from i t s i l l e g a l i n c u r s i o n int© the Black H i l l s , a gr©up ©f miners went i n , sank twenty-five prospect holes, and 1 " ' rep©rted pay-gold i n a l l ©f them. Others f l e c k e d i n , u n t i l President Grant, perhaps b e t t e r aware ©f Indian agitati©n than the man In the s t r e e t , ©rdered General Crook to the reg i e n t© dr i v e the prospectors out, and f o r e s t a l l p o s s i b l e d i r e c©n-2 ' sequences. None-the-less, i n t e r e s t e d people formed mining cempanies, and hundreds mere headed f o r the Black H i l l s . Cheyenne, Wyoming, wit h the advantages ©f a jumping-©ff p o i n t , t i n g l e d w i t h excitement as o u t f i t t e r s prepared t© share the 3 wealth which ©thers might gain. 1 0P» c i t . Bancroft, p. 77l+. 2 M a r t i n P. Schmitt (ed.), General Crook, His Auto-biography, N©rman, Univ. ©f Oklahoma Press, 1 9 4 ^ (new e d i t i o n , 19b0)„ pp. 188-189. 3 Op. c i t . Bancroft, p. 775. 133 Sieux, Cheyennes and Arapahoes, approached by a S p e c i a l Commission i n 1871+, adamantly refused to r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r k r i g h t s i n the B i g Horn-Powder R i v e r r e g i o n . Indeed, the Indians' unfavorable response t© the pr©p©sal convinced the commission that more w©uld be l o s t than gained by pr e s s i n g the matter, except f©r Chris C. C©x, wh© i n s i s t e d that the B i g Horns were ©f l i t t l e value t© the Indians, and recommended abrogating the " o b s t r u c t i v e " p r o v i s i o n s ©f the t r e a t y (th©se b a r r i n g whites fr®m the d e s i r e d Indian l a n d s ) , thus ©pening 5 the B i g H@rn ares t© settlement. C i t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l and m i n e r a l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l ©f the unceded t e r r i t o r y , he contended that i n f a i r n e s s t© the people ©f Wyoming i t sh©uld be s e t t l e d by a "white, e n t e r p r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n " — not by 6 Indians. N©r was C©x alone i n t h i s ©pini©n. Upon h i s inaugur-a t i o n i n 1875, G©vern©r Thayer ©f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y d e c r i e d the occupation ©f the B i g H©rns and Black H i l l s by " w i l d Indians" wh© w©uld n e i t h e r c u l t i v a t e the s©il n©r devel©p i t s mineral wealth. Upon h i s urging the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly ad©pted a resoluti©n request i n g Congress to remove the unwanted Indians fr©m the t e r r i t Q r y , r e v i l i n g them i n the b i t t e r terms ©f uncompromising r a c i s t s (see Chap. 1, p;>.17). 1+ Op. c i t . Annual Report, I87I+, p. 87. 5 I b i d . , p. 9 0 . 6 Lec. c i t . 7 Op. c i t . "House Journal of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly  ©f the T e r r i t o r y of Wyoming, 1875, PP. 35-3°. 131+ Across the border i n Nebraska, Agent S a v i l l e ©f the Red Cloud Reservation, which s e r v i c e d s i a u x , Northern Arapah©es and Cheyennes, urged the speedy d e s t r u c t i o n ©f game i n Wyoming's hunting lands, thus f r e e i n g them f©r white s e t t l e -ment. I f t h i s could not be arranged by t r e a t y i t should be 8 accomplished by f©rce. Only i n t h i s way could h o s t i l e Indian bands be s u f f i c i e n t l y pauperized to b r i n g them permanently t© the agencies. The Black H i l l s of western South Dakota and northeastern Wy©ming were p e c u l i a r l y f i t t e d to the needs ©f Indians i n 9 t r a n s i t i o n fr©m a hunting t© a herding and a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. With grasslands, f o r e s t s , s o i l and water resources, they l e f t l i t t l e to be d e s i r e d . The Indian Bureau f r a n k l y admitted the p r o b a b i l i t y that no other land a v a i l a b l e t© the Government for ' 1 0 the use ©f the Indians was at a l l comparable i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Nothing seemed mere l o g i c a l than r e t a i n i n g these lands f©r Indian usage and development, and expending every reasonable e f f o r t t© s t a r t them ©n t h e i r way t© self-supp©rt i n an area which S i @ u x > Arapahoes and Cheyennes already held i n common, _ as they had f o r many generations. But the land was r i c h i n g©ld, s© some means must be f©und t© dispossess the ab o r i g i n e s and o b t a i n i t f o r the whites. The mineral r i g h t s were not en©ugh. Since miners had t© eat, the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l 8 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1875, P. 753. 9 I b i d , p. 8 . 10 Loc. c i t . 135 of the adjacent countryside must als© he c o n t r o l l e d and 11 devel©ped by the whites. I f the Indians were t© beceme herdsmen and farmers as the bureaucrats i n s i s t e d , they w©uld have t© go elsewhere t© d© so. In 1875 another S p e c i a l C©mmissi©n met at Red Cloud Reservation w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Northern Cheyennes and Arapahoes, and the various bands of Si©ux, wh© c©mprised a t r i b e ©f many thousands, w i t h s i n g l e bands ssmetimes much l a r g e r than the Cheyenne and Arapah© t r i b e s combined. The commission made an ©ffer of $6,000,000 t© procure the Black H i l l s f o r the Government of the United S t a t e s , but the Indians turned i t down, as they valued the land at a much higher 12 f i g u r e . Countering w i t h a request f o r $60 t© $70 m i l l i o n , they asked that the m©ney be put away at i n t e r e s t , on which " 1 3 they would l i v e w e l l . Although the Indian Bureau f o r years had s t r e s s e d the d e s i r a b i l i t y of winning t h e i r wards t© the ways ©f the whites, t h i s i n d i c a t i o n of business a c u i t y was p©©rly r e c e i v e d by the commissioners, h©wever admirable i t might have appeared i n an eastern f i n a n c i e r . They d i s g u s t e d l y reported that no w©rthwhile agreement c@uld be s u c c e s s f u l l y c©ncluded i n Indian country by means of a grand c o u n c i l ©f ' 11+ c h i e f s i n the presence of a larg e b©dy ©f Indians. The deal 11 L© c. c i t . 