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The theories of Hans Hofmann and their influence on his west-coast Canadian students Lee, Roger 1966

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THE THEORIES OF HANS HOFMANN AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON HIS WEST-COAST CANADIAN STUDENTS by ROGER LEE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Fine A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In p resen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r re fe rence and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree that pe r -m iss ion f o r ex tens i ve copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copy ing o r p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f ^IXSL r \ V \<, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date f \ ^ i l * 3 j -13 6 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . HANS HOFMANN, A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY . 1 I I . THE THEORIES OF HANS HOFMANN 8 I I I . THE WEST-COAST CANADIAN STUDENTS OF THE HANS HOFMANN SCHOOL OF ART 91 ILLUSTRATIONS 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY 131 ABSTRACT The t o p i c of my t h e s i s i s an a n a l y s i s of Hans Hofmann's t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s on a r t and t h e i r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on h i s West-Coast Canadian students. I have inc l u d e d a short biography of Hofmann i n order that the reader may become aware of the events t h a t l e d up t o h i s t h e o r e t i c a l development. Through a l l a v a i l a b l e published m a t e r i a l on and by Hans Hofmann, I have endeavoured t o analyze and t o e x p l a i n h i s t h e o r i e s which are often quoted but seldom understood. Hofmann"s a r t was i n s p i r e d by nature. This i n s p i r a t i o n enabled him t o create on the canvas the p e r c e i v a b l e movements of "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n . " These movements are caused by form and c o l o r on a bare canvas which creates the combined e f f e c t of two and three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . How-ever, the two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the p i c t u r e plane i s r e t a i n e d momentarily because v i s u a l l y i t appears two dimensional but past experience of the observer creates the e f f e c t of three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . These movements of "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n , " which are perpendicular t o each other, are created by the simultaneous development of form and c o l o r . I f these movements are able t o re£lect the a r t i s t ' s mind, i i i s e n s i b i l i t y , temperament and past experience, a symphonic p a i n t i n g , a category of the f i n e a r t s , or a work of a r t w i l l have been created. The s p i r i t which has been captured, emits the a r t i s t ' s l i f e f o r the p h y s i c a l d u r a t i o n of the p a i n t i n g . Although t h e s e i t h e o r i e s were taught by Hofmann at h i s schoo l s , he d i d not expect h i s students t o accept them w i t h -out a second thought. He wanted h i s students t o develop from them as he had developed from o t h e r s . The e f f e c t of Hofmann Ts teachings on the contemporary t h e o r i e s of i n d i v i d u a l students was asc e r t a i n e d by means of a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Hofmann's West-Coast Canadian students, L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe and Donald J a r v i s . L i o n e l Thomas was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Hofmann's r o l e as an educator. Both Hofmann and Thomas stimulated t h e i r students and helped t o r a i s e the a r t i s t i c l e v e l of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l environments. Takao Tanabe s a i d he had r e j e c t e d Hofmann's t h e o r i e s . I f Hofmann was i n f l u e n t i a l on Tanabe, the l a t t e r has c o n s t r i c t e d , denunciated or attempted t o fo r g e t that i n f l u e n c e . J a r v i s c o n t r a s t s both Thomas and Tanabe f o r he n e i t h e r accepts or r e j e c t s Hofmann's teach-i n g s . J a r v i s has, as Hofmann had f i f t y years e a r l i e r i n P a r i s , developed from what he l e a r n t from h i s teacher. Hofmann's i n f l u e n c e has not ended, f o r Thomas, Tanabe and J a r v i s are teachers and they, w i t h a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n f l u e n c e d by Hofmann, s t i l l propagate h i s t h e o r i e s . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE PAGE I. "Fantasia," 1943, by Hans Hofmann . . . . 127 II . "Effervescence," 1944, by Hans Hofmann, . . 127 I I I . "Magenta and Blue," 1950, by Hans Hofmann . 128 IV. "Le G i l o t i n , " 1953, by Hans Hofmann . . . 128 V. "Above Deep Waters," 1959, by Hans Hofmann . 129 VI. "Pre-Dawn," I960, by Hans Hofmann . . . . 129 VII. "Landscape of an In t e r i o r Place," 1955, by Takao Tanabe 130 VIII. "Winter Evening," 1958, by Donald Ja r v i s . . 130 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o the Members of the Fine A r t s Department who aided me i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i a l acknowledgement should be accorded •Mr. W i l l i a m S. Hart, whose guidance and new i n s i g h t s i n t o Hans Hofmann, deepened the scope of my t h e s i s . I appreciate the a s s i s t a n c e given by Miss Melva Dwyer, Miss Diane Cooper and the members of the Fine A r t s D i v i s i o n L i b r a r y . My r e s e a r c h at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley was aided by Mrs. Mary Anne C r a f t , Museum R e g i s t r a r , who made the c o l l e c t i o n of Hans Hofmann"s catalogues a v a i l a b l e f o r my use. Also at Berkeley, I would l i k e t o thank Mr. L a r r y Denean, who showed me the U n i v e r s i t y ' s c o l l e c t i o n of Hans Hofmann p a i n t i n g s , and a l s o gave me new i n s i g h t s i n t o Hofmann, the teacher and the a r t i s t . Most of a l l , I would l i k e t o thank Hans Hofmann"s students, Mr. L i o n e l Thomas, Mr. Takao Tanabe and Mr. Donald J a r v i s f o r the time I spent w i t h them d u r i n g our i n t e r v i e w s . Last but not l e a s t , I express my g r a t i t u d e to Miss M a r i l y n M e i s t e r and Mr. Terry Lopston who read over my t h e s i s and t o a l l my f r i e n d s who encouraged and helped me w i t h the p u r s u i t of t h i s t o p i c . .CHAPTER I A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY This t h e s i s concerns Hans Hofmann Ts t h e o r i e s and the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of h i s t h e o r i e s on a s e l e c t e d number of h i s West-Coast Canadian students. This t h e s i s has been d i v i d e d i n t o three chapters. The f i r s t presents a b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l account. The second discusses h i s t h e o r i e s . The t h i r d chapter presents i n t e r v i e w s w i t h L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe, and Donald J a r v i s , Hofmann's West-Coast Canadian Students. The career of Hans Hofmann has spanned at l e a s t two generations, two continents and many i n t e r n a t i o n a l borders. His place i n the f i e l d of modern a r t has been e s t a b l i s h e d as an a r t i s t , educator, and exponent of modern a r t . Having taught f o r f o r t y - f i v e years, h i s many students now disseminate throughout the world h i s enthusiasm f o r modern a r t , h i s teachings and h i s methods of t e a c h i n g . Hofmann's untimely death i n . February, 1966, ended t h i r t y - f i v e years on the American a r t scene. Often thought of as being American-born, he was i n f a c t born i n Weissenburg, Germany on March 21, 1880. He was the second son of a government o f f i c i a l . His youth was spent with h i s 2 f o u r brothers and s i s t e r s i n the German countryside which shone with the green grass and i r r i d e s c e n t s p a rkle of streams. The young Hans loved the summers he spent at h i s grandfather's farm. Hans was very attached t o h i s grand-f a t h e r who took on the r o l e of f a t h e r s u b s t i t u t e . By the age of s i x t e e n , Hans l e f t home t o work as an a s s i s t a n t to the D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c Works of the State of B a v a r i a . There he was able t o pursue h i s i n t e r e s t i n mathematics and science by using i t s l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . Through science he was able t o survey nature broadly and o b j e c t i v e l y and to supply h i m s e l f with the m a t e r i a l s f o r f u r t h e r c r e a t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n . During these y o u t h f u l y e a r s , s c i e n c e took up most of h i s time but he was s t i l l able t o continue h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r t and music, namely the v i o l i n , piano and organ. Hofmann*s c r e a t i v e bent l e a d him t o the i n v e n t i o n of an electromagnetic comptometer, a machine s i m i l a r t o the present day c a l c u l a t i n g machine. As he was s t i l l under age, h i s mother had t o s i g n the patent. His f a t h e r , much pleased w i t h h i s son's success, sent the boy a thousand marks, and w i t h t h i s small f o r t u n e , Hofmann embarked on h i s career i n a r t by e n r o l l i n g at a r t school. However, h i s s c i e n t i f i c career was not yet ended; h i s c r e a t i v e c u r i o s i t y l e a d him to develop a submarine s i g n a l device, an , e l e c t r i c bulb that glowed independently of an e l e c t r i c source, and a portable f r e e z i n g u n i t , a l l of which produced no f i n a n c i a l p r o f i t s . While a t a r t s c h o o l , Hofmann mastered the lessons from a succession of teachers; Michailow, Apse, F e r e n z i and Grimwald. He s a i d that these teachers "had a humanizing r a t h e r than a t e c h n i c a l or conceptual i n f l u e n c e on (him)."''" L a t e r Hofmann re-emphasized t h e i r r o l e i n h i s development when he s a i d t h a t " t h e i r lessons were to be the foundation-stone of h i s l a t e r teachings as w e l l as h i s own work." His teachers were unaware of what was happening i n P a r i s , the 3 v i t a l center f o r the development of modern a r t . Hofmann, however, became thoroughly acquainted w i t h the development of modern a r t . Because the lessons and methods of h i s teachers has not been r e v e a l e d , the statement t h a t h i s Munich teachers were i n f l u e n t i a l i n h i s development cannot be taken as f a c t . I t was through an acquaintance, W i l l i e Schwarz, that Hofmann became aware of P a r i s . W i l l i e t a l k e d of the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s s t a t i n g , "One must observe nature by means of l i g h t r e f l e c t e d from o b j e c t s , r a t h e r than be concerned w i t h t a n g i b l e existence of the objects themselves."^ These ideas 'greatly e x c i t e d Hofmann who became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d w i t h a r t . W i l l i e then introduced him t o a B e r l i n c o l l e c t o r who i n t u r n introduced Hofmann to P h i l i p Freudenberg "'"Ben Wolf, "The Art Digest Interviews Hans Hofmann," The A r t Digest, v o l . 19, no. 13, A p r i l 1, 1945, p. 52. 2 Hans Hofmann, Search f o r the Real and Other Essays, Andover,. Mass. , The Addison G a l l e r y of American A r t , 1948, p. 10. ^ I b i d . , p. 11. 4 Loc. c i t . 4 the c o l l e c t o r ' s wealthy uncle and a department store owner. This meeting must have been very encouraging, f o r P h i l i p be-came Hofmann's patron f o r the next ten years, a v i r t u a l l y unique s i t u a t i o n i n view of the f a c t t h a t most of the great innovators of modern t w e n t i e t h century a r t s u f f e r e d many years of poverty. Hofmann's patron sent him to P a r i s , the hub of the a r t world during t h i s c r u c i a l p eriod f o r modern a r t (1904-1914). This was the nascent period of Cubism and Fauvism, both important i n the development of Hofmann's l a t e r a r t . At the Cafe du<; Dome he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h George Braque, Pablo P i c a s s o , Juan G r i s , Munk, Kar s t e n , P a s c i n , and C a r l e s . Hofmann was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s close f r i e n d s Henri M a t i s s e and Robert Delaunay. Hofmann and Matisse attended the evening c l a s s e s at C o l o r o s s i ' s and painted the same view of the Seine from the same balcony at Hotel B i s s o n . Delauany l i v e d nearby on l a Rue des Grandes Augustins. Hofmann s t a t e d r e c e n t l y that he introduced the work of George Seurat to 5 Robert Delaunay; the l a t t e r ' s impact on Hofmann was h i s ^ W i l l i a m C. S e i t z , Hans Hofmann, New York, Museum of Modern A r t , 1963, p. 7. Dr. H.L.C. J a f f e , a f r i e n d and w r i t e r of Robert and Sonia Delaunay s a i d i n an i n t e r v i e w on February 25 , 1966, t h a t he does not b e l i e v e Hofmann brought George Seurat to the eye's of Robert Delaunay, Neo-Impressionist's works were i n P a r i s and could have been seen by Delaunay before Hofmann's a r r i v a l i n P a r i s i n 1904. 5 expressive p o t e n t i a l i n the use of pure c o l o r . ,Delaunay's a p p l i c a t i o n of c o l o r to the c u b i s t space f o r m u l a t i o n was adapted undoubtedly by Hofmann, though he d i d not say so. Art was not the only bond between these two p a i n t e r s . Madame Delaunay's knowledge of German made i t p o s s i b l e f o r her t o t r a n s l a t e f o r Hofmann when h i s French f a i l e d him. In s p i t e of the language b a r r i e r , Hofmann absorbed the c o l o r and f r e e -dom of the Fauves, the Cubist d i s c i p l i n e of George Braque and Pablo Picasso and the c o l o r and form of Delaunay's Orphism. In 1910 while Matisse was i n B e r l i n f o r the show given him by C a s s i r e r , he saw P h i l i p Freudenberg's c o l l e c t i o n of Hofmann's work and encouraged the patron to continue support. That same year, Hofmann was a l s o given a one-man show by C a s s i r e r . Support continued u n t i l the s t a r t of World War I i n 1914• Hofmann had returned home t o Munich before the outbreak of the war and remained there f o r the next s i x t e e n y e a r s . Because of a lung l e s i o n , ^ he was not co n s c r i p t e d i n t o the army.. During the war, he opened h i s famous School of Modern A r t . " I opened my school i n Munich i n the s p r i n g of 7 1915 t o c l a r i f y the e n t i r e l y new p i c t o r i a l approach." ^During an i n t e r v i e w , L i o n e l Thomas has s a i d t h a t Hans Hofmann had t u b e r c u l o s i s and was q u i t e s i c k l y during t h i s p e r i o d . Sam Hunter i n h i s book on Hofmann has s a i d t h a t Hofmann had a weak lung. 7 'Hans Hofmann, Hans Hofmann, New York, Harry N. Abrams, Inc ., 1963, p.12. 6 The school provided Hofmann w i t h f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y and a l s o enabled him t o d i g e s t and r e s o l v e the problems and s o l u t i o n s which he had adopted during h i s P a r i s i a n sojourn. At the end of the war, the fame of h i s school spread, r e s u l t i n g i n an i n f l u x of f o r e i g n students t o 4 0 Georgen Strassen i n the suburb of Schwabing. Throughout t h i s post-war p e r i o d , Hofmann made frequent t r i p s to P a r i s i n order t o keep up w i t h new developments i n modern a r t . Hofmann a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d h i s w e l l known summer schools s u c c e s s i v e l y a t Y u g o s l a v i a , Capri and f i n a l l y St. Tropez. These summer schools were such a success t h a t when he came t o America he r e - e s t a b l i s h e d one at Provincetown, Massachusetts. Of the American students who attended h i s c l a s s e s i n Europe, Worth Ryder was the most important because he convinced the Regents of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley t o ask Hofmann t o teach summer school on t h e i r campus. Hofmann accepted the i n v i t a t i o n and remained i n America u n t i l h i s death. He d i d not r e t u r n t o Germany because h i s w i f e had warned him of the impending war and the u n a p p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e of the N a z i s . She l a t e r j o i n e d him i n America. The l a c k of artworks previous to 1931 i s due to h i s escape from Nazi Germany. The works t h a t had remained i n Germany were e i t h e r destroyed i n the Second World War or have been l o s t . 7 In the s p r i n g of 1931, Hofmann taught at the Chouinard i n Los Angeles and that same year, the C a l i f o r n i a Legion of Honor gave him h i s f i r s t American one-man show. From the time of h i s a r r i v a l i n America, Hofmann was an educator. A f t e r teaching at Chouinard, he taught i n New l o r k at the A r t s Students League f o r two years. Then he opened h i s own well-known school i n 1933• F i r s t l o c a t e d at Lexington Avenue and F i f t y - s e v e n t h S t r e e t , the school l a t e r moved t o F i f t y - s e c o n d S t r e e t and Ninth Avenue and f i n a l l y to E ighth S t r e e t i n h i s Greenwich V i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . Hofmann's presence i n New York has served t o r a i s e up a c l i m a t e of t a s t e among at l e a s t f i f t y people i n America?, t h a t cannot be matched f o r vigour or c o r r e c t -ness i n P a r i s or London. No matter how p u z z l i n g and ugly the new and o r i g i n a l w i l l appear—and i t w i l l i n -deed appear s o — t h e people who i n h a b i t t h i s c l i m a t e w i l l not f a i l t o perceive i t and h a i l i t . 9 Hofmann's long residence i n New York made him almost a legend on the American a r t scene;for over a quarter of a century he taught and supported young American a r t i s t s . His impact i s s t i l l being f e l t , both by second-generation students of h i s own students, and by those a r t i s t s at f i r s t u n f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s who learned about the a r t i s t through h i s q u i t e extensive w r i t i n g s on the theory of a r t . 9 Clement Greenberg, "The Present Prospects of Ameri-can P a i n t i n g and S c u l p t u r e , " Horizon, No. 93-4, October, 1947, p. 29. CHAPTER I I THE THEORIES OF HANS HOFMANN The t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s of Hans Hofmann extended over a p e r i o d of a h a l f a century. Although h i s ideas are o f t e n quoted, no study has attempted to break through h i s terminology f o r a thorough explanation of .his t h e o r i e s . In t h i s chapter, h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l be discussed i n r e l a t i o n t o the s t y l e of h i s w r i t i n g s and a c h r o n o l o g i c a l explanation and e l u c i d a t i o n of h i s t h e o r i e s . I f Hofmann wrote previous to 1931, those w r i t i n g s as were h i s p a i n t i n g s were l o s t or destroyed by the Nazis during the Second World War. Some of these w r i t i n g s could have found t h e i r way t o p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s , but t h e i r whereabouts have never been d i s c l o s e d . Upon h i s a r r i v a l i n America i n 1931, Hofmann published four a r t i c l e s ; one f o r a Berkeley E x h i b i t i o n catalogue, two f o r F o r t n i g h t l y and one f o r the League. A f t e r the l a s t of th a t s e r i e s there i s another gap of s i x t e e n years. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Hofmann wrote d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , f o r there i s a c o l l e c t i o n of unpublished w r i t i n g s by Hofmann at the Museum of Modern A r t i n New York and at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley. I n 1948 the Hofmann one-man r e t r o s p e c t i v e saw the p u b l i c a -t i o n of a monograph at the Addison G a l l e r y of American A r t . This was the most comprehensive summation of Hofmann*s t h e o r i e s t o t h a t date and a l s o included newly developed ideas. In the f o l l o w i n g years Hofmann published r e g u l a r l y , e i t h e r through e x h i b i t i o n catalogue e x p l a n a t i o n s , magazine i n t e r v i e w s or w r i t i n g s f o r magazines. While some of the w r i t i n g s r e i t e r a t e d p r e v i o u s l y published m a t e r i a l , three s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i c l e s appeared; "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d through the I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of Color t o Express Volume," (1951) "The Re s u r r e c t i o n of the P l a s t i c A r t s and The Mystery of Cre a t i v e R e l a t i o n s , " (1953) and "The Color Problem of Pure P a i n t i n g . " (1955) The s u b s t a n t i a l bulk of Hofmann 1s t h e o r i e s i s culminated i n these a r t i c l e s although he s t i l l published up t o 1963, the date of the l a s t i n t e r v i e w . There were a l s o a l a r g e number of monographs and a r t i c l e s on Hofmann a f t e r he had achieved renown i n 1944. This paper w i l l i nclude the published m a t e r i a l up t o the end of January, 1966, when t h i s t h e s i s was being completed. The s t y l e of Hofmann Ts t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s i s t y p i c a l l y German, d e t a i l e d and e x a c t i n g , w i t h complicated g r a m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s . His e a r l i e s t known w r i t i n g was t r a n s l a t e d from the German by W i l l i a m C. S e i t z i n the Museum of Modern A r t catalogue f o r h i s one-man show there i n 1963. The a r t i c l e s published a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n America were t r a n s l a t e d by Glen Wessels and others at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley. Wessels' understand-10 i n g of Hofmann's ideas enabled him t o t r a n s l a t e Hofmann's d i f f i c u l t Germanic usage i n t o f a i r l y e a s i l y read E n g l i s h . I t i s when he does h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n s that the d i f f i c u l t y of Hofmann's w r i t i n g s a r i s e s . In these l a t e r works, Hofmann's Germanic use of the E n g l i s h language creates a vagueness and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y t o the unaccustomed read-er. In u s i n g "a cloudy metaphysical r h e t o r i c , " h i s communica-t i o n i s limited"!" This d i f f i c u l t y of Hofmann's w r i t i n g s does not a r i s e from h i s ideas but from the way he has presented them. As w i l l be seen l a t e r , Hofmann has con-s t r u c t e d h i s thoughts on German syntax and merely t r a n -s l a t e d them l i t e r a l l y i n t o E n g l i s h , the end product being anomalous to the E n g l i s h reader. This l a s t statement i s not a c r i t i c i s m of Hofmann's w r i t i n g s f o r i t i s understood that he i s not a w r i t e r but a p a i n t e r . He himself undoubted-l y r e a l i z e d h i s ineptness i n expressing himself i n the E n g l i s h language when he s a i d t h a t an idea has i t s own 2 p e c u l i a r medium through which i t can be expressed. I f the idea happens t o be n o n - l i t e r a r y the person t r y i n g t o express such an idea w i l l be surmounting an overwhelming o b s t a c l e . Hofmann's ideas p a r t i a l l y f a l l i n t o t h i s category when he d i s c u s s e s s p i r i t u a l and metaphysical i d e a s , which are o f t e n . j — — — Harold Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " P o r t f o l i o and A r t News Annual, no.6, Autumn, 1962, p.113. 2 Hans Hofmann, Search f o r the Real and Other Essays, Andover, Mass., The Addison G a l l e r y of American A r t , i y 4 8 , p.46. 11 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r t . His problem i s t o define h i s terms a c c u r a t e l y and to stay w i t h i n that d e f i n i t i o n w h i l e i n f a c t he' only vaguely d e f i n e s terms and there i s o f t e n change i n meaning 3 Hofmann's i n a b i l i t y to express himself d e r i v e s from the f a c t that E n g l i s h i s not h i s mother tongue and t h a t he i s not g i f t e d i n a v e r b a l sense. While h i s language i s p i c t o r i a l and v i s u a l , he has used the v e r b a l medium t o express to other a r t i s t s and h i s audience h i s t h e o r i e s and ideas concerning a work of a r t . Hofmann's t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s have been broadly grouped, c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , i n t o three areas. Ideas from year t o year do not change r a d i c a l l y but go through a process of development and metamorphosis. The f i r s t group contains the Prospectus of 1915 and the w r i t i n g s of 1931 and 1932 because of the s i m i l a r i t y of ideas and the s c a r c i t y of m a t e r i a l previous t o h i s a r r i v a l t o America. This s e c t i o n i s a c t u a l l y the b a s i s of Hofmann's t h e o r i e s but the language i s not as r e f i n e d and sophistocated as w i l l be seen i n the l a t e r w r i t i n g s . The second group, or s i n g l e monograph discusses the Search f o r the Real of 1948. From t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n a general summation of a l l of Hofmann's t h e o r i e s i s undertaken, r e l a t i n g h i s ideas t o a few p e r t i n e n t p a i n t i n g s of the p e r i o d . The t h i r d group of works contains 3The change i s due o f t e n to the development of i d e a s ; he has l o o s e l y defined the term at the o f f s e t and the development of the idea i s d i f f i c u l t t o a p p r e c i a t e . 12 the w r i t i n g s done a f t e r 194^. These themselves f a l l i n t o c a t e g o r i e s of time and su b j e c t . The dominant aspect of the development of c o l o r as a formal element culminates i n the 1955 a r t i c l e , "The Color Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g . " Hofmann's w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l w i l l be discussed i n r e l a t i o n to h i s e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l to show t h e i r development. Again a few chosen p a i n t i n g s w i l l be used t o i l l u s t r a t e Hofmann's ideas i n the a c t u a l realm of h i s p a i n t i n g s . Concluding the d e t a i l e d study of h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l be a general d i s c u s s i o n and summarization of the t h e o r i e s e l u c i d a t e d by Hofmann i n h i s w r i t i n g s . Hofmann's f i r s t group of w r i t i n g s date from 1915 and 1931 - 32. In these a r t i c l e s , Hofmann presented the ideas he absorbed from h i s P a r i s stay and defined h i s stand on a r t f o r h i s new American audience. The e a r l i e s t e x i s t i n g published w r i t i n g by Hofmann i s a prospectus f o r h i s Munich School of Fine A r t s i n 1915• This piece i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t re v e a l s at an e a r l y stage, h i s t h e o r i e s and teachings which w i l l vary only through development during h i s e n t i r e career. His i n i t i a l statement, "Art does not c o n s i s t i n the o b j e c t i v i z e d i m i t a t i o n of 4 r e a l i t y , " reveals at once h i s place i n the f i e l d of modern a r t . Already before him, Cezanne, M a t i s s e , P i c a s s o , Delaunay, and the members of the p a i n t e r s of P a r i s previous to 1914 were already working i n t h i s manner. Henri Matisse had ^"Hans Hofmann, "Prospectus f o r Munich School of Modern A r t , " 1915, c i t e d i n W i l l i a m C. S e i t z , Hans Hofmann, New York, Museum of Modern A r t , 1963, p. 56. 13 painted the "Green L i n e , " 1905, a p o r t r a i t of Madame Mat i s s e . Although h i s work e x h i b i t s an i m i t a t i o n of r e a l i t y , Matisse employed c o l o r f o r the c r e a t i o n of e f f e c t s . While the a c t u a l shape of the face i s a l i k e n e s s of Madame Ma t i s s e , Henri Matisse painted the nose and the forehead green. H i s use of c o l o r was "to serve expression as w e l l as p o s s i b l e . " ^ Color i s expressive i n the formation of mood and the q u a l i t y of s p a t i a l r e c e s s i o n and p r o j e c t i o n . The c u b i s t d e r i v e d t h e i r t h e o r i e s from the p a i n t i n g s of Cezanne. The c u b i s t s * i n c l u s i o n of the conceptual approach of I b e r i a n and A f r i c a n s c u l p t u r e can be seen i n Picasso's "Les Desmoiselles d«Avignon," 1907. Hofmann's close f r i e n d Robert Delaunay had already painted h i s "Sun Disks," 1912, where o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y cannot be seen at a l l . Delaunay played w i t h h i s d i s c o i d shapes and pure c o l o r s t o achieve a p e r c e i v a b l y luminous and v i b r a n t surface animation. Hofmann Ts non-o b j e c t i v e approach to a r t revealed a s i m i l a r i t y to h i s cl o s e P a r i s i a n f r i e n d s Henri Matisse and Robert Delaunay. This s i m i l a r i t y suggests t h e i r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on Hofmann. Hofmann's contact w i t h the P a r i s i a n a r t i s t ' s i s 'Henri M a t i s s e , "Notes of a P a i n t e r . " (1908) c i t e d i n A l f r e d H. Barr, J r . , M a t i s s e : His A r t and His P u b l i c , New York,. The Museum of Modern A r t , 195T7~p7T2"i. 14 6 s i g n i f i c a n t f o r they gave him the b a s i s of h i s i d e a l s . During h i s Munich per i o d Hofmann presented t o h i s students a coherently formulated theory of a r t derived from h i s P a r i s i a n f r i e n d s . These t h e o r i e s were n e c e s s i t a t e d by the mere f a c t of teaching. Students were eager f o r an organized system which he had developed over the years. Hofmann stat e d i n h i s Prospectus f o r the young a r t i s t s , that he himse l f t r i e d t o "detach from schools and d i r e c t i o n s , t o 7 evolve a p e r s o n a l i t y of h i s own."' His Prospectus f o r the Munich School was h i s f i r s t concrete f o r m u l a t i o n of what he had l e a r n t i n P a r i s . In i t he discusses form and nature, c r e a t i v e expression, a r t i s t s , and a work of a r t . He b e l i e v e d t h a t form i n p a i n t i n g was stimulated by nature, though i t was not bound t o nature i n o b j e c t i v e i m i t a t i o n . Nature was the source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the s e n s i t i v e a r t i s t . He would a l s o be a f f e c t e d by the medium employed, through which the i n s p i r a t i o n was t r a n s -formed by him i n t o the r e a l i t y of the p a i n t i n g . " C r e a t i v e expression i s thus the s p i r i t u a l t r a n s l a t i o n of inner con-cepts i n t o form, r e s u l t i n g from the f u s i o n of these ^Who i s a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l and what were the ba s i s f o r these i n f l u e n c e s cannot be s t a t e d d e f i n i t e l y f o r Hofmann does not t a l k or w r i t e about h i s P a r i s years. When the un-published paper held by the Museum of Modern A r t , Glenn Wessels and the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley are r e -vealed, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n the a c t u a l f a c t s of t h i s p e r i o d . Without these papers, i t would be pure academic heresay to l i s t by whom and how Hofmann was a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d . 