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Grammatical contrastive analysis of English and Chinese basic structures Cheung, Man-Bing Steve 1967

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A GRAMMATICAL CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND CHINESE BASIC STRUCTURES by MAN-BING STEVE CHEUNG B.A., New A s i a C o l l e g e , Hong Kong, I960  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1967  In presenting  t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements  for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e study  for reference and  I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of  this  thesis for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives  It  is understood that copying  or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  permission.  Department  Education  of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada Date  April.  1967  ii ABSTRACT Students l e a r n i n g a f o r e i g n language a r e apt t o apply t h e i r own l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s  t o t h e new l a n g u a g e .  Actually  many p r o b l e m s o f f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g a r i s e o u t o f t h e interference  of the learner*s  modern l i n g u i s t s b e l i e v e not  that  first  language h a b i t s .  a given  Thus  f o r e i g n language  can-  be s u c c e s s f u l l y t a u g h t i n a n i d e n t i c a l way t o a g r o u p o f  students with true  d i f f e r e n t l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds.  While i t i s  t h a t problems o f t h e l e a r n i n g o f a f o r e i g n language a r e  various,  a n d t h a t e a c h o f them must be a t t a c k e d  ferent technique, the technique of Contrastive  with  a dif-  A n a l y s i s can  be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d i n f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g .  Con-  t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e source language and t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e h a s b e e n p r o v e d f r u i t f u l by P r o f e s s o r formerly  R o b e r t Lado  o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , e s p e c i a l l y i n de-  v i s i n g t e s t s and p r e p a r i n g This  teaching  materials.  t h e s i s , w h i c h i s based upon P r o f e s s o r  Lado*s  method, i s a c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e basic  s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , and an attempt t o e s t a b l i s h  a hierachy  of difficulty  so a s t o h e l p  t e a c h e r s who  E n g l i s h as a second language t o Chinese students. is  confined  formal  to the syntactical l e v e l .  The w o r k  Other l e v e l s o f the  s t r u c t u r e o f language such as t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l  the morphophonemic l e v e l , the  teach  level,  and t h e s e m a n t i c l e v e l ^ a r e beyond  scope o f t h e purpose o f t h e paper.  sented i n the transformational  The a n a l y s i s i s p r e -  a p p r o a c h d e m o n s t r a t e d by  iii Noam Chomsky i n "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l (See  Approach t o Syntax".  Introduction) The  thesis i s divided into five  s e c t i o n , except Section  sections.  I n each  1, d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d c o n t r a s t i v e  a n a l y s e s o f t h e two l a n g u a g e s a r e made so t h a t  conclusions  can  learning  be r e a c h e d a n d p r o b l e m s o f C h i n e s e s p e a k e r s  E n g l i s h c a n be p r e d i c t e d . which explains  Section  1 i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n  t h e u s e o f c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s , and j u s t i -  f i e s the adoption of the transformational t i o n 2 i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n ,  by g e n e r a t i n g  E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e Phrase S t r u c t u r e  approach.  sentences, o f the  rules.  c r i b e s t h e Noun P h r a s e s i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s . discussion of the personal  pronoun, w h i l e  a classification of English It  and Chinese  Sec-  Section Section  Section  5  3 des4 i sa contains  verbs.  i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s p a p e r w i l l be o f some v a l u e f o r  t e a c h e r s who a r e t e a c h i n g  E n g l i s h t o C h i n e s e s p e a k e r s , and  also that  other teachers with  i t will  provide  some  into the values of contrastive analysis i n foreign teaching.  insight language  iv CONTENTS 1.  Introduction  2.  Phrase S t r u c t u r e  1 Rules  A. E n g l i s h P h r a s e S t r u c t u r e  Rules  18  B. C h i n e s e P h r a s e S t r u c t u r e  Rules  31  C. A C o n s t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s o f Some o f t h e K e r n e l S t r u c t u r e s o f E n g l i s h and Chinese  3.  The NP A. The E n g l i s h NP  57  B. The C h i n e s e NP  61  C. A C o n t r a s t i v e  A n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and 65  C h i n e s e NP»s 4.  4-5  Personal  Pronouns  A. E n g l i s h P e r s o n a l  Pronouns  67  B. C h i n e s e P e r s o n a l  Pronouns  76  C. A C o n s t r a s t i v e  A n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and  Chinese Personal  Pronouns  Bl  5. The VP 82  A. The Aux a. T e n s e a n d Time  $2  b. M o d a l  85  c.  86  (have + e n )  d. ( b e + i n g ) e# A C o n t r a s t i v e  87 A n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and  C h i n e s e Aux  91  - B. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f V e r b s a. E n g l i s h V e r b s  93  V  b. Chinese Verbs  102  c. A C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and Chinese Verbs  109  A Selected Bibliography  115  1  1.  Introduction T h i s paper i s a c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and  Chinese b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s f o r the use o f high s c h o o l  teachers  who teach E n g l i s h as a f o r e i g n language t o Chinese s t u d e n t s . I t might a l s o be used as r e f e r e n c e Chinese t o E n g l i s h speakers.  f o r teachers  In ether  teaching  case t h e reader i s  assumed t o have some b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge o f h i s n a t i v e language and adequate knowledge o f the f o r e i g n uage he i s t e a c h i n g .  I f he i s t e a c h i n g  his native  lang-  language  t o f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s , t h i s paper should provide him w i t h some b a s i c knowledge o f the n a t i v e language o f h i s s t u d e n t s . Modern l i n g u i s t s emphasize t h e : f a c t t h a t a g i v e n  second  language cannot be s u c c e s s f u l l y taught i f the t e a c h e r i g nores the f i r s t  language background o f h i s s t u d e n t s .  i s because, when a c h i l d i s l e a r n i n g h i s n a t i v e he  This  language,  i s b u i l d i n g up at the same time a s e t o f h a b i t s t h a t pre-  vent him from responding t o s t r u c t u r e s which do not occur i n h i s language.  In other words, i n l e a r n i n g a f o r e i g n  language, problems o f t e n a r i s e not only out o f the b a s i c d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e t a r g e t language, but a l s o out o f the i n t e r f e r e n c e o f the l e a r n e r ' s f i r s t  language h a b i t s .  More-  over, most students seem t o take i t f o r granted t h a t the new language n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s a s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n cal  t o t h a t o f t h e i r n a t i v e language.  identi-  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  t r u e when the student has p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d  one or two  other languages which are r a t h e r s i m i l a r t o h i s n a t i v e language.  2 Many language teachers  r e a l i z e the importance o f study-  i n g the l i n g u i s t i c backgrounds o f t h e i r students i n order to achieve b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n the  classrooms, but very  they l a c k adequate techniques when confronted problems.  In most cases,  i t i s due  often  with a c t u a l  to the f a c t t h a t they  do not r e a l i z e the n e c e s s i t y o f making, w i t h t h e i r knowledge,  s c i e n t i f i c comparisons o f the  languages, and  the a p p r o p r i a t e  s t r u c t u r e s o f the  two  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s  o f such comparisons i n p r e p a r i n g language l e a r n i n g experiments.  teaching materials This kind of  and  scientific  comparison, or c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s , i s r e a l l y h e l p f u l i n s o l v i n g problems i n f o r e i g n language l e a r n i n g . a n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h and  other  languages has  Contrastive  been proved  f r u i t f u l by many s c h o l a r s , e s p e c i a l l y by P r o f e s s o r Lado, formerly  o f the E n g l i s h Language I n s t i t u t e a t  U n i v e r s i t y o f Michigan, who  has  devised  t e s t s on the b a s i s o f c a r e f u l systematic  Robert the  a l a r g e number of comparison o f  one  language w i t h another.^ Contrastive  a n a l y s i s can be made on s e v e r a l l e v e l s .  T h i s paper w i l l be E n g l i s h and  confined  to s y n t a c t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f  Chinese b a s i c f e a t u r e s .  The method used i n  c o n t r a s t i n g the languages w i l l f o l l o w c l o s e l y t h a t suggested  Robert Lado, "A Comparison o f the Sound Systems o f E n g l i s h and Spanish," H i s p a n i a XXXIX (1956), p. 26  3 by P r o f e s s o r Lado i n h i s book L i n g u i s t i c s Across which i s presented  Cultures,  to t r a i n e d f o r e i g n language t e a c h e r s .  C a r e f u l systematic d e s c r i p t i o n s o f k e r n e l sentences t h e i r f o r m a t i v e s w i l l be made.  and  Then c o n c l u s i o n s can  be  drawn, and a number o f assumptions can be made which h e l p p r e d i c t problems of Chinese speakers In p r e p a r i n g the necessary  may  learning English.  alignments  of s y n t a c t i c a l  items of both languages, an a p p r o p r i a t e technique  has been  c a r e f u l l y chosen.  fairly  new  The  approach adopted w i l l be a  one known as T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s .  l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s c o e x i s t s today with two  This kind of o t h e r s , namely,  T r a d i t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s .  The  reason  f o r the adoption o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l approach i s j u s t i fiable.  Here I would l i k e to d i s c u s s b r i e f l y these  three  types o f grammars. a) T r a d i t i o n a l Grammar. has very h i g h g o a l s .  The  t r a d i t i o n a l grammarian  His a t t i t u d e i s sincere i n  attempting  t o work out r u l e s and d e f i n i t i o n s based upon the usage o f mature u s e r s o f the language so t h a t l e s s mature users o f same language may  have something to f o l l o w .  t r a d i t i o n a l grammarian f a i l s to understand  However, the t h a t he i s not  d e s c r i b i n g the language as i t i s , but o r d e r i n g people  to  speak and w r i t e the way  be  spoken and w r i t t e n .  he t h i n k s the language should  He advocates what i s c a l l e d  ^ Robert Lado, L i n g u i s t i c s Across C u l t u r e s (Ann Mich.: The Univ. o f Michigan Press, 1964).  "standard*  Arbor,  4 language.  Therefore,  d i a l e c t s are considered  v e r s i o n s o f the s t a n d a r d * .  corrupted  Under such a p r i n c i p l e a l l  d i a l e c t speakers have t o r e v i s e t h e i r n a t i v e way ing  o f speak-  and w r i t i n g the language, not because i t i s ungram-  m a t i c a l i n t h e i r speech community, but because i t i s not spoken o r w r i t t e n a c c o r d i n g  to the * s e t ; r u l e s * l a i d down  by a small group o f people.3 I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to r e a l i z e t h a t the approach used by the t r a d i t i o n a l grammarian t o d e s c r i b e a language i s not scientific,  s i n c e i t cannot be open to anyone's  Moreover, the grammar i t s e l f c o n t a i n s f a l s e notions.  verification.  q u i t e a number o f  Evidence can be seen i n d e f i n i t i o n s l i k e  "A noun i s the name o f a person, p l a c e , or t h i n g . "  Such  a d e f i n i t i o n i s inadequate when a p p l i e d to d e f i n i n g words l i k e "wisdom", " p a i n " ,  " l i g h t n i n g " which i n c l u d e  more than those s t a t e d i n the f o r e g o i n g  notions  definition.^  Almost a l l t r a d i t i o n a l grammar books say t h a t has the present, we  past, and f u t u r e t e n s e s .  English  But a c t u a l l y i f  look a t the language c a r e f u l l y , we w i l l f i n d t h a t what  i s d e s c r i b e d as the f u t u r e tense i s a s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the two other  entirely  tenses.  •> Thomas P y l e s , The O r i g i n & Development o f the E n g l i s h Language (New York: Hancourt, Brace & World, 1964), pp. 213-6. 4- S.R. L e v i n , "Comparing T r a d i t i o n a l & S t r u c t u r a l Grammar," Readings i n A p p l i e d E n g l i s h L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. Harold B. A l l e n , (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964), pp. 46-53.  5  On t h e whole, t r a d i t i o n a l grammar i s based upon the "good and bad", " r i g h t and wrong", " b l a c k and w h i t e " t y p e o f p r i n c i p l e w h i c h i s q u i t e a g a i n s t the modern l i n g u i s t i c s p i r i t i n the research of t r u t h .  Therefore, t r a d i t i o n a l  a n a l y s i s cannot be t h e b e s t approach t o d e s c r i b e any l i v i n g language. b) S t r u c t u r a l Grammar.  