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The place of the Northern Arapahoes in the relations between the United States and the Indians of the… Murphy, James C. 1966

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1  THE PLACE OF THE NORTHERN ARAPAHOES IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE INDIANS OF THE PLAINS, 1 8 5 1 — 1879.  by  James C. Murphy B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Wyoming,  1937  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of History  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  'THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1966  In the  presenting  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  for reference  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may his  be  of  without  my  Department  written  of  by  April  Library  study-  the  Head o f my  i s understood  permission.  I966  of  the U n i v e r s i t y  of  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  this thesis  History  30th,  fulfilment  I further  Columbia,  agree for  that  or  copying, or  shall  per-  scholarly  Department  that  for f i n a n c i a l gain  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada* Date  in partial  degree at  the  copying of  It  this thesis  that  and  granted  representatives.,  cation  advanced  Columbia, I agree  available mission  this thesis  not  be  by publi-  allowed  Abstract W h i t e s , commonly c l a s s the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes as a w a r l i k e t r i b e , but they c a l l themselves a p e a c e f u l  people.  T h i s study r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to d i s c o v e r the p a r t o f the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes i n the r e l a t i o n s between the S t a t e s and  United  the I n d i a n s of the p l a i n s f r o m l8£l t© 1879,  a n d  to determine whether they r e a l l y were a p e a c e f u l group. T h i s was  a b e l l i c o s e p e r i o d , i n c l u d i n g r a i d s along  the  P l a t t e , the P©wder R i v e r Wars, the Sand Creek and Washita massacres by w h i t e s , and the Fetterman and C u s t e r massacres by I n d i a n s .  The  N o r t h e r n Arapahoes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the mighty  S i o u x , dreaded by the w h i t e s , and w i t h the Cheyennes, c a l l e d the F i g h t i n g Cheyennes by G r i n n e l l , who  knew them w e l l .  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l works c©ntributed i m p o r t a n t l y to an understanding  ©f p l a i n s I n d i a n c u l t u r e and the  s t r u c t u r e and p r a c t i c e s o f the  Arapahoesj~  societal  Correspsndence  w i t h the I n d i a n O f f i c e and a former Commissioner o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s produced i m p o r t a n t r e f e r e n c e s ©n I n d i a n p o l i c y , used to c l a r i f y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of m a t e r i a l found i n Government reports. I n f o r m a t i o n from g e n e r a l works was p o s s i b l e , and each author's b u l l e t i n s from Colorado  crosschecked  wherever  p r e d i l e c t i o n considered.  Historical  and Wyoming, and e t h e r p e r i o d i c a l s gave  s c r a p s of i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h , u n i m p o r t a n t by themselves, times h e l p e d i n s o l v i n g problems.  some-  Contemporary newspapers,  iii e s p e c i a l l y the Cheyenne Leader, also contributed i n t h i s respect, as w e l l as showing the a t t i t u d e of s e t t l e r s toward the Indians who barred them from the free e x p l o i t a t i o n of lands and resources. An acquaintance  w i t h the Northern Arapahoes, through  residence ©n t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n , contributed toward an understanding of t h e i r character, l e a r n i n g ©f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , developing an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e . Although the P t . aramie Treaty of l8£l was expected to L  usher i n f i f t y years ©f peace between the United States and the Indians ©f the p l a i n s , three f a c t o r s f©red$©med the dream to f a i l u r e : the Indian p o l i c y ©f the United States w i t h i t s v a c i l l a t i o n s and misunderstandings;  p u b l i c a t t i t u d e toward the  Indians, colored by desire f©r t h e i r lands, f e a r of the braves, and a dogmatic f a i t h i n t h e i r own destiny to p©pulate and c i v i l i z e the p l a i n s ; and l a s t l y , the Indian's way of l i f e , which he was l o a t h t© abandon, as i t s a t i s f i e d h i s s o c i a l and emotional needs. Misunderstandings  contributed to clashes between reds  and whites; pressure upon t h e i r lands by gold seekers, stockmen and farmers, and the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r game by immigrants made the Indians apprehensive;  forays of hungry braves sn  s e t t l e r ' s stock, and t h e i r reluctance to abandon t h e i r game ©f i n t e r - t r i b a l r a i d i n g f o r horses, scalps and p r e s t i g e kept the whites on edge. Despite the f a c t that Federal troops waged war against  iv t h e i r SIsux and Cheyenne f r i e n d s a few y e a r s a f t e r the T r e a t y af 18^1, number  n e a r l y f o u r t e e n y e a r s e l a p s e d b e f s r e an a p p r e c i a b l e N o r t h e r n Arapahoes engaged i n h o s t i l i t i e s . Even then  a m a j o r i t y of the t r i b e a b s t a i n e d . D u r i n g the Powder R i v e r Wars, 1865  t e 1868,  mere p a r t i c i p a t e d , but never the e n t i r e  tribe.  Only once d u r i n g the p e r i o d from l8£l t o I879 i s t h e r e any l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a l l ©f the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes' f o u g h t a g a i n s t the whites-* T h i s was  i n the Bates B a t t l e of I87I4,*  an<  ^  erven here: pos-  i t i v e evidence i s l a c k i n g * D u r i n g C u s t e r ' s f i n a l days, when hundreds ©f Sieux: and Cheyennes f a l l o w e d Crazy Horse and S i t - * t i n g B u l l , the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes,  almost t o a man,  refrained  from h o s t i l i t i e s . T h i s f a c t , w i t h o t h e r s of a k i n d r e d n a t u r e , f i n a l l y brought r e c o g n i t i o n by the Government of the p e a c e f u l d i s p o s i t i o n of the N o r t h e r n Arapah®es, On the b a s i s of the e v i d e n c e examined: the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes s h a u l d be c l a s s e d among the most peaceable of the p l a i n s  tribes.  V  Dedicated Scalper Bill  te  and Weman - runs - » u t ,  and Cle»ne C a l l i n g Thunder •f E t h e t e , Wyaming.  vi Acknowledgments The Annual R e p o r t o f the Commissioner of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , l 8 5 3 - l 8 8 l has been o f e s p e c i a l v a l u e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s paper.  T h i s i s t h e c h i e f source t h r o u g h which t h e y e a r  to y e a r movements of the N o r t h e r n Arapah© bands has been t r e c e d , and t h e a t t i t u d e s i n I n d i a n white r e l a t i o n s have become apparent.  The Annual R e p o r t s o f the Board o f I n d i a n Commissioners,  f i r s t t o e l e v e n t h , have als© been h e l p f u l i n b o t h r e s p e c t s , as w e l l as the o t h e r F e d e r a l Government p u b l i c a t i o n s l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y a t the end o f t h i s paper. Leader, I 8 6 7 - I 8 7 9  n a  The Cheyenne  ^ s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g k i t s pages much  Important data n o t a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e , by means o f which the I n d i a n problem was p r e s e n t e d as seen t h r o u g h the eyes o f partisan frontier reporters. The works o f Le^oy H. Hafen and the c o - a u t h o r s o r coe d i t o r s of the v a r i o u s volumes used, c o n t r i b u t e d much v a l uable i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the peace and war a c t i v i t i e s of the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes, among w h i c k appeared t h e unique peace p r o p o s a l w h i c h B l a c k Bear's band msde t o C o l o n e l  Sawyers  i n t h e B i g Horns o f Wy» ing, a f t e r a t t a c k i n g h i s wagon t r a i n . m  The w r i t i n g s o f Ge©rge A. Dersey, A l f r e d E. Kroeber and H a r o l d E. D r i v e r h e l p e d i m p o r t a n t l y i n d e v e l o p i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Arapah© s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e .  The L i f e , L e t t e r s and T r a v e l s  of F a t h e r P i e r r e - J e a n De Smet, S. J . ,  I80I-I873,  e d i t e d by  C h i t t e n d e n and R i c h a r d s o n , gave an e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g and  vii u s e f u l account o f the F t . Laramie T r e a t y o f l 8 £ l , and Other Americans, by Fey and M c N i c k e l  Indians  presented  a picture  of U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n p o l i c y w h i c h was borne i n mind throughout the w r i t i n g o f t h i s paper, though l i t t i e m a t e r i a l was t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m i t .  The F i g h t i n g Cheyennes, by George  B i r d G r i n n e l l , a f f o r d e d I n f o r m a t i o n which f i l l e d i n t h e gaps i n the semi-independent a c t i v i t i e s o f N o r t h e r n Arapaho  bands.  E s p e c i a l thanks i s due t© the L i b r a r i a n s a t the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Washington  and Oregon i n s u p p l y i n g  references  not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e c l o s e r by; t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f Wyoming f o r the m i c r o f i l m , Index t o the Cheyenne Leader. to the Wyoming S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l Department  1867-1890;  f o r the m i c r o f i l m  of the Cheyenne Leader, 1867-1879, and the use o f t h e i r  equip-  ment; t o the S t a t e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f Colorado f o r the Rocky Mountain News p h o t o s t a t , and f o r o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n ; and t o the L i b r a r y s t a f f o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h o u t whose p a t i e n t , c o r d i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h i s paper c o u l d net have been w r i t t e n . G r a t i t u d e i s due t a John C o l l i e r , S r . , former U n i t e d S t a t e s Commissioner o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , f o r d i r e c t and suggested r e a d i n g s policy. Arapaho  ©n U n i t e d S t a t e s G©vernment  information Indian  Thanks i s als© due t o J e s s i e Rewlodge, S o u t h e r n I n d i a n who v i s i t e d i n Wyoming, f o r i n f o r m a t i o n which  o n l y an Arapaho otherwise  c o u l d s u p p l y , used t o c l a r i f y a s i t u a t i o n  d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n .  F i n a l l y i s due a b e l a t e d  e x p r e s s i o n of g r a t i t u d e t o W i l l i a m C. Thunder and h i s w i f e ,  viii Cleone —  the l a t t e r a descendant  o f Henry N o r t h , and  Ba-yet, the woman who escaped from the Utes i n the e a r l y l 3 6 0 s and m a r r i e d the white man who a i d e d h e r i n r e t u r n i n g tes her p e o p l e .  These two, W i l l i a m and Cleone Thunder, gave  a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n when they c©uld, and when unable t o do s©, l e d on t o o t h e r i n f o r m a n t s whose knowledge o f t h e i r p e o p l e , the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes ©f Wyoming, was g r e a t e r than t h e i r own.  Table o f Contents Chap. 1  A P i c t u r e ©f Troublous Times; A View ©f Indian-White R e l a t i o n s h i p s on the Great P l a i n s ' o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1851 t o 1879.  1  Chap. 2  Tb. N o r t h e r n Arapaho I n d i a n s .  30  Chap. 3  T r e a t y ©f 1 8 5 1 as the H o p e f u l Promise o f a New E r a .  Chap. Ij.  e  D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and D i s t r u s t Appear, 1851-1861.  Chap. Chap.  5  6  Chap. 7  67  The Powder R i v e r War, l 8 ' 6 £ - l 8 6 8 . A Temporary R e s p i t e i s Gained.  88  Land P r e s s u r e and Sp«radic W a r f a r e , 103  The Second Sl©ux War and the Loss a f T r i b a l Lands, I 8 7 V - I 8 7 8 .  Chap. 9  56  The C i v i l War P e r i o d , 1 8 6 1 - 1 8 6 5 . ' C o n f l i c t E r u p t s on a Br®ad S c a l e .  1863-1871]-.  Chap. 8  lj.8  The End e f the T r a i l , 1 8 7 9 .  Bibliography  132 ^  Q  15*9  1 Chap. 1 A P i c t u r e e f Troublous Times; a View ef Indian-White R e l a t i o n s h i p s on the Great P l a i n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1851 te 1879 E a s t e f the Rocky Mountains the Great P l a i n s o f North America r u n through the U n i t e d States from n o r t h t e south, s p i l l i n g ever the Mexican border a t the southern end, and broadening  Inte the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s o f Canada i n the n o r t h .  The p e r t i e n w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s forms a v a s t area seme 1300 m i l e s l o n g and up t e 600 m i l e s In w i d t h . elevation ef scarcely  2000  From an  f e e t a t the e a s t e r n f r i n g e ,  they  r i s e g r a d u a l l y toward the west, b l e n d i n g w i t h the f o o t h i l l s e f the Rockies a t a l t i t u d e s e f lj.000 t e  6000  feet.  They  embrace the g r e a t e r p a r t e f the s t a t e s e f North and South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas, i n c l u d e p o r t i o n s e f Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana, and are heme t e  7,000,000  people.  Except f e r the h i l l s ,  streams and canyons which  o c c a s i o n a l l y break t h e i r s u r f a c e , the topography i s smooth and n e a r l y t r e e l e s s ever thousands e f square m i l e s , and monotonous i n i t s r e g u l a r i t y .  A t s u n r i s e and sunset shadows  s t r e t c h e n d l e s s l y , I t seems, a c r o s s the p r a i r i e , l o n g , dark, u n g a i n l y appendages, d i s t o r t e d w i t h every v a r i a t i o n e f the ground.  B r i l l i a n t sunshine  and b l u e s k i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e the  r e g i o n summer and w i n t e r , f o r the a i r i s d r y , p r e c i p i t a t i o n s l i g h t and the e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e h i g h .  Unbroken winds o f  h i g h v e l o c i t y whip s o i l and d r y snow from the e a r t h te produce  2  dust storms o r ground b l i z z a r d s .  L o c a l c l o u d b u r s t s occur  from time to time, f i l l i n g hollows which have been d r y f o r y e a r s , or g e n e r a t i n g f l a s h f l o o d s and wreaking changes o f temperature  havoc.  Rapid  take p l a c e : w i t h the approach ®f a  c o l d f r o n t the thermometer may drop lj.0, £ 0 o r 60 degrees i n a few hours; c o n v e r s e l y , the warming Chinook wind may b r i n g a r i s e o f e i g h t degrees  i n t e n minutes.  Open w i n t e r s a r e  common, but when the b l i z z a r d s t r i k e s , low temperatures, s t i n g i n g wind and d u s t l i k e , b l i n d i n g snow b l o t out the landscape,  t i e up t r a f f i c and d e s t r o y game, l i v e s t o c k and  sometimes human l i f e .  Yet the tremendous openness, the  c l e a r , unobstructed v i s i o n and the wide h o r i z o n s e x e r t a hypnotic appeal upon the p l a i n s d w e l l e r . In  the days b e f o r e the f i r s t  plow broke the p r a i r i e the  l a n d was covered w i t h s h o r t , n a t i v e grasses — still  are —  hardy, drought  feed f o r b u f f a l o or c a t t l e .  as p a r t s o f i t  resistant, nutritious,  excellent  Sagebrush covered unmeasured  a c r e s ; cactus and soapweed (a d i m i n u t i v e yucca) appeared i n spots and patches; b l u e i s l a n d s o f l a r k s p u r b e a u t i f i e d the rangeland I n e a r l y summer; w i l d sunflowers blossomed l a t e r i n the season wherever they c o u l d f i n d a t o e h o l d .  Cotton-  woods grew a l o n g the water courses, where s u f f i c i e n t  moisture  could be had; box e l d e r s y i e l d e d sap to t h e Indians i n l i e u o f maple syrup; i n canyons and on r o c k y h i l l s i d e s grew the ponderosa p i n e , which, once r o o t e d , w i t h s t o o d b i t i n g winds and draught;  the j u n i p e r (or r e d cedar, as i t i s c a l l e d ) was  3 s i m i l a r l y found; lodgepole f o r t r a v e l s and and other  p i n e s , e s s e n t i a l to the  Indians  t i p i poles made stands i n the Black  Hills  uplands.  Today the l a n d supports v a s t acreages of wheat, c o r n , alfalfa  and d i v e r s e c r o p s .  Dams on the M i s s o u r i , P l a t t e  other r i v e r s produce power f o r the r e g i o n and  irrigation for  f a v o r e d s e c t i o n s , but dry f a r m i n g i s f a r more e x t e n s i v e irrigated agriculture. and  Unbroken rangeland  sub-marginal farmland  cattle  grazing.  The  has been r e c l a i m e d f o r sheep  and  O i l w e l l s and r e f i n e r i e s have sprouted i n  l a r g e r c i t i e s such as Denver and  manufacturing,  than  encourages r a n c h i n g ,  many s e c t i o n s ; c o a l , i r o n , copper and o t h e r m i n e r a l s mined.  and  s l a u g h t e r i n g , packing and  are  Omaha c o n t r i b u t e  s h i p p i n g , to produce  a d i v e r s i f i e d economy. Although  t r a p p e r s and  t r a d e r s had l o n g s i n c e  penetrated  the p l a i n s and Rocky Mountains, census r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e no white p o p u l a t i o n f o r the r e g i o n i n l8£0. Indians were e s t i m a t e d .  1  More than £0,000  Immigrants to Oregon and  California,  unable to l e a p the p l a i n s , f o l l o w e d the l o n g , t e d i o u s  2  trails  a c r o s s them.  1 "Message of the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s to the Two Houses of Congress," T h i r t y - s e c o n d Congress E x e c u t i v e Document No. 2. Washington, A. Boyd Hamilton, 1051, P. 289. The f i g u r e was used by P r e s i d e n t F i l l m o r e . 2 C h a r l e s A. and Mary R. Beard, The R i s e of American C i v i l i z a t i o n . (Revised E d i t i o n ) , New York, Macmillan Co., 1933, 1, P« 612. In l e s s than a month i n 1850 more than 18,000 people c r o s s e d the M i s s o u r i on t h e i r way to C a l i f o r n i a , where the p o p u l a t i o n had a l r e a d y reaohed 92,000. By i860 i t rose to 380,000.  il-  The  p l a i n s themselves were Indian l a n d ; great herds o f  buffalo s t i l l  grazed  thereon,  numbers a p p r e c i a b l y —  though whites had reduced  and the Indians r e s e n t e d t h i s  Bands o f antelope foraged on the g r a s s , while  their  intrusion.  i n the h i l l s  both deer and e l k a f f o r d e d a change o f d i e t t o the r e d men. As y e t ns highway c r o s s e d the p l a i n s , b u t c l o s e to the l o n g tortuous streams, t r a i l s  were worn by horse  and b u l l o c k  hoofs, and r u t s c u t deep by the wheels o f many wagons.  Though  plans f o r a r a i l r o a d t o the P a c i f i c r e c e i v e d s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n Washington, n i n e t e e n years would pass b e f o r e i t became a f a c t .  When t h e white men k i l l e d  o r drove o f f game  and t h e i r stock devoured the pasture near the t r a i l s , the p a t i e n c e of the Indians wore t h i n .  W i t h a thorough know-  ledge of the l a n d , w i t h the m o b i l i t y needed to l i v e w i t h a l i f e which taught  from i t ,  them how t o s t r i k e and disappear,  the mounted braves h e l d the whip hand.  I t was a t r i b u t e t o  t h e i r magnanimity t h a t many immigrants c r o s s e d the p l a i n s alive. By 1879 the p i c t u r e had a l t e r e d .  White men  possessed  the b u l k o f the l a n d ; unwanted confinement on comparatively s m a l l r e s e r v a t i o n s was the l o t ©f the I n d i a n s ; the b u f f a l o , for  generations  the d a i l y bread o f the a b o r i g i n e s , had  dwindled almost to t h e v a n i s h i n g p o i n t , and w i t h i n a few y e a r s would e x i s t only as a c u r i o s i t y and t o u r i s t  attraction.  C a t t l e and sheep by the hundreds o f thousands had r e p l a c e d  5 the indigenous bovines o f the p l a i n s .  3  Oregon's  fertile  lands and C a l i f o r n i a ' s g o l d a t t r a c t e d thousands of immigrants who went  'round Cape Horn,  to the Isthmus of Panama,  a c r o s s the p l a i n s to r e a c h t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n .  or  The d i s c o v e r y  of g o l d i n C o l o r a d o , Montana and Wyoming, and the f r e e  land  o f the Homestead Act brought o t h e r thousands to the p l a i n s ; and where g o l d seekers  or ranchers moved i n , almost i n v a r i a b l y  the Indians were f o r c e d to move o u t . l i n e and the pony e x p r e s s , came and went;  the f i r s t  The c r o s s - c o u n t r y  stage  each s e r v i n g an i n t e r i m purpose,  r a i l r o a d to the P a c i f i c operated i n  1869; three more were w e l l under way by 1879* the had preceded the r a i l r o a d across the Nebraska and Colorado had a t t a i n e d  continent.  statehood;  telegraph Kansas,  Montana, North  and South Dakota and Wyoming would f o l l o w s u i t w i t h i n a few years.  Some two m i l l i o n whites made t h e i r homes on the  P l a i n s by 1879. was gone  Great  The independence ©f the b i s o n - h u n t i n g Indians  forever.  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n on the p l a i n s from 1850 to I879 d i d not occur without p a i n and t u r m o i l , f o r these were times.  troublous  As the game on wa i c h they depended f o r f o o d ,  and s h e l t e r dwindled under the  impact of the w h i t e s ,  clothing the  3 Edward E v e r e t t D a l e . The Range C a t t l e I n d u s t r y , Norman, U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma P r e s s , 1930, p p . 100-102. Dale shows t h a t by 1885 members of the ?/yoming Stock Growers A s s o c i a t i o n (founded twelve years e a r l i e r ) owned about 2,000,000 head ©f c a t t l e i n Wyoming, C o l o r a d o , Nebraska, Montana and Dakota. I4. Montana and both Dakota3 gained t h i s s t a t u s i n 1889, and Wyoming the f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  6  Indians s u f f e r e d hunger and p r i v a t i o n .  D i s s e n s i o n brewed,  t r o u b l e a r r i v e d and there were few d u l l y e a r s .  The  d i f f i c u l t i e s of three decades w i l l be b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d , as w e l l as s e v e r a l  important f a c t o r s behind them.  The Treaty of P o r t Laramie,  1851,  ushered i n dreams  of f i f t y years of peace; but misunderstanding brought tragedy.  The chance meeting of a lame cow and a hungry  5 Sioux begot  the G r a t t a n Massacre of l85l|..  young o f f i c e r ,  A boastful  bent n e e d l e s s l y upon p u n i t i v e measures,  had  f a i l e d to l e a r n t h a t cannon and t a c t l e s s blunder would not s e t t l e the I n d i a n problems. avenged h i s s l a u g h t e r a l l e g e d depredations  The next year General Harney  by c h a s t i s i n g the B r u l e S i o u x . C o l o n e l Sumner a t t a c k e d  and  Por  defeated  •7 the Cheyennes i n 1857.  As the  stream of immigrants  expanded,  5 George B i r d G r i n n e l , The F i g h t i n g Cheyennes. New Y o r k , C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1915, P« 105. The cow had s t r a y e d from a Mormon immigrant t r a i n near F t . Laramie i n southeastern Wyoming. When i t was d i s c o v e r e d that a young Sioux had butchered the a n i m a l , G r a t t a n , f r e s h out of West P o i n t , approached the c h i e f of the Sioux band w i t h guns and t h r e a t s . The r e s u l t was that a matter which c o u l d w e l l have been peaceably s e t t l e d ended i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f G r a t t a n and h i s command. 6  Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s ,  1855, Washington, G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , lS5b, p p . 39B-1+.01.  This w i l l h e r e a f t e r be c i t e d as Annual R e p o r t , w i t h the noted.  year  7 J . P. Dunn, Massacres of the Mountains, New Y o r k , Archer House, 1958, p p . 211 f .  7 the game supply d i m i n i s h e d f u r t h e r ,  I n d i a n alarm i n t e n s i f i e d ,  and hungry red men helped themselves men's s t o c k .  Settlers  likewise increased.  1  to more of the white  f e a r of the n a t i v e s '  In l 8 6 l  treachery  the C i v i l War brought rumors  of an Indian-Confederate S t a t e s a l l i a n c e ,  a fear  accentuated  by the great e a s t e r n Sioux u p r i s i n g ©f 1 8 6 2 , when more than  8 700 whites i n Minnesota d i e d w i t h i n a week.  By X861+. s p o r a d i c  depredations i n Colorado I n t e n s i f i e d the s e t t l e r s gave credence  to the r e p o r t  1  f e a r s , who  of an i n t e r - t r i b a l c o a l i t i o n to  d r i v e the whites out of the p l a i n s .  In Colorado n e a r l y  ranch a l o n g the road from J u l e s b e r g to B i g Sandy, a  every  "distance  9 of 370 m i l e s " was s h o r t l y d e s e r t e d .  Colonel Chivington's  massacre of f r i e n d l y Arapahoes and Cheyennes at Colorado seemed a n a t u r a l r e s u l t , white t r e a c h e r y  v a s t l y Increased.  fearsome r e t a l i a t i o n f o l l o w e d . Sioux r a i d e d along the P l a t t e ; Julesberg,  northeast  Sand Creek,  but I n d i a n apprehension o f V i o l e n c e b a l l o o n e d , and  Cheyennes, Arapahoes and the Overland Stage depot  C o l o r a d o , twice was h i t ;  terror  at  spread  8 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p p . 128-129. On the western p l a i n s even f r i e n d l y Indians were suspected of t r e a c h e r y . The e a s t e r n Sioux were r e l a t e d t o , but not i d e n t i c a l w i t h the Sioux of the western p l a i n s . 9 Op. c i t . Annual Report I86I1. p . 2^ii, The q u o t a t i o n i s from the l e t t e r of George O t i s , general superintendent o f the Overland M a i l L i n e , to W i l l i a m P. D o l e , Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s .  8 throughout  the P l a t t e v a l l e y .  10  Since punishment must f o l l o w ,  General Connor s t r u c k the red men i n t h e i r homeland and began the F i r s t Powder R i v e r War i n 1865. b u i l d i n g of the Bozeman T r a i l  11  Indian r e s i s t a n c e to  the  through t h e i r h u n t i n g grounds  presaged the Second Powder R i v e r War, which soon ensued. Peace came i n 1868, f o l l o w e d by comparative  q u i e t , but minor  c o n f l i c t continued i n Wyoming's Sweetwater mining In the m i d - s e v e n t i e s  the  district.  Indian Bureau boasted  that  12 results  had " f u l l y  justified" its  peace p o l i c y .  Had the  ears of the Commissioner of I n d i a n A f f a i r s been b e t t e r attuned to the s i g n a l s of the time, he might have t h a t hoof beats on the d i s t a n t  realized  p l a i n s marked d e s e r t i o n  of  the agencies by hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne w a r r i o r s , gone to  j o i n C h i e f Crazy Horse and the medicine man,  Sitting Bull, encroachments. 10.  Sioux l e a d e r s  out to r e s i s t the white man's  S h i v e r s of excitement ran through the  Op. c i t . ,  Grinnell,  p p . 181-182.  11 I b i d . . pp. 2 0 ^ - 2 0 5 . This was the Powder R i v e r r e g i o n of n o r t h e r n Wyoming and southern Montana, where game was f a r more p l e n t i f u l than elsewhere; thus the t r i b e s o f Northern Cheyennes and Arapahoes, and the bands o f Sioux w i t h which they shared the P l a t t e Agency spent much time t h e r e . 12 Op. c i t . , Annual Report 1875, P. 5 3 L The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a i n s of the Union P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d had been running u n d i s t u r b e d , as I n d i a n d i f f i c u l t i e s had waned. Moreover, although hundreds o f miners and p i l g r i m s (In v i o l a t i o n o f the T r e a t y of 1868) had swarmed over Sioux c o u n t r y , i n c l u d i n g the Black H i l l s i n t h e i r search f o r g o l d , no f i g h t i n g had r e s u l t e d . "And with any k i n d and f i r m treatment" b e a r i n g "a resemblance to j u s t i c e , there w i l l be no s e r i o u s c o n t e n t i o n w i t h t h i s powerful t r i b e h e r e a f t e r . "  9 settlements. nation,  Then i n 1876 came the news which shocked the  the w i p i n g out of Custer and h i s e n t i r e  the B a t t l e  command i n  of the L i t t l e B i g Horn i n Montana.  Three f a c t o r s of g r e a t importance i n p r o d u c i n g t h i s unfortunate  s t a t e of a f f a i r s w i l l be r e v i e w e d .  the I n d i a n p o l i c y of the F e d e r a l Government.  First  was  Under the War  Department from 1832 to I8I4.9 mismanagement and d i s c o u r a g i n g  13 r e s u l t s had c h a r a c t e r i z e d  the Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s .  Too f r e q u e n t l y m i l i t a r y f o r c e had antagonized the  Indians  r a t h e r than p a c i f y i n g them; so i n I8I4.9, convinced t h a t c i v i l i a n s c o u l d b e t t e r cope w i t h the s i t u a t i o n , transferred of the  Congress  I n d i a n A f f a i r s to the r e c e n t l y - c r e a t e d  Interior.  Department  The b e l i e f and hope was t h a t an era  of great  1*1promise would be ushered i n . coercion,  With kindness s u b s t i t u t e d f o r  w i t h benevolent and m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s  to  assist,  the Indians might be guided a l o n g the pathway to c i v i l i z a t i o n . The Indian Bureau i n i t s new s e t t i n g achieved i t s f i r s t accomplishment w i t h the s i g n i n g o f the F t . 1851, its  major  Laramie Treaty ©f  a seeming triumph and v i n d i c a t i o n of the p o l i c y behind  own t r a n s f e r .  At t h i s  time i t propounded a course  based  13 Tenth Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissione r s . 1878. Washington. Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1879* P . 1 0 . Time and a g a i n i n I n d i a n Bureau r e p o r t s Indian antagonism to the m i l i t a r y Is p o i n t e d o u t . On v a r i o u s occasions they r e quested c i v i l i a n r a t h e r than m i l i t a r y a g e n t s . ^ OP. c i t . , "Message from the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s to the Two Houses o f C o n g r e s s " , p . 3 .  10 upen the n e g o t i a t i o n of t r e a t i e s w i t h , and the payment of a n n u i t i e s to the P l a i n s I n d i a n t r i b e s . interpreters  ^Hiring n e g o t i a t i o n s  would e x p l a i n the t r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s se misunder-  s t a n d i n g c o u l d net creep i n ; the Indians must be convinced t h a t the government Intended to be e n t i r e l y f a i r .  The  purpose was t h r e e f o l d : t o acquire a r i g h t of way through the Indian l a n d s , t o g a i n the good w i l l o f the a b o r i g i n e s , and t o render them s u f f i c i e n t l y dependent upon the i s s u e of a n n u i t i e s as to i n s u r e t h e i r subservience t o the w i l l  of  the government. With the passage  of a dozen years and s e v e r a l Indian  campaigns the s o l u t i o n to the problem of the b u f f a l o - h u n t i n g natives  seemed n© c l o s e r .  By t h i s time the accepted  practice  was the use ©f f © r c e t© "induce t h e i r consent" t© n e g © t i a t e , then t© make t r e a t i e s w i t h them.  Following President Grant's  i n a u g u r a t i o n i n I 8 6 9 , a f r e s h attempt p e a c e f u l means gained s u p p © r t . ©f the I n t e r i o r  16  necessary;  to win them ©ver by  N©ne the l e s s ,  the  Secretary  s t r e s s e d the f a c t t h a t f © r c e might be  and the B©ard ©f Indian C©mmissloners a d v © c a t e d  s u p p o r t i n g the agents w i t h m i l i t a r y f © r c e when needed, 15  Op. c i t .  Annual Rep©rt 186J4., p .  thus  10.  16 Rep©rt ©f the S e c r e t a r y ©f the I n t e r i © r , Washington, G©vt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1073, p . i l l . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t the purpose ©f the " s © - c a l l e d " peace p © l i c y was t© get the I n d i a n s ©n r e s e r v a t i o n s as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e . Resistance on t h e i r p a r t w©uld be countered by the use © f a l l needed s e v e r i t y " t© place them t h e r e .  11  sparing  them t h e i g n o m i n y o f " b e i n g t h e t o y s o r t o o l s  lawless  savages".  of  17 to c i v i l i z i n g  Believing that  influences  as t h e y h a d b u f f a l o  resistance  c o u l d n o t be b r o k e n down a s  to hunt, the I n t e r i o r  c o n g r e s s i o n a l measures  Department  long opposed  to prevent  ©f t h e s e a n i m a l s i n U n i t e d  the " u s e l e s s s l a u g h t e r " 18 States' t e r r i t o r y . O n l y when  t h e y had v a n i s h e d f r o m t h e p l a i n s c©nfined  the I n d i a n s '  t© r e s e r v a t i o n s ,  c©uld  t h e r e d men  l e a r n to c u l t i v a t e  their  be individual  19 land allotments,  and l i v e  like  white  men.  17 S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e B©ard ©f I n d i a n C e m m l s s l o n e r s , 187J4-, W a s h i n g t o n , G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 » 7 5 , P* o 2 . When he t r i e d t o c o u n t t h e i r l o d g e s i n 187^, A g e n t S a v i l l e was a r r e s t e d by S i o u x I n d i a n s new t o t h e R e d C l o u d A g e n c y , gr©ups w h i c h h a d n©t s i g n e d the T r e a t y o f 1868. Seven hundred " r e g u l a r " a g e n c y I n d i a n s came t© h i s r e s c u e - S l © u x , Cheyennes and A r a p a h a e s . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r f i v e c o m p a n i e s ©f tr©©ps were s t a t i o n e d a t P t . R © b e r t s © n ( n e a r C h a d r © n , N e b r a s k a ) t© p r o t e c t the agency. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , when 26 t r e o p s were s e n t t© s u p p r e s s a n o t h e r i n s u r r e c t i o n o f n © n - t r e a t y S i © u x , t h e " r e g u l a r " I n d i a n s h a d t© r e s c u e n e t © n l y t h e a g e n t , b u t t h e tr©»ps as w e l l . (Op. c i t . A n n u a l R e p © r t , 1875, p. 87.) 18 C ® n g r e s s i © n a l R e c a r d . F i r s t S e s s i o n , l87l|-, W a s h i n g t o n , G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1875, P. ° 2 . Representative James A. G a r f i e l d , who became P r e s i d e n t ©f t h e U. S. i n 1881, als© sp©ke s t r © n g l y a g a i n s t any c © n t r © l m e a s u r e . The R e p © r t e f t h e S e c r e t a r y ©f t h e I n t e r i © r , Op. c i t . , p . v i , sh©ws t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y , a l s © , fav©red t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u f f a l © t© h a s t e n t h e I n d i a n s ' dependence " u p © n the p r o d u c t s © f t h e s©il a n d t h e i r © w n l a b © r s " . 19 E v i d e n c e s ©f t h e extreme i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d u p o n t h e gospel of i n d i v i d u a l allotments — c o m p l e t e l y f o r e i g n t© t h e c u l t u r e ©f t h e P l a i n s I n d i a n s — may be f © u n d i n S e n a t e Document N © . 319, I n d i a n A f f a i r s , Laws a n d T r e a t i e s , v . 2 , W a s h i n g t o n , G © v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 190I}.. I t Is stressed i n t h e S i e u x T r e a t y ©f 1868. pp. 9 9 8 - I O O 3 , t h e N o r t h e r n A r a p a h © and Cheyenne T r e a t y o f 1868, p p . 1 0 1 2 - 1 0 1 5 . t h e S o u t h e r n Cheyenne a n d A r a p a h © T r e a t y ®f I 8 6 7 , p p . 98I4.-985, and i n vari©us ©ther t r e a t i e s .  12 A month, a f t e r the supervision returned  Custer debacle  t e m p o r a r i l y to  o f 1876 m i l i t a r y  the f i v e agencies which  served the v a r i o u s bands of western S i o u x .  Proponents  of a  p o l i c y of f o r c e demanded that I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e v e r t to War Department. b e l i e v e d the e f f e c t the  Backed by t h i s h i g h l y v o c a l group who  Indians should be soundly drubbed, a b i l l  t r a n s f e r was passed by the House of  s c a r c e l y an e x c e p t i o n  21  the  to  Representatives,  but the Senate h e l d i t u p , pending i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  opposed t©  the  20  With  Indians were " u n q u a l i f i e d l y "  it.  Throughout these y e a r s Indian p o l i c y was c o n s i s t e n t i n o n l y ©ne r e s p e c t .  T h i s has been s u c c i n c t l y  s t a t e d by  John C o l l i e r , Commissioner of I n d i a n A f f a i r s from 1933 " G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , " he s a i d ,  19^5.  "the mere  to  obliteration  22 ©f Indianheod was the h i s t o r i c a l p o l i c y . P u b l i c a t t i t u d e toward the Indians c o n s t i t u t e d  a  second  important f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the d i f f i c u l t i e s between the r e d men and the white d u r i n g these years of t r o u b l e , predilections  of western  s e t t l e r s being e s p e c i a l l y  the  significant.  20 Op. c i t . Tenth Annual Report o f the Board o f Indian Commissioners. 187B» P . 9* he t r a n s f e r was not approved by the Senate. T  Sr.,  21  I b i d . , p.  22  L e t t e r from former I n d i a n Commissioner John C o l l i e r  J a n . 6,  I962.  10.  13 It  i s not strange that they l o s t l i t t l e  l o v e upon those  wh©se r i g h t s f r e q u e n t l y n u l l i f i e d t h e i r e f f o r t s the resources  and lands which they c o v e t e d ,  t® o b t a i n  e s p e c i a l l y when  they f e l t that the Indians n e i t h e r weuld nor c o u l d put them t© proper u s e .  In a d d i t i o n , f e a r of the w a r r i o r s ®f the  p l a i n s e x i s t e d as an e v e r - p r e s e n t emotions.  reality  In the press ©f the r e g i o n p e r i o d s © c c u r r e d when  weekly, and s©metimes d a i l y r e p o r t s  23  appeared.  t© werk up©n t h e i r  ©f I n d i a n depredations  The f a c t that m©st ©f these were b i a s e d and © t h e r s  f a l s e d i d not l e s s e n t h e i r In v a r i o u s h i s t o r i e s as i n c©nterap©rary r e p o r t s  effect. ©f the r e g i o n under s t u d y , as w e l l and documents,  white s e t t l e r s are r e f l e c t e d .  the f e e l i n g s ©f the  F a l l o w i n g the T r e a t y ©f 1851,  Ceutant claims i n the H i s t o r y ©f Wyoming, the r e d u c t i e n of g a r r i s o n at F t .  