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University - community relationships : towards a cooperative planning policy in university districts… Gambhir, Raj Kumar 1966

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UNIVERSITY - COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS: TOWARDS A COOPERATIVE PLANNING POLICY IN UNIVERSITY DISTRICTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO UNIVERSITY,, COMMUN ITY AREAS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by RAJ  KUMAR GAMBHIR  B.Sc.(Hons), Agr., The U n i v e r s i t y  of D e l h i , 1958  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE. DEGREE OF Master of Science i n the D i v i s i o n of Community and Regional Planning  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1966  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t the requirements B r i t i s h Columbia^  of  f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of I agree  t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely-  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree  t h a t per-  m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  may  be granted by the Head of my Department or by  his representatives.  I t i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i -  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  D i v i s i o n of Community and  Regional P l a n n i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  Columbia,  Date:  April,  1966.  allowed  ABSTRACT The p l a n n i n g o f U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia s u f f e r s from l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n among v a r i o u s  juris-  i  d l c t i o n a l u n i t s w h i c h comprise the U n i v e r s i t y Community A r e a . . The growth needs o f campuses are planned needs o f urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Independently  o f the  There are numerous s i t u a t i o n s  w h i c h c a l l f o r the merger o f d e c i s i o n making and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s I n t o one  cooperative  planning  b o d y w h i c h should have the t a s k o f p l a n n i n g an-i development o f u n i v e r s i t y A r e a s w i t h i n the framework of a l o n g range comprehensive plan.  But the e x i s t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e arrangement are ad hoc  committ-  ees or o t h e r w o r k i n g agreements w h i c h do not promote the k i n d of planning necessary  i n these d i s t r i c t s .  The  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s  Study i s to f i n d out the l i m i t a t i o n s of I n f o r m a l and ad hoc admini s t r a t i v e arrangements f o r mutual p l a n n i n g and  to propose more  e f f e c t i v e methods of c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . I t i s hypothesized w i t h the long-range  t h a t the i n t e g r a t i o n o f  campus p l a n n i n g  comprehensive p l a n n i n g o f a d j a c e n t  municipal  a r e a s i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the e f f e c t i v e development of the U n i v e r s i t y District.  Case s t u d i e s o f t h r e e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, i n c l u d i n g a comprehensive r e v i e w o f o t h e r s t u d i e s undertaken e l s e w h e r e , this  are p r e s e n t e d as r e s e a r c h methods i n support  of  hypothesis. I t i s e v i d e n t from these s t u d i e s t h a t a U n i v e r s i t y has a p r o -  found e f f e c t on the e v o l u t i o n o f i t s s u r r o u n d i n g urban a r e a s . U n i v e r s i t y demand f o r off-campus h o u s i n g and  s e r v i c e s , p l u s the  p r e s t i g e and c o m p e l l i n g a t t r a c t i o n s of the campus f o r o t h e r r e lated educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , research Industries, clubs,  The  g a l l e r i e s , museums ^nd h i g h - q u a l i t y r e s i d e n t i a l , professional establishments, jacent municipal an  areas.  a l l Influence  eventually  the r a t e  the c h a r a c t e r  of ad-  I f a campus h a p p e n s t o be l o c a t e d i n  undeveloped or farming area,  to a c c e l e r a t e  b u s i n e s s and  t h e g r o w t h o f t h e campus  of urbanization  d i s p l a c i n g farming with  tends  i n the surrounding  other land  t o l o c a t e i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus.  area,  uses which  tend  I f on t h e o t h e r  hand t h e a d j a c e n t a r e a was o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d a s a s i n g l e residential density  district,  residential,  service area  t h e campus m o d i f i e s  Institutional,  i t to s a t i s f y  family  higher  industrial, cultural  and  requirements.  Such an e v o l u t i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t i s accompanied by a number o f c o n f l i c t s among j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s a n d i n t e r e s t groups.  In general,  the c o n f l i c t s centre  other  on t h e amount  of l a n d necessary f o r u n i v e r s i t y expansion, the type o f housing and  s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d , and the p r o v i s i o n o f adequate  for pedestrian adjacent  a n d v e h i c u l a r movement b e t w e e n t h e campus a n d t h e  community.  The l i a i s o n among d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e prising  I t i s evident  from t h i s  hoc arrangement seldom has the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  implement a p l a n ) , e f f i c i e n c y , and  entities  t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t i s by t h e f o r m a t i o n  committees of o f f i c i a l s . ad  facilities  o f a d hoc  study t h a t an  ( I . e . power t o  permanency and f i n a n c i a l  r u l e s t o g o v e r n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s ,  development o f the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t .  support  which a l l  combine t o form t h e type o r o r g a n i z a t i o n needed f o r t h e and  com-  planning  A formal  organization f o r cooperative  precise understanding  legislation  entitles  w i t h some f o r m o f e n a c t i n g  I s recommended.  The U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t u n i v e r s i t y area  involving  and l o n g range commitments o f t h e v a r i o u s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l Interdependent  planning  P l a n n i n g Commission f o r each  i s p r o p o s e d a s a method f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e  long  range p l a n n i n g o f the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s . It i c evident  that the study h y p o t h e s i s ,  o f Campus P l a n n i n g w i t h t h e l o n g - r a n g e adjacent  municipal areas  i s essential  ment o f U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s ,  Is quite  the integration'  comprehensive p l a n n i n g of f o r the e f f e c t i v e  develop-  valid.  iv  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish t o express my s i n c e r e thanks t o Dr. K. J . Cross, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f P l a n n i n g , and t o Dr. H. P. Oberlander, P r o f e s s o r of P l a n n i n g and D i r e c t o r o f the D i v i s i o n of Community and R e g i o n a l  Planning,  f o r r e a d i n g the o r i g i n a l  manuscript and c o n t r i b u t i n g v a l u a b l e suggestions its  for  improvement. I wish t o thank Mr. T. W. Loney, M u n i c i p a l  a t Saanich;  Planner  and t o Mr. A. L. P a r r , P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r a t  Burnaby, f o r t h e i r h e l p i n s u p p l y i n g much up-to-date information.  Y  TABLE OP CONTENTS  PAGE »  v  . J  ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v  LIST OP TABLES  *U.  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  x i _  CHAPTER I  PLANNING OF AREAS SURROUNDING  THE  UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES 1  University-Community R e l a t i o n s h i p s  1  H y p o t h e s i s , Scope and Assumptions o f the Study  '  4  Research Methods II  7  SOME ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS IN AREAS ADJACENT TO UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES  -  A REVEIW  The Role o f the U n i v e r s i t y i n C i t y ' s Economy  10  Housing  11  Commercial F a c i l i t i e s  20  C u l t u r a l Function  '  24  Recreational Function  26  Research I n d u s t r i e s  28  C i r c u l a t i o n and P a r k i n g  '  30  I n t e g r a t i o n o f Campus P l a n n i n g and Municipal Planning  -  Evaluation  ........  33  vi  CHAPTER III.  PAGE CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OP PLANNING, AND DEVELOPMENT OF AREAS ADJACENT TO UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES AND CASE STUDIES OP UNIVERSITY DISTRICTS?  SIMON ERASER  UNIVERSITY, VICTORIA UNIVERSITY AND UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA Criteria  f o r Evaluation  Case S t u d i e s  4? 48  :  Simon E r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t  48  General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the A r e a . . . . The  48  Impact o f Campus on Surrounding  Municipal Areas....  51  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangements f o r Cooperative Planning  52  P l a n n i n g and Implementation  58  Victoria University D i s t r i c t General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Area The  58 ...  58  Impact of Campus on Surrounding  M u n i c i p a l Areas  62  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangements f o r Cooperative P l a n n i n g . . . . . Implementation Area Plan  65  of the U n i v e r s i t y 68 vii  CHAPTER University General The  of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a Area  71  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a r e a  Impact  ....  o f Campus on S u r r o u n d i n g  C i t y Areas.'  73  Administrative Cooperative  Arrangements  for  Planning.  Implementation  78  o f t h e U.E.L. M a s t e r  Plan IV  71  81  CONCLUSIONS Review and  of Assumptions,  Validity  of Study H y p o t h e s i s  P l a n n i n g Problems Districts  R e s e a r c h Methods  of  87  University  - Review  89  A P r o p o s a l F o r the F o r m a t i o n o f University  District  Planning  Commission.  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I QUESTIONNAIRES,(Schedule  93 94  I , I I and  III)  98-  vill  L I S T OF TABLES TABLE 1.  PAGE Composition of P o p u l a t i o n In Expansion and J o i n t C i t y " U n i v e r s i t y P l a n n i n g A r e a s ( U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin)  II.  U n i v e r s i t y Student Body By Place o f Residence  III.  ( U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ) ....  13  Comparison Between H a l l s o f Residence and Other Forms o f Accommodation  IV.  12  19  Type, Number, S i z e and Patronage o f On-Campus Commercial F a c i l i t i e s ( U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a )  V.  Summary o f C o n f l i c t i n g G o a l s o f the C i t i e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s  VI.  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Neighbourhoods,  46 Community  P o p u l a t i o n and the  Types o f Development VII.  57  E n r o l l m e n t o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a i n R e l a t i o n t o Needed Housing Accommodation.  VIII.  22  61  Accommodation f o r U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a S t u d e n t s i n Houses Off-Campus  64  ix  LIST OF  TABLES (CONT'D).  TABLE IX.  P  Victoria University D i s t r i c t ,  A  G  E  Communities,  Neighbourhoods, P o p u l a t i o n and Type of 69  R e s i d e n t i a l Development X.  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands - Land Use Plan, Acreage by Land Use C a t e g o r i e s  XI.  U.B.C. D i s t r i c t , C o m m u n i t i e s , and  XII.  .....  83  Population  Type of Development  85  P r o j e c t i o n s of P o p u l a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y Residents, and U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Population  86  x  LIST OP  ILLUSTRATIONS  ILLUSTRATION I  FOLLOWING PAGE  . Optimum Land Use  and  Circulation  Diagram... II.  32  University D i s t r i c t s ,  Metropolitan  Location III.  Simon F r a s e r  48 University  District,  Neighbourhoods IV.  V. VI.  Simon F r a s e r  University  District,  General Plan  58  V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y Area L o c a t i o n . . .  59  V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y Area, Neighbourhoods and  VII.  56  Victoria University  Community Boundaries Area,  General Plan VIII.  70  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  Students P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y Metropolitan IX.  In  Vancouver  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  74 Columbia,  R e s i d e n t i a l Communities and  General  Proposals X.  Proposed O r g a n i z a t i o n University D i s t r i c t Commission  69  86 and  F u n c t i o n s of  Planning •  93 xi  1 CHAPTER I PLANNING OP AREAS SURROUNDING THE I.  UNIVERSITY  -  UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES  COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS  The main purpose of p l a n n i n g i s to e s t a b l i s h s h i p s among s o c i a l , economic and  relation-  p h y s i c a l components of an  area f o r a c h i e v i n g the best p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s of l i v i n g . Any  p l a n n i n g thought  should give primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the  mutual e f f e c t s t h a t e x i s t i n these c a t e g o r i e s and  to a l l o c a t e  the community's r e s o u r c e s and  formulate  methods of implementation The  prepare  p o l i c i e s and  f o r l o n g range development of an a r e a .  dominant a c t i v i t i e s of the community determine the k i n d of  p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and  economic p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e d .  A  university  o r i e n t e d community has major f u n c t i o n s such as education, r e s e a r c h , r e s i d e n t i a l and  s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c .  p l a n n i n g are d i f f e r e n t from those  Therefore  i t s needs f o r  of other community a r e a s of the  city. The  U n i v e r s i t y Community a t t a i n s i t s c h a r a c t e r and  from the interdependence community a r e a . f a c u l t y and  of the u n i v e r s i t y and  the  uniqueness  surrounding  The u n i v e r s i t y p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t s of students,  s t a f f and i t s p u r s u i t s are academic but the v a r i o u s  demands of the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n e x i s t both w i t h i n the campus and  i n areas adjacent to the campus.  Tunis  1  s t a t e s t h a t the  pose of most Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s i n e a r l y days was  pur-  to provide  A l b e r t A. Tunis, "The M c G i l l Story:Prom Country E s t a t e to B i g - C i t y Campus", (U.B.C. L i b r a r y , Campus Planning paper c l i p p i n g s file). 1  2 the  learned  the  s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l men  emerging s o c i e t y , the nurses, lawyers and  t e a c h e r s , clergymen, d o c t o r s ,  engineers.  But  c a l l e d upon to impart the h i g h l y t r a i n i n g of the  s c i e n t i s t s and  the  enrollments i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and  The  of the atom: and  of outer space.  traffic  expensive  As a r e s u l t ,  c o l l e g e s have more than  years and  w i l l continue to  expansion of u n i v e r s i t y campuses has  to new  dentists,  fundamental r e s e a r c h e r s so necess-  i n the age  the l a s t 30  the  the u n i v e r s i t y of today i s  s p e c i a l i s e d and  ary  t r i p l e d during  demanded by  increase.  l e d among other  c i r c u l a t i o n problems, to the  things,  purhcase of l a n d  for  housing, to a r e a l i z a t i o n of the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l  recreation-  al  in  f a c i l i t i e s and  f o r h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s of p o p u l a t i o n  c e n t r a l academic c o r e .  The  planning f o r research  r e l o c a t i o n s of s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s ,  and  the u n i v e r s i t y ' s prime r o l e i n the  cultural l i f e  have become important p l a n n i n g i s s u e s of the  University  industries,  a f u l l e r r e a l i z a t i o n of  i n the  of the  o v e r a l l development  indicated  only  that the academic p u r s u i t s  succeed i f the  a full  s e r v i c e s f o r the community.  t h a t the  the  c i t y are  Levi  points  1  natural  gard to the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t .  out  The  range  of  urban  The  impact of the  campus on i t s  pattern  U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t i s p r i m a r i l y an  and  o f f campus  J . H . L e v i , "Expanding the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago", i n Case Book on Campus P l a n n i n g and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Development, "(Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), pp.107 - 127. i  has  partners at l e a s t with re-  surrounding area i s manifested i n i t s land use functions.  of  zone of i t s i n f l u e n c e  a compatible environment capable of p r o v i d i n g  u n i v e r s i t y and  community  Areas.  Experience has the u n i v e r s i t y can  the  3 student  d o r m i t o r y a r e a h a v i n g r o o m i n g h o u s e s and  of which are  conversions  d e m i c , r e s e a r c h , and  a p a r t m e n t s some  of single f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s .  residential  The  aca-  f u n c t i o n s o f the u n i v e r s i t y  pro-  v i d e c o m p e l l i n g a t t r a c t i o n s f o r a -wide v a r i e t y o f o t h e r  activi-  ties  proxim-  ity  t h a t tend  t o l o c a t e and  t o the u n i v e r s i t i e s .  compete f o r s i t e s i n c l o s e  Campus o r i e n t e d c o m m e r c i a l  research Industries, educational i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  f r a t e r n a l and  l i g i o u s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s , and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s comprise  outlets, re-  recreational  t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t and  g i v e the  area  "an u r b a n f o r m " w h i c h i s e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m o t h e r  areas  of the c i t y .  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  thoroughfares  u n i v e r s i t y have s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d t i o n demand o f t h e campus and  i n and  around  t o a c c e s s and  the f a c i l i t i e s a d j a c e n t  circula-  to  the  campus. Practically  a l l s t u d i e s o f the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s  the c o n t i n e n t r e v e a l t h a t the of areas a d j a c e n t of s p e c i a l university,  factors governing  the  across  development  t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y campuses a r e u n i q u e and  significance the c i t y ,  to the p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of  and  the P r o v i n c e  or S t a t e .  The  Finally,  to development.  Therefore,  and  should cooperate  By  o b s e r v i n g these  and  can en-  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  development o f the  i n order to formulate  programmes f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s  uni-  studied  o n l y when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o l e g a l l y  e n t i t i e s i n v o l v e d I n t h e p l a n n i n g and sity District  are not  the needs o f the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t  bring desirable results forceable guides  the  the community can h a r d l y judge the  v e r s i t y ' s p o s i t i o n i f t h e campus r e q u i r e m e n t s made known.  the  univer-  s i t y ' s p o i n t of view I s d e f e n s i b l e only i f i t understands c o m m u n i t y ' s p o s i t i o n , and  are  Univer-  policies  area.  complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the u n i -  4 v e r s i f y and  community t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s concerned  determining  the type of development that Is d e s i r a b l e and  v a r i e t y of problems t h a t must be considered by the t r a t i o n s concerned  the  adminis-  i n making l o n g range development plans  f o r the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s i n Vancouver and p o l i t a n areas of B r i t i s h II.  with  Victoria  metro-  Columbia.  HYPOTHESIS, SCOPE AND  ASSUMPTIONS  OP THE STUDY The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  c i t i e s are concerned  growth of the campuses and f o r e s e e sooner v e r s i t y making heavy demands f o r space and to pursue t h e i r academic and  s e r v i c e s i n order  evolved i n order to p l a n adequately  and  s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i -  of the c i v i l i z a t i o n .  a p p r o p r i a t e methods of understanding  i s concerned  or l a t e r the u n i -  research roles successfully,  to meet the c h a l l e n g e s of advancing c a l requirements  over the  It i s desirable that each other's r o l e s be  f o r the f u t u r e .  T h i s study  w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y - community  relationship generally.  I t i s hypothesized t h a t :  The i n t e g r a t i o n of campus planning w i t h the l o n g range comprehensive p l a n n i n g o f a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l areas i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the e f f e c t i v e development of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t . The  terms i n c l u d e d i n the h y p o t h e s i s are d e f i n e d as  follows: University D i s t r i c t  A community composed of a .i, campus and adjacent muncipal a r e a s . Boundaries of the community have p h y s i c a l , f u n c t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . The major f u n c t i o n s i n the d i s t r i c t are; educational, research, i n s t i t u t i o n a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l . The p h y s i c a l l i m i t s t h a t bound these f u n c t i o n s vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t to another, and range from i mile to 3 m i l e s from the campus.  5 P o l i t i c a l l y the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t i s comprised, o f a t l e a s t two j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s , one administered by the u n i v e r s i t y and the o t h e r by one or more municipalities. Adjacent M u n i c i p a l Areas are those p a r t s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y or the c i t y that l i e adjacent to the campus, and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e v e l o p i n g these areas r e s t s w i t h the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , or the C i t y or the Province whosoever owns and a d m i n i s t e r s the a r e a . Long range comprehensive planning of adjacent munic i p a l a r e a s : A process of goal s e t t i n g , p o l i c y formul a t i o n , guidance and c o o r d i n a t i o n of development based a continuous study and a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l , economic, p h y s i c a l and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s that determine the environment of areas adjacent to u n i v e r s i t y campuses. Scope of the study. The  study p r i m a r i l y c o n s t i t u t e s a  o f the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e on campus p l a n n i n g , and case approach to the understanding  The  review  study  of planning problems i n areas  j a c e n t to the u n i v e r s i t y campuses.  on  ad-  review i n c l u d e s d i v e r s e  examples of p l a n n i n g U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s i n the United S t a t e s of America, and review  Canada.  of these  The p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s observed  i n the  s t u d i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d ass (1) f u n c t i o n s of  campus a d j a c e n t areas; and as  (2) d i f f e r e n t types of a d m l n l s t a t i v e  arrangements evolved by the c i t i e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s .  The  case study approach  encompasses three U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, of which are l o c a t e d i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Area  and  o t h e r i n the V i c t o r i a M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. Assumption of the study. The b a s i c assumption, which arised  out of the meanings given to the terras used i n the  h y p o t h e s i s , i s s t a t e d as f o l l o w s :  two the  6 There a r e a t l e a s t two s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t i e s i n the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t . The l o n g range p l a n n i n g and development g o a l s of the U n i v e r s i t y d i f f e r from those of the c i t y or municipality. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Study. parts.  The  The  study c o n s i s t s o f f o u r  f i r s t p a r t i s I n t r o d u c t o r y and attempts  to e x p l a i n  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between U n i v e r s i t i e s and c i t i e s f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s a d j a c e n t to u n i v e r s i t y campuses. cuss a s p e c i f i c  The aim here i s to  dis-  study h y p o t h e s i s and r e s e a r c h methods f o r the  s t u d y . The.' second p a r t i s devoted s t u d i e s of U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s  to an e x a m i n a t i o n undertaken  of planning  by o t h e r p e o p l e .  these s t u d i e s , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y  District  i n an urban a r e a has s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by educational i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  housing,  r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s , commercial,  t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and the c i r c u l a t i o n i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the a r e a .  In  and  culpark-  A comprehensive r e v i e w of the  c h a r a c t e r of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t and of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangement between u n i v e r s i t i e s and c i t i e s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g o f a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o campuses, i s p r e s e n t e d .  The  c o n s i s t s o f case s t u d i e s of t h r e e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s Columbia: the Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t ; the  third  part  In B r i t i s h  Victoria  U n i v e r s i t y A r e a ; and the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia D i s t r i c t . Each case study i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r p a r t s : (1) major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t ; on i t s s u r r o u n d i n g muncipal  areas;  f o r c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g ; and f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  (2) impact  of the campus  (3) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements  (4) methods adopted and  of the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a P l a n s .  proposed  7 In these  s t u d i e s , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t the development of  the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t  s u f f e r s from l i m i t a t i o n s of ad-hoc  methods of c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , and  from the Inadequacy of  e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r development.  The  f o u r t h part r e -  p r e s e n t s the s y n t h e s i s of what has gone b e f o r e . w i t h a summary of the t h e s i s ; the b a s i c assumptions and  I t begins  t h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a review  r e s e a r c h methods of the study,  v a l i d i t y of the study h y p o t h e s i s .  I t concludes  of  the  with recommend-  a t i o n s and are.as f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . I l l RESEARCH METHODS The  r e s e a r c h methods f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study can  grouped i n t o two  be  p r i n c i p a l methods:  1.  L i b r a r y Research.  The method i n c l u d e s a review of books, a r t i c l e s i n p e r i o d i c a l s , and t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s on U n i v e r s i t y Area p l a n n i n g . In these s t u d i e s , i t became e v i d e n t that a r e a s adj a c e n t f e u n i v e r s i t y campuses have s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g problems which g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e some k i n d of c o o r d i n a t i v e approach by u n i v e r s i t y and c i t y admini s t r a t i o n s to formulate plans of mutual b e n e f i t and compatibility. I t was a l s o e v i d e n t from these studies that the p l a n n i n g problem r e l a t e d to growth needs of campuses, u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n and community's demand f o r d i f f e r e n t types of housing, p u b l i c s e r v i c e s such as roads, p a r k i n g , p u b l i c t r a n s i t and p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , space needs f o r other campus r e l a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s , c u l t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and commercial l a n d uses which tend to l o c a t e i n areas a d j a c e n t to u n i v e r s i t y campuses.  2.  Approach by case  s t u d i e s . Three p u b l i c u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r surrounding munic i p a l areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia, were s e l e c t e d f o r d e t a i l e d study. The Case Study method i n c l u d e s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Appendix I) which were sent to s e l e c t e d p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s of m u n c i p a l i t i e s and campuses. The answers to q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were genera l l y sought by p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , and from the study of p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s , minutes of meetings and other r e l e v a n t unpublished m a t e r i a l of p l a n n i n g departments.  8 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Case Study Method.  The three campuses are l o c a t e d i n two m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, and each campus occupies a unique l o c a t i o n w i t h i n the community. There are non-comparable s i t u a t i o n s such as: (1) l o c a t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y campus i n r e l a t i o n to the urban areas; (2) the extent of development of the campus and areas surrounding the u n i v e r s i t y ; (3) the p a t t e r n of l a n d ownership; and (4) the number of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g and development of each U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t . Therefore the problems of one campus d i f f e r from another. Consequently the degree of concern on the p a r t of p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r problem d i f f e r s a p p r e c i a b l y . These d i f f e r e n c e s pose some l i m i t a t i o n s f o r comparison but such i n f o r m a t i o n as the need f o r c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g , methods of mutual p l a n n i n g and implementation of plans, can be evaluated on a comparative b a s i s w i t h i n the terms of the hypothesis.  9 CHAPTER I I SOME ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS IN AREAS ADJACENT TO UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES - A REVIEW The  campus and  on each o t h e r .  the urban community are  This dependence i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  of a s o c i a l , economic and universities.  But  ity, use  i s i s only i n r e l a t i o n to adjacent to manifest  themselves  p a t t e r n comes i n t o e x i s t e n c e .  pattern consists p r i n c i p a l l y ,  highways, r e c r e a t i o n a l areas, institutional,  and  commercial and  to the campus may  of s t r e e t s and open spaces,  and  areas  As a r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i o n s of campus and  a t y p i c a l l a n d use  adjacent  linkages  p h y s i c a l nature between c i t i e s  that the v a r i o u s campus a c t i v i t i e s begin more c l e a r l y .  Interdependent  commun-  The  land  peripheral-  residential,  research i n d u s t r i e s .  