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Relationship between failure in beginning reading and certain developmental and environmental factors Ennenberg, Margaret Dorothea 1967

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAILURE IN BEGINNING READING AND CERTAIN DEVELOPMENTAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS by MARGARET DOROTHEA ENNENBERG B.A.(Hons.),University of Manitoba, 1938 M.S.W.,".-University of British Columbia,1952 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard -THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . | f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i : : r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a ABSTRACT The problem of this thesis was to explore the relationship between first grade reading failure and certain environmental and developmental factors, using the case study method. The subjects were sixteen boys and six girls from a Vancouver school in a poor neighborhood. They ranged in age from 7 years 1 month to 8 years 2 months, and in IQ from 73 to 113 according to the Pintner-Cunningham Primary Test (Form A). A l l had been taught by veteran primary teachers using the auditory-visual, basal reader method. Achievement was assessed on the basis of report card grades, a Pupil Rating Scale designed for this project, and the Durrell Analysis  of Reading Difficulty. The etiological factors investigated were intell-igence, visual perception, style of learning, self-concept and home environment. Eight students repeating grade I were matched with eight who had been regularly promoted to grade II. It was hypothesized that differences in reading achievement between the matched pairs would be accounted for by significant differences in one or more of the factors studied. Evaluative techniques included: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Raven Coloured Matrices, Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception, Mills' Learning Methods Test, and a U5-90 minute parent interview for each child. Twenty-two case studies were assembled, in which the beginn-ing stages were noted of a variety of reading disabilities - maturational lag, linguistic handicap, cultural deprivation, inadequate motivation, emotional disturbance, faulty reading habits. The major findings were: 1) The Pintner-Cunninghairi Primary Test appear to assess inaccur-ately the functioning intelligence of 10/22 children in this sample. Six of these pupils were successful readers with defects of visual perception revealed by the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Per-ception, sub-tests II, III and IV. 2) The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test had a high correlation with reading success,and did not appear to discriminate against the ten children who came from bilingual or Canadian Indian homes. 3) Anomalies of biological endowment characterized 9/lU unsucc-essful readers - organic defect, slow development, premature birth, hypo- or hyper-activity - although only one was mentally retarded. It) The aspects of home environment basic to reading success in grade I appeared to be parental literacy, standards of behavior adjusted to the child's capacity, reasonable methods of discipline, and a warm relationship between the child and at least one parent. 5) Lack of f lexibil ity in methods of teaching reading were seen as contributing to the high failure rate. For 12/lU pupils, the only solution offered for a wide variety of beginning reading problems was a second year in grade I , with no adjustment of curriculum. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES iv Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem Definition of Terms Used Tests and Techniques The Question of Validity II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 Literature on Reading Retardation Literature on Reading Readniess Theoretical Framework of the Thesis III. PROCEDURES FOLLOWED 33 Selecting the Sample Matching Criteria Testing the Hypothesis Parent Interviews School and Reading Achievement Testing Routine IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE SCHOOL AND CHILDREN...67 Introduction The School The Staff The Children V. CASE STUDIES: PAIRED COMPARISONS i.; v 85 Introduction Herbie and Brett Debb-y and Susan Philip and Joyce Thane and Danny Janice and Muriel Michael and Peter Ricky and Vince Yvonne and Guy Seppi and Jeff Paul and Craig Trevor and Douglas i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 219. Summary Findings for Total Group Testing the Hypothesis Conclusions SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF TESTS USED APPENDIX A. "THE STORY OF JIMMY" - original text and author's revision B. PUPIL RATING SCALE § 9 1 iv Uitf O f f A B L S : Table rfe«-.-3 I. l&tching ftata for ^rassty-Tv.'o iSubjGe&o I I . Kesuitu of Durroll Analysis* for Illo Caupari&on oi" PiaUior-Cunaiiighars and Peabody for Twenty-Two cubjacts............... .?28 20. Results of Proutlg Tost for V. Analysis of Pifttrier-Curaiin&hGa £coros Stylo of Learning for Twenty-Two Subjoctu. ...o 238-239 Tfll. AnocaliaB i n Sol?-Concept for 7111. Factors Associated with Heading Failure? Failing iissdora Compared with Successful Ksartera...... £59u6iV~ Acknowledgements To the delightful children To their hard-working parents To the co-operative staff of T.School To Dr.N.Ellis of the Vancouver School Board To Dr.H.Coveil and Dr.G.Chronister of the University of British Columbia To my patient family - a l l of whom contributed, each i n his own way, to this manuscript, my sincerest thanks. I only hope that i t justifies the fa i t h you had in me. CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS USED In the f i e l d of remedial reading, the recent emphasis i s upon prevention of reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . In particular, the twenty-seven F i r s t  Grade Reading Studies^sponsored by the United States Office of Education during the 196U-65 school year reflect the conviction of leading educators that better teaching of beginning reading w i l l significantly reduce the need for remediation i n later years. Research i n reading readiness, with emphasis upon early identification of the potentially disabled reader, approaches the same problem from a somewhat different angle. Renewal of the old "phonics versus whole word" debate, experimentation with teaching machines, and the development and testing of new techniques for teaching beginning reading a l l attest to this focus of attention. However, throughout a l l of these recent studies, there i s a conspicuous lack of case studies which would add flesh and blood to the carefully atriculated s t a t i s t i c a l skeletons. Not since the publication 2 i n 1 9 U 6 of Robinson's Why Pupils F a i l i n Reading has there been a volume of case studies which assumes that the reading act i s complex, and the causes of reading retardation many and varied. iFor summary accounts of these studies, see The Reading Teacher, 19:563-675,May,1966j 20:6-U2,0ctober,1966; 20:687-758, March,1967. 2 Helen M.Robinson, Why Pupils F a i l i n Reading (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 19H6). 2 Furthermore, a careful search of the literature f a i l s to reveal any published research using a case-study approach to children who have d i f f i c u l t y with beginning reading. This project represents a modest effort to f i l l part of this vacuum. I. THE PROBLEM It was the purpose of this project, using the case study method and matched pairs of pupils, to explore the relationship between begin-ning reading, and certain developmental and environmental factors. It was hypothesized that, for each matched pair of children, differences i n reading achievement would be accounted for by significant differences i n one or more of the factors studied, II,. DEFINITION OF TERMS USED Reading failure i s defined as reading s k i l l insufficient, i n the opinion of the school teaching and administrative staff, to warrant promotion of the pupil to the second grade at the end of one year of formal instruction. The case study method implies a flexible approach, using standardized tests, interview techniques, observation and questionnaires to e l i c i t from the child, his parents and his teachers information relevant to his reading achievement. A l l material was gathered by the investigator, who has a background of experience and training i n both teaching and social work. 3 Matched pairs of pupils. The basic group of children consisted of eleven pupils i n a single Vancouver school whose teachers recommended i n June 1966 that they not be promoted to Grade II because of insufficient s k i l l in reading. In January 1967, when this study commenced, ten of these were repeating f i r s t grade: the eleventh was enrolled i n a second grade class, but received daily individual instruction from the school reading cli n i c i a n . Each child i n the basic group was matched with a child from the same school who had been regularly promoted to second grade. Matching was on the basis of chronological age, intelligence. and four or more of the following factors: 1» Kindergarten experience 2. School attendance 1965-66 3. Sex 4« Bilingualism 5* Number of children i n family 6. Child's birth order 7# Family's socioeconomic status. Developmental and environmental factors. Out of the many developmental and environmental factors which research over the past half century has shown to have some correlation with reading failure, the following were chosen for consideration i n this study: 1. Intelligence 2. visual perception 3» Self-coaeapi 4* Style of learning 5. Home environment, including a) child's developmental and health history b) child's experiences related to reading c) inter-faiaily relationships d) educational history, status and attitudes of a l l mesbers of the family. III. TESTS AriD TECHUIQU3S In Chapter III, a detailed account i s given of the rationale behind the selection of matching c r i t e r i a , tests and evaluative procedure;; for this project. Here they are merely l i s t e d for the convenience of the reader. Details cf test publication i.dll be found i n the bibliography. Matchinr. c r i t e r i a . For natching purposes, Intelligence v/as rated by the child's score on the Pintnor-Cunningltara primary "est (Forn A) administered i n January 196? to the basic group plus 75 children, enrolled i n second grade. Socioeconomic status v/as ccapared by referenc to the Blishen Occupational Class Scale. A l l other data were available from the school records. 5 School and reex&iw a enlevement,, The bases for assessing each subject's school achievement were tho jaarHs assigned oa his report card for June 1966 arid for Easier 196? | and his behavior during the 1966-67 teres as described en the Puoil Bating.Scale, designed for this project, by the invaatigator, and completed by the child's classrooa teacher in April 196?c Reading achieveraant was aoasured by raaanu of three uub-tests of the 'Durrell Analysis of Heading Difficulty - Oral lieadiagj, Silent Eeading and Listening Comprehension. Cight vocabulary-- of the basic group vas eat aim ted by their vocabulary level for the r-lills 3 Learning  Methods Tests of the raatched group, by the word li s t s of the Durrell  Analysis» intolllnonce., The fteabody Picture vocabulary Teat and the itavon Colourod Matricos Mere atici&istered to each child in the sample. Findings were cro ss-chcclced with scores cn the Pii^tnai*~Gunninghara -Primary Test and the Frostig Test of Visual Perception.' The child's' .. developmental and health history was also taken into account. Visual t '•'erception. Th© Frostig Davclopaental Yesfr of Visual  Perception t;ao administered as an individual test to each child ia the aaaple» Solf-concopt. Tha self-eoacapt of oach child jaa aaaecaed through careful analysis of material obtained froa throe or core of the foXloizinc: 6 ( l ) observation of the c h i l d ' s behaviour during three t e s t i n g sessions of approximately one hour each, 2) the teacher's impressions of h i s day-to-day classroom behaviour, as recorded on the P u p i l R a t i n g Scale (see Appendix B), 3) the parent's d e s c r i p t i o n of the c h i l d ' s behaviour a t home, obtained i n the course of the parent i n t e r v i e w , k) the c h i l d ' s responses t o the I n s t i t u t e of  C h i l d Study S e c u r i t y Test ("The Story of Jimmy") as r e v i s e d by the i n v e s t i -g a t o r, (see Appendix A ) , and 5) the c h i l d l s responses to Van Krevelen's m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n of the Pigem Test (see Chapter I I I ) . S t y l e of Learning. Each c h i l d ' s s t y l e of l e a r n i n g was determined by a n a l y z i n g m a t e r i a l from s e v e r a l sources. Comprehension scores were compared from three sub-tests of the D u r r e l l Analysis-- Oral Reading,Silent.'.Reading, L i s t e n i n g . The f i r s t three s e c t i o n s of the M i l l s ' Learning Methods Test were administered a t one-week i n t e r v a l s t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n the b a s i c group. C h i l d r e n i n the matched group were given two sub-tests of the D u r r e l l -V i s u a l Memory of Words and Hearing Sounds i n Words - as w e l l as the k i n e s t h e t i c s e c t i o n of the M i l l s ' T est. In a d d i t i o n , the Wepman Test of Aud i t o r y  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n was administered t o any c h i l d whose speech or reading performance suggested d i f f i c u l t y w i t h a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n : and F r o s t i g  Test r e s u l t s were re-examined f o r clues t o d i f f i c u l t y w i t h v i s u a l d i s c r i m i -n a t i o n . Home Environment. The c h i e f source of inf o r m a t i o n about each c h i l d ' s home environment was a 45-90 minute i n t e r v i e w w i t h one or both of h i s parents. .'. : . - - '.  • j ~>c 7 Taking place at the school, these interviews were of the unstructured type usual i n social casework, but were focussed upon the following: 1, Clarification of factual data obtained from school records a) child's developmental and health history b) language spoken at home c) family's socioeconomic status d) parent's marital status 2, child's experiences related to reading a) exposure to and interest i n books b) use of and interest i n television c) local f i e l d trips and more extensive travel d) quality and quantity of verbal communication i n the home e) child's kindergarten and school experience to date 3. inter-family relationships, including a) child-rearing role of both parents b) status of this child i n the family c) standards of behavior expected of children d) methods of discipline employed 4 . educational history, status and attitudes of a l l members of the family, including parents' long-term goals for this particular child. 8 I I I , THE QUESTION OF VALIDITY The matched p a i r s t e c h n i q u e and the wide spectrum o f t e s t s and i n t e r v i e w s were chosen t o p r o v i d e some safeguard a g a i n s t the tendency, d e p l o r e d by Gray many y e a r s ago, of a c c e p t i n g the f i r s t anomaly observed 3 as the cause o f r e a d i n g r e t a r d a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l cases . The i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f the s tudy was f u r t h e r safeguarded by r e l i a n c e upon i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n group t e s t s f o r d i a g n o s t i c purposes , and upon c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of t e s t r e s u l t s r a t h e r t h a n upon n u m e r i c a l scores a l o n e . Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the f l e x i b l e approach adopted t o determine each c h i l d ' s s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g , s e l f - c o n c e p t and home background were p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n r a t h e r t h a n a d e v i a t i o n from i t . The problem was conceived c l i n i c a l l y - why does t h i s c h i l d behave i n t h i s way? - and the r e s u l t s of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s were o n l y p a r t of the data upon which d i a g n o s i s was based . I n a s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y , s tandards o f matching would a l s o have t o be more r i g i d t h a n those observed i n t h i s p r o j e c t . However, the purpose of matching i n t h i s i n s t a n c e was t o reduce the number o f v a r i a b l e s t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d i a g n o s i n g the r e a d i n g f a i l u r e . Therefore f a i l u r e t o match two c h i l d r e n p e r f e c t l y does not d e s t r o y the v a l i d i t y o f the c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d , p r o v i d e d t h a t the unmatched i tems are t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n : t h i s has been done i n every i n s t a n c e . 9 Because, in this project, the basic group of children was unselected, the beginning stage;, of a wide variety of reading difficulties has been revealed. However, the results have no statistical significance: the number of children is too small, and a l l are pupils from a single school and a single neighborhood. But great care has been taken to describe the school, the neighborhood, the children, the teaching methods in sufficient detail that the limitations of the conclusions reached will be readily apparent. IV. ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THESIS In the next chapter, an overview of related literature will .-. be presented, together with a statement of the investigator's theoretical frame of reference. In Chapter III, a detailed account will be given of the various procedures used to collect data for this research project, and of the rationale behind each. Chapter IV contains a description, partly statistical, of the school, the district and the children involved in this research. In Chapter V, the data collected for each of the eleven pairs of children will be tabulated, presented as a case history,.and analyzed in the light of the hypothesis. The conclusions and recommendations of the study will be found in Chapter VI» CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK So much has been written about reading readiness and reading retardation or dis a b i l i t y , with both of which this paper i s concerned, that i t i s out of the question to review a l l the pertinent literature. Therefore only a h i s t o r i c a l overview plus a summary of the most recent research w i l l be attempted,, I. LITERATURE ON READING RETARDATION The earliest research i n reading retardation was carried out i n the last two decades of the nineteenth century by surgeons and neurologists. Their main interest was physiological: their findings pinpointed brain lesions as the source of both failure to learn to read and of loss of a b i l i t y to read. For the next tx*enty-five years, research was devoted largely to efforts to prove or disprove the existance of a syndrome generally known as congenital dyslexia or word-blindness. Then, i n 1918, Dr. Leta S. Hollingworth published a trend-setting study of spelling, i n which she argued that variations i n spelling and reading s k i l l s result from individual differences which are normally distributed. During the subsequent quarter-century, this lead was followed by scores of important studies of poor readers, seeking, among other things, to identify the causes of reading retardation. This research was summarized i n Part I of Why Pupils P a i l i n Reading^ under the following headings? 1. Visual Maladjustments as a Cause of Reading Disability 2. Neurological Basis for Reading Disability 3 B. Auditory and Speech D i f f i c u l t i e s of Severely Retarded Readers 4* Physical Deficiencies i n Severely Retarded Readers 5« Intelligence and Reading Failure 6, Emotional and Personality Problems of Retarded Readers 7» Environmental and Social Characteristics of Poor Readers, The evidence which %*as reviewed ju s t i f i e d the assumption that both mild and extreme cases of reading retardation may be due to anomalies i n any one, or i n several of these areas. In Part II of the same volume, Robinson reports on the multi-discipline research project carried on over a five-year period at the University of Chicago Reading Clinics, involving thirty poor readers of average or better intelligence, ranging i n age from six to fifteen yearsj wljbidi., . Table of Contents. and calling upon the diagnostic and treatment s k i l l s of staff members from ten different disciplines, plus the teaching f a c i l i t i e s of the Orthogenic School. The contribution made by Dr. Robinson and her colleagues was not only to provide vivid case-studies covering a wide range of reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . They also demonstrated conclusively that:'* .,.pupils who are seriously retarded i n reading exhibit many anomalies, that i s , physical, mental, social and emotional deficiencies or disturbances. The second i s that, as a rule, the number of anomalies i s greater, the more serious the retardation i n reading. The third i s that many of the anomalies exhibited have l i t t l e or no relation to reading retardation... The practice which has often been adopted i n the past of accepting the f i r s t anomaly observed as the cause of retardation i n individual cases i s quite inadequate. It i s a tribute to the thoroughness with which Dr. Robinson did her work that the seven headings under which she summarized previous research into causes of reading retardation are s t i l l those used by authors of text-books: and that first-rate reading cl i n i c s employ the multi-discipline approach, reserving judgement on individual children u n t i l a l l the evidence i s in and can be discussed i n case conference. Between Dr. Robinson's classic and the historically important F i r s t Grade Reading Studies, research i n reading has tended to follow 'four main streams: (l) the analysis of existing materials, and the development and testing of a variety of approaches to both beginning and remedial reading; for instance, the International T,sa ching Alphabet, Ibid.. Preface, p . v i i . 12 (2) the development and standardization of more adequate tests to measure various aspects of reading readiness, reading achievement, and such components of reading efficiency as visual perception, auditory discrimination, and psycholinguistic a b i l i t y ; (3) research into improved teacher education and other means of narrowing the gap between what i s reliably known about sound reading instruction and what i s practiced i n many schools; and (4) studies of disabled readers, most often analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y , i n a continuing search for some common characteristic(s) which w i l l reliably differentiate them from competent readers. In spite of Dr« Robinson1s warning, much of this p r o l i f i c research assumes that some single cause underlies most cases of reading retardation, and that some panacea can be found. In many cases, this approach i s understandable. Inter-disciplinary research i s enormously expensive. But i f a study i s carried out as an individual project, then naturally i t reflects the specific lines of interest and the bias of the researcher. Research done by ophthalmologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, psychologists, speech therapists, linguists, sociologists, anthropologists, reading specialists and class-room teachers w i l l obviously diff e r not only i n methodology but also i n theoretical foundation. Furthermore, much of this research comes from Graduate Schools of various universities: and u n t i l more universities promote inter-disciplinary research, any project undertaken within the time and budgetary limitations of the master's thesis or the doctoral dissertation i s constrained to tackle one limited aspect of a very complex problem. 13 Under these c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g tha t the r e s u l t s tend to be i n d i v i d u a l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e and c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y . However, i t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g when a p r o j e c t as w e l l - s t a f f e d and as w e l l - f i n a n c e d as the U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e of Educat ion F i r s t  Grade Reading S t u d i e s f a l l s i n t o s e v e r a l of these p i t f a l l s . The f i r s t of these has to do w i t h purpose : ont o f the twenty -seven s t u d i e s , n i n e t e e n undertook to prove t h a t some one o r some combinat ion of the v a r i o u s methods of t e a c h i n g b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g would produce s i g n i f -i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r read ing achievement, at l e a s t f o r some l a r g e segment of the r e a d i n g p o p u l a t i o n - the most a b l e , the l e a s t a b l e , the b i l i n g u a l , the c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d . As R u d d e l l remarks , i n a p e n e t r a t i n g a r t i c l e on " E v a l u a t i n g Complex Reading Programs" :^ . . . T h e P o i n t i n q u e s t i o n has now moved from what i s the " b e s t " method of t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g , so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f pas t r e s e a r c h , to what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c o n t r a s t i n g r e a d i n g programs produce d i f f e r e n t o r s i m i l a r r e a d i n g achievement l e v e l s f o r c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s i n g unique background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n v a r i o u s types o f c lassroom e n v i r o n m e n t s . . . T h e g e n e r a l i t y of method f o r c h i l -dren w i t h wide v a r i a t i o n s i n background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . . must be s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d . A second p i t f a l l a r i s e s from the almost u n i v e r s a l , dependence of these v a r i o u s s t u d i e s upon group t e s t s o f c a p a c i t y and achievement. I t may be argued t h a t , because of the l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d -over 25>,000 i n a l l - i n a c c u r a c i e s cance l each other o u t . °Robert B. R u d d e l l , " E v a l u a t i n g Complex Reading Programs," Research Designs i n R e a d i n g , H i g h l i g h t s of the 1°66 P r e - C o n v s n t i o n I n s t i t u t e s ( N e w a r k , D e l . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading Association,1967), p.U6. 1U However, much research hss established, that group teste cf mental capacity discriminate sgeinst children from the lower socio-economic levels, and that scores can bs significantly improved by appropriate 7 environmental stimulation. As reported i n The Reading Teacher, none of the studies seems to have made provision for correcting cultural bias, -axcept, i n soma instances, to use more than one measuring instrument. ivith rogard to group tests of reading aehlevament, two d i f f -i c u l t i e s arise. The f i r s t i e well -expres3ad by -lissnberg i n an 8 art i c l e on "The Spidamiology of Beading Retardation'11 ...At the lower levels, l i t t l e more i s required from the child (by group tests of reading performance) than the a b i l i t y to decode visual eynbols into recognizable words...the groat va r i a b i l i t y i n Individual raeponse ut primary grade levels, together with the limited ciie crimination of the test instrument at the lower «md of the scale, rest r i c t s the confidsnca to be placed i n group tasting methods i n tha f i r s t grades of school. A second objection i s voiced by Huddell in another section of his o a r t i c l e , referring specifically to the F i r s t Grade Studiost Tha rasearch-sr must ask ., i a there reason to believe that one instrument (for measuring reeding echieveraant) would favor a particular reading program i n contrast to another?... In the opinion of this writer, one reason for the "non-signlficsnt" syndrome i n so much reading research i s the result of inadequate instrumentation for the measuremont of dependent variables. •B.S. Bloom, A. Davis, R. Hess, Compensatory Education f o r  Cultural Deprivation (Chicapo: Holt, Sinehart Winston, 1965), p .71 . ^Leon Sisanbergj, "The Epidemiology of Heading Retardation," The Disabled deader, ed. John Honey (Baltiraora: John Hopkins Frees, 196$), p. U. % u d d e l l , op.cit., p .5l The names of those engaged i n this major research project read l i k e a "Vftio's Who" of significant reading research •= Bond,, Chall, Sheldon, Spache, Murphy, Heilsan, Harris, Fry, to mention only a few. In their eagerness to take advantage of the rare opportunity to work with a large enough sample, and i n their preoccupation with s t a t i s t i c a l design, they seem to have considered the individual as too s s a l l a unit to study i n even one of th© twenty-seven projects. Yet, unless the characteristics ar© known of both teachers and pupils who are successful with any one approach to reading, how can even the best-intentioned school d i s t r i c t carry out the recoruKendations of the 19&4 Conference on Education and Cultural Deprivation with regard to the elenentary schools*^ 1 , Evidence should be obtained on each child at the beginning of the f i r s t grade to determine the levels he has reached with regard to perceptual development, language development, a b i l i t y to attend, and activation for learning*=»aQn the basis of tliis evidence, an educational prescription should be written for each child, and he should be placed with others i n an appropriate section with a teacher who can best provide what he needs. 2. In each school, there should be a number of approaches to introductory learning, and each child should bs placed in the approach which i s most appropriate for hiia. Nevertheless, i n spite of their limitations, the F i r s t Grade Reading Studies are a landmark i n the history of reading education, heralding acceptance of the principle of prevention of reading d i s a b i l i t i e s by leaders in the f i e l d and by government. This stop i s parallel to the acceptance i n principle of public health. Tho ne^ -ft step now i s to follow the advice of Dr. Eisenberg:"^ Bloom, Davis and Hess, op.cit . , p .5 l . Eisenberg," op.cit . , p.19. 16 Most school systems introduce remedial reading instruction at the third grade or later ( i f they have i t at a l l ) . The justification i s one of economy... .This "economy11, however, must be balanced against the cost to those children who, by the third grade, are deeply imprisoned i n faulty learning habits, have become convinced of their ineptness, and now respond poorly to any but the most expert individual c l i n i c a l instructions. Surely this country can afford to do better by i t s children. The child not beginning to read by the second semester of the f i r s t grade needs diagnostic study and appropriate remedial education....(thus) the dyslexic child w i l l be reached at a time when the chance of success i s greatest... II. LITERATURE ON READING READINESS Although Pestalozzi, Froebel and Herbart operated their experimental schools i n the last decade of the nineteenth century, i t took decades for their influence to be f e l t in the United States. In the educational journals, data began to appear concerning the incredible number of failures i n the f i r s t grade, under a system in which starting school and starting formal reading were synonymous. But i t was not u n t i l 1925 that the National Society for the Study of Education took o f f i c i a l notice of the growing clamor. In i t s Twenty-Fourth Yearbook,an entire chapter was devoted to the "preparatory period", including suggestions to use i n preparing children for reading. In 1926, the United States Bureau of Education involved teachers a l l over the country i n a questionnaire study of Pupils 1 Readiness for Reading  Instruction upon Entrance to Fir s t Grade. The following year, Mary Reid, writing a doctoral dissertation for Columbia University on first-grade admission and promotion practices, i n a sampling of schools across the country, discovered that one out of every eight children failed at the end of f i r s t grade. Then the crusade was on, reaching i t s climax during the years 1937-40, During this fifteen-year period, numerous important and minor studies investigated the relationships between reading readiness and intelligence, physical condition, emotional s t a b i l i t y , social adjustment, 12 language development, and the child's pre-school experiences. By 1950, the concept of reading readiness had been incorporated into teacher training a l l over the continent, and i t had become standard practice to group f i r s t grade children for reading instruction i n accordance with their readiness, which was often determined by means of one of several standardized readiness tests. The c a l l v*ras for longitudinal research, to extend the concept to readiness for various other reading s k i l l s : for better understanding of concept-building as a basis for reading comprehension; for broader, more adequate reading readiness and reading 13 achievement tests. However, i t was not u n t i l the mid-sixties that this c a l l for action was heeded to any large extent. Then, in quick succession, several important new tests and studies appeared. From Los Angeles came Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception,^easy to administer, 12 Nila Banton Smith, "Readiness for Reading^11) Readiness for Reading  and Related Language Arts, National Conference on Research in English, (Chicago, I l l i n o i s : National Conference on Research i n English, 195>0). 1 3 I b i d . Frostig, Developmental Test of Visual Perception. (Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1963), 18 and from the Institute for Research on Exceptional Children, 15 The I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguist!c A b i l i t i e s , both well-standardized for children aged three to eight years, and both with considerable diagnostic value i n the reading readiness f i e l d . At the Gesell Institute for Child Development, Ilg and Ames^ attempted to establish largely non-verbal developmental norms for successful participation i n the formal school work of a l l elementary grades, not merely of Grade 1. Reasoning that to be required to do tasks beyond his physiological competency places an unnecessary strain upon the child, these two developmental psychologists recommended that grade placement of children up to the age of ten years be upon the basis of developmental age rather than of mental age or academic achievement. 17 As reported i n Predicting Reading Failure, 1 de Hirsch and her associates at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Centre undertook to select from twenty-seven i n i t i a l diagnostic tests a battery of ten which could be administered to five-year-olds i n less than one hour, and which would serve to discriminate between f a i l i n g readers, slow starters and superior students before admission to school. J.J.McCarthy and S.A.Kirk, I l l i n o i s Test of Psycholinguistic  A b i l i t i e s (Urbana,Ill.: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1961). "^E.Ilg and F.Ames, School Readiness (New York; Harper and Row,1966), 17 'K.de Hirsch et a l . , Predicting Reading Failure (New York: Harper and Row, 1966). Like Ilg and Ames, this research team also found a high percentage of children with what is known as "maturational lag." De Hirsch*s recommendation is that schools institute small "transition" classes between kindergarten and first grade for children not yet ready for formal instruction. In Sweden, where the school entrance age is seven years, and where such transition classes have been in operation for several years, research has been carried one step further. In Criteria for 18 School Readiness, Johansson came to the conclusion that available reading readiness tests, on the basis of which children are assigned to regular or transition classes, discriminate against children from homes in the lower social strata, and are concerned mainly with intellectual factors. "But", he says, There is no f irea ground for the claim that any one factor is more important for school readiness than another. Physical, social, intellectual and emotional factors interact, and the child reacts as a complete whole in continuous interaction with his environment. Respect for the child as an individual which is the fundamental idea behind our school system gives rise to the demand that each child has the right to begin his school l i f e without first being classified in a way that may lead to permanent categorization. The most recent development in the area of reading readiness also comes from Sweden. In unpublished research reported to the Twelfth 19 Convention of the International Reading Association , 18 Bror A. Johansson, Criteria for School Readiness (Uppsala, Sweden: Almqvist and Wekseil,' 1965) >p« 263 f f . 19 'Eve I-Jalmquist, "Prevention of Reading Disabilities in the Elementary School" (paper read at the International Reading Association Convention, Seattle, Washington, Hay 5, 1967X. Dr. Eve Malmquist reported on a study involving 938 first-grade children in 41 class-rooms and 12 municipalities. On the basis of a battery of readiness tests developed by the (Swedish) National School for Educational Research, i t was anticipated that seventy-eight of these pupils trould have d i f f i c u l t y with reading. One-half were assigned during their f i r s t year of school to a reading c l i n i c i a n for individual and small group instruction for a maximum of eight hours per week. Formal reading and writing ac t i v i t i e s were postponed; their development i n a l l areas was carefully followed: their readiness for reading xvas stimulated by an individualized program geared to their needs: close contact was maintained with parents so that school a c t i v i t i e s would be reinforced at home. Of those i n the experimental group, 83 per cent were prevented from developing reading d i s a b i l i t i e s , the criterion being standardized tests of reading accuracy and comprehension administered at the close of Grades I, II and III, and of spelling at the close of Grades II and III. In the control group, i n the same classrooms, with no variable i n treatment other than remedial reading instruction during the f i r s t year of school, 83 per cent of the pupils did f a i l in reading and spelling. Furthermore, the difference i n mean scores between the experimental and the control group was not only significant but cumulative over the three years of school. In summary, in the sixties, research from several points of view is converging upon the first-grade program. Materials research has produced a variety of different techniques for beginning reading and some promising new tests: 21 research on the culturally disadvantaged has pin-pointed pre-school and primary grades as c r i t i c a l for later educational development of the child: reading readiness research i s beginning to ask "Readiness for what approach to reading, with what teacher-pupil ratio, and under teachers with what qualifications?": and remedial reading specialists, noting that a large percentage of their clients experienced their f i r s t failure i n f i r s t grade, are urging that specialized services be concentrated inthe primary grades. I I I . THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE THESIS Because there i s no general agreement among educators with regard to learning theory, and because there are s t i l l many unknown and debatable factors i n the reading act i t s e l f , i t seems relevant for any investigator i n this f i e l d to state the theoretical framework within which he operates. This section w i l l present b r i e f l y an eclectic cognitive f i e l d model of learning which i s the basis for conclusions reached i n later chapters. There w i l l be few foot-notes, because the model i s the investigator's own synthesis of material drawn from many sources, although i t s starting point i s the 1966 Yearbook of the Association for Supervision and 20 Curriculum Development. Biochemical Endowment A l l men are not created equal. From birth, individuals d i f f e r from one another i n their intellectual potential, i n their rate of neuro-20 Learning and Mental Health i n the School (Washington,D.C.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1966). 22 muscular development* in their degree of sensitivity to sensory stimulation, and in what Fromm calls their temperament - the intensity, speed and strength of their reaction to events. This statement does not imply adherence to some theory of biological determinism; i t simply indicates that some individual differences are either innate, or attributable to pre-natal environment. Needs and Drives Human beings are born with certain needs - physiological and social -from which arise strong drives, From birth, human behavior is goal-directed, the goal being the satisfaction of these needs. As the individual matures, through an increasing number of transactions with an increasingly complex environment, he develops more specific goals and a greater variety of means to achieve them, 21 Maslow posits a hierarchy of goals which may be summarized as follows: Lower Order: Deficiency Needs a) Physiological needs, such as food, warmth, sex b) safety, physical and psychological: the mature goal includes independence without fear c) love and belongingness d) esteem, including self-esteem A.H, Maslow, Motivation and Personality ((New. +Y6rkr :Harper^;i95U), chapter 7» 23 L a c k o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e above needs l e a d s t o p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l i l l n e s s o r b o t h . S a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e needs r e l e a s e s energy f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f h i g h e r - l e v e l g o a l s l i s t e d below. H i g h e r O r d e r : Growth Needs e) c o g n i t i v e - t h e d r i v e t o u n d e r s t a n d and c o n t r o l one's p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v ironment f ) S e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n - t h e d r i v e t o r e a l i z e one's p o t e n t i a l E v e n i f e n e r g y i s a v a i l a b l e f o r p u r s u i t o f t h e s e h i g h e r o r d e r needs, a c c o r d i n g t o Maslow, t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y a r e s a t i s f i e d depends upon t h e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h t h e environment makes a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and upon h i s competence t o make use o f t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s t o f u r t h e r h i s p e r s o n a l development. Maslow's t h e o r y o f d r i v e s i s a c c e p t e d as b e i n g l e s s o f a P r o c r u s t e a n bed t h a n F r e u d ' s s i n g l e l i b i d i n a l d r i v e w i t h i t s p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . H i s h i e r a r c h y o f g o a l s i s a c c e p t e d w i t h g r e a t e r r e s e r v a t i o n , b e cause i t o v e r s i m p l i f i e s a v e r y complex a r e a o f human b e h a v i o r . Needs a r e o f t e n p a r t l y met: f o r example, p r i m i t i v e t r i b e s m e n l i v i n g i n a h o s t i l e e n v i r o n m e n t s t i l l o f t e n f i n d a l i t t l e e n e r g y t o b e a u t i f y t h e i r t o o l s and t h e i r homes. F u r t h e r m o r e , when g o a l s c o n f l i c t , as t h e y o f t e n do, t h e • i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r cannot be r e l i a b l y p r e d i c t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o Maslow's h i e r a r c h y . C u l t u r a l E n v i r o n m e n t The i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and h i s s t a t u s w i t h i n 24 that environment, to a large extent determine the channels through which he expresses his drives. They affect the models available to him as he develops his own self-concept: the range and quality of his experiences: the way i n which he expresses emotions: the s k i l l s which he must learn i n order to become independent: the idiom i n which he expresses himself: and his hierarchy of values. Personality and Learning Personality i s conceived as a bounded whole with various degrees of differentiation and integration between i t s internal sub-systems, and various degrees of complexity within them. It is operative not only i n inter-personal relationships, but also i n contacts between the individual and his non-personal environment. The three major internal sub-systems are: (l) the i d - the individual's drive to satisfy the basic needs postulated by Maslow; (2) the super-ego - socio-cultural and personal values acquired to a large extent i n early childhood through the process of identification with nurturing adults, and including sel f -concept; and (3) the ego - the active, conscious efforts of the individual to impose order upon his environment, and to resolve the often conflicting demands of his i d and his superego. Each individual i s unique, and his total personality i s more than the sum of his sub-systems, because his sub-systems modify one another. He i s an organized whole, which tends to behave in such a way as to maintain i t s organization. This organization includes his relationships with his environment, personal and non-personal, past, present and anticipated. 25 In the interests of psychic parsimony, acts which are repeated many times become automatic, and the conscious ego i s only minimally involved i n their performance: these are known as habits. Among the habits acquired gradually by the maturing individual are patterns of dealing with temporary or chronic frustration, environmental stress, and intra-psychic conflict. In our society, particularly in the school, those habits are considered good which free the individual's psychic energies for the pursuit of his growth needs, while bad habits interfere with learning. Successful learning requires not only good habits, but also a personality which i s relatively accessible to environmental stimulation, and which integrates new experoaices rather than encapsulating them. The child who, on the basis of his own experience, sees adults as hostile and punitive w i l l be less responsive to the wholesome relationship offered by a warm, understanding teacher than the child who has learned to trust grown-ups. The pupil who classifies reading as a chore to be performed only at school has learned less well than the one who integrates his new s k i l l into his repertoire of recreational a c t i v i t i e s . Impermeability to new experience, treating new experience lik e former experiences which i t superficially resembles, and failure to integrate new experiences are three of the earmarks of people generally classified as neurotic. People are always i n the process of becoming. Thus the significance of any individual's behavior can be understood only against the background of his previous actions, his present environment as he perceives i t , and his expectations. 26 Different socio-cultural systems impose different demands upon their members, and offer them different channels to satisfy their needs. Both demands and channels change as the individual matures: thus the process of change derives from both external and internal forces. Motivation In the course of his development, the individual finds that there are some tasks he can perform competently, some roles he can f u l f i l to the satisfaction of himself and others: these ego-strengths are known as his a b i l i t i e s . Other a c t i v i t i e s , i n which he may be more or less competent, but which gratify needs not otherwise adequately met, become his interests. Generally speaking, he i s motivated to do those things which he perceives as being within the range of his a b i l i t i e s and relevant to his present interests and future goals. In other words, motivation arises from basic drives, channelled i n accordance with the purposes, customs and values of a given sub-culture, and f i l t e r e d through the individual's unique personality structure. Learning Theory m Development of Concepts A meaningful encounter with the environment on the basis of which learning occurs involves the following steps: a) attention to the stimulus b) response to the stimulus, the whole person reacting to the total stimulus as he perceives i t c) analysis of the various components of the stimulus, and attachment of accurate labels to the objects, people (including oneself), events and feelings involved d) identification of those elements which are new or unfamiliar, and tentative classification of them on the basis of previous experience of a similar nature e) action designed to test the validity of the tentative conclusion reached i n Step d)» Steps c) and d) - or perhaps steps a) to e) - are repeated u n t i l one of the following occurs: a) a new concept i s arrived at: or b) an existing concept i s enriched or modified to incorporate the new experience: or c) the new experience i s f i t t e d into an existing concept without changing the concept appreciably. Thus the new concept i s integrated into the individual's store of experience, to be available when required at a later date to help him interpret a stimulus of a similar nature. Non-Learning: Some Common Causes It i s self-evident that not a l l encounters between the individual and his environment result i n learning: otherwise, people would not make the same mistakes over and over, nor would they forget so easily, of course, those concepts are best remembered which are i n frequent use and which are central rather than peripheral: but other factors also enter into this complex process of learning and remembering. a) Attention may be insufficient for many reasons, among them: (1) the immaturity of the individual - neuro-muscular or experiential 28 so that he i s actually unable to perceive the whole stimulus. For example, the week-old infant can attend to no more than five aspects of a stimulus at a time: other aspects just wash over him, 22 unnoticed. The adult who knotirs no French w i l l pay scant attention to a speech i n that language. (2) lack of motivation. The individual pays scant attention to stimuli which he perceives as irrelevant to his needs or plans. (3) boredom. The new experience i s so similar to previous stimuli that i t i s perceived as unnecessary. (4) selective inattention. The individual restricts his awareness to experiences which he can tolerate without traumatic disorganization. L i t e r a l l y and figuratively, people close their eyes to stimuli which may endanger their equilibrium. b) Total response may be inappropriate i f , among other things: (1) the total phenomenon i s beyond the competence of the individual. He may respond to that part of the stimulus which i s comprehensible as though i t were the whole stimulus. (2) the individual i s under great stress, chronic or acute (3) the phenomenon i s i n i t i a l l y perceived as resembling earlier experiences which led to feelings of failure and inadequacy, or more severe mental or physical anguish. The individual then tends to react to the new experience as though i t were the previous one, or to distort i t i n some way. "Recent Findings i n Child DevelopmentV" (paper read at Eighth Annual Workshop of Association of Cooperative Pre-Schools, Vancouver, B.C. Oct 15, 1965, based on unpublished research carried out at Simon Fraser University) . e) Skills Sa .diffarmtjatioa and labelling n&y be J&Bdoqpato, i f during infancy and diildfeood, ha has suffered Jrcs on© or sore of 5 (1) physical and ^actional depriyatiaa. Unless the child's basic biological and affective needs are reliably provided for, ha does not f e e l safe enough to egq&ero his enviraicieinl, or sufficiently -sure of bis own ideatity to distinguish, clearly between hiss-elf and bis ®mlr<xmBn%a (2) sfeiEaulas deprivation. To develop his potential, the child needs a variety of active and creative experiences with objectss poraons and ©vents. Thus he learns to differentiate, to categorise, to put cause' and effect together? both his perceptual a?3d his cognitive development are furthered. (3) language d«privatioa0 3*1 our language-orient<Kl culturo 8 the child needs constant adult help in attaching accurate language labels to his 9S£p?sriences and in relating thcra to one acotfearo fe'lttsout adequate • linguistic aaamplo, eneoaragesent and feed-backs the child i s handicapped, especially at school. Verbalisation i s the 3asfc stage in acquiring a concept, but i t i s the sost aeoaaeaical, often tha only way to ccsaauaicat© i t and to store It for future reference; and i t is certainly the sssans jsost frequently used i n teaching children. d) inadequate integration of axpsrlancd. Generally, those concepts are best integrated which tha individual perceives as necessary to Ms iEsaediate or long-tens goals, and ijfaose validity he tea bmn abl@ to teat for hiaself. "Jjaforisaticn which i s not actad mpm by ago processes foeeoraes a kind of intellectual shellac which often serves to giv© a. 'high gloss to 23 an espty house" . l e a r n i n g anti l&rifcal Health in the School (Washihgtbn,DX.: . Association"for Supervision." and Curriculum Development, ,1966),. p.27. 30 Adequate integration i s relative rather than absolute, and i s partly a function of maturity. However, a safe rule-of-thumb i s that no one has learned a concept u n t i l he i s able to discover and identify new items which f i t the concept. The Role of Emotions However convenient i t may be heuristically to separate intellect and emotions, i n any given individual they are highly interdigitated and mutually reinforcing. This i s most clearly evident i n the development of young children. For example, the toddler f i r s t learns to be clean i n order to win the approval of a beloved adult. As he matures, cleanliness i s incorporated into his super-ego, and i s practiced both as a habit which helps bolster his self-esteem, and as a standard by which he judges others, However, he may have learned cleanliness out of fear, or cleanliness may have become a battle-ground in a struggle for power between generations i n his family group. In that case, by soiling himself or by refusing to bathe, he shows that he i s no longer afraid, or that he has won the battle. Perhaps cleanliness i s a hallmark of a class of people who look down upon him: then his dirtiness i s a sign of his loyalty to his own sub-culture. Perhaps the only time others pay attention to him is when he i s dirty: then his lack of cleanliness i s a bid for attention. It seems impossible to talk about learning, of even so simple a habit as cleanliness, without introducing a whole range of emotive words - love, esteem, fear, hostility, loyalty. Learning of every kind would seem to be f a c i l i t a t e d by moderate amounts of emotion, but to be disrupted or distorted by both lack of emotion and excess of i t . For example, the moderately anxious individual i s more l i k e l y to succeed at any given ac t i v i t y than the one who doesn't care or the one who i s immobilized by severe anxiety. Small, immunizing doses of frustration, administered by someone he loves or respects, help the child learn to accept deferred satisfaction and to find socially acceptable alternatives for forbidden acts. But frequent or prolonged frustration of major needs by a punitive adult produces either apathy and withdrawal, or else hos t i l i t y , both of which tend to cut the child off from wholesome inter-personal relationships* Emotion would appear to enter into the cognitive f i e l d model presented above at several points. The child's attention span w i l l be longer for a c t i v i t i e s which arouse his interest: his global response to any stimulus w i l l depend upon his feelings about previous encounters with a similar experience: he w i l l persist 'JL'onger' inhlsV^triai-and-error efforts to accommodate the new experience i f he wishes to gain the approval of someone he loves or respects: his feeling of satisfaction or frustration at the end of the process w i l l influence his learning set or global response towards his next attempt to learn. Love i s i n a class by i t s e l f . As defined by Fromm, mature love i s the union of two people without loss of personal integrity by either. It involves care, respect (based upon self-respect), knowledge and responsibility. Its practice requires self-discipline, concentration, patience and motivation. It can be given only by those who have, at some time in their l i f e , received i t - from parent, relative, spouse, friend, teacher, therapist. '^Eric Fromm, The Art of Loving,(New York: Harper, 1956), chap.I* 32 Love i s to personality development and mental health what food i s to physical growth and physical health. Infants who have been deprived of love and cuddling grow into children so unresponsive and apathetic that they often appear to be mentally retarded.