12 I b i d . , p. 190. 13 I b i d . , p. 198. 11+ I b i d . , p. 199. 136 was dropped; but Indian a g i t a t i o n over these r e c u r r i n g attempts to part them from t h e i r c h o i c e s t possessions d i d not disappear. O f f i c i a l s ©f the Indian Bureau noted w i t h apparent s a t i s -f a c t i o n the impunity w i t h which s©ldiers, pr©spect©rs and others v i o l a t e d vari©us p r e v i s i o n s ©f the Treaty ©f 1868 (as already c i t e d ) , and veiced the ©pinion that an©ther general Indian war could never occur. C o n f l i c t i n g t r i b a l i n t e r e s t s , they reasoned, rendered u n i f i e d a c t i o n imp©ssible, and the advancing settlements r a p i d l y f i l l e d up the country between 15 the t r i b e s , thus f u r t h e r d i v i d i n g them. Custer's p e n e t r a t i s n ©f the Black H i l l s had brought n© v i o l e n t repercussions fr©m the Indians; and the m i l i t a r y camps near Red Cloud and Spotted T a i l Agencies, surrounded by Indians outnumbering the tr©eps ten ©r twenty t© ©ne, remained, t© a l l appearances, i n p e r f e c t 16 ' " ' ' s a f e t y . The peace p o l i c y , o r i g i n a t e d i n 1868, seemed f u l l y j u s t i f i e d . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d the wisdem of feeding and p a r l e y i n g w i t h the "unreas©ning savage", and convincing him that the Government wished only f o r h i s w e l f a r e , but could " 17 " a l s o compel him t© submit t© law. Seeming success bred smug assurance. Few r e a l i z e d the extent to which the success ©f the peace p o l i c y depended upon the t©lerance ©f the Indian p a p u l a t i o n , I b i d . , P« k-16 I b i d . , p. $. The two agencies were ©nly I4.O miles apart. 17 L©c. c i t . 137 n@r that a breaking point might soon be reached. Yet f o r those wh© cared t© see, the signs were there. Minnecenj©us, Sans Arc, Uncpapas, and other s o - c a l l e d w i l d bands ©f Sioux, new t© Red Cloud Agency, In I87I4. r e s i s t e d attempts t© c@unt them f e r the i s s u i n g ©f r a t i o n s , a r r e s t e d the agent, and surreunded the contingent ©f s©ldiers c a l l e d to h i s a i d , h o l d i n g them h e l p l e s s u n t i l s©me seven-hundred r e g u l a r agency '18 Indians interceded, and f r e e d the c a p t i v e s . Although not ©bstrep©r©us at t h i s time, the r e g u l a r s , wh© had been r e p o r t -i n g to the agency f o r years, were f a r l e s s content to s i t down t© the enj©yment of t h e i r issues ©f co f f e e , sugar and beef than the Washington bureaucrats ceuld r e a l i z e . In 1875 a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n ©f c o r r u p t i o n and i n e f f i c i e n c y at Red Cleud Agency discl©sed shocking c o n d i t i o n s , and r e a l d i s t r e s s among 20 ' ' the Indians. Sioux, N©rthern Arapahoes and Northern Cheyennes wh© were c a l l e d upon t© t e s t i f y brought,these t® l i g h t . The Oga l l a l a Chief Red Cloud, demanding the agent's removal, made serious charges, many ©f which were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t i n g cemmission. The testimony of the Arapaho Chief Black Coal, and the Cheyenne Chief L i t t l e W©if -- l a r g e l y v e r i f i e d by ©thers -- while somewhat milder than that of Red 18 I b i d . , p. 1+5. 19 'Indian Commissioner E. p. Smith had o p t i m i s t i c a l l y prohpecied that the Indians would not r i s k the l e s s of such agency cemf©rts f©r*a campaign against the whites. (Op. c i t . ,Annual Report, I87I+, p. 5.) 2 0 Red Cloud complained b i t t e r l y t© Yale ge©l©gist 0 . C. Marsh, wh© had c©me west t© c o l l e c t f o s s i l s . Marsh contacted President Grant, wh© ©rdered an investigati©n. 1 3 8 Cloud, s t i l l portrayed a scandalous p i c t u r e . When Black Coal and h i s Northern Arapahoes had a r r i v e d at Red Cloud Agency from t h e i r W y e m i n g hunting grounds, they were very low ©n food, c l o t h i n g and tent m a t e r i a l s . Although i t was wi n t e r , many lacked covering f o r t h e i r lodge p o l e s , as the hides had worn ©ut, and since game was scarce they ceuld 2 1 not be replaced. Due t© the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s fr©m Cheyenne, and the deep snows ©f a hard w i n t e r , the badly needed agency r a t i o n s were i n short supply. Nor were the r a t i o n s s a t i s f a c t o r y when a v a i l a b l e . S p o i l e d p©rk and mildewed c©ffee were n©t unusual; t©bacc© so str©ng i t caused headaches and • " 2 2 blankets to© sh©rt f o r a t a l l man t© use were r e g u l a r i s s u e s . Agent S a v i l l e could not have been r e s p o n s i b l e f©r a l l of these c o n d i t i o n s ; few i f any were unique to h i s agency. But seri©us charges had been made against him, and the commissioners were there to i n v e s t i g a t e . His Indian census seemed markedly hi g h , a tempting and l u c r a t i v e p r a c t i c e at various agencies, f o r an overshipment ©f goods and r a t i o n s (assigned t© the agencies on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s ) c©uld be p r o f i t a b l y disp©sed ©f by an agent and h i s f r i e n d s . S a v i l l e had, f o r example, rec©rded 15>35> Northern Arapahoes, a p e r f e c t l y r i d i c u l o u s f i g u r e when i t Is r e a l i z e d that there were l e s s than tw©-thirds ©f that 2 1 Op. c i t . Report of the S p e c i a l Commission te  Inve s t i g a t e the A f f a i r s of the Red Cloud Agency, p. ijjffi* 2 2 I b i d . , p. 3 7 5 . T h i s was a part ©f Black Coal's testimony, t r a n s l a t e d by F r i d a y . L i t t l e Waif sp©ke i n a s i m i l a r v e i n . 