Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of pharmacy students in Canada with particular emphasis on the factors involved in the choice… Hornosty, Roy Walter 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A8 H67.pdf [ 18.27MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104610.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104610-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104610-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104610-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104610-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104610-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104610-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104610-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104610.ris

Full Text

A STUDY OF PHARMACY STUDENTS IN CANADA WITH PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON THE FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE CHOICE OF FIELD WITHIN THE PROFESSION by i ) Roy Walter Homos t y B.S.P., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS POR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1966 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that, copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission* Department of Anthropol ngy and flnnlolngy The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e A p r i l 18. 1966 t - i i -ABS TRACT Using the qu e s t i o n n a i r e method, data were c o l l e c t e d on 1335 students, or 85 per cent of a l l students e n r o l l e d i n Canadian schools of pharmacy during the 1961-62 academic year. The data are assembled i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n i n an e f f o r t to provide ( i ) a general d e s c r i p t i v e study of pharm-acy students, and ( i i ) a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to the choice of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . The d e s c r i p t i v e p o r t i o n of the study focuses on f o u r s e t s of f a c t o r s , those being: ( i ) s o c i a l background f a c -t o r s , i n c l u d i n g a s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (sex, s o c i o -economic s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , and geographic region) and achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( p r a c t i c a l experience, o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , and high school grades), ( i i ) sources of Information and i n f l u e n c e , rang-i n g from p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources (those o r i e n t e d to the p r a c t i c e of the p r o f e s s i o n ) to i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources (those geared to the goals toward which the p r o f e s s i o n i s s t r i v i n g ) , ( i i i ) o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , i n c l u d i n g i n t r l n s i c -p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d - e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s , business, e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l , and independence v a l u e s , and ( i v ) the age a t which a career i n pharmacy i s f i r s t considered and f i n a l l y chosen. The f i n d i n g s show t h a t students w i t h d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l backgrounds vary i n the amount of contact w i t h the pro-f e s s i o n ; t h a t p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n - i i i -and i n f l u e n c e g e n e r a l l y are more important than i d e o l o g y -o r i e n t e d sources; that pharmacy students h o l d p o s i t i v e l y values which, according to Rosenberg*s "continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e , " are ambivalent; and t h a t students who d i f f e r i n the age of f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g and f i n a l l y choosing pharmacy vary i n s o c i a l background, d e r i v e i n -formation and I n f l u e n c e from d i f f e r e n t sources, and f e e l d i f f e r e n t l y about t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n . The choice of f i e l d i s analysed i n accordance w i t h an a n a l y t i c scheme which a t t r i b u t e s independent c a u s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to three s e t s of f a c t o r s : s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and I n f l u e n c e , and occu-p a t i o n a l v a l u e s . According t o t h i s scheme, the l a t t e r two s e t s of f a c t o r s , although e x e r t i n g some independent I n f l u e n c e , are thought t o be a f f e c t e d by the former. I n a purposive sample achieved and a s c r i b e d s o c i a l charac-t e r i s t i c s are expected to be r e l a t e d . The f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a n a l y t i c scheme. , Occupational a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n are arranged along a continuum (B-P continuum) from r e t a i l pharmacy, the most b u s i n e s s - l i k e of the f i e l d s , to pre-s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, to h o s p i t a l pharmacy, to the r e s i d u a l f i e l d s , which are regarded as most;, p r o f e s s i o n - l i k e . Stud-ents who choose a f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P continuum, as compared w i t h those who choose a f i e l d a t the p r o f e s s i o n end, tend to enter pharmacy w i t h more p r a c t -- i v -i c a l experience; t o have parents and, to a l e s s e r ex-t e n t , r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n ; to have lower h i g h s c h o o l grades; to u t i l i z e p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d , as opposed to, i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d , sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e ; and to h o l d p o s i t i v e l y e x t r i n s i c , as opposed to i n t r i n s i c , b u s i n e s s , independence, and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s , t o -gether w i t h the v a l u e , "meet the p u b l i c and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h people." The choice of f i e l d i s independent of the f a c t o r of socio-economic s t a t u s but v a r i e s w i t h the f a c t o r s of sex, r e l i g i o n , u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , and geographic r e g i o n . Although these f i n d i n g s may be expl a i n e d p a r t l y by the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s considered above, there i s some evidence to support the view t h a t s o c i a l background f a c -t o r s p l a y an independent p a r t i n the choice of f i e l d by a f f e c t i n g the v i s i b i l i t y , a c c e s s i b i l i t y , and " s o c i a l a ppropriateness" of eareer a l t e r n a t i v e s . By juxtaposing a s c r i b e d s o c i a l f a c t o r s , achieved s o c i a l f a c t o r s , sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , and the choice of f i e l d , and by con-s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among these s e t s of f a c t o r s , the author gives an account of the process by which pharmacy students choose a f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . TABLE OP CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES x i l ACKNOWLEDGMENTS x i l i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 A) Problem . . . . . . 1 B) Approach to Problem 2 C) Operational Definitions 17 D) Hypotheses . . . . . . . . 27 E) Methodology . . . . . . 37 I I . SOCIAL BACKGROUND FACTORS . . . . . . . . 44 A) S o c i a l Background F a c t o r s — A s c r i b e d and Achieved • • 4-5 B) S o c i a l Background Factors and Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy 73 I I I . SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND INFLUENCE . . 88 A) Sources of Information and I n f l u e n c e -Pharmacy Students i n General . . . . 89 B) Information and Influence and S o c i a l Background Factors 10 6 C) Information and Influence and Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy 141 - v i -TABLE OP CONTENTS—Continued Chapter Page IV. VALUES . . . - 15^ A) Value P r o f i l e of Pharmacy Students . 15? B) Values and S o c i a l Background Factors 169 C) Values and Choice of F i e l d . . . . . . 192 V. TEMPORAL PATTERNS OP THE DECISION TO STUDY PHARMACY . 205 A) Age at Which Pharmacy Career I s F i r s t Considered 206 B) Age of Career D e c i s i o n 219 C) Age of Career D e c i s i o n and Choice of F i e l d . . . . . . . . . . -. . . • 242 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . 245 A) Pharmacy Students i n General . . • • \ 245 B) Summary of Factors A f f e c t i n g Choice of F i e l d 258 G) D i s c u s s i o n of Hypotheses . • . • • . 2?5 D) Conclusions • 289 NOTES 293 LITERATURE CITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 - v i l -LIST OP TABLES Table Page I . Percentage Women E n r o l l e d I n Canadian Schools of Pharmacy: 1945-61 • • • • • 46 I I . R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n of Pharmacy Students and S e x . 48 I I I . School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Sex 49 IV. Socio-Economic Backgrounds of Pharmacy Students • 51 V. School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and R e l i g i o n • • 54 V I . R e l i g i o n and Occupational.Inheritance • 55 V I I . School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Urban-Rural Residence 56 V I I I . Urban-Rural Residence and P r a c t i c a l Experience P r i o r t o Entry i n t o Pharmacy School 58 IX. School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and P r a c t i c a l , Experience P r i o r to Entry . . . . . . 59 X. School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Occupational I n h e r i t a n c e . . . . . . . 60 X I . Sex and Choice of F i e l d I n Pharmacy • • 73 X I I . R e l i g i o n and Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy 74 X I I I . School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy 77 XIV. High School Grades, Occupational Inher-i t a n c e , P r a c t i c a l Experience and Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy 78 - v l i i -LIST OP TABLES—Continued Table Page XV. Importance of Factors i n Career Choice • 90 XVI. Most Important F a c t o r i n Career D e c i s i o n 91 X V I I . Sources of Information About Various C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Pharmacy 93 X V I I I . Importance of Sources of Information • • 97 XIX. Types of Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n About Various C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Pharmacy • 99 .XX. S o c i a l C l a s s , Sex, and Importance of Various Factors i n Career D e c i s i o n . • 108 XXI. R e l i g i o n and Importance of Factors i n Career D e c i s i o n 110 X X I I . School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Importance of Factors I n Career D e c i s i o n • 112 X X I I I • P r a c t i c a l Experience and Importance of Factors i n Career D e c i s i o n 115 XXIV. Occupational I n h e r i t a n c e and Importance of Factors i n Career D e c i s i o n . . . . 116 XXV. R e l i g i o n and Importance of Various Sources of Information • • • • . 119 XXVI. School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Importance of Sources of Information . . . . • 121 XXVII. Most Important F a c t o r i n Career D e c i s i o n and Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy . • . 142 XXVIII. Types of I n f l u e n c e and Choice of F i e l d . 144 XXIX. Sources of Information and Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy 145 XXX. Types of Sources of Information and Choice of F i e l d 147 - i x -LIST OP TABLES—Continued Table Page XXXI. Ranking 0f Occupational Values by-Pharmacy Students 158 XXXII. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of Occupational Values: E x t r i n s i c , People-Oriented, and I n t r i n s i c • • • • • • • • 160 XXXIII* Occupational Values and Perceptions of Pharmacy . • 162 XXXIV. Sex and Occupational Values: Business and Independence • • • • 169 XXXV. Sex and E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Values • • . .*. 170 XXXVI. R e l i g i o n and Weighted Average Scores on Occupational Values: E x t r i n s i c , People-Oriented, I n t r i n s i c 172 XXXVII. R e l i g i o n and E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Values • • • 173 XXXVIII. R e l i g i o n and E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Values of Pharmacy Students i n Canada Except Quebec • • 174 XXXIX. School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Occupational V a l u e s — E x t r i n s i c , People-Oriented, I n t r i n s i c • • • • • 176 XL. School of R e g i s t r a t i o n and Entrepren-e u r i a l Values . . . . . . . . 179 X I I . High School Grades and E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Values 181 X L I I . Weighted Average Scores f o r E x t r i n s i c , People-Oriented, and I n t r i n s i c Values by Choice of F i e l d 193 X L I I I . Business, Independence, E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Values and Choice of P i e l d 195 -X-LIST OF TABLES—Continued Table Page XLIV. Doubts About Career D e c i s i o n A f t e r E n t e r i n g Pharmacy School...»,• . . . . . 203 XLV. Age a t Which Career i n Pharmacy i s F i r s t Considered • 20? XLVT. S o c i a l Background Factors and Age a t Which Pharmacy Career i s F i r s t Con-s i d e r e d . ,. . 208 XLVII. Factors i n D e c i s i o n and Age a t Which Pharmacy Career i s , F i r s t Considered 210 XLVTII. Age of Considering Pharmacy and Feel-? . , ings about Pharmacy Career . . . . . . . 211 XLIX. Age of Considering Pharmacy and Career D e c i s i o n I f Made A g a i n 2 1 2 L. Age a t Which D e c i s i o n t o Enter Pharmacy I s Reached . . 219 L I . S o c i a l Background Factors and Age a t Which D e c i s i o n to Enter Pharmacy I s Reached 220 L I I . F a ctors i n D e c i s i o n and Age a t Which D e c i s i o n to Enter Pharmacy I s Reached . 222 L I I I . Age a t Which D e c i s i o n to Enter Pharmacy I s Reached and F e e l i n g s About Career • • 224 LIV. Age a t Which D e c i s i o n t o Enter Pharmacy I s Reached and Career D e c i s i o n I f Made A g a i n t . . ^ . 224 LV. Age a t Which D e c i s i o n to Enter Pharmacy I s Reached and Serious C o n s i d e r a t i o n of Other Careers . . . . ,. ,. ...... ,• .. .• 225 LVI. Age a t Which D e c i s i o n to Enter Pharmacy I s Reached and Doubts Before and Af/ter , Ent e r i n g Pharmacy School • • 226 - x l -LIST OP T A B L E S — C o n t l n u e d T a b l e Page L V I I . Age a t Which B e c i s i o n t o E n t e r Pharmacy Is Reached and Change i n Doubt Be fore* and A f t e r E n t e r i n g Pharmacy S c h o o l • • . 226 L V I I I . Age a t Which D e c i s i o n t o E n t e r Pharmacy Is Reached and C h o i c e of F i e l d . . . . . 242 - x i i LIST OP FIGURES Fi g u r e Page 1. Scheme f o r the A n a l y s i s of the Choice of F i e l d i n Pharmacy • • 1? 2. Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between A s c r i b e d and Achieved S o c i a l Background Factors . 62 3* Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S o c i a l Background Factors and Pactors i n Career D e c i s i o n ?. 126 4. Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S o c i a l Background Pactors and Sources of I n -format i o n . . . . . . . 128 5. Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Values and S o c i a l Background Factors • • • • • 183 6. Summary of Pactors A f f e c t i n g Choice of F i e l d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 > x i i i -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author i s Indebted t o a number of i n d i v i d u a l s whose i n s p i r a t i o n , encouragement, and a s s i s t a n c e made p o s s i b l e the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . Acknowledgments are due t o Mr. Bernard R. B l i s h e n , Research D i r e c t o r , and the Royal Commission on Health S e r v i c e s who so generously supported the p r o j e c t from I t s i n c e p t i o n ; to P r o f e s s o r P i n l a y A. Morrison, A s s i s t a n t to the Dean, of the F a c u l t y of Pharmacy a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia who encouraged the author I n every p o s s i b l e way; to the deans, d i r e c t o r s , and f a c u l t y members of the e i g h t schools of pharmacy i n Canada who so w i l l i n g -l y cooperated i n the d i s t r i b u t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e ; t o the 1335 students I n Canada who gave up val u a b l e c l a s s time to complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and e s p e c i a l l y to those who took the t r o u b l e t o w r i t e person-a l l y to the author; to Dr. Hugh Dempster of the Computing Center a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia who a s s i s t e d the author w i t h the computations; and to C o r n e l i a C. Hornosty who typed both the rough d r a f t and the f i n a l copy of t h i s t h e s i s . The author I s e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l to h i s t h e s i s ad-v i s o r , Dr. R. A. H. Robson of the Department of Anthropology - x i v -and S o c i o l o g y , f o r the a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement which he so w i l l i n g l y gave, but p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r h i s patience and understanding i n seeing t h i s t h e s i s through to I t s completion* CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A) PROBLEM Since the t u r n of the century a r a p i d l y changing technology has been p e r s i s t e n t l y a l t e r i n g the s t r u c t u r e of one of the o l d e s t p r o f e s s i o n s known to the western world* To meet the demands of mass pr o d u c t i o n and o r -ganized r e s e a r c h , leaders of the p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy have been making attempts to r e c r u i t and prepare young men and women f o r careers i n i n d u s t r y , r e s e a r c h , teaching and h o s p i t a l pharmacy* I n a d d i t i o n they have been making e f f o r t s t o r e d e f i n e the r o l e of the t r a d i t i o n a l pharmacist from one of a compounder and dispenser of m e d i c i n a l agents - t o one of a purveyor of i n f o r m a t i o n and a consultant on drugs* The p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy i s p r e s e n t l y i n a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n and i t s d e s t i n y i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r * The nature of the p r o f e s s i o n and the f u t u r e t h a t awaits I t pose many i n t e r e s t i n g and r e l e v a n t problems f o r s o c i o l o g y * Yet, compared w i t h other p r o f e s s i o n s , pharmaoy has been g i v e n l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n by s o c i o l o g i s t s * 1 I n t h i s presen-t a t i o n a modest attempt i s made t o add to the understanding of a l a r g e l y neglected occupation* I n p a r t i c u l a r t h i s study focuses on c e r t a i n problems a f f e c t i n g students of pharmacy. P r i o r to or a f t e r e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l , students choose a career from one of s e v e r a l s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s open t o them, i n c l u d i n g r e t a i l , p r e s c r i p t i o n , or h o s p i t a l pharmacy, i n d u s t r y , t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h , d e t a i l i n g , and m i l i t a r y o r government s e r v i c e . The main concern of t h i s t h e s i s i s to analyse some of the more important f a c t o r s t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n making t h i s c h o i c e . However, before attempting to e x p l a i n the choice of f i e l d , i t i s necessary to g i v e an account of some of the more I n t e r e s t i n g charac-t e r i s t i c s of pharmacy students i n g e n e r a l . Thus, the t h e s i s has a twofol d purpose and sets out to achieve the > f o l l o w i n g : 1. A general d e s c r i p t i v e study of students e n r o l l e d i n Canadian schools of pharmacy, and • 2. A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the f a c t o r s l e a d i n g to the choice of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . B) APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM 1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of pharmacy students Pharmacy students are de s c r i b e d i n terms of f o u r s e t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , those being: a) s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , b) sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and I n f l u e n c e , c) o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , and, d) the time a t which a career I n pharmacy i s f i r s t considered and the age a t which the career d e c i s i o n i s made. The f i r s t s e c t i o n of each of the next three chapters and most of Chapter V are devoted p r i m a r i l y to the c h a r a c t e r -i z a t i o n of pharmacy students, although d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l can be found throughout the e n t i r e t h e s i s . A t t e n t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t e d to those f a c t o r s which tend t o be p e c u l i a r t o students of t h i s p r o f e s s i o n . By p o i n t i n g out such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the changing sex composition, the d i s p a r i t y between sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and sources of i n f l u e n c e , the ambivalent value p r o f i l e , among o t h e r s , i t i s hoped t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to g a i n i n g a b e t t e r under-standing of pharmacy students, a b a s i s f o r some f u t u r e comparative study w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . 2. Choice of f i e l d i n pharmacy S o c i o l o g i s t s have shown inc r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the problem of oc c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e 2 , a problem which, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more a t t e n t i o n from p s y c h o l o g i s t s ^ . I n arguing f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s o c i a l f a c t o r s and processes i n the d e l i m i t a t i o n of car e e r a l t e r n a t i v e s and the d e c i s i o n to enter a s p e c i f i c occu-p a t i o n , s o c i o l o g i s t s have elaborated a number of approaches and have a t t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e t o a v a r i e t y of v a r i a b l e s . Some d i f f e r e n c e s simply r e f l e c t the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s of the researcher but others p e r t a i n t o the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and e x p l i c a t i o n of the problem and hence become matters of academic ooncern. Even a cursory glance a t the s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on o c c u p a t i o n a l choice w i l l r e v e a l a number of d i f f e r e n c e s , one of which i s i n the degree of s p e c i f i c i t y i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the choice* Some s o c i o l o g i s t s con-c e m themselves w i t h p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n a l choices , others t r y t o understand the f a c t o r s Involved I n choices of d i f f e r e n t types o r l e v e l s of occupations-*, and s t i l l others puzzle over the n o t i o n or char a c t e r of choice I t s e l f 6 . S o c i o l o g i s t s d i f f e r w i t h respect to the time span or p a r t of the l i f e c y c l e ? which they choose t o explore i n reference t o the problem. Some consider the problem of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice a matter of t r a c i n g the f a c t o r s antecedent t o the major career d e c i s i o n , c u l m i n a t i n g i n e a r l y adulthood w i t h the a c t u a l or avowed choloe of a p a r t i c u l a r occupation®, w h i l e others p r e f e r t o view the process as a continuous one extending over the e n t i r e w o r k i n g 2 l i f e s p a n of the i n d i v i d u a l ^ . The l a t t e r tend to be more concerned w i t h career patterns and job m o b i l i t y . Another sense i n which s t u d i e s of oc c u p a t i o n a l choice vary I s w i t h respect to the conceptions of the process i t s e l f • Some researchers t r e a t o c c u p a t i o n a l choice as a t e l e o l o g i o a l process, a developmental process t h a t has a k i n d of " l o g i c a l u n f o l d i n g " i n which each stage I s a pre c u r s o r of the n e x t 1 0 , w h i l e others view the process as one I n v o l v i n g a s e r i e s of s i t u a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s which, I n themselves, are not n e c e s s a r i l y connected i n any l o g i c a l way w i t h a s p e c i f i c c areer c h o i c e 1 1 . F i n a l l y , s o c i o l o g i s t s d i f f e r w i t h respect to the f a c t o r s they consider important i n the career d e c i s i o n ^ the number of such f a c t o r s s t u d i e d and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. Some s o c i o l o g i s t s a t t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n c e to s o c i a l background f a c t o r s such as socio-economic s t a t u s 1 2 , sex 13, r e l i g i o n 1 ^ , u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e 1 ^ , geographic r e g i o n 1 6 , and c e r t a i n achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as academic h i s t o r y 1 ? . Often, s o c i o l o g i s t s c o nsider c e r t a i n contacts w i t h an occupation important, be they d i r e c t contacts such as visibility1®, and p r a c t i o a l e x p e r i e n c e d , I n d i r e c t contacts such as recruitment l l t e r a t u r e Z O ^ or mass m e d l a £ A , or contacts w i t h c e r t a i n persons such as p a r e n t s 2 2 , peers 23, or members of a prof e s s i o n 2 * * . Some s o c i o l o g i s t s a t t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n c e to the process of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h an occupation, whether I n c h i l d h o o d 2 ^ , or a d u l t h o o d 2 6 , as w e l l as the process of s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n 2 ? , w h i l e others p o i n t out the importance of i n t e r n a l motiva-t i o n a l f a c t o r s such as values2®, a t t i t u d e s 2 ^ , or personal needs! 0* The present study seeks to analyse a h i g h l y s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , t h a t of a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d w i t h i n a s i n g l e p r o f e s s i o n . The s e l e c t i o n of t h i s problem i s based more on p r a c t i c a l than on t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , one of which i s i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p r o f e s s i o n of phar-macy. Perhaps no other p r o f e s s i o n i s comprised of such • d i v e r s e l y s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s as i s pharmacy, s p e c i a l t i e s which r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t a p t i t u d e s , s k i l l s , and m o t i v a t i o n s . - 6 -With pharmacy p r e s e n t l y J i n d e r g o l n g r a p i d change both i n s t r u c t u r e and subject matter, i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of the p r o f e s s i o n t o understand the f a c t o r s which p l a y a p a r t i n the choice of f i e l d . Although choosing a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d w i t h i n a pro-f e s s i o n may be of secondary importance f o r most i n d i v i d -u a l s , i t nevertheless r e q u i r e s a career d e c i s i o n and. needs to be analysed as one. To view the problem of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice s o l e l y as a process which culminates i n a d e c i s i o n to enter a p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n i s t o ignore the f a c t t h a t many, important dilemmas concerning one's oc c u p a t i o n a l f u t u r e are r e s o l v e d a f t e r making an i n i t i a l commitment to a g i v e n occupation. For pharmacy students the choice of f i e l d , i n many cases, i s as c r u c i a l - a s the d e c i s i o n t o enter the p r o f e s s i o n . The general o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s p iece of research i s t o view o c c u p a t i o n a l choice as. a continuous process of s e l e c t i o n from o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , which extends beyond and occurs I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e . I n i t i a l commit-ment to a p a r t i c u l a r occupation or p r o f e s s i o n . Whether the process I t s e l f i s t e l e o l o g i c a l o r s i t u a t i o n a l i n char-a c t e r i s a t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n which, because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the data, i s g e n e r a l l y not d e a l t w i t h . This study i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the f a c t o r s t h a t are i m p l i c a t e d i n the choice of f i e l d . Three broad s e t s ; o f f a c t o r s are s e l e c t e d f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s and i n c l u d e o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e and s o c i a l background f a c t o r s . -7-a) values The value concept has both s u f f e r e d and b e n e f i t e d from a wide v a r i e t y of d e f i n i t i o n s * 3 1 However, i t has proved u s e f u l I n a number of s t u d i e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice . 3 2 p o r the present purposes a value i s taken to mean "a concept s p e c i f y i n g what aspects of a s i t u a t i o n are d e s i r a b l e , u n d e s i r a b l e , or hondesirable; or appro-p r i a t e , i n a p p r o p r i a t e 4 or nonappropriate. " 3 3 Values are i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n elements which serve as c r i t e r i a f o r making'decisions. But as po i n t e d out by Kluckhohn, "... the locus of value i s n e i t h e r i n the organism nor i n the immediately observable world; i t s locus I s r a t h e r t h a t of a l l s c i e n t i f i c a b s t r a c t i o n s . " 3 ^ i t i s an a b s t r a c t i o n from v e r b a l and non-verbal events. >• • I n the present study f o u r types or ca t e g o r i e s of values are used« (1) e x t r i n s l c - p e o p l e - o r l e n t e d - l n t r i n s i c , ( i i ) independence, ( i l l ) business, and ( i v ) entrepre-n e u r i a l v a l u e s . Morris Rosenberg found t h a t b e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l values could be arranged along a continuum ranging^from I n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , values which seek expression i n the work i t s e l f , to people-oriented v a l u e s , those f u l f i l l e d by g r a t i f i c a t i o n s d e r i v e d from i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , t o e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s , those r e a l i z e d through the rewards r e c e i v e d f o r the work done. This general c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of oc c u p a t i o n a l values I s adopted f o r the present study, but the statements designed t o tap the va r i o u s values are, somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Business, - 8 -independence and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l values are of p a r t i -c u l a r concern t o some pharmacy students and are used I n co n j u n c t i o n w i t h the l a t t e r to help e x p l a i n the choice of f i e l d . . b) ^Sources of Information and Inf l u e n c e S e v e r a l researchers have shown the e f f e c t s of sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and Influence on the choice of career.35 I t I s g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t an oc c u p a t i o n a l choioe Involves both r a t i o n a l and. n o n - r a t i o n a l elements; t h a t i s , i t I s a f f e c t e d by the Information one has about career a l t e r n a -t i v e s and i s i n f l u e n c e d by other persons. I n t h i s study the choioe of f i e l d i s thought t o be determined I n p a r t by the I n d i v i d u a l s who are Important i n the d e c i s i o n to enter pharmacy and by the sources from which i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o f e s s i o n I s d e r i v e d . This piece of research was begun w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t the sources-of i n f o r m a t i o n and Influence u t i l i z e d by pharmacy students were of two d i s t i n c t typest those o r i e n t e d toward the i d e a l s of the p r o f e s s i o n and those o r i e n t e d toward I t s a c t u a l practice.. , ». As mentioned e a r l i e r , , pharmacy i s p r e s e n t l y i n a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n , s t r u g g l i n g to preserve I t s p r o f e s s i o n -a l s t a t u s i n the face of a changing technology which I s th r e a t e n i n g t o render obsolete the r o l e of the t r a d i t i o n a l pharmacist. F a c u l t y members of schools of pharmacy, o f f i c i a l s of pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s , and members of the p r o f e s s i o n who take an a c t i v e p a r t i n c h a r t i n g pharmacy^ f u t u r e , subsequently r e f e r r e d to as " i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s , " are p r e s e n t l y attempting to change the p u b l i c image of the p r o f e s s i o n and r e d e f i n e the r o l e of the phar-macist. The p i c t u r e of pharmacy portrayed by I n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i v e l y engaged i n the attempt to r e a l i z e these I d e a l s I s c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t presented by the great m a j o r i t y of p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Sources which present the former p i c t u r e of the p r o f e s s i o n are r e f e r r e d t o as "i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d . " On the other hand, some sources are o r i e n t e d toward the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e of the p r o f e s s i o n which, because of the r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i c e n c e d pharmacists ( n e a r l y 90 per cent of the membership of the Canadian Pharmaceutical A s s o c i a t i o n I s engaged I n some form of r e t a i l p r a c t i c e ) , I s p r i m a r i l y t h a t of the r e t a i l f i e l d . Such sources are r e f e r r e d to as " p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d . " o) S o c i a l background f a c t o r s Studies of oc c u p a t i o n a l choice seldom f a l l t o take' i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the I n d i v i d u a l . I n t h i s study, e i g h t s o c i a l background f a c t o r s are used. These are grouped i n t o two general c a t e g o r i e s : a s c r i b e d and achieved. The former r e f e r s t o those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h which an I n d i v i d u a l i s born or those over which he has r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c o n t r o l , and includessex,* socio-economic s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , u r b a n - r u r a l residence and geographic r e g i o n ; the l a t t e r r e f e r s to -10-those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which an i n d i v i d u a l acquires as a r e s u l t of some a c t i o n or e f f o r t on h i s p a r t , and i n c l u d e s h i g h school grades, p r a c t i c a l experience, and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e . - ^ Before d i s c u s s i n g the general a n a l y t i c scheme used i n t h i s I study i t i s necessary t o d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s from which the pharmacy student chooses h i s s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d . F o r the sake of convenience and sim-p l i c i t y the s e v e r a l career a l t e r n a t i v e s are c a t e g o r i z e d as f o l l o w s i r e t a i l pharmacy, p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, hos-p i t a l pharmacy, and a r e s i d u a l category, "other." B r i e f l y j the r e t a i l pharmacist works I n an e s t a b l i s h -ment commonly known as the "corner drugstore," which i s g e n e r a l l y thought to have a du a l c h a r a c t e r , t h a t of a pharmaceutical s e r v i c e and h e a l t h center and t h a t of a convenient d i s t r i b u t i o n center f o r a wide v a r i e t y of consumer goods. Since l e s s than 25 per cent of the t o t a l r e c e i p t s of a r e t a i l pharmacy are d e r i v e d from p r e s c r i p -t i o n sales-^?, the r e t a i l pharmacist engages i n a number of commercial a c t i v i t i e s I n v o l v i n g non-medloinal merchan-d i s e and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . He deals d i r e c t l y w i t h the p u b l i c and has considerable autonomy and Independence i n the work s e t t i n g . A p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy i s a r e t a i l establishment h a n d l i n g p r i m a r i l y p r e s c r i p t i o n s and r e l a t e d m e d i c i n a l items and i s g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d near a medical center or i n a d i s t r i c t i n which there i s a high c o n c e n t r a t i o n of - 1 1 -p r a c t l s i h g p h y s i c i a n s . The pharmacist employed i n such an establishment engages I n some commercial a c t i v i t i e s , buying, s e l l i n g , o r d e r i n g s t o c k , e t c . , but such a c t i v i t i e s g e n e r a l l y Involve m e d i c i n a l Items and p r o f e s s i o n a l per-sonnel* He deals d i r e c t l y w i t h the p u b l i c and has c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy and independence, although perhaps not as much as the r e t a i l pharmacist* The h o s p i t a l pharmacist, on the other hand, i s employed i n a h o s p i t a l dispensary and i s engaged i n the p r e p a r a t i o n , c o n t r o l , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of m e d i c i n a l agents p r e s c r i b e d by s t a f f p h y s i c i a n s f o r the l a t t e r ^ p a t i e n t s * The work i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more t e c h n l o a l and Involves fBwer commercial elements* I n terms of the work s e t t i n g , the h o s p i t a l pharmacist i s i m p l i c a t e d I n an elaborate organiza-t i o n of personnel of v a r i o u s h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s , and g e n e r a l -l y has l e s s autonomy and independence than the r e t a i l pharmacist* I t I s d i f f i c u l t t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the r e s i d u a l category because i t i s comprised of a number of d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s : I n d u s t r y , t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h , among others* However, the m a j o r i t y of cases i n t h i s category Involves the manipulation of ideas and symbols as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the performance of techniques or the d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c * Most of the "other" s p e c i a l t i e s are i m p l i c a t e d I n l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s but a l l o w f o r considerable autonomy and i n -dependence by the very nature of the work* I n a d d i t i o n t o the q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s d e s c r i b e d I n the preceding paragraphs,-the f o u r f i e l d s vary i n terms of a t l e a s t three other overlapping but separate dimensions, those b e i n g , the s t r u c t u r e of the work sphere ( i . e . , business or p r o f e s s i o n ) , a c c e s s i b i l i t y , and v i s i b i l i t y . I t i s f e l t t h a t the f o u r f i e l d s can be arranged along a b u s i n e s s - p r o f e s s i o n continuum (B-F continuum) ranging from r e t a i l pharmacy, the most b u s i n e s s - l i k e of the f i e l d s , t o p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, t o h o s p i t a l pharmacy, t o the "other" category, which i s perhaps most exemplary of a profession.3® Apart from but c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the b u s i n e s s - p r o f e s s i o n (B-^P) continuum, f i e l d s i n pharmacy vary i n terms of a c c e s s i -b i l i t y , t h a t i s , I n terms of the t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment • Although a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i l l vary w i t h c e r t a i n s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , the f i e l d s can be c l a s s i f i e d g e n e r a l l y i n terms of t h i s charac-t e r i s t i c . R e t a i l pharmacy i s doubtless the most a c c e s s i b l e , as drugstores are found i n a l l p a r t s of the country. Of a l l the f i e l d s , r e t a i l p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s the l e a s t f o r m a l t r a i n -i n g (a bachelor's degree from a recognized s c h o o l of pharmacy and a b r i e f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p period) and provides the g r e a t e s t number of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . P r e s c r i p -t i o n pharmacy i s the next most r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e f i e l d , w i t h the same formal t r a i n i n g requirements as r e t a i l pharmaoy, but w i t h fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment. P r e s c r i p t i o n d i s p e n s a r i e s without s i d e l i n e s are found g e n e r a l l y i n l a r g e c i t i e s near c l i n i c s and medical centers where the volume of p r e s c r i p t i o n business i s h i g h . -13-H o s p l t a l pharmaoy, on the other hand, I s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e than the l a t t e r , w i t h g e n e r a l l y fewer employment oppor-t u n l t i e s a n d h i g h e r formal t r a i n i n g requirements. F i e l d s Included I n the 1 "other" category are the l e a s t a c c e s s i b l e , both Initerms of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and ed u c a t i o n a l requirements. I n a d d i t i o n , the l a t t e r f i e l d s are g e n e r a l l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l e s s a c c e s s i b l e , being l o c a t e d only i n c e r -t a i n p r o v i n c e s , as f o r example the pharmaceutical i n d u s t r y I n southern Ontario and Quebec. The s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s a l s o d i f f e r g e n e r a l l y i n terms of v i s i b i l i t y , t h a t i s , I n the extent of f a m i l i a r i t y o r " s o c i a l p u b l i c i t y , " and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r contact. While many people are f a m i l i a r w i t h the corner drugstore, not a l l are aware of such "hidden" f i e l d s as h o s p i t a l phar-macy or research I n Ind u s t r y . Even r e c r u i t s t o the pro-f e s s i o n are not always t o t a l l y Informed about some of the more obscure s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s . F o l l o w i n g the preceding two continua, f i e l d s i n pharmacy can be arranged according to t h e i r general v i s i b i l i t y , from r e t a i l pharmacy, the most v i s i b l e , t o p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, to h o s p i t a l phar-macy, t o the r e s i d u a l category, which I s probably the l e a s t v i s i b l e . Given the d e s c r i p t i o n of career a l t e r n a t i v e s open to pharmacy students and three s e t s of f a c t o r s b e l i e v e d to be i n v o l v e d i n the c h o i c e , i t I s now p o s s i b l e t o assemble a general scheme t o guide the a n a l y s i s of the choice of f i e l d and to serve as a b a s i s of d e r i v i n g s p e c i f i c hy-potheses. - 1 4 -S o c l a l background f a c t o r s are b e l i e v e d to i n f l u e n c e the choice of f i e l d i n a t l e a s t three ways. F i r s t of a l l , i t i s commonly thought t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s are d e l i m i t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s statuses and r o l e s 3 9 f s e x •>. s t a t u s being a case i n p o i n t . C e r t a i n occupations are considered p r i m a r i l y the domain of one sex or the other, i as f o r example, engineering or farming f o r males and nursing or k i n d e r g a r t e n teaching f o r females. J u s t as statuses and r o l e s a f f e c t the o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i n g e n e r a l , they are thought to be Involved i n the choice of f i e l d . Second-l y , s o c i a l f a c t o r s p l a y a p a r t i n the choice by a f f e c t i n g the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of v a r i o u s career a l t e r n a t i v e s . Such factors':as u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , geographic region,, and academic r e c o r d e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r the choice of c e r t a i n f i e l d s , e s p e c i a l l y those a t the p r o f e s s i o n end of the B-P continuum. For example, t h a t there are few oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r employment i n pharmaceutical i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia tends t o discourage students i n t h i s i province from making t h i s , c h o i ce. F i n a l l y , some back- • ground f a c t o r s , such as. p r a c t i c a l experience, o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e , and geographic r e g i o n i n f l u e n c e the choice by a f f e c t i n g the v i s i b i l i t y of the various f i e l d s . For 1 examplei oontact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n as d e r i v e d from p r a c t i c a l experience tends to make the r e t a i l f i e l d r e l a -t i v e l y more v i s i b l e . So f a r no s e p a r a t i o n has been made between: a s c r i b e d and achieved s o c i a l f a c t o r s } both types are thought t o -15-I n f l u e n c e the choice I n the ways o u t l i n e d i n the preceding paragraph* However, I t must be recognized t h a t i n any g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n a purposive sample l i k e the one used i n t h i s study, a s c r i b e d and achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l bear some determinate r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h each other* F o r example, female students enter pharmacy sc h o o l w i t h ! h i g h e r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than males, but males begin t h e i r formal t r a i n i n g w i t h more p r a c t i c a l experience* • S i n c e these achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l e a d to d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s j i t i s necessary to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p s be-tween a s c r i b e d and achieved f a c t o r s * S o c i a l background f a c t o r s , I n a d d i t i o n t o d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g the choice of f i e l d , p l a y a f u r t h e r p a r t I n the l a t t e r by shaping values and determining sources of i n f o r -mation and i n f l u e n c e * As mentioned e a r l i e r , values are c r i t e r i a f o r making d e c i s i o n s * Since they are i n c u l c a t e d d u r i n g the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process, they w i l l tend t o vary* w i t h c e r t a i n s o c i a l f a c t o r s , as f o r example, sex and r e -l i g i o n . Of course i t must be recognized t h a t some of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l f a c t o r s and v a l u e s , as f o r example t h a t between geographic r e g i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , may be e n t i r e l y spurious* I n any event a l l the r e l a t i o n s h i p s are noted and attempts are made, when the data warrant i t , t o e x p l a i n the connections between back-ground f a c t o r s and v a l u e s • That s o c i a l background f a c t o r s should help determine the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and I n f l u e n c e I s not too d l f f i --16-c u l t t o understand. For example, contact w i t h the pro-f e s s i o n s gained through p r a c t i c a l experience or occupa-t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e w i l l tend to l e a d t o the use of p r a o t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e geo-graphic i s o l a t i o n w i l l b r i n g about a r e l i a n c e upon id e o l o g y -o r i e n t e d pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media. However, the data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s study cannot always ex p l a i n ' the observed r e l a t i o n s h i p s between background f a c t o r s and sources. As w i t h values a l l the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these s e t s of f a c t o r s are d e s c r i b e d and attempts are made to e x p l a i n those which are b e l i e v e d t o be d e t e r -minate. Thus, the general approach taken I n t h i s study of 1 the choice of f i e l d i n pharmacy i s to a t t r i b u t e Independent c a u s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o three s e t s of f a c t o r s , s o c i a l back-ground, sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and I n f l u e n c e , and v a l u e s , and t o suggest t h a t s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , both a s c r i b e d and achieved, are important I n shaping the l a t t e r two s e t s o f 3 f a c t o r s . F u r t h e r , s i n c e the study i s concerned w i t h a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n (students a t t e n d i n g schools of pharmacy I n Canada), the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a s c r i b e d and achieved f a c t o r s are to be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the t o t a l 5 a n a l y s i s . F i g u r e 1 shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the v a r i o u s s e t s of f a c t o r s used i n t h i s study. S p e c i f i c hypotheses are d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n B of t h i s ohapter. -17-Pigure 1 Scheme f o r the A n a l y s i s of the Choice of F i e l d I n Pharmacy Values 1. E x t r l n s l c - p e o p l e -o r i e n t e d - i n t r i n s l c 2. Business 3* Independence 4. E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l S o c i a l Background Fa c t o r s 1. Asoribed I . 