An  area  have a l l or some of these f u n c t i o n s .  A l l o c a t i o n of l a n d to these broad c a t e g o r i e s of uses v a r i e s from one  U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t to another, but what i s important i s  that the land use  p a t t e r n i s not a s t a t i c p h y s i c a l phenomenon  but r e v e a l s important f u n c t i o n s which give an a i r of d i s t i n c t i o n to the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t w i t h i n the The  s o c i a l and  neighbouring  city.  economic a c t i v i t i e s of the campus  Community Areas supplement one  another, and  s t i t u t e the b a s i s f o r development of a w e l l i n t e g r a t e d s i t y D i s t r i c t i n an urban a r e a .  and conUniver-  10 I CHARACTERISTICS OP MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY DISTRICT The  Role  Universities of  o f the  University  i n some c a s e s a r e  the p r i n c i p a l  the economic base o f c i t i e s .  the second Boston  largest  I n the C i t y ' s  The  employer i n that  components  University  of P i t t s b u r g  industrial city.  m i l l i o n a year. come f r o m  electronic  to the presence  and  related  of Harvard  p a y r o l l o f more t h a n  |28  and  M.I.T.  million.  Pennsylvania survey revealed that i n the neighbourhood  o f some $25  s t u d e n t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y •$15  ities it  f o r c o n v e n t i o n s and  pays the c i t y n e a r l y  estate  investment, 1 insurance alone.  and  has  In C l e v e l a n d f o u r of C i r c l e have  A University  the u n i v e r s i t y ' s m i l l i o n a year.  the u n i v e r s i t y  an  of  payroll  was  Out-of-town estimated  lends i t s f a c i l -  m e e t i n g s t o some 20,000 a n n u a l  visitors;  #500,000 a y e a r I n t a x e s on wages and spends a n o t h e r  These e s t i m a t e s r e v e a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are v i t a l  growth  o f P e n n s y l v a n i a spend an  m i l l i o n a y e a r I n the c i t y ;  |250  i n d u s t r i e s , a growth a t t r i b u t -  the t w e n t y - e i g h t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the U n i v e r s i t y annual  third  o f more t h a n  I n the economy o f t h i s a r e a v i t a l  Is  In the  M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , i n s t i t u t i o n a l employment I s t h e  l a r g e s t , a c c o u n t i n g f o r an e s t i m a t e d p a y r o l l  able  Economy  that  $500,000 on u t i l i t i e s  t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s and  t o t h e economy o f some  real and  related  cities.  W.L. S l a y t o n , 'The U n i v e r s i t y , t h e C i t y , and U r b a n R e n e w a l ' , i n The U n i v e r s i t y , t h e C i t y a n d , U r b a n R e n e w a l (Washington D . C : A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 2 - 7  11 Livingston'  estimated  t h a t a campus o f 37,000 s t u d e n t s ,  fac-  u l t y a n d s t a f f members means a campus o r i e n t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f 100,000 w h i c h would s u p p o r t  a l a r g e part of the  non-basic  economy o f t h e c i t y . Housing. sity  District.  approximately is  comprised  the  H o u s i n g i s t h e m a j o r component o f t h e U n i v e r The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n 52 p e r c e n t  study  o f campus a d j a c e n t  o f s t u d e n t s , f a c u l t y and s t a f f .  s t u d e n t s , and f o r t y p e r c e n t  areas'  survey are given  i n Table  o f t h e f a c u l t y members r e s i d e d  I on page 1 2 .  Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s reported has  profound  i n f l u e n c e on s u r r o u n d i n g  fluence i s f e l t and  population  E i g h t j p e r cent o f  w i t h i n 3/4 m i l e f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c a m p u s . this  reveals that  1  The r e s u l t s o f  The A m e r i c a n  that a university neighbourhoods.  This i n -  i n t h e n e e d a n d demand f o r o f f - c a m p u s  f a c u l t y housing,  campus  student  i n f r a t e r n i t y and s o r o r i t y houses,  apart-  p  ments and rooming h o u s e s . t h a t t h e campus a d j a c e n t b u i l d i n g s w i t h two, t h r e e  A De P a u l U n i v e r s i t y s u r v e y  revealed  r e s i d e n t i a l development c o n s i s t e d of or four storey apartments.  them were f o u n d t o be s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e s c o n v e r t e d  Many o f into  build-  3 i n g s c o n t a i n i n g two o r t h r e e f l a t s . survey  A Cambridge  i n d i c a t e d that neighbourhoods adjacent  Neighbourhoods  t o t h e M.I.T.  U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , The S k e t c h P l a n f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n M a d i s o n OampusT ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : The U n i v e r s i t y / 1959) p p . €~~T. s  2  American S o c i e t y of Planning O f f i c i a l s , U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s Zoning. A S p e c i a l Report o f the P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Informa t i o n S e r v i c e , ( C h i c a g o : ASPO, O c t o b e r 1 9 6 3 ) , 8 p p . •^Barton-Aschman A s s o c i a t e I n c . , U p t o w n Campus P l a n o f De P a u l U n l v e r s 1 t-y. (Evanston, I l l i n o i s ; " T h e A s s o c i a t e s 1 9 6 1 ) 1  12  TABLE I COMPOSITION OP POPULATION I N EXPANSION AND JOINT CITY-UNIVERSITY PLANNING AREAS ( I n c l u d i n g dependents)  AREA  NUMBER  (Madison A.  University ^ Expansion Area Students Staff Faculty Others  2 ?80 366 143 1,766  55.0 7.3 2.8 34.9  5,055  100.0  6,459 850 716 8,770  38.4 5.1 4.3 52.2  16,795  100.0  9,239 1,216 859 10,536  42.3 5.6 3.9 48.2  21,850  100.0  S  Total B.  OF TOTAL  Joint Planning Area Students Staff Faculty Others Total Total  A and B Students Staff Faculty Others Totals  "'Source: U n i v e r s i t y " o f " " W i s c o n s i n , The S k e t c h P l a n f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n - M a d i s o n , ( M a d i s o n ? The U n i v e r s i t y , 1959T A p p e n d i x 7. A t t h e t i m e o f s u r v e y i n S e p t e m b e r 1958, t h e U n i v e r s i t y had a n e n r o l l m e n t o f 16,590 s t u d e n t s . and  ^ E x c l u d e s on=campus u n i v e r s i t y h o u s i n g , a n d E a g l e u n i v e r s i t y houses i n the a r e a .  Heights  13 TABLE I I UNIVERSITY STUDENT BODY BY PLACE OP RESIDENCE UNIVERSITY OP PENNSYLVANIA 1962  1970  Number of' % of Students Total  Number o f Students  % of Total  ON-CAMPUS Dormitories 2,952 1,128 Fraternities Campus A r e a ( p r i v a t e homes) 1,151 — Graduate Housing  16.1 6.1  4,350 1,300  19.8 5.8  6.2  300 400  1.3 1.8  5,591  30.4  6,350  28.7  A d j a c e n t campus area L i v i n g a t home Part-time students  1,586 3,177 7,993  8.7 17.2 43.7  3,575 4,325 7,700  16.5 19.8 35.0  Sub-total  12,756  69.6  15,600  71.3  18,347  100.0  21,950  100.0  Sub-total •CAMPUS  Total(Enrollment)  Source: Hammer and Company A s s o c i a t e s , The Development of On-Oampus Commercial F a c i l i t i e s f o r the U n i v e r s i t y o f Penns y l v a n i a , (Washington, P.O.: The A u t h o r , 1963) pp.12-13. The s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n a d j a c e n t campus a r e a i s e s t i m a t e d to have i n c r e a s e d from 1,586 t o 3,575 which i s 125 p e r cent i n c r e a s e i n about 8 y e a r s (between 1962 t o 1970). A t the time o f s u r v e y the t o t a l u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n was comprised o f 18,347 students',3,505 f a c u l t y ' and 4,403 admini s t r a t i v e and c l e r i c a l s t a f f .  14 90 per  campus showed a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f l a r g e a p a r t m e n t s , of  w h i c h were o c c u p i e d hy  a t r a n s i e n t nature with educational  tenants.  - s t u d e n t s and  institutions,  These s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e  Much o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was p r o f e s s i o n a l people  of  r o o m i n g h o u s e s and  t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l  i s related  the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n .  of  connected  1  development  i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus I s m a i n l y c o m p r i s e d and  cent  of  apartments  t o the economic s t a t u s of  Students  the  need c h e a p rooms, c h e a p  f o o d , c h e a p p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , and  cheap e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  These  demands o f l o w c o s t f a c i l i t i e s  services result  increase  of  r o o m i n g h o u s e s and  and  apartments.  Most s i n g l e  a c c o m m o d a t i o n w i t h i n a r e n t r a n g e o f $30 quirements single  of married  students.  indicate  The  that married  bedroom u n i t ,  $95  t o $40  i n an  students desire a month.  s t u d e n t s are d i f f e r e n t from  those  The of  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia survey students would c o n s i d e r paying  f o r two  bed-room u n i t , and  $105  $85  re-  the results  for a  one-  for a three-  p bedroom u n i t .  F a c u l t y and  s t a f f members w o u l d c o n s i d e r p a y i n g  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r e n t than the m a r r i e d  students.  c l e a r t h a t t h e p r e v a i l i n g income l e v e l  and  It is  s t a t u s of the  in  the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n a r e b a s i c d e t e r m i n a n t s  of  a c c o m m o d a t i o n t h e campus a d j a c e n t a r e a s a r e e x p e c t e d  A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , and entire  f a c u l t y and  staff population reside  fairly individual  f o r the  type  to provide.  practically  the  off-campus.  Cambridge P l a n n i n g B o a r d , S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r I s t i c s of C a m b r i d g e N e i g h b o u r h o o d s , (CambridgeTHPIass. :"™TnT^ranalng B o a r d , " F o c u s on R e s i d e n c e s " . The_Ub^ssey_, A campus s t u d e n t p a p e r p u b l i s h e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of""British™Columbia, O c t o b e r 1 9 , 1965.  15 In  1965  the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia  f a c i l i t i e s accommodated  o n l y 17  on-campus h o u s i n g  per cent of the t o t a l ' s t u d e n t  population. It i s generally accepted e x p e r i e n c e i n the l i f e tended  that residence l i v i n g  o f the s t u d e n t .  t o p r o v i d e o n l y room and b o a r d .  home away f r o m home. perience.  is a  unique  Residences are not i n They a r e n o t m e r e l y  They a r e p a r t o f t h e t o t a l a c a d e m i c  a  ex-  T h e r e f o r e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e campus a d j a c e n t  r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s h o u l d have t h e same r o l e a s t h e  on-campus  residences. Parsons  observes t h a t though  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e campus  p o p u l a t i o n f o r r e a s o n a b l y p r i c e d accommodation f o r apartment rooming  and  h o u s e s c l o s e t o t h e campus a r e f a i r l y w e l l known t o t h e  u n i v e r s i t i e s and n e i g h b o u r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s ,  y e t the g o a l s of the  two a r e d i v e r g e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e k i n d  of development  would  like  t o see i n campus a d j a c e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  s i t i e s would h o u s i n g and for  like  t o see maximum p r o v i s i o n o f m i d d l e  upper middle  would  t o see maximum p r o v i s i o n f o r l o w i n c o m e h o u s i n g and  lower  The  neighbourhood  income h o u s i n g f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s  university families.  In u n i v e r s i t y  -  some o f whom may  districts  where  groups a r e p a r t o f the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n the  for  like  like  likelihood  t o see t h e p r o v i s i o n o f n o n - s e g r e g a t e d  t o see good h o u s i n g f o r m i n o r i t y g r o u p s o f o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e use  of  quotas.  be  minority  universities housing  the m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n whereas the neighbourhood  would  income  residents  middle  would  The u n i v e r -  i n c o m e h o u s i n g e m p h a s i z i n g more h o u s i n g  the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y .  like  each  areas  residents  - w i t h the  16 Parsons notes that these c o n f l i c t i n g goals run a l o n g economic,  and  racial lines,  where u r b a n r e n e w a l  especially  social,  i n campus a d j a c e n t a r e a s  schemes were p r o p o s e d  i n some U.S.  cities.  1  S l a y t o n i n h i s w o r k on s e v e r a l u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s i n t h e /Vicinity o f u n i v e r s i t i e s o b s e r v e d t h a t among t h e n o n - u n i v e r s i t y people t h e r e e x i s t s an a t t i t u d e  of h o s t i l i t y toward  u n i v e r s i t y and  reasons f o r t h i s  i t s authorities.  are, that t r a d i t i o n a l l y  The  the  attitude  t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s have i s o l a t e d  themselves  f r o m u r b a n a r e a s by l o c a t i n g t h e i r campuses i n a more p l a c i d r u r a l environment;  I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e u r g e n t need f o r t h e  s i o n o f campuses h a s c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e h o o d s t o m a i n t a i n a c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r ox«i; and  and expan-  neighbour-  f i n a l l y he  states  t h a t t h e r e I s some e v i d e n c e t h a t by c r e a t i n g u n d e s i r a b l e p r e s s u r e s on a d j a c e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d s the  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of these  u n i v e r s i t y campuses have a c c e l e r a t e d 2 neighbourhoods.  These s t u d i e s r e v e a l t h a t h o u s i n g i s t h e m a i n f u n c t i o n  of  campus a d j a c e n t a r e a s b u t t h i s f u n c t i o n r e m a i n s u n i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the t o t a l cities  campus e n v i r o n m e n t  i f p l a n n i n g by u n i v e r s i t i e s  and  t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e demand and e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s o f  housing alone. just that.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y most c i t i e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s  S o c i a l f a c t o r s and  t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s d e s i r e s and  do goals  s h o u l d a l s o be u n d e r s t o o d a l o n g w i t h e c o n o m i c r e a s o n i n g i n m a k i n g K.O. P a r s o n s , " U n i v e r s i t i e s and C i t i e s " , i n ( J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 2 4 , Nos. 1 and 4, ( J a n u a r y and A p r i l , 1963)» p."209 (reTer t o T a b l e V on page 46 o f t h e s t u d y ) . 2 W.L. S l a y t o n , "The U n i v e r s i t y , t h e C i t y and U r b a n R e n e w a l " , i n The U n i v e r s i t y , t h e C i t y and U r b a n R e n e w a l , ( W a s h i n g t o n , U.C: A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 196377 P«5 1  17 provisions f o r housing.  The a b i l i t y  t o pa« and the  d e s i r e f o r c l o s e by r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation of the U n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n should n o t make up the s o l e c r i t e r i a f o r the c o n v e n t i o n a l ment.  type  proposing  o f apartments and rooming house  Perhaps the s o l u t i o n l i e s i n understanding  academic s i g n i f i c a n c e o f housing  develop-  more f u l l y the  and the d e s i r e to l i v e  i n har-  mony w i t h the other 50 per cent o f n o n - u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n t popu l a t i o n i n surrounding  neighbourhoods.  This c a l l s f o r a concerted  e f f o r t o f the u n i v e r s i t y and the c i t y f o r development of the U n i v e r s i t y Area. Among educators, dence l i v i n g .  d i f f e r e n t views p r e v a i l w i t h regard  Some b e l i e v e t h a t r e s i d e n c e  t o t a l academic experience  to r e s i -  l i v i n g i s p a r t of the  such as expressed  by the P r e s i d e n t o f  Columbia U n i v e r s i t y : H a l l s of residence were provided p r e c i s e l y as l i b r a r i e s , l a b o r a t o r i e s , and teachers themselves are provided, i n order to e x e r t e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e and to o f f e r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y . These h a l l s were b u i l t " not as an e d u c a t i o n a l convenience, but as an e d u c a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y . The f u l l b e n e f i t o f the u n i v e r s i t y membership... can only come when i n d i v i d u a l student regards h i m s e l f as a member o f the academic f a m i l y t o which he owes companionship and a l l e g i a n c e . 1  T a y l o r s t a t e s that a commuting student lesa l i k e l y  to develop a r e c o g n i z a b l e  community i s much  student c u l t u r e than one  i n which a nigh p r o p o r t i o n of students a r e i n r e s i d e n c e .  W i l l l a m T a y l o r , "Student c u l t u r e and r e s i d e n c e " , U n i v e r s i t y Q u a r t e r l y . V o l . 1 9 , No 4 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , pp.331 - 3 4 4 1  18 The r e s i d e n t community o f s c h o l a r s has heen a r c h e t y p e o f our own and many o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s approach t o u n i v e r s i t y d e v e l o p ment, s t u d i e s elsewhere have i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i v i n g arrangements can have p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e , f o r good o r i l l , p e r s o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l development. t i e s are committed  upon s t u d e n t s  Though many u n i v e r s i -  t o r e s i d e n t i a l p r i n c i p l e but p r o p o r t i o n o f  s t u d e n t s a c t u a l l y l i v i n g i n h a l l s , h o s t e d , and o t h e r p r o v i d e d accommodation has changed v e r y l i t t l e f i v e years (in B r i t a i n ) .  There are c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s  between u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t s students i n residence.  over the p a s t twenty-  K e e l e has n e a r l y a l l  O x f o r d , Cambridge, and most o t h e r  c i v i c u n i v e r s i t i e s have over h a l f , w h i l s t London, Leeds, and Birmingham have about 20 p e r c e n t s t u d e n t s i n r e s i d e n c e . Warr r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t s o f a survey o f on-campus r e s i d e n c e s t u d e n t s who were asked i n a q u e s t i o n a i r e some twenty p o s s i b l e advantages  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s of l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e  h a l l s ( T a b l e I I I , page 1 9 ) .  The  r e s u l t s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  r e s i d e n c e l i v i n g does o f f e r r e l a t i v e l y more advantages o t h e r forms o f accommodation. C u l t u r e and R e s i d e n c e  1  than  T a y l o r i n h i s study o f Student  r e v i e w s o t h e r s t u d i e s and s u r v e y s w h i c h  r e v e a l t h a t r e s i d e n c e l i v i n g does n o t p r o v i d e the f u l l  oppor-  t u n i t y t o s t u d e n t s t o r e a l l y know the c i t y i n w h i c h t h e y  live.  r  ... we have had recommendations t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s whould l i v e i n what has r a t h e r h o p e f u l l y  •^Peter B. Warr, " A t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r i n a h a l l o f r e s i d e n c e " . U n i v e r s i t y Q u a r t e r l y . V o l . 19, No. 1 (December 1964), pp. 56 - 6 0 .  19 TABLE I I I COMPARISON BETWEEN HALLS OP RESIDENCE AND OTHER FORMS OF ACCOMMODATION  Percentage  o f members  Halls Better Making f r i e n d s from o t h e r departments L i v i n g i n comfortable accomodation E a t i n g good f o o d L e a r n i n g t o mix s o c i a l l y M e e t i n g i n f o r m a l l y members o f f a c u l t y P l a y i n g games F e e l i n g y o u b e l o n g t o a community Studying s u f f i c i e n t l y B e c o m i n g more r e s p o n s i b l e p e r s o n H a v i n g p r i v a c y when w a n t e d Reading books n o t connected w i t h courses Avoiding noise P a y i n g r e a s o n a b l e amount f o r a c c o m o d a t i o n T a l k i n g t o someone when y o u a r e f e d up Leading unregimented life Taking p a r t i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s Avoiding household chores (cooking e t c . ) T a l k i n g about t o p i c s n o t connected w i t h your s t u d i e s T a k i n g p a r t i n o r g a n i s i n g y o u r community Gaining s e l f confidence  reporting  No d l f f erence  Halls Worse  92 82 25 74 44 80 90 46 38 57 45 18 10 89 58 78 62  6 14 48 23 52 20 10 32 47 20 55 27 15 10 36 22 23  2 4 27 3 4 0 0 22 15 23 0 55 75 1 6 0 15  77 78 59  22 19 31  0 3 10  S o u r c e : P e t e r B. W a r r , " A t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r I n a h a l l o f r e s i d e n c e " , U n i v e r s i t y Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 19, No. 1 (December, 1964), T a b l e I on page 59; pp. 59 -'68. 130 s t u d e n t s i n a h a l l were a s k e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s on 20 p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l i v i n g i n a h a l l a n d l i v i n g i n o t h e r a c c o m m o d a t i o n . A number o f a p p a r e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f h a l l s were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s l i s t . E a c h member was a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e whether i n h i s experience h a l l s o f residence provide b e t t e r o r worse f o r these a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s , whether i n t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l i v i n g i n r e s i d e n c e and o t h e r a c c o m o d a t i o n .  20 been c a l l e d an "academic l a t i n q u a r t e r " , o r i n a s e t t i n g w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d as "dense, u r b a n Informal; a network of i n t e r l o c k i n g t e a c h i n g rooms, c o f f e e bars, l a b o r a t o r i e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , l i b r a r i e s , study b e d r o o m s , t h e a t r e s , s h o p s -~ a s t r e e t m a r k e t o f i d e a s r a t h e r than a c l o i s t e r f o r t h e i r s a n c t i f i c a t i o n and I n t e g r a t e d w i t h towns and c i t i e s w h i c h h o u s e t h e m " . l 3  Some u n i v e r s i t i e s , a c r o s s t h e downtown a r e a s the  outskirts.  rural  of t h e i r c i t i e s while  Whether those  s i t e s have b e e n a b l e  f e s s i o n a l and n o t be  others are l o c a t e d  t o t u r n out b e t t e r s k i l l e d  question  i t s surrounding  t e g r a t e d w i t h i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t and Commercial F a c i l i t i e s .  and  f o r society i s a question  Perhaps an a p p r o p r i a t e  be w h e t h e r a u n i v e r s i t y and  and  are l o c a t e d i n  areas.  areas  campus p o p u l a t i o n and they  are planned,  o f the  surrounding  survey  c a f e t e r i a s and  to  the Unless  themselves  U n i v e r s i t y of  r e v e a l e d t h a t I n a d d i t i o n t o u n i v e r s i t y owned  b o o k s t o r e s t h e r e were 93  privately  owned commer-  c i a l u n i t s l o c a t e d on t h e campus a r e a .  W i l l l a m T a y l o r , " S t u d e n t c u l t u r e and r e s i d e n c e " , U n i v e r s i t y Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 19, Wo 4 (1965), p.335. 1  of  disperse  generally align The  stores  aspect  the needs of  tend  can  community.  community as w e l l .  the c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s  t h e r o u t e s l e a d i n g t o t h e campus.  Pennsylvania  that  Campus o r i e n t e d s h o p p i n g g o o d s ,  t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t , and along  pro-  are w e l l i n -  metropolitan  Commercial development serves  and  to r e s o l v e would  other commercial o u t l e t s comprise another important  adjacent  on  u n i v e r s i t i e s w h i c h have p l a c i d  i n t e l l e c t u a l men  resolved.  the c o n t i n e n t s  21 The  r e s u l t s contained  per  c e n t o r more o f t h e i r b u s i n e s s  university population and  In Table IV  on  page 22  reveal that  v o l u m e was  i n c l u d i n g the  received  from  f a m i l i e s of students,  the  faculty  s t a f f members. The  reflect  U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania  the  E a t i n g and  campus c o m m e r c i a l  type of b u s i n e s s e s t h a t serve drinking places,  hair dressing  sented major c a t e g o r i e s  the  campus  make up  a large part  facilities  which comprise  s i z a b l e development a r e a s adjacent  study pointed  received  any  population.  l o c a t i o n o f gas  out  a r e a s was  t h a t the  and  i s due  neither oriented  t o the  presence  on-campus c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t .  service  The  The oriented  i n adjacent  survey revealed  the  stores l o s t  Hammer and  stations campus.  t o w a r d s the  develop-  campus  of most f a c i l i t i e s  campuses w h i c h do  campus  three  Unlike  the  nor  from the u n i v e r s i t y in  not  commercial  oriented.  city  stores,  important business  Company A s s o c i a t e s , JS^CJJL. , p. 4  the  have  s p e c i a l n a t u r e of the u n i v e r s i t y  commercial development.  campus o r i e n t e d  1  areas which are  repre-  This  1  to the  s i z e a b l e on-campus c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , h a v e  facilities  commercial  off-campus commercial  l a r g e volume o f t h e i r b u s i n e s s This  cleaners,  in size  o f b u s i n e s s e s n e e d e d on c a m p u s .  r e v e a l the  ment i n a d j a c e n t  population.  of the  though v a r i e d  survey d i d not  The  facilities  c l o t h i n g s t o r e s , l a u n d r i e s and  establishments  development, whereas o t h e r  any  ninety  the  seasons,  TABLE I V TYPE, NUMBER, S I Z E AND PATRONAGE OP ON-CAMPUS COMMERCIAL F A C I L I T I E S , 1962  Type o f s t o r e  Men's c l o t h i n g Women's c l o t h i n g B a r b e r shops Beauty shops Books Food Eating/drinking Taverns Lrug Laundries/cleaners Jewelry Record Camera Cards and g i f t Shoe r e p a i r Florist T r a v e l Agency Bowling A l l e y  Number  5 2 5 2 3 6 24 5 7 23 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Estimated 1962 Volume (OOO) 675 85 60 32 260 693 2,600 150 480 592 45 60 42 22 20 29 =  150  University share of Volume 25/2 95 90 90 98 82 98 90 95 98 95 95 90 98 98 98  -  15  S o u r c e : Hammer a n d Company A s s o c i a t e s , The, D e v e l o p m e n t of__On-Campus C o m m e r c i a l F a c i l i t i e s , f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , ( W a s h i n g t o n : The A u t h o r , 196TT"Table 1 on p .4 and  "'"Includes e a t i n g / d r i n k i n g delicatessens.  facilities  i n Drug s t o r e  units  p  I n c l u d e s t a i l o r s and p r e s s o r s . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e s u r v e y i n 1962, t h e u n i v e r s i t y e n r o l l ment was 18,347 s t u d e n t s ; 3,505 f a c u l t y ; 4,403 s t a f f ; t o t a l l i n g 26,225. On-campus s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n dorms was 2,952; i n f r a t e r n i t i e s 1,128; a n d i n campus a r e a p r i v a t e homes 1,511. O f f - c a m p u s s t u d e n t s i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus 1,586 l i v i n g a t home 3,177; p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s assumed a t home 7,993; t o t a l 18,347 s t u d e n t s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e m a r k e t s u p p o r t o f t h e on-earnpus c o m m e r c i a l f a c i l i t i e s .  C h r i s t m a s , E a s t e r a n d summer d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e local  s t u d e n t s go away f o r h o l i d a y s .  out-of-town  A l s o the expenditure  e r n o f s t u d e n t s v a r i e s d u r i n g a y e a r , which has an e f f e c t certain lines by  and patton  of b u s i n e s s e s . C l o t h i n g items are g e n e r a l l y bought  s t u d e n t s i n a r e a s where t h e y w o r k d u r i n g t h e summer a n d much  of t h e i r requirement  f o r c l o t h e s i s met p r i o r t o c o m i n g t o t h e  campus.  In the case  o f t h e c l o t h i n g s t o r e s 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r  business  came f r o m o f f - c a m p u s  customers.  The c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , u n l e s s p l a n n e d , a l o n g t h e r o u t e s l e a d i n g t o t h e campus. Wisconsin  survey  campus a r e a .  revealed  and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s  a l o n g S t a t e S t r e e t a n d U n i v e r s i t y Avenue the  Many o f t h e s e  to locate  Tho U n i v e r s i t y o f  o f t h e campus a d j a c e n t a r e a s  concentrations of r e t a i l  tends  t h a t the  were l o c a t e d  major approaches to  facilities  were  inefficiently  l o c a t e d a n d w o u l d compete w i t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y f o r l a n d . Pennyslvanla and  study a l s o found  t h a t s t o r e s wore p o o r l y  were i n e f f i c i e n t i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n .  1  The  equipped  The p r i v a t e l y  owned  e a t i n g a n d d r i n k i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were d o i n g e x c e p t i o n a l l y good b u s i n e s s d e s p i t e r u n down c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r p r e m i s e s u n s a v o u r y s t a t e o f t h e c a f e t e r i a s and r e s t a u r a n t s . did  and the  Store f r o n t s  n o t conform t o any o r d e r l y p a t t e r n w h i c h c r e a t e d a h a p h a z a r d  appearance from the s t r e e t „  2  The f u n c t i o n o f the c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s n o t o n l y to  provide  the m e r c h a n d i s e needed by t h e u n i v e r s i t y  b u t i t i s t h e p l a c e where m o s t s t u d e n t s l i k e  University  of Wisconsin,  population  1 r> h r o r e e ,  op. c i t . , p . 1 0 .  Hammer a n d Company A s s o c i a t e s , o p . c i t . ,  p.4  and  24 the a  V i s i t o r s s t o p by  f o r a snack or package of c i g a r e t t e s  book o r m a g a z i n e .  s u p p l e m e n t i n g the ually the  the  So  I t has  g r e a t v a l u e and  University l i f e .  f o c a l point  campus a c t i v i t y  o f the  The  attraction in  commercial area i s  university l i f e ,  and  g r a v i t a t e s around shopping  after  the  plazas.  by-passed i n  demand f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t .  u l a t i o n and and  be  expenditure patterns  s i z e of future  lying  reveal  development but  function  not  social precinct.  b u s i n e s s e s i n some campus o r i e n t e d fairly  The  the  pop-  number, t y p e  most i m p o r t a n t  A large  turnover  at  the  under-  in  commercial d i s t r i c t s ,  s i g n i f i c a n t to warrant a hard look  quantity  the  por-  estimating  s i z e o f the  only  us-  lectures  These s p e c i a l a t t r i b u t e s o f c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t t r a y those f a c t o r s which should not  or  is  quality  of commercial development compatible w i t h  and  university  surroundings. Cultural Function. the in  cultural life part  as  The  The  theatres,  u n i v e r s i t y as  a  special function  in  city's cultural activities  campus, and  churches, clubs,  museums f i n d the  bour.  city.  g r a v i t a t e a r o u n d the  elements l i k e and  o f the  A u n i v e r s i t y has  quasi-educational libraries, galleries,  t h e i r most c o m p a t i b l e  university's c u l t u r a l significance i s stated  neighby  Temko  follows: I n d e e d , F o o t h i l l s ' c h i e f s i g n i f i c a n c e may n o t r e s i d e i n i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e , e x c e l l e n t as i t i s , but i n i t s u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l p r e m i s e ... i t i s i n f a c t a c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e w h i c h g o e s b e y o n d a c a d e m i c and vocational i n s t r u c t i o n s In i t s f u n c t i o n . The t h e a t r e and l i b r a r y a r e g e n e r a l l y u s e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y ... so F o o t h i l l s i s a m u l t i p u r p o s e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e , r e c e i v i n g heavy use by day and n i g h t , s e r v i n g n o t o n l y 3 5 0 0 s t u d e n t s S  25 but  an.entire area  o f t h e Bay  Granger s t a t e s the an  e n r i c h i n g experience  region.  