139 number to move to the Wind R i v e r Reservation i n Wyoming from 23 I878 to 1880. Although they d i d not prove him g u i l t y ©f corrupt p r a c t i c e s , the c©mmissioners concurred i n a v e r d i c t ©f i n e f f i c i e n c y , and S a v i l l e was removed from o f f i c e . The Indian Bureau was soon to r e a l i z e the prematurity ©f i t s conclusions that the agency Indians were to© content w i t h t h e i r dependency on Government r a t i o n s t© give s e r i o u s thsught t© the warpath as a means ©f improving t h e i r l o t . Many ©f the r e g u l a r s , acquainted w i t h agency ways f o r years past, despite the sugar, mildewed c o f f e e , s p o i l e d pork and str©ng tobacco issued t© them, responded t© S i t t i n g B u l l ' s challenge and prepared t© r e s i s t the whites. Hundreds of Sioux fr©m vari©us bands, and scores ©f Cheyennes, both Northern and Southern, deserted the a geneles t© cast t h e i r l o t w i t h the h o s t i l e s . Sh©rtly before the a s s a u l t ©n Custer i n the B a t t l e of the L i t t l e B i g Horn i n 1876, a t i n y contingent ©f Northern Arapahoes, seven braves, according t© G r i n n e l l , o f f e r e d t h e i r ' 26 s e r v i c e s to the Si©ux. The l a t t e r , suspecting them of spying f o r the s o l d i e r s , i n s i s t e d that they camp apart u n t i l they " 27 could make sure ©f them. 23 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1875, P. 752. 2I4. Repercussions i n Washington l e d t© the r e s i g n a t i o n of Columbus Delano as Secretary ©f the Interi©r. 25 Op. c i t . V e s t a l , p. 1I4.3. V e s t a l s t a t e s that a f a i r number of Arapahoes answered the c a l l , but i n t h i s he e v i d e n t l y i s misinformed, f o r a u t h o r i t i e s who had" "wider acquaintance w i t h the Indians p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i f f e r markedly w i t h him i h t h i s r espect. See G r i n n e l l , Qp. c i t . p. 3^7, James McLaughlin, My F r i e n d the Indian, B©st©n, Houghton, M i f f l i n C o . , 1910, 3.24-0 The Si© Ux Chiefs Red Cl©ud and Spotted T a i l stood f o r peace, apparently r e a l i z i n g the power ©f the whites and the f u t i l i t y ©f making a stand against them. Spotted T a i l worked p a r t i c u l a r l y t© end the b e l l i g e r e n c i e s . V i s i t i n g camp a f t e r camp he urged the h o s t i l e s to surrender, u n t i l the l a s t l a r g e 2 8 band gave up i n August, 1 8 7 7 . Custer's debacle ©n the L i t t l e B i g H©rn i n 1 8 7 6 stim-u l a t e d to even greater e f f o r t s the advocates ©f the p o l i c y ©f concentrating the western Indians on a few larg e r e s e r v a t i o n s . As u s u a l when u l t e r i o r motives are important, they o f f e r e d ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the propo s a l . Secretary ©f the Interi©r Chandler estimated a saving t© the Government ©f $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 annually i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs alone ©n Indian s u p p l i e s ; more©ver, he was sure that the c©ntr©l and teaching o f the abo r i g i n e s would thereby be g r e a t l y enhanced. Further r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n depicted the replacement ©f t r i b a l custom by United States' law and court j u r i s d i c t i o n , and a f f o r d i n g the Indians greater p r o t e c t i o n through the power of Government i n l i f e , l i b e r t y and character, thus i d e n t i f y i n g them l e g a l l y p. 1 3 0 , and E. S. Godfrey, The F i e l d Diary of Edward S e t t l e  Godfrey, P o r t l a n d , Champseg Press, 1 9 5 7 , p. 3^-7o 2 6 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p. 3 I 4 . 7 . 2 7 Op. c i t . Godfrey, p. 6 9 . 2 8 Op. c i t . Annual Report, 1 8 7 7 , pp. i4 . i2 - l4 . i3 . 2 9 Op. c i t . Report of the Secretary of the I n t e r i o r , 1 8 7 6 , pp. v and v i . Ikl 30 w i t h the white c i t i z e n r y . Yet w i t h such go©d reasons r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , the a c t u a l purp©se behind the p o l i c y o c c a s i o n a l l y found i t s way int© p r i n t . A rec©mmendation t® Congress i n I878 requested that body t© reduce the number ©f r e s e r v a t i o n s net only f o r the b e n e f i t of the Indians, through the r e s u l t -ant c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s , but als© as a means of f r e e i n g the * 31 bulk ©f t h e i r lands f o r white ©ccupancy. Under the constant prodding of miners, stockmen, and a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s wh© lenged f©r the red men's lands, the Indian ©ffice had f o r a number of years brought pressure t© bear upon the N©rthern Cheyennes and Arapah©es to j©in t h e i r seuthern r e l a t i v e s i n Indian Territ©ry. I t mattered not that 32 • -b©th greups ©pp©sed the pl a n . The Northern Arapah© Chief Black C©al epit©mized t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n s t a t i n g that G©d had given them the land i n the n e r t h ; they had a l l been born there; , .33 they l i k e d i t and had no des i r e t© go south. To compel agree-ment t© the move i n I87I4., t h e i r agent at Red Cl©ud was i n s t r u c t e d t© withhold t h e i r annual issue ©f f©©d and go©ds 3l4-u n t i l t h e i r t r a n s f e r south. As the Indians remained adamant, 35 the use ©f troops was planned to ensure t h e i r removal. 30 Op. c i t . A m u a i Report, 1876, p. 388. 31 I b i d . , I878, pp. Ifl4.0-i|42. 32 I b i d . , 187I4-, P. lj-6. 33 0p« c i t . Report ©f the S p e c i a l C©mmissi©n t©  Inv e s t i g a t e the A f f a i r s of Red Cloud Agency, p. 37b. 3I4. Op. c i t . Annual Report, 187!+, p. 11. 