Laramie r e s u l t e d i n Indian i n s o l e n c e .  r e d - c @ m p l e x l © n e d l o r d s ©f the s © i l ,  he a s s e r t s ,  by n o t h i n g except the r a b b i n g ©f t r a i n s  the  The  were p l e a s e d  and the k i l l i n g and  25 s c a l p i n g @f white men.  B a n c r o f t c o n t r a s t s the c e n s u r i n g ©f  C©l®nel C h i v i n g t e n f © r h i s massacre ©f Cheyennes and Arapahoes 23 M i l d r e d Nels©n, Index to the Cheyenne Leader, 1867-1890. ( M i c r © f i l m ) A study ©f the index i n d i c a t e s t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e fr©m 1867 to 1877. 2k Chaplin, 2  5  that  C . S. Cautant, The H i s t o r y ©f Wyoming, Laramie, S p a f f © r d and M a t h i s o n , 1 « 9 9 , P. 3 1 0 . Ibid.,  p.  319.  1^ at  Sand Creek, C o l o r a d o , with, the r e s o l u t i o n of thanks  to him  26 which was passed by the T e r r i t o r i a l L e g i s l a t u r e His  own f e e l i n g of a p p r o v a l i s apparent.  wrote at a l a t e r d a t e ,  Even Hebard, who  seems t© have caught something o f  same s p i r i t ,  although she g e n e r a l l y  sympathy f o r  the  shows f a r  Indians than do e i t h e r  Governor E v a n s '  (I86I1),  historians.  she  assumption t h a t none of the  intended to be f r i e n d l y , on the  the  greater  of the o l d e r  In her background of the Sand Creek a f f a i r justifies  of C o l o r a d o !  Indians  grounds that they f a i l e d to  27 respond to h i s c a l l f o r them to come i n and c o n f e r w i t h h i m . She says furthermore f i n a l l y reported  that when B l a c k K e t t l e ' s  f o r a conference,  Cheyenne's  the governor was  fully  28 aware of t h e i r  insincerity.  There i s reason  b o t h of these statements f a l l shown i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . and  Indian f i g h t e r  o f the  short of f a c t ,  to b e l i e v e  that  which w i l l be  C a p t a i n H . G. N i c k e r s o n , a  settler  Sweetwater and Wind R i v e r r e g i o n s  of  29 Wyoming, r eu fbeerrrte dH. toB a nthe of thato farea ast H. Inhuman 26 H c r o fIndians t , The Works Huber B a n c r fo ifetn ,ds. v . 25, H i s t o r y o f N e v a d a . C o l o r a d o a n d Wyoming, I 5 l l 0 - l 8 8 8 . San F r a n c i s c o , t h e H i s t o r y Co., 188b ( l b § 0 ) , p . 1^66. B a n c r o f t w a s t e s l i t t l e sympathy on most o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e r e g i o n , and none a t a l l on t h e A r a p a h o e s . 27 G r a c e Raymond H e b a r d a n d E . A. B r i n i n s t o o l , The Bozeman T r a i l , C l e v e l a n d , t h e A r t h u r H. C l a r k Co., 1 9 2 2 , v . P. 127. 28  State  Loc. c i t .  29 H. G. N i c k e r s o n , " E a r l y H i s t o r y o f F r e m o n t C o u n t y , " o f Wyoming H i s t o r i c a l D e p t . Q u a r t e r l y B u l l e t i n , v . 2,  J u l y 15,  1924., P. 3 .  1,  15 Since he s p e c i f i e d only t h a t the hostile,  Indians i n q u e s t i o n were  he probably meant the S i o u x , Cheyennes and Arapahoes,  as the only other  Indians present  Shoshones, who were not c o n s i d e r e d  I n the 1870s were the hostile.  With the f o u n d i n g of Cheyenne, Wyoming, and the i o n of the Cheyenne D a l l y Leader i n I 8 6 7 , s i m i l a r of the p u b l i c mind appeared i n the p r e s s . the t a r g e t s was the  (Indian)  publicat-  reflections  Not the l e a s t  of  peace p o l i c y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s  Government, and the Quaker i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s . the P t .  Thus the s p i r i t of c o n c i l i a t i o n which graced  Laramie Treaty of 1868 (ending the Powder R i v e r War),  drew b i t i n g c r i t i c i s m ,  ^he e d i t o r of the Leader  predicted  that there c o u l d be no peace " u n t i l the r o v i n g d e s t r o y e r s  are  whipped i n t o s u b j e c t i o n . . . a n d humbly beg f o r l i f e and mercy on any terms which s h a l l be d i c t a t e d by the I n v i n c i b l e whites...."  30  At a l a t e r date he c o i n e d a gem of s a t i r e  in  a s c r i b i n g the murder of a Sweetwater s e t t l e r to "Quaker  "31 applesauce". The r i g h t s  of Indians had t h e i r champions, but o n l y a  brave person would speak In t h e i r d e f e n s e .  At the  investi-  g a t i o n of the Sand Creek massacre one such i n d i v i d u a l 30  The Cheyenne Leader,  31  Ibid.,  Sept. 18,  A p r i l 3 , 1868.  1872.  testified  (Microfilm)  16 that te "speak f r i e n d l y e f an I n d i a n " was " n e a r l y as much as a man's l i f e  i s worth".  3 2  The h o s t i l i t y toward Indians which t y p i f i e d the was d u p l i c a t e d by the governor and l e g i s l a t u r e Territory.  press  of Wyoming  In h i s message to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i n  November, 1875, Governor Thayer dwelt upon the i n j u s t i c e e x p e l l i n g miners from the B l a c k H i l l s  of  ( i n Dakota T e r r i t o r y ) ,  whereas the S i o u x , Cheyennes and Arapahees c o n t i n u a l l y v i o l a t e d the boundaries set  f o r them by the T r e a t y of 1868.  The Black H i l l s w i t h t h e i r p r e c i o u s m e t a l s , o f no use te 33 ment.  he s a i d , were  the w i l d Indians who prevented t h e i r  develep-  Since 1868 the " I n d i a n marauders" had s t o l e n more  than $600,000 worth o f stock and s l a i n s e v e n t y - t h r e e engaged i n l a w f u l p u r s u i t s .  Yet he knew of no case i n which  an Indian had l o s t h i s stock nor l i f e at w h i t e s , w i t h ©ne e x c e p t i o n ,  citizens  the hands ef  the k i l l i n g of f o u r  the  (Arapahoes) 3^  by a s h e r i f f ' s p a r t y which pursued them f o r s t e a l i n g  horses.  I f the governor spoke the t r u t h he must have been unaware ©f a number of such i n c i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g the f l a g r a n t o f the Arapaho c h i e f ,  Black Bear,  shooting  and t e n other men, women  and c h i l d r e n i n h i s unarmed p a r t y of f o u r t e e n who, en t h e i r 32 C o n d i t i o n ef the Indian T r i b e s . Report o f the J o i n t S p e c i a l Committee under the J o i n t R e s o l u t i o n of Mar. 3 . 186^7 Washington, Uevt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1065, p . 31L. 33 J o u r n a l of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the T e r r i t o r y o f Wyoming 1075. Cheyenne, D a l l y Leader O f f i c e , 1070, PP. 3 5 - 3 7 .  3k- L o c .  cit.  17 35 part,  were engaged In l a w f u l p u r s u i t s . In c o n c l u d i n g h i s message, Governor Thayer recommended  that the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly embody i t s views i n a memorial to Congress.  The Assembly c o n c u r r e d ;  the memorial was d r a f t e d .  The excerpts below w i l l leave no doubt of t h e i r  convictions:  "Memorial and J o i n t R e s o l u t i o n of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the T e r r i t o r y of Wyoming, F e b . 2 3 , I 8 7 6 : While a l l the power ©f the Government has been t h r e a t e n e d , and i n a sense u s e d , to prevent white men from t r e s p a s s i n g ©n t h e i r l a n d s , s© u s e l e s s l y h e l d by them t© the e x c l u s i o n ©f t h « s e wh© would mine f@r p r e c i o u s metals (which i t Is w e l l knewn e x i s t there) these l a w l e s s pets have been a l l o w e d t© leave t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s (s® c a l l e d ) whenever they w©uld, t® prey up©n and devastate the p r o p e r t y , l i v e s , and p e a c e f u l o c c u p a t i © n s ©f these f r e n t i e r s e t t l e r s , w i t h the v i r t u a l consent ©f t h e i r g u a r d i a n s , the agents ©f the Government. While the b l o e d - s e e k i n g brave (God save the w © r d j ) and h i s f i l t h y squaw have f e d a t the p u b l i c expense i n th©se h a t c h holes ©f f r a u d known as a g e n c i e s , the wid©w and c h i l d r e n ©f the white man s l a i n by the t r e a c h e r © u s Indian have been • b i l g e d t© depend ©n t h e i r ©wn energies ©r the b©unty ©f neighbors f © r the n e c e s s a r i e s ©f l i f e . In b e h a l f ©f a l o n g - s u f f e r i n g p e © p l e . . . w e w©uld ask that the Indians s h a l l be removed fr©m us e n t i r e l y , ©r e l s e made amenable t© the c©mm©n law ©f the l a n d . . . . We ask t h a t ©ur delegate . . . may be l i s t e n e d t© and heeded w i t h at l e a s t as much r e s p e c t as s©me I n d i a n - l © v i n g f a n a t i c ©f the E a s t . . . . " 3 6  35 E x e c u t i v e Document ©f the House ©f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s the T h i r d S e s s i o n of the ^ © r t y - f l r s t Congress. 1070-1071, Wash., G©vt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1071, p . 04.3. 1'his © c c u r r e d near the present t©wn ©f Lander, Wyoming.  of  36 MiscellaneQus Documents ©f the House ©f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , F e r t y - f © u r t h Congress, -First S e s s l e n , 1075, Wash., k © v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 107b, p p . 2 - 3 . The Indians were regarded as the F e d e r a l Government's " l a w l e s s p e t s " , wh© were n©t h e l d accountable f © r t h e i r a c t i o n s .  18 A f i n a l factor contributing i t s misunderstandings way of l i f e .  and v i o l e n c e  full  share to  the  of t h i s p e r i o d was the  Unique and d i s t i n c t i v e  Indian  i n many r e s p e c t s ,  it  37 was n e i t h e r understood nor a p p r e c i a t e d by the w h i t e s . the b u f f a l o which they hunted, i n t o comparatively  the p l a i n s Indians  s m a l l bands i n the w i n t e r ,  coming of s p r i n g they gathered  int®  larger  Like  separated  but w i t h the  groups.  The  r e s u l t a n t r e u n i o n was a time of v i s i t i n g and h a p p i n e s s ; s o d a l i t y or age-group cut a c r o s s band l i n e s , meet.  lodge meetings were h e l d . t h i s was the n a t u r a l  As the  time f o r them t©  The Sun Dance, which © r d i n a r i l y was set up at  time,  lodges  this  cut a c r o s s b©th ledge and band l i n e s . The Sun Dance, which went by d i f f e r e n t names i n d i f f e r e n t  tribes,  likewise varied considerably  i n r i t u a l , but i t was a  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l i g i o u s ceremonial among a l l groups which practised  it.  That of the western  Sioux,  Arapah©es bere many p o i n t s ©f s i m i l a r i t y . l a r g e l y concerns the Northern Arapahoes, their given.  Cheyennes and Since t h i s a few p o i n t s  paper regarding  O f f e r i n g s Lodge, as t h e i r Sun Dance i s c a l l e d , w i l l be It was pledged — or " s e t  u p " as they say — by  37 Fey and M c N i c k e l , In r e v i e w i n g U . S. Government Indian p o l i c y from 1787 to 1959* s t a t e that none of i t was seen through I n d i a n eyes u n t i l 1928. (Harold E . Fey and D ' A r c y M c N i c k l e , Indians and Other Americans, New Y©rk, Harper and B r o s . , 1959* P« 6 b . )  19 38  ceremonial vow; each p a r t i c i p a n t entered i t l i k e w i s e by vow. It  i n c l u d e d three and o n e - h a l f days w i t h n e i t h e r food nor  water, u s u a l l y beneath the hot sun o f l a t e s p r i n g ©r summer. The hope of a t t a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l power and p r e s t i g e  through  the Sun Dance was e v i d e n t , but e q u a l l y se was the want of healing,  p h y s i c a l o r mental, f o r s e l f ,  f a m i l y or f r i e n d s .  Man's dependence f o r e x i s t e n c e on food and water were throughout the ceremony,  while c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s  accented  s t r e s s e d the  idea o f f e r t i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t© the s u n , e a r t h ,  mo©n and sex,  without which there would be n e i t h e r f o o d f e r man n®r the p o s s i b i l i t y of p e r p e t u a t i n g l i f e  on e a r t h .  The lodges had d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the hunt and @n the march.  This was f r e q u e n t l y a matter ©f s u r v i v a l .  When many animals fr©m a herd ©f b u f f a l o were and b u t c h e r e d , --  slaughtered  i t was the f u n c t i o n ©f ©ne of the s o d a l i t i e s  ©ne composed of men of mature age — to see t h a t  f a m i l y r e c e i v e d i t s f a i r share ©f the meat.  every  Sometimes the  impetuous youths @f a y©unger l © d g e , hungering f o r a chance to g a i n p r e s t i g e f e r the s a f e t y  i n a r a i d or b a t t l e ,  of a l l concerned.  had to be h e l d i n check  Men ©f advanced age, always  38 In 1 9 3 8 a 'teen-age Arapah© g i r l became q u i t e i l l . Hoping f o r h e r r e c o v e r y , h e r f a t h e r and her b r © t h e r v©wed t© e n t e r the Sun Dance. She d i e d , but her death c o u l d n©t r e l e a s e them from t h e i r p l e d g e . The Arapahoes e x p l a i n i t by s a y i n g , "You see, you have a l r e a d y made the v©w It cannot be b r o k e n . (James C . Murphy, Personal N©tes Taken on the Wind R i v e r R e s e r v a t i o n , Wyoming, 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 . )  20 few i n number, men who had been step by step threugh a l l sedalities,  d i r e c t e d not only the ledge ceremonies,  the Sun Dance, but many other s o c i e t y was h i e r a r c h i c a l .  tribal activities  the  including  as w e l l ;  hence  The o l d e r men and women were  g e n e r a l l y h e l d In h i g h r e s p e c t . D e s p i t e a f e e l i n g of s t r o n g t r i b a l k i n s h i p , bands w i t h t h e i r ©wn c h i e f s or l e a d e r s  the  various  o f t e n a c t e d independ-  39 ently.  They fought w i t h bands from h o s t i l e  f r i e n d s or a l l i e s against  their foes,  tribes,  joined  raided f o r horses,  ranged f a r a f i e l d to v i s i t f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . g e n e r a l l y f r e e to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s .  and  They were  Bands of N o r t h e r n  Arapahoes, a t y p i c a l p l a i n s group, from time to time were r e p o r t e d from dozens of p o i n t s between the R e p u b l i c a n R i v e r In Kansas and the M u s s e l l s h e l l i n Montana, a d i s t a n c e 800 m i l e s as the  crow f l i e s , much f a r t h e r  of  as they had to  travel,  that i s mounted on horses and sometimes  dragging  travels  leaded w i t h t h e i r ledges and household goods.  Pursuing t h e i r migrant l i f e and l i v i n g o f f the chase, a few 39 In I86I4. the Northern Arapah© c h i e f , F r i d a y , took h i s band of l e s s than 200 to F t . C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o , determined to remain at peace w i t h the w h i t e s . Black B e a r ' s band of s e v e r a l hundred j o i n e d them f o r a time, then l e f t f e r other p a r t s . In the meanwhile Medicine Man's band — about h a l f of the e n t i r e t r i b e — remained hundreds o f m i l e s to the n o r t h , i n the Powder R i v e r c o u n t r y , where b u f f a l o were p l e n t i f u l . This w i l l r e c e i v e f u r t h e r treatment i n Chapter 5 . I4.O G r i n n e l l , o p . c i t . , p . 181, r e c o r d s 80 ledges of Northern Arapahoes on the R e p u b l i c a n i n 1861^-65, t© v i s i t t h e i r southern kinsmen. Peter Koch r e p o r t e d members ©f the same t r i b e ©n the M u s s e l l s h e l l t© trade I n 1869-70. See E l e r s K©ch ( e d . ) , "The D i a r y of P e t e r K o c h , " The F r o n t i e r , v . 9, Jan. 1929, P . l £ 6 .  21 thousand Indians s p l i t i n t o t r i b e s and s u b - d i v i d e d i n t © bands thus occupied u n t o l d acres of l a n d ; c a s t covetous For the  and upon t h i s the whites  eyes. Indians of the p l a i n s warfare had a d i f f e r e n t  c o n n o t a t i o n than f o r the w h i t e s .  True i t  i s that  Indians  s l a u g h t e r e d every man i n C u s t e r ' s command i n I 8 7 6 , and that under desperate  c o n d i t i o n s they had been known to "charge on  a whole company s i n g l y , determined to k i l l being k i l l e d t h e m s e l v e s " .  someone  In such cases the  before  Indians were  b a t t l i n g white men under e x c e p t i o n a l  circumstances;  not t y p i f y s t r i c t l y  To the w a r r i o r of  Indian warfare.  p l a i n s t a k i n g a s c a l p was more important and an act bravery than the k i l l i n g o f many enemies; and cunning brought g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e t© s t r i k e a blow.  The bravest  act  they d i d the  @f  successful  greater  stealth  than r i s k i n g one's  of a l l , r a n k i n g f a r  life above  k i l l i n g an enemy, was t h a t of c o u n t i n g coup, that i s t o u c h i n g or s t r i k i n g an enemy w i t h a l o n g , p e e l e d wand of wood which had a f e a t h e r  t i e d to the s m a l l e n d .  T h i s was the great p r i z e .  The care w i t h which the p l a i n s Indians p r o t e c t e d  them-  s e l v e s while d e l i v e r i n g a blow may w e l l be imagined from a  j+l Op. c i t . , C o n d i t i o n of the Indian T r i b e s , p . 92. From a l e t t e r of Major Anthony a f t e r the Sand Creek massacre, when Southern Cheyenne and Arapah© men, women and c h i l d r e n were shot down without mercy. I4.2 Stanley V e s t a l , S i t t i n g B u l l , Norman, U n i v . Oklahoma P r e s s , 1957 (new e d i t i o n ) , p p . 9-10.  of  22 r e p o r t of an a l l - d a y b a t t l e  between Shoshones and Northern  Cheyennes ( t r a d i t i o n a l enemies) Wyoming i n 1877.  i n the B i g Horn r e g i o n of  The former l o s t one man, two women and  two c h i l d r e n i n what i s d e s c r i b e d as one of the engagements which ever o c c u r r e d i n the v i c i n i t y ;  "fiercest" Cheyenne  l o s s e s were unknown, but probably comparable. F i g h t i n g between h e r e d i t a r y enemies sometimes brought c o n s t e r n a t i o n to white s e t t l e r s i n the p l a i n s and Rocky Mountain West.  In the e a r l y 1 8 6 0 s , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  camped i n what i s now downtown Denver (Colorado)  Arapahoes, In c o n s i d e r -  able numbers, went over the mountains to r a i d the U t e s .  When  they r e t u r n e d w i t h the news that the l a t t e r were c h a s i n g  kk them, near pandemonium broke out i n the s e t t l e m e n t . as 187^4- tbe  Indian agent at Denver complained of  As l a t e  repeated  a c t s of murder on t h e i r " p l a i n s enemies" by Utes who came  ks east of the mountains on b u f f a l o h u n t s .  He suggested  that  a competent and t r u s t w o r t h y p a r t y accompany them to see they hunt b u f f a l o r a t h e r  than S i o u x , Arapahoes, Cheyennes  and Kiowas. i|_3  Op. c i t . .  Annual Report 1877,  I4J4-  Op. c i t . ,  Grinnell,  k$  Op. c i t . ,  Annual Report I87J4., p . 2 7 2 .  i|i>  Ibid.,  p. 273.  that  p.  p p . 6o£-6o6.  119.  23 On t h e I n d i a n s c a l e e f p r e s t i g e the s t e a l i n g o f h©rses fr©m a l e g i t i m a t e enemy was o u t r a n k e d by c o u n t i n g Not ©nly was i t c o n s i d e r e d p r o f i t a b l e as w e l l .  c©up al©ne.  an "h©n©rable p u r s u i t " , b u t o f t e n  Horses were I n d i s p e n s a b l e  f o r the hunt,  warpath, t r a v e l , and as g i f t s a t weddings and o t h e r s o c i e t a l gatherings, and  and o f course f o r t r a d i n g p u r p o s e s .  I n I80I4. Lewis  C l a r k had found t h e Mandans o f N o r t h Dakota b a r t e r i n g  h o r s e s t o the A s s i n i b o i n e s f o r axes, arms, ammunition and • t h e r go©ds ©f European manufacture w h i c h the l a t t e r obtained  i n Canada.  tribe  I n t u r n the Mandans t r a d e d these s o u t h  t© Crows, Cheyennes, Arapah©es and o t h e r s f©r h©rses and leather tents.  Indeed, i t was t h r e u g h t h e c©mbinati©n o f  t r a d i n g and s t e a l i n g t h a t h o r s e s had g r a d u a l l y m©ved n o r t h ward t h r o u g h t h e t r i b e s f r o m Mexico t© Canada. Since h©rses were t h e m©st v a l u a b l e b©oty o f w a r f a r e , i t l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w s t h a t the p l a i n s t r i b e s were u n w i l l i n g t o foreg© the p l e a s u r e h o r s e - r a i d i n g purposes.  o f r e t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l enemies f o r N a t u r a l l y enough, I n d i a n agents  o f t e n f e l t t h a t t h e i r own wards were p i c k e d upon by o t h e r s ,  IL7 I b i d . . 1875, P. 753. The agent to t h e S i o u x , N o r t h e r n Arapahoes and N o r t h e r n Cheyennes thus c a l l e d I t i n 1875* a d d i n g t h a t i t was as d i f f i c u l t t o c e n v i n c e t h e I n d i a n s t h a t h o r s e s t e a l i n g was wrong as t© persuade a h©rse-j©ckey t h a t I t i s wrong t© s e l l a n e i g h b o r an unsound h©rse. liQ Reuben G©ld Thwaites ( e d . ) , O r i g i n a l J©urnals of the Lewis and C l a r k E x p e d i t i o n . 18014.-1806, New Y©rk, D©dd, Mead and Co., 190lj., v. 6, p. 90.  2k  but a study of the records  indicates  that r a r e l y Indeed d i d  one t r i b e prove l e s s g u i l t y than a n o t h e r .  In i860 the Pawnee  agent c i t e d e i g h t unwarranted r a i d s by B r u l e ' S i o u x , Arapahoes and Cheyennes i n which h i s charges lives,  t h i r t y horses,  s u f f e r e d a l o s s of  and s i x t y lodges b u r n e d .  Doubts of  Pawnee innocence i n t h i s endless c y c l e a r i s e when a report  thirteen  later  (1862) i n d i c a t e s that a " r e c e n t " r a i d by " B r u l a "  Sioux was staged to r e c o v e r horses which the same Pawnees had s t o l e n from them a few weeks e a r l i e r .  Some e n l i g h t e n -  ment i s found i n the statement of A . G . C o l l e y t h a t  the  pastime i s "a p a r t o f t h e i r l i v e s , b e i n g taught i t from  51  infancy".  With the a i d of the m i l i t a r y he had h e l d i n check  the Sauthern Cheyennes and Arapahoes of h i s agency,  but when  Utes r a n o f f e i g h t y Cheyenne horses w i t h i n a m i l e of the a counter r a i d was s h o r t l y under wayj  post,  D u r i n g the same y e a r  (I863) f o u r s o l d i e r s were wounded and one l o s t h i s l i f e w h i l e p u r s u i n g Ute Indians wh© r e f u s e d to surrender h © r s e s i m a t e l y " s t © l e n fr©m t h e i r Si©ux enemies. k9  OP. c i t . ,  Annual Repart i 8 6 0 , p .  50  Ibid.,  1862,  51  Ibid.,  I863, P.  52  Lac,  53  Ibid.,  p.  cit. p . 2\+l.  97. 252.  "legit-  G©vern©r Evans ©f 317.  25 C©l©rad© T e r r i t o r y endeavored to end the  long-existent  h o s t i l i t i e s between the Utes on one hand and the Cheyennes and Arapahoes on the o t h e r , his efforts  but the l a t t e r t r i b e s  as "unwarrantable  interference".  protested  The governor  p e r s i s t e d u n t i l he had convinced h i m s e l f t h a t there would be no f u r t h e r t r o u b l e ; but the r a i d s continued f o r a dozen years or more, as the their  Indians prolonged the enjoyment  of  sport. Prom the b e g i n n i n g I n d i a n p o l i c y had been based upon  the premise that the r e d man must adapt h i m s e l f to the white man's s u p e r i o r way of l i f e .  The whites were concerned  the Indians should not l e a r n to l i v e l i k e Indians were sometimes concerned l e s t c o n c l u s i o n ©f the P t .  them; but  they s h o u l d .  Laramie T r e a t y ©f 1851,  the At the  a gr©up ©f  men and w©men fr©m s e v e r a l ©f the s i g n a t o r y t r i b e s br@ught  lest  t© W a s h i n g t © n , D . C . and © t h e r e a s t e r n  were  cities,  © s t e n s i b l y t© impress them w i t h the p©wer ©f the U . S. and the v a s t l y h i g h e r c u l t u r e ©f i t s impressed,  citizens.  Theugh a s s u r e d l y  they longed t© r e t u r n t© t h e i r br©ad p l a i n s and  the freedoms ©f t h e i r ©wn s o c i e t y . •ne committed s u i c i d e ; © t h e r s ,  Befere they l e f t the  East  i t was s a i d , were s© depressed  5lf I b i d . , p . 33. Evans was e x - © f f i c i © •f Indian A f f a i r s f © r the a r e a .  Superintendent  26 that they might f e l l o w s u i t should they remain l o n g e r i n  its  55 crowded c i t i e s .  Despite t h i s sad b e g i n n i n g , the I n d i a n Bureau  f o r more than twenty years stuck to the  theory t h a t to see  to be c o n v i n c e d , and continued to b r i n g p a r t i e s Indians to the E a s t .  is  of p l a i n s  R e t a i n i n g t h e i r optimism and enthusiasm,  advocates of the p o l i c y were overjoyed when f i v e  delegations  numbering from f i v e to f i f t y made the t r i p i n 18?2,  and the  Board of I n d i a n Commissioners lauded the b e n e f i c i a l  results  56  i n " a l l cases". L i t t l e doubt was f e l t that the " e a s e , comfort and l u x u r y " of the c i t i e s would create i n the Indians a d e s i r e f o r b e t t e r things than could be found i n t h e i r w i l d ,  57  roving l i f e " . Yet n e a r l y a l l the d e l e g a t e s grew so homesick f o r the p l a i n s that they wanted the t r i p to end as soon as  58  possible J Other i n d i c a t i o n s of the  I n d i a n s ' preference  for  their  own way of l i f e appear i n v a r i o u s r e p o r t s of the p e r i o d , which s e v e r a l  examples  are  g i v e n below.  In 1856  agent Twlss  of the Worth P l a t t e Agency found no d e s i r e among the Arapahees,  ef  Sioux,  nor Cheyennes to adopt the white man's l i f e ,  net  55 Op. c i t . , "Message from the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d States to the Two Houses of C o n g r e s s , " p . 335. Thomas P i t z p a t r i c k , who e s c o r t e d the Indians en the t r i p , r e p o r t e d that i t would not s u r p r i s e him at a l l i f others committed suicide. ers,  56 F o u r t h Annual Report of the Board of Indian CommissionWashington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1072, p . 5. 57  Ibid.,  p.  128.  58  Ibid.,  p.  12ii  27 59 even to p l a n t i n g c o r n . Seven years l a t e r , when Governor Evans of Colorado T e r r i t o r y attempted a t r e a t y w i t h the same three t r i b e s ,  h i s emissary informed them that he wished them  to s e t t l e on a r e s e r v a t i o n retorted  and l i v e l i k e white men; but 60  they  that they were n o t yet reduced so l o w . When t h e  Arapaho, F r i d a y , d i s c o v e r e d through unusual  circumstances  that the m i l k o f human kindness e x i s t e d even among w h i t e s , he d i d not l o s e h i s l o n g i n g f o r the p l a i n s nor the ways of his  people.  Lost from h i s t r i b e i n 1831 at the age of n i n e ,  he was found by white t r a d e r s , and  sent t© S t .  Louis, Missouri,  taught t© speak f l u e n t E n g l i s h , t© read and w r i t e .  Though duly impressed by the c © n s i d e r a t i © n which he r e c e i v e d , 6l he r e t u r n e d i n a few years t© h i s p e o p l e .  As a y©ung man he  assumed the c h i e f t a i n s h i p ©f a s m a l l band ©f N © r t h e r n A r a p a h © e s , and  w i t h them he remained. An i n t e r e s t i n g  his  t r i b e appears  speculation regarding F r i d a y ' s return t o  i n Broken Hand, by Hafen and Ghent,  the  s t o r y o f Th©mas F i t z p a t r i c k , wh© d i s c © v e r e d and p r o v i d e d f ® r the yeung b©y.  59  The l a d , i t  Op. c i t . ,  i s s a i d , had f a l l e n i n l©ve w i t h  Annual Rep©rt 1856, p .  61|_7.  60 Leroy R. Hafen and F r a n c i s M. Y©ung, F © r t Laramie and the Pageant ©f the West l83ll-l890, G l e n d a l e , the A r t h u r H . C l a r k C©. 193b, p . 314. 61 Ler©y R. and Ann W. Hafen, Rufus B . Sage. His l e t t e r s and Papers l836-l81j.7, G l e n d a l e , the A r t h u r H . C l a r k C © . , 195b, v . 2, p p . 302-303.  28 a white  girl,  only t© be r e j e c t e d because ©f h i s  race.  62  Thffiugh p r e v i o u s l y ready t© remain w i t h the whites and become as ©ne ©f them,  63  his peeple.  the b i t t e r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t dr©ve him back t©  In the l i g h t of f u r t h e r  information,  this  theory  seems to be the w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g of ©ne s© sure ©f the  incom-  p a r a b l e e x c e l l e n c e ©f h i s own c u l t u r e that he cannot r e c o g n i z e the v a l i d i t y of another c h o i c e .  F r i d a y h i m s e l f i n l86I|.  explained h i s d e c i s i o n i n quite a d i f f e r e n t f r i e n d l y terms w i t h the Colorado, years at  manner.  Overland Stage Line agents at  he t o l d them much o f h i s e a r l y l i f e , St.  Louis.  On  It was,  i n c l u d i n g the  he s a i d , h i s l o v e f o r  and h i s t r i b e which had made him r e t u r n  Latham,  the  plains 6l\.  to h i s Arapah© l i f e .  Whatever the romantic bent of h i s s t r i p l i n g years may have been, the a d u l t F r i d a y f o l l o w e d Arapah© cust©m i n matrim©ny as his d a i l y l i v i n g . to h i s p e o p l e , the  in  Though other forms of polygamy were known  the marrying of s i s t e r s  ( s o r © r a l p © l y g y n y ) was  62 Ler©y R. Hafen and W. j . Ghent, Br©ken Hand, Denver, Old West P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1931, P. 271.  63 L o c . c i t . , Hafen and Ghent here quote the Manuscript J©urna1 of T a l b o t , a member of John C . Fremont's sec©nd western e x p e d i t i o n . 6l\. Frank A . Ro©t and W i l l i a m E l s e y C o n n e l l y , The Overland Stage t© C a l i f © r n l a , T©peka, Root and C o n n e l l y , 1901, p . 34-7.  29 a preferred pattern.  F r i d a y married  four  sisters.  65  With the I n d i a n p o l i c y of the F e d e r a l Government based more upon good i n t e n t i o n s than knowledge and  a p p r e c i a t i o n of  I n d i a n ways, w i t h the s e t t l e r s of the West c o v e t i n g a n e a r l y empty l a n d and life  of the  Its unexploited  Indians  resources,  w i t h the  roving  c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of  s e t t l e r s , t r o u b l e was  Inevitable.  The  r e d men  the  were numbered  only i n the tens of thousands; the p l a i n s could supply homes and wants of m i l l i o n s . b u f f a l o and  the Indians  A dominant race found  i n the way;  were d e p r i v e d  the  they must t h e r e f o r e  change the p a t t e r n ©f t h e i r l i v e s or p e r i s h . were s l a u g h t e r e d  The  former  t© the p©int ©f n e a r - e x t i n c t i o n ; the  of the  the  lands of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s ,  and  latter  shunted  ©nt© r e s e r v a t i o n s .  ^5 Op. c i t . , Murphy, P e r s o n a l N©tes. Lowie says t h a t the sor©ral form af p©lygyny was the m©st c©mm©n am©ng the p l a i n s Indians because s i s t e r s were l e s s apt t© q u a r r e l than u n r e l a t e d c©-wives. (R©bert H. L©wie, Indians ©f the P l a i n s , New Y©rk, McGraw-Hill B©©k C©., Inc., I95I4., p. bO.)  30 Chap. 2  The Northern Arapah©  Three p l a i n s g r © u p s , Arapahees,  Indians  the B l a c k f e e t ,  Cheyennes and  though l i v i n g f a r fr©m the homeland ©f the b u l k  ©f t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c r e l a t i v e s ,  sp©ke A l g e n k i a n d i a l e c t s .  A c e n j e c t u r e w i d e l y c r e d i t e d but l a c k i n g p e s i t i v e helds that the Arapah©es — l i k e t h e i r Cheyenne and a s s o c i a t e s - - deserted perhaps  sedentary,  friends  agricultural  i n Minnesota, to seek a f u l l e r , r i c h e r  villages,  l i f e upon  the p l a i n s when the a c q u i s i t i o n ©f horses made the buffal© hunting highly a t t r a c t i v e .  evidence  change  A c t u a l l y , nothing  to  is  1 known ©f t h e i r p l a c e  ®f © r i g i n ,  e a r l y h i s t o r y ©r m i g r a t i o n s .  C e r t a i n f e a t u r e s ©f the Arapah® language  indicate  a separati©n  ©f m©re than a thousand years from the woodland Alg©nquins ©f  2 the Great Lakes area and the  East.  Alth@ugh Canadian r e p © r t s ©f the  Gr©s Ventres branch ©f  Arapahoes antedate the Lewis and C l a r k e x p e d i t i © n t© the P a c i f i c by m©re than f i f t y y e a r s ,  these American  explorers  f i r s t made known the e x i s t e n c e ©f the Arapah©es p r © p e r , wh©m they f©und i n the v i c i n i t y ©f the Black H i l l s  (S©uth Dak©ta)  1 A . L . K r © e b e r , "The Arapaho, P a r t 1", B u l l e t i n ©f the American Museum ©f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , 1902, v . X V I I I , p . [}.. 2 A . L . Kroeber, "The Arapah© D i a l e c t s " , U n i v . af C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s In American Archaeology and E t h n o l e g v . 12, p . 73.  IM,  31 , 3  i n l8olj..  Because t h e y l i v e d up©n t h e b u f f a l o they were known 'lias "Gens de v a c h " o r "cow p e o p l e " . A l e x a n d e r Henry, who met them i n t h e same l o c a l i t y i n 1 8 0 6 , r e f e r r e d t© them as the  5  buffalo Indians. B u f f a l o I n d i a n s they were i n d e e d , f o r , by d r o p p i n g h e a t e d stones i n t o b u f f a l o rawhide f i t t e d i n t o h o l e s i n the ground, t h e y b o i l e d t h e i r b u f f a l o meat; d r i e d , shredded b u f f a l o  flesh  mixed w i t h b u f f a l o f a t became pemmican, which t h e y packed  into  p a r f l e c h e s f o r s t o r a g e and t r a v e l ; from bones o f the b o v i n e s they f a s h i o n e d a w l s , n e e d l e s and o t h e r t o o l s ; b u f f a l o  sinews  c o n t r i b u t e d b o w s t r i n g s and t h r e a d ; b u f f a l o h i d e s s t r e t c h e d around t h i n , p o l e frames formed t h e i r t i p i s ©r l o d g e s ; b u f f a l o robes s e r v e d as b e d d i n g ; and when w©ed was n e t handy, buffal© c h i p s — ©r d r i e d dung — k e p t t h e i r heme f i r e s burning.  6  To round ©ut the l i s t —  th©ugh f a r from e x h a u s t i n g  3 Op. c i t . , Thwaites (ed.) O r i g i n a l J o u r n a l s ©f the Lewis and C l a r k E x p e d i t i o n . l8olj.-l806, p. 190. The A t s i n a . o r Gros V e n t r e s o f the p r a i r i e , now i n Montana, a r e an Arapah© group s p e a k i n g an Arapah© d i a l e c t . They s t i l l i n t e r v i s i t w i t h t h e N o r t h e r n Arapahoes. li  Loc. c i t .  5 E l i o t Coues ( e d . ) , New L i g h t on the E a r l y H i s t o r y o f the G r e a t e r Northwest. New Y o r k , F. P. H a r p e r , I097, v . 1 , P. 381}..  6 I b i d . , p. 370. Henry t e l l s o f 300 b u f f a l o dung f i r e s smoking i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n a t an I n d i a n camp on t h e p l a i n s . White s e t t l e r s l e a r n e d t o use b u f f a l o c h i p s f o r s i m i l a r purposes.  32 It  — the use ©f p u l v e r i z e d dung i n l i e u ©f d i a p e r s should be  7  included. As t h e i r m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e was based upon the b l s © n , h i e r a r c h i c a l structure up©n the p l a i n s .  ©f t h e i r s o c i e t y was adapted t© a l i f e  The e l d e r men r e t a i n e d c@mparatively  but n©t t y r a n n i c a l c © n t r © l . men f r e q u e n t l y f e l l such r e s t r a i n t  the  tight,  Since the prudence ©f the y©ung  short of t h e i r d r i v e f © r p r e s t i g e ,  was e s s e n t i a l ,  t© h©ld them i n check.  s o d a l i t y system which p r o v i d e d f e r the Arapah©es fr©m adolescence  some A  s © c i a l needs ©f the  t© ©Id age made p o s s i b l e the  e f f e c t i v e e x e r c i s e ©f the necessary  cantr©ls.  These age-  greup lodges were so o r g a n i z e d t h a t as t h e i r y e a r s and experience  increased,  the members advanced, sometimes  as  an e n t i r e group, to the p r i v i l e g e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ©f a higher f e l l o w s h i p .  As i l l n e s s , a c c i d e n t and the  hazards ©f t h e i r m i g r a t o r y l i f e  g r a d u a l l y decreased  daily their  numbers, they progressed from stage t© stage w i t h an e v e r l e s s e n i n g membership.  Reverence f o r age and i t s  was i n c u l c a t e d , and the r a s h a c t i e n s the i m p a t i e n t f r e q u e n t l y were c u r b e d .  authority  ©f the immature and Deference t© the  e l d e r s became i n s t i t u t i o n a l ; deep r e s p e c t and a f f e c t i o n were 7 S i s t e r M. Inez H i l g e r , "Arapaho C h l l d l i f e and I t s C u l t u r a l B a c k g r © u n d , " Bureau ©f American E t h n a l a g y B u l l e t i n l ^ b , Washington, G©vt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952, p p . 2d-2Q.  33 rendered  t o o l d men  received  considerate  F r o m the sodalities, tribes,  foregoing  information s o c i e t y as  s e v e n were s p e c i f i e d  lacked regalia Since  Arapah©  T h e i r n e e d s and  held a central position.  respectively for  tion.  women.  and  In  s e v e n was  one  of the  p r a c t i c e , the  i t may  be  desires  that of  surmised other  Though a c t u a l l y as  'teen-age boys  degrees, thus  ceremonial  their  attention.  i n Arapaho  number, o n l y two,  and  plains nine  lodges,  f o r the  and  in their  men  could not three  attain  sacred  twenties,  this  this  in  first  numbers  enumeration of  that  distincin  many  '8 lodges  had  ritual  Several these and  are  the  significance.  sodalities  Firemoths or Crazy  language d u r i n g  clownish.  deserve p a r t i c u l a r n©tice.  9  the  ritualistic  They w o u l d a t t e n d  ©nly when r e q u e s t e d  not  composed o f o l d e r men  Men,  a  reversed  processes  ceremonial  t o come.  with  who  and  their  ©f ways  became  feast, for  S e c o n d i s the  t h e i r wives.  First  Dog  I t s members  instance, Lodge, held  8 The o t h e r two numbers a r e f o u r and s i x t e e n . Any alert © b s e r v e r o f t h e A r a p a h o Sun Dance c e r e m o n i e s and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Sun Dance Lodge w i l l n o t i c e numerous e x a m p l e s o f ceremonial u s a g e ©f t h e s e numbers. 9 W i l l i a m C. T h u n d e r , l e t t e r @f Dec. 23, 1938. Much o f t h e I n f o r m a t i o n ' o n ' l o d g e s comes f r o m t h i s s o u r c e . The r e m a i n d e r i s t a k e n f r o m A. L. K r o e b e r , who g i v e s a much more c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t i n "The A r a p a h o , P a r t 1 1 " , B u l l e t i n o f the American Museum ©f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . 190[L, v . X V I I I .  314s p e c i a l wartime r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those who were recipients battle  of the h i g h e r d e g r e e s .  stations  They c o u l d not leave  u n l e s s ordered to do so by a comrade.  shaggy dog — h o l d e r of the h i g h e s t degree  of the  their The  lodge  —  10 had to r e t a i n h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l d r i v e n away by a companion. T  he t h i r d ©f t h e s e , a t  the top ©f the s o c i a l pyramid and  r e p r e s e n t i n g the o l d e s t group of men, was the W a t e r - d r i p p i n g Sweat Lodge, In which no more than the s a c r e d number seven c©uld h©ld membership.  