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The development of national radio education in Canada, 1929-1949 Morrison, Terrence Robert 1967

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THE  DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION IN CANADA  1929-19^9  by TERRENCE ROBERT MORRISON B.Ed.,  (Secondary),  University  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  I966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  In  t h e Department of EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  the required  thesis  as  conforming  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  July,  1967  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree  t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. thesis  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  this  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my  Department or by hi i; r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . ;  or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  Department of  t-DUCfc i JO r\J  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada rXt^q  • 2?T/ 6 7 -  It  i s understood t h a t  copying  f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Date  f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of  Columbia  ii ABSTRACT Radio b r o a d c a s t i n g , from i t s i n c e p t i o n , was as a medium w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  The  of the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n 1 9 3 1 to v e s t c o n t r o l of  recognized  decision broadcasting  i n the f e d e r a l government, t h e r e f o r e , i n v i t e d Dominion p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n radio education. of the CBC,  W i t h the  and the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t was  establishment to develop  r a d i o ' s e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l , the p o s s i b i l i t y of h a v i n g n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n became more r e a l . N a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n response to four general f o r c e s . the CBC was  F i r s t , as the d e p r e s s i o n  able to s t a b i l i z e i t s f i n a n c i a l  closed,  situation,  e v o l v e a p o l i c y on c o n t r o v e r s i a l programming, e s t a b l i s h co-operative r e l a t i o n s with c e r t a i n voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n s , and  sponsor a n a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o  school broadcasting. World War  educational  Second, the a r r i v a l of the Second  c r e a t e d a f e r v e n t n a t i o n a l i s t i c f e e l i n g and  v i d e d the c o n d i t i o n s f o r an i n c r e a s e i n the power of f e d e r a l government.  The  r e s u l t was  an  prothe  interventionist-  n a t i o n a l i s t p o l i c y , on the p a r t of the Dominion Government, which f o u n d c u l t u r a l e z p r e s s i o n i n n a t i o n a l r a d i o schemes, such as "Young Canada L i s t e n s " and  education  "Farm Radio  Forum." The  t h i r d f o r c e i n v o l v e d i n the development of na-  iii t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n was r e l a t e d t o a g e n e r a l s h i f t i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g t o a more s e r i o u s f a r e . content,  programme  from l i g h t e n t e r t a i n m e n t  B e s i d e s the use o f more a b s t r a c t  t h i s programme s h i f t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  c r e a t i o n of r a d i o programmes t o s u i t s p e c i f i c audience groups, v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s t o overcome the p a s s i v i t y of the r a d i o audience and t h e use o f t h e r a d i o a s a medium f o r a r t i s t i c and  creative expression.  education  The growth o f n a t i o n a l r a d i o  i n the e a r l y 19^0's b o t h r e f l e c t e d t h i s  general  programme s h i f t and p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r channel w i t h i n w h i c h i t c o u l d be conveyed. F i n a l l y , n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d because of a a d e s i r e , on the p a r t o f p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , t o co-operate w i t h a f e d e r a l agency, t h e CBC, i n the product i o n of educational broadcasts.  T h i s d e s i r e t o co-operate  stemmed, i n p a r t , from a renewed sense o f c o n f i d e n c e i n the n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g  a u t h o r i t y and a w i s h t o secure  the e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s p r e s e n t e d by the r a d i o . D o - o p e r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d of r a d i o e d u c a t i o n  e v e n t u a l l y on t h r e e l e v e l s  - inter-provincial,  Dominion-Provincial  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l . The f r u i t s o f such c o - o p e r a t i o n i n educational broadcasting  were programmes, such as "Young  Canada L i s t e n s , " " K i n d e r g a r t e n  o f the A i r , " " N a t i o n a l  Farm Radio Forum," " S p o r t s C o l l e g e " and " N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n ' s Forum."  iv The CBC emerged from t h e 194-0' s as a n a t i o n a l c l e a r i n g house f o r Canadian e d u c a t i o n .  Through i t s r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s ,  p u b l i c a t i o n s , and c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and v o l u n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e C o r p o r a t i o n h e l p e d t o p r o v i d e Canadians w i t h a n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l experience.  The CBC a l s o p r o v i d e d t h e Canadian Govern-  ment w i t h a u s e f u l i n s t r u m e n t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a d i o education affairs. R a d i o ' s r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l s o became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e 1940*s.  B r o a d c a s t i n g f u n c t i o n e d a s an  e d u c a t i o n a l a i d and was t o be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l learning situation.  No new methodology o r p h i l o s o p h y  accompanied the r a d i o i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m .  True t o an  e a r l y prophecy, the r a d i o had expanded the range of p o s s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the l e a r n e r , b u t t h a t was where i t s educational i n f l u e n c e terminated.  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The a u t h o r would l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e to t h e employees o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y f o r t h e i r k i n d a d v i c e and c o o p e r a t i o n , t o Mrs. Dorothy Dyde f o r h e r d e c i s i o n t o p e r m i t the A l a n P l a u n t P a p e r s t o be used i n t h e s t u d y , t o p r o f e s s o r s F.H. Johnson, G.S, Tompkins, N. S u t h e r l a n d and M. P r a n g f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l a d v i c e and c r i t i c i s m s and, f i n a l l y ,  t o my w i f e Donna,  f o r h e r p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g d u r i n g the w r i t i n g o f the t h e s i s . :  vi  TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE  PAGE THE BACKGROUND OF NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION 1928-1931  TWO  EDUCATION AND THE P O L I T I C S OF NATIONAL BROADCASTING 1931-1936  THREE  12  THE CBC AND NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION 1936-1939  FOUR  1  4-6  THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY OF NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION 1939-1944  FIVE  MAJOR PROJECTS I N NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION 1944-194-9  SIX  91  THE CBC AND ADULT EDUCATION 1939-194-9 CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY  14-7 I70  vii  LIST OF TABLES TABLE ONE  PAGE NUMBER OF PROGRAMMES PER NATIONALISTIC CRITERION 194-5-1950  TWO  151  CBC PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE PRESS AND INFORMATION DEPARTMENT 19^4  THREE  NUMBER OF FORUMS REGISTERED  FOUR  LARGEST NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS REPORTED AT ANY ONE MEETING  166 191  191  viii  LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS  TRANSCONTINENTAL FACILITIES AVAILABLE FOR NETWORK BROADCASTING 1 9 3 ^ - 1 9 3 5 CBC NETWORKS 194-9 CLASSIFICATION OP CBC NETWORK PROGRAMMES 194-7 HINTS TO TEACHERS 1 9 ^ 5 CBC SCHOOL BROADCASTS REPORT 19^7  CHAPTER ONE THE BACKGROUND OP NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION 1928  The  radio, unlike  -  1931  t h e p r e s s , h a s u s u a l l y "been  weighted  1  with a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o rpublic such as Lord R e i t h and  i nB r i t a i n ,  service.  David  Individuals  Sarnoff i n America  S i r H e n r y T h o r n t o n i n C a n a d a , a l l o f whom were  involved that  actively  i n r a d i o d u r i n g i t s i n f a n t s t a g e , were i n agreement  t h e new medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s h o u l d  serve the p u b l i c  2  am some way.  One a p p r o a c h t o c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s  s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n was t o u t i l i z e of  the radio  public  as an instrument  education. Very  e a r l y i n t h e development o f b r o a d c a s t i n g , Cana-  dians investigated  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes.  o f employing  D r . H e n r y Munro,  the radio  Superintendent  o f E d u c a t i o n f o r Nova S c o t i a , was one o f t h e f i r s t to experiment  with radio  i n the schools.  the c o n c l u s i o n s o f a group o f e d u c a t o r s that  the proper  role of the radio  provide imaginary  experiences  educators  He a g r e e d i n Kent,  with  England,  i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was " t o  f o r t h e c h i l d r e n on w h i c h  t h e i r own t e a c h e r s may p r o f i t a b l y b u i l d . "-^ In I928,  D r . Munro i n a u g u r a t e d  school broadcasts  a regular  series of  f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a .  programmes c e n t e r e d m o s t l y  These  around m u s i c a l and dramatic p r e 1  2 sentations.^  T h e r e was l i t t l e  i n t h e way o f a d e l i b e r a t e  attempt to construct well-planned  "radio lessons".  Nova  S c o t i a was f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y i n t h e u s e o f t h e r a d i o f o r 5  e d u c a t i o n a l purposes by B r i t i s h U n t i l w e l l i n t o the t h i r t i e s ,  Columbia and A l b e r t a .  the r e s t of the provinces  were h e s i t a n t about v e n t u r i n g i n t o any f o r m a l r a d i o tion  educa-  schemes. The  e a r l y experimenters  i n radio education  hoped  t o d e r i v e t h r e e m a j o r b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e u s e o f t h e new medium. F i r s t , b r o a d c a s t i n g was s e e n a s a means o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e geographical  b a r r i e r s o f d i s t a n c e and t e r r a i n .  areas could g a i n the advantages of expert high quality restricted an  forms of entertainment  to urban areas.  "progressive and  education"  scope o f a c h i l d * s  rural  o p i n i o n , and  w h i c h were u s u a l l y  S e c o n d , r a d i o was v i e w e d a s  e c o n o m i c a l way o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g  T h i r d , r a d i o was c o n s i d e r e d  Thus,  i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge.  t o be a n o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t  which would help  of  t o widen the breadth  experiences.  Many o t h e r g r o u p s b e s i d e s  the educational  d i s p l a y e d an i n t e r e s t i n the f o r t u n e s of r a d i o Manufacturers envisioned r i s i n g  community  broadcasting.  s a l e s from the production  o f r a d i o s , r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s h o p e d t o u s e t h e medium i n evangelism the a b i l i t y  and s o c i a l reform, of broadcasting  t i o n c o u l d be t u r n e d  advertisers recognized  t o tap the l i s t e n e r ' s  that  imagina-  t o commercial a c c o u n t , and c e r t a i n  3  p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d Canadians hoped to use the medium as instrument  an  f o r the s t i m u l a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i s t i c f e e l i n g . .  I n a d d i t i o n t o the c o n f u s i o n caused by c o m p e t i t i o n i n the use o f r a d i o , Canadians had  to f a c e the problems a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h an i n c r e a s e d p e n e t r a t i o n of Canada by American r a d i o 7  stations,' As a r e a c t i o n t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y more c h a o t i c b r o a d casting s t i u a t i o n , i n 1928,  the Dominion Government  appointed  a R o y a l Commission under the c h a i r m a n s h i p of S i r John A i r d , P r e s i d e n t of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, t o " e n q u i r e the b r o a d c a s t i n g  into  s i t u a t i o n i n the Dominion of Canada and  to make recommendations t o the Government as t o the f u t u r e  Q a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , management, c o n t r o l and f i n a n c i n g t h e r e o f " . The  Commission h e l d c o n f e r e n c e s  w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s of  the  n i n e Canadian p r o v i n c e s and a l l p r o m i s e d t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of b r o a d c a s t i n g . however, w h i l e a g r e e i n g  The P r o v i n c e of Quebec,  t o " c o l l a b o r a t e as f u l l y as p o s s i b l y "  d e c l a r e d i t s f i r m i n t e n t i o n "not to waive i t s r i g h t s of j u r i s d i c t i o n , w h i c h have been g r a n t e d  to i t by the  N o r t h America A c t and t h i s i n so f a r as r a d i o is  British  broadcasting  concerned."^ The A i r d Commission e s t a b l i s h e d what i t c o n s i d e r e d  to he the t h r e e major f u n c t i o n s of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . First,  the r a d i o was  t o be used as an " i n s t r u m e n t  t i o n . . . i n the b r o a d sense, 10 11  Second, i t was  of educa-  to o f f e r a  4-  means of " p r o v i d i n g  e n t e r t a i n m e n t " and  t h i r d , to operate  as a " g r e a t f o r c e i n f o s t e r i n g a n a t i o n a l s p i r i t and  inter-  11  preting a national citizenship." the e d u c a t i o n a l ,  The  degree t o which  e n t e r t a i n m e n t and n a t i o n a l i s t i c aims of  Canadian r a d i o were f u l f i l l e d would, the  Commissioners  f e l t , p r o v i d e a w o r k i n g b a s i s f o r an e v a l u a t i o n o r n o t the medium was s e r v i c e . "„12  of whether  b e i n g " o p e r a t e d on the b a s i s of p u b l i c  The major recommendation s u b m i t t e d by the A i r d Comm i s s i o n was  t h a t , i n the  c a s t i n g had  t o come under "some form of p u b l i c ownership,  operation  and  " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , " radio broad-  c o n t r o l b e h i n d which i s the n a t i o n a l power  and p r e s t i g e of the whole p u b l i c of the Dominion of Canada."-^ The  type of b r o a d c a s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n  Commission was  a n a t i o n a l company w h i c h would be  w i t h the f u l l power and i t s s t a t u s and utility," ^ 1  suggested by  a u t h o r i t y of p r i v a t e  "vested  enterprise,  d u t i e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o those of a p u b l i c  The  recommendations of the A i r d Report formed  the b a s i s of the debate o v e r the i s s u e of p u b l i c of r a d i o d u r i n g  control  the t h i r t i e s and a l s o p r o v i d e d a c e r t a i n  i d e o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t f o r l a t e r p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s and cisms of The  the  criti-  broadcasting. A i r d Report d i d not s p a r k an immediate l e g i s l a t i v e  r e a c t i o n from the Government of Mackenzie K i n g .  It  was,  however, r e f e r r e d f o r study t o the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee  5 on B r o a d c a s t i n g  -under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f J . L . I s l e y ,  D u r i n g t h e i n t e r l u d e between the s u b m i s s i o n o f the A i r d Report and t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee, a n o r g a n i z a t i o n have a s t r o n g broadcasting as  i n f l u e n c e upon t h e d i r e c t i o n t h a t would f o l l o w .  the Canadian Radio The  Canadian  o r g a n i z a t i o n was known  League.  to securing  underlying  service rather ship  This  C a n a d i a n R a d i o League was a p r e s s u r e  devoted i t s e l f ciple  was f o r m e d w h i c h was t o  group  the implementation of the " p r i n -  the A i r d Report,  i . e . , radio  as a p u b l i c  t h a n a s a n a d v e r t i s i n g medium,""^  o f the League, e s p e c i a l l y i t s f o u n d e r s ,  youthful, nationalistic  which  spirit  The member-  reflected a  w h i c h had been b o r n i n t h e  16 twenties.  The c h a i r m a u o® t h e League was Graham S p r y  17 ana  the secretary The  to help Report.  was- A l a n  Plaunt,  League e s t a b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f r e g i o n a l  p u b l i c i z e i t s aims and g a i n The v a r i o u s  E.A, C o r b e t t  included  C o l u m b i a , JMorwan S m i t h a n d  R o b e r t McQueen and F.S,  Garret  S a s k a t c h e w a n , a n d H e c t o r M c l n n e s and C.H. M e r c e r i n t n e  Maritimes. to  i n Alberta,  committees  support f o r the A i r d  p r o v i n c i a l representatives  A.»E* " D a l " G r a u e r i n B r i t i s h  in  '  As i t s support i n c r e a s e d ,  t h e League  speak f o r f i f t y newspapers w i t h a t o t a l  over 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ; labour  women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s  and f a r m a s s o c i a t i o n s  claimed  c i r c u l a t i o n of  w i t h 6 Q 0 y 0 0 0 members;  of 6 2 7 , 0 0 0  people;  twelve  6 university presidents of E d u c a t i o n ; the Catholic  and  leaders  Churches, plus  The  s i x p r o v i n c i a l Superintendents of the A n g l i c a n ,  numerous p r i v a t e  R a d i o League a r g u e d t h a t  r e a s o n s why  citizens.  number o f wave l e n g t h s a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e , a " n a t u r a l monopoly" and, tion,  Government,  The  under c o n t r o l of  League f e l t  p r i v a t e monopoly," could w i t h o u t l i n k i n g up  1  was  i n order to avoid  t h e medium s h o u l d be  not  that private  the  i t not  be  left  r  costly the  not  as  duplica-  Dominion  enterprise,  "afford a national  "even  system  with American a d v e r t i s i n g i n t e r e s t s . * ' ^  f o r t h i s reason, the  i n the  hands of p r i v a t e  League c o n c e i v e d of p r i v a t e in  limited  viewed  B r o a d c a s t i n g p r e s e n t e d g r e a t p o t e n t i a l as of e d u c a t i o n a n d  basic  a Cans.dian n a t i o n a l  B r o a d c a s t i n g , t h e n , because of  1  Human  1 0  t n e r e were s i x  r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g " s h o u l d be  institution," -^  U n i t e d and  concerned p r i m a r i l y with  League urged  that  enterprise.  The  e n t r e p r e n e u r s as  s e l l i n g than creating," with  the  the  a medium  "more  interested  r e s u l t that they  development of  "were  Canadian  21  national  i d e a l s , t a s t e , or education."  League d i d f e e l opportunity erecting and  that  the  " C a n a d i a n b u s i n e s s s h o u l d have  an  t o b r o a d c a s t i n g w i t n u u t t h e huge e x p e n s e  i t s own  stations."  c o n t r o l o f r a d i o was  cause "the  However,  Finally, public  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  p o t e n t i a l developments i n the  i n t e l e v i s i o n , were too  vast  t o be  left  operation  a necessity future,  t o the  of  be-  notably  hazard  of  p a s s i n g i n t o the hands of p r i v a t e c o n t r o l l e r s i n some f o r e i g n country. The E a d i o League r e c e i v e d a v a r i e t y o f o p i n i o n s and p o l i c y statements  about b r o a d c a s t i n g .  Most newspaper i n -  t e r e s t s f e a r e d the r a d i o as a p o s s i b l e c o m p e t i t o r i n the 24  f i e l d o f commercial a d v e r t i s i n g .  The U n i t e d Church of  Canada hoped t h a t t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g medium would open up new avenues f o r r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g and m o r a l The  reform. -' 2  l e a d e r s o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church i n Canada saw  r a d i o as e s s e n t i a l l y a medium f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t  and educa-  26  tion.  S i n c e r a d i o d i d p o s s e s s such e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l ,  however, the C a t h o l i c s o f French d u b i o u s o f attempts  Canadian o r i g i n were v e r y  t o v e s t c o n t r o l over b r o a d c a s t i n g i n 27  the hands o f the Dominion Government. ' The  concept of p u b l i c b r o a d c a s t i n g r e c e i v e d v e r y  s t r o n g support from l a b o u r and f a r m groups, f o r each hoped t h a t the r a d i o would l e a d t o an improvement i n t h e i r l o t . The  e d u c a t i o n a l community a l s o f a v o u r e d p u b l i c ownership  of b r o a d c a s t i n g , '  However, the q u e s t i o n o f what l e v e l o f  government s h o u l d c o n t r o l the medium was a p e r p l e x i n g p r o blem.  Educators  from Western Canada and t h e M a r l t i m e s  i n g e n e r a l , w i t h the o p i n i o n of the Superintendent  agreed,  o f Educa-  t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t t h e " b e s t use uf the r a d i o f o r purposes o f e d u c a t i o n . . . c a n  be a c h i e v e d o n l y by o p e r a t i n g  i t as a n a t i o n a l p u o i i c s e r v i c e . " ^  ip^e P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o  8 was v e r y h e s i t a n t i n a d v o c a t i n g the e x t e n s i v e use of r a d i o i n e d u c a t i o n f o r , as George Rogers s a i d , the " a i r i s so surcharged  w i t h a l l k i n d s of a d v e r t i s i n g , bad music and  bunkum, t h a t a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l might v e r y p r o p e r l y h e s i t a t e to i n s t a l l a r a d i o i n h i s s c h o o l . " - '  u  The attempt on the p a r t of the Radio League to g a i n the s u p p o r t of the e d u c a t o r s met w i t h a f i r m r e f u s a l .  The  i n F r e n c h - C a t h o l i c Quebec C a t h o l i c Committee of the  C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n i n Quebec would not  offer  i t s s u p p o r t to the League o r endorse tn« p r i n c i p l e s embodied i n the A i r d R e p o r t .  Monsieur B.ergeran, S e c r e t a r y of the  Committee, e x p l a i n e d t o A l a n P l a u n t t h a t : " l a probleme concernant l a r a d i o d i f f u s i o n au Canaaa v i e n t d'entrer^dans une n o u v e l l e sphere quant a. l a P r o v i n c e de Quebec. Tout re'cement, ^L'honorable Premier M i n i s t r e de c e t t e P r o v i n c e a d e c l a r e q u ' i l e n t e n d a i t g a r d e r a n u t r e P r o v i n c e l e d r o i t de c o n t r o l l e r l a r a d i o d i f f u s i o n dans l e s l i m i t e s de son t e r r i t o i r e . Vu c e t t e a t t i t u d e , vous comprenez_que j e ne p u i s maintenance, m'adjoindre ja v o t r e s o c i e t e ' dont l e but, e s t de c o n f r e r a I ' a u t o r i t e " f e d e r a l e e x c l u s i v e l a d i s e c t i o n de l a r a d i o d i f f u s i o n comme moyen d i n s t r u c t i o n . " 3 1 T  B e r g e r a n ' s note i m p l i e d t h a t Quebec i n t e n d e d  to  c h a l l e n g e the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t of the Dominion Government to c o n t r o l the o p e r a t i o n of Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . The a c t u a l " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " t h a t was  involved i n  r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g d u r i n g the t w e n t i e s and e a r l y t h i r t i e s was  very nebulous.  of any  The p u b l i c was  very o f t e n unconscious  common i n t e r e s t i n the f o r t u n e s of r a d i o . Even i f  9  the p u b l i c d i d f e e l zhat r a d i o s h o u l d somehow s e r v e them  ?  t h e r e was no consensus r e g a r d i n g the form t h a t such a s e r v i c e should take.  As a r e s u l t , p u b l i c demands were n o t a r t i c u -  l a t e d i n any c l e a r f a s h i o n .  A p r e s s u r e group such as the  Radio League, however, p o s s e s s e d a d e f i n i t e  organizational  base and r e f l e c t e d - a degree o f consensus c o n c e r n i n g b r o a d casting policy.  As the s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r  b r o a d c a s t i n g i n c r e a s e d i n i n t e n s i t y , the League f o u g h t h a r d t o ensure t h a t i t s v i e w s were t a k e n i n t o account by t h e Government.  The League wanted r a d i o t o s e r v e as an i n s t r u -  ment o f e d u c a t i o n and as a medium which would h e l p t o b u i l d a s t r o n g Canadian i d e n t i t y . Thus, the Radio League h e l p e d to ensure t h a t b r o a d c a s t i n g would s e r v e e d u c a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l i s t i c ends.  A f t e r t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the new  medium had been a t t a i n e d , t h e programme p o l i c y o f Canadian r a d i o c o n t i n u a l l y r e f l e c t e d t h e s e ends.  This diagram shows the transcontinental wire line facilities available to the Commission for its daily network broadcasting. All repeater points are shown as well as all basic stations on the network. It will be noted that in practically every case duplicate circuits are available, should trouble develop at any time on the other route. There are 6,428 miles of broadcast pairs in this network, or a total of 12,856 miles of single wire. In addition there is a monitor circuit connecting all control points involving 6,428 miles of telegraph circuit. T H E I M P O R T A N C E OF T H E T I M E ZONES IN C A N A D A One of the most important problems in network broadcasting in Canada is the variation in time across the country. Few people realize that there is a time difference of six hours between Labrador and the Alaskan boundary, as shown in the above map. The subject of Standard Time is well explained by Mr. C. C. Smith of the Dominion Observatory in an article in the Canada Year Book, 1934-35, an extract from which is reproduced below by kind permission of Mr. R. H . Coats, Dominion Statistician and of the author. " In Canada, Atlantic standard time, which is the local time at the 60th meridian running near Sydney, Nova Scotia, and is four hours behind Greenwich, is used in the Maritime Provinces and those parts of Quebec and the Northwest Territories east of the 68th meridian of west longitude. Eastern standard time, which is the local time at the 75th meridian running near Cornwall, Ontario, and is thus five hours behind Greenwich, is used in Quebec west of the 68th meridian and in Ontario east of the 90th meridian and in the Northwest Territories between the 68th and 85th meridians. Central standard time, which is the local time at the 90th meridian, is six hours behind Greenwich and is used in Ontario west of the 90th meridian, in Manitoba, in the Northwest  between the 85th and the 102nd meridians and in the southeasterly part of Saskatchewan. Mountain time, which is the local time at the 105th meridian running near Regina, is seven hours behind Greenwich and is used throughout Saskatchewan except in the southeasterly part, throughout Alberta and in that part of the Northwest Territories between the 102nd and 120th meridians. Pacific standard time, which is the local time of the 120th meridian running near Kamloops, British Columbia, is eight hours behind Greenwich and is used throughout British Columbia and in that part of the Northwest Territories lying west of the 120th meridian. Yukon standard time, which is the local time at the 135th meridian, running near Whitehorse, Yukon, is nine hours behind Greenwich and is used throughout the Yukon Territory. Thus in the far-flung area of the Dominion there are no fewer than six different standard times roughly corresponding with the 84 degrees of longitude between the Labrador boundary and the Alaskan boundary. The existence of the different time zones is to-day brought home to the average man by the radio; especially in such programs as the Empire Christmas broadcasts."  10 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER ONE W. Shramm, Responsibility In Mass Communication (New York, Harper arid Brothers, 1957), pp. 61-103. A  G. Archer, The History of Radio (New York, American H i s t o r i c a l Society, 1938), p. 31; A. Brlggs, The; B i r t h of Broadcasting (London, Oxford Press, 1962), p. 123,; E.A, Weir. Struggle f o r National Broadcasting In Canada (Toronto, McClelland arid Stewart, 1965) p. 17. 2  3H.S. Lambert, School Broadcasting; i n Canada (Toronto, University of Toronto Press j 1963) p. 20. The f i r s t programme consisted of an introductory speech by Dr. Munro, a French lesson by Professor C.H. Mercer of Dalhousle University, a scene from Sheridan's "The Rivals" by the King's College Players, a scene from the "Merchant of Venice" by the pupils of St. Patrick's High School, a nature talk by Mr. E. Chesley Allen, musical selections by the Harmonica Band of St. Patrick's School and a lesson on the correct use of English. •^Lambert, op. o l t . . pp. 35-80. F o r a detailed discussion of these views see M. Prang, "The Origins of Public Broadcasting i n Canada," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. March, 1965, pp. 1-31. 6  7Ibid., pp.  1-31.  Report of the Royal Commission on Broadcasting (Ottawa, King's Printer, 1929), p. 1. 8  9lbid., p. 2. I b i d . , P. 6. 1 0  1:L  1 2  l 3  I b i d . , p. 6.  I b i d . , p. 6. I b i d . , P. 9.  % b i d , , P. 9. ^Papers of the the University of B r i t i s h Columbia), Plaunt to Grauer. Nov. 13, 1930. '  11  Sprang, op. o l t . . pp.  2-3.  •^Graham Spry had been a Rhodes Scholar, was subsequently f i r s t executive secretary of The National;Associat i o n of Canadian Clubs, secretary of the League For S o c i a l Reconstruction, personal assistant to S i r Stafford Cripps and l a t e r Agent-General of Saskatchewan i n London. Alan Plaunt studied at Oxford, and was General Manager of "Farmers' Son" u n t i l h i s death i n 1941. He served f i v e years on the CBC Board of Governors. l^Papers of the Canadian Radio League. "Canadian Radio f o r Canadians" (League pamphlet, 1931) p. 5« 1 9 l b i d . , p. 1. 2 0  2 1  I b i d . , p, 3 . I b i d . , p. 3 .  2 2  I b i d . , p. 4.  2 3  I b i d . , p. 4.  on.  For a description of t h i s see W.H. Kesterton, A History of Journalism In Canada (Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 2 1 0 - 2 2 1 . """" 5 e e Report of the Committee on Radio .•and Religion (United Church of Canada, 1930) p. 7 . 2  S  P a p e r s of the Canadian Radio League. Rouleau to Plaunt, Dec. 1 7 , 1 9 3 0 . 26  2  ? I b l d . , Rouleau to Plaunt, Dec. 1 7 , 1 9 3 0 .  ^Report of the Parliamentary Commi t.-hee on Broadcasting (Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 400-401. ~ ~ The submission of the Radio League to t h i s committee contained a d e t a i l e d outline of ,the nature and extent of i t s support. !  9 p a p e r s of the Canadian Radio League. W i l l i s to Plaunt, Dec. 3 0 , 1 9 3 0 . 2  3 0 l b i d . , Rogers to Plaunt, Jan. 1 3 , 1 9 3 1 . 3 1  I b i d . , Bergeran to Plaunt, Jan. 2 6 , 1 9 3 1 .  CHAPTER TWO EDUCATION AND THE POLITICS OF NATIONAL BROADCASTING 1931 - 1936 In 1867 "the Fathers of Confederation established a d i v i s i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e authority between the Dominion and the provinces that was related to the three objectives of e f f e c t i v e m i l i t a r y defense, the integrated economic development of B r i t i s h North America and harmony between the French and English-speaking Canadians.*  The major  aim of the Fathers was to lay the foundation f o r an integrated economic unit.  Therefore, the Dominion Government  was given control over those matters related to economic development and defense.  I t was anticipated by the framers  of the BNA Act that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Dominion Government i n these areas would not oause any major c o n f l i c t between the French and English groups. To ensure that a c u l t u r a l clash would not arise i n other areas, the Fathers entrusted to p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n those classes of subjects where l e g i s l a t i o n would have d i r e c t c u l t u r a l implications, e.g. education.  This,  as one author has noted, was the "essence of the Confedera2 t i o n settlement". For those areas of j u r i s d i c t i o n divided at Confederat i o n , i t was provided only that they could be occupied 12  13 l e g a l l y by the appropriate authority.  There was no compul-  sion to occupy them, nor was there any d i r e c t i o n given as  3 to how extensively the respective f i e l d s could be occupied. As Canada developed, the extent to which these areas of j u r i s d i c t i o n were occupied depended upon the p r e v a i l i n g philosophy about the role of government i n society; the f i s c a l capacity of the respective governmental authorities to occupy a given f i e l d ; the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i r e c t i v e s , as to j u r i s d i c t i o n , contained i n the BNA Act, e.g. "peace, order and good government; the pressure of s o c i e t a l needs and the influence of new forms of technology which were non-existent during the Confederation period, e.g. radio. The severe s o c i a l and economic problems which developed out of the depression of the t h i r t i e s caused an a l t e r a t i o n i n the c r i t e r i a f o r the pcoupancy of the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l f i e l d s assigned to the federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments. The t r a d i t i o n a l p o l l t i o a l philosophy of a " l a i s s e z - f a i r e " role f o r the state was converted, under the pressure of economic necessity, into a new p o s i t i v e concept of the state as regulator and i n i t i a t o r of socio-economic polioy. In Canada, this new interventionist role of the state was symbolized i n the proposed Bennett " L i t t l e New Deal" of  1935. During the depression, the f i s c a l capacity of provinc i a l governments to occupy f u l l y c e r t a i n j u r i s d i c t i o n s was  14  greatly curtailed.  This situation forced the Dominion  Government to intervene in order to meet what were, constitutionally, provincial responsibilities.  Another factor  which tended to Increase the power of the federal government was the development of a broader Interpretation of the residual power clauses in the BNA Act, e.g.  "peace,  order and good government." The depression exposed, in dramatic fashion, the weakness inherent i n the economy of the twenties and led to the creation of new social and economic demands. sive unemployment raised the question of r e l i e f ,  Mas-  evangelistic  religious sects arose to offer immediate salvation, fascist solutions were suggested and "funny money" projects found f e r t i l e ground.  In most cases, these Increased needs of  society for help and guidance were directed toward government.  The result was that, especially in the case of provin-  c i a l authorities, these needs expanded to such a degree that they exhausted the a b i l i t y of governments to satisfy them. Finally, a new technological invention, the radio, had developed to a point where i t was economically feasible and socially acceptable as a medium of mass communication. Most individuals f e l t that the government must regulate the development and operation of broadcasting, but i t was s t i l l an open question as to whether this government should  15 be p r o v i n c i a l or federal. The depression had created a s i t u a t i o n , therefore, where the Dominion Government was forced to expand greatly i t s national economic p o l i c y .  Federal authorities were  also being drawn into the formulation and administration of a national s o c i a l p o l i c y .  A f t e r the Report of the Aird  Commission had been submitted, the Dominion Government discovered that i t might also have to control the operation of radio broadcasting  and thereby run the r i s k of construct-  ihgra national policy i n r e l a t i o n to c u l t u r a l matters. This p o s s i b i l i t y endangered the very basis of the Confedera-  ls  tion  settlement. A major problem associated with the assumption by  the Dominion Government of control over radio was the f a c t that the new medium possessed a great p o t e n t i a l as an i n strument of education.  Federal control of radio meant, i n  effect, that the Dominion Government would have an opportunity to engage d i r e c t l y i n education. stacles i n 1930, through radio.  However, two ob-  stood i n the, way of such national  education  The f i r s t stemmed from the f a c t that, under  Section 93 of the BNA Act, education was a subject s p e c i f i c a l l y to p r o v i n c i a l control.  assigned  Secondly, i t had not  as yet been decided l e g a l l y whether radio was a p r o v i n c i a l or a federal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The provinces,  therefore,  s t i l l retained a chance of preserving t h i s new medium of  16  education f o r t h e i r own use.  In any case, neither the  p r o v i n c i a l nor the Dominion authorities could p l o t , with assurance of success, any long-term venture into radio education. The opportunity to decide the question of J u r i s d i c t i o n over the radio soon arrived.  In 1931» the Province  of Quebec declared formally i t s Intention to test the cons t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t of the Dominion Government to control broadcasting.  As f a r as the development of national educa-  t i o n a l broadcasting was concerned, proved to be of the utmost  this court decision  importance.  The decision of the Quebec Government to challenge the l e g a l r i g h t of the Dominion to control radio was a product of two sets of forces.  French-Canadians  had always  considered the control over education to be v i t a l i n t h e i r s u r v i v a l as a d i s t i n c t ethnic group.  Education performed  an important r o l e i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the young and, therefore, was a very important element i n preserving FrenchCanadian culture.  The Government of Quebec could not permit  broadcasting, a medium of education with as yet unlmown p o t e n t i a l , to be vested i n the hands of a government dominated by English-Canadians.  Quebec's claim over radio was made  more urgent by the f a c t that the new medium recognized no p o l i t i c a l boundary and, thus, the Province had no defense against undesirable programmes emanating from beyond i t s borders.  17 The second set of forces determining the decision by Quebec to take the radio issue to court was related to the rise of a nationalist movement within the Province. This nationalist group was in opposition to the Liberal policy of industrialization, as being destructive of the traditional values of French-Canadian society.  Groups, such  as L'Action Francalse, envisioned a permanent minority econ6  omic status for the French Canadian because of such a policy. The resentment of the Quebec nationalists was directed toward the three agents which had sponsored the industrialization - the Provincial Liberal Government, the Dominion Government and the American investor.  Although i t was  a minority movement, the nationalism of groups like L'Action Francaise, did direct the attention of French Canadians to the cultural threat that foreign investment and outside control of instruments such as the radio presented.  The  Dominion Government, in its'desire to secure control over broadcasting, was suggesting that the French Canadian relinquish his claim to supervise the operation of an educaT  tional medium, and to allow that medium to rest under the 7 complete control of the English Canadian element in Canada. Quebec's appeal to the courts was not unexpected by federal o f f i c i a l s .  Premier Taschereau of Quebec received  an immediate reply from Alfred Duranaleau, later to become the Minister of Marine, lamenting the fact that:  18  "the Fathers of Confederation did not foresee the problems of radio in this epoch...Since l t presents at once an lnterprovinclal and an international aspect, the Government can only maintain the stand already taken on this subject...that i n practice and in law, radio broadcasting can only come under federal power."g The Dominion authorities could also hope that a court decision in i t s favour would give an added weight of l e g i t i macy to its claims of control over radio, as well as shifting a portion of the French resentment to the courts. The f i r s t decision concerning the question of radio jurisdiction was handed down by the Supreme Court of Canada in June, 1931. In the words of the jurists, the "Parliament of Canada has the exclusive legislative power to regulate and control radio communication in Canada."^  Both  contesting parties in the dispute realized from the outset, however, that the Supreme Court decision would merely constitute a preliminary finding and, as expected, an appeal was f i l e d by the Province of Quebec to decide whether "the Parliament of Canada has jurisdiction to regulate and control radio communications."^ The major argument proposed before the Privy Council by Mr. Geoffrion, representing the appellant in the case, showed in a very clear fashion the cultural problems that were Inherent i n radio broadcasting, especially its educational aspect.  Quebec did not dispute the "Dominion right  to deal with such matters involved as come directly within  19 the enumerated heads of s e c t i o n 91 of the 5,N.A. A c t . " What was  n  A  c o n s i d e r e d to he v i t a l t o the Quebec Government,  though, was  the f a c t t h a t there were " p a r t s of the s u b j e c t  which are wholly w i t h i n the P r o v i n c i a l power as to p r o p e r t y and  c i v i l r i g h t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , and  the c o n t r o l of broad-  c a s t i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes and,  as to programmes,  12 e s p e c i a l l y as to the language used,"  Continuing i t s  argument, the Quebec Government noted t h a t the " f a c t t h a t b r o a d c a s t i n g i n one p r o v i n c e may I n t e r f e r e w i t h b r o a d c a s t i n g i n another does not g i v e the Dominion l e g i s l a t i v e power  13 over the matter."  A l s o , even i f " t r a n s m i t t i n g i n s t r u -  ments are w i t h i n the Dominion power, r e c e i v i n g s e t s are  14 not,  they are p r o p e r t y o p e r a t i n g wholly w i t h i n a p r o v i n c e . " The argument p r e s e n t e d by the Dominion Government  for  c o n t r o l of the new  medium was  saved from r e l i a n c e upon  c o n t r o v e r s i a l s e c t i o n s of the B r i t i s h North America A c t , such as the r e s i d u a l powers i m p l i c i t i n the and good government" c l a u s e , by two p l a c e , there was  a precedent  factors.  "peace, o r d e r In the  first  which had been e s t a b l i s h e d  i n the d e c i s i o n handed down i n r e f e r e n c e to the c o n t r o l of  a e r o n a u t i c s i n Canada,  T h e r e f o r e , the Dominion claimed  t h a t "as was...held w i t h regard to a e r o n a u t i c s , r a d i o communication and of  i s a matter of n a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t and  i s a c l a s s of s u b j e c t which a f f e c t s the body  importance, politic  the Dominion; i t i s moreover a matter as to which t h e r e  20  must be a single legislative authority throughout Canada."  J  The second argument of the Dominion was that the control of radio resided with the federal government in order that i t he able "to perform the obligations arising under Section 132 of the B.N.A.; A c t . "  16  As a f i n a l insur-  ance argument, the Dominion held that the "final words of Section 91 (B.N.A. Act) exclude provincial authority, as the matter as a whole comes within Section 91» head number >  2 (regulation of trade and commerce)," so that the "authority of the Parliament of Canada extends to inter-provincial radio on the same grounds that i t was held to extend to 17  inter-provincial aeronautics." True to i t s original purposes, the Canadian Radio League sent Brooke Claxton to London to ,i present the case of the membership for Dominion control over radio.  The  League posed three arguments for national control of broadcasting. Broadcasting was considered "by reason of its very nature" to be "inevitably lnter-provinclal" and not "intra18 provincial".  The League also f e l t that broadcasting was  an international phenomenon and, thus, Dominion control was required in order to undertake treaties with foreign nations. The f i n a l argument of the League was that "seeing as broadcasting is the most powerful instrument ever devised for the development of public opinion and public taste . . . t h e possibility of releasing propaganda requires that  21 there be safeguards  19 against l t . " '  Also, broadcasting  "can become a menace to the n a t i o n a l l i f e  of Canada not  only j u s t i f y i n g but r e q u i r i n g a c t i o n f o r the whole  country  20 by  the Dominion."  Pausing  to review the e f f e c t of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Radio League i n the c o u r t  proceedings,  A l a n P l a u n t f e l t t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n " i n s t e a d of a group of a g i t a t o r s w i t h d o u b t f u l motives and t h e o r i e s , " had  the  being  half-baked  emerged as "a h i g h l y p a t r i o t i c ,  nationalistic 21 o r g a n i z a t i o n d u l y q u a l i f i e d to r e p r e s e n t the p u b l i c . " The P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n handed down by Dunedin was  t h a t , s i n c e b r o a d c a s t i n g was  Viscount  a s u b j e c t not  p l i c i t l y mentioned i n the B.N.A. A c t , i t was  assigned  exto  the Dominion Government under the "peace, o r d e r and good government" c l a u s e . broadcasting  A l s o , i n the view of t h e i r L o r d s h i p s ,  "as a system cannot e x i s t without both a t r a n s -  m i t t e r and can be reduced  to a n o n e n t i t y i f the t r a n s m i t t e r  22 closes."  As a r e s u l t , i t was  the c o n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n of  the P r i v y C o u n c i l l o r s , t h a t " b r o a d c a s t i n g i s an  undertaking  connecting the p r o v i n c e s w i t h o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and  extending  beyond the l i m i t s of the p r o v i n c e , so t h a t the c o n t r o l of r a d i o r e s i d e s w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Dominion Govern23 ment. The d e c i s i o n of the P r i v y C o u n c i l i n the Radio Case had,  by i m p l i c a t i o n , p r o v i d e d the Dominion Government w i t h  22 an opportunity to u t i l i z e the radio for educational purposes. Whether or not the federal authorities would take advantage of this opportunity, and the exact form that i t s  endeavours  in national radio education would assume, depended upon several things.  The attitude of the Government in power  in relation to the use of radio would be very important in such developments.'  The type of organization devised to  control the operation of radio would determine, in part, the f l e x i b i l i t y and amount of experimentation which would be allowed those people engaged in broadcasting. The ability of the new broadcasting authority to attract qualified personnel, in terms of radio and educa-r tional experience, would be significant for a good series of educational programmes.  There would also be the need  to secure the co-operation of the provincial educational authorities and, along the same l i n e , to devise administrative machinery to f a c i l i t a t e co-operation between the two levels of government.  Finally, the financial support pro-  vided for the operation of Canadian radio would be a crucial variable in any effective radio education series. The general significance of the decision in the Radio Case was recognized and reported by the Ottawa Citizen. The Citizen suspected that: "It may well be a deciding factor in determining the course of Canadian nationhood in the years ahead. Canada's birthright in a great new f i e l d of national service has been saved from the disintegrating forces  23 of narrow sectionalism. It w i l l remain for this Parliament to decide whether Canadian broadcasting is to be swallowed by private monopoly interests in the United States."24 Besides private monopoly interests in the United States, there were similar interests in Canada which desired to "swallow Canadian broadoasting";  One such group  was the Canadian Association of Broadcasters, who were devoted to preserving the private and commercial nature of radio broadcasting.  The decision i n the Radio Case had  not been viewed favourably by C.A.B. and, as a result, i t exerted pressure upon the Government, in an attempt to convince the Dominion not to adopt public control of the radio.  Strangely enough, the Canadian Association of Broad-  casters, like the Canadian Radio League, employed the educational argument of radio to impress the Government with their position. On February 11, 19311 at the annual meeting of the Association, the executive recommended to i t s members that a l l direot advertising should not exceed 5% of the time on any given programme.  This suggestion was an attempt,  on the part of the private broadcasters, to placate those who demanded that advertising be excluded from radio and that in fact radio should be a public service medium only. Shortly after this meeting, some of these private broadcasters attempted to demonstrate, to both the Govern-  24  ment and the public, that they were not unaware of the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y that was i m p l i c i t i n the operation of such a medium of mass communication as radio.  Thus,  t h i s group announced plans f o r a series of educational broadcasts, on a coast-to-coast network, during the upcoming autumn.  The Vice-President of the Canadian Associa-  t i o n of Broadcasters, E.W.  Ashcroft, explained the network  arrangements to the Prime Minister as follows: "Mr. E.W. Beatty i s providing the transmission, Colonel Wilfred Bovey (Director of Extra-Mural Relations at McGill) i s arranging f o r the speakers, and I have secured the necessary radio f a c i l i t i e s . We are hoping that the National Council of Education may be induced to sponsor these educational features, notwithstanding the fact that some of the Council's personnel have apparently been hypnotized by the propaganda that has been i n s t i t u t e d by the newspapers under the guise of the Canadian Radio League, which i s nothing more or l e s s than a very clever ruse to divert radio advertising expenditures to newspaper oolumns...We intend to pay the various professors f o r giving the educational addresses...and I am personally contributing one-half of the t o t a l amount. % e  By I93I, there were very few people i n Canada who did  not advocate that education should be one of the prime  purposes of radio.  The f i r s t agency to control radio i n  Canada, however, made only feeble attempts to convert the radio into an educational  instrument.  The Canadian Radio Broadcasting Act of 1932  estab-  l i s h e d a three-man commission, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, to control the operation of Canadian radio.  The chairman of the CRBC was Hector  Charlesworth,  25 the burly editor of Saturday Night magazine. chairman was  The v i c e -  Thomas Maher, a successful forestry engineer  and reported to be an active Conservative Party i n Quebec.  The t h i r d member of the t r i o nominated to govern  Canadian radio was  Lieutenant  Colonel Steel, a technical  adviser to the Parliamentary Committee of 1932. i n r e l a t i o n to i t s p o t e n t i a l i n the f i e l d of broadcasting, the CHBC.  organizer  When viewed educational  two factors immediately become c l e a r about  There was  a noticeable lack of any  extensive  knowledge or experience i n both radio programming and education.  These two d i s a b i l i t i e s of the Commission hindered  the growth, during i t s existence of national educational  t  of any  substantial amount  broadcasting.  When the B i l l was being Introduced i n the House to establish the CRBC, the Prime Minister, Mr. Bennett, had surrounded the new  agency with an aura of idealism.  Mr. Bennett announced that: "This country must be assured of complete control of broadcasting from Canadian sources, free from foreign interference or influence. Without such control radio broadcasting can never become a great agency f o r the communication of matters of national concern and f o r the d i f f u s i o n of national thoughts and ideals, and without such control i t can never be the agency by which national consciousness may be fostered and sustained and national unity s t i l l further strengthened...In view of these circumstances and of the further fact that broadcasting i s a science that i s only yet In i t s i n fancy and about which we know l i t t l e yet, I cannot think that any government would be warranted i n leaving the a i r to private exploitation and not reserving i t f o r the use of the people. ",/•  26 The experience of the CEBC, however, was to do considerable damage to the v i s i o n s of grandeur which had preceded the operation of national radio. The only s i g n i f i c a n t attempt by the CEBC to develop a national radio education scheme was i t s sponsorship of a series of i n t e r - u n i v e r s i t y cup debates.  The Commission  provided free a i r time f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s and donated a s h i e l d to the winners.  Charlesworth himself f e l t that,  of the children's programmes broadcast, "many,..should be denied the use of the a i r , f o r they appeal solely to the fear i n s t i n c t i n children and excite t h e i r nerves." ^ 2  He was also sure that as a r e s u l t of such programmes, " i n every large c i t y thousands of children lose sleep necessary to t h e i r health, through the f a l s e excitement such broadcasts create."  No attempt was launched, during the period  i n which the CEBC controlled Canadian radio, to co-operate with p r o v i n c i a l educational authorities i n the production of i n s t r u c t i o n a l broadcasts. In 1933> the Prime Minister recruited the services of Mr. Gladstone Murray, of the B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation, to inquire i n t o and report on the Operation of radio broadcasting  i n Canada.  Murray expressed the f e e l i n g  that the l i n e s of authority within the CEBC were f a r too d i f f u s e d f o r e f f e c t i v e decision-making.  He, therefore,  recommended the appointment of a chief executive,  "prefer-  27 ably described as a General Manager or Director General, 29  responsible to the Commission".  Such a General Manager,  i n Murray's view, should be "demonstrably free from p o l i t i c a l partisan association."-^  0  Murray also recommended to the  Prime Minister that the network programmes, originated under the Commission auspices, should be "of exceptional quality and variety," and i f not, they should not be permitted a i r time. The Government received, read and then discarded completely the Murray Report.  Nevertheless, the c r i t i c i s m s  expressed i n the Report were recognized as v a l i d by the press.  The Winnipeg Free Press considered the Commission  to be "one of the Bennett Government's most serious p o l i t i c a l l i a b i l i t i e s " and f e l t that l t "was incredible that the Commissioners could have f o r f e i t e d p u b l i c esteem i n so 31 short a time."-' The Prime Minister, himself, declared, i n the House of Commons, that "no one unows better than 32 I the unpopularity f o r the moment of t h i s commission."^ In h i s usual confident and boisterous way, Hector Charlesworth l i s t e n e d to the mounting c r i t i c i s m of h i s Commission.  When forced to make a statement  concerning  the Commission's behavior, Charlesworth calmly explained that "there has been-no muddle i n anything that the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission has done.  The only muddle  being muddle-brained comments i n the Canadian newspapers."  28 Although Charlesworth  could exhibit such disdain f o r public  c r i t i c i s m , 'Saturday Night', his own magazine, was forced to report that: "after innumerable conversations with a l l sorts of people, and a careful consideration of l e t t e r s received from l i s t e n e r s i n a l l parts of the Dominion, .-..from no one have I succeeded i n procuring the statement that the Commission has done a r e a l l y good j o b . " ^ In addition to the news media, another very  important  group had observed the Commission's a c t i v i t i e s with a c r i t i c a l eye.  This group was the Canadian Radio League.  The  League evidenced mounting concern over the fact that the Commission had not f u l f i l l e d the ideals of radio broadcasting, as suggested by the Aird Report.  This was  especially so  i n r e l a t i o n to the educational funotion of the medium. Thus, the League declared that "education was one phase of i t s operations to which the Radio Commission was expected  35 to give at least reasonable  consideration and  co-operation.*'  The Radio League recognized the fact that the commission was  "not expected to work d i r e c t l y through schools or i n  any way  that might impinge on the r i g h t s of the provinces  i n educational matters."  36  Even with t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n ,  the League s t i l l lamented the f a c t that the Commission "has made no appreciable attempt to co-operate with the provinces though there i s no doubt leaders i n education i n every province would have welcomed i n t e l l i g e n t co-opera-  29 tion." ? 3  In conclusion, the League declared that the " f a i l -  ure of the Radio Commission to give any i n t e l l i g e n t lead to educational broadcasting...is  a permanent r e f l e c t i o n  of i t s lack of... i n t e r e s t i n public service  broadcasting."  38  The public c r i t i c i s m of the Commission eventually forced the appointment of a Parliamentary Committee i n 193*H to investigate the a c t i v i t y of the CRBC. the 1932  Dr. Morand, of  Committee, was selected to chair the investigation.  The major recommendation handed down by the Committee was that "radio broadcasting  could best be conducted by a  39 General Manager."  The report of the Committee was not  s u f f i c i e n t l y negative to force the abandonment of the CRBC and, as a r e s u l t , the l i f e of the Commission was extended for  another year. The l i f e of the CRBC was very short a f t e r the i n -  vestigation of I934, however, f o r a new L i b e r a l adminis t r a t i o n had gained control at Ottawa.  