Towards the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e  t h i r t i e s , t h e r e was b o r n i n America a new f i e l d o f l i n g u i s t i c s which was based upon " B e h a v i o r i s m " and  "Pragmatism".  I t was once c a l l e d " D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s " , but i t i s now called "Structural Linguistics". The s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t b e l i e v e s t h a t a grammar i s a s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f the spoken language o n l y ; i t never s u g g e s t s how t h e language s h o u l d be spoken.  According to  t h e t h e o r y o f t h i s s c h o o l , every language has i t s own structure. may  basic  So a method s u i t a b l e t o d e s c r i b e one language  not be s u i t a b l e t o d e s c r i b e a n o t h e r .  Members o f a  c e r t a i n speech community u n d e r s t a n d one a n o t h e r because they have a l l a c q u i r e d the mastery o f the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e s o f the language.  The s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t t h i n k s t h a t w r i t t e n  forms are o n l y a r b i t r a r y symbols d e v i s e d t o r e p r e s e n t speech sounds.  So a spoken sentence i s o n l y a stream o f u t t e r a n c e s  produced by the speech o r g a n s .  A language can t h u s be a n a l y -  sed by means o f a s c i e n t i f i c scheme i n t o s e t s o f elements on four l e v e l s :  the p h o n o l o g i c a l l e v e l , the morphological l e v e l ,  the morphophonemic l e v e l , and the syntactic l e v e l .  6 S t r u c t u r a l grammar has i t s own f a l l a c i e s .  The s t r u c t -  u r a l l i n g u i s t t h i n k s , i g n o r i n g the l e a r n e r ' s background and need, t h a t the s t u d e n t . l e a r n i n g  a language should  f i r s t w i t h a thorough phonemic study o f the he  language before  can go on t o the other s t r u c t u r e s ; otherwise, he i s  committing the f a u l t o f "mixing l e v e l s " . has  start  Such a r e s t r i c t i o n  c r e a t e d much argument and d i f f i c u l t y i n the f i e l d o f  l i n g u i s t i c l e a r n i n g and a n a l y s i s . I t i s t r u e t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t has set uistic  ling-  students f r e e from the o l d n i n e t e e n t h century type  o f h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s , but he seems t o have mixed up language and spoken language.  Such a  has  learning.  become a new o b s t a c l e  i nlinguistic  confusion  Moreover, even i n a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n s t r u c t u r a l grammar does not e x p l a i n adequately a m b i g u i t i e s 1)  like:  /They / were / e n t e r t a i n i n g women/ /They / were e n t e r t a i n i n g / women/  2)  /He / shot / the b i r d / i n the garden/ /He  In the f i r s t  / shot / the b i r d i n the garden/ sentence i n 1), the N women i s the " s u b j e c t " o f  the verb "were", but i t i s the o b j e c t i n the second sentence. S t r u c t u r a l grammar d e s c r i b e s explains  it.-*  the ambiguity only;  i t never  S i m i l a r l y , s t r u c t u r a l grammar does not e x p l a i n  5 Robert B. Lees, " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Grammars and the F r i e s Framework", Readings i n A p p l i e d E n g l i s h L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. H a r o l d B. A l l e n (New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1964), p. 139.  7 why the phrase " i n the garden" i n the f i r s t  sentence i n 2)  r e f e r s t o the s u b j e c t , w h i l e i n the second i t r e f e r s t o the  object. c) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Grammar.  During the f i f t i e s ,  lowing the American c r i t i c i s m o f Pragmatism,  fol-  linguists*  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s was d i v e r t e d t o g e n e r a t i v e grammar. to  I n f a c t , s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s began  have a r i v a l a f t e r Noam Chomsky, a s c h o l a r o f f o r m a l  l o g i c and l i n g u i s t i c s , p u b l i s h e d h i s S y n t a c t i c  Structures^  i n 195$ and d e l i v e r e d h i s paper e n t i t l e d ''A Transforma7 t i o n a l Approach t o Syntax"  i n the T h i r d Texas Conference  on Problems o f L i n g u i s t i c s i n E n g l i s h h e l d i n 195# a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l i n g u i s t c o n s i d e r s t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l i s t has made many mistakes i n a n a l y s i n g language in  a mechanical way, f o r language i s more than a r b i t r a r y  symbols and comprises a f i n i t e s e t o f d e f i n i t e items which when combined  can produce an i n f i n i t e s e t o f sentences.  A grammar i s not merely a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i s b e i n g spoken by n a t i v e speakers o f a c e r t a i n language, but i s a l s o a theory o f the language which should be based upon the  i n t u i t i o n o f n a t i v e speakers.  T h i s i n t u i t i o n may be  Noam Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1965). 7 T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems o f L i n g u i s t i c s i n E n g l i s h , ed. A. A» H i l l . ( A u s t i n , Texas: U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas Press, 1962).  8  f o r m a l i z e d by r u l e s which w i l l generate  and g i v e a s t r u c -  t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l grammatical u t t e r a n c e s o f the language, and a l s o e x p l a i n a m b i g u i t i e s not f u l l y by s t r u c t u r a l grammar.  T h i s i n t u i t i o n i s a c q u i r e d by  everyone as he passes from i n f a n c y t o c h i l d h o o d . process i n v o l v e s f a c t o r s o f psychology, linguistics.  explained  The  s o c i o l o g y and  Therefore, the language student need not  n e c e s s a r i l y go through the s t r u c t u r a l i s t ' s f o u r  hypothet^-  i c a l l e v e l s one by one i n f i x e d order, which are u s e f u l only f o r l i n g u i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n .  He can p o s s i b l y begin  w i t h syntax i n the s t u d y i n g o f a language, i g n o r i n g f o r the time b e i n g the other three l e v e l s . may u t t e r ungrammatical sentences  The n a t i v e speaker  o f h i s language, but he  has the c a p a c i t y t o c o r r e c t b a s i c e r r o r s by means o f h i s intuition. Chomsky t h i n k s t h a t t h e r e are three kinds o f grammar.^ The  f i r s t k i n d o f grammar d e s c r i b e s only what i s being  spoken among the n a t i v e speakers,  and thus d e a l s with  the s u p e r f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the language. t h i s reaches  like  o n l y what Chomsky c a l l s the " l e v e l o f observ-  a t i o n a l adequacy". category.  Grammar  only  S t r u c t u r a l grammar belongs t o t h i s  The second k i n d o f grammar has a h i g h e r g o a l .  I t g i v e s an account o f how an i d e a l language may be produced and a s e t o f r u l e s from which such an i d e a l language Noam Chomsky, Aspects o f the Theory o f Syntax (Massac h u s e t t s : The M.I.T. Press, 1965), pp. 18 - 30.  9 may be d e r i v e d .  Such a grammar, a c c o r d i n g t o Chomsky,  r e a c h e s t h e " l e v e l o f d e s c r i p t i v e adequacy", and t r a d i t i o n a l grammar i s an example o f i t .  The t h i r d k i n d o f  grammar aims a t an achievement h i g h e s t o f a l l . W i t h a s e t o f r u l e s based on t h e n a t i v e speaker's t h i s grammar attempts  intuition,  to explain a l l structures, including  the deep s t r u c t u r e , o f a language. t o a l l languages.  1  I t i s also applicable  Chomsky c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h i s k i n d o f  grammar r e a c h e s t h e " l e v e l o f e x p l a n a t o r y adequacy", and t h a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar b e l o n g s t o t h i s type o f grammar. With t h e i r disadvantages  i n language a n a l y s i s , n e i t h e r  t r a d i t i o n a l grammar nor s t r u c t u r a l the purpose o f my r e s e a r c h .  grammar i s s u i t a b l e f o r  Transformational analysis  seems t o be an i d e a l approach f o r me, s i n c e i t a l l o w s both languages t o be d e s c r i b e d and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h each o t h e r under one p r i n c i p l e .  Here I must say t h a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n -  a l i s t s have been r e c o n s i d e r i n g some o f t h e i r  previous  n o t i o n s w i t h i n t h e p a s t f o u r y e a r s , and some o f t h e i r approaches have been changed.  I s h a l l adopt  techniques  based l a r g e l y upon t h e e a r l i e r n o t i o n s s e t f o r t h i n The T h i r d Texas Conference r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e c e n t r e v i s i o n s , because I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s e a r l i e r model i s adequate f o r the purpose o f my r e s e a r c h . I n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t t h i s paper can be r e a d more e a s i l y , I t h i n k the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f transformati o n a l grammar and examples t o i l l u s t r a t e how i t o p e r a t e s are  necessary.  10 In a n a l y s i n g a sentence, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar s t a r t s w i t h the " I n i t i a l r u l e s and u n t i l we  String".  some " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  "Phrase S t r u c t u r e "  Rules"  are then a p p l i e d  reach the " K e r n e l S t r i n g " (K.S.).  a t i o n a l r u l e s may  Transform-  be o b l i g a t o r y or o p t i o n a l .  For  example,  the r u l e o f the a f f i x o f the verb i s o b l i g a t o r y , while r u l e o f negation  i s optional.  T h i s means t h a t the  the  former  must be a p p l i e d i n order to get a grammatical sentence, while  the l a t t e r i s needed only to generate a  sentence.  negative  A d e r i v e d k e r n e l s t r i n g cannot be read  "Morphophonemic Rules"  are a p p l i e d .  So  unless  transformational  grammar a c t u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s : 1) Phrase S t r u c t u r e ; 2 ) T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  Structure;  and  3) Morphophonemic S t r u c t u r e . To i l l u s t r a t e the f o r e g o i n g paragraph, here i s an example: e.g.  The  boy  Initial  ate an  apple.  s t r i n g : Sentence —•>  NP  (Noun Phrase +  VP  (Verb Phrase) (—•»  stands f o r " r e w r i t t e n  By phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s : set  (See  Chomsky's complete  o f Phrase S t r u c t u r e r u l e s a t the end NP + VP sing ( E n g l i s h NP's  we  as")  sing  + Aux  "Introduction")  can be e i t h e r s i n g u l a r or p l u r a l .  have chosen the NP  of  singular.)  + VP  1  Here  ( A l l E n g l i s h verbs c o n t a i n Aux.  Here Aux c o n t a i n s  more than the u s u a l meaning o f " a u x i l i a r y " , t h a t i s " s h a l l " , " w i l l " and "may"i "be", "have", e t c . ; i t c o n s i s t s o f "tense" and "number", "modal", "have + en" and "be + i n g " . Aux e i t h e r "be" or "VP^" may occur.  After  Here we have chosen  VP .) X  T + N + 0 + Aux +  Y ?  1  (T stands f o r "determiner",  N f o r "noun". 0 , r e a d :  as  "zero", i s a s i n g u l a r marker.) T + N + 0 + Aux + ¥ + NP  T 4f N + 0 + Aux + V + N P  s i n g  (We have chosen a s i n g u l a r NP  0 + Aux + V + T + N  T ~+ N +  again.)  + 0  T + Nh + 0 + Aux + V + T + N + 0  (English nouns may be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s e t s having v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o u n t a b i l i t y and n o n c o u n t a b i l i t y , humanness and nonhumanness, reference.  and a b s t r a c t and concrete  We have chosen a count, human, concrete noun.)  T + Nh + 0 + Aux + V + T •+ Nc + 0  (We have chosen a count, nonhuman, concrete noun.) T + Nh + 0 + Aux + VT  + T + Nc + 0  ( E n g l i s h verbs can be e i t h e r copula, i n t r a n s i t i v e or transitive.  Here we have chosen a t r a n s i t i v e verb because  t h e r e i s a NP a f t e r the verb as the o b j e c t . )  T + Nh + 0 •+ Aux + V 32 + T + Nc + 0 t  (V 22 ^ t  s  a  s u b c l a s s o f V^, c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o  types o f N a l l o w a b l e i n e i t h e r p o s i t i o n , i . e . , e i t h e r i n  12 the f i r s t  or i n the second NP.)  T + Nh + 0 + C + V 3 2  + T + Nc + 0  t  (C stands f o r "tense" and "number".) The + Nh + 0 + C + V 32 + T + Nc + 0 t  (English determiners can e i t h e r be d e f i n i t e or i n definite.  Here we have chosen a d e f i n i t e T.)  The + boy + 0 + C + V 3 2  + an + Nc + 0  t  (We have chosen an i n d e f i n i t e T.) The + boy_ + 0 + C + V 3 2  + an + apple + 0  t  The + boy_ + 0 + Past + V 3 2 t  + an + apple + 0  English tenses can be e i t h e r Past or P r e s e n t . we have chosen  Here  Past.)  The + boy + 0 + Past + e a t + an + apple + 0 The + boy + 0 + e a t + Past + an + apple + 0 (Here an o b l i g a t o r y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r u l e i s a p p l i e d to move the verb a f f i x "Past" t o the r i g h t  position.)  By morphophonemic r u l e s , we a r r i v e a t the k e r n e l sentence:  "The boy ate an a p p l e . "  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e "The g i r l drew a p i c t u r e " and "The man smoked a p i p e " . The f o l l o w i n g s e t o f E n g l i s h phrase s t r u c t u r e  rules  was*- o r i g i n a t e d by Noam Chomsky i n h i s "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach t o Syntax".9 ^ T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems o f L i n g u i s t i c s i n E n g l i s h , ed. A.A. H i l l ( A u s t i n : Univ. o f Texas Press 1962).  1.  Sentence  NP + VP (Adv) fPred)  2. VP -~»  i. V P  X  Aux-< [  V P  —> v ( i  1  I)  NP  [PredJ  x  Vs (become-' 4. V  i n env.  Pred  Vt  i n env.  