35 I b i d . , p. 97. In 1876 s i m i l a r coercive measures were a p p l i e d to those peaceable Sioux wh© remained at Red Cloud and Spetted T a i l Agencies. A S p e c i a l Commissisn at t h i s time persuaded them to consider t r a n s f e r r e n c e t© Indian T e r r i t o r y , and an Act ©f Congress forbade any a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r t h e i r subsistence u n t i l they agreed to r e l i n q u i s h a l l lands outside t h e i r permanent r e s e r v a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g , ©r course, the i n v a l u a b l e Black H i l l s which they j e i n t l y h e ld w i t h the northern Cheyennes 36 - -and the Nerthern Arapah©es. Disarmed as the Indians were, under the s u r v e i l l a n c e of tre©ps, w i t h scant opportunity f o r subsistence i n t h e i r hunting grounds, i t r e q u i r e d n© str©ke ©f genius f o r a commissi©n, av©iding a grand c o u n c i l ©f c h i e f s i n the presence ©f t h e i r peeple, and other mistakes ©f the previ©us year, to t r a v e l from agency t© agency -- seven i n a l l -- and ©btain the assent of the headmen ©f each group - 3 ? to the c e s s i o n ©f t h e i r beloved lands. The Government i n r e t u r n agreed to f u r n i s h subsistence to the Indians u n t i l they c©uld become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g . Although twelve bands ©f Sioux and the Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes were inc l u d e d i n the compact, the many hundreds s t i l l counted as h©stiles had n© v@ice whatever i n the matter. 36 I b i d . , I876 , p. 333. 37 I b i d . , p. 336. The unsuccessful Commission of l87£, i t may be r e c a l l e d , blamed t h e i r f a i l u r e ©n the f a c t that they had met w i t h ah assembly of c h i e f s i n the presence ©f a larg e body of t h e i r f e l l o w s . 11+3 The Second Si©ux War caused postponement of the t r a n s f e r of Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes to the south. Now w i t h b e l l i g e r e n c i e s ended, the Indian O f f i c e r e v i v e d i t s e f f o r t s to remove them and the Sioux to Indian T e r r i t o r y , where, i t was planned, the threes/tribes, so long together, would at l a s t be separated. Although they were l o a t h t© leave the north, the O g a l l a l a and Brule bands ©f S i o u x y i e l d e d t© bu r e a u c r a t i c pressure, and sent delegates t© Indian T e r r i t o r y t© examine p o t e n t i a l l©cati©ns f©r t h e i r bands. But a c r y of p r o t e s t arose i n the House and Senate ©f the United S t a t e s , where the lawmakers expressed t h e i r dread ©f the powerful Sioux i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way. Fe a r i n g that the presence ©f t h i s mighty t r i b e might r u i n the chance f©r peace ameng both reds and whites w i t h i n the general v i c i n i t y , they forbade by Act ©f C©ngress the removal ©f any p o r t i o n of the Sioux t© 38 " Indian T e r r i t o r y . Red Cloud and Sp©tted T a i l Agencies were t r a n s f e r r e d i n s t e a d to South Dakota, w i t h i n which s t a t e most ©f the Sioux today r e s i d e on s i x r e s e r v a t i o n s . Much against t h e i r w i l l the Nerthern Cheyennes were f©rced t© g© to Indian T e r r i t e r y , where many of them sickened, • - - • 39 as was "always the case" w i t h northern Indians. In 1878, D u l l 38 Op. c i t . C©ngressional Record, F©rty-f©urth Congress, Second S e s s i o n , 1877, pp. 1517 and 173b. -39 Eleventh" Annual Report s f the Board ©f Indian  C©mmissi©ners, 1879, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1880, p. 81+. K n i f e ' s band of about 3 0 0 , disheartened by t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , broke away from the unwanted surroundings and headed n o r t h . A f t e r weeks of e l u d i n g United States troops, about h a l f the band was captured and taken t© F t . Rebinson, Nebraska, as pris o n e r s ©f war. In a v a i n e f f o r t t© f©rce t h e i r r e t u r n t© Indian T e r r i t e r y , f@©d, water and f u e l were wi t h h e l d frem them i n the dead ©f w i n t e r , u n t i l , i n a desparate break f o r f r e e -d©m, a l l were k i l l e d . The other h a l f of the band, semewhat m©re f©rtunate, succeeded i n reaching t h e i r Sioux f r i e n d s . They were u l t i m a t e l y given a r e s e r v a t i o n on the T©ngue R i v e r i n southern Montana; and there they s t i l l remain. The Arapah©es, i n a f i n a l r e c e g n i t i o n ©f t h e i r l©yalty as w i l l be shown below were permitted to remain i n Wyoming. During the per i o d from I87J4. t© 1878, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the a l i e n a t i o n of Indian lands and the s p i l l i n g of blood, t h e i r peaceful r e l a t i o n w i t h the United States Gevernment was p r a c t i c a l l y unimpeachable, and stands i n sharp c o n t r a s t t© the b e l l i g e r e n c y of hundreds ©f t h e i r Si©ux and Cheyenne f r i e n d s . Great numbers ©f the former cast t h e i r l o t w i t h S i t t i n g B u l l and Crazy Horse, while many of the Cheyennes q u i e t l y s l i p p e d away frem Red Cloud Agency i n small gr©ups f o r the same purpose. But when General Reynolds s t a r t e d i n ij.0 Op. c i t . A n n u a i Report. I878, p. ]^hl$m p u r s u i t ©f S i t t i n g B u l l ' s braves i n the l a t e winter ©f I876, the N©rthern Arapahoes, determined te stay out ©f t r o u b l e , m©ved from the v i c i n i t y of P t . Fetterman (near Douglas, " ' ' - 1+1 Wyoming), int© Red Cloud Agency i n Nebraska. Overbalancing the seven Arapahoes wh© fought Custer's men i n the B a t t l e of the t i t t l e B i g Horn, twenty-five accompanied General Cro©k 1+2 as scouts i n h i s campaign against the Sioux and Cheyennes. A f t e r Custer's defeat they were prebably instrumental i n disarming t h e i r ©wn brethren and ©ther non-h©stiles, as the