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The theories of Hans Hofmann and their influence on his west-coast Canadian students Lee, Roger 1966

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THE THEORIES OF HANS HOFMANN AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON HIS WEST-COAST CANADIAN STUDENTS by ROGER LEE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Fine Arts  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l the requirements  fulfilment  of  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  freely  available for  per-  r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t  mission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  scholarly  purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by his representatives. c a t i o n of t h i s  It  i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r  thesis for  financial  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f  ^IXSL  r\ V  \<,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  f \ ^ i l  * 3  j -13  66  publi-  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II. III.  PAGE HANS HOFMANN, A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY THE THEORIES OF HANS HOFMANN  .  1 8  THE WEST-COAST CANADIAN STUDENTS OF THE HANS HOFMANN SCHOOL OF ART  91  ILLUSTRATIONS  127  BIBLIOGRAPHY  131  ABSTRACT  The t o p i c o f my t h e s i s i s an a n a l y s i s of Hans Hofmann's t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s on a r t and t h e i r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on h i s West-Coast Canadian s t u d e n t s . included a short biography  I have  o f Hofmann i n o r d e r t h a t t h e  r e a d e r may become aware of t h e events t h a t l e d up t o h i s t h e o r e t i c a l development. Through a l l a v a i l a b l e p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on and by Hans Hofmann, I have endeavoured t o a n a l y z e and t o e x p l a i n h i s t h e o r i e s which a r e o f t e n quoted but seldom understood.  Hofmann"s a r t was i n s p i r e d by n a t u r e .  T h i s i n s p i r a t i o n enabled him t o c r e a t e on t h e canvas the p e r c e i v a b l e movements of "push and p u l l " and "expansion  and c o n t r a c t i o n . "  These movements a r e caused  by f o r m and c o l o r on a bare canvas which c r e a t e s t h e combined e f f e c t of two and t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y .  How-  e v e r , t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e p i c t u r e plane i s r e t a i n e d m o m e n t a r i l y because v i s u a l l y i t appears two d i m e n s i o n a l b u t past e x p e r i e n c e  of the observer  the e f f e c t of three d i m e n s i o n a l i t y . "push and p u l l " and "expansion are perpendicular simultaneous  creates  These movements o f  and c o n t r a c t i o n , " which  t o each o t h e r , a r e c r e a t e d by t h e  development o f form and c o l o r .  movements a r e a b l e t o re£lect the a r t i s t ' s  I f these mind,  iii s e n s i b i l i t y , temperament and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , a symphonic p a i n t i n g , a c a t e g o r y o f t h e f i n e a r t s , o r a work o f a r t w i l l have been c r e a t e d .  The s p i r i t which has been c a p t u r e d , e m i t s  t h e a r t i s t ' s l i f e f o r the p h y s i c a l d u r a t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e s e i t h e o r i e s were t a u g h t by Hofmann a t h i s s c h o o l s , he d i d not expect h i s s t u d e n t s t o accept them w i t h out a second t h o u g h t .  He wanted h i s s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p  from them as he had developed from o t h e r s . The e f f e c t o f Hofmann s t e a c h i n g s on t h e T  contemporary  t h e o r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s was a s c e r t a i n e d by means of a s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Hofmann's West-Coast Canadian s t u d e n t s , L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe and Donald  Jarvis.  L i o n e l Thomas was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Hofmann's r o l e as an e d u c a t o r .  Both Hofmann and Thomas s t i m u l a t e d t h e i r  s t u d e n t s and h e l p e d t o r a i s e t h e a r t i s t i c l e v e l o f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l environments. Hofmann's t h e o r i e s .  Takao Tanabe s a i d he had r e j e c t e d  I f Hofmann was i n f l u e n t i a l on Tanabe,  t h e l a t t e r has c o n s t r i c t e d , d e n u n c i a t e d o r attempted t o forget that influence.  J a r v i s c o n t r a s t s both Thomas and  Tanabe f o r he n e i t h e r a c c e p t s o r r e j e c t s Hofmann's t e a c h ings.  J a r v i s h a s , as Hofmann had f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r i n  P a r i s , developed from what he l e a r n t from h i s t e a c h e r . Hofmann's i n f l u e n c e has n o t ended, f o r Thomas, Tanabe and J a r v i s a r e t e a c h e r s and t h e y , w i t h a r t h i s t o r i a n s i n f l u e n c e d by Hofmann, s t i l l propagate h i s theories.  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.  PAGE " F a n t a s i a , " 1943, by Hans Hofmann  .  .  .  127  1944, by Hans Hofmann,  .  .  127  .  128  .  .  128  "Above Deep Waters," 1959, by Hans Hofmann  .  129  "Effervescence,"  .  "Magenta and Blue," 1950, by Hans Hofmann "Le G i l o t i n , " 1953, by Hans Hofmann  "Pre-Dawn," I960, by Hans Hofmann  .  .  .  .  .  129  "Landscape of an I n t e r i o r P l a c e , " 1955, by Takao Tanabe  VIII.  "Winter Evening," 1958, by Donald J a r v i s  130 .  .  130  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o the Members o f t h e F i n e A r t s Department who of t h i s t h e s i s .  a i d e d me  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  S p e c i a l acknowledgement s h o u l d be  •Mr. W i l l i a m S. H a r t , whose guidance and new  accorded  insights  Hans Hofmann, deepened t h e scope o f my t h e s i s .  into  I appreciate  t h e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by M i s s Melva Dwyer, M i s s Diane Cooper and the members o f the F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n L i b r a r y .  My  r e s e a r c h a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a at B e r k e l e y  was  a i d e d by Mrs. Mary Anne C r a f t , Museum R e g i s t r a r , who  made  the c o l l e c t i o n o f Hans Hofmann"s c a t a l o g u e s a v a i l a b l e f o r my use.  A l s o a t B e r k e l e y , I would l i k e t o thank Mr.  Denean, who  Larry  showed me the U n i v e r s i t y ' s c o l l e c t i o n of Hans  Hofmann p a i n t i n g s , and a l s o gave me new Hofmann, the t e a c h e r and the a r t i s t .  insights  into  Most o f a l l , I would  l i k e t o thank Hans Hofmann"s s t u d e n t s , Mr. L i o n e l Thomas, Mr.  Takao Tanabe and Mr. Donald J a r v i s f o r the time I  spent w i t h them d u r i n g our i n t e r v i e w s .  L a s t but not  I e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o M i s s M a r i l y n M e i s t e r and T e r r y L o p s t o n who who  read over my  least, Mr.  t h e s i s and t o a l l my f r i e n d s  encouraged and h e l p e d me w i t h the p u r s u i t of t h i s t o p i c .  .CHAPTER I A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL STUDY T h i s t h e s i s concerns Hans Hofmann s t h e o r i e s and T  the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s t h e o r i e s on a s e l e c t e d number o f h i s West-Coast Canadian s t u d e n t s . has been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c h a p t e r s . a b r i e f b i o g r a p h i c a l account. theories.  This t h e s i s  The f i r s t  presents  The second d i s c u s s e s h i s  The t h i r d c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe, and Donald J a r v i s , Hofmann's West-Coast Canadian  Students.  The c a r e e r of Hans Hofmann has spanned a t l e a s t two g e n e r a t i o n s , two c o n t i n e n t s and many i n t e r n a t i o n a l borders.  His place i n the f i e l d  o f modern a r t has been  e s t a b l i s h e d as an a r t i s t , e d u c a t o r , and exponent o f modern a r t .  Having t a u g h t f o r f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s , h i s many  s t u d e n t s now d i s s e m i n a t e throughout enthusiasm  the world h i s  f o r modern a r t , h i s t e a c h i n g s and h i s methods  of t e a c h i n g . Hofmann's u n t i m e l y death i n . F e b r u a r y , 1966, ended t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s on t h e American a r t scene. thought  Often  of as being American-born, he was i n f a c t born i n  W e i s s e n b u r g , Germany on March 2 1 , 1880. son of a government o f f i c i a l .  He was t h e second  H i s youth was spent w i t h h i s  2  f o u r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s i n t h e German c o u n t r y s i d e which shone w i t h t h e g r e e n g r a s s and i r r i d e s c e n t s p a r k l e o f streams.  The young Hans l o v e d t h e summers he spent at h i s  grandfather's farm. f a t h e r who  Hans was  very attached t o h i s grand-  took on t h e r o l e o f f a t h e r s u b s t i t u t e . By t h e  age o f s i x t e e n , Hans l e f t home t o work as an a s s i s t a n t t o the D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c Works o f t h e S t a t e of B a v a r i a . he was  a b l e t o pursue h i s i n t e r e s t i n mathematics and  s c i e n c e by u s i n g i t s l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s .  Through s c i e n c e  he was a b l e t o s u r v e y n a t u r e b r o a d l y and o b j e c t i v e l y to  There  and  supply h i m s e l f w i t h the m a t e r i a l s f o r f u r t h e r c r e a t i v e  speculation.  During t h e s e y o u t h f u l y e a r s , s c i e n c e t o o k  most of h i s time but he was  up  s t i l l able t o continue h i s  i n t e r e s t i n a r t and m u s i c , namely t h e v i o l i n , p i a n o and  organ.  Hofmann*s c r e a t i v e bent l e a d him t o t h e i n v e n t i o n of an e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c comptometer, a machine s i m i l a r t o t h e present his  day c a l c u l a t i n g machine.  As he was  mother had t o s i g n t h e p a t e n t .  s t i l l under age,  H i s f a t h e r , much p l e a s e d  w i t h h i s son's s u c c e s s , sent t h e boy a thousand marks, and w i t h t h i s s m a l l f o r t u n e , Hofmann embarked on h i s c a r e e r i n art  by e n r o l l i n g a t a r t s c h o o l .  c a r e e r was to  However, h i s s c i e n t i f i c  not y e t ended; h i s c r e a t i v e c u r i o s i t y l e a d him  d e v e l o p a submarine s i g n a l d e v i c e , an , e l e c t r i c b u l b t h a t  glowed i n d e p e n d e n t l y  of an e l e c t r i c s o u r c e , and a p o r t a b l e  f r e e z i n g u n i t , a l l of which produced no f i n a n c i a l W h i l e a t a r t s c h o o l , Hofmann mastered t h e  profits. lessons  from a s u c c e s s i o n of t e a c h e r s ; M i c h a i l o w , Apse, F e r e n z i and Grimwald.  He s a i d t h a t t h e s e t e a c h e r s "had  a humanizing  r a t h e r t h a n a t e c h n i c a l or c o n c e p t u a l i n f l u e n c e on (him)."''" L a t e r Hofmann re-emphasized t h e i r r o l e i n h i s development when he s a i d t h a t " t h e i r l e s s o n s were t o be the f o u n d a t i o n stone of h i s l a t e r t e a c h i n g s as w e l l as h i s own work." t e a c h e r s were unaware o f what was  His  happening i n P a r i s , the  3 v i t a l c e n t e r f o r the development of modern a r t .  Hofmann,  however, became t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the development o f modern a r t .  Because the l e s s o n s and methods of h i s  t e a c h e r s has not been r e v e a l e d , the statement  t h a t h i s Munich  t e a c h e r s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n h i s development cannot be  taken  as f a c t . I t was t h r o u g h an a c q u a i n t a n c e , W i l l i e Schwarz, t h a t Hofmann became aware of P a r i s . I m p r e s s i o n i s t s s t a t i n g , "One  W i l l i e t a l k e d of the  must observe n a t u r e by means  o f l i g h t r e f l e c t e d from o b j e c t s , r a t h e r t h a n be  concerned  w i t h t a n g i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f the o b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s . " ^ i d e a s ' g r e a t l y e x c i t e d Hofmann who involved with a r t .  These  became i n c r e a s i n g l y  W i l l i e t h e n i n t r o d u c e d him t o a B e r l i n  c o l l e c t o r who i n t u r n i n t r o d u c e d Hofmann t o P h i l i p Freudenberg "'"Ben W o l f , "The A r t D i g e s t I n t e r v i e w s Hans Hofmann," The A r t D i g e s t , v o l . 19, no. 13, A p r i l 1, 1945, p. 52. 2 Hans Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l and Other E s s a y s , Andover,. Mass. , The A d d i s o n G a l l e r y of American A r t , 1948, p. 10. ^ I b i d . , p. 4 Loc. c i t .  11.  4 t h e c o l l e c t o r ' s w e a l t h y u n c l e and a department s t o r e owner. T h i s meeting must have been v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g , f o r P h i l i p  be-  came Hofmann's p a t r o n f o r the next t e n y e a r s , a v i r t u a l l y unique s i t u a t i o n i n view o f the f a c t t h a t most o f the g r e a t i n n o v a t o r s of modern t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r t s u f f e r e d many years of poverty. Hofmann's p a t r o n sent him t o P a r i s , the hub  o f the  a r t w o r l d d u r i n g t h i s c r u c i a l p e r i o d f o r modern a r t (1904-1914).  T h i s was t h e nascent p e r i o d of Cubism and  Fauvism, b o t h i m p o r t a n t i n the development o f Hofmann's l a t e r art.  At t h e Cafe du<; Dome he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h George Braque,  P a b l o P i c a s s o , Juan G r i s , Munk, K a r s t e n , P a s c i n , and C a r l e s . Hofmann was  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s H e n r i  M a t i s s e and Robert Delaunay.  Hofmann and M a t i s s e a t t e n d e d  t h e e v e n i n g c l a s s e s a t C o l o r o s s i ' s and p a i n t e d the same view o f t h e Seine from t h e same b a l c o n y a t H o t e l B i s s o n . l i v e d nearby on l a Rue des Grandes A u g u s t i n s .  Delauany  Hofmann s t a t e d  r e c e n t l y t h a t he i n t r o d u c e d t h e work of George S e u r a t t o Robert Delaunay;  5  t h e l a t t e r ' s impact on Hofmann was  ^ W i l l i a m C. S e i t z , Hans Hofmann, New Modern A r t , 1963, p. 7.  his  York, Museum of  Dr. H.L.C. J a f f e , a f r i e n d and w r i t e r of Robert and S o n i a Delaunay s a i d i n an i n t e r v i e w on F e b r u a r y 25, 1966, t h a t he does not b e l i e v e Hofmann brought George Seurat t o t h e eye's of Robert Delaunay, N e o - I m p r e s s i o n i s t ' s works were i n P a r i s and c o u l d have been seen by Delaunay b e f o r e Hofmann's a r r i v a l i n P a r i s i n 1904.  5 e x p r e s s i v e p o t e n t i a l i n t h e u s e o f pure c o l o r .  ,Delaunay's  a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o l o r t o t h e c u b i s t space f o r m u l a t i o n was adapted u n d o u b t e d l y by Hofmann, though he d i d not s a y s o . A r t was not t h e o n l y bond between t h e s e two p a i n t e r s .  Madame  Delaunay's knowledge o f German made i t p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o t r a n s l a t e f o r Hofmann when h i s F r e n c h f a i l e d him.  In spite  of t h e language b a r r i e r , Hofmann a b s o r b e d t h e c o l o r and f r e e dom o f t h e Fauves, t h e C u b i s t d i s c i p l i n e o f George  Braque  and P a b l o P i c a s s o and t h e c o l o r and form o f Delaunay's Orphism. I n 1910 w h i l e M a t i s s e was i n B e r l i n f o r t h e show g i v e n him by C a s s i r e r , he saw P h i l i p Freudenberg's c o l l e c t i o n of Hofmann's work and encouraged t h e p a t r o n t o c o n t i n u e support.  That same y e a r , Hofmann was a l s o g i v e n a one-man  show by C a s s i r e r .  Support c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e s t a r t o f  World War I i n 1914•  Hofmann had r e t u r n e d home t o Munich  b e f o r e t h e outbreak o f t h e war and remained t h e r e f o r t h e next s i x t e e n y e a r s .  Because o f a l u n g l e s i o n , ^ he was n o t  c o n s c r i p t e d i n t o t h e army.. During t h e war, he opened h i s famous S c h o o l o f Modern A r t .  " I opened my s c h o o l i n Munich i n t h e s p r i n g o f 7  1915  t o c l a r i f y t h e e n t i r e l y new p i c t o r i a l a p p r o a c h . "  ^ D u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w , L i o n e l Thomas has s a i d t h a t Hans Hofmann had t u b e r c u l o s i s and was q u i t e s i c k l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Sam Hunter i n h i s book on Hofmann has s a i d t h a t Hofmann had a weak l u n g . 7  'Hans Hofmann, Hans Hofmann, New Y o r k , H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c ., 1963, p.12.  6 The  s c h o o l p r o v i d e d Hofmann w i t h f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y and  also  enabled him t o d i g e s t and r e s o l v e t h e problems and s o l u t i o n s which he had adopted d u r i n g h i s P a r i s i a n s o j o u r n . At t h e end of t h e war, t h e fame o f h i s s c h o o l resulting  spread,  i n an i n f l u x of f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s t o 4 0 Georgen  S t r a s s e n i n t h e suburb of Schwabing. Throughout t h i s post-war p e r i o d , Hofmann made f r e q u e n t t r i p s t o P a r i s i n o r d e r t o keep up w i t h new modern a r t .  developments i n  Hofmann a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d h i s w e l l known summer  s c h o o l s s u c c e s s i v e l y a t Y u g o s l a v i a , C a p r i and f i n a l l y S t . Tropez.  These summer s c h o o l s were such a success t h a t when he  came t o A m e r i c a he r e - e s t a b l i s h e d one a t  Provincetown,  Massachusetts. Of t h e American s t u d e n t s who i n E u r o p e , Worth Ryder was convinced  attended h i s classes  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  because he  the Regents of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a  Berkeley t o ask Hofmann t o t e a c h summer s c h o o l on campus.  at  their  Hofmann a c c e p t e d t h e i n v i t a t i o n and remained i n  America u n t i l h i s d e a t h .  He d i d not r e t u r n t o Germany because  h i s w i f e had warned him of the impending war u n a p p r e c i a t i v e a t t i t u d e of the N a z i s .  and  the  She l a t e r j o i n e d him  i n America. The l a c k of a r t w o r k s p r e v i o u s t o 1931 i s due t o h i s escape f r o m N a z i Germany. The works t h a t had remained i n Germany were e i t h e r d e s t r o y e d i n t h e Second W o r l d War or have been l o s t .  7 In t h e s p r i n g of 1931, Hofmann t a u g h t at t h e C h o u i n a r d i n Los Angeles and t h a t same y e a r , t h e C a l i f o r n i a L e g i o n o f Honor gave him h i s f i r s t American one-man show. From t h e t i m e o f h i s a r r i v a l i n A m e r i c a , Hofmann was educator.  an  A f t e r t e a c h i n g a t C h o u i n a r d , he t a u g h t i n New  l o r k a t t h e A r t s S t u d e n t s League f o r two y e a r s . opened h i s own well-known  s c h o o l i n 1933•  Then he  F i r s t l o c a t e d at  L e x i n g t o n Avenue and F i f t y - s e v e n t h S t r e e t , t h e s c h o o l l a t e r moved t o F i f t y - s e c o n d S t r e e t and N i n t h Avenue and to  E i g h t h S t r e e t i n h i s Greenwich V i l l a g e  finally  location.  Hofmann's presence i n New York has s e r v e d t o r a i s e up a c l i m a t e o f t a s t e among a t l e a s t f i f t y people i n America?, t h a t cannot be matched f o r v i g o u r o r c o r r e c t ness i n P a r i s o r London. No m a t t e r how p u z z l i n g and u g l y t h e new and o r i g i n a l w i l l a p p e a r — a n d i t w i l l i n deed appear s o — t h e people who i n h a b i t t h i s c l i m a t e w i l l not f a i l t o p e r c e i v e i t and h a i l i t . 9 Hofmann's l o n g r e s i d e n c e i n New York made him almost a l e g e n d on t h e American a r t s c e n e ; f o r over a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y he t a u g h t and s u p p o r t e d young American His  artists.  impact i s s t i l l b e i n g f e l t , both by s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n  s t u d e n t s o f h i s own s t u d e n t s , and by t h o s e a r t i s t s a t f i r s t u n f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s who  l e a r n e d about t h e a r t i s t  t h r o u g h h i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e w r i t i n g s on t h e t h e o r y o f a r t . 9  Clement Greenberg, "The P r e s e n t P r o s p e c t s o f American P a i n t i n g and S c u l p t u r e , " H o r i z o n , No. 93-4, O c t o b e r , 1947, p. 29.  CHAPTER I I THE THEORIES OF HANS HOFMANN The t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s of Hans Hofmann extended o v e r a p e r i o d of a h a l f a c e n t u r y .  Although h i s ideas are  o f t e n quoted, no study has attempted t o break t h r o u g h h i s t e r m i n o l o g y f o r a thorough e x p l a n a t i o n  o f .his t h e o r i e s .  I n t h i s c h a p t e r , h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d t o t h e s t y l e o f h i s w r i t i n g s and a c h r o n o l o g i c a l and  i nrelation explanation  e l u c i d a t i o n of h i s t h e o r i e s . I f Hofmann wrote p r e v i o u s t o 1931, t h o s e w r i t i n g s  as were h i s p a i n t i n g s were l o s t or d e s t r o y e d by t h e N a z i s during  t h e Second World War.  Some o f t h e s e w r i t i n g s  could  have found t h e i r way t o p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s , b u t t h e i r whereabouts have never been d i s c l o s e d . America i n 1931, Hofmann p u b l i s h e d a Berkeley E x h i b i t i o n catalogue, f o r t h e League.  Upon h i s a r r i v a l i n  f o u r a r t i c l e s ; one f o r  two f o r F o r t n i g h t l y and one  A f t e r the l a s t of that s e r i e s there i s  a n o t h e r gap of s i x t e e n y e a r s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Hofmann  wrote d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , f o r t h e r e  i s a c o l l e c t i o n of  u n p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g s by Hofmann a t t h e Museum o f Modern A r t i n New York and a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y . I n 1948 t h e Hofmann one-man r e t r o s p e c t i v e saw the p u b l i c a -  t i o n o f a monograph a t t h e A d d i s o n G a l l e r y o f American A r t . T h i s was t h e most comprehensive summation o f Hofmann*s t h e o r i e s t o t h a t date and a l s o i n c l u d e d newly developed ideas.  I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r s Hofmann p u b l i s h e d r e g u l a r l y ,  e i t h e r through e x h i b i t i o n catalogue  explanations,  i n t e r v i e w s or w r i t i n g s f o r magazines.  magazine  W h i l e some of t h e  w r i t i n g s r e i t e r a t e d p r e v i o u s l y published m a t e r i a l , three s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i c l e s appeared; "Space P i c t o r i a l l y  Realized  t h r o u g h t h e I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y o f C o l o r t o E x p r e s s Volume," (1951) "The R e s u r r e c t i o n  o f t h e P l a s t i c A r t s and The  M y s t e r y o f C r e a t i v e R e l a t i o n s , " (1953) and "The C o l o r Problem o f Pure P a i n t i n g . " (1955)  The s u b s t a n t i a l b u l k  of Hofmann s t h e o r i e s i s c u l m i n a t e d  i n these a r t i c l e s  1  a l t h o u g h he s t i l l p u b l i s h e d up t o 1963, the date o f t h e last interview. and  There were a l s o a l a r g e number of monographs  a r t i c l e s on Hofmann a f t e r he had a c h i e v e d renown i n 1944.  T h i s paper w i l l i n c l u d e t h e p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l up t o t h e end of J a n u a r y , 1966, when t h i s t h e s i s was b e i n g  completed.  The s t y l e o f Hofmann s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s i s T  t y p i c a l l y German, d e t a i l e d and e x a c t i n g , w i t h gramatical constructions.  complicated  H i s e a r l i e s t known w r i t i n g was  t r a n s l a t e d from t h e German by W i l l i a m C. S e i t z i n t h e Museum o f Modern A r t c a t a l o g u e i n 1963.  f o r h i s one-man show t h e r e  The a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d  after his arrival i n  A m e r i c a were t r a n s l a t e d by G l e n Wessels and o t h e r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y .  Wessels' understand-  10 ing  o f Hofmann's i d e a s enabled him t o t r a n s l a t e Hofmann's  d i f f i c u l t Germanic usage i n t o f a i r l y e a s i l y read E n g l i s h . I t i s when he does h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n s t h a t the of  Hofmann's w r i t i n g s a r i s e s .  difficulty  I n t h e s e l a t e r works,  Hofmann's Germanic use of t h e E n g l i s h language c r e a t e s a vagueness and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y t o the unaccustomed r e a d er. I n u s i n g "a c l o u d y m e t a p h y s i c a l r h e t o r i c , " h i s communicat i o n i s limited"!"  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y of Hofmann's w r i t i n g s  does not a r i s e from h i s i d e a s but from t h e way p r e s e n t e d them.  he  has  As w i l l be seen l a t e r , Hofmann has  s t r u c t e d h i s t h o u g h t s on German s y n t a x and m e r e l y  tran-  s l a t e d them l i t e r a l l y i n t o E n g l i s h , the end p r o d u c t anomalous t o t h e E n g l i s h r e a d e r .  con-  being  T h i s l a s t statement  is  n o t a c r i t i c i s m o f Hofmann's w r i t i n g s f o r i t i s understood t h a t he i s not a w r i t e r but a p a i n t e r .  He h i m s e l f undoubted-  l y r e a l i z e d h i s ineptness i n expressing himself i n the E n g l i s h language when he s a i d t h a t an i d e a has i t s own 2 p e c u l i a r medium t h r o u g h which i t can be e x p r e s s e d .  I f the  i d e a happens t o be n o n - l i t e r a r y t h e person t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s s u c h an i d e a w i l l be surmounting  an overwhelming o b s t a c l e .  Hofmann's i d e a s p a r t i a l l y f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y when he d i s c u s s e s s p i r i t u a l and m e t a p h y s i c a l i d e a s , w h i c h are o f t e n .  j  — — —  H a r o l d Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " P o r t f o l i o and A r t News Annual, no.6, Autumn, 1962, p.113. 2 Hans Hofmann, Search f o r t h e R e a l and Other E s s a y s , Andover, Mass., The Addison G a l l e r y of American A r t , i y 4 8 , p.46.  11 associated with a r t .  H i s problem i s t o d e f i n e h i s terms  a c c u r a t e l y and t o s t a y w i t h i n t h a t d e f i n i t i o n w h i l e i n f a c t he' o n l y v a g u e l y meaning  3  d e f i n e s terms and t h e r e i s o f t e n change i n  Hofmann's i n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f d e r i v e s  from the f a c t t h a t E n g l i s h i s not h i s mother tongue and he i s not g i f t e d i n a v e r b a l sense.  that  W h i l e h i s language i s  p i c t o r i a l and v i s u a l , he has used the v e r b a l medium t o express t o o t h e r a r t i s t s and h i s audience h i s t h e o r i e s and ideas concerning  a work o f a r t .  Hofmann's t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s have been b r o a d l y grouped, c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , i n t o t h r e e a r e a s .  Ideas from  y e a r t o y e a r do not change r a d i c a l l y but go t h r o u g h a o f development and metamorphosis. the Prospectus  of 1915  process  The f i r s t group c o n t a i n s  and the w r i t i n g s of 1931  and  1932  because of t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f i d e a s and the s c a r c i t y of m a t e r i a l previous t o h i s a r r i v a l t o America.  This section  i s a c t u a l l y the b a s i s of Hofmann's t h e o r i e s but language i s not as r e f i n e d and seen i n the l a t e r w r i t i n g s .  the  s o p h i s t o c a t e d as w i l l  The  be  second group, or s i n g l e  monograph d i s c u s s e s the S e a r c h f o r t h e R e a l of 1948.  From  t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n a g e n e r a l summation of a l l of Hofmann's t h e o r i e s i s u n d e r t a k e n , r e l a t i n g h i s i d e a s t o a few p e r t i n e n t p a i n t i n g s of the p e r i o d .  The t h i r d group of works c o n t a i n s  T h e change i s due o f t e n t o the development of i d e a s ; he has l o o s e l y d e f i n e d the term a t the o f f s e t and the development of the i d e a i s d i f f i c u l t t o a p p r e c i a t e . 3  12 t h e w r i t i n g s done a f t e r 194^. c a t e g o r i e s o f time and s u b j e c t .  These themselves f a l l  into  The dominant a s p e c t o f t h e  development o f c o l o r as a f o r m a l element c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e 1955  a r t i c l e , "The C o l o r Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g . "  Hofmann's w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o his  e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l t o show t h e i r development.  few  chosen p a i n t i n g s w i l l be used t o i l l u s t r a t e Hofmann's  i d e a s i n t h e a c t u a l r e a l m of h i s p a i n t i n g s .  Again a  Concluding the  d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l be a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n and  summarization  his  writings.  1915  of t h e t h e o r i e s e l u c i d a t e d by Hofmann i n  Hofmann's f i r s t group of w r i t i n g s date f r o m  and 1931 - 32.  I n t h e s e a r t i c l e s , Hofmann p r e s e n t e d t h e  i d e a s he absorbed from h i s P a r i s s t a y and d e f i n e d h i s s t a n d on a r t f o r h i s new American  audience.  The e a r l i e s t e x i s t i n g p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g by Hofmann i s a prospectus  f o r h i s Munich S c h o o l o f F i n e A r t s i n 1915•  T h i s p i e c e i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r i t r e v e a l s a t an e a r l y s t a g e , his  t h e o r i e s and t e a c h i n g s which w i l l v a r y o n l y  development d u r i n g h i s e n t i r e c a r e e r . "Art  through  His i n i t i a l  statement,  does n o t c o n s i s t i n t h e o b j e c t i v i z e d i m i t a t i o n o f 4  reality," art.  r e v e a l s a t once h i s p l a c e i n t h e f i e l d o f modern  A l r e a d y b e f o r e him, Cezanne, M a t i s s e , P i c a s s o , Delaunay,  and t h e members o f t h e p a i n t e r s o f P a r i s p r e v i o u s t o 1914 were a l r e a d y working  i n t h i s manner.  H e n r i M a t i s s e had  ^"Hans Hofmann, " P r o s p e c t u s f o r Munich S c h o o l o f Modern A r t , " 1915, c i t e d i n W i l l i a m C. S e i t z , Hans Hofmann, New York, Museum o f Modern A r t , 1963, p. 56.  13 p a i n t e d t h e "Green L i n e , " 1905, a p o r t r a i t o f Madame M a t i s s e . A l t h o u g h h i s work e x h i b i t s an i m i t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y , employed c o l o r f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f e f f e c t s .  Matisse  While the  a c t u a l shape o f t h e f a c e i s a l i k e n e s s o f Madame M a t i s s e , Henri Matisse use  p a i n t e d t h e nose and t h e f o r e h e a d  green.  His  o f c o l o r was " t o serve e x p r e s s i o n as w e l l as p o s s i b l e . " ^  Color i s expressive  i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f mood and t h e q u a l i t y  o f s p a t i a l r e c e s s i o n and p r o j e c t i o n .  The c u b i s t d e r i v e d  t h e i r t h e o r i e s from the p a i n t i n g s o f Cezanne.  The c u b i s t s *  i n c l u s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l approach o f I b e r i a n and A f r i c a n s c u l p t u r e can be seen i n P i c a s s o ' s "Les D e s m o i s e l l e s d«Avignon," 1907.  Hofmann's c l o s e f r i e n d Robert Delaunay  had a l r e a d y p a i n t e d h i s "Sun D i s k s , " 1912, where o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y cannot be seen a t a l l .  