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Parasites of the whitetail deer (odocoileus virginianus ochrourus). Russell, Lorne James 1967

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THE PARASITES OF THE WHITETAIL DEER (Odocoileus v i r g i n i a n u s ochrourus) OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by Lome J . R u s s e l l B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of ZOOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. J u l y , 1967. i n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . • ~c D - : : k 1 rU 1 The Un i ve rs i pf.d'f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A B S T R A C T T h i s s t u d y w a s u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p a r a s i t e c o m p l e x o f t h e w h i t e t a i l d e e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s e p a r a s i t e s , a n d t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r a s i t i s m o f t h e s e d e e r . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f 6 9 w h i t e t a i l d e e r a n d 7 m u l e d e e r w a s m a d e f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f e c t o p a r a s i t e s a n d e n d o -p a r a s i t e s . A u t o p s i e s v / e r e p e r f o r m e d a t v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s f r o m J u l y 1 9 6 4 t o M a y 1 9 6 6 . T n e w h i t e t a i l d e e r e x a m i n e d w e r e h o s t t o 25 s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s i n c l u d i n g 3 s p e c i e s c f l i c e , 2 s p e c i e s o f t i c k s , 2 l o u s e f l i e s , o n e b o t f l y , 4 c e s t o d e s , 1 t r e m a -t o d e a n d 1 1 n e m a t o d e s . T h e m a x i m u m n u m b e r o f s p e c i e s i n f e s t i n g a s i n g l e d e e r w a s 1 1 . T h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f s p e c i e s p e r w h i t e t a i l d e e r w a s 5 . 9 . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e n o s e b o t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n f e s t a t i o n o f a l l s p e c i e s w a s f o u n d t o b e l i g h t . T h e 7 m u l e d e e r e x a m i n e d w e r e h o s t t o 22 s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s . T h e m a x i m u m i n a s i n g l e d e e r w a s 1 3 a n d t h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f s p e c i e s p e r d e e r w a s 1 0 . 6 . M u l e d e e r s h a r e d t h e same e c t o p a r a s i t e s a s w h i t e t a i l d e e r , b u t i i i h a r b o u r e d m u c n n e a v i e r i n f e c t i o n s o f i n t e s t i n a l n e m a -t o d e s a n d c e s t o d e s . T n e b o t f l y C e p n e n e m y i a n e l l i s o n i , t h e l i v e r f l u k e F a s c i o l o i d e s m a g n a a n d l a r v a l l u n g w o r m s w e r e t h e o n l y p a r a s i t e s f o u n d t o h a v e a n y a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t o n h o s t t i s s u e s . T h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f c a t t l e a n d h o r s e s o n w h i t e t a i l w i n t e r r a n g e s h a s n o t b r o u g h t a b o u t h e a v y p a r a s i t e i n f e s t a t i o n s i n w h i t e t a i l d e e r . T h e p a r a s i t i s m o f w h i t e t a i l d e e r w a s v e r y l i g h t i n s p i t e o f o v e r c r o w d i n g o f d e e r , o v e r b r o w s e d r a n g e s , m a l n u t r i t i o n a n d e x t r e m e s o f c l i m a t e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v Acknowledgments v i INTRODUCTION 1 O b j e c t i v e s 1 L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w 4 METHODS 8 1. C o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l 8 2. Autopsy p r o c e d u r e s 10 3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p a r a s i t e s 17 4 . P r e s e r v a t i o n o f p a r a s i t e s 17 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDY AREA 18 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WHITETAIL DEER IN SOUTHEASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA 21 RESULTS 24 1. G e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f p a r a s i t i s m 24 2. E c t o p a r a s i t e s ~ 27 3. E n d o p a r a s i t e s 37 4. P a r a s i t i s m o f mule deer 47 5. N u t r i t i o n a l s t a t e o f deer 51 DISCUSSION 53 SUMMARY 64 LITERATURE CITED 66 APPENDIX I 68 APPENDIX I I 70 V L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e P a g e I S p e c i e s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f p a r a s i t e s i n w h i t e t a i l d e e r 26 I I S p e c i e s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f p a r a s i t e s o