1  importance of b e a u t i f u l f o r the  surroundings,  community:  The v a l u e o f b e a u t i f u l s u r r o u n d i n g s a s a r e f i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e c a n s c a r c e l y be o v e r e s t i mated a s a n e l e m e n t i n t h e l i f e o f t h e s t u d e n t s ; and s i n c e t h e u n i v e r s i t y c a n make s t r o n g e s t a p p e a l t o t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f the a l u m n i and t o l o c a l and s t a t e p r i d e t h r o u g h a commanding " s i t u a t i o n and t h e d i g n i t y and b e a u t y o f i t s c u i l d i n g s , t h e t r u s t e e s may w e l l a f f o r d t o s t r a i n i t s r e s o u r c e s t o t h e u t m o s t i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e t h e most d e s i r a b l e s i t e r a t h e r t h a n a c c e p t , e v e n a s a g i f t , one l e s s d e s i r a b l e . Tunis^ great  c e n t e r s and  houses, law  planning  California, u r e s was  surround  o f the  circle  campus.  t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus.  S a n t a B a r b a r a campus o f t h e  The  cultural  In t h e l o n g Univvifjity  f a c u l t y and  t h a t the expected i n c r e a s e  i n the  p o p u l a r i t y of o f f e r i n g s i s r e f l e c t e d and  range  of  t h e p u r p o s e o f campus programmer> o f a r t s and  enjoyment of s t u d e n t s ,  the  financial  o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l and  s l a t e d t o e x t e n d c u l t u r a l and  Auditorium  the  teaching hospitals, Industries,  c o u r t s , as w e l l as  institutions  lined  o f t h e M c G j . l l campus states? t h a t  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the m e t r o p o l i s  medical  the  i n h i s study  lect-  educational a c t i v i t i e s community.  The  plan  for out-  r i c h n e s s , ' v a r i e t y and  i n the p r o v i s i o n f o r  a nmseum i n t h e L o n g Range D e v e l o p m e n t  an 4 Plan.  A l l e n Temko, " F o o t h i l l s campus i s a c o m m u n i t y i n i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l _ F o r u m , ( F e b r u a r y 1962).  Itself",  2 A l f r e d G r a n g e r , "The campus p l a n " , A m e r i c a n L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t , ( A p r i l 1930), pp.21 - 25. A l b e r t A. T u n i s , "The M c G i l l S t o r y : From C o u n t r y E s t a t e t o B i g - C i t y Campus", (UBC L i b r a r y , A c o l l e c t i o n o f a r t i c l e s on Campus Planning). 3  ^ U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Long^.Ranp- Lpy,gI-QPPJ.gJ)t P l a n o f Santa. B a r b a r a Campjis, ( B e r k e l e y : The Uni ve rt'-.i t V ' o f C a l i f o r n i a Campu s P l a r y> i ag C oam i 11c e, 1963» ) p. 3. 0  f  The  m a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a b o v e s t a t e m e n t s  the  realization  ate  a demand f o r s i t e s  established  that various  the  not  r e s i d e n t s of the the  u p k e e p , and  less  important  i n the  district  parking9  such as  elements of c u l t u r a l  community, but  Besides land  a t t r i b u t e s o f the  f a c t o r s In planning  and  use  in  generonce  u p o n t o meet o t h e r  f o r i t s own  c i t y as w e l l . pleasant  life  U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t and  i s called  only  lies  needs for  considerations  environment are  development.  The  o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t y and  c o n t i n u i t y between  campus and  town i n f l u e n c e s t h e  o f b u i l d i n g and  c o d e s and  other  by-laws of the  Recreational  Function.  Recreation The  e x i s t s as  guides i n d i v i d u a l s through a c t i v i t i e s  and  physical education  The  facilities the  of the  provided  f o r r e c r e a t i o n and  u n i v e r s i t y campuses and campus c o m m u n i t y b u t  c i t y and  the  region.  The  field  university  and  of  arena i n winter  in sports,  great  academic  sports achieve only  institutions.  their  f o r the  height enjoyment  needs of types  gymnasiums, s t a d i u m s ,  outdoor f a c i l i t i e s this  swimming p o o l s s e a s o n , and  are  quite  the on  winter The  popular  among  p o p u l a r i t y i s r e f l e c t e d In  i n summer and  a l s o i n the  the w i n t e r  instruction  e x c l u s i v e l y a r r a n g e d f o r off-campus community. recreation f a c i l i t i e s  recreation  spaces i n c l u d i n g g o l f courses.  o f f - c a m p u s r e s i d e n t s and use  experience  major r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y  s p o r t s a r e n a s and  Intensive  an  r e m a i n s e n s i t i v e t o the  swimming p o o l s ,  the  by  e x i s t not  campuses c o m p r i s e  indoor  zoning  l e a d e r s h i p which d i r e c t s  and  at  the  city.  w h i c h a f f e c t s the whole p e r s o n .  was  no de-  sirability  status  the  consume l a r g e  spaces.  The  the  sports  programmes sports  These s p a c e s  and can  27 hardly  be  justified  I n the  these f u n c t i o n s tend adjacent  municipal  to d i s p e r s e  area.  increasingly d i f f i c u l t Arthur  o u t l i n e s the  center  The  of the and  campus.  overspill  Therefore  i n t o the  o l d e r u n i v e r s i t i e s are  t o meet t h e  campus  finding i t  demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s p a c e .  p r o b l e m s o f the  U n i v e r s i t y of  Toronto:  The m a i n p r o b l e m s b e f o r e t h e campus p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e were e x p a n s i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f i e l d s f o r a t h l e t i c purposes. I n c i d e n t a l problems include the a v a i l a b i l i t y of p r o p e r t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s ... Women's a t h l e t i c and Men's a t h l e t i c b u i l d i n g s . 1 Dunke e t a l s t a t e s t h a t t h e main reasons t h a t caused f r o m downtown San  Francisco  s t r u c t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s had authorities.  San  Several  severe  Francisco  s p a c e l i m i t a t i o n s were t h e  State  to another s i t e .  b e e n condemned by  other  College  the  athletic  and  f a c i l i t i e s w e r e cramped on a h i l l y  5 acre  was  s u r r o u n d e d by a p a r t m e n t h o u s e s and  was  city.  C i t y and  temporary b u i l d i n g s , tennis  f i e l d s were n o n - f u n c t i o n a l .  This provided  no  moved  Three m a j o r i n -  and  s e c t i o n o f the  t o be  state courts,  A l l these b u i l d i n g s site.  n e a r the  The  campus  business  s c o p e f o r e x p a n s i o n and  made  p  it  n e c e s s a r y t o r e l o c a t e the  campus.  I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s an the  U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t and 1  Journal  important  feature  exists f o r serving a larger c i t y  of area  E r i c A r t h u r , " U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Master P l a n " , i n o f the R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f C a n a d a . ( O c t o b e r  19557, PP. 286 - 289.  ~~~  "  G l e n n S. Dunke e t a l , " M o v i n g San F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e t o a new s i t e " , i n C a s e b o o k on Campus P l a n n i n g and I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: U.S. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 72 - 9 1 . 2  28 t h a n t h e campus.  Many c i t i e s  developing a balanced  presently recognize  r e c r e a t i o n programme t h r o u g h o u t  The  p o p u l a r i t y of u n i v e r s i t y f a c i l i t i e s ,  and  inexpensive  travel,  tend  v e r s i t i e s have d e v e l o p e d .  The  a r e a r e s i d e n t s whose l e i s u r e  f o r granted  s t a f f but  f o r the  f o r the  of other  use  city  time a c t i v i t e s g r a v i t a t e around  the need t o c o o r d i n a t e the  the r e l a t e d  uni-  U n i v e r s i t y Community i s com-  p r i s e d n o t o n l y o f s t u d e n t s , f a c u l t y and  and  fast  their  o f t h e campus f a c i l i t i e s  o f t h e campus p o p u l a t i o n a l o n e .  facilities  city.  c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and  When m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p r e p a r e  community i s g e n e r a l l y f o r g o t t e n o r t a k e n  This j u s t i f i e s  the  to overcrowd f a c i l i t i e s which  r e c r e a t i o n programmes, t h e r o l e  campus.  t h e need f o r  the  recreational  programmes o f t h e c i t y and  the u n i v e r -  sity. Research  Industries.  The  research establishments  m e n t a r y t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s f u n c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h and are  generally attracted  concerns  t o campus a d j a c e n t a r e a s .  comple-  education Industrial  r e q u i r i n g high inputs of p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel  become aware o f t h e m u l t i p l e a d v a n t a g e s t h a t a c c r u e p r o x i m i t y to a s c i e n t i f i c  and  academic community.  have  from c l o s e Also  the  u n i v e r s i t y d e r i v e s many b e n e f i t s f r o m o f f - c a m p u s r e s e a r c h ities area.  and  the p o o l s of s c i e n t i f i c  Research  and  researchers located i n adjacent  development are  government's s c i e n t i f i c  activity.  the core The  of the  Increased  f>j>ace r e q u i r e m e n t s  f u n c t i o n s supported Research  are  the h i j h o s t  by t h e u n i v e r s i t y  space i s e x p e n s i v e  and  on  Dober s t a t e s  per user of a l l  research  t o c o n s t r u c t and  Federal  emphasis  r e s e a r c h l i a s s e v e r a l e f f e c t s on campus p l a n n i n g . t h a t the  facil-  the  institutions.  success  of  the  research, investment i s not always c e r t a i n . f u r t h e r s the f r o n t i e r s plore  more.  discovery  c r e a t e s a surge to  ex-  1  Slayton a  o f k n o w l e d g e and  Any-new  s t a t e s that a major u n i v e r s i t y centre  s t r o n g , p o s i t i v e a t t r a c t i o n t o the  industry,  serves  as  particularly  t h o s e i n d s u t r i e s w h i c h d e p e n d so h e a v i l y u p o n r e s e a r c h  and  new  Boston  technologies.  He  n o t e s t h a t i n t h e economy o f the  Metropolitan Area v i t a l related  the  come f r o m e l e c t r o n i c and  i n d u s t r i e s , a g r o w t h a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the p r e s e n c e  H a r v a r d and area  g r o w t h has  has  M.I.T.  In S t a n f o r d ,  d e v e l o p e d n e x t t o the  r e - d e v e l o p m e n t proposal's  C a l i f o r n i a , a major  Stanford  campus.  of  industrial  In P i t t s b u r g  f o r t h e campus a d j a c e n t  area  include  p  the development of a major i n d u s t r i a l Different kinds use  of r e s e a r c h  other nuisances. t e a c h i n g and  research  suming f a c i l i t i e s  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  i n close proximity  to place  i n the  s c M l e n t i s t s and  center  total  of the  ¥.l.  Slayton,  of  keeping  another.  It is  g e n e r a l l y space  i n such f a c i l i t i e s comprise  u n i v e r s i t y ' s academic and  o p . c i t p  and  3  con-  campus, e s p e c i a l l y when  R.P. D o b e r , Campus P l a n n i n g . (New P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 6 3 ) pp. 9 7 - 9 9 . 2  t o one  s u c h h a z a r d s and  researchers  s m a l l segment o f t h e  Some I n d u s t r i e s  r a d i a t i o n , obnoxious fumes, n o i s e s  A l l recognize  often unjustifiable  a  i n d u s t r i e s have s p e c i a l l a n d  r e q u i r e m e n t s i n the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t ,  i n c u r hazards such as  the  complex.  York:  Reinhold  only  research  30 community.  The c e n t r a l c o r e  o f a campus i s b u i l t  d e n s i t y o f b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s mum  campus p o p u l a t i o n .  perse  along  if  i n order t o serve  the maxi-  So t h e r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s t e n d  to d i s -  t h e p e r i p h e r y a n d i n t o campus a d j a c e n t a r e a s .  g e n e r a l l y accepted and  to a high  that w i t h reasonable  non-campus r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s  p l a n n i n g , t h e campus  c a n be s u p p o r t e d  economically  the f u n c t i o n s o f the u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h a r e r e l a t e d  campus f a c i l i t i e s .  to o f f -  Technology Square i n Cambridge, and the  research parks a t Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a  serve as important  Three u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s C o l u m b i a a r e c o u n t i n g on a t t r a c t i n g adjacent areas.  It is  i n British  research industries  Since research establishments  examples.  t o campus  take p h y s i c a l form,  d e t e r m i n e t h e l a n d use p a t t e r n , i n c r e a s e the t a x base f o r t h e C i t y , and  shape t h e q u a l i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y  their potential  i s significant  to both,  District,  t h e C i t y and the U n i v e r -  sity. C i r c u l a t i o n and P a r k i n g . and  planning of access  r o u t e s a r e t h e most c h a l l e n g i n g p r o b l e m s  of u n i v e r s i t i e s and c i t i e s . in  A f u n c t i o n a l p a r k i n g programme  As a r e s u l t o f the g e n e r a l  increase  v e h i c l e o w n e r s h i p p l u s i n c r e a s e d e n r o l l m e n t s and employment i n  universities,  t h e demand f o r p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s  and a c c e s s  has  become a s p r e s s i n g a p r o b l e m a s t h e a c t u a l n e e d f o r e x p a n s i o n academic f a c i l i t i e s . will and  There i s r e a s o n  to think that a  expand and a t t a c h t o i t o t h e r r e l a t e d c i r c u l a t i o n demand w i l l  university  f u n c t i o n s , the p a r k i n g  increase i n d e f i n i t e l y ,  more u n s a t i s f i e d demands a t t h e campus w i l l  of  a n d more a n d  have t o be accommodated  i n a d j a c e n t a r e a s . Some c a m p u s e s d e v o t e a s much a s 40 p e r c e n t o f  31 their  space t o the a u t o m o b i l e  streets.  Due  to the  dent's cars are  i n a d e q u a c y o f on-campus p a r k i n g , t h e  parked  f o r several blocks i n adjacent  hoods, p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o n g s e v e r a l campus a d j a c e n t On-street The  i n the form o f p a r k i n g , d r i v e s  face  traffic  p a r k i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the  University Circle  Development Foundation  at Cleveland  r e p l a c e d by  r e q u i r e d , w h e r e a s 200  a c r e s out  a c r e s , were a l r e a d y i n p a r k i n g u s e .  that a bold s o l u t i o n i s c a l l e d an a u t o m o b i l e  storage  yard.  for lest  The  s p a c e , and  off-street  study  the c u l t u r a l  campus notes  c e n t r e , become  1  or  con-  i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a r e d u c t i o n i n open  L i k e w i s e any  r e s t r i c t i o n by t h e  t o o n - s t r e e t p a r k i n g i n the a d j a c e n t  versity parking policy.  esti-  total  a n i n c r e a s e i n demand f o r p a r k i n g f o r new  of the b u i l d i n g . gard  building  system.  additional  o f the  U s u a l l y an e x t e n s i o n to the e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s t r u c t i o n o f a new  of  Also  problems.  circulation  p a r k i n g on t h e C l e v e l a n d campus, some 6 0 - 8 0 a c r e s  a r e e o f 488  neighbour-  congestion  total  mated t h a t i f o n - s t r e e t p a r k i n g were t o be  a r e a w o u l d be  stu-  t h e r o u t e s l e a d i n g t o the campus.  areas  and  area  occupants  city with re-  e f f e c t s the  I n many campuses the p a r k i n g  uni-  facilities  a r e u s u a l l y p r o p o s e d on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e a c a d e m i c c o r e .  Also  there  the  Is a trend to l o c a t e r e l a t e d  research i n d u s t r i e s along  -'-University C i r c l e Development F o u n d a t i o n , C l e v e l a n d , A P a r k i n g Programme f o r U n i v e r s i t y C i r c l e . ( C l e v e l a n d : The F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 1-2. ~  32 e d g e s o f t h e campus.  Large f i e l d  spaces,  housing  a r e a s , and  s p a c e c o n s u m i n g campus f a c i l i t i e s a r e a l s o d i s p e r s e d a l o n g t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e campus b e c a u s e t h e y c e n t e r o f the academic c o r e . to  c a n n o t be j u s t i f i e d  i n the  P e r i p h e r a l space and a r e a  adjacent  t h e campus becomes s c a r c e and t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e s a  concerted other  effort  on t h e p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y ,  the c i t y and  agencies. T h e r e a r e o n l y a f e w campus p a r k i n g s t u d i e s where t h e  comprehensive approach t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s taken. l a n d use and c i r c u l a t i o n diagram, prepared the  University of C a l i f o r n i a ,  f o r the regents  proposed that p a r k i n g areas  c a t e d a s spokes r a d i a t i n g from the academic c o r e . t h i s page F i g u r e  The optimum  Following  The p a r k i n g  areas  w o u l d be u s e d by campus commuters a n d r e s i d e n t s t u d e n t s , s p a c e s a d j o i n i n g the c o r e designed  reserved  supplementary insurance  quirements f o r expansion housing  areas.  that parking areas  against unforeseen  o f the academic core  The s p a c e s t a n d a r d s  page were d e s i g n e d The p l a n n i n g  i n Figure  f o r an ultimate enrollment study  with  f o r s e n i o r f a c u l t y and  t o a v o i d huge e x p a n s e s o f a s p h a l t c o v e r e d  The optimum scheme a l s o s u g g e s t s as  be l o -  I i l l u s t r a t e s various functional relationships  i n d e s i g n i n g a new campus and i t s c o m m u n i t y .  and  of  f o r a new u n i v e r s i t y  staff  with cars.  would  serve  future land r e or f o r university I following this o f 25,000  students." " 1  o f C a l i f o r n i a campus,  U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , S o u t h C e n t r a l C o a s t CampusS i t e S e l e c t i o n Study, (Berkley, C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f S a T i T o r n i a Regents O f f i c e , 1959).  UNIVERSITY  AREA ..  Optimum LarijJU^g and Circulation Diagram  ^  Milt  Vi M i l t :  15 Minutes walking h m c  10MimittsnaHin;lime  Source: Univ, of C a l i f o r n i a , S o u t h C e n t r a l Coast ...Campus Site, S e l e c t i o n S t u d y , ( B e r k e l e y , CaT7 U n i v . o f C a l i f o r n i a Regents O f f i c e , 1959).  33 which would c o n t a i n t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n o f 34,500 recommended  1 9 7 3 0 on-campus p a r k i n g s p a c e s a t a d e n s i t y o f 135  cars  5  acre which would a l l o w generous l a n d s c a p i n g s e t s a s i d e 146  acres  for parking.  The  of areas.  U n i v e r s i t y of  per  The  plan  Pennsylvania  recommends t h a t on-campus p a r k i n g s t r u c t u r e s he  located within  1,200  instructional  f e e t or f i v e minutes walking  facilities, time  and  a t d i s t a n c e s up  for facilities  time  t o 800  t o most  f e e t or 3 minutes  s u c h a s h o s p i t a l s w h i c h have c o n s i s t e n t l y  h i g h o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g needs o r f o r those erate  walking  facilities  o n l y v a r y i n g peak v i s i t o r r e q u i r e m e n t s  (such as  t h a t genthe  foot-  2 ball  stadium  or  Auditorium).  However, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e u n i v e r s i t y standards o f the a d j a c e n t v e r s i t y has  estimates, are  f o r p a r k i n g are w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t from  municipality.  I f the a r e a  surrounding  to have predominance of u n i v e r s i t y  type  the  c i t y ' s by-laws w i t h respect to i n s t i t u t i o n a l ,  and  different  types  that  the  those uni-  development, commercial,  o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d need t o  brought i n l i n e w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y standards  be  f o r development.  American S o c i e t y of Planning O f f i c i a l s , Planning f o r Campus P a r k i n g , , A S p e c i a l R e p o r t o f t h e A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g S e r v i c e , ( C h i c a g o : ASPO, 1 9 6 3 ) .  2 Plan,  U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, Proposed O f f - S t r e e t P a r k i n g ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The U n i v e r s i t y P l a n n i n g . O f f i c e , 1 9 6 1 ) .  34  •  I I INTERGRATION OP CAMPUS PLANNING AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING - EVALUATION It i s w e l l known t h a t the c i t y i s a very complex,  social,  economic, and p o l i t i c a l phenomenon. , I t i s n a t u r a l that each c i t y or' m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n should hold a unique view of i t s own f u t u r e , i t s requirements,  and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e .  The u n i -  v e r s i t i e s have a l s o been known to h o l d t h e i r independent • o p i n i o n s on matters  of development.  This i s because each i n d e -  pendent j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t has more or l e s s freedom of a c t i o n to pursue i t s best i n t e r e s t s .  However, the development achieved  by each pursuing i t s i n t e r e s t s independent of the others perhaps even p r o s p e r i n g by i t s own standards  - may be c o n s i d e r a b l y  i n f e r i o r to what i s c o o p e r a t i v e l y p o s s i b l e . Barnes s t a t e s that the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t Berkeley and the C i t y o f Berkeley encountered  many i s s u e s of  mutual concern i n the development o f campus adjacent  areas;  1.  A severe t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n on roads l e a d i n g to the campus.  2.  Students campus.  3.  The tax f r e e s t a t u s of the u n i v e r s i t y and the f r e e s e r v i c e s rendered to u n i v e r s i t y by the C i t y .  4.  Overcrowded c o n d i t i o n and substandard  5.  U n a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f the campus adjacent areas. '  6.  A c q u i s i t i o n by the u n i v e r s i t y o f c i t y ' s tax revenue property f o r campus e x p a n s i o n ,  c a r s parked  f o r many b l o c k s around the  housing  areas.  commercial  1  For years the u n i v e r s i t y and the c i t y pursued i n t e r e s t s independently  of each o t h e r but when these  their problems  ijames A. Barnes, "Campus P l a n n i n g , " Planning 1958 (Chicago: American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , 1958) pp. 142-148  35 became a c u t e  a concerted  e f f o r t was g i v e n b y r e s p e c t i v e  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n d i v i d u a l l y and j o i n t l y . a  s e v e n member l i a i s o n c o m m i t t e e h a v i n g  The C i t y the three  formed following  purposes: 1.  To r e p r e s e n t t h e C i t y o f B e r k e l e y i n d i s c u s s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ,  2.  To a s s i s t t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission, and t h e C i t y Manager i n r e a c h i n g mutually b e n e f i c i a l s o l u t i o n s t o problems o f j o i n t concern,  3.  To p r o m o t e b r o a d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C i t y ' s v i e w p o i n t , and to m a i n t a i n harmonious r e l a t i o n ships with other agencies. 1  Correspondingly l i a i s o n committee.  t h e u n i v e r s i t y a l s o f o r m e d a s e v e n member T h i s was a s u b - c o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o m m i t t e e  on b u i l d i n g s a n d campus d e v e l o p m e n t .  Like the City  Liaison  C o m m i t t e e , i t s f u n c t i o n was a l s o a d v i s o r y t o t h e C h a n c e l l o r of the B e r k e l e y The  campus.  C i t y l i a i s o n committee a d v i s e d the C i t y  Commission on m a t t e r s  Planning  p e r t a i n i n g t o p o l i c i e s , and t o t h e C i t y  M a n a g e r on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d n o n - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s . c o m m i t t e e was c o m p r i s e d  o f f o u r Commissioners together  The  with  the D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , t h e C i t y A t t o r n e y , and t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e P u b l i c Works D e p a r t m e n t . The  f o r m a t i o n o f two c o m m i t t e e s f a c i l i t a t e s  a t t h e i r j o i n t meetings w h i c h proved ment.  The r e v i s e d M a s t e r  James A. B a r n e s ,  the d i s c u s s i o n  t o be a s u c c e s s f u l a r r a n g e  Plan o f the C i t y  stated that i n order  o p . c i t . , pp. 142-148.  36 to  achieve  the degree o f c o o p e r a t i v e  p l a n n i n g w h i c h t h e City-  P l a n n i n g Commission b e l i e v e s i s v i t a l  to the f u t u r e  o f the c i t y and t h e u n i v e r s i t y , a l i a i s o n ly  defined a u t h o r i t y should  interests  committee w i t h  clear-  be c o n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e m u t u a l e x -  change o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d f o r t h e r e v i e w  o f p l a n s and p r o p o s a l s .  A formal administrative organization having w e l l defined a u t h o r i t y was f o u n d i n t h e make up o f t h e Wascana A u t h o r i t y a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan. e s t a b l i s h e d by p a s s i n g lature. private  o f t h e Wascana C e n t r e  Centre  The A u t h o r i t y was A c t by the L e g i s -  The A u t h o r i t y h a s 11 members a n d h a s t h e s t a t u s o f a corporate  sentatives,  body.  The P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t h a s 5 r e p r e -  t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan and t h e C i t y o f Regina  three r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s each. Under the terms o f the l e g i s l a t i o n , f o l l o w the development p l a n o f the a r e a .  the A u t h o r i t y w i l l The p l a n was  and  adopted by the c o o r d i n a t i v e e f f o r t  The  A u t h o r i t y has t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e v i e w i n g and u p d a t i n g  plan as required, of undertaking  of the three  prepared  a l l landscape  agencies. this  c o n s t r u c t i o n , and  of m a i n t a i n i n g the grounds throughout the area Each p a r t i c i p a t i n g p a r t y assumes t h e c o s t o f d e v e l o p i n g its  own a r e a .  shared  The c o s t s o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e A u t h o r i t y a r e  among t h e t h r e e a g e n c i e s ,  b e a r i n g 55 p e r c e n t , University  t h e Government o f Saskatchewan  t h e C i t y o f R g i n a 30 p e r c e n t , a n d t h e e  o f S a s k a t c h e w a n 15 p e r c e n t .  This kind of formal  •^Saskatchewan, Wascana C e n t r e A u t h o r i t y , S a s k a t c h e w a n : The C e n t r e A u t h o r i t y , 1962).  (Regina,  37 arrangement between the developmental  agencies  ensures  effective  c o o r d i n a t i o n i n r e s o l v i n g p l a n n i n g problems of U n i v e r s i t y In  the case  o f Toronto  U n i v e r s i t y the l a c k of concern  p a r t o f the C i t y and P r o v i n c e l e f t t h e need f o r p r o p e r The  m a i n p r o b l e m s were e x p a n s i o n  provision of fields for athletic were t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y one  on t h e  many p r o b l e m s d a n g l i n g  planning of areas adjacent  Area.  amidst  t o the campus.  o f the u n i v e r s i t y and the  purposes.  Incidental  problems  of property f o r individual buildings.  s i d e t h e campus was b o r d e r e d  p e r t y , p a r k , and l e g i s l a t i v e  by p r o v i n c i a l  government  b u i l d i n g s , a n d t h e o t h e r s i d e was The C i t y h a d  been l o o k i n g i n t o  some o f t h i s  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of developing  The C i t y a n d t h e P r o v i n c e were made aware  o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s need f o r f a c i l i t i e s a c t i o n o r d e c i s i o n was t a k e n .  b u t no c o o p e r a t i v e  The U n i v e r s i t y f o r m e d a f o u r -  man c o m m i t t e e t o s t u d y t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e a r e a . of the committee r e s u l t e d  The e f f o r t s  i n a r e p o r t and a p l a n w i t h  explicit  mention o f the adequacy o f the p l a n : In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s M a s t e r P l a n f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y .... i t s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d a s a g u i d e r a t h e r t h a n an i n f l e x i b l e document. Changes o f p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g e n r o l l m e n t , the economic p o s i t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e o v e r t h e y e a r s , w a r , e m p h a s i s on s p e c i a l s t u d i e s i n t h e . n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , and o t h e r f a c t o r s m i g h t m o d i f y the p l a n . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p r e s e n t p l a n i s deemed t o h a v e m e r i t , i t s h o u l d be t h e b a s i s on w h i c h a l l f u t u r e c h a n g e s a r e made.2  E r i c Arthur--, " U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o M a s t e r the J o u r n a l o f the Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e (October, 1953), pp.286-3047" — _ 2  On  pro-  b o u n d e d by p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s i n t h e C i t y a r e a .  area f o r p l a y f i e l d s .  1  E r i c A r t h u r , op. c l t .  9  pp. 2 8 6 - 3 0 4 .  Plan", i n o f Canada.  38 L e v i p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e u r b a n u n i v e r s i t y and a r e n a t u r a l p a r t n e r s a t l e a s t w i t h r e g a r d t o the District.  The  surrounding  campus i s b u i l t  and  p l a c e d i n the d i f f i c u l t  in  the i n t e r e s t s o f the community.  the ical  two  for a  situation  of performing  areas adjacent  degrees of b l i g h t ,  o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f  g i v e s the  Chicago.  concerned  different  t r e a t m e n t , , and  d i f f e r e n t degrees of p e r t i n e n c e to the U n i v e r s i t y . funds  class-  - Kenwood  t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus had  each r e q u i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l  sity with i t s limited  campus  i t s functions  e x a m p l e o f c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g i n t h e Hyde P a r k  The  the  Only c o r p o r a t e a c t i o n of  c a n p r o m o t e h a r m o n i o u s development."'" He  p r o j e c t i n the v i c i n i t y  the  s  generation.  m a i n t e n a n c e o f the a d j a c e n t a r e a s  is  City  University  to l a s t f o r generations  neighbourhood development I s o n l y  Without renewal  the  The  i t s e l f w i t h those  univerneigh-  b o u r h o o d s t h a t were i n h a b i t e d by i t s s t u d e n t s , f a c u l t y and w h e r e a s t h e C i t y was  c o u n t i n g on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and  o f the whole a r e a c o m p r i s i n g s i t y had  no  South E a s t Chicago.  ownership of adjacent  obtain a federal been purchased bourhoods found  the U n i v e r s i t y .  unless these Residents  t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s and  univernot  p r o p e r t i e s had  of, a d j a c e n t  the C i t y ' s  staff,  restoration  p r o p e r t i e s so i t c o u l d  grant f o r renewal,  by  The  had  neigh-  suggestion f o r  1 J u l i a n H. L e v i , " E x p a n d i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o C a s e b o o k on Campus P l a n n i n g and I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962) pp. 1 0 7 - 1 2 7 .  1!  ,in  39  renewal  i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i r own  In aroused by  order to t a c k l e people  the e n t i r e  problem, f i r s t  o f a l l the  o f t h e a r e a were g i v e n a v e h i c l e o f  expression  the f o r m a t i o n o f a c i t i z e n ' s b o d y ,  Commission.  