Delaunay p l a y e d w i t h h i s  d i s c o i d shapes and pure c o l o r s t o a c h i e v e luminous and v i b r a n t s u r f a c e a n i m a t i o n .  a perceivably Hofmann s nonT  o b j e c t i v e approach t o a r t r e v e a l e d a s i m i l a r i t y t o h i s c l o s e P a r i s i a n f r i e n d s H e n r i M a t i s s e and Robert Delaunay.  This  s i m i l a r i t y s u g g e s t s t h e i r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on Hofmann. Hofmann's c o n t a c t w i t h t h e P a r i s i a n a r t i s t ' s i s  ' H e n r i M a t i s s e , "Notes o f a P a i n t e r . " (1908) c i t e d i n A l f r e d H. B a r r , J r . , M a t i s s e : H i s A r t and H i s P u b l i c , New York,. The Museum o f Modern A r t , 195T7~p7T2"i.  14 6 s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e y gave him the b a s i s o f h i s i d e a l s . D u r i n g h i s Munich p e r i o d Hofmann p r e s e n t e d t o h i s s t u d e n t s a coherently  f o r m u l a t e d t h e o r y o f a r t d e r i v e d from h i s  Parisian friends.  These t h e o r i e s were n e c e s s i t a t e d  mere f a c t o f t e a c h i n g .  by t h e  S t u d e n t s were eager f o r an o r g a n i z e d  system w h i c h he had developed over the y e a r s .  Hofmann  s t a t e d i n h i s P r o s p e c t u s f o r t h e young a r t i s t s , t h a t he h i m s e l f t r i e d t o " d e t a c h from s c h o o l s and d i r e c t i o n s , t o 7 e v o l v e a p e r s o n a l i t y of h i s own."' H i s P r o s p e c t u s f o r t h e Munich S c h o o l was h i s f i r s t concrete formulation he d i s c u s s e s and  o f what he had l e a r n t i n P a r i s .  form and n a t u r e , c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ,  a work of a r t .  In i t  artists,  He b e l i e v e d t h a t form i n p a i n t i n g was  s t i m u l a t e d by n a t u r e , though i t was not bound t o n a t u r e i n objective imitation.  Nature was t h e source of i n s p i r a t i o n  f o r the s e n s i t i v e a r t i s t .  He w o u l d a l s o be a f f e c t e d by t h e  medium employed, t h r o u g h w h i c h the i n s p i r a t i o n was t r a n s formed by him i n t o t h e r e a l i t y of t h e p a i n t i n g . expression  "Creative  i s t h u s t h e s p i r i t u a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f i n n e r con-  cepts i n t o form, r e s u l t i n g from the f u s i o n o f these ^Who i s a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l and what were t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s cannot be s t a t e d d e f i n i t e l y f o r Hofmann does n o t t a l k o r w r i t e about h i s P a r i s y e a r s . When t h e unp u b l i s h e d paper h e l d by t h e Museum of Modern A r t , Glenn Wessels and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y a r e r e v e a l e d , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e a c t u a l f a c t s of t h i s p e r i o d . W i t h o u t t h e s e p a p e r s , i t would be pure academic h e r e s a y t o l i s t by whom and how Hofmann was a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d . 7Hofmann, " P r o s p e c t u s f o r Munich School...,"1915,P.56.  i n t u i t i o n s w i t h a r t i s t i c means of e x p r e s s i o n i n a u n i t y o f s p i r i t and f o r m , b r o u g h t about by i n t u i t i o n w h i c h i n t u r n r e s u l t s from t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e e n t i r e thought and f e e l i n g complex accompanied by v i g o r o u s c o n t r o l o f s p i r i t u a l means."  The above s e n t e n c e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o f Hofmann*s w r i t i n g s t y l e , means i n essence t h a t a p a i n t i n g (the c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ) i s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of n a t u r e and the medium.  Nature i n s p i r e s i n t h e a r t i s t a  thought p a t t e r n w h i c h r e s u l t s i n s p i r i t and t h e form o f the p a i n t i n g .  These two q u a l i t i e s a r e t h e n combined w i t h  the medium and t h e i n s p i r a t i o n from t h e medium, a l l the c o n t r o l of t h e m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s .  under  There r e s u l t s a  f u s i o n of a m e n t a l p r o c e s s w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l means of expression. "A work o f a r t i s i n s p i r i t a s e l f c o n t a i n e d whole, whose s p i r i t u a l and s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p p e r m i t no i n d i v i d u a l parts despite the m u l t i p l i c i t y of depicted objects."^  Hofmann*s d e f i n i t i o n o f a r t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n  o f t h e two systems o f organism; t h e f i r s t system b e i n g an o r g a n i c whole i n w h i c h " e v e r y element w i t h i n i t ,  implies  e v e r y o t h e r , ""^and t h e second b e i n g a system i n w h i c h "an Loc.cit. 9  Loc.cit. ^ S t e p h e n C. Pepper, World Hypotheses, a Study i n E v i d e n c e , B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y of u a i i r o r n i a , 19V2, P.300. ...  16 alteration  o r r e m o v a l o f any e l e m e n t w o u l d a l t e r  every  other  n element  o r even d e s t r o y  structure  t h e whole  o f Hofmann's t h e o r y  implies it  and c o m p l i c a t e d  Once he h a s m e n t i o n e d  one a s p e c t  a n o t h e r and c a n n o t be t h o u g h t  organistic one o f t h e  s t y l e of  of the t h e o r y , i t  o f as complete  until  h a s t h e o t h e r f a c t s added t o i t , In the s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n  arrival theory art  i n America  c a n be s e e n w e l l .  of expression,  movement, t e a c h i n g , told  a f t e r Hofmann's  i n 1931, t h e o r g a n i s t i c s t r u c t u r e  such as laws, r e a l i t y  medium  While d e a l i n g  with a l l aspects of  and a p p e a r a n c e ,  f o r m a l and c r e a t i v e symphonic  of h i s  spiritual  projection,  elements, d e p t h and  and d e c o r a t i v e  painting,  he  a r t form or c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t ,  he b e l i e v e d , 12  r i c h e d a n d gave d e e p e r c o n t e n t t o l i f e . " feeling,  a r t also  things."^  searched  "Artistic  essential  to life  expression  as food  Like  and a p p r e c i a t i o n  life."*^  is.  I t gives  "en-  a religious  " t o understand the essence  necessary t o counter-balance  of a l l  was  A r t t o h i m was a n power a n d  "satisfies  soul." !Loc.cit. x  12 vol.  also  of a r t s r e l a t i o n t o culture. Any  the  This  of a r t i s , i n part,  d e t e r m i n a t e s o f Hofmann's l o n g writing.  system."  Hans Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " F o r t n i g h t l y , 1, n o . 1, September 11, 1931, p . 6 . ^Loc.cit. ^Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g  and C u l t u r e , "  p.7.  17 Because o f a r t ' s a b i l i t y t o e n e r g i z e t h e o b s e r v e r , t h e aim of a r t i s t o " v i t a l i z e form by o r g a n i c  relationships  between t h e f o r m a l elements, w i t h c o l o r and l i g h t i n t e g r a t e d 15 i n t o the planes."  I n p a i n t i n g , the e f f e c t o f the v i t a l i z e d  f o r m must t a k e i n t o account  t h e Laws o f P a i n t i n g , namely:  1. 2.  The e n t i t y of t h e p i c t u r e plane must be p r e s e r v e d . The essence o f t h e p i c t u r e plane i s i t s two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y w h i c h must a c h i e v e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y by means of the c r e a t i v e process.  3.  In coloring, the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t s , and parency of a  the s u r f a c e of t h e canvas s h o u l d r e c e i v e p o s s i b l e r i c h n e s s i n l i g h t emanation a t t h e same time s h o u l d r e t a i n the t r a n s jewel."  These laws were founded on t h e b a s i s o f our p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y and appearances.  Hans Hofmann d i s c u s s e d h i s concept  o f p e r c e p t i o n i n an A r t i c l e , " P l a s t i c t h e League 1932.  Creation," published i n  What one sees i n t h e e x t e r i o r w o r l d ,  "appearance," i s two d i m e n s i o n a l w h i l e i n a c t u a l f a c t , t h a t world, r e a l i t y , i s three dimensional.  "We see r e a l i t y  only  t h r o u g h appearance w h i c h i n t u r n has t h e e f f e c t upon us o f 17 being a three dimensional r e a l i t y . "  The d i f f e r e n c e betwe  "appearance" and " e f f e c t " i s t h a t t h e former i s based on I b i d . , p. 5. 16 vol.  Hans Hofmann, "On t h e Aims o f A r t , " F o r t n i g h t l y , 1, no. 13, February.26, 1932, p. 10.  H a n s Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " (1932), c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, New York, Harry N. Abrams, 1963, p. 35. 1 7  18  s e e i n g a l o n e whereas " e f f e c t " i s the r e s u l t of the appearance from a c e r t a i n e x p e r i e n c e .  " E f f e c t s , " then, that come from  an o i l p a i n t i n g , are independent but they produce  of the o i l p a i n t s  these e f f e c t s because  themselves  "the; p a i n t s are s e t 18  together i n t h e i r s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . "  Their  placement  c r e a t e s what Hofmann c a l l s a " s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c e f f e c t , " " ^ b e i n g i n f a c t an emotional r e a c t i o n .  The s u p e r - r e a l i s t i c i s con-  t a i n e d i n the e f f e c t o f a t h i n g r a t h e r than i n a c t u a l i t y . "What i n a two-dimensional  f i x a t i o n of appearance  would  perhaps  only be the d i f f e r e n c e o f a f r a c t i o n of a m i l l i m e t e r would as e f f e c t under c e r t a i n circumstances mean an i n f i n i t y  i n a work  20 of a r t . "  The combination o f the senses a f f o r d s i n "our  s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n the emotional experience (which) can be gathered t o g e t h e r as an i n n e r p e r c e p t i o n by which we can comprehend the essence of t h i n g s beyond mere bare sensory exp e r i e n c e . "21  T h i s extended  inward experience enables the  viewer t o get t o the heart and c r u c i a l f a c t o r s o f the o b j e c t and t o see i t i n a l l i t s r e l a t i o n s and c o n n e c t i o n s .  "The  s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n or contemplation develops the sense of space because a l l of our sensory apparatus i s r e q u i r e d . " -^Loc. c i t . ^Loc. cit. 2 Q  Loc.cit.  21 Hofman, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " p.36. 22 Loc.cit.  19 The e x p e r i e n c e of space w h i c h i s d i s c l o s e d t o us by the subj e c t i v e s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n of the i m p u l s e s i s a p l a s t i c and l i v i n g unity.  T h i s l a s t statement r e f l e c t s Hofmann's aim of  a r t — t h e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f form.  We e x p e r i e n c e space i n a p a i n t -  i n g by the a c t i v a t i o n o f our s e n s e s .  T h e r e f o r e , i f an a r t i s t  w i s h e s t o c r e a t e a p a i n t i n g , he must s t r i v e t o a f f e c t the v i e w e r w i t h a c t i o n and v i t a l i t y from the form and c o l o r p a i n t ed on the canvas. The p r o c e s s of c r e a t i o n i s based upon the power t o p r e s e n t and t o s p i r i t u a l l y p r o j e c t .  The s p i r i t u a l  interpreta23  t i o n o f the medium o f e x p r e s s i o n i s the r e s u l t of such power. I n t h i s way e x p r e s s i o n medium i s a r e s u l t of such powers.  In  t h i s way, the c r e a t i v i t y of an a r t i s t depends on h i s g e n e r a l a b i l i t y t o p r o j e c t s p i r i t u a l l y and h i s s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y t o empathize and t o r e c e i v e from the medium of e x p r e s s i o n .  A more  encompassing statement of c r e a t i o n by Hofmann appeared a y e a r p r e v i o u s t o the one s i g h t e d above.  I n the e a r l i e r one he  said  t h a t c r e a t i o n was dependent on n a t u r e ' s law, the a r t i s t ' s s p i r i t u a l c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r e and the medium of e x p r e s s i o n . "The c r e a t i v e a r t i s t i s t o p a r a l l e l n a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v i t y by t r a n s l a t i n g the impulse r e c e i v e d from n a t u r e i n t o the medium 2ZL  of e x p r e s s i o n and t h u s v i t a l i z e t h i s medium." ^ 2 3  The apparent  Loc.cit.  2.L  Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931,  P«6.  d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h these two statements i s t h e i n c l u s i o n i n the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n o f " n a t u r e ' s l a w " and "medium o f  expression."  W h i l e i t i s not s t a t e d i n the 1932 v e r s i o n , Hofmann does r e f e r t o t h e s e two q u a l i t i e s when he s a i d t h a t " c r e a t i v i t y i n the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s based upon an e x p e r i e n c e (knowledge o f n a t u r e ' s l a w s ) , which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  a l s o stimulated the  essence o f the medium t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e a r t i s t i c  expression  25 results." '  T h e r e f o r e the apparent d i f f e r e n c e a r i s e s  only  because o f Hofmann's usage o f t h e E n g l i s h language. A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n language i s a l s o seen i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f medium.  T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n can be r e l a t e d , a s  i n t h e p r e v i o u s c a s e , p r o b a b l y t o Glenn W e s s e l s ' more f l u e n t t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o t h e E n g l i s h language. o f t h e medium must be mastered.  I n b o t h , the n a t u r e  I n t h e 1931 a r t i c l e , i t  s t a t e s t h a t " t h e medium can be made t o r e s o n a t e and v i b r a t e when s t i m u l a t e d by the impulse coming d i r e c t l y from t h e 26 natural world," expression  while  i n t h e 1932 a r t i c l e , t h e medium o f  can be s e t i n t o v i b r a t i o n and t e n s i o n by mastery  of t h e p r i n c i p l e s and meaning o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e medium, "which has has i t s own l a w s , w h i c h a r e t o be e x c l u s i v e l y mastered i n t u i t i v e l y out o f t h e development o f t h e c r e a t i o n . " ^ 25  Hofmann, " P l a s t i c Creation,"  1932,p.36.  H o f m a n n , "On t h e Aims o f A r t , " 1932, p.7. 27 'Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932, p.36. 26  21 The  e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s t a t e s t h a t the i m p u l s e of n a t u r e  t h r o u g h the a r t i s t ' s mind can s t i r him t o c r e a t i v i t y i f he has mastered the medium w h i l e the l a t t e r says t h a t medium can be "mastered i n t u i t i v e l y out of t h e of t h e c r e a t i o n . "  The  the  development  l a t e r a r t i c l e shows t h a t the  can s t i l l c r e a t e a g r e a t work w h i l e s i b i l i t i e s of the medium, f o r t h e  searching  the  artist  pos-  " p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  the  28 medium are  unlimited."  I n the 1932  s e c t i o n Hofmann broadened the range of  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a medium w h i l e  i n the s e c t i o n  the elements o f a p a i n t i n g he t i g h t e n e d fined.  The  two  up and  concerning further  a r t i c l e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e between f o r m a l  c r e a t i v e elements.  "The  f o r m a l elements i n p a i n t i n g  deand  are  l i n e , p l a n e , volume and t h e r e s u l t i n g complexes. These are 29 elements of c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r a v i t a l i z e d a r t . " The v i t a l i z a t i o n d e r i v e s f r o m " l i g h t and c o l o r i n t e g r a t e d i n t o 30 planes."  C o l o r and  l i g h t a r e c r e a t i v e elements f o r t h e y  v i t a l i z e the f o r m a l elements.  The  p e c u l i a r i t y w i t h i n these  s t a t e m e n t s c e n t e r s around the a d j e c t i v a l m o d i f i e r s , and  "creative."  W i t h i n t h e s e two  words t h e r e i s a u n i f y i n g  f a c t o r f o r the elements of p a i n t i n g . i n both f o r m a l and  "formal"  c r e a t i v e elements.  P l a n e s are  discussed  I t appears as i f  Hofmann 28has made an a r b i t r a r y d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n when i n f a c t Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, p. 6. 29 'Hans Hofmann, c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e , Aug. 5-22, B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1931. 30 Loc. c i t . T  22 the  two  are  creative tiate  related;  act  from  in  one u s e s t h e  painting.  color  herent  in  and l i g h t ,  both."  caused by Hofmann's and p o s s i b l y h i s  to  the  these  translators'  elements. form  aspects of other  qualities  by  are  in-  language  misinterpretation?  elements are  and the  differen-  a painting  English  similar  Klee discussed the  a line  the  discrepencies possibly  ineptness with the  Hofmann's formal  point  while  Are not  elements f o r  seems p e c u l i a r t o  creative^ and f o r m a l  merely  formative  It  formal  line's  to  Paul  movement  movement  to  Klee's  of  the  form  a  31 plane. plane from  into  their  respective formal  Hofmann by s t a t i n g  point with  Hofmann and K l e e i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e  the  other  variation  planes to of  their  developed either corporate  the  Hofmann's  later  concept  ings.  Both w r i t e r s  theory  of  the  defined the  elements  is  point  or the  line.  and the  plane.  development  planar  of  suggests that  from  to  plane.  differed the It  Both, however,  linear  a l s o d i s c u s s e d movement, of  joins  complexes.  This similarity the  the  A  seen because each has  Hofmann knew o f  space and r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  Klee  line  form volumes and f o r m a l  formal  the  line  elements.  origin  whereas Hofmann f u r t h e r  line  colors.  and  concept Klee's the No  in-  to  the  writ-  subjective published  m a t e r i a l h a s a p p e a r e d c o n c e r n i n g any c o n t a c t between Hofmann 31 Paul K l e e , "From Point to L i n e , " c i t e d i n Jurg S p i l l e r , P a u l K l e e : T h e T h i n k i n g E y e , New Y o r k , G e o r g e W i t t e n b o r n , 1 9 6 1 , p p . 103-120.  23  and K l e e , but Hofmann d i d mention the Bauhaus w i t h which Klee was a s s o c i a t e d . Hofmann used t h e f o r m a l and c r e a t i v e elements t o c r e a t e forms i n space.  U n l i k e Renaissance p a i n t e r s he d i d  not c r e a t e a space, a h o l e - i n - t h e - w a l l w i t h forms p l a c e d within i t .  But r a t h e r he, as h i s P a r i s i a n f r i e n d s had done,  s o l v e d t h e form problem i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p i c t u r e plane because  "form e x i s t s through space and space through form."  32  33  "Form must be balanced by space,"  and v i c e v e r s a .  e x i s t s i n form must a l s o e x i s t i n s p a c e . "  "What  Space and form  3 4  are i n t e r r e l a t e d i n t h a t t h e "space i n an o b j e c t  incor-  porates the o b j e c t i v e world i n i t s l i m i t s , and space i n 3 5  f r o n t o f and behind t h e o b j e c t , i n f i n i t y . "  The f u r t h e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and space can be seen i n Hofmann's d i s c u s s i o n o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e space.  "The c o n c e p t i o n  of t h e vacancy, t h e u n f u l f i l l e d space' as a n e g a t i v e form i s necessary t o r e c o n c i l e the p o s i t i v e form, the f u l f i l l e d space and i s t h e r e f o r e an o b j e c t . " and  The u n i t y of form  space t o the t o t a l space " e x i s t s i n t h r e e dimensions  which corresponds t o t h e two dimensional q u a l i t y o f t h e 37  p i c t u r e plane." "The object world and the sum of a l l Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932, p. 3 7 . 32  33  Hofmann, "On t h e Aims o f A r t , " 1932, L i o n e l Thomas.  35  3  p. 1 0 .  Interview w i t h w r i t e r , Jan. 1 6 ,  Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932,  p. 3 7 .  ^Loc. c i t .  37  Hofmann, "On the Aims o f A r t , " 1932,  p. 1 0 .  1966.  24 three dimensional tation,  elements g i v e s us i n t h e o p i t c a l  t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l  space  pearance of nature, t h e form  fulfillment  and space  manifes-  i n t h e ap-  problem i s i d e n t i c a l  38 with t h e essence dimensional  of the picture  (appearance  plane."  by t h e q u a l i t y  "We  s e e t h e two  of the picture  plane)  39 b u t we  comprehend t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l  fore the solution ture  plane  appearance has t h e e f f e c t  manifestation.  of a three  dimensional  In a c h i e v i n g the three dimensional  of the picture  Laws.  dimension-  f o r m s on t h e p i c t u r e  plane without  disturbing  picture  s i n c e t h e appearance and t h e p i c t u r e  ( b o t h two d i m e n s i o n a l ) In  life  are i d e n t i c a l  The a b i l i t y  quality  quality  i n their  That  essence."^  movement  to create the i l l u s i o n  i s the expression of l i f e .  determines  3 9  40  Ibid., T  p. 3 8 .  . • Loc. c i t .  ^Loc. cit.  without  . . .Enliven-  ed  Hofmann, " P l a s t i c  depth,  i s merely  o f t h e work f o r "Movement does n o t e x i s t  [ a n d ] movement  of the  plane  of the three dimensional,  o f movement d e v e l o p s . " ^  illusory. the  t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l  a c h i e v i n g a sense  "a s e n s e  effect,  p l a n e , a s s t a t e d i n Hofmann's P a i n t i n g  "One c a n p l a c e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l  plane  pic-  i n w h i c h a two  must remember n o t t o d e s t r o y t h e i n h e r e n t two  ality  There-  on t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l  i s paralleled'tooptical vision  dimensional  one  of a painting  (effect)."  C r e a t i o n , " 1 9 3 2 , p. 3 7 .  ment depends on t h e f a c i l i t y f o r e m o t i o n a l  experiencing  i n t h e a r t i s t , w h i c h i n i t s t u r n , d e t e r m i n e s t h e degree of s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n i n t o t h e medium of  expression."  These movements and depths can be a c h i e v e d  by  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f c o l o r , not m e r e l y as a mood or an e m o t i o n a l t o n e but by t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f c o l o r s t o a c h i e v e t h e p r o j e c t i o n of one the r e c e s s i o n of another.  c o l o r area i n r e l a t i o n to  T h i s t h e o r y of t h e dynamic  q u a l i t y of c o l o r i s expanded i n t h e 1951  a r t i c l e "Space  P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of t h e C o l o r s t o E x p r e s s Volumes," w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d In 1931,  Hofmann s e t up two  elements and t h e c r e a t i v e elements. form.  c a t e g o r i e s , the C o l o r was  later. formal  attached  Formal elements c o n s i s t e d of l i n e s p l a n e s and  r e s u l t i n g f o r m a l complexes.  the  C r e a t i v e elements c o n s i s t e d  o f l i g h t and c o l o r i n t e g r a t e d i n t o p l a n e s .  These  c a t e g o r i e s of elements were s y n t h e s i z e d i n 1932. and c r e a t i v e elements became one.  two Formal  Hofmann s t a t e d , " C o l o r  i s o n l y an e f f e c t of l i g h t on form i n r e l a t i o n t o form i t s i n h e r e n t t e x t u r e . . . . Form e x i s t s because of l i g h t l i g h t by means of form."* ' 4  3  to  and and  Hofmann r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l o r and  ^Loc. c i t . ^Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932,  p.36.  26 form had t o c o e x i s t . other.  They were m u t u a l l y dependent  on each  T h i s dependence r e f l e c t s Hofmann's o r g a n i s t i c  t h e o r y i n which each f a c t o r i m p l i e s a n o t h e r and no one f a c t o r can be l e f t o u t .  Formal elements i m p l y c r e a t i v e e l e -  ments, and v i c e v e r s a .  The two d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s o f 1931  are combined t o form one i n 1932. The f u r t h e r i n c l u s i v e n e s s  o f h i s t h e o r y i s seen i n  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and space i n which form exi s t s because o f space and space e x i s t s because o f f o r m , w h i c h i n t u r n e x i s t s o n l y by t h e means o f l i g h t and v i c e versa.  He t h e n c o n t i n u e s t h e u n i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n by s a y -  i n g t h a t t h e e f f e c t of l i g h t i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s form and i t s inherent texture  i s color.  From t h i s i t can be seen  t h a t he r e l a t e s form w i t h space, l i g h t and c o l o r .  A l l the  above i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s must be a r r a n g e d so as t o be based on t h e concept o f s p a t i a l u n i t y , t h e r e l a t i o n between form and space.  Because l i g h t i s r e l a t e d t o form and form t o  space, l i g h t u n i t y i s r e l a t e d t o s p a t i a l u n i t y .  Light  u n i t y i s c r e a t e d by t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e e f f e c t o f l i g h t complexes and by t h e " c r e a t i o n of a c o l o r a c h i e v e d when t h e r e c e s s i o n  unity"  and p r o j e c t i o n o f c o l o r i s  u n d e r s t o o d and when t o n a l g r a d a t i o n s a r e t a k e n i n t o account. 4 4  I b i d . , p. 37.  4 4  27 T h i s incompassing outlook  required, by t h e a r t i s t ' s  t o t a l mental f u n c t i o n i n g i s a f a c e t of Hofmann's i d e a l . Through t h e complete occupation  o f the mind, a s p i r i t u a l  r e a l i z a t i o n can be a t t a i n e d by t h e s e n s i t i v e a r t i s t .  This  r e a l i z a t i o n i s the only way o f e x t e r n a l i z i n g the mental f u n c t i o n , or as Hofmann c a l l s i t , i n n e r s e n s a t i o n . the impulses which e m o t i o n a l i z e with the medium o f e x p r e s s i o n ,  "When  the a r t i s t , are i n t e g r a t e d every m o t i v a t i o n  can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a s p i r i t u a l m o t i v a t i o n " ^ 4  of the s o u l as seen i n  the e n t i t y o f the p a i n t i n g . " T h i s work o f a r t i s the product o f t h e a r t i s t ' s power f o r conscious  f e e l i n g and o f h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i f e  i n nature and l i f e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f h i s medium." ^ 4  That work o f a r t r e f l e c t s t h e " s e n s o r i a l and emotional world for  the a r t i s t . "  i n  I t i s "sensory raw m a t e r i a l blended t o id  a s p i r i t u a l u n i t y through the l e g i t i m a t e use o f t h e medium." Through exaggerated d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n the p a i n t i n g a c q u i r e s the h i g h e s t  enrichment o f i t s s u r f a c e .  monumental "by the most exact  I t becomes  and r e f i n e d r e l a t i o n between  /. Q  the p a r t s . " ^ for  T h i s type o f p a i n t i n g i s known as Symphonic  by, w i t h and from c o l o r , form i s i n t e n s i f i e d i n subL 5 ^Hofmann, E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue, Berkeley, 1931. 46  Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, p. 6.  47  Hofmann, "On the Aims o f P a i n t i n g , " 1932, p. 7.  4 8  I b i d . ' , p. 8.  4 9  I b i d . , p. 9.  2B o r d i n a t i o n t o s p a t i a l and a t i o n a l areas of l i g h t and  s p i r i t u a l unity i n large form.  50  medium i n symphonic p a i n t i n g . " ^ way,  c o l o r a t t a i n s the g r e a t e s t  present-  Color i s the r e a l b u i l d i n g Hofmann says that i n t h i s f u l l n e s s and  form the  great-  51 e s t r i c h n e s s as Cezanne achieved i n h i s work. made t o p r o j e c t and  Colors  t o recede by the means of an  being " c o l o r planes standing  i n greatest  are  interval,  c o n t r a s t as  possible  to a l l i t s neighbours w i t h i n the balance of the whole."52 Hofmann*s use  of the m u s i c a l term, Symphonic, f o r a  c e r t a i n c l a s s of p a i n t i n g s  could imply h i s knowledge of  W a s s i l y Kandinsky's Concerning the S p i r i t u a l i n A r t , i n  53 which symphonic and melodic p a i n t i n g s t y l e s are Kandinsky and  Hofmann a l s o d i s c u s s e d  i n s p i r a t i o n , i n n e r f e e l i n g s and  discussed.  Nature as the  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  source of and  p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t of c o l o r t o produce three  dimensional  space and  generally  form.  Although Kandinsky's book was  read by the avant garde, a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1912, t h a t time Hofmann would have heard of the of r e l a t i n g p a i n t i n g t o music.  synesthetic  Synesthesia  had  by  idea  been f o r a  l o n g time a European t r a d i t i o n when Hofmann a r r i v e d i n 5QLoc.cit. ^Loc.cit. ^^Loc.cit. 5 W a s s i l y Kandinsky, Concerning the S p i r i t u a l i n A r t , ( 1 9 1 2 ) , New York, Wittenborn, S c h u l t z , I n c . , 1947. 3  29 P a r i s i n 1904.  P o s s i b l y i n P a r i s he heard o f K a n d i n s k y ' s  C o n c e r n i n g t h e S p i r i t u a l i n A r t though Hofmann never wrote or spoke of such a c o n t a c t .  I f Hofmann had r e a d  K a n d i n s k y ' s book, i t was p r o b a b l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Munich i n 1914.  However Clement Greenberg b e l i e v e s t h a t  K a n d i n s k y had no i n f l u e n c e on t h e t h e o r i e s of Hofmann because by t h e time Hofmann had r e t u r n e d  t o Germany i n 1914,  h i s t h e o r i e s had a l r e a d y been f o r m u l a t e d F r e n c h masters o f t h e t w e n t i e t h  from t h e g r e a t 54  century.  Hofmann was n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n u s i n g m u s i c a l to class paintings. called decorative.  terms  H i s o t h e r c a t e g o r y of p a i n t i n g s was Decorative  p a i n t i n g employs some  a s p e c t s o f symphonic p a i n t i n g b u t t h e former emphasizes the greatest s i m p l i f i c a t i o n .  I n t e l l e c t and emotion a r e  used f o r t h e common end o f s i m p l i c i t y .  O f t e n t h i s can  l e a d t o a b s t r a c t i o n when " r h y t h m i c r e l a t i o n s c o n d i t i o n e d by space and m u s i c a l  contacts"^  a r e  taken i n t o account.  Always t h e problem of space must be p e r f e c t f o r "the w a l l must remain a w a l l and t h e p i c t u r e must remain a p i c t u r e . " One must n o t c r e a t e a h o l e - i n - t h e - w a l l as t h e p a i n t e r s o f the Renainssance had p e r f e c t e d .  1961,  T h i s does not mean t h a t  ^^Clement Greenberg, Hofmann, P a r i s , George F a l l , p.16. 55  H o f m a n n , "On t h e Aims of A r t , " 1932, p.10.  -^Loc.cit.  3Q o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s c a n n o t be u s e d f o r i t i s i n D e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g t h a t " o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s a r e made more  effective  57  by  rhythmic  not merely the  relations."  t a s t e f u l l y and  same p r o c e d u r e Decorative  artist  '  These o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s fancifully  as t h o s e  arranged  of Symphonic  but  are require  painting.  p a i n t i n g becomes a g r e a t d e s i g n i f t h e  i s a b l e " t o s i m p l i f y t o t h e e s s e n t i a l s and  to  eg  organize the ever pictorial  present  life  c r e a t i o n i s achieved  sensibility pictorial  as r e g a r d s the  feeling.  I t may  essentials." by a h i g h l y  "Great developed  n a t u r a l w o r l d and  upon s t r o n g  c a r r y a d d i t i o n a l burden  of  59  the  literary,  necessary.  dogmatic or p o l i t i c a l , "  T h r o u g h a r t one  but  i t i s not  i s a b l e t o become i m m o r t a l i f  he  i s " a b l e t o pervade h i s work w i t h h i s s o u l and  It  i s the  art  spiritual  and  mental content  spirit.  