Finally,  the wemen p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a  s o d a l i t y of t h e i r ©wn, the B u f f a l o Lodge, which a p p a r e n t l y l a c k e d age  requirements.  Initiates  o f the v a r i o u s s o d a l i t i e s were sp©ns®red by  ceremonial grandfathers  ( g r a n d m © t h e r s f © r the w©men), whom  they t r e a t e d w i t h great d e f e r e n c e , their instruction. life,  and from whom they  received  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , enduring threughout  p r o h i b i t e d the grandsen and h i s w i f e fr@m engaging i n  any a c t i v i t i e s ,  even s o c i a l games,  i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the s p o n s o r .  which would b r i n g them  In t h e i r t u r n ,  f a t h e r s who d i r e c t e d the i n i t i a t e s  received  the  grand-  instructions  from the o l d men of the W a t e r - d r i p p i n g Sweat Lodge, ©wners of the seven sacred t r i b a l bags ©r b u n d l e s , each  representing  10 The D©g Dancers and the members of the © t h e r s o d a l i t i e s a l s o h e l d s p e c i a l Sun Dance r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  35 c e r t a i n powers. gifts,  In a l l cases the i n s t r u c t o r s  as w e l l as r e p e t i t i v e  whom they  expressions  r e c e i v e d many  ©f thanks from those  directed.  At what time i n the past d i v i s i o n s ameng the Arapaho groups f i r s t appeared i s a matter ©f c e n j e c t u r e , but dialectical  the  d i f f e r e n c e s between the Arapahaes preper and the  11 Gr©s Ventres i n d i c a t e a s e p a r a t i s n  of c o n s i d e r a b l e  duration.  Of mere recent o r i g i n was the s p l i t t i n g of the main bedy i n t © n o r t h e r n and southern d i v i s i © n s .  Of the v a r i o u s  © f f e r e d t© e x p l a i n t h i s geographic false,  seme are  ©bviously  as w r i t t e n r e f e r e n c e s t© b © t h gr©ups antedate the  c i t e d as the causes ©f p a r t i n g . been g i v e n c © n s i d e r a b l e ill  cleavage,  theeries  f e e l i n g generated  One apocryphal t a l e which has  credence a t t r i b u t e s the s e p a r a t i o n t®  through the s l a y i n g ©f a N © r t h e r n Arapaho  c h i e f by a member ©f a Southern Arapah© band i n the  1850s.  When i n 1897 be t © l d t© Hugh S c © t t a s i m p l e r and more explanation,  events  the Southern Arapah®,  credible  L e f t Hand, denied a l l  12 i m p l i c a t i @ n s ©f u n c © n g e n i a l i t y as a c e n t r i b u t i n g There had been n© q u a r r e l , he s a i d , n©r any  facter.  unpleasantness  between the bands, but the Northern Arapahces merely to remain i n the n e r t h ,  preferred  while the Southern Arapahaes came t©  11 A r e u n i e n ©f the Gr©s Ventres and N o r t h e r n Arapah©es occurred fr©m 1818-1823, apparently the l a s t ©f m©re than a few m©nths d u r a t i © h . Smallpox decimated t h e i r numbers at t h i s time. (See Hugh L . S c o t t , "The E a r l y H i s t o r y and Names of the A r a p a h © , " American A n t h r o p o l e g i s t ( n . s . ) 1907, v . 9, p . 553.) 1  2  Ibid.,  P.  558.  36  prefer  the  s o u t h , where h o r s e s were mere p l e n t i f u l .  a time e l a p s e d f r e m until but  seeking ef d i f f e r e n t  the s e p a r a t i e n became c o m p l e t e  the d i v i s i o n  eenth  the f i r s t  c a n n e t be  seems t e have d e v e l o p e d  13  surely  not  leng  pastures  i n the l a t e  er early nineteenth century, c e r t a i n l y li].  Hew  said, eight-  later  than  I 8 l 6 , a c c o r d i n g to S c o t t . Although in  the s o u t h e r n g r o u p  Oklahoma w i t h t h e  friends,  and  Southern  now  shares  a  reservation  Cheyennes, t h e i r  the n o r t h e r n e r s l i v e  historic  on t h e Wind R i v e r  R e s e r v a t i o n i n Wyoming w i t h the S h o s h o n e s , t h e y s t i l l  feel  themselves  to comprise  same  language.  Intervisitation  one  people,  i s common.  S o u t h e r n A r a p a h o moves p e r m a n e n t l y Arapaho to  and  they  speak the  Occasionally  t e Wyoming, o r a  a Northern  Oklahoma.  They m u t u a l l y r e g a r d t h e F l a t of the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes,  as  P i p e , l o n g i n the  t h e i r most s a c r e d  keeping  tribal  13 I b i d . , p. 5 6 0 . L e f t Hand's e x p l a n a t i o n i s p e r f e c t l y logical. H i s t o r i c a l l y h o r s e s moved f r o m s o u t h t o n o r t h , f r o m M e x i c o t h r o u g h t h e U. S. t o Canada, b o t h t h r o u g h t r a d i n g and raiding. 1I4. L o c . c i t . T h i s v e r s i o n o f the g e o g r a p h i c a l c l e a v a g e d i f f e r s l i t t l e from that of other c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t o r s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n e f W. P. C l a r k , who o b v i o u s l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from L i t t l e Raven, a n o t h e r S o u t h e r n Arapaho. He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n o c c u r r e d i n I867, when t h e N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o e s r e f u s e d t e j o i n i n a war on t h e whites. (See W. P. C l a r k , I n d i a n S i g n L a n g u a g e , P h i l a d e l p h i a , L . R. Hammersly and Co., 1 8 0 5 , P. 4-0.)  37 possession.  Though h i d d e n by i t s w r a p p i n g s f r o m p u b l i c  the pipe h o l d s a prominent p l a c e Dance c e r e m o n i e s .  i n t h e N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o Sun  Hung on i t s q u a d r u p o d  of poles,  o r o f f e r i n g s a r e made t o i t by t h o s e who have It  view,  sacrifices  vowed t o do s o .  i s approached w i t h as g r e a t r e v e r e n c e as i s t h e c r o s s o r  a l t a r by a member o f any C h r i s t i a n  sect,  carefully  the p i p e " ,  laid  over i t .  "Dressing  and t h e o f f e r i n g i s t h e Arapahoes  call I t . Two names f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o e s f r o m t h e Oklahoma g r o u p a r e t r a n s l a t e d a s P e o p l e o f t h e S a g e b r u s h , and Red B a r k P e o p l e , t h e l a t t e r to t h e i r practice  16  referring  o f m i x i n g r e d o s i e r dogwood b a r k w i t h  tobacco.  By t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r  sometimes  called  t h e "mother  Por generations  southern r e l a t i v e s  tribe."  the Arapahoes  17  a n d Cheyennes  intermarried,  camped and h u n t e d t o g e t h e r ,  and j o i n t l y  with their  A l e x a n d e r Henry f o u n d them  common e n e m i e s .  raided  they a r e  and f o u g h t sharing  18 a campground as e a r l y  as l 8 0 6 .  How f a r i n t h e p a s t  their  15 Op. c i t . Murphy, P e r s o n a l N o t e s . J o h n S. C a r t e r h a s w r i t t e n a monograph on t h e p i p e , "The N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o P l a t P i p e and t h e Ceremony o f C o v e r i n g the P i p e " , B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y B u l l e t i n 119. W a s h i n g t o n , G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 193«, PP. 0 9 - 1 0 2 . l  o  given,  L o c . c i t . The A r a p a h o e s say t h a t t h e t r a n s l a t i o n "Red W i l l o w P e o p l e , " i s a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  usually  17 F r e d e r i c k Webb Hodge ( e d . ) , Handbook o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s N o r t h o f M e x i c o , New Y o r k , P a g e a n t Book Co. I n c . , 1959, P. 7 2 . ( B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , 1907.)  18  Op. c i t .  Coues, v . 1,  p . 38I4..  38 amicable  r e l a t i o n s h i p began i s p r o b l e m a t i c a l .  Eventually  they extended t h e i r a l l i a n c e to i n c l u d e the Western Sioux; and the three groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y those i n the n o r t h , pressed r a i d s —  whether r e t a l i a t o r y or a g g r e s s i v e -- a g a i n s t  the Crows, TJtes, Pawnees and Shoshones.  The  forays afforded  e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the younger braves to slake t h e i r thirst for prestige. Names of v a r i o u s Northern Arapaho men  and women of a  l a t e r day commemorated the e x p l o i t s of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s In i n t e r - t r i b a l warfare.  Thus Red  Plume and  In-Among-Thera  (brothers) r e c e i v e d t h e i r names from a grandfather who once counted  coup on a Crow w a r r i o r who  had  wore a r e d f e a t h e r ;  and at another time he had dismounted to f i g h t the Crows  '19 on f o o t — out was  i n among them.  Likewise the name of Woman-runs-  bestowed upon her by a g r a n d f a t h e r who,  b a t t l e w i t h the Crows, had p i t i e d a woman who  also i n a  r a n out of a  20 t i p i w i t h a baby on her back. A f t e r the T r e a t y of l 8 £ l the Northern Arapahoes and Northern Cheyennes shared a common agency w i t h v a r i o u s bands of the Western Sioux. to persuade the two 19  Op.  20  Loc. c i t .  D e s p i t e e f f o r t s of the Indian O f f i c e  former  t r i b e s to j o i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i n  c i t . Murphy, P e r s o n a l Notes.  39 Indian T e r r i t o r y (now i n c l u d e d i n Oklahoma), they stayed i n the n o r t h u n t i l U n i t e d States s o l d i e r s rounded up h o s t i l e Indians f o l l o w i n g the S i t t i n g B u l l campaign, 1876 to  1877.  A move to the south was f o r c e d upon the Cheyennes, but  part  of them r e f u s e d to remain there and broke away to the n o r t h , where many met t h e i r death from s o l d i e r s ' b u l l e t s .  The  Arapahoes j o i n e d the Shoshones i n Wyoming, and there may be found  they  today.  Throughout the p e r i o d of t u r m o i l surveyed i n Chapter 1 (1851-1879) the c l o s e s t  a s s o c i a t e s of the Northern Arapahoes  were d e p i c t e d as the f i g h t i n g Cheyennes and the w a r l i k e S i o u x , the l a t t e r composing the l a r g e s t , (estimated  at 53,000 p e o p l e ) ,  21  whites.  most powerful p l a i n s  tribe  and the one most f e a r e d by the  T h i s f e l l o w s h i p , combined w i t h t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n  b e i n g more r e s e r v e d ,  treacherous  and f i e r c e  than  of  their  n e i g h b o r s , would i n c l i n e one to expect the Arapahoes to be u s u a l l y i n the t h i c k of the f i g h t i n g , i n the f o c a l p o i n t of  22 trouble.  Yet t h i s does not seem to be the  The Northern Arapahoes regarded people. expressed  In 1875 Black C o a l ,  themselves as  peaceful  then t h e i r most important  chief,  t h i s t r i b a l f e e l i n g before an i n v e s t i g a t i n g  commission at Red Cloud Agency (Nebraska), 21 Op. c i t . Annual Report, Indian O f f i c e e s t i m a t e . 22  case.  Op. c i t .  where the Northern  I87I4., p . 1+.  T h i s i s an  Kroeber, "The Arapaho, Part 1", p . 1+.  Cheyennes, served. tribe.  several  bands ef Sioux,  and h i s own t r i b e were  "The A r a p a h o e s , " he t e s t i f i e d , I never b e g i n war.  "are  c a l l e d the peace  When I make peace I always  keep  23 it.  Taat  i s the way w i t h a l l the A r a p a h o e s . . . . "  net Black C o a l ' s statement i s wholly v a l i d , mere than a t r i b a l  Whether  i t represents  er far  platitude.  In the F i g h t i n g Cheyennes G r i n n e l l breaks w i t h popular judgment te present ( b r i e f l y ) character.  a p a c i f i c f a c e t ef Arapahe  Theugh stubborn f i g h t e r s  f r i e n d s and a l l i e s ,  i n supporting  their  he feund them m i l d e r and mere e a s y -  *k geing than the Cheyennes. noteworthy  anthropologist  James Meeney, probably the to g a i n the confidence  Arapahoes, b e l i e v e d them to be r e l i g i o u s , friendly, neither  truculent  of  first  the  contemplative  nor pugnacious,  but more  and  tractable  25 and l e s s mercenary  than the general r u n of p r a i r i e  D e s p i t e these and other evidences the few h i s t o r i a n s  who acknowledge  which w i l l be any p e a c e f u l  among the Arapahoes c i t e only F r i d a y i n t h i s  Indians.  presented, inclination  respect,  and  his  e f f o r t s te i n f l u e n c e h i s people are g e n e r a l l y regarded 23 Report of the S p e c i a l Commission to I n v e s t i g a t e the A f f a i r s of the Red Cloud Agency, J u l y , 1 « 7 5 , t o g e t h e r w i t h the Testimony and Accompanying Documents, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , l b 7 5 , P. 377. MosT h i s t o r i a n s of t h i s p e r i o d would challenge Black C o a l ' s c l a i m . 2\\. Op. c i t .  Grinnell,  p . 3»  25 James Meeney, "The Ghost Dance R e l i g i o n and the Sioux Outbreak of I 8 9 O " , F o u r t e e n t h Annual Report of the Bureau of E t h n o l o g y . 1 8 9 2 - 9 3 . Part 2 , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,  l o 9 6 , p. 957.  kl as a b o r t i v e .  There can be ne c e n t e n t i e n  as te h i s bent  fer  peace; h i s importance must be r e c o g n i z e d ,  but there  are  i n d i c a t i o n s that he d i d not stand a l o n e .  The case f e r F r i d a y  w i l l be g i v e n f i r s t . Though s o r e l y t r i e d by the t a c t i c s of the determined to occupy h i s and other a staunch opponent of f o r c e no evidence that he ever When f e a r of a general crescendo Friday,  I n d i a n l a n d s , he remained  i n d e a l i n g w i t h them.  took up arms a g a i n s t  the  There  is  whites.  Indian i n s u r r e c t i o n rose toward a  i n 1863 and rumors m a g n i f i e d the  camped w i t h h i s band a t  Colorado,  dominant race  apprehension,  the Cache l a Peudre i n  i n s i s t e d that he would keep the peace, and r e f u s e d 26  the o f f e r ef a Sioux warpipe.  Even the  t e r r o r s ef the Sand  Creek massacre ef Southern Cheyennes and Arapahoes i n f a i l e d to shake him from t h i s r e s o l v e ,  1861L.  and he took no p a r t i n  the r a i d s along the P l a t t e which f o l l o w e d , a l t h o u g h one band of Northern Arapahoes j o i n e d i;he Sioux and Cheyennes i n t h e s e . Nor d i d he p a r t i c i p a t e I867,  i n the Powder R i v e r f i g h t i n g , 186^ to  though General Conner's p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n (186^)  brought the l a t t e r i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h B l a c k B e a r ' s band, when h i s s o l d i e r s attacle d them on the Tongue R i v e r , a 26  Op. c i t .  Annual Report,  1863, p . 2£1L.  1*2  t r i b u t a r y of the Yellowstone. peace had  27  I t was  not u n t i l 1868, when  come, t h a t F r i d a y ' s band f i n a l l y was  e v i c t e d by  F e d e r a l Government a u t h o r i t i e s from t h e i r encampment on far-away Cache l a Poudre.  He  the  then j o i n e d h i s b r e t h r e n i n the  Powder R i v e r r e g i o n . A f t e r F r i d a y , the i n f l u e n c e of C h i e f Medicine Man  in  s t e e r i n g the Northern Arapahoes along the path of peace be c o n s i d e r e d .  This c h i e f , known to whites as Roman Nose,  has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e people,  a t t e n t i o n from h i s t o r i a n s .  Among h i s  however, he e x e r c i s e d great a u t h o r i t y from the  1850s u n t i l h i s death d u r i n g the winter  of I 8 7 I - I 8 7 2 .  t h i s p e r i o d he f r e q u e n t l y acted as spokesman f o r h i s and  should  on at l e a s t one  Cheyennes as w e l l .  own  mid During  tribe,  o c c a s i o n f o r c e r t a i n bands of Sioux and Like F r i d a y , he a b s t a i n e d from the P l a t t e  R i v e r h o s t i l i t i e s of l861j.-l865, keeping h i s band, more than h a l f the e n t i r e t r i b e , i n the Powder R i v e r country, of m i l e s from the r a i d s i n q u e s t i o n .  hundreds  A l s o as w i t h F r i d a y ,  he r e f r a i n e d from t a k i n g up arms a g a i n s t the whites f o l l o w i n g the thoroughly and  u n j u s t i f i e d Sand Creek massacre of Cheyennes  Southern Arapahoes i n l861f..  Indeed, Indian O f f i c e r e p o r t s  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the outrage " e f f e c t u a l l y prevented  any more  27 Black Bear's band was probably the one which had aided the Sioux and Cheyennes i n t h e i r r a i d s a l o n g the P l a t t e R i v e r . The i n d i c a t i o n s w i l l be shown l a t e r .  1+3 advances  towards peace by such of those bands which were  well-disposed" excepting  the Arapaho c h i e f "Roman N o s e " ,  who had sent word that he was anxious to l i v e w i t h h i s people i n the l o c a l i t y of the  " L i t t l e Chug" r i v e r  (the  Chugwater,  28 about t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s n o r t h of Cheyenne, Wyoming). response  to Governor E v a n s ' o f f e r of the p r e v i o u s summer  protect a l l f r i e n d l y Indians, all  In to  he had brought h i s l a r g e band  the way from Powder R i v e r , where b u f f a l o h u n t i n g was  good,  only to be r e b u f f e d on the f l i m s y ground t h a t the  still Little  29 Chug was too c l o s e  to the  great routes of t r a v e l .  Although  Medicine Man's p a r t i n the Powder R i v e r Wars remains e n i g matic, whites,  a f t e r the peace of 1868 he avoided c o l l i s i o n w i t h the on one o c c a s i o n even moving h i s people to the  Milk  R i v e r Agency i n Montana (which served the Gros Ventres relatives  and Crow enemies of the Arapahoes)  r a t h e r than  30 r i s k an open rupture which seemed imminent i n Wyoming. Finally,  a f t e r F r i d a y and Medicine Man, B l a c k Coal  deserves mention i n t h i s r e g a r d ,  too,  though he has more f r e q u e n t l y  been c l a s s e d as a r a i d e r than as a man of peace. 28 Op. c i t . Annual R e p o r t . 1865, p . 2 5 .  When he  29 I b i d . , p . 177. F t . C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o , one of the main s t a t i o n s to which Governor Evans of Colorado T e r r i t o r y had requested f r i e n d l y Indians to r e p o r t , was j u s t as c l o s e to the main routes of t r a v e l . 30 The move f o l l o w e d the murder of B l a c k Bear and a number of other Arapahoes by an armed band of w h i t e s , near the present town of Lander, Wyoming, i n 1 8 7 1 .  succeeded Medicine Man, f o l l o w i n g the l a t t e r » s demise,  the  Arapahoes r e t u r n e d to the Wind R i v e r r e g i o n of Wyoming to r a i d t h e i r o l d enemies,  the Shoshones, whom they blamed f o r  c o l l u s i o n w i t h the whites  i n the death of Black Bear.  f o r a y s were terminated by a c l a s h w i t h U n i t e d S t a t e s  Their troops,  the Bates B a t t l e of I87I4., a f t e r which Black Coal fought no more.  Having made peace,  he stuck to i t ,  droves of Sioux and Cheyennes deserted  even i n l875>, when  t h e i r agencies  to  f o l l o w the war t r a i l w i t h Crazy Horse and S i t t i n g B u l l , making a mockery of the  thus  I n d i a n Commissioner's boast t h a t  the  process of f e e d i n g the Sioux had "so f a r taken the f i g h t  out  of t h e m . . . "  that they would not " r i s k the l o s s of t h e i r  coffee,  •31 sugar and b e e f "  i n a campaign a g a i n s t  Since F r i d a y as a boy i n S t . under a u s p i c i o u s circumstances,  the  soldiers.  L o u i s had known white men  i t might be argued t h a t b o t h  Medicine Man and Black Coal had come under h i s i n f l u e n c e and r e f l e c t e d h i s own a t t i t u d e .  It might be s a i d ,  i n short,  without him the a m e l i o r a t i n g f a c t o r i n Arapaho-white might never have developed. i s considered i t appears  But when the a v a i l a b l e  that the amicable  that  relations evidence  i n c l i n a t i o n of h i s  people may have preceded F r i d a y ' s i n f l u e n c e , and that i t d i d not v a n i s h with h i s d e a t h .  Moreover, the t r a i t was shared by  Northern and Southern Arapahoes, and was not e n t i r e l y 31  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t ,  I87JJ, p . 5".  restricted  to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the w h i t e s .  G r i n n e l l has p o i n t e d  out that the Arapahoes had, i n past t i m e , fought the Comanches, Kiowas and Apaches, not through any r e a l antagonism to them, but r a t h e r because friends,  they were the enemies of t h e i r own best  the Cheyennes.  of t h i s f a c t , the request  The Apaches must have been cognizant  f o r i n 181^0 they approached the Arapahoes w i t h  t h a t they act  peace conference  as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s  i n arranging a  between the f i v e warring t r i b e s ,  the Cheyennes  and Arapahoes on one hand, the Apaches, Comanches and Kiowas  32 on the o t h e r . reached,  The Arapahoes o b l i g e d ; f u l l agreement  presents  permanently  exchanged,  was  and h o s t i l i t i e s between them  ceased.  Moving to a l a t e r death i n 1881 — i t  day — n e a r l y ten years a f t e r F r i d a y ' s  should be noted that a remarkable Arapaho  l e f t h i s home i n Wyoming to c a r r y to h i s southern b r e t h r e n and others  i n Indian T e r r i t o r y ,  the Ghost Dance r e l i g i o n , which  had o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Jack W i l s o n , Valley,  Nevada.  as he taught tribes,  Indian Messiah o f Mason  Since i t was d e f i n i t e l y a r e l i g i o n of peace  it,  t h i s Arapaho m i s s i o n a r y who i n f l u e n c e d many  might w e l l have been c a l l e d the A p o s t l e of  Paradoxically,  Peace.  he shared w i t h the great Sioux w a r r i o r of  1870s the name of S i t t i n g B u l l . 32  the  Op. c i t .  Grinnell,  33  F i t t i n g l y , perhaps,  the  after  pp. 63-66.  33 James Mooney (op. c i t . ) gives the f u l l s t o r y i n The F o u r t e e n t h Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology 1892-1093, Part 2 .  h-6 the d e c l i n e of the  Ghost Dance r e l i g i o n , S i t t i n g B u l l  —  Hanacha Thiak i n Arapaho — became a Mennonite c o n v e r t ,  thus  3k a f f i l i a t i n g h i m s e l f with one o f the h i s t o r i c Finally,  as noted above,  peace  sects.  i t was not the Northern d i v i s i o n  of the Arapahoes alone which s t r o v e from time to time  to  m a i n t a i n p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government. In 1870 and subsequent y e a r s , attitude  notations  of the  desirable  of the Southern Arapahoes appeared i n the Annual  Report of the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s . of p e a c e f u l i n t e n t made at  this  Declarations  time were t h e r e a f t e r honored  by the Southern Arapahoes. S i m i l a r commentaries  on the c o n c i l i a t o r y  s p i r i t of  the  35  Northern Arapahoes appeared i n 1872. Others f o l l o w e d i n 1873, and by 1875 seemed o n l y the course of wisdom to p l a n to  36 separate them from the more r e c a l c i t r a n t  Cheyennes.  q u e n t l y , when Sioux and Cheyenne w a r r i o r s to  left their  Subseagencies  j o i n the f o r c e s of S i t t i n g B u l l and Crazy H o r s e , i t became  obvious to t h e i r agent at Red Cloud that the Arapahoes, almost without e x c e p t i o n ,  remained l o y a l to the  3I4.  Op. c i t .  Murphy, P e r s o n a l  35  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t .  36  Ibid.,  I875,  37  Ibid.,  1 8 7 7 , P . 4-15.  PP. 54-6-552.  Notes.  1872, p. 6 5 1 .  "...  government."  37  kl F o l l o w i n g the —  Custer d e b a c l e ,  l o n g under pressure  the  Interior  Department  from s e t t l e r s to open up the  northern  Indian lands — undertook a c t i v e measures to t r a n s f e r Northern Arapahoes,  Northern Cheyennes and some of the  to Indian T e r r i t o r y , change.  The Cheyennes were compelled to go; but the  toward s e t t l e r s i n the  that the p l a n to s h i f t  and i t s  fearful  adjacent s t a t e s and the  I n d i a n s " of the area r e s u l t e d  expressly  Sioux  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to  w a r l i k e i n c l i n a t i o n of the Sioux,  an act  the  the  purported  potential  "civilized  i n such a f l u r r y o f p r o t e s t  them was s t y m i e d .  f o r b i d d i n g the P r e s i d e n t  Congress  passed  to move "any  39 p o r t i o n " of the Sioux n a t i o n to Indian T e r r i t o r y . f i n a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the Northern Arapaho e f f o r t s  Conversely, to keep the  peace l e d the U n i t e d States Government to g r a n t t h e i r to remain i n the n o r t h , dreaded t r a n s f e r .  r a t h e r than c o e r c i n g them i n t o  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the  on the Wind R i v e r R e s e r v a t i o n  the  Indian Bureau  completed arrangements to move them to t h e i r present  already  plea  i n Wyoming, where the  location Shoshones  resided.  38 The C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1877, F o r t y - f o u r t h Congress, Second s e s s i o n , v . 5, p . 1617. 39  Ibid.,  p.  1736.  l|0 Op. c i t . Annual R e p o r t , 1877, p . Ij.59. The Northern Arapahoes f e a r e d they would d i e " i n that miasmatic c o u n t r y " .  14-8 Chap. 3  In  The T r e a t y o f 1851 a New E r a  as  the  Hopeful  Promise  of  18I+9, w i t h C a l i f o r n i a ' s g o l d r u s h s p a r k i n g a tremendous  p o p u l a t i o n boom, and  the  settlement  of Oregon under  P r e s i d e n t F i l l m o r e proposed a p l a n to b i n d separated  e a s t e r n and  western f r o n t i e r s  w i t h a permanent highway t o c u t a c r o s s  together  way, the  o f the U n i t e d the  vast  and  widely  States  nearly  1 empty expanse o f p l a i n s  and  A r a i l r o a d , he  said,  of  t h o u g h he  the p e o p l e ,  2  construction. title  to t h e  mountains which l a y between.  would b e s t  s a t i s f y t h e wants and  d i d not  Some means must be needed  envisage  i t s immediate  devised  to e x t i n g u i s h I n d i a n  s t r i p s of land, f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s  had  a r i s e n between t h e  the  "wild" tribes  needs  already  thousands o f westbound immigrants  o f the p l a i n s ,  through  whose h a b i t a t  and  the  3 projected Since  right  o f way  would have t o  the w r a t h o f t h e  Indians  pass. had  been aroused  i m m i g r a n t ' s d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r game and recommended a g i f t  m i l i t a r y posts  annuities valued for  the  the  President  o f $50*000 t o a s s u a g e t h e i r f e e l i n g s .  exchange f o r t h e r i g h t and  forage,  by  o f the  i n certain  Government t o m a i n t a i n p a r t s of  a t $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 s h o u l d be  a p e r i o d of f i f t y  years.  In  roads  their territory, distributed  among them  Thus t h e i r g o o d w i l l w o u l d  be  1 "Message f r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t h e Two Houses o f C o n g r e s s " , T h i r t y - f i r s t C o n g r e s s E x e c u t i v e Document No. 5 , W a s h i n g t o n , p r i n t e d f o r t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , 104.9, p . 13. 2  Ibid,  p. I i i .  3  Loc. c i t .  purchased,  and f e a r of the l o s s of t r e a t y r a t i o n s  would  s u r e l y e l i c i t t h e i r best conduct toward the w h i t e s . m o l e s t a t i o n of t r a v e l e r s  Should  and t h e i r stock not cease,  the  p o s i t i v e i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the g u i l t y p a r t i e s must be a s s u r e d . By l a y i n g the country o f f i n t o g e o g r a p h i c a l or r a t h e r domains" the Government could r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y the  "national  predators,  or at l e a s t the t r i b e to which they b e l o n g e d . Condemning the u n s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e  of c o e r c i o n f o r m e r l y  pursued by the War Department, F i l l m o r e s t r e s s e d of kindness i n d e a l i n g w i t h the a b o r i g i n e s . would undertake to feed and c l o t h e  the  necessity  I f the Government  them, they might be some-  5 what g e n t l y l e d Into the pathways and a r t s of c i v i l i z a t i o n . Once the d w i n d l i n g herds of b u f f a l o were gone from the p l a i n s , the Indians must adapt or s t a r v e ,  and without a i d they would 6  be unable to e s t a b l i s h themselves,  "even as g r a z i e r s " .  contemplated p e r i o d of f i f t y years  (of a n n u i t y i s s u e s )  would be s u f f i c i e n t to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of  The probably  civilizing  the n a t i v e nomads. Congress responded with an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of $100,000 f o r a great conference  to be h e l d at  the confluence of Horse Creek  and the N o r t h P l a t t e R i v e r , i n extreme western Nebraska, a few k- Op. c i t . "Message from the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d States to the Two Houses of Congress", l 8 £ l , p . 2 9 0 . 5 The C o n g r e s s i o n a l Globe (Appendix), Washington, John C. R i v e s , 1852, p . 1 0 . 6 Op. c i t . "Message from the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d States to the Two Houses of C o n g r e s s " , 1851, p . 2 9 0 .  50 miles southeast assembling  e f F t . L a r a m i e , Wyoming,  ef the Indians  —  Sioux,  7  The  amicable  Cheyennes, Arapahoes,  A s s i n i b e i n e s , G r e s V e n t r e s , A r i k e r a s a n d Crews  ten  t h e u s a n d e f them, was due l a r g e l y t e t h e d e d i c a t e d w e r k e f Themas F i t z p a t r i c k , a g e n t t e t h e S i e u x ,  Cheyennes and  8 Arapahees.  The Crews made a n e v e r l a n d  hundred m i l e s t e take p a r t i n the  t r e k e f seme e i g h t  conference.  T h o u g h t h e i r h a b i t a t and t e r r i t o r i a l concern  claims d i d not  the Immediate purposes of t h e c o u n c i l , t h e Shoshones  came i n t o o b s e r v e a n d l e a r n . they might witness  They h a d b e e n i n v i t e d so t h a t  the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government's f a i r n e s s  i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e redmen, and i t s s o l i c i t u d e f o r t h e i r welfare. in  The i m p r e s s i o n t h u s  created might prove s a l u t a r y  c a s e n e g o t i a t i o n s s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h them i n t h e  future. 7 The a g r e e m e n t w h i c h emerged f r o m t h i s c o n f e r e n c e known a s t h e F t . L a r a m i e T r e a t y o f 1851.  is  8 The f i g u r e o f t e n t h o u s a n d i s t h e e s t i m a t e o f F a t h e r De Smet, a n i n t e r e s t e d o b s e r v e r a t t h e m e e t i n g . See H i r a m M. C h i t t e n d e n a n d A l f r e d T. R i c h a r d s o n ( e d . ) . L i f e . L e t t e r s and T r a v e l s o f P i e r r e - J e a n D e S m e t , S. J . , Io0l-lb73, New Y o r k , F. P. H a r p e r , 1905 (c 1 W , v . 2, p . 6?J|.  51 Except f o r one short i n t e r v a l of a n x i e t y w i t h the a r r i v a l of the Shoshones — t r a d i t i o n a l enemies of the S i o u x , Cheyennes and Arapahoes — the t r i b e s camped peaceably 9 d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n days of the c o n f e r e n c e .  together  On ground which  had f o r m e r l y witnessed enmity, bloodshed and s c a l p i n g among them, the peace pipe passed f r e e l y from hand to hand and mouth to mouth.  The conduct of the Indians earned the  10 " a d m i r a t i o n and s u r p r i s e " of a l l p r e s e n t . evidence of s i n c e r e t y , D. D . M i t c h e l l ,  Struck w i t h the  t r u s t and hope shown by the I n d i a n s ,  one of the c h i e f n e g o t i a t o r s ,  expressed  the  b e l i e f that n o t h i n g short of "bad management or some untoward  11 m i s f o r t u n e " could ever break t h i s s p i r i t . Father De Smet, whose years of m i s s i o n a r y experience  with  Indians gave him a temporal as w e l l as a s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t  in  them, was heartened by the obvious s i n c e r i t y and benevolence d i s p l a y e d by the d e l e g a t e s  of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government  12 throughout the m e e t i n g .  They n e g l e c t e d n o t h i n g which would  forward the primary o b j e c t i v e s of the c o n f e r e n c e : the  cession  Op. c i t o . f Hafen t . way Laramie the p Pageant by the9 Indians a p r a c and t i c a Young, l r i g h t F of a c r o sand s the lains, of the West, p p . 1 8 0 - 1 8 1 . A F r e n c h I n t e r p r e t e r managed to p u l l a Sioux from h i s horse i n time to prevent an act of vengeance a g a i n s t a Shoshone who had ( f o r m e r l y ) k i l l e d h i s f a t h e r . 10 Op. c i t . "Message from the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d States to the Two Houses of C o n g r e s s " , l 8 £ l , p . 2 8 8 . 11  I b i d , p . 29O.  1  Op. c i t *  2  v . 2, p p . 675-67b.  C h i t t e n d e n and R i c h a r d s o n , Father De Smet,  52 for  w h i c h t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e e q u i t a b l e compensation}  c e s s a t i o n o f d e p r e d a t i o n s and h o s t i l i t y grants;  just remuneration  red  a t the hands o f t h e w h i t e s ; and  men  f o r past i n j u r i e s  permanent peace between the t r i b e s the p o s s i b i l i t y  of misunderstanding  t h e s e were r e a d a r t i c l e by a r t i c l e , to  toward  the  immi-  I n c u r r e d by  of the p l a i n s .  To  minimize  the terms of the  treaty,  and p a i n s t a k i n g l y e x p l a i n e d the v a r i o u s  languages.  Though f a r f r o m p l e a s e d a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f f u r t h e r of men  the  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  the i n t e r p r e t e r s before t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o  Indian  the  1  immigrants  p a s s i n g i n t o and  s i g n i f i e d reasonable  through t h e i r l a n d s , the  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the t r e a t y  and l o o k e d h o p e f u l l y f o r w a r d t o b e t t e r days.  The  Cut N o s e , N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o , h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d as f e e l i n g s commonly e x p r e s s e d a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e .  relations, eration.  i t seemed, h a d  13 Op. c i t . p e r m i s s i o n of the from F o r t Laramie LeRoy R. H a f e n and  citizens  of  He  said  i n part:  a n d n o t have squaws i n the ©ut a but i f us game  dawned i n I n d i a n - w h i t e  a d a y p r e s a g i n g an e r a o f t r a n q u i l i t y Peaceable  provisions  typifying  1 w i l l go home s a t i s f i e d . I w i l l s l e e p sound t o w a t c h my h o r s e s i n t h e n i g h t , o r be a f r a i d f o r my and c h i l d r e n . We h a v e t o l i v e on t h e s e s t r e a m s a n d h i l l s , a n d I w o u l d be g l a d I f t h e w h i t e s w o u l d p i c k p l a c e f o r t h e m s e l v e s and n o t come i n t o o u r g r o u n d s ; t h e y must pass t h r o u g h o u r c o u n t r y they s h o u l d g i v e f o r what they d r i v e o f f . . . . " 1 3 day,  tribes-  response  11  A new  myriads  and c o n s i d -  c o u l d c r o s s the p l a i n s  unmolested,  H a f e n a n d Y o u n g , p. 190. R e p r i n t e d by p u b l i s h e r s , The A r t h u r H. C l a r k Company, and t h e Pageant o f t h e West. I83k-l890 by F r a n c i s M a r i o n Young.  53 and the ations  Indians would have l i t t l e of mischievous w h i t e s ,  to f e a r  from the machin-  f o r they would r e c e i v e  the  •111.  j u s t i c e which was t h e i r due. Having implanted i n the peaceful negotiations fruitful,  I n d i a n mind the  idea  that  w i t h the F e d e r a l Government c o u l d be  the t r e a t y planners d i d not i n t e n d that i t  w i t h e r and d i e .  should  F u r t h e r steps were needed to impress  the  p r a i r i e d w e l l e r s w i t h the power and numbers of the w h i t e s , the  great advantages of t h e i r way ©f l i f e .  Therefore,  Father De Smet accompanying him as f a r as S t .  with  L o u i s , Thomas  F i t z p a t r i c k e s c o r t e d a d e l e g a t i o n of important members of plains tribes Arapahoes,  to Washington, D . C .  Tempest r e p r e s e n t i n g  Of t h o s e ,  and  the  three were  the southern bands, and Eagle  Head and F r i d a y from the n o r t h e r n  groups.  Pleased with the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t r o d u c e the rewards of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r ,  the  Indians  Father De Smet l e d the  to S t . Mary's Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n to the  Pottawattomis  to group in  Kansas, where the b i s o n hunters were deeply Impressed by the great q u a n t i t i e s  of t a s t y vegetables  and f r u i t s .  Eagle Head  was moved to ask that "Blackgowns" be sent to h i s own p e o p l e , so t h e y ,  v.  too,  might c u l t i v a t e  Op, c i t . 2, p . bolj..  the l a n d ,  and no l o n g e r  feel  Chittenden and R i c h a r d s o n , Father De Smet,  51+ the pangs of unsated hunger.  15  But l i t t l e d i d he r e a l i z e  that  t h i r t y years must pass b e f o r e the blackgowns would come to  the  Northern Arapahoes. Prom Kansas C i t y to S t . L o u i s the p a r t y t r a v e l e d by r i v e r boat on the muddy M i s s o u r i . experience,  many of the delegates  the steamboat, bank.  H i g h l y e x c i t e d by the  16  strange  expressed t h e i r wonder at  and the numerous v i l l a g e s a l o n g the  river's  In Washington, D. C , s t i l l under the guidance of P i t z patrick,  the round o f tours and r e c e p t i o n s made i t  unlikely  t h a t the  Indians would ever f o r g e t  nation's  Government. visit  the seat of the  The most notable o c c a s i o n may have been t h e i r  to P r e s i d e n t F i l l m o r e i n the White House, i n e a r l y  January,  1852.  medals.  Two days l a t e r ,  17  Here they were presented w i t h f l a g s and s i l v e r the Hungarian r e v o l u t i o n i s t , L o u i s  Kossuth, a l s o honored them w i t h a r e c e p t i o n ; and here  too,  18 each member of the d e l e g a t i o n r e c e i v e d a s p e c i a l m e d a l . With each step so c a r e f u l l y planned and executed, thought that the F t . x  5  Ibid.,  Laramie Treaty should f a l l  to  the  solve,  p . 69O.  1 0  OP. c i t .  17  Ibid.,  18  Loc.  Hagen and Ghent, Broken Hand, p . 2l+7.  p p . 21+9-250. cit.  55  • r a t l e a s t t o g r e a t l y a l l e v i a t e the problems between the I n d i a n s of the p l a i n s and the white i n t r u d e r s upon t h e i r l a n d s seemed p r e p o s t e r o u s .  