interests.  The  the South E a s t  t a s k o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n was  to work  Chicago through  the c i t y ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r r i g o r o u s e n f o r c e m e n t of -regulations  on m a i n t e n a n c e o f b u i l d i n g s and  maintained heard  an  on any  open d o o r p o l i c y matter  f o r any  o t h e r a r e a s , and one  who  wished  p e r t a i n i n g to the d i s t r i c t .  The  to  f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n whose head was  o f the U n i v e r s i t y .  Despite  be  salvaged.  l o c a t e d , and  the  sums o f money.  These had  Commission prepared p l a n was district. and  heard  submitted  a g a i n , and  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s not  s u c h a c t i o n c o u l d be  f o r the a p p r o v a l resisted finally  occupants  re-  contemplated,  change and  d e v e l o p m e n t were  were p e r s u a d e d .  the  o f the a r e a .  of everyone concerned  This invoked  o n l y a t the C i t y o r the U n i v e r s i t y  b u t a t t h e S t a t e l e v e l where s t a t u t e s had every  by-  A l l t h i s r e q u i r e d huge  a p l a n showing the re-use  Those who  Chancellor  d e t e r i o r a t e d too f a r  t o be a c q u i r e d , t h e  s t r u c t u r e s demolished. Before  initiating  the r i g o r o u s enforcement of  l a w s t h e r e were many p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h had to  the  be  univer-  s i t y ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n came i n i t s r o l e a s a l e a d e r i n the  also  This i n the heard the  level  t o be amended t o  cover  situation possible. It i s significant  involved  to note  that a p r o j e c t of t h i s  j u s t a s much c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and  u c a t i o n work a s  the a c t u a l p l a n n i n g i t s e l f .  nature  community  ed-  I t i s possible that  many urban campuses may have to c o n f r o n t the problem o f expansion  a t some stage o r another,  v e r s i t y o f Chicago,  the l e s s o n s of the U n i -  the C i t y , and the State of I l l i n o i s i n  t h e i r c o o p e r a t i v e endeavour to p l a n and develop p o r t a n t guides  to campus p l a n n i n g .  serve as im-  L e v i h i g h l i g h t s t h i s ex-  p e r i e n c e by r e p o r t i n g t h a t a f t e r 10 years the c o o p e r a t i v e  plann-  i n g brought the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s ; 1.  The crime figures,  r a t e was down to o n e - t h i r d o f the 1953  2.  Median f a m i l y income i n the area had r i s e n t o $8,000 or more,  3.  Seventy per cent or more of the p o p u l a t i o n had been g i v e n school e d u c a t i o n or b e t t e r ,  4.  Seventy per cent o r more o f the persons now l i v i n g i n the area were employed i n the white c o l l a r i n dustry - (the area had 60,000 p o p u l a t i o n i n 1962)1  In p l a n n i n g the Santa Barbara  campus of the U n i v e r s i t y o f  C a l i f o r n i a , the c o o r d i n a t i o n among the County, the C i t y , and U n i v e r s i t y was brought about by each h i r i n g the same f i r m o f p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of plans o f t h e i r respective  jurisdictions.  The U n i v e r s i t y ' s advice was sought  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a Master P l a n o f roads and l a n d use f o r the e n t i r e area comprising  Santa Barbara  County, and s p e c i f i c a l -  l y w i t h regard to the development o f campus a d j a c e n t The  C i t y ' s Master Plan was developed  County P l a n .  areas.  as an I n t e g r a l p a r t of the  The U n i v e r s i t y ' s r o l e i n o v e r a l l  p l a n n i n g was  J.H. L e v i , "Ground space f o r the U n i v e r s i t y , " The U n i v e r s i t y , the C i t y and Urban Renewal. (Washington, D . C : American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1963), P.15.  41 a f f e c t e d by I t s memberships  i n the Chamber of Commerce, County  wide committees, the C i t i z e n ' s P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , and through Barbara.  the A f f i l i a t e s of the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Santa The Long Range Development Plan of the Santa  Barbara  Campus c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e : Campus o f f i c i a l s w i l l continue to work hand i n hand w i t h the o f f i c i a l s of the C i t y and County of Santa Barbara i n a c h i e v i n g land use p l a n s of mutual b e n e f i t and c o m p a t i b i l i t y . However, the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of these examples, a r e : f i r s t , a suggestion f o r the need of c o o r d i n a t i o n among d e v e l opmental agencies, and second, the kinds of c o o p e r a t i v e ments p o s s i b l e f o r concerted a c t i o n .  arrange-  P r i n c i p a l l y , these methods  are as f o l l o w s : 1.  A development a u t h o r i t y c o n s i s t i n g of p r o v i n c i a l , c i t y , and u n i v e r s i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s having t h e i r main purpose to e s t a b l i s h needs, p o l i c i e s , and programmes of the U n i v e r s i t y Community A r e a .  2.  Permanent l i a i s o n committees o f the c i t y , u n i v e r s i t y , and s e n i o r l e v e l s of government f o r a d v i s i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s on p l a n n i n g and development Issues r e s o l v e d a t t h e i r j o i n t meetings. Recommenda t i o n s of each committee are passed on to the o f f i c i a l s who are d e c i s i o n makers on p o l i c i e s w i t h r e s pect to the j u r i s d i c t i o n administered by them w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t .  3.  A s s i g n i n g the p l a n n i n g job to one l a r g e c o n s u l t i n g f i r m who would prepare plans of the campus, the c i t y , and the r e g i o n . C o n s u l t i n g f i r m should have the c a p a c i t y and r e s o u r c e s to prepare general to d e t a i l e d plans to cover the e n t i r e range of d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g necessary i n r e g i o n a l , c i t y and campus p l a n n i n g .  4.  C i t i z e n ' s committees c o n s i s t i n g of neighbourhood and u n i v e r s i t y members who would meet f o r debating i s s u e s of mutual concern i n p l a n n i n g and development of the campus adjacent a r e a s . Wishes of the committee to be passed on to c i t y and u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s .  U n l v e r s l t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Long Range Development Plan f o r Santa Barbara Campus of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n l a . T B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Campus Planning Committee, 1963), pp.4 - 12, x  42 The above methods are i n f a c t v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s from which one  or a combination  ative planning.  of methods  Some approaches may  than others i f the p r e c i s e nature  s  be  can be adopted f o r  cooper-  s u p e r i o r or more v a l i d  of the p l a n n i n g problem  has  been p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d . However a c o o p e r a t i v e methoo of p l a n n i n g should be i n harmony w i t h the e x i s t i n g The organized  governmental s t r u c t u r e .  "power to govern"  i n the democracy flows from w e l l  s t a t e government to i t s component areas by  g a t i o n of powers.  The  the d e l e -  purpose of the "government d e v i c e " i s to  cover the whole range of governmental f u n c t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e the powers delegated to i t s component areas are more or l e s s fic.  In B r i t i s h Columbia the l e g i s l a t u r e  has  the e x c l u s i v e  powers to make laws w i t h r e s p e c t to e d u c a t i o n a l and institutions  of the p r o v i n c e .  speci-  The l e g i s l a t u r e  municipal  by the  adoption  of the M u n i c i p a l Act created municipal c o r p o r a t i o n s , and by adoption of the U n i v e r s i t y Act c r e a t e d three p r o v i n c i a l sities.  Under the p r i n c i p l e s  of these l e g i s l a t i o n s  the  univer-  each u n i v e r -  s i t y and a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can adopt plans or p o l i c i e s  with  regard to the development of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The  s e t up of the U n i v e r s i t y Community suggests  political  j u r i s d i c t i o n s when i n f a c t  socially, physically  t h a t there are  there are no  jurisdictions  (except the l e g a l boundary) and  economically.  The  c i t i e s and m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s are r e q u i r e d to pay  own  way  whereas the u n i v e r s i t i e s  government.  are l a r g e l y  f i n a n c e d by  their the  In r e c e n t years i t has been s u f f i c i e n t l y demonstrat-  ed t h a t these j u r i s d i c t i o n s are not a b l e to pay  t h e i r own  way  even w i t h l a r g e s u b s i d i e s from the government.  In t h i s r e s p e c t  ' { a l s o the c i t i e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s . , and  the p r o v i n c e have much i n  43  common to explore f o r b e t t e r methods. Y l v i s a k e r notes t h a t the intergovernmental  relations  j  should be based upon the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a s 1.  A process by which j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s can be s e t t l e d . Each u n i t i s f r e e to t a c k l e the whole range of goverximental problems as they a f f e c t i t s area. This g i v e s r i s e to continuous d i s p u t e between u n i t s , as the best i n t e r e s t s of•one do not c o i n c i d e w i t h the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the o t h e r . U l t i m a t e l y the d i s p u t e s must be s e t t l e d hence the need f o r a formal or i n f o r m a l process to s e t t l e i s s u e s .  2.  A process of intergovernmental c o o p e r a t i o n i n order to e x p l o i t the whole v a r i e t y of d e v i c e s such as g r a n t s - i n - a i d , c o o p e r a t i v e programs, i n t e r g o v e r n mental p l a n n i n g and c o n s u l t a t i o n e t c . These d e v i c e s which have been developed w i t h i n the m u l t i p l e - g o v e r n ment context o f modern democracy form the backbone of p l a n n i n g .  3.  A process by which sevefra^L governments may a c t s e p a r a t e l y and independently, as w e l l as c o o p e r a t i v e ly. On.the n e g a t i v e s i d e , t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s f r i c t i o n and c o n t r a v a i l i n g power, which r e s t r a i n the h i g h e r l e v e l s and give each component a f i g h t i n g chance of doing t h i n g s i n i t s own way. On the p o s i t i v e s i d e , f l e x i b i l i t y and i n c e n t i v e of c o m p e t i t i o n , to do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y and b e t t e r , or to do t h i n g s which any u n i t may t h i n k important though the o t h e r s do not.  4.  A process qf organic change which can n e i t h e r be d i c t a t e d nor stopped by a m i n o r i t y of-components. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the r e a l i z a t i o n of change and accommod a t i o n of that change i n t o the governmental process has c o n t r i b u t e d to the v i t a l i t y and s u r v i v a l of democratic t r a d i t i o n . This i m p l i e s t h a t the u n i t s should have open minds and s e n s i t i v e n e s s to the needs of the changing s o c i e t y , and cooperate r a t h e r than d i c t a t e t h e i r best i n t e r e s t s .  Paul Y l v i s a k e r , "Some c r i t e r i a f o r a proper a r e a l d i v i s i o n of governmental powers", i n Regional Development and Planning. (Cambridges M.I.T. Press, 1964),pp.519 - 541.  44 These p r o c e s s e s a r e t h e d e s i r a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s method w h i c h s e e k s t o d e v e l o p tary relationships. Centre  A u t h o r i t y , comprised  of provincial,  campus a n d t h e C i t y  l i a i s o n c o m m i t t e e s , meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s  ees  c i t y and u n i v e r s i t y  committees o f the c i t y and t h e U n i -  such a s the B e r k e l e y  enumerated above.  or i n t e m i l i -  A c o r p o r a t e b o d y s u c h a s t h e Wascana  members; a n d t h e l i a i s o n versity  intergovernmental  of a  of Berkeley  of the processes  However, t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e  of l i a i s o n  oommltt-  i s t h a t t h e y do n o t have a n y p o w e r t o make d e c i s i o n s on  p o l i c i e s a n d programmes f o r d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a u s e t h e i r t i o n i s o n l y a d v i s o r y , whereas i n t h e case  func-  of a corporate  body  t h e r e i s s p e c i f i c e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n empowering the A u t h o r ity  t o p l a n and c o n t r o l  one  method  the development.  With the exception o f  (where t h e body a c t u a l l y h a s c o n t r o l  over d e v e l -  opment), t h e o t h e r methods o f c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g a r e I n formal.  I n f o r m a l arrangements between g o v e r n i n g  the exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e the development o f the U n i v e r s i t y  bodies f o r  on m a t t e r s  Community A r e a  relating to seems t o be  r e a d i l y a c c e p t a b l e a s a method o f c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g .  An  i n f o r m a l method d o e s n o t e n c o u r a g e t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f a c o ord I n a t l v e approach t o problems. arrangements tend  to disappear  c e n t i v e s , change o f p e r s o n n e l ,  Even s o p h i s t i c a t e d I n f o r m a l  o v e r t i m e due t o l a c k o f i n time and r e s o u r c e s .  c i t i e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s have r e a c h e d d e p e n d e c y t h a t t h e y have a n d w i l l  such a stage  But the of inter-  have many p r o b l e m s t o s o l v e  m u t a l l y f o r the b e n e f i t o f the s o c i e t y .  Therefore  i t is  45 necessary  that governing  should ensure and  bodies  t h e i r continuous  planning of urban areas.  the b e s t r e s u l t s a r e a c h i e v e d  s h o u l d work out methods w h i c h a t t e n t i o n i n the  Experience  development  seems t o i n d i c a t e  that  when:  1.  a c l e a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was a s s i g n e d f o r a n e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l and c o n s e q u e n t l y on t h e l o w e r l e v e l s , t o o f f i c i a l s w i t h r e q u i r e d s e n i o r i t y , e x p e r i e n c e , and s t a t u s ; .  2.  a l l d e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d were d r a w n f u l l y i n t o the t a s k o f development w i t h shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e c o g n i t i o n ;  3.  the n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d c o r p o r a t e body does n o t seek, a t any l e v e l , t o o v e r - r i d e o t h e r a g e n c i e s b u t c o n s i d e r s i t s e l f as an a d j u n c t of a l l o t h e r s i n s t i m u l a t i n g l o c a l i n t e r e s t , and r e n d e r i n g t e c h n i c a l g o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e s t o them.  U n i t e d Nations Bureau of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S o c i a l Progress T h r o u g h Community D e v e l o p m e n t , (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s Pubi T c a t i o n s , 1955)1 PP. 74 - 9 8 . 1  46 TABLE V SUMMARY OP CONFLICTING GOALS OF THE C I T I E S AND U N I V E R S I T I E S UNIVERSITY  CITY  1.'Room f o r u n i v e r s i t y  growth  2.  Maximum p r o v i s i o n o f m i d d l e income h o u s i n g e m p h a s i z i n g more h o u s i n g f o r f a c u l t y . *  3.  Housing f o r m i n o r i t y groups w i t h maintenance o f s t a b i l ized racially integrated neighbourhoods.*  1. Minimum d e m o l i t i o n o f h o u s i n g for non-residential use. Maximum p r o v i s i o n f o r l o w i n come h o u s i n g a n d l o w e r m i d d l e income h o u s i n g f o r t h e p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t (some o f whom may be university families). 3. More good h o u s i n g f o r m i n o r i t y groups - w i t h the l i k e l i h o o d of o p p o s i t i o n t o the use o f quotas.  4. M o d e r n s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t s i m p l y i n g acceptance of chain s t o r e s a n d h i g h r e n t s f o r new buildings.*  S m a l l s c a t t e r e d , owner operated stores a t low cost.  5.  Campus a d j a c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t be o f s u c h a n a t u r e t h a t should broaden the c i t y ' s t a x base.  Continuing of taxfree status 5 . o f the. u n i v e r s i t y a n d no t a x l e v y on p r o p e r t i e s p u r c h a s e d f o r expansion i n adjacent areas,  6 . R e c r e a t i o n a l a n d open s p a c e p r o v i s i o n on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e campus p r i m a r i l y f o r the use o f u n i v e r s i t y population. 7. H i g h p r i o r i t y on c i t y ' s l i s t s h o u l d be t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f campus a d j a c e n t a r e a s .  Open s p a c e s a l o n g t h e e d g e s o f t h e campus s h o u l d s e r v e c i t y wide and r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n i m p l y i n g maintenance by the u n i v e r s i t y .  7  8. C i t y s h o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e c i t y 8. s t r e e t s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus, and no s e v e r e r e s t r i c t i o n s be p l a c e d on s t r e e t p a r k i n g .  C i t y government i s committed to the w e l f a r e o f t h e whole city therefore University Community i s o f no b e t t e r significance. S t r e e t s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus a r e u s e d p r i m a r i l y f o r o n - s t r e e t p a r k i n g by the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n , the u n i v e r s i t y should share the maintenance c o s t .  ^ " " ^ ^ ^ o u r c e i y ^ 7 c T ' P a r s o n s , *UniversTte"¥""and C i t i e s ' , J o u r n a l of Higher Education 24 N o s . 1 a n d 4 ( J a n i a n d A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 ) p.209 r  7  CHAPTER I I I CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OP PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OP AREAS ADJACENT TO UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES AND CASE STUDIES OP THREE UNIVERSITY DISTRICTS: SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY, VICTORIA UNIVERSITY, AND UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA I CRITERIA FOR 1.  E s s e n t i a l Functions:  EVALUATION This c r i t e r i a  review o f s t u d i e s i n the p r e v i o u s comprise  i s based on the  two c h a p t e r s .  The c r i t e r i a  the f o l l o w i n g e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s i n a t y p i c a l  U n i v e r s i t y Community. (a)  Housing,, c h a r a c t e r i s e d by d o r m i t o r i e s , apartments, rooming houses, student c o o p e r a t i v e housing, f r a t e r n i t y and s o r o r i t y houses, and s i n g l e family dwellings;  (b)  Community f a c i l i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s c h o o l s , p a r k s - n l a v f i e l d s , churches, shopping a n d community centres;  (c)  R e c r e a t i o n and entertainment, d e s c r i b e d as f i e l d spaces, g o l f courses, stadiums, gymnasiums, s p o r t s a r e a s , swimming p o o l s , t h e a t r e s and auditoriums;  (d)  C u l t u r a l , d e s c r i b e d as l i b r a r i e s , book s t o r e s , p u b l i s h i n g houses, a r t g a l l e r i e s and museums;  (e)  Research, c h a r a c t e r i s e d by r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s r e l a t e d t o the f u n c t i o n s of the u n i v e r s i t y ;  (f)  C i r c u l a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d as a c c e s s r o u t e s , r e g i o n a l , metropolitan^ town and u n i v e r s i t y r o u t e s f o r V e h i c u l a r and p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c , p a r k i n g areas, and public transport.  2.  F u n c t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s ; The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d i f f -  e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f l a n d uses comprising  the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s  of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t are important  f o r achieving  o b j e c t i v e s of education,  r e s e a r c h , p u b l i c s e r v i c e and  to which most U n i v e r s i t y Towns s u b s c r i b e .  overall housing  48 3.  Growth..Needs, o f the U n i v e r s i t y Community:  f r o m a p r o p e r d i s p o s i t i o n o f l a n d u s e s and t h e r.rowth p o t e n t i a l  community  o f e a c h f u n c t i o n s h o u l d be  i n advance o f the a l l o c a t i o n  Apart activities,  evaluated  of space to v a r i o u s l a n d  well  use  categories. 4.  Identity.: U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t  p r e h e n s i b l e as a d i s t r i c t The  s h o u l d be  easily  p a r t of the m e t r o p o l i t a n community.  design of urban spaces should r e v e a l t h i s area as  o f c u l t u r e , and  com-  l e a r n i n g o f a r t , s c i e n c e and  d i t i o n t o i t s r e s i d e n t i a l and  the  technology  seat  i n ad-  s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e commun-  ity. 5.  PrfLa.n_iz.ajtion:  University District  The  a d m i n i s t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of  s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d  o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s and  to serve  the  the  interests  the major p a r t i c i p a n t s l o c a t e d w i t h i n  the community a r e a . I I CASE STUDIES Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y General  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the  F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y was for  decentralising  Columbia. A study vealed  Community:  t h a t any  University Area.  e s t a b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t  the f a c i l i t i e s  Simon  of recommendations  f o r higher education i n B r i t i s h  on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n  future expansion  The  in British  Columbia r e -  of the U n i v e r s i t y  Columbia beyond a s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t  o f 25,000 w i l l  t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , and  of  British  n o t be  recommended t h e  in estab-  l i s h m e n t o f a f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e a l o n g the Trans-Canada Highway In  Burnaby m u n i c i p a l i t y .  The  college w i l l  take  some o f  the  UNIVERSITY METROPOLITAN  SOurce: Vancouver V i s i t o r s ' Bureau, Vancouver, B . C . , 1966  DISTRICTS LOCATION  anticipated and  p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h I n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y ,  the l o c a t i o n w i l l  North the  student  provide automobile  V a n c o u v e r , S u r r e y and  provincial legislature  Langley  access  to students  municipalities." " 1  In 1963  e s t a b l i s h e d the Simon F r a s e r  s i t y w i t h the p a s s i n g o f the  Universities Act.  The  from s  Univer-  Burnaby  2 M o u n t a i n s i t e was The Burrard  s e l e c t e d f o r the new  University District  university.  i s bounded by B a r a e t  Highway  I n l e t , B l u e M o u n t a i n Road, T r a n s - C a n a d a H i g h w a y ,  Kensington  Avenue.  The  and  and  s t u d y A r e a i s somewhat l a r g e r t h a n  S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y Town S i t e  P l a n and  B u r n a b y , P o r t Moody and  municipalities.-^  The  on t h e  mountain.  versity The  site  City  i n the  c o m p r i s e s 1200  p a r t o f the  p o r t i o n o f t h e a r e a and  Ltd.  acres  o f V a n c o u v e r owns some 225  southern  Lake C i t y  Coquitlam  top of the  acres  Study A r e a .  includes parts  the  uni-  of undeveloped A l s o i n the  land  southern  f r o n t i n g the Lougheed Highway i s the  Industrial Estate  owned by  P a c i f i c Western  Holdings  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f low d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s  the p e r i m e t e r  of  of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t a l a r g e p a r t of  u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d i s under, . m u n i c i p a l  around the  ownership.  ^J.B. Macdonald, Higher Education i n B r i t i s h ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962).  Columbia. '  U n i v e r s i t i e s A c t of the P r o v i n c e ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 3 ) .  Columbia,'  2  of B r i t i s h  3 P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s , Simon F r a s e r T o w n s l t e Plan,(Toronto: P r o j e c t Planning Associates, 1963).  Master  50 E x i s t i n g commercial f a c i l i t i e s are l o c a t e d i n the  North  Road Shopping Centre, and a l o n g the Barnet', Lougheed and  Blue  Mountain roads w i t h i n the boundaries  A  site  of the Study A r e a .  f o r a major shopping centre to serve approximately  110,000  persons has r e c e n t l y been zoned a d j a c e n t to the e x i s t i n g Road Shopping Centre.  A s m a l l e r shopping  centre has been pro-  posed west of the U n i v e r s i t y i n Burnaby, and t a i n campus o r i e n t e d b u s i n e s s e s  (Map  3 and  North  Is l i k e l y  to con-  Table VI on Page  At the present time the area i s devoid of any  5^)  apartment•  development except 202 u n i t s i n Port Moody, but s e v e r a l h i g h density residential  zones,to provide a range of accommodation  i n apartments, are proposed the Study A r e a .  by the Burnaby m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n  M u l t i p l e D w e l l i n g areas w i l l be l o c a t e d ad-  j a c e n t to the proposed  shopping  c e n t r e s w i t h i n the a r e a .  The  u n i v e r s i t y plans to provide on-campus accommodation f o r 2,500 students which i s approximately student e n r o l l m e n t . housing.  20 per cent of the u l t i m a t e  There are no plans f o r f a c u l t y and  The demand f o r off-campus housing w i l l be  h i g h i n areas a d j a c e n t t o campus.  staff  fairly  At present most of the  out-  of-town students except 60 women In campus dormitory accommod a t i o n are l o c a t e d i n housing accommodation i n and Hastings S t r e e t .  around  Burnaby P l a n n i n g Department's p r o p o s a l s f o r  apartment zones i n areas a d j a c e n t to campus p l u s the r e g u l a t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g boarders i n s i n g l e f a m i l y homes w i l l l a r g e l y  supple-  ment the u n i v e r s i t y ' s demand f o r off-campus accommodation. Open space p r o v i s i o n s i n the Study Area  Include  51 undeveloped  l a n d around  and Burnaby Lake A r e a . Park  the u n i v e r s i t y campus, wooded r a v i n e s The proposed  Burnaby Lake M e t r o p o l i t a n  (650 A c r e s ) w i l l be I n t e g r a t e d w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y  Site  and Burnaby C e n t e n n i a l Park through ascending park r a v i n e s . In a d d i t i o n there are two  s i t e s f o r g o l f courses, one  the Burnaby C e n t e n n i a l Park and  the other i n West Coquitlam  and a d j o i n i n g the Blue Mountain Road w i t h i n the of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t The  (Map  south of  boundaries  4 f o l l o w i n g page 57).  Trans-Canada Highway a.long the s o u t h e r l y boundary  of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t  i s a major east-west  through  route and connects to Vancouver on the west side and q u i t l a m and  to  traffic Co-  other p a r t s of the r e g i o n on the east s i d e .  Also  t h i s highway connects to North and West Vancouver through Second Narrows c r o s s i n g .  The u n i v e r s i t y t r a f f i c  the  i s routed by  two major access roads, one from the south, c o n n e c t i n g the Stormont Interchange u n i v e r s i t y , and  of the Trans-Canada Highway w i t h the  one from the west, c o n n e c t i n g to H a s t i n g s S t r e e t .  Barnet Highway forms a major a r t e r i a l l i n k between P o r t Moody and Hastings S t r e e t .  Another  important cross-town  route  c o n n e c t i n g Hastings S t r e e t and Como Lake Road i n Coquitlam i s proposed  to be completed  The impact  i n the near  future.  of the U n i v e r s i t y pn the surrounding a r e a :  The  u n i v e r s i t y campus i s s t i l l b e i n g b u i l t and has an Enrollment of about 3,000 students, the impact  of the campus on I t s a d j a c e n t  a r e a s i s beginning to be f e l t a l r e a d y , 1.  Perhaps the f i r s t impact was on maijor landowners i n the a r e a . Burnaby m u n i c i p a l i t y , tlae C i t y of Vancouver,'Western P a c i f i c H o l d i n g s L t d . ,  52 Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , •. m a j o r l a n d owners i n the a r e a , c o m m i s s i o n e d P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s o f Toronto t o p r e p a r e t h e Simon F r a s e r Townsite Plan. The p l a n c o v e r e d a n a r e a o f 4,000 a c r e s i n Worth-East Burnaby, and o u t l i n e d the f u t u r e p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e w h i c h w o u l d be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y ' s ^ f u n c t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e s f o r the community. The p l a n was a d o p t e d b y t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s o f B u r n a b y and t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i n p r i n c i p l e . 2. The s e c o n d t y p e o f i m p a c t i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e c h a n g ing c h a r a c t e r o f the Uorth-East p a r t o f Burnaby as a r e s u l t o f the development o f the u n i v e r s i t y and highways. The h i g h w a y s h a v e g e n e r a l l y i m p r o v e d t h e a c c e s s , i n c r e a s e d t h e demand f o r s i t e s a n d u p - g r a d e d t h e p r o p e r t y v a l u e s a n d m u n i c i p a l t a x e s , b u t on t h e negative s i d e , h a v e ' i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the d e s i r e s of the a r e a ' s r e s i d e n t s t o m a i n t a i n the c h a r a c t e r o f ' t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . , The B u r n a b y C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d p e t i t i o n s f r o m r e s i d e n t s on ( a ) t h e c u r t a i l m e n t o f s a f e p e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s f o r some s c h o o l c h i l d r e n who now h a v e t o c r o s s b u s y h i g h w a y s t o go t o s c h o o l s , a n d (b) on t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f h o r s e r i d i n g t r a i l s a n d p i c n i c s i t e s on t h e B u r n a b y M o u n t a i n due t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e campus b u i l d i n g s a n d f a c i l i t i e s . -  3. B u r n a b y C o u n c i l h a s a r e s t r i c t i v e s u b d i v i s i o n p o l i c y on l a n d h e l d b y p r i v a t e owners i n t h e T o w n s i t e area. The r e s i d e n t s u r g e d t h e C o u n c i l t o l i f t these restrictions. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangement f o r Cooperative Fraser University D i s t r i c t  consists of four j u r s d i c t i o n a l  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f Burnaby, Coquitlam Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . 225 a c r e s Holdings  Planning:  o f V a n c o u v e r owns  o f p r e s e n t l y u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d , and the W e s t e r n  the b o u n d a r i e s o f the S t u d y A r e a .  units,  a n d P o r t Moody, a n d t h e  In a d d i t i o n , the C i t y  L t d . , a p r i v a t e company, o c c u p i e s  Simon  Pacific  a b o u t 650 a c r e s  I n 1964, a n A d v i s o r y  within  Technical  Committee c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e f o u r m a j o r l a n d owners o f t h e M u n i c i /  pality  o f Burnaby, the C i t y  o f V a n c o u v e r , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y  53 and  Western P a c i f i c Holdings  P o r t Moody and  L t d . was  constituted.  