of the work  t h a t i s t h e q u a l i t y i n a p a i n t i n g and  not the  of allegory  or s y m b o l l i c meaning. Besides  t h e a b o v e m a t e r i a l on t h e t h e o r y o f a r t i n  p a i n t i n g , Hofmann b e i n g a t e a c h e r d i s c u s s e d h i s o t h e r  pro-  f e s s i o n a l f i e l d , t e a c h i n g . A r t c a n o n l y be t a u g h t t o 57Hofmann, "On t h e A i m s o f A r t , " 1932, p.9.  one  ^Loc.cit. ^ H o f m a n n , "On 60  T  Loc.cit.  t h e A i m s o f A r t , " 1932,  p.ll.  31  who  p o s s e s s e s a " h i g h l y developed s e n s i t i v i t y f o r q u a l i t y .  The laymen who  understands a r t through a r e c e p t i v e ex-  p e r i e n c e shares p a s s i v e l y what the a r t i s t out o f p r o d u c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f e e l s and c r e a t e s . " direct  The t e a c h e r must  s t u d e n t s toward the "enrichment  of t h e i r  life,  g u i d e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y and d e v e l o p t h e i r s e n s i b i l i t y t o T  feel into'^  2  animate  o r i n a n i m a t e t h i n g s w i t h sympathy."^  3  "By e n f o r c e d d i s c i p l i n e , he s h o r t e n s the r o a d t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e v e l o p s the s t u d e n t s n a t u r a l endowments."^  4  The  t e a c h e r most o f a l l must have "the power o f q u i c k sympathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t o produce a r t i s t s , comprehending  t e a c h e r s , a r t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a r t enjoyment i n g e n e r a l . For t h e next f i f t e e n y e a r s Hans Hofmann d i d not p u b l i s h but i n the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s o f the  "American-type  p a i n t i n g " o r " A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s m " he f o l l o w e d h i s d i r e c t i o n s f o r a t e a c h e r and h e l p e d d i r e c t the new t i o n o f American  a r t i s t s t o t h e i r form o f a r t .  none of the members of t h e s o - c a l l e d New  genera-  Although  York S c h o o l o f  6lHofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931,  p.5.  Zip  " F e e l i n t o " c o u l d be a l s o t r a n s l a t e d as empathy because t h e s e two terms are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the same German word, d i e E i n f u h l u n g . Hofmann s l a t e r 1952 def i n i t i o n of word empathy i n c l u d e s a r t i s t i c r e a l i z a t i o n . T  ^ H o f m a n n , " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, 6 4  Ibid.,  p.7.  6 5  Ibid.,  p..6.  p.6.  32 Abstract Expressionism  attended  Hofmann's c l a s s e s , h i s  presence i n v i g o r a t e d the New York a r t scene.  He brought  over from Europe the i d e a s of t h e Fauves and t h e C u b i s t s which c o u l d be seen i n h i s work of t h i s p e r i o d . H i s w e e k l y c r i t i c i s m s o f s t u d e n t ' s work was o f t e n a t t e n d ed by members o f t h e a r t c i r c l e i n t h e Greenwich  Village  area.  included  He b e l o n g e d t o t h e "Club" whose members  the a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s . During the m i d - f o r t i e s the a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s t s began t o r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n . t h i s p e r i o d , 1944,  It is in  t h a t Hans Hofmann had h i s f i r s t one-  man show i n New York a t Peggy Guggenheim's " A r t o f t h i s Century G a l l e r y . "  He h e l d e x h i b i t i o n s y e a r l y i n New York,  m a i n l y a t t h e Sammuel K o o t z G a l l e r y . A l s o d u r i n g t h e m i d - f o r t i e s , Hofmann taught a number o f West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t s who w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  later  i n t h e paper. The most i m p o r t a n t  event of t h i s p e r i o d f o r Hofmann  was perhaps h i s one-man r e t r o s p e c t i v e show a t t h e A d d i s o n G a l l e r y of American A r t i n Andover, M a s s a c h u s e t t s . show, a monograph-catalogue was p u b l i s h e d  At t h a t  c o n t a i n i n g some  of h i s t e a c h i n g s , o l d e r e s s a y s , the new a r t i c l e "The Search f o r t h e R e a l i n t h e V i s u a l A r t s , " and h i s well-known t h e o r y 66 Donald J a r v i s , I n t e r v i e w w i t h w r i t e r , F e b r u a r y 1, 1966.  33 o f "push and p u l l . "  As t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was w i d e l y  read  by a r t i s t s and comprises the second p e r i o d o f Hofmann*s w r i t i n g s , a d e t a i l d i s c u s s i o n w i l l now be c o n s i d e r e d reference  with  t o h i s e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s o f 1931 and 1932.  F u n d a m e n t a l l y , The Search f o r t h e R e a l does not v a r y a g r e a t d e a l from Hofmann's e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s .  The  f i f t e e n y e a r s i n America has improved h i s w r i t i n g s t y l e and  c l a r i f i e d h i s thought.  T h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n was un-  d o u b t e d l y r e i n f o r c e d by t h e a r t i s t i c community o f New York and  h i s n e c e s s i t y o f an o r g a n i z e d  ed t o h i s s t u d e n t s .  concept w h i c h was  present-  I n t h i s monograph Hofmann p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e now famous t e r m s , "push and p u l l , " " e x p a n s i o n and contraction." explained  These movements, as seen i n a p a i n t i n g , a r e  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e problem o f form and c o l o r and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s .  These  t h e o r i e s o f Hofmann were t h e n a p p l i e d t o two of h i s b e t t e r known p a i n t i n g s , " E f f e r v e s c e n c e "  and " F a n t a s i a . "  f i n a l s e c t i o n o f Hofmann's monograph a r e t h e n  The  discussed  i n r e l a t i o n t o q u a l i t y i n a work o f a r t . The i d e a o f "the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a work o f a r t b e i n g d e t e r m i n e d by t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s g r o w t h , " ^  7  reflects  t h e o r g a n i c and o r g a n i s t i c q u a l i t y o f h i s t h e o r i e s as published  6 7  i n the previously c i t e d m a t e r i a l .  The work of  H a n s Hofmann, Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p. 46.  34  art, u s u a l l y p a i n t i n g or s c u l p t u r e , i s t h e p h y s i c a l carrier It  o f something beyond p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , the s u r r e a l .  i s t h e t a s k o f the a r t i s t who r e c e i v e s t h e s u r r e a l  f o r c e s t o transpose these forces i n t o the p h y s i c a l carrier, ic  t h e medium of e x p r e s s i o n .  I n t h i s way an a r t i s t -  c r e a t i o n i s " t h e metamorphosis of t h e e x t e r n a l p h y s i c a l  aspects of a thing into a s e l f sustaining  spiritual  68  reality." the  This " s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y " i s not organic i n  sense of p o s s e s s i n g  have a l i f e This l i f e and  created  an a c t u a l l i f e  i n i t perceivable  i s incited  organism but does t o the v i e w e r .  by the a r t i s t ' s placement o f form  c o l o r i n such a way as t o c r e a t e t h e e f f e c t o f move-  ment and v i t a l i t y .  "Movement does n o t e x i s t w i t h o u t  life.  69  Movement i s the e x p r e s s i o n The  of l i f e . "  c r e a t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y depends on  "metaphysical perceptions,  t h e s e a r c h f o r the e s s e n t i a l  70 nature of r e a l i t y . "  One cannot s i m p l y  change a p h y s i c a l  e n t i t y i n t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e s p i r i t u a l by mere placement. A fragment o f thought i n i t s e l f i s m e a n i n g l e s s u n t i l o t h e r f r a g m e n t6 s8 a r e r e l a t e d so as t o form an i d e a . Loc. c i t . T  I n the same  69 7  Hofmann, " P l a s t i c  7 0 Hofmann,  C r e a t i o n , " 1 9 3 2 , p. 3 8 .  Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1 9 4 8 , p. 4 6 .  way p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s can be made m e a n i n g f u l by r e l a t i o n ships t o other e n t i t i e s .  The a c t u a l p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f a medium o f e x p r e s s i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e v a r i o u s a r t s f o r "a p l a s t i c i d e a must be expressed w i t h p l a s t i c means j u s t as a m u s i c a l i d e a i s expressed w i t h m u s i c a l 71  means, o r a l i t e r a r y i d e a w i t h v e r b a l means."'  I n each  case t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i d e a i s a c h i e v e d by p l a c i n g two e n t i t i e s i n an e m o t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n which creates a t h i r d e n t i t y of higher order.  This higher order  i s s p i r i t u a l , a c r e a t i o n o f the mind under t h o s e circumstances.  special  I n such a r e l a t i o n t h e r e i s m u t u a l r e -  f l e c t i o n ; each e n t i t y a f f e c t s t h e o t h e r and v i c e v e r s a . The l i m i t s f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s i n p a i n t i n g i s determined  by  the e x t e n t o f t h e canvas o r t h e p i e c e o f paper. Any a c t done t o t h e canvas n a t u r a l l y c r e a t e s a c o n t r a c t i o n o f the s u r f a c e a r e a but a l s o t h a t a c t i s always answered back i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n .  In t h i s  way t h e canvas appears t o " c o n t r a c t and t o expand i n simultaneous  existence, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  space."  The p i c t u r e plane appears t o have depth and space.  7 2  This  space i s not n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r t h a t i s a " s p e c i a l c a s e , a p o r t i o n o f what i s f e l t about t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l  experience.  Loc. c i t . Hofmann, Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p.48.  36 This expression 73  of the a r t i s t ' s experience  i s thus  incomplete."  The depth and space t h a t appears on t h e  p i c t u r e s u r f a c e does not d e s t r o y i t s two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y f o r " i t i s the conceptual experience  completeness o f a p l a s t i c  ( p l a s t i c creation without  f l a t surface)  destroying a  that warrants the preservation of the 71  two  dimensionality." The depth t h a t i s c r e a t e d i s not a c h i e v e d  perspective  by t h e  system o f the R e n a i s s a n c e p a i n t e r s but r a t h e r  "by t h e c r e a t i o n o f f o r c e s i n the sense o f 'Push and Pull'. 75 ,?  " S i n c e one cannot c r e a t e  ' r e a l d e p t h ' by  c a r v i n g a h o l e i n t h e p i c t u r e , and s i n c e one s h o u l d not attempt t o c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f depth by t o n a l g r a d a t i o n , depth as a p l a s t i c r e a l i t y must be two  dimensional  i n a f o r m a l sense as w e l l as i n t h e sense o f c o l o r . " I n t h i s s t a t e m e n t , Hofmann r e v e a l s t h a t p a i n t i n g t o him e n t a i l s b o t h form and c o l o r , whereas i n the 1932 a r t i c l e he s t a t e d t h a t a r t v i t a l i z e d f o r m . "To c r e a t e t h e phenomena of push and p u l l on a f l a t s u r f a c e , one has t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t by n a t u r e t h e p i c t u r e plane r e a c t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n t h e o p p o s i t e 7 3  Ibid.,  p.49.  7^Loc. c i t . Loc. c i t . 76  H o f m a n n , Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p.50.  37 d i r e c t i o n of the stimulus received."  77  When a square  a r e a o f c o l o r i s p l a c e d on t h e bare canvas an e q u a l f o r c e i s d i r e c t e d o f f t h e canvas, p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e canvas. Hofmann's s t a t e m e n t , though s i m i l a r t o movement and counter-movement o f 1932, d e f i n e s t h e d i r e c t i o n more e x p l i c i t l y and t h e a c t u a l r e s u l t s o f an a p p l i c a t i o n o f paint t o the p i c t u r e plane.  When two a r e a s a r e p a i n t e d ,  a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s e t up between them.  Our eyes f o c u s on  each and on b o t h c a u s i n g one t o become more  accentuated  and t h e r e f o r e p r o j e c t and t h e o t h e r t o r e c e d e .  When more  t h a n two a r e a s a r e i n v o l v e d , t h e eye and t h e mind t r y t o s o l v e t h e m u l t i p l e e n t i t i e s by p a i r i n g t h e a r e a s t o create the s p i r i t u a l higher t h i r d .  This higher t h i r d then  can be f u r t h e r p a i r e d w i t h another a r e a u n t i l t h e whole p a i n t i n g i s s t i m u l a t e d by t h e a c t i o n o f p a i r i n g and c r e a t ing higher t h i r d s .  I n c r e a t i n g such t h i r d s , t h e canvas i s  expanded and c o n t r a c t e d .  The two a r e a s a r e u n i f i e d t o  draw t h e edges o f t h e canvas t o g e t h e r o r a r e s e p a r a t e d t o a f f e c t an i n c r e a s e t o t h e s u r f a c e a r e a . and  "Push and p u l l "  " e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n " can now be seen as b e i n g  f o r c e s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o each o t h e r w i t h push and p u l l , p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e and e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n , p a r a l l e l t o the picture surface.  Loc. c i t .  38 Push and p u l l can be e a s i l y c r e a t e d by mere p l a n e s of d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s .  Hofmann saw  i n Cezanne's l a t e r works  "an enormous sense o f volume, b r e a t h i n g , p u l s a t i n g , expand-  ed  i n g - c o n t r a c t i n g t h r o u g h h i s use of c o l o r . "  Mood i s  c r e a t e d as i s the a c t i o n of push and p u l l .  The p r o j e c t i o n  and r e c e s s i o n of c o l o r i s o n l y a t t a i n e d i f t h e a r t i s t i s s e n s i t i v e t o the c r e a t i o n of t h i s s u r r e a l e f f e c t .  He does 7Q  not use  c o l o r alone, f o r p a i n t i n g i s "forming w i t h c o l o r . " '  C o l o r i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f form. T h i s form i s based on the p l a n a r concept as C u b i s t s had done. plane's  the  They r e c o g n i z e d the v a l u e o f the p i c t u r e  two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y as d i d the I m p r e s s i o n i s t s a l -  though the l a t t e r were r e a l l y " s e a r c h i n g f o r the e n t i t y of 80 l i g h t , expressed  through c o l o r . "  The use of form and  c o l o r i s found i n t h e f i n e  and  a p p l i e d a r t s , the l a t t e r b e i n g commercial or d e c o r a t i v e 81 as s t a t e d i n the 1931  article.  The  d i f f e r e n c e between  t h e f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s l i e s i n the way medium of e x p r e s s i o n .  The  of r e g a r d i n g  the  a p p l i e d a r t i s t a r r a n g e s the  p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i v e elements merely p l e a s i n g l y and t a s t e 78 fully. The f i n e a r t i s t "empathizes and f e e l s the i n t r i n s i c Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, p. 51. 7 < 7  Loc. c i t . Hofmann, S e a r c h f o r the R e a l , 1948, Hofmann, "On  the Aims of A r t , " 1932,  p. p.  52. 9-10.  7  39 q u a l i t i e s of t h e medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . "  Hofmann b e l i e v e d  t h a t t h e concept o f t h e u n i o n o f t h e f i n e and a p p l i e d a t t h e Bauhaus t o be a t r a g e d y , f o r t h e f i n e a r t s  arts  "concern  man's r e l a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d as a s p i r i t u a l b e i n g , " ^ 3 whereas a p p l i e d a r t s have merely a u t i l i t a r i a n  purpose.  "The d i s c o v e r i e s o f t h e Bauhaus were m a i n l y d i r e c t e d t o wards a v i t a l s u r f a c e a n i m a t i o n by a b s t r a c t d e s i g n . " ^ The d e c o r a t i v e a r t i s t does not need t o empathize, and t h e r e s u l t i s m e r e l y two d i m e n s i o n a l .  For a decorative a r t  t o become a f i n e a r t , t h a t work o f a r t must possess " t h e phenomena of p l a s t i c movement ( f o r t h a t ) d e t e r m i n e s whether or not a work belongs i n the c a t e g o r y o f f i n e a r t s o r i n d r  the  c a t e g o r y of a p p l i e d a r t s . "  J  T h i s l a s t statement de-  f i n e s p e r f e c t l y how Hofmann d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between t h e two and shows t h e development of t h e concept o f movement and v i t a l i t y i n t h e f i n e a r t s .  In the e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s ,  a r t was t o have " v i t a l i z e d form,"movement.  While  still  r e t a i n i n g t h i s c o n c e p t , he has d e f i n e d t h e l i m i t s o f h i s movements, e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n , push and p u l l and how t o c r e a t e them i n a t h e o r e t i c a l  way.  H o f m a n n , Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948,  g2  8 3  Ibid.,  p.53.  ^ Loc. c i t . 4  ^Loc. c i t .  p.52.  40 The a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e t h i s  s p i r i t o f movement i n  the work o f a r t w i l l determine i t s q u a l i t y . v i t a l i t y i s achieved,  t h e work o f a r t l i v e s  Once  this  forever.  As s t a t e d i n the 1931 a r t i c l e , " t h a t one i s i m m o r t a l i n a r t who i s a b l e t o pervade h i s work w i t h h i s s o u l and spirit."  The a r t i s t t r a n s f e r s t h e v i t a l i t y and energy  0  o f h i s i n s p i r e d s e l f t o t h e medium and t h i s  energy r e t a i n s  i t s momentum as l o n g as t h e work remains i n the same physical state.  "The r e a l i n a r t never d i e s because i t s 87  nature i s predominantly s p i r i t u a l . "  '  Hofmann  believes  t h a t i f one i s a b l e t o v i t a l i z e a p a i n t i n g u n t i l i t becomes s p i r i t u a l , the a r t i s t w i l l become i m m o r t a l f o r t h e spiritual  i s d e r i v e d from t h e a r t i s t and h i s e x p e r i e n c e .  W h i l e t h e "Search f o r t h e R e a l " i s o n l y a p o r t i o n of t h e monograph, t h e r e s t of t h e book i s devoted t o a p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d and d i s c u s s e d and  Culture,"  Hofmann."  0 0  and " E x c e r p t s  This l a s t a r t i c l e  article,  "Painting  from t h e Teaching o f Hans i s a l s o mainly derived  from  the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d m a t e r i a l b u t new elements can be found. I n t h e s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e l i n e and t h e p l a n e , he says t h a t "the p i c t o r i a l plane concept.  s t r u c t u r e i s based on t h e  The l i n e o r i g i n a t e s i n t h e meeting o f two  °~ Hofmann, "On t h e Aims o f A r t , " 1932, p. 11. 6  °* Hofmann, 'Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p. 54. 7  °"°*Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 193.1-,p. 5-7.  41 planes. ^ n  he  I n h i s a r t i c l e , " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n " of  s a i d t h a t "the l i n e was  probably  a f u r t h e r development of  s m a l l e s t p a i n t i n g p l a n e . TT  plane—the  t o 1950,  planes.  90  The  the  change i s  due t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g awareness of the use  planes i n r e l a t i o n to c o l o r . 1940  1932,  show l e s s use  of  Works of t h i s p e r i o d , of l i n e t o f u r t h e r d e f i n e  I n " F a n t a s i a , " 1943,  and  "Effervescence,"  1944,  l i n e g r a d u a l l y l o s e s i t s purpose as a d e f i n i n g s t r u c t u r e . The  w h i t e d r i b b l e of p a i n t i n " F a n t a s i a " ( p l a t e I )  l a y s a r e a s of h e a v i l y pigmented s u r f a c e s . s t a t e d i n the 1932 plane.  The  The  over-  line,  as  a r t i c l e , i s the s m a l l e s t p a i n t i n g  s p i r a l and  c a l l i g r a p h i c designs  p r o j e c t from i t s b e a u t i f u l l y m o t t l e d and b l u e background.  of paint d r i p  y e l l o w , g r e e n , mauve  I n the l o w e r l e f t hand c o r n e r  there  i s s t i l l the t r a c e of t h e l i n e as a method of d e f i n i t i o n . The  sideways " C " - l i k e f o r m a t i o n p a i n t e d i n b l u e - b l a c k ,  i s d e f i n e d by a w h i t e d r i p p e d l i n e .  The w h i t e sharpens  the edge of the b l a c k a g a i n s t the mauvish r e c e d i n g A cavern-like formation  area.  i s c r e a t e d by the w h i t e d e f i n i t i o n .  This s m a l l area c o n t r a s t s w i t h h i s t h e o r i e s of expansion and  c o n t r a c t i o n and push and  pull.  For here a n a t u r a l i s t i c  h o l e i s c r e a t e d on the s u r f a c e of the canvas as R e n a i s s a n c e p a i n t e r s had done.  The  c o n t r a s t of the " C " - l i k e shape and  89 Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948, 90 Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932,  P»70. p.37.  42 the dark downward d i r e c t i o n a l device i n the center l e a d the eye t o the base o f the canvas.  Hofmann manages t o  excape from the h o l e - i n - t h e - w a l l e f f e c t by p l a c i n g a s m a l l a r e a of the same b l u e - b l a c k and an area o f green t o the left  center.  The eye i s taken i n a  r,  U " - l i k e route and  g r a d u a l l y l e a d i n t o areas o f i n c r e a s e d c o l o r  intensity.  A t r a n s i t i o n a l passage can be seen i n the upper l e f t corner green area where the green o f the l e f t  hand  center has-  been combined w i t h the y e l l o w of the upper a r e a .  The eye  i s caught by the b r i g h t n e s s of the upper y e l l o w area and d i r e c t e d down t o the lower l e f t hand corner.  Black and  green areas work the eye up t o the t r a n s i t i o n a l green and the eye c y c l e begins a g a i n .  area  The movement o f the eye  i s not c o n t i n u o u s l y r o t a t i n g , f o r the d r i p p e d l i n e a r white areas d e t r a c t the eye i n an o s c i l a t i n g motion p a r a l l e l t o the p i c t u r e plane.  T h i s p a r a l l e l o s c i l l a t i o n i s what  Hofmann meant by c o n t r a c t i n g and expanding f o r c e s .  A  s i m i l a r motion i s a l s o set up p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o the p i c t u r e plane.  The a l t e r n a t i n g p r o j e c t i o n and r e c e s s i o n  from the canvas of the y e l l o w and white d r i p areas i s what Hofmann meant by push and p u l l . and  Push and p u l l and expansion  c o n t r a c t i o n d i f f e r because t h e i r d i r e c t i o n o f f o r c e s  are p e r p e n d i c u l a r -to each o t h e r . The m u l t i - d i r e c t i o n s of the f o r c e s set up t e n s i o n . The  expanding and p r o j e c t i n g f o r c e s o f the y e l l o w i s  43 c o n t r a s t e d and b a l a n c e d  i n a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m by t h e  more sombre and heavy lower a r e a s .  The o v e r l a y s o f w h i t e  d r i p t i e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n t o g e t h e r and a l s o c r e a t e a l i v e l i n e s s o f movement and d i r e c t i o n .  The d r i p a r e a s  then,  a r e used f o r both t h e i r l i n e a r and p l a n a r q u a l i t i e s . In " E f f e r v e s c e n c e " , 1944, absence of t h e l i n e a r elements. d r i p p e d as a p l a n a r u n i t . o f two p l a n e s o f c o l o r . the mauve i s b l e n d e d edges.  ( p l a t e I I ) t h e r e i s an Each has been s e t o r  L i n e s c r e a t e d a r e t h e meeting I n t h e upper l e f t hand c o r n e r ,  over t h e green t o hide t h e a c t u a l  Even t h e t h i n d r i p l i n e s i n t h e p a i n t i n g a r e n o t  l i n e a r f o r t h e y a r e p l a c e d a g a i n s t a c o n t r a s t i n g background i n o r d e r f o r them t o p r o j e c t .  I n t h e lower  left  hand c o r n e r , t h e b l a c k d r i p o o z i n g from t h e c e n t r a l a r e a c o n t r a s t s w i t h i t s r e d background.  Though almost l i n e a r ,  t h e r e d on t h e y e l l o w background o v e r l a i d w i t h t h e b l a c k d r i p u n d u l a t e s and c r e a t e s a push and p u l l e f f e c t . y e l l o w p r o j e c t s , t h e r e d recedes f o c u s on t h e b l a c k d r i p .  I f the  and t h e eye does not  I f the r e d p r o j e c t s , the black  p r o j e c t s f u r t h e r - i t i s t h e f o c u s - and t h e y e l l o w  recedes.  T h i s whole c o m p o s i t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y formed by t h e a l t e r a t i o n of focus t o create a v i t a l p a i n t i n g . ing  i s composed s e m i - s y m m e t r i c a l l y  The p a i n t -  with a diagonal crossing  f r o m t h e upper r i g h t t o t h e lower l e f t .  The d e s i g n on  e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d d i a g o n a l a r e not e x a c t b u t  44 s i m i l a r shapes a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  i n the contrasting color  i n an o b v i o u s d e s i g n f o r b a l a n c e .  The l a r g e c e n t r a l  w h i t e mass w i t h i t s two h o r n - l i k e d r i p p i n g s i s r e f l e c t e d i n a s i m i l a r b l a c k area t o t h e r i g h t .  As was s t a t e d  e a r l i e r , t h e shapes a r e not e x a c t l y a l i k e f o r t h e r e i s a l s o a conscious The  attempt t o a c h i e v e a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m .  l a r g e c e n t r a l b l a c k a r e a a t the t o p o f t h e canvas  b e a r s l i t t l e resemblance t o t h e w h i t e area o f t h e bottom center.  Here one can see t h a t Hofmann has t a k e n  into  account the a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e t o p b l a c k area and t h e b a s i c l e f t - r i g h t d i r e c t i o n o f t h e base caused by t h e bright yellow.  The l a r g e b l a c k a r e a can be f o l l o w e d  t h r o u g h t o form a v e r t i c a l b l a c k b l o b .  T h i s appearance  causes a h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l e f f e c t .  I f t h e eye  s h i f t s s l i g h t l y t o t h e t o p from t h e bottom, a d i f f e r e n t f o c u s i s a t t a i n e d and t h e upper b l a c k b l o b expands o f f the canvas as does t h e y e l l o w - w h i t e bottom a r e a . The  y e l l o w and mauve a r e a s around t h e c o r n e r s  c r e a t e movement i n t h e push and p u l l r e a l m .  At once t h e  y e l l o w p r o j e c t s and t h e mauve r e c e d e s and v i c e v e r s a . The  motion i s n o t v i b r a n t o r e l s e t h e eye would be shaken  o f f t h e canvas. balances  The area o f green t o t h e upper l e f t  t h e b l a c k e r area o f r i g h t c e n t e r .  A c t u a l l y the  mass o f t h e green a t t r a c t s t h e eye t o t h e mauve because t h e c o n t r a s t i s so s u b t l e and not b l a t a n t as i n t h e y e l l o w and b l a c k a r e a .  By means of t h e c o l o r p l a n e s  .,  .  45  o r i e n t e d t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f o r c e and t o b a l a n c e , t h e 91 dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m o f " E f f e r v e s c e n c e "  i s achieved.  The t o t a l e f f e c t c r e a t e d i n t h e s e p a i n t i n g s i s "a deep a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , t h e product feeling for reality. nature  of a  conscious  T h i s concerns b o t h r e a l i t y o f  and the r e a l i t y o f t h e i n t r i n s i c l i f e o f t h e  medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . "  9 2  C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h e main  f a c t o r t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e work o f an a r t i s t and t h e work o f a c h i l d .  Undoubtedly t h e work o f Hans  Hofmann  and o t h e r A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s have been compared t o the a r t o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n . from a l l c o n s c i o u s  The a r t o f a c h i l d i s f r e e  inhibitions.  i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s subconscious  The work i s t h e e x p r e s s and h i s emotion.  The work  c r e a t e d by an a d u l t a r t i s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i f t h e r e i s "a consciousness  of experience  as t h e work d e v e l o p s and i s  e m o t i o n a l l y e n l a r g e d t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t e r command o f t h e 93 e x p r e s s i o n m e d i u m . " "The work o f a r t goes t h r o u g h many phases o f development b u t i n each phase i t i s always a 94 n  work o f a r t . "  The a d u l t i s a b l e t o c o n t r o l and use t h e  medium o f e x p r e s s i o n t o e x p r e s s what he wants whereas t h e The student d i d not see enough o f Hofmann's work t o f e e l q u a l i f i e d t o d i s c u s s any more works, o t h e r t h a n t h o s e seen by t h e student e i t h e r i n T o r o n t o , New Y o r k , San F r a n c i s c o , B e r k e l e y o r Los A n g e l e s . 9  92  H o f m a n n , Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p.67.  93 Loc. c i t . 94  _ Hofmann, Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p.69.  46  child lacks the technical control and manual dexterity. The adult inclusion of the consciousness is dual in that sense that i t is intellectual and spiritual.  This s p i r i t -  ual, derived from the unconscious, has been brought to the conscious level and put under the control of the intellect thereby making i t an aspect of the  intellect.  The resulting "idea can only be materialized with the help of a medium of expression, the inherent qualities of which must surely be sensed and understood in order to 95  become the carrier of an idea."'^ "The work of art is finished from the point of view of the artist when feeling and perception have re96  suited in a spiritual synthesis."^  The medium of ex-  pression and the artist's translation of his "accumulation of experience gained from nature as the source of his 97  inspiration"  y  are combined to create the work of art; an  entity above either of its two basis, a higher third. The artist has so fully expressed his idea that he himself is  self-satisfied. The satisfaction that the observer feels is  aesthetic. "Aesthetic enjoyment is caused by the perception I b i d . , p. 7 0 . 9 5  ^Hofmann, Search for the Real, 1948, p.69.  9  9 7  Loc.  cit.  47 of hidden laws.  The  aim of a r t i s always t o p r o v i d e  j o y s f o r us i n every form of e x p r e s s i o n . enjoy r e s t s w i t h the observer."98  The  such  faculty to  An i d e a t r a n s f o r m e d  by  the a r t i s t i n t o t h e medium of e x p r e s s i o n i s presented the observer. pends on the  to  What i s a t t a i n e d from the work s o l e l y  de-  observer.  Hofmann's t h i r d group of w r i t i n g s c o n t a i n s numerous s h o r t a r t i c l e s from e x h i b i t i o n s a t the Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y and a t the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s ' E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American A r t . and p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s .  A l s o i n c l u d e d are i n t e r v i e w s  I n t h i s l a s t group of w r i t i n g s ,  the r o l e o f c o l o r i n p a i n t i n g i s r e a l i z e d and the l y c i t e d aspect  previous-  of a work o f a r t a r e f u r t h e r d e f i n e d .  w r i t i n g s have not been o r g a n i z e d  The  s t r i c t l y chronologically  but grouped a c c o r d i n g t o s u b j e c t and t h e o r y development. I n 1949, appeared and  an i n t e r v i e w f o r A r t s and A r c h i t e c t u r e a  i n 1951,  an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y  of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American A r t .  In  b o t h t h e s e a r t i c l e s , Hofmann r e p l i e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n , what makes an A r t i s t ? and d i s c u s s e d the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s senses and t h e i r e f f e c t on h i s p e r c e p t i o n of appearances. Hofmann r e a l i z e d t h a t when the a r t i s t i s a b l e t o a f f e c t the o b s e r v e r because the a r t i s t has an quality w i t h i n himself.  