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Adoption of business practices by participants in the small business managment training programme Bell, Gordon 1968

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THE ADOPTION OF BUSINESS PRACTICES BY PARTICIPANTS IN THE SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING PROGRAMME by GORDON BELL B.Com., University of London, 1953 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (ADULT EDUCATION) in the Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required- standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h r e e c o u r s e s i n the S m a l l B u s i n e s s Man-agement T r a i n i n g Programme conducted i n s e v e r a l d i s t r i c t s o f the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The e v a l u a t i o n u t i l i z e s t h e concept o f a d o p t i o n t o de t e r m i n e the degree t o whic h r e s p o n d e n t s have made use o f the s p e c i f i e d b u s i n e s s s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s t a u g h t w i t h i n t h e c o u r s e s . The s t u d y a l s o a t t e m p t s t o measure t h e r e a c t i o n o f resp o n d e n t s t o t h e c o u r s e s i n g e n e r a l , and t o the i n s t r u c t o r s and c o u r s e c o n t e n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y . Data f o r the a n a l y s i s were c o l l e c t e d by i n t e r v i e w i n g a random sample o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each c o u r s e from t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B.C. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e degree o f a d o p t i o n among res p o n d e n t s i n a l l c o u r s e s f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n t h e programme. Ga i n s i n t h e degree o f a d o p t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 1 per c e n t l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . An a n a l y s i s o f a d o p t i o n f o r each s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e w i t h i n each c o u r s e i n d i c a t e s t h a t the degree o f a d o p t i o n was not u n i f o r m among t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e among means o f a d o p t i o n s c o r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i -c a t e d t h a t t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , namely e d u c a t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e respondent t o t h e b u s i n e s s , and the number o f employees i n t h e re s p o n d e n t ' s b u s i n e s s , had a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship to the degree to which respondents adopted the techniques. Differences among means were s i g -n i f i c a n t for the three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the 5 per cent l e v e l of confidence. The recorded scores on the three scales used to measure reactions to course, instructor, and course content respectively indicated a favourable reaction i n each case and for each course. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Abstract i i L i s t of Tables ^ v i Acknowledgements v i i i CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION The Small Business Management Tra in ing Programme . 1 Purposes of the Study .. 5 Scope of the Study 6 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 6 Def in i t ions 10 I I . METHODOLOGY The Sample 14 Procedure 15 The Interview Schedule 18 Analys is of the Data 21 Plan of the Study 2 2 I I I . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 24 Economic and Business C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 28 IV. THE MEASUREMENT OF ADOPTION Results of Measurements . 38 S igni f icance of Measurements . . . . . . 42 V CHAPTER PAGE IV. (continued) Adoption Scores i n Relat ion to C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents 43 Analys i s of At t i tudes 48 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX I . The Interview Schedule 61 APPENDIX I I . Tables of Indiv idua l Adoption Scores for each Recommended Technique and of Ind iv idua l At t i tude Scores 76 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . Size and Proport ional Representation of the Sample 15 I I . Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Sample 25 I I I . Years of School Completed by Sample Respondents by Course 26 IV. Previous Business T r a i n i n g : Number and Per Cent of Respondents P a r t i c i p a t i n g 27 V. Respondents' S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 28 V I . Relat ionship of Respondents to t h e i r Business 29 V I I . Years Worked in Present Capacity 30 V I I I . Functions of the Business 32 IX. Organizat ion of the Business 33 X. Number of Employees by Function of Business 34 XI . T o t a l Investment by Function of Business 35 XII . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Family Income 36 X I I I . Grouped Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Adoption Scores 39 XIV. Adoption Scores: Management Accounting Course . . 40 XV. Adoption Scores: Personnel Course 41 XVI. Adoption Scores: Marketing for Manufacturers Course 41 v i i TABLE PAGE XVII. S igni f icance of the Differences Between Means of ASp and ASt Scores 43 XVIII . Analys is of Variance Among Means . 45 XIX. Number of Years of Education Comparative Adoption Scores 46 XX. Relat ionship to Business: Comparative Adoption Scores 47 XXI. Number of Employees: Comparative Adoption Scores 48 XXII. Ind iv idua l Adoption Score for Each Recommended Technique i n the Personnel C o u r s e . . . . . . . 76 XXIII . Ind iv idua l Adoption Score for Each Recommended Technique i n the Management Accounting Course. 7 8 XXIV. Ind iv idua l Adoption Score for Each Recommended Technique i n the Marketing for Manufacturers Course 80 XXV. Ind iv idua l At t i tude Scores for A l l Respondents In A l l Courses 82 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The wr i ter acknowledges the help of the many people who made th i s study poss ib l e . Mr. D . C . Cowan, Head, Management Development Unit of the Department of Manpower and Immigration, Technica l and Vocat ional T r a i n i n g Branch; Mr. A . L . C a r t i e r , D irec tor of Adult Educat ion, Department of Educat ion, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia; and Mr. Donald L . Campbell, P r i n c i p a l , Southern Alber ta Ins t i tu te of Technology; gave h e l p f u l advice , information and mater ia l s , expec ia l ly at the i n i t i a l stages of the study. The fo l lowing Directors of Adult Education provided the c lass reg i s t ers from which was drawn the sampling frame for the study; Mr. G.S . Hambrook, New Westminster; Mr. G.A. F r y , Coquitlam; Mr. E . H . Woodroff, C h i l l i w a c k ; Mr. G.A. Coulson, Richmond; Mr. D. McKinnon, Surrey; Mr. Lloyd G. Cos t l ey , Burnaby; and Mr. R . E . Bowcott, Langley. The ir assistance was very much appreciated. Spec ia l thanks are due to the f i f t y respondents who gave of t h e i r time i n order to provide the data for th i s study. Mr. A. Fowler, of the U . B . C . Computing Centre, was extremely h e l p f u l i n the processing of the data. Dr. H . L . S t e i n , D irec tor of Graduate D i v i s i o n , Facul ty of Education, Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, provided invaluable assistance i n the use of s t a t i s t i c a l techniques for the analys is of the data . Greatest appreciat ion i s due to Dr. Cool ie Verner for the pat ient d i r e c t i o n of th i s study from i t s incept ion CHAPTER I " .' INTRODUCTION I . THE SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT TRAINING PROGRAMME Several studies of small business problems conducted i n recent years have made i t increas ing ly c lear that lack of managerial experience i s the ch ie f cause of f a i l u r e and slow growth among small bus inesses . 1 To a l l e v i a t e th i s s i t u a t i o n an education programme was i n i t i a t e d to provide owner/managers of small businesses with the fundamentals necessary for e f f ec t ive management in every area of business o p e r a t i o n . 2 This Small Business Management Tra in ing Programme i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Management Development Unit of the Department of Manpower and Immigration. The Management Development Unit or ig inated in the Department of Trade and Commerce as the Tra in ing D i v i s i o n of the Small Business Branch and was l a t er transferred to the Department of Labour l K . B . Mayer and S. Golds te in : The F i r s t Two Years: Problems of Small Business Growth and S u r v i v a l . Washington, D . C , Small Business Adminis trat ion , Research Series No. 2. 2 D.S. Conger, Chief of Small Business Management Tra in ing D i v i s i o n : Report on Canadian Small Business  Management Tra in ing Programme; for Product iv i ty D i v i s i o n OECD Conference on the c o l l e c t i v e actions taken by small and medium-sized enterprises to adapt themselves to new market condi t ions . 1964, p. 2. 2 as a means of u t i l i z i n g the Technical and Vocat ional A s s i s t -ance Agreements. This provided the D i v i s i o n with means of making both funds and materials ava i lab le to the p r o v i n c i a l governments for conducting t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s . 3 In i t s "Introduction to Prospective Course Writers" the Department of Manpower and Immigration states that the courses within the programme are intended to meet the needs of owner/managers of businesses, supervisory personnel , farmers, and employees i n the marketing and merchandising f i e l d s . They are designed to serve four primary funct ions: 1. To provide ind iv idua l s with an approach to so lv ing the problems a r i s i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r subject area; 2. To point out what s k i l l s and techniques may be appl ied; 3. To motivate the i n d i v i d u a l s to use these techniques and s k i l l s where they are appl i cab le ; 4. To develop s k i l l i n deal ing with t h e i r problems u t i l i z i n g the knowledge and techniques presented i n the course. There are no prerequis i t e s to attend courses, con-sequently the course mater ia l must be i n t e l l i g i b l e to persons who have l i t t l e or no formal education. There are no examinations, and c e r t i f i c a t e s based only on attendance are given at the completion of a course. 1 4 The manual suggests that i n order to promote the 3 D . C . Cowan, Head, Management Development Uni t , i n a personal l e t t e r to the w r i t e r . September 27th, 1966. 3 programme, i t i s des irable to allow as many as poss ible to p a r t i c i p a t e as course leaders . Such prospective course leaders may come from a var i e ty of occupations such as the profess ions , i n d u s t r i a l and commercial enterpr i ses , trade and business assoc ia t ions , or federal and p r o v i n c i a l gov-ernment departments. I t can be assumed that course leaders w i l l be knowledgeable i n the course mater ia l but may not necessar i ly be tra ined as an i n s t r u c t o r . The courses are designed for d iscuss ion groups ranging from f i f t een to twenty-five p a r t i c i p a n t s using the case method of presentat ion. Mater ia l s suppl ied for each course consis ts of: 1. Case mater ia l - given to the p a r t i c i p a n t s as preparat ion for each session; 2. Teaching notes - which out l ine the strategy to be used i n presenting the subject matter i n the case mater ia l ; and 3. Readings - to be given to the p a r t i c i p a n t s as a summary and for future reference. Courses presently ava i lab le vary i n length between f ive and f i f t e e n sessions. Ten sessions are considered to be an i d e a l length, since most courses are given between ^Department of Manpower and Immigration: Introduct ion: A pamphlet to acquaint prospective course wri ters with the  aims and requirements of courses prepared for the Small  Business Management Tra in ing Programme, Ottawa. Department of Manpower and Immigration, Undated, p. 1. 4 Labour Day and Christmas or from New Year's Day to Easter . Courses of ten sessions involve twenty to twenty-five hours of c lass t i m e . 5 i 6 The se lec t ion of content i s made by the Management Development Unit of the Department of Manpower and Immi-gra t ion . This i s determined by requests for s p e c i f i c courses, the extent to which the content may e f fect econ-omic growth, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of competent persons to prepare the required m a t e r i a l s . 7 Course preparat ion i s authorized by a contract between the M i n i s t e r of Manpower and Immigration and an author selected by the Management Development D i v i s i o n who prepares and submits an out l ine of the proposed c o u r s e . 