r©unds ©f f e u r agencies were made by the tr©ops f o r t h i s purpose -- a preca u t i s n a r y measure -- and Red Cl©ud, where the Arapah© t r i b e remained, f e l l t© the l o t ©f General Crook. When Cr©©k l e f t F t . Fetterman i n November, 1876, i n p u r s u i t ©f Crazy Horse's braves, the Arapah© and ©ther Indian sc©uts were assigned to General McKenzie t© a s s i s t him i n t r a c k i n g down Chief D u l l K n i f e ' s band ©f Northern Cheyennes. Indeed, the presence ©f many Sioux and Cheyennes, i n a d d i t i o n t© the Arapahoes i n McKenzie's f o r c e s , caused grave concern 1+3 i n a mi s s i o n such as t h i s . But the misgivings proved unfounded; the s e r v i c e of the Indian scouts, and p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the Arapaho Chief Sharp Nose, pr©ved i n v a l u a b l e t© McKenzie 1+1 Op. c i t . cheyenne Leader, Mar. 2, 1876. 1+2 Loc. c i t . 1 + 3 I b i d . , Jan. 20 , 1877. il+6 i n h i s s u r p r i s e a t t a c k ©n D u l l K n i f e ' s Cheyenne v i l l a g e d uring a b i t t e r winter night i n Wyoming's B i g Horns. This debacle set the stage f o r t h e i r surrender l a t e r i n the s p r i n g . Through t h e i r f i n a l years ©f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Sioux and Cheyennes at Red Cloud Agency, despite u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t r e a t y issues ©f fo©d and goods, despite the usurp a t i o n of t h e i r lands, and despite the l a s t desperate e f f o r t of S i t t i n g B u l l and Crazy Horse to change the c©urse of p l a i n s Indian h i s t o r y , the Northern Arapahoes kept peace w i t h the Government of the United States. Although many hundreds of Sj_ Q Ux and Cheyennes were drawn i n t o the c o n f l i c t , the Arapahoes, as t h e i r 1|5 agent s t a t e d , remained l o y a l , almost t© the man. The peaceable d i s p o s i t i o n of the Northern Arapahoes f i n a l l y gained o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n . F e a r f u l ©f t h e i r p r o j e c t e d move t s the south new that peace had returned t© the p l a i n s , a de l e g a t i o n journeyed to Washington w i t h the earnest plea that they be permitted to r e s i d e on the Wind R i v e r Reservation i n Wyoming, r a t h e r than making the dreaded t r a n s f e r t© Indian T e r r i t o r y , and i n cognizance ©f t h e i r abstinence from h o s t i l i t i e s against the United S t a t e s , the - 1+6 -President granted t h e i r request. The Shosh©nes, wh© occupied the Wind R i v e r Reservation, consented a l s o , and i n August, 1878, 1+1+ Doc, c i t . Sharp Nose was at" t h i s time second i n importance to Black C©al among the Northern Arapahoes. \$ Op. c i t . A n n u a i Report, 1877, p. 1+15. 1+6 I b i d . , p. 19. 900 Northern Arapahoes a r r i v e d f o r permanent residence. l+l I b i d . . 1879, pp." l 6 6 and 22i+." The Annual Report of 1877 gave the'Northern Arapaho "census as 1100 s o u l s , perhaps a l i t t l e high. Two or three small bands may have been hunting ©r v i s i t i n g elsewhere at the time ©f the t r a n s f e r to Wyoming, and m©ved l a t e r t© the Reservation, f o r i t i s known that somewhat mere than 900 e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e d . lh+8 Chap. 9 The End of the T r a i l , 1879. Conceived by President F i l l m o r e i n I8I4.9, the Indian peace p o l i c y produced the F t . Laramie Treaty ©f 185>1, w i t h the hopeful promise of a new era. Based upon the s u p p o s i t i o n that kindness and f a i r - d e a l i n g would win the f a i t h of the Indians f o r the United States Government, i t s advocates expected them to abandon t h e i r nomadic l i f e and r a p i d l y replace i t w ith the white man's c i v i l i z a t i o n , wh©se advantages, they f e l t , would be speedily recognized and accepted. As the r e d men became dependent upon annual issues of fo©d, c l o t h i n g and ©ther n e c e s s i t i e s , they would be amenable to the w i l l of the Government. Three main ©bstacles, unforeseen at the time, prevented the f r u i t i o n ©f t h i s hope, and brought the p l a i n s Indians t© the end of the t r a i l of t h e i r ©Id, fre e l i f e without equipping them f©r a s u c c e s s f u l adaptation to the challenges ©f an a l i e n c u l t u r e . These were the Indian p o l i c y ©f the Federal Government, p u b l i c h o s t i l i t y toward the red men, and the l©ve ©f the l a t t e r f e r t h e i r ©wn i n s t i t u t i o n s and traditi©ns. With l i t t l e understanding ©f the people with wa ©m they d e a l t , the Federal Government fo l l o w e d a p o l i c y which was co n s i s t e n t i n only ©ne respect -- the o b l i t e r a t i o n of Indian-hood, the d e s t r u c t i o n of a c u l t u r e . Beginning w i t h the sincere i n t e n t i o n ©f guiding the Indians through a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d t© s e l f - s u p p o r t by a g r i c u l t u r e , the best i n t e r e s t s of the aborigines were soon l o s t t© view as the clam©r ©f s e t t l e r s 11+9 f©r t h e i r land and resources r e s u l t e d i n pressure which the Federal Government ceuld not withstand. As the more arable lands came under white c o n t r o l , the Indian O f f i c e made fee b l e attempts to teach i t s wards to farm, but under such unfavorable c e n d i t i o n s of climate and s o i l that the e f f o r t s were u s u a l l y foredoomed. Although the Indian Bureau recognized the Black H i l l s r e g i o n as one of unusual excellence i n which to develop a g r a z i n g i n d u s t r y among the a b o r i g i n e s , i t spared no e f f o r t s t© t r a n s f e r i t s s o i l and i n v a l u a b l e resources to the s e t t l e r s ©f the West. As w i t h so many of t h e i r most u s e f u l lands, the Indians could not r e t a i n