inherent  I t has not been l e a r n t but  Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948,  p.74.  was  48 inborn.  The  a r t i s t has a " c r e a t i v e i n s t i n c t , a  mind  and the h i g h e s t e x h a l t a t i o n of the s o u l . "  W i t h t h e s e t r a i t s he i s a b l e t o " t r a n s p o s e and w e i g h t i e s t e x p e r i e n c e spirit."- " 1  and  0 0  i n t o a new  searching oo 7 7  the deepest  d i m e n s i o n of the  The work of a r t he c r e a t e s i s a new  reality,  a l s o r e f l e c t s "the whole b e h a v i o u r of the man  (artist),  e t h i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s , and h i s awareness of c r e a t i v e 101 responsibilities." Hofmann f e l t t h a t the h u m a n i s t i c q u a l i t y o f P a r i s a l l o w e d f o r h i s freedom of development. I n t h a t atmosphere he c o u l d c r e a t e w i t h "a f r e e and u n i v e r s a l i n t e r w o r k i n g of a l l c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w i t h  102  constant 103  r e f e r e n c e t o what he r e c e i v e d and  l e a r n t from the p a s t . "  A l t h o u g h he h e l d a r e v e r e n c e f o r the past the o n l y use, i n h i s o p i n i o n , of the past was own  J  valid  the d e p i c t i o n of h i s  vision. What the a r t i s t sees around him has been a f f e c t e d  by one's past e x p e r i e n c e .  One  has " d e f i n i t e i d e a s about  the o b j e c t i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the o b j e c t may  or  9% Hofmann, "Reply t o Q u e s t i o n a i r e and Comments on a Recent E x h i b i t i o n , " A r t s and A r c h i t e c t u r e , v o l . 66, no. 11, Nov., 1949, p. 27. a n s  100  T  .. Loc. c i t .  H o f m a n n , "Reply t o Questionaire 102. Loc. c i t .  ...,"  1949,  p.  45.  H o f m a n n , "Reply t o Q u e s t i o n a i r e  ...,"  1949,  p.  46.  1 0 1  1 0 3  104 may n o t have m u l t i - s u b o r d i n a t e parts." We s e e a n o b j e c t a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s f r o m d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s and these f a c t s a r e a l l used at  a later  the  idea  date.  i n the perception  " A l l parts  of the object  together  and t h e i d e a  of that  object  a r e summarized i n  of t h e category t o  105 which the object article,  belongs."  "When I p a i n t  a sunset, I paint  sets  o f w h i c h I was a p a r t . "  past  experience  it.  When b r o u g h t  too  often  slaves  As Hofmann  said i n a  later  a thousand sun-  H i s accumulation of  i s b r o u g h t f o r t h when he w i s h e s t o u s e t o the consciousness, t h i s  c a n be d e t r i m e n t a l  to habit, unfree  i n that  accumulation  one may " a c t a s  and a u t o m a t i c ,  like  i n a mental  10? prison." should thought to  Hofmann b e l i e v e s t h a t  be i n c o r p o r a t e d and c r e a t i o n .  experience nature  but should  accumulated  thought  not r u l e the order of  The a r t i s t s mind  should  c o n t i n u a l l y and s t i l l  be f r e e  be a b l e t o  receive  a new s e n s a t i o n f r o m i t e a c h t i m e . 104 Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , M a r c h 4 - A p r i l 1, 1951, U r b a n a , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 19517 p . 1 8 7 7 ~ " 105 , Loc. c i t . T  Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , M a r c h 7 - A p r i l 7, 1963, U r b a n a , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1963, p. 86. 107 ...,  Hans Hofmann, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s 1951, p . 187.  Exhibition  50 I n a 1951 c a t a l o g u e f o r h i s a n n u a l show a t the Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , Hofmann p u b l i s h e d h i s a r t i c l e , "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d Through t h e I n t r i n s i c o f C o l o r s t o E x p r e s s Volume."  Faculty  Dealing mainly with c o l o r ,  he e x p l a i n e d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f pure c o l o r and t h e i r on t h e a r t i s t and the o b s e r v e r .  effect  Unbroken pure c o l o r can  be used by t h e a r t i s t w i t h o u t any d i s t u r b i n g e f f e c t s I f he t r a n s l a t e s a s p a t i a l e x p e r i e n c e o f n a t u r e o r the a u t o m a t i c response of the p i c t u r e p l a n e i n t o a p l a s t i c statement and 108 p l a c e s i t on the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e .  I n t h i s way,  color  f r o m t h e s t a r t i s a f o r m a l problem w h i c h must be t a k e n i n t o account as the o t h e r f o r m a l elements must. i s a f u r t h e r development c r e a t i v e elements.  T h i s statement  t o the s o l u t i o n o f the f o r m a l and  I n 1931, the f o r m a l elements were t h e  l i n e , the p l a n e , volumes and the r e s u l t i n g complexes.  His  l a t e r l i s t o f c r e a t i v e elements i n c l u d e d a l l t h e f o r m a l elements w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of c o l o r and l i g h t .  His state-  ment of 1951 makes c o l o r and l i g h t a f o r m a l problem and p a r t of t h e f o r m a l elements.  I n f a c t , f o r m a l and  creative  elements have become one. I n c r e a t i n g the work o f a r t , pure c o l o r s h o u l d be used.  Pure c o l o r can be "any m i x t u r e o f c o l o r as l o n g as  1  net  H a n s Hofmann, "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d t h r o u g h the I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y of.Colors t o Express Volume,"cited i n Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e , Nov. 13 - Dec. 1, New Y o r k , Sammuel K o o t z G a l l e r y , 1951. x u o  51 such a mixture  i s handled f l a t and unbroken.  The  t o t a l i t y o f i t s f o r m a l e x t e n s i o n a f f e c t s o n l y one  color  shade and w i t h i t one l i g h t m e a n i n g . W h e n t h i s o f pure c o l o r i s j u x t a p o s e d  area  onto a n o t h e r pure c o l o r a r e a ,  "each c o l o r becomes t r a n s l u c e n t by d e p t h p e n e t r a t i o n s , and w i t h i t , volume of v a r i e d degrees."' ""'" 1  0  The  volume  c r e a t e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the depth r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g the canvas back t o two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and on i t s placement on the canvas, b o t h w h i c h are i n t e r r e l a t e d .  "Any  color  shade must be i n the volume t h a t i t s u g g e s t e d , the  exact  p l a s t i c e q u i v a l e n t of i t s f o r m a l placement w i t h i n the 111 composition."  From t h i s i t can be seen t h a t each  c o l o r shade must be so p l a c e d i n the c o m p o s i t i o n  that i t  r e f l e c t s the volume t h a t i s t o be d e p i c t e d i n t h a t a r e a . S m a l l c o l o r a r e a s should not be used f o r t h e y would be b l e n d e d by p e r c e p t i o n and be seen as a b l a c k and function, tonal.  By u s i n g l a r g e r a r e a s of  white  separated  c o l o r s , t h i s i n t e r v a l f a c i l i t y makes c o l o r a p l a s t i c means.  The  c o n t r a s t s between the c o l o r s w i l l c r e a t e a  l i v e l y and v i b r a n t volume  suggestion.  A l s o by the c o n t r a s t of c o l o r s , a m y s t i c ion i s created. 1 0  C o n t r a s t s are h a n d l e d not  9 oc. cit L  110  T  Ill  ' Loc. c i t Loc.  cit  express-  haphazardly,  52 but " o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o a s t r i c t  mastery  o f the c o l o r s  w i t h the c o m p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h the placement of t h e colors."H2  Depending on placement,  c o l o r and  contrasts,  t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e q u a l i t i e s c r e a t e s a psychological effect.  T h e r e f o r e , i f the c o m p o s i t i o n  i s a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y a new  p s y c h o l o g i c a l rapport w i l l  113 develop.  " T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e magic of p a i n t i n g . "  D u r i n g 1952  two a r t i c l e s were p u b l i s h e d i n  e x h i b i t i o n catalogues. paragraphs  As w i l l be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g  t h e i r contents overlap.  The f i n e and a p p l i e d  a r t s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t  approaches,  empathy b e i n g the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t h e two. i o n s dependence on e x p e r i e n c e w i l l i n the end what work o f a r t can and w i l l r e p r e s e n t .  Creat-  determine  I n c r e a t i n g such  a work of a r t , Hofmann would employ h i s d u a l c a p a c i t y of experiencing.  The f i r s t i s h i s r e a c t i o n t o time and the  m a t e r i a l w o r l d around him. him an a r t i s t ,  The second  i s t h a t which makes  " p r o f e s s i o n a l consciousness."  What t h i s  q u a l i t y a c t u a l l y i s , Hofmann d i d not c l e a r l y d e f i n e .  It  e n t a i l s " a l l the b a s i c requirements of h i s p r o f e s s i o n w h i c h makes p i c t o r i a l Loc. c i t .  113  Loc. c i t .  r e a l i z a t i o n o f a l l the o t h e r r e -  53 quirements p o s s i b l e . " the  1 1 4  In each experience there i s  presence of empathy, "the c a p a c i t y of f i n d i n g and  g i v i n g of i n t r i n s i c values of the t h i n g s i n l i f e as w e l l 115 as an a r t i s t i c r e a l i z a t i o n . "  J  The a r t i s t must be able  to  transpose h i m s e l f i n t o animate and inanimate o b j e c t s .  It  i s necessary f o r the a c t of c r e a t i o n . C r e a t i o n i s based on an i n i t i a t i n g concept which  i s d e r i v e d from the experience of the world nature. 1915 of  Hofmann had made a s i m i l a r statement  Prospectus.  empathy.  i n the  To experience deeply r e q u i r e s the power  Once a concept i s formed  s e r i e s of changes when the a r t i s t the  around,  p h y s i c a l e n t i t y of the medium.  i t goes through a  i s transposing i t into He must take i n t o  account the q u a l i t i e s of the medium by empathizing i n t o it. the  "The e x e c u t i o n of the concept asks from the a r t i s t p e n e t r a t i o n of the i n n e r l i f e  of the medium of ex-  pression." The work of a r t c r e a t e d i s a new R e a l i t y f o r i t has a s o l i t a r y e x i s t e n c e . of  I t r e p r e s e n t s the p e r s o n a l i t y  the a r t i s t , h i s s o u l , mind, s e n s i b i l i t y and temperment,  **Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n of Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 2 - A p r i l 15, 1962, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1952, p.199. 1 1  ^Loc. c i t .  116 1952,  Hofmann, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n . . . , p.200. — ~~~  54 I t i s t h e " g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e human s p i r i t , " f o r i t holds that s p i r i t i n a state of e t e r n a l rejuvenation i n answer t o an e v e r c h a n g i n g w o r l d .  By h o l d i n g t h e s p i r i t  o f t h e a r t i s t , he becomes i m m o r t a l .  Art i s also a  " c u l t u r a l documentation o f t h e time i n w h i c h i t was p r o 117 duced." ( H a r o l d Rosenberg has s t a t e d t h a t "Hofmann 118 s e p a r a t e d a r t from s o c i a l c o n f l i c t " thirties.)  during the middle  "Modern a r t i s a symbol o f our democracy  t h e a r t i s t through h i s a r t i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f democracy's fundamental p r i n c i p l e i n b e i n g t h e h i g h e r example o f s p i r i t u a l freedom i n h i s performance o f uncon119 d i t i o n a l , unrestricted creativeness."  Because o f t h e  burdensomeness of everyday l i f e i n a d e m o c r a t i c o r o t h e r s o c i e t y , a r t i s a counter-balance t o i t . The r e l e a s e a c h i e v e d from a r t can be a t t a i n e d i n b o t h t h e f i n e and t h e a p p l i e d a r t s .  The d i f f e r e n c e be-  tween t h e f i n e and t h e a p p l i e d a r t s i s the E q u a l i t y 12D  t h r o u g h w h i c h the image becomes s e l f - e v i d e n t . "  There  i s no b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and e a r l i e r 117 ones d e a l i nHans g w i tHofmann, h symphonic and d e c o r aby t i vHans e p a iHofmann," nting. Fine "A Statement c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e , O c t . 26 --Nov. 22, New Y o r k , Sammuel K o o t z G a l l e r y , 1952. 118 H a r o l d Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " P o r t f o l i o and A r t News Annual., no. 6, Autumn, 1962, p. 25. 119  Hofmann, "Reply t o q u e s t i o n a i r e ...," 1949, p. 45. 120 Hofmann, "A Statement ...," 1952.  55 a r t s or symphonic p a i n t i n g i s "the end product tense accumulation  o f an i n -  of i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s which have p r e -  c o n d i t i o n e d each o t h e r a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n a  step-by-step  development t o summarize f i n a l l y i n t h e c r e a t i o n of t h i s a l l dominant s i n g u l a r , luminous and t r a n s l u c e n t volume t h a t makes the s p a t i a l t o t a l i t y and monumentality of the picture."  The  f l a t n e s s o f the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s i s  d e r i v e d from the c o n s t a n t  p i c t o r i a l b a l a n c e which "depends  on t h e f o r m a l placement of the c o l o r s w i t h i n the i o n and  composit-  c r e a t i o n o f v a r i e d i n t e r v a l s t h a t makes: c o l o r a  p l a s t i c means o f f i r s t o r d e r . "  1 2 2  I n b o t h , Hofmann has  p l a c e d a g r e a t e r emphasis on l i g h t and  color.  The  o f the d e f i n i t i o n s e x h i b i t s Hofmann's wordy s t y l e  length of  w r i t i n g but most i m p o r t a n t l y , shows t h e i n c l u s i v e n e s s and development of  ,his t h e o r i e s up t o t h i s  date.  The a r t i c l e s j u s t c i t e d , as has been seen, are s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and do not a p p r e c i a b l y change or add Hofmann's t h e o r y .  I n J u l y of 1953,  Venture h i s a r t i c l e "The  he p u b l i s h e d i n  to  New  R e s u r r e c t i o n of the P l a s t i c A r t s . "  I t f u r t h e r d e f i n e d Hofmann's stand f o r movement on the p i c t u r e plane.  1  2  1  As Hofmann s a i d , the R e s u r r e c t i o n of the  T  Loc. c i t .  122 L o c . . c i t .  56 P l a s t i c A r t s was t h e " r e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e L i f e endowed picture s u r f a c e . "  1 2 3  The p i c t u r e s u r f a c e a u t o m a t i c a l l y  responds t o "any p l a s t i c a n i m a t i o n w i t h an a e s t h e t i c equivalent i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n of the received impulses."  When an a r e a o f p a i n t i s a p p l i e d t o t h e  1 2 4  c a n v a s , a p r o p o r t i o n a l a r e a and f o r c e pushes away from t h e canvas towards t h e o b s e r v e r . the pushing  The d i f f e r e n c e between  i n t o and p u l l i n g o u t o f c r e a t e s a f e e l i n g o f  d e p t h and space. a r t s culminates  "The e n t i r e depth problem i n the v i s u a l i n t h i s way i n an e m o t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d  a e s t h e t i c p r o j e c t i o n i n t o t h e h i d d e n laws o f t h e p i c t u r e 12 5 surface."  J  When one p e r c e i v e s as depth on a canvas  p a i n t e d w i t h knowledge o f t h e p i c t o r i a l s u r f a c e ' s h i d d e n l a w s , one i s a c t u a l l y s e e i n g t h e " s h i f t i n g " back and f o r t h of p l a n e s . negative  The depth c r e a t e d has volume f o r i t i s  space o r form.  and n e g a t i v e  The combination  of both p o s i t i v e  space o r form c r e a t e s t h e whole e n t i t y o f  space. I n c r e a t i n g such an i l l u s o r y d e p t h , one must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t f o r m a l placement ( l i n e , p l a n e s , volumes) 123 •^Hans Hofmann, "The R e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e P l a s t i c A r t s , " (1953). c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, New Y o r k , H a r r y N. Abrams,-I963, p.44. 124 Loc. c i t . 125 Loc. c i t . T  T  57 and c o l o r s a t u r a t i o n on the f o r m a l e l e m e n t s .  One  does  n o t s e p a r a t e these two a s p e c t s but s o l v e s them s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h r e l a t i o n t o the s p a t i a l problem f o r the concept t o be d e p i c t e d .  The a r t i s t i s a b l e t o work  t h e s e two by r e a l i z i n g t h a t the p i c t o r i a l s u r f a c e be e x p e r i e n c e d  i n a way  can  s i m i l a r to t h a t of nature.  Nature i s i n a c t u a l i t y t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l but the appearance t o our eyes i s two d i m e n s i o n a l .  Due  i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , t h e e f f e c t of the two  t o past  dimensional  appearance on our p e r c e p t i o n i s t h a t o f t h r e e ality.  I n a s i m i l a r way,  learn-  dimension-  the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e i s two  d i m e n s i o n a l but because o f the combined e f f e c t o f p l a c e ment and  c o l o r s a t u r a t i o n , the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e has  e f f e c t of t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y .  Hofmann r e t a i n e d the  t h e o r y of e f f e c t and appearances as s t a t e d i n the a r t i c l e , " P l a s t i c Creation."  The  the  illusory  1932  pictorial  space a l t e r n a t e s between two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y and  three  d i m e n s i o n a l i t y c r e a t i n g the push and p u l l e f f e c t .  The  p i c t o r i a l space i s "an a e s t h e t i c a l l y c r e a t e d space, (and) an a c t i v a t e d f l u c t u a t i n g space b a l a n c e d w i t h i n t h e p e r i p h e r y of the i n h e r e n t laws o f t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e i n r e l a t i o n t o w h i c h a l l employed p i c t o r i a l means must function p l a s t i c a l l y . " 6 1 2  The p i c t u r e plane has a  d e f i n i t e l i m i t t o w h i c h p r o j e c t i o n and r e c e s s i o n can 126_ Loc. c i t .  occur.  58 The amount depends on t h e s u r f a c e ' s the  s i z e , shape, ground and  artist. Hofmann h i m s e l f has not d e f i n e d and e x p l a i n e d any one  o f h i s p a i n t i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o these l i m i t s .  I n an a r t i c l e  f o r the B e n n i n g t o n Alumni Q u a r t e r l y he was asked t o do j u s t t h a t , but i n s t e a d he d i s c u s s e d  h i s a t t i t u d e when p a i n t i n g .  A p a i n t i n g t o him "means the immense s t r u g g l e t h r o u g h which t h e p i c t u r e has gone on i t s development t o come t o the r e s u l t which i s f i n a l l y o f f e r e d t o the p u b l i c .  Either  h i s p i c t u r e s communicate o r t h e y communicate n o t . " 7 1 2  ^he  o b s e r v e r ' s message i s a p i c t u r e and t h a t i t was " c r e a t e d 128 n a t u r e has c r e a t e d a f l o w e r . " g o d - l i k e approach t o p a i n t i n g .  as  T h i s c o u l d appear t o be a Hofmann even i m p l i e s i t when  he suggested i n an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e t h a t a r t i s a means t o immortality.  Such may be the case but Hofmann i s t r y i n g  u n d o u b t e d l y t o show the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e growth f a c t o r o f b o t h p l a n t s and p a i n t i n g s .  He sees t h e bare canvas as t h e  seed, the a r t i s t ' s i n s p i r a t i o n as i t s source o f l i f e , t h e c r e a t i v e elements such as l i n e , p l a n e , volumes,  complexes  and c o l o r as the f e r t i l i z e r and nourishment f o r the seed 127 'Hans Hofmann, "Hofmann E x p l a i n i n g h i s P a i n t i n g s , " B e n n i n g t o n C o l l e g e Alumnae Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 7 , n o . l , Feb. 1, 1955, P.23. 128 Loc. c i t . T  59 and t h e completed p a i n t i n g a s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n its  of t h e p l a n t ,  flower. Hofmann does not t r y t o make you l i k e o r d i s l i k e h i s  completed p a i n t i n g s , p o s s i b l y one of t h e r e a s o n s why he does n o t e x p l a i n an i n d i v i d u a l p a i n t i n g .  Each o f h i s p a i n t i n g s ,  he b e l i e v e s , "has a l i f e o f i t s own i a l means.  c r e a t e d by p i c t o r -  I f they are not understood today, they are  u n d e r s t o o d tomorrow, maybe i n a hundred y e a r s , maybe i n two hundred y e a r s .  But I know they w i l l be  understood." 9 12  I f Hofmann means h i s p a i n t i n g s w i l l be u n d e r s t o o d , he u n d o u b t e d l y b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l t h e i r understanding.  facilitate  As s t a t e d b e f o r e , he does n o t d i s c u s s  his  t h e o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o any o f h i s p a i n t i n g s .  his  1955 a r t i c l e  "The C o l o r Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g , " a  t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n i s undertaken. prominence  As i n  Color achieves  over form because o f i t s a b i l i t y t o form r e -  l a t i o n s and i n t e r v a l s .  "Push and P u l l " can a l s o be  a c h i e v e d by c o l o r but c o l o r development  depends on f o r m  f o r w h i c h t h e c o l o r s e x i s t ; so i t must d e v e l o p  simultan-  eously. C o l o r c a n be used i n e i t h e r of two ways i n a p a i n t ing. for ing.  I f c o l o r i s used s o l e l y a s a b l a c k and w h i t e f u n c t i o n t h e c r e a t i o n o f form and volume, i t i s a t o n a l p a i n t I n a n o t h e r approach, pure p a i n t i n g , c o l o r i s used " f o r  129LOC. c i t  60  a p l a s t i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e . "  1 3 0  Hofmann's use o f  t h e word p l a s t i c i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o l o r shows h i s i n c r e a s ed awareness o f c o l o r ' s volume f o r m i n g q u a l i t y as s t a t e d i n "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d through t h e I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y o f C o l o r t o Express Volumes," 1951. i s a "rhythmic  Pure p a i n t i n g  i n t e r w e a v i n g o f t h e c o l o r s c a l e , " 3 1 which x  r e s u l t s i n simultaneous  contrasts.  the l i g h t i n a p a i n t i n g .  These c o n t r a s t s c r e a t e  C o l o r s a r e . p l a c e d on t h e canvas  so t h a t t h e y r e l a t e t o each o t h e r i n a " c o l o r development" upon which t h e i r f o r m a l g r o u p i n g u l t i m a t e l y depends."132 Hofmann now says t h a t " f o r m a l and c o l o r development go on simultaneously." ^  i  1  n  t h e e a r l i e r a r t i c l e s Hofmann d i f f e r -  e n t i a t e d between t h e two i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f f o r m a l and creative elements. ^ 1  The simultaneousness  o f these two  developments u n i t e t h e f o r m a l and c r e a t i v e elements i n t o one and t h e same c a t e g o r y .  I n t h i s 1955 a r t i c l e he says  that color's function i s formal.  13 5  Color i s therefore a  Hans Hofmann, "The C o l o r Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g , " (1955), c i t e d i n F r e d e r i c k S. Wight, Hans Hofmann, B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957, p.51 3  1 3 1  I b i d . , p.52.  1 3 2  I b l d . , p.54.  1 3 3  I b i d . , p.52.  H o f m a n n , E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue Berkeley, 1931, Hofmann, " P l a s t i c Creation, ? 1932, p. 35 - 38. 134  1  135  H o f m a n n , "The C o l o r Problem ...," (1955), p.54.  61 f o r m a l and c r e a t i v e indistinguishable  element,  f u r t h e r u n i t i n g t h e two  categories.  C o l o r , as used by i t s e l f , be  used as an i n t e g r a l part  i s not creative.  o f forms.  "Color  c r e a t i v e by f o r c e , by s e n s i n g the i n n e r l i f e colors ivity two  physical  react  becomes by which  respond t o each o t h e r through t h e created of i n t e r v a l s . "  1 3  carriers  ^  These  intervals  These  creat-  are created by  on t h e c a n v a s w h i c h  t o each and t o b o t h .  I t must  cause t h e eye t o  physical  carriers  form  w i t h i n t h e observer a n o n - p h y s i c a l e n t i t y which governs t h e observer's v i s i o n entity,  o f t h e two o b j e c t s .  "hyperphysical  overtone,"  That n o n - p h y s i c a l i s what Hofmann  1 3 7  called  138 in  previous a r t i c l e s  a higher third,  w h i c h was u s e d i n  connection with a r e l a t i v e  meaning.  an  arerelated  i n t e r v a l and a r e l a t i o n  "Both a r e u n i t e d  I t c a n now be s e e n  that  t o Hofmann*s t e r m s .  t o c a r r y a meaning t h r o u g h t h e i r  inter-  139 action."  The v a r i a t i o n  physical  between t h e two h y p e r -  overtones i s the r e l a t i o n .  "simultaneous a c c e l e r a t e d of  of force  This r e l a t i o n  intensification  two c o l o r s i n a n i n t e r v a l . Ibid., p.53.  is a  or d i m i n u t i o n "  An i n t e r v a l  shows an i n t e r -  1 3 6  137 Loc. c i t . 1 od Hofmann, S e a r c h f o r t h e R e a l , 1 3 9  Hofmann,  140  T  Loc.  cit.  "The C o l o r  Problem  1948",  ...,"  1 4 0  p.47.  ( 1 9 5 5 ) ,  p.53.  connectedness between two a r e a s of c o l o r w h i c h can j o i n e d t o form a h i g h e r t h i r d .  The  f o r c e between the  c o l o r a r e a s i s governed by the r e l a t i o n . cept o f an i n t e r v a l had  be  Hofmann*s con-  changed from t h e 1931  article in  w h i c h he s a i d t h a t " i n t e r v a l s were c o l o r p l a n e s  standing  i n g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e c o n t r a s t s t o i t s neighbours w i t h i n t h e b a l a n c e of the whole."141 t h e o r y of e x p a n s i o n and The  This idea leads to  the  c o n t r a c t i o n as d i s c u s s e d i n  d e f i n i t i o n of the i n t e r v a l o f 1931  1948  i s however a b l e  t o b r i n g a work o f a r t t o g e t h e r and u n i f y i t by the t r a s t creating a focus.  The  c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e  overall  c o n t r a s t s can c r e a t e a l u m i n o s i t y on t h e canvas. s t a t e d i n 1955,  these  i n t e r v a l s can a l s o operate  i n t e r v a l s t h e m s e l v e s , " l i k e sound i n m u s i c . " i n t e r v a l s amalgamate and means of f i r s t of  1 4 2  con-  As between Because  grow, t h a t "makes c o l o r a p l a s t  order."  1 4 3  From t h e p l a s t i c i t y w h i c h expands c o l o r monumenta l i t y and  c o n v e r s e l y c o n t r a c t s i t i n an  counter-action,  c o l o r can work w i t h the f o r m a l development o f push pull. and  Hofmann s a i d e a r l i e r t h a t c o l o r i t s e l f p r o j e c t s  r e c e d e s much i n the same sense as "push and  He now  and  says t h a t c o l o r combined w i t h the f o r m a l 1 4 1  H o f m a n n , "On  1 4 2  H o f m a n n , "The  143  Loc. c i t .  pull." develop-  the Aims of A r t , " 1932,'p.9. C o l o r Problem ...,"  (1955),  p.53  63  ments o f the work i s able t o i n c r e a s e or decrease i n t e n s i t y of e i t h e r the push _or p u l l . of  the  I f one l a r g e a r e a  r e d and a s m a l l a r e a of y e l l o w were p l a c e d on a  canvas, the l a r g e r e d a r e a w o u l d p r o j e c t w i t h a s t r o n g e r f o r c e than the y e l l o w .  The "push" f o r w a r d would a l s o be  f a s t e r , as the r e d a r e a c a t c h e s t h e eye f i r s t .  The  eye  f o c u s e s on the r e d a r e a . f i r s t but i t a l s o sees t h e yellow.  By a l t e r i n g t h e f o c u s t o the y e l l o w , t h e r e d  would " p u l l " back and the y e l l o w would push f o r w a r d . T h i s "push" of the y e l l o w i s not as s t r o n g as t h a t f o r t h e r e d f o r t h e y e l l o w as compared t o the w h i t e ground does not c o n t r a s t as s h a r p l y and has not an a r e a as l a r g e as the r e d .  Depending on the d i s t a n c e of s e p a r a -  t i o n between t h e two c o l o r s , t h e r e i s t h e  interval  f a c u l t y w h i c h v a r i e s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e  two,  a f f e c t i n g t h e i r e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n , push and I f the c o l o r e d a r e a s were on a dark ground the of  depth would be g r e a t e r .  B l a c k would tend t o  pull.  suggestion recede  c r e a t i n g a g r e a t e r volume and a l s o a d a r k e r canvas w i t h less luminosity. I t i s the a b i l i t y t o s y n c h r o n i z e t h e development of b o t h c o l o r and form i n a p a i n t i n g w h i c h w i l l l e a d t o a s u c c e s s f u l work.  I n each c a s e , t h e y a f f e c t the  p i c t u r e plane s i m i l a r l y i n t h a t t h e r e i s an  automatic  r e a c t i o n from the p i c t u r e p l a n e whenever any o f t h e i r  64 developments  o c c u r on t h e p i c t u r e p l a n e .  I t must be  r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l o r development l e a d s c o n t i n u a l l y t o e v e r changing m u l t i - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . s u s t a i n i n g development,  Through c o l o r ' s 144  form i s d e t e r m i n e d .  selfBecause  c o l o r e x i s t s on a form, such a s a p l a n e or volume, how and where t h e c o l o r i s p l a c e d on t h e canvas  determines  i n t h e end how t h e f o r m a l development w i l l o c c u r .  This  a t t i t u d e of Hofmann has developed s i n c e h i s f i r s t  writ-  i n g s when he s a i d t h a t l i n e , plane and f o r m a l complexes 145 were the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s f o r f o r m a l development. L a t e r i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f f o r m a l and c r e a t i v e e l e m e n t s , 146 we see t h a t f o r m i s a r e s u l t o f l i g h t and v i c e v e r s a . Hofmann now has p l a c e d l i g h t and c o l o r as t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s of  form. C o l o r , because o f i t s d u a l r o l e f o r i t s own develop-  ment and f o r m a l development,  c r e a t e s t h e phenomena o f push  and p u l l which i s t h e b a s i s f o r p i c t o r i a l l i f e .  C o l o r by  c o n t r a s t s w i t h neighbouring areas of c o l o r creates the v i b r a n t e f f e c t upon t h e v i s i o n o f t h e eye f i r s t .  The  s i m u l t a n e o u s c o n t r a s t i s not t o n a l i n the sense t h a t t h e c o l o r s merge t o g e t h e r but t h a t " t h e i r meeting  ( t o form  c o n t r a s t s ) i s t h e consequence o f t h e c o l o r and form 1/fZf  Hofmann, "The C o l o r Problem  ...," (1955), p.54.  ^ H o f m a n n , E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue . . . , B e r k e l e y , 1 9 3 1 . 146 Hofmann, " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932. 14  65  development of the work.  Form and  c o l o r o p e r a t e each  147  i n i t s own  sovereign  rhythm."  The  l a s t statement seems  t o c o n t r a d i c t Hofmann's o t h e r statement i n t h e same a r t i c l e t h a t " c o l o r development determines, f o r m . " ^ 1  What Hofmann p r o b a b l y means i s t h a t a l t h o u g h f o r m i s d e t e r m i n e d by c o l o r placement, the placement of form i t s own  s e t of laws w h i c h i t must f o l l o w and  f o r m and  obey.  has Both  c o l o r a r e , however, governed by the P a i n t i n g  Laws, s t a t e d i n "On The  the Aims of A r t , "  1952.  g r o u p i n g of c o l o r e d a r e a s i n t h e i r  formal  development r e s u l t s i n a u n i t c a l l e d a complex.  "In  ^ s p i t e of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of shaded d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e i r synthesis presents  i t s e l f as one  ed w i t h a n o t h e r and a l l the o t h e r  c o l o r complex c o n t r a s t complexes w i t h i n the  149  pictorial totality."  The  i n t e r v a l l e d r e l a t i o n between  the  c o l o r s of t h a t a r e a r e a c t t o f o r m a s o l i d p r o j e c t i n g  and  receding area.  