the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l  Planning  l a t e r a s k e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the committee. Planning  f o r B u r n a b y who  The  Committee  B o a r d were  Director  i s a l s o Chairman of the  Committee s t a t e d i n h i s r e p o r t t o the  Coquitlam,  of  Technical that:-  The B u r n a b y C o u n c i l h a v e a g r e e d to t h e establishment o f a t e c h n i c a l c o m m i t t e e t o a d v i s e them on a l l a s p e c t s o f the p l a n . I t i s Intended t h a t t h i s committee should be b r o a d i n s c o p e and w o u l d c o n s i s t n o t o n l y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the f o u r p a r t i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Simon F r a s e r T o w n s i t e P l a n b u t a l s o o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f P o r t Moody and C o q u i t l a m and t h e R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d . Assistance f r o m the D e p a r t m e n t o f H i g h w a y s , B.C. H y d r o , e t c . w o u l d be o b t a i n e d where n e c e s s a r y . 1  The  representatives  the D i r e c t o r s of P l a n n i n g  from v a r i o u s o f the  organisations  District  o f Vancouver, the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l M a y o r o f t h e C i t y o f P o r t Moody, P r i n c i p a l F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y and ing parties.  The  matters of j o i n t and  the  technical staff  representatives advise concern which are  thus I n d i r e c t l y  o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s and Some c r u c i a l  Issues  and  i n p a r t of the  City  Planning  Board,  the  Planner  of the  Simon  of v a r i o u s  f a c i n g the  participat-  their organisations a t the  meeting  organisations.  committee a r i s e from  parties.  The  university  I n t e r e s t e d i n the development o f the planning  on  d e c i s i o n making r o l e  other p a r t i c i p a t i n g  d i f f e r e n c e s of i n t e r e s t of the tration i s solely  of Burnaby, the  discussed  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  include  of access routes  of the  the adminis-  campus  campus  A.L. P a r r , " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t N o r t h - E a s t Burnaby P l a n " , ( B u r n a b y , B.C.: B u r n a b y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp.3, (unpublished).  54 w h i c h pass t h r o u g h m u n i c i p a l a r e a s around the The u n i v e r s i t y i s a n x i o u s t o a c q u i r e  university.  some a d d i t i o n a l  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d owned by t h e C i t y The C i t y i s c o u n t i n g on t h i s l a n d a s a p o t e n t i a l financing part of i t s five-year plan. Department would l i k e  property of Vancouver.  source f o r  The B u r n a b y  Planning  the U n i v e r s i t y t o d e v e l o p i t s s i t e  integral  p a r t o f the N o r t h - E a s t Burnaby Park system.  Regional  P l a n n i n g Board would l i k e  as an  The  t o see a p o l i c y a d o p t e d by  the  u n i v e r s i t y t o s e t a s i d e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e campus  for  a possible regional park.  The u n i v e r s i t y  fears that  unless  a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t b y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s is  p l a n n e d w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s o f t h e campus, t h e a r e a  i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus w i l l these f a c i l i t i e s .  have t o be d e v e l o p e d f o r  P o r t Moody a n d C o q u i t l a m a r e l i n k e d  i n the  c o m m i t t e e b e c a u s e t h e u n i v e r s i t y m i g h t have a n i m p a c t on h i g h w a y s and r e s i d e n t i a l development i n t h e s e a r e a s . c e n t r e f o r the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t of  B u r n a b y and C o q u i t l a m .  Pacific  A l s o t h e m a j o r town  i s proposed a l o n g the boundary  M a j o r l a n d owners s u c h a s W e s t e r n  H o l d i n g s L t d . a r e t h e r e because o f s t r o n g p r o f i t  moti-  v a t i o n i n the Townsite p r o p o s a l s . However t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s d i c h o t o m y i s t o r e v e a l there are c o n f l i c t i n g of  v i e w p o i n t s w i t h r e s p e c t to the  t h e U n i v e r s i t y Community A r e a .  Committee  i s a vehicle  Technical parties,  o n l y i n awakening the need f o r  A s a' r e s u l t o f d i v e r s i t y  of i n t e r e s t s  m a j o r d e c i s i o n s o f l o c a t i o n o f community f a c i l i t i e s constitute  development  o f e x p r e s s i o n f o r the i n t e r e s t e d  a n d so f a r h a s b e e n e f f e c t i v e joint planning.  The A d v i s o r y  that  the consensus o f tho committee.  some  d i d not  However, i t i s  55  probably  premature t o c o n s i d e r the adequacy of t h i s k i n d  Informal  c o o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t for  the  committee has  the l a s t I f  not  met  regularly  overall  p l a n n i n g because  during i t s inception i n  years.  Burnaby P l a n n i n g Department i s p r e s e n t l y r e v i s i n g S i m o n P r a s e r T o w n s i t e P l a n t o accommodate c e r t a i n proposals  i n the l o c a t i o n s  facilities practice  of  I n the  of major shopping  University  i s based upon the  District.  following  The  the  changes i n  c e n t r e s and current  other  planning  principles:  1.  The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus w i t h three urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , Burnaby, Ooqultlam and P o r t Moody. The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e campus w i t h t h e u r b a n a r e a i s p e r h a p s one o f t h e m a j o r s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g problems i n the o p i n i o n o f p l a n ners. U n l i k e o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y campuses the Simon P r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y o c c u p i e s a n i s o l a t e d s i t e on t h e t o p o f B u r n a b y M o u n t a i n and n e e d s t o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a .  2.  A m a j o r Town C e n t r e c o m p r i s i n g m a j o r f a c i l i t i e s f o r s h o p p i n g , c l u b s , c h u r c h e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s and t r a n s i e n t accommodation t o serve an e s t i m a t e d popu l a t i o n o f 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 i n N o r t h - E a s t B u r n a b y and the w e s t e r l y h a l f o f Coquit-lam i s b e i n g p l a n n e d . The Town C e n t r e i s l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e m a j o r a c c e s s r o u t e t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y , and w o u l d s e r v e some o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s demands f o r o f f - c a m p u s f a c i l i t i e s .  3. A s m a l l e r s h o p p i n g c e n t r e w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of the u n i v e r s i t y i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . A majority o f b u s i n e s s e s I n t h i s p r o p o s a l a r e e x p e c t e d t o be p r i m a r i l y campus o r i e n t e d . 4.  The a p a r t m e n t z o n e s o f f e r i n g a r a n g e o f m u l t i p l e accommodation are proposed i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t to the shopping c e n t r e s .  5.  A 6 0 a c r e s i t e f o r a R e s e a r c h Campus s o u t h o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus I s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r z o n i n g land for industries.  6.  A c o n t i n u o u s open s p a c e c o m p r i s i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus, B u r n a b y C e n t e n n i a l P a r k , and G o l f C o u r s e , B u r n a b y L a k e a n d wooded r a v i n e s i n t h e N o r t h - E a s t Burnaby Area i s being planned.  56 7.  The p l a n n i n g o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i s b a s e d on t h e "Neighbourhood P r i n c i p l e " . The e x i s t i n g and p r o posed elementary s c h o o l s are l o c a t e d w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s o f homes s e r v e d . The t r a f f i c routes w i l l e x i s t on the p e r i p h e r y o f e a c h n e i g h b o u r h o o d ( T a b l e V I on page 57 and Map 3 ) .  8.  The p o p u l a t i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t i e s a r e b e i n g p l a n n e d t o s u p p o r t n e i g h b o u r h o o d and c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the S t u d y A r e a .  9. A c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n o f l a n d ownership. The m a j o r l a n d o w n e r s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n , Western P a c i f i c H o l d i n g s and t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r own more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r e s e n t l y u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d i n the T o w n s i t e A r e a . With e x c e p t i o n of o i l tank farms, the r e m a i n d e r of the a r e a i s r e s i d e n t i a l and i s owned by i n d i v i d u a l homeowners. A c o m b i n e d a p p r o a c h , f o r t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t , by t h e m a j o r l a n d o w n e r s , w i l l r e s u l t i n a f a r more s u p e r i o r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e w i t h the m u l t i t u d e of owners. 1  These p r i n c i p l e s e v o l v e d  by B u r n a b y p l a n n e r s a r e  fully  explored  of the  Plan.  Routine  i n the r e v i s i o n  Simon P r a s e r  Townsite  d e c i s i o n s o f the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l on  p e r t a i n i n g to North-East  Burnaby r e f l e c t  these  being  matters  principles.  A.L. P a r r , D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g , C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f B u r n a b y , B.C., by i n t e r v i e w s i n M a r c h , 1 9 6 6 . In a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t s o f t h e B u r n a b y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t were c o n s u l t e d and a n y c h a n g e s i n p r o p o s a l s s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f r e p o r t s were r e v e a l e d by t h e P l a n n i n g S t a f f a t B u r n a b y . Burnaby P l a n n i n g Departments Burnaby School S i t e s , ( B u r n a b y , B.C.: C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby, 1959). Burnaby P l a n n i n g Department, Burnaby Park S i t e s , ( B u r n a b y , B.C.; C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f Burnaby, Plan,  P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s , Simon F r a s e r T o w n s i t e ( T o r o n t o : The A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 6 3 ) . ~~  1961). Master  M4  *°  SIMON FRASER #j UNIVERSITY DISTRIC T J NEIGHB OURHOO DS  aassB  Source:  & S ^ % y . t r  university  '^V^  boundary  neighbourhood  fllflll  l  boundary  university district  boundary  s c a l e lm 3400' April,1966.  IP*^  s  &  57  TABLE VI SIMON PRASER UNIVERSITY COMMUNITY NEIGHBOURHOODS, POPULATION AND THE TYPES OP DEVELOPMENT  Neighbourhood or Area  Present Population  Ultimate Population  Type of Development  Lochdale  3,888  6,000  mainly s i n g l e fami l y residential.  West Ridge  1,458  6,50'0  single family residential  Sperling  1,672  11,456  ultimate  population  i n SPD 4,556 and  MPD 7,400 Government Road  1,077  5,400  Lyndhurst  1,543  14,604  Burnaby Mountain Heights Simon P r a s e r University  140  60  single family residential ultimate  population  i n SPD 3,874 and MPD 10,730 u n i v e r s i t y area  NIL  2,500  campus b u i l d i n g s & student d o r m i t o r i e s  Burqultlam  8,300  ENA  single family r e s i d e n t i a l & apartments  Glenayre  2,500  ENA  single family r e s i d e n t i a l & 202 u n i t s apartments.  NIL  m e t r o p o l i t a n park 650 a c r e s i n c l u d i n g lake.  Burnaby Lake  Research Campus Industrial  1  -  -  research i n d u s t r i e s O i l tank farms, and industrial sites.  Source*: Burnaby Planning Department, C o r p o r a t i o n pf the D i s t r i c t o f Burnaby, B.C., Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, New Westminster, B.C. ^ENA (Estimates not a v a i l a b l e )  58 Implementation: Burnaby Planning Department submitted the following methods to the Technical Committee in considering the implementation of the Simon Praser Townsite Plan. 1. Adoption of an unofficial community plan of the University Community Area to serve as a guide only (Map 4). 2. "Adoption of a binding Official Community Plan of the Municipality. Any variance to plan would require the approval of the Provincial Government. The University Townsite Plan will be an intergral part of the Burnaby Master Plan. 3. Delineation of an area where major landowners are involved, such owners to develop on an agreed joint basis. The owners to be guided by the unofficial University Area Plan. 4. Land assembly under one ownership. 5. Administration of the plan by an Estate Manager or a real estate,corporation of major land owners. 6. The land to be developed will be leased to developers and the whole operation will be managed by a real estate corporation. 7. Municipal controls such as Subdivision, Zoning, Capital budgeting, Scheduling of municipal services, etc., are deemed to be the subsidiary methods for implementation. Victoria University Community: General Characteristics of 'the Area: The University of Victoria" came into being in 1963 with the passing of the 2  Universities Act.  Prior to this, the University enjoyed the .  status of a college for some sixty years. A.L* E a n V ' Progress Report, North-East Burnaby Plan" (Burnaby, B^G.: Burnaby Planning Department, 1964). 1  Universities Act of the Province of British Columbia, (Victoria, B.C.l Queen's Printer, 196.3.). 2  SIMON FRASER A UNIVERSITY DISTRICT GENERAL PLAN  Source"  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l F l a n n i n g B o a r d , New W e s t m i n t e r , B.C, „ ><o\ LEGEND s c a l e 1=3^00 T_2Lr> A p r i l , i960. [ I s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s . ______ u n i v e r s i t y [~f~\ P boundary, golf course. 1 A I m u l t i f a m i l y r e s . n_£~~| research g_j_ri s e c o n d a r y ' campus. t' schooljdistrict a r k  1  a  n  d  1  1  r_ I « 1 m u n i c i p a l boundary  commercial 1  1  industrial  park. elementry school 11111111 u n i v . d i t r i c t b o u n d a r y  In  I 9 6 0 , through  the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the Department  N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e and  Hudson Bay  m i n i s t r a t i o n a c q u i r e d 284 w i t h i n the V i c t o r i a Victoria  acre  m i l e from  the academic f a c i l i t i e s  r i b u t e d between these The  campus s i t e  i n G o r d o n Head P r i o r to  a l l i t s f u n c t i o n s on a 54  l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e o f one At present  Company, t h e c o l l e g e a d -  M e t r o p o l i t a n Community.  C o l l e g e had  two  Blenkinsop  c o a s t a l waters  easterly  C a p i t a l Region.  s h i p t o t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  Study Area Saanich,  Hillside a few  a c r e s i n Oak  Bay,  e x i s t i n g commercial Plaza, Shellbourne  i n the  and  south-  Its relation  the n e t w o r k  i s shown on Map  i n c l u d e s a b o u t 7,374 a c r e s  1,139  The  proposed major roads,  dist  1  E x p r e s s w a y , H a u l t a i n Avenue and  e x i s t i n g and  campus  the G o r d o n Head campus  i s bounded by  p a r t o f the P r o v i n c i a l  acre  1963  o f the u n i v e r s i t y are  campuses.  University District  of  5.  of The  (5»657 a c r e s i n 578  facilities  acres i n V i c t o r i a ) . are l o c a t e d at  P l a z a , C a d b o r o Bay  s c a t t e r e d l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the boundaries  V i l l a g e and o f the  Study  Area. The  Study Area  i s single  f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l and  f a r m i n g b u t a s i g n i f i c a n t a p a r t m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t has place over  the p a s t f o u r y e a r s .  The  apartment areas  " ' " U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , The, U n i v e r s i t y ( U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , Victoria:""19^47. 2  Area,  in  some taken are  Calendar  S a a n i c h P l a n n i n g Department, A Plan f o r U n i v e r s i t y ( S a a n i c h , B.C. The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1965).  V2CTOR0A UNIVERSITY A R E A  UNIVERSITY CAMPUS STUDY EXISTING MAJOR PLANNED SCALE  MAJOR  AREA ROADS ROADS  I* = 7 0 0 0 '  Source: C a p i t a l Region P l a n n i n g Board, Unive r s i t y Area Study,. V i c fcttoria, BC; CRPB.  a d j a c e n t t o the e x i s t i n g plans to provide 500 m a r r i e d  shopping  for  The  s t u d e n t s and 120 f a c u l t y members.  t h e campus.  At present  be f a i r l y  mated  t o be b u i l t  over  adjacent  on-campus a c c o m m o d a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d accommodation i s  the n e x t decade o r s o .  It.is  esti-  t h a t w i t h t h e u l t i m a t e s i z e o f the u n i v e r s i t y h a v i n g  enrollment  o f 10,000 s t u d e n t s , 700 f a c u l t y a n d 500 s t a f f ,  demand f o r o f f - c a m p u s a c c o m m o d a t i o n w i t h i n t h e S t u d y A r e a amount t o some 2,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  u n i v e r s i t y e n r o l l m e n t w i t h the e x i s t i n g , housing  a c c o m m o d a t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e  reasonable planned  size,  growth. single  to expect  planned  and  the needed accommodation w i l l  an the will  o f the  needed  V I I on page 6 1 .  t h a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y may  It is  grow b e y o n d i t s change w i t h t h e  Oak B a y m u n i c i p a l i t y i s g e n e r a l l y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e family residential  i s p u r s u i n g the p o l i c y accommodation r e l a t e d boundaries  centres.  p r i n c i p l e whereas Saanich  t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s demand w i t h i n t h e  o f the Study A r e a .  The a p a r t m e n t z o n e s a r e p r o -  t o the e x i s t i n g  or proposed  The P l a n o u t l i n e d a p r o p o s a l f o r a town  comprising f a c i l i t i e s  Council  o f p r o v i d i n g a range o f apartment  posed i n areas a d j a c e n t  Area.  and  The demand f o r  high i n areas  a b o u t 350 s t u d e n t s , a n d t h e o t h e r p l a n n e d  expected  university-  on-campus a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r 2,000 s i n g l e  off-campus accommodation w i l l to  plazas.  f o r shopping,  shopping  centre  recreation, clubs,  churches,  Saanich P l a n n i n g Department, A P l a n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y ( S a a n i c h , B.C.: The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t 1 9 6 5 3 .  E N R O L L M E N T A T T H E UNIVERSITY  TABLE VII!  O F VICTORIA  IN R E L A T I O N T O N E E D E D H O U S I N G A C C O M M O D A T I O N  SESSION  1962-63  63-64  64-65  65-66  66-67  67-68  68-69  69-70  70-71  71-72  Ultimate  1,826  2,085  2,550  3,050  3,300  3,700  4,100  4,500  4,900  5,300  10,000  589  660  839  1,200  1,320  1,480  1,640  1,800  1,960  2,120  4,000  -  -  150  150  150  400  400  600  600  600  2,000 500  Off C a m p u s A c c o m m o d a t i o n required  589  660  689  1,050  1,170  1,080  1,240  1,200  1,360  1,520  1,500  G r o u p II ( F a c u l t y ) Faculty requiring Accommodation  134  144  150  200  230  260  290  315  340  370  700  -  -  -  -  -  60  60  120  120  120  120  Faculty requiring Accommodation off the C a m p u s  134  144  150  200  230  200  230  195  220  250  580  G r o u p III ( N o n - A c a d e m i c U n i v e r s i t y Staff N o n - A c a d e m i c Staff r e q u i r i n g Accommodation  69  62  70  120  132  150  165  180  196  212  500  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  69  62  70  120  150  165  180  196  212  500  University Enrollment G r o u p I (Students) O u t - o f - T o w n Students requiring Accommodation A c c o m m o d a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the C a m p u s S i n g l e Students M a r r i e d Students  Faculty Accommodation available on the C a m p u s  A c c o m m o d a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on the C a m p u s N o n - A c a d e m i c Staff r e q u i r i n g A c c o m m o c a t i o n off the C a m p u s  SOurce: S a a n i c h Panning Department  9  ,  1  3  2  A P l a n F o r The U n i v e r s i t y A r e a ( s a a n i c h ; P I n g 9  0  Dept., 1 9 6 5 ) f  62 community h a l l  and m u l t i p l e  accommodation,  Community n o r t h - w e s t o f t h e The three and  open  golf  and  o f the Study A r e a  Mount D o u g l a s and Mount  The m a j o r  open  c o a s t a l waters e x i s t  a natural o f open Map  space component  7,  page  circulation  campus.  C r o s s Road and  Avenue and  Tattersall  Canada and  Patricia  Cadboro  Bay  Downtown.  impacts  relationship  u s e s i s shown on  the proposed e x t e n s i o n  Drive  Bay  A enue,  B l e n k l n s o p Road, M a r i n e  west  Shellbourne Street,  The  o f Mackenzie  c o n n e c t the u n i v e r s i t y  Highways l o c a t e d  Drive  to Trans-  o f the  P o u l Bay  Study and  Roads f o r m m a j o r l i n k s between t h e S t u d y A r e a and  1  Impact selection  create  the p e r i p h e r a l a c c e s s r o u t e s .  Cedar H i l l  v  The  thus  zones  system o f the Study A r e a i s o r i e n t e d  the u n i v e r s i t y  Hillside  residential  other land  three  70.  and H a u l t a i n Avenue f o r m  Area,  the T o w n s i t e . and  playfields  metropolitan  on the p e r i p h e r y and  space to r e s i d e n t i a l following  towards  spaces, r u r a l  g r e e n b e l t around  The  includes  Tolmie p a r k s and  c o u r s e s s e r v e much l a r g e r a r e a s o f the  community.  Head  campus.  c o u r s e s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d community p a r k ,  beaches.  golf  i n Gordon  o f t h e campus on t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a : W i t h the  o f t h e campus s i t e  i n Gordon  o f t h e campus d e v e l o p m e n t  Head a r e a ,  the  following  werel n o t e d :  1. A r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g t h e campus. The r a t e o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by  Area,  ^ S a a n i c h P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , A P l a n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y ( S a a n i c h , B.C.: The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1965).  63 the f a c t t h a t a l m o s t a l l l a n d c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n the e x t e n s i o n s of the m u n i c i p a l sewer system i s i n the u n i v e r s i t y a r e a . The s i z e o f t h e f a r m d e c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a s p a r t - t i m e f a r m i n g h a s become a way o f l i f e f o r many s u b u r b a n d w e l l e r s . The l a n d b e g a n t o be farmed i n t e n s i v e l y f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f a v a r i e t y of v e g e t a b l e s , f l o w e r s and n u r s e r y p l a n t s , and h a s b e e n v u l n e r a b l e to s m a l l l o t s u b d i v i s i o n whenever p r i c e o f f e r e d f o r f a r m l a n d e x c e e d s the r e t u r n s to the farmer. The c u m u l a t i v e r e s u l t i s a s c a t t e r e d r e s i d e n t i a l development over a l a r g e area n o r t h of Cedar H i l l C r o s s Road, c o n t r i b u t i n g t o u n d e s i r a b l e s p r a w l . With c o n t i n u e d s u b d i v i s i o n a c t i v i t y and home b u i l d i n g , i t i s assumed t h a t v i r t u a l l y , a l l f a r m i n g a s a n e c o n o m i c use o f l a n d w i l l d i s a p p e a r o v e r t i m e . 2.  The s e c o n d i m p a c t i s a n e m e r g e n c e o f new p r o f i t a b l e market f o r l a n d developers b u i l d i n g houses f o r u p p e r m i d d l e income g r o u p s because the u n i v e r s i t y a r e a became a p r e s t i g e s u b u r b o f t h e r e g i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e demand f o r c o m m e r c i a l s i t e s i n c r e a s e d m a n i f o l d . A t one t i m e t h r e e s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s had b e e n p r o p o s e d i n a r e a s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus.  3.  The u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t I s o r i e n t i n g i t s e l f t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s demand f o r h o u s i n g and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s i n the a r e a . There, i s demand f o r l o w r e n t a l s t u d e n t h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n and some h o u s e h o l d s h a v e b e e n s u p p l y i n g a c e r t a i n amount. A s u r v e y o f o f f - c a m p u s s t u d e n t a c c o m m o d a t i o n c o n d u c t e d i n t h e summer o f 1963 r e v e a l e d t h a t n e a r l y 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n e x i s t e d i n homes w i t h i n a t w o - m i l e r a d i u s f r o m t h e campus, and t h e r e m a i n d e r 20 p e r c e n t i n homes a t d i s t a n c e s g r e a t e r t h a n two m i l e s . The f i n d i n g s . o f t h e s u r v e y a r e shown i n T a b l e V I I I on page 64.' The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d off-campus a c c o m m o d a t i o n was w i t h i n a h a l f - m i l e d i s t a n c e ( 1 0 - 1 5 m i n u t e s w a l k i n g t i m e ) f r o m t h e campus. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e h o u s e s p r o v i d i n g t h e o f f - c a m p u s accommod a t i o n a r e n o t t h e t y p e and s i z e w h i c h u s u a l l y accommodate roomers. The on-campus a c c o m m o d a t i o n e x i s t s o n l y f o r 142 women s t u d e n t s and much o f t h e u n s a t i s f i e d d e mand i s b e i n g met I n h o u s e s a d j a c e n t t o t h e c a m p u s e s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e s t u d e n t s a r e p a y i n g $35 t o #45 p e r month f o r a p a r t m e n t s i n p r i v a t e homes, and |70 t o |90 p e r m o n t h f o r room and b o a r d . Those r e n t a l s a r e comp a r a b l e t o r e n t a l p r e v a l e n t i n t h e UBC Community A r e a and t h e Simon P r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y A r e a . The u n i v e r s i t y p l a n s t o p r o v i d e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r 2,500 s t u d e n t s on t h e campus b u t t h e demand w i l l be t h r e e t i m e s i n e x c e s s of the p l a n n e d amount. I t Is estimated that 7,520 ( s t u d e n t s , s t a f f and t h e i r f a m i l i e s ) w i l l r e q u i r e a c c o m m o d a t i o n on t h e campus and i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o the u n i v e r s i t y . 1  64  TABLE  VIII  ACCOMMODATION FOR UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA STUDENTS IN HOUSES OFF THE CAMPUS  Distance i n m i l e s from the campus  0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 t o 6.0  Percentage o f o u t of-town students in residence  31.5 16.3 15.0 16.8 8.4 8.0 3.5  Remarks  70 p e r c e n t o f these students walk t o the campus and t h e o t h e r 30 p e r c e n t go b y b u s a n d c a r . (15.5 p e r c e n t u s e public transport)  100.0  Source: S a a n i c h P l a n n i n g Department, A P l a n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a ( S a a n i c h , B.C.: The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 6 5 ) , T a b l e 1 on page 8. A t t h e time o f t h e s u r v e y t h e r e were t h r e e t y p e s o f h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n t h e a r e a s s i n g l e a n d d o u b l e rooms i n s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s ; and s u i t e s i n apartments. 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e o u t - o f - t o w n s t u d e n t s l i v e d i n s i n g l e rooms a n d 37 p e r c e n t i n double rooms o f t h e - s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n the a r e a . The r e m a i n d e r 13 p e r c e n t s t u d e n t l i v e d i n a p a r t ments.  4.  The u n i v e r s i t y m a n i f e s t s i t s i m p a c t n o t o n l y i n t h e demand f o r l o w r e n t a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n b u t a l s o i n t h e v o l u m e s and p a t t e r n o f v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c on r o u t e s l e a d i n g t o and f r o m t h e campus. The t r a f f i c m o d i f i e s the c h a r a c t e r of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s u r r o u n d i n g the campus. The s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g a r e a a l o n g t h e H e n d e r s o n Road, a m a j o r a c c e s s r o u t e t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y , i s d i s t u r b e d by t h e u n i v e r s i t y t r a f f i c and t h e r e i s g r o w i n g concern o v e r the p l a n n i n g of s u f f i c i e n t a c c e s s f a c i l i t i e s around the campus. 1  5.  The e f f e c t s p f t h e u n i v e r s i t y on s u r r o u n d i n g m u n i c i p a l a r e a s c a l l e d f o r a more p r u d e n t l o o k a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y - c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s g e n e r a l l y , and a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y and n e i g h b o u r h o o d f a c i l i t i e s , e t c i n the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a . I n 1963, Saanich P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t d e t e r m i n e d t h e zone o f i n f l u e n c e o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y and s e l e c t e d a r e a e a s t o f B l e n k i n s o p E x p r e s s w a y f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t . The U n i v e r s i t y A r e a c o n s i s t s o f p a r t s i n S a a n i c h , Oak Bay and V i c t o r i a . The s t u d y r e s u l t e d i n a U n i v e r s i t y A r e a P l a n i n F e b r u a r y , 1966. The p l a n d e f i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the u n i v e r s i t y t o the s u r r o u n d i n g c o m m u n i t y and p r o v i d e s f o r t h e g r o w t h n e e d s o f t h e campus, campus r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l u s e s , c o m m u n i t y a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e a s i n a s e t t i n g o f l a n d use p o l i c i e s and c o n t r o l s t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , r e s i d e n t i a l and s e r v i c e t o t h e public.(Map 7, and T a b l e IX on page 69).  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangement f o r Cooperative are sity  four jurisdictional  u n i t s i n the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a ,  of V i c t o r i a , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  C i t y of V i c t o r i a .  of Saanich  by  1.  Oak  Bay,  Univerand  by  the  develop-  In a d d i t i o n , the C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g Board  planning i s achieved  The r e  I t s c o u n c i l or development  a s an a d v i s o r y b o d y t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s cooperative  and  The  Each i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g and  ment o f t h e i r p a r t a d m i n i s t e r e d authority.  Planning:  of the r e g i o n .  serves The  the f o l l o w i n g methods:  L i a i s o n C o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f u n i v e r s i t y and municipal o f f i c i a l s to d i s c u s s ' t e c h n i c a l planning problems of mutual concern. The c o m m i t t e e c o n v e n e s meetings" whenever t h e r e i s a need.  G.O. W h i t e , M u n i c i p a l E n g i n e e r and P l a n n e r , C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f O a k B a y , B.C., by i n t e r v i e w i n M a r c h , 1966. 1  66 2. I n t e r - m u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l c o n s i s t i n g o f m u n i c i p a l officials. The u n i v e r s i t y d o e s n o t have a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on t h e C o u n c i l b u t i f t h e s e a r e m a t t e r s concerning the u n i v e r s i t y area, the u n i v e r s i t y i s c a l l e d upon t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 3. U n i v e r s i t y A r e a P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l l o r s and t e c h n i c a l s t a f f from S a a n i c h , Oak B a y a n d t h e u n i v e r s i t y . This committee was r e c e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d a n d h a s h a d no m e e t i n g s s o 4. A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n s o f Oak B a y a n d S a a h l c h . The C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g B o a r d i s one o f t h e members i n t h e s e C o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h d e a l w i t h w h o l e ranges o f P l a n n i n g problems concerning t h e i r m u n i c i p a l a r e a s and the r e g i o n . I n previous' years the Commissions d i s c u s s e d severa 1 planning problems p e r t a i n i n g t o the U n i v e r s i t y Community A r e a a n d a d v i s e d t h e i r M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l on p o l i c i e s . 