8 The programme i s managed by p r o v i n c i a l governments which have the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for education. Provinces p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programme have appointed a superintendent of small business management t r a i n i n g who i s responsible to promote, organize , supervise , and evaluate courses. These superintendents are given t r a i n i n g by the Small Business Management D i v i s i o n to q u a l i f y them for these department of Manpower and Immigration, op. ext.., pp. 2-3. 6A11 courses evaluated i n th i s study were taught for ten sessions. 7 D . C . Cowan: op_. c i t . 8Department of Manpower and Immigration, op. c i t . , p. 8. 5 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Eight of ten provinces and one of two t e r r i t o r i e s offered the courses during 1964-5. 9 The se l ec t ion of s p e c i f i c courses to be offered in a given community for a p a r t i c u l a r group i s made by the superintendent of the p r o v i n c i a l government and/or h i s representat ive i n concert with a sponsoring organizat ion . In B r i t i s h Columbia the l o c a l school boards act as sponsor for the programme and o f fer these courses i n adult evening c l a s s e s . 1 0 ' 1 1 I I . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study is designed to measure the degree to which the object ives of the Small Business Management Programme are being atta ined thereby evaluat ing the educational ef fect iveness of the programme. I I I . HYPOTHESIS There i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference i n the degree of adoption of spec i f i ed s k i l l s and techniques before and af ter p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Small Business Manage-ment Programme. 9 D . S . Conger: l o c . c i t . 1 0 D . C . Cowan: op. c i t . 1 British Columbia i s the only p a r t i c i p a t i n g province which uses the publ ic school adult education organizat ion for th i s purpose. 6 IV. SCOPE OF THE STUDY It was intended o r i g i n a l l y that the study be l imi t ed to owner/managers of small businesses as defined i n the Report on Canadian Small Business Management Tra in ing Pro-gramme. 1 2 A p i l o t survey indicated that the majority of p a r t i c i p a n t s were not i n that category, consequently the study w i l l include a sample of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the pro-gramme, subject to the l i m i t a t i o n s described below. The study w i l l be l i m i t e d to those School D i s t r i c t s i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia i n which the pro-gramme has been i d e n t i f i e d within the t o t a l Adult Education programme of the d i s t r i c t . These d i s t r i c t s are New West-minster, Coquitlam, C h i l l i w a c k , Surrey, Richmond, Burnaby, and Langley. I t w i l l also be l i m i t e d to those courses within the programme which were completed before the end of the F a l l Session, 1965. V. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE L i t e r a t u r e on the concept of adoption In such an eva luat ion , the problem i s to determine the degree of adoption by p a r t i c i p a n t s of the business s k i l l s and techniques spec i f i ed wi th in the courses of the 2 D . S . Conger: l o c . c i t . 7 programme. The adoption process has been described by Everett M. Rogers as the mental process through which an i n d i v i d u a l passes from f i r s t learning about an innovation to f i n a l acceptance. This process should be d is t inguished from the d i f f u s i o n process which i s the spread of a new idea from i t s source of invention or creat ion to i t s u l t i -mate users or a d o p t e r s . 1 3 In 1943, Ryan and G r o s s 1 k noted that the process of adopting a new idea could be separated i n several stages. They d i s t inguished between "awareness" of the idea; "con-v i c t i o n of i t s usefulness, t r i a l , acceptance;" and "complete adoption of the innovat ion." W i l k e n n i n g , 1 5 on the other hand, noted that an i n d i -v i d u a l ' s dec i s ion to adopt an innovation was composed of stages which he described as l earn ing , dec id ing , and act ing over a period of time. Thus, the adoption of a s p e c i f i c prac t i ce i s not the r e s u l t of a s ingle dec is ion to act but, the r e s u l t of a ser ies of act ion and thought dec i s ions . As a r e s u l t Wilkenning i d e n t i f i e d four adoption stages: aware-ness, obtaining information, convic t ion and t r i a l , and adoption. 1 3 E v e r e t t M. Rogers, D i f fus ion of Innovations, New York: Free Press , 1962, pp. 12-20. 1 4 B r y c e Ryan and Neal C . Gross: "The Di f fus ion of Hybrid Seed Corn i n Two Iowa Communities". Rural Sociology 8: 15-24, (1943). 1 5 Eugene A. Wilkenning: Acceptance of Improved Farm  P r a c t i c e s , North Caro l ina A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Stat ion Technical B u l l e t i n 90. 1952. 8 In 1955 a committee of r u r a l s o c i o l o g i s t s 1 6 s e t t l ed on f ive stages i n the adoption process which Bea l , Rogers, and B o h l e n 1 7 studied and concluded that they were a v a l i d conceptual izat ion of the adoption process. These f ive stages were: awareness, information, a p p l i c a t i o n , t r i a l , and adoption. Both Rogers 1 8 and L i o n b e r g e r 1 9 have re f ined the f ive stages i n the adoption process and these have been general ly accepted for purposes of research. Their stages are as fol lows: 1. Awareness: At th i s stage a person f i r s t learns about a new idea , product or p r a c t i c e . 2. Interest : At th i s stage, a person becomes i n t e r -ested i n new ideas and seeks add i t i ona l information about i t , to determine i t s poss ib le usefulness and a p p l i c a b i l i t y . 3. Eva luat ion: At th i s stage a person weighs the i n f o r -mation and evidence accumulated i n previous stages, mentally appl ies the idea to his present and ant ic ipated future s i t u a t i o n , and then decides whether or not to t r y i t . 1 6 N o r t h Centra l Rural S o c i o l o g i c a l Sub-Committee for the Study of D i f fus ion of Farm P r a c t i c e s , How Farm People Accept New Ideas, Ames, Iowa A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service Spec ia l Report 15, 1955. 1 7 G . M . Bea l , E . M . Rogers, and I . M . Bohlen, V a l i d i t y of the Concept of Stages i n the Adoption P r a c t i c e . Rural  Sociology 22: 166-168, (June 1957). 1 8 E . M . Rogers: op_. c i t . , p. 17. 1 9 H . F . Lionberger: Adoption of New Ideas and P r a c t i c e s , Ames, Iowa, State Univers i ty Press , 1960, pp. .21-32. 9 4. T r i a l : At th i s stage the i n d i v i d u a l uses the innovation on a small scale i n order to determine i t s u t i l i t y in his own s i t u a t i o n . 5. Adoption: At th i s stage the i n d i v i d u a l decides that the innovation i s good enough for f u l l scale and continued use, and a complete change i s made with that end i n view. A recent study by Verner and M i l l e r d 2 0 examined the adoption behaviour of a sample of orchardis t s i n the Okanagan Va l l ey of B r i t i s h Columbia. This study re la ted research var iab les such as formal education, adult education, exper-ience, and socio-economic factors to the rate of adoption among the o r c h a r d i s t s „ Welch and V e r n e r 2 1 used the concept of adoption in comparing the e f f i cacy of two methods for the d i f f u s i o n of knowledge about new pract ices to a sample of restauranteurs i n M i s s o u r i o As th i s i s one of the few studies i n which a s tructured educational process has been used and evaluated i t i s s i m i l a r in th i s respect to the present study. There are other s i m i l a r i t i e s between these two studies which w i l l be discussed under the Chapter on Methodology. 2 0 C . Verner and F.W. M i l l e r d : Adult Education and  the Adoption of Innovations, Rural Sociology Monograph No. 1. Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. See Also F.W. M i l l e r d : Adoption of Innovations by Okanagan Orchard i s t s . Unpublished M . S . A . Thes i s , Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. 2 1 J . M . Welch and C. Verner: "A Study of Two Methods for the Di f fus ion of Knowledge." Adult Education 12: 231-237, (Summer 1962). 10 Harrington invest igated the d i f f u s i o n of knowledge about, and the adoption of se lected educational pract ices into teachers col leges i n the U . S . A . 2 2 whi l s t A l l e n c a r r i e d out a s i m i l a r study on the adoption of educational pract ices i n se lected school sy s t ems . 2 3 Bonsor conducted two studies i n Tennessee to measure the effect iveness of various media for the d i f f u s i o n of information i n r e l a t i o n to the degree of adoption. The f i r s t showed a more marked improvement i n the rate of adoption of farm pract ices within communities having commun-i t y c l u b s 2 ^ and the second that the degree of adoption of homemaking pract ices by farm women was greater wi th in communities having community c l u b s . 2 5 V I . DEFINITIONS Small Businesses are those i n which one or two people make a l l the c r i t i c a l decis ions without the a id of s p e c i a l i s t 2 2 T . M . Barrington: The Introduction of Se lect ive  Educat ional Pract ices into Teachers' Colleges and Their  Laboratory Schools. New York. Columbia Univers i ty Teachers Col lege , Bureau of Pub l i ca t ions . 1953. 2 3 H . E . A l l e n : The D i f fus ion of Educational Pract ices  i n the School Systems of the Metropol i tan School Study  C o u n c i l . Ed.D. Thes i s . New York. Columbia Univers i ty Teachers Col lege . 1956. 2 1 + H . G . Bonsor: Better Farming Pract ices Through  Rural Community Organizat ions . K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Stat ion B u l l e t i n 286. 1958. 2 5 H . G . Bonsor: Better Homemaking Pract ices Through  Rural Community Organizat ions . K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee A g r i -c u l t u r a l Experimental Stat ion B u l l e t i n 287. 1958. 11 personnel within the f i rm. This d e f i n i t i o n reveals the basic nature of small business, that i s , one or two people have to be competent i n each aspect of business management. The programme i s the Small Business Management Tra in ing Programme. The adoption process i s the mental process through which an i n d i v i d u a l passes from f i r s t learning about an innovation to f i n a l adoption. An innovation i s an idea perceived as new by i n d i -v iduals . Adoption i s a dec i s ion to use and continue using an innovat ion. The d i f f u s i o n process i s the spread of an innovation from i t s source of invention or creat ion to i t s ult imate users or adopters. CHAPTER II 12 METHODOLOGY In d iscuss ing the evaluat ive process i n adult educa-t i o n , Thiede makes the point : Knowing where we've been and where we're going - the degree to which we are a t ta in ing our goals , the extent to which our e f for t s are product ive , and what needs to be done to make them more productive - are questions of concern to competent profess ionals i n a l l areas of l i f e . The process of determining the extent to which object ives have been attained i s e v a l u a t i o n . 2 6 This study uses the concept of adoption to evaluate the educational effect iveness of the Small Business Management Programme. At the present time a t o t a l of ten courses are a v a i l -able from the Department of Manpower and Immigration. As some of these courses are not being offered by the School D i s t r i c t s to be included i n the study, and as others were found not to be su i tab le for the type of analys is to be c a r r i e d out, three courses only w i l l be evaluated. These three courses are: Management Accounting, Marketing for Manufacturers, and Personnel . These are described as f o l l o w s . 2 7 ' 2 8 2 6 W i l s o n Thiede: "Evaluation and Adult Education," Adult Education, Outl ines of an Emerging F i e l d of Univer-s i t y Study, ed. Gale Jensen, A . A . L i v e r i g h t , Wilbur Hallenbeck, Adult Education Assoc iat ion of the U . S . A . , 1964, p. 291. 2 7 D . S . Conger: op. c i t . , pp. 3-4. Department of Manpower and Immigration, What Every Management Accounting This course i s designed to help a small businessman, regardless of h is type of business, to use information con-tained i n his own account books to operate more p r o f i t a b l y . Previous knowledge or experience in bookkeeping or account-ing i s not required for those taking the course. The topics covered i n th i s course inc lude: 1. Ident i fy ing the information a small business owner needs to operate his business p r o f i t a b l y . 