7Hofmann, "Prospectus f o r Munich School...,"1915,P.56. i n t u i t i o n s w i t h a r t i s t i c means of expression i n a u n i t y of s p i r i t and form, brought about by i n t u i t i o n which i n t u r n r e s u l t s from the f u n c t i o n i n g of the e n t i r e thought and f e e l i n g complex accompanied by vigorous c o n t r o l of s p i r i t u a l means." The above sentence, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Hofmann*s w r i t i n g s t y l e , means i n essence that a p a i n t i n g (the c r e a t i v e expression) i s the combination of nature and the medium. Nature i n s p i r e s i n the a r t i s t a thought p a t t e r n which r e s u l t s i n s p i r i t and the form of the p a i n t i n g . These two q u a l i t i e s are then combined w i t h the medium and the i n s p i r a t i o n from the medium, a l l under the c o n t r o l of the mental processes. There r e s u l t s a f u s i o n of a mental process with the p h y s i c a l means of expression. "A work of a r t i s i n s p i r i t a s e l f contained whole, whose s p i r i t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p permit no i n d i v i d u a l p a r ts despite the m u l t i p l i c i t y of depicted o b j e c t s . " ^ Hofmann*s d e f i n i t i o n of a r t i s a combination of the two systems of organism; the f i r s t system being an organic whole i n which "every element w i t h i n i t , i m p l i e s every other, ""^and the second being a system i n which "an L o c . c i t . 9 L o c . c i t . ^ S t e p h e n C. Pepper, World Hypotheses, a Study i n  Evidence, Berkeley, U n i v e r s i t y of u a i i r o r n i a , 19V2, P.300. ... 16 a l t e r a t i o n or removal of any element would a l t e r every other n element or even dest r o y the whole system." T h i s o r g a n i s t i c s t r u c t u r e of Hofmann's theory of a r t i s , i n p a r t , one of the determinates of Hofmann's l o n g and complicated s t y l e of w r i t i n g . Once he has mentioned one aspect of the theory, i t i m p l i e s another and cannot be thought of as complete u n t i l i t has the other f a c t s added t o i t , In the s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n a f t e r Hofmann's a r r i v a l i n America i n 1931, the o r g a n i s t i c s t r u c t u r e of h i s th e o r y can be seen w e l l . While d e a l i n g with a l l aspects of a r t such as laws, r e a l i t y and appearance, s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n , medium of e x p r e s s i o n , f o r m a l and c r e a t i v e elements, depth and movement, t e a c h i n g , symphonic and d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g , he a l s o t o l d of a r t s r e l a t i o n t o c u l t u r e . Any a r t form or c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t , he b e l i e v e d , "en-12 r i c h e d and gave deeper content t o l i f e . " L i k e a r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , a r t a l s o searched " t o understand the essence of a l l t h i n g s . " ^ " A r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n was necessary t o counter-balance l i f e . " * ^ A r t to him was an e s s e n t i a l t o l i f e as food i s . I t g i v e s power and " s a t i s f i e s the s o u l . " x ! L o c . c i t . 12 Hans Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " F o r t n i g h t l y , v o l . 1, no. 1, September 11, 1931, p.6. ^ L o c . c i t . ^Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " p.7. 17 Because of a r t ' s a b i l i t y to energize the observer, the aim of a r t i s t o " v i t a l i z e form by organic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the formal elements, w i t h c o l o r and l i g h t i n t e g r a t e d 15 i n t o the planes." In p a i n t i n g , the e f f e c t of the v i t a l i z e d form must take i n t o account the Laws of P a i n t i n g , namely: 1. The e n t i t y of the p i c t u r e plane must be preserved. 2. The essence of the p i c t u r e plane i s i t s two dimension-a l i t y which must achieve three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y by means of the c r e a t i v e process. 3. In c o l o r i n g , the surface of the canvas should r e c e i v e the greatest p o s s i b l e r i c h n e s s i n l i g h t emanation e f f e c t s , and at the same time should r e t a i n the t r a n s -parency of a j e w e l . " These laws were founded on the b a s i s of our perception of r e a l i t y and appearances. Hans Hofmann discussed h i s concept of perception i n an A r t i c l e , " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " published i n the League 1932. What one sees i n the e x t e r i o r world, "appearance," i s two dimensional while i n a c t u a l f a c t , that w o r l d , r e a l i t y , i s three dimensional. "We see r e a l i t y only through appearance which i n t u r n has the e f f e c t upon us of 17 being a three dimensional r e a l i t y . " The d i f f e r e n c e betwe "appearance" and " e f f e c t " i s th a t the former i s based on I b i d . , p. 5. 16 Hans Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " F o r t n i g h t l y , v o l . 1, no. 13, February.26, 1932, p. 10. 1 7Hans Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " (1932), c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, New York, Harry N. Abrams, 1963, p. 35. 18 seeing alone whereas " e f f e c t " i s the r e s u l t of the appearance from a certain experience. " E f f e c t s , " then, that come from an o i l painting, are independent of the o i l paints themselves but they produce these effects because "the; paints are set 18 together i n t h e i r s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . " Their placement creates what Hofmann c a l l s a " s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c e f f e c t , " " ^ being i n f a c t an emotional reaction. The s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c i s con-tained i n the e f f e c t of a thing rather than i n a c t u a l i t y . "What i n a two-dimensional f i x a t i o n of appearance would perhaps only be the difference of a f r a c t i o n of a millimeter would as effe c t under certain circumstances mean an i n f i n i t y i n a work 20 of a r t . " The combination of the senses affords i n "our s p i r i t u a l projection the emotional experience (which) can be gathered together as an inner perception by which we can com-prehend the essence of things beyond mere bare sensory ex-perience. "21 This extended inward experience enables the viewer to get to the heart and c r u c i a l factors of the object and to see i t i n a l l i t s r e l a t i o n s and connections. "The s p i r i t u a l projection or contemplation develops the sense of space because a l l of our sensory apparatus i s required." -^Loc. c i t . ^ L o c . c i t . 2 Q L o c . c i t . 21 Hofman, " P l a s t i c Creation," p.36. 22 L o c . c i t . 19 The experience of space which i s d i s c l o s e d t o us by the sub-j e c t i v e s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n of the impulses i s a p l a s t i c and l i v i n g u n i t y . This l a s t statement r e f l e c t s Hofmann's aim of a r t — t h e v i t a l i z a t i o n of form. We experience space i n a p a i n t -i n g by the a c t i v a t i o n of our senses. Therefore, i f an a r t i s t wishes t o create a p a i n t i n g , he must s t r i v e t o a f f e c t the viewer w i t h a c t i o n and v i t a l i t y from the form and c o l o r p a i n t -ed on the canvas. The process of c r e a t i o n i s based upon the power t o present and to s p i r i t u a l l y p r o j e c t . The s p i r i t u a l i n t e r p r e t a -23 t i o n of the medium of expression i s the r e s u l t of such power. In t h i s way expression medium i s a r e s u l t of such powers. In t h i s way, the c r e a t i v i t y of an a r t i s t depends on h i s general a b i l i t y t o p r o j e c t s p i r i t u a l l y and h i s s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y t o empathize and to r e c e i v e from the medium of expression. A more encompassing statement of c r e a t i o n by Hofmann appeared a year previous to the one sighted above. In the e a r l i e r one he s a i d t h a t c r e a t i o n was dependent on nature's law, the a r t i s t ' s s p i r i t u a l contact w i t h nature and the medium of expression. "The c r e a t i v e a r t i s t i s t o p a r a l l e l nature's c r e a t i v i t y by t r a n s l a t i n g the impulse received from nature i n t o the medium 2ZL of expression and thus v i t a l i z e t h i s medium." ^ The apparent 2 3 L o c . c i t . 2.L Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and Culture," 1931 , P«6. d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h these two statements i s the i n c l u s i o n i n the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n of "nature's law" and "medium of expression." While i t i s not st a t e d i n the 1932 v e r s i o n , Hofmann does r e f e r to these two q u a l i t i e s when he s a i d that " c r e a t i v i t y i n the c r e a t i v e process i s based upon an experience (knowledge of nature's law s ) , which simultaneously a l s o s t i m u l a t e d the essence of the medium through which the a r t i s t i c expression 25 r e s u l t s . " ' Therefore the apparent d i f f e r e n c e a r i s e s only because of Hofmann's usage of the E n g l i s h language. A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n language i s a l s o seen i n the d i s c u s s i o n of medium. This m o d i f i c a t i o n can be r e l a t e d , a s i n the previous case, probably t o Glenn Wessels' more f l u e n t t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o the E n g l i s h language. In both, the nature of the medium must be mastered. In the 1931 a r t i c l e , i t s t a t e s that "the medium can be made t o resonate and v i b r a t e when stimulated by the impulse coming d i r e c t l y from the 26 n a t u r a l world," while i n the 1932 a r t i c l e , the medium of expression can be set i n t o v i b r a t i o n and t e n s i o n by mastery of the p r i n c i p l e s and meaning of the nature of the medium, "which has has i t s own laws, which are t o be e x c l u s i v e l y mastered i n t u i t i v e l y out of the development of the c r e a t i o n . " ^ 2 5Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932,p.36. 2 6Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1932, p.7. 27 'Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932, p.36. 21 The e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s t a t e s that the impulse of nature through the a r t i s t ' s mind can s t i r him t o c r e a t i v i t y i f he has mastered the medium whil e the l a t t e r says that the medium can be "mastered i n t u i t i v e l y out of the development of the c r e a t i o n . " The l a t e r a r t i c l e shows that the a r t i s t can s t i l l create a great work whi l e searching the pos-s i b i l i t i e s of the medium, f o r the " p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the 28 medium are u n l i m i t e d . " In the 1932 s e c t i o n Hofmann broadened the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a medium wh i l e i n the s e c t i o n concerning the elements of a p a i n t i n g he t i g h t e n e d up and f u r t h e r de-f i n e d . The two a r t i c l e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e between formal and c r e a t i v e elements. "The formal elements i n p a i n t i n g are l i n e , plane, volume and the r e s u l t i n g complexes. These are 29 elements of c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r a v i t a l i z e d a r t . " The v i t a -l i z a t i o n d e r i v e s from " l i g h t and c o l o r i n t e g r a t e d i n t o 30 planes." Color and l i g h t are c r e a t i v e elements f o r they v i t a l i z e the formal elements. The p e c u l i a r i t y w i t h i n these statements centers around the a d j e c t i v a l m o d i f i e r s , "formal" and " c r e a t i v e . " W ithin these two words there i s a u n i f y i n g f a c t o r f o r the elements of p a i n t i n g . Planes are discussed i n both formal and c r e a t i v e elements. I t appears as i f Hofmann has made an a r b i t r a r y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n when i n f a c t 28 Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, p. 6. 29 'Hans Hofmann, c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n Cata-logue, Aug. 5-22, Berkeley, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1931. 30 T Loc. c i t . 22 t h e t w o a r e r e l a t e d ; o n e u s e s t h e f o r m a l e l e m e n t s f o r t h e c r e a t i v e a c t i n p a i n t i n g . I t s e e m s p e c u l i a r t o d i f f e r e n -t i a t e f r o m c r e a t i v e ^ a n d f o r m a l a s p e c t s o f a p a i n t i n g b y m e r e l y c o l o r a n d l i g h t , w h i l e t h e o t h e r q u a l i t i e s a r e i n -h e r e n t i n b o t h . " A r e n o t t h e s e d i s c r e p e n c i e s p o s s i b l y c a u s e d b y H o f m a n n ' s i n e p t n e s s w i t h t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a n d p o s s i b l y h i s t r a n s l a t o r s ' m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ? H o f m a n n ' s f o r m a l e l e m e n t s a r e s i m i l a r t o P a u l K l e e ' s f o r m a t i v e e l e m e n t s . K l e e d i s c u s s e d t h e movement o f t h e p o i n t t o f o r m a l i n e a n d t h e l i n e ' s movement t o f o r m a 31 p l a n e . H o f m a n n a n d K l e e i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e l i n e a n d t h e p l a n e i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f o r m a l e l e m e n t s . K l e e d i f f e r e d f r o m H o f m a n n b y s t a t i n g t h e o r i g i n o f t h e l i n e t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e a s H o f m a n n f u r t h e r d e f i n e d t h e p l a n e . I t j o i n s w i t h o t h e r p l a n e s t o f o r m v o l u m e s a n d f o r m a l c o m p l e x e s . A v a r i a t i o n o f t h e i r f o r m a l e l e m e n t s i s s e e n b e c a u s e e a c h h a s d e v e l o p e d e i t h e r t h e p o i n t o r t h e l i n e . B o t h , h o w e v e r , i n -c o r p o r a t e t h e l i n e a n d t h e p l a n e . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y a n d H o f m a n n ' s l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h e l i n e a r c o n c e p t t o t h e p l a n a r c o n c e p t s u g g e s t s t h a t H o f m a n n knew o f K l e e ' s w r i t -i n g s . B o t h w r i t e r s a l s o d i s c u s s e d m o v e m e n t , t h e s u b j e c t i v e t h e o r y o f s p a c e a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p o f c o l o r s . No p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l h a s a p p e a r e d c o n c e r n i n g a n y c o n t a c t b e t w e e n H o f m a n n 31 P a u l K l e e , " F r o m P o i n t t o L i n e , " c i t e d i n J u r g S p i l l e r , P a u l K l e e : The T h i n k i n g E y e , New Y o r k , G e o r g e W i t t e n b o r n , 1 9 6 1 , p p . 103 - 1 2 0 . 23 and Klee, but Hofmann did mention the Bauhaus with which Klee was associated. Hofmann used the formal and creative elements to create forms i n space. Unlike Renaissance painters he did not create a space, a hole-in-the-wall with forms placed within i t . But rather he, as h i s Parisian friends had done, solved the form problem i n r e l a t i o n to the picture plane 3 2 because "form exists through space and space through form." 3 3 "Form must be balanced by space," and vice versa. "What exists i n form must also exist i n space." 3 4 Space and form are i n t e r r e l a t e d i n that the "space i n an object incor-porates the objective world i n i t s l i m i t s , and space i n 3 5 front of and behind the object, i n f i n i t y . " The further r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and space can be seen i n Hofmann's discussion of posit i v e and negative space. "The conception of the vacancy, the u n f u l f i l l e d space' as a negative form i s necessary to reconcile the posit i v e form, the f u l f i l l e d space and i s therefore an object." The unity of form and space to the t o t a l space "exists i n three dimensions which corresponds to the two dimensional quality of the 3 7 picture plane." "The object world and the sum of a l l 3 2Hofmann, " P l a s t i c Creation," 1932, p. 37. 3 3Hofmann, "On the Aims of Art," 1932, p. 10. Lionel Thomas. Interview with writer, Jan. 16 , 1966. 3 5Hofmann, " P l a s t i c Creation," 1932, p. 37 . 3^Loc. c i t . 3 7Hofmann, "On the Aims of Art," 1932, p. 10. 24 t h r e e dimensional elements g i v e s us i n the o p i t c a l manifes-t a t i o n , the two dimensional space f u l f i l l m e n t i n the ap-pearance of nature, the form and space problem i s i d e n t i c a l 38 w i t h the essence of the p i c t u r e p l a n e . " "We see the two dimensional (appearance by the q u a l i t y of the p i c t u r e plane) 39 but we comprehend the t h r e e dimensional ( e f f e c t ) . " There-f o r e the s o l u t i o n of a p a i n t i n g on the two dimensional p i c -t u r e plane i s p a r a l l e l e d ' t o o p t i c a l v i s i o n i n which a two dimensional appearance has the e f f e c t of a t h r e e dimensional m a n i f e s t a t i o n . In a c h i e v i n g the t h r e e dimensional e f f e c t , one must remember not to destr o y the inh e r e n t two dimension-a l i t y of the p i c t u r e plane, as s t a t e d i n Hofmann's P a i n t i n g Laws. "One can p l a c e t h r e e dimensional forms on the p i c t u r e plane without d i s t u r b i n g the two dimensional q u a l i t y of the p i c t u r e plane s i n c e the appearance and the p i c t u r e plane (both two dimensional) are i d e n t i c a l i n t h e i r e s s e n c e . " ^ In a c h i e v i n g a sense of the t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l , depth, "a sense of movement d e v e l o p s . " ^ That movement i s merely i l l u s o r y . The a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n determines the q u a l i t y of the work f o r "Movement does not e x i s t without l i f e [and] movement i s the e x p r e s s i o n of l i f e . . . . E n l i v e n -e d Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1 9 3 2 , p. 3 7 . 3 9 I b i d . , p. 3 8 . 4 0 T . • Loc. c i t . ^ L o c . c i t . ment depends on the f a c i l i t y f o r emotional experiencing i n the a r t i s t , which i n i t s t u r n , determines the degree of s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n i n t o the medium of expression." These movements and depths can be achieved by the p s y c h o l o g i c a l expression of c o l o r , not merely as a mood or an emotional tone but by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of c o l o r s t o achieve the p r o j e c t i o n of one c o l o r area i n r e l a t i o n t o the r e c e s s i o n of another. This theory of the dynamic q u a l i t y of c o l o r i s expanded i n the 1951 a r t i c l e "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d through the I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of the Colors t o Express Volumes," which w i l l be discussed l a t e r . In 1 9 3 1 , Hofmann set up two c a t e g o r i e s , the formal elements and the c r e a t i v e elements. Color was attached t o form. Formal elements c o n s i s t e d of l i n e s planes and the r e s u l t i n g formal complexes. C r e a t i v e elements c o n s i s t e d of l i g h t and c o l o r i n t e g r a t e d i n t o planes. These two c a t e g o r i e s of elements were synthesized i n 1 9 3 2 . Formal and c r e a t i v e elements became one. Hofmann s t a t e d , "Color i s only an e f f e c t of l i g h t on form i n r e l a t i o n t o form and i t s inherent t e x t u r e . . . . Form e x i s t s because of l i g h t and l i g h t by means of form."*4'3 Hofmann r e a l i z e d that c o l o r and ^ L o c . c i t . ^Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1 9 3 2 , p.36. 26 form had t o c o e x i s t . They were mutually dependent on each other. This dependence r e f l e c t s Hofmann's o r g a n i s t i c theory i n which each f a c t o r i m p l i e s another and no one f a c -t o r can be l e f t out. Formal elements imply c r e a t i v e e l e -ments, and v i c e versa. The two d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s of 1931 are combined t o form one i n 1932. The f u r t h e r i n c l u s i v e n e s s of h i s theory i s seen i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and space i n which form ex-i s t s because of space and space e x i s t s because of form, which i n t u r n e x i s t s only by the means of l i g h t and v i c e versa. He then continues the u n i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n by say-i n g t h a t the e f f e c t of l i g h t i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s form and i t s inherent t e x t u r e i s c o l o r . From t h i s i t can be seen that he r e l a t e s form w i t h space, l i g h t and c o l o r . A l l the above i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s must be arranged so as t o be based on the concept of s p a t i a l u n i t y , the r e l a t i o n between form and space. Because l i g h t i s r e l a t e d t o form and form t o space, l i g h t u n i t y i s r e l a t e d t o s p a t i a l u n i t y . L i g h t u n i t y i s created by the understanding of the e f f e c t of l i g h t complexes and by the " c r e a t i o n of a c o l o r u n i t y " 4 4 achieved when the r e c e s s i o n and p r o j e c t i o n of c o l o r i s understood and when t o n a l gradations are taken i n t o account. 4 4 I b i d . , p. 37. 27 This incompassing outlook required, by the a r t i s t ' s t o t a l mental functioning i s a facet of Hofmann's i d e a l . Through the complete occupation of the mind, a s p i r i t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n can be attained by the sensitive a r t i s t . This r e a l i z a t i o n i s the only way of externalizing the mental function, or as Hofmann c a l l s i t , inner sensation. "When the impulses which emotionalize the a r t i s t , are integrated with the medium of expression, every motivation of the soul can be translated into a s p i r i t u a l motivation" 4^ as seen i n the entity of the painting. "This work of art i s the product of the a r t i s t ' s power f o r conscious f e e l i n g and of h i s s e n s i t i v i t y to l i f e i n nature and l i f e within the l i m i t s of his medium."4^ That work of art r e f l e c t s the "sensorial and emotional world i n f o r the a r t i s t . " It i s "sensory raw material blended to i d a s p i r i t u a l unity through the legitimate use of the medium." Through exaggerated d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n the painting acquires the highest enrichment of i t s surface. It becomes monumental "by the most exact and refined r e l a t i o n between /. Q the p a r t s . " ^ This type of painting i s known as Symphonic for by, with and from color, form i s i n t e n s i f i e d i n sub-L 5 ^Hofmann, Exhibition Catalogue, Berkeley, 1931. 4 6Hofmann, "Painting and Culture," 1931, p. 6. 4 7Hofmann, "On the Aims of Painting," 1932, p. 7. 4 8 I b i d . ' , p. 8. 4 9 I b i d . , p. 9. 2B ordination to s p a t i a l and s p i r i t u a l unity i n large present-a t i o n a l areas of l i g h t and form. Color i s the r e a l b u i l d i n g 50 medium in symphonic painting."^ Hofmann says that i n t h i s way, color attains the greatest f u l l n e s s and form the great-51 est richness as Cezanne achieved i n his work. Colors are made to project and to recede by the means of an i n t e r v a l , being "color planes standing i n greatest contrast as possible to a l l i t s neighbours within the balance of the whole."52 Hofmann*s use of the musical term, Symphonic, f o r a certain class of paintings could imply his knowledge of Wassily Kandinsky's Concerning the S p i r i t u a l i n Art, i n 53 which symphonic and melodic painting styles are discussed. Kandinsky and Hofmann also discussed Nature as the source of inspiration,inner feelings and the psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l effect of color to produce three dimensional space and form. Although Kandinsky's book was generally read by the avant garde, a f t e r i t s publication i n 1912, by that time Hofmann would have heard of the synesthetic idea of r e l a t i n g painting to music. Synesthesia had been fo r a long time a European t r a d i t i o n when Hofmann arrived i n 5QLoc.cit. ^ L o c . c i t . ^ ^ L o c . c i t . 5 3Wassily Kandinsky, Concerning the S p i r i t u a l i n Art, (1912), New York, Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., 1947. 29 P a r i s i n 1904. P o s s i b l y i n P a r i s he heard of Kandinsky's Concerning the S p i r i t u a l i n Art though Hofmann never wrote or spoke of such a contact. I f Hofmann had read Kandinsky's book, i t was probably a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Munich i n 1914. However Clement Greenberg b e l i e v e s t h a t Kandinsky had no i n f l u e n c e on the t h e o r i e s of Hofmann be-cause by the time Hofmann had returned t o Germany i n 1914, h i s t h e o r i e s had already been formulated from the great 54 French masters of the tw e n t i e t h century. Hofmann was not consistent i n u s i n g musical terms t o c l a s s p a i n t i n g s . His other category of p a i n t i n g s was c a l l e d d e c o r a t i v e . Decorative p a i n t i n g employs some aspects of symphonic p a i n t i n g but the former emphasizes the greatest s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . I n t e l l e c t and emotion are used f o r the common end of s i m p l i c i t y . Often t h i s can l e a d to a b s t r a c t i o n when "rhythmic r e l a t i o n s conditioned by space and musical c o n t a c t s " ^ a r e taken i n t o account. Always the problem of space must be pe r f e c t f o r "the w a l l must remain a w a l l and the p i c t u r e must remain a p i c t u r e . " One must not create a h o l e - i n - t h e - w a l l as the p a i n t e r s of the Renainssance had pe r f e c t e d . This does not mean that ^^Clement Greenberg, Hofmann, P a r i s , George F a l l , 1961, p.16. 5 5Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1932, p.10. - ^ L o c . c i t . 3Q o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s cannot be used f o r i t i s i n D e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g t h a t " o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s are made more e f f e c t i v e 57 by r h y t h m i c r e l a t i o n s . " ' These o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s are not m e r e l y t a s t e f u l l y and f a n c i f u l l y a r r a n g e d b u t r e q u i r e t h e same procedure as t h o s e of Symphonic p a i n t i n g . D e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g becomes a g r e a t d e s i g n i f t h e a r t i s t i s a b l e " t o s i m p l i f y t o t h e e s s e n t i a l s and t o eg o r g a n i z e t h e e v e r p r e s e n t l i f e e s s e n t i a l s . " "Great p i c t o r i a l c r e a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d by a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d s e n s i b i l i t y as r e g a r d s the n a t u r a l w o r l d and upon s t r o n g p i c t o r i a l f e e l i n g . I t may c a r r y a d d i t i o n a l burden o f 59 t h e l i t e r a r y , dogmatic o r p o l i t i c a l , " but i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y . Through a r t one i s a b l e t o become i m m o r t a l i f he i s " a b l e t o pervade h i s work w i t h h i s s o u l and s p i r i t . I t i s the s p i r i t u a l and m e n t a l c o n t e n t of the work of a r t t h a t i s t h e q u a l i t y i n a p a i n t i n g and not t h e a l l e g o r y o r s y m b o l l i c meaning. B e s i d e s t h e above m a t e r i a l on t h e t h e o r y o f a r t i n p a i n t i n g , Hofmann b e i n g a t e a c h e r d i s c u s s e d h i s o t h e r p r o -f e s s i o n a l f i e l d , t e a c h i n g . A r t can o n l y be t a u g h t t o one 57Hofmann, "On t h e Aims o f A r t , " 1932, p.9. ^ L o c . c i t . ^ Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1932, p . l l . 