The L i b e r a l s had  no l i k i n g f o r the CRBC, especially a f t e r the notorious 4-0  "Mr. Sage" broadcasts.  Nevertheless, a kind word can  be spoken about the CRBC, f o r l t suffered under the d i s a b i l i t y of operating a radio broadcasting  "system" with  ZJ.1  a minimum amount of f i n a n c i a l support.  This f a c t alone  would have hampered the development of more serious forms of programming, most of which are more costly i n terms of acting personnel and s c r i p t - w r i t i n g . Also, the radio was  30 s t i l l perceived by most of the audience as a novelty. People were more Interested i n the f a s c i n a t i n g aspects of electronic communication than i n l i s t e n i n g to the content of the broadcast. Even though excuses can be made f o r the f a i l u r e of the CEBC to engage i n more serious forms of programming, i t s f a i l u r e i n educational radio was b a s i c a l l y due to i t self;,.  The CEBC was divided against i t s e l f and was contln42  u a l l y being accused of partisanship.  These two elements  would have made any p r o v i n c i a l education authority hesitant i n establishing co-operative  r e l a t i o n s with the Commission.  The Government of Maokenzie King, therefore, established a Parliamentary  Committee i n 1936 to "inquire into  the operations of the Canadian Eadio Broadcasting  Commission  and to what, i f any, changes s h a l l be effected i n the e x l s t 43  ing system of radio broadcasting."  The committee hearings  were inaugurated, i n a very appropriate fashion, by a report on the complaints that were received by the CEBC i n reference to i t s programming i n the year 1934.  In this  report the three aspects of broadcasting which received most c r i t i c i s m were programme q u a l i t y , American interference 44  and the lack of good reception of Canadian stations. These were exactly the areas of broadcasting Eeport had considered  that the A i r d  to be i n need of reform, i f radio  was to remain a Canadian enterprise.  The  Canadian P r e s s A s s o c i a t i o n was  W i l l i a m B. P r e s t o n ,  who  represented  by  d e c l a r e d t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n  was  " q u i t e agreeable to s u p p l y i n g news b u l l e t i n s f r e e of charge for  i t i s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a t the news of  country be  safeguarded and  be  45 sponsorship."  kept under Canadian  The P r e s s A s s o c i a t i o n a l s o f e l t  this  that "news on the a i r should  j u s t as a c c u r a t e . . . j u s t as i m p a r t i a l , and  j u s t as f r e e  from propaganda as the news t h a t the Canadian p r e s s i s  46 s u p p l y i n g by  land."  Radio education  received a p u b l i c i s t , before  Committee i n the form of Mr.  P a u l Coffey,  of the Young Men's Canadian Clubs.  Mr.  the  the  President  Coffey  outlined  to the Committee the l a r g e number of groups which drew  47 m a t e r i a l from the A s s o c i a t i o n . to give weight to h i s c o n c l u s i o n  T h i s was  done i n order  t h a t "people throughout  the country are a c t u a l l y l i s t e n i n g to the r a d i o and a c t u a l l y I n t e r e s t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l programmes, so  are  long  48 as they are presented i n an i n t e r e s t i n g manner." ally,  Coffey  f e l t t h a t "people want e d u c a t i o n a l  Specificaddresses  on s u b j e c t s showing the importance of the f u n c t i o n s government, the importance of the v a r i o u s m i n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l resources, not  and  of  resources,  on the s u b j e c t of h i s t o r y ,  j u s t the h i s t o r y of the country as i t b u i l t up but  the h i s t o r y of the v a r i o u s peoples i n the At the i n s t i g a t i o n of C D .  country."^  Howe, the new  also  9  Minister  32 of Marine, the Canadian Radio League was requested to prepare a b r i e f o u t l i n i n g i t s proposals f o r the new casting system.  broad-  The members of the League who collaborated  i n the production of t h i s memorandum were Alan Plaunt, Brooke Claxton, J.W.  Dafoe, E.A.  Corbett, Vincent Massey,  Gladstone Murray, and Graham Spry.  The report by the Radio  League contained recommendations very similar to those f i n a l l y made by the Parliamentary Committee. The Report of the League expressed the view that "broadcasting i s a special medium not susceptible to ordinary types of p u b l i c control" and, therefore, a "public corporation which combines the greatest possible degree of f l e x i b i l i t y and absence of Interference i n management with Parliamentary control over major p o l i c y , i s best suited to i t s character and needs."^°  The Report also noted that i t  was important to establish a "buffer i n the form of a Board to proteot the executive of such a corporation from community 51  of partisan pressure."  This proposed Board was to accept  the "immediate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p o l i c i e s of the Corporation. "-*  2  The League Report also recommended that i t was  desir-  able that p r o v i n c i a l interests and aspirations receive due consideration, but t h i s could "best be achieved  through  P r o v i n c i a l Advisory Committees working i n conjunction with the regional programme o f f i c i a l s of the Corporation. "53  33 Thus,  the  B o a r d members  trustees  on m a t t e r s  a whole,  rather  cial  or regional The f i n a l  was  the  the  Corporation.  tion  to  have  broadcasting  as  to  "consider  of board p o l i c y  than  as  for  themselves  the  as  Dominion  narrowly representative  of  as  provin-  Interests."-^ recommendation  appointment  was  were  of  a  the  R a d i o League  G e n e r a l Manager to  The p e r s o n a  of  "vision  chosen  of  the  an instrument  of  to  Report  administer  fulfill/such  potentialities  a  of  entertainment,  posi-  Canadian  education  55 and n a t i o n a l of  the  new b r o a d c a s t i n g  headed  by a  board,  to  the  single  whom h a s  immediate from  unity."  the  agency  of a  executive been  was  general "public  responsible  entrusted  conception  to  a  control of Parliament  responsibility for  a means o f  over major  envisaged  "the  production  and i n t r i n s i c Canadian v a l u e ,  many b e n e f i t s The  o f programmes  the  as  credit  the  distinct  policy."-'  organizing radio broadcasting.  w o u l d be  corporation  non-partisan  f o r m u l a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of p o l i c y ,  The L e a g u e R e p o r t  effect  Therefore,  from  such  immediate of  originality  f o r which  would 57  be  given to  In  a long-term perspective,  "national  the  Government,  chain of  w h i c h h a d made the  them  possible."  Report  considered  that  s t a t i o n s . . . w o u l d be  a national  property  as i m p o r t a n t to the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n o e o f Canada as n a t i o n , as the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y s were to i t s  a  a in-  to  ception."  The C o r p o r a t i o n w o u l d a l s o  provide  the  "Canadian  34 people with d i s t i n c t i v e and varied entertainment, educa59 tion, and commercial information."-"  Canada would also 60  "have an instrument of i n d i r e c t t o u r i s t propaganda." In terms of national advertising, Canadians would possess a medium through "which whatever she has of unique value 61 might be interpreted to the rest of the world."  Finally,  as an insurance measure, Canada "would keep i n her hands an instrument, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of which are unpredictable."  6 2  The Parliamentary Committee also heard from Mr. E.A. Weir, an ex-programme d i r e c t o r f o r the CRBC.  Mr.  Weir reminded the Utopians, who viewed the radio as some form of educational panacea, that "programmes depend p r i marily on t h e i r entertainment value and that programmes to which people w i l l not l i s t e n might as well never be broadcast.  1,63  Nevertheless, Weir considered that there  were s t i l l very great opportunities i n the f i e l d of educa64 t i o n a l radio which "are as yet unexplored."  There was,  f o r example, a "vast f i e l d f o r both adult and c h i l d educat i o n , of the informative and imaginative nature, hardly 65 scratched."  Weir drew on h i s past experience and noted  that "this would necessitate careful co-operation with many organizations but i t would be well worthwhile and l t need i n t e r f e r e i n no way with the f i e l d of p r o v i n c i a l rights."  6 6  35 It was very clear that most people f e l t that education should be a prime function of radio; that this radio education should also contribute to certain cultural and nationalistic ends; and that i t should be an entertaining form of education.  No one, however, would make a declara-  tion, or even a speculation, as to how such a national education over the a i r waves was to be designed, controlled, and operated within a federal structure that had assigned education specifically to provincial Jurisdiction. The Report of the Parliamentary Committee reflected the influence of the proposals that were tendered by the Radio League.  The Committee advised the Government that:  1. It has been...demonstrated that a Commission of three cannot be moulded into a unit that can formulate and execute policies. 2. Radio broadcasting could best be conducted by a General Manager. 3. The Act of 1932 should be repealed and replaced by a corporation. 4. The corporation should enjoy the fullest possible freedom in so far as i t s internal activities are concerned. 5. We reaffirm the principle of complete nationalization of radio broadcasting in Canada. 6. In the matter of news broadcasts, the closest possible co-operation should be maintained between the Broadcasting Corporation and the Canadian Press, 67  The Liberal Government was now in possession of a Report by the Canadian Radio League, a Report of the Parlia-  36 mentary Committee, a technical Report by C P , of  Edwards,  the Radio Branch of the Department of Marine, plus a  wide sampling of p u b l i c and expert opinion on Canadian radio.  A f t e r consideration of a l l of these sources, the  new Canadian Broadcasting Act was made ready f o r presentation. to  The Honourable CD.  Howe, i n introducing the B i l l  the House of Commons i n June 1936  stated that:  "This B i l l follows very closely the report of the Committee and I believe that had the e a r l i e r l e g i s l a t i o n conformed more nearly to the reports of the Royal Commission and the Parliamentary Committee that preceded the introduction of that l e g i s l a t i o n , perhaps we should not have wandered a f i e l d i n our attempt to reach the ultimate g o a l . " o A  The new  Canadian Broadcasting Act was given P a r l i a -  mentary assent on June 23,  1936.  The Act established a  public corporation, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, under the d i r e c t i o n of a General Manager to "carry on a  69 national broadcasting service within the Cominion of Canada." To f u l f i l l t h i s purpose the corporation was empowered to: 1. 2. 5.  Maintain and operate broadcasting stations. Establish,..such stations as the Corporation may from time to time consider i t necessary to give e f f e c t to the provisions of t h i s act. Make operating agreements with private stations for the broadcasting of programmes.  4. Originate programmes and secure programmes, from within or outside Canada, by purchase or exchange and make arrangements necessary f o r t h e i r transmission. 5.  Make contracts with any person or persons, i n or outside of Canada, i n connection with the production or presentation of the programmes of the Corporation.  37 6. Publish and distribute whether gratis or otherwise, such papers, periodicals and other literary matter as may seem conducive to any of the objects of the Corporation. 7. Collect news relating to current events in any part of the world and in any manner that may be thought fit. b. Make arrangements or agreements with any organization for the use of any rights, privileges, or concessions which the Corporation may consider useful for the purpose of carrying out i t s objects. 9 . Acquire private stations either by lease, or subject to the approval of the Governor in Council, by purchase. 10. Do a l l such other things as the Corporation may deem incidental or conducive to the attainment of any of the objects or the exercise of any of the powers of the Corporation. 7n  In addition to the General Manager, the CBC was to "consist of a board of nine governors appointed by the Governor-inCouncil and chosen to give representation to the principal 71  geographical divisions in Canada."' The concept of public ownership had long formed an Integral aspect of the Canadian experience.  The building  and operation of Canada's transcontinental railway systems provide ample evidence for this statement.  It was not  until the depression, however, that the Dominion Government displayed any marked tendency to Investigate the poss i b i l i t i e s of using the public corporation as the method of administering i t s various "public enterprises."  The  public or crown corporation differs from other corporate  38 organizations immediately ship  i n that  places  w i t h the  of  in a  private  the  has  its  public  government.  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e culties,  i t  own s t a t u t e .  corporation  A t the  This  in a  same t i m e ,  close  attempts  to  overcome  capitalist  society,  of  permitting  within  the  context  relation-  though,  device  enterprise  fact  the  such  diffi-  a  maximum  of public  direotion  72 and  control. Besides  from  utilizing  there The  the  were  a public  four  of  the  British  to  the  Canadian  of  Franklin  such as  the  for  groups  of not  to  severe  the  economy  was  country.  that  intended  through  of  its  adoption.  a public  operate broadcasting.  cor-  The  C o r p o r a t i o n was a l s o  example  available  The w e l l - p u b l i c i z e d "New D e a l "  to  shock w h i c h the caused  Reconstruction,  enterprise  the  society  that  derived  broadcasting,  work i n favour  advocated  be  control  i n c l u d e d many p u b l i c  the  Social  was  to  to  corporations,  N a t i o n a l Recovery A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  private  operating  to  Government.  Roosevelt  administered League  used  at  had  Broadcasting  Finally,  was  other forces  s h o u l d be  advantages  corporation  Canadian R a d i o League  poration  not  administrative  The  of national serve  received  a  as  the  many to  most  groups,  question  whether  effective  basis by  sooial planning.  Such  i n the  a Darwinian competition  insuring benefits  had  such as  s o l u t i o n proposed  a means o f  share  depression  that of  the  or  for  these planning a l l  members  industrialism,  with others,  but  as  a  39 right which was guaranteed them by the state.?  3  Although  the Liberal Government of Mackenzie King did not subscribe to Hsocial planning," as advocated by the League for Social Reconstruction, i t did after 1935» begin to follow a policy 7/4. that was nationalist and interventionist.'  Thus, the public  corporation could be supported by liberals and socialists alike, for i t insured that radio would remain a Canadian resource and that i t would be under national direction. There was a paradox inherent in the attempt to employ the public corporation as a means of both controlling broadcasting and ensuring that the system was free from partisan pressures.  No matter how independent the broad-  casting authority was supposed to be, the Minister of the Crown under whose department the Corporation resided,  i.e.  the Department of Transport, was forced to assume the final responsibility for the decisions and actions of the Corporation's agents.  Besides this factor, the CBC was also  forced to rely upon Parliament for the funds that i t required for effective operation.  Therefore, the financial  and ministerial responsibility of the CBC meant that, in reality, i t was an arm of the Dominion Government. The Broadcasting Act of 1936 established no formal administrative machinery to facilitate the co-operation of the CBC with the provincial education authorities. As the testimony before the Parliamentary Committee of 1936  40 had  Illustrated,  that  the  with  provincial  of  though,  national broadcasting  national  educational  education  When s u c h  Involved  a  these  education, ventures  depended  though,  mutual  CBC o f f i c i a l s  that  combined w i t h  their  restraints  f i l l  ment  i n Canada o f  between  The f a c t  that  agreement radio  w i l l i n g n e s s to this of  the i t  production  need. the  enterprises  i n North  provincial-  was v i e w e d by Dominion and  hinder  the  ignore  Provin-  of  Success  by b o t h p r o v i n c i a l education  those  centered  success  radio.  The r e s u l t most  CBC a n d  was  and  needed,  constitutional was  respected America. ' 1  the  develop-  educational 75  broadcasting  felt  co-operate  co-operation  educational  national  one  should i n the  the  the  d i d not  i n national  upon''the  to  d i d develop,  confrontation  governments.  around  authorities  c o - o p e r a t i o n between  authorities  as  authority  who  programmes.  educational  cial  t h e r e w e r e many p e o p l e  41 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER TWO D.V. Smiley, "The Two Themes of Canadian Federalism," Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, vol. 31, Feb. 1965, p. b2. I b i d . , p. 83.  2  3w. Eggleston, The Road to Nationhood (Toronto, Oxford Press, 194?), p. 3. ^The six acts of the "Little New Deal," although later declared to be unconstitutional, Illustrate this point (Trade and Industry Commission Act, Minimum Wages Act, Limitation of Hours of Work Act, Weekly Rest i n Industrial Undertakings Act, Unemployment Insurance Act and the Natural Products Marketing Act). ^Smiley, op. c l t . pp. 84-85. H . Qulnn, The Union Nationale (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1963) pp. 30-47. 6  ?For a discussion of this point see: K. McNaught, "The National Outlook of English-speaking Canadians," i n Nationalism i n Canada, ed. P, Russell (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, I966), pp. 61-72. 8  Reported i n the Montreal Gazette. Feb. 9, 1931.  As reported i n C, Plaxton, Constitutional Decisions In Canada (Ottawa, King's Printer, 1939), P. 137. 9  I b i d . , p. 137. 11 p. 137. • Ibld., I b i d . , P. 138. 1 0  L1  1 2  1 3  l b I d . , p. 138.  ^ I b i d . , p. 139. l 5  I b i d . , p. 139.  1 6  I b i d . , P. 140.  1 7  I b i d . , P. 141.  42 P a p e r s o f t h e Canadian Radio League. m i t t e d t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l , " 1931. P P . 1-4. l a  1 9  Ibid.,  "Brief  sub-  p p . 1-4.  20I b i d . , p p . 1-4,. P a p e r s o f t h e CanadJBan R a d i o L e a g u e . P l a u n t t o 1931 2 x  Spry,  2 2  2  2  P l a x t o n , O P . o l t . . p . 140.  3ibid., p. 141. ^"The Radio Case," Ottawa C i t i z e n .  F e b . 10,  1932.  ^ S e e M.E. P r a n g , " O r i g i n s o f P u b l i c B r o a d c a s t i n g i n C a n a d a , " C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . M a r c h , 1965, p . 20. 2  2 6  Debates  PP. 3035-3036. 2  Press,  ?H.  i n t h e House o f Commons. May 1 8 , 1932,  C h a r l e s w o r t h , I'm T e l l i n g l o u ( T o r o n t o , R y e r s o n  1937), P- 100. Ibid.,  2 B  p . 09.  9 M u r r a y R e p o r t o n B r o a d c a s t i n g i n C a n a d a. ( u n p u b l i s h e d ) , p p . 1-10. 2  1933  30I b i d . , p p . 1-10. " T h e Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g Commission," F r e e P r e s s . S e p t . 7, 1933. 3 1  3 p e b a t e s i n t h e House o f 2  p. 4887.  noniTnong.  May 11,  Winnipeg  1933,  . . . . E . A . W e i r , The S t r u g g l e f o r N a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada ( T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d a n d S t e w a r t , 1965), p . 155. 33  ^ " C a n a d i a n R a d i o , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t . S e p t . 23, p.  1933,  12.  35p pers o f t h e C a n a d i a n R a d i o L e a g u e , " u n p u b l i s h e d memorandum", 1934. p . 1. a  1934,  p . 1.  3 ? i b i d . , 1934,  p , 2.  3 6  Ibid.,  43 38ibid.,  1934,  p.  2.  39-Report o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on R a d i o B r o a d c a s t i n g ( O t t a w a . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . 1934). pp.' 1-10.  ^Weir,  op. o l t . . pp. 200-203.  Mr. Sage was i n t r o d u c e d a s "a shrewd o b s e r v e r who sees t h r o u g h t h e p r e t e n s e s , knows t h e f a c t s , u n d e r s t a n d s t h e t r u e i s s u e s of the p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l campaign." However, Mr. Sage was a l s o a C o n s e r v a t i v e , . ^ I n i t s l a s t o f f i c i a l r e p o r t t h e CRBC d e c l a r e d t h a t "The e x t e n t o f programme o r g a n i z a t i o n by t h e C o m m i s s i o n i s d e p e n d e n t upon the amount o f money made a v a i l a b l e f o r programme e x p e n d i t u r e s . Up t o t h e p r e s e n t t h e modest sum a l l o t t e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e has n o t p e r m i t t e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f e l a b o r a t e programmes o f a n e x p e n s e t y p e o f e x t e n s i v e engagement o f t h e most renowned c o n c e r t a r t i s t s . " A n n u a l Report of the Canadian Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g Commission. ( O t t a w a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1936), p . 10. ' ' ^ W e i r , op. c i t . . pp. 1 4 9 - 1 5 2 . E a r l y i n 1933 C h a r l e s w o r t h and Maher had a b a s i c d i s a g r e e ment o v e r an a t t e m p t by Maher t o programme i n t h e F r e n c h language. T h i s s p l i t n e v e r h e a l e d and was c a r r i e d i n t o o t h e r a r e a s o f programming. 2  ^3R e p o r t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on R a d i o B r o a d c a s t i n g ( O t t a w a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1936) p . 1. w  4  Ibid.,  p.  48.  5 i b i d . , p . 67.  ^ I b l d . , p. 67. I b i d . , p. 22, Some o f these; g r o u p s were Wheat B o a r d s , T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n s , D o m i n i o n A r c h i v e s , D.B.S., D e p a r t m e n t S t o r e s , M i n i n g Associations. ^ Ibid.,  p.  22.  ^9Ibid.,  P.  22.  8  50papers o f t h e C a n a d i a n R a d i o L e a g u e . " R e p o r t o f R a d i o L e a g u e on C a n a d i a n B r o a d c a s t i n g , " u n p u b l i s h e d , I936, pp. 1-25. 51lbid., p . 1,  44 5  2ibia.., p. 1.  53ibld., p. 2. ^ i b l d . , p. 3. I b i d . , p. 4.  5 5  56ibid., p. 5. 57ib£d., p.: 6. 5«ibid., p. 7.  59ibid., p. 7. 6 0  I b i d . , p. 7.  6 1  I b i d . , p. 8.  6  2ibid., p. 6.  6  3ibid., p. 400. ^ I b i d . , p. 400.  6  6  5lbid., p. 401.  6 6  I b i d . , p. 401.  6 7  I b i d . , p.1-10.  68  p. 3709.  Debates i n the House of Commons. June 15,  1936,  °9Canada, 1 Edward VIII, Chapter 24, (Ottawa, King's Printer, 1936) p. 1. 7°Ibid., pp. 1-2.  7llbid., pp. 1-2. 7 see: J . Hodgetts, "Administration and P o l i t i c s The ,Case of the CBC," Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science. I960, P. 454. 2  0  73see: Social Planning f o r Canada (Toronto, T. Nelson  & Sons, 1935), pp. 1-50,  League f o r Social Reconstruction.  45 F^See: W.L. Morton, Kingdom of Canada (N.Y., BobbsM e r r i l l Company, 1963) PP. 465-492. 7^Education on the A i r , (proceedings and r e p o r t s o f the Ohio U n i v e r s i t y School of the A i r , I929-I952). Over the years many CBC e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s r e c e i v e d awards from Ohio U n i v e r s i t y School o f the A i r . Por example "Voices of the W i l d " ( t h r e e t i m e s ) , "Our Canadian Bookshelf" (twice), " J u l i u s Caesar" ( t w i c e ) , S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( t w i c e ) , " C h i l d r e n of the Commonwealth" ( t h r e e t i m e s ) .  CHAPTER THREE THE CBC AND NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION  19?6-19?9 The early years of the CBC were very d i f f i c u l t , for the CRBC had not bequeathed a very healthy broadcasting system.  The Corporation had to search for good broadcasting  personnel, establish i t s relationship with the Dominion Government, formulate policy i n the major areas of programming and operate on a very tightly controlled budget. As far as national educational broadcasting was concerned, the years 1936-39 were spent by the o f f i c i a l s of the Corporation i n a series of controversies. The outcome of grappling with such issues was that, by 1939» the CBC and many other people who were interested i n using the radio, possessed far clearer concepts of national programme policy. At the same time as this clarification i n programme policy was occurring, the provincial governments began to be less suspicious of co-operation, with a national agency, in radio education.  The same provincial governments had  also become more accustomed to the intrusion of federal  1 authority into their jurisdictions.  The result of these  two changes was that, i n 1939, Canada had i t s f i r s t major investigation into the possibilities of commencing formal national educational broadcasting.  46  47 Although  f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l broadcasts  to s c h o o l s  were not p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g the e a r l y years of the CBC,  the  C o r p o r a t i o n d i d produce many programmes which were considered to be of g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e .  I n music, f o r example,  the Sunday a f t e r n o o n c o n c e r t s of the New S o c i e t y and NBC The  CBC  was  MacMillan,  York  Philharmonic  M e t r o p o l i t a n Opera Company were b r o a d c a s t .  a l s o a b l e to r e t a i n the s e r v i c e s of S i r E r n e s t Conductor of the Toronto  P r i n c i p a l of the Toronto  Symphony O r c h e s t r a  Conservatory  and  of Music, and W i l f r e d  P e l l e t i e r , Conductor of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Opera Company o r c h e s t r a , as i t s m u s i c a l a d v i s e r s . The CBC  a l s o produced some e x c e l l e n t dramatic  grammes d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n . i n t r o d u c e d the "CBC  I n 1938,  c o u n t e r p a r t of CBC Dramatic Hour" was H  d e p r e s s i o n , though, was Leading Shakespearian  emanated  In Quebec the  "Le Radio  the most w e l l known of a l l the CBC  stage and  Corporation  Dramatic Hour," whose p r o d u c t i o n s  from v a r i o u s c e n t e r s throughout Canada.  Probably  the  pro-  Theatre".  drama i n the  i t s s e r i e s of Shakespearian  a c t o r s , r e c o g n i z e d on the  plays.  international  screen, were engaged f o r the s t a r r o l e s i n the  v a r i o u s programmes.  The p l a y s were produced under the  t i n g u i s h e d d i r e c t i o n of Charles Warburton of New  dis-  York,  w i t h a b l e a s s i s t a n c e from Rupert Lucas, head of the CBC's p  drama department. concerning  The  CBC  i t s Shakespearian  r e c e i v e d much f a v o u r a b l e comment s e r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y "from educa-  4a t i o n authorities i n a l l parts of the  3  country."-'  Most of the material f o r news broadcasting the depression was Press.  during  supplied to the CBC by the Canadian  As the threat of war increased, however, the  CBC  news broadcasts began to s h i f t from mere reporting of events to commentaries on the news from a variety of  viewpoints.  The Canadian radio l i s t e n e r i n the depression also was to hear numerous programmes of "special i n t e r e s t " .  able  These  programmes extended from the abdication speech of King Edward VIII to a broadcast by Eamonn de Valera on the  new  constitution of E i r e . Children's programmes began to appear more frequently during the late t h i r t i e s .  The CBC sponsored children's  series, such as "The Magical Voyage", which formed part of a general e f f o r t to "get away from the blood and thunder type of broadcast which has proven so objectionable to a.  many parents and adult education groups."  The problem  i n programming s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r a c h i l d audience was  to  remove the "element of violence without l o s i n g the element of adventure necessary to hold the i n t e r e s t of a juvenile audience. There i s no accurate way i n terms of education, had upon the audience.  of discovering the effect,  that these more serious programmes The reason was  that, during the  early period of Canadian radio, there were very few audience  49 reaction  studies undertaken.  One  6  c a n s u g g e s t , however,  t h a t a s more programmes o f a r t i s t i c  and  general educational  v a l u e were b r o a d c a s t , t h e C a n a d i a n l i s t e n i n g a r n d i e n c e p r o b ably for  came t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  that  the r a d i o  other purposes b e s i d e s entertainment.  C o r b e t t was  correct  i n his feelings  c o u l d be Possibly  t h a t , as f a r as  d e s i r e s o f t h e r a d i o a u d i e n c e were c o n c e r n e d , t h e h a s t o be  s e t . . . t h e r e mtnst be a c o n s c i o u s aim  to  used E.A. the  "tone cultivate  n a w i d e r , d e e p e r and more l a s t i n g p o i n t The man  Board of Governors  o f t h e CBC,  L e o n a r d W.  and  experience.  unlike  the t h r e e  possessed The  Rene W.  Montreal, a graduate of M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y  Nathanson,  C o r p o r a t i o n i n Toronto; Monseignor Faculty  and a  lawyer, Other  o f t h e Famous P l a y e r s A.  Vachon, Dean o f t h e  o f S c i e n c e , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and  N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ; Mrs.  Grain  Morin of  a p p o i n t e d to the p o s i t i o n of Vice-Chalrman.  B o a r d members were N.L.  indivi-  chairman  B r o c k i n g t o n , c o u n s e l f o r the Winnipeg  E x c h a n g e , a s c h o l a r and n o t e d o r a t o r .  was  view."'  C a n a d i a n R a d i o B r o a d c a s t i n g Commission,  d u a l s of v a r i e d a b i l i t i e s was  of  Nellie  a member o f t h e  McClung, a  well-  known a u t h o r e s s and p i o n e e r i n t h e woman's s u f f r a g e movement i n Canada; A l a n B. P l a u n t , g r a d u a t e o f t h e of  T o r o n t o and  Secretary  of the Canadian Radio  C o l o n e l W i l f r e d Bovey, D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n a t U n i v e r s i t y a n d J.W. evident  that  G o d f r e y , K.C.  the Dominion  of H a l i f a x .  University League; McGill I t was  quite  Government, i n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e  50 problem of the appropriate personnel to .operate Canada's radio system, desired to have individuals with broadcasting, educational and l e g a l experience, f o r these had proven to be the three areas i n which the CEBC had been lax. On November 4, 193b,  Mr. Leonard Brocklngton, i n  a programme e n t i t l e d 'Canada Calling,* introduced the  new  Canadian Broadcasting Corporation to the c i t i z e n s of Canada. Mr. Brockington commenced the broadcast by reassuring the people of Quebec that "due regard...will be paid by us a l l , i n what we believe to be the national Interest, to the maintenance of just and generous relations between the two mother o  races." The struggle f o r the national control of Canadian radio had not received i t s major impetus from any form of grass roots movement.  Bather, the leadership f o r the struggle  was derived from groups of b r i l l i a n t young n a t i o n a l i s t s , "progressive" educators and I n t e l l e c t u a l s , f o r these were the individuals who,  i n i t s early stages, were most aware  of the p o t e n t i a l of radio as a medium of mass persuasion. After the establishment of the CBC, however, the Corporation was forced to devise some means of r e l a t i n g i t s e l f to the public which i t was to serve.  In h i s address to the c i t i z e n s  of Canada, therefore, Brockington offered "one word of reassurance" to h i s audience: "Please do not think that because some of the directors of t h i s corporation are university professors and some  51 are l a b e l l e d as high-brows that you are going to be harrangued. over your radio as though you were children. The merry heart Is the one that knows the furthest and truest education can well come from delight i n the wonders of the world around u s . " 1 0  Brockington*s reassurance that the CBG was not to be an o v e r - i n t e l l e c t u a l organization also stemmed i n part from a reaction to a prevalent suspicion, i n the of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . was  depression,  An example of such a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m  the b a t t l e s f o r academic freedom undertaken by  Professors  11 Underhill and Grube against Premier Hepburn of Ontario. The notion, contained  i n Brockington's radio address, that  the Canadian audience was not to be treated as a group of children was  reminiscent  of the controversial radio i n -  struction sheet that had been issued by the United  States  Federal Bureau of Education encouraging a l l broadcasters to "present your specialty on the l e v e l of thirteen-year olds," and not "to over-rate the i n t e l l i g e n c e of your l i s t e n ers."  1 2  This d i r e c t i v e had received a f a i r amount of pub-  l i c i t y i n Canada during the early depression and i t appears that, at some time, Brockington had also read i t . The CBC was apparently not s a t i s f i e d that Brockington, an English Canadian, could p u b l i c i z e the Corporation i n French Canada.  effectively  Thus, Rene Morln was requested to address  his fellows i n Quebec concerning the Canadian nation.  the CBC and i t s role i n  Morin was very t a c t f u l i n his broad-  cast, f o r he attempted to circumvent the controversial as-  52 p e c t s of the new  " n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l c o r p o r a t i o n " by  p e a l i n g to the a e s t h e t i c sense of the French He  ap-  Canadian,  explained that: " b r o a d c a s t i n g i s a marvellous instrument of a r t i s t i c r e c r e a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l propaganda...If r a d i o cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as an a r t , i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a means of e x p r e s s i o n and a power to impart knowledge; i t s purpose, t h e r e f o r e , under Government c o n t r o l i s w e l l d e t e r mined. I t i n t e n d s to serve the cause of education and a l s o to i n s t i l a t a s t e of the b e a u t i f u l . The e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e of b r o a d c a s t i n g w i l l be f u l l y e x e r c i s e d . " ^ The  CBC  had inaugurated  i t s public r e l a t i o n s with  a p l e a t h a t Canadians view the r a d i o , not as a t o o l f o r c e r t a i n "high-brows" nor as a new  f i e l d f o r French-English  competition, but as an e d u c a t i o n a l medium which was  to  "emphasize c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Canadian m a t e r i a l i n i t s own  pro-  grammes and to r e l a y over i t s network the b e s t programmes 1 At  a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r sources." ^ Radio audiences, are not of one mind and, a new  however,  as a r e s u l t , the demands upon such  medium were not uniform.  Besides t h i s , the  officials  w i t h i n the C o r p o r a t i o n d i s c o v e r e d very q u i c k l y t h a t a consensus, i n r e l a t i o n to the " n a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t " t h a t the r a d i o was  to serve, had not been a c h i e v e d .  between these v a r i o u s demands and  r a d i o and for  i n the e a r l i e r  of en-  to evolve an e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r  c r e a t e the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery  implementation  interplay  competing concepts  the " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , " as expressed deavours, by the CBC  The  necessary  of t h a t p o l i c y , forms our next  assignment.  53 THE EUGENICS CASE I f one l e a f e d through as Saturday  the pages of a magazine,  Night, d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n years  a t t e n t i o n s o l e l y to the advertisements  such  directing  contained t h e r e i n ,  i t would he very d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n t h a t the s o c i e t y was i n the midst of a massive economic d e p r e s s i o n . In f a c t , the themes contained i n the v a r i o u s forms of one would probably  conclude  t h a t Canada was  some form of sexual r e v o l u t i o n .  from  advertisement, passing  Not only was  the  through  sexual  motive s t r e s s e d f o r movie goers, but i t a l s o p r o v i d e d a reason f o r p u r c h a s i n g d i v e r s e consumer goods such as f u r n i t u r e and c i g a r e t t e s .  The  cosmetics,  theme of sex was  very much  i n the minds of the d e p r e s s i o n g e n e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y In urban areas, and  i t probably  the r a d i o , of p r o v i d i n g another  so  served the f u n c t i o n , as emotional  o u t l e t f o r the  f r u s t r a t i o n s of s u b s i s t e n c e l i v i n g . In February  1937,  the Eugenics  c o n t r a c t e d w i t h s t a t i o n CFEB Toronto  S o c i e t y of Canada f o r f i f t e e n minutes  of b r o a d c a s t i n g time, i n order to p r e s e n t "an e d u c a t i o n a l 15  broadcast on the s u b j e c t of 'Eugenics and S t e r i l i z a t i o n ' . " P r i o r to the programme Mr. W.L. the S o c i e t y , i n q u i r e d of the CBC you may  Hutton,  v  the P r e s i d e n t of  "as to any r e g u l a t i o n s  have i n r e g a r d to such addresses" and what "the  16 standards are by which s u i t a b i l i t y of such m a t e r i a l i s Mr. Button's  i n q u i r y i m p l i e d another q u e s t i o n , which  judged."  was  54 to prove v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s o f f i c i a l s to answer.  S i n c e the E u g e n i c s S o c i e t y had d e f i n e d i t s p r o -  posed b r o a d c a s t as " e d u c a t i o n a l , " the CBC m i t t i n g o r r e j e c t i n g the p r o p o s a l , was  i n e i t h e r per-  forced into a posi-  t i o n where i t had t o e s t a b l i s h s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i a f o r what c o n s t i t u t e d an e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t and what d i d n o t . Soon a f t e r Gladstone Murray had r e c e i v e d Mr.  Hutton's  query, the g e a r s of the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n the CBC began t o f u n c t i o n . the q u e s t i o n t o Dr. E*E.  Murray i m m e d i a t e l y  referred  Wodehouse, Deputy M i n i s t e r of  the Department of P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , f o r an expert opinion.  A f t e r due c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i s s u e ,  Dr. Wodehouse r e p l i e d t o Murray t h a t " t h e r e i s no  objec^  t i o n to the s u b j e c t o f eugenics b e i n g d i s c u s s e d o v e r  the  r a d i o , b u t when t h i s I s extended to i n c l u d e s t e r i l i z a t i o n and b i r t h c o n t r o l , t h i s i s an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t  matter." ? 1  I t appeared, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Dr. Wodehouse c o n s i d e r e d  eugenics,  the s c i e n t i f i c study o f the r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s , t o be an a s p e c t o f e d u c a t i o n . w h i c h was  However the s u b j e c t of s t e r i l i z a t i o n ,  d e f i n e d as the p r o c e s s o f r e n d e r i n g one  incapable  of p r o d u c i n g an o f f s p r i n g , was n o t f e l t t o be worthy of the term  education. Why  d i d Dr. Wodehouse n o t c o n s i d e r a d i s c u s s i o n of  s t e r i l i z a t i o n to be a s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l broadcast?  I n Dr.. Wodehouse's own words, i t was  because  55 of the f a c t that "there are several m i l l i o n people r e s i dent In Canada who  have quite decided views on t h i s subject  and whose s e n s i b i l i t i e s might be very much affected by such a broadcast."  18  At t h i s point i n the decision-making process  concerning the proposed eugenics programme, the basis used f o r evaluating whether or not the topic could be classed as educational was the possible effects i t would have upon certain groups i n society.  There was l i t t l e discussion  by the Corporation's o f f i c i a l s of whether or not the proposed broadcast could meetVthe c r i t e r i a which are usually associated with the term "education. 9 m1  por example, would  the proposed broadcast have transmitted worthwhile  informa-  t i o n , did i t involve a cognitive perspective or was there, i n the programme format, ample opportunity f o r the audience to select and weigh evidence?  These were questions which  were not posed, f o r they would not help to determine  the  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e f f e c t s that the programme might have. This was the opinion of Alan Plaunt who wrote to Brockington that he "was  r e a l l y disturbed by the s i t u a t i o n . . . f o r the  impression was undoubtedly  been created that we are more 20  concerned with oensorship than with production." After the receipt of Dr. Wodehouse's statement,  Mr.  Murray decided to p r o h i b i t the a i r i n g of the Eugenics broadcast.  This decision, however, resulted i n c r i t i c i s m by  people, such as Plaunt, within the CBC and from Interested  56 p a r t i e s o u t s i d e the  Corporation,  such as Frank U n d e r h l l l .  Such a r e a c t i o n f o r c e d Murray t o u n d e r t a k e a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of h i s previous of t h i s based,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  for  aspect  of the proposed  of  communicated t o Mr.  of the  Corporation  at  the p u r e l y  result  least  educational  Hutton that  "since  i s t o make b r o a d c a s t i n g a  views of the widest  c o n s i d e r a t i o n has  The  programme.  Murray  s u b j e c t s and  case.  a d e c i s i o n t h a t was  i n p a r t , upon one  ramifications  policy  d e c i s i o n i n the E u g e n i c s  been g i v e n  reasonable  the forum  basis,  t o a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f 21  broadcasting  the  s t e r i l i z a t i o n aspect  The  a l t e r n a t i v e method w h i c h was  was  t h a t " i f the  d e a l t with  only  of  eugenics."  eventually decided  s u b j e c t i s t o be  broadcast,  i n a forum which opposing  upon  i t should  views are  be  fairly  22 represented." of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s t e r i l i z a t i o n  By  using  and  "would n o t be  Eugenics  case  difficulty  t h a t the  CBC  tempts t o d e f i n e an  discouraged  serves was  a s an  the  CBC  speakers  discussions  by  the  CBC."  example o f t h e  to experience  educational policy  I n most c a s e s ,  gramme f o r m a t a s  "given  good t a s t e , " b r o a d c a s t  The  medium.  t h i s f o r m a t and  great  In i t s e a r l y a t -  f o r the  would r e l y  2 3  broadcasting  upon t h e  t h e m a j o r means o f p r e s e n t i n g  pro-  educational  broadcasts  whose c o n t e n t m i g h t l e a d t o c o n t r o v e r s y .  The  use  forum p r o v e d  regard,  of the  f o r i t permitted  the  t o be  very  expression  effective  of a v a r i e t y  i n this of  opinions  57 and allowed the audience to weigh the evidence and the issue themselves.  decide  In the f o r t i e s , projects i n adult  education, such as Citizen's Forum, made great use of t h i s technique.  However, the manner i n which the decision of  censorship was arrived at, i n the eugenics a f f a i r , indicated that o f f i c i a l s i n the CBC,  such as Murray, held a r e l a t i v e l y  low evaluation of the c r i t i c a l capacity of the radio audience and a high opinion of the p o t e n t i a l of broadcasting f o r indoctrination. The eugenics a f f a i r had demonstrated that, p r i o r to evolving any workable policy i n r e l a t i o n to educational programming, the CBC would have to e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to controversial broadcasting. who  Once i t was clear  or what group could use the broadcasting medium, and  what could be said over the a i r , i t would be f a r easier to evolve a policy f o r educational programming. was  The  CBC  eventually forced to confront these issues because of  the a c t i v i t i e s of a newspaper magnate. George McCullagh was born i n 1905  i n London, Ontario.  He commenced h i s professional career as an assistant financ i a l editor i n the Globe and Mall.  A stock promotion made  a great deal of maney f o r him, and i n 1933,  McCullagh i n  the s p i r i t of Horatio Alger had become a m i l l i o n a i r e . A f t e r his great success In the speculative market, McCullagh proceeded to purchase the Globe and Mail, of which he became President and publisher.  58 McCullagh symbolized the s u c c e s s f u l self-made man and found i t very p e r p l e x i n g to understand why Canada's n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s were unable to g r a p p l e e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the c r i s i s i n f o r e i g n and domestic a f f a i r s .  McCullagh*s  impatience w i t h what he f e l t was " n a t i o n a l l e t h a r g y " l e d to h i s d e c i s i o n t o attempt to spark a g r a s s r o o t  revival,  d e d i c a t e d t o the r e i n s t i t u t i o n o f the l e a d e r s h i p which he c o n s i d e r e d to be a p r e r e q u i s i t e to r e c o v e r y , i n both domestic and f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . Thus, McCullagh, the s e c u l a r e v a n g e l i s t , as r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l i s t s b e f o r e him, d e c i d e d to employ the r a d i o to launch h i s reform campaign. a s e r i e s of f i v e  I n 1938, McCullagh sponsored  " i n t i m a t e man-to-man b r o a d c a s t s to awaken  p u b l i c consciousness" and "to arouse a d e s i r e on the p a r t oh,  of the masses...to  take an i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c  affairs."  The s p e c i f i c aims of the r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s were, i n McCullagh* s mind, t o "arouse p u b l i c o p i n i o n to r e j e c t the c l a p t r a p the p o l i t i c i a n s have preached f o r y e a r s . " ^  The p r o -  grammes were a l s o intended to f u n c t i o n as a means of ext e n d i n g the I n f l u e n c e o f the Globe and M a i l . George McCullagh possessed a " r a d i o g e n i c " p e r s o n a l i t y and he used i t very e f f e c t i v e l y f o r h i s own ends.  McCul-  l a g h argued over the a i r t h a t Canadians "do n o t need g r e a t b r i l l i a n c y i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c a f f a i r s , " f o r all  they r e q u i r e d was "rugged honesty, c l e a r purposes,  t i r e l e s s energy and unswerving l o y a l t y to p r i n c i p l e s  which  we, as c i t i z e n s o f average i n t e l l i g e n c e , c a n a p p r a i s e f a i r l y . " He was a l s o q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t unemployment had t o be a b o l i s h e d , f o r " i t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f Canadian manhood." '' 2  7  One s o l u t i o n t o the d e p r e s s i o n t h a t was p r o p o s e d  by M c C u l l a g h was t o : "get o u r c h i l d r e n back t o t h e r e a d i n g o f such s i m p l e and d r e a m - b u i l d i n g l i t e r a t u r e as H o r a t i o A l g e r , i n s t e a d o f a l l o w i n g them t o absorb t h e v i c i o u s d o c t r i n e s o f d e f e a t i s m . You s u c c e s s f u l men can a l l r e c a l l t h e days of o u r y o u t h when y o u r e a d such books a s 'Bound t o Win', and " S t r i v e and Succeed," and would go t o bed a w a i t i n g e a g e r l y f o r t h e n e x t day t o appear so y o u c o u l d go o u t and conquer the w o r l d . " ^ g I n case t h e r e a d i n g o f books, w h i c h were l a d e n w i t h t h e successstheme, d i d n o t i n s t i l l t h e d e s i r e t o a c h i e v e i n t h e minds o f y o u t h , M c C u l l a g h recommended t h a t "each f a m i l y s h o u l d s e t up a forum i n t h e home where c h i l d r e n c o u l d r e a d t h e e d i t o r i a l page and a s k t h e i r p a r e n t s q u e s t i o n s . " There were t h r e e themes w h i c h were I m p l i c i t i n McCullagh' s broadcasts.  F i r s t , p o l i t i c s was c o n c e i v e d o f  as e s s e n t i a l l y a q u e s t i o n o f m o r a l s and, t h u s , t h e p o l i t i c a l system by i t s v e r y n a t u r e was a l w a y s p r e y t o t h e f o r c e s of c o r r u p t i o n .  To make t h e system e f f i c i e n t once a g a i n ,  t h e r e f o r e , M c C u l l a g h a d v o c a t e d t h e removal o f t h e source of c o r r u p t i o n , namely t h e p o l i t i c i a n .  Secondly, p r i v a t e  e n t e r p r i s e and t h e c o m p e t i t i v e model o f the economy were still  c o n c e i v e d o f as b e i n g b a s i c a l l y sound.  The r e a s o n  f o r t h e d i s r u p t i o n i n s o c i e t y was, i n M c C u l l a g h ' s view, due t o t h e unwarranted i n t e r f e r e n c e by t h e Government i n t o  6o what was f e l t t o be a s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g system.  Thus, Mc-  C u l l a g h * s s o l u t i o n t o the d e p r e s s i o n was l e s s , n o t more, government i n t e r v e n t i o n . M c C u l l a g h f e l t t h a t the main f a c t o r w h i c h the d e p r e s s i o n had r e v e a l e d was the l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p i n the s o c i e t y . What was needed, t h e r e f o r e , was a s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l w h i c h would f a c i l i t a t e  the t r a i n i n g o f l e a d e r s .  system These l e a d e r s  would e v e n t u a l l y g u i d e Canadians out of the d e p r e s s i o n . A l o n g t h i s l i n e of thought, M c C u l l a g h a l s o a d v o c a t e d the a b o l i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l governments,  f o r he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t  these a u t h o r i t i e s caused a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n 30  making and, as a r e s u l t , were " l u x u r i e s we cannot a f f o r d . " ^ M c C u l l a g h a l s o a t t a c k e d the F e d e r a l C i v i l S e r v i c e and s p e c i f i c -  31  a l l y l a b e l l e d the CBC as a "dangerous b u r e a u c r a t i c t y r a n n y . " F i n a l l y , M c C u l l a g h s t r e s s e d the need t o form a system of r u l e i n Canada which would be p r e s i d e d o v e r by a s i n g l e omnipotent n a t i o n a l government. As a r e s u l t of h i s c h a r i s m a t i c a p p e a l and h i s " p o s i t i v e " approach t o the d e p r e s s i o n , M c C u l l a g h sparked the r i s e of  a group t h a t became known as the Canadian L e a d e r s h i p League.  The League was devoted t o the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d by M c C u l l a g h i n h i s r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s . e a r l y i n 1939,  However,  when M c C u l l a g h attempted t o purchase a i r  time on the CBC network f o r a new he was r e f u s e d .  s e r i e s of programmes,  The immediate r e a c t i o n of M c C u l l a g h t o  t h i s d e c i s i o n by the CBC was t o charge t h a t p r e s s u r e from the  L i b e r a l Government f o r c e d the a c t i o n .  In reply to  61 t h i s charge, the Prime M i n i s t e r , Mr. the "business  King,  stated that  of c o n t r o l l i n g and r e g u l a t i n g r a d i o broad-  c a s t i n g has been p l a c e d by t h i s Parliament  under the  CBC,  which i s an autonomous p u b l i c body w i t h which the Govern32 ment does not I n t e r f e r e , " The  General  Manager of the CBC  l a g h , as to the reason behind posed broadcast. ...as  a l s o n o t i f i e d McCul-  the p r o h i b i t i o n of h i s pro-  Murray d e c l a r e d t h a t the CBC  "was  established  a n o n - p a r t i s a n p u b l i c t r u s t to c o n t r o l a l l b r o a d c a s t i n g  i n Canada i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . "33 of the CBC  was  rrjhe programme p o l i c y  d e s c r i b e d to McCullagh as an attempt "to  encourage the f a i r p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n t r o v e r s i a l questions which indeed  i s regarded  as p a r t of the e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n ^ "  Viewed i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , Murray f e l t t h a t p e r m i t t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l to "buy imply  network time to propound views" would  i n f o r m a l a p p r o v a l of three t h i n g s .  These three  things  were: "1, The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a p r o f i t - m a k i n g c o r p o r a t i o n i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c p o l i c y i n favour of h i s c o r p o r a tion. 2, A p r o f i t - m a k i n g c o r p o r a t i o n u s i n g o p i n i o n s as a d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s a l e s medium. 3. An i n d i v i d u a l sponsoring h i s own of the advantage of wealth.  o p i n i o n s by v i r t u e  M  I t was  the considered  o p i n i o n of the C o r p o r a t i o n t h a t  were three t h i n g s to which i t c o u l d not g i v e approval s t i l l r e t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n as a p u b l i c s e r v i c e agency.  these and  b2 The CBC l a t e r i s s u e d a p r e s s r e l e a s e which o u t l i n e d the p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d t h e r u l i n g i n t h e M c C u l l a g h  case.  In t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n : " T h i s p o l i c y i s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e n c o u r a g i n g the f r e e d i s c u s s i o n o f a l l s u b j e c t s o f p u b l i c I n t e r e s t i n r o u n d - t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s , d e b a t e s , t a l k s and forums f o r which t h e c o r p o r a t i o n p r o v i d e s time w i t h o u t charge ...For from b e i n g a r e s t r a i n t on f r e e speech, t h e C o r p o r a t i o n ' s p o l i c y i s an a s s u r a n c e t h a t l i b e r t y o f d i s c u s s i o n i s p r e s e r v e d , t h a t a l l main p o i n t s o f view a r e f a i r l y p r e s e n t e d and t h a t t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f w e a l t h does n o t c o n f e r t h e r i g h t t o use network b r o a d c a s t i n g to i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n . " ^ The McCullagh a f f a i r f o r c e d the o f f i c i a l s w i t h i n the CBC t o e v a l u a t e the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to  controversial broadcasting.  I m p l i c i t i n such a d e c i s i o n  was t h e q u e s t i o n as t o t h e n a t u r e o f the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " t h a t the CBC was t o guard; e s p e c i a l l y whether o r n o t c e r t a i n forms o f b r o a d c a s t i n g were i n t h e " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " and s h o u l d be g i v e n a i r t i m e .  The s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem  became even more p e r p l e x i n g f o r , d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n s of a p o l i c y f o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l programming, c e r t a i n outspoken c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e mounting c r i s i s i n Europe were v o i c e d o v e r t h e CBC network.  Mackenzie K i n g , an e x p e r i e n c e d  prac-  t i o n e r of the " a r t of the p o s s i b l e " i n f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s , r e a c t e d t o such b r o a d c a s t s over t h e CBC by i n f o r m i n g Leonard B r o c k i n g t o n o f "the a n x i e t y I f e l t l e s t t h e b r o a d c a s t s o f certain...commentators,  s e l e c t e d and renumerated by the  CBC, s h o u l d be h e l d i n Great B r i t a i n and Europe, as w e l l a s  63 i n Canada, t o r e f l e c t d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t h e views 37  of the Government o f Canada."-"  I n t h e v i e w of t h e Prime  M i n i s t e r , such a c o n c e p t i o n o f the b r o a d c a s t s would "be i n e v i t a b l e , s e e i n g t h a t i t i s everywhere known t h a t t h e  38 Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i s a p u b l i c l y owned system*" Mr. K i n g was aware, however, t h a t " i n t h e case of a comparat i v e l y new medium, such a s b r o a d c a s t i n g , t h e methods and forms employed t o f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t r o v e r s i a l q u e s t i o n s a r e . . . s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and r e v i s i o n i n t h e l i g h t of I n 1939,  experience."39 t h e Board of Governors o f t h e CBC t o o k a  major s t e p i n f o r m u l a t i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r n a t i o n a l radio.  T h i s step was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a f o r m a l p o l i c y  to g u i d e the C o r p o r a t i o n i n c o n t r o v e r s i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g . The p o l i c y r e f l e c t e d an attempt by t h e CBC t o ensure t h a t m i n i m a l economic p r o f i t c o u l d be g a i n e d from u t i l i z i n g controversy to a t t r a c t l i s t e n e r s .  As f a r as t h e Board o f  Governors was concerned, t h e p o l i c y a r r i v e d a t was t o "ensure t h a t t h e medium o f b r o a d c a s t i n g may remain a t the d i s p o s a l of the n a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s , of party, s e c t i o n , c l a s s o r creed."^°  To i n s u r e t h i s a i m , the CBC p o l i c y on  c o n t r o v e r s i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g was t h a t : 1. No time w i l l be s o l d on any CBC owned o r o p e r a t e d s t a t i o n whether i n d i v i d u a l l y o r as p a r t of a subs i d i a r y hookup, f o r t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g o f o p i n i o n s , 2, There s h a l l be no s a l e of time on any network t o i n d i v i d u a l s o r commercial o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the broadc a s t i n g of opinions.  3... Non-commercial o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r s o c i e t i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s may purchase time on s u b s i d i a r y hookups o r i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e s t a t i o n s . Any such hookup must be arranged by and t h r o u g h the CBC, 4.  