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l the  complexes w i t h t h e i r b a l a n c e of push and and  c o n t r a c t i o n presents  expansion  d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of  the  canvas w h i l e the t e n s i o n a l f o r c e s c r e a t e the depth  and  volume.  I f one  the two  pull,  force i s greater than i t s counter-force  i n t h e opposing d i r e c t i o n , t h e p a i n t i n g w i l l appear t o 1 4 7  H o f m a n n , "The  ^" ^Loc. c i t . 4  ^"^Loc. c i t .  C o l o r Problem ...,"  (1955),  p.54.  have h o l e s ; a r e a s o f r e c e s s i o n i n which a p r o j e c t i o n i s n o t a b l e t o c o u n t e r a c t i t . I n a good p a i n t i n g t h i s i s not  t h e case; t h e canvas i s a u n i f i e d whole. Each complex i s made up o f s e v e r a l areas of  but,  color  "as a j e w e l , r e f l e c t s one c o l o r i n every change o f 150  normal l i g h t c o n d i t i o n . "  I t i s t h r o u g h "the  inter-  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o l o r s t o form one c o l o r r e f l e c t i o n and t h e t o t a l harmony between them (which) emanates the a s p i r e d c r e a t i v e intention."-*-51 j decorative  p a i n t i n g the largeness  n  of the f l a t areas of  c o l o r does not p e r m i t such a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s t o form g r o u p i n g s w i t h one l i g h t  r e f l e c t i o n , b u t r a t h e r the l a r g e s i m p l i f i e d a r e a i s a single r e f l e c t i o n i n i t s e l f .  The s i n g l e r e f l e c t i o n i s  not as v i b r a n t and l i v e l y a s t h e complexes o f pure painting. I t i s t h e l i f e o f a pure p a i n t i n g t h a t f o r p i c t o r i a l communication. existence, a created r e a l i t y .  allows  A new r e a l i t y comes i n t o The c o l o r g i v e s  aesthetic  enjoyment and a sense o f e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e w h i c h i s r e l a t e d t o t h e form of t h e p a i n t i n g .  When t h e s e f a c t s  a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t and "awaken i n us f e e l i n g s t o 15  °Hofmann, "The C o l o r Problem ...," (1955),p.56.  151 Loc. c i t . ' ' T  67 w h i c h the medium o f e x p r e s s i o n responds a n a l o g i c a l l y , 152 we attempt The  t o r e a l i z e our e x p e r i e n c e  creatively."  f i n i s h e d c r e a t i o n w i l l depend on the  inter-meshing  o f a l l t h e s e i d e a s and l a c i n g them i n t o the p a i n t i n g . W i t h t h e knowledge t h a t the p a i n t i n g must f i t t o g e t h e r the a r t i s t i s f r e e t o use h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , i n v e n t i v e n e s s , s e n s i b i l i t y and t h e s e l e c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of h i s mind. Man's mind and i t s e f f e c t from n a t u r e a r e d e a l t 153 w i t h i n Hofmann's 1958  publication It Is.  The  affect  o f n a t u r e and the a r t i s t ' s awareness w i l l determine c r e a t i o n of the a r t i s t .  The mind of the a r t i s t ,  the  surround-  ed by n a t u r e , has a l s o been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by i t . He  sees w i t h awareness, f o r " s e e i n g w i t h o u t awareness,  (is)  s h o r t of b l i n d n e s s . " ^ 1  Although there i s t h i s  i n f l u e n c e , i t i s what the a r t i s t does w i t h t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s t h a t b r i n g s out a g r e a t work of a r t .  "The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p i c t o r i a l means of what we see i s 15 5 'another a r t ' . " " O b j e c t i v i t y i s a l s o goose u n l e s s Loc. cit, 1 5 2  153  Hans Hofmann, " e x c e r p t from I t I s , " ( W i n t e r S p r i n g , 1959), c i t e d i n Los Angeles County A r t Museum, New York S c h o o l , The F i r s t G e n e r a t i o n , Los A n g e l e s , Members of the Board of the Los Angeles County A r t Museum, 1965, p.17. "^ Loc. 4  155  cit.  x  ... ' Loc. c i t .  T  )  68 156  we make something out o f i t . "  "Nature's purpose i n  r e l a t i o n t o the v i s u a l a r t s i s t o provide the s t i m u l u s s t i m u l u s t h r o u g h i t s c r e a t i v e behavior."157 in  i t s c r e a t i v e way  Nature  of b r i n g i n g l i f e t o t h e i n a n i m a t e  o b j e c t s , i n i t i a t e s i n the a r t i s t a s i m i l a r a c t i o n . a r t i s t ' s mind i s s e n s i t i v e t o the way  The  i n which n a t u r e  a c t s and r e f l e c t s t h i s i n h i s p a i n t i n g s .  "Man's  s e n s i t i v e mind can t h i n k and f e e l ; i t e n a b l e s him t o create  t h a t i s t o impregnate p h y s i c a l substance w i t h 158  life."  By use of h i s c o n s c i o u s and  v  unconscious  f a c u l t i e s , the a r t i s t becomes aware o f space i n e v e r y f o r m of m a n i f e s t a t i o n " 1 5 9 of n a t u r e .  Through the r e a l i z a -  t i o n t h a t t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l s u r f a c e of the p i c t u r e p l a n e can be made t o o s c i l l a t e t o t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l , t h e r e s u l t i n g v i b r a n c y and dynamism b r i n g s t h e l i f e t h e canvas.  to  At each s t a g e of t h e two d i m e n s i o n a l and  t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l t h e r e i s a s t a t i c s t a t e but the change to  t h e c o n t r a s t i n g d i m e n s i o n d e v e l o p s t h e sense of move-  ment.  Movement i s answered by a counter-movement and 156  Hans Hofmann, "Nature and A r t , C o n t r o v e r s y and M i s c o n c e p t i o n , " , c i t e d in,New P a i n t i n g s by Hans Hofmann, Jan. 7 t o 2 5 , New York, K o o t z . G a l l e r y , 1958. y  1  5 Loc. c i t . 7  158  Loc. c i t . 159'  Hofmann,"excerpt from I t I s , " 1959,  p.17.  69 consequently develops  rhythm and counter-rhythm.  p u s h i n g and p u l l i n g t o both t h e two and t h r e e  The  dimension-  a l c r e a t e t h e sense o f f o r c e s which because o f t h e i r b a l a n c e b r i n g s about t e n s i o n s .  These f o r c e s r e s u l t i n g  f r o m t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e and t h e c o l o r and form t h a t have been a p p l i e d , have a l i f e o f t h e i r  own. " C o l o r and  l i g h t a r e t o a g r e a t e x t e n t s u b j e c t e d t o t h e form problem 160 of t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e . "  T h i s statement c o n t r a d i c t s  t h e 1955 a r t i c l e i n w h i c h Hofmann s a i d t h a t c o l o r i s t h e b a s i s f o r form and t h a t t h e two developments, f o r m a l and .161 c o l o r , s h o u l d be s y n c h r o n i z e d .  Hofmann has appeared  t o back down on h i s stand f o r t h e predominance o f t h e c o l o r development. The  l a s t s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s f o r the t h i r d  group  of Hofmann's p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l c o v e r s a p e r i o d o f f o u r y e a r s and i n c l u d e s f i v e s e p a r a t e p u b l i c a t i o n s .  These  a r t i c l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y q u i t e s h o r t and repeat Hofmann's previously stated theories. figurative  He s t a n d s f i r m on the non-  philosophy which i n c l u d e s h i s t o t a l s e l f .  The  mood o f t h e work t h e n w i l l r e p r e s e n t h i s t o t a l b e i n g . Hofmann's g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y of a r t t a k e s on h i s summation o f t h e i d e a s he has presented over t h e y e a r s . 160 Loc. c i t .  H o f m a n n , "The C o l o r Problem ...," (1955), 51-56. l6l  p.  His  70 a t t i t u d e as a t e a c h e r i s not f o r g o t t e n f o r he has spent over h a l f h i s l i f e as one.  Hofmann b e l i e v e s a t e a c h e r  s h o u l d not t e l l t h e s t u d e n t e x a c t l y w h i c h c o l o r or f o r m a l development p a t t e r n t o f o l l o w f o r i t i s t h e t e a c h e r ' s j o b to  "approach ( h i s ) s t u d e n t s merely w i t h t h e human d e s i r e  to  f r e e them o f a l l s c h o l a r l y i n h i b i t i o n s . "  This f r e e -  dom w i l l e i t h e r b r i n g out t h a t r e a l t a l e n t of a l l g i f t e d people  o r i t w i l l " k i l l a l l m e d i o c r i t y and f a l s e m y s t i -  f i c a t i o n o f one's r e a l n a t u r e . " ^ 1  In the l a t t e r  Hofmann says he has done j u s t t h a t many t i m e s .  ease,  He be-  l i e v e s t h a t t a l e n t e d people t a k e t i m e t o d e v e l o p . must pass through enlightenment  They  stages o f s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f -  i n o r d e r t o become m a s t e r s .  not v a r i e d h i s statement  Hofmann has  about an a r t i s t b e i n g  born;  t h i s i n b o r n q u a l i t y must be l e d a l o n g a c e r t a i n path i n order t o achieve  success.  H i s senses govern an i n n e r eye o r i n n e r v i s i o n . The dependency of each sense on e v e r y o t h e r sense c r e a t e s i n t h e mind c o m b i n a t i o n s  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f g r e a t  c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l and f a c i l i t a t e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . C r e a t ed r e l a t i o n s c r e a t e a h i g h e r s p i r i t u a l t h i r d , and c r e a t i v e l62  H o f m a n n , " e x c e r p t from I t I s , " 1959, p.17.  -i  f.r>  Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , M a r c h 1 - A p r i l 5, 1959, U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1959, p. 226. '  71  c o m b i n a t i o n s b r i n g about l i f e t o t h e p i c t u r e s u r f a c e bypush and pull,< e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n i n form and i n color.  The medium i t s e l f i s o n l y a c a r r i e r o f t h e  s i g n i f i c a n t meaning d e r i v e d from t h e r e l a t i o n s and combinations which i s s p i r i t u a l , .hyperphysical.  One can-  not d i s c u s s or c r i t i c i z e a work of a r t on mere p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l o n e f o r i t i s t h e s p i r i t u a l "which i s the o n l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f a work of a r t . " ^ x  4  Hofmann had  s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e 1948, The Search f o r the R e a l , " t h e r e a l i n a r t never d i e s because i t s n a t u r e i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y spiritual." ^5  painting —  x  of  i s i n s p i r e d by t h e s p i r i t  i t s c r e a t i o n and i t s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a p p e a l t o t h e  senses.  The audience can i d e n t i f y t h e meaning and  t h e mood of i t s c r e a t i o n . "  The t h o u g h t s and a c t i o n s  t h a t a r e e x p e r i e n c e d i n c r e a t i n g t h a t p a i n t i n g can be' seen by t h e o b s e r v e r . Hofmann, when q u e s t i o n e d , whether h i s p a i n t i n g s r e f l e c t h i s mood o r emotion, r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y r e f l e c t his  "whole p s y c h i c make-up and convey n o t h i n g but 167 my own n a t u r e . " H i s involvement w i t h the p a i n t i n g ^Hans Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e , J a n . 5- 23, I960, New Y o r k , K o o t z G a l l e r y , I960. : : l65  H o f m a n n , Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p.54.  l66jj f 0  m a n r L j  E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue  New  York,I960,  ^ H a n s Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n K a t h e r i n e Kuh, The A r t i s t ' s V o i c e , New York, Harper and Row, 1962,. p. 119. x  7  72 makes him f o r g e t h i s own p e r s o n a l problems and l e a d s to  a c o n t i n u a l optimism.  T h i s mood i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e  l i g h t h e a r t e d t i t l e s which Hofmann says he chooses the  from  f e e l i n g t h e p a i n t i n g s u g g e s t s when i t i s completed.  T h i s 1962 statement seems t o be a development  from t h e  one made i n 1955 i n t h e Bennington C o l l e g e Alumnae Quarterly.  He s a i d t h a t he f e l t each p a i n t i n g meant an  immense s t r u g g l e t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e p i c t u r e has gone t h r o u g h i n t h e development."  'Hofmann s change o f T  a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t e d h i s growing p o p u l a r i t y and t h e g r e a t er time he had f o r p a i n t i n g s i n c e he had c l o s e d h i s a r t school. The o p t i m i s t i c mood i s not a t t a i n e d as soon as one s t a r t s t o p a i n t .  O f t e n Hofmann drew " i n o r d e r t o  f r e e h i m s e l f so t h a t he c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d t h e meaning o f the  composition." ^ 1  development ing. the  He becomes i n v o l v e d w i t h f o r m a l  and f i n a l l y  engrosses h i m s e l f i n t h e p a i n t -  He i s c o n t i n u a l l y aware o f what i s happening on canvas.  A c c i d e n t s , planned or unplanned, a r e  s o l v e d by t h e s u g g e s t i o n w i t h i n t h e work i t s e l f .  No  s k e t c h e s a r e p r e p a r e d f o r a p a i n t i n g , because each work of the  a r t i s developmental w i t h i n i t s e l f .  At each s t a g e ,  p a i n t i n g o r drawing i s a work of a r t . l6o  l6  H o f m a n n , "Hofmann E x p l a i n s ...," 1955, p.23.  ^ H o f m a n n , c i t e d i n The A r t i s t ' s V o i c e . 1962,p.125,  73 The q u a l i t y of t h e work i s n o t dependent on whether a r e a l image can be seen f o r a " f i g u r a t i v e attempt i s condemned when made w i t h o u t  consideration  o f the u n d e r l y i n g a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e of a b s t r a c t i o n s because such m o r t a l n e g l i g e n c e  w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y lead t o  u n i n s p i r e d i m i t a t i v e and academic f o r m a t i o n . "  The  1 7 0  a r t i s t must l e t h i s mind be open t o a l l forms o f c r e a t i o n so t h a t h i s t h o u g h t s w i l l be f r e e t o express a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s which-are the b a s i s o f a r t . Hofmann does not e x p l a i n what i s meant by " a e s t h e t i c principles." what a r t i s . "  "No one can g i v e a c o r r e c t e x p l a n a t i o n of 1 7 1  T h i s l a s t statement appears t o be a  c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o Hofmann's w r i t i n g s .  Has he not t r i e d  t o d e f i n e c r e a t i o n and t h e p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h i t i s based? By a n a l y s i s of h i s own c r e a t i v e Hofmann developed h i s t h e o r y  process,  of c r e a t i v i t y .  He r e a l i z e d  t h a t a r t s h o u l d not i m i t a t e p h y s i c a l l i f e f o r " a r t must have a l i f e o f i t s own.  A spiritual l i f e . "  1 7 2  This  i d e a o f the n o n - f i g u r a t i v e and s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t y o f a r t d e v e l o p e d from h i s f i r s t w r i t i n g s .  "A p a i n t e r must  H a n s Hofmann, " ," c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , Feb. 20 - A p r i l 2, 1961, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1961, p. 116. 1 7 0  171  H o f m a n n , c i t e d i n The A r t i s t ' s V o i c e , 1962,p.118.  H a n s Hofmann. "Hans Hofmann on A r t . " The A r t J o u r n a l , v o l . 22, no. j, S p r i n g , 1963, p. 180. 1 7 2  74 c r e a t e p i c t o r i a l l i f e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e laws d i c t a t e d 173 by the medium.  n  , J  Hofmann s t a t e d t h e s e laws a f t e r h i s  a r r i v a l i n America i n 1931.  Through the i n t u i t i v e  f a c u l t y o f h i s s u b c o n s c i o u s mind t o s t i m u l a t e h i s c o n s c i o u s mind, the a r t i s t i s a b l e t o use h i s senses so he can " d i s cover t h e i n t r i n s i c f a c u l t y and i n n e r l i f e  of e v e r y t h i n g . " ^ 1 7  He s t a t e d i n 1931 t h a t "the work of a r t i s the p r o d u c t o f the a r t i s t ' s power f o r f e e l i n g and o f h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o l i f e - i n - n a t u r e and l i f e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e medium."176 Hofmann's concept o f empathy and s p i r i t u a l p r o j e c t i o n d i d not change t h r o u g h the y e a r s .  The mind o f t h e a r t i s t i s  a b l e t o p e r c e i v e beyond t h e p u r e l y p h y s i c a l . sees i n t o t h e i n n e r l i f e  H i s i n n e r eye  of e v e r y t h i n g ; " t h e r e f o r e " 177  t h i n g can serve as an e x p r e s s i o n medium." ''  every-  The q u a l i t y  of the r e s u l t i n g work of a r t depends on t h e a r t i s t ' s a b i l i t y t o create a s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y with the p h y s i c a l medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . S p i r i t u a l i t y i s d e r i v e d from t h e " s y n t h e s i s of a l l 178 relationships." As e a r l y as 1948, Hofmann had s t a t e d l 3 H o f m a n n , c i t e d i n The A r t i s t ' s V o i c e , 1962, p.118. 7  ^ H o f m a n n , "On t h e Aims o f A r t , " 1932, p. 9 - 10. 175  H o f m a n n , "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1963, p.l&O.  H o f m a n n , " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " 1931, p.6. 177 176  "Hofmann, "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1963, p. 180. 1 7  ^Loc• c i t .  75 t h a t "two p h y s i c a l f a c t s i n an e m o t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d r e l a t i o n s h i p always c r e a t e t h e phenomenon of a t h i r d 179 f a c t of a h i g h e r o r d e r . "  7  The s y n t h e s i z i n g of a l l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s what Hofmann s t a t e d as " r e l a t i o n s under r e l a t i o n s b e i n g t h e h i g h e s t form of a e s t h e t i c enjoyment,"  x o u  P l e a s u r e from such a work i s o b t a i n e d  by t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a u n i f i e d work o f a r t . As i n an o r g a n i s t i c t h e o r y , a l l p a r t s a r e t i e d t o g e t h e r and each part i m p l i e s another.  The concept of p o s i t i v e and  n e g a t i v e space i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t . 181 p o s i t i v e space"  "Objects are  o r f o r m and empty space does not  e x i s t f o r i t i s a n e g a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e space o r form. These two e n t i t i e s do not e x i s t s i n g u l a r l y f o r i n a t o t a l space, b o t h e x i s t s i d e by s i d e .  To e x p e r i e n c e  t h a t space i n a p a i n t i n g , one must f e e l t h e " f o r c e s and c o u n t e r - f o r c e s t h a t make a v i t a l f o r c e i m p e l l e d dynamic 182 space,"  i . e . t h e opposing t e n s i o n s o f t h r e e dimension-  a l and two d i m e n s i o n a l .  "Space i s a l l energy," f o r  Hof m a n n , and Search f o rhas them Raesasl.," 1949, p.47. "space has volume volume ^ Hofmann's 179  x  •) d o  3  H a n s Hofmann, "The M y s t e r y of C r e a t i v e R e l a t i o n s , " J u l y , 1953, c i t e d i n Hans Hofmann, New York, H a r r y N. Abrams, 19o3, p.45. 181 Hofmann, "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1963, p.182. o u  l g 2  I b i d . , p.181.  1 5 3  I b i d . , p.182.  76  s c i e n t i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i s l a t e t e e n s l e d him t o t h e t h e o r i e s o f E i n s t e i n who s a i d , t h a t energy i s d e r i v e d from mass, t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i n g t o space and energy.  The  knowledge o f t h e i n h e r e n t v i t a l f o r c e s o f space and l i f e t h a t t h e s e f o r c e s can c r e a t e , s t i r s t h e a r t i s t i c mind t o greater imagination to create l i f e s u r f a c e f o r the v i e w e r . tension.  on t h e p i c t o r i a l  "Pictorial life  i s based on  F o r c e s and c o u n t e r - f o r c e s , rhythm and  counter-rhythms."  •  C o l o r i s one o f the e a s i e s t and  b e s t means t o c r e a t e t h e s e f o r c e s f o r i t i s a b l e t o p r o rp  duce d e p t h ( p u l l ) and l i g h t emanation (push)  he  f o r c e s o f push and p u l l a r e mental i n t h a t v i s u a l sensat i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o past e x p e r i e n c e nature  of tensions i n  o r t h a t t h e s e t e n s i o n s a r e f e l t as a r e a c t i o n f r o m  the p i c t u r e s u r f a c e .  Rhythm, a time and i n t e n s i t y element  of "push and p u l l , " i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e a r t i s t ' s temper•  -  ament.  186  P a i n t i n g s o f t h e p e r i o d a f t e r Hofmann's r e t r o s p e c t ive  a t t h e A d d i s o n G a l l e r y o f American A r t f a l l i n t o t h r e e  c a t e g o r i e s which r e f l e c t h i s t h e o r i e s a t t h a t "Magenta and B l u e , " 184  ( 1 9 5 0 )  time.  r e t a i n s Hofmann's " c u b i s t  T  Loc. c i t . 185  Loc. c i t . 186  Hofmann, "Hans Hofmann on A r t , " 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 8 0 .  77 trauma."  While  awareness of the minimal the  the  painting  planar concept,  p e r s i s t e n c e o f the  p l a n a r one  as  seen  into  f o u r quadrangles  the quadrangles  depicting flects  a still  The  i n h i s "Piano  general  l u m i n o s i t y o f the  Matisse  has  vibrant blue.  and area ing  lower  of a  to  i n the  (1916) .  further  spatial  area  canvas r e -  While by  the  same  both,  a p a l e r and  less  p l a c e d on  greatest  case  Red,  F a u v i s t , Henri  canvas i s achieved  I f , as  been b r o k e n  b r i g h t n e s s o f the  o t h e r f o r the  flat  ones l a r g e r .  E a c h c o l o r t h a t Hofmann has  d y n a m i c power.  the  projective  of the  blue,  an  o f c o l o r does n o t m a t c h t h e dynamism o f i t s n e i g h b o u r c o l o r to form  increased  a stable  so t h a t t h e  effect.  The  top l e f t  corner  projective area  I I I ) has  a more sombre r e d and  canvas v i e s w i t h every  The  have b e e n u s e d  Lesson,"  his  integrated with  (1943).  c o n t a c t w i t h the  as  reflects  l a t e r work shows a  i n t o a semblance  Matisse  used  green  cited  concept  (plate  w i t h the  life.  Hofmann's e a r l y  linear  Blue"  b l u e , y e l l o w , magenta and divide  this  i n "Fantasia"  c a n v a s o f "Magenta and up  earlier  relation,  size w i l l  i n the  magenta t o t h e r i g h t of the  powers do  as does t h e  end  o f the  of color i s  create the  blue  and  on  same the  c a n v a s have a s m a l l a r e a f o r t h e i r  not  blue.  that area  n e c e s s i t a t e a l a r g e and Even though they a r e  C l e m e n t G r e e n b e r g , A r t and B e a c o n P r e s s , 1961, p. 192.  Culture,  dominant  at the  side of  Boston,  the canvas, they have the f o r c e to combat the b l u e . use in  The  of c o l o r i n these p l a n a r areas i s f u r t h e r emphasized Hofmann's l a t e r works of I 9 6 0 , but l i n e s and dynamic  planes are used here t o achieve the e f f e c t of "push and pull," expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n . As i n the a n a l y t i c a l c u b i s t works of P i c a s s o and Braque, Hofmann has appeared p o i n t s of the same s t i l l  t o have taken d i f f e r e n t  life.  The b l u e area t o the lowe:  r i g h t can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e d , yellow and still  life  area t o the upper l e f t .  P i c a s s o took d i f f e r e n t  view  While  green  Braque and  views of the same o b j e c t and  tied  them together i n t h e i r compositions, Hofmann here, seems to  have taken a f r o n t and back view and  the canvas.  separated them on  I t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t these two  areas  most l i k e l y do not r e p r e s e n t the same o b j e c t s from  differ  ent s i d e s but the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i r forms and s p a t i a l displacement u n i f y them.  i n h e r e n t l y cause the observer t o  A r e l a t i o n i s set up between them which  causes the two areas t o c o n t r a c t t o g e t h e r yet the i n t e n s i t y of the y e l l o w - r e d t e x t u r e and the magenta cause the two  t o expand o f f the The  its  canvas.  plane of blue i s p r o j e c t e d o f f the canvas by  f o r c e f u l c o l o r but most of a l l by the dynamic p l a n e s .  The blue area of c o l o r , by b e i n g angled, appears  t o come  out t o the observer as the upper r i g h t y e l l o w area  recede  79  T h i s b l u e does n o t p r o j e c t f l a t out but i s a l s o angled f o r t h e lower b l a c k areas p r o j e c t s t h e b l u e when t h e lower p o r t i o n o f t h e canvas comes i n t o f o c u s .  The whole bottom  a r e a i s a l s o angled o f f by t h e s l a n t e d h o r i z o n t a l .  The r e d  o v e r l a y i n g t h e b l u e and the r e d t o the l e f t c e n t e r cause the eye t o f o l l o w a r i g h t - l e f t d i r e c t i o n and the c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the yellow-green  r e s u l t i n an a c t i v a t e d l i f t and push.  The y e l l o w a s s o c i a t e s w i t h t h e y e l l o w - r e d t e x t u r e t o b r i n g t h e plane down o n l y t o be p r o j e c t e d a g a i n by the b l u e a r e a . The y e l l o w a r e a t o the upper r i g h t does not have the v i g o u r or energy of t h e other q u a d r a n g l e s .  In r e l a t i o n t o the  o t h e r s , i t appears u n f i n i s h e d , u n s o l v e d .  The b l a c k and  green l i n e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p l a n a r o b j e c t r a i s e d above i t l a c k f o r m and s o l i d i t y as compared t o t h e o b j e c t s p l a c e d above t h e b l u e . The c o n t r a s t between t h e f i n i s h e d , o v e r f i n i s h e d and u n f i n i s h e d a s p e c t s o f the canvas i l l u s t r a t e s Hofmann's c u b i s t trauma.  The overworked a r e a t o the upper l e f t shows Hofmann  as a s y n t h e t i c c u b i s t w i t h t h e v i b r a n t t e x t u r e o f r e d and yellow.  The l i n e a r q u a l i t y o f t h e p i n e a p p l e  shape a t t a i n s  o n l y p a r t i a l p l a n a r concept i n t h e extreme r i g h t l e a f .  By  u s i n g t h e l a r g e a r e a o f c o l o r Hofmann has a c h i e v e d t h e dynamism he c a l l e d f o r b u t i n d e p i c t i n g the s m a l l e r o b j e c t t h e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e l a r g e r a r e a s o n l y made them l i n e a r . The l i n e i s the s m a l l e s t p a i n t i n g p l a n e , but i n c o n t r a s t t o a l a r g e p l a n a r a r e a , i t becomes m e r e l y a l i n e .  BO  However i n a work such as "Le G i l o t i n , " 1953, ( p l a t e I V ) , t h e w i d t h o f a p a i n t b r u s h has been the b a s i c s i z e of the plane.  Even t h e w h i t e a r e a t o t h e upper r i g h t  appears t o be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e p l a n e s by t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e a c t u a l pigment.  W h i l e t h e l e n g t h o f each  p l a n e v a r i e s , t h e w i d t h remains c o n s t a n t so t h a t each b r u s h s t r o k e appears p l a n a r .  Only seven l i n e s a r e used  t o d e f i n e the f i g u r e but they are only superfluous: the f i g u r e c o u l d be seen w i t h o u t them.  Hofmann's a b i l i t y t o  use g r e e n i n a f r i v o l o u s mood d e t r a c t s from green's u s u a l sombre f e e l i n g . creamy manner.  The p a i n t has been a p p l i e d i n a r i c h The e f f e c t on t h e o b s e r v e r i s pure d e l i g h t .  ( T h i s canvas now hangs i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g o f the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y .  I t creates a  l i v e l y and j o y f u l mood f o r t h e p a s s e r - b y s and t h e w o r k i n g staff.)  The l a v i s h amount of p h y s i c a l pigment and t h e  h i g h l y t e x t u r e d surface creates a uniquely l i v e l y area o f c o l o r w h i c h f o r e t e l l s t h e l a t e s t phase o f Hofmann's p a i n t i n g s i n w h i c h he uses l u x u r i a n t o i l s i n r e c t a n g u l a r plane of vibrant  color.  T h i s e f f e c t can be seen i n "Above Deep Waters," 1959,  ( p l a t e V ) . The canvas has been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  h o r i z o n t a l a r e a s ; t h e upper s e c t i o n r e d , t h e m i d d l e , y e l l o w , and t h e bottom, m o t t l e d b l a c k and g r e e n .  Though each c o l o r  appears s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t , a l l c o l o r s a r e seen i n each of the three areas.  T r a n s i t i o n a l zones between each a r e a  81 are the most prominent p l a c e f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f c o l o r from another a r e a .  Between the r e d and the y e l l o w t h e r e  are p a t c h e s o f green and b l u e which s t a n d out and i n t o the b o r d e r l i n e .  sink  The main a r e a c o l o r i s a l s o m o t t l e d  w i t h a d i f f e r e n t shade 1  As can be seen on the upper  y e l l o w edge, a d a r k e r l e s s v i b r a n t shade has been i n c l u d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o the r e d . a r e a l s o seen above the r e d a r e a .  Spots o f b l u e  These t r a n s i t i o n a l  p l a n e s p r o j e c t and recede t o form the "push and effect.  patch  pull"  The d a r k e r shades a t the b o r d e r l i n e s s e p a r a t e  the  c o l o r s i n an e x p a n d i n g d i r e c t i o n w h i l e the b r i g h t n e s s o f the r e d and y e l l o w c o n t r a c t the s u r f a c e a r e a .  T h i s con-  t r a c t i o n i s caused by t h e extreme b r i g h t n e s s o f b o t h w h i c h form a s i n g l e b r i g h t a r e a .  T h i s now  single  areas  area  p r o j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the b l a c k - b l u e a r e a t o the bottom. W i t h the a l t e r a t i o n of f o c u s t o t h e r e d , the b l a c k appears to  p r o j e c t m a i n l y because of the h e a v i n e s s a t the bottom  o f the canvas.  The t h r e e a r e a s t h e n o s c i l l a t e  perpendicular-  l y and p a r a l l e l t o the p i c t u r e p l a n e . Each a r e a has been a p p l i e d i n a p l a n a r method of pure p a i n t i n g . c o l o r sense.  The p l a n e s and a r e a s of c o l o r each emit  one  Even the lower b l a c k a r e a where green i s  m o t t l e d i n t o t h e b l a c k has a s i n g l e c o l o r and r e f l e c t s  not  pure i n the sense of p r i m a r y c o l o r s but pure i n Hofmann's sense o f s i n g l e c o l o r r e f l e c t i o n .  The  c o l o r a r e a s a r e not  r e - d e f i n e d by b l a c k l i n e s as i n "Magenta and B l u e " but  are  82 d e f i n e d by t h e edge of each p l a n e o f c o l o r a g a i n s t a n o t h e r . No l i n e a r d e f i n i t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r the c o l o r s are l o u d and c o n t r a s t i n g enough t o d e f i n e t h e i r own l i m i t s .  In t h i s  work the c r e a t i v e and f o r m a l development have been combined i n t o a s i m u l t a n e o u s development.  The dark c o l o r s , b l u e over  the b r i g h t ones, r e d , show t h a t the b l u e was  p l a c e d on the  r e d as a f o r m a l element w i t h f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t would p r o j e c t and r e c e d e .  I t s f o r m a l r o l e as a t r a n s i t i o n a l  u n i f y i n g d e v i c e were a l s o u n d e r s t o o d .  and  A b a l a n c e i s seen  i n the two b l u e t r a n s i t i o n a l p a t c h p l a n e s and the two r e d ones.  T h i s almost p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e j u x t a p o s i t i o n i s  c l e a r l y shown i n the r e d and b l a c k a r e a s .  The a r e a s t h a t  j u t out from the b l a c k a r e p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the r e d . A complete t r a n s f e r i s not u n d e r t a k e n because t h e r e d would overpower the y e l l o w .  To g i v e the i d e a of  semblance,the  minimum amount o f r e p e t i t i o n i s a b l e t o suggest the d u p l i c a t i o n o f forms.  T h i s r e p e t i t i o n of forms was  seen  i n e a r l i e r works such as "Magenta and B l u e , " but here t h e prominence of c o l o r i s t a k e n i n t o account so t h a t a r e a o f r e d i s d e c r e a s e d t o a f f o r d an e a s i e r b a l a n c e w i t h the r e s t o f the  canvas. W h i l e "Above Deep Waters"  r e t a i n s a p a i n t e r l y and  l u s h a p p l i c a t i o n of p a i n t , l a t e r works d e l v e i n t o t h e r e a l m of hard edges.  "Pre-Dawn," I 9 6 0 , ( p l a t e VI) has a  c o m b i n a t i o n o f the h a r d edge and p a i n t e r l y approach. u p p e r a r e a s w h i c h a r e modeled w i t h heavy pigment  The  appears  83  to contrast with r i g i d rectangular rectangles,  creates  that area. not  Actually  though t h e i r edges are hard, are a l s o  pigmented with i c e p i c k p o i n t s of p a i n t  areas.  The  of p r o j e c t i o n .  added c o l o r and  the  heavily  The  relief  u n d u l a t i o n of c o l o r t o  b u t t e r - l i k e f e e l of the upper p o r t i o n s  r e p r e s e n t a s i n g l e c o l o r r e f l e c t i o n but  s p i t e of the mottled e f f e c t . enough t o stand on i t s own  a multitude i n  Each c o l o r stroke  and  minature canvas i n i t s e l f and  does  i s bright  show i t s f o r c e .  It i s a  r e f l e c t s as w e l l the  entire  canvas. Areas o f pure c o l o r are canvas t o l i f e by  juxtaposed t o b r i n g  the v i b r a t i o n between these a r e a s .  f i g h t f o r supremacy of c o l o r b r i g h t n e s s and  every c o l o r .  and  d i m i n u a t i v e c o l o r , i s able  By  the  i s fought by  Blue, normally taken t o be a  The each  recessive  to v i e w i t h red and  yellow.  i t s surrounding a s p e c i a l c o l o r i n r e l a t i o n t o the  c o l o r i t achieves a v i b r a n c y  seldom seen i n b l u e .  areas are decreased i n s i z e f o r the ion.  Even though red  overly vibrant  canvas do not  powerful.  A dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m  rectangles  on bottom and  y e l l o w square at the t o p . that  the  c o l o r s and  the  y e l l o w has  overly  rectangle  been so The  red and  charged  energetic  expressive a p p l i c a t i o n  p a i n t are a source of i n v i g o r a t i o n and server.  rectangles  appear  red c i r c l e and  The  reflect-  i s set up between the  i t c o n t i n u a l l y re-echos i t s s t r e n g t h .  q u a l i t y of the  Yellow  i s a resounding c o l o r , the  of red at the bottom of the  other  appeal f o r the  of ob-  84 T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of a few of Hofmann's p a i n t i n g s has  shown the u n i t y of h i s t h e o r y and  i n g s r e f l e c t h i s t h e o r i e s and  practice.  vice versa.  This  His p a i n t inter-  r e l a t i o n s h i p does not suggest t h a t p a i n t i n g n a t u r a l l y l e a d s t o t h e o r i z i n g o r v i c e v e r s a , but r e f l e c t s t h e i r m u t u a l dependence f o r Hofmann's development. Hofmann's t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s have extended over a p e r i o d of f i f t y y e a r s . h i s approach t o a r t .  H i s w r i t i n g s have  Though t h i s t h e o r y  explained  changes from y e a r  t o y e a r , these changes d e r i v e not from c o n t r a d i c t i o n but from h i s f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n and  clearer definitions.  f o l l o w i n g paragraphs w i l l summarize t h e s e t h e o r i e s  The  and  t h e i r changes. The  a r t i s t has an i n b o r n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , an i n d e s c r i b -  able s e n s i t i v i t y f o r q u a l i t y . of hyper-awareness, h i s t e a c h e r  With t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a b l e t o l e a d the young  a r t i s t t o h i s n a t u r a l g i f t , not by p r o d d i n g , but s y m p a t h e t i c and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i r e c t i o n .  The  l e a r n s t o see i n n a t u r e t h e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s and  inanimate o b j e c t s .  by  artist o f animate  Hofmann f e l t t h a t an a r t i s t must  have t h e a b i l i t y t o empathize, t o s p i r i t u a l l y p r o j e c t i n order t o c r e a t e .  The  a r t i s t f e e l s i n t o them and  from nature i t s c r e a t i v e q u a l i t y . a r t i s t ' s n a t u r a l g i f t , i n s p i r e s and c r e a t e as n a t u r e does. c r e a t i n g was  receives  N a t u r e , t h r o u g h the s t i m u l a t e s him  to  N a t u r e ' s r o l e as i n s p i r a t i o n f o r  dominant t h r o u g h o u t Hofmann's w r i t i n g s .  85 T h i s c r e a t i o n i s n o t an o b j e c t i v e i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r e f o r t h a t would be p h o t o g r a p h i c and shows n o t h i n g o f t h e a r t i s t ' s temperament.  He must have an open mind f o r t h e  n o n - f i g u r a t i v e because t h a t r e c e p t i v e n e s s a l l o w s t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the p i c t o r i a l i z a t i o n a r t i s t himself.  of the  As e a r l y as 1915, Hofmann had s a i d t h a t  he would not i m i t a t e n a t u r e , b u t l e t form e v o l v e  from  the " a r t i s t ' s e x p e r i e n c e s evoked by o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y and t h e a r t i s t ' s command o f t h e s p i r i t u a l means o f t h e f i n e a r t s t h r o u g h which t h i s a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e i s 188 t r a n s f o r m e d by him i n t o r e a l i t y i n t h e p a i n t i n g . " The a r t i s t r e a l i z e s t h e w o r k i n g s o f h i s mind and senses.  The a c t u a l p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n  o f h i s senses  l e a d s him t o p e r c e p t i o n s which a r e u n r e a l .  I n 1932,  Hofmann r e a l i z e d t h a t o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , n a t u r e , had t h e appearance o f two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y on t h e o b s e r v e r s  senses.  The e f f e c t o f o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y on t h e o b s e r v e r i s not two d i m e n s i o n a l as i n appearance b u t t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l as i n n a t u r e .  Through t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f the e x p e r i e n c e  o f n a t u r e t o t h a t moment, t h e e f f e c t o f o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e ' s appearance on t h e o b s e r v e r has t h e semblance o f b e i n g three dimensional.  Hofmann, " P r o s p e c t u s f o r Munich S c h o o l ...," 1915, p.56.  The  p e r c e p t u a l r e a c t i o n t o a p i c t u r e plane  the p e r c e p t i o n of n a t u r e .  The  parallel  p i c t u r e surface w i t h  pigment a p p l i e d i s de f a c t o , two d i m e n s i o n a l .  The  effect  on our p e r c e p t i o n i s t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l because of the 189 i n h e r e n t laws of t h e p i c t u r e plane as s t a t e d i n and the volume f o r m i n g ed i n 1951.  The  1931  q u a l i t y of c o l o r w h i c h was  discuss-  p i c t u r e plane r e a c t s w i t h an e q u a l  opposite f o r c e t o t h a t which i s a p p l i e d .  The  applied  and r e a c t i o n f o r c e depends on the a d v a n c i n g and q u a l i t y of c o l o r and form.  and  receding  Luminous and c o n t r a s t i n g  c o l o r s tend t o advance as do l a r g e and dominant forms. The a r t i s t i s a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e q u a l i t i e s appearance and e f f e c t by e m p a t h i z i n g t h e medium of e x p r e s s i o n . he i s s t i m u l a t e d and  i n t o nature and  By e m p a t h i z i n g  inspired.  of  into  into  nature,  By f e e l i n g i n t o the  nature  of t h e medium, i t s laws and i t s i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s ,  the  a r t i s t i s a b l e t o use the medium of e x p r e s s i o n t o i t s b e s t ends.  With an empathetie a t t i t u d e , the a r t i s t i s  a b l e t o f e e l i n t o a n y t h i n g and t o use i t as a means of expression. How  and where the medium o f e x p r e s s i o n i s a p p l i e d  t o the canvas w i l l determine the f o r m i n a p a i n t i n g . Hofmann s a i d i n 193.1 t h a t the f o r m a l elements c o n s i s t e d Hofmann, "On  the Aims of A r t , " 1931,  p.  7-11  87 o f l i n e s , p l a n e s , volumes and the r e s u l t i n g f o r m a l 190 complexes.  . I n 1948  p l a n a r concept and  he became more a t t a c h e d t o the  s a i d t h a t t h e l i n e was  o n l y the meeting  of two p l a n e s and t h a t volumes were a r e g u l a t e d s e r i e s of planes.  Hofmann's e a r l y w r i t i n g s do not c o n s i d e r c o l o r  as a f o r m a l element but a c r e a t i v e one. developed  D u r i n g 1951  he  the i d e a t h a t because of c o l o r ' s volume form-  i n g q u a l i t y , c o l o r i n c r e a s i n g l y became a f o r m a l element. Hofmann went so f a r as t o say t h a t c o l o r was  a formal  element but q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d t h a t c o l o r e x i s t e d because o f l i g h t on form.  I n t h e 1955  a r t i c l e , "The  Color  Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g , " Hofmann r e s o l v e d the o f f o r m and c o l o r ; they e x i s t t o g e t h e r . of f o r m and  c o l o r must occur  The  question  development  simultaneously.  Through the i n t e r w o r k i n g o f form and  color,  " i n t e r v a l s " a r e s e t up i n which two p h y s i c a l c a r r i e r s are v i s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o form a n o n - p h y s i c a l h i g h e r t h i r d . T h i s h y p e r - p h y s i c a l overtone the two  separate  i s a simultaneous diminution.  The  carriers.  governs the r e a c t i o n between The  " r e l a t i o n " between them  accelerated i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n or v a r i a t i o n of such f o r c e s over t h e whole  s u r f a c e of t h e canvas c r e a t e s rhythms, a time  and  i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r which the a r t i s t governs w i t h h i s temperHofmann, E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue 1931.  Berkeley,  SB ament.  The b a l a n c e o f t h e f o r c e s d e v e l o p s t e n s i o n s  and a  sense o f dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m . The  a l t e r n a t i o n between an o v e r a l l t e n s i o n and  d i r e c t e d f o r c e s , i n c i t e s w i t h i n the observer the f e e l i n g of movement.  The o b s e r v e r p e r c e i v e s  dimensionality The  t h e change from two  t o three dimensionality  and v i c e  versa.  b a l a n c e o f t h e "push" and t h e " p u l l " f o r c e i n o p p o s i t e  d i r e c t i o n s b r i n g s about s t a b i l i t y , w h i l e a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between them d e v e l o p s t h e e f f e c t o f movement and dynamism w i t h i n the observer.  T h i s dynamic q u a l i t y i s caused by  the o b s e r v e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n dimensionality  a l t e r n a t i n g between t h e two  and t h e t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l i t y .  i s t h e movement back and f o r t h , p e r p e n d i c u l a r picture surface.  I t i s created  Push and p u l l t o the  by the volume f o r m i n g  q u a l i t y o f c o l o r and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f l a r g e , dominant and  c o n t r a s t i n g forms.  p i c t u r e surface  The movement p a r a l l e l t o t h e  i s " e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n . "  T h i s move-  ment i s c r e a t e d w i t h i n t h e o b s e r v e r by i n t e r v a l s and r e l a t i o n s between form and c o l o r .  I n t e r v a l s play a l a r g e r  r o l e because o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o u n i f y o r t o s e p a r a t e two a r e a s o f t h e canvas. The  c r e a t i o n o f "push and p u l l " and "expansion and  c o n t r a c t i o n " i s t h e mean t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a r t . v i t a l i z e d form.  Art i s .  Movement i s t h e essence o f L i f e ; L i f e  does n o t e x i s t w i t h o u t movement.  I f t h e s e movements r e -  f l e c t the a r t i s t h i m s e l f , a work o f a r t has been  created.  89 Hofmann used p a i n t i n g two  f i e l d s o f a r t , t h e f i n e and t h e a p p l i e d  Symphonic p a i n t i n g , the  to distinguish  between the arts.  a category of t h e f i n e a r t s , possesses  movements o f "push and p u l l " and " e x p a n s i o n and  contraction."  I t incites within  and  I n 1931, symphonic p a i n t i n g  movement.  the o b s e r v e r , v i t a l i t y was  distinguish-  ed by t h e i r s e n s o r y and e m o t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w h i c h would b r i n g about the e f f e c t upon the s e n s e s .  o f i n c r e a s e d monumentality  " I n symphonic p a i n t i n g , • • 191  r e a l b u i l d i n g medium."  c o l o r i s the  T h i s 1948 statement by Hofmann  r e f l e c t s the i n c r e a s e d r o l e c o l o r d e v e l o p e d i n h i s theoretical writings.  Symphonic p a i n t i n g s i s a l s o c r e a t e d  by t h e a r t i s t who becomes e m p a t h e t i c a l l y "aware o f t h e i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s o f t h e medium o f e x p r e s s i o n . " 1 9 2 j decorative painting,  n  a c a t e g o r y o f t h e a p p l i e d a r t s , the  a r t i s t can a l s o empathize but he s t r i v e s m a i n l y f o r g r e a t er s i m p l i f i c a t i o n .  The d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g  w i l l lack the  e f f e c t o f p l a s t i c movement because i t s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n results The  i n a t o t a l l y two d i m e n s i o n a l p i c t o r i a l space.  e f f e c t o f p l a s t i c movement d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  painting  from d e c o r a t i v e p a i n t i n g .  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n 1952.  symphonic  Hofmann summarized  He s a i d t h a t symphonic  •^Hofmann, Search f o r t h e R e a l , 1948, p.73. 192 * I b i d . , p. 52.  paint-  9Q  i n g and d e c o r a t i v e  p a i n t i n g d i f f e r " i n the c r e a t i o n of  q u a l i t y t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e image c r e a t e d 193 evident."  becomes s e l f -  By " q u a l i t y " Hofmann i n c o r p o r a t e d  creative act.  the  The c r e a t i v e a c t e n t a i l s N a t u r e .  An  empathetic a t t i t u d e t o Nature e n a b l e s the a r t i s t t o sense N a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v i t y . N a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v i t y i n s p i r e s the a r t i s t t o c r e a t e  the p i c t o r i a l r e a l i z a t i o n of  dynamic movements o f o s c i l l a t i o n between the two three dimensional planes.  The two d i m e n s i o n a l i t y  and of the  p i c t u r e p l a n e i s r e t a i n e d because of the dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m t h a t r e s u l t s from a b a l a n c e o f t h e f o r c e s of "push" and " p u l l " and t h o s e o f "expansion"and "contraction."  The r e s u l t i n g symphonic  p a i n t i n g has an 194  i n t i m a c y , a l y r i c i s m and a r i c h o r c h e s t r a t i o n . T h i s p a i n t i n g i s a c u l t u r a l documentation o f t h e 195  t i m e i n which i t was c r e a t e d .  I t releases  the  o b s e r v e r from the monotonous s c h e d u l e of everyday  life.  I t has a new r e a l i t y o f i t s own because i t i s based on the p e r s o n a l i t y of the a r t i s t ' s s o u l , mind, and temperament.  I t g l o r i f i e s t h e human s p i r i t and  i t i n a s t a t e of e t e r n a l r e j u v e n a t i o n . 193  Hofmann, "A Statement 194 195  sensibility  Loc. c i t . Loc. c i t .  ...,"  keeps  The h u m a n i s t i c and 1952.  91 c u l t u r a l s p i r i t which t h i s p a i n t i n g c a p t u r e s , a r e r e t a i n e d i n t h i s work of a r t i f i t remains i n t h e same p h y s i c a l state.  T h i s s p i r i t i n the p a i n t i n g i s above t h e n a t u r a l  world.  I t e n d l e s s l y emits the l i f e experience of the  a r t i s t to the viewer.  I t i s t h i s s p i r i t w h i c h Hofmann  t r i e d t o c a p t u r e i n h i s own work and t r i e d t o i n c i t e i n his  students.  CHAPTER I I I THE WEST-COAST CANADIAN STUDENTS OF THE  HANS HOFMANN SCHOOL OF  ART  D u r i n g the l a t e f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s , many Canadians  a t t e n d e d the Hans Hofmann S c h o o l o f A r t i n New  York and P r o v i n c e t o w n .  Each a t t e n d e d a t a d i f f e r e n t time  and each of t h e i r r e a c t i o n s i s d i s t i n c t .  Although  H o r t e n s e Gordon, A l e x a n d e r Luke, J.W.G. MacDonald and Joe P l a s k e t t a t t e n d e d t h e Hofmann S c h o o l , o n l y L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe and Donald J a r v i s a r e d i s c u s s e d here because these a r t i s t - t e a c h e r s were a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r view.  T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s the Hans Hofmann S c h o o l  of A r t i n New  York and the summer s c h o o l i n P r o v i n c e t o w n  i n r e s p e c t t o the p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l approach and the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t on the p a i n t e r s o f t h a t period.  T h i s e f f e c t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o  Hofmann's West-Coast Canadian  s t u d e n t s , L i o n e l Thomas,  Takao Tanabe and Donald J a r v i s .  Their  contemporary  t h e o r i e s w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o Hofmann's t h e o r i e s which were t a u g h t a t h i s New  York and P r o v i n c e -  town s c h o o l s . Hofmann's a r r i v a l i n America s t a r t of a twenty-seven  i n 1931 marked t h e  year t e a c h i n g career i n h i s  93 c o u n t r y of n a t u r a l i z a t i o n .  F o l l o w i n g two y e a r s of t e a c h -  i n g a t B e r k e l e y , Los Angeles and New own New York s c h o o l i n 1933.  York, he s t a r t e d h i s  I n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r he r e -  e s t a b l i s h e d a summer s c h o o l w h i c h had been such a success i n Europe.  Hofmann's s c h o o l i n New York was f i r s t l o c a t e d  on F i f t y - S e v e n t h S t r e e t and L e x i n g t o n Avenue.  I t was  moved t o F i f t y - S e c o n d S t r e e t and N i n t h Avenue and t o E i g h t h S t r e e t i n Greenwich V i l l a g e .  finally  His school d i d not  have the t y p i c a l a r t s c h o o l atmosphere w i t h s e t s t i l l  lifes,  c o l o r r e p r o d u c t i o n s of the o l d masters or c o l o r c h a r t s hanging on t h e w a l l s .  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e v i t a l i t y and  i n t e r e s t i n g f a c e t s of New York C i t y , t h e E i g h t h S t r e e t s t u d i o was s t a r k and l a c k e d atmosphere."*"  D u r i n g the l a t e  f o r t i e s the f e e s averaged twenty t o t h i r t y d o l l a r s a week 2  for a full-time  student.  At h i s day and n i g h t c l a s s e s i n New attended  York, Hofmann  each c l a s s a t l e a s t two t i m e s a week e i t h e r t o  d i s c u s s and t o c r i t i c i z e student work or to s e t up the ^ C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h Mr. W i l l i a m S. H a r t , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y .of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., A p r i l 14, 1966. 2  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Donald J a r v i s , Vancouver, B.C., F e b r u a r y 1, 1966, In the f o l l o w i n g footnotes f o r m a t e r i a l o b t a i n e d from i n t e r v i e w s o n l y t h e name and date w i l l be g i v e n . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w were a l l i n Vancouver.  94 f i g u r e model f o r t h e week.  Hofmann was a l o o f t o h i s  s t u d e n t s and i t was d i f f i c u l t t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h 3 him.  They however developed  i d e a s amongst t h e m s e l v e s .  a vigorous interchange of  Hofmann's concept  of e d u c a t i o n  e n t a i l e d l e s s work w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l student so t h a t a k  group s p i r i t would d e v e l o p . T h i s " e s p r i t de c o r p s " was " i n s p i r e d by t h e t e a c h e r , whose presence was r e q u i r e d o n l y i n t e r m i t t a n t l y f o r c r i t i c i s m s and s u p e r v i s i o n on a p o l i c y making l e v e l . "  5  In t h e drawing  c l a s s c h a r c o a l was l a r g e l y used b e -  cause of " i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , c h a n g e a b i l i t y , t r a n s f o r m a b i l i t y and w o r k a b i l i t y .  The drawings were l i k e p a i n t i n g s f o r they  o f t e n t o o k two or t h r e e days t o  complete."^  The s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d t h e Hofmann s c h o o l had d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g , background and enthusiasm  for art.  Hofmann, however, was a b l e t o b r i n g out t h e t r u e a r t i s t 7 and the i n d i v i d u a l i n each of h i s s t u d e n t s . Hofmann e s t a b l i s h e d a sympathetic  climate t o s t i m u l a t e the l e s s e r 8 He " t u r n e d them on," n o t by l e c t u r i n g o r  talents.  ^ J a r v i s , Feb. 1,  1966.  L  Thomas B. Hess, A b s t r a c t P a i n t i n g , New The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1951, p. 131. ^Loc. c i t . J a r v i s , Feb. 1,  1966.  J a r v i s , Feb. 1,  1966.  °Jarvis, Feb. 1,  1966.  6  7  York,  i n s t r u c t i n g b u t by d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , c r i t i c i s m s and h i s a u t h o r a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y and presence. i n s p i r e d by him.  S t u d e n t s were awe  They would a l l s t a n d when he e n t e r e d t h e  room; t h e n , one s t u d e n t would take h i s hat w h i l e another 9 would t a k e h i s c o a t .  H i s a b i l i t y " t o come t o the problem  i n what was wrong w i t h a p a i n t i n g o r d r a w i n g "  1 0  enabled him  t o c r i t i c i z e t h o r o u g h l y a p i e c e o f work done by a s t u d e n t . Hofmann would rework r i g h t on the s t u d e n t ' s work t o t h e e x t e n t o f r i p p i n g i t up and r e - p i e c i n g i t i n o r d e r t o 11 r e v e a l i t s new  possibilities.  C r i t i c i s m s such as t h e one j u s t d i s c u s s e d were a l s o h e l d monthly f o r t h e e n t i r e s c h o o l . They were "an i m p o r t a n t ' t h i n g ' . " A r t i s t s who d i d n o t a t t e n d Hofmann's c l a s s e s were a l s o p r e s e n t . At t h e s e " c r i t s " Hofmann would i n h i s poor and broken E n g l i s h , " p i c k e v e r y t h i n g t o 12 pieces" e i t h e r through d e m o n s t r a t i o n o r g e s t u r e . Only a few works were t h o r o u g h l y commented upon w i t h h i s " b o l d 13 stroke c r i t i c i s m s "  and v i b r a n t p e r s o n a l i t y .  Hofmann's summer s c h o o l a t P r o v i n c e t o w n had much t h e same c l a s s s i t u a t i o n and approach as h i s New ^Takao Tanabe, March 2 6 , 1966,  York  Vancouver, B.C.  J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 11 L i o n e l Thomas, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., January 2 5 , 1966. 1 0  1 2  1 3  J a r v i s , Feb. 1,  1966.  J a r v i s , Feb. 1,  1966.  96 school.  I n b o t h , t h e s t u d e n t s drew d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e  f i g u r e model. I n New York t h e y were more d i v e r s e and 14 interesting. P r o v i n c e t o w n models tended t o be as f u l l 15 and Germanic as Rubenesque f i g u r e s .  At t h e summer s c h o o l ,  models were employed f o r t h e morning s e s s i o n .  Landscapes  and s t i l l l i f e s c o u l d be used by t h e s t u d e n t i n t h e a f t e r noon i f he so d e s i r e d .  Landscapes were o f t e n chosen be-  cause o f t h e i r n a t u r a l dynamic q u a l i t y and t h e enjoyment d e r i v e d from n a t u r e . N i g h t l y c r i t i c i s m s were h e l d on t h e day's work. These c r i t i c i s m s , u n l i k e those i n New York, were more i n t i m a t e and l e s s t h e a t r i c a l .  The s t u d e n t c o u l d g e t t o  know h i s t e a c h e r on a more p e r s o n a l b a s i s and exchange i d e a s w i t h him. The a r t c r i t i c , H a r o l d Rosenberg, has 16 s a i d t h a t many s p i n s t e r s a t t e n d e d t h e summer s c h o o l but L i o n e l Thomas, one o f t h e s t u d e n t s , s a i d t h e r e were o n l y 17 a few " n o n - s e r i o u s s t u d e n t s . " I n any case, Hofmann f e l t t h a t t h e s c h o o l p r o v i d e d them w i t h "an e x p e r i e n c e n o t o t h e r 18 w i s e a v a i l a b l e t o them." J a r v i s , F e b . 1, 1966. 15 Thomas, J a n . 18, 1966.  1 4  " ^ H a r o l d Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " P o r t f o l i o and A r t News A n n u a l , no.6, Autumn, 1962, p. 110. 17 18  Thomas, J a n . 18, 1966. Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann L i f e C l a s s , " p. 110.  97 I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t Hofmann's s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t o o d his teachings terminology  on f i r s t attempt because o f h i s m e t a p h y s i c a l  and b r o k e n E n g l i s h .  Donald J a r v i s , f o r  example, s a i d t h a t he r e a l i z e d what Hofmann meant "by h i n d 19 s i g h t i n h i s own p a i n t i n g s . The t h e o r i e s o f Mondrian C^zanne, Cubism, Fauvism and E x p r e s s i o n i s m  were n o t d i s -  cussed as s u c h , b u t t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n Hofmann's new p i c t o r i a l approach f o r " t e a c h i n g modern a r t as a 20 tradition." H a r o l d Rosenberg s a i d i n h i s 1962 a r t i c l e , "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " t h a t " n e i t h e r f i n a n c i a l l y n o r as an i n i t i a t i n g f o r c e was -the Hofmann s c h o o l a s u c c e s s be21 cause o f t h e a d u l t e r a t i o n o f time, p l a c e and s i t u a t i o n . " I n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t Hofmann's s c h o o l d i d not emphasize a c u l t u r a l documentation of h i s t i m e ,  i n the  sense o f s o c i a l r e a l i s m o f t h e t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s h i s s c h o o l was a b l e t o b u i l d up an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s f o r the development of a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s m .  W h i l e none of 22  the A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s attended h i s s c h o o l ,  they  s o c i a l i z e d w i t h a r t i s t s f a m i l i a r w i t h Hofmann's t h e o r i e s . 19 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 20 Rosenberg, "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " p. 28-. 21 I b i d 22  Ibid  p.  112.  p.  110.  98  The  i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic b a s i s f o r t h e i r work '  n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t e d the A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s .  The  A b s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t s would not n e c e s s a r i l y accept or r e j e c t Hofmann's t h e o r i e s but r a t h e r , t h e y would d e v e l o p an i n t e l l e c t u a l and academic a t t i t u d e i n c r i t i c a l l y a n a l y z i n g t h e i r own  works.  Hofmann's t h i n k i n g " t a u g h t the  a c t of c r e a t i o n i n p a i n t i n g by u p l i f t i n g the 23  student's  s p i r i t w h i l e e n l i g h t e n i n g h i s mind." D u r i n g the l a t e f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s , Canadian s t u d e n t s invaded Hofmann's c l a s s e s i n f o r c e .  Hortense  Gordon of H a m i l t o n , A l e x a n d e r Luke and Ronald Lambert of Oshawa, Joe P l a s k e t t of New  W e s t m i n s t e r and L i o n e l Thomas  o f Vancouver came i n 1947.  J.W.G. MacDonald and  Donald 24  J a r v i s a t t e n d e d c l a s s e s i n 1948  and  Takao Tanabe i n  1951.  Three West-Coast C a n a d i a n s , L i o n e l Thomas, Takao Tanabe and Donald J a r v i s , a l l p r e s e n t l y a r t i s t s - t e a c h e r s , have each r e a c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y t o h i s t e a c h i n g s . t h e y a t t e n d e d the s c h o o l a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s and  Although at  d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s and divergent  s i t u a t i o n s account f o r t h e i r v a r y i n g r e s p o n s e s .  Each i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t ' s contemporary t h e o r i e s of a r t w i l l now  be d i s c u s s e d  New  York and P r o v i n c e t o w n I b i d . , p. 113• 2if  i n r e l a t i o n t o Hofmann's t e a c h i n g s  T a n a b e , March 29,  schools.  1966.  at  the  99 Lionel at  Provincetown,  Part the  Thomas a t t e n d e d  of  this  regular  Thomas  summer  after  came t o  and h i s  1947, for  t i m e was s p e n t  acquainted with evenings  in  the  H o f m a n n summer  two  and a h a l f  as a private  school began.  Hofmann i n classes.  student  there.  before  personally  many d i s c u s s i o n s i n  During  these  more  clearly  understand  months  He b e c a m e  their  school  the  conversations, Hofmann's  ideals  teachings. Hans  student,  Hofmann,  both believe  inspiration classes  the  for  the  employ the  teacher,  that  and L i o n e l  Nature  creation  of  is  the  a work  Thomas,  the  source  of  art.  Both  its  "inherent  of  human m o d e l b e c a u s e o f  their  25 motion" ion  of  Thomas  to the  greatest  this  stimulation  comes a l i v e  and he h a s t o  c a n be  stored  conscious l e v e l .  Form on a B o t t o m  of  which  inspiration  when he d o e s h a v e t h e  inspiration the  the  e n e r g y endowed s p a c e ,  said that  However, being  give  For  in  is  Nature.  his  it.  present. whole  The  and l a t e r  e x a m p l e , when he  a Pool,"  of  always  inspiration,  mentally  direct-  part  was n o t  express  the  summoned  painted  he h a d " a n a c t u a l  to  "Rock  experience  26 and painted 2 5  it  subjectively  Thomas,  a week l a t e r  in  his  studio."  J a n . IB, 1 9 6 6 .  ?6 L i o n e l Thomas, c i t e d i n " C o a s t to Coast i n A r t : Vancouver. P a i n t e r Wins I n t e r n a t i o n a l A w a r d , " Canadian A r t , v o l . 9, n o . 4 , S u m m e r , 1 9 5 2 , p . 1 6 9 .  166  Hofmann s t a t e d s i m i l a r l y t h a t " e v e r y t h i n g comes from nature;  I t o o am a p a r t o f n a t u r e ; my memory comes from 27  nature." and  Both r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m n a t u r e  stored i t mentally  f o r l a t e r use.  The s i m i l a r i t y o f  t h e s e two statements does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y Thomas adopted Hofmann's i d e o l o g y .  that  I n t h i s c a s e , as i n  o t h e r s t o f o l l o w , t h e b a s i c source o f i n s p i r a t i o n and the i d e a o f what a work o f a r t i s , c o u l d w e l l have been developed by t h e a r t i s t b e f o r e h i s a r r i v a l a t t h e Hofmann 28 s c h o o l and r e i n f o r c e d t h e r e . Thomas b e l i e v e s t h a t "the sources of a r t a r e 29 mysterious."  , Hofmann's m e t a p h y s i c a l and nebulous s t y l e  of w r i t i n g and h i s a t t r i b u t e d q u a l i t y of a work o f a r t a l s o exhibited t h i s mysteriousness.  Hofmann t r i e d t o  d i s c u s s and a n a l y z e t h i s m y s t e r i o u s source but Thomas b e l i e v e s i t cannot be v e r b a l l y e x p r e s s e d .  Thomas i s more  c o n s i s t e n t , f o r Hofmann c o n t r a d i c t e d h i m s e l f by w r i t i n g on t h a t m y s t e r i o u s s o u r c e . Hofmann wrote t h a t an i d e a 27 Hans Hofmann, c i t e d i n E l i z a b e t h P o l l e t , "Hans Hofmann," A r t s , v o l . 3 1 , no. 8, May, 1957, p. 30. 28 The problem o f a c t u a l i n f l u e n c e can o n l y be i n f e r r e d e x c e p t i n cases where t h e a r t i s t a c t u a l l y uses Hofmann's terms and t h e o r i e s d i r e c t l y . Q u a l i f i e d academic s p e c u l a t i o n must be used because an a r t i s t s e l dom admits t h a t he has been i n f l u e n c e d by a n o t h e r a r t i s t . 29 Thomas, J a n . 19, 1966.  has  a c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c medium t h r o u g h w h i c h i t can be 30  expressed.  