^ Too many parents, never having themselves experienced mature love, manipulate their children with l i t t l e regard for the personal integrity of their progeny.u In this process, h o s t i l i t y i s engendered which the child dare not express against his parents: i n our Western two-generation family, they are often his only source of physical and emotional nurture. In the course of repressing this h o s t i l i t y , he becomes an anxious child. As an adult, he w i l l discover that there are four generic types of protection against this basic anxiety: (l) to secure affection at any cost, (2) to submit to per-sons or institutions, (3) to gain so much power that no one can hurt him, or (h) to withdraw physically or emotionally from any potentially threat-ening situation, encapsulating his feelings and solving conflict by means of disassociation. As a child, he may try out any or a l l of these, but his defences against anxiety are relatively malleable and inconsistent. In short, emotions play a major role i n determining how ready any child i s to learn, what he i s best able to learn from what type of teacher, and how well he w i l l remember. Summary In this chapter, literature relevant to the problem has been re-viewed and the theoretical framework of the research has been stated. 25>See, f o r example: W. Dennis, "Causes of Retardation among Institut-ional Children: Iran," Journal of Genetic Psychology, $6: hl-$9, January i960. ?6 Karen Horney, The Neurotic Personality of Our Time (New York: Norton, 1937). CHAPTER III SAMPLING, MATCHING, TESTING, EVALUATING AND INTERVIEWING No project undertaken by a single investigator within the time and budgetary limits of a master's thesis can hope to be comprehensive. From a l l the factors known to influence reading achievement, a workable selection must be made. In this chapter, an account w i l l be given of the procedures used to select and match the subjects for study; to assess their- intelligence, visual perception, style of learning, self-concept and home environment; and to evaluate J their, school 'and reading.- achievement. I* SELECTING THE SAMPLE Choice of the school for this project was entirely i n the hands of the administrative staff of the Vancouver School Board. The basic group consisted of a l l eleven children at T. School whose teachers, in June 1966, had considered them not ready for Grade II on the basis of reading achievement. Ten of these were repeating f i r s t grade: the eleventh had been promoted, but was receiving daily individual help from the school's reading c l i n i c i a n . In the higher grades, i t i s a rule of thumb to identify the disabled reader as one who i s two or more grades retarded i n reading relative to his equally intelligent schoolmates who have been exposed to the same system as ht John Money, The Disabled Reader (Baltimore, Md.; John Hopkins Press^ 1966), Preface, p.v f 34 Obviously this formula cannot be applied to children i n their second year of school. However, i f i t is merely watered down to, for example, retardation of from six to nine months, serious d i f f i c u l t i e s appear. Standardized tests of reading lack fine discrimination at the lower 28 levels, and group tests of intelligence are particularly unreliable 29 for primary children. Under these circumstances, i t seemed wiser to use a functional definition of reading d i s a b i l i t y - the school?s recommendation that the child repeat f i r s t grade - especially since a l l the teachers involved in the decision-making were thoroughly experienced i n primary work, and the principal was i n his sixth year of tenure. II. MATCHING CRITERIA Each disabled reader was matched as closely as possible with a second child who had been promoted to Grade II i n June 1966 on the basis of satisfactory achievement i n reading. The matching had two purposes: 1) to provide some safeguard against "accepting the f i r s t anomaly observed as the cause of reading failure", and 2) to highlight the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the disabled reader by comparing him with a child with whom he has much i n common, the assumption being that the source of his reading di s a b i l i t y i s li k e l y to l i e i n the differences between them. 28 L. Eisenberg, "Epidemiology of Reading Retardation," The Disabled  Reader (Baltimore, Md.,John Hopkins Press: 1966), p.4, 29 Ruth Strang, Diagnostic Teaching of Reading (New York, McGraw-Hill: 1964), chap.II, 35 Of necessity, the matching cri t e r i a consisted largely of s t a t i s t i c a l data available from the school records* These can be stated i n their simplest form as follows: 1. chronological age 2. mental a b i l i t y 3. kindergarten experience km school attendance 1965-66 5. sex 6. number of children in family 7. child's birth order 8. socioeconomic status of family Each of these w i l l be discussed i n the sections immediately following* Chronological Age Because physical and neurological growth i s so rapid i n the f i r s t six years of l i f e , the difference of eleven months i n chronological age which i s allowed by our system of annual admittance to school might, i f not controlled i n this project, in i t s e l f account to a very large extent for differences i n reading achievement. Therefore age matching was kept s t r i c t l y within a range of two months. Mental A b i l i t y The highest correlations obtained between IQ and academic performance 30 have been on the order of 0.5 and 0.6, However, since reading implies understanding, intellectual retardation may be expected to limit reading L.Eisenberg, op.cit., p.11. 3 6 achievement i n proportion to i t s severity. Therefore an effort was made to match each child in the basic group with a counterpart whose IQ was within five points of his own. For this purpose, the Pintner-Cunningham Primary Test of Mental  A b i l i t y . Form A ( 1 9 6 4 ) was given during the week of January 1 0 , 1967 to the ten pupils repeating f i r s t grade at T» School and to seventy-six second grade pupils - a l l those present on the testing date. A l l tests were administered and scored by the investigator i n accordance with instructions printed i n the Manual, and were proctored by the class-room teacher: twenty-six to thirty children were tested per sitt i n g . This test was chosen for four main reasons: 1 ) i t requires no knowledge of words or numbers, and therefore does not penalize the non-reader; 2 ) i t i s one of the few tests whose range i s from kindergarten to Grade II; 3 ) i t has sufficient status that i t ;vas used in more than half of the twenty-seven F i r s t Grade Reading Studies conducted by the United States Office of Education i n 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ; and 4 ) i t i s simple to administer and score. It was realized before the test was administered that the intelligence of ablest pupils might not be adequately measured, but i t was assumed that none of the disabled readers would f a l l into this category. It was also recognized that i t suffered from limitations common to a l l group tests of intelligence: hoiirever, i t i s not feasible to use individual tests for matching purposes. Kindergarten Experience For the past five years, public school kindergarten has been available to a l l five-year-olds resident in the City of Vancouver, i n recognition of 37 i t s relevance to the long-range aims of education. For children from lima11, middlo-class families, kindergarten cushions the transition from home to school and provides socializing experiences which are becoming less and less easily available i n our crowded impersonal urban areas. For two groups of children, kindergarten i s absolutely essential? 1) the culturally deprived, and 2) the non-English speaking. To thrust these children into a formal reading program without providing them informally with prerequisite experiences and language i s to court failure. For these reasons, kindergarten attendance has been included among the matching c r i t e r i a . Days Absent 1965-66 This matching criterion was chosen as an index of health problems, parental laxity, or both. It was assumed that the progress of some children i n learning to read might be affected by discontinuity of instruction. Each child's attendance has been graded average, below average or above average i n accordance with 1965-66 norms worked out for f i r s t grade i n this school, and matching i s within the category. Bilingualism The distinction here was between English-speaking and bilingual familiess no effort was made to match ethnic groups as such. It iijas assumed that, other factors being equal, the language of children from bilingual homes would be less adequate because of the lack of consistent feed-back i n English. There 31 might also be some degree of cultural alienation. See, for example, N. Hickerson, Education for Alienation. (New-York: Prentice-Hallj 1966). 38 Number of Children i n Family At any socioeconomic level except the highest, the actual standard of l i v i n g i s affected by the number of children in the family. Furthermore, the larger the family, the greater the variety of roles open to each member within the family circle - for example, l i t t l e mother, 32 spokesman, tattle-tale, "me-too", Levinson, doing research on the relationship between reading success and ordinal position i n the family, found a distinct difference i n internal structure between families with four or more children and those with three or less. However, so much depends upon differences in age, sex, av a i l a b i l i t y of other playmates, and parental attitudes that few valid generalizations can be made. Nevertheless,' J i n this study, wherever possible repeaters have been matched with children from a family of similar size. Birth Order Research on the correlation between ordinal position i n the family and reading success, including the recent work by Levinson already cited, i s generally inconclusive. Yet few would question that his rmle i n the family and his relationship with his siblings often play a major role in determining the personality dynamics and the self-concept of any given individual. The d i f f i c u l t y seems to be that these data have so many variables that they do not lend themselves to s t a t i s t i c a l treatment. This, however, i s not a s t a t i s t i c a l research project. Therefore, as far as possible, only children have been matched with only children, eldest with eldest, youngest with youngest, and middle children with middle children. 32 P. Levinson, The Relationship between Birth Order and Reading Ab i l i t y (microfilm, Doctor's Thesis, Univ. of Pennsylvania: 1963) p.128 f f . 3 9 In t h i s way, there i s a better basis f o r comparing the parent-child and i n t e r - s i b l i n g relationships of each matched pair of children. Socioeconomic Status The late President Kennedy's "War on Poverty" and subsequent Federal l e g i s l a t i o n i n the United States have made funds available f o r extensive research into the relationship between socioeconomic status and school achievement. To describe children from the lower socioeconomic brackets who suffer from physiological, stimulus and language deprivation, lthe;s term " c u l t u r a l l y deprived c h i l d " has been adopted. Concerned with the tendency of schools with predominantly middle-class standards to alienate many of these children, the 19&3 Research Conference on Education for Cultural 33 Deprivation, had t h i s to say: The c h i l d from the c u l t u r a l l y deprived home comes to school with an interest i n the new experiences, but without some of the experiences, s k i l l s and values t y p i c a l of the middle-class child...(he) i s unable to comprehend f u l l y or to accept the deferred and symbolic g r a t i f i c a t i o n that the middle-class c h i l d takes f o r granted... I t i s i n the reduced physical a c t i v i t y of the school and in the demand for long spans of attention that he i s at a special disadvantage. E a r l i e r research had already established that i t i s among the lower echelons of the socioeconomic scale that the highest incidence i s found of bir,thi i n j u r i e s , infant mortality, malnutrition, auditory :arid v i s u a l : anomalies,, poor physical and mental health, early school drop-outs, 33 B.S. Bloom, A. Davis, R. Hess, Compensatory Education^' f o r Cultural  Deprivation (Chicago: Holt, Rinehart and Win stony: 1965) P -21. 40 34 unemployment, juvenile delinquency and crime* Although Canadian research has been less extensive, i t s results have been strikingly 35 similar. In short, other factors being equal, i t i s generally considered unfair to compare the school achievement of the advantaged middle-class child with that of his lower-class counterpart. It was therefore logical to include socioeconomic status as one of the matching c r i t e r i a for this study. It has become standard practice i n Canada to use for this purpose the Occupational Class Scale developed by Blishen on the basis of cooibined standard scores for income and years of schooling, using data from the 1951 Census, Although i t i s out-of-date, and i t s division into classes appears to be more intuitive than sc i e n t i f i c , the standard scores are the most accurate Canadian guide to social status available. It i s abundantly clear, however, that the relationship between school achievement and socioeconomic status i s complex. Each family's rating on the Blishen Scale was used only for matching purposes: the implications for each child of his socioeconomic status were explored in the course of the parent interviews and w i l l be considered under that heading. Bloom, Davis & Hess, op.cit., pp.8-10 . See, for example, Freda P a l t i e l , Poverty: A Bibliography (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare Council; 1966). J .Blishen, "Constructions and Use of an Occupational Class Scale'-,)' Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, 24:521-31*(Nov„1958; . 41 Sex For reasons which appear to be partly biological, partly cultural,, sore boys than g i r l s have d i f f i c u l t y taiih reading, a conservative estimate 37 being a ratio of four to cue, Thsr^for® sex beeaa© OR© of the satebiag criteria,, etching; Jroe&duro With a matching criterion o f eight items, and with only seventy-five Grade II children to cheese from, i t proved impossible to find perfeefe counterparts fer a l l aXsvaa children i n th® basic iproufp>0 fee standard adopted consaqueritly became a oaten on any four cf the last s ix c r i t e r i a * excluding age and l£J» The influence of thie partial isisaatehing upos th© f i n a l results has been ainJsissd by th« following precautious t 1) wherever possibly rdssatehing lias been i n favour of the r«tard@cl reader| 2} the f i n a l ehoie® of children for the aatehsd gpmap has postponed u n t i l the children i n tho basic group had been tested and their parents interviewed, to provide a basis fer confining saissatehing to peripasr&l rather than central aspects of the repeater" 8 ®s¥ir@assnt! aad 3) a l l lasa&tefeed ifeeas have fee«n meticulously aotsd aasi evaluated i n tha case st*uii®s0 It was hypothesis®! that differences i n reading ashievssaeat between matched pairs of children would be due to significant diffsreaees i n case or sore of the following; ^ John Money 8 Learning and Sot Learning i o Kead*,;,J The Disabled, Reader 'o&o Jo Hon«gr { Baltimore; John Hopkins's 19&5) p»3&-IIIo fgsrac THIS wtmmsm 42 1. mental capacity 2, visual perception 3» style of learning 4, self-^concept 5m home environment The rationale for the selection of these concomitants, and the method used for assessing each, w i l l be discussed i n the following sections. Mental Capacity Because the Pintner^Cunningham shares the limitations of a l l group tests of intelligence, there was an obvious need to check i t s results against an individual measure of intelligence. Since the investigator was not qualified to administer either the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the two tests used were the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Raven Coloured Progressive  Matrices. These tests were chosen for four reasons: 1) together, they provide a measure of verbal and non-verbal intelligence which, in the experience of the Education Clinic at the University of British Columbia, correlates close to 0,85 with the results of the Stanford-Binet; 2) the child i s required only to point to the correct answer « therefore he i s not penalized by physical handicaps, d i f f i c u l t y i n verbalizing, or shyness i n a strange situation; 3) both tests are brief, easy to administer, interesting to children, and easy to score; and 4) both have been standard-ized with considerable care. 43 In an otherwise rather scathing review of the Raven Matrices in 38 the Sixth Mental Measurements Yearbook, Bortner admits that this test "has been found helpful (a) i n comparing psychiatric, socioeconomic and ethnic groups, and (b) i n estimating the general level of functioning of individuals who have communication disorders"* When the testing pro-gramme was being planned, i t was assumed that some of the subjects would f a l l into category (b). However, for the purposes of this study, greater reliance was placed on the Peabody, since i t measures an aspect of i n t e l -ligence whose relationship to reading achievement i s better understood* In this project, the matching of children on the basis of mental capacity was considered unsatisfactory i f there was a discrepancy of more than one standard deviation (l6 IQ points) between a child's score on the Pintner-Cunningham and his score on the Peabody. Before reaching a f i n a l assessment of his mental capacity, his score on the Raven, his developmental history, his home environment, his school achievement and the quality of his responses to the whole battery of tests were a l l taken into consideration. In addition, his scores on the Pintner and the Frostig were analyzed and correlated: and the type as well as the number of errors on the Peabody were carefully noted* Visual Perception Reading i s obviously i n part a physical activity, making use of the eyes,. However, the relationship between vision and reading i s far from simple. Children can learn to read with visual acuity of l i t t l e more than M. Bortner, "The Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices}^ Sixth Mental- Measurements Yearbook. ,ed* 0. Buros (Highland Park, N.J.j Grython Pressj 1965) p.491. 39 f i f t y per cent: many non-readers have perfect vision: a few disabled readers show no improvement when carefully diagnosed visual anomalies have been corrected:^ the visual defects most frequently associated with reading d i s a b i l i t y i n the past are of the orthoptic variety not always noted i n a routine opthalmological examination.^" De Boer and H2 Dallman concluded that almost a l l readers with visual defects would improve their reading a b i l i t y i f these defects were corrected. At her educational c l i n i c i n Palo Alto, Frostig, impressed by the frequency with which children referred for learning di s a b i l i t i e s also suffered from disturbances of visual perception, designed and standardized the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Reading Department at the University of British Columbia has found this test almost as reliable a predictor of reading achievement as the Metropolitan  Readiness Test when both are administered prior to school entrance. Authorities agree that readiness i n the visual mechanism i s necessary for success i n reading.^ Under these circumstances, i t seemed possible that significantly different scores on the Frostig Test might characterize some pairs of children i n the current project. A difference of one year or more i n perceptual age was the criterion adopted. ^L.Eisenberg, op.cit.,p.13. ^°Helen M.Robinson, op.cit.,p.221. klIb±d. ^ 2J.J.De Boer and M.Dallman, The Teaching of Reading (New York: Henry Holt,196o). U3M .Frostig, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Palo Alto», Cal i f . : Consulting Psychologists Press,1963), p.U63. ^Marvin Efron, "The Role of Vision i n Reading Readiness", Reading and Inquiry (Newark,Del.: International Reading Association,1965),p.3^8. 45 S t y l e o f L e a r n i n g Reading i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o g n i t i v e t a s k , and c h i l d r e n v a r y i n t h e i r c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . De H i r s c h ^ ^ m a i n t a i n s t h a t , f o r the m a r g i n a l l e a r n e r , the d i f f e r e n c e between success and f a i l u r e may w e l l l i e i n a method of t e a c h i n g adapted t o h i s s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g . She s a y s : Most c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o r e a d , r e g a r d l e s s of the method of t e a c h i n g . . . However, t h e r e are some c h i l d r e n f o r whom s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g approaches w i l l make a wor ld of d i f f e r e n c e . . . * , . What method i s bes t depends e n t i r e l y upon the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , h i s s p e c i f i c competence and w e a k n e s s . . . The y o u n g s t e r . . , f o r whom words do not e a s i l y become f a m i l i a r even a f t e r many e x p o s u r e s . . . w i l l do b e t t e r w i t h p h o n i c s , which i n v o l v e s tempora l r a t h e r than s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s . . . i f h i s a u d i t o r y a b i l i t y i s adequate . On the other hand, t h e r e a r e c h i l d r e n who cannot p o s s i b l y be taught by p h o n i c s . C h i l d r e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , who have t r o u b l e w i t h a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s , whose i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i s low, whose a u d i t o r y competence i s weak, whose f r u s t r a « t i o n l e v e l i s too l o w . . . t o b u i l d up words f rom t h e i r component p a r t s , w i l l undoubtedly do b e t t e r w i t h the whole word approach* A l t h o u g h r a t h e r clumsy t o a d m i n i s t e r , the M i l l s ' Learn ing Methods 46 Test appeared t o be the bes t a v a i l a b l e ins t rument f o r de te rmin ing " s t y l e of l e a r n i n g " i n de H i r s c h ' s sense , and i t was so used f o r each c h i l d i n the b a s i c group, the f i r s t th ree methods -> k i n e s t h e t i c , v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y ~ b e i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d a t one-week i n t e r v a l s . K a t r i n a de H i r s c h , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r r e l a t e s of the Reading Process-'",. Cha l lenge and Experiment i n Read ing . I.H.A. Conference P roceed ings , (New York j S c h o l a s t i c Magazines;,1962) p*224 f f . R. E. M i l l s , L e a r n i n g Methods T e s t . (For t L a u d e r d a l e , F l a » ; The M i l l s ' C e n t r e , 1964). 46 Children who had d i f f i c u l t y with the auditory method were given the Wepman  Test of Auditory Discrimination and any speech errors were carefully recorded, i n an effort to determine whether their d i f f i c u l t y arose from anomalies of auditory discrimination or trouble with analysis and synthesis. Also taken into account were discrepancies between sub-test scores on the Durrell. especially between Listening Comprehension and Silent Reading; and low scores on the Frostig indicating d i f f i c u l t y with visual perception,. For pupils i n the matched group, a different technique had to be devised: from the M i l l s ' vocabulary cards, i t proved impossible to find the prerequisite thirty unknown words. To these children, only the kinesthetic method of the M i l l s ' Test was administered^ Their relative visual and auditory competence was assessed on the basis of two subtests of the Durrell  Analysis ** Visual Memory of Words and Hearing Sounds in Words. Results of the Frostig and of Silent Reading and Listening Comprehension were also taken • into account* Self-Concept Success i n reading depends in part upon the child's self^concept, his feeling about himself and the world he lives in.. Confidence and respect for himself and others, eagerness to participate, openness to new experiences, a steady drive to master himself and his environment, resilience i n the face of frustration, pride i n increasing independence - these characterize the child with a positive self^concept, whose attitude f a c i l i t a t e s learning* The self-concept of any individual i s the affective aspect of his -cumulative transactions with his environment. Before he comes to school, 47 each child has been dependent upon parents to meet most o f his needs: to.;the extent that these needs have been met reliably, with genuine respect for his individuality and integrity, to that extent he w i l l review the world as a reasonable place and parenWsurrogates as trusts worthy people whose approval i s worth earning. As a pre-schooler, each child has been presented with a series of developmental tasks -walking, talking, toilet-training, to mention only three. To the extent that he has been made to.feel that he has accomplished these satisfactorily, to that extent w i l l he tend to approach later developmental tasks with the expectation of success - and i n our culture, learning to read i s a developmental task. To assess the self-^concept of seven«year-olds i s a task fraught with d i f f i c u l t y , even for the trained c l i n i c a l psychologist. From a developmental point of view, the child i s i n what i s popularly known as a latency period: sudden transformations i n his relationship with his world are either i n the recent past or i n the distant future. There i s also a minimum of evasion, concealment and self-deception: seven-year-olds generally can be expected to express their emotions immediately and overtly. These characteristics should simplify the problem. On the other hand, the personality of the latent child has not yet " j e l l e d " : he i s emotionally l a b i l e , and i s s t i l l experimenting with various modes of reacting which, when he i s an adult, w i l l be labelled defence mechanisms. His behaviour tends to be more a function of his assessment of the situation in which he finds himself than of any fixed self-concepts It is not uneesmea to find a child who is an Hangsl w at school9 a "devil?: at home,, and an adventurous leader among his peer®, 4 ? As labia points out in an article i n Projective Techniques with GMldregas We are not dealing with a relatively stable ego ai3d 'Character structure. The ego evolves gradual-l y froa an undifferentiated state to high levels of differentiation in the external and internal envirosments a s a result of the constant int«r» play of learning and Hsat^mtional processes. D^evelopment of tha various ego functions i s of t e a saltatory. Moreover, there i s often a lack of age-^appropriateaass i n aoree functions as cosapared with others. Sarlier levels of integration exist along with later ones. Such a fluid state in $g® development dictates considerable caution in «valu=> a-tioR, diagnosis and prediction In th® Sam© VOIIBR®, Charlott® Altisann indicates &m& of th« practical measures required t o cope with thes# difficulties? Confronted with the ©hild in th© elinie f f th© essusiner recogniaes tisat his test results ja&st b@ evaluated in tanas of nerss of development which ar® not clearly and explicitly deflaed... fhas-, problems of distinguishing between what is tosatur® and what is aberrant are .correctly regarded as saore aefete i n work with children than in work with adults« •.•Mis selection of tests will be influenced by (a) th© specific and taniqu© eontributioa he expects t© Biake t© an onderstajKiiag of the given child 8(b) by the specific purposes of t h e gi^en assassinations (e) by the contributions (available) frea exaaiaers of other disciplines, and (d) by th® use to be ffleda of th© reports. B® must be awar« of such practical factors as the brief attention span of children^ their relatiw lack of tolerance for tests, and their fatigability.=. The examiner will have an advantage i f he has a bread; aBaaaentariua and is prepared t@ shift when satisfied that the test in use is not eliciting helpful evidence aboat the child. ^ A l b e r t I.Rabin and Mary Haworth, Projectiy^e^Techhiques with  Children (New York: .Crone an|:vStrattph Inc.,' 1965), p*.5\ U 8 I b i d . , pp.. 333-3H. ^9 V In this research project, the first test used in an effort to evaluate the self-concept of the seven-year-olds involved was the investigator's adaption of the Institute for Child Study and Security Test - "The Story of k9 Jimmy" (see Appendix A). The original test was changed from a group to an individual test, with each paragraph read aloud to the subject, ending with the question, "What do you think JJLmmy did then?". The number of items was reduced from fifteen to twelve, the length of each story to an average of 75 words, and the readibility level from Grade k.2 to Grade 2.5- The revisions were designed to retain the basic home- and school-centred problems of the original test, while simplifying the style of presentation: since the original had been standardized for Grades IV-VIII, there was in any case no usable normative data. However, even in its revised form, this test did not succeed in capturing the interest of the fir s t five children to whom i t was administered, nor in revealing information which was not readily accessible from other sources. Part of the difficulty was that, of necessity, i t was administered at the same testing session as the Durrell Analysis, which the children found quite exhausting. Even when given a three-minute break, a l l five children showed unmistakable signs of fatigue - yawning, fidgeting, inattention. Material from only two of these tests has been used in the case studies. At the suggestion of a member of the Psychology Department at the University of British Columbia, Van Krevelen's modification of the Pigem Test was administered experimentally to six children in the matched group: k9 M?.F.Grapko.,.'. Institute of Child Study Security Test (Toronto, Ont..,: University of Toronto Press;, 1957) . 50 The Pigem Test i s a wishing test published i n 1949 by Jose M. Pigem, a Barcelona psychiatrist. As originally conceived, the psychiatrist was to casually ask the patient, i n the course of an interview: " T e l l me - what would you li k e to be i f you had to return to this world and could not be a person? You may be whatever you l i k e . Choose from everything that exists. What would you l i k e to be?" Van Krevelen's modification, published i n Projective Tests for Children,^ reads as follows: Imagine that a magician - you know what that is? (explain i f necessary) comes to you and wants to turn you into something different and you are allowed to say what you would like to be, what would you say? If the child chooses a human being, say, "It i s very nice that you made your choice, but now I see that I have forgotten something very important* This magician cannot make persons. That means you cannot choose a boy or a g i r l , a man or a woman," After the child i s given the opportunity to make another choice, the examiner proceeds: "Now you must imagine that the magician cannot turn you into the thing you wanted to be.. Then he says' to you, 'I am sorry but that i s not possible. I must turn you into something else, but I promise you that I am not going to turn you into something you do not l i k e , So, t e l l me what you would never like to be1".. Rabin and Haworth add: Needless to say, the form of the question must be adapted to the child's age and to the situation, and must be presented i n such a way as to bring his inner desires to l i g h t . Since animals can represent a different characteristic (to different people)t.» another question i s usually added..*: "Now t e l l me, why would you like to be that? Why would i t be so pleasant to be that particular animal (or thing)?" Rabin and Haworth, op.cit,. p,317. 51 Presented, to six of the seven-year-olds, with i t s s t i l t e d language revised, as a make-believe game to break the hard work of the Durrell Analysis, this projective technique was well-rreceived, However, with no prior experience i n interpreting projective tests and with no publish-ed norms to refer to, the examiner was at a loss i n evaluating the children's responses except i n one or two instances* Under these circumstances, to estimate the children's self-concept, the examiner f e l l back upon three sources « her own c l i n i c a l observations of the children during the three testing sessions, the teachers' evaluation as recorded i n the Pupil Rating Scale, and relevant comments made by parents. In some instances, the remedial reading teacher, the public health nurse, or a social worker who knew the family provided additional information. The Pupil Rating Scale In order to assess a child's self-concept, to gain some understanding of the personality dynamics underlying his reading achievement, i t is important to have a picture of his day^to-«iay behaviour i n school. In his work with primary pupils i n Sweden, Johansson found that a carefully designed rating scale completed by an experienced teacher during the second half of the child's second year at school el i c i t e d reliable information i n this area. Therefore the Pupil Rating Scale to be found i n Appendix B was designed to serve the specific purposes of this study. It asks about aspects of pupil behaviour of which the competent teacher i s usually aware, requiring her to grade these on a five^point scale. Provision i s made for recording unusual Bror A. Johansson, Criteria for School Readiness, (Uppsala, Sweden: Almqvist and Weksell, 1965}. 52 progress or deterioration in classroom behaviour, and for indicating areas in which the child is s t i l l labile and unpredictable. At the beginning of Apri l , his classroom teacher completed one of these for each child in this project. Wo effort was made to control the halo effect which usually occurs when a rater evaluates a l l the items for one particular child in sequence. For the purposes of this study, i t was felt that the overall attitude of the teacher toward the child thus revealed constituted a part of his school environment and contributed to his self-concept. The child's behaviour in the classroom was also considered to be one . aspect of his school achievement, an indication of how well he had been able to adjust to the non-academic aspects of his school environment. IV. PARENT INTERVIEWS Letters were sent to the mothers of a l l children in the sample, asking them to come to the school for an interview, and offering them a home visit or an evening appointment i f these were more convenient. Fifteen mothers, two fathers and one couple responded to this approach, half of them asking for evening appointments, one for a home vis i t . For the remaining four children, information about home environment is less complete, having been secured either by telephone or second-hand from social agencies and teachers. Parent interviews were conducted during February and March for the basic group of children, during April and May for the matched group. In every instance, testing sessions with the child were completed prior to the parent interview. Although provision was ini t ia l ly made for two parent interviews, 53 a single interview of i+5-90 minutes elicited sufficient information for the purposes of this study. The first five parents interviewed were obviously reluctant to have the investigator cal l at their homes for a second interview; i t was not the kind of request for which their previous experiences with educators had prepared them, and aroused various degrees of anxiety and suspicion. Therefore, with subsequent parents, the suggestion of a second interview was not even made. On walks through the district, the investigator noted the kind of home in which each child in the sample lived. "The school nurse had visited many of the homes and was kind enough to share her impressions with the investigator. In addition, three of the parents brought a pre-schooler with them to school, thus affording a demonstration of their relation-ship with their younger children. The interview^.-: were of the relatively unstructured type which is standard practice in social casework. Each began with the invist i -gator's interpretation of the purpose of the project and assurances of confidentiality, and made i t clear that the parents were an indie -pensible part of the research team. Subsequently, leads furnished by the parent were followed, with the investigator focussing interest upon the following: 54 1, Clarification of factual data obtained from school records: a) Child's developmental and health history b) Child's kindergarten and school experience c) Language spoken at home d) Family's socioeconomic and educational status e) Parsnts' marital status 2» Child's experiences related to reading readiness: a) Exposure to and interest i n books b) Use of and interest i n television c) Local " f i e l d t r i ps" and more extensive travel 3. Inter-family relationships, including: a) Child-rearing role of both parents b) Standards of behaviour expected of children c) Methods of discipline employed d) Quality and quantity of verbal communication e) Status of this child i n the family It* Educational history, status and attitudes of a l l members of the family, including parents' long-term goals for this particular child. The interviews were recorded, casework style, within forty-height hours, upon the basis of notes made during the intervieiv session. This material has been reorganized and edited for inclusion i n the case studies which form Chapter V of this report. The rationale behind the selection of topics w i l l now be presented* 55. Child's Developmental and Health History Knowledge of the child's developmental and health history is important in assessing both his intellectual capacity and his self-concept. For most of the children, the pertinent facts were available from the school health records. Discussion was focussed upon what these facts had meant to the child, Child's Kindergarten and School Experience The facts about the child's previous and current school attendance and achievement had been secured from the school records. To secure informal tion about his attitudes to school and teachers, parents were a valuable source. They were also asked to verbalize their own reactions to their child's success or failure, and to explain the l i f e situation behind such anomalies as frequent changes of school and poor school attendance. Language Spoken at Home Among the families of first-generation immigrants, the school records did not distinguish between homes in which the children were genuinely bilingual, those in which l i t t l e or no English was spoken by the parents, and those in which the children had been taught only English, although the parents continued to speak their native tongue between themselves. Yet i t is obvious that each of these possibilities has different linguistic and psychological connotations. Socioeconomic Status of Parents The Blishen Scale and the large-scale surveys which have established a significant correlation between high socioeconomic status and superior academic performance s u f f e r from the weaknesses of most purely-s t a t i s t i c a l studies. Within each socioeconomic c l a s s , there i s a wide v a r i e t y of sub-cultures, d i f f e r i n g i n such important respects as hierarchy of values, c h i l d - r e a r i n g practices, spending habits, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s , r e l i g i o u s and ethnic a f f i l i a t i o n , and a t t i t u d e to education. Among the important factors i n f l u e n c i n g the value system of any p a r t i c u l a r family are: l ) the educational and c u l t u r a l background of the parents,' p a r t i c u l a r l y the mother; 2) whether the p o s i t i o n o f the breadwinner i s upwardly mobile, downwardly mobile, or s t a b i l i z e d on the economic sc a l e , None of these aspects of socioeconomic status are revealed by the bare entries of Father's Occupation, Place of Employment, Mother's Occupation P r i o r to Marriage, i n the school records and by the corresponding standard score on the Blishen Scale. They must be e l i c i t e d i n the process of the parent interview. Parents' M a r i t a l Status M. on the school record does not i n d i c a t e whether the marriage i s stable or unstable, harmonious or fraught- v i t h discord. The separation denoted by S. may be recent or of long duration, temporary or permanent: i t may have' been preceded by much or l i t t l e overt anger: the chil d r e n may have regular contact with the absent parent, or none at a l l . I f the parent with custody of the c h i l d works f u l l - t i m e , arrangements f o r care of the chi l d r e n may be stable or unstable, s a t i s f a c t o r y or sub-standard,. These N-are the aspects of m a r i t a l status that most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the physi c a l and mental well-being of the chil d r e n involved: only through c a r e f u l interviewing of parents can they be meaningfully assessed* 5? Books Th* availability and use of reading aaterial in th© hom* influences both the child's motivation to read and his incidental exposure to th« mechanics whereby printed symbols become spoken words. As long ago as 1949, Almy*^ found a significant positive relationship between success i n begin-ning reading and the child's response to opportunities for reading prior to f i r s t grade. "She: key questions a eked of parents involved the type of activity i n which they engaged with their ehild, the amount of tiae spent with hixa9 and their response to his signs of interest in learning to read, whether his curiosity was directed to street signs, labels on canned goods, cosies or story books. At the 1965 Conference of the International Reading Association, 53 Silvaroli reported on a research project which indicated that the Durrell Informal Test of Upper and Lower Case Latter Identification, administered at the end of kindergarten, can be used to predict probable success in f i r s t -grade reading with a reliability coefficient of »550 for boys and ,716 for girls. In interpreting the significance of this finding, Silvaroli was careful to state: (These findings) should in no way be construed to ssean that the ability to identify upper and lower case letters is the cause of success or failure in reading at the f i r s t grade level. The ability to identify letters appears to be a reflection of certain verbal experiences which the child may have had prior to his entrance in school. Therefore i t is not believed that specific instruction in letter identification in kindergarten or first grade will satisfy the need for those verbal experiences which appear neces-sary for success in first grade reading. Millie C. Alm.y^ ,, Children's Experiences Prior to Grade I and Success in  Beginning Reading (?New J^trtdluiBbia: Tethers'? •^ oiELe'ge ; .19k9). N.J. Silvaroli, nPactors in Predicting Children8s Success in First Grade Reading", Reading and Enquiry. (Newark,Del.:'I.R.A.,1965), p.297. 58 These are only two among many research projects which have demonstra-ted conclusively that the child whose family finds time to read to him and to answer such questions as "What does that letter say?" and "Does S-T-O-P say stop?" has a considerable advantage when he begins formal reading i n school. It i s an accepted fact that young children identify with adults who are close and important to them* To the extent that older members of his family turn to reading for information and recreation, the child i n a book-oriented family may be expected to have greater interest i n and motivation for learning to read. Therefore a v a i l a b i l i t y and use of reading materials both by the child and by his family are aspects of the home environment relevant to this study. Television A l l children i n the research sample came from homes furnish-ed with a television set: the variable relevant to this study was the way in which each family made use of this f a c i l i t y . Did harrassed mothers use i t as a b u i l t - i n baby sitter, with l i t t l e or no regard for the content of programmes watched by the children? Was the set tuned generally to a dult programmes, so that children learned selective inattention i n self-defence? Was children's viewing limited? If so, what were the limits, and how were they established? Did the child choose televiewing i n preference to easily accessible books, toys, games and playmates, or was the set, i n fact, the chief, or "only recreational resource of the home? Did the child use television as an escape from abrasive aspects of his home environment and from difficul-ties in social adjustment, or did he use i t as one source of enjoyment and relaxation? Were any television programmes watched by several members of the family, and discussed afterwards? Surveys conducted in the United States^ indicate that first grade children spend, on the average, fifteen hours per week in front of the tele-vision screen. There is no reason to believe that the habits of Canadian children in urban centres are significantly different. It is dlfficulttto construct a research design to measure in depth the significance of this activity* Bailyn found a negative correlation between above-average amounts of televiewing and time spent reading books: factors associated with high exposure to this medium were low intelligence, low socioeconomic status, and lack of parental supervision. Grade V and VI boys with high exposure tended to classify people in a stereotyped way, showed l i t t l e concern with motivation, passively accepted their own socioeconomic status, and tended to base their self-image upon aggressive screen heroes. More recent research is less conclusive. It is assumed in this paper that selective exposure to television, with ample opportunity to ask questions and to evaluate programmes, may be of some educational value, serving to familiarize the child with aspects of his environment beyond his range of first-hand experience. However, the indiscriminate viewer is in danger not only of missing involvement in more active pursuits, but also of acquiring the habit of selective inattention, Paul Witty, "The Mass Media and Reading!// Challenge and Experiment in  Reading (New York; Scholastic Magazines; 1962) pp.,74-80. L. Bailyn, "Mass Media and Childreny) Psychological Monographs 73, No*l, 1959, quoted in D. Russell, Children Learn to Read (Revf.Yorlc^ r.: Qfnri;- 1962P-373. tolerant attitudes towards violence and crime, distorted notions of family l i f e and l i f e i n the services, and vague general familiarity with many things which he does not understand. Trips and Travel A. major handicap to the learning of culturally deprived children in the United States has been discovered to bo their severely restricted 56 environment: there are thousands of children who have never been more than a few blocks from home, and who have no first-hand experience upon which to baso such concepts as farm, zoo, beach, train. From the point of view of language and concept development, the quality of trips i s more significant than their quantity; the children who learn from travel are those who are encouraged to ask questions, to notice similarities and differences, to try new things, Child-Parent Relationships Central i n the development of the child's self-concept are his relationships with his parents and siblings, Canadian culture i s hetero-geneous i n this respect. It includes hierarchical families i n which tha father rulos, and functionally matriarchal families i n which the father plays only a nominal role: child-centred homes and those in which the children's interests are rarely considered: one-parent families, and thrco-generation homes: close-knit families, and divided families i n which the children are pawns i n a struggle for power. Child discipline ranges a l l the way from permissiveness verging on neglect, to harsh authoritarianism. Siblings are related to one another in dozens of different patterns* 56 ? ; .M. Deutch,/'The Disadvantaged.Child and,the Learning Process;" Education in  Depressed Areas-, ,(ed.A,H.Passow) .(New .York: Teachers College Press,1963). 61 Some children are lik e the heroine of the old f a i r y tale, "The Princess who Slept on a Pea" - so sensitive that they are disturbed by very slight anomalies i n family relationships. Others have such a strong drive for self-preservation that they flourish in spite of conflict and apparent neglect, somehow encapsulating the more abrasive aspects of family l i f e , and quenching their thirst for l i f e from polluted springs without themselves being poisoned. Therefore, for the purposes of this study, the significant factor i s not so much what kind of home each child came from as what his family experiences have meant to him. Verbal Communication Reading i s one of the language arts, a means of communicating informa-tion and insight, ideas and emotions, truth and fantasy. The child's a b i l i t y to read accurately and to get meaning from the printed page depends in con-siderable measure upon his previous experience i n listening accurately and i n getting meaning from the spoken word. The school beginner has acquired most of this s k i l l within his family c i r c l e . However, families vary enormously in the quality and quantity of verbal interchange among their members, in the accuracy of their vocabulary and grammar, i n the sophistical tion of their ideas, i n the breadth of their experiences. Therefore children come to school with varying degrees of linguistic readiness for reading, with different habits of attention, with their own unique concepts and credulities^ 62 Educational Background and Attitude towards Education There i s some evidence that there may be a genetic factor i n severe reading d i s a b i l i t y . Many clinicians have been impressed by the frequency with which i t i s found that the parents and relatives of disabled readers have a history of reading d i f f i c u l t y . Research i n Denmark carried out by 57 Hallgren and quoted by Eisenberg supports a dominant mode of inheritance. This i s one reason for asking about not only the level of education, but also the specific educational d i f f i c u l t i e s of members of the child's family. Belief i n education i s close to universal i n our culture, However, families vary greatly i n their definition of education, i n the amount of pressure they put upon their children to succeed i n school, i n their attitude i f their children f a i l or misbehave, in their long-range vocational goals for their children. Their attitude towards education i s related i n part to their socioeconomic status, with upper-class families generally putting the greatest pressure upon their children to succeed and to conform, provid-ing the greatest number of educational supplements in the form of lessons i n such subjects as music, dancing, drama, and being most l i k e l y to set r i g i d vocational goals f»r their children. The child's attitude to school tends to reflect, although with frequent distortions, that of his parents!: and crt his attitude has a very great effect upon his achievement.. L. Eisenberg, op.cit.. citing B. Hallgren, "Specific Dyslexia: A C l i n i c a l and Genetic Study:t„" Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica, Supplement 65, (Copenhagen? Munksgaard, 1950). L. Eisenberg, op,cit.. p.12. 63 V, SCHOOL AND READING ACHIEVEMENT From the school records, the marks assigned to each c h i l d on his report card for June, 1966, and Easter, 1967, together with the teacher's assessment of his classroom behaviour during the current school year on the Pupil Rating Scale were used as the basis for reaching an estimate of the school achievement of each c h i l d i n the sample. In addition, three sections of the Du r r e l l Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y Oral Reading, Silent Readihg and Listening Comprehension - were administered to every pupil i n the research project ..to provide a standardized measure of his current reading achievement,. The sight vocabulary of the repeaters was assessed i n the course of the M i l l s ' Learning Methods Test; most of them read so slowly that there was no time for the D u r r e l l Word L i s t s , A l l the Grade I I pupils i n the project did a l l or part of the Word Recognition  and Analysis. L i s t s 1 and 2 (Grades 2-6), of the D u r r e l l . The D u r r e l l Analysis was chosen for t h i s project because of i t s diagnostic features and i t s careful standardization. I t provides separate scores and American norms for each of the following: speed, accuracy and comprehension i n or a l reading; speed and comprehension of s i l e n t reading; l i s t e n i n g comprehension; sight vocabulary and s k i l l s i n word analysis; v i s u a l memory of words; analytic-synthetic auditory s k i l l s ; and even writing and s p e l l i n g . I t has some l i m i t a t i o n s : 1) i t i s too long to administer i n i t s 64 e n t i r e t y t o e i g h t - y e a r - o l d s a t a s i n g l e s i t t i n g ; 2) i t swi tches a b r u p t l y t o s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l a t the Grade V l e v e l i n o r a l and s i l e n t r e a d -i n g , and , a t the Grade IV l e v e l i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension; and 3) the comprehension q u e s t i o n s f o r o r a l r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g are a l l of the f a c t u a l v a r i e t y , a l though the method of t e s t i n g s i l e n t r e a d i n g i n d i c a t e s the c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o o rgan ize m a t e r i a l s e q u e n t i a l l y and t o p i c k out the main i d e a s . In a d d i t i o n , the s t y l e of some of the paragraphs , e . g . O r a l Read ing , Paragraph 6, l a c k s u n i t y and emphasis. However, i t s t i l l remains one of the most u s e f u l of a l l s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s . . V I . TESTING ROUTINE Dur ing February and March, each c h i l d i n the b a s i c group v/as seen by the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r t h r e e s e s s i o n s , (maximum l e n g t h 60 minutes) i n the course of which t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : S e s s i o n ( l ) Raven Coloured P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s  Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabu lary Test  M i l l s 1 Learn ing Methods Test ( k i n e s t h e t i c ) S e s s i o n (2) F r o s t i g Developmental Test of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n M i l l s ' L e a r n i n g Methods Test ( a u d i t o r y ) S e s s i o n (3) D u r r e l l A n a l y s i s of Reading D i f f i c u l t y (O ra l Read ing , S i l e n t Read ing , L i s t e n i n g ) M i l l s ' Learn ing Methods Test ( v i s u a l ) 65 D u r i n g S e s s i o n ( l ) , a f t e r the Peabody Test had been a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the s tandard manner, each s u b j e c t was asked to g i v e h i s own word o r d e s c r i p t i o n f o r f o u r o r f i v e i t e m s which he had m i s s e d , i n an e f f o r t t o determine whether h i s d i f f i c u l t y was due p r i m a r i l y t o l a c k o f e x p e r i -ence or t o l a c k o f l a b e l l i n g s k i l l . He was a l s o quest ioned about the f o l l o w i n g words, t o g a i n some i d e a of the r i c h n e s s o f h i s c o n n o t a t i o n s : caboose, goggles , peacock, c a p s u l e , ceremony, s tad ium, s t u n t . D u r i n g S e s s i o n (2), the Wepman Test o f A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d to f o u r s u b j e c t s whose o r a l language and d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the a u d i t o r y s e c t i o n of the M i l l s 1 Test suggested some d e f i c i t i n a u d i t o r y d i s . c r i m -i n a t i o n ^ During S e s s i o n (3), the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s r e v i s i o n of the I n s t i t u t e  o f C h i l d Study S e c u r i t y Test was g i v e n t o f i v e o f the e l e v e n s u b j e c t s . D u r i n g A p r i l and May, the matched c h i l d r e n were s u b j e c t e d to the same r o u t i n e , w i t h two e x c e p t i o n s : 1) t h r e e s u b - t e s t s of the D u r r e l l  A n a l y s i s ( V i s u a l Memory o f Words, H e a r i n g Sounds i n Words, and Word R e c o g n i t i o n and A n a l y s i s ) were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l methods o f the M i l l s ' T e s t ; and 2) V a n K r e v e l e n ' s m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the Pigem Test was g i v e n to s i x o f the e l e v e n s u b j e c t s d u r i n g the t h i r d s e s s i o n , r e p l a c i n g the I n s t i t u t e of C h i l d Study S e c u r i t y T e s t . A t the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t r o -duced h e r s e l f to each c h i l d and e x p l a i n e d i n s imple terms the purpose of the s t u d y . C a r e f u l n o t e s were k e p t o f each s u b j e c t ' s appearance, speech and b e h a v i o r . Throughout the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s , the examiner m a i n t a i n e d a warmly s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c h i l d , encouraging him when n e c e s s a r y , 66 suggesting a stretch or a walk or a drink of water to relieve tension, sometimes expressing what she thought his feelings were (e.g. "That's just about the hardest thing anyone could ask you to do, isn't it?" or "You're feeling pretty tired, aren't you?"). At the end of each session, she thanked him for working so hard, and stated clearly when she expected to see him again. At the end of the series, she explained carefully why she would be asking his parents to cal l at the school, and thanked him again for helping. No tangible rewards were used. Summary In the five sections of this chapter, an account has been given of the procedures used to select the basic group and matching samplej -;_".to evaluate the intelligence, visual perception, style of learning, self-concept and home environment of each of the children: and to assess their present and previous school and reading achievement. The reasoning behind the selection of each criterion has been carefully presented .