60T L o c . c i t . 31 who possesses a " h i g h l y developed s e n s i t i v i t y f o r q u a l i t y . The laymen who understands a r t through a r e c e p t i v e ex-perience shares p a s s i v e l y what the a r t i s t out of product-ive experience f e e l s and c r e a t e s . " The teacher must d i r e c t students toward the "enrichment of t h e i r l i f e , guide t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y and develop t h e i r s e n s i b i l i t y t o T f e e l i n t o ' ^ 2 animate or inanimate t h i n g s w i t h sympathy."^ 3 "By enforced d i s c i p l i n e , he shortens the road t o understand-i n g and develops the students n a t u r a l endowments."^4 The teacher most of a l l must have "the power of quick sympathy and understanding t o produce a r t i s t s , comprehending te a c h e r s , a r t understanding and a r t enjoyment i n general. For the next f i f t e e n years Hans Hofmann d i d not p u b l i s h but i n the formative years of the "American-type p a i n t i n g " or "Abstract Expressionism" he f o l l o w e d h i s d i r e c t i o n s f o r a teacher and helped d i r e c t the new genera-t i o n of American a r t i s t s to t h e i r form of a r t . Although none of the members of the s o - c a l l e d New York School of 6lHofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, p.5. Zip " F e e l i n t o " could be a l s o t r a n s l a t e d as empathy because these two terms are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the same German word, d i e Einfuhlung. Hofmann Ts l a t e r 1952 de-f i n i t i o n of word empathy in c l u d e s a r t i s t i c r e a l i z a t i o n . ^Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, p.6. 6 4 I b i d . , p.7. 6 5 I b i d . , p..6. 32 Abstract Expressionism attended Hofmann's c l a s s e s , h i s presence i n v i g o r a t e d the New York a r t scene. He brought over from Europe the ideas of the Fauves and the Cubists which could be seen i n h i s work of t h i s p e r i o d . His weekly c r i t i c i s m s of student's work was o f t e n attend-ed by members of the a r t c i r c l e i n the Greenwich V i l l a g e area. He belonged to the "Club" whose members included the a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s . During the m i d - f o r t i e s the a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s began t o r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n . I t i s i n t h i s p e r i o d , 1944, that Hans Hofmann had h i s f i r s t one-man show i n New York at Peggy Guggenheim's "Art of t h i s Century G a l l e r y . " He held e x h i b i t i o n s y e a r l y i n New York, mainly at the Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y . Also d u r i n g the m i d - f o r t i e s , Hofmann taught a number of West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t s who w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n the paper. The most important event of t h i s period f o r Hofmann was perhaps h i s one-man r e t r o s p e c t i v e show at the Addison G a l l e r y of American Art i n Andover, Massachusetts. At that show, a monograph-catalogue was published c o n t a i n i n g some of h i s teachings, older essays, the new a r t i c l e "The Search f o r the Real i n the V i s u a l A r t s , " and h i s well-known theory 66 Donald J a r v i s , Interview w i t h w r i t e r , February 1, 1966. 33 of "push and p u l l . " As t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was widely read by a r t i s t s and comprises the second period of Hofmann*s w r i t i n g s , a d e t a i l d i s c u s s i o n w i l l now be considered w i t h reference t o h i s e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s of 1931 and 1932. Fundamentally, The Search f o r the Real does not vary a great d e a l from Hofmann's e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s . The f i f t e e n years i n America has improved h i s w r i t i n g s t y l e and c l a r i f i e d h i s thought. This c l a r i f i c a t i o n was un-doubtedly r e i n f o r c e d by the a r t i s t i c community of New York and h i s n e c e s s i t y of an organized concept which was present-ed t o h i s students. In t h i s monograph Hofmann presented i n the now famous terms, "push and p u l l , " "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n . " These movements, as seen i n a p a i n t i n g , are exp l a i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the problem of form and c o l o r and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s . These t h e o r i e s of Hofmann were then a p p l i e d t o two of h i s b e t t e r known p a i n t i n g s , "Effervescence" and " F a n t a s i a . " The f i n a l s e c t i o n of Hofmann's monograph are then discussed i n r e l a t i o n t o q u a l i t y i n a work of a r t . The idea of "the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a work of a r t being determined by the q u a l i t y of i t s growth,"^ 7 r e f l e c t s the organic and o r g a n i s t i c q u a l i t y of h i s t h e o r i e s as published i n the p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d m a t e r i a l . The work of 6 7Hans Hofmann, Search f o r the Real, 1948, p. 46. 34 art, u s u a l l y p a i n t i n g or s c u l p t u r e , i s the p h y s i c a l c a r r i e r of something beyond p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , the s u r r e a l . I t i s the task of the a r t i s t who re c e i v e s the s u r r e a l f o r c e s to transpose these f o r c e s i n t o the p h y s i c a l c a r r i e r , the medium of expression. In t h i s way an a r t i s t -i c c r e a t i o n i s "the metamorphosis of the e x t e r n a l p h y s i c a l aspects of a t h i n g i n t o a s e l f s u s t a i n i n g s p i r i t u a l 68 r e a l i t y . " This " s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y " i s not organic i n the sense of possessing an a c t u a l l i f e organism but does have a l i f e created i n i t perceivable to the viewer. This l i f e i s i n c i t e d by the a r t i s t ' s placement of form and c o l o r i n such a way as t o create the e f f e c t of move-ment and v i t a l i t y . "Movement does not e x i s t without l i f e . 69 Movement i s the expression of l i f e . " The c r e a t i o n of s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y depends on "metaphysical perceptions, the search f o r the e s s e n t i a l 7 0 nature of r e a l i t y . " One cannot simply change a p h y s i c a l e n t i t y i n t o the realm of the s p i r i t u a l by mere placement. A fragment of thought i n i t s e l f i s meaningless u n t i l other fragments are r e l a t e d so as to form an i d e a . In the same 68 T Loc. c i t . 69 7Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932, p. 38. 7 0 Hofmann, Search f o r the Rea l , 1948, p. 46. way p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s can be made meaningful by r e l a t i o n -ships t o other e n t i t i e s . The a c t u a l p h y s i c a l character-i s t i c s of a medium of expression d i f f e r e n t i a t e the various a r t s f o r "a p l a s t i c idea must be expressed with p l a s t i c means j u s t as a musical idea i s expressed w i t h musical 71 means, or a l i t e r a r y idea w i t h v e r b a l means."' In each case the expression of the idea i s achieved by p l a c i n g two e n t i t i e s i n an emotionally c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n which creates a t h i r d e n t i t y of higher order. This higher order i s s p i r i t u a l , a c r e a t i o n of the mind under those s p e c i a l circumstances. In such a r e l a t i o n there i s mutual r e -f l e c t i o n ; each e n t i t y a f f e c t s the other and v i c e versa. The l i m i t s f o r the r e l a t i o n s i n p a i n t i n g i s determined by the extent of the canvas or the piece of paper. Any act done t o the canvas n a t u r a l l y creates a c o n t r a c t i o n of the surface area but a l s o that act i s always answered back i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s way the canvas appears t o " c o n t r a c t and t o expand i n simultaneous e x i s t e n c e , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s p a c e . " 7 2 The p i c t u r e plane appears t o have depth and space. This space i s not n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r th a t i s a " s p e c i a l case, a p o r t i o n of what i s f e l t about three dimensional experience. Loc. c i t . Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p.48. 36 This expression of the a r t i s t ' s experience i s thus 73 incomplete." The depth and space that appears on the p i c t u r e surface does not destroy i t s two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y f o r " i t i s the conceptual completeness of a p l a s t i c experience ( p l a s t i c c r e a t i o n without d e s t r o y i n g a f l a t surface) that warrants the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the 71 two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . " The depth that i s created i s not achieved by the pers p e c t i v e system of the Renaissance p a i n t e r s but r a t h e r "by the c r e a t i o n of f o r c e s i n the sense of 'Push and Pull'. , ?75 "Since one cannot create ' r e a l depth' by c a r v i n g a hole i n the p i c t u r e , and since one should not attempt t o create the i l l u s i o n of depth by t o n a l grada-t i o n , depth as a p l a s t i c r e a l i t y must be two dimensional i n a formal sense as w e l l as i n the sense of c o l o r . " In t h i s statement, Hofmann r e v e a l s that p a i n t i n g t o him e n t a i l s both form and c o l o r , whereas i n the 1932 a r t i c l e he st a t e d that a r t v i t a l i z e d form. "To create the phenomena of push and p u l l on a f l a t s u r f a c e , one has t o understand that by nature the p i c t u r e plane r e a c t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n the opposite 7 3 I b i d . , p.49. 7^Loc. c i t . Loc. c i t . 7 6Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p.50. 37 77 d i r e c t i o n of the stimulus r e c e i v e d . " When a square area of c o l o r i s placed on the bare canvas an equal f o r c e i s d i r e c t e d o f f the canvas, perpendicular t o the canvas. Hofmann's statement, though s i m i l a r t o movement and counter-movement of 1932, defines the d i r e c t i o n more ex-p l i c i t l y and the a c t u a l r e s u l t s of an a p p l i c a t i o n of pai n t t o the p i c t u r e plane. When two areas are painted, a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s set up between them. Our eyes focus on each and on both causing one to become more accentuated and t h e r e f o r e p r o j e c t and the other to recede. When more than two areas are i n v o l v e d , the eye and the mind t r y t o solve the m u l t i p l e e n t i t i e s by p a i r i n g the areas t o create the s p i r i t u a l higher t h i r d . This higher t h i r d then can be f u r t h e r p a i r e d w i t h another area u n t i l the whole p a i n t i n g i s sti m u l a t e d by the a c t i o n of p a i r i n g and c r e a t -i n g higher t h i r d s . In c r e a t i n g such t h i r d s , the canvas i s expanded and contracted. The two areas are u n i f i e d t o draw the edges of the canvas together or are separated t o a f f e c t an increase t o the surface area. "Push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n " can now be seen as being f o r c e s perpendicular to each other w i t h push and p u l l , p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the p i c t u r e surface and expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n , p a r a l l e l t o the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e . Loc. c i t . 38 Push and p u l l can be e a s i l y created by mere planes of d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s . Hofmann saw i n Cezanne's l a t e r works "an enormous sense of volume, b r e a t h i n g , p u l s a t i n g , expand-ed i n g - c o n t r a c t i n g through h i s use of c o l o r . " Mood i s created as i s the a c t i o n of push and p u l l . The p r o j e c t i o n and r e c e s s i o n of c o l o r i s only a t t a i n e d i f the a r t i s t i s s e n s i t i v e to the c r e a t i o n of t h i s s u r r e a l e f f e c t . He does 7Q not use c o l o r alone, f o r p a i n t i n g i s "forming w i t h c o l o r . " ' 7 Color i s an i n t e g r a l part of form. This form i s based on the planar concept as the Cubists had done. They recognized the value of the p i c t u r e plane's two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y as d i d the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s a l -though the l a t t e r were r e a l l y "searching f o r the e n t i t y of 80 l i g h t , expressed through c o l o r . " The use of form and c o l o r i s found i n the f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s , the l a t t e r being commercial or decorative 81 as s t a t e d i n the 1931 a r t i c l e . The d i f f e r e n c e between the f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s l i e s i n the way of regarding the medium of expression. The a p p l i e d a r t i s t arranges the p h y s i c a l expressive elements merely p l e a s i n g l y and t a s t e -f u l l y . The f i n e a r t i s t "empathizes and f e e l s the i n t r i n s i c 78 Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p. 51. 7 < 7 L o c . c i t . Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p. 52. Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1932, p. 9-10. 39 q u a l i t i e s of the medium of expression." Hofmann b e l i e v e d t h a t the concept of the union of the f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s a t the Bauhaus to be a tragedy, f o r the f i n e a r t s "concern man's r e l a t i o n t o the world as a s p i r i t u a l being, " ^ 3 whereas a p p l i e d a r t s have merely a u t i l i t a r i a n purpose. "The d i s c o v e r i e s of the Bauhaus were mainly d i r e c t e d t o -wards a v i t a l surface animation by a b s t r a c t design. " ^ The d e c o r a t i v e a r t i s t does not need to empathize, and the r e s u l t i s merely two dimensional. For a decorative a r t to become a f i n e a r t , t h a t work of a r t must possess "the phenomena of p l a s t i c movement ( f o r that) determines whether or not a work belongs i n the category of f i n e a r t s or i n d r the category of a p p l i e d a r t s . " J This l a s t statement de-f i n e s p e r f e c t l y how Hofmann d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between the two and shows the development of the concept of movement and v i t a l i t y i n the f i n e a r t s . In the e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s , a r t was t o have " v i t a l i z e d form,"movement. While s t i l l r e t a i n i n g t h i s concept, he has defined the l i m i t s of h i s movements, expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n , push and p u l l and how t o create them i n a t h e o r e t i c a l way. g 2Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p . 5 2 . 8 3 I b i d . , p.53. ^ 4 L o c . c i t . ^ L o c . c i t . 40 The a b i l i t y to create t h i s s p i r i t of movement i n the work of a r t w i l l determine i t s q u a l i t y . Once t h i s v i t a l i t y i s achieved, the work of a r t l i v e s f o r e v e r . As s t a t e d i n the 1931 a r t i c l e , "that one i s immortal i n a r t who i s able t o pervade h i s work w i t h h i s s o u l and s p i r i t . " 0 The a r t i s t t r a n s f e r s the v i t a l i t y and energy of h i s i n s p i r e d s e l f t o the medium and t h i s energy r e t a i n s i t s momentum as long as the work remains i n the same p h y s i c a l s t a t e . "The r e a l i n a r t never d i e s because i t s 87 nature i s predominantly s p i r i t u a l . " ' Hofmann b e l i e v e s t h a t i f one i s able to v i t a l i z e a p a i n t i n g u n t i l i t be-comes s p i r i t u a l , the a r t i s t w i l l become immortal f o r the s p i r i t u a l i s d e r i v e d from the a r t i s t and h i s experience. While the "Search f o r the Real" i s only a p o r t i o n of the monograph, the r e s t of the book i s devoted t o a p r e v i o u s l y published and discussed a r t i c l e , " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 0 0 and "Excerpts from the Teaching of Hans Hofmann." This l a s t a r t i c l e i s a l s o mainly derived from the p r e v i o u s l y discussed m a t e r i a l but new elements can be found. In the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the l i n e and the plane, he says that "the p i c t o r i a l s t r u c t u r e i s based on the plane concept. The l i n e o r i g i n a t e s i n the meeting of two °~6Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1932, p. 11. °*7Hofmann, 'Search f o r the Re a l , 1948, p. 54. °"°*Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 193.1-,p. 5-7. 41 p l a n e s . n ^ In h i s a r t i c l e , " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n " of 1932, he s a i d that "the l i n e was a f u r t h e r development of the probably due t o the i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the use of planes i n r e l a t i o n to c o l o r . Works of t h i s p e r i o d , 1940 t o 1950, show l e s s use of l i n e to f u r t h e r d e f i n e planes. In " F a n t a s i a , " 1943, and "Effervescence," 1944, l i n e g r a d u a l l y l o s e s i t s purpose as a d e f i n i n g s t r u c t u r e . The white d r i b b l e of p a i n t i n " F a n t a s i a " ( p l a t e I) over-l a y s areas of h e a v i l y pigmented su r f a c e s . The l i n e , as s t a t e d i n the 1932 a r t i c l e , i s the smallest p a i n t i n g plane. The s p i r a l and c a l l i g r a p h i c designs of paint d r i p p r o j e c t from i t s b e a u t i f u l l y mottled y e l l o w , green, mauve and blue background. In the lower l e f t hand corner there i s s t i l l the t r a c e of the l i n e as a method of d e f i n i t i o n . The sideways " C " - l i k e formation painted i n b l u e - b l a c k , i s defined by a white dripped l i n e . The white sharpens the edge of the black against the mauvish receding area. A c a v e r n - l i k e formation i s created by the white d e f i n i t i o n . This small area c o n t r a s t s w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s of expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n and push and p u l l . For here a n a t u r a l i s t i c hole i s created on the surface of the canvas as Renaissance p a i n t e r s had done. The contrast of the " C " - l i k e shape and p l a n e — t h e smallest p a i n t i n g plane. TT 90 The change i s 89 Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, P»70. Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932, p.37. 90 42 the dark downward d i r e c t i o n a l device i n the center lead the eye to the base of the canvas. Hofmann manages to excape from the hole-in-the-wall e f f e c t by placing a small area of the same blue-black and an area of green to the l e f t center. The eye i s taken i n a r ,U"-like route and gradually lead into areas of increased color i n t e n s i t y . A t r a n s i t i o n a l passage can be seen i n the upper l e f t hand corner green area where the green of the l e f t center has-been combined with the yellow of the upper area. The eye i s caught by the brightness of the upper yellow area and directed down to the lower l e f t hand corner. Black and green areas work the eye up to the t r a n s i t i o n a l green area and the eye cycle begins again. The movement of the eye i s not continuously r o t a t i n g , for the dripped l i n e a r white areas detract the eye i n an o s c i l a t i n g motion p a r a l l e l to the picture plane. This p a r a l l e l o s c i l l a t i o n i s what Hofmann meant by contracting and expanding forces. A sim i l a r motion i s also set up perpendicular to the picture plane. The alternating projection and recession from the canvas of the yellow and white drip areas i s what Hofmann meant by push and p u l l . Push and p u l l and expansion and contraction d i f f e r because t h e i r d i r e c t i o n of forces are perpendicular -to each other. The multi-directions of the forces set up tension. The expanding and projecting forces of the yellow i s 43 contrasted and balanced i n a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m by the more sombre and heavy lower areas. The overlays of white d r i p t i e the composition together and a l s o create a l i v e -l i n e s s of movement and d i r e c t i o n . The d r i p areas then, are used f o r both t h e i r l i n e a r and planar q u a l i t i e s . In "Effervescence", 1944, ( p l a t e I I ) there i s an absence of the l i n e a r elements. Each has been set or dripped as a planar u n i t . Lines created are the meeting of two planes of c o l o r . In the upper l e f t hand corner, the mauve i s blended over the green to hide the a c t u a l edges. Even the t h i n d r i p l i n e s i n the p a i n t i n g are not l i n e a r f o r they are placed against a c o n t r a s t i n g back-ground i n order f o r them t o p r o j e c t . In the lower l e f t hand corner, the black d r i p oozing from the c e n t r a l area c o n t r a s t s w i t h i t s red background. Though almost l i n e a r , the red on the yel l o w background o v e r l a i d w i t h the black d r i p undulates and creates a push and p u l l e f f e c t . I f the ye l l o w p r o j e c t s , the red recedes and the eye does not focus on the black d r i p . I f the red p r o j e c t s , the black p r o j e c t s f u r t h e r - i t i s the focus - and the y e l l o w recedes. This whole composition i s b a s i c a l l y formed by the a l t e r a t i o n of focus t o create a v i t a l p a i n t i n g . The p a i n t -i n g i s composed semi-symmetrically w i t h a d i a g o n a l c r o s s i n g from the upper r i g h t t o the lower l e f t . The design on e i t h e r side of the s o - c a l l e d diagonal are not exact but 44 s i m i l a r shapes are represented i n the c o n t r a s t i n g c o l o r i n an obvious design f o r balance. The large c e n t r a l white mass w i t h i t s two h o r n - l i k e d r i p p i n g s i s r e f l e c t e d i n a s i m i l a r black area t o the r i g h t . As was sta t e d e a r l i e r , the shapes are not e x a c t l y a l i k e f o r there i s a l s o a conscious attempt t o achieve a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m . The l a r g e c e n t r a l black area at the top of the canvas bears l i t t l e resemblance t o the white area of the bottom center. Here one can see tha t Hofmann has taken i n t o account the a t t r a c t i o n to the top black area and the ba s i c l e f t - r i g h t d i r e c t i o n of the base caused by the b r i g h t y e l l o w . The l a r g e black area can be followed through t o form a v e r t i c a l black blob. This appearance causes a h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l e f f e c t . I f the eye s h i f t s s l i g h t l y t o the top from the bottom, a d i f f e r e n t focus i s a t t a i n e d and the upper black blob expands o f f the canvas as does the yellow-white bottom area. The y e l l o w and mauve areas around the corners create movement i n the push and p u l l realm. At once the y e l l o w p r o j e c t s and the mauve recedes and v i c e versa. The motion i s not v i b r a n t or e l s e the eye would be shaken o f f the canvas. The area of green t o the upper l e f t balances the b l a c k e r area of r i g h t center. A c t u a l l y the mass of the green a t t r a c t s the eye to the mauve because the contrast i s so subtle and not b l a t a n t as i n the y e l l o w and black area. By means of the c o l o r planes ., . 45 o r i e n t e d to the d i r e c t i o n of force and t o balance, the 91 dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m of "Effervescence" i s achieved. The t o t a l e f f e c t created i n these p a i n t i n g s i s "a deep a r t i s t i c expression, the product of a conscious f e e l i n g f o r r e a l i t y . This concerns both r e a l i t y of nature and the r e a l i t y of the i n t r i n s i c l i f e of the medium of e x p r e s s i o n . " 9 2 Consciousness i s the main f a c t o r t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the work of an a r t i s t and the work of a c h i l d . Undoubtedly the work of Hans Hofmann and other A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s have been compared t o the a r t of the ki n d e r g a r t e n . The a r t of a c h i l d i s f r e e from a l l conscious i n h i b i t i o n s . The work i s the express-i o n of the c h i l d ' s subconscious and h i s emotion. The work created by an adul t a r t i s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i f there i s "a consciousness of experience as the work develops and i s emotionally enlarged through the greater command of the 93 expression medium. n" "The work of a r t goes through many phases of development but i n each phase i t i s always a 94 work of a r t . " The a d u l t i s able to c o n t r o l and use the medium of expression t o express what he wants whereas the 9 The student d i d not see enough of Hofmann's work t o f e e l q u a l i f i e d t o di s c u s s any more works, other than those seen by the student e i t h e r i n Toronto, New York, San F r a n c i s c o , Berkeley or Los Angeles. 9 2Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p.67. 93 Loc. c i t . 94 _ Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p.69. 46 child lacks the technical control and manual dexterity. The adult inclusion of the consciousness is dual in that sense that i t is intellectual and spiritual. This spirit-ual, derived from the unconscious, has been brought to the conscious level and put under the control of the intellect thereby making i t an aspect of the intellect. The resulting "idea can only be materialized with the help of a medium of expression, the inherent qualities of which must surely be sensed and understood in order to 95 become the carrier of an idea."'^ "The work of art is finished from the point of view of the artist when feeling and perception have re-96 suited in a spiritual synthesis."^ The medium of ex-pression and the artist's translation of his "accumulation of experience gained from nature as the source of his 97 inspiration" y are combined to create the work of art; an entity above either of its two basis, a higher third. The artist has so fully expressed his idea that he himself is self-satisfied. The satisfaction that the observer feels is aesthetic. "Aesthetic enjoyment is caused by the perception 9 5 I b i d . , p. 7 0 . 9^Hofmann, Search for the Real, 1948, p.69. 9 7 L o c . c i t . 47 of hidden laws. The aim of a r t i s always to provide such joys f o r us i n every form of expression. The f a c u l t y t o enjoy r e s t s w i t h the observer."98 An idea transformed by the a r t i s t i n t o the medium of expression i s presented to the observer. What i s a t t a i n e d from the work s o l e l y de-pends on the observer. Hofmann's t h i r d group of w r i t i n g s contains numerous short a r t i c l e s from e x h i b i t i o n s at the Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y and at the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s ' E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American A r t . Also included are i n t e r v i e w s and published a r t i c l e s . In t h i s l a s t group of w r i t i n g s , the r o l e of c o l o r i n p a i n t i n g i s r e a l i z e d and the previous-l y c i t e d aspect of a work of a r t are f u r t h e r d e f i n e d . The w r i t i n g s have not been organized s t r i c t l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y but grouped according to subject and theory development. In 1949, an i n t e r v i e w f o r A r t s and A r c h i t e c t u r e a appeared and i n 1951, an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American A r t . In both these a r t i c l e s , Hofmann r e p l i e d t o the question, what makes an A r t i s t ? and discussed the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s senses and t h e i r e f f e c t on h i s perception of appearances. Hofmann r e a l i z e d t h a t when the a r t i s t i s able t o a f f e c t the observer because the a r t i s t has an inherent q u a l i t y w i t h i n h i m s e l f . I t has not been l e a r n t but was Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p.74. 48 i n b o r n . The a r t i s t has a " c r e a t i v e i n s t i n c t , a searching oo mind and the highest e x h a l t a t i o n of the s o u l . " 7 7 With these t r a i t s he i s able t o "transpose the deepest and w e i g h t i e s t experience i n t o a new dimension of the s p i r i t . " - 1 " 0 0 The work of a r t he creates i s a new r e a l i t y , and a l s o r e f l e c t s "the whole behaviour of the man ( a r t i s t ) , e t h i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s , and h i s awareness of c r e a t i v e 101 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " Hofmann f e l t t h a t the humanistic 102 q u a l i t y of P a r i s allowed f o r h i s freedom of development. I n that atmosphere he could create w i t h "a f r e e and u n i v e r s a l i n t e r w o r k i n g of a l l contemporaries w i t h constant 103 reference to what he r e c e i v e d and l e a r n t from the past." J Although he held a reverence f o r the past the only v a l i d use, i n h i s o p i n i o n , of the past was the d e p i c t i o n of h i s own v i s i o n . What the a r t i s t sees around him has been a f f e c t e d by one's past experience. One has " d e f i n i t e ideas about the object i n s p i t e of the f a c t that the object may or 9 % a n s Hofmann, "Reply to Questionaire and Comments on a Recent E x h i b i t i o n , " A r t s and A r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . 66, no. 11, Nov., 1949, p. 27. 100 T .. Loc. c i t . 1 0 1Hofmann, "Reply to Questionaire ...," 1949, p. 45. 102- . -Loc. c i t . 1 0 3Hofmann, "Reply t o Questionaire ...," 1949, p. 46. 104 may not have m u l t i - s u b o r d i n a t e p a r t s . " We see an o b j e c t at d i f f e r e n t times from d i f f e r e n t viewpoints and these f a c t s are a l l used i n the p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t o b j e c t at a l a t e r date. " A l l p a r t s t o g e t h e r are summarized i n the i d e a of the o b j e c t and the idea of the category t o 105 which the obj e c t belongs." As Hofmann s a i d i n a l a t e r a r t i c l e , "When I p a i n t a sunset, I p a i n t a thousand sun-s e t s of which I was a p a r t . " H i s accumulation of past experience i s brought f o r t h when he wishes t o use i t . When brought t o the consciousness, t h i s accumulation too o f t e n can be d e t r i m e n t a l i n t h a t one may "act as s l a v e s t o h a b i t , u nfree and automatic, l i k e i n a mental 10? p r i s o n . " Hofmann b e l i e v e s t h a t accumulated thought should be i n c o r p o r a t e d but should not r u l e the order of thought and c r e a t i o n . The a r t i s t s mind should be f r e e t o experience nature c o n t i n u a l l y and s t i l l be able t o r e c e i v e a new s e n s a t i o n from i t each time. 104 Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 4 - A p r i l 1, 1951, Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 19517 p. 1877~" 105 T , Loc. c i t . Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 7 - A p r i l 7, 1963, Urbana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1963, p. 86. 107 Hans Hofmann, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n ..., 1951, p. 187. 50 In a 1951 catalogue f o r h i s annual show at the Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , Hofmann published h i s a r t i c l e , "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d Through the I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of Colors t o Express Volume." Dealing mainly w i t h c o l o r , he explained the p r o p e r t i e s of pure c o l o r and t h e i r e f f e c t on the a r t i s t and the observer. Unbroken pure c o l o r can be used by the a r t i s t without any d i s t u r b i n g e f f e c t s I f he t r a n s l a t e s a s p a t i a l experience of nature or the automatic response of the p i c t u r e plane i n t o a p l a s t i c statement and 108 places i t on the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e . In t h i s way, c o l o r from the s t a r t i s a formal problem which must be taken i n t o account as the other formal elements must. This statement i s a f u r t h e r development to the s o l u t i o n of the formal and c r e a t i v e elements. In 1931, the formal elements were the l i n e , the plane, volumes and the r e s u l t i n g complexes. His l a t e r l i s t of c r e a t i v e elements i n c l u d e d a l l the formal elements w i t h the a d d i t i o n of c o l o r and l i g h t . His s t a t e -ment of 1951 makes c o l o r and l i g h t a formal problem and part of the formal elements. In f a c t , formal and c r e a t i v e elements have become one. In c r e a t i n g the work of a r t , pure c o l o r should be used. Pure c o l o r can be "any mixture of c o l o r as long as 1 n e t x u o H a n s Hofmann, "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d through the I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of.Colors t o Express Volume,"cited i n Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue, Nov. 13 - Dec. 1, New York, Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , 1951. 51 such a mixture i s handled f l a t and unbroken. The t o t a l i t y of i t s formal extension a f f e c t s only one c o l o r shade and w i t h i t one l i g h t m e a n i n g . W h e n t h i s area of pure c o l o r i s juxtaposed onto another pure c o l o r area, "each c o l o r becomes t r a n s l u c e n t by depth p e n e t r a t i o n s , and w i t h i t , volume of v a r i e d degrees."'1""'"0 The volume created i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the depth r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g the canvas back t o two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and on i t s placement on the canvas, both which are i n t e r r e l a t e d . "Any c o l o r shade must be i n the volume th a t i t suggested, the exact p l a s t i c e quivalent of i t s formal placement w i t h i n the 111 composition." From t h i s i t can be seen t h a t each c o l o r shade must be so placed i n the composition t h a t i t r e f l e c t s the volume th a t i s to be depicted i n t h a t area. Small c o l o r areas should not be used f o r they would be blended by perception and be seen as a black and white f u n c t i o n , t o n a l . By using l a r g e r areas of separated c o l o r s , t h i s i n t e r v a l f a c i l i t y makes c o l o r a p l a s t i c means. The c o n t r a s t s between the c o l o r s w i l l create a l i v e l y and v i b r a n t volume suggestion. Also by the contrast of c o l o r s , a mystic express-i o n i s created. Contrasts are handled not haphazardly, 1 0 9 L o c . c i t 110T ' c i t Loc. I l l Loc. c i t 52 but "only i n r e l a t i o n t o a s t r i c t mastery of the c o l o r s w i t h the composition through the placement of the c o l o r s . " H 2 Depending on placement, c o l o r and c o n t r a s t s , the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between these q u a l i t i e s creates a p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t . Therefore, i f the composition i s a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y a new p s y c h o l o g i c a l rapport w i l l 113 develop. "This e x p l a i n s the magic of p a i n t i n g . " During 1952 two a r t i c l e s were published i n e x h i b i t i o n catalogues. As w i l l be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs t h e i r contents overlap. The f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t approaches, empathy being the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the two. Creat-ions dependence on experience w i l l i n the end determine what work of a r t can and w i l l represent. In c r e a t i n g such a work of a r t , Hofmann would employ h i s dual c a p a c i t y of e x p e r i e n c i n g . The f i r s t i s h i s r e a c t i o n t o time and the m a t e r i a l world around him. The second i s that which makes him an a r t i s t , " p r o f e s s i o n a l consciousness." What t h i s q u a l i t y a c t u a l l y i s , Hofmann d i d not c l e a r l y d e f i n e . I t e n t a i l s " a l l the b a s i c requirements of h i s p r o f e s s i o n which makes p i c t o r i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of a l l the other r e -Loc. c i t . 113 Loc. c i t . 53 quirements p o s s i b l e . " 1 1 4 In each experience there i s the presence of empathy, "the capacity of f i n d i n g and givi n g of i n t r i n s i c values of the things i n l i f e as well 115 as an a r t i s t i c r e a l i z a t i o n . " J The a r t i s t must be able to transpose himself into animate and inanimate objects. It i s necessary f o r the act of creation. Creation i s based on an i n i t i a t i n g concept which i s derived from the experience of the world around, nature. Hofmann had made a similar statement i n the 1915 Prospectus. To experience deeply requires the power of empathy. Once a concept i s formed i t goes through a series of changes when the a r t i s t i s transposing i t into the physical e n t i t y of the medium. He must take into account the q u a l i t i e s of the medium by empathizing into i t . "The execution of the concept asks from the a r t i s t the penetration of the inner l i f e of the medium of ex-pression." The work of art created i s a new Reality for i t has a s o l i t a r y existence. It represents the personality of the a r t i s t , his soul, mind, s e n s i b i l i t y and temperment, **Hans Hofmann, " ," cited i n University of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American Painting, March 2 - A p r i l 15, 1962, University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1952, p.199. 1 1 ^ L o c . c i t . 116 Hofmann, University of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n. . . , 1952, p.200. — ~~~ 54 I t i s the " g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the human s p i r i t , " f o r i t holds that s p i r i t i n a state of e t e r n a l r e j u v e n a t i o n i n answer t o an everchanging world. By h o l d i n g the s p i r i t of the a r t i s t , he becomes immortal. Art i s a l s o a " c u l t u r a l documentation of the time i n which i t was pro-117 duced." (Harold Rosenberg has sta t e d that "Hofmann 118 separated a r t from s o c i a l c o n f l i c t " during the middle t h i r t i e s . ) "Modern a r t i s a symbol of our democracy the a r t i s t through h i s a r t i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of democracy's fundamental p r i n c i p l e i n being the higher ex-ample of s p i r i t u a l freedom i n h i s performance of uncon-119 d i t i o n a l , u n r e s t r i c t e d c r e a t i v e n e s s . " Because of the burdensomeness of everyday l i f e i n a democratic or other s o c i e t y , a r t i s a counter-balance t o i t . The r e l e a s e achieved from a r t can be a t t a i n e d i n both the f i n e and the a p p l i e d a r t s . The d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the f i n e and the a p p l i e d a r t s i s the E q u a l i t y 12D through which the image becomes s e l f - e v i d e n t . " There i s no b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and e a r l i e r ones d e a l i n g w i t h symphonic and decorative p a i n t i n g . Fine 117 Hans Hofmann, "A Statement by Hans Hofmann," c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue, Oct. 26 --Nov. 22, New York, Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , 1952. 118 Harold Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " P o r t f o l i o and A r t News Annual., no. 6, Autumn, 1962, p. 25. 119 Hofmann, "Reply t o qu e s t i o n a i r e ...," 1949, p. 45. 120 Hofmann, "A Statement ...," 1952. 55 a r t s or symphonic p a i n t i n g i s "the end product of an i n -tense accumulation of i n t r i n s i c values which have pre-conditioned each other a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n a step-by-step development to summarize f i n a l l y i n the c r e a t i o n of t h i s a l l dominant s i n g u l a r , luminous and t r a n s l u c e n t volume t h a t makes the s p a t i a l t o t a l i t y and monumentality of the p i c t u r e . " The f l a t n e s s of the decorative a r t s i s d e r i v e d from the constant p i c t o r i a l balance which "depends on the formal placement of the c o l o r s w i t h i n the composit-i o n and c r e a t i o n of v a r i e d i n t e r v a l s that makes: c o l o r a p l a s t i c means of f i r s t o r d e r . " 1 2 2 In both, Hofmann has placed a greater emphasis on l i g h t and c o l o r . The length of the d e f i n i t i o n s e x h i b i t s Hofmann's wordy s t y l e of w r i t i n g but most imp o r t a n t l y , shows the i n c l u s i v e n e s s and development of ,his t h e o r i e s up t o t h i s date. The a r t i c l e s j u s t c i t e d , as has been seen, are s t r a i g h t forward and do not a p p r e c i a b l y change or add t o Hofmann's theory. In J u l y of 1953, he published in New  Venture h i s a r t i c l e "The R e s u r r e c t i o n of the P l a s t i c A r t s . " I t f u r t h e r d e f i n e d Hofmann's stand f o r movement on the p i c t u r e plane. As Hofmann s a i d , the R e s u r r e c t i o n of the 1 2 1 T Loc. c i t . 122 L o c . . c i t . 56 P l a s t i c A r t s was the "rediscovery of the L i f e endowed p i c t u r e s u r f a c e . " 1 2 3 The p i c t u r e surface a u t o m a t i c a l l y responds t o "any p l a s t i c animation with an a e s t h e t i c e q u i v a l e n t i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n of the re c e i v e d i m p u l s e s . " 1 2 4 When an area of paint i s a p p l i e d to the canvas, a p r o p o r t i o n a l area and f o r c e pushes away from the canvas towards the observer. The d i f f e r e n c e between the pushing i n t o and p u l l i n g out of creates a f e e l i n g of depth and space. "The e n t i r e depth problem i n the v i s u a l a r t s culminates i n t h i s way i n an emotionally c o n t r o l l e d a e s t h e t i c p r o j e c t i o n i n t o the hidden laws of the p i c t u r e 12 5 s u r f a c e . " J When one perceives as depth on a canvas painted w i t h knowledge of the p i c t o r i a l surface's hidden laws, one i s a c t u a l l y seeing the " s h i f t i n g " back and f o r t h of planes. The depth created has volume f o r i t i s negative space or form. The combination of both p o s i t i v e and negative space or form creates the whole e n t i t y of space. In c r e a t i n g such an i l l u s o r y depth, one must take i n t o account formal placement ( l i n e , planes, volumes) 123 •^Hans Hofmann, "The Resu r r e c t i o n of the P l a s t i c A r t s , " (1953). c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, New York, Harry N. Abrams,-I963, p.44. 124T Loc. c i t . 125 T Loc. c i t . 57 and c o l o r s a t u r a t i o n on the formal elements. One does not separate these two aspects but solves them simultaneously w i t h r e l a t i o n t o the s p a t i a l problem f o r the concept t o be d e p i c t e d . The a r t i s t i s able t o work these two by r e a l i z i n g that the p i c t o r i a l surface can be experienced i n a way s i m i l a r to that of nature. Nature i s i n a c t u a l i t y three dimensional but the appear-ance to our eyes i s two dimensional. Due to past l e a r n -i n g and experience, the e f f e c t of the two dimensional appearance on our perception i s t h a t of three dimension-a l i t y . In a s i m i l a r way, the p i c t u r e surface i s two dimensional but because of the combined e f f e c t of p l a c e -ment and c o l o r s a t u r a t i o n , the p i c t u r e surface has the e f f e c t of three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . Hofmann r e t a i n e d the theory of e f f e c t and appearances as stated i n the 1932 a r t i c l e , " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n . " The i l l u s o r y p i c t o r i a l space a l t e r n a t e s between two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y c r e a t i n g the push and p u l l e f f e c t . The p i c t o r i a l space i s "an a e s t h e t i c a l l y created space, (and) an a c t i v a t e d f l u c t u a t i n g space balanced w i t h i n the periphery of the inherent laws of the p i c t u r e surface i n r e l a t i o n t o which a l l employed p i c t o r i a l means must f u n c t i o n p l a s t i c a l l y . " 1 2 6 The p i c t u r e plane has a d e f i n i t e l i m i t t o which p r o j e c t i o n and r e c e s s i o n can occur. 126_ Loc. c i t . 58 The amount depends on the surface's s i z e , shape, ground and the a r t i s t . Hofmann himself has not defined and explained any one of h i s p a i n t i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o these l i m i t s . In an a r t i c l e f o r the Bennington Alumni Quarterly he was asked t o do j u s t t h a t , but i n s t e a d he discussed h i s a t t i t u d e when p a i n t i n g . A p a i n t i n g to him "means the immense st r u g g l e through which the p i c t u r e has gone on i t s development to come to the r e s u l t which i s f i n a l l y o f f e r e d to the p u b l i c . E i t h e r h i s p i c t u r e s communicate or they communicate n o t . " 1 2 7 ^he observer's message i s a p i c t u r e and that i t was "created as 128 nature has created a f l o w e r . " This could appear t o be a g o d - l i k e approach t o p a i n t i n g . Hofmann even i m p l i e s i t when he suggested i n an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e that a r t i s a means to i m m o r t a l i t y . Such may be the case but Hofmann i s t r y i n g undoubtedly t o show the s i m i l a r i t y of the growth f a c t o r of both p l a n t s and p a i n t i n g s . He sees the bare canvas as the seed, the a r t i s t ' s i n s p i r a t i o n as i t s source of l i f e , the c r e a t i v e elements such as l i n e , plane, volumes, complexes and c o l o r as the f e r t i l i z e r and nourishment f o r the seed 127 'Hans Hofmann, "Hofmann E x p l a i n i n g h i s P a i n t i n g s , " Bennington College Alumnae Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 7 , n o . l , Feb. 1, 1955, P.23. 128 T Loc. c i t . 59 and the completed p a i n t i n g as the culmination of the p l a n t , i t s f l o w e r . Hofmann does not t r y to make you l i k e or d i s l i k e h i s completed p a i n t i n g s , p o s s i b l y one of the reasons why he does not e x p l a i n an i n d i v i d u a l p a i n t i n g . Each of h i s p a i n t i n g s , he b e l i e v e s , "has a l i f e of i t s own created by p i c t o r -i a l means. I f they are not understood today, they are understood tomorrow, maybe i n a hundred years, maybe i n two hundred years. But I know they w i l l be understood." 1 29 I f Hofmann means h i s p a i n t i n g s w i l l be understood, he undoubtedly b e l i e v e s that h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r understanding. As s t a t e d before, he does not di s c u s s h i s t h e o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n to any of h i s p a i n t i n g s . As i n h i s 1955 a r t i c l e "The Color Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g , " a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i s undertaken. Color achieves prominence over form because of i t s a b i l i t y to form r e -l a t i o n s and i n t e r v a l s . "Push and P u l l " can a l s o be achieved by c o l o r but c o l o r development depends on form f o r which the c o l o r s e x i s t ; so i t must develop simultan-eously. Color can be used i n e i t h e r of two ways i n a p a i n t -i n g . I f c o l o r i s used s o l e l y as a black and white f u n c t i o n f o r the c r e a t i o n of form and volume, i t i s a t o n a l p a i n t -i n g . In another approach, pure p a i n t i n g , c o l o r i s used " f o r 129LOC. c i t 60 a p l a s t i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e . " 1 3 0 Hofmann's use of the word p l a s t i c i n connection w i t h c o l o r shows h i s increas-ed awareness of c o l o r ' s volume forming q u a l i t y as stat e d i n "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d through the I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of Color to Express Volumes," 1951. Pure p a i n t i n g i s a "rhythmic interweaving of the c o l o r scale, " x 3 1 which r e s u l t s i n simultaneous c o n t r a s t s . These c o n t r a s t s create the l i g h t i n a p a i n t i n g . Colors are.placed on the canvas so that they r e l a t e t o each other i n a " c o l o r development" upon which t h e i r formal grouping u l t i m a t e l y depends."132 Hofmann now says t h a t "formal and c o l o r development go on s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . " 1 ^ i n the e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s Hofmann d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d between the two i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n of formal and c r e a t i v e e l e m e n t s . 1 ^ The simultaneousness of these two developments u n i t e the formal and c r e a t i v e elements i n t o one and the same category. In t h i s 1955 a r t i c l e he says 13 5 t h a t c o l o r ' s f u n c t i o n i s f o r m a l . Color i s t h e r e f o r e a 3 Hans Hofmann, "The Color Problem i n Pure P a i n t -i n g , " (1955), c i t e d i n F r e d e r i c k S. Wight, Hans Hofmann, Ber k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957, p.51 1 3 1 I b i d . , p.52. 1 3 2 I b l d . , p.54. 1 3 3 I b i d . , p.52. 1 3 4Hofmann, E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue Berkeley, 1931, Hofmann, " P l a s t i c Creation, 1? 1932, p. 35 - 38. 1 3 5Hofmann, "The Color Problem ...," (1955), p.54. 61 f o r m a l and c r e a t i v e element, f u r t h e r u n i t i n g the two i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e c a t e g o r i e s . C o l o r , as used by i t s e l f , i s not c r e a t i v e . I t must be used as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f forms. "Color becomes c r e a t i v e by f o r c e , by s e n s i n g the i n n e r l i f e by which c o l o r s respond t o each other through the creat e d c r e a t -i v i t y of i n t e r v a l s . " 1 3 ^ These i n t e r v a l s are cr e a t e d by two p h y s i c a l c a r r i e r s on the canvas which cause the eye t o r e a c t t o each and t o both. These p h y s i c a l c a r r i e r s form w i t h i n t he observer a n o n - p h y s i c a l e n t i t y which governs the observer's v i s i o n of the two o b j e c t s . That n o n - p h y s i c a l e n t i t y , " h y p e r p h y s i c a l o v e r t o n e , " 1 3 7 i s what Hofmann c a l l e d 138 i n p r e v i o u s a r t i c l e s a h i g h e r t h i r d , which was used i n con n e c t i o n w i t h a r e l a t i v e meaning. I t can now be seen t h a t an i n t e r v a l and a r e l a t i o n are r e l a t e d t o Hofmann*s terms. "Both are u n i t e d t o c a r r y a meaning through t h e i r i n t e r -139 a c t i o n . " The v a r i a t i o n of f o r c e between the two hyper-p h y s i c a l overtones i s the r e l a t i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n i s a "simultaneous a c c e l e r a t e d i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n or d i m i n u t i o n " 1 4 0 o f two c o l o r s i n an i n t e r v a l . An i n t e r v a l shows an i n t e r -1 3 6 I b i d . , p . 5 3 . 137 Loc. c i t . 1 od Hofmann, Search f o r the Re a l , 1 9 4 8 " , p . 4 7 . 1 3 9Hofmann, "The Col o r Problem ...," ( 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 5 3 . 1 4 0 T Loc. c i t . connectedness between two areas of c o l o r which can be j o i n e d t o form a higher t h i r d . The f o r c e between the c o l o r areas i s governed by the r e l a t i o n . Hofmann*s con-cept of an i n t e r v a l had changed from the 1931 a r t i c l e i n which he s a i d t h a t " i n t e r v a l s were c o l o r planes standing i n g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e c o n t r a s t s t o i t s neighbours w i t h i n the balance of the whole."141 This idea leads t o the theory of expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n as discussed i n 1948 The d e f i n i t i o n of the i n t e r v a l of 1931 i s however able t o b r i n g a work of a r t together and u n i f y i t by the con-t r a s t c r e a t i n g a focus. The combination of the o v e r a l l c o n t r a s t s can create a l u m i n o s i t y on the canvas. As s t a t e d i n 1955, these i n t e r v a l s can a l s o operate between i n t e r v a l s themselves, " l i k e sound i n m u s i c . " 1 4 2 Because i n t e r v a l s amalgamate and grow, that "makes c o l o r a p l a s t means of f i r s t of o r d e r . " 1 4 3 From the p l a s t i c i t y which expands c o l o r monument-a l i t y and conversely c o n t r a c t s i t i n an c o u n t e r - a c t i o n , c o l o r can work w i t h the formal development of push and p u l l . Hofmann s a i d e a r l i e r that c o l o r i t s e l f p r o j e c t s and recedes much i n the same sense as "push and p u l l . " He now says that c o l o r combined w i t h the formal develop-1 4 1Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1932,'p.9. 1 4 2Hofmann, "The Color Problem ...," (1955), p.53 143 Loc. c i t . 63 ments of the work i s able t o increase or decrease the i n t e n s i t y of e i t h e r the push _or p u l l . I f one l a r g e area of red and a small area of y e l l o w were placed on a canvas, the l a r g e red area would p r o j e c t w i t h a stronger f o r c e than the y e l l o w . The "push" forward would a l s o be f a s t e r , as the red area catches the eye f i r s t . The eye focuses on the red area . f i r s t but i t a l s o sees the y e l l o w . By a l t e r i n g the focus to the yellow, the red would " p u l l " back and the yellow would push forward. This "push" of the y e l l o w i s not as strong as t h a t f o r the red f o r the y e l l o w as compared to the white ground does not c o n t r a s t as sharply and has not an area as l a r g e as the red. Depending on the d i s t a n c e of separa-t i o n between the two c o l o r s , there i s the i n t e r v a l f a c u l t y which v a r i e s the i n t e r a c t i o n between the two, a f f e c t i n g t h e i r expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n , push and p u l l . I f the colored areas were on a dark ground the suggestion of depth would be g r e a t e r . Black would tend t o recede c r e a t i n g a greater volume and a l s o a darker canvas w i t h l e s s l u m i n o s i t y . I t i s the a b i l i t y t o synchronize the development of both c o l o r and form i n a p a i n t i n g which w i l l lead t o a s u c c e s s f u l work. In each case, they a f f e c t the p i c t u r e plane s i m i l a r l y i n t h a t there i s an automatic r e a c t i o n from the p i c t u r e plane whenever any of t h e i r 64 developments occur on the p i c t u r e plane. I t must be r e a l i z e d that c o l o r development leads c o n t i n u a l l y t o ever-changing m u l t i - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Through c o l o r ' s s e l f -144 s u s t a i n i n g development, form i s determined. Because c o l o r e x i s t s on a form, such as a plane or volume, how and where the c o l o r i s placed on the canvas determines i n the end how the formal development w i l l occur. This a t t i t u d e of Hofmann has developed since h i s f i r s t w r i t -ings when he s a i d that l i n e , plane and formal complexes 145 were the most important f a c t o r s f o r formal development. L a t e r i n a d i s c u s s i o n of formal and c r e a t i v e elements, 146 we see th a t form i s a r e s u l t of l i g h t and v i c e versa. Hofmann now has placed l i g h t and c o l o r as the determinants of form. Color, because of i t s dual r o l e f o r i t s own develop-ment and formal development, creates the phenomena of push and p u l l which i s the b a s i s f o r p i c t o r i a l l i f e . Color by c o n t r a s t s w i t h neighbouring areas of c o l o r creates the v i b r a n t e f f e c t upon the v i s i o n of the eye f i r s t . The simultaneous contrast i s not t o n a l i n the sense that the c o l o r s merge together but t h a t " t h e i r meeting (to form c o n t r a s t s ) i s the consequence of the c o l o r and form 1 / f Z fHofmann, "The Color Problem ...," (1955), p.54. 1 4^Hofmann, E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue ...,Berkeley,1931. 146 Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932. 65 development of the work. Form and c o l o r operate each 147 i n i t s own sovereign rhythm." The l a s t statement seems t o c o n t r a d i c t Hofmann's other statement i n the same a r t i c l e t h a t " c o l o r development determines, f o r m . " 1 ^ What Hofmann probably means i s t h a t although form i s determined by c o l o r placement, the placement of form has i t s own set of laws which i t must f o l l o w and obey. Both form and c o l o r a r e , however, governed by the P a i n t i n g Laws, s t a t e d i n "On the Aims of A r t , " 1952 . The grouping of colored areas i n t h e i r formal development r e s u l t s i n a u n i t c a l l e d a complex. "In ^spite of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of shaded d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e i r s y n t h e s i s presents i t s e l f as one c o l o r complex c o n t r a s t -ed w i t h another and a l l the other complexes w i t h i n the 149 p i c t o r i a l t o t a l i t y . " The i n t e r v a l l e d r e l a t i o n between the c o l o r s of that area react t o form a s o l i d p r o j e c t i n g and receding area. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l the complexes w i t h t h e i r balance of push and p u l l , expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n presents the two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the canvas while the t e n s i o n a l f o r c e s create the depth and volume. I f one f o r c e i s greater than i t s counter-force i n the opposing d i r e c t i o n , the p a i n t i n g w i l l appear to 1 4 7Hofmann, "The Color Problem ...," ( 1 9 5 5 ) , p.54. ^" 4^Loc. c i t . ^"^Loc. c i t . have holes; areas of r e c e s s i o n i n which a p r o j e c t i o n i s not able to counteract i t . In a good p a i n t i n g t h i s i s not the case; the canvas i s a u n i f i e d whole. Each complex i s made up of s e v e r a l areas of c o l o r but, "as a j e w e l , r e f l e c t s one c o l o r i n every change of 150 normal l i g h t c o n d i t i o n . " I t i s through "the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p of the i n d i v i d u a l c o l o r s t o form one c o l o r r e f l e c t i o n and the t o t a l harmony between them (which) emanates the a s p i r e d c r e a t i v e intention."-*-51 j n d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g the largeness of the f l a t areas of co l o r does not permit such a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l areas t o form groupings w i t h one l i g h t r e f l e c t i o n , but r a t h e r the large s i m p l i f i e d area i s a s i n g l e r e f l e c t i o n i n i t s e l f . The s i n g l e r e f l e c t i o n i s not as v i b r a n t and l i v e l y as the complexes of pure p a i n t i n g . I t i s the l i f e of a pure p a i n t i n g t h a t allows f o r p i c t o r i a l communication. A new r e a l i t y comes i n t o e x i s t e n c e , a created r e a l i t y . The c o l o r gives a e s t h e t i c enjoyment and a sense of emotional r e l e a s e which i s r e l a t e d t o the form of the p a i n t i n g . When these f a c t s are taken i n t o account and "awaken i n us f e e l i n g s t o 1 5°Hofmann, "The Color Problem ...," (1955),p.56. 