2. Achieved Choice of - F i e l d 1. R e t a i l 2» P r e s c r i p t i o n 3* H o s p i t a l 4. Other Sources of Information and I n f l u e n c e """" 1* P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d 2. Ide o l o g y - o r i e n t e d C) OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS As a matter of expediency I t i s thought best to s p e c i f y a t the outset the working d e f i n i t i o n s used i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n . Most of the data are d e r i v e d from a ques-t i o n n a i r e administered to pharmacy students (See Appendix A ) . The d e f i n i t i o n s which f o l l o w are based p r i m a r i l y on r e p l i e s to s p e c i f i c questions; Indexes comprised of a p l u r a l i t y of f a c t o r s are o c c a s i o n a l l y used. I n e i t h e r -18-case the raw data are taken from the student q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Data obtained from other sources are i n c l u d e d from time t o time and are d e f i n e d I n the main t e x t upon the occasion of t h e i r use. Thus, i t i s to be understood t h a t , unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d , the terms used i n t h i s r e p o r t are those which are p r e s e n t l y d e f i n e d . 1. S o c i a l background f a c t o r s As mentioned i n the preceding s e c t i o n , e i g h t s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , c a t e g o r i z e d as a s c r i b e d or achieved, are-used i n t h i s study. A s c r i b e d background c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s Include sex, socio-economic s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , urban-r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , and geographic region,and achieved char-a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e high school grades, p r a c t i c a l exper-i e n c e , and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e . Sex • R e p l i e s t o Question 3 of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are used as i n d i c a t o r s of sex s t a t u s . F i f t e e n students f a i l e d t o respond to t h i s q u e s t i o n and are g e n e r a l l y excluded from tabulations...with t h i s q u e s t i o n . Socio-economic s t a t u s ( s o c i a l c l a s s ) Three f a c t o r s , the education of the f a t h e r , occupa-t i o n of the f a t h e r or c h i e f wage earner, and income, are combined to form an index of socio-economic s t a t u s or s o c i a l c l a s s . This index i s d e r i v e d by summing up the values assigned t o the responses to the questions used as i n d i c a t o r s of the three f a c t o r s comprising the index. The values assigned, w i t h one exception** 0, correspond to -19-the numbers preceding the response c a t e g o r i e s f o r Questions 43, 44(a), and 45. The range of p o s s i b l e values Is d i v i d e d I n t o s i x c l a s s e s I n the f o l l o w i n g manner! Class 1 - 2 5 - 2 7 Class I I - 20 - 24 Class I I I - 15 - 19 Glass IV - 10 - 14 Class V - 5 - 9 Class VI - l e s s than 5 ' A t o t a l of 170 students o r 13 per cent could not be c l a s s i -f i e d because they, f a i l e d t o answer one o r more of the ques-t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s index. The terms "upper," "middle," and "lower," when used I n t h i s study, r e f e r t o combinations of the c l a s s e s l i s t e d above. The upper c l a s s c o n s i s t s of Classes I and I I , the middle c l a s s of Classes I I I and IV, and the lower c l a s s of Classes V and V I . I t might be po i n t e d out tha t a son or daughter of a pharmacist i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y would be placed i n Class I I of the present c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , unless the pharmacist earned over $30,000 a year, I n which case he or she would be pl a c e d I n Class I . . * R e l i g i o n Although s e v e r a l P r o t e s t a n t denominations are Included among the response cat e g o r i e s to Question 47(b) of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , they are combined to giv e f o u r r e l i g i o u s groupings: P r o t e s t a n t , Roman C a t h o l i c , Jewish, and "Other." -20-S i n c e only a s m a l l number of respondents are c l a s s i f i e d i n the r e s i d u a l category, the l a t t e r i s o f t e n excluded from t a b l e s i n which the main i n t e r e s t i s i n the three major r e l i g i o u s groupings. U r b a n - r u r a l residence Responses t o Question 6(a) p e r t a i n i n g to the s i z e of the community i n which the respondent spent the g r e a t -e s t p a r t of h i s l i f e are combined to giv e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s which are used as measures of the u r b a n - r u r a l residence f a c t o r ; These a r e : farm o r r u r a l d i s t r i c t , town w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of 5t000 or l e s s , c i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of - 5,000 - 100,000 ( s m a l l c i t y ) , and c i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of over 100,000 ( l a r g e c i t y ) . Geographic r e g i o n > 'The school of r e g i s t r a t i o n I s used as an index of geographic r e g i o n . Although i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a person to l i v e i n one province and atten d pharmacy sc h o o l I n another! t h i s p r a c t i c e , except i n the maritime p r o v i n c e s , I s not too common. Most students (95 per cent of the males and 93 per cent of the females) att e n d schools i n the province i n which they spend the g r e a t e s t p a r t of t h e i r l i f e . Three of the f o u r maritime provinces do not have schools of pharmacy. Thus, students l i v i n g i n New Bruns-wick, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and Newfoundland g e n e r a l l y a t t e n d the pharmacy school a t Dalhousle U n i v e r s i t y i n Nova S c o t i a . The school of r e g i s t r a t i o n i s determined from a code number placed on each q u e s t i o n n a i r e . -21-Hlgh school grades I n Questions 14(a) and (b) students are asked t o estimate the average percentage grades maintained I n b a s i c sclenoe courses and.in other courses d u r i n g the l a s t two years of high s c h o o l . P r e l i m i n a r y t a b u l a t i o n s show t h a t science grades are s l i g h t l y h i gher than grades r e -ce i v e d i n other courses, but when each s e t of grades i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h other v a r i a b l e s , the same general t r e n d I s found. Thus, to s i m p l i f y matters, only the c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h science grades are presented i n t h i s study, and references t o high s c h o o l grades, unless otherwise s t a t e d , can beJassumed t o be the grades r e c e i v e d I n the b a s i c s c i e n c e s . P r a c t i c a l experience I n Questions 19(a) and (b) students are asked t o I n d i c a t e whether they had ever worked i n a pharmacy p r i o r t o beginning s t u d i e s I n pharmacy s c h o o l , and., i f so, how l o n g . I n a l l l i k e l i h o o d t h i s experience would have been gained i n a r e t a i l establishment, although the q u e s t i o n I s i n no way l i m i t e d t o t h i s type of pharmacy. However, by i t s very wording, the q u e s t i o n tends to exclude exper-ience gained I n pharmaceutical work ou t s i d e of an e s t a b l i s h -ment w i t h a dispensary, as f o r example, i n d u s t r i a l manu-f a c t u r i n g or l a b o r a t o r y research. Although I t i s d o u b t f u l whether many students have such o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i t I s c e r -t a i n l y p o s s i b l e . The e x c l u s i o n of the l a t t e r i s not I n t e n t i o n a l . As i t turns out I t all o w s f o r c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s which otherwise would not have been p o s s i b l e . Occupational i n h e r i t a n c e Occupational i n h e r i t a n c e r e f e r s to the presence or absence of parents or r e l a t i v e s who are or have been phar-macists (Questions 10 and' 11). The term "direct** occupa-t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , as used i n t h i s study, r e f e r s to the presence of a parent i n the p r o f e s s i o n , and the term " i n -d i r e c t " i n h e r i t a n c e r e f e r s t o the presence of a r e l a t i v e but hot a parent i n the p r o f e s s i o n . 2 . Sources of- i n f o r m a t i o n and I n f l u e n c e Two measures of the souroes of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e are used i n t h i s study, one designed p r i m a r i l y t o tap " i n f l u e n c e " and the other d i r e c t e d a t the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . A c t u a l l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o separate the two dimensions c o n c e p t u a l l y or e m p i r i c a l l y , s i n c e one can l e a d to the other; perhaps they operate as a complex. I n any event, two separate questions are used. I n Question 25(a) and ( b ) , students are asked to i n d i c a t e how important a r o l e each of s e v e r a l f a o t o r s p l ayed i n the career d e c i s i o n and then to s e l e c t the two most Important ones. Responses to these questions are used as measures of i n f l u e n c e and are presented i n the r e p o r t under the heading, "Importance of f a c t o r s i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . " Question 40 i s used as a measure of the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . For each of e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r o f e s s i o n (working c o n d i t i o n s , s a l a r y , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment, p r e s t i g e , knowledge and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r performance of pharmaceutical t a s k s , p e r s o n a l s k i l l s ne-cessary f o r success, and t r a i n i n g requirements), students are asked t o i n d i c a t e , from a l i s t of t e n sources, the one which i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . An o v e r - a l l index of importance i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r each source by d i v i d i n g the sum of the responses f o r each source by the sum t o t a l of responses and m u l t i p l y i n g by 1000. Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o determine the type of i n f o r m a t i o n provided by each source and i t s o v e r - a l l importance. This of course r e s t s on the assumption t h a t the e i g h t charac-t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d exhaust the types of i n f o r m a t i o n which p r o s p e c t i v e r e c r u i t s seek, and t h a t each type of i n f o r m a t i o n i s of equal importance. As mentioned i n the preceding s e o t i o n , sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e are of two t y p e s i p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d and i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d . P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources I n c l u d e : pharmacists, p r a c t i c a l experience, parents and r e l a t i v e s . The l a t t e r two sources are thought t o be prac-t i c e - o r i e n t e d , beoause the image of the p r o f e s s i o n which they are l i k e l y t o have i s t h a t of the corner drugstore.' I d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources I n c l u d e : u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media (Ph.A. r e c . media), s p e c i a l speakers, and high school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s (H.S. teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s ) . Since h i g h s c h o o l teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s o b t a i n most of t h e i r i n -f o r m a t i o n about the p r o f e s s i o n from recruitment l i t e r a t u r e -24-c i r c u l a t e d by pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s , they are I n -cluded i n t h i s category. Friends and acquaintances, mass media, and personal o b s e r v a t i o n , as sources, cannot be c l a s s i f i e d i n e i t h e r of these two c a t e g o r i e s and are g e n e r a l l y kept separate from the l a t t e r . It I s f e l t t h a t these souroes of i n f o r m a t i o n and I n f l u e n c e can be arranged along a continuum ranging from u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , the most i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d source, to pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, to s p e c i a l speakers, to h i g h school teachers, to r e l a t i v e s , t o parents, to p r a c t i c a l experience and p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists, the most p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources. 3» Occupational values I n Questions 33(a) and ( b ) , students are g i v e n a l i s t of nineteen statements designed t o tap the value dimension and are asked t o rank each value i n d i v i d u a l l y i n terms of d e s i r a b i l i t y and then to i n d i c a t e , i n order of preference, the three most d e s i r a b l e . Although a l l nineteen values are i n c l u d e d i n the r e p o r t , not a l l are u t i l i z e d a t a l l times. A t t e n t i o n i s focused on the f o l l o w i n g s e t s or c a t e g o r i e s * a. E x t r i n s i c - people-oriented - I n t r i n s i c ( r e f e r r e d to  as "E.P.I. w values) E x t r i n s i c inoludes a Job* " t h a t provides a very good s a l a r y and one I n which you work r e g u l a r hours and have r e g u l a r h o l i d a y s . " " t h a t I s considered a worthy one and has p r e s t i g e and h i g h standing I n the community." - 2 5 -" t h a t provides s e c u r i t y of employment i n t h a t work i s always a v a i l a b l e . " People-orlented i n c l u d e s a Job* "tha t i s very u s e f u l and important to s o c i e t y i n general and i n which you can d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t your f e l l o w man." " i n which you can meet the p u b l i c and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h people." I n t r i n s i c i n c l u d e s a Jobs " I n which you can use a l l your knowledge, t r a i n i n g , a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s and one which allows you t o de-velop and e x c e l I n these areas." " t h a t r e q u i r e s a good knowledge of science and s c i e n t i f -i c method." "where you w i l l have a s s o c i a t e s or colleagues who have the same general i n t e r e s t s and whose company you f i n d extremely s t i m u l a t i n g . " b. Business Includes a Job: "which i n v o l v e s a considerable amount of merchandising or r e t a i l s e l l i n g . " " t h a t i s both a p r o f e s s i o n and a commercial business." c. Independence i n c l u d e s a Job: "where you are p r e t t y w e l l your own boss i n t h a t you are not always under the guidance, and s u p e r v i s i o n of someone e l s e . " I n a d d i t i o n to the preceding, students are asked t h e i r opinions concerning ownership of a pharmacy (Question 16). Responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n are used as a measure of e n t r e -- 2 6 -p r e n e u r l a l v a l u e s . Thus: d. E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l values Inolude a f f i r m a t i v e r e p l i e s t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Would you l i k e t o own and operate a pharmacy?" 4. Temporal f a c t o r s l a t a concerning the age a t which a career I n pharmacy I s f i r s t considered and the age a t which the d e f i n i t e de-c i s i o n to enter i s made are d e r i v e d from Questions 23(a) and ( b ) . Students are asked to r e c a l l these c r u c i a l ages* Only 8 of 1335 respondents f a i l to gi v e answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n . 5* Choice of f i e l d I n pharmacy Choice of f i e l d r e f e r s t o the responses to Question 1 7(a): "Which f i e l d of pharmacy do you expect t o enter a f t e r graduation?" Although I t I s f e l t t h a t these r e p l i e s are somewhat u n r e a l i s t i c , they are the best a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t o r s of choice of f i e l d * Of the t e n f i e l d s l i s t e d , r e t a i l pharmacy, h o s p i t a l pharmacy and p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy account f o r n e a r l y f o u r -f i f t h s of the students* choices (see Appendix B ) . The r e -maining o n e - f i f t h d i v i d e t h e i r choices among the f o l l o w i n g : armed s e r v i c e s , government s e r v i c e , s a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r drug f i r m , i n d u s t r i a l manufacturing or resea r c h , teach-i n g or research i n a u n i v e r s i t y , "other," and "leave phar-macy and go In t o another f i e l d . " These l a t t e r seven f i e l d s are lumped together i n the present a n a l y s i s and are r e f e r r e d to simply as "other." The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s procedure J -27-i s t h a t , except f o r s a l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , armed s e r v i c e s and government s e r v i c e , which account f o r only s l i g h t l y more than 5 per cent of the t o t a l number of cases, the remaining f i e l d s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e some t r a i n i n g beyond the bachelor's degree. Of the 61 students checking the c a t e g o r i e s "other" and "leave pharmacy and go i n t o another f i e l d , " n e a r l y two-thirds p l a n to enter f i e l d s (medicine, dent: i s t r y , pharmaceutical law, etc.) which d e f i n i t e l y r e q u i r e f u r t h e r education. Bather than have a separate category f o r the s m a l l number of choices t h a t do not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r education, i t I s thought best t o Include these i n the r e s i d u a l group, thus g i v i n g f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of c h o i c e s , " r e t a i l , " " p r e s c r i p t i o n , " " h o s p i t a l , " and "other." D) HYPOTHESES The w r i t e r began t h i s study w i t h a number of s p e c i f i c hypotheses d e r i v e d from the general a n a l y t i c scheme present-ed i n S e c t i o n B of t h i s chapter. Although many hypotheses suggested themselves d u r i n g the course of the r e s e a r c h , o n l y those conceived a t the outset are i n c l u d e d here. S i x s e t s of hypotheses concerning the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the choice of f i e l d are set out below. No c l a i m i s made f o r the importance of these hypotheses over others which c o u l d have been d e r i v e d from the general a n a l y t i c scheme but which were neglected. !• Values and choice of f i e l d As mentioned i n S e c t i o n B, c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l values -28-can be arranged along a continuum ranging from e x t r i n s i c values to people-oriented values to i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s . S i m i l a r l y , i t was suggested t h a t the o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n -a t i v e s open to pharmacy students could be c l a s s i f i e d i n terms of a b u s i n e s s - p r o f e s s i o n (B-P) continuum, ranging from r e t a i l pharmacy, the most b u s i n e s s - l i k e , to p r e s c r i p -t i o n pharmacy, t o h o s p i t a l pharmacy, to some "other" f i e l d . Rosenberg's f i n d i n g s show th a t e x t r i n s i c values are most l i k e l y to f i n d e xpression I n business and commercial occupa-t i o n s and i n t r i n s i c values are more o f t e n r e a l i z e d I n the a r t i s t i c f i e l d s , a r c h i t e c t u r e , j o u r n a l i s m , a r t , and the n a t u r a l sciences.** 1 Taking t h i s Into c o n s i d e r a t i o n one would expect to f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between choice of f i e l d and oc c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s . Thus: Hypothesis 1.1t Students emphasizing e x t r i n s i c o c c u p a t i o n a l values w i l l tend t o choose a f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P continuum; students o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c values w i l l tend to choose a f i e l d a t the p r o f e s s i o n end of the B-P continuum; those s t r e s s i n g p e ople-oriented values w i l l tend t o choose a f i e l d mldwajr between the two extremes. S i m i l a r l y , f i e l d s I n pharmacy vary I n the extent to which they a l l o w f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of business and e n t r e -p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . I f the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the B-P continuum i s v a l i d , the f o l l o w i n g can be expected: Hypothesis 1.2: Students o r i e n t e d toward business -29-values w i l l tend t o choose a f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P continuum. Hypothesis 1.3> Students showing a preference f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l values w i l l tend to choose a f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P continuum. Of a l l the f i e l d s i n . t h e p r o f e s s i o n , h o s p i t a l pharmacy i s notably l a c k i n g i n the amount of autonomy and indepen-dence that i t a l l o w s . On t h i s b a s i s I t i s f e l t t h a t students who place a value on independence w i l l tend not to choose t h i s f i e l d . Hypothesis 1.4t The more concerned a student i s w i t h independence as a value the l e s s l i k e l y he w i l l be to choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy. 2. Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e and choice of f i e l d As mentioned e a r l i e r , pharmacy i s p r e s e n t l y i n a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n . The i d e o l o g i c a l leaders are making e f f o r t s to r e d e f i n e the r o l e of the t r a d i t i o n a l pharmacist and are t r y i n g to r e c r u i t and prepare young men and women f o r careers i n a number of f i e l d s other than r e t a i l pharmacy. Thus, an important p a r t of pharmaceutical i d e o l o g y i s i t s reference to a wide range of career o p p o r t u n i t i e s , es-p e c i a l l y such f i e l d s as h o s p i t a l pharmacy, i n d u s t r y , teach-i n g , and research. I t i s to be expected t h a t students who are s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources w i l l tend to choose the l a t t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . Regardless of the p o s i t i o n of the i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s , only a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of pharmacists are a c t u a l l y engaged other than r e t a i l p r a c t i c e . Thus, I t i s to be expected t h a t students who are s t r o n g l y I n f l u e n c e d by p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources w i l l tend to choose r e t a i l pharmacy and, to a l e s s e r extent, p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy. With t h i s I n mind the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis i s suggested! Hypothesis 2t Students who r e l y on p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources f o r Information and i n f l u e n c e w i l l tend to choose a f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P con-tinuum; those most s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by id e o l o g y -o r i e n t e d sources w i l l tend to choose a f i e l d a t the p r o f e s s i o n end of the B-P continuum. 3« S o c i a l background f a c t o r s and choioe of f i e l d No f a c t o r I s so Important i n the choice of a career f o r u n i v e r s i t y students as s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d sex r o l e s . ^ I n North American s o c i e t y there I s a f a i r l y c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n of l a b o r between the sexes, although the t r a d i t i o n -a l sex b a r r i e r s to some occupations are perhaps breaking down as d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n hi g h e r education i s reduced. I n a d d i t i o n t o the " s o c i a l appropriateness" of various careers f o r the sexes, men and women d i f f e r i n the extent of commitment to the occu p a t i o n a l w o r l d . ^ With these two p o i n t s i n ; mind i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e an hypothesis concerning the choice of f i e l d I n pharmacy. Since r e t a i l and p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy i n v o l v e a num-ber of commercial elements, I n c l u d i n g ownership of a b u s i -ness establishment, and s i n c e research, t e a c h i n g , Industry and the f i e l d s g e n e r a l l y comprising the r e s i d u a l category -31-r e q u i r e considerable career commitment, i t i s f e l t t h a t women w i l l tend t o choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy. Hypothesis 3>1» Compared w i t h men, women w i l l more o f t e n choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy. I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t the higher the s o c i o -economic background of the f a m i l y of o r i e n t a t i o n the more l i k e l y the i n d i v i d u a l i s t o choose an occupation;:.which c a r r i e s w i t h i t h i g h s t a t u s and which provides considerable economic rewards. Since t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h , i n d u s t r y , e t c . , are g e n e r a l l y regarded by the community as high s t a t u s occupations, and si n c e h o s p i t a l pharmacy I s accorded high s t a t u s by pharmacy students, i t i s f e l t t h a t those of-the upper socio-economic c l a s s e s w i l l tend t o choose these f i e l d s i n preference t o r e t a i l pharmacy. Thuss Hypothesis 3»2t The higher the socio-economic s t a t u s the more l i k e l y the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be to choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy or some "other 1 1 f i e l d and the l e s s l i k e l y he w i l l be to choose the r e t a i l f i e l d . Although s e v e r a l researchers have concerned them-s e l v e s w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f - r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and economic behavior, few have explored the e f f e c t s of r e -l i g i o u s background on the choice of c a r e e r . ^ Yet c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s among the three major r e l i g i o u s groups would l e a d one to b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s f a c t o r i s Important i n the career choice. Persons of Jewish f a i t h are o f t e n thought t o be bu s i n e s s - o r i e n t e d shopkeepers. I n a d d i t i o n they are noted f o r t h e i r s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n t o seek h i g h e r education, as -32-evidenced by t h e i r o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the u n i v e r s i t y p o p u l a t i o n . P r o t e s t a n t s , on the other hand, when compared w i t h Roman C a t h o l i c s are g e n e r a l l y considered t o be more business- and su c c e s s - o r i e n t e d , although some recent s t u d i e s f a i l t o f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between these two r e l i g i o u s groups w i t h respect t o the "Protestant e t h i c . " ^ 5 Whether C a t h o l i c s are l e s s l i k e l y t o enter graduate school and engage i n research i n the n a t u r a l sciences I s another hypothesis which i s being c h a l l e n g e d . ^ As a f u r t h e r t e s t of these notions the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis i s suggested: Hypothesis 3*3: Pharmacy students of Jewish f a i t h s ^ w i l l tend t o choose r e t a i l pharmacy and one of the f i e l d s i n the r e s i d u a l category: P r o t e s t a n t students w i l l tend t o f a v o r r e t a i l and p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy; and Roman C a t h o l i c s w i l l more o f t e n p r e f e r a career i n h o s p i t a l pharmacy. I t i s f e l t t h a t the f a c t o r s of u r b a n - r u r a l residence and geographic r e g i o n enter the process of oc c u p a t i o n a l choice by a f f e c t i n g the v i s i b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of va r i o u s career a l t e r n a t i v e s . For example, a person l i v i n g I n an I s o l a t e d community I n northern B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y t o be aware of career o p p o r t u n i t i e s I n phar-maceutical Industry which I s predominantly l o c a t e d I n southern Ontario and Quebec and, on t h i s account, w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y t o form the Idea of e n t e r i n g t h i s f i e l d . With t h i s in-mind t h e - f o l l o w i n g hypotheses are constructed: Hypothesis 3.4: The l a r g e r the community of residence - 3 3 -the more l i k e l y an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l "be to choose a f i e l d a t the p r o f e s s i o n end of the B-P continuum. Hypothesis 3 .5: The choice of career w i l l vary by province depending upon the r e l a t i v e v i s i b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the various f i e l d s i n each province. !The a c c e s s i b i l i t y of f i e l d s i n pharmacy i s h i g h l y dependent-upon the academic h i s t o r y of the student, s i n c e graduate t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r c e r t a i n career a l t e r n a t i v e s i s a v a i l a b l e only to those w i t h s u p e r i o r academic q u a l i f i c -a t i o n s . Since performance i n pharmacy school i s h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h high school grades ', the f o l l o w i n g hy-poth e s i s can be d e r i v e d : Hypothesis 3 . 6 : The higher the grades r e c e i v e d i n high school the more l i k e l y a student w i l l be to choose a f i e l d a t the p r o f e s s i o n end of the B-P continuum. Contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n through oc c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e or p r a c t i c a l experience w i l l enhance the v i s i b i l i t y of r e t a i l and p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, si n c e most p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists are engaged i n the r e t a i l f i e l d s , and si n c e these f i e l d s provide the g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . Thus: Hypothesis 3*7: The gre a t e r the extent of occu-p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e the more l i k e l y an i n d i v i d -u a l w i l l be to choose a f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P continuum. Hypothesis 3*8? The gr e a t e r the extent of p r a c t i c a l experience p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l , the more l i k e l y a student w i l l he to choose a f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P continuum. 4. S o c i a l background f a c t o r s and values Rosenberg found t h a t , i n the c o l l e g e community,'women are r e l a t i v e l y more people-oriented i n t h e i r values and men are more o r i e n t e d toward e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s . F u r t h e r , " . . . o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of women expect t o achieve o c c u p a t i o n a l independence, i n the sense of becoming i n -dependent entrepreneurs or p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Almost a l l of them w i l l be sub j e c t to some s o r t of oc c u p a t i o n a l super-v i s i o n or domi n a t i o n . m * Taking the above i n t o c o n s i d e r a -t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e r i v e an hypothesis p e r t a i n i n g t o the values of pharmacy students. v Hypothesis 4.1: Compared w i t h men i n pharmacy s c h o o l , women w i l l tend t o h o l d p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s , and w i l l tend not t o h o l d business, independence, and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . Compared w i t h women, men w i l l tend t o h o l d e x t r i n s i c values together w i t h business, independence and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s • Socio-economic s t a t u s has been shown t o be r e l a t e d itQ w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s . 7 With t h i s i n mind the f o l l o w -i n g hypothesis i s constructed i Hypothesis 4.2: The higher the socio-economic back-ground the more l i k e l y an I n d i v i d u a l w i l l be t o h o l d p o s i t i v e l y i n t r i n s i c o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , and the -35-l e s s l i k e l y he w i l l be to s t r e s s e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s . Since values are i n c u l c a t e d I n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r ocess, one would expect t o f i n d d i f f e r e n c e s I n values r e l a t e d to r e l i g i o u s background. From the broad general notions presented e a r l i e r concerning r e l i g i o n and occu-p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , c e r t a i n conjectures about values can be made. For the sake of d i s c u s s i o n l a t e r , these are s e t out I n the form of hypotheses. Hypothesis 4.3* Pharmacy students of Jewish f a i t h w i l l tend to regard both e x t r i n s i c and I n t r i n s i c values h i g h l y . P r o t e s t a n t students w i l l s t r e s s - e x t r i n s i c values and C a t h o l i c s w i l l tend t o h o l d p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s . Hypothesis 4.4t Compared w i t h C a t h o l i c pharmacy students, P r o t e s t a n t and Jewish students w i l l s t r o n g l y h o l d business and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s • 5» S o c i a l background f a c t o r s and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n  and i n f l u e n c e I t i s f e l t t h a t women have l e s s opportunity f o r d i r e c t contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy, and t h e r e f o r e w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y t o be i n f l u e n c e d by p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources. Thus i t would seem th a t women would seek out i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o f e s s i o n from pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s and other o f f i c i a l channels. Hypothesis 5.1: Compared w i t h men, women I n pharmacy w i l l tend to d e r i v e Information and i n f l u e n c e from i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources. Concerning the f a c t o r of u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , I t I s -36-f e l t t h a t the s i z e of the community i s d i r e c t lyy r e l a t e d to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i r e c t contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n . F u r t h e r , I t i s f e l t t h a t parents of students coming from - r u r a l d i s t r i c t s - a n d s m a l l towns are l e a s t able t o provide Information and i n f l u e n c e concerning o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n -a t i v e s . Students I n s m a l l towns and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s * probably r e l y more on high school teachers and pharmaceut-i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment l i t e r a t u r e . With t h i s I n mind, the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis I s suggested: Hypothesis 5.2t The s m a l l e r the community of residence the more Important w i l l be the Ideology-o r i e n t e d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . D i r e c t contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n w i l l vary w i t h the extent of oc c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e and the amount of prac-t i c a l experience gained p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . Thus i t would seem th a t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e would be r e l a t e d w i t h these f a c t o r s . From t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses are d e r i v e d : Hypothesis 5.3: The g r e a t e r the extent of oc c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e the more l i k e l y an I n d i v i d u a l w i l l be t o d e r i v e Information and i n f l u e n c e from p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources. Hypothesis $.4: The g r e a t e r the amount of p r a c t i c a l experience gained p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy school the more l i k e l y an I n d i v i d u a l w i l l be t o d e r i v e I n -formation and Inf l u e n c e from p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources. -37* 6* Age of career d e c i s i o n and choice of f i e l d The Importance of var i o u s f a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n and the sources of i n f l u e n c e vary w i t h the age a t which the d e c i s i o n i s made* Rogoff found, f o r example, t h a t the younger the student i s when he makes the d e c i s i o n to study medicine the more l i k e l y he i s to a t t r i b u t e im-portance to h i s f a t h e r . 5 ° i n the case of pharmacy students i t i s found t h a t parents and p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists tend to be more important i n e a r l y d e c i s i o n s * Since the youth-f u l d e c i d e r i s less- l i k e l y to have access to i d e o l o g y - 1 o r i e n t e d sources, and s i n c e p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources t o which he may have access l e a d to the choice of the r e t a i l f i e l d , the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis i s suggested: Hypothesis 6t The younger the student i s when he decides to enter the p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy, the more l i k e l y he w i l l be to choose a f i e l d a t the i business end of the B-P continuum. E) METHODOLOGY This t h e s i s i s based on a research p r o j e c t conducted under the auspioes of the Royal Commission on Health Ser-v i c e s w i t h the cooperation of the ei g h t schools of pharmacy i n Canada* The data i n c l u d e d here are d e r i v e d mainly from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e c i r c u l a t e d t o a l l students e n r o l l e d i n Canadian schools of pharmacy I n the s p r i n g of 1962* The ques t i o n n a i r e s were administered by f a c u l t y members p r i o r to the c o n c l u s i o n of the 1961-62 academic year* The 1335 r e t u r n s c o n s t i t u t e 85 per cent of the t o t a l enrolment, - 3 8 -the p r o p o r t i o n v a r y i n g by school of pharmacy as f o l l o w s ; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 91 per cent; U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 8? per cent; U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 77 per cent; U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 90 per cent; U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 9 3 per cent; U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal, 87 per cent; L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , 56 per cent; Dalhousle U n i v e r s i t y , 90 per cent* 1* Questionnaire The q u e s t i o n n a i r e (see Appendix A) was c o n s t r u c t e d on the b a s i s of e a r l i e r research conducted by the w r i t e r ^ 1 , but s e v e r a l questions were taken from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e used by Robert K* Merton and a s s o c i a t e s i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of medical s t u d e n t s ^ 2 , i n February of 1962 the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e t e s t e d , u s i n g a sample of f i f t y - f i v e students en-r o l l e d I n the F a c u l t y of Pharmacy a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, a f t e r which time some questions were d i s c a r d e d , a few added, and others modified* The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s p r i n t e d the r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e and dispatched s u f f i c i e n t copies t o deans of schools of pharmacy to be administered t o students by f a c u l t y members* Students a t t e n d i n g the schools of pharmacy I n the province of Quebec r e c e i v e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s I n French* The q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s were returned d i r e c t l y to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia where they were checked by the researchers* The data were then t r a n s f e r r e d t o I*B*M* cards and analysed w i t h the a i d of the Computing Center a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia* -39-2. Data The data presented I n t h i s study are d e r i v e d p r i -m a r i l y from the afore-mentioned q u e s t i o n n a i r e and are s u b j e c t to the l i m i t a t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e method. However, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data owes much to previous research conducted by the w r i t e r , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h students e n t e r i n g the F a c u l t y of Pharmacy a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the f a l l of 1962, and the personal experiences of the w r i t e r , both as a student of pharmacy and as a p r a c t i s i n g pharmacist* Since t h i s t h e s i s i s but a p a r t of a l a r g e r study concerning the r e c r u i t m e n t , education and u t i l i z a t i o n of pharmacists i n Canada^, only a p o r t i o n of the data de-r i v e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study. This s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s a l a r g e amount of data* To f a c i l i t a t e reference to the t a b l e s and other p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n , the data are presented i n each s e c t i o n under the heading of " f i n d i n g s " and are separated from the d i s -c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s * G e n e r a l l y only the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are presented i n t a b l e s or mentioned spe-c i f i c a l l y * Thus, i t can be assumed t h a t , when a s e t of f a c t o r s i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h another s e t of f a c t o r s , as f o r example s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and v a l u e s , c o r r e l a t i o n s which are not mentioned i n the f i n d i n g s f a i l t o a t t a i n the accepted l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . To s i m p l i f y the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the d a t a , r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s and "no answers" are o f t e n omitted from the t a b l e s * Thus, the t o t a l number of oases I s o f t e n ' l e s s than 1335» the t o t a l , number o f - q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s * I n most cases the "no answers" to one v a r i a b l e are d i s -t r i b u t e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y throughout the response c a t e g o r i e s of the v a r i a b l e w i t h which I t i s c o r r e l a t e d , thus minimiz-i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of b i a s . However, a t t e n t i o n i s g e n e r a l -l y drawn to those lnstanoes where b i a s i s expected due to the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of "no answers*" -Percentages, when they appear i n t a b l e s or i n the t e x t , are g e n e r a l l y rounded t o the nearest u n i t . For t h i s reason the column or row percentage t o t a l s o c c a s i o n a l l y do not add up to 100* 3* Test of s i g n i f i c a n c e The chi-square t e s t was used throughout the study as a measure of the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o r r e l a -t i o n s of v a r i a b l e s , the accepted l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e being s e t a t *05» Concerning the s i z e of c e l l s , the ge n e r a l procedure was to accept the chi-square t e s t , I n cases where the number of degrees of freedom i s g r e a t e r than 1, l f no more than 20 per cent of the expected f r e -quencles are l e s s than 5 and no frequency l e s s than 1. Problems concerning the use of the chi-square t e s t w i t h 2 x 2 contingency t a b l e s d i d not a r i s e * Chi-square values are g i v e n f o r contingency t a b l e s , but are g e n e r a l l y omitted from t a b l e s showing only d e s c r i p t i v e data. 4* L i m i t a t i o n s Research I n the s o c i a l sciences i s seldom conducted under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h i s study i s no e x c e p t i o n . The f i r s t and most obvious l i m i t a t i o n stems from the < c h a r a c t e r of the p o p u l a t i o n sample. Since only pharmacy students are i n c l u d e d , the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d t o those preparing f o r careers i n t h i s p r o f e s s i o n . Although the data a t times have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r problems which go beyond pharmacy, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s stemming from these data are n e c e s s a r i l y t e n t a t i v e and should be i n t e r -p r e t e d more as hypotheses t o be explored than as e s t a b l i s h e d r e g u l a r i t i e s . r I t i s no doubt evident t h a t the present study i s s u b j e c t t o the l i m i t a t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e method. Although every attempt was made to c o n s t r u c t the q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i n accordance w i t h the best procedures a v a i l a b l e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say whether the questions I n f a c t tap the intended t h e o r e t i c a l o r conceptual e n t i t i e s ; o r i n other words, whether the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s correspond to the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts. One can never be s u r e , f o r example, whether the questions used to measure the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l values of pharmacy students i n f a c t provide adequate indexes of t h i s dimension of a n a l y s i s . Another problem concerning the q u e s t i o n n a i r e has t o do w i t h i t s being t r a n s l a t e d i n t o French f o r students a t t e n d i n g L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal. I t was n o t i c e d i n a number of instances t h a t French speak-i n g students d i d not i n d i c a t e t h e i r responses i n the provided blanks preceding the q u e s t i o n s , but r a t h e r wrote -42-r e p l l e s I n spaces not designated f o r t h i s purpose§ u s u a l l y i n the space f o l l o w i n g the question* Whether such c u l t u r a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s r e s u l t i n bi a s e d r e p l i e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o say* However, the p r o p o r t i o n of students f a i l i n g to r e p l y to c e r t a i n questions was much hi g h e r among French speaking students. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the ex-te n t of b i a s r e s u l t i n g from the t r a n s l a t i o n of the ques-t i o n n a i r e and/or the c u l t u r a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the French - c o u l d - n o t be determined. * I t i s necessary a t t h i s time to recognize the f a c t t h a t the r e s i d u a l category f o r the choice of f i e l d , as o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , has c e r t a i n weaknesses* Although there i s much j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g f o u r c a t e -g o r i e s , r e t a i l , p r e s c r i p t i o n , hospital.pharmacy, and "other," i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t the l a t t e r u n f o r -t u n a t e l y contains a number of d i s s i m i l a r c h o i c e s . Over two-thirds of the choices i n t h i s category d e f i n i t e l y r e q u i r e f u r t h e r education, u s u a l l y a graduate degree, but the remaining t h i r d do not. The l a t t e r Include "armed s e r v i c e s , " "government s e r v i c e , " and " s a l e s rep-r e s e n t a t i v e . " Bather than c o n s t r u c t a separate category f o r some 73 cases, i t was decided to i n c l u d e these i n the r e s i d u a l category. Although the l a c k of homogeneity i n t h i s r e s i d u a l category cannot be overlooked, and may account i n some Instances f o r the f a i l u r e of t h i s group to respond as p r e d i c t e d , the category has proved u s e f u l i n the a n a l y s i s , s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of oases are s i m i l a r -43- . > w i t h respect t o ed u c a t i o n a l requirements. F i n a l l y , because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and resources, c e r t a i n computations c o u l d not be made; es-p e c i a l l y those i n v o l v i n g more than two v a r i a b l e s , For t h i s reason I t was not always p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l f o r f a c t o r s which might have been Involved i n an observed r e l a t i o n s h i p between two other v a r i a b l e s . For example, b o t h 1 r e l i g i o n and sex are found t o be r e l a t e d w i t h the choice of f i e l d , but the former two f a c t o r s are a l s o r e l a t e d w i t h each other. Time and resources, e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the f i n a l stages of the study, simply were not a v a i l a b l e t o t e s t f o r the r e l a t i v e Impact of these f a c t o r s . F u r t h e r research I s obv i o u s l y necessary. The importance of t h i s t h e s i s , then, r e s t s not so much i n the conclusions i t reaches as I n the questions i t r a i s e s and the hypotheses i t generates. CHAPTER I I SOCIAL BACKGROUND FACTORS The occupations t h a t North America has to o f f e r I t s youth number i n the thousands, yet an oc c u p a t i o n a l choice i s made from a s m a l l range of a l t e r n a t i v e s . 