^ 67 CHAPTER IV DESCRIPTION OF THE SCHOOL, THE DISTRICT AND THE CHILDREN For purposes of the research outlined i n Chapter I, the writer was assigned to T. School i n the City of Vancouver. It seems important to describe the school, the teachers and the children, so that the limits of the study w i l l be clearly apparent. Information about teaching methods was obtained from the teachers involved i n the study. Each Grade I and II teacher was asked: 1) How many years of experience i n teaching do you have? How much of this experience has been in primary? At this school? 2) Where did you take your basic teacher training? How many University credits do you have? What courses have you taken i n the past five years? 3) Do you group your children for instruction? If so, on what basis? Are groups the same for a l l subjects? 4) What series of readers do you use i n your class? What provision i s made for the less able readers? For gifted children? Do you use workbooks? If so, please give details. 5) Do you teach phonics i n your class? If so, at what point do you begin? Are they taught as part of the reading lesson, part of the spelling lesson, or separately? Information about the school was secured from school records, the school secretary and the principal, and by observation. Information about the neigh-bourhood i s based upon personal observation and upon a 1965 publication of the Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, Metropolitan  Vancouver: An Overview for Social Planners» ' Information about the children comes from school records, which were made available without reservation to the writer* Jl?JH,Belir y Metropolitan Vancouver: An Overview for Social Planners, (V&rcouver.,^ria7£s£ (Community Chest and Councils, Research Dept.^1965). 68 The School Opened i n 1912, with a wing added in 1958, T. School i s a two-storey rectangular building of red brick, with rows of small windows and a f l a t roof. With i t s halfr-tarmaeked playground, i t occupies a city block i n one of the older areas of Vancouver. Inside, i t s sixteen classrooms are a l l of standard size, and with one or two exceptions, are equipped with old-fashioned desks, fastened i n rows to long slats of wood. There i s a large auditorium, not adequately soundproofed, and a dim^abyrynthihe; basement with exposed pipes, brick walls and concrete floor., which houses the heating plant, the lunch-=room, the washrooms, and the sex-^segregated areas where the children play on rainy days.. The school throughout has brown battleship linoleum floors and very deep ivory painted walls. The only touch of colour i s provided by green wood lockers which line the walls and by wonderful displays of children's art arranged by a gifted and dedicated art teacher,, The Staff In some years, pupil turnover has amounted to almost 80 percent of total enrolment, for this i s an area where only one^third of the homes are owner-occupied. However, staff turnover i s low; the five teachers whose pupils were involved i n this study were a l l seasoned primary teachers with at least ten years 1 experience, and had been at this school for 2-10 years. Although the laissez-faire policy of the principal allowed them freedom to experiment, only one of them appeared to be taking advantage of this opportunity this year. With a s p l i t class of bright Grade I and II children, she had introduced oral French, weaving and a Centennial project with stories and pictures of interest-ing Canadians, The others followed traditional methods to produce satisfactory 69 r e s u l t s i n t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e S c h o o l B o a r d t o w a r d s t h e end o f G r a d e I I , C o n s i d e r i n g t h e r a t e o f p u p i l t u r n o v e r a n d t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f s l o w l e a r n e r s , of non-English s p e a k i n g c h i l d r e n , a n d o f p u p i l s w i t h various d e g r e e s o f e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e , t h i s was no mean a c h i e v e m e n t . The man who h a d b e e n p r i n c i p a l o f t h i s s c h o o l f o r t h e p a s t s i x y e a r s had q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h , i n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , a r e a l m o s t s t a n d a r d f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n . He was i n v o l v e d w i t h e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n many y e a r s a g o , a s a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r i n a o n e - r o o m r u r a l s c h o o l , A f t e r his term of service in the C a n a d i a n Armed F o r c e s , he t a u g h t h i g h s c h o o l m a t h e m a t i c s f o r f i v e y e a r s a n d w o r k e d f o r h i s M a s t e r ' s D e g r e e i n t h i s f i e l d . He h a d b e e n a n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l since 1955., He d e p e n d e d u p o n i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a n d p r o f e s -s i o n a l r e a d i n g t o k e e p h i m i n f o r m e d o f c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n e d u c a t i o n , tended t o b e c o n s e r v a t i v e a n d s c e p t i c a l a b o u t "new" m e t h o d s . A s s u m i n g t h a t h i s s t a f f knew t h e i r b u s i n e s s , he made l i t t l e e f f o r t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e a c a d e m i c c l i m a t e o f t h e s c h o o l , D u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t s c h o o l y e a r , no s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o T . S c h o o l . S t a f f m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n f r e q u e n t l y a n d w e r e c o n -c e r n e d c h i e f l y w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s . I n S e p t e m b e r , 1965, a w e l l -q u a l i f i e d b u t u n a g g r e s s i v e r e m e d i a l r e a d i n g t e a c h e r was a d d e d t o t h e s t a f f : t h e r e h a d n o t y e t b e e n a s t a f f m e e t i n g a t w h i c h she was i n v i t e d t o i n t e r p r e t h e r f u n c t i o n a n d h e r s k i l l s . Two o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y r e c e i v e d t h e i r b a s i c t r a i n i n g i n E n g l a n d , t w o i n C a n a d a , A l l u s e d t h e C a n a d i a n R e a d i n g D e v e l o p m e n t S e r i e s 70 as a basal reader for a l l a b i l i t y groups. For t h e i r slower groups, the f i r s t grade teachers used charts and blackboard work u n t i l they judged that the children/were ready f o r the pre-primers. There was systematic teaching of phonics-, i n a l l f i r s t and second grade classrooms, beginning as soon as the pupils had a sight vocabulary of about f i f t y words. There was no attempt at homogeneous grouping. In September, the f i r s t grade teachers got together '.to select t h e i r own pupils from the kindergarten graduates and the new a r r i v a l s , each taking a f a i r share of d u l l and bright, easy and d i f f i c u l t children. In-class grouping tended to be f l e x i b l e , changing from reading to arithmetic, with a considerable amount of whole-class instruc-t i o n i n those two subjects. One of the teachers had organized discussion groups, i n which the children participate without r a i s i n g t h e i r hand to ask permission. One teacher had taken a special interest i n one of her Grade I repeaters, had worked out an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programme for him i n conjunc-tion with the remedial reading teacher, and used one of her brighter pupils to give t h i s c h i l d extra flash-card d r i l l and o r a l reading practice. In general, however, the teachers' e f f o r t s were exerted to bring the children's work "up to standard", rather than adapt materials and methods to the needs of i n d i v i d u a l pupils. From the second grade upwards, children who did not f i t academically into one of the in-class groups were assigned to the remedial reading teacher f o r 3~5 "periods" per week, usually for i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , regardless of the reason f o r t h e i r learning d i f f i c u l t y . Their reading was 71 then considered to be her responsibility, although, when report cards were sent home, i t was graded in accordance with the standard of the grade in which the child had been placed. Efforts to have teachers continue in the classroom methods and materials which had proved successful in the remedial reading room generally ran up against a blank wall. Most teachers excused their pupils from the regular reading programme while they were receiving remedial reading instruction. However, at least one second grade teacher insisted that children with reading disabilities carry both the regular and the remedial reading programme. The District This school serves an area of some ninety city blocks, comprising about 80 percent of the census tract A and 30 percent of census tract B. The entire area is composed largely of older homes, with a sprinkling of recently built small apartment blocks. Most of these are rented premises: only one-third of the houses are owner-occupied, and half of a l l residents have lived at their present address for less than two years. It is not a child-centred district although there is a busy neighbourhood house at its eastern extremity, a large park near its centre, and an excellent swimming beach within ten blocks of the school. Fewer than half of its families have children, and i t contains more residents over 65 years of age than under lh. In addition, the entire area has a higher-than-average percent-age of families which have immigrated during the past fifteen years, mostly from England, Italy, Germany and Greece. 72 However, the imaginary line separating Tract A from Tract B indicates two different types of neighbourhood. North of this boundary, the original houses were of very cheap construction, built close to the road allowance on very narrow lots: 40.3 percent were constructed prior to 1920, and 7«5 percent are listed as "in. need of major repair". The streets are narrow, without curbs, trees or boulevards; there are almost no gardens, and l i t t l e evidence that either owners or tenants take pride in their homes. Part of this area has been earmarked for urban renewal. In the meantime, old-age pensioners, "one-person households" and families with many children and l i t t l e income perch in the dilapidated houses until they can find more adequate accommodation. In terms of average family income, this census tract ranks 108th out of the 120 tracts into which Metropolitan Vancouver is divided. In terms of the percentage of unemployment, i t ranks 8th, with 11 percent of the male labour force over the age of 18 reported "looking for work". South of the boundary, the original houses were, for the most part, solidly built , and set well back upon generous lots. Only 25 percent are more than forty years old, none are listed as in need of major repair, and most have been modernized and kept in good repair. Most of the streets are wide, treed and boulevarded; gardens show evidence of tender, loving care. In terms of average family income, this district ranks 58th out of 120 census tracts. The percentage of unemployment is negligible. The Children - Matching Data Twenty-two children were involved in this study; a basic group of ten unselected f irst grade repeaters plus one second grade pupil whose teacher 73-f e l t that he should s t i l l be in f i r s t grade, and eleven children selected from the Grade II population of 75 children. The data on the basis of which the children were matched is tabulated in Table I. It may be summarized as follows: 16 Boys, . 6 Girls Chronological Age; Range - 7 years 1 month to 8 years 2 months Median - 7 years 11 months Average-7 years 9 months Mental Capacity a3 assessed, by Pintner-Cunningham Primary Test I.Q.'Range - 73 to 113 Distribution - under 90: 8 subjects 90 - 109: 11 subjects over 109: 3 subjects Note that, as a group, these children had somewhat less than average a b i l i t y according to this group test .of intelligence. Kindergarten Attendance: Sex: Median - 97 Average - 94 15 children attended for a f u l l year 1 child attended for 5 months 1 child attended for 2 months 5 children had no kindergarten experience Days Absent: Above average attendance (0-5 days absent) Average attendance (6-15 days absent) Below average attendance (+15 days absent) Attendance not known - 4 children 11 children 5 children 2 children Children i n Family: Only children 2 or 3 children 4 or more children 3 9 10 Note that almost half the children i n this s tudy came from large - families. Subject's Place i n Family: Only or eldest child - 11 Second eldest - 6 Youngest - 3 Third eldest 2 Note the preponderance of only or eldest children. Of these eleven,four were i n the repeater group, seven in the matched group. Language.Spoken at Home: Bilingual families - 7 Unilingual families - 15 Four of the seven families were marginally bilingual: although the parents were born and educated i n Europe, they insisted that they, always spoke English to the children, and had made no effort to teach them a second language. Marital Status: Broken homes - 6 Mother working - part-time - 5 full-time - 4 Socioeconomic Status: Blishen Scale Class 1 - 0 families 2 - 1 family 3 - 3 families 4 - 2 families 5 - 7 families 6 - 4 families 7 - 4 families unknown - 1 family Note that fifteen families, with a total of 50 children, were in the lower three classes. 7* TABLE I MATCHING DATA FOR TWENTY-TWO SUBJECTS, ARRANGED IN PAIRS • 3 1 <—•» CD m I C * • children rt • * sgical Age r 10, 1967 i Quotic-lingham children birth spoken aic Stai Lshen S( score Status of sgical Age r 10, 1967 Lligence ler-Cunr Kindergart* Attendance CD O rH . CO iguage s home O H C PQ r\ v, ^ iandard Status of H U o a % i Lligence ler-Cunr Kindergart* Attendance to XI vO < n a) cd •p o <D U i-i CD iguage s home o CD CO O CO iandard H to u -P CD Name o Inte] Pintx Kindergart* Attendance CQ V\ ! > » s O ci O a H XJ XJ CO o ar -P O o CO 1 CQ 1 1 •H X « U -P A 1 HERBIE .7:2 100 no 15 2 1st Eng. VII 36.9 s . BRETT 7 :3 90 no 12.5 2 1st Eng. V 50.2 s « DEBBY 8:0 97 no 40 4 4th Eng. V 47.2 M. SUSAN 7:8 100 5 mos , 20 4 4th Eng. VI 45.0 M. PHILIP 7:9 95 yes 10.5 4 2nd Germ. III 54.2 M. JOYCE 8:1 100 yes 8 .5 3 2nd Germ. V 49.4 M.. THANE 7:3 102 yes 57 2 1st Eng. IV 51.2 s . DANNY 7:1 100 yes 8.5 1 1st Eng. V 50.2 M. JANICE 8:0 74 yes 9 5 2nd Eng. VII 41.2 M. MURIEL 7:11 73 yes 37.5 7 4th Eng. VII SV MICHAEL 8:2 80 yes ? 6 3rd Eng. VI 44.6 M. PETER 8:1 80 yes 1 1st Eng. III 54.1 w. RICKY 8:0 82 2 mos . 23,5 2 1st Polish VI 43,1 CL. VINCE 8:1 80 no 15 2 1st I t a l . VII 40.8 M. YVONNE 8:0 110 yes 10.5 4 2nd Germ. V? ? M. GUY 7:11 113 yes 5.5 4 1st Eng. IV? ? M. SEPPI 7 :3 111 yes 0 2 1st Germ. VI 43.2 M. JEFF 7:1 109 yes 6 2 1st Dutch V 48.7 M. PAUL 7:7 83 yes 7.5 1 1st Eng. V 45.2 C L . CRAIG 7:8 87 yes 2.0 2 2nd Eng. II 57.0 M. TREVOR 8:0 97 no 5 .5 5 3rd Eng. III 56.0 M. DOUGLAS 8:0 102 yes 6 3 1st Eng. V •47.7 M. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quotient 76 The Children. - Reading Achievement Twenty of the twenty-two children studied were enrolled in T. School in June, 1966, and the grades awarded them in reading were available from the school records. These may be summarized as follows: Grade in F R E Q U E N C Y Reading Basic Group Matched Group A 2 B 3 C 5 D 6 E k 10 10 The bi-polar distribution is clearly evident in the above table. However, by the Spring of 1967, when the children's achievement in reading was measured by means of the Durrell Analysis, the pattern had changed considerably. In Table V, the results of the f irst three sections of this standardized test are presented in detail for each child. Of the eleven children in the basic group, only one - Ricky - was s t i l l a non-reader. If complete comprehension is used as the measuring stick, there is tremendous overlap in Oral Reading. The distribution on the Durrell can be summarized as follows: Grade Level In Reading F R E Q U E N C Y  Basic Group Matched Group Non-reader 1 0 0 2 1 0 3 8 5 k 1 k 5 2 11 11 78 TABLE II RESULTS OF DURRELL ANALYSIS FOR TWENTY~TWO SUBJECTS T\T A Turn* DATE OF ORAL READING SILENT READING. LISTENING NAME TEST Level Errors ComTbt Rate Level Comp. Rate Level Comp, HERBIE Feb.23 3 — i -1 7/7 IH 2 IL IH 3 8/8 4 5 6/7 IH 3 3 L 2L 4 5/7 BRETT Apr.13 3 1 7/7 3M 3 2H 2H 3 7/8 4 2 6/7 3H 4 4M 3L 4 2/7 DEBBY Feb.16 2 3 6/6 IH . 1 IM IM 2 7/7 3 2 7/7 IH 2 IM 2L 3 7/8 SUSAN Mar. 9 4 0 6/7 4H 4 4M 4M 3 7/8 5 2 4/7 4H 5 3M 5L 4 2/7 PHILIP Feb*2 3 1 7/7 2L' 2 2H 2M 3 8/8 4 7 5/7 2L 3 3L 2M 4 1/7 JOYCE Apr.27 2 2 6/6 2L 3 3M 2L 3 7/8 3 4 7/7 2L 4 3M 2L 4 2/8 4 8 6/7 2L THANE Mar, 9 3 1 7/7 2L 2 2H IM 4 3/7 4 8 4/7 2L 3 3M IL 5 8/9 DANNY Apr,27 4 1 7/7 4L 4 3H 4H 4 3/7 5 2 7/7 4L 5 3M 4H 5 8/9 JANICE Mar,2 1 3 4/4 IH 2 2M IL 2 2 2 6/6 -IH 3 3L IL 3 5kA 3 4 7/7 2L MURIEL Apr#25 3 0 6/7 3M 3 3M 3M 3 7h/t 4 3 4/7 3M 4 3M 3M 4 4 A MICHAEL Feb.28 2 1 6/6 IL 15 IL LL 2 , 6/7 3 7 5i/7 IL 2. IH IL 3 5/8 PETER Mar,L4 2 0 6/6 2H 2 IH 2L 3 6/7 3 4 6/7 3H 3 IL 2L 4 5/7 4 6 7/7 3L 5 5/9 RICKY Feb,23 NON-.READER 3 7/7 4 2/7 Continued on next page 79 TABLE I I (continued) NAME DATE OF , ORAL READING SILENT READING LISTENING TEST Level Errors Comp. Rate Level Comp. Rate Level Comp. VINCE Apr.21 3 0 7/7 3H 3 2H 3M 3 8/8 4 2 6/7 3H 4 3H 3M 4 2/7 5 3 5/7 3H 5 7/9 YVONNE Feb,2 2 1 6/6 IH 2 2L 2L 2 6/7 3 2 7/7 2L 3 3L 2L 3 4/8 4 4 2/7 3L GUY Mar.16 3 0 5/7 3H 4 4M 4M 3 8/8 4 1 6/7 4M 5 5M 4L • 4 4/7 5 1 4/7 414 5 8/9 6 2 6/7 5L SEPPI Feb.24 3 0 7/7 3L 3 2M 2H 3 74/8 4 6 4/7 3L 4 5/7 5 7/9 JEFF Apr,14 4 0 6/7 4H 3 3L 3H 3 8/8 5 2 7/7 4H 4 2M 4H 4 5/7 6 5 6/7 4L 5 3H . 4H 5 74/9 PAUL Mar. 9 2 3 6/6 2L 2 2M 2L 3 8/8 3 3 7/7 2L 3 3H 2L 4 2/7 CRAIG Mar.23 4 0 6/7 4H 4 3L 3M 5 7/7 5 0 5/7 4H 5 5L 5M 6 5/8 6 0 4/7 4H TREVOR Mar.23 3 0 7/7' 3L 2 2L 2H 4 5/7 4 1 7/7 3L 3 3M 2M 5 84/9 5 8 6/7 DOUGLAS Apr,13 4 0 7/7 4M 3 3M 3H 3 8/8 5 0 6/7 4M 4 3M 4L 4 2/7 6 11 3/7 4H 5 3M 3H 5 7/9 80 However, as soon as the speed factor was measured, the bi-polar distribution of scores re-appeared. A l l of the repeaters were reading at the speed which Durrell has standardized a normal for children in Grades I and II: a l l but one of the Grade II children read at the speed expected of Grade III and IV children. In other words, at the time of testing, the chief difference between the two groups of children with respect to oral reading was in speed. This, of course, was to be expect-ed, especially since a l l of the repeaters were tested in February and March. Any experienced f irst grade teacher knows that, at this time of year, many of her pupils are s t i l l reading word-by-word: smoothness and speed tend to develop after Easter Holidays. The marks in reading assigned by classroom teachers for the children's Easter Report card reflected this standard: these marks are tabulated below: REPEATERS MATCHED GROUP Subject Grade Subject Grade HERBIE C BRETT D DEBBY B SUSAN C+ PHILIP (Grade II) E JOYCE D THANE C+ DANNY C+ JANICE C MURIEL C+ MICHAEL B PETER D RICKY D VINCE C+ YVONNE B GUY A SEPPI A JEFF D PAUL B CRAIG A TREVOR B DOUG C However, four of the children whose reading at the end of f irst grade was rated C were considered by their second grade teacher to be doing unsatisfactory work in this subject - Brett, Joyce, Peter and Jeff. Joyce ^ had a specific reading disability which had been recognized by the school 81 andw/asbeing treated by the remedial reading teacher. However, the other three children showed, i n the D u r r e l l Analysis, that they had learned.to read at a l e v e l which earned other children i n the same grade a mark of A to C+ (e.g. compare J e f f with Craig, Brett with Guy). I t seems s i g n i f i -cant that these three boys were a l l i n the same Grade I I classroom, and that each had a personality problem. Their personality problem had not prevented them from learning to read w e l l , but i t was preventing them from doing consistently satisfactory work at school, and thereby from receiving recognition f o r t h e i r achievement i n reading. The scores of the children i n the Si l e n t Reading sub-section of the D u r r e l l Analysis were a l i t t l e more d i f f i c u l t to assess. None of the children had had any practice with the combination of s k i l l s required - to read a paragraph s i l e n t l y , and then to give a summary of i t s content i n his own words. I t i s a t e s t , not only of s i l e n t reading, but of the child's a b i l i t y to note the main ideas and organization of the paragraph, and to express himself o r a l l y . In t h i s tabulation, each c h i l d has been credited with the grade l e v e l at which he was able to r e c a l l most of the ideas of the passage: - i n no case i s h i s r e c a l l more than one grade l e v e l below the l e v e l of the passage read. The distribution,then, i s as follows: Grade Level Of Passage Repeaters Matched Group Non-reader 1 1 2 2 1 3 7 1 k 1 7 5 2 82 In this task, the greater emphasis put upon silent reading in the second grade has given the matched group a distinct advantage over the repeaters: "j/ll of the Grade II children were able to perform a f u l l grade above j/ll of the repeaters. When the factor of speed is taken into consideration, we come back to the bi-modal distribution, which characterized speed in oral reading. None of these repeaters was able to read silently at a faster pace than, the Durrell norm for children at the beginning of Grade III: a l l but two of the control children, were reading at the mid-Grade III level or higher. Finally, we come to the matter of accuracy which was based on. the number of errors made in the most difficult oral reading paragraph of which each child had perfect comprehension. These may be tabulated as follows: Number of Control Errors Repeaters Group 0 1 5 1 5 l 2 2 3 3 or more 3 2 This summary shows l i t t l e difference between the two groups, except that more children in the control group read without a single error. In summary, the information tabulated and summarized in this chapter makes the following facts clear with regard to the children involved in this study: l) They have been taught by thoroughly experienced primary teachers, only one of whom has university credits, and none of whom have had recent courses in reading education. 83 2) The method used has been the basal reader approach, using the Canadian Reading Development Series for children of a l l ability groups. In firs t grade, charts and blackboard work are used at the beginning of the year for the less able pupils. The top achievers in the first and second grade have this year been exposed to an enriched programme, with oral French and a language arts project designed to acquaint them with some of Canada 1s hi story. 3) At the beginning of January, the 16 boys and 6 girls ranged in age from 7 years 1 month to 8 years 2 months. k) Although a l l were registered in a single school, they came from families varying widely in socioeconomic status, with the majority in the lower income brackers. Mothers in five families worked full-time. 5) Almost half of the children came from families with four or more children. 6) Half of the children, studied.were only or eldest children: however, only four of the repeaters f e l l into this category. 7) Six of them came from broken, homes - three each from the control and the repeater group. 8) Seven came from bilingual families 9) Intelligence quotients according to the Pintner-Cunningham  Primary Test ranged from 73 to 113, with the median falling at 97 for the median age of 7 years 11 months. 10) By February of their second year at school, a l l but one of the 22 children were reading,well enough to score meaningingfully on the Durrell Analysis. Two children were recognized as remedial reading cases. Of the other twenty, the chief difference in reading achievement between the repeaters and the control group lay in silent reading comprehension,, in speed of both oral and silent reading, and in the somewhat greater accuracy of the children who had been promoted to Grade II the previcu s June. CHAPTER V CASE STUDIES: PAIRED COMPARISONS The case histories in this chapter are presented, as comparisons between matched pairs of children, in accordance with the research design and the hypothesis outlined in Chapter I. The matching data and results of basic standardized tests are tabulated at the beginning of each study, and discussed in the text. In reporting scores on the Frostig Test, the child's Perceptual Age in each of the five sub-tests is recorded separately. The Durrell Analysis does not pretend to represent the child's reading achievement by some single composite figure: American norms have been established for the beginning, middle and end of each grade, and are desig-nated on the test form L(ow), M(iddle) and H(igh). This method of record-ing results has been retained, with the exception that grade on the test form has been replaced by level in the tabulation, in recognition of the generally accepted fact that Canadian norms are about one grade higher than their American counterparts. A cross-section of each child's performance has been tabulated, beginning with the level at which both accuracy and com-prehension are as close to perfect as his reading sk i l l permits, and ending when one or the other is no longer adequate to the passage concerned. Because of the special difficulties presented by Level k of Listening Comprehension, most of the pupils were also given Level 5 of this sub-test, and many of them improved their Listening Comprehension score in the process. There is no significance to the order in which the paired studies are arranged. Within each of the eleven studies, the pupils are discussed under the following sub-headings: 86 l Matching Data 2 The Children 3 Intelligence and Perceptual Development k Reading and School Achievement 5 Family Background 6 Self-Concept 7 Testing the Hypothesis Material under sub-heading 2) includes the investigator's observations during the testing sessions. Intelligence, visual perception, and style of learning are discussed together for reasons which wi l l become apparent as the studies are read, and which are made specific in Chapter VI. Under sub-heading k ) , findings from the Pupil Rating Scale are discussed together with the report card marks over two years of school and the results of the Durrell  Analysis. For a l l of the children, much more information about family background was accumulated than is presented in the case studies: for the sake of brevity, only those factors have' been transcribed which seem most relevant to the problem with which this paper is concerned. It may be fairly assumed that aspects of home l ife not presented here are normal or average for the socioeconomic sub-culture to which the family belongs. Self-Concept naturally follows Family Background because, since neither of the tests tried - the "Story of Jimmy" and the Pigem Test - yielded consistently usable results, each child's self-concept was ultimately deduced from his behaviour in the testing sessions, in the classroom and at home, analyzed in the light of his total l i fe experience to date and of the theory of personality and learning outlined in Chapter II. I. HERBIE AND BRETT 87 HERBIE BRETT . Matching; Data Birth Date November 5,1959 October 24,1959 Pintner I. Q. 100 100 Kindergarten Attendance no no Days Absent 1965-66 1 15 12*5 No. of ; Children i n Family 2 2 Child*s Birth Order 1st 1st Billngualism no no Marital Status separated separated Occupation of' Breadwinner F»-fisherman M.-office clerk Blishen Rating -class VII V -standard score 36»9 50,2 Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary - I . Q. 96 114 -#ile rank 44th 82nd Raven Matrices -raw score 8+6+5 = 19 8+4+5 = 17 ... -#ile rank 75th .. 50th Frostig Perception test results -given at C.A.* inadvertently 7:5 -P.A. equivalents# mislaid 5:9,3:9,6:3,7:0,6:6 Durrell', Reading -Oral:level 3 4 3 4 :speed IH IH 3M 3H .. xerrors 1 5 1 2 :comp. 7/7 6/7 7/7 6/7 -Silenttlevel 2 3 3 4 :speed IH IH 3M 3H :comp. IL 3L 2H 4M -Listening i l e v e l 3 4 3 4 :comp. 8/8 5/7 7/8 2/7 *Read C.A. 7*3 a* chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 70 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months 88 HERBIE AND BRETT Matching Data Superficially, Herble and Brett appeared to be well-matched, except in the factor of socioeconomic status. Each was the elder of two children in a broken home, and was living with assorted relatives in a communal household. Both were of average intelligence, according to the Pintner- Cunningham Test and were from English-speaking families. Neither had been to kindergarten. Herbie was three weeks younger than Brett. The Children Herbie was a sturdy, grubby l i t t l e Indian boy who tended to efface himself in the classroom. However, he quite enjoyed the testing situation and related quickly and easily to the investigator. Finding cards to use for the Mills' Test brought out an unexpected delight in competition. He was uniformly cheerful and eager, pleased by success but not upset by failure. He proved articulate, using complex sentences, adequate vocabulary and grammar: this was in sharp contrast to his behaviour in January, 1966, when the school psychologist remarked, "Not used to being spoken to in sentences - needs instructions one at a time". He seemed to be a secure, self-reliant l i t t l e boy, sure of his own identity and worth, and eager to meet and conquer new worlds. At two out of three testing sessions, Brett seemed quite disorganized. At the third, he was in better control of himself and the situation, but s t i l l hard to reach: he seemed withdrawn and preoccupied rather than shy. He is an odd-looking child, with a large head, small body and poor muscular coordina-tion. He was so surprised to succeed that, when I told him that he had been 89 working on a Grade V paragraph on the Durrell Test, he burst in on his class-mates to announce, "I was reading a grade five paragraph!" Brett's teacher openly refers to him as "the baby of the class" because of immature behaviour and lack of self-control on his "off" days, which occur at least twice a week; he fusses and daydreams, and seems quite unable to settle down to work. Intelligence and Perceptual Development Brett is one of several children in this research project .whose scores on the Pintner-Cunningham were depressed by serious deficits in visual perception. He had the lowest score of any of the children in Sub-test II of the Frostig (Figure-Ground), and normal scores only in Position in Space and Spatial Relations. Under these circumstances, i t seems reasonable to assume that his score on the Peabody is a more accurate measure of his mental capacity, and that his 10. is comfortably above average. There is also reason to believe that Herbie has above average intel-ligence. The Indian sub-culture is generally conceded to be relatively inarticulate. Yet, five months after coming to Vancouver, when he s t i l l had difficulty following sentences and was noticably sleepy, he scored an IQ of 100 on the Stanford-Binet: and a year later, earned an. IQ of 9^ on a purely verbal test of intelligence - the Peabody. His high score on the Raven suggests above average non-verbal reasoning abil ity. Both boys are auditory learners. Neither did well with the kinesthetic method of the Mills ' Test : Herbie substituted a for r_, a_ for g, and b for d, while Brett began his printing in the middle of the bottom of the page. 90 On the Durrell, Brett scored 15/20 in Visual Memory of words (Grade 2.5 norm) compared with 27/29 in. Hearing Sounds in. Words (almost Grade 3»5 norm). His low score in Listening Comprehension was due to fatigue. Fifteen minutes of reading takes a great deal out of a child with a severe perceptual handicap: i t is not surprising that Brett was quite exhausted when the Listening Comprehension section of the Durrell was reached, and showed this clearly "by yawning, fidgeting and inattention, even though he had just been given a three-minute break. On. the Mills Test, Herbie's scores were 3/l0 kinesthetic, 5/l0 visual, 8/l0 auditory, with no loss after one week. His Oral Reading and Listening Comprehension on the Durrell were significantly superior to his Silent Reading, in which he vocalized constantly, kept his place with his finger, and needed much help with recall . Reading and School Achievement Herbie spent his f irst year at school getting acclimatized. This year, he has mastered word analysis to the point where he can read many words which he does not understand. In February, oral and silent reading were both very slow, and he had to sound out many words which should have been sight words, but his reading achievement was average for his grade. Considering his handicap in visual perception, i t is a miracle that Brett can read at a l l . However, he is strongly motivated and has learned to compensate for his visual deficits by relying heavily upon con-text clues and his excellent "ear" for language. Presented with words in isolation, Brett flounders badly. But both oral and silent reading were quick and accurate at the Grade IV (American) level: and his comprehension 91 was excellent. However, since marks at school are based on daily diligence and not on the heights to which a child can soar when he is challenged, Brett's school report represents him as an utter failure, doing acceptable work only in arithmetic and social studies. Family Background Born and brought up in an Indian fishing village, and with no oppor-tunity to attend kindergarten, Herbie spent his f irst year in Vancouver learning the ways of the middle-class white man's culture. He had to bridge the gap between a community which is relatively silent, only partly literate, empirical, traditional, homogeneous, permissive with its children, and a school which emphasizes speech, literacy, science, progress, individual differences and obedience. In. this, he was assisted by four older cousins in the same household, by a pioneering grandmother who wanted her grandchildren to have a better chance in l ife than was available in an isolated fishing village, and by his own native intelligence. The "broken home" noted in the school records represents, in. Herbie's case, not the end result of an unsuccessful marriage, but a voluntary sacrifice "on the part of ambitious parents. Herbie's mother and aunts came to the city to look after their children: the fathers stayed with the fishboats as the best means of financing the venture, and came to Vancouver as often as they could manage. In Herbie's village, families are not the self-contained units which they are in our urban, industrial culture: when parents are i l l or away, relatives or neighbours take care of the children on an informal basis. Therefore i t seemed perfectly natural to Herbie that his grandmother should look after him when his mother went to Vancouver Island 'to give birth to his (illegitimate) baby sister, and that one of his aunts should take over when his grandmother went back to the village for a few days. 92 Brett had no cultural gaps to bridge: his parents have both been to University and have thoroughly middle-class standards. However, in his case, "broken home" meant that his mother had to go to work full-time, depriving him of care that he needed badly, and leaving him to the scant mercy of unsympathetic relatives. This great need rose initially out of his peculiar biological endowment: with above average ability and sensitivity were combined poor muscular coordination, left-handedness, and inadequate visual perception, so that he talked before he walked, and never learned to use a pencil or crayon or even a piece of chalk before he went to school. He was inevitably compared with his sister and his cousins whose physical development was perfectly normal, although one of the cousins, aged S>, is doing poorly in Grade II. So Brett, the 'ugly duckling", took refuge in television which further contributed to his verbal ability but did nothing for his neuro-muscular development*. Nor did his addiction to TV facilitate his social and emotional adjust-ment: " i didn't send him to kindergarten because he seemed too much of a baby", his mother says. However, i t did provide him with powerful motivation to learn to read. As soon, as he discovered that books provided an even richer source of escape- literature than television, he first persuaded his mother to read to him every night: then, abetted by an aggressive fi r s t grade teacher who saw him as a challenge, he applied a l l of his superior intelligence to the task of learning to read. Self-Concept Herbie's background has given him a sense of identity, practice in 93 making his own decisions and accepting the consequences, and warm human relationships.: his success in mastering an alien environment has given him a feeling of worth and eagerness to learn. Sturdy physically and psychologically, he has not yet experienced, any racial discrimination to make him feel rejected. Shortly after his testing sessions, Herbie and his relatives returned to their fishing village: Herbie's father had been, drowned in a fish-boat collision, and i t was impossible to finance the "great adventure" without his income. However, i t seems within the bounds of possibility that, some ten years from now, Herbie's name wi l l appear on the roster of a first-year class in some institute of higher learning, for in less than two years, he seems to have become badly bitten by the bug of learning for its own sake. Brett's experiences have taught him to avoid people, who are usually demanding, cr i t ica l , and, to a boy of his sensitive temperament, cruel. Three things have prevented him from being, until now, labelled as emotionally disturbed: his' close relationship with his mother who, being of a similar temperament, identifies with him; the fact that his reaction to his environment is day-dreaming and inattention rather than bizarre behaviour; and his success with reading. However, with an unsympathetic teacher, he is this year a marginal case of emotional disturbance. Without a modified curriculum or early and prolonged professional assistance to build up his self-confidence and to help him withstand the pressures of his home and school environment, there is danger that this l i t t l e boy, so immature physically, emotionally and socially, wi l l retreat beyond help into the undemanding world 9k of schizophrenia. As he said i n the Pigem Test, "I'd like to be a stream or a rock, because then I wouldn't have to work, and I couldn't possibly make any mistakes." But even as a stream, he thought he would be sad because of a l l the rocks underneath. Testing the Hypothesis These two boys apparently had many anomalies i n common - broken home, residence with relatives in a communal household, non-attendance at kinder-garten, auditory style of learning. Herbie had several advantages over Brett -> physical and psychological robustness; normal neuro-muscular develop-ment and visual perception; and methods and standards of child rearing which, however sub-standard, gave him an adequate degree of emotional maturity and a positive self-concept. However, when i t came to reading, three factors outweighed all,Herbie's advantages - Brett's superior verbal intelligence, his middle-class back-ground, and his unhealthy but single-minded determination to conquer the world of books. His teacher also showed some f l e x i b i l i t y i n adapting her standards and methods to Brett's d i s a b i l i t i e s , while Herbie received no special consideration. SUMMARY - -HERBIE AND BRETT 95" ANOMALIES Observed Significant. DIFFERENCES Obs«rv«d Significant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time guardian - t i m e 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual"Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level d) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X X x ( C o n t i n u e d ) SUMMARY - HERBIE AND BRETT (continued) 96 Observed ANOMALIES Significant DIFFERENCES Observed Significant 15. Home Environment a) books X b) television X c) trips and travel X d) family socially isolated e) bilingualisra f) verbal communication X g) child-rearing practices X h) standards expected X of children i ) family structure X j) marital relationship X k) parent-child X relationship 1) standara of housing m) level of education - F. X - M. X n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings o) attitude to education 16, School Experience a) frequent changes b) cultural gap X c) teacher-pupil relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching methods X f) attitude to frustration X. X. X % X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 97 II.DEBBY AND SUSAN DEBBY SUSAN Matching Data Birth Date January 31,1959 May 29,1959 Pintner I . Q. 97 100 Kindergarten Attendance no five months Days Absent 1965-66 •40 20 No. of Children i n Family 4 k-C h i l d * s Birth Order 4th 4th Bilingualism no no Marital Status married married Occupation of .Breadwinner maintenance mechanic hospital orderly Blishen Rating -class V V I -standard score 47*2 45.0 Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary 78 99 -$ile ;:rank 6th 50th Raven Matrices -raw score 10+10+5 * 25 11+10+8 = 29 -#ilerank 90th 95th Frostig Perception -given at C.A.* 8:1 7:9 -P.A.-equivalents# 9:6,8:3,9:0,8:9,8:3 10:0,8:3,9:0,8:9,8:3 Durrell';Reading -Oral:level 2 3 4 5 :speed IH IH 4H 4H errors 3 2 0 2 :comp. 6/6 7/7 6/7 4/7 -Silent:level 1 : 2 - 4 5 :speed IM 2L 4M 5L i;.*7^ .-*c,omp. IM . IM 4M 3M -Listening:level 2 3 3 4 :comp. 7/7 7/8 7/8 2/7 •Read C.A. 7*3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7»3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months 98 DEBBIE AMD SUSAN Matching Data Superficially, Debbie and Susan appeared to be we11-matched. Susan, the successful reader, was five months younger than Debbie and had attended kindergarten for five months. Each g ir l was the youngest of four children in a uni-lingual family: each had average intelligence according to the Pintner-Cunningham Test: both had missed more than the average amount of school in 1965 - I 9 6 6 : and their socioeconomic status was similar. The Children Upon i n i t i a l contact, Debbie and Susan appeared to be cast from the same mould. Both were tiny, demure, children who spoke in a whisper and appeared timid and shy. Further acquaintance dispelled the il lusion. Debbie was genuinely shy and inarticulate. Wary of adults, she watch-ed; the! investigator carefully for clues as to what was expected of her, and was only once lured into spontaneous conversation. Typically, she com-municated by gestures, monosyllables and phrases: when sentences were required, she became extremely tense, perseverated very simple syntatical forms, and used run-on sentences. Susan's demureness proved to be protective coloration. After the f irst testing session, she talked easily about herself and her family, with excellent command of diction, vocabulary and syntax. She enjoyed surprising the examiner by such answers as "Books? Me? I'm a tomboy: books are for sissies and when you're sick. What I like is playing cowboys and Indians. Next best is playing poker and canasta with my mother and brother". Susan enjoyed the testing sessions, especially the Durrell Analysis on which she knew she was doing well. Debbie attacked the tests with a kind 99 of quiet desperation, and relaxed only a l i t t l e when investigator reassured her> The Teachers' Rating Scale indicated that the behaviour of both girls in the testing situation was typical of their behaviour in the classroom. Intelligence and Perceptual Development Debby and Susan were very closely matched on both the Raven Matrices and the Frostig Test of Visual Perception. However, Debby's score dropped sharply on the Peabody Vocabulary Test: questioning suggested labelling difficulties rather than experiential deficit. Her speech and her errors on the Wepman Test revealed some difficulty with auditory discrimination, especially the distinction between long and short vowels. Susan's excellent school achievement makes i t natural to fexpect'; better than average intelligence. However, no evidence except her perform-ance on the Raven supports this point of view: and i t may be significant that she remarked of this test, "Oh, this is like a jig-saw puzzle that you have to do in your head - I love doing jig-saw puzzles". There is a superficial quality about Susan's verbal sophistication: she can read and use in sentences words of whose meaning she has l i t t l e or no idea. For example, she thought "destruction." meant some kind of bomb, and was unable to relate i t to the picture of ruined buildings in the Peabody: in her mind, i t was associated with "Death and destruction, rained from the skies". Other errors in the Peabody seemed due to experiential deficits, and to difficulty with abstraction and categorization. The Mills ' Test indicated that Debby responds best to a visual method of teaching: given kinesthetic teaching, she memorized the shape of each new word. The results of the Durrell, with her lowest score in 100 , Silent Reading, appeared to contradict this. However, her difficulty with Silent Reading was chiefly that she was required to t e l l the story in her own words, a very difficult task for an. inarticulate child: and that there was no corrective feed-hack. Debby is probably by endowment a visual-auditory learner, but her environment has provided her with insufficient stimulation of the auditory type. Susan is definitely an auditory-visual learner: she made not a single error on the Durrell in Visual Memory of Words, Hearing Sounds in Words, and flash recognition of a l l fifty words in Lists 1 and 2 (Grades II-Vl). In summary, Debby appears to be a child with normal intelligence, good visual perception, a serious language disability and some difficulty with auditory perception: while Susan, along with normal intelligence, has exceptionally well-developed sensory perception, memory and integration. Reading and School Achievement At Easter, 1966, Debby and her sisters transferred to T. School from a two-room school in a suburb which provides no kindergartens. She had missed a great deal of school for health reasons: three kidneys plus a defective bladder valve had necessitated surgery and hospitalization for recurrent kidney infection. Her f irst term at T. School was neither successful nor happy: she was unable to do the work, and bigger boys teased her to tears. This year, under a sympathetic teacher, she is doing satisfactory work at school. In. February, on the Durrell,; her silent and oral reading were both very slow and inaccurate: she had trouble with vowel digraphs, silent e's and multi-syllabic words. However, by Easter, her oral reading was considered by her teacher to be somewhat above average for her grade. 101 In September, 1966, Susan came to T. School from a nearby Vancouver school, bringing a "straight-A" report card. She had missed half her kindergarten year and most of the f irst month of grade one because of marital problems in. her family: her mother, acting upon a hasty decision to leave her husband, had. taken the three youngest children and fled to Ontario, where she failed to enrol Susan in school. On the Durrell, Susan showed exceptional sk i l l in word recognition: the mechanics of both oral and silent reading were smooth and efficient. However, her comprehension floundered as soon as social studies content was introduced. Her Grade II Easter reading mark of C+ reflected a similar difficulty with comprehension although she was considered the best (oral) reader in her class. Family Background Debby's father left school and the reservation on Vancouver Island at the age of fifteen. Married to a well-educated white woman, steadily employed with several promotions, a non-drinker who has never been in trouble with the law, a good provider and family man, he is a model of Indian integration, the solid citizen to whom his less stable relatives often turn for help. His wife, hard-working and well-organized, is employed three days a week as a hairdresser: she can do this without neglecting her children because they have always shared their home with relatives - previously, his mother: currently, his sister, brother-in-law and their two sons. His children are conspicuously well-behaved. He believes that much Indian delinquency is the result of parental laxity and is determined that his daughters wi l l never get into trouble for lack of 102 firm control. Children's classics on the living-room book shelves attest to his interest in their education. Management of the children is left largely to their mother, partly because they are girls , partly because his work takes him out of town from June to September each year. She, too, believes in strict discipline but the evidence suggests that her treatment of the children has in i t a strong anal-sadistic component. Toilet training was started at six months and, except in Debby's case, completed at one year: a l l the girls were cup-fed from six months: from the age of two, they were each taught to make their own beds and to keep their hands clasped behind their backs when visiting or shopping, so that they could look but not touch. Current-ly, they are sent to bed i f they take longer than, fifteen minutes to do the dishes: although the eldest g i r l is almost twelve, none of the children is allowed "off the block" after school or out of the house after supper. There is no provision for them to invite friends home: even birthday parties are strictly family affairs. The regime is so harsh that Debby's mother complains, "They spoil that child in the hospital. When she comes home, i t takes me a month to lick her back into shape". There is nothing sub-standard about either the quality or the quantity of adult language in this home, to judge by Debby's mother. However, the children have been taught so thoroughly to be seen but not heard, to obey instantly, and not to ask questions or "talk back", that there is very l i t t l e communication between generations. A l l the girls have difficulty at school with language and reading; the eldest is on the waiting l i s t for a slow learners' class, the second is repeating Grade IV. A l l are described by 103 their mother as "worry-warts", anxious about school and terribly upset by failure. A l l are shy in the presence of strangers, though they "chatter like magpies" among themselves. Susan's is a sorely divided family, the end product of a hasty war-time marriage between a Canadian soldier and an English pastry cook who scarcely knew eachother. Both parents had left home and school at the age of four-teen. Her background was chronic poverty and too many children: she had determined never to marry, but was lonely and highly suggestible. He was looking for a successor to his mother who had died when he was ten, leaving him to the mercy first of strict German grandparents, then of a step-mother who favoured her own four children. He was plagued by sub-conscious guilt: his mother had died shortly after nursing him through a prolonged bout of rheumatic fever, and his self-destructive pattern of behaviour suggests that he is s t i l l punishing himself for having caused her death. Their relationship is the familiar hostile-dependent type. The greatest drive of Susan's mother is to be needed, a drive which overpowers a l l rational considerations, and which has a certain masochistic component, the last vestiges of a stern religious upbringing which stressed a sense of duty and responsibility. Thus, although she periodically rebels and makes abortive attempts either to leave her husband or to get him to Alcoholics Anonymous or to a psychiatrist, she does not really expect them to succeed. For his part, he flatly refuses to admit that he has a problem. Yet his alcoholism, his jealousy, his hostile-dependent relationship with his wife, his self-defeating behaviour when in the Army, his favoritism towards the children, and his habit of blaming others for his misfortunes, IOU a l l mark him as both neurotic and immature. However, women such as Susan's mother frequently make good parents, at least as long as their children are dependent upon them: i t is when their offspring leave the nest that difficulties arise. Thus Susan's 16-year-old sister ie a troubled adolescent: never outgoing or self-confident, she is depressed about her acne, her flat chest, her sub-standard home, the tremendous effort required to get passing grades at high school, and jealous of her two younger siblings to whom success comes so easily. But Susan and her 13-year-old brother have not yet been adversely affected by this stormy environment. Although both were unwanted pregnancies, they were well-loved babies. Equipped with robust physical health, her basic needs provided for in a generally permissive fashion, Susan, grew into a delightful toddler who stole even her father's heart. Her brother, an A student and a star athlete, became her model: her older sisters became her mentors, reading to her regularly and teaching her to play their games, watch their TV programmes and speak their language rather than descending to her level: and she had the self-confidence and the biological endowment to rise to the challenge. Self-Concept Born with a serious biological defect and a plastic temperament, Debby needed a particularly warm and sympathetic environment in order to realize her fu l l intellectual potential. It was her misfortune to be born into a cold, harsh family where the children's needs for dependence, mature love, social experience and linguistic training have been inadequately 105 met. As a result, although of normal intelligence, she is emotionally and socially immature, lacks self-confidence and drive, and suffers from a serious language deficit. To children such as Debby who are valued for what they do rather than what they are, failure presents';, a double threat - not only loss of self-esteem, but also loss of parental love. To reduce failure at home to a minimum, Debby has learned to placate adults, to be quiet and obedient, to ask no questions and have no ideas of her own. Such learning makes her a well-behaved child, but scarcely contributes either to mental health or to school achievement. Since language deficits and feelings of inadequacy are cumulative phenomena, and since there is no realistic hope of changing the home environment, the long-range prognosis for Debby's reading achievement is-poor, in spite of her current success. That a child with Susan's family background should be doing so well at school and be so apparently well-adjusted is somewhat of a miracle, especially since the data yield l i t t l e evidence of above average intelligence. However, she has developed effective defences to protect her from the more abrasive aspects of her tumultous home l i f e . She manages virtually to ignore her troubled and troublesome father and sister: she sees her real family as consisting of her mother, her brother and herself. In an effort to win and maintain a status of equality within this charmed triangle, she has applied her strong drives and exceptional sensory endowment to learning grown-up speech, attitudes, and ski l ls . In the process, she has acquired the habit of success, and ego strengths which serve her well at school. 