151 T ' ' Loc. c i t . 67 which the medium of expression responds a n a l o g i c a l l y , 152 we attempt t o r e a l i z e our experience c r e a t i v e l y . " The f i n i s h e d c r e a t i o n w i l l depend on the inter-meshing of a l l these ideas and l a c i n g them i n t o the p a i n t i n g . With the knowledge th a t the p a i n t i n g must f i t together the a r t i s t i s f r e e t o use h i s imagination, i n v e n t i v e n e s s , s e n s i b i l i t y and the s e l e c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of h i s mind. Man's mind and i t s e f f e c t from nature are d e a l t 153 w i t h i n Hofmann's 1958 p u b l i c a t i o n I t I s . The a f f e c t of nature and the a r t i s t ' s awareness w i l l determine the c r e a t i o n of the a r t i s t . The mind of the a r t i s t , surround-ed by nature, has a l s o been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by i t . He sees w i t h awareness, f o r "seeing without awareness, ( i s ) short of b l i n d n e s s . " 1 ^ Although there i s t h i s i n f l u e n c e , i t i s what the a r t i s t does w i t h these i n f l u e n c e s t h a t b r i n g s out a great work of a r t . "The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p i c t o r i a l means of what we see i s 15 5 'another a r t ' . " " O b j e c t i v i t y i s a l s o goose unless 1 5 2 L o c . c i t , 153 Hans Hofmann, "excerpt from I t Is,"(Winter -S p r i n g , 1959), c i t e d i n Los Angeles County Art Museum, New York School, The F i r s t Generation, Los Angeles, Members of the Board of the Los Angeles County A r t Museum, 1965, p.17. " ^ 4 L o c . c i t . x 155 T ... ' Loc. c i t . ) 68 156 we make something out of i t . " "Nature's purpose i n r e l a t i o n t o the v i s u a l a r t s i s t o provide the stimulus stimulus through i t s c r e a t i v e behavior."157 Nature i n i t s c r e a t i v e way of b r i n g i n g l i f e t o the inanimate o b j e c t s , i n i t i a t e s i n the a r t i s t a s i m i l a r a c t i o n . The a r t i s t ' s mind i s s e n s i t i v e to the way i n which nature a c t s and r e f l e c t s t h i s i n h i s p a i n t i n g s . "Man's s e n s i t i v e mind can t h i n k and f e e l ; i t enables him to create t h a t i s t o impregnate p h y s i c a l substance w i t h 158 l i f e . " v By use of h i s conscious and unconscious f a c u l t i e s , the a r t i s t becomes aware of space i n every form of manifestation"159 of nature. Through the r e a l i z a -t i o n t h a t the two dimensional surface of the p i c t u r e plane can be made to o s c i l l a t e t o the three dimensional, the r e s u l t i n g vibrancy and dynamism b r i n g s the l i f e t o the canvas. At each stage of the two dimensional and three dimensional there i s a s t a t i c s t a t e but the change t o the c o n t r a s t i n g dimension develops the sense of move-ment. Movement i s answered by a counter-movement and 156 y Hans Hofmann, "Nature and A r t , Controversy and Misconception,", c i t e d in,New P a i n t i n g s by Hans Hofmann, Jan. 7 t o 2 5 , New York, K o o t z . G a l l e r y , 1958. 1 5 7 L o c . c i t . 158 Loc. c i t . 159' Hofmann,"excerpt from I t I s , " 1959, p.17. 69 consequently develops rhythm and counter-rhythm. The pushing and p u l l i n g t o both the two and three dimension-a l create the sense of f o r c e s which because of t h e i r balance brings about t e n s i o n s . These forces r e s u l t i n g from the p i c t u r e surface and the c o l o r and form t h a t have been a p p l i e d , have a l i f e of t h e i r own. "Color and l i g h t are t o a great extent subjected to the form problem 160 of the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e . " This statement c o n t r a d i c t s the 1955 a r t i c l e i n which Hofmann s a i d that c o l o r i s the b a s i s f o r form and that the two developments, formal and .161 c o l o r , should be synchronized. Hofmann has appeared to back down on h i s stand f o r the predominance of the c o l o r development. The l a s t s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s f o r the t h i r d group of Hofmann's published m a t e r i a l covers a period of four years and includes f i v e separate p u b l i c a t i o n s . These a r t i c l e s are g e n e r a l l y quite short and repeat Hofmann's p r e v i o u s l y stated t h e o r i e s . He stands f i r m on the non-f i g u r a t i v e philosophy which i n c l u d e s h i s t o t a l s e l f . The mood of the work then w i l l r epresent h i s t o t a l being. Hofmann's general philosophy of a r t takes on h i s summation of the ideas he has presented over the years. His 160 Loc. c i t . l 6 lHofmann, "The Color Problem ...," (1955), p. 51-56. 70 a t t i t u d e as a teacher i s not f o r g o t t e n f o r he has spent over h a l f h i s l i f e as one. Hofmann b e l i e v e s a teacher should not t e l l the student e x a c t l y which c o l o r or formal development p a t t e r n t o f o l l o w f o r i t i s the teacher's job to "approach (his) students merely w i t h the human d e s i r e t o f r e e them of a l l s c h o l a r l y i n h i b i t i o n s . " This f r e e -dom w i l l e i t h e r b r i n g out that r e a l t a l e n t of a l l g i f t e d people or i t w i l l " k i l l a l l m e d i o c r i t y and f a l s e m y s t i -f i c a t i o n of one's r e a l n a t u r e . " 1 ^ In the l a t t e r ease, Hofmann says he has done j u s t t h a t many times. He be-l i e v e s that t a l e n t e d people take time t o develop. They must pass through stages of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f -enlightenment i n order t o become masters. Hofmann has not v a r i e d h i s statement about an a r t i s t being born; t h i s inborn q u a l i t y must be l e d along a c e r t a i n path i n order t o achieve success. His senses govern an inner eye or inner v i s i o n . The dependency of each sense on every other sense creates i n the mind combinations and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of great c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l and f a c i l i t a t e the imagination. Creat-ed r e l a t i o n s create a higher s p i r i t u a l t h i r d , and c r e a t i v e l 6 2Hofmann, "excerpt from I t I s , " 1959, p.17. -i f.r> Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 1 - A p r i l 5, 1959, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1959, p. 226. ' 7 1 combinations b r i n g about l i f e to the p i c t u r e surface by-push and pull,< expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n i n form and i n c o l o r . The medium i t s e l f i s only a c a r r i e r of the s i g n i f i c a n t meaning derived from the r e l a t i o n s and combinations which i s s p i r i t u a l , .hyperphysical. One can-not d i s c u s s or c r i t i c i z e a work of a r t on mere p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s alone f o r i t i s the s p i r i t u a l "which i s the only j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a work of a r t . " x ^ 4 Hofmann had st a t e d e a r l i e r i n the 1948, The Search f o r the Re a l , "the r e a l i n a r t never die s because i t s nature i s predominantly s p i r i t u a l . " x ^ 5 p a i n t i n g — i s i n s p i r e d by the s p i r i t of i t s c r e a t i o n and i t s s t r a i g h t forward appeal to the senses. The audience can i d e n t i f y the meaning and the mood of i t s c r e a t i o n . " The thoughts and a c t i o n s that are experienced i n c r e a t i n g that p a i n t i n g can be' seen by the observer. Hofmann, when questioned, whether h i s p a i n t i n g s r e f l e c t h i s mood or emotion, r e p l i e d that they r e f l e c t h i s "whole psychic make-up and convey nothing but 167 my own nature." His involvement w i t h the p a i n t i n g ^Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue, Jan. 5- 23, I960, New York, Kootz G a l l e r y , I960. : : l 6 5Hofmann, Search f o r the Re a l , 1948, p.54. l 6 6 j j 0 f m a n r L j E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue New York,I960, x^ 7Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n Katherine Kuh, The A r t i s t ' s Voice, New York, Harper and Row, 1962,. p. 119. 72 makes him f o r g e t h i s own personal problems and leads t o a c o n t i n u a l optimism. This mood i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l i g h t h e a r t e d t i t l e s which Hofmann says he chooses from the f e e l i n g the p a i n t i n g suggests when i t i s completed. This 1962 statement seems t o be a development from the one made i n 1955 i n the Bennington College Alumnae  Qu a r t e r l y . He s a i d that he f e l t each p a i n t i n g meant an immense s t r u g g l e through which the p i c t u r e has gone through i n the development." 'HofmannTs change of a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t e d h i s growing p o p u l a r i t y and the great-er time he had f o r p a i n t i n g since he had closed h i s a r t scho o l . The o p t i m i s t i c mood i s not a t t a i n e d as soon as one s t a r t s to p a i n t . Often Hofmann drew " i n order to fr e e himself so that he could understand the meaning of the c o m p o s i t i o n . " 1 ^ He becomes in v o l v e d with formal development and f i n a l l y engrosses himself i n the p a i n t -i n g . He i s c o n t i n u a l l y aware of what i s happening on the canvas. A c c i d e n t s , planned or unplanned, are solved by the suggestion w i t h i n the work i t s e l f . No sketches are prepared f o r a p a i n t i n g , because each work of a r t i s developmental w i t h i n i t s e l f . At each stage, the p a i n t i n g or drawing i s a work of a r t . l 6 oHofmann, "Hofmann Ex p l a i n s ...," 1955, p.23. l 6^Hofmann, c i t e d i n The A r t i s t ' s Voice. 1962,p.125, 73 The q u a l i t y of the work i s not dependent on whether a r e a l image can be seen f o r a " f i g u r a t i v e attempt i s condemned when made without c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the u n d e r l y i n g a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e of a b s t r a c t i o n s because such mortal negligence w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y lead t o u n i n s p i r e d i m i t a t i v e and academic f o r m a t i o n . " 1 7 0 The a r t i s t must l e t h i s mind be open t o a l l forms of c r e a t i o n so t h a t h i s thoughts w i l l be f r e e t o express a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s which-are the b a s i s of a r t . Hofmann does not e x p l a i n what i s meant by " a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s . " "No one can give a c o r r e c t explanation of what a r t i s . " 1 7 1 This l a s t statement appears t o be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o Hofmann's w r i t i n g s . Has he not t r i e d t o d e f i n e c r e a t i o n and the p r i n c i p l e s upon which i t i s based? By a n a l y s i s of h i s own c r e a t i v e process, Hofmann developed h i s theory of c r e a t i v i t y . He r e a l i z e d t h a t a r t should not i m i t a t e p h y s i c a l l i f e f o r " a r t must have a l i f e of i t s own. A s p i r i t u a l l i f e . " 1 7 2 This idea of the n o n - f i g u r a t i v e and s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y of a r t developed from h i s f i r s t w r i t i n g s . "A p a i n t e r must 1 7 0 H a n s Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , Feb. 20 - A p r i l 2, 1961, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1961, p. 116. 1 7 1Hofmann, c i t e d i n The A r t i s t ' s Voice, 1962,p.118. 1 7 2 H a n s Hofmann. "Hans Hofmann on A r t . " The A r t  J o u r n a l , v o l . 22, no. j, Spring, 1963, p. 180. 74 create p i c t o r i a l l i f e w i t h reference to the laws d i c t a t e d 173 by the medium.n , J Hofmann stated these laws a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n America i n 1931. Through the i n t u i t i v e f a c u l t y of h i s subconscious mind t o st i m u l a t e h i s conscious mind, the a r t i s t i s able t o use h i s senses so he can " d i s -cover the i n t r i n s i c f a c u l t y and inner l i f e of e v e r y t h i n g . " 1 7 ^ He sta t e d i n 1931 that "the work of a r t i s the product of the a r t i s t ' s power f o r f e e l i n g and of h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i f e - i n - n a t u r e and l i f e w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the medium."176 Hofmann's concept of empathy and s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n d i d not change through the years. The mind of the a r t i s t i s able to perceive beyond the purely p h y s i c a l . His inner eye sees i n t o the inner l i f e of everything; "therefore every-" 177 t h i n g can serve as an expression medium." '' The q u a l i t y of the r e s u l t i n g work of a r t depends on the a r t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o create a s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y w i t h the p h y s i c a l medium of expression. S p i r i t u a l i t y i s deri v e d from the "sy n t h e s i s of a l l 178 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " As e a r l y as 1948, Hofmann had sta t e d l 73Hofmann, c i t e d i n The A r t i s t ' s Voice, 1962, p.118. ^Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1932, p. 9 - 10. 1 7 5Hofmann, "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1963, p.l&O. 1 7 6Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, p.6. 177 "Hofmann, "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1963, p. 180. 1 7 ^ L o c • c i t . 75 t h a t "two p h y s i c a l f a c t s i n an emotionally c o n t r o l l e d r e l a t i o n s h i p always create the phenomenon of a t h i r d 179 f a c t of a higher order." 7 The s y n t h e s i z i n g of a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s what Hofmann stated as " r e l a t i o n s under r e l a t i o n s being the highest form of a e s t h e t i c enjoyment," x o u Pleasure from such a work i s obtained by the perception of a u n i f i e d work of a r t . As i n an o r g a n i s t i c theory, a l l p a r t s are t i e d together and each part i m p l i e s another. The concept of p o s i t i v e and negative space i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . "Objects are 181 p o s i t i v e space" or form and empty space does not e x i s t f o r i t i s a negation of p o s i t i v e space or form. These two e n t i t i e s do not e x i s t s i n g u l a r l y f o r i n a t o t a l space, both e x i s t side by s i d e . To experience t h a t space i n a p a i n t i n g , one must f e e l the "f o r c e s and counter-forces that make a v i t a l f o r c e impelled dynamic 182 space," i . e . the opposing tensions of three dimension-a l and two dimensional. "Space i s a l l energy," f o r "space has volume and volume has mass." x^ 3 Hofmann's 1 7 9Hofmann, Search f o r the Re a l , 1949, p.47. •) d o o uHans Hofmann, "The Mystery of Creative R e l a t i o n s , " J u l y , 1953, c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, New York, Harry N. Abrams, 19o3, p.45. 181 Hofmann, "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1963, p.182. l g 2 I b i d . , p.181. 1 5 3 I b i d . , p.182. 7 6 s c i e n t i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y of h i s l a t e teens l e d him t o the t h e o r i e s of E i n s t e i n who s a i d , t h a t energy i s derived from mass, th e r e f o r e r e l a t i n g to space and energy. The knowledge of the inherent v i t a l f o r c e s of space and l i f e t h at these f o r c e s can cr e a t e , s t i r s the a r t i s t i c mind to greater imagination to create l i f e on the p i c t o r i a l s u rface f o r the viewer. " P i c t o r i a l l i f e i s based on t e n s i o n . Forces and counter-forces, rhythm and counter-rhythms." • Color i s one of the e a s i e s t and best means to create these f o r c e s f o r i t i s able to pro-duce depth ( p u l l ) and l i g h t emanation (push) rphe f o r c e s of push and p u l l are mental i n that v i s u a l sensa-t i o n s are r e l a t e d t o past experience of tensions i n nature or th a t these tensions are f e l t as a r e a c t i o n from the p i c t u r e surface. Rhythm, a time and i n t e n s i t y element of "push and p u l l , " i s derived from the a r t i s t ' s temper-• - 1 8 6 ament. P a i n t i n g s of the per i o d a f t e r Hofmann's r e t r o s p e c t -i v e at the Addison G a l l e r y of American Art f a l l i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s which r e f l e c t h i s t h e o r i e s at th a t time. "Magenta and Blue," ( 1 9 5 0 ) r e t a i n s Hofmann's " c u b i s t 1 8 4 T Loc. c i t . 1 8 5 Loc. c i t . 1 8 6 Hofmann, "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 8 0 . 77 trauma." While the p a i n t i n g e a r l i e r c i t e d r e f l e c t s h i s awareness of the p l a n a r concept, t h i s l a t e r work shows a minimal p e r s i s t e n c e of the l i n e a r concept i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the p l a n a r one as seen i n " F a n t a s i a " (1943). The f l a t canvas of "Magenta and B l u e " ( p l a t e I I I ) has been broken up i n t o f o u r quadrangles w i t h the lower ones l a r g e r . Red, b l u e , y e l l o w , magenta and green have been used t o f u r t h e r d i v i d e the quadrangles i n t o a semblance of a s p a t i a l area d e p i c t i n g a s t i l l l i f e . The b r i g h t n e s s of the canvas r e -f l e c t s Hofmann's e a r l y c o n t a c t w i t h the F a u v i s t , Henri M a t i s s e as i n h i s "Piano Lesson," (1916) . While the same g e n e r a l l u m i n o s i t y of the canvas i s achieved by both, M a t i s s e has used a more sombre red and a p a l e r and l e s s v i b r a n t b l u e . Each c o l o r t h a t Hofmann has p l a c e d on the canvas v i e s w i t h every other f o r the g r e a t e s t p r o j e c t i v e and dynamic power. I f , as i n the case of the b l u e , an a r e a of c o l o r does not match the dynamism of i t s neighbour-i n g c o l o r to form a s t a b l e r e l a t i o n , t h a t area of c o l o r i s i n c r e a s e d so t h a t the s i z e w i l l i n the end c r e a t e the same e f f e c t . The magenta t o the r i g h t of the blue and on the t o p l e f t corner of the canvas have a s m a l l area f o r t h e i r p r o j e c t i v e powers do not n e c e s s i t a t e a l a r g e and dominant area as does the b l u e . Even though they a r e at the s i d e of Clement Greenberg, A r t and C u l t u r e , Boston, Beacon P r e s s , 1961, p. 192. the canvas, they have the force to combat the blue. The use of color i n these planar areas i s further emphasized in Hofmann's l a t e r works of I 9 6 0 , but l i n e s and dynamic planes are used here to achieve the e f f e c t of "push and pull," expansion and contraction. As i n the a n a l y t i c a l cubist works of Picasso and Braque, Hofmann has appeared to have taken d i f f e r e n t view points of the same s t i l l l i f e . The blue area to the lowe: r i g h t can be associated with the red, yellow and green s t i l l l i f e area to the upper l e f t . While Braque and Picasso took d i f f e r e n t views of the same object and t i e d them together i n t h e i r compositions, Hofmann here, seems to have taken a front and back view and separated them on the canvas. It must be r e a l i z e d that these two areas most l i k e l y do not represent the same objects from d i f f e r ent sides but the relationships between t h e i r forms and s p a t i a l displacement inherently cause the observer to unify them. A r e l a t i o n i s set up between them which causes the two areas to contract together yet the i n t e n s i t y of the yellow-red texture and the magenta cause the two to expand off the canvas. The plane of blue i s projected off the canvas by i t s f o r c e f u l color but most of a l l by the dynamic planes. The blue area of color, by being angled, appears to come out to the observer as the upper ri g h t yellow area recede 79 This blue does not p r o j e c t f l a t out but i s a l s o angled f o r the lower black areas p r o j e c t s the blue when the lower p o r t i o n of the canvas comes i n t o focus. The whole bottom area i s a l s o angled o f f by the slanted h o r i z o n t a l . The red o v e r l a y i n g the blue and the red to the l e f t center cause the eye to f o l l o w a r i g h t - l e f t d i r e c t i o n and the c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the yellow-green r e s u l t i n an a c t i v a t e d l i f t and push. The y e l l o w a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the yellow-red t e x t u r e t o b r i n g the plane down only to be projected again by the blue area. The y e l l o w area t o the upper r i g h t does not have the vigour or energy of the other quadrangles. In r e l a t i o n t o the oth e r s , i t appears u n f i n i s h e d , unsolved. The black and green l i n e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the planar object r a i s e d above i t l a c k form and s o l i d i t y as compared t o the objects placed above the blue . The co n t r a s t between the f i n i s h e d , o v e r f i n i s h e d and u n f i n i s h e d aspects of the canvas i l l u s t r a t e s Hofmann's c u b i s t trauma. The overworked area to the upper l e f t shows Hofmann as a s y n t h e t i c c u b i s t w i t h the v i b r a n t t e x t u r e of red and ye l l o w . The l i n e a r q u a l i t y of the pineapple shape a t t a i n s only p a r t i a l planar concept i n the extreme r i g h t l e a f . By u s i n g the large area of c o l o r Hofmann has achieved the dynamism he c a l l e d f o r but i n d e p i c t i n g the smaller object the c o n t r a s t w i t h the l a r g e r areas only made them l i n e a r . The l i n e i s the smallest p a i n t i n g plane, but i n contrast t o a l a r g e planar area, i t becomes merely a l i n e . BO However i n a work such as "Le G i l o t i n , " 1953, (p l a t e I V ) , the width of a p a i n t brush has been the b a s i c s i z e of the plane. Even the white area t o the upper r i g h t appears t o be subdivided i n t o three separate planes by the te x t u r e of the a c t u a l pigment. While the length of each plane v a r i e s , the width remains constant so tha t each brush stroke appears planar. Only seven l i n e s are used t o d e f i n e the f i g u r e but they are only superfluous: the f i g u r e could be seen without them. Hofmann's a b i l i t y t o use green i n a f r i v o l o u s mood d e t r a c t s from green's u s u a l sombre f e e l i n g . The paint has been a p p l i e d i n a r i c h creamy manner. The e f f e c t on the observer i s pure d e l i g h t . (This canvas now hangs i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley. I t creates a l i v e l y and j o y f u l mood f o r the passer-bys and the working s t a f f . ) The l a v i s h amount of p h y s i c a l pigment and the h i g h l y t e x t u r e d surface creates a uniquely l i v e l y area of c o l o r which f o r e t e l l s the l a t e s t phase of Hofmann's p a i n t -ings i n which he uses l u x u r i a n t o i l s i n re c t a n g u l a r plane of v i b r a n t c o l o r . This e f f e c t can be seen i n "Above Deep Waters," 1959, ( p l a t e V). The canvas has been d i v i d e d i n t o three h o r i z o n t a l areas; the upper s e c t i o n r e d , the middle, y e l l o w , and the bottom, mottled black and green. Though each c o l o r appears separate and d i s t i n c t , a l l c o l o r s are seen i n each of the three areas. T r a n s i t i o n a l zones between each area 81 are the most prominent place f o r the i n c l u s i o n of c o l o r from another area. Between the red and the y e l l o w there are patches of green and blue which stand out and sink i n t o the b o r d e r l i n e . The main area c o l o r i s also mottled w i t h a d i f f e r e n t shade 1 As can be seen on the upper y e l l o w edge, a darker l e s s v i b r a n t shade has been included t o f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s i t i o n t o the red. Spots of blue are a l s o seen above the red area. These t r a n s i t i o n a l patch planes p r o j e c t and recede to form the "push and p u l l " e f f e c t . The darker shades at the b o r d e r l i n e s separate the c o l o r s i n an expanding d i r e c t i o n while the brightness of the red and y e l l o w contract the surface area. This con-t r a c t i o n i s caused by the extreme bri g h t n e s s of both areas which form a s i n g l e b r i g h t area. This now s i n g l e area p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the black-blue area t o the bottom. With the a l t e r a t i o n of focus t o the r e d , the black appears to p r o j e c t mainly because of the heaviness at the bottom of the canvas. The three areas then o s c i l l a t e p e r p e n d i c u l a r -l y and p a r a l l e l t o the p i c t u r e plane. Each area has been a p p l i e d i n a planar method of pure p a i n t i n g . The planes and areas of c o l o r each emit one c o l o r sense. Even the lower black area where green i s mottled i n t o the black has a s i n g l e c o l o r and r e f l e c t s not pure i n the sense of primary c o l o r s but pure i n Hofmann's sense of s i n g l e c o l o r r e f l e c t i o n . The c o l o r areas are not r e - d e f i n e d by black l i n e s as i n "Magenta and Blue" but are 82 defined by the edge of each plane of c o l o r against another. No l i n e a r d e f i n i t i o n i s r equired f o r the c o l o r s are loud and c o n t r a s t i n g enough to d e f i n e t h e i r own l i m i t s . In t h i s work the c r e a t i v e and formal development have been combined i n t o a simultaneous development. The dark c o l o r s , blue over the b r i g h t ones, red, show th a t the blue was placed on the red as a formal element w i t h f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t would p r o j e c t and recede. I t s formal r o l e as a t r a n s i t i o n a l and u n i f y i n g device were a l s o understood. A balance i s seen i n the two blue t r a n s i t i o n a l patch planes and the two red ones. This almost p o s i t i v e and negative j u x t a p o s i t i o n i s c l e a r l y shown i n the red and black areas. The areas t h a t j u t out from the black are p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the r e d . A complete t r a n s f e r i s not undertaken because the red would overpower the yellow. To give the idea of semblance,the minimum amount of r e p e t i t i o n i s able t o suggest the d u p l i c a t i o n of forms. This r e p e t i t i o n of forms was seen i n e a r l i e r works such as "Magenta and Blue," but here the prominence of c o l o r i s taken i n t o account so that area of red i s decreased t o a f f o r d an e a s i e r balance w i t h the r e s t of the canvas. While "Above Deep Waters" r e t a i n s a p a i n t e r l y and l u s h a p p l i c a t i o n of p a i n t , l a t e r works delve i n t o the realm of hard edges. "Pre-Dawn," I960, (plate VI) has a combination of the hard edge and p a i n t e r l y approach. The upper areas which are modeled w i t h heavy pigment appears 83 to contrast with r i g i d rectangular areas. Actually the rectangles, though t h e i r edges are hard, are also heavily pigmented with ice pick points of projection. The r e l i e f of paint creates added color and undulation of color to that area. The b u t t e r - l i k e f e e l of the upper portions does not represent a single color r e f l e c t i o n but a multitude i n spite of the mottled e f f e c t . Each color stroke i s bright enough to stand on i t s own and show i t s force. It i s a minature canvas i n i t s e l f and r e f l e c t s as well the entire canvas. Areas of pure color are juxtaposed to bring the canvas to l i f e by the v i b r a t i o n between these areas. The f i g h t f o r supremacy of color brightness i s fought by each and every color. Blue, normally taken to be a recessive and diminuative color, i s able to vie with red and yellow. By i t s surrounding a special color i n r e l a t i o n to the other color i t achieves a vibrancy seldom seen i n blue. Yellow areas are decreased i n size f o r the overly vibrant r e f l e c t -ion. Even though red i s a resounding color, the rectangles of red at the bottom of the canvas do not appear overly powerful. A dynamic equilibrium i s set up between the red rectangles on bottom and the red c i r c l e and rectangle and yellow square at the top. The yellow has been so charged that i t continually re-echos i t s strength. The energetic quality of the colors and the expressive application of paint are a source of invigoration and appeal for the ob-server. 