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The theory and practice of education in Ontario in the 1860's Miller, Albert Herman 1968

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THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF EDUCATION IN ONTARIO IN THE  16*60'{3  by ALBERT HERMAN MILLER B.A., Concordia Seminary, Missouri, M.A., Wheaton College, I l l i n o i s , B.Ed., University of Alberta,  1947  1954  I960  M.Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n the Faculty of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 196B  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission for  extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission  Department of  E d u c a t i o n a l Foundations  The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  A  P r i l 22, 1968  ABSTRACT The study hypothesizes that even as the l£60 s T  were years of s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic change, they can also be i d e n t i f i e d as the beginning of modern education i n Ontario. Primary sources u t i l i z e d included textbooks f o r teachers and pupils, l e t t e r s , family papers,  diaries,  minutes of the meetings of teachers' associations and school boards, journal a r t i c l e s , books, annual reports, and various other documents. The study i s divided into three parts: education;  theory of education;  society and  and practice i n education.  The f i r s t discusses the s o c i a l environment, the educational l e v e l of Ontarians, p o l i t i c a l - r e l i g i o u s issues that affected education, and the extent-and quality of public p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n school management.  The second investigates concepts of  education and of c h i l d nature.  The t h i r d deals with common  and grammar schools, teacher-training and c e r t i f i c a t i o n , teaching techniques, and the Ontario teacher. The 1860's were years of t r a n s i t i o n  as Ontario was  changing from a pioneer to a modern society.  Educators  strove to keep pace with the forward thrust of Ontario life.  New  concepts and practices co-existed with  traditional  ones to a degree that the decade i s unique as a turning point  iii i n Ontario education. S p e c i f i c examples i n d i c a t i n g the p i v o t a l position of the l&^O's i n education are:  the r e s o l u t i o n of the separate  school question by the Scott Act of 1&63 and the B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867;  the increasing humanitarian  concern f o r children i n and out of school;  the growing  desire f o r a more s c i e n t i f i c approach to teaching; the changing concepts of pupil d i s c i p l i n e and motivation; the extension of free schooling to include over 90% of the province's elementary schools;  the broadening  of the aims  of education and the expansion of the common school curriculum;  the change from a predominantly  r e l i g i o u s to a  more secular and n a t i o n a l i s t i c emphasis i n pupil textbooks; the widespread adoption of grading i n elementary schools; the r e v i s i o n of the form and function of secondary schools; the large i n f l u x o f g i r l s into secondary schools, as they were granted the l e g a l right to e n r o l l ; object and oral teaching; of women teachers;  the popularity of  the dramatic r i s e i n the number  and the organization of a p r o v i n c i a l  teachers' association which gave the teachers a united voice and contributed to greater professionalism. The Chief Superintendent  of Education, the Rev. Dr. Egerton  Ryerson, played a prominent role i n nearly every area. New theories and practices i n education were being  iv tested and accepted to such an extent that the 1860's mark the beginning of modern education i n Ontario.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION The objective of the study (1); l i m i t a t i o n s (3); Significance Acknowledgements (10J. PART I .  1 Scope and (6);  SOCIETY AND EDUCATION  THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT The r u r a l society (11); The urban society (20); Transportation (25); Economic conditions (28); Politics (30).  11  THE EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF THE PEOPLE . . . . Literacy and l e v e l of education (34); Books and l i b r a r i e s (35); Newspapers (46): Magazines (52); Adult education (54).  34  IV.  THE POLITICAL-RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT The primacy of r e l i g i o n i n everyday l i f e (59); The separate school problem (64); Religious education i n the schools (79).  59  V.  PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION P r o v i n c i a l administration and control of education (92); Local administration and control of education (99); Ryerson and public relations (114).  92  II.  III.  PART I I . VI.  VII.  THEORY OF EDUCATION  CONCEPTS OF CHILD NATURE Growing humanitarianism (128); How children learn (136); Motivation for learning (142).  128  THE NATURE OF EDUCATION Teachers journals (166); School textbooks (169); Commonly expressed concepts of education (184); Free and compulsory education  165  1  (191).  vi CHAPTER  PAGE PART I I I .  VIII.  IX.  X.  PRACTICE IN EDUCATION  THE COMMON SCHOOLS The extent of free and compulsory education (201); School buildings (205); The curriculum (212): Segregation of the sexes (214); Grading (219); The school day and the school year (225); Pupil-teacher r a t i o (227).  201  THE GRAMMAR SCHOOLS Grammar schools before I860 (233); Curriculum (239); Coeducation (245); Finances. (252);- Outstanding grammar schools (258); Ryerson's attitude to grammar schools ( 2 6 2 ) ; Reform i n 1871 ( 2 6 9 ) .  232  THE TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS . . . 275 The Normal School (275); Model schools (298); C e r t i f i c a t i o n (305); In-service t r a i n i n g (311).  XI.  XII.  TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING The textbook and i n d i v i d u a l r e c i t a t i o n (315); Review, d r i l l , and thoroughness (319); The object method (324); Teaching reading (332); Teaching s p e l l i n g (341); Teaching w r i t i n g (345); Teaching arithmetic (351); Teaching grammar, geography, and history (356): P r i n c i p l e s of classroom management (3o2).  315  THE ONTARIO TEACHERS 371 Ideals for teachers (371); Reality for teachers (376); Women teachers (380); Salaries (384); Superannuation (390); Living conditions (393); Professional associations (396).  XIII.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 403 Society and education (403); Theory of education (415); Practice i n education (423); Years of t r a n s i t i o n (431).  BIBLIOGRAPHY Introduction (437); Primary sources Secondary sources (44& ). v  (440);  437  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  2. 3.  4.  5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  PAGE  L i s t o f N a t i o n a l and Other School Books Formerly Sanctioned by the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Use i n the Common Schools o f Upper Canada C o l o r Photograph Ontario, B u i l t  o f a Stone S c h o o l i n Jordan, i n 1859  175-77 209  C o l o r Photograph o f Dickson's H i l l B r i c k School i n the Pioneer T i l l a g e , O n t a r i o , B u i l t i n 1861  209  One o f a S e r i e s o f School House Plans . P u b l i s h e d i n the J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , March, 1857 .  210  Programme o f S t u d i e s i n the Grammar Schools o f Upper Canada . . . . . .  243  Programme o f L e c t u r e s i n the Normal School f o r O n t a r i o , 1869, 1870  283  Course o f Study and Programme o f the Entrance Examination i n the Normal S c h o o l f o r O n t a r i o .  284  L i s t o f Text Books Used i n the Normal School f o r Ontario  285  General R e g u l a t i o n s t o be Observed by the Normal School Students  286  Object Lesson on G l a s s , T h i r d Book of Lessons, I r i s h N a t i o n a l S e r i e s . .  Reading 327-28  Lesson I , F i r s t Book of Reading Lessons, P a r t I, Canadian S e r i e s .  335  Lesson I , F i r s t Book of Reading Lessons. P a r t I I , Canadian S e r i e s . . . . .  336  " P e n m a n s h i p — I t s Theory and P r a c t i c e , " an A r t i c l e i n the J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n , October, 1863 . . . ~  343-49  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The  o b j e c t i v e o f the study*  The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s  study i s to a s c e r t a i n what people thought  and d i d about  p u b l i c education i n O n t a r i o i n the 1860's.  T h i s decade  chosen f o r study on the assumption t h a t i t was  an  was  important  t u r n i n g p o i n t i n education as a t r a n s i t i o n a l l i n k between p i o n e e r and modern e d u c a t i o n .  The h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t even  as the 1 8 6 0 s were years o f s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l T  and  economic change, they can a l s o be i d e n t i f i e d as the b e g i n n i n g o f modern e d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o .  The term "modern" r e f e r s t o  t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s i n education which have been g e n e r a l l y accepted  and are f o l l o w e d  Because important  today. developments a f f e c t i n g a l l o f O n t a r i o  l i f e were o c c u r r i n g i n the l 8 6 0 s and because s c h o o l s are an f  e x t e n s i o n and r e f l e c t i o n of the s o c i a l order, the m i l i e u was  social  i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r i t s e f f e c t on concepts o f e d u c a t i o n  and t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s .  The  study i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s :  s o c i e t y and education, t h e o r y of education, and p r a c t i c e i n education. The  f i r s t p a r t d i s c u s s e s the s o c i a l environment, the  e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of O n t a r i a n s , p o l i t i c a l - r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s , and the extent and q u a l i t y of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the educational process.  The  second p a r t i n v e s t i g a t e s concepts  o f c h i l d nature and the nature of e d u c a t i o n .  The t h i r d p a r t  d e a l s w i t h common and grammar s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r ^ t r a i n i n g and  2 c e r t i f i c a t i o n , teaching techniques, and the status of Ontario teachers i n the decade. Educators i n the 1860 s emphasized d i s t i n c t i o n s f  between theory and. practice and delighted i n analyses and categorizations, f o r such delineations were regarded as signs that education was coming of age and.assuming a s c i e n t i f i c outlook.  The.terms "theory and practice" were  often used i n books and a r t i c l e s .  "The Science and Art of  Teaching" was a phrase commonly employed by educational writers to describe theory and practice.  John Herbert  Sangster, mathematical master and headmaster of the Toronto Normal School and the author of numerous textbooks, defined the two terms i n . t h i s way;l 1. Science i s a c o l l e c t i o n of the general- p r i n c i p l e s or leading truths r e l a t i n g to any branch of knowledge, arranged i n systematic order so as to be r e a d i l y remembered, referred to, and applied. 2. Art i s a c o l l e c t i o n of rules serving to f a c i l i t a t e the performance of certain operations. The rules of Art are based upon the p r i n c i p l e s of Science. 3.  Arithmetic i s both a Science and an Art.  4. As a Science, Arithmetic treats of. the nature and properties of numbers; as an Art, i t . teaches the mode of applying t h i s knowledge to p r a c t i c a l purposes. The former may be c a l l e d Theoretical, and.the l a t t e r P r a c t i c a l Arithmetic. To Practical. Arithmetic belong  Ijohn Herbert Sangster, National Arithmetic, i n Theory and Practice (3rd ed.; Toronto: R. & A. M i l l e r , 1802;, p7~lT.  3 a l l t h e o p e r a t i o n s we perform upon numbers, as a d d i t i o n , subtraction, m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , d i v i s i o n , the-extraction of r o o t s , &c. The d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s upon which these o p e r a t i o n s a r e founded, c o n s t i t u t e s t h e theory o f Arithmetic. S c i e n c e , o r t h e o r y , meant concept  or p r i n c i p l e ; a r t ,  o r p r a c t i c e , meant r u l e s and. t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n , the e x e c u t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s i n the p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n .  In t h i s  study  not only r u l e s , f o r . p r a c t i c e as laid.down by experts w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d , but a l s o t h e a c t u a l -teaching.practices i n t h e s c h o o l s , which o f t e n d e v i a t e d widely from what, was  suggested  as good p r a c t i c e . Scope and l i m i t a t i o n s .  The theory and p r a c t i c e o f  e d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o i n the lS60. .s i s not a narrow and f  " p r o v i n c i a l " t o p i c which i g n o r e s e d u c a t i o n a l developments elsewhere.  Quite the contrary.  education during.the  Any study o f O n t a r i o  superintendency  o f the Reverend  Doctor  Egerton Ryerson becomes, deeply i n v o l v e d i n comparative education.  Ryerson went t o Europe f o u r times d u r i n g h i s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and o f t e n t r a v e l l e d t o other Canadian provinces, and t o t h e U n i t e d States.-  During, these  trips  he c o n s u l t e d - l e a d i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t s and v i s i t e d many s c h o o l s , ever a l e r t t o i d e a s t h a t c o u l d b e n e f i t O n t a r i o .  He a l s o  read w i d e l y and was a genius at adopting and.adapting i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s from many l a n d s , and so O n t a r i o world-wide e d u c a t i o n a l developments.  reflects  4 The  q u o t a t i o n s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e o r i e s and  the  examples of t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e i n the t h e s i s are n e a r l y always taken from O n t a r i o sources.  Sometimes they are endorsements  by O n t a r i a n s o f views and p r a c t i c e s from elsewhere,  and  examples from o u t s i d e Ontario, are o c c a s i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d when they c l e a r l y r e f l e c t the p o s i t i o n or experience  of  educators i n O n t a r i o . The p r o v i n c e was 1860's.  known by t h r e e names d u r i n g the  The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Act. of 1791  d e s i g n a t e d the area Upper Canada.  officially  The Act of Union i n  u n i t e d Upper Canada and Lower Canada (Quebec) and  1840  the  former became Canada West and the l a t t e r Canada E a s t . However, the new  names never became popular, and both  areas  continued t o be known as Upper Canada and Lower Canada. C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1867  At  the Canadas again became separate  p r o v i n c e s and were named O n t a r i o and Quebec.2  In t h i s  study  O n t a r i o i s used when r e f e r r i n g t o the decade i n g e n e r a l to  s p e c i f i c events a f t e r J u l y 1, 1867.  and  F o l l o w i n g common  usage i n the decade, Upper Canada r a t h e r than Canada West w i l l be used f o r p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n r e f e r e n c e s . The t h e s i s g i v e s l i t t l e  e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n to p r i v a t e  s c h o o l s , not because they are unimportant,  but because they  ^Robert L e s l i e Jones, H i s t o r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n O n t a r i o 1613-1880 (Toronto: universrEy oi Toronto Press, 194b), p. x i i . t  5 were comparatively few i n number and can be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a separate study to show t h e i r t r i b u t i o n s as a l t e r n a t i v e s t o public, education.3  con-  Attention  has been g i v e n t o Roman C a t h o l i c separate s c h o o l s s i n c e they are i n the context of the p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n system i n Ontario.  