106 Testing the Hypothesis In at least one factor considered in this study, Debby appears to have an advantage over Susan: her parents get along well together, and her home l i f e i s stable, whereas Susan comes from a family suffering from serious marital discord. However, Susan i s a robust child, .both physically and psychologically,. with quick reflexes, well-developed auditory and visual perception: she comes from a family where child-rearing practices tend to be permissive, and dis-cipline rather lax: mother-child relationships are warm and satisfying, ih spite of the marital conflict: her much older siblings have helped her to acquire adequate social and emotional maturity, and sophisticated language s k i l l s : she i s poised and self-confident. By contrast, Debby suffers from a congenital abnormality which i n i t s e l f i s a source of anxiety and embarrassment, and which contributes to a low level of energy. She i s functioning as a visual learner with slow reflexes and some d i f f i c u l t y with auditory perception. She comes from a'family where discipline i s harsh, standards inflexible, and parent-child communication at the barest minimum. T£e four g i r l s have banded together to make their emotional, social and li n g u i s t i c deprivation and their school d i f f i c u l t i e s more tolerable, but i t i s a pooling of misery and ignorance. The school, l i k e her home, makes no allowances for Debby's handicaps: she remains l i n g u i s t i c a l l y handicapped, social-l y and emotionally immature, anxiety-ridden and discouraged. 107-I I I . P H I L I P AND JOYCE ' P H I L I P JOYCE Matching ..Data Birth Date . A p r i l 1 3 , 1 9 5 9 November 2 9 , 1 9 5 8 Pintner I . Q. 95 1 0 0 Kindergarten Attendance y e s y e s Days Absent 1965-66 1 0 , 5 8 , 5 ' No. of Children i n Family 4 3 Child*s Birth • 1 Order 2 n d 2 n d Bilingualism y e s y e s Marital Status married married Occupation of Breadwinner dairy technician s t e e l v rorker Blishen Rating -class I I I V -standard 1score 54.2 4 9 * 2 Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary - I . Q. 102 106 -#ile rank 5 5 t h 6 3 r d Raven Matrices, -raw score 9+6+4 = 19 11+10+6 = 2 7 • i^iie-.rank + 5 0 t h +90th Frostig Perception -given at C.A.* 7:7 * 8:3 -P.A. equivalents# Total P.A. 7:6 1 0 : 0 , 8 : 3 , 7 : 0 , 7 : 0 , 7 : 6 Durrell-Reading -Oraltievel 3 4 2 3 4 -: speed 2 L 2 L 2 L 2 L 2 L terrors 1 7 2 4 8 :comp. 7 / 7 5 /7 6/6 7 /7 6/7 -Silent:level 2 3 3 4 :speed 2M 2M 2 L 2 L lcomp. 2H 3 L 3M 3M -Listeningxlevel 3 - 4 3 4 • • • :comp. 8 / 8 1/7 7 / 8 2 / 7 -*Read C.A. 7*3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7:3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months * F r o s t i g T e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d b y S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g i s t November 1966 SUMMARY - DEBBY AND SUSAN 108 ANOMALIES Observed Significant DIFFERENCES ObsTved Significant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3 . Mental Capacity . 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children i n Family 7. Child*s Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level . d) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) SUMKMtl - BEBBI AT'ID SUSAN (continued) 109 ANO Observed (ttLIES Significant DIFFERENCES Observed Significant 15. Home Environment a) books b) television c) trips and travel d) family socially isolated e) bilingualism f) verbal communication g) child-rearing practices h) standards expected of children i ) family structure j) marital relationship k) parent-child relationship 1) standard of housing X X X m) level of education - F. * - M. n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings ;e o) attitude to education 16. School Experience a) frequent changes b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching methods f) attitude to frustration X X X„ X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 110 PHILLIP AND.JOYCE Matching Data Joyce and Philip are poorly matched with regard to age, socioeconomic status and sex. They have been included in the study because both have reading disabilities in spite of normal intelligence. Each comes from a German, immigrant home and each is the second child in a medium-sized family. Both children were promoted to Grade II in June, 1966; Joyce with a C grade in reading, Philip with a D. Philip was recommended for inclusion in the study by his teacher: Joyce was the closest available match, The Children Philip is a slight, handsome boy, neatly dressed and groomed. His manner throughout was charming but diffident and remote: neither the testing material nor the investigator ever had Philip's whole attention for long. He became animated and spontaneous only when he talked about going fishing with a neighbour. His oral English is impeccable. Immaculately dressed and groomed, Joyce is a t a l l , handsome gi r l with blond pigtails, rather slow and deliberate in speech and action. She related quickly and talked freely about school affairs: her manner through-out was open and ingenuous. Success and praise brought a shy, dimpled smile: failure, a blush, a gesture of annoyance, or a self-deprecatory remark. Her oral English was correct but not always fluent: there was an occasional trace of an accent. Intelligence and Perceptual Development Both children have at least average ability. That Joyce scored 103 ^ on the Pintner in spite of perceptual deficits, and 106 on the Peabody in spite of a genuinely bi-lingual background, suggests that she has well I l l above average intelligence. Philip's 108 on the Stanford-Binet is . presumed to be a more accurate measure of his mental capacity than his score of 95 on the Pintner-Cunningham. The Mills' Test indicated that for Philip, the visual approach is most efficient, the kinesthetic least efficient, for immediate recall of words. However, whichever method was used, there was 80 percent loss a week later. The Frostig Test was administered by the school psychologist in November, 1966, and disclosed no deficits in visual perception except in Figure-Ground, where his standard score was 9 - His precise speech suggested excellent auditory discrimination. In short, i t did not appear that his difficulty with reading stemmed from poor sensory perception. In the kinesthetic section of the Mi l l s ' , Joyce displayed a marked tendency toward reversal., (single letters and syllables) and phonetic spelling (e.g. nerce for nurse). These difficulties correlate with sub-standard scores in Form Constancy and Position in. Space on the Frostig. However, i t should be noted that four children in the sample with lower scores in these sub-tests have learned to compensate for their deficits and are reading satisfactorily. The chief source of her difficulty seems to l ie in poor visual memory, as revealed by four errors in Visual Memory of Words compared to no errors in Hearing Sounds in Words: difficulty with sequencing, both visual and auditory, and thus inadequate skills in anticipation and in self-correction: and slowness in inter-sensory integration. Reading and School Achievement Philip has always attended T. School. He was "quite upset" about going to kindergarten until a male student-teacher gave him some special 112 attention. He was often in tears in Grade I: his mother was shocked when she f irst visited the classroom because of his "anxious, hang-dog look" which contrasted so sharply with his poise and charm at home. He was promoted in June, 1966, on the basis of good intelligence and language skil ls , although reading, writing and arithmetic were below grade level. His second grade teacher feels his promotion was a mistake: she sees him as an immature daydreamer who retains almost nothing of what she tries to teach him, an anxious child who always expects to f a i l and usually does. The reading clinician and the psychiatrist agree that Philip's chief handicaps are short attention span and an extraordinarily poor memory; i t is not unusual for him to learn a word thoroughly by VAKT"one day, and not recognize i t the next. He is also discouraged by any reading selection longer than one or two paragraphs. The fact that he tends to do better with experience: stories';suggests -some problem with., motivation. Findings from the Durrell Analysis corroborate those of the school. Although in speed and comprehension his achievement was about average for his grade placement, he could not read even the easiest paragraph with complete accuracy: his oral reading and eye movements were arythmical. In September, 1965> Joyce transferred to T. School from a public school in Berlin, Germany, which she had attended for the previous year and a half. Prior to that, she had been to kindergarten for half a year in Kingston, Ontario. Having had four months of reading instruction in German, using-a whole word approach, Joyce had some difficulty in trans-ferring to English: she tended to give phonemes their German pronunciation, Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile - the method ini t ia l ly developed by Grace Fernald for severely disabled readers. 113 and to try to spell a l l words phonetically. She was promoted at the end of the year on the basis of age, size, intelligence, good work habits and social adjustment, with the proviso that she get regular help from the reading clinician. This year, Joyce is afraid of her teacher, and is doing satisfactory classroom work only in writing and science. She is described as a slow-moving, slow-thinking but thoughtful child who requires much repetition in order to learn: an anxious perfec-tionist who "never takes a chance, never guesses at an answer", she tends to be a non-participant in class discussion for fear of making a fool of herself. She is very attentive, works hard and is never any trouble. On the Durrell Analysis, Joyce took chances, guessed, and made dozens of mistakes: even the simplest paragraph was not read accurately. Only in comprehension was her score in line with her capacity: both oral and silent reading were incredibly slow. Of 35 words attempted in. "Word Recognition and Analysis", she recognized 13 with flash presentation and was able, given time, to decode 13 more. Her errors suggest that she looks at the beginning consonant(s) and general shape of the word, then guesses: and that she makes l i t t l e use of context clues. Family Background Philip comes from a completely upper-middle-class background. His mother, "in love with the English language", is a thorough-going intellec-tual, who has completed three years of University since her marriage: she is the "moving force" in the family. His father, a stable family man, collects coins and takes an interest in politics. In this home, good conversation is consciously cultivated, television is carefully monitored l l l l and discussed, and books are considered necessities of l i f e . Education has such high priority that when Philip experienced difficulty at school, his mother turned to a private psychiatrist for help. Philip has always wanted to do everything as soon and as well as his older brother who is a good student in Grade IV: verbal assurance that he wi l l be more successful when he is older does nothing to reduce his frustration. Since a l l the children on the block play together, the two boys are thrown into pretty constant competition. Philip seems not to be threatened by his two sisters, although one of them, just 18 months younger, is quickly "catching up" with him. Philip's reaction to this steady pressure for achievement has been to "adopt" a father with whom he can relax and enjoy himself. This man, a plasterer, is a neighbour: the occasions when he includes Philip in fishing and camping expeditions are the high points of Philip's l i fe , the events about which he willingly writes and reads stories at school. It is to this home that he gravitates in. his free play time, not so much to play with the two boys in the family as to find out about l ife from their father. Prom him, Philip has learned English slang terms, camping and sports skil ls , and the silent companionship of fishing. It was when he discovered that his "adopted father" had to be "good at reckoning" to "keep his books straight" that Philip suddenly began to take an interest in arithmetic at school. Joyce's parents are old enough to have had their education disrupted by the second World War. At the age of twelve, her father was taken off to a German, work camp and has had no further schooling. He is intelligent 115 enough that, when he went to work as a surveyor's assistant soon after his arrival in Canada, he quickly worked his way up to be instrument man, a position usually occupied by university students. However, when he writes a letter home, i t is fu l l of spelling mistakes, even though German is a phonetic language - "he puts them in the wrong order, or turns them the wrong way round". Her mother was five years' old when the War started. Her schooling was interrupted, by air raids and in-adequate sleep when, her family stayed in Berlin, by frequent moves "to keep ahead of the Russians" when they sought peace in the countryside: i t was not until she was in Grade IV that she learned to read. She completed Grade VIII, took business training as a salesclerk. In Canada, she worked full-time as nurse's aide, leaving her two daughters with neigh-bours in Kingston who had children the same age. Since moving to Vancouver, she has stayed home with Peter, aged 2 ^ : she now feels guilty for not having given the same attention to the gir ls . She describes their sixteen months in Germany as "a mistake": they had intended "going home for good" but her husband just did not like i t there. For the past two years, he has worked as a steel chipper because surveying kept him away from his family. Joyce's mother is a warm, pleasant, unsophisticated woman with the same slow tempo of speech and action as her daughter. At the interview, she was gentle and patient with Peter until he f e l l asleep on her lap. She described Joyce as a happy child, eager to please, easy to guide, and able to get along well with everyone. She enjoyed being the baby of the family and was rather upset about Peter's arrival: but when she saw 116 " how tiny and helpless he was, she "tried to be like a second mother to him". She and her older sister have always been thrown together, and tease and quarrel a great deal, "but there is no real bad blood between them". Until shortly before returning to Germany, the children were taught only English at home, though their parents have always spoken German between themselves. As a pre-schooler, Joyce was a TV addict, although she also loved dressing up and playing with dolls. No one read to her and her sister: "We did not then know what were the right books in English to get for the children". Joyce enjoyed the boat trip to Germany so much, with its games, prizes, parties, menus and the fuss everyone made over her that she was loathe to leave the liner when i t docked. In Berlin, her eagerness to please made her everybody's favourite. This year, Joyce is becoming discouraged about school, especially now that her reading disability is affecting her arithmetic in which she used to do well. She loves her periods with the reading clinician and tries so hard, "but s t i l l i t don't come right". She "finds excuses" when they try to get her to read at home, and burst into tears when they suggested summer school. Her parents hope that she wil l be promoted this year - "She would be ashamed to go to school i f she had to sit for another year with the l i t t l e kids in Grade II". They also hope that a l l of their children wi l l get enough education "to make life happy for them". Self-Concept Maturational lag in sequencing, inter-sensory integration and visual memory is probably the most accurate label that can be applied 117 to Joyce's difficulty with reading, on the basis of available data. There would appear to be a genetic factor involved since both parents had trouble with reading, and her older sister has never found i t easy. There is also a linguistic factor: in a bi-lingual home with parents unsure of their English, there is typically insufficient "feed-back" when children are learning to talk, and thus they may f a i l to acquire the anticipatory schema, the feeling for language, which enable most people to make effective use of context clues in listening and reading. This child came to school with good work habits and attitude, and with a solid feeling of worth: the problem is to maintain her morale by giving her tasks at which she can succeed until she outgrows her difficulty. This will not be easy, for Joyce is a. sensitive child and she is already feeling discouraged. On the Pigem Test, she said she would least like to be "an elephant in a circus, trying to do tricks i t was never meant to perform": undoubtedly there are times when Joyce feels that she is such an elephant. It would undoubtedly help matters i f , for purposes of the report card which she takes home, her grade in reading were assigned by the reading clinician on the basis of progress and effort, rather than by her classroom teacher on the basis of grade norms. It is also possible that she may be suffering from some type of visual anomaly of the type which requires orthoptic exercises rather than glasses. This should be investigated. Philip's self-concept has already been damaged, and he seems resigned to failure in school work, in spite of good intelligence, adequate visual and auditory perception, and a home background which, superficially, 118.. at least, appears to be ideal for school achievement. Three different theories have been advanced to explain this phenomenon: l) the reading clinician assumes that he has a specific learning disability of which the chief ingredient is a notoriously unreliable memory with short attention span and lack of genuine motivation contributing factors: the problem, therefore, is to find some method of teaching which will improve his attention span, his memory and his motivation; 2) the family psychiatrist feels that Philip is basically an anxious child, who "reads the threat behind his mother's reassurances, the hostility behind the honeyed words" , and is too preoccupied by his feelings of rejection to concentrate on school work: short attention span, un-reliable memory and lack of motivation are symptoms of his anxiety. The problem is therefore to help his mother to become less cold, introspective and conscientious, and the father to give this son more attention; 3) the classroom teacher sees Philip as an immature child, not ready for the work of second grade, escaping the pressure through daydreams and increasing indifference. Data collected in this project tend to support the third point of view. Through his behaviour, he seemed to be trying to communicate his unreadiness for school from the very beginning . He was "upset" about going to kindergarten, and only special attention which he interpreted as "love" reassured him enough to enable him to keep going. In fi r s t grade, he was often in tears, complained about his teacher and acquired a "hang-dog" air. In second grade, he daydreams. What else 119 can a small boy do t o convey the idea t h a t , whatever h i s a b i l i t y , he i s not ready f o r the demands of school? True, h i s home c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s unreadiness and a n x i e t y . Years of i n e v i t a b l y u n s u c c e s s f u l competition w i t h an o l d e r brother i n which h i s parents d i d not have the good sense to a c t i v e l y intervene would give him a f e e l i n g of inadequacy i l l - a s s u a g e d by v e r b a l reassurances. The value which h i s mother attaches t o education might w e l l , even i f u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , give him the impression t h a t i f he f a i l e d at school, he would lo s e her l o v e . And conspicuously l a c k i n g i n t h i s f a m i l y i s a sense of humour, an animal enjoyment of today, which might have made the i n i t i a l f a i l u r e more t o l e r a b l e , the a n x i e t y l e s s severe: everybody i s so s e r i o u s , so c o n s c i e n t i o u s , so p e r f e c t . I t i s presumably t h i s r e l a x a -t i o n of standards, t h i s spontaneity of f e e l i n g , t h i s enjoyment of sensual r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l i , t h a t he seeks and. f i n d s w i t h h i s f r i e n d , the p l a s t e r e r . I f t h i s hypothesis i s c o r r e c t , h i s teacher i s r i g h t : he should have been r e t a i n e d i n f i r s t grade. As h i s school i s organized, t h i s i s the only way i n which the pressure c o u l d have been eased. Even w i t h h i s many e r r o r s , h i s reading i s s t i l l w e l l above the Grade I standard, and he might have had the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a few A's and B's on h i s r e p o r t card. R e t a i n i n g him i n second grade can s c a r c e l y be expected t o have the same s a l u t a r y e f f e c t f o r there i s l e s s r e p e t i t i o n i n word r e c o g n i t i o n , more phonics and a p p l i e d reading, longer s t o r i e s , and fewer repeaters t o keep him company. 120 Testing the' "Hypothesis Since Joyce and P h i l i p , i n sp i t e of adequate verbal and non-verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e , are both disabled readers, no comparison between them w i l l be attempted. Although P h i l i p v/as chronologically and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y ready f o r reading i n September 1965, be was emotionally immature» l a r g e l y because parent-child  r e l a t i o n s h i p s lacked warmth and spontaneity. In addition, a l i f e - t i m e of unsuccessful competition with a brother two years older had made him somewhat anxious and unsure of himself. Hia dominant mother's precept and example constituted a tremendous pressure f o r academic achievement: because the child r e n were given such conscientious and constant i n t e l l e c t u a l stimulation, t h e i r success at school v/as taken f o r granted. When P h i l i p f a i l e d , h i s mother automatically assumed that there was something wrong with him, and con-sulted a psy c h i a t r i s t : i t never occurred to her that her standards might be too high. P h i l i p had the psychological robustness to f i g h t back at th i s assault on his ego, t r y i n g i n turn s e v e r a l defences - f i r s t open reluctance to attend kindergarten, then projecting the blame on his teacher. But h i s mother r e l e n t -l e s s l y pressured the teacher i n t o a promotion which, given the i n f l e x i b l e stand-ards of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r school., served only to increase h i s f e e l i n g of inadequacy. Then P h i l i p found a neighbour w i l l i n g and able to meet h i s needs f o r a warmer emotional climate: fortunately f o r P h i l i p ' s mental health, h i s parents were not so possessive that they denied him t h i s wholesome r e l a t i o n s h i p . At about the same time, he began to receive i n s t r u c t i o n from an understanding reading c l i n i c i a n . However, h i s sel f - r e s p e c t v/as threatened by a poor r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s Grade II teacher: i n self-defence, he has turned t h i s tima to day-dreaming. 121 Joyce was chronologically, intellectually, socially and emotionally ready for school i n September 1965. The move to Germany had given her two years i n kindergarten. Family relationships were warm and wholesome, she was well-loved for her placidity and sunny disposition and had a positive self-concept. However, she had serious deficits i n visual perception which caused her t o have trouble with sequence,, reversals and form constancy. An auditory learner, she came from a bilingual home with poorly educated parents who provided inadequate feed-back in English, and both of whom had had d i f f i c u l t y i n learning to read  in spite of good intelligence. Furthermore, the slow reaction time which had been one source of her serenity became a l i a b i l i t y when rapid intersensory integration was required for reading: and her anticipatory schema tended to be in German rather than English. A proud child, afraid of her teacher's sharp tongue, she protects her self-respect by minimum participation i n classroom language act i v i t i e s which might improve her linguistic s k i l l s i n English and thus contribute to her reading achievement. Fortunately the school has recognized her disability and she is receiving daily instruction from the read-ing clinician: however, there is no follbw-up i n her home room. SUMMARY - PHILIP AND JOYCE PHILIP 122 JOYCE ANOMALIES Observed Significant ANOMALI Observed :ES. • >ignificant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3>. Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) - low energy level i d)- hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative aelf-concept X X X X X X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) SUMMARY - PHILIP AND JOYCE (continued) philip  123 Joyce Observed ANOMALIES Significant ANOMALIES Observed {Significant 15. Home Environment a) books b) television c) trips and travel d) family socially isolated e) bilingualisra X f) verbal conimunication g) child-rearing practices h) standards expected * of children i ) family structure j) marital relationship k) parent-child X relationship 1) standara of housing m) level of education - F. • • _ - M. n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings o) attitude to education X 16* School Experience a) frequsnt changes b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil X relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching methods f) attitude to frustration X X X X X X IV. THANE AND DANNY 12U-THANE DANNY Matching Data Birth Date September 16,1959 November 14,1959 Pintner I. Q. 102 100 Kindergarten Attendance yes yes Days Absent 1965-66 • 57 13 • No. of Children i n Family 2 1 Child's Birth Order 1 s t 1 s t Bilingualism no no Marital Status separated married Occupation of Breadwinner M. - office clerk F. ~ office clerk Blishen Rating -class IV V -standard score 51*2 50,2 Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary ) 1 1 ) ' -I. Q. . 96 106 -#ile rank 4 4 t h 66th Raven Matrices -raw score 10+9+4 » 23 10+3+4 = 17 -#ile rank 90th 50th Frostig "Perception -given at C.A.* 7:5 7:4 ; ^  -P-*A. equivalents^ y 6:0 , 6:0 , 6 : 9 , 8 : 9 , 8 : 3 9:6,6:0,7:0,-7:0,8:3 Durrell Reading -Oralilevel 3 4 4 5 :speed 2L 2L 4L 4L terrors 1 • 8 • 1 - 2 :comp. 7/7 4/7 7/7 7/7 - -Silent:level 2 3 4 5 ' :speed 1M IL 4H 4H :comp. 2H 3M 3H 3M '-Listeningxlevel 4 ..- - 5- 4 - 5 :comp. ?/7 8/9 V 7 8/9 . *Read C.A. 7*3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7*3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months 12$. -, THANE AND DANNY Matching Data Thane and Danny both come from unilingual, lower middle-class families and have average intelligence according to the Fintner- Cunningham Test. Danny is an only child, Thane has a l i t t l e sister: both boys have been to kindergarten. They are poorly matched with regard to school attendance in I965-I966, and family structure: Thane comes from a broken home and his mother works fu l l time, while in Danny's family, the father is the breadwinner and the mother works only part-time. The Children Thane was a t a l l , immaculate handsome child, tense and. humour-less, who spoke almost in a whisper and wrote with his left hand. He worked slowly and methodically at a l l the tests, virtually ignoring the investigator, and betraying l i t t l e emotion. He showed l i t t le indication of fatigue except at the end of the Raven when he speeded up and per-severated an upper-right-hand-corner choice instead of thinking each problem through. Danny was an. appealing l i t t l e boy, tiny, freckled and gap-toothed. Relaxed to the point of carelessness, generally, he worked quickly with a tendency to guess. However, he was very slow on the Frostig Test which he found difficult . He was reasonably attentive with a good attention span, until he came to Durrell Listening Comprehension: with nothing to occupy his hands and eyes, his attention wandered, and he scored two fu l l grades below his reading achievement. 126 I n t e l l i g e n c e and Perceptual Development The r e s u l t s of the Peabody confirmed that both boys have at le a s t average mental capacity. Thane's high score on the Raven, con-sidered i n conjunction with h i s mother's school h i s t o r y and h i s reluc t a n t speech, suggests that he may be a very bright c h i l d with an emotional block to language development. On the M i l l s Test, Thane learned words equally w e l l , whichever method was used. He was the only c h i l d i n the sample f o r whom the kine s t h e t i c method was e f f i c i e n t . But there was an important d i f f e r -ence: words that he learned v i s u a l l y he knew at sight - h i s one error, saying fox f o r wolf, suggests that h i s procedure was a simple picture word shape a s s o c i a t i o n : but words that he had learned by the other two methods he s t i l l had to sound out, l e t t e r by l e t t e r . His high score on the D u r r e l l L i s t e n i n g Comprehension indicates that he i s an excellent l i s t e n e r and provides further evidence that he may have above average a b i l i t y . Danny, on the other hand, i s a very poor l i s t e n e r . There i s no d i f f i c u l t y with auditory perception - he made only one error i n Hearing  Sounds i n Words on the D u r r e l l and none on the Wepman. I t i s rather a problem of d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y - unless Danny's eyes and hands are engaged in. the task at hand, h i s attention, wanders. Reading and School Achievement Since s t a r t i n g kindergarten, Thane has attended three schools in. two c i t i e s and had a t o t a l of seven d i f f e r e n t teachers. His sty l e of reading suggests that, i n the process, he has been given too much phonic 127 training too soon, for he has almost no sight vocabulary, and must take time to sound out every word. Although he decoded 32/hO Grade I words on the Durrell with "flash" presentation, his response was so slow that i t seemed as though he must be sounding out the after-image of the word. As a result, his reading is very slow, and he has trouble with non-phonetic words. On the Durrell, he scored very high in Hear-ing Sounds in Words, very low in Visual Memory of Words, and found Silent Reading extremely diff icult , unaided memories accounting for only half his score. During his f irst year in Grade I, Thane missed a lot of school -chickenpox plus two hospitalizations - and f e l l so far behind that "he got to not wanting to go to school, and coming home later and later". This year, with home and school stabilized, Thane is enjoying school and doing well, C+ in reading being his lowest mark at Easter. His teacher has noted improved attention, self-confidence, and social participation: he even had the courage to be disobedient for a short spell just before Christmas. Danny has lived in'; the same neighbourhood a l l his l ife and attended only one school. His reading, both oral and silent, is excel-lent and well above his grade level: however, i t earned him only a C+ grade at Easter. Except in arithmetic, which he finds difficult, Danny is considered an. average student who could do better i f he were more attentive and careful. He is inclined to avoid contact with his teacher and participation in class discussion, though he has lots of playmates. He tends to have less than average self-confidence and self-control, and at times is easily fatigued. 128 Fami l y Background For the p a s t s i x y e a r s , Thane's mother, separated from her husband, has been work ing f u l l - t i m e . Whi le they l i v e d i n Winn ipeg , her p a r e n t s cared f o r the two c h i l d r e n : s ince coming to Vancouver " to prove t h a t I c o u l d make i t on my own", she has had t o depend on a s e r i e s o f p a r t - t i m e " s i t t e r s " . She l i k e s her work and hous ing i s now s a t i s f a c t o r y : she and the two c h i l d r e n share a l a r g e upper duplex i n a n i c e p a r t of the d i s t r i c t w i t h a d i v o r c e d r e g i s t e r e d nurse and her s i x - y e a r - o l d daughter . However, s i t t e r s are a problem - "They ' re not i n t e r e s t e d i n the c h i l d r e n , on ly the money": they t e n d - t o ignore Thane i n favour of the two g i r l s who are mischievous tomboys; and t o use t h r e a t s and spankings i n s t e a d of p r e v e n t i n g c r i s e s by watch ing the c h i l d r e n c a r e f u l l y . Thane's mother was second e l d e s t i n a c l o s e - k n i t farm f a m i l y o f s i x , h a l f o f Whom, l i k e Thane and h i s mother, were q u i e t and humour-l e s s . Thane has always been a t i m i d , anx ious c h i l d who had to be p r o -t e c t e d from " s c a r e y " s t o r i e s and TV programmes - "a l i t t l e o l d man who never seemed t o enjoy l i f e very much". He i s j u s t beg inn ing to laugh a t j o k e s , " loosen up a b i t " , and get a l o n g comfor tab ly w i t h other c h i l d r e n . Thane's mother s t a r t e d s c h o o l a t k, u n i v e r s i t y a t lU, and never had any d i f f i c u l t y making good marks . She dropped out h a l f - w a y through second year because of i l l n e s s , model led and taught i n a m o d e l l i n g s c h o o l , and was m a r r i e d a t twenty . Books are cons idered a n e c e s s i t y \ i n t h i s household , and Thane has been read t o r e g u l a r l y "ever s ince he c o u l d s i t s t i l l " , o f t e n by h i s u n c l e s . Now he and h i s mother read easy 1 2 9 l i b r a r y books t o g e t h e r , each r e a d i n g every second page a l o u d . The c h i l d r e n r e t u r n t o Winnipeg f o r h o l i d a y s , and are taken "everywhere" by c a r : i n Vancouver, t h e r e are f requent week-end e x p e d i t i o n s t o parks and beaches, and r e g u l a r attendance a t the Roman C a t h o l i c Church . Danny i s the o n l y c h i l d i n an u t t e r l y c o n v e n t i o n a l l o w e r - m i d d l e -c l a s s home. H i s f a t h e r has a secure n i c h e i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e ; very s p o r t s - m i n d e d , he goes t o some of the games, watches a l l the o t h e r s on TV, and i s t r a i n i n g h i s son t o the same p a t t e r n , fie i s m a r r i e d t o h i s h i g h s c h o o l sweetheart who worked f o r the te lephone company before her marriage and has r e c e n t l y gone back p a r t - t i m e because o f boredom. They a r e b u y i n g a modest house i n the area where b o t h grew u p , and grandparents l i v i n g hearby serve as s i t t e r s on a l t e r -nate Saturday n i g h t s so t h a t Danny's p a r e n t s can see a movie o r go b o w l i n g . F a t h e r d r i v e s t h e i r second-hand c a r t o work: on week-ends i t i s used f o r f a m i l y shopping and v i s i t i n g . Danny has been r a i s e d a c c o r d i n g to "the Book" - D r . S p o c k . When he was s m a l l e r , he was r e a d t o every n i g h t . TV i s l i m i t e d and c e n s o r -e d : h i s mother i s p l e a s e d t h a t Danny p r e f e r s a c t i v e p l a y . He has a lways had l o t s o f playmates and i s encouraged to b r i n g them home. P a r e n t s share e q u a l l y whatever d i s c i p l i n e i s necessary to m a i n t a i n reasonable standards of honesty , t r u t h f u l n e s s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y -u s u a l l y s h o r t term d e p r i v a t i o n of p r i v i l e g e s w i t h a c a r e f u l e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t h i s a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . Danny was a h y p e r a c t i v e , c o l i c k y baby. S ince the age o f f o u r , h i s c o l d s have been f r e q u e n t l y f o l l o w e d by b o t h earache and b r o n c h i a l .130 asthma: when he was hospitalized twice for steam tent treatment, his mother stayed with him most of the day. After a bout of infection, he recovers slowly and tires easily. Some hearing loss was found after such a bout but the family doctor assured her that i t was insignificant and probably temporary. Danny enjoyed kindergarten and fi r s t grade, liked his teachers and did well academically. This year, he is afraid of his teacher who is training the children to listen carefully: he says he can't hear her, she says he doesn't pay attention. In September, he balked at going to school but now he seems used to her and her expectations. Self-Concept Thane is basically an anxious child, the sensitive son of an anxious, immature mother. It seems fair to assume that she was par-ticularly tense during his infancy and early childhood because of factors which led to the break-up of her marriage before his second birthday. He was s t i l l in diapers when his sister was bom: then his mother went to work. When Thane started kindergarten, his mother was 2000 miles away. At a l l the critical points during his first two years of school, she was never available. He never complained - both he and his mother have dif-ficulty expressing their emotions - but his behaviour revealed his anxiety: nightmares after hospitalization and after scarey stories, inability to enjoy l i f e , fear of new experiences, aloofness from both adults and children, lack of self-confidence, For an anxious child, security at home and at school are important pre-conditions for learning: 131 Thane had neither. It i s significant that his school achievement and adjustment have improved during the past eight months, with a warm consistent teacher and with his family situation temporarily stabilized. It is possible that Thane's mental capacity is seriously under-estimated by the Pintner-Cunningham and the P_eabody, since pervasive anxiety inter-feres with the kind of learning which they measure: the Raven Matrices may have been tapping an anxiety-free area of Thane's ego. He has a health problem which frequently leaves him lacking i n energy; he is distractible and easily discouraged, not because of a nega-tive self-concept, but because he i s chronologically, perceptually and emotionally immature for his grade placement. Testing the Hypothesis: Thane and Danny were remarkably similar i n temperament, in visual perception anomalies, and probably i n intelligence and style of learning. Both were chronologically, physically and emotionally immature upon school entrance, although Danny had greater social maturity. Both came from unlingual middle-class homes with conventional values. However, Thane was a tense, anxious child. His anxiety stemmed from three sources - a hypersensitive nature; a broken home which l e f t him dependent upon an immature working mother, a series of indifferent baby-sitters, and in competition with a teasing younger sister; and f r e -quent changes of school and domicile. Instead of being verbalized, i t was repressed and found expression i n nightmares and sullenness. He entered school with a positive self-concept, and academic success-this year has done much to restore his self-confidence. But during his f i r s t year in Grade I, he had to cope with perceptual, chronological, social and 132 emotional immaturity; frequent changes of s chool, teacher, baby-sitter and domicile; and health problems requiring hospitalization and pro-longed absence from school. Danny had to cope with similar problems of sensitivity and immaturity, but with s t a b i l i t y at home and school he learned to read. His current carelessness, d i s t r a c t i b i l i t y and lack of persistence are symptoms of his immaturity and of a poor pupil-teacher relationship. Thane was also introduced to phonics before he was ready; ' as a result his reading when tested lacked speed and fluency. SUMMARY - THANE AND DANNY 133 ANOMALIES Observed Significant DIFFERENCES Observed. > 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental Capacity 4. 'Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. .".Sitting'* arrangements 12. Visual 1'Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. „Style of learning 14. Self-concept • a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level o ,&).; hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative'self-concept X X X X X X X X X X X X X X. X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) SUMMARY - THANE AND DANNY (continued^ 13k ANO Observed 4ALIES Significant DIFFERENCE^ Observed Significant 15» Home Environment a) books b) television c) trips and travel d) family socially isolated e) bilingualism f) verbal communication g) child-rearing practices h) standards expected of children i) family structure * j) marital relationship k) parent-child relationship 1) standara of housing m) level of education .- F. - M. n) school difficulty - parents - siblings o) attitude to education 16, School Experience a) frequent changes X b) cultural gap c) - teacher-pupil relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching methods X f) attitude to frustration V , J A N I C E AND MURIEL J A N I C E MURIEL Matching Data Birth Date J a n u a r y 5 , 1 9 5 9 J a n u a r y 3 0 , 1 9 5 9 Pintner I . Q. 74 73 Kindergarten Attendance y e s y e s Days Absent 1965-66 9 37.5 No. of Children i n Family 5 7 Child's Birth Order 2 n d 4 t h Bilingualism no n o Marital Status m a r r i e d s e p a r a t e d Occupation of Breadwinner l o n g s h o r e m a n P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e Blishen Rating -class V I I V I I -standard score 4 1 . 2 Standardized.Tests Peabody Vocabulary - I . Q. 74 • 100, - # i l e vrank 2 n d 5 0 t h Raven Matrices -raw score 8+4+3 = 15 9+6+3 = 1 8 - $ i l e rank 1 0 t h 5 0 t h Frostig Perception -given, at C.A.* 8 : 2 8 : 1 -PiA. equivalents! 10 :0 ,8:3,6 :0 ,8:9 ,8:3 7:9,8:3,6 :9,7 :0 ,8:3 Durrell-: Reading -Oral:level 1 2 3 3 4 - :speed I H I H 2 L 3M 3M :errors 3 2 4 0 3 :comp. 4 / 4 6/6 7/7 6/7 4/7 -Silent:level = 2 3 3 4 -v.- :speed . I L I L 3M 3M • :comp. 2M 3L 3M 3M -Listening:level 2 3 3 4 :comp. 6/7 5h/B 7i/ 8 2i/7 •Read CA. 7:3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7:3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months 136 JANICE AND MURIEL Matching Data Both Janice and Muriel come from large families at the very bottom of the socioeconomic pyramid, and, according to the Pintner-Cunningham  Test, have borderline intelligence. Both missed more than the average amount of school during I965-I966.J Janet has been continuously enrolled at T.School since kindergarten: Muriel transferred in from a neighbouring school in September, 1966. Muriel comes from a broken home, Janet does not: neither mother works outside the home. The Children Janice looks and behaves like a poster illustrating "the under-privileged child" - broomstick limbs, dirty hair and fingernails, unironed clothing two sizes too large, lower lip chronically chapped, from anxious biting, shoulders rounded, eyes downcast, shy and inarticulate. She did not know when her birthday was, or how many brothers and sisters she had. Words missed on the Peabody Test revealed experiental deprivation: so did her use of the tachi-stoscope and. of a propelling pencil as toys, and of the Mills ' Test as a game. When called upon to speak in sentences or to express ideas in. her own words, she hunched her shoulders, bit her l ip and required much encouragement before she would- even try. Success produced a shy smile and a surprising, mischievous twinkle in her eyes. With only bitten finger-nails to reveal a trace of anxiety, Muriel was as poised an eight-year-old as investigator has ever met. Grooming and manners were faultless, clothing becoming and immaculate. Somewhat aloof at first,, she responded quickly to individual attention. The word "bronco" 137 evoked a lively description of the Williams Lake Stampede. She mentioned her twelve-year-old brother, injured in an auto accident, who had "lost his memory" and now went by bus to a special school. She said her mother did not like the city much -. "it's too crowded and noisy". She spoke of being "in training" to win one of the Centennial physical fitness awards. She was intrigued by the tests, and was the only child in the sample who wanted to know the "right answer" to the items she had missed. Intelligence and Perceptual Development On the basis of school achievement and of performance on the Peabody  Vocabulary Test, the Raven Matrices and the Durrell Analysis,it is quite evident that Muriel has at least average intelligence. Her low score on the Pintner-Cunningham can be explained by analysis of sub-test scores and reference to the results of the Frostig Test. The Pintner-Cunningham is loaded with visual perception factors, and Muriel's Frostig score indicates difficulty with Figure-Ground Discrimination and Form Constancy. With almost two years of daily instruction, she has learned to compensate for visual perception anomalies in reading. However, these deficits did affect her score on the Pintner-Cunningham, which presented unfamiliar tasks to be completed within a strict time limit. Muriel also has some difficulty in discriminating between the sounds of v and f, g and d: three out of four errors in "Hearing Sounds in. Words" and a l l three errors on the Wepman were of this type, and she said "draft" for "giraffe". Kinesthetic teaching proved inefficient - Muriel learned only 7/l0 words for immediate recall , and remembered only five of these the follow-ing week. She would appear to be a visual-auditory learner, with some preference for visual methods. 138 There a r e n o - t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h measure t h e p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y o f c h i l d r e n as d e p r i v e d a s J a n i c e . I n a s t i m u l a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , h e r o l d e r b r o t h e r g a i n e d 2k IQ p o i n t s i n s i x months. However, a l l t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i c a t e t h a t J a n i c e i s f u n c t i o n i n g a s a b o r d e r l i n e m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e c h i l d , i n t h e b o t t o m 10 p e r c e n t f o r h e r age. C o n t r i b u t i n g t o h e r low s c o r e on t h e P i n t n e r - C u n n i n g h a m were p e r c e p t u a l d e f i c i t s r e v e a l e d by t h e F r o s t i g T e s t . The M i l l s ' T e s t r e v e a l e d J a n i c e ' s s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e f o r a v i s u a l s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g : she was a b l e t o l e a r n o n l y t h r e e words by t h e a u d i t o r y method, compared w i t h f i v e by t h e k i n e s t h e t i c a n d t e n by t h e v i s u a l . She was a l s o a b l e t o s c o r e Y]/2Q i n V i s u a l Memory o f Words i n t h e D u r r e l l . S i n c e she made o n l y two e r r o r s on t h e Wepman, h e r d i f f i c u l t y i n l e a r n i n g p h o n i c s a p p e a r s t o a r i s e l e s s f r o m p o o r a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h a n f r o m i n a d e q u a t e a b i l i t y t o a n a l y z e a n d s y n t h e s i z e . R e a d i n g and S c h o o l A c h i e v e m e n t Her k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r , c o n c e r n e d about J a n i c e ' s r e f u s a l t o t a l k , t u r n e d t o t h e s c h o o l n u r s e f o r h e l p . C a l l i n g a t t h e home w i t h t h e u s u a l speech p a m p h l e t s , t h e . n u r s e was a p p a l l e d a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s she f o u n d and r e p o r t e d t e r s e l y " l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n can be e x p e c t e d f r o m t h i s f a m i l y ". S c h o o l p e r s o n n e l were a p p r i s e d o f t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n a t an i n t e r - a g e n c y c o n f e r e n c e convened t o make p l a n s f o r h e r o l d e r b r o t h e r when J a n i c e was i n Grade I . Her t e a c h e r was moved t o t r i g g e r J a n i c e ' s f i r s t words a t s c h o o l by a s p e c i a l C h r i s t m a s g i f t , b u t n o t t o make any s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o h e l p h e r c a t c h up w i t h s c h o o l work: J a n i c e f i n i s h e d t h e y e a r w i t h a s t r a i g h t D r e p o r t c a r d . T h i s y e a r , under a warm, c o n s i s t e n t t e a c h e r , J a n i c e has 139 m a s t e r e d a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t s t a g e s o f r e a d i n g , h a s begun t o t a k e p a r t i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s , a n d i s s l o w l y b e i n g a c c e p t e d b y a t l e a s t some o f t h e c h i l d r e n : w i t h t h e s e g a i n s , h e r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e h a s g r a d u a l l y i m p r o v e d : h e r e n e r g y a n d s e l f - c o n t r o l a r e o f t e n b o t h b e l o w a v e r a g e . I n F e b r u a r y , J a n i c e ' s r e a d i n g , b o t h o r a l a n d s i l e n t , was v e r y s l o w : she made e r r o r s e v e n a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l , a n d a s k e d f o r h e l p w i t h 5 p e r c e n t o f w o r d s e n c o u n t e r e d . H o w e v e r , g i v e n t h i s h e l p , h e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n was e x c e l l e n t . By E a s t e r , h e r t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d t h a t h e r a c h i e v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g was a v e r a g e f o r h e r g r a d e : she was d o i n g s u p e r i o r w o r k i n a r i t h m e t i c a n d w r i t i n g . M u r i e l came t o T . s c h o o l w i t h a r e p o r t c a r d s h o w i n g a b o v e a v e r a g e a c h i e v e m e n t a n d a t t i t u d e i n f i r s t g r a d e . H e r p r e s e n t t e a c h e r t a k e s h e r g o o d p o i n t s f o r g r a n t e d , l i t t l e r e a l i z i n g w h a t a n a c h i e v e m e n t t h e y a r e , a n d s e e s M u r i e l a s a n a v e r a g e c h i l d d o i n g a v e r a g e w o r k , a n d o f t e n r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p e t i t i o n i n . o r d e r t o l e a r n . On t h e D u r r e l l A n a l y s i s , M u r i e l ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g was a f u l l g r a d e a b o v e b o t h o r a l a n d l i s t e n i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n , w i t h r e c a l l a t G r a d e I V ( A m e r i c a n ) l e v e l e n t i r e l y u n a i d e d , a c c u r a t e a n d w e l l - o r g a n i z e d . S p e e d a n d a c c u r a c y were s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r h e r g r a d e p l a c e m e n t , a n d f r e q u e n t l i p -movements i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g were h e r o n l y f a u l t y h a b i t . She h a s a c h i e v e d t h i s l e v e l i n s p i t e o f d e f i c i t s i n b o t h v i s u a l a n d a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n . F a m i l y B a c k g r o u n d J a n i c e i s t h e s e c o n d o f f i v e c h i l d r e n i n a m u l t i - p r o b l e m f a m i l y w h i c h h a s b e e n u n d e r t h e c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y lUo for the past four years. Her older "brother was labelled by the school as retarded and assigned to a slow learner's class. When he failed to adjust satisfactorily there, he was re-classified by the Child Guidance Clinic as emotionally disturbed and placed in a residential treatment centre. There, within six months, his IQ jumped.from 76 to 100, and his progress in other areas was correspondingly rapid. Janice's father, a hypochondriac, earns $250 - $300 per month working part-time as a longshoreman: he is too proud to accept available financial assistance. He hides l i terally when social workers, police and other authoritarian personnel want to talk to him, although, once cornered, he can communicate courteously and intelligently. He hides figuratively from any recognition of his problems which might involve action on his part to solve them. He has a phobia about public transportation so that he must live within walking distance of the docks. He is unreasonably jealous of his wife, who s t i l l has a pretty face, and wi l l allow her to go no place without him except to the nearest shopping centre. On one occasion, pushed to agree that he should take his family out occasionally, he spent a whole week's wages on a second-hand car, and piled his wife and children inside. It broke down three miles from home; when the police came to help, he was so abusive that he drew a 30-day j a i l sentence for impaired driving and driving without a licence. Janice's mother, who has never had much energy or initiative, is completely dependent upon her husband. Further slowed down by obesity and varicose veins, and frustrated at every turn by a big, ancient house in which plumbing, electrical and heating installations are always breaking 1U1-. down, she has almost given up trying. She has no control over the children, and makes no effort to teach them even the most fundamental courtesies, although she herself is courteous. Inarticulate and slow-thinking, she is capable of perceptive comments when roused to speech.: this, however, is seldom. For the most part, members of this family communicate by means of gestures, glances and grunts. The TV is on constantly, but only rarely does anyone in the family pay attention to i t . There is no money for toys and when they are donated, no one at home to teach the children how to use them or look after them. In one pathetic gesture, when the school refused last year to let Janet bring her reader home, her mother went into debt to subscribe to Dr. Seuss books and buy a book-case to house them. To counteract environmental deprivation, the Children's Aid Society last year hired a part-time worker to take the children on outings three times a week. They were so uncivilized that, for the first nine months, she had to take them one at a time. It was the eldest boy, on one of his visits home, who taught them to use knives and forks. When he was first taken, to a coffee shop, he didn't have the words to order what he wanted -he had made up his own words. When his parents visited him at the treat-ment centre, their store of conversation was exhausted in five minutes. Within the family, the children form a cohesive group, with the eldest boy modelling himself on his father, and the younger children aping him. To date, this pattern has produced children who are inarticulate, suspicious and unsociable. However, when Jamie returns from the treatment centre in June, the family social worker hopes that the younger children will be equally assiduous in copying the good habits he has learned. IU'2 Muriel's mother and her brood of children have been on Public Assistance since the parents separated five years ago. Born on a remote Alberta Indian reservation, and educated to the age of sixteen in an Indian residential school, the mother is a handsome, forceful, vigorous woman in her mid-thirties. So well has she applied herself to the problem of securing a decent standard of living for her family that they have a warm, clean, comfortable house: an automatic washer and dryerj a good television set; a telephone; and adequate modern furniture in good condition. When her son was injured in. an auto accident, she secured prompt medical attention and legal aid. She takes justifiable pride in keeping her children well-fed, well-clothed and well-organized, and encourages them to take part in school and neighbourhood house activities. So thoroughly has she accepted the standards and modus  operandi of the predominant culture that her children have no cultural gaps to bridge when'.they go out into the community. She falters only with her teen-agers. She is determined that they wi l l stay in school as long as "the welfare" wi l l support them. - "I don't want them to spi l l their guts out waiting table or scrubbing floors, and that's about a l l girls can get these days without an education". But once they get past Grade VII, she can no longer supervise their studies knowledgeably, and she does not have the right answers when they insist they have no homework. Muriel's mother takes no nonsense from any of her children, but rarely has to punish them. "They've s t i l l got tender mouths, and answer to a pull on the bridle", is her way of putting i t . She manages them with consistency, honesty and a sense of humour, giving them both freedom 1U3 and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Even the four-year-old must pick up his toys and remove his muddy boots at the door: but he can choose his own. clothes within reason, and spend his n i c k e l allowance as he pleases. The t e l e v i s i o n set i s on most of the time, but only those children are allowed i n the living-room who are prepared to watch i t q u i e t l y ; t h i s form of control keeps viewing within very moderate bounds. The family own very few books, but the children make extensive use of the public l i b r a r y . Subscribing to no newspaper, they follow the news on t e l e v i s i o n . Muriel i s the f i f t h of seven children aged two months to sixteen years, a l l but two of them g i r l s . As a pre-schooler, she was subject to frequent colds which rapidly developed into pneumonia unless she was given a n t i b i o t i c s and kept i n bed. "Books, paper, pencil and crayons were her salvation - and mine", says her mother. She used to beg her older s i s t e r s to read to her: now she begs them to bring her books from the l i b r a r y which i s not within walking distance. As w e l l as sports, outings and active outdoor play, she loves to play school with her friends and family, usually serving as teacher. She gets along w e l l with everyone except her ten-year-old s i s t e r : her mother encourages them to make different friends and pursue different interests to minimize the f r i c t i o n . At home, Muriel i s cheerful, cooperative and r e l i a b l e , three q u a l i t i e s prized i n t h i s family. :T .:. . •• •?