P o r t h i s purpose non-commercial o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r s o c i e t i e s are d e f i n e d as t h o s e ; a) w h i c h are e s t a b l i s h e d f o r o t h e r t h a n commercial o r q u a s i - c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s , whose o b j e c t s are s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , economic, p h i l a n t h r o p i c o r of a g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and concern, b) w h i c h have been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r a t l e a s t a y e a r p r i o r t o the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r network f a c i l i t i e s ,  5. S o c i e t i e s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e s i r i n g to purchase n e t work time must a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the b r o a d c a s t and agree t o i n d e m n i f y the CBC a g a i n s t the p o s s i b l e consequences of l i b e l o r s l a n d e r , 6. Each b r o a d c a s t must be preceded and concluded by a p p r o p r i a t e announcements making c l e a r the n a t u r e and substance of the b r o a d c a s t , and i n d i c a t i n g t h a t e q u a l f a c i l i t i e s are a v a i l a b l e on the same b a s i s f o r the e x p r e s s i o n - o f o p p o s i n g v i e w s . 7.  The b r o a d c a s t must be of s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t t o the p u b l i c t o j u s t i f y i n c l u s i o n i n the programme s c h e d u l e . ", M  The p o l i c y of the B o a r d of Governors on c o n t r o v e r s i a l b r o a d c a s t i n g r e s u l t e d i n a s i t u a t i o n where any  voluntary  o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h d e s i r e d t o use the r a d i o f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , had to work i n c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the  CBC.  From t h i s time on, the C o r p o r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d v e r y good r e l a t i o n s w i t h n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ,  the Canada  and Newfoundland E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , the IMCA and  the  Canadian Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n . S e v e r a l v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , d u r i n g the  latter  65 half  of  the d e p r e s s i o n ,  with  the  CBC  expressed  a d e s i r e to  i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n and  tional broadcasts. Association,^  j  One  such  193b,  n  distribution  g r o u p was  the  of  educa-  Canadian  the A s s o c i a t i o n appointed  committee a s a means o f f a c i l i t a t i n g CBC  oo-operate  Historical a radio  co-operation with  i n e d u c a t i o n a l programmes c o n t a i n i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l  mount o f h i s t o r i c a l "act  as  a sort of  content.  The  r a d i o c o m m i t t e e was  c l e a r i n g house w i t h  respect to  the ato  historical  4-4broadcasts  arranged  T h e r e was desired ians.  by  the  another  CBC."  very  Important reason  t o have t h e f o r m a l a d v i c e T h i s m o t i v e was  related  o f a committee  to the  fact  fore,  historians differ  the  "have b o t h  CBC  felt  of  histor-  i n connection,  "were  There-  o f immense h e l p  to  p o i n t s o f v i e w r e p r e s e n t e d when p l a n s a r e  made f o r b r o a d c a s t s  CBC  and E n g l i s h -  i n their approach."^  t h a t i t w o u l d be  the  that there  many q u e s t i o n s on w h i c h some F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g speaking  why  f o r example, w i t h  being the  Durham t e r c e n t e n a r y . " ^ The  H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e most o t h e r  g r o u p s t h a t became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h role  i n radio education  than  executive."^  and felt  c r i t i c i s m s " was  To  t o be be  the  CBC,  " a d v i s o r y and  voluntary  considered i t s critical  "consulted f o r suggestions,  a resonable  t h a t i t " s h o u l d n o t be  r o l e , but  expected  rather advice  the A s s o c i a t i o n  actually  t o make engage-  4*8 ments,"  At  the a n n u a l  m e e t i n g of the H i s t o r i c a l  Assocla-  66 t i o n i n 1938, a recommendation was passed which i n d i c a t e d the growing i n t e r e s t i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f n a t i o n a l educational radio. some person  The suggestion was made t h a t the "CBC nominate  on i t s s t a f f to a c t as the l i n k with the As-  s o c i a t i o n . . .an e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r would be the l o g i c a l person*"^  9  T h i s recommendation was g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n by the CBC, b u t the appointment of an e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t o r was postponed f o r two y e a r s . The  CBC had l e a r n e d many v a l u a b l e l e s s o n s from the  b i t t e r experiences  of the CEBC.  i t was very necessary  One such l e s s o n was t h a t  f o r a p u b l i c agency to p r o j e c t a f a v o u r -  a b l e and u n c o n t r o v e r s i a l image Of i t s e l f t o the people. The  C o r p o r a t i o n , d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n , d i s c o v e r e d an i n -  t e r e s t i n g way t o p r o j e c t an image o f o b j e c t i v i t y and s t i l l produce programmes of a c o n t r o v e r s i a l nature.  Thus, i f  a proposed programme was seen as a p o s s i b l e s t i m u l a t o r of controversy, the CBC would e i t h e r p u b l i c i z e i t as p o s s e s s i n g g r e a t e d u c a t i o n a l value o r announce t h a t i t was under the sponsorship  of a r e c o g n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l agency.  F o r example, i n 1937 the League of Nations proposed t o sponsor a r a d i o broadcast  Society  t h a t had as i t s aim  the " c l a r i f i c a t i o n of p u b l i c thought on the r e a l i s s u e s i n peace o r g a n i z a t i o n and Canadian e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s . " - ' The  9  o f f i c i a l s inftthe CBC, however, f e a r e d t h a t the i n t e n -  s i t y of f e e l i n g concerning Canadian Involvement i n i n t e r -  67  n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s m i g h t r e s u l t i n c r i t i c i s m s of the p r o posed programme. of E.A,  As a r e s u l t , the C o r p o r a t i o n I n q u i r e d  C o r b e t t , D i r e c t o r of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , as t o whether he would agree t o h a v i n g the " b r o a d c a s t s announced as h a v i n g been p r e p a r e d the a u s p i c e s of the CAAE."^ The  under  1  C o r p o r a t i o n e x p l a i n e d to C o r b e t t t h a t i t " d i d  n o t o b j e c t t o the announcements b e i n g made t h a t the League of N a t i o n s S o c i e t y has co-operated  i n their preparation with  r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n of the v i e w p o i n t s . " - ' did  2  However, the  f e e l t h a t the "League of N a t i o n s S o c i e t y has,  a r l y w i t h the F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g  population, a  CBC  particul-  connotation  n o t e n t i r e l y consonant w i t h the d e c l a r e d purpose of the roundtable."-^  T h e r e f o r e , the C o r p o r a t i o n hoped t h a t "everyone's  i n t e r e s t s w i l l be b e s t s e r v e d " by h a v i n g the proposed c a s t "appear under d e m o n s t r a b l y . , . e d u c a t i o n a l I t was  q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the CBC  auspices."-^  c o n s i d e r e d e d u c a t i o n a l aims  and e d u c a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s t o be a l m o s t "untouchable" terms of c r e a t i n g c o n t r o v e r s y .  broad-  As a r e s u l t , the  in  Corporation  a t t e m p t e d t o employ b o t h as a " b u f f e r " between a c o n t r o v e r s i a l programme and the p u b l i c . The  CBC,  d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n , d i d n o t engage, on  a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , i n any  s u b s t a n t i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h provin-  c i a l educational authorities.  Thus, the f i e l d of i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g l a c k e d the r e q u i r e d l e a d e r s h i p a t the  68 national level.  Demands were i n c r e a s i n g , however, f o r some  a c t i o n t o b e g i n i n t h i s f i e l d of b r o a d c a s t i n g . e d u c a t o r s , who had experimented  Provincial  w i t h the r a d i o i n t h e i r  c l a s s r o o m s , r e q u i r e d the c o n t i n u a l a d v i c e of b r o a d c a s t i n g e x p e r t s t o d e v e l o p f u r t h e r programmes.  Voluntary education  a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as the CAAE, were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r a d i o i n e d u c a t i o n o u t s i d e the s c h o o l . F o r i t s own p a r t , t h e CBC was f a r more ready i n 1939  t o i n v e s t i g a t e more f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l programming t h a n  i t had been i n 1936.  The C o r p o r a t i o n had overcome b a s i c  p o l i c y hurdles i n r e l a t i o n to c o n t r o v e r s i a l broadcasting; i t had managed t o r e c r u i t some a b l e b r o a d c a s t i n g p e r s o n n e l ; the f i n a n c i a l p i c t u r e was b r i g h t e n i n g and r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Government were c o r d i a l ; i t had t e s t e d t h e i d e a of coo p e r a t i o n w i t h some v o l u n t a r y groups and i t s programme f a r e had shown a steady r i s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f s e r i o u s t o non55  serious broadcasts.  J  Near t h e c l o s e o f the t h i r t i e s , t h e r e -  f o r e , c o n d i t i o n s were r i p e i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g f o r a major s t e p f o r w a r d i n n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n . I n May 1938,  Gladstone Murray commissioned E.A.  C o r b e t t t o make a n a t i o n w i d e r e p o r t on s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada.  C o r b e t t was t h e l o g i c a l c h o i c e f o r such a de-  manding t a s k .  S i n c e the e a r l y t w e n t i e s , he had been i n v o l v e d  i n ground-breaking  experiments  i n educational radio at  s t a t i o n CKUA i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a .  C o r b e t t had  69  a l s o been an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t and o r g a n i z e r i n the Canad i a n Badio League.  He had i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h many  of the people r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the v e r y s u c c e s s f u l Ohio U n i v e r s i t y " S c h o o l of the A i r " and had d e l i v e r e d s e v e r a l papers a t t h e i r meetings,''  F i n a l l y , from a p r a c t i c a l  p o i n t o f view, h i s deep i n v o l v e m e n t  i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n  g e n e r a l l y would h e l p him t o secure the c o - o p e r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s throughout  the c o u n t r y .  The C o r b e t t Report on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada t u r n e d out t o be one of the most i m p o r t a n t documents on e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o s i n c e the appearance of the A i r d I t accomplished  Report.  a t a s k w h i c h h i t h e r t o had n e v e r been under-  t a k e n by i n v e s t i g a t i n g and summarizing the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada.  Corbett's  recommendations a l s o formed the b a s i s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements and i d e a l s w h i c h would g u i d e the f o r tunes of n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n the f o r t i e s .  Finally,  the C o r b e t t Report r e p r e s e n t e d an attempt t o a p p l y some of the b a s i c i d e a s of " p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n " t o the  broad-  c a s t i n g medium. Corbett's f i r s t o f f i c i a l  v i s i t i n his fact-finding  t o u r a c r o s s Canada was attendance  a t the a n n u a l meeting  of the Canada and Newfoundland E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . r e a s o n f o r making t h i s m e e t i n g h i s f i r s t stop was  The  probably  due t o the f a c t t h a t an " e d u c a t i o n a l o l e a r i n g - h o u s e , "  like  70 the CNEA, would p r o v i d e him w i t h a q u i c k sample o f n a t i o n a l o p i n i o n on t h e p o t e n t i a l s o f r a d i o a s an i n s t r u m e n t o f education.  He soon d i s c o v e r e d t h a t o p i n i o n " v a r i e d f r o m  antagonism o r complete i n d i f f e r e n c e t o outspoken and i n  57 some i n s t a n c e s a l m o s t e x t r a v a g a n t  enthusiasm."  found i t v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g , however, t h a t " i n those  Corbett areas  i n w h i c h s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g had been g i v e n a c a r e f u l l y d i r e c t e d p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n by e d u c a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s , t h e r e seemed t o be no q u e s t i o n o f i t s v a l u e s , and i n some c a s e s , i t s complete n e c e s s i t y . " - '  8  A f t e r s e n s i t i z i n g himself t o the o p i n i o n s of educators on r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g , C o r b e t t u n d e r t o o k a d e t a i l e d s e r i e s of s t u d i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n schemes then i n o p e r a t i o n .  He t h e n combined t h e r e s u l t s of h i s  o p i n i o n p o l l and h i s p r o v i n c i a l s t u d i e s , w i t h h i s more t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s about r a d i o , t o produce t h e f i r s t  real  " b l u e - p r i n t " f o r e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada. The E e p o r t d e a l t w i t h what C o r b e t t c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e f i v e m a j o r f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o l i c y f o r e d u c a t i o n through an e l e c t r o n i c medium such as r a d i o . These f i v e f a c t o r s were "a g e n e r a l r e v i e w o f the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s , p u r p o s e , v a l u e and r e s u l t s o f r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g i n s c h o o l s ; " a " c o m p i l a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on o p e r a t i o n s conducted i n s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n t h e P r o v i n c e s o f Canada;" c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations " a r i s i n g from t h e f a c t u a l  material  obtained  s u b j e c t ; " a study Great B r i t a i n , tary  i n the course of the r o l e  of t h e survey  upon the  of r a d i o i n education i n  U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d Denmark a n d a  r e p o r t on t e c h n i q u e  and r a t i o n a l e  "supplemen-  f o r the e v a l u a t i o n  59 of the e f f e c t s  of the r a d i o i n education.  C o r b e t t was aware o f t h e f a c t its  radio broadcasting  the  Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g  ventures  entered  the B r i t i s h for  t h a t Canada h a d  s y s t e m on t h a t o f t h e B r i t i s h , system d e v e l o p e d ,  the educational  into also followed a close p a r a l l e l  experience.  In B r i t a i n  with  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  with  i t s Schools  Department.  This  Department c o n s i s t e d o f a D i r e c t o r o f S c h o o l a staff  o f programme o f f i c i a l s ,  Schools  Broadcasts  e a c h o f whom  a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r programme s u b - c o m m i t t e e . two  As  e d u c a t i o n a l programme p r o d u c t i o n r e s i d e d w i t h t h e BBC,  specifically  and  modelled  groups,  t h e programme o f f i c i a l s  of the education  co-operThese  and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  sub-committees, undertook t h e n e c e s s a r y  p r o d u c t i o n arrangements.  The a i m s o f e d u c a t i o n a l  broad-  c a s t i n g i n B r i t a i n had always been " t o supplement n o t r e p l a c e t h e t e a c h e r and p u p i l  and p r o v i d e  beyond t h e o r d i n a r y r e s o u r c e s  of the s c h o o l s . "  p e r i e n c e o f t h e BBC i n t h i s f i e l d British aid of  education  officials  a mental 6 0  stimulus The ex-  had d i o t a t e d t o t h e  the f a c t  t h a t "no  mechanical  c a n e v e r r e p l a c e t h e t e a c h e r and t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n s t h e t e a c h e r s and b r o a d c a s t s fS 1  mentary."  a r e n o t r i v a l b u t comple-  72 C o r b e t t was  v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n what the e f f e c t s of  r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g had been i n the B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n Thus, he p r o c u r e d  a r e p o r t from the B r i t i s h C e n t r a l C o u n c i l  f o r S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g on 'The tion.'  The  system.  E f f e c t s of Radio i n Educa-  r e p o r t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e had been, t o d a t e ,  s i x major e f f e c t s of r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , as f o l l o w s : 1. S m a l l s c h o o l s f e e l l e s s handicapped by l a c k of s p e c i a l i s t teachers. 2.  E d u c a t i o n i n these s c h o o l s i s l e s s a s s o c i a t e d i n the c h i l d r e n ' s minds w i t h the v o i c e s of one o r two teachers.  3. Remote s c h o o l s f e e l l e s s remote and a l l s c h o o l s f e e l t h a t t h e i r work i s more c l o s e l y i n t o u c h w i t h the world outside. 4.  Textbooks a r e c l o t h e d w i t h new  meaning.  5. Teachers c o n t i n u a l l y p r o v i d e d w i t h new m a t e r i a l and sources of a c o n s t a n t r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e . 6. E v e r y t h i n g c o n c e r n i n g the spoken word o r t h a t can be judged by the e a r , s e r v e s t o p r o v i d e s c h o o l s w i t h examples by w h i c h they may c r i t i c i z e t h e i r own p e r f o r m a n c e s , and w i t h added o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r appreciation. £ M  2  C o r b e t t f i r s t a t t a c k e d the problem of the s h i p between the r a d i o and  the t e a c h e r .  relation-  Most r e s e a r c h  on  the e f f e c t s o f the mass media of communication upon i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s , thoughts or d e c i s i o n s suggests t h a t i t i s not a d i r e c t ( t r a n s m i t t e r t o r e c e i v e r ) p r o c e s s , b u t an (transmitter - opinion leader - receiver) one. v a r i o u s intermediary s e l e c t i v e agents,  6 3  indirect Thus,  such as o p i n i o n  l e a d e r s and news r e p o r t e r s , hear the o r i g i n a l communication,  73  s e l e c t from i t the c o n t e n t t h a t they d e s i r e t o " i n t e r n a l i z e " and then t r a n s m i t o n l y t h a t c o n t e n t t o o t h e r s . of any medium of mass communication w i l l , to  The  effect  t h e r e f o r e , depend  a l a r g e e x t e n t upon the background, v a l u e s and p r e d i s -  p o s i t i o n s of t h e s e i n t e r m e d i a r y agents i n the communications process.  E a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r , C o r b e t t had r e c o g n i z e d the  i m p o r t a n t r o l e of one such i n t e r m e d i a r y agent i n e d u c a t i o n a l broadcasting. ^ 6  Therefore, i n h i s r e p o r t , Corbett stressed  the f a c t t h a t the "success of b r o a d c a s t i n g t o s c h o o l s  will 65  depend t o a l a r g e degree upon the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the teacher." In  the p r o c e s s of e d u c a t i n g w i t h the a i d of an  elec-  t r o n i c medium of communication, such as the r a d i o , C o r b e t t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r had t o be a "prog r e s s i v e " f o r he was  "concerned  not only w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n  of c l a s s r o o m s u b j e c t s " b u t a l s o the " c r e a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s , to r e l a t e the programme of the s c h o o l to the w i d e r l i f e which l i e s beyond i t s w a l l s , and t o p r e p a r e h i s p u p i l s 66 for  life."  The r a d i o c o u l d h e l p the t e a c h e r to a t t u n e  the s t u d e n t t o l i f e around him, by "adding c o l o u r t o the l e s s o n s , and by t r a i n i n g the p u p i l s i n c r i t i c a l  listening  and e x e r c i s e o f judgement r e s p e c t i n g programme q u a l i t y of broadcasting i n general." ? 6  Thus, C o r b e t t had o u t l i n e d what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be the p r o p e r t e a c h e r - r a d i o r e l a t i o n s h i p . .  But what r o l e  was  the r a d i o t o p l a y i n the a c t u a l p r o c e s s of e d u c a t i o n ?  In  7^  the f i r s t p l a c e , r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g was  t o o p e r a t e as a  "supplement t o t h e work of the t e a c h e r and n o t a s u b s t i t u t e 68 for  it."  The  was  t o remain,  e s s e n t i a l dynamic i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n C o r b e t t ' s view, the " p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n  which e x i s t s between t e a c h e r and p u p i l , " w h i l e the f u n c t i o n of the r a d i o would be t o " p r e s e r v e t h a t r e l a t i o n and e n r i c h 69  the l e s s o n w i t h new  v i t a l i t y and meaning."  7  The l e a r n i n g  s i t u a t i o n i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n would, t h e r e f o r e , be p i c t u r e d as: "the t e a c h e r , by a v a i l i n g h i m s e l f of the I n h e r e n t c u r i o s i t y of the p u p i l , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f the b r o a d c a s t e r , w i l l f i n d a s t i m u l u s g i v e n t o the work of the s c h o o l : and the e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e of t h e c u r r i c u l u m w i l l be e n r i c h e d by the p e c u l i a r c o n t r i b u t i o n which s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g can make t o the work of the modern educator.; " 7 0  C o r b e t t a l s o f e l t t h a t i t was  Very  important f o r radio  programmes, w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d as " p r o g r e s s i v e l e s s o n s , " to be "designed age  groups."7  t o meed t e a c h i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s  i n different  A  There were f o u r major a r e a s i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t C o r b e t t c o n s i d e r e d would d e r i v e b e n e f i t from the use the r a d i o .  I n the elementary  grades (ages 5-H)  of  the medium  would p r o v e v e r y e f f e c t i v e , i f the programmes were formul a t e d so as t o t a k e cognizance  of the d i f f i c u l t y  of f o s t e r i n g  a s u s t a i n e d l i s t e n i n g power on the p a r t of t h i s age  group.  C o r b e t t recommended t h a t music i n s t r u c t i o n would be  best  suited f o r broadcasting at t h i s l e v e l .  I t was a t the h i g h  75 s c h o o l l e v e l t h a t t h e r a d i o was c o n c e i v e d o f as a major t o o l of "progressive education".  Through r a d i o l i s t e n i n g ,  the p u p i l s were t o be a f f o r d e d t h e " o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e e l i n g more f u l l y i n t o u c h w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , " e s p e c i a l l y "those s t u d e n t s who a r e b e g i n n i n g t o take an i n t e r e s t i n 72 s o c i a l problems." There were two s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s o r e s which were t o be h e a l e d through t h e medium o f b r o a d c a s t i n g . f e l t t h a t t h e "importance  Corbett  o f a s c h o o l grows i n p r o p o r t i o n  t o i t s degree o f i s o l a t i o n , " so t h a t t h e " p o s i t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l i n s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d communities m e r i t s s e r i o u s  73  consideration."  Thus, t h e r a d i o would be employed i n t h e  " l i t t l e r e d s c h o o l house" t o " p l a c e a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e t e a c h e r supplementary  a s s i s t a n c e w i t h a w i d e r range o f 74  s u b j e c t s than c o u l d o t h e r w i s e r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n . "  The  r a d i o was a l s o t o a i d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f what were termed "backward c h i l d r e n . "  Corbett d i s p l a y e d h i s b e h a v l o r i s t  l e a n i n g s i n recommending t h e use o f t h e r a d i o as a "motivat' i n g d e v i c e t o awaken i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm  i n children  who have f a i l e d t o respond t o o r d i n a r y stimmLus. ^5 n  There-  f o r e , t h e r a d i o b r o a d c a s t , as "a new form o f e x p e r i e n c e , " would p r o v i d e a new source o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e s t u d e n t and enable him t o " a s s i m i l a t e some g e n e r a l i d e a s even i f he does n o t r e c a l l every d e t a i l o f t h e t a l k . " 7 ° C o r b e t t had been a p r a c t i s i n g e d u c a t o r i n Western Canada f o r many y e a r s and, a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s background,  76 he was prone t o s e a r c h f o r a s y s t e m a t i c method of s t r u c t u r i n g a radio lesson.  I t was  C o r b e t t * s view t h a t any  technique  of r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , i n terms of t h e f o r m a l s c h o o l system, had t o c o r r e l a t e the b r o a d c a s t t a l k w i t h the lesson.  The  t e c h n i q u e , he suggested  t h a t the t e a c h e r was r a d i o was six  teacher's  c o n s i s t e d of s i x s t e p s  t o t a k e , d u r i n g the b r o a d c a s t , i f the  t o be e f f e c t i v e as an e d u c a t i o n a l medium.  The  s t e p s were advance p r e p a r a t i o n , r e c e p t i o n of b r o a d c a s t ,  f o l l o w - u p work, use o f study o u t l i n e s , supplementary r e a d i n g and need of good r e c e p t i o n . the t e a c h e r was  I n each of these t e a c h i n g moves,  t o o p e r a t e as a g u i d e , c h a n n e l l i n g the r a d i o  l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s so t h a t they would mesh w i t h the c u r r i c u lum of the s c h o o l .  Below i s a sample r a d i o l e s s o n , as  proposed by C o r b e t t : £. Advance P r e p a r a t i o n by the Teacher " S i n c e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the c h i l d s h a l l r e l a t e h i s new i n f o r m a t i o n t o what he has p r e v i o u s l y been t a u g h t by o t h e r means, the t e a c h e r w i l l f i n d i t h e l p f u l t o h o l d , b e f o r e a l m o s t every b r o a d c a s t , a few minutes i n t r o d u c t i o n i n which to e s t a b l i s h f o r the p u p i l the n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n between the c l a s s room work and the t a l k t o be g i v e n , r e v i s i n g p r e v i o u s knowledge, o r w i t h a i d of e x p l a n a t o r y m a t e r i a l i s s u e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the b r o a d c a s t . " 2.  Eeoeptlon of Broadcast " I t i s v i t a l t h a t , d u r i n g r e c e p t i o n of a b r o a d c a s t , the t e a c h e r s h o u l d s e t an example t o the c l a s s i n c a r e f u l l i s t e n i n g . Too much use o f e i t h e r b l a c k board o r o f n o t e - t a k i n g by p u p i l s w i l l d i s t r a c t a t t e n t i o n and r e s u l t i n l o s s o f the t h r e a d of the t a l k . In some cases more s c r i b b l i n g w i l l be found h e l p f u l to concentration."  77 3. Follow-up Work "The amount o f d i s c u s s i o n and r e v i s i o n work undert a k e n w i l l depend upon t h e purpose o f t h e t e a c h e r w i t h t h e c o n t e n t s o f the b r o a d c a s t . . . I n c e r t a i n c a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e study o f a r c h e o l o g y and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , p u p i l s may be d i r e c t e d i n making i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e school...making o f models... embodying t h e i r own i d e a s a r i s i n g o u t o f the b r o a d cast. " 4. Study O u t l i n e s " T h i s c o n t a i n s s u g g e s t i o n s a d d i t i o n a l t o those which may be g i v e n a t t h e microphone, g i v e n o t e s on c l a s s room p r e p a r a t i o n and f o l l o w - u p work and i n c l u d e i l l u s t r a t i o n s on t h e work t o be c o v e r e d . The pamp h l e t s s h o u l d be made use o f i n d i v i d u a l l y by t h e pupils." 5. Supplementary Reading "Aid t o study and f o r depth r e a d i n g work." 6. Meed f o r Good R e c e p t i o n a) " I n i t s f u n c t i o n as an a i d t o c l a s s r o o m work t h e s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t . . . w i l l i n v o l v e t h e u s e o f sound to c r e a t e t h e i l l u s i o n o f r e a l i t y . " b) "The t a l k w i l l be d e s i g n e d t o s t i m u l a t e the Imaginat i o n o f t h e p u p i l , t o produce a m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f the b r o a d c a s t s u b j e c t and t h e v o i c e o f t h e b r o a d c a s t e r w i l l be an i m p o r t a n t element i n t h e r e s u l t attained." c) "However, good t h e b r o a d c a s t from t h e p o i n t o f view o f t r a n s m i s s i o n , i t i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n t o f a i l i n e f f e c t i f r e c e i v i n g equipment i s poor. C o r b e t t was v e r y d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o i n t h e v a r i o u s P r o v i n c e s , and lamented the f a c t t h a t t h e r e were o n l y " f o u r P r o v i n c e s i n Canada i n which r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g t o s c h o o l s has been a c c e p t e d a s a governmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . i n  order of experience  these f o u r P r o v i n c e s were Nova S c o t i a , Manitoba, B.C. and Alberta.  Even i n these P r o v i n c e s w h i c h had undertaken e x p e r i -  ments i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , C o r b e t t found t h e a t t e m p t s t o be  78 haphazard and v e r y p o o r l y conducted.  He found s u b s t a n t i a -  t i o n f o r h i s c o n c l u s i o n s i n the 'Report on Radio i n Educat i o n ' t h a t had been u n d e r t a k e n by George M. Weir, M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Dr. Weir d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l o n e t h e r e were o n l y t w e n t y - s i x w i t h r e c e i v i n g s e t s , t h a t t w o - t h i r d s of the s c h o o l s  schools had  no e l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s and t h a t l a r g e a r e a s of the  country  c o u l d n o t r e c e i v e CBC programmes d u r i n g the d a y l i g h t hours. The  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were d e s c r i b e d i n the Weir R e p o r t were  p r o b a b l y much worse i n the o t h e r P r o v i n c e s of Canada, f o r B r i t i s h Columbia was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n the f o r e f r o n t  of r a d i o education. In h i s general conclusions, Corbett pinpointed a problem t h a t was  t o c o n t i n u e t o p l a c e o b s t a c l e s i n the  o f the e f f e c t i v e f u l f i l l m e n t of the mandate of the t o use r a d i o as an e d u c a t i o n a l medium.  I t was  way  CBC  Corbett's  o p i n i o n t h a t the "experiments i n s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada have developed  i n d i f f e r e n t provinces i n natural  79 consequence o f independent P r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . " I n each case C o r b e t t d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the Department of E d u c a t i o n had p u r s u e d a course c a l c u l a t e d to meet l o c a l demands and t o s e r v e the needs of the o r d i n a r y s c h o o l t i o n and c u r r i c u l u m .  The r e s u l t was  that "school  c a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n one  broadProvince  b e a r s no e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s t o t h a t of any o t h e r . " t h e r e was  opera-  8 0  a need f o r some form o f c o - o p e r a t i o n o r , as  Thus, Corbett  79  put i t ,  "some c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f purpose, o f g e n e r a l  concept,  81 and o f t e c h n i q u e i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f a l l , "  Because  of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l assignment of e d u c a t i o n t o t h e P r o v i n c e s , though, he r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e " c r e a t i o n o f smooth-working and e f f e c t i v e s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t f a c i l i t i e s must seek a form of c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t w i l l p r e s e r v e  local  as w e l l as g e n e r a l p r e r o g a t i v e s and r e n d e r t h e b e s t educat i o n a l s e r v i c e t h a t Canada can hope f o r and expect from such an i n s t r u m e n t as r a d i o . " Corbett d i d not f e e l , a f t e r h i s survey, that n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s , under CBC a u s p i c e s , would be f e a s ible.  One r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n was t h e l i m i t e d amount  of a v a i l a b l e network t i m e .  A second r e a s o n was t h a t C o r b e t t  d i d n o t f e e l such n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l programmes c o u l d be I n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e d i v e r s e c u r r i c u l u m s o f t h e v a r i o u s provinces.  T h i s o p i n i o n proved t o be c o m p l e t e l y  opposite  to t h e a c t u a l developments which o c c u r r e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l radio during the e a r l y f o r t i e s .  I t was h i g h l y p r o b a b l e  t h a t C o r b e t t had n o t f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e s i g n s o f co-operat i o n t h a t were emerging w i t h i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f Canadian f e d e r a l i s m d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n and e a r l y war y e a r s . B e s i d e s t h i s , t h e B o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission had n o t y e t t e n d e r e d i t s r e p o r t on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h C o r b e t t c o u l d n o t f o r e s e e t h e development of n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g , he d i d recommend the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e g i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g  80 enterprises.  T h i s recommendation proved t o he one of h i s  most s i g n i f i c a n t as f a r as l a t e r developments i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n were concerned.  Corbett considered that there  were two a r e a s i n which r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . such a r e a .  The M a r l t i m e s was  one  I n t h i s a r e a , C o r b e t t recommended the f o r m a t i o n  of a j o i n t committee, t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t h r e e P r o v i n c e s (N.B., N.S., to  P.E.I.).  T h i s committee would have  t a k e c o g n i z a n c e of the f a c t t h a t " n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d of the  s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n of New origin.  1 , 8 3  Brunswick  i s of F r e n c h  Canadian  The programmes would o r i g i n a t e from the H a l i f a x  s t u d i o s of the  CBC.  The o t h e r a r e a o f Canada t h a t C o r b e t t f e l t c o u l d undertake  such r e g i o n a l programmes were the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s .  C o r b e t t n o t e d , however, t h a t time arrangements might cause some d i f f i c u l t y  f o r , i n Manitoba,  the " l a s t h a l f hour o f  every s c h o o l day i s by law a v a i l a b l e to the c l e r g y f o r religious instruction." ^ 8  I n the m a t t e r of the s c h o o l  b r o a d c a s t i n g , C o r b e t t c o n s i d e r e d Quebec t o be a " s p e c i a l problem."  Any a c t i o n t h a t was  t o be undertaken  i n the  d i r e c t i o n o f r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n t h a t P r o v i n c e would have to r e s u l t from the c o n s u l t a t i o n between the C a t h o l i c Educat i o n a l Committee and the r e c e n t l y proposed P r o t e s t a n t Comm i t t e e of the C o u n c i l o f E d u c a t i o n .  C o r b e t t was  certain  t h a t O n t a r i o would e n t e r r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , on a l a r g e s c a l e ,  81 j u s t as soon as t h e i r i n i t i a l experiments were c o n c l u d e d .  w i t h t h a t medium  B r i t i s h Columbia, he f e l t , would c o n t i n u e  i t s p r o g r e s s i n the f i e l d as an independent u n i t .  He d i d  not f o r e s e e the e n t r a n c e o f t h a t p r o v i n c e i n t o the r e g i o n a l system of the P r a i r i e s . C o r b e t t e n v i s a g e d two u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t s which would b e f a l l any a t t e m p t , on the p a r t of the CBC,  to "take  over  s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g . " F i r s t , such " a c t i o n s would awaken the s u s p i c i o n s of those who Provincial rights." ^ 8  a u t h o r i t i e s who  are jealous i n safeguarding  I t would a l s o "encourage those P r o v i n c i a l  a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n the problem t o r e g a r d  the whole m a t t e r as a r e c o g n i z e d F e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " and, as a r e s u l t , would g i v e the same i n d i v i d u a l s "an answer t o those e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s who,  i n every P r o v i n c e , a r e  anxious  t o see s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n a u g u r a t e d as soon as possible." ° 8  T h e r e f o r e , p r i o r t o b e g i n n i n g " a n y t h i n g i n the way o r r e g i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s , " C o r b e t t suggested ments be made.  t h a t two  These appointments were t o the new  of n a t i o n a l appointposition  of CBC R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s of E d u c a t i o n a l Radio. C o r b e t t o u t l i n e d the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s deemed n e c e s s a r y to f i l l  t h e s e p o s i t i o n s and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n was  o f the f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s e d u c a t o r s which was  f o r the new  Indicative  group of r a d i o  t o emerge i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s .  C o r b e t t ' s o p i n i o n , such p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r e d p e o p l e  In who:  "have had e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r as w e l l as i n r a d i o work. G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of as v a r i e d a  82  n a t u r e a s p o s s i b l e , a good w o r k i n g knowledge of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system o f t h e P r o v i n c e s and a thorough unders t a n d i n g o f t h e problems o f t h e r u r a l t e a c h e r . . . D u t i e s would i n c l u d e almost c o n s t a n t t r a v e l f o r t h e purpose o f k e e p i n g i n touch c o n t i n u a l l y w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l t r u s t e e s a l l o v e r t h e P r o v i n c e s i n t h e r e g i o n . A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f p i o n e e r work... such as i n t r o d u c i n g t h e q u e s t i o n of s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g a t normal s c h o o l s , a t Teacher's c o n v e n t i o n s and t r u s t e e s c o n v e n t i o n s . Academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s e q u i v a l e n t t o those of a j u n i o r p r o f e s s o r , "gr, Throughout h i s R e p o r t , C o r b e t t had s t r e s s e d t h e need to d e v e l o p a "system" o f e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g .  This  r a d i o e d u c a t i o n system, though, d i d n o t have t o be i n t e g r a t e d , i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sense, w i t h the p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l system i n order to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y .  Corbett considered the  Department of E d u c a t i o n t o be b a s i c a l l y an " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body" n o t a ' t e a c h i n g one."  Thus, i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the E d u c a t i o n Department and s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g , he f e l t t h a t t h e Department s h o u l d f u n c t i o n as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency and n o t as a t e a c h i n g body.  S i n c e C o r b e t t had ob-  s e r v e d many u n s a t i s f a c t o r y programmes d e v i s e d f o r r a d i o by by Departments o f E d u c a t i o n who " t r i e d t o e x e r c i s e a d i r e c t t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n , " he recommended t h a t " p r o d u c t i o n o f programmes by Departments' o f E d u c a t i o n be d i s c o n t i n u e d ? " I n s t e a d , the Department o f E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d " p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y f i n a n c i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n " w h i l e t h e "arrangements and p r o d u c t i o n o f programmes i s handed over t o a committee c o n s i s t i n g o f t e a c h e r s and those who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s . " 9 Y  83 C o r b e t t a l s o f e l t t h a t the CBC  could  facilitate  the p r o g r e s s of s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g by i n a u g u r a t i n g a s c r i p t exchange s e r v i c e .  Such a s e r v i c e , he hoped would o f f e r a  " f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o f a m i l i a r i z e s t u d e n t s and w i t h the work o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l r a d i o w o r l d . "  teachers 9 0  These  s c r i p t s were t o be c o l l e c t e d from Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Europe, and were t o be c e n t r a l i z e d i n Ottawa f o r l e n d i n g p u r p o s e s throughout  the Dominion.  Corbett considered that, since "broadcasting repres e n t s p i o n e e r v e n t u r e s on an u n c h a r t e r e d c o u r s e , " a s i t u a t i o n had been produced where t h e r e were "no d a t a o r 91 by w h i c h adjustment may  be made."^  criteria  The awareness of t h i s  problem made him produce a supplementary 'Report on E v a l u a t i o n of B r o a d c a s t i n g ' .  W i t h o u t a means of e v a l u a t i n g h i s  programme, C o r b e t t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t "the b r o a d c a s t e r i s a t a l o s s t o know whether a programme i s a c h i e v i n g i t s educat i o n a l purpose o r m e e t i n g w i t h s u f f i c i e n t c l a s s r o o m r e s 9 2 ponse t o j u s t i f y i t s c o n t i n u a n c e . "  7  A l s o , f o r such e v a l u a -  t i o n t o be s u c c e s s f u l , i t had t o be " s u s t a i n e d " o r , i n o t h e r words, be c o n t i n u o u s over the complete time of the broadcast. C o r b e t t f e l t t h a t the whole o p e r a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n was  one i n w h i c h the "complementary f u n c t i o n s of t e a c h e r  and b r o a d c a s t e r " were "brought i n t o an a c t i v e to  relation  each o t h e r i n p r o v i d i n g evidence of programme e f f e c t i v e -  84 ness,"^3  As a r e s u l t , C o r b e t t  a r e a where a Committee was t i o n a l broadcasting  recommended t h a t , i n each  e s t a b l i s h e d t o operate  an educa-  s e r i e s , t h e r e s h o u l d be s e t up a sub-  committee h a v i n g as i t s s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n the of these r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s . committeesj t h e r e was  evaluation  B e s i d e s the r e g i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n  a l s o to be a n a t i o n a l committee formed  t o a c t as a "house of s y n t h e s i s , " c o l l e c t i n g , I n t e r p r e t i n g and d i s s e m i n a t i n g a l l of the o t h e r committees.  organizing,  the e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s  of  This n a t i o n a l evaluation  committee would a l s o c o l l e c t and d i s s e m i n a t e the  evaluation  r e p o r t s produced i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . The  o b j e c t i v e s t h a t C o r b e t t proposed f o r  broadcasting The  sounded l i k e a c a t a l o g u e  educational  of p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a l s .  r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s were t o be employed i n e d u c a t i o n  to:  1. C r e a t e a t t i t u d e s and d e v e l o p a p p r e c i a t i o n s . 2. B u i l d i n t e r e s t s and s e l f - m o t i v a t i o n . 3. Develop c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 4. Develop c r e a t i v e 5. Develop p e r s o n a l 6. Develop s k i l l and The  CBC,  expression, v a l u e s and  t e c h n i q u e s of l e a r n i n g . ^ 9  in Its initial  v e n t u r e s i n t o n a t i o n a l educa-  t i o n a l programming, soon d i s c o v e r e d posed s e v e r a l s t u m b l i n g  s o c i a l adjustment.  blocks.  were r e l a t e d t o q u e s t i o n s ,  that radio i n s t r u c t i o n  Some of t h e s e problems  such as what a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d  an e d u c a t i o n a l programme; how  to o p e r a t e a n a t i o n a l  education  85  scheme i n r a d i o w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g P r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s ; what a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery c o u l d he c r e a t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n I n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n ; where t o d i s c o v e r competent p e o p l e t o u t i l i z e t h e r a d i o f o r educat i o n a l purposes o r how t o t r a i n such r a d i o e d u c a t o r s i f they were i n s h o r t s u p p l y ; how t o overcome t h e r e s i s t a n c e to r a d i o of print-bound,  and s t a t u s - c o n s c i o u s  teachers;  what means c o u l d be employed t o d i s c o v e r t h e r e a l e f f e c t s of r a d i o i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s and how t o f o r e s e e and p l a n f o r t h e c u l t u r a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f a medium o f communication  t h a t r e c o g n i z e d no p o l i t i c a l , economic, i d e o l o g i -  cal or ethnic b a r r i e r s .  A l l o f t h e s e problems were t o be  f a c e d by t h e CBC d u r i n g t h e f o r t i e s .  86 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER THREE The B e n n e t t " L i t t l e New D e a l " was f o l l o w e d by a g r a d u a l a g g r a n d i z e m e n t o f F e d e r a l power u n d e r a n " i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t - n a t i o n a l i s t " p o l i c y (1936-49). p -• -•• •• - -Annual Report of the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g Corporat i o n ( O t t a w a . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1939) P. 6. The h i g h c o s t o f s e r i o u s f o r m s o f programming and t h e q u a l i t y t a l e n t w h i c h t h e CBC was a t t r a c t i n g a r e b o t h i n d i c a t e d i n the l i s t of s t a r s p e r f o r m i n g the l e a d i n g r o l e s i n t h e s e Shakespearian plays. The M e r c h a n t o f V e n i c e - S i r C e d r i c H a r d w i c k e Henry V I I I - M a r g a r e t A n g l i n Merry Wives o f Windsor - C h a r l e s Warburton O t h e l l o - W a l t e r Huston K i n g L e a r - W a l t e r Hampden R i c h a r d I I - Dennis King 3  Ibid.,  P.  6.  4  Ibid.,  P.  9.  5  Ibid.,  p. 9.  The U n i t e d S t a t e s o n l y u n d e r t o o k s u c h s t u d i e s i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s . See, f o r example, P. L a z a r s f e l d , R a d i o and t h e P r i n t e d Page (N.Y., H a r p e r , 1941). R e p o r t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g . ( O t t a w a . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . 1 9 3 2 ) . p.  Radio 259.  G l a d s t o n e Murray t h e new G e n e r a l Manager had e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e E d u c a t i o n a l D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e BBC. He was a l s o a Rhodes S c h o l a r and a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n . (script  9 p a p e r s o f t h e C a n a d i a n R a d i o L e a g u e . "Canada o f b r o a d c a s t by L e o n a r d B r a c k i n g t o n , Nov. 4 , l 0  Ibid.,  Nov.  4,  Calling"  1936).  1936.  S e e s H. C a r v e r , " P r e m i e r H e p b u r n and t h e P r o f e s s o r s , " C a n a d i a n Forum. May, 1939, PP- 40-41 and W.H. A l e x a n d e r , " L e t t e r To A Young Man C o n t e m p l a t i n g a n A c a d e m i c C a r e e r , " C a n a d i a n Forum. O c t , 1939, PP. 2 2 0 - 2 2 3 . x l  12 W. O r t o n , " L e v e l o f T h i r t e e n Y e a r O l d s , " A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y . J a n . 7, 1931, P« 5 .  87 P a p e r s o f t h e Canadian Radio League, "Canada C a l l s c r i p t o f b r o a d c a s t b y Rene M o r i n , Nov. 4, 193D. 1 3  ins"  ^ A n n u a l Report o f t h e Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1936), pV 9. -^Papers o f t h e Canadian Radio League. H u t t o n t o Murray, Jan. 26, 1937. 1  l 6  1  I b i d . , Jan. 26, 1937.  7 i b i d . , Wodehouse t o Murray, Feb. 11, 1937.  1 8  I b i d . , Feb. 11,  1937.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which a r e e n t a i l e d i n t h e concept o f e d u c a t i o n see: H.S. P e t e r s , E t h i c s and E d u c a t i o n . (N.Y., P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1967), PP. 20-40. i 9  P a p e r s o f t h e Canadian Radio League. P l a u n t t o B r o c k i n g t o n , Feb. 24, 1937. 2 0  2 1  I b i d . , Murray t o H u t t o n , Feb. 20, 1937-  2 2  I b i d . , Feb. 20, 1937.  2 3  I b i d . , Feb. 20, 1937.  24  B.J. Young, "George M c C u l l a g h and t h e L e a d e r s h i p League," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review. Sept. 1966, p. 204. 2 5  2 6  2  I b i d . , P. 204. I b i d . , P. 205.  7lbid., P. 206.  2 8  2 9  3 0  I b i d . , P. 207. I b i d . , P. 207. I b i d . , P* 207.  3 ! i b i d . , P. 207. 32 of the Papers 16, 1939. J  Jan.  33ibid., Murray t o M c C u l l o g h , J a n . 5,1939,  88 J a n . 5,  1939-  35j.bid., J a n . 5,  1939-  ^Ibid.,  3 Paners o f t h e Canadian Radio League. R e l e a s e r e : M c C u l l a g h Case," J a n , 31, 1939. 6  "CBC P r e s s  37ibld., K i n g t o B r o c k i n g t o n , June 14, 1938. 38j.bid., June 14, 1938. 39Ibid., June 14, 1938. 40  I b i d . , "CBC P o l i c y Statement on C o n t r o v e r s i a l Broadc a s t i n g , " 1939, P. 1. I b i d . , p. 2. 4  4  T h e C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o b u i l t up r e l a t i o n s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s such a s t h e U n i t e d Farmers of O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a . 4 2  ^ O t h e r such groups were t h e YMCA, Canadian I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , League o f N a t i o n s S o c i e t y . n,n,  . . .  Papers o f Canadian Radio League. P l a u n t t o Murray, June 13, 1937. ^Ibid,,  June 13,  1937.  ^Ibid.,  June 13,  1937.  47,A n n u a l Report o f the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1938). p. 401. ' !  4 - 5  I b i d . , p. 4 0 1 .  ^ i b i d . , P. 4 0 1 . ^ P a p e r s o f t h e Canadian Radio League. League o f N a t i o n s S o c i e t y t o Board of Governors, J a n . 18, 1937.  51lbid., P l a u n t t o C o r b e t t , J a n . 7, I937. 5 2  Ibid.,  J a n . 7 , 1937.  5 3  Ibid.,  J a n . 7,  ^Ibid.,  1937.  J a n . 7 i 1937-  89 Annual Report o f t h e Canadian Broadcasting: C o r p o r a t i o n (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 3 9 ) , PP.- 5-8, 13 -14. s  -* See: E.A. C o r b e t t , "Planned B r o a d c a s t i n g f o r Canada," E d u c a t i o n on the A i r . (Ohio U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 4 ) , P. 1 9 . Gladstone Murray had a l s o p r e s e n t e d a paper here f o r example see: G, Murray, "Radio's R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r N a t i o n a l C u l t u r e , " E d u c a t i o n on the A i r . ( 1 9 3 7 ) , P. 1.. 6  "^Report on B r o a d c a s t i n g i n S c h o o l s o f Canada (unp u b l i s h e d , 1939), p. L ' ;  58 I b i d . , p, 11. 59 I b i d . , p. 11.  60 I b i d . , p. 50. 61 I b i d . , p, 50. E f f e c t s o f Radio i n E d u c a t i o n . B r i t i s h C e n t r a l C o u n c i l f o r S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g , 1938), p. 2 . 6 2  zTo  KLapper, E f f e c t s o f Mass Communication. (Glencoe, F r e e P r e s s , 1964), pp.1-35. ^ C o r b e t t ' s work i n t h e Farm Forum, d e s c r i b e d l a t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , p r o v i d e s a good example o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n the r i s e o f the " o p i n i o n l e a d e r " i n e d u c a t i o n . D  ^ C o r b e t t Repo 6 6  6  ? I b i d . , P. 2 .  6 8  6 9  7 0  7 1  7 2  7 3  7 4  7  I b i d . , P. 2 .  I b i d , , P. 2 . I b i d . , . P. 2 . I b i d , , P. 4. I b i d . , P.. 4, I b i d . , P.. 4. I b i d . , P.: 5. I b i d . , P. 6.  5 i b i d , , P. 7 .  90 7°ibid., p. 7,  77ibid.-, p. 7. 7 i b i d . , p. 20. 8  79ibid., p. 21, I b i d . , p. 22.  8 0  S l l b i d . , p. 22. I b i d . , p. 22.  8 2  8  3 i b i d . , p. 17.  8  ^ I b i d . , p. 17.  8  5 i b i d . , p, 16.  8 6  8  i b i d . , p. 16.  7ibid., p. 10.  8 8  8 9  I b i d . , p. 10. I b i d . , p. 26.  9°ibid., p, 28. 9 I b i d . , p. 28. 1  9 i b l d . , p. 29. 2  :  93ibid., p. 30. 9'*ibid.., p. 33-  CHAPTER FOUR DEVELOPMENT OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY OF NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION 19 39-1944 There were f o u r g e n e r a l r e a s o n s f o r the of a permanent s e r i e s of n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s . i n 1936,  The f i r s t f a c t o r was  inauguration broadcasts  the c r e a t i o n ,  of the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , w i t h  the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t was p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r a d i o .  t o d e v e l o p the  F o r the CBC,  educational  the d e p r e s s i o n  years  were, i n p a r t , a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of i t s " e d u c a t i o n a l mandate."  E x p e r t s had been r e c r u i t e d t o s t a f f  the v a r i o u s programme d i v i s i o n s , a t t e m p t s had been launched to overcome c e r t a i n p o l i c y problems, budget c o n t r o l had been i n s t i t u t e d , c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n f o r m a l educat i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had been e s t a b l i s h e d and  experiments  had been conducted i n the f i e l d of s e r i o u s b r o a d c a s t i n g . The  CBC was now  i n a p o s i t i o n , i n terms of p e r s o n n e l , f i n a n -  c i a l r e s o u r c e s and programme e x p e r i e n c e ,  to think s e r i o u s l y  about f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n national radio  education.  A n o t h e r a s p e c t of the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s mandate was  that  I t s h o u l d employ the b r o a d c a s t i n g medium i n the s e r v i c e of b u i l d i n g a s t r o n g sense of Canadian i d e n t i t y . by the CBC  t o a c h i e v e t h i s aim r e c e i v e d a 91  Attempts  considerable  92  impetus from t h e growth o f Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e Second World War. War  Unlike the depression, the  gave Canadians a new sense o f common d i r e c t i o n and  t o t a l commitment.  As v i c t o r y moved c l o s e r , Canada assumed  i t s new r o l e as a "middle power."  Such a r o l e r e q u i r e d  a s g r e a t e r number o f d e c i s i o n s t o be made w i t h o u t  t h e guidance  of England. The  Dominion Government and i t s a g e n c i e s a l s o devoted  a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f time and energy d u r i n g t h e War to p l a n n i n g f o r d o m e s t i c post-War r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The d i r e c -  t i o n o f t h e i r work was i n d i c a t e d i n t h e White Paper on Reconstruction, presented  to Parliament  by t h e Government  i n A p r i l , 194-5, and i n t h e s o - c a l l e d "Green-Book"  proposals  made t o t h e p r o v i n c e s  The new  i n August o f t h e same y e a r .  n a t i o n a l p o l i c y i m p l i e d i n t h e s e documents i n v o l v e d t h e acceptance by t h e f e d e r a l government o f t h e b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r guaranteeing  a s t a b l e l e v e l o f employment  and income i n t h e c o u n t r y .  Therefore,  i t was c o n s i d e r e d  n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e Dominion have e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o income t a x and s u c c e s s i o n d u t i e s .  The F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o  made f a r - r e a c h i n g p r o p o s a l s  f o r national leadership i n health,  w e l f a r e , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , h o u s i n g and n a t u r a l i  resource  development." A l t h o u g h p r o v i n c i a l agreement t o t h e s e f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s c o u l d n o t be secured a t t h e Conference on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  93  I n 1945, most or what was proposed was i n a piece-meal  fashion.  The  ments f o r r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , was  l a t e r implemented  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these  develop-  the i n d i c a t i o n of a g e n e r a l  f e d e r a l i n t e r e s t i n a r e a s of j u r i s d i c t i o n a s s i g n e d t o the provincial policies. Through i t s c o n t r o l over r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g , Dominion Government p o s s e s s e d  the  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n t e r the  f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n and t o p r o v i d e Canadians w i t h a form of n a t i o n a l experience  in it.  Thus, young Canadians would  p r o v i d e the a u d i e n c e and the CBC Canadian u n i t y and i d e n t i t y .  The  the means t o  strengthen  I n c r e a s i n g f e d e r a l power  and the r i s e of a Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m d u r i n g the war_ ftere. both  expressed  forties.  