A l l but one  (the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto) of  O n t a r i o ' s s i x t e e n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n 1870 were p r i v a t e , c h u r c h - r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , and i n t h a t year only 1,960  were e n r o l l e d i n all  A  U n i v e r s i t i e s w i l l be  treated  o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y t o i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n aspects of theory and p r a c t i c e , as, f o r example, t h e i r e f f e c t on the grammar school, c u r r i c u l u m . A study of t h i s nature which takes a comprehensive look a t many f a c t o r s , and f a c e t s of educational, thought p r a c t i c e i n a ten-year p e r i o d cannot d e s c r i b e and  and  analyze  3 j . George Hodgins, The Establishment o f Schools and C o l l e g e s i n O n t a r i o , 1792-1910 (3 v o l s . ; Toronto: L. K. Cameron, 1^10), I , 126 c i t i n g the Hon. Mr. J u s t i c e John W i l s o n , l o c a l superintendent of p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n London, Upper Canada, who r e p o r t e d t h a t the ascendancy.of p u b l i c s c h o o l s had caused t h e c l o s u r e of many p r i v a t e , s c h o o l s w i t h about 500 p u p i l s from 1855-1863 so t h a t no n o t a b l e p r i v a t e s c h o o l s were l e f t i n 1863. Ryerson's annual r e p o r t f o r 1870 recorded 284 academies and p r i v a t e s c h o o l s which e n r o l l e d but 6,562 p u p i l s out of a p r o v i n c i a l , t o t a l of 459,161, or l e s s than Zfo o f the t o t a l , c i t e d i n J . George Hodgins, 1 Documentary H i s t o r y of Education i n Upper Canada (28 v o l s . ; Toronto: Warwick Bros. & R u t t e r , I-VI, L. K. Cameron, VII-XXVIII, 1894-1910), XXII, 260, 264. ^Hodgins,  Documentary H i s t o r y , XXII,  260.  6 i n d i v i d u a l t o p i c s i n the same depth as s p e c i a l i z e d s t u d i e s . The  student i n t e r e s t e d , i n the development o f the t h e o r y and  p r a c t i c e .of t e a c h i n g a r i t h m e t i c , E n g l i s h , o r r e a d i n g , o r the t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s , . o r grammar s c h o o l s , . o r o t h e r t o p i c s t r e a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l , not get as complete a p i c t u r e here, as i n s t u d i e s of. s p e c i f i c areas c o v e r i n g l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f time, but he w i l l get. a f a i r l y complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r s t a t u s i n the l 8 6 0 s . f  Likewise, s o c i a l h i s t o r y i s  not presented i n depth here, but i t i s r e l a t e d t o education and even a s l i g h t .treatment  should give, some f e e l i n g f o r the  l i f e and times o f O n t a r i a n s i n the. years.under Significance.  review.  There are; a number o f s t u d i e s i n the  h i s t o r y o f Canadian .education which t r a c e t h e .development of  aspects o f e d u c a t i o n through a century o r more:  of  school readers;  elementary  studies  o f s u b j e c t s i n the c u r r i c u l a o f  and secondary  schools;  of R y e r s o n ^ influence  on c e r t a i n e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s — b u t t h i s t h e s i s i s a new departure in. t h a t i t t a k e s a broader look a t many trends i n education as they m a n i f e s t e d themselves i n the comparatively  short period o f ten years.  I t presents a  c r o s s - s e c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n as a whole d u r i n g a short span of  time.  Y e t w i t h i n the decade progress can. be t r a c e d , and  i n order t o p l a c e developments i n . context, a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n . p r i o r t o i860 and subsequent t o 1870-are i n c l u d e d  7 to  keep the study from being a r t i f i c i a l l y i s o l a t e d from the  flow of l a r g e r e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d s . There were a number o f events i n the 1860's t h a t a f f e c t e d a l l Ontarians and g i v e s p e c i a l , s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the decade.  Foremost among them was  the enactment of. the B r i t i s h  North America Act which u n i t e d f o u r p r o v i n c e s i n t o the Dominion of Canada on J u l y 1,  1867.  The a c c e l e r a t i n g  development of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , the e f f e c t s o f the r a i l w a y b u i l d i n g boom of the l 8 5 0 s , the development of commerce and T  i n d u s t r y , p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l , t e n s i o n s , c h i e f l y the American War. between the S t a t e s , a l l made the l 8 6 0 ' s p i v o t a l i n O n t a r i o and Canadian h i s t o r y .  Developments  i n communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were s h r i n k i n g the world and t h o u g h t f u l people were t r y i n g to r e l a t e these changes to  the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n . In the l 8 6 0 s O n t a r i o * s s i z e and p r o s p e r i t y enabled T  i t to do more than other p r o v i n c e s , and i t s school system was  the. most admired i n Canada.  O n t a r i o e n r o l l e d more than  h a l f o f a l l c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l i n B r i t i s h North America: the 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 . i n s c h o o l i n 1861, 800,000 i n 1871,  344,000 were i n O n t a r i o ;  463,000 were O n t a r i a n s .  By i 8 6 0 O n t a r i o was  of  5  the l e a d i n g Canadian-province  e d u c a t i o n a l thought and p r a c t i c e .  of  in  The Ontario s c h o o l system  ^Charles E. P h i l l i p s , The Development of Education i n Canada (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company L i m i t e d , 1957), p. 182.  8  was already a t t r a c t i n g the notice of other countries. Prominent  persons from the United States and Europe v i s i t e d  and usually praised what they saw.  Ontario influenced  educational thought and practice throughout Canada and was especially i n f l u e n t i a l i n the new. provinces in.the West. As Ontarians moved westward to s e t t l e i n Manitoba, the North West T e r r i t o r y ( l a t e r to become Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a ) , and B r i t i s h Columbia, they took t h e i r educational system with them.  The curriculum and organization of the  schools from Ontario to the P a c i f i c were a l l based l a r g e l y on the Ontario prototype, which also affected the older provinces to the East.^ The architect and b u i l d e r of the Ontario system of public education was Egerton Ryerson, the Chief Superintendent of Education from 1844^1^76.  Before h i s appointment  to head the Education. Department, he had distinguished himself as a Methodist minister, as a champion of equal  °Some of the sources which t e s t i f y to Ontario's great influence on Canadian, education are: H. T. Coutts and B. E . Walker, G. Fred, the Story of G. Fred McNally (Don M i l l s , Ontario: J . M. Dent & Sons TCanada) Limited, 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 22, 60; F . Henry Johnson, A History of Public Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia Publications Centre, 1966), pp. 19, 2 3 , 30, 32, 33, 45, 49, 50, 6 4 , 69, 73, 77; Charles E . P h i l l i p s , op. c i t . , p. 224; J . George Hodgins, Ryerson Memorial Volume (Toronto: Warwick & Sons, 1889), p. 27; George Kennedy Sheane, "The History and Development of the Curriculum of the Elementary School i n Alberta" (Doctor of Pedagogy t h e s i s , University of Toronto, 1948'), p. 16*.  9 r i g h t s f o r a l l r e l i g i o u s denominations, and as the p r e s i d e n t of V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e .  He succeeded i n e r e c t i n g an  enduring  system of p u b l i c education from p r i m i t i v e b e g i n n i n g s . was  i n f l u e n t i a l - i n the h i g h e s t echelons of government i n  both p r o v i n c e and n a t i o n , and was p l a c e s abroad. to  He  well-received i n high  His a b i l i t y t o develop  structures suitable  Upper Canada and h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y , which  i n c l u d e d a grasp o f the s m a l l e s t d e t a i l s as w e l l as l a r g e r concepts, were remarkable.  In I860 he was  at t h e  mid-point  of h i s c a r e e r i n the E d u c a t i o n Department, i n which he  was  t o do more f o r O n t a r i o e d u c a t i o n than any o t h e r person, he was  and  a l r e a d y the o u t s t a n d i n g f i g u r e i n p u b l i c education  i n Canada. In the l 8 6 0 s T  educators were coming, t o g r i p s w i t h  fundamental q u e s t i o n s :  the purposes of e d u c a t i o n , the  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f elementary  and secondary  schools.,, the p l a c e  of g i r l s and women i n s c h o o l s , the development  and  a p p l i c a t i o n of more a p p r o p r i a t e and e f f e c t i v e methodology i n t e a c h i n g , f i n a n c i a l support f o r s c h o o l s , compulsory e d u c a t i o n , the p l a c e of r e l i g i o n i n s c h o o l s and validity  the  of separate schools f o r Roman C a t h o l i c s , t h e  adequacy of e x i s t i n g textbooks, problems i n theory and p r a c t i c e .  i n s h o r t , a whole gamut of The  schools had grown t o  a p o i n t where these problems had to be d e a l t w i t h — a n d answers had-not yet been f u l l y provided or accepted.  the The  10  whole system of public education was under review and beginning to take a firm form.that was to influence Ontario thought and practice down to t h i s day. Acknowledgements.  The writer i s g r a t e f u l to the  members of the t h e s i s committee f o r t h e i r gracious and valuable assistance:  Dr. F. Henry Johnson, chairman;  Dr. Kenneth F. Argue; Clarence E. Smith;  Dr. Charles W. Humphries;  and Dr. George S. Tomkins.  Dr. Appreciation  i s also extended to The University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r providing funds f o r two extended stays i n Ontario which made possible the u t i l i z a t i o n of many primary sources.  Notes on  the bibliography w i l l comment on them at greater length.  PART I .  SOCIETY AND  EDUCATION  CHAPTER I I THE  SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT  T h i s chapter w i l l summarize some of the events  and  f o r c e s t h a t were g i v i n g momentum t o the r a t e of change i n O n t a r i o i n the l 8 6 0 * s .  Fundamental changes were o c c u r r i n g  i n both the c i t i e s and the country areas, brought, about by developments i n p o l i t i c s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , , economic social conditions.  Many C a n a d i a n - h i s t o r i a n s  t h a t the 1860*s mark an important history.  and  have a s s e r t e d  t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Canadian  People i n v o l v e d i n education,  administrators,  t e a c h e r s , and p u p i l s , c a n n o t be i s o l a t e d from the  social  m i l i e u , and the winds of change were f e l t a l s o i n . the  schools.  A review of Ontario s o c i e t y i n the 1860's w i l l help put  the  decade i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e , and w i l l provide a background f o r a c l e a r e r understanding  of e d u c a t i o n a l developments.  The r u r a l s o c i e t y . Upper Canada had  From i t s e a r l i e s t  settlement,  o f f e r e d a v a s t expanse of f e r t i l e farm l a n d ,  f r e e f o r the s e t t l i n g . . . Hundreds of thousands o f immigrants had come, c l e a r e d l a n d , endured many p r i v a t i o n s , and e s t a b l i s h e d farms. agrarian;  Ontario's s o c i e t y and  economy were  i n the s i x t i e s n i n e t y per cent of the people  12 l i v e d on farms or i n communities w i t h fewer than 5,000 inhabitants." " 1  However, on c l o s e r s c r u t i n y , an important change i s evident during the s i x t i e s .  Twenty years e a r l i e r , i n the  l 8 4 0 s , t h e r e had been.a great i n f l u x o f immigrants to Upper T  Canada, which continued i n t o t h e f i f t i e s . the  As a r e s u l t , by  end of the l850»s the supply o f crown l a n d s i n the f e r t i l e  p e n i n s u l a of Upper Canada was exhausted.  At t h i s  critical  j u n c t u r e , the g r e a t American West was beckoning w i t h i t s open fertile  p r a i r i e s , f r e e to homesteaders.  With the g r e a t  Canadian S h i e l d b l o c k i n g a c c e s s t o the Canadian p r a i r i e s , the American propaganda f o r immigrants, p l u s the b u i l d i n g o f r a i l ways t h a t connected Upper Canada w i t h the M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r and  beyond, l u r e d l a r g e numbers o f Canadians southward and  westward.  By I860, then, the f r o n t i e r o f Upper Canada had  moved t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  2  Already by the l a t e 1850*s the p r a c t i c a l - q u e s t i o n was not  so much t h e promotion, of immigration to.Upper Canada but  r a t h e r the p r e v e n t i o n of. e m i g r a t i o n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Upper Canada's p o p u l a t i o n had grown by 32$ i n the decade  -"-Census o f Canada 1670-1&71 (5 v o l s . ; Ottawa: I . B. T a y l o r , I-IV, Maclean, Roger, & Co., V, 1873-1378), t  V, 32-33.  R o b e r t L e s l i e Jones, H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n O n t a r i o . 1613-1880 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1946), pp"TWr~9"4 • 2  13 from 1851-61 (from  952,004  next census p e r i o d , only  11$  (from  to  1861-71,  1,396,091  1,396,091);  but d u r i n g the  the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n was  to- 1,620,851).  3  The d e c l i n e o f immigrants  and the l a r g e  scale  e m i g r a t i o n caused the government much concern, f o r a steady i n f l u x of p i o n e e r s was prosperity. trends.  considered e s s e n t i a l to c o l o n i a l  The government took a c t i o n t o c o u n t e r a c t the  Immigration  pamphlets were p u b l i s h e d f o r  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Europe.  Immigration  o f f i c e r s posted i n  Great B r i t a i n and Canadian p o r t s of e n t r y were t o do e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e i r power t o a s s i s t and welcome newcomers. S p e c i a l immigration commissioners welcome the new  settlers.  e f f o r t s met w i t h l i t t l e  exhorted Canadians  to  But d e s p i t e o f f i c i a l z e a l t h e  success.  The appeal of the  American West and the disappearance of good l a n d f o r homesteading i n Upper Canada were potent d e t e r r e n t s t o a s u c c e s s f u l immigration campaign. . The new  areas t h a t were  opened f o r s e t t l e r s were of poor q u a l i t y and p r o v i d e d o n l y the b a r e s t e x i s t e n c e f o r homesteaders.^  ^Census o f Canada, 1870-1371. V, 2, 4, 6. The f i g u r e s f o r a l l of Canada from 1861-71 show 187,000 immigrants and 379,000 emigrants, a net l o s s of 192,000 i n . p o p u l a t i o n movement f o r the decade. These f i g u r e s given, i n Urquhart, M. C. and Buckley, K. A., eds., H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s o f Canada (Toronto: The Macmillan Company o f Canada L t d . , 1965), p. 44. 4jones, 0 £ .  cit.» p.  294.  The government was as yet unaware that i t was becoming necessary to i n d u s t r i a l i z e i n order to attract and keep a larger population..  With l i m i t e d farm land, greater  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the economy was necessary, and the handwriting was on the wall already i n the f i f t i e s .  For  the f i r s t time the proportion of farmers to the general population began to decrease, a trend that has continued ever since.  The t r i c k l e to the c i t i e s beginning then was  eventually to become a torrent i n the twentieth century. The decade of the 1850 s had been revolutionary i n !  Upper Canadian r u r a l l i f e .  Farmers began to turn from the  overseas market to those of New York and New England.  They  began to s h i f t from t h e i r "everlasting wheating" to other branches of a g r i c u l t u r e . implements.  They acquired new kinds of  They had better t o o l s , better and a greater  variety of products, and greater markets, a l l made possible by mass production of farm machinery and the coming of the railways.  5  The more prosperous farmers were applying the p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n t i f i c  farming.- During.and after  the  American C i v i l War more farmers than ever before began using labor-saving devices.  The period from 1854 to 1866  saw the f i r s t large scale introduction of labor-saving  5  Ibid.  t  p. 215.  15 machinery i n t o Upper Canada, e s p e c i a l l y the. mower and  reaper.  L i v e s t o c k were improved, f a c t o r y cheese-making developed, the expansion  and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  a l s o took p l a c e i n that, p e r i o d . equipment was satisfying i t .  