Conceived i n good w i l l and  s i n c e r i t y , d e s i g n e d and n e g o t i a t e d w i t h o p t i m i s t i c  solicitude,  r e c e i v e d by the r e d men w i t h f a i t h and hope, i t appeared u n l i k e l y t h a t any untoward sequence of e v e n t s s h o u l d a r i s e to p r e v e n t the a t t a i n m e n t o f i t s i n t e n t i o n s . promise  The h o p e f u l  of a new e r a seemed, i n d e e d , t o be a t hand.  56  Chap, i\  D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and D i s t r u s t Appear,  In sp i t e  of the  f i n e s p i r i t and h i g h hopes o f the  Laramie Conference of 1 8 5 1 , I t Treaty would not s o l v e the Disillusionment, appearance.  was soon apparent  Indian problem on the  that  The b e a u t i e s  and convenience of  Pt. the  plains.  disappointment and d i s t r u s t made  D. C. f a i l e d to c r e a t e among the desire  l85l-l86l  1  their  ?/ashington,  Indians the  anticipated  to adopt the white man's way of l i f e .  Amazement,  if  i t appeared, was soon r e p l a c e d by homesickness and a l o n g i n g for  t h e i r people,  of the p l a i n s .  their lodges,  and the unblemished sunshine  One member of the d e l e g a t i o n ,  it will  be  2  recalled,  committed s u i c i d e .  In Washington, t o o , was l o n g d e l a y e d . clause  r a t i f i c a t i o n of the T r e a t y o f  l8£l  The U n i t e d S t a t e s Senate o b j e c t e d to  p r o v i d i n g f o r the  issuance  of a n n u i t i e s over a  the  fifty-  year p e r i o d , # 5 0 , 0 0 0 worth of goods to be d i s t r i b u t e d a n n u a l l y to S i o u x , Arapahoes and Cheyennes f o r that l e n g t h of Using i t s  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l prerogative  i t reduced the p e r i o d to ten y e a r s , President,  i f he deemed i t  f i f t e e n years.  to modify the  time.  agreement,  with the p r o v i s o t h a t  advisable,  c o u l d extend i t  (This e v e n t u a l l y was done.)  the  to  The t r e a t y ,  of  1 It w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t D . D . M i t c h e l l , one of the n e g o t i a t o r s of the t r e a t y , had s a i d that n o t h i n g but bad management or perverse m i s f o r t u n e c o u l d ever mar the s p i r i t o f the F t . Laramie C o n f e r e n c e . (See Chapter 3 , p . 5 1 , ) 2  See Chapter 1 , p . 2 6 .  57 course, was thereby i n v a l i d a t e d u n t i l i t c o u l d be r e t u r n e d te  the s c a t t e r e d Indians i n amended ferm f e r t h e i r  approval.  final  Te accomplish t h i s , great o b s t a c l e s had to be  overcome; most a u t h o r i t i e s s t a t e that i t never was r e f e r r e d to  the Indians i n i t s amended form, but t h i s i s an unfounded  3 assumption.  A g a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f e l l upon Thomas F i t z -  p a t r i c k , who, as h i s l a s t o f f i c i a l  accomplishment  before h i s  death, r e t u r n e d the amended instrument to the Sioux, Cheyennes and Arapahoes.  In November 1853, mere than two y e a r s a f t e r  the i n i t i a l agreement, he r e p o r t e d q u a l i f i e d ing  t h e i r consent.  18^1,  he wrote,  Of those who had approved  success i n g a i n the t r e a t y i n  seme signed the amended document, one o r two  were absent and ethers dead.  There i s ne mention  of the  Indians' f e e l i n g s about t h e t r e a t y made i n the name o f the U n i t e d States Government which had to be m o d i f i e d two y e a r s a f t e r they had accepted i t i n good f a i t h . In his  the communication noted above P i t z p a t r i c k expressed  dismay at f i n d i n g Arapahoes,  Sioux i n a " s t a r v i n g s t a t e " .  5  Cheyennes and many o f the  With the b i s o n i n scant supply  3 L i l l i a n B. S h i e l d s , f i r s t t o break w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e , shows t h a t the t r e a t y was r e t u r n e d to the Cheyennes and Arapahoes. (See L i l l i a n B. S h i e l d s , " R e l a t i o n s w i t h the Cheyennes and Arapahoes te l 8 6 l " , The Colorado Magazine, 19 7, v . IL, p. II4.9.) 2  k  Op. c i t . Annual Report, l8£3» P. 366.  $  I b i d . , p. 368.  Pitzpatrick's  italics.  58  t h e i r women were pinched w i t h want and the c h i l d r e n c r y i n g out w i t h hunger.  In I85I4. F i t z p a t r i c k ' s  successor at  the  North P l a t t e Agency c i t e d s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s , warned that the  Indians must change  p o l i c y ©f f o r c e  t h e i r ways ©r p e r i s h , and a d v i s e d a  t© b r i n g i t a b o u t .  Even though s t a r v i n g ,  they would not v o l u n t a r i l y abandon t h e i r m©de ©f l i f e ; t h e r e f e r e he advocated  a thorough drubbing f © r every band  6 fr©m Texas t©  Only a f t e r that c o u l d they be expected  give up the chase and use the plow. The  in  to Oregen.  new a g e n t ' s v i n d i c t i v e n e s s may be b e t t e r  the l i g h t ©f the t r a g i c events preceding h i s  Ab©ut mid-August I85I4., L i e u t e n a n t G r a t t a n , officer totally  remarks.  a young army  l a c k i n g i n diplomacy, m©ved s © l d i e r s and  carmen i n up©n a Sioux encampment t© take by f o r c e wh©  appreciated  a brave  had captured and butchered a lame cow, a s t r a y fr©m an  immigrant t r a i n .  When he c a l l o u s l y ©pened f i r e up©n t h e i r  7 village,  the f r i g h t e n e d Sioux a n n i h i l a t e d h i s e n t i r e  cemmand.  S h © r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the new agent met w i t h Northern Arapahees and  Cheyennes wh© had a r r i v e d at the agency f o r  annuities.  The spokesman f o r a Cheyenne band, who had  witnessed the G r a t t a n massacre, demanded t h a t travel  their  ©n the P l a t t e road should cease,  6  Ibid.  lQ$l+, P. 3 0 3 .  7  Ibid.,  p. 301.  immigrant  and that f o r t h e  T h i s o c c u r r e d near P t .  Laramie, Wyoming.  59 ensuing year  the Cheyennes should r e c e i v e  $1+000 In money,  the balance of t h e i r a n n u i t i e s i n guns and ammunition, and one-thousand white women f o r w i v e s .  8  Not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the  impression they had made upon the agent, a f t e r dark, three guns.  galloped close It  to the agency c o r r a l ,  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the  c i t i n g the Cheyennes as the " s a u c i e s t " seen,  the band r e t u r n e d  f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e  and f i r e d  t e r r i f i e d agent,  Indians he had ever  t h e i r grim sense of the r i d i c u l o u s .  The Si#ux, who i n the G r a t t a n a f f a i r had warred upon U n i t e d States t r o o p s ,  had to be p u n i s h e d .  the l o g i c of t h e i r a c t i o n s ,  Without regard  nor the f a c t that but one band  of t h i s mighty t r i b e was i m p l i c a t e d , t© the  astonishment  s e v e r a l of the bands h o s t i l i t i e s were d e c l a r e d a g a i n s t entire nation.  10  of  their  /  General Harney d e c i s i v e l y d e f e a t e d the B r u l e  Sioux i n the Bluewater B a t t l e a close.  to  ©f l8£5, b r i n g i n g the war to  In t h i s f i n a l f i g h t the c a s u a l t i e s  women and c h i l d r e n ran h i g h ,  a feature  among Indian  which to© o f t e n  11 accompanied I n d i a n warfare  i n the West.  The importance  of  whipping the Indians seems f r e q u e n t l y to have outranked other  considerations  8  lb**..  9  Loc  10  i n m i l i t a r y minds.  P . 302.  cit.  Ibid.,  1856, p .  619.  11 Some of the more n o t o r i o u s b a t t l e s i n which many Indian women and c h i l d r e n were k i l l e d were the Sand Creek, Colorado, massacre of Southern Cheyennes and Arapahoes i n 1861+, C u s t e r ' s a t t a c k upon the same groups an the Washita, Oklahoma, i n 1868, and the Wounded Knee, South Dakota, b a t t l e w i t h the Sioux i n 1890.  6o  Although the Cheyennes had p r e v i o u s l y been i n v o l v e d i n h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h Indian enemies, no s e r i o u s  charges of r a i d s  or depredations ©n the whites were brought a g a i n s t  them u n t i l  In that year they had a b r u s h w i t h U n i t e d States tr©©ps  1856.  12  near Casper, Wyoming, a f t e r a dispute over s t © l e n One  brave was k i l l e d ,  a second a r r e s t e d ,  l e s s aware of the Sioux debacle  horses.  and the band, doubt-  of the p r e v i o u s y e a r ,  fled  13  south to j o i n t h e i r b r e t h r e n on the A r k a n s a s .  Months l a t e r ,  when a group of Cheyennes prepared to r a i d the Pawnees,  shots  were exchanged between a f r i g h t e n e d m a i l d r i v e r and two young w a r r i o r s who had approached him to beg tobacco,  the  driver  111.  r e c e i v i n g an arrow wound. Too l a t e the Cheyenne l e a d e r I n t e r v e n e d , f o r although he saved the w h i t e s , Government 15  troops attacked  h i s band next morning.  H o s t i l i t i e s continued i n t o the  Retaliations followed.  summer of 1 8 5 7 , when C o l o n e l  Sumner dismayed the Cheyennes w i t h a saber  charge,  and ended  16  the war a g a i n s t  them.  N© f u r t h e r h o s t i l i t i e s o c c u r r e d upon  the p l a i n s u n t i l i 8 6 0 , when w i t h Kiowas and Cemanches i n d i s t u r b a n c e i n the s e u t h , m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s t©©k the OP. c i t . Annual R e p © r t , 1 8 5 6 , p . 6 3 8 . 1 2  field  13 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , pp. 1 1 1 - 1 1 2 . Three h © r s e s were r e c o v e r e d , but ©ne Cheyenne s t u b b o r n l y r e f u s e d t© y i e l d the fourth st©len animal. llj.  Op. c i t .  15  Loc.  16  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t ,  1856, p. 6 5 0 .  cit. Grinnell,  pp. 1 1 9 - 1 2 5 .  61 against  them.  Perhaps no s i n g l e f a c t o r the P t .  L  aramie  i n 1858.  caused g r e a t e r d i s l o c a t i o n of  T r e a t y than the d i s c o v e r y of gold i n Colorado  The i n v a s i o n of 150,000 gold seekers  int©  the  17 territory  molested the game and alarmed the I n d i a n s .  The  r e t u r n to the E a s t of more than h a l f of them through Cheyenne and Arapaho h u n t i n g grounds, w i t h i t s u n t o l d damage to fo©d s u p p l y , Increased the  Indians' alarm.  their  Denver, C o l o r a d o ,  and other townsites were s e l e c t e d and c o n s t r u c t i o n begun by prospectors  on lands guaranteed  to the Cheyennes and Arapahoes  18  by the Treaty of 1851. Organized bands of horse t h i e v e s , p r e y i n g i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y on g o l d hunters and a b o r i g i n e s caused  19 further  tensions.  In February 1859, Agent Twiss ©f the North P l a t t e Agency, expressed h i s concern to J . ?/. Denver, Commissioner of Indian Affairs,  r e g a r d i n g the d i s r u p t i o n i n the g o l d l a n d s , and  proposed that the Cheyennes and Arapahoes cede them to  the  U n i t e d States i n exchange f o r a n n u i t i e s to be agreed upon. 17  Ibid.,  20  p . 125.  18 LeRoy R. Hafen and Ann W. Hafen ( e d . ) , R e l a t i o n s w i t h the Indians of the P l a i n s 1857-1861, G l e n d a l e , the A r t h u r H .  C l a r k Co., 1959, P. 173.  t  9 OP. o i t . Annual R e p o r t , i860, p p . 239 and 317. The t h i e v e s i n f e s t e d the country between the M i s s o u r i R i v e r and P i k e ' s Peak, C o l o r a d o . x  20 Op. c i t . Hafen and Hafen, R e l a t i o n s w i t h the of the P l a i n s , I b 5 7 - l 8 6 l , p . 175.  Indians  62 Seven months l a t e r he met w i t h Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes and some of the Sioux bands, a r r a n g i n g f o r the  cessien  and d r a f t e d a t r e a t y ,  ©f l a r g e b l o c k s of I n d i a n lands  i n c l u d i n g the gold f i e l d s - - and t h e i r acceptance of and r e s e r v a t i o n s , lands.  21  the l a t t e r © o n t a i n i n g good  requested  l e a r n i n g t© farm the lands a s s i g n e d f e r Arapah© r e s e r v a t i e n , a l e n g the Cache l a its  annuities  agricultural  C h i e f Medicine Man ©f the Northern Arapahees,  spakesman f e r a l l three greups,  as  Government a i d i n  that purpose.  The  s p e c i f i c a l l y ch©sen f o r them, was t © r u n Peudre i n C©lorad©, fr©m the mountains t©  j u n c t i o n w i t h the  some of the r i c h e s t a fertile,  --  irrigated  S©uth P l a t t e ,  agricultural district  an area which teday i n c l u d e  land i n e a s t e r n C©l©rad©  — embracing the  city  ©f Greeley  22 and the State C o l l e g e ©f E d u c a t i o n . Agent T w i s s ' e f f o r t s  went f o r naught;  t® r e c e i v e Senate endorsement. forg©tten. wards, wood,  the t r e a t y f a i l e d  But the g o l d lands were not  Less concerned than Twiss f o r the w e l f a r e  of h i s  the new Commissioner of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , A. B. Greenjourneyed to P t . Wise on the Upper Arkansas i n C o l o r a d o .  There he met w i t h Seuthern Arapah©es and Cheyennes, w i t h the 21  I b i d . , pp. 179-182.  22 H a z e l E . J©hns©n, L e t t e r of J a n . 8 , 1962. Miss Johnson, r e g i o n a l V i c e P r e s i d e n t of the State H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y ©f C o l e r a d © , c a l l s these lands "the cream ©f the cr©p". Over a p e r i © d ©f some years the Northern Arapah©es t r i e d t© © b t a i n a r e s e r v a t i o n t h e r e .  63 expressed  aim of persuading them t© p a r t w i t h the unneeded  areas of t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n  so they could s e t t l e down and  23 farm, f o r the game was r a p i d l y d w i n d l i n g . separating  He succeeded i n  the Indians by a supposedly safe d i s t a n c e  gold f i e l d s , the reute of the Overland Stage L i n e ,  the p r o -  posed r i g h t ©f way f o r the f i r s t t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l and  the more promising a g r i c u l t u r a l lands of the  Without the a i d of an i n t e r p r e t e r  railr©ad, territory.  to c l a r i f y the  terms of  the t r e a t y t© the I n d i a n s , w i t h no evident e f f o r t t h e i r d e s i r e s nor p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r w e l f a r e ,  by  the t r e a t y ,  to  determine  the Commissioner  assumed that they were w i l l i n g t© p a r t w i t h t h e i r Although he expected  from the  a l l members ©f both t r i b e s  lands.  to be b©und  the assent of the absentees ( a l l o f  the  Northern bands and a few of the Southern) was c o n s i d e r e d t® be ©f n© importance. greatest t e r r i t o r i a l ©f  l86l.  Thus he pushed through one of grabs of h i s day,  the  the P t , Wise T r e a t y  Thereby Cheyennes and Arapahoes l o s t  great  tracts  of the f i n e s t l a n d i n the area f o r the dubious p r i v i l e g e of g a i n i n g a n n u i t i e s and r e t a i n i n g an a r i d rangeland i n s o u t h eastern Colorad®.  23  Op. c i t .  25  When they found themselves b a r r e d from the Annual Report,  i 8 6 0 , pp.  IL^2-IL$IL.  24Lec. c i t . Many of the absentees r e f u s e d t© be bound by the t r e a t y . 25  Ibid.,  1868, p . 3 3 .  61+ f r e e use of t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t l a n d s , they vehemently  protested  26 the P t . Wise swindle of l 8 6 l . Throughout the d i f f i c u l t Treaty of P t .  Laramie,  ten-year  period following  the  the Northern Arapahoes remained at  peace with the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  although they p i l l a g e d l i v e -  stock when d r i v e n by the f e a r of famine.  N e i t h e r the  pangs  of hunger nor the appeals ©f t h e i r f r i e n d s succeeded i n e m b r o i l i n g them with the F e d e r a l  troops.  It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that Thomas F i t z p a t r i c k i n l8£3 and h i s successor distress  at the N©rth P l a t t e Agency i n lQ$l+ r e p © r t e d  fr©m hunger among the Indians they s e r v e d .  Likewise  27 Agent Twiss found them s u f f e r i n g and s t a r v i n g i n 1855.  Yet  the Arapahoes remained apart from the Sioux t r o u b l e s of I85I]-, and the war which f o l l o w e d . involved i n h o s t i l i t i e s  Later,  (1856-1857),  when the Cheyennes were "the Northern Arapahoes  d i s r e g a r d e d the pleas of these l o n g - t i m e f r i e n d s and a l l i e s , and gave them n© a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i g h t i n g . By the middle of the decade immigrant inroads ©n the b u f f a l o p r e c i p i t a t e d a c r i s i s among the A r a p a h © e s .  Hardest  h i t were the ©Id and the very young, who, weakened by the l a c k ©f fo©d and p r © t e c t i © n fr©m the weather, d i e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e  28  numbers.  With smallp©x adding to t h e i r  themselves  troubles,  they helped  t© the e a s i e s t game at hand, the c a t t l e and sheep  26  Ibid.,  I 8 6 3 , P.  130.  27  Ibid.,  1855, P .  398.  28  Ibid.,  p . U.03-  65 of immigrant w h i t e s . obtaining t h e i r until  T h e i r agent had n© d i f f i c u l t y i n  consent  t© w i t h h o l d t h e i r annuity payments  the ©wners of the l i v e s t o c k should be f u l l y reimbursed,  although i t might take s e v e r a l years t© d© s o . 1859 they were commended f@r t h e i r e f f o r t s Pt.  In l8£8 and  to observe  all  Laramie T r e a t y s t i p u l a t i o n s w i t h © t h e r Indian t r i b e s  w e l l as w i t h the w h i t e s ,  as  although the f r i c t i o n s a r i s i n g from  the occupation of the gold f i e l d s In Colorado made the ]a t t e r  30 especially d i f f i c u l t . In welcome c o n t r a s t to the f r u s t r a t i o n , in  f e a r and f i g h t i n g  t h i s p e r i o d of Indian h i s t o r y are r e p o r t s of f r i e n d l y v i s i t s  of Northern Arapahoes l e f t by W. P . Rayn©lds and V . P . Hayden, respectively  c©mmander and n a t u r a l i s t  E x p e d i t i o n to explore  of the U . S. Government  the Yellowstone R i v e r .  A s m a l l group  of Arapahoes c a l l e d upon the former i n h i s camp near present  the  town of Glendo, Wyoming, i n 1859, brought him word  of m a i l a w a i t i n g him at P t .  Laramie, exchanged f r e s h meat  31 f o r bacon,  and o b v i o u s l y enjoyed the f e l l o w s h i p .  recorded a number of v i s i t s by Northern Arapahoes in  Hayden similar  t h e i r s p i r i t of f r i e n d l i n e s s . 29  Ibid.,  p . i|01.  3° Op. c i t * Hafen and Hafen, R e l a t i o n s w i t h the Indians of the P l a i n s , I i j 5 7 - l 8 6 l . p p . 1?0 and I B I 4 - I 8 5 . In h i s r e p o r t o f l « 5 b (p. 170) the agent admitted d i f f i c u l t y i n h o l d i n g h i s wards i n check when enemy t r i b e s r a i d e d them f o r h o r s e s . A c t u a l l y , as shown i n the f i r s t chapter ©f t h i s paper (pp. 192 1 ) , none ©f the t r i b e s i n v o l v e d cared to abandon the p r a c t i c e . 31 W. P. Raynolds, Rep©rt of the E x p l o r a t i o n of the Yellowstone R i v e r , Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , p . 6I1.  1868,  66  Both Raynolds and Hayden were h i g h l y impressed by C h i e f Friday,  the l a t t e r d e s c r i b i n g him as the man ®f g r e a t e s t i n -  32 f l u e n c e among h i s people at t h i s t i m e . o f a l l the t r i b e ,  Since F r i d a y a l o n e ,  had f l u e n t command of the E n g l i s h  and f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d f o r h i s f e l l o w s , i t  language  i s not  s u r p r i s i n g that white men have reached t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , but the preponderance of evidence i n d i c a t e s  that C h i e f Medicine  Man probably was h e l d i n h i g h e s t regard by the Northern Arapah© p e o p l e .  He, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was d e s i g n a t e d  spokesman not ©nly f o r the Arapahoes but f e r the Cheyennes and Sioux as w e l l at  the t r e a t y conference  f a i l e d t© g a i n Senate appr@val),  ©f 1859  (which  a r e s p e n s i b i l i t y which w©uld  normally be assumed ©nly by the most i n f l u e n t i a l member of a tribe.  Moreover, h i s f o l l © w e r s c o n s t i t u t e d the l a r g e s t  w i t h i n the Nerthern Arapah© gr©up, at l e a s t , ers at  c e m p r i s i n g h a l f the  and more than d©uble the number ©f F r i d a y ' s  band tribe  f@ll©w-  t h e i r maximum.  Judging by the a c t i e n s the ensuing y e a r s ,  it  ©f Medicine Man and F r i d a y d u r i n g  seems prebable that b©th ©f them,  the p e r i © d ©f d i s i l l u s l @ n m e n t and d i s t r u s t f a l l o w i n g the Laramie Treaty ©f l 8 £ l ,  thr@ugh Ft.  were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n keeping the N e r t h -  e r n Arapahees at peace w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  an achievement  ©f no mean d i s t i n c t i ® n .  decumentation,  however, 3  2  Without m©re d e f i n i t e  t h i s must remain an u n v e r i f i e d Op. c i t .  cenjecture.  Hafen and Ghent, Broken Hand, p . 275.  67 Chap. $ The C i v i l War P e r i © d , Erupts ®n a Bread S c a l e .  l86l-l86£.  Conflict  During the C i v i l War p e r i e d , l86l-l865, Indian r e l a t i o n s d e t e r i o r a t e d u n t i l they reached an unprecedentedly low p o i n t d u r i n g the l a t t e r y e a r .  Cheyennes and Arapahoes r a n k l e d w i t h  the r e a l i z a t i o n that the U n i t e d States Government, under the P t . Wise Treaty o f l 8 6 l , had a l i e n a t e d t h e i r i n e s t i m a b l y v a l u a b l e lands i n Colorado (Chapter i+, p p . £ 0 - £ l ) . seekers  and land-hungry Immigrants  the t e r r i t o r y , needs ©f the  giving l i t t l e  Gold  continued to pour i n t o  thought to the f e e l i n g s ®r  Indians whose lands they n©w p@ssessed.  idea that r e d men n e i t h e r c@uld n©r w©uld u t i l i z e the and © t h e r resources  to good advantage  p o i n t that few d e s i r e d even peaceable  Indians as n e i g h b o r s .  ©verc©me i n f u l f i l l i n g the white man's d e s t i n y ,  and m©re l a n d f © r t o w n s i t e s , Indians made way r e l u c t a n t l y ,  soil  so c o l o r e d t h e i r v i e w -  The pioneers regarded them as ©ne among many o b s t a c l e s  and d e v e l o p i n g ©f the p l a i n s .  The  to be  the p e o p l i n g  As the s e t t l e r s occupied mere ranches,  farms and mines,  the  u n w i l l i n g to be pushed a s i d e ;  and the f e e l i n g a g a i n s t them g r a d u a l l y i n t e n s i f i e d . L©ss ®f t h e i r l a n d and the continuous d e s t r u c t i o n t h e i r game by the whites l e f t worried f e r  ranchers'  the Indians g r a v e l y u n s e t t l e d ,  t h e i r d a i l y needs and f e a r f u l of the  Small groups ©f b r a v e s ,  of  future.  u s u a l l y y©ung men, sometimes r a n o f f  ©r immigrants' l i v e s t e c k ,  thus compensating i n s©me  degree f © r the l a c k ©f game f o r f o o d .  C®ntinuance ©f t h e i r  68 a g e - e l d pastime of r a i d i n g enemy t r i b e s and p r e s t i g e accident  agitated  or i n t e n t ,  the s e t t l e r s ,  f o r horses,  scalps  who f e a r e d t h a t ,  through  they might become embroiled with one  Indian group or a n o t h e r .  As mutual d i s t r u s t  deepened,  the  r a i d i n g custom e a s i l y l e d to c l a s h e s between reds and w h i t e s , mistaken i d e n t i t y and misunderstanding of i n t e n t i o n s as c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s .  Attempts by I n d i a n agents and other  o f f i c i a l s to persuade the braves availed l i t t l e ,  serving  c h i e f l y because  a p a r t of t h e i r way of l i f e .  to abandon the  practice  i t meant so much to them as  Furthermore,  the white man's  l o g i c contained a s e r i o u s f l a w , f o r the F e d e r a l Government showed no i n c l i n a t i o n to make peace w i t h i t s until  i t had f i r s t  taught  I n d i a n enemies  them a l e s s o n by drubbing them.  Thus the a b o r i g i n e s d i d not f e e l o b l i g e d to keep the peace w i t h t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l enemies,  i n s i s t i n g that i t was  "a poor r u l e that w i l l not work b o t h ways". With the outbreak of the  1  C i v i l War i n l 8 6 l many F e d e r a l  2 troops were withdrawn from Indian country and sent  south.  This gave the tribesmen ©f the p l a i n s an o p p o r t u n i t y t© s t r i k e a t e l l i n g blow at  the s e t t l e r s ,  had they been so minded; but  d e s p i t e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the F t . Wise Treaty and o c c a s i o n a l Op. c i t . Annual Report, I 8 6 9 , P . Sk-* These words were spoken by Medicine Arrow, a Southern Cheyenne. 1  2  Op. c i t .  Grinnell,  p . 127.  69 f o r a y s by hungry b r a v e s ,  evidence  i s completely l a c k i n g that  they planned to take advantage ©f the s i t u a t i o n .  Yet  apprehension soon appeared that the Confederacy might attempt  3 an a l l i a n c e w i t h them to encourage  war up©n the p l a i n s . This  fear  ©f Confederate  increased  as minor a c t i v i t i e s  i n the Denver area came t© l i g h t .  sympathizers  But i n August, 1862, a  f e e l i n g a k i n t© t e r r o r of a l l Indians g r i p p e d the p l a i n s . When some 700 whites were s l a i n d u r i n g a s i n g l e week of E a s t e r n Sioux u p r i s i n g i n Minnesota, the e n t i r e electrified,  r e g i o n was  even to Denver, C o l o r a d o , a thousand m i l e s fr©m  the d i s t u r b a n c e s .  To the  s e t t l e r s ©f the area the name ©f  Indian became e q u i v a l e n t to t r e a c h e r y , i n this regard. relations  the  and few d i s c r i m i n a t e d  The e f f e c t of t h i s f e e l i n g upon Indian  t h r o u g h © u t the p e r i o d can s c a r c e l y  The Bureau ©f Indian A f f a i r s ,  be  overestimated,  c o n s i d e r i n g white  satis-  f a c t i o n of g r e a t e r impertance  than Indian d i s p l e a s u r e ,  initiated direct  w i t h these bands of Cheyennes  negotiations  and Arapahoes which had not approved the P t . Wise but s t i l l  Treaty,  occupied d e s i r a b l e lands i n Colorado and Wyoming.  To Governor Evans ©f Colorado T e r r i t © r y f e l l  the  unsavory  task ©f c o n v i n c i n g the Indians that by ceding t h e i r lands and s e t t l i n g on the Colorado w i t h t h e i r  a r i d Upper Arkansas i n  other  southeastern  southern kinsmen, they c o u l d be  converted  3 LeR©y Hafen and Ann W . Hafen, Reports from C o l e r a d e , the Wlldman L e t t e r s of 1859-1865 w i t h Other Related L e t t e r s and Newspaper"Reports 1859, G l e n d a l e , the A r t h u r H . C l a r k C Q . 1961, p. 301.  70 t® farmers and beceme s e l f - s u p p ® r t i n g . he contacted  k  With t h i s end i n view  the n o r t h e r n bands of both t r i b e s even t® the  Powder R i v e r r e g i o n i n n ® r t h e r n Wyoming and southern Montana, where b u f f a l o were c o m p a r a t i v e l y p l e n t i f u l , them to r e p o r t  5  Laramie.  and requested  to the Upper o r North P l a t t e Agency near  Pt.  There a c ® u n c i l would be h e l d i n the h®pe of  persuading them t© j o i n t h e i r b r e t h r e n on t h e i r b a r r e n reservation.  The p r e p © s t e r ® u s unreasenableness  ©f the  plan  can be b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e d i n the l i g h t ©f the r e p a r t ©f C © l l e y , agent t© the Southern Cheyennes and Arapah@es, u n r e g u l a t e d s l a u g h t e r ©f b u f f a l © had r e s u l t e d i n the  that  exter-  m i n a t i o n ©f every head ©f these animals w i t h i n 200 m i l e s of the r e s e r v a t i © n ©n the Upper Arkansas, and t h a t © t h e r game  6 was a l s ©  scarce.  Since n®ne ©f the Indians were w i l l i n g to meve to r e s e r v a t i o n and attempt  the  t© l i v e l i k e white men, an i n d i r e c t  appreach was used and a unique meth©d ©f c o e r c i s n d e v i s e d . Although the G®vernment was t r e a t y - b o u n d to i s s u e  annuities  u n t i l 1866, those f © r I863 were to be w i t h h e l d u n t i l bands concerned should premise t© s i g n e i t h e r  the  the P t . Wise  7 Treaty,  ©r ©ne s i m i l a r i n i t s  terms,  Many Cheyennes r e f u s e d t© be c o e r c e d ,  k- Op. c i t .  still  t© be d r a f t e d .  but the Northern  Annual R e p o r t , I863, p p . 2l+2-2lj.5.  5  L©c. c i t .  6  Ibid.,  p p . 252-253.  7  Ibid.,  p p . 2l}.9-250.  71 Arapaho C h i e f s , their  Medicine Man, B l a c k Bear and F r i d a y ,  signatures  8  were i s s u e d .  to the promise, a f t e r which t h e i r  attached  rations  What went through the minds ©f the three  remains a mystery,  chiefs  f e r n©ne had put h i s name t© the F t . Wise  T r e a t y , n©r t© another ©f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e ,  and Medicine Man  s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d made i t p l a i n t© G©vern©r Evans that they would not g© t© the Upper A r k a n s a s . b e t t e r ©f the m a t t e r , and e x e r c i s e d the U . S. Senate executive  in rejecting  Perhaps they  thought  the p r e r o g a t i v e s  used by  t r e a t i e s arranged by the  branch ©f the Government.  At l e a s t It  can  scarcely  be argued that they misunderst©©d the p r e l i m i n a r y agreement they had made, f o r F r i d a y not ©nly sp©ke E n g l i s h w e l l , 9  but  c©uld a l s © read and w r i t e . When J©hn Evans became Governor ©f C o l e r a d ©  Territery  and e x - © f f i c i © r e g i o n a l Superintendent ©f Indian A f f a i r s  in  the idea of an Indian war seems t© have been f © r e i g n  1862,  to h i s mind.  But the e a s t e r n Sioux u p r i s i n g of that summer,  which shacked the s e t t l e r s ©f the p l a i n s and made every I n d i a n suspect,  must have had a marked e f f e c t  L a c k i n g kn©wledge ©f the suspici©us,  8  Loc.  up©n h i s  thinking.  Indian mind, he r e a d i l y became  heeded the c o u n s e l of a man ©f d o u b t f u l c h a r a c t e r cit.  9 F r i d a y ' s f l u e n t command ®f E n g l i s h has been a •f f a v © r a b l e c©mment am©ng whites wh© knew h i m .  subject  72 r a t h e r than that of f r i e n d l y Indians or o f f i c i a l s who knew them b e t t e r than he,  and u n w i t t i n g l y helped to s e t  s i t u a t i o n which culminated i n l a r g e - s c a l e By 1863 the  up a  hostilities.  t a l k of war among both s e t t l e r s and a b o r i g i n e s  caused Governor Evans grave c o n c e r n .  In November, about a  month a f t e r Medicine Man had informed him t h a t the Northern Arapahoes,  though they opposed h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h the  whites,  would not s e t t l e on the Upper Arkansas, an i l l i t e r a t e  and  i r r e s p o n s i b l e white man wh© was married to an Arapah© and spoke the language,  persuaded him t h a t the Arapahoes,  Cheyennes, Kiowas and Cemanches would u n i t e against  the whites as  Si®ux,  in hostilities  soon as they c o u l d o b t a i n s u f f i c i e n t  10 ammunition i n the  spring.  The motives b e h i n d the  by R@bert N o r t h , as he was named, are  enigmatic,  convinced the G@vernor t h a t he had gained the  story but he  full  of the Arapahoes i n r e s c u i n g a woman ©f that t r i b e Utesj  therefore  h i s warnings should be heeded.  told  In  confidence from the gratitude  f o r h i s rescue of the woman the Arapahoes had g i v e n him a b i g medicine dance Wise),  i n Colorado,  (Sun Dance) near P t . It was t h e r e ,  Lyon ( f o r m e r l y  he s a i d ,  Pt.  that he had seen  10 Robert N o r t h , elsewhere d e s c r i b e d as the demented, renegade l e a d e r ©f an outlaw band of Arapahoes, was 3a t e r hanged by v i g i l a n t e s or r o b b e r s , (See Joseph Henry T a y l o r , F r o n t i e r and Indian L i f e and K a l e i d o s c o p i c L i v e s , V a l l e y C i t y , I B 8 9 , p p . 11+0-151+.)  73 Northern and Southern Arapahoes, and Comanches pledge themselves  11  whites.  Cheyennes,  S i o u x , Kiowas,  to war t o g e t h e r on the  Had no massacre of s e t t l e r s occurred  i n Minnesota, the Governor might, r u l e d by emotionalism,  perhaps,  the year  have been l e s s  and sought o t h e r sources of  but he accepted N o r t h ' s s t o r y at face v a l u e , trouble  i n the  Governor Evans d i d n o t ,  Northern and Southern Arapahoes, other t r i b e s ,  and  information  anticipated  spring.  Handicapped by h i s meager knowledge of customs,  before  Indians and  of course,  realize  but to c e l e b r a t e the O f f e r i n g s Lodge,  that  with f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r s  had come t o g e t h e r , not f o r w a r l i k e ceremony of the  from  purposes,  Sun Dance, or  as the Arapahoes c a l l e d i t ,  their  the  the most meaning-  12 f u l r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l of the p l a i n s I n d i a n s .  N e i t h e r was he  aware that the Arapaho Sun Dance could not have been g i v e n f o r N o r t h , as i t  i s always the r e s u l t  of a s a c r e d vow, i n t h i s  case the vow of a Northern Arapah© w©man wh© had escaped the U t e s ,  fr©m  and through the a i d ©f Henry N o r t h , not Robert (wh©  claimed c r e d i t  fer  it),  had r e t u r n e d  11  Op. c i t .  12  For a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n  1. p p . 1 8 - 1 9 .  Annual Re p a r t ,  safely  l86i|., pp. of the  t® her  pe©ple.  13  221+-225.  Sun Dance,  see Chap.  13 J e s s i e R©wlodge, L e t t e r ©f June 2 1 , 1 9 6 1 . This Southern Arapah©, wh© has a remarkable knowledge ©f h i s p e o p l e ' s p a s t , e x p l a i n s that Henry N o r t h had a b r o t h e r Robert.  Ik The s t © r y ©f t h i s still  Sun Dance, i n s h © r t ,  i s an Arapah© e p i c ,  c©mm©nly kn©wn among b o t h Northern and Southern groups;  but i t  i s Henry N o r t h , not h i s b r o t h e r R o b e r t , who has an  important p a r t  in i t .  A d e t a i l e d account,  "The S t o r y of a  Woman's Vow", i s r e l a t e d by George A . Dorsey i n "The Arapaho  Ik  Sun D a n c e " .  The Northern Arapahoes at  t h i s time were not  p r e p a r i n g f o r war. When Governor Evans f i r s t stop the p r a c t i c e the  came to Colorado he sought  of i n t e r - t r i b a l r a i d i n g which s© o f t e n kept  s e t t l e r s ©n edge.  He r a t h e r e a s i l y cenvinced h i m s e l f —  but n©t the Indians - - that they would abandon the The h o s t i l i t i e s which broke ©ut i n the s p r i n g ©f an I n d i r e c t r e s u l t  ©f t h i s p r a c t i c e ,  t r i b a l pledge ©f warfare Due to depredatiens  came as  inter-  i n the P l a t t e V a l l e y by hungry Sioux hoping to preserve  peace,  Kearney, Nebraska.  ©f success were s p e l l e d when the encamped  i n the dark ©f n i g h t , mistoek a p a r t y ©f whites  t h e i r Pawnee enemies on a f o r a y , several.  I86I4.  r a t h e r than the  met the Brule Sioux i n c@uncil near P t .  Indians,  custom.  e r r e n e e u s l y r e p e r t e d by Robert N o r t h .  and Cheyennes, General. M i t c h e l l ,  But a l l chances  15  to  attacked  The t r o © p s responded i n k i n d ,  them, and k i l l e d  and warfare  began.  1I4. George A. D©rsey, "The Arapaho Sun Dance" A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Papers "of the F i e l d Celumbian Museum, Chicago, 1903, PP. 5 - B . 15  Op. c i t .  16  L©c.  cit.  Grinnell,  p.  15L  for  v.  16  75 Throughout the s p r i n g and summer i n t e r m i t t e n t  fighting  c o n t i n u e d , u n t i l v a r i o u s bands of Apaches, Comanches, Kiowas and Southern Arapahoes and Cheyennes were drawn i n , the two groups, at  least,  reluctantly.  last  S t a t i n g that unwanted war  had been f o r c e d upon them, they approached Governor Evans i n an e f f o r t  to o b t a i n peace, but met w i t h discouragement,  he d i s t r u s t e d negotiations.  them and r e f e r r e d  17  But t h e r e ,  also,  for  them to the m i l i t a r y f o r their efforts  were r e p e l l e d .  Prom Colorado to Montana f e e l i n g s r a n h i g h a g a i n s t Indians.  the  In the n o r t h , Montana and South Dakota were the  main f i e l d of combat,  and the Sioux the p r i n c i p a l b e l l i g e r e n t s  In l a t e J u l y General S u l l y ' s troops  and a r t i l l e r y caught up  18 w i t h them,  d e f e a t i n g them at K n i f e R i v e r , South D a k o t a .  C l o s e r to the North P l a t t e Agency and the routes of  travel  i n Wyoming and Nebraska, even f r i e n d l y Indians were t r e a t e d as h o s t i l e s by immigrants, little  effort  s e t t l e r s and s o l d i e r s ,  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  who made  between the g u i l t y and the  innocent. With the danger of widening h o s t i l i t i e s Governor Evans decided on an e f f o r t Indians from the h o s t i l e s . 17  Op. c i t .  increasing,  to separate the f r i e n d l y  In the e a r l y  Annual Report,  thus  summer of I86I4. he  1865, p p . 23-21L.  18 James M c C l e l l a n Hamilton, Prom Wilderness to Hood, P o r t l a n d , B i n f o r d and Mort, 1957, PP. 156-157.  State-  76 c a l l e d upon a l l who intended to be f r i e n d l y t© r e p o r t designated  s t a t i o n s i n Colorado f o r p r o t e c t i o n and  to  rations.  Prom these p o i n t s they would be unable t© go to the b u f f a l o range ©r otherwise  procure  the major p a r t o f t h e i r f o o d . To  h i s disappointment there was l i t t l e  immediate  response.  About 175 Northern Arapahoes under F r i d a y and White Wolf r e p © r t e d t© Camp C o l l i n s on the Cache l a Poudre, not f a r from  •19 the f o r m e r ' s  l o n g - p r e f e r r e d camping grounds.  L e f t Hand's  small band ©f Southern Arapahoes came i n t© F t . Arkansas, the other designated again.  This,  hostile  intentions.  station;  but they  i n the G o v e r n o r ' s e s t i m a t i o n , But i t  Lyon ©n the soon departed  confirmed t h e i r  i s probable that f e a r  ©f hunger  played an important p a r t i n L e f t Hand's d e c i s i o n t© l e a v e , f o r the area was s a d l y d e p l e t e d o f game.  Even at Camp  C o l l i n s , which was f a r more f a v o r a b l y l o c a t e d , subsistence f o r F r i d a y and White W o l f ' s bands proved t© be a p e r p l e x i n g  20  problem.  The Governor had s m a l l success i n a s s i g n i n g  f a c t o r y h u n t i n g grounds, tence f e l l  short  satis-  and the funds a l l © c a t e d f © r s u b s i s -  of p a y i n g f o r the food they r e q u i r e d .  when p r o c u r a b l e , was comparatively  inexpensive,  had cornered the wheat and f l o u r market;  !9  OP. c i t .  20  Ibid..  p.  Annual Report. 223.  1861).,  their p.  236.  but  Beef,  speculators  cost was  77 prohibitive.  21  By August of l86Ij. Indian t r o u b l e s  i n Colorado,  consider-  ably heightened by i m a g i n a t i o n , had produced a sad With only one e x c e p t i o n ,  effect.  