• f V. • •• 1"< r 1 '. •**/•• '•/" ) •' )• < : • • • >. . :' t . • :' ' ' i'; ) ~J . : J . I" .". • : '. . 1UU Testing the Hypothesis Janice and Muriel are deceptively well matched, even in anomalies of visual perception. However, Janice's deprived environment has so stunted her growth i n a l l areas - physical, intellectual, social and emotional -that her functioning intelligence - verbal and non-verbal - i s si/mificantly  inferior to that of her counterpart. Although both g i r l s are from the lowest socioeconomic class, Muriel's mother has made good uae of community resources to see that her children have adequate environmental stimulation, while Janice's parents are socially isolated i n their incredible incompetence. Good work habits acquired at home have enabled Muriel to become a satisfactory reader and a competent auditory-visual learner i n spite of deficits i n both visual and auditory discrimination: Janice was not yot ready for phonies after l g years in Grade I. Muriel entered school chronologically, intellectu-a l l y , socially and emotionally ready for reading, physically vigorous in spite of recurrent respiratory infection, well-activated, well organised, and well-cared for; Janice v/as lacking i n a l l these aspects of'readiness. To protect her shreds of self-respect, 3he resorted at school to withdrawal and voluntary aphasia, thus cutting herself off from contacts which might have helped hor to compensate for some of her deprivation. She v/as an anxious child, but i t seems inaccurate to speak of her as having a negative self-concept. Rather, she had a very diffuse and immature self-coneept, which became temporarily positive whenever she was praised, and negative whenever she was made t o f e c i inadequate. During kindergarten and her f i r s t year in Grade I, the school took no i n i t i a t i v e i n trying to help her, and made no allowances for her enormous d i s a b i l i t i e s . This year, with beginning success i n reading and a sympathetic teacher, she has acquired 1U5 sufficient courage to try a l i t t l e passive resistance in the classroom, at about the two-year-old emotional level. However, two precious, years have been wasted, and without an individualized school program, her prospects for continuing success are slim. SUMMARY - JANICE AND MURIEL LU6 ANOMALIES Observed Significant DIFFERENCES Observed Significant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level «d) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X *' X X X X X X X X X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) JAlilCS hW) vmtSi, • (ecntisued) 1U7 Observed ANOMALIES Significant DIFFERENCES Observed Significant 15. Home Environment a) books a b) television X X c) trips and travel % x d) family socially X X isolated e) bilingualism f) verbal communication X x g) child-rearing practices X h) standards expected X of children i ) family structure j) marital relationship X k) parent-child X X rel&tionship 1) standard of housing X X m) level of education - F. - M. n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents x 21 - siblings x o) attitude to education 16, School Experience a) frequent changes b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil relationship d) pace of learning X X XI e) teaching methods f) attitude to frustration JJ X X s X X X X X X X X 'X X X X s X X X X X X X X VI. MICHAEL AND PETER 11*8 MICHAEL PETER Matching. Da/ta Birth Date October 24, 1958 December 8, 1958 Pintner I. Q. 80' 80 Kindergarten Attendance yes yes Days Absent 1965-66 ? ? No. of Children i n Family 6 1 Child»s Birth Order ^ 3rd 1st Bilingualism no no Marital Status married widow Occupation of Breadwinner F. - bricklayer M» - secretary Blishen :;Rating -class VI III -standard score 44.6 54.1 Standardized Tests Peabody'Vocabulary • - I . Q. 75 118 -#ile rank 10£h 89th Raven Matrices -raw score 9+6+7 = 22 11+9+4 = 24 -#ile rank 75th 75th Frostig Perception -given-at C.A.* 8:4 8:3 -P.A". equivalents! 7:3,8:3,5:0,6:3,8:3 10:0,8:3,7:0,6:3,8:3 Durrell Reading -Oral:level 2 3 2 3 4 • : speed IL IL 2H 3H 3L <•:errors 1 7 0 4 6 :comp. 6/6 5\tl 6/6 6/7 7/7 -Silent:level 1 .2 2 , 3 •• : speed IL IL 2L 2L • :comp. 1L IH IH IL -listening:level 2 3 3 4 5 :comp. " 6/7 • 5/8 7/8 5/7 5/9 •Read C.A. 7*3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7*3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months iU9 MICHAEL AM) PETER Matching Data Michael and Peter are poorly matched with regard to socioeconomic status and family structure. However, both transferred to T- School in the Spring of i960, both received an IQ of 80 on the Pintner-Cunningham , both had attended kindergarten, and Michael was just six weeks older than Peter. The Children Eight-year-old Michael created the overall impression of a six-year-old English public school boy - in size, speech (he s t i l l says wiv for with, and has a slight English accent), manners and grooming. He was open and ingenuous in manner and showed on the"Story of Jimmy" and in other ways, that he trusted adults and relied upon them to help him. In the testing sessions, Michael stuck doggedly to whatever was assigned, but seemed relieved when rescued from tasks beyond his capacity. A word of praise produced a charming smile: i t did. not embarrass him unduly to say "I don't know". Peter was a sturdy l i t t l e boy with a husky voice, rather inarticulate, and decidedly wary of adults - at least, of females connected with the school. On the Pigem Test, he said he would most like to be a fast jack rabbit who could outrun and outsmart his enemies: he would least like to be a fish, "because fish are always being caught and they can't do anything about it". These identifications, taken in context, suggest that Peter, seeing his environment as hostile, and himself as temporarily helpless, daydreams of escape and freedom. However, there was no sign of daydreaming in the testing sessions: Peter worked quickly and steadily with a good attention, span. 150 Intelligence and Perceptual Development Most of the available evidence, including his developmental history, indicates that Michael is a well-adjusted slow learne-r, with the intellectual, perceptual and emotional development of a typical six-year-old. Many slow learners have one or two strong suits: Michael* high score on the Raven indicates better than average skills in non-verbal reasoning - like.Susan, he enjoys doing jig-saw puzzles. The Mills ' Test, plus his relatively high score in Listening Comprehension on the Durrell, showed Michael to be an auditory learner. His immature speech seemed to be merely an uncorrected habit rather than the result of poor auditory discrimination - he made no errors in the Wepman. The kinesthetic method was the least efficient: Michael has a very poor visual memory and printed sbole for store, boad for bread, chan for chair . It seems clear thatthere is no validity to Peter's low score on the Pintner: his above-average scores on the Peabody and Raven are much more in accord with his developmental history and his present level of functioning in areas other than school work. Contributing to his low score on the Pintner were low scores in Form Constancy and Position  in Space on the Frostig: but the second of these is suspect, because Peter failed the easier items and passed the more difficult . Two other factors contributing to Peter's low Pintner score are: l) the Pintner is a timed group test requiring close attention to directions: Peter is a slow starter and a daydreamer who functions poorly in a group, and 2 ) Peter's negative attitude towards school in general and middle-aged teachers in particular probably affected his motivation, so that his effort was minimal. i 5 i Like Michael, Peter i s an auditory learner. He made only one error i n Hearing Sounds i n Words, compared with four i n Visual Memory of Words: and his Listening Comprehension score was a f u l l two grades higher than his S i l e n t Reading score. Reading and School Achievement This i s the fourth year that Michael has been exposed to formal reading i n s t r u c t i o n , and his f i r s t taste of success: f o r i n England, kindergarten children at Michael's school were started on reading a f t e r Christmas. At the end of February, Michael was s t i l l a beginning reader, very slow and inaccurate at even the lowest l e v e l , and with a very l i m i t e d sight vocabulary. By Easter, h i s teacher considered his reading above average for his grade. She sees him as an eager, attentive l i t t l e boy who needs much repe t i t i o n i n order to learn: when school work i s too d i f f i c u l t f o r him, his self-confidence ebbs and he gets into mischief. Although Peter was promoted from f i r s t grade with a straight C report card, his teacher t h i s year has nothing good to say about him. She sees him as a chronic daydreamer, e a s i l y distracted, passively r e s i s t i n g both the content and the rules of the classroom. He has less than average se l f - c o n t r o l and self-confidence, participates i n o r a l English only when he has to, and speaks without thinking. At Easter, she graded him D or E i n a l l subjects except Science and indicated that e f f o r t and attitude were unsatisfactory i n most subjects. Peter attended and enjoyed kindergarten i n Winnipeg'. He started Grade I at K. School, under a pretty young teacher whom he adored, but who found i t d i f f i c u l t to get him to work - he spent too much time watching 152 the other children. At Christinas, he came to T. School: an experienced, methodical teacher whom he respected but didn't especially like was successful in bringing him up to f irst grade standard by the end of the year. Family Background Michael is the third of six children, under the age of twelve, and the only one whose development was slow and who has had difficulty with school work. He walked at the usual time, but didn't talk until the age of four, and s t i l l wets the bed. He is particularly threatened by a brother eighteen months younger, a chatterbox and a tease, who tries to correct Michael's reading errors and to finish his sentences. Michael wil l never forgive David for betraying the family secret of hi s enure si s. The family emigrated from England in. the Spring of 1966, in search of a higher standard of living, and to get away from grandparents who played favourites among the children. Michael's step-father, a"solid family man", has legally adopted the three eldest children, offspring of the unsuccessful f irst marriage of Michael's mother, and treats a l l six with the same gruff affection, firmness and tolerance. Tired at the end of a day's work, he leaves most of the management of the children to his energetic wife, but "shows a real interest" in what they t e l l him, and backs up his wife's decisions. Both parents stress honesty, thrift , the Golden Rule, neatness and good manners. At one point, Michael's mother said, "i shouldn't have children -I have no patience with them". Undoubtedly she yells at them frequently 153 and smacks them occasionally. But as she talked about coping with Michael's short-lived episodes of bullying and of "keeping the change" from shopping errands, and the more chronic problem of maintaining Michael's self-respect in the face of young David's teasing, i t became apparent that her annoyance is only a short-term reaction which a l l the children are used to. Once she has vented her spleen, the incident is forgotten. To minimize the friction between David and Michael, she encourages each boy to make his own friends. She also gives Michael generous praise for his conscientious neatness and tidiness - "That gives him an answer when he is taunted about doing poorly at school". She is especially fond of Michael - "He seems to need me more than the others do" - and i t seems clear that his trust in adults arises from his secure relationship with his mother. Michael's mother is an avid reader herself, and used to read to the children regularly when Michael was small. While talking about Michael, she suddenly asked, "Would i t help i f I started, reading to him again? He deserves a l i t t l e pleasure from books, when they have been defeating him for so long". Hidden in Michael's dresser drawer is a Boys' Own Annual, a gift on his sixth birthday: one of his dearest ambitions is to be able to read i t himself from cover to cover, and no one in the family is allowed to refer disparagingly either to the book or to the ambition. Television watching is controlled for a l l the children, and programmes featuring crime and violence are forbidden. On week-ends, the family car is used for outings to beach, farm and park. Michael's 15u mother went to secondary school on a non-academic programme: his step-father was apprenticed as a brick-layer at the age of fourteen. Both parents want to give their children a good start in l i fe , but in their eyes, this is not purely a matter of school environment. "What makes a man a good employee and a good husband and father is being honest and reliable and not always thinking of his own advan-tage. They don't give grades for that in school". Peter is the only child of a vivacious attractive young widow who works full-time as a secretary. Until he was five, they lived in Montreal, and he was cared for by his maternal grandmother, "a warmhearted but excitable woman who never stops talking, with her voice growing shriller by the minute". They left Montreal because neither of them could stand her compulsive chatter any longer. In Winnipeg, and in Vancouver, Peter's sitters have usually been neigh-bours with pre-school children, with whom Peter gets along very well he does complain about the "silly teenagers"and "old nags" whom she sometimes has to use. At home, Peter is trustworthy and responsible: he takes good care of his toys and clothes, needs few reminders about baths and teeth, and keeps out of mischief i f left alone while his mother shop for groceries. He spends hours in solitary play with models and toy cars while his mother does her housework. "Peter and I can be com-panionable without talking a l l the time... We can be alone without feeling lonely. We have to be in the mood to be sociable". -155 His mother realizes that what she has to offer Peter is not enough. Last winter, in an abortive effort to "bring him out of himself", she enrolled Peter and herself in a drama group at a nearby community centre. Analyzing this failure, she has come to realize that Peter loves the outdoors, and does not function well in a group, while she is "the indoor type". She has therefore applied for a Big Brother for him. His mother enjoys reading herself, and has read to Peter since he was tiny. She s t i l l reads difficult books to him: i f he is inter-ested, he is attentive and fu l l of questions which she considers intel-ligent. Given a "pretty free hand" with TV, he often chooses nature and space programmes and the Seven O'clock Show, as well as the more usual children's fare. Self-Concept Michael's family has given him enough solid support that he has been able to weather school failure without losing his self-respect. He has about as good a home base as any slow learner could hope for, his mother helping him to find success in simple, repetitive tasks, and occasionally "running interference" for him, without over-protecting him. Closer contact with his father wil l be necessary as he grows older. Peter has not been so fortunate. Reared to the age of five by an over-talkative, excitable grandmother, he learned to follow his mother's example of selective inattention, a habit that reappears whenever 1$6 he is confronted by a similar middle-aged woman, whether s i t t e r or teacher. Thus, of his current teacher, he remarked, "I can only l i s t e n just so long, and she never stops talking". Siixe Peter i s largely an auditory learner, this habit is a serious handicap in school learning. Petefc'3 home has given him adequate intellectual stimulation, but his behaviour suggests that he was socially and emotionally unready for f i r s t grade: he probably needed a f u l l year to watch the other children and to adore a pretty teacher. This year, he and his teacher appear all e r g i c to each other, and both are reacting i n a pretty immature fashion. Because of his experience with h i s grandmother, Peter w i l l never find i t easy to work under a fussy, talkative older teacher: but the encounter might have been less disastrous i f i t had been postponed. To protect his self-respect, Peter daydreams and blames the teacher for his d i f f i c u l t i e s : confronted with his responsibility to pay attention, he breaks into tears. Testing the Hypothesis: Peter's problem is emotional and social immaturity, of the stubborn variety that sometimes arises when a sensitive boy is raised i n a home without men with whom he-can identify. Although the Winnipeg School Board wisely assigned him to kindergarten at age 5 :9 , he s t i l l entered Grade I with the social and emotional patterns typical of a 5-year-old. Being an auditory learner, but with a neurotic reaction to overtalkative middle-aged women, Peter needed special care in school placement: this he did not receive. This year he has expressed his resentment through passive resistance and day-dreaming. He has protected his self-esteem by blaming his teacher for his academic failure, and by playing with 157 younger children, with whom he is reported to get along well. Michael's social and emotional immaturity stems from a different source. He i s a relatively homogeneous retarded learner, whose i n t e l l -ectual, perceptual, ling u i s t i c , emotional and social development are at the six-year-old le v e l . He entered school with a reasonably positive self-concept i n spite of his retarded physical development, because his mother had given him real affection, acceptance and understanding. But i n spite of her best efforts, his repeated failure at school has eroded his self-confidence, so that no** he no longer expects to succeed at academic tasks. However, Peter's superior verbal intelligence enabled him to learn to read during his f i r s t year of formal instruction, whereas Michael fai l e d i n effect three times before enjoying a taste of success. 158 SUMMARY - MICHAEL AND PETER ANOMALIES Obaerved Significant DIFFERENC3S Ob8trT«d Significant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child 1s Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time £ - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. ' a n o m a l i e s 13. Style of_learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level • ,d) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X x X X X X X X X X X X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) SUMMARY - MICHAEL AND- PETER (continued) 159 Observed ANOMALIES Significant DIFFERENCES Observed 15. Home Environment a) books b) television cj trips and travel d) family socially isolated ej bilingualisra f) verbal communication g) child-rearing practices h) standards expected of children 1) family structure X j) marital relationship k) parent-child relationship standara of housing m) level of education - F. - M « nj school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings attitude to education 16. School Experience frequent changes cultural gap teacher-pupil relationship pace of learning teaching methods attitude to frustration X X X X X 160 VII. RICKY AND VINCE RICKY VINCE Matching Data Birth Date January 5, 1959 December 29, 1958 Pintner I. Q. . 82 80 Kindergarten Attendance two months no Days Absent. 1965-66 23,5 15 No. of Children i n Family 2 2 Child's Birth Order 1st 1st Bilingualism yes yes Marital Status, married ? married Occupation of Breadwinner mine laborer janitor Blishen Rating -class VI VII -standard score 43a 40.8 Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary ; " I . Q. 97 95 -$ile ;rank 46th 42nd Raven Matrices , -raw score 8+6+6 = 20 10+8+5 = 23 - $ i l e rank +50$ 75$ Frostig Perception 8:1 -given, at C.A.* 8:3 -P.A. equivalents* 10:0,8:3,7:0,6:9,8:3 9:6,6:6,9:0,6:3,7:6 Durrell Reading -0ral:level 3 4 5 :speed RICKY IS A 3H 3H 3H :errors 0 2 3 :comp. NON-READER 7/7 6/7 5/7 -Silent:level 3 4 :speed 3M 3M :comp. 2H 3H -Lis tening:level 3 4 3 4 5 :comp. 8/8 2/7 8/8 2/7 7/9 •Read C»A. 7*3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7*3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months 161 RICKY AND VINCE Matching Data Ricky and Vince appear to be very well-matched. Each was born in Canada, but belongs to a bilingual family of first-generation immigrants who are low on the socioeconomic scale. Both appear to have borderline intellectual ability, according to the Pintner-Cunningham Test. Each is the elder of two children at home, although Ricky has a 22-year-old brother who has been on his own since the age of 16. There is only three weeks' difference in their age. However, since Vince was born in December, he entered school a f u l l year sooner than Ricky and spent two years in Grade I. The Children Ricky was a sturdy l i t t l e blond with close-cropped hair, close-bitten fingernails, and a chronic scowl. He walked rapidly, his head thrust for-ward and his fists clenched, as though heading for a fight. At f irst suspicious of the whole testing situation, he cooperated fully when i t was explained to him on a man-to-man basis, and even persuaded his i l l iterate mother to make one of her few visits to the school. He tackled the tests with humourless intensity, and did not relax noticably even when praised for good work: he shrank from a friendly hand on his shoulder. Although his speech was unaccented, he talked in. monosyllables and phrases, with rather jerky delivery. Vince was a t a l l , slim boy with black hair, large white teeth, and an apprehensive manner. He spoke and read just above a whisper: his English was fluent and unaccented, but vocabulary and sentence structure were decidedly limited. Eager to please, he started each test with a 162 flourish, but wanted to quit as soon as the items were a l i t t l e difficult . He seemed insecure in a one-to-one situation with a strange adult, and his relationship with investigator was tenuous and tense throughout. Intelligence and Perceptual Development It seems fair to assume that both boys have at least average ability since: l) coming from a bi-lingual background, both made average scores on the Peabody Vocabulary Test, and 2) both had significantly low scores on two of the Frostig sub-tests, which would account for their low scores on the Pintner-Cunningham. On the Peabody, Ricky's failures were clustered: questioning revealed that they were mostly due to labelling difficulties. Vince's failures were scattered, and seemed due to limited experience: he had never seen a peacock or a train, a capsule or an archer. Vince proved to be a visual-auditory learner, scoring at the Grade 3-5 norm in both Visual Memory of Words and Hearing Sounds in Words. The Mil ls ' Test.was not of much help in determining Ricky's optimum style of learning, since he knew the sounds of only 6/9 letters and 6.16 phonograms in Hearing Sounds in Letters. With the pictures as clues, he was able to learn seven words in fifteen minutes by the visual method, but had forgotten a l l but two a week later. His painfully slow, meticulous, left-handed printing, sprinkled with reversals, seemed to counterindicate the kinesthetic method unless he were introduced to cursive script. He is also handicapped by poor auditory discrimination and memory: he made six errors on the Wepman, confusing d with t_, b and g: some time later, the reading clinician V started teaching him English nursery rhymes, and reported that he found 163 this memory work not at a l l easy. There may be a genetic factor in Ricky's reading disability. His mother sat for three years in a village school in Poland without learning the rudiments of reading: his older brother, with three years of schooling in Germany and five in Canada, is close to i l l i terate: "He read and write just for himself - he too ashamed (to) show his mistakes. Maps and machines he read good like a teacher, but words, they allatime fool him - he think they go this way, they go that". School and Reading Achievement Living only three blocks from the school, Vince missed kindergarten because no one told his Italian-speaking parents that i t was available. He entered school painfully shy, and spent his first year in Grade I learning to communicate in English and to get along with the other children. He learned English quickly, but is s t i l l easily frightened by aggressive boys and angry teachers. This year, with mastery of reading, his self-confidence in the classroom has improved, he remembers what he has been taught, and his school achievement was graded C+ except, in arithmetic-and social studies which were C-. The Durrell Analysis validated the school's estimate of Vince's reading abil ity: he had a good grasp of phonics but a limited sight vocabulary: his silent reading was accompanied by constant l ip move-ments and his spontaneous recall was minimal: but his overall achievement was at the Grade IV (American) level. Ricky's family moved from Timrains, Ontario, in October, 1964, but Ricky was not enrolled in kindergarten at T. School until May, 1965, because his mother did not know that five-year-olds could go to school. 161* He has always been a hostile, aggressive pupil with a "chip on his shoulder", subject to temper tantrums triggered by relatively minor frustrations, unable to accept criticism, and blaming other children for his own misbehaviour. During his f irst year at school, he spent considerable time in the hall "cooling off". Highly distractible and with a short attention span, he learned very l i t t l e . This year, under a sympathetic teacher who tried to reduce his frustrations, he became more cooperative, but remained distractible, quick-tempered, with wide swings in self-confidence and readiness to participate in class. How-ever, he was s t i l l a non-reader. Soon after this diagnostic study, his classroom teacher tried giving Ricky individual reading instruction after school, and found that, after in i t ia l resistance, he looked forward to these sessions: after Easter,. he was referred to the school reading clinician, and arrangements have been made for him to attend the Reading Clinic regularly next year. Family Background Ricky's mother is a stout, f lorid, voluble and volatile woman of about i*0, who spent her childhood in a father-dominated family on a tiny farm in Poland and then in Nazi-forced-labour camps: she had only three years of schooling. A wartime marriage of convenience resulted in the birth of her eldest son in 19^5 and her emigration to Canada in 1955-Ricky was an illegitimate child whose birth resulted in her separation from her husband, but i t was not until 196^ that she forced the father of her two youngest children to marry her and support them: in the 165 meantime, they were on Public Assistance for five years. Her present husband, semi-literate with Grade IV education in Czechoslovakia, works in the mines on Vancouver Island, coming home three or four times a year. Using television to "learn Canada", Ricky's mother has acquired a distorted concept of middle-class family l ife and a tremendous respect for education, but lacks the skills to put her ideas into effect. Ridden by feelings of guilt and inadequacy, and over-compensating for her own harsh childhood, she shows her "love" for her children by inconsistent discipline, by overindulgence and by permissiveness bordering on neglect: she has almost no control over Ricky and copes with his temper tantrums by giving him "nerve medicine". Ricky's father believes in the "good old ways" of instant obedience and corporal punishment, and the European concept of the family where the father is lord and master. In consequence, Ricky's parents argue violently whenever his father is home. Five-year-old Wanda, plump and placid, ignores the strife and gets her own way by passive resistance. But Ricky has always over-reacted to his environment. Even as a baby, he was never cuddly, and was awakened by the slightest noise. At age two-and-a-half, he was apprehended by the Ontario Children's Aid Society because his mother had left him sleeping alone at home while she enjoyed a glass of beer with her friends at the local "pub", and placed for six months in an English-speaking foster home. For him, this was a traumatic experience: he lost ten pounds, was unable to com-municate in either Polish or English, soiled himself, and was too terrified to go to sleep - "he f a l l asleep wid his eyes wide open and his hands and legs allatime twitching, never s t i l l" . 166 Since this experience, Ricky's mother has taken the children with her everywhere she goes, and has spoken only English to them. She has never been able to read to them or even teach them nursery rhymes. The television set is on constantly "except when bad things are shown", but Ricky watches i t very l i t t l e - "he can't sit s t i l l long enough". His mother takes the children on frequent outings to the beaches and parks, but is embarrassed because she cannot answer their questions and because they behave badly. Standards of nutrition -and physical care are high, now that the family is not on Welfare. The ancient upper duplex that they rent provides a separate room for each child, and although i t is located in the poor part of the school district, has a large fenced corner lot with flowers and swings. Vince's father is a short, fat, balding man with an anxious manner and a heavy accent. He grew up in an anachronistic Italian village where "school was just for l i t t l e kids" and where young people lived at home unti l their marriage, taking orders from "Poppa" and handing over a l l their earnings. Emigrating to Canada in 1951* he worked as a railway labourer and sent money home so that four younger brothers could come to Canada. In 1956, he returned home, arranged his father's affairs, and married a g i r l from his own village. She worked full-time at power sewing unti l the Summer of 1966, leaving Vince and his younger brother in the care of an Italian-speaking family during the late afternoon: her husband, working k p.m. - 12 p.m. as a janitor, took care of them during most of the 167 day. She now works part-time and no sitters are necessary. He finds the boys easy to manage - "mostly we just scream at dem": but i t bothers him that Vince "no like work - he alia time wanna play". . In this family, there is no question of who is "lord and master". Terrified of city traffic and of juvenile delinquency, Vince's father keeps his family close to home physically and psychologically. He considers even tricycles dangerous, and makes Vince take his lunch to school so that he wi l l have to cross the busy through-street only twice a day. He does the budgeting and marketing, his wife the cooking and cleaning, and both look after the garden and the children. They are buying a large, solidly built house on a big corner lot in the better part of the district: the revenue from the upstairs apartment almost pays the mortgage. Except for relatives, they are socially isolated: "I got nuttin' in common wid dem (Italian) guys in the East End - de're a l l city slickers, and I'm just a country bumpkin by dem", he explains. His heart is s t i l l in Italy - he lives in Canada only because of the higher standard of living. In his hierarchy of values, getting a steady job, working hard, being respectful, and saving your money, have' top place: education is merely a means to an end. Self-Concept Ricky, a sensitive child who over-reacts to his environment, has learned at home to fear his father and have no respect for his mother: neither parent has given him an effective basis for self-control. He sees himself as waging a lone battle against a hostile environment, able to depend upon, no one but himself: in his responses to the "Story of Jimmy", 168 he indicated that the only situation in which he would turn to his mother for help would be when he had scraped his knee. But he accepts no responsibility for the difficulties he gets into - i f he cannot read, i t is because the teachers are no good and his mother is too dumb to help him: when he misbehaves in school, i t is because some other child made him mad: the teacher who punishes him is "picking" on him. By thus projecting blame, he maintains a self-concept of adequacy in spite of failure. This is the personality pattern of many delinquents. How-ever, he has shown himself s t i l l able to accept a helping relationship: i t is to be hoped that he wi l l gain a new respect for adults at the Reading Clinic, and more realistic respect for himself from the experience of success. Vince's family l ife has given him emotional security, and his self-esteem has been bolstered by two years of academic success. But such a wide cultural gap separates him from most of his class-mates that he feels socially inadequate - shy with strangers, apprehensive of new experiences, frightened by aggression. No less than Ricky, he sees his environment as hostile, but he faces i t together with his family, not alone. Whereas Ricky has learned to fight back, Vince has been taught to placate the powers that be by hard work and obedience. If Vince fai ls , he assumes that he has failed to work hard enough or to do as he was told: thus failure affects his ego deeply. 169 • Testing the Hypothesis Since Vince, with a late December birthdate, repeated Grade I i n 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 , both boys i n this pair w i l l be considered as repeaters. However, they are so closely matched i n so many anomalies that the temptation to compare them i s irrs s i s t a b l e . Perhaps the most striking difference between Ricky and Vince l i e s i n their contrasting forms of emotional immaturity, arising from divergent standards and methods i n child-rearing. Vince, over-protected, identifying with a warm, anxious father who sees the world as a dangerous place, i s an anxious child who tri e s to stave off failure and ho s t i l i t y by conformity and obedience. His self-concept i s very vulnerable because he blames himself for failure. His bilingualism, his failure to attend kindergarten, his family's social isolation and lack of recreational s k i l l s , and his own shyness and timidity combined to cut him off from peer relationships which might have reduced his social immaturity. Quite unassirailated, his functionally i l l i t e r a t e parents have modest educational goals for their children. Ricky, almost out of control both at home and at school, over-reacting to every stimulus, the reason for his mother's loveless l i a i s o n and the chief source of conflict in i t , expresses his anxiety through h o s t i l i t y , rebelliousness and conspicuous absence of self-control. He protects his self-esteem by denying responsibility for his failure and misbehaviour. Like Vince, he i a cut off from wholesome interpersonal relationships by his family's social isolation and by his own personality. However, his i l l i t e r a t e mother, doing her best to "learn Canada", i s pathetically eager to spare her second son the curse of i l l i t e r a c y , and ashamed that she can do so l i t t l e to help him. In unguarded moments, Ricky too "wishes he could learn so good" when he listens to the best reader i n the class ("Story of Jimmy"): success i h reading may well permit 170" Ricky to lower some of his defences and t o develop more mature s o c i a l relationships. There may be a genetic factor i n Ricky's reading d i s a b i l i t y , but there are so many environmental and developmental anomalies i n his case that i t would be i n t e l l e c t u a l l y dishonest to c l a s s i f y i t i n t h i s way. Lack of appropriate environmental stimulation leading to under-developed v i s u a l and auditory discrimination: bilingualism plus poor standards of English, plus an overtalkative mother adding up to a poor anticipatory schema i n English: left-handedness contributing to reversals - the reader i s referred to the summary on the_.riext page for a more complete l i s t . Vince's handicaps were less numerous, and because he was of a more placid temperament, affected him less severely. A competent auditory v i s u a l learner with an excellent ear f o r language, he acquired a surprisingly good command of English without formal i n s t r u c t i o n . His chief d e f i c i t s are i n s o c i a l adjust-ment, which i n t h i s case did not interfere w i t h learning to read, and limited environmental stimulation, the results of which w i l l be more severe i n the l a t e r grades. SUMMARY - RICKY AND VINCE -EICKX-171 ANOMALIES Observed Significant ANOMALIES -Observed aignificant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. "Scnobi Absence 1965-66 6. No.of- children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. .Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept ' a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low" energy level i d) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X X X X X y x x X X X X X X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) 172 SUMMARY - RICKY AND VINCE (continued) -RICKY- VINCE ANOMALIES Observed Significant ANOMALIES' Observed Significant 15. Home Environment a) books X b) television X c) trips and travel d) family socially X "isolated : e) bil'lngua'Iisra X f) verbal communication X g) child-rearing practices X h) standards expected X of children i ) family structure X j) marital relationship X k) parent-child X relationship 1) standara of housing m) level of. education - F. X - M. X n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents X - siblings X o) attitude to education 16, School Experience a) frequent changes b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil [relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching methods X X X X f) attitude to" frustration X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X •X X X X X X VII. YVONNE AND GUY 173 YVONNE GUY Matching Data Birth Date Pintner I. Q. Kindergarten Attendance Days Absent 1965-66 No. of Children i n Family Child's Birth Order Bilinguallsm Marital Status Occupation of Breadwinner Blishen Rating -class -standard score Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary - I . Q. -#ile rank Raven Matrices -raw score -$il e rank Frostig Perception -given at C.A.* December 29, 1958 110 yes 10.5 4 2nd yes married driver-salesman V ? ? 86 16th 8+6+9. = 19 +50th 8:1 P.A. equivalents* 7:0,8:3,5:6,8:9,8:3 Durrell Reading -Oral:level 2 3 :speed I H 2L terrors ± 2 :comp. 6/6 7/7 -Silent:level 2 3 . : speed 2L 2L :comp. 2 2 -Listening:Ievel 2 3 • iCQMP* 6/7 3/7 4 2L 4 2/7 January 12,1959 113 ' yes 5.5 1st no married partner- small business IV ? ? 130 96th 11+10+? = 28 •95th 8:2 10;0,8:3,9:0,8:9,8:3 4 4M 0 6/7 4. 4M 4 3 JZZ2-5 4M 1 4/7 5 4M 5 4 6 4M 2 6/7 5 -B/9 •Read C t A . 7*3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P . A . 7*3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months Ilk YVONNE AND GUY Matching Data Yvonne and Guy appear to be well-matched. Only two weeks apart in age, both earned top scores on the Pintner-Cunningham• Both belong to large families, Guy being the eldest and Yvonne the second eldest child. Although Yvonne's father emigrated from Austria only fifteen years ago, his English is impeccable, his wife is Canadian-born, and the home is essentially unilingual. Yvonne's father is a driver-salesman for one of the dairies: Guy's father is partner in a small ornamental ironworks. Neither of these occupations is listed in the Blishen Scale, but would appear to be comparable at least in terms of standard, of living: both families are buying a car, a television set and a three-bedroom house in the poorer part of the district: each home has a fenced yard well equipped with swings, sand-box, and a small wading pool for the children: both women do a l l their own. housework. Having been, born at the end of December, Yvonne started school a f u l l year earlier than Guy, but spent two years in kindergarten: both entered f irst grade at the same time. Yvonne was a tiny, self-effacing, "mousey" l i t t l e g i r l , her long blond hair pushed untidily into a grubby hairband, her blouse unironed, her tunic too big for her. She was tense and anxious throughout a l l the interviews, crest-fallen and apologetic when she made a mistake, incredulous when told she had done well. She showed obvious signs of fatigue about half-way through each testing session, although when questioned, she always replied, "No, I'm not tired". When she talked about her teachers, her parents and her siblings, she insisted that 175 everyone was "nice", while peering anxiously at the investigator to make sure she had said the right thing. Guy was a scrubbed, sturdy>effervescent child, bubbling over with energy and enthusiasm. He saw the tests as both a challenge, and a wel-come break from routine: he was so eager to find out "what've you got for me to do this time" that there was l i t t l e small talk. Since n e lives, opposite.;the :NeighbprhopdjHouse>^the, investigator, naturally asked whether he ever took part in its activities. He replied, "No, that's for guys that don't know what to do with themselves, and don't have fathers to take them places and show them how to catch smelts and play baseball. I have more fun at home". Intelligence and Perceptual Development Both children have excellent visual perception. Yvonne's low score on sub-test III of the Frostig was due to conceptual rather than perceptual difficulties. A l l of her errors had to do with the identifica-tion of squares. A page of varied quadrangles shown to her at the follow-ing interview elicited the fact that she thought a l l four-sided figures were squares except the "long box" which children are specifically warned against in test administration. Her teacher reported that she was excellent in art, spelling and writing. Yvonne's high score on the Pintner-Cunningham also suggests well-developed visual perception. Guy obviously has superior intelligence. The Pintner-Cunningham had too low a ceiling to do him justice: his school and reading achieve-ment, his developmental history and his leadership role at home and at school suggest that his 130 IQ on the Peabody is a more accurate assess-ment of his mental capacity. 176 With regard to Yvonne's intelligence, two interpretations are possible: l) she is a child of less than average ability, whose score on the Pintner-Cunningham has been inflated by exceptional skills in visual perception; or .2) she is a child of above average ability, whose low score on the Peabody, resulted from environmental factors. Her school performance (repeating both kindergarten and f irst grade), her slow pace of learning on the Mills' Test, her developmental history (premature birth, walking fifteen months, talking two years) and her score on the Peabody support the f irst point of view. On the other hand, Yvonne is an anxious child, whose self-confidence has been eroded at home, largely by verbal means. The handicap of premature birth, plus a poor self-concept arising out of her failure to meet her father's expectations, plus a strong negative reaction to language as the weapon which has been used to punish her, might equally account for her poor school performance and low verbal IQ. However, even in the latter point of view is accepted, i t seems clear that her score on the Pintner- Cunningham represents her optimum potential, and that Guy has significantly superior intelligence. With a perfect score on both Visual Memory of Words and Hearing  Sounds in Words, Guy showed himself to be a competent visual-auditory learner. Whatever method of teaching was used, Yvonne on the Mills' Test proved unable to tackle more than six words in fifteen minutes: in the kinesthetic and auditory methods, she was able to identify only two of these, once the cards were shuffled. She made no errors on the Wepman  Test of Auditory Perception but further investigation indicated a poor 177 auditory memory. Using the visual method on the Mi l l s ' , she learned four words, but had forgotten two of these the following week. Yvonne appears to be one of the children described by de Hirsch, who have trouble with analysis and synthesis, whose intellectual potential is low, whose auditory competence is weak, and whose frustration level is too low to build up words from their component parts, and who con-sequently are aot yet ready for phonics. School and Reading Achievement Except in arithmetic, Guy has had a straight-A report card a l l through school, and is accepted as a leader in the classroom and on the playground. He is eager and curious, learns easily and remembers accurately, and has a lively sense of humour. This year's enriched programme has kept his interest in school at a high level. In. March, on the Durrell Analysis, Guy read to the Grade VII (American) level before encountering words that he could not decode: however, he forgot details of paragraphs at Grade V and VI level, and the content of Para-graph VII was quite beyond him. During her f irst year at school, Yvonne mastered only writing: in. other subjects, her marks were a l l D's and E's. On the Durrell  Analysis, administered in February, Yvonne's Listening Comprehension score was a f u l l grade lower than Oral and Silent Reading, substantiating the diagnosis of poor auditory memory: she could recall the content of only the second half of Paragraph 3* Oral reading was word by word, in a whispered monotone: she had few sight words, applied phonics only 178 to the beginning and ending of words, and failed to use context clues. Silent reading was accompanied by sub-vocalization and long fixations: she needed much help in recall . However, by Easter, her teacher con-sidered Yvonne's oral reading above average for the grade, and on her report card, gave her B for reading and spelling, A for language, arithmetic and writing, and special commendation for art and effort. This was the culmination of the calculated effort of a sympathetic teacher to build up Yvonne's self-confidence. In spite of this effort Yvonne s t i l l has periods when, she breaks into tears at the slightest frustration: but her class participation, the energy which she puts into her schoolwork, and her self-confidence have improved steadily since September, and are now close to normal. Family Background Yvonne's father, a vigorous, articulate extrovert, came to the interview with his wife to protest against having his daughter used as a guinea pig. However, once his hostility was accepted as the earmark of a good father who cared what happened to his children, he relaxed and provided the necessary information: his wife interrupted only once although at times, she looked embarrassed. At the age of 18, having completed high school, Yvonne's father emigrated from Austria with his father: they worked hard and sent passage money home for the rest of the family - mother, sister and three brothers. By 195k, he had mastered the language well enough to become a salesman in Kingston. In 1956, he married a Canadian of German descent, an attractive domestic for a wealthy family, "because 179 • I knew she'd be a good cook and housekeeper". He has always taken p r i d e i n e a rning a good l i v i n g f o r h i s f a m i l y , i n paying b i l l s prompt-l y and i n "doing t h i n g s r i g h t " - when he took h i s f a m i l y East f o r a h o l i d a y i n 1966, he bought a new car and "we stayed i n motels every n i g h t - none of t h i s mooching o f f r e l a t i v e s or making do w i t h a t e n t and a Coleman stove". T h i s i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l f a m i l y i n which g i r l s and women are second-class c i t i z e n s . He has learned to accept n i n e - y e a r - o l d E l i z a b e t h because, l i k e him, she i s outgoing and adaptable, even though she i s "no great shakes" a t school. But Yvonne has disappointed him from the moment she was born - not only a g i r l , but premature, always c r y i n g , a fussy e a t e r , " a f r a i d of her own shadow", uncommunicative, l a c k i n g both a " c u r i o s i t y bump" and a sense of humour: he nicknamed her "tiny-whiney" when she was two, and s t i l l t h i n k s of her i n t h a t way. He has "never l a i d a hand on her - she hasn't the s p i r i t to get i n t o any m i s c h i e f " - but by means of t e a s i n g , b e l i t t l i n g remarks, and p a r t i c u l a r l y by h i s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y treatment of t h r e e - y e a r - o l d C h a r l i e , he has managed t o make her f e e l an u t t e r f a i l u r e . He i s teaching h i s son t o swim and t o speak German, and l e t s him help w i t h p a i n t i n g and r e p a i r s ; h i s excuses are "the g i r l s are chicken about c o l d water", " i t ' s u s e f u l f o r a man t o know two languages", and "the g i r l s are a f r a i d t h e y ' l l hammer t h e i r f i n g e r s or get t h e i r dresses d i r t y " . C h a r l i e i s h i s p r i d e and j o y : he takes h i s son everywhere and boasts about him - even about h i s escapades - e n d l e s s l y . 186 Yvonee's father seems unaware of the disintegrative effect of his attitudes and thinks he and his wife are doing a good job of raising their children. He describes his family as one that "sings together, plays together, and enjoys life". He knows a l l the right answers about raising children - "when they ask questions, we try to explain", "if they fight, try to find out what the real trouble is", "it's wrong to bully children. - i t just makes them hate you". He honestly believes that a l l the children enjoy their weekly outings in the car, and that three cross-country trips were a "real holiday", even though Yvonne gets car-sick regularly and falls asleep "after the f irst five miles". His discriminatory attitude extends to education. He expects Charlie to go to university because men have families to support, and "by the time he grows up, you won't even be able to deliver milk without a university degree", but as for the girls - "all they need is to be good housekeepers and have enough personality to catch a man". Guy's mother is a warm, somewhat harrassed l i t t l e woman who finds i t much easier to talk about her family than about herself. She would like her husband to go back to university and get a degree in accountancy, not because he would earn more money, but because "it seems a shame to waste the gift he has". A graduate nurse before her marriage, she has always wanted a big family, and feels fortunate in having four, healthy energetic children and a husband who lends her a hand when she is tired and. takes the bus to work so that she can have the family car. In raising children, she believes in treating them as individuals, and in creating 181 as few issues as possible: the few strict rules she adheres to have to do with health and safety. These are enforced largely by verbal manipulation, with an occasional swat "when I'm too tired to argue any more". The aim of both parents is to develop in their children a firm concept of right and wrong, and a growing sense of responsibility and independence. Guy has chosen his own books and TV programmes from an early age. "if what they choose is junk, we just talk about it afterwards, and gradually they develop better taste". As a pre-schooler, Guy was a TV addict -"He had so many questions, I had to watch most of the programmes with him - I just moved my ironing board in beside the TV set". Wow he is highly selective about television, preferring outdoor play. And he reads to his younger siblings the books he enjoyed having read to him. There have been no long trips or family holidays - "We'll save those until the children are old enough to appreciate them.and we can afford them" - but during the summer, routines are relaxed, and there are frequent family picnics and trips to the beach. The whole family attends the Roman Catholic Church, Guy has been confirmed, and both parents are'active in church organizations. Self-Concept Biological endowment and home and school environment have combined i to make Yvonne's l i fe a series of failuresrand Guys a'series: of successes: leach, child !JS.-self-concept; reflects, his. experiences. •-, Unable ctp,;meet the ^standards .of either parents.:or teachers,-jYvp.nne, at the age of eight is already re signed-;toi failure,: her-:only iprotest is to break oc ca s-LonajTly into tears. However, she is s t i l l capable of 182 responding gradually to a warm, encouraging relationship with a sympathetic adult, and of getting along reasonably well with younger children. Guy has the type of positive self-concept that facilitates learning of a l l kinds: confidence in and respect for himself and others, eager-ness to participate, openness to new experiences, a steady drive to master himself and his environment, pride in increasing independence. On the Pigem Test, he said he would most like to be a strong lion in the jungle, roaring and proud because he had just killed a fleet antelope to feed his family: he would least like to be an ugly, helpless l i t t l e worm, "because people could, step on me and k i l l me, and I couldn't do anything about it". Testing the Hypothesis The major reason for the difference in reading achievement between Yvonne and Guy appears to be biological endowment, including intelligence, perceptual development, and physical vigor. Second in importance are those aspects of home environment concerned with the formation of self- concept and the use of language. Contributing to Yvonne's difficulties are the timing of school admission, which created unnecessary failure in kindergarten: and the introduction of phonics before she had the necessary level of perceptual maturation to make good use of them. SUMMARY - YVONNE AND GUY 183 ANOMALIES Observed Significant DIFFERENCES Observed Significant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental. Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of'children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8..Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10.. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level d) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X x. X X X X X A X ( C o n t i n u e d ) SUMMARY - YVONNE AND GUY (continued) A NO Observed 1ALIES Significant DIFFER! Observed i :NCEb significant 15. Home Environment a) books -b) television c) trips and travel d) family socially isolated e) bilingualism X . X f) verbal communication ? g) child-rearing practices X X X X h) standards expected of children i ) family structure X X X X X X X X j) marital relationship k) .parent-child relttionehip 1) standard of housing K x X X m) level of education - F. - M. ;n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings X X X 0) attitude to education X X X X 16, School Experience a) frequent changes b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil relationship d) pace of learning X X X X e) teaching methods X X X X f) attitude to frustration X X X X SEPPI AND JEFF 185 Matching Data Birth Date Pintner I. Q. Kindergarten Attendance Days Absent 1965-66 No. of Children i n Family Child*s Birth Order Bilingualism Marital Status Occupation of Breadwinner Blishen Rating -class -standard score » • i-Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary •-I. Q. • -#ile rank Raven-Matrices -raw score i - ^ i l f ^ r j i n k .. Frostig Perception -i-given at C.A.* 1 -P. A...- equivalents* Durrell Reading SEPPI September 20,1959 111 yes 0 2 1st yes married waiter VI . 43.2 112 78th IO+9+7 = 26 95th 7:4 10;0,8:3,7:0,7:0,8:3 JEFF December 3,1959 : 109 yes 6 . 