and  In 1866  the demand f o r farm  so great, t h a t the manufacturers had By  1870  t h e r e were  A f t e r 1866  i n use i n O n t a r i o .  36,874  difficulty  reapers and mowers  farmers began t o adjust t o  changes brought about by the a b r o g a t i o n of the R e c i p r o c i t y T r e a t y w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s and-the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  of  worldwide c o m p e t i t i o n i n the European market.^ These changes meant t h a t the q u a l i t y of r u r a l was  improving  n o t i c e a b l y in. t h e  l i f e o f p r i v a t i o n and  1860's.  The  crude p i o n e e r  s u b s i s t e n c e farming was  e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r than t h e r u l e .  By  i860  life  becoming the  many farms were  b e i n g t i l l e d by the second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n of the same families.  Farmers b u i l t b e t t e r houses and l a r g e r barns  abandoned the candle and the f i r e p l a c e f o r the lamp and the cooking R u r a l l i f e was  and  coal-oil  stove.? c o n s i d e r e d the good l i f e .  wholesome country a i r was  The  analogous t o t h e p u r i t y  moral u p r i g h t n e s s f o s t e r e d by country l i v i n g .  and  Even c i t y -  d w e l l e r s e x t o l l e d i t as they d e c r i e d the decadence of  6  I b i d . , pp.  309-10, 353.  7Ibid., p. 215. Stoves were u s u a l l y bought from p e d d l e r s who were w i l l i n g t o g i v e almost u n l i m i t e d c r e d i t i f the purchaser h e l d t i t l e t o h i s l a n d .  16 the " m o r a l l y sunken and depraved." c i t i e s .  The  Toronto  Globe p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e which d e c r i e d p a r e n t s  1  i n d i f f e r e n c e to the education of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n r u r a l a r e a s , and concluded: i n t h i s way  "And  i f w e l l - t o - d o farmers  what i s t o be expected  are a c t i n g  from many of the i g n o r a n t  and v i c i o u s i n h a b i t a n t s of towns and  villages?"^  So e x t e n s i v e were the changes among p r o g r e s s i v e farmers t h a t f o r the f i r s t  time i n Upper Canadian h i s t o r y  the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy was characteristics.  e s s e n t i a l l y modern i n i t s  R u r a l standards of l i v i n g continued t o  r i s e s t e a d i l y i n the 1860 s.9 T  When the Canada Farmer  compared Upper Canada of the 184G s w i t h O n t a r i o o f the T  e a r l y 1870*3 i t b u r s t i n t o a paean:^° P r i v a t i o n has g i v e n p l a c e t o comfort and abundance. The Canadian farmer wheels i t t o market and church i n a modern and handsome v e h i c l e drawn by a f i n e team o f horses, i n s t e a d of jumbling s l o w l y along i n an o x - c a r t . The mower and reaper do the work of the back-breaking scythe and c r a d l e . Sewing machines, and pianos have c r e p t i n t o the house and g i r l s . - d i s p o r t themselves i n the l a t e s t f a s h i o n s . The r a i l r o a d w h i s t l e , whose s h r i l l sound means near markets, can be heard i n almost every r u r a l homestead.  for  ^Toronto Globe, c i t e d i n the J o u r n a l o f Education O n t a r i o , XXII ( J u l y , 1369), 102.  9jones, op_. c i t . , p. 215. IQCanada Farmer, August 15, 1873, op. c i t . , pp. 306-07.  c i t e d by  Jones,  17 In  the r u r a l community the P u r i t a n e t h i c of h a r d work  r u l e d supreme, though t h e r e were "ne'er-do-wells" who Family l i f e was  stable;  fell  far  s h o r t of the i d e a l .  recreation  was  f a m i l y and church-centered, and i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  R e l a t i o n s h i p s were primary and p e r s o n a l , not secondary formal.  When people went t o l e c t u r e s or l a n t e r n  e x h i b i t i o n s , i t was to  and  slide  not o n l y t o see the program, but a l s o  see and v i s i t w i t h f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s . C e r t a i n seasons a f f o r d e d s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  social, l i f e .  Christmas was  a time of v i s i t i n g back and  forth  between n e i g h b o r s , p l a y i n g games, c a r d s , ;sports, having s l e i g h - r i d e s , and dances, In  complete w i t h old-time  fiddlers.H  February, when.most of the w i n t e r i n d o o r work was  and the weather p e r m i t t e d l i t t l e church meetings, o f t e n scheduled.  o u t s i d e work, p r o t r a c t e d  temperance and p h r e n o l o g i c a l l e c t u r e s were Many o f these were h e l d i n the s c h o o l -  house, w i t h the p e r m i s s i o n of good-natured t h e teacher was  done  t r u s t e e s , although  not always p l e a s e d w i t h the s t a t e o f a f f a i r s  the next morning.12  Churches h e l d tea-meetings,  a t which  ^ G a v i n H. Green, The Old .Log School and Huron Old Boys i n Pioneer Days (Goderich, O n t a r i o : S i g n a l - S t a r P r e s s , W. F. Munro, The Backwoods L i f e (Toronto: Hunter, Rose, & Co., 1869), pp. 58-59. Phrenology was then regarded as a v a l i d s c i e n c e . Many educated persons, i n c l u d i n g Horace Mann, b e l i e v e d i n the v a l i d i t y of i t s p r i n c i p l e s . 12  p i e s , cakes, and other sweets were served w i t h for  a modest admission price.13  entertainment  V a r i o u s types of work bees  p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o complete major p r o j e c t s , and t o s o c i a l i z e and d r i n k as w e l l . Sports and games were simple and home-made.  Shooting  matches, swimming, - s k a t i n g , and p r i m i t i v e v e r s i o n s o f b a s e b a l l and hockey were, played. was  commonly c a l l e d , was  S h i n t y , or "shinny" as i t  an i m p o r t a t i o n from S c o t l a n d and  g r e a t f a v o r i t e of the boys.  I t was  u s u a l l y p l a y e d on  hard-beaten- snow i n the s c h o o l y a r d w i t h a rubber b a l l home-made s t i c k s .  a  and  Good elm or h i c k o r y cudgels w i t h a  n a t u r a l crook were cut from the bush.  I t was  a savage game,  a k i n t o f i e l d hockey, w i t h few r u l e s and f r e q u e n t f i g h t s . No  such f r i l l s  as r e f e r e e s were i n d u l g e d in.14  o t h e r games  p l a y e d around the s c h o o l y a r d were l e a p frog,, pump-pumppullaway, b u l l - i n — t h e - r i n g , rounders, tag,.and The  big ring.  seasons were i d e n t i f i e d . b y games popular a t c e r t a i n  times, l i k e  "marble-time,  top-time, or kite-time."15  The g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the people  could t r a c e t h e i r  • l 3 G r e e n , p_p_. c i t . , pp. 100-01. l ^ C h a r l e s ¥. Gordon, P o s t s c r i p t t o Adventure; The Autobiography of Ralph Connor (New York; F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , I n c . , 1938), pp. 18-19. Ago,"  15w. J . Alexander, "Memories of Schools S i x t y The S c h o o l , XVI (March, 1928), 641.  Years  o r i g i n t o the B r i t i s h I s l e s . of  In 1871 t h e r e were 559,442  I r i s h o r i g i n , 439,429 E n g l i s h , and 3 2 8 , 8 8 9 S c o t t i s h i n  O n t a r i o , the t h r e e groups combined 82$ o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  making up. more than  Of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 1 , 6 2 0 , 8 5 1 ,  about 7 0 $ (1,131,334) had been born i n O n t a r i o . whether a man was  1 6  But  a r e l a t i v e newcomer t o O n t a r i o o r o f t e n  g e n e r a t i o n s on the c o n t i n e n t , he f o l l o w e d the same way  of  l i f e , f o r newcomers r a p i d l y f i t t e d themselves i n t o the p r e v a i l i n g pattern.17 F a m i l y s i z e was  s h r i n k i n g i n the s i x t i e s .  In 1861  the  average O n t a r i o f a m i l y numbered 6.4  persons.  the  f i g u r e was  of males to females  per  thousand p o p u l a t i o n was  5.5.  In 1861 the r a t i o 520-430;  In 1871  i n 1871 i t was  5 1 1 - 4 3 9 . B o t h the r e d u c t i o n o f f a m i l y s i z e and the narrowing o f the imbalance i n numbers between, the sexes are  i n d i c a t i o n s o f movement away from a p i o n e e r s o c i e t y . The b i r t h r a t e was  was  d e c l i n i n g , w h i l e the death r a t e  about the same as i n the p r e c e d i n g decade.  The annual  average b i r t h r a t e per thousand population, from 1851-61 for  a l l . C a n a d a was  was  39.6.  45.2;  from 1861-71 the annual average  T h i s compares w i t h the 1 9 5 6 - 6 1 Canadian  average  ^ C e n s u s £_ Canada. 1870-1371, I, 280-81, 364. 17Arthur R. M. Lower, Canadians i n the Making (Toronto: Longmans, Green and Company, 1958), p. 336. I3census o f Canada, 1870-1371, V,  4-7.  of for  27.5  and a 1966  f i g u r e o f l e s s than 20.  The death r a t e  the 1851-61 p e r i o d averaged 21.6 per thousand;  1861-71 i t decreased v e r y s l i g h t l y to 20.3; was  8.0.  In 1871  one per 1,249  for  i n 1956-61 i t  t h e r e were 2,792 p h y s i c i a n s i n Canada, or  people;  i n 1959 Canada had 19,000, or one  per 913 o f the p o p u l a t i o n . " ^ I t was  a young country:  O n t a r i a n o f 1871 was  the average age o f the  22.68 y e a r s (male-23.09;  female-22.25).  395,285 o r 55$ o f the p o p u l a t i o n of O n t a r i o i n t h a t year was  under twenty-one years o f age.. ^ 2  The l a c k o f medical  knowledge and medicines meant a lower l i f e  expectancy;  many d i s e a s e s which are c o n t r o l l e d today were f a t a l t h e n . The urban s o c i e t y .  While O n t a r i o i n the s i x t i e s  e s s e n t i a l l y a r u r a l s o c i e t y , an urban trend, was more e v i d e n t . in  Between 1861  becoming  the. f i v e l a r g e s t  cities  O n t a r i o (Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa, Kingston,, and London)  grew by 23%,  e x a c t l y double t h e percentage i n c r e a s e of the  p r o v i n c e as a w h o l e . ! 2  d w e l l e r s was the  and 1871  was  w h i l e the t o t a l number o f c i t y -  not y e t imposing, the importance o f c i t i e s i n  economic l i f e  o f the p r o v i n c e was  growing.  l ^ U r q u h a r t and Buckley, op_. c i t . , 2 0  2 1  p.  wrote  44.  C e n s u s of Canada, 1870-1371, V, 36, 70; I b i d . , V, 32-33.  Spelt  I I , 53-60.  21 t h a t the p e r i o d between 1851  and 1881  i n Ontario  was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v i g o r o u s growth o f urban s e t t l e m e n t , the s i x t i e s l a y r i g h t , i n the heart of t h a t p e r i o d . repeatedly  points s p e c i f i c a l l y . t o  i860  2 2  and  Clark  as the t u r n i n g p o i n t  i n the growth o f c i t i e s and towns, the i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y o f urban l i f e ,  and the development of new  p o l i t i c a l , and  c u l t u r a l f o r c e s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . 2 3  Industrialization Ontario  cities.  was  economic,  a major cause o f the r i s e of  A number of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t .  T e c h n o l o g i c a l advances a f t e r 1850  made the c o n d i t i o n s f o r  manufacturing much d i f f e r e n t than b e f o r e :  water power  was  r e p l a c e d by steam, c o a l took the p l a c e of wood as f u e l , and  r a i l w a y s provided  cheaper t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s  and goods unhampered by seasonal i n t e r r u p t i o n s . ^ 2  S c i e n t i f i c farming  and.the.opening of markets c a l l e d  f o r b e t t e r farm machinery and g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n . r i s i n g a f f l u e n c e of. the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n  The  c a l l e d f o r more  consumer goods as the farmer became, l e s s s e l f - r e l i a n t and l o o k e d f o r f i n e r goods than he could make a t home. In response t o the need, Massey had begun manufacturing J. S p e l t , The Urban Development i n South-Central O n t a r i o (Assen, The Netherlands: Van Gorcum & Co". N. V.— G. A. Hak & Dr. H. Prakke, p. 22  J.  1955),  132.  S . D. C l a r k , Church and Sect i n Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, cEapter VI. 2 3  1948), 24spelt, op_. c i t . , p. 114.  22 mowers and r e a p e r s i n Canada i n 1852 and combined r e a p e r s i n I856.  1863. 5 2  mowers and  The s e l f - r a k e reaper was developed i n  In t h e 1850's most of t h e machines used i n Upper  Canada were imported from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , but i n i860 i t was  s a i d t h a t "so g r e a t has t h e supply become from our home  manufactures t h a t an American-made machine i s now as great a r a r i t y as a Canadian one was a few y e a r s ago..."  In 1864  26  a f a c t o r y a t Oshawa.manufactured 700 mowers, p l u s a number o f r e a p e r s , "horsepowers," t h r e s h i n g machines,  and plows.  E v e r y town and important v i l l a g e had one or more s m a l l f a c t o r i e s producing farm machinery, i n d i c a t i n g . t h e  importance  o f farming i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a home market, f o r i n d u s t r i a l production. ? 2  The opening, o f s m a l l and l a r g e f a c t o r i e s i n the s i x t i e s caused a d e c l i n e o f i n d i v i d u a l craftsmen.  By 1870  f a c t o r i e s were p r o d u c i n g woollens and cottons., boots and shoes, f u r n i t u r e , stoves, doors and sashes, a g r i c u l t u r a l implements,  and a h o s t o f o t h e r products i n O n t a r i o .  The  number o f f a c t o r i e s i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y , though most were r e l a t i v e l y small i n s i z e . ^ 2  5Tweedsmuir H i s t o r y f o r Home and-Country, K a r s , O n t a r i o (A scrapbook on m i c r o f i l m , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Ottawa), I I , 19. 2  2 6  2  J o n e s , op_. c i t . , p. 202.  7ibid.  ^ I b i d . . p. 308. The c h i e f items o f manufacture i n O n t a r i o in.1869 were l i s t e d as c l o t h , l i n e n , f u r n i t u r e , sawn t i m b e r , f l a x , i r o n and hardware, paper, soap, c o t t o n and 2  The d i s c o v e r y of petroleum  i n Upper Canada i n  1858  p r o v i d e d a new  industry.  t h e r e i n 1866,  and. n e a r l y a m i l l i o n , b a r r e l s of o i l were  produced from 1864-69. oil,  Three, hundred w e l l s were d r i l l e d  R e f i n e d petroleum,  called  mineral  rock o i l , but most commonly c o a l o i l , p r o v i d e d a  new  and e f f i c i e n t type of l i g h t i n g and r e v o l u t i o n i z e d home illumination. from c o a l was The new  Previous t o t h i s i n n o v a t i o n gas. manufactured a v a i l a b l e i n c i t i e s , but i t was.expensive.  c o a l o i l lamps gave l i g h t equal to f o u r candles at  a c o s t of h a l f a cent f o r two little  as t h i r t y cents.  hours l i g h t .  Lamps c o s t as  I t became more convenient to stay  up l a t e r i n the evening a s - l i g h t i n g homes became more e f f i c i e n t and  economical.29  The r e d u c t i o n of a v a i l a b l e land- f o r growing sons t o farm, the development of i n d u s t r y , and the growth o f towns and  c i t i e s meant an i n c r e a s i n g number o f  o p t i o n s f o r young men farm.  The  concomitant  unable  o r u n w i l l i n g . t o remain on the  c i t i e s o f f e r e d more scope, money, and p r e s t i g e  woollen goods, steam engines, l o c o m o t i v e s , wooden ware, and a g r i c u l t u r a l implements. The main exports were a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , timber, and l i v e s t o c k . M i n e r a l s found i n O n t a r i o were i r o n , copper, l e a d , plumbago ( g r a p h i t e ) , antinomy (white metal used i n a l l o y s ) , a r s e n i c , manganese, heavy spar (a type of c r y s t a l l i n e m i n e r a l ) , c a l c - s p a r , gypsum or p l a s t e r of P a r i s , marble, g o l d , s i l v e r , mica, petroleum, s a l t , and peat beds. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n i n E m i g r a t i o n t o the Province of O n t a r i o (Toronto: Province of O n t a r i o , 185?), pp. 13-14. 29Emigration  t o the Province o f O n t a r i o , p.  20.  24 t o the a b l e and ambitious i n t r a d e s , p r o f e s s i o n s , and b u s i n e s s e s , and these g r a v i t a t e d t o where money and o p p o r t u n i t i e s were more p l e n t i f u l . The c i t i e s a l s o p r o v i d e d a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p t i o n s than the country d i d .  