every ranch along a 370 m i l e  of the Overland Stage Route i n Colorado was r e p o r t e d  stretch to be  22 deserted,  t h e i r occupants  having f l e d to the n e a r e s t  In the popular mind Indians were p i t i l e s s unprovoked a t t a c k s upon the whites  forts.  savages, ready f o r  and t h e i r  possessions.  General panic p r e v a i l e d between Camp C o l l i n s and Denver, a distance  of n e a r l y seventy m i l e s ; farmers  ifications  to r e p e l a n t i c i p a t e d f o r a y s .  improvised f o r t Three women r e p o r t -  e d l y went mad from f r i g h t . Governor Evans,  d i s a p p o i n t e d by the poor response  i n v i t a t i o n to f r i e n d l y I n d i a n s , was convinced of h o s t i l i t y on t h e i r p a r t .  F e a r f u l of a t t a c k ,  s e t t l e r s to hunt down a l l h o s t i l e s ,  to h i s  general  he a d v i s e d  the  and c a l l e d f o r a regiment  23 of one hundred day v o l u n t e e r s  f o r the  Indians now regarded as enemies, against  same purpose.  a determination f o r  the red men r e p l a c e d f e a r ,  With a l l vengeance  A p a r t y of one hundred  armed men headed f o r the Cache l a Poudre w i t h the  intention  21 I b i d . , p. 236. The p r i c e of f l o u r at La P o r t e , advanced from | 6 per Cwt. to $ 2 8 . La Porte was near Camp Collins. 22 I b i d . , p . 2 3 7 . T h i s i s from the r e p o r t of S p e r intendent G . K. O t i s of the Overland Stage Line to the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s . U  23  Ibid.,  p. 23.  78 a f c l e a n i n g aut F r i d a y and h i s f r i e n d l y band a f N o r t h e r n Arapahoes, b u t the r e p o r t o f a c t u a l h o s t i l e s  near F t . Lupton,  about f o r t y m i l e s c l o s e r t o Denver, t u r n e d them i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n , and m o d i f i e d t h e i r purpose. D u r i n g t h e f r i g h t e n i n g days o f August, l861i., an i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d which f u r t h e r i n c e n s e d the s e t t l e r s a g a i n s t the Indians.  T h i s was t h e capture  and a l l e g e d m i s t r e a t m e n t o f a  white woman, M r s . Eubanks, and h e r c h i l d , by I n d i a n s . when they s u r r e n d e r e d  the woman and c h i l d t o m i l i t a r y  Later, author-  i t i e s a t F t . Laramie, t h r e e Sioux were hanged f o r t h e i r  25 c o m p l i c i t y i n the a f f a i r .  The Colorado s e t t l e r s , who a l r e a d y  h e l d the I n d i a n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e i r Territory,  grew more i n f l a m e d than ever a g a i n s t them, and  demanded a g e n e r a l d r u b b i n g f o r a l l the savages (as they c a l l e d the I n d i a n s ) t o d r i v e home a much-needed l e s s o n . C o l o n e l C h i v i n g t o n o f t h e Colorado V o l u n t e e r s , who w i s h e d t o make a name an an I n d i a n f i g h t e r , u t i l i z e d t h i s demand i n making an unprovoked a t t a c k upon an encampment o f Southern Cheyennes and Arapahoes who were t r e a t i n g f o r peace w i t h t h e 26 commandant a t F t . Lyon. On t h e a d v i c e o f Governor Evans t o make t h e i r peace w i t h 21+  I b i d . , p. 237.  25 Arapahoes were a t f i r s t m i s t a k e n l y blamed f o r the c a p t u r e of Mrs. Eubanks. G r i n n e l l , op. c i t . , p. 155, s t a t e s t h a t Cheyennes and S i o u x were r e s p o n s i b l e , 26  Op. c i t . C o n d i t i o n o f the I n d i a n T r i b e s , p. 5.  79 the m i l i t a r y , Pt.  these t r i b e s  had approached Major Wyncoop at  Lyon t© n e g o t i a t e with him.  vati©n,  c l © s e to the f © r t ,  Encamped ©n t h e i r  ©wn r e s e r -  they b e l i e v e d themselves  t© be under  the p r @ t e c t i © n ©f the F e d e r a l t r @ © p s , and awaited the of t h e i r m i s s i o n .  ©utc©me  There i t was t h a t C o l e n e l C h i v i n g t e n and h i s  Volunteers f e l l upon them w i t h m e r c i l e s s  slaughter,  the  C©l©nel  i n s i s t i n g that n© Indian sh©uld be taken a l i v e , not even a c h i l d , as n i t s w©uld bec@me l i c e . battle,  27  T w © - t h i r d s ©f these k i l l e d i n t h i s  known as the Sand Greek Massacre,  were women and c h i l d -  ren. This ended the Cheyennes, felt  chances f © r peace i n C e l © r a d @ .  wh© had s u f f e r e d the  themselves  greater number ©f  Most ©f the casualties,  f o r c e d to f i g h t a g a i n s t e x t e r m i n a t i o n ;  band even n©w r e f u s e d t© war upon the w h i t e s . e v e r , were e a s i l y persuaded to  but ©ne  The S i © u x , how-  j o i n i n such a venture,  and  e i g h t y l®dges ©f Northern Arapahoes ©n the Republican R i v e r i n  28 Kansas were induced to u n i t e '  w i t h the h e s t i l e s .  T h i s band,  evidently Black B e a r ' s ,  had c©me fr©m P©wder R i v e r t© v i s i t  the Southern Arapah@es,  but f a i l e d t© f i n d them t h e r e ,  a f t e r the Sand Creek a f f a i r  for  they had f l e d f a r t h e r south t©  27 Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p . 173. A l t h o u g h r e p o r t s ©f the number k i l l e d vary g r e a t l y , 100 t© 800, there i s l i t t l e doubt ©f the p r © p © r t i © n of w©men and c h i l d r e n k i l l e d . P©r an idea •f Indian r e s i s t a n c e i n t h i s b a t t l e see p . 21 i n Chapter 1. 28  I b i d . , p.  181.  80 a v o i d the  troops.  29  Prom December 1861+ u n t i l February 1865", one thousand marauding w a r r i o r s of the  combined t r i b e s  terrorized  the  s e t t l e r s between the North and South P l a t t e R i v e r s , r a i d i n g Overland Stage Line s t a t i o n s  and b u r n i n g t e l e g r a p h poles  as  30 a part  of the p r o c e s s .  Julesburg Station i n  northeastern  Colorado was s t r u c k and plundered twice w i t h i n a few weeks, and on the second o c c a s i o n was burned to the ground. r a i d i n g f i n a l l y over,  the  The  Indians l i v e d w e l l f o r a while  ©n the l o o t they had taken, but when that was gone the  three  31 tribes  separated  t© r e t u r n to t h e i r n o r t h e r n h u n t i n g grounds.  Most of the N © r t h e r n Arapahoes, d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of turbulence and i l l - f e e l i n g from l 8 6 l peace w i t h the w h i t e s . band,  t© 1865, remained at  With the e x c e p t i o n of B l a c k  they c o u l d at no time be counted among the  and Black B e a r ' s  Bear's  hostiles,  b e l l i g e r e n c y occurred ©nly a f t e r the u n -  warranted a t t a c k ©n Southern Arapah©es and Cheyennes at Sand Creek i n l a t e November, l861j.. 29 Black Bear i s net named as the c h e i f ©f t h i s h o s t i l e band, but the l © c a t i © n ©f the © t h e r Northern Arapah© bands ©f any s i z e i s © t h e r w i s e known at t h i s t i m e . L i k e w i s e , the 80 l © d g e s , abeut J4.50 p e © p l e , Is c l e s e t© the f i g u r e ©f 1+00 g i v e n f e r h i s band i n the Reeky Meuntain News (Denver), J u l y 8,  1865.  —  30  Op. c i t .  31  Lec.  cit.  Grinnell,  ;  ~~  p p . l82-19lf..  81 Among the many r e p o r t s ©f i n t e r t r i b a l r a i d i n g i n the  early  1860s no d e f i n i t e involvements of Northern Arapahoes are  cited.  Yet i t  for  i s u n l i k e l y that they had abandoned the p r a c t i c e ,  a few years l a t e r they were known to r a i d Shoshenes, Crows.  Interestingly,  Utes and  when Northern Arapahoes i n 1862 found  s i x s t r a y mules b e a r i n g the Overland Stage L i n e ' s b r a n d , brought them i n to the North P l a t t e Agency, r e q u e s t i n g agent to r e t u r n them to t h e i r  owner.  This e l i c i t e d  commendation of the a g e n t , who r e f e r r e d  they  their  the  to them as the  most  32 honerable t r i b e w i t h i n h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . nature  A c t i o n s of  this  on the p a r t ©f the Arapahoes probably r e f l e c t e d  i n f l u e n c e of the o l d e r heads i n the t r i b a l h i e r a r c h y , wished to a v o i d t r o u b l e w i t h the  the who  whites.  C h i e f F r i d a y , w i t h h i s knowledge of E n g l i s h and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w h i t e s ,  was b e t t e r able to convince Governor  Evans and others i n a u t h o r i t y were other fellows.  Indians.  of h i s p e a c e f u l i n t e n t i o n s  His stand became e q u a l l y c l e a r  to h i s  W i t h i n a year of the E a s t e r n Sioux u p r i s i n g , when  the p o s s i b i l i t y of war on the p l a i n s was a t o p i c c o n v e r s a t i o n among both s e t t l e r s and I n d i a n s , by e m i s s a r i e s  of common  Friday,  approximately the same time, 2  approached  on the Cache l a Poudre i n C o l o r a d o , r e f u s e d  support the Sioux i n a suggested war upon the w h i t e s .  3  than  Op. c i t .  i n the f a l l  Annual Report,  At  of 1863, C h i e f  1862, p . 1J4..  to  82 Medicine Man, through a white i n t e r p r e t e r ,  informed Governor  Evans that the matter of war had been d i s c u s s e d at an i n t e r t r i b a l meeting on Horse Creek, Wyoming.  Many f a v o r e d a war  to d r i v e the whites o f f the l a n d , but he and other Northern  33 Arapahoes opposed such a c o u r s e . of f r i e n d s h i p were f a r l e s s  But M e d i c i n e Man's p r o f e s s i o n s  c o n v i n c i n g to the Governor than  were those ©f F r i d a y , perhaps because of the language  barrier.  Evans suspected him of double d e a l i n g , and r e p o r t e d t h a t Smith, the i n t e r p r e t e r ,  and C © l l e y ,  agent to t h e  S © u t h e r n Cheyennes  •31*. and Arapahoes,  shared h i s s u s p i c i o n s .  Such a c o n c l u s i o n  e v i d e n t l y was unwarranted,  f o r l e t t e r s of Smith and C o l l e y ,  though i n d i c a t i n g d i s t r u s t  of Sioux, Cheyennes and Kiowas,  35 express f a i t h i n the Arapahoes. During the f i g h t i n g i n the n o r t h i n 1861+, when General S u l l y ' s f o r c e s pursued the Sioux,  the g r e a t e r p a r t of  the  Northern Arapahoes and many of the Northern Cheyennes remained a l o o f from h o s t i l i t i e s  through t h e i r customary p r a c t i c e  of  h u n t i n g i n the Powder R i v e r a r e a , w e l l over one hundred m i l e s  36 from the  scene of m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y .  the comparative  When, however,  they  s a f e t y of t h e i r hunting grounds to r e p o r t  left to  the North P l a t t e Agency, war was a l l but f o r c e d upon them by 33 I b i d . , I 8 6 3 , p p . 2ij.0-2l).l, and $11. Governor Evans u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to Medicine Man as Roman N©se, a name which the whites commonly used f o r him.  3I435  I b i d . , p . 5lil. Ibid.,  p p . 5V-51+3.  36  Ibid.,  1861+, p .  223.  83  immigrants and F t .  Laramie t r o o p s ,  who regarded them as 37  belligerents  and took a c t i o n a g a i n s t  d i d not r e t a l i a t e , agent.  them.  But the  though they complained b i t t e r l y  Indians to  their  The s m a l l e r bands of F r i d a y and White W©if remained  at peace w i t h the w h i t e s , appreciate  although the s e t t l e r s d i d not  t h e i r presence on the Cache l a Poudre In C o l o r a d o ,  a few m i l e s west of Latham, near p r e s e n t - d a y has a l r e a d y been n o t e d ,  Greeley.  As  these tw© responded t© G©vern®r E v a n s  1  c a l l t© f r i e n d l y Indians t© r e p e r t t® Camp C © l l i n s . During these b i t t e r traffic  days ©f  1861+,  with the stage l i n e  n e a r l y p a r a l y z e d because of the  s t r u c k up the acquaintance  Indian s c a r e ,  ©f the agents at  Friday  the Overland  S t a t i o n i n Latham, and © c c a s i © n a l l y had Sunday d i n n e r with them.  While they ate  t e g e t h e r ©r enjoyed a f t e r - d i n n e r  cigars,  he r e g a l e d them with s t e r i e s of h i s e a r l y l i f e , h i s s c h o o l i n g i n S t . L e u i s , and ©f gold nuggets a c r e s s the Rocky Mountains 38  ©f C©l©rad®. In the meantime he pressed G©vern©r Evans f © r h i s ®f many y e a r s , l a Poudre,  a reservation  ©f s © i l s .  Cache  l a n d which with i r r i g a t i o n was s®on t® became  wonderfully productive. experiences  ©n the n © r t h s i d e af the  desire  It may be that F r i d a y ' s  y©uthful  i n M i s s o u r i had equipped him t© judge the At any r a t e ,  37  Ibid.,  p. 3 8 7 .  38  pp. c i t . ,  he would not c o n s i d e r a  reservation  This occurred a number of  Ro©t and C o n n e l l y , p .  3V7.  fertility  times.  QIL  on the headwaters ©f the l a Poudre, as the  streams t© the n a r t h ©f the  l a n d there was t e a reeky f a r  But s i x t e e n white f a m i l i e s had s e t t l e d F r i d a y wished f e r h i s t r i b e ,  Cache  agriculture.  39  ©n the l a n d which  and where whites came i n Indians  k-0 were u s u a l l y f e r c e d e u t . title  t© the l a n d ,  tribes  title  In d i s r e g a r d ©f Arapahe and Cheyenne which the n o r t h e r n bands of the  had never s u r r e n d e r e d ,  h i s request  was r e f u s e d .  Evidence i s l a c k i n g that the Northern Arapahoes in hostilities of I86I4.. lodges,  against  the whites p r i o r to the f i n a l  engaged weeks  But as a l r e a d y n o t e d , B l a c k B e a r ' s band of which had l e f t  two  eighty  the B i g Horn-Powder R i v e r r e g i o n of  Wyoming to v i s i t the Southern Arapahoes,  j o i n e d the Cheyennes  and Sioux i n the P l a t t e V a l l e y r a i d s a f t e r the Sand Creek massacre of l a t e November.  When the three t r i b e s  separated,  probably i n March, 1 8 6 5 , B l a c k Bear p u r p o r t e d l y r e t u r n e d  to  the Powder R i v e r h u n t i n g grounds; but h i s stay i n Wyoming must have been b r i e f ,  f o r i n A p r i l he brought h i s band to  Col©rado t© j o i n F r i d a y on the Cache l a Poudre.  Thus,  having taken an a c t i v e p a r t i n the P l a t t e V a l l e y r a i d s , Bear accepted Governor E v a n s ' i n v i t a t i o n of the summer f o r f r i e n d l y Indians to r e p o r t 39  Op. c i t .  I4.O  Loc.  Annual Report,  Black  preceding  f o r p r o t e c t i o n and r a t i o n s ]  I86I1,  p. 2 3 5 .  cit.  [p. B l a c k Bear must have had about l 6 o b r a v e s , w a r r i o r s per lodge were u s u a l l y f i g u r e d . 1+2  after  Op. c i t .  as  Rocky Mountain News, J u l y 8, 1 8 6 5 .  two  85 The agent at  Camp C e l l i n s assigned him h u n t i n g grounds so h i s  band could procure rations  subsistence,  were i s s u e d to them,  it  b u t as game was scarce and no is  only n a t u r a l  t h a t he soon  departed f o r h i s p r e f e r r e d h u n t i n g grounds i n the B i g Horn MountaiHS of Wyoming.  By e a r l y  July his entire  band was  t a k i n g with them White Wolf (or Wolf Moccasin) and most his following,  gone, of  l e a v i n g F r i d a y with a group of ©nly 85 i n  Colerado. Thr@ugh F r i d a y ' s p e r s i s t e n c e ,  Governcr Evans seems t©  have bec©me convinced t h a t Medicine Man might make a ge©d peace r i s k ,  and i n the  summer ©f 1861+ sent Robert North t©  southern M©ntana w i t h h i s © f f e r ©f p r © t e c t i e n and rati@ns t© Indians wh© Intended t© be f r i e n d l y . reach him, F r i d a y , reservation  still  N©rth having f a i l e d t©  h©ping f © r a N © r t h e r n Arapah©  ©n the Cache l a Poudre, d i s p a t c h e d s e v e r a l  h i s own y©ung men t© persuade  him t© c©me s © u t h .  ©f  In the  s p r i n g ©f 1865,  Medicine Man, wh© had remained apart fr©m  the h o s t i l i t i e s  of the w i n t e r m©nths, respsnded t©  Governor's c a l l .  the  As thsugh t© pr©ve t h a t Arapahoes were  preponderantly p e a c e f u l p e © p l e ,  w i t h h i s f © H a w i n g of 120  1+3 L o c . c i t . The Arapah© r e f e r r e d to as Wolf Moccasin by the R©cky Mountain News i s c a l l e d White Wolf i n the Annua1 Report of the Commissioner ©f Indian A f f a i r s , 1861+, p . 3 8 7 . The f i g u r e ©f 85 Indians remaining w i t h F r i d a y appears i n the Annual Rep©rt ©f 1868, p . l 8 l .  86 lodges,  nearly  ?00  Powder R i v e r a r e a  people, to  the  southern Wyoming, about Before Indian Dole  Office  that  peace  replying  to  traveled  Little  thirty-five  miles  his  the  request  of  the  Indians  Northern Arapahoes; but it  d i d not  If  this  appear it  great  travel  the  therefore  for  unsatisfactory.  Governor  informing spoiled  the  in  Cheyenne.  contacted  the  Commissioner the  chance  It  anything  of  in  c o u r s e w h i c h was  was s a i d , safety  was t o o  ©f  mattered  w h i c h M e d i c i n e Man h a d r e q u e s t e d treaty  n o r t h of  counted for  in  requested,  ©f  northern  excepting Medicine Man's  The r e s e r v a t i o n routes  C.,  Sand Creek massacre had  with a l l  from the  Chug (Chugwater C r e e k )  i n W a s h i n g t o n , D.  the  Washington,  he  the  not  settlement  close  whites,  that  followed.  the  to  the  a n d was land  was t h e i r  on  own  by  right.  T h e co r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n G o v e r n o r E v a n s a n d Office  involved  considerable delay.  the  Indian  Before an i n t e r v i e w  could  be a r r a n g e d w i t h M e d i c i n e M a n , G e n e r a l C o n n o r was r e p o r t e d his  way w e s t  to  depredations,  p u n i s h S i o u x , Arapahoes and  and the  matter  was d r o p p e d .  failure,  Medicine Man's band returned  country,  where  hides than  f©r in  the  clothing  the  rewards  and l o d g e s ,  Chugwater  kk  OP. c i t .  IL$  Loc.  cit.  of  the  to  chase,  were more  Cheyennes f o r Their  the  186£,  Powder R i v e r  meat  for  readily  pp.  their  pilgrimage  fo©d,  and  obtainable  valley.  Annual Report,  on  176-177.  a  87 Throughout the C i v i l War p e r i o d the ©f the bands w i t h i n a t r i b e ,  plains  among the Northern Arapahoes.  Although none of theia were s t a t i o n a r y , g e n e r a l l y frequented  action  so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  I n d i a n s , was s t r i k i n g l y apparent  ers  independent  Medicine Man's f o l l o w -  the B i g Horn-Powder R i v e r r e g i o n ;  F r i d a y ' s group spent much of t h e i r  time on the  Cache l a  Poudre  i n C o l o r a d o ; White Wolf and Black B e a r ' s bands f o l l o w e d a more t r a n s i e n t p a t t e r n ,  the l a t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  from the B i g Herns to Kansas, raiding,  to Colorado and Nebraska  to the B i g Horns a g a i n ,  to the B i g Horns. with each o t h e r ,  as i t moved for  then to C o l o r a d o , and back  Yet the bands a p p a r e n t l y kept  i n touch  and each seemingly knew where to f i n d  the  1+6  others when i t  se d e s i r e d .  upon the w h i t e s . tribe,  Only B l a c k B e a r ' s band warred  The e t h e r s ,  kept the peace i n s p i t e  about  two-thirds  of the  of numerous p r o v o c a t i o n s  entire to  belligerency. 1 + 6 An example of t h i s may be seen i n the f a c t that F r i d a y ' s young emissaries succeeded i n r e a c h i n g Medicine Man, w e l l over 300 m i l e s away i n Montana, when Robert N o r t h , sent ©ut by Governor Evans, was unable t© f i n d h i m .  88 Chap. 6 The Powder R i v e r War, 1865-1868. Respite Is G a i n e d .  A Temporary  With, the end of the C i v i l War i n l86£, the c e n t e r ©f c o n f l i c t between r e d men and white s h i f t e d i n t o Wyeming, but the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y ©f t h e i r Collins, at P t .  an experienced  Laramie,  i n t e r e s t s remained.  Colonel  I n d i a n f i g h t e r and r e t i r i n g Cemmander  pr©bably spoke the mind ©f the West i n  recommending that the U n i t e d States Gevernment c o n s t r u c t and g a r r i s © n f o r t s i n the b u f f a l o country ©f Wyoming, whip the Indians i n t © s u b m i s s i e n , cempel them t© sue f © r peace, and remeve them from the m i n e r a l r i c h B i g Herns, Black H i l l s and  1 Yell©wst©ne c © u n t r y . Indians  When f r e e d from the © c c u p a t i © n ©f the  (savages and an Impediment  i n his epinien), constructively  to the white man's  the t e r r i t e r y and i t s  develeped by the  r e s o u r c e s c@uld be  superior  race.  Although the Government d i d not c e n s e i e u s l y advice  ©f the r e t i r i n g C o l o n e l , i t s  pr©gress  f o l l © w the  Indian p © l i c y d u r i n g the  course of the next three years develeped a p a t t e r n i n many r e s p e c t s s i m i l a r t© t h a t which he had pr@posed. time i n southwestern t© 1865, V i r g i n i a  Mentana, p l a y e d an impertant  City,  Ceutant,  Prior  c©uld be  r o u t e s , but i n t h a t y e a r c o n -  s t r u c t i o n began ©n the Bezeman T r a i l , Op. c i t .  this  part.  the c e n t e r ©f the d i g g i n g s ,  reached ©nly by tw© c i r c u i t o u s  1  Gold,  p . 1+30.  a much m©re d i r e c t  course  8 from P t .  9  Laramie i n southeastern Wyoming to V i r g i n i a  In v i o l a t i o n of the F t . the headwaters  Laramie Treaty of 1851,  City.  i t cut  through  of the Powder R i v e r and the Y e l l o w s t o n e ,  famed B i g Horn-Powder R i v e r a r e a , which comprised the  the  last  reasonably good h u n t i n g grounds of the S i o u x , Crows, and the Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes. Indians was e v i d e n t a t h i t h e r t o been t h e i r s garrisoned f o r t s  Since the a n t i p a t h y of the  this  i n v a s i o n of the l a n d which had  alone,  the Government c o n s t r u c t e d and  through the b u f f a l o country  t r a i l and keep i t  to p r o t e c t  the  ©pen.  The Indians had l o n g been dismayed as t h e i r  game supply  dwindled beneath the guns of immigrants and hide and t a l l o w hunters,  e s p e c i a l l y of the l a t t e r ,  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y and l e f t  who s l a u g h t e r e d the b u f f a l o  t h e i r f l e s h to r o t .  They were  deeply concerned when the white man's l i v e s t o c k grazed o f f the n u t r i t i o u s p r a i r i e grasses ®n which the b u f f a l o and t h e i r horses depended, f © r i n a l a n d i n which ©ne head ©f c a t t l e r e q u i r e d t h i r t y acres ©r mere f o r y e a r - a r © u n d p a s t u r e ,  large  areas along the t r a v e l e d routes were q u i c k l y d e p l e t e d of  their  cover by immigrants' h ® r s e s and c a t t l e ,  set  in.  and wind e r o s i o n  The grass and the b u f f a l o were t h e i r n a t u r a l  fr©m which came the b u l k of t h e i r f o o d , resources abused.  res©urces  lodges and b l a n k e t s ,  which they had used f © r g e n e r a t i a n s ,  but never  Needless to say they d i d n©t r e l i s h the prospect ©f  a horde of gold seekers  t r e k k i n g through the h e a r t of  their  hunting l a n d s , s c a r i n g away t h e i r game and d e p l e t i n g t h e i r resources  still  further.  90 Another f a c t o r  which c o n t r i b u t e d to I n d i a n t e n s i o n and  unrest was the c e s s a t i o n  i n l86j? of a l l Government a n n u i t i e s  2  r e s u l t i n g from the P t . payments of f o o d ,  Laramie T r e a t y .  Having r e c e i v e d these  t e x t i l e s and implements s i n c e l 8 £ l ,  Sioux,  Cheyennes and Arapahoes had l e a r n e d t© depend upon them. the abrupt t e r m i n a t i o n of the i s s u e s  i n 1865 made the  Thus  Indians  ever more keenly aware of white inroads upon t h e i r game, and of impending d i s a s t e r  i f the supply continued to  diminish.  Perhaps the times were ready f © r a l e a d e r who c o u l d weld the bands and t r i b e s  i n t © a g r e a t e r degree  of common purpose  than they had f o r m e r l y sh©wn i n the face ©f white i n t r u s i o n . Such a man appeared i n the person of Red C l o u d ,  the  sagacious  O g a l l a l a Sioux, a c h i e f ©f great cunning and i r o n d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Backed by many of the powerful Si©ux bands, the Cheyennes, and a part ©f the A r a p a h © e s , he prepared to r e s i s t  further  encroach-  ment upon the l a n d of h i s p e o p l e . In June ©f 1865 f i g h t i n g broke ©ut i n c e n t r a l Wyoming along the Sweetwater R i v e r , which r i s e s Oregon T r a i l ,  near South Pass on the  through which tens ©f thousands ©f immigrants  had passed on t h e i r way to the P a c i f i c C o a s t .  Several  skirmishes occurred u n t i l ,  warriers,  i n l a t e J u l y , 1,000  Sioux,  Cheyennes and Northern Arapahoes, defeated a small contingent 2  Op. c i t .  Annual Report,  1868, p p . I4.O-I4.I  91 of  s o l d i e r s and k i l l e d t h e i r commander, L i e u t e n a n t Caspar  C o l l i n s , a t the P l a t t e R i v e r B r i d g e , a s t r a t e g i c p o i n t ©n 3  the 0reg©n T r a i l near t h e p r e s e n t town o f Casper.  Soon  a f t e r w a r d the I n d i a n s moved n o r t h t o t h e i r B i g Horn h u n t i n g grounds. How many o f the thousand w a r r i o r s i n the a t t a c k ©n C o l l i n s at t h e P l a t t e R i v e r B r i d g e were N©rthern Arapah©es cannot be told.  F r i d a y ' s band was not among them, f©r i t was s t i l l i n  Colorad©. yet is  M e d i c i n e Man's band als© was a b s e n t , as i t had n o t  r e t u r n e d fr©m t h e L i t t l e Chug i n s o u t h e r n Wyoming. I t p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e N o r t h e r n Arapahoes i n v o l v e d were members  of B l a c k Bear's and White Wolf's bands, as some members had l e f t the Cache l a Poudre i n C o l o r a d o i n the s p r i n g , p u r p o r t e d l y headed f o r t h e B i g Horns, perhaps  t o j©in the h o s t i l e s .  By  e a r l y J u l y the l a s t ©f them were on t h e i r way. G e n e r a l Connor, sent to Wyoming t o l e a d t h e w e s t e r n ©f the Powder R i v e r e x p e d i t i s n , 3e f t F t . Laramie  division  on J u l y 3 0 ,  1865, t© s t r i k e t h e I n d i a n s i n t h e i r h u n t i n g gr©unds, p u n i s h them f o r t h e i r d e p r e d a t i o n s , and b r i n g s a f e t y t© t h e Bezeman Trail. all  He i n s t r u c t e d h i s men t© g r a n t n© q u a r t e r , b u t t© k i l l  male I n d i a n s ever twelve y e a r s o f age.  3 Op. c i t . Hebard and Brininsto©l, Bozeman T r a i l , v. 1. pp. I 0 O - I 0 3 . The town ©f Casper, d e s p i t e i t s s p e l l i n g , was named f o r Caspar C©llins. I4. Leroy R, Hafen and Ann W. Hafen, P©wder R i v e r Campaigns and Sawyers E x p e d i t i o n ©f 186£, G l e n d a l e , t h e A r t h u r H. C l a r k Co., I 9 0 I , p. I4.3. Connor's s u p e r i o r , G e n e r a l P©pe, c o u n t e r manded these ©rders when they came t© h i s a t t e n t i e n , s a y i n g they were a t r o c i o u s .  92  Along the way t© the B i g H©rns, where he hoped t© s t r i k e a t e l l i n g blow, General Connor took care l e s t news ©f h i s appreach might precede him.  Few  Indians that cr©ssed h i s path  s u r v i v e d ; a gr©up of f©rty-tw© Si@ux i n c l u d i n g two women, and vari©us s m a l l e r p a r t i e s were a n n i h i l a t e d .  F i n a l l y In l a t e  August, cl©se t® the Tongue R i v e r i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t ©f Wyoming's B i g Horns, the General s p o t t e d what he had hoped t© f i n d , a g©od-sized I n d i a n v i l l a g e . band o f Northern Arapahoes.  I t was B l a c k Bear's  The troops surrounded i t i n the  dark, and when morning came and the Indians were t a k i n g down  6 t h e i r lodges to move camp, the s o l d i e r s a t t a c t e d .  In true  Indian f a s h i o n Conner's Pawnee scouts, f a r more i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g horses than i n f i g h t i n g , r©unded up  their  enemies' p©nies while the completely s u r p r i s e d Arapahoes, unhorsed, s t r o v e to pr©tect t h e i r women and c h i l d r e n .  Al-  though outnumbered by the s o l d i e r s they fought u n t i l midnight i n the h©pe o f r e g a i n i n g t h e i r ledges and s u p p l i e s of robes and meat, a l l o f which were burned by Connor's tro©ps.  7  Women  5 P. G. B u r n e t t , " H i s t o r y of the Western D i v i s i e n of the Powder i v e r E x p e d i t i o n , " Annals of Wyoming, v. 8, January, R  1932,  pp.  572-57ii.  6 R©bert Beebe David, F i n n Burnett, F r o n t i e r s m a n, Glendale, the A r t h u r H. C l a r k Co., 1937, P. 8 9 . 7 Op. c i t . Hafen and Hafen, Powder R i v e r Campaigns, p. Ij_6. Hafen and Hafen estimate a v i l l a g e of m@re than $00 s®uls, which i s p o s s i b l e i f White Wolf's band was combined w i t h Black Bear's. ( I t i s r e f e r r e d t© as a v i l l a g e l e d by Black Bear and Old David, but as Old David i s otherwise unkn®wn t h i s may have been the s o l d i e r s ' name f o r White Wolf.) C@nn©r had 800 t r o o p s . The 2^0 lodges which most authors r e p o r t e d burned i s pr©bably  93  and c h i l d r e n were counted among the dead, due, i t was s a i d , to the unfortunate  f a c t that the s o l d i e r s d i d not have time 8 to take c a r e f u l aim at the b r a v e s . Three days l a t e r an i n t r i g u i n g i n c i d e n t occurred which cast B l a c k B e a r ' s braves present  i n a more amicable r o l e .  Near the  town of Dayton i n the B i g Horns they attacked  a wagon  t r a i n of Bozeman T r a i l r o a d b u i l d e r s commanded by C o l o n e l Sawyers.  His s m a l l p a r t y ,  found i t s e l f to Sawyers'  greatly  outnumbered by the  i n grave danger u n t i l the Arapahoes,  Indians,  according  j o u r n a l , f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s was a p a r t y  of workers, w i t h no s o l d i e r s among them, and made them an 9  o f f e r of peace. through;  Sawyers wanted h e l p to get h i s wagons  the Arapahoes needed h o r s e s ,  the b a t t l e with Connor.  having l o s t  They proposed t h e r e f o r e ,  theirs  in  that three  a gross exaggeration on the p a r t of the o r i g i n a l a u t h o r i t y , which was a common f a i l i n g i n r e p o r t i n g I n d i a n f i g h t s . It i s u n l i k e l y that a t t h i s time the Arapahoes, r e p o r t e d by t h e i r agent to be p o o r l y equipped, could have had so many extra lodges f o r the storage of f u r s . They averaged 5>i? to 6 people per l o d g e , which should have meant not more than 1 0 0 lodges i n the e n t i r e v i l l a g e . A f e w years l a t e r , when game was f u r t h e r d e p l e t e d , they crowded two f a m i l i e s , about 10 to 1 2 p e o p l e , i n t o each badly worn l o d g e . 8  Ibid.,  p. 131.  9  Ibid.,  pp. 262-263.  94  of them and three ©f Sawyers' men should g© t o g e t h e r t© the General;  If  the whites w©uld a i d them i n r e g a i n i n g t h e i r  they would guaranty agreed.  safety  t© the r e a d b u i l d e r s ,  penies  And s© i t was  S e v e r a l Arapahoes v o l u n t a r i l y remained w i t h Sawyers  as hostages,  pending the r e t u r n of the s i x c © u r i e r s .  The  s u s p i c i o u s wagoners kept c a r e f u l watch on the many Indians who came i n t o camp to c o n s u l t w i t h the hostages,  but  since  they were always f r i e n d l y t h e i r f e a r s proved g r o u n d l e s s . Next day the three Arapaho messengers  returned  alone,  having encountered a p a r t y ©f armed white men who were on t h e i r way t© the r e l i e f ©f the wag©n t r a i n .  Since they  f u r t h e r t r o u b l e with the approach of s o l d i e r s , they  feared  returned  t© Sawyers' camp, r e p o r t e d t© him what had happened, and the 10  entire  group of Indians moved on.  General Connor continued h i s maneuvers u n t i l he d i s c o v e r e d another  Indian v i l l a g e i n the B i g Horns, which he a l s © hoped  to d e s t r o y .  But disappointment was h i s l e t ,  and he was  t r i e d when word came from Washington o r d e r i n g him to  sorely  desist  11  from h o s t i l i t i e s and r e t u r n te P t .  Laramie.  Convinced that  1 0 Holman, one ©f Sawyers' men, gave q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t account of the Arapah© i n c i d e n t . The g i s t of i t i s that the Indians planned t r e a c h e r y , and were f i n a l l y ordered ©ut ©f camp. Holman's v e r s i o n i s e n t i r e l y r e m i n i s c e n t , r e l a t e d t h i r t y years a f t e r the event, whereas Sawyers' j o u r n a l was w r i t t e n at the time the events o c c u r r e d . (See Hafen and Hafen, Powder R i v e r Campaigns, p p . 3 2 2 - 3 2 3 . ) 11  Op. c i t .  Burnett,  p. 577  95  his  shaw ©f f o r c e had taught Black Bear a much-needed l e s s e n ,  he hated t© leave  the h u n t i n g lands without drubbing  Indians and ending t h e i r In January, messengers  1866,  ©ther  depredations.  threugh the sn®ws ©f a f e a r f u l w i n t e r ,  were sent ©ut fr©m F t .  Laramie t© i n v i t e the  Indians  12  to a peace c o n f e r e n c e ,  The Northern Arapahoes c©uld not be  reached, and C©l©nel Maynardier, Commander a t F t . Laramie, f e a r e d that they might continue h o s t i l i t i e s . In t h i s event  13 he w©uld seek Sioux a i d i n c h a s t i s i n g them. wind of the m©ve f © r peace, were gene,  and i n l a t e  sent s i x c © u r i e r s t© F t .  But they  caught  June, when the  sn©ws  Laramie t© make sure  that  •111.  they c o u l d share In  it.  S e v e r a l bands of the great Sioux t r i b e appreved the ©f 1866,  Treaty  but agreements w i t h the Cheyennes and Arapahoes were  not c o n c l u d e d .  The Government had no i n t e n t i o n ©f abandoning  the B©zeman T r a i l f © r t s n@r removing the g a r r i s o n s j r e a l i z i n g that the  but  Indians w©uld b i t t e r l y ©ppose the d e p l e t i o n  ©f t h e i r h u n t i n g grounds,  it  stressed  the need ©f great  tact  15  In m a i n t a i n i n g t r a v e l through t h e i r c © u n t r y . d e t e r m i n a t i s n and t e n a c i t y ,  however,  Red C l © u d ' s  had not been f u l l y  considered. N e i t h e r he n©r h i s O g a l l a l a Si©ux would accept 12 Op. c i t . Annual R e p © r t , 1866, p . 2 0 £ . 13  Ibid.,  P.  206.  11+ I b i d . ,  p.  208.  15  p.  211.  Ibid.,  96 tactful forts,  t r a v e l ®ver the B©zeman T r a i l ,  nor r e t e n t i o n o f the  nor the t r e a t y , n©r peace, u n t i l the r o a d was c l o s e d  and the hated f o r t s  abandoned.  They prepared f o r f u r t h e r  Red C l o u d ' s f e e l i n g s were brought home s t r o n g l y to n a t i o n on December 21, 1866. had r e s o l v e d to d r i v e the grounds,  war.  the  A l a r g e body o f w a r r i o r s , who  s o l d i e r s from t h e i r B i g Horn h u n t i n g  s l a u g h t e r e d e i g h t y troops under C o l o n e l  Petterman.  This i n e x p e r i e n c e d , b o a s t f u l I n d i a n f i g h t e r had claimed t h a t a s i n g l e company of s o l d i e r s could d e f e a t 1,000  Indians.  Red  C l o u d ' s group of Sioux, Cheyennes, and a few Northern Arapahoes, with very l i t t l e a i d from f i r e - a r m s ,  had proved him wrong.  With the h e l p of the Crows, t h e i r e r s t w h i l e Sioux,  l6  enemies,  Cheyennes, and Arapahoes defended t h e i r l a s t  important  game area i n Northern Wyoming and southern Montana.  Fighting  continued i n t o the  summer of 1867.  In e a r l y August the  Indians l e a r n e d the deadly e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of the new,  breech-  l o a d i n g r i f l e s which had r e p l a c e d m u z z l e - l o a d e r s i n the hands  17 o f the t r o o p s . them,  With these weapons the  i n f l i c t i n g heavy c a s u a l t i e s .  s o l d i e r s twice  defeated  18  But although Red Cloud  l6 Most authors i n d i c a t e the presence ©f only a few Arapahoes, but Dunn, o p . c i t . ' p . 2I4.6, says 100 lodges to©k p a r t . Dunn i s f r e q u e n t l y i n a c c u r a t e . Hebard and B r i n i n s t o o l , ©p. c i t . , v . 1, p . 339* s t a t e that Eagle Head and Black C©al l e d the Arapah© c o n t i n g e n t . T a y l © r , ©p. c i t . p . 151, c r e d i t s the l e a d e r s h i p t© the white man, Robert N o r t h . I?  Op. c i t .  Hebard and B r i n i n s t o o l , v . 1, p p . 50 and 180.  I b i d . , v . 1, p p . 70 and l 8 l . These were the F i g h t i n Montana and the Wagon Box F i g h t i n Wyoming. l a t t e r a howitzer a l s © i n f l i c t e d heavy damage. 1 8  Hayfield In the  97 l o s t the b a t t l e s he was t© w i n t h e war. As a r e s u l t ©f t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f Fetterman's  command  i n 1 8 6 6 , P r e s i d e n t Johns©n o r d e r e d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e 19  causes o f I n d i a n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and v i o l e n c e . of  A c©mmissi©n  c i v i l i a n s and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s met w i t h the I n d i a n s , heard  t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s , and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f o r t s and s t a t i o n i n g ©f s o l d i e r s a l o n g the Bozeman T r a i l had p r e c i p i t a t e d the t r o u b l e .  The I n d i a n s had n e v e r agreed to t h i s , and  f e l t t h a t , w i t h t h e consequent  e f f e c t upon t h e i r game t h e y  must f i g h t ©r d i e ©f s t a r v a t i o n . A g a i n a c@uneil was c a l l e d a t P t . Laramie t© end the Powder R i v e r War.  I n mid-September, 1867 ab@ut three-hundred  I n d i a n s came i n , l a r g e l y Crows and Arapahoes,  wh© were v e r y  '20  f r i e n d l y , and a few Cheyennes.  G e n e r a l Harney, head ©f t h e  peace commissien, a w a i t e d the a r r i v a l  o f the Si©ux b e f o r e  p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the t r e a t y , b u t Red C l o u d , wary o f t h e w h i t e man's p r o m i s e s , r e f u s e d t o r e p o r t t© P t . • aramie u n t i l he had seen t h e Government tr©©os d e p a r t f r o m t h e p o s t s al©ng the L  21  Bozeman T r a i l .  He f i n a l l y a r r i v e d i n the s p r i n g ©f 1 8 6 8 .  W i t h the s i g n i n g o f the Harney-Sanborn T r e a t y i n May the war was ended, and Red C l e u d n e v e r f o u g h t a g a i n . 19  Op. c i t .  G r i n n e l l , p. 21+1+,  20  Op. c i t .  Cheyenne L e a d e r , Sept. 1 9 , 1 8 6 7 .  21  I b i d . , May 1 3 , 1 8 6 8 .  98  Whereas the  Indian O f f i c e i n Washington p r a i s e d the newly  inaugurated p o l i c y ©f conquering the the Cheyenne Leader  Indians w i t h k i n d n e s s ,  (Wy©ming) commented c a u s t i c a l l y  "Quaker" i n f l u e n c e which had i n s t i g a t e d entire  Powder R i v e r area to the  Indians,  on the  the surrender  of  the  and p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y 22  prophecied continued h © s t i l i t i e s The f i n a l peace, by the  i n Wyoming and S@uth Dakota.  