NP  Vi  i n env. ./# \ I Advj  J  a t t h r e e o ' c l o c k , i n t h e morning, e t c 5. Adv --•>-< y e s t e r d a y , every morning, e t c . Advi ' i n t h e house, a t t h e t h e a t r e , e t c . 6. Adv^ — y { t h e r e , away, home, (NP 7. NP  NP  sing/ pl  fNP  .  '  i n env. NP  sing to  8. Pred — Y\ NP  i n env. NP pl  to  NP 10.  Very + A d j sing  NP  p l  — »  T + N + 0 T + N + S  sing  (be , [become  + Aux4  (be + Aux^ pl /become^  LAdj 9. A d j  .  14 f Nh  11.  Nc  N  Nab  T —  i n env-<  l1  0  V  12.  V  -  +  13. v t  i n env. N,  32  [H  "Tel • 'v . v * .V"Id ,» V N ... Tc  Ta  m  h  tf Comp  14-  V  15.  P r t -•- 4 out, i n , up, away ....  16.  T  i n env V Tx i n env.  --4  T  Prt  a, the  —  17. Aux ••—>  18.  C  — -»  19.  M  —  20.  C(M)  (have + en) (be + i n  Present, Past can, may, w i l l ,  s h a l l , must  Nh -  I, you, he, man, boy ....  N  it,  -  c  — *  ab  21.  Vi -  22.  V  23.  v  tl  V2 t  t a b l e , book ....  i t , s i n c e r i t y , .justice ... a r r i v e , disappear, ....  -—*  s  f e e l , seem,  — *  admire, f i n d , ....  —•»  t e r r i f y , a s t o n i s h , ....  t31  •»  f i n d , complete, ....  t32  *  e a t , smoke, ....  V. r  v .v .v « v m  Tf2  Tgl  Tg2  24.  v  Ta  >  consider,  v  Ib.  >  know, recognize, elect,  T c — >  V  v . —>  .  choose, ...  keep, put, ....  Td  f i n d , catch, ....  Te-—*  v  believe,  imagine, p r e f e r , .  v  * —• v —*  avoid,  Tg  persuade, f o r c e , .  v  T e l  want, expect, ....  Tfl  v V  25.  T  g  Tx  i  — *  t r y , refuse  — »  take, b r i n g , ....  Adj. The  begin, ....  »  old,  sad  f o l l o w i n g s e t o f Chinese Phrase S t r u c t u r e  based upon Chomsky's theory o f language. 1.  Sentence  (NP) + VP  M» } 3  2.  VP  (Aux) X. ( ( I n t e n s i f i e d  1 + Adj'  (Aux ) x  (•Verbal 3.  Aux  —>  (M)  fNP 1 ( I n t e n s i f i e r ) + V^ "HAdj  rules  16 r  1  Vi  6. v i  ^  (Adv) + V±  Vi  + Adv-p  2  3  + LE  (Adv-p) + V i . r  Vt  ('NP +1NP + NP  n  7. VT ~ * X V t + NP = V t 2  Vt  Note:  3a  +  N p  +  vt  1 + ({Agv-P} ) Adj  2 b  3b  +  N P  1  F o r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f Vtg  .... V t  ? h  ,  see S e c t i o n 2B,  #13, For i l l u s t r a t i o n  o f V t - ^ .... V t ^ , see S e c t i o n 2B, fe  #14. 8. Adv  --4 JAdv-p Adv-t f  9. NP  NP  \  singi  NP Pi  --4  f NH + 0  10.  NR  sing  — *  (T) + ( C l . ) +< Nc sing x  Nab  11.  NP _ Pi  12.  T — 4  (T) + ( C l  — (T  demon  p l  ) +\  Nh + (MEN)j Nc  j  ) + (T ) quan  Cl . 13. C l — *  \  s i n  C 1  S  PI  14. M — 4 CHANG. KW*AI »will«, »be going t o P — 4 LE »Past marker  1  1  ....  15.  be  16.  Intensifier  17.  V V  SHIH HEN  'very', T'AI 'too*  ....  TSAI 'on', *in», ' a t ' YU  2  V3  'have'.  HSIEN 'seem', 'look  like'.  18.  Vi  x  —>• LAI 'come*, GHU  19.  Vi  2  — 4 TSO-TSAI »sit o n / i n * , TSAN-TSAI * stand on  20.  Vi  3  21.  Vi^  22.  Vt  23.  Vt  24.  Vt^  25.  Adj — * HAU  26.  Adv-p — •» CHE-R 'here',  27.  Adv-t --4 TIN-TIN 'every day', CHAN-CHAN 'always'  28. T  29.  d  —VHSUEH —>  2  e  o  quan  T  qual  Cl  s  BA ... DA ' h i t ' ,  i  n  CHE  BA ... MAI  'tall'  g  p l  -~•  A  U  -  'name  ....  FONG-TZU-NEI ' i n the hous  ' t h i s * , NEI ' t h a t ' ....  ^ 'one', R 'two', SAN H  'buy'  ' e l e c t ' , MING ... WEI  'good', KAO  n  YU-SHIH 'play*  ' l e a r n ' , KEI ' g i v e ' ....  SHUAN ... WEI  m  ....  NEN-SHU 'study',  T  Cl 30.  HSIA-YU ' r a i n '  'go*  T  E  ' t h r e e ' ....  'good*, HUNG ' r e d '  KO, KW'AI ' p i e c e ' .... PAN  ' c l a s s ' , TSUH 'group'  Nh — »  HAI-TZU 'boy', JEN 'man', WO  Nc — »  TSO-TZU ' t a b l e ' , FONG-TZU 'house' ....  Nab  «I»....  MEI-LI 'beauty', TZI-WEI 'wisdom' ....  18 2.A.  E n g l i s h Phrase As  Structure  shown above a c c o r d i n g to the theory o f language  d e s c r i p t i o n o r i g i n a t e d by Noam Chomsky and  demonstrated  i n "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach to Syntax", b a s i c sentences may  be d e r i v e d  structure rules  English  from a set o f r u l e s c a l l e d phrase  (see page 12).  This  set o f r u l e s  states  t h a t an E n g l i s h sentence (S) c o n s i s t s o f a noun phrase and  a verb phrase (VP);  t h i s formula:  S—•»  "may": be r e w r i t t e n  NP  as".  b i r d s s i n g " , the NP  the r u l e can be r e p r e s e n t e d + VP,  i s "The  so may  the NP  the VP.  i s "The  enlarged by  b i r d s " w h i l e the VP  + b i r d s " , whereas the VP  ate such b a s i c  subject  i s "sing'.".  " s i n g " can  We  so a c t u a l l y  s".  g i v e n us a set o f r u l e s t h a t w i l l gener-  structures;  i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s  s h a l l attempt t o i l l u s t r a t e some o f these r u l e s by a t i n g some E n g l i s h  be  "loudly".  i s plural,  + b i r d + p i . marker  Chomsky has  "The  comprise a number of items,  adding an adverb to i t , say,  i s "The  sentence  In the p r e v i o u s sentence, f o r example,  a l s o note that here the the NP  by  arrow stands f o r  T h e r e f o r e , i n the  In E n g l i s h the NP may and  where the  (NP)  sentences.  I  gener-  1.  Basic structure:  NP  e.g. The boy was  (Subject*) + VP  (*be  + Adverb*)  here.  Ady-p  The  K.S.  boy  0  ( a ) : The + b o x  Past  +  0  +  P  a  s  t  +  be  be  +  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we  here  here  can a l s o generate the  f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e "He i s o u t s i d e " , and "The t e a c h e r i s i n the  house."  20  2.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP  ('Subject') + VP  (»be» + A d j e c t i v e ' )  e.g. The l i o n i s hungry.  NP  NP  T  VP  Aux  sing  N  be  0  Pred  Adj  Nc  The  K.S.  lion  0  Present  be  hungry  ( b ) : The + l i o n + 0 + Present + be + hungry  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we  can a l s o generate the  f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e " I am tired",  and "Howard i s angry."  21 3.  Basic structure:  e.g. These men  NP  ( ' S u b j e c t ) + VP 1  ('be  + Pred')  0  teacher S  are t e a c h e r s .  S  These man  K.S.  S  ( c ) : These + man  P r e s e n t be  + S + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + t e a c h e r + S  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r : r u l e s we can..also generate  the  f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e "John i s a s t u d e n t " , and "Mary i s a n u r s e . "  22  4.  B a s i c S t r u c t u r e : NP  e.g. The men  feel  ('Subject*) + VP  (»Vs» +'Adjective')  sad.  S  The  K.S.  man  S  ( d ) : The + man  Present  feel  sad  + S + Present + f e e l + sad  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we  can a l s o generate the  f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e looked happy", and "The  b i r d s seem b e a u t i f u l . "  "John  23 5.  Basic  s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP («Vs«  + »NP»)  e.g. The boy became a man.  The  boy  0  Past  become  a  man  K.S. ( e ) : The + boy + 0 + Past + become + a + man + 0  By a p p l y i n g  s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the  formative sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e "He f e l t a f i n e f e l l o w " , and "John remained a coward."  24 6. B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP (»Subject») + VP (»Vi» + Adv-p») f  e.g. The b i r d s come from the south.  Adv-p  The  K.S.  bird  S  Present  come  from the south  ( f ) : The + b i r d + S + Present + come + from the south  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e "The men came from London", and "They went i n t o the house."  7.  Basic  e.g.  s t r u c t u r e : NP  The  T  ('Subject') + VP  student l e a r n e d  N  ['Vt'  + 'NP'  ('Object'J  English.  0  sing V  The  K.S.  student 0  ( g ) : The  learn  0  T  N  0  Nc 0  0  English 0  + student + 0 + Past + l e a r n + 0 + E n g l i s h + 0  By a p p l y i n g formative  Past  T c  s i m i l a r r u l e s we  can a l s o generate  sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e "The  shot the t i g e r " , and " B i r d s eat worms."  the man  26 6\ B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP [*Vt« + »NP» ( ' I n d i r e c t O b j e c t ' ) + 'NP»  ( ' D i r e c t Object')']  e.g. The man gave the boy a book.  T h i s s t r u c t u r e c o n t a i n s such a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as NP.TNP_  — » NPo^NP,.  This rule i s o b l i g a t o r y .  K.S. ( h ) : The + man + 0 + P a s t + g i v e + t h e + boy_ +.0  +  a + book + 0  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate t h e f o r m a t i v e sentence w h i c h u n d e r l i e s sentences  like  "He  gave me a c a r " , and "The s t u d e n t brought me a pen."  27 Basic  s t r u c t u r e : NP  ('Subject*)  ( • O b j e c t * ) + * Complement* e.g.  + VP [ » V t a ' + »NP*  (*NP»)]  The boy c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e r v a n t  a  fool.  VP N P . A u x sing  T  N  be  Pred  0  Nh  NP  NP . ^^^sing T  N  0  Nh  The  boy 0  Past  consider the servant 0  P s t be a f o o l  0  28 This structure, as we can see, contains an embedding.  In other  words, v i r t u a l l y i t i s constituted of two kernel sentences:  S-j_ — *  —*  The servant was a f o o l .  The boy considered X.  Sg S-^ involves some transformations.  An obligatory r u l e of  d e l e t i o n must be applied to reach the given structure.  Therefore,  The + boy + 0 + Past + consider The + servant + 0 + Past + be + a + f o o l + 0  Apply T-del, we reach t h i s structure:  F i n a l String ( i ) : The + boy + 0 + Past + consider + the + servant + 0 + Comp "a + f o o l +  0"  By applying similar r u l e s we can also generate the formative sentence which underlies sentences l i k e "I supposed him an honest man"  and "The man thought her an angel".  29  10. B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP ['Vt^' + »NP» ('Object') + 'Complement' (»NP«)] e.g. The c l u b e l e c t e d t h e man s e c r e t a r y .  The c l u b 0 P a s t e l e c t t h e man  0  P a s t be  0  secretary 0  Like the previous an  embedding.  one, t h i s  structure also  contains  I t i s a l s o c o n s t i t u t e d o f two kernel;  sent-  ences:  S^ — 4  The man was t h e s e c r e t a r y .  S  The c l u b e l e c t e d X  —4  2  Sg^S-L i  n v  °l  v e s  some t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  An o b l i g a t o r y  r u l e o f d e l e t i o n must be a p p l i e d t o r e a c h t h e g i v e n ture.  struc-  Therefore,  The + c l u b + 0 + P a s t + e l e c t  X  --4  The + man + 0 + P a s t + be + s e c r e t a r y  Apply T-del,  we r e a c h t h i s  + 0  structure:  F i n a l S t r i n g ( j ) : The + c l u b + 0 + P a s t + e l e c t + t h e + man + 0 + Comp " 0 + s e c r e t a r y  By a p p l y i n g formative  + 0"  s i m i l a r r u l e s we c a n a l s o g e n e r a t e t h e  sentence which u n d e r l i e s  people e l e c t e d him p r e s i d e n t "  s e n t e n c e s l i k e "The  a n d "They made h i m k i n g . "  2.B. Chinese Phrase  Structure  Chinese grammar i s s i m p l e r than E n g l i s h grammar i n t h a t t h e r e i s no i n f l e c t i o n o f any s o r t i n the language. G e n e r a l l y speaking, some Chinese s t r u c t u r e s are r a t h e r s i m i l a r t o those o f E n g l i s h inword o r d e r .  In the follow-  i n g s e c t i o n s we s h a l l see some Chinese f e a t u r e s which are generated from the Chinese phrase s t r u c t u r e r u l e s d e r i v e d from Chomsky's theory o f language  (see page 15).  The  Chinese sentences are so arranged as t o match the E n g l i s h models a n a l y s e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , so t h a t the cont r a s t i v e a n a l y s i s can be f o l l o w e d more e a s i l y . 1.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP (»V» + »Adv-p')  it  A)  ii 9u  *  e.g. CHE. SHAO-HAI TSAI CHE-R tThg boy i s here)  7&i*  CHE SHAO-HAI 'This' 'boy' K.S.  0  TSAI »in/at'  CHE-R 'here'  ( a ) : CHE + SHAO-HAI + 0 + TSAI + CHE-R By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the  f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e T'A TSAI HSUEH-SHAO, "He i s i n s c h o o l " , and WO TSAI CHIA, " I am at home."  32 2. B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject*) + VP (»Adjective»)  ii  faz  ®  j  e.g. CHE HZI-TZU NGO-LE ( T h i s l i o n i s hungry)  CHE *This* K.S.  HZI-TZU 'lion*  NGO-LE *Hungry*  ( b ) : CHE + HZI-TZU + NGO-LE The r u l e s a l s o a l l o w the choice o f an i n t e n s i f i e r , to  produce, f o r example, CHE HZI-TZU T*AI NGO-LE (»This l i o n i s too hungry*), o r CHE HZI-TZU HEN NGO-LE (*This l i o n i s very hungry*). By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the formative sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e LIU-MU JUAN "The wood o f the w i l l o w t r e e i s s o f t " , and KUA-R HEN MET.- L I "Flowers are very b e a u t i f u l " .  3.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP ('be* + »NP')  e.g. CHE-SE JEN SHIH CHAO-HZI (These people a r e t e a c h e r s )  K.S. ( c ) : CHE-SE + JEN + SHIH + CHAO-HZI  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate t h e formative  sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e "T'A  SHIH HSUEH-SHENG "He i s a s t u d e n t " , and NIAO SHIH TUNGWU " B i r d s a r e l i v i n g  creatures".  34 4.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ( S u b j e c t ) + VP (V  e.g.  + Adjective)  T»A HSIEN KWAI-LE (He l o o k e d happy)  K.S. ( d ) : TJA + 0 + HSIEN + KWAI-LE  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate t h e f o r m a t i v e sentence w h i c h u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e  T*A-  MEN CHUEH-TE MUN "They f e l t s a d " , and "CHE HSIEN HEN MEIL I " T h i s seems v e r y  beautiful".  35  5.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject*) + VP (*be* + »Adjective*) T h i s s t r u c t u r e denotes emphasis i n Chinese.  e.g. CHE HZI-TZU SHIH NGO-LE (This l i o n i s r e a l l y hungry)  K.S. ( e ) : CHE + HZI-TZU + SHIH + NGO-LE  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the formative  sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e CHE  BAN SHU CHUN SHIH HEN-HAU " T h i s book i s r e a l l y very  good".  "CHO-TZU SHIH TAI KAO-LE " T h i s t a b l e i s r e a l l y too h i g h " .  36 6.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP (Subject) + VP (V + NP) e.g. ¥0 YU I KO MET.-MET. (I have a s i s t e r )  Nh  0  T  ¥0  K.S.  0  Cl quan  YU I •have^a*  t  KO cl»  Nh  0  MEI-MEI 0 •sister  ( f ) : 1 O + 0 + Y U + I + K O + MEI-MEI + 0  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the formative sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e I NEN YU SHIH-R KO YUEH "A y e a r has twelve months" and ¥0 YU CH'IEN " I have money".  1  37 7.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP ('Adv-p' + ' V i ' )  i i >*  %  #1  efe *  £  e.g. CHE-SE NIAO TSUNG NAN-FONG L A I (These b i r d s come from t h e south)  CHE-SE •These'  K.S.  NIAO 'bird'  TSUNG NAN-FONG L A I * from' 'south * •c ome'  ( g ) : CHE-SE + NIAO + TSUNG NAN-FONG + L A I  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate t h e f o r m a t i v e sentence w h i c h u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e CHE KO HSUEH-SHENG TSUNG SHANGHAI L A I " T h i s s t u d e n t c'ame from Shanghai" and T'A TSUNG CHE-LI CHUE "He went away from h e r e " .  8.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject*) + VP (»Vi* + »Adv-p*  e.g.  WO-MEN TSO TSAI I-TZU SHANG (We s a t on/in c h a i r s )  K.S. ( h ) : WO + MEN + TSO + TSAI + I-TZU + SHANG  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the formative  sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e T*A  TAP TSAI TI SHANG "He f e l l t o the ground" and CHE KO JEN TSU TSAI CHE-R " T h i s man l i v e s here".  9.  B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : VP (»Vi^» + »LE») e.g. HSIA -YU LE (It*s raining)  S  VP  Verbal  VI  LE  HSIA-YU •down* r a i n f  f  T  LE particle*  K.S. ( i ) : HSIA-YU + LE  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e  CH'U-  T*AI-YANG LE "The sun i s coming out" and HSIA K'O LE "The c l a s s i s over".  40 10. B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP (Subject) + VP [(»Adv-p») + 'Vi,»]  4^  $k  S&  e.g. WO-MEN TSAI HSEUH-SHAO DU-SHU. (We study i n school)  Verbal  MEN  Adv-p  WO •I'  MEN * plural *  TSAI HSUEH-SHAO DU-SHU •in ' s c h o o l ' 'study' 1  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the formative  sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e WO TSAI  CHE-R CH'IH, " I eat here" and T'A TSAI FAN-KWAN TZO-KUNG, "He works i n a r e s t a u r a n t " .  41 11. B a s i c  s t r u c t u r e : NP ( ' S u b j e c t * ) + VP ('Object')]  ['Vt-,' + NP  e.g. WO-MEN HSUEH... CH'UNG-WEN (We l e a r n C h i n e s e )  NP NP  Nh  VP Verbal  Pl MEN  VT  Vt.  NP  NP  sing  Nc  WO »!'  K.S.  MEN 'plural'  HS LJEH  CH'UNG-WEN  'learn'  'Chinese'  ( k ) : WO + MEN + HSUEH + CH'UNG-WEN By a p p l y i n g  s i m i l a r r u l e s we c a n a l s o g e n e r a t e t h e  formative sentence which u n d e r l i e s  s e n t e n c e s l i k e LAO-WONG  CH'IH TUNG-HSI " O l d Wong i s e a t i n g  s o m e t h i n g " a n d T'A DA  WO "He h i t me".  42 12. B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP »Vt» + »NP» ( ' I n d i r e c t O b j e c t * ) + NP ( ' D i r e c t  Object')  e.g. CHE JEN KEI CHE SHAO-HAI I BUN SHU ( T h i s man gave t h e boy a book)  demon  quan  CHE 'this'  JEN 'man'  0  KEI 'give'  Cl . sing  CHE SHAO-HAI 0 I BUN SHU 'this' 'boy' »a» »C1» 'book'  K.S. ( 1 ) : CHE + JEN + 0 + KEI + CHE + SHAO-HAI + 0 + I + BUN + SHU By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o g e n e r a t e t h e f o r m a t i v e sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e WANG KEI T'A CH'IEN "Wong gave him money", and T'A TSIH WO TSIAO-PEN "He sent me some photos".  43 13. B a s i c s t r u c t u r e : NP ('Subject') + VP [ » V t  ^»^^ i (  0 b j e c t , >  e.g. WO BA T'A DA LE ( I h i t him)  0  WO 'I'  v t 2 b + p  (  '  AuXl  T'A 'him' 'hit'  '  f 2 a  + 'NP»  )]  DA  LE • P a s t Marker"'  K.S. (m): WO + 0 + BA + TVA + 0 + DA + LE  By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate t h e formative  sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e WONG BA  T'A MA LE "Wong s c o l d e d him" and WO BA T'A CH'IH TIAO " I a t e i t up".  44 14.  Basic  structure:  NP ( ' S u b j e c t ) + VP [ ' V f + »NP» ('Object') + Vt + 1  e.g. NEI-SE JEN SHUAN T*A WEI MI-SHU (Those people e l e c t e d him s e c r e t a r y )  NEI-SE *Those*  JEN 'man'  SHUAN T'A 0 WEI 'him* *elect*— 1  K.S.  MI-SHU 0 'secretary*  1  ( n ) : NEI-SE + JEN + SHUAN + T_!A + 0 + WEI + MI-SHU + 0  By a p p l y i n g formative  s i m i l a r r u l e s we can a l s o generate the  sentence which u n d e r l i e s sentences l i k e T'A I CHE  JEN WEI NEI KO JEN "He took t h i s man f o r t h a t man" and T'AMEN MING TZIH WEI MA "They named i t »Horse»".  45 2.C. C o n t r a s t i v e  Analysis  Part I  1. E n g l i s h K.S. ( a ) : The + boy + 0 + Past + be + here T  + Nh  + 0 + Past + be + Adv-p  i_  1  2  3  4  Chinese K.S. ( a ) : CHE + SHAO-HAI + 0 + TSAI + CHE-R T  +  + 0 + V,  Nh  1  3  F e a t u r e s : 1. E n g l i s h : S — » Chinese: S — ->  + Adv-p  1 +  4  2 + 3 + 4  1 +  3+4  2. E n g l i s h : V4 must be an adverb o f p l a c e . Chinese: J Meaning: English: "] 7  VStatement,  locational  Chinese: J D i s t r i b u t i o n : E n g l i s h : R e s t r i c t e d t o be + l o c a t i o n ' . f  Chinese: R e s t r i c t e d t o 'V^ + l o c a t i o n ' . C o n c l u s i o n 1: Problems o f Chinese speaker  learning  English. P r o d u c t i o n : 1. May omit 'be'. 2. May always use a p r e p o s i t i o n a f t e r 'be'. e.g. "The boy was i n here" meaning "The boy was here" . f  R e c o g n i t i o n and meaning: No s p e c i a l  problem.  46 2.  E n g l i s h K.S. ( b ) : The + l i o n + 0 + Present + be + hungry T  + 0 + Present + be + Adj  + Nc  1  2  3  4  Chinese K.S. ( b ) : CHE + HZI-TZU + NGO-LE T i  +  Nc  Adj  i  1  4  F e a t u r e s : 1. E n g l i s h : S — >  1+2+3  Chinese: S —•»  + 4  1 + 4  2. E n g l i s h : I n t e n s i f i e r can occur between  "2 + 3" and 4e.g. The l i o n i s very hungry. Chinese: I n t e n s i f i e r can occur before 4. e.g. CHE HZI-TZU T«AI NGO-LE "This l i o n i s very hungry" SHIH "be" i s always omitted. Meaning: E n g l i s h : "I >Statement, d e s c r i p t i v e Chinese: J D i s b r i b u t i o n : E n g l i s h : R e s t r i c t e d t o "be + A d j " . Chinese: R e s t r i c t e d t o o r d i n a r y tive  descrip-  type.  C o n c l u s i o n 2: Problems o f Chinese  speaker  learning  English. P r o d u c t i o n : 1.  May omit "be". e.g. * I s i c k y e s t e r d a y .  2.  May use unnecessary e.g. *very  perfect  i n t e n s i f i e r before 4«  47 Recognition.and meaning: No s p e c i a l problem. 3. E n g l i s h K.S. ( c ) : These + man + S + Present + be + t e a c h e r + S T  + Nh  + S + Present + be + 0 + Nh  + S  i_  1  2  3  4  Chinese K.S. ( c ) : CHE-SE + JEN + SHIH + CHAO-HZI T  + Nh  1  +  be  +  3  Nh  4  Features: English: S ~ 4 Chinese: S — >  1 + 2 + 3 + 4 1 + 3 + 4 I f any tense marker i s used a f t e r 3> the sentence becomes ungrammatical.  Meaning:  English:')  (  Statement, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a l and descriptive  D i s t r i b u t i o n : E n g l i s h : R e s t r i c t e d t o "be + NP" r u l e s . Chinese: R e s t r i c t e d t o "SHIH + NP" r u l e s . C o n c l u s i o n 3: Problems o f Chinese speaker l e a r n i n g English. P r o d u c t i o n : 1. May omit t e n s e . 2. M i l l have v a r i o u s k i n d s o f tense problems,  R e c o g n i t i o n and meaning: No s p e c i a l problem.  48 E n g l i s h K.S.(d): The + man + S + Present + f e e l + sad T  + Nh  + S  + Present + Vs  1  2  + Adj  3  4  Chinese: K.S. ( d ) : T'A + 0 + HSIEN + KWAI-LE + 0 + Vn .  Nh i  1 F e a t u r e s : 1.  3  4 1 + 2 + 3 + 4  English: S — 4 Chinese: S —-»  2.  Adj  ->  i  1 +  3+4  E n g l i s h : I n t e n s i f i e r + Vs i s ungrammatical e.g. *He very f e e l s sad. Chinese: I n t e n s i f i e r ' + V^ + i s grammatical, e.g. T'A HAU HSIEN KWAI-LE  Meaning: English:") V Descriptive  type  Chinese: J D i s t r i b u t i o n : E n g l i s h : R e s t r i c t e d t o Vs r u l e s . Chinese: R e s t r i c t e d t o V-j r u l e s .  C o n c l u s i o n 4* Problems o f Chinese speaker  learning  English. P r o d u c t i o n : 1. May apply " i n t e n s i f i e r " + "2 + 3" t o English. 2. May ignore 2.  Recognition and meaning: No s p e c i a l  problem.  49 5.  E n g l i s h K.S.  (e):  The  + boy  + 0 + P a s t + become + a + man  +  T  + Nh  + 0 + Past +  +  i  1  1  2  C h i n e s e : No  + T + Nh i  3  equivalent  Features: S — *  Vs  0 0  1  4  structure.  1+2+3+4  Meaning: N a r r a t i v e  statement.  D i s t r i b u t i o n : R e s t r i c t e d to a very small c l a s s of verbs. e.g., C o n c l u s i o n 5:  become, remain .  Problems o f Chinese speaker l e a r n i n g English.  Production:  1. W i l l t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s no between the f o l l o w i n g two (a.) NP + Aux  + Vs +  NP  (b.) NP + Aux  + Vs +  Adj  difference structures:  A c t u a l l y (a) i s d i f f e r e n t from (b), f o r i n a f u l l e r grammar, Vs would have s u b - c l a s s e s ,  because Vs w i t h an a d j e c t i v e  as  i t s complement i n c l u d e s a l a r g e r number o f v e r b s t h a n "Vs NP";  e.g.,  l o o k , appear, t a s t e , grow.  Thus, we  can say " I t  l o o k s good", "They grew t r o u b l e s o m e " ; but not * " I t l o o k s a p p l e " and  *"They grew boys".  +  an  Chinese s t u d e n t s might p r o -  duce such n o n - E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e s .  A l l Vs s t r u c t u r e s  in  Chinese are t r a n s f o r m s r a t h e r t h a n k e r n e l s . 2. W i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s i n g u i s h i n g i t from "be"  structures, especially i n  translating. R e c o g n i t i o n and meaning: No  s p e c i a l problem.  50 E n g l i s h K.S. ( f ) : The + b i r d + S + P r e s e n t + come + from t h e south T  + Nc  + S + Present + V i  1  2  +  Adv-p  3  4  Chinese K.S. ( g ) : CHE-SE + NIAO + TSUNG-NAN-FONG + LAI T  +  Nc  +  Adv-p  + Vi-,  4  3  1 F e a t u r e s : 1. E n g l i s h : S -~»  1 +  2+3+4  C h i n e s e : S — -> 1 + 4 + 3 2.  E n g l i s h : 4 o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y ; when i t o c c u r s between 1 and (2 + 3),  h  t h e phrase  i s a d j e c t i v a l r a t h e r than a d v e r b i a l . C h i n e s e : 4 o c c u r s b e f o r e 3, or  never  initially  finally.  Meaning: E n g l i s h : ' V Statement Chinese: > D i s t r i b u t i o n : E n g l i s h : R e s t r i c t e d t o V i + Adv-p C h i n e s e : R e s t r i c t e d t o Vi-^ C o n c l u s i o n 6: Problems o f Chinese speaker  learning  English. P r o d u c t i o n : 1. May have d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g T  ! B i r d s from t h e s o u t h " and " B i r d s  from t h e s o u t h . " 2. May have d i f f i c u l t y i n h a n d l i n g 2. R e c o g n i t i o n and meaning: May m i s t a k e a d j e c t i v e f o r adverb  phrase,  phrase  51  e.g. may - t h i n k " B i r d s f r o m t h e s o u t h come" = " B i r d s come f r o m t h e s o u t h . " E n g l i s h K.S.  (g):  The + s t u d e n t + 0 + P a s t + l e a r n + E n g l i s h + 0 T i  + 0 + Past + Vtc  + Nh  + Nc  1  1  2  i  +0 i  —  3  4  C h i n e s e K.S. ( k ) : WO + MEN + HSUEH + CH'UNG-WEN Nh + MEN + V t , i  i  1  F e a t u r e s : 1.  3  English: S —4 Chinese: S — 4  2.  + Nc  -L  4  1 + 2 +  3+4  1 + 3 + 4  English" %  i s direct  object  Chinese. Meaning: English'") > Narrative  statement  Chinese J D i s t r i b u t i o n : English") s-4 i s o b l i g a t o r y Chinese j  C o n c l u s i o n 7:  Problems  o f Chinese speaker  learning  English. P r o d u c t i o n : 1.  May m i s t a k e V i f o r V t e.g. He + P a s t + swim + a + p o o l + 0  (wrong)  He + P a s t + swim + i n + a + p o o l + 0  (right)  R e c o g n i t i o n a n d m e a n i n g : No s p e c i a l  problem  52 8. E n g l i s h  K.S.  (h):  The  + man + 0 + P a s t + g i v e  T  + Nh  + 0 + Past + V t a  1  2  + t h e + b o y + 0 + a + book + T  + Nh  3  + 0 + T + Nc  4  i  (1):  C h i n e s e K.S.  CHE + J E N + 0 + K E I + CHE + SHAO-HAI + I + BAN-SHU T  + Nh  1 F e a t u r e s : 1.  + 0 + Vt-, + T  +  3  4  English:  S — *  Chinese: S 2.  + T + C l + Nc  5  1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 1 + 3 + 4 + 5  English:'  Chinese: Meaning:  Nh  English:  I.  Indirect object object 5  ^Narrative  4 precedes d i r e c t  statement  Chinese: J Distribution: English: Restricted to Vta rules. C h i n e s e : R e s t r i c t e d t o Vt]_ r u l e s .  C o n c l u s i o n 8:  Problems o f Chinese speaker  learning  English. Production:  May m i x up t h i s s t r u c t u r e w i t h in e.g.  a passive  Chinese. T'A K E I ¥0 •He* ' g i v e * 'me  1  MA-LE 'scold  1  ("He was s c o l d e d by me") R e c o g n i t i o n a n d m e a n i n g : No s p e c i a l p r o b l e m .  form  +0 +0  53  9.  English String ( i ) : The  + man + 0 + P a s t + c o n s i d e r + Comp (»a + f o o l + 0 * )  T  + Nh  + 0 + Past +  1  Vta 3  2  + 0*)  + Comp (»T + Nh 5  the + servant + 0 T i  +  +0  Nh  i  4  Chinese:  No e q u i v a l e n t b a s i c  structure.  F e a t u r e s : 1. T h i s E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e i n v o l v e s t w o k e r n e l strings:  NP + P a s t + V t a + X "The man c o n s i d e r e d X" NP-L + P a s t + be + N P  2  "The s e r v a n t was a f o o l "  H e n c e , NP + P a s t + V t a + to:'- - + be + N P "The NP  By  1  —»  2  + NP-L  (to be i s deleted)  man c o n s i d e r e d a f o o l t h e s e r v a n t "  obligatory transformational rule: NP  By  + N?  man c o n s i d e r e d to.Me a f o o l t h e s e r v a n t "  + Past + V t a + NP  "The  2  + Past + V t a + NP  + NP  2  + V t a + P a s t + NP-L + N P  2  affix-moving NP  X  rule:  We r e a c h : T + Nh + 0 + V t a + P a s t + T + Nh + 0 The  man  considered  the  servant  T + Nh + 0 a 2.  fool  The Comp may be d e r i v e d f r o m e i t h e r a NP o r  (Intensifier) e.g.  + Adj".  