1 To giv e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a l l occupations found i n t h i s s o c i e t y would be an(impossible t a s k . F o r t u n a t e l y s e v e r a l f a c t o r s operate to narrow the range of o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s s i -b i l i t i e s , among these the s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the I n d i v i d u a l . An o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , then, i s i n p a r t a r e f l e c t i o n of the s o o i a l f a c t o r s which enter i t . Thus, any d e s c r i p t i v e study of members of or a s p i r a n t s to a g i v e n occupation must g i v e some c o n s i d e r a t i o n to ante-cedent s o o i a l f a c t o r s . The s o o i a l background f a c t o r s of pharmacy students i n general are presented I n S e c t i o n A of t h i s chapter. I n a d d i t i o n some of the r e l e v a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y those concerning a s c r i b e d and achieved s o c i a l f a c t o r s , are dis c u s s e d . The l a t t e r are important to the a n a l y s i s of the choice of f i e l d and r e f e r -ence w i l l be made t o them l a t e r . Although the data are b a s i c a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e , they are presented under the head-i n g of " f i n d i n g s • • I n keeping w i t h the general format, - 4 5 -a d i s c u s s i o n of the m a t e r i a l i s g i v e n i n a subsequent •> su b s e c t i o n l a b e l l e d " d i s c u s s i o n . w J u s t as s o c i a l background f a c t o r s p l a y a p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n to enter pharmacy, some a l s o a f f e c t subse-quent o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h i n the context of the p r o f e s s i o n * As poi n t e d out i n Chapter I , a l l pharmacy students must a t some time or other choose a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d w i t h i n pharmacy, a choice which i s i n p a r t depen-dent upon s o c i a l background f a c t o r s * S e c t i o n B i s de-voted t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l f a c t o r s and the choice of f i e l d * A) SOCIAL BACKGROUND FACTORS—ASCRIBED AND ACHIEVED Fi n d i n g s 1* Sex P r i o r to and du r i n g World War I I , the enrolment of women i n pharmacy s t e a d i l y Increased. The years immedi-a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the war saw an in c r e a s e d enrolment of male veterans and a corresponding decrease i n the pro-p o r t i o n of women. But, from 1950 t o the present, the tr e n d has been toward more women i n pharmacy. According to the Reports of the Committee on Enrolment i n the Proceedings of the Canadian Conference of Pharmaceutical F a c u l t i e s (I960, .1961 and 1962), the p r o p o r t i o n of women I n pharmaoy i n 1950 was 11 per cent (see Table I ) . F i v e years l a t e r , the percentage had r i s e n to 17 per cent and by i 9 6 0 , 26 per cent of a l l pharmacy students were women. -46-Por the academic year 1961-62, the Proceedings reported an enrolment of 1531 students of which 2? per cent were women. Of the students responding to the Royal Commission on Health S e r v i c e s Questionnaire, a t the c l o s e of the same academic year, a t o t a l of 1335 students, a f u l l 32 per cent were women. The p r o p o r t i o n of women I n pharmacy i s I n -cre a s i n g and I t Is h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t t h i s t r e n d w i l l con-t i n u e as the enrolment of women i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s i ncreases and as pharmacy i s regarded as an appropriate career f o r the female sex. > TABLE I PERCENTAGE WOMEN ENROLLED IN CANADIAN SCHOOLS OP PHARMACYJ 1945-61* Academic Year Percentage of T o t a l Beginning Women Enrolment 1945 24 771 1946 16 1383 1947 13 1314 1948 11 1448 1949 11 1436 1950 11 1394 1951 12 1309 1952 13 1380 1953 13 1263 1954 15 1207 1955 17 1198 1956 19 1145 1957 19 1109 1958 21 1268 1959 25 1353 I960 26 1474 1961 27 1531 Source: Proceedings of the Canadian Conference of Pharmaceutical F a c u l t i e s (I960, 1961 and 1962). -47-Although the enrolment of women I n pharmacy schools i s i n c r e a s i n g , t h i s i s not l i k e l y to a f f e c t the sex r a t i o of p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists i n the same pr o p o r t i o n s s i n c e the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s of women are s h o r t e r than those of men* Of the women i n pharmacy who p l a n t o get married, and only 3,per cent do not p l a n to marry, 24 per cent do not know whether they w i l l continue working i n the pro* f e s s i o n a f t e r marriage* Of the 329 women r e p l y i n g to the qu e s t i o n concerning work a f t e r marriage (of a t o t a l of 422 women i n the sample),, only 8 per cent expect t o work f u l l time i n d e f i n i t e l y and another 9 per cent p a r t time i n d e f i n i t e l y . F i f t y - t w o per cent expect to work f u l l time d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of marriage or u n t i l they have c h i l d r e n and then work p a r t time l a t e r w h i l e 22 per cent expect to work f u l l or p a r t time d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of marriage o r u n t i l they have c h i l d r e n and then q u i t a l t o g e t h e r * The remaining 9 per cent p l a n to work "only i f f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e i t . " The p r o p o r t i o n of women i n pharmacy v a r i e s w i t h r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . From Table I I i t can be seen t h a t only 14 per cent of the students of Jewish f a i t h are women compared w i t h 30 per cent of the Roman Cath-o l i c s and 37 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s . - 4 8 -TABLE I I RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF PHARMACY STUDENTS AND SEX •i • • R e l i g i o n Percentage Males Percentage Females T o t a l No. of Students Jewish 86 14 106 Roman C a t h o l i c 70 30 426 P r o t e s t a n t 63 37 617 Other 64 36 53 ^No &nswer a 73 27 118 T o t a l b 68 32 1320 ^Includes those who d i d not s t a t e r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . *>Does not Include 15 students who d i d not I n d i c a t e t h e i r sex. The p r o p o r t i o n of women e n r o l l e d i n pharmacy a l s o v a r i e s w i t h the school of r e g i s t r a t i o n (Table I I I ) . While women comprise 48 per cent of the pharmacy student popula-t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and 40 per cent of the pharmacy students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, only 16 per cent of the pharmacy students a t Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y and 13 per cent of those a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y are women. I n general the p r o p o r t i o n of women i n pharmacy schools I s hig h e r i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the western p r o v i n c e s . I n pa r t t h i s I s to be expected, f o r the p r o p o r t i o n of women e n r o l l e d I n the u n i v e r s i t y as a whole i s g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r i n western Canada. 2 -49-TABLE I I I SCHOOL OF REGISTRATION AND SEX School of R e g i s t r a t i o n Percentage Males Percentage Females T o t a l No. of Students U. of B. C. 65 35 124 U. of A l b e r t a 52 48 172 U. of Saskatchewan 68 32 185 U. of Manitoba 60 40 95 U. of Toronto 69 31 354 U. of L a v a l 87 13 54 U. of Montreal 74 26 269 Dalhousie U. 84 16 67 T o t a l * 68 32 1320 aDoes not i n c l u d e 15 students who d i d not s t a t e sex. I n terms of s o c i a l c l a s s and u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , the p r o p o r t i o n of males and females does not vary s i g -n i f i c a n t l y . Male and female pharmacy students have s i m i -l a r backgrounds w i t h respect t o socio-economic s t a t u s and u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e . Males and females d i f f e r somewhat w i t h respect to two of the three achieved s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " A l -though the sexes do not d i f f e r w i t h respect to the extent of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , they vary i n terms of high s c h o o l grades and p r a c t i c a l experience. Women enter pharmacy sc h o o l w i t h h i g h e r grades than do men, and t h i s a p p l i e s t o each of the schools of pharmacy considered s e p a r a t e l y * The median average grades i n a r t s courses and b a s i c sciences were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the sexes I n each of the schools and I n the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. For the e n t i r e student body the median average grade i n a r t s courses i s 69*3 per cent f o r males and 7^*7 per cent f o r females; f o r the b a s i c sciences the average i s 72.8 per cent f o r males and 76*2 per cent f o r females* I t might be noted t h a t women r e c e i v e h i g h e r grades I n a r t s ; courses than the men do i n b a s i c s c i e n c e s , although the science grades are h i g h e r than the a r t s grades f o r men and women, and t h i s I s a l s o found t o be the case i n each of the < schools taken s e p a r a t e l y * t Although women enter pharmacy school w i t h b e t t e r 1 h i g h s c h o o l grades, men begin t h e i r academic t r a i n i n g w i t h more p r a c t i c a l experience* While 60 per cent of the women enter pharmacy school w i t h no p r a c t i c a l ex-per i e n c e , only 52 per cent of the men enter without experience. Of the females, 25 per cent had l e s s ' t h a n one year of p r a c t i c a l experience and 16 per oent had one year or more, compared w i t h 19 and 29 per cent of the males r e s p e c t i v e l y . 2* Socio-economic s t a t u s Table IV shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pharmacy students according to socio-economic-status of the f a m i l y * The l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n of pharmacy students come from Classes -51-TABLE IV SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUNDS OF PHARMACY STUDENTS Socio-Economic Status Percentage T o t a l of Number of Students Class I . 1.5 17 Class I I 15.8 • 184 Class I I I 15.8 184 Class IV 31.8 370 Class V 31.1 362 Class VI 4.1 48 3 T o t a l a 100.0 1165 aDoes not i n c l u d e 170 students who d i d not answer one or more of the questions r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s t a b l e . IV and V. A s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n comes from Classes I I and I I I w h i l e Classes I and VI c o n t r i b u t e very few pharmacy students. Among the pharmacy student p o p u l a t i o n , the f a c t o r of socio-economic s t a t u s i s r e l a t e d w i t h r e l i g i o n , urban-r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , and geographic r e g i o n . While 25 per cent of the Jewish students come from upper c l a s s f a m i l i e s (Classes I and I I ) , only 20 per cent of the Roman C a t h o l i c s and 15 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s come from such f a m i l i e s . Conversely, 25 per cent of the Jewish students, 33 per cent of the Roman C a t h o l i c s and 38 per cent of the Pr o t e s t a n t s come from lower c l a s s f a m i l i e s (Classes V and V I ) . -52-With respect t o the f a c t o r of urban^z-ural r e s i d e n c e , socio-economic s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s are observed p r i m a r i l y between those coming from farms and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l o t h e r s . Of the former, only 3 per cent come from upper c l a s s f a m i l i e s and 27 per cent come from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s (Classes I I I and I V ) , w h i l e a f u l l 71 per cent come from lower c l a s s f a m i l i e s * Among the remainder of the students, 20 per cent are from upper c l a s s f a m i l i e s , 52 per cent from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s , and 28 per cent from lower e l a s s f a m i l i e s . Socio-economic d i f f e r e n c e s among students coming from d i f f e r e n t geographic regions are most s t r i k i n g f o r those a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan and the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal. Of the students a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, only 9 per cent have upper c l a s s backgrounds and 38 per cent have middle c l a s s back-grounds, w h i l e a f u l l 53 per cent come from f a m i l i e s of lower socio-economic s t a t u s . Of the students a t t e n d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal, 28 per cent oome from upper c l a s s f a m i l i e s , 46 per cent come from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s , w h i l e only 26 per cent come from lower c l a s s f a m i l i e s . This i s t o be compared w i t h the n a t i o n a l averages which a r e : 17 per cent upper c l a s s , 48 per cent middle c l a s s , and 35 per cent lower c l a s s . Pharmacy students a t t e n d i n g the remaining u n i v e r s i t i e s do not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h respect t o the f a c t o r of s o c i o -economic s t a t u s . With respect to achieved s o c i a l background f a c t o r s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t students from the upper socio-economic c l a s s e s enter pharmacy school w i t h s l i g h t l y b e t t e r high s c h o o l grades (although the d i f f e r e n c e i s not s i g n i f i c a n t ) , experience more occu p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e ^ and g a i n more p r a c t i c a l experience before e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . While 67 per cent of the students from upper c l a s s f a m i l i e s enter pharmacy w i t h some p r a c t i c a l experience^ on l y 42 per cent of those from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s and 39 per cent of those from lower c l a s s f a m i l i e s make t h i s c l a i m . 3 . R e l i g i o n Of those students i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a -t i o n , 51 per cent are P r o t e s t a n t , 36 per cent Roman Catho-l i c , 9 per cent Jewish and 4 per cent are of some other r e l i g i o n . As can be expected the p r o p o r t i o n of students of each f a i t h v a r i e s w i t h the school of r e g i s t r a t i o n (see Table V ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and each of the a s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s of i n t e r e s t . With respect to p r a c t i c a l experience, i t i s found t h a t 61 per cent of the Jewish students enter pharmacy w i t h some p r a c t i c a l experience, compared w i t h 49 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s and 41 per cent of the Roman C a t h o l i c s . A l s o r e l a t e d - 5 4 -TABLE V SCHOOL OP EEGISTRATION AND RELIGION Students Attending Pharmacy School a t t Pereentace who are* T o t a l No. of Students -"Protestant 1 a Roman C a t h o l i c Jewish Other U. of B. C. 7 6 17 4 3 97 U. of A l b e r t a 71 22 1 6 156 U. of Saskatchewan 79 13 tmmt 8 170 U. of Manitoba 66 13 10 11 88 U. of Toronto 57 20 20 3 330 L a v a l U. . — 98 2 55 U. of Montreal 2 87 " 11 — 245 Dalhousie U. 81 19 mm mm 64 T o t a l 0 51 36 9 4 1205 a I n c l u d e s A n g l i c a n , Lutheran, P r e s b y t e r i a n , Greek Orthodox and Un i t e d Church. feDoes not i n c l u d e 130 students who d i d not answer the q u e s t i o n . t o the f a c t o r of r e l i g i o n I s t h a t of occ u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i -tance (see Table V I ) . Jewish students have the highest r a t e of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e ; 22 per cent have parents I n the p r o f e s s i o n and 26 per cent have r e l a t i v e s i n pharmacy. This i s compared w i t h 10 and 15 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s and 9 and 19 per cent of the Roman C a t h o l i c s . F i n a l l y , the f a c t o r of r e l i g i o n i s found t o be r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h school grades. Although - 5 5 -TABLE VI RELIGION AND OCCUPATIONAL INHERITANCE R e l i g i o n Percentage wltfat •mmm_ T o t a l No. of' Parent R e l a t i v e N e i t h e r Parent Students i n i n nor R e l a t i v e Pharmacy Pharmacy i n Pharmacy Jewish 22 26 52 105 P r o t e s t a n t 10 15 75 617 Roman C a t h o l i c 9 19 72 422 Other 6 17 77 53 T o t a l * 1197 aDoes not i n c l u d e 138 students who d i d not answer one or more of the questions r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s t a b u l a -t i o n . t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be p a r t l y due to the s e l e c t i v e f a c t o r of geographic r e g i o n 3 , i t I s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t , w h i l e 25 per cent of the Roman C a t h o l i c s enter pharmacy sc h o o l w i t h grades of 80 per cent or h i g h e r , only 21 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s and 15 per cent of the Jewish students enter w i t h such grades. Conversely, 44 per cent of the Jewish students, 37 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s , and 26 per cent of the Roman C a t h o l i c s enter w i t h grades of l e s s than 70 per cent. 4. Urba n - r u r a l residence The d i s t r i b u t i o n of students according t o school of r e g i s t r a t i o n and u r b a n - r u r a l residence i s shown I n Table V I I . -56-TABLE VII SCHOOL OP REGISTRATION AND URBAN-RURAL RESIDENCE Students Percentage of Students Coming from: T o t a l Number of ; Students Attending Pharmacy Farm o r School R u r a l a t t D i s t r i c t a Town * Sm a l l * ? C i t y Large 0 No C i t y Answer U. of B.C. 14 17 39 30 — 127 U. of A l b e r t a 24 28 12 36 — 173 U. of Sask. 34 29 30 7 mm mm 188 U. of Man. 13 25 23 38 1 95 U. of Toronto 8 9 28 54 1 355 L a v a l U. 22 9 40 27 2 55 U. of Montreal 8 8 34 49 1 274 Dalhousle U. 21 19 47 13 — 68 T o t a l 16 16 30 38 — 1335 ^own: p o p u l a t i o n 5*000 or l e s s . D S m a l l C i t y : p o p u l a t i o n 5,000 - 100,000. °Large C i t y : p o p u l a t i o n over 100,000. Of a l l the pharmacy students I n Canada, 38 ,per cent come from l a r g e c i t i e s , 30 per cent from s m a l l c i t i e s , 16 per cent from towns, and 16 per cent from farms and r u r a l d l s t r l o t s . These proportions vary w i t h the school of r e g i s t r a t i o n . Students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan tend t o come from s m a l l e r - s i z e d centers of p o p u l a t i o n w i t h over o n e - t h i r d coming from farms and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and -57-only 7 per cent from c i t i e s of 100,000 people or more. At the other extreme are the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Toronto and Montreal w i t h only 8 per cent of the students coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and 54 and 49 per cent, r e s p e c t -i v e l y , coming from c i t i e s of 100,000 people or more. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between u r b a n - r u r a l residence and occu p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e i s of importance. Of the 2121 pharmacy students I n Canada coming from farms o r r u r a l d i s t r i c t s only 2 persons or 1 per cent have parents who have p r a c t i s e d the p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy a t some time or other compared w i t h 12 per cent of those coming from towns, 11 per cent of those from s m a l l c i t i e s , and 12 per cent of those from l a r g e c i t i e s . The b i g d i f f e r e n c e i s between those coming from farms and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l o t h e r s . A s i m i l a r type of r e l a t i o n s h i p I s seen between u r b a n - r u r a l residence and p r a c t i c a l experience as pre-sented I n Table V I I I . While one-half of the students from l a r g e c i t i e s and n e a r l y one h a l f of those from s m a l l c i t i e s or towns enter pharmacy school w i t h some p r a c t i c a l experience, only s l i g h t l y more than one-quarter of those coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s have such experience. With respect t o high school grades and urban-r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s can be found. - 5 8 -TABLE V I I I URBAN-RURAL RESIDENCE AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE PRIOR TO ENTRY INTO.PHARMACY SCHOOL Type of L o c a l i t y Percentage of Students w i t h Some P r a c t i c a l Ex-perience P r i o r to Entry. T o t a l Number of Students Farm or r u r a l d i s t r i c t 27 213 Town 48 218 Small c i t y 49 393 Large c i t y 50 497 No answer — . 14 . T o t a l . 46 .,. , 1335 5* Geographic r e g i o n Table IX shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pharmacy students according.to p r a c t i c a l experience and school of r e g i s t r a -t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n of students w i t h some p r a c t i c a l ex-perience v a r i e s from a low of 20 per cent a t L a v a l U n i v e r s -i t y and-21 per cent at the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan to a high of 84 per cent at Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y . Table X shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pharmacy students according to o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e and school of r e g i s -t r a t i o n . L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchew-an have the lowest rates o f , d i r e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , although the former has the highest r a t e of i n d i r e c t occu-p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e . The highest r a t e of d i r e c t occu-p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e i s found at Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y -59-TABLE IX SCHOOL OP REGISTRATION AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE PRIOR TO ENTRY School of Pharmacy a t : Percentage w i t h Some P r a c t i c a l Experience P r i o r to Entry Number of Students U* of B r i t i s h Columbia 36 124 U* of A l b e r t a 53 172 U. of Saskatchewan 21 185 • U. of Manitoba 45 95 U* of Toronto 53 354 L a v a l U* 20 54 U* of Montreal 48 269 Dalhousie U* 84 67 T o t a l 48 1320 where 18 per cent of the students have parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n * 6. Achieved s o o l a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of a l l the students I n Canada more than one-half (54*5 per cent) enter without ever having worked i n a pharmacy; 21 per cent have one year or l e s s experience and 25 per cent have more than one year* With respect t o oc c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e , 10 per cent of the pharmacy students have parents I n the pro-f e s s i o n and another 17 per cent have r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n ; 73 per cent have n e i t h e r parents nor r e l a -- R O -T A B L E x SCHOOL OP REGISTRAT ION AND OCCUPATIONAL INHERITANCE Students Attending Pharmacy School att Percentage wltht Total Parent(s) Relative(s) Neither Number i n Other Than Parents of Pharmacy Parent i n Nor Students Pharmacy Relatives i n Pharmacy u; of B.C. 6 18 76 126 U . of Alberta 8 16 76 172 U . of Sask;* 5 1? 78 188 U . of Manitoba 10 16 74 95 U . of Toronto 14 16 70 350 Laval U . 2 22 76 54 U . of Montreal 12 19 69 264 Dalhousle U . 18 16 66 67 * T o t a l a 10 1? 73 1316. aDoes not include 19 students who d i d not answer the question. tl v e s i n pharmacy. Nothing much needs to be sa i d at t h i s time about high school grades except that science grades are generally higher than arts grades. About one-quarter of the students have grades of 80 per cent and about one-t h i r d have grades lower than 70 per cent. The extent of p r a c t i c a l experience Is rela t e d with occupational inheritance as would be expected. Of those w i t h parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n only 9 per cent have never worked i n a pharmacy w h i l e 62 per cent have more than one year's experience. Of those w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n pharmacy over-one-half (56 per cent) have no p r a c t i c a l experience and only 19 per cent have worked i n a pharmacy f o r more than one year. This i s compared w i t h those students w i t h n e i t h e r parents nor r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n , 6 l per cent of whom enter pharmacy school w i t h no p r a c t i c a l ex-perience w h i l e 20 per cent have more than one year of 1 experience. Of i n t e r e s t a l s o i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between hig h s c h o o l grades and p r a c t i c a l experience. I n general the high e r the grades the l e s s p r a c t i c a l experience the I n d i v i d u a l i s l i k e l y t o have. Of those w i t h h i g h school grades of 80 per cent or more, 60 per cent enter w i t h no p r a c t i c a l experience compared w i t h 58 per cent of those w i t h grades of 70-79 per cent, and 46 per cent of 1 those w i t h grades of l e s s than 70 per cent. Conversely, 20 < per cent of those w i t h grades of 80 per cent o r more have more than one year of experience compared w i t h 23 per cent of those w i t h grades of 70-79 per cent and 31 per cent' of those w i t h grades of l e s s than 70 per cent. I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n c e r t a i n s o c i a l background f a c t o r s have been presented and some of the more important r e l a -t i o n s h i p s among these f a c t o r s have been d e s c r i b e d . The relevancy of much of t h i s b a s i c a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e data w i l l become more evident as the t h e s i s proceeds. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance f o r the a n a l y s i s of the choice of f i e l d are the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a s c r i b e d and achieved s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These are summarized i n Fig u r e 2 . F i g u r e 2 Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between A s c r i b e d and Achieved S o c i a l Background Factors High School Occupational P r a c t i c a l Grades I n h e r i t a n c e Experience A. Sex Males Females Lower Higher D i f f e r e n c e More Not S i g n i f i c a n t Less B. Socio-economic Status Upper D i f f e r e n c e High High Middle Not Medium Medium Lower S i g n i f i c a n t Low Low R e l i g i o n Jewish Low High High P r o t e s t a n t Medium Medium : Medium C a t h o l i c High Medium Low Urban-Rural Residence Farm, R u r a l D i f f e r - Low Low Town ence High High Small C i t y Not High High Large C i t y S i g n i f i c a n t High High Geographic Region U.B.C. Depends Low Low U.Alberta on Low High U.Sask. Grading Low Low U.Manitoba System Medium Medium U.Toronto Used High High U.Montreal i n High Medium L a v a l U. Each Low Low Dalhousie U. Province High High - 6 3 -D l a c u s s i o n Sex i s one of the fundamental bases f o r a d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n s o c i e t y , and i t i s one of the most important s o c i a l determinants of oc c u p a t i o n a l choice i n North America. Despite the l i b e r a l i z i n g e f f e c t of mass educa-t i o n , some f i e l d s i n our s o c i e t y are predominantly women's occupations, n u r s i n g , d i e t e t i c s , elementary school teach-i n g , s e c r e t a r i a l work, t o name a few, w h i l e o t h e r s , such as engineering, a g r i c u l t u r e , or business, are g e n e r a l l y considered the domain of men. However, sex b a r r i e r s to var i o u s occupations are being broken down, and men and women are beginning to enter occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y r eserved f o r the opposite sex. One such f i e l d i s pharmacy. The enrolment of women i n pharmacy i s i n c r e a s i n g and w i l l probably continue t o Increase w i t h the enlarging•en-rolment of women i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of hig h e r l e a r n i n g . Be-si d e s the I n c r e a s i n g enrolment of women i n pharmacy there i s f u r t h e r reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t the sex b a r r i e r to t h i s p r o f e s s i o n i s breaking down. Most students regard phar-macy as an appr o p r i a t e career f o r women. Only 6 per cent of the pharmacy students i n Canada, two-thirds of whom are men, do not agree w i t h the statement, "Pharmacy i s a s u i t a b l e career f o r women." Pharmacy i s a l s o viewed as a career t h a t can be maintained by women a f t e r marriage, as evidenced by the f a c t t h a t only 9 per cent of the male pharmacy students and 5 per cent of the female students do not agree w i t h the statement, "Pharmacy i s a career -64-whlch p r o v i d e s good o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women and one whioh can be m a i n t a i n e d a f t e r m a r r i a g e T a k i n g these p o i n t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t seems reasonable t o assume t h a t the sex b a r r i e r t o pharmacy which e x i s t e d a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y i s r a p i d l y b r e a k i n g down. 1 I t i s I n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the breakdown of the sex b a r r i e r i s Independent of s o c i a l c l a s s o r u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e . The p r o p o r t i o n of women I n pharmacy does not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h soc io-economic s t a t u s o r u r b a n -r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , which lends " f u r t h e r support t o the n o t i o n t h a t pharmacy i n Canadian s o c i e t y I s b e i n g regarded as an a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e e r f o r women. However, the p r o p o r t i o n of women i n pharmacy does appear to v a r y w i t h some s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , n o t a b l y r e l i g i o n and geographic r e g i o n . J ewish women are c o n s i d e r -a b l y u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the pharmacy s tudent p o p u l a t i o n and P r o t e s t a n t women are somewhat o v e r - r e p r e s e r i t e d . I t may be t h a t people of J ewish f a i t h do not as ye t r e g a r d t h i s p r o f e s s i o n as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women. As seen I n Table I I I the p r o p o r t i o n of women I n p h a r -macy v a r i e s w i t h the s c h o o l of r e g i s t r a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l the p r o p o r t i o n of female pharmacy s tudents i s g r e a t e r I n the w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s t h a n i n the e a s t e r n p r o v i n o e s . T h i s may be due I n p a r t t o the f a c t t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of women e n r o l l e d I n I n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r i n the wes tern p r o v i n c e s . A c c o r d i n g to the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , the p r o p o r t i o n of women -65-e n r o l l e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s west of Ontario f o r the academic year, 1961-62, was 29*5 per cent, compared w i t h 26*9 per cent i n the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s , 23»6 per cent i n O n t a r i o , and 22.2 per cent i n the province of Quebec, t o giv e a n a t i o n a l average of 25.*7 per cent*** However, the d i s p r o -p o r t i o n a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women i n pharmacy schools cannot be ex p l a i n e d e n t i r e l y on the b a s i s of the p r o p o r t i o n of women e n r o l l e d i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of hig h e r learning,, s i n c e the p r o p o r t i o n of women at t e n d i n g pharmacy schools west of Ontario i s c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than the p r o p o r t i o n of women i n the general u n i v e r s i t y student p o p u l a t i o n i n these p r o v i n c e s , w h i l e the p r o p o r t i o n of women at t e n d i n g the pharmacy school a t Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y - i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than the p r o p o r t i o n of women i n the general u n i v e r s i t y student p o p u l a t i o n i n the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s . I t i s f e l t t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of women i n pharmacy schools f i s a f u n c t i o n of the s e l e c t i o n procedures used by the var i o u s schools of pharmacy* Each pharmacy school has an enrolment quota based on such things as p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , a v a i l a b l e s t a f f , f i -n a n c i a l resources, e t c * The general p o l i c y i s t o admit a l l students who s a t i s f y the minimum academic entrance requirements, and to g i v e preference t o a p p l i c a n t s w i t h s u p e r i o r academic records when the quota i s reached* How-ever, the. enrolment quota has been reached i n only two of the ei g h t schools f o r the l a s t three of the s i x years preceding t h i s study, those being the pharmacy schools a t - 6 6 - • i the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, where-the enrolment of women I s 48 and 40 per cent, r e -s p e c t i v e l y . I n these schools 22 and 34 per cent of the a p p l i c a n t s were r e j e c t e d d u r i n g the three year period.-' When academic c r l t e r l a a r e used f o r s e l e c t i o n purposes, they l e a d t o an Increased enrolment of women, f o r women who seek entrance i n t o pharmacy sc h o o l g e n e r a l l y have h i g h e r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than men. I n a d d i t i o n , women have a lower withdrawal r a t e and tend to perform b e t t e r academically i n pharmacy s c h o o l . 0 Thus, i t would seem t h a t as the number of a p p l i c a n t s to pharmacy ex-ceeds the enrolment quota, the p r o p o r t i o n of women I n the p r o f e s s i o n i n c r e a s e s . a Women enter pharmacy school w i t h b e t t e r academic records but w i t h l e s s p r a c t i c a l experience i n the f i e l d , which, when taken together, have c e r t a i n consequences f o r the p r o f e s s i o n , mainly i n the type of employment expected by the students. Of the e n t i r e student body, 16'per cent expect t o work I n the f i e l d of h o s p i t a l pharmacy; of these, the m a j o r i t y , 56 per cent are women. P r e s e n t l y l e s s than 5 per cent of the p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists i n Canada are employed i n h o s p i t a l pharmacy, which seems t o make these expectations somewhat u n r e a l i s t i c . Many of the women w i l l have to seek employment i n other f i e l d s , which b r i n g s up another problem, t h a t of premature r e -tirement. * • The p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s of women are somewhat s h o r t e r than those of men* As poi n t e d out i n the preceding sub-s e c t i o n , few women expect t o work f u l l or p a r t time i n -d e f i n i t e l y ; most expect t o work f u l l or p a r t time during the e a r l i e r years of married l i f e and then e i t h e r q u i t a l t o g e t h e r or accept c a s u a l employment l a t e r * These ex-pe c t a t i o n s of women do not seem t o vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y by school of r e g i s t r a t i o n or place of resid e n c e , r e l i g i o n and most other s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , although there i s some r e l a t i o n between t h i s f a c t o r and socio-• > economic s t a t u s . I n any case, i t appears t h a t as the en-rolment of women in o r e a s e s , a l l schools of pharmacy w i l l have to graduate a gr e a t e r number of pharmacists to r e -p l a c e those who normally leave the p r o f e s s i o n because of death o r re t i r e m e n t . Regardless of sex, pharmacy students seem to be r e c r u i t e d from the lower-middle and upper-lower s o c i o -economic c l a s s e s . For over 80 per cent of the students, becoming a pharmacist represents an in c r e a s e i n s t a t u s over t h a t of t h e i r parents. But i t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y are from Classes IV and V. There are fewer students from Classes I I and I I I and con s i d e r a b l y fewer from Classes I and VI* Pharmacy, a Class I I occupation, seems to be l e s s appealing t o members of t h i s c l a s s and of Class I I I than i t i s t o members of Classes IV and V* The data are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t a movement i n t o the s t a t u s of pharmacist i s seen as a reasonable a s p i r a t i o n by members of Classes IV and V and out of -68 - . reach to members of Class V I . I t may be t h a t members of Glasses I I and I I I a s p i r e to p o s i t i o n s of g r e a t e r s o c i a l s t a t u s . t h a n t h a t provided by the p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy. This appears to be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the general e x p e c t a t i o n of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y I n Canadian s o c i e t y and w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t m o b i l i t y a s p i r a t i o n s between the generations are l i m i t e d i n scope to the subsequent rung of the s t a t u s ' l a d -der. I t might be s u r p r i s i n g f o r some to f i n d t h a t the experience of working I n a pharmacy i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l c l a s s ; t h a t , the h i g h e r the s o c i a l c l a s s , the more l i k e l y the I n d i v i d u a l i s to have worked i n a pharmacy p r i o r to e n t e r i n g the formal t r a i n i n g program, which sug-gests that students do not seek employment i n pharmacy p r i m a r i l y f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s and p r a c t i c a l experience i s due mainly to the s e l e c t i v e f a c t o r of occ u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e . I n the up-per c l a s s , c o n s i s t i n g of Classes I and I I , are found those students w i t h parents, and t o a l e s s e r extent, w i t h r e l a -t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n , who on t h i s account have g r e a t e r opportunity f o r employment. Thus I t would seem tha t prac-t i c a l experience, i n p a r t at l e a s t , depends on the amount of contact one has w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n . Those w i t h parents and r e l a t i v e s have more contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n and subsequently g a i n more p r a c t i c a l experience p r i o r t o en-t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . Pharmacy, u n l i k e many other p r o f e s s i o n s , o f f e r s considerable o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s , w i t h or without parents or r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n , t o g a i n p r a c t i c a l experience p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g a formal t r a i n i n g program, or f o r t h a t matter, p r i o r t o the career d e c i s i o n * P a r t o r f u l l time work as a d e l i v e r y boy, stock boy* or c l e r k i s o f t e n a v a i l a b l e a t a corner drugstore f o r the ambitious young man or women who may s t i l l be undecided about a career* Even a f t e r a career choice i s made, such p r a c t i c a l experience may help to r e i n f o r c e the d e c i s i o n and may serve to prepare the p r o s p e c t i v e pharmacist f o r the p r o f e s s i o n he w i l l e v e n t u a l l y enter* I t i s w i t h i n such a context t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s notions about the p r o f e s s i o n and about h i m s e l f as a member of i t are de r i v e d * I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, t o note t h a t such experience i s gained almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n . the r e t a i l f i e l d * . Thus, i t I s expected t h a t the image of pharmacy d e r i v e d i n t h i s context i s p r i m a r i l y based on the p r a c t i c e of r e t a i l phar-macy* • Of the three major r e l i g i o u s groupings i n Canada, the Jewish f a i t h i s somewhat over-represented i n 1 t h e phar-macy student p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e the C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n i s somewhat under-represented* According t o the 1962 Canada Year Book, Roman C a t h o l i c s comprise 45*7 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n of Canada, w h i l e Jews make up 1*4 per cent* Of the pharmacy students, 36 per cent are Roman C a t h o l i c and 9 per cent Jewish*. The d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e representa-t i o n of these two groups i n the pharmacy student p o p u l a t i o n -70-may be simply a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e rep-r e s e n t a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s groupings i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of< hig h e r l e a r n i n g . I n any event, a l l of the major r e l i g i o u s groupings are represented i n the pharmacy student popula-t i o n . >•••• Although a l l are represented I n the student body, they do not f i n d t h e i r way i n t o pharmacy through the same channels. Nearly one-half of the Jewish students have parents or r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n and over t h r e e -f i f t h s have some p r a c t i c a l experience p r i o r to e n t r y . Of the P r o t e s t a n t s and Roman C a t h o l i c s , only about one-qua r t e r experience any oc c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t , and l e s s than one-half have any p r a c t i c a l experience. Thus, Jewish students who enter pharmacy have c o n s i d e r a b l y more contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n than do P r o t e s t a n t s o r C a t h o l i c s , although P r o t e s t a n t s have s l i g h t l y more contact than C a t h o l i c s . Occupational i n h e r i t a n c e and p r a c t i c a l experience a l s o vary w i t h the f a c t o r of u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e . However, the v a r i a t i o n I s p r i m a r i l y due to the n o t i c e a b l e . l a c k of oc c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e and p r a c t i c a l experience among students coming from, farms and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , which suggests t h a t r u r a l students f i n d t h e i r way i n t o pharmacy through other than d i r e c t channels. * I f t h i s i s the case, then students a t t e n d i n g d i f f e r -ent pharmacy schools,, s i n c e they tend to come from d i f f e r -e n t - s i z e d c e n t e r s , w i l l vary i n the extent of d i r e c t contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s i n f a c t appears to be the case. Pharmacy students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Sas-katchewan, L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a tend, more so than o t h e r s , t o come from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . Students a t these u n i v e r s i t i e s a l s o experience l e s s o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e and, except f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , have l e s s p r a c t i c a l experience upon e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . Thus, i t would seem tha t the f a c t o r of u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h respect to the d i s -t i n c t i o n between r u r a l students and a l l o t h e r s , i s an important determinant of the channels by which students get i n t o pharmacy. The extent of p r a c t i c a l experience gained p r i o r to entry i s not t o t a l l y a f u n c t i o n of u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , r e l i g i o n , and occu p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e . I n p a r t i t i s determined by the ap p r e n t i c e s h i p p o l i c i e s of p r o v i n c i a l pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s . Some a s s o c i a t i o n s r e q u i r e t h a t the p e r i o d of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g be taken p r i o r to en t e r i n g the formal academic program; others provide the o p t i o n of t a k i n g i t before entry o r a f t e r graduation, w h i l e s t i l l others a l l o w f o r the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p r e q u i r e -ments to be completed during summer vacations from u n i -v e r s i t y . I n c r e a s i n g l y , pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s are hot r e q u i r i n g the completion of the p e r i o d of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g p r i o r to commencement of c l a s s e s a t the u n i v e r -s i t y , and some are c o n s i d e r i n g dropping the appr e n t i c e -s h i p requirements e n t i r e l y . No two provinces are a l i k e -72-l n t h e i r p o l i c i e s towards the p e r i o d of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n -i n g . •• • f •' For t h i s reason, students i n d i f f e r e n t provinces are a f f e c t e d d i f f e r e n t l y by the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p r e q u i r e -ments. The p r o p o r t i o n of students who have served p a r t or a l l of t h e i r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy sch o o l v a r i e s from a high of 55 per cent a t Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , 44 per cent a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , and 31 per cent a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, to a low of 8 per cent a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba and 11 per cent a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y . I n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n an attempt has been made to de-s c r i b e the s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of pharmacy students and to I l l u s t r a t e the connections between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and some of the channels which students may take to get i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . I t appears th a t each of the a s c r i b e d s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , sex, s o c i o -economic s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , and geo-graphic r e g i o n , a f f e c t the amount of d i r e c t contact I n d i -v i d u a l s have w i t h the working aspects of the p r o f e s s i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the r e t a i l f i e l d . The next q u e s t i o n that can be asked i s how these f a c t o r s are r e l a t e d to the choice of a f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . -73-B) SOCIAL BACKGROUND PACTORS AND CHOICE OP FIELD IN PHARMACY Find i n g s $ 1. Sex The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween sex and choice of f i e l d . Table XI shows t h a t women more o f t e n than men choose a career i n h o s p i t a l pharmacy, w h i l e men more o f t e n than women choose the r e t a i l f i e l d . Of the menj 59 Per cent choose r e t a i l pharmacy compared w i t h 42 per cent of the women. Conversely, over two and one-half times as many women than men choose a career i n h o s p i t a l pharmacy. -2. Socio-economic s t a t u s The choice of f i e l d appears to be independent of socio-economic s t a t u s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s observed between these f a c t o r s . TABLE XI SEX AND CHOICE OF FIELD IN PHARMACY Percentage Choosing:  R e t a i l P r e s c r i p t i o n H o s p i t a l Other T o t a l Sex Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Cases Males 59 8 11 23 898 Females 42 12 - 28 19 422 X 2 m 79.200s d.f. • 3* P<.001 3« R e l i g i o n The choice of f i e l d i n pharmacy v a r i e s w i t h the -74-r e l l g i o u s background of the student. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between these f a c t o r s i s presented i n Table X I I . Prom t h i s t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t Jewish students more o f t e n than others choose r e t a i l pharmacy and some "other" f i e l d , w h i l e P r o t e s t a n t s together w i t h those l i s t i n g t h e i r r e -l i g i o n as "other" show a preference f o r h o s p i t a l pharmacy. S u r p r i s i n g l y , Roman C a t h o l i c s , when compared w i t h members of other r e l i g i o u s groups, tend to choose p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, although 15 per cent i n d i c a t e a preference f o r h o s p i t a l pharmacy. TABLE X I I RELIGION AND CHOICE OP FIELD IN PHARMACY Percentage Choosing t R e l i g i o n R e t a i l P r e s c r i p t i o n H o s p i t a l Other T o t a l Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Cases Jewish 63 5 7 26 106 P r o t e s t a n t 54 7 19 20 622 Roman C a t h o l i c 51 14 15 21 431 Other 48 11 26 !5 46 X* =. 