2. Extrac t ing th i s information from an Income State-ment and Balance Sheet. 3. Discovering why a f irm i s short of cash, as wel l as poss ib le courses of act ion to remedy the s i t u a t i o n . 4. P inpoint ing unprof i table areas of h is business. 5. Ident i fy ing p o t e n t i a l trouble spots quick ly so that ear ly act ion can be taken to e l iminate them. Marketing for Manufacturers This course deals with c e r t a i n proven techniques which can be put into e f fect by the small f irm to help i t compete more e f f e c t i v e l y . The course covers a wide range of marketing problems Businessman Wants to Know - The Way to P r o f i t s , Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stat ionery , 1966, Cat . No. L32-2566. inc lud ing : 1. Analysing the "buyer" of a product and using th i s knowledge i n marketing dec i s ions . 2. Deciding whether to add new products or drop o ld ones. 3. Choosing channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n for a p a r t i c u l a r product. 4. Forming p r i c i n g p o l i c i e s . 5. Managing salesmen, inc luding methods of compen-sat ion . 6 . Adver t i s ing and promoting p a r t i c u l a r products. Personnel This course shows the small businessman how to get and keep the r i g h t kind of employees and to make the most p r o f i t a b l e use of personnel . Topics covered i n the course inc lude: 1. Assessing actual s t a f f needs. 2. A t t r a c t i n g and h i r i n g the r i g h t employees. 3. Set t ing pay rates . 4. Apprais ing employee e f fect iveness . 5. Persuading employees to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 6 . Examining uhion-management r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I . THE SAMPLE The universe for th i s study consisted of 201 p a r t i c i -1 5 pants i n a l l three courses to be evaluated. A s t r a t i f i e d random sample of 2 5 per cent of th i s population was selected as adequate to achieve the aims of the study. The sample was s t r a t i f i e d by drawing a proportionate representat ion of the par t i c ipant s from each of the three courses using tables of random numbers i n Kendall and Bab ington-Smi th . 2 9 This i s shown on Table I . An a l t e r n a -t i v e sample of 1 0 per cent of the population was drawn, and used where any p a r t i c i p a n t i n the o r i g i n a l sample could not be contacted. TABLE I SIZE AND PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF THE SAMPLE Course Population Sample Q. *o Management Accounting 7 7 1 9 2 5 Personnel 8 0 2 0 2 5 Marketing for Manufacture 4 4 1 1 25_ T o t a l 2 0 1 50 2J5 I I . PROCEDURE Design for Measuring Adoption The design of t h i s study w i l l fol low that of Welch 2 9 M . G . Kendall and B. Babington-Smith: Tables of  Random Sampling Numbers. Tracts for Computers No. 2 4 . London. Cambridge Univers i ty Press . 1 9 5 1 . 16 and V e r n e r 3 0 who devised a means of measuring di f ferences i n the degree of adoption af ter the p a r t i c i p a n t s had been ex-posed to two d i f f u s i o n processes. This procedure assigns a value of 0.2 to each of the f ive stages i n the adoption process as i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r . Complete adoption of a prac t i ce by a p a r t i c i p a n t would r e s u l t i n a score of 1.0 for that p r a c t i c e . Component stages w i l l be assigned to the source from which each re su l t ed . For example, i f i t were found that a p a r t i c i p a n t had learned about the business technique from a p r i o r source (score 0.2) and that in teres t i n i t had been aroused from that source (score 0.2) but that app l i ca t ion of the technique to his business (score 0.2) , the t r i a l of i t (score 0.2) , and the f i n a l adoption of i t (score 0.2) , resul ted from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the pro-gramme the resu l tant score would be Adoption Score from p r i o r sources (ASp) = Awareness (0.2) + Interest (0.2) = 0.4 Adoption Score from study sources (ASs) = A p p l i c a t i o n (0.2) + T r i a l (0.2) + Adoption (0.2) = 0.6 T o t a l Adoption score (ASt) = ASp (0.4) + ASs (0.6) = 1.0 The t o t a l score for each p a r t i c i p a n t , therefore , could range from zero ( tota l unawareness of any of the recommended techniques) to 8.0 ( tota l adoption of the eight J . M . Welch and C . Verner: op_. c i t . 17 recommended techniques) . A l l or any part of th i s score could be assigned to e i ther p r i o r influences or to p a r t i c i -pat ion i n the programme. The P i l o t Survey Moser states that i t i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to plan a survey without a good deal of knowledge of i t s subject-matter, the populat ion i t i s to cover, the way people w i l l react to quest ions, and paradoxical though i t sounds, even the answers they are l i k e l y to g i v e . . . . How, without t r i a l interviews, can one be sure that the questions w i l l be as meaningful to the average respondent as to the survey expert? How is one to decide which questions are worth asking at a l l ? 3 1 A p i l o t study was c a r r i e d out i n March 1967, using a draf t interview schedule. The main purposes of the p i l o t study were to determine c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pop-u l a t i o n , to tes t people's react ion to the quest ions, and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , to tes t t h e i r recogni t ion of the operat ional object ives of each course. As a r e s u l t of th i s study the recommended techniques for each course were reduced from ten to eight to e l iminate d u p l i c a t i o n and, for the same reason, the number of s tate -ments descr ib ing the respondents' react ion to the i n s t r u c t o r and to the course content were reduced from twenty to f i f t e e n . In a l l other respects the interview schedule appeared to be s a t i s f a c t o r y both to the purpose of the 3 1 C . A . Moser: Survey Methods i n S o c i a l Inves t igat ion , London. W. Heineman, 1948. pp. 44-48. 18 survey and to the procedure being used. Interviewing The interviewing was conducted during A p r i l and May i n 1967. An appointment.was f i r s t made with each respondent by telephone and the interviews then c a r r i e d out e i ther i n the respondent's home or at h is place of work. The ques-t ions were asked i n the same order and using the same wording as given i n the interview schedule. I I I . THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE A standardised, precoded interview schedule was used to record the d a t a . 3 2 This schedule was designed to record data on the adoption of business techniques i n order to tes t the hypothesis and to obtain information on those factors which previous research has shown to be relevant to the adoption of innovations i n general as wel l as those which are poss ib ly relevant to the adoption of business innova-t ions . A b r i e f descr ip t ion of each sect ion of the interview schedule fo l lows. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents In th i s sect ion questions were re la ted to the respon-dent's age, m a r i t a l s tatus , number of c h i l d r e n and education 2See Appendix I . l e v e l ; business t r a i n i n g at high school , vocat ional school , u n i v e r s i t y , and through adult educational courses; adult education i n subjects other than business; o c c u p a t i o n ; 3 3 r e l a t i o n s h i p to business, number of years spent i n th i s capaci ty; as wel l as work enjoyment, and s o c i a l p a r t i c i -pat ion using the Chapin S c a l e . 3 ^ Most of the categories which were bel ieved relevant to the adoption of business innovations were suggested by Mayer and Golds te in , who c a r r i e d out an inves t iga t ion into the factors which appeared to a f fec t small business forma-t i o n . They found that educational l e v e l , previous business t r a i n i n g , previous business experience and managerial "know-how" were important elements i n the success or f a i l u r e of the businesses i n v e s t i g a t e d . 3 5 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Business This sect ion was concerned with determining the funct ion of the b u s i n e s s 3 6 and i t s type of organizat ion; s ize of business as indicated by number of employees and by the t o t a l investment involved; the source and amount of 3 3 T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were those used i n the Census of Canada, 1961. Volume 3.1. 3 4 F . S . Chapin: S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale , Univer-s i t y of Minnesota Press , 1952. 3 5 K . B . Mayer and S. Go lds te in , op. c i t . , Chs. 10-12. 3 6 T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were those used i n the Census of Canada, 1961. Volume 3.2. 20 non-business income; and the t o t a l family income. The Programme In th i s sec t ion , questions were asked about the course or courses taken, the session or sessions i n which they were taken; and the stage of adoption reached for each recom-mended business technique. In add i t i on , the respondent's a t t i tudes to the course, to course content, and to the i n s t r u c t o r were measured by a t t i tude sca les . The recommended business techniques are , i n e f f ec t , the object ives of each course expressed i n behavioural or operat ional terms. These techniques have been abstracted from course mater ia l supplied by the Department of Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n . 3 7 Respondents appeared to have no d i f f i -cu l ty i n recognizing these items. The scale used to determine respondents' react ion to the course i s a Thurstone type scale devised by Kropp and Verner for the purpose of evaluating m e e t i n g s . 3 8 The scales used to determine respondents' react ion to the i n s t r u c t o r and to the course content are L i k e r t type scales used to measure s p e c i f i c rather than general a t t i tudes . The items 3 7Department of Manpower and Immigration: Course  Leaders' Guides i n Management Accounting, Personnel and  Marketing for Manufacturers. Ottawa. Management Develop-ment D i v i s i o n , Technical and Vocat ional Tra in ing Branch. Department of Manpower and Immigration. Undated. 3 8 R . P . Kropp and C. Verner: "An At t i tude Scale Technique for Evaluat ing Meetings." Adult Education, 7: 212-215 (1957). 21 i n these scales were found by asking students i n adult edu-cat ion classes at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia to write down subject ive react ions to the content of any course i n which they had p a r t i c i p a t e d and to any ins truc tors with whom they had s tudied. IV. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The interview schedules were precoded for processing on the IBM 7040 computer of the Computing Centre at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia. Univariate tabulat ions were made of the c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of the sample as indicated i n the interview schedule. Tests of s ign i f i cance were c a r r i e d out to determine i f there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme and the adoption of techniques by the respondents. In addi t ion further tests of s ign i f i cance were c a r r i e d out to determine i f there was any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between respondents' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the degree of adoption of the recommended techniques. For each tes t of s i g n i f i c a n c e , a n u l l hypothesis of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t di f ference was advanced using the 5 per cent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . That i s , i f i t i s stated that there i s no di f ference between the mean adoption scores before and af ter p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the programme, there i s a 5 per cent chance that there i s a d i f f erence . The fol lowing three s t a t i s t i c a l methods were used to 22 tes t for s i g n i f i c a n c e . Standard E r r o r of the di f ference between two sample  means. This tes t compares the mean performance of two groups or of one group on two occasions. Standard E r r o r of the d i f ference between means i n  small samples. This tes t i s s i m i l a r to the f i r s t , but used when the N's of the two samples are small (less than t h i r t y ) . Both of the above tests were o n e - t a i l e d , as th i s study i s concerned with the d i r e c t i o n of the di f ference rather than with i t s existence i n absolute terms. Analys i s of Variance . This test i s used to determine the s ign i f i cance of the di f ference among means when more than two means are involved. In th i s study i t i s used to tes t the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c e r t a i n personal and business c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents to t h e i r degree of adoption of the recommended techniques. V. PLAN OF THE STUDY The sequence of the remaining chapters of th i s study i s as fol lows: descr ip t ion of the sample in terms of the d i s t r i b u t i o n for each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the respondents; the d i s t r i b u t i o n of adoption scores for each course and for a l l courses i n t o t a l ; the measurement of average and percentage increases i n adoption scores fol lowing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme; the t e s t ing for s i g n i f i c a n t di f ferences i n 23 adoption scores before and after p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the pro-gramme; the testing for s i g n i f i c a n t differences among adoption scores attributable to certa i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents; an analysis of adoption score for each separate business technique; an analysis of scores on each of three attitude scales used.to indicate respondents' reactions to the course, instructor and course content respectively and a chapter summarizing and concluding the study. 