For  example, the i n t e l l e c t u a l s looked forward t o t h e meetings o f the L i t e r a r y and S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t y o f Toronto f i v e o r s i x times a y e a r a t U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e .  The programs, f e a t u r e d  essays on p o e t r y and l i t e r a t u r e , declamations o f p o e t r y and p r o s e , speeches  ("Does the Present System o f Schools and  U n i v e r s i t y Education.Give Undue Prominence t o the Study o f A n t i q u i t y ? " ) , and debates  ("Has the Mind, o f Man E x e r t e d a  More B e n e f i c i a l I n f l u e n c e on Humanity than t h a t o f Woman?").  30  Toronto was moving i n t o . i t s proud, p o s i t i o n as "Queen C i t y o f t h e West."  self-claimed  I t was a l s o  "Toronto  the Good" and t h a t because so many o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s were zealous P r o t e s t a n t s and had so many churches which they z e a l o u s l y attended.  I t s p o p u l a t i o n was about  45,000  i t s p r i n c i p a l c o n s t i t u e n t s (as i n Montreal) were  and  Irish. ! 3  Metropolitan!sm was becoming a more dominant f o r c e i n economic, p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l i k e .  3 0 p r i n t e d programs i n t h e C. R. W. B i g g a r ( P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada). ~" -J-Lower, op_. c i t . , p.  3  265.  Papers  The  end of the f r o n t i e r , the development of manufacturing, the r i s e of railways, and better communication were a l l combining to shrink Ontario's distances and were contributing to the r i s e of her c i t i e s and towns.32 Transportation.  Waterways and rough overland roads  were the chief routes of t r a v e l i n pioneer days, but i n the 1850's the railway boom exploded i n Upper Canada with a vigor that was to change the face of the land and the pace of l i f e .  In 1852 not a single railway was to be found i n  the United Province of Canada, yet by i860 1,876 miles of track were i n use.  The Grand Trunk had 870 miles, the  Great Western 357, the Buffalo and Lake Huron 159, and thirteen others each had l e s s than a.hundred miles of track.33 Clark points to the completion of the Grand Trunk Railway i n 1859 as marking the. passing of the backwoods community i n Canada and the r i s e of the i n d u s t r i a l town.34 Almost every part of Upper Canada was then within distance of a railway.  reasonable  D i s t r i c t s which had. been considered  out of the way because they were t h i r t y or forty miles from  32ciark, op_. c i t . , p. 345. 33The Canadian S e t t l e r s ' Guide (tenth edition; London: Edward Stanford, 1860), p. 95", Emigration to Canada (Quebec: John L o v e l l , i860), pp. 9-10.  34ciark, op_. c i t . , p. 364.  26  navigable water found t h e i r i s o l a t i o n at an end.  Inland  v i l l a g e s now got t h e i r merchandise from Montreal or Toronto i n a few days instead of having to wait weeks or even months for  it.35 Glazebrook emphasizes the revolution i n transportation  that the coming of the railway brought to Canada.  It drew  aside a curtain from between people i n previously  isolated  d i s t r i c t s and the outside world.  To. the farming areas and  backwoods towns i t gave a l i n k with the main, centers of population.  To the l a r g e r towns i t brought easier  communication with the United States and Europe.  To the  i s o l a t e d pioneer d i s t r i c t s of Upper Canada.the railway brought mail and newspapers,  and c a r r i e d passengers i n  comfort and ease i n summer or winter over long or short distances which before had meant laborious and expensive journeys.  The products of the farms could now be trans-  ported to market many miles away;  and to the farms came  the manufactured products of the Canadian, and English factories. of  The railways "brought a revolution i n the  a l l the provinces—socially,  life  economically, and  politically."36  35jones, op_. c i t . ,  p. 212.  G . P. deT. Glazebrook, A History of Transportation i n Canada (2 v o l s . ; Toronto: McClelland and Stewart l i m i t e d , 1964), I , 170, 179. 3 6  27 Newspapers, m a i l , and goods, flowed much more f r e e l y between c i t y and  country areas a f t e r the r a i l w a y s came.  They extended the i n f l u e n c e o f c i t i e s i n r u r a l a r e a s .  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y of c i t y markets f o r farm goods brought p r o s p e r i t y t o farmers.  The r a i l w a y was  f a c t o r i n the development o f new v i l l a g e s and  the most  urban c e n t e r s .  important Even  small towns soon r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t ,  and  d e s p e r a t e l y t r i e d t o e x c e l each other i n g r a n t i n g bonuses t o attract railways. development was for  The coming o f r a i l w a y s meant t h a t urban  no l o n g e r r e s t r i c t e d to w a t e r f r o n t  sites,  i n l a n d l o c a t i o n s saw.their p o t e n t i a l markets c o n s i d e r a b l y  expanded.37 Glazebrook p o i n t s a l s o t o the profound impact o f the r a i l w a y s on the. p o l i t i c a l .as w e l l as the economic l i f e d u r i n g the s t r a t e g i c years o f the  l860 s: ^ t  3  The decade o f the s i x t i e s marks a t u r n i n g . p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y of Canadian r a i l w a y s , as, indeed, i t does i n  37spelt,  107-08.  op. c i t . , pp. The r a i l w a y s a l s o added adventure and glamor t o the Canadian c o u n t r y s i d e . The Fred W. Grant Scrapbooks (on m i c r o f i l m in. t h e . P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada) g i v e evidence t h a t the t r a i n s , i n the* s i x t i e s c o u l d a t t a i n speeds of s i x t y m i l e s per hour. Such a s i g h t would have a profound e f f e c t on the farm boy used t o d r i v i n g teams of horses or even oxen. In one o f the scrapbooks t h e r e i s a p i c t u r e of the steam locomotive t h a t made the f i r s t run on the f i r s t r a i l w a y operated i n Upper Canada, the Toronto, Simeoe and Huron, which ran a l l the way from Toronto to what i s now Aurora. I t was b u i l t . b y James Good i n Toronto and made i t s f i r s t run i n May, 1853. 33Glazebrook, O_D. c i t . , I I ,  1.  28 the whole p o l i t i c a l and economic p o s i t i o n of the provinces. The evident f a i l u r e of the Canadian trunk l i n e s to secure such a portion of American business as would repay t h e i r generous expenditure l e d to a major change of p o l i c y ; and the circumstances and atmosphere of the day suggested as an a l t e r n a t i v e the e x p l o i t a t i o n of national t e r r i t o r y . . . . Thus the movement toward a single B r i t i s h country i n North America, as approached from the p o l i t i c a l point of view, coincided i n time with the recognition, from the economic point of view, of the end of the continental projects. Economic c o n d i t i o n s .  The growth o f i n d u s t r y and i t s  extension by r a i l w a y s d i d not mean u n i n t e r r u p t e d p r o s p e r i t y , however,.for the e a r l y s i x t i e s were t r o u b l e d and years.  anxious  The b u s i n e s s boom caused by the Crimean War  and  the  Grand Trunk Railway c o n s t r u c t i o n c o l l a p s e d i n the c r a s h i n the autumn o f 1857.  By i860 Canada was  beginning t o come  out of the commercial and f i n a n c i a l d e p r e s s i o n and sun of p r o s p e r i t y was Upper Canada.  was  expected  again b e g i n n i n g t o shine s h y l y on  The American C i v i l War,  d i d not immediately  as a r e s u l t - o f the c o n f l i c t .  1861,  On.the c o n t r a r y ,  Trent A f f a i r at the end of  disturbed the business s i t u a t i o n .  Americans.  which began i n  b r i n g Canada the r e v i v a l o f trade t h a t  the shock caused by.the  apprehension  the  There was  1861  widespread  t h a t Canada would be drawn i n t o war w i t h the Added t o t h i s e x t e r n a l f a c t o r was  the t u r b u l e n c e  of i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s as f r e q u e n t e l e c t i o n s and changes o f government u n s e t t l e d b u s i n e s s and trade.39  But the  overall  39john S q u a i r , John Seath and the School System of O n t a r i o (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1920J, pp. 13-14.  29 p i c t u r e i n the s i x t i e s showed progress i n commercial and economic growth i n the p r o v i n c e . The expansion, o f i n d u s t r y and markets  d i d not r e s u l t  i n a marked e s c a l a t i o n o f e i t h e r p r i c e s o r wages i n the 1860 s. f  Both v a r i e d from l o c a l i t y t o l o c a l i t y i n response  to supply and demand.  In 1862 farm.labor was-paid from $8  t o $12 per month w i t h board and l o d g i n g .  A shortage o f  farm l a b o r caused, t h i s t o r i s e t o 75£ t o $1-25 per day i n 1869,  a c c o r d i n g t o immigration pamphlets.  Tradesmen's  wages were from $1 t o $3 per day, depending on the trade.40 The immigration pamphlets Canada was lower than i n England.  s a i d the cost o f l i v i n g i n In 1869 cottages and  s m a l l houses r e n t e d from $4 to $8 per month i n c i t i e s and  40canada 1862. F o r the Informati on o f Immigrants (Quebec: Government E m i g r a t i o n O f f i c e , 1862*7, p. 4. fKis pamphlet g i v e s t h i s s c a l e o f wages: Farm l a b o r , per month, from $8 t o $12 w i t h board and l o d g i n g . Female s e r v a n t s , per month, from $2 t o $5 w i t h board and l o d g i n g . Boys, over 13 y e a r s , per month, from $2 t o $8 w i t h board and l o d g i n g , G i r l s , over 13 y e a r s , p e r month, from $1 t o $3 with board and l o d g i n g . Mechanics, per day, $1 t o $1.50 without board. In 1869 E m i g r a t i o n t o the P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o (Toronto: John C a r l i n g , Commissioner o f A g r i c u l t u r e and P u b l i c Works f o r the Province o f O n t a r i o , 1869), pp. 20-21, gave t h i s s c a l e : Farm i n d o o r s e r v a n t s from $10 to 14 per month by the year; female labourers, farm s e r v a n t s , $4 t o 6 per month by the year; 750 t o $ 1 . 2 5 per day w i t h board, h a r v e s t time, $1.50 t o $2.25 per day. Boys o f 12 and up c o u l d get work. In the t h r e e o r f o u r months o f w i n t e r wages went down. Mechanics: c a r p e n t e r s , $1.50 t o $2.25 per day; B r i c k l a y e r s , P l a s t e r e r s , and Stone Masons from $1.75 t o $3.00 per day. P a i n t e r s and Plumbers, $1.50 t o $2.25; T i n s m i t h s , $1.25 t o $1.50; B l a c k s m i t h s , $1.25 t o $2.00; Wheelwrights, $1.00 t o $1.75; T a i l o r s , $1.50 to $2.00, Shoemakers n e a r l y the same. <  30 towns, and were even l e s s i n the country. $5 or $6 per two hundred pound b a r r e l .  F l o u r c o s t about  Meat was  at $5 to |7 per hundred pounds at the b u t c h e r * s . p r i c e s , per pound, were: 15 to 20 cents; 40 cents; cheap:  available Other  cheese, 12 to 16 cents;  t e a , 60 cents to a d o l l a r ;  sugar, 8 t o 13 c e n t s .  P o u l t r y was  butter,  c o f f e e , 25 to plentiful  geese, 30 t o 50 cents a p i e c e , turkeys 50 to 75  ducks, and  and cents,  chickens " i n p r o p o r t i o n " to o t h e r p o u l t r y p r i c e s .  Potatoes "moderate," apples, pears, plums, e t a l , " a v a i l a b l e , " grapes and sometimes peaches a l s o . ^ l Politics. the 1860's was Nova Scotia,  1  P o l i t i c a l l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t event  the C o n f e d e r a t i o n of Upper and Lower Canada,  and New  p l a y e d an important legislation.  of  Brunswick,  The American C i v i l  War  p a r t i n the e v e n t u a l enactment of t h a t  The i n i t i a l  sympathy which most Canadians f e l t  f o r the North because.of t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to s l a v e r y was eroded by the m i l i t a n t statements and Sumner who  o f Americans l i k e Seward  spoke f r e e l y of the p o s s i b i l i t y of annexing  Canada t o the United S t a t e s .  The Trent A f f a i r i n  1861,  v a r i o u s border i n c i d e n t s , and the Fenian r a i d s were a l l d i s r u p t i v e o f Upper Canada's, s t a b i l i t y .  They  caused  Canadians to t h i n k s e r i o u s l y o f u n i t i n g the p r o v i n c e s t o  ^Emigration  t o the Province of O n t a r i o , p.  21.  31  provide a more e f f e c t i v e defense against potential American aggression.  Great B r i t a i n encouraged the provinces to unite  as a means of discouraging possible American designs on B r i t i s h North America.  While some Canadian leaders did not  actually expect a Northern invasion, they were w i l l i n g to use the fear entertained by t h e i r colleagues to promote the union.42 P o l i t i c s within the province were also unstable. Maintaining a government to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of both Upper and Lower Canada after the Act. of Union i n 1840 had always been d i f f i c u l t .  U n t i l Confederation governments i n the  s i x t i e s f e l l , with appalling r e g u l a r i t y .  Upper Canadian  p o l i t i c i a n s looked to a separation of the United Province and a f e d e r a l union of a l l the provinces as a solution to t h e i r dilemma.  Another motivating factor f o r Confederation  was the growing productivity of Upper Canada's farms and the r i s e of industry, which sought new markets f o r crops and goods;  i t was believed that a federal union would f a c i l i t a t e  trade between the provinces. Thomas D'Arcy McGee spoke of the "three warnings" the B r i t i s h North American provinces had been given:  the  warning shown i n the a t t i t u d e of the "Little..Englanders"  4 Robin W. Winks, Canada and the United States: The C i v i l War Years (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, T9WJ7~pT 3T8\ 2  (who b e l i e v e d c o l o n i e s were a d r a i n on the homeland) i n Britain;  the warning of the C i v i l War;  d e t e r i o r a t i n g p o l i t i c s , deadlock, and problems i n the Canadas.43 t i d e of nationalism, e f f e c t e d by  and the warning o f "double-majority"  A l l o f these., p l u s a r i s i n g  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the union u l t i m a t e l y  Confederation.  Lower comments, "The s p i r i t o f the years t o come was moving i n the e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s and t h e r e s u l t was t o be t h e Dominion o f Canada."44 of Confederation  He speaks o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  roots  t h a t were e v i d e n t l o n g b e f o r e the event i n  the e f f e c t s o f growth and development which b r i n g a l a r g e r sense o f community with them.  Accounts o f how t h i n g s were  " i n the youth o f t h e author," which abound i n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s , i n v a r i a b l y remark on the amazing r a t e o f advance i n Canada.45 As Upper Canada stood at the t h r e s h h o l d s i x t i e s the age of the pioneer was p a s s i n g r e v o l u t i o n was at hand.  o f the  and the i n d u s t r i a l  The r a i l w a y and steamship symbolized  a new e r a o f speedy communication, busy s p e c u l a t i o n , and material progress.  43ibid., p.  The growing c i t i e s and towns, though  349.  44i, er, op. c i t . , p. 286. OW  45ibid., p. 292.  33 s t i l l outranked  by r u r a l areas, imparted a new a i r o f  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o p r o v i n c i a l s o c i e t y and epitomized the i n c r e a s i n g complexity of i t s needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . 4 6 The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the progress noted i n t h i s  chapter  f o r e d u c a t i o n were not l o s t on those who were g i v i n g s e r i o u s thought  t o the r o l e o f e d u c a t i o n i n a changing  society.  They, t o o , were l o o k i n g i n new d i r e c t i o n s and attempting t o make s c h o o l s r e l e v a n t t o t h e s o c i e t y which n u r t u r e d them.  46ooldwin French, Parsons and P o l i t i c s The Ryerson Press, 1962), p. 278.  (Toronto:  CHAPTER I I I THE  EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF THE PEOPLE  L i t e r a c y and l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r those who b e f o r e t h e middle  The Hope Commission  went t o s c h o o l i n Upper Canada  of the n i n e t e e n t h century f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n  c o n s i s t e d of about f o u r months each year f o r t h r e e t o f o u r y e a r s , or an average o f from nine to f i f t e e n months.  During  t h i s time the s c h o l a r would l e a r n to read h a l t i n g l y , to w r i t e simply, and to do some c i p h e r i n g . P r e c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n on the l i t e r a c y o f Upper Canadians at mid-century  i s not a v a i l a b l e .  