The man c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e r v a n t NP  + P a s t + V t a + Comp  (very)  foolish.  »(Int) + A d j * + NP  5k By  t h e same r u l e s , we a r r i v e a t : T + Nh + 0 + V t a + P a s t .i  i  The  i  man  + T + Nh + 0 + ( I n t ) + A d j  i  i  considered  1  the servant  very  foolish  Meaning: Statement, r e p o r t i n g type. Distribution:  " V t a + NP + Comp" r e m a i n s " V t a + Comp + NP" when t h e NP i s l o n g a n d complicated."*"^ e.g.  He r e g a r d e d ventured  Conclusion  as i n s o l e n t  anyone who  t o d i s a g r e e w i t h him.  9: P r o b l e m s o f C h i n e s e  speaker  learning  English. P r o d u c t i o n : May t h i n k " t o b e " between k a n d 5 i s t h e o n l y possible Recognition e.g.  correct structure.  a n d m e a n i n g : May i n t e r p r e t  May t h i n k t h a t " a f o o l " considered the servant t o "the  incorrectly.  i n t h e sentence a fool"  "The man  i s i n apposition  servant".  10. E n g l i s h S t r i n g ( j ) : The T  + club + 0 + Past Nc  i  + 0+.Past 1  1  —  + e l e c t + t h e + man + 0 + Comp + Vtc +  2  3  T i  +  Nh + 0 + Comp 1  k  + s e c r e t a r y + 0') T i  +  Nh  + 0 i  5  P a u l Roberts, E n g l i s h Syntax, Brace & World, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 7 7 .  (New Y o r k :  Harcourt,  55 Chinese NEI  K.S. ( n ) :  - S E + J E N + SHUAN  T  + Nh  + Vt„  3a  •  + T'A + 0 '  x  3a  1 1.  Features:  2.  0  + Vt  +  +  0 T  1 +  Chinese:  S — »  1 + 3a  English:  This  NP + P a s t  Nh  3b  o v  i  3b  4 2+  5  3+ +  structure  4  +  5  4 + "3b  +  involves  + V t c + NPj_ +- X  5 two  kernel  "The c l u b  elected  man"  NP.^ + P a s t  + be + N P  " T h e man was  2  secretary"  NP + P a s t  + V t c + NP-j_ + / . t o . + b e + N P  "The  elected  club  t h e manto.be  NP + P a s t  + V t a + NP  "The  elected  club  Chinese: a split  Meaning:  +  S — 4  the  Hence,  + MI-SHU  English:  strings:  is  + 0  + Nh  + WEI  This  X  + NP  2  t h e man  structure  --•>  2  secretary" ( t o be i s d e l e t e d )  secretary" i s a kernel.  3a  . . .  3b  form.  English") VStatement,  reporting  Chinese J Distribution:  Conclusion Production:  10:  English:  Restricted to Vtc rules.  Chinese:  4 must  Problems  o f Chinese  1.  May  consider  2.  May  think  their  b e t w e e n 3a  speaker  Vtc a split  learning  e . g . The c l u b  secretary.  and 3 b. English.  form.  " V t c + t o be" i s t h e only  structure, be  be p l a c e d  chose  correct  t h e man t o  56 R e c o g n i t i o n and meaning: May e.g. May "The  interpret  incorrectly.  t h i n k t h a t " t h e i r s e c r e t a r y " i n the sentence club chose the man  a p p o s i t i o n to "the  man".  their secretary" i s i n  57 3.A.  The E n g l i s h  NP  In t h i s fragment o f E n g l i s h the r e w r i t e r u l e s f o r the NP are as f o l l o w s :  NP sing NP  T + N + S Pl Here i t i s necessary to f u r t h e r analyse N i n a narrower  way  11 than done e a r l i e r i n t h i s paper.  The r u l e s can be as  follows: "con = c o n c r e t e " "ab Neon  = abstract"  An "  "An = animate"  -An  "-An = inanimate" "Hu = human" "-Hu  -An Hu --4  book, desk, pen  ....  boy, g i r l , John, I ....  -Hu — d o g , Nab  = nonhuman"  c a t , ant ....  sincerity,  a. We have l e a r n e d  justice  ...  p r e v i o u s l y t h a t a k e r n e l E n g l i s h sen-  tence c o n s i s t s o f a noun phrase p l u s a verb phrase NP + VP).  An E n g l i s h NP may  (S—->  be c o n s t i t u t e d o f one s i n g l e  H Here I am f o l l o w i n g Chomsky*s l a t e r a n a l y s i s o f the NP demonstrated i n Aspects o f the Theory o f Syntax (Massac h u s e t t s : The M.I.T. Press, 1965).  58 word o r a group o f words. apple , 1  F o r i n s t a n c e , •the woman , a n 1  'those three b o o k s , •John*, and » I 1  f  f  are a l l NP*s.  Vie a l s o know now that the main s t r u c t u r e s i n E n g l i s h NP s T  are determiners,, nouns, and pronouns. b. The f i r s t item i n an NP i s the T. f o r the wordydeterminer.  I n a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the T,  we can r e p r e s e n t i t by the f o l l o w i n g T — »  The symbol T stands  rule:  (T ) + (T ) + (T ) Art demon quan  Note: Demon i s the a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r the word  "demonstrative."  quan  "  "  "  "  "  "  "quantity."  Art  "  "  "  "  "  "  " a r t i c l e ."  def  "  "  "  "  "  "  "definite."  Indef "  "  "  "  "  "  "indefinite."  Article  can be d e f i n i t e o r i n d e f i n i t e o r 0 .  d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e , while articles.  , T  "the" i s a  a " i " a n " , "some" are i n d e f i n i t e :  Hence, fdef T Art  '  ---K Indef > \  In E n g l i s h " t h i s , "these", " t h a t " and "those" are examples o f T ^  e m o n  , w h i l e "one", " t h r e e " , and "some"  when occurring before N s are examples o f T f  quan. The second item i n an NP i s the noun.  A noun can  r e p r e s e n t something animate o r inanimate, or a name f o r an a b s t r a c t i o n . plural.  Most concrete nouns can be s i n g u l a r o r  Now, l e t us analyse the examples t h a t we have  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s  the woman  «—  Art  section.  NP  N  smg  con  An  def an apple {—  Hu NP  sing  N  Art  ndef  i con  -An  0  60 those three books { —  NP  Pi  con  demon  T  quan  -An  John <—NP  I  sing  NP  sing  N  ,con  "Art  0  An  Hu  0  61 3.B.  The Chinese NP The r e w r i t e r u l e s f o r the Chinese NP are as f o l l o w s : (NP  NP — > J  . s i n  g'  pl  N P  NP . ---• (T) + (CI . ) + sing ' sing' T  NP  p l  --4  u  v  (T) + ( C l  p l  )  +<Nc ,Nab  a.  We have seen i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n t h a t a k e r n e l  Chinese sentence c o n s i s t s o f a noun phrase and a verb phrase, and that sometimes the noun phrase does not occur at  all.  Hence, S -~»  (NP) + VP.  Just l i k e English, a  Chinese NP may' be c o n s t i t u t e d o f one s i n g l e word o r a group ;  of words.  F o r i n s t a n c e , CHE FUJEN " t h i s woman", I-KO PING-  GWO "an apple", NEI SAN-BUN SHU "those t h r e e books", CHAO "Chao", WO " I " are NP's. We see here that the c h i e f  struc-  t u r e s i n Chinese NP*s are d e t e r m i n e r s , c l a s s i f i e r s , nouns, and  pronouns.  b. The f i r s t item i n a Chinese NP i s the T.  The symbol  T stands f o r the word-class "determiner". T —4  (T ) demon  +  (T ) quan  See note on page 57 f o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f a b b r e v i a t i o n s . CHE " t h i s " , "these", NEI " t h a t " , "those" are examples o f demonstratives as T's, w h i l e I "one", SAN " t h r e e " occurring  62 b e f o r e nouns are examples o f T ^ The  u a n  second item i n a Chinese  for " c l a s s i f i e r " . and p l u r a l .  . NP i s the C l .  C l stands  There are two k i n d s o f C l s : s i n g u l a r T  The C l has many s u r f a c e forms and i s e n t i r e l y  arbitrary.  I t i s only an o p t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n a Chinese  NP. e.g. CHE  FONG-TZU  T, demon  Nc  "This"  "house"  CHE  TSQ  T, _ demon  Cl  "This" The  Adj "big"  TSO Cl  quan  HEN Inten.  Adj.  "house"  "very"  "big"  FONG-TZU Nc  Pi  "house"  "two"  DA  Nc  sing  T  demon  Inten.  FONG-TZU  NEUNG  T  DA  "very"  "This" CHE  HEN  HEN Inten.  DA Adj  "very" " b i g "  We  f i n a l item i n a Chinese  NP^is the N.  An N can be  e i t h e r a human being, o r countable t h i n g , o r a name f o r an abstraction.  I n Chinese,  the only m o r p h o l o g i c a l form t h a t  the Nh has i s "MEN" as a p l u r a l marker; the other N s have f  no p l u r a l forms. plural.  "MEN" i s only a marker o f i n d e f i n i t e  I n other words, i f the number i s d e f i n i t e ,  may not be a p p l i e d t o any Nh.  "MEN"  F o r i n s t a n c e , we say HSUEH-  SHENG-MEN " s t u d e n t s " , which i s an i n s t a n c e o f Nh + MEN, and SAN-KO HSUEH-SHENG " t h r e e students", which i s an i n s t a n c e o f T + C l + Nh. We now analyse the examples mentioned p r e v i o u s l y i n this section.  CHE FUJEN f " t h i s woman"  T, demon  Nh  CHE f  this  T  I  FUJEN 'woman  f  quan  1  C l . Nc sing  KO  •one* *C1»  PING-GWO 'apple*  NP  NEI SAN-BUN SHU  sing  "those t h r e e books"  T  CHAO <••  demon quan  NEI  SAN  'those*  'three  1  CI  N  CI 'pl  Nc  BUN  SHU  CI  NP  'book  1  smg  "Chao" Nh  '0  CHAO  0  'Chao'  ¥0  s i n g u l a r marker  NP . sing  it. j it 0  Nh  ¥0  'I'  0 s i n g u l a r marker  65 3.C  Contrastive  Analysis  a. Rules:  Part I I  , NP . -< S NP  E n g l i s h : NP  s i n  p l  NP . Chinese: NP  S  s l n  N  P P  E n g l i s h : NP . — » sing  i  T + N + 0  &  r  f Nh + 0 Chinese: NP . sing  (T) + ( C l _ , J sing  ct  i T  +< Nc \ ( Nab  E n g l i s h : NP  pi  — 4  T + N + S /Nh + (MEN)  Chinese: N P  p l  —4  (T) + ( C l ) x  -KNc  , „ (Nh 1 English: N — > J N C \ {Nabj  (Nab  >  (Nh  Chinese: N —WNc  [Nab  b. General F e a t u r e : 1.  E n g l i s h : Both Nh and Nc have p l u r a l forms. Chinese: Only Nhhas the p l u r a l marker.  2.  E n g l i s h : The p l u r a l r u l e i s o b l i g a t o r y  f o r expanding  an NP ,. Pi Hence! T +| Nc} Chinese: The p l u r a l r u l e i s o p t i o n a l f o r expanding an NP  . Pi  66 Hence, (T) + (CI) + Nh 3. E n g l i s h : T i n c l u d e s T ^ Chinese: There i s no English  T  rt  ^[f_ ^ m  ( A r t i c l e , e.g.  a,  structure equivalent  A r t  to  the  to  the  .  4. E n g l i s h : There i s no s t r u c t u r e e q u i v a l e n t Chinese  the)  CI.  Chinese: Though CI i s o p t i o n a l , i t i s u s u a l l y i n an  Conclusion  placed  NP.  11: Problems o f Chinese speaker l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h .  Production: 1.  W i l l have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h a n d l i n g  2.  W i l l substitute T e.g.,  3.  May  'That boy  f o r T. . . demon Art i s here* f o r 'The  t h i n k CI occurs i n an E n g l i s h  e.g.,  May  T  Art  boy  i s here*.  NP.  always say "a copy o f a book," and  not  r e a l i z e t h a t a book i s adequate. 4.  May  consider  the  p l u r a l r u l e o p t i o n a l and  there-  f o r e omit the p l u r a l marker, e s p e c i a l l y i f the T  5.  quan  ("three) i s d e f i n i t e l y p l u r a l ,  the  three  May  apply the p l u r a l r u l e to Nab,  e.g.,  book. e.g.  *He  has  wisdoms. Recognition  and Meaning:  May  make mistakes s i m i l a r to  those i n  production.  67 4.  P e r s o n a l Pronouns Generally  For He  example, i n s u c h likes  "He"  —4  t h e NP  The  m e a n i n g "The  have "The  2  go  little  little  boy",  o f "He"  beyond a s e n t e n c e  p r o n o u n s c a n be  "my  "I have books" — £ Pronouns l i k e  "my  "demonstrative  boy"  involves  the Such  pronouns"  and  "ours" are  Other  " p e r s o n a l pronouns" personal  For  "mine"  (sing).  "mine"  (pl.).  traditionally  pronouns such  "relative  will  most  structures.  book" —•>  pronouns"  e v e n more c o m p l i c a t e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s .  as  contain  T h e r e f o r e , here  be a n a l y s e d and  compared  pronouns.  Simple Speaker:  I  "subjective"  me  "objective"  ( i . e . I + and marker,  This  little  grammar.  b o o k s " -->  "mine", " y o u r s " , and  known as " p o s s e s s i v e p r o n o u n s " .  1.  and  sentences  o f v a r i o u s k i n d s , and  " I have a book" — >  w i t h Chinese  as NP-^,  a c c o r d i n g to the context.  them a r e t r a n s f o r m s r a t h e r t h a n b a s i c  only  i s brave.  P e r s o n a l Pronouns  English  instance,  boy"  s t a n d s f o r NPj_, so "The  f o r NP*s.  boy  o f t h e s e two  underlying structure  little  relationships English  we  as "The  F u r t h e r examination  us t h a t "He".  A.  sentences  a d v e n t u r e s J'  as NPg.  tells  of  speaking, pronouns are s u b s t i t u t e s  structure  (object) — 4  NP  (i.e.,  "objective"  m.)  Pronoun + m ) i n v o l v e s marking  + m when NP  = Pronoun.  The  NP  same r u l e  case  68 a p p l i e s when P r o n o u n f o l l o w s with  a preposition, e . g . ,  t o me,  them, e t c .  I + 0 + m — 4  me  y o u +J0J+ m — 4 y o u he/she/it  + 0 + m  I + S +m — 4 he/she/it e.g.  him/her/it  us  + S + m —4  them  I a t e t h e soup.  0  Form: X  ~1  0  + Aux + V + Y  Past  eat  t h e soup  0  69 e.g.  The  The  teacher helped  teacher  F o r m : Z + Aux  0  me.  Past  + V + X ~2  help  I  0  70 e.g.  The t e a c h e r  The t e a c h e r  Rule:  gave me a book.  0 Past  NP-pNP2  When t h e r u l e  give  becomes  NP^NP-^.  a book 0  This rule  i s a p p l i e d , we r e a c h  The + t e a c h e r + 0 + P a s t  + give + 0+  +0  Form: Z + Aux + V + X ~2  this  + Y  0  I.: 0  m  i s obligatory.  string:  _I+0+m  + a. + book  71 e.g. The t e a c h e r d i n e d w i t h  me.  The t e a c h e r 0  Form: Z + Aux + V + Prep. + X.  Past  dine w i t h 0  I  0+ m  72 H e a r e r : You " s u b j e c t i v e tr You + 0 + m — 4 you " o b j e c t i v e tt e.g. You a t e t h e soup. By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s as b e f o r e we get t h e f o l l o w ing  string:  0 + You + 0 + P a s t + e a t + the + soup + 0 Form: X  ±  + Aux + V + Y  e.g. I saw y o u . The t e a c h e r w i l l g i v e you a book. The t e a c h e r w i l l d i n e w i t h y o u . S  NP'  VP  And by a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s as b e f o r e , we get these strings: The + t e a c h e r + 0 + P r e s . + w i l l + g i v e + 0 + you + 0 + m + a + book + 0 The + t e a c h e r + 0 + P r e s . + w i l l + d i n e + w i t h + 0 + you i  + m + 0 Forms:  Z + Aux * V + X_ -2  73 Z + Aux+V+X_ +Y 2  Z + Aux + V + Prep + X_  2  Speaker-Hearer:  You and I — 4  We  "subjective"  You + 0 + m and I + 0 + m --4 us " o b j e c t i v e " e.g. We a t e t h e soup. By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s as b e f o r e , except NP — 4 we g e t t h e f o l l o w i n g  NP  n  string:  0 + I + S + P a s t + e a t + t h e + soup + 0 Form: X^ + Aux + V e.g. The t e a c h e r h e l p e d u s . The t e a c h e r w i l l g i v e us some books. The t e a c h e r w i l l dine w i t h u s . By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s as b e f o r e , we g e t t h e f o l l o w ing strings: The + t e a c h e r + 0 + P r e s . + w i l l + g i v e + 0 + I + S + m + some + book + S. The + t e a c h e r + 0 + P r e s . + w i l l + d i n e + Prep.  +0+1  + S + m Forms: Z + Aux + V + X Z+Aux+V+X  2  +Y  Z + Aux + V + Prep + X_  2  Non-Speaker-Hearer: h e / s h e / i t " s u b j e c t i v e " he/she/it + 0 + m —>  him/her/it "objective"  e.g. He/She/It a t e t h e soup. By a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s as b e f o r e , we g e t t h e f o l l o w i n g string: 0 + He/She/It + 0 + P a s t + e a t + t h e + soup + 0  74 F o r m : X /X /l + Aux + V + Y 1 a l b l n  e.g.  The t e a c h e r h e l p e d h i m / h e r / i t . The  teacher w i l l  g i v e h i m / h e r / i t a book.  The  teacher w i l l  dine w i t h h i m / h e r / i t .  By  a p p l y i n g s i m i l a r r u l e s a s b e f o r e , we g e t t h e f o l l o w -  ing  strings: The  0  + teacher + 0 + Past + help + 0 + he/she/it +  + m  The  + teacher + 0 + pres. + w i l l  + give + 0 + he/she/  i t + 0 + m + a + book +' 0 The  + teacher + 0 + Pres. + w i l l  + dine + w i t h + 0  + he/she/it + 0 + m Forms:  Z + Aux + V + X  / X  2  Z + Aux + V + X  2  a 2  / X  /  a 2  Z + Aux + V + P r e p . + X  X  / x 2  b 2  + Y  b 2  / X  j X  fi2  b 2  2. P l u s O t h e r s Same r u l e s a s t h o s e u s e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n a l s o generate  the following  pronouns  S p e a k e r : O t h e r s a n d I +' S) — w e O t h e r s a n d I +j0| +-m Hearer:  "subjective"  —•> u s " o b j e c t i v e "  Y o u +\0>. a n d o t h e r s IS)  you" s u b j e c t i v e "  +40C+ m and o t h e r s --4 (S) Speaker-Hearer: You  +  0land  Y o u +.  0tand  You  o t h e r s a n d I +. 0 i . — ^ , S3 o t h e r s and I +30.+ m  S)  you " o b j e c t i v e "  w  e  "subjective"  —•> u s " o b j e c t i v e "  Non-Speaker-Hearer: he/she/it  +J0  and o t h e r s  they  "subjective"  Is Others and h e / s h e / i t  +J0/+  s  m —•>  them " o b j e c t i v e "  76 4.B.  Chinese Personal  Pronouns  C h i n e s e p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n s h a v e no c a s e  distinctions.  One i m p o r t a n t  d i f f e r e n c e , t h e f a c t t h a t a d j e c t i v e s c a n be  placed before  a C h i n e s e p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n , m u s t be m e n t i o n e d ,  although the 1.  i tw i l l  n o t be a n a l y s e d  here.  generation o f Chinese personal Simple S p e a k e r : WO e.g.  WO "I"  " I , me"  CH'IH TONG " e a t " "soup"  The f o l l o w i n g  pronouns.  show  77  e.g. LAOZE BONG WO  LAOZE  0  "Teacher" 0  Form: Z + V + X  "The t e a c h e r helped me"  BONG  WO  0  "help"  "me"  0  78 e.g. LAOZE "teacher"  GEI  WO  I-BUN  " g i v e " "me"  SHU  "a"  "book"  NP  Vt  1  sing  NP  sing  0 T C I Nc  Nh  CI  LAOZE  0  •teacher*  0  GEI •give*  WO 'me'  sing  0 I BUN SHU 0 * a C I 'book* f  Form: Z + V + X + Y N o t e : T h e r e i s no p r e p o s i t i o n i n C h i n e s e , s o no change f o r case form a s a f t e r p r e p o s i t i o n s  i n English.  H e a r e r : NI/NIN " y o u " N o t e : NIN i s t h e p o l i t e form i n C h i n e s e . S p e a k e r - H e a r e r : WO-MEN "we", " u s " Non-Speaker-Hearer: 2. P l u s  T*A " h e / s h e " ,  "him/her"  Others  S p e a k e r : WO-MEN "we", " u s " H e a r e r : NI-MEN/NIN " y o u " ; n o t e : NIN-MEN i s n o t u s e d . S p e a k e r - H e a r e r : WO-MEN "we", " u s "  79 N o n - S p e a k e r - H e a r e r : T*A-MEN " t h e y " , Same r u l e s w i l l  "them"  a l s o generate the Chinese personal  pronouns i n t h e f o l l o w i n g sentences, e.g.  NI/NIN "you" T»A "he/she'^  CH'IH TONG "eat"  "soup" r  Nl/NIN  J "you"  LAOZE  GEI  "teacher"  " g i v e " | T»A  {  I-BUN SHU |  "a"  "book"  /'he/her". f  NI/NIN  LAOZE  BONG  "you"  "teacher"  "help"  T'A  V  "him/her"J WO-MEN  NI-MEN/NIN  CH'IH TONG  "you"  "eat"  "soup"  T*A-MEN "they" fWO-MEN  ^  "us" LAOZE "teacher"  GEI "give"  NI-MEN  ^  "book"  "you" T A-MEN 1  V"them"  SHU  J  fWO-MEN "us" LAOZE  BONG  NI-MEN/NIN  "teacher"  "help"  "you" T A-MEN 1  "them"  81 4.C.  Contrastive Analysis Part  III  G e n e r a l forms o f p e r s o n a l pronouns English: X + 1  Aux  + V.+  Z + Aux  i n both  languages:  Y  + V + IC,, e x c e p t i n t h e e n v i r n m e n t  of  H e a r e r : i.e."" " y o u " Chinese: X + V + Y Z + V + X  General Feature: E n g l i s h : Case i n f l e c t i o n s  except i n the envirnment  of  Hearer, t h a t i s , "you". C h i n e s e : No  case  inflections.  C o n c l u s i o n 12:  Problems  of Chinese speaker l e a r n i n g  P r o d u c t i o n : 1.  W i l l have d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n remembering the  case c o u n t e r p a r t s o f d i f f e r e n t 2.  pronouns.  W i l l have d i f f i c u l t i e s -in h a n d l i n g s u b j e c t predicate  3.  English,  May  agreement.  t h i n k " A d j + I " c o r r e c t , e.g.  he  R e c o g n i t i o n and m e a n i n g : No  special  problems.  *The b i g  6*2 5. The  VP  A. The  Aux  a. T e n s e a n d The  VP  Time. i n English  c a n be r e w r i t t e n  as  1 The  VP  i n Chinese  c a n be r e w r i t t e n  as  (Adj  f  > (Aux,) J We  c a n now  a n a l y s e s t e p by s t e p t h e s e V P ' s .  the symbol f o r " a u x i l i a r y " , in  both languages.  Thus we w i l l  I n E n g l i s h Aux "number") — M  i s the f i r s t  "Aux",  item i n the  deal with i t f i r s t .  c a n be r e w r i t t e n as C ("Tense"  ("Modal") —  rules  ( h a v e + en)  —(be  and  + i n g ) . Items  w i t h i n p a r e n t h e s e s a r e o p t i o n a l i n t h e grammar. I n C h i n e s e , Aux item of the s t r i n g ,  c a n be  and/or  i t e m o f t h e s t r i n g . Aux M o d a l " ) ; Aux^ Particles  o r " t e n s e morphemes". c a n be a d d e d t o M, the language  ( A u x ^ ) , o p t i o n a l as t h e  i s r e w r i t t e n as  i s r e w r i t t e n as  used a f t e r  ( A u x ) , o p t i o n a l as t h e  (M)  first last  ("optional,  (P) ( " o p t i o n a l ,  Chinese verbs are "tense  Particle"). markers",  U n l i k e E n g l i s h , no t e n s e morphemes  so C h i n e s e n e e d s no C b e f o r e M,  n e e d a "number m a r k e r "  i n t h e Aux  nor  o r Aux-,.  does  83 As we s e e t h a t b o t h M a n d P a r e o p t i o n a l i n C h i n e s e , understand  t h a t t e n s e morphemes i n C h i n e s e  we  do n o t n e c e s s -  a r i l y o c c u r ; e v e n when t h e y do t h e y n e e d n o t f u n c t i o n sistently  con-  t o g i v e meanings o f " t e n s e " . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n  E n g l i s h , " l e a v e + P a s t " i s always  past tense  (= l e f t ) ,  w h i l e i n C h i n e s e , "CHYU + L E " i s s o m e t i m e s p a s t a n d sometimes something "CHYU" i t s e l f  e l s e , depending  Even  c a n be p a s t when t h e t i m e f o r a c t i o n i s d e -  n o t e d by an adverb  of time.  Both E n g l i s h and Chinese past.  upon t h e c o n t e x t .  h a v e two t e n s e s : p r e s e n t a n d  We may h a v e r e a d o t h e r grammar b o o k s w h i c h  speak o f  more t h a n two t e n s e s , a d d i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f u t u r e tense and t h e p e r f e c t t e n s e .  However, modern l i n g u i s t s  note t h a t t h e f u t u r e , p e r f e c t , and s i m i l a r  structures are  o f p h r a s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e t r e a t e d and  differently  s e p a r a t e l y from t h e p r e s e n t and t h e p a s t t e n s e s . The  f o l l o w i n g examples w i l l  i l l u s t r a t e some u s e s a n d  t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e two t e n s e s i n b o t h  languages.  E n g l i s h : The b o y e a t s r i c e . The i  The  + boy + 0 + P r e s e n t + S + e a t + 0 + r i c e i  <  1  i  boy a t e r i c e .  The + b o y + 0 + P a s t + 0 + e a t + 0 + r i c e + 0 T Z i — i zzr~ i ZZZT i C h i n e s e : SHAO HAI CH'IH FAN SHAO-HAI + 0 + CH'IH + FAN i  'boy*  i  'eat  1  'rice*  84 E n g l i s h : The boys eat r i c e . The + boy + S + Present + 0 + eat + 0 + r i c e + 0 The boys a t e r i c e . The + boy + S + Past + 0 + e a t + 0 + r i c e + 0 i 1 i 1 i 1 Chinese: SHAO-HAI (MEN) CH»IH FAN SHAO-HAI + (MEN) + CH*IH FAN i  i  »boy»  f  pl»  'eat*  'rice*  E n g l i s h : The boy comes. The + boy + 0 + Present + S + come The boy came. The + boy + 0 + Past + 0 + come Chinese: SHAO-HAI LAI SHAO-HAI + 0 + Present + LAI i  f  i  1  1  boy*  'come  1  SHAO-HAI LAI LE SHAO-HAI + 0 + Past + LAI  i  1  •boy*  'come*  E n g l i s h : The boys come. The + boy + S + Present + 0 + come The boys came. The + boy_ + S + Past + 0 + come Chinese: SHAO-HAI (MEN) LAI SHAO-HAI + (MEN) + Present + LAI i_  'boy*  »pl»  f  come  t  SHAO-HAI (MEN) LAI LE SHAO-HAI + (MEN) + Past + LAI  i  •boy  1 1  f  pl»  i  i  'come*  85 b. M o d a l .  to  I n E n g l i s h , w i t h t h e k i n d o f r u l e we h a v e b e e n  using  t h i s p o i n t , M c a n be r e w r i t t e n o n l y a s : c a n , may,  will,  s h a l l , must. -Each, e x c e p t must, has a p a s t might, would, should. on t h e s u r f a c e  structure.  To i l l u s t r a t e  t h e k i n d o f work  s u c h s e n t e n c e s a s "The  come" a n d "The b o y w o u l d come" w i t h t r e e s o f  d e r i v a t i o n as f o l l o w s :  NP NP  VP-. VP.  Aux  n  Pi  V  N  The  Nh  Present  0  boys S  Present  0  Nh  The  could,  A l l m o d a l s do n o t show t h e S f o r m  t h e m o d a l d o e s , we c a n r e p r e s e n t boys w i l l  form:  boy  0  Vi will  come  Past  0  will  Vi  Past  0  will  come  86 I n Chinese, M — > others.  CHIANG, KW'AI, YEAO ... and many-  U n l i k e E n g l i s h , a Chinese modal can be any word  t h a t denotes time o f a c t i o n .  The f o l l o w i n g t r e e o f d e r i -  v a t i o n w i l l show the f u n c t i o n o f the Chinese modal i n a sentence such as HAI-TZU YEAO LAI LE (The boys w i l l come.)  HAI-TZU »boy» c. (have + en) The t h i r d item i n Aux i n E n g l i s h i s ('have + e n ' ) . In a sentence such as "The students have eaten", t h e r e are two words i n the VP, 'have eaten*.  But i f we r e p r e -  sent t h i s VP w i t h t h e r e w r i t e r u l e s t h a t we have been u s i n g , i t a c t u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g u n i t s : Pres + P l u r a l + have + en + e a t . i s c a l l e d the past p a r t i c i p l e .  The "en + e a t " i s what  Many E n g l i s h verbs have  the same forms f o r the past p a r t i c i p l e and the past tense, "en" here i s used as a s i g n a l o f the past p a r t i c i p l e , so "en + a r r i v e " —-»  " a r r i v e d " , "en + walk" —•»  and "en + go" — 4  "gone" on the s u r f a c e  level.  "walked"-,  87 Now we come t o a more i m p o r t a n t "en  + verb"  s h o u l d f o l l o w "C + h a v e " a n d t h e f o r m u l a i s  a l w a y s "C + h a v e + e n + v e r b " . had  p o i n t , and t h a t i s  K e r n e l sentences  like  "John  s p o k e n " , "They h a d g o n e " , "Mary h a s a r r i v e d " a l l c o n -  t a i n t h e element "have + e n " . the a f f i x e s  An o b l i g a t o r y r u l e t r a n s f e r s  ( e . g . , - e d o r -£> f o r C, a n d -en) t o t h e c o r r e c t  positions. I n Chinese  t h e r e i s no " h a v e + e n " s t r u c t u r e .  The  simple past i s always used whether t h e a c t i o n i s completed j u s t now o r l o n g a g o . e.g.  He came  ,T'A h e  LAI 'come*  ]^>T»A He h a s e a t e n . • h e  CH'IH *eat  He h a s come. —  f  T  He a t e .  1  d.  f  f  LE part*  T  LE part»  (be + i n g ) L i k e " h a v e " a n d " e n " , " b e " a n d " i n g " a l w a y s go t o -  gether. "is  I n t h e k e r n e l sentence  "He i s e a t i n g " , t h e VP i s  e a t i n g " , w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h i s f o r m u l a :  + 0 + be + i n g + e a t .  The same a f f i x - m o v i n g r u l e  Present applies,  " i n g + V" f o r m s a r e c a l l e d p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p l e s , a n d a l l present  p a r t i c i p l e s are completely The  ing":  r e g u l a r i n form.  VP*s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s  a l l c o n t a i n "be +  I am r e a d i n g . He i s l a u g h i n g . H e n r y was s l e e p i n g . I n Chinese  some  semantic  t h e " T S A I - V" i s a s t r u c t u r e t h a t h a s  equivalence  t o t h e E n g l i s h "be + i n g " . " T S A I "  BB  always goes b e f o r e t h e v e r b .  L e t us l o o k a t t h i s  sentence:  ¥0 TSAI K'AN-SHU " I am r e a d i n g " , and compare i t w i t h "WO YEAO K'AN-SHU " I w i l l r e a d a book".  ¥e have these two  strings:  WO TSAI K'AN-SHU  -  Nh + 0 + M + V±  1  •I» ' i n ' 'read' WO YEAO  K* AN-SHU <•  •I» ' w i l l '  Nh + 0 + M + Vi-j_  'read'  Both TSAI and YEAO i n d i c a t e something about t h e t i m e o f a c t i o n , and o c c u r i n s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s . b e l o n g t o t h e same s t r u c t u r e i n t h e Aux. modals.  They o b v i o u s l y They a r e b o t h  Now l e t us l o o k a t t h e s e s e n t e n c e s : He  i s  He  1  He  i  was S  was s  was  laughing.  T'A TSAI SHAO  writing.  T'A TSAI SE-TZU  eating.  T'A TSAI CH'IH  to  to  We see t h a t j u s t l i k e E n g l i s h "be + i n g " , "TSAI + V" s t r u c t u r e s a r e a l s o r e g u l a r i n C h i n e s e , b u t c o n t a i n no t e n s e morpheme a t a l l . Finally,  i t i s p o s s i b l e i n E n g l i s h t o have a VP con-  t a i n i n g a l l t h e elements o f Aux. F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e VP " s h o u l d have been r e a d i n g " , we have "C + M + have + en + be + ing + Vi".  T h i s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g example.  89 e.g. The boy should have been r e a d i n g .  NP  VP  NP . ^^^si g n  T.N  The  0  M  Nh  Past  0  boy 0  Past  0  have + en  be + i n g V i  s h a l l have + en be + i n g read  Kernel s t r i n g : The + boy + 0 + Past + 0 + s h a l l + have + en + be + i n g + read By T - A f f i x  r u l e , we  reach:  The + boy_ + 0 + s h a l l + Past + 0 + have + be + en + read + i n g  By morphophonemic  r u l e , we a r r i v e a t ;  The boy should have been r e a d i n g .  