i n the CBC n a t i o n a l s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s of  the  A c c o r d i n g to the f i r s t S u p e r v i s o r of S c h o o l B r o a d -  c a s t s i n the  CBC:  "From the o u t s e t the purpose and c h a r a c t e r or n a t i o n a l s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s has been d i f f e r e n t from the purpose and c h a r a c t e r of p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s . The l a t t e r were planned i n the c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n t o l o c a l courses of study. The f o r m e r have been planned w i t h the b r o a d e r aim of s t r e n g t h e n i n g Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i n our school."2 A t h i r d element i n v o l v e d i n the i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s was  the  w i l l i n g n e s s , on the p a r t of the p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s , t o co-operate  w i t h a n a t i o n a l agency i n the  development of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g .  By 1940,  the  r a d i o had become e s t a b l i s h e d as a permanent f i x t u r e I n  94  Canada and, as a r e s u l t , e d u c a t o r s  grew more i n s i s t e n t  t h a t i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l as an e d u c a t i o n a l medium s h o u l d he e x p l o i t e d . E d u c a t i o n a l o p i n i o n on n a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n i n educat i o n was  r e c e i v e d by the E o y a l Commission on Dominion-  Provincial Relations,  Most e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s f e l t  t h a t the e x t e n s i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y of e x i s t i n g f e d e r a l agencies,  such as the CBC,  need not hamper the  maintenance of p r o v i n c i a l autonomy.  The  Canadian Teachers*  F e d e r a t i o n i n i t s statement to the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission, for  i n s t a n c e , c l a i m e d t h a t " e d u c a t i o n i s now  supreme n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e " and t h a t  a s e r v i c e of  "equal...educational  o p p o r t u n i t y i s the r i g h t of every young p e r s o n i n Canada 3 and t h a t the n a t i o n as a w h o l e . . . s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h i s e q u a l i t y . The  " n a t i o n a l importance of e d u c a t i o n , " i n the view of  the CTF,  j u s t i f i e d the "Dominion Government i n t a k i n g what  steps circumstances  w i l l permit i t to take, without  impairing  the e x i s t i n g and a l l - i m p o r t a n t p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l , to f o s t e r  4 this service." The T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n recommended t o the Commission t h r e e p o s s i b l e ways i n w h i c h the Dominion Government c o u l d aid  education,  The f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d p r o v i d e  the  p r o v i n c e s w i t h f i n a n c i a l a i d through c o n d i t i o n a l g r a n t s in-aid.  E q u a l i z a t i o n g r a n t s were a n o t h e r means of p r o v i d i n g  assistance.  The  t h i r d s u g g e s t i o n , however, was  the most  95 relevant f o r r a d i o education.  The  CTP f e l t t h a t t h e r e  were "ways i n w h i c h the Dominion m i g h t extend s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y to e d u c a t i o n s i m p l y as an e x t e n s i o n of a c t i v i t i e s now  conducted by Dominion Government Departments."^  Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n was  The '  one such department.  The T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n b e l i e v e d t h a t i n s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g "Canada has s c a r c e l y made a as a r e s u l t , the "CBC  beginning" and, (;i  s h o u l d be u r g e d to t a k e s t e p s to  p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s f o r Canadian s c h o o l s along B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation l i n e s . " t i o n r e a l i z e d , though, t h a t the " i n i t i a t i v e can s c a r c e l y be expected  of the CBC,  The  Federa-  of such a p o l i c y  l e s t i t become i n -  v o l v e d i n the q u e s t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , " b u t i t d i d s u g g e s t t h a t "the CBC  and the P r o v i n c i a l Departments of  E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d co-operate  i n s e t t i n g up a c e n t r a l c o u n c i l  for  s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g , s i m i l a r t o the E n g l i s h C o u n c i l ,  for  the purposes of a d o p t i n g a g e n e r a l p o l i c y and  the  planning  broadcasts."? I n i t s c o n c l u s i o n , the T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n p r e -  viewed what were l a t e r t o become the i d e a l s of n a t i o n a l radio education.  The F e d e r a t i o n f e l t t h a t :  "even under P r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l s , c o - o r d i n a t i o n of c e r t a i n programmes may r e a s o n a b l y be expected which w i l l l e a d young Canadians to t h i n k of themselves as Canadians r a t h e r than as p r o v i n c i a l s . Statesmen of v i s i o n must r e a l i z e the u t t e r absence of any u n i f y i n g media i n our p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l system, and the f a c i l i t i e s t h a t r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g i n the s c h o o l s o f f e r f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n our s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . "  96  I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the g r o w i n g d e s i r e of to co-operate  educators  w i t h the n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g a u t h o r i t y ,  the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s began to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own by 1940,  e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g departments.  Thus,  the a s p i r a t i o n f o r some form of D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l  c o - o p e r a t i o n i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n was  p r e s e n t and the admin-  i s t r a t i v e machinery, a t l e a s t on the p r o v i n c i a l s i d e , f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p o l i c y was  developing.  the y e a r s i n which the CBC developed ment and c o - o p e r a t e d  The  e a r l y f o r t i e s were  i t s educational depart-  w i t h p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n the  c r e a t i o n of n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s to  super-  v i s e Canadian r a d i o e d u c a t i o n . The r a p i d growth of i n t e r e s t i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g was  a l s o p a r t of a  more g e n e r a l i n c l i n a t i o n i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . was  It  d u r i n g the f o r t i e s t h a t the CBC began to overcome i t s  e a r l i e r g r o w i n g p a i n s and to l a u n c h i t s e l f i n t o a g r e a t e r number and v a r i e t y of s e r i o u s programmes.  This subtle  s h i f t toward a more s e r i o u s programme f a r e was  reflected  i n the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e s u n d e r t a k e n by the C o r p o r a t i o n . The  CBC  o f f i c i a l s , d u r i n g the f o r t i e s , began to v i e w  the r a d i o audience i n terms of i t s group f o r m a t i o n s , c h i l d r e n , s t u d e n t s , housewives, l a b o u r e r s , f a r m e r s , uals.  Programmes were d e s i g n e d  and t o f i l l  e.g. intellect-  to f i t i n t o the d a l l y r o u t i n e  the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n these groups.  97 Thus, the f o r t i e s w i t n e s s e d the b r o a d c a s t i n g of programmes,, such as L a Pemme A u j o u r d ' h u i , Farm Radio Forum, J u s t Mary, CBC Wednesday N i g h t and Young Canada L i s t e n s . I t appeared t h a t , i n the f o r t i e s , the b u r s t of c r e a t i v i t y had f i n a l l y developed arts."  long-awaited  i n the " r a d i o  E d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g p r o v i d e d the CBC  officials,  and v a r i o u s r a d i o p e r s o n a l i t i e s , w i t h a n o t h e r o u t l e t f o r their talents.  N a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n the f o r t i e s  b l e s s e d w i t h the s e r v i c e s of people such as Morley A l a n K i n g , Norman DePoe, Kay Stevenson,  was  Callaghan,  John D r a i n i e , Bud  Knapp, N e i l M o r r i s o n and B a r r y Morse. The  s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada had  t a k e n p l a c e a g a i n s t a background of  "anti-Americanism."  The impact of A m e r i c a n commercial b r o a d c a s t i n g upon the minds and emotions of Canadians had h e l p e d to spawn the i d e a of the CBC as a c u s t o d i a n o f the Canadian i d e n t i t y .  In  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the n e c e s s a r y machinery f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , however, i t was a c o - o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t between the CBC and an American b r o a d c a s t i n g n e t work t h a t p r o v i d e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e raw m a t e r i a l s . The l a t e t h i r t i e s e v i d e n c e d the c r e a t i o n , by P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t , of the "Good Neighbour P o l i c y " i n r e l a t i o n t o those n a t i o n s r e s i d i n g i n the Western Hemisphere.  As  one  a s p e c t o f R o o s e v e l t ' s "Good Neighbour" o f f e r , the Columbia B r o a d c a s t i n g System d e c i d e d t o c o n v e r t i t s "School of the  98  A i r " s e r i e s i n t o an Pan-American e n t e r p r i s e d e v o t e d t o s e r v i n g the needs o f s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t the Western Hemisphere. Canada, under the a e g i s of t h e CBC, was one of the f i r s t n a t i o n s t o r e s p o n d t o the CBS o f f e r .  L a t e r , the Dominion  was j o i n e d by M e x i c o , the P h l l l i p i n e s and South American s t a t e s l i k e A r g e n t i n a and Colombia. A Pan-American C o u n c i l was e s t a b l i s h e d t o s u p e r v i s e the g e n e r a l programme p o l i c y of the "School o f the A i r o f 9  the A m e r i c a s , " as the o l d CBS s e r i e s was now t i t l e d . Canadian Government was r e p r e s e n t e d  The  on t h i s C o u n c i l by  Mr. R i c h a r d S. Lambert, who had r e c e n t l y been a p p o i n t e d 10 e d u c a t i o n a l a d v i s e r t o the CBC.  as  The p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o u n t r i e s  i n t h i s Pan-American p r o j e c t , n o t o n l y r e c e i v e d American broadcasts,  b u t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d programmes o f t h e i r  c r e a t i o n t o the s e r i e s .  own  The CBC, t h e r e f o r e , a c t i n g as an  e d u c a t i o n a l agent f o r the Dominion Government, had been able to undertake n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s r e s u l t i n g i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l broadcasts  t h r o u g h o u t Canada.  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f Canada i n the 'School of the A i r o f the A m e r i c a s ' s t i m u l a t e d two developments w i t h i n the CBC.  F i r s t , the Corporation e s t a b l i s h e d a N a t i o n a l  Committee of E d u c a t i o n the p r o j e c t .  t o d i r e c t Canada's a c t i v i t i e s i n  The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h i s Committee i n c l u d e d  hi together the .CBC pays the major" Canadian symphony orchestras nearly $60,000 a year in broadcast fees, providing vital support for these organizations. ;  n „ ? °l i! ! P e total hours of broadcasting on the French, Trans-Canada and Dominion networks. The greater portion of this time is devoted to light music, followed by semi-classical programs, dance music, variety classical, symphony programs, opera, old time music, band music and sacred music MUSI  a11  k  l d s  a k e s  U  m o r e  t h a n  h a l f  o f  th  The Toronto Symphony- Pops" Concerts" "were broadcast during the winter months on tlie Trans-Canada and Fiench networks on Friday nights, and both networks also (Throughout this Report, an asterisk (*').. denotes a sponsored program.)  "  ' •.  1-  I  4  \  ,1  i  99 the Toronto P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , the O n t a r i o  College  of E d u c a t i o n ,  the  the CBC,  the Canadian J u n i o r Red  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Teacher's F e d e r a t i o n ,  CBC,  the Canadian  the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A f f a i r s , the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Ontario Federation  Cross,  Youth T r a i n i n g P l a n and  of Home and S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n s .  the  The  u n l i k e the F e d e r a l Government i t s e l f , appeared c a p a b l e  of m a r s h a l l i n g the d i v e r s e support r e q u i r e d to form a N a t i o n a l Committee of Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s to engage i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l educational The  co-operation.  second a c t i o n , u n d e r t a k e n by the CBC,  was  the,  c r e a t i o n of the n e c e s s a r y i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery t h a t would f a c i l i t a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n r e c e p t i o n of the Supervisor  'School of the A i r ' b r o a d c a s t s .  and The  CBC  of I n s t i t u t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t s assumed charge o v e r  the e x e c u t i v e  f u n c t i o n s , w h i l e Mr.  R i c h a r d Lambert under-  took the p r o m o t i o n and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work i n v o l v e d i n the s e r i e s of programmes.  Thus, the CBC  had begun t o b u i l d  the I n t e r n a l machinery and  to e s t a b l i s h the  co-operative  r e l a t i o n s t h a t would l a t e r be r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o undertake a n a t i o n a l r a d i o education As the  scheme.  'School of the A i r of the A m e r i c a s ' p r o g r e s s e d ,  i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t t h a t the s e r i e s was  being  u t i l i z e d a l m o s t as an i n s t r u m e n t of American f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The  element of propaganda t h a t u s u a l l y was  contained  in  100 f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a medium o f mass communication was  e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s course o f  the s e r i e s .  F o r example, one o f t h e American programmes  r e c e i v e d i n Canada d r a m a t i z e d P r o v i n c e o f Quebec.  a book which d e s c r i b e d t h e  I n t h i s programme, t r a v e l l e r s from  the U n i t e d S t a t e s were p i c t u r e d as e n c o u n t e r i n g numerous b e g g i n g c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r e x c u r s i o n s i n t o "La B e l l e 11  Province."  x  On t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e c o i n , t h e r e were  s e v e r a l r e p o r t s o f American l i s t e n e r s who were shocked upon d i s c o v e r i n g t h a t wheat c o u l d be grown as f a r n o r t h a s Saskatchewan.,  A p p a r e n t l y t h e s e American l i s t e n e r s had n o t y e t  heard t h a t Canada had developed world."  i n t o t h e "breadbasket o f t h e  As a r e s u l t o f many r e c u r r i n g s i t u a t i o n s , such  as t h e ones d e s c r i b e d above, t h e CBC was c o n f i r m e d  in its  o r i g i n a l s u s p i c i o n o f any American o v e r t u r e s i n t h e realm of t h e mass m e d i a .  Nevertheless, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  Corporation i n the 'School of the A i r of the Americas', had g i v e n t h e CBC t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f i n i t i a t i n g  a form o f  n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and o f s e c u r i n g t h e s e r v i c e s of an e d u c a t i o n a l a d v i s e r . World War I I was one o f t h e most p u b l i c i z e d i n t h e h i s t o r y o f mankind.  conflicts  The media o f mass communication  were employed, n o t o n l y t o conduct a r u n n i n g commentary on t h e " p r o g r e s s " o f t h e b a t t l e , b u t a l s o as v i t a l ments f o r b u i l d i n g morale on t h e "home f r o n t " ,  instru-  Canada,  101 as o t h e r b e l l i g e r e n t s , was a c u t e l y aware o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of c r e a t i n g a s o l i d p h a l a n x of o p i n i o n and emotion b e h i n d i t s war e f f o r t .  Thus, e a r l y i n t h e war, Canada e s t a b l i s h e d  the Canadian C o u n c i l :of E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p .  One o f  the f i r s t e n t e r p r i s e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h i s C o u n c i l was t o r e quest t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e CBC i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n , o v e r t h e n a t i o n a l network, of a s e r i e s of programmes d r a m a t i z i n g t h e l i v e s o f t h o s e I n d i v i d u a l s who had c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e b u i l d i n g of Canadian n a t i o n h o o d . As a r e s u l t , i n 1942, a b r o a d c a s t s e r i e s was l a u n c h e d w h i c h d e p i c t e d t h e l i f e and work o f p e o p l e such as L o r d Durham, S i r J.A. Macdonald, Joseph Howe, L o r d E l g i n , W i l f r e d L a u r i e r and W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie. Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C i t i z e n s h i p s e r i e s , and the development o f t h e 'School o f the A i r of the A m e r i c a s ' , t h e CBC c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e time was opportune f o r a more f o r w a r d approach t o e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e S p r i n g o f t h e y e a r 1942, the C o r p o r a t i o n sponsored a " p r i v a t e " c o n f e r e n c e o f a l l those who were concerned w i t h s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada.  Representa-  t i v e s were p r e s e n t a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e from a l l o f the p r o v i n c e s , w i t h s p e c i a l r e p o r t s on e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o p r e s e n t e d by Mr. Ken Caple (B.C.,), Mr. Morley Toombs ( S a s k . ) , Mr. G e r a l d Redmond (N.S.) and Mr. A u r l l e Seguin o f Quebec. The Conference was a b l e t o a r r i v e a t a consensus i n  102  r e l a t i o n to f o u r p o i n t s .  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t that  one  weekly b r o a d c a s t t o the s c h o o l s over the n a t i o n a l network was  now  desirable.  Most of those i n a t t e n d a n c e a t  the  Conference agreed t h a t a t l e a s t some of the b e s t programmes i n the CBS  ^ S c h o o l of the A i r * s e r i e s s h o u l d be  i n the Canadian c l a s s r o o m .  I t was  however, t h a t Canada c o n t r i b u t e  continued  considered e s s e n t i a l ,  "Canadian" programmes t o  the American sponsored s e r i e s , i f the Dominion was t i n u e as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the v e n t u r e .  t o con-  Finally,  most o b s e r v e r s a t the m e e t i n g deemed i t e s s e n t i a l t h a t a v a i l a b l e d a t a , c o n c e r n i n g n a t i o n a l and  regional  the  radio  e d u c a t i o n programmes must somehow be p o o l e d t h r o u g h  the  medium of a n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n p u b l i c a t i o n . The  CBC  was  s u f f i c i e n t l y impressed by the r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d from the Conference t o contemplate the of some form of n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l  broadcasting series.  T h i s d e c i s i o n , on the p a r t of the C o r p o r a t i o n , v e r y touchy i s s u e .  The  raised a  c o n v e n i n g of an i n f o r m a l and  c o n f e r e n c e of e d u c a t o r s I n t e r e s t e d but  production  i n r a d i o was  one  s e i z i n g the i n i t i a t i v e i n a n a t i o n a l scheme of  e d u c a t i o n was p o r a t i o n was  another question e n t i r e l y .  private thing, radio  Thus, the  f o r c e d t o s e a r c h f o r a means of d e f l e c t i n g  the s p o t l i g h t from the f a c t t h a t a f e d e r a l agency was of u n d e r t a k i n g a n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l The  Cor-  desirous  enterprise.  s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem t h a t was  a r r i v e d at  103  eventually by the o f f i c i a l s of the Corporation, was an example of "old wine i n new b o t t l e s " .  As i n a s i m i l a r pro-  cedure employed by the Dominion Government to found the Hoyal Commission on Technical-Vocational Education i n 1 9 1 3 , the CBC sent a l e t t e r to the Department or Education of each province requesting i t s approval f o r the proposed 1?  national radio education project.  The Corporation also  invited each Province to devise and contribute, at i t s own expense (cost of s c r i p t , acting and t a l e n t ) , one or more programmes to the series.  An i d e n t i c a l i n v i t a t i o n was de-  l i v e r e d by the Corporation to the Canadian Teachers'  Federa-  tion. The CBC received a p o s i t i v e reply from i t s i n v i t a t i o n to the Canadian Teachers' Federation and from a l l of the p r o v i n c i a l education authorities, except the Roman Catholic Education Committee of the Province of Quebec.  The r e f u s a l  of French-Catholic Quebec to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the proposed national radio education series created what was l a t e r to emerge as the anomaly of national educational broadcasting i n Canada.  From t h i s date on, the concept of "national",  when applied to educational radio, meant, i n r e a l i t y , "nat i o n a l minus the French."  P a r t l y to overcome the French  r e f u s a l , the CBC delivered two extra programmes to Quebec, through the Radio-College series. The national series, when eventually broadcast, was  104  c a l l e d "Heroes o f Canada".  The aim o f t h e programmes was  to s t r e s s "the u n i t y o f s p i r i t among the people of a l l p a r t s of  Canada and...suggest  t o t h e boys and g i r l s o f today  to a t t a c k t h e i r own problems i n t h e same s p i r i t as the 13 p i o n e e r s of o l d . "  The "hero* " a s p e c t of t h e s e b r o a d c a s t s  was concerned w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who had d i s p l a y e d b o t h a " p i o n e e r i n g s p i r i t and t h e sense o f s o c i a l  responsibility"  and i t consumed twenty o f the t h i r t y minutes o f b r o a d c a s t 14 time.  The r e m a i n i n g t e n minutes of each programme  was  devoted t o an e x p e r i m e n t a l news b r o a d c a s t d e s i g n e d by t h e CBC C e n t r a l newsroom, e s p e c i a l l y f o r a c h i l d a u d i e n c e .  As  was t o be expected i n e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o programmes, t h e r e were numerous p a r e n t s i n the s o - c a l l e d " j u n i o r a u d i e n c e " . An a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e 'Heroes of Canada' p r o j e c t , a f t e r i t s completion, considered t h a t the s e r i e s received praise f o r : "Improving the p u p i l s E n g l i s h v o c a b u l a r y and f a c i l i t y f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , teaching c h i l d r e n t h a t not a l l 'heroes' a r e on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d , p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r b e t t e r l i s t e n i n g a t home, l e a d i n g t o . f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h work i n c l a s s , b u i l d i n g up a n a t i o n a l s p i r i t , and c u l t i v a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s sense o f adventure.".. , 3 i  However, as c r i t i c i s m s began t o f l o w i n , t h i s same o b s e r v e r was f o r c e d t o d i l u t e h i s o r i g i n a l enthusiasm f o r t h e s e r i e s . Some of t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s stemmed fronn.the f a c t t h a t : "Many t e a c h e r s , m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e " i n s p i r a t i o n a l " purpose o f the b r o a d c a s t s , complained t h a t they were n o t c l o s e l y enough r e l a t e d t o t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m .  105 Others v o i c e d d i s l i k e of p o l i t i c a l and a b s t r a c t ideas i n the b r o a d c a s t s . Considerable o b j e c t i o n was taken to the use of accent o r d i a l e c t , and to too r a p i d speaking by a c t o r s ; a l s o to the e x c e s s i v e use of background music and sound e f f e c t s i n p r o d u c t i o n . " ^ Upon weighing  both the p r a i s e and c r i t i c i s m s o f f e r e d , con-  c e r n i n g the 'Heroes of Canada' b r o a d c a s t s , Mr. R.S. Lambert concluded  h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s by d e c l a r i n g t h a t "as school  b r o a d c a s t i n g developed,  there would be needed a s p e c i a l  s t y l e o f s c r i p t w r i t i n g and a s p e c i a l k i n d of p r o d u c t i o n 17  suited to school c h i l d r e n . " ' I n the year 1943, a t the s p e c i a l request of the Dominion Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , a Committee of the Canada and Newfoundland E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was appointed to "develop  a Dominion-wide r e p o r t of e d u c a t i o n a l needs 18  and f o r recommendations t h e r e o f . "  Thus, a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a -  t i o n of educators was being c a l l e d upon, by a f e d e r a l agency, to i n v e s t i g a t e and make recommendations i n an a r e a o f j u r i s d i c t i o n t h a t was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y a s s i g n e d to the P r o v i n c e s . The CNEA Committee, from I t s i n c e p t i o n , though, r e c o g n i z e d the " c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t i p u l a t i o n which c o n f r o n t s a l l who 19  i n v e s t i g a t e Canadian e d u c a t i o n . "  7  During i t s I n i t i a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the Survey Committee  " d i s c o v e r e d the utmost a n x i e t y on the p a r t of a l l  concerned  t h a t the c o n t r o l o f education by the p r o v i n c e s  should n o t be weakened" and, t h e r e f o r e , the Committee members agreed  t h a t " p r o v i n c i a l autonomy must be s t o u t l y  maintained,"  2 0  106  However, a s t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d  and t h e needs o f  Canadians became more c l e a r t o t h e Committee, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e "maintenance o f p r o v i n c i a l autonomy i s by no means i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h p r o g r e s s  and n a t i o n a l improve-  ment," f o r i n " r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has been an i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l p o o l i n g o f I n t e r e s t s and i d e a s t o an e x t e n t n o t g e n e r a l l y appreciated."  2 l  One a r e a , i n e d u c a t i o n , where t h e Committee f e l t  that  such " n a t i o n a l improvement and p r o g r e s s " c o u l d be a t t a i n e d was n a t i o n a l r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g .  Although  t h e Survey Com-  mittee r e t a i n e d the o p i n i o n that "broadcasting f o r c l a s s room i n s t r u c t i o n must c o n t i n u e t o be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of P r o v i n c i a l Departments o f E d u c a t i o n , " i t expressed t h e v i e w t h a t t h e r e was "ample p l a c e f o r programmes of an i n s p i r a t i o n a l and b r o a d l y i n f o r m a t i v e c h a r a c t e r which  should  22  be r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s o f t h e n a t i o n a l network,"  I n order  to be e f f e c t i v e i n any e d u c a t i o n a l endeavour, though, t h e Committee f e l t t h a t t h e "CBC r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l and...resources...to 23  make the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t w i l l be  satisfactory." What, i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e CNEA Committee, was to form the " c o n t r i b u t i o n " t h a t t h e CBC was expected t o make t o a r e c o n s t r u c t e d Dominion? broadcasts  Firstly,  the educational  o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n c o u l d be u t i l i z e d  as a means  of " e q u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e r u r a l as  107 compared t o t h e u r b a n c h i l d . " t h e r a d i o c o u l d be range and to  24  At a r e l a t i v e l y  low  expense,  u t i l i z e d a s a means o f e x t e n d i n g  the  q u a l i t y of the e d u c a t i o n a l experiences a v a i l a b l e  the former.  e d u c a t i o n was nation-wide  .The  second c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t n a t i o n a l r a d i o  expected  t o make was  the s t i m u l a t i o n of  r a d i o programmes, i n v o l v i n g the  o f p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s and  co-operation  d i r e c t e d to the  "preparation  25 of s p e c i f i c  school lessons."  A p r e r e q u i s i t e to the produc-  t i o n o f s u c h " s c h o o l r a d i o l e s s o n s " was,  i n the  o f t h e C o m m i t t e e , t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a CBC School Broadcasting.  T h i s D i r e c t o r was  o f s t a t e s m a n l i k e v i s i o n who niques  opinion  D i r e c t o r of  t o be  "an  w i l l a l s o understand  educator the  o f b r o a d c a s t i n g , a n d be a b l e t o t r a v e l a c r o s s  techthe  Dominion g a t h e r i n g together the threads from which Canadian u n i t y w i l l be  woven."  2 0  Radio education s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y and  i n Canada p o s s e s s e d  a built-in  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i c h stemmed f r o m  the  separate  and  education,  was  a provincial responsibility.  was  a l s o f o r c e d t o d i v i d e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n of powers over i . e . . b r o a d c a s t i n g was  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n any  a f e d e r a l and  and  education  Thus, the Survey Committee  The  Committee  t h a t "since the p r e p a r a t i o n of a broadcast skill,  radio  planning  scheme o f n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l  broadcasting which i t proposed.  specialized  divi-  considered  requires highly  a good d e a l o f e x p e n s e , " programme  io a material  "should  of Education  be  and  prepared  should  be  existing f a c i l i t i e s  of  production  "guided  room," script  w o u l d be  and  presentation  The the  adult  Provincial  carried CBC." by  t h a t the  education  f o r the  "by  s h o u l d be  knows t h e  entrusted  the  movement.  The  "needs v a r y  f o r the  f r o m community  community."  was  but  and i n t e g r a t i o n . "  Association f o r Adult  met,  therefore,  However,  31  ferences,  the use  of the  leadership training  the  should  communities this  30  "be  may  could  be  conceived  i n terms  of  3 3  D o m i n i o n was Education  pos-  community".  i t "must n o t be  n a t i o n a l framework which the f o r the  uni-  to  i n t e n d to suggest t h a t there  Committee f e l t ,  best  t h a t no  D o m i n i o n was  A n a t i o n a l framework such as  3 2  oo-ordination  felt  the  fast-developing  Committee f e l t  terms of p r e s c r i p t i o n s o r u n i f o r m i t y , but  The  class-  to p r o f e s s i o n a l  i n the  n a t i o n a l framework w i t h i n which the  devised  broadcast  "preparation of  r a d i o might p l a y  a c t i o n w i t h i n the  function."  and  the  the  2 9  Committee d i d n o t  in  actual  e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f a d u l t s c o u l d be  only  no  The  a i r through  someone who  form p a t t e r n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  The  the  Departments  S u r v e y Committee a l s o gave i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n  role  sible,  on  2 7  However, i n a l l c a s e s ,  2 0  broadcasters."  to  the  by  was  the  Survey type  Committee  t h a t the  b u i l d i n g through  radio for adult listening courses." ' 3 4  Canadian "con-  groups  T h i s form of n a t i o n a l  109 education increased "the public i n t e r e s t i n informal adult education...improved public morale and...broadened the understanding of an i n t e r e s t i n public issues of a national and i n t e r n a t i o n a l character." -' 3  Thus, the f i r s t major survey, on a national l e v e l , of the educational needs of Canadians had been completed. The Survey Report, when published, was to f i n d i t s way into the hands of many i n f l u e n t i a l p o l i t i c i a n s and educators and was to be considered as a form of blue-print f o r Canada's educational future.  Every i n d i v i d u a l who read the document  would be struck by one f a c t o r : Canadians wanted, needed, and could have a national educational experience  through the  medium of radio broadcasting. The f o r t i e s witnessed the convening of many conferences devoted to the discussion of national issues.  I t was not  surprising, therefore, that the CBC decided to hold a second National Conference on School Broadcasting, 1943,  a national conference on educational  On May 13, broadcasting  was held i n Toronto under the chairmanship of Dr. J.S. Thomson, the new General Manager of the CBC, This meeting was to serve as a means of evaluating the e f f e c t s of the "Heroes of Canada" series and to further the role of the CBC i n b u i l d i n g a strong Canadian i d e n t i t y . The conference received a report from Mr. R.S. Lambert on the e f f e c t s of the f i r s t national educational series.  broadcasting  Lambert t o l d the p a r t i c i p a n t s that most of the  110  e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e r i e s had been a success..  The programmes w h i c h were b u i l t upon p o l i t i c a l  o r i n t e l l e c t u a l themes, Lambert f e l t , were l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than t h e music and d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  He was very  e x c i t e d o v e r t h e f a c t , however, t h a t t h e "CBC had r e c e i v e d many l e t t e r s from c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s i n d i c a t i n g a con-  36 s i d e r a b l e amount o f home l i s t e n i n g t o t h e s c h o o l  broadcasts."  The most i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t development r e s u l t i n g from t h i s c o n f e r e n c e , however, d i d n o t o r i g i n a t e w i t h t h e CBC, b u t emerged from t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f Western Canada.  T h i s development was e x p r e s s e d i n t h e form o f  a statement, i s s u e d by t h e Radio Committee o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n A l b e r t a , which e s t a b l i s h e d , i n v e r y c l e a r form, t h e tenuous problems which would c o n f r o n t any attempt t o b u i l d a f o r m a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n Dominion,  scheme f o r t h e  The memorandum, d e l i v e r e d by Mr. Donald Cameron  of s t a t i o n CKUA, s e r v e d a s b o t h a w a r n i n g t o t h e CBC and as a g u i d e l i n e , w i t h i n which any f u t u r e r a d i o  education  p o l i c y would have t o o p e r a t e . I t was t h e v i e w o f t h e A l b e r t a Radio Committee t h a t the " f u t u r e o f r a d i o i n the s c h o o l s i s by no means c l e a r ? " 1  The  Committee f e l t t h a t t h e r e were dangers i m p l i c i t i n  viewing  t h e r a d i o as the panacea f o r r u r a l - u r b a n e q u a l i z a -  t i o n i n education, was  f o r t h e " t r u e remedy f o r t h i s  l a r g e r grants f o r education,  condition  r a t h e r than a s h i f t of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from t h e c l a s s r o o m t o t h e r a d i o , "  3 8  The  Ill  memorandum a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t " b r o a d c a s t s , . . w i t h i n t h e hours o f I n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l day a r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l program and, as such, f a l l w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Departments o f E d u c a t i o n . " 3 9 I t was v e r y c l e a r t h a t A l b e r t a was t r y i n g t o i m p r e s s upon the o f f i c i a l s o f t h e CBC t h e f a c t t h a t i t was n o t p o s s i b l e or d e s i r a b l e to "organize down,"  school broadcasts  from t h e top  40  The A l b e r t a Committee a l s o d e a l t w i t h Mr. B.S. Lamb e r t ' s proposal t h a t c o n t r o l over n a t i o n a l r a d i o be v e s t e d i n t h e CBC.  They f e l t t h a t , i f t h e p u r p o s e s o f  such n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s n a t i o n a l consciousness  education  were t o " s t r e n g t h e n  and i n c r e a s e c h i l d r e n ' s awareness  of what i s g o i n g on i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e Dominion," then i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e " e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f such m a t t e r s of h i g h p o l i c y , on which t h e r e a r e sharp d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n throughout Canada, i s t h e p r o p e r c o n c e r n o f a Domin i o n Board r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e P r o v i n c i a l Departments o f Educa41 t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n t h e CBC and i t s a p p o i n t e e s . "  Alberta  a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h e f e a r t h a t , s i n c e " n a t i o n a l s c h o o l broadc a s t s must...be r e l a t e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l programs," t h e r e would be " d i f f i c u l t y i n making t h e s e e q u a l l y a b l e t o a l l of the Provinces without watering  accept-  them down  t o t h e p o i n t where they cease t o have much v a l u e i n any Province."42  112  The A l b e r t a Radio Committee s u b m i t t e d t h r e e recommendat i o n s t o the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Conference which were i n t e n d e d as p r o p o s a l s f o r o p e r a t i n g n a t i o n a l r a d i o w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of P r o v l n c l a l l y c o n t r o l l e d education.  These p r o p o s a l s were:  "1. That s t e p s be t a k e n t o a r r a n g e f o r the appointment of a Dominion Board on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g , such a Board t o c o n s i s t of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Departments of E d u c a t i o n , a p p o i n t e d o r nominated by the s a i d Departments, and t o have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y f o r p r e p a r i n g and a r r a n g i n g f o r n a t i o n a l school broadcasts 2. That the Conference c o n s i d e r the a d v i s a b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up a t l e a s t two r e g i o n a l boards h a v i n g f u n c t i o n s s i m i l a r t o those p r o p o s e d f o r a Dominion Board 3.  That d u r i n g the n e x t two y e a r s any s e r i e s of n a t i o n a l s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s t o be r e l e a s e d by the CBC be concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : the e q u a l i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Canada, s o c i a l w e l f a r e i n Canada, the problem of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f u l l employment a f t e r the war and the CNEA Report on Post-War E d u c a t i o n . " ^ Dr. Thomson deemed i t a d v i s a b l e and n e c e s s a r y  that  the CBC p r o v i d e the A l b e r t a Government, as w e l l as a l l o t h e r P r o v i n c e s , w i t h a f o r m a l p o l i c y statement  on the  i s s u e s t h a t had been r a i s e d i n the memorandum.  The  CBC  a d m i t t e d r e a d i l y t h a t the "problems i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o a r e somewhat c o m p l i c a t e d . " ^  However, w i t h t h i s  q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n view, Dr. Thomson d e c l a r e d t h a t : " E d u c a t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d on a P r o v i n c i a l b a s i s , whereas the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s f u l l y t h a t the d i r e c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n i s i n the hands of the P r o v i n c i a l Departments and we have no r i g h t t o i n t r u d e upon what i s s t r i c t l y a c u r r i c u l u m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a u t h o r i t i e s concerned. On the o t h e r hand r a d i o  113 b r o a d c a s t i n g I s a t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r , not o n l y from the p o i n t of view of a c t u a l p h y s i c a l a p p a r a t u s r e q u i r e d , b u t a l s o from the p o i n t of v i e w of p r e s e n t a t i o n . There I s a growing body of e x p e r i m e n t a l knowledge i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g , and i n the l a s t r e s o r t the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n must be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r every programme t h a t goes over the a i r . . . w h e r e t h e r e i s g o o d w i l l and a d e s i r e t o work t o g e t h e r , t h e r e i s no reason why the CBC and the v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l Departments s h o u l d n o t come t o a v e r y happy and harmonious w o r k i n g arrangement f o r d o i n g t h i s i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c s e r v i c e . . , I am i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r p r o p o s a l about a N a t i o n a l C o - o p e r a t i v e Committee. As a m a t t e r of f a c t , we have t h i s i n mind, and I expect we s h a l l move i n t o some such arrangements i n the n e a r f u t u r e . " The N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Conference a t t a c h e d g r e a t importance  t o the A l b e r t a p r o p o s a l s  and,  as a r e s u l t , agreed upon the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n s : "1.  That the program o f n a t i o n a l s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s , begun l a s t y e a r , s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d , and t h a t , where p o s s i b l e , e x p a n s i o n s h o u l d be made  2. That c o p i e s of t h i s r e s o l u t i o n be sent t o a l l Departments of E d u c a t i o n throughout the Dominion, t o g e t h e r w i t h a l e t t e r addressed t o the M i n i s t e r s and permanent heads of Departments i n v i t i n g t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the work 3.  That the time has come when, w i t h r e s p e c t t o s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g , a more f o r m a l arrangement may be necess a r y , so f a r as the Departments of E d u c a t i o n a r e concerned. " ^ D u r i n g the Conference,  Dr. P e r c i v a l , of the P r o -  t e s t a n t E d u c a t i o n Committee of Quebec, b r o u g h t the CNEA Survey Report t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s . P e r c i v a l was  e s p e c i a l l y concerned  be d e v e l o p e d  t o guide n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o .  Dr.  t h a t more f o r m a l f a c i l i t i e s Thus,  he seconded b o t h the CNEA p r o p o s a l s and the A l b e r t a Report  114  by recommending t h a t a S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the CBC. Dr. Thomson i n 1943,  Department be  As a r e s u l t of these  appointed  Mr.  R.S.  suggestions,  Lambert t o the  p o s i t i o n of S u p e r v i s o r of School B r o a d c a s t i n g  f o r the Cor-  poration. I n 1943,  Mr. B.S,  Lambert, i n h i s o f f i c i a l  as S u p e r v i s o r of S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s f o r the CBC,  capacity attended  the a n n u a l m e e t i n g of the Canada and Newfoundland Association.  The  Education  s p e c i f i c i n t e n t of Lambert's v i s i t was  o u t l i n e the f u t u r e p o l i c y to be f o l l o w e d by the CBC educational broadcasting.  He n o t e d t h a t i t had  to  in  previously  been the custom to " h o l d an i n f o r m a l c o n f e r e n c e of p e r s o n s connected w i t h r a d i o e d u c a t i o n  i n the v a r i o u s  provinces,"  b u t he suggested t h a t the "time had come t o supplement t h i s conference w i t h a s m a l l e r s t e e r i n g council."^7  Lambert  recommended, f o r the a p p r o v a l of the CNEA, the  formation  of a N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y The  CBC  C o u n c i l on School  Broadcasting.  suggested t h a t t h i s C o u n c i l s h o u l d c o n s i s t of  t e e n members, one nominee of each Department of e x c e p t i n g Quebec which s h o u l d have two, and one  "thir-  Education, nominee  each from the N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s , the Canadian Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n and t i o n of Home and S c h o o l . " ^  the N a t i o n a l F e d e r a -  I n a d d i t i o n , the  8  Corporation  would "nominate a d i s t i n g u i s h e d e d u c a t i o n a l i s t to a c t chariman of the C o u n c i l . , " ^  as  9  What were the proposed f u n c t i o n s of t h i s N a t i o n a l  115 Advisory Council?  A c c o r d i n g t o Lambert, the C o u n c i l  was  to " a d v i s e the CBC on the p l a n n i n g of N a t i o n a l S c h o o l  broad-  c a s t s and o f programmes r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l p u b l i c i t y , " to "co-operate w i t h the CBC on m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g r e c e p t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n of s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s and i n the of new  experiments  initiation  i n e d u c a t i o n a l broadcasting."^°  C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o suggested  some problems w h i c h i t f e l t  c o u l d form the immediate concern of such a CounciiL b a s i c need was  The  c o n s i d e r e d t o be "a study of t h e  A  curricula  of the n i n e p r o v i n c e s , t o f i n d out what amount of common ground t h e r e i s between them which c o u l d be s e r v e d by radio."-^  A n o t h e r need was  t o "study the problems  the  connected  w i t h the supply and i n s t a l l a t i o n o f r e c e i v e r s i n s c h o o l s and a l s o of more s y s t e m a t i c c l a s s r o o m u t i l i z a t i o n of s c h o o l broadcasts."^  2  I n summary, the CBC hoped t h a t the p r o -  posed C o u n c i l "would b u i l d a r e a l w o r k i n g a l l i a n c e between the b r o a d c a s t e r s and e d u c a t o r s . " ^  3  Mr. Lambert, i n con-  j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s hope, c l o s e d h i s address by r e p e a t i n g his f a i t h that: " r a d i o i s a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d to be the i n s t r u m e n t f o r s t e n g t h e n i n g n a t i o n a l u n i t y of and i n the r i s i n g generat i o n i n our c o u n t r y . How, t h i s can b e s t be done i s a t a s k w h i c h needs t o be shared by e x p e r t s - e x p e r t s i n e d u c a t i o n on the one hand, e x p e r t s on b r o a d c a s t i n g on the o t h e r . " ^ A f t e r due  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the Canada and Newfoundland Educa-  t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e d i t s f u l l endorsement to the recommendations o f Mr. E.S.  Lambert and the  CBC.  116 The N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on S c h o o l was  f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n October of 1943.  Broadcasting The  basic  p r i n c i p l e g u i d i n g the C o u n c i l , as o u t l i n e d i n i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n , was  t h a t the CBC  "would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h a t  went on the a i r , w h i l e the e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u t i l i z a t i o n , i n the c l a s s r o o m ,  of what  55  went on the a i r . "  The  s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s of the C o u n c i l  were: "1. to a d v i s e the CBC on the p l a n n i n g of programmes on the n a t i o n a l network i n t e n d e d f o r r e c e p t i o n by s c h o o l s d u r i n g normal hours 2. t o a d v i s e the CBC on programmes r e l a t i n g t o e d u c a t i o n a l p u b l i c i t y e.g. e d u c a t i o n week 3. t o a d v i s e the CBC on p l a n n i n g of s c h o o l programmes t o be exchanged w i t h the U.S. o r o t h e r networks abroad 4. t o a d v i s e and oo-operate w i t h the CBC on s u i t a b l e p u b l i c i t y f o r s c h o o l and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s 5. to c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the CBC oh m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g the r e c e p t i o n of s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s ( a d v i c e t o t e a c h e r s , p r o v i s i o n of r e c e i v e r s , d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e ) . 6. t o c o l l e c t r e p o r t s on p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s and t o d i s c u s s these r e p o r t s w i t h the CBC 7.  t o a d v i s e the p r o v i n c i a l governments on changes and new developments on e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g . To c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the CBC i n i n i t i a t i n g new experiments i n educational broadcasting."-.  The f u n c t i o n s a s s i g n e d t o the C o u n c i l were i n d i c a t i v e of .she c h a n n e l s which had opened up s i n c e 1929  to permit  e d u c a t i o n and b r o a d c a s t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s t o c o - o p e r a t e i n the p r o d u c t i o n of r a d i o e d u c a t i o n programmes.  117 W i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l , the  CBC "wished t o make sure t h a t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l meets t h e a p p r o v a l  content  of the education a u t h o r i t i e s . " - "  i n the f o r t i e s the Corporation's  Thus,  policy i nnational radio  e d u c a t i o n was: "1.  t o a s s i s t Departments o f E d u c a t i o n w i s h i n g t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s t o s c h o o l s on a p r o v i n c i a l or r e g i o n a l basis  2. t o supplement such p r o v i n c i a l o r r e g i o n a l schemes of s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g by p r o v i d i n g , on t h e n a t i o n a l network, s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n n a t i o n a l u n i t y and i n c r e a s e Canadian c o n s c i o u s n e s s among s t u d e n t s ; a l s o s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s d e a l i n g w i t h s u b j e c t s t h a t a r e o f common i n t e r e s t t o t h e s c h o o l s of a l l p r o v i n c e s . " ^ g The N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y once p e r y e a r .  C o u n c i l was t o convene f o r m a l l y  Each y e a r an e x e c u t i v e committee was a p p o i n t e d ,  w i t h power t o a c t f o r t h e C o u n c i l between meetings.  The  membership o f t h e C o u n c i l was composed o f one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e nominated from each P r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n , except Quebec, w h i c h was p e r m i t t e d  two (one F r e n c h , one  E n g l i s h ) ; two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Canadian Teacher's F e d e r a t i o n ; two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s nominated by t h e N a t i o n a l Conference o f Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s ; one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d by t h e Canadian S c h o o l T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n and one by t h e S c h o o l T r u s t e e s  o f F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g Quebec; two  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Canadian Home and S c h o o l and P a r e n t Teacher F e d e r a t i o n and one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e Canadian and Newfoundland E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n . $ 9  The CBC was  118 p e r m i t t e d t o nominate a d i s t i n g u i s h e d educator t o serve a s chairman o f t h e C o u n c i l and t o send i t s own S c h o o l Broadc a s t s S u p e r v i s o r t o f u n c t i o n as S e c r e t a r y . POLICY FORMATION PROCEDURE The p r o c e d u r e t h a t was employed by t h e N a t i o n a l Advisory Council t o formulate a radio education p o l i c y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n i n education, without r e s o r t i n g t o the establishment of a Federal M i n i s t r y i n the f i e l d .  Thus, i n December 1944,  the S e c r e t a r y o f t h e N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l c i r c u l a t e d a l e t t e r t o a l l members o f t h e C o u n c i l a s k i n g f o r programme suggestions.  These s u g g e s t i o n s were t o I n c l u d e t h e name  and aims o f t h e proposed b r o a d c a s t  s e r i e s , t h e number o f  programmes, and t h e grade l e v e l t o w h i c h they were t o be directed.  The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e C o u n c i l , upon r e c e i p t o f  a l l o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s , groupsed and i n t e r p r e t e d them, and then d e v i s e d a r e p o r t which he p r e s e n t e d meeting of the C o u n c i l .  t o t h e annual  Drarlng t h i s m e e t i n g , t h e v a r i o u s  programme p r o p o s a l s were e v a l u a t e d , i n r e f e r e n c e t o c e r t a i n agreed upon c r i t e r i a , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e suitability suggestions f o r a n a t i o n a l radio education  of the  broadcast.  The f i v e major c r i t e r i a which were u t i l i z e d , by t h e N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l t o e v a l u a t e programme were:  proposals  119 "1.  I s t h i s n a t i o n a l school broadcast m a t e r i a l , i . e . i s i t e i t h e r designed to strengthen n a t i o n a l u n i t y and i n c r e a s e Canadaln c o n s c i o u s n e s s among s t u d e n t s o r i s i t of common i n t e r e s t t o the s c h o o l s of a l l the p r o v i n c e s ?  2. Could the s u b j e c t be b e t t e r d e a l t w i t h on a p r o v i n c i a l or r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than a n a t i o n a l basis? 3. I s the s u b j e c t more s u i t a b l e f o r v i s u a l than o r d i n a r y presentation? 4.  Are a v a i l a b l e CBC r e s o u r c e s adequate t o secure b e s t p o s s i b l e r e s u l t from the proposed s u b j e c t ment?  the treat-  5. Can r a d i o p r e s e n t a t i o n be o r g a n i z e d i n such a way as t o encourage a u d i e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c l a s s room? Or can the r a d i o p r e s e n t a t i o n be s u c c e s s f u l l y t i e d .in w i t h the use of a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s , o r be used t o s t i m u l a t e f o l l o w - u p work i n the c l a s s r o o m ? " 60 I f the programme p r o p o s a l s a t i s f i e d a l l these and,  criteria,  i f a l l p a r t i e s concerned formed a p o s i t i v e consensus  i n t h e i r views of i t , the s u g g e s t i o n was handed over t o the CBC  o f f i c i a l s who  posing  u n d e r t o o k the f i n a l p r o d u c t i o n and com-  operations. The i n a u g u r a l m e e t i n g of the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y  on March 9,  19^4,  Council  concerned i t s e l f w i t h t h r e e major i s s u e s .  F i r s t , a programme committee was  formed t o examine the  f u t u r e r o l e of r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n and  to  d r a f t p r o p o s a l s f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the C o u n c i l .  This  Committee f u n c t i o n e d w e l l i n the e a r l y p e r i o d of n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , but v e r y soon the P r o v i n c i a l  Education  Departments began t o f e e l t h a t c o n t r o l o v e r m a t t e r s of e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y was  s l i p p i n g from t h e i r hands i n t o  the  120 grasp of the Committee on Programmes.  As a r e s u l t of  t e n s i o n t h a t such a s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d , the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l , i n 1948, and  the  Advisory  assumed f u l l c o n t r o l over programme p o l i c y  the Programme Committee was  abolished.  Thus, the P r o v i n -  c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s once a g a i n p o s s e s s e d the major v o t e on m a t t e r s of programme p o l i c y . A second i s s u e a r o s e d u r i n g the f i r s t m e e t i n g of C o u n c i l w h i c h was  to plague continuously  national educational broadcasting. the Canadian Home and  The  the o p e r a t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from  Schools requested  supervise, not only school broadcasts,  the  t h a t the  Council  but a l s o a l l other  programmes which a f f e c t e d the e d u c a t i o n and development of c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s entertainment I n response t o t h i s r e q u e s t ,  programmes.  the C o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h e d a  Committee t o i n v e s t i g a t e the problem, b u t the CBC  was  a b l e t o s t r i k e an agreement w i t h the members of the on o u t - o f - s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g .  The  C o u n c i l was  unCouncil  forced to  drop the i s s u e of i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s .  The  f i n a l m a t t e r t h a t was  the  d e a l t w i t h by the C o u n c i l was  q u e s t i o n of the use of the F r e n c h language i n r a d i o education.  The  C o u n c i l formed a committee to i n q u i r e i n t o the  p r o p e r r o l e t h a t t h i s language c o u l d f u l f i l l i n p r o m o t i n g b e t t e r understanding Canadians. ject.  between the F r e n c h and  A g a i n no p o s i t i v e a c t i o n was  English-speaking  t a k e n on t h i s sub-  121 The f o r m a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g was  the end r e s u l t of y e a r s o f work  i n a t t e m p t s t o b u i l d a s o l i d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework w i t h i n which C B C - P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n Department c o - o p e r a t i o n c o u l d occur.  The  C o u n c i l was  to be the f o c a l p o i n t f o r p l a n n i n g  e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g u n t i l the appearance o f the White Paper on B r o a d c a s t i n g of 1966.  