2 1st n6 married stationary engineer V 48.7 110 73rd IO+7+4 = 21 +75th 7:3 7:3,8:3,7:6,8:9,8:3 -Oral:level 3 4 speed. 3L 3L !? terrors 0 6 ' r •; :comp. 7/7 4/7 •-Silentslevel 3 4 h' ' :speed 2H 2H :comp. 2 3 1^Listening:level 3 ' 4 ' p-!-' ' :comp. 7^ /8 5/7 5 lb-4 5 6 4H 4H 4L 0 2 5 6/7 . 7/7 6/7 3 5 3H 4H 4H 3 2 3 3 4 5 8/8 5/7 7i/9 ;*Read C.A. 7*3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7*3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months 186 SEPPI AND JEFF Matching Data Except that Seppi i s ten weeks older than J e f f , these two boys appear to be very we l l matched. Both obtained above average scores on the Pintner-Cunningham, and both went to kindergarten. Each i s the elder of two boys i n an immigrant family with similar socioeconomic status. The Children Seppi was a slim, doe-eyed handsome c h i l d , vivacious, well-mannered and well-groomed. He tackled a l l test items eagerly and showed, good persistence even when he found them d i f f i c u l t . In fluent, c o l l o q u i a l English, he talked e a s i l y about his two-year-old brother - "he's an awful pest - always getting into my things": about school i n Kingston - "I hated i t because the teacher was always screaming at us": and about books, TV programmes, and the hot, hasty, three-day t r i p from Kingston to Vancouver. A w e l l - b u i l t platinum blond with very f a i r skin, J e f f arrived f o r one interview immaculate; for the other two, rather grubby and scruffy i n appearance. His off-hand explanation was simple - "Oh, I got into a f i g h t with a guy on the way to school". His attitude i n i t i a l l y was rather belligerent and suspicious; .>. . he relaxed v i s i b l y when reassured that being tested implied no c r i t i c i s m , but continued to be wary and off -hand i n the unstructured parts of the interviews. He tackled the test items energetically, scowling when he ran into d i f f i c u l t y , sighing when he had solved some problem to his s a t i s f a c t i o n , working quickly and independently. His speech was fluent, c o l l o q u i a l and unaccented, except for a tendency to hiss his s's. I n t e l l i g e n c e and Perceptual Development Pintner-Cunningham, Peabody and Raven Tests are a l l i n agreement -both boys have a l i t t l e above average a b i l i t y , both verbal and non-verbal. According to the F r o s t i g Test, both have good v i s u a l perception. Both are e f f i c i e n t v i sual-auditory learners. Working at the Grade I I I l e v e l on the M i l l s ' Test, Seppi learned ten words i n f i f t e e n minutes, whichever method was used, and remembered nine of them the following week. On the D u r r e l l , J e f f made one error i n V i s u a l Memory of Words, two i n Hearing  Sounds i n Words. There was no marked difference between Reading Com- prehension and L i s t e n i a g Comprehension f o r e i t h e r boy. School and Reading Achievement Seppi came to T. School from Kingston, Ontario, on June 7th, 1966. Marks on h i s report card were i n the C+ to C- range, with the comment, "Seppi could do better i f he t r i e d harder". He was retained i n f i r s t grade on the basis of poor performance on t e s t s of reading, s p e l l i n g and arithmetic administered a week a f t e r h i s admission to the school, and the teacher's impression of general immaturity: no te s t of mental capacity was given. This year, he i s at the top of h i s Grade I c l a s s : he has boundless energy which has gradually been channelled i n t o classroom a c t i v i t i e s , where h i s contributions are often creative and o r i g i n a l . He does not always pay attention, but f i n d s i t easy to remember what he has been .itaught.. He i s very w e l l - l i k e d by the other c h i l d r e n . J e f f has always attended T. School. He came to Grade I I with a good average report card (B i n arithmetic, C i n other subjects) and a reputation f o r being a " l i v e - w i r e " , but not hard to handle. This has been an unsettled year f o r J e f f . He i n c l i n e d to be i n a t t e n t i v e and 188 c a r e l e s s , and had s p e l l s o f d e l i b e r a t e d isobedience and of o ther a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g behav iour . He appears t o have more than average energy and l e s s than average s e l f - c o n t r o l . H i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n c l a s s a re sometimes e x c e l l e n t , sometimes of the " s m a r t - a l e c " v a r i e t y . U s u a l l y c a r e f r e e , he appeared q u i t e anx ious and subdued both i n September and i n F e b r u a r y . G e n e r a l l y , he i s a somewhat above average s t u d e n t , but h i s performance i n b o t h r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s l i p p e d t o D a t E a s t e r . On the D u r r e l l A n a l y s i s , both boys earned a lmost i d e n t i c a l scores i n L i s t e n i n g Comprehension, do ing w e l l even w i t h the d i f f i c u l t paragraph about P e t e r Cooper 's E n g i n e . In O r a l Read ing , bo th tended to make e r r o r s i n s m a l l , easy words which l e f t the meaning of the passage i n t a c t ; t h e i r s t y l e of r e a d i n g was e x c e l l e n t , and t h e i r s e l f - c o r r e c t i v e s k i l l s very good. In S i l e n t Read ing , Seppi had t r o u b l e w i t h the f i r s t paragraph he t r i e d , J e f f w i t h the second: they l e a r n e d from e x p e r i e n c e , and each d i d b e t t e r w i t h the more d i f f i c u l t paragraph which f o l l o w e d . In comprehension, bo th showed an e x c e l l e n t grasp of the main i d e a , but i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l . Both had a very good s i g h t vocabu-l a r y . J e f f ' s o v e r a l l achievement was a f u l l grade above S e p p i ' s . Fami l y Background M a r r i e d i n Germany, S e p p i ' s p a r e n t s immigrated to Canada e a r l y i n i960. U n t i l Seppi was t h r e e , they were "man-and -w i fe" f o r a wealthy f a m i l y i n K i n g s t o n . Dur ing t h i s p e r i o d , Seppi had t o y s and a b i g y a r d , but no p laymates and a minimum of a t t e n t i o n : he was taught to speak German. Having l e a r n e d the lumber ing b u s i n e s s through a f i v e - y e a r b u s i n e s s course i n Germany, S e p p i ' s f a t h e r moved h i s f a m i l y to B . C . 189 i n 1966 as one step towards g e t t i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n h i s own l i n e of work. In the meantime, he i s working as w a i t e r i n an e x c l u s i v e r e s t a u r a n t p a t r o n i z e d by some o f the "lumber b a r o n s " , and i m p r o v i n g h i s E n g l i s h . To save money f o r down payment on a house, the f a m i l y r e n t s a one-bedroom s u i t e i n an apartment b l o c k des igned f o r a d u l t s o n l y , l o c a t e d a t the i n t e r - s e c t i o n o f two main t h o r o u g h f a r e s , and w i t h o u t one square i n c h o f garden o r p l a y space. F a t h e r i s head o f the household , and h i s word i s l a w . D i s c i p l i n e i s s t r i c t . The boys are expected t o be q u i e t , and t o obey promptly w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , and t o observe l i m i t s e s t a b l i s h e d by a d u l t s : spank-i n g i s used u n t i l they are " o l d enough t o reason w i t h " . Grace i s s a i d before every m e a l , and the f a m i l y a t t e n d the Roman C a t h o l i c Church r e g u l a r l y . Seppi has always enjoyed s t o r i e s , and as a p r e - s c h o o l e r , was r e a d t o r e g u l a r l y a t b e d t i m e , a t f i r s t i n German, b u t . f r o m the age~ o f , f o u r , i n E n g l i s h . "He had s p e c i a l f a v o u r i t e s , and would c o r r e c t us i f we changed even one w o r d " . Now he t a k e s easy books to bed w i t h h i m . S ince coming t o Vancouver, "Seppi watches more t e l e v i s i o n than we r e a l l y approve o f . But he does not have many f r i e n d s , he cannot be n o i s y , and there i s here so much r a i n " . However, a l l t e l e v i e w i n g i s moni tored and "unwholesome" programmes are f o r b i d d e n . The whole f a m i l y watches Walt Disney and NorthWest T r a v e l l e r s , and d i s c u s s them a f t e r w a r d s . Except f o r the t r i p from K i n g s t o n , t h e r e have been no l o n g t r i p s o r h o l i d a y s . However, the f a m i l y c a r i s used r e g u l a r l y t o take the c h i l d r e n t o beaches, p a r k s , farms and museums. 190 Seppi1s father is ambitious for himself and for his children. "They must have high school - and university too i f they do well enough. Nowadays, boys cannot get ahead without much education. Already we are saving some money for their education: i f they also have to work summers to pay their way, well, that is not bad". Jeff's father was a t a l l , brawny, red-headed Dutch ex-seaman in his mid-thirties. With him to the interview, he brought four-year-old Randy, a happy, appealing junior edition of Jeff, scrubbed and brushed to pink-and-gold perfection: the two formed a sort of mutual admiration society. Since February, when his wife ran off with a "no-good pip-squeak", he has been raising the boys with the help of a succession of more or less unsatisfactory"housekeepers" : he maintains that by her lapse of judgement and common sense in leaving him, she has forfeited her right to her children. "She lost interest in them about a year ago, anyway, when she said she was bored with kids and housework, and went back to work full-time at hairdressing. They're no worse off now than they were before she left". However, he admits that she was a good mother to them when they were tiny - "Y.ou know, nursed 'em, cuddled 'em, read to them, let 'em run around in diapers t i l l they practically changed themselves - the whole Dr. Spock bit". Jeff's father thoroughly enjoys his two sons, and takes them on frequent outings and shows them "how to take care of themselves" -swimming, rowing, climbing trees and rocks, fishing, building camp fires. He teaches them never to start a fight, but "not to let anyone push 1 9 1 them around": i f they get into trouble, he expects them to "take their medicine without whimpering". He tells them "yarns" about l ife in Holland during the war and his adventures on the high seas. He teaches them to try things out for themselves, not to take things or people at their face value, and not to believe everything they are told: in short, he is making two young converts to his own vigorous, iconoclastic philosophy of l i f e . Jeff has always been a healthy, happy, energetic child. His mother read to him from the time he was tiny, getting books from the library and buying the ones he especially enjoyed. "Jeff got so he could 'read' the stories just from the pictures - he'd even make up his own story i f i t was a new book". Now books and television are a last resort: he prefers more active pursuits. Jeff "couldn't wait" to start kindergarten and Grade I. He has never complained about his teachers, "although sometimes they complain about him". He seems to have lots of friends, but sometimes gets them into trouble "because their mothers keep the kids in cotton batting". Jeff's father wants the boys to go through school and university because "this crazy, mixed-up world is hard enough to understand even i f you are educated". But he believes that "marks aren't everything - not i f they mean just parrotting what the teacher said, questioning nothing, understanding very l i tt le". He himself almost completed Grade X I I in Holland, "but i t 's pretty rough hitting the books when you have to glean the beet fields for food, and burn the doors and cupboards to keep warm". Books are the only possessions he values - "to own a house, a car and three mortgages doesn't make you any happier - they just shackle you 192 t o t h e s t a t u s quo". S e l f - C o n c e p t B o t h b o y s a r e s t u r d y and e n e r g e t i c , p h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , and b o t h e n t e r e d s c h o o l w i t h s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e b a s e d upon adequate a f f e c t i o n p l u s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f s u c c e s s i n m e e t i n g e a r l i e r d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s . I n s p i t e o f h i s December b i r t h d a t e , J e f f was e m o t i o n a l l y more mature t h a n S e p p i : he had been r a i s e d i n a home w h i c h s t r e s s e d a c t i v i t y and s e l f - r e l i a n c e , and. a l l o w e d him c o n s i d e r a b l e freedom t o e x p r e s s h i s e m o t i o n s , whereas S e p p i ' s f a m i l y e x p e c t e d q u i e t n e s s , o b e d i e n c e and s e l f - c o n t r o l . E a c h f a c e d a c r i s i s j u s t b e f o r e h i s s e v e n t h b i r t h d a y . S e p p i ' s c r i s i s was e d u c a t i o n a l - he was r e t a i n e d i n f i r s t g r a d e : and i n an a m b i t i o u s , up-w a r d l y m o b i l e f a m i l y , such f a i l u r e was n o t t a k e n l i g h t l y . However, b o t h he and h i s p a r e n t s have been a b l e t o blame t h e t i m i n g o f t h e i r move t o Vancouver f o r h i s f a i l u r e , o v e r l o o k i n g t h e b a s i c e m o t i o n a l i m m a t u r i t y w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o h i s m e d i o c r e a c h i e v e m e n t d u r i n g h i s f i r s t y e a r i n Grade I . Thus he has been a b l e t o r e t a i n h i s p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t , and i s t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y i n g h i s s t a t u s t h i s y e a r a s t h e b e s t p u p i l i n h i s c l a s s . J e f f ' s c r i s i s was more s e r i o u s - h i s mother l e f t home, a t f i r s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , t h e n p h y s i c a l l y . H i s - f a t h e r ' s vehemence i n p l a c i n g a l l t h e blame f o r t h i s c r i s i s on t h e a b s e n t mother has had t h e e f f e c t o f p r o t e c t i n g J e f f f r o m any f e e l i n g o f g u i l t f o r t h i s e v e n t , and he t o o has r e t a i n e d h i s p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t . F o r example, on t h e Pigem T e s t , he i n d i c a t e d t h a t he was more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l o n g , h o t summer on. h i s f a i r s k i n t h a n about m a r i t a l d i s c o r d - he s a i d he w o u l d most l i k e t o be a f r o g , because he c o u l d spend a l l day jumping i n a n d o u t o f t h e w a t e r w i t h o u t e v e r g e t t i n g sunburned. However, h i s s e c u r i t y a t 193 f: home was based upon a mother who met his dependency needs plus a father who sets a high standard of masculine competence. When his mother left, half his needs remained unmet, and his behaviour at school reflected his feeling of insecurity. Testing the Hypothesis That Jeff was promoted last June while Seppi was required to repeat first grade seems due to two factors: l) Jeff was emotionally more mature than Seppi - he likes school, even though he is frequently in "hot water", and has been able to learn this year from a teacher who "never stops talking" and has l i t t l e warmth; whereas Seppi hated school and put forth l i t t l e effort because his teacher screamed at the children; and 2) Seppi changed schools at a most unfortunate time, and the school to which he transferred was achievement-oriented. SUMMARY - SEPPI AND JEFF 19k ANOMALIES Observed Significant DIFFERENCES Observed 3 ignificant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3 . Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. ySitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style'of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level r'd) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) SUMMARY - SEPPI AND JEFF (continued) 195 ANOMALIES Observed Significant DIFFERENCES Observed Significant 15. Home Environment a) books b.) television * c) trips and travel d) family socially isolated e) bilingualisra X f) verbal communication g) child-rearing practices * h) standards expected X of children i ) family structure X J) marital relationship k) parent-child 1) relationship standara of housing X m) level of education - F. — M. n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings o) attitude to education 16. School Experience a) frequent changes x b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil x relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching- methods f) : attitude to frustration x * x x X X X X X X X X X. PAUL AND CRAIG 196 Matching Data Birth Date Pintner I. Q. Kindergarten .  Attendance Days Absent 1965-66 No. of Children i n Family Child*s Birth Order Bilingualism Marital Status Occupation of Breadwinner Blishen Rating -class -standard score Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary • - I . Q. , -#ile rank Raven Matrices -raw score , -#ile rrarik Frostig Perception -given at CA.* PAUL May 27,1959 83 yes 7.5 one f i r s t no common-law meat packer V 45.2 95 42nd 9+1046 = 25 90th 7:9 -P.A. equivalents! 8 : 6 , 8 : 3 , 7 : 0 , 8 : 9 , 7 : 7 Durrell Reading -0ral:level 2 3 :speed 2L 2L :errors 3 3 :comp. 6/6 7/7 -Silent:level 2 3 :speed 2L 2L :comp. 3 3 -Listening:level 3 4 :comp. 8/8 2/7 CRAIG Apri l 9,1959 87 yes 2.0 two second nO married real estate salesman II 57.0 126 96th 11+4+4 = 19 +50th 7:11 10:0 ,8:3 ,7 :6 ,8 :9 ,8 :3 4 5 6 4H 5M 4H 0 0 0 6/7 5/7 V 7 4 5 3M 5M 3 4 5 6 7/7 •Read CA. 7:3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read P.A. 7:3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months PAUL AND CRAIG Matching Data Paul and Craig appeared to be well matched except i n socio-economic status. Bothcame from small, unilingual families, had attended kindergarten and school regularly, and had Pintner-Cunningham scores i n the "slow learner" classification. The Children Paul was a rather grubby, bright-eyed l i t t l e eager beaver, loquacious and never s t i l l . It was easy to t e l l how d i f f i c u l t he found the sests by the amount of wriggling he did. He raced through a l l of them except the Durrell at top speed, inclined to guess and correct himself rather than to stop and think. He related easily and talked freely about everything under the sun with an air of braggadocio -he had eaten beef Chateaubriand and sukiyaki, and knew' the^latest episodes of Bonanza and Peyton Place, but had never been to a circus or had a pet or tried to swim. He explained that he slept i n the l i v i n g room, so he couldn't go to bed early: and that his mummy-was sick a l o t , and he had to "stick around" and take care of her. His speech was fluent, colorful, and usually correct. Craig was a t a l l , pale boy with a large head and glasses. His manner was aloof and somewhat anxious, his speech carefully a r t i c -.ulated with an extraordinarily large and precise vocabulary. The picture of the scientist in the Peabody Test evoked a three-minute lecture on archaeology - the profession Craig has chosen for himself -which would have done credit to a university freshman. He took three times as long as any other child with the Raven Matrices, and looked shocked when I suggested that we didn't behead children who made mistakes. He apologized for his slowness on the Frostig, saying "It's just I5?6 that I don't l i k e to make a mistake i f I can help i t . " Craig, relegated -the1 investigator to the role of audience for his performance, and never once stepped out of character or relaxed his vigilance. Intelligence and Perceptual Development It i s quite possible that Paul has above average a b i l i t y . His lowest score on the Pintner-Cunningham was i n sub-test 5» which i s related to subtest III on the Frostig, on which he received a sub-standard, score. And his widely scattered score on the Peabody may have reflected his unchildlike experiences rather than limited vocabulary. However, he certainly has at least average a b i l i t y . At f i r s t i t seemed incredible that Craig should have received an IQ score of 82 on the Pintner-Cunningham: his functioning- d h t e l l i gence i s much closer to his IQ of 126 on the Peabody. Analysis of the Pintner-Cunningham scores revealed that he had lost most points on subtests 1 and 7: in view of his meticulous slowness with the Raven and the Frpstig. i t seems f a i r to assume that he was caught off guard by the s t r i c t time limits of the Pintner-Cunningham i n the f i r s t sub-test, and spent too much time making each figure perfect i n the la s t : certainly he received a perfect score on sub-test V of the Frostig - the same task but without a time l i m i t . Paul i s almost an auditory-visual learner, but on the Mills* Test his delayed re c a l l was much better for words learned by the auditory method. On the other hand, he made up excellent sentences during the visual method on the Mills', and did rather poorly with listening comprehension on the Durrell. His command of phonics i s excellent. 199 It was impossible to administer even the kinesthetic section of the M i l l s ' Test to Craig, since he knew with flash presentation 48/50 words on the Grade 1-6 l i s t s of the Durrell. However, i t i s assumed that he is an auditory-visual learner, since he effortlessly made perfect scores on both Hearing Sounds i n Words and Visual Memory of Words, and since he has learned to read well through auditory-visual teaching of reading. Reading and School Achievement At school entrance, Paul was hyperactive and distractible: he was physically unable to pay attention long enough to learn to read: at the end of the year, he was given C for oral English, and D i n a l l other subjects. He channelled his boundless energy into becoming the class clown as a means of getting attention and status: his mischief was never malicious, and he was always penitent, but he wasted so much class time that he was frequently banished to the h a l l . This year, as he has learned to read, his clowning has gradually abated. He i s inclined.to speak out of turn without thinking, and often gets into mischief, but he now has a new status as one of the better students i n his class. His attention span and his self-control are gradually improving. It i s quite possible that Paul did not reach his ceiling on the Durrell: i t i s a long test, and towards the end of each section he wanted to know how many more stories he had to read. His oral reading was slow and poorly phrased; he was careless about l i t t l e words, inclined to guess and then use context clues to correct himself. His command of phonics was excellent, and he had an adequate sight vocabulary. With silent reading, he learned from experience, scoring higher at level 3 than at level 2. His achievement was equal across a l l three categories -oral reading, silent reading, listening. 200 Craig has always been an A student. In grade one, although he had a gentle teacher, he used to have a "nervous stomach" i n the morning: i t took him many months to get used to the hustle and bustle of playground and classroom. And he cried i f he made just one mistake i n arithmetic. This.year,-jC,ra±g;.is rather a loner: with poor muscular coordination, he i s not fond of active games, and his excess-ive caution earns him the epithet of "sissy" from other children. How-ever, he has status as "idea man" for his class, and his imagination and knowledge have earned him respect i f not acceptance. Craig did very well on the Durrell. In oral reading, i t was not un t i l he reached level VII that he hesitated over words, but his com-prehension tapered off gradually after level IV. In silent reading, shocked at his poor performance at level III, he read the next para-graph twice i n spite of instructions: at level V, he was able to do quite well with a single reading. He showed himself to be an excellent listener, earning a perfect score on detailed social studies material at levels IV and V. Home Environment Note: When Paul's mother was at the school on other business, she met the examiner and made an appointment which she failed to keep. Information about Paul's home environ-ment is therefore second-hand, gleaned from school records, teachers, social workers, the school nurse, and Paul himself. Paul has always been an active, sturdy child. He walked and talked early, and "has never been sick a day i n his l i f e . " He i s the only , child of a well-educated, once beautiful woman, now an alcoholic and nymphomaniac. Since starting school, he has had two "step-fathers": the latest l i a i s o n broke down just before this research project ended. 201 Housing i s sub-standard and crowded: when Paul went to camp last summer, he told the boys i t was the f i r s t time he had ever slept on a real bed: but he showed no signs of feeling sorry for himself. Paul i s very loyal to his mother: he threatens to "beat up" any "guy" who questions her "i l l n e s s " . His mother has somehow managed to give him the feeling that he i s the only important person i n the world to her - that her various husbands are chiefly meal-tickets. She makes a l l sorts of extravagant promises to Paul, and keeps just enough of them that he has not yet lost f a i t h i n her. He i s treated more like an adult than a child. To a large extent, he gets himself up i n the morning and to bed at night: the state of his clothes and grooming i s a pretty f a i r index of the state of his mother's "health". I f there i s no food in the house, he "borrows" some cereal and milk from a neighbor for breakfast, and takes lunch money from his mother's purse without waking her. He i s known i n the neighborhood as completely honest, but a great spinner of t a l l tales i n which he i s always the hero. Craig*s mother treats him like a men who has mistakenly hatched a duckling. "What he i s , he made himself - we never encouraged him to be such an egg-head". He walked and talked early, whistled at 13r months, repeated nursery rhymes and counted objects to four at 18 months, and at three years could distinguish between matched volumes of the ency-clopedia. He was never read to regularly, but looked at pictures and asked endless questions. He didn*t learn to read before school, but he knew a l l the signs and labels. He has been a TV addict since the age of three, and now watches science f i c t i o n , documentaries, current events and science films that his mother says are "over my head". 202 Craig*s father left school at grade VIII to put his brilliant younger brother through school and university. This brother, now a prof-essor of geology, is Craig"s prototype. Craig's father, a busy real estate saleman, sees his son only on Sundays,, has no energy then to understand him, and doesn*t pretend to understand him. But he respects Craig's intellectual prowess, and provides him generously with models, books and equipment. Craig's mother, a former hairdresser, is chic, shallow, rather cold. Preoccupied with with her older child, a brain-damaged . daughter, shy and fear-ridden, whose limitations she refuses to face, she is rather grateful that Craig is so l i t t l e trouble. She spoke of him as affectionate and not hard to love, but never once said "we love him." She is careful not to "make too much" of his precocity for fear of upsetting liana. "Even as a baby, Craig couldn't stand to be dirty," his mother says. Now he doesn't mind dirt, but he is over-cautious, upset by noise and disorder, and a perfectionist in everything he does. When he was five, he had a birthday party: he was so upset because the children lost some marbles from his Chinese checker set that he said "never again," and has stuck to his decision. He has never had a close friend, though he got along very well with his twelve-year-old cousin when the family went East last summer. He reads 4-5 library books a week, watches TV, writes his own stories and plays, and makes models of prehistoric animals and monsters. He has never shown any interest in sports or active play, preferring the activities in which he excels. Given a choice of activities for the coming summer, he elected drama classes. Self-Concept To encapsulate or ignore experiences beyond one's comprehension or endangering one's equilibrium may be a neurotic device, but in Paul's case 203 i t i s o b v i o u s l y a v e r y necessary one . By r e s o l u t e l y c l o s i n g h i s eyes to d i s c r e p a n c i e s , broken promises and nas ty g o s s i p , he has managed to d r i n k l o v e from a poisoned w e l l w i t h o u t h i m s e l f g e t t i n g p o i s o n e d . He overcompensates f o r h i s a n x i e t y i a a s o c i a l l y acceptab le fo rm, by p l a y i n g the clown and d i s a r m i n g p i t y w i t h l a u g h t e r . P h y s i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s t u r d y , he reaches out t o p e o p l e , and thus a c q u i r e s exper iences which may h e l p c o r r e c t d i s t o r t e d concepts he has a c q u i r e d a t home. H is r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s mother i s f a r from h e a l t h y , but i t has no t des t royed h i s i n t e g r i t y o r h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t . C r a i g i s a s e n s i t i v e c h i l d whose b a s i c a n x i e t y appears to stem from l a c k o f a f f e c t i o n and unders tanding a t home. B a s i c a l l y , he has a n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t f o r which h i s p e r f e c t i o n i s m and i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e -c o c i t y are overcompensat ion : h i s fo rmula f o r c o n t r o l l i n g a n x i e t y i s to seek i n t e l l e c t u a l power - o n l y i f he i s p e r f e c t w i l l he be s a f e . The t ragedy o f h i s fo rmula i s t h a t i t cu ts him o f f f rom , wholesome i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s from which he might a c q u i r e some f e e l i n g o f b e i n g wor thwh i le as a person and not j u s t as a c h i l d p r o d i g y . T e s t i n g the Hypothes is From the p o i n t o f view o f menta l h e a l t h , P a u l p robab ly has an advantage over C r a i g , a l though n e i t h e r boy i s to be e n v i e d . However, from the p o i n t o f v iew o f read ing s u c c e s s , P a u l " s abnormal f a m i l y l i f e , the l a c k o f s tandards and d i s c i p l i n e and s u i t a b l e env i ronmenta l s t i m -u l a t i o n are c e r t a i n l y l i a b i l i t i e s : and so a l s o i s the h y p e r a c t i v i t y which accompanies h i s r o b u s t n e s s . C r a i g ' s g r e a t e r r e a d i n g achievement appears due c h i e f l y to two f a c t o r s : l ) g r e a t e r v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ; and 2 ) s t r o n g e r m o t i v a t i o n , s i n c e to him academic success i s not an end i n i t s e l f , bu t h i s main source o f s t a t u s , means o f escape from p e o p l e , and defence a g a i n s t a n x i e t y . SUMMARY - PAUL AND CRAIG 20k ANOMALIES Observed Significant DIFFERENCE! Observed > 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level d) hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X". X X X X X X X X X X ( C o n t i n u e d ) PAUL AND CRAIG (continued) 205 Observed ANOMALIES Significant DIFFERENCES Observed Significant 15. Home Environment a) books b) television c) trips and travel d) family socially isolated e) bilingualism f) verbal communication g) child-rearing practices x h) standards expected x of children i ) family structure x j) marital relationship k) parent-child X relationship 1) standaro of housing m) level of education - F. n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings o) attitude to education X 16* School Experience a) frequent changes b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching methods f) attitude to frustration X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 206 TREVOR AND DOUGLAS TREVOR j DOUGLAS Matching Data Birth Date December £4,1958 December 16, 1958 Pintner I. Q. 97 : 102 Kindergarten Attendance no y es Days .Absent L 1965-66 5.5 i 6.0 No. of Children ( i n Family 5 i 3 Child 1s Birth Order • 1st 1 3rd Billngualism t . n6 no Marital Status married married Occupation of Breadwinner artist-accountant construction-foreman Blishen Rating -class -standard score Standardized Tests Peabody Vocabulary - I . Q. -$ile rank Raven-Matrices -raw score — $ i i e rank Frostig Perception -given at C.A.* III 56.0 V 47.7 120 92nd ..10+6+6 = 20 +50th 8:3 -P.A.! equivalents! 6;3,8;3,9;0,8;9,8;3 95 • 42nd 7+8+5 = 20 +50th 8:3 8;6,8;3,8:3,6:3,8:3 -Oral:level #3 4 5 : 4 5 fi speed 3L 3L 3L 4M 4M ; terrors 0 1 8 0 0 :comp. 7/7 7/7 6/8 7/7 6/8 -SileritJlevel 3 4 3 4 5 . 1'' i'speed 2M 3L 3H 4L 3H '-' '. ';" '':'c"6mp. 3 - 3 3 3 -Listening tlevel 3 4 5 3 4 ' 5 -:. • - '• ' :comp . 8/8 5/7 8*/9 8/8 2/7 7/9 ••Read C.A. 7:3 as chronological age 7 years 3 months #Read'P.A. 7:3 as perceptual age 7 years 3 months 207 TREVOR AND DOUGIAS M a t c h i n g D a t a T r e v o r a n d D o u g l a s a p p e a r t o be w e l l - m a t c h e d i n a g e , i n t e l l i g e n c e a s a s s e s s e d b y t h e P i n t n e r - C u n n i n g h a m , s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e , l a n g u a g e a n d f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e : t h e y a l s o p r o v e d t o have v e r y s i m i l a r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . B o t h b o y s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o T . S c h o o l , T r e v o r f r o m a p a r o -c h i a l s c h o o l i n ' F e b r u a r y , 1966, D o u g l a s f r o m a n e a r b y V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l i n J a n u a r y , 1965• T h e y a r e n o t m a t c h e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n a t t e n d a n c e o r b i r t h o r d e r . P a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t D o u g l a s s t a r t e d Grade I a f u l l y e a r e a r l i e r t h a n T r e v o r , a n d r e p e a t e d t h e g r a d e i n 1965-1966. The C h i l d r e n I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e two e i g h t - y e a r - o l d b o y s a s d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l l y a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a s T r e v o r a n d D o u g l a s . A d i m i n u t i v e r e d - h e a d w i t h f r e c k l e s a n d j u g - e a r s , T r e v o r n e v e r w a l k s i f he c a n s k i p , a n d i s q u i t e u n a b l e t o s i t s t i l l . H i s s p e e c h a n d movements a r e r a p i d a n d a r y t h m i c a l , a n d h i s h a n d - e y e c o o r d i n a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m m a t u r e . When c o n c e n t r a t i n g , he s c r e w s u p h i s f a c e a n d h i s f i s t , a n d w r i g g l e s i n h i s c h a i r . H i s c l o t h i n g i s u s u a l l y u n t u c k e d a n d a s k e w f r o m h i s c o n s t a n t m o t i o n . D o u g l a s i s a s t a t u e s q u e , i m m a c u l a t e b l o n d who n e v e r l i f t s a f i n g e r u n l e s s he i s t o l d t o do s o : h i s s p e e c h i s r e l u c t a n t , l a c o n i c a n d w i t h o u t a n i m a t i o n . T r e v o r a p p r o a c h e d t h e t e s t s l i k e a t e r r i e r p o u n c i n g on a b o n e , a n d w a n t e d t o s t a r t b e f o r e c o m p l e t e i n s t r u c t i o n s h a d b e e n g i v e n . He a s k e d e n d l e s s q u e s t i o n s , few o f t h e m r e l a t e d t o t h e m a t t e r a t h a n d , a n d r a r e l y l i s t e n e d t o t h e a n s w e r . He was i n c l i n e d t o g u e s s a n d t o be 208 careless, but had good self-corrective ski l ls . Douglas listened carefully to instructions, and then waited until told to begin. He plodded through the tests methodically, refusing to guess. He appear-ed tense and sanxiaus when the items were difficult, embarrassed when he had to answer "I don't know" and reacted with a shy, dimpled smile when praised for his effort. Intelligence and Perceptual Development It is not easy to arrive at a satisfactory estimate of mental capacity for either of these boys. Trevor scored well above average on both the Peabody and the Raven, but his IQ on the Pintner-Cunningham was exactly 100, and on a Stanford-Binet administered in March, 1966, he scored 95- According to the Frostig Test, he has good visual per-ception but poor hand-eye coordination. His high score in Listening Comprehension on the Durrell indicates adequate auditory perception and memory. On the Mills ' Test, he showed himself a competent auditory-visual learner with good retention, scoring 9/l0 for immediate recall and 7/l0 delayed recall for each method: the kinesthetic method reveal-ed difficulty with sequencing as well as poor hand-eye coordination. It seems likely that his intellectual potential is well above average but that his physiological and emotional immaturity have depressed his IQ scores and are s t i l l interfering with his school achievement. Douglas scored at the average level throughout, with his non-verbal somewhat superior to his verbal abil ity. However, the Pin tner-Cunnin gham has a pretty low ceiling for boys of his age: and questioning indicated that his relatively poor vocabulary reflects experiential deprivation. 2Q?i Given a more stimulating environment, i t i s possible that his scores might improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y . He too proved to be a visual-auditory learner, making two errors each i n Vis u a l Memory of Words and Hearing Sounds i n Words on the D u r r e l l . His sub-standard score i n Position in Space on the Frostig was not reflected by any d i f f i c u l t y with reversals i n either reading or w r i t i n g . His high score i n Listening Comprehension indicates satisfactory auditory discrimination and memory. School and Reading Achievement On the advice of the family doctor, Trevor started school at age 6 : 9 instead of 5:9* Born with a heart ailment which required surgery and a long convalescence, and physically immature as w e l l , Trevor was obvious-l y not ready f o r f i r s t grade i n 1964. When, in spite of delayed school entrance, he f a i l e d , he was referred to the Child Guidance C l i n i c . The psychologist recognized the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t r y i n g to teach a d i s t r a c -t i b l e l i t t l e boy who never stopped t a l k i n g and never sat s t i l l . The p s y c h i a t r i s t blamed the parents f o r i n f a n t i l i z i n g the c h i l d . This year, h i s behaviour has improved to the point where his teacher says, "I don't know what a l l the fuss was about". Ignoring his m o t i l i t y , she finds him an attentive c h i l d with an adequate memory. I f she makes allowances.' f o r his poor w r i t i n g , his achievement i n reading and spelling ;is- a^bove average. His poor mark i n arithmetic i s due to carelessness. He i s a b i t of a nuisance, speaking without thinking, i n c l i n e d to brag, rushing through his wqrk and then bothering h i s neighbours: and his status as the class busy-body gained him the active 210 dislike of the other children until his teacher intervened and taught him to mind his own business. On the Durrell Analysis, his comprehension outstripped his speed and accuracy; his Silent Reading was a fu l l grade below his Oral Reading and Listening Comprehension, because he found i t very difficult to organize his recollections as required by this part of the test. He took social studies content in his stride. His sight vocabulary was at Grade 3H (American) on the Durrell, and he knew a l l but ten of the Grade III words on the Mi l l s ' . However, his slow reaction time suggested that he was sounding out the after-image of many of the words. Douglas was eager for school, partly because people often said to him, "Why aren't you at school, a big boy like you?" , partly because he was "bored" at home. But he developed a "nervous stomach" soon after starting kindergarten - "He was big and clumsy, and the teacher was always after him to be careful". During his f irst year in Grade I, he was late and absent so often that the school nurse paid a v is i t . At that time, his mother had given up nagging at him in the morning: she put his clothes and his breakfast ready for him, set an alarm clock to ring when i t was time for him to start for school, and "left him to it". After the nurse's vis i t , she again started supervising his morning routine with the result that his "nervous stomach" reappeared. During his second year in Grade I, Douglas suddenly "grew up": although s t i l l not a self-starter, he began to take, a pride in his appearance and his school work; his "nervous stomach" disappeared, he was almost never late, and missed only six days of school. He passed to Grade II with B marks in reading, writing and arithmetic, C in his other subjects. 211 This year, he has maintained his above average achievement: attentive, retentive and obedient, he is very l i t t l e trouble in class. But his teacher worries about him because of his lack of initiative and self-confidence, and because he seems to have no friends and no fun: at the slightest frustration, he complains of a stomach-ache, which disappears when she gives him some individual attention and encouragement. However, throughout the year, there has been gradual im-provement in a l l areas. On the Durrell Analysis, Douglas scored at the Grade V level in Oral Reading, Silent Reading and Listening Comprehension, although he did very poorly on the listening paragraph about Peter Cooper's Engine. His sight vocabulary was one grade level below his general achievement level, but his command of phonics was excellent. However, his oral reading was monotonous: he ignored periods, and his phrasing was poor. He answered questions with monosyllables and phrases, and only half of his Silent Reading recall was spontaneous. Family Background Note: Only minimal background information is available for these two children. Trevor's family disappeared at Easter, and even the Attendance Officer was un-able to locate them: the Child Guidance Clinic refused to release any confidential information. Douglas' mother broke two appointments because her younger children, in rapid succession, required hospitalization: she finally undertook to discuss Douglas over the telephone. In the eyes of his wife and children, Trevor's father appears as a misunderstood hero. They make do today with sub-standard housing, a rented television set and hand-me-down clothes, because tomorrow, 2 1 2 he's going to sell a picture at a fabulous price,."and then we'll a l l be rich" - only tomorrow never comes. Then, overnight, they move, leaving no t r a i l for the bill-collectors to follow: father "settles down" to work as an accountant, there is meat on the table every day, and tuition is paid for the children to attend parochial school. Sud-denly, father gets restless because, by the time he has played, baseball or cards with •'-.he children and spun them a few bed-time yarns, there is no time for his painting. He quits his job, and the whole cycle is repeat-ed. In this romantic atmosphere, Trevor's congenital heart was a Tragedy: in spite of the doctor's reassurances that, after surgery, he could be treated as a normal child, his family continued to behave as though Death Might Snatch Him Away at Any Moment; until the psychiatrist brought them down to earth, a l l parties concerned enjoyed this melodrama. A l l the children are encouraged in their idiosyncrasies at home, in the name of Developing Their Individuality: but, except for Trevor, none have had any difficulty at school, being classified by their teachers as leprechauns, bright, unpredictable and rather delightful, "as long as you take everything they say with a grain of salt". Douglas' mother, a former nurse, is a brisk, talkative woman with a Scottish accent and a martyr complex. According to her, her whole married l i fe has been a series of misfortunes. When she married, her husband had a good job as a teletype operator. When the railway automated this service, i t offered him work as a sleeping car conductor: considering this beneath his dignity, he refused, was unable to find other work, and "took to the bottle". Douglas was born at the nadir of this period, 213 much to the consternation of both parents. His mother went to work for about a year to support the family, leaving her husband to look after the baby. He hated the responsibility, and took a dislike to Douglas whom he described as "a lump o' suet pudding": he never played with his son, but dumped him in the crib or the play-pen and paid no attention to him unless he cried. For the next few years, they made do with what-ever her husband could earn at temporary jobs, which were never good enough for him. The situation was not resolved satisfactorily until Douglas was in kindergarten: then his father got well-paid construction work in the North-West Territories, and has gradually worked his way up to be foreman. "The only catch is , he's away six months at a time, leaving me a l l alone wi' a big house and three bairns to manage. And there's always something wrong wi' them. The nou, the three-year-old's in hospital wi' a broken collar bone, and I'm waiting for the doctor to see the baby again. She's got the bronchitis so bad, he's talking o' putting her in the steam tent at the hospital". Under these circumstances, Douglas has had a bare minimum of attention. As a pre-schooler, he turned, to television for amusement, and is s t i l l an addict: the family TV set is in his bedroom. Now that he can read, "he's always bringing books home from the library". But his mother knew l i t t l e about what he watched or read - "I havna the time", she explained. "I dinna like him mooning around the house so much, and I nag at him to get out for a wee bit o' air and exercise, but apart from that, he's a good boy, and never complains". 21U' Self-Concept Like his father, Trevor has a somewhat inflated self-concept, l i t t l e self-discipline and a tendency to underestimate his limitations. Although not premature, Trevor was born with a "hole in his heart", a birth weight of k pounds 12 ounces, and a hypersensitive temperament. By dramatizing his congenital defects and by over-protecting him, his family infantilized him to the extent that he was emotionally and socially too immature for school, even at the age of 6:9. Although the cockiness of many under-sized men is correctly interpreted as over-compensation for a feeling of inadequacy, this interpretation does not seem to apply in Trevor's case. Too self-centred to notice how others react to his behaviour, and with an immature father as his model, Trevor shows every sign of feeling genuine-ly adequate. In spite of his handsome appearance and surface serenity, i t is Douglas who has a negative self-concept. In many ways, he is a rejected and neglected child, even though he is adequately housed, clothed, fed and supervised. In particular, his needs for genuine affection, companion-ship and environmental stimulation have never been adequately met. Un-wanted at birth, he was turned over at an early age to the care of a father who despised him. When he was a pre-schooler, his mother was pre-occupied with his father's problems: later, with the care of his two demanding younger siblings. In the neighbourhood and at school, he was expected to behave in accordance with his size rather than his age, and his performance was often judged inadequate. Not daring to express openly and directly the 215 ths hostility arouaea by these aeetsag&ated injustices, SougJ&a tas&aa as :«uxic«s cMM, eaft es£pre:®gei Ms anxiety throa^i the ga^ efesgeassfcie -spiptaai of a "mrvem $t©ffl&c|ia* • speaS'. -witfe ti§- .gain abate© when Is® i s givea atteateioa ©ad, mcmmm®£®& supports* tfefe doctor*a diagnosis &£ the atSology of t&£& allseest* Seagl&s also has otStfr./ueesstiT® device© for «as£&$g, assiety.* Hie lack of initiative and Me fai&lealaaa care ie f o l i o M ^ fiit*efci©ns enable Mm. to ieay 2 a s | ^ a $ M l i % ftos* failure-*, .saylag^ **$: don't fcso»° instead of* ©sessiag* avaiga 38$E2&$ a fool of himself* 13&lav£sl©s end books mm a saeaas ef escaping: p^ssihle rebate fana® Ms peers* C©1«*. leefcively* these devices « I M $&$ to "get alozig"* but provide a . pratty fragile a E < £ tmbeslthy. set. of defense's against, a de^«seatea feeling of tasdefimsy. fegting the, gypotMeis Qstgglas i s one &m$®r stead ef' frev&t for the sis©3£ resaoa that he started school a year fsarliesv Sias* featfe boye segsssteg. f i r s t grade, tha problem uncterta&ea in this thesis 3?e^uires that bat& cases of reading" failure be ae«©uitte& for. BoSS boy* sta#£ed*cxi& i a l i f e a •soae»fest abaorasl bjolo^^i_tsatea^» f s^wsr uad^-^Lae^ l$$es$2S5ifcive a&& poorly co-o?diisatefis Douglas o^r^atised, poorly eo~araiE&t©&? asd iacliae* to react ta. ettauli toa l i t t l e a&&. too late » la both <mmsS: their fegpa eavirotajKEt- accentuated these i n i t i a l difficulties* *$3&m£s& fatally tiiraugfc over-protection, Bo&glaa8 jpoasesfca t?tesa2g& rejectioa aa& «s6£laet« As a result, both boys catered f i r s t ®mM- physically sad a&afe&aaally. twa^a*** although t&revor at least wsc old ^ ®ugh and bright aaou^. *a leara to read* Douglas* <li£fiaalti®s wsr© accsBfeafef4 by a aegat&sa aalf concept and by © d s d s s i G a to f i r s t grade three sssotSsa prior to his Mats birthday <> 216 anomalies at school, and his family frightened i n t o helping him develop greater independence and s e l f - c o n t r o l , his superior verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e i s making i t s e l f f e l t , and his achievements are beginning to j u s t i f y his somewhat i n f l a t e d self-concept. Handsome and immaculate, Douglas does not. look l i k e the neglected and deprived c h i l d t h a t he feels himself to be. The protective color-ation which he has assumed to cover his basic anxiety i s over-conformity, Pushed i n t o kindergarten at an over-sized and ungainly 4:9 years, he found school even more f r u s t r a t i n g than home. He at f i r s t t r i e d to rebel, but when those t a c t i c s proved unsuccessful, he learned to express his anxiety i n a s o c i a l l y acceptable manner, through psychosomatic symptoms. The sources of his negative self-concept are manifold, as the summary on the next two pages makes abundantly clear. SUMMARY - TREVOR AND DOUGLAS 217 , TREVOR DOUGLAS ANOMALIES Observed Significant 1. Chronological Age 2. Sex 3. Mental Capacity 4. Kindergarten Attendance 5. School Absence 1965-66 6. No.of children in Family 7. Child's Birth Order 8. Socioeconomic Status 9. Marital Status 10. M. working - part-time - f u l l time 11. "Sitting" arrangements 12. Visual Perception - P.Q. anomalies 13. Style of learning 14. Self-concept a) retarded physical development b) serious health problem c) low energy level d) 'hyperactivity e) emotional immaturity f) social maladjustment g) diffuse anxiety h) negative self-concept X X X ANOMALIES Observed Significant X X X X X X X X X. X ( C o n t i n u e d ) 218 SUMMARY - TREVOR AND DOUGLAS (continued) TREVOR DOUGLAS Observed Significant ANOl Observed MAL: IES Significant 15. Home Environment a) books b) television c) trips and travel d) family socially isolated e) bilingualism f) verbal ccnmunication g) child-rearing practices X h) standards expected X of children i ) family structure j) marital relationship k) parent-child relationship 1) standara of housing m) level of education - F. - M. n) school d i f f i c u l t y - parents - siblings o) attitude to education 16, School Experience a) frequent changes X b) cultural gap c) teacher-pupil X relationship d) pace of learning e) teaching' methods f) attitude to frustration X X X X * X X X CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I. DESCRIPTION OF "THE STUDY In the study reported i n the preceding pages, case studies were assembled of eleven matched pairs of pupils i n a single Vancouver school, the purpose being to explore the relationship between f i r s t grade reading failure and certain developmental and environmental factors* The basic group consisted of eleven chil« dren whose teachers had recommended that they not be promoted to Grade II because of inadequate s k i l l i n reading: ten of these were repeating f i r s t grade, while the eleventh, registered i n a second grade classroom, was receiving daily individual instruction from the school reading c l i n i c i a n . Each child i n the basic group was matched with a child who had been regularly promoted to Grade II, Matching was on the basis of chronological age, intelligence, and four or more of the following factors: (1) sex, (2) kindergarten experience, (3) school attendance 1965-66, (4) bilingualism, (5) number of children i n family, (6) child's birth order, and (7) family ls socioeconomic status. For matching purposes only, intelligence was assessed on the basis of the PintnerwCunningham  Primary Test (Form A) , and socioeconomic status by reference to the Bliahen Scale, To determine their current achievement level, three sections of the Durrell Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y - Oral Reading, Silent Reading and Listening Comprehension - were administered to a l l twenty~two children. The sight vocabulary1 of the basic group was estimated by means of the vocabulary cards i n the M i l l s ' Learning  Methods Test. That of the matched group was evaluated through the Word Recognition and Analysis section of the Durrell Analysis, In addition, each child's classroom teacher was asked to assess his behav-ior during the 1966-67 term on the Pupil Rating Scale reproduced i n Appendix B* The developmental and environmental factors chosen for considerate ion i n this project were the following: (l) intelligence, (2) visual perception, (3) self-concept, (4) style of learning and (5) home en» vironment, including child's developmental and health history, child's experiences related to reading, inter-family relationships, and the parents' attitude toward education. During February-^April of 1967, each child was seen for three 45-60 minute testing sessions, spaced one week apart. At this^time, standardized tests were administered individually to pupils i n the basic group as follows: Session I - Raven' Coloured Matrices Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test M i l l s 1 Learning Methods Test - kinesthetic method Session I I - Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception  Mills 1. Learning Methods Test - auditory method — Wepmart Test of Auditory Discrimination (as needed) Session I I I - Durrell Analysis of Reading D i f f i c u l t y : Oral Reading, Silent Reading and Listening Comprehension Mi l l s ' Learning Methods Test visual method Institute of Child Study Security Test: "The Story of Jimmy" (see Appendix A) - five children only The same procedure was followed with children i n the matched group, with the following exceptions: Session II - Visual Memory of Words and Hearing Sounds in Words from the Durrell Analysis replaced the auditory method of the Mills' Test. Session III - Word Recognition and Analysis from the Durrell Analysis replaced the visual method of the Mi l l s '  Test. Van Krevelen's modification of the Pigem Test replaced "The Story of Jimmy" - Six children only. To provide a basis for evaluation of home environment, the mother of each of the twenty-two children was invited to the school for an interview of 45-90 minutes with the investigator. These interviews were of the unstructured type which i s standard practice i n social case-work, but were focussed upon the following factors: 1. Clarification of factual data obtained from school records a) child's developmental and health history b) extent of bilingualism c) family's socioeconomic status d) parent's marital status 2. Child's experience relating to reading a) exposure to and interest in books b) use of and interest i n television c) local f i e l d trips and more extensive travel d) quality and quantity of verbal communication i n the home e) child's kindergarten and school experience to date 222-' 3. Inter-family relationships, including a) child-rearing role of both parents b) status of this child i n the family c) standards of behaviour expected of children d) methods of discipline employed 4. Educational history and status of a l l members of the family, including parents' goals for this particular child This investigation was carried out in a 55-year-old, 16-room elementary school serving a lower-class d i s t r i c t characterized by great population mobility. A l l the staff involved in the project were veteran teachers who had been at this school for periods ranging from two to ten years. The administration was. relaxed and laissez-faire. With two exceptions, classes were organized on a heterogeneous rather than a homo-geneous basis. The exceptions during 1966-67 were that a l l Grade I repeaters were assigned to a single teacher, and that the highest achievers i n Grades one and two were i n a s p l i t class assigned to a teacher who instituted an enriched program, including oral French.,handicrafts, and a . ' major social studies project. 