5. The C a p i t a l R e g i o n P l a n n i n g B o a r d was c o m m i s s i o n e d by S a a n i c h , Oak B a y a n d t h e C i t y o f V i c t o r i a t o p r e p a r e p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s and plans of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s dictions. I n t h i s r e s p e c t , the Planning Board has been q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n c o o r d i n a t i n g p l a n n i n g o f Greater V i c t o r i a Area. Among v a r i o u s s t u d i e s p r e pared by t h e P l a n n i n g B o a r d , t h e U n i v e r s i t y A r e a Study was p r e p a r e d I n 1962, a t t h e j o i n t r e q u e s t o f Oak B a y and S a a n i c h C o u n c i l s . 2 Through t h e media o f t h e above a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e ments t h e p l a n n i n g o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y A r e a h a s p r o c e e d e d cooperative' b a s i s i by  on a  kl t h o u g h t h e u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n s a r e made  the C o u n c i l s and the U n i v e r s i t y , the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n these  committees had an important  role  t o play i n the d e c i s i o n s o f  t h e i r C o u n c i l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s on p o l i c i e s a n d programmes for  the development o f the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a .  There a r e no  A.H. R o b e r t s , P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r , C a p i t a l R e g i o n B o a r d , B.C., by i n t e r v i e w i n P a r c h 1966.  Planning  T.W. L o n e y , M u n i c i p a l P l a n n e r , C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f S a a n i c h , B.C., by i n t e r v i e w i n M a r c h , 1966. 2  67  l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s k i n d of i n f o r m a l l i a i s o n a t the l e v e l but  the l i a i s o n between the  and  the  local  are  problems p a r t i c u l a r l y  h i g h w a y s and  planning  P r o v i n c i a l Government  b o d i e s r e q u i r e s t o be o f f i n a n c i n g the  improved.  extent  construction  the  P r o v i n c i a l Government can Therefore  the  postpone t h e i r d e c i s i o n s u n t i l  Municipal  Councils  tend  such time as a d e f i n i t e  from the  of planners  t h i s e n t a i l s unnecessary delay which could  P r o v i n c i a l Government.  In the  committee the  v i e w p o i n t a t the  to answer  opinion be  committee a P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r  or Deputy M i n i s t e r as a permanent p a r t i c i p a n t . the  to  participate in  i s received  by b r i n g i n g i n t o t h e  of  about  C o u n c i l s have i n s u f f i c i e n t g u i d a n c e a s  s u c h programmes.  avoided  There  other p r o j e c t s of I n t e r - m u n i c i p a l nature  w h i c h the l o c a l what an  local  opportunity  t o h e a r the  This would  give  P r o v i n c i a l Government's  time a problem i s submitted  to j o i n t  committee  for discussion. At can not  present,  be  the  issues resolved at their joint  communicated to the  j o i n t b a s i s due  to Inherent  senior l e v e l  limitations  m u n i c i p a l i t y , u n i v e r s i t y or the  o f g o v e r n m e n t on  Planning  Board deals w i t h  individual basis.  presented  i n most I n s t a n c e s  heavily f o r an  i n favour enquiry  cipality  i t not  the  problem i s  i t i s weighted  for a p r o v i n c i a l grant.  d e a l w i t h the whole problem but  part which concerns i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . i s refused  The  A  o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h makes a n a p p l i c a t i o n  or requests  does not  a  of t h i s arrangement.  P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t on a n f r a g m e n t a r i l y and  meetings  In an  The  muni-  only w i t h  that  e v e n t an a p p l i c a t i o n  o n l y a f f e c t s the m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n c e r n e d  but  68 the  total area.  cooperative  Under the  l i m i t a t i o n s of the  a r r a n g e m e n t w h i c h has  communication w i t h never gets solved organization  the  no  the  the  joint  problem  T h e r e f o r e some b e t t e r f o r m  c o n s i s t i n g of m u n i c i p a l ,  B o a r d o f f i c i a l s and  p r o v i s i o n of a  P r o v i n c i a l Governments  i n time.  existing  u n i v e r s i t y , the  P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t be  of Planning  s e t up  on  a  permanent b a s i s . Implementation:  U n i v e r s i t y Area Study c o n t a i n s  f o l l o w i n g methods of i m p l e m e n t i n g the 1.  the  plan.  H i g h e r d e n s i t y zone a r o u n d t h e e x i s t i n g and p r o p o s e d c o m m u n i t y and n e i g h b o u r h o o d c e n t r e s .  2. A " U n i v e r s i t y P r e c i n c t " a d j a c e n t t o t h e G o r d o n Head campus. Many u n i v e r s i t i e s a t t r a c t r e l a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l and r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h d e s i r e to locate- i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y . A special pediatric h o s p i t a l , a m e d i c a l s c h o o l and a l i b e r a l a r t s c o l l e g e a r e p o s s i b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l n e i g h b o u r s t o the u n i v e r sity. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e may be o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r i n g s i t e s i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus I n the d i s t a n t f u t u r e . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r e c i n c t i s t o p r o v i d e f o r the u n i v e r s i t y e x p a n s i o n on one h a n d and s i t e s f o r r e l a t e d u s e s on t h e o t h e r . The d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e p r e c i n c t w i l l be s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l b y - l a w s and o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s b e i n g e v o l v e d by t h e S a a n i c h P l a n n i n g Department. 3.  P r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r o a d s a d j a c e n t t o the campus. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y w i l l c r e a t e demands f o r r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t a r e b e y o n d the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n c e r n e d . Provincial partic i p a t i o n i n some f o r m w o u l d seem m a n d a t o r y .  4.  C r e a t i o n o f a " l a n d b a n k " by d e f e r r i n g t h e d e v e l o p ment o f p r e s e n t l y u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d owned by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . A l a n d bank w i l l s e r v e a u s e f u l t o o l f o r c a r r y i n g o u t e l e m e n t s o f the c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n . As l a n d i s I n c r e a s i n g i n v a l u e a t a g r e a t e r r a t e t h a n most s e c u r i t i e s I t w o u l d be good i n v e s t m e n t .  5.  Z o n i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n and c a p i t a l b u d g e t i n g p l a n s t a i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the p l a n .  6.  The  p r o g r a m m i n g and  timing  o f s e w e r s and  other  con-  TABLE IX VICTORIA UNIVERSITY DISTRICT COMMUNITIES, NEIGHBOURHOODS, POPULATION AND TYPE OP RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT Community and Neighbourhood Cadboro Bay Cadboro Bay Ten M i l e Point University  Area (Ac.)  Ultimate Population  1 , 6 5 9  11,205  394 663  4,893 , 1,998 4,314  Gordon Head  1,428  14,216  Tyndall 224 Torquay 319 Perndale 459 San Juan 148 Peltham 258 Mount Douglas 1,654 Ruby 200 114 Queensbury H t s , Queensbury 294 Arrow 124 Cedarglen (excluding. 922 Mount Douglas Park)  2,296 3,280 3,497 2,288 2,855 10,132  Shelbourne Henderson Shelbourne Newton Cedar H i l l North D a i r y Hillside Uplands Uplands Lansdowne  21,802 2,768  1  Total Area  6 0 2  1,864 3 7 0  346 290 410 150 2'98 796 582 187  2 , 7 2 0  1,092 2,411 1,022' • • 2,887  6  Type of Development  d  SPD & apartments SPD Campus & u n i v e r s i t y precinct. Town centre l o c a t e d in this area. SPD & apartments SPD SPD SPD & apartments SPD & apartments SPD & apartments SPD SPD & apartments SPD Rural r e s i d e n t i a l having l a r g e l o t s .  4,064 3,755 3,248 4,874  SPD SPD SPD SPD SPD SPD  5,957 3,638 2,319  SPD's mainly SPD  3 , 0 9 3  9  & apartments & & & &  apartments apartments apartments apartments  University  63.312 , , , , Source: Saanich Planning Department, A Plan f o r the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a , (Saanich, B.C.: The Planning Department, 1965). In p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r to Table V i n the r e p o r t . m  tlHmi  N  ^A community., g e n e r a l l y accepted In t h i s p l a n , i s a r e s i d e n t i a l area forming a n a t u r a l a r e a o f 10 - 35,000 p o t e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n , comprised'of two or more neighbourhoods, and forming a convenient s e r v i c e area f o r a j u n i o r or s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , a park and p l a y f i e l d and majjor shopping c e n t r e . 2 *' The type of development i n each community and neighbourhood comprises o f shopping c e n t r e , s c h o o l s , parks, p l a y f l e l d s i n a d d i t i o n to SPD ( s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s ) and apartments. 1  NEIGHBORHOOD AND COMMUNITY BOUNDARIES  p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s as a guide designated areas. 7.  to development  into  M u n i c i p a l p o l i c y o f s e t t i n g a s i d e p o r t i o n of the m i l l r a t e and p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e m e n t i n t h e m i l l t o be s p e n t e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d for parks-playgrounds i n a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d i n the plan. In a d d i t i o n , a d d i n g t o • t h i s fund a p o r t i o n o f the p r o c e e d s from the s a l e o f m u n i c i p a l l a n d . However, the l i m i t a t i o n i n t h i s i s the s u p p l y of p r o p e r t y owned by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y .  8. A d o p t i o n o f t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . Under s e c t i o n t w e n t y - o n e o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t C o u n c i l may by b y - l a w d e s i g n a t e a n y c o m m u n i t y p l a n a s t h e o f f i c i a l community p l a n o r as a p a r t o f the o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n (Map 7 ) . T h e r e a r e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s procedure. On t h e one h a n d , onoe a p l a n i s a d o p t e d s e c u r i n g a d e s i r a b l e amendment i s a compl i c a t e d and l e n g t h y p r o c e s s . T h i s may d e p r i v e t h e plan of necessary f l e x i b i l i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand o f f i c i a l a d o p t i o n l e n d s much more a u t h o r i t y and s t a b i l i t y t o t h e plan,' w h i c h would' make i t more r e s i s t a n t to " u n d e s i r a b l e " changes.1 The  U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a  of m a i n t a i n i n g c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  achieve  addition, ling The  plans  o f m u t u a l b e n e f i t and  compatibility.  the u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has  s u f f i c i e n t land f o r future expansion techniques  a d o p t e d by  a policy  o f campus  policy  concerned In o f assemb facilities  the u n i v e r s i t y a r e as f o l l o w s :  1. C r e a t i o n o f a d e v e l o p m e n t f u n d , a p o r t i o n o f w h i c h i s spent i n p u r c h a s i n g p r o p e r t i e s a d j a c e n t to the campus. S i n c e 1961 t h e campus s i t e has I n c r e a s e d f r o m 284 t o 342 a c r e s l a r g e l y t h r o u g h the p u r c h a s e of p r o p e r t i e s . 2.  Area,  To w o r k i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r the c r e a t i o n of a " U n i v e r s i t y  S a a n i c h P l a n n i n g Department, A P l a n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y ( S a a n i c h , B.C.: The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 6 5 ) .  GENERAL  PLAN  ~J  71 P r e c i n c t " which has been i n i t i a t e d and proposed by the Saanich P l a n n i n g Department f o r the C o u n c i l / s approval. 3.  The r i g h t to e x p r o p r i a t e land under the p r o v i s i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t i e s A c t . T h i s i s perhaps the l a s t r e s o r t i f e v e r y t h i n g e l s e f a i l s to a c q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l p r o p e r t y f o r campus e x p a n s i o n . 1  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Community Area; General  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Area;  B r i t i s h Columbia was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1908  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A c t . was  The  U n i v e r s i t y of  w i t h the p a s s i n g O r i g i n a l l y the  campus  l o c a t e d i n the C i t y of Vancouver but i n 1920's i t was  to the P o i n t Grey D i s t r i c t and was t r e m i t y of P o i n t Grey p e n i n s u l a .  placed a t the w e s t e r l y In 1923» the  of  moved ex-  Provincial  Government set a s i d e 2,900 a c r e s contiguous  to the campus as  endowment f o r the u n i v e r s i t y .  planned  The area was  veloped as a h i g h c l a s s dormitory  to be  an  de-  suburb of Vancouver w i t h a  view to r e a l i z i n g the maximum p r o f i t p o s s i b l e from development 2 of lands f o r r e s i d e n t i a l ,  shopping, r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s , e t c .  At the same time the M u n i c i p a l i t y of P o i n t Grey which was i n corporated  i n 1908  under the M u n i c i p a l A c t began to be  ed i n t o s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l very beginning  of the development i t was  the P o i n t Grey Area was d i s t r i c t , and  suburb of Vancouver.  t r o l s and by-laws were adopted by  Prom the  s t a t e d that the aim  to become a h i g h c l a s s  i n keeping w i t h t h i s aim  develop-  of  residential  v a r i o u s r e g u l a t o r y con-  the  P. P a i r c l o u g h , Manager; R.W. McQuean, Bursar: R.W. Siddall, A r c h i t e c t - P l a n n e r ; and J.A'. Webb, P r o f e s s o r ; U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a Development Board Meeting, i n March, 1965. D.B. Turner, U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands Master Plan Survey, ( V i c t o r i a : B.C. Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , 1956). 2  72 Municipal Council a t that time.  The m u n i c i p a l i t y was a m a l g a -  mated w i t h t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r i n 1929 "but t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n d i d n o t d e p r i v e the d i s t r i c t high quality residential  from  i t s o b j e c t i v e s of  development.  1  proposed  S i n c e the 1920's  both  U.E.L. a n d t h e P o i n t , G r e y D i s t r i c t have c o n t i n u e d t o be d e v e l oped a s h i g h c l a s s a n d p r e s t i g e a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y campus. The  u n i v e r s i t y a n d U.E.L. a r e l i n k e d  V a n c o u v e r b y r o a d s w h i c h have e a s t - w e s t N.W.  Marine  Avenue), P r e s i d e n t s Boulevard A v e n u e ) , a n d S.W.  Marine  (continuation of Sixteenth  (continuation of Twenty-fifth  Drive.  Two r o a d s , B l a n c a S t r e e t a n d  C l e v e l a n d Way p r o v i d e n o r t h - s o u t h c o n n e c t i o n s .  The extends  o r i e n t a t i o n such as  Drive, Chancellor Boulevard, University Boulevard- -  Tenth Avenue, F a c u l t y B o u l e v a r d  proposed  to Metropolitan  U n i v e r s i t y Community A r e a  from  considered i n t h i s  t h e UBC campus t o G r a n v i l l e  study  S t r e e t and comprises  1,000 a c r e campus, 2,500 a c r e s U.E.L. a n d 7,680 a c r e s C i t y The  a r e a i s bounded on i t s t h r e e s i d e s by M a r i n e  a  areas.  D r i v e and S t r a i t s  of Georgia.  The f o u r t h s i d e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t i s f o r m e d  by G r a n v i l l e  Street.  sided i n t h i s area. Indian Reserve,  In 1961, a t o t a l  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f U.E.L. a n d Musqueam  t h e a r e a i s f u l l y b u i l t up a n d i n 1 9 6 1 , c o n t a i n -  ed a p p r o x i m a t e l y 32,500 h o u s e h o l d s . predominated  o f 104,294 p e r s o n s r e -  the development u n t i l  The s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s t h e l a s t d e c a d e o r so b u t t h e  apartment development i n t h i s a r e a has been q u i t e  substantial  C i t y o f Vancouver, A P l a n f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, (Vancouver: C i t y o f Vancouver, 1929).  73 d u r i n g the l a s t 10  y e a r s and  now  c o n s t i t u t e s about o n e - t h i r d  o f the d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n the a r e a . d w e l l i n g s were o w n e r - o c c u p i e d a n d tenant  occupied.  occupied  I n 1961,  the average c o n t r a c t r e n t i n t o $116  b e l t o f open s p a c e a l o n g t h r e e  F o u r of the f i v e  g o l f courses  the  tenant  per d w e l l i n g u n i t .  r e c r e a t i o n a l areas, g o l f courses  continuous  t w o - t h i r d s of  t h e r e m a i n d e r o n e - t h i r d were  d w e l l i n g s r a n g e d f r o m $68  The  S.W.  I n 1961,  and  beaches form a  s i d e s of the  area.  i n t h i s area are l o c a t e d along  M a r i n e D r i v e , w h e r e a s b e a c h p a r k s and  beaches g e n e r a l l y  f o l l o w N.W.  Marine D r i v e w i t h i n the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t .  One  g o l f course  adjacent  neigh-  bourhood  t o the u n i v e r s i t y g a t e s , a number o f  p a r k s - p l a y f i e l d s and  large tracts  p r o p e r t y c o n s t i t u t e i n n e r open N e i g h b o u r h o o d and shopping  areas,  of undeveloped,U.E,L.  spaces.  community f a c i l i t i e s  churches,  community c e n t r e s a r e f a i r l y  distributed  throughout  d r i v i n g and  w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s o f homes s e r v e d .  amenities public  such as  the a r e a and  o f t h e downtown a r e  transit facilities  schools, well  are l o c a t e d w i t h i n easy In a d d i t i o n the  r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e by c a r s  and  w h i c h i n t e g r a t e t h e U.B.C. D i s t r i c t  w i t h M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. I m p a c t o f t h e campus on s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s by  the C i t y  of Vancouver:  character of r e s i d e n t i a l vehicular traffic  U n i v e r s i t y has m o d i f i e d  n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , v o l u m e and  on r o a d s a d j a c e n t  c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and District.  The  administered  p a t t e r n of  t o U.E.L. a r e a , t y p e  other f a c i l i t i e s  o f the  of  University  the  74 The f i r s t i m p a c t h a s b e e n on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , West P o i n t G r e y a n d D u n b a r a r e a s in particular. These c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y planned and developed a s s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s o f Vancouver. With the growth of the u n i v e r s i t y , t h e r e h a s b e e n a n i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r l o w r e n t a l h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f rooms a n d suites i n single family, dwellings. This resulted i n a number o f c o n v e r s i o n s o f s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i n t o h o u s e k e e p i n g rooms a n d s u i t e s . The u s e o f t h e b a s e m e n t s f o r l i v i n g became a r u l e . G e n e r a l l y speaki n g , these houses a r e n o t o f the type and s i z e w h i c h u s u a l l y accommodate r o o m e r s . A l s o many c o n v e r s i o n s were n o t a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f a d e q u a t e facili t i e s i n these houses. Consequently t h i s r e s u l t e d i n some o v e r c r o w d i n g a n d d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f d w e l l i n g a r e a s . A s a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r s u i t e s , some 140 u n i t s I n a p a r t m e n t have b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d s i n c e i 9 6 0 . Any e x t e n s i o n o f a p a r t m e n t a r e a s i n t h e West P o i n t G r e y a n d D u n b a r d i s t r i c t s h a s b e e n o p p o s e d by t h e r e s i d e n t s of the communities. The s c a r c i t y o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n on t h e campus a n d i n a r e a s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e TJ.E.L. h a s r e s u l t e d i n o u t w a r d movement o f u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s i d e n t i a l communities, K i t s i l a n o , Kerrisdale, G r a n v i l l e , O a k r i d g e a n d West End have b e e n s u b j e c t t o t h e i m p a c t o f u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n demand f o r h o u s i n g . A sample s u r v e y o f u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n , 1,650 s t u d e n t s a n d 150 f a c u l t y r e v e a l e d t h a t a l a r g e number o f them H i v e d i n a r e a s w e s t o f G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t (Map 8,-page 7 5 A ) . I n 1965 o n l y 17 p e r c e n t ( i . e . 2,805 s t u d e n t f a ) o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s p o p u l a t i o n was h o u s e d i n t h e e x i s t i n g on-campus a c c o m m o d a t i o n w h e r e a s h o u s i n g f o r f a c u l t y a n d s t a f f was v i r t u a l l y n o n e x i s t e n t e i t h e r on campus o r I n U.E.L. a r e a . The u n i v e r s i t y plans t o b u i l d apartments f o r married s t u d e n t s ' and f a c u l t y on t h e jcampus b u t t h i s w i l l f o r m an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the t o t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r d i f f e r e n t types of housing. I t I s f a i r l y evident t h a t a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the u n i v e r s i t y ' s h o u s i n g demand w i l l h a v e t o be met by t h e a d j a c e n t c o m m u n i t i e s f o r a l o n g t i m e t o come. The U.E.L. a r e a i s p r i m a r i l y c o m m i t t e d t o t h e h i g h c l a s s and p r e s t i g e s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l and apartment development. It i s unlikely t h a t t h i s t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l come a n y w h e r e i n the range o f s t u d e n t s a b i l i t y t o pay. 1  The s e c o n d i m p a c t o f t h e campus m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n the t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n f o r c u r b space on c i t y r o a d s , l e a d i n g t o t h e campus. The m a g n i t u d e o f the problem i s r e v e a l e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e  €  0  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  STUDENT POPULATION DENSITY NOTE: OF  OENSITY  IS B A S E D  APPROXIMATELY  THUS  PATTERN OATA  SAMPLE  OF  IS  A  UNIT  BLOCKS,  GENERALIZED.  A R E OERIVEO 1,650  UPON  16 S Q U A R E FROM  A  STUDENTS.  Source: Burnaby P l a n n i n g Dept., Burnaby, B.C., 1966  NUMBER OF STUDENTS PER SQUARE BLOCK  Mm  2-3 4-8  9-17  OVER 17  0  75 6,000 c a r s e n t e r i n g the u n i v e r s i t y g a t e s i n about twenty minutes d u r i n g morning hours o f the r u s h . The s t u d e n t s c a r s a r e parked f o r s e v e r a l b l o c k s a l o n g the roads l e a d i n g t o the campus. W i t h the growth o f the u n i v e r s i t y , m e d i c a l c e n t r e , r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s and t h e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands, the impact w i l l be much g r e a t e r i n y e a r s t o come. 3. The problems o f t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n , h o u s i n g f o r the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o the campus and new t r e n d s i n apartment development have been gene r a l l y frowned upon by the neighbourhood r e s i d e n t s . There has been a growing concern over the l o s s o f a m e n i t i e s o f q u i e t , p l e a s a n t and n e i g h b o u r l y l i v i n g i n these a r e a s . Prom the C i t y ' s p o i n t o f view the West P o i n t Grey and Dunbar Community a r e a s a r e c h o i c e l o c a t i o n s f o r some form o f apartment development which would serve the needs o f the u n i v e r s i t y community and would h e l p i n r e d e v e l o p i n g pockets o f poor s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s w i t h i n these communities. The r e s i dents o f these communities a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g s t a t u s quo o f the e x i s t i n g z o n i n g . Some o f the arguments, w h i c h r e l a t e t o the impact o f the u n i v e r s i t y , were r e v e a l e d i n b r i e f s s u b m i t t e d by P o i n t Grey r e s i d e n t s and home owners and o t h e r groups t o the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the r e - z o n i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r apartment a r e a s . These arguments r u n a l o n g the f o l l o w i n g . l i n e s : (a) There i s shortage o f good s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e , premature to d e m o l i s h the homes w i t h i n the proposed area. -  (b) The u n i v e r s i t y can p r o v i d e f o r s t u d e n t and f a c u l t y h o u s i n g on i t s own l e s s expensive l a n d , w i t h s p e c i a l l o a n s f o r t h i s purpose. (c) I f needed, the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands c o u l d be used f o r apartments w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g an e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . (d) West P o i n t Grey l a c k s a m e n i t i e s f o r a p a r t ments such a s p a r k s , l i b r a r y , community centre, e t c . 1  (e) Apartments w i l l s p o i l the a m e n i t y " o f the a r e a , o b s t r u c t the v i e w s , increase t r a f f i c , etc. V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board, Summary and Reprod u c t i o n o f B r i e f s R e f e r r i n g t o the Apartment Zoning P r o p o s a l s i n P o i n t Grey. (Vancouver, B.C.: The T e c h n i c a l Board, 1965). 1  76 ( f ) R e - z o n i n g w i l l e n c o u r a g e s p e c u l a t i o n and d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f s u r r o u n d i n g homes. S i n g l e f a m i l y z o n i n g s h o u l d g i v e l o n g term p r o tection. (g) T r a n s i e n t a p a r t m e n t d w e l l e r s a r e n o t w a n t e d i n the a r e a . West P o i n t G r e y Homeowners A s s o c i a t i o n p u t t h e a b o v e o b j e c t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g  way:  I t i s o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 a c r e s a r e t o be r e - z o n e d t o h i g h r i s e a p a r t m e n t s i n t h e a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y n o r t h o f T e n t h Avenue n e a r S a s a m a t . This c o u l d t a k e o u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y s i n g l e homes. These a r e good s i n g l e f a m i l y homes. We w o u l d l i k e t o p o i n t o u t t h a t a s h o r t a g e o f s i n g l e f a m i l y homes e x i s t s c l o s e to the u n i v e r s i t y . The u n i v e r s i t y c a n a t t e n d t o the needs o f s i n g l e and m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s a s w e l l as f a c u l t y by means o f s e l f l i q u i d a t i n g l o a n s a t l o w i n t e r e s t r a t e s ; t h a t there are v a c a n c i e s i n the e x i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s a t the p r e s e n t time; t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y i s h e a v i l y endowed w i t h t h e l a n d and l a n d o u t s i d e the gates i s expensive. V i c e i n t e r e s t s who p r e y on y o u n g p e r s o n s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be a t t r a c t e d by a p a r t m e n t s n e a r u n i v e r s i t y , and o u t s i d e i t s c o n t r o l . S a f e t y o f p e r s o n s and p r o p e r t y i s a l w a y s o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a n a r e a where the i n s t i t u t i o n s e r v e s the community d u r i n g the e v e n i n g hours. The a r e a l a c k s a m e n i t i e s t o a t t r a c t a p a r t m e n t d w e l l e r s . I t d o e s n o t h a v e a l i b r a r y n o r a . c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e and i s without parks. The p l a y g r o u n d a t T r i m b l e I s 8.6 a c r e s b u t h a l f b e l o n g s t o t h e , P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r e x t e n s i o n t o the B l i n d S c h o o l . The l e a s e on t h e U n i v e r s i t y G o l f C o u r s e e x p i r e s i n 1970 a n d i s r e n e w a b l e o n l y i f i t i s deemed d e s i r a b l e by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t . The b e a c h i s o n l y a c c e s s i b l e by c a r b e c a u s e o f t h e s t e e p hill. The a r e a i s d i s t a n t f r o m t h e work and t h e a m e n i t i e s of C i t y Centre. D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Endowment L a n d s s h o u l d meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y .  ^ V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Summary a n d R e p r o d u c t i o n o f B r i e f s R e f e r r i n g to the Apartment Zoning P r o p o s a l s i n P o i n t G r e y , ' ( V a n c o u v e r . BTCTI The T e c h n i c a l B o a r d , 1965, c o n t a i n e d t h e l e t t e r o f West P o i n t G r e y Homeowners A s s o c i a t i o n .  77  In the  case of re-zoning  I n Dunbar D i s t r i c t s , a m a j o r i t y  proposal of the  m u n i t y were g e n e r a l l y  o p p o s e d t o any  The  specifically  arguments d i d not  t o the  u n i v e r s i t y being  followed and  the  traffic  lines  close  apartment  lowering  increase  s i n g l e f a m i l y homes; l o s s o f a m e n i t y , e t c . university  i s comparatively  P o i n t G r e y b u t a new  kind  objections  D u n b a r Community  of property  in  values The  feared  idents  for  Avenue e x t e n s i o n  the  impact of  by  H i l l t o p B u s i n e s s A s s o c i a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the opment o f T w e n t y - F i f t h  but  density  l e s s on D u n b a r D i s t r i c t o f i m p a c t was  com-  development.  relate their  t o the  area  residents i n that  o f a r g u m e n t s u c h as  congestion;  f o r apartment  than  the  the on  Dunbar  future  (continuation  develof  Pres-  Boulevard). W i t h t h e r a p i d a p p r o a c h o f a U n i v e r s i t y L a n d Crown C o r p o r a t i o n t o o u r i m m e d i a t e w e s t we need l i t t l e i m a g i n a t i o n to f o r e s e e T w e n t y - F i f t h Avenue becoming a through s t r e e t l e a d i n g d i r e c t l y i n t o h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d a r e a s s i p h o n i n g o f f the cream of our Dunbar t r a d e ... However t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these c i t a t i o n s i s to  that  the  I m p a c t o f the  land  use  w i t h i n the  and  only r e f l e c t e d i n  U n i v e r s i t y Community b u t  i n the  economic environment of these a r e a s as w e l l .  turn influence and  u n i v e r s i t y i s not  the  d e t e r m i n e the  p o s a l , such as  the  decisions feasibility proposal  reveal  social  These i n  on d e v e l o p m e n t f o r good o r of c a r r y i n g out  the  plans  or a  i l l , pro-  l o c a t i o n of apartments,which i n a l l  V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Summary and R e p r o d u c t i o n s of B r i e f s R e f e r r i n g to Apartment Zoning P r o p o s a l s i n Dunbar" '" ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C." The P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1965) p. 4. c o n t a i n e d i n the l e t t e r of Dunbar H i l l t o p B u s i n e s s A s s o c i a t i o n t o the C i t y o f Vancouver. a  9  probability will  c o n s t i t u t e a d e s i r a b l e development from the  p o i n t of view of planners may be o t h e r p l a n n i n g s e a r c h industries„ institutions,  b u t was t u r n e d  issues relating  down.  