28.499* d.f. = 9t P<.001 4. Urban-rural residence The r e l a t i o n s h i p between u r b a n - r u r a l residence and choice of f i e l d i s I n t e r e s t i n g . Although the r e l a t i o n -s h i p I s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l , the v a r i a t i o n I s due p r i m a r i l y to the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of students -75-coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s who choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy. While 17 per cent of the students coming from towns, 13 per cent of the students from s m a l l c i t i e s , and 15 per cent of those from l a r g e c i t i e s choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy, a f u l l 24 per cent of those coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s make t h i s c h o i c e . With respect to< the other f i e l d s , r e t a i l , p r e s c r i p t i o n , and "other," l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e can be observed among the ch o i c e s . ' 5• Geographic r e g i o n The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that the choice of f i e l d v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the sc h o o l of r e g i s t r a t i o n . Prom Table X I I I i t w i l l be seen, f o r example, t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of students p l a n n i n g to enter r e t a i l pharmacy v a r i e s from a high of 69 per cent a t Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y to a l o w of 41 per cent a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. Por purposes of a n a l y s i s , the schools of pharmacy i n which the propor-t i o n of students choosing a g i v e n f i e l d i s above the na-t i o n a l average are s i n g l e d out. They are as f o l l o w s : R e t a i l Pharmacy ( N a t i o n a l average: 54 per cent) 1. Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y (69 per cent) 2. U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a (65 per cent) P r e s c r i p t i o n Pharmacy ( N a t i o n a l average: 9 per cent) 1. U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal (15 per cent) 2. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (13 per cent) 3» U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba (11 per cent) H o s p i t a l Pharmacy ( N a t i o n a l average: 16 per cent) 1. U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba (2.6 per cent) -76-H o s p l t a l Pharmacy — Continued 2. U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan (23 per cent) 3. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (19 per cent) 4. L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y (18 per cent) Other ( N a t i o n a l average: 21 per cent) 1. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto (27 per cent) 2. U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal (24 per cent) 3» L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y (24 per cent) 4. U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba (22 per cent) 6. Achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Each of the achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h i g h s c h o o l grades, o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i -ence, i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the choice of f i e l d . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are shown i n Table XIV. Students e n t e r i n g pharmacy sc h o o l w i t h low h i g h s c h o o l grades tend t o choose r e t a i l pharmacy, w h i l e those w i t h high grades tend t o choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy and some "other" f i e l d . S e p a r a t i n g from the r e s i d u a l category "other" the two o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , " i n d u s t r i a l manufacturing or research" and "teaching or research I n a u n i v e r s i t y , " there i s found even a s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p between these choices and high school grades. Of those r e c e i v i n g grades of 90-100 per cent I n h i g h s c h o o l , n e a r l y one-quarter (24 per cent) are p l a n n i n g a career I n I n dustry or t e a c h i n g , compared w i t h 18 per cent of those w i t h grades of 80-89 per cent, 10 per cent of those -77-TABLE X I I I SCHOOL OF REGISTRATION AND CHOICE OF FIELD IN PHARMACY Percentage Expecting to Enter: T o t a l School of Number Pharmacy R e t a i l P r e s c r i p t i o n H o s p i t a l Other of a t : Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Students U n i v e r s i t y of B.C. 50 13 19 18 127 U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a 65 6 13 16 173 U n i v e r s i t y of Sask. 54 6 23 17 188 U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba 41 11 26 22 95 U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto 52 7 14 27 355 L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y 49 9 18 24 55 U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal 50 15 11 24 274 Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y 69 4 9 18 68 T o t a l 54 9 16 21 1335 - 7 8 -TABLE XIV HIGH SCHOOL GRADES, OCCUPATIONAL INHERITANCE, PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE AND CHOICE OF FIELD IN PHARMACY Percentage Choosingt R e t a i l P r e s c r i p t i o n H o s p i t a l Other T o t a l Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Cases A) High School Grades 90 - 100 % 41 6 22 31 32 80 - 89 40 11 21 28 259 70 - 79 54 10 15 21 588 60 - 69 62 8 14 16 393 50 - v59 71 5 15 10 41 B) Occupational I n h e r i t a n c e Parent 67 6 8 19 133 R e l a t i v e 53 10 16 21 227 Neither 52 9 17 22 956 C) P r a c t i c a l Experience More than 1 year 70 5 8 17 321 One year 269 or l e s s 52 10 18 20 None 49 11 19 21 713 A) X 2 • 42 . 0 l 6 i d.f. » 12: P<.001 B) X 2 - 13.423: d.f. - 6: P<.05 C) X 2 * 45.475: d.f. = 6: P<.001 1 -79-w l t h grades of 70-79 per cent, 6 per cent of those w i t h grades of 60-69 per cent, and only 2 per cent of those w i t h grades lower than 60 per cent. With respect to occu p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e , the f i n d -ings i n d i c a t e that the g r e a t e r the extent of i n h e r i t a n c e , the g r e a t e r i s the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t an I n d i v i d u a l w i l l ' choose r e t a i l pharmacy i n preference to the other f i e l d s . Prom the same t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t w h i l e over two-t h i r d s of those w i t h parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n choose r e -t a i l pharmacy, only s l i g h t l y more than one-half of those w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n pharmacy or those w i t h n e i t h e r parents nor r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n make t h i s c h o i c e . At the same time over twice as many students w i t h n e i t h e r parents nor r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n , as compared w i t h those i w i t h parents i n pharmacy, p l a n to enter h o s p i t a l pharmacy. «A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s observed between p r a c t i c a l experience and choice of f i e l d . The g r e a t e r the amount of p r a c t i c a l experience an i n d i v i d u a l gains p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l , the more l i k e l y he i s to choose the r e t a i l f i e l d and the l e s s l i k e l y he Is to choose p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, h o s p i t a l pharmacy, or some "other'' f i e l d . While 70 per cent of those w i t h more than one year of p r a o t i c a l experience expect to enter r e t a i l pharmacy, only 49 per cent of those w i t h no p r a c t i c a l experience make t h i s c h o i c e . Conversely, over twice as many of those w i t h no experience, compared w i t h those having more than one year of experience, expect to make h o s p i t a l pharmacy t h e i r c a r e e r . D i s c u s s i o n ; •> The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t s e v e r a l s o c i a l background f a c t o r s are r e l a t e d w i t h the choice of f i e l d . Although the observed r e l a t i o n s h i p s are t o be exp l a i n e d , p a r t l y i f not e n t i r e l y , i n terms of the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s , values and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , there i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t s o c i a l f a c t o r s p l a y some d i r e c t p a r t i n the choi c e . However, i t must be noted t h a t the data presented i n t h i s t h e s i s cannot f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e the independent s i g -n i f i c a n c e of s o c i a l f a c t o r s . I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n the author wishes only to p o i n t out some of. the p o s s i b l e ways i n which the f a c t o r s of choice and s o c i a l background may be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d . Of the var i o u s s o c i a l f a c t o r s which serve to d e l i m i t the scope of oc c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , sex i s o f t e n r e - « garded as one of the most i m p o r t a n t T h e r e f o r e , i t seems reasonable t o suggest t h a t the choice of f i e l d may be d i -r e c t l y a f f e o t e d by the sex s t a t u s of the i n d i v i d u a l . A l -though the p r o p o r t i o n of women I n pharmacy i s i n c r e a s i n g , the f a c t remains t h a t the r e t a i l f i e l d i s s t i l l predom-i n a n t l y the domain of men. Women are most o f t e n found i n h o s p i t a l pharmacy where approximately 45 per cent are of the female sex. Less than 8 per cent of the pharmacists engaged i n r e t a i l p r a c t i c e are women, most of whom are s a l a r i e d employees. r 0 f those p r e s e n t l y i n the f i e l d , 6? per cent of , the males, but only 2 1 per cent of the f e -8 males, own r e t a i l establishments. The apex of the r e t a i l -81-pharmacist's career i s t o own and operate a pharmacy, as evidenced hy the f a c t t h a t n e a r l y two-thirds of the prac-t i s i n g pharmacists own r e t a i l establishments and 70 per cent of the students planning to enter the r e t a i l f i e l d , most of whom are males, consider i t d e s i r a b l e to"become entrepreneurs. I t seems reasonable t o suggest t h a t the r r o l e expectations of r e t a i l pharmacy, p a r t i c u l a r l y the ownership and/or o p e r a t i o n of a commercial e n t e r p r i s e , are i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the r o l e expectations of women I n Canadian s o c i e t y . I t may be f o r t h i s reason t h a t women are l e s s i n c l i n e d t o enter the r e t a i l f i e l d and are more l i k e l y than men to choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t males and f e -males I n the r e t a i l f i e l d spend t h e i r time d i f f e r e n t l y . Women g e n e r a l l y spend more time f i l l i n g p r e s c r i p t i o n s , accumulating i n f o r m a t i o n about new developments, pro-v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and a d v i c e , and engaging I n research and product developmentj I n other words, performing those f u n c t i o n s which are r e f e r r e d t o by pharmacists as " p r o f e s s i o n a l , " w h i l e men tend t o spend more time s e l l -i n g n o n - p r e s c r i p t i o n merchandise and managing personnel, stock and casfa.^ The l a t t e r f u n c t i o n s are thought t o c o n s t i t u t e the*commercial aspect of pharmacy. I n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , then, males tend t o dominate the r e t a i l f i e l d and are more o f t e n i n v o l v e d I n the ownership, management and s u p e r v i s i o n of r e t a i l pharmacies. The p u b l i c image of the r e t a i l pharmacist i s f u r t h e r evidence f o r the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the r e t a i l f i e l d i s s t i l l regarded as the domain of men. The p u b l i c c o n t i n u a l l y confuses the female pharmacist w i t h the c l e r k and the male c l e r k or apprentice w i t h the pharmacist, s i n c e g e n e r a l l y there i s no d i s t i n c t i o n between the uniforms worn by c l e r k s and pharmacists of each sex. Even p h y s i c i a n s and other members of the h e a l t h team make t h i s mistake i n I d e n t i t y . A p h y s i c i a n , phoning i n a p r e s c r i p t i o n t o a r e t a i l phar-macy, w i l l o f t e n ask to speak to the pharmacist i f a female answers the phone. But i f a male should answer the phone, r e g a r d l e s s of whether the i n d i v i d u a l i s a pharmacist, c l e r k or d e l i v e r y boy, the p h y s i c i a n w i l l w ithout h e s i t a t i o n begin t o d i c t a t e the p r e s c r i p t i o n . Thus, i t seems t h a t f o r both the p u b l i c and the p h y s i c i a n the image of the r e t a i l pharmacist i s s t i l l t h a t of the male entrepreneur. Although t h i s Image may be breaking down w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g enrolment of women i n pharmaey, a s o c i a l sex b a r r i e r t o the r e t a i l f i e l d s t i l l appears to e x i s t . Because of t h i s b a r r i e r , sex may be an impor-t a n t f a c t o r i n the choice of f i e l d f o r pharmacy students. One of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which does not appear to a p p r e c i a b l y i n f l u e n c e the choice of f i e l d i s socio-economic s t a t u s . The f a i l u r e to f i n d a s i g n i f i -cant r e l a t i o n s h i p between these f a c t o r s can be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y i n terms of the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n -f l u e n c e a f f e c t i n g students from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . This w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n subsequent chapters. What i s •:>' -83- ••• of i n t e r e s t here i s the f a c t that s o c i a l c l a s s , w h i l e g e n e r a l l y regarded as an important determinant of occu-p a t i o n a l choice and l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n , appears t o be r e l a t i v e l y unimportant i n the choice of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy. Somewhat more s i g n i f i c a n t I n the choice of f i e l d i s the f a c t o r of r e l i g i o n , although the f i n d i n g s do not support e n t i r e l y the p r e d i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . Jewish students tend t o choose r e t a i l pharmacy and one of the f i e l d s i n the r e s i d u a l category, as expeeted, but P r o t -estants and C a t h o l i c s tend t o choose other than the ex-pected f i e l d s . P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more P r o t e s t a n t s than C a t h o l i c s expect t o work i n h o s p i t a l pharmacy and pro-p o r t i o n a t e l y more C a t h o l i c s than P r o t e s t a n t s f a v o r a career i n p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy. A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r I s t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c s a t t e n d i n g pharmacy schools a t the two Prenoh-speaklng u n i v e r s i t i e s d i f f e r i n t h e i r choice of f i e l d . Those a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y tend t o choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy and those a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal more o f t e n expect t o enter p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy. I t i s q u i t e evident that a number of other f a c t o r s have to be-taken i n t o account t o e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and choice of f i e l d . These w i l l be di s c u s s e d i a t e r . What can be s a i d a t the present time about the Independent s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e l i g i o u s f a c -t o r I s simply t h a t C a t h o l i c pharmacy students, I n t h e i r -choice of f i e l d , do not appear t o be any l e s s o r i e n t e d - 8 4 -toward economic achievement and w o r l d l y success than are P r o t e s t a n t s . Students coming from farms and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , and those coming from towns and c i t i e s , d i f f e r somewhat i n the choice of f i e l d , the former more o f t e n choosing h o s p i t a l pharmacy. Although one would expect the s i z e of the community of residence to a f f e c t c o n s i d e r a b l y the v i s i -b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of career a l t e r n a t i v e s , w i t h the s i z e being ' d i r e c t l y / r e l a t e d w i t h the choice of f i e l d s a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l end of the b u s i n e s s - p r o f e s s i o n con-tinuum, such does not appear to be the case. The observed r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f a c t o r of u r b a n - r u r a l residence and choice of f i e l d can best be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . Although u r b a n - r u r a l residence does not seem to have any Independent e f f e c t on the choice of f i e l d , the f a c t o r of geographic r e g i o n appears to be important i n a f f e c t i n g the v i s i b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of career a l t e r n a t i v e s . Students a t t e n d i n g d i f f e r e n t pharmacy schools tend to choose d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s and, although t h i s v a r i a t i o n may be due to achieved s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , values and sources of i n -f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , there i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t the f a c t o r of geographic r e g i o n has some d i r e c t a f f e c t on the choice of f i e l d . Students a t t e n d i n g pharmacy schools I n Quebec and O n t a r i o , and t o a l e s s e r extent Manitoba, are more i n -c l i n e d than others t o choose one of the f i e l d s i n the - 8 5 -r e s i d u a l category. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to p o i n t out th a t the pharmaceutical Industry i n Canada i s almost e x c l u -s i v e l y l o c a t e d i n Quebec and Ontario and t h a t i i i these two provinces are found the two l a r g e s t pharmacy schools i n the country.; I t i s suggested t h a t by l i v i n g i n one of these e a s t e r n provinces an i n d i v i d u a l i s more l i k e l y to be exposed t o pharmaceutical i n d u s t r y , r e s e a r c h , and teaching and, hence, be more I n c l i n e d t o I d e n t i f y w i t h these f i e l d s and form the Idea of e n t e r i n g one. The f a c t o r of geographic r e g i o n i s a l s o f e l t t o be important I n the choice of r e t a i l , p r e s c r i p t i o n and h o s p i t a l pharmacy. Although p r e c i s e f i g u r e s on the pro-p o r t i o n of r e t a i l establishments w i t h a high r a t i o of p r e s c r i p t i o n r e c e i p t s t o t o t a l s a l e s by province are not a v a i l a b l e , i t would appear t h a t Quebec and B r i t i s h Columbia have r e l a t i v e l y more p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacies than other p r o v i n c e s . 1 0 I t may be p a r t l y f o r t h i s reason t h a t students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal are more i n c l i n e d to enter the f i e l d of p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy. S i m i l a r l y , the pro-p o r t i o n of h o s p i t a l pharmacists I s g r e a t e r I n Saskatchewan and M a n i t o b a 1 1 , I n provinces where pharmacy students are more I n c l i n e d to choose t h i s f i e l d . I n the Maritime provinces and A l b e r t a a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the prac-t i s i n g pharmacists are engaged i n r e t a i l p r a c t i c e , and i n v these provinces students more o f t e n choose the r e t a i l f i e l d . Thus, i t would appear t h a t the f a c t o r of geographic r e g i o n enters the choice of f i e l d by a f f e c t i n g the access-i b i l i t y and v i s i b i l i t y of career a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t seems t h a t the g r e a t e r the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t a c t , r e l a t i v e l y speaking, w i t h a g i v e n f i e l d , the more l i k e l y an i n d i v i d u a l i s to I d e n t i f y w i t h the f i e l d and form the i d e a of e n t e r i n g i t . Prom Table XIV i t can be seen t h a t s t r o n g r e l a t i o n -ships e x i s t between achieved s o c i a l f a c t o r s and the choice of f i e l d . Although the data cannot f u l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e the independent s i g n i f i c a n c e of achieved s o c i a l f a c t o r s , they are a t l e a s t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the view t h a t achieved f a c t o r s p l a y a d i r e c t p a r t i n the choice. With regard t o high school grades I t can be seen t h a t those w i t h h i g h grades more o f t e n than others choose f i e l d s a t the p r o f e s s i o n end of the B-P continuum ("other" and h o s p i t a l pharmacy), w h i l e those w i t h low grades more o f t e n choose the r e t a i l f i e l d a t the business end of the B-P continuum. Those i n the middle range w i t h respect to high school grades more o f t e n than others choose the f i e l d of p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, which f a l l s between the two ex-tremes of the B-P continuum. Therefore, i t seems reason-able t o suggest t h a t h i g h school grades d i r e c t l y enter the choice of f i e l d by a f f e c t i n g the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of career a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t seems th a t the higher the grades the more a c c e s s i b l e are the p r e s t l g e f u l o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n -a t i v e s a t the p r o f e s s i o n end of the B-P continuum. -87-I t a l s o seems reasonable t o suggest that p r a c t i c a l experience and occ u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e a l s o enter the choice of f i e l d d i r e c t l y . I t i s f e l t t hat contact w i t h an occupation, • as occasioned by having parents or r e l a -t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n or by g a i n i n g p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i -ence, f a c i l i t a t e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the occupation and Increases the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the I n d i v i d u a l w i l l develop the i d e a of e n t e r i n g i t . S i n c e , by f a r , the gre a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists are i n the r e t a i l f i e l d , and s i n c e the r e t a i l f i e l d provides the gr e a t e s t number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g a i n i n g p r a c t i c a l experience p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l , contact w i t h the pro-f e s s i o n through these channels i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y l i m i t e d to the r e t a i l f i e l d . Thus, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t students w i t h a g r e a t e r amount of p r a c t i c a l experience i n pharmacy and those w i t h parents i n the pro-f e s s i o n more o f t e n choose r e t a i l pharmacy and l e s s o f t e n choose the l e s s v i s i b l e f i e l d s a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l end of the B-P continuum. I n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n an attempt has been made to show some of the ways I n which s o c i a l background and choice of f i e l d may be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d . I n subsequent chapters s o c i a l background f a c t o r s w i l l be r e l a t e d t o values and sources of Information and i n f l u e n c e and an attempt w i l l be made to t i e together the various f a c t o r s e n t e r i n g the c h o i c e . CHAPTER I I I SOURCES OP INFORMATION AND INFLUENCE Two I n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s which serve t o d e l i m i t the scope of oc c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s aret the i n f o r m a t i o n one has concerning v a r i o u s occupations and the Influence of o t h e r s . This does not mean t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l does not take an a c t i v e p a r t I n the decision-making process} i t suggests only t h a t the choice of career i s a f f e c t e d by the kinds of career i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the i n d i v i d u a l , and by people whom one respects o r admires and/or w i t h whom one shares and develops h i s oc c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . I n p r a c t i c e i t I s d i f f i c u l t t o separate the f a c t o r of I n f l u e n c e from that of i n f o r m a t i o n , i f they are i n f a c t separable. For I n d i v i d u a l s may be Important i n the career d e c i s i o n I n a number of d i f f e r e n t ways. Members of one's f a m i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r ents, may Influence the career d e c i s i o n by r e v e a l i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s concerning various occupations. Members of an occupation or p r o f e s s i o n may serve as r o l e models which the i n d i v i d u a l seeks to emu-l a t e . These same people or others may enter the d e c i s i o n by p r o v i d i n g c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l Information, or they may a s s i s t , as I s o f t e n the case w i t h guidance c o u n s e l l o r s , by arranging f o r Interviews o r s p e c i a l t a l k s w i t h per-- 8 9 -sonnel of various occupations. F u r t h e r , they may p o i n t out pamphlets, brochures, f i l m s t r i p s and other r e c r u i t -ment media provided by p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and other i n t e r e s t groups• Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o separate " i n f l u e n c e " from "Information," s i n c e one can l e a d to the other, two se t s of questions are used as measures of the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , one designed p r i m a r i l y to show the importance of va r i o u s f a c t o r s i n the career d e c i s i o n , the other designed to show the sources from which I n f o r -mation concerning a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pro-f e s s i o n i s d e r i v e d . S e c t i o n A gives a d e s c r i p t i o n of the sources of i n f l u e n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i z e d by pharmacy students I n g e n e r a l . I n S e c t i o n B an attempt i s made to show the connections between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . F i n a l l y , i n S e c t i o n C the choice of f i e l d I s considered I n r e l a t i o n to these sources. A) SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND INFLUENCE—PHARMACY STUDENTS IN GENERAL F i n d i n g s i 1» Importance of f a c t o r s I n eareer d e c i s i o n The q u e s t i o n n a i r e asks students to I n d i c a t e how Im-por t a n t each of t e n f a c t o r s was i n the d e c i s i o n to enter pharmacy. Of those checking each f a c t o r , the p r o p o r t i o n r e p l y i n g "very" or " f a i r l y " Important i s shown i n Table XV. - 9 0 -TABLE XV IMPORTANCE OP PACTOBS IN.CAREER CHOICE F a c t o r i n D e c i s i o n Percentage S t a t i n g F a c t o r Was "Very" or " F a i r l y " Important T o t a l Cases Father 46 1261 Mother 46 1255 Pharmacists 45 1253 Ph. A. recruitment media 30 1218 H.S. teachers and co u n s e l l o r s 22 1235 R e l a t i v e s 18 1221 S p e c i a l speakers 17 1202 F r i e n d s 16 1225 Mass media 12 1203 Other 52 513 Prom t h i s t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t parents and p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists are considered important by near-l y one-half of the students answering the q u e s t i o n . Phar-maceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media i s next i n impor-tance w i t h n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d of the students c o n s i d e r i n g I t so. Over o n e - f i f t h of the students consider h i g h school teaohers and c o u n s e l l o r s Important I n the d e c i s i o n . R e l a -t i v e s , s p e c i a l speakers, f r i e n d s and. mass, media (books, movies, T.V., plays and l i t e r a t u r e i n general c i r c u l a t i o n ) are of minor importance. Of the 513 I n d i v i d u a l s who a r -t r i b u t e importance to some "other" f a c t o r , n e a r l y a l l s t a t e t h a t the choice was t h e i r own personal d e c i s i o n . A f t e r i n d i c a t i n g the importance of each of the above-mentioned f a c t o r s , students were asked to s t a t e the most -91-important s i n g l e f a c t o r I n the d e c i s i o n . These r e p l i e s are shown i n Table XVI. TABLE XVI MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN CAREER DECISION Most Important F a c t o r Percentage Number of i n D e c i s i o n Wast ..  of T o t a l Cases Pharmacists 22 298 Mother 13 174 Father 13 171 Ph.A. recruitment media 8 103 R e l a t i v e s 6 83 H.S. teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 6 80 Friends 3 46 S p e c i a l speakers 3 36 Mass media 1 16 Other 18 245 No answer 6 83 T o t a l 100 1335 The same general order of importance i s observed. Parents and pharmacists are most important, f o l l o w e d by pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media. Again, f r i e n d s , s p e c i a l speakers and mass media are considered l e a s t Important. I t might be noted t h a t n e a r l y o n e - f i f t h (18 per cent) of the students consider some "other" f a c t o r as most Important. As has already been mentioned, t h i s "other" f a c t o r most o f t e n r e f e r s to the personal d e c i s i o n of the I n d i v i d u a l respondent. Since the concern here i s w i t h those f a c t o r s o utside the i n d i v i d u a l which p l a y a p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n , the "other" category i s place d a t the i. bottom of the l i s t . -92-2. Sources of Information The q u e s t i o n n a i r e l i s t s e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of pharmacy together w i t h a l i s t of t e n p o s s i b l e sources from which i n f o r m a t i o n about each might have been d e r i v e d . Students are asked to i n d i c a t e the source which i s l a r g e -l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n they have about each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : " The d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e p l i e s i s shown i n Table X V I I . I n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o working c o n d i t i o n s i s most o f t e n d r l v e d from p r a c t i c a l experience, personal observa-t i o n s , and p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists. The same can be s a i d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about the s a l a r y the pharmacist r e c e i v e s and the time he spends I n the performance of h i s d a l l y t a s k s . Pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, per-s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , and p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists are l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r em-ployment. Information concerning the p r e s t i g e and stand-i n g of the p r o f e s s i o n i n the community i s d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from personal o b s e r v a t i o n . P r a c t i c a l experience, u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and personal o b s e r v a t i o n account f o r most of the i n f o r m a t i o n about knowledge and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r the adequate performance of tasks and the personal q u a l i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s necessary f o r success. Information p e r t a i n i n g t o the p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g requirements and the u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m i s d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from pharma-c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media and u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and s t a f f members. -93-TABLE XVII SOURCES OP INFORMATION ABOUT VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF PHARMACY , . . . . Percentage S t a t i n g Was D e r i v e d I n f o r m a t i o n from: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Pharmacy Parents and R e l a -Family f i v e s Own Obser-v a t i o n Pharma-c i s t s F r i e n d s Working c o n d i t i o n s 6 1 29 17 1 S a l a r y 7 1 17 37 1 O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment 4 1 20 19 1 P r e s t i g e 5 1 49 7 8 Time spent a t tasks 4 1 29 19 1 Knowledge and t r a i n i n g f o r t asks 2 mm 17 10 — P e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s f o r success 4 - 31 9 P r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g and u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m 2 8 6 1 -94-TABLE X V I I — C o n t l n t i e d Percentage S t a t i n g Information Was Derived from: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Pharmacy H.S. Teachers and Coun-s e l l o r s U. Pro-» f e s -sors Mass Me-d i a Ph. A. Recr. Media Prac. Expe-r i e n c e T o t a l Cases Working c o n d i t i o n s 1 4 1 5 36 1211 S a l a r y 2 2 2 14 17 1208 Oppor t u n i t i e s f o r employment 3 15 3 25 8 1198 P r e s t i g e 1 7 3 6 13 1190 Time spent a t tasks - 2 2 3 39 1162 Knowledge and t r a i n i n g f o r tasks 4 34 1 10 22 1169 Personal q u a l i t i e s f o r success 4 19 2 9 21 1180 P r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g and u n i v e r s i t y currioulum 12 30 3 34 4 1174 -95-Slnce t e n p o s s i b l e sources of Information are l i s t e d f o r each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , a source considered by more than 10 per cent of the respondents can be thought of as above average i n Importance. The f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e s f o r each source the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s about which the source provides Information f o r more than 10 per cent of the respondents. Source of Information A. Own ob s e r v a t i o n B. P r a c t i c a l experience C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s about which  Information I s provided f o r ^rnore than 10 per cent of  respondents 1. Working c o n d i t i o n s 2. S a l a r y 3. Opportunities f o r employment 4. P r e s t i g e 5» Time spent i n tasks 6. Knowledge and t r a i n i n g 7. Personal q u a l i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s 1. Working c o n d i t i o n s 2. S a l a r y 3. P r e s t i g e 4. Time spent i n tasks 5* Knowledge and t r a i n i n g 6. Personal q u a l i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s - 9 6 -Source of Information  — c o n t i n u e d C. Pharmacists D. U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and s t a f f members E. Pharmaceutical a s s o c i a -t i o n recruitment l i t -e r a t ure F. High school teachers and guidance coun-s e l l o r s G. Parents and members of f a m i l y H. Mass media I . Friends and acquaintances J . R e l a t i v e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s about which  i n f o r m a t i o n i s provided f o r more than 10 per cent of  resp o n d e n t s — c o n t i n u e d 1. Working c o n d i t i o n s 2. S a l a r y 3 . Opportunities f o r employment 4. Time spent i n tasks 1. Opportunities f o r . employment 2. Knowledge and t r a i n i n g 3 . Personal q u a l i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s 4. Academic and p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g requirements 1. S a l a r y 2. Opportunities f o r employment 3* Academic and p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g requirements 1* Academic and p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g requirements None None None None -97-An o v e r - a l l Importance score (I.S.) can be c a l c u -l a t e d f o r each source according to the f o l l o w i n g formula: I.S. = Sum of responses f o r each source x 1000 "~" Sum t o t a l of responses ~ The I.S. f o r each source of i n f o r m a t i o n i s shown i n Table X V I I I . TABLE XVIII IMPORTANCE OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION Source of Information Importance Score (I.S.) 1. Own o b s e r v a t i o n • • . • ... • • . . 249 2. P r a c t i c a l experience 199 3* Pharmacists lf>6 4 . U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . . . . . . . 141 5» Ph.A. recruitment media . . . . . . 132 6. Parents and f a m i l y 44 7. High school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 34 8. Mass media 20 9* Friends and acquaintances . 17 10. R e l a t i v e s .... 8 There appears to be a d i s t i n c t s p l i t between the top and bottom f i v e sources. Own o b s e r v a t i o n , p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i -ence, pharmacists, u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, i n tha t order, are the most important sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r pharmacy students. The above sources of i n f o r m a t i o n can be grouped ac-cordin g to the cate g o r i e s o u t l i n e d I n Chapter I ( i . e . , p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d and i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d ) . The former I n -cludes p r a c t i c a l experience, pharmacists, parents and f a m i l y , and r e l a t i v e s , and the l a t t e r Includes u n i v e r s i t y - 9 8 -p r o f e s s o r s , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media , and h i g h s c h o o l teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s . T h i s leaves three s o u r c e s , own o b s e r v a t i o n , mass media , and f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s , which cannot be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t y p o l o g y . Taken t o g e t h e r , the p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources are most important w i t h a t o t a l I . S . of 407, f o l l o w e d by the i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources w i t h a n I . S . of 3©7• The u n c l a s s i f i e d sources have a t o t a l I . S . of 286, l a r g e l y due to the f a c t o r , "own o b s e r v a t i o n , " which has an I . S . of 249. The p o i n t to note i s the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d and i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s , the former b e i n g more impor tant t h a n the l a t t e r . A l t h o u g h p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources a r e on the whole more impor tant t h a n i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s , the two types of s o u r c e s , t e n d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about d i f -f e r e n t aspects of the p r o f e s s i o n . Table XIX shows the p r o p o r t i o n of s tudents d e r i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d and i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources about e i g h t c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of the p r o f e s s i o n . P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources seem t o p r o v i d e the most i n f o r m a t i o n about the t ime spent i n the performance of the p h a r m a c i s t ' s t a s k s , s a l a r y , and the w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources t end to be more impor tant i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g and u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m , knowledge and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r the performance of t a s k s , and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment. I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n f i n d i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o the i m p o r --99-tanoe of f a c t o r s i n the career choice and the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r the student body as a whole, were pre-sented* The f o l l o w i n g i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the more i n t e r -e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of these f i n d i n g s . TABLE XIX TYPES OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF PHARMACY Percentage D e r i v i n g Information from? C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Pharmacy P r a c t i c e -Oriented Sources Ideology-Oriented Sources U n c l a s s i f i e d 8 - T o t a l Cases Time spent a t tasks 63 5. 32 1162 S a l a r y 62 18 20 1208 Working c o n d i t i o n s 60 10 31 1211 Personal q u a l i t i e s 34 . 32 33 1180 Knowledge and t r a i n i n g 34 48 18 1169 O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment 32 43 24 1198 P r e s t i g e 26 14 60 1190 T r a i n i n g and cu r r i c u l u m 12 76 12 1174 a I n c l u d e s : own ob s e r v a t i o n , f r i e n d s , and mass media. - 1 0 0 -D l s o u s s l o n Although the response ca t e g o r i e s concerning the importance of f a c t o r s i n the career choice are not t o t a l -l y e q u i v a l e n t t o the c a t e g o r i e s used i n the question about the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , a few i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons can be made. F i r s t of a l l , comparing Tables XVI and X V I I , i t w i l l be seen t h a t parents, who are among the most im-p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n the career c h o i c e , are much l e s s impor-t a n t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . While 26 per cent of the students consider one of the parents as the most important s i n g l e f a c t o r i n the c a r e e r c h o i c e , an average of l e s s than 5 per cent d e r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n l a r g e l y from parents about e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r o f e s s i o n . This would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t , f o r the person making a career d e c i s i o n , " i n f l u e n c e " and " i n f o r m a t i o n " need not n e c e s s a r i l y be d e r i v e d from the same sources. However, i t i s important to note t h a t , although i n -f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e can be d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t sources by the pharmacy student, i n both cases p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources are g e n e r a l l y more important than i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources. This would seem to suggest that the student's conceptions of the pharmacist are d e r i v e d more o f t e n from the p r a c t i c e of the p r o f e s s i o n , which i s p r i m a r i l y t h a t of the r e t a i l f i e l d , than from the i d e a l aspects of the pro-f e s s i o n , which are emphasized by pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment l i t e r a t u r e and schools of pharmacy. As mentioned e a r l i e r , pharmacy, u n l i k e many other -101-p r o f e s s i o n s , provides considerable o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r em-ployment f o r young men and women p r i o r to e n t e r i n g phar-macy s c h o o l . I n some provinces such p r a c t i c a l experience i s made necessary by the ap p r e n t i c e s h i p p o l i c i e s of phar-maceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n any case, the student's f i r s t d i r e c t exposure to the p r o f e s s i o n i s o f t e n I n the form of p r a c t i c a l experience gained i n a r e t a i l d rugstore. I t Is i n t h i s context t h a t the student I n many cases develops an Image of the p r o f e s s i o n and de r i v e s a conception of hi m s e l f as a member of I t . As the student begins to e n v i s i o n h i m s e l f as a phar-macist, he o f t e n chooses a member of the p r o f e s s i o n as a model to emulate. Against t h i s i d e a l he compares h i s own behavior and through such a process develops a conception of h imself i n the new r o l e ; he develops a r o l e model. 1 As a measure of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , students were asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Do you know a p r a c t i s i n g phar-macist who, I n your o p i n i o n , comes c l o s e t o being an i d e a l pharmacist?" Those answering I n the a f f i r m a t i v e are considered to have a r o l e model. That the a c q u i s i t i o n of such r o l e models slsa f a c i l -i t a t e d by experience i n r e t a i l pharmacy I s evidenced by the f a c t t h a t the incid e n c e of naming r o l e models v a r i e s w i t h the extent of p r a c t i c a l experience which, as mentioned e a r l i e r , i s gained almost e x c l u s i v e l y I n the r e t a i l f i e l d . Of the students who enter pharmacy w i t h no p r a c t i c a l ex-per i e n c e , only 59 per cent have a r o l e model, compared -102-w i t h 74 per cent of those w i t h one year or l e s s of prac-t i c a l experience and 84 per cent of those w i t h more than one year of experience. Furthermore, of those students who consider p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists as the most important f a c t o r i n the career d e c i s i o n , a f u l l 81 per cent have r o l e models, compared w i t h 52 per cent of those who con-s i d e r pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media as the most important f a c t o r . S ince those who are a f f e c t e d hy p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources of Information and i n f l u e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y p r a c t i c a l experience and p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists, more o f t e n know " i d e a l " pharmacists than those who are a f f e c t e d hy i d e o l o g y -o r i e n t e d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , and s i n c e there are more of the former than the l a t t e r , i t would seem to f o l l o w t h a t pharmacy students I n general more o f t e n choose a r e t a i l pharmacist as a r o l e model. This of course i s based on the assumption t h a t the type of r o l e model chosen, i . e . , a r e t a i l pharmacist, h o s p i t a l phar-macist, e t c . , i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the f i e l d of pharmacy i n which experience i s gained and i n which contact i s e s t a b l i s h e d . I n any case, i t seems reasonably safe to assume that- a. great many pharmacy students a c q u i r e t h e i r conceptions of the " i d e a l " pharmacist i n the context of r e t a i l p r a c t i c e . Some students do not have r o l e models and they tend * to be those who r e l y on I d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources of i n -f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . I t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t the -103-conceptlons these students have of the p r o f e s s i o n are more a l i g n e d w i t h pharmaceutical i d e o l o g y than a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , and there i s some reason to b e l i e v e t h a t these students, upon e n t e r i n g pharmacy school s u f f e r more from ambivalence 2 of the c o n f l i c t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of the p r o f e s s i o n as pro-v i d e d , on the one hand, by the i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s , and on the other, by students who have had p r a c t i c a l experience and by the exigencies of a c t u a l p r a c t i c e w i t h which they become acquainted f o r the f i r s t time. This can be i l l u s -t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t students without r o l e models are more i n c l i n e d t o be I n doubt about t h e i r career choice a f t e r e n t e r i n g pharmacy school than those w i t h r o l e models. Students were asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Once you made up your mind t o become a pharmacist, d i d you ever have any doubts t h a t t h i s was the r i g h t d e c i s i o n f o r you: (a) Before e n t e r i n g pharmacy school? (b) A f t e r e n t e r i n g pharmacy school?" They were r e q u i r e d to gi v e t h e i r answers by checking one of the f o l l o w i n g responses: (a) "Yes, se r i o u s doubts." (b) "Yes, s l i g h t doubts." (c) "No, no doubt at a l l . " I n both groups some s h i f t e d to p o s i t i o n s of g r e a t e r doubt a f t e r e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l , w h i l e others s h i f t e d t o p o s i t i o n s of l e s s doubt. The net s h i f t i n doubt, taken as a percentage of the t o t a l number I n each group, was c a l -c u l a t e d f o r students knowing three or more " i d e a l " phar--104-m a c l s t s , those knowing one or two such pharmacists, and those who do not have r o l e models. The f i r s t group ex-perienced a net s h i f t of 9 per cent to p o s i t i o n s of g r e a t -er doubt, compared w i t h a net s h i f t of 16 per cent f o r the second group? the l a s t group comprised of students without r o l e models experienced a net s h i f t of 21 per cent to p o s i t i o n s of g r e a t e r doubt. Thus, students without r o l e models are more l i k e l y to s h i f t t o p o s i t i o n s of gre a t -er doubt about t h e i r career choice a f t e r e n t e r i n g pharmacy sc h o o l than are those who have r o l e models. This d i f f e r e n c e can be a t t r i b u t e d to the sources of information, and i n f l u e n c e . I t seems th a t students who are a f f e c t e d by p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources d e r i v e a conception of the p r o f e s s i o n which I s more i n l i n e w i t h the r e q u i r e -ments of r e t a i l p r a c t i c e , choose a r e t a i l pharmacist as a fcoie model, and tend to be c e r t a i n about t h e i r career choice a f t e r e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . Those who r e l y on id e o l o g y -o r i e n t e d sources tend to see pharmacy i n terms of the image created by the i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s , which i s more o f t e n a r e f l e c t i o n of the goals toward which the p r o f e s s i o n i s s t r i v i n g than i t s a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . Upon e n t e r i n g phar-macy s c h o o l , these students are confronted w i t h a c o n f l i c t -i n g view of the p r o f e s s i o n and tend to doubt whether t h e i r c a reer choice i s the r i g h t one. P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources and i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources d i f f e r i n another r e s p e c t , i n the types of i n f o r -mation provided. Prom Table XIX i t w i l l be seen t h a t the -105-former more o f t e n provide i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the time spent i n the performance of the pharmacists t a s k s , s a l a r y , and working c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources tend t o provide i n f o r m a t i o n about p r a c t i c a l t r a i n -i n g requirements and u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m , knowledge and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r the performance of t a s k s , and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment. P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources seem to provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the more v i s i b l e charac-t e r i s t i c s of pharmaceutical p r a c t i c e , w h i l e the ide o l o g y -o r i e n t e d sources appear to provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the I n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements of the p r o f e s s i o n and the oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r employment. Although the data can i n no way s u b s t a n t i a t e the c l a i m , i t would seem t h a t the p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources provide i n f o r m a t i o n about c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are of i n i t i a l importance i n the career d e c i s i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s l i n e of reasoning, i t I s suggested t h a t r e c r u i t s t e n t a t i v e l y make a career d e c i s i o n a f t e r con-s i d e r i n g such things as the tasks performed, s a l a r y , and working c o n d i t i o n s , and l a t e r seek out i n f o r m a t i o n about such aspects as employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , knowledge and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d , and the u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m , which they d e r i v e from i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources. I f t h i s as-sumption I s c o r r e c t , then I t can be argued t h a t p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources are i n i t i a l l y more important i n b r i n g i n g about a d e c i s i o n t o enter pharmacy. I n t h i s s e c t i o n the sources of Information and i n f l u e n c e used by pharmacy students have been des c r i b e d and some of the more I n t e r e s t -- 1 0 6 -i n g f e a t u r e s of the f i n d i n g s have been d i s c u s s e d . I n the next s e c t i o n an attempt i s made to r e l a t e the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e to s o c i a l background f a c t o r s . B) INFORMATION AND INFLUENCE AND SOCIAL BACKGROUND FACTORS Fin d i n g s , Importance of f a c t o r s i n career d e c i s i o n The concern i n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n i s w i t h the r e l a t i o n -ships between s o c i a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f a c t o r s which are important i n the d e c i s i o n t o enter pharmacy. To f a c i l i t a t e reference to these f i n d i n g s l a t e r , they are pre-sented under the headings of i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l background f a c t o r s . 