H i s attempt t o e x p r e s s t h e s p i r i t u a l v e r b a l l y ,  f o r c e d him t o w r i t e i n a n e b u l o u s , m e t a p h y s i c a l s t y l e . Thomas does not attempt such a g o a l f o r he r e a l i z e s i t s unattainability. T h e i r b a s i c concept of a work of. a r t i s s i m i l a r b u t Hofmann had a more e x t e n s i v e  definition.  Thomas b e l i e v e s  t h a t t h e f i n i s h e d work o f a r t c o n t a i n s a s i n g l e i d e a .  31 T h i s i d e a , c a l l e d " " b a r a k a " by t h e A r a b s ,  i s timeless.  I t includes the a r t i s t ' s f e e l i n g f o r q u a l i t y .  While  Hofmann d i d n o t use the term " b a r a k a , " he e x p r e s s e d a s i m i l a r i d e a c o n c e r n i n g an a r t i s t ' s " h i g h l y developed 32 sensitivity for quality."  Hofmann's concept of a work  of a r t i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d f o r he s a i d t h a t i t must appear t o possess a dynamic energy t o i n v i g o r a t e t h e v i e w e r . Hofmann's " s i n g l e i d e a " has been w e l l d e f i n e d w h i l e  Thomas  i s more vague and g e n e r a l . Both Hofmann and Thomas b e l i e v e t h a t a d u l t r e l y on t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s of e x p e r i e n c e s ; senses.  artists  that i s t h e i r  Thomas adds c r i t i c i s m s o f the young a r t i s t s who  H a ndrugs s Hofmann, o f t e n take or a l c oSearch h o l i nf oorrd ethe r t Roe a lc ,h iAndover,Mass., e v e unique andThe A d d i s o n G a l l e r y o f American A r t , 1948, p. 46. 3 Q  31  T h o m a s , J a n . 19,  1966.  Hans Hofmann, " P a i n t i n g And C u l t u r e , " F o r t n i g h t l y , v o l . 1, no. 1, September 11, 1931, p. 5. J  unnatural experiences. this  Hofmann makes no r e f e r e n c e s t o  method. Thomas p e r s o n a l l y f e e l s t h a t he does n o t need  a r t i f i c i a l s t i m u l i i n o r d e r t o have an e x p e r i e n c e .  By  l i v i n g n a t u r a l l y , he i s a b l e t o use t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s t o d e p i c t h i s images t o the v i e w e r .  A l t h o u g h i n 1949 he  s t u d i e d under Mark Rothko, an i c o n o c l a s t , Thomas b e l i e v e s t h a t man n a t u r a l l y sees images.  still  He gave t h e  example of Leonardo da V i n c i who s a i d t h a t man saw images i n stone w a l l s , and of Hamlet, who saw t h e image o f h i s 34 f a t h e r i n the clouds.  Thomas e x p l a i n s h i s m u r a l s and  s c u l p t u r e s as symbols of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s m u r a l o u t s i d e t h e Brock H a l l E x t e n s i o n point c l e a r l y . presents  of l i f e .  His  exemplifies this  Each r e c t a n g u l a r u n i t of t h e m u r a l r e -  one department o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y .  These images,  as w e l l as t h e r e s t o f Thomas' images, a r e d e r i v e d from h i s knowledge o f cubism and t h e o t h e r "isms" o f t h e twentieth  century.  Thomas' image making q u a l i t y i s h i s p e r s o n a l development.  Hofmann never wrote about t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  o f images and symbols. present  However, a few o f h i s p a i n t i n g s  images w h i c h he d i d not c o n s c i o u s l y t r y t o  achieve. Thomas, J a n . 19, 1966. Thomas, J a n . 18, 1966.  103'. Another p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y o f Thomas t h a t  differs  f r o m Hofmann i s Thomas' h a b i t o f m e n t i o n i n g names o f w e l l known t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r t i s t s .  Hofmann who worked and  s t u d i e d w i t h t h e s e f i g u r e s , r a r e l y mentioned t h e i r names. Thomas has r e a d e x t e n s i v e l y on t h e s u b j e c t and t h e o r y o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r t i s t s b u t he has n o t used t h e knowledge t o h i s advantage. ing  He o n l y r e t a i n s a few o u t s t a n d -  i d e a s and s y n t h e s i z e s them p o o r l y .  Thomas f e e l s an  academic a t t i t u d e can d e s t r o y an a r t i s t by t o o much intellectuality. the l a t t e r  Thomas i s i n agreement w i t h Hofmann f o r  s a i d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a b l e n d i n g t o g e t h e r  of the r a t i o n a l and t h e i r r a t i o n a l .  Thomas attempts t o  a c h i e v e t h i s w i t h h i s r a t i o n a l approach t o modern t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r t b u t he does n o t c o m p l e t e l y understand t h e s e t h e o r i e s o r has n o t made them a p a r t o f himself.  He a t t a c h e s h i m s e l f t o them and uses them when he  w i s h e s , b u t t h e y cannot do what he wants them t o do. T h i s i s apparent  i n Thomas' t e a c h i n g when he uses a  famous t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r t i s t t o e x p l a i n a c e r t a i n p o i n t to h i s students. but h i s i r r a t i o n a l  He s t a r t s o f f w i t h an a r t i s t ' s  theory  p e r s o n a l i t y t a k e s over and he l o s e s  the s t u d e n t s i n a c o n t r a s t o f t e r m s , thoughts  and a c t i o n s .  Both Thomas and Hofmann b e l i e v e t h a t a r t cannot be t a u g h t as such.  The a r t i s t has an " i n b o r n  as Hofmann would c a l l i t , o r " b a r a k a , "  sensitivity,"  Thomas' term.  t e a c h e r does not t e l l the student f o r m u l a s and d e s i g n  The  "104 t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e bare canvas, but he must l e a d and d i r e c t t h e student t o t h e use and e x p r e s s i o n o f that inborn q u a l i t y . Thomas t e a c h e s i n a s i m i l a r manner as Hofmann d i d . Both l e a v e t h e i r s t u d e n t s a l o n e t o s o l v e t h e i r problems.  individual  However, Thomas d i f f e r s from Hofmann i n t h a t  Thomas l e c t u r e s on t e c h n i q u e and t h e o r y .  Theory i s n o t 35  g i v e n a t random but o n l y t o " r e c e p t i v e s t u d e n t s . " Thomas f e e l s t h a t i f a d e s i g n f o r m u l a i s g i v e n t o any hackneyed a r t i s t , t h e f o r m u l a would be worked t o the ground and would a l s o be a f f e c t e d d e t r i m e n t a l l y . Thomas' t h e a t r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a s r e s u l t s i n t h e same atmosphere as Hofmann a c h i e v e d .  Thomas, when i n  t h e p r o p e r mood, i s v i b r a n t and a u t h o r a t i v e .  He w i l l  command a t t e n t i o n w i t h a l l means a v a i l a b l e , e i t h e r by shock, humour or awe. the u n a c q u a i n t e d for  H i s ideas are u s u a l l y incomprehensible t o student but can be a means o f e x p r e s s i o n  t h e s t u d e n t when he has grasped t h e concept.  Thomas,  a l s o l i k e Hofmann p r o v i d e s , an " e x p e r i e n c e t o s t u d e n t s n o t 36o t h e r w i s e a v a i l a b l e t o them." In Thomas' drawing  c l a s s e s he suggests s t a r t i n g w i t h  t h e s p h e r e , cone, cube and c y l i n d e r . 35  Thomas d i f f e r s  from  ^Thomas, J a n . 19, 1966. 3 6  R o s e n b e r g , "Hans Hofmann's L i f e C l a s s , " 1962, p.110,  105  Hofmann*s approach i n t h a t Thomas has t a k e n o b j e c t s w h i c h r e s u l t from t h e p l a n a r concept as Hofmann had t a u g h t . Thomas has t o d e a l w i t h s t u d e n t s w i t h l i t t l e o r no b a s i c d r a w i n g background.  He s t a r t s w i t h e a s i e r concepts and  g r a d u a l l y i n t r o d u c e s t h e i d e a of p l a n a r depth by j u x t a p o s i t i o n and s h i f t i n g which a r e t h e same as t h o s e expounded by Hofmann. The above m a t e r i a l does not appear t o show s t r i c t f a c t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between s t u d e n t and t e a c h e r .  Having  r e c e i v e d a course i n " B a s i c D e s i g n " from Mr. Thomas, one 37  i s a b l e t o see t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e . The most prominent  a s p e c t would be Thomas' t e a c h i n g o f t h e  concept o f "push and p u l l " and " e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n . " Thomas d e v e l o p s t h e s e concepts f i r s t i n the terms of form and t h e n c o l o r .  He, much l i k e Hofmann, b r a n d i s h e s these  terms around w i t h o u t e x p l a i n i n g what he means. are stunned by h i s t e r m i n o l o g y .  The s t u d e n t s  I f t h e student i s p e r c e p t -  i v e enough t o r e a l i z e what Thomas means, he w i l l a p p l y i t c o r r e c t l y b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s use t h e f o r m u l a d i r e c t l y and p r e s e n t n o t h i n g o f t h e i r own. a c l a s s r o o m of t h e same poor s o l u t i o n s .  The r e s u l t i s  When d i s c u s s i n g  s u c h f o r c e s as "push and p u l l " and " e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n , " Thomas h i m s e l f has n o t f u l l y grasped t h e meaning 37  The w r i t e r s t u d i e d w i t h Mr . L i o n e l . Thomas i n 19626 3 , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The course t a k e n was F i n e A r t s 228, B a s i c D e s i g n .  106  t h a t Hofmann a s c r i b e d t o each t e r m . one  To Thomas, t h e y a r e  i n t h e same t e r m b u t i n f a c t t h e i r f o r c e s a r e  perpendicular  t o each  other.  Thomas a l s o t e a c h e s t h e use o f c o l o r t o a c h i e v e a s p a t i a l q u a l i t y w h i c h he l e a r n t from t h e Hofmann s c h o o l . Hofmann s a i d t h a t c o l o r has the i n t r i n s i c c r e a t e volume.  quality to  Thomas has t a k e n a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e , f o r  i n h i s i n t e r i o r designs,  c o l o r i s "thought o f as an element  of a r c h i t e c t u r e and not 'decor'.  I t i s three  dimensional,  38 s p a t i a l and s t r u c t u r a l . "  The s p a t i a l enhancement o f  a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r i o r s w i t h c o l o r has enabled him t o become more aware o f i t i n h i s o t h e r a r t forms, such as sculpture. Thomas' awareness o f m a t e r i a l , a c t u a l l y e m p a t h i z i n g i n t o i t , has made him " u n a f r a i d t o work i n any medium."  39  Thomas b e l i e v e s t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o j e c t i s c r e a t i v e . Empathy i s a q u a l i t y i n h e r e n t w i t h i n t h e a r t i s t .  Not o n l y  i s t h e c o n s c i o u s mind i n v o l v e d b u t t h e r e i s a b a c k i n g f r o m t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , w h i c h e n a b l e s a " q u i e t l o v e between t h e a r t i s t and t h e medium."  40  T h i s e m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e i s not  t a u g h t o r suggested by Thomas.  This facet of the education  ^ L i o n e l Thomas, c i t e d i n Rene Boux, "An A r t i s t Relates h i s S k i l l to Architecture," Canadian A r t , v o l . 13, no. 1, Autumn, 1955, p. 2 0 3 - 2 0 5 . 39 ' L i o n e l Thomas, c i t e d i n Stephen F r a n k l i n , "Busy A r t i s t , " Weekend Magazine, v o l . 8 , no. 2, 1958, p. 14. 40 Thomas, J a n . 19, 1966.  107  o f t h e a r t i s t was however p r e s e n t e d by Hofmann.  He t r i e d  t o i n c i t e w i t h i n h i s students the perception of the inner q u a l i t y o f animate and i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . What Thomas t e a c h e s s h o u l d n o t t o be a c c e p t e d as f a c t , a l t h o u g h he can i m p l y i t .  He p r e s e n t s the i d e a s o f  "push and p u l l " and " e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a t i o n " from Hofmann, t h e use o f l i n e from K l e e , t h e p u r i t y of form and c o l o r from Mondrian,  t h e images from P i c a s s o , t h e c o l o r from t h e  German E x p r e s s i o n i s t s and t h e s c i e n t i f i c and p h i l o s o p h i c a t t i t u d e s o f modern man.  He has t a k e n t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y  a r t and p r e s e n t e d t h e b e s t o f i t s i d e a s t o h i s p u p i l s .  He  has not developed a s y n t h e t i c t h e o r y as Hofmann h a s , but a t t e m p t s t o p r e s e n t t h e b a s i s and the t h e o r y  itself.  However, Thomas has been i n f l u e n c e d by Hofmann s T  t e a c h i n g method.  Both a r e n o t e d u c a t o r s of s e t a r t i s t i c  v i e w p o i n t s and problem  s o l u t i o n s , but a r e e d u c a t o r s i n t h e  sense o f s t i m u l a t o r s of minds f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f problems s e t up by t h e p u p i l h i m s e l f .  Guide p o s t s and p o i n t e r s a r e  a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s t u d e n t , b u t what t h e s t u d e n t a c h i e v e s i s dependent s o l e l y on h i s a b i l i t y t o use h i s i n b o r n artistic  qualities.  G e n e r a l l y , Thomas, l i k e Hofmann, has helped , t o s t i m u l a t e h i s s t u d e n t s , t o educate t h e p u b l i c and t o b u i l d up an a r t i s t i c c l i m a t e w i t h i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l  environments.  W h i l e t h e scope o f Hofmann's i n f l u e n c e i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l , Thomas' has tended t o be p a r o c h i a l .  108 In contrast t o the s i m i l a r i t i e s  of L i o n e l Thomas  and Hofmann, a n o t h e r West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t , Takao Tanabe, has r e a c t e d i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n .  Having  stayed a t t h e Hofmann s c h o o l f o r o n l y s i x weeks and b e i n g of a d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l e x t r a c t i o n and p e r s o n a l o u t l o o k , the divergence  between Tanabe and Hofmann i s e a s i l y d i s c e r n a b l e .  However, i n s p i t e of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , Tanabe may have been i n f l u e n c e d d u r i n g h i s s t a y a t t h e Hofmann s c h o o l . Takao Tanabe heard of the Hofmann s c h o o l from Joe Plaskett. rolled  When Tanabe a r r i v e d i n New York i n 1951, he en-  i n Hans Hofmann's n i g h t s c h o o l drawing course w h i l e  a t the same t i m e a t t e n d i n g t h e day s c h o o l o f the B r o o k l y n Museum o f A r t .  The c o n t r a s t between t h e two s c h o o l s  must  have been t o o much t o a c c e p t f o r Tanabe l e f t t h e Hofmann s c h o o l a f t e r s i x weeks. Tanabe's p e r s o n a l i t y can be seen t h r o u g h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the interviews.  D u r i n g the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w Tanabe s t a t e d  t h a t he had d i s r e g a r d e d  Hofmann's i d e a s even b e f o r e  started classes there.  I f such were the c a s e , Tanabe's  a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e 'School would have been l u d i c r o u s .  he  Upon  r e q u e s t i o n i n g , he s a i d t h a t he was n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c about Hofmann's t h e o r i e s .  By t h i s r e t r a c t i o n , Tanabe's p e r s o n a l -  i t y can be u n d e r s t o o d . teachers  He does not l i k e t o acknowledge h i s  and f e l l o w a r t i s t s who have helped him i n h i s work.  I n an i n t e r v i e w he s a i d t h a t he i s not the most j u b i l a n t and b o i s t r o u s person.  He i s almost always on an even k e e l .  His  1Q9  i n t r o v e r t e d p e r s o n a l i t y c o n t r a s t s w i t h Thomas' e x t r o v e r t e d one.  With the a d d i t i o n o f an approach more i n k e e p i n g w i t h  Tanabe's own  p e r s o n a l i t y , a t the day  school i n Brooklyn,  Hofmann's i d e a s d i d not have a chance t o j e l l .  Hofmann»s  i n f l u e n c e on Tanabe cannot be s t r e s s e d because of Tanabe's o p p o s i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and the s h o r t d u r a t i o n at the  school.  I t i s , however, s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t t h e r e  are  s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e i r i d e a of p a i n t i n g l s i n s p i r a t i o n d e r i v i n g from n a t u r e .  As was  l i e v e d t h a t n a t u r e was  the source of s t i m u l a t i o n f o r t h e  artist.  s t a t e d e a r l i e r , Hofmann be-  S i m i l a r t o o t h e r West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t s ,  Tanabe has a " f e e l i n g f o r t h e c o u n t r y and f o r  nature."  H i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of l a n d s c a p e are n a t u r a l , and are o f a s p e c i f i c time and p l a c e . " metaphysical  4 2  The  t o Hofmann who  the  ( n a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v i t y ) Tanabe's  l a n d s c a p e canvases a r e " n o t l a n d s c a p e s o f the s o u l or 43 eye'."  "not  I n c o n t r a s t t o Hofmann's  landscape i n w h i c h the a r t i s t r e p r e s e n t s  unseen p o r t i o n of n a t u r e ,  4 1  quoted " i n n e r eye"  i s undoubtedly a  Tanabe says he r e j e c t e d l o n g  'inner  reference  ago.  41  Joe P l a s k e t t , c i t t e d i n Takao Tanabe. P a i n t i n g s and Drawings, 1954 - 1957. ( C a t a l o g u e ) , Vancouver A r t Gallery. 42 Robert F u l f o r d , "Tanabe". Canadian A r t , v o l . 18, no. 1, Jan./Feb., 1961, p. 50. IT  Takao Tanabe: P a i n t i n g s and ( C a t a l o g u e ) , Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y .  Drawings .  .....  110: Takao Tanabe's l a n d s c a p e s a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f c o n s c i o u s e m p a t h i z i n g i n t o t h e l a n d f o r m s and n a t u r e o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s e m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e c o u l d have been  i n s p i r e d by Hofmann's c l a s s e s where one i s i n i t i a t e d  into  s e e i n g i n t o t h e essences o f animate and i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . However, empathy does n o t need t o be t a u g h t .  I t can be  a c q u i r e d by a p e r c e p t i v e and s e n s i t i v e p e r s o n such as Tanabe.  H i s r a c i a l background would a l s o l e a d him t o such  feelings of the natural world.  (This l a t t e r f a c t should  not be emphasized f o r Tanabe was brought up i n a w e s t e r n c u l t u r e and h i s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o r i e n t was h i s Japanese a n c e s t o r y , p a r e n t a l t u t e l a g e a t home and h i s r e c e n t t r i p to Japan).  Because i t i s n o t known what e m p a t h e t i c f e e l -  i n g s Tanabe had b e f o r e h i s s i x weeks a t t h e Hofmann  school,  one cannot a t t r i b u t e h i s p r o j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s t o Hofmann. The i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e o f Hofmann on Tanabe i s tenuous.  Joe P l a s k e t t quotes Tanabe c o n c e r n i n g c a l l i g r a p h y ,  " I have broken away from t h e d e f i n i t e p l a n e e x t e n s i o n s o f form b u i l d i n g and volume d e f i n i n g o f Hofmann."  44  When  Tanabe was a t t e n d i n g t h e s c h o o l , Hofmann had n o t s o l v e d t h e problem o f form and c o l o r .  L a t e r i n h i s development,  and form d e v e l o p s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  color  Tanabe i n h i s own d e v e l o p -  Joe P l a s k e t t , "Some New Canadian P a i n t e r s and t h e i r Debt t o Hans Hofmann." Canadian A r t , v o l . x , no. 2 , W i n t e r , 1953, p. 6 1 .  ment a l s o a c h i e v e s t h e same e f f e c t .  "Landscape o f an  I n t e r i o r Space" ( p l a t e V I I ) e x h i b i t s a p l a n a r c o n t r o l o f color.  As i n Hofmann's "Le G i l o t i n " , Tanabe has used each  s t r o k e of t h e b r u s h as a p l a n e o f pure c o l o r . c o l o r s stand a g a i n s t i t s n e i g h b o u r i n g  Different  ones t o d e f i n e t h e  edges, n o t by l i n e s , but by c o n t r a s t o f c o l o r .  While  Tanabe's a p p l i c a t i o n of p a i n t i s n o t as l u s h as Hofmann's " G i l o t i n " o r "Pre-Dawn", Tanabe i s a b l e t o c r e a t e a r i c h creamy e f f e c t by t h e c o n t r a s t o f y e l l o w t o t h e w h i t e ground and j u x t a p o s i n g b l a c k p l a n a r l i n e s .  The m o t t l e d  areas o f the, ground r e f l e c t t h e c o l o r s w h i c h a r e l a i d on top.  The r h y t h m i c a l f l o w o f the s t a c c a t o y e l l o w and b l a c k  v e r t i c a l s undulate  the canvas.  This achieves the e f f e c t  of "push and p u l l " b u t Tanabe u n d o u b t e d l y would not c a l l i t by Hofmann's terms.  The c o n t r a s t of o r g a n i c shapes  t o t h e lower l e f t and the v e r t i c a l p l a y o f rhythms a c r o s s the canvas have a n a t u r e - l i k e f e e l . o f growth.  There i s a f e e l i n g  Tanabe has f e l t n a t u r e ' s c r e a t i v e q u a l i t y and  p i e t o r i a l i z e d i t i n an i n t e r p l a y o f v i v i d l y  harmonizing  colors. T h i s o r g a n i c f e e l i n g f o r n a t u r e c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h a t o f Hofmann, but Tanabe d e n i e s such a f f i n i t i e s . Though s i m i l a r i d e a s can be seen i n Takao Tanabe and Hans Hofmann, t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e s t u d e n t cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . I f Hofmann was i n an i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n t h a t a s p e c t has been c o n s t r i c t e d , d e n u n c i a t e d  and f o r g o t t e n  112 by Takao Tanabe. I n c o n t r a s t t o Takao Tanabe, Donald J a r v i s developed  has  from t h e i d e a s o f Hans Hofmann's s c h o o l and  f o r m u l a t e d h i s own  p e r s o n a l statement  about a r t .  These  t h e o r i e s do not r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r from those o f h i s t e a c h e r but r a t h e r are a p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n t o t h o s e developed  by Hofmann.  Donald J a r v i s who  heard o f the Hofmann s c h o o l from  L i o n e l Thomas a t t e n d e d the morning c l a s s e s o f Hofmann's N.ew  York s c h o o l i n 1948.  He had j u s t graduated  Vancouver A r t S c h o o l , and was a p p l i e d f o r admission.  f r o m the  l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l l y when he  He t o l d Hofmann o f h i s predicament  and Hofmann gave him a job as a n i g h t m o n i t o r t o pay f o r the t u i t i o n .  H a r o l d Rosenberg has s a i d t h a t "Hofmann and  h i s w i f e got caught up i n the p e r s o n a l l i v e s o f h i s 45 students."  J a r v i s was  such an i n v o l v e m e n t .  n i g h t monitor  c o n s i s t e d of p o s i n g the model each n i g h t and  making sure e v e r y t h i n g was over.  H i s job as  i n o r d e r a f t e r the c l a s s  was  Jarvis called himself a " g l o r i f i e d j a n i t o r . " Through t h i s j a n i t o r i a l p o s i t i o n , J a r v i s was  able  t o e x p e r i e n c e and r e c o g n i z e the i d e a s o f a modern master i n c o n t r a s t t o the o v e r b e a r i n g a t t i t u d e i n the l a t e 1940's 47 o f the Vancouver A r t S c h o o l . A l t h o u g h J a r v i s d i d not 45 H a r o l d Rosenberg, The Anxious O b j e c t , New York, H o r i z o n P r e s s , 1962, p. 151. J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 47 J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 4 6  113 comprehend i m m e d i a t e l y " e x p a n s i o n and  the i d e a s of "push and p u l l "  and  c o n t r a c t i o n , " through hindsight i n h i s  own  p a i n t i n g s he r e a l i z e d t h e d i r e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e between them.  H i s c o n c e p t s of a " r e l a t i o n " and an " i n t e r v a l "  s t i l l vague, w h i l e he u n d e r s t a n d s " t e n s i o n " t o be a o f f o r c e s and an i m p l i e d r e l a t i o n s h i p .  are  balance  Hofmann used the  above d e v i c e s t o a c h i e v e a v i b r a n t motion i n h i s p a i n t i n g s . J a r v i s f e e l s t h a t such an end i n p a i n t i n g i s narrow makes f o r a l i m i t e d v i e w p o i n t . c o m p e l l i n g and 48 artist.  The  and  i d e a of dynamism i s  s h o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d by t h e  individual  J a r v i s h i m s e l f has t a k e n i d e a s of Hofmann and worked them w i t h h i s own  re-  p e r s o n a l i t y , e x a c t l y what Hofmann  had t r i e d t o i n s t i l l i n h i s s t u d e n t s .  A painting to  J a r v i s a f f e c t s the o b s e r v e r w i t h an i n f e c t u o u s v i t a l i t y , an i d e a d e r i v e d from Hofmann.  U n l i k e Hofmann who  emphasiz-  ed t h i s p o i n t , J a r v i s r e a l i z e s t h a t a work of a r t must a l s o be c r e a t e d w i t h a " b a c k l o g of t r a i n i n g . " a r t i s t i s presented artists.  The  4 9  w i t h problems f o r m e r l y s o l v e d by  He s o l v e s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s and d e v e l o p s h i s  older own  problems and s o l u t i o n s . H i s s o l u t i o n s have t o be worked on over a p e r i o d of t i m e u n t i l the c u l m i n a t i n g i d e a i s m a t u r a t e d .  4  ^ J a r v i s , Feb.  1,  1966.  J a r v i s , Feb.  1,  1966.  The  artist  can a c h i e v e t h e end r e s u l t by t r i a l and e r r o r o r e x p e r i m e n t ation.  J a r v i s f i n d s t h a t h i s young s t u d e n t s use t h e t r i a l  and e r r o r method much more o f t e n t h a n he would.  He h i m s e l f ,  approaches t h e problem much i n t h e same way as Hofmann had 50 by " l e t t i n g i t grow from what has preceded i t . "  Jarvis  does not c o n t i n u a l l y work a t t h e same problem u n t i l he i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t i t has been s o l v e d b u t pursues a problem u n t i l he has f e l t he has produced something. r e t u r n t o t h a t same q u e s t i o n .  L a t e r he w i l l  When he has come t o a f i n a l  answer, he w i l l p r e s e n t t h i s t o t h e p u b l i c .  Jarvis, at  t h i s p o i n t , i s so sure o f h i s s o l u t i o n t h a t he i s a b l e and p r e p a r e d t o s t a n d b e h i n d t h a t work.  I t does not n e c e s s a r i l y  have t o e x h i b i t a v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t , such as s o c i a l r e a l i s m , 51 but c a n be " p a i n t e r l y means t o e x p r e s s p a i n t e r l y i d e a s . " T h i s statement by J a r v i s , i s p r a c t i c a l l y a word f o r word r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f Hofmann's statement f o r m e r l y c i t e d . The s o l e a c t o f u s i n g p a i n t e r l y means i s a l s o a f a c e t o f a 52 painting.  These means a r e used t o e x p r e s s an accumula-  t i o n of past e x p e r i e n c e which w i l l r e s u l t i n form. S i m i l a r t o Hofmann, J a r v i s uses e x p e r i e n c e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a d u l t a r t from c h i l d a r t . C h i l d r e n ' s a r t l a c k s a backJ a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966. 5 0  5 1  J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966.  52 J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966.  ground of e x p e r i e n c e and " g e t s b o r i n g a f t e r a w h i l e . " a d u l t p a i n t i n g by b e i n g r e l a t e d t o an a r t i s t ' s  53  An  experience  can a l s o r e f l e c t h i s mood a t t h a t t i m e , and t h u s have more depth. way  A work o f a r t i s r e l a t e d t o l i v i n g much i n the same  as Hofmann d e f i n e d a canvas as a h u m a n i s t i c and  cultural  statement. I n a r e p l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "how art?"  s h o u l d one  approach  J a r v i s answers t h a t one must p e r c e i v e t h a t work o f  a r t f o r "what i t i s . The o b s e r v e r must understand painterly qualities." p a s t , one  the  I n good and bad p a i n t i n g s o f the  can see o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e c l e a r l y so i t i s " e a s i l y 55  pegged t o hang one's t h o u g h t . "  I n c o n t r a s t t o past  a n e c d o t a l p a i n t i n g s , a b s t r a c t ones r e q u i r e an  increasingly  prepared audience who w i l l shed t h e i r p r e j u d i c e i n o r d e r t o f u l l y e x p e r i e n c e t h a t work. the observer.  Modern a r t r e q u i r e s more of  Hofmann, i n a s i m i l a r statement 56  i n g w i t h awareness i s a n o t h e r a r t . "  said,  "see-  The o b s e r v e r must  c r e a t e h i s own v i s i o n from h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the  artist's  p i c t o r i a l l y r e a l i z e d v i s i o n . He does not need t r a i n i n g J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. 5 3  5 4  J a r v i s , Feb. 8,  1966.  5 5  J a r v i s , Feb. 8,  1966.  56  Hans Hofmann, e x e r p t from " I t I s , " 1959, c i t e d i n Los A n g e l e s County A r t Museum, New York S c h o o l , The F i r s t G e n e r a t i o n o f P a i n t i n g s o f 1940's and 1950's. Los A n g e l e s , Members of th"e Board of tEe Los Angeles County A r t Museum, 1965, p. 17. J  but  only a w i l l i n g n e s s  mind.  t o approach a p a i n t i n g w i t h an open  However, i f t r a i n i n g i s g i v e n , "educate i n s e e i n g 57  what makes a p a i n t i n g  'tick'."  I f t h e o b s e r v e r can see how these mechanisms work, he may be a b l e t o t e l l how t h e a r t i s t was i n s p i r e d .  What  i n s p i r e s J a r v i s may be b e w i l d e r m e n t , an o b s e r v a t i o n o r an i n s i g h t i n t o some a s p e c t o f o b j e c t i v e  reality.  Jarvis  f e e l s t h a t t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n i s something he must e x p r e s s . The most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t I s , however, "the w i l l i n g n e s s  of  rg  the a r t i s t t o l e t t h i n g s grow out o f t h e canvas." Hofmann a l s o b e l i e v e d painting.  i n the developmental process of a •  J a r v i s has a g e n e r a l i d e a o f what w i l l happen  on h i s canvas b u t he w i l l pursue any new i d e a t h a t from a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n on t h e canvas.  occurs  He does not s t i c k  to-one c o n c e p t u a l approach l i k e Hofmann's p l a n a r one, but  59 employs a l l t h e t o o l s o f - " b a s i c contrast  v i s u a l language."  In  t o Hofmann's s i n g l e approach, J a r v i s has many  uses f o r c o l o r .  I t may serve as an e m b e l l i s h m e n t , an  element, a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n , a mood c r e a t o r ing device.  or a c o n t r o l l -  U n l i k e Hofmann, who went through d i f f e r e n t  s t a g e s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r m and c o l o r , r e a l i s e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of b o t h .  Jarvis  Form can be " a n y t h i n g n o t  t o do w i57 t h c o l o r , as i n K l i n e , or c o l o r i s form and f o r m i s J a r v i s , Feb. 8, 1966.  58  J a r v i s , Feb. 8,  1966.  59 J a r v i s , Feb. 8,  1966.  117 c o l o r , as i n M a t i s s e .  T o t a l form i s t h e summation of a l l 60  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a p a i n t i n g . "  T h i s statement i s  s i m i l a r t o Hofmann*s s i m u l t a n e o u s development c o l o r i n which t h e p a r a l l e l development necessitates  of form and  o f form and  color  change when e i t h e r one i s extended.  J a r v i s w i l l not s t a t e d e f i n i t e l y what t h e purpose of a completed p a i n t i n g i s , f o r he i s n o t sure he knows. I t can be a form of communication; t h a t i s , an e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n t o some form.  Hofmann e x p r e s s -  ed a s i m i l a r i d e a o f an i n n e r f e e l i n g p h y s i c a l l y p i c t o r i a l i z e d but J a r v i s goes f u r t h e r when he says t h a t " i f the viewer i s responsive t o the p a i n t i n g , the f u n c t i o n of the 61 p a i n t i n g w i l l have been f u l f i l l e d . "  Hofmann i n h e r e n t l y  knew h i s p a i n t i n g s would be a c c e p t e d , i f not now, the near f u t u r e .  then i n  The d i f f e r e n c e between Hofmann and J a r v i s  i s t h a t the t e a c h e r had a c h i e v e d some degree of i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame w h i l e h i s p u p i l i s s t i l l i n an  inferior  p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g known i n Vancouver and t o a l e s s e r degree sense but have t o ofe x ap r pe as isn tt ih ne g p li isg "h st o co fi a l ii nn aCanada. J a r iv its does ' o t hnot e r purpose 62 humanity."  