90 In Chinese,  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o have a VP c o n t a i n i n g  a l l elements o f t h e Aux s i n c e t h e r e a r e o n l y two o f them.  e.g. T'A MING-T'IEN CHE SHIH-HAUH HUI TAO-LE (He w i l l have a r r i v e d by t h i s time tomorrow)  Aux  T'A •he'  0 MING-TIEN CHE-SHIH-HAUH- H'UI TAO LE ! 0 ' 'tomorrow' ' w i l l " c o m e ' 'past'  K e r n e l S t r i n g : TVA + 0 + MING-TIEN CHE SHIH-HAUH + HUI TAO-LE By morphophonemic r u l e , we a r r i v e a t : T'A MING-TIEN CHE SHIH-HAUH HUI TAO LE  91 e.  Contrastive  Analysis  Part  IV  Aux a.  b.  Rules: English:  Aux  Chinese:  Aux  —-»  C - (M) (M)  -  - ( h a v e + en)  -  (be +  ing)  (P)  General Features: 1.  E n g l i s h : T e n s e i s o b l i g a t o r y and the  first  Aux,  i f one  i s attached  to  i s chosen.  C h i n e s e : T e n s e i s o p t i o n a l and  f o l l o w s the  verb  always. 2.  E n g l i s h : Modals are  c a n , may,  C h i n e s e : M o d a l s can  be  any  will,  s h a l l , must.  words d e n o t i n g time  of  action. 3.  E n g l i s h : The  past p a r t i c i p l e i s r e s t r i c t e d  " h a v e + en" C h i n e s e : No k.  similar  E n g l i s h : When " b e " a l s o be Chinese:  rule. structure.  i s u s e d as a n  a p p l i e d t o the  'TSAI + V e r b a l * t o "be  +  to  Aux,  " i n g " must  verb.  i s a structure  similar  ing".  5. E n g l i s h : E l e m e n t s l i k e "M,  h a v e , be"  may  contain  tense. C h i n e s e : No Conclusion  13:  t e n s e m a r k e r s may  be  added to modals.  Problems of Chinese speaker l e a r n i n g  English,  Production: 1. W i l l make m i s t a k e s o f v a r i o u s 2 . May  have d i f f i c u l t i e s  kinds  i n handling  in  tenses.  m o d a l s and  their  92 p a s t forms", e s p e c i a l l y " s h a l l , s h o u l d " , " w i l l , would". 3.  W i l l h a v e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n "have + e n " .  4. W i l l h a v e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e "C + M + be + i n g " f o r m . e . g . He w i l l be l e a v i n g . 5. W i l l n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f f u t u r e t i m e may h a v e a n y o f t h e s e  forms:  He i s l e a v i n g . He w i l l  leave.  He i s a b o u t t o l e a v e . R e c o g n i t i o n a n d m e a n i n g : 1. W i l l make m i s t a k e s i n t e n s e s . 2 . W i l l make m i s t a k e s i n m o d a l s . 3.  Will fail  t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e "C  + M + be + i n g " f o r m s . 4. W i l l h a v e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g "have + e n " forms.  93 B. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f V e r b s a. E n g l i s h V e r b s . We now come t o t h e l a s t p a r t o f t h e VP, a n d t h a t i s t h e nuclear verb.  Chomsky s e p a r a t e s be f r o m a l l o t h e r  For the purpose o f comparison, (Vcop) i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l the g i v e n r u l e s .  verbs.  we w i l l u s e t h e t e r m  "copula"  sense t o i n c l u d e be, and Vs o f  The f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s w i l l  illustrate  t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e Vcop, t h e V i , and t h e V t . O b v i o u s l y :be d o e s n o t b e h a v e l i k e t h e V P ^ ( i . e . , t h e Vs)  class.  F o r i n s t a n c e , V t has t o conform t o t h i s  V t + NP, w h i l e t h e V i c a n s t a n d a l o n e . tricted to this  Aux  The v e r b be i s r e s -  rule:  + be  G e n e r a l l y , be + NP d i f f e r s f r o m V t + NP i n t h e s e be  ways:  + NP: t h e NP h e r e i s a c o m p l e m e n t , a n d t h e two NP*s  h a v e t h e same r e f e r e n c e i n t h e a c t u a l w o r l d . structure i s non-passivable, passive  rule:  The w h o l e  i . e . , i t cannot undergo t h e  transform.  V t + NP: t h e NP h e r e i s a n " a c t i o n - r e c e i v e r " ; t h e two N P s do n o t h a v e t h e same r e f e r e n c e . f  The w h o l e s t r u c t u r e  allows the passive transformation:  NP, + V t + N P  0  NP  9  + be + e n + V t + by + NP,  94 I n E n g l i s h , be + A d v ^ i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m V i + Adv-^ i n t h e s e ways: be + Adv-^: A d v ^ i s o b l i g a t o r y .  I t cannot  V i + Adv^: A d v ^ h e r e i s o p t i o n a l .  be  deleted.  I t c a n be  deleted.  E n g l i s h be a g r e e s w i t h number a n d p e r s o n o f t h e s u b ject,  a n d h a s a n A u x , i . e . , m u s t show t h e p r e s e n t o r t h e  p a s t f o r m , a n d may h a v e a m o d a l , h a v e + e n , be + i n g . 1) e . g . I + 0 + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + Adv-p i  i  i  i  I  am  here.  + 0 + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + Adv-p  You  You  are  here.  The b o y / H e / S h e / I t + 0 + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + Adv-p The b o y / H e / S h e / I t  i s  here.  2) e . g . I + 0 + P a s t + be + 0 + Adv-p J  1  I  i  i  was  here.  + 0 + P a s t + be + 0 + Adv-p  You You  were  here.  The b o y / H e / S h e / I t + 0 + P a s t + be + 0 + Adv-p The b o y / H e / S h e / I t 3) I f t h e s u b j e c t i s p l u r a l ,  was  here.  t h e verb form i n t h e p r e s e n t  i s always a r e : e.g.  I + S + P r e s e n t + be + S + Adv-p We You  are  here.  + S + P r e s e n t + be + S + Adv-p You  are  here.  The b o y / H e / S h e / I t + S + P r e s e n t + be + S + Adv-p The bojs/They  are  here.  The b o y / H e / S h e / I t + 0 + P a s t + be + 0 + Adv-p _i  i_  He/She/lt  was  .If the subject i s p l u r a l , is  here.  t h e verb form i n t h e p r e s e n t  always^are: ^esent + be + S + Adv-p here. Y o u + S + P r e s e n t + b>~<j: S + Adv-p You  are  Ttere.  The b o y / H e / S h e / I t + S + P r e s e n t + b e ^ K S + Adv-p The b o y s / T h e y 4) The p l u r a l e.g.  are  past verb form i s always were:  I + S + P a s t + be + S + Adv-p We  were  here.  Y o u + S + P a s t + be + S + Adv-p i  i  You  r  i  here.  were  The b o y / H e / S h e / I t + S + P a s t + be + S + Adv-p i  i  i  The b o y s / T h e y  1  were  here.  I n E n g l i s h " b e " may t a k e a n y one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a s a comp l e m e n t : NP, A d j , A d v , ( A d v . o f p l a c e ) a n d P r e p . C h o m s k y s r u l e s do n o t i n c l u d e 1  possible  structure,  Phrase.  Adv. o f t i m e , b u t i t i s a  e . g . , The t i m e i s now.  1) be + NP e.g.  NP . + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + NP . sing — sing 0 + Nh + 0 + P r e s e n t + b e + 0 + T + N h + 0 r  He 2) be + A d j  is  the  chairman.  e.g.  . + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + A d j sing — T + Nh + 0 + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + A d j  NP i  i  The  1  J  boy  is  tall.  3) be + Adv-p e.g.  + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + Adv-p sing — T + Nh + 0 + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + Adv-p  NP  The  girl  4) be + P r e p . e.g.  is  here.  Phrase  + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + P r e p . P h r a s e smg 0 + Nh + 0 + P r e s e n t + be + 0 + P r e p . P h r a s e NP  J  L  1  I  He  is  i n danger.  5) be + A d v - t e.g.  NP  . + P a s t + be + 0 + A d v - t sing —  0 + Nab + 0 + P a s t + be + 0 + A d v - t i  It 2. O t h e r 1) V s +  e.g. 6  i  i  1  was  yesterday.  Vcop's NP NP  . + P a s t + V c o p + NP . sing ^ sing  T + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V c o p + T + Nh + 0 i  i  The 0  i  i  boy  became  He  remained  i  i  a my  man. friend.  2) V s + A d j  e.g.  NP  . + P a s t + Vcop + Adj sing 0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V c o p + A d j i  :  l  i  I  He  seemed  tired.  She  became  hostile.  97 II.  I n t r a n s i t i v e Verbs " V i " The  i n t r a n s i t i v e verb i s a c l a s s o f verbs which  used alone without anything f o l l o w i n g i t . V i s f  c a n be  c a n be  c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : Vi. Vi  —»  Prt Adj  Vi,  NP 1. V i — -> V i .  e.g.  2.a.  NP  + Vi sing 1 0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V i  Vi —»  for a small with,  He  died,  He  left,  He  came.  V i  2  + Prt.  T h i s symbol " P r t " ( P a r t i c l e ) stands  g r o u p o f w o r d s s u c h a s o n , i n , o u t , u p , down,  e t c .that  frequently  combine w i t h  what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t w o - p a r t e.g.  a v e r b t o make  verb.  NP . + Past + V i + P r t sing 2 0  0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V i . + P r t cut  He  stepped  e.g.  NP  out. up.  gave  He b. V i ---»  in.  He  V i + NP 2  s i n g  + Past + V i  2  + NP  0 + N + 0 + Past + V i 1  J  He  i  i  took  ?  sing  + T + Nab + 0 i  i  part.  98  III.  It  took  place  He  slept  a deep  sleep.  T r a n s i t i v e Verbs (Vt)  1. The V t a l w a y s  t a k e s a n NP a s i t s o b j e c t .  Most  struc-  t u r e s o f t h i s type can undergo t h e p a s s i v e t r a n s f o r m . NP e  'S-  N P  + V t + NP  lsing  N P  2  -~»  2  NP  + C + Vt + NP  sing  2  + be + e n + V t + by_ + N P  2  s  i  n  ->  g  C + be + e n + V t + by. + N P  +  X  s  i  n  g  T + Nh + 0 + P a s t + s h o o t + T + Nc + 0 The  man  shot  the  tiger.  T + Nc + 0 + P a s t + be + e n + s h o o t + by_ 1  I  The  I  L  tiger  I  I  was  shot  by  T + Nh + 0 the 2.  man.  Non-Passivable  Type  T h i s i s a minor group o f V t s t h a t cannot undergo t h e T  passive transform. e  -S-  N P  sing  +  A  u  x  +  V  t  +  N P  sing  T + Nh + 0 + C + V t + T  Nc+0  +  T + Nh + 0 + P r e s e n t + V t + T + Nc + 0 0 + I + 0 + P r e s e n t + V t + T + Nc + 0 0 + I + 0 + P r e s e n t + V t + a + dog + 0 0 + I + 0 + P r e s e n t + have + a + dog + 0 ~  i  i.  I Other  i  i  have  examples: The  dress cost t e n d o l l a r s .  The  t a b l e weighs s i x pounds.  i  i  a dog.  X  99 3. O b j e c t - D e l e t e d Type ( o n l y a f e w v e r b s may d e l e t e t h e object;  usually the object i s  obvious) e.g. &  NP . + C + V t + (NP . ) sxng sing' T + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + (T + Nc + 0) 0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + (T + Nc + 0) I  L  He  4. P s e u d o - O b j e c t e  ' g  N P  sing  +  I  1  I  1  investigated  ( t h e case.)  Type ( a v e r y s m a l l C  +  V  t  +  N P  sing  +  A d v  group)  "P  T + N h + 0 + C + V t + T + N h + 0 +  Adv-p  0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + 0 + N h + 0 + He 5.  walked  Two-Word Type ( a l a r g e Vt  her  Adv-p home.  group)  Vt + Prt  e.g. to  NP . + C + V t + NP . sing sing T + Nh + 0 + C + V t  + P r t + T + Nc + 0  0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + P r t + T + Nc + 0 He  took  V t + P r t may become  o f f the  coat.  a s p l i t f o r m -- V t + NP + P r t .  Hence,  t h e a b o v e s t r u c t u r e = NP + C + V t + NP + P r t . 'Ss i n g + C + Vt NP e  N P  +  8 i n g  T + Nh + 0 + C + V t  + T + Nc+0 + Prt  0 * Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + T + N c + 0 + P r t He  took  N o t e : 1. When N P " t h e o b j e c t " 2  *NP-j_  the  coat  off.  i s l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d ,  + V t + NP + P r t i s ungrammatical 2  i n English.  e.g. *NP . + sing  C + V t + NP . + wh-NP + Cop + sing ^  &  Adj + P r t T + Nh + 0 + C + V t + T + N c + C f r  +wh-NP . sing  r  + C + be + 0 + A d j + P r t *0  + Nh + 0 + P a s t He  + V t + T + N c + 0 +  took  the  coat  wh-Nc + 0 + P a s t + be + 0 + A d j + P r t which was thick o f f . This structure  i s ungrammatical.  2. When NP^ " t h e o b j e c t " s o n a l pronoun,  i s a p r o p e r name o r a p e r -  "NP^ + V t + P r t + N P  2  i s n o t gram-  matical. e.g. *NP . + C + V t + P r t + NP . sing sing T + N h + 0 + C + V t +  P r t + T + Nc + 0  *0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t * V t + P r t + 0 + Nc + 0 He This structure  took  off  i t .  i s ungrammatical.  P r e p o s i t i o n a l Type ( d i f f e r e n t f r o m No. 5 b e c a u s e a pronoun o b j e c t remains a f t e r t h e p r e p o s i t i o n ) . e  -S'  sing C + V t + Prep + N P T + N h + 0 + C + V t + P r e p + T + Nh + 0  N P  +  s i n g  0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + P r e p + T + Nh + 0 IT He  ». i waited  „ j his friend. for<  He  looked  for|  h  i  a  m  J O  M  101  7.  I n d i r e c t O b j e c t Type e.g.  NP . + C + V t + NP. . + NP_ . sing lsing 2sing T + N h + 0 + C + V t + T + N c + 0 + T + N h + 0 0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + T + Nc + 0 + 0 + Nh + 0  i  i  i  •He* This string,  •gave  1  J  1  1  l  a*  f  book  a f t e r some t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  becomes: 0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t I  L  1  ^e*.  f  r u l e s a r e applied,  + V t + T + N c + 0 + t o +  1  He  i  L  1  I  gave  a book  to  0 + Nh + 0 me. Also, and e.g. to  NP + V t + N P  NP  2  2  + N P - L where " t o " i s d e l e t e d  i s moved.  NP . + C + V t + NP . „ + NP, . „ sing 2 sing lsing T + N h + 0 + C + V t + T + N h + 0 + T + N c + 0 9  0 + Nh + 0 + P a s t + V t + 0 + N h + 0 + T  i  1  He  i  J  gave  i  i  me  i  a  +Nc + 0  i  book.  102 b. C h i n e s e  Verbs  C h i n e s e v e r b s h a v e no i n f l e c t i o n s o f a n y s o r t .  ModaIs,and  t e n s e m a r k e r s a r e o n l y e x t r a words added t o v e r b s . the  For  purpose o f c o m p a r i s o n , I s h a l l a g a i n use t h e term Vcop  i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e t o d e s c r i b e some o f t h e C h i n e s e v e r b s , w h i c h w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d a s f o l l o w s : 1. C o p u l a V e r b s  ( V c o p ) : SHIH " b e " , ( I n t e n s i f i e r ) + A d j ,  TSAI "be + i n / o n / a t " , HSIEN " s e e m / l o o k " , 1. a . V c o p  YU " t o h a v e " .  