the Leader e d i t o r i a l i z e d , would be  i n v i n c i b l e whites,  dictated  whose d e s t i n y i t was to c i v i l i z e  23  the p l a i n s . Hills  The t r e a t y b a r r e d them from access to the  g o l d , as i t was on Indian l a n d ; b u t ,  cynically stated, disposes.  the  Leader  though the Government proposes,  the  pioneer  With such an a t t i t u d e h e l d commonly i n the  a stable,  Black  l a s t i n g peace could s c a r c e l y be e x p e c t e d .  West, °nly a  temporary r e s p i t e had been g a i n e d . As c r i t i c i s m of the continued,  proponents  soft  p o l i c y t®ward the  ©f a tougher  Indians  course r e v i v e d t h e i r  demands  t© r e t u r n the Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s to the War Department. Commissioner N . G. T a y l o r ©pined i n r e p l y that the t r a n s f e r w©uld be tantamount t© c o n t i n u a l war, true p o l i c y toward the  proposed  whereas  the  Indians sh©uld be one of peace.  22 I b i d . , March 18, 1868. Wyoming and South Dakota were then i n c l u d e d i n Dakota T e r r i t o r y . With the completion of the Union P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d i n 1869, Wyoming became a separate territory. 23  I b i d . , A p r i l 3, 1868.  2I4.  Loc.  cit.  99 C i t i n g the Sand Creek Massacre @f I86J4. as a mistake ©f the military,  he estimated the cost of the r e s u l t i n g war, o n l y  r e c e n t l y brought to a c l o s e ,  at  fl+0,000,000.  W i t h i n the I n d i a n Bureau, n o n e t h e l e s s ,  s i g n s appeared of  y i e l d i n g t© the pressure ©f land-hungry s e t t l e r s .  Preliminary  plans were drawn f e r c o n f i n i n g s©me 130,000 Indians ©n tw© reservations, whites.  26  thus f r e e i n g the remainder ©f t h e i r lands f o r the  One r e s e r v a t i o n weuld cemprise the g r e a t e r part ©f  Oklahoma, the © t h e r the western h a l f ©f S©uth D a k o t a . i f necessary t© prevent anether  But  Indian war, the l a t t e r might  be t e m p o r a r i l y extended westward t© the B i g Hern Meuntains ©f Wyaming, the unceded Indian l a n d which they had f@ught s©  27 hard t© r e t a i n f © r t h e i r ©wn u s e ! d e p i c t e d f a r the red men, cattle,  A glowing f u t u r e was  S t © c k i n g the  reservations  with  sheep and geats weuld i n s t i l i n them a d e s i r e f © r  i n d i v i d u a l ownership of land and goods,  thus p a v i n g the way  f o r the mastery ©f a g r i c u l t u r e and the mechanical  arts.  With the crowning work of teacher and m i s s i e n a r y t h e i r  28 rosy  f u t u r e would be p e r p e t u a t e d . F u r t h e r study I n d i c a t e s  that t h i s was mere g l © s s i n g ©f  a hspeless s i t u a t i o n f o r the I n d i a n s , and r a t i o n a l i z i n g ©f the b r u t a l f a c t that they must be moved ©ut ©f the white man's 25  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t , 1868, p . 8 .  26  Ibid.,  p p . kk-k5*  27  Ibid.,  1867, p . 8 .  28  Ibid.,  p. 73.  100 way.  The p r a c t i c a l  i m p @ s s i b i l i t y ©f p r e v e n t i n g s e t t l e r s from  29  e n c r © a c h i n g ©n Indian h u n t i n g grsunds was a d m i t t e d . more,  the two e a s t e r n d i v i s i © n s of the  Further-  P a c i f i c R a i l r © a d were  r a p i d l y a p p r © a c h i n g Denver, a f a c t which demanded the t r a t i o n ©f the  Indians ©n r e s e r v a t i © n s ,  concen-  f a r eneugh remeved  30 from the s t e e l  rails  t© preclude any danger t© them.  perhaps, would l a s t u n t i l  the pressures  Peace,  a g a i n became t©o  great. The extent ©f N © r t h e r n Arapah© p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Powder R i v e r War i s semewhat e n i g m a t i c .  S©me w a r r i e r s ,  as  a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , engaged i n the Sweetwater and P l a t t e Bridge skirmishes i n June and J u l y ©f 186£, p r o b a b l y members Black B e a r ' s and White W o l f s bands. General C©nnor attacked  During the same summer  a v i l l a g e ®f f i v e hundred ©r mere,  Black B e a r ' s band and p o s s i b l y White W o l f ' s . l a t e r had a brush w i t h Sawyers' wagon t r a i n , unique a r m i s t i c e . hostilities  Thereafter  1866.  days ©f f i g h t i n g , such as The bands r e p r e s e n t e d indicated. Loc.  30  Ibid.,  cit. p.  f a l l o w e d by a  time of the Fetterman  A s m a l l contingent  the r e c e r d s are  29  The same bands  N© f u r t h e r r e c o r d ©f N © r t h e r n Arapah©  appears u n t i l the  i n December,  of  73.  Indefinite,  fight,  engaged i n t h i s excepting  affair.  f e r the  final  the H a y f i e l d and Wag©n B©x f i g h t s .  and the numbers engaged i s  nowhere  101 F r i d a y ' s band was never numbered among the h o s t i l e s ,  for  t h i s group of e i g h t y - f i v e remained on the Cache l a Poudre i n Colorado throughout the p e r i o d of f i g h t i n g .  D e s p i t e the  fact  that they were d e s t i t u t e - - the Governor of the T e r r i t o r y had been unable to provide them w i t h r a t i o n s  — they d i d not  / from t h e i r encampment there u n t i l the  depart  31  summer of 1868.  They  were the l a s t of the Arapah© and Cheyenne bands, Northern o r Southern, to q u i t Colerad® T e r r i t o r y .  They wished to  remain  i n t h i s l a n d which by r i g h t belonged to them, and l e f t only under p r e s s u r e , because the white s e t t l e r s d i d not want them  32  there. Medicine Man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t© the be s© p o s i t i v e l y s t a t e d . than h a l f the  tribe,  Powder R i v e r War cannot  He and h i s band ©f 120 l e d g e s ,  returned from s © u t h e r n Wyoming t© the  Powder R i v e r h u n t i n g lands d u r i n g the summer ©f 1 8 6 5 .  Whether  he succeeded i n keeping any ©f h i s f © l l © w e r s ©ut ©f the can ©nly be c o n j e c t u r e d .  Certain facts,  hewever,  war p e r i o d .  i s h i s name menti©ned as a h o s t i l e  c©nflict  indicate  that Medicine Man may have sto©d f o r a p e a c e f u l c © u r s e . for instance,  m©re  Nowhere,  d u r i n g the  T h i s i s l i k e w i s e true ©f F r i d a y , who, as  already  shown, had no p a r t i n the war; but C h i e f B l a c k Bear and three others of l e s s 31  Ibid.,  importance are named as Arapaho  1868, pp.  leaders  180-181.  32 L o c . c i t . h i s news ©f F r i d a y ' s band c@mes from the r e p © r t ©f Gevernor Hunt ©f C©l©rad© T e r r i t o r y . T  102 i n the f i g h t i n g . chief,  33  As the Northern Arapahoes' most  important  and ©ne wh© had been t r i b a l spokesman ©n a number ©f  ©cessions,  the © m i s s i o n ©f h i s name from among the h o s t i l e s  very I n t e r e s t i n g .  is  A g a i n l i k e F r i d a y , Medicine Man f a i l e d t©  s i g n the Harney-Sanbern T r e a t y of 1868, which ended the P©wder River War, although Black Bear and more than twenty Northern Arapahoes attached  their signatures.  other  This may have  e s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , f e r c u s t © m a r i l y a major c h i e f who had engaged i n h o s t i l i t i e s a g a i n s t  the U n i t e d States weuld have  end©rsed the a greement which breught the c o n f l i c t t© a When the b u l k ©f the t r i b e ,  119 l © d g e s ,  a r r i v e d at  clese.  Ft,  Laramie f © r the t r e a t y s i g n i n g , Medicine Man and 25 l © d g e s h i s people stayed behind i n the B i g H o r n s .  of  Whether the li+O  t© 1^0 people represented by these t w e n t y - f i v e lodges had remained a l o o f from the war i s s t i l l unknown. During the e a r l y months of the f i g h t i n g (sometimes the F i r s t Powder R i v e r War),  less  called  than h a l f ©f the Northern  Arapahoes were i n v e l v e d , but from December, 1866 u n t i l the end ©f h o s t i l i t i e s  (the  Sec©nd Powder R i v e r War),  may have taken p a r t . it;  F r i d a y ' s band stayed completely out of  but more than t h i s cann©t be d e f i n i t e l y  33  a g r e a t e r number  stated.  These three were " O l d D a v i d " , Eagle Head, and Black  C©al.  3I4. Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t , 1868, p p . 253-25+.  35 L c c . c i t . The l e t t e r ©f C h a r l e s Geren, Si©ux i n t e r p r e t e r at F t . Laramie ( p u b l i s h e d i n the Annual R e p o r t ) , s t a t e s t h a t 119 Arapah©es a r r i v e d at the f o r t ; but i t i s e v i d e n t from the rest of h i s l e t t e r that 119 lodges was i n t e n d e d . Both c l o t h i n g and t e n t s o f the Northern Arapahoes were s a d l y worn.  103 Chap. 7  Land Pressure  and Sporadic Warfare, I868-187I+.  The Treaty ef 1868 brought an uneasy peace.  Whites were  b a r r e d from the unceded lands which the r e d men r e t a i n e d hunting grounds, and the  Government t r i e d t® c o n f i n e  Indians as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e I n t e r i o r Department regarded only,  the  to t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s . the t r e a t y as an  as  The  expedient  and looked h o p e f u l l y toward the day when the b u f f a l o  would be gone,  each Indian c u l t i v a t e d h i s i n d i v i d u a l  ment of l a n d , and the broad p r a i r i e s , h o l d , would be s e t t l e d by the Determined e f f o r t s  emancipated from t h e i r  whites.  to d i s p o s s e s s  the  Indians of  remaining u s e f u l lands marked the p e r i o d . of the Union P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d i n 1869 s t e e l n a t i o n from coast to c o a s t .  allot-  Immigrants  With the  their completion  r a i l s u n i t e d the  and household goods  c o u l d now be moved across the p l a i n s i n a few days time,  in  c o n t r a s t to the former wagon t r a i n s which consumed weeks of travel  through dust and mud, under c o n d i t i o n s of extreme  privation.  With the thousands of s e t t l e r s which the  railroad  brought i n t o the West came scores of b u f f a l o h u n t e r s , drawn to the p r a i r i e s  s o l e l y f o r the  thrill  many  of s h o o t i n g  huge b a v i n e s , wh®se speedy e x t i n c t i o n was now a s s u r e d .  the During  a s i n g l e summer a p a r t y of s i x t e e n k i l l e d 2 8 , 0 0 0 b u f f a l o .  1  1 C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, F o r t y - t h i r d C © n g r e s s , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g U f f i c e , 1871)., p . ^106.  lOlj.  While such unregulated s l a u g h t e r  r a p i d l y f o r c e d the  to depend upon Government r a t i o n s ©ne has r e c © r d e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n  for their  at  Indians  subsistence,  no  t h i s wanton waste when the  stench of m i l l i o n s of p©unds of the decaying f l e s h of these animals reached  their  nostrils.  In Wyoming, such towns as Cheyenne, Laramie, others which had sprung up d u r i n g the r a i l r o a d ' s progress were assured of permanence. venient  i n the n a t u r a l  they were on or o f f the With the  miners and others  r e s o u r c e s of the r e g i o n ,  efficient  opening  s e r v i c e from the e a s t ,  F e d e r a l Government c r e a t e d Wyoming T e r r i t o r y , c a p i t o l i n Cheyenne.  whether  Indian l a n d s .  i n f l u x of p o p u l a t i o n accompanying the  ©f the r a i l r o a d and i t s  which m i n e r s ,  westward  They a l s o o f f e r e d con-  jumping-off p l a c e s f o r p r o s p e c t o r s ,  interested  Rawlins and  T h i s a f f o r d e d a ready  with  its  instrument  s t o c k r a i s e r s and other pressure  the  groups  through could  2 work; and they were not slow to make t h e i r wishes known.  A  ready a l l y was at hand i n the person ©f T e r r i t o r i a l Governor J . A . Campbell, r e g i o n a l e x - o f f i c i © Superintendent Affairs, first.  f o r he championed the  settlers'  In h i s i n a u g u r a l address to  of  Indian  i n t e r e s t s from the  the l e g i s l a t u r e  (1869)  2 Op. c i t . D a l e , p p . 100-102. Founded i n 1873, the Wyoming Stock Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n soon became the most powerful pressure group i n the a r e a , and i n f l u e n c e d Wyoming's L e g i s l a t u r e very s t r o n g l y . W i t h i n a few years i t extended i t s operations i n t o Colorado, Nebraska, Montana and the Dakotas.  io5 he argued  t h a t each I n d i a n s h o u l d be a l l o t t e d s u f f i c i e n t land.  t© support h i m s e l f w i t h proper c u l t i v a t i o n , b u t n® more. 3 remainder  s h o u l d g© t© the w h i t e s .  The  The r e s u l t , ©f c o u r s e , was  f u r t h e r p r e s s u r e ©n the I n d i a n l a n d s , which seemed never t© relax;  and the I n d i a n s f e l t  the r e l e n t l e s s  squeeze.  A l t h o u g h Red Cloud gained h i s ends i n the Pewder R i v e r Wars, h i s braves had l e a r n e d t© a p p r e c i a t e t h e d e a d l y  effects  ©f h s w i t z e r s and b r e e c h - l e a d i n g r i f l e s i n the hands of t r a i n e d soldiers,  and pr©bably w©uld be l o a t h t© f a c e them a g a i n .  W i t h the t r a n s c s n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d r u n n i n g , capable of moving t r o o p s and m u n i t i o n s r e a d i l y  to convenient disembarking p o i n t s ,  the p r o s p e c t o f armed r e s i s t a n c e by the I n d i a n s seemed remote. T© ensure a s t u t e b e h a v i o r on t h e i r p a r t , and to p r o t e c t the s e t t l e r s and t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t s , f i v e new f e r t s were g a r r i s o n e d i n Wyoming, f@ur ©f them cl©se t o the r a i l r o a d .  From these  t r o o p s c o u l d proceed h a n d i l y i n t o I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y i f needed. A l t h o u g h the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes f e l t the p i n c h ©f the times en t h e i r l a n d s and game, they endeavored peaceful relations  w i t h the whites.  to retain  I n an attempt t a f u r t h e r  such an e f f o r t , they s e p a r a t e d fr®m t h e i r Sl@ux f r i e n d s and made tw© t r i p s t© meet w i t h t h e i r traditi©nal enemies, the Sh©sh©nes, t© arrange a peace and o b t a i n t h e r i g h t  t s s t a y on  3 O P . c i t . .Cheyenne Leader, Oct. 13, 1869. The Governor suggested n® r e s t r i c t i o n on t h e arasunt o f l a n d a white man might held.  io6 the Wind R i v e r R e s e r v a t i o n i n Wyoming.  The second of these  t r i p s was a journey of n e a r l y 700 m i l e s from a temporary encampment on the M u s s e l s h e l l i n Montana.  When t h e i r hopes  f o r peace i n t h e i r new home ended w i t h a b u r s t of v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t them, they r e f r a i n e d from the b l o o d y vengeance which was w i t h i n t h e i r power to wreak on a g^roup of r u f f i a n miners who were seeking to exterminate region,  them.  Leaving the Wind R i v e r  they r e t u r n e d to Montana f o r a time, where the  press-  ures of c o n f l i c t were l e s s o b v i o u s . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , they had s l i g h t a s s o c i a t i o n with the Sioux malcontents,  that i s , w i t h the f o l l o w e r s o f Crazy Horse  and S i t t i n g B u l l .  In 1873, when they f i n a l l y spent most of  the year at Red Cloud Agency, t h e i r agent complimented t h e i r good behavior. reluctance  te  Although the pressures  ©f the time and t h e i r  abandon t r a d i t i o n a l ways brought them i n t o  c o n f l i c t w i t h F e d e r a l troops  i n 1871+, few of the  made a g a i n s t them during t h i s p e r i o d can be  charges  substantiated.  They h e l d g e n e r a l l y to a path of peace i n t h e i r  relations  w i t h the w h i t e s . Of the unceded I n d i a n t e r r i t o r y s e c t i o n s were e s p e c i a l l y coveted, Sweetwater d i s t r i c t ,  i n the r e g i o n three  the g o l d t r a c t s of Wyoming's  the Black H i l l s  of South Dakota and  1+ Op. c i t . Nickerson, p. 3 . They set N i c k e r s o n , to a n n h i l a t e the Arapahoes. 5  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t ,  1873,  out,  p. 6 l 2 .  says  107  northeastern  Wyoming, and the  Big Horn-Powder R i v e r country  west ©f them, p u r p o r t e d l y r i c h i n s o i l and m i n e r a l s .  In 1 8 7 2 ,  a f t e r tw© years ©f d i c k e r i n g , the F e d e r a l Government purchased the Sweetwater g o l d lands from the Sh®shones, l e g a l i z i n g the presence ®f mines,  thus  finally  stamp m i l l s f ® r c r u s h i n g  © r e , h®mes and the e n t i r e  t®wn of M i n e r ' s D e l i g h t ®n l a n d  guaranteed  Shoshones i n 1 8 6 8 .  gained,  to the E a s t e r n  the pioneers demanded the opening of the Wind R i v e r  and Pop© Agie V a l l e y s to s e t t l e m e n t , vegetables 6  land.  a r g u i n g that  Eastward i n the  territory  these  rights.  as  though  l e a s h to e n t e r the c a t t l e m e n ' s p a r a d i s e  the Treaty of 1 8 6 8 excluded them. unreasonableness  Stung by the  of a decree which e l e v a t e d  above t h e i r  grazing p r i v i l e g e s ,  T e r r i t o r i a l Legislature  arable  stockmen south of the North  P l a t t e looked c o v e t o u s l y across the r i v e r , i n g at the  fresh  f o r the miners should be produced on the  But the Shoshones would not surrender  rights  This foothold  strain-  from which  apparent  Indian hunting  they pressed  the  and Congress f o r a change.  Representing a v a r i e t y  ©f I n t e r e s t s ,  in  I87O  formed B i g Horn A s s o c i a t i o n determined to explore and m i n e r a l resources ©f n o r t h e r n Wyoming, d e s p i t e  the newlythe the  soil treaty  and Government red tape which excluded them from the l a n d they 6 The Pop® Agie (pronounced Popes l a ) , near Lander, Wyoming, i s a t r i b u t a r y of the Wind R i v e r . The l a t t e r becomes the B i g Horn between Shoshone and Thermopolis, f l o w i n g n a r t h to d i s charge i n t o the Yellowstone In Montana.  108 7  l o n g e d to u s e . E v e n t u a l l y w i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n b l e s s i n g o f Washington, an e x p e d i t i o n l e f t explored  i f n o t the  Cheyenne i n May,  t h e B i g H o r n s , met w i t h no o p e n o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e  I n d i a n s , a n d t h o u g h i t f o u n d no g o l d , r e t u r n e d  I n August  •8 with optimistic  reports.  I n 1872 G o v e r n o r C a m p b e l l h o p e f u l l y r e p o r t e d  t h a t Wyoming's  I n d i a n s , ©r "n©n~pr©ducing s a v a g e s " , w o u l d be removed  to a  reservati©n I n D a k o t a , t h u s f r e e i n g 2 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s incalculably valuable  ©f  l a n d f®r t h e s t o c k m e n , f a r m e r s a n d 9  m i n e r s a f Wyeming Territ®ry.  A y e a r l a t e r he c o n f i d e n t l y  p r e d i c t e d t h e e a r l y e x p u l s i o n @f a l l I n d i a n s  except the 10  peaceful  Sh©sh©nes ( f r i e n d s ©f t h e w h i t e s ) f r o m t h e t e r r i t s r y .  S h o r t l y a f t e r , a G©vernment C@mmissi©n met w i t h Si©ux, N©rthe r n Arapahoes  a n d N©rthern Cheyennes  Nebraska, b u t f a i l e d  a t R e d Cl©ud A g e n c y i n  i n a n e f f e r t t© p e r s u a d e them t©  relinquish  11  thdr treaty rights  i n the B i g Herns.  In d i r e c t v i e l a t i o n of the Treaty  ©f 1 8 6 8 , a n d ©ver t h e  p r e t e s t s ©f t h e I n d i a n s , G e n e r a l C u s t e r i n I87I+ l e d a m i l i t a r y p a r t y 7 t© Op. t h ec Bil ta c. k Cheyenne H i l l s t© L make u r vI e8y7 0©f their ree a d e ra , Mr ae ru cg h s3, . 8  I b i d . , A u g u s t 23,  I87O.  9 House J o u r n a l s f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y ©f t h e T e r r i t o r y ©f Wyaming, C h e y e n n e , D a i l y L e a d e r O f f i c e , 1872, 10  Ibid.,  1873,  p. l 6 .  PP. 25-26.  11 F i f t h A n n u a l R e p o r t a f t h e B e a r d ©f I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r s , W a s h i n g t o n , G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1873, P. 157.  109 sources. this  Lack of  and  the  conclusion beans  earlier  that  Francis  the  Walker,  the  widely  the  Indians  "savages"  hostilities  opinion  run  would  dependency  were  be  its  ceurse,  readily  and s o u t h r e s p e c t i v e l y  that  the  their  during  the  premature  bacon  will  a thing  of  to  Affairs,  and added t h a t trseps  past.  endorsed  of  war  any  for  hostile  moving  Union P a c i f i c  and resist,  the  alternative  c r u s h e d by  from  to  coffee,  Indian  the  Indians  led  ©n t h e  C o m m i s s i o n e r ©f  credited had  the  a g e n c i e s had broken  large-scale A.  from  B i g Horn e x p e d i t i o n  Indian  issued at  and t h a t  open h o s t i l i t i e s  and  north  Northern  12 Pacific In  Railroads. 1372  Federal  tr©ops  moved i n t o  five  forts  ostensibly  ts  protect  the  Union P a c i f i c  Railroad,  especially  t©  prevent  the  Indians  ©f  north  it  in  Wyoming,  but  from  taking  13 unauthorized  leave  ©f  thus  their  reaming  curtail  them more greater what  amenable  safety  sterner  men b e w a r n e d en s i g h t . unceded 12  from  policy to  to  ©f  the  Op.  cit.  habits,  it  it in  the  suggested  1872,  or  needed  p.  Cp. c i t .  Cheyenne L e a d e r ,  Jan.  27,  a  render  somethe  be  their  River  red  shot immense  area.  397.  13 I b i d . , p. 79. 1[L S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e B e a r d o f I n d i a n W a s h i n g t o n , G o v t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1075, PP. 5-6.  15  to  settlers  that  reservations  B i g Horn-Powder  Annual Report,  weuld  Advocating  added c a n d i d l y , the  attempt  was h o p e d ,  depredations.  on l i m i t e d  The  and g i v e •III  Wyoming p r e s s  remain  land  reservations.  civilizatien,  their  The w h i t e s ,  tract  their  iQlk-*  Commissioners,  110 Once the b u f f a l o were exterminated  the Indians would be  f o r c e d to depend upon the Government r a t i o n s agencies.  With only l e s s e r  the  game to hunt there would be  need of roaming i n the B i g Horns, s t i l l the f a r - o f f  i s s u e d at  less  little  i n the v a l l e y of  Smoky H i l l R i v e r i n Kansas, where the  Sioux and  Northern Arapahoes and Cheyennes r e t a i n e d the r i g h t to roam and hunt so l o n g as there were enough b u f f a l o to chase.  The tribesmen c o u l d then be c o n f i n e d to  reservations, extended.  and the f r o n t i e r s  policy. at the  16  tongues,  smaller  by which S e c r e t a r y  Columbus Delano judged the success of  Under h i s d i r e c t i o n the I n t e r i o r  terrible  slaughter  and j u s t f o r the  of b u f f a l o meat r o t t e d  of b u f f a l o f o r h i d e s , joy of k i l l i n g .  on the p l a i n s .  tallow,  Thousands of  J u s t i f y i n g the  disappearance,  only the t o t a l  e l i m i n a t i o n of b u f f a l o c o u l d f o r c e  17  goal.  the l a n d .  slaughter  the  tons  prospect  Delano p o i n t e d out i n l 8 ? 2  that  Indians  To D e l a n o , t h i s was a h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e  Due l a r g e l y to h i s o p p o s i t i o n , a b i l l  the u s e l e s s  Indian  Department winked  of t h e i r t o t a l  to c u l t i v a t e  the  of settlement even f u r t h e r  These were the main c r i t e r i a  of the I n t e r i o r  justify  designed to  halt  of b u f f a l o (H. R. 921) met defeat i n the  House of Representatives  i n I87I4..  18  The I n d i a n s ,  i t was argued,  16 Annual Report of the S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r , 1872, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 « 7 3 , P . 3 . The extensIon of western r a i l w a y s was another c r i t e r i o n which p l e a s e d him. 17  Ibid.,  p. v i .  18 Op. c i t . F o u r t h Annual Report af the Board of Indian Commissioners, 1872, p p . 1 2 3 - 1 3 1 .  Ill  c o u l d n o t be last  c o n f i n e d to r e s t r i c t e d  b u f f a l o had Prom 1870  t o 1875  various plains cities  vanished a  from  the  the  prairie.  l a r g e number o f d e l e g a t i o n s f r o m  tribes visited  W a s h i n g t o n and  a t Government e x p e n s e .  convincing  reservations until  i t s wards t h a t war  Advocating on  other eastern  this  the w h i t e s  the  c h e a p means  was  futile,  of  the  19 Indian Bureau expressed To way  impress  the  of l i f e ,  i t s pleasure with  I n d i a n s w i t h the  they a t t i r e d  the apparent  desirability  them i n t h e  style  results.  of t h e w h i t e o f the  day,  man's  complete  20 with s i l k  hats, black suits  they v i s i t e d  the  Philadelphia,  zoo  and  i n New  and  paper c o l l a r s .  Y o r k , The  But  though  Academy o f M u s i c  other places of note,  they  in  invariably  looked  21 forward  to the end  societies A  and  l a n d and  facet  a p p l i e d on c h i e f s accept r e s t r i c t e d  A group of N o r t h e r n such pressure  Arapahoes  i n 1873.  The  remove t o I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y , Although  the  trip.  t h e i r homes i n t h e  somewhat s i n i s t e r  the p r e s s u r e al  of t h e i r  Indians  They y e a r n e d  of the and  trips  21  Loc. c i t .  to Washington  was  headmen t o g i v e up  reservations for their and  Cheyennes was  join  bands.  subjected  Indian Bureau wished to  addition-  them  to  to  their  southern  brethren.  s t r o n g l y opposed the  p l a n the  bureaucrats  1072,  Loc. c i t .  own  West.  19 Op. c i t . F o u r t h A n n u a l R e p o r t i n s i s t e d , and e v e n t u a l l y s e v e r a l c h i e f s I n d i a n Commissioners, pp.  20  for their  o f the  123-133-.y i e l d e d  Board of to the pressure  112 and gave t h e i r realize  consent.  22  Washington © f f i c i a l d e m had begun to  that agreement could be more r e a d i l y obtained from  the Indians i n s m a l l groups than i n a t r i b a l assembly. t h i s l e s s o n was l e a r n e d i t was not  forgotten.  The technique of congregating many thousands within a limited t e r r i t o r y  Once  of  was foreshadowed by the  Indians  treaties  of 1866 w i t h the F i v e C i v i l i z e d T r i b e s i n Indian T e r r i t o r y ,  23 the Cherokees,  Creeks, Choctaws,  Chickasaws and Seminoles.  Y i e l d i n g u n w i l l i n g l y to Government demands, f o r c e d t o b reak up t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l allotments  for  these t r i b e s were  t r i b a l l y owned l a n d s , themselves,  to s e t t l e w i t h i n t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s .  accept  and a l l o w other  Indians  F i v e years l a t e r  the  Indian Bureau r e c o g n i z e d the s i t u a t i o n as a golden o p p o r t u n i t y to s t a r t the w i l d Indians of the p l a i n s d e f i n i t e l y and p a i n l e s s l y upon the road to c i v i l i z a t i o n .  S e t t l e d sn the l a n d ,  owning i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s of ground, the Arapaho and the Apache would l e a r n from the s u c c e s s f u l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l Cherokee and Choctaw, f o r example,  the advantages of farming over  the  21+ nomadic mode of l i f e . be f i n a l l y  Thus the p l a i n s I n d i a n problem would  s o l v e d — and the lands over which they roamed  would be r e l e a s e d  to the  22  Op. c i t .  23  Ibid.,  1871,  21+  Ibid.,  p.  whites.  Annual R e p o r t ,  1871+, p . 1+6.  p . 1+66.  1+67.  25 John C o l l i e r , Indians of the Americas, N w Y o r k , the New American L i b r a r y , 19i+7, p p . 1 2 5 - 1 2 9 . C o l l i e r shows that of n e a r l y 1+-| m i l l i o n acres ©f Cherokee t r i b a l l a n d s , i n d i v i d u a l l y a l l o t t e d against t h e i r w i l l , nine tenths was l o s t t© whites w i t h i n 20 y e a r s . Q  113 By 187I  Americans  had gained l i t t l e  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n way o f l i f e . ledge eye  of i t s f i n e r  and the phases  were d i f f i c u l t t o comprehend.  toward  which caught  The r e d man's  the p u b l i c  attitude  kind.  Although  s l a u g h t e r o f S o u t h e r n A r a p a h o e s and Cheyennes on (Oklahoma ) i n 1868 made l i t t l e  the Washita were p l a i n l y  shocked  Commissioner  asked  stir,  the whites  a t the m a s s a c r e ©f Pawnee b u f f a l o  S i o u x who were s i m i l a r l y  hunt  Pew i n d e e d h a d know-  enemies o f h i s ©wn r a c e was ®f t h i s  Custer's  by  side,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g ©r  Congress  o f f their reservation,  engaged i n t o revoke  l873»  hunters  ^he I n d i a n  the l e t t e r ' s  right to  w h i l e on h i s own a u t h o r i t y  i t was  26 temporarily commanders  suspended. t© p r e v e n t  M o r e o v e r , he r e q u e s t e d  military  I n d i a n s fr©m p a s s i n g w i t h o u t  a permit  •27 from  one r e s e r v a t i o n t© a n o t h e r . Although  Indians had to  increasing  p r e s s u r e ®n t h e i r  int© a g r e a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n  ©f t r i b a l  f o r m e r l y known, b a n d s o f d i v e r s e independent  action.  lands f o r c e d the  Shortly after  sizes  unity  than  occasionally  Cheyennes i n b a t t l i n g  while nearby in  t h e i r Wyoming h u n t i n g g r o u n d s ,  Op. c i t . A n n u a l  27  Loc.  cit.  joined  Federal troops i n Colorado,  kinsmen a b s t a i n e d from h o s t i l i t i e s ,  26  reverted  t h e T r e a t y o f 1868, f o r  example, a few N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o e s and two S i o u x v i l l a g e s Seuthern  they  Report,  and o t h e r s ,  were f a r away f r o m t h e  I 8 7 3 , p . 376.  111+ 28  fighting. The d e c t r i n e  ©f i n d i v i d u a l l a n d a l l o t m e n t s ,  those wh© wished to r a i s e  s® dear t©  the Indians fr©m a " b a r b a r i a n h e r d "  t© the s t a t u s ©f c i v i l i z a t i o n , made l i t t l e headway w i t h the r e d men, wh© i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s© many r e s p e c t s ,  t©ward l a n d © w n e r s h i p ,  c l u n g t e n a c i © u s l y t© t h e i r  as i n  traditienal  29  customs.  S i o u x , Arapah©es and Cheyennes ©n the Red Claud  R e s e r v a t i © n i n Nebraska, who accepted in  l87i+  f©und themselves  f@r f a r m i n g .  30  individual  stuck w i t h b a r r e n s e l l ,  allotments worthless  The climate was t©o d r y , and i r r i g a t i a n  31 impracticable. t h i s example,  T h e i r f e l l e w s , u n f a v a r a b l y impressed w i t h were l a a t h t© f©ll©w the white man's  path.  Due t© t h e i r numerical s t r e n g t h and t h e i r pewer i n war the Si®ux were the Red Cl©ud, men fr©m  Indians most dreaded by the  the uncompromising l e a d e r ©f the warring  1866  t©  by the  1868,  i n f l u e n c e am©ng h i s p e © p l e .  1870s  whites. tribes-  exerted a r e s t r a i n i n g  But the names ©f S i t t i n g B l l u  and Crazy H©rse ranked h i g h ameng the m a l c e n t e n t s .  Depred-  a t i o n s by and dangers fr©m the Sioux made f r o n t page news. Numerous i t e m s ,  b o t h true and f a l s e ,  28  Op. c i t .  Grinnell,  29  Op. c i t .  Annual Report,  3°  Ibid.,  1877,  31  Ibid.,  p . 1+59.  P . 1+15.  pp.  p u b l i s h e d i n the  279-281.  1873,  P.  372.  western  115 press,  testify  t© the importance  frontiersman's  mind.  ©f t h e i r impact upon the  And w e l l they might.  C u s t e r i n 1873 32  fought Sioux along the Yellowstone R i v e r i n Montana. ©f w i l d ones,  so-called,  ways, a r r e s t e d i t s  agent,  A greup  new to the Red Cloud Agency and  its  surrounded and i m m o b i l i z e d a c o n t i n -  gent of s o l d i e r s summoned to h i s a i d , and p r e c i p i t a t e d a serious Sioux,  situation.  Some 700 r e g u l a r  agency  Cheyennes and Northern A r a p a h © e s ,  and t r o o p s ,  thus a v e r t i n g p o s s i b l e  Indians,  probably  rescued b©th agent 33  tragedy.  U n i d e n t i f i e d Indians o f t e n were c a l l e d S i o u x , and when depredations blame.  occurred t h i s t r i b e m©st f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e d  T h e i r unexpected  appearance  near the  settlements  produced f o r e b © d i n g s of t r o u b l e among the w h i t e s . the erroneous  report  In I87I+  of a band ©f Sioux on Horse Creek,  of Cheyenne sent s h i v e r s of apprehension through the But r e l i e f ensued when the Indians were i d e n t i f i e d as and Arapahoes,  only f o r t y s t r o n g ,  the  north  town. Cheyennes  h e a v i l y laden with d r i e d 35  meat a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l b u f f a l o hunt In the R e p u b l i c a n v a l l e y . A news r e p o r t  of F e b r u a r y ,  I87I4-, a t t r i b u t e d most of  the  p l u n d e r l n g s of the past s i x or seven years to the n o r t h e r n 36 bands of S i o u x . Before the end of that year S i t t i n g B u l l and 32 Op. c i t . Cheyenne Leader, F e b . 18, 1873. 33  Op. c i t .  Annual Report,  I87I+, p .  3I+  Op. c i t .  Cheyenne Leader,  35  Ibid.,  Feb. 19, I87I+.  36  Ibid.,  F e b . 6, I87I+.  1+5.  F e b . 18, I87I+.  116 C r a z y H©rse had  recruited  from  siderable  following  the white  man's i n t e n t i o n s .  to  part  them f r o m  usurper.  of braves  their  Determined  ment, i t was, postponed  peace. is  Alth©ugh t h i s  that  that  the b e l l i g e r e n c y  at  any  the  time  tribe  since  Northern Arapahaes Bear  the C i v i l  the s i g n i n g  to v i s i t  --  wh©  ©f  counseled  indeed,  responsive  ing  after  the  joined  than  when t w a - t h i r d s ©f  a g a i n s t the  the T r e a t y ©f 1868,  119  whites. l©dges  s o u l s -- went s o u t h w i t h their  Cheyenne  them f o r a w h i l e , the A r a p a h o e s  d e f e a t ©f G e n e r a l F © r s y t h e  ©f Black  friends  e m b r o i l e d w i t h U n i t e d S t a t e s t r o o p s , a few A r a p a h o e s and Sioux v i l l a g e s  als©  bitter  Cheyenne f r i e n d s  period,  Finding  which  accepted, i t  a whale were l e s s  War  t h e i r kinsmen.  i n the  i s r e a s © n t© b e l i e v e ,  S i © u x and  seme 700  intent  vainly  evaluatlen i s generally  of t h e i r  encroach-  I876.  e x c e p t f©r F r i d a y  There  prime  the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes  a b s t a i n e d fr©m h o s t i l i t i e s  After  further  a g a i n s t the w h i t e s  t h e N o r t h e r n A r a p a h a e s as  t©  as a  more a c c i d e n t t h a n p l a n n e d  truth.  con-  themselves, m i s t r u s t e d  l a n d s , t h e y r e g a r d e d him  insist  I868-I87I}.,  n e t the e n t i r e  o t h e r bands a  Resenting h i s constant pressure  engaged i n s p o r a d i c w a r f a r e  37  like  great outbreak u n t i l  Some h i s t o r i a n s  years from  who,  and  as t h e y were t c r e s i s t  perhaps,  their  these  two  desist-  i n the Beecher  Island  38 fight  ( e a s t e r n Colorad©).  I t Is net  37  Op.  cit.,  Hafen  3  OP.  cit.,  Grinnell,  8  and  r e c o r d e d whether B l a c k  G h e n t , B r © k e n Hand, p . pp.  279-281.  278  117  B e a r was wh©  had  these  i m p l i c a t e d i n the f i g h t i n g , c®me  wh®  south w i t h him  had  Black  stayed  Goal,  but  the b u l k  of  r e m a i n e d a t p e a c e , as  i n t h e n??rth w i t h M e d i c i n e  als© d i d  Man  and  Friday.  though f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d as a n t i - w h i t e ,  in  I869 a s s i s t e d F e d e r a l t r o o p s f r o m F t . F e t t e r m a n  up  the  trail  these  of marauding  I n d i a n s wh®  had  killed  in picking  two  whites 39  on La  P r e l e Creek, near  Coincidently  Medicine  the p r e s e n t  Man,  A r a p a h o e s were en r o u t e to the  town o f D o u b l a s ,  F r i d a y and  a number o f  to F t . B r i d g e r  ation.  But  s t a y i n g ®n  as  the  other  (southwestern  make p e a c e w i t h C h i e f Washakie o f the chance ®f  Wyoming.  t h e Wind R i v e r  Wyoming)  S h o s h o n e s and (®r  Shosh®ne)  S h o s h ® n e s were I n t h e B i g H o r n s on  gain Reservtheir  • I4.0 autumn b u f f a l o  hunt,  the A r a p a h o e s r e t u r n e d t o F t .  Fetterman.  They l e f t word a t F t . B r i d g e r t h a t t h e y w o u l d r e t u r n i n t h r e e months t i m e .  S u s p i c i o u s when he  learned their  Washakie wondered why  t h e A r a p a h o e s now  themselves  Sioux  better  from  of the  their  p l a n when he  and  wished  object, t©  Cheyenne a l l i e s ;  dissociate but he  thought  learned of F r i d a y ' s connection  with  it. True I 8 7 O , and  t©  t h e i r w©rd, the Arapahees  concluded  t e r m s f®r  Shoshone R e s e r v a t i a n . 39  were s a i d  a temporary  They a g r e e d  I b i d . . Nov. 1 2 , I 8 6 9 .  1+1  Loc. c i t .  1+2  Op.  cit.  Annual Report,  s t a y ©n  t® m a i n t a i n  Op. c i t . , Cheyenne L e a d e r , t o be S i o u x .  I4.O  returned i n  Nov.  8,  the  friendly  I869.  1 8 6 9 , p. 2 7 ] + .  February,  The  marauders  118 r e l a t i o n s with the  Shoshones and the w h i t e s ,  them of the c©ming ©f n o r t h e r n h o s t i l e s . their  stay @n the r e s e r v a t i a n ,  and t© n o t i f y  Thus they began  a stay which endured l e s s  than  tw© m©nths, and ended In an outburst o f v i © l e n c e i n v h i c h eleven Arapahoes were  killed.  H i s t o r i a n s g e n e r a l l y accept the t h e s i s were i n s i n c e r e ,  that the Arapah©es  t h a t they intended n e i t h e r t© keep the f r i e n d l y  r e l a t i o n s which they premised, nor t© n e t i f y Sh©sh©nes and whites ©f impending h ® s t i l e r a i d s .  The r e s u l t a n t  i l l f e e l i n g and  b l © © d - l e t t i n g i s a t t r i b u t e d t© Arapah© t r e a c h e r y . i n a t i o n ©f a number ©f f a c t s , this  h©wever,  The exam-  c a s t s grave d©ubt up©n  c©nclusi©n. A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i a n ©f why the Arapah©es s©ught harb©r  on the Sh©sh©ne R e s e r v a t i © n may be found i n the r e p © r t ©f Agent D a n i e l s that they d i d n©t l i k e t© remain at Red Claud Agency because  the SI©ux were apt t© cause them t r o u b l e .  He had, he added, found them w e l l - d i s p o s e d and q u i e t . When they f a i l e d to f i n d C h i e f Y/ashakie at F t . i n the f a l l part  ©f 1869, Medicine Man, F r i d a y and the  ©f the t r i b e  set  ©ut f a r  and Craw enemies  They l e f t behind the Sioux and Cheyennes, who  had been mare deeply embrailed i n h o s t i l i t i e s  i+3  Ibid.,  greater  the M i l k R i v e r R e s e r v a t i e n i n  Mantana, where t h e i r Gras Ventres r e l a t i v e s were d a m i c i l e d .  Bridger  1872, p .  651.  than t h e y .  One  119 hundred and  s i x t y l o d g e s , upwards of 9^0 Arapahoes, were  r e p o r t e d un the way; when smallpox  ten lodges  reached the agency.  