Only a f t e r the f o r m a t i o n  of the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l was augurate,  the CBC a b l e t o i n -  on a l a r g e s c a l e , a permanent s e r i e s of n a t i o n a l  educational broadcasts. The N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l conducted r e l a t i o n s w i t h the CBC  most of i t s  through the S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s  partment of the C o r p o r a t i o n .  The S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s  DeDepart-  ment formed a s e c t i o n o f the CBC's Programme D i v i s i o n . The Department was implementing  charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  the p l a n s and p o l i c y of the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l , a s s i s t i n g P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n Departments t o put i n t o e f f e c t t h e i r own  l o c a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n s f o r  s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g , and p r o m o t i n g generally.  educational broadcasting  The S u p e r v i s o r of the CBC S c h o o l  Department was  Broadcasts  a l s o S e c r e t a r y o f the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l and a c t e d as an i n t e r m e d i a r y between the C o u n c i l and the CBC.  I n h i s r o l e as S u p e r v i s o r , Lambert a l s o a c t e d  as the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s agent i n i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c i a l education a u t h o r i t i e s .  122  One s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n w h i c h the CBC S u p e r v i s o r o f S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s had t o p e r f o r m was t o I n s u r e t h a t " a l l P r o v i n c e s r e c e i v e d e q u a l t r e a t m e n t i n t h e i r use o f the CBC f a c i l i t i e s . "  0 1  The more s p e c i f i c d u t i e s o f t h e Super-  v i s o r were: "To make sure t h a t no one would c r i t i c i z e the CBC f o r i n t e r f e r i n g i n matters of e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y which were t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Departments of E d u c a t i o n ; t h a t no one would accuse t h e CBC o f f a v o u r i n g one P r o v i n c e i n t h e use o f CBC f a c i l i t i e s o r f i n a n c e ; t h a t a l l S c h o o l b r o a d c a s t s were produced i n accordance w i t h CBC s t a n d a r d s and t e c h n i q u e s , and t h a t t h e c o s t s of s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g would be s h a r e d , on an e q u i t a b l e and agreed b a s i s between t h e CBC and the e d u c a t i o n a l authorities." & 2  The  C o r b e t t R e p o r t had I n d i c a t e d t h a t a system o f  programme e v a l u a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o t h e success o f any venture i n radio education.  The attempt t o e s t a b l i s h such  an e v a l u a t i o n system f o r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l  broadcasting  p r o v e d t o be one o f t h e major o b s t a c l e s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e CBC S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g  Department.  The major d i f f i c u l t y  i n n a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n was t h e  i n s i s t e n c e by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t a l l e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be conducted under t h e a u s p i c e s o f each i n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t i o n department.  P r o v i n c i a l educational  officials  were u n w i l l i n g t o p e r m i t t h e CBC Research Bureau t o undertake t h i s t a s k .  The end r e s u l t was a s i t u a t i o n i n which  each p r o v i n c e p o s s e s s e d i t s own e v a l u a t i o n method, so t h a t v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e way o f n a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s o r u n i f o r m means o f e v a l u a t i o n were a v a i l a b l e .  123 A l t h o u g h the CBC  S u p e r v i s o r of S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g  p l a y e d a c r u c i a l r o l e i n the p l a n n i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n of Canadian r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e was one major f l a w i n h i s p o s i t i o n .  always  T h i s d e f e c t stemmed from  the f a c t t h a t h i s a u t h o r i t y o v e r r a d i o e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t extend t o any segment o f the CBC. F r e n c h Network. The CBC,  by 1943, had managed to p r o v i d e a common  meeting-house f o r d i s c u s s i o n s l e a d i n g to the development of n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g . D u r i n g the f o r t i e s , the C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o r e c e i v e d i n q u i r i e s i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n r a d i o education. There were s e v e r a l reasons why  a r e g i o n a l approach  t o e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g might p r o v e t o be  feasible.  The major b r o a d c a s t i n g networks of the CBC were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o • C a n a d a s f i v e time zones and were s u p e r v i s e d 1  by " r e g i o n a l programme d i r e c t o r s . "  6 3  Canadian e d u c a t i o n  had a l s o been t i e d c l o s e l y t o l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and, as a r e s u l t , many p e o p l e f e l t t h a t r a d i o e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d r e l a t e , i n some f a s h i o n , to these a r e a l p e c u l i a r i ties.  B e s i d e s , the r a d i o r e c o g n i z e d no p r o v i n c i a l boundary,  so t h a t i t was a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o keep e d u c a t i o n programmes o f one p r o v i n c e e n t i r e l y out of the grasp of l i s t e n e r s i n the a d j o i n i n g p r o v i n c e . A t the same time as Canada had been e v o l v i n g from  124  "Colony t o N a t i o n , " i t had a l s o been engendering c e r t a i n 64  regional loyalties.  The d e p r e s s i o n , f o r example, had  been e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e v a r i o u s Canadian r e g i o n s . R e g i o n a l development schemes, such a s t h e P r a i r i e Farm R e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t , were a l s o s t a r t e d i n t h e t h i r t i e s . I n t e r e s t i n r e g i o n a l co-operation i n educational radio, t h e r e f o r e , formed p a r t o f a more g e n e r a l t r e n d toward r e g i o n a l i s m i n Canada. One o f t h e b e n e f i t s p e o p l e hoped would be d e r i v e d from t h e use o f r a d i o i n e d u c a t i o n was a g r e a t e r e q u a l i z a t i o n ' of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y .  The r a d i o c o u l d b r i n g t o t h e  i s o l a t e d r u r a l d w e l l e r the same opera r e c i t a l , l e c t u r e and teacher t h a t the urbanite could a v a i l himself of d i r e c t l y . B e s i d e s t h i s , v a r i o u s r e g i o n s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h spec i a l i z e d knowledge, through b r o a d c a s t i n g , t o h e l p them cope more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r a r e a , e.g. weather r e p o r t s f o r M a r i t i m e f i s h e r m e n .  A l t h o u g h most  i n d i v i d u a l s could a f f o r d to purchase a r a d i o r e c e i v i n g s e t , v e r y few p r o v i n c i a l governments c o u l d handle t h e h i g h c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own r a d i o  education  system t o f u l f i l l the s p e c i a l i z e d needs o f t h e i r  citizens.  As a r e s u l t , p r o v i n c e s l i k e Saskatchewan r e a l i z e d t h a t , i f t h e r a d i o c o u l d be o p e r a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f l a r g e u n i t s i n v o l v i n g the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f s e v e r a l p r o v i n c e s , the h i g h c o s t f a c t o r c o u l d be r e d u c e d and the same s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e c o u l d be p r o v i d e d .  Other p r o v i n c e s  125 were comtemplatlng  a l o n g t h e same l i n e s o f thought as S a s k a t -  chewan, f o r an i n v i t a t i o n was b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r a l l f o u r Western P r o v i n c e s , by Mr. I . S c h u l t z , M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n f o r Manitoba,  c o n c e r n i n g a c o n f e r e n c e o f e d u c a t o r s on t h e  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e g i o n a l co-operation i n r a d i o education. The Western R e g i o n a l Conference on E d u c a t i o n a l Broadc a s t i n g was convened f o r m a l l y i h Saskatoon on December 11, 1940.  M a n i t o b a was r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e Conference by H.R.  Low, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  o f E d u c a t i o n , Saskatchewan by A.B.  Ross, A l b e r t a by Dr. H.C, Newland, S u p e r v i s o r o f S c h o o l s and B r i t i s h Columbia by Ken C a p l e , r e c e n t l y a p p o i n t e d as D i r e c t o r of School B r o a d c a s t i n g i n the P r o v i n c e .  The CBC  was r e p r e s e n t e d by Mr. Andrew Cowan o f CBC Winnipeg. The Conference a r r i v e d a t a consensus f i r s t r e g a r d i n g the o b j e c t i v e s which s h o u l d g o v e r n e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g on t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  These aims were t h a t s  "1. Every c h i l d s h o u l d l e a r n t o l i s t e n t o b r o a d c a s t s , and t o a p p r e c i a t e and e v a l u a t e them. 2.  Though^ t h e r a d i o can n e v e r r e p l a c e t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r o r c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s , i t can g u i d e , s t i m u l a t e , i t e n s i f y and supplement c l a s s r o o m e f f o r t , e s p e c i a l l y i n u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d communities.  3. The r a d i o s h o u l d encourage i n t e r e s t i n t h e concerns of t h e community and t h e w o r l d o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s room and f o s t e r , i n p u p i l s , t h a t sense o f c i v i c and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n which r e s t s the f u t u r e o f democracy. B e s i d e s e s t a b l i s h i n g these g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , t h e Conference a l s o f o r m u l a t e d a s a f e g u a r d  126 for provincial rights.  I t was  r e s o l v e d t h a t "any  school  b r o a d c a s t s p r e p a r e d f o r l o c a l needs i n the p r o v i n c e  and  approved g e n e r a l l y by the s c h o o l s u s i n g them s h o u l d n o t 66 be s u p p l a n t e d by o t h e r s from o u t s i d e of the p r o v i n c e . " The terms of r e f e r e n c e , f o r the d i s c u s s i o n on r e g i o n a l coo p e r a t i o n t h a t were t o f o l l o w were, t h e r e f o r e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n such a way  as to ensure t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l p r e r o g a t i v e  would r e c e i v e the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , so t h a t n e i t h e r n a t i o n a l n o r r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s c o u l d supersede i t .  Keeping  these  s a f e g u a r d s i n mind, the f o u r Western P r o v i n c e s agreed "attempt  to  the j o i n t p r e p a r a t i o n o f a few b r o a d c a s t s t o s u p p l e -  ment the p r o v i n c i a l programmes and ask the CBC f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n p r e p a r i n g them and p u t t i n g them on the a i r . " ^  7  The  f i n a n c i a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r the c o - o p e r a t i v e b r o a d c a s t s  was  i n the form of an e q u a l c o s t - s h a r i n g system between the p r o v i n c e s w i t h the CBC p r o v i d i n g ^ f r e e of charge, a l l product i o n and network f a c i l i t i e s . The r e g i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i v e s e r i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s was  o r i g i n a t e d i n Vancouver and Winnipeg, con-  s i s t i n g m o s t l y of p r i m a r y music and d r a m a t i z e d  literature.  Each s c r i p t was approved by a l l f o u r Western P r o v i n c e s b e f o r e being a i r e d .  T h e r e f o r e , i n 1941-42, each Western P r o v i n c e  r e c e i v e d t h r e e forms of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t ; one. from the CBS  'School of the A i r , ' one produced s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r  p r o v i n c i a l consumption and one from the Western R e g i o n a l series.  127 As was t h e case i n n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , t h e y e a r 1943 s e t t h e stage f o r t h e development o f more f o r m a l adm i n i s t r a t i v e machinery t o f a c i l i t a t e e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  The N a t i o n a l S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g  Conference h e l d i n Toronto  i n 19^-3 had p r o v i d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r an i n f o r m a l i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l c o n f e r e n c e o f Western educat o r s t o d i s c u s s more f o r m a l means o f s t i m u l a t i n g and e n s u r i n g regional co-operation.  T h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n between t h e Western  p r o v i n c e s c u l m i n a t e d e v e n t u a l l y i n a f o r m a l meeting, i n Saskatoon,  between t h e r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c e s .  The Saskatoon  Conference was i n agreement on t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : "1. That a Western R e g i o n a l Committee f o r S c h o o l Broadc a s t i n g be set-up c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e f o u r Western P r o v i n c e s , t o be a p p o i n t e d by t h e Departments o f E d u c a t i o n , and o f t h e CBC 2. That each Department be asked t o a p p o i n t members t o t h e Western R e g i o n a l Committee, t o send t h e names of such members t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Committee, and t o name one such member w i t h whom correspondence may be conducted 3. That t h e members a p p o i n t e d t o t h e R e g i o n a l Committee by any one P r o v i n c e s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a l o c a l R a d i o C u r r i c u l u m Committee o r p a n e l i n t h a t p r o v i n c e ; and t h a t w h i l e I t might n o t be p o s s i b l e o r e x p e d i e n t f o r a l l o f t h e members o f a l o c a l committee t o a t t e n d meetings o f t h e R e g i o n a l Committee, a l l members i n each p r o v i n c e a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y members o f t h e Reg i o n a l Committee 4. That t h e persons a p p o i n t e d t o a R a d i o - C u r r i c u l u m Committee s h o u l d be e x p e r t i n the r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s of study f o r which they were s e l e c t e d . They s h o u l d make a study o f t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e c u r r i c u l a and the t e c h n i q u e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l f o u r o f t h e p r o v i n c e s , i n o r d e r t h a t common elements may be discovered  12b  5. That t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e c u r r i c u l a be g i v e n s p e c i a l study by t h e R e g i o n a l Committee: v a l u e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g i n music, s o c i a l s t u d i e s and h e a l t h . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c u t t i n g a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l a c o n t e n t o f these s u b j e c t s i s to be examined w i t h a view t o d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e b r o a d c a s t s an i n t e g r a t e d s c h o o l programme." 60 One f i n a l p r e l i m i n a r y m e e t i n g was h e l d , by t h e f o u r Western P r o v i n c e s , t h i s time i n B a n f f , t o f o r m u l a t e a p r o gramme p o l i c y f o r t h e new r e g i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t . The E d u c a t i o n Departments d e c i d e d t o " c o n s i d e r  themselves  responsible f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the broadcasting t o p i c s , the c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o be I n c l u d e d i n t h e broadc a s t and t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e s c r i p t s . " procedure,  0 9  Following this  t h e " s c r i p t s would be forwarded  t o t h e CBC a t  Winnipeg (when i t was t h e p r o d u c t i o n c e n t e r ) f o r f u r t h e r editing."70  The same c o - o p e r a t i v e arrangement, i n r e g a r d  t o t h e r e v i s i o n o f s c r i p t s by t h e CBC, was m a i n t a i n e d i n the n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g schemes. The  C o r p o r a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d t h e " s c r i p t s from t h e  s t a n d p o i n t o f b r o a d c a s t t e c h n i q u e s and made s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g changes w h i c h were n e c e s s a r y . "  7 1  The s c r i p t s  would t h e n be r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e E d u c a t i o n ments f o r t h e i r f i n a l a p p r o v a l .  Depart-  A f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  the s c r i p t s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s ^ " w o u l d send t h e s c r i p t s back t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n rooms o f t h e CBC f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n over the a i r . "  7 2  Thus, from t h e procedure  employed i n w r i t i n g t h e  s c r i p t s , l t was q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t a system o f checks and  129  b a l a n c e s had been p u r p o s e l y b u i l t i n t o t h e r e g i o n a l broadc a s t s e r i e s i n a n attempt of a u t h o r i t y .  t o preserve the educational l i n e s  I n f a c t , t h e R e g i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l Broad-  c a s t i n g Committee made i t q u i t e c l e a r t o t h e CBC t h a t i t would "as a m a t t e r o f p o l i c y be f r e e t o h o l d i t s meetings w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v i n g any member of t h e CBC s t a f f p r e s e n t and, i f i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o have such a member p r e s e n t , t h e i n v i t a t i o n s h a l l be sent t o t h e CBC S u p e r v i s o r 73 of E d u c a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t s . " '  J  The R e g i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g s e r i e s proved t o be a boon t o t h e s o - c a l l e d "have-not"" p r o v i n c e s i n Western Canada, f o r these a r e a s c o u l d now draw upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and knowledge o f t h e i r more f o r t u n a t e n e i g h b o u r s . E d u c a t i o n Department r e p o r t e d t h a t "through  The M a n i t o b a  Provincial  c o - o p e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and p r e s e n t i n g programmes, i t has been p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e b r o a d c a s t s s u p e r i o r t o any74t h i n g we c o u l d have done i n d i v i d u a l l y . "  Saskatchewan  surpassed Manitoba i n the expression of i t s a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e r e g i o n a l s e r i e s by announcing t h a t " c o - o p e r a t i v e b r o a d c a s t s b r i n g an atmosphere o f f e l l o w s h i p t h a t comes when Saskatchewan boys and g i r l s share w i t h t h e boys and g i r l s o f o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n t h e same r a d i o experiences,"?-' The immediate rewards Saskatchewan f e l t were d e r i v e d from the c o - o p e r a t i v e s e r i e s were o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : " 1 , Saskatchewan has no CBC p r o d u c t i o n c e n t e r and l o c a l  130 e f f o r t s would be v a s t l y I n f e r i o r t o t h e s t a n d a r d s of t h e Winnipeg CBC c e n t e r . 2. I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o muster t h e knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e o f some s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e l a r g e r c e n t e r s . 3 I t i s a g r e a t f e a t u r e o f r a d i o t o be a b l e t o b r i n g the m a s t e r t e a c h e r s i n t o i n t i m a t e communication w i t h remote s c h o o l s . 4-. There was a g r e a t r e d u c t i o n i n l a b o u r and expenses." 7b The Western experiment i n r e g i o n a l programming f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s encouraged t h e M a r i t i m e P r o v i n c e s t o u n d e r t a k e a s i m i l a r endeavour.  Thus, i n March 194-3, a  M a r i t i m e B e g i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d , composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e Department o f Educat i o n o f Nova S c o t i a , New B r u n s w i c k and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , the CBC, t h r e e t e a c h e r s ' s o c i e t i e s and t h e Home and S c h o o l Federation.  The aim o f t h e M a r i t i m e B r o a d c a s t s e r i e s was,  as i t s Western c o u n t e r p a r t , t o " p r e s e n t programmes which w i l l p r o v i d e new i n t e r e s t s and a p p r e c i a t i o n and h e l p b u i l d d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s " and, " w h i l e p r e s e n t i n g a l i m i t e d amount of f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l . . . t o supplement the work o f t h e c l a s s 77  room t e a c h e r on t h e i m a g i n a t i v e s i d e . " ' ' D u r i n g t h e s p e c i a l b r o a d c a s t which i n a u g u r a t e d t h e M a r i t i m e r e g i o n a l s e r i e s , P r e m i e r A.S. M a c M i l i a n o f Nova S c o t i a , declared that: "seated a t h i s desk i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t h e c h i l d i s brough by r a d i o i n t o c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e . . . here i s e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y i n e d u c a t i o n a t work. Every boy and g i r l i n every s c h o o l - be t h a t s c h o o l i n an u r b a n v i l l a g e o r r u r a l community - may have e q u a l  131 access to e n r l g h l n g i n f l u e n c e through the or s c h o o l r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s . " ^  P r e m i e r J.W.  J o n e s o f P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d a d d e d h i s  to Premier MacMillan*s supply  the  presentation  s t a t e m e n t by  teacher with  w i l l prove i n s t r u c t i v e  new  noting that "radio  i d e a s and  as w e l l as  support  subject matter  e n t e r t a i n i n g , ana  can  which will 79  guide  her  i n a g e n e r a l way  The revealed  conservative nature  than  Ontario Education established  nowhere b e t t e r  or  ly^l,  A s s o c i a t i o n , through i t s p o l i c y man  o f u s i n g the  T h i s d e c i s i o n was  Report of tne  OEA  in Britain,  Canadian Provinces;  best  equipped t e c h n i c a l l y ;  of the radio  B.C.  o f f e r by education  t h e CBC  schools  s h o u l d be  of  ten years  British  the  benind  Columbia.  Committee s t r e s s e d t e n p o i n t s .  the  United  already  S t a t e s and  lagging behind  and  should  i n the  p u b l i c i z e d among t e a c h e r s  CBC  advantage of  a  programming  educational value and  of  the  establishment  system f o r the P r o v i n c e ; of general  take  six  the r e s t  Nova S c o t i a were  Ontario  to help  c o n t a i n e d many b r o a d c a s t s  committee,  r a d i o i n the  approximately  O n t a r i o was  the n a t i o n i n the f i e l d ,  the  Investigate  T h e s e p o i n t s were t h a t s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g had proved i t s value  educa-  committee t o  s i m i l a r moves made I n Nova S c o t i a and The  teaching."'^  cautious approach to  However, i n t h e P a l l  a twenty-three  possibilities  Province.  o r O n t a r i o was  i n that Province's  t i o n a l broadcasting.  bne  i n h e r programme o f  students  which  i n Ontario;  132  Ontario teachers should not be l e f t dependent on Amerioan programmes, such as 'School of the A i r ' ; school radio should supplement not supplant teaching; education f o r citizenship should be stressed i n school broadcasts and a P r o v i n c i a l On  Department of School Broadcasts should be established. The Radio Committee's Report was formally endorsed by the membership of the Ontario Education Association and was l a t e r presented to the Ontario P r o v i n c i a l Government. Although the Report did not take Immediate e f f e c t at the governmental l e v e l , a change of government i n Ontario event u a l l y reinvigorated the potency of the Committee's recommendations.  In 1943, George Drew l e d h i s Progressive Con-  servative Party to v i c t o r y .  As Premier, Drew also held the  p o r t f o l i o of Minister of Education.  In t h i s capacity, he  prooeeded to make some Important changes i n the p r o v i n c i a l education system; the use of radio i n education being one of them.  However the f i r s t formal CBC-Ontario Education  Department co-operative venture i n radio education was reported to have been inspired by Mrs. Piorenza Drew, the wife of the Premier.  Mrs. Drew was an i n f l u e n t i a l member  of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra and, as a r e s u l t , she convinced her husband that o l a s s i o a l music should be broadcast to ohildren of school age. Thus, the series 'Music Por Young Polk' was launched under the supervision of a j o i n t CBC-Ontario Education Department Committee.  133 The CBC and the Ontario Education Department continued their co-operation i n many other programme series and event u a l l y Ontario developed one of the most noted educational radio systems i n North America.  The Ontario radio educa-  tion schemes proved to be so e f f e c t i v e that, i n 1945,  at  the request of the Quebec Protestant Education Committee, the Ontario school programmes were made available to the English language stations i n the Province of Quebec.  This  i n i t i a l gesture inaugurated a long-lasting i n t e r - p r o v l n o i a l co-operation i n radio eduoation between Ontario and Englishspeaking Quebec.  Although i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l co-operation i n  radio education might be construed as a p o s i t i v e force i n the process of national integration, the problem i n connect i o n with the Ontario-Quebec enterprise was that co-opera-  Qp t i o n occurred only along similar religious-ethnic l i n e s . This factor probably helped to reinforce the r e l i g i o u s and the ethnic basis of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Quebec. In 1943, when the National Advisory Council on Sohool Broadcasting was formed, the Province of Quebec was permitted two members - one each from the Protestant and Catholic sections of the Department of Eduoation.  French-speaking  Quebec sent Dr. B.O. F i l t e a u to the Council meetings, but the Province d i d not f e e l disposed to accept the o f f e r of the CBC to use the f a c i l i t i e s of the Corporation f o r Provinc i a l broadcasts i n education or to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a national school broadcasting enterprise.  I t was quite apparent from  134 t h e i r negative reaction to the o f f e r of the CBC,  that French-  speaking Quebec s t i l l conoeived of the Corporation, as i t had i n the era of the Radio Case, as an arm of the Federal Government.  However, despite i t s awareness of the radio's  p o t e n t i a l threat to p r o v i n c i a l autonomy, Quebec was forced to  recognize that the new broadcasting medium could perform  a tremendous service f o r the educational system of the Province.  Thus, a means had to be found which would permit  the French speaking people of Quebec to enjoy the educational benefits of broadcasting and yet s t i l l allow the Province to  r e t a i n i t s r e l a t i v e independence of federal influence  in matters pertaining to c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l . The Premier of Quebec, Mr. Maurice Duplessls, offered one possible solution to the contradictory p o s i t i o n i n which Quebec found i t s e l f . of  a complete network of stations to be owned and operated  by the Province of Quebec. did  He proposed the establishment  This plan of the Quebec Premier  not reach f r u i t i o n , however, f o r as the Radio Case had  demonstrated, broadcasting was a s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  the Dominion Government.  Besides t h i s constitutional  block, the Radio Broadcasting Act of 1936 had prohibited any other authority but the Federal Government to issue broadcasting l i c e n s e s .  8 3  Dr. Augustln Frlgon, as Assistant General Manager of the Corporation and a long-experienced educator, had been placed i n h i s administrative post p a r t l y to undertake special  135 b r o a d c a s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to the P r o v i n c e of  Quebec.  Thus, i n h i s r o l e as moderator of the d e s i r e s  and needs of the Quebecois, Frigon began to contemplate some means of f i l l i n g system. of  the " r a d i o gap"  i n Quebec's e d u c a t i o n a l  In t h i s search, P r i g o n f i r s t  p e n e t r a t i n g , i n a f o r m a l sense,  d i s c a r d e d any  ideas  the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u -  t i o n s t h a t were under the s p e c i f i c c o n t r o l of the E d u c a t i o n Department of the P r o v i n c e of Quebec.  However, F r i g o n  r e a l i z e d t h a t there were many avenues, and of  even i n s t i t u t i o n s  education, i n Quebec t h a t were o u t s i d e of the f o r m a l  e d u c a t i o n a l system and which might be amenable to o v e r t u r e s d i r e c t e d from the CBC. was  One  such e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n  the c o l l e g e c l a s s i q u e , which was  under the c o n t r o l of  the U n i v e r s i t i e s of L a v a l and Montreal.  Thus, F r i g o n secured  the advice "of the p e d a g o g i c a l committee of our  classical  c o l l e g e s concerning the p o s s i b i l i t y of l a u n c h i n g a r a d i o s e r i e s of l e c t u r e s designed f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , chosen i n such a way of  t h a t they may  the a r t course grade."  but  be u s e f u l to students  ^  Dr. F r i g o n r e c e i v e d a f a v o r a b l e r e p l y from the P e d a g o g i c a l Committee and,  as a r e s u l t , Mr.  D i r e c t o r of E d u c a t i o n a l Broadcasts  Aurele  Seguin,  of the CBC French Net-  work, recommended the establishment of a s e r i e s of e d u o a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s a l o n g the l i n e s suggested by Dr. Plgon. proposed b r o a d c a s t s e r i e s was  to be c a l l e d  This  "Radio-College".  136 The programmes were to he broadcast over the CBC  French  network i n the afternoon, between 4:30-5*30 pm.  In order  to ensure that no claim could be issued to the effect that the CBC was sponsoring a series of school broadcasts i n Quebec, Dr. Frigon "merely Informed the education authorities of the f a c t that these programmes would be on the a i r every afternoon from 4:30-5:30 pm,  The effect that the Radio-  College programmes would have, Dr. Frigon f e l t , would vary according to the motivation of the student to l i s t e n and the expressed desire, on the part of the teacher or parent, that they should l i s t e n .  8 6  Although Radio-College was conceived as an informal instrument of f a c i l i t a t i n g the entry of the radio into Quebec's educational programme, Dr. Frigon, In a speech that inaugurated the programme series, c a l l e d upon the operators of that system to take f u l l advantage of the broadcasts.  In Dr. Frigon's words:  "If our young people, our professors, our teachers, our school inspectors, our schools, our l i s t e n e r s , genera l l y derive some advantage from Radio-College, we s h a l l be quite s a t i s f i e d and we s h a l l have played the part we have assigned to purselves. We hope that the broadcasts of Radio-College w i l l be an encouragement to them, and a help i n carrying out t h e i r educational work as In the perfecting of their own culture."„_ x  Of  Dr. Frigon's urging that h i s fellow Quebecois use the radio f o r educational purposes appeared to have taken e f f e c t , f o r i n h i s testimony before the Parliamentary Committee on Radio Broadcasting i n 1942, he reported that:  137 "262 broadcasts were offered t h i s y e a r . . . i t has been d e f i n i t e l y established that the students of the following educational i n s t i t u t i o n s have listened regularly to the broadcasts-regional domestic science schools (50$); scholastic normal schools (42$); c l a s s i c a l colleges (3350%).88 The administration of the Radio-College series was the. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a standing oommlttee of advisers set up by Mr. Seguln.  The Committee was composed of the follow-  ing well-known educators:  Abbe Georges Perras, President  of the Standing Committee on Secondary Education, University of Montreal; Abbe Emile Beaudry, President of the Standing Committee on Secondary Education, Laval University; Father Alcantara Dion, Secretary of the Standing Committee on Secondary Education, Laval University; and Brother MarieV i c t o r l n , Director of the Botanical Gardens and of the Botanical Institute of Montreal University.  The Secretary  of the committee was Mr. Seguin, who was to perform the same role f o r the French Network as R.S. Lambert played i n CBC relations with the National Advisory Council. Most of the programmes of Radio-College were presented i n lecture form, and a demand soon arose to have these i n printed form.  Arrangements were made, therefore, by the  CBC to publish the most outstanding lecture-courses i n book form, under the general t i t l e "Les Editions de Radio-College." Each volume i n this series enjoyed a c i r c u l a t i o n of from three to f i v e thousand copies.  The Corporation  also published various "aids to study" booklets to accompany  13b the broadcasts. by  The  i n t e r e s t i n R a d i o - C o l l e g e was  the f a c t t h a t , i n 1944,  "Radio-College" reached During a conference  t h e programme b o o k l e t  a c i r c u l a t i o n of  15,000  indicated entitled  copies.  marking the f i f t h a n n i v e r s a r y of  C o l l e g e , Dr. F r i g o n announced t h a t "Radio  Radio-  C o l l e g e i s the 89  f i n e s t o f t h e CBC's a c h i e v e m e n t s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec;" The  CBC,  through  s p e a k i n g o f f i c i a l s and  the e f f o r t s p r i m a r i l y of i t s Frencht h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f Quebec  educators,  h a d managed t o i n f l u e n c e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e Quebeeeis.  By  1944,  t h e C o r p o r a t i o n had  of  also built  the  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e network r e q u i r e d to f a c i l i t a t e  the  and  provincial,  d i s t r i b u t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l broadcasts  on  p r o d u c t i o n of  production  r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s .  The  these  r a d i o e d u c a t i o n programmes had  depended upon the m u t u a l  agreement by f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o  ignore  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and  admini-  strative level, The  CBC  co-operate,  t o a c h i e v e a common g o a l -  education.  d u r i n g t h e f o r t i e s had a l s o a c t e d as  i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n t f o r Canada. very  on t h e  an  T h i s was  a  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e f o r t h e C o r p o r a t i o n s i n c e Canada  d i d not possess  a n a t i o n a l m i n i s t r y of education.  t h e CBC  i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h A m e r i c a n and  through  Thus,  Commonwealth  countries secured  t h e r e c o r d i n g s o f some e x c e l l e n t e d u c a -  t i o n a l broadcasts  f o r use  i n the s c h o o l s of Canada.  C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d Canada i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  9 0  The educa-  139 t i o n a l conferences, such as the 1949  Conference of Common-  wealth School Broadcasters held i n Toronto. There s t i l l remained one f a c t o r i n radio education which the Corporation needed to influence i n order that i t could f u l f i l l e f f e c t i v e l y the educational p o t e n t i a l of broadcasting.  The CBC had to provide some f a c i l i t i e s f o r  the t r a i n i n g of teachers and broadcasters i n the techniques of radio education.  In 1945,  therefore, the Corporation  announced the formation af a Summer Radio Institute at Queen's University. The Institute offered a.^six week non-credit elementary course of i n s t r u c t i o n i n speech, s c r i p t - w r i t i n g and production f o r radio.  The University station CFRC, with  i t s studios and equipment, was made available to the students f o r workshop practice.  CBC experts i n drama, music,  talks, education and news lectured to the participants on the application of radio to t h e i r respective f i e l d s . The Radio Institute was designed to meet three basic needs.  F i r s t , i t was  to help those people who were already  involved i n radio and wished to develop specialized and knowledge.  Second, the Summer I n s t i t u t e was  skills  designed  f o r those individuals who possessed suitable background knowledge and wanted to j'prepare themselves f o r f u l l - t i m e work i n broadcasting.  F i n a l l y , a great many programmes  were constructed especially f o r teachers who desired to  140 use  the  r a d i o more  fully  in  their  classrooms  and  to  expand  91 their  own r o l e  Besides  i n the  formal  preparation  teacher  training in its  CBC a l s o  conducted  numerous  instructional booklets  on the  use By  had been  of  the  1945,  a  in  therefore,  constructed  operation  i n radio  the  of  field  script  radio  national  clearing-house  used  with  d u r i n g the  for  containing  Institute, and  to  the  published  "hints  to  teachers"  9 2  administrative  could  It  occur.  framework  levels had  also  The CBC h a d  provincial, developed  Canadian eduoation.  some w a y s i n w h i c h n a t i o n a l  forties  material.  which Dominion-provincial co-  on f o u r  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l .  deals  the  Badio  service  education.  education  national  chapter  exchange  within  education  o f programme  educate young  regional, into  The radio  Canadians.  entered  another  next was  141 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER FOUR i  D.V. Smiley, "Federalism, Nationalism and the Scope of Public Activity in.Canada" in Nationalism in Canada, ed. P. Russell (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1966),  p.  95-111.  R . S . Lamoert, "Plans and Policy in School Radio," Educational Record of Quebec. Sept. 1947, p. 139. 2  Brlef of Canadian Teachers' Federation to RowellSlrois Commission. 193b, P« 1» The CTF was supported by briefs from the Alberta School Trustees Assn., Alberta Teachers' Federation, CAAE, Manitoba Teachers' Federation, New Brunswick Teachers' Federation, Ontario Teachers' Council, Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers of Quebec, Saskatchewan Trustees Assn., Saskatchewan Teachers* Federation and the B.C. Teachers' Federation. 3  ^Ibid., p. 1. 5  I b l d . , p. 2.  ° I b i d . , p. 2. 7  I b i d . , p, 3.  a  I b i d . , p. 4.  R*S. Lambert, School Broadcasting in Canada (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1963), p. 126. 9  ° P r i o r to coming to Canada, Lambert had had twelve years of educational radio experience In the School Broadcasts Department of the BBC. A  llLambert, op. c i t . . p. 120. Report of the Royal Commission on Technical-Vocational Education (Ottawa, King's Printer 1913), p. 1. i2  x  3young Canada Listens  (Toronto. CBC, 1945), p. 1.  ^ I b i d . , p. 1. l^Lambert, op. c i t . . p. 126.  142 l o  I b i d . , p. 126.  1 7  I b i d . , p. 126.  ^ R e p o r t of the Survey Committee (CNEA, 1943), P« 11 9  I b i d . , p. b.  2 0  I b i d . , p. >b.  2 1  I b i d . , p. b.  :  I b i d . , p. 9 .  2 2  3lbid.,  2  2 4  2  p. 5 8 .  I b l d . , p. 5 8 .  5ibid.,  p.  11.  2 6  I b l d . , p. 60.  2 7  I b l d . , p. 60.  2 b  I b i d . , p. 60.  2 9  I b i d . , p. 60.  3 0  I b i d . , p. 62.  3 1  I b i d . , p. 62.  3 l b i d . , p. 62. 2  3 3  I b l d . , p, 63.  3/+  I b i d . , p, 6 3 .  35ibid.,  p. 6 3 .  3°R.S. Lambert, "Achievements and Prospects i n School Broadcasting," School Progress. June 1943, P. 2b. 3 7 n e p o r t e d i n : Annual Report of the Department of Education of Alberta. 1 9 ^ 3 , P. 2 9 . 3bibid., p, 2 7 . 3 9  i b i d . , p. 2b.  143 Ibid.  p. 2b.  41 Ibid.  p. 2b.  4 0  42 Ibid. ^Ibid. ^Ibid.  p.  29.  p.  29.  1942, p. 30. p. 30.  ^ Ibid. 'Ibid. p. 30. 46 47 Proceedings and Report of the Canada and 5  New-  ^ I b i d . , P. 25. 4 9  I b i d . , P. 25.  50ibid., P. 83. 5 1  5 2  5 3  5  I b i d . , P. 83. I b i d . , P. 64. I b i d . , P. 84.  ^ I b i d . , p. 85.  R.S. Lambert, "The National Advisory Council on Brc School Broadcasting," Canadian Eduoation. 1952, p.5.  56, Constitution of the National Advisory Council on  School Broadcasting. 1943, p. 1. ^Lambert, op. c i t ! . p. 58 Ibid., p. 6.  5.  J  59  ^'The o r i g i n a l members of the National Advisory Council were: Dr. Robert C. Wallace, P r i n c i p a l and Vice Chancellor of Queen's University (Chairman); P.J. K i t l e y , Director of School Broadcasts, B.C. Department of Education; M.L. Watts, Director of Curriculum, Alberta  144 I  D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ; H. J a n z e n , D i r e c t o r o f C u r r i c u l a , S a s k a t c h e w a n D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ; G e r t r u d e McCance, M a n i t o b a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n ; C.F. Cannon, A s s i s t ant Superintendent of Elementary Education i n Ontario; B.O. F i l t e a u , F r e n c h S e c r e t a r y a n d D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n Q u e b e c ; D r . W.P. P e r c i v a l , D i r e c t o r o f P r o t e s t a n t E d u c a t i o n i n Quebec; D r . F. P e a c o c k , D i r e c t o r and C h i e f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i n New B r u n s w i c k ; E.W, K a n e , D i r e c t o r o f E a d i o E d u c a t i o n i n N o v a S c o t i a ; L. Shaw, D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n i n P . E . I . ; D r . W.JI D u n l o p , D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o a n d E e v . Abbe Maheux, L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y ( r e p r e s e n t i n g C o n f e r e n c e o f C a n a d i a n U n i v e r s i t i e s ) ; D r . C.N. C r u t c h f i e l d a n d B r u c e Adams o f CTF; L . A , de W o l f e o f N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f Home a n d S c h o o l ; M,A. C a m p b e l l o f C a n a d i a n T r u s t e e s A s s n . ; E.S. L a m b e r t , S u p e r v i s o r o f CBC S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s ( S e c r e t a r y ) . D  °Lambert o p . c i t . . p.10  B.S, L a m b e r t , S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g i n C a n a d a ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1963), p. 158. 62 I b i d , , p. 158. 63 These f i v e n e t w o r k s were t h e P a c i f i c , P r a i r i e , S o u t h - C e n t r a l , N o r t h - E a s t e r n and M a r i t i m e . 64 F o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f r e g i o n a l i s m i n Canada s e e : E. B l a c k a n d A. C a i r n s , "A D i f f e r e n t P e r s p e c t i v e o n C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of1 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , v o l . 9, No, 1, M a r c h , 1 9 6 6 , p . 1; J , E . H o d g e t t s , "Hegional I n t e r e s t s i n a F e d e r a l S t r u c t u r e , " Caa&dlan J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c s a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , v o l , 32, F e b . 1 9 6 6 , p.l. ' 65 H e p o r t e d i n : A l n u a l B e p o r t o f The D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n o f A l b e r t a . 1940, p. 4 2 . I b i d , , p. 42. 6 6  6 7  Idib.,  p. 4 2 .  6 8  Ibid.,  1943,  P.  31  6 9  Ibid„  1944,  p.  38.  70 I b i d . , P. 7 1  Ibid.,  p.  38 38.  145  of  7 2  Ibid.,  p.  39.  7 3  Ibid.,  p.  39.  ^ A n n u a l Report o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f M a n i t o b a . 1945, p. 106.  ^ A n n u a l Report o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f S a s k a t c h e w a n . 1946, p. 40. 7 6  Ibid.,  77  p . 40.  •-•  — -  ''Annual Report o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n o f Nova S c o t i a . 1945, p . 29. 78 Lambert, o p . c i t . . 7 9  Ibld.,  p.  p . 30.  30.  I b i d . , p . 85. E d u o a t l o n on t h e A i r . ( O h i o U n i v e r s i t y , 1947), p 514. I n 1947 t h e O n t a r i o S h a k e s p e a r i a n p l a y s won a n a w a r d and a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f r o m t h e j u d g e s t h a t i t was "an example f o r o t h e r e d u c a t i o n programmes t o f o l l o w b o t h i n and o u t o f s c h o o l . " 82 See: K. D e u t s c h , N a t i o n a l i s m a n d S o c i a l Communlcatimn (N.Y,, Van. N o s t r a n d , 1954), p p . 1-50. 83 ' I n 1946 t h e M i n i s t e r o f R e c o n s t r u c t i o n gave a f o r m a l endorsement t o t h i s p o l i c y . 8 o  8 l  -  04  R e p o r t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee o n R a d i o B r o a d c a s t i n g , ( O t t a w a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 269. ^ I b i d . , p . 270. 8  8 6  Ibld.,  p.  270.  8 7  Ibid.,  p.  271.  8 6  Ibid.,  p.  269.  89 'Lambert, o p . c i t . .  p.  103.  90  The CBC r e c e i v e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n " S c h o o l o f t h e A i r " a n d t h e NBC " U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e A i r " . The BBC s e t up a p e r m a n e n t t r a n s c r i p t i o n f o r Commonwealth \  146  members. Canada a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Commonwealth exchange s e r v i c e r e c e i v i n g programmes such as " C h i l d r e n of t h e Commonwealth". 91 Young Canada L i s t e n s . ( T o r o n t o , CBC, 194-5), P. 43 9 2  I b i d . , 1946, pp. 43-44.  CHAPTER FIVE MAJOR PROJECTS I N NATIONAL RADIO EDUCATION 1944 - 194-9 The  f o r t i e s were spent by e d u c a t o r s and  broadcasters  a l i k e i n v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s t o d e v i s e t h e means whereby the r a d i o c o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g situation.  U n l i k e t o d a y , t h e r e were very few p e o p l e who  s e r i o u s l y considered  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r a d i o , when  used f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , m i g h t produce a t o t a l l y new l e a r n i n g environment i n which t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f t e a c h i  i n g were o b s o l e t e .  Nevertheless,  by t h e m i d - f o r t i e s  the r a d i o , l i k e many o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c i n v e n t i o n s , had become a c c e p t a b l e  a s an I n s t r u m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n .  an i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l f o r Canadian s c h o o l  In  1946,  administrators  s i g n a l l e d t h e a r r i v a l o f what i t termed t h e " e l e c t r o n i c age  i n education"  by s u g g e s t i n g  what had "now become t h e  b a s i c equipment o f a new s c h o o l " .  T h i s b a s i c equipment  was o u t l i n e d a s : "1. P l e n t y o f e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s a t f r o n t and r e a r of every c l a s s r o o m . 2. P r o v i s i o n s f o r d a r k e n i n g every c l a s s r o o m . 3. A p o r t a b l e 16 m i l l i m e t e r sound p r o j e c t o r (1-2 p e r room). 4. A r a d i o r e c e i v e r f o r every c l a s s r o o m p r e f e r a b l y AM-FM r e c e i v e r s w i t h s p e a k e r s . 5. P o r t a b l e r e c o r d t u r n t a b l e s capable o f speeds o f b o t h 33 RPM and 78 RPM. 6. F i l m s t r i p p r o j e c t o r s and a t l e a s t a few d l i d e p r o j e c t o r s and a t l e a s t one opague p r o j e c t o r . ' • P u b l i c a d d r e s s equipment.  14b  8. M i c r o p h o n e s f o r s p e e c h a n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . 9. A new k i n d o f l i b r a r y f o r b o o k s , c h a r t s , f i l m s and r e c o r d s . 10. A n e q u i p m e n t w o r k s h o p a n d d a r k room. 1 1 . A l i s t e n i n g room - s o u n d - p r o o f e d . " ^ IQUNG CANADA L I S T E N S The  most s i g n i f i c a n t n a t i o n a l  educational-broad-  c a s t i n g s e r i e s u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e CBC i n t h e f o r t i e s was the  "Young C a n a d a L i s t e n s " p r o j e c t .  A l l of the broad-  c a s t s i n t h e s e r i e s were p l a n n e d by t h e N a t i o n a l dSouncil on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g , CBC S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t s  i n consultation with the  Department.  The b a s i s o f t h e c o -  o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e CBC a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l authorities,  Advisory  educational  i n t h i s e n d e a v o u r , was d e s c r i b e d b y B.S.  Lambert as f o l l o w s : "When t h e CBC i n v i t e s a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n t o p r e s e n t b r o a d c a s t s aimed a t t h e s c h o o l s o f t h a t P r o v i n c e , i t does so on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g that w h i l e t h e CBC w i l l p r o v i d e f r e e t i m e o n t h e a i r and t h e n e c e s s a r y s t u d i o p r o d u c t i o n and n e t w o r k f a c i l i t i e s , t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n concerned w i l l n o t only help plan the content of the programme, b u t w i l l a l s o f o o t a n y e x p e n s e t h a t may be i n c u r r e d f o r a c t i n g , w r i t i n g o r m u s i c a l t a l e n t required i n i t s execution."^ This p o l i c y formed p a r t o f a general p a r t o f t h e CBC, t o " c o n v i n c e  effort,  on t h e  people t h a t i t i s n o t an  e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y and t h a t i t f o l l o w s t h e p o l i c y o f p u t t i n g school broadcasts backing  on t h e a i r o n l y w i t h t h e d e f i n i t e  o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Departments o f E d u c a t i o n . "  Every F r i d a y during the school year,  5  students i n  14-9 schools across Canada would, through the network f a c i l i t i e s of the CBC, l i s t e n to the same national educational programme.  The "Young Canada Listens" series was divided into  four separate courses l a s t i n g approximately one year each. During the f o r t i e s , these programmes provided Canadian students with one of their few national experiences i n education. The "Young Canada Listens" broadcasts were not planned so as to r e l a t e closely to the c u r r i c u l a of the various provinces.  Rather, the aim of the programmes was to "streng-  then the sense of Canadian citizenship among our boys and g i r l s at school."  6  This aim was i n general agreement with  the o v e r a l l i d e a l guiding CBC programming i n the f o r t i e s that i s to b u i l d a strong Canadian Identity. The CBC, i n the "Young Canada Listens" project, attempted to provide the l i s t e n e r with a verbal picture of "the Canadian."  A wide variety of programme content  and n a t i o n a l i s t i c themes were employed i n the service of t h i s aim.  For example, a "Tour of Canadian C i t i e s "  was  represented through radio to "make children's s o c i a l studies more v i v i d and r e a l and t h e i r sense of kinship with other Canadians stronger."'' Programmes dealing with Canadian art were produced "to help Canadian children toward a greater knowledge Pfi and, therefore, a deeper pride i n t h i s phase o  of our national heritage."  150 C a n a d i a n l i t e r a t u r e was if  e l i g i b l e as b r o a d c a s t  content  i t " e n c o u r a g e d among s t u d e n t s a t a s t e f o r r e a d i n g  the  b e s t b o o k s by o u r C a n a d i a n a u t h o r s , o r a b o u t Canada,  and 9  t o f o s t e r p r i d e i n Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and The  CBC  a l s o considered t h a t "every  t h i n g of the legends  and  The  1 0  encourages an  apprecia-  c h i l d r e n were a l s o t o l d  t h e " f o u n d a t i o n s o f C a n a d a w e r e l a i d by who  s h o u l d know some-  f o l k - l o r e of our country, because  s u c h k n o w l e d g e e n r i c h e s t h e m i n d and t i o n of the b e a u t i f u l . "  child  achievement."'  famour e x p l o r e r s  t r a v e r s e d her v a s t t e r r i t o r i e s from sea to sea  t h e way  for settlers,  that  preparing  traders, m i s s i o n a r i e s , farmers,  miners  11 and  o t h e r f u t u r e elements of our n a t i o n . "  s t r e s s on d o m e s t i c felt  s y m b o l s o f n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e CBC  also  t h a t the c h i l d should view h i s n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y  t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a c t t h a t he was world." child  Despite i t s  Thus, through  The  ...can b e g i n t o  citizenship."  the  develop  1 3  t a b l e b e l o w s u m m a r i z e s t h e r e l a t i v e amount o f  programme t i m e , i n t h e devoted  of,the  t h e medium o f b r o a d c a s t i n g ,  "very e a r l y i n school l i f e  the q u a l i t i e s of h i g h e r  a l s o "a c i t i z e n  in  'Young Canada L i s t e n s '  to the i n c u l c a t i o n ,  series,  i n the minds of the  audience,  of a p a r t i c u l a r conception of the Canadian n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r !  151 TABLE I NUMBER OF PROGRAMMES PEE NATIONALISTIC CRITERION: I945 - I950 CRITERIA  NUMBER OF PROGRAMMES  The Land and the North  26  Historical - Traditional  16  External Relationship  14  P o l i t i c a l - Economic  7  Technological  7  Dual or Multi-Culture  6  Cultural Symbols  3 TOTAL  79  A quick glance at the table reveals immediately the f a c t that approximately two-thirds of the available broadcasting time i n the series was consumed In an attempt to b u i l d a concept of Canadian i d e n t i t y which rested on three foundations - the land and the north, the past and the external relationship. Canadian involvement i n the Second World War had created a deep sense of pride, on the part of most people, of being "Canadian."  A f t e r the h o s t i l i t i e s had ceased,  Canada assumed the new role of a middle power i n the i n t e r -  152 national arena.  15 J  This new independent voice of Canada  i n international a f f a i r s provided the nation with another reference point i n i t s attempts to untangle the nature of the true "Canadian." The CBC, r e f l e c t i n g the times i n which l t operated, placed heavy emphasis i n the broadcasts of the "Young Canada Listens" series on the new international outlook of Canada.  Students were informed that "today Canada i s  looking ahead with a new and vigorous internationalism." They were also introduced to t h e i r peers i n other nations of the Commonwealth suoh as New Zealand, A u s t r a l i a , South A f r i c a and B r i t a i n .  Prominent Canadians i n the realm of  International a f f a i r s , l i k e Dr. Brock Chisolm, Secretary of the World Health Organization, were often c a l l e d upon to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the radio programmes. Most students of nationalism appear to be i n agreement that a commonly held b e l i e f i n a h i s t o r i c a l past i s one of the essential basis f o r a secure sense of national 17 i d e n t i t y . ' Any attempt i n Canada to b u i l d such a b e l i e f , however, has always been forced to face the problems of two cultures and two c o n f l i c t i n g interpretations of the 18 Canadian experience.  The CBC, i n the 'Young Canada Listens'  series, proved to be very t a c t f u l i n i t s use of history f o r programmes.  H i s t o r i c a l personages who were brave or  a r t i s t i c , but not controversial, were selected frequently as broadcast content.  Metropolitan h i s t o r i e s were also used,  153 and when contentious h i s t o r i c a l Issues had to he faced, they were handled i n such a way so as not to arouse the anger of anyone.  Thus, Robert Harris, the painter of the "Fathers  of Confederation" or Samuel de Champlain, a man of "courage and f a i t h , " were used as subjects f o r broadcasts to the schools.  One could also hear the tale of Thomas Douglas  who "crusaded i n Western Canada to f i n d a new home f o r dispossessed crofters of the Scottish Highlands" or learn of explorers, such as La Verendrye who "resolved to perish rather than give up and Alexander Mackenzie whose "grand  19 design" was the b u i l d i n g of a Canada from "sea unto sea." The audience was introduced to c i t i e s , such as Charlottetown, where they "spent a few moments i n the Confederation room" or Quebec City where they were able to catch a glimpse of the inhabitants who were "French through and through humorous, sensitive, fond of oratory, yet curious of other 20  lands and fond of the exotic." Although non-controversial h i s t o r i c a l personnages or metropolitan h i s t o r i e s could be employed to establish a h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n that would f o r t i f y the "national character," CBC o f f i c i a l s s t i l l had to face the various c o n f l i c t themes which permeated Canadian history.  One  c o n f l i c t especially had to be confronted by the CBC - the issue of the "conquest" of the French Canadian.  However,  i t was i n just such issues as this that the Corporation  154 displayed great tact and c r e a t i v i t y , f o r i t not only dealt with the conquest, but l t also turned this controversial question to i t s own  advantage.  The broadcast i n the 'Young Canada Listens' series selected to handle the problem of the "conquest" involved the events of the "Battle of the Plains of Abraham." The programme depicted the b a t t l e , through an eye witness account, from the viewpoint of a surgeon's mate i n the service of General Wolfe's army.  The surgeon's mate landed with Wolfe's  army at Wolfe's Cove and, i n the b a t t l e that followed, he "sees the t e r r i b l e havoc wrought on French General Montcalm's  21 forces by the deadly f i r e of the B r i t i s h troops."  The  surgeon's mate then hears of Wolfe's injury, rushed to the General's side, but arrived too l a t e to save the General. While the B r i t i s h push a f t e r the f l e e i n g French, the surgeon's mate i s captured by a French sniper and taken inside the c i t y of Quebec.  Within the c i t y , the mate views "the g a l -  22 lant Montcalm, wounded and dying."  