24 CHAPTER III CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE Information on various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which previous research has associated with the adoption and/or r e j e c t i o n of innovations and with success or f a i l u r e i n business, was obtained from each respondent. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were grouped into two categories: personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and economic/business c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s were derived for each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c wi th in each course being evaluated and a percentage frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n for a l l courses together. I . PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS General For a l l respondents, for ty were male and ten female; seven were s i n g l e , forty-one married and two widowed; s i x -teen had no c h i l d r e n , twenty-five had one or two, eight had three or four and one had f i v e . Age The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sample according to age showed 8 8 per cent of the respondents to be i n the age groups 25-54. Only two respondents were under 25 years of age and only one was over 65. The median was i n the 35 to 44 age group. 25 Analyzing the courses separately the d i s t r i b u t i o n s for Personnel and for Marketing for Manufacturers were s l i g h t l y skewed towards the younger age groups. In both cases the median was i n the 35 to 44 age group. The d i s t r i -bution for Management Accounting showed the median to be i n the 45 to 54 age group. Only four respondents were over the age of 54 and these were a l l i n the Management Accounting course. (Table II) TABLE II DISTRIBUTION OF THE SAMPLE BY COURSE AND AGE GROUPINGS COURSE AGE GROUP TOTAL• Under 25: 25-34 : 35-44 : 45-54 : 55-64 : Over 65 : Personnel 2 7 5 6 0 0 20 Management Accounting 0 4 4 7 3 1 19 Marketing for Manufacturers 0 3 6 2 0 0 11 T o t a l 2 14 15 15 3 1 50 Per cent 4 28 30 30 6 2 100 Education The d i s t r i b u t i o n by years of school completed showed that 50 per cent of the respondents had completed Grade 12 whi l s t 20 per cent had progressed beyond th i s stage i n t h e i r formal education. Only 8 per cent of a l l respondents had 26 completed fewer than nine years of school . The general pattern appl ied also to each course where approximately 50 per cent of respondents had completed Grade 12 or beyond. TABLE III YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY SAMPLE RESPONDENTS BY COURSE COURSE NO. OF YEARS OF EDUCATION TOTAL Under 5 5-8 9-11 Grade 12 Sen. M a t r i c . Univ. Degree Univ. Grad. Work Personnel 0 2 8 8 2 0 0 20 Management Accounting 0 2 7 6 2 2 0 19 Marketing for Manu-facturers 0 0 6 1 3 1 0 11 T o t a l 0 4 21 15 7 3 0 50 Per Cent 0 8 42 30 14 6 0 100 Previous Business Tra in ing A l l but one of the respondents had taken business t r a i n i n g i n some kind of i n s t i t u t i o n before p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th i s programme. Table IV shows i n d e t a i l the type of i n s t i t u t i o n and the numbers and per cent attending. The most popular method of t r a i n i n g appears to have been adult education programmes. In a d d i t i o n , as an addendum, Table IV shows that 72 per cent of a l l respondents had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult education courses i n subjects other than business. TABLE IV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOURCE OF PREVIOUS BUSINESS TRAINING AND BY COURSE COURSE TYPE OF INSTITUTION High School Vocat ional School Univers i ty Adult Education Adult Education Courses i n Other Subjects Personnel 6 : 30% 3:15% 2 :10% 7:35% 15:75% Management Accounting 5:25% 3:15% 4 :20% 11:55% 12:60% Marketing for Manufacturers 3:30% 3:30% 3:30% 5:50% 9:90% Tota l 14 :28% 9:18% 9:18% 23:46% 36:72% 28 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n The respondents were not act ive p a r t i c i p a n t s i n community organizations as indicated by the general ly low p a r t i c i p a t i o n scores recorded on the Chapin Scale . Most respondents attended and contributed to only one organiza-t i o n . Approximately 20 per cent reported that they were committee members or held o f f i c e i n any organizat ion (Table V) . TABLE V SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE REPORTED BY RESPONDENTS BY COURSE COURSE PARTICIPATION SCORE TOTAL No Score: 1-4: 5-14 : 15-24 : 25-49: 50 and over: Personnel 8 0 7 4 0 1 20 Management Accounting 4 1 8 2 4 0 19 Marketing for Manufacturers 3 1 3 1 3 0 11 Tota l 15 2 18 7 7 1 50 Per cent 30 4 36 14 14 2 100 I I . ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS CHARACTERISTICS Relat ionship to Business T h i r t y - e i g h t per cent of the respondents e i ther owned or were part owners of t h e i r business . Considered separate ly , 29 there were marked dif ferences among the various courses. For both Personnel and Marketing for Manufacturers only 2 0 per cent of the respondents were owners or part owners whi l s t for Management Accounting almost 70 per cent of respondents were i n th i s category. These f igures are somewhat misleading as eleven r e -spondents wi th in the Management Accounting were from the Chi l l iwack area, and of these nine or 82 per cent were owners or part owners of t h e i r businesses. Thus four or 50 per cent of the remaining respondents i n Management Accounting were i n th i s category. This suggests that there i s a d i f ference between p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the programme who l i v e i n Metropol i tan Vancouver area and those who l i v e i n small centres . Unfortunately th i s study is too l imi t ed i n scope for any d e f i n i t e conclusions to be drawn i n th i s respect . TABLE VI RELATIONSHIP OF RESPONDENTS TO THEIR BUSINESS BY COURSE COURSE RELATIONSHIP TOTAL Owner: Part Owner: Man-ager : Other Ex-ecutive : Other Employee Personnel 0 4 2 6 8 20 Management Accounting 5 8 2 3 1 19 Marketing for Manufacturers 1 1 1 3 5 . 11 T o t a l 6 13 5 12 14 50 Per cent 12 26 10 24 28 100 30 Years i n Present Capacity Forty per cent of a l l respondents had worked 10 years or more i n t h e i r present capac i ty . The median category was from 5 to 9 years . The pattern was s i m i l a r for each course taken separately . TABLE VII DISTRIBUTION OF YEARS WORKED IN PRESENT CAPACITY BY COURSE COURSE NUMBER OF YEARS TOTAL 1-2: 3-4: 5-9 : 10-19: 20 or more: Personnel 3 3 6 7 1 20 Management Accounting 0 6 4 8 1 19 Marketing for Manufacturers 1 3 4 2 1 11 T o t a l 4 12 14 17 3 50 Per cent 8 24 28 34 6 100 Function of the Business The most frequently reported function of the business was 'Trade' with 46 per cent. Manufacturing received the next highest d i s t r i b u t i o n with 30 per cent and these two• categories combined accounted for 76 per cent of a l l b u s i -ness functions reported. The 'Personnel' course drew respondents from a wider range of business functions than did e i ther of the other two courses with s ix categories of function being represented. Both Management Accounting and Marketing for Manufacturers drew from only three categories with Trade being the most common i n the former and i n the l a t t e r course. As might be expected Manufacturing was the most common category among respondents taking part i n the Marketing for Manufacturers course. Almost 50 per cent of these respondents were i n categories other than Manufacturing. Subjective comments volunteered by these respondents during interviewing suggest that they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n th i s course because a more su i table course was not then a v a i l a b l e . (Table VIII) Organizat ion of the Business Seventy-two per cent of the businesses reported by respondents were organized as l imi t ed l i a b i l i t y companies with the remainder d i s t r i b u t e d about equal ly among the other categor ies . Respondents from government departments p a r t i c i p a t e d only i n the Personnel course and sole propr ie tors only i n the Management Accounting course. A l l of the par t i c ipant s i n the Marketing for Manufacturers course were from l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y companies. (Table IX). Number of Employees and T o t a l Investment Information obtained from these questions can give TABLE VIII FUNCTIONS OF THE BUSINESS BY COURSE COURSE F U N C T I O N TOTAL Manufacturing Construct ion Transport , Communica-t i o n and other u t i l i t i e s Trade Community, Business and Personal Service Publ ic Adminis-t r a t i o n Personnel 5 3 1 6 1 4 20 Management Accounting 4 0 0 13 2 0 19 Marketing for Manufacturers 6 0 1 4 0 0 11 Tota l 15 3 2 23 3 4 50 Per cent 30 6 4 46 6 8 100 TABLE IX DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY ORGANIZATION OF THE BUSINESS BY COURSE COURSE 0 R G A N I ! 2 A T I 0 N TOTAL Sole P r o p r i -e torship Partnership Limited L i a b i l i t y Co. Government Department Personnel 0 2 14 4 20 Management Accounting 5 3 11 0 19 Marketing for Manufacturers 0 0 11 0 11 T o t a l 5 5 36 4 50 Per Cent 10 10 72 8 100 34 only an i n d i c a t i o n of r e l a t i v e s ize among the businesses or respondents. . The ir usefulness i s further l imi t ed by the number of respondents who were e i ther unwi l l ing or unable to give information regarding the t o t a l investment i n t h e i r business . F i f t y percent of a l l businesses had 15 or more employees, 42 per cent being with in the functions of Manu-fac tur ing and Trade. For ty - four per cent of respondents' f a i l e d to answer the question on t o t a l investment. T h i r t y -four per cent of a l l businesses had a t o t a l investment of $50,000 or more; 28 per cent being within the functions of Manufacturing and Trade. TABLE X FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES BY FUNCTION OF BUSINESS FUNCTION NUMBER 1-2: 3 -4 : 5-9: 10-14 : 15 or more Manufacturing 0 0 2 1 12 Construct ion 0 0 2 1 0 Transport , Communication and other u t i l i t i e s 1 0 0 1 0 Trade 5 4 3 2 9 Community, Business and Personal Service 2 0 0 1 0 Publ ic Adminis trat ion 0 0 0 0 4 T o t a l 8 4 7 6 25 Per cent 16 8 14 12 50 TABLE XI DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL INVESTMENT BY FUNCTION OF BUSINESS FUNCTION I N V E S T M E N T Under $2499: $2500-$4999 : $5000-$9999: $10000-$24999: $25000-$50000 : Over $50000: No Re-sponse Manufacturing 0 0 0 0 2 7 6 Construction 0 0 1 1 1 0 Transport , etc 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Trade 1 2 0 3 1 7 9 Community Business, etc 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Publ ic Admin-i s t r a t i o n 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Tota l 1 2 1 3 4 17 22 Per cent 2 4 2 6 8 34 44 36 Income Both the modal and median categories of income was the $5,000 to $7,499 range. No respondent had a family i n -come of less than $2,500 or more than $14,999. Seventy-six per cent of a l l respondents had no income from sources other than t h e i r business, 14 per cent had ha l f as much or less and only 4 per cent had more than t h i s . TABLE XII DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILY INCOME Income Range Number of Respondents Percent less than $2,500 0 0 $2,500-$4,999 5 10 $5,000-$7,499 19 38 $7,500-$9 ,999 12 24 $10,000-$14,999 6 12 $15,000-$24,999 0 0 Over $25,000 0 0 No Response 8 16 T o t a l 50 100% 37 CHAPTER IV THE MEASUREMENT OF ADOPTION The degree of adoption of business techniques by-p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the