SHIH " b e "  SHIH i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s  rule:  SHIH +< H o w e v e r , SHIH c a n be u s e d i n a l m o s t any s e n t e n c e i f emphasis  i s intended.  G e n e r a l l y , SHIH + NP i s d i f f e r e n t  f r o m V t + NP i n t h e s e w a y s : SHIH + NP: t h e NP i s a c o m p l e m e n t ; the  whole  Vt  structure i s non-passivable.  + NP: t h e NP f u n c t i o n s a s o b j e c t ;  the  whole  structure allows this passive transfor-  mation: NP  1  + V t + NP  2  NP  2  + BE I + NP.. + V t + ( P )  1  Both * V t + A d j and * V i + A d j a r e u n g r a m m a t i c a l i n C h i n e s e , e x c e p t when V t i s a s p l i t  form as s t a t e d i n r u l e  B u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n SHIH + A d j a n d V t  2 a  14:  + NP + V t  2  + A d j i s o b v i o u s s i n c e a NP must o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e s p l i t  b  103 p a r t s o f t h e V t , a n d t h e r e i s no s p l i t + NP + A d j " i s n o t g r a m m a t i c a l ,  f o r m o f SHIH. »'SHIH  n o r i s "NP ( ' o b j e c t ' )  SHIH + A d j " . b.  SHIH + NP e-g&  NP s i.n g„ + SHIH + NP s.i n g Nh + 0 + SHIH + Nh + 0 T'A  SHIH  SHIH-SHENG  'He'  'be'  *student*  (He  i sa  student)  c. SHIH + A d j e.g.  NP'. + SHIH + A d j T + Nc + 0 + SHIH + A d j CHE  Bl  •This*  SHIH  HAU-TE  »be»  'good'  'pen'  ( T h i s p e n i s good) 2. V c o p — »  I n t e n s i f i e r + A d j , e . g . HEN + A d j  NPc^no-  +  I n t e n s i f i e r + Adj  faXXlg  Nh + 0 + I n t e n s i f i e r + A d j i i T'A 'she*  HEN 'very*  (she i s v e r y 3. V c o p ---> N  s i n g  MEI-LI 'beautiful*  beautiful)  TSAI "be + i n / o n / a t " , e . g . T S A I + Adv-p + T S A I + Adv-p  Nh + 0 + T S A I + Adv-p 10 »I»  TSAI 'at/in'  ( I am home.)  CHIA 'home'  +  104 T'A T S A I CHE-R *he» »at» (He  »here»  i s here.)  4. V c o p  HSIEN "seem, l o o k l i k e " ,  e . g . HSIEN + NP  NP . „ + H S I E N + N P . sing sing e  Nh •+ 0 + HSIEN + Nh + 0 •  i  i  T'A  HSIEN  •he* (He  t  seem  1  HSUEH-SHENG  l  1  student*  seems a s t u d e n t . )  HAI-TZU HSIEN •boy* (The  T*A  »look l i k e *  boy l o o k s l i k e him.)  II.  I n t r a n s i t i v e Verbs " V i "  1.  S i m p l e Form e.g.  *he*  NP . + V i + Aux sing Nh + 0 + V i + P T*A  LAI-LE  •He* (He  »came» came.)  T*A  HZIH-LE  »He* (He 2.  »le»  »die»  »le»  died.)  Compound Form  1) e  Vi<CV-V t i ^ - n means " d e r i v e d 'Ssing V i + Aux N P  +  Nh + 0 + i  i  T*A  Vi + P CHU-CHUEH-LE  from"  105 t  He  t  + *go out* + *go away* + *Past Marker*  (He went out.) 2)  Vi<V-Adj e.g. NP _ + V i p]  Nh + MEN + V i NI-MEN  K»AN-KW»AI  *You* + *hurry* + * quick* (You have to be quick.) 3)  V  K  V  -  N  e.g. NP .  °  + Vi  sing Nh + 0 + V i T*A  K*AI HUI  *He* + *open + meeting* (He attended a meeting.) 4)  Vi<Adj-V e.g. NP . + Vi sing Nh + 0 + V i T'A  DA-BING  •He* + »big + i l l * (He i s very i l l . ) I I I . Transitive Verbs "Vt" A l l Chinese Vt*s are passivable. 1. Simple Type e.g. NP . + Vt + NP . sing sing Nh + 0 + Vt •+ Nh + 0  i  i  T* A ( He f  i  1  DA  WO  hit  me.)  :  T'A  K»AI  (He  builds  FONG-TZU houses.)  2. Compound Type 1) Vt<C^V-V e.g. &  means " d e r i v e d  from"  NP  . + V t + NP . sing sing Nh + 0 + V t + Nh + 0 i  i  i  T'A  1  CHIEN-TAO  WO  'He + 'see-reach' + 'me' ?  (He  saw  2) V t < T V r  ( h  e.g.  NP  t  me.) e  Reduplicating  o f a V)  . + V t + NP . sing sing  Nh + 0 + V t + Nc WO  MO-MO T'A  »I' + ' t o u c h - t o u c h ' + «it» (I touched i t . ) T'A  HSI-HSI  LIENG  'He* + 'wash-wash' +  'face'  (He w a s h e d h i s f a c e . ) 3)  Vt<TV-Adj e.g.  NP . + V t + NP , pi  pi  Nh + MEN + V t + Nh + MEN WO-MEN DA-KUA T'A-MEN 'We'  + ' b e a t - d o w n ' + 'them'  (We b e a t  them.)  T'A-MEN NONG-HAU F'AN •They* + 'make-ready* +  *rice*  (They p r e p a r e d t h e r i c e . )  4) Vt<C^V-P e.g. NP . + Vt + NP . sing sing Nh + 0 + Vt + Nh + 0 i  i  i  T'A  1  RUN-TE 10  'He' + 'recognize-acquire* + 'me' (He recognized me.) T'A  LA-CHUH  WO  'He* + 'grasp-stop' + 'me' - (He seized me.) 5) V t < A d v - V e.g. NP . + Vt + NP . sing sing Nh + 0 + Vt + Nh + 0 to  •  i  T'A  i  1  CH *IANG-CH *IANG WO  *He* + *strongly-rob* + *me* (He robbed me by force.) T»A  MAN-MA  T»A  'She' + 'widely-blame' + 'him' (She blamed him unreasonably.) 6) Vt<^N-V e.g. N P  pl  + Vt + NP'  Nh + MEN + Vt + Nc WO-MEN MEI-HUA K'O-TONG 'We' + 'beauty-change* + 'classroom* (We beautified the classroom.) Nh + MEN + Vt + T + Nc JL  L  I  1  T»A-MEN JEN-KE-HUA SO-YU-TE TUNG-WU  •They* + C h a r a c t e r - c h a n g e *  + •all*  +  •animals  (They p e r s o n i f i e d a l l t h e a n i m a l s . ) I n d i r e c t O b j e c t Type e.g.  NP . + V t + NP . + NP sing sing  6  N h + 0 + V t + N h + 0 + T + T'A  GEI  (He g a v e T'A  Split e.g.  WO  I-BUN  me  a  KAO-SHU WO  (He  told  CI .  + Nc  -  SHU book.)  I-CHONG-HSI-CHING  me  something.)  Type NP  p l  + Vt  f l  + NP  Nh + MEN + V t WO-MEN (We  BA  Q  p l  + Vt  b  + Aux  + Nh + MEN + V t , + P T»A-MEN DA-HUA L E beat  them.)  109 c.  Contrastive Analysis  1.  A. Vcop —•>  Part V  be  , NP Rules: English: Aux + be +/Adj Adv ( Prep. Phrasej Chinese: (Aux) + SHIH + i A d J J UP J Features: 1. English:] V Both "be" and "SHIH" are V »s Chinese:J P c o  2. English: "be" occurs i n these C + (M) + be  environments:  X  Chinese: "SHIH" occurs i n these  environments:  (M) + SHIH + X This structure contains no tense and number.- morphemes. 3. English] V Both "be" and "SHIH" structures are ChineseJ not passivable. 4. English: There are three kinds of "be": "be" as an Aux; "be" as a Vcop; "be" as a structure word to mark passive. 5. SHIH may be used as an Aux before the V i and the Vt to denote emphasis.  I t i s never used  to mark passive. 5. be + NP English: "be" may occur before any NP. Chinese: SHIH may occur before any NP. 6. be + Adj English: "be" may occur before any Adj. Chinese: "SHIH" may occur before any Adj.  110 7.  be + Adv English: Adv i s r e s t r i c t e d to Adv-p and Adv-t. Chinese: "SHIH + Adv" i s ungrammatical.  Conclusion 14: Problems of Chinese speaker learning English. Production: 1. May make mistakes i n tenses and i n number concord. 2. May mistake "He i s i n here" f o r "He i s here". 3. May use be before verbs i n c o r r e c t l y , e.g. *The boy i s play b a l l . 4. May be confused when coming across . . "be + 0 + Pp]_"» N  e.g. Mountain climbing i s many things to many people. 5. May have d i f f i c u l t y with be i n passive transformations. 6. May omit be due to the interference of " I n t e n s i f i e r + Adj" and "TSAI + Adv-p" structures i n Chinese. Recognition: May have d i f f i c u l t y i n distinguishing be as an Aux, be as a Vcop, and be as part of the passive form. B. Vcop  become, remain, seem, e t c .  a. Vcop + NP —-» become/remain Features: English: This sort of Vcop behaves d i f f e r e n t l y from "be", but i t involves the meaning of "be". e.g. "The boy remained s i l e n t " involves the meaning of "The boy was s i l e n t " . Chinese: No equivalent structure.  Ill b. Vcop + NP — *  seem  (NP {  UdjJ  Feature: E n g l i sh ~) I"seem" and "HSIEN" are similar features. Chinese j Both may occur before a NP and an Adj. They have similar meaning. Conclusion 15:  Problems of Chinese speaker learning English.  Production: NP] May mix up become/remain +< \ with "be" structures. (Adj. 2. May lack confidence i n using t h i s class of Vcop. 1.  Meaning: Remain +JNP I can be a problem. lAdj] 2. V i Feature: 1. English] > The Vi*s i n both languages can be Chinese 1 used alone without any word following them. 2. English: An V i can be one single word.  I t can  also comprise two or more words. Chinese: An V i can be one single word.  I t can  also be a combination of one word with another word or some other words. Conclusion 16:  Problems of Chinese speaker learning English.  Production: 1.  M i l l have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n handling Vi»s that consist of more than one word.  2. May produce a sentence l i k e *He went madly" meaning "He went mad." 3. May misplace the adverb, e.g. The birds from the south ?  112 came.  1  m e a n i n g 'The  b i r d s came f r o m t h e  s t e p p e d s l o w l y o u t ' m e a n i n g 'He Recognition 1. W i l l 2. May  and  south'  s t e p p e d out  and  'He  slowly.'  meaning:  have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g p h r a s a l think "take"  i n Vi's like  place" transitive,  " t a k e p a r t " and  t h a t i s , understand the  Vi's. "take  phrase  liter-  ally. 3. May  misunderstand the  function of " i t " i n Vi's  like  "make i t " a n d " b e a t i t " . 3.  Vt F o r m : V t + NP Features:  1.  "object" E n g l i s h : Some V t ' s Chinese: A l l Vt's  2.  E n g l i s h : "be"  are are  rule  C h i n e s e : SHIH "be"  3.  i s applied.  i s not  E n g l i s h : Sometimes t h e  provided  object  that there  E n g l i s h : Vt l i k e NP"  may  NP  + up"  passive  required  in  any  transformation.  C h i n e s e : The  4.  passivable.  m u s t be u s e d when t h e  transformational  passive  non-passivable.  can  o b j e c t may a l w a y s be  i s a previous  " t a k e o f f + NP"  become " t a k e + NP i f the  NP  be  deleted.  deleted context. " h a n g up  + o f f " and  "hang  i n each case i s not  and  complicated.  Also  the  P r t when t h e  object  s p l i t the  verb  i s a pronoun,  +  long and e.g.  take i t o f f . Chinese: S p l i t  Vt's  are  found i n the  "BA  +  +  113 + NP + V t + ( P ) " s t r u c t u r e .  The w o r d  order  is fixed. 5. E n g l i s h : The p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n i n Vt — *  Vt + prep i s f i x e d .  * " V t + NP  p r e p " i s u n g r a m m a t i c a l . e.g. *"He  +  looked  a  job f o r " . C h i n e s e : No e q u i v a l e n t  structure.  6. E n g l i s h : I n d i r e c t o b j e c t s may  occur immedi-  a t e l y a f t e r the V t , or a f t e r the d i r e c t object,  ' t o * must be u s e d when i t o c c u r s  a f t e r the d i r e c t object.  So b o t h * V t +  NP  2  " I n d i r e c t o b j . " + NP-L " D i r e c t o b j . " a n d " V t + NP-L + t o + N P " 2  are r i g h t .  C h i n e s e : The i n d i r e c t o b j e c t  always  follows  the Vt immediately. Conclusion  17: P r o b l e m s o f C h i n e s e s p e a k e r l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h .  Production: 1. May  delete  2. May  apply  passive  passivable 3. W i l l . h a v e  a required  object.  transformational  sentence. t r o u b l e w i t h "be" i n p a s s i v e  4.  W i l l have t r o u b l e  i n dealing with  5.  May  2  apply  r u l e s t o a non-  "Vt + NP  transformations.  " V t - a d v " and " V t - p r e p " .  " I n d . o b j . " + NP  1  "Direct obj". to a  s e n t e n c e t h a t r e q u i r e s " V t + NP-,^ + t o + N P " . 2  returned to him".  h i m t h e b o o k " , m e a n i n g "He  returned  e.g.  "He  t h e book  114 Recognition  and m e a n i n g :  Will  have d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n -  guishing the subject differences i n : 1. " I have b e e n t h e r e  before"  and " I have b e e n  told  before". 2.  "The f o o d was g o o d " and "The f o o d was  eaten".  3. " I have b e e n g i v e n much money s i n c e l a s t "I  summer" and  have been g i v i n g away much money s i n c e l a s t  mer" .  sum-  115  A Selected Bibliography Contrastive Analysis  Bernstein, Gertrude. "Reproduction and R e c o g n i t i o n o f E n g l i s h Speech Sounds as A f f e c t e d by the N a t i v e Languages o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Students," Unpub.: Ohio S t a t e U n i v . M.A. d i s s . , 1957. C a r r o l l , John B. " L i n g u i s t i c R e l a t i v i t y , C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s , and Language L e a r n i n g , " IRAL (1963), 1.1-20. Dingwall, W i l l i a m Orr. Ph.D. d i s s . , 1964. . Analysis,"  " D i a g l o s s i c Grammar,"  Unpub.: Georgetown U n i v .  " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l G e n e r a t i v e Grammar and C o n t r a s t i v e Language L e a r n i n g  XIV:  3-4, (1964) 147-60.  Dykstra, Gerald. "Perspectiive on t h e Teacher's Language L e a r n i n g V I : 3-^ (1956) 1-6.  Use o f C o n t r a s t , "  F r i e s , C h a r l e s C. T e a c h i n g and L e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a F o r e i g n Language. Ann A r b o r , Mich.: U n i v . o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1945. Joos, M a r t i n . A c o u s t i c P h o n e t i c s . (Language Monographs, no. B a l t i m o r e : L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y o f America, 1948. Lado, R o b e r t . L i n g u i s t i c s Across C u l t u r e s . of Michigan Press, 1957.  23.)  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Readings i n A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , second e d i t i o n . New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t , 1964. Baugh, A l b e r t C r o l l . A H i s t o r y o f the E n g l i s h Language, second e d i t i o n . New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1957. Chomsky, Noam. Co., 1957.  Syntactic Structures.  The Hague: Mouton and  "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach to Syntax," T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems o f L i n g u i s t i c s i n E n g l i s h , ed. H i l l A.A. A u s t i n , Texas: Univ. o f Texas Press, 1962. . Aspects o f the Theory o f Syntax. Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press", 1965.  Cambridge,  F r a n c i s , W. Nelson. The E n g l i s h Language: An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1965. . The S t r u c t u r e o f American E n g l i s h . Ronald Press, 1958.  New  York:  F r i e s , C h a r l e s C. L i n g u i s t i c s : The Study o f Language. 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The Theory o f Chinese Syntax x& P e k i n g : Chung Kua Book S t o r e , 1955. 1  Yang, Po Chun Grammar P r e s s , 1930? Yang,  H s  i^An  ran 2r ^  \)J^ . A G e n e r a l A n a l y s i s o f Chinese -S^fi Shanghai: Shang Wu 9xf T^jm  ffijfc  .  Modern Chinese J p ^ ^ f ' -  C h u n  S  

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