t h i s area to help them on t h e i r way to self-supp©rt. Fr©m 1868 t© I876 peace p o l i c y adv©cates claimed success i n d e a l i n g w i t h the Indians, but alm©st i n e v i t a b l y the whites, r a t h e r than the n a t i v e b i s o n hunters, enjeyed the b e n e f i t s ©f t h i s success. While bureaucrats sp©ke p l a t i t u d e s ©f the advantages a c c r u i n g t© the Indians from placement up©n l i m i t e d reservati©ns, they pushed plans t© t r a n s f e r l a r g e t r a c t s of t h e i r t r i b a l holdings t© the more e n t e r p r i s i n g r a c e . Solemn t r e a t y pledges of t e n f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e ; schools premised t© the Northern Arapahoes by the Treaty of 1868 appeared only a f t e r ten long years and an©ther Indian war. A teacher a r r i v e d i n the f a l l of I878, f o l l o w e d f i n a l l y by the ©pening 1 ©f classes i n January, l879» 1 Op. c i t . Annual Hep©rt, 1879, pp. 166-167 150 Of the I r r i t a n t s which f o s t e r e d i n s e c u r i t y among the Indians and kept t h e i r nerves on edge, the r o l e of the m i l i t a r y i n Government p o l i c y ranks high. Acknowledging i t s i n e f f i c a c y i n I8I4.9, Congress t r a n s f e r r e d the Indian Bureau from the War Department t© that of the I n t e r i o r , yet t h i s , unf©rtunately, d i d not s u f f i c i e n t l y minimize i t s importance as an instrument ©f p©licy, a s i t u a t i o n which the Indians understood and deeply resented. In 1853, Th©mas F i t z p a t r i c k , a man respected f o r h i s f a i r n e s s to the Indians, warned of t h e i r a g i t a t i o n ©ver the presence of troops i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y . Convinced that they destroyed timber, scared o f f game, e x c i t e d h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s , and aff©rded a rendezvous f o r worthless and t r i f l i n g char-2 a c t e r s , the Indians f e l t uneasy i n t h e i r p r o x i m i t y . Twenty years l a t e r , on the b a s i s ©f d i s c u s s i o n with v a r i o u s t r i b a l groups, Powell and I n g a l l s of the Board of Indian Commission-ers reported that o p p o s i t i o n to r e s e r v a t i o n l i f e was based p r i m a r i l y up©n Indian dread of the s o l d i e r s , whose very name synonomized e v i l . S o c i a l d e m o r a l i z a t i o n and venereal diseases f©ll©wed i n t h e i r wake. "We do net wish t© give our women t© 3 the embrace of the s o l d i e r s , " the Indians declared. As C o l a n d e r of United States f o r c e s i n the West, General P h i l Sheridan ©nly added to t h e i r f e a r s when, i n June, 1869, 2 I b i d . , 1853, p. 362. 3 I b i d . , 1873, P. hk3» 151 he o f f i c i a l l y ordered that the Indians o f f the l i m i t s of t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s should be under the e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the m i l i t a r y , and would u s u a l l y be considered h o s t i l e . This he d i r e c t e d i n s p i t e of the r i g h t s , guaranteed to them by Treaty, to hunt and roam i n various places ©ff t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s . Whether i n ignerance ©r d i s r e g a r d of Indian b i t t e r n e s s t©ward the m i l i t a r y , when peace was r e s t o r e d i n I878 the House ©f Representatives approved a b i l l to r e t u r n the Indian Bureau t© the War Department. Indian reacti©n, as might w e l l have been expected, was ©ne of a g i t a t e d and u n q u a l i f i e d o p p e s i t i o n . F o r t u n a t e l y the Senate h e l d up the b i l l , pending study and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t never became law. In t e s t i f y i n g bef©re an i n v e s t i g a t i n g commission i n 1875, Chief Black Coal of the Northern Arapah©es t e r s e l y expressed the f e e l i n g s of the red men toward the m i l i t a r y . He sp©ke as f o l l o w s : "We used t©~"live f i r s t r a t e bef©re the s o l d i e r s came to t h i s country; when they came the f i r s t t h i n g they d i d was t© t r y t© r a i s e a war. We used to t r a v e l w i t h the old" mountain-eers, but since the s o l d i e r s came to t h i s country they have s p o i l e d e v e r y t h i n g and want war. • • o I have heard something~ab©ut changing the agent we have now. We don't want a m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r f o r an agent. We want a c i t i z e n , the same as we have now,"6 k I b i d . , I876, p. 3I4.O. 5 I b i d . , 1878, pp. 9-10. 6 Op. c i t . Report ©f the S p e c i a l C©mmissi©n to  Inve s t i g a t e the A f f a i r s of Red" Cloud Agency, J u l y , l " 8 ~ 7 5 » pp. 3 7 0 - 3 7 7 . F r i d a y i n t e r p r e t e d f©r Black C©al. 152 As s e t t l e r s and f©rtune-seekers f l o c k e d i n t o the West, encroaching upon the Indian domain, p u b l i c h o s t i l i t y toward the aborigines engendered constant pressure upon Congress and the Indian Bureau t© a l i e n a t e mere lands fr©m t h e i r nomadic ©wners. They g r e a t l y resented the l e g a l bars which kept them fr©m developing the resources which, they b e l i e v e d , the Indian would never put t© pr©per use. Thus Indian t r e a t i e s , i n e f f e c were made ©nly to be br©ken. Though o f t e n c a l l e d f i n a l i t i e s , they were f r e q u e n t l y mere expediencies; white c i v i l i z a t i o n f©und them as b a r r i e r s i n the way, s© they c©uld not stand. As frequent and r a p i d changes ©ccurred, the Indians were the 7 v i c t i m s ©f great i n j u s t i c e s . With the end ©f the Indian war In 1877, the s e t t l e r s rej©iced at the u n f e t t e r i n g of the f r o n t i e r , f o r , as the red men were shunted ©n t© r e s e r v a t i o n s the unceded lands north ©f the P l a t t e , where they had hunted and r©amed, were thr©wn open t© the steckmen. Freed at l a s t from the l e g a l r e s t r a i n t s which had bound them, they now drove c a t t l e and sheep acress the r i v e r t© graze ©n land which f o r years they had w i s t f u l l y eyed. At t h i s time the white p e p u l a t i o n ©f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y 7 Op. c i t . Rep©rt ©f the Secretary ©f the Interi©r, 1877, p. i x . This observation was made by Secretary ©f the I n t e r i e r C a r l Schurz. 