But  s t r u c k , w i p i n g ©ut  most of the advance guard, 'lithe main camp moved back t o the M u s s e l s h e l l i n a l a r m . F e b r u a r y saw  peace.  them a g a i n i n Wyoming, s t i l l determined  on  They faund and n e g o t i a t e d w i t h Washakie, and h o p e f u l l y  encamped ©n the Shoshone R e s e r v a t i o n . and though these were by na means new  Depredations  occurred,  t© the Sweetwater  s e t t l e m e n t s , the Arapahoes were s u s p e c t e d .  St©len h o r s e s  r e p o r t e d i n t h e i r camp a f f o r d e d an i n d i c a t i o n  ©f  guilt  accepted by the s e t t l e r s as p r o e f , d e s p i t e the f a c t  that  s i m i l a r i d e n t i f i c a t i e n ©f s t o l e n s t o c k had proved f a u l t y When on the 31st  various occasions.  of March a r a i d  i n the l o s s af mare h o r s e s and t h r e e h u n t e r ' s miners a c t e d q u i c k l y .  on  resulted  l i v e s , the  Nearby army o f f i c e r s from F t . Stambaugh  blamed Cheyennes and S i o u x , but the s e t t l e r s h e l d the Arapahoes accountable, affair.  though the l a t t e r d e n i e d a l l knowledge af the  Convinced t h a t they had  Arapaha g u i l t , 2$0  " u n d i s p u t a b l e " e v i d e n c e af  armed c i v i l i a n s headed f o r t h e i r camp.  Of what the evidence c o n s i s t e d t h e r e i s g r e a t B a n c r o f t I n d i c a t e s t h a t H. G. N i c k e r s a n , wha  canfusian.  s p i e d ©n  Arapaho camp, faund enough i n i t t© v e r i f y a v e r d i c t  1 + 1 + I b i d . , 1870, 1 + 5 I b i d . , p.  p.  the af g u i l t ,  201.  176.  1+6 Lec. c i t . T h i s i s quoted from the r e p e r t ©f Campbell of Wyoming T e r r i t o r y .  Governor  120  1+7 te what he saw. The South Pass News  but gives ne clue  the presence In F r i d a y ' s  camp ef harness taken from S t .  S t a t i o n ©n the Sweetwater, where the 1+8  murdered.  But N i c k e r s e n ' s  r e a d i l y leads  te the  cited  three hunters  Gary's  were  own v e r s i e n of h i s spying t r i p  c e n c l u s i e n that the Arapahoes were judged  g u i l t y by c o n j e c t u r e o n l y . As F r i d a y was indebted to him f o r a fermer act N i c k e r s e n went d i r e c t l y  te h i s camp,  set  the main group headed by Medicine Man. protection  from the  somewhat  apart from  This assured him s f  other Arapahoes who c o r r e c t l y '1+9  t h a t he had come te  spy.  ef kindness,  surmised  F e a r i n g f e r h i s own l i f e ,  he seems  n e t t e have r e a l i z e d t h a t they may have been e q u a l l y f e a r f u l . He saw no s t o l e n h o r s e s ,  ne harness from S t .  n o r ether m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  ef guilt;  Mary's  but he l e a r n e d t h a t many  young braves had gene e v e r en the Sweetwater — f e r hunt they s a i d .  he and e t h e r s ,  convinced themselves evidence  1+7  which occurred  p u t t i n g the  ef Arapaho g u i l t .  the Arapahoes were condemned,  a g a i n s t them.  a buffalo  Net u n t i l h i s r e t u r n heme d i d N i c k e r s o n  l e a r n e f the S t . Mary's k i l l i n g s , Thereupon,  Station  en that  coincidences  together,  On such f l i m s y and vengeance planned  The idea t h a t hungry Indians would leave  Op. c i t .  Bancroft,  day.  camp  p. 7^7.  1+8 Op. c i t . Cheyenne L e a d e r , A p r i l 2 1 , 1 8 7 0 . The South Pass News of A p r i l 11 i s quoted b y the L e a d e r . 1+9 Ceunty", 50  Op. c i t . Lec.  cit.  Nickersen,  "The E a r l y H i s t e r y e f  Fremont  121 f o r such a s e n s i b l e purpose as hunting b u f f a l o e v i d e n t l y seemed  preposterous.  On t h e i r way to c l e a n out the Arapaho camp, the armed band o f v i g i l a n t e s r a i s e d f o r t h i s purpose met C h i e f B l a c k Bear and an unarmed group of mixed sex and age, on t h e i r way to Camp Augur to t r a d e .  F i r i n g upon them they k i l l e d  Bear and t e n o t h e r s , and continued  Black  on t h e i r way toward the  51 main body o f the t r i b e . When dusk f e l l  the v i g i l a n t e s h a l t e d f o r the n i g h t ,  b u i l d i n g great campfires  f o r t h e i r l i g h t and heat.  Thus  exposed they were easy marks f o r Indian vengeance; y e t only a few Arapahoes came near,  and shot int© the b l a z i n g f i r e s ,  '52 which were then e x t i n g u i s h e d .  The Indians d i d no more.  In t h e i r g r i e f and b u r n i n g anger only a powerful  influence  f e r peace c o u l d have w i t h h e l d the y©ung braves, as i t d i d , fr©m v i o l e n t r e t a l i a t i o n . Man,  Whether t h i s was exerted by Medicine  F r i d a y , the e l d e r s of the H i e r a r c h y , ©r a l l ©f them,  n© records i n d i c a t e .  Convinced, that they were the v i c t i m s  ©f white t r e a c h e r y and Sh©sh©ne d u p l i c i t y , the Arapahoes l e f t the r e g i e n , most of them heading f o r Montana and the M i l k R i v e r Agency.  53  51 A young bey fr®m Black Bear's p a r t y was adapted by an army o f f i c e r and educated i n the e a s t . Under the name of Sherman Coolidge he r e t u r n e d t© Wyoming i n 1881+ as a m i s s i o n a r y to h i s people, 5 Op. c i t . Nickerson, County," p. II. 2  "The E a r l y H i s t o r y o f Frem©nt  53 F i f t h Annual Report ©f the B©ard ©f Indian Commissione r s , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e 1 8 7 3 . P. 8 3 . F r i d a y  122 I t sh©uld be borne i n mind t h a t t h e Arapahoes were l e g a l l y on the Shoshone R e s e r v a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e ,  having  approached Governor Campbell o f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y and C h i e f Washakie ©f the E a s t e r n Shoshenes, making a t r e a t y w i t h the l a t t e r which g r a n t e d them the r i g h t o f temperary r e s i d e n c e ©n Sh©sh©ne l a n d .  B u t the v i g i l a n t e s were t r e s p a s s e r s l i v i n g  i l l e g a l l y on I n d i a n s e l l and e x t r a c t i n g g e l d t© which they had n® r i g h t .  The t©wn ©f Miner's D e l i g h t i t s e l f had been b u i l t  about a m i l e and a h a l f w i t h i n the s o u t h e r n beundary ©f t h e 5+ reservatien. A l t h o u g h he f e l t t h a t t h e e f f e c t ©f t h e v i g i l a n t e s ' less®n t o the I n d i a n s had been s a l u t a r y , Governor Campbell ©f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y shewed doubt ©f Arapah© c o m p l i c i t y i n t h e S t . Mary's s l a y i n g when he s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was "no means ©f 55 ascertaining" i t .  L i e u t e n a n t G. M. F l e m i n g , agent t© t h e  Shoshones, went f a r bey©nd t h i s , f a r he b i t t e r l y a s s a i l e d the v i g i l a n t e s ' acti©ns i n f i r i n g up©n B l a c k Bear's p a r t y , and '56 d e p i c t e d them as t h i e v e s and c u t t h r o a t s .  The Commander a t  nearby Camp Augur, he a l l e g e d , c©uld r e a d i l y have p r e v e n t e d t©ld Commisslener Brun®t t h a t the Shosh©nes had a i d e d the w h i t e s i n the B l a c k Bear epis©de. Of what t h i s a i d c o n s i s t e d i s n©t indicated. 5+ F o u r t h Annual R e p o r t ©f the Beard e f I n d i a n Commissione r s , Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1572, p. 5 1 . 55 House J o u r n a l ©f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly ©f t h e T e r r i t a r y »f Wyoming, Cheyenne, N. A. B a k e r , 1070j P. 15. 56  Op. c i t . Annual Rep®rt, l870,.p. 176.  123  t h e i r murdereus a c t i o n . condoned t h e i r  instead, Fleming 57  deed, w i t h t a c i t  Though u s e d residents  But  charged,  he  approval.  to v i o l e n c e i n t h e i r m i n i n g  were q u i c k t o h o l d the I n d i a n s  towns,  Sweetwater  accountable  for  ©ut-  58 rages ©f  w h i c h c @ u l d n e t be  this  Distrust  and  fear the  c©mm®n p r a c t i c e  p r e c i p i t a t e d by m i n e r s ©pen q u e s t i o n .  I f he  brawls.  s©metimes  Indian a t r o c i t i e s  i n pursuit  When a h u n t e r  unmolested  Results  ludicrous.  factors,  ©f p r e j u d g i n g t h e a b e r i g i n e s .  ©f  remained  before  may  have  summary j u s t i c e t©©  e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t t h e r e d men  t u r n e d up  own  o f I n d i a n s were e v e r - p r e s e n t  many ©f t h e p u r p o r t e d  punitive  their  a t t i t u d e were sometimes t r a g i c ,  a c c e n t e d by Hew  t r a c e d t©  been i s an  long a f i e l d  was  i n the  a  wind.  I n d i a n s were l e c a t e d ,  the  '59 vigilantes  disbanded,  n e t a l w a y s werk ©ut I n 1872 put  the  but  t r a g e d y was  this  averted.  i t was  t h e e f f e c t was 57 I b i d . , p.  nerves  But  i t did  way.  M i c h a e l Renan's murder i n t h e  settlers'  Arapahoes,  and  on e d g e .  probably j u s t the 179.  Popo A g i e  Blamed a t f i r s t  the work o f w h i t e same.  The  next  h©rse day,  Valley  upon theives;  while  the  58 S t r e e t f i g h t s were common. ^b.e l e a d e r o f t h e v i g i l a n t e s who m u r d e r e d B l a c k B e a r was l a t e r k i l l e d i n one. Goutant (op. c i t . p . 666) l i s t s f i v e f a t a l b r a w l s i n ©ne y e a r . South  59 Such an i n c i d e n t i s r e l a t e d by James C h i s h a l m i n Pass 1868, L i n c o l n , U n i v . o f N e b r a s k a , i 9 6 0 , pp. II4-8-II4.9.  60 Op. c i t . F o u r t h A n n u a l R e p o r t e f t h e B © a r d o f I n d i a n C © m m i s s i © n e r s , 1072, pp. 112-113. T^e m u r d e r e r s l e f t I m p r i n t s o f h i g h h e e l e d b e e t s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e y were w h i t e s ©r M e x i c a n s , p©ssibly a c c o m p a n i e d by a few I n d i a n s .  12l+ s e a r c h f o r the murderers was under way, two h u n t e r s  disappeared,  and t h e i r h o r s e s supposedly were i n d e n t i f i e d i n I n d i a n hands. Here, i t seemed, was c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had murdered them.  A h a i l o f b u l l e t s s p a t t e r e d about the " g u i l t y "  b r a v e s , b u t they escaped unharmed, w i t h the a l l e g e d l y s t o l e n horses.  Tw© p a r t i e s , i n d e p e n d e n t l y  o r g a n i z e d , s e t ©ut i n  p u r s u i t ; and ©ne, m i s t a k i n g the o t h e r f©r the h o s t i l e  Indians,  f i r e d up©n i t ,  c©ntinuing to sh©ot f e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h ' " "6l of time b e f o r e d i s c o v e r i n g i t s err©r. T e r r e r i z e d South Pass  r e s i d e n t s wh© heard the f i r i n g sent word t o nearby P t . Stambaugh ©f 300 rampaging Arapah© and Cheyenne w a r r i o r s , r e q u e s t i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e tr©ops and a h o w i t z e r t o r e p e l them. Meanwhile the two "murdered" h u n t e r s  rode s a f e l y i n t o town ©n  t h e i r own h o r s e s , h a v i n g seen no IndiansJ ©ne,  Miracul©usly, no  n e i t h e r w h i t e n©r I n d i a n , had been k i l l e d n o r wounded. Such i n d i d e n t s as t h i s i n the Sweetwater r e g i o n c a s t  much doubt upon the v a l i d i t y o f the charges a g a i n s t t h e Arapahoes. One hundred m i l e s away a t R a w l i n s ©f R a w l i n s  S p r i n g s , near the town  and t h e U n i o n P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d , f©ur young Arapahoes  l e s t t h e i r l i v e s i n a b r u s h w i t h a S h e r i f f ' s p©sse i n 1873.  61 Op. c i t . N i c k e r s o n , County", pp. J4.-5.  "The E a r l y H i s t o r y ©f Prem©nt  62 Op. c i t . F o u r t h Annual R e p o r t ©f t h e Board ©f I n d i a n C©mmissi©ners, pp. 112-113.  12$ The  I n d i a n s , a l l e g e d l y out t© r a i d the U t e s , were  w i t h s h o o t i n g a w h i t e boy and s t e a l i n g h i s h o r s e s .  charged Denying  b©th a c c u s a t i o n s , they c l a i m e d they were a t t a c k e d by the p@sse and t h e i r h o r s e s t a k e n with©ut reas©n. committee headed by T e r r i t o r i a l Governor  An i n v e s t i g a t i n g Campbell,  after  h e a r i n g b©th s i d e s ex©nerated t h e w h i t e s and d e c l a r e d t h e Indians g u i l t y .  A study ©f t h e Governor's  r e p o r t , however,  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the d e c i s i o n may have been reached b e f o r e t i e h e a r i n g s were h e l d .  The commission,  he r e p o r t e d , a c c e p t e d  the sworn t e s t i m o n y o f the w h i t e s r a t h e r than the s t o r y t©ld by the I n d i a n s , as t h e i r "pr©verbial d i s r e g a r d f o r t r u t h "  61+ made i t " e f l i t t l e  worth".  Other s o u r c e s t© which l i t t l e  a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d  a l s o c a s t d©ubt upon the v e r d i c t ©f Arapah© g u i l t .  C©lonel  John E. S m i t h , Commandant a t F t . Laramie, s a i d he d i s s u a d e d all  but twenty ©f a l a r g e group e f Arapahoes fr©m g o i n g t o  R a w l i n s S p r i n g s t© bury t h e f©ur young men, as he f e a r e d they would avenge themselves  on an e q u a l number ©f w h i t e s .  The p o s s i b l e punishment ©f those wh© had p e r p e t r a t e d the outrage a g a i n s t the I n d i a n s caused h i m n© worry, b u t he 63  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t , 1873, P. 251.  6I4. L o c . c i t . The Arapahoes were als© accused ©f v i o l a t i n g the T r e a t y ©f 1868 by t h e i r presence s o u t h of t h e P l a t t e . But as the r i v e r f l o w s n e a r l y due n o r t h a t t h i s p o i n t , the I n d i a n s were west ©f i t r a t h e r t h a n s©uth. 65 " I n d i a n T r o u b l e s " , A n n a l s ©f Wyoming, J a n u a r y , 1933, P. 757. -'•his i s from Smith's l e t t e r t o h i s s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r i n Omaha, Nebraska.  126 f e a r e d t h a t I n d i a n vengeance might be wreaked ©n i n n o c e n t people.  66  I n l i k e v e i n the Board ©f I n d i a n Commissioners,  after a v i s i t  "  "unjustifiable In s p i t e  "  •  ©f the  murder" of peaceable I n d i a n s near R a w l i n s .  67  o f t h e i r o f f i c i a l condemnation by Governor Campbell's  investigating not  t s Red Cl©ud Agency, wrote t e r s e l y  c©mmittee Arapaho g u i l t a t R a w l i n s S p r i n g s was  a proven f a c t . While s e e k i n g t© a v o i d c@llisi©ns w i t h the w h i t e s , the  Arapah©es v e n t e d t h e i r rage f o r B l a c k Bear's d e a t h up©n the Sh©sh©nes, wh©m they accused ©f c o m p l i c i t y i n h i s murder. In a r a i d I n 1871  they k i l l e d a Shoshone boy, l e a v i n g  coup  68 s t i c k s b e h i n d as i d e n t i f i a b l e e v i d e n c e ©f t h e i r revenge. T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d an example o f t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n w a r f a r e , a game ©f r i s k i n which a man's prestige__was based up©n h i s s k i l l a t c o u n t i n g c©up ( t e u c h i n g an enemy w i t h a c©up s t i c k ) , t a k i n g s c a l p s ©r s t e a l i n g  h o r s e s , and g e t t i n g away unharmed.  T h i s was a game which the w h i t e s c o u l d never u n d e r s t a n d . Charged w i t h another r a i d i n 1873,  i n w h i c h two w h i t e women  i n the pep© A g i e v a l l e y  l e s t t h e i r l i v e s , the Arapahoes  denied the accusation.  F r i d a y contended t h a t they had been i n  the  v i c i n i t y o n l y ©nee s i n c e B l a c k Bear's d e a t h , the time the  66  Loc. c i t .  67 Op. c i t . i f t h Annual Report o f t h e Board ©f I n d i a n Commissioners"^ 1073, p. 2b. F  68 I b i d . , p. 83. The f a c t s ©f t h e r a i d were r e p o r t e d by F r i d a y ; and the c©up s t i c k s were f s u n d where i t had o c c u r r e d .  127 Shoshone boy was k i l l e d .  I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t he w i t h h e l d  the t r u t h i n t h i s , f o r on t h e same o c c a s i o n he v o l u n t e e r e d the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a s m a l l p a r t y o f Arapahoes, Cheyennes and S i o u x , out t o s t e a l h o r s e s f r o m the Crows, had k i l l e d a w h i t e man i n w e s t e r n Montana.  E v i d e n t l y unconvinced i n the  Popo Agie v a l l e y case, Brunot o f t h e Board o f I n d i a n Commissione r s a t t r i b u t e d the women's s l a y i n g t o f r i e n d s ©f the young - 70 Arapah©es k i l l e d a t R a w l i n s S p r i n g s . B u t the Wyoming p r e s s and t h e Bureau ©f I n d i a n A f f a i r s blamed i t on the S i o u x , 71 naming Red Cloud's s o n - i n - l a w as one o f the p r i n c i p a l s . N e i t h e r Arapah© inn©cence n©r g u i l t can be d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e P©p© A g i e v a l l e y murders, y e t tw© s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s s h o u l d be noted..  F i r s t , t h e r a i d e r s on  t h i s o c c a s i o n l e f t no c©up s t i c k s b e h i n d , u n l i k e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i s t Arapahoes i n t h e i r I n c u r s i o n a g a i n s t t h e Shoshones.  Second, Nickerson,"wh© was i n the v i c i n i t y when  the murders o c c u r r e d , does n o t i m p l i c a t e the Arapahoes i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n ©f the case, even though he had l i t t l e use f o r t h i s t r i b e of Indians.  These f a c t s g i v e suppert t© t h e  c l a i m ©f Arapah© innocence made by F r i d a y , wh© enjoys a r e p u t a t i o n ©f v e r a c i t y . W i t h the d e a t h ©f C h i e f M e d i c i n e Man i n the w i n t e r o f I 8 7 I - I 8 7 2 , t h e Arapahees l o s t ©ne ©f t h e i r s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e s f o r peace.  B l a c k C o a l , as h i s s u c c e s s o r , was l o a t h t o e m b r o i l  69  I b i d . , p. 2 6 .  70  Lec. c i t .  71 Op. c i t . heyenne Leader, August l£, 1873, and A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1873. P. 612. c  128 himself i n d i f f i c u l t i e s  w i t h t h e w h i t e s , b u t f e l t no such By 1873 b i s r a i d s a g a i n s t  compunctions about the Shoshones. them were ©f common ©ccurrence.  D i s c o m f i t i n g and c o u n t i n g  coup upon them may have been B l a c k C©al's o b j e c t i v e s . he br©ke down the banks ©f t h e i r newly-c©nstructed  Although  irrigation  d i t c h e s , and t h r e a t e n e d the workers i n t h e f i e l d , the Government farmer who worked w i t h t h e Shoshones r e p o r t e d no c a s u a l t i e s . The  t r o o p s , under o r d e r s t o shoot o n l y i n s e l f d e f e n s e ,  found  72 '  n© need t o r e s o r t t© f i r e - a r m s . Indeed, the f i e l d workers f e a r e d the e v e r - p r e s e n t r a t t l e s n a k e s as a g r e a t e r menace than  '  73  the Arapahoes.  In I87I+- C a p t a i n Bates ©f the U n i t e d S t a t e s Army s e t out to end B l a c k Coal's d e p r e d a t i o n s .  W i t h a s m a l l command o f  s o l d i e r s and Shosh©nes he met the Arapahoes ab©ut f o r t y m i l e s e a s t ©f Therm©polis, Wyoming. were k i l l e d ,  F o r t y t© f i f t y Arapaho braves  and a l t h o u g h they made a courageous s t a n d , when  the s o l d i e r s withdrew they d i d n e t attempt  t© f o l l o w .  With  1100 pe©ple o r l e s s i n the N o r t h e r n Arapah© t r i b e a t t h i s t i m e , the l o s s would be c r u e l l y f e l t , s u f f i c i e n t  reason,  p r o b a b l y , f o r n o t p r e s s i n g the b a t t l e f u r t h e r .  I t may be,  i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had as l i t t l e  understanding  or stomach f o r t h e white man's manner o f w a r f a r e as he d i d fer  theirs.  Whatever t h e r e a s o n , B l a c k C o a l ' s r a i d s were  72  Op. c i t . D a v i d , p. 2^7.  73  I b i d . , p. 265.  JIL Op. c i t . , Cheyenne Leader, August I87I+. T h i s was the Bates B a t t l e of J u l y L. l87i|, V a r i o u s sources r e p o r t fr©m I|_00 t o 3000 I n d i a n s engaged, a l t h o u g h t h e e n t i r e N o r t h e r n Arapaho t r i b e c©uld muster l e s s than 1+00 f i g h t i n g men a t t h i s t i m e .  129 over.  Except f o r seven i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h e t i n e to the  debacle  i n 1876,  the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes never a g a i n  Custer  fought  United States troops. P r e s s u r e on the I n d i a n l a n d s c h a r a c t e r i z e d the p e r i o d from 1868  to I87I4. to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than i n e a r l i e r y e a r s .  As more n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  came to p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n the West,  growing numbers of s e t t l e r s l o o k e d upon the I n d i a n s as  an  impediment to p r o g r e s s , which must somehow be removed. S u s p e c t i n g the r e d men  f r e q u e n t l y of t h i e v e r y and  treachery,  the w h i t e s o f t e n judged and a c t e d too h a s t i l y , thus themselves ©pen t© s i m i l a r c h a r g e s .  laying  Sometimes s t o l e n h®rses  a l l e g e d l y i n d e n t i f i e d i n I n d i a n hands, m e r e l y resembled horses known t© bel©ng t© w h i t e s .  Th©ugh s e t t l e r s  a l l y a t t a c k e d I n d i a n s to f o r e s t a l l s u s p e c t e d  occasion-  duplicity,  the  l a t t e r o f t e n had e q u a l l y v a l i d reasons f o r f e a r i n g them. The b i a s e d r e p o r t s ©f I n d i a n a c t i v i t i e s i n Wyoming's p r e s s i n d i c a t e a p e r s p e c t i v e shared by many r©ugh f r o n t i e r s men  o f the a r e a .  Mere than mere g r i m humor prompted a  j o u r n a l i s t w r i t i n g ©f a s k i r m i s h near S©uth Pass t© say t h a t no w h i t e s " f o r t u n a t e l y " nor I n d i a n s " u n f o r t u n a t e l y " were 75 ' " • k i l l e d . And o n l y a c a r e f u l p e r u s a l ©f a column c a p t i o n e d "The  I n d i a n Murders a t P t . Laramie" would r e v e a l t h a t tw© ' ~ " ' 76 ©f the three p r i n c i p a l s i n the k i l l i n g were white men.  75  I b i d . , J u l y 6,  76  I b i d . , Jan. 13,  1869. 1873.  130 Such r e p o r t i n g o f I n d i a n news t y p i f i e s the t i m e s , and makes i t extremely  d i f f i c u l t t o f e r r e t out the f a c t s f r o m a morass  of s e n s a t i o n a l j o u r n a l i s m . Despite  some l a p s e s the peace f o r c e among t h e l o r t h e r n  Arapahoes was s t i l l  i n evidence from  1868  to  Small  I87I4-0  groups a i d e d t h e i r a g e - l o n g Cheyenne f r i e n d s a g a i n s t  Federal  tr@ops i n 1 8 6 8 , b u t most of t h e t r i b e r e f r a i n e d f r o m w a r l i k e actiens.  W i t h the shock o f B l a c k Bear's k i l l i n g i n I 8 7 O , t h e  f o r c e was b a d l y s t r a i n e d , b u t d i d n o t b r e a k , f o r the v i g i l a n t e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s d e a t h were n o t wiped ©ut, though i t was w i t h i n the Arapahoes' power t o do s©. d e a t h removed Medicine  Even a f t e r  Man's s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e f o r peace, they  were u n w i l l i n g t© war a g a i n s t the w h i t e s .  They must have  r e a l i z e d t h a t the s e t t l e r s were the r e a l source  o f many  Arapah© s©rr©ws, y e t under B l a c k C o a l ' s l e a d e r s h i p v e n t e d t h e i r s p i t e up©n t h e i r Shosh©ne enemies. s h a r e , a t l e a s t , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g f a r e , which the w h i t e s  could not.  they  These c o u l d  o f the I n d i a n m©de o f warY e t i t was the f©rays  a g a i n s t the Sh©sh©nes w h i c h l e d t o t h e i r f i n a l c l a s h w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t r o o p s , i n the Bates B a t t l e mentioned ab©ve (page 1 2 8 ) . E a r l i e r i n the p e r i o d o n l y i n d i v i d u a l s and s m a l l groups had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n h o s t i l i t i e s  a g a i n s t the w h i t e s ,  but i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n ©f t h e t r i b e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n , perhaps, o f F r i d a y ' s band, engaged the s@ldier-s a t t h i s t i m e , i n the b a t t l e w h i c h permanently ended B l a c k  131 Coal's b e l l i g e r e n t r o l e .  77  77 There i s no documentary evidence t h a t F r i d a y ever fought the w h i t e s . " Y e t , i f he was w i t h B l a c k C o a l when C a p t a i n Bates a t t a c k e d , he may have had n© ©ther c h o i c e .  132 Chap. 8 The Second S i o u x War and the L©ss ©f T r i b a l Lands, l87l+~l878. When would the m a g n i f i c e n t unceded I n d i a n l a n d s , e s p e c i a l l y the m i n e r a l - r i c h B l a c k H i l l s i and B i g Herns, f a l l Int© the a w a i t i n g hands ©f the w h i t e s ?  That was the g r e a t t© 1876.--  q u e s t i o n i n t h e minds ©f w e s t e r n s e t t l e r s fr©m  C e r t a i n they were t h a t d e s p i t e impeding t r e a t y p r o v i s i o n s and d e f i n i t e I n d i a n ©pp©siti©n, t h e y weuld ©btsin them.  Barred  fr©m b o t h areas by the T r e a t y ©f 1868,  they had vi©lated i t s  r e s t r i c t i v e c l a u s e s w i t h few important  repercussions.  autumn o f I87I4-, a f t e r General  Custer's reconnaisance  I n the party  r e t u r n e d f r o m i t s i l l e g a l i n c u r s i o n int© the B l a c k H i l l s , a gr©up ©f miners went i n , sank t w e n t y - f i v e p r o s p e c t  1 rep©rted p a y - g o l d  i n a l l ©f them.  h o l e s , and  " ' Others f l e c k e d i n , u n t i l  P r e s i d e n t Grant, perhaps b e t t e r aware ©f I n d i a n agitati©n t h a n the man I n the s t r e e t , ©rdered General d r i v e the p r o s p e c t o r s  2 sequences.  Crook t o t h e r e g i e n t©  out, and f o r e s t a l l p o s s i b l e d i r e c©n-  ' None-the-less,  i n t e r e s t e d people formed  cempanies, and hundreds mere headed f o r the B l a c k  mining  Hills.  Cheyenne, Wyoming, w i t h t h e advantages ©f a jumping-©ff p o i n t , t i n g l e d w i t h excitement  as o u t f i t t e r s p r e p a r e d  t© share the  3  w e a l t h w h i c h ©thers might g a i n . 1 0P» c i t . B a n c r o f t , p. 77l+. 2 M a r t i n P. S c h m i t t ( e d . ) , General Crook, His Autob i o g r a p h y , N©rman, Univ. ©f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1 9 4 ^ (new e d i t i o n ,  19b0)„ pp. 188-189. 3  Op. c i t . B a n c r o f t , p. 775.  133 S i e u x , Cheyennes and Arapahoes, approached by a S p e c i a l Commission i n 1871+, adamantly r e f u s e d t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r k r i g h t s i n the B i g Horn-Powder R i v e r r e g i o n . Indians' unfavorable  Indeed, the  response t© the pr©p©sal c o n v i n c e d the  commission t h a t more w©uld be l o s t than gained by p r e s s i n g the m a t t e r , e x c e p t f©r C h r i s C. C©x, wh© i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e B i g Horns were ©f l i t t l e v a l u e t© the I n d i a n s , and recommended a b r o g a t i n g t h e " o b s t r u c t i v e " p r o v i s i o n s ©f the t r e a t y (th©se b a r r i n g w h i t e s fr®m the d e s i r e d I n d i a n l a n d s ) , thus ©pening  5 the B i g H@rn ares t© s e t t l e m e n t .  C i t i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l  and m i n e r a l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l ©f the unceded t e r r i t o r y , he contended t h a t i n f a i r n e s s t© the people ©f Wyoming i t sh©uld be s e t t l e d by a " w h i t e , e n t e r p r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n " — n o t by 6  Indians. N©r  was C©x alone i n t h i s ©pini©n.  Upon h i s  inaugur-  a t i o n i n 1875, G©vern©r Thayer ©f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y d e c r i e d the o c c u p a t i o n ©f the B i g H©rns and B l a c k H i l l s by " w i l d I n d i a n s " wh© w©uld n e i t h e r c u l t i v a t e t h e s©il n©r devel©p i t s mineral wealth.  Upon h i s u r g i n g the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly  ad©pted a resoluti©n r e q u e s t i n g Congress t o remove the unwanted I n d i a n s fr©m the t e r r i t Q r y , r e v i l i n g them i n the b i t t e r terms ©f uncompromising r a c i s t s  (see Chap. 1, p;>.17).  1+ Op. c i t . Annual R e p o r t , I87I+, p. 87. 5  I b i d . , p. 9 0 .  6  Lec. c i t .  7 Op. c i t . "House J o u r n a l o f the L e g i s l a t i v e ©f the T e r r i t o r y of Wyoming, 1875, PP. 35-3°.  Assembly  131+  A c r o s s the b o r d e r i n N e b r a s k a , Agent S a v i l l e ©f the Red C l o u d R e s e r v a t i o n , w h i c h s e r v i c e d i a u x , N o r t h e r n Arapah©es s  and Cheyennes, urged the speedy d e s t r u c t i o n ©f game i n Wyoming's h u n t i n g l a n d s , thus f r e e i n g them f©r w h i t e ment.  settle-  I f t h i s c o u l d n o t be arranged by t r e a t y i t s h o u l d be 8  accomplished  by f©rce.  Only i n t h i s way c o u l d h o s t i l e  Indian  bands be s u f f i c i e n t l y p a u p e r i z e d t o b r i n g them permanently t© the  agencies. The B l a c k H i l l s  o f w e s t e r n South Dakota and n o r t h e a s t e r n  Wy©ming were p e c u l i a r l y f i t t e d  t o the needs ©f I n d i a n s i n 9  t r a n s i t i o n fr©m a h u n t i n g t© a h e r d i n g and a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. W i t h g r a s s l a n d s , f o r e s t s , s o i l and water r e s o u r c e s , they l e f t little  to be d e s i r e d .  The I n d i a n Bureau f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d the  p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t no o t h e r l a n d a v a i l a b l e t© t h e Government f o r ' 1 0 the use ©f the I n d i a n s was a t a l l comparable i n t h i s r e s p e c t . N o t h i n g seemed mere l o g i c a l t h a n r e t a i n i n g these l a n d s f©r I n d i a n usage and development, and expending every  reasonable  e f f o r t t© s t a r t them ©n t h e i r way t© self-supp©rt i n an area which S i @  u x >  Arapahoes and Cheyennes a l r e a d y h e l d i n common, _  as they had f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s .  But the l a n d was r i c h i n  g©ld, s© some means must be f©und t© d i s p o s s e s s the a b o r i g i n e s and o b t a i n i t f o r the w h i t e s .  The m i n e r a l r i g h t s were n o t  en©ugh. S i n c e miners had t© e a t , the a g r i c u l t u r a l 8 Op. c i t . Annual R e p o r t , 1875, P. 753. 9 10  Ibid,  p. 8 .  Loc. c i t .  potential  135 of  the a d j a c e n t c o u n t r y s i d e must als© he c o n t r o l l e d and  devel©ped by the w h i t e s .  11  I f t h e I n d i a n s were t© beceme  herdsmen and farmers as the b u r e a u c r a t s i n s i s t e d , they w©uld have t© go elsewhere t© d© s o . In 1875  a n o t h e r S p e c i a l C©mmissi©n met a t Red Cloud  R e s e r v a t i o n w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the N o r t h e r n Cheyennes and Arapahoes, and the v a r i o u s bands o f Si©ux, wh© c©mprised a t r i b e ©f many thousands, w i t h s i n g l e bands ssmetimes much l a r g e r than the Cheyenne and Arapah© t r i b e s combined.  The  commission made an ©ffer o f $6,000,000 t© p r o c u r e the B l a c k H i l l s f o r the Government o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , b u t the I n d i a n s t u r n e d i t down, as they v a l u e d the l a n d a t a much h i g h e r figure.  12  C o u n t e r i n g w i t h a r e q u e s t f o r $60  t© $70  million,  they asked t h a t the m©ney be put away a t i n t e r e s t , on which "13 they would l i v e w e l l .  A l t h o u g h the I n d i a n Bureau f o r y e a r s  had s t r e s s e d the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f w i n n i n g t h e i r wards t© the ways ©f t h e w h i t e s , t h i s i n d i c a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s a c u i t y was p©©rly r e c e i v e d by the commissioners, h©wever a d m i r a b l e i t might have appeared  i n an e a s t e r n f i n a n c i e r .  They d i s g u s t e d l y  r e p o r t e d t h a t no w©rthwhile agreement c@uld be s u c c e s s f u l l y c©ncluded i n I n d i a n c o u n t r y by means o f a grand c o u n c i l ©f '  c h i e f s i n the presence o f a l a r g e b©dy ©f I n d i a n s .  11  L© c. c i t .  12  I b i d . , p.  190.  13  I b i d . , p.  198.  11+  I b i d . , p.  199.  11+  The d e a l  136 was dropped; b u t I n d i a n a g i t a t i o n over these r e c u r r i n g a t t e m p t s to p a r t them from t h e i r c h o i c e s t p o s s e s s i o n s Officials  d i d not disappear.  ©f the I n d i a n Bureau n o t e d w i t h apparent  satis-  f a c t i o n the i m p u n i t y w i t h w h i c h s©ldiers, pr©spect©rs and o t h e r s v i o l a t e d vari©us p r e v i s i o n s ©f the T r e a t y ©f 1868 (as a l r e a d y c i t e d ) , and v e i c e d t h e ©pinion t h a t an©ther g e n e r a l I n d i a n war c o u l d never o c c u r . they r e a s o n e d , rendered  Conflicting tribal  interests,  u n i f i e d a c t i o n imp©ssible, and the  a d v a n c i n g s e t t l e m e n t s r a p i d l y f i l l e d up the c o u n t r y between  15 the t r i b e s , thus f u r t h e r d i v i d i n g them.  Custer's  penetratisn  ©f the B l a c k H i l l s had brought n© v i o l e n t r e p e r c u s s i o n s fr©m the I n d i a n s ; and the m i l i t a r y camps near Red Cloud and S p o t t e d T a i l A g e n c i e s , surrounded by I n d i a n s outnumbering the tr©eps t e n ©r twenty t© ©ne, remained, t© a l l appearances, i n p e r f e c t safety.  16  '  "'  '  The peace p o l i c y , o r i g i n a t e d i n 1868,  justified.  seemed f u l l y  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d the wisdem of f e e d i n g and  p a r l e y i n g w i t h t h e "unreas©ning savage", and c o n v i n c i n g him t h a t the Government wished o n l y f o r h i s w e l f a r e , b u t c o u l d  " 17  "  a l s o compel him t© submit t© l a w . Seeming success b r e d smug assurance. Few r e a l i z e d the e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e success  ©f the peace  p o l i c y depended upon the t©lerance ©f t h e I n d i a n p a p u l a t i o n , Ibid., 16 apart.  17  I b i d . , p. $. L©c. c i t .  P« kThe two a g e n c i e s were ©nly 4 I.O m i l e s  137 n@r t h a t a b r e a k i n g p o i n t might soon be r e a c h e d . those wh© c a r e d t© see, t h e s i g n s were t h e r e .  Yet f o r  Minnecenj©us,  Sans A r c , Uncpapas, and o t h e r s o - c a l l e d w i l d bands ©f S i o u x , new t© Red Cloud Agency, I n I87I4. r e s i s t e d attempts t© c@unt them f e r t h e i s s u i n g ©f r a t i o n s , a r r e s t e d the agent, and surreunded t h e c o n t i n g e n t  ©f s©ldiers c a l l e d t o h i s a i d ,  h o l d i n g them h e l p l e s s u n t i l s©me seven-hundred r e g u l a r agency  '18 I n d i a n s i n t e r c e d e d , and f r e e d the c a p t i v e s .  Although not  ©bstrep©r©us a t t h i s time, the r e g u l a r s , wh© had been r e p o r t i n g t o t h e agency f o r y e a r s , were f a r l e s s c o n t e n t  to s i t  down t© the enj©yment o f t h e i r i s s u e s ©f c o f f e e , sugar and b e e f than the Washington b u r e a u c r a t s  ceuld r e a l i z e .  I n 1875 a  n  i n v e s t i g a t i o n ©f c o r r u p t i o n and i n e f f i c i e n c y a t Red Cleud Agency discl©sed s h o c k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and r e a l d i s t r e s s among 20  the I n d i a n s .  ' '  S i o u x , N©rthern Arapahoes and N o r t h e r n  Cheyennes  wh© were c a l l e d upon t© t e s t i f y b r o u g h t , t h e s e t® l i g h t . The O g a l l a l a C h i e f Red C l o u d , demanding the agent's r e m o v a l , made s e r i o u s charges,  many ©f w h i c h were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the  i n v e s t i g a t i n g cemmission.  The t e s t i m o n y  o f the Arapaho C h i e f  B l a c k C o a l , and the Cheyenne C h i e f L i t t l e W©if -- l a r g e l y v e r i f i e d by ©thers -- w h i l e somewhat m i l d e r than t h a t o f Red 18  I b i d . , p. 1+5.  19 'Indian Commissioner E. p. S m i t h had o p t i m i s t i c a l l y p r o h p e c i e d t h a t the I n d i a n s would n o t r i s k t h e l e s s o f such agency cemf©rts f©r*a campaign a g a i n s t the w h i t e s . (Op. c i t . ,Annual R e p o r t , I87I+, p. 5.) 2 0 Red Cloud complained b i t t e r l y t© Y a l e ge©l©gist 0 . C. Marsh, wh© had c©me west t© c o l l e c t f o s s i l s . Marsh c o n t a c t e d P r e s i d e n t G r a n t , wh© ©rdered an investigati©n.  138  Cloud,  s t i l l p o r t r a y e d a scandalous p i c t u r e .  When B l a c k C o a l and h i s N o r t h e r n Arapahoes had a r r i v e d a t Red Cloud Agency f r o m t h e i r W y i n g h u n t i n g grounds, they e m  were v e r y low ©n f o o d , c l o t h i n g and t e n t m a t e r i a l s .  Although  i t was w i n t e r , many l a c k e d c o v e r i n g f o r t h e i r lodge p o l e s , as the h i d e s had worn ©ut, and s i n c e game was s c a r c e they  ceuld  21  not be r e p l a c e d .  Due t© the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s  fr©m  Cheyenne, and the deep snows ©f a hard w i n t e r , the b a d l y needed agency r a t i o n s were i n s h o r t s u p p l y . s a t i s f a c t o r y when a v a i l a b l e . were n©t u n u s u a l ;  Nor were the r a t i o n s  S p o i l e d p©rk and mildewed c©ffee  t©bacc© so str©ng i t caused headaches and •  "  22  b l a n k e t s to© sh©rt f o r a t a l l man t© use were r e g u l a r i s s u e s . Agent S a v i l l e c o u l d n o t have been r e s p o n s i b l e f©r a l l o f these c o n d i t i o n s ; few i f any were unique to h i s agency.  But seri©us  charges had been made a g a i n s t him, and t h e commissioners were there to i n v e s t i g a t e . a tempting  H i s I n d i a n census seemed markedly h i g h ,  and l u c r a t i v e p r a c t i c e a t v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , f o r  an overshipment ©f goods and r a t i o n s ( a s s i g n e d t© t h e agencies on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s ) c©uld be p r o f i t a b l y disp©sed ©f by an agent and h i s f r i e n d s .  S a v i l l e had, f o r example, rec©rded  15>35> N o r t h e r n Arapahoes, a p e r f e c t l y r i d i c u l o u s f i g u r e when i t Is r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e were l e s s t h a n tw©-thirds ©f t h a t 21 Op. c i t . Report o f the S p e c i a l Commission t e I n v e s t i g a t e the A f f a i r s of t h e Red Cloud Agency, p. ijjffi* 22 I b i d . , p. 3 7 5 . h i s was a p a r t ©f B l a c k Coal's t e s t i m o n y , t r a n s l a t e d by F r i d a y . L i t t l e Waif sp©ke i n a similar vein. T  139 number t o move t o the Wind R i v e r R e s e r v a t i o n i n Wyoming f r o m  23  I878 t o 1880.  A l t h o u g h they d i d n o t prove him g u i l t y ©f  c o r r u p t p r a c t i c e s , t h e c©mmissioners concurred i n a v e r d i c t ©f inefficiency, The  and S a v i l l e was removed from o f f i c e .  