84 This d i s c u s s i o n of a few of Hofmann's p a i n t i n g s has shown the u n i t y of h i s theory and p r a c t i c e . His p a i n t -ings r e f l e c t h i s t h e o r i e s and v i c e versa. This i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p does not suggest t h a t p a i n t i n g n a t u r a l l y leads t o t h e o r i z i n g or v i c e versa, but r e f l e c t s t h e i r mutual dependence f o r Hofmann's development. Hofmann's t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s have extended over a period of f i f t y years. His w r i t i n g s have explained h i s approach t o a r t . Though t h i s theory changes from year t o year, these changes derive not from c o n t r a d i c t i o n but from h i s f u r t h e r explanation and c l e a r e r d e f i n i t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs w i l l summarize these t h e o r i e s and t h e i r changes. The a r t i s t has an inborn c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , an i n d e s c r i b -able s e n s i t i v i t y f o r q u a l i t y . With t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of hyper-awareness, h i s teacher i s able t o lead the young a r t i s t t o h i s n a t u r a l g i f t , not by prodding, but by sympathetic and understanding d i r e c t i o n . The a r t i s t l e a r n s to see i n nature the i n t r i n s i c values of animate and inanimate o b j e c t s . Hofmann f e l t t h a t an a r t i s t must have the a b i l i t y to empathize, to s p i r i t u a l l y p r o j e c t i n order t o c r e a t e . The a r t i s t f e e l s i n t o them and receives from nature i t s c r e a t i v e q u a l i t y . Nature, through the a r t i s t ' s n a t u r a l g i f t , i n s p i r e s and s t i m u l a t e s him t o create as nature does. Nature's r o l e as i n s p i r a t i o n f o r c r e a t i n g was dominant throughout Hofmann's w r i t i n g s . 85 This c r e a t i o n i s not an o b j e c t i v e i m i t a t i o n of nature f o r that would be photographic and shows nothing of the a r t i s t ' s temperament. He must have an open mind f o r the n o n - f i g u r a t i v e because that receptiveness allows the grea t e s t p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the p i c t o r i a l i z a t i o n of the a r t i s t h i m s e l f . As e a r l y as 1915, Hofmann had s a i d t h a t he would not i m i t a t e nature, but l e t form evolve from the " a r t i s t ' s experiences evoked by o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y and the a r t i s t ' s command of the s p i r i t u a l means of the f i n e a r t s through which t h i s a r t i s t i c experience i s 188 transformed by him i n t o r e a l i t y i n the p a i n t i n g . " The a r t i s t r e a l i z e s the workings of h i s mind and senses. The a c t u a l p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n of h i s senses leads him t o perceptions which are u n r e a l . In 1932, Hofmann r e a l i z e d t h a t o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , nature, had the appearance of two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y on the observers senses. The e f f e c t of o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y on the observer i s not two dimensional as i n appearance but three dimensional as i n nature. Through the accumulation of the experience of nature t o th a t moment, the e f f e c t of o b j e c t i v e nature's appearance on the observer has the semblance of being three dimensional. Hofmann, "Prospectus f o r Munich School ...," 1915, p.56. The perceptual r e a c t i o n t o a p i c t u r e plane p a r a l l e l the perception of nature. The p i c t u r e surface w i t h pigment a p p l i e d i s de f a c t o , two dimensional. The e f f e c t on our perception i s three dimensional because of the 189 inherent laws of the p i c t u r e plane as s t a t e d i n 1931 and the volume forming q u a l i t y of c o l o r which was d i s c u s s -ed i n 1951. The p i c t u r e plane r e a c t s with an equal and opposite f o r c e t o t h a t which i s a p p l i e d . The a p p l i e d and r e a c t i o n f o r c e depends on the advancing and receding q u a l i t y of c o l o r and form. Luminous and c o n t r a s t i n g c o l o r s tend to advance as do l a r g e and dominant forms. The a r t i s t i s able t o achieve the q u a l i t i e s of appearance and e f f e c t by empathizing i n t o nature and i n t o the medium of expression. By empathizing i n t o nature, he i s stimulated and i n s p i r e d . By f e e l i n g i n t o the nature of the medium, i t s laws and i t s inherent q u a l i t i e s , the a r t i s t i s able to use the medium of e x p r e s s i o n t o i t s best ends. With an empathetie a t t i t u d e , the a r t i s t i s able t o f e e l i n t o anything and t o use i t as a means of expression. How and where the medium of expression i s a p p l i e d t o the canvas w i l l determine the form i n a p a i n t i n g . Hofmann said i n 193.1 t h a t the formal elements c o n s i s t e d Hofmann, "On the Aims of A r t , " 1931, p. 7-11 87 of l i n e s , planes, volumes and the r e s u l t i n g formal 190 complexes. . In 1948 he became more attached to the planar concept and s a i d that the l i n e was only the meeting of two planes and that volumes were a r e g u l a t e d s e r i e s of planes. Hofmann's e a r l y w r i t i n g s do not consider c o l o r as a formal element but a c r e a t i v e one. During 1951 he developed the idea that because of c o l o r ' s volume form-i n g q u a l i t y , c o l o r i n c r e a s i n g l y became a formal element. Hofmann went so f a r as t o say that c o l o r was a formal element but q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l o r e x i s t e d because of l i g h t on form. In the 1955 a r t i c l e , "The Color Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g , " Hofmann r e s o l v e d the question of form and c o l o r ; they e x i s t together. The development of form and c o l o r must occur simultaneously. Through the i n t e r w o r k i n g of form and c o l o r , " i n t e r v a l s " are set up i n which two p h y s i c a l c a r r i e r s are v i s u a l l y r e l a t e d to form a non-physical higher t h i r d . This h y p e r - p h y s i c a l overtone governs the r e a c t i o n between the two separate c a r r i e r s . The " r e l a t i o n " between them i s a simultaneous a c c e l e r a t e d i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n or d i m i n u t i o n . The v a r i a t i o n of such f o r c e s over the whole surface of the canvas creates rhythms, a time and i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r which the a r t i s t governs w i t h h i s temper-Hofmann, E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue Berkeley, 1931. SB ament. The balance of the f o r c e s develops tensions and a sense of dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m . The a l t e r n a t i o n between an o v e r a l l t e n s i o n and d i r e c t e d f o r c e s , i n c i t e s w i t h i n the observer the f e e l i n g of movement. The observer perceives the change from two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y to three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and vic e versa. The balance of the "push" and the " p u l l " force i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s brings about s t a b i l i t y , w h i l e a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between them develops the e f f e c t of movement and dynamism w i t h i n the observer. This dynamic q u a l i t y i s caused by the observer's perception a l t e r n a t i n g between the two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and the three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . Push and p u l l i s the movement back and f o r t h , perpendicular t o the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e . I t i s created by the volume forming q u a l i t y of c o l o r and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l a r g e , dominant and c o n t r a s t i n g forms. The movement p a r a l l e l t o the p i c t u r e surface i s "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n . " This move-ment i s created w i t h i n the observer by i n t e r v a l s and r e -l a t i o n s between form and c o l o r . I n t e r v a l s play a l a r g e r r o l e because of t h e i r a b i l i t y to u n i f y or t o separate two areas of the canvas. The c r e a t i o n of "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n " i s the mean t o the c r e a t i o n of a r t . Art i s . v i t a l i z e d form. Movement i s the essence of L i f e ; L i f e does not e x i s t without movement. I f these movements r e -f l e c t the a r t i s t h i m s e l f , a work of a r t has been created. 89 Hofmann used p a i n t i n g t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the two f i e l d s of a r t , the f i n e and the a p p l i e d a r t s . Symphonic p a i n t i n g , a category of the f i n e a r t s , possesses the movements of "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n . " I t i n c i t e s w i t h i n the observer, v i t a l i t y and movement. In 1931, symphonic p a i n t i n g was d i s t i n g u i s h -ed by t h e i r sensory and emotional d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which would b r i n g about the e f f e c t of increased monumentality upon the senses. "In symphonic p a i n t i n g , c o l o r i s the • • 191 r e a l b u i l d i n g medium." This 1948 statement by Hofmann r e f l e c t s the increased r o l e c o l o r developed i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s . Symphonic p a i n t i n g s i s a l s o created by the a r t i s t who becomes e m p a t h e t i c a l l y "aware of the i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s of the medium of expression."192 j n d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g , a category of the a p p l i e d a r t s , the a r t i s t can a l s o empathize but he s t r i v e s mainly f o r great-er s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . The decorative p a i n t i n g w i l l l a c k the e f f e c t of p l a s t i c movement because i t s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s i n a t o t a l l y two dimensional p i c t o r i a l space. The e f f e c t of p l a s t i c movement d i f f e r e n t i a t e s symphonic p a i n t i n g from decorative p a i n t i n g . Hofmann summarized these d i f f e r e n c e s i n 1952. He s a i d t h a t symphonic p a i n t -•^Hofmann, Search f o r the Re a l , 1948, p.73. 192 * I b i d . , p. 52. 9Q i n g and decorative p a i n t i n g d i f f e r " i n the c r e a t i o n of q u a l i t y through which the image created becomes s e l f -193 evident." By " q u a l i t y " Hofmann incorporated the c r e a t i v e a c t . The c r e a t i v e act e n t a i l s Nature. An empathetic a t t i t u d e t o Nature enables the a r t i s t t o sense Nature's c r e a t i v i t y . Nature's c r e a t i v i t y i n s p i r e s the a r t i s t to create the p i c t o r i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of dynamic movements of o s c i l l a t i o n between the two and three dimensional planes. The two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the p i c t u r e plane i s r e t a i n e d because of the dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m that r e s u l t s from a balance of the f o r c e s of "push" and " p u l l " and those of "expansion"and "con-t r a c t i o n . " The r e s u l t i n g symphonic p a i n t i n g has an 194 i n t i m a c y , a l y r i c i s m and a r i c h o r c h e s t r a t i o n . This p a i n t i n g i s a c u l t u r a l documentation of the 195 time i n which i t was created. I t r e l e a s e s the observer from the monotonous schedule of everyday l i f e . I t has a new r e a l i t y of i t s own because i t i s based on the p e r s o n a l i t y of the a r t i s t ' s s o u l , mind, s e n s i b i l i t y and temperament. I t g l o r i f i e s the human s p i r i t and keeps i t i n a state of e t e r n a l r e j u v e n a t i o n . The humanistic and 193 Hofmann, "A Statement ...," 1952. 194 Loc. c i t . 195 Loc. c i t . 91 c u l t u r a l s p i r i t which t h i s p a i n t i n g captures, are r e t a i n e d i n t h i s work of a r t i f i t remains i n the same p h y s i c a l s t a t e . This s p i r i t i n the p a i n t i n g i s above the n a t u r a l world. I t e n d l e s s l y emits the l i f e experience of the a r t i s t to the viewer. I t i s t h i s s p i r i t which Hofmann t r i e d t o capture i n h i s own work and t r i e d t o i n c i t e i n h i s students. CHAPTER I I I THE WEST-COAST CANADIAN STUDENTS OF THE HANS HOFMANN SCHOOL OF ART During the l a t e f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s , many Canadians attended the Hans Hofmann School of Art i n New York and Provincetown. Each attended at a d i f f e r e n t time and each of t h e i r r e a c t i o n s i s d i s t i n c t . Although Hortense Gordon, Alexander Luke, J.W.G. MacDonald and Joe P l a s k e t t attended the Hofmann School, only L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe and Donald J a r v i s are discussed here because these a r t i s t - t e a c h e r s were a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r -view. This chapter w i l l d i s c u s s the Hans Hofmann School of A r t i n New York and the summer school i n Provincetown i n respect t o the p h y s i c a l surroundings, the e d u c a t i o n a l approach and the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t on the p a i n t e r s of that p e r i o d . This e f f e c t w i l l be discussed i n r e l a t i o n t o Hofmann's West-Coast Canadian students, L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe and Donald J a r v i s . Their contemporary t h e o r i e s w i l l be analyzed i n r e l a t i o n t o Hofmann's t h e o r i e s which were taught at h i s New York and Province-town schools. Hofmann's a r r i v a l i n America i n 1931 marked the s t a r t of a twenty-seven year teaching career i n h i s 93 country of n a t u r a l i z a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g two years of teach-i n g at Berkeley, Los Angeles and New York, he s t a r t e d h i s own New York school i n 1933. In the f o l l o w i n g year he r e -e s t a b l i s h e d a summer school which had been such a success i n Europe. Hofmann's school i n New York was f i r s t l o c a t e d on F i f t y - S e v e n t h Street and Lexington Avenue. I t was moved to Fifty-Second S t r e e t and Ninth Avenue and f i n a l l y t o E i g h t h Street i n Greenwich V i l l a g e . His school d i d not have the t y p i c a l a r t school atmosphere wi t h set s t i l l l i f e s , c o l o r reproductions of the o l d masters or c o l o r charts hanging on the w a l l s . In contrast t o the v i t a l i t y and i n t e r e s t i n g f a c e t s of New York C i t y , the Eighth Street s t u d i o was s t a r k and lacked atmosphere."*" During the l a t e f o r t i e s the fees averaged twenty t o t h i r t y d o l l a r s a week 2 f o r a f u l l - t i m e student. At h i s day and night c l a s s e s i n New York, Hofmann attended each c l a s s at l e a s t two times a week e i t h e r t o d i s c u s s and t o c r i t i c i z e student work or to set up the ^Conversations w i t h Mr. W i l l i a m S. Hart, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y .of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., A p r i l 14, 1966. 2 Interview w i t h Donald J a r v i s , Vancouver, B.C., February 1, 1966, In the f o l l o w i n g footnotes f o r m a t e r i a l obtained from i n t e r v i e w s only the name and date w i l l be given. The l o c a t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w were a l l i n Vancouver. 94 f i g u r e model f o r the week. Hofmann was al o o f t o h i s students and i t was d i f f i c u l t to become acquainted w i t h 3 him. They however developed a vigorous interchange of ideas amongst themselves. Hofmann's concept of education e n t a i l e d l e s s work w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l student so th a t a k group s p i r i t would develop. This " e s p r i t de corps" was " i n s p i r e d by the teacher, whose presence was r e q u i r e d only i n t e r m i t t a n t l y f o r c r i t i c i s m s and s u p e r v i s i o n on a p o l i c y 5 making l e v e l . " In the drawing c l a s s c h a r c o a l was l a r g e l y used be-cause of " i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , c h a n g e a b i l i t y , t r a n s f o r m a b i l i t y and w o r k a b i l i t y . The drawings were l i k e p a i n t i n g s f o r they o f t e n took two or three days t o complete."^ The students who attended the Hofmann school had d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g , background and enthusiasm f o r a r t . Hofmann, however, was able t o b r i n g out the true a r t i s t 7 and the i n d i v i d u a l i n each of h i s students. Hofmann e s t a b l i s h e d a sympathetic climate t o stimulate the l e s s e r 8 t a l e n t s . He "turned them on," not by l e c t u r i n g or ^ J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. L Thomas B. Hess, Abstract P a i n t i n g , New York, The V i k i n g Press, 1951, p. 131. ^Loc. c i t . 6 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 7 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. °Jarvis, Feb. 1, 1966. i n s t r u c t i n g but by demonstrations, c r i t i c i s m s and h i s au t h o r a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y and presence. Students were awe i n s p i r e d by him. They would a l l stand when he entered the room; then, one student would take h i s hat while another 9 would take h i s coat. His a b i l i t y "to come to the problem i n what was wrong w i t h a p a i n t i n g or d r a w i n g " 1 0 enabled him t o c r i t i c i z e thoroughly a piece of work done by a student. Hofmann would rework r i g h t on the student's work to the extent of r i p p i n g i t up and r e - p i e c i n g i t i n order t o 11 r e v e a l i t s new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . C r i t i c i s m s such as the one j u s t discussed were a l s o held monthly f o r the e n t i r e school. They were "an important ' t h i n g ' . " A r t i s t s who d i d not attend Hofmann's cl a s s e s were a l s o present. At these " c r i t s " Hofmann would i n h i s poor and broken E n g l i s h , "pick everything t o 12 p i e c e s " e i t h e r through demonstration or gesture. Only a few works were thoroughly commented upon w i t h h i s " b o l d -13 stroke c r i t i c i s m s " and v i b r a n t p e r s o n a l i t y . Hofmann's summer school at Provincetown had much the same c l a s s s i t u a t i o n and approach as h i s New York ^Takao Tanabe, March 26 , 1966, Vancouver, B.C. 1 0 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 11 L i o n e l Thomas, Associate P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., January 25 , 1966. 1 2 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 1 3 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 96 s c h o o l . In both, the students drew d i r e c t l y from the f i g u r e model. In New York they were more di v e r s e and 14 i n t e r e s t i n g . Provincetown models tended t o be as f u l l 15 and Germanic as Rubenesque f i g u r e s . At the summer sch o o l , models were employed f o r the morning s e s s i o n . Landscapes and s t i l l l i f e s could be used by the student i n the a f t e r -noon i f he so d e s i r e d . Landscapes were often chosen be-cause of t h e i r n a t u r a l dynamic q u a l i t y and the enjoyment deriv e d from nature. N i g h t l y c r i t i c i s m s were held on the day's work. These c r i t i c i s m s , u n l i k e those i n New York, were more int i m a t e and l e s s t h e a t r i c a l . The student could get t o know h i s teacher on a more personal b a s i s and exchange ideas w i t h him. The a r t c r i t i c , Harold Rosenberg, has 16 s a i d t h a t many s p i n s t e r s attended the summer school but L i o n e l Thomas, one of the students, s a i d there were only 17 a few "non-serious students." I n any case, Hofmann f e l t t h a t the school provided them w i t h "an experience not other-18 wise a v a i l a b l e t o them." 1 4 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 15 Thomas, Jan. 18, 1966. "^Harold Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " P o r t f o l i o and A r t News Annual, no.6, Autumn, 1962, p. 110. 17 Thomas, Jan. 18, 1966. 18 Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann L i f e C l a s s , " p. 110. 97 I t i s d o u b t f u l that Hofmann's students understood h i s teachings on f i r s t attempt because of h i s metaphysical terminology and broken E n g l i s h . Donald J a r v i s , f o r example, s a i d t h a t he r e a l i z e d what Hofmann meant "by h i n d -C^zanne, Cubism, Fauvism and Expressionism were not d i s -cussed as such, but they were included i n Hofmann's new p i c t o r i a l approach f o r "teaching modern a r t as a 20 t r a d i t i o n . " Harold Rosenberg s a i d i n h i s 1962 a r t i c l e , "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " t h a t " n e i t h e r f i n a n c i a l l y nor as an i n i t i a t i n g f o r c e was -the Hofmann school a success be-21 cause of the a d u l t e r a t i o n of time, place and s i t u a t i o n . " I n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t Hofmann's school d i d not emphasize a c u l t u r a l documentation of h i s time, i n the sense of s o c i a l r e a l i s m of the t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s h i s school was able t o b u i l d up an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s f o r the development of a b s t r a c t expressionism. While none of 22 the Abstract E x p r e s s i o n i s t s attended h i s sch o o l , they s o c i a l i z e d w i t h a r t i s t s f a m i l i a r w i t h Hofmann's t h e o r i e s . s i g h t i n h i s own p a i n t i n g s . 19 The t h e o r i e s of Mondrian 19 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 20 Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " p. 28-. 21 I b i d p. 112. 22 I b i d p. 110. 98 The i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic b a s i s f o r t h e i r work ' n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t e d the A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s . The A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s would not n e c e s s a r i l y accept or r e j e c t Hofmann's t h e o r i e s but r a t h e r , they would develop an i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic a t t i t u d e i n c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g t h e i r own works. Hofmann's t h i n k i n g "taught the act of c r e a t i o n i n p a i n t i n g by u p l i f t i n g the student's 23 s p i r i t w hile e n l i g h t e n i n g h i s mind." During the l a t e f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s , Canadian students invaded Hofmann's c l a s s e s i n f o r c e . Hortense Gordon of Hamilton, Alexander Luke and Ronald Lambert of Oshawa, Joe P l a s k e t t of New Westminster and L i o n e l Thomas of Vancouver came i n 1947. J.W.G. MacDonald and Donald 24 J a r v i s attended c l a s s e s i n 1948 and Takao Tanabe i n 1951. Three West-Coast Canadians, L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe and Donald J a r v i s , a l l p r e s e n t l y a r t i s t s - t e a c h e r s , have each reacted d i f f e r e n t l y to h i s teachings. Although they attended the school at d i f f e r e n t periods and at d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s and divergent s i t u a t i o n s account f o r t h e i r v a r y i n g responses. Each i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t ' s contemporary t h e o r i e s of a r t w i l l now be discussed i n r e l a t i o n t o Hofmann's teachings at the New York and Provincetown schools. I b i d . , p. 113• 2 i fTanabe, March 29, 1966. 99 L i o n e l Thomas a t t e n d e d t h e H o f m a n n summer s c h o o l a t P r o v i n c e t o w n , i n 1 9 4 7 , f o r t w o a n d a h a l f m o n t h s t h e r e . P a r t o f t h i s t i m e w a s s p e n t a s a p r i v a t e s t u d e n t b e f o r e t h e r e g u l a r summer s c h o o l b e g a n . He became p e r s o n a l l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h H o f m a n n i n t h e i r many d i s c u s s i o n s i n t h e e v e n i n g s a f t e r c l a s s e s . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n v e r s a t i o n s , Thomas came t o u n d e r s t a n d more c l e a r l y H o f m a n n ' s i d e a l s a n d h i s t e a c h i n g s . H a n s H o f m a n n , t h e t e a c h e r , a n d L i o n e l T h o m a s , t h e s t u d e n t , b o t h b e l i e v e t h a t N a t u r e i s t h e s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a w o r k o f a r t . B o t h t h e i r c l a s s e s e m p l o y t h e human m o d e l b e c a u s e o f i t s " i n h e r e n t 2 5 m o t i o n " t o g i v e t h e g r e a t e s t s t i m u l a t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t -i o n o f t h e e n e r g y e n d o w e d s p a c e , w h i c h i s p a r t o f N a t u r e . Thomas s a i d t h a t t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n w a s n o t a l w a y s p r e s e n t . H o w e v e r , when h e d o e s h a v e t h e i n s p i r a t i o n , h i s w h o l e b e i n g comes a l i v e a n d he h a s t o e x p r e s s i t . The i n s p i r a t i o n c a n be s t o r e d m e n t a l l y a n d l a t e r summoned t o t h e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n he p a i n t e d " R o c k F o r m on a B o t t o m o f a P o o l , " he h a d " a n a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e 26 a n d p a i n t e d i t s u b j e c t i v e l y a week l a t e r i n h i s s t u d i o . " 2 5 T h o m a s , J a n . IB, 1 9 6 6 . ? 6 L i o n e l T h o m a s , c i t e d i n " C o a s t t o C o a s t i n A r t : V a n c o u v e r . P a i n t e r W i n s I n t e r n a t i o n a l A w a r d , " C a n a d i a n A r t , v o l . 9, n o . 4, Summer , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 6 9 . 166 Hofmann stated s i m i l a r l y that "everything comes from nature; I too am a part of nature; my memory comes from 27 nature." Both received t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n from nature and stored i t mentally f o r l a t e r use. The s i m i l a r i t y of these two statements does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply that Thomas adopted Hofmann's ideology. In t h i s case, as i n others t o f o l l o w , the b a s i c source of i n s p i r a t i o n and the idea of what a work of a r t i s , could w e l l have been developed by the a r t i s t before h i s a r r i v a l at the Hofmann 28 school and r e i n f o r c e d t h e r e . Thomas believes t h a t "the sources of a r t are 29 mysterious." , Hofmann's metaphysical and nebulous s t y l e of w r i t i n g and h i s a t t r i b u t e d q u a l i t y of a work of a r t a l s o e x h i b i t e d t h i s mysteriousness. Hofmann t r i e d to discuss and analyze t h i s mysterious source but Thomas b e l i e v e s i t cannot be v e r b a l l y expressed. Thomas i s more c o n s i s t e n t , f o r Hofmann c o n t r a d i c t e d himself by w r i t i n g on that mysterious source. Hofmann wrote t h a t an idea 27 Hans Hofmann, c i t e d i n E l i z a b e t h P o l l e t , "Hans Hofmann," A r t s , v o l . 31, no. 8, May, 1957, p. 30. 28 The problem of a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e can only be i n -f e r r e d except i n cases where the a r t i s t a c t u a l l y uses Hofmann's terms and t h e o r i e s d i r e c t l y . Q u a l i f i e d academic s p e c u l a t i o n must be used because an a r t i s t s e l -dom admits t h a t he has been i n f l u e n c e d by another a r t i s t . 29 Thomas, Jan. 19, 1966. has a c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c medium through which i t can be 30 expressed. His attempt t o express the s p i r i t u a l v e r b a l l y , forced him to w r i t e i n a nebulous, metaphysical s t y l e . Thomas does not attempt such a goal f o r he r e a l i z e s i t s u n a t t a i n a b i l i t y . Their b a s i c concept of a work of. a r t i s s i m i l a r but Hofmann had a more extensive d e f i n i t i o n . Thomas b e l i e v e s that the f i n i s h e d work of a r t contains a s i n g l e i d e a . 31 This i d e a , c a l l e d ""baraka" by the Arabs, i s t i m e l e s s . I t i n c l u d e s the a r t i s t ' s f e e l i n g f o r q u a l i t y . While Hofmann d i d not use the term "baraka," he expressed a s i m i l a r idea concerning an a r t i s t ' s " h i g h l y developed 32 s e n s i t i v i t y f o r q u a l i t y . " Hofmann's concept of a work of a r t i s f u r t h e r defined f o r he s a i d t h a t i t must appear to possess a dynamic energy t o i n v i g o r a t e the viewer. Hofmann's " s i n g l e idea" has been w e l l defined w h i l e Thomas i s more vague and general. Both Hofmann and Thomas b e l i e v e that adult a r t i s t s r e l y on t h e i r consciousness of experiences; t h a t i s t h e i r senses. Thomas adds c r i t i c i s m s of the young a r t i s t s who o f t e n take drugs or a l c o h o l i n order to achieve unique and 3 QHans Hofmann, Search f o r the R e l , Andover,Mass., The Addison G a l l e r y of American A r t , 1948, p. 46. 3 1Thomas, Jan. 19, 1966. J Hans Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g And C u l t u r e , " F o r t n i g h t l y , v o l . 1, no. 1, September 11, 1931, p. 5. u n n a t u r a l experiences. Hofmann makes no references t o t h i s method. Thomas p e r s o n a l l y f e e l s t h a t he does not need a r t i f i c i a l s t i m u l i i n order t o have an experience. By l i v i n g n a t u r a l l y , he i s able t o use these experiences t o depict h i s images to the viewer. Although i n 1949 he studied under Mark Rothko, an i c o n o c l a s t , Thomas s t i l l b e l i e v e s that man n a t u r a l l y sees images. He gave the example of Leonardo da V i n c i who s a i d t h a t man saw images i n stone w a l l s , and of Hamlet, who saw the image of h i s 34 f a t h e r i n the clouds. Thomas e x p l a i n s h i s murals and sc u l p t u r e s as symbols of c e r t a i n aspects of l i f e . His mural outside the Brock H a l l Extension e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s point c l e a r l y . Each r e c t a n g u l a r u n i t of the mural r e -presents one department of the u n i v e r s i t y . These images, as w e l l as the r e s t of Thomas' images, are d e r i v e d from h i s knowledge of cubism and the other "isms" of the twent i e t h century. Thomas' image making q u a l i t y i s h i s personal development. Hofmann never wrote about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of images and symbols. However, a few of h i s p a i n t i n g s present images which he d i d not con s c i o u s l y t r y t o achieve. Thomas, Jan. 19, 1966. Thomas, Jan. 18, 1966. 