8 R i . E. Strayhern,"The Handbook of Wyoming and Guide  t© the Black H i l l s and Big"Horn Regions, Qhica'g©, Knight and Le©nard, 1877, PP. 20-21. 153 9 had Increased to 20,000 or more. The f i g u r e compares roughly to the number ©f f r i e n d l y Indians rep©rtedly served by the agencies ©f the regi©n i n 1876, wh© were n®w s t r i p p e d ©f the - - - 10 bulk ©f t h e i r t r i b a l lands by a more aggressive people. Pr©m the time of t h e i r f i n a l placement on the Wind R i v e r Reservati@n i n Wy© ming i n the f a l l of 1878, rum©rs ©f a planned u p r i s i n g among the Northern Arapahoes abeunded. C h a r a c t e r i z i n g the st©ries as spurious, t h e i r agent added that many frontiersmen would be glad t© see such an i n s u r r -" 11 ' " ' " '- • e c t i o n . I t w©uld, ©f c©urse, have aff©rded the de s i r e d excuse t© f©rce the Indians f i n a l l y out ©f Wyoming, and t u r n over t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n lands, w i t h ranges f o r livest©ck and i r r i -g a t i o n f e r a g r i c u l t u r e , to the covetous whites. F i n a l l y , the Indian way of l i f e , coupled w i t h the two obstacles already reviewed, comprised an almest insurm©untable b a r r i e r t© a smooth transiti©n fr©m the hunting t© a gr a z i n g , a g r i c u l t u r a l , or i n d u s t r i a l l i v e l i h o o d . With l i t t l e apprec-i a t i o n f©r the Indian point of view, thousands ©f Americans, o f f i c i a l s and laymen; a l i k e , expected him to abanden a c u l t u r e which s a t i s f i e d h i s s©cial and em©ti©nal needs, and surrender the major par t ©f h i s lands as w e l l . Obvieusly, the peri©d 9 Op. c i t . Annual Rep©rt, 1878, p. 1182. 10 "Op. c i t . " E i g h t h Annual Report ©f the Beard of  Indian Commissioner's, 187b, p"H 11. 11 Op. c i t . A n n u a l Report, 1881, p. 183. 151*. a n t i c i p a t e d f©r the adaptation proved too short; and even now, 115 years a f t e r the F t . Laramie Treaty of 1851, the trans f o r m a t i o n i s incomplete. J u s t l y proud of the f a i t h of t h e i r f a t h e r s -- t h e i r awn h e r e d i t a r y c u l t u r e -- many Indians are not content to e x i s t merely as dark-skinned white men. Gone, of course, i s the f r e e hunting and roaming l i f e of the olden time, to which the Indians clung u n t i l t h e i r game supply had shrunk dangerously, and they were penned up . ,. . . . . . ' ^ 12 on r e s e r v a t i o n s s© the whites could s e t t l e ©n t h e i r l a nds. But t h e i r lodges ©r s©dalities, and the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r s©ciety remained f o r many years. As r e c e n t l y as 1939 - ' - - 13 " i t had net e n t i r e l y disappeared. Even today the Northern Arapah©es hold t h e i r O fferings Lodge ©r Sun Dance — a r e l i g i o u s ceremony ©f t r i b a l s i g n i f i c a n c e — w i t h annual r e g u l a r i t y ©n the Wind R i v e r Reservation i n Wyoming. Althaugh the p r e - r e s e r v a t i o n Arapahoes have passed away, and some changes have n e c e s s a r i l y ©ccurred, I t remains Indian i n a l l e s s e n t i a l s , w i t h i t s s t r e s s up©n the n e c e s s i t i e s ©f l i f e --food, water, e a r t h and sun. Those wh© enter i t s t i l l d© s© 12' Op. " c i t . " Annual Report, I878, p. II8I4.. In October, I878, G@vern©r Jehn W. Hoyt o f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y , r e g i o n a l Superintendent ©f Indian A f f a i r s , gave t h i s as the r e a l reason f e r a s s i g n i n g Indians t© r e s e r v a t i o n s . 13 Op. c i t . Murphy, personal notes. 155 by ceremonial vow, prepared f o r the ordeal of three and one-h a l f days of r i t u a l s w i t h n e i t h e r food nor d r i n k , under the Ik-he t J u l y sun. Despite the optimism f o r a comparatively p a i n l e s s t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d a n t i c i p a t e d i n 1851, the Northern Arapahoes, Northern Cheyennes and the great Sioux group found themselves confined on r e s e r v a t i o n s i n 1879, t h e i r nomadic mode ©f l i f e e s s e n t i a l l y a t h i n g of the past, but w i t h l i t t l e of a c o n s t r u c t i v e nature to take i t s place, nor t© i n s p i r e confidence f o r the f u t u r e . Largely dependent upon the Government f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e , they were l i t t l e more than s t a r t e d on the long, weary r©ad which they must f o l l o w before the d e s i r e d adaptations could be made. During the p e r i o d of dispossessi©n between the f i r s t F t . Laramie Treaty and t h e i r eventual confinement, the Nerthern Arapah©es g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y e d an a t t i t u d e ©f peace-f u l intenti©ns toward the United States Government. They remained a l o o f fr©m the Si©ux campaign ©f 1855 a ^ d the Cheyenne h o s t i l i t i e s ©f 1857. Even a f t e r Chivington's treacher©us a t t a c k ©n Southern Arapahoes and Cheyennes at Sand Creek, C©l©rad@ i n 1861)., an a c t i o n which shattered the f a i t h of msst Indians i n the white man's purposes, ©nly Black Bear's band ©f Northern Arapahoes j o i n e d Sioux and Cheyennes ll). The 1930s and early" 19^ 1-0s saw the "passing ©f the remnant of p r e - r e s e r v a t i o h Arapahoes. Nakash (Sage), over 90 years ©f age, was among the l a