The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f news-  papers . and l a t e r o f magazines, and the l a r g e number o f l i b r a r i e s , i n d i c a t e t h a t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l found a ready market among Upper Canadians. i l l i t e r a c y was  Lower w r i t e s t h a t a t  mid-century  becoming the e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r than the r u l e . 2  L i t t l e appears t o be r e c o r d e d about i n a b i l i t y t o read, save for  d i r e warnings a g a i n s t a l l o w i n g young d e l i n q u e n t s who  not attend, s c h o o l t o grow up i l l i t e r a t e .  did  Perhaps an  estimate o f a l i t e r a c y r a t e o f 65% t o 75% at about I860 w i l l  ^-Report of the Royal Commission on Education i n O n t a r i o , 1950 (Toronto: B a p t i s t Johnson, King's P r i n t e r , 1950), p . " T I T A r t h u r R. M. Lower, Canadians i n the Making, A S o c i a l . H i s t o r y of Canada (Toronto: Longmans, Green and Company, 1958), p. 237. 2  35 serve, w i t h the percentage improving  y e a r l y as more s c h o o l i n g  became normal i n the s i x t i e s , and became compulsory i n The  Census o f 1871  and shows what may  included information.on  literacy,  be an unduly h i g h l i t e r a c y r a t e .  those above twenty years o f age, of 1,620,851 o f whom 45$  1871.  57,379 of a t o t a l  Of population  were above twenty, were unable to-  read, and 93,220 (above twenty) were unable t o w r i t e , which suggests t h a t some 36,000 c o u l d read but not w r i t e . s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t 87$  These  of the people twenty-one and  over c o u l d read and w r i t e , though doubtless many c o u l d read very l i t t l e , names.  and perhaps w r i t e l i t t l e more than t h e i r  own  3  Books and  libraries.  While those i n t e r e s t e d i n  r e a d i n g c o u l d o b t a i n books, the p u b l i c a t t i t u d e toward the p r a c t i c e o f r e a d i n g was still  a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t h a t r e a d i n g was  wrong books were read. century t h i n k i n g was source may  l i m i t i n g and i n h i b i t i n g .  There  was  dangerous i f the  A p e r s i s t e n t f e a t u r e of  nineteenth  the b e l i e f i n the value of a book as a  of moral b e n e f i t a s . w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l g a i n .  have been the r e s u l t  of the eighteenth  century  This  doctrine  3census o f Canada, 1870-1371 (5 v o l s . ; Ottawa: I. B. T a y l o r , I^TV, Maclean~7~loger, & Co., V, 1873-1878), I I , 211. T h i s a p p a r e n t l y was the f i r s t census t o i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n on l i t e r a c y , and no doubt people h e s i t a t e d t o admit i n a b i l i t y t o read or w r i t e and would use the b a r e s t competency to a v o i d the stigma of i l l i t e r a c y .  36 of the p e r f e c t i b i l i t y o f man.  Reading good l i t e r a t u r e  was  one of the methods by which mankind could r a i s e h i s s p i r i t u a l l e v e l , and a t t a i n g r e a t e r happiness.  Not o n l y would the  v i r t u o u s be made b e t t e r , but e v i l - d o e r s would be redeemed. T h e r e f o r e , l i b r a r i e s were p l a c e d i n p r i s o n s so the inmates might develop  "a purer and n o b l e r ambition."  "As  you  educate the people," s a i d Ryerson, "you p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i m i n i s h crime."4  The  concept  of knowledge g i v i n g v i r t u e ,  and the wise being the h a p p i e s t and b e s t , harks back t o Socrates. In the 1860's, when s t r i c t V i c t o r i a n i d e a s were i n vogue, r e a d i n g , l i k e n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g , was grounds.  judged on moral  The best books were those w h i c h . c o n t r i b u t e d  not  simply to t h e reader's knowledge, but a l s o to h i s m o r a l i t y . Books which c o n t r i b u t e d t o h i s knowledge without  harming h i s  morals were a c c e p t a b l e , and bad books were those which could subvert h i s morals.  There was widespread p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t  r e a d i n g books which were simply e n t e r t a i n i n g , f o r even though they contained-no  o b j e c t i o n a b l e m a t e r i a l s , they  c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o one's knowledge and c o u l d i n s i d i o u s l y undermine c h a r a c t e r by developing h a b i t s of wasting thus j a d i n g the i n t e l l e c t .  B e s i d e s , one  c o u l d be  time  and  both  e n t e r t a i n e d and i n s t r u c t e d by r e a d i n g more s o l i d tomes.  1850),  4 J o u r n a l of Education f o r Upper Canada, I I I 14*71  (October,  37 T h i s p r i n c i p l e o f r e a d i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a d i c t a t i o n e x e r c i s e w r i t t e n by S i r George P a r k i n , afterward o f Upper Canada C o l l e g e , when he was New  Brunswick i n 1863:  principal  at Normal School i n  5  We should employ our minds, as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e , i n those occupations which r e q u i r e no e f f o r t o f a t t e n t i o n . He who spends much of h i s time i n r e a d i n g t h a t which he does not wish t o remember, w i l l f i n d h i s power o f a c q u i s i t i o n r a p i d l y to d i m i n i s h . L i g h t r e a d i n g i s e n t i t l e d to i t s p l a c e , and need not be p r o s c r i b e d a l t o g e t h e r . But l i g h t r e a d i n g need not be u s e l e s s r e a d i n g . F a c t s of a l l k i n d s , t o him who i s a b l e t o make a proper use o f them, are always o f i n e s t i m a b l e v a l u e . But much t h a t i s c a l l e d l i g h t r e a d i n g , tends to no r e s u l t whatever, except present amusement, and n o t h i n g i s more d e s t r u c t i v e of every manly energy than amusement pursued as a b u s i n e s s . Nor l e t i t be supposed that- the vigorous employment of our own f a c u l t i e s , i s d e s t i t u t e of i t s a p p r o p r i a t e enjoyment. Here, as everywhere e l s e , happiness i s found, not when we seek f o r i t d i r e c t l y , but when, t h o u g h t l e s s of o u r s e l v e s , we are h o n e s t l y doing our duty. The weariness caused by l a b o u r , i s e i t h e r r e l e i v e d [ s i c ] by r e s t , or by a change o f p u r s u i t s , and the mind r e t u r n s , w i t h renewed r e l i s h , t o i t s appointed l a b o u r s . But what change can r e l i e v e an i n t e l l e c t , jaded and worn down by e x c e s s i v e excitement, and vexed w i t h i n c e s s a n t c r a v i n g s of u n s a t i s f i e d desires. As the i d e a of " l i g h t " r e a d i n g was  developed, i t  sounded more and more l i k e the approved r e a d i n g l o v e d to recommend. duty,  The  emphasis was  educators  ever on knowledge,  and u t i l i t y , w h i l e a v o i d i n g the dangers o f  i n t e l l e c t u a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n through too much, l e v i t y . concept, of good stewardship,  p. 28  The  g e t t i n g the most f o r the time  5George W. P a r k i n Papers, Normal School notebook, ( P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, Ottawa).  38 spent, i s i m p l i c i t i n the advantages s t a t e d f o r l e a r n i n g f a c t s , improving the same time.  one's morals., and b e i n g e n t e r t a i n e d a l l a t The B i b l e , r e l i g i o u s books, h i s t o r i e s ,  b i o g r a p h i e s , and books w i t h g e n e r a l and s c i e n t i f i c  infor-  mation were among those t h a t best s u i t e d the standards  of  reading. Novels  g e n e r a l l y were denounced as m o r a l l y  debasing,  f o r example: E v i l s o f Novel Reading I t sows the seeds of v i c e ; i t t a i n t s the i m a g i n a t i o n and undermines the f o u n d a t i o n of v i r t u e and m o r a l i t y . I t c o r r u p t s the h e a r t , obscures the reason, p a r a l y z e s the c o n s c i e n c e , depraves the i n t e l l e c t , and p e r v e r t s the judgement. The f o u l p r i n c i p l e s imbibed and the images gathered w i l l abide i n the. memory and extend t h e i r p e r n i c i o u s i n f l u e n c e t o the c l o s e o f l i f e . I t i n s t i l s i n t o the mind a h a b i t of r e a d i n g merely f o r amusement i n s t e a d of i n s t r u c t i o n . Our insane assylums [ s i c ] c o u l d f u r n i s h us w i t h many a b l i g h t e d . i n t e l l e c t , many a dark p i c t u r e o f i n s a n i t y , caused by the d i r e f u l e f f e c t s of n o v e l reading. Case h i s t o r i e s were c i t e d t o prove the charges the n o v e l .  The Peterborough  against  Review ran an a r t i c l e h e a d l i n e d  " E f f e c t s of Novel Reading i n . Belmont."  It-recorded that a  farmer got a l l " f i r e d up" by r e a d i n g . a t r a s h y American n o v e l e n t i t l e d The S c a l p Hunter, and. t h a t . n i g h t , w h i l e dreaming, s t a r t e d t o choke h i s w i f e .  During the s c u f f l e the baby  awoke and i t s c r i e s woke the farmer  and saved, h i s w i f e from  ^Journal, o f E d u c a t i o n f o r Upper Canada, XV 1862), 1W.  (October,  the d i r e consequences. happened.  The next n i g h t the same t h i n g  Whereupon the w i f e brought her mother i n t o  bedroom t o keep watch over the husband. p l a i n l y drawn:  The moral  their  was  beware of t r a s h y s t o r i e s and s e n s a t i o n a l  novels.7 Hodgins recorded t h a t i n 1863  r e a d i n g bad-books l e d a  boy t o commit crimes and t h a t some grown boys i n a common s c h o o l bought some p e r n i c i o u s books without the t e a c h e r * s knowledge.  When d i s c o v e r e d , t h e books were p u b l i c l y burned,  and a l a r g e P u b l i c School L i b r a r y of e x c e l l e n t books  was  procured t o guide youth on the proper path.** The vehemence w i t h which f i c t i o n was  b e i n g denounced  i n the l 8 6 0 s i n d i c a t e s i t s wider c i r c u l a t i o n and  the  f  consequent wider p u b l i c acceptance the p i o n e e r e r a t h e r e was  of l i g h t reading.  In  l i t t l e r e a d i n g save f o r the B i b l e  and an o c c a s i o n a l newspaper.  A f t e r mid-century,  when more  r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l (and more time and b e t t e r l i g h t i n g f o r evening reading) became a v a i l a b l e , o n l y the p u r p o s e f u l r e a d i n g o f f a c t u a l books was respectable.  regarded as  reasonably  But w i t h t h e coming o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n , f i c t i o n  and p o e t r y were more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n response  7 i b i d . , XVIII  (November, 1865),  to a  163.  . George Hodgins, Documentary H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n i n Upper Canada (28 v o l s . ; Toronto: Warwick Bros. & R u t t e r , I-VI, L. K. Cameron, VII-XXVIII, 1894-1910), XX, 94.  40 n a t i o n a l consciousness  o f t h e need f o r c u l t u r e .  1870's t h e p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t reading-as disappear  In the  a pastime was t o  almost e n t i r e l y . 9  Before spasmodically,  1850 c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r i e s had appeared and were regarded with.some s u s p i c i o n . But  as Ryerson's s c h o o l system began t o take hold.and  flourish,  he argued t h a t w i t h s c h o o l s teaching- n e a r l y a l l Canadians to read i t became necessary  to d i r e c t t h i s a b i l i t y into  wholesome and u s e f u l channels.10  He inaugurated  a scheme  of p u b l i c and common s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s t h a t met w i t h phenomenal i n i t i a l The  success.  Education  Act o f 1850 provided f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h -  ment o f common s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s which were f r e e p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s operated  by s c h o o l t r u s t e e s , housed i n s c h o o l  b u i l d i n g s , and which were a v a i l a b l e t o p u p i l s , t e a c h e r s , and t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f the school d i s t r i c t .  A "public  l i b r a r y " c o u l d a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n some other b u i l d i n g than a s c h o o l , and was operated  and f i n a n c e d by the c o u n c i l  of a municipality.!1  9Report o f the Royal Commission on Education i n O n t a r i o , 1950, p. 15. l O c h a r l e s E. P h i l l i p s , "The Teaching o f E n g l i s h i n O n t a r i o , 1800-1900" (Doctor of Pedagogy t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1935), p. 27. H T h e m a t e r i a l on l i b r a r i e s i s based l a r g e l y on Gordon T. Stubbs, "The Role o f Egerton Ryerson i n the Development o f P u b l i c L i b r a r y S e r v i c e i n O n t a r i o " (Master of A r t s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965); and J . W. Emery, The  41 The p o l i c y f o r s e l e c t i o n o f l i b r a r y books s e t by t h e C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n i n 1850 made p l a i n t h a t t h i s promotion  o f r e a d i n g would i n no way v i o l a t e the moral  s e n s i t i v i t i e s o f Upper  Canadians:  (1) No c o n s i d e r a t i o n would be g i v e n t o works o f a l i c e n t i o u s , v i c i o u s o r immoral tendency, o r h o s t i l e t o the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . (2) No c o n t r o v e r s i a l works on t h e o l o g y o r on denominational d i s p u t a t i o n would be admitted. (3) On h i s t o r i c a l s u b j e c t s , an e f f o r t should be made to i n c l u d e works p r e s e n t i n g a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t viewpoints. (4) F o r t h e r e s t , t h e books s e l e c t e d should cover as wide a range as p o s s i b l e o f a l l major departments o f human knowledge. In 1853 a catalogue o f somewhat l e s s than 2,000 books was p u b l i s h e d , i n 1857 i t was expanded t o n e a r l y 3,000 t i t l e s , and the r e v i s e d catalogue o f i860 made 4,000 books a v a i l a b l e .  The s e l e c t i o n s were n o t a b l e f o r t h e i r  depth and s o l i d i t y .  Only books l i s t e d , i n t h e catalogue  c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i b r a r i e s .  Ryerson b e l i e v e d t h a t  the r i g h t books f o r the l i b r a r i e s o f Upper Canada were those t h a t imparted Consequently  i n f o r m a t i o n and conveyed good moral l e s s o n s . o n l y a very few works o f f i c t i o n were on the  l i s t and they were s c a t t e r e d under other headings. heading  " F i c t i o n " d i d n o t appear i n t h e catalogue  L i b r a r y , t h e S c h o o l , and the C h i l d (Toronto: Company of Canada, L i m i t e d , 1917).  The until  The Macmillan  42 1868  and even i n 1871  i t was  of the volumes l i s t e d . " ^  r e p r e s e n t e d by l e s s than  l/l6  2  Ryerson r e s i s t e d p u b l i c pressure a g a i n s t l i m i t i n g book s e l e c t i o n s t o the catalogue.; l i m i t a t i o n of freedom was  he b e l i e v e d t h a t a  necessary t o guard a g a i n s t books  of "a v i c i o u s or immoral tendency."  While t h i s  practice  prevented one e v i l — t h e c i r c u l a t i o n , of immoral books, i t created a n o t h e r — a n  i n f l e x i b l e , p a t e r n a l i s t i c c o n t r o l that  e v e n t u a l l y had a s t i f l i n g . e f f e c t on l i b r a r y development. Books ordered from the catalogue of the Book D e p o s i t o r y o f the Education Department r e c e i v e d a grant of 100$  o f the value of the o r d e r .  books were purchased  In e f f e c t t h i s meant t h a t  at h a l f p r i c e — f o r to every o r d e r of  $5.00 or more the  t r u s t e e s could add books, o f equal value  a t no e x t r a c o s t .  Often they would.leave  s e l e c t books f o r t h e i r l i b r a r i e s .  i t to Ryerson to  In e x p l a i n i n g the subsidy,  Ryerson almost always s t a t e d t h a t a 100$  bonus would be  added to the o r d e r , r a t h e r than s a y i n g t h a t books c o u l d be had f o r h a l f - p r i c e .  He was  c o n d i t i o n i n g t r u s t e e s . t o order  a l l the books they f e l t they needed, and then to get again as many f r e e , thus i n c r e a s i n g the books a v a i l a b l e i n the libraries.  The r e g u l a t i o n s f o r borrowing  1 2 p h i l l i p s , op_. c i t . , p.  18?.  