At the request of the  hard-pressed hospital s i s t e r s of the Hotel Dieu, the surgeon's mate gains h i s parole, and aids i n taking care of the wounded."  23  Thus, i n the l i g h t of t h i s broadcast, the  "Canadian" emerged as a "humanitarian" who was w i l l i n g to ignore the requirements of m i l i t a r y duty i n order to a i d the s i c k and suffering. "Why should the children of the North deny The sanitary virtues of the sky?  155 Why should they fear, the cold, or dread the snow, When ruddier blood;, thro their hot pulses flow? ^ M  2  Many people have conceived of the Canadian character as basically "northern" in essence. -* 2  By "northern" these  individuals have implied not merely geographical location, but personal qualities such as strength, self-reliance and hardiness.  As one author has noted, Canada was "not only  the true north, but also strong and f r e e . "  20  The stress  upon the northern character of Canadian identity has provided Canadians with a certain mythology lacking through most of the nation's p a s t .  27  The idea of "northernness" is also a very broad and all-inclusive concept.  For example the French Canadian,  because of his successful colonization and settlement in Canada, had demonstrated his a b i l i t y to cope with the North. The northern theme also served as a repellent to the "southernness" of the United States.  As W.L. Morton, the distinguished  Canadian historian, has said: "Canadian history is an Important chapter in a distinct and even unique human endeavour, the c i v i l i z a t i o n of the northern and arctic lands. The line which marks off the frontier and the farmstead, the wilderness from the baseland, the hinterland from the metropolis, runs through every Canadian psyche," g 2  The CBC 'Young Canada Listens* series employed "northernness" as a major programme theme.  The "Group of  Seven" artists were given a heavy representation in the  156 broadcasts.  Descriptions were supplied of Emily  Carr  "who sketched the rugged north shore of Lake S u p e r i o r . "  29  No broadcast about the Canadian North could ignore Robert Service, who "sensed the true drama forever dwelling i n Canada's north and who pictured the strong men and heroic women of the hard and gentle north, the patient strength and quiet f o r t i t u d e of the lonely l a n d . " Thus, the CBC had inaugurated b u i l d i n g project.  30  i t s national character  I t appeared that the o f f i c i a l s of the  Corporation had attempted to avoid controversy i n the programmes by basing the projected Image of the Canadian Identity on elements other than common r e l i g i o n , language or ethnic affiliation. What, then, would the l i s t e n e r s of the "Young Canada Listens" series envisage as the Canadian character, as projected through the radio broadcasts?  F i r s t , the Canadian  could be described as a c i t i z e n of the world who f e l t that the best Interests of h i s nation would be served by h i s support and involvement i n agencies of international cooperation.  He was also a "humanitarian" more concerned  with problems of health and welfare than m i l i t a r y defense or aggression.  F i n a l l y , the student would see the Canadian  as a "northerner,"  strong, bold and free; and engaged i n  a war against the l a s t environmental test of man's a b i l i t y to survive on earth.  I f successful i n h i s struggle, the  157 Canadian would emerge as one of the world's most revered pioneers. Although evidence i s not available i n support, one might venture a speculation that the image of the Canadian projected i n the "Young Canada Listens" series would cause a c o n f l i c t i n the mind of the student-listener.  I f the  true Canadian was km. i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t , a northerner and a humanitarian, then how could one explain the f a c t that he resided along the "southern" border of h i s country, rarely voiced disapproval of American p o l i c y i n foreign a f f a i r s and had been a c t i v e l y engaged i n two World Wars? were questions  These  to which the CBC provided no answer.  WHAT'S IN THE NEWS? The f i r s t ten minutes of each national school broadcast was devoted to a programme of current events oalled 'Whait's i n the News?".  The programme was intended to give  teachers and students i n intermediate and senior grades background material about an Important topic currently featured i n the news.  The broadcast was not a "news-bulletin"  so much as a "news story," f o r i t emphasized the kind of material not l i k e l y to be readily available i n the d a i l y newspaper. The s e l e c t i o n of topics was made i n the CBC School Broadcasts Department In consultation with the CBC Central Newsroom.  The preparation of the s c r i p t s was undertaken  158 by one of the CBC newsmen, generally as an "extra" over and above his normal work load.  During the f i r s t few years,  the newscasts were prepared by Mr. William Hogg, CBC Chief News Editor.  On his promotion to National News Supervisor,  the job was handled by Mr. Norman DePoe.  Mr. Lamont Tilden  usually assumed the announcing duties in the series. KINDERGARTEN OF THE AIH "No stringent diet do I need, Obesity w i l l now be rare My son and I are ardent fans, Of Kindergarten of the A i r . Ah! Story time is here at last, How thankful mothers a l l must be But, a l l too soon the story ends, Now, Mummy, you t e l l i t to me!"^ As had been outlined previously, the forties were the years in which the CBC began to differentiate the radio audience into more specific groups.  One group which received  i t s own specially designed programme was composed of those children who were as yet unable to undergo the processes of formal school education, but who possessed, at the same time, the a b i l i t y to learn.  This group, of course, was the  "pre-schoolers." In some areas of Canada kindergartens had been established for many years, but in other parts, especially rural areas, they were absent.  Many people f e l t that the  radio .could prepare these young children, In the home,  159 for their future l i f e in school.  In 1948, therefore, the  CBC announced a new programme series "designed to meet the needs of these children by providing them with pre-school training in games, songs and useful a c t i v i t i e s . "  32  The  series was to be entitled "Kindergarten of the Air" and was planned with the advice of kindergarten experts, representatives of Canadian Home and School Federation, and Federation of Women's Institutes and the Junior League of Toronto.  The broadcasts were designed for use in the home,  but many organized kindergarten groups integrated the programmes into their curricula. The fifteen minute "Kindergarten of the Air" broadcast was heard dally Monday to Friday, and usually included an introductory song theme, exercises (stretching, marching, dancing), learning to sing, listening to stories and p a r t i c i pation in play activity.  Since most homes lacked the services  of a professional teacher, the CBC recruited the parent to play the role of educator.  The co-operation of the parent  was sought "to provide material such as paper crayons and blunt scissors,"  33  They were also to aid the child after  the broadcasts, for the youngster, was "always given some suggestion for indoor and outdoor activity of a constructive nature - collecting specimens of leaves and flowers or making themselves useful about the home."  34  The CBC f e l t that numerous benefits would accrue  160  to the c h i l d who series.  l i s t e n e d to the Kindergarten broadcast  Among these advantages were that:  " I t teaches them many s t o r i e s , songs, mental games, keep f i t exercises, information about animal l i f e and nature study; good habits w i l l be encouraged that are related to hygiene, eating habits, habits of relaxation; and the children w i l l also learn to pay attention and concentrate through t h e i r eagerness to get every b i t of the broadcast. Children soon learn that the radio does not repeat i t s e l f and that, i f they do not l i s t e n , they lose o u t . " ^ The individuals who  conducted the "Kindergarten of  the A i r " were i n d i c a t i v e of the growing body of "radio educators" that E.A. Corbett had speculated about In the thirties.  Miss Dorothy Jane Goulding was educated i n Vienna,  Toronto and England.  She was also an associate of the  Royal Conservatory of Music i n Toronto and held a teaching c e r t i f i c a t e from Toronto Normal School.  Miss Goulding also  possessed considerable experience i n teaching, Including kindergarten work.  Her s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was i n the f i e l d  of music and she had prepared many children's programmes for broadcast.  Miss Goulding's partner was Ruth Johnson,  a graduate of the University of Toronto and a solo performer In the Rosselino Opera Company.  Miss Johnson also possessed  wide experience i n children's radio programmes. Although "Kindergarten of the A i r " was not, i n any formal sense, a "school broadcast," i t came under the superv i s i o n of the School Broadcasts Department of the CBC because of i t s pre-school t r a i n i n g aspect.  I t was also a  161 r e g u l a r t o p i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n on t h e a g e n d a o f t h e N a t i o n a l Advisory  Council.  1957»  In  upon t h e recommendation  C a n a d i a n Home a n d S c h o o l F e d e r a t i o n , a t e l e v i s e d garten of the A i r , " l a u n c h e d by t h e  THE CO-STUDY  entitled  "Nursery  of the  "Kinder-  S c h o o l Time,"  was  CBC.  IDEA  As e a r l y a s 1927  provincial  educational authorities  h a d n o t i c e d t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f p a r e n t s  listened  in  audience.  on e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s d i r e c t e d  I t was  not u n t i l  formalize series  1945,  however,  this parent-child  called  c e i v e d by B.S.  "co-study."  that  audience  to a c h i l d  t h e CBC d e c i d e d t o i n a new  programme  The i d e a o f " c o - s t u d y " was  L a m b e r t and O.C.  Wilson  o f t h e CBC  con-  School  B r o a d c a s t s Department, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the N a t i o n a l Home a n d S c h o o l F e d e r a t i o n . C o - s t u d y was two men  a s "a means whereby children's  d e f i n e d by  parents, through  e d u c a t i o n a t school."37  radio,  in  their  j  it  i n v o l v e d t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t h e home o f t h e  n  these can  share  general "follow-  up work" b e g u n i n t h e s c h o o l a f t e r t h e b r o a d c a s t had b e e n heard.  S i n c e b r o a d c a s t s were n o t c o n c e i v e d o f a s  actual  " l e s s o n s " , b u t were i n t e n d e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and  e n r i c h t h e c u r r i c u l u m , t h e CBC  any  interested parent The P r i n c i p a l  officials  could help to carry of Bosedale  felt  that  the process  High School  further.  i n Toronto,  162 one of the early experimenters with "co-study", his  enthusiasm  over the project i n t h i s  expressed  way:  "In the past most of what goes on i n the classroom has been a sealed book to the average parent and...has led to a separation of outlook between the f i r e s i d e and the classroom. Bodies such as the Home and School Clubs have helped to bridge t h i s gulf and radio o f f e r s i t s e l f as one of the most potent instruments f o r t h i s purpose. Co-study of school broadcasts by parents and children helps develop i n the l a t t e r a new conception of education, namely, that i t i s a continuous process, not terminating with school, but to be carried on beyond the school and outside of school hours." 0  The CBC, during the "co-study" series, offered many educational hints to the parents involved i n the project. Por example, i n a programme on Canadian painting the parents were advised to: "1. Secure a set of coloured p r i n t s Issued by the National Gallery of Canada. 2. Discuss the broadcasts at the f i r s t convenient opportunity - say at lunch or dinner time and compare notes as to which points i n the broadcast were most i n t e r e s t i n g and appealing. 3.  Discuss a r t generally and the reasons f o r one's l i k e s and d i s l i k e s on the subject.  4-. I f possible, have the family v i s i t the l o c a l a r t gallery on picture e x h i b i t s . " 3 9 CBC SPOHTS COLLEGE During the f o r t i e s there was a tremendous interest created i n the problems of Canadian youth.  The Canadian  Youth Commission, f o r example, had suggested that the  CBC  could play a role i n helping a young generation that appeared  163 to be In possession of very few "stable" values and goals.** One  c r i t i c i s m that was frequently voiced was  -0  of the poor  physical health of young people, and the blame f o r t h i s was directed to new,  passive, l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s such 41  as radio l i s t e n i n g . In 1945 the CBQ i n co-operation with the National Council of YMCA's of Canada, produced a new  series of educa-  t i o n a l programmes under the t i t l e of Sports College.  The  broadcasts were "intended to make young people between ages of 10  and lb more conscious of health and physical 42  f i t n e s s , through an appeal to t h e i r love of sports." The college programme was  conducted by Lloyd P e r c l v a l , a  well-known coach and sports j o u r n a l i s t . advised his young l i s t e n e r s how what to eat, and how  Each week he  to play games, how  to keep healthy and f i t .  to t r a i n ,  The free  membership i n Sports College reached 75,000 i n i t s f i r s t year- of operation and over a quarter of a m i l l i o n fan l e t t e r s were received. WEDNESDAY NIGHT - RESERVED "PRIMARILY FOB THE DISCRIMINATING LISTENER" In 1947, thing new This new  the CBC announced the inauguration of "some-  i n radio on the North American continent."^  3  venture was a "block of non-commercial programmes  broadcast f o r a f u l l evening on a national network and  164 produced primarily f o r the discriminating l i s t e n e r . " The new programme was constructed partly because of a bel i e f , on the part of CBC o f f i c i a l s , that: "a considerable number of l i s t e n e r s would welcome a whole evening devoted to a more advanced and challenging type of broadcasting; and that i t would be to the general advantage of broadcasting and the p u b l i c i f an e f f o r t were made i n this way to show the wider p o s s i b i l i t i e s of radio as a force i n the c u l t u r a l l i f e of Canada."^ C l a s s i c a l music, forum discussions, documentaries and drama formed the content of the Wednesday Night series. The CBC, i n response to those people who "did not care f o r the more serious tone of these programmes," directed t h e i r attention to the "schedule of l i g h t entertainment simultaneously by the CBC Dominion network."^°  carried  As the  series progressed the Corporation was able to announce that: "a strong bond, i l l u s t r a t e d by many l e t t e r s , now exists between the CBC and a constantly growing body of l i s t e n e r s who have appreciated an honest and sincere attempt to s a t i s f y what one person c a l l e d "a n u t r i t i o n a l deficiency i n radio programmes." Listeners have advised the CBC . . t h a t they are now always i n agreement with everything that i s presented but the vast majority have said that they do get many programmes which cannot be had elsewhere. CBC Wednesday Night has proved i t s value to everyone who l i k e s a better type of entertainment, but i t i s especially valued by l i s t e n e r s to whom the stage, concerts, lectures, l i b r a r i e s , museums and similar f a c i l i t i e s to be found i n the larger centers are not available. Alternative l i s t e n i n g f o r those who prefer l i g h t e r fare i s provided by the Dominion network. ".,_ 4/  The Wednesday Night programme, as the "Kindergarten of  the A i r " and "Sports College", was not conducted under  the d i r e c t auspices of educational authorities.  The pro-  165  gramme, however, was of general educational value f o r a l l who tuned i n ,  CBC "Wednesday Night" represented the high  point of serious programming during the f o r t i e s and was i n d i c a t i v e of the general r i s e i n educational quality which the Corporation's broadcasts had evidenced since 1936. The educational influence of the CBC was never confined solely to the planning, production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of radio broadcasts.  Each year of operation the Corporation  u t i l i z e d the p r i n t medium as an a i d i n i t s educational endeavours.  Radio education involved f a r more than merely  l i s t e n i n g to broadcasts, f o r each programme required background preparation and follow-up.  These two functions  could not be carried out on the a i r , f o r broadcast time was too valuable, and besides, the l i s t e n e r had to engage i n some a c t i v i t y other than l i s t e n i n g i f he was to learn. Thus, the p r i n t medium was employed i n the processes of broadcast preparation and follow-up.  The Canadian Broad-  casting Corporation had not moved entirely out of the "Gutenburg Galaxy," but had used both p r i n t and broadcasting, i n complementary fashion, to insure the e f f e c t i v e performance of i t s educational r o l e .  166 TABLE I I CBC PUBLICATIONS DISTRIBUTED THROUGH PBESS AND INFORMATION DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR 1944  RECEIVING AGENCY  PUBLICATION  50,000 c o p i e s o f t w o - c o l o u r N a t i o n a l Farm R a d i o Forum Folder 7,000  c o p i e s Farm season r e p o r t  Forum  50,000 c o p i e s o f t w o - c o l o u r f o l d e r d e t a i l i n g "of Things t o Come" s e r i e s a n d how t o s e t up d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s . 20,000 c o p i e s Women's Home Listening Service  Farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l i b r a r i e s , P r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l forum s e c r e t a r i e s , government. Farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l i b r a r i e s , p r o v i n c i a l forum s e c r e t a r i e s , government. Women's C l u b s a n d Home a n d School Associations  same  F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l and C i v i c 10,000 c o p i e s CBC a n d Canadian Radio's f o r t y - e i g h t Leaders, voluntary education page b o o k l e t o f p o l i c y groups and o v e r s e a s n a t i o n s . statements  30,000 c o p i e s o f f i f t y - s i x page CBC T e a c h e r s ' M a n u a l •Young Canada L i s t e n s * 50,000 on  copies o f 'Peoples t h e March'  50,000 Chart  c o p i e s CBC G u i d a n c e  5,000  cooking  2,500  war r e p o r t s  45,000 5,000  recipes  o r d e r forms  broadcast  Source:  texts  CBC R e p o r t .  ^ P r o v i n c i a l Education ments a n d t e a c h e r s  Depart-  Russia, China, L a t i n America, P r o v i n c i a l Governments, e d u c a t i o n groups, s c h o o l s . i n d i v i d u a l and group request  request  a n d women's g r o u p s  Government  education  groups  education  groups,  request Government request  (1944),  p. 9  167 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER F I V E See: ford Press,  C. S i e p m a n n , R a d i o - T V a n d S o c i e t y (N.I.., Ox-  1  1950), P P . I-50.  "New S c h o o l E q u i p m e n t , " S c h o o l P r o g r e s s .  2  1946, p . 54.  March,  I b i d . , p. 54.  3  R.S. Lambert, " P o l i c y and P l a n s i n School Radio," E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d o f Quebec. S e p t . , 1947, p, 1394  I b i d . , p . 139.  5  °Young Canada L i s t e n s (CBC, 7 I b i d . , Nov. 30,  1945,  1945)', P. 5.  P. 64.  I b i d . , M a r . 1, 1 9 4 6 , p . 64.  8  Ibid.,  9  l 0  O c t . 1, 1 9 4 8 , p . 17.  I b i d . , Nov. 19,  1 : L  1948, p . 1 1 .  I b i d . , Nov. 1 1 , 1 9 4 9 , p . 13.  1 2  I b i d . , p . 13.  l 3  I b i d . , p . 13.  !4content  a n a l y s i s undertaken by author.  5This r o l e was e v i d e n t i n C a n a d i a n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o s t - W a r s u p r a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s NATO a n d t h e UN. 1  1  6 y u n g Canada L i s t e n s , o p . c l t . . J a n . 2 8 , 1949,p.25. 0  and and  f o r e x a m p l e : H. K o h n , N a t i o n a l i s m . I t s M e a n i n g H i s t o r y (N.Y., 1955), P P . l-75» p r L.W. L o o b , P a t r i o t i s m N a t i o n a l i s m (New H a v e n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 6. •  I  D  .  Although there a r e other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Canadian h i s t o r y , the c o n f l i c t between t h e French and E n g l i s h viewp o i n t has formed the b a s i s o f such debates.  19Y o u n g Canada L i s t e n s , o p . c l t . . O c t . 25, 1 9 4 6 , p . 6 1 .  168 20  I b i d . , Oct. 12, 1945, p. 8.  21  I b i d . , Jan. 20, 1950, p. 26.  22  I b i d . , p. 26.  23  I b l d . , p. 26.  ^w.M. Taylor, Canadian Seasons (Toronto, 1913), P.63.  2  ^See: C. Berger, "The True North Strong and Free", in Nationalism in Canada, ed. P. Hussell (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1966), p. 1. 2  26  I b i d . , p. 1.  ?National "myths," such as the Jeffersonian ideal in America, usually play a role i n the building of a national identity. 2  W.L. Morton, The Canadian Identity (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1964), pp. 1-25. 28  29  Ioung Canada Listens, op. c i t . . Mar. 13, 1945, p.29.  3°lbid., Dec. 13, 1946, p. 18. ^ I b i d . , May 1, 1949, p. 9 . 32  I b i d . , May 1, 1948, p. 6.  Annual Report of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Ottawa, King's Printer, 1948), p. 6. 33  34j.bid., p. 6. 35y ung Canada Listens, op. c i t . . May 194b, p. 47. 0  ^In I927 Vancouver School Board o f f i c i a l s reported that numerous parents were listening to their experimental radio education series. 3  ^R.S. Lambert, School Broadcasting i n Canada (Toronto, University or Toronto Press, 1963), p. 181. 3«"co-Study - a New Experiment," Food for Thought. Jan. 12, 1945, P. 10. 39  Ioung Canada Listens, op. c i t . . 1947* p. 43.  169 S e e the studies of the Canadian Youth Commission: Youth Challenges the Educators (Toronto, Byerson Press, 1945) and Youth. Leisure and "Recreation (Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1946), and the brief of E.A. Corbett ("Problems of Canadian Youth") presented to the Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences. w  41  Young Canada Listens, op. c l t . . I945, p. 37. During the f i r s t three years of operation the National Council df Canadian YMCA's contributed $50,000. to Sports College to pay for printed publications. ^ I b i d . , p. 37. 4  3 A n n u a l Report of the CBC, op. c l t . .  w  I b l d . , p, 6.  ^ i b i d . , 1949, p. 6. ° I b i d . , p. b. ^ 7 l b i d . , 194b,  p.  6.  1948, p. 6.  CHAPTER SIX THE CBC AND ADULT EDUCATION 1939-1949 The  CBC had produced some e x c e l l e n t programmes i n  the f i e l d o f s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g d u r i n g t h e f o r t i e s . f o r e i t s f o r m a l entrance  Be-  i n t o s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g , however,  the C o r p o r a t i o n had been engaged i n some e x c i t i n g e x p e r i ments i n t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Canada developed  In fact,  formal  s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e  radio. Most Canadians, by t h e l a t e t h i r t i e s , possessed r a d i o i n t h e i r homes.  a  Thus, t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l o f  b r o a d c a s t i n g made every home i n Canada a p o s s i b l e c l a s s r o o m . One e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e e x i s t ence o f such a s i t u a t i o n .  T h i s group was t h e Canadian  A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education.  The CAAE r e c a l l e d i t s  experiences w i t h the r a d i o i n a d u l t education, before the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g i n 1946, as f o l l o w s : "over t h e l a s t y e a r s people i n t h e i r own homes, c l u b s and neighbourhoods can a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e , though through t h e medium o f w e l l - c o n s t r u c t e d forum programmes, i n t h e study o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . They c a n do t h i s i n an o r g a n i z e d way. They can thus develop r e s p o n s i b l e a t t i t u d e s and awareness as c i t i z e n s - and they thereby r a i s e t h e whole l e v e l o f community l i f e and o f n a t i o n a l m o r a l e . As an i n s t r u m e n t f o r overcoming i n e r t i a , f o r c h a n g i n g p u b l i c i n d i f f e r e n c e i n t o p u r p o s e f u l c i t i z e n s h i p , f o r reducing the d i s t a n c e between t h e e l e c t o r a t e and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , n a t i o n a l r a d i o has tremendous p o s s i b i l i t i e s . • w  1  170  171 The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e CBC i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l Farm and C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o j e c t s , form t h e substance o f t h i s c h a p t e r . On October 29, 1929, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s t o c k market c r a s h e d and, as i t tumbled, it.  i t dragged a l l o f Canada w i t h  The a c t u a l d i s a s t e r , however, was n o t as sudden as  the c r a s h made i t appear.  R a t h e r , d i s a s t e r "came s l o w l y ,  i m p e r c e p t i b l y , l i k e a d e s c e n d i n g i c e age f a s t e n i n g i t s e l f upon t h e l a n d , "  I t was t h e f l a w s i n t h e r o a r i n g t w e n t i e s  t h a t conceived the d i r t y t h i r t i e s .  The c h i l d  so-conceived  became a d u l t v e r y q u i c k l y , however, f o r t h e d e p r e s s i o n was a decade t h a t " d e s t r o y e d men's f a i t h i n themselves, mocked t h e i r t a l e n t s and s k i l l s , b l i g h t e d t h e i r  initiative  and s u b v e r t e d t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d , . . I t r e p l a c e d a whole p e o p l e ' s proud s e a r c h f o r success w i t h a d i s p i r i t e d search f o r s e c u r i t y . "  3  And y e t , t h e r e  was a paradox I n g r a i n e d i n t h e mind o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n g e n e r a t i o n " f o r i t brought o u t more o f t h e b e s t t h a n l t d i d t h e w o r s t i n p e o p l e ; t h a t p e o p l e , i f l e f t a l o n e , tend t o work o u t t h e i r own problems f o r themselves;... t h a t so much was l e a r n e d from t h e d e p r e s s i o n t h a t i t w i l l happen a g a i n . "  never  4  While i t i s u s u a l t o d i s c u s s t h e economic a s p e c t s of t h e d e p r e s s i o n , i t , as do a l l p e r i o d s e x h i b i t i n g an I n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f change, p o s s e s s e d a s o c i a l s i d e .  The  172 only r e a l i s t i c way a socio-economic  of v i e w i n g the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s i s as  and p o l i t i c a l phenomenon, where each f a c e t  c o n d i t i o n e d change i n the o t h e r s .  The major economic e f f e c t  of  the d e p r e s s i o n was  to cause a decrease  of  a v a i l a b l e spending  capital,  demand and a reduced changes was  a rise  general l i v i n g  a d r a s t i c l o w e r i n g of consumer  production.  The  concomitant of  these  i n unemployment and a l o w e r i n g of the  standard.  Thus, the " n e c e s s i t i e s " of the  1920*s, such as automobiles,  telephones,  stylish  and f o r m a l education, became the " f r i l l s " The  i n the amount  of the  clothes thirties.  economic f a c t o r of low or no wages, combined with numerous  i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e p r e s s i o n s , r e s u l t e d i n many t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of a t t i t u d e , behaviour p a r t of the people of  of the depression.-*  and v a l u e s on  the  Contemporary s t u d i e s  the d e p r e s s i o n , f o r example, r e v e a l e d a s h i f t away from  commercialized  recreational activities  i n f a v o u r of n e i g h -  b o u r l y b r i d g e s e s s i o n s , sewing p a r t i e s and outdoor s p o r t s . People were a l s o " r e a d i n g as never b e f o r e , " even though many must "have f a l l e n a s l e e p over books and magazines 7 t h a t were beyond t h e i r understanding." game f o r the i n d i v i d u a l who light  to guide him  was  Anything was  fair  searching f o r a sign, a  out of h i s own  personal wilderness.  The a c t u a l content of d e p r e s s i o n r e a d i n g most d e s i r e d i s revealing.  There was  r e l i g i o u s and  a marked s h i f t away from f i c t i o n ,  scientific  content, and an o r i e n t a t i o n to  6  173 p r a c t i c a l reading such as Consumer's Reports and economics. The Canadian depression generation viewed t h e i r  situation  as a p r a c t i c a l problem which required a serious and r e a l i s t i c approach, not a "mystical escape route." In response to some of the very visable manifestations of the depression, such as hunger and sickness, men  who  previously had been a c t i v e l y engaged i n boards of trade and lodges, turned t h e i r attention to voluntary welfare organizations, such as hospital clubs, community groups and educational leagues.  Also, during the depression, a  decline i n the number of telephones within people's homes decreased the range of friendships and other personal contacts  8 available to most people.  The desire f o r b i t s of knowledge  about the chaotic world around them, plus a need f o r s o c i a l intercourse, moved many people to undertake study courses. Through these study courses, most people hoped to recapture their pre-depression mobility, to improve t h e i r minds, so that they might more easily discover a segment of order within their situation, social activity.  to engage i n a form of  group-centered  The f a c t that during the depression  one could be sure who was  crazy and who was  r i s e to many young i d e a l i s t s who,  "no  sane," gave  not only exercised t h e i r  freedom of speech concerning t h e i r Ideals, but had many of them translated into the law of the l a n d .  9  174  While individuals were forced to part with t h e i r automobiles, telephones, jobs and, f o r some, even t h e i r s e l f respect, most people managed to secure and r e t a i n a radio.  The radio, whether one was employed or not, became  a necessity of l i f e i n the t h i r t i e s .  As an adolescent of  today can discover an escape from the adult world within the confines of an automobile, so the depression generation could shut out the dust-bowl winds and personal suffering of  the depression by tuning into the throbbing tones of the  "Guiding Light".  Although disaster was always near, the  soap-opera-writers Invariably managed to ensure that "John and Joan" married and discovered true happiness. way,  In t h i s  the radio both entertained and kindled a subtle form  of optimism within Canadian hearts.  I t was an  optimism,-  however, that would only f u l f i l l i t s e l f under the auspices of  hard work.  Besides these entertainment and s o c i a l func-  tions, the radio also carried the news and "expert" opinions as to the lessons to be learned from the depression experience. In many ways the depression's people were one of the most well-informed generations of the modern period. i n paradoxical fashion, theirs was one of the f i r s t  Also, genera-  tions that was forced to grapple with the s o c i a l problems associated with using l e i s u r e time i n a constructive manner. Thus, the depression caused people to become depressed and yet  optimistic; alienated and yet "other-directed;" sad  175 and y e t within  happy.  one  generalization  such a p a r a d o x i c a l p e r i o d ,  gradually wore  And, If  became more  "radio  i t  is  conscious"  can r e t a i n  that as  the  the  adult  form,  education  i t  was  Canadians, the  a national  the to  radio  by  the  depression  and  of  one  of  "give farmers  neighbourliness,  and  to  listeners,  as  and help  from w i s h to  coalescence  of a  gramme  was Of  the  very  was  the  c r u c i a l to prime  earlier  was n o t  reality,  into the  importance  existence d e c i s i o n by  of  a  group  their merely  but  of  the  understanding horizons as  of  both  farmers." autothe  domestic  Canadians  to  educational  pro-  of Farm Forum.  success,  have  and  transferred  certain  the  project,  action  and  a Farm Radio Forum p r o j e c t to  Canadian  small  arose because  development  Canadians  the  Farm Forum,  and  of pressures,  the  Corporation,  conditions  constructive  for  the  widen t h e i r  imporve  rural  combined  organizers to  In  for  page w i t h the  thought  The a b i l i t y o f  such pressure  i t  The a i m o f  complex number  international.  channel  printed  which w i l l  them  project  technique,  stimulate  Th'e F a r m F o r u m , h o w e v e r , matically  depression.  E d u c a t i o n and  a new i n c e n t i v e  among r u r a l citizens  In  the  the  experiment  Canadian Broadcasting  d i s c u s s i o n group.  words  the  d i s c u s s i o n group  of Agriculture.  information  and  of  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult  mass media o f  was  w h i c h grew o u t  sponsored  Federation  in  people  on. The N a t i o n a l F a r m R a d i o Forum was a n  in  validity  a publicly  even in  more Canada,  controlled  176 system o f b r o a d c a s t i n g .  Only such an agency c o u l d have  mustered the f a c i l i t i e s and c o - o p e r a t i o n needed t o conduct a n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e such as the Farm Forum. Very l i t t l e i n the way  of a g r i c u l t u r a l education  was  b r o a d c a s t over the n a t i o n a l network d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the CRBC.  I n the l a t e t h i r t i e s , however, the CBC began to e n t e r  the f i e l d of s e r i o u s programming as w e l l as t o make a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the r a d i o audience composition.  One  i n terms of i t s group  group t o which the C o r p o r a t i o n began  to d i r e c t i t s programmes were the f a r m e r s . O.J.W. Shugg, who  observed  According to  t h i s development w i t h i n the  CBC,  the "more s p e c i f i c a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l b r o a d c a s t i n g , b e i n g more i n v o l v e d , develop more s l o w l y than does the s e r v i c e side...Farm  S a d i o Forum...provided the  Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ' s f i r s t major  experiment  11 on the p u r e l y e d u c a t i o n a l s i d e of a g r i c u l t u r a l b r o a d c a s t i n g . " A g i t a t i o n f o r a more s e r i o u s form of programme f a r e was n o t c o n f i n e d to o f f i c i a l s w i t h i n the CBC,  f o r a group  of e d u c a t o r s began t o ponder the f e a s i b i l i t y of u t i l i z i n g the r a d i o as a massive, e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s . was E.A.  Corbett.  and y e t s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l f o r the  The most p r o m i n e n t among t h i s group  A t f i r s t C o r b e t t c o u l d "see no use f o r  such a t r e a c h e r o u s medium," b u t f o l l o w i n g h i s involvement i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , he performed a d r a m a t i c about f a c e .  12  I n f a c t , so d r a m a t i c was h i s about  177 face that, i n the early t h i r t i e s , he became the Western representative of the Canadian Eadio League.  I t was during  these early ventures i n the propaganda of early radio that Corbett discovered how radio could help overcome the "long winter i s o l a t i o n of homesteaders and farm  people."  13  The Isolated r u r a l c i t i z e n , Corbett f e l t , "more readily understood and accepted p u b l i c ownership" of radio. In 1935,  Corbett became the Director of the newly  formed Canadian Association f o r Adult Education, which was Intended to serve as a clearing house and co-ordinating agency f o r Canadian adult education.  The s p e c i f i c purposes  of the CAAE were to "develop i n t e r e s t by means of publications, radio and conferences; to provide f o r the study and research  15 i n methods and to undertake experiments and  demonstrations."  To this national association, Corbett brought what proved to be both h i s personal and a general Canadian philosophy of adult education.  Basic to t h i s philosophy was the b e l i e f  that " s o c i a l progress can only come about through improvement i n the quality of human beings" and such Individual improvement could only come through increased education. Secondly, such education, when directed toward adults, "functions most e f f e c t i v e l y through group study and group action."  1 7  Thirdly, such adult education must s u i t the  i n t e r e s t s of both the i n d i v i d u a l and the group and, i n Corbett's view,  In most instances "these Interests are  lo  , economic."  178  The f i n a l l i n k i n C o r b e t t ' s p h i l o s o p h y  was  t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e , m u s t be based upon t h e p r i n c i p l e o f v o l u n t a r i s m , as f a r a s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  individual  concerned.  Corbett's philosophy of adult education,  later  r e i n f o r c e d by h i s p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e A n t i g o n i s h movement a s w e l l a s D r . M.-.M. C o a d y ' s t h o u g h t s  on t h e s u b j e c t ,  formed the b a s i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k s of the p h i l o s o p h y of the N a t i o n a l Farm R a d i o more i m p o r t a n c e Radio  Forum.  T h i s p h i l o s o p h y assumed e v e n  when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l F a r m  Forum was one o f t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s  t i o n through  a t n a t i o n a l educa-  radio broadcasting.  Before  C o r b e t t and o t h e r Canadian e d u c a t o r s  could  i n i t i a t e any a c t i v e movement i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l adult education, especially  through  t h e u s e o f a medium  s u c h a s r a d i o w i t h i t s unknown p o t e n t i a l s , d e r i v e some s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  t h e y had t o  demonstrable j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r  t h e i r b e l i e f s i n t h e n e c e s s i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y adults.  The s o u r c e  of education  o f t h i s n e e d e d l e g i t i m a c y was  by a n A m e r i c a n p s y c h o l o g i s t - E d w a r d L. T h o r n d l k e . Thorndlke's  o p i n i o n , e d u c a t i o n was t r a d i t i o n a l l y  c e n t e r e d " and, as a r e s u l t ,  the concepts  c h i l d became o b s o l e t e i n a d u l t h o o d . a concept  of "continuous  such a h y p o t h e s i s  through  In "child-  l e a r n e d by t h e  Thorndlke  proposed  e d u c a t i o n " and attempted scientific  provided  experiments  to  justify  devoted  l?9 to the demonstration of the learning ability of adults. His conclusion, which Peter Sandiford called "the charter for adult education," was that "nobody under forty-five should restrain himself from trying to learn anything because of a belief or fear that he i s too old to learn It."  1 9  Thoamdlke went on to speculate that "training of adults in mass fashion i s a new point of view i n adult education...If our diagnosis i s correct, then we are on 20  the eve of a great mass movement i n adult education." In specific areas, Thorndike was quick to recognize that " i f a definite series of educational broadcasts were offered some hour i n the evening...groups for listening to them could probably be organized under a leader who could subsequently guide the discussion and suggest or, better s t i l l , 21  do preparatory reading on the subject."  Thus, Thorndike,  like Corbett, was concerned with the ways i n which adults could be changed through education.  The most valuable  aspect of Thorndike's conclusions, however, was that he provided justification for the ideas that f i l l e d the minds of Canadian educators on the subject of educating adults, especially through the medium of broadcasting. During the Spring of 1938,  Corbett was requested by  Gladstone Murray, the General Manager of the CBC, to undertake a survey and report upon the existing conditions i n school broadcasting throughout Canada.  While perusing the  180  v a r i o u s r e p o r t s of e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g i n B r i t a i n , C o r b e t t became impressed by the a d u l t d i s c u s s i o n group p r o j e c t s of the BBC,  t o the e x t e n t t h a t he wondered i f " i t  m i g h t be w o r t h w h i l e t o attempt a s i m i l a r experiment  in  22  Canada."  I n B r i t a i n , the d i s c u s s i o n group p r o j e c t s i n -  a u g u r a t e d by the Hadow Report were, i n t h e i r i n i t i a l enthusiastically received. however, soon d i s s i p a t e d .  T h i s o r i g i n a l b u r s t of  stages, enthusiasm,  The reasons f o r the d i s s o l u t i o n  of the B r i t i s h attempts t o e s t a b l i s h forums were f i r m l y r e c o r d e d i n C o r b e t t ' s mind and were t o p r o v e of g r e a t a i d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of the Canadian One BBC  reason f o r the B r i t i s h f a i l u r e was  experiment.  the g r e a t  success* i n s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g which drew most o f the  e x p e r t a t t e n t i o n away from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  B e s i d e s , the  r o l e and p l a c e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the BBC was r e a l l y w e l l - d e f i n e d e i t h e r i n thought o r p o l i c y .  never  Also,  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n through r a d i o , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , r e q u i r e d c o - o p e r a t i o n among s e v e r a l r i v a l b o d i e s i n o r d e r to be effective.  I n B r i t a i n , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s proved to be  too i n f l e x i b l e and I n p o s s e s s i o n o f no o v e r r i d i n g common i n t e r e s t t h a t might enable the groups t o t r a n s c e n d p e c u l i a r concerns.  their  R e c a l l i n g h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n the  Canadian West, however, C o r b e t t noted what "might p r o v e a v i t a l f a c t o r i n making the use of such a t e c h n i q u e  success-  f u l i n the Canadian s i t u a t i o n . "  the  2 3  T h i s f a c t o r was  181  " w i n t e r i s o l a t i o n o f t h e Canadian farm f a m i l y and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e CBC was a l r e a d y p r o v i n g a p r i c e l e s s b o o n . " ^ C o r b e t t a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e BBC programme, u n l i k e h i s own r u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , was n o t d i r e c t e d t o any s p e c i f i c group.  Given these d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e two s i t u a t i o n s ,  C o r b e t t d e c i d e d t h a t "an o r g a n i z e d l i s t e n i n g group p r o j e c t w h i c h d e a l t e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e problems o f r u r a l l i f e i n Canada might succeed where t h e o t h e r had f a i l e d . " - * 2  C o r b e t t * s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l move was an attempt t o gauge t h e o p i n i o n s o f o r g a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a r r a n g i n g a Canadian d i s c u s s i o n group project.  As a r e s u l t , he approached H.H. Hannam, P r e s i d e n t  of t h e Canadian F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e , who was eventua l l y a b l e t o convince t h e f e d e r a t i o n t h a t I t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to  such a p r o j e c t would come under t h e h e a d i n g o f t h e educa-  t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e CFA.  L a t e r C o r b e t t , i n what he  d e s c r i b e d as t h e " h o t e l room i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Canadian e n t e r p r i s e , " c o n f e r r e d i n t h e Chateau L a u r i e r w i t h Gladstone Murray, G e n e r a l Manager o f t h e CBC, Donald Buchanan, D i r e c t o r o f CBC T a l k s Department, and N e l l M o r r i s o n , l a t e r to  d i r e c t t h e forum p r o j e c t , about t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f CBC  co-operation. - CBC sponsored  D u r i n g t h i s meeting,  a s e r i e s o f j o i n t CAAE  e x p e r i m e n t a l b r o a d c a s t s were a r r a n g e d ,  N e i l M o r r i s o n b e i n g a p p o i n t e d t o d i r e c t them.  with  A f t e r the  i n i t i a l success o f these b r o a d c a s t s , the N a t i o n a l Farm  182 Radio Forum was  officially  formed and i n 1940  broadcast  I t s f i r s t programmes on an e a s t e r n Canadian network, under the j o i n t - s p o n s o r s h i p of the CBC,  the CAAE and  the  B e s i d e s the i n i t i a t i v e d i s p a l y e d by men  CFA,  such as  C o r b e t t and Hannam, the n a t u r e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s  within  w h i c h they o p e r a t e d were a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n the establishment  of the N a t i o n a l Farm.Radio Forum.  In  the  f i r s t p l a c e , e s t a b l i s h e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , I n c l u d i n g the  Govern-  o  ment, were i n a quandary as t o the n a t u r e of a p r o p e r r e covery course.  A t the same time t h a t t h i s i n d e c i s i o n  t r o u b l i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l " d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  was  institutions"  w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y , the average p e r s o n was  demanding  s o l u t i o n s t o h i s problems, o r a t l e a s t some v i s i b l e s i g n of a c t i o n on the l o c a l l e v e l .  W i t h i n the "emerging o r -  g a n i z a t i o n s , " those w i t h o u t f o r m a l i z e d programmes and extensive bureaucracies, CAAE, t h e r e was  such as the CBC,  sufficient flexibility  the CFA and  of mind and  self-  i n t e r e s t to sponsor an e d u c a t i o n a l v e n t u r e w i t h the 26 and p o t e n t i a l of the Farm Forum. of the CBC,  s t i l l i n the p r o c e s s  of e v o l u t i o n , w h i l e b o t h the CAAE and the OFA  were l o o s e l y -  k n i t c o - o r d i n a t i n g a g e n c i e s f o r what were s t i l l  i t was  Thus, u n l i k e the B r i t i s h  p o s s i b l e f o r a l l t h r e e of t h e s e groups t o  around a s i n g l e common need.  scope  The programme p o l i c y  as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , was  i l l - d e f i n e d functions.  the  T h i s need was  relatively experience, coalesce  the d e s i r e of  183  each group to secure some form of n a t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n c y i n o r d e r t h a t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e be j u s t i f i e d .  A l l of these groups  f e l t t h a t a r a p i d means of a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l was in  the form of t h i s new  a scheme t h a t was,  presented  n a t i o n a l r a d i o education scheme,  by i t s very nature  inter-provincial,  and y e t capable of p r o v i d i n g each group w i t h a degree of feedback from the audience  as to t h e i r p u b l i c image and  e f f e c t s of t h e i r programmes on the l o c a l  the  level.  Thus, the p r o p o s a l f o r a n a t i o n a l a d u l t education d i s c u s s i o n group p r o j e c t , employing new was  first  levels.  forms of mass media,  accepted a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  policy-making  Before the p r o j e c t c o u l d hope f o r a s u c c e s s f u l  o p e r a t i o n , however, I t had  to be accepted and i n t e g r a t e d  i n t o the p r e v a i l i n g r u r a l s o c i e t y .  Such accgptance  and  i n t e g r a t i o n depended upon the l e s s o n s drawn from a p r e v i o u s Canadian experiment i n a d u l t education, from a r u r a l Canadian t r a d i t i o n , from a g r a s s r o o t s r u r a l l e a d e r s h i p and a deep-rooted of  d e s i r e f o r the r e j u v e n a t i o n of c e r t a i n f a c e t s  r u r a l Canadian l i f e which the d e p r e s s i o n had The domestic  was  from  submerged.  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a Farm Forum p r o j e c t  d e r i v e d from the o b s e r v a t i o n s by Corbett and by  other  Canadian educators of the St. F r a n c i s X a v i e r experiments in  r u r a l co-operation.  Dr. M.M.  Coady, one  of  t h i s A n t i g o n i s h movement, had a r r i v e d a t a philosophy  of  a d u l t education t h a t was  remarkably  of the l e a d e r s  s i m i l a r to t h a t  184 evolved by C o r b e t t and,  as a r e s u l t ,  Coady's views eventually-  served as a reinforcement to C o r b e t t ' s o r i g i n a l in  confidence  the f e a s i b i l i t y of mass education of a d u l t s . Dr. Coady had a b a s i c b e l i e f  be the f i r s t  t h a t "education...must  step to reform and s o c i a l improvement. " ^  In o r d e r to achieve t h i s u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e , the A n t l g o n i s h movement was  b u i l t upon f i v e p r i n c i p l e s .  f a i t h i n the primacy of the i n d i v i d u a l  The f i r s t was  and  "the  a  develop-  ment of I n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s as the aim of s o c i a l o r g a n i a a tions."  Dr.Coady's second p r i n c i p l e  reform must come through  29  education." '  to reform, and one very s i m i l a r  was  that " s o c i a l  The  third guideline  to C o r b e t t ' s view,  was  t h a t "education must b e g i n w i t h the economic" f o r , In Coady's o p i n i o n "economic reform i s the most immediate 30 necessity." was  The f o u r t h a r t i c l e i n the A n t l g o n i s h creed  t h a t "education must be through group a c t i o n and  action...is  n a t u r a l because man  group  i s a s o c i a l being.  .,31 C o n t i n u i n g i n t h i s l i n e of thought, "any  effective  Coady concluded  that  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme m u s t . . . f i t i n t o  t h i s b a s i c group o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . . . y o u cannot get  32 results  i n b u s i n e s s or c i v i c a f f a i r s without o r g a n i z a t i o n s . "  Coady's f i f t h b e l i e f was  t h a t any  "effective  I n v o l v e s fundamental changes i n s o c i a l and tions."  social  reform  economic c o n d i -  3 3  The  t o o l t h a t Dr. Coady had  s e l e c t e d to transform  185 his  p h i l o s o p h y i n t o an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme was t h e  d i s c u s s i o n group, a "method by w h i c h l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e over a wide a r e a c o u l d be i n e x p e n s i v e l y o r g a n i z e d for  enlightenment,"  3 4  Dr. Coady j u s t i f i e d h i s s e l e c t i o n  of t h e d i s c u s s i o n broup method by n o t i n g t h a t : ••The p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g men e c o n o m i c a l l y a r e t w o - f o l d . Men can improve t h e i r economic s t a t u s by becoming i n d i v i d u a l l y e f f i c i e n t . . . A s t h e d e p r e s s i o n so w e l l p r o v e d , t h e r e a r e g r e a t f o r c e s , over which the i n d i v i d u a l has no c o n t r o l . So t h e r e must be a second way o f economic improvement through group a c t i o n . "  35  The S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n Department began t o o r g a n i z e people i n t o s m a l l groups f o r weekly d i s c u s s i o n d u r i n g t h e f a l l and w i n t e r months o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n . The E x t e n s i o n Department s u p p l i e d these s m a l l groups w i t h prepared  study m a t e r i a l and the d i s c u s s i o n s c e n t e r e d around  the immediate p r a c t i c a l problems b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e r u r a l Maritimer.  The e f f e c t o f such a programme was des-  c r i b e d by W i l l i a m F e l t n a t e , a Nova S c o t i a f i s h e r m a n , who r e c o u n t e d t h e way i n w h i c h he had s u r v i v e d t h e d e p r e s s i o n : " I d i d n o t f i g h t as an i n d i v i d u a l , I f o u g h t as one o f a group. A l l my l i f e I had been f i g h t i n g as an i n d i v i d u a l . B u t hard t i m e s drove home t h e f a c t t h a t was the wrong way. So we f i s h e r m e n g o t t o g e t h e r and through s t u d y , o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n have f o u g h t o u r way t h r o u g h . " E.A. C o r b e t t , a s w e l l as many o t h e r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s f r o m o t h e r n a t i o n s , was keen i n h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e A n t i g o n l s h movement and many o f Dr. Coady's i d e a s were  186 i n t r o d u c e d l a t e r i n t o t h e Farm Forum. C o r b e t t found a r e i n f o r c e m e n t ,  As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y ,  i n the S t . Francis  e n t e r p r i s e , f o r h i s b e l i e f i n t h e mass e d u c a t i o n as b e i n g b o t h f e a s i b l e and b e n e f i c i a l .  Xavier of a d u l t s  Corbett a l s o  learned  t h a t p e o p l e must be reached i n l a r g e numbers t o e f f e o t any s o c i a l change.  He took c o g n i z a n c e , however, o f t h e need  to b r e a k down t h e l a r g e r community i n t o s m a l l groups, so t h a t i d e a s c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e l y I n j e c t e d i n t o t h e minds of group members and, w i t h i n t h e group, s t u d i e d and employed f o r a c t i o n purposes-. success,  Thus, i n o r d e r t o have c o n t i n u i n g  these groups n o t o n l y had t o study b u t s h o u l d  engage I n some form o f c o - o p e r a t i v e  enterprise, especially  an e n t e r p r i s e which would produce some immediate, and i f p o s s i b l e , some v i s i b l e e f f e c t s w i t h i n t h e l o c a l community.' Thus, owing t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ,  o f t h i s Canadian l a b o r a t o r y  t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f N a t i o n a l Farm Radio  Forum c o u l d much more e a s i l y d e v i s e t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n group p r o j e c t so t h a t i t would mesh w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g r u r a l social structure. The  second f a c t o r w h i c h d i c t a t e d t h e degree t o w h i c h  the N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum would be deemed  acceptable  by r u r a l Canada was t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f co-operative  e n t e r p r i s e and group a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f  Canadian f a r m e r s .  Since  1900, w e s t e r n f a r m e r s had been  engaged i n a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  o f t h e i r group, from a l a r g e  187  mass o f i n d i v i d u a l s , who <Jid n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e e x i s t e n c e of a b a s i c common i n t e r e s t , i n t o a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s c l a s s . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s forms of group a c t i o n .  3 7  I n t h e economic sphere, t h i s group  a c t i o n expressed  I t s e l f i n the form o f c o - o p e r a t i v e  selling  agencies, w h i l e I n the realm of p o l i t i c s , p o l i t i c a l  parties,  such a s t h e CCF, were t h e medium o f communication.  Viewed  f r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e N a t i o n a l Farm R a d i o Forum c o u l d p r o v i d e f a r m e r s w i t h a n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n w h i c h they m i g h t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e i r group c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  Thus,  depending upon t h e g o a l s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r Farm Forum, i t c o u l d have p r o v e n t o be e i t h e r an i n t e g r a t i n g o r d i v i s i v e f o r c e i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Besides  t h e economic and p o l i t i c a l  r e l a t i o n s among f a r m e r s , of r u r a l e d u c a t i o n  co-operative  t h e r e was a l s o a s t r o n g  tradition  t h a t was connected w i t h group p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n , f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s such a s f a r m e r s c o - o p e r a t i v e s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s o f t e n sponsored e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s f o r farmers.  As a r e s u l t , by t h e l a t e 1 9 3 0 * s a t r a d i t i o n o f  group a c t i o n , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h e d u c a t i o n , had l o n g been established.  The economic and "anomlc" e f f e c t s o f t h e  d e p r e s s i o n i n t e n s i f i e d these e d u c a t i o n a l and groups needs and  c r e a t e d a sense o f urgency f o r t h e i r  satisfaction.  When t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum was p r o p o s e d , t h e r e f o r e , Canadian f a r m e r s viewed i t as a p o t e n t i a l means o f economic  188 improvement, as a way  of engaging i n some form o f a c t i v e  group work f o r the b e n e f i t of t h e i r community, as an a r e a I n w h i c h to c o n s t r u c t i v e l y occupy t h e i r l e i s u r e time above a l l , as a f u r t h e r means of s o l i d i f y i n g t h e i r ture organization structure,  i n o r d e r t h a t the  and,  agricul-  decisions  of e a s t e r n u r b a n c a p i t a l i s t s would no l o n g e r be the  sole  d e t e r m i n a n t s of the d e s t i n y of r u r a l Canada.  National  Farm E a d i o Forum, thus o f f e r e d the f a r m e r s an  opportunity  38 to be, as Dr. Coady hoped, "masters of t h e i r own A t h i r d f a c t o r determining  destiny."  the a c c e p t a n c e , by  Canada, of the N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum was  rural  a sense of  r e a d i n e s s , on the p a r t of the f a r m e r s , to welcome any p o s a l that might Increase  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a  t i o n of t h e i r l o s t sense of n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s .  pro-  rejuvena-  I n the  1920*s,  the t e l e p h o n e had g r e a t l y expanded the range of I n t e r personal  c o n t a c t s i n r u r a l Canada, b u t a t the same t i m e ,  i t had a l s o d e c r e a s e d the number of f a c e - t o - f a c e ships.  D u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n ,  were d i s c o n n e c t e d  relation-  l a r g e numbers of t e l e p h o n e s  w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t the f a r m e r ' s range  of i n t e r - p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s d e c r e a s e d .  A t the same t i m e ,  a d e c l i n e i n s u r p l u s c a p i t a l and a u t o m o b i l e ownership r e d u c e d the g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y of the f a r m e r .  