programme appeared to be influenced by c e r t a i n of the personal and business c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents discussed i n the l a s t Chapter. Factors which might inf luence a businessman's dec i s ion to adopt an inno-va t ion , stem from his own background and from the s i t u a t i o n which he occupies i n the business. In p a r t i c u l a r , his educational background, business t r a i n i n g , and experience w i l l inf luence his a b i l i t y to ass imi late mater ia l and to assess i t s relevance to his own operat ion. Moreover his p o s i t i o n with in the business w i l l inf luence his authori ty to innovate. This Chapter f i r s t measures the degree of adoption by a l l respondents i n accordance with the procedure d i s -cussed i n Chapter II and then tests these measurements i n order to determine whether there has been any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the adoption of the techniques which might,be a t t r ibuted to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme. T h i r d l y , the adoption scores are analyzed i n r e l a t i o n to those personal and business c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respon-dents which might have inf luenced t h e i r dec i s ion to adopt an innovat ion. F i n a l l y , an attempt i s made to analyze the at t i tudes of respondents towards the courses, contents of 38 courses, and the i n s t r u c t o r s . I . RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS For a l l respondents i n a l l courses the mean percent-age increase i n adoption score, fol lowing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme was 181 per cent. The mean adoption score from p r i o r scores (ASp) was 1.6; from study sources (ASs) 2.9; and from a l l sources (ASt) 4.5. The mean adoption score from study sources (2.9) represents the mean increase i n adoption r e s u l t i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the educational process of the programme. 3 9 The standard deviat ions for ASp, ASs, and ASt scores were 1.9, 1.6, and 1.9 r e spec t ive ly , but the c o - e f f i c i e n t s of v a r i a t i o n , 119 per cent, 55 per cent, and 42 per cent re spec t ive ly , show a r e l a t i v e l y smaller d i spers ion of i n d i v i d u a l scores around the mean fol lowing p a r t i c i p a t i o n . (Table XIII) Respondents i n the Management Accounting course showed a much greater mean percentage increase i n adoption score (291 per cent) than respondents i n e i ther Personnel (132 per cent) or Marketing for Manufacturers (179 per cent) . The mean score from p r i o r sources of 1.1 was lower than the mean score for a l l courses r e f l e c t i n g the general lack of knowledge among respondents within th i s area. The r e l a t i v e l y high c o - e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n 1 for th i s score (173 per cent) 3 9 See Chapter 11, pp. 14-17, Design for Measuring  Adoption. TABLE XIII GROUPED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF ADOPTION SCORES FOR ALL RESPONDENTS IN ALL COURSES SCORE FREQUENCY ASp ASs ASt 0.0 - 0.8 24 6 1 1.0 - 1.8 10 8 5 2.0 - 2.8 3 10 5 3.0 - . 3.8 7 12 9 4.0 - 4.8 1 8 4 5.0 - 5.8 1 4 14 6.0 - 6.8 4 2 5 7.0 - 8.0 0 0 7 T o t a l 50 50 50 Ari thmet ic Mean 1.6 2.9 4.5 Per cent Increase ,ASs. 181% Standard Deviat ion 1.9 1.6 1.9 C o - e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n 119% 55% 42% 100S.D. AM. 40 indicates a wide range of knowledge among respondents p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the course. Despite the high percent-age increase for th i s course the mean adoption score from a l l sources (4.3) i s s l i g h t l y below the mean for a l l courses and th i s probably r e f l e c t s the h ighly t echnica l nature of th i s f i e l d and the consequent i n a b i l i t y of some respondents, p a r t i c u l a r l y those without a p r i o r knowledge of accounting, to ass imi late or assess the content during the course. (Table XIV) TABLE XIV ADOPTION SCORES FOR RESPONDENTS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING COURSE ASp ASs ASt Ari thmet ic Mean 1.1 3.2 4.3 Per cent Increase 291% Standard Deviat ion 1.9 1.6 1.9 C o - e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n 173% 50% 44% The percentage increase i n the adoption score for respondents i n the Personnel course was 132 per cent, the lowest increase of the three courses. However, both the adoption score from p r i o r sources and from a l l sources were r e l a t i v e l y high at 2.2 and 5.1 re spec t ive ly . This probably r e f l e c t s the respondents' f a m i l i a r i t y with th i s f i e l d p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the course. The r e l a t i v e l y low co-e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (82 per cent) for the adoption score 41 from p r i o r sources indicates a common l e v e l of knowledge among respondents before p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th i s course. (Table XV) TABLE XV ADOPTION SCORES FOR RESPONDENTS IN PERSONNEL COURSE ASp ASs ASt Ari thmet ic Mean 2 . 2 2.9 5.1 Per cent Increase 132% Standard Deviat ion 1.8 1.6 1.7 C o - e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n 82% 55% 33% The percentage increase i n the adoption score for respondents i n the Marketing for Manufacturers course was 179 per cent. The adoption scores from study sources (2.5) and from a l l sources (3.9) were the lowest for the three courses and r e f l e c t the fact that only s ix out of the eleven respondents were ac tua l ly engaged i n manufacturing. (Table XVI) TABLE XVI ADOPTION SCORES FOR RESPONDENTS IN MARKETING FOR MANUFACTURERS COURSE ASp ASs ASt Ari thmet ic Mean 1.4 2.5 3.9 Per cent Increase j 179% Standard Deviat ion 1.4 1.0 1.8 C o - e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n 100% 40% 46% 42 I I . SIGNIFICANCE OF MEASUREMENTS As the mean of the ASp score represents the mean adoption score of respondents before p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the programme and the mean of the ASt score, the mean adoption score of respondents a f ter p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the programme, the d i f ference between these means represents the gain in the degree of adoption due to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the pro-gramme. The s ign i f i cance of th i s gain was estimated by a one - ta i l ed "t" t e s t , for large samples in the case of a l l courses, and for small samples in the case of each separate c o u r s e . k 0 In the case of a l l courses together the observed value of "t" was 11=8, "t" being s i g n i f i c a n t at 2.4 at the .01 l e v e l . For the Personnel course the observed and s i g -n i f i c a n t values of "t" respect ive ly were 5.3 and 2.55; for Management Accounting 5.3 and 2.57; and for Marketing for Manufacturers 7.81 and 2.82. In a l l cases the observed value of "t" was greater than the s i g n i f i c a n t value at the .01 l e v e l , ind ica t ing that there had been a s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n the degree of adoption by respondents fol lowing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme. Thus the n u l l hypothesis may be re jec ted . Table XVII shows the observed and s i g n i f i c a n t values 4 0 H . E . Garnett: S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Educa-t i o n , 5th. E d . , New York, David McKay Co. I n c . , 1965. pp. 212-225. 43 of "t" for a l l courses and for each course separately . TABLE XVII SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEANS OF ASp AND ASt SCORES COURSE "t" (observed value) Degrees of Freedom (N-2) "t" (one-tailed) i s s i g n i f i c a n t at l eve l s .05 .01 A l l 'Courses i n T o t a l 11.8 48 1.68 2.40 Personnel 5.3 18 1.73 2.55 Management Accounting 5.3 17 1.74 2.57 Marketing for Manufacturers 7.81 9 1.83 2.82 S i g n i f i c a n t Values are indicated by under l in ing . I I I . ANALYSIS OF ADOPTION SCORES IN RELATIONSHIP TO CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS This sect ion analyzes adoption scores i n r e l a t i o n to those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents discussed e a r l i e r which were thought to have an e f fect on the adoption of the b u s i -ness techniques s tudied. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used for th i s purpose are age, education, r e l a t i o n s h i p of the respondent to his business, numbers of years spent i n his present capac i ty , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , function of the business, number of employees i n the business, and family income. The analys is was made using a s ingle factor analys is 44 of variance of the adoption score from study sources (ASs) only . The n u l l hypothesis tested asserts that the dependent var iab le ( i . e . the adoption score) for each independent var iab le ( i . e . the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of age, education, e tc . ) w i l l d i f f e r only through f luctuat ions in sampling. To test th i s hypothesis i n each case the "among groups" variance of means was d iv ided by the variances of the scores wi th in the groups and the r e s u l t i n g "F" r a t i o compared with given values of "F" at the des ired l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 4 2 Of the seven personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tes ted , a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between adoption score and education, r e la t i onsh ip to business, and number of employees (Table XVIII ) . These three character-i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l only . The n u l l hypothesis of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference among means may be accepted for a l l of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tested except these three. (Table XVIII) Educat ional l e v e l , as measured by years of school completed, was one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that was found to have a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t re la t i onsh ip to adoption score. The mean adoption score (ASs) was highest among those respondents with twelve years of school completed. Respon-dents with more than twelve years of schooling had lower mean adoption scores but these were higher than those with ** 2 Ibid . , pp. 276-288 and pp. 451-453. TABLE XVIII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AMONG MEANS C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Source of V a r i a t i o n Degrees of Freedom Mean Square (Variance) u p H (Variance Ratio) S i g n i f i c a n t Values of "F" .05 .01 Age Among Means 5 2.33 Within Groups 44 2.70 0.87 2.42 3.45 Education Among Means 4 6.50 Within Groups 45 2.31 2.81 2.58 3.77 Relat ionship to Among Means 4 6.61 Business Within Groups 45 2.30 2.87 2.58 3.77 No. of Years In Among Means 4 1.92 Present Capacity Within Means 45 2.72 0.71 2.58 3.77 S o c i a l P a r t i c i - Among Means 5 0 .94 pation Within Means 44 2.84 0.33 2.42 3.4 5 Function of Among Means 6 4.20 Business Within Means 43 2.44 1.72 2.32 3.25 Number of Among Means 4 8 .12 Employees Within Groups 45 2.17 3.74 2.58 3.77 Family Income Among Means 3 1.27 38 2.72 0.46 2.85 4. 33 S i g n i f i c a n t Values are indicated by under l in ing . 46 less than twelve years of school completed. Thus, the more education the more l i k e l y the adoption of innovations from study sources. (Table XIX) TABLE XIX NUMBER OF YEARS OF EDUCATION: COMPARATIVE ADOPTION SCORES Group No. of Respondents Mean Adoption Score (ASs) 5-8 years 4 2.0 9-11 years 21 2.4 Grade 12 14 4.0 Senior M a t r i c . 8 3.2 Univers i ty Degree 3 3.7 "Relationship to business," r e f e r r i n g to the respon-dents' pos i t ions within t h e i r business, was a second charac-i s t i c that was found to have a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to adoption score. The mean adoption score (ASs) was highest among those respondents who were sole owners of t h e i r business . Respondents who were part owners and managers had lower mean adoption scores but these were higher that those who were other executives and other employees. Thus the greater the degree of authori ty wi th in the business the more l i k e l y the adoption of innovations from study sources (Table XX). The number of employees within the respondents 1 TABLE XX RELATIONSHIP TO BUSINESS: COMPARATIVE ADOPTION SCORES GROUP No. of Respondents Mean Adoption Score (ASs) Owner Part Owner Manager Other Executive Other Employee 6 13 5 12 14 4.1 3.6 3.3 2.8 2.0 48 businesses was the t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that was found to have a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t re la t i onsh ip to adoption score. The mean adoption score (ASs) was highest among those respondents with 3-4 employees. Respondents with 1-2 and 5-9 employees had lower mean adoption scores but these were higher than those with 10 or more employees. Thus the adoption of innovations from study sources i s more l i k e l y to take place where the number of employees i s r e l a t i v e l y few. (Table XXI) TABLE XXI NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES: COMPARATIVE ADOPTION SCORES GROUP No. of Respondents Mean Adoption Score (ASs) 1-2 Employees 8 3.9 3-4 Employees 4 4.3 5-9 Employees 7 3.9 10-14 Employees 5 3.0 15 or more Employees 26 2.3 IV. ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES Three scales were used i n an attempt to determine respondents' react ions to the course, the course content, and to the i n s t r u c t o r . 4 3 On the Kropp-Verner scale for measuring respondents' a t t i tudes to the course, the median score of each respondent was recorded, most respondents 4 3 S e e Ch. I I . ( I l l ) pp. 20-21. checking more than one s ta tement . 4 4 On th i s scale the lower the score the more favourable the r e a c t i o n . 4 5 Reactions ranged from the most favourable, "It was one of the most rewarding experiences I have had," to statement number 12, "It was not exactly what I needed," with a mean score of 6 for a l l courses and for each course separately . The scores on the scale used for measuring respon-dents' react ion to the i n s t r u c t o r showed an o v e r a l l mean of 65 with l i t t l e divergence among the course means. As the highest poss ib le score was 75, the recorded score indicates a highly favourable r e a c t i o n . 4 6 The scores on the scale used for measuring respon-dents' react ion to course content were general ly lower than react ion to i n s t r u c t o r scores. The o v e r a l l mean was 59 and course means were 57 for Management Accounting and 61 for both Personnel and Marketing for Manufacturers. Neverthe-less an average score of four per statement indicates a favourable r e a c t i o n . 4 7 An attempt to analyze scores a t t r i -buted to each statement was abandoned as no meaningful pattern emerged. Indiv idual a t t i tude scores for a l l respon-dents i n a l l courses are shown i n Table XXV i n Appendix I I . 4 4 S e e Appendix I , p. 71. Statements Describing  Reactions to Course. 4 5 R . P . Kropp and C. Verner, l o c . c i t . 4 6 S e e Appendix I , p. 72. Statements Describing  Reaction to Ins tructor . 4 7 S e e Appendix I , p. 74. Statements Describing Reaction to Course Content. CHAPTER V 50 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This study analyzes the adoption of c e r t a i n spec i f i ed business s k i l l s and techniques by par t i c ipant s in the Small Business Management Tra in ing Programme, as a means of evaluat ing the educational effect iveness of the programme. In a d d i t i o n , i t seeks to indicate the react ion of p a r t i c i -pants to the course, the ins t ruc tor and to the course content. The Small .Business Management Programme evolved from the need for dec i s ion making s k i l l s i n a number of funct ional areas of management, and i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Man-agement Development Unit of the Department of Manpower and Immigration. The programme i s managed by p r o v i n c i a l govern-ments which have the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for education. In B r i t i s h Columbia the local School Boards sponsor the programme and of fer the courses in adult evening c lasses . Data for the above analys is were c o l l e c t e d from a sample of p a r t i c i p a n t s in each of 3 courses offered in the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. These 3 courses were Personnel, Management Accounting, and Marketing for Manu-facturers . Many studies using the concept of adoption have been c a r r i e d out mainly i n the f i e l d of r u r a l sociology.. Conse-quently a great deal of l i t e r a t u r e on the concept and the 51 a p p l i c a t i o n of the adoption process i s a v a i l a b l e . Some of the works pert inent to th i s study were reviewed. I . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE Data were co l l ec t ed on personal , and on business and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents, and on the de-gree of adoption of the spec i f i ed techniques. The degree of adoption of each technique was expressed as a numerical score. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sample according to age approximated the normal curve. The median age group was 35-44 years . An analys is of variance among the means of the various groups of each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c measured indicated that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference i n adoption score with respect to the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondents. F i f t y per cent of a l l respondents had completed Grade 12. Only 8 per cent had completed fewer than 9 years i n school . For th i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , an analys is of variance indicated that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference in adoption scores with respect to years of education. The "F" r a t i o was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 per cent l e v e l . With respect to business t r a i n i n g , a l l but one of the respondents had attended some type of i n s t i t u t i o n p r i o r to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th i s programme. The most common method of t r a i n i n g was i n adult education c lasses . In view of the overwhelming p a r t i c i p a t i o n of respondents i n previous 52 business t r a i n i n g there was l i t t l e point i n carry ing out further analys is of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Genera l ly , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and business organ-i za t ions by respondents was low. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference i n adoption scores among groups within the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h i r t y - e i g h t per cent of a l l respondents were e i ther owners or part owners o f t h e i r businesses; 34 per cent were managers or other executives and 2 8 per cent other employees. Analys i s of variance among means of groups within th i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference i n adoption scores among these groups. The mean score for the owner category for instance, was more than twice that for the other employee category. The largest number of respondents were engaged i n trade , 46 per cent g iv ing th i s category as the funct ion of t h e i r businesses. Trade and manufacturing together accounted for 76 per cent of a l l businesses. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference i n adoption scores i n respect of th i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . An attempt to determine s ize of business by number of employees'and the t o t a l investment i n the business was only p a r t i a l l y successful as many respondents e i ther were unable or unwi l l ing to provide information on investment. Half of the businesses involved had 15 or more employees and analys i s of variance indicated that s ize in th i s respect 53 had an e f fec t on the adoption scores of respondents. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference among the mean scores of-the categories wi th in th i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the scores being lower i n the 10-14 and 15 or more employee categories . The median family income group was $5,000 to $7,499. Seventy-six per cent of a l l respondents had no income other than from business sources. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference i n adoption scores i n respect of th i s character-i s t i c . I I . THE MEASUREMENT OF ADOPTION The educational effect iveness of the programme was measured by t e s t ing the s ign i f i cance of the di f ferences between the means of the adoption score p r i o r to p a r t i c i -pat ion i n the programme (ASp), and the adoption score sub-sequent to p a r t i c i p a t i o n (ASt). This was done for a l l . courses . in t o t a l and for each, course separately . A one-t a i l e d ' t ' tes t for large samples was used to measure the d i f ference for a l l courses i n t o t a l and a s i m i l a r tes t for small samples i n the case of each.course separately . In a l l cases there.was a, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference between the means, of the two scores at the .01 l e v e l of confidence, indicat ing , a s ignif icant^ gain in the adoption of the tech-niques fol lowing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme. Three scales were used i n the,study t o - i n d i c a t e the react ion of, respondents to thei course i n general , to the i n s t r u c t o r , and to the course content. The scoring indicated 54 a h ighly favourable react ion i n a l l three cases. I I I . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The study indicates that the Small Business Manage-ment Tra in ing Programme has been of substant ia l benef i t to those businessmen who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i t s courses. With few exceptions, the respondents expressed a high degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n with the courses, i n s t r u c t o r s , and course contents. Subjective remarks made to the wr i ter during interviews, however, indicated that some respondents found i t d i f f i c u l t to ass imi late course mater ia l during the r e l a -t i v e l y short time allowed for the course. This was espe-c i a l l y so i n Management Accounting. Several p a r t i c i p a n t s expressed the opinion that they would have better understood the content i f they had had a p r i o r knowledge of bookkeeping. This opinion might be re f l ec ted i n the average adoption score from t o t a l sources (ASt) for th i s course which i s con-s iderably below that for the Personnel course, even though the ASs score i s higher. Again the r e l a t i v e l y low ASs and ASt scores for the Marketing for Manufacturers course probably r e f l e c t s the fact that only s ix of the eleven respondents i n th i s course were engaged i n manufacturing. Many respondents expressed the wish for more courses wi th in t h e i r own d i s t r i c t s and showed in teres t i n some of the newer courses. 55 Although t h i s study has indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t gain in the adoption of business practices following p a r t i c i -pation i n the programme t h i s , i n i t s e l f , i s only prima facie evidence of increased business e f f i c i e n c y . It suggests that the problem might be taken further and research con-ducted into the r e l a t i v e increases i n business e f f i c i e n c y among participants and nonparticipants i n the programme. BIBLIOGRAPHY I . MANUSCRIPT SOURCES O f f i c i a l Reports Conger, D . S . , Chief of Small Business Management Tra in ing D i v i s i o n . Report, on Canadian Small B u s i -ness Management Tra in ing Program; for Productivity-D i v i s i o n OECD Conference on the c o l l e c t i v e act ion taken by small and medium-sized enterprises to adapt themselves to new market condi t ions . Ottawa, Department of Labour, Ju ly 31, 1964. Correspondence Cowan, D . C , Head, Management Development Un i t . Let ter to the w r i t e r . September 27, 1966. Theses Gubbels, Peter M . , The Adoption and Reject ion of Innovations by Dairymen i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y . Unpublished M . S . A . Thes i s . The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B . C . 1966. M i l l e r d , Frank W., An Analys i s of the Adoption of Innovations by Okanagan Orchard i s t s . Unpublished M . S . A . Thes i s , The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B . C . 1966. Welch, John M . , An Evaluat ion of Three Adult Education  Methods for Disseminating Trade Information to  Missour i Restaurant Operators. Unpublished PH.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1961. I I . PRINTED SOURCES Government Publ icat ions B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Community Programmes Branch, Adult Education. Small Business  Management T r a i n i n g . Undated, mimeograph. Canada, Department of Manpower and Immigration, Technical and Vocat ional Tra in ing Branch. Introduct ion. A pamphlet to acquaint prospective course wri ters with the aims and requirements of courses prepared for the Small Business Management Tra in ing Programme. Undated, mimeograph. 58 Canada, Department of Manpower and Immigration, Manage-ment Development D i v i s i o n . What Every Businessman  Wants to Know - T h e Way to P r o f i t s : Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery. . Cat . No. L32-2566. 