books p r o v i d e d t h a t  43 a book was t o be r e t u r n e d w i t h i n as many weeks as i t contained hundreds of. pages, i . e . , a four-hundred c o u l d be kept f o u r weeks. one  e l s e had spoken f o r i t .  for  overdue books.  page book  A book c o u l d be renewed i f no One penny a day was the f i n e  The l i b r a r i e s experienced  a r a p i d i n i t i a l growth as  much o f the money the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e a l i z e d from the s a l e of  C l e r g y Reserve Lands was devoted t o t h e establishment  and extension, of l o c a l p u b l i c and common, s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s . " When some o b j e c t e d t o t h e expenditure  1 3  o f C l e r g y Reserve  funds f o r books and the g i v i n g o f s u b s i d i e s t o l i b r a r i e s , Ryerson f o r t h r i g h t l y a s s e r t e d t h a t Upper Canada was ready to  l e a v e behind t h e "bush m e n t a l i t y " of. p i o n e e r days.  The  p r o v i n c e could no l o n g e r a f f o r d t o n e g l e c t the development of  i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l r e s o u r c e s , he. s a i d , which i n f u t u r e  "would t e l l p o w e r f u l l y upon the. advancement o f the country i n knowledge, wealth  and happiness."^4  When the C l e r g y Reserve funds began t o dwindle, around 1853,  i n t e r e s t i n l i b r a r i e s began t o l a g .  Energetic  and i m a g i n a t i v e measures were needed t o c h a l l e n g e p u b l i c  l^Ryerson w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d the f a c t t h a t C l e r g y Reserve Funds would double t h e i r v a l u e i f i n v e s t e d i n l i b r a r y books because o f t h e 100$ bonus on book o r d e r s . T h i s and h i s argument t h a t l i b r a r i e s would b e n e f i t a l l . c i t i z e n s caused many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o use t h e C l e r g y Reserve Funds a t t h e i r disposal f o r l i b r a r i e s . ^ H o d g i n s , o_o. c i t . ,  XIV,  73.  apathy, and Ryerson was ready t o undertake them.  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f h i s campaigning was demonstrated by t h e remarkable growth i n the number of l i b r a r i e s between I860 and 1870.  In t h a t p e r i o d common s c h o o l l i b r a r i e s grew from  411 to 1146,  and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s from 347  t o t a l number doubled, from 753 t o 1535; of volumes i n c r e a s e d from  344,463  to 389.  The  the t o t a l number  t o 413,503.  Books were a l s o a v a i l a b l e a t t h e same low c o s t from the  D e p o s i t o r y f o r Sunday S c h o o l l i b r a r i e s and Mechanics  I n s t i t u t e s , but t h e s e agencies d i d not r e c e i v e the 100% bonus.  Sunday S c h o o l l i b r a r i e s i n i860 numbered 1756 w i t h  273,643  volumes;  345,355  books.  i n 1870 t h e r e were 2433 l i b r a r i e s w i t h  The development  o f l i b r a r i e s under Ryerson was  hothouse growth r a t h e r than a n a t u r a l development. 1870, l o c a l  a  After  s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f schools i n areas t h a t  p r e v i o u s l y had shown a s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t i n a c q u i r i n g and c i r c u l a t i n g books began t o r e p o r t " l i t t l e used, l o n g n e g l e c t e d , most d i s c o u r a g i n g " i n r e f e r e n c e t o the l i b r a r i e s . A mood of d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t began to r e p l a c e the b r i g h t promise of the f i f t i e s and  sixties.  Although Ryerson always s t r e s s e d the importance o f l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e , he was i n f a c t i n c l i n e d t o f o r c e h i s wishes on the p u b l i c . p u b l i c what was  He could not r e f r a i n from g i v i n g the  good f o r them, whether they wanted i t o r n o t .  45  As the students began to demand interesting story books, the serious books i n the l i b r a r i e s were voted dry and.neglected. The following books are representative,  and present-  day pupils and adults would perhaps be i n c l i n e d to agree with those who avoided them a century ago: Worthies;  Thrift;  Josephus;  City of Saints;  Book of  Notable Shipwrecks; Johnson's Works;  Whiston's The History  Byron's Poems;  Macaulay's History of England;  English Constitution;  Creasy's  Gibbon's Rome (three volumes);  Smith's Wealth of Nations; of the Jews;  A  Great Triumphs of Great Men;  of Ireland (two volumes); History of France;  tt  Memoirs of Sydney Smith;  Adam History  and Geological Cosmogony."  Though heavy, these books offered one of the few sources of information and self-help available to enterp r i s i n g young people i n most l o c a l i t i e s .  Many prominent  persons i n l a t e r years t e s t i f i e d to the benefits received from t h e i r l o c a l l i b r a r i e s . When Ryerson r e t i r e d i n 1876, the l i b r a r i e s l o s t t h e i r greatest supporter, and the decline accelerated.  By  the end of the century nearly every, one had disappeared through neglect.  This was t r a g i c , f o r had they been kept  up and augmented by books more compatible with popular taste, they would have given Ontario the foundation of a public l i b r a r y system at a very early date.  Ryerson was ahead of  his time, but he was unable to bring the public where he  46 wished i t t o be.  Had  he s e t h i s s i g h t s lower and  tolerated  books of g r e a t e r popular i n t e r e s t he would have done b e t t e r by the l i b r a r i e s .  But he would not bend h i s p r i n c i p l e s ,  and  u l t i m a t e l y most of the impetus he p r o v i d e d f o r l i b r a r i e s was  lost. Newspapers.  In the 1860*3 every town and hamlet  i t s newspaper, which was about 180  a v i d l y r e a d and d i s c u s s e d .  In  newspapers were p u b l i s h e d i n the p r o v i n c e ;  were d a i l i e s and the others w e e k l i e s Thomas D*Arcy McGee wrote i n 1867  had 1869  Fifteen  or bi-weeklies.^5  t h a t newspapers had  a  c i r c u l a t i o n of f o u r t e e n m i l l i o n - c o p i e s i n Canada a t Confederation:  e i g h t m i l l i o n were Canadian and s i x m i l l i o n  were from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and The  Europe.^  6  "yellow p r e s s " had not y e t made an appearance i n  Upper Canada.  E d i t o r s were extremely  conscious o f t h e i r  r o l e s as educators  and newspapers were more l i t e r a r y i n  s t y l e than today.  They were s h a r p l y d i v i d e d a l o n g  and  sometimes r e l i g i o u s l i n e s , and  spawned new  newspapers.  s e r i o u s l y , and  expected  political  controversies often  People took r e l i g i o n and  politics  e d i t o r s to be f o r t h r i g h t and  candid.  l ^ H . McEvoy ( e d . ) , The P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o Gazetteer and D i r e c t o r y (Toronto: Robertson and Cook, 1869), p. 695. 1 6 J o u r n a l of Education f o r O n t a r i o . XX 1867), 177:  (November,  47 D i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n were g e n e r a l l y s h a r p l y d e f i n e d w i t h little  room f o r compromise.^7 Much news from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y  was p u b l i s h e d .  Britain,  Many a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s were r e - p r i n t e d  from o t h e r papers.  L o c a l news was prominent i n a l l , and  p o e t r y , e x t r a c t s from moral n o v e l s , and l e t t e r s t o e d i t o r s were f e a t u r e d .  Education was prominent i n the news when  l e g i s l a t i o n on c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s l i k e  separate  schools  for. Roman C a t h o l i c s , grammar s c h o o l reform, and f r e e and compulsory e d u c a t i o n were b e f o r e t h e l e g i s l a t u r e . examinations  School  h e l d f o r the p u b l i c were u s u a l l y w e l l - c o v e r e d  by the p r e s s , w i t h the names o f d i g n i t a r i e s and p r i z e winning  scholars f u l l y reported.  S t o r i e s o f crime,  scandal,  and human f o i b l e s were p r i n t e d , t h e i r o s t e n s i b l e purpose b e i n g t o p o i n t out e v i l s t o be avoided, but the. e d i t o r s a l s o r e a l i z e d t h e r e was much i n t e r e s t i n such Advertisements unchanged f o r weeks.  accounts.  were s t e r e o t y p e d and g e n e r a l l y r a n Lack o f payment f o r s u b s c r i p t i o n s l e d  t o f r e q u e n t f a i l u r e s and changes i n ownership. e d i t o r s would be reduced  Struggling  t o a c c e p t i n g eggs, pork, produce,  o r even f i r e w o o d as payment i n l i e u o f c a s h . The growth o f Toronto's  x o  newspapers i n the 1860's  ^ E d i t h G. F i r t h ( e d . ) , E a r l y Toronto Newspapers, 17931867 (Toronto: Baxter P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1961), pp. 2-3. l^Edwin C. G u i l l e t , E a r l y L i f e i n Upper Canada (Toronto: The O n t a r i o P u b l i s h i n g Company, Limited", 1933), p. 135.  48  r e f l e c t e d the expansion of the economy i n the province.  The  large c i r c u l a t i o n newspapers there had three e d i t i o n s , a d a i l y f o r the c i t y , a tri-weekly f o r the neighborhood, and a weekly f o r mailing across the province, to other  provinces,  and even to Great- B r i t a i n . - The railways and cheap postal rates made t h i s wide d i s t r i b u t i o n possible.  From the l a t e  l 8 5 0 s f i n a n c i a l papers r e f l e c t e d the growth of business and f  industry.  From 1793 to 1367 Toronto alone had a t o t a l of  eighty-two newspapers..  By i860, two of them, the Conservative  Leader and the L i b e r a l Globe dominated Toronto and the province.19 In a discussion of Upper Canadian. Newspapers i n general and the Globe and the Leader i n p a r t i c u l a r , Careless writes that mid-Victorian Liberalism seems the best term to describe t h e i r pattern of thought and opinion.20  There was  constant reference to B r i t i s h ideas, not only i n p o l i t i c s and economics, but also i n the f i e l d s of s o c i a l welfare, Sabbatarian morality, and i n t e l l e c t u a l standards.  Newspapers  f e l t a strong sense of belonging to a physical B r i t i s h Empire and of being i n the mainstream of ideas, emanating  ^ F i r t h , loc. c i t . 2GThe following paragraphs are based on J . M. S. Careless, "Mid-Victorian Liberalism i n Central Canadian Newspapers, 1850-1867." Canadian.Historical Review, XXII (September, 1950), 221-36.  49  from B r i t a i n at the height of her power and prestige. As the r a d i c a l and Tory newspapers declined and were absorbed, the press generally transferred i t s main opinions from L i b e r a l V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n .  The main reason for t h i s  attitude was the great numbers of B r i t i s h immigrants to Canada during the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century. This steady stream from B r i t a i n had inundated the e a r l i e r English-speaking people who had deeper North American roots, many having come from the United States.  By mid-century  the newcomers had established themselves so well that many Canadian leaders, including many of the Fathers of Confederation, had been born i n Great B r i t a i n .  This was  especially true i n the newspaper world, and the Globe boasted i n 1861 that i t s entire s t a f f was from the old country. Canada was also e f f e c t i v e l y imperial system.  t i e d to the B r i t i s h  Nationalism had not yet f u l l y developed  (I85G-67), and the B r i t i s h t i e meant l i b e r t y and security against the s t i l l - t h r e a t e n i n g United States.  Steamships and  telegraphs had cut down the b a r r i e r of distance from B r i t a i n , and transcontinentalism had not yet begun to turn Canada's eyes inward and toward the West to any considerable degree. Central Canada was s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y a long, narrow s e t t l e ment along the St. Lawrence system that pointed to B r i t a i n and channelled every impulse from the imperial center deep  50 i n t o the Great Lakes country. B r i t i s h i d e a s were exported t o Canada along w i t h her goods and news.  By steamship  books, and immigrants, look to B r i t a i n . speaking Canadians Britain. Canadian  who  came newspapers, p e r i o d i c a l s ,  i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r communities t o  As a r e s u l t , newspapers and  English-  accepted the bulk of t h e i r i d e a s from  In t h i s c r u c i a l p e r i o d , then, i n which the modern n a t i o n was b e i n g founded,  o p i n i o n i n . O n t a r i o was  t e n d i n g away from the e x c i t i n g extremes of both r a d i c a l i s m and Toryism and moving toward  a moderate c a s t of mind,  Careless concludes. Given t h i s powerful B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e which r e i n f o r c e d the t r a d i t i o n of the U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d s t r o n g anti-American sentiments among Upper Canadians.  The  strong b e l i e f i n the power of the  p r i n t e d word and the m a l l e a b i l i t y of young minds caused g r e a t o b j e c t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y a g a i n s t American textbooks f o r children.  Many complaints were lodged a g a i n s t the p e r n i c i o u s  i n f l u e n c e of these books, even a f t e r the p r o v i n c e a u t h o r i z e d , non-American books.  adopted  Schools which p e r s i s t e d i n  u s i n g u n a u t h o r i z e d books were t h r e a t e n e d with h a v i n g t h e i r school grants withheld. The  c h i e f complaint a g a i n s t the books was  their  rampant r e p u b l i c a n i s m and a n t i - B r i t i s h sentiment. were s c o r e d f o r b e i n g . i n a c c u r a t e .  In 1865  Ryerson  Histories again  51  threatened to withhold grants from any schools using American texts and ascribed great powers to them when he w r o t e : ! 2  I believe such books are one element of powerful influences against the established Government of the Country. From facts which have come to my knowledge, I believe i t w i l l be found, on i n q u i r i n g , that i n precisely these parts of Upper Canada where United States School Books had been used most extensively, there the s p i r i t of i n s u r r e c t i o n , i n 1 8 3 7 and 1 8 3 8 , was most prevalent. The B r i t i s h naturally supported Canadians i n t h e i r resistance to American influence.  A B r i t i s h journal i n  decrying the a n t i - B r i t i s h propaganda i n the United States said:  "You may dot a land with School-houses to any extent  you please, but-Society  i s the great free School, after  The plant l i v e s from the-atmosphere." If  all.  22  the atmosphere i n the United States was a n t i -  B r i t i s h , i t was strongly p r o - B r i t i s h i n Upper Canada.  So  strong were these sentiments that- the Common. School Acts of 1 8 4 1 and 1 8 4 3 had excluded teachers from the United  States. 3 2  This attitude pervaded society and was reinforced i n school  Z^Egerton Ryerson to Chas. P. Coburn, State Superintendent of Schools., Pennsylvania (who had written to Ryerson protesting the proscribing of American textbooks i n Upper Canada on October 5, I865), October 1 1 , I865, cited i n Hodgins, op_. c i t . , XIX, 6 8 . T h e Rev. Dr. Vaughan. i n B r i t i s h Quarterly Review, c i t e d i n Hodgins, op_. c i t . , XIX, 6 9 . 22  George Hodgins, The L e g i s l a t i o n and History of Separate Schools i n Upper Canada, 1 8 4 1 - 1 8 7 6 (Toronto: William Briggs, 1T&7), P» 3 T "  and by the newspapers and o t h e r p e r i o d i c a l s .  The e f f e c t  was  to  strengthen Canadian l o y a l t y t o B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s  to  i n c u l c a t e a f e e l i n g of s u p e r i o r i t y among Canadians w i t h  r e s p e c t t o t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s , the q u a l i t y of t h e i r  and  lives,  and t h e i r m o r a l i t y , as compared w i t h Americans. Magazines.. advent  Students of l i t e r a t u r e have found i n the  of l i t e r a r y magazines a f t e r the  mid-nineteenth  century the beginnings of a p o s t - p i o n e e r p e r i o d i n Upper Canadian l i f e . of  There was  an e s p e c i a l l y a u s p i c i o u s f l u r r y  magazines beginning a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n . B i s s e l l notes t h a t between 1851  and 1870  a number o f  p e r i o d i c a l s made b r i e f , a p o l o g e t i c appearances and  then  s p e e d i l y and q u i e t l y withdrew, but i n the s e v e n t i e s t h e p e r i o d i c a l emerged as one of the dominant e x p r e s s i o n s of the time.  