The  r e s u l t o f t h e s e two phenomena of the d e p r e s s i o n  was  general a  de-  c l i n e i n the deep p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t s w i t h near n e i g h b o u r s t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d the neighbourhood work groups and  bees.  189 W i t h the reduced a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the f a r m e r t o heavy machinery i n the d e p r e s s i o n ,  one would assume t h a t  these work groups and bees would be r e j u v e n a t e d folk.  T h i s , however, was  by the  rural  not the c a s e , f o r t h e r e was  l a r g e amount of work t o be done.  As a r e s u l t , the 39  p e o p l e became i n c r e a s i n g l y f a m i l y - c e n t e r e d . ^  no  rural  Their  only  o u t l e t s f o r o u t s i d e c o n t a c t s on a l a r g e s c a l e were through the media o f r a d i o and  the p r i n t e d page, and  these were  b o t h i m p e r s o n a l means of e s t a b l i s h i n g such r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Thus, the N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum o f f e r e d a p o t e n t i a l s u b s t i t u t e f o r the o l d p i o n e e r  "work group,"  for in  the forums p e o p l e c o u l d d i s c u s s common problems and together  I n Implementing the s o l u t i o n s , as w e l l as  work socialize  w i t h t h e i r neighbours. I t m i g h t appear, from the above a n a l y s i s , t h a t N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum would be an i n f l u e n c e the new The  family-centeredness  f a c t was,  the  counteracting  of the r u r a l d e p r e s s i o n  society.  however, t h a t as t h e forums became e s t a b l i s h e d  i n the r u r a l a r e a s , f a r m e r s b r o u g h t t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o m e e t i n g s w i t h them.  The  r e s u l t was  the  t h a t the N a t i o n a l Farm  Radio Forum n o t o n l y h e l p e d t o r e j u v e n a t e  a sense o f  neigh-  b o u r l i n e s s , b u t employed the f a m i l y as the b a s i c u n i t of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n such r e j u v e n a t i o n . A f i n a l f a c t o r which i n f l u e n c e d the degree to which the Farm Forum was  a c c e p t e d by r u r a l Canadians was  the  190 shrewd manner I n w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e p r o j e c t e s t a b l i s h e d each l o c a l forum.  The l e a d e r s o f t h e Farm Forum  p r o j e c t had themselves been c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r u r a l s i t u a t i o n and, as has been s t a t e d b e f o r e , had observed the A n t l g o n i s h d i s c u s s i o n group p r o j e c t i n a c t i o n .  As a  r e s u l t , t h e s e o r g a n i z e r s a t t e m p t e d t o employ t h e e x i s t i n g r u r a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t o t h e i r advantage when e s t a b l i s h i n g the l o c a l forums.  Joseph Galway, then P r o v i n c i a l Farm  Forum S e c r e t a r y f o r Quebec, d e s c r i b e d t h e p r o c e s s o f ext e n s i o n o f Farm Forum through groups a s f o l l o w s s "An e f f e c t i v e j o b o f f i e l d work cannot be done by i n d i v i d u a l c o n t a c t s made by P r o v i n c i a l Farm Forum S e c r e t a r y . E x t e n s i o n t h r o u g h groups has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as t h e most e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e method o f d o i n g e x t e n s i o n work...Members o f an e x i s t i n g Forum a r e as a r u l e a n x i o u s t o see o t h e r groups o r g a n i z e d . They a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g d i s t r i c t and i n t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s t o know t h e n e i g h b o u r s most l i k e l y to organize a Forum."^ County Forum Committees were l a t e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r d e r t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e o r g a n i z i n g o f new forums.  After  teams o f committee men had v i s i t e d a few forum groups, i t was "thought t h a t a new group c o u l d be s t a r t e d and a d e f i n i t e a t t e m p t was made t o f i n d one f a m i l y w i l l i n g t o be h o s t t o the f i r s t m e e t i n g . " ^  2  Two methods were employed  n e i g h b o u r s t o a forum m e e t i n g .  to i n v i t e  One means, t h e l e s s s u c c e s s -  f u l o f t h e two, was t o send o u t a form l e t t e r .  The second,  and most e f f e c t i v e method, was t o l e a v e t h e i n v i t i n g t o the h o s t f a r m e r .  A t t h e m e e t i n g , t h e concept o f Farm Forum  191 TABLE I I I SETTING UP THE FORUMS Number o f Farm Forums R e g i s t e r e d Year P E I N.B.&NS, QUE. ONT. MAN. SASK. ALTA.B.C. TOTAL 41- 42 F i g u r e s n o t a v a i l . 430 F i g u r e s n o t a v a i l a b l e 430' 42- 43 26 77 83 448 86 106 96 26 ^22 43- 44 10 70 82 646 23 137 57 26 1051 44- 45 27 78 75 701 38 60 31 17 1027 45- 46 43 140 98 759 90 104 55 21 1310 46- 47 54 176 135 636 73 97 34 21 1226 47- 48 60 157 134 726 87 130 36 17 1351 48- 49 92 190 139 853 109 144 44 15 1588 49- 50 83 210 135 865 116 142 40 13 1606 50- 51 62 175 122 875 64 118 36 9 1465 51- 52 62 126 102 793 38 . . 107 38 9 1275  TABLE I V L a r g e s t Number o f P r a t i c i p a n t s R e p o r t e d a t any one M e e t i n g Year ,PEI NftfcNfl 42- 43 119 408 43- 44 103 524 44- 45 307 824 45- 46 257 793 46- 47 417 951 47- 48 353 1090 48- 49 462 1391 49- 50 590 1553 340 1476  50- 51 51- 52  415 1050  QUE, 882  850 1220 1337 1876  1957 2123 2125 1925 1410  ONT. 5400  SASK  902 10229 362 613 9423 346 590 9542 425 707 9704 533 535 11671 680 1002 13795 758 1201 13795 906 1324 12514 430 990 12095 363 882 553  ALTA.B.C. 233 150 409 241 342 169 281 I74  209 346 415 347 343 319  157  180 148 126  101 - 90  TOTAL  13331 13281 13516 14382  17279 20293  20769 18119 16624  Source: Annual R e p o r t o f N a t i o n a l Farm Forum S e c r e  1951:  !  —  192  was e x p l a i n e d and a c o n s t i t u t i o n was o u t l i n e d f o r t h e new group.  I n o r g a n i z i n g t h e Forums, t h e r e f o r e , g r e a t use  was made o f l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e x i s t i n g forums and " o p i n i o n l e a d e r s , " i n o r d e r t o have an " e f f i c i e n t , e f f e c t i v e and l e s s e x p e n s i v e means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r u m s . " ^ Despite  3  the f a c t t h a t a l l of these v a r i o u s  were c o n v e r g i n g on t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum  forces proposal,  the l e a d e r s o f t h e movement s t i l l d e c i d e d t o engage i n a p r e l i m i n a r y s e r i e s of experimental of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  broadcasts.  The f i r s t  s e r i e s o f programmes was c a l l e d ' I n q u i r y  i n t o C o - o p e r a t i o n * and was j o i n t l y sponsored by t h e CBC, CAAE and t h e U n i t e d Farmers o f O n t a r i o .  The s e r i e s d e a l t  w i t h t h e economic and s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f consumer-producer co-operatives  and, a l t h o u g h i t aroused a storm o f p r o t e s t  from p r i v a t e Canadian b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s because o f i t s s u s p e c t e d p a r t i s a n s h i p , t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d were s u f f i e l e n t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e v a l u e o f r a d i o as a s t i m u l a t o r o f group discussion. A f t e r t h i s experiment N e i l M o r r i s o n , proposed D i r e c t o r of t h e Forum p r o j e c t , d i s c u s s e d a second l i s t e n i n g group b r o a d c a s t s e r i e s w i t h R.A. Sim o f t h e R u r a l A d u l t Educat i o n S e r v i c e o f Macdonald C o l l e g e .  The outcome o f t h i s  d i s c u s s i o n was a s e r i e s e n t i t l e d "Community  Clinic."  L i s t e n e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o r e p o r t t o t h e CBC about t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f the broadcast, w i t h a p r i z e o f f e r e d f o r the best report.  The r e p o r t s f l o w e d  i n s l o w l y , which i n d i c a t e d  193  t h a t audience m a i l r e a c t i o n c o u l d n o t he s o l e l y r e l i e d upon t o produce t h e two-way communication system d e s i r e d by t h e Forum o r g a n i z e r s .  The r e s u l t s o f b o t h o f these  experiments were deemed p r o m i s i n g  enough though, t o e s t a -  b l i s h t h e Farm Forum on a permanent b a s i s . The Farm B r o a d c a s t s Department o f t h e Canadian Broadcasting  C o r p o r a t i o n was made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e r i e s ,  with N e i l Morrison  a p p o i n t e d as t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e p r o j e c t .  The aim o f t h e N a t i o n a l Farm E a d i o Forum was c l e a r l y enunc i a t e d a t a committee m e e t i n g h e l d s i x months p r i o r t o Its  inauguration; " I t was a g r e e d t h a t t h e aim o f t h e s e r i e s i s t o make p e o p l e f a c e t h e i r problems. I t would be unwise t o assume t h a t p e o p l e a r e m e r e l y r e c e p t i v e by a s k i n g f o r an a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e o f t h i s k i n d . We s h o u l d n o t t e l l p e o p l e what they ought t o do, b u t r a t h e r i t i s i m p o r t a n t to l e t them f i n d o u t f o r themselves what needs t o be done. An attempt s h o u l d be made t o make them r e a l i z e t h a t they must assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward a s o l u t i o n of t h e problems f a c i n g them." 45  A n a t i o n a l p r o j e c t , such a s t h e Farm Forum, w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o be i n t e g r a t e d I n t o a g e n e r a l education, federalism.  scheme o f a d u l t  had t o f a c e t h e r e g i o n a l l o y a l t i e s o f Canadian I n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e  Farm Forum had t o e n l i s t the s u p p o r t o f i n f l u e n t i a l groups on b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s .  The Forum  a t t e m p t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k by p r o c u r i n g t h e s u p p o r t of n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as t h e CAAE and CFA, as w e l l as l o c a l groups, such as t h e U n i t e d Farmers o f O n t a r i o ,  194  the U n i t e d Farmers o f A l b e r t a and v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l ments.  Govern-  From t h e o u t s e t o f t h e Farm Forum, however, a c l e a r  d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was r e c o g n i z e d .  The CBC was  t o p l a n and produce t h e r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s , w h i l e t h e study m a t e r i a l and group o r g a n i z a t i o n was t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 46  o f t h e c o - o p e r a t i n g f a r m and e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . THE NATIONAL SPONSORS I n 1935,  t h e Canadian F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e was  e s t a b l i s h e d as a N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l ,  inter-  p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e r s and as a means o f c h a n n e l l i n g farm a t t i t u d e s i n t o c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n on common problems.  I n t h e view o f  the CFA, t h e Farm Forum o f f e r e d t h e f a r m e r a means o f publ i c i z i n g farmer's  o p i n i o n s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e .  Thus,  the CFA, i n s e a r c h o f a n a t i o n a l c o n s t i t u e n c y , a l s o found I n t h e Farm Forum a n a t i o n a l p u b l i c i t y agency. The  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , by  e n t e r i n g t h e Forum p r o j e c t , e n t e r e d a l s o t h e l e v e l o f r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . t o r e a c h a mass o f people  By a t t e m p t i n g  simultaneously without a teacher,  the CAAE i g n o r e d one o f the b a s i c t e n e t s o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , namely t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g a t e a c h e r .  As  a r e s u l t , t h e CAAE, l i k e t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum i t s e l f , was i s s u i n g a c h a l l e n g e t o e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n .  195 W i t h o u t the e x i s t e n c e o f the t h i r d member of the Forum t r i p a r t i t e , t h e Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g  Corporation,  N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum would never have become a p r a c tical reality.  The CBC was t h e r e g u l a t o r o f t h e Farm Forum  p r o j e c t , e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l m a t e r i a l b r o a d c a s t was i n t h e " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , " even i f t h e f u l f i l l m e n t of t h i s r e g u l a t i n g f u n c t i o n meant t h w a r t i n g the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e group i n t e r e s t s t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n t h e Farm Forum  itself.  THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK THE NATIONAL BOARD The N a t i o n a l Board was t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e of the N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum and, u n t i l 19^5,  instrument i t consisted  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from each o f the t h r e e n a t i o n a l spons o r i n g agencies.  I n 19^7,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from P r o v i n c i a l  Farm Forum Committees were added t o t h i s n a t i o n a l agency i n o r d e r t o make i t more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of r e g i o n a l I n t e r e s t s . The N a t i o n a l Board d i d n o t c o n t r o l b r o a d c a s t s suggest t o p i c s f o r the programmes.  but i t d i d  The CBC r e t a i n e d s o l e  a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e s e l e c t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Forum Broadcasts. THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Owing t o a b r o a d e n i n g o f b o t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and f u n c t i o n s , t h e N a t i o n a l B o a r d , i n 1947,  decided  to delegate  196 I t s a u t h o r i t y between m e e t i n g s t o an e x e c u t i v e  committee.  S e r v i n g on t h i s committee were f i v e members, t h r e e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e s p o n s o r i n g  agencies,  one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  from t h e Forums themselves and Dr. E.A. C o r b e t t at large).  The E x e c u t i v e  repre-  (Member  Committee was made r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r t h e d a i l y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e Farm Forum. THE NATIONAL OFFICE The N a t i o n a l O f f i c e o f t h e Farm Forum was l o c a t e d i n Toronto and c a r r i e d o u t the p o l i c y p l a n s f o r m u l a t e d by the N a t i o n a l Board.  Other more s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s o f t h e  N a t i o n a l O f f i c e were t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f study m a t e r i a l f o r l o c a l forums, t h e summarizing o f t h e Forum f i n d i n g s and making t h e Forum r e s u l t s a v a i l a b l e t o government d e p a r t ments, t h e s p o n s o r i n g  a g e n c i e s and t h e Forums,  The N a t i o n a l  O f f i c e a l s o served as a . l i a s o n agency between t h e N a t i o n a l Board and t h e P r o v i n c i a l Forum o f f i c e s .  The work o f N a t i o n a l  O f f i c e was under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a N a t i o n a l  Secretary,  THE CBC BROADCASTS DEPARTMENT The CBC Farm B r o a d c a s t s Department had t h e f i n a l a u t h o r i t y on a l l b r o a d c a s t s p r e p a r e d f o r t h e Farm Forum. T h i s organ o f t h e CBC d i s c u s s e d and c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h a l l a g e n c i e s connected w i t h t h e Farm Forum c o n c e r n i n g programme t o p i c s and t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n over t h e a i r .  The CBC d i d  197 n o t a i d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i s t e n i n g groups n o r d i d i t a s s o c i a t e i t s e l f w i t h any form o f group a c t i o n which emanated from the i n d i v i d u a l forums. THE PROVINCIAL SPONSORSHIP A t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , t h e Farm Forum d e r i v e d i t s s u p p o r t from I n s t i t u t i o n s , such as u n i v e r s i t i e s , government a g r i c u l t u r a l departments and e d u c a t i o n a l  agencies.  ONTARIO I n O n t a r i o a P r o v i n c i a l Farm Forum Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d composed o f t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e O n t a r i o F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e and s i x r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d from t h e l o c a l forums.  Below t h e p r o v i n c i a l  level  were a s e r i e s o f e l e c t e d County Forum Committees. QUEBEC I n Quebec, t h e Farm Forum r e p r e s e n t e d speaking  only the E n g l i s h -  f a r m e r s and, s i n c e i t was t h e s o l e o r g a n i z a t i o n  representing the English-speaking  Quebec f a r m e r , i t a l s o  a c h i e v e d membership i n t h e Canadian F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i culture.  U n t i l 1947» t h e Quebec P r o v i n c i a l Farm Forum  S e c r e t a r y was a l s o the D i r e c t o r o f R u r a l A d u l t f o r Macdonald C o l l e g e .  Education  198 THE MAEI TIMES I n New B r u n s w i c k and Nova S c o t i a , a j o i n t Committee, with representatives  from t h e two P r o v i n c i a l Departments  of A g r i c u l t u r e , t h e two Deputy M i n i s t e r s o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the New B r u n s w i c k D i r e c t o r o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n , t h e Nova S c o t i a D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n from t h e M a r i t i m e F e d e r a t i o n  representative  o f A g r i c u l t u r e and one member  f r o m t h e Nova S c o t i a F e d e r a t i o n the Forum p r o j e c t . .  Education, a  of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  The f a c t t h a t t h e M a r i t i m e  administered provinces  c o - o p e r a t e d on an i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l s c a l e , n o t o n l y i n t h e Farm Forum p r o j e c t , b u t a l s o i n s c h o o l b r o a d c a s t i n g ,  demon-  s t r a t e s t h e tendency, i n t h a t a r e a o f Canada t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e c e r t a i n common " r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s " i . e . broadcasting,  which r e q u i r e d t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e  t h a n one p r o v i n c e  educational e f f o r t o f more  i n o r d e r t o be e x p l o i t e d e f f e c t i v e l y .  THE PRAIRIE PROVINCES The  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Farm Forum was  s i m i l a r i n a l l three P r a i r i e Provinces  and, t h u s ,  chewan w i l l s u f f i c e a s an example o f t h i s system.  SaskatIn  Saskatchewan t h e r e g i o n a l forum committees were composed of two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  from t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department o f  A g r i c u l t u r e , two members from t h e Saskatchewan  Federation  of A g r i c u l t u r e and t h r e e people from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan.  199  BRITISH COLUMBIA I n B r i t i s h Columbia, the U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia's E x t e n s i o n Department assumed t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e Farm Forum p r o j e c t .  There was no P r o v i n c i a l Forum  Committee n o r any P r o v i n c i a l Government a i d . At the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , t h e r e f o r e , the f o r c e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Farm Forum e n t e r p r i s e  were t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Governments, e d u c a t i o n o f f i c i a l s , o r g a n i z e d  agriculture  and  the i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r .  the  e d u c a t i o n a l h a r v e s t o f t h e Farm Forum most of these groups  hoped t o f u r t h e r  Besides t h e i r desire  t o reap  t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t through p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n t h e Farm Forum. THE PROCESS OF EDUCATION' The p r o c e s s of e d u c a t i o n , i n terms of the N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum, was i n e x t r i c a b l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o c e s s of communication, i n b o t h the mass and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l t h a t was f a c i l i t a t e d by the Forum system.  senses,  The unique a s p e c t  of t h e Farm Forum, viewed from an e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , was i t s two-way communication p r o c e s s .  From the Farm  Forum N a t i o n a l O f f i c e emanated b r o a d c a s t s and w r i t t e n material,  study  w h i l e t h e Forums r e p l i e d w i t h r e p o r t s on t h e  d i s c u s s i o n s of these o r i g i n a l feedings.  The p r i n c i p a l  g o a l o f t h e e n t i r e communication system o f the N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum was t h e h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n i n g  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l  200 forum o r d i s c u s s i o n - l i s t e n i n g group.  The  radio broadcasts  and v a r i o u s p r i n t e d forum g u i d e s r e p r e s e n t e d the employment o f the mass media of communications as a means of t i n g the t r a n s f e r of i n f o r m a t i o n  facilita-  to the forums, as w e l l as  s t i m u l a t i n g the i n t e r e s t of the i n d i v i d u a l forum member's i n i t h e proposed d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c .  The mass media, however,  s e r v e d o n l y as supplementary a i d s , f o r the c r u c i a l a s p e c t of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n the forum group.  inter-personal  Thus, the mass media  were employed as s t i m u l a t o r s i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , as w e l l a s , b e i n g the means of c o n v e y i n g the b a s i c f a c t u a l foundat i o n s on which the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s would be  built.  COMMUNICATION TO THE FORUMS S i n c e , f o r most farm l i s t e n e r s , the gap l o c a l and n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t l e v e l was  between the  very l a r g e , the Forum  o f f i c i a l s d e c i d e d t h a t an i n t e r m e d i a r y  agent was  necessary  i n o r d e r to ensure a c o n t i n u i t y of i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h o u t the whole Farm Forum e n t e r p r i s e . by these o f f i c i a l s was  The  intermediary  agent  the weekly b r o a d c a s t r e p o r t s  by the v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l Farm Forum S e c r e t a r i e s . N a t i o n a l Network of the CBC  was  devised given  The  divided i n t o r e g i o n a l net-  works so the P r o v i n c i a l Farm Forum S e c r e t a r i e s c o u l d d e l i v e r their reports.  These r e p o r t s c o n t a i n e d  a summarized v e r s i o n  o f the forum d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h had o c c u r r e d i n the p r e v i o u s week, i n c l u d i n g some d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s  from i n d i v i d u a l forum  201 members.  T h i s f i v e minute p e r i o d a l l o w e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l  forum t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e o t h e r forums w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I t a l s o served the f u n c t i o n of p r o v i d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l forums w i t h t h e knowledge t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n s had been heard by forum l e a d e r s and even v o i c e d over the a i r f o r o t h e r s t o hear.  I t was o f l i t t l e s u r p r i s e t o d i s c o v e r t h a t  p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s e a g e r l y  listened  t o these r e p o r t s , w h i c h s e r v e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e American G a l l u p  Poll.  Once every month, t h e l a s t f i v e minutes o f every f o u r t h monthly b r o a d o a s t p e r i o d was d e v o t e d t o a N a t i o n a l Review B r o a d c a s t  by t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Forum S e c r e t a r y .  The N a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y r e c e i v e d and s y n t h e s i z e d a l l o f t h e Forum r e p o r t s f o r t h e p r e v i o u s month and d i s s e m i n a t e d t h e interpretive  summary o f them o v e r t h e a i r .  This N a t i o n a l  Report, i n c o n t r a s t t o the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary's broadc a s t , aimed a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l t o p i c s around a n a t i o n a l theme. i n combination  The o r i g i n a l Forum b r o a d c a s t s ,  w i t h t h e two forms o f r e v i e w  therefore,  broadcast,  c o n s t i t u t e d one a s p e c t o f the Farm Forum's feed-back system of two-way communication. SUNNYRIDGE: THE RURAL MICROCOSM A c c o r d i n g t o N e i l M o r r i s o n , D i r e c t o r o f t h e Farm Forum, t h e r a d i o b r o a d c a s t w i t h i n t h e Farm Forum system  202 was i n t e n d e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h r e e t h i n g s .  I t was " t o p r e -  s e n t a u t h e n t i c s o c i a l and economic background  material,"  i t was t o " t r a n s l a t e such m a t e r i a l i n t o terms t h a t would a p p e a l t o the i m a g i n a t i o n and i n t e r e s t o f farm l i s t e n e r s " and i t was t o "serve as a l i n k between l i s t e n i n g  groups."^  The b r o a d c a s t e r s a l s o r e a l i z e d t h e "extreme n e c e s s i t y f o r a u t h e n t i c c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s , i f a farm community was t o be used as t h e l o c a l e o f the s c r i p t s , f o r "farmers a r e the most c r i t i c a l group of r a d i o l i s t e n e r s when i t comes t o 48  b r o a d c a s t s d e p i c t i n g f a r m l i f e i n any  phase."  The Sunnyridge programme r e v e a l e d t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems and p r o v i d e d a p i c t u r e of r u r a l Canada*s conglomerate s o c i e t y .  The Sunnyrldge Forum p r e s e n t e d v a r y i n g  shades of r u r a l o p i n i o n on common problems.  The f i r s t  scene  i n a t y p i c a l b r o a d c a s t would p r o v i d e an e m o t i o n a l l i f t f o r the of  l i s t e n e r s by d r a m a t i z i n g an i n c i d e n t i n the s t r u g g l e s a f a r m e r i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o w r e s t a l i v i n g from the l a n d .  I n most c a s e s , t h i s comprised an e m o t i o n a l l y - l a d e n f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n of the problem.  Scene one then f a d e d i n t o t h e  Sunnyrldge Farm Forum as t h e members began t o d i s c u s s the problem t h a t had j u s t been d r a m a t i z e d . the  In this  situation,  n a r r a t o r was the " k i n d l y , p h i l o s o p h i c a l O l d Timer,  who knew everybody i n the community."  He would view t h e  problem i n the p e r s p e c t i v e o f h i s l o n g y e a r s of f a r m i n g experience.  Then t h e r e was E r i c Andersen, the Dane who  203  c o m i c a l l y p u l l e d everyone's l e g and who r e l a t e d a l l p r o b lems t o i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n a D a n i s h c o - o p e r a t i v e .  Martin  Barney i n c o n t r a s t t o E r i c Anderson, was p r e s e n t e d a s an " e a r n e s t , p r o g r e s s i v e , young d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r , who demanded immediate s o l u t i o n s t o a l l problems."  As i n a l l t y p i c a l  r u r a l s e t t i n g s , one would always expect t o d i s c o v e r Warden P e t t e r s o n , a " s u c c e s s f u l farmer of the o l d e r generation, a b i t c o n s e r v a t i v e , b u t a sound man." Armitage,  Then t h e r e was Mrs.  an " I n t e l l i g e n t w e l l - i n f o r m e d farm woman and l e a d e r  o f "good" causes i n t h e community."  A l l Forum programmes  had t o i n c l u d e t h e d i l i g e n t Mrs. R i c h a r d s , "the epitome o f Canadian h o u s e w i f e r y . "  A l o n g w i t h Mrs. R i c h a r d s i n t h e h i g h  a f f e c t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e , was George P o w e l l , t h e " i n t e l l i gent, argumentative  and h o n e s t f a r m e r , who Knows t h e t r o u b l e s  a man has l o o k i n g a f t e r t a x e s and mortgages - and doesn't l i k e them."  The p i c t u r e o f Western Canadian r u r a l s o c i e t y  would n o t be complete w i t h o u t W i l l Jones, hard-working  doctor."  the " k i n d l y ,  7  Thus, i n t h e Sunnyridge programme ••• ; r e p r e s e n t e d the Farm Forum o f f i c i a l s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e complexion of r u r a l Canadian s o c i e t y .  I t was a s o c i e t y o f d i v e r s e  i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l backgrounds, and y e t , i t was a s o c i e t y t h a t , i f p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e p r o p e r s t i m u l u s and o r g a n i z a t i o n , was  capable o f a c o n s t r u c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e common  good.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e Farm Forum's  204 concept o f Canadian r u r a l s o c i e t y tended t o propagate t h e "yeoman i d e a l , " f o r t h e r e was a n o t e d absence o f any c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s o f a f a r m e r - c a p i t a l i s t i n t h e i r programmes. PRINT COMMUNICATION TO THE FORUMS The  o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e Farm Forum were i n f l u e n c e d  by a study o f 'Radio and t h e P r i n t e d Page,' conducted i n 1940  by P a u l L a z a r s f e l d .  I n t h i s s t u d y , one o f L a z a r s f e l d ' s  major c o n c l u s i o n s was t h a t " i f p e o p l e have t h e c h o i c e between r a d i o and p r i n t , f o r f a i r l y comparable s u b j e c t m a t t e r , the h i g h e r t h e i r c u l t u r a l l e v e l t h e more l i k e l y they w i l l be t o p r e f e r t o r e a d r a t h e r than t o l i s t e n . " - '  0  One o f t h e  aims o f t h e Farm Forum was t o e l e v a t e t h e c u l t u r a l l e v e l of f a r m e r s by a g u i d e d form o f d i s c u s s i o n group p r o j e c t and, from t h e o u t s e t , t h e Forum o f f i c i a l s u t i l i z e d b o t h r a d i o and  t h e p r i n t e d page a s complementary e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l s .  Each o f these t o o l s was employed i n a s p e c i a l i z e d manner, f o r n o t o n l y would f a r m e r s l e a r n how t o l i s t e n t o a new e l e c t r o n i c form o f mass communication, b u t they would a l s o be f o r c e d t o d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e  r e a d i n g s k i l l s as a p r e -  condition f o r constructive radio l i s t e n i n g .  As a r e s u l t ,  the f u n c t i o n s o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l forum member i n t h e educat i o n a l p r o c e s s c l e a r l y emerged.  He was t o r e a d ,  listen,  d i s c u s s and a c t . The  forum member was t o r e a d t h e p r e p a r e d d i s c u s s i o n  205 m a t e r i a l i n o r d e r t h a t he would "be a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e , i n c r i t i c a l f a s h i o n , the i d e a s e x p r e s s e d o v e r t h e a i r and p r o v i d e the group w i t h i n t e l l i g e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f the problem under debate.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  w i t h i n t h e forum group, h i s f u n c t i o n was t o c o n t r i b u t e h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i d e a s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and even h i s emotions, to t h e a t t e m p t by the group membership t o r e a c h a consensus c o n c e r n i n g the problem.  I f a consensus was r e a c h e d w i t h i n  the group, the n e x t step was t o d e v i s e some form of a c t i o n p r o j e c t , based upon t h e consensus a r r i v e d a t , i n o r d e r t o r e l i e v e the problem i n t h e l o c a l community. Each forum member r e c e i v e d a copy o f "Farm Forum F a c t s , " a b u l l e t i n p u b l i s h e d by t h e CAAE, w h i c h p r o v i d e d background i n f o r m a t i o n on the up-coming b r o a d c a s t s .  He  a l s o r e c e i v e d t h e "Farm Forum Guide" which c o n t a i n e d r e p o r t f o r m s , t o be f i l l e d o u t and m a i l e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a f t e r e v e r y forum d i s c u s s i o n .  At i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s  throughout the year, a n a t i o n a l n e w s l e t t e r c o n t a i n i n g recent developments among the forums was produced f o r l o c a l consumption. With t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f each season, a s m a l l b o o k l e t , c a l l e d " R u r a l Canada Speaks," was p u b l i s h e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Forum O f f i c e t a b u l a t i n g t h e season's d i s c u s s i o n r e s u l t s . A l o n g w i t h t h i s b o o k l e t was a Farm Forum Handbook w h i c h was g i v e n t o each forum t o a i d them i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r new members.  F i n a l l y , most forum members s u b s c r i b e d t o  206 the CAAE j o u r n a l 'Food f o r Thought,' i n w h i c h was  contained  i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i c l e s , as w e l l a s , r e p o r t s by the N a t i o n a l Farm Forum S e c r e t a r y .  As a r e s u l t , i n the Farm Forum Com-  m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , each forum member had been  confronted  by w r i t t e n study m a t e r i a l , r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s and had  engaged  i n an i n t e r - p e r s o n a l group d i s c u s s i o n . COMMUNICATION FROM THE FORUMS As each i n d i v i d u a l forum d i s c u s s e d  a problem, the  forum s e c r e t a r i e s r e c o r d e d these p r o c e e d i n g s and c o m p i l e d r e p o r t s on the forum f i n d i n g s .  Once t h i s forum r e p o r t  was  f i n a l i z e d , i t s i n f l u e n c e extended l o c a l l y , r e g i o n a l l y , n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . A t the l o c a l l e v e l , the forum r e p o r t s were r e l a y e d t o l o c a l news media and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s who would be i n t e r e s t e d i n i t s c o n t e n t s .  The  forum r e p o r t was a l s o d e l i v e r e d t o the P r o v i n c i a l Farm Forum S e c r e t a r y ,  who  e d i t e d i t i n r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r  forum r e p o r t s he had r e c e i v e d . P o r v l n c i a l Secretary review broadcast.  From t h e s e r e p o r t s the  produced the c o n t e n t of h i s weekly  The P r o v i n c i a l summary of the forum f i n d i n g s  was a l s o r e l a y e d t o the N a t i o n a l Farm Forum O f f i c e and i n conjunction  there,  w i t h the o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l r e p o r t s , i t was  condensed i n t o a n a t i o n a l summary o f the forum f i n d i n g s . T h i s n a t i o n a l summary p r o v i d e d n a t i o n a l review broadcast.  the b a s i s f o r the monthly  The summary was a l s o d e l i v e r e d  t o n a t i o n a l governmental a u t h o r i t i e s and o t h e r a g e n c i e s  20? e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e forum. the  Finally,  n a t i o n a l summary was s e n t t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e r v i c e  Department o f t h e CBC and, i n t h i s way, i t can he c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l forum r e p o r t p o s s e s s e d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l dimension. D e s p i t e a l l o f t h e v a r i o u s means d e v e l o p e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum o f f i c i a l s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o cess of e d u c a t i o n through mass media, however, the whole Farm Forum s t r u c t u r e s t i l l r e s t e d upon t h e degree t o w h i c h the  Forum members were a b l e t o d i s c u s s i n t h e group. An a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l assessment o f an  e n t e r p r i s e w i t h t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum I s as v a s t an u n d e r t a k i n g as t h e Forum  itself.  However, t h e Farm Forum appeared t o have had.a major e f f e c t on t h e f a r m e r ' s l i f e , on t h e g e n e r a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n movement i n Canada, on r a d i o ' s r o l e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , on e d u c a t i o n ' s r o l e i n t h e Canadian f e d e r a l system, and on t h e n a t i o n a l i z i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s o f the CBC. The most immediate impact o f t h e Farm Forum on the r u r a l Canadian s o c i e t y o f t h e l a t e t h i r t i e s and e a r l y  forties  was i t s r o l e i n f a s h i o n i n g an a c t i v i s t approach, on t h e p a r t o f t h e f a r m e r s , t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c problems.  The  n e c e s s a r y c o n c o m i t a n t o f t h i s a c t i v i s t approach was t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f the Farm Forum d i s c u s s i o n group, as a b r e e d i n g ground f o r a r u r a l l e a d e r s h i p t h a t e x h i b i t e d an i n q u i r i n g and c r i t i c a l mind, so much I n demand i n t h e changing r u r a l  20 8 scene. I n t h e age o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, i s o l a t i o n and anomie c o n s t i t u t e the t r u e s e p a r a t e n e s s .  ^  The Farm Forum  a i d e d the d e p r e s s i o n f a r m e r , who was f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o blems o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change and t h e r e s u l t i n g anomio f e e l i n g s , by p r o v i d i n g him w i t h a p r e t e x t f o r a much needed s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with others.  A l s o , through the a c t i o n  o r i e n t a t i o n s o f many forums, t h e f a r m e r was a b l e t o p e r c e i v e the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f economic s u c c e s s and education.  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e f a r m e r i n t h e Farm  Forum was a n o t h e r segment o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z i n g the f a r m e r i n t o an acceptance o f t h e v a l u e and n e c e s s i t y of group p l a n n i n g , as a v i t a l f a c t o r i n t h e f u t u r e o f the agricultural enterprise.  During  t h e d e p r e s s i o n , f o r example,  many i n d i v i d u a l forums sponsored community p r o j e c t s which a c c o m p l i s h e d i n f o r m a l l y many t a s k s t h a t would l a t e r be f o r m a l l y u n d e r t a k e n by t h e l o c a l r u r a l arms o f t h e governal ment.. One f a c t o r w h i c h was o f t e n i g n o r e d by o b s e r v e r s o f the Farm Forum movement was t h a t t h e g e n e r a l  accessibility  of r a d i o i n v o l v e d l a r g e numbers o f u r b a n i t e s as p a r t o f t h e Forum l i s t e n i n g audience.52  i  n  t h i s way, Canadian u r b a n i t e s  were a b l e t o view t h e i r r u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t s  i na different  l i g h t t h a n u s u a l , as a group o f p e o p l e under s i m i l a r as themselves and a t t e m p t i n g  tensions  t o overcome t h e i r problems  209  through education  and c o - o p e r a t i o n .  L a t e r , t h e Canadian  u r b a n i t e was t o have h i s v e r s i o n o f t h e Farm Forum i n t h e shape of the N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n ' s Forum.  I n summary, t h e  Farm Forum caused a number of p e o p l e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s t o co-operate, problems.  i n - o r d e r t o c e n t e r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on common Thus, t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum, which a r o s e  i n a depression  t h a t had p l a n t e d t h e seeds o f r u r a l  social  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , p r o v e d t o be one means o f p r e v e n t i n g seeds from g e r m i n a t i n g ,  these  as w e l l as b e i n g i t s e l f a f a c t o r  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f an i n t e g r a t e d r u r a l society. The second g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f t h e Farm Forum p r o j e c t was t o prove t h a t r a d i o c o u l d p l a y a c o n s t r u c t i v e r o l e i n an o r g a n i z e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme.  The Farm Forum,  by p r o v i d i n g an immediate and sometimes v i s i b l e s o u r c e of s a t i s f a c t i o n to the p r a t i c i p a n t s , helped of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  i n the r u r a l s e t t i n g .  i n the p u b l i c i z i n g In later adult  e d u c a t i o n programmes, which would r e q u i r e f a r m e r s t o d e f e r t h e i r immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n s f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s , t h e t r a n s i t i o n from a farm forum t o t h i s l a t e r type o f a d u l t educat i o n would be f a r more smooth f o r ex-forum members than non-members.  The Farm Forum a l s o demonstrated t h a t t h e  f a r m e r p o s s e s s e d no i n t r i n s i c d e s i r e f o r s e l f - e d u c a t i o n . Rather, i t revealed t h a t other sources of m o t i v a t i o n , i . e . neighbourhood l i s t e n i n g groups and a c t i o n p r o j e c t s ,  210 were needed i n o r d e r t o make a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e to  the f a r m e r .  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e  M a n i t o b a R o y a l Commission on A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n 1947, when i t noted t h a t : " E d u c a t i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y o n l y one of t h e f u n c t i o n s performed by c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i o n s , and f r e q u e n t l y o n l y one o f t h e reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Anyone who a t t e n d s a r u r a l farm forum i s impressed by the f a c t t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t as a s o c i a l occasion...The combining o f education with r e c r e a t i o n i s already I m p l i c i t l y recognized i n Adult Education t e c h n i q u e s . " ^ The Farm Forum a l s o demonstrated t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i o i n v o l v e d a d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e between p o t e n t i a l advantages and i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The two-way communica-  t i o n s system o f t h e Farm Forum overcame, t o an e x t e n t , the u n i l a t e r a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n f u n c t i o n i m p l i c i t i n mass communication-based e d u c a t i o n .  The p r o j e c t a l s o showed  t h a t , i n o r d e r f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g t o o c c u r , the human q u a l i t i e s of enthusiasm  and emotion must be p r e s e n t , f a c t o r s  which a d e p e r s o n a l i z e d e l e c t r o n i c media c o u l d n o t s u p p l y . A l t h o u g h t h e r a d i o c o u l d extend the range o f the f a r m e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e f a r t h e r removed from t h e l o c a l community t h a t t h e t o p i c s were, t h e l e s s i n t e r e s t the f a r m e r p l a y e d i n them.  Thus, i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a p a r a l l e l  disrise  i n d i s i n t e r e s t and d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n w i t h each e x t e n s i o n of I n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e through t h e r a d i o , i t was found necessary  t o c o n t r o l and c h a n n e l t h e range o f e x p e r i e n c e s  t o be p r o v i d e d .  I n terms o f the Farm Forum, b r o a d c a s t s  X  211  p r o v i d e d background ment.  m a t e r i a l , f a c t u a l d a t a and e n t e r t a i n -  An e x p a n s i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e , no m a t t e r a t what l e v e l ,  c o u l d o n l y s e r v e a p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n i f i t was employed i n an i n t e r - p e r s o n a l communication  atmosphere.  The forum  group p r o v i d e d such an atmosphere. The Farm Forum a l s o h e l p e d t o overcome t h e r e l a t i v e  ^  p a s s i v i t y o f t h e r a d i o a u d i e n c e , a s w e l l as p r o v i d i n g t h e CBC w i t h a means o f s o l i d i f y i n g i t s n a t i o n a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n among r u r a l p e o p l e .  The p r o j e c t h e l p e d t h e CBC t o c o n s o l i -  date farm s u p p o r t f o r i t s p o l i c i e s , n o t o n l y I n a g r i c u l t u r a l broadcasting, but i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the l e g i t i m a c y of a p u b l i c system o f b r o a d c a s t i n g f o r Canada.  In later  investigatory  commissions concerned w i t h b r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada, t h i s r u r a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e CBC p r o v e d t o be of i n v a l u a b l e a i d 54  i n s u s t a i n i n g t h e concept o f p u b l i c r a d i o c o r p o r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h an argument c a n be made f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Farm Forum h e l p e d t o s o l i d i f y an a g r a r i a n c l a s s c o n s c i o u s ness which h i n d e r e d t h e development o f a more g e n e r a l Canadian i d e n t i t y ,  E.A. Corbettfs f e e l i n g - t h a t " i t has  brought t o g e t h e r once a y e a r o r more t h e l e a d e r s o f a g r i c u l t u r e from every p a r t o f Canada and through i t s weekly b r o a d c a s t s has p r o v i d e d a common b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e farm p e o p l e . . . o f Canada," appears t o be a more v a l i d assessment.$5  212  RADIO EDUCATION FOR THE CANADIAN UBBANITE  L  The N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum had p r o v i d e d t h e f a r m e r , who u s u a l l y made t h e c l a i m t h a t he was a c i t i z e n l e f t o u t of Government p o l i c y , w i t h a b r o a d c a s t i n g  series tailored  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o s u i t h i s needs and d e s i r e s . nineteenth  c e n t u r y , however, Canada had been  into a "nation of c i t i e s . "  Since the l a t e developing  The u r b a n i t e , as t h e CBC was  w e l l aware, had tuned i n t o t h e Farm Forum S e r i e s as a means of b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e r u r a l mind and of g a i n i n g some  v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s o c i e t y t h a t surrounded t h e city.  The u r b a n i t e , l i k e h i s r u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t , had a l s o  s u f f e r e d t h e economic and s o c i a l consequences o f t h e depression.  Thus, s i n c e t h e d i s c u s s i o n group i d e a had h e l p e d  the r u r a l d w e l l e r i n h i s f i g h t w i t h t h e d e p r e s s i o n ,  there  were many p e o p l e i n t h e c i t i e s who f e l t t h a t such a p r o j e c t c o u l d work i n t h e urban  situation.  D u r i n g t h e f o r t i e s , one department w i t h i n t h e CBC g r e a t l y expanded i t s f a c i l i t i e s , e v e n t u a l l y p r o d u c i n g  some  o f t h e b e s t programmes o f t h e n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e .  depart-  This  ment governed CBC " T a l k s and P u b l i c A f f a i r s " programming. O f f i c i a l s w i t h i n t h e T a l k s Department c o n s i d e r e d  that part  o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n was t o h e l p t h e CBC t o become "a p o w e r f u l Instrument f o r education  i n t h e b r o a d e s t sense through t h e  e f f e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e spoken word i n a v a r i e t y o f forms."  5 6  213 The programmes p l a n n e d and produced by t h e T a l k s and P u b l i c A f f a i r s Department were o f s e v e r a l t y p e s .  They  i n c l u d e d s t r a i g h t t a l k s by a u t h o r i t i e s , e x p e r t s and p u b l i c f i g u r e s , r e p o r t s by t r a i n e d r a d i o commentators, i n t e r v i e w s , forum and d i s c u s s i o n programmes, and documentary o r semidramatized  e d u c a t i o n a l programmes."^  7  The T a l k s Department d e a l t w i t h c o n t r o v e r s i a l subj e c t s " e i t h e r i n forum b r o a d c a s t s  o r round t a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s  . . . i n w h i c h speakers h o l d i n g t h r e e o r f o u r major d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f view on t h e s u b j e c t concerned were h e a r d i n open d i s c u s s i o n , o r by p r e s e n t i n g two t a l k s i n t h e same p r o gramme p e r i o d by speakers h o l d i n g o p p o s i n g v i e w s . " ^  A  8  f u r t h e r g u a r a n t e e , imposed by t h e T a l k s Department, t o "ensure t h a t t h e programmes were n o t c o n s t a n t l y s l a n t e d i n one d i r e c t i o n , " was t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t "any one commentator b e i n g used e x c l u s i v e l y o r c o n t i n u a l l y o v e r l o n g p e r i o d s of time."-* The  9  CBC c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t "programmes p r e s e n t e d  under  the g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f T a l k s and P u b l i c A f f a i r s . . . p l a y an i m p o r t a n t of r a d i o . " 6 °  p a r t I n f u l f i l l i n g the p u b l i c s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n The C o r p o r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1943-49,  reported that the t a l k s aspect of i t s " p u b l i c s e r v i c e programming" had " p a i d I n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the problem of r a i s i n g standards  o f b r o a d c a s t i n g by i n s i s t i n g on im-  p r o v e d q u a l i t y , both;-in w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g , by e x p e r i -  214 m e n t i n g w i t h new forms o f p r e s e n t a t i o n and by more c a r e f u l 61  selection broadcasting."  T h i s move by t h e CBC t o i n c r e a s e  the q u a l i t y o f i t s programme f a r e and t o " r e f l e c t t h e i d e a s ...activities,  t h e i n t e r e s t and d i v e r s i t y o f Canadian  l i f e " was nowhere b e t t e r demonstrated;than i n i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n ' s Forum." I n t h e F a l l o f 1942, t h e CBC i n a u g u r a t e d a s e r i e s o f " R e c o n s t r u c t i o n B r o a d c a s t s " c a l l e d 'Of Things t o Come'. T h i s weekly programme s e r i e s o r i g i n a t e d i n v a r i o u s Canadian c i t i e s and employed l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , as p a n e l l i s t s , who d i s c u s s e d a wide range o f t o p i c s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s t war w o r l d .  U n l i k e t h e Farm Forum, t h e r e were no f o r m a l l y  o r g a n i z e d d i s c u s s i o n groups i n t h i s b r o a d c a s t The  series.  'Of Things t o Come' b r o a d c a s t s were f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d  by t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n F o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n .  The  A s s o c i a t i o n i t s e l f had been engaged p r e v i o u s l y i n a "good d e a l of discussion...around the p o s s i b i l i t y of a N a t i o n a l Radio F o r u m . . . d i r e c t e d  t o people  i n Canadian c i t i e s and  towns who m i g h t be i n t e r e s t e d i n r e g u l a r study and d i s c u s s i o n o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . "  6 3  As a r e s u l t o f t h e success o f the *0f Things To Come' s e r i e s , t h e CAAE suggested  t h a t arrangements m i g h t  be made w i t h t h e CBC t o c o n t i n u e t h e b r o a d c a s t s under a new t i t l e - "Of Things To Come;  A C i t i z e n ' s Forum" -  w i t h the A s s o c i a t i o n "undertaking t o organize  listening  215 group's and p r o v i d e study o u t l i n e s . " ^  4  T h i s p r o p o s a l was  a c c e p t e d by t h e CBC and a f o r m a l c o n f e r e n c e ,  to discuss  the m a t t e r more f u l l y , was convened a t Macdonald C o l l e g e . The  theme o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e h e l d a t Macdonald C o l l e g e  was " E d u c a t i o n f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . "  The members  attempted  to d i s c o v e r a means o f c o - o r d i n a t i n g a l l o f t h e v a r i o u s proposals f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t o a concerted educational campaign and t o d e v i s e a p l a n so t h a t a l l o f t h e v a r i o u s organizations represented could contribute t o the venture. C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o v i d e d one such r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t t e n d e d t h e m e e t i n g from every P r o v i n c e i n t h e Dominion - a t o t a l o f one hundred and t h i r t y - f i v e delegates.  Three i n v e s t i g a t o r y committees were e s t a b l i s h e d  d u r i n g t h e two-day c o n f e r e n c e , t o work o u t t h e p l a n s f o r the broadcasts.  The Committee on Methods was c h a i r e d by  Dr. David P e t e g o r s k y ,  o f t h e Wartime I n f o r m a t i o n  Board.  T h i s Committee d e a l t w i t h t h e problems o f promoting t h e proposed C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o j e c t and conducted  investigations  i n t o t h e r o l e o f f i l m s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and c o - o p e r a t i o n among official  bodies.  A second committee on O r g a n i z a t i o n , c h a i r e d by Donald Cameron o f t h e E x t e n s i o n Department o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba, p l a n n e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t on t h r e e l e v e l s - n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and community.  Finally,  216 a Committee on C u r r i c u l u m was e s t a b l i s h e d and c h a i r e d byN e i l M o r r i s o n o f the CBC.  Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o one a c t i v e  p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e forum p r o j e c t , i t "appeared t h a t a C i t i z e n ' s Forum was away t o a good start."°5  Appearances a r e v e r y  o f t e n d e c e i v i n g , however, f o r t h e same o b s e r v e r soon r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e "was t r o u b l e a h e a d . "  0 0  The f i r s t N a t i o n a l Committee f o r C i t i z e n ' s Forum was composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , most o f w h i c h were engaged i n e d u c a t i o n of one form o r another.  The CBC was r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e Committee by N e i l  M o r r i s o n , M a r j o r l e McEnaney and Mr. Morley C a l l a g h a n . Mr. C a l l a g h a n was t o a c t as moderator f o r t h e . w e e k l y s e r i e s of programmes.  The Canadian I n s t i t u t e f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l  A f f a i r s was p r e s e n t t h r o u g h the personages of Dr. M. W a l l a c e and Douglas Maclennan.  The YWCA s e n t J e a n H a l l , w h i l e t h e  YMCA nominated Murray Ross.  The L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n of  Canada was r e p r e s e n t e d by R.E.  Crouch and t h e Canadian  Congress of Labour nominated Dr. Eugene F o r s e y .  The Navy  and Army were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d on the Committee.  Lieu-  t e n a n t C.C.  Graham p l u s two d i r e c t o r s of Navy and Army  E d u c a t i o n formed t h i s m i l i t a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Dr. E.A.  Finally,  C o r b e t t , Chairman of the C i t i z e n ' s Forum N a t i o n a l  Committee, r e p r e s e n t e d the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education.  A t a l a t e r stage the Canadian M a n u f a c t u r e r s  A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e Chamber of Commerce j o i n e d the N a t i o n a l Committee.  217  Besides  the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee, a  e x e c u t i v e of s i x was  s e l e c t e d , p o s s e s s i n g t h r e e members  each from the CBC and the CAAE. Committee was  The N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y  t o " s e r v e i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e and a d v i s o r y capa-  c i t y to the j o i n t e x e c u t i v e , " t h u s , " g u a r a n t e e i n g dependence of the p r o j e c t , and i m p a r t i a l i t y and i n such t h i n g s as s e l e c t i o n Of t o p i c s and i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of f a c t s and The  joint  the i n balance  speakers,  opinions."  and  0 7  dangers w h i c h were i n h e r e n t i n the  expression  o f o p i n i o n about Canadian s o c i e t y , d u r i n g o r a f t e r the  War,  soon became e v i d e n t to the o f f i c i a l s i n the C i t i z e n ' s Forum project.  As soon as the b a s i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e form had been  c o n s t r u c t e d and a rough programme p o l i c y e n u n c i a t e d , C i t i z e n ' s Forum sent Mr, M, C a l l a g h a n and Mr. N.  the  Morrison  to Ottawa, i n - o r d e r t o c o n s u l t w i t h Government o f f i c i a l s and o t h e r s r e g a r d i n g a c h o i c e of speakers f o r the up-coming broadcast  series.  The  envoys had p r e p a r e d  a tentative  l i s t of speakers b u t , upon p r e s e n t i n g i t t o the Government, they f o u n d t h a t "two  prominent L i b e r a l members o b j e c t e d  to the s e v e r a l s p e a k e r s from the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s who were on the list."°  8  A c c o r d i n g to E.A.  C o r b e t t , the  "feeling  i n the m a t t e r became so v i o l e n t t h a t one member of the Mackenzie K i n g c a b i n e t announced t h a t the CBC would not be p e r m i t t e d to p r o c e e d w i t h the programme."°9 "Ned"  C o r b e t t f i r s t h e a r d of t h i s problem of p a r t i s a n -  s h i p w h i l e On a p r o m o t i o n a l  t o u r f o r C i t i z e n ' s Forum i n  218 Western Canada.  