s t ©f these t© go. 156 i n t h e i r r e t a l i a t o r y depredations. Chiefs Friday and Medicine Man amply demonstrated t h e i r preference for peace, ^he former was f i r s t to respond to Governor Evans' offe r ©f pr©tecti©n to f r i e n d l y Indians who w©uld report to designated points, and the l a t t e r m©ved the tribe's largest band from th e i r hunting grounds to southern Wyoming i n acceptance ©f the i n v i t a t i o n , a f t e r the Sand Creek a f f a i r had sent more than a thousand braves up©n the warpath. When i n 1 8 6 5 Government tr©ops carried the war into t h e i r hunting gr©unds, more Arapahoes than merely Black Bear's band probably became involved, as they f e l t themselves forced to f i g h t . Unfortunately no records indicate whether Medicine Man's moderating influence prevailed upon 1I4.O t© 150 followers t© keep the peace, although t h i s many remained i n the Big Horns with him when the known bel l i g e r e n t s reported t© Ft. Laramie t© sign the Treaty of 1 8 6 8 , which ended the war. Friday's band stayed thr©ugh©ut this time i n the Cache l a P©udre i n C©lorad©, many miles fr©m the scene ©f b a t t l e . In the di s t r e s s i n g days ef I87O, afte r the u n j u s t i f i e d slaying of Black Bear and his unarmed party, the Northern Arapahoes refrained from vio l e n t r e t a l i a t i o n against the whites, but l e f t the Wind River region ©f Wyoming for the Milk River Agency i n Montana. Following the death of Medicine Man i n the winter of I 8 7 I - I 8 7 2 , Black Coal, his successor as the major chief ©f the t r i b e , raided the Shoshones recurrently on t h e i r Wyoming 157 r e s e r v a t i e n , u n t i l stopped by United States troops i n the 15 - - -Bates' B a t t l e of I87I4-. This marked the end of armed c o n f l i c t between the Northern Arapah© t r i b e and Government s o l d i e r s . Seven i n d i v i d u a l s only, j©ined the h o s t i l e s against Custer ©n the L i t t l e B i g Horn, whereas twenty-five served a s sc©uts under Generals Croek and Mckenzie i n the Second Sioux War. A f t e r the Arapahees were assigned t© a r e s e r v a t i o n i n Wyeming i n 1878, T e r r i t o r i a l Governor Hoyt v i s i t e d them t© in v e s t i g a t e i n s i d i o u s rumors of i n s u r r e c t i o n which v/e re c©mm©n t a l k throughout the region. Consultsti©ns w i t h members of t h e i r t r i b e , as w e l l as the Shoshones, wh© shared the same reservati©n, convinced him that the f e a r s were groundless, ' ' ' 16 as he found evidence of only peaceful i n t e n t i o n s among them. Their agent, a l s o , was s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r q u i e t , peaceable 1 7 ' conduct. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was noted again i n l88l, the year that F r i d a y d i e d , when they were described as f r i e n d l y 18 and peaceable "toward a l l mankind." An i n c i d e n t which occurred about 1879 f u r t h e r sub-s t a n t i a t e s t h i s p i c t u r e of the Nerthern Arapahoes as f r i e n d l y and peaceable toward a l l . A small band of Shosh©nes, 15 The Arapahees had charged the Shosh©nes w i t h d u p l i c i t y i n Black Bear's death i n I87O. 16 Op. c i t . Annual Report, I878, pp. 1182-1183. 17 I b i d . , p. 651. 18 I b i d . , 1881, p. I83. 158 having traveled a l l day threugh snow and wind i n the Standing Reck region ©f the Dakotas, came at evening up©n many t i p i s , where meat hung drying up©n poles. Not knowing whether the Indians encamped there were friends ©r enemies, they to©k the chance that they might be given f©©d. A hunting party ©f Arapahoes long t h e i r enemies -- made them welcome, divided them among the i r vari©us t i p i s , f i l l e d t h e i r hungry stomachs with b©iled buffalo meat, and l©dged them f o r the night. Before the Shoshsnes moved on i n the m©rning, the Arapahoes who had fed and lodged these t r a d i t i o n a l enemies, warned them i n sign language to use great care i n leaving, as many Si©ux were camped to the northwest of them, and there '20 they might be f a r less welcome. 19 D. B. Shimkin," "Childh©©d and Development am©ng the Wind River Shosh©ne," Anthr©p©l©gical "Records, v. 5, Berkeley and Los A ngeles, University of C a l i f ©rnia". Press, " 194-3, P« 314-• This incident was related by Piv® Brown, a Sh©sh©ne wh© l i v e d u n t i l 1938. 20 L©c. c i t 1 5 9 B i b l i o g r a p h y L e t t e r s a n d M a n u s c r i p t s C © l l i e r , J © h n . L e t t e r o f J a n u a r y 6 , 1 9 6 2 . ( U . S . C o m m i s s i o n e r ©f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , I933-I94 . 5 . ) J o h n s © n , H a z e l E . L e t t e r e f J a n u a r y 8 , 1 9 6 2 . ( R e g i © n a l V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , C o l e r a d o S t a t e H i s t © r i c a l S o c i e t y . ) M u r p h y , James C . " P e r s o n a l N e t e s T a k e n o n t h e W i n d R i v e r  R e s e r v a t i o n o f W y o m i n g , 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 . N e l s © n , M i l d r e d . I n d e x " t o t h e C h e y e n n e L e a d e r , I867-I890. ( M i c r o f i l m , U n i v e r s i t y o f W y o m i n g . ) R © w l o d g e , J e s s i e . L e t t e r o f J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 6 1 . ( S o u t h e r n A r a p a h © I n d i a n . ) T h u n d e r , " W i l l i a m C . L e t t e r o f D e c e m b e r 2 3 , 1 9 3 8 . ( A r a p a h © I n d i a n , E t h e t e , W y o m i n g . ) G o v e r n m e n t P u b l i c a t i o n s a n d S c i e n t i f i c B u l l e t i n s A n n u a l R e p ® r t o f t h e B e a r d " o f I n d i a n C ® m m i s s i © n e r s ( F i r s t t © E l e v e n t h ) . W a s h i n g t o n , G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , I869 t© I 8 7 9 . 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