I n d i a n Bureau was soon t o r e a l i z e the p r e m a t u r i t y ©f  i t s c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t the agency I n d i a n s were to© c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i r dependency on Government r a t i o n s t© g i v e s e r i o u s t h s u g h t t© the warpath as a means ©f i m p r o v i n g t h e i r l o t .  Many ©f the  r e g u l a r s , a c q u a i n t e d w i t h agency ways f o r y e a r s p a s t , d e s p i t e the sugar, mildewed c o f f e e , s p o i l e d pork and str©ng tobacco i s s u e d t© them, responded  t© S i t t i n g B u l l ' s c h a l l e n g e and  prepared t© r e s i s t t h e w h i t e s .  Hundreds o f S i o u x fr©m vari©us  bands, and s c o r e s ©f Cheyennes, b o t h N o r t h e r n and Southern, d e s e r t e d the a geneles t© c a s t t h e i r l o t w i t h the h o s t i l e s . Sh©rtly b e f o r e the a s s a u l t ©n C u s t e r i n the B a t t l e o f t h e L i t t l e B i g Horn i n 1876,  a t i n y c o n t i n g e n t ©f N o r t h e r n  Arapahoes, seven b r a v e s , a c c o r d i n g t© G r i n n e l l , '  offered  their  26  s e r v i c e s t o t h e Si©ux. The l a t t e r , s u s p e c t i n g them of s p y i n g f o r the s o l d i e r s , i n s i s t e d t h a t they camp a p a r t u n t i l they  " 27  c o u l d make sure ©f them.  23  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t , 1875,  P.  752.  2I4. R e p e r c u s s i o n s i n Washington l e d t© t h e r e s i g n a t i o n of Columbus Delano as S e c r e t a r y ©f the Interi©r.  25 Op. c i t . V e s t a l , p. 1I4.3. V e s t a l s t a t e s t h a t a f a i r number of Arapahoes answered the c a l l , b u t i n t h i s he e v i d e n t l y i s m i s i n f o r m e d , f o r a u t h o r i t i e s who had" "wider a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the I n d i a n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g d i f f e r markedly w i t h him i h t h i s r e s p e c t . See G r i n n e l l , Qp. c i t . p. 3^7, James M c L a u g h l i n , My F r i e n d the I n d i a n , B©st©n, Houghton, M i f f l i n C o . , 1910,  3.24-0  The  Si© x C h i e f s Red Cl©ud and S p o t t e d T a i l s t o o d f o r U  peace, a p p a r e n t l y r e a l i z i n g the power ©f the w h i t e s and t h e f u t i l i t y ©f making a stand a g a i n s t them. p a r t i c u l a r l y t© end the b e l l i g e r e n c i e s .  S p o t t e d T a i l worked V i s i t i n g camp a f t e r  camp he urged the h o s t i l e s t o s u r r e n d e r , u n t i l the l a s t l a r g e 28  band gave up i n August, 1 8 7 7 . C u s t e r ' s debacle  ©n t h e L i t t l e B i g H©rn i n 1 8 7 6 s t i m -  u l a t e d t o even g r e a t e r e f f o r t s the advocates ©f the p o l i c y ©f c o n c e n t r a t i n g the w e s t e r n I n d i a n s on a few l a r g e r e s e r v a t i o n s . As u s u a l when u l t e r i o r m o t i v e s a r e i m p o r t a n t , they o f f e r e d ample j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e p r o p o s a l .  S e c r e t a r y ©f t h e  Interi©r Chandler e s t i m a t e d a s a v i n g t© the Government ©f $100,000  a n n u a l l y i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s alone  ©n I n d i a n  s u p p l i e s ; more©ver, he was sure t h a t t h e c©ntr©l and t e a c h i n g o f t h e a b o r i g i n e s would thereby be g r e a t l y enhanced.  Further  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n d e p i c t e d t h e r e p l a c e m e n t ©f t r i b a l custom by U n i t e d S t a t e s ' l a w and c o u r t j u r i s d i c t i o n , and a f f o r d i n g t h e I n d i a n s g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n t h r o u g h the power o f Government i n l i f e , l i b e r t y and c h a r a c t e r , thus i d e n t i f y i n g them l e g a l l y p. 1 3 0 , and E. S. G o d f r e y , The F i e l d D i a r y o f Edward S e t t l e Godfrey, P o r t l a n d , Champseg P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 , p. 3^-7o  1876,  26  Op. c i t . G r i n n e l l , p.  27  Op. c i t . G o d f r e y , p. 6 9 .  28  Op. c i t . A n n u a l R e p o r t ,  3I4.7.  1877,  pp.  i4.i2-l4.i3.  29 Op. c i t . Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r , pp. v and v i .  Ikl  30 w i t h the w h i t e c i t i z e n r y .  Y e t w i t h such go©d reasons  a v a i l a b l e , the a c t u a l purp©se b e h i n d the p o l i c y found i t s way int© p r i n t . I878  readily  occasionally  A rec©mmendation t® Congress i n  r e q u e s t e d t h a t body t© reduce the number ©f r e s e r v a t i o n s  n e t o n l y f o r the b e n e f i t o f the I n d i a n s , t h r o u g h the r e s u l t ant c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e s , b u t als© as a means o f f r e e i n g t h e  *  31  b u l k ©f t h e i r l a n d s f o r w h i t e ©ccupancy. Under the c o n s t a n t p r o d d i n g of m i n e r s , stockmen, and a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s wh© l e n g e d f©r t h e r e d men's l a n d s , t h e I n d i a n ©ffice had f o r a number o f y e a r s brought p r e s s u r e t© b e a r upon the N©rthern Cheyennes and Arapah©es t o j©in t h e i r seuthern r e l a t i v e s  i n I n d i a n Territ©ry.  32 b©th greups ©pp©sed the p l a n .  I t mattered not that  • The N o r t h e r n Arapah© C h i e f  B l a c k C©al epit©mized t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n s t a t i n g t h a t G©d had g i v e n them the l a n d i n t h e n e r t h ; t h e y had a l l been b o r n t h e r e ;  ,  .33  they l i k e d i t and had no d e s i r e t© go s o u t h .  To compel agree-  ment t© t h e move i n I87I4., t h e i r agent a t Red Cl©ud was i n s t r u c t e d t© w i t h h o l d t h e i r annual i s s u e ©f f©©d and go©ds  3l4u n t i l t h e i r t r a n s f e r s o u t h . As t h e I n d i a n s remained 30 Op. c i t . A i R e p o r t , 1876, p. 388. m  u  adamant,  a  the use was planned t o ensure t h e i r r e m o v a l . 31 ©f I b it dr .o ,o p sI878, pp. Ifl4.0-i|42.  32  I b i d . , 187I4-, P. lj-6.  33 0p« c i t . Report ©f the S p e c i a l C©mmissi©n t© I n v e s t i g a t e the A f f a i r s o f Red Cloud Agency, p. 37b.  3I4. Op. c i t . Annual R e p o r t , 187!+, p. 11. 35  I b i d . , p. 97.  35  In 1876 s i m i l a r c o e r c i v e measures were a p p l i e d t o those peaceable Agencies.  S i o u x wh© remained  a t Red Cloud and S p e t t e d T a i l  A S p e c i a l Commissisn a t t h i s time persuaded  them  t o c o n s i d e r t r a n s f e r r e n c e t© I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y , and an A c t ©f Congress  forbade any a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e  u n t i l they agreed t o r e l i n q u i s h a l l l a n d s o u t s i d e t h e i r permanent r e s e r v a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g , ©r c o u r s e , the i n v a l u a b l e B l a c k H i l l s which they j e i n t l y h e l d w i t h the n o r t h e r n Cheyennes 36 - and the N e r t h e r n Arapah©es.  Disarmed as the I n d i a n s were,  under the s u r v e i l l a n c e o f tre©ps, w i t h s c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u b s i s t e n c e i n t h e i r h u n t i n g grounds,  i t r e q u i r e d n© str©ke ©f  genius f o r a commissi©n, av©iding a grand c o u n c i l ©f c h i e f s i n the presence  ©f t h e i r p e e p l e , and o t h e r m i s t a k e s ©f the  previ©us y e a r , t o t r a v e l f r o m agency t© agency -- seven i n a l l -- and ©btain the a s s e n t o f the headmen ©f each group -  t o the c e s s i o n ©f t h e i r b e l o v e d l a n d s .  3  ?  The Government i n  r e t u r n agreed t o f u r n i s h s u b s i s t e n c e t o the I n d i a n s u n t i l t h e y c©uld become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  A l t h o u g h t w e l v e bands  ©f S i o u x and the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes and Cheyennes were i n c l u d e d i n the compact, t h e many hundreds s t i l l  counted as  h©stiles had n© v@ice whatever i n t h e m a t t e r . 36  I b i d . , I 8 7 6 , p. 3 3 3 .  37 I b i d . , p. 336. The u n s u c c e s s f u l Commission o f l 8 7 £ , i t may be r e c a l l e d , blamed t h e i r f a i l u r e ©n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y had met w i t h a h assembly of c h i e f s i n the presence ©f a l a r g e body o f t h e i r f e l l o w s .  11+3 The  Second Si©ux War caused postponement o f the t r a n s f e r  of N o r t h e r n Arapahoes and Cheyennes to the s o u t h .  Now w i t h  b e l l i g e r e n c i e s ended, the I n d i a n O f f i c e r e v i v e d i t s e f f o r t s to  remove them and t h e S i o u x t o I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y , where, i t  was p l a n n e d , t h e t h r e e s / t r i b e s , so l o n g t o g e t h e r , would a t l a s t be s e p a r a t e d .  A l t h o u g h they were l o a t h t© l e a v e the  n o r t h , t h e O g a l l a l a and B r u l e bands ©f S i  o  u  x  y i e l d e d t©  b u r e a u c r a t i c p r e s s u r e , and sent d e l e g a t e s t© I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y t© examine p o t e n t i a l l©cati©ns f©r t h e i r bands. of  p r o t e s t arose i n the House and Senate  But a c r y  ©f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  where the lawmakers e x p r e s s e d t h e i r dread ©f the p o w e r f u l S i o u x i n an i n t e r e s t i n g way.  F e a r i n g t h a t the presence  ©f t h i s  mighty t r i b e might r u i n t h e chance f©r peace ameng b o t h reds and w h i t e s w i t h i n the g e n e r a l v i c i n i t y , t h e y f o r b a d e by A c t ©f C©ngress the removal ©f any p o r t i o n o f the S i o u x t©  38 " Indian T e r r i t o r y .  Red Cloud and Sp©tted T a i l Agencies were  t r a n s f e r r e d i n s t e a d t o South Dakota, w i t h i n w h i c h s t a t e most ©f t h e S i o u x today r e s i d e on s i x r e s e r v a t i o n s . Much a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l the N e r t h e r n Cheyennes were f©rced t© g© t o I n d i a n T e r r i t e r y , where many o f them s i c k e n e d ,  • -  - •  as was "always the case" w i t h n o r t h e r n I n d i a n s . 38  Op. c i t .  Second S e s s i o n ,  39  I n 1878,  Dull  C©ngressional R e c o r d , F©rty-f©urth Congress,  1877, pp. 1517 and 173b. -  39 E l e v e n t h " Annual R eport s f t h e Board ©f I n d i a n C©mmissi©ners, 1879, Washington, Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1880, p. 81+.  K n i f e ' s band o f about 3 0 0 , d i s h e a r t e n e d by t h e i r broke away f r o m the unwanted s u r r o u n d i n g s  situation,  and headed n o r t h .  A f t e r weeks o f e l u d i n g U n i t e d S t a t e s t r o o p s , about h a l f the band was c a p t u r e d and taken t© F t . R e b i n s o n , Nebraska, as p r i s o n e r s ©f war.  I n a v a i n e f f o r t t© f©rce t h e i r r e t u r n t©  I n d i a n T e r r i t e r y , f@©d, water and f u e l were w i t h h e l d f r e m them i n the dead ©f w i n t e r , u n t i l , d©m, a l l were k i l l e d .  i n a desparate  break f o r f r e e -  The o t h e r h a l f o f the band, semewhat  m©re f©rtunate, succeeded i n r e a c h i n g t h e i r S i o u x f r i e n d s . They were u l t i m a t e l y g i v e n a r e s e r v a t i o n on the T©ngue R i v e r i n s o u t h e r n Montana; and t h e r e they s t i l l  remain.  The Arapah©es, i n a f i n a l r e c e g n i t i o n ©f t h e i r l©yalty as w i l l be shown below Wyoming.  During  were p e r m i t t e d t o r e m a i n i n  the p e r i o d f r o m I87J4. t© 1878, c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by the a l i e n a t i o n o f I n d i a n l a n d s and the s p i l l i n g o f b l o o d , t h e i r p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Gevernment was p r a c t i c a l l y unimpeachable, and stands  i n sharp c o n t r a s t  t© the b e l l i g e r e n c y o f hundreds ©f t h e i r Si©ux and Cheyenne friends.  Great numbers ©f the former c a s t t h e i r l o t w i t h  S i t t i n g B u l l and Crazy Horse, w h i l e many o f the Cheyennes q u i e t l y s l i p p e d away frem Red Cloud Agency i n s m a l l gr©ups for  t h e same purpose.  ij.0  Op. c i t . A  n n u  B u t when General Reynolds s t a r t e d i n  a i R e p o r t . I878, p. ]^h $ l  m  p u r s u i t ©f S i t t i n g B u l l ' s braves i n t h e l a t e w i n t e r ©f I876, the N©rthern Arapahoes, determined t e s t a y out ©f t r o u b l e , m©ved from the v i c i n i t y o f P t . Fetterman (near Douglas, " ' ' - 1+1 Wyoming), int© Red Cloud Agency i n Nebraska. Overbalancing the seven Arapahoes wh© f o u g h t C u s t e r ' s men i n the B a t t l e o f the t i t t l e B i g Horn, t w e n t y - f i v e accompanied G e n e r a l Cro©k  1+2  as s c o u t s i n h i s campaign a g a i n s t the S i o u x and Cheyennes. A f t e r C u s t e r ' s d e f e a t they were p r e b a b l y i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d i s a r m i n g t h e i r ©wn b r e t h r e n and ©ther non-h©stiles, as the r©unds ©f f e u r a g e n c i e s were made by t h e tr©ops f o r t h i s purpose  -- a p r e c a u t i s n a r y measure -- and Red Cl©ud, where  the Arapah© t r i b e remained,  f e l l t© the l o t ©f G e n e r a l Crook.  When Cr©©k l e f t F t . Fetterman  i n November, 1876, i n  p u r s u i t ©f Crazy Horse's b r a v e s , t h e Arapah© and ©ther I n d i a n sc©uts were a s s i g n e d t o G e n e r a l McKenzie t© a s s i s t him i n t r a c k i n g down C h i e f D u l l K n i f e ' s band ©f N o r t h e r n Cheyennes. Indeed, the presence ©f many Sioux and Cheyennes, i n a d d i t i o n t© the Arapahoes i n McKenzie's  f o r c e s , caused grave  concern  1+3 i n a m i s s i o n such as t h i s .  But the m i s g i v i n g s proved unfounded;  the s e r v i c e o f the I n d i a n s c o u t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f the Arapaho C h i e f Sharp Nose, pr©ved i n v a l u a b l e t© McKenzie heyenne Leader, Mar. 2,  1+1  Op. c i t .  1+2  Loc. c i t .  c  1 + 3 I b i d . , Jan. 20,  1877.  1876.  il+6  i n h i s s u r p r i s e a t t a c k ©n D u l l K n i f e ' s Cheyenne v i l l a g e d u r i n g a b i t t e r w i n t e r n i g h t i n Wyoming's B i g Horns. d e b a c l e s e t t h e stage f o r t h e i r s u r r e n d e r  This  l a t e r i n the s p r i n g .  Through t h e i r f i n a l y e a r s ©f a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the S i o u x and Cheyennes a t Red C l o u d Agency, d e s p i t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t r e a t y i s s u e s ©f fo©d and goods, d e s p i t e the u s u r p a t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d s , and d e s p i t e the l a s t d e s p e r a t e e f f o r t o f S i t t i n g B u l l and Crazy Horse to change the c©urse of p l a i n s  Indian  h i s t o r y , the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes k e p t peace w i t h the Government of the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  A l t h o u g h many hundreds o f S j _ x and QU  Cheyennes were drawn i n t o the c o n f l i c t , t h e Arapahoes, as t h e i r 1|5  agent s t a t e d , remained l o y a l , almost t© the man. The  p e a c e a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n o f the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes  f i n a l l y gained  o f f i c i a l recognition.  F e a r f u l ©f t h e i r  p r o j e c t e d move t s the s o u t h new t h a t peace had r e t u r n e d t© the p l a i n s , a d e l e g a t i o n j o u r n e y e d t o Washington w i t h the e a r n e s t p l e a t h a t they be p e r m i t t e d River Reservation  to r e s i d e on t h e Wind  i n Wyoming, r a t h e r t h a n making the dreaded  t r a n s f e r t© I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y , and i n c o g n i z a n c e ©f t h e i r a b s t i n e n c e f r o m h o s t i l i t i e s a g a i n s t the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the President granted  - 1+6  t h e i r request.  the Wind R i v e r R e s e r v a t i o n ,  -  The Shosh©nes, wh©  occupied  consented a l s o , and i n August,  1+1+ Doc, c i t . Sharp Nose was at" t h i s time second i n importance t o B l a c k C©al among t h e N o r t h e r n Arapahoes. \$  Op. c i t . A  1+6  I b i d . , p. 19.  n  n  u  a  i R e p o r t , 1877,  p. 1+15.  1878,  900 N o r t h e r n Arapahoes a r r i v e d f o r permanent r e s i d e n c e .  l+l I b i d . . 1879, pp." l 6 6 and 22i+." The A n n u a l Report o f 1877 gave t h e ' N o r t h e r n Arapaho "census as 1100 s o u l s , perhaps a l i t t l e h i g h . Two o r t h r e e s m a l l bands may have been h u n t i n g ©r v i s i t i n g elsewhere a t the time ©f the t r a n s f e r to Wyoming, and m©ved l a t e r t© the R e s e r v a t i o n , f o r i t i s known t h a t somewhat mere than 900 e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e d .  lh+8 Chap. 9  The E n d of the T r a i l , 1879.  Conceived by P r e s i d e n t F i l l m o r e i n I8I4.9, the I n d i a n peace p o l i c y produced the F t . Laramie T r e a t y ©f 185>1, w i t h the h o p e f u l promise o f a new e r a . that kindness  Based upon the s u p p o s i t i o n  and f a i r - d e a l i n g would win the f a i t h o f the  I n d i a n s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government, i t s advocates e x p e c t e d them t o abandon t h e i r nomadic l i f e  and r a p i d l y r e p l a c e  i t w i t h the w h i t e man's c i v i l i z a t i o n , wh©se advantages, f e l t , would be s p e e d i l y r e c o g n i z e d  and a c c e p t e d .  they  As the r e d  men became dependent upon annual i s s u e s o f fo©d, c l o t h i n g and ©ther n e c e s s i t i e s , they would be amenable t o the w i l l of the Government. prevented  Three main ©bstacles, u n f o r e s e e n a t the t i m e ,  the f r u i t i o n ©f t h i s hope, and brought the p l a i n s  I n d i a n s t© the end of the t r a i l without equipping  o f t h e i r ©Id, f r e e  life  them f©r a s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e  c h a l l e n g e s ©f an a l i e n c u l t u r e .  These were the I n d i a n p o l i c y  ©f the F e d e r a l Government, p u b l i c h o s t i l i t y toward the r e d men, and the l©ve ©f the l a t t e r f e r t h e i r ©wn i n s t i t u t i o n s and traditi©ns. With l i t t l e understanding  ©f the people w i t h wa ©m they  d e a l t , the F e d e r a l Government f o l l o w e d a p o l i c y which was c o n s i s t e n t i n o n l y ©ne r e s p e c t -- the o b l i t e r a t i o n o f I n d i a n hood, the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a c u l t u r e .  Beginning  w i t h the  s i n c e r e i n t e n t i o n ©f g u i d i n g the I n d i a n s t h r o u g h a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d t© s e l f - s u p p o r t by a g r i c u l t u r e , the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f the a b o r i g i n e s were soon l o s t t© view as the clam©r ©f s e t t l e r s  11+9  f©r t h e i r l a n d and r e s o u r c e s  r e s u l t e d i n p r e s s u r e which t h e  F e d e r a l Government c e u l d n o t w i t h s t a n d .  As the more a r a b l e  l a n d s came under w h i t e c o n t r o l , the I n d i a n O f f i c e made f e e b l e attempts to t e a c h i t s wards t o f a r m , but under such  unfavorable  c e n d i t i o n s of c l i m a t e and s o i l t h a t the e f f o r t s were u s u a l l y foredoomed.  Although  the I n d i a n Bureau r e c o g n i z e d  the B l a c k  H i l l s r e g i o n as one o f u n u s u a l e x c e l l e n c e i n which t o d e v e l o p a g r a z i n g i n d u s t r y among t h e a b o r i g i n e s , i t spared no e f f o r t s t© t r a n s f e r i t s s o i l and i n v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s ©f the West.  t o the s e t t l e r s  As w i t h so many o f t h e i r most u s e f u l l a n d s ,  the I n d i a n s c o u l d n o t r e t a i n t h i s area t o h e l p them on t h e i r way t o self-supp©rt. Fr©m 1868 t© I876 peace p o l i c y adv©cates c l a i m e d  success  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the I n d i a n s , b u t alm©st i n e v i t a b l y the w h i t e s , r a t h e r t h a n the n a t i v e b i s o n h u n t e r s , enjeyed t h i s success.  While b u r e a u c r a t s  the b e n e f i t s ©f  sp©ke p l a t i t u d e s ©f the  advantages a c c r u i n g t© the I n d i a n s from placement up©n l i m i t e d reservati©ns, they pushed p l a n s t© t r a n s f e r l a r g e t r a c t s o f t h e i r t r i b a l h o l d i n g s t© the more e n t e r p r i s i n g r a c e .  Solemn  t r e a t y p l e d g e s o f t e n f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e ; s c h o o l s premised t© the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes by the T r e a t y o f 1868 appeared o n l y a f t e r t e n l o n g y e a r s and an©ther I n d i a n war.  A teacher  a r r i v e d i n the f a l l o f I878, f o l l o w e d f i n a l l y by the ©pening 1 ©f c l a s s e s i n J a n u a r y , l879» 1  Op. c i t . Annual Hep©rt, 1879, pp. 166-167  150 Of t h e I r r i t a n t s w h i c h f o s t e r e d i n s e c u r i t y  among t h e  I n d i a n s and kept t h e i r nerves on edge, the r o l e o f the m i l i t a r y i n Government p o l i c y r a n k s h i g h .  Acknowledging i t s i n e f f i c a c y  i n I8I4.9, Congress t r a n s f e r r e d the I n d i a n Bureau from t h e War Department t© t h a t of the I n t e r i o r , y e t t h i s , unf©rtunately, d i d n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y minimize  i t s importance  as an i n s t r u m e n t  ©f p©licy, a s i t u a t i o n which the I n d i a n s u n d e r s t o o d  and d e e p l y  resented. In 1853,  Th©mas F i t z p a t r i c k , a man r e s p e c t e d f o r h i s  f a i r n e s s t o the I n d i a n s , warned o f t h e i r a g i t a t i o n presence  of troops i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y .  Convinced  ©ver the  t h a t they  d e s t r o y e d t i m b e r , s c a r e d o f f game, e x c i t e d h o s t i l e  feelings,  and aff©rded a rendezvous f o r w o r t h l e s s and t r i f l i n g  char-  2  a c t e r s , the I n d i a n s f e l t uneasy i n t h e i r p r o x i m i t y .  Twenty  y e a r s l a t e r , on t h e b a s i s ©f d i s c u s s i o n w i t h v a r i o u s t r i b a l groups,  P o w e l l and I n g a l l s  o f the Board o f I n d i a n Commission-  ers r e p o r t e d t h a t o p p o s i t i o n t o r e s e r v a t i o n l i f e was based primarily  up©n I n d i a n dread o f the s o l d i e r s , whose v e r y name  synonomized e v i l .  S o c i a l d e m o r a l i z a t i o n and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s  f©ll©wed i n t h e i r wake.  "We do n e t w i s h t© g i v e our women t©  3 the embrace of the s o l d i e r s , " the I n d i a n s d e c l a r e d . As C o l a n d e r  of U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r c e s i n the West, G e n e r a l  P h i l S h e r i d a n ©nly added t o t h e i r f e a r s when, i n June, 2  I b i d . , 1853,  p.  362.  3  I b i d . , 1873,  P.  hk3»  1869,  151 he o f f i c i a l l y o r d e r e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s  o f f the l i m i t s o f t h e i r  r e s e r v a t i o n s s h o u l d be under t h e e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the m i l i t a r y , and would u s u a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d  hostile.  This he  d i r e c t e d i n s p i t e o f the r i g h t s , guaranteed t o them by T r e a t y , to hunt and roam i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s ©ff t h e i r  reservations.  Whether i n i g n e r a n c e ©r d i s r e g a r d o f I n d i a n b i t t e r n e s s t©ward the m i l i t a r y , when peace was r e s t o r e d i n I878 the House ©f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  approved a b i l l  t© the War Department.  t o r e t u r n the I n d i a n Bureau  I n d i a n reacti©n, as might w e l l have  been e x p e c t e d , was ©ne o f a g i t a t e d and u n q u a l i f i e d o p p e s i t i o n . Fortunately  the Senate h e l d up t h e b i l l ,  investigation.  pending study and  I t never became l a w .  I n t e s t i f y i n g bef©re an i n v e s t i g a t i n g commission i n 1875, C h i e f B l a c k C o a l o f the N o r t h e r n Arapah©es t e r s e l y e x p r e s s e d the f e e l i n g s o f the r e d men toward the m i l i t a r y .  He sp©ke  as f o l l o w s : "We used t©~"live f i r s t r a t e bef©re the s o l d i e r s came t o t h i s c o u n t r y ; when they came the f i r s t t h i n g they d i d was t© t r y t© r a i s e a war. We used t o t r a v e l w i t h the old" mountaine e r s , b u t s i n c e the s o l d i e r s came t o t h i s c o u n t r y they have s p o i l e d e v e r y t h i n g and want war. •  • o  I have heard something~ab©ut changing the agent we have now. We don't want a m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r f o r an agent. We want a c i t i z e n , the same as we have now,"6  k  I b i d . , I876, p. 3I4.O.  5  I b i d . , 1878,  pp.  9-10.  6 Op. c i t . Report ©f t h e S p e c i a l C©mmissi©n to I n v e s t i g a t e the A f f a i r s o f Red" Cloud Agency, J u l y , l " 8 ~ 7 5 » pp. 3 7 0 - 3 7 7 . F r i d a y i n t e r p r e t e d f©r B l a c k C©al.  152 As s e t t l e r s and f©rtune-seekers f l o c k e d i n t o the West, e n c r o a c h i n g upon the I n d i a n domain, p u b l i c h o s t i l i t y  toward  the a b o r i g i n e s engendered c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e upon Congress and the I n d i a n Bureau t© a l i e n a t e mere l a n d s fr©m t h e i r nomadic ©wners.  They g r e a t l y r e s e n t e d the l e g a l b a r s which kept them  fr©m d e v e l o p i n g the r e s o u r c e s which, t h e y b e l i e v e d , t h e I n d i a n would never put t© pr©per u s e . were made ©nly t o be br©ken.  Thus I n d i a n t r e a t i e s , i n e f f e c  Though o f t e n c a l l e d  they were f r e q u e n t l y mere e x p e d i e n c i e s ; w h i t e  finalities,  civilization  f©und them as b a r r i e r s i n the way, s© they c©uld n o t s t a n d . As f r e q u e n t and r a p i d changes ©ccurred, t h e I n d i a n s were the 7 v i c t i m s ©f g r e a t  injustices.  W i t h t h e end ©f the I n d i a n war I n 1877, the s e t t l e r s rej©iced a t t h e u n f e t t e r i n g o f the f r o n t i e r , f o r , as the r e d men were shunted  ©n t© r e s e r v a t i o n s t h e unceded l a n d s n o r t h  ©f the P l a t t e , where they had hunted and r©amed, were thr©wn open t© the steckmen.  F r e e d a t l a s t from the l e g a l  restraints  w h i c h had bound them, they now drove c a t t l e and sheep a c r e s s the r i v e r t© graze ©n l a n d which f o r y e a r s they had w i s t f u l l y eyed.  A t t h i s time the white p e p u l a t i o n ©f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y  7 Op. c i t . Rep©rt ©f the S e c r e t a r y ©f the Interi©r, 1877, p. i x . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was made by S e c r e t a r y ©f the I n t e r i e r C a r l Schurz. 8 R i . E. Strayhern,"The Handbook o f Wyoming and Guide t© the B l a c k H i l l s and Big"Horn R e g i o n s , Qhica'g©, K n i g h t and Le©nard, 1877, PP. 20-21.  153 had I n c r e a s e d t o 20,000 or more. to  9  The f i g u r e compares r o u g h l y  the number ©f f r i e n d l y I n d i a n s rep©rtedly s e r v e d by the  a g e n c i e s ©f the regi©n i n 1876,  wh© were n®w s t r i p p e d ©f t h e - - 10 b u l k ©f t h e i r t r i b a l l a n d s by a more a g g r e s s i v e p e o p l e . Pr©m the time o f t h e i r f i n a l placement on t h e Wind R i v e r Reservati@n i n Wy© ing i n the f a l l o f 1878, m  rum©rs ©f a  p l a n n e d u p r i s i n g among the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes  abeunded.  C h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e st©ries as s p u r i o u s , t h e i r agent added t h a t many f r o n t i e r s m e n would be g l a d t© see such an i n s u r r " 11 ' " ' " '- • e c t i o n . I t w©uld, ©f c©urse, have aff©rded the d e s i r e d excuse t© f©rce the I n d i a n s f i n a l l y out ©f Wyoming, and t u r n over t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d s , w i t h ranges f o r livest©ck and i r r i g a t i o n f e r a g r i c u l t u r e , t o the covetous w h i t e s . F i n a l l y , the I n d i a n way o f l i f e , c o u p l e d w i t h the two o b s t a c l e s a l r e a d y r e v i e w e d , comprised an almest insurm©untable b a r r i e r t© a smooth transiti©n fr©m t h e h u n t i n g t© a g r a z i n g , a g r i c u l t u r a l , or i n d u s t r i a l l i v e l i h o o d .  With l i t t l e  apprec-  i a t i o n f©r the I n d i a n p o i n t o f v i e w , thousands ©f Americans, o f f i c i a l s and laymen;  a l i k e , e x p e c t e d him t o abanden a c u l t u r e  w h i c h s a t i s f i e d h i s s©cial and em©ti©nal needs, and s u r r e n d e r the  major p a r t ©f h i s l a n d s as w e l l .  9  Op. c i t .  Annual Rep©rt, 1878,  O b v i e u s l y , the peri©d  p.  1182.  10 "Op. c i t . " E i g h t h Annual Report ©f the B e a r d o f I n d i a n Commissioner's, 187b, p"H 11. 11  Op. c i t .  A  n n u a l R e p o r t , 1881, p.  183.  151*. a n t i c i p a t e d f©r the a d a p t a t i o n proved t o o s h o r t ; and even now, 115 y e a r s a f t e r the F t . Laramie T r e a t y o f 1851, the transformation i s incomplete.  J u s t l y proud of the f a i t h o f  t h e i r f a t h e r s -- t h e i r awn h e r e d i t a r y c u l t u r e -- many I n d i a n s are n o t c o n t e n t t o e x i s t merely  as d a r k - s k i n n e d white men.  Gone, o f c o u r s e , i s the f r e e h u n t i n g and roaming l i f e of the o l d e n t i m e , t o w h i c h the I n d i a n s c l u n g u n t i l  their  game supply had shrunk d a n g e r o u s l y , and they were penned up  . ,.  .. . .  .  '  ^  12  on r e s e r v a t i o n s s© the w h i t e s c o u l d s e t t l e ©n t h e i r l a n d s . But t h e i r l o d g e s ©r s©dalities, and the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r s©ciety remained f o r many y e a r s .  -  '  -  - 13 "  i t had n e t e n t i r e l y d i s a p p e a r e d .  As r e c e n t l y as 1939  Even today the N o r t h e r n  Arapah©es h o l d t h e i r O f f e r i n g s Lodge ©r Sun Dance — a r e l i g i o u s ceremony ©f t r i b a l s i g n i f i c a n c e — w i t h annual r e g u l a r i t y ©n the Wind R i v e r R e s e r v a t i o n i n Wyoming.  Althaugh  the p r e - r e s e r v a t i o n Arapahoes have passed away, and some changes have n e c e s s a r i l y ©ccurred, I t remains I n d i a n i n a l l e s s e n t i a l s , w i t h i t s s t r e s s up©n t h e n e c e s s i t i e s ©f l i f e -f o o d , water, e a r t h and sun. Those wh© e n t e r i t s t i l l d© s©  12' Op. " c i t . " Annual R e p o r t , I878, p. II8I4.. I n October, I878, G@vern©r Jehn W. Hoyt o f Wyoming T e r r i t o r y , r e g i o n a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ©f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , gave t h i s as t h e r e a l r e a s o n f e r a s s i g n i n g I n d i a n s t© r e s e r v a t i o n s . 13  Op. c i t . Murphy, p e r s o n a l n o t e s .  155 by c e r e m o n i a l vow, p r e p a r e d f o r t h e o r d e a l of t h r e e and oneh a l f days o f r i t u a l s w i t h n e i t h e r f o o d n o r d r i n k , under t h e Ikhe t J u l y sun. D e s p i t e the optimism f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e l y p a i n l e s s t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d a n t i c i p a t e d i n 1851,  the N o r t h e r n Arapahoes,  N o r t h e r n Cheyennes and the g r e a t Sioux group found c o n f i n e d on r e s e r v a t i o n s i n 1879,  themselves  t h e i r nomadic mode ©f l i f e  e s s e n t i a l l y a t h i n g o f the p a s t , b u t w i t h l i t t l e  of a  c o n s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e t o take i t s p l a c e , n o r t© i n s p i r e c o n f i d e n c e f o r the f u t u r e .  L a r g e l y dependent upon the  Government f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e ,  they were l i t t l e more  than s t a r t e d on the l o n g , weary r©ad w h i c h they must f o l l o w b e f o r e the d e s i r e d a d a p t a t i o n s c o u l d be made. D u r i n g the p e r i o d o f dispossessi©n between the f i r s t Ft.  Laramie T r e a t y and t h e i r e v e n t u a l confinement, the  N e r t h e r n Arapah©es g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y e d an a t t i t u d e ©f peaceful  intenti©ns toward the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government.  remained  a l o o f fr©m the Si©ux campaign ©f 1855  Cheyenne h o s t i l i t i e s ©f 1857.  a  They  ^ d the  Even a f t e r C h i v i n g t o n ' s  treacher©us a t t a c k ©n Southern Arapahoes and Cheyennes a t Sand Creek, C©l©rad@ i n 1861)., an a c t i o n which s h a t t e r e d the f a i t h o f msst I n d i a n s i n the white man's purposes, ©nly B l a c k Bear's band ©f N o r t h e r n Arapahoes j o i n e d S i o u x and Cheyennes  ll). The 1930s and e a r l y " 19^1-0s saw the "passing ©f the remnant o f p r e - r e s e r v a t i o h Arapahoes. Nakash (Sage), over 90 y e a r s ©f age, was among the l a s t ©f these t© go.  156  in  t h e i r r e t a l i a t o r y depredations.  C h i e f s F r i d a y and Medicine  Man amply demonstrated t h e i r preference f o r peace, was f i r s t  ^he former  to respond to Governor Evans' o f f e r ©f pr©tecti©n to  f r i e n d l y Indians who w©uld r e p o r t to designated p o i n t s , and the  l a t t e r m©ved the t r i b e ' s l a r g e s t band from t h e i r hunting  grounds to southern Wyoming i n acceptance ©f the i n v i t a t i o n , a f t e r the Sand Creek a f f a i r had sent more than a thousand braves up©n the warpath. When i n 1 8 6 5 Government  tr©ops c a r r i e d the war i n t o  their  hunting gr©unds, more Arapahoes than merely Black Bear's band probably became i n v o l v e d , as they f e l t fight.  themselves f o r c e d to  U n f o r t u n a t e l y no records i n d i c a t e whether Medicine Man's  moderating i n f l u e n c e p r e v a i l e d upon 1I4.O t© 1 5 0 f o l l o w e r s t© keep the peace, although t h i s many remained i n the B i g Horns w i t h him when the known b e l l i g e r e n t s r e p o r t e d t© F t . Laramie t© s i g n the Treaty of 1 8 6 8 , which ended the war.  Friday's  band stayed thr©ugh©ut t h i s time i n the Cache l a P©udre i n C©lorad©, many m i l e s fr©m the scene ©f b a t t l e . In  the d i s t r e s s i n g days e f I87O, a f t e r the u n j u s t i f i e d  s l a y i n g of B l a c k Bear and h i s unarmed p a r t y , the Northern Arapahoes r e f r a i n e d from v i o l e n t r e t a l i a t i o n a g a i n s t the whites, but l e f t  the Wind R i v e r r e g i o n ©f Wyoming f o r the  M i l k R i v e r Agency i n Montana. F o l l o w i n g the death of Medicine Man i n the w i n t e r of  I 8 7 I - I 8 7 2 , B l a c k C o a l , h i s s u c c e s s o r as the major c h i e f ©f the  t r i b e , r a i d e d the Shoshones r e c u r r e n t l y on t h e i r Wyoming  157 r e s e r v a t i e n , u n t i l stopped by U n i t e d S t a t e s t r o o p s i n the  15  B a t e s ' B a t t l e o f I87I4-.  -  - -  T h i s marked the end of armed c o n f l i c t  between the N o r t h e r n Arapah© t r i b e and Government s o l d i e r s . Seven i n d i v i d u a l s o n l y , j©ined the h o s t i l e s a g a i n s t C u s t e r ©n the L i t t l e B i g Horn, whereas t w e n t y - f i v e s e r v e d a s sc©uts under G e n e r a l s Croek and Mckenzie i n the Second S i o u x War. A f t e r the Arapahees  were a s s i g n e d t© a r e s e r v a t i o n i n  Wyeming i n 1878, T e r r i t o r i a l Governor Hoyt v i s i t e d them t© i n v e s t i g a t e i n s i d i o u s rumors o f i n s u r r e c t i o n which v/e re c©mm©n t a l k throughout t h e r e g i o n .  Consultsti©ns w i t h members o f  t h e i r t r i b e , as w e l l as the Shoshones,  wh© shared the same  reservati©n, c o n v i n c e d him t h a t the f e a r s were g r o u n d l e s s ,  '  '  '  16  as he found evidence o f o n l y p e a c e f u l i n t e n t i o n s among them. T h e i r agent, a l s o , was s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r q u i e t , peaceable conduct.  1  7  '  T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was n o t e d a g a i n i n l 8 8 l , t h e  y e a r t h a t F r i d a y d i e d , when they were d e s c r i b e d as f r i e n d l y  18 and peaceable "toward a l l mankind." An i n c i d e n t w h i c h o c c u r r e d about 1879 f u r t h e r subs t a n t i a t e s t h i s p i c t u r e o f the N e r t h e r n Arapahoes as f r i e n d l y and peaceable toward a l l .  A s m a l l band o f Shosh©nes,  15 The Arapahees had charged t h e Shosh©nes w i t h d u p l i c i t y i n B l a c k Bear's d e a t h i n I 8 7 O . 16  Op. c i t .  Annual R e p o r t , I878, pp. 1182-1183.  17  I b i d . , p. 651.  18  I b i d . , 1881, p. I83.  158 having t r a v e l e d a l l day threugh  snow and wind i n the Standing  Reck r e g i o n ©f the Dakotas, came at evening up©n many t i p i s , where meat hung d r y i n g up©n p o l e s .  Not knowing whether the  Indians encamped there were f r i e n d s ©r enemies, they to©k the chance t h a t they might be g i v e n f©©d. ©f Arapahoes  A hunting party  long t h e i r enemies -- made them welcome,  d i v i d e d them among t h e i r vari©us t i p i s ,  filled  t h e i r hungry  stomachs w i t h b©iled b u f f a l o meat, and l©dged them f o r the night.  Before the Shoshsnes moved on i n the m©rning, the  Arapahoes who had f e d and lodged these t r a d i t i o n a l enemies, warned  them i n s i g n language to use great care i n l e a v i n g ,  as many Si©ux were camped to the northwest of them, and there  '20 they might be f a r l e s s welcome.  19 D. B. Shimkin," "Childh©©d and Development am©ng the Wind R i v e r Shosh©ne," Anthr©p©l©gical "Records, v. 5, Berkeley and Los A g e l e s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f ©rnia". Press, " 194-3, P« 314-• This i n c i d e n t was r e l a t e d by Piv® Brown, a Sh©sh©ne wh© l i v e d until 1938. n  20  L©c. c i t  159  Bibliography Letters  and  Manuscripts  C © l l i e r , J©hn. L e t t e r of January 6 , 1 9 6 2 . C o m m i s s i o n e r ©f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , I 9 3 3 - I 9 4 . 5 . )  (U.  S.  Johns©n, H a e l E . L e t t e r ef January 8 , 1 9 6 2 . (Regi©nal Vice-President, Colerado State Hist©rical Society.) z  M u r p h y , James C . " P e r s o n a l N e t e s R e s e r v a t i o n of Wyoming, 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 9 . Nels©n, M i l d r e d . (Microfilm, University R©wlodge, J e s s i e . Arapah© I n d i a n . )  I n d e x " t o the of Wyoming.) Letter  Publications  Wind  June  30, 1961.  (Southern  23, 1938.  and S c i e n t i f i c  Bulletins  of  River  I867-I890.  Cheyenne L e a d e r ,  December  Thunder, "William C. L e t t e r I n d i a n , E t h e t e , Wyoming.) 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