1. Sex Factors which are Important i n the career d e c i s i o n vary w i t h sex, but the d i f f e r e n c e i s not as great as might be expected. While 52 per cent of the women consider t h e i r mothers "very" o r " f a i r l y " important, only 43 per cent of the men a t t r i b u t e such importance t o t h i s f a c t o r . S i m i l a r -l y , 36 per cent of the women and 28 per cent of. the men con-s i d e r pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media "very" or " f a i r l y " important i n the d e c i s i o n . These d i f f e r e n c e s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Women more often.than men consider two other f a c t o r s , f a t h e r s and high school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s , as Important i n the d e c i s i o n , but these d i f f e r e n c e s f a i l to a t t a i n the accepted l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h the chi-square t e s t . -107-Th e main d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes i s t h a t women are more o f t e n I n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r mothers and pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media than men. 2. Socio-economic s t a t u s The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s and each of nine f a c t o r s i n the career d e c i s i o n i s shown I n Table XX. The data are separated by sex and i t can be seen that the r e l a t i o n s h i p s are on occasion d i f f e r e n t f o r males and f e -males. F i r s t * a t t e n t i o n should be drawn to some general f e a t u r e s of t h i s t a b l e . The t a b l e r e v e a l s t h a t the higher the s o c i a l c l a s s the more l i k e l y an i n d i v i d u a l i s t o be Inf l u e n c e d I n h i s career d e c i s i o n by parents and the l e s s l i k e l y he I s t o a t t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o p r a c t i s i n g phar-m a c i s t s , pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, high school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s , and mass media. Second, i t i s Important to note some d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween the sexes. Although I n general the higher the s o c i a l c l a s s the more Important the parents, t h i s i s not the case f o r women w i t h respect t o the importance of the mother. I t seems t h a t lower and middle c l a s s mothers are more Important than upper c l a s s mothers. Although t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not o v e r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t nevertheless i s a r e v e r s a l of the same r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r males. F u r t h e r , i t w i l l be no-t i c e d t h a t although pharmacists are more important f o r middle and lower c l a s s males and females than f o r members of the upper c l a s s , i n the case of women they are most -108-TABLE XX SOCIAL CLASS, SEX, AND IMPORTANCE OP VARIOUS .. FACTORS IN CAREER DECISION Percentage S t a t i n g Source Was "Very" or " F a i r l y " Important Males Females Source Upper Middle Lower Upper Middle Lower A. Mother 5 4 a 44 40 48 51 54 B. Father 7 0 a 43 38 6 6 a 48 43 C. R e l a t i v e 11 21 18 11 20 20 D. Pharmacists 2 9 a 45 48 3 3 a 51 45 E. F r i e n d s and acquaintances 13 15 19 13 16 13 P. H.S. teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 13 22 22 19 23 31 G. Mass media 4 a 11 16 11 11 12 H. Ph.A. r e c r u i t -ment media l 4 a 31 33 35 40 32 I . S p e c i a l speakers 9 17 19 2 0 a 24 12 S i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e or b e t t e r . Excluding "no answers," the numbers on which the percent-ages are' based vary from: 118 to 125 f o r upper c l a s s males? 341 to 359 f o r middle c l a s s males; 266 t o 283 f o r lower c l a s s males; 63 to 67 f o r upper c l a s s females; 165 t o 172 f o r middle c l a s s females; 113 t o 116 f o r lower c l a s s females. Chi-square t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e : d.f. = 2 i n each case: A) Males: X 2 = 6.831: P<.05; Females: X 2 = .422: ; P<.9© -109-Chl-square t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e s d.f. = 2 i n each cas e — c o n t i n u e d i B) Males': X 2 33 37.699s P<.001; Females: X 2 ss 8.906: P<.02; c ) Males: X 2 = 5.683: P<.10 ; Females: X 2 = 3.123s P<.30; D) Males: X 2 = 13.719? P<.01 ; Females: X 2 6.334: P<.05; E) Males: X 2 = 4.1441 P<.20 ; Females: X 2 = .588: P<.80; F) Males: x 2 S5 5 . 4531 P<.10 t Females: X 2 3 . 9 5 6 : P<.20; G) Males: X 2 = 10.498: P<.01 ; Females: X 2 = .019: P<«99; H) Males: X 2 = 15.781: P<.001; Females: x 2 = 1.666: P<«50; I ) Males: X 2 5.945: P<.10 ; Females: X 2 s 6.054: P<.05» Important f o r members of the middle c l a s s . Only 45 per cent of the lower c l a s s females consider pharmacists im-port a n t compared w i t h 51 per cent of those of the middle c l a s s . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n can be seen w i t h regard to pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media. The middle c l a s s female i s more o f t e n I n f l u e n c e d by t h i s f a c t o r than i s the lower or upper c l a s s female. Although t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p a l s o i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l , i t i s d i f -f e r e n t from the one which holds f o r males. 3. R e l i g i o n The importance of f a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n i s r e l a t e d to the r e l i g i o u s background of the student. This r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s shown i n Table XXI. One should note the g r e a t e r Importance a t t r i b u t e d to parents by Jewish pharmacy students; 36 per cent of the students of t h i s f a i t h c onsider one of t h e i r parents as the most Important s i n g l e f a c t o r I n the career d e c i s i o n . -110-TABLE XXI RELIGION AND IMPORTANCE OP PACTORS IN CAREER DECISION Percentage S t a t i n g t h a t F a c t o r Was Most Important i n D e c i s i o n Roman Fa c t o r P r o t e s t a n t C a t h o l i c Jewish Other Mother 14 14 20 12 Father 16 11 16 8 R e l a t i v e 5 8 11 13 Pharmacist 26 23 18 13 F r i e n d 3 5 2 6 H.S. teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 5 10 1 6 Mass media 1 1 - . 8 Ph.A. recruitment media 10 7 6 6 S p e c i a l speakers 3 3 1 4 Other 18 18 . 2 4 25 T o t a l . 1 0 1 100 99 101 N (599) (395) (99) (52) X 2 = 61.935* < d.f. = 27* P<.001 P r o t e s t a n t s and Roman C a t h o l i c s tend to a t t r i b u t e impor-tance to p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists • Roman C a t h o l i c s a l s o accord g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e to high school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s , w h i l e P r o t e s t a n t s more o f t e n consider phar-maceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media as important i n the d e c i s i o n . 4. Urban-rural residence F i n d i n g s , i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between u r b a n - r u r a l residence and three of the f a c t o r s which are - I l l -i mportant i n the d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r the p r o f e s s i o n , those b e i n g h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s , mass media, and p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media. A l l thr e e are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .02 l e v e l o r b e t t e r . Of those students coming from farms o r r u r a l d i s -t r i c t s , 30 p e r cent c o n s i d e r h i g h s c h o o l teachers o r coun-s e l l o r s t o be important i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n , compared w i t h 24 per cent of those coming from towns, 22 p e r cent of those coming from s m a l l c i t i e s , and 17 p e r cent of those from l a r g e c i t i e s . With r e s p e c t t o p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i -a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media, 40 p e r cent of those from farms o r r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , 31 per cent of those from towns, 27 pe r cent of those from s m a l l c i t i e s and 28 per cent of those from l a r g e c i t i e s , c o n s i d e r t h i s f a c t o r important. S i m i l a r l y , w i t h mass media, 19 p e r cent of those from farms o r r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , 11 p er cent of those from towns, 12 per cent of those from s m a l l c i t i e s , and 9 p e r cent of those from l a r g e c i t i e s a t t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h i s f a c t o r . I t might be noted t h a t i n each case the b i g d i f -f e r e n c e i s between those coming from farms and r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l o t h e r s . 5* Geographic r e g i o n As might be expected, the importance of f a c t o r s i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n v a r i e s by the s c h o o l of r e g i s t r a t i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s shown i n Table XXII. I t w i l l be seen t h a t parents are more important sources of i n f l u e n c e f o r students a t Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y -112-TABLE XXII SCHOOL OP REGISTRATION AND IMPORTANCE OP FACTORS IN CAREER. DECISION Percentage S t a t i n g Most Important F a c t o r Was: School Mother Father R e l a t i v e Pharmacist Friends U. of B.C. 14 8 6 23 4 U. of A l b e r t a 15 14 5 29 2 U. of Sask. 14 14 9 17 4 U. of Manitoba 9 12 12 28 4 U. of Toronto . 14 16 5 24 4 L a v a l U. 4 2 11 20 . • -U. of Montreal 18 13 7 24 5 Dalhousle U. 13 19 2 29. 3 X 2 = 117.597* d.f. = 63: P<.01 -113-TABLE X X I I — C o n t i n u e d Percentage S t a t i n g Most Important F a c t o r Was* H.S. Teachers Mass Ph.A. and Coun- Me- Recr. S p e c i a l T o t a l School s e l l e r s d i a Media Speakers Other Cases U. of B.C. 3 3 12 3 24 119 U. of A l b e r t a 5 - 8 4 18 164 U. of Sask. 8 1 12 4 18 182 U. of Manitoba 5 - 9 - 21 92 U. of Toronto 4 2 9 2 21 345 L a v a l U. 31 4 4 11 11 45 U. of Montreal 7 1 5 2 19 243 Dalhousie U. 10 2 2 ... 2 . . 19 62 X 2 = 117.597: d.f. = 63: P<.01 - 1 1 4 -and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t r e a l , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t f o r s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Tor o n t o and t h e U n i v e r -s i t y o f A l b e r t a . R e l a t i v e s t e n d t o be more i m p o r t a n t f o r s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, w h i l e p h a r m a c i s t s a r e more i m p o r t a n t f o r s t u d e n t s a t D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y and t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s o f A l b e r t a and M a n i t o b a . Of p a r t i c u l a r n o t e i s t h e f a c t t h a t 31 p e r c e n t o f t h e pharmacy s t u d e n t s o f L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y c o n s i d e r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f a c t o r i n t h e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . S t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s o f B r i t i s h Colum-b i a and Saskatchewan a c c o r d g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o p h a r -m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media, w h i l e t h o s e a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y a t t r i b u t e more Importance t o s p e c i a l s p e a k e r s • 6. A c h i e v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s W i t h r e s p e c t t o h i g h s c h o o l grades and s o u r c e s o f i n f l u e n c e , o n l y two r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e f o u n d t o be s i g -n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o r b e t t e r . I n g e n e r a l t h e lo w -e r t h e grades the more i m p o r t a n t a r e r e l a t i v e s and p r a c -t i s i n g p h a r m a c i s t s i n t h e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and s o u r c e s o f I n f l u e n c e i s shown i n T a b l e X X I I I . I n g e n e r a l , t h e more p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e an i n d i v i d u a l has t h e more l i k e l y he i s t o be i n f l u e n c e d by p a r e n t s and p r a c t i s i n g p h a r m a c i s t s and t h e l e s s l i k e l y he i s t o c o n s i d e r p h a r -m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media, h i g h s c h o o l -115-TABLE XXIII PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE AND IMPORTANCE .. OP FACTORS IN CAREER DECISION Percentage S t a t i n g t h a t F a c t o r Was Most Important i n Decisions -More Than One One Year or F a c t o r Year Less None Mother 15 14 14 Father 18 17 10 R e l a t i v e 4 8 7 Pharmacist 38 27 16 F r i e n d 2 3 4 H.S. teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 3 5 9 Mass media - • 1 2 Ph.A. recruitment media 2 6 12 S p e c i a l speakers mm 3. 4 Other 18 16. 22 T o t a l 100 100 > 100 N (317) . (257) (673) X 2 = 126.321s d.f. = 18s P<.001 teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s , and s p e c i a l speakers important i n the d e c i s i o n . The main d i f f e r e n c e between those w i t h and without experience i s th a t the former are more o f t e n i n f l u e n c e d by p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists, w h i l e the l a t t e r tend t o r e l y on pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media. Over twice as many of those w i t h more than one year of experience, compared w i t h those w i t h no experience, c o n s i d e r pharmacists as the most important s i n g l e f a c t o r i n the d e c i s i o n . Conversely, .six times as many persons -116-w i t h no experience compared w i t h those of more than one year of experience c i t e pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n r e -cruitment media as most important. As might be expected, the importance of f a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n v a r i e s w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e (see Table XXIV)• Students w i t h parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n TABLE XXIV OCCUPATIONAL INHERITANCE AND IMPORTANCE OF FACTORS IN CAREER DECISION Percentage S t a t i n g Most Important F a c t o r Wast Occu-pa- F r i e n d t i o n - or H.S. a l Teacher Inhe-r i t -ance Mother or Father Rel a -t i v e Pharma-c i s t or Coun-s e l l o r Mass Me-d i a Ph.A. Recr. Media Other T o t a l Cases Parent 68 1 6 2 - 1 23 124 R e l a t i v e 27 18 21 8 1 9 17 214 N e i t h e r 22 5 27 12 2 13 20 899 T o t a l 27 7 24 10 1 11 20 1237 X 2 = 185.921: d.f. = 12: P<.001 more o f t e n consider one of the parents to be the most Im-p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the d e c i s i o n . From t h i s t a b l e i t can a l s o be seen t h a t r e l a t i v e s are more o f t e n considered im-p o r t a n t by those w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Prac-t i s i n g pharmacists, f r i e n d s , high school teachers and coun-s e l l o r s , and pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media -117-a r e more o f t e n f e l t t o be Important i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n by those who experience no o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e and t o a l e s s e r extent by those who i n h e r i t the p r o f e s s i o n i n -d i r e c t l y . Another p o i n t t o note i s t h a t f o r those w i t h no o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e and those w i t h i n d i r e c t i n h e r i t a n c e the range of f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the d e c i s i o n i s much g r e a t -e r t han f o r those who i n h e r i t the p r o f e s s i o n from t h e i r p a r e n t s • Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n I f students w i t h d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l background ch a r a c -t e r i s t i c s a r e i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r pharmacy by d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s , i t seems reasonable t o expect t h a t those w i t h d i f f e r e n t backgrounds w i l l seek i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o f e s s i o n from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . T h i s s u b s e c t i o n I s concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . The importance of a source of I n f o r m a t i o n i s expressed i n terms of the Importance Score (I.S.) which Is d e f i n e d I n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . A g a i n the f i n d i n g s a re p r e s e n t e d under the headings of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o f a c i l i t a t e r e f e r e n c e l a t e r . 1. Sex Men a t t r i b u t e more Importance t o p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e women c l a i m t o d e r i v e more i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o f e s s i o n from p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a -t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media. D i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e -maining sources a r e n e g l i g i b l e . The I.S.'s f o r males are -118-256 and 206 f o r the f a c t o r s p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c -t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , compared w i t h 234 and 18? f o r females. Conversely, women have an I.S. of 173 f o r ph a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media, compared t o 113 f o r men. 2. Socio-economic s t a t u s Students i n C l a s s e s I and I I (upper c l a s s ) a t t r i b u t e more importance to parents than do members of the o t h e r c l a s s e s . The I.S.'s f o r Glasses I and I I are 100 and 173 r e s p e c t i v e l y , compared w i t h 31» 26, 14 and 22 f o r the r e -maining c l a s s e s from C l a s s I I I to VI i n t h a t o r d e r . S t u -dents i n the middle and lower c l a s s e s tend t o d e r i v e more i n f o r m a t i o n from p r a c t i s i n g p h a r m a c i s t s . C l a s s e s I and I I combined have an I.S. of 99 f o r t h i s l a t t e r f a c t o r , compared w i t h I67, 157, 169, and 158 f o r C l a s s e s I I I to VI I n t h a t o r d e r . Students from the lower t h r e e c l a s s e s (IV, V, VI) d e r i v e s l i g h t l y more i n f o r m a t i o n from u n i -v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and ph a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e -cruitment media, but the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not v e r y g r e a t . D i f f e r e n c e s concerning the remaining sources a r e n e g l i g -i b l e . J. R e l i g i o n The r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s shown i n Table XXV. S e v e r a l f e a t u r e s of t h i s t a b l e a r e important f o r the a n a l y s i s of c h o i c e of f i e l d . -119-TABLE XXV RELIGION AND IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS SOURCES OF INFORMATION • .. • Importance Score of Students R e l i g i o n I s * Whose Source of Information P r o t e s t a n t Roman C a t h o l i c Jewish Other Parents and f a m i l y 36 51 87 37 R e l a t i v e s 6 10 17 15 Own pDS e r v a t l o n 234 259. 277 200 Pharmacist 158 156 130 160 F r i e n d s 13 22 14 22 H.S. teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 34 34 41 35 U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s 148 137 105 140 Mass media 19 20 8 35 Ph.A. recruitment media 156 103 75 160 P r a c t i c a l experience 196 209 246 197 I t might be noted t h a t Jewish students, more so than Roman C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s i n th a t order, de-r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from parents, personal o b s e r v a t i o n , and p r a c t i c a l experience. On the other hand, Pr o t e s t a n t s a t t r i b u t e g r e a t e r Importance than do Roman C a t h o l i c s and Jewish students, I n that order, t o pharmaceutical a s s o c i a -t i o n recruitment media and u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , and t o -120-a l e s s e r extent to p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists. 4. Urban-rural residence Students coming from d i f f e r e n t - s i z e d centers of p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i d e r d i f f e r e n t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n im-p o r t a n t , but the v a r i a t i o n t o a considerable extent i s between those from farms o r r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l o t h e r s . For example, the I.S. of students from farms or r u r a l d i s -t r i c t s w i t h regard to parents as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n i s 11, compared w i t h scores of 58, 34, and 62 f o r those from towns, s m a l l c i t i e s and l a r g e c i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r l y w i t h respect t o i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from prac-t i c a l experience, the I.S. of students from farms or r u r a l d i s t r l o t s I s 14?, compared w i t h 21?, 191, 220, of those from towns, s m a l l c i t i e s , and l a r g e c i t i e s i n that order. Thus, students from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s d e r i v e l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n from parents and p r a c t i c a l experience than do students from other centers of p o p u l a t i o n . At the same time, the former d e r i v e more i n f o r m a t i o n from u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s than the l a t t e r , although the d i f f e r e n c e i s not g r e a t . An Important r e l a t i o n s h i p I n t h i s regard i s th a t between u r b a n - r u r a l residence and pharmaceutical a s s o c i a -t i o n recruitment media. This source of i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n v e r s e l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the s i z e of cent e r . The I.S. f o r students from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s i s 194, com-pared w i t h 140, 114, and 112 f o r those from towns, s m a l l c i t i e s , and l a r g e c i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . -121-TABLE XXVI SCHOOL OF REGISTRATION AND IMPORTANCE OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION Importance Score of Students Attending the U n i v e r s i t y o f : Source of Info r m a t i o n B.C. A l -b e r t a Sask. Mani-toba Tor-onto La-v a l Mont-r e a l D a l -hou-s i e Parents and f a m i l y 30 44 27 36 40 25 100 32 R e l a t i v e s 8 1 7 8 5 8 16 16 Own obser-v a t i o n 245 221 240 224 252 258 295 250 Pharmacists 180 166 148 159 150 116 151 174 Frie n d s 16 14 10 12 16 36 27 16 H.S, teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 9 39 31 23 39 61 40 30 U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s 157 140 179 175 127 111 109 141 Mass media 14 17 36 19 19 22 17 12 Ph.A. r e c r u i t -ment media 156 142 195 151 129 133 45 87 P r a c t i c a l experience 185 214 126 192 224 230 201 244 5» Geographic r e g i o n The importance of sources of i n f o r m a t i o n v a r i e s w i t h the s c h o o l of r e g i s t r a t i o n . These d i f f e r e n c e s are shown i n Table XXVI. -122-From t h i s t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t parents are more important f o r students at the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal. Personal, o b s e r v a t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d more importance by students a t the two u n i v e r s i t i e s I n Quebec, w h i l e prac-t i s i n g pharmacists are more o f t e n considered important by those a t Dalhousle U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t f r i e n d s are thought to be more Important by students a t the French-speaking u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h a t h i g h school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s are more o f t e n considered Import-ant by those a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y . U n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s are more Important f o r students a t the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Saskatchewan and Manitoba and l e s s Important f o r those a t the two u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Quebec Pr o v i n c e . I t should be noted a l s o t h a t pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media i s more important f o r students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan and, to a l e s s e r extent, f o r those a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. As a source of informa-t i o n , p r a c t i c a l experience I s most important f o r students a t Dalhousle U n i v e r s i t y . 6 . Achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n vary w i t h achieved s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Only the important d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be mentioned here. With respect to high school grades the d i f f e r e n c e s are not o v e r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Those w i t h h i g h grades d e r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n more o f t e n from pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n -123-recruitment media, wh i l e those w i t h low grades, e s p e c i a l l y those w i t h grades of 60-69 per cent, d e r i v e more informa-t i o n from p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists, but the d i f f e r e n c e s are not great., As might be expected, the importance of sources of i n f o r m a t i o n vary w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e . Those who i n h e r i t the occupation from t h e i r parents d e r i v e s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more i n f o r m a t i o n from parents than do o t h e r s . The I.S. f o r t h i s f a c t o r f o r those w i t h parents i n pharmacy i s 239 compared w i t h 41 f o r those w i t h r e l a t i v e s i n phar-macy and 16 f o r those w i t h n e i t h e r parents nor r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n . However, the l a t t e r two groups acquir e more i n f o r m a t i o n from p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists w i t h scores of 160 and 169 f o r t h i s f a c t o r compared w i t h 62 f o r those w i t h parents I n the p r o f e s s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media i s more important f o r those w i t h n e i t h e r parents nor r e l a t i v e s i n pharmacy ( I . S . = 144) than f o r those w i t h only r e l a t i v e s ( I . S . =119) and those w i t h parents ( I . S . = 70). U n i v e r s i t y p r o fessors are some-what l e s s important as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r those who i n h e r i t the p r o f e s s i o n from t h e i r parents ( I . S . = 114) than f o r those who acquire the p r o f e s s i o n I n d i r e c t l y through r e l a t i v e s ( I . S . = 143) and those who do not i n h e r i t phar-macy ( I . S . = 144). Thus, the g r e a t e r the extent of occ u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t -ance the more important are parents as sources, of informa-t i o n and the l e s s important are p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists, -124-pharmaoeutlcal a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media and u n i v e r s -i t y p r o f e s s o r s . A l l other d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h regard to occu-p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e are minimal. I t I s found that f o u r sources of i n f o r m a t i o n vary i n importance w i t h the extent of p r a c t i c a l experience. As would be expected, p r a c t i c a l experience as a source of i n -fo r m a t i o n i s more Important f o r those who have such expe-r i e n c e . Those w i t h more than one year of experience have an I.S. of 326, compared w i t h 255 and 120 f o r those w i t h one year or l e s s experience and those w i t h no experience, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media i s more important f o r those w i t h no experience ( I . S . = l 6 l ) than I t i s f o r those w i t h one year or l e s s experience ( I . S . =» 118) or those w i t h more than one year of experience ( I . S . = 79)• S i m i l a r l y , w i t h p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n the I.S.*s are 175, 140, and 128.for-those w i t h no experience, one year or l e s s , or more than one year of experience, r e s p e c t i v e l y . With regard t o u n i v e r s -i t y p r o f e s s o r s a s i m i l a r t r e n d i s seen, but the d i f f e r e n c e s are not as g r e a t , w i t h I.S.'s of l 6 l , 125, and 114. Thus, the g r e a t e r the extent of p r a c t i c a l experience the more o f t e n i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o f e s s i o n i s d e r i v e d from p r a c t i c a l experience, and the l e s s o f t e n I t I s d e r i v e d from pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, prac-t i s i n g pharmacists, and u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . Other d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s regard are minimal. -125 -I n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n an attempt has been made to de-s c r i b e the more important r e l a t i o n s h i p s found between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . To make more manageable the mass of data presented here the f i n d i n g s are summarized i n Figures 3 and 4. P l u s signs (+) are used t o I n d i c a t e the d i r e c t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the number of signs r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e l a t i v e importance of a gi v e n source, but the reader i s cautioned a g a i n s t mak-i n g i n f e r e n c e s from these symbols as to the magnitude of the d i f f e r e n c e s . I n the f o l l o w i n g s u b s e c t i o n an e f f o r t i s made to account f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s found between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . -126-Figure 3 Summary of Relationships Between S o c i a l Background Factors and Factors i n Career Decision Practice-oriented Ideology-oriented Sources Sources H.S. Teach. Spec. Ph . A . S o c i a l Background Phar- Rela- and Speak- Recr. Factors macist Parents.tive . Couns. . ers -Media Sex Males — + a — — ~ + Females — +++ — — — +++ Socio-ec. status Upper + +++ — — + Males: Middle ++ ++ — — — +++ Lower +++ + — — — +++ Upper + +++ — — ++ Females: Middle +++ ++ — — +++ Lower ++ ++ — — + Relig i o n Protestant +++ ++ + ++ -- +++ Catholic ++ +... ++ +++ — ++ Jewish + +++ +++ + -- + Urban-rural res. Farm, r u r a l — — — +++ — *++ Town — — — ++ — ++ Small c i t y — — — ++ — + Large c i t y — . -.- — . +...". — + Mother only. ^Father only. (+++) = somewhat above average. (++) = about average. (+) = somewhat below average* (—) = differences are minimal. -127 P i g u r e 3 — C o n t i n u e d P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d I d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d Sources Sources H.S. Teach. Spec. Ph.A. S o c i a l Background Phar- E e l a - and Speak- Recr. P a c t o r s m a c i s t Parents t i v e Gouns. ers Media Geographic r e g i o n U. of B.C. ++ + ++ + ++ +++ U. of A l b e r t a +++ +++ ++ + ++ ++ U. of Sask. + ++ t' '1' 4' ++ +++ U. of Manitoba +++ +. +++ + + ++ U. of Toronto ++ +++ -M- + + ++ L a v a l U. + + +++ +++ + U. of Montreal ++ 'f ."4" ++ ++ + + D a l h o u s i e U. +++ +++ + +++ + + High s c h o o l grades 80 - 100% + + 70 - 79% ++ — ++ Less than 70% +++ — — +++ P r a c t i c a l experience More than one year +++ +++ mm mm +,.. + One y e a r or l e s s +++ +++ mm mm ++ ++ None + + — +++ +++ O c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e Parent + +++ + + + R e l a t i v e . +,+ ++ +++ ++ ++ N e i t h e r +++ + ++ +++ +++ (+++) = somewhat above average (++) = about average (+) = somewhat below average (—) = d i f f e r e n c e s are minimal -128-F i g u r e 4 Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between S o c i a l Background F a c t o r s and Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d I d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d Sources Sources Own Ob-H.S. U. s e r -S o c i a l phar- Teach. Ph.A. Pro- va-Background Prac* } ma*-- Par- R e l a - and Recr. f e s - t i o n € F a c t o r s Exp. c i s t s ents t l v e s Couns•.Media s o r s Sex , Males tmmm +++ Females — + Soolo-eo. s t a t u s Upper Middle Lower + + R e l i g i o n P r o t e s t a n t C a t h o l i c Jewish U r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e + +++ Farm, r u r a l Town S m a l l c i t y Large c i t y Geographic r e g i o n U.B.C. ++ +++ U. A l b e r t a ++ +++ ++ U. Sask. + + U. Manitoba -fc-fc U. Toronto +++ ++ *+ L a v a l U. +++ + .+_. U. Montreal ++ ++ ++ Dalhousie U. +++ +++ + + + •H + -129-F i g u r e 4 — C o n t i n u e d S o c i a l Background Factors P r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d Sources Own Ob-H.S. U. s e r -Phar- Teach. Ph.A. Pro- va-Prac. ma- Par- Rela- and Recr. f e s - t i o n a Exp. c i s t s ents t i v e s Couns. Media sors High school grades 80 - 100$ 70 - 79$ Less than 70$ — P r a c t i c a l experience + ++ +++ +++ ++ + More than one year +++ One year or l e s s ++ None + + ++ +++ ++ +++ +++ — Occupational i n h e r i t a n c e Parent — + R e l a t i v e — +++ Nei t h e r — +++ +++ — — + + + — — ++ +++ + — — +++ +++ U n c l a s s i f i e d . -(+++) = somewhat above average ((++) = about average (+) = somewhat below average (—) = d i f f e r e n c e s are minimal -130-D l s c u s s l o n As mentioned e a r l i e r , the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e which p l a y a p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n to ent e r pharmacy are not a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d by the student o r p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t , but r a t h e r a re a f f e c t e d , I n p a r t a t l e a s t , by s o c i a l background f a c t o r s . Although the data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s study cannot f u l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m , some attempt however inadequate, must be made to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s found between these s e t s of f a c t o r s . The f i n d i n g s a re d i s c u s s e d under the headings of the i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l f a c t o r s . 1. Sex The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t women more o f t e n use pha r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e men tend t o r e l y on p r a c t i c a l experience and p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . I n a d d i -t i o n , women more o f t e n than men c o n s i d e r the mother t o be important I n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . The l a t t e r d i f f e r e n c e can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n North American s o c i e t y of g i r l s w i t h t h e i r mothers. F o r a g i r l , d u r i n g e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the mother serves as a t a n g i b l e meaningful r o l e model to emulate and w i t h which t o I d e n t i f y . ^ G i v e n t h i s s t r o n g e a r l y a s s o c i a t i o n , a g i r l i s more l i k e l y than a boy t o be i n f l u e n c e d i n the pareer c h o i c e by the mother. The main d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t women are more o f t e n a f f e c t e d by pha r m a c e u t i c a l -131-a s s o c l a t i o n recruitment media, an i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e men r e l y more on prac-t i c a l experience, a p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d source, and personal o b s e r v a t i o n . As pointed out e a r l i e r , pharmacy t r a d i t i o n -a l l y has been regarded as a male occupation, and only i n more recent times have women begun to -enter the p r o f e s s i o n . I t may be f o r t h i s reason t h a t women are l e s s l i k e l y to r e l y on personal o b s e r v a t i o n or to seek p r a c t i c a l experience p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . Bather, they may be more s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by o f f i c i a l recruitment l i t e r a t u r e and other media c i r c u l a t e d by pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s , which l e g i t i m i z e s the choice of a career t h a t has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y the domain of men. F u r t h e r , pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s and schools of pharmacy make appoint of s t r e s s -i n g the appropriateness of pharmacy as an occu p a t i o n a l r o l e f o r women and c o n t i n u a l l y emphasize the employment oppor-t u n i t i e s f o r the female sex. Recruitment l i t e r a t u r e tends to p o r t r a y women I n pharmacy by showing p i t u r e s of female pharmacists i n h o s p i t a l s , I n d u s t r y , r e s e a r c h , and other f i e l d s , and on t h i s account appeals to women. 2. Socio-economic s t a t u s The main d i f f e r e n c e among s o c i a l c l a s s e s i s th a t the upper c l a s s e s r e l y more on parents as sources of informa-t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e the lower c l a s s e s tend to s e l e c t p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists. This may be due t o the f a c t t h a t i n the upper c l a s s e s parents i n v o l v e themselves more i n the occ u p a t i o n a l choices of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y when the -132-career choioe i s made from high s t a t u s a l t e r n a t i v e s r e -q u i r i n g u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . Since upper c l a s s parents are more l i k e l y to be u n i v e r s i t y educated, they are b e t t e r able to provide i n f o r m a t i o n and advice concerning such occupa-t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s and are more l i k e l y t o be r e l i e d upon f o r a s s i s t a n c e I n making a career choice. Among the pharmacy student p o p u l a t i o n there i s another reason why upper c l a s s parents are more l i k e l y to a f f e c t the career c h o i c e . The upper c l a s s , c o n s i s t i n g of Classes I and I I , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i n c l u d e s those students whose parents are p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists. The f a c t o r of occupa-t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , then, may p a r t l y e x p l a i n the g r e a t e r Importance of parents f o r students of upper socio-economic c l a s s background. Those I n the lower c l a s s , l a c k i n g such c o n t a c t s , tend t o r e l y on other p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . From t h i s i t would appear t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s e s do not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the types of sources they s e l e c t , s i n c e a l l c l a s s e s are e s s e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources. Although lower and middle c l a s s male pharmacy students are a f f e c t e d more by pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media than are those of the upper c l a s s , and although middle c l a s s female s t u d -ents are i n f l u e n c e d more by s p e c i a l speakers provided by the p r o f e s s i o n than are those from the upper and lower c l a s s e s , the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n concerning s o c i a l c l a s s and sources of Information and i n f l u e n c e would tend to h o l d . The v a r i a t i o n : among the c l a s s e s w i t h respect to p r a c t i c e --133-o r i e n t e d and Ideology-oriented sources i s not tha t great to warrant a t t r i b u t i n g to any s i n g l e c l a s s the predominant i n f l u e n c e of any one type. 3* R e l i g i o n As the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e , Jewish students, compared w i t h o t h e r s , r e l y more on parents, r e l a t i v e s , p r a c t i c a l ex-per i e n c e , and personal o b s e r v a t i o n as sources of Information and I n f l u e n c e , w h i l e P r o t e s t a n t s tend to d e r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e from p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists, pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, and u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . C a t h o l i c s , on the other hand, are more l i k e l y than others to t u r n to high school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s . The Importance of parents, r e l a t i v e s , p r a c t i c a l ex-pe r i e n c e , and to,some extent personal o b s e r v a t i o n , f o r Jewish students can be explained by the f a c t that such students experience the highest r a t e of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e (22 and 26 per c e n t ) , and enter pharmacy sc h o o l w i t h the g r e a t e s t amount of p r a c t i c a l ex-perience ( 6 l per cent compared w i t h 49 per cent of the Pr o t e s t a n t s and 41 per cent of the Roman C a t h o l i c s ) . That Jewish students should be a f f e c t e d more by parents i s not s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e students of t h i s f a i t h tend to be more . f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d than P r o t e s t a n t s and Roman C a t h o l i c s . I n response to a qu e s t i o n concerning the s a t i s f a c t i o n students expect to r e c e i v e from v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s (see Question 22 of the Questionnaire, Appendix A ) , 72 per cent of the Jew-i s h students checked the statement: "Your l i f e w i t h your - 1 3 4 -w l f e ( o r husband) and f a m i l y , n compared w i t h 49 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s and 38 per cent of the C a t h o l i c s . Being f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d , Jewish students may be i n f l u e n c e d more i n v t h e i r d e c i s i o n s by parents and, t o a l e s s e r extent, r e l a -t i v e s . P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s do not have as much d i r e c t contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n , i n the form of oc c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e and p r a c t i c a l experience, as do Jewish students, and t h e r e f o r e may have to t u r n t o i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources, although both P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s d e r i v e some i n f o r -mation and i n f l u e n c e from p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists. Although there-may be other reasons f o r the p a r t i c u l a r s e l e c t i o n of sources by P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s , the data c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s study do not r e v e a l them. 4 . Urban-rural residence I n g e n e r a l , the s m a l l e r the community of residence the more important are high school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s and pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , and the l e s s important are parents and p r a c t i c a l experience, but i t should be noted t h a t the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e w i t h respect to the Importance of these f a c t o r s I s between students who come from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l o t h e r s . This d i f f e r e n c e may be due to the r e l a t i v e l a c k of contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n f o r those students coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s . Although pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h a t they are unable to present an adequate p i c t u r e of the -135-p r o f e s s i o n t o students i n r u r a l a r e a s , they seem t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on such s t u d e n t s , perhaps because of the r e l a t i v e absence of o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s . Recruitment l i t e r a t u r e i s made a v a i l a b l e t o h i g h s c h o o l teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s through s e v e r a l sources and t h i s i s i n ^ t u r n passed on t o the s t u d e n t s . I s o l a t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and l a c k i n g d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n , I n the form of o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e and p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , students from r u r a l d i s t r i c t s may have to r e l y on the Ideology-o r i e n t e d p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media f o r . i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . 5» Geographic r e g i o n The f i n d i n g s I n d i c a t e t h a t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e v a r y by s c h o o l o f r e g i s t r a t i o n , but the da t a c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s study cannot f u l l y e x p l a i n the reasons f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o answer the q u e s t i o n of why d i f f e r e n t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e a r e r e l i e d upon more h e a v i l y i n some p r o v i n c e s than I n o t h e r s , but p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these v a r i a -t i o n s can be suggested. T h i s v a r i a t i o n may be p a r t l y due to the amount of re c r u i t m e n t a c t i v i t y engaged i n by d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c i a l p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , because of inadequate r e c o r d s and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, phar-m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e unable t o p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e e stimates a t the pr e s e n t time as t o the extent of the e f -f o r t s made by each to encourage p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s t o -136-c o n s i d e r pharmacy as a career. But i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to p o i n t out tha t i n the western p r o v i n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y B r i t i s h Columbia, where the pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n i s engaged i n an a c t i v e recruitment program, pharmacy students a t t r i b -ute g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e to pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n r e -cruitment media, w h i l e i n the Maritime p r o v i n c e s , where l i t t l e formal e f f o r t , r e l a t i v e l y speaking, i s made by phar-mac e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t o encourage recruit m e n t , only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the students consider recruitment media to be Important i n the career d e c i s i o n . Only 2 per cent of the students a t Balhousie U n i v e r s i t y regard pharmaceuti-c a l a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media as the most important s i n g l e f a c t o r i n the career d e c i s i o n , compared w i t h 12 per cent of the students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. This f a c t o r i s a l s o very important f o r students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan and, to a l e s s e r extent, f o r those a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, but an e v a l u a t i o n of the amount of recruitment a c t i v i t y engaged i n by pharma-c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n these provinces cannot be made w i t h the data a v a i l a b l e . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t f o r students a t t e n d i n g the l a t t e r two pharmacy schools u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s serve as important sources of i n f o r -mation about the p r o f e s s i o n . This would tend to suggest t h a t there i s a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n a t these schools be-tween students and i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s . Parents are important sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e f o r students a t t e n d i n g pharmacy schools a t the -137-U n l v e r s i t y of Mon t r e a l , the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, D a l -h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , and the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . The importance of t h i s f a c t o r f o r students a t t e n d i n g the f i r s t t h r e e u n i v e r s i t i e s may be accounted f o r i n p a r t by the f a c t t h a t these students experience the h i g h e s t r a t e s of occu-p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , but such i s not the case f o r students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a where the r a t e i s v e r y low. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the l a t t e r cannot be e x p l a i n e d w i t h the p r e s e n t d a t a . That p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists a r e among the most import-ant sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e f o r students a t t e n d -i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y may be accounted f o r by the f a c t t h a t these students e n t e r phar-macy w i t h the g r e a t e s t amount of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . How-ever, students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba r e g a r d p r a c -t i s i n g pharmacists as important sources of i n f l u e n c e and those a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia d e r i v e c o n s i d e r -a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s s ource, and i n these u n i v e r s i t i e s s tudents e n t e r w i t h l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , and L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y r e g a r d p r a c t i c a l e x perience as an important source of i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i s understandable f o r students a t the f i r s t two s c h o o l s , s i n c e these students e n t e r pharmacy w i t h h i g h r a t e s of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , but students a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y e n t e r w i t h the lowest r a t e of p r a c t i c a l e xperience and s t i l l c o n s i d e r t h i s f a c t o r an important source of i n f o r m a t i o n . -138-Students at Laval University regard r e l a t i v e s and high school teachers and counsellors as important sources of information and influence. The importance of r e l a t i v e s may be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that students at t h i s phar-macy school have a greater rate of i n d i r e c t occupational inheritance, but students i n Saskatchewan and Manitoba tend to regard r e l a t i v e s as important i n the career decision.and do not have high rates of occupational inheritance. From the preceding i t i s concluded that the amount of recruitment a c t i v i t y engaged i n by pharmaceutical associa-tions, over and against or i n addition to the amount of d i -rect contact with the profession as gained by p r a c t i c a l ex-perience or occupational inheritance, cannot adequately ac-count f o r the s e l e c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t sources of information and influence. I t i s reasonable to suggest that these f a c -tors help to determine the sources, but i t i s necessary to acknowledge the li m i t a t i o n s of the above as a t o t a l expla-nation of the s e l e c t i o n . Further research i n th i s area would be a useful' undertaking f o r pharmaceutical associa-tions and other interested agencies, since, as w i l l be shown l a t e r , the sources of information and influence play an important part i n the choice of f i e l d . 6. Achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s References are made i n the preceding paragraphs as to the importance of contact with the profession, gained through p r a c t i c a l experience and occupational inheritance, i n af-f e c t i n g the sources of information and influence. I t i s -139-n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s t h e e f f e c t s of t h e s e f a c t o r s , t o -g e t h e r w i t h t h a t o f h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s , on t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e s . I t appears t h a t h i g h s c h o o l grades a r e not o v e r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s e l e c t i o n of s o u r c e s , a l t h o u g h t h o s e w i t h low grades t e n d t o r e l y on p h a r m a c i s t s and r e l a t i v e s , w h i l e t h o s e w i t h h i g h grades f a v o r p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e -c r u i t m e n t media, e s p e c i a l l y as s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n . I t may be t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h g r a d e s , s i n c e t h e y a r e more a c a d e m i c a l l y i n c l i n e d , seek i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c a r e e r a l t e r n a t i v e s t h r o u g h o f f i c i a l c h a n n e l s r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h w o r k i n g a s p e c t s of t h e p r o f e s s i o n . D i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e appears t o be i m p o r t a n t i n the s e l e c t i o n o f s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . S t u d e n t s w i t h o u t p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t e n d t o d e r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e f rom i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e -c r u i t m e n t media, h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s , and u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , w h i l e t h o s e w i t h e x p e r i e n c e t e n d t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n f rom p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and t e n d t o be i n f l u e n c e d by p r a c t i s i n g p h a r m a c i s t s and p a r e n t s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o r e g a r d p h a r m a c i s t s as i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , a l -though t h e y c o n s i d e r t h i s f a c t o r i m p o r t a n t i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n . I t seems t h a t p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e g e n e r a l l y l e a d s t o t h e s e l e c t i o n of p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , w h i l e l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e l e a d s -140-t o i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources. Contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n as gained through occu-p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e a l s o seems to a f f e c t the s e l e c t i o n of sources. Those w i t h parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n d e r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e from t h e i r parents and tend not to r e l y on other sources, w h i l e those w i t h r e l a t i v e s tend to be i n f l u e n c e d by r e l a t i v e s , although they tend to acquire i n f o r m a t i o n from p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists and u n i v e r s i t y pro-f e s s o r s . On the other hand, students who do hot experience o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e tend to u t i l i z e p r a c t i s i n g phar-m a c i s t s , h i g h school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s , u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , and pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media. I n g e n e r a l , students w i t h parents I n the p r o f e s s i o n tend to r e l y most h e a v i l y on p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources, w h i l e those w i t h r e l a t i v e s tend to be somewhat more Ideology-oriented i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . Those w i t h n e i t h e r parents nor r e l a -t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n are most i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d i n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n of sources. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e have been de s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . I t was argued t h a t , although f u r t h e r research I s needed i n t h i s a rea, there i s evidence to suggest t h a t the various sources are not s e l e c t e d a r b i t r a r -i l y , but are a f f e c t e d , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , by s o c i a l f a c t o r s . The next s e c t i o n attempts to show the consequences of the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e f o r the choice of f i e l d . -141-C) INFORMATION AND INFLUENCE AND CHOICE OF FIELD IN PHARMACY F i n d i n g s The v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which are Important i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n and the s e v e r a l sources from which students o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n p l a y a p a r t i n the c h o i c e of a f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . The o b j e c t of t h i s s e c t i o n Is to show which sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h which c h o i c e s . 1. F a c t o r s I n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f a c t o r s i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n and the c h o i c e of f i e l d i s shown i n Table XXVII. Students who c o n s i d e r p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists or e i t h e r of t h e i r parents as the most Important f a c t o r i n the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n a r e most l i k e l y t o choose r e t a i l pharmacy. Of those who l i s t pharmacists as most important, 6 l per cent choose r e t a i l pharmacy, as do 58 per cent of those who a t -t r i b u t e s i m i l a r Importance to e i t h e r of the p a r e n t s . Stud-ents who r e g a r d r e l a t i v e s as most Important, a l s o tend to choose r e t a i l pharmacy. Thus, I t w i l l be seen t h a t those who a r e most a f f e c t e d by p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources tend to choose r e t a i l pharmacy. On the o t h e r hand, students who c o n s i d e r one of the I d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s , pharmaceut-i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media, s p e c i a l speakers, o r h i g h s c h o o l teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s , as the most important s i n g l e f a e t o r i n the d e c i s i o n tend not to choose r e t a i l pharmacy. -142-TABLE XXVII MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR IN CAREER DECISION AND CHOICE OF FIELD I N PHARMACY Percentage ChoosingJ P r e s c r l p -Most Important R e t a i l t l o n H o s p i t a l T o t a l F a c t o r Was: Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Other Cases Pharmacist 61 8 13 18 298 Father 58 8 13 21 171 Mother 58 9 16 17 174 R e l a t i v e 57 8 18 17 83 Mass media 56 13 13 19 16 H.S. teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s 50 10 23 18 80 "Other" 49 11 12 28 245 S p e c i a l speakers 47 11 8 33 36 F r i e n d s and acquai ntanc es 46 13 17 24 46 Ph.A. r e c r u i t -ment, media 45 6 30 19 103 X^ m 45.962: d.f. = 27* P<.02 With respect to the f i e l d of h o s p i t a l pharmacy, s t u d -ents who r e l y most h e a v i l y on pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n r e -cruitment media and hig h school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s are more l i k e l y to make t h i s c h o i c e . Nearly o n e - t h i r d of the students who are most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by pharmaceut-i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media and s l i g h t l y l e s s than one-quarter of those who consider h i g h school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s as most important p l a n t o enter h o s p i t a l pharm-acy. Students who regard e i t h e r mass media or f r i e n d s as -143-the most important f a c t o r i n the career d e c i s i o n are more l i k e l y to choose p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, but the t o t a l num-ber of cases a f f e c t e d by these sources i s r a t h e r s m a l l . Students who are most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by s p e c i a l speakers are more l i k e l y to p l a n to enter one of the f i e l d s i n the r e s i d u a l category, but a g a i n the t o t a l number of cases i s r a t h e r s m a l l . More s i g n i f i c a n t as a source of i n f l u e n c e l e a d i n g to t h i s choice i s the r e s i d u a l category, "other," which, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , i s comprised almost e n t i r e l y of responses i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the choice was the student's own personal d e c i s i o n . Thus, of the 245 students who a t t r i b u t e t h e i r career choices p r i m a r i l y to t h e i r per-s o n a l d e c i s i o n s , 28 per cent choose some "other" f i e l d . As the preceding paragraphs i n d i c a t e , students who are i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t sources i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n to enter the p r o f e s s i o n of pharmacy vary I n t h e i r choice of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l sources are c l a s s i f i e d by type of I n f l u e n c e , I.e., p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d , I d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d , and u n c l a s s i f i e d , and the p r o p o r t i o n of each choosing each of the f i e l d s I s shown i n Table XXVIII. I t w i l l be seen t h a t p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources most o f t e n l e a d to the choice of r e t a i l pharmacy. Those who r e l y on i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources are more l i k e l y than others to choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy, w h i l e those who s e l e c t one of the u n c l a s s i f i e d sources are more l i k e l y to expect to enter p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy or one of the f i e l d s I n the r e s i d u a l category. -144-TABLE XXVIII TYPES OP INFLUENCE AND CHOICE OF FIELD Percentage Choosing: P r e s c r i p -Type of R e t a i l t i o n H o s p i t a l T o t a l I n f l u e n c e Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Other Cases P r a c t i o e - o r i e n t e d a 59 8 14 18 726 I d e o l o g y - o r i ented* 5 47 8 24 21 219 U n c l a s s i f i e d 0 49 12 13 27 307 i n c l u d e s pharmacists, mother, f a t h e r and r e l a t i v e s . ^Includes pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, hig h school teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s and s p e c i a l speakers. c I n c l u d e s mass media, f r i e n d s and acquaintances, and " o t h e r . w X 2 = 28.796: d.f. o 6: P<.001 2. Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n The r e l a t i o n s h i p between sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and choice of f i e l d i s presented i n Table XXIX. I t i s import-ant to note t h a t t h i s t a b l e shows the percentage d i s t r i b u -t i o n of responses and not cases. Since up to e i g h t d i f -f e r e n t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n can be c i t e d by a s i n g l e respondent (a respondent could g i v e a d i f f e r e n t source f o r each of e i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) , c o r r e l a t i o n s between cases and choice of f i e l d cannot e a s i l y be made. Rather, i t i s necessary to work w i t h responses. To i l l u s t r a t e -INS-TABLE XXIX SOURCES OP INFORMATION AND CHOICE OF FIELD IN PHARMACY Percentage Responses G i v e n by Those Choosing: T o t a l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ N u m b e r P r e s c r i p - Re-Source of R e t a i l t i o n H o s p i t a l sponse I n f o r m a t i o n Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Other e s a Parents and f a m i l y 62 5 10 22 424 P r a c t i c a l e xperience 59 10 12 19 1897 Pharmacist 54 10 17 20 1488 U n i v e r s i t y 16 p r o f e s s o r s 53 8 23 1349 Own o b s e r v a t i o n 52 10 15 22 2374 F r i e n d s 51 4 15 30 158 H.S. teach e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s 50 8 18 24 324 Mass media 49 7 22 23 194 R e l a t i v e 46 11 23 20 71 Ph.A. r e c r u i t m e n t media 46 7 23 23 1258 T o t a l '53 9 16 22 9537 aNumbers on which percentages are based; c h i - s q u a r e t e s t i s based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses. X 2 = 144.962: d . f . = 27: P<.001 the r e l a t i o n s h i p between source of i n f o r m a t i o n and c h o i c e of f i e l d I t i s necessary t o compare the p r o p o r t i o n s of responses f o r a g i v e n source c o n t r i b u t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s choosing d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s . F o r example, of the 424 times t h a t parents and f a m i l y are I n d i c a t e d as sources of i n f o r -mation, 62 per cent are c i t e d by those p l a n n i n g t o e n t e r r e t a i l pharmacy. On the o t h e r extreme, o n l y 46 per cent -146-of the 1258 responses i n d i c a t i n g pharmaceutical a s s o c i a -t i o n recruitment media as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n are g i v e n by i n d i v i d u a l s making the same choice. From t h i s i t i s suggested t h a t the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a f f e c t the choice of f i e l d . Those who d e r i v e t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o f e s s i o n from p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources, except r e l a t i v e s , i . e . , par-e n t s , p r a c t i c a l experience, and p r a c t i s i n g pharmacists, tend to choose r e t a i l pharmacy. Those who o b t a i n t h e i r informa-t i o n from pharmaceutical a s s o c i a t i o n recruitment media, r e l a -t i v e s , and mass media more o f t e n than others choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy and tend not to choose the r e t a i l f i e l d , although i t must be noted t h a t the l a t t e r two sources are not i n themselves o v e r l y Important. I t i s perhaps s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d such a s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n between u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s -s o r s , who are considered t o be i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d , and the choice of r e t a i l pharmacy.. Over one-half of the responses i n d i c a t i n g t h i s source of i n f o r m a t i o n are g i v e n by those planning to enter the r e t a i l f i e l d . I t I s d i f f i c u l t to make statements about the a s s o c i a -t i o n of f a c t o r s from t h i s t a b l e , because some of the d i f -ferences are not p a r t i c u l a r l y g r e a t . However, i t i s poss-i b l e t o combine the i n d i v i d u a l sources by type and compare the choices which are, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each. These are shown i n Table XXX. Again, i t must be remembered th a t the t a b l e r e f e r s to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses and not cases. -147-TABLE XXX TYPES OP SOURCES OP INFORMATION AND CHOICE OF FIELD Percentage Responses G i v e n by Those Choosing: T o t a l Number of Type of P r e s c r i p - Re-Source of R e t a i l t i o n H o s p i t a l spons-I n f o r m a t i o n Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Other e s * P r a c t i c e - , o r i e n t e d 57 9 14 20 3880 I d e o l o g y -o r i e n t e d 50 8 19 23 2931 U n c l a s s i f i e d 4 52 9 16 23 2726 T o t a l 9537 *Numbers on which percentages are based. In c l u d e s p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , pharmacists, p a r -ents and r e l a t i v e s . c I n c l u d e s p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media, h i g h s c h o o l teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s , and u n i -v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . ^ I n c l u d e s own o b s e r v a t i o n , f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t -ances and mass media. X 2 = 69.620: d . f . = 6: P<.001 I t w i l l be seen t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between types of sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and ch o i c e of f i e l d i s g e n e r a l l y the same as t h a t between types of I n f l u e n c e and c h o i c e , a l t h o u g h the former i s not q u i t e as c o n v i n c i n g as the l a t t -e r . Those who d e r i v e I n f o r m a t i o n from p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources more o f t e n choose the r e t a i l f i e l d , w h i l e those who r e l y on I d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources tend t o f a v o r h o s p i t a l - 1 4 8 -pharmacy. A l t h o u g h o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e m i n i m a l , t h e y a r e i n t h e same g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n as t h o s e shown i n Ta b l e X X V I I I . A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a -t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , and t h e c h o i c e o f f i e l d , f o l l o w s • D i s c u s s i o n The f i n d i n g s show t h a t s t u d e n t s s e l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and I n f l u e n c e t e n d t o v a r y I n t h e c h o i c e o f f i e l d . Those who c o n s i d e r p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s t o be i m p o r t a n t i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r pharmacy, and who d e r i v e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m such s o u r c e s , t e n d t o choose t h e r e t a i l f i e l d , w h i l e t h o s e who t u r n t o i d e o l o g y -o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , more o f t e n t h a n o t h e r s , p l a n t o e n t e r h o s p i t a l pharmacy. S t u d e n t s who r e l y on e i t h e r o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u * -ence do n o t seem t o v a r y i n t h e i r c h o i c e s o f p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy o r some " o t h e r " f i e l d . However, t h o s e who a r e most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by one o f t h e u n c l a s s i f i e d s o u r c e s more o f t e n t h a n o t h e r s make one o f t h e l a t t e r two c h o i c e s . As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e u n c l a s s i f i e d c a t e g o r y I s com-p r i s e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e most I m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f a c t o r i n t h e c a r e e r c h o i c e was a p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n . Thus, I t seems t h a t t h o s e who r e g a r d t h e i r e n t r a n c e t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n as r e s u l t i n g f r om a p e r -s o n a l d e c i s i o n , u n i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r f a c t o r s , more o f t e n t h a n o t h e r s choose p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy o r one o f t h e f i e l d s i n t h e r e s i d u a l c a t e o g r y . -149-That p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources s h o u l d l e a d t o the c h o i c e of r e t a i l pharmacy I s no s u r p r i s e , s i n c e by f a r the m a j o r i t y of such sources a r e o r i e n t e d t o the r e t a i l f i e l d . C l o s e t o 90 per cent of the membership of the Canadian Phar-m a c e u t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i s engaged i n some form of r e t a i l p r a c t i c e . By the law of average a l o n e , nine out of every t e n c o n t a c t s w i t h l i c e n c e d pharmacists are n e c e s s a r i l y con-t a c t s w i t h the r e t a i l f i e l d , but the p r o p o r t i o n i s probably h i g h e r , s i n c e r e t a i l pharmacy compared w i t h o t h e r f i e l d s i s r e l a t i v e l y more v i s i b l e . Almost everyone a t some time or o t h e r has had o c c a s i o n to v i s i t a c o r n e r d r u g s t o r e , a t y p i c a l l y North American i n s t i t u t i o n , but few I n d i v i d u a l s have had the o p p o r t u n i t y to come f a c e t o f a c e w i t h hos-p i t a l pharmacists o r pharmacists I n i n d u s t r y , r e s e a r c h , o r t e a c h i n g , and when they do have such c o n t a c t , they g e n e r a l -l y do not view such i n d i v i d u a l s p r i m a r i l y as phar m a c i s t s . Thus, i t seems reasonable to suggest t h a t those who are i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s by pharmacists, p a r -e n t s , r e l a t i v e s , o r by p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , w i l l tend to choose the r e t a i l f i e l d . Of course i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a student: t o be I n f l u e n c e d i n h i s c a r e e r c h o i c e by p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources and to deci d e t o e n t e r a f i e l d o t h e r than r e t a i l a f t e r b e i n g made aware of such a l t e r n a t i v e s i n phar-macy school,, and th e r e i s evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t some students do j u s t t h a t . However, the f i n d i n g s show t h a t a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the sources of i n f o r -mation and i n f l u e n c e , which p l a y a p a r t i n the d e c i s i o n -150-to e n t e r pharmacy, and the c h o i c e of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Prom t h i s i t i s suggested t h a t p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources are s i g n i f i c a n t i n b r i n g i n g about a de-c i s i o n t o e n t e r r e t a i l pharmacy. Schools of pharmacy and ph a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , I n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o p r e s e r v e pharmacy's p l a c e I n the p r o -f e s s i o n a l community, have been s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n h i g h academic standards and standards of p r a c t i c e commensurate w i t h t h e i r claims t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s i n a r a p i d l y changing i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . I n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o a t t r a c t more a c a d e m i c a l l y competent s t u d e n t s , i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s have been drawing a t t e n t i o n t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employ-ment I n f i e l d s o t h e r than r e t a i l , f i e l d s which p r e s e n t more of a c h a l l e n g e t o the student who i s a c a d e m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y I n c l i n e d . R e f l e c t i n g the goals of the I d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s , r e c r u i t m e n t l i t e r a t u r e c i r -c u l a t e d by p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s e a g e r l y p o r t r a y s pharmacists working i n i n d u s t r y , r e s e a r c h , t e a c h i n g , and h o s p i t a l pharmacy, perhaps out of p r o p o r t i o n t o the a c t u a l number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e I n these f i e l d s . Thus, I t Is not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d t h a t students who r e l y most h e a v i l y on i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources more o f t e n than others choose h o s p i t a l pharmacy. What i s p u z z l i n g , however, i s t h a t these s t u d e n t s , compared w i t h those who are most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s , do not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the s e l e c t i o n of p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy o r some " o t h e r " -151-f i e l d . I t was f e l t t h a t students who are a f f e c t e d by i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources would be most l i k e l y t o choose one of the f i e l d s i n the r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y . But the f i n d -i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the students who r e l y on one of the un-c l a s s i f i e d sources are more l i k e l y than others to make the l a t t e r c h o i c e . Although the d a t a cannot e x p l a i n t h i s r e l a -t i o n s h i p , some suggestions can be made, perhaps f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , students i n d i c a t i n g one of the u n c l a s s i f i e d sources a r e p r i m a r i l y those who s t a t e t h a t the c h o i c e of pharmacy as a c a r e e r was a p e r s o n a l de-c i s i o n . I t I s t o be expected t h a t a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n of students w i l l not wish t o i n d i c a t e a source of i n f l u e n c e and w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s to be of prime Importance. However, t h i s does not e x p l a i n the f a e t t h a t these students more o f t e n than others choose one of the. f i e l d s of the r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y . I t may be t h a t f o r students who r e g a r d t h e i r person-a l d e c i s i o n s as most important, the c h o i c e of pharmacy i s secondary to some o t h e r motive, such as the d e s i r e to teach,„ work i n i n d u s t r y , o r conduct r e s e a r c h . Once such a commit-ment i s made, the i n d i v i d u a l may s e l e c t r a t i o n a l l y a p r o -f e s s i o n which w i l l a l l o w f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s prim-a r y g o a l and hence may r e g a r d such a c h o i c e as r e s u l t i n g from a p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n . Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t some students f i n d thamselves i n an a m b i v a l e n t ^ s i t u a t i o n i n which they -152-a r e s u b j e c t e d to both types of i n f l u e n c e , p r a c t i c e - and i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d s o u r c e s . To r e s o l v e t h i s c o n f l i c t , they might tend to r e g a r d the c h o i c e as r e s u l t i n g from a p e r -s o n a l d e c i s i o n . Although the d a t a cannot s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m , i t i s f e l t t o be a worthwhile i d e a f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and the p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d pharmacists have d i v e r s e i d e a s as to the conduct of the l a t t e r i n the r e t a i l f i e l d , as ev-i d e n c e d by the f o l l o w i n g statement made by a p r o v i n c i a l p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n i n i t s monthly b u l l e t i n ! The p o i n t was r a i s e d s e v e r a l times d u r i n g the d i s -c u s s i o n on p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s t h a t the most s e r i o u s breakdown i n the p r o j e c t i n g of the pharmacist's im-age o c c u r r e d a t the p r a c t i s i n g l e v e l . I t was s t a t e d t h a t no amount of money devoted t o PR programs by the A s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d equal i n p u b l i c e f f e c t the im-p a c t which would be f e l t I f a l l pharmacists i n a l l pharmacies i n a l l areas of the p r o v i n c e conducted t h e i r p r a c t i c e s on a plane commensurate w i t h t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and s t a t u r e . ^ I t may w e l l be t h a t students c o n f r o n t e d w i t h both p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d and i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources t u r n away from both s o u r c e s , c o n s i d e r the c a r e e r d e c i s i o n to be a p e r s o n a l one, and choose a f i e l d f u r t h e s t removed from the c o n t r o v e r s y , i . e . , one of the f i e l d s i n the r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r y . The tendency of t h i s group to choose p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy can a l s o be e x p l a i n e d w i t h the n o t i o n of ambivalent sources of i n f l u e n c e . P r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy probably con-s t i t u t e s a reasonable r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t of competing i n f l u e n c e s , s i n c e i t i s on the one hand a r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h --153-ment s h a r i n g a number of t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h r e t a i l pharmacy, e s p e c i a l l y the o p p o r t u n i t y to work d i r e c t -l y w i t h the p u b l i c , and on the o t h e r , i t i n v o l v e s a p r a c -t i c e g e n e r a l l y conducted on a plane "commensurate w i t h [t h e pharmacist's] p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and s t a t u r e . " The image of pharmacy t h a t the i d e o l o g i c a l l e a d e r s of the p r o f e s s i o n a r e s t r i v i n g t o c r e a t e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h the image r e f l e c t e d i n r e t a i l p r a c t i c e . Students s u b j e c t e d t o both types of i n f l u e n c e may very w e l l f i n d themselves i n an ambivalent s i t u a t i o n and may ten d t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t by denying both i n f l u e n c e s and by choosing a f i e l d removed from the c o n t r o v e r s y or one which tends t o s a t i s f y the e x p e c t a t i o n s of both sources of i n f l u e n c e . CHAPTER IV VALUES Values are i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n a l elements which serve as c r i t e r i a f o r making d e c i s i o n s . T h i s being the case, one would expect t o f i n d a d i s t i n c t i v e s e t of value s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r pharmacy and the c h o i c e of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . I n the pr e s e n t study a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of value s i s i n -tended t o serve two purposes. F i r s t , i t I s hoped t h a t , by e x p l o r i n g the va l u e p r o f i l e of pharmacy students i n g e n e r a l , a b e t t e r understanding of the members of and r e c r u i t s t o t h i s p r o f e s s i o n w i l l be gained, and t h a t the b a s i s f o r some f u t u r e comparative study w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . Second, s i n c e v a l u e s p l a y a p a r t i n c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s , i t seems necessary to take them i n t o account i n d i s c u s s i n g the ch o i c e of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Although s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c values are mentioned throughout t h i s chapter, a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d on f o u r s e t s o r c a t e g o r i e s of v a l u e s , those b e i n g : ( i ) ex-t r l n s i c - p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d - i n t r i n s i c , ( i i ) b u s i n e s s , ( i i i ) i n -dependence, and ( i v ) e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . The f i r s t s e t of v a l u e s , e x t r i n s i c - p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d -i n t r l n s i c , i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n accordance w i t h the f i n d -i n g s of Mo r r i s Rosenberg i n h i s study of c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s 1 -155-v a l u e s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . 1 The l a t t e r found t h a t students g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r more than one v a l u e important i n making an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and t h a t c e r t a i n v a l u e s tend to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n o t h e r v a l u e s . Those p a i r s of v a l u e s which had the h i g h e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s of a s s o -c i a t i o n were f e l t to c o n s t i t u t e major "value o r i e n t a t i o n s " o r " v a l u e - f o c i " which were l a b e l l e d , " p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d , " " e x t r i n s i c - r e w a r d - o r i e n t e d , " and ' f e e l f - e x p r e s s i o n - o r i e n t e d . " I n a d d i t i o n , he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t these v a l u e s c o u l d be arranged a l o n g a continuum a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r l i k e l i h o o d of b e i n g h e l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . He w r i t e s : While i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h c e r t a i n broad o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h e r e i s reason to b e l i e v e t h a t these v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n s are not e n t i r e l y s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t but, r a t h e r , l i n k i n t o one anoth-e r i n a f a i r l y o r d e r l y c h a i n of v a l u e s . T h i s i n t r o -duces the p o s s i b i l i t y of o r d e r i n g these values a l o n g some s o r t of value spectrum; the d i s t a n c e between any two p o i n t s on t h i s spectrum might be c o n s i d e r e d the " p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e " between the o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s . 2 A c c o r d i n g l y , a d j a c e n t v a l u e s tend to be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d ; t h a t i s , they a r e most l i k e l y t o occur t o g e t h e r . Values a t the extremes of the continuum tend t o be neg-a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d and a r e l e a s t l i k e l y t o be h e l d by the same person. Thus, the v a l u e spectrum can be used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e v a l u e complexes espoused by d i f f e r e n t i n -d i v i d u a l s . Rosenberg w r i t e s : T h i s continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e , i t may be noted, ranges from the " s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n " values to the " p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d " values to the " e x t r i n s i c - r e w a r d " v a l u e s . The sequence noted above enables us to see a t a glance the degree of probable mutual e x c l u s i o n and -156-i n c l u s i o n of v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e a l t e r n a t i v e s . The more d i s t a n t people are ..on, t h i s s c a l e , the more r a d i c a l l y opposed a r e t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s l i k e -l y t o be. The s t r o n g e s t v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e Is between those who emphasize the s a t i s f a c t i o n s they w i l l get from the work i t s e l f (work i t s e l f as a g o a l v a l u e ) and those who focus on the rewards they hope to be g i v e n f o r the work they do (work as an I n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e ) . 3 Although the statements designed t o tap e x t r i n s i c , p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d , and i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s i n t h i s study d i f f e r somewhat from those used by Rosenberg, i t i s f e l t t h a t bas-i c a l l y the same dimensions are being e x p l o r e d . The v a l u e s used i n t h i s study l i n k i n t o each o t h e r t o form a continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e , much as Rosenberg r e p o r t s , but t h e r e are some important d i f f e r e n c e s . These w i l l be d i s -cussed i n t h i s c h a p ter. I n a d d i t i o n to the e x t r i n s i c - p e o p l e -o r i e n t e d - i n t r i n s l c v a l u e continuum, h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the E.P.I, value continuum, t h r e e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s of v a l u e s , as a l r e a d y mentioned,: are c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . B u s i n e s s , Independence and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s a r e of p a r t i c u l a r Importance i n the c h o i c e of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . The v a l u e p r o f i l e of pharmacy students i n g e n e r a l Is c o n s i d e r e d i n S e c t i o n A. I n S e c t i o n B, v a l u e s are r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , and i n the f i n a l s e c t i o n , S e c t i o n C, the c h o i c e of f i e l d i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o v a l u e s . Although e i g h t v a l u e s are used i n S e c t i o n A to de-p i c t the E.P.I, value continuum, the number i s reduced f o r the sake of convenience to s i x , two i n each v a l u e o r i e n t a -t i o n , i n S e c t i o n s B and C. I n the l a t t e r two s e c t i o n s ex-t r i n s i c v a l u e s i n c l u d e "good s a l a r y " and " p r e s t i g e , " people--157-o r l e n t e d v a l u e s i n c l u d e "meet the p u b l i c " and " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man," and i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s i n c l u d e " s c i e n t i f i c " and "use a l l knowledge." A) VALUE PROFILE OF PHARMACY STUDENTS F i n d i n g s 1. O c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s I n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , students are g i v e n a l i s t o f n i n e t e e n statements designed t o tap o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s and a r e asked to i n d i c a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of each f o r an o c c u p a t i o n they would c o n s i d e r i d e a l . They are asked to rank each v a l u e i n d i v i d u a l l y i n terms of d e s i r a b i l i t y and to I n d i c a t e i n o r d e r of importance the t h r e e most d e s i r a b l e . Table XXXI shows the t a b u l a t e d responses to t h i s q u e s t i o n . The f i r s t p o i n t to note i s t h a t of the top t h r e e r a n k i n g v a l u e s the f i r s t i s a p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e , the second a s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n or i n t r i n s i c v a l u e , and the t h i r d an e x t r i n s i c v a l u e . Taking i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n Rosenberg*s r e s e a r c h on o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , one might expect to f i n d t h a t the pharmacy student p o p u l a t i o n i s heterogeneous i n composition, s i n c e the t h r e e top r a n k i n g v a l u e s f a l l a t some d i s t a n c e from each o t h e r on the v a l u e continuum; and, a c c o r d i n g to Rosenberg, the l a r g e r the d i s t a n c e between any two v a l u e s on the continuum, the l e s s l i k e l y an i n -d i v i d u a l i s to want to s a t i s f y both v a l u e s . ^ To t e s t whether the pharmacy student p o p u l a t i o n i s heterogeneous, each v a l u e was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h each o t h e r v a l u e . -158-TABLE XXXI RANKING OP OCCUPATIONAL VALUES BY PHARMACY STUDENTS P e r c e n t a g e a S t a t i n g Charac-t e r i s t i c Was: Most Im-p o r t a n t f o r " I n d i f f -An Occupation Which "IDEAL" "Very " F a i r l y e r e n t Would P r o v i d e the . Occupa- D e s i r - D e s i r - U n d e s i r -F o l l o w i n g : t i o n a b l e " a b l e " a b l e " 1. " B e n e f i t f e l l o w man" 18 . 9 56 35 9 2 . "Use a l l knowledge" 18 . 3 61 31 8 3 . "Good s a l a r y " " P r e s t i g e " 13.1 41 48 11 4 . 8.5 39 43 18 5 . " V a r i e t y of t a s k s " 5-9 37 42 21 6 . "Your own boss" 5.6 45 38 17 7. " S e c u r i t y " 4 . 7 52 37 11 8 . "Doesn't encroach on f a m i l y l i f e " 4 . 1 36 43 21 * 9 . " O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r 47 42 advanc ement" 3-5 11 10. " I n t e r e s t i n g 46 41 c o l l e a g u e s " 3.1 13 11. " O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women" 3-0 25 18 57 12. "Meet the p u b l i c " 2.4 i 33 42 25 13. " P r o f e s s i o n and b u s i n e s s " 2.4 20 30 50 14. " S c i e n t i f i c " 2.2 28 50 22 15. " P e r s o n a l l i f e f r e e of c o n f o r m i t y " 1.8 28 38 34 16. " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " 1.5 26 51 23 17- " L e a d e r s h i p " .4 17 38 45 18. " H i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e " . 