1966. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Census of Canada 1961. Ottawa, Queens P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stat ionery . 196 3, V o l s . 3.1 and 3.2. Mayer, K . B . and Golds te in , S., The F i r s t Two Years: Problems of Small Business Growth and S u r v i v a l . Washington, D . C . Small Business Admini s tra t ion . Research Series No. 2. 1961. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development: Evaluat ion of Supervisory and Management Tra in ing Methods. P a r i s . OECD P u b l i c a t i o n s . 1963. B. General Works Adams, Georgia Sachs: Measurement and Evaluat ion i n Education, Psychology and Guidance. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, I n c . , 1964. Bloom, Benjamin S . , Taxonomy of Educational Object ives , Handbook 1: Cognit ive Domain. New York, David McKay C o . , 1956. Garnett , H . E . S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. New York, David McKay Co. Inc. 5th e d . , 1965. Good, C . V . Barr , A . S . and Scates, D . E . . The Methodology  of Education Research. New York; Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , I n c . , 1941. Kenda l l , M.G. and Babington-Smith, B. Tables of Random  Sampling Numbers. Tracts for Computers No. 24. London; Cambridge Univers i ty Press . 1951. Lionberger, Herbert F . , Adoption of New Ideas and P r a c t i c e s . The Iowa State Univers i ty Press . Ames, Iowa. 1960. M i l l e r , Delbert C . , Handbook of Research Design and S o c i a l Measurement. New York: David McKay Co. I n c . , S o c i a l Science Ser ies . 1964. Moser, C A . , Survey Methods i n S o c i a l Inves t igat ion . London: Wil l iam Heineman. 1948. 59 Mouly, George G . , The Science of Educational Research. New York: American Book C o . , 1963. Rogers, Everett M . , D i f fus ion of Innovations. New York: Free Press . 1962. Walker, Helen M . , and Lev, Joseph, S t a t i s t i c a l Inference. New York: Ho l t , Rinehart and Winston. 1953. C. Spec i f i c Works Barr ington, T . M . The Introduction of Selected Education-a l Pract ices into Teachers' Colleges and Their Labora-tory Schools. New York: Columbia Univers i ty Teachers' Col lege , Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s . 1953. Bea l , George M . , Rogers, Everett M. and Bohlen, Joe M . , " V a l i d i t y of the Concept, of Stages i n the Adoption Process." Rural Sociology. 22, June, 1957. 166-168. Kropp, R .P . and Verner, C. "An At t i tude Scale Technique for Evaluat ing Meetings." Adult Education. Adult Education Assoc ia t ion of U . S . A . 7 Summer 1957, 212-215. McKinney, A . C . "Progressive Levels i n the Evaluat ion of Tra in ing Programs." Personnel . 34. 1957. 72-77. Thiede, Wilson. "Evaluation and Adult Education" Adult Education. ed. Gale Jensen et a l . Adult Education Assoc ia t ion of U . S . A . 1964. Verner, C o o l i e , and M i l l e r d , Frank W. Adoption of  Innovations. Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Rural Sociology Monograph No. 1. 1966. Welch, G.M. and Verner, C. "A Study of Two Methods for the D i f fus ion of Knowledge." Adult Education. Chicago, Adult Education Assoc ia t ion of U . S . A . 12. Summer 1962. 231-237. APPENDIX I THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 61 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE The Rate of Adoption of Business Techniques i n the Small Business Management Tra in ing Program Respondent's Name: Name of Business: Address: Telephone Number: Respondent's Code Number: Record of V i s i t s : 62 Introduction I'm from the U . B . C . I am conducting a survey of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Small Business Management Tra in ing Pro-gram and I would l i k e to ask some questions about yourse l f and about your business. A l l information that you give me w i l l be s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l be used for s t a t i s t i c a l summaries only . A. To begin, I would l i k e to ask a few questions about yourse l f . 1. What i s your age? 1 under 25 1 1 2 25 - 34 2 3 35 - 44 3 4 45 - 54 4 5 55 - 64 5 6 over 65 6 2. What i s your m a r i t a l status? 1 Single 2 1 2 Married 2 3 Widowed 3 3. How many c h i l d r e n do you have? 1 None 3 1 2 1 - 2 2 3 3 - 4 3 4 5 or more 4 4. What was the highest year you completed in school? 1 less than 5 4 1 2 5 - 8 2 3 9 - 11 3 4 High School Diploma (Grade 12) 4 5 Senior M a t r i c u l a t i o n 5 6 Univers i ty Degree 6 7 Univers i ty graduate work 7 5. Have you taken any business courses i n high school? 1 Yes 5 1 2 No 2 6. Have you taken any business courses at a vocat ional school? 1 yes 6 1 2 No 2 63 7. Have you taken any business courses at un ivers i ty? 1 Yes 7 1 2 No . 2 8. Have you taken any adult education courses i n business before p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th i s program? 1 Yes 8 1 2 No 2 9. Have you taken any adult education courses i n other subjects? 1 Yes 9 1 2 No 2 10. What i s your occupation? 1 Managerial 10 1 2 Profess ional and Technical 2 3 C l e r i c a l 3 .4 Sales 4 5 Service and Recreat ional 5 11. What i s your r e l a t i o n s h i p to your business? 1 Owner 11 1 2 Part Owner 2 3 Manager 3 4 Other Executive 4 5 Other Employee 5 12. How many years have you worked i n th i s capacity? 1 1-2 12 1 2 3-4 2 •3 5-9 3 4 10-19 4 5 20 or more 5 13. Is your business your f u l l - t i m e occupation? 1 Yes 2 No 13 1 2 14. Do you enjoy your work? 1 Yes 14 1 2 No 2 64 15. Do you subscribe to any business magazines? 1 Yes 15 1 2 No 2 16. S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score 1 No Score 16 1 2 1 - 4 2 3 5 - 14 3 4 15 - 24 4 5 25 - 49 5 6 50 or more 6 Soc ia l P a r t i c i p a t i o n Score  Organizat ion 1965 Membership Attendance Contr ibut ion Committee Membership Off ices Held 1964 1963 TOTALS GRAND TOTAL = +3 PARTICIPATION SCORE B. Next I would l i k e to ask you about your business. 65 21. What i s the ch ie f function of the business? 1 Mines, Quarr ies , O i l Wells 21 1 2 Manufacturing 2 3 Construct ion 3 4 Transportat ion , Communication, Other 4 f a c i l i t i e s 5 Trade 5 6 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate 6 7 Community, Business, and Personal Service 7 8 Publ ic Adminis trat ion 8 22. Under what type of organizat ion does the business operate? 1 Sole Propr ie torsh ip 22 1 2 Partnership 2 3 Limited L i a b i l i t y Company 3 4 Government Department 4 23. I f partnership or company, how many act ive partners or d i rec tors i n the business? 1 1 23 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 Over 3 4 24. How many have taken part i n the program? 1 1 24 1 2 22 2 3 3 3 4 Over 3 4 25. How many paid employees other than owners were there i n the business at end 1965? 1 1 - 2 25 1 2 3 - 4 2 3 5 - 9 ' 3 4 10 - 14 4 5 15 or more 5 26. What was the t o t a l investment, inc lud ing loans, i n the business at end of 1965? 1 Under $1,000 26 1 2 $1000 - $2,499 2 3 $2500 - $4,999 3 4 $5000 - $7,499 4 5 $7500 - $9,999 5 6 $10000 - $14,999 6 66 26. (continued) 7 $15000 - $24,999 26 7 8 $25000 - $49,999 8 9 Over $50,000 9 27. Did you receive income from sources other than your business l a s t year? If so, how i s th i s income re la ted to your income from business? 1 No income from other sources 27 1 2 Half as much or less 2 3 Less than, but greater than h a l f as much 3 4 Equal to 4 5 Greater but less than twice as much 5 6 Twice as much or greater 6 28. In what range would your 1965 t o t a l family income f a l l ? 1 Less than $2,500 28 1 2 $2,500 - $4,499 2 3 $5,000 - $7,499 3 4 $7,500 - $9,999 4 5 $10,000 - $14,999 5 6 $15,000 - $24,999 6 7 Over $25,000 7 C. Now I would l i k e to ask you some questions about the program. In which course or courses have you part ic ipated? 29. Management Accounting 29 1 30. Personnel 30 1 31. Marketing for Manufacturers 31 1 32. When d id you take the course? F a l l , 1964 32 1 Spring , 1965 2 F a l l , 1965 3 Spr ing , 1966 4 F a l l , 1966 5 I w i l l now read to you some business techniques recommended i n the course. I want you to t e l l me whether you are aware of each of these p r a c t i c e s . I f so, what progress, i f any, have you made towards the adoption of each? 67 Stage of Adoption Cumulative Score Awareness 0.2 Interest 0.4 Evaluat ion 0.6 T r i a l 0.8 Adoption 1.0 D e f i n i t i o n The f i r s t knowledge about a new p r a c t i c e . The act ive seeking of extensive and de ta i l ed information about the idea to determine i t s poss ible usefulness and a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Weighing and s i f t i n g the acquired information and evidence i n the l i g h t of the ex i s t ing condit ions into which the prac t i ce would have to f i t . The tentat ive t r y i n g out of the p r a c t i c e . The f u l l - s c a l e in tegrat ion of the prac t i ce into the on-going operate. Read from the appropriate course schedule showing the recommended techniques. Hand respondent "Attitude to Course" sca le . I would l i k e to f ind out how you fee l about the course. Which of these statements most accurately describe your personal react ion to the course? Hand respondent "Attitude to Course Content" sca le . Would you please read the ins truc t ions and complete th i s part of the schedule? Hand Respondent "Attitude to Instructor". Would you please read the ins truc t ions and complete th i s part of the schedule? 68 Management Accounting Recommended Techniques In the r ight-hand margin, opposite each Score prac t i ce enter the appropriate score. ASp ASs ASt 1. Departmentalised P r o f i t & Loss State-ment to determine the contr ibut ion to net p r o f i t of each department. 2. Comparative P r o f i t & Loss Statement, showing the contr ibut ion to net p r o f i t of each department for each year. 3. F i n a n c i a l statement showing r a t i o of net p r o f i t a f ter owner's s a l a r y , to net worth (Return on c a p i t a l invested) . 4. Statement showing r a t i o of quick assets to current l i a b i l i t i e s . 5. Analys i s of costs into f ixed and v a r i a b l e , and c a l c u l a t i o n of a break-even po in t . 6. Forecasted P r o f i t & Loss Statement or Operating Budget for each depart-ment for the current f i n a n c i a l year. 7. Projected Balance Sheet for the current f i n a n c i a l year. 8. Monthly Cash & Operating Statements for the purpose of budget c o n t r o l . TOTALS 40 41 42 69 Personnel Recommended Techniques In the r ight-hand margin, opposite each Score prac t i ce enter the appropriate score. ASp ASs ASt 1. Preparing job descr ipt ions for employees based on duties to be performed. 2. E s t a b l i s h i n g employee s p e c i f i -cat ions based on q u a l i f i c a t i o n s required by each employee. 3. E s t a b l i s h i n g a t r a i n i n g program for a l l employees. 4. E s t a b l i s h i n g an employee perform-ance appra i sa l p lan . 5. Indicat ing to subordinates the extent of th i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and author i ty . 6. Acquir ing a knowledge of wage rates paid by other employees i n the same l i n e of business. 7. Keeping personal record f i l e s for a l l employees. 8. Providing for a manager successor. TOTALS 50 51 52 70 Marketing for Manufacturers Recommended Techniques In the r ight-hand margin, opposite each Score prac t i ce enter the appropriate score. ASp ASs ASt 1. Carry ing out consumer analys is i n order to e s tab l i sh the i d e n t i t y of p o t e n t i a l customer for a l l of your products . 2. Assessing the r a t i o of your sales to the t o t a l industry sales for a l l products . 3. C a l c u l a t i n g "Break-Even" points for a l l products. 4. Analysing i n terms of p r o f i t a b i l i t y , the probable e f fect of introducing new products. 5. Assessing i n terms of p r o f i t a b i l i t y , the probable ef fects of using a l t e r -native d i s t r i b u t i o n channels. 6. Assessing the probable e f fect on p r o f i t of a dec i s ion to change p r i c e s . 7. P e r i o d i c a l l y reviewing the l e v e l and method of Salesmen's compensation. 8. Assessing ava i lab le adver t i s ing a l t ernat ives i n terms of r e l a t i v e costs and e f fect iveness . TOTALS 60 61 62 71 Statements descr ib ing react ions to course. I would l i k e to f ind out how you f ee l about the course. Which of these statements most accurately describes your personal react ion to the course? 01. I t was one of the most rewarding experiences I have ever had. 02. Exact ly what I wanted. 03. I intend to take another course i n the near future . 04. I t provided the kind of experience that I am able to apply to my own s i t u a t i o n . 05. I t helped me personal ly . 06. I t solved some problems for me. 07. I think i t served i t s purpose. 