T h i s was  the r e s u l t of a growth of n a t i o n a l  consciousness and p r i d e , and the r e c o g n i t i o n . o f a need to e s t a b l i s h a Canadian c u l t u r e .  National unity required a  broader b a s i s than "the n i c e t i e s of p o l i t i c a l The l i t e r a r y men  sought t o s i n k p o l i t i c a l divergence i n a  d i s i n t e r e s t e d concern f o r the c u l t u r a l l i f e nation.24  compromise."  o f the  new  Most of the p e r i o d i c a l s p u b l i s h e d i n the l a t e  e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s r e f l e c t a good d e a l of conscious  24ciaude T. B i s s e l l , " L i t e r a r y Taste i n C e n t r a l Canada d u r i n g the Late Nineteenth Century." Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, XXXI (September, 1950),237-51.  53 nationalism.25 The journals of the s i x t i e s do not impress as being sophisticated or i n t e l l e c t u a l i n content.  They had to  struggle f o r s u r v i v a l and t r i e d to appeal to as many people as possible.  Typical fare f o r the l i t e r a r y magazine reader  i n the s i x t i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the contents of the New Dominion Monthly which made i t s first.appearance i n October, 1867  with i t s front cover featuring the Union Jack i n f u l l  color.  It offered horror s t o r i e s ,  anecdotes of great men,  hymns, recipes, household h i n t s , plus poetry, e d i t o r i a l s , and correspondence.  T i t l e s of some of the a r t i c l e s were  "Blind Robert" (a story about a good b l i n d boy), "The Horrors of Nuremberg C a s t l e , " a poem e n t i t l e d "The Maniac," "A Horrible Story," and a c h i l d r e n ' s department which included a story of a boy who was ashamed to pray (he missed church to go swimming and drowned).26 The editor of Stewart s L i t e r a r y Quarterly, which 1  appeared i n A p r i l , I 8 6 7 , said he was motivated by concern for the youth of the country, who were being seduced by "the cheap novels, the trashy weeklies and immoral  25x,ower, op. c i t . , p. 293. %ew Dominion Monthly, I (October, 1867). The writer reviewed a l l the magazines circulating- i n Ontario (including B r i t i s h ones) i n the 1860's available i n the Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa. The content of the New Dominion i s t y p i c a l . 2  m o n t h l i e s " from the United S t a t e s that l e d the unwary i n t o l i v e s of crime. 7 2  The magazines r e i n f o r c e d the mores and v a l u e s o f the people.  No i n n o v a t o r s , the e d i t o r s t r i e d t o get more people  t o r e a d and to become informed on what was  happening i n the  country and the w o r l d , and t o improve l i t e r a r y  taste.  P a t r i o t i s m , sugary s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , and m o r a l i z i n g were standard  fare.  Adult e d u c a t i o n . education f o r a d u l t s .  The Education Department encouraged I t s most obvious e f f o r t was  the  promotion  of p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s  chapter.  An E d u c a t i o n a l Museum was  opened i n the E d u c a t i o n  Department b u i l d i n g i n Toronto i n 1857  which e x h i b i t e d  s c h o o l apparatus, models of a g r i c u l t u r a l and  other  implements, specimens o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , busts o f antique and modern s t a t u e s , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s c u l p t u r e , c o p i e s of busts s e l e c t e d from l e a d i n g European museums, p l u s t y p i c a l c o p i e s of works by masters of the Dutch, F l e m i s h , French, German, Spanish, and I t a l i a n s c h o o l s of p a i n t i n g .  I t was  means o f e d u c a t i o n a l improvement, t o c r e a t e and develop t a s t e f o r a r t among Canadian people.23  2  1867).  'Stewart's  L i t e r a r y Q u a r t e r l y Magazine, I "  2  % o d g i n s , Documentary H i s t o r y , XVIII,  102.  (April,  a  a  I t was and h o l i d a y s ,  open from.nine t o f i v e d a i l y except Sundays and admission was f r e e . ^ 2  I t was the c l o s e s t  t h i n g t o an a r t g a l l e r y and museum the p r o v i n c e had.  I t was  designed f o r t h e people a t l a r g e , as w e l l as f o r t e a c h e r s and p u p i l s , t o be e n t e r t a i n i n g and i n s t r u c t i v e . 30 purpose was object  o f f i c i a l l y described  of a N a t i o n a l  i n these words:  T  he  "The  G a l l e r y i s to improve the p u b l i c  taste,  and a f f o r d a more r e f i n e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f enjoyment to the mass o f people."31 An e a r l y attempt t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n more f o r a d u l t s was t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n England i n t h e 1820's.  of mechanics i n s t i t u t e s i n  One of t h e f i r s t  was formed i n York i n 1830.  formally  i n Upper Canada  The purpose of these  i n s t i t u t i o n s was t h e p r o v i s i o n of l i b r a r i e s and  lectures  f o r the b e n e f i t o f "mechanics," which meant tradesmen, c l e r k s , and workingmen i n g e n e r a l .  T h e i r employers were  commonly the o f f i c e r s o f the i n s t i t u t e s . 3 2 9 E g e r t o n Ryerson, Annual Report o f the. Normal, Model. Grammar, and Common S c h o o l s , i n O n t a r i o , 1869 (Toronto: Hunter, Rose & Co., 1870), p.~T3cn 2  3°Robin S. H a r r i s , Quiet E v o l u t i o n . A Study o f the E d u c a t i o n a l System of O n t a r i o (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 196777 P« 39.  3lHodgins, Documentary H i s t o r y , XXV,  266.  32Edwin C. G u i l l e t , Pioneer L i f e i n the County o f York (Toronto: Hess-Trade T y p e s e t t i n g Company, 194o), pT~8 9. r  56 Although  i n s t i t u t e s were a good i d e a , p a t e r n a l i s m  s t i f l e d t h e i r h e a l t h y growth from the s t a r t . people  Upper c l a s s  were uneasy about the prospect of workingmen g e t t i n g  too much education f o r t h e i r own  good, so t h a t they might  a s p i r e to a c l a s s beyond t h e i r r e a c h . apprehension  There was  about u p s e t t i n g the s o c i a l s t r a t a .  much So l o n g as  the upper c l a s s e s c o u l d condescend t o o f f e r education c u l t u r e t o the masses and have them d u t i f u l l y and  and  humbly  r e c e i v e d , t h e r e would be no p r o b l e m — b u t t h e r e were ever those who  f e a r e d such o p p o r t u n i t i e s would cause the lower  c l a s s e s to become d i s c o n t e n t e d with t h e i r l o t . Members of the mechanics i n s t i t u t e s were expected take the a d v i c e o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r s , who  to  t o l e r a t e d no f r e e  d i s c u s s i o n of s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l problems, but r a t h e r p r o v i d e d l e c t u r e s which d i d not upset the s t a t u s  quo.  L e c t u r e s u b j e c t s and books ( a l l . s e r i o u s and s o l i d ) were s e l e c t e d without  c o n s u l t i n g the members.  Such i n s t i t u t e s  p r o v i d e d the ambitious workingman with an o p p o r t u n i t y to b e t t e r h i m s e l f , but the c l a s s e s f o r f o r m a l l e a r n i n g were never numerous or p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t r a c t i n g s t u d e n t s , and the t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n of the i n s t i t u t e s e v e n t u a l l y abandoned i n 1895.  was  Soon t h e i r r e a d i n g rooms and  l i b r a r i e s became p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . 3 3 3 3 c h a r l e s E. P h i l l i p s , The Development of E d u c a t i o n i n Canada (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company L i m i t e d , 1957), pp. 359-60; H a r r i s , op_. c i t . , pp. 102-03.  57 At l e a s t two i n s t i t u t e d evening  c i t y s c h o o l boards, Toronto and c l a s s e s f o r young workers who  t o a t t e n d s c h o o l d u r i n g the day.  Kingston,  were unable  These f l o u r i s h e d f o r a  time, but were unable t o continue to a t t r a c t numbers to warrant t h e i r continuance.34  sufficient  While n e i t h e r  venture t h r i v e d a t - f i r s t , they demonstrated a w i l l i n g n e s s t o accommodate s c h o o l programs t o l o c a l needs and were p r o p h e t i c of l a t e r programs- o f academic and v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r working youth and a d u l t s . The chapter on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s the extent o f a d u l t i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d There was h i s own  apparently l i t t l e  education.  i n t e r e s t by the average a d u l t i n  continuing education.  L i b r a r i e s , mechanics  i n s t i t u t e s , p u b l i c l e c t u r e s and programs, the E d u c a t i o n a l Museum, newspapers, magazines,, the growth o f the book t r a d e , a l l i n d i c a t e some growth i n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and. awareness o f the need-for a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , but most m a t e r i a l o f f e r e d t o a d u l t s bored them, and they l e f t i t alone.  A d u l t s needed  s t r o n g m o t i v a t i o n and appeals to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s ;  instead  34Honora M. Cochrane ( e d . ) , C e n t e n n i a l S t o r y , the Board of E d u c a t i o n f o r the C i t y o f Toronto, 1850-1950* (Toronto: Thomas Nelson & Sons TCanada) L i m i t e d , 1950), p. 49; James P o r t e r , Second Annual Report of the L o c a l Superintendent of the P u b l i c Schools of the C i t y o f Toronto, f o r the Year Ending December 31st, l£5U (Toronto: Maclear & Co., 1861), p. 77; Minutes, Board o f T r u s t e e s o f Common S c h o o l s , K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o , January 7. 1362 ( A r c h i v e s , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o ) .  58  they were offered what was considered  good f o r them.  adults confined themselves to reading newspapers.  Most  Effective  adult education would become possible on a wide scale only when a more open attitude to the betterment of lower classes developed, and when shorter working hours.and a r i s i n g standard of l i v i n g made p a r t i c i p a t i o n possible f o r the average man.  CHAPTER IV THE The in  POLITICAL-RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT  primacy o f r e l i g i o n i n everyday l i f e .  Ontario  t h e 1860's was no s e c u l a r s o c i e t y — r e l i g i o n was a  fundamental p a r t o f l i f e .  The e x i s t e n c e o f God and H i s  d i r e c t concern w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y o f men were not open t o question.  Since God's e x i s t e n c e and H i s nature were h a r d l y  debatable,  the e x p r e s s i o n o f man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Him and the  divergence  o f t h e o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e s were  considerations. r o o t s i n Europe.  important  These d i f f e r e n c e s had deep h i s t o r i c a l Because s o c i e t y was r e l i g i o u s , t h e  d i f f e r e n c e s between denominations were m a g n i f i e d .  Hostility  was e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t between Roman C a t h o l i c s and P r o t e s t a n t s , though t h e s i x t i e s saw a waning o f the i n t e n s i t y o f i n t o l e r a n c e both among P r o t e s t a n t s and between P r o t e s t a n t s and Roman C a t h o l i c s . Ontario was predominantly P r o t e s t a n t . represented  Roman C a t h o l i c s  o n l y 18$ o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n b y 1861 and i n 1871  comprised 17$ o f t h e t o t a l . were the M e t h o d i s t ,  The three l a r g e s t church  bodies  t h e Church o f England, and t h e  P r e s b y t e r i a n , which t o g e t h e r numbered about 70$ o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n the s i x t i e s .  2  A s t r i k i n g measure o f r e l i g i o u s  I j o h n S. Moir, Church and S t a t e i n Canada West (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press,~T959), p. 2 2 . C e n s u s o f Canada, 1870-1371 (5 v o l s . , Ottawa: I . B. T a y l o r , I-IV, Maclean, Roger, & C o . , V, 1873-78), V, 10-15. 2  60  f e e l i n g i s that fewer than 3% of the respondents i n the census of 1861 acknowledged no church a f f i l i a t i o n ;  and i n  the census of 1871 i t was less than 2%.^ For the Protestant majority the Bible was the source of  authority for r e l i g i o n and l i f e , and clergymen were the  backbone of the educated and i n f l u e n t i a l class i n most communities.  Applications for Normal School and University  entrance and for many jobs required a statement of good moral character and s t r i c t l y temperate habits from a clergyman.  The r e l i g i o n of every school teacher was d u t i -  f u l l y reported and recorded on o f f i c i a l reports.  Public  and i n t e l l e c t u a l opinion was closely aligned with a conservative Protestant e t h i c , and nq>religious  attitudes  were s t i l l decades away. A remarkable demonstration of the interest and l o y a l t y of the populace to t h e i r churches was the boom i n church b u i l d i n g i n the s i x t i e s .  From 1861 to 1871 the  number of churches i n Ontario increased from 844 to 4,093.^" Besides underlining the interest of members i n t h e i r churches, t h i s phenomenal growth indicates the r a p i d i t y and Wesleyans and other Methodists—341,572-, Church of England— 311,565, Presbyterians—303 ,384. ^Census of the Canadas, 1860-1861 (2 v o l s . ; Quebec: S. B. Foote, 1867-6X7, I , 158-59; Census of Canada, 1870-  1871, V, 15.  of  ^Census of the Canadas, 1860-1861, I I , 319; I I , 436-37.  CanadaTWO^TTT  Census  extent of Ontario's development from a f r o n t i e r economy to a more s e t t l e d community l i f e i n the l £ 6 0 ' s . There was considerable certainty about r e l i g i o n and conduct i n those days.  People knew the tenets of t h e i r  church and held them f i r m l y .  Although there was  denominational d i v e r s i t y , disagreements among Protestants i n r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s rested on the s o l i d underpinnings of universal b e l i e f i n God and the B r i t i s h system. not need to explain what a C h r i s t i a n c i t i z e n was.  One d i d People  knew what moral t r a i n i n g was and believed i t was impossible apart from the p r i n c i p l e s of r e l i g i o n .  The meanings of  words were seldom questioned—most people spoke the same language. Clergymen were highly placed i n the academic and s c i e n t i f i c world.  They were the presidents of the  u n i v e r s i t i e s , they were active i n the learned s o c i e t i e s , and t h e i r views were sought and respected.  As Ontario's  f r o n t i e r s became settled areas, more communities obtained resident pastors instead of being served by i t i n e r a n t circuit riders.  Church attendance i n Ontario was on an  upswing that was to reach an a l l - t i m e high i n Canada i n the lSSO's. Ontario was a bastion of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and v i r t u e (cf.  "Toronto the Good").  It had a heritage of piety and  v i r t u e , as the e a r l i e s t white s e t t l e r s were the l o y a l and  62 devout United Empire L o y a l i s t s , who were quite unlike many immigrants to other areas of the world who sought escape or adventure. Behind many c o n f l i c t s i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e lay a strong C a l v i n i s t i c heritage which was evident i n a popular tendency to judge a l l public issues on moral grounds rather than by p o l i t i c a l expediency.5  Church bodies would not o r d i n a r i l y  endorse a p a r t i c u l a r party, but would support those i n d i v i d u a l candidates who pledged themselves on c e r t a i n issues important to that denomination.  Churchmen were the  backbone of the temperance movement, which brought pressure to bear on the government to enact l e g i s l a t i o n l i m i t i n g or p r o h i b i t i n g the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.  1  The Protestant denominations were m i l i t a n t , dogmatic, and vocal on p o l i t i c a l issues with r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s . 7 Public- assemblies would regularly be c a l l e d when important issues were before the province, and clergymen took active and leading roles i n these meetings.  