103'. Another personal q u a l i t y of Thomas th a t d i f f e r s from Hofmann i s Thomas' hab i t of mentioning names of w e l l known t w e n t i e t h century a r t i s t s . Hofmann who worked and st u d i e d w i t h these f i g u r e s , r a r e l y mentioned t h e i r names. Thomas has read e x t e n s i v e l y on the subject and theory of twent i e t h century a r t i s t s but he has not used the know-ledge t o h i s advantage. He only r e t a i n s a few outstand-i n g ideas and synthesizes them po o r l y . Thomas f e e l s an academic a t t i t u d e can destroy an a r t i s t by too much i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y . Thomas i s i n agreement w i t h Hofmann f o r the l a t t e r s a i d t h a t there should be a blending together of the r a t i o n a l and the i r r a t i o n a l . Thomas attempts t o achieve t h i s w i t h h i s r a t i o n a l approach t o modern twe n t i e t h century a r t but he does not completely under-stand these t h e o r i e s or has not made them a part of him-s e l f . He attaches himself t o them and uses them when he wishes, but they cannot do what he wants them t o do. This i s apparent i n Thomas' teaching when he uses a famous t w e n t i e t h century a r t i s t to e x p l a i n a c e r t a i n p o i n t to h i s students. He s t a r t s o f f w i t h an a r t i s t ' s theory but h i s i r r a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y takes over and he lo s e s the students i n a contrast of terms, thoughts and a c t i o n s . Both Thomas and Hofmann b e l i e v e that a r t cannot be taught as such. The a r t i s t has an "inborn s e n s i t i v i t y , " as Hofmann would c a l l i t , or "baraka," Thomas' term. The teacher does not t e l l the student formulas and design "104 techniques f o r the s o l u t i o n of the bare canvas, but he must l e a d and d i r e c t the student to the use and expression of that inborn q u a l i t y . Thomas teaches i n a s i m i l a r manner as Hofmann d i d . Both leave t h e i r students alone to solve t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l problems. However, Thomas d i f f e r s from Hofmann i n that Thomas l e c t u r e s on technique and theory. Theory i s not 35 given at random but only t o " r e c e p t i v e students." Thomas f e e l s t h a t i f a design formula i s given t o any hack-neyed a r t i s t , the formula would be worked t o the ground and would a l s o be a f f e c t e d d e t r i m e n t a l l y . Thomas' t h e a t r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of ideas r e s u l t s i n the same atmosphere as Hofmann achieved. Thomas, when i n the proper mood, i s v i b r a n t and a u t h o r a t i v e . He w i l l command a t t e n t i o n w i t h a l l means a v a i l a b l e , e i t h e r by shock, humour or awe. His ideas are u s u a l l y incomprehensible t o the unacquainted student but can be a means of expression f o r the student when he has grasped the concept. Thomas, a l s o l i k e Hofmann provides, an "experience to students not 36-otherwise a v a i l a b l e to them." In Thomas' drawing c l a s s e s he suggests s t a r t i n g w i t h the sphere, cone, cube and c y l i n d e r . Thomas d i f f e r s from 3 5 ^Thomas, Jan. 19, 1966. 3 6Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " 1962, p.110, 105 Hofmann*s approach i n that Thomas has taken objects which r e s u l t from the planar concept as Hofmann had taught. Thomas has to dea l w i t h students w i t h l i t t l e or no b a s i c drawing background. He s t a r t s w i t h e a s i e r concepts and g r a d u a l l y introduces the idea of planar depth by j u x t a -p o s i t i o n and s h i f t i n g which are the same as those expound-ed by Hofmann. The above m a t e r i a l does not appear to show s t r i c t f a c t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between student and teacher. Having received a course i n "Basic Design" from Mr. Thomas, one 37 i s able to see these s i m i l a r i t i e s i n b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e . The most prominent aspect would be Thomas' teaching of the concept of "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n . " Thomas develops these concepts f i r s t i n the terms of form and then c o l o r . He, much l i k e Hofmann, brandishes these terms around without e x p l a i n i n g what he means. The students are stunned by h i s terminology. I f the student i s percept-i v e enough t o r e a l i z e what Thomas means, he w i l l apply i t c o r r e c t l y but the m a j o r i t y of students use the formula d i r e c t l y and present nothing of t h e i r own. The r e s u l t i s a classroom of the same poor s o l u t i o n s . When d i s c u s s i n g such f o r c e s as "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t -i o n , " Thomas himself has not f u l l y grasped the meaning 37 The w r i t e r studied w i t h Mr .Lionel. Thomas i n 1962-6 3 , at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The course taken was Fine A r t s 228, Basic Design. 1 0 6 t h a t Hofmann a s c r i b e d t o each term. To Thomas, they are one i n the same term but i n f a c t t h e i r f o r c e s are perpendicular to each other. Thomas a l s o teaches the use of c o l o r t o achieve a s p a t i a l q u a l i t y which he l e a r n t from the Hofmann school. Hofmann s a i d that c o l o r has the i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t y t o create volume. Thomas has taken a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e , f o r i n h i s i n t e r i o r designs, c o l o r i s "thought of as an element of a r c h i t e c t u r e and not 'decor'. I t i s three dimensional, 38 s p a t i a l and s t r u c t u r a l . " The s p a t i a l enhancement of a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r i o r s w i t h c o l o r has enabled him to be-come more aware of i t i n h i s other a r t forms, such as s c u l p t u r e . Thomas' awareness of m a t e r i a l , a c t u a l l y empathizing i n t o i t , has made him "u n a f r a i d to work i n any medium." 3 9 Thomas b e l i e v e s the a b i l i t y t o p r o j e c t i s c r e a t i v e . Empathy i s a q u a l i t y inherent w i t h i n the a r t i s t . Not only i s the conscious mind i n v o l v e d but there i s a backing from the unconscious, which enables a "quiet love between the a r t i s t and the medium." 4 0 This empathetic a t t i t u d e i s not taught or suggested by Thomas. This f a c e t of the education ^ L i o n e l Thomas, c i t e d i n Rene Boux, "An A r t i s t Re-l a t e s h i s S k i l l to A r c h i t e c t u r e , " Canadian A r t , v o l . 13, no. 1, Autumn, 1955, p. 203-205. 39 ' L i o n e l Thomas, c i t e d i n Stephen F r a n k l i n , "Busy A r t i s t , " Weekend Magazine, v o l . 8 , no. 2, 1958, p. 14. 40 Thomas, Jan. 19, 1966. 107 of the a r t i s t was however presented by Hofmann. He t r i e d t o i n c i t e w i t h i n h i s students the perception of the inner q u a l i t y of animate and inanimate o b j e c t s . What Thomas teaches should not t o be accepted as f a c t , although he can imply i t . He presents the ideas of "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a t i o n " from Hofmann, the use of l i n e from K l e e , the p u r i t y of form and c o l o r from Mondrian, the images from P i c a s s o , the c o l o r from the German E x p r e s s i o n i s t s and the s c i e n t i f i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a t t i t u d e s of modern man. He has taken t w e n t i e t h century a r t and presented the best of i t s ideas to h i s p u p i l s . He has not developed a s y n t h e t i c theory as Hofmann has, but attempts t o present the b a s i s and the theory i t s e l f . However, Thomas has been i n f l u e n c e d by Hofmann Ts te a c h i n g method. Both are not educators of set a r t i s t i c viewpoints and problem s o l u t i o n s , but are educators i n the sense of s t i m u l a t o r s of minds f o r the s o l u t i o n of problems set up by the p u p i l h i m s e l f . Guide posts and p o i n t e r s are a v a i l a b l e f o r the student, but what the student achieves i s dependent s o l e l y on h i s a b i l i t y to use h i s inborn a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s . G e n e r a l l y , Thomas, l i k e Hofmann, has helped , t o st i m u l a t e h i s students, t o educate the p u b l i c and to b u i l d up an a r t i s t i c c l imate w i t h i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l environments. While the scope of Hofmann's i n f l u e n c e i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l , Thomas' has tended t o be p a r o c h i a l . 108 In c o n t r a s t t o the s i m i l a r i t i e s of L i o n e l Thomas and Hofmann, another West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t , Takao Tanabe, has reacted i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . Having stayed at the Hofmann school f o r only s i x weeks and being of a d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l e x t r a c t i o n and personal outlook, the divergence between Tanabe and Hofmann i s e a s i l y d i s c e r n a b l e . However, i n s p i t e of these d i f f e r e n c e s , Tanabe may have been i n f l u e n c e d d u r i n g h i s stay at the Hofmann sc h o o l . Takao Tanabe heard of the Hofmann school from Joe P l a s k e t t . When Tanabe a r r i v e d i n New York i n 1951, he en-r o l l e d i n Hans Hofmann's n i g h t school drawing course while a t the same time a t t e n d i n g the day school of the Brooklyn Museum of A r t . The co n t r a s t between the two schools must have been too much t o accept f o r Tanabe l e f t the Hofmann school a f t e r s i x weeks. Tanabe's p e r s o n a l i t y can be seen through a d i s c u s s i o n of the interviews. During the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w Tanabe sta t e d t h a t he had disregarded Hofmann's ideas even before he s t a r t e d c l a s s e s there. I f such were the case, Tanabe's attendance at the 'School would have been l u d i c r o u s . Upon r e q u e s t i o n i n g , he s a i d that he was not e n t h u s i a s t i c about Hofmann's t h e o r i e s . By t h i s r e t r a c t i o n , Tanabe's p e r s o n a l -i t y can be understood. He does not l i k e t o acknowledge h i s teachers and f e l l o w a r t i s t s who have helped him i n h i s work. I n an i n t e r v i e w he s a i d that he i s not the most j u b i l a n t and b o i s t r o u s person. He i s almost always on an even k e e l . His 1Q9 i n t r o v e r t e d p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t r a s t s w i t h Thomas' extr o v e r t e d one. With the a d d i t i o n of an approach more i n keeping w i t h Tanabe's own p e r s o n a l i t y , at the day school i n Brooklyn, Hofmann's ideas d i d not have a chance t o j e l l . Hofmann»s in f l u e n c e on Tanabe cannot be s t r e s s e d because of Tanabe's opposing p e r s o n a l i t y and the short d u r a t i o n at the s c h o o l . I t i s , however, s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d that there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e i r idea of p a i n t i n g l s i n s p i r a t i o n d e r i v i n g from nature. As was s t a t e d e a r l i e r , Hofmann be-l i e v e d t h a t nature was the source of s t i m u l a t i o n f o r the a r t i s t . S i m i l a r t o other West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t s , Tanabe has a " f e e l i n g f o r the country and f o r n a t u r e . " 4 1 H i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of landscape are n a t u r a l , and are "not of a s p e c i f i c time and p l a c e . " 4 2 In contrast t o Hofmann's metaphysical landscape i n which the a r t i s t represents the unseen p o r t i o n of nature, (nature's c r e a t i v i t y ) Tanabe's landscape canvases are"not landscapes of the s o u l or 'inner 43 eye'." The quoted "in n e r eye" i s undoubtedly a reference t o Hofmann who Tanabe says he r e j e c t e d long ago. 41 Joe P l a s k e t t , c i t t e d i n Takao Tanabe. P a i n t i n g s  and Drawings, 1954 - 1957. (Catalogue), Vancouver Art G a l l e r y . 42 Robert F u l f o r d , "Tanabe". Canadian A r t , v o l . 18, no. 1, Jan./Feb., 1961, p. 50. I T Takao Tanabe: P a i n t i n g s and Drawings ..... (Catalogue), Vancouver Art G a l l e r y . . 110: Takao Tanabe's landscapes are the product of conscious empathizing i n t o the landforms and nature of B r i t i s h Columbia. This empathetic a t t i t u d e could have been i n s p i r e d by Hofmann's c l a s s e s where one i s i n i t i a t e d i n t o seeing i n t o the essences of animate and inanimate o b j e c t s . However, empathy does not need t o be taught. I t can be acquired by a perceptive and s e n s i t i v e person such as Tanabe. His r a c i a l background would a l s o lead him t o such f e e l i n g s of the n a t u r a l world. (This l a t t e r f a c t should not be emphasized f o r Tanabe was brought up i n a western c u l t u r e and h i s contact w i t h the o r i e n t was h i s Japanese ancestory, p a r e n t a l t u t e l a g e at home and h i s recent t r i p t o Japan). Because i t i s not known what empathetic f e e l -ings Tanabe had before h i s s i x weeks at the Hofmann school, one cannot a t t r i b u t e h i s p r o j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s t o Hofmann. The i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e of Hofmann on Tanabe i s tenuous. Joe P l a s k e t t quotes Tanabe concerning c a l l i g r a p h y , " I have broken away from the d e f i n i t e plane extensions of form b u i l d i n g and volume d e f i n i n g of Hofmann." 4 4 When Tanabe was attending the school, Hofmann had not solved the problem of form and c o l o r . L a t e r i n h i s development, c o l o r and form develop simultaneously. Tanabe i n h i s own develop-Joe P l a s k e t t , "Some New Canadian P a i n t e r s and t h e i r Debt t o Hans Hofmann." Canadian A r t , v o l . x, no. 2, Winter, 1953, p. 61 . ment a l s o achieves the same e f f e c t . "Landscape of an I n t e r i o r Space" ( p l a t e VII) e x h i b i t s a planar c o n t r o l of c o l o r . As i n Hofmann's "Le G i l o t i n " , Tanabe has used each stroke of the brush as a plane of pure c o l o r . D i f f e r e n t c o l o r s stand against i t s neighbouring ones t o define the edges, not by l i n e s , but by co n t r a s t of c o l o r . While Tanabe's a p p l i c a t i o n of pai n t i s not as l u s h as Hofmann's " G i l o t i n " or "Pre-Dawn", Tanabe i s able to create a r i c h creamy e f f e c t by the contrast of ye l l o w t o the white ground and ju x t a p o s i n g black planar l i n e s . The mottled areas of the, ground r e f l e c t the c o l o r s which are l a i d on top. The r h y t h m i c a l f l o w of the staccato y e l l o w and black v e r t i c a l s undulate the canvas. This achieves the e f f e c t of "push and p u l l " but Tanabe undoubtedly would not c a l l i t by Hofmann's terms. The contrast of organic shapes t o the lower l e f t and the v e r t i c a l p lay of rhythms across the canvas have a n a t u r e - l i k e f e e l . There i s a f e e l i n g of growth. Tanabe has f e l t nature's c r e a t i v e q u a l i t y and p i e t o r i a l i z e d i t i n an i n t e r p l a y of v i v i d l y harmonizing c o l o r s . This organic f e e l i n g f o r nature could be r e l a t e d t o t h a t of Hofmann, but Tanabe denies such a f f i n i t i e s . Though s i m i l a r ideas can be seen i n Takao Tanabe and Hans Hofmann, the teacher's i n f l u e n c e on the student cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . I f Hofmann was i n an i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n t h a t aspect has been c o n s t r i c t e d , denunciated and f o r g o t t e n 112 by Takao Tanabe. In contrast t o Takao Tanabe, Donald J a r v i s has developed from the ideas of Hans Hofmann's school and formulated h i s own personal statement about a r t . These t h e o r i e s do not r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r from those of h i s teacher but r a t h e r are a personal r e a c t i o n t o those developed by Hofmann. Donald J a r v i s who heard of the Hofmann school from L i o n e l Thomas attended the morning c l a s s e s of Hofmann's N.ew York school i n 1948. He had j u s t graduated from the Vancouver Art School, and was l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l l y when he a p p l i e d f o r admission. He t o l d Hofmann of h i s predicament and Hofmann gave him a job as a night monitor t o pay f o r the t u i t i o n . Harold Rosenberg has s a i d that "Hofmann and h i s wife got caught up i n the personal l i v e s of h i s 45 students." J a r v i s was such an involvement. His job as ni g h t monitor consisted of posing the model each night and making sure e v e r y t h i n g was i n order a f t e r the c l a s s was over. J a r v i s c a l l e d h imself a " g l o r i f i e d j a n i t o r . " Through t h i s j a n i t o r i a l p o s i t i o n , J a r v i s was able t o experience and recognize the ideas of a modern master i n c o n t r a s t t o the overbearing a t t i t u d e i n the l a t e 1940's 47 of the Vancouver Art School. Although J a r v i s d i d not 45 Harold Rosenberg, The Anxious Object, New York, Horizon P r e s s , 1962, p. 151. 4 6 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 47 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 113 comprehend immediately the ideas of "push and p u l l " and "expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n , " through hind s i g h t i n h i s own p a i n t i n g s he r e a l i z e d the d i r e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e between them. His concepts of a " r e l a t i o n " and an " i n t e r v a l " are s t i l l vague, while he understands " t e n s i o n " t o be a balance of f o r c e s and an i m p l i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . Hofmann used the above devices t o achieve a v i b r a n t motion i n h i s p a i n t i n g s . J a r v i s f e e l s t h a t such an end i n p a i n t i n g i s narrow and makes f o r a l i m i t e d viewpoint. The idea of dynamism i s compelling and should be t r a n s l a t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l 48 a r t i s t . J a r v i s himself has taken ideas of Hofmann and r e -worked them w i t h h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y , e x a c t l y what Hofmann had t r i e d to i n s t i l l i n h i s students. A p a i n t i n g t o J a r v i s a f f e c t s the observer w i t h an infectuous v i t a l i t y , an idea derived from Hofmann. U n l i k e Hofmann who emphasiz-ed t h i s p o i n t , J a r v i s r e a l i z e s t h a t a work of a r t must a l s o be created w i t h a "backlog of t r a i n i n g . " 4 9 The a r t i s t i s presented w i t h problems formerly solved by o l d e r a r t i s t s . He solves these questions and develops h i s own problems and s o l u t i o n s . His s o l u t i o n s have to be worked on over a period of time u n t i l the culminating idea i s maturated. The a r t i s t 4 ^ J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. can achieve the end r e s u l t by t r i a l and e r r o r or experiment-a t i o n . J a r v i s f i n d s that h i s young students use the t r i a l and e r r o r method much more of t e n than he would. He h i m s e l f , approaches the problem much i n the same way as Hofmann had 50 by " l e t t i n g i t grow from what has preceded i t . " J a r v i s does not c o n t i n u a l l y work at the same problem u n t i l he i s s a t i s f i e d that i t has been solved but pursues a problem u n t i l he has f e l t he has produced something. L a t e r he w i l l r e t u r n t o that same question. When he has come t o a f i n a l answer, he w i l l present t h i s t o the p u b l i c . J a r v i s , at t h i s p o i n t , i s so sure of h i s s o l u t i o n t h a t he i s able and prepared t o stand behind t h a t work. I t does not n e c e s s a r i l y have t o e x h i b i t a v e r b a l statement, such as s o c i a l r e a l i s m , 51 but can be " p a i n t e r l y means t o express p a i n t e r l y ideas." This statement by J a r v i s , i s p r a c t i c a l l y a word f o r word r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of Hofmann's statement formerly c i t e d . The s o l e act of u s i n g p a i n t e r l y means i s a l s o a f a c e t of a 52 p a i n t i n g . These means are used t o express an accumula-t i o n of past experience which w i l l r e s u l t i n form. S i m i l a r to Hofmann, J a r v i s uses experience t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a d u l t a r t from c h i l d a r t . C h i l d r e n ' s a r t l a c k s a back-5 0 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 5 1 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 52 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 53 ground of experience and "gets b o r i n g a f t e r a w h i l e . " An a d u l t p a i n t i n g by being r e l a t e d t o an a r t i s t ' s experience can a l s o r e f l e c t h i s mood at that time, and thus have more depth. A work of a r t i s r e l a t e d to l i v i n g much i n the same way as Hofmann defined a canvas as a humanistic and c u l t u r a l statement. In a r e p l y t o the question, "how should one approach a r t ? " J a r v i s answers that one must perceive t h a t work of a r t f o r "what i t i s . The observer must understand the p a i n t e r l y q u a l i t i e s . " In good and bad p a i n t i n g s of the past, one can see o b j e c t i v e nature c l e a r l y so i t i s " e a s i l y 55 pegged to hang one's thought." In contrast t o past anecdotal p a i n t i n g s , a b s t r a c t ones r e q u i r e an i n c r e a s i n g l y prepared audience who w i l l shed t h e i r p r e j u d i c e i n order t o f u l l y experience that work. Modern a r t r e q u i r e s more of the observer. Hofmann, i n a s i m i l a r statement s a i d , "see-56 i n g w i t h awareness i s another a r t . " The observer must create h i s own v i s i o n from h i s perception of the a r t i s t ' s p i c t o r i a l l y r e a l i z e d v i s i o n . He does not need t r a i n i n g 5 3 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 5 4 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 5 5 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 56 J Hans Hofmann, exerpt from " I t I s , " 1959, c i t e d i n Los Angeles County Ar t Museum, New York School, The F i r s t  Generation of P a i n t i n g s of 1940's and 1950's. Los Angeles, Members of th"e Board of tEe Los Angeles County Ar t Museum, 1965, p. 17. but only a w i l l i n g n e s s t o approach a p a i n t i n g w i t h an open mind. However, i f t r a i n i n g i s g i v e n , "educate i n seeing 57 what makes a p a i n t i n g ' t i c k ' . " I f the observer can see how these mechanisms work, he may be able t o t e l l how the a r t i s t was i n s p i r e d . What i n s p i r e s J a r v i s may be bewilderment, an observation or an i n s i g h t i n t o some aspect of o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . J a r v i s f e e l s t h a t t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n i s something he must express. The most important aspect I s , however, "the w i l l i n g n e s s of r g the a r t i s t to l e t t h i n g s grow out of the canvas." Hofmann a l s o b e l i e v e d i n the developmental process of a • p a i n t i n g . J a r v i s has a general idea of what w i l l happen on h i s canvas but he w i l l pursue any new idea t h a t occurs from a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n on the canvas. He does not s t i c k to-one conceptual approach l i k e Hofmann's planar one, but 59 employs a l l the t o o l s o f - " b a s i c v i s u a l language." In contrast t o Hofmann's s i n g l e approach, J a r v i s has many uses f o r c o l o r . I t may serve as an embellishment, an element, another dimension, a mood c r e a t o r or a c o n t r o l l -i n g d e vice. U n l i k e Hofmann, who went through d i f f e r e n t stages of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and c o l o r , J a r v i s r e a l i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of both. Form can be "anything not to do w i t h c o l o r , as i n K l i n e , or c o l o r i s form and form i s 57 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 58 59 117 c o l o r , as i n M a t i s s e . T o t a l form i s the summation of a l l 60 the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a p a i n t i n g . " This statement i s s i m i l a r t o Hofmann*s simultaneous development of form and c o l o r i n which the p a r a l l e l development of form and c o l o r n e c e s s i t a t e s change when e i t h e r one i s extended. J a r v i s w i l l not s t a t e d e f i n i t e l y what the purpose of a completed p a i n t i n g i s , f o r he i s not sure he knows. I t can be a form of communication; t h a t i s , an e x t e r n a l -i z a t i o n of h i s experience i n t o some form. Hofmann express-ed a s i m i l a r idea of an inner f e e l i n g p h y s i c a l l y p i c t o r i a l -i z e d but J a r v i s goes f u r t h e r when he says that " i f the viewer i s responsive t o the p a i n t i n g , the f u n c t i o n of the 61 p a i n t i n g w i l l have been f u l f i l l e d . " Hofmann i n h e r e n t l y knew h i s p a i n t i n g s would be accepted, i f not now, then i n the near f u t u r e . The d i f f e r e n c e between Hofmann and J a r v i s i s that the teacher had achieved some degree of i n t e r -n a t i o n a l fame while h i s p u p i l i s s t i l l i n an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n of being known i n Vancouver and to a l e s s e r degree i n Canada. J a r v i s ' other purpose of a p a i n t i n g i s " s o c i a l i n a sense but i t does not have t o express the p l i g h t of 62 humanity." Hofmann b e l i e v e d that a p a i n t i n g should be £ c u l t u r a l statement. However, Harold Rosenberg s a i d t h a t 6 0 J a r v i s , Feb. 8 , 1966. 6 1 J a r v i s , Feb. 8 , 1966. 6 2 J a r v i s , Feb. 8 , 1966. 118 Hofmann d i d not get i n v o l v e d w i t h the s o c i a l climate of America during the l a t e t h i r t i e s . Hofmann's school may not have taught the expression of a c u l t u r a l statement, but upon J a r v i s ' r e t u r n from the s c h o o l , he painted s o c i a l r e a l i s t i c works. I t i s not u n t i l the l a t e f i f t i e s t hat h i s p a i n t i n g s depict the a r t i s t himself and the i n f l u e n c e of Hofmann. The purpose of p a i n t i n g as the c u l m i n a t i o n of experience to that moment was expressed by Hofmann and J a r v i s . This experience i s p i c t o r i a l l y communicated t o the observer by the p a i n t i n g . L i k e a radio-broadcaster, 63 the p a i n t e r does not know to whom he w i l l communicate. J a r v i s however d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from Hofmann by saying that the p a i n t i n g does not have to communicate t o the observer what the a r t i s t i s expressing. Hofmann's o p t i m i s t i c outlook f e l t t h a t i n time the audience would perceive what he wished to communicate. Both Donald J a r v i s and Hans Hofmann are teachers. They f e l t t h a t p a i n t i n g cannot be taught t o the person who has not that c e r t a i n g i f t of s e n s i t i v i t y . J a r v i s f u r t h e r extends the l i m i t s of teaching. He s a i d that one can teach a student about p a i n t i n g ; that i s mixing c o l o r s and priming. However, the teacher's greatest and J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 119 most i m p o r t a n t t a s k i s t o " t u r n s t u d e n t s o n " ^ 4 much i n the same way as Hofmann s t i m u l a t e d h i s s t u d e n t s t o c r e a t e by h i s s t r o n g c r i t i c a l approach and v i b r a n t p e r s o n a l i t y . Whereas Hofmann d i s c u s s e d t e a c h i n g a r t t o some e x t e n t i n many a r t i c l e s , J a r v i s l a t e r f e l t t h a t " t h e q u e s t i o n of Ac t e a c h i n g a r t i s t o o g e n e r a l t o w a r r a n t an answer." y The a c t u a l t a s k of t e a c h i n g has t a k e n t i m e and energy f r o m b o t h Hofmann and J a r v i s . J a r v i s f e e l s t h a t s t u d e n t c o n t a c t added t o h i s own work i n t h e sense of s t i m u l a t i o n and i d e a s . Hofmann, however, n e v e r s a i d t h a t s t u d e n t s e v e r a i d e d the development o f h i s own work; he t was a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y i n New York and was h e l d i n awe by h i s p u p i l s . I n c o n t r a s t , J a r v i s i s more down t o e a r t h and c o n v e r s e s more w i t h h i s s t u d e n t s . J a r v i s 1 c o n v e r s a b i l i t y has e n a b l e d him t o become more p e r s o n a l l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h h i s s t u d e n t s because of the s m a l l e r c l a s s e s and t h e h i g h s c h o o l - l i k e approach of t h e Vancouver A r t S c h o o l . Through h i s t e a c h i n g J a r v i s f e e l s t h a t h i s thought f o r c e r t a i n problems have been c l a r i f i e d . T h i s s t atement i s r e f l e c t e d i n Hofmann's 1915 P r o s p e c t u s where he s a i d t h a t t h e s c h o o l would c l a r i f y t h e whole new p i c t o r i a l a p proach t o modern a r t . Hofmann o b t a i n e d t h e b a s i s o f h i s t h e o r i e s from h i s P a r i s s t a y 6 4 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1 9 6 6 . 