3 9 31 60 19. "Merchandis i ng and s e l l i n g " .2 8 25 67 Not a l l students answered a l l q u e s t i o n s . P e r c e n t -ages are based on the number of responses. Except f o r one q u e s t i o n , that p e r t a i n i n g t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women, the number of "no answers" was l e s s than s i x p e r c e n t . -159-Of the 153 p o s s i b l e p a i r s of values -^, twelve are c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e by 80 per cent o r more of the s t u d e n t s ; of these, two are combinations of values b e l o n g i n g to the same v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n , but s i x a r e combinations of v a l u e s b e l o n g i n g t o d i f f e r e n t v a l u e - f o c i . Of the l a t t e r s i x p a i r s of v a l u e s , two are combinations of e x t r i n s i c and p e o p l e -o r i e n t e d v a l u e s , two are combinations of p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d and i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , w h i l e the remaining two p a i r s i n v o l v e combinations of e x t r i n s i c and i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s . Each of the remaining f o u r p a i r s of the twelve c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e by,80 p e r cent of the students i n c l u d e s e i t h e r an e x t r i n s i c , p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d , o r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e combined w i t h the v a l u e , " o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement," a v a l u e which i s not c l a s s -i f i e d I n terms of the continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e . The p a i r s of v a l u e s which are most s t r o n g l y , h e l d by pharmacy students are v a l u e s which are not n e c e s s a r i l y ad-j a c e n t each o t h e r on the v a l u e continuum. Por example, students who are concerned w i t h " s a l a r y , " an e x t r i n s i c v a l u e , are most l i k e l y t o be concerned w i t h " b e n e f i t i n g one's f e l l o w man," a p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e , and " u s i n g a l l knowledge," an i n t r i n s i c v a l u e . Values which are psycho-l o g i c a l l y d i s t a n t , as f a r as Rosenberg's v a l u e continuum i s concerned, a r e h e l d c o n c o m i t a n t l y by pharmacy s t u d e n t s . Thus, the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole i s homogeneous, but the v a l u e p r o f i l e i s i n t e r n a l l y ambivalent. T h i s r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s as t o whether a continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e a p p l i e s t o pharmacy s t u d e n t s . To - 1 6 0 -t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l -a t e d f o r e i g h t v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the th r e e v a l u e - f o c i , e x t r i n s i c , p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d , and i n t r i n s i c . These are shown i n Table XXXII. The f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y support the n o t i o n TABLE XXXII CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF OCCUPATIONAL VALUES: EXTRINSIC, PEOPLE-ORIENTED, AND INTRINSIC E x t r i n s i c P e o p l e - o r i e n t e d I n t r i n s i c I n t e r - Use B e n e f i t e s t i n g S c i - A l l Secur- P r e s - -iMeet F e l l o w C o l l - e n t i f - Knowl-S a l a r y i t y t i g e P u b l i c Man eagues i c edge S a l a r y S e c u r i t y +.351 P r e s t i g e +.303 +.246 — Meet p u b l i c +.182 +.231 +.218 B e n e f i t f e l l -ow man +.125 +.245 +.181 +.251 I n t e r -e s t i n g c o l l -eagues +.160 +.256 +.229 +.268 +.221 — S c i -e n t i f -i c +.114 +.269 +.151 +.150 +.259 +.304 — Use a l l knowl-edge +.O65 +.099 +.098 +.180 +.230 +.278 +.388 -161-of a value continuum, w i t h a d j a c e n t values having the h i g h -e s t p o s i t i v e degree of a s s o c i a t i o n . But there are some p o i n t s t o note: the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are low and t h e r e are no n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s . T h i s s u b s t a n t i a t e s f u r t h e r the i d e a t h a t pharmacy students are a homogeneous group and h o l d v a l u e s which, a c c o r d i n g to Rosenberg's value continuum, are ambivalent. F o r pharmacy students i t i s not a matter of b e i n g e i t h e r i n t r i n s i c - o r i e n t e d , p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d , o r e x t r i n s i c - o r i e n t e d : I t i s a matter of b e i n g a l i t t l e of each. D i s c u s s i o n I f v a l u e s are c r i t e r i a by which d e c i s i o n s are made, then one would expect to f i n d the c h o i c e of pharmacy as a c a r e e r r e f l e c t e d i n the v a l u e p r o f i l e of the s t u d e n t s . S t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n s h o u l d be somewhat congruent w i t h the v a l u e s they want to r e a l i z e . A t l e a s t some of the more important v a l u e s s h o u l d be viewed as r e a l i z a b l e i n the c a r e e r c h o i c e . Students were asked to i n d i c a t e the accuracy of n i n e -t e e n statements, s i m i l a r t o those used to tap o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , i n d e s c r i b i n g the p r a c t i c e of pharmacy (see Ques-t i o n 34 of the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , Appendix A ) . Answers to these statements are regarded as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p e r -c e p t i o n s students have of the p r o f e s s i o n . The f i n d i n g s r e -v e a l t h a t these p e r c e p t i o n s do not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y by s o c i a l background f a c t o r s or sources of i n f l u e n c e . Students g e n e r a l l y respond as a group. Table XXXIII shows the p r o -- 1 6 2 -TABLE XXXIII OCCUPATIONAL VALUES AND PERCEPTIONS OF PHARMACY Percentage Considering Occupational Value "Very De- "Very or P e r c e p t i o n s i r a b l e " Accurate" D i f f e r e n c e 1 1 . "Use a l l knowledge" 61 24 37 2 . " B e n e f i t f e l l o w man" 56 52 4 3 . " S e c u r i t y " 52 52 0 4 . "Opportunities f o r 47 advancement" 27 20 ' " I n t e r e s t i n g 46 36 c o l l e a g u e s " 10 . 6 . "Your own boss" 45 40 5 7- "Good s a l a r y " 41 12 29 8. " P r e s t i g e " 39 33 6 9 . " V a r i e t y of tasks". 37 46 9 10 . "Doesn*t encroach on f a m i l y l i f e " 36 12 24 11. "Meet the p u b l i c " 33 77 12 . " S c i e n t i f i c " 28 45 17 13 . "Personal l i f e f r e e of conformity" 28 11 17 14. " R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " 26 63 37 15 . " P r o f e s s i o n and business" 20 67 47 16. "Leadership" 17 25 8 17. "Highly competitive " 9 75 66 18. "Merchandising and 69 s e l l i n g " 8 77 19. "Opportuni t i e s 56 67 f o r women"a 9 f e m a l e respondents o n l y . p o r t i o n of students regarding each statement as "very accurate" compared w i t h the corresponding p r o p o r t i o n r e -garding each as "very d e s i r a b l e " f o r an i d e a l c a reer. I n other words, values are compared w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s , and the d i f f e r e n c e between the proportions responding p o s i t i v e --163-l y t o the v a l u e and p e r c e p t i o n i s shown f o r each charac-t e r i s t i c . The three o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s to which pharmacy s t u d -ents a r e most i n d i f f e r e n t , o r those which they h o l d n e g a t i v e -l y , a r e , e x c l u d i n g " o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women" which i s a s p e c i a l case, "merchandising and s e l l i n g , " " h i g h l y com-p e t i t i v e , " a n d " p r o f e s s i o n and b u s i n e s s " (see Table XXXI). Yet as Table XXXIII i n d i c a t e s , the v a s t m a j o r i t y of s t u d -ents p e r c e i v e pharmacy as an o c c u p a t i o n which i n v o l v e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of merchandising and s e l l i n g , Is h i g h -l y , c o m p e t i t i v e , and i s regarded as a p r o f e s s i o n and b u s i -n e s s . Prom the same table, i t can be seen t h a t pharmacy students v a l u e h i g h l y the o p p o r t u n i t y to "use a l l knowledge," but do not r e g a r d the p r o f e s s i o n as a l l o w i n g f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s v a l u e . One t h i n g seems c l e a r , and t h a t i s t h a t the pharmacy student v a l u e p r o f i l e i s not t o t a l l y congruent w i t h student p e r c e p t i o n s of the p r o f e s s i o n . However, a d i s p a r i t y between p e r c e p t i o n and value i s not found I n a l l cases, and t h i s v e r y f a c t may a l l o w f o r a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n concerning the values which most s t r o n g l y motivate the student to choose pharmacy as a c a r e e r . I t i s f e l t t h a t the s m a l l e r the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o -p o r t i o n h o l d i n g a value s t r o n g l y and the p r o p o r t i o n main-t a i n i n g the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e p t i o n , the more l i k e l y the v a l u e i s to a c t as a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r f o r the s t u d e n t s , t h a t i s , of course, i f the v a l u e i s important i n the f i r s t p l a c e . With t h i s type of comparison i t can be s a i d t h a t - 1 6 4 -pharmacy students a r e most s t r o n g l y motivated by the f o l l o w -i n g v a l u e s : " s e c u r i t y , " " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man," "your own boss," and " p r e s t i g e , " and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , " v a r i e t y and d i v e r s i t y of t a s k s " and " i n t e r e s t i n g c o l l e a g u e s . " Put i n oth e r words, pharmacy students hope t o d e r i v e from the pr o -f e s s i o n s e c u r i t y , independence ("your own b o s s " ) , and p r e s -t i g e , as w e l l as the s a t i s f a c t i o n from performing a s e r v i c e t o o thers ( " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man"), but a r e w i l l i n g to com-promise t h e i r d e s i r e t o make f u l l use of t h e i r knowledge, t r a i n i n g , a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advance-ment, and a good s a l a r y . I n a d d i t i o n , they a re w i l l i n g t o put up w i t h such u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as merch-a n d i s i n g and s e l l i n g and c o m p e t i t i o n . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , men and women have s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r v a l u e p r o f i l e s , a lthough there are some Important d i f f e r e n c e s . Women are l e s s concerned w i t h the v a l u e s , "your own boss" (independence),and"opportunities f o r ad-vancement," and hence, are l e s s motivated by the former ' and l e s s compromising of the l a t t e r . I n a d d i t i o n , women a r e - s t r o n g l y motivated by o p p o r t u n i t i e s which the pr o -f e s s i o n p r e s e n t e d f o r members of the female sex. Other d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes a re d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . Another problem t h a t needs t o be d i s c u s s e d here i s t h a t of the value continuum. The f i n d i n g s show t h a t the E.P.I, val u e s of pharmacy students g e n e r a l l y " l i n k i n t o " each o t h e r t o form a continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e -165-as suggested by Rosenberg and a s s o c i a t e s , but t h a t pharmacy students tend t o h o l d p o s i t i v e l y v a l u e s which are some d i s t a n c e from each o t h e r on the va l u e continuum, suggest-i n g t h a t the E.P.I, value p r o f i l e of these students i s somewhat ambivalent. The i n t e r n a l ambivalence of the pharmacy student v a l u e p r o f i l e has to i t a p a t h o l o g i c a l tone. Yet I t may be p r e c i s e l y t h i s type of va l u e p r o f i l e which f i n d s ex-p r e s s i o n i n c e r t a i n types of o c c u p a t i o n s . I f McCormick i s c o r r e c t i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t the pharmacist i n h i s work environment i s caught between the cr o s s p r e s s u r e s of a 6 p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c and a commercial code , i t may w e l l be t h a t an I n d i v i d u a l w i t h an ambivalent v a l u e p r o f i l e might b e s t be a b l e to a f f e c t a s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n of such a dilemma. But, l f c e r t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d occupations a l l o w f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of values which a r e some d i s t a n c e from each o t h e r on the va l u e continuum, need the va l u e p r o f i l e of i n d i v i d u a l s choosing such occupations be thought of as ambivalent? There i s some evidence t o support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t pharmacists do not sense an ambivalence about t h e i r work and, i n f a c t , r e g a r d the d u a l i t y of t h e i r r o l e as an a s s e t . F o r example: Today, the pharmacist must b l e n d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n -i n g w i t h commercial n e c e s s i t y I n e x e r c i s i n g p r o f e -s s i o n a l management of h i s pharmacy. The pharmacist . . . has a major advantage over most o t h e r r e t a i l -ers i n t h a t he can f u l l y u t i l i z e h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y i n r e a c h i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h the customers.' . -166-Th e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which go to make a good p r o f e s s i o n a l man, when a p p l i e d to commercialism w i l l produce one of the b e s t commercial p r o f e s s i o n a l s , o r the most p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m m e r c l a l i s t s • • • • Not too many businessmen c o u l d become p r o f e s s i o n a l s I n the t r u e sense or the academic sense of the word! But many p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d become businessmen by ex-t e n d i n g to commercial o p e r a t i o n s the b a s i c elements which make them s u c c e s s f u l p r o f e s s i o n a l s . " The p r e c e d i n g a l s o seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t the pharmacist does not compartmentalize what are thought to be ambivalent v a l u e s , but r a t h e r , uses each f o r the s u c c e s s f u l r e a l i z a -t i o n of the o t h e r . I t i s suggested t h a t - t h e v a l u e s h e l d by pharmacy students are e x p e r i e n c e d as a coherent s e t and f i n d e x p r e s s i o n as such I n the p r o f e s s i o n chosen. The p r e c e d i n g of course r a i s e s some qu e s t i o n s about Rosenberg's continuum of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e . I t seems t h a t Rosenberg f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t v a l u e p r o f i l e s can v a r y i n the extent t o which they are "focused" or " d i s -p e r s e d " over the value continuum. While some, perhaps most, p r o f i l e s tend to I n c l ude v a l u e s which are a d j a c e n t to each o t h e r and cover a l i m i t e d range of the continuum, others may be spread over a l a r g e r s e c t o r . I n the case of pharmacy the v a l u e p r o f i l e tends to "span" the e n t i r e continuum or a good p o r t i o n of i t , and i t may be t h i s v e r y f a c t t h a t draws such students i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n such as pharmacy which i s comprised of d i v e r s e elements. That some I n d i v i d u a l s o r groups are more " v a l u e -f o c u s e d " than others can be seen i n Rosenberg's own study. The l a t t e r r e s e a r c h e r p o i n t s out t h a t the c h o i c e of occu-p a t i o n by c o l l e g e students i s r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n a l - 1 6 7 -v a l u e s , t h a t students choosing d i f f e r e n t occupations have d i f f e r e n t weighted average scores f o r each of the v a l u e -f o c i . Thus, those choosing a r c h i t e c t u r e , journalism-drama, o r a r t have the h i g h e s t scores f o r " s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n o r i e n t -ed" ( i . e . , i n t r i n s i c ) v a l u e s , w h i l e those e x p e c t i n g t o e n t e r s o c i a l work, medicine, o r t e a c h i n g have the h i g h e s t s c o r e s f o r " p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d " v a l u e s , and those p l a n n i n g c a r e e r s i n r e a l e s t a t e - f i n a n c e , h o t e l - f o o d , o r s a l e s - p r o -9 motion sco r e h i g h e s t on " e x t r i n s i c - r e w a r d " v a l u e s . What Rosenberg f a i l s t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o i s the f a c t t h a t s t u d -ents d i f f e r i n the extent to which they s t r e s s one v a l u e -o r i e n t a t i o n over another, t h a t i s , i n the extent t o which they a r e v a l u e - f o c u s e d . F o r example, students p l a n n i n g t o e n t e r a r c h i t e c t u r e tend t o s t r e s s i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s w i t h weighted average s c o r e s of 5»78, 2 . 5 3 , and 2 .40 f o r the I n t r i n s i c , p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d , and e x t r i n s i c v a l u e f o c i , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Those choosing s o c i a l work a r e a l s o v a l u e -f o c u s e d , emphasizing p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s w i t h scores of 3 » 8 l , 5»33» and 1 .33 f o r the r e s p e c t i v e v a l u e - o r i e n t a -t i o n s . However, students p l a n n i n g c a r e e r s i n law and p e r -s o n n e l work tend t o d i s p e r s e t h e i r v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s . Lawyers have weighted average scores of 3»34 , 3«26, and 3*98 f o r the three v a l u e - f o c i , w h i l e those e n t e r i n g p e r -s o n n e l work s c o r e 3 * 0 9 , 3»64 and 3*59 f o r the same v a l u e s . The l a t t e r two groups tend t o h o l d e q u a l l y s t r o n g l y each of the three v a l u e - f o c i . One must conclude from t h i s t h a t e i t h e r these groups are heterogeneous i n compo s i t i o n o r - 1 6 8 -v a l u e - d i s p e r s e d . The l a t t e r seems to be the most p l a u s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n , i n view of the d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the p r e s e n t w r i t e r wishes to i n t r o d u c e a new concept, t h a t of "value energy." I t i s suggested t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l has a g i v e n amount of energy i n v e s t e d i n v a l u e s which he can c o n c e n t r a t e on a s m a l l s e c t o r of the continuum, to which he becomes t o t a l l y com-m i t t e d , o r d i s p e r s e over a l a r g e r range w i t h p r o p o r t i o n a t e -l y l e s s commitment to any one v a l u e or v a l u e - o r i e n t a t i o n . I t i s f e l t t h a t the r e l a t i v e d i s p e r s i o n o f v a l u e energy t o g e t h e r w i t h the g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n of the v a l u e s on the eontlnuum are both r e l a t e d to o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . C e r t a i n occupations a l l o w f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of a wide range of v a l u e s , pharmacy being a case i n p o i n t , w h i l e others r e -q u i r e s t r o n g commitment to a l i m i t e d range of v a l u e s . I t i s hoped t h a t by p o i n t i n g out the problem of v a l u e d i s p e r -s i o n the a n a l y t i c u t i l i t y of the value continuum might be expanded. . Although the pharmacy student p o p u l a t i o n as a whole i s r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t to E.P.I, v a l u e s , students do d i f f e r somewhat i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l values they h o l d , and these d i f f e r e n c e s are important i n a f f e c t -i n g the c h o i c e of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . The next s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h such d i f f e r e n c e s . -169-B) VALUES AND SOCIAL BACKGROUND FACTORS F i n d i n g s 1. Sex With r e s p e c t to E.P.I, v a l u e s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences can be found between males and females. D i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes are to be found p r i m a r i l y i n terms of b u s i n e s s , independence and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e shown i n Tables XXXIV and XXXV. TABLE XXXIV SEX AND OCCUPATIONAL VALUES: BUSINESS AND INDEPENDENCE "t Percentage 8 , S t a t i n g Value Was "Very" o r " F a i r l y " Important i n Career D e c i s i o n Value Males Females Business A) " C o n s i d e r a b l e merchandising and s e l l i n g " B) "A p r o f e s s i o n and business Ihdependence C) "Your own boss" 38 56 ...87 23 39 72 a N o t a l l students answered a l l the q u e s t i o n s . The percentages a r e based on the number of r e p l i e s t o each q u e s t i o n and range from 832 to 856 f o r males, and from 405 to 407 f o r females. A) X^ = B) X , = C) X 2 = 27.833« d.f. 3 1 . 9 2 9 : d.f. 42 . 0 6 7 : d.f. 1: P<.001 1; P<.001 1: K . 0 0 1 -170-As can be seen from these t a b l e s , males are more concerned than females w i t h an occupation t h a t i n v o l v e s considerable "merchandising and s e l l i n g " (38 per cent compared w i t h 23 per cent) and one th a t i s both a "pro-f e s s i o n and business" (56 per cent compared w i t h 39 per c e n t ) , although i t must be remembered th a t these values are not s t r o n g l y h e l d by a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the s t u d -e n t s . Males a l s o regard more h i g h l y the opportunity to be independent ("your own bo s s " ) , w i t h 87 per cent com-pared w i t h 72 per cent responding f a v o r a b l y to t h i s v a l u e . TABLE XXXV SEX AND ENTREPRENEURIAL VALUES . Percentage D e s i r i n g to "Own and. Operate a Pharmacy" T o t a l Sex "Yes" "No" "Not Sure" Cases Males 62 11 27 896 Females 26 48 26 421 X 2 = 244.699: d.f. = 2: P<.001 I t i s important to note t h a t n e a r l y two and one-h a l f times as many males as females want to own and op-erate a pharmacy and over f o u r times as many females as males d e f i n i t e l y do not want to engage i n such e n t r e -p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y . I n general i t can be s a i d t h a t males h o l d business, -171-independence, and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s more s t r o n g l y than do females 2 . Socio-economic s t a t u s I t i s important t o note t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences c o u l d be found among the s o c i a l c l a s s e s w i t h r e s p e c t to any of the f o u r types of o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s . 3« R e l i g i o n The weighted average s c o r e 1 0 f o r each of the E.P.I, val u e s i s shown i n Table XXXVI f o r each of the three main r e l i g i o u s groups. I t w i l l be seen from t h i s t a b l e t h a t P r o t e s t a n t s , compared wi t h o t h e r s , tend to h o l d e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s , w i t h the h i g h e s t weighted average scor e f o r " s a l a r y , " second h i g h e s t f o r " p r e s t i g e , " "meet the p u b l i c , " and " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man," and the lowest scores f o r " s c i e n t i f i c " and "use a l l knowledge." Roman C a t h o l i c s , on the ot h e r hand, tend t o be o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c v alues w i t h the low-e s t s c o r e s f o r " s a l a r y , " " p r e s t i g e , " and "meet the p u b l i c , " and the h i g h e s t s c o r e s f o r " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man" and "use a l l knowledge." Jewish students have the h i g h e s t scores f o r " p r e s t i g e , " "meet the p u b l i c , " and " s c i e n t i f i c , " and the lowest s c o r e s f o r " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man." With r e s p e c t t o E.P.I, values the d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s groups a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s : P r o t e s t a n t s — p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d toward e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s w i t h a f a i r l y h i g h concern f o r the p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s , " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man" and "meet the p u b l i c . " -172-TABLE XXXVI RELIGION* AND WEIGHTED AVERAGE SCORES ON OCCUPATIONAL VALUES: EXTRINSIC, PEOPLE-ORIENTED, INTRINSIC E x t r i n s i c People- •oriented I n t r i n s i c " S a l a r y " " P r e s t i g e " "Meet P u b l i c " " B e n e f i t F e l l o w Man"- , "Use " S c i e n - A l l t i f l c " Knowledge" P-1.74 J-1.70 J-1.33 C-2.08 J-1.28 C-2.26 J-1.61 P-1.64 P-1.29 P-1.98 C-l.23 J-1.83 C-1.60 . C-1.29 C-l.03 J-1.69 P-1.09 P-1.82 Chi-square t e s t s performed on o r i g i n a l frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s ; d . f . = 12 I n each case; " s a l a r y " X 2 = 9.929: P<.70; " p r e s t i g e " X 2 = 63.463: P<.001; "meet p u b l i c " X 2 = 24.160: P<.02; " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man" X 2 » 24.211: P<.02; " s c i e n t i f i c " Xd = 16.832: P<.20; "use a l l knowledge" X* = 43.306: P<.001. a C = C a t h o l i c J = Jewish P a P r o t e s t a n t Roman C a t h o l i c s — p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e concern f o r the peop l e -o r i e n t e d v a l u e , " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man." J e w i s h — o r i e n t e d toward e x t r i n s i c values and one of the p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s , "meet the p u b l i c . " T h i s group i s a l s o concerned w i t h the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e , " s c i e n t i f i c " and i n t h i s r e s p e e t tends t o be bimodal. Although students w i t h d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s back-grounds vary i n terms of E.P.I, v a l u e s , d i f f e r e n c e s with -173-r e s p e c t t o bus i n e s s and independence val u e s are not over-l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Roman C a t h o l i c s tend to be s l i g h t l y more concerned than others w i t h business values and Jewish s t u d -ents show a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r independence, but the d i f f e r e n c e s f a l l t o a t t a i n the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . However, d i f f e r e n c e s are ob-s e r v e d among the r e l i g i o u s groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o e n t r e -p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . Table XXXVII shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and the d e s i r e to own and operate a pharm-acy. , . TABLE XXXVII RELIGION AND ENTREPRENEURIAL VALUES R e l i g i o n Percentage D e s i r i n g to Own and Operate . a Pharmacy . T o t a l Cases Roman C a t h o l i c 64 430 Jewish 55 106 P r o t e s t a n t 42 619 Other 46 46 X 2 = 55 .126: d.f. a 6: P<.001 From t h i s t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c s a r e most concerned w i t h e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s , w i t h near-l y t w o - t h i r d s of the group wanting t o own arid operate a pharmacy. S l i g h t l y more than one-half of the Jewish s t u d -ents c o n s i d e r ownership d e s i r a b l e , but t h i s v a l u e i s pos--174-i t i v e l y h e l d by only 42 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s . S i n c e the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of Roman C a t h o l i c s a t t e n d pharmacy sc h o o l s i n the p r o v i n c e of Quebec, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the f a c t o r of geographic r e g i o n may be respon-s i b l e f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s observed.' Table XXXVIII c o n t r o l s f o r t h i s f a c t o r and shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and the d e s i r e t o own and operate a pharmacy e x c l u d i n g the p r o v i n c e of Quebec. I t w i l l be seen t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p TABLE XXXVIII RELIGION AND ENTREPRENEURIAL VALUES OF PHARMACY STUDENTS IN CANADA EXCEPT QUEBEC R e l i g i o n Percentage D e s i r i n g to Own and Operate a Pharmacy T o t a l Cases Roman C a t h o l i c 54 167 Jewish 44 79 P r o t e s t a n t 42 616 Other 47 45 X 2 = 12.697* d . f . = 6: P<.05 p r e v i o u s l y noted s t i l l h o l d s , but t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of Roman C a t h o l i c s and Jewish students wanting t o own and operate a pharmacy d e c l i n e s from 64 per cent t o 54 per cent f o r the former and from 55 per cent t o 44 per cent f o r the l a t t e r . T h i s means t h a t of the 26-1 Roman Cath-o l i c s i n Quebec, 186 or 71 per cent-want to own and -175-operate a pharmacy. S i m i l a r l y , of the 27 Jewish students i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , 23 or 85 per cent consider ownership d e s i r a b l e . Geographic r e g i o n i s no doubt an important f a c t o r i n the d e s i r e to own and operate a pharmacy, but i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h i s , Roman C a t h o l i c s , more so than Jew-i s h students and P r o t e s t a n t s , consider ownership d e s i r a b l e . 4. Urban-rural residence Except f o r one of the E.P.I, v a l u e s , students coming from d i f f e r e n t - s i z e d centers of p o p u l a t i o n have b a s i c a l l y the same value p r o f i l e . Students coming from farms or r u r -a l d i s t r i c t s are more i n c l i n e d to h o l d the v a l u e , " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man" than are students from towns and c i t i e s . Of those from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , 28 per cent consider t h i s value most Important, compared w i t h 20 per cent of those from towns, 17 per cent of those from s m a l l c i t i e s , and 16 per cent of those from l a r g e c i t i e s . Thus, the g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e i s between those coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l o t h e r s . The former are more con-cerned w i t h an o c c u p a t i o n which i s "very u s e f u l and import-ant to s o c i e t y i n general and i n which you can d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t your f e l l o w man" than the l a t t e r . 5. Geographic r e g i o n The weighted average score f o r each of the E.P.I, values i s shown i n Table XXXIX f o r students a t t e n d i n g the v a r i o u s schools of pharmacy. I f the f o u r schools w i t h the highest scores f o r each value are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the f o u r schools w i t h the lowest s c o r e s , the f o l l o w i n g -176-TABLE XXXIX SCHOOL OF REGISTBATION^ AND OCCUPATIONAL VALUES EXTRINSIC, PEOPLE-ORIENTED, INTRINSIC E x t r i n s i c P e o p l e - • o r i e n t e d I n t r i n s i c " S a l a r y " " P r e s t i g e " "Meet P u b l i c " " B e n e f i t F e l l o w Man" " S c i e n -t i f i c " "Use A l l Knowledge" D-2.05 D-1.90 A-1.33 L-2.16 L-1.35 L-2 .38 A-1.95 M-1.82 S-1.33 T-2.09 T-1.28 Mt -2 .35 B-1.82 B-1.78 T-1.21 S-2.04 Mt-1 .26 T-1.98 M-1.75 A-1.66 D-1.19 M-2.03 M-1.21 M-1.91 S-1.72 T-1.62 M-l . 17 D-2.02 B-1.09 A-1.90 Mt-1 .58 S-1.58 B - l . l l A-1.99 A-1 .03 S-1.79 T-1.52 Mt- .99 Mt-1 .00 Mt-1 .97 S-1 .02 B-1.78 L - l . 5 1 L- .78 L- .88 B-1.59 D- .88 D-l.77 C h i - s q u a r e t e s t s p e r f o r m e d on o r i g i n a l f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s ; d . f . = 28 i n each c a s e ; " s a l a r y " X 2 = 49 . 5 2 5 : P<»01; " p r e s t i g e " X 2 = 152.403: P<.001; "meet p e o p l e " X 2 = 45.386: P<.05; " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man" X 2 == 51.758: P<.01; " s c i e n t i f i c " X 2 = 51.245: P<.01; "use a l l knowledge" X 2 = 62.408: P<.001. a A = U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a B = U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia D ss D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y L s= L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y M =s U n i v e r s i t y o f Ma n i t o b a Mt == U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t r e a l S s= U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan T ss U n i v e r s i t y o f Toro n t o - 1 7 7 -g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made: 1. Dalhousle U n i v e r s i t y - - S t u d e n t s a t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y -tend t o be o r i e n t e d toward e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s , hav-i n g the h i g h e s t scores f o r " s a l a r y " and " p r e s t i g e " and the lowest scores f o r " s c i e n t i f i c " and "use a l l knowledge." 2. L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y — S t u d e n t s a t t h i s u n i v e r s i t y are o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e concern f o r one o f i t h e p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s , " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man." These students have the lowest scores f o r " s a l a r y , " " p r e s t i g e , " and "meet the p u b l i c , " and the h i g h e s t scores f o r the r e -maining three v a l u e s . 3. U n i v e r s i t y of M o n t r e a l — S t u d e n t s here tend to be o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , being among the bottom f o u r s c h o o l s w i t h r e s p e c t to e x t r i n s i c and p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s and among the top f o u r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the remainder. 4. U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o — S t u d e n t s a t t h i s s c h o o l tend to be concerned w i t h p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d and i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , being among the top f o u r s c h o o l s i n these two c a t e g o r i e s . 5» U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a — E x c e p t f o r the value "meet the p u b l i c , " t h i s s c h o o l i s among the top f o u r w i t h r e s p e c t to every v a l u e . However, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i n f o u r of the f i v e cases, students a t t h i s s c h o o l have the lowest s c o r e of the top f o u r . These -178-students might he characterized as "medium" with respect to o r i e n t a t i o n toward E.P.I, values. 6. University of Saskatchewan—Students at t h i s school tend to hold people-oriented values.* 7» University of Alberta—Students here tend to be e x t r i n s i c value oriented. They are also concerned with "meet the pu b l i c , " the value f o r which they have the highest score. 8 . University of B r i t i s h Columbia—^Students at t h i s school are e x t r i n s i c value oriented. Students at d i f f e r e n t schools of pharmacy vary some-what with respect to business values. Those attending the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the province of Quebec, Dalhousle Univers-i t y , and the University of Alberta tend to be oriented toward business values more so than those attending other schools. With respect to independence values, some d i f f e r -ences are observed among the schools, but the differences are not quite s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . However, im-portant differences can be seen with respect to entre-preneurial values. Table XL shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween desire to own and operate a pharmacy and school of r e g i s t r a t i o n . I t w i l l be.seen from this table that the proportion of students p o s i t i v e l y holding t h i s value Is considerably higher at the French-speaking u n i v e r s i t i e s and Dalhousie. Approximately two-thirds of the students at these schools consider ownership desirable. In the remaining schools -179-TABLE XL SCHOOL OF REGISTRATION AND ENTREPRENEURIAL VALUES Percentage D e s i r i n g Pharmacy Students to Own and Operate T o t a l A t t e n d i n g a Pharmacy Cases U. of B.C. 46 127 U. of A l b e r t a 43 173 U. of Saskatchewan 49 188 U. of Manitoba 36 95 U. of Toronto 39 355 L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y 64 55 U. of Montreal 70 274 Dalhousle U n i v e r s i t y 68 .... 68 X z = 102.015: d . f . m 1 4 : P<.001 the p r o p o r t i o n wanting to own and operate a pharmacy v a r -i e s from 36 to 49 per c e n t . 6. Achieved c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Two of the E.P.I, v a l u e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h s c h o o l grades. These a r e : "meet the p u b l i c " and " s c i e n t i f i c * " I n g e n e r a l , the h i g h e r the grades, the l e s s l i k e l y one i s to h o l d the v a l u e , "meet the p u b l i c , " and the more l i k e l y he i s to be concerned w i t h " s c i e n t i f i c " v a l u e s • High s c h o o l grades are a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h b u s i n e s s v a l u e s . I n g e n e r a l those w i t h h i g h grades a r e l e s s l i k e l y to be concerned w i t h business v a l u e s . -180-Th e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the v a l u e of independence and h i g h s c h o o l grades i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l , a l though a t r e n d i s observed. The t r e n d I n d i c a t e s t h a t the lower the grades the more important i s the value of independence• Of i n t e r e s t i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i g h s c h o o l grades and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s which i s shown i n Table X L I . I t can be seen t h a t the h i g h e r the grades the l e s s l i k e l y i s an i n d i v i d u a l t o want to own and operate a phar-macy. While s l i g h t l y more than t w o - f i f t h s of those w i t h grades of 90 to 100 per cent want to own and operate a pharmacy, over two-thirds of those w i t h grades below 60 p e r cent c o n s i d e r ownership d e s i r a b l e . I n g e n e r a l those w i t h h i g h grades are more l i k e l y to want a Job which r e q u i r e s "good knowledge of s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c method," and are l e s s l i k e l y to be con-cerned w i t h meeting the p u b l i c , owning and o p e r a t i n g a pharmacy, or merchandising and s e l l i n g . With r e s p e c t to o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , no s i g -n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are found between t h i s f a c t o r and any of the E.P.I, v a l u e s , business v a l u e s , o r the value of independence. However, some d i f f e r e n c e s a r e observed w i t h r e s p e c t to the d e s i r e to own and operate a pharmacy. I n g e n e r a l the g r e a t e r the extent of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t -ance, the g r e a t e r i s the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l c o n s i d e r ownership of a pharmacy d e s i r a b l e . While 63 per cent of those w i t h parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n want -181-TABLE.XLI HIGH SCHOOL GRADES AND ENTREPRENEURIAL VALUES Percentage D e s i r i n g to Own and Operate a Pharmacy High School Grades i n B a s i c Sciences "Yes" "No" HNot Sure" T o t a l Cases 90 - 100 % 42 46 12 33 80 - 89 46 30 24 263 7 0 - 7 9 50 21 28 588 6 0 - 6 9 53 20 28 397 50 - 59 .68 10 22 41 No answer — — 9 T o t a l 50 23 27 1331 X 2 = 28.396: d.f. = 8: P<.001 to own and operate a pharmacy, only 51 per cent of those w i t h r e l a t i v e s and 48 per cent of those w i t h n e i t h e r par-ents nor r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n . c o n s i d e r such owner-s h i p d e s i r a b l e . The s i t u a t i o n w i t h respect to p r a c t i c a l experience i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as that w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t -ance. While.no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r a c t i c a l experience and any of the E.P.I, v a l u e s , business v a l u e s , or the value of independence are to be found, d i f f e r e n c e s are observed w i t h respect to e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . The gr e a t e r the amount of p r a c t i c a l experience gained p r i o r -182-t o e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l the g r e a t e r i s the d e s i r e to own and operate a pharmacy. Of those w i t h more than one year of experi e n c e , 64 per cent want to own and operate a pharmacy, compared w i t h 47 per cent of those w i t h one year o r l e s s , and 45 p e r cent of those w i t h no p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . F i n d i n g s c oncerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and value s have been p r e s e n t e d i n the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n . To f a c i l i t a t e r e f e r e n c e to these r e l a t i o n s h i p s l a t e r , the f i n d i n g s are summarized i n F i g u r e 5 . D i s c u s s i o n Values a re i n c u l c a t e d d u r i n g the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o -cess and on t h i s account tend to var y w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t u s e s and r o l e s . But d i f f e r e n c e s i n valu e s which are l i k e l y to be found i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , such as those e x i s t i n g between the sexes, may not be as e v i d e n t i n a pu r p o s i v e sample l i k e the one used i n t h i s s t udy. Stud-ents comprising the sample, s i n c e they make the same gen-e r a l c a r e e r c h o i c e , are l i k e l y t o h o l d s i m i l a r v a l u e s r e g a r d l e s s of s t a t u s e s and r o l e s . However, because pharm-acy i s a p r o f e s s i o n made up of a number of r a t h e r d i v e r s e s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s , the valu e s t h a t students h o l d do vary somewhat, and these d i f f e r e n c e s a re r e l a t e d t o the s t a t u s e s and r o l e s of the i n d i v i d u a l . F u r t h e r , s i n c e the student c o m p o s i t i o n v a r i e s w i t h the s c h o o l of r e g i s t r a t i o n , occu-p a t i o n a l values espoused by students vary w i t h geographic -183-F i g u r e 5 Summary of R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between Values and S o c i a l Background F a c t o r s Indepen- Entrepren-S o c i a l Back- E.P.I. Business dence e u r i a l ground F a c t o r s V a l u e s a . Values Values Values Sex Males no s i g . Females d i f f -erence Socio-economic s t a t u s Upper Middle Lower R e l i g i o n P r o t e s t a n t C a t h o l i c Jewish U r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e Farm, r u r a l P-0-2 Town S m a l l c i t y Large c i t y +++ +++ +++ + + + nor. no no s i g . s i g . s i g . d i f f - d i f f - d i f f -erence erence erence no no no no s i g . s i g . s i g . s i g . d i f f . d i f f , d i f f . d i f f . Ex.&P.O. no no +::,.. In.&P-0-2 s i g . s i g . ++.+; Ex.&P-O-l d i f f . d i f f . ++\. &In - l a E x - l = " s a l a r y " ; Ex-2 = " p r e s t i g e " ; P-0-1 = "meet p u b l i c " ; P-0-2 = " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man"; In-1 = " s c i e n t i f i c " ; In-2 = "use a l l knowledge". (+++) = above average (++) = average (+) = below average -184-F i g u r e 5 — C o n t i n u e d Indepen- Entrepren-S o c i a l Back- E.P.I. Business dence e u r i a l ground F a c t o r s V a l u e s * Values Values Values Geographic r e g i o n U. B.C. E x t r i n s i c + D i f f - ++ U. A l b e r t a Ex.&P-O-l +++ erence ++ U. Sask. People-Or. + not ++ U. Manitoba Ex-P-O-In. ++ s i g - + U. Toronto In.&P-Or. + n i f i c a n t + L a v a l U. In.&P-0-2 +++ a t .05 +++ U. Montreal I n t r i n s i c t i » T T T l e v e l of +++ Dalhousie Ex.&P-O-l +++ s i g n i f - +++ i c a n c e High s c h o o l grades High In-1 + d i f f . + ++ not ++ Low P-0-1 +++ s i g . +++ P r a c t i c a l experience More than • one y e a r no no no +++ One year s i g . s i g . s i g . o r l e s s d i f f - d i f f - d i f f - + None erence erence erence + O c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e Parent no no no +++ R e l a t i v e s i g . s i g . s i g . N e i t h e r d i f f . d i f f . d i f f . + Ex-1 = " s a l a r y " ; Ex-2 = " p r e s t i g e " ; P-O-l = "meet p u b l i c " ; . P-0-2 = " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man"; In-1 = " s c i e n t i f i c " ; In-2 = "use a l l knowledge"; = above average = average = below average -185-r e g i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s e v e r a l s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and value s are b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d under the headings of the i n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 1. Sex I n h i s study of values and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , Rosen-berg found t h a t among c o l l e g e students the sexes d i f f e r i n the va l u e s they h o l d , t h a t women, r e l a t i v e l y speaking, a re more p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d , and t h a t men are more e x t r i n s i c - r e -ward oriented." 1"' 1' The f i n d i n g s I n the pre s e n t study do not i n d i c a t e such a r e l a t i o n s h i p and show no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a -t i o n s between the sexes w i t h r e s p e c t to E.P.I, v a l u e s . Male and female pharmacy students a re e q u a l l y concerned w i t h s a l a r y , p r e s t i g e , meeting the p u b l i c , h e l p i n g o t h e r s , s c i e n c e , and an o p p o r t u n i t y to use a l l one's knowledge, t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s . S i n c e E.P.I, values d i f f e r w i t h sex among c o l l e g e students I n g e n e r a l , but hot among pharmacy s t u d e n t s , i t i s c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t the E.P.I, v a l u e p r o f i l e of the l a t t e r group i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the ch o i c e of pharmacy as a p r o f e s s i o n . Although men and women i n pharmacy h o l d the same E.P.I, v a l u e s , they d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o b u s i n e s s , i n -dependence, and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . Men, r e l a t i v e l y s peaking, a re more l i k e l y to h o l d p o s i t i v e l y these v a l u e s ; they more o f t e n want t o own a pharmacy, be "one's own boss," and work a t an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t i s both a p r o f e s s i o n and b u s i n e s s and one t h a t i n v o l v e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of merchandising and s e l l i n g . These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e -186-generally i n accord with Rosenberg's findings, which sug-gest that women do not expect to achieve occupational i n -dependence as independent entrepreneurs or professionals. Women apparently prefer to assume positions which are sub-ject to occupational supervision and domination. 2 . Socio-economic status It i s interesting to note that the occupational values used i n this study are independent of the social class background of the individual. Yet several studies show social class to be an Important determinate of values i n general and occupational values i n p a r t i c u l a r . 1 2 That this i s not the case among pharmacy students seems to i n -dicate that values are significant independent motivating factors and, further, that the particular complex of val-ues held by these students i s related i n an important way to the choice of pharmacy as a profession. 3. Religion , ^ Pharmacy students belonging to different faiths vary with respect to E.P.I, and entrepreneurial values. Prot-estants are primarily oriented toward extrinsic and people-oriented values, but are least l i k e l y of the three major religious groups to want to own and operate a pharmacy. At f i r s t glance this appears to reflect an ambivalence, since entrepreneurial values are positively related with extrinsic values and the value, "meet the public." How-ever, i t is f e l t that the particular distribution of values among Protestant students is due to the greater proportion -187-of women of t h i s r e l i g i o n who, although s h a r i n g e x t r i n s i c and people-oriented values w i t h men, do not want to engage i n e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y . Roman C a t h o l i c s , on the other hand, are o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c values and one of the people-oriented v a l u e s , " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man." I n a d d i t i o n , members of t h i s group are most l i k e l y to want t o own and operate a pharmacy, and t h i s a p p l i e s t o C a t h o l i c s regardless of the province i n which they r e s i d e . I t i s indeed s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d t h a t Roman C a t h o l i c s are most l i k e l y to want to engage i n e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y . I t i s f u r t h e r puzz-l i n g , s i n c e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l values are most n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h p r e c i s e l y those E.P.I, values which C a t h o l i c s h o l d s t r o n g l y . Because of the s t r e n g t h of these r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the C a t h o l i c pharmacy stud -ent p o p u l a t i o n i s heterogeneous i n composition. The only c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be made from the data a v a i l a b l e i s t h a t C a t h o l i c s do h o l d p o s i t i v e l y values which are f e l t by others to be ambivalent. This would seem to e x p l a i n why members of t h i s f a i t h tend to choose p r e s c r i p t i o n pharm-acy as a f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n , a f i e l d which a l l o w s , on the one hand, f o r the expression of i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , and on the other, the ownership of a r e t a i l establishment. While C a t h o l i c s are p r i m a r i l y i n t r i n s i c i n t h e i r value o r i e n t a t i o n , and Pr o t e s t a n t s e x t r i n s i c , Jewish pharmacy students appear t o be bimodal, w i t h h i g h weighted average scores f o r the va l u e s , " p r e s t i g e , " "meet the -188-p u b l i c , " and " s c i e n t i f i c . " I t might a l s o be argued that the E.P.I, value p r o f i l e espoused by Jewish students i s i n -t e r n a l l y ambivalent. However, the l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s l e a s t l i k e l y to be the case, s i n c e when asked to i n d i c a t e the most important o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , Jewish students more o f t e n than others are d i v i d e d between e x t r i n s i c and i n t r i n s -i c v a l u e s . F u r t h e r evidence to support the n o t i o n that Jewish students are bimodal Is seen i n the choice of f i e l d . Whereas Roman C a t h o l i c s tend to e f f e c t a reasonable r e s o l u -t i o n - of an apparent ambivalence i n v o l v i n g i n t r i n s i c and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l values by choosing p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, Jewish student tend to be s p l i t between two choices which l i e a t opposite ends of the profession-business continuum, r e t a i l pharmacy and some "other" f i e l d . * The preceding i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the complex of values h e l d by Jewish students i s f u r t h e r supported by the f i n d -ings concerning e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . As a group Jewish students are more l i k e l y than P r o t e s t a n t s but l e s s l i k e l y than C a t h o l i c s to want to own arid operate a pharmacy. However, when students r e s i d i n g i n Quebec are excluded from the> t a b u l a t i o n , Jewish students resemble P r o t e s t a n t s i n t h e i r concern w i t h e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s , 44 and 42 per cent, r e s p e c t i v e l y , wanting to own and operate a pharm-acy, compared w i t h 5^ per cent of the C a t h o l i c s . Of the Jewish students i n Quebec, 85 per cent consider ownership h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e , compared w i t h 44 per cent of students of Jewish f a i t h throughout the r e s t of.Canada. This would -189-seem to s u b s t a n t i a t e the c l a i m t h a t the Jewish student p o p u l a t i o n i s heterogeneous i n composition, some o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y toward the w o r l d of i d e a s and d e s i r i n g an occu-p a t i o n which r e q u i r e s a "good knowledge of s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c method," and others o r i e n t e d toward the b u s i n e s s world, from which they hope to d e r i v e " p r e s t i g e , " and i n which they expect to- f u n c t i o n as independent entrepreneurs who "meet the p u b l i c and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h the people." 