Similarly  t o the l o c a t i o n  there  ofr e -  shopping c e n t r e s , c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l  r e c r e a t i o n a l uses which a r e compatible  w i t h the  f u n c t i o n s o f the u n i v e r s i t y and a r e a t t r a c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f t h e campus. another  A l l these  will  on t h e c i t y a r e a s ,  have i m p a c t i n one f o r m o r  therefore i ti s essential  t h a t the  n e e d s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y be made known t o t h e C i t y a n d t o t h e Community g r o u p s f o r a c h i e v i n g p l a n s compatibility. essential  Although  o f m u t u a l b e n e f i t and  t h e r e i s some p r o v i s i o n made f o r t h e s e  f u n c t i o n s t h e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s a n d t h e  I m p a c t on c i t y a r e a s  m i g h t be l e s s y e t f o r a s u c c e s s f u l  Implementation o f the P l a n w i l l  require a coordinated  effort  o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y , C i t y a n d U.E.L. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h owns t h e U.E.L, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangement f o r Cooperative areas  w i t h i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y come u n d e r t h r e e  university, The  Planning:  The  j u r i s d i c t i o n s , the  U.E.L. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . M a s t e r P l a n S u r v e y f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s  outlined: A l t h o u g h t h e U.E.L. i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e n t i t y t h e v a r i o u s U.E.L. p r o b l e m s h a v e t o be s h a r e d w i t h t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e U.B.C. Major problems r e l a t e ' t o water supply, sewerage, roads, t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s , telephone, n a t u r a l gas and e l e c t r i c power, s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , r e c r e a t i o n , f i r e ' p r o t e c t i o n and p o l i c e . 1  I j J . B . T u r n e r , U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s M a s t e r P l a n S u r v e y , ( V i c t o r i a ; B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P e p a l ^ t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d F o r e s t s , 1956) p.34.  79 In  p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e M a s t e r P l a n t h e above  were r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Greater  W a t e r a n d Sewerage D i s t r i c t s ,  Vancouver  C i t y o f Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B.C. T e l e p h o n e «»JB.0. E l e c t r i c v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l departments„ among t h e s e  matters  In  Companies and  c.gtn.erol,. t h e l i a i s o n  p a r t i c i p a n t s was f q r a s p e c i f i c  purpose I . e . the  p r e p a r a t i o n o f a M a s t e r P l a n , a n d once t h e p l a n h a d b e e n prepared,  no p r o v i s i o n was made i n t h e p l a n f o r a p e r m a n e n t  committee t o l o o k i n t o t h e r e v i s i o n s o f p l a n and methods o f implementation  w h i c h may be n e c e s s a r y  implementation  o f t h e p l a n s o l e l y r e s t s w i t h t h e U.E.L.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n which maintains p a r t i e s whenever there t i o n operates  i n the f u t u r e .  Informal l i a i s o n with  i s need.  Likewise  The  other  t h e U.B.C. A d m i n i s t r a -  on a n i n f o r m a l b a s i s w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Government,  t h e U.E. L . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e B.C. H y d r o a n d Power A u t h o r i t y f o r d i s c u s s i n g p r o b l e m s o f m u t u a l concern. Other than and  j o i n t planning  recreation areas,  commercial f a c i l i t i e s  the questions  utilities,  of housing  and o t h e r m a t t e r s  i m p a c t o f t h e campus on a d j a c e n t d i s c u s s e d , planned  of roads,  schools  i n city  areas,  a r i s i n g from the  municipal areas  have n o t b e e n  and programmed on m u t u a l b a s i s .  N e i t h e r the  C i t y n o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y a n d U.E.L. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a of expressing proposals  t h e i r concern  i n areas  adjacent  over  policy  the p l a n n i n g and development  t o U.E.L.  This i s apparent  t h e d i s c u s s i o n s on a n a p a r t m e n t r e z o n l n g  i n P o i n t Grey  from Area.  The  p r o p o s a l was s u b m i t t e d  the C i t y  by t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t t o  C o u n c i l t o rezone  some 15 a c r e s f o r a p a r t m e n t s .  C o u n c i l r e c e i v e d some 342 s u b m i s s i o n s  from p r o p e r t y owners i n  t h i s a r e a b u t none f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y The  o r U.E.L. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t was v e r y much i n t h e i n t e r e s t  u n i v e r s i t y a n d w o u l d have a l l e v i a t e d of s t u d e n t and f a c u l t y h o u s i n g the u n i v e r s i t y  t o some e x t e n t a  o f the shortage  so much t a l k e d a b o u t w i t h i n  c i r c l e b u t t h e r e was no f o r m a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by t h e u n i v e r s i t y the u n i v e r s i t y ' s v i e w p o i n t .  The  or informal  on p u b l i c h e a r i n g s  Consequently  to express  t h e p r o p o s a l was  t u r n e d down by t h e C o u n c i l b e c a u s e o f o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e s i d e n t s whose a r g u m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g s i t y were n o t e d the C i t y  earlier.  Had t h e u n i v e r s i t y  the u n i v e r -  put i t s case t o  C o u n c i l and i n v o l v e d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  of those  r e s i d e n t s f a v o u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e r e s u l t s m i g h t have been  different. The  problem o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i v e  i s n o t u n i q u e t o t h e U.B.C. Community A r e a  planning  b u t has been  f r o n t e d by o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s and communities such as The v a r i o u s m e t h o d s e v o l v e d b y t h e s e  con-  Chicago  and  Berkeley.  for  c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g a r e enumerated i n Chaper 2 and should  serve as a u s e f u l guide the  universitie  i n the development o f areas a d j a c e n t t o  campus. The  U.B.C. i s b e g i n n i n g  to attract  other  research  I n d u s t r i e s such as r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s of Columbia a new l o c a t i o n f o r B.C. R e s e a r c h Centre  and r e l a t e d  Research  facilities.  P a r k i n t h i s area,.  Cellulose,  C o u n c i l l a b o r a t o r y and M e d i c a l There i s a p o t e n t i a l  The U n i v e r s i t y M a s t e r  f o ra  P l a n showed  81 an area of about 50 a c r e s to be developed as Research Park on the campus.  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i s i n t e r e s t e d that such a development  should take place on  the Endowment Lands but a d j a c e n t to the oampus. Increase the P r o v i n c i a l  This w i l l  Tax base and endowment which could  be l a t e r used by the u n i v e r s i t y f o r i t s development.  If  a Research Park i s l o c a t e d on the campus, the r e s e a r c h i n dustries  1  can not be taxed because the u n i v e r s i t y has tax  free status.  Although the u n i v e r s i t y has the power to a c -  q u i r e any p o r t i o n of the U.E.L. f o r i t s expansion,whether t h i s w i l l promote  the endowment fund i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  Perhaps these q u e s t i o n s might be r e s o l v e d i f there i s a method p e r m i t t i n g permanent  l i a i s o n i . e . an o r g a n i z a t i o n  c o n s i s t i n g of u n i v e r s i t y , P r o v i n c i a l Government and the C i t y of Vancouver to review such p r o p o s a l s w i t h i n an o b j e c t i v e of U n i v e r s i t y Area  overall  development.  Implementation: The methods f o r Implementing the plans vary from one j u r i s d i c t i o n to a n o t h e r .  In the case of U.B.C.  D.B. Turner, U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands Master P l a r Survey. ( V i c t o r i a : B.C. Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , 1956) outl±ned t h a t the proposed development of 109 a c r e s I n d u s t r i a l Park w i l l be a l o n g those p r i n c i p l e s t h a t w i l l ensure maximization of endowment f o r the u n i v e r s i t y . The I n d u s t r i e s w i l l be c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , g e n e r a l l y non-noxious I n d u s t r i e s w i l l be p e r m i t t e d . Some of the types that might be Included i n the proposed park a r e : r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s ; f i l m and paper p r o c e s s i n g e s t a b l i s h ments; p l a n t s producing such goods as e l e c t r i c a l apparatus, photographic equipment or o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s ; book p u b l i s h i n g firms. •' X  "Wanted: One I n d u s t r i a l Park", The Vancouver Sun of February 22, 1966, d i s c u s s e s the p r o s p e c t u s and problems of r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s f o r t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands.  82 District,  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s a n d t h e C i t y o f  Vancouver have e v o l v e d geared  separate  methods t o implement  plans  t o t h e i r I n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t i v e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t . The  p r i n c i p a l methods a r e a s f o l l o w s : U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s : The a i m o f U.E.L. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s to develop ial  t h i s area  p r i m a r i l y as a high c l a s s r e s i d e n t -  s u b u r b o f V a n c o u v e r a n d t o r e a l i z e maximum endowment f r o m  t h e U.E.L. by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e p r o f i t making, b u s i n e s s  basis.  lands  on a  practical,  The d e v e l o p m e n t i s g e n e r a l l y  c o n t r o l l e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t a n d i s g u i d e d Master P l a n prepared and  financial goals.  w i t h a view to achieve  by a  i t s residential  The management a n d o t h e r c o n t r o l s a r e a s  follows: 1. A Crown C o r p o r a t i o n t o p l a n , d e v e l o p , c o n t r o l a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e U.E.L. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Crown C o r p o r a t i o n was recommended b y T u r n e r i n 1956, and has been r e c e n t l y e n a c t e d w i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f the Universities Real E s t a t e Development C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1965. The B o a r d Members a r e y e t t o be a p p o i n t e d f o r t h i s C o r p o r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e i t has n o t s t a r t e d functioning, 1  2. A d o p t i o n o f a M a s t e r P l a n t o g u i d e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . The l a n d a l l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f l a n d u s e s a s shown i n T a b l e X on page 83. 3. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f U.E. L . on t h e l e a s e h o l d p r i n c i p l e . A $20 m i l l i o n i n v e s t m e n t be made, b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t on b e h a l f o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e p a r t o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t t o be u t i l i z e d i n p u t t i n g i n s e r v i c e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f endowment l a n d s . The s e r v i c e d l a n d be l e a s e d t o d e v e l o p e r s of r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , shopping c e n t r e s , i n d u s t r i a l park, e t c . L.B. T u r n e r , U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s M a s t e r P l a n S u r v e y . ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d F o r e s t s , 1956) 2 R. M u r d o c h , S e n i o r C l e r k , U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s O f f i c e , U.B.C, by i n t e r v i e w i n February, 1966.  TABLE X UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS, LAND USE PLAN ACREAGES BY LAND USE CATEGORIES  Use Category-  Acreage  Single family dwellings Multi-family dwellings Professional & Offices Shopping I n d u s t r i a l Park Public & Semi-public buildings Schools R e c r e a t i o n : p a r k s and playgrounds Reserve Areas Roadways Miscellaneous uses  1,112.9 101.3 21.6 68.0  Total  2,204.0  o f U.E.L.  UBC Campus  109.2 47.7  Percent of t o t a l acreage  50.5 4.6 1.0 3.1 5.0 2.1  276.4  2.8 12.5  40.2 358.8  16.3  61.9  6 .0  1.8 0.3  100.0  988.0  S o u r c e : D.B. T u r n e r , U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s P l a n S u r v e y , ( V i c t o r i a . B.C .: D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d r o r e s t s , 1956), p.42.  Master  84 4.  Subdivision, zoning,architectural controls^ etc. f o r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s p r o p o s e d by t h e U.E.L. M a s o e r Plan.  C i t y of Vancouver:  The  a c h i e v e d by t h e s u b d i v i s i o n , controls. Budgeting  The  implementation  s c h e d u l i n g o f s e r v i c e s , and  significant  the C i t y .  Capital  The  i n the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a ,  include  t h i s another  Suburban shopping study which  to the d e l i n e a t i o n  within  Housing  of  conducted  c e n t r e s s t u d y and  i s currently i n progress,  o f community a r e a s .  be  Act.  following relates  E a c h community  t o become a p l a n n i n g u n i t w i t h i n C i t y  tentative  areas  redevelopment  C i t y P l a n n i n g Department r e c e n t l y  A p a r t m e n t and  i s expected  projects  to  Some o t h e r m e t h o d s w h i c h may  l i m i t e d a r e a s u n d e r the N a t i o n a l  and  the  o f programmes on a f i v e - y e a r b a s i s a r e deemed  a d m i n i s t e r e d by  types  the O i t y i s  z o n i n g , b u i l d i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l  be a d d i t i o n a l m e t h o d s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g  The  by  area  areas.  c o m m u n i t y a r e a s w i t h comments on t h e m a j o r  of development i n e a c h community a r e  i n T a b l e X I on page 85.  o f p o p u l a t i o n o f U.E.L. and a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e X I I , page  The  e s t i m a t e s of the  the U n i v e r s i t y 86.  shown on Map  9  growth  Resident population  85  TABLE X I U.B.C. DISTRICT COMMUNITIES, POPULATION AND TYPE OP DEVELOPMENT Community a n d corresponding census t r a c t area Point  Grey  Population 1961  Type o f D e v e l o p m e n t  (6)  12,162  SPD & 1 4 0 u n i t s i n a p a r t m e n t ; 10 a c r e s commercial.  Kitsilano  (7)  14,692  SPD & 2800 u n i t s i n a p a r t m e n t s j 63 a c r e s c o m m e r c i a l & 33 a c r e s industrial.  South  (8)  21,479  SPD & 4000 u n i t s i n a p a r t m e n t s ; 44 a c r e s commercial.  Dunbar  (11)  21,374  SPD; 14 a c r e s commercial .  Kerrisdale  (12)  11,748  SPD & 2000 u n i t s i n . a p a r t m e n t s ; 20 a c r e s commercial & 10 a c r e s Industrial.  (17)  17,077  SPD; g o l f c o u r s e s Musqueam I n d i a n Researve .  (38)  32,272  U.B.C. Campus; SPD & 163 u n i t s i n a p a r t m e n t s ; 4.5 a c r e s comme r c i a l & open s p a c e s  S.W.  Granville  Marine  Drive  University Endowment L a n d s  &  T o t a l o f U.B.C. 104,294 Community A r e a Source: Dominion B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f Canada, 1961, B u l l e t i n No. CT-22, ( O t t a w a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1963), a n d The C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 6 6 . P o p u l a t i o n r e l a t e s t o c e n s u s t r a c t s shown i n p a r e n t h e s i s b e s i d e e a c h c o m m u n i t y and c o m m u n i t y a r e a s more o r l e s s c o r r e s p o n d t o c e n s u s t r a c t s shown i n p a r e n t h e s i s .  86  TABLE X I I PROJECTIONS OP POPULATION OP UNIVERSITY RESIDENTS, AND UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS POPULATION.  1955  1966  1976  1,000  3,000  5,000  5,000  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands  3,000  8,000  15,000  25,000  T o t a l o f UBC a n d U.E.L. A r e a  4,000  11,000  20,000  30,000  Resident  students  Horizon  year  Source: T e c h n i c a l Committee f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway Planning. A study o f Highway P l a n n i n g f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t No. 1, P o p u l a t i o n a n d L a n d Use F o r e c a s t s , ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: The T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Highway P l a n n i n g , 1 9 5 9 ) . "'"Horizon y e a r r e f e r s t o t h e e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s a t some f u t u r e d a t e i n V a n c o u v e r M e t r o p o l i t a n Area.  1  UBC  D I S T R I C T  COMMUNITY AREAS AND PROPOSALS  j ' ' | T—I 1 I A  Q  single family residential f ma im li ,l y mmuullt ti i- -f a rree ss ii dd ee nn tt ii aa l  | cornmer commercial centre  jlTNI | u n i v e r s i t y RI  research i n d u s t r i a l  I -P  cormunity park 1 and g o l f " course  | IB  | i n d i a n reserve  s  secondary  school  major road proposed road  s c a l e : one i n c h equals a p r r o x i m a t e l y 4000 f e e t . s o u i c e : P l a n n i n g department C i t y o f Vancouver,  U.E.L, U n i v e r s i t y Endowment ^ands  CHAPTER I V CONCLUSIONS I REVIEW OP ASSUMPTIONS, RESEARCH METHODS AND V A L I D I T Y OP STUDY HYPOTHESIS. Assumptions:  The d i s c u s s i o n on i m p a c t s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y -  campus on s u r r o u n d i n g m u n i c i p a l a r e a s , a n d on methods o f c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g between u n i v e r s i t i e s and c i t i e s , fairly  c o n c l u s i v e that the f o l l o w i n g assumption  g i n n i n g of the study, I s q u i t e  thus f a r , i s  made a t t h e b e -  valid.  There a r e a t l e a s t two s e p a r a t e p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t . The l o n g r a n g e p l a n n i n g a n d development g o a l s o f u n i v e r s i t y d i f f e r from those o f the municipality o r c i t y . A summary o f c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s o f u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d c i t i e s ( T a b l e V on page 4 6 ) r e v e a l  t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the c o n f l i c t s  c e n t r e on t h e amount o f l a n d n e c e s s a r y f o r u n i v e r s i t y  expansion,  t h e t y p e o f h o u s i n g a n d s e r v i c e s t o be p r o v i d e d , a n d t h e d e v e l o p ment o f a c c e s s r o u t e s a n d p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s u n i v e r s i t y campuses. sometimes  alleviation  i n areas adjacent to  The e x p a n s i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y of  traffic  campuses a n d  c o n g e s t i o n i n some u n i v e r -  s i t y a r e a s i n v o l v e d r e n e w a l and d i s p l a c e m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . I t was f o u n d  t h a t the d e s i r e s o f the r e s i d e n t s of the neighbour-  h o o d s t o m a i n t a i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r a r e a on one h a n d , a n d t h e u n i v e r s i t y ' s demand f o r l a n d a n d s e r v i c e s on t h e o t h e r hand give  rise  t o many c o n f l i c t s  Research Methods:  i n planning the u n i v e r s i t y a r e a .  In i n v e s t i g a t i n g the study h y p o t h e s i s ,  the p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h method, case comprehensive useful.  studies,  review of studies undertaken  The c a s e  study approach  supplemented  by a  e l s e w h e r e , was f o u n d  included questionnaires  88 (Appendix  I) which provided g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o the p l a n n i n g  problems of three U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s . comparable s i t u a t i o n s i n examples c i t e d  Although, i n this  t h e r e a r e noh-  study  (page 8 ) ,  t h i s d i d n o t p r e s e n t undue l i m i t a t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i n g e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements f o r cooperative p l a n n i n g . the  i n f o r m a n t s were more t h a n w i l l i n g  In g e n e r a l ,  t o r e v e a l and d i s c u s s t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s and drawbacks o f t h e i r c o o p e r a t i v e p l a n n i n g grammes.  This, of course,  research i n t h i s area.  Validity to determine diverse  the genuine need f o r f u r t h e r  The p r i n c i p a l  study a p p r o a c h , and r e v i e w o t h e r and tend  reflects  r e s e a r c h methods:  case  o f o t h e r s t u d i e s , supplement  each  t o c o r r e c t each o t h e r ' s o f Study Hypothesis:  the v a l i d i t y  deficiencies.  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y  o f t h e s t u d y h y p o t h e s i s by  The  - community r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h u s  demonstrated very c l e a r l y  that the impacts  p u s e s on s u r r o u n d i n g m u n i c i p a l a r e a s  f a r has  c o n s i s t e n t l y modify  a c t e r o f the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s , b u t the p l a n n i n g and  different supports  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s comprising the study hypothesis  dis-  of the u n i v e r s i t y  ment o f t h i s a r e a , a s y e t , h a s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e  was  examining  situations of planning University D i s t r i c t s .  c u s s i o n s on u n i v e r s i t y  pro-  cam-  the c h a r develop-  a t t e n t i o n from  the a r e a .  This  studj  that*  t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f campus p l a n n i n g w i t h t h e l o n g r a n g e comprehensive p l a n n i n g o f adjacent m u n i c i p a l areas i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the e f f e c t i v e development of the U n i v e r s i t y District. It i s reasonable  t o assume t h a t w i t h c o n t i n u e d  u n i v e r s i t i e s and u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , University District w i l l  the  sources  of this  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  become more p r o n o u n c e d .  D i s t r i c t s a r e the dynamic a r e a s  growth of the  The  of the  University  o f m e t r o p o l i t a n communities and  "change" a r e the r a p i d advances i n h i g h e r  89  education and r e s e a r c h , i n n o v a t i o n s a n d p r o l i f e r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s , changing methods o f housing  university-  p o p u l a t i o n and community, and the need and demand f o r q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of s e r v i c e s , c u l t u r a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l for  the u n i v e r s i t y a r e a .  "planned  facilities  Such changes should be planned and  changes" should be c a r r i e d out w i t h i n the framework  of a l o n g range comprehensive p l a n which can be achieved  only  I f a formal arrangement f o r cooperative p l a n n i n g i s p r e s e n t . II  PLANNING PROBLEMS OP UNIVERSITY DISTRICTS - REVIEW  U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s i n urban areas present  special  p l a n n i n g problems r e l a t e d to the u n i v e r s i t y ' s demand f o r housing and off-campus s e r v i c e s , access and parking f a c i l i t i e s , for  university related  sites  e d u c a t i o n a l , c u l t u r a l and r e s e a r c h e s t a b -  l i s h m e n t s which tend to l o c a t e i n the v i c i n i t y o f the u n i v e r s i t y campuses.  The p l a n n i n g o f the u n i v e r s i t y and surrounding  muni-  c i p a l a r e a s , as y e t , has not been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n making f u n c t i o n s of u n i v e r s i t i e s , m u n c i p a l i t i e s and other l e v e l s of the Government and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s groups which operate  In the development of the u n i v e r s i t y  areas.  Each j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t i s autonomous and i s f r e e t o pursue i t s l o n g range p l a n n i n g and development g o a l s Independent of  the o t h e r .  As a r e s u l t composite g o a l s , p o l i c i e s and pro-  grammes f o r comprehensive development o f u n i v e r s i t y a r e a s , have not been evolved e x c e p t i n g i n a few U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s . d i f f i c u l t y of reaching e f f e c t i v e  The  j o i n t p l a n n i n g and a c t i o n stem  from the f a c t t h a t the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s concerned i n the development o f the area do n o t m a i n t a i n l i a i s o n w i t h each other  90 o r i f t h e y do p r a c t i c e a n y f o r m o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , i t i s "ad h o c " i n nature planning  w h i c h does n o t encourage comprehensive and c o n t i n u i n g o f the area.  Although prepared  t h e U n i v e r s i t y A r e a P l a n s a t some p l a c e s h a v e b e e n  as a r e s u l t  o f "ad h o c " c o o p e r a t i v e  officials  of participating  prepared,  the implementation  organisations.  role  Once t h e p l a n h a s b e e n  o f t h e p l a n was l e f t e n t i r e l y  the M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n s , w h i l e no e f f e c t i v e  a r r a n g e m e n t s between  other p a r t i c i p a n t s assuming  e i t h e r i n the plan implementation  o f p o l i c i e s a n d programmes o r i n t h e f i n a n c i a l for  executing  such a p l a n .  with  and r e v i s i o n  responsibility  Ad hoc a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h u s  f a r , have  not been e f f e c t i v e  i n b r i d g i n g t h e gap between p l a n p r e p a r a t i o n and  its  i n University Districts.  implementation  The s t u d y h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d e f f e c t i v e j o i n t a c t i o n g e n e r a l l y s u f f e r s f r o m a number o f f a c t o r s c r e a t i n g difficulties  i n the o v e r a l l  planning  of U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s .  Inward l o o k i n g . j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s . Each possessing  separate  d i c t i o n tend  jurisdiction  p o w e r s , d u t i e s a n d b i a s e s i n i t s own  t o make d e c i s i o n s a l o n g  juris-  the f u n c t i o n a l l i n e s i . e .  the U n i v e r s i t i e s s p e c i a l i z i n g i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a n d campus layout; municipalities specializing i n municipal  p l a n n i n g and  the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s f o r t h e community; U n i v e r s i t i e s E s t a t e Development C o r p o r a t i o n in and in  property  investment  ( t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r )  t o provide  Real  specializing  funds f o r p u b l i c u n i v e r s i t i e s ;  each department o f the P r o v i n c i a l  Government  specializing  i t s major f u n c t i o n s f o r o v e r a l l development o f the P r o v i n c e .  Each agency l o o k s a t the problems o f the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t i n  i n r e l a t i o n to the  s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n they perform  diverse f u n c t i o n a l agencies  considerations unless formal incorporated into The  comprehensive  c o o r d i n a t i n g devices are  University. Real Estate  to  Under the U n i v e r s i t i e s R e a l E s t a t e  unless Development  Corporation  o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1.  The C o r p o r a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e of p r o v i d i n g f u n d s f o r the p u b l i c u n i v e r s i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  2.  The C o r p o r a t i o n may a c q u i r e , a c c e p t , d e v e l o p , l e a s e , manage, a l i e n a t e , r e s e r v e , m o r t g a g e , and o t h e r w i s e d e a l i n r e a l and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y and i n t e r e s t .  3.  The C o r p o r a t i o n s s h a l l d e v e l o p U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s and o t h e r s p e c i f i e d p r o p e r t i e s i n the A c t . l  The  C o r p o r a t i o n I s expected  u r b a n development, and may  the  could c o n f l i c t w i t h each other  C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1965» t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t is  specific-  Development  of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s I n r e l a t i o n  University District co-ordinated:  such  the g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  o b j e c t i v e o f the  C o r p o r a t i o n and  thus  o p e r a t i n g i n the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t  a r e hound t o c o n f l i c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r o r i g n o r e  ally  -  Include  t o become a m a j o r p r o m o t e r  the Investment m o t i v e s of the  such t h i n g s as  o f f i c e b l o c k s , shopping  research parks, high r i s e apartments; e t c . t h i s type  o f development has  l o c a t i o n s i n the  Corporation  centres,  In recent  years  shown c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e f e r e n c e  U n i v e r s i t y Areas.  T h i s f a c t has  of  for  obviously  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , U n i v e r s i t i e s R e a l E s t a t e ..Development C o r p o r a t i o n - A c t , ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.? Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) .  92 caught the a t t e n t i o n of m u n i c i p a l kind  o f development w i l l  municipalities.  result,  increase the r e a l  Therefore  a r e a must p r o v i d e  c o u n c i l s who f e e l  the municipal  the m u n i c i p a l  c o u n c i l s , through  this  e s t a t e t a x base o f  planning  i n c e n t i v e f o r t h i s type  that  of U n i v e r s i t y  of development.  As a  the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  municipal  c o n t r o l s such a s s u b d i v i s i o n , ' z o n i n g , l a n d  extension  of municipal  acquisition,  services, are constantly evaluating  their  programmes t o make t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t a m a j o r t a x b e a r i n g  part  of them u n i c i p a l i t y . It i s evident that the o b j e c t i v e s of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  the U n i v e r s i t i e s Real E s t a t e Development C o r p o r a t i o n  supplement each other i f c o o r d i n a t e d from the b e g i n n i n g establishment  o f the Development C o r p o r a t i o n .  o f t h e two were u n c o o r d i n a t e d , use  could o f the  I f the f u n c t i o n s  some s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t s  of land  p l a n n i n g c a n r e s u l t a n d w o u l d be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e h a r -  monious development o f a r e a s Limitations  surrounding  the u n i v e r s i t y  campuses.  of m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l s f o r comprehensive  of U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s ;  The v a r i o u s m e t h o d s o f  planning  implementation  p r o p o s e d I n t h e U n i v e r s i t y A r e a P l a n s p l a c e h e a v y r e l i a n c e on m u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l s such as the O f f i c i a l  Plan, s u b d i v i s i o n , zoning,  programming o f s e r v i c e s , c a p i t a l b u d g e t i n g , t o o l s f o r comprehensive p l a n n i n g .  land a c q u i s i t i o n , etc.as  Though t h e s e  controls are quite  yet  useful, the implementation the l i m i t a t i o n s  of u n i v e r s i t y area  o f such d e v i c e s .  