08. I t had some meri t s . 09. It was f a i r . 10. I t was nei ther very good nor very poor. 11. I was mi ld ly disappointed. 12. I was not exactly what I needed. 13. I t was too general . 14. I t d id not take any new ideas away. 15. I t d id not hold my i n t e r e s t . 16. I t was much too s u p e r f i c i a l . 17. I was d i s s a t i s f i e d . 18. I t was very poorly planned. 19. I d i d n ' t learn a th ing . 20. I t was a complete waste of time. SCORE 7 0 72 Statement descr ib ing react ion to ins truc tor , 1 would l i k e to determine your degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n with the way i n which the i n s t r u c t o r managed the course. The fol lowing items ind icate behaviour which might be expected of an i n s t r u c t o r . You are asked to indicate i n respect of each item whether you are 1 Very S a t i s f i e d ; 2 Moderately S a t i s f i e d ; 3 Undecided; 4 Moderately D i s s a t i s f i e d ; 5 Very D i s s a t i s f i e d ; that the i n s t r u c t o r •d •d CD CD ><-H - H •d r H M-l CD cu cu CD CD CO cn • H 4 J - H •d +J - H • H m <n m - H UJ +> +J cn U CO U U fd m >i-H (U - H CD cu cn >i tn U -P •d >d cn u cn cu td o m c 0 - H CD - H > cn 13 a Q > Q 01. Showed that he had a good knowledge of the subject matter of the course? 02. Acquired a knowledge of the b u s i -ness in teres t s of a l l members of the course? 03. Stated c l e a r l y the object ives of each session? 4 3 04. Used a var i e ty of teaching techniques i n conducting the c lass? 05. U t i l i s e d c lass time f u l l y ? 06. Discussed the a p p l i c a t i o n of the subject to your business operation? 07. Encouraged students to pursue further study of subject matter on t h e i r own? 5 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 2 2 1 1 08. Retained your in teres t throughout the course? 09. Summarised the work of each session at the close of the c lass? 4 3 4 3 10. Created a f r i e n d l y atmosphere in the c lass? 5 4 3 2 1 73 Statements descr ib ing react ions to i n s t r u c t o r (continued). 11. Encouraged members to p a r t i c i p a t e in each session? 12. Gave adequate answers to c lass questions? 13. Made the subject matter e a s i l y understandable? 14. Brought out c l e a r l y the p r i n c i p l e s involved i n each session? 15. Had adequate contro l of the c lass? SCORE 80 TI Ti cu CD >1-rl - H Ti r H T i Ti r H MH m CD 0) cu cn cn •rH +J - r l 4-> - r l - r l l+H nS m r H rd +J -P cn u cn o JH rd (ti > i - H CU -rH CL) cu cn > i cn U 4-> TS +> Ti cn M cn ci) rcJ o m 'd 0 -H CU - H > ui a cn a P > Q 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 74 Statements descr ib ing react ion to course content, I would l i k e to determine your react ion to the content of the course. In respect of each item please indicate whether you 1 Strongly Agree; 2 Agree; 3 Are Undecided; 4 Disagree; 5 Strongly Disagree. CD CD U CD t n CD fd >H cn •H < Q T i CD CD >H rH T i CD rH - H SH Cn d CD O Cn d 0 CD CD 0 u U T 5 w rl +J d •rH •P cn < Q cn 5 4 3 2 1 01. I t was relevant to my s i t u a t i o n . 02. I t was too t echnica l for me. 1 2 3 4 5 03. I found i t he lp fu l i n so lv ing my problems. 5 4 3 2 1 04. I t was too t h e o r e t i c a l . 1 2 3 4 5 05. There was too much mater ia l for the time a l l o t t e d . 1 2 3 4 5 06. I was able to adapt i t to my business . 5 4 3 2 1 07. No c l ear concepts emerged. 1 2 3 4 5 08. There was too much d e t a i l . 1 2 3 4 5 09. I found i t i n t e r e s t i n g . 5 4 3 2 1 10. I t was s u p e r f i c i a l . 1 2 3 4 5 11. I t was out of date. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I t was just what I wanted. 5 4 3 2 1 13. I was able to understand i t . 5 4 3 2 1 14. I t had no value for me. 1 2 3 4 5 15. I t was u s e f u l . 5 4 3 2 1 SCORE 9 0 APPENDIX II TABLES OF INDIVIDUAL ADOPTION SCORES FOR EACH RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUE AND OF INDIVIDUAL ATTITUDE SCORES 76 TABLE XXII INDIVIDUAL ADOPTION SCORES FOR EACH RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUE IN THE PERSONNEL COURSE No. Recommended Technique ASp ] ASs ASt ASp 2 ASs ASt ASp 3 ASs ASt ASp 4 ASs ASt 1 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.4 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.8 2.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 3 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 4 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.4 5 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0 . 2 6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0 . 2 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 7 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 8 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0 . 8 1.0 9 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 10 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0 . 2 11 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 12 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 13 0.0 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0 . 0 0.2 0.2 14 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 15 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 16 0.2 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0 . 6 0.6 17 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 18 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 19 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 20 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.0 TS* 5.2 10.0 15.2 3.0 7.0 10.0 10.0 5.6 15.6 6.6 5.4 12.0 *Total Score 77 TABLE XXII (continued) No. Recommended Technique ASp 5 ASs ASt ASp 6 ASs ASt ASp 7 ASs ASt ASp 8 ASs ASt 1 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0 . 2 0.8 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 3 0.2 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.6 0.6 4 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 . 2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.0 1.0 5 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 6 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 8 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 9 0.2 0.8 1.0 0 . 2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0 . 8 1.0 0.0 0 . 2 0 . 2 10 0.0 1.0 1.0 0 . 0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 11 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 12 1.0 0 . 0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 13 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 14 0 . 0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 15 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0 . 2 16 0.2 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0 . 8 1.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.4 17 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 18 0.0 1.0 1.0 0 . 0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.0 19 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 20 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 IS* 7.2 8.4 15.6 5.2 7.6 12.8 5.8 7.6 13.4 2.0 6.0 8.0 *Total Score 78 TABLE XXIII INDIVIDUAL ADOPTION SCORES FOR EACH RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUE IN THE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING COURSE No. Recommenc ed.Techniq ue ASp 1 ASs ASt ASp 2 ASs ASt ASp 3 ASs ASt ASp 4 ASs ASt 1 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.6 0.4 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 2 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.4 0 . 0 0.4 0.4 3 1.0 0.0 1.0 0 . 2 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 4 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 5 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.4 0.6 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 6 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.0 7 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 8 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 9 0.2 0.8 1.0 0 . 2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 10 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 11 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.8 12 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 . 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 13 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 14 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 15 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.8 1.0 16 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0 . 0 0.2 0.2 17 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0 . 0 0.4 0.4 18 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0 . 0 0.4 0.4 19 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 TS* 4.4 7.8 12.2 2.0 8.4 10.4 3.8 7.0 10.8 3.6 8.0 11.6 *Total Score 79 TABLE XXIII (continued) No. Recommended Techniq ue ASp 5 ASs ASt ASp 6 ASs ASt ASp 7 ASs ASt ASp 8 ASs ASt 1 0.2 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0 . 0 1.0 2 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 1.0 1.0 3 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 . 2 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.6 4 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.8 5 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 7 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 8 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0 . 0 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.0 9 0.0 1.0 1.0 0 . 0 0.6 0.6 0 . 0 0.4 0.4 0.0 1.0 1.0 10 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 11 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 12 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 13 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0 . 0 0 . 2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0 . 2 14 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0 . 0 0.2 0.2 15 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0 16 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0 . 0 0.2 0 . 2 17 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0 . 0 0.2 0.2 18 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 19 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 1.0 • 1.0 rs* 1.8 8 . 2 10.0 3.6 6.6 10.2 3.6 4.4 8 . 0 3.6 8.8 12 . 4 *Total Score 80 TABLE XXIV INDIVIDUAL ADOPTION SCORES FOR EACH RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUE IN THE MARKETING FOR MANUFACTURES COURSE No. Recommei ided Technique ASp 1 ASs ASt ASp 2 ASs ASt ASp 3 ASs ASt ASp 4 ASs ASt 1 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 3 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 4 1.0 0.0 1.0 0 . 0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0 . 0 1.0 5 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 6 0.2 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0'.4 0.6 1.0 7 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 8 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 9 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 10 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0 . 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0 11 0.2 0.8 1.0 0 . 0 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.8 r s * 1.8 6.0 7.8 1.6 4.0 5.6 1.4 0.8 4.2 2.0 3.2 5.2 *Total Score TABLE XXIV (continued) No. Recommended Techniq ue ASp 5 ASs ASt ASp ' 6 ASs ASt ASp 7 ASs ASt ASp 8 ASs ASt 1 0.0 0.2 0.2 - 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.4 2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 3 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 0 . 0 0.2 0.2 4 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0 . 2 0.0 0 . 2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 6 0.2 0.0 0.2 0 . 2 0.8 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0 . 0 0.0 0.0 7 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 8 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 9 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2. 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.8 10 0.2 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 11 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 r s * 1.4 3.2 4.6 3.0 4.0 7.0 2.8 2.2 5 . 0 1.0 2.8 4.8 *Total Score TABLE XXV INDIVIDUAL ATTITUDE SCORES FOR ALL RESPONDENTS IN ALL COURSES Management Marketing for Course Personnel Accounting Manufacturers Course Course Course Scale Course Instructor Content Course Instructor Content Course Instructor Content Respon-dent 1 7 63 60 7 70 65 6 73 54 2 4 72 66 4 75 70 5 55 50 3 8 57 59 8 60 57 7 75 69 4 7 75 68 4 40 57 7 66 53 5 7 69 68 5 69 60 6 72 59 6 7 31 46 6 59 54 5 64 73 7 5 57 58 5 69 56 4 75 62 8 4 70 71 6 71 48 7 66 59 9 5 60 60 5 68 57 6 75 66 10 6 60 60 5 62 57 5 68 61 11 5 69 69 12 59 50 5 63 64 12 5 73 68 1 68 67 13 6 71 65 12 57 49 14 8 53 46 7 68 51 15 7 61 56 5 69 65 16 7 65 59 5 62 52 17 8 56 40 9 70 40 18 5 75 58 6 69 55 19 6 56 59 5 63 64 20 6 74 74 MEANS 6 63 61 6 65 57 6 68 61 GRAND MEANS 6 65 59 

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