Religious  considerations were often included i n resolutions and public  5Moir, op_. c i t . , p. 26. The d e f i n i t i v e work on the temperance movement i n Ontario i s Ruth Elizabeth Spence, Prohibition i n Canada (Toronto: The Ontario Branch of the Dominion STliance, 6  1919). 7Moir, c_p_. c i t . ,  p. 11.  63 statements.  A p u b l i c meeting  i n Colborne r e s o l v e d ^  that^ i n a C h r i s t i a n Community, E d u c a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d sound, h i g h e r i n t e r e s t s o f man, u n l e s s i t a s a f e moral s u p e r v i s i o n , based on  no System of or conducive to the be conducted under Christian principles.  T h i s r e s o l u t i o n expressed the o p p o s i t i o n of most churches t o the p r e f e r r e d f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s of the s e c u l a r U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto, which enabled i t to a t t r a c t some students who otherwise have m a t r i c u l a t e d at denominational  would  colleges.  These s t u d e n t s , educated away from the i n f l u e n c e of home and church, would s u f f e r s p i r i t u a l harm and u l t i m a t e l y the whole country would be the l o s e r .  The Rev.  Dr. Green, a  prominent  M e t h o d i s t , s a i d i n 1860:9 We wish t o throw around our C o l l e g e the f o s t e r i n g arms of a C h r i s t i a n Church, and t o keep upon i t the w a t c h f u l eye of a C h r i s t i a n people. And we are not alone i n our p r e f e r e n c e s , but a l a r g e p o r t i o n of our f e l l o w countrymen j o i n w i t h us i n these views. There was  a community of outlook on problems o f  r e l i g i o n and m o r a l i t y which embraced p r a c t i c a l l y a l l P r o t e s t a n t s i n Upper Canada i n the s i x t i e s .  Generally,  a t t i t u d e s toward temperance and Sabbath l a b o r transcended denominational l i n e s , although there was  a c l o s e r connection  between r e l i g i o u s reform and p o l i t i c a l reform than between r e l i g i o u s reform and p o l i t i c a l conservatism.  The end o f the  George Hodgins, Documentary H i s t o r y of Education i n Upper Canada (28 v o l s . , Toronto: Warwick Bros & R u t t e r , T=Vl, L. K. Cameron, VII-XXVIII, 1894-1910), XVI, 36. 9 l b i d . , XVI,  161.  64  clergy reserves antagonism with the settlement i n 1854 had removed the l a s t major b a r r i e r to a Protestant unity of outlook, paving the way f o r a sort of Protestant omnibus denomination which was not an organization but an a t t i t u d e . The process of union among the Protestant churches of Ontario began soon after Confederation.^ The separate school problem.  0  Two Acts that have had  a permanent effect on public and separate schools i n Ontario were enacted i n the 1860»s:  The Scott Act (1863) and the  B r i t i s h North America Act (1867).  To better  appreciate  t h e i r impact i t w i l l be useful to review the h i s t o r y of separate school l e g i s l a t i o n i n Upper Canada. The p r i n c i p l e of separate schools for r e l i g i o u s minorities was established by S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l Day's Common School Act of 1841  It provided for  dissentient  schools on the request of any number of people of  different  f a i t h from the majority, and was mainly the r e s u l t of Anglican p e t i t i o n s .  It was repealed two years l a t e r because  i t s provisions were so sweeping that any l o c a l group could  Moir, op_. c i t . , p. xv. ! " h r o r information on e a r l i e r Roman Catholic a c t i v i t y i n seeking f i n a n c i a l support for r e l i g i o u s schools, c h i e f l y by Bishop Alexander Macdonell, see Franklin A. Walker, Catholic Education and P o l i t i c s i n Upper Canada (Toronto: d. M. Dent & Sons (CTanadaJ Limited", 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 1 7 - 3 5 .  65 set  up a s c h o o l , which could have r e s u l t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l  chaos.12 Francis Hincks to  1  Bill  o f 1843 l i m i t e d separate  schools  e i t h e r Roman C a t h o l i c o r P r o t e s t a n t ones, which could be  e s t a b l i s h e d by p e t i t i o n o f t e n o r more householders d i f f e r e d i n f a i t h from t h e common s c h o o l t e a c h e r .  who Initially  and throughout t h e 1840*s separate s c h o o l s were conceived o f as safeguards  a g a i n s t tyranny o r i n s u l t by the m a j o r i t y i n  a community, and consequently  the numbers o f separate  schools  would be and remain i n s i g n i f i c a n t , as i n most areas a l l c h i l d r e n would a t t e n d t h e same s c h o o l p e a c e f u l l y . o n l y o b j e c t i o n r a i s e d t o Hincks*  The  B i l l was r e g i s t e r e d by  A n g l i c a n Bishop John Strachan, who, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , wanted t h e moneys f o r common s c h o o l s t o be d i s t r i b u t e d t o the r e l i g i o u s denominations a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r number—which would have probably meant t h e end o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l system.13 At f i r s t few separate 1850  s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d . I n  there were o n l y f o r t y - s i x , t w e n t y - f i v e o f which were  P r o t e s t a n t w h i l e only twenty-one were Roman C a t h o l i c . 1 4  l%oir,  op_. c i t . , pp. 132-33.  1 3 I b i d . , p. 134. 1 4 j . George Hodgins, The L e g i s l a t i o n and H i s t o r y o f Separate Schools i n Upper Canada, 1841-1876 (Toronto: W i l l i a m b n g g s , i 8 y y ) , p. 57T However, i n 1851 P r o t e s t a n t separate s c h o o l s dwindled t o only f o u r and Roman. C a t h o l i c schools declined to sixteen.  66 Bishop Power c h a i r e d the Board of Education u n t i l h i s untimely death i n 1847,  and C a t h o l i c s d i d not make an i s s u e of the  r i g h t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own  schools.  Ryerson and o t h e r s  hoped t h a t e v e n t u a l l y the separate s c h o o l s would d i e out as C a t h o l i c s would f u l l y accept the p u b l i c system.15 the f i r s t  decade i t appeared  For about  t h a t t h i s would be the outcome.  But e a r l y i n the 1850's the c l i m a t e changed, and separate s c h o o l s became a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . that u n t i l 1850  the l e a d i n g men  Ryerson wrote  and the newspapers o f a l l  types a c q u i e s c e d i n the separate s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n . r e c a l l e d no o b j e c t i o n t o the i d e a .  U n t i l 1852,  he  He  said,  Roman C a t h o l i c s had never advocated the establishment of separate s c h o o l s as a d o c t r i n e o r an a r t i c l e of The  change i n a t t i t u d e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by an  c i r c u l a r i s s u e d by Toronto Bishop Charbonnel  faith.1^  official i n 1856  which  i n c l u d e d these w o r d s ; 1 7 C a t h o l i c e l e c t o r s i n t h i s country, who do not use t h e i r e l e c t o r a l power i n b e h a l f o f Separate Schools are g u i l t y o f mortal s i n . Likewise parents who do not make the s a c r i f i c e s necessary t o secure such S c h o o l s , or send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o Mixed S c h o o l s .  15por a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Ryerson's a t t i t u d e toward separate s c h o o l s , see Howard Adams, The E d u c a t i o n of Canadians, 1800-1867: The Roots of Separatism (Montreal: Harvest House, 1967). i 6  H o d g i n s , Documentary H i s t o r y , XXVII, 255;  XIII,  269. 0  17Hodgins, The L e g i s l a t i o n and H i s t o r y o f S c h o o l s , p. 1 2 4 .  Separate  67 Bishop Charbonnel, who succeeded Power as Bishop o f Toronto and s e r v e d from 1848-1860, was t h e l e a d e r  o f Roman  C a t h o l i c demands f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n of separate school  rights.  At f i r s t he cooperated w e l l with t h e o t h e r members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l Board o f E d u c a t i o n (which was c a l l e d t h e C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r 1850), but e a r l y i n 1852 h i s a t t i t u d e changed a b r u p t l y . i n s p i r i t from the C o u n c i l the s c h o o l 1852,  system.  On March 24, 1852, he  defected  i n a l e t t e r a t t a c k i n g Ryerson and  I n a l e t t e r t o Ryerson w r i t t e n May 1,  he h i n t s a t p r e s s u r e exerted upon him by h i s church:-^ A l l my p r e v i o u s i n t e r c o u r s e with you and the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n has been p o l i t e and C h r i s t i a n , and sometimes t o l e r a n t to an extent t h a t I have been required to j u s t i f y . What caused t h i s change i n a t t i t u d e ?  main f a c t o r s .  There were two  F i r s t , the number o f Roman C a t h o l i c s i n Upper  Canada was r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g , l a r g e l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e potato famines i n I r e l a n d i n t h e l a t e f o r t i e s . i n 1842, the Roman C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n  From 65,203  i n Upper Canada grew  l C h a r b o n n e l t o Ryerson, May 1, 1852? c i t e d . i n C. B. S i s s o n s , Church & State i n Canadian E d u c a t i o n (Toronto: the Ryerson P r e s s , 1959), p. 27. To t h e Chairman o f the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , Hon. S. B. H a r r i s o n , Charbonnel wrote of a t o l e r a n c e f o r which my church made me r e s p o n s i b l e . " C i t e d i n Hodgins, Documentary H i s t o r y , XXVII, 255. See a l s o Egerton Ryerson, Dr. Ryerson*s L e t t e r s i n Reply t o t h e A t t a c k s o f F o r e i g n E c c l e s i a s t i c s ~ A g a i n s t t h e Schools and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f Upper Canada, I n c l u d i n g the L e t t e r s o f Bishop Charbonnel, Mr. Bruyere, and Bishop P i n s o n e a u l t l0 (Toronto! L o v e l i STTribson, 185777~ 4 pp. g  n  68 to 167,695 i n 1851, an i n c r e a s e o f 157% i n nine  years. ^ x  Second, and even more s i g n i f i c a n t , was t h e changing temper of Roman C a t h o l i c i s m throughout t h e w o r l d .  On A p r i l 12, 1850,  Pope Pius r e t u r n e d t o Rome from e x i l e , h o s t i l e to p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i s m o r n a t i o n a l sentiment,  no l o n g e r l i b e r a l . 2 0  T h i s change o f h e a r t had i t s e f f e c t on Roman C a t h o l i c p o l i c y everywhere, and l a r g e l y e x p l a i n s C h a r b o n n e l s demands f o r 1  completely  separate s c h o o l s f o r C a t h o l i c children. -*2  In the 1850 s t h e r e was c o n t i n u a l pressure from t h e f  h i e r a r c h y o f the Church f o r more r i g h t s and more p u b l i c money f o r the support o f separate allowed  the separate  schools.  The A c t o f 1853  schools t o share i n t h e common s c h o o l  fund and the Tache Act i n 1855 (the f i r s t b i l l concerned with separate  solely  s c h o o l s — o t h e r s i n c l u d e d them i n  g e n e r a l s c h o o l l e g i s l a t i o n ) , gave f u r t h e r r i g h t s t o Roman C a t h o l i c s , i n c l u d i n g the r e d u c t i o n o f the number o f househ o l d e r s necessary  t o . e s t a b l i s h a s c h o o l t o f i v e , and the  p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e common s c h o o l teacher no l o n g e r had t o be P r o t e s t a n t b e f o r e a Roman C a t h o l i c s c h o o l c o u l d be established.  2 2  19 M o i r , op_. c i t . , p. 143. S i s s o n s , op_. c i t . , p. 28. F o r a more complete d i s c u s s i o n o f the i s s u e s , see a l s o Walker, op_. c i t . , . 114-39; 312-17. 2 0  2 x  p  2 2  Moir,  p  ojo. c i t . , pp. 150-61.  The broader p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Tache Act and t h e emphasis the Roman c l e r g y p l a c e d on sending c h i l d r e n t o separate s c h o o l s r e s u l t e d i n e x c e p t i o n a l growth between 1855 and I860.  I n that p e r i o d t h e number o f separate s c h o o l s  i n c r e a s e d from 41 t o 115, and the number o f p u p i l s 4,886 t o 14,708.  from  In i860 t h e r e were 162 Roman C a t h o l i c  t e a c h e r s i n separate s c h o o l s , but 300 were t e a c h i n g i n common schools.23 At  the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s i x t i e s , i t looked as though  the separate s c h o o l i s s u e was s e t t l e d .  The number and  q u a l i t y o f separate s c h o o l s showed constant still in  improvement—rbut  over three times as many Roman C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n were  common s c h o o l s as i n separate A f t e r each b i l l  schools.24  extending Roman C a t h o l i c s r i g h t s was  passed t h e r e f o l l o w e d what became almost a r i t u a l :  first  the C a t h o l i c s would express t h e i r great s a t i s f a c t i o n a t t h e law, g e n e r a l l y s a y i n g i t met t h e i r needs, and then some weeks o r months they began t o f e e l the b i l l in  f a c t do a l l they had hoped, and that f u r t h e r  were r e q u i r e d .  after  d i d not remedies  And so the a g i t a t i o n began anew as R i c h a r d  S c o t t , a Roman C a t h o l i c , i n t r o d u c e d a Separate School Act  B. S i s s o n s , My_ Dearest Sophie. Egerton Ryerson t o h i s Daughter (Toronto: P r e s s , 1955), p. x x i v . 2  4 M o i r , op_. c i t . , p. 170.  L e t t e r s from The Ryerson  70 in  the L e g i s l a t u r e i n I860, 1861, 1862, and again i n 1863  when i t passed, r e c e i v i n g r o y a l assent on May 5.  The S c o t t  Act was g i v e n permanent tenure by S e c t i o n 93 o f the B r i t i s h North America Act o f 1867 which r e t a i n e d t h e s t a t u s quo for  minority, s c h o o l s . Although a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o v e r s y  surrounded  S c o t t s attempts t o g e t h i s b i l l passed, Ryerson 1  it  supported  i n i t s f i n a l form (he, as always, had a hand i n r e v i s i n g  the b i l l before i t passed) saying t h a t i t d i d not extend t h e p r i n c i p l e o f separate  schools but c l a r i f i e d the e a r l i e r  l e g i s l a t i o n and r e c o n c i l e d some i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s .  2 5  Some o f t h e main p o i n t s o f the b i l l were t h e f o l l o w i n g : f i v e heads o f f a m i l i e s c o u l d e s t a b l i s h a separate anywhere i n t h e p r o v i n c e excluded);  separate  school  ( i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e s had been  school sections could u n i t e , with  t r u s t e e s over the u n i t e d s e c t i o n ;  three  t r u s t e e s were t o have  i d e n t i c a l powers t o the common s c h o o l t r u s t e e s ;  Roman  C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n from other school s e c t i o n s were p e r m i t t e d to  attend;  separate  school teachers were r e q u i r e d to -meet-the  same c e r t i f i c a t i o n standards  as common school  teachers;  separate  i n the municipal  grants as w e l l  s c h o o l s would share  as t h e p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s  ( a c c o r d i n g t o monthly average  attendance f o r t h e p r e c e d i n g twelve months, i n p r o p o r t i o n  2 5  H o d g i n s , Documentary H i s t o r y , XVII, 273.  to  the numbers i n the common s c h o o l s i n t h a t  section);  Roman C a t h o l i c s no l o n g e r had t o d e c l a r e t h e i r t a x exemption from common s c h o o l s a n n u a l l y ; sufficient;  a one-time d e c l a r a t i o n was  t r u s t e e s no l o n g e r had t o take an oath when  r e p o r t i n g t h e average  attendance a t separate s c h o o l s ;  and  the separate s c h o o l s were made s u b j e c t t o i n s p e c t i o n by l o c a l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f common s c h o o l s . ^ 2  Regardless of which p a r t y was i n power, Ryerson was r e g u l a r l y c o n s u l t e d on e d u c a t i o n a l b i l l s b e f o r e the House. In  1862, when S c o t t i n t r o d u c e d h i s b i l l f o r the t h i r d  John A. Macdonald wrote Ryerson to his  Quebec C i t y t o see the b i l l wishes  regarding i t .  time,  t h a t he wanted him t o come and a d v i s e the government o f  He wrote i n p a r t : " 2  7  Dick S c o t t who i s a very good f e l l o w although no Solon i n t r o d u c e d t h e p r e s e n t B i l l without showing i t to me. Notwithstanding t h i s I thought i t w e l l t o support t h e p r i n c i p l e o f h i s B i l l on an understanding t h a t i t should be sent t o a s p e c i a l Committee and made to s u i t me. S c o t t