c o n t r o l s were e v o l v e d  The r e a s o n  plans  suffer  being  that  these  a t t h e t i m e when t h e r e were no u n i v e r s i t y  campuses a n d t h e e x i s t i n g campuses were s m a l l enough the  from  character of the surrounding  municipal areas.  to Influence  Because of the  93 s p e c i a l nature  o f the development o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t s ,  t h e n e e d f o r more s u i t a b l e m u n i c i p a l The  concepts  of " U n i v e r s i t y P r e c i n c t " , Research Park,  Ownership o f Land and E f f e c t i v e as  controls i s quite  Public  O r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be a d o p t e d  fundamentals f o r planning u n i v e r s i t y areas  undue e m p h a s i s on t r a d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l methods f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  urgent.  r a t h e r than  placing  controls i n devieing  However, s u c h a s h i f t  i n emphasis,  can  be b r o u g h t a b o u t o n l y b y c o o r d i n a t i n g v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and  political  e n t i t i e s and i n t e r e s t groups o p e r a t i n g I n t h e  u n i v e r s i t y area  i n t o s i n g l e framework o f  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t such d i v e r s i t i e s tions of participating  decision-making. o f o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c -  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l i m i t a t i o n s  of municipal  c o n t r o l s f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g , pose s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n long-range  planning f o r a U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t unless formal co-  operative arrangements are formulated. I l l A PROPOSAL FOR THE FORMATION OF UNIVERSITY D I S T R I C T PLANNING COMMISSION. I t I s proposed t h a t a U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e a c h u n i v e r s i t y a r e a . of  this proposal  arrangements,for Areas,  i s to r e c t i f y cooperative  The m a i n  p l a n n i n g and development of U n i v e r s i t y and j o i n t d e -  The m a j o r f u n c t i o n s a n d p r o p o s e d m e m b e r s h i p o f s u c h a  c o m m i s s i o n a r e o u t l i n e d I n t h e f i g u r e 10 f o l l o w i n g t h i s The  object  t h e drawbacks o f e x i s t i n g ad hoc  by c r e a t i n g b e t t e r m e t h o d s f o r c o n t i n u o u s  cisions.  Commission  Commission possesses  a method o f c o o p e r a t i v e  page.  the q u a l i t i e s which a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r planning.  PROPOSED ORGANISATION AND FUNCTIONS OF UNIVERSITY D I S T R I C T PLANNING COMMISSION UNIVERSITY D I S T R I C T PLANNING COMMISSION Higher education and campus l a y o u t .  UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC BOARD  Functions: Plan preparation, and continuous planning o f the area. Implementation o f t h e -plan b y a l l o cating responsibi l i t y to,-member organization f o r implementing parts of-the plan.  Se;m4-judicial i n case o f d i s p u t e s between j u r i s iictional units and a r e a s r e s i dents. 1  #The number o f Municipal Corporati o n s may be l e s s o r more d e p e n d i n g upon the l o c a t i o n o f the university District in Metropolitan Area.  To r e v i e w a c a d e m i c p l a n s a n d a d v i c e on t h e l o c a t i o n of, u n i versity related i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e s e a r c h industries.  /  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITIES REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION  To p r o v i d e f o r t h e financial requirements o f t h e Commission: UREDC 50%-, M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 35%; a n d U n i v e r s i t y 15%.  MUNICIPAL * CORPORATION MUNICIPAL * CORPORATION I I MUNICIPAL'* CORPORATION I I I  V  To p r o v i d e staff.  technical  DEPARTMENT OF HIGHWAYS  To p l a n a n d d e v e l o p p r o v i n c i a l highways.  JOINT SERVICES BOARD  To p l a n a n d d e v e l o p intermunicipal services.  DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS REGIONAL PLANNING BOARD  To a d v i s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of i n termunicipal projects, and t o p r o v i d e f o r s u i t able enabling l e g i s l a t i o n i n the Municipal Act.  MEMBER OF LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY  To a d v i s e t h e C o m m i s s i o n on r e g i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of U n i v e r s i t y area p l a n .  LOCAL COUNCIL ALDERMAN  To e f f e c t t h e d e c i s i o n s of t h e Commission i n the Legislature;  AREA'S RESIDENTS  i n municipal  >—©>  c o u n c i l ; and  i n the neighbourhoods.  Effectiveness:  University District  94  Planning  Commission'as  a device  t o prepare and implement the p l a n ,  the  from time t o time a s such need a r i s e s , and t o c a r r y o u t  plan  plan  t o r e v i e w a n d amend  on a j o i n t b a s i s , i s a f a r s u p e r i o r method t h a n "ad h o c "  c o m m i t t e e s , w h i c h do n o t p o s s e s s p o w e r s t o f o r m u l a t e programmes t o i m p l e m e n t p l a n s . attributes definite  The C o m m i s s i o n i n f a c t h a s a l l t h e  o f an e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n  p o l i c y , c a n make q u i c k  decisions  i . e . i t can pursue a on a l t e r n a t i v e  and  can guide development a g e n c i e s t o apply  the  chosen o b j e c t i v e s o f the p l a n .  on  p o l i c i e s and  plans,  funds f o r achieving  I n a d d i t i o n I t can economise  s t a f f a n d e q u i p m e n t by e n t r u s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i n d i v i d u a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n s a n d by c o n t r a c t i n g p r o j e c t s t o G o v e r n m e n t D e p a r t ments a t f a v o u r a b l e  rates.  M e m b e r s h i p : The m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e p r o p o s e d C o m m i s s i o n comprises of University, municipal a g e n c i e s w h i c h have v a r y i n g in the  corporations  degrees o f p e r t i n e n c e  t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e and c o n t i n u i n g University District.  specialized tions  planning  other  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  and development o f  The C o m m i s s i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o become a  t e c h n i c a l , p o l i t c a l and s e m i - j u d i c i a l i n i t s f u n c -  ( F i g u r e ic). In g e n e r a l  the experiences of c o o r d i n a t i n g bodies of t h i s  n a t u r e have i n d i c a t e d t h a t d u r i n g s i t y Area there the  and e i g h t  the development o f the Univer-  a r e s e v e r a l s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e amending o f  p r o v i n c i a l or state statutes f o rachieving  area^s  objectives.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t C o m m i s s i o n ' s d e c i s i o n s may be c o m m u n i c a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly should  Therefore,  ( p r e f e r a b l y from the l o c a l  a l s o be a member o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n t o f u l f i l  a Member o f constituency) this  95 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l need. both  the M u n i c i p a l  A t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , a l d e r m e n a s members o f  C o u n c i l and t h e C o m m i s s i o n w i l l  i n t e g r a t i n g the Commission's d e c i s i o n s w i t h Municipal It of f i v e  help i n  those of t h e i r  Councils.  i s recommended t h a t t h e members s h o u l d  elect  "Executive"  f r o m among t h e members o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n and a p p o i n t a  Chairman, each f o r a three-year  term.  The C o m m i s s i o n s h a l l  adopt  by-laws f o r i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , government and p r o c e d u r e . Permanency;  The C o m m i s s i o n w i l l  to ensure c o n t i n u i t y o f planning  be a p e r m a n e n t  and development.  r u l e s t o govern i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s , place  and o f f i c e  to operate.  organization  I t should  have  and a s e p a r a t e  "Ad h o c " c o m m i t t e e s l a c k  these  a t t r i b u t e s , a n d a s a r e s u l t t e n d t o d i s a p p e a r o v e r t i m e due t o l a c k o f i n c e n t i v e s , c h a n g e o f p e r s o n n e l o r due t o e n d i n g o f t h e p u r p o s e o r j o b f o r w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d . ment s h o u l d in  provide  the formation  ives of planning  f o r a suitable enabling  the U n i v e r s i t y  to help  District.  The C o m m i s s i o n i n c l u d e s  c i t i z e n ' s groups I n a d d i t i o n t o other -  legislation  o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h may a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t -  Accountability:  organizations  The P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n -  thus w i l l  representatives  from  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l u n i t s and  remain s e n s i t i v e t o "pressure  which impart e f f i c i e n c y to the o r g a n i z a t i o n and, i n f a c t ,  groups" would  make t h e C o m m i s s i o n a c c o u n t a b l e t o p u b l i c a t l a r g e f o r t h e a c t i o n s It  committed.  In a d d i t i o n , the pride  University District w i l l in the  of residents belonging  to  be m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p  t h e Commission and would promote b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g between U n i v e r s i t y and neighbourhoods surrounding  t h e campuses.  96 Support:  I t i s Imperative that the U n i v e r s i t y  District  P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n s h o u l d have s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s t o p e r f o r m i t s role  i n p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t .  integrated units.  into  the f i n a n c i a l  The e n a b l i n g  The C o m m i s s i o n s h o u l d be  structure  legislation  cipating organization  jurisdictional  s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h a t the  should contribute  the t o t a l a n n u a l e x p e n d i t u r e  of the  fully  parti-  c e r t a i n percentage of  of the Commission.  However, the  l i m i t a t i o n h e r e w o u l d be t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n i s s u b j e c t t o y e a r l y d e p a r t m e n t a l b u d g e t r y procedure of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r ganizations. financial  T h e r e f o r e , a major p o r t i o n of the Commission's  r e q u i r e m e n t s be met  from the f u n d s of the  Universities'  R e a l E s t a t e Development C o r p o r a t i o n whereas m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , versity  and c i t i z e n ' s g r o u p s s h o u l d assume r e l a t i v e l y  financial  responsibility.  p r o v i s i o n of municipal  lesser  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i g h w a y s and  s e r v i c e s s h o u l d l a r g e l y become t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the P r o v i n c i a l Department J o i n t Services Board  uni-  o f H i g h w a y s , and t h e  respectively.  University District  P l a n n i n g Commission as a d e v i c e f o r  c o o p e r a t i v e planning I s d e f i n i t e l y a s u p e r i o r arrangement to "ad h o c " c o m m i t t e e s . jurisdictions making  I t d o e s n o t i n a n y way  d e p r i v e the v a r i o u s  o f t h e i r autonomous r o l e , r a t h e r I t complements i n  them more e f f e c t i v e b y a s s u m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  m a k i n g and by d i r e c t i n g  the r e s o u r c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l  u n i v e r s i t y , and o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l  of plan  municipalities,  d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s  s i n g l e framework o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r j o i n t  action.  into  97 T h e r e f o r e , the v a l i d i t y  of study h y p o t h e s i s , can be  r e s t a t e d i n the l i g h t of p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n t h a t : the i n t e g r a t i o n o f campus p l a n n i n g w i t h the long range comprehensive p l a n n i n g of adjacent m u n i c i p a l areas i s e s s e n t i a l for  the e f f e c t i v e development of the U n i v e r s i t y D i s t r i c t .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  98 1 . Bell  s  BOOKS  L . I . M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver ~ An Overview f o r S o c i a l Planners. V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: Community C h e s t C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a O f f i c e , 1965.  C h a p i n , P.S. U r b a n L a n d Use JPl^ajinJLng.. U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , T§£~" D o b b i n s , C.G. ( e d . ) . The University„ t h e C i t y . , a n d U r b a n R e n e w a l . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , 1964. 58 p p . D o b e r , R.P. Campus P l a n n i n g . l e w Y o r k : R e i n h o l d C o r p o r a t i o n , 196~3. 314 p p .  Publishing  Macdonald, J.B. H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962 7"""°" M c L e a n , Mary ( e d . ) . L o c a l P l a n n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . C h i c a g o : I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y M a n a g e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959. 467 p p . P h i l l i p s , J.C. S t a t e and L o c a l Government i n A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n Book Company, 1954. 728 p p . Rock, J . B . R o b b i n s , L . P . ( e d ) . Case B o o k on Campus P l a n n i n g / and I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962. 162 p p . United N a t i o n s Bureau o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s . Social Progress T h r o u g h Community D e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1955. 120 pp. 2.  A R T I C L E S I N PERIODICALS  A r t h u r , E r i c . ' U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Ifejgtor P l a n ' I n J o u r n a l o f R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Canada, "• . ( O c t o b e r ,  1 9 5 3 ) , P P . 2"B6^~2F9T~ r  — ' U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia' i n J ournal o f R o y a l A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Canada! ( O c t o b e r , 1953), P P . 301 -~36T7~ ~~ A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t i e s a n d C o l l e g e s i n C a n a d a . 'The B l a d e n Commission R e p o r t s ' i n U n i v e r s i t y A f f a i r , v o l . 7 n o . l , ( O c t o b e r , 1965)» 23 p p .  c  99 B a r n e s , James A . "Campus P l a n n i n g " , i n P l a n n i n g 1 9 5 8 . C h i c a g o A m e r i c a n ' S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , (1958). Carlson, "David B. "Town a n d Gown" i n A r c h i t e c t u r a l ( M a r c h , 1963), p p . 92 - 95.  Forum.  Dunke, G.S., e t a l . " M o v i n g S a n F r a n c i s c o S t a t e C o l l e g e " i n Casebook_,_pn_Campus P l a i m l n g a n d I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . W a s h i n g t o n : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , ( 1 9 6 2 ) p p . 72 - 9 2 . G r a n g e r , A l f r e d . "The Campus' P l a n " i n A m e r i c a n L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t . ( A p r i l ' , 1930), p p . 22 - 25. K a l b a c h , W.E. e t a l . " U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a H o u s i n g S u r v e y : P a r t 1, S t u d e n t s i n Off-Campus H o u s i n g " , " E d m o n t o n : D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a (1962). L e v i , J.H. "Expanding t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o " i n Casebook on Campus P l a n n i n g and. I n s t i t u t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , W a s h i n g t o n : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 107 - 127. "Ground Space f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y " i n The U n i v e r s i t y the C i t y , and Urban Renewal, Washington: A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , ( 1 9 6 3 ) p p . 9 1 5 . M a c d o n a l d , J . B . "The C h a l l e n g e o f G r o w t h " , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (1962). P a r s o n s , K.C. " U n i v e r s i t i e s a n d C i t i e s " i n J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 2 4 , n o s . l a n d 4, ( J a n u a r y and A p r i l 1963),' pp. 16 - 28; 205 - 2 1 6 . S a s k a t c h e w a n , W a s c a n a C e n t r e A u t h o r i t y . "Wascana C e n t r e " R e g i n a , S a s k . s The C e n t r e A u t h o r i t y , (1962). S h e f f i e l d , E. "Review o f U n i v e r s i t y Y e a r " i n U n i v e r s i t y A f f a i r s v o l . 6, n o . 1, ( O c t o b e r , 1964) comments 'on t h e p r o j e c t i o n s of u n i v e r s i t y population i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , 24 p p . S l a y t o n , W.L. " U n i v e r s i t y , t h e C i t y - a n d U r b a n R e n e w a l " i n The U n i v e r s i t y , , t h e C i t y , a n d U r b a n R e n e w a l . W a s h i n g t o n : A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , (19~S3), P P . 2 - 9. Taylor, William. Quarterly,  "Student Culture and Residence" i n U n i v e r s i t y v o l . I ? , n o . 4, (I965), P P . '331 - 34TI  Temko, A l l a n . " F o o t h i l l ' s Campus P l a n i s a Community i n I t s e l f " i n .Architectural go ram, ( F e b r u a r y , 1962), pp.54 - 57.  100. T u n i s , A l b e r t A. "The M c G i l l S t o r y ? From C o u n t r y E s t a t e t o B i g - C i t y Campus" I n Campus P l a n n i n g F i l e s o f t h e UBC L i b r a r y , p p . 4 - 6. W a r r , P e t e r B. " A t t i t u d e s a n d B e h a v i o u r i n a H a l l o f R e s i d e n c e " I n U n i v e r s i t y Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 1 9 , n o . 1, (December, 1 9 6 4 ) , Y l v i s a k e r , P a u l . "Some C r i t e r i a f o r a P r o p e r A r e a l D i v i s i o n o f Governmental Powers" i n R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g . C a m b r i d g e : M.I.T. P r e s s , ( 1 9 6 4 ) p p . 519 - 5 4 1 . 3. TECHNICAL REPORTS A l e x a n d e r , R o b e r t E. a n d A s s o c i a t e s . L o n g Range.. D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n Of I r v i n e Campus o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Campus P l a n n i n g Committee O f f i c e , 1 9 6 3 . American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s . U n i v e r s i t y Zoning D i s t r i c t s . S p e c i a l Report o f the A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e . C h i c a g o : ASPO*, 1 9 6 3 . P l a n n i n g f o r Campus P a r k i n g . Special Report of A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e . C h i c a g o : ASPO, 1963. B a r t o n - A s c h m a n A s s o c i a t e s I n c .Up Town Campus o f De P a u l U n i v e r s i t y . E v a s t o n , I l l i n o i s ; The U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 1 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . An A c t t o - E s t a b l i s h t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s Real E s t a t e D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n . V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1966 — • - — U n i v e r s i t i e s  Act, Victoria:  Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 3 .  B u r n a b y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . A p a r t m e n t S t u d y . B u r n a b y , B.C.: C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f Burnaby, 1966. B u r n a b y P a r k S i t e s , B u r n a b y , B;.C; C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f B u r n a b y , 1 9 6 1 . — B u r n a b y S c h o o l S i t e s . B u r n a b y , B.C.: C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f Burnaby, 1962. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y S i t e S e l e c t i o n S t u d y . B u r n a b y , B.C.: The P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1963. Cambridge P l a n n i n g B o a r d . S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Cambridge N e i g h b o u r h o o d s . C a m b r i d g e , Mass.; The P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1963.  101 C a n a d a . Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . P o p u l a t i o n and Housing C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Census T r a c t s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. B u l l e t i n No. CT-22 "Ottawa: D.B.S., 1963. 9  t  C a p i t a l Region Planning Board. U n i v e r s i t y Area V i c t o r i a s The Planning Board, 1 9 0 * 2 " " " — — — — . A^ Plan For the O a j ^ a l _ R g g i o n . , Planning™*! oard PX96l•^"~"^ The  O v e r a l l Plan,For t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g " ^ oard, 1965.  Study,  Victoria;  of V i c t o r i a ,  The  Victoria:  C i t y of Vancouver. ^ J K L a f i . For t h e C i t y of Vancouver, Vaneouver: T h e , C i t y 7 ~ l 9 2 9 . _________ Vancouver's Changing P o p u l a t i o n , Vancouver: The P l a n n i n g Department, 19p4. a  C i t y of D a v i s . Davis General P l a n . , D a v i s . C a l i f o r n i a : City, 1 9 6 X ™ " ~~~  The  Hammer and Company A s s o c i a t e s . The Development of On-Campus Commercial F a c i l i t i e s For the U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a . Washington, D.C: The A s s o c i a t e s , 1963, 61 pp. Hodge, G., Robinson, I.M. Jobs, People and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Vancouver: M e t r o p o l i t a n J o i n t ' Committee, i 9 6 0 . ~~ r  L i v i n g s t o n , Lawrence, J r . ? Warnecke, £ . 0 . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a South C e n t r a l Coast Effite S e l e c t i o n S t u d y . B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a ; The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Board of Regents O f f i c e , 1959. 7  Lower Mainland Regional P l a n n i n g Board, O f f i c i a l Regional Plan, New Westminster, B.C.; The Planning Board, 1964"! "  -  P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s . .Simon P r a s e r Towns!te Master Plan, Burnaby, B.C.; M u n i c i p a l P l a n n i n g Department',' 1963. . Saanich P l a n n i n g Department. A Plan f o r the U n i v e r s i t y A r e a . Saanich, B.C.: The Planning Department, 1965. Temple U n i v e r s i t y . Temple U n i v e r s i t y 1970 Development Plan f o r Board and Montgomery Campus. ' P h i l a d e l p h i a : O f f i c e of the P r e s i d e n t of Temple U n i v e r s i t y , 1963, 19 pp. T r a f f i c Research C o r p o r a t i o n . C a p i t a l Region of B r i t i s h Columbia T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study. V i c t o r i a , BTCS The C a p i t a l Region P l a n n i n g Board,' 1965'.'  T u r n e r , D.B. U n i v e r s i t y Endowment L a n d s M a s t e r P l a n S u r v e y , V i c t o r i a , B.C.: B.C. D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n d s a n d F o r e s t s , 1 9 5 6 , 126 p p . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . Long Range.Development P l a n F o r the D a v i s Campus o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Campus P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e O f f i c e , 1963. . L o n g Range D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n o f San D j e g o Campus of the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ' , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Campus P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e O f f i c e , 1962. --. L o n g Range D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n f o r S a n t a B a r b a r a Campus o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , S a n t a B a r b a r a C a l i f o r n i a ; The U n i v e r s i t y , 1963, 33 p p . U n i v e r s i t y C i r c l e D e v e l o p m e n t F o u n d a t i o n . A P a r k i n g Programme F o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y C i r c l e , C l e v e l a n d , O h i o : The D e v e l o p m e n t F o u n d a t i o n , 1965. University of Pennsylvania. Campus. P h i l a d e l p h i a :  1964.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n To a n d From t h e The U n i v e r s i t y P l a n n i n g O f f i c e ,  U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a . The U n i v e r s i t y C a l e n d a r . 1964-65, V i c t o r i a , B.C.: The U n i v e r s i t y , 1964." University of Wisconsin. The S k e t c h P l a n f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n M a d i s o n Campus, M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : The U n i v e r s i t y , 1959. Vancouver T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Board. Summary a n d R e p r o d u c t i o n s of B r i e f s R e f e r r i n g t o t h e Apartment Zoning P r o p o s a l s i n P o i n t Grey, Apartment Zoning Report, Vancouver: The T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , 1965. . Summary a n d R e p r o d u c t i o n s o f B r i e f s R e f e r r i n g t o the Apartment Z o n i n g P r o p o s a l s i n Dunbar, A p a r t m e n t Z o n i n g R e p o r t , V a n c o u v e r : The T e c h n i c a l B o a r d , 1965. Apartment Zoning and Suburban Shopping C e n t r e s S t u d y , V a n c o u v e r : The T e c h n i c a l B o a r d , 1965.  APPENDIX  103 CAMPUS PLANNING RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE SCHEDULE I - MUNICIPAL PLANNER 1.  Does t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o campus?  planning  2.  Have y o u done a n y s p e c i a l s t u d y o f w h a t t h e p r o b l e m s a r e f o r p l a n n i n g the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  3.  I f so what r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  4.  Have y o u r e c e i v e d r e - z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e k i n d d u r i n g t h e p a s t few y e a r s ?  were made? following  (a) a p a r t m e n t houses (b) c o n v e r s i o n o f s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i n t o r o o m i n g or apartment houses, (c) i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d i n g f r a t e r n i t y houses, (d) r e s e a r c h i n d u s t r i e s , (e) s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , (f) professional office buildings, (g) t h e a t r e s / e n t e r t a i n m e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , (h) a n y o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y . 5.  I s i t c u s t o m a r y t o have proposals?  6.  D i d t h e d e v e l o p e r s show t h a t c h a n g e s f o r the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  7.  Were y o u i n a g r e e m e n t  8.  Were t h e r e a n y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s r e j e c t e d by t h e C o u n c i l w h i c h you thought would c o n s t i t u t e d e s i r a b l e development?  9.  Please  identify  p u b l i c h e a r i n g on s u c h  w i t h the  development  s o u g h t were d e s i r a b l e  changes?  the main r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r  rejection.  10.  Have y o u r e c e i v e d a n y c o m p l a i n t s a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus?  11.  Would y o u p l e a s e  12.  Does t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y have a p o l i c y o f n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y on d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s ?  identify  from the r e s i d e n t s of  the b a s i s f o r c o m p l a i n t s .  104 13.  Does t h e u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a p o l i c y o f a p p r o a c h i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y on d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s which are not i n the long-range i n t e r e s t of the u n i versity?  14.  Do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r a p e r m a n e n t c o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f u n i v e r s i t y , m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s who s h o u l d s t u d y t h e n e e d s , f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s a n d p r o grammes f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus? OR  15.  Do y o u p r e f e r a n i n f o r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t w h e r e b y u n i v e r s i t y , c i t y and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s should, a r r a n g e m e e t i n g s t o d i s c u s s mutual p l a n n i n g problems i n the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  16.  What l o n g - r a n g e p l a n s a r e I n e x i s t e n c e o r a r e b e i n g considered f o r the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  17.  What i s t h e b e s t method f o r a c h i e v i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e planning i n the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  105 CAMPUS PLANNING RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE SCHEDULE I I  -  CAMPUS PLANNER  1.  Does t h e u n i v e r s i t y t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a r e s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o b l e m s i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus?  2.  Have y o u done a n y s p e c i a l s t u d y o f w h a t t h e p r o b l e m s are f o r planning the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  33.  I f s o what r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were made?  4-.  Does t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y m a i n t a i n a p o l i c y o f c o n s u l t i n g y o u on p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t s i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus?  5.  Does t h e u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a p o l i c y o f e x p r e s s i n g i t s concern t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y over the planning and d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s i n a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus?  6.  Do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s n e e d f o r a p e r m a n e n t c o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f u n i v e r s i t y , m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s who s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h n e e d s , f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s a n d p r o grammes f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e campus? OR  7.  Do y o u p r e f e r a n a r r a n g e m e n t w h e r e b y t h e u n i v e r s i t y , c i t y and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d a r r a n g e m e e t i n g s t o d i s c u s s mutual p l a n n i n g problems i n the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  8.  What l o n g - r a n g e p l a n s a r e i n e x i s t e n c e o r a r e b e i n g considered f o r the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  9.  What i s t h e b e s t method o f a c h i e v i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  planning  106  CAMPUS PLANNING RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE SCHEDULE I I I ' - REGIONAL 1.  Do you t h i n k t h a t there are s p e c i a l p l a n n i n g problems i n areas adjacent to campuses?  2.  Have you done any s p e c i a l study of what the problems are f o r p l a n n i n g the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t (or d i s t r i c t s ) ?  3.  I f so, what recommendations  4.  Do the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s m a i n t a i n a p o l i c y of c o n s u l t i n g you on proposed developments i n areas adjacent to the campus?  5.  Does the u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have a p o l i c y of e x p r e s s i n g i t s concern to the Planning Board over the p l a n n i n g and development p r o p o s a l s i n a r e a s adjacent to the campus?  6.  Do you f e e l t h a t there i s need f o r a permanent committee c o n s i s t i n g o f u n i v e r s i t i e s , m u n i c i p a l , r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s who should study the needs, formulate p o l i c i e s and programmes f o r the development of a r e a s adj a c e n t to u n i v e r s i t y campuses? OR  7.  Do you p r e f e r an i n f o r m a l arrangement whereby the o f f i c i a l s of v a r i o u s j u r i s d i c t i o n s should arrange meetings to d i s c u s s mutual p l a n n i n g problems i n the U n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t s ?  8.  What are the long-range r e g i o n a l p l a n s a t present i n e x i s t e n c e or are being c o n s i d e r e d f o r the u n i v e r s i t y district?  9.  What i s the best method f o r a c h i e v i n g comprehensive p l a n n i n g i n the u n i v e r s i t y d i s t r i c t ?  were made?  

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