Hofmann b e l i e v e d  c u l t u r a l statement. 6 0  6 1  6 2  t h a t a p a i n t i n g s h o u l d be £  However, H a r o l d Rosenberg s a i d t h a t  J a r v i s , Feb. 8,  1966.  J a r v i s , Feb. 8 ,  1966.  J a r v i s , Feb. 8,  1966.  118  Hofmann d i d not get i n v o l v e d w i t h the s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f America d u r i n g t h e l a t e t h i r t i e s .  Hofmann's school may  not  have taught t h e e x p r e s s i o n of a c u l t u r a l s t a t e m e n t , but upon J a r v i s ' r e t u r n from the s c h o o l , he p a i n t e d r e a l i s t i c works.  social  I t i s not u n t i l the l a t e f i f t i e s t h a t h i s  p a i n t i n g s d e p i c t the a r t i s t h i m s e l f and the i n f l u e n c e of Hofmann. The experience Jarvis.  purpose of p a i n t i n g as the c u l m i n a t i o n of to t h a t moment was  This experience  expressed  by Hofmann and  i s p i c t o r i a l l y communicated t o  the o b s e r v e r by the p a i n t i n g .  Like a radio-broadcaster, 63  the p a i n t e r does not know t o whom he w i l l  communicate.  J a r v i s however d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from Hofmann by  saying  t h a t the p a i n t i n g does not have t o communicate t o the o b s e r v e r what the a r t i s t i s e x p r e s s i n g .  Hofmann's  o p t i m i s t i c o u t l o o k f e l t t h a t i n time the audience would p e r c e i v e what he wished t o communicate. Both Donald J a r v i s and Hans Hofmann are  teachers.  They f e l t t h a t p a i n t i n g cannot be taught t o the person who  has not t h a t c e r t a i n g i f t of s e n s i t i v i t y .  f u r t h e r extends the l i m i t s of t e a c h i n g . one  can t e a c h a student  c o l o r s and p r i m i n g . J a r v i s , Feb.  Jarvis  He s a i d t h a t  about p a i n t i n g ; t h a t i s m i x i n g  However, the t e a c h e r ' s g r e a t e s t 8,  1966.  and  119 most i m p o r t a n t the  same way  task  i s t o "turn students  on"^  much i n  4  a s Hofmann s t i m u l a t e d h i s s t u d e n t s  by h i s s t r o n g c r i t i c a l  a p p r o a c h and  Whereas Hofmann d i s c u s s e d many a r t i c l e s ,  to  create  vibrant personality.  t e a c h i n g a r t t o some e x t e n t  Jarvis later felt  t h a t "the  question  in  of  Ac  teaching  a r t i s t o o g e n e r a l t o w a r r a n t an a n s w e r . "  The  a c t u a l t a s k of t e a c h i n g has  e n e r g y f r o m b o t h Hofmann and student  contact  a d d e d t o h i s own  s t i m u l a t i o n and students  Jarvis.  ideas.  taken  time  and  Jarvis feels  work i n t h e  y  sense  that of  Hofmann, h o w e v e r , n e v e r s a i d t h a t  e v e r a i d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s own  work;  he  t was  a separate  his pupils.  e n t i t y i n New  was  h e l d i n awe  by  I n c o n t r a s t , J a r v i s i s more down t o e a r t h  c o n v e r s e s more w i t h h i s Jarvis  1  c o n v e r s a b i l i t y has  s m a l l e r c l a s s e s and  and  students.  more p e r s o n a l l y a c q u a i n t e d the  Y o r k and  the  the Vancouver A r t School.  enabled  him  with h i s students  t o become because  of  h i g h s c h o o l - l i k e approach  of  Through h i s t e a c h i n g  Jarvis  f e e l s t h a t h i s t h o u g h t f o r c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s have been clarified. Prospectus  This statement i s r e f l e c t e d w h e r e he  t h e w h o l e new obtained 6 4  6 5  s a i d t h a t the  i n Hofmann's  school would  p i c t o r i a l a p p r o a c h t o modern a r t .  clarify Hofmann  the b a s i s of h i s t h e o r i e s from h i s P a r i s s t a y J a r v i s , F e b . 1, 1966. Jarvis,  Feb.  1,  1966.  1915  (1904 - 1914)  and r e s o l v e d them from h i s own  approach.  H i s t e a c h i n g n e c e s s i t a t e d o r g a n i z i n g a coherent f o r h i s s t u d e n t s and d i s c u s s i n g i t w i t h them.  theory While  Hofmann never s t a t e d t h a t h i s s t u d e n t s a i d e d h i s develop ment, " t e a c h i n g h e l p s t o c l a r i f y ; t h a t i s the v i r t u e o f teaching."  The  t e a c h e r must be w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n t o  h i s s t u d e n t s and a v o i d a l l dogmatism. a personality. students. ings.  Hofmann had  such  I t s r e s u l t s can be seen i n h i s many  Each had an i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n t o h i s t e a c h ^  J a r v i s a l s o has a s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e towards h i  students.  He l e a d s them i n t h e i r chosen d i r e c t i o n .  He  r e a l i z e s t h a t a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s m means n o t h i n g t o h i s young s t u d e n t s so he approaches them w i t h hard edge, Op and Pop a r t . Hofmann taught h i s s t u d e n t s a c e r t a i n f i n a l i n p a i n t i n g which the s t u d e n t was  end  not f o r c e d t o a c c e p t .  J a r v i s as a t r u e s t u d e n t of Hofmann r e a c t e d p a r t i a l l y f o r some o f those t e a c h i n g s .  He f e e l s t h a t "Hofmann*s  i d e a s a r e v a l i d f o r some ( a r t i s t s ) . rolling"  Hofmann got  people  t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n .  Hofmann's a f f e c t on Canadian a r t i s i n d i r e c t because i t has been i n f l u e n c e d by the whole New 6 6  J a r v i s , Feb. 8, .1966.  6 7  J a r v i s , Feb. 8,  1966.  York S c h o o l of  121 68 Abstract  Expressionism.  However, i n J a r v i s * work i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r and  pupil.  J a r v i s d i d not  t a k e over Hofmann*s i d e a s , but worked them out t o h i s own  a  according  p e r s o n a l i t y and from a r e a c t i o n t o h i s  environment. Upon J a r v i s * r e t u r n f r o m the Hofmann s c h o o l , p a i n t e d i n a s o c i a l r e a l i s t i c manner. were i s o l a t e d i n a crowd. t a k e on a d e p r e s s i n g planes.  he  Solitary figures  The dark and muddy c o l o r s  atmosphere.  L i n e i s used t o d e f i n e  T h i s e a r l y p e r i o d of h i s work does not show  J a r v i s at h i s m a t u r i t y of t h e i d e a s d e r i v e d Hofmann.  The  from  s u b j e c t e x p r e s s e s the p l i g h t of humanity  w h i c h he l a t e r d i s r e g a r d s .  H i s use  n o t h i n g of the v i t a l i t y and  e x c i t e m e n t t h a t Hofmann had  already exhibited.  of c o l o r shows  I t i s i n the l a t e r works such as  " W i n t e r E v e n i n g " t h a t J a r v i s uses h i s e x p e r i e n c e the Hofmann s c h o o l t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g and  of  sentiments  about the n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e and flora,,, of t h e West Coast.  "Winter E v e n i n g " , ( p l a t e V I I I ) as i n Hofmann*s  works, does not d e p i c t a n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e , but a f e e l i n g i n t o nature nature  pictorially realized.  The  e f f e c t of  on J a r v i s i s t h e r e a l s u b j e c t , t h e r e f o r e  i v e r e a l i t y cannot be seen c l e a r l y . p i c k out a t r e e - l i k e f o r m , a man __ J a r v i s , Feb. 1, 1966. u o  One  object-  can however  w i t h h i s arms out-  122 s t r e t c h e d and a p a r t i a l c i t y s c a p e .  What J a r v i s  feels  about the West Coast i s suggested t o the v i e w e r . oranges and the browns c r e a t e a warm and  The  enchanting  f e e l i n g . B l u e and w h i t e n o r m a l l y appear c o o l but  here  J a r v i s has j u x t a p o s e d i t t o the warm mauve and added p i n k and mauve t o the b l u e and w h i t e so t h a t the i s an o v e r a l l warmness.  result  The p a i n t has been a p p l i e d i n  a p l a n a r concept w i t h each b r u s h s t r o k e a p l a n a r u n i t . A l t h o u g h one c o u l d say t h a t t h e r e are s h o r t dark  lines  t o t h e l o w e r l e f t and r i g h t , these are i n f a c t the r e f l e c t i o n of the base c o l o r coming t h r o u g h the l i n e a r planes of white.  Because t h e ground has not been  t o t a l l y c o n c e a l e d l e v e l s of p i c t o r i a l depth have been achieved.  Each b r u s h s t r o k e has been a p p l i e d w i t h a  v e r v e and a v i r t u o s i t y t h a t i s r e m i n i c e n t of o r i e n t a l calligraphy.  The  s t r o k e s are sweeping and are done w i t h  an o r i e n t a l a s s u r e d n e s s .  Because the b r u s h i s not  l o a d e d w i t h pigment, t h e c o l o r o f the ground comes t h r o u g h t h e w h i t e and the r e s u l t t a k e s on the ance o f " f l y i n g w h i t e " i n the n e g a t i v e .  appear-  However, i n  c o n t r a s t t o the o r i e n t a l c a l l i g r a p h i c b r u s h , t h e e q u a l w i d t h o f each b r u s h s t r o k e , as the p l a n a r u n i t , i s used i n c o m b i n a t i o n t o form l a r g e r u n i t s such as t h e l i k e shape t o the upper l e f t and the o v e r l a i d which  c r e a t e s t h e e f f e c t of snow.  skyline-  white  123 Upon f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e canvas i s f l a t and  lacks  any r e a l depth except f o r a s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n i n the top  blue area.  F o c u s i n g on the lower w h i t e a r e a , the  mauve and b l u e upper a r e a r e c e d e s w h i l e the orange brown-like f i g u r e p r o j e c t s .  and  R e v e r s i n g the f o c u s t o  the f i g u r e , t h e brown and orange t r e e - l i k e shape p r o j e c t s and the w h i t e r e c e d e s , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g a dynamic e f f e c t o f "push and p u l l . "  Equilibrium i s attained,  however, by the o v e r a l l l u m i n o s i t y o f the  canvas.  The t h r e e s e c t i o n e d c o m p o s i t i o n can be compared t o Hofmann*s "Above Deep Waters," but J a r v i s has c r e a t e d a more o v e r a l l e f f e c t of c o l o r i n s t e a d of Hofmann's segmented a r e a s .  The c r u c i f o r m - l i k e shape  t o the c e n t e r c r e a t e s a b r e a t h i n g s u r f a c e of c o n t r a c t i n g and expanding f o r c e s .  The l o w e r p o r t i o n of w h i t e  which i s s e p a r a t e d by t h e stem o f the c r u c i f o r m tends t o u n i f y the base of the canvas and t o c o n t r a c t i t . The stem however has the p r o j e c t i v e c o l o r o f orange and the warmth o f the brown t o s e p a r a t e t h e w h i t e a r e a s and expand p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y and h o r i z o n t a l l y o f f the canvas.  J a r v i s , t h e n , has c r e a t e d the s i m u l t a n e o u s  e f f e c t of "push and p u l l " and e x p a n s i o n and  contraction  as Hofmann would have. These f o r c e s have been used t o c r e a t e a p e r c e i v a b l y p u l s a t i n g and l i v i n g canvas.  The areas o f w h i t e  o v e r l a y t h e l u s h brown below l i k e snow over f r e s h l y  124 tilled  soil.  The snow b r e a k s and l i f e  j u b i l a n t o u t s t r e t c h e d arms. e f f e c t of Nature on man of  springs forth with  J a r v i s has c a p t u r e d the  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  contrast  seasons i s seen i n the c o n t r a s t of t h e warm w h i t e and  mellow t e p i d n e s s of the orange and brown.  J a r v i s ' empath-  i z i n g i n t o n a t u r e has enabled him t o d e p i c t i t s c r e a t i v e role.  The sweep of the b r u s h suggests t h e movement o f  t r e e s and the energy s u r r o u n d i n g o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y .  In  "Winters E v e n i n g " J a r v i s has been a b l e t o c a p t u r e n a t u r e i n r i c h f u l l c o l o r s and t o r e f l e c t growth and l i f e s u g g e s t i v e shapes and forms.  by  He has employed the means  t a u g h t by Hofmann and used them i n h i s own p e r s o n a l way to  d e p i c t h i s e x p e r i e n c e o f the n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e o f  British  Columbia. The t h r e e West-Coast Canadian a r t i s t s ,  Donald  J a r v i s , Takao Tanabe, and L i o n e l Thomas, a t t e n d e d Hofmann's S c h o o l o f A r t and have been a f f e c t e d by him.  Thomas's  two and a h a l f month s t a y a t the P r o v i n c e t o w n summer s c h o o l enabled him t o u n d e r s t a n d Hofmann's t h e o r i e s and t e a c h i n g methods.  Because o f the s i m i l a r i t i e s of t h e i r  p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t h e added f e r v o u r o f Thomas' e n t h u s i a s m f o r Hofmann's t h e o r i e s , p r e s e n t l y L i o n e l Thomas t e a c h e s as Hofmann had t a u g h t b e f o r e .  Hofmann's  t h e o r i e s are employed as are o t h e r masters of the twentieth century.  125 Takao Tanabe's p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r s from b o t h Hofmann"s and  Thomas".  H i s q u i e t and  introverted  a t t i t u d e t o l i f e has  or appears t o have no room f o r  Hofmann*s t h e o r i e s .  Tanabe f e e l s t h a t h i s a r t has  self-developed. teachers  He does not a c c o r d  been  recognition to his  which u n d o u b t e d l y have a f f e c t e d him.  His  short  s i x week d u r a t i o n a t the Hofmann s c h o o l c o u l d account f o r his  l a c k of enthusiasm for•Hofmann"s t h e o r i e s . Don  J a r v i s ' r e a c t i o n t o the Hofmann s c h o o l  falls  n e i t h e r i n t o t o t a l acceptance as Thomas or t o t a l r e j e c t ion  as Tanabe.  J a r v i s , as a t r u e s t u d e n t of the Hofmann  s c h o o l , has u n d e r s t o o d Hofmann's t h e o r i e s and from them worked and  developed h i s own  approach as Hofmann had done  f i f t y years e a r l i e r i n P a r i s . a t the s c h o o l a l l o w e d  J a r v i s ' s i x month s t a y  him t o be a c q u a i n t e d  w i t h Hofmann's  i d e a l s and a t the same time t o d e v e l o p h i s own  theories.  These t h e o r i e s were not r e s o l v e d t o t a l l y by the  time  J a r v i s a r r i v e d home, but r a t h e r t o o k y e a r s of work  and  development i n h i s p a i n t i n g s t o a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d J a r v i s , as a t e a c h e r  i n h i s own  r i g h t , now  end.  i s i n the  p o s i t i o n t o a f f e c t h i s s t u d e n t s as Hofmann a f f e c t e d J a r v i s eighteen years e a r l i e r . t a u g h t s p e c i f i c f o r m u l a s and  His s t u d e n t s a r e  methods, but r a t h e r each  s t u d e n t i s l e a d t o the f u l f i l l m e n t of h i s own Hans Hofmann's a f f e c t i s not l i m i t e d t o for  not  development. artists  such w r i t e r s as A l l a n Leepa, Sheldon Cheney and  Erie  126 Loran have w r i t t e n books c o n c e r n i n g c e r t a i n a s p e c t s  of  modern a r t and a l l have acknowledged t h e i r debt t o him for  h i s concept and approach t o a r t .  from Hofmann has now  Direct influence  ended s i n c e the t e r m i n a t i o n o f h i s  t e a c h i n g c a r e e r i n 1958  and h i s death o n l y t h i s  year.  I n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , however, i s s t i l l b e i n g f e l t because his  s t u d e n t s and second g e n e r a t i o n s t u d e n t s are t r a n s -  m i t t i n g h i s i d e a s t o the new  g e n e r a t i o n o f young a r t i s t s .  W h i l e a b s t r a c t e x p r e s s i o n i s m i s no l o n g e r i n the f o r e f r o n t of the a r t w o r l d , Hofmann's i d e a s a r e s t i l l  valid.  He d i d not t e a c h a c e r t a i n u n r e f u t a b l e f o r m u l a f o r the c r e a t i o n of a work of a r t but r a t h e r the b a s i s of a work o f a r t and the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s .  These i d e a s are not  the  d e f i n i t i v e w r i t i n g s on the c r e a t i o n o f a work of a r t but r a t h e r Hofmann expected from such concepts  each i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t t o  as he h i m s e l f had done.  With t h i s  b a c k l o g of i n f o r m a t i o n , and an i n b o r n a r t i s t i c  sensitivity,  t h e a r t i s t i s t o e v o l v e the canvas from a f l a t and l e s s s u r f a c e t o one  develop  life-  i n w h i c h the o b s e r v e r p e r c e i v e s the  a r t i s t ' s l i f e , t i m e and e x p e r i e n c e .  The  s p i r i t t h a t the  a r t i s t c a p t u r e s i s a n o n - p h y s i c a l e n t i t y , but y e t a l i v i n g r e a l i t y d e r i v e d from the  artist.  That s p i r i t i n a work o f a r t i s synonymous w i t h i t s q u a l i t y . The r e a l i n a r t never d i e s because i t s nature i s predominantly s p i r i t u a l . 6 9  Hans Hofmann, Search f o r the R e a l , 1948,  p.  54•  PLATE  I  " F a n t a s i a , * 1943, by Hans Hofmann, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. 1  PLATE I I " E f f e r v e s c e n c e , " 1944, by Hans Hofmann U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley.  "Le G i l o t i n , " 1953, by Hans Hofmann, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley.  PLATE V "Above Deep Waters," 1959, by Hans Hofmann U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley.  PLATE V I "Pre-Dawn," I 9 6 0 , by Hans Hofmann, C o l l e c t i o n o f Mr. P r e n t i s C. H a l e , San F r a n c i s c o .  130  PLATE  VII  "Landscape o f an I n t e r i o r P l a c e , " 1955, by Takao Tanabe, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Canada, Ottawa.  PLATE V I I I "Winter E v e n i n g , " 1958, by Donald J a r v i s , Unknown c o l l e c t i o n .  131  BIBLIOGRAPHY I.  WRITINGS BY HANS HOFMANN  C a l i f o r n i a . U n i v e r s i t y . H a v i l a n d H a l l . Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n Catalogue, Aug. 5-22, 1931. B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1931. Hofmann, Hans. "The C o l o r Problem i n Pure P a i n t i n g . " 1955, c i t e d i n Wight, F r e d e r i c k S., Hans Hofmann, B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957. . "From ' I t I s ' , " 1959, c i t e d i n Los Angeles, County Art Museum. New York S c h o o l , The F i r s t G e n e r a t i o n P a i n t i n g s of 1940's and 1950's. Los Angeles: Board of t h e Los Angeles County A r t Museum, 1965, pp. 17-18. "Hans Hofmann E x p l a i n s H i s Painting.:" Bennington Alumnae Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 7, F a l l , 1955, p. 23. "Hans Hofmann On A r t . " The A r t J o u r n a l , V o l . 22, No, 3, p. 180. . "Munich School P r o s p e c t u s , 1915," c i t e d i n S e i t z , W i l l i a m G., Hans Hofmann. New York: Museum o f Modern A r t , 1963, p. 56. "Mystery o f C r e a t i v e R e l a t i o n s , " 1953, c i t e d i n Hofmann, Hans and Sam Hunter, Hans Hofmann. New York: Harry N. Abrams, I n c . , 1963, p. 45. "Nature and A r t : Controversy c i t e d i n Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , i n g s by Hans Hofmann, Jan. 7 t o Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , 1958, no  and M i s c o n c e p t i o n , " New York. New P a i n t 25, 1958. New York: paging.  _ . "On t h e Aims o f A r t , " F o r t n i g h t l y , V o l . 1, February 2 6 , 1932, pp. 7-TTT  No. 1 3 ,  . " P a i n t i n g and C u l t u r e , " F o r t n i g h t l y , V o l . 1, September 1 1 , 1 9 3 1 , pp. 5 - 7 .  No. 1,  _ . " P l a s t i c C r e a t i o n , " 1932, c i t e d i n Hofmann, Hans and Sam Hunter, Hans Hofmann. New York: Harry N. Abrams, I n c . , 1 9 6 3 , pp. 3 5 - 3 8 . "Reply t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e and comments on a r e c e n t e x h i b i t i o n , " A r t s and A r c h i t e c t u r e , V o l . 66, No. 11, November, 1949, pp. 22-28.  132 . "The R e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e P l a s t i c A r t s , " 1953, c i t e d i n Hofmann, Hans and Sam Hunter, Hans Hofmann. New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams, 1963, p. 44. . S e a r c h f o r t h e R e a l and o t h e r E s s a y s . Andover, Mass.: The A d d i s o n G a l l e r y o f American A r t , 1948. . "Space P i c t o r i a l l y R e a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e I n t r i n s i c F a c u l t y o f C o l o r t o E x p r e s s Volumes," c i t e d i n Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , New Y o r k , Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e , Nov. 13-Dec. 1, 1951. New Y o r k : Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , 1951, no p a g i n g . . "A Statement by Hans Hofmann, c i t e d i n Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , New Y o r k , Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e . Oct. 28-Nov. 22, 1952. New Y o r k : Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , 1952, no p a g i n g . I l l i n o i s . U n i v e r s i t y , C o l l e g e o f F i n e and University of I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n American P a i n t i n g , March 4- A p r i l U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o u s , 1951, pp.  Applied Arts. o f Contemporary 15, 1951. Urbana: 187-188.  . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 2 - A p n l 13, 1952. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1952, p. 199. . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 1 - A p r i l 12, 1953. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1953, pp. 189-190. . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , Feb. 2 7 - A p r i l , 8, 1955. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1955, pp. 207-208. . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , March 1 - A p r i l 5, 1959. Urbana! U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1959, p. 206. . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g , Feb. 2 0 - A p r i l 2, 1961. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1961, p. 116. . U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s E x h i b i t i o n o f Contemporary American P a i n t i n g . March 3 - A p r i l 7, 1963. Urbana" U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , 1963, p. 86. Kuh, K a t h e r i n e . The A r t i s t ' s V o i c e . New York: Harper and Row 1962,  pp.  118-129.  Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , New Y o r k . Hans Hofmann E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e . J a n . 5-23, I960. New Y o r k : Sammuel Kootz G a l l e r y , I960.  133 II.  BOOKS  American A b s t r a c t A r t i s t s , e d ' t . The World o f A b s t r a c t A r t . 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The S t o r y o f Modern A r t . New Y o r k : The P r e s s , 1945.  Viking  D o r r a , H e n r i . The American Muse. New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1961. G e l d z a h l e r , Henry. American P a i n t i n g i n t h e T w e n t i e t h Cent u r y . New Y o r k : The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 1965. G o o d r i c h , Loyd and Baur, John I . American A r t o f our C e n t u r y . New York: Whitney Museum o f A r t , 1961. Green b e r g , Clement. A r t and C u l t u r e . B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1961. . Hofmann. P a r i s : George F a l l ,  1961.  Haftmann, Werner. P a i n t i n g i n the T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . London: Lund Humphries, I960.  134 Heath,  Adrian. Abstract Paintings, L o n d o n : A. T i r a n t i , 1953.  I t s O r i g i n and  Meaning.  H e n n i n g , Edward B. P a t h s o f A b s t r a c t A r t . C l e v e l a n d : C l e v e l a n d Museum o f A r t , I 9 6 0 . H e s s , Thomas B. A b s t r a c t P r e s s , 1951.  Painting.  Hofmann, Hans and H u n t e r , Sam. H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . ,  New  Y o r k : The  Viking  Hans Hofmann. New 1%3.  York:  H u b b a r d , R o b e r t H a m i l t o n . An A n t h o l o g y o f C a n a d i a n A r t . Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I960. . The Development G a l l e r y o f Canada,  o f Canadian A r t . Ottawa: 1963.  H u n t e r , Sam. Modern A m e r i c a n York: D e l l P u b l i s h i n g  National  P a i n t i n g and S c u l p t u r e . Co., I n c . , 1959.  New  J a n i s , S i d n e y . A b s t r a c t and S u r r e a l i s t A r t i n A m e r i c a . Y o r k : R e y n a l and H i t c h c o c k , 1944.  New  K a n d i n s k y , W a s s i l y . C o n c e r n i n g t h e S p i r i t u a l i n A r t and P a i n t i n g i n P a r t i c u l a r ( 1 9 1 2 ) . New Y o r k : W i t t e n b o r n S c h u l t z , I n c . , 1947.  T  L o r a n , E r i e . R e c e n t G i f t s and L o a n s o f P a i n t i n g s by Hans Hofmann. B e r k e l e y : The R e g e n t s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f California, 1964. McCurdy, C h a r l e s . Modern A r t , a P i c t o r i a l A n t h o l o g y . Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1958. M c N a i r n , I a n . 7 West C o a s t P a i n t e r s . V a n c o u v e r : International Festival, 1959.  Vancouver  Mendelowitz, D a n i e l Marcus. A H i s t o r y of American Y o r k : H o l t , R e i n h a r t and W i n s t o n , I 9 6 0 . New  New  Art.  New  Y o r k , Museum o f Modern A r t . Cubism and A b s t r a c t A r t . New Y o r k : The Museum o f Modern A r t , 1936.  N o r d n e s s , L e e . A r t U.S.A. Now, P r e s s , 1957". Pepper,  V o l . 1. New  Y o r k : The  Viking  Stephen Coburn. World Hypotheses, a Study i n Evidence. Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press,  Read, H e r b e r t . A C o n c i s e H i s t o r y o f Modern P a i n t i n g . Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1964 [ 1 9 5 9 ] .  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Soby, James T h r o i l . C o n t e m p o r a r y Museum o f Modern A r t .  S p i l l e r , Jiirg. Paul Klee: the Thinking George W i t t e n b o r n , 1 9 6 1 .  New Y o r k :  New Y o r k :  Printers.  Publish-  Paris  Atheneum,  New Y o r k : The  E y e . New  York:  Time, t h e w e e k l y news-magazine. T h r e e H u n d r e d Y e a r s o f A m e r i c a n P a i n t i n g . New Y o r k : T i m e , I n c . , j > 9 5 7 . Wight,  F r e d e r i c k S. Hans Hofmann. B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1957. III.  PERIODICALS, EXHIBITION CATALOGUES AND PERSONAL INTERVIEWS  "The  Age o f E x p e r i m e n t . " T i m e, V o l . L X V I I , No. 7 ,  13,  1 9 5 6 , pp. 6 2 - 6 7 .  February  Angunes, R a p h a e l . "The S e c o n d I n t e r A m e r i c a n B i e n n i a l o f M e x i c o . " A n t e s de M e x i c o , V o l . 6 , No. 3 4 , 1 9 6 1 , p. 23. "Art  News o f A m e r i c a ; A n d o v e r S u r v e y s a n d A b s t r a c t i o n i s t . " A r t News, V o l . X L V i i , No. 1 , M a r c h , 1 9 4 8 , p . 1 1 .  136 "Art News V i s i t s t h e A r t Schools; Three i n Provincetown." Art News, V o l . XLV, No. 4 , June, 1946, pp. 12-13. Ashton, Doreo. "Hofmann R e a f f i r m s . " The A r t D i g e s t , V o l . 2 7 , No. 3, November, 1952, pp. 16^17^ . "New York Commentary." The S t u d i o , V o l . 166, No. 8 4 8 , December, 1963, p. 232+. . "La S e c t i o n Americanne." XXe S i e c l e , V o l . 22, No. 14, J u i n , I960, no paging. "Book S h e l f ; 'Search f o r t h e Real'." A r t News, V o l . X L V 1 1 , No. 9, January, 1949, P- 10. Boux, Rene. "An A r t i s t R e l a t e s h i s S k i l l s t o A r c h i t e c t u r e . " Canadian A r t , V o l . 13, No. 1, Autumn, 1955, pp. 2 0 3 203":  . "The Mural as a B a l l e t i n P a i n t . " Canadian A r t , V o l . 11, No. 1 Autumn, 1953, pp. 27-287 B r e e s k i n , Adelyn. " T r o i s P e i n t r e s Americans."  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" The A r t J o u r n a l , V o l . 2 3 , No. r , Summer, 1964, p. 2 9 1 . "Hans Hofmann, T e a c h e r - A r t i s t . " The A r t D i g e s t . V o l . 1 8 . No. March 1 5 , 1944, p. 1 3 . "Hans Hofmann w i l l e x h i b i t o i l p a i n t i n g s . " A r t s A l l i a n c e B u l l e t i n , V o l . 3 4 , No. 6 , March, 1956, p. 54.  12,  139 H a r r i s o n , Jane. " I n t h e G a l l e r i e s . " A r t s Magazine, V o l . 3 8 , No. 5, A p r i l , 1964, p. 2 9 . H a r t , W i l l i a m S. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e w r i t e r , 1965-1966. . "Theory and P r a c t i c e o f A b s t r a c t A r t . " c i t e d i n Canada, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . Lawren H a r r i s : R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n , 1963. Ottawa: N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, 1963. Hess, Thomas B. "Hans Hofmann's [ K o o t z : t o Nov. 1 3 ] . " A r t News, V o l . X L I X , No. 7, p a r t 1, November, 1950, pp. 4 7 - 4 8 . Hess, Thomas H. 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K r o l l , J a c k . "Some Greenberg C i r c l e s . " No. 1, March, 1962, p. 35.  A r t News, V o l . 6 1 ,  L i e d e r , P h i l i p . "The New York S c h o o l i n Los A n g e l e s . " A r t Forum, V o l . I V , No. 1, S e p t . , 1965, pp. 3-13. Los A n g e l e s . County A r t Museum. New York S c h o o l , The F i r s t G e n e r a t i o n . P a i n t i n g s o f 1940's and 1950's. Los A n g e l e s , Board o f t h e Los A n g e l e s County A r t Museum, 1965. Lowndes, Joan. "Coast t o Coast i n A r t : Takao Tanabe a t t h e New Design G a l l e r y . " Canadian A r t , V o l . 18, No. 4, J u l y / A u g u s t , 1961, p. 267. . "Don J a r v i s a t t h e New D e s i g n G a l l e r y , Vancouver." Canadian A r t , V o l . 20, No. 1, J a n u a r y / F e b r u a r y , 1963, p. 10. M c N a i r n , I a n . " P r e s e n t D i r e c t i o n s a t t h e Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y . " Canadian A r t , V o l . 19, No. 3, May/June, 1962, p. 176. "The Making o f A r t i s t s . " Newsweek, V o l . X L I X , No. 17, A p r i l 19, 1957, p.~6"8~; "A M a s t e r Teacher." L i f e , V o l . 42, No. 14, A p r i l 8, 1957, pp. 70-73. Munro, E l e a n o r C. "Hans Hofmann [ K o o t z ] . " A r t News, V o l . 56, No. 10, F e b r u a r y , 1958, p. 10. . "Hans Hofmann [ K o o t z ] . A r t News, V o l . 62, No. 2, A p r i l , 1963, p. 10. "Nebraska Announces Annual P u r c h a s e . " The A r t D i g e s t , No. 15, May 1, 1951, p. 13.  Vol.25,  141 Norse, John D. "He P a i n t s B i g . " A r t i n America, No. 2, I 9 6 0 ,  pp. 76-78.  O e r i , Georgine. "The Object o f A r t . " Quadrum, No. 16, 1964, pp. 8-11. "The Passing Shows; Hans Hofmann." A r t News, V o l . X L I I I , No. 3, March 1 5 - 3 1 , 1944, p.~20~. "The Passing Shows, Hans Hofmann." A r t News, V o l . XLIX, No. 5, A p r i l 1 5 - 3 0 , 1945, p.~6^ "The Passing Shows; Hans Hofmann." A r t News, V o l . XLV, No. 1, March, 1946, p. 53. P l a s k e t t , Joe. 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"  I960, pp7~j2-33. A r t i n America,  " T r a p e z o i d s a n d Empathy." Time, V o l . L V I I , No. 2 3 , 3 , 1 9 5 1 , p. 7 2 .  December  T y l e r , P o r t e r . "Hans Hofmann [ K o o t z : t o Dec. 1 1 ] . " V o l . 5 3 , No. 8 , December, 1954, p. 51.  A r t News,  . "Hans Hofmann [ K o o t z : t o Dec 3 ] . " 5*4, No. 8 , December, 1955, p. 56. Vancouver. A r t G a l l e r y . Nov. 22-Dec. 1 1 , G a l l e r y , 1949.  A r t News, V o l .  P a i n t i n g s a n d D r a w i n g s , Don J a r v i s , 1949. V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r A r t  . Takao T a n a b e : P a i n t i n g s a n d D r a w i n g s , 1954-57. Vancouver: V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y , 1957. W e r n e r , A l f r e d . "Review o f F r e d e r i c k S. W i g h t ' s 'Hans Hofmann*." C o l l e g e A r t J o u r n a l , V o l . X V I I , No. W i n t e r , 1958, p . 2 2 3 .  2,  W o l f , Ben. "The D i g e s t I n t e r v i e w s Hans Hofmann." The A r t D i g e s t , V o l . 1 9 , No. 1 3 , A p r i l 1, 1945, p. 52.  144  SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS P l a t e I , " F a n t a s i a , " P l a t e I I , " E f f e r v e s c e n c e , " and P l a t e IV, "Le G i l o t i n , " from Loran, E r i e . Recent G i f t s and Loans o f P a i n t i n g s by Hans Hofmann. B e r k e l e y , Regents of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1964., P l a t e s I , I I , and I I I r e s p e c t i v e l y . P l a t e I I I , "Magenta and B l u e , " from Wight, F r e d e r i c k S. Hans Hofmann. B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1957, 1957, p. 26. P l a t e V, "Above Deep Waters," P l a t e V I , "Pre-Dawn," from Hofmann, Hans, and Hunter, Sam. Hans Hofmann. New York, Harry N. Abrams, I n c . , I 9 6 3 , P l a t e s 100 and 132 r e s p e c t i v e l y . P l a t e V I I "Landscape of an I n t e r i o r P l a c e , " and P l a t e V I I I , "Winter Evening," from the S l i d e L i b r a r y , t h e Department o f Fine A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. ?  

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