6 5 J a r v i s , Feb. 1 , 1 9 6 6 . (1904 - 1914) and resolved them from h i s own approach. His teaching n e c e s s i t a t e d o r g a n i z i n g a coherent theory f o r h i s students and d i s c u s s i n g i t w i t h them. While Hofmann never s t a t e d that h i s students aided h i s develop ment, "teaching helps to c l a r i f y ; that i s the v i r t u e of te a c h i n g . " The teacher must be w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n t o h i s students and avoid a l l dogmatism. Hofmann had such a p e r s o n a l i t y . I t s r e s u l t s can be seen i n h i s many students. Each had an i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n t o h i s teach^ ings. J a r v i s a l s o has a sympathetic a t t i t u d e towards h i students. He leads them i n t h e i r chosen d i r e c t i o n . He r e a l i z e s t h a t a b s t r a c t expressionism means nothing t o h i s young students so he approaches them with hard edge, Op and Pop a r t . Hofmann taught h i s students a c e r t a i n f i n a l end i n p a i n t i n g which the student was not forced to accept. J a r v i s as a true student of Hofmann reacted p a r t i a l l y f o r some of those teachings. He f e e l s that "Hofmann*s ideas are v a l i d f o r some ( a r t i s t s ) . Hofmann got people r o l l i n g " t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n . Hofmann's a f f e c t on Canadian a r t i s i n d i r e c t because i t has been i n f l u e n c e d by the whole New York School of 6 6 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, .1966. 6 7 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 121 68 A b s t r a c t Expressionism. However, i n J a r v i s * work i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see a r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher and p u p i l . J a r v i s d i d not take over Hofmann*s id e a s , but worked them out according t o h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y and from a r e a c t i o n t o h i s environment. Upon J a r v i s * r e t u r n from the Hofmann s c h o o l , he painted i n a s o c i a l r e a l i s t i c manner. S o l i t a r y f i g u r e s were i s o l a t e d i n a crowd. The dark and muddy c o l o r s take on a depressing atmosphere. Line i s used t o d e f i n e planes. This e a r l y period of h i s work does not show J a r v i s at h i s maturity of the ideas derived from Hofmann. The subject expresses the p l i g h t of humanity which he l a t e r d i s r e g a r d s . His use of c o l o r shows nothing of the v i t a l i t y and excitement that Hofmann had already e x h i b i t e d . I t i s i n the l a t e r works such as "Winter Evening" that J a r v i s uses h i s experience of the Hofmann school t o express h i s f e e l i n g and sentiments about the n a t u r a l landscape and flora,,, of the West Coast. "Winter Evening", ( p l a t e V I I I ) as i n Hofmann*s works, does not depict a n a t u r a l landscape, but a f e e l -i n g i n t o nature p i c t o r i a l l y r e a l i z e d . The e f f e c t of nature on J a r v i s i s the r e a l s u b j e c t , t h e r e f o r e o b j e c t -i v e r e a l i t y cannot be seen c l e a r l y . One can however p i c k out a t r e e - l i k e form, a man w i t h h i s arms out-__ u o J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 122 s t r e t c h e d and a p a r t i a l c i t y s c a p e . What J a r v i s f e e l s about the West Coast i s suggested t o the viewer. The oranges and the browns create a warm and enchanting f e e l i n g . Blue and white normally appear c o o l but here J a r v i s has juxtaposed i t t o the warm mauve and added pink and mauve t o the blue and white so that the r e s u l t i s an o v e r a l l warmness. The p a i n t has been a p p l i e d i n a planar concept w i t h each brushstroke a planar u n i t . Although one could say that there are short dark l i n e s t o the lower l e f t and r i g h t , these are i n f a c t the r e f l e c t i o n of the base c o l o r coming through the l i n e a r planes of white. Because the ground has not been t o t a l l y concealed l e v e l s of p i c t o r i a l depth have been achieved. Each brushstroke has been a p p l i e d w i t h a verve and a v i r t u o s i t y t h a t i s reminicent of o r i e n t a l c a l l i g r a p h y . The strokes are sweeping and are done w i t h an o r i e n t a l assuredness. Because the brush i s not loaded w i t h pigment, the c o l o r of the ground comes through the white and the r e s u l t takes on the appear-ance of " f l y i n g white" i n the negative. However, i n c o n t r a s t t o the o r i e n t a l c a l l i g r a p h i c brush, the equal w i d t h of each brushstroke, as the planar u n i t , i s used i n combination t o form l a r g e r u n i t s such as the s k y l i n e -l i k e shape to the upper l e f t and the o v e r l a i d white which creates the e f f e c t of snow. 1 2 3 Upon f i r s t glance, the canvas i s f l a t and l a c k s any r e a l depth except f o r a s l i g h t depression i n the top blue area. Focusing on the lower white area, the mauve and blue upper area recedes while the orange and brown-like f i g u r e p r o j e c t s . Reversing the focus t o the f i g u r e , the brown and orange t r e e - l i k e shape pro-j e c t s and the white recedes, thereby c r e a t i n g a dynamic e f f e c t of "push and p u l l . " E q u i l i b r i u m i s a t t a i n e d , however, by the o v e r a l l l u m i n o s i t y of the canvas. The three sectioned composition can be compared t o Hofmann*s "Above Deep Waters," but J a r v i s has created a more o v e r a l l e f f e c t of c o l o r i n s t e a d of Hofmann's segmented areas. The c r u c i f o r m - l i k e shape to the center creates a breathing surface of c o n t r a c t -i n g and expanding f o r c e s . The lower p o r t i o n of white which i s separated by the stem of the cruciform tends t o u n i f y the base of the canvas and to contract i t . The stem however has the p r o j e c t i v e c o l o r of orange and the warmth of the brown to separate the white areas and expand p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y o f f the canvas. J a r v i s , then, has created the simultaneous e f f e c t of "push and p u l l " and expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n as Hofmann would have. These f o r c e s have been used t o create a p e r c e i v -a b l y p u l s a t i n g and l i v i n g canvas. The areas of white ove r l a y the l u s h brown below l i k e snow over f r e s h l y 1 2 4 t i l l e d s o i l . The snow breaks and l i f e springs f o r t h w i t h j u b i l a n t outstretched arms. J a r v i s has captured the e f f e c t of Nature on man i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The contrast of seasons i s seen i n the contrast of the warm white and mellow tepidness of the orange and brown. J a r v i s ' empath-i z i n g i n t o nature has enabled him to depict i t s c r e a t i v e r o l e . The sweep of the brush suggests the movement of t r e e s and the energy surrounding o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . In "Winters Evening" J a r v i s has been able to capture nature i n r i c h f u l l c o l o r s and to r e f l e c t growth and l i f e by suggestive shapes and forms. He has employed the means taught by Hofmann and used them i n h i s own personal way t o d e p i c t h i s experience of the n a t u r a l landscape of B r i t i s h Columbia. The three West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t s , Donald J a r v i s , Takao Tanabe, and L i o n e l Thomas, attended Hofmann's School of Art and have been a f f e c t e d by him. Thomas's two and a h a l f month stay at the Provincetown summer school enabled him to understand Hofmann's t h e o r i e s and teaching methods. Because of the s i m i l a r i t i e s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and the added f e r v o u r of Thomas' enthusiasm f o r Hofmann's t h e o r i e s , p r e s e n t l y L i o n e l Thomas teaches as Hofmann had taught before. Hofmann's t h e o r i e s are employed as are other masters of the t w e n t i e t h century. 125 Takao Tanabe's p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r s from both Hofmann"s and Thomas". His quiet and i n t r o v e r t e d a t t i t u d e t o l i f e has or appears t o have no room f o r Hofmann*s t h e o r i e s . Tanabe f e e l s that h i s a r t has been self-developed. He does not accord r e c o g n i t i o n t o h i s teachers which undoubtedly have a f f e c t e d him. His short s i x week d u r a t i o n at the Hofmann school could account f o r h i s l a c k of enthusiasm for•Hofmann"s t h e o r i e s . Don J a r v i s ' r e a c t i o n to the Hofmann school f a l l s n e i t h e r i n t o t o t a l acceptance as Thomas or t o t a l r e j e c t -i o n as Tanabe. J a r v i s , as a t r u e student of the Hofmann sch o o l , has understood Hofmann's t h e o r i e s and from them worked and developed h i s own approach as Hofmann had done f i f t y years e a r l i e r i n P a r i s . J a r v i s ' s i x month stay at the school allowed him t o be acquainted w i t h Hofmann's i d e a l s and at the same time to develop h i s own t h e o r i e s . These t h e o r i e s were not resolved t o t a l l y by the time J a r v i s a r r i v e d home, but r a t h e r took years of work and development i n h i s p a i n t i n g s t o achieve the d e s i r e d end. J a r v i s , as a teacher i n h i s own r i g h t , now i s i n the p o s i t i o n t o a f f e c t h i s students as Hofmann a f f e c t e d J a r v i s eighteen years e a r l i e r . His students are not taught s p e c i f i c formulas and methods, but r a t h e r each student i s lead to the f u l f i l l m e n t of h i s own development. Hans Hofmann's a f f e c t i s not l i m i t e d to a r t i s t s f o r such w r i t e r s as A l l a n Leepa, Sheldon Cheney and E r i e 126 Loran have w r i t t e n books concerning c e r t a i n aspects of modern a r t and a l l have acknowledged t h e i r debt t o him f o r h i s concept and approach t o a r t . D i r e c t i n f l u e n c e from Hofmann has now ended since the t e r m i n a t i o n of h i s t e a c h i n g career i n 1958 and h i s death only t h i s year. I n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , however, i s s t i l l being f e l t because h i s students and second generation students are t r a n s -m i t t i n g h i s ideas to the new generation of young a r t i s t s . While a b s t r a c t expressionism i s no longer i n the f o r e -f r o n t of the a r t w o r l d , Hofmann's ideas are s t i l l v a l i d . He d i d not teach a c e r t a i n unrefutable formula f o r the c r e a t i o n of a work of a r t but r a t h e r the b a s i s of a work of a r t and the c r e a t i v e process. These ideas are not the d e f i n i t i v e w r i t i n g s on the c r e a t i o n of a work of a r t but r a t h e r Hofmann expected each i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t t o develop from such concepts as he himself had done. With t h i s backlog of i n f o r m a t i o n , and an inborn a r t i s t i c s e n s i t i v i t y , the a r t i s t i s t o evolve the canvas from a f l a t and l i f e -l e s s surface t o one i n which the observer perceives the a r t i s t ' s l i f e , time and experience. The s p i r i t that the a r t i s t captures i s a non-physical e n t i t y , but yet a l i v i n g r e a l i t y d e r i v e d from the a r t i s t . That s p i r i t i n a work of a r t i s synonymous w i t h i t s q u a l i t y . The r e a l i n a r t never d i e s because i t s nature i s predominantly s p i r i t u a l . 6 9 Hans Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p. 54• PLATE I "Fantasia,* 1 1943, by Hans Hofmann, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. PLATE I I "Effervescence," 1944, by Hans Hofmann U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. "Le G i l o t i n , " 1953, by Hans Hofmann, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. PLATE V "Above Deep Waters," 1959, by Hans Hofmann U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. PLATE VI "Pre-Dawn," I960, by Hans Hofmann, C o l l e c t i o n of Mr. P r e n t i s C. Hale, San F r a n c i s c o . 130 PLATE VII "Landscape of an I n t e r i o r P l a c e , " 1955, by Takao Tanabe, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, Ottawa. PLATE V I I I "Winter Evening," 1958, by Donald J a r v i s , Unknown c o l l e c t i o n . 131 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. WRITINGS BY HANS HOFMANN Cal i f o r n i a . University. Haviland H a l l . Hans Hofmann Exhibition  Catalogue, Aug. 5-22, 1931. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1931. Hofmann, Hans. "The Color Problem i n Pure Painting." 1955, c i t e d i n Wight, Frederick S., Hans Hofmann, Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1957. . "From 'It I s ' , " 1959, c i t e d i n Los Angeles, County Art Museum. New York School, The F i r s t Generation Paintings of 1940's and 1950's. Los Angeles: Board of the Los Angeles County Art Museum, 1965, pp. 17-18. "Hans Hofmann Explains His Painting.:" Bennington Alumnae Quarterly, Vol. 7, F a l l , 1955, p. 23. "Hans Hofmann On Art." The Art Journal, Vol. 22, No, 3, p. 180. . "Munich School Prospectus, 1915," c i t e d i n S e i t z , William G., Hans Hofmann. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1963, p. 56. "Mystery of Creative Relations," 1953, c i t e d i n Hofmann, Hans and Sam Hunter, Hans Hofmann. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1963, p. 45. "Nature and Art: Controversy and Misconception," c i t e d i n Sammuel Kootz Gallery, New York. New Paint-ings by Hans Hofmann, Jan. 7 to 25, 1958. New York: Sammuel Kootz Gallery, 1958, no paging. _ . "On the Aims of Art," Fortnightly, Vol. 1, No. 13 , February 26 , 1932, pp. 7-TTT . "Painting and Culture," Fortnightly, Vol. 1, No. 1, September 11, 1931, pp. 5-7. _ . " P l a s t i c Creation," 1932, c i t e d i n Hofmann, Hans and Sam Hunter, Hans Hofmann. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1963, pp. 35-38. "Reply to questionnaire and comments on a recent e x h i b i t i o n , " Arts and Architecture, Vol. 66, No. 11, November, 1949, pp. 22-28. 132 . "The R e s u r r e c t i o n of the P l a s t i c A r t s , " 1953, c i t e d i n Hofmann, Hans and Sam Hunter, Hans Hofmann. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1963, p. 44. . Search f o r the Real and other Essays. Andover, Mass.: The Addison G a l l e r y of American A r t , 1948. . "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d through the I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of Color t o Express Volumes," c i t e d i n Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , New York, Hans Hofmann E x h i b i -t i o n Catalogue, Nov. 13-Dec. 1, 1951. New York: Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , 1951, no paging. . "A Statement by Hans Hofmann, c i t e d i n Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , New York, Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n  Catalogue. Oct. 28-Nov. 22, 1952. New York: Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , 1952, no paging. I l l i n o i s . U n i v e r s i t y , College of Fine and Applied A r t s . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 4- A p r i l 15, 1951. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o u s , 1951, pp. 187-188. . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 2 - A p n l 13, 1952. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1952, p. 199. . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 1 - A p r i l 12, 1953. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1953, pp. 189-190. . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , Feb. 2 7 - A p r i l , 8, 1955. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1955, pp. 207-208. . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 1 - A p r i l 5, 1959. Urbana! U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1959, p. 206. . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , Feb. 2 0 - A p r i l 2, 1961. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1961, p. 116. . U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g . March 3 - A p r i l 7, 1963. Urbana" U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , 1963, p. 86. Kuh, Katherine. The A r t i s t ' s Voice. New York: Harper and Row 1962, pp. 118-129. Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , New York. Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue. Jan. 5-23, I960. New York: Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , I960. 133 I I . BOOKS American Abstract A r t i s t s , ed't. The World of Abstract A r t . New York: George Wittenborn, Inc., 1957. . Art Since 1945. New York: Harry N. Abrams, I n c . , T956\ Ashton, Dore. The Unknown Shore. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1962. B a r r , A l f r e d H., J r . Matisse: His Art and His P u b l i c . New York: The Museum of Modern A r t , 1951. Ble s h , Rudi. Modern A r t , U.S.A.: Men, R e b e l l i o n , Conquest. 1900-1956. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf. 1956. Brooks, Leonard. P a i n t i n g and Understanding Abstract A r t ; an Approach t o Contemporary Methods. New York: Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1964. Canaday, John. Embattled C r i t i c . New York: F a r r a r , Straus and Company, 1963. Cheney, Sheldon. Expressionism i n A r t . New York: L i v e r i g h t Pub. Corp., 1958. . A Primer of Modern A r t . New York: Tudor P u b l i s h -in g Company, 1947. . The Story of Modern A r t . New York: The V i k i n g Press, 1945. Dorra, Henri. The American Muse. New York: The V i k i n g Press, 1961. G e l d z a h l e r , Henry. American P a i n t i n g i n the Twentieth Cen-t u r y . New York: The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t , 1965. Goodrich, Loyd and Baur, John I . American Art of our Century. New York: Whitney Museum of A r t , 1961. Green berg, Clement. Art and C u l t u r e . Boston: Beacon Pr e s s , 1961. . Hofmann. P a r i s : George F a l l , 1961. Haftmann, Werner. P a i n t i n g i n the Twentieth Century. London: Lund Humphries, I960. 134 Heath, A d r i a n . A b s t r a c t P a i n t i n g s , I t s O r i g i n and Meaning. London: A. T i r a n t i , 1953. Henning, Edward B. Paths of A b s t r a c t A r t . C l e v e l a n d : C l e v e l a n d Museum of A r t , I960. Hess, Thomas B. A b s t r a c t P a i n t i n g . New York: The V i k i n g P ress, 1951. Hofmann, Hans and Hunter, Sam. Hans Hofmann. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1%3. Hubbard, Robert Hamilton. An Anthology of Canadian A r t . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960. . The Development of Canadian A r t . Ottawa: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, 1963. Hunter, Sam. Modern American P a i n t i n g and S c u l p t u r e . New York: D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., Inc., 1959. 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"Fifty-Seventh Street i n Review; Hans Hofmann, Extrovert." The Art Digest, Vol. 21, No. 13 , A p r i l , 1947, p. 20. Fitzsimmons, James. "Hans Hofmann." Everyday Art Quarterly, No. 2 8 , 1953, pp. 23-26. . "Hofmann V i t a l at 7 1 . " The Art Digest, Vol. 26 , No. 4 , Nov. 15, 1951, P. IT. . "Hofmann*s Nature." The Art Digest, Vol. 25 , No. 3 , November, 1950, p. 17. Franklin, Stephen. "Busy A r t i s t . " Weekend Magazine, Vol. 8 , No. 2, 1958, pp. 12-14. Fremantle, Christopher E. "New York Commentary." The Studio, Vol. 149, No. 743, February, 1955, p. 57. Fried, Michael. "Jackson Pollack." Artforum, Vol. 14, No. 1, Sept., 1965, pp. 14-17. Fulford, Robert. "D.A. J a r v i s . " Canadian Art, Vol. 13 , No. 1, January/February, 1961, pp. 28-29. 138 . "Tanabe." Canadian Art. Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan./Feb., T961, pp. 50-JT. Getlein, Frank. "The Missing Link." The New Republic. Vol. 136, No. 25, June 24, 1957, p. 21 . Greenberg, Clement. "American-type Painting." 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Vol. LXII, No. 12 , September, 1963, p. 88. "Hans Hofmann Continues Despite the War." The Art Digest, Vol. 16, No. 16, May 15, 1942, p. 29. "Hans Hofmann G i f t to the University of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley." The Art Journal, Vol. 2 3 , No. r , Summer, 1964, p. 291. "Hans Hofmann, Teacher-Artist." The Art Digest. Vol. 18. No. 12 , March 15, 1944, p. 13. "Hans Hofmann w i l l exhibit o i l paintings." Arts A l l i a n c e Bul-l e t i n , Vol. 34 , No. 6 , March, 1956, p. 54. 139 H a r r i s o n , Jane. "In the G a l l e r i e s . " A r t s Magazine, V o l . 3 8 , No. 5, A p r i l , 1964, p. 29. Hart, W i l l i a m S. Interviews w i t h the w r i t e r , 1965-1966. . "Theory and P r a c t i c e of Abstract A r t . " c i t e d i n Canada, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . Lawren H a r r i s : Retro-s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n , 1963. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, 1963. Hess, Thomas B. "Hans Hofmann's [Kootz: t o Nov. 1 3 ] . " Art  News, V o l . XLIX, No. 7, part 1, November, 1950, pp. 47-48. Hess, Thomas H. "The Mystery of Hans Hofmann." Art News, V o l . 6 3 , No. 10, February, 1965, p. 39 . Hofmann, Hans, and Hunter, Sam. Hans Hofmann. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1963• "Hofmann at Chouinard." The Art Digest, V o l . 5, No. 10, February 15, 1931, p. 29-"Hofmann i n P a r i s . " The Art Digest, V o l . 23, No. 7, Jan-uary 1, 1949, p. 10. "Hofmann P r o f i l e . " The Art Digest, V o l . 25 , May 15, 1951, pp. 6-7 . "In Intimate Media." The Art D i g e s t , " V o l . 25 , No. 16, May 15, 1951, p. 22. "In the G a l l e r i e s . " A r t s , V o l . 3 3 , No. 5, February, 1959, p. 56. "In the G a l l e r i e s ; Hans Hofmann." A r t s , V o l . 3 0 , No. 3 , December, 1955, p. 53. "In the G a l l e r i e s ; Hans Hofmann." A r t s , V o l . 32 , No.5, February, 1958, p. 524. J a f f e , Dr. H.L.C. Interview w i t h the w r i t e r . :.2S'£February, 1966. J a r v i s , Donald. Interviews w i t h the w r i t e r . February, I966. Kaufmann, Betty. "Hans Hofmann." The Commonweal, V o l . 79, No. 7, November 8 , I963, pp. 205-206. Kees, Weldon. "Werber and Hofmann." P a r t i s a n Review, V o l . XVI, No. 5 , May, 1949, pp. 541-543. 140 Kepes, George. "Review of Hans Hofmann's 'Search f o r the Real ' . " Magazine of A r t , V o l . 45, No. 3, March, 1952, pp. 136-137. de Koonig, E l a i n e . "Hans Hofmann P a i n t s a P i c t u r e . " Art News, V o l . X L V I I I , No. 10, February, 1950, pp*TT8-41. K o z l o f f , Max. "The Problem of C o l o r - L i g h t i n Rothko." A r t -Fprum, V o l . IV, No. 1, Sept., 1965, pp. 38-44. Krapow, A l l a n . "The E f f e c t of Recent Art upon the Teaching of A r t . " The Art J o u r n a l , V o l . 23, No. 2, w i n t e r , 1963-64, pp. 136-138. K r o l l , Jack. "Some Greenberg C i r c l e s . " Art News, V o l . 61, No. 1, March, 1962, p. 35. L i e d e r , P h i l i p . "The New York School i n Los Angeles." Art Forum, V o l . IV, No. 1, Sept., 1965, pp. 3-13. Los Angeles. County Art Museum. New York School, The F i r s t  Generation. P a i n t i n g s of 1940's and 1950's. Los Angeles, Board of the Los Angeles County A r t Museum, 1965. Lowndes, Joan. "Coast t o Coast i n A r t : Takao Tanabe at the New Design G a l l e r y . " Canadian A r t , V o l . 18, No. 4, July/August, 1961, p. 267. . "Don J a r v i s at the New Design G a l l e r y , Vancouver." Canadian A r t , V o l . 20, No. 1, January/February, 1963, p. 10. McNairn, Ian. "Present D i r e c t i o n s at the Vancouver Art Gal-l e r y . " Canadian A r t , V o l . 19, No. 3, May/June, 1962, p. 176. "The Making of A r t i s t s . " Newsweek, V o l . XLIX, No. 17, A p r i l 19, 1957, p.~6"8~; "A Master Teacher." L i f e , V o l . 42, No. 14, A p r i l 8, 1957, pp. 70-73. Munro, Eleanor C. "Hans Hofmann [ K o o t z ] . " Art News, V o l . 56, No. 10, February, 1958, p. 10. . "Hans Hofmann [Kootz]. Art News, V o l . 62, No. 2, A p r i l , 1963, p. 10. "Nebraska Announces Annual Purchase." The Art Digest, Vol.25, No. 15, May 1, 1951, p. 13. 141 Norse, John D. "He Paints Big." Art i n America, No. 2, I960, pp. 76-78. Oeri, Georgine. "The Object of Art." Quadrum, No. 16, 1964, pp. 8-11. "The Passing Shows; Hans Hofmann." Art News, Vol. XLIII, No. 3, March 15 - 3 1 , 1944, p.~20~. "The Passing Shows, Hans Hofmann." Art News, Vol. XLIX, No. 5, A p r i l 15 - 3 0 , 1945, p .~6^ "The Passing Shows; Hans Hofmann." Art News, Vol. XLV, No. 1, March, 1946, p. 53. Plaskett, Joe. "Some New Canadians Painters and t h e i r Debt to Hans Hofmann." Canadian Art, Vol. X, No. 2, Winter, 1953, pp. 59-63-Porter, F a i r f i e l d . "Hans Hofmann [Kootz: Nov. 13-Dec. 1 ] . " Art News, Vol. 50, No. 7, November, 1951, p. 46. . "Hans Hofmann [Kootz: to Dec. 1 2 ] . " Art News, Vol. 53, No. 8, December, 1953, p. 41. P o l l e t , Elizabeth. "In the G a l l e r i e s , Hans Hofmann." Arts, Vol. 3 1 , No. 5, February, 1957, p. 57. . "Hans Hofmann." Arts, Vol. 3 1 , No. 8, May, 1957, pp. 30-33 . Raynor, Vivien. "In the G a l l e r i e s . " Arts Magazine, Vol. 36 , No. 5 , February, 1962, p. 38 . . "In the G a l l e r i e s . " Arts Magazine, Vol. 3 8 , No. 1, October, 1963, p. 57-"Reviews and Previews; Hans Hofmann." Art News, Vol. XLVI, No. 2 , A p r i l , 1947, p. 4 5 . "Reviews and Previews; Hans Hofmann." Art News, Vol. XLVIII, No. 8 , December, 1949, p. 42 . Rose, Barbara. "The Second Generation: Academy and Break-through." Art Forum, Vol. IV, No. 1, Sept., 1965, pp. 53-63. Rosenberg, Harold. "The Art G a l l e r i e s . " The New Yorker, Vol. XXXIX, No. 37 , November 2 , 1963, p. 100. . "Hans Hofmann." Vogue, Vol. 145, No. 9 , May, 1965, pp. 192-195. 142 . "Hans Hofmann's L i f e Class." P o r t f o l i o and Art News Annual, No. 6, Autumn, 1962, pp. 16-31. . "Hans Hofmann: Nature into Action." Art News, Vol. 56, No. 3 , May, 1957, pp. 34-36. Sandler, Irving. "Controversial Abstractions." The Saturday  Review, Vol. 11, No. 32, August 10, 1957, pp. 14-15. Sanders, Irving H. "Hans Hofmann [Kootz]." Art News, Vol. 58, No. 10, February, I960, p. 13. . "Hans Hofmann [Kootz]." Art News, Vol. 60, No.2, A p r i l , 1961, p. 10. Sawyer, Kenneth B. "Largely Hans Hofmann." The Baltimore  Museum of Art News, Vol. XVIII, No. 3, February, 1955, pp. 9-12. . "Painters over Seventy-five." The Hudson Review, V o l . X, No. 3, Autumn, 1957, pp. 440-446. . "Painting and Sculpture—the New York Season." Craft Horizons, Vol. XXII, No. 3, May/June, 1962, p. 53. Schwartz, Marilyn D. "Hans Hofmann at Kootz." Apollo, Vol. LXIX, No. 409, March, 1959, p. 93-Scott, Charles H. "New Tides i n West Coast Art." Canadian  Art, Vol. 7, No. 2, Winter, p. 58. Shadbolt, J.L. "The Notebooks of Donald J a r v i s . " Canadian  Art, Vol. 1, No. 1, Autumn, 1952, pp.8-10. Seattle. World's F a i r . Art Since 1950: American and Inter-national. Seattle: Seattle World's F a i r , 1962. Seckler, Dorothy. "Can Painting be Taught." Art News, Vol. 50, No. 1, March, 1951, p. 40. S i l v e r , Cathy S. "5 Star Show t h i s Winter: Hofmann." Art  News. Vol. 60, No. 10, February, 1962, p. 4 3 . Solomon, Joseph. "Hofmann as Painter." Arts, Vol. 31, No. 9, June, 1957, p. 7. "Some Excerpts from Reviews of Hans Hofmann's Recent Exhibitions at the M.O.M.A., Sept. 9 - Dec. 1, 1963," c i t e d i n Sammuel Kootz Gallery, New York. Hans  Hofmann Catalogue, Feb. 18 - March 7, 1964, New York: Sammuel Kootz Gallery, 1964. 143 Tanabe, Takao. Interviews w i t h the w r i t e r . March, 1966. Thomas, L i o n e l . " A r c h i t e c t u r e and S c u l p t u r e . " Canadian A r t , V o l . 19 , No. 3 , May/June, 1962, p. 22. . Interviews w i t h the w r i t e r . January and February, T966. T i l l i m , Sidney. "Report on the Venice B i e n n a l e , " A r t s Magazine, V o l . 35 , No. 1, October, I 9 6 0 , pp7~ j2 -33 . "To John F. Kennedy—Homage by A r t i s t s . " A r t i n America, No. 5 , 1964, p. 91 . "Trapezoids and Empathy." Time, V o l . LVI I , No. 23 , December 3 , 1951, p. 72. T y l e r , P o r t e r . "Hans Hofmann [Kootz: t o Dec. 1 1 ] . " A r t News, V o l . 53, No. 8 , December, 1954, p. 51. . "Hans Hofmann [Kootz: t o Dec 3 ] . " Art News, V o l . 5*4, No. 8 , December, 1955, p. 56. Vancouver. A r t G a l l e r y . P a i n t i n g s and Drawings, Don J a r v i s , Nov. 22-Dec. 11, 1949. Vancouver: Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1949. . Takao Tanabe: P a i n t i n g s and Drawings, 1954-57. Vancouver: Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y , 1957. Werner, A l f r e d . "Review of F r e d e r i c k S. Wight's 'Hans Hofmann*." C o l l e g e A r t J o u r n a l , V o l . XVII, No. 2 , Winter, 1958, p. 223. Wolf, Ben. "The Digest Interviews Hans Hofmann." The A r t  D i g e s t , V o l . 19, No. 13, A p r i l 1, 1945, p. 52. 144 SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS Plate I, "Fantasia," Plate I I , "Effervescence," and Plate IV, "Le G i l o t i n , " from Loran, E r i e . Recent G i f t s and  Loans of Paintings by Hans Hofmann. Berkeley, Regents of the University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1964., Plates I, I I , and III respectively. Plate I I I , "Magenta and Blue," from Wight, Frederick S. Hans Hofmann. Berkeley , University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1957, 1957, p. 26. Plate V, "Above Deep Waters," Plate VI, "Pre-Dawn," from Hofmann, Hans, and Hunter, Sam. Hans Hofmann. New York, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., I963, Plates 100 and 132 respectively. Plate V I I ? "Landscape of an I n t e r i o r Place," and Plate VIII, "Winter Evening," from the Slid e Library, the Depart-ment of Fine Arts, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 

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