4. U r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e Students coming from d i f f e r e n t - s i z e d communities, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of one v a l u e , " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man," want b a s i c a l l y the same t h i n g s from an o c c u p a t i o n . I t might a l -so be noted t h a t the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t to t h i s v a l u e i s between those coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l o t h e r s , the former more o f t e n r e g a r d i n g the v a l u e h i g h l y . T h i s can be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t r u r a l students are s p a t i a l l y i s o l a t e d from the p r o f e s s i o n and r e l y most h e a v i l y on i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d p h a r m a c e u t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n r e c r u i t m e n t media f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . I t may be on account of the v i r t u a l absence of p r a c t i c e -o r i e n t e d sources t h a t students i n r u r a l a r e a s , who h o l d the afore-mentioned p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d value.,; ,are d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e -l y a t t r a c t e d t o the p r o f e s s i o n . 5« Geographic r e g i o n Students a t t e n d i n g d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s of pharmacy va r y i n the v a l u e s they h o l d , but t h i s v a r i a t i o n can i n no way be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t o r of geographic r e g i o n by i t s e l f . - 1 9 0 -Although many c o n j e c t u r e s can be made about the c o n n e c t i o n between s c h o o l s of pharmacy and v a l u e s , the data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s study cannot s u b s t a n t i a t e any claims to t h i s e f f e c t . However, some i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of these c o r r e l a t i o n s are worth n o t i n g , s i n c e , as w i l l be seen i n Chapter VI, v a l u e s h e l p to e x p l a i n the tendency of students a t the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s of pharmacy to make d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s from the f i e l d s w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Students o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s are more o f t e n found a t the two u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e of Quebec, the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, and to a l e s s e r extent a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba* E x t r i n s i c values, are more o f t e n h e l d by students a t t e n d i n g Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s tend to be h e l d by students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, L a v a l U n i v e r s -i t y , the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, and to a l e s s e r extent a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. Students a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal,, L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , and Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y s t r o n g l y h o l d business v a l u e s , and students a t t e n d i n g the l a t t e r t h r e e u n i v e r s i t i e s a l s o tend to r e g a r d ownership of a pharmacy d e s i r a b l e . 6. A c h i e v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s As the f i n d i n g s I n d i c a t e , students who e n t e r pharmacy s c h o o l w i t h s u p e r i o r academic records are more o f t e n con-cerned w i t h an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s a "good knowledge of s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c method," w h i l e those who e n t e r -191-w l t h lower grades p r e f e r a job where one can "meet the p u b l i c and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h people." The l a t t e r a re a l s o more l i k e l y than the former to espouse business and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . I t seems t h a t those who are a c a d e m i c a l l y i n c l i n e d a re more concerned w i t h the worl d of i d e a s , w h i l e the l e s s capable are more i n v o l v e d w i t h the b u s i n e s s w o r l d . Students who d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t to o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e and p r a c t i c a l experience h o l d b a s i c a l l y the same o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s , except f o r the d e s i r e t o own and operate a pharmacy. I n g e n e r a l ; t h e g r e a t e r the amount of c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n , as d e r i v e d from p r a c t i c a l e xperience o r o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e , the more l i k e l y the i n d i v i d u a l i s t o c o n s i d e r ownership d e s i r a b l e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , by f a r the m a j o r i t y of c o n t a c t s w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n I s w i t h the r e t a i l f i e l d where ownership Is a common e x p e c t a t i o n of pharmacists, e s p e c i a l l y f o r men. Thus, i t i s not too s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n i s r e l a t e d w i t h e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . However, a q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to the d i r e c t i o n of c a u s a t i o n . I s I t t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h the f i e l d l e a d s to the d e s i r e to own and operate a pharmacy, or i s i t t h a t the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l values motivate the i n d i v i d u a l t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n ? With r e g a r d to o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , the former seems to bes t e x p l a i n the c o n n e c t i o n between c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n and v a l u e s . Growing up i n a f a m i l y i n which the f a t h e r Is an independent - 1 9 2 -entrepreneur may w e l l l e a d to the a d o p t i o n of e n t r e p r e n -e u r i a l v a l u e s . However, those who do not experience d i r e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e but who e n t e r pharmacy s c h o o l w i t h more than one year of p r a c t i c a l experience may have been mo t i v a t e d by e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s to e s t a b l i s h t h i s form of c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n the study u n f o r t u n a t e l y cannot answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . Regardless of the p r e c e d i n g argument, d i f f e r e n t v a l -ues do l e a d to d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o -f e s s i o n . The next s e c t i o n i s devoted to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c o n n e c t i o n between valu e s and c h o i c e . C) VALUES AND CHOICE OP FIELD F i n d i n g s 1 . E x t r l n s l c - p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d - i n t r i n s i c values By u s i n g a system of r a n k i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e to show the emphasis p l a c e d upon each value by students p l a n n i n g to e n t e r d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s . The weighted average scores f o r students grouped a c c o r d i n g to the c h o i c e s they make are shown i n Table X L I I . I t can be seen from t h i s t a b l e t h a t students p l a n n i n g to e n t e r the r e t a i l f i e l d , g e n e r a l l y speaking, are o r i e n t e d toward e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s , but a l s o r e g a r d as h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e the o p p o r t u n i t y to "meet the p u b l i c and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h p e o p l e , " a p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t t h i s group of students i s l e a s t concerned w i t h an o c c u p a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s a "good knowledge of s c i e n c e -193-TABLE XLII WEIGHTED AVERAGE SCORES FOR EXTRINSIC, PEOPLE-ORIENTED, AND INTRINSIC VALUES BY CHOICE OF FIELD* E x t r i n s i c People-•oriented I n t r i n s i c " S a l a r y " " P r e s t i g e " "Meet P u b l i c " " B e n e f i t Fellow ''Man" "Scien-t i f i c " "Use A l l Knowledge" R-l.75 R-l.59 R-l.42 H-2.24 0-1.38 P-2.28 P-1.68 P-l.55 P-l.14 P-2.03 P-l.19 0-2.22 H-l . 6 7 H-1.48 H- .85 R-l.94 H-1.18 H-2.01 0-1.54 0-1.35 0 - .84 0-1.92 . R-l.07 R-l.84 Chi-square t e s t performed on o r i g i n a l frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s ; d . f . = 12 i n each case; " s a l a r y " X 2 = 19.661s P<.10; " p r e s t i g e " X 2 = 12.509: P<»50; "meet p u b l i c " X 2 = 120.567s P<.001; " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man" X 2 = 25.043: P<.02; " s c i e n t i f i c " X 2 = 49.262$ P<.001; "use a l l knowledge" X 2 = 35*257: P<.001. a H = H o s p i t a l 0 = Other P = P r e s c r i p t i o n R = R e t a i l and s c i e n t i f i c methods," or one i n which i t i s p o s s i b l e to "use a l l your knowledge, t r a i n i n g , a p t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . " Students choosing h o s p i t a l pharmacy are most con-cerned w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o " b e n e f i t your f e l l o w man," a p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e , but do not seem to care f o r an o c c u p a t i o n i n which one i s a b l e t o "meet the p u b l i c and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h people." Students e x p e c t i n g t o e n t e r p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy -194-tend t o be o r i e n t e d toward i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s p l a c i n g the g r e a t e s t emphasis on an o p p o r t u n i t y t o "use a l l knowledge." Those choosing one of the " o t h e r " f i e l d s a l s o tend t o f a v o r i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , having the second h i g h e s t weight average s c o r e f o r the v a l u e , "use a l l knowledge," and the h i g h e s t s c o r e f o r the v a l u e , "good knowledge of s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c method." 2. Business v a l u e s As i n d i c a t e d i n Table X L I I I , students who emphasize busi n e s s v a l u e s are most l i k e l y t o expect t o e n t e r r e t a i l pharmacy and l e a s t l i k e l y to choose any of the remaining f i e l d s . Of those students who r e g a r d as "very d e s i r a b l e " one o r both of the busi n e s s v a l u e s , "merchandising and s e l l i n g " o r " p r o f e s s i o n and b u s i n e s s , " over '80 per cent choose the r e t a i l f i e l d , compared w i t h l e s s than one-half. (43 per cent) of those who are I n d i f f e r e n t t o e i t h e r of these v a l u e s . 3» Independence values Table X L I I I a l s o shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n -dependence val u e s and c h o i c e of f i e l d . Students who r e -gard h i g h l y the o p p o r t u n i t y of being one's "own boss" a re more l i k e l y to choose the r e t a i l f i e l d and l e s s l i k e l y t o p l a n on a c a r e e r i n h o s p i t a l pharmacy. Emphasis on t h i s v a l u e does not appear t o make a d i f f e r e n c e f o r the c h o i c e of p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy o r some "o t h e r " f i e l d , but i t must be remembered t h a t a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the s t u d -ents c o n s i d e r independence d e s i r a b l e as opposed to un--195-TABLE XLIII BUSINESS, INDEPENDENCE, ENTREPRENEURIAL VALUES AND CHOICE OF FIELD Percentage Choosing: P r e s c r i p -R e t a i l t i o n H o s p i t a l T o t a l -Values Pharmacy Pharmacy Pharmacy Other Cases A. Business High 1 88 2 2 9 64 2 84 6 3 7 123 3 78 5 8 9 148 Low 4 43 10 20 27 925 Independence "Very d e s i r a b l e " 60 9 10 21 563 " F a i r l y d e s i r a b l e " 53 10 17 22 482 " I n d i f f e r e n t o r u n d e s i r a b l e 43 9 29 19 217 E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l "Own and operate pharmacy" "Yes" 74 9 5 12 671 "Not s u r e " 40 9 20 31 355 "No".. 25 10 34 31 305 a I n d e x comprised of both business v a l u e s , "merch-a n d i s i n g and s e l l i n g " and " p r o f e s s i o n and b u s i n e s s . " A) X 2 = 1 5 1 . 7 9 3 : d . f . = 9: P<.001 B) X 2 = 46.946: d . f . = 6: P<.001 C) X 2 = 289.669: d . f . = 6: P<.001 -196-d e s i r a b l e . I t may s t i l l s e rve as a m o t i v a t i n g v a l u e f o r persons e n t e r i n g these l a t t e r f i e l d s . km E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l values Students who have the d e s i r e t o own and operate a pharmacy are most l i k e l y t o be p l a n n i n g a c a r e e r i n the r e t a i l f i e l d , and l e s s l i k e l y to expect to e n t e r h o s p i t a l pharmacy o r one of the " o t h e r " f i e l d s (see Table X L I I I ) . Students who p l a c e d i f f e r e n t amounts of emphasis on t h i s v a l u e do not vary i n t h e i r c h o i c e of p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, but a g a i n , i t must be remembered t h a t i n g e n e r a l students are h i g h l y motivated by the p r o s p e c t of owning and o p e r a t -i n g a pharmacy and may make t h i s c h o i c e p r e c i s e l y t o r e a l i z e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . Of those choosing r e t a i l pharmacy, 70 per cent c o n s i d e r ownership d e s i r a b l e , com-pared w i t h 50 per cent of those choosing p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, and o n l y 28 per cent of those p l a n n i n g to e n t e r some " o t h e r " f i e l d , as w e l l as 16 per cent of those choos-i n g h o s p i t a l pharmacy. D i s c u s s i o n As the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e , students choosing v a r i o u s f i e l d s w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n tend t o emphasize d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s . Thus, the data g e n e r a l l y support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t values p l a y a p a r t i n determining the c h o i c e . How-ever, by comparing the c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s f o r these / r e -l a t i o n s h i p s , i t immediately w i l l be e v i d e n t t h a t some values are more s i g n i f i c a n t i n l e a d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s -197-than o t h e r s . I t w i l l be noted t h a t the E.P.I, v a l u e s , " s a l a r y " and "prestige,'" although emphasized by p r o s p e c t i v e r e t a i l p h a r m a c i s t s , when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c h o i c e of f i e l d , f a i l t o a t t a i n the accepted l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h the ch i - s q u a r e t e s t . A t r e n d i s v i s i b l e , w i t h those choosing r e t a i l pharmacy, p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, h o s p i t a l pharmacy and some " o t h e r " f i e l d , i n t h a t o r d e r , i n d i c a t i n g a p r e f -erence f o r " s a l a r y " and " p r e s t i g e , " but the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t . What t h i s suggests i s t h a t these v a l u e s tend t o be shared by pharmacy s t u d e n t s , and, to some extent a t l e a s t , a re r e a l i z e d i n each of the spe-c i a l i z e d f i e l d s . Concerning E.P.I, v a l u e s , students v a r y i n g i n the c h o i c e of f i e l d d i f f e r most s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r concern f o r an o c c u p a t i o n which al l o w s one to "meet the p u b l i c . " The same g e n e r a l o r d e r of p r e f e r e n c e as was observed w i t h e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s i s seen here, but the d i f f e r e n c e s a re g r e a t e r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t students who are most concerned w i t h t h i s v a l u e are p r o s p e c t i v e r e t a i l p h a r m a c i s t s , and, to a l e s s e r e x t e n t , those p l a n n i n g c a -r e e r s i n p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy. But, f o r those who ex-p e c t to e n t e r h o s p i t a l pharmacy o r some " o t h e r " f i e l d , t h i s v a l u e has l i t t l e a p p e a l . I n f a c t , the n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards i t may be a f a c t o r i n the c h o i c e s made by the l a t t e r two groups. About 40 p e r cent of those choosing h o s p i t a l pharmacy or some " o t h e r " f i e l d are -198-i n d i f f e r e n t to the v a l u e , "meet the p u b l i c , " o r c o n s i d e r i t u n d e s i r a b l e , compared w i t h 2k and 15 per cent of those p l a n n i n g to e n t e r p r e s c r i p t i o n and r e t a i l pharmacy, r e s p e c -t i v e l y . D e s p i t e the l a c k of enthusiasm about the o p p o r t u n i t y to "meet the p u b l i c , " students e x p e c t i n g t o e n t e r h o s p i t a l pharmacy s t r o n g l y emphasize the oth e r p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l -ue;} " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man." T h i s of course r a i s e s some ques-t i o n s as t o whether these two values constitute a v a l u e -o r i e n t a t i o n , t h a t i s , whether they a re " l i n k e d " psycho-l o g i c a l l y such t h a t they tend to be accepted o r r e j e c t e d t o g e t h e r . T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y not the case f o r students who hope to p r a c t i s e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n i n a h o s p i t a l d i s p e n -s a r y ; nor i s i t so f o r p r o s p e c t i v e r e t a i l pharmacists who p l a c e l i t t l e emphasis on the v a l u e , " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man." Rosenberg, i n h i s study of c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ' occu-p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s , found the v a l u e s , " o p p o r t u n i t y to work w i t h people r a t h e r than t h i n g s " and " o p p o r t u n i t y t o be h e l p f u l to o t h e r s " t o be s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one another, and he l a b e l l e d the p a i r a " p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d " v a l u e complex. As d e s c r i b e d by Rosenberg: "Respondents s e l e c t -i n g these v a l u e s tend t o view work l a r g e l y as an opportun-i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g g r a t i f i c a t i o n s t o be d e r i v e d from i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . w l 3 Although the statements designed t o tap p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d v a l u e s i n the pr e s e n t study d i f f e r somewhat from those used by Rosenberg, the f i n d i n g s r a i s e some q u e s t i o n s about the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h i s v a l u e - 1 9 9 -complex. I t would appear t h a t g r a t i f i c a t i o n d e r i v e d from i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s can be of a t l e a s t two k i n d s , de-pending on the i n t e r e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t seems reasonable to suggest t h a t one may i n t e r a c t w i t h people p r i m a r i l y w i t h a concern f o r the w e l f a r e of others o r w i t h a concern f o r one's own w e l f a r e . S u r e l y a salesman d e r i v e s g r a t i f i c a t i o n from i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , but i s t h i s e q u i v a l e n t to the p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d by a s o c i a l worker upon a i d i n g a needy f a m i l y ? I t i s suggested t h a t a d i s t r i b u t i o n needs to be made between " s e l f - o r i e n t e d " and " c o l l e c t i v i t y -o r i e n t e d " i n t e r a c t i o n 1 * 1 ' , and t h a t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n be used to c o n c e p t u a l i z e two b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t types of people-o r i e n t e d v a l u e s . T h i s problem m e r i t s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Apart from E.P.I, v a l u e s , the f i n d i n g s show t h a t the c h o i c e of f i e l d v a r i e s w i t h the emphasis p l a c e d upon b u s i -ness, independence, and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . The f i r s t p o i n t to note i s t h a t , a l t h o u g h a l l three values are pos-i t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h the c h o i c e of r e t a i l pharmacy, they a r e e s s e n t i a l l y separate v a l u e s . Business v a l u e s are n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h the c h o i c e of p r e s c r i p t i o n pharm-acy, h o s p i t a l pharmacy, and some " o t h e r " f i e l d ; indepen-dence values are r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h the c h o i c e of h o s p i t a l pharmacy, but not w i t h the o t h e r two c h o i c e s ; and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s are n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h h o s p i t a l pharmacy as a c h o i c e of f i e l d and w i t h the r e -s i d u a l c a t e g o r y . - 2 0 0 -However d i f f e r e n t these three values may be, they a r e a l l p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c h o i c e of the r e t a i l f i e l d and n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o the ch o i c e o f h o s p i t a l pharmacy. As f o r the o t h e r f i e l d s , the c h o i c e of p r e s c r i p -t i o n pharmacy i s n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d w i t h b u s i n e s s v a l u e s , but not wit h independence and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s . As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r the l a t t e r two may s t i l l serve as m o t i v a t i n g v a l u e s f o r students e x p e c t i n g to p r a c t i s e t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n i n a p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy. The ch o i c e of one of the "o t h e r " f i e l d s i s . i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d w i t h business and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s , but not w i t h the va l u e of Independence. Thus, i t i s seen t h a t students making d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s tend t o emphasize d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s . P r o s p e c t i v e r e t a i l pharmacists a re o r i e n t e d toward e x t r i n s i c v a l u e s and are concerned w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o "meet the p u b l i c and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h people." I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s group p l a c e s s t r o n g emphasis on b u s i n e s s , independence, and en t r e p r e n -e u r i a l v a l u e s . Students p l a n n i n g to p r a c t i s e the p r o f e s s i o n i n a r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t d e a l i n g p r i m a r i l y i n p r e s c r i p t i o n s tend t o emphaslee i n t r i n s i c values and, to a much l e s s e r e x t e n t , independence and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s , but they r e j e c t b u s i n e s s v a l u e s . . Those e x p e c t i n g to e n t e r h o s p i t a l pharmacy are concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the g r a t i f i c a t i o n d e r i v e d from the o p p o r t u n i t y t o " b e n e f i t one's f e l l o w man," and tend t o r e j e c t b u s i n e s s , independence, and e n t r e p r e n -e u r i a l v a l u e s . F i n a l l y , students choosing some "o t h e r " - 2 0 1 -f i e l d s t r e s s i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , are somewhat f a v o r a b l e to independence, and r e j e c t b u s i n e s s and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v a l u e s • To what extent w i l l these students r e a l i z e t h e i r v a l u e s i n t h e i r c h o i c e s of f i e l d w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n ? Although the p r e s e n t w r i t e r makes no c l a i m t o have exhaust-ed a l l the values which may have motivated students to make t h e . v a r i o u s c h o i c e s , some e s t i m a t i o n can be made of the extent to which s t u d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l v a l u e s w i l l be r e a l i z e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e s . E x c e p t i n g the e x t r i n s i c values which a r e shared somewhat by a l l s t u d e n t s , p r o p e c t i v e r e -t a i l pharmacists would appear to have the b e s t chance of f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r v alue e x p e c t a t i o n s . The r e t a i l f i e l d a l l o w s one to "meet the p u b l i c _and d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h p e o p l e , " p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c -t i v i t y and o c c u p a t i o n a l independence, i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e "merchandising and s e l l i n g , " and i s regarded as both a " p r o f e s s i o n and b u s i n e s s . " Next most l i k e l y t o r e a l i z e t h e i r v a l u e s are those who expect to work i n a p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy. Although members of t h i s group may not be a b l e t o express f u l l y t h e i r I n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , they may f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n jfcn owning and o p e r a t i n g a pharmacy and g a i n i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l independence. But more important, students who make t h i s c h o i c e p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on each of the o t h e r E.P.I, v a l u e s , having the second h i g h e s t weighted average s c o r e s f o r f i v e of the s i x , and-the h i g h e s t s c o r e f o r the -202-s i x t h . These s t u d e n t s w i l l t e n d t o r e c e i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m an o p p o r t u n i t y t o "meet the p u b l i c " and " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man*" as w e l l as p a r t i a l l y r e a l i z i n g o t h e r v a l u e s . S t u d e n t s p l a n n i n g t o p r a c t i s e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n i n a h o s p i t a l d i s p e n s a r y t e n d t o emphasize one v a l u e , t h e g r a t i -f i c a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o " b e n e f i t f e l l o w man," but t h i s v a l u e appears t o pharmacy s t u d e n t s t o be r e a l i z a b l e (see T a b l e X X X I I I ) . Thus, i t would seem t h a t t h i s group would be more l i k e l y t h a n t h e n e x t t o r e a l i z e t h i s v a l u e e x p e c t a t i o n . L e a s t l i k e l y t o f u l f i l l t h e i r v a l u e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e t h o s e p l a n n i n g t o e n t e r some " o t h e r " f i e l d . These s t u d e n t s a r e o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y t o w a r d i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , w i t h t h e l o w e s t s c o r e f o r each of t h e o t h e r E . P . I , v a l u e s , and a r e somewhat c o n c e r n e d w i t h Independence. The f o r m e r v a l u e s , a c c o r d i n g t o pharmacy s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , a r e n o t o v e r l y r e a l i z a b l e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , and t h e l a t t e r , a l t h o u g h somewhat r e a l i z a b l e , r i s j l e s s i m p o r t a n t . Thus, t h e o r d e r o f l i k e l i h o o d of f u l f i l l i n g v a l u e e x p e c t a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e e s t i m a t e , i s : r e t a i l pharmacy, p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, h o s p i t a l pharm-a c y , and some " o t h e r " f i e l d . I f t h i s i s i n f a c t t h e c a s e , t h e n one would e x p e c t t o f i n d s t u d e n t s c h o o s i n g d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s t o v a r y i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s about t h e i r c a r e e r de-c i s i o n s . S t u d e n t s were a s k e d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Once you made up y o u r mind t o become a p h a r m a c i s t , d i d you e v e r have any doubts t h a t t h i s was t h e r i g h t d e c i s i o n -203-f o r you a f t e r entering pharmacy school?" (Question 28 b of Questionnaire, Appendix A). Replies to t h i s question by choice of f i e l d are shown i n Table XLIV. As expected, prospective r e t a i l pharmacists are least l i k e l y to have doubts about the career decision. Somewhat more l i k e l y to be i n doubt about the choice of pharmacy as a career are those who plan to enter h o s p i t a l pharmacy and those choosing some "other" f i e l d . Those hoping to work i n a p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy resemble prospective pharm-a c i s t s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . Regardless of the extent to which various values are r e a l i z e d by pharmacy students, values do serve as indicators of the choices of f i e l d within the profession. In this s e c t i o n the relationships between values and choice were described. In the Chapter VI an attempt w i l l be made to TABLE XLIV DOUBTS ABOUT CAREER DECISION AFTER ENTERING PHARMACY SCHOOL Percentage with: Students Choosing "Serious Doubts" "Sl i g h t Doubts" "No Doubt at A l l " Total Cases R e t a i l pharmacy 14 44 42 712 P r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy 16 42 42 120 Hospital pharmacy 1 7 47 36 210 Other 24 43 33 283 X 2 = 18.124: d.f. = 6: P<~.01 -204-show how values, sources of information: and influence, and s o c i a l background factors operate together to determine whether a student w i l l choose r e t a i l pharmacy, p r e s c r i p t i o n pharmacy, h o s p i t a l pharmacy or some "other" f i e l d * CHAPTER V TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF THE DECISION TO STUDY PHARMACY The choosing of an occupation Is not a s i n g l e event t h a t occurs at any one point i n time. Rather, i t i s a developmental process which extends over s e v e r a l years. I t may "begin at an e a r l y age or l a t e r i n l i f e and i t may c r y s t a l l i z e i n t o a d e f i n i t e career d e c i s i o n at p r a c t i c a l l y any time a f t e r . However, the time at which a career i s f i r s t considered and f i n a l l y chosen i s not a r b i t r a r y , but depends on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , some of which are explored I n t h i s chapter. Furthermore, these ages have important consequences f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r i e n t a t i o n to the occ u p a t i o n a l world. This chapter sets out to i n v e s t i g a t e the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the age at which a career i n pharmacy i s f i r s t considered and f i n a l l y chosen and to examine the consequences of the l a t t e r f o r the pharmacy student. The p l a n i s to view these ages i n r e l a t i o n to s o c i a l back-ground f a c t o r s , sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e , a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s of students, and the choice of f i e l d . Of the main sets of f a c t o r s used i n t h i s study, values are omitted from t h i s chapter. This i s due prim--20 6-a r i l y to the f a c t that no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p s could be found between values and the age of c o n s i d e r a t i o n or d e c i s i o n . Values appear to operate i n -dependently of temporal f a c t o r s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n focuses on the age at which a career i n pharmacy i s f i r s t considered. This i s f o l l o w e d by a s e c t i o n which concentrates on the age at which a d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n i s reached. The l a s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter i s concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the choice of f i e l d w i t h the age of c o n s i d e r a t i o n and the age of d e c i s i o n . A) AGE AT WHICH PHARMACY CAREER IS FIRST CONSIDERED Findings The age at which a career i s f i r s t considered depends on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , one of which i s the occupation i t s e l f . Table XLV shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of pharmacy students according to the age at which c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s f i r s t given to t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n . The modal student f i r s t t h i n k s about a career i n pharmacy at 16 or 17 years of age, and only about a quarter of the students consider such a career before the age of 16 years. Although t h i s i s the case f o r students i n genera l , the age of f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g a career i n pharmacy v a r i e s w i t h c e r t a i n s o c i a l background f a c t o r s . For the sake of comparison, both the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and i n s i g -n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i a l background f a c t o r s - 2 0 7 -TABLE XLV AGE AT WHICH CAREER IN PHARMACY IS FIRST CONSIDERED Age Number of Students Percentage Younger than 10 years 46 3 10 - 13 years 94 7 14 - 15 years 205 15 16 - 17 years 439 33 18 - 19 years 352 26 S i n c e the age of 20 191 14 No answer 8 1 T o t a l 1335 99 and the age of f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy are shown i n Table XLVT. Socio-economic s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n u r b a n - r u r a l r e s i d e n c e , p r a c t i c a l e xperience, and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t -ance are a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h the age of f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n t h i s r e g a r d a re p r a c t i c a l experience and o c c u p a t i o n a l I n h e r i t a n c e . I n g e n e r a l , students who have c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t a c t w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n e i t h e r through experience o r by having a parent i n pharmacy more o f t e n t h i n k about such a c a r e e r a t an e a r l y age. - 2 0 8 -TABLE XLVI SOCIAL BACKGROUND FACTORS AND AGE AT WHICH PHARMACY CAREER IS FIRST CONSIDERED Percentage Considering Pharmacy Career E a r l y a Late' T o t a l Cases A. Sex Males Females 24 29 76 71 891 415 B. Socio-economic c l a s s Upper Middle Lower 35 24 24 65 76 76 200 557 410 C. R e l i g i o n Jewish P r o t e s t a n t Roman C a t h o l i c 34 29 22 66 71 78 103 617 422 D. Urban-rural residence Farm, r u r a l Town Small c i t y Large c i t y 17 25 29 28 83 75 71 72 211 216 387 497 a 1 5 years or younger. 1 316 years or o l d e r . A) X 2 = 3 .657: d.f. = 1 : P<.10 B) X 2 = 9 . 8 0 3 : d.f. = 2: P<.01 C) X 2 = 9 . 136: d.f. = 2: P<.02 D) X 2 =11.668: d.f. = 3 : P<-01 - 2 0 9 -TABLE XLVT—Continued Percentage Considering Pharmacy Career T o t a l E a r l y a L a t e D Cases E. Geographic r e g i o n Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y U. of Manitoba U. of Toronto U. of A l b e r t a U. of Saskatchewan U. of B r i t i s h Columbia U. of Montreal L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y P. P r a c t i c a l experience More than one year One year or l e s s None G. Occupational i n h e r i t a n c e Parents R e l a t i v e s N e i t h e r H. High school grades 90 - 100 % 80 - 89 70 - 79 60 - 69 50 - 59 a 1 5 years or younger. * l 6 years or o l d e r . E) X 2 = 11 .561: d.f. = 7: P<.20 F) X 2 = 71 .805: d.f. = 2: P<.001 G) X 2 = 4 3 . 4 9 0 : d.f. = 2: P<.001 H) X 2 = 4 . 6 1 0 : d.f. = 4 : P<.50 36 64 67 30 70 94 29 71 348 26 74 171 25 75 172 23 77 124 23 77 269 15 85 54 41 59 328 29 71 274 18 82 720 48 52 140 28 72 223 22 78 943 24 76 33 30 70 262 26 74 587 22 78 394 29 • 71 41 -210-Table XLVTI shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p "between the f a c -t o r s which are important i n the career d e c i s i o n (sources of i n f l u e n c e ) and the age at which a career i n pharmacy-i s f i r s t considered. Except f o r " s p e c i a l speakers," TABLE XLVTI FACTORS IN DECISION AND AGE AT WHICH PHARMACY CAREER IS FIRST CONSIDERED Percentage Considering Career i n Pharmacy Most Important F a c t o r i n D e c i s i o n E a r l y a L a t e b T o t a l Cases Parent 33 6? 343 Pharmacist . 32 68 296 S p e c i a l speaker 28 72 36 "Other" 23 77 244 R e l a t i v e 22 78 83 Ph.A. recruitment media 20 80 103 H.S. teachers and co u n s e l l o r s 14 86 80 Frlends 13 87 46 Mass media 13 88 16 a 1 5 years or younger. 16 years or o l d e r . X 2 = 27*559: d.f. = 8 : P<.001 . p r a c t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources appear t o l e a d t o an e a r l y awakening of I n t e r e s t I n pharmacy, whereas ideology-o r i e n t e d sources tend to be important f o r those who con-s i d e r pharmacy l a t e r i n l i f e . Of those who r e l y on prac-t i c e - o r i e n t e d sources, n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d (31 per cent) t h i n k about a career i n pharmacy at 15 years of age or -211-younger, compared w i t h only 19 per cent of those who are most s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d sources and 21 per cent of those who u t i l i z e sources other than prac-t i c e - or i d e o l o g y - o r i e n t e d ( i . e . , u n c l a s s i f i e d ) . The preceding t a b l e s show that the age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy v a r i e s w i t h c e r t a i n s o c i a l background f a c t o r s and sources of i n f l u e n c e . I n t u r n , the age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy appears to have c e r t a i n consequences f o r the f e e l -ings and a t t i t u d e s pharmacy students have about t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n . I n Question 2? of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , students are asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r f e e l i n g s about a career i n pharmacy. The p r o p o r t i o n s t a t i n g that pharmacy i s the "only career that could r e a l l y s a t i s f y me" i s shown f o r each category i n Table XLVTII. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e TABLE XLVTII AGE OF CONSIDERING PHARMACY AND FEELINGS ABOUT PHARMACY CAREER Age at Which Career Percentage Replying, i n Pharmacy i s F i r s t "Only career that T o t a l Considered could r e a l l y s a t i s f y me" Cases Before age of 14 years 35 140 At 14 or 15 years 30 205 At 16 or 1? years 28 ^39 At 18 or 19 years 17 352 Since age.of 20 years 15 191 X2 = 8 9 . 1 3 3 : d.f. = 2 0 : P<.001 - 2 1 2 -that the younger the student i s when he f i r s t t h i n k s about pharmacy as a career the more l i k e l y he i s to regard pharm-acy as the "only career." I n Questions 30 (c) and (e) students are asked to i n d i c a t e f i r s t whether they would choose pharmacy again i f the c o n d i t i o n s of the d e c i s i o n were d i f f e r e n t , and sec-ond, whether they would make the same choice given t h e i r present knowledge of the p r o f e s s i o n . I n Table XLIX the p r o p o r t i o n answering "yes" to both questions i s shown according to the age at which a career i n pharmacy i s f i r s t considered. TABLE XLIX AGE OF CONSIDERING PHARMACY AND CAREER DECISION IF MADE AGAIN Age at Which Career i n ;. i> Pharmacy i s F i r s t Percentage Who Would T o t a l Considered Choose Pharmacy Again Cases Before the age of 14 years 55 134 At 14 or 15 years 47 200 At 16 or 17 years 46 427 At 18 or 19 years 33 345 Since the age of 20 30 188 X 2 = 3 7 . 7 8 5 : d.f. = 4: P<.001 The f i n d i n g s to t h i s p o i n t seem to suggest that the age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy depends on c e r t a i n s o c i a l back-ground c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and sources of i n f l u e n c e and has consequences f o r the a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s students have about t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n . These p o i n t s are more -213-f u l l y d iscussed i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b s e c t i o n . D i s c u s s i o n As suggested e a r l i e r , the age at which a p a r t i c u l a r career i s f i r s t considered depends, among other t h i n g s , on the occupation i t s e l f . F actors such as p r e s t i g e and v i s i b i l i t y , or " s o c i a l p u b l i c i t y , " of an occupation probably p l a y a part i n determining the age at which an occupation i s f i r s t considered. N a t a l i e Rogoff, i n a study of medical students at the U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, r e p o r t s a wide range of ages at which a career i n medicine i s f i r s t considered, but repor t s no p a r t i c u l a r concentra-t i o n i n any one age category. She f i n d s that 24 per cent f i r s t consider a career i n medicine at 10 years or younger, 2? per cent at 10 to 13 years, 18 per cent at 14 or 15 years, 17 per cent at 16 or 17 years, and 14 per cent at 18 years or older."*" C l e a r l y t h i s i s not the case w i t h pharmacy students, who show a marked c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the upper age groups. I f Rogoff's study can serve as a b a s i s of comparison, i t appears that pharmacy students f i r s t s t a r t t h i n k i n g about t h e i r career l a t e r I n l i f e than do medical students. Given the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n pres-t i g e , and to some extent v i s i b i l i t y , between the two occupations, the f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the view t h a t the more p r e s t i g e f u l and more v i s i b l e occupations are f i r s t considered as career a l t e r n a t i v e s e a r l i e r i n l i f e . -214-Age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy and  s o c i a l background f a c t o r s Despite the marked c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the upper age c a t e g o r i e s , some students do consider a career i n pharmacy at an e a r l y age. As shown i n Table XLvT, the age of f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l s o c i a l background f a c t o r s , those being socio-economic s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , u r b a n - r u r a l residence, p r a c t i c a l exper-i e n c e , and o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , the l a t t e r two per-haps being the most important. To account f o r the wide d i v e r s i t y of agesMat which a medical career i s f i r s t considered by medi.cal students at the U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, Rogoff p o i n t s to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g about the s t a t u s and a c t i v i t i e s of the p h y s i c i a n and suggests that c l o s e and s u s t a i n e d contact enjoyed by students whose f a t h e r s or r e l a t i v e s are doctors g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n and more r e a d i l y brings about the i d e a 2 of becoming a par t of i t . From the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned t a b l e i t can be seen th a t students who have parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n begin t h i n k i n g about a career i n pharmacy a t an e a r l i e r age than o t h e r s , and that those who have more d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e s who are pharmacists begin t h i n k i n g about t h e i r chosen p r o f e s s i o n e a r l i e r than those who have n e i t h e r parents nor- r e l a t i v e s i n the p r o f e s s i o n , although the d i f f -erence between the l a t t e r two groups i s not n e a r l y as l a r g e as t h a t observed between the former. Thus, as i n the case -215-of medicine, contact w i t h the f i e l d of pharmacy, as occasioned by having parents and/or r e l a t i v e s i n the pro-f e s s i o n , appears to f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n and to l e a d to an e a r l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the occupation as a career a l t e r n a t i v e . The extent of contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n as gained through p r a c t i c a l experience i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h the age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy. I n g e n e r a l , the g r e a t e r the extent of p r a c t i c a l experience the more l i k e l y the i n d i v i d u a l i s to consider a career i n pharmacy a t an e a r l y age. This r e l a t i o n s h i p c ould develop i n two ways. An e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n might l e a d one to seek employment i n a pharmacy. Gn the other hand, an i n d i v i d u a l may g a i n employment f o r other reasons and subsequently develop an i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Whatever the d i r e c -t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t an e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n i s connected w i t h the amount of p r a c t i c a l experience gained p r i o r to e n t e r i n g pharmacy s c h o o l . I f c l o s e and s u s t a i n e d contact w i t h pharmacy, as occasioned by having parents and r e l a t i v e s i n the pro-f e s s i o n and as gained through p r a c t i c a l experience, leads to an: e a r l y awakening of i n t e r e s t , i t would f o l l o w that any other c o n d i t i o n which allows f o r greater contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n , a l l other f a c t o r s being equal, should s i m i l a r l y l e a d to an e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n pharmacy. I t would be expected that individuals.who l i v e i n more i s o l a t e d -216-p a r t s of the country and who have l e s s contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n would be l e s s l i k e l y to t h i n k of pharmacy as a career at an e a r l y age. Thus, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d the f a c t o r of u r b a n - r u r a l residence r e l a t e d w i t h the age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy. I t w i l l be n o t i c e d , however, that the b i g d i f f e r e n c e i s between students coming from farms or r u r a l d i s t r i c t s and a l l others. Since pharmacies can be found i n most sm a l l towns, only students who l i v e i n r u r a l areas away from even the s m a l l e s t centers of p o p u l a t i o n are deprived of contact w i t h the p r o f e s s i o n . I n any event, the f a c t o r of u r b a n - r u r a l residence appears to make a d i f f e r e n c e to the age at which pharmacy i s considered. The f i n d i n g s a l s o show a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and age' of c o n s i d e r i n g pharm-acy. This may be due p a r t l y to the d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e . Since Jewish students have the highest r a t e of d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t -ance, i t might be expected that students of t h i s f a i t h would develop an e a r l y I n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n . However, t h i s f a c t o r does not e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e between P r o t -estant and C a t h o l i c students, s i n c e t h e i r r a t e s of occu-p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e are s i m i l a r . Yet 29 per cent of the P r o t e s t a n t s and only 22 per cent of the C a t h o l i c s t h i n k about a career i n pharmacy at 15 years or younger. I t would appear th a t r e l i g i o n does pl a y some part i n a f f e c t -i n g the age at which a career i s f i r s t considered. -217-Table XLVT a l s o shows a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between socio-economic st a t u s and age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy, but i t w i l l be n o t i c e d that the d i f f e r e n c e i s between those of upper socio-economic st a t u s and a l l others. This can be a t t r i b u t e d almost e n t i r e l y to the d i f f e r e n t i a l r a t e of o c c u p a t i o n a l i n h e r i t a n c e , s i n c e of the 200 students of upper c l a s s background approximately two-thirds have parents i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Age of c o n s i d e r i n g pharmacy and  sources of i n f l u e n c e The preceding i l l u s t r a t e s that c e r t a i n s o c i a l back-ground f a c t o r s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e a r l y i n t e r e s t i n pharmacy p r i m a r i l y because they r e f l e c t g r eater opportun-i t i e s f o