He was v e r y d i s t u r b e d o v e r such  governmental  o b s t r u c t i o n i n a programme of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , f o r he  had  had a s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e i n the I n i t i a l stages of the Farm Forum p r o j e c t .  As a r e s u l t , C o r b e t t d e c i d e d t o b r i n g the  whole i s s u e t o the a t t e n t i o n o f John Dafoe of the Free P r e s s .  Winnipeg  Dafoe, i n the e a r l y p e r i o d of Canadian  radio,  had been an a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r o f the concept o f p u b l i c c o n t r o l w i t h o u t p a r t i s a n i n f l u e n c e and had c o n t r i b u t e d funds t o support the a c t i v i t i e s of the Canadian Radio League.  Thus,  as Dafoe l i s t e n e d t o C o r b e t t ' s t a l e of p a r t i s a n p r e s s u r e s on the CBC he, a c c o r d i n g to C o r b e t t , " r a n h i s f i n g e r s h i s t o u s l e d h a i r " and then d e c l a r e d "Edward, my boy, makes my  trigger finger itch."7°  The v e r y next day  through this  the  Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s c o n t a i n e d an e d i t o r i a l whilch a t t a c k e d the K i n g Government f o r i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of the CBC i n the C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o j e c t . S e v e r a l a r t i c l e s , such as the one produced by Dafoe, when combined w i t h some p r e s s u r e p o l i t i c s , e v e n t u a l l y p r o duced a statement by Dr. A. F r i g o n of the CBC which announced t h a t the "programme would go on as o r i g i n a l l y planned."71 Thus, as i n the e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the Farm Forum, educat o r s who  were i n t e r e s t e d i n u t i l i z i n g the r a d i o f o r g e n e r a l  e d u c a t i o n , had t o employ the p r e s s i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e the n o n - p a r t i s a n s t a n c e of the CBC.  T h i s was n o t  such  an u n u s u a l occurance, f o r the concept of " s o c i a l r e s p o n s i -  219  b i l l t y " when u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e  t o mass media o f communica-  t i o n s , had f i r s t been a p p l i e d t o t h e p r e s s . The  o r i g i n s o f t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  f r o m those o f i t s contemporary - t h e N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum.  The absence o f a d e p r e s s i o n  i n the formative  years  of t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum was a major r e a s o n f o r t h i s f a c t . Instead of conducting i t s operations  i n a society suffering  under t h e extreme s o c i a l and economic d i s l o c a t i o n s o f t h e t h i r t i e s , t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum was f o r c e d t o d e a l w i t h a s o c i e t y t h a t was geared f o r t o t a l war and l o o k i n g f o r " b e t t e r t h i n g s " i n t h e post-war w o r l d .  Secondly, u n l i k e  the r u r a l a r e a s o f Canada, t h e " d i s c u s s i o n , l i s t e n i n g and study group" t e c h n i q u e s had no t r a d i t i o n a l b a s i s i n t h e urban m i l i e u . and  Therefore,  the o f f i c i a l s of the Corporation  t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum had t o study t h e u r b a n s o c i a l system,  i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r t h a t , i f any, f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l groups a l r e a d y e x i s t e d on w h i c h one c o u l d b u i l d t h e r a d i o d i s c u s s i o n group.  E v e n t u a l l y , these I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e  u r b a n c u l t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t groups, such as t h e n e i g h b o u r hood, t h e c h u r c h , t h e l i b r a r y c l u b and t h e f a m i l y ,  could  be u t i l i z e d i n t h e forum s e r i e s . The  C i t i z e n ' s Forum p o s s e s s e d one advantage o v e r  the Farm Forum, though, f o r i t c o u l d l e a r n many  lessons  from the experiences of i t s r u r a l predecessor.  Thus, t h e  i d e a o f a r a d i o d i s c u s s i o n group, t h e need f o r a system  220 of two-way communication and audience feed-back, the means of e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o - o p e r a t i v e CBC and v a r i o u s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  educational bodies,  and the nature of r a d i o  as an e d u c a t i o n a l medium, a l l formed a p a r t of the background of those i n d i v i d u a l s who formed the C i t i z e n ' s Forum. The e f f e c t of the use of t h i s experience, was that the C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o j e c t , i n s t r u c t u r e and programme format, represented  the a p p l i c a t i o n of a r u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l  concept  to an urban s i t u a t i o n . The C i t i z e n ' s Forum, n e v e r t h e l e s s , own unique urban q u a l i t y .  did exhibit i t s  T h i s urban q u a l i t y was  from the content of the broadcasts.  Topics,  derived  such as urban  renewal, h i g h - r i s e apartments, and boss p o l i t i c i a n s , d i d not u s u a l l y form p a r t of the d i e t of a Farm Forum d i s c u s s i o n group. and  A f i n a l d i f f e r e n c e between the o r i g i n s of the Farm  C i t i z e n ' s Forum was t h a t , from i t s i n c e p t i o n , the l a t t e r  p r o j e c t was f o r c e d to compete w i t h a v a r i e t y of other sure time a c t i v i t i e s .  Unlike  movies, war bond c o n c e r t s ,  lei-  the d e p r e s s i o n s i t u a t i o n ,  s p o r t s , and s o c i a l d r i n k i n g  were a v a i l a b l e on a l a r g e s c a l e d u r i n g  the war p e r i o d .  ORGANIZATION OF CITIZEN'S FORUM As was the case i n the Farm Forum, the v a r i o u s  dis-  c u s s i o n groups r e c e i v e d p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l p r i o r to the a c t u a l r a d i o broadcasts,  so that background i n r e l a t i o n  221  to t h e up-coming programme was p o s s e s s e d by a l l .  After  the group d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r a d i o programme, each forum r e p o r t e d i t s f i n d i n g s to t h e i r P r o v i n c i a l C i t i z e n ' s Forum Secretary.  The Forum S e c r e t a r y s y n t h e s i z e d t h e s e l o c a l  forum r e p o r t s i n t o a P r o v i n c i a l R e p o r t , which formed t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e l a s t f i v e m i n u t e s o f t h e n e x t week's p r o gramme.  F i n a l l y , as i n t h e Farm Forum, t h e r e was a l s o a  monthly round-up b r o a d c a s t produced by the n a t i o n a l o f f i c e of t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e CBC i n t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum s e r i e s was to s e c u r e speakers f o r t h e v a r i o u s jpanels w h i c h were d e v i s e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e t o p i c s o f t h e b r o a d c a s t s . The C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o produced t h e b r o a d c a s t s c o n t r i b u t i n g , f r e e o f charge, t h e time o f i t s e n g i n e e r i n g s t a f f , s p e a k e r s f e e s , t r a v e l and expenses. folder.  I t also published a p u b l i c i t y  The r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e  the C i t i z e n ' s Forum were assumed by t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . The CAAE was concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e uses o f each programme.  Thus, t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  p r e p a r e d and p u b l i s h e d d i s c u s s i o n pamphlets on each b r o a d c a s t t o p i c f o r t h e use o f t h e forum groups, a r r a n g e d f o r p r o v i n c i a l support of the s e r i e s , provided the n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s t h a t were engaged i n o r g a n i z i n g l o c a l forums, and c o n t i n u e d t o a c t i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e a s a c l e a r i n g house f o r t h e exchange of i d e a s  222 and e x p e r i e n c e s  i n e d u c a t i o n among t h e v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l  authorities. SELECTION OF EDUCATIONAL CONTENT The C i t i z e n ' s Forum, d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f o u r y e a r s o f i t s o p e r a t i o n , entrusted the s e l e c t i o n of broadcast t o p i c s to a j o i n t e x e c u t i v e committee o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l . However, as i n the case o f t h e Farm Forum, t h e  officials  o f t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum d i s c o v e r e d t h a t , i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e b r o a d l i s t e n i n g base o f t h e s e r i e s , a means had to be found t o i n v o l v e t h e " g r a s s - r o o t s " forum member i n the p r o c e s s o f t o p i c s e l e c t i o n . for  Thus, i n 1948, a new f o r m u l a  t o p i c s e l e c t i o n was i n a u g u r a t e d .  I n March, a q u e s t i o n -  % n a i r e concerned w i t h t h e up-coming programme y e a r was m a i l e d to a l l groups and r e g i s t e r e d forum members.  The forums  were i n v i t e d t o suggest i d e a s f o r b r o a d c a s t  t o p i c s under  t h r e e headings - community, n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l . A f t e r t h e C o r p o r a t i o n r e c e i v e d t h e r e t u r n e d forum q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i t s e n t o u t one hundred and f i f t y form l e t t e r s t o " c o n s u l t a n t s " r e q u e s t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r programmes.  The  " c o n s u l t a n t s " were e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d  journal-  of education,  ism, b u s i n e s s , p o l i t i c s and l a b o u r . A f t e r a l l Of these b r o a d c a s t  s u g g e s t i o n s were r e -  c e i v e d , a j o i n t CBC-CAAE committee c l a s s i f i e d them, on t h e b a s i s o f "frequency  o f r e q u e s t " and "balance o f i n t e r e s t , "  223 i n t o a l i s t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t h i r t y - f i v e programmes.  " v o t i n g l i s t , " as i t was named, was  This  t h e n m a i l e d out t o  a l l c o n s u l t a n t s , P r o v i n c i a l Forum o f f i c e s , CBC r e g i o n a l p r o d u c e r s , the members of the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y Committee and the C o u n c i l o f the CAAE.  The r e c i p i e n t s of the  s e l e c t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t e e n programme t o p i c s .  list  These  s i x t e e n s e l e c t i o n s were t h e n compared w i t h the s i x t e e n s e l e c t i o n s o f a l l o t h e r v o t e r s and t h e n grouped i n t o a f i n a l of s i x t e e n by the j o i n t committee.  There was  list  a l s o a pro-  v i s i o n made i n t h e forum time schedule f o r c e r t a i n "ad-hoc b r o a d c a s t s " which c o u l d be employed t o c o v e r c r u c i a l news s t o r i e s o c c u r l n g p r i o r to a i r t i m e , e.g. war THE  events.  CITIZEN'S FORUM GROUPS As C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o g r e s s e d i t became v e r y  t h a t " n e a r l y a l l groups have one t h i n g i n common." common element was  the f a c t t h a t almost a l l of the  clear 72  This  Citizen  73 Forum d i s c u s s i o n groups "were formed w i t h i n neighbourhoods." In  f a c t , many people f e l t t h a t the C i t i z e n ' s Forum  "has  o f t e n h e l p e d to change a g e o g r a p h i c l o c a l i t y i n t o a community" and "many a good forum on a s t r e e t has b r o u g h t p e o p l e t o gether i n t o a neighbourhood."  74  Thus, two forms of com-  munity groups began t o emerge as the f o u n d a t i o n on w h i c h the C i t i z e n ' s Forum was b u i l t .  F i r s t , t h e r e were  composed o f f r i e n d s and neighbours  who  "those  come t o g e t h e r i n -  224 f o r m a l l y and have a group w h i c h i s t h e i r o n l y common b a s i s of m e e t i n g , " ^  Second, t h e p r o j e c t a t t r a c t e d "members o f  some o r g a n i z a t i o n s , perhaps a c h u r c h , who use the C i t i z e n ' s Forum as p a r t o f t h e i r programme."75  There was, o f course,  a t h i r d group t h a t the C i t i z e n ' s Forum a t t r a c t e d , one which many o b s e r v e r s c o n s i d e r e d  t o be o u t s i d e o f t h e community.  T h i s group was composed o f t h e s t u d e n t s classroom.  i n the s c h o o l  7 6  The d i s c u s s i o n group was t h e b a s i c u n i t o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o j e c t .  C e r t a i n of these d i s c u s s i o n !  groups, however, were found t o be more e f f e c t i v e than o t h e r s . A Forum i n t h e c i t y o f H a l i f a x was a c c l a i m e d valuable f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . According  as e s p e c i a l l y  to the o f f i c i a l s  of C i t i z e n ' s Forum, t h i s group a t t a i n e d such a h i g h degree of r e s p e c t because o f t h r e e q u a l i t i e s i t p o s s e s s e d .  These  t h r e e q u a l i t i e s were t h a t : "1. T h i s group r e a l i z e d . . . t h a t i f t h e y were t o be c a p a b l e c i t i z e n s o f Canada...they had t o know more about t h e i r country. 2. By d i s c u s s i n g t h e s e f a c t s t o g e t h e r and by the i n t e r p l a y o f o p i n i o n a g a i n s t o p i n i o n , each i n d i v i d u a l member o f t h e Forum sharpened and c l a r i f i e d h i s own mind on the a n v i l o f c o n t r o v e r s y . 3. T h i s f o r u m . . . r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n was somet h i n g t o equip them f o r f u t u r e l l f e . " 7 7  The N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n ' s Forum, a l t h o u g h i t had a longer formal l i f e  span t h a n t h e Farm Forum, was n e v e r  as s u c c e s s f u l as t h e l a t t e r i n terms o f e i t h e r membership  225 o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n f u l f i l l i n g i t s aims.  There were many-  reasons f o r t h i s d i s p a r i t y between the two forum p r o j e c t s , some of w h i c h d e r i v e d from the n a t u r e of the u r b a n a u d i e n c e , the type of programme and the p e r i o d of i t s o r i g i n .  A  major problem whi:ch p l a g u e d the C i t i z e n ' s Forum was  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of d i s c u s s i o n groups.  I t g r a d u a l l y became c l e a r  t o the promoters of the Forum t h a t "groups w i l l not be m e r e l y by p u t t i n g on b r o a d c a s t s ,  created  s e n d i n g out study b u l l e t i n s  and c a s t i n g p u b l i c i t y on the w a t e r s , " f o r " p e r s o n a l i s what c r e a t e s a d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p . "  contact  A l s o , the mass  7 8  media, e s p e c i a l l y r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s and p r i n t e d b u l l e t i n s , had  to be "adapted to each l o c a l forum w i t h i t s own 79  needs."'  local  7  The  r e s u l t of t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s was,  of the N a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y  i n the v i e w  of the C i t i z e n ' s Forum, the f a c t  t h a t " t h e r e must be s u f f i c i e n t p a i d s t a f f i n the C i t i z e n ' s Forum." to "go  80  These p r o f e s s i o n a l forum w o r k e r s would be used  i n t o new  t e r r i t o r y , p i c k out the p o t e n t i a l group  l e a d e r s , and e x p l a i n how be d e v e l o p e d .  the C i t i z e n ' s Forum t e c h n i q u e  They would t r y to i n t e r e s t heads of  t i o n s t o use C i t i z e n ' s Forums among t h e i r own t o h o l d l e a d e r s h i p c o n f e r e n c e s , and and h e l p any forum t h a t may  8  1  organiza-  membership,  to give personal  need i t . "  may  I t was  an  advice unfor-  t u n a t e s i t u a t i o n , however, t h a t t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s were j u s t the ones t h a t the C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o j e c t  lacked.  y  226 A reason o f t e n o f f e r e d i n e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s l a c k of prof e s s i o n a l i s m i n t h e s t a f f o f the C i t i z e n ' s Forum was t h a t , u n l i k e the n a t u r a l f l o w of a g r i c u l t u r a l support t o the Farm Forum, t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum "because o f i t s w i d e r app r o a c h , i s everybody's  and nobody's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "  A second major f a c t o r i n t h e r e l a t i v e  8 2  ineffective-  ness o f t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum, as compared t o t h e Farm v e r s i o n , was t h e f a c t t h a t "no s i n g l e community o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i n t e r e s t can be counted on t o spearhead p r o m o t i o n s , " " f o r a l l t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s had " t h e i r own w e l l - d e f i n e d p u r poses and t h e i r own crowded p r o g r a m m e s . f a c t o r , t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum was i t s e l f  1,83  Besides  this  "too v a r i e d i n i t s  c o n t e n t t o become t h e p r i m a r y programme i n t e r e s t of anyone of t h e m . "  m  A t h i r d d i f f i c u l t y e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum stemmed from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e post-war w o r l d .  The  war t h a t had been f o u g h t t o r i d t h e w o r l d o f t h e N a z i t e r r o r had a c c o m p l i s h e d  i t s t a s k , b u t t h e postwar w o r l d f a c e d  what many f e l t t o be a new t e r r o r , s y m b o l i z e d by the hammer and s i c k l e .  T h i s s p l i t w i t h i n t h e a l l i e s o f World War I I  and t h e o n s l a u g h t o f t h e " C o l d War" r e s u l t e d , i n t h e f o r t i e s , i n a s t a t e of continuous c o n f l i c t o r t h r e a t of c o n f l i c t . As Canadians f a c e d t h i s new post-war w o r l d , a "good d e a l of t h e c o n f i d e n c e i n d i s c u s s i o n o r a problem disappeared  it LC  s o l v i n g method  and was r e p l a c e d by "a sense o f t h e a p a t h e t i c  22? f u t i l i t y as f a r as i n f l u e n c i n g the course of a f f a i r s . " -5 u  T h i s approach t o w o r l d a f f a i r s n a t u r a l l y a f f e c t e d a p r o j e c t such as C i t i z e n ' s Forum, f o r t h e Forum e n t e r p r i s e had p l a c e d the concepts pedestal.  of g r o u p - d i s c u s s i o n and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g on a  Thus, t h e d i s t r u s t o f d i s c u s s i o n as a means of  problem s o l v i n g i n t h e w o r l d , was d i s p l a c e d onto the C i t i z e n ' s Forum, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a n o t i c e a b l e d e c l i n e i n membership occurred. The b r o a d c a s t i n g "season" had been developed  during  the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s t o meet t h e needs of a p o p u l a t i o n which had a reduced p o t e n t i a l f o r m o b i l i t y , b o t h s o c i a l and geog r a p h i c a l , a much reduced spending power, and y e t , a r e l a t i v e l y i n c r e a s e d amount of l e i s u r e t i m e .  Thus, the  b r o a d c a s t i n g season was made l o n g , i n terms o f t i m e , so as t o f u l f i l l the needs o f these l e i s u r e d people who des i r e d sustained entertainment  from t h e i r r a d i o s .  The C i t i z e n ' s  Forum p r o j e c t , l i k e t h e Farm Forum p r o j e c t , was c o n s t r u c t e d so as t o extend t h r o u g h o u t t h i s l o n g b r o a d c a s t e i g h t t o t e n months.  season,  However, t h e l o n g b r o a d c a s t  season  r e q u i r e d t h e s u s t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l as b o t h a l i s t e n e r and as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n a d i s c u s s i o n group. I t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s type o f a t t e n t i o n t h a t the C i t i z e n ' s Forum c o u l d n o t muster from the new " t i m e - c o n s c i o u s "  urban  s o c i e t y , w h i c h o b j e c t e d t o any l e n g t h y commitments,  Be-  s i d e s t h i s f a c t , t h e u r b a n i t e was i n t h e m i d s t o f too many d i s t r a c t i n g i n f l u e n c e s such as c o m m e r c i a l i z e d  sport, to  228 g i v e h i s f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o any one a c t i v i t y o v e r a l o n g l e n g t h o f time. counterpart,  The C i t i z e n ' s Forum, u n l i k e i t s r u r a l  p o s s e s s e d no a t t r a c t i v e power, i n terms o f  i n c r e a s i n g t h e monetary, v o c a t i o n a l o r s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o j e c t . "for  Education  i t s own sake", o r f o r " u n d e r s t a n d i n g , " o n l y had l i m i t e d  a p p e a l t o a l i m i t e d number o f p e o p l e . A n o t h e r major c r i t i c i s m t h a t was l e v e l l e d a t t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum p r o j e c t as i t d e v e l o p e d was t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s were t o o remote fromswhat was d e s c r i b e d as the " p u b l i c I n t e r e s t o f everyday l i f e . "  8 0  Most p e o p l e  r e a d i l y "acknowledged t h e importance o f t h e s u b j e c t t o be discussed" but experienced  f r u s t r a t i o n because they were  " u n c o m f o r t a b l y aware t h a t they do n o t p o s s e s s enough f a c t s to r e a c h v a l i d judgements." ? 8  The average l i s t e n e r who  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e forum p r o j e c t a l s o f e l t t h a t a group d e c i s i o n "when r e a c h e d , i s p u r e l y an academic one," f o r "they c o u l d see no a p p a r e n t r e l a t i o n between t h e d e c i s i o n of t h e i r group and any p o s s i b l e a c t i o n w h i c h might be t a k e n on t h e s u b j e c t . "  8 8  The Farm Forum had been a b l e t o inaugu-  r a t e s e v e r a l "community p r o j e c t s " such as h o s p i t a l d r i v e s , as a r e s u l t o f i t s d i s c u s s i o n groups.  The C i t i z e n ' s Forum,  on t h e o t h e r hand, would f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n l a u n c h i n g  a  campaign, f o r example, t o f o r c e members o f t h e U n i t e d  Nations  to subscribe  t o t h e i d e a o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c e f o r c e .  229  The r e s u l t o f t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum t o communicate a t the " g r a s s r o o t s " l e v e l , was t h a t once more the CBC was open t o t h e charge o f b e i n g an " o v e r l y i n t e l l e c t u a l " organization.  I n summary, p r o b a b l y the m a j o r  r e a s o n f o r t h e c o m p a r a t i v e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e C i t i z e n ' s Forum, i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e Farm Forum, was t h a t t h e f o r m e r p r o j e c t d i d "not a p p e a l t o any one segment of the community and, a  t h u s , cannot be, i n an o r d i n a r y  sense of t h e word,  movement." 9 8  The N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n ' s Forum, d e s p i t e i t s r e l a t i v e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n terms o f a c t i o n p r o j e c t s and membership s i z e d i d , l i k e t h e Farm Forum, h e l p t o overcome t h e " p a s s i v i t y " o f the r a d i o l i s t e n i n g a u d i e n c e . t r i b u t e d to the general I n October I965, ^  w  a  s  T h i s f a c t a l o n e con-  e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the CBC. announced t h a t the N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n ' s  Forum would be r e p l a c e d by a "new s t y l e C i t i z e n ' s Forum" c a l l e d "Cross Country Check-Up." a "national open-line country conversation  The new s e r i e s was t o be  t e l e p h o n e programme," a l m o s t a " c r o s s f o r two h o u r s . "  The new s e r i e s was  b i l l e d as a "programme about t h i n g s t h a t f a s c i n a t e , i n t e r e s t , amuse, i n f u r i a t e , i n v o l v e , absorb and c o n c e r n Canadians a programme i n w h i c h you can t a k e p a r t whereever you are."90 The "new" C i t i z e n ' s Forum has abandoned t h e use of the d i s c u s s i o n group, a s t h e b a s i c u n i t i n a d u l t  radio  230 e d u c a t i o n , and s h i f t e d i t s o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . However, i t appears t h a t , i f a group e n c o u n t e r s d i f f i c u l t y i n m e e t i n g the p r e s s u r e s o f s o c i a l problems, t h e n how much more strenuous  t h e t a s k of problem s o l v i n g must become when  conducted on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ,  A l s o , i f a group p r o -  j e c t was c r i t i c i z e d f o r e x c l u d i n g the mass o f p e o p l e , the opportunity f o r c l i q u i s h domination of the b r o a d c a s t i n g medium by " i n t e l l e c t u a l s , " o p e r a t i n g on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , i s even more p r o b a b l e .  The "new" s t y l e forum must f a c e ,  i n t h e s i x t i e s , t h e same q u e s t i o n s w h i c h hounded i t s p r e decessor  i n the f o r t i e s .  231 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER SIX R e p o r t o f the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g (Ottawa. King's P r i n t e r , 1946), p.36. x  James H. Gray, The W i n t e r Years ( T o r o n t o , 1966), p. 6. 2  Co.,  MacMillan  I b i d . , p. 7.  3  ^ I b i d . , p. 7. , ^See: C. R i c h a r d s , Some S o c i a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l " E f f e c t s o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n (M.A. T h e s i s , u n p u b l i s h e d , U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba, 1934), pp. 1-20. 6  I b i d . , p. 57.  7Gray, op. c i t . . p. 7. ^ R i c h a r d s , op. c i t . . p.. 57• ^Examples o f such i d e a l i s t i c groups were the Canadian Radio League and t h e League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  10R.A. Sim, Farm Radio Forum ( P a r i s , UNESCO, 1954),p.l, 0.J.W. Shugg, P a t t e r n F o r A g r i c u l t u r a l B r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada ( u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , 1938), p. 20. xl  E . A . C o r b e t t , We Have W i t h Us T o n i g h t Ryerson P r e s s , 1957), p. 56. 12  1  (Toronto,  3ibid., p. 56.  1 4  I b i d . , p . 57.  C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 1935. p. 1. " 1 5  !  1 6  c o r b e t t , op. c i t . . p. 56.  1 7  I b l d . , p. 57.  1 8  I b i d . , p. 57.  l 9  !  E . L . T h o r n d l k e , A d u l t L e a r n i n g (N.Y. Columbia  U n i v e r s i t y , 1928), p. 51..  232 2 0  I b i & . , p. 52.  2 1  I b i d . , p.. 52.  2 2  C o r b e t t , op. c l t . . p. 60.  3lbid., p. 53.  2  2 4  2  T b i d . , p. 53.  5ibid., p. 53.  26rp  he  C  B  Ch  a  a  been formed i n 1936, t h e CAAE i n 1935  and t h e CPA i n 1935-  M.M. Coady, The S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Coo p e r a t i v e Movement ( H a l i f a x , S t . F r a n c i s X a v i e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1946), p. 1; and A.P. L a l d l a w , The Campus and t h e Community ( M o n t r e a l , H a r v e s t House, I96I), pp. 1-100. 27  2 8  I b l d . , p. 1.  2 9  I b i d . , p. 2.  30lbid., p. 2. 3 i b i d . , p. 3. 1  3 l b i d . , p. 3. 2  3 3  i b l d . , p. 4.  34ibid., p. 4. 35ibid., p. 5. 1947,  36R. s t a p l e s , "Farm Forum R e p o r t , " Food F o r Thought. P. 50.  37seej S.M. L i p s e t , A g r a r i a n R a d i c a l i s m ( B e r k e l e y , U n i v e r s i t y of. C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1950), p. 37 and W.L. Morton, The P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y i n Canada ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1950), pp. I-96. Other i n d i c a t i o n s o f such r u r a l c o - o p e r a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n were t h e G r a i n Grower's Guide and i n t e r - d e n o m l n a t i o h a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n c h u r c h b u i l d i n g and r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n . 3 M.M. Coady, M a s t e r s o f T h e i r Own D e s t i n y H a r v e s t House, 1939), P.• 1. 8  (Montreal,  233 E v l d e n c e f o r such a c o n c l u s i o n i s , however, onlya v a i l a b l e f o r the P r a i r i e s . 3 9  T h e Farm Forum s l o g a n was READ - LISTEN - DISCUSS - ACT. The " a c t " r e f e r r e d t o a c t i o n p r o j e c t s , e.g. s c h o o l r e p a i r s , based on t h e r e s u l t s o f group d i s c u s s i o n . 4 0  4 1  S i m , or>. c i t . . p,  4 2  I b i d . , p.  4  3ibid.,  p.  73.  73. 74.  ^ N e i l M o r r i s o n , "Farm Radio Forum R e p o r t , " Food F o r Thought. 1941, p. 7. ^ N e l l M o r r i s o n , " F a r m e r s A i r T h e i r P r o b l e m s , " Food F o r Thought. June 1941, No. 16, p. 10. 4  4 6  4  I b i d . , p.  7ibid.,  4 y  4 9  p.  7. 7.  I b i d . , p. 8. I b i d . , p.  7.  •5°P. L a z a r s f e l d , Radio and the P r i n t e d Page (N.Y., Random House, 1940), p. 178. Throughout numerous a r t i c l e s on r a d i o i n "Food F o r Thought," t h i s s o u r c e was mentioned. -^See: R. S t a p l e s , "Report on Farm R a d i o Forum," Food F o r Thought. J u l y , 1945, p. 28. Mr. S t a p l e s , D i r e c t o r o f the Farm Forum, had c l a i m e d t h a t "a r e a s o n a b l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of d i s c u s s i o n s must i n c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c t i o n on the p a r t o f . . . f o r u m s f o r a c t i o n i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . " ^ Many forum programmes c o n t a i n e d a s e c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y f o r urban!tes. 2  53Report o f the R o y a l Commission on A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n M a n i t o b a . 1947, p. 103. 5^Se e: f o r example, s t a t e m e n t s and b r i e f s s u b m i t t e d t° the R o y a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s . L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s (Ottawa. K i n g ' s P r i n t s , I Q 5 T A 423-433. * v  1 1  55corbett, op. c l t . . p. 6 0 .  v  y y  234 •5°Annual Report o f the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g t i o n , op. c i t , .1945, P. 8. 57ibid.,  1944,  Corpora-  P. b.  5 l b i d . , 1945, p. 10. 8  5 9 i b i d . , p. 10 I b i d . , P. 9 .  6 0  6 1  I b i d . , 1946,  °2ibid.,  p. 9.  °3corbett, 6  6  p. 9 .  op. c i t . . p. 16b.  ^ I b i d . , p. 166. 5 l b l d . , p. 170.  6°There had a l s o been t r o u b l e b e h i n d , f o r i n o r d e r to p e r m i t t h e conference t o be h e l d , the Canadian C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n f o r C i t i z e n s h i p was f o r c e d t o donate $1000. 6 7 l . W i l s o n , " N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n ' s Forum," L e a r n i n g and L i v i n g , ed. R. K i d d , ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1961), p. 25. 6 8 c o r b e t t , op. c i t . . p. 9 l b i d . , p.  171.  7 0 i b i d . , p.  171.  7 1 l b i d . , p.  171.  6  171.  7 G. Grant, "Report on C i t i z e n ' s Forum," Food F o r Thought. J u l y 1, 1945, P. 2 3 . 2  73ibid.,  p. 23.  7 4 i b i d . , p. 23. 7 5 i b i d . , p. 23. 76see: H. Grenzeback, " C i t i z e n s Forum i n the S c h o o l , " The B u l l e t i n ( O n t a r i o Secondary S c h o o l Teachers F e d e r a t i o n , Feb. 1950), p. 15.  235 77 . Grant, "Foundations o f a S u c c e s s f u l Forum," Food F o r Thought, Nov. 19^4, p. 26. G  7 Armual Report, o f t h e N a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y o f C i t i z e n ' s Forum. 19^5, P * 8  7 l h i d . , p. 2. 9  8 0  I b i d . , p. 2.  8 1  l b i d . , p. 3.  8  2 l b i d . , p. 3.  8  3 i b i d . , p. 3-  S ^ I b i d . , p. 3. 8  5wilson, op. o l t . . p. 26.  8  6Report o f t h e N a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r y , 19^5  8  7j.bid., p. 5-  8 8  l b i d . , p. 5.  8 9  l b i d . , p. 5-  90it  A  N  1964, p. 50.  <?Pr c^-t.,p.4.  ew C i t i z e n ' s Forum", L e a r n i n g and L i v i n g .  CONCLUSION The development of n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n Canada was  i n f l u e n c e d hy t h e f o r c e s o f t h e t i m e s w i t h i n w h i c h i t  o c c u r r e d , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e Canadian f e d e r a l system, t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g and t h e i d e a s and a c t i o n s o f c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s who adhered t e n a c i o u s l y t o a b e l i e f i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r a d i o . The d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930*s and t h e Second World War e x e r t e d a s t r o n g p r e s s u r e upon t h e d i r e c t i o n and form of n a t i o n a l r a d i o education.  The f i n a n c i a l s t r i n g e n c y o f  the d e p r e s s i o n meant t h a t t h e CRBG and t h e CBC p o s s e s s e d l i t t l e c a p i t a l f o r use i n t h e more c o s t l y a s p e c t s o f p r o gramming, such as e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g .  The depres-  s i o n , however, d i d c r e a t e c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e time needs w h i c h many p e o p l e hoped t h e r a d i o c o u l d h e l p to s a t i s f y .  The b e l i e f i n t h e r a d i o a s an e d u c a t i o n a l  medium was formed i n t h e d e p r e s s i o n , b u t t h e d i s r u p t e d economic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v e n t e d t h i s b e l i e f from b e i n g t e s t e d on any l a r g e s c a l e . The War caused an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r v e n t i o n by a g r e a t l y s t r e n g t h e n e d f e d e r a l government i n t o a r e a s n o r m a l l y t o be under p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l .  considered  Education, e s p e c i a l l y i t s  v o c a t i o n a l a s p e c t s , was one a r e a o f p r o v i n c i a l  jurisdiction  i n w h i c h the Dominion Government t o o k an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t . The use o f r a d i o i n e d u c a t i o n was another segment o f t h i s 236  237 f e d e r a l i n t e r e s t i n education.  The War a l s o c r e a t e d a f e r -  vent n a t i o n a l i s t i c f e e l i n g among Canadians and a  concomitant  d e s i r e t o ensure t h a t a l l Canadians were made aware o f t h e i r common c i t i z e n s h i p . developed  N a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n t h e 1940's  i n t o a v e h i c l e f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s n a t i o n a l -  ism. The "basic f a c t o f any n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n Canada was t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be u n d e r t a k e n by one governmental a u t h o r i t y o r agency.  scheme  completely  The d i v i s i o n o f  l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y c o n t a i n e d i n t h e BNA A c t , i . e . , educat i o n a p r o v i n c i a l and b r o a d c a s t i n g a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , necessitated a pooling of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n o r d e r t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n on t h e common g o a l c o u l d be undertaken.  The r e s u l t o f t h i s p o o l i n g o f i n t e r e s t s  was t h e development o f c o - o p e r a t i o n on t h r e e l e v e l s o f r a d i o e d u c a t i o n - l n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l , D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l and international. Dominion??Provincial co-operation i n r a d i o education was b u i l t upon a s h a r e d - c o s t f o u n d a t i o n , w i t h t h e CBC r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l t h a t went o v e r the a i r w h i l e t h e p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m o f t h e b r o a d c a s t s .  Several  means, b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l , were employed t o f a c i l i t a t e this  co-operation. One i n f o r m a l means o f c o - o p e r a t i o n used was des-  c r i b e d by E.A. C o r b e t t a s " h o t e l room diplomacy".  This  238 i n v o l v e d p e r i o d i c i n f o r m a l meetings of p e o p l e , such B.S.  Lambert o r Gladstone Murray, w i t h p r o v i n c i a l  a u t h o r i t i e s l i k e Kenneth Caple and E.A. such meetings,  Corbett.  as  education During  p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n s were worked  out f o r an up-coming r a d i o e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t .  Decisions  i n r e f e r e n c e t o c o - o p e r a t i o n i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n were  reached  by these p e o p l e w i t h o u t the f o r m a l endorsement of t h e i r respective organizations. I n n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , most c o - o p e r a t i o n between the CBC at  and p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s o c c u r r e d  the l e v e l of c i v i l s e r v a n t s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  Lambert of the CBC,  f o r i n s t a n c e , was  B.S.  i n continuous  contact  w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s about programme p l a n n i n g production.  and  CBC b r o a d c a s t e r s and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l p r o -  v i d e d t e a c h e r s w i t h t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e on t h i n g s such s c r i p t w r i t i n g and r a d i o r e c e p t i o n , w h i l e the reciprocated with pedagogical advice.  as  teachers  The CBC a l s o a r r a n g e d  f o r an exchange of p e r s o n n e l , f o r example, a b r o a d c a s t e r to an e d u c a t i o n a l department and a t e a c h e r f o r the tion.  A t r e g u l a r I n t e r v a l s throughout  l i k e B.S.  Corpora-  the y e a r CBC  Lambert, d e l i v e r e d p o l i c y statements  officials,  on r a d i o  e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e e d u c a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s such as the  annual  m e e t i n g of the Canada and Newfoundland E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . The C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o sponsored  numerous p r i v a t e c o n f e r e n c e s  239  of e d u c a t o r s and b r o a d c a s t e r s , as a means of  sensitizing  i t s e l f to p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p i n i o n . I n t h e o r y , the CBC was  l i m i t e d i n the e x t e n t to which  i t c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f such p a r t i c i p a t i o n I n v o l v e d the s c h o o l i n any way.  In p r a c t i c e ,  however, w h i l e the above l i m i t s were b r o a d l y o b s e r v e d , i t was found t o be v a l u a b l e by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s to " a r range f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n between b o t h groups a t most s t a g e s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of b r o a d c a s t s . " The c o m p l e x i t y of f o r m a l n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t s , the need f o r more c o n t i n u o u s c o n s u l t a t i o n between e d u c a t o r s and b r o a d c a s t e r s , the r i s e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l educat i o n a l b r o a d c a s t i n g exchanges and the need f o r a system o f programme e v a l u a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f the c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s between the CBC p r o v i n c i a l education a u t h o r i t i e s .  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  d e v i c e used t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k was o r committee.  and  the a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l  Thus, c o u n c i l s such as the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g , the N a t i o n a l Committee o f the Farm Forum and the a d v i s o r y b o a r d of K i n d e r g a r t e n of the A i r emerged. The v a r i o u s a d v i s o r y committees employed i n n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n were c o n s t r u c t e d i n such a way  as t o p r o v i d e  e x p r e s s i o n f o r a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t groups and governmental authorities.  The  committees a l s o p r o v i d e d the  officials  24-0 of the CBC w i t h a d v i c e on p e d a g o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s Through the v a r i o u s c o u n c i l s a t i t s d i s p o s a l , the t i o n was  a b l e t o determine  Corpora-  the p r e v a l e n t o p i n i o n on i t s  r a d i o p o l i c y and e d u c a t i o n a l programmes.  The c o u n c i l s  p r o v i d e d i n t e r e s t e d people w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i pate i n the development of r a d i o e d u c a t i o n .  Finally,  the  network of a d v i s o r y committees formed p a r t of a two-way communication system between the CBC and the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " i t was  expected t o s e r v e .  I n case o f c o n t r o v e r s y  over  r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c p r e s s u r e c o u l d be c o n t a i n e d  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y d i f f u s e d t h r o u g h the use of the a d v i s o r y committee.  With the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  f o r co-operation i n radio education, informal c o n s u l t a t i o n d i d n o t cease, b u t c o n t i n u e d i n the form of  behind-the-  scenes i n t e r a c t i o n between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of b o t h the  CBC  and p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n departments. The was  second l e v e l of c o - o p e r a t i o n i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n  i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l , w i t h the CBC p r o v i d i n g the common  meetinghouse.  The BNA A c t d i d n o t p r o v i d e any f o r m a l ad-  m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery t o f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l operation.  co-  However, i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s have formed  a s e p a r a t e and y e t much n e g l e c t e d a s p e c t of our f e d e r a l system.  Radio b r o a d c a s t i n g , by I t s v e r y n a t u r e ,  spilled  o v e r p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n i t s use.  In a l l  inter-  24-1  p r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , the CBC,  because of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a r e g u l a t o r of Canadian  b r o a d c a s t i n g , had t o be c o n s u l t e d . v i n c e s t o co-operate  Opportunities f o r pro-  i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , were  a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the meetings of a d v i s o r y committees, such as the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g , as w e l l as i n CBC-sponsored r a d i o e d u c a t i o n  conferences.  R e g i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n was p r o b a b l y the most n o t a b l e attempt a t i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n . I n these c a s e s , the c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s were f o r m a l i z e d t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l s l i k e the Western R e g i o n a l Committee on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g . c o - o p e r a t i o n was  The aim o f t h i s r e g i o n a l  to c o n s o l i d a t e the f i n a n c i a l and  technical  r e s o u r c e s of a r e g i o n , i n o r d e r t h a t a h i g h q u a l i t y and more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s c o u l d be achieved. The f i n a l l e v e l of c o - o p e r a t i o n e v i d e n t i n r a d i o e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the 1940's was  on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the conduct of f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s was  a f u n c t i o n which had been a s s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the  Dominion Government and, as a r e s u l t , any  international  n e g o t i a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the f i e l d of r a d i o e d u c a t i o n had t o be conducted under the a u s p i c e s of the Dominion Government.  T h e r e f o r e , the CBC,  as an agency  of the f e d e r a l government, conducted n e g o t i a t i o n s and  en-  242 gaged i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n r a d i o a u t h o r i t i e s t o b r i n g Canadians some o f t h e b e s t e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s i n the w o r l d . The growth and development o f n a t i o n a l r a d i o educat i o n was a l s o r e l a t e d i n e x t r i c a b l y t o the n a t u r e o f the Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g system.  The d e c i s i o n i n 1932 t o  e s t a b l i s h p u b l i c c o n t r o l o v e r r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g meant t h a t the new medium c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r o t h e r t h i n g s b e s i d e s entertainment.  The Report o f t h e A i r d Commission, the  a c t i v i t i e s o f the Canadian Radio League, the example o f t h e BBC and the demands o f e d u c a t o r s and i n t e r e s t e d  parents  h e l p e d t o c o n v i n c e t h e Dominion a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t r a d i o s h o u l d serve two o t h e r purposes b e s i d e s  entertainment.  B r o a d c a s t i n g was t o f u n c t i o n as a medium o f e d u c a t i o n and as a means o f s t i m u l a t i n g a s t r o n g sense of Canadian i d e n t i t y . N a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t s , such as Farm and C i t i z e n ' s Forum and Young Canada L i s t e n s , r e p r e s e n t e d a t t e m p t s by t h e CBC t o f u l f i l l these two I d e a l s o f Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g . Ventures  i n t o n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n s i a l s o formed  p a r t o f a g e n e r a l s h i f t i n CBC programming from l i g h t e n t e r t a i n m e n t t o a more s e r i o u s b r o a d c a s t i n g f a r e .  The  d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s were spent by CBC o f f i c i a l s i n attempts to accustom t h e Canadian audience  to radio broadcasting  as a form o f mass communication.  Experiments  were under-  243 t a k e n i n the f i e l d of s e r i o u s programming, but i n the way  little  of s u s t a i n i n g programmes was produced.  d e p r e s s i o n c l o s e d , the CBC  As  the  a t t r a c t e d more c r e a t i v e p e r -  s o n n e l , s t a b i l i z e d i t s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t e d more s e r i o u s programming.  T h i s s u b t l e move i n t o the more  c r e a t i v e a s p e c t s of r a d i o programming was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the appearance of s p e c i a l i z e d programmes f o r v a r i o u s groups i n the r a d i o a u d i e n c e , a t t e m p t s  t o overcome the p a s s i -  v i t y of the r a d i o audience'bby i n v o l v i n g them i n the p l a n n i n g and p r o d u c t i o n of the programmes, g r e a t e r use o f the r a d i o as a medium f o r e x p r e s s i o n i n the a r t s and  investigations  i n t o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of FM b r o a d c a s t i n g . Programmes of n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n l i k e  "Kinder-  g a r t e n of the A i r " and Farm Forum, b o t h r e f l e c t e d t h i s  shift  i n CBC programming and p r o v i d e d a channel w i t h i n w h i c h i t c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d .  N a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n i n the 1940*s  was p r o b a b l y one o f the most s u c c e s s f u l of a l l CBC  ventures  into serious broadcasting. The h i s t o r y of n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the y e a r s I929-I949 was  t i e d v e r y c l o s e l y t o the a c t i v i t i e s  o f c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s who s i g h t t o experiment as E.A.  the courage and  w i t h the r a d i o i n e d u c a t i o n .  C o r b e t t , R.S.  N e i l Morrison, CH,  possessed  Lambert, O.J.W. Shugg, H.H.  Mercer, E.A.  Weir and R.A.  c a l l e d t o mind i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n .  Sim  fore-  Men  such  Hannam, are  The i n d i v i d u a l w i t h  p r o b a b l y the most l o n g - l a s t i n g impact on n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n was  E.A.  Corbett.  C o r b e t t had p i o n e e r e d e a r l y  experiments w i t h r a d i o i n e d u c a t i o n , h e l p e d to w i n the West for  the cause of p u b l i c b r o a d c a s t i n g , c o n t r i b u t e d an educa-  tional  p h i l o s o p h y t o b r o a d c a s t i n g , d e v i s e d the f i r s t b l u e -  p r i n t f o r s c h o o l r a d i o , sparked the employment of c a s t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and became a g e n e r a l f o r r a d i o e d u c a t i o n a t home and abroad. s h i p of men  broadpublicist  W i t h o u t the l e a d e r -  such as C o r b e t t , Canadian r a d i o might have  remained a medium d e v o t e d to commercial a d v e r t i s i n g and low-grade The  entertainment. s u c c e s s f u l development of n a t i o n a l r a d i o educa-  t i o n d u r i n g the 1940*s r a i s e s two p o i n t s of broad cance f o r Canadian e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y .  signifi-  F i r s t , successful  e d u c a t i o n a l schemes, such as Young Canada L i s t e n s and Farm Radio Forum, t e s t i f y  to the f a c t t h a t the Canadian f e d e r a l  system c o n t a i n s c e r t a i n i n h e r e n t sources of  flexibility  which, i f p r o p e r l y u t i l i z e d ,  co-operation  can f a c i l i t a t e  between Dominion and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n the  achieve-  ment of n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . One  such source of f l e x i b i l i t y ,  as t h i s  study  has  attempted t o i l l u s t r a t e , has been the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g Corporation.  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the CBC  r a d i o e d u c a t i o n was  activity  in  r e c o g n i z e d by Mr. A. Davidson, Dunton,  Chairman of the Board of Governors of the  Corporation,  245 i n h i s f o r m a l s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e R o y a l Commission on Nat i o n a l Development i n t h e A r t s Canada.  L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s i n  Mr. Dunton d e c l a r e d t h a t :  " c o - o p e r a t i o n between e d u c a t o r s and t h e CBC has been e s t a b l i s h e d on a sound b u s i n e s s b a s i s , i n v o l v i n g t h e s h a r i n g o f c o s t s . Perhaps t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r i s t h e s u c c e s s f u l experiment i n D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , which has t a k e n p l a c e . T h i s p r o v e s , t h a t i n t h e f i e l d o f educat i o n , n a t i o n a l development can t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h p r o v i n c i a l autonomy, i f t h e r e i s a j o i n t i n t e r e s t and a j o i n t c o n t r o l . " 2  The  CBC, a s a c e n t r a l agency under the c o n t r o l o f  the Dominion Government, was a b l e t o p r o v i d e d u r i n g t h e 1930's and 1940's a type o f n a t i o n a l guidance and d i r e c t i o n i n the f i e l d s of a d u l t education, formal i n - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , c e r t a i n f a c e t s o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g and p r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . •The C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o a c t e d as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n agent f o r t h e Dominion Government and, t h r o u g h i t s v a r i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s r e c e i v e d many u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l I d e a s , r a d i o s c r i p t s and teaching aids.  F i n a l l y , by way o f i t s d a i l y programme  f a r e , t h e CBC has p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e g e n e r a l t i o n s and c u l t u r a l l e v e l o f t h e Canadian r a d i o  expecta-  audience.  A l t h o u g h Canada has no n a t i o n a l m i n i s t r y o f educat i o n , t h i s does n o t have t o b l o c k c o m p l e t e l y  the achieve-  ment o f a n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n .  Other n a t i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , b e s i d e s t h e CBC, e x i s t i n Canada  246 and can be used t o p r o v i d e such a n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Under such a h e a d i n g come f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s  such a s the  N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, t h e Canada C o u n c i l , t h e N a t i o n a l Res e a r c h C o u n c i l , t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , t h e E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e , t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y o f Canada and the Company of Young C a n a d i a n s ,  The q u e s t i o n of how t o  c o - o r d i n a t e the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f these  various  a g e n c i e s r a i s e s one o f the most d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s i n Canadian e d u c a t i o n .  I t i s i n t h i s a r e a where demands f o r  a f e d e r a l o f f i c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l appear t o be t h e most s i g n i f i cant. The h i s t o r y o f n a t i o n a l r a d i o e d u c a t i o n from 19291949 a l s o r e v e a l e d some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s which c o n f r o n t attempts  to introduce innovations i n education.  The t e a c h e r ,  a t l e a s t when f a c e d w i t h t h e r a d i o i n h i s c l a s s r o o m , as a c o n s e r v e r o f t r a d i t i o n .  acted  I n f a c t , b r o a d c a s t i n g was  n e v e r employed as t h e o n l y medium o f e d u c a t i o n , b u t as an a i d t o be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a tion.  T h i s approach t o r a d i o e d u c a t i o n , i n many  hindered the f u l l e x p l o i t a t i o n of broadcasting's  cases, educational  potential. The  r a d i o , however:.:', d i d h e l p t o b r e a k the ground  for educational t e l e v i s i o n .  The l a t t e r medium was  accepted  f a r more q u i c k l y i n e d u c a t i o n a l c i r c l e s t h a n had been t h e case w i t h r a d i o .  I n t h e case o f t e l e v i s i o n , such ready  247 acceptance might l e a d t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the f u t u r e .  For  t e l e v i s i o n , l i k e r a d i o broadcasting, possesses c e r t a i n i n h e r e n t dangers which can o p e r a t e so as t o i m p a i r c o n s t r u c tive learning.  3  I t s t i l l remains the H e r c u l e a n t a s k of the  p a r e n t and the t e a c h e r t o f u n c t i o n as f i l t e r s between the c h i l d and t h e v a r i o u s media, groups and a c t i v i t i e s which claim h i s attention.  The problem w i t h such a r o l e f o r the  p a r e n t and t e a c h e r today i s t h a t the c h i l d , h a v i n g been b o r n i n t o the e l e c t r o n i c age, p o s s i b l y u n d e r s t a n d s  new  media, such as t e l e v i s i o n , f a r more t h a n does the a d u l t .  248 FOOTNOTES - CONCLUSION ^Annual Report o f t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n of B r i t i s h . 1950, p. 131. 2  B r i e f p r e s e n t e d by t h e CBC t o the... R o y a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n t h e A r t s . L e t t e r s , and S c i e n c e s i n Canada (Ottawa. K i n g ' s P r i n t e r . 1951). p. 36. S e e W. Schramm, TV i n t h e L i v e s o f Our C h i l d r e n ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , I96I), pp. 1-75. 3  SELECT  BIBLIOGRAPHY  GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS Canada, Debates o f t h e House o f Commons. 1925-1950. Annual R e p o r t o f t h e Department o f M a r i n e . I926-I930. Annual Report o f t h e Canadian Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g Commission.  1933-1936.  ~  "  '  A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . "  I936-I966.  P o l i t i c a l and C o n t r o v e r s i a l " P r i n t e r , 1944).  Broadcasting.  (Ottawa, K i n g ' s  S p e c i a l . Committee on Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g , 1932. Minutes of E v i d e n c e . (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 19327"! Special  Committee on O p e r a t i o n s o f t h e Commission under the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g A c t , 1932. Minutes o f E v i d e n c e . (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , I93ZT.  Special  Committee on t h e Canadian Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g Comm i s s i o n . M i n u t e s o f E v i d e n c e . (Ottawa, K i n g ' s ! ! ! P r i n t e r , 1936),  Special  Committee on t h e Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . M i n u t e s o f E v i d e n c e . (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1938, 1941,  1942, 1943, 1944, 1946).  1933.  R e p o r t By G l a d s t o n e Murray on Radio I n Canada.  1939.  C o r b e t t R e p o r t on S c h o o l B r o a d c a s t i n g i n Canada.  R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n Manitoba. 1 9 4 7 . '  R e p o r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s A d v i s o r y Commi t.+.w  o  n  by R a d i o ( S e c r e t a r y o f thp. Tnt.g-M n r ; 103^)  Education  R e p o r t of. t h e R o y a l Commission on T e c h n i c a l - V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . (Ottawa. K i n g ' s P r l n t e - r , 1 0 1 3 ) ' . Report o f t h e Royal fjoimnission on Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g . (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1929). 249  250 R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commissiongton N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s . L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s . (Ottawa. K i n g ' s  P r i n t e r , 1951).  . . F i l e s o f t h e Commission. T h i r t y one volumes of e v i d e n c e , A r c h i v e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1957).  on B r o a d c a s t i n g .  (Ottawa,  R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission on Government O r g a n i z a t i o n . (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , i960). R e p o r t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on B r o a d c a s t i n g . (Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1965). Government White P a p e r on B r o a d c a s t i n g .  P r i n t e r , 1966).  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