0c.In-class grouping was on the basis of achievement, and varied somewhat from subject to subject. The school staff included a half-time remedial reading teacher, to whom pupils with'serious learning d i s a b i l i t i e s from Grade II upwards were assigned for individual and small-group instruction. She had at her finger-tips a wide variety of techniques for teaching reading. With this exception, a l l teaching of reading was in accordance with the Teacher's Manual of the Canadian Reading Development Series, the basal readers adopted by the Provincial Department of Education. The approach was auditory-223 visual, with phonics introduced after a sight vocabulary of some f i f t y words had been acquired, and systematic teaching of phonics integrated with reading and spread over the f i r s t two grades. Workbooks were not used, but =each teacher employed a wide variety of teacher-made exercises accumulated during hsr years of primary work. For the slower children, blackboard and chart work was continuted u n t i l they were considered ready for the pre-primer of the basal series. There was steady-pressure upon the children to achieve at the level expected for their grade, and their report cards reflected their success or failure to attain this standard. There was no effort to adapt to class-room practice methods which had proved successful i n the remedial reading room with the poorest readers. The children i n the experimental group ranged i n age from 7:1 to 8:2 years, with the median age 7:11 and the average 7 : 9 . On the basis of the Pintner-Cunningham Test, their IQ's ranged from 73 to 113, with.the median 97 and the average 94: four pairs of children had scores in the 70's and 80's. A l l but six of the children had attended public school kinder-garten for a f u l l year, and two of these had been enrolled for part of the year. During the school year 1965-66, the average number of days missed by a l l f i r s t grade children at T.School was 12. In the experimental group, the range was from 0 to 57, and the average 11.5. There was'a total of 68 children i n the 22 families involved i n the study: 50 of these belonged to families in the three lowest socioeconomic classes. Three of the children i n the t o t a l group were of Canadian-Indian extraction, but were not bilingual. Seven more came from bilingual, homes,; but only three of these children were themselves bilingual. Five children came from broken homes, and the parents of a sixth separated during the course of this study: the mothers of two more were l i v i n g i n common-law union. Four widowed or separated mothers were working full-time to support t h e i r children: i n addition, four more worked part-time and one full-time to supplement the family income. The largest family, consist-ing of an Indian mother and her seven children,, had been on Public Assistance for five years: the two youngest children were illegitimate. The distribution of the t o t a l experimental population according to socio-economic status as definied by the Blishen Scale may be tabulated as follows Class Mo.of Families Total Children 1 0 0 II 1 2 III 3 10 IV . 2 6 V 8 20 VI 4 14 VII 4 16 Total 22 68 The education of the mothers ranged from complete i l l i t e r a c y to third year university: five of the fathers, on the basis of school grade completed and current d i f f i c u l t y with reading and writing, could be classified as functionally i l l i t e r a t e . Eight of the families were buying their own home: the rest were l i v i n g i n rented houses or duplexes. Hone were seriously overcrowded, but thirteen of the families lived on the "wrong side of the tracks", in an area of narrow, treeless streets, narrow unkempt lots and cheaply-built, dilapidated houses, the vast majority more than forty years old. A l l the families had television 3 e t s , six had one automobile and one had two. Although a l l of the children i n the sample were enrolled at T.School in June 1966, half of them had transferred i n from other schools during their kindergarten or f i r s t grade year: by Easter of . 225 1967, four of the twenty-two families had l e f t the d i s t r i c t . Matching c r i t e r i a may be defined as follows: 1) chronological age - within two months; 2) Pintner-Cunningham I.Q. - within 5 points; 3) days absent - within the.same category: below average, absent 5 days or l e s s ; average, absent 6-15 days;, above average, absent more than 15 days; 4) si.z.3 of family - within the same category: small, one-or two children; medium, three or four children; large, more than four children;. 5) b i r t h order - f i r s t - b o r n with f i r s t - b o r n , youngest with youngest, middle children with middle children; 6) socioeconomic status - not more than one class or f i v e points apart. On t h i s basis, i t was possible to f i n d perfect matches f o r two of the eleven pupils i n the basic group: two were matched on 8/9 points: three on 7/9 points and three on 6/9. Mismatching was pretty consistently i n favour of the basic group, and as f a r as possible i n areas which were peripheral i n the l i f e s i t u a t i o n of the repeating c h i l d : a l l mismatched items were noted and evaluated i n the case studies. An unexpected d i f f i c u l t y arose i n the matching process, however. Two Grade I I boys with l a t e December birthdays and incomplete school records were inadvertently matched with two repeaters with January birthdays: . sub-sequent investigation revealed that both had spent two years i n f i r s t grade. A Grade I I g i r l turned out to have a serious reading d i s a b i l i t y for which she had been receiving in d i v i d u a l help from the school reading c l i n i c i a n , although.she had been promoted from Grade I with a C grade i n reading. In audition, three boys, a l l i n the same Grade I I classroom, had been receiving D marks i n reading and were expected to have to repeat the grade. On the other hand, s i x of the pupils repeating f i r s t grade were at the very top of t h e i r class, with A or B grades i n reading: and only one was s t i l l a non-226 reader. In short, the dividing line between reading success and failure, which had been so clear in June 1966, had been badly smudged in the succeeding ten months: last year's failures were this year's successes, and vice versa. To a large extent, the findings of the Durrell Analysis confirmed the teacher's evaluations. In reading and listening comprehension, there was a generous overlap between the basic and the matched group. Speed and fluency alone distinguished the Grade II children as a group from the repeaters: generally speaking, their greater speed was due. to their larger sight vocabulary. However, their teacher had done an injustice to the reading achievement of the three Grade II boys mentioned in..the previous paragraph: a l l proved able to read well above their grade level on the Durrell. Because of the foregoing considerations, the results of the inter-viewing and testing procedures w i l l f i r s t be presented for the twenty-two children as a group. Only then w i l l the original hypothesis be tested. II. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FOR THE TOTAL GROUP Intelligence It. was originally assumed that, since the Pintner-Cunningham i s a group test of intelligence, i t might provide an inaccurate estimate of the mental capacity of perhaps 20$ of the children, and that t h i s inaccuracy would be revealed by a discrepancy of more than one standard deviation (in this case, 16 IQ points) between scores on the Peabody and the Pintner-Cunningham . the individually administered Peabody Test being presumed to be the more valid. The Raven was given primarily in order to do justice to children suffering from a linguistic handicap, particularly the seven 227: children from bilingual homes and the three from Canadian Indian families. However, as i t i s clearly apparent i n Table III, there was a dis-crepancy of more than one standard deviation between Pintner and Peabody scores for ten out of the twenty-two children tested: as a result, seven out of the eleven pairs of children appeared to be seriously mismatched on the basis of intellectual capacity. The rank-difference coefficient of correlation between the two tests proved to be only.341, although the median scores were very close. For the basic group of children, the median score on the Peabody was 96, the average 92.2; for the matched group, the median was 106, the average 109. Furthermore, the Peabody discriminated clearly  between the repeaters and the non-repeaters i n 7/11 pairs of children. In the only serious exception - pair XI - investigation disclosed that Douglas had been a repeater .in Grade I in 1965-66. Furthermore, the bilingual and Indian children did not appear to be penalized unduly by this test: -6/7 children from bilingual families, including 3/3 children who were themselves bilingual, and 2/3 of the Indian children, a l l scored between 95 and 110: and 7/10 did better on the Peabody than on the Pintner- Cunningham^ 228 TABLE III COMPARISON OF PIMTNER-CUMNINGHAM AND PEABODY IQ's FOR 22 SUBJECTS NAME Pintner-Cunningham IQ Peabody IQ Difference Rank on Pintner Rank OJ Peabod; I. HERBIE In. 100 96 -4 8.5 16 BRETT 90 114 +24* 14 5 II. DEBBIE In. 97 78 -19* 11.5 21 SUSAN 100 99 1 8.5 12 III. PHILIP Bi. 95 102 7 13 10 JOYCE Bi. + 100 106 6 8.5 9 IV. THANE 102 96 6 5.5 14.: DANNY 100 106 6 8.5 8 V. JANICE 74 74 0 21 22 MURIEL In. 73 100 + 27* 22 11 VI. MICHAEL 80 75 5 19 20 PETER 80 118 + 38* 20 4 VII. RICKY Bi. 82 98 + 16* 17 13 VINCE Bi. + 80 96 + 16* 19 16 VIII. YVONNE Bi. 110 86 - 24* 3 ; 19 GUY 113 130 + 17* 1 1 IX. SEPPI Bi. + 111 112 1 2 6 JEFF Bi. 109 110 1 4 , 7 X. PAUL 83 95 12 16 16 CRAIG 87 126 + 39* 15 2 XI. TREVOR 97 120 23* 11.5 3 DOUGLAS 102 95 7 5.5 16 Range 73 - 113 74 - 130 (*x _Ry) 2 = 1167.75 Median 97 99 Average 94 101.5 In. - of Indian extraction Bi. - from a bilingual home Bi„+ - child i s bilingual 22.9 The Raven Matrices proved to be of l i t t l e assistance i n assessing the intelligence of individual children i n this sample, chiefly because the scoring i s not sufficiently refined. The median for this group was at the 75th percentile, with only one child scoring below the 50th per-centile. The distribution was as follows: Percentile FREQUENCY Rank Basic Group Control Group Total 95th 90th 75th 50th 10th 1 3 3 3 1 2 0 5 4 0 3 3 8 7 1 However, i t i s interesting to note that there were nine children whose percentile score on the Raven Matrices exceeded their percentile score on the Peabody Vocabulary Test by more than 30 points: and that of these six were in the basic group, and two had repeated f i r s t grade in 1965-66. The relevant scores are listed below NAME Group j&iie ranK Peabody )6lie rank Raven Difference HERBIE Basic 44th 75th 31 DEBBY Basic 6th 90th 84 THANE Basic 44th 90th 46 MICHAEL Basic 10th 75th 65 YVONNE Basic 16th 50th 34 PAUL Basic 42nd 90th 48 VINCE Matched-repeater 42nd 75th 33 DOUGLAS Matched-repeater 42nd 75th 33 SUSAN Matched 50th 95th 45 230 This finding would seem to lend support to the theory advanced by Kinsbourne and Warrington^ that one type of reading disability, characterized by developmental lag in the language sphere, can be identified by a discrepancy of more than twenty points between verbal and performance IQ's on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children when such discrepancy favors the performance scale. However, i t suggests that this syndrome may be more common than Kinsbourne and Warrington suppose, at least among young retarded readers. They conclude: "Children with such cerebral cortical defects probably represent a minority within the population of retarded readers and writers", whereas in this study, almost half of the repeaters f a l l into this category. Because of the extremely low correlation between the three tests used to measure intelligence - the Pintner-Cunningham. the Peabody  Vocabulary and the Raven - the task of estimating the mental capacity of each child in the experimental group became quite complex. In the final analysis, a l l of the following were taken into account: 1) the child's scores on the Pintner-Cunningham. the Peabody and the Raven; 2) his developmental and health history; 3) his school performance; and, for reasons which will become apparent in the following section, 4) his score on the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. 60 M. Kinsbourne and E . K. Warrington, "Reading and Writing Backward-ness", The Disabled Reader. (Baltimore, Md., John Hopkins Press: 1966) pp.59-71. 231 Visual Perception Only one instrument was used to measure each child's visual, perception - the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception, aclministered as an individual test. Although more than half the children were over the age - 7 i l l years - for which norms have been established, i t was possible to work out a Perceptual Age and Perceptual Quotient for each child, using the procedure outlined on page 28 of the Administration and Scoring Manual. The results are tabulated in the f i r s t four columns of Table B. Examination of the f i r s t three columns indicates l i t t l e correla-tion between visual perception and reading success. There are only three pairs of children - I, VI and VIII - i h which there i s a difference of more than 10 points in Perceptual Quotient, and i n one of these the difference is i n favor of the f a i l i n g reader. The difference i n pair VIII is also questionable, since Yvonne's low score in sub-test III proved due to conceptual, not perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s (see Case Study VIII for details). Even i f the crucial difference i s reduced to 5 points, there are three pairs i n which the matched child scores lower than the repeater, compared to five in which the repeater has the lower score. 232 TABLE IV FROSTIG TEST S CORES FOR TWENTY-TWO SUBJECTS . NAME Chron. Age Pere. Age Pere. Quotient I SUB-' II TEST SCORES III IV V I. HERBIE• 7:3 6:11 95 not available BRETT 7:5 5:10 79 HI 2l2 6:3 7:0 6:6 II. DEBBY 8:1 8:9 108 9:6 8:3 9:0 8:9 8:3 SUSAN 7:9 8:3 114 10:0 8:3 • 9:0 8:9 " 8:3 III. PHILIP 7:6 7:2 95 not available JOYCE 8:3 7:11 96 10:0 8:3 7:0 7:0 7:6 IV. THANE 7:5 7:2. -• '• 97 6:0 6:0 6:9 8:9 8:3 DANNY 7:4 7:7 1Q3 9:6 6:0 7:0 7:0 8:3 V. JANICE 8:2 8:3 101 10:0 8:3 6:0 8:9 8:3 MURIEL 8:1 7:7 94 7:9 8:3 6:9 7:0 8:3 vr. -MICHAEL 8:4 7:0 84 111 8:3 5:0 6:3 8:3 PETER 8:3 7:11 96 10:0 8:3 IiO 6n 8:3 VII. RICKY 8:1 8:1 100 10:0 8:3 6:9 7:0 8:3 VINCE 8:3 7:9 94 9:6 6:6 9:0 6j3. 7:6 VIII. YVONNE 8:1 7:4 91 7:0 8:3 5:6 8:9 8:3 GUY '8:2 8:10 108 10:0 8:3 9:0 8:9 8:3 IX. SEPPI . 7:4 8:1 110 10:0 8:3 7:0 7:0 8:3 JEFF 7:3 110 7:3 8:3 7:6 8:9 8:3 X. PAUL 7:9 8:0 103 8:6 8:3 7:0 8:9 7:7 CRAIG 7:11 8:7 108 10:0 8:3 7:6 8:9 8:3 XI. TREVOR 8:3 8:1 98 6 £ 8:3 9:0 8:9 8:3 DOUGLAS 8:3 7:11 96 8:6 8:3 8:3 6£3_ 8:3 Range 79 -Median 98 Average 99 114 233 TABLE V ANALYSIS OF PINTNER-CUNNINGHAM SCORES FOR 22 SUBJECTS NAME 1(17)* 11(6* SUB-TEST 111(6)* SCORES IV(4)* V(29)* VI(10)* V l l ( 7 ) * Total Raw ' Score I.Q, I. HERBIE Scores not valid -took i l l half-way through test BRETT u. 6 6 4 25 3 4 62 - 90 II. DEBBY 14 6 6 4 28 9 4 71 97 SUSAN 17 6 6 3 27 6 4 69 100 III. PHILIP JOYCE 17 6 6 4 25 9 5 72 100 IV. THANE 15 6 6 4 25 7 5 68 102 DANNY 14 6 6 2 24 8 6 66 MOO V. JANICE 17 6 6 2 17 6 6 62 74 MURIEL 16 6 6 4 18 6 4 60 73 VI. MICHAEL 13 6 6 4 22 7 7 65 80 PETER 16 6 5 4 22 6 5 64 80 VII. RICKY 16 6 6 4 24 4 5 65 82 VINCE 16 6 6 4 22 5 5 64 80 VIII. YVONNE 16 6 6 4 28 10 6 76 110 GUY 17 6 6 3 28 10 6 76 113 IX. SEPPI 15 6 4 4 29 6 7 71 111 JEFF 14 6 6 4 28 6 ,6 70 109 X. PAUL 15 6 6 4 19 6 6 62 83 CRAIG 9 6 6 4 25 9 5 64 87 XI. TREVOR 17 6 5 4 27 7 5 71 97 DOUGLAS 15 6 6- 4 27 9 6 73 102 •"Figure i n brackets indicates maximum score for each sub-test 1 23U Analysis of sub-test scores tabulated i n the la s t five columns does not alter this conclusion. A l l sub-test s cores have been under-lined which are a year or more below the subject's chronological age at the time the test was given. When these are summed, the results are as follows: Frequency of sub-standard scores in Frostig GROUP I II i n IV V TOTAL Basic 4 1 3 2 0 10 Matched 0 3 3 4 , 0 10 However, co-analysis of sub-test scores of the Frostig and the Pintner-CunnirK ham throws some interesting light on the lack of validity of the lat t e r test. Cursory inspection of Table C suggests that, for children i n the age range of this sample, sub-tests II, III and IV lack discrimination. The maximum scores, bracketed at the head of each column, were obtained by a l l the children i n sub-test II, 18/21 i n sub-test III, and 17/21 i n sub-test IV. Scores i n sub-test I are also tightly bunched; with one exception, the range is from 14/17 to 17/17. Sub^test VII i s i n a class by i t s e l f : i t i s identical to sub-test V of the Frostig, except that the figures to be copied are somewhat different, and thai on the Pintner-Cunningham there i s a s t r i c t time-limit, while on the Frostig there is. none. Of the eleven children who scored 4/8 and 5/8 on sub-test VII of the Pintner-Cunningham; eight achieved the maximum score on sub^test V of the Frostig. suggesting that their d i f f i c u l t i e s arose from the limit rather than from the task i t s e l f . 235 Tiiere remain then for special consideration sub-tests V and VI of the Pintner-Cunningfaam. Examination shows them both to be tasks of a. visual-perception nature. In sub-test V, the subject i s required to mark i n isolation items which appear in context - the figure remains the same but the ground is changed. In sub-test VI, he must choose the line which best completes an incomplete figure - "strength of closure'' i s the label commonly attached to this s k i l l , which i s also of the visual-perception variety. These two tests account for almost half of the total raw score on the Pintner-Cunningham. Furthermore, they are closely related to sub-tests II (Figure-Ground), III (Form Constancy) and IV (Position i n Space) of the Frostig. In view of these considerations, i t i s not surprising to find anomalies in the Frostig scores for 7/10 children whose mental capacity appeared to be misestimated by the Pintner-Cunningham. In five of these cases, the children concerned - Brett, Muriel, Peter, Ricky and Vince -had sub-standard scores i n two out of three of sub-tests II, III and IV of the Frostig. . It seems f a i r to assume that these pupils have d i f f i -culties with visual perception which a l l but Ricky have learned to over-come i n the daily practice of reading, but which re-emerged when they were confronted with the unfamiliar tasks presented by the Frostig and the Pintner-Cunningham. It can also be argued that Debbie and Yvonne 236 represent the opposite side of the saae coin. These two l i t t l e g i r l s both appeared to have exceptionally good visual perception, which inflatea their scores on the Pjntner-GunnitiKhaia. Only i n the case of Joyce and Michael were there double-sub-standard scores ©a the Prostiff which were reflected i n reading d i f f i c u l t y but not i n depressed Pintner-Cunningham scores. In stiEEiiary, i t appears that, in severs out of ten instances, the reason why the Pintner-Cunrdnghara seriously . misestimated the xsr.tal capacity of this group of children i s i t s heavy loading with visual perception factory. For this reason, intelligence and perceptual development have bean bracketed together i n a l l of the casestudies. Style of Learning The kinesthetic section of the M i l l s ' Learning Methods Test was administered to 17/22 children: the word recognition s k i l l s of the reiaaining five were too advanced for this test to be applicable, and they were obviously very efficient auditory-visual learners. Ucores of the rejsaining seventeen, as tabulated in Table VI Indicate that the kinesthetic sasthod was, on the whole, inefficient, <3nly two children were able to leant the quota of tea words in fifteen minutes, although the time l i m i t presented d i f f i c u l t i e s to only one child when more familiar methods wore used. To calculate the efficiency index, the number of words learned for isznedlate r e c a l l was divided into the number of words actually printed on the work sheet, and the result converted into a percentage. The figures lis t e d i n Column 4 mean that 12/17 children had to print each word at least twice before learning i t correctly, and four children three times or raore. .237 The results of the M i l s ' Test need to be interpreted with caution, for several reasons: (l) the children were familiar with the visual and auditory methods of learning, but, except for Philip and Joyce, not with the kinesthetic; (2) with seven days lapse between sessions, delayed r e c a l l was very d i f f i c u l t ; (3) this test was given at the end of each testing session, when the children had been working on other tasks intensively for more than 30 minutes; and (4) the pace of learning expected was at least three times the normal rate of the Grade I classroom from which the repeaters came. For these reasons, none of the children has been classified as a kinesthetic learner. Thane, whose efficiency was 100 per cent by this method, learned equally well by other methods. For Janice, the visual method was quicker and as efficient. Yvonne and Ricky were extremely slow. The significant fact which emerges is that 8 / l l children i n the matched group are auditory-visual learners, compared to 3 / l l children i n the basic group. It would appear that, i f the basal reader method i s used, i t i s a distinct advantage, for the pupil to have both visual and auditory competence. Therefore, i n calculating anomalies for the f i n a l tabulation, a strong preference for either visual or auditory learning has been considered as a style of learning which contributes to d i f f i c u l t y with reading. 23§ TABLE VI STYLE OF LEARNING; TWENTY-TWO CHILDREN  MILLS' TEST KINESTHETIC METHOD' AUDITORY METHOD VISUAL METHOD NAME Iraraed. Delayed E f f i c . Immed. Delayed Immed. Delayed Pref. HERBIE 3/7 3/7 20$ 8/10 8/10 5/10 5/10 Aud. DEBBY 4/7 3/7 30$ 6/10 3/10 8/10 6/10 Vis. PHILIP 8/8 2/8 50$ 8/10 2/10 8/10 2/10 None THANE 7/7 7/7 100$ 10/10 7/10 10/10 7/10 Vis. JANICE 5/7 5/7 70$ 3/10 1/10 7/10 5/10 Vis. MICHAEL 4/6 3/6 30$ 8/10 5/10 7/10 3/10 Aud. RICKY 2/5 2/5 40$ 2/10 0/10 7/10 2/10 Vis. YVONNE 2/5 2/5 70$ 2/6 0/6 4/6 2/6 Vis. SEPPI 7/8 7/8 50$ 10/10 9/10 10/10 9/10 Aud.Vis. PAUL 6/7 4/7 40$ 9/10 8/10 9/10 5/10 Aud. TREVOR 6/7 4/7 40$ 9/10 7/10 9/10 7/10 Aud.Vis. 239 TABLE VI (continued) M I L L S ' TEST DURRELL ANALYSIS KINESTHETIC METHOD SOUNDS IN VISUAL VISUAL METHOD NAME Imraed. Delayed E f f i c . WORDS MEMORY Flash Analysis Pref. BRETT 4/7 4/7 30$ 26/29 15/20 16/25 2 Aud. SUSAN ' not given 29 20 50/50 Aud.Vis. JOYCE 7/8 7/8 40$ 29 16 13/35 14 Aud. DANNY not given 28 19 43/50 3 Aud.Vis. MURIEL 9/10 7/10 82$ 25 18 21/32 4 Aud.Vis. PETER 7/8 6/8 40$ 28 16 13/25 10 Aud* VINCE 9/10 7/10 60$ 28 18 14/25 9 Aud.Vis. GUY not given 29 20 44/50 3 Aud.Vis, JEFF not given 27 19 38/50 6 Aud.Vis. CRAIG not given 29 20 48/50 1 Aud.Vis. DOUGLAS 9/9 7/9 40$ 27 17 26/36 3 Aud.Vis. 240 Solf -Concept The d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n assessing the self-concept of emotionally l a b i l e seven-year-olds have already been discussed i n Chapter H I , It therefore follows that observations made under this heading, both in the case studies and i n the pages which follow, are tentative deductions from observed and reported behavior rather than f i n a l conclusions. For children i n this sample, the greatest, handicap ,to a positive self^concept appeared to be some type of physical or temperamental irr e g -ularity which interfered with success at school* In addition to the four aspects;1 of biological endowment specified i n the anomaly charts, two more appeared to adversely affect school achievement - the slow reaction time of children l i k e Joyce and Douglas, and the hypersensit-i v i t y of boys like Ricky and Brett, Of the.fourteen children who had di f f i c u l t y with beginning reading, only five were completely free^of congenital handicaps. Four children, before entering school, had been made to feel inadequate because of their slowness in accomplishing maturational tasks which arise i n the pre-school period. Five more had their short-comings brought home to them soon after school entrance, and i n the competitive atmosphere of a formal first-grade program, quickly developed symptoms of a negative self-concept. Only one of these children -Brett - succeeded i n completing f i r s t grade i n one year. Only two -Michael and Joyce - appeared to receive sufficient understanding and support at home to enable them to weather failure without losing self-confidence. The amazing fact i s that so many of these children apparently recovered their self-respect with a modicum of success at school. Of ten current repeaters, eight were reported to have started their second year i n grade I with overt signs of discouragement and poor morale: yet by early spring, when interviewed for this study, eight had a reasonably positive self-concept and a reasonably positive attitude toward school. On the other hand,there were six children i n grade II who were f a i l i n g to meet the standards of achievement and behavior.es-tablished by their teacher. Five of these refelected a negative self -concept at the time of testing: seven months of well-intentioned but relentless nagging and criticism had done"much to erode their s e l f -confidence and make them hate school. Four of these children were able to read well above their grade level, but their achievement i n this area was not recognized i n their school reports. At least fifteen children i n this sample appear to have entered f i r s t grade without the self-reliance, the self-control, the capacity to tolerate frustration which are demanded i n a formal f i r s t grade pro-gram. At the time of testing, six of these had apparently achieved satisfactory standards of emotional maturity, and the two hyperactive boys had greatly improved: however, Ricky was s t i l l conspicuously lacking i n self-control; Yvonne and Douglas were s t i l l unable to tolerate frus-tration; while Brett, Peter, Danny and Philip were day-dreaming their way through second-grade. Thirteen children were reported to have entered f i r s t grade with inadequate social s k i l l s to get along comfortably with other children.-three successful and ten unsuccessful readers. At the time of this study, twelve s t i l l appeared socially immature. Brett and Craig were 242 loners, and Janet was more or less isolated by her classmates: two had found special roles to play, Trevor as class busy-body and Paul as c|.ass clown; Peter,Debby and Yvonne tended to play with much younger children; Vince and Thane were frequently picked on by their class-mates, and Ricky was s t i l l hostile and aggressive. Only Herbie seemed to have grown steadily i n social maturity and acceptance. It i s less surprising that symptoms of anxiety should be relat-ively static, since for the most part they appeared to stem from inadequate parent-child relationships and child-rearing practices. 61 According to Crow, anxious children are characterized by day-dreams, night-mares, psychosomatic illness or over-aggressive behavior. Accord-ing to this criterion, there were seven anxious children i n the total group - Brett, Philip, Thane, Danny, Peter, Douglas and Ricky: and an eighth - Jeff - was beginning to act out the anxiety aroused by his mother's defection. To this should be added over-conformity, the defence against anxiety adopted by Debby, Douglas and Vince: Craig 1s perfectionism; and Janice*s habit of chewing her lower l i p , a less dramatic successor to her earlier voluntary aphasia. Of these anxious children, five were successful readers as defined for purposes of this project. To tabulate these findings as has been done in Table VI i s to construct i n effect a mental health chart. At the top of the pyramid are four children who were fortunate enough to enter school with the physical, mental, social and emotional maturity to ensure success: and three more with the security to take temporary failure i n their stride. At the bottom are nine children who, from the point of view of mental health, were simply not ready to cope with the demands of a formal f i r s t grade program,although a l l but one had sufficient mental a b i l i t y : six of "61 L.D. and A.Crow, Child Development and Adjustment, (New York, Macmillan: 1962) 2ia TABLE VII Physical He&lthLow %p©y- TEaot, Social Ssgatdir© Eanlc mm Setaasd* Pmfcleig Iberssracii'cr© Issaa£e '. Essaatc. Anxiety S©I£-Con« I b t a l o - 0 l o c m 0 X 1 2, JOYCE 2. SSPF2. X 2. JEFF X 1 .3* ClfeAXG XI -T /*• 3 <•* PHILIP X I . X 4* mcmsx. X XX x h VXMB X XX X >0 mms X XX 4 &a SAKSf 5. fBJBR X XI x | 5* BIG1Y XX IK ' 5 5e ?A1H IS SX • 5 5« D0TJG1A3 XX X 5 6* B I B B I X X It 0 $UAHI€E X X X M s 6 6* MOOR X V XX XX • 6 7«SRBZ7 £ XX X X . ? M V C 9 S B X A 21 . X $ Botes IX denotes i n i t i a l and continuing immaturity X denotes i n i t i a l iasssatupity which has largely been ovarco&e 2UU these are in the basic group, one repeated f i r s t grade earlier, and the two remaining are threatened with failure this year: none of them have the inner resources to cope with repeated failure. Home Environment The child's self-concept and his readiness for school are determined to a very large extent by his home environment. Even his IQ and his visual and auditory perception are influenced by his pre-school and out-of-school experiences: an enriched environment can produce a significant increase in scores i n a l l three areas. The aspects of home environment considered i n this study are l i s t e d on the anomalies chart at the end of each pair of case studies: they w i l l be considered i n the same order in the following pages. 1) Socioeconomic Status There was no relationship between the child's reading success and the socioeconomic status of his family. The relevant s t a t i s t i c s are tabulated below: Blishen Class Frequency: Basic Group Frequency: Matched Group II III IV V VI VII 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 5 1 2 Median Class V Neither range nor median are altered i f Douglas, Vince and Joyce are considered as reading 'failures. 245 2) Marital Status In the group of children studied, there was no direct relation-ship between marital status and the child's reading success: of the 'seven:children from broken homes, three were successful readers. How-ever, except for Muriel and Herbie, these were a l l anxious children. 3) Working Mothers The data i n this project showed l i t t l e correlation between working mothers and reading achievement. Of four mothers who worked part-time, three had children who were successful readers. Of five children whose mothers worked full-time, three were successful readers. However, unstable or unsuitable " s i t t i n g " arrangements would seem to have contributed to the anxiety of three of the boys. 4) Books Four children i n the sample entered school unfamiliar with traditional nursery rhymes and fairy tales, not having been read to as pre-schoolers. A l l four came from the lowest socioeconomic class, and had parents who were actually or functionally i l l i t e r a t e . None of the four completed f i r s t grade i n one year. 5) Television A l l children i n the sample came from homes furnished with a tele-vision set. Parents of six children showed concern about the content of available programs, and tried to protect their offspring from ex-cessive exposure to crime, violence and the supernatural: three were consciously trying to develop standards of good taste, and frequently discussed controversial programs. Half of these six children were successful readers. Most of the children were reported to watch "chiefly" children's programs, cartoons and sports features, but to prefer active play when 246 the weather was fine. It was tacitly assumed that a l l children's pro-grams were equally wholesome and in good taste, and did not need to be monitored or discussed. Three boys - Brett,Craig and Douglas - were addicted to television, having learned to use i t and books as an escape from unsatisfactory inter-family and inter-peer relationships. A fourth was driven to watch "too much" TV by unsuitable housing which restricted more active pursuits. Herbie, Paul and Susan, a l l from permissive families, showed distorted familiarity with quite unsuitable adult programs. Janice and Ricky came from homes where the television set was rarely turned off, but rarely given f u l l attention: their common habit of inattention may be due in part to this unfortunate practice. In short, aberrant televiewing habits in this group of children appeared to bear some relationship to standards of child care and to parent-child relationships, but very l i t t l e to reading achievement. 6) Trips and Travel Only four children in this sample appeared to suffer from actual stimulus deprivation, the four boundaries of their environment being home, school, television set and the nearest shopping centre: these were a l l unsuccessful readers. However, i t seemed to be a common prac-tice among the rest to take children to "places of interest" and to assume that their education had thereby been furthered, with l i t t l e effort to engage the children's interest in the new experience or to encourage or answer questions. Thus, although in this mobile- group of families, fourteen of the children had aade trips of five hundred miles or more by plane, boat or auto, only four reported enjoying the exper-ience - Joyce, Muriel, Herbie and Craig. And language;- deficits were found among children whose parents owned cars and regularly went on outings. 24? 7) Social Isolation Three children - Janice, Vince and Ricky - came from lower class families which seemed to have no friends and no meaningful contact with the community other than employment. There is no evidence that this social isolation had any effect upon the children's reading achievement, but, among other things, i t did permit parents to persist i n poor child-rearing practices which might have been improved "through more meaning-f u l integration: and i t also limited the children's opportunities to acquire social experience and maturity. 8) Bilingualism In the sample studied, 6/7 children from bilingual homes repeated f i r s t grade, although only one entered school unable to speak English, and only one at the time of testing could be considered to have a serious language handicap,. Three of these children had parents who were actually or functionally i l l i t e r a t e . In two more, a hierarchical family structure plus a European style of child rearing appeared to contribute to the child"s lack of readiness for reading by restricting his oppor-tunities for experiences conducive to emotional and social maturity. 9) Verbal Communication Speech anomalies were noted i n almost half of the families studied i n this project.They were of three different kinds: l)English of sub-standard quality appeared to be spoken in four homes where parents were actually or functionally i l l i t e r a t e : 2) four children came from homes in which a dominant adult talked too much , with c r i t i c -ism of the child.often expressed or implied; parent-child relationships appeared poor i n a l l four families: 3) four homes were characterized by a bare minimum of communication between children and adults; this speech anomaly also seemed to be a symptom of poor parent-child 248 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Since there was some overlapping between the three groups, nine f a m i l i e s i n a l l were considered inadequate i n t h i s respect: from them came eight unsuccessful beginning readers. However, i n each case the basic d i f f i c u l t y appeared to be e i t h e r l i m i t e d parental educ-a t i o n or poor parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 10) Child-Rearing Practices Along with standards expected of ch i l d r e n , parent-child r e l a t i o n -ships and extent of parental education, c h i l d rearing practices emerged as basic to the academic success of the twenty-two c h i l d r e n studied. In most homes, d i s c i p l i n a r y practices were s i m i l a r to those of the school: adults made r u l e s , and c h i l d r e n who broke them were scolded, deprived of p r i v i l e g e s , or a s . a l a s t r e s o r t subjected to corporal punishment. However, Paul, Ricky, Herbie and Janice grew up i n homes where there appeared to be l i t t l e or no d i s c i p l i n e . In two homes, c h i l d r e n were over-protected and treated as though they were much younger than i n f a c t they were - Trevor because of h i s congenital heart condition, Vince because h i s i l l i t e r a t e immigrant parents perceived t h e i r environ-ment as dangerous and sought to protect t h e i r c h i l d r e n . And i n Debby's home, the c h i l d r e n were ru l e d by f e a r . A l l seven of these c h i l d r e n entered school emotionally and s o c i a l l y immature, and had to spend two years i n f i r s t grade. In ten homes, the mother was completely reponsible f o r the c h i l d -ren, her husband being e i t h e r dead, l e g a l l y separated, absent f o r long periods of time, or quite inadequate. Children from these homes were equally divided between successful and unsuccessful readers. In only one home - Ricky's - d i d parents disagree v i o l e n t l y about the up-bringing of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 249 11) Standards Expected of Children The basic importance of this aspect of home environment appears to stem from i t s relationship to the child's self-concept. If at home he i s able to meet the standards .expected of him without surrendering too much of his individuality, then the child comes to school with the experience of success behind him, and the expectation of further success:. If no consistent standards have been set, he i s apt to be either obnoxious or anxious or both: in any case, the school has to teach him how to observe limits and accept discipline before i t can teach him to read. I f standards have been too high, then he i s l i k e l y to have a negative self-concept or to be rebellious and to distrust adults. In this group of children, Paul,Ricky, Herbie and Janice grew up i n homes where no consistent limits were set. The parents of Debby, Seppi and Vince expected instant, unquestioning obedience from their children and set pretty restrictive standardsl In three homes, normal standards were imposed upon three children with sub-standard : Biological endowment - Brett, Debby and Yvonne. Philip's mother ex-pected too much of him educationally: Thane's mother expected, her son to adjust-successfully to too many changes of domicile, school and baby-s i t t e r . Of these eleven children, only Brett was a successful reader: and only Seppi, Herbie and Paul appeared self-confident and reasonably free from anxiety. 12) Family Structure In addition to the irregularities -already noted under the heading of marital status, eight children, i n the sample belonged to families': whose structure was more or less atypical, Three children, two of whose mothers were l i s t e d as separated, lived i n communal households 250 with grandparents, uncles and cousins. The effect of this arrangement was apparently to increase Herbie*s security and to decrease Brett's: to Debbie i t seemed to make l i t t l e difference, since her manipulating mother mother was the dominant influence i n the communal home. There were also three families i n which the father's employment kept him away from home for months at a time. In the case of Ricky and Douglas, this may have been a blessing i n disguise, since neither boy had a good relationship with his father: i n Debby's case, i t i s d i f f -i c u l t to know to what extent his blindness to his wife's destructive relationship with the g i r l s was due to his long absences. Finally, perhaps less of a deviation, there were three hierarch-i c a l families i n which the father was lord and master. Since boys are favored i n such families, neither Seppi nor Vince were at a particular disadvantage: but i n Yvonne's case, i t helped to make her and keep her "low man on the totem pole." Although a l l eight of these children spent two years i n second grade, i t should not therefore be concluded that a direct relationship was found between irregular family structure and reading failure. Where parent-child relationships were secure, as i n the case of Herbie, Seppi and Vince, the lack of success with reading can be traced to other causes: where these relationships were poor to begin with, atypical family structure served at most to accentuate them; in some cases, i t served to decrease the amount of f r i c t i o n i n the home. 13) Marital Relationships In most instances, only one parent was interviewed, and the focus in each case was upon the child and his reading. Therefore information about marital relationships tended to be peripheral. However, as far as 251 could be ascertained, only i n the case of Ricky was marital discord ..  directly related to the child's reading failure, and even i n his case, other factors were of greater importance. Susan and Paul both had a secure relationship with their mother, and managed to ignore either an inadequate or a temporary father. In Janice"s family, marital discord was a minor factor i n . • ubiquitous cultural alienation. To see frequently a father who was no longer part of the family doubtless added to Brett's confusion, but did not prevent him from learning to read. Herbie's parents were separated in name only. Muriel's older sisters maintained some contact with their estranged father, but Muriel ignored him. Jeff learned to read before his mother deserted. 14) Parent-Child Relationships The quality of parent-child relationships, for the most part, had to be deduced from material gathered during interviews with parents and children. However, an experienced interviewer becomes reasonably s k i l f u l i n making deductions , as much from the client's "body-language" and omissions as from what he actually says: and i n this sample, Few of the children or adults were consciously on the defensive. Therefore reasonable confidence can be placed i n data gathered i n this area. The standard was not perfection. I t was assumed that the child who had a warm, healthy relationship with at least one parent was receiving sufficient emotional support to enable him to explore his environment, to acquire a modicum of self-respect, and to meet the demands placed upon him by the school i n the area of emotional maturity. But even with this attenuated standard, only fourteen out of the twenty-two children could be considered to enjoy satisfactory parent-child relationships: this group,was composed of 7/8 successful readers and 7/l4 unsuccessful readers. 252 Given this type of relationship, children i n this sample showed themselves able to take i n their stride situations with seriously disruptive potentialities. For example, Paul's close relationship with his mother enabled him to tolerate her alcoholism and nymphomania: Susan"s relationship with her mother and brother helped her to ignore marital discord and her father's immature behavior: Michael"s under-standing mother helped him to retain his self-respect i n spite of sub-standard intellectual endowment, sibling rivalry and repeated school failu r e . On the other hand, in spite of her efforts to create an ideal intellectual environment for her children, Philip's mother fai l e d to give her son adequate motivation for academic success because her relationship with him did not satisfy his "lower order" needs for affection and esteem: and Douglas, well-fed, well-clothed and well-housed, f e l t nevertheless neglected and deprived because neither of his parents had ever given him the feeling of being loved. If a metaphor i s i n order, children who have not experienced genuine affection at home are l i k e a house bu i l t upon sand: they may appear adequate enough when the weather i s fine, but they have l i t t l e staying power when the winds of failure and adversity blow. The common denominator of the children i n this sample who had not achieved a satis-fying relationship with even one parent was their fear of failure, and the elaborate devices each had constructed to protect himself. Craig f e l t safe only i f perfect: Brett and Douglas withdrew into the imaginary world of television and books: Debby and Yvonne sought safety i n over-conformity: Janice resorted at f i r s t to voluntary aphasia: Ricky pro-jected the blame for his failure on his mother and teachers and class-mates: Philip resorted to day-dreams. 253 15) Standard of Housing Seppi and Paul lived i n crowded quarters, Janice in an impossibly sub-standard house, and Brett i n constant contact with abrasive cousins. However, the relationship between housing and reading achievement would appear to be at most a peripheral one; housing today i s a problem for many families i n the lower socioeconomic classes, but given reasonable affection, standards and discipline, most children manage to be happy i n spite of poor housing, and to achieve success at school i n accordance with their a b i l i t y and opportunity. 16) Parents 1 Level of Education From the twenty-two families involved i n this study, 16/22 mothers and 7/l7 fathers had attended high school: two mothers and one father had been to university. The better educated parents were generally more concerned about what books their children read, what television programs they watched, what children they played with, and more knowledgable about their school progress: but there was no strong correlation between level of parental education and the children's reading achievement. However, i f i n a b i l i t y to read or write abowe the fourth grade level i s accepted as the criterion of functional i l l i t e r a c y , then three, of the children - Vince, Janice and Joyce - had fathers who appeared "to be functionally i l l i t e r a t e : and Herbie, Ricky Janice and Vince had mothers who were actually or functionally i l l i t e r a t e . This i l l i t e r a c y was reflected not only i n failure to interest the children i n reading, but also i n child rearing practices and standards expected of children. No child with i l l i t e r a t e parents was able to complete f i r s t grade i n one year. 254 17) Family"s School D i f f i c u l t y Authoritative literature quoted elsewhere i n this paper suggests that when the parents of a dyslexic child report specific d i f f i c u l t y with reading, a genetic factor may be involved. Such a possibility must be considered for two children i n this group - Joyce and Ricky. Ricky had i n addition a half-brother who was apparently i l l i t e r a t e i n spite of seven years of schooling. On the other hand, when several of the children of apparently intelligent and li t e r a t e parents have d i f f i c u l t y with reading, i t is more usual to look for a common environmental factor. Such a factor i s not hard to find i n the families of Debby, Yvonne and Janice, although Janice's parents hardly qualify as "apparently intelligent and l i t e r a t e . " I t i s basically poor parent-child relationships, re-sulting i n inadequate communication between the generations, and consequently i n poor lin g u i s t i c s k i l l s on the part of the children. 18) Attitude to Education The majority of the parents involved i n this study seemed anxious for their children to go "as far as possible" i n school because of the lack of vocational opportunities available now to people with limited education: although three spoke of university, none were more specific. There seemed to be an unspoken assumption that, when the time came, i t would be the school authorities and not they who would make the v i t a l decisions. Two families handicapped by i l l i t e r a c y had voluntarily made major sacrifices so that their children could have "a better chance in l i f e than we had": Herbie*s parents underwent voluntary separation, and Ricky's mother lived i n common law with a man she despised. Three other families, by challenging their children's non-promotion, suggested that they valued academic success highly, and were perhaps putting undue pressure upon their offspring - Trevor, Seppi and Philip. At the 255 other end of the scale were Janice, Yvonne and Vince, whose parents were content with very limited educational goals for their children: and Douglas, whose mother did not appear to care, as long as her son was no bother to her. Somewhere i n between were Michael.1 s parents, who had wisely decided that, for this child at least, character was of greater importance than academic prowess: and Jeff's father, who very seriously wanted his sons to be truly well-educated, but was - n sceptical about the significance of high marks at school and university. ^Six^parents expressed criticism of the school - Jeff's father on the basis of i t s objectives and methods, the mothers of Philip,Thane Peter, Danny and Joyce because of their children's anfortunate exper-iences with particular teachers. However, there was no evidence to suggest that any of them had tried to undermine their children's respect for school authority. School Experience 1) Kindergarten Attendance A l l but seven children i n the sample had attended kindergarten for a f u l l year. Of those who did not, three were from culturally different homes, and as the school nurse remarked of one of them, "kindergarten would have made a difference". It would have given Vince an extra year to learn English, Ricky a year of socialization without academic pressure, and Herbie an opportunity for cultural integration. 2) Absence from School This matching criterion served i t s purpose by drawing attention to the health and family problems of such children as Susan, Thane, and Debby. However, of seven children who missed fifteen or more days of their f i r s t year i n grade I, three were successful readers. Only Thane's reading seemed to have suffered directly from discontinuity of instruction. 256 3) Change of School Changes of school appeared to have contributed to the d i f f -i c u l t i e s of three of the unsuccessful readers - Thane, because of the frequency; Seppi, because of the timing; and Joyce, because of the tremendous difference between schools i n Berlin, Germany and Vancouver, Canada. 4) Cultural Gap Herbie, Vince, Ricky and Janice a l l had cultural gaps to bridge when they came to school, particularly i n the areas of language, literature and discipline, and only Janet had the benefit of a year at kinder-garten. A l l four children spent an extra year i n f i r s t grade. 5) Teacher-Pupil Relationships For children who lack self-confidence or emotional maturity, i t seems to be of particular importance that they l i k e their primary teachers enough to seek their approval: otherwise, their motivation may be i n -sufficient to achieve the academic success ofi which they are i n t e l l -ectually capable. Five boys i n this sample had a poor relationship with their i n i t i a l teachers, and a l l had to repeat f i r s t grade. Philip, Paul, Seppi, Thane and Trevor were a l l too immature to learn well from teachers whom they did not l i k e . 6) Pace of Learning According to their teachers, Debby,Janice,Michael, Yvonne and Ricky a l l needed a slow pace and much repetition i n order to learn. A l l spent two years i n f i r s t grade. 7) Teaching Methods No provision was made i n this school for an extended '•readiness" program, i n spite of the large proportion of children admitted to grade I unready for i formal reading. Partly as a consequence,-, the majority of children who were immature socially, emotionally or visually at school 257 entrance were s t i l l immature, although a majority of them had learned to read. For the special learning problems of culturally deprived children l i k e Janice, culturally different children like Herbie and Vince, l i n g u i s t i c a l l y handicapped children li k e Debby, disorganized children lik e Brett, and slow learners, no solution was offered by this school except a second year in f i r s t grade, with no adjustment i n curriculum. Yet enough is now known about teaching such children that much better use could have been made, of their extra year i n school - to enrich their experience and their language, to stimulate their interest, to encourage their participation, to improve their social s k i l l s . To have delayed formal reading, i f necessary u n t i l the beginning of their second year at school, would have improved the morale of both pupils and teachers. The special services of the reading clinician had been enlisted for two of the children - Philip and Joyce. However, their teachers failed to follow through in the classroom with methods and materials which were producing encouraging results i n the remedial reading room, and continued to grade the reading achievement of these 'two children by regular Grade II standards. As employed in this school, the basal reader method made no pro-vision for delayed introduction of phonics: yet the basal group included five children - Debby, Janice, Michael, Ricky and Yvonne - not yet ready for phonics after a year and a half of school, and two boys - Thane and Trevor - whose reading was presumed to have been adversely affected by too early introduction of phonics. (8) Attitude Toward Frustration Poor techniques for coping with frustration are one aspect of emotional immaturity of which teachers are particularly aware. Ricky's temper tantrums and projection of blame, Yvonne's easy tears, Janice's voluntary aphasia, Paul's and Trevor's impatience, Douglas' stomach aches, were a l l poor substitutes for persistent effort, and contributed to the learning d i f f i c u l t i e s of these children. Intepreting Table VIII On the following two pages, the information collected i n the course of the study and presented in the previous chapters has been tabulated for easy reference. However, the reader must be cautioned against interpreting the figures without reference to the text. No distinction has been drawn in this table between central and peripheral causes of reading d i f f i c u l t y , between primary and secondary anomalies. The number of sub-headings i n any one category attests, not to the- importance of the category, but to the wide variety of material which had to be classified. 259 TABLE VIII: FREQUENCY OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH READING FAILURE FREQUENCY FACTOR 14 Unsuccessful 8 Successful Readers Readers 1. Under six years of age when admitted to Grade I 3 3 2. Verbal IQ under 90 (Peabody Vocabulary Test) 4 0 3. Failed to attend kindergarten for f u l l year 5 2 4. Absent more than 15 days during school term 1965-66 4 3 5. Mother widowed, divorced, separated or l i v i n g i n common law 4 3 6. Mother working part-time 2 2 f u l l time 2 3 7. Unsatisfactory " s i t t i n g " arrangements 2 3 8 . Visual perception: P.Q. below 90 1 1 anomalies 4 4 9 . Style of learning other than balanced auditory-visual 10 2 10. Self-concept a) retarded physical development (neuro-muscular, speech) 3 1 b) congenital health problem 2 0 c) low energy level 3 1 d) hyperactivity 2 0 e) slow reaction time 2 0 f) hypersensitivity 2 0 g) emotional immaturity - i n i t i a l 12 3 -continuing 6 3 h) diffuse anxiety 7 5 i ) negative self-concept Sept.1966 8 0 A p r i l I967 4 4 j) social immaturity - i n i t i a l 10 3 9 3 11. School Experience a) frequerit or out-of-system transfers 4 1 b) cultural gap to bridge 4 0 c) poor pupil-teacher relationship(1965-66)5 0 d) slow pace of learning 5 0 e) teaching methods not adapted to child's individual needs 8 3 f) child's attitude to frustration 6 3 (continued) ,260 TABLE VIII (continued) FREQUENCY FACTOR 14 Unsuccessful 8 Successful _ Readers Readers 12. Home Environment A) child not read to as 4 0 pre-schooler b) television: addiction 1 3 abuse 4 1 c) lack'of family "field trips" 4 8 d) family socially isolated 3 . 0 e) verbal communication: poor quality 4 0 excessive 3 1 too l i t t l e 4 0 f) bilingualism: child bilingual 3 0 parents only bilingual 3 1 g) child rearing: over-protection 2 0 no consistent discipline 4 0 rule of fear 1 0 matriarchal 5 5 b) standards: repressive 3 0 no consistent limits 4 0 too high for this child 2 1 i ) family structure: hierarchical 3 0 father often absent 3 0 communal household 2 1 j) marital discord. 1965-66 2 1 k) poor parent-child relationships 7 1 1) sub-standard housing 3 1 m) functional i l l i teracy - father 3 0 mother 4 0 n) reading disability - parents 2 0 siblings 3 0 ° ) family's attitude to education 4 0 261 III. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS I n i t i a l l y , the research design for this project required that the twenty-two subjects constitute eleven pairs, matched with respect to chronological age, intelligence as measured by the Pintner-Cunningham group test, and four or more of the following factors*, socioeconomic status, attendance at kindergarten, absence from school I965-66, size of family, subject's birth order, bilingualism and sex - but differing i n grade placement because one child i n each pair had experienced d i f f -i c u l t y with beginning reading. It was hypothesized that, for each matched pair of children, differences i n reading achievement would be accounted for by significant differences i n one or more of the develop-mental and environmental factors studied. In their simplest form, these factors may be l i s t e d as follows: 1. Intellectual capacity 2. Visual perception 3. Style of learning 4. Self-concept 5. Home environment In the course of the study, i t became apparent that, i f style of learning and self-concept were to be discussed meaningfully, the child's school experiences would have to be considered; therefore a sixth category - child's school experiences - was added. Because of incomplete or ambiguous school records, the number of matched pairs has been reduced to eight. However, to complete the research design, i t i s now necessary to test the hypothesis against the data available for these eight pairs of children. 262 The case-studies in Chapter V presented this material i n detail. In the l a s t thirty-four pages of this concluding chapter, forty-one aspects of these six factors have been carefully considered, their frequency in this sample noted, their relationship to one another and to reading failure discussed i n the context of the theoretical frame-work outlined i n Chapter II. A l l that remains i s to define, for each of the six factors, what constitutes a significant difference, since obviously "significant" can have no s t a t i s t i c a l connotation when only sixteen subjects are being studied: and then to recapitulate the con-clusions reached at the end of each case study. 1) Intellectual Capacity As the most valid of the three measures of intelligence employed i n this-study,'the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used'as the basis for comparing the intellectual capacity of the matched pairs. Two children were considered to be significantly different i n i n t e l l -ectual capacity i f their IQ's on this test differed by sixteen or more points, sixteen being the standard deviation of this test. On this basis, six of the eight matched pairs were significantly different i n intellectual capacity: only Thane and Danny, Seppi and Jeff were well-matched. 2) Visual Perception It was assumed i n i t i a l l y that the sample might include some children of normal intelligence whose reading d i f f i c u l t y was due prim-a r i l y to inadequate visual perception, and that at least one of these might be matched with a successful reader whose visual perception was significantly superior. For this purpose, the arbitrary criterion of ten points of difference i n Perceptual Quotient as determined by the Frostig Test was considered to constitute a significant difference. 263 On this basis, children i n three of the matched pairs appeared to have significantly different visual perception.- Herbie and Brett, Yvonne and Guy, Michael and Peter. However, i n the case of the f i r s t pair, the difference was i n favor of the unsuccessful reader: Yvonne's low score on the Frostig Test was suspect because of the nature of her errors (see Chapter V, page 175)? and Michael's low score seemed part of a syndrome of general retardation rather than a specific visual perception d i s a b i l i t y . Thus the original assumption was unsupported. Perceptual anomalies were also considered - a perceptual age equivalent one year or more below .'the child's" chronological age on one or more sub-divisions of the Frostig Test. In three of the matched pairs, both children had perceptual anomalies: the difference seemed to be that Danny, Muriel and Peter had learned to compensate for their anomalies during their f i r s t year i n grade I, while Thane, Janice and Michael had not. 3) Style of Learning Two children were considered to have significantly different styles of learning i f test results indicated that one was a competent visual-auditory learner, while the other showed a strong preference for either a visual or an auditory style of learning. The criterion was one grade level of difference between Hearing Sounds i n Words and Visual Memory of Words on the Durrell Analysis, or 20 percent d i f f e r -ence i n rec a l l between the visual and auditory method on the M i l l s ' Test. Four pairs of children exhibited this difference. In two matched pairs, both children were apparently auditory learners, with the successful reader having significantly greater verbal intelligence. 2 6 4 4 ) Home Environment The presentation of data in Section II of this chapter has made i t clear that,(for this group of children, four aspects of home environment - parental literacy, parent-child relationships, methods of child rearing and standards expected of children - were central to the child's success in reading, with other factors being to a large extent expressions or derivatives of these four. For purposes of this study, an adult was considered illiterate i f he could neither read nor write. He was considered functionally illiterate i f he had not gone beyond fourth grade in school, or i f notes which he sent to the school, with respect to grammar, vocabulary and form, were of a standard that would not be accepted above the fourth grade. Herbie's guardian - his grandmother - was illiterate, and both of Janice's parents qualified as functionally illiterate, although both had been in sixth grade when they left school. With illiteracy were associated environmental deprivation, failure to read to pre-schoolers, indiscriminate televiewing, sub-standard verbal communication, and standards of child-rearing which did not adequately prepare the child for school. Illiteracy of parents or guardian differentiated two repeaters from their successful counterparts. Parent-child relationships were considered satisfactory i f the child appeared to have most of his affective and biological needs reliably met by at least one parent, with whom he had a reasonably secure and warm relationship. With a poor parent-child relationship were associated inappropriate methods and standards of child rearing, resulting in a youngster with low frustration tolerance, l i t t l e self-confidence, symptoms of anxiety, and limited capacity to take advantage of opportunities available for emotional and social growth. 265 Three unsuccessful readers i n the matched pairs - Janice, Debby and Yvonne - were considered to have a significantly poor relationship with their parents which sharply differentiated each from her counter-part. Thane, Herbie and Brett appeared to have a good relationship with a parent or parent-surrogate, but since the nurturing adult i n each case was working full-time, the contact between parent and child was sub-standard i n quantity rather than quality: however, the result i n terms of mental health appeared to be similar. Thus differences i n child-parent relationships characterized four pairs of children. Standards expected of children were considered unsatisfactory i f they appeared to be either inconsistent, non-existent, or beyond the capacity of the child. Because of the large number of children i n the sample with atypical biological endowment, i t was considered of particular importance that parental demands be adjusted to the child's individual growth pattern. With inappropriate standards were assoc-iated anxiety and a negative self-concept on the part of the child. Of the eight unsuccessful readers i n the matched pairs, only Michael had parents who appeared to l i v e up to this criterion. Paul, Janice and Herbie were raised with a permissiveness which bordered on neglect. Yvonne and Debby had parents who appeared to make no allow-ance whatever for their children's serious physical handicaps. The emphasis of Seppi's parents upon quietness and conformity seemed inapprop-riate for a boy of his physical energy and intellectual curiosity. Thane's mother expected too much of him i n the way of social adapt-ation. Except for Herbie and Seppi, each of these children was paired with a child whose parents made what appeared to be reasonable demands upon him. Thus i t would seem that important differences i n standards expected of children characterized five out of the eight matched pairs. 266 Child-rearing practices were considered satisfactory i f they produced socially acceptable behavior without either inspiring the child with fear or destroying his integrity and self-respect. Evidence of poor child-rearing practices was found for five unsuccessful readers in the matched pairs. In the case of Herbie, Paul and Janice, the methods used did not produce a high enough standard of socially accepted behavior to make for ready adjustment to school. In the case of Debby and Yvonne, conformity was produced at too great cost to the child's integrity and self-respect. Herbie was matched with Brett, who was also exposed to inappropriate child-rearing methods. Thus there remain four pairs of children characterized by qualitatively significant differences i n child-rearing practices. 5) Self-Concept For the purposes of this study, the starting point of the child's self-concept was considered to be his biological endowment. If he was born with organic defect or with limited intellectual potential, i f his rate of neuro-muscular development was notably slower than that of his peers, i f he was over-quick or over-slow to respond to sensory stimulation, i t was assumed that he would be i n particular need of acceptance from understanding adults as a f i r s t step i n accepting himself. In the matched pairs, there were five unsuccessful readers who needed this special consideration - Yvonne, premature and slow to develop; Debby, with defective kidneys and bladder; Janice and Michael, retarded i n speech and t o i l e t training; and Paul, hyperactive by temperament. Of these, only Michael received from his family the assistance he needed to come to terms with his physical anomalies. None of these children 267 appeared to have received much special consideration from the^school: their grade I teachers gradually became aware of their problems, and gradually concluded that i t would not be reasonable to expect these children to complete f i r s t grade i n one year, but were not equipped or prepared to offer any other concessions. Consequently, home and school both'contributed experiences which served to make these child-ren feel different and, with the exception of Paul, inadequate. Since each of these five was matched with a physically normal child, i t can reasonably be concluded that differences i n self-concept based upon biological endowment characterized three matched pairs of children. But even normally endowed children need a warm parent-child relationship and reasonable standards and methods of discipline i f they are to achieve a positive self-concept. Seppi, Herbie and Thane were a l l reasonably normal boys and each had a satisfying relationship with a parent or parent-surrogate. But i n each case, inappropriate standards and methods of child rearing had a somewhat negative effect upon the child, leaving Thane 'anxious, Herbie l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and', socially immature, and Seppi with some symptoms of emotional immat-urity. However, two of these three boys were matched with a child whose home environment was equally unsuited to his needs, although i n a different direction, as i t were. Thus i t appears that d i f f e r -ences in self-concept based upon home environment characterized only one pair of children. I t should perhaps be pointed out that "self-concept" i s here . used i n i t s generic sense, and embraces anxiety and social and emot-ional immaturity, which i n some parts of this paper have been con-sidered separately. 268 6) School Experience The sixteen children being considered in this section had had less than two years of formal education when studied: yet only five of them had apparently enjoyed a uniformly appropriate and successful school experience. Since each of these successful readers was paired with a child whose needs had not been adequately met by the school, i t appears that differences. i n school experience contributed to the differences i n reading achievement of five matched pairs of children. The criterion in this area was threefold. School experience was considered to be appropriate i f 1) some effort had been made to ensure that the child was ready for reading - at least l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , culturally and perceptually - before embarking him upon a formal reading program: 2) some attempt had been made, i n the case of marginal learners, to adapt both the pace and the methods of teaching to the child's pace and style of learning: and 3) the child's behavior was controlled by means which l e f t his integrity and self-respect intact. 7) The Question of Validity Because of the lack of valid i t y of the Pintner-Cunningham Primary  Test for thet subjects of this research project, six pairs of children were mismatched with regard to functioning intelligence. To a very serious extent, this fact has destroyed the intention of the research design and distorted the conclusions reached. I t i s for this reason that greater emphasis has been placed upon the comparison of eight successful readers with fourteen unsuccessful readers than upon the matched pairs study. 269 F o r r e s e a r c h w i t h disadvantaged c h i l d r e n has c o n s i s t e n t l y shown t h a t the f a c t o r s which enable a c h i l d t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r than average score on a v a l i d t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a l s o enable him to cope more r e s o u r c e f u l l y w i t h a sub-s tandard environment. I t i s the c h i l d w i t h below average " i n t e l l i g e n c e " who almost i n e v i t a b l y becomes e i t h e r the p r i s o n e r o r the v i c t i m o f h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The r e a d e r i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between adequate ly matched c h i l d r e n i§ r e f e r r e d to the case s t u d i e s o f Thane and Danny, Seppi and J e f f . A l l f o u r o f these boys were under s i x years o f age when they e n t e r e d f i r s t grade . A l l came from m i d d l e -c l a s s homes w i t h w e l l - e d u c a t e d p a r e n t s . A l l had average o r b e t t e r i n t e l l -i g e n c e , whatever measure was u s e d . A l l had normal b i o l o g i c a l endowment and were competent a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l l e a r n e r s . There were d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y - Thane appeared a n x i o u s , Danny c a r e l e s s and h a p p y - g o - l u c k y , J e f f s e l f - r e l i a n t and q u e s t i o n i n g , S e p p i obedient and conforming . However, d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g achievement between matched p a i r s was m a r g i n a l . I n e f f e c t , i t was a s t r o k e o f bad l u c k t h a t made Seppi and Thane r e p e a t e r s . W i t h c o n t i n u i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n , undoubtedly both would have been promoted. V . CONCLUSIONS Using a l l the data a v a i l a b l e f o r the e n t i r e sample o f twenty-two c h i l d r e n , i t seems i n o r d e r t o make c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s about t h e measuring i n s t r u m e n t s , the c h i l d r e n and the s c h h o l system. These may be s t a t e d b r i e f l y as f o l l o x j s : 1) The r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and I Q ' s d e r i v e d from the Pintner-Cunningham P r i m a r y Test r e q u i r e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n the sample s t u d i e d , f i v e c h i l d r e n w i t h anomalies o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n r e v e a l e d by the F r o s t i g Test o f V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n gained s u b - s t a n d a r d 2.7Q. scores on the Pintner-Cunningham, while two with above average visual perception gained high scores which were not reflected i n their per-formance either at home or at school* 2) Of the three measures of intelligence employed, the Peabody  Picture Vocabulary Test had the highest correlation with reading success. Of the eight matched pairs of children, six had significantly different scores on this test. For the fourteen 'pupilsLwho-had.diff-ic u l t y with beginning reading, the median score was 96, the average 95 and the range 74-120* for the eight successful readers, the median was 112, the average 113, and the range 74-L20, Nor did this test appear to discriminate against children with a poor li n g u i s t i c background. Six out of seven children from bilingual families and two out of three Canadian Indian children scored within normal limits (96^110) on this test, and seven out of ten did better on the Peabody Test than on the Pintner-Cunningham. 3) For children i n this sample, the Frostig Test of Visual  Perception did not serve to distinguish betweensuccessful and unsucces-f u l readers. Half of the children with anomalies i n visual perception must be presumed to have learned, with daily practice i n reading, to compensate for defects i n visual perception. 4) Eight out of nine children whose percentile score on the Raven Matrices exceeded their percentile score on the Peabody Picture  Vocabulary Test by more than t h i r t y points repeated f i r s t grade because of d i f f i c u l t y with reading. This finding suggests that there may be some val i d i t y i n using these two tests as Kinsbourne and Warrington differing by more than one standard deviation - i . e . 16 points M a perceptual age equivalent one year or more below their chronological age on one or more sub-tests of the Frostig Test 271, used the verbal and non-verbal sections of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, to identify disabled readers with a language u 61 handicap, 5) The evidence collected in this project suggests that approx-imately equal competence i n both auditory and visual modalities may be a prerequisite for success i n beginning reading i f the basal reading method i s used exclusively and i f there i s l i t t l e f l e x i b i l i t y i n the introduction of phonics. Further research on a more extensive basis i s necessary to establish this point, 6) The high incidence of congenital health and developmental irregularities among the unsuccessful readers i s consistent with the findings of authorities i n the f i e l d of disadvantaged children, whose works have been cited elsewhere i n this paper - Passow, Eisenberg, Deutsch, Davis* 7) Of seven children from bilingual homes, six achieved normal scores on the Peabody Vocabulary Test, but only one was a successful reader« Limited parental education seemed to be an important factor i n three of these cases. In two more, hierarchical family structure plus a European style of child rearing appeared to contribute to the child's lack of readiness for reading by restricting his opportunities to acquire emotional and social maturity* 8) Out of eight successful readers, seven appeared to have a warm, sustaining relationship with at least one parent. This was true of only half of the fourteen unsuccessful readers. Thus i t would seem that the emotional deprivation which endangers mental health also makes learning more di f f i c u l t y at least for the majority of children. 6 1 Ibid. 272 This i s the point of view expressed by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development i n i t s 1 9 6 6 volume, Learning and Mental  Health i n the School. 9 ) In the same volume, i t i s pointed out that success i n learn-ing contributes to the pupil's mental health. This process was also observed i n the current research project. By the spring of their second year i n grade I, eight out of ten repeaters were feeling reasonably relaxed and self-confident about school, having been able to achieve what was expected of them. On the other hand, six children promoted to second grade were f a i l i n g to meet the standards established by their teacher: and although four of these were able to read well above their grade level, a l l six lacked self-confidence, and had a more or less negative attitude toward school. 1 0 ) For this group of children, four aspects of home environment -parental literacy, parent-child relationships, methods of child rearing and standards expected of children - emerged as central to the child's reading success, with other factors being to a large extent derivatives of expressions of these four. With i l l i t e r a c y were associated environmental deprivation,failure to read to pre-schoolers, indiscriminate televiewing, sub-standard verbal communication, and low standards of child rearing which did not adequately prepare the child for school. Not one child with i l l i t e r a t e parents completed f i r s t grade i n one year. Four more or less distinct patterns of unsuitable child-rearing practices were noted -1) overprotection,-which resulted in social and emotional immaturity; 2) too high standards and harsh discipline, which produced children too anxious to learn efficiently; 3) lack of standards and of discipline, 273 which resulted i n children who had to spend their f i r s t year i n school learning to pay attention, await their turn, and stay with assigned tasks: and parental disagreement, the end product being h o s t i l i t y and lack of self-control. A l l seven children subjected to these inappropriate practices repeated f i r s t grade. With a poor parent-child relationship were associated such factors as too much or too l i t t l e verbal communication, environmental deprivation, excessive televiewing, and inappropriate standards of child rearing with their consequences. 11) The findings of this study support the conclusions of researchers from Hollingsworth to Malmquist who have found differences i n reading s k i l l s to be due to individual differences which are nor-mally distributed. The reading achievement of these twenty-two children can be plotted i n a relatively smooth curve,with no sudden break which would validate the hypothesis of a specific syndrome to be labelled dyslexia or minimal brain damage. 12) In the course of this study, the beginning stages were observed of what appear to be several types of long-range reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . Bilingualism" plus maturational lag with a strong genetic component seem basic to the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by both Joyce and Ricky. In the case of Janice, Debby and Yvonne, sub-standard biological endowment, poor parent-child relationships and a serious language d i s a b i l i t y can be expected to create continued and cumulative d i f f i c u l t i e s with reading, although their present achievement is rated satisfactory. The basis of Philip's reading di s a b i l i t y appears to be emotional immaturity and poor motivation, both d i f f i c u l t to work through. Unless professionally treated, Brett's general disorganization and 2?4 • .o; • and negative self-concept are apt sooner or later to affect his capacity to learn. Lack of environmental stimulation may be expected to handicap Vince, Douglas, and perhaps even Susan when the emphasis in reading i s upon concept attainment rather than upon s k i l l s . Finally, unless Thane and Trevor are given prompt assistance, their habit of sounding out even the most familiar words i s l i k e l y to handicap their reading i n subsequent grades. In summary, the findings of this study offer further evidence of the need for the greatest possible f l e x i b i l i t y in the primary pro-gram to take care of the great range of individual differences. In this sample, anomalies i n biological endowment, pace of learning, style of learning, cultural background and linguistic development proved to be of much greater importance and higher frequency than lack of mental maturity. 2 7 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Almyy, M i l l i e C. Children's Experiences Prior to Grade I and Success i n Beginning Reading,New York: Columbia Teachers College, 1949. -Anastasi, Anne. Psychological Testing .New York: Macmillan, 1962. Bloom, B.S., Davis, A., and Hess, R. Compensatory Education for Cultural Deprivation. rcfiiicagQ: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965. Buros, 0., (ed.) Sixth Annual Mental Measurements Yearbook. Highland Park, N.J.: Grython Press, 1965. Crow, L. D. and A. Child Development and Adjustment.New York: Macmillan, 1962. DeBoer, J. J . and Dallman,' M. The Teaching of Reading. New York: Henry Holt, I960. De Hirsch et a l . Predicting Reading Failure.New York: Harper 1966. Fromm, Eric. The Art of Loving.New York: Harper, 1956. Havighurst, Robert J . Human Development and Education.New York: Longman, Green: 1953 Horney, Karen .The Neurotic Personality of Our Time. New York: Norton 1937. I l g , E. and Ames, F. School Readiness.New York: Harper and Row, 1966. Johansson, Bror A. C r i t e r i a for School Readiness.Uppsala, Sweden: Almqvist and -Weksell, 1965. Maslow, A. H. Motivation and Personality.New York: Harper 1954. Money, John (ed.) The Disabled Reader .Baltimore. Md.: John Hopkins Press, '1965. P a l t i e l , Freda. Poverty: A Bibliography.Ottawa: Canadian Welfare Council, 1966. Passow, A. H. (ed.):Education i n Depressed Areas .New York: Teachers College Press, 1963. Rabin, Albert I. and Haworth, Mary. Protective Techniques with Children. New York: Grune and Stratton, I960. Reissman, F. (ed.) Mental Health of the Poor, New York: Macmillan, 1964. 276 Robinson, Helen M.'..Why Pupils F a i l i n Reading.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. Russell, D. Children Learn to Read.New York: Ginn, 1962. Schramm, Wilbur et a l . Television i n the Lives of Our Children. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1961. Strang, Ruth* Diagnostic Teaching of Reading. New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1964. PUBLICATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 277 Association f o r Supervision and Curriculum Development Learning and Mental Health i n the School, W.B.Waetjen and R.R.Leeper, editors. Washington,D.C.: ASCD, 1966. International Reading Association Challenge and Experiment i n Reading, IRA Conference Proceedings. New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962. "EirstrGrade Reading Studies," The:Reading Teacher, 19:563-675, May, 1966;*2076-U2, October,1966; 20:6o7-75o, March, 1967. Reading and Enquiry, IRA Conference Proceedings. Newark,Del.: International Reading Association, 1965. Research Designs i n Reading, J.R.Bormuth,editor. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1967. National Conference on Research i n English Readiness f o r Reading and Related Language Arts. Chicago: National Conference on Research i n English, 1950. ARTICLES Blishen, J. "Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale," Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, 21;: 521-31, November,1958. De Hirsch,K. "Psychological Correlates of the Reading Process," Challenge and Experiment i n Reading. New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962, p.22U f f . De Hirsch,K. "Tests Designed to Discover Potential Reading D i f f i c u l t i e s at the Six-Year-Old Level," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 27:566-76, 1957. Dennis, W. "Causes of Retardation Among I n s t i t u t i o n a l Children: Iran," Journal df Genetic Psychology, 96:U7-59, I960. Efron, Marvin. "The Role of Vision i n Reading Readiness," Reading and Inquiry. Newark,Del.: International Reading Association, 1965,p.357 f f . S i l v a r o l i , N.J. "Factors i n Predicting Children's Success i n F i r s t Grade Reading," Reading and Inquiry. Newark,Del.: International Reading Association, 1965, p.297. 278 Witty, Paul. "The. Mass Media and Reading," Challenge and Experiment  in Reading. New York: Scholastic Magazines, 1962: pp.7U-80» THESES Lamy, Mary W. "The Relationship of the Self-Perceptions of Early Primary Children to Achievement in Reading." Microfilmed Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, 1962. Levinson, P. "The Relationship between Birth Order and Reading Ability." Microfilmed Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1963. Nash, Patrick N. "The Effectiveness of Composite Predictors of Reading Success in the First Grade." Microfilmed Doctoral dissertation, North Texas State University, 1963. Richardson, D. C. "Children's Pre-School Reading Experiences and Related Success in Beginning Reading." Microfilmed Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska Teachers' College, 1963. MISCELLANEOUS Bell , L . I . Metropolitan Vancouver...An Overview for Social Planners. Vancouver, B.C.: Community Chests and Councils of Greater Vancouver, 1965. Malmquist, Eve. "Prevention of Reading Disabilities in the Elementary School." Paper presented to the International Reading Association Conference, Seattle, Washington, May 1967. Renaud, G. Education from Within: An Experiment in Curriculum Development with Children of Indian Background in Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan,1966. (Mimeographed.) "Recent Findings in Child Development." Paper read at the Sixth Annual Workshop of the Association of Co-Operative Pre-Schools, Vancouver, B.C. , October, 1965 by a panel from Simon Fraser University. Tillicum Means Friendship. Toronto, Ont.: Canadian Home and School and Parent Teacher Federation, 196S>. 279 TESTS Dunn, L. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Minneapolis, Minnesota: American Guidance Service Inc., 1959. Durrell, D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Di f f i c u l t y . New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1955. Frostig, M. Developmental Test of Visual Perception. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1963. Grapko, M.F. Institute of Child Study Security Test, "The Story of Jimmy." Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 1957. Mi l l s , R.E. Learning Methods Test. Fort Lauderdale, Florida: The Mi l l s ' Centre, 196U. Pintner, R. et a l . Pintner-Cunningham Primary Test (Form A). New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 196U. Raven, J.C. Coloured Progressive Matrices. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1956. •• ,, ,« . ., APPENDIX. A,.......... .• .>.••' (o---.:'V .:: ;. Institute, .of. Child .Study Security Test. M.F.Grapko - 1957 ELEMENTARY FORM - Grades 4 to 8 THE STORY OF JIMMY This i s a story about Jimmy. This story is similar to a game be-cause we want to find out what Jimmy i s l i k e . . In a way, Jimmy is very much l i k e you.. He lives at home with his mother and father, he goes to school, he likes to play games, and throughout the day he has to make up his mind about many things. Now i n this story we want to find out what you think Jimmy i s most l i k e l y to do when different things happen to him. Each time Jimmy has to make up his mind, he w i l l have five choices. After you read over the five choices, pick out what you feel Jimmy i s most l i k e l y to do. Then pick out what you feel Jimmy w i l l choose as his second, third, fourth and f i f t h choice As you read the story about Jimmy and come to a part where Jimmy has to make up his mind, you w i l l stop and write i n the brackets the num-bers 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 aftsi each of the five choices, that i s i n the order that Jimmy w i l l choose them. Therefore, you w i l l write 1 after what you feel Jimmy chooses to do f i r s t (1) write 2 after what you feel Jimmy chooses to do second... (2) write 3 after what you feel Jimmy chooses to do third (3) write 4 after what you feel Jimmy chooses to do fourth ..(4) write 5 after what you feel Jimmy chooses to do l a s t .....(5) Before you begin, we want to say that there are no right or wrong answers. The only right choices are those that you think Jimmy w i l l make and the order i n which Jimmy w i l l make them from one to five. Are you ready? Jimmy goes to school. He gets up i n the morning, gets washed and dressed, and then greets his mother at breakfast. This morning, how-ever, Jimmy slept i n and when he awoke he found that he was going to be late for school. Since Jimmy isn't usually late for school,.he wasn't too sure what to do. After a moment i t occurred to Jimmy to: give the excuse that the alarm clock didn't ring wait for his mother to help him hurry up rush as fast as possible so as not to be too late..... start to cry explain to the teacher when he arrived late at school. 272 281 Jimmy was soon downstairs. His breakfast was on the table. Being late, i t seemed to Jimmy that his mother gave him more than usual to eat this morning. Jimmy looked up at the clock and saw that i t was seven minutes to nine. Jimmy wanted to leave almost half of his breakfast. However, Jimmy's mother said that growing boys need to eat a l l their breakfast. Jimmy decided to; ask i f she wpuld l e t him leave some today ( ) begin to cry ( ) say that he doesn't feel too well this morning . . . . . , . . . ( ) ask i f she would take some away . . ( ) f i n i s h eating what was l e f t ( ) Jimmy was ready for school. He said good-bye to his mother and hurried out of the door. He was almost at school when suddenly he remembered that he v/as supposed-to bring his b a l l this-morning. His friends planned to play catch at recess, and Jimmy had promised he would bring his b a l l . Jimmy was "already late so he couldn't very well turn back. The boys were certainly going to be disappointed. Jimmy wondered whether to:. hope that his friends would forget he was to bring the b a l l . . . .( ) ask the teacher i f he could borrow the school b a l l . • . . . . . . ( ) t e l l them he wasn't interested in playing catch today . .( ) suggest another game they could play . . . . . . ( ) count on his mother to remember to bring the b a l l . ( ) Jimmy arrived at school. The grounds were empty and everyone was in class. Jimmy went quickly to.his room and as he entered he found that everyone was seated and the teacher had already started the lesson. Jimmy f e l t that he might have to give the teacher some explanation for being late. He wasn't too sure what he would say. Jimmy wondered whether to: say that he would try his best to plan not to be late again........ ( ) count on the teacher not asking for an explanation. . . . . . . . ( ) t e l l the teacher that he slept i n . . . . . ( ) hope that the teacher wouldn't be too angry at him. . ' . . . . . . ( ) say that i t wasn't his fault he was late . . . . . ( ) 282 After Jimmy sat down.-in his seat, the teacher continued with the lesson. This morning the lesson was i n arithmetic. Jimmy listened very carefully, but soon realized that he didn't understand some of the things. The other children seemed to know more arithmetic than he did. Jimmy knew that the teacher was friendly and would give him extra help i f necessary. Jimmy wasn't sure what to do. After some thought Jimmy decided to: work a l i t t l e harder at arithmetic . . ( ) riot worry since arithmetic isn't really important. . ( ) wait for the teacher to give him more help. . . . ( ) work at arithmetic together with his friend.. ( ) cover up his arithmetic work book so no one would see i t . . . . . . .( ) Fifteen minutes before recess the teacher announced that i t was time for free reading. During this period the children go to the book shelf and pick a book they wish to read. Jimmy was looking forward to this because he was anxious to finish a book on adventure which he had started the day before. The story was exciting and the book had some very interesting pictures in i t . When Jimmy got to the book shelf he found that some one else had already taken the book. He looked around and saxif that Fred was busy reading i t . Jimmy wasn't happy about this so he decided to: ask the teacher to t e l l Fred to give him the book . . . . . . . . . . ( ) ask Fred to l e t him have the book when he was through with i t • . . .( ) go back to his seat and be glad that now he doesn't have to read a book ( ) start on another book ( ) return to his seat and just s i t un t i l the reading period i s over. . .( ) Finally the recess b e l l rang and i t was time for the children to put their books away and get ready to go outdoors. Jimmy was.thinking about what he would l i k e to play. He would have played catch with his friends but of course he had forgotten to bring the b a l l . Soon the children were outside running, jumping, yelling and having a l o t of fun. Some of the boys started to play "tag" and in time Jimmy was " i t " . Jimmy was a good runner and before long he had trapped Bobby in the corner of the yard and tagged him. Bobby quickly turned around and tagged Jimmy right back and ran away. Jimmy didn't think that i t was f a i r because he should be given a "count of ten" to get away. Bobby ran away, yelling that Jimmy was " i t " . Jimmy decided to: start to chase someone else go away and play by himself ( ) have everyone agree on the rule before starting to chase someone else ( ) quit because there isn't much fun in playing tag ( ) t e l l the other boys not to l e t Bobby play tag with them ( ) After a while the b e l l rang and recess was over. The children got ready to go back into the school. When the children were back in their seats, the teacher began the lesson. Just as the teacher started, there was a knock at the door. The teacher was wanted out of the room. She told the class to keep busy with their readers while she was away. The boys and g i r l s got their books out and began to read to themselves. While the teacher wasoout B i l l y thought he would be smart, so he sneaked up to the blackboard and drew a picture of a donkey, and printed JIMMY under i t and hurried back -to his seat. Jimmy didn't think this was funny, so he went up to the blackboard to rub his name off. Just as he rubbed off his name, the teacher walked into the room. Jimmy realized that i t looked as i f he were disobeying and really didn't know what to say to the teacher. Jimmy wondered whether to: t e l l the teacher he didn't mean to be out of his seat. . . . . . . . . . ( ) t e l l the teacher that it-was a l l B i l l y ' s fault. . . . . . . . . . . . . ( ) t e l l the teacher he was s orry and would not leave his seat again . ; . . ( ) ask the teacher to l e t him off this time. ( J face up to the fact that he was out of his seat . . . . • ( ) Before Jimmy could say anything, the teacher told him to return to his seat and he would be given some extra work to do. At Jimmy's school there is a rule that any boy or g i r l who disobeys is given extra work which the children must do after school. Jimmy didn't f e e l that i t was entirely his f a u l t . However, he decided to: say that i t wasn't his f a u l t at a l l . . . . . ( ) do the extra work since he was out of his seat without permission. . . ( ) accept the extra work since i t is important to keep the rules . . . . ( ) t e l l the teacher that she should make an exception i n his case. . . . . ( ) say the rule isn't f a i r . „ . „ , , . . , . , . . . , . . . . . ( ) •284 The teacher then began the reading lesson. The boys and g i r l s are asked to stand up and read certain parts aloud for the class. Some of the children read very well. However, Johnny is the best reader i n the class. The teacher usually asks Johnny to read when she wants to show the class how well.it can be done. This morning. Jimmy was asked to stand and read aloud before the class. Except for a-few mistakes, Jimmy read his part quite well. The teacher then asked Johnny to read. Johnny, of course, made no mistakes at a l l . As Jimmy listened to Johnny he thought hd would: l i s t e n carefully to Johnny so i t would help him in his reading. . . . ( ) practice his reading . . . . . . . . . . . ( ) wait.for the teacher to help him more with his reading. . . . . . . . . ( ) wait since he wasn't sure what to do about his reading . •'. . . . . . .( ) give up trying to improve since he doesn't l i k e to read anyway . . . . ( ) The rest of the.morning went by quickly. After lunch the children made plans for a Hallowe'en party and everyone was excited in preparing for i t . The teacher passed around coloured paper and paste and she showed the children how they could make their own masks. This was new for the children since they had never made masks out of paper. Jimmy listened to the teacher's instructions but wasn't quite sure how to go about i t . Jimmy wanted a good mask so he decided to: t e l l himself that he wasn't good enough to make a mask on his own . . .( ) use his own ideas i n making a mask . . . . . . . . •{ ) wait for the teacher to make most of i t for him . . . . ( ) buy a mask at the store since i t wasn't worth the trouble to make one. ( ) work together with another boy on both their masks . . . . . ( ) The children were having so much fun that before they noticed, i t was time to go home. The teacher asked the children to put their things away. At Jimmy's school the teacher waits u n t i l everyone i s ready and the whole class i s dismissed at once. After the children get outside, the boys and g i r l s meet their friends and go home together. This day Jimmy was i n a hurry so he didn't wait for.his friends. He ran.off home by himself. Sometimes when Jimmy.is i n a hurry, he takes a short cut by climbing over a neighbour's fence and crossing through the yard. Jimmy decided that he would take the short cut today. As he climbed the fence and jumped, his shoe caught i n the wire and he f e l l down. Jimmy's hand was scratched and there was some blood on i t . Jimmy got up and looked at his hand. As he saw the blood Jimmy wondered whether to: 28.5 run home to show his mother. ( ) give the fence a good hard kick • . ( ) start to cry. . ( ) hurry home to put some iodine on i t . . . . . . .( ) wipe the blood off with his handkerchief before going on. . ... .,. . . .( ) Finally Jimmy got home and after awhile he asked his mother i f he could go to the store. They had just received the new kind of gun that Jimmy's favourite T.V. star uses. It even had the T.V. star's name on i t . Jimmy had saved enough money to be able to buy i t . It cost one dollar and thirty-nine cents. Jimmy's mother said that he could go and buy-the gun i f he wanted to spend his money that way. In a very short time' Jimmy was at the store and had bought the gun. On his way home, Jimmy played with the gun and was really excited about i t . As Jimmy got closer to home, he met some of his friends. He showed his new gun to them. They a l l agreed that i t was really swell. His friends then told Jimmy that they had got their mothers' permission to go to the show and they wondered i f Jimmy could come along. Jimmy was certainly interested since his favourite cowboy was playing i n the picture. He was sure his mother would give him permission to go. How-ever, Jimmy had already spent a l l his money on the gun. The boys asked Jimmy to make up his mind. Finally Jimmy decided to: t e l l his friends that he didn't l i k e going to shows ( ) feel very sorry that he had spent a l l his money on the gun . .( ) t e l l his friends he had already spent his money and couldn't go with them ( ) ask his mother for part of next week's allowance so he could go to the show( ) borrow some money from his friend and pay him back when he got his allowance( ) When Jimmy got home, he had his supper and settled down to do his homework. The teacher didn't usually give home work to the children, but this, day the teacher asked a l l the children to write a short story about where they would like to go during their summer vacation. Jimmy had several ideas for his story. However, Jimmy couldn't remember the names of seme of the places they visited on their motor t r i p last year, nor how to spell some of the names. Jimmy was sure that his father would remember and that his father was very good at spelling the names too. Jimmy looked up from his work and saw that his father was busy reading the newspaper. Jimmy hesitated for a moment and wondered whether to: ask his father i f he might borrow the road maps they used last summer . , .( ) ask his father to help him when "he finished the paper. ( ) say nothing to his father since he gets angry when Jimmy can't do his work ( ) not bother his father since he is always too busy ( ) interrupt his father since he is always willing to help him. ( ) When Jimmy finished his homework, he played with his toys. He enjoys building things and likes to play with his meccano set. The evening went by quickly. It was getting late and time for Jimmy to go to bed. After Jimmy had changed into his pajamas and washed and brushed his teeth, he was ready to say goodnight to his mother and father. At Jimmy's home, his mother and father have taught Jimmy to say his prayers before going to' bed. Sometimes Jimmy forgets unless he is reminded. While Jimmy remembered about his prayers to-night, he was so tired that a l l he wanted to do was to:get into bed. Jimmy paused for a moment and then decided to: say his prayers even though he was tired ( ) say his prayers as fast as he could since no one would mind . . .... . . .( ) say his prayers so that nothing bad would happen. ( ) say hisprayers since they were important to him . ( ) miss his prayers just this once . . . . . ( ) When Jimmy was finished he jumped into bed and soon was fast asleep. By his face i t was easy to see that Jimmy hoped that there wouldn't be so many decisions to make tomorrow. And that is the story of Jimmy. "THE -.STORY OF JIMMY" AUTHOR'S REVISION FOR PRIMARY GRADES Name .Date. School Grade Class Revised Primary - Grades I-II This i s a story.=about Jimmy. In many ways, Jimmy is very much like you. He lives at home with his family. He goes to school. He likes to play with his friends. And he finds, that he has to make up his mind about many things. This story has several parts. I w i l l read you the beginning of each part, and you w i l l f i n i s h the story. I want you to t e l l me what you think Jimmy would do. There are no right or wrong answers. Here i s a l i t t l e story that we can try out. One day Jimmy and his friend B i l l y were playing catch. Jimmy threw the b a l l as hard as he could. It flew right over B i l l y ' s head. Where do you think i t went? Right through Mr.Brown's windowl Jimmy and B i l l y were both rather afraid of Mr. Brown. He always yelled at the children when he saw them clicifeing over his fence. But they knew that he was kind, too. He had f r u i t trees i n his yard. Every f a l l , he would send a box of apples to Jimmy's house and a box to B i l l y ' s house. Now, what would you do i f you were Jimmy and your b a l l had just gone through Mr. Brown's window? There are no right or wrong answers - I just want to know what you think Jimmy would be most l i k e l y to do. (If child hesitates). Well, let's think of some.of the things he might do. He and B i l l y could run away and hope that Mr, Brown wouldn't see them...Jimmy and B i l l y together could c a l l on Mr. Brown and offer to pay for the broken glass - perhaps by mowing his lawn or running errands for him...Jimmy could say i t was Bi l l y ' s fault because he didn't catch the ball...Jimmy might ask his mother or father to explain to Mr. Brown...Or maybe Jimmy would start crying because ZS5V he didn't know what to do. Now do you see how we play this game? I will give you the beginning of each story, and you wil l finish i t for me. Are you ready? 1) One morning, Jimmy was too tired to get up. His mother called him in time, but Jimmy rolled over and closed his eyes again. W i e n he awoke, i t was half-past eight. This meant that he would be late for school. What do you suppose Jimmy did then? 2) Jimmy was almost at school. Then he remembered something. He was supposed to bring his ball to school this morning. He and his friends were going to play catch at recess. Jimmy was already late, so he couldn't very well go back home to get the bal l . He tried to think what he would do when recess time came. What do you suppose Jimmy decided to do? 3) When Jimmy got to his room, his teacher had already begun the arithmetic lesson. Jimmy does very well at arithmetic when he can use his rods. But today his teacher wanted to find out how well the children could do without their rods, Jimmy made many mistakes, and his teacher told him he must work harder at his arithmetic. What do you suppose Jimmy decided to do? 4) Next i t was library time. During this period, the children go to the book shelves and pick the book they want. At the end of the period, they must return i t to the shelves. Jimmy wanted to finish an adventure story he had started the day before. It was easy to read and had such funny pictures in i t . But when i t was his turn, Jimmy found that his friend Fred had already taken the book. What would you do i f you were Jimmy? 269 5) At last i t was recess. It was a fine, sunny day. Soon a l l the children were outdoors having lots of fun. Some of the boys started to play tag. Before long, Jimmy was i t . He chased Bobby into a corner and tagged him. Bobby tagged Jimmy right back, then ran away, yelling "Jimmy's i t i " Jimmy didn't think that was fair . . He should have been given a count of ten to get away. What do you think Jimmy did about i t ? 6) After recess, the teacher began the reading lesson. . Suddenly there was a knock at the door. The teacher had to leave the room. While she was gone, B i l l y sneaked up to the blackboard and drew a picture of a donkey. Then he printed JIMMY under i t . Some of the children laughed. But Jimmy didn't think i t was very funny. He went up to the board to rub his name off. Just as he had finished, the teacher walked into the room. "Why are you out of your seat? You know i t ' s against the rules," she said, looking at Jimmy. What do you think Jimmy said to the teacher? 7) Then the teacher went back to the reading lesson. First; she asked Johnny to read out loud. Johnny always gets A i n reading. The teacher usually asks Johnny to read when she wants to show the other; children how well i t can be done. As Jimmy listened, he was think-ing to himself about reading and about Johnny. What do you suppose Jimmy was thinking? 8) Next i t was Jimmy's turn to read. He didn't make many mistakes, but he had to stop and puzzle out some of the harder words. When he had finished, the teacher said "That was quite good, Jimmy. But you need to practice your reading. You may take your reader home with you tonight." How do you suppose Jimmy f e l t ? ' i- • .. l i . •': 9) -After lunch, the children made plans for a Hallowe'en party. Everyone was excited. The teacher showed the children how to make their own . masks. Then she passed out coloured paper and paste. The children had never made their own masks i n this way before. Jimmy listened and watched carefully, but he s t i l l wasn't quite sure how to go about i t . What do you suppose Jimmy did then? 10) After school, Jimmy was in a hurry to go home, so he didn't wait for his friends. He decided to take a short-cut.. This meant that he had to climb over a neighbour's fence. When he started to jump down from the fence, his shoe caught in the wire and he f e l l down. Jimmy's hand was scraped and there was blood and mud on i t . What would you do i f you were Jimmy? 290 11) Can you guess why Jimmy was i n such a hurry? His mother had promised that today she would go to the store with him to buy a new gun. Jimmy had been saving for weeks. Now at last he had enough money to buy the gun he wanted. On their way home, Jimmy and his mother met some of Jimmy's friends. Soon they were a l l playing in the park. Jimmy l e t his friends have turns using his gun. When i t was Eddie's turn, he tripped and f e l l . The new gun was so badly broken that i t wouldn't work any more. What do you suppose Jimmy did then? -12) After supper,. Jimmy began to play with h i s toy cars. Suddenly he remembered that he had homework to do. His teacher had asked him to practice reading out loud. By this time, his father was reading the newspaper. His mother was busy putting.the baby to bed. And i t was less than half an hour t i l l his own bedtime. What do you suppose Jimmy did about his homework? 291 APPENDIX B PUPIL RATING SCALE To t h e T e a c h e r : No s t u d y o f r e a s o n s b e h i n d c h i l d r e n ' s s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n r e a d i n g w o u l d be complete w i t h o u t t h e " t e a c h e r ' s eye" v i e w of t h e p u p i l s c o n c e r n e d . Would y o u be k i n d enough t o complete t h i s r a t i n g s c a l e w i t h r e g a r d t o : T h i s s c a l e assumes t h a t s e v e n and e i g h t - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s , o f becoming. T h e r e f o r e each q u e s t i o n has a t i m e d i m e n s i o n a s . w e l l as a r a t i n g s c a l e . Thus, i f y o u a r e a s s e s s i n g a c h i l d whose b e h a v i o u r has i m p r o v e d o r d e t e r i o r a t e d s t e a d i l y s i n c e September, y o u can i n d i c a t e t h i s by a l i n e g o i n g upward o r downward on t h e g r a p h t o t h e l e f t . S i m i l a r l y , i f h i s b e h a v i o u r f l u c t u a t e s f r o m week t o week, a z i g z a g l i n e between t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l i n e s on t h e s c a l e w i l l i n d i c a t e t h i s c l e a r l y . T h i s i s a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , w i t h b o t h extremes d e s c r i b e d . P o i n t t h r e e o f each s c a l e i s t h e k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r w h i c h y o u r e x p e r i e n c e as a p r i m a r y t e a c h e r has l e d y o u t o c o n s i d e r a s u s u a l f o r a boy o r g i r l d u r i n g h i s s e c o n d y e a r of s c h o o l . N.B. PLEASE READ ALL OF THE QUESTIONS BEFORE BEGINNING YOUR ASSESSMENT. 1. HOW EAGERLY DOES THIS CHILD PARTICIPATE I N ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES? ( c h i l d ' s name) September A p r i l i i ) a l w a y s has h i s hand up i i i i ) i i i i i i ) a b o u t a v e r a g e i v i v ) V v ) n e v e r p a r t i c i p a t e s u n l e s s c a l l e d on 29? 2. HOW VALUABLE ARE HIS CONTRIBUTIONS IN ORAL LANGUAGE? . . • September A p r i l i . i ) r e l e v a n t and c r e a t i v e or o r i g i n a l i i i i ) i i i i i i ) r e l e v a n t but s te reo typed i v . i v ) v v) speaks wi thout t h i n k i n g 3. HOW ATTENTIVE IS THIS CHILD IN CLASS? September A p r i l i . . . . . i ) never has t o be t o l d t w i c e -very a t t e n t i v e i i . i i ) i i i i i i ) about average i v i v ) v . . . . . . v) never l i s t e n s - e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d or ch ron ic daydreamer ( u n d e r l i n e which) 4 . HOW WELL DOES THIS CHILD RETAIN WHAT HE HAS BEEN TAUGHT? September A p r i l i i ) never f o r g e t s i i i i ) i i i i i i ) about average i v i v ) r e q u i r e s much r e p e t i t i o n v v) " i n one ear and out the o t h e r " 293 5. HOW DOES THIS CHILD REACT TO SCHOOL AMD CLASSROOM REGULATIONS? September Ap r i l i .i) accepts and obeys - never any trouble i i i i ) i i i i i i ) about average i v iv) v v) active or passive resistance (underline which) 6. WHAT IS THIS CHILD'S RELATIONSHIP TO YOU? September Ap r i l i ...i) avoids contact i i . . . . i i ) i i i . i i i ) normal contact i v iv) v v) attention seeker: annoyingly dependent (underline which) 7. WHAT Io THIS CHILD'S RELATIONSHIP TO HIS CLASS-MATES? September Ap r i l i . . . . ...i) a leader i i i i ) very well liked i i i . . . . . . i i i ) gets along well with his own "gang" i v . . . . iv) a "loner" v.. v) rejected by most of the children 294 8. HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS THIS CHILD'S SELF-CONFIDENCE? September Ap r i l i . . i ) unrealistically over-confident: always bragging without reason i i i i ) . i i i i i i ) r e a l i s t i c a l l y and quietly self-confident iv . iv) v v) anxious or apologetic - always expects to f a i l 9. HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS THIS CHILD'S SELF-CONTROL? September Ap r i l i . i ) excellent, even under stress i i i i ) i i i i i i ) usually in control of himself iv .iv) •v.... , v) at the slightest provocation, loses his temper or breaks into tears (underline which) 10. HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS THIS CHILD'S RESERVES OF ENERGY? September April i i ) boundless energy, well-channelied i i . . i i ) lots of energy, hard t o channel i i i i i i ) about average iv iv) not much energy, butsticks to his work v v) tires easily, gives up easily 

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