f s e v e n m u l e d e e r 49 I I I N u t r i t i o n a l s t a t e o f 9 d e e r a u t o p s i e d A p r i l - M a y 1 9 6 6 52 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e t o ext e n d my t h a n k s t o members o f th e Department o f Zoology a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, who made t h i s s tudy p o s s i b l e . Dr. I . McT. Cowan suggested the study and p r o v i d e d i n i t i a l a d v i c e . Dr. H.D. F i s h e r , my s u p e r v i s o r , p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y f a c i l i t i e s , f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , and h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m -while w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . Dr. J.R. Adams p r o v i d e d f a c i l i t i e s and a d v i c e on t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p a r a s i t e s . I am g r a t e f u l t o my p a r e n t s and t o Mr. G e o f f Nagle and Mr. Doug S a d l e r f o r t h e i r h e l p i n t h e f i e l d , 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N O B J E C T I V E S T h e p a r a s i t e s o f t h e w h i t e t a i l d e e r h a v e b e e n f a i r l y w e l l d o c u m e n t e d i n e a s t e r n C a n a d a a n d i n t h e e a s t e r n a n d s o u t h e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s . F e w o v e r a l l s u r v e y s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t i n w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d n o n e i n w e s t e r n C a n a d a . T n i s s t u d y w a s u n d e r t a k e n v / i t h s e v e r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n m i n d : 1. T o d e t e r m i n e t h e s p e c i e s a n d f r e q u e n c y o f p a r a s i t e s i n f e s t i n g t h e w h i t e t a i l d e e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2. T o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e p a r a s i t e s o n t h e i r h o s t . 3. T o e x a m i n e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p a r a s i t i s m a n d s u c h f a c t o r s a s : c l i m a t e , o v e r p o p u l a t e d a n d o v e r b r o w s e d r a n g e s , m a l n u t r i t i o n , a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f c a t t l e o n w i n t e r r a n g e s . 4. T o c o m p a r e t h e p a r a s i t i s m o f t w o s p e c i e s o f d e e r ( m u l e d e e r a n d w h i t e t a i l d e e r ) o c c u p y i n g t h e same w i n t e r r a n g e . 2 The w h i t e t a i l deer i s a very widely d i s t r i b u t e d animal i n North America and i t s parasites vary from one geographical area to another«, A knowledge of i t s parasites and t h e i r rates of i n f e s t a t i o n over the deer's en t i r e range may eventually shed more l i g h t on the factors which influence the parasitism of ungulates. Many factors seem to be involved. Extremes of climate may influence the a v a i l a b i l i t y of intermediate hosts, the s u r v i v a l of l a r v a l stages, and predispose deer to harsh conditions of s u r v i v a l . Deer i n a weakened condition may be more susceptible to heavy i n f e s t a t i o n by p a r a s i t e s . High d e n s i t i e s of deer increase the rate of contact between i n d i v i d u a l s , which may increase the spread of parasites. Overbrowsing of ranges by wild ungulates and c a t t l e r e s u l t i n malnutrition and increases the tendency for deer to graze -— which supposedly increases the chances of deer contacting heavy t r i c h o -strongyle i n f e s t a t i o n s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of alternate wild ungulate hosts and domestic l i v e s t o c k may increase the parasitism of a p a r t i c u l a r species of ungulate. Predators act as d e f i n i t i v e hosts for some species of ungulate parasites and therefore number of predators may 3 i n f l u e n c e the numbers of some p a r a s i t e s of ungulates. The l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of w h i t e t a i l deer i n B r i t i s h Columbia occurs i n t h a t p o r t i o n of the Rocky Mountain trench extending from the United States border i n the south t o Columbia Lake i n the no r t h . This was the area chosen f o r t h i s study. A l l of the p r e v i o u s l y l i s t e d f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r a s i t i s m were present on East Kootenay ranges d u r i n g t h i s study. A l t e r n a t e w i l d ungulate hosts i n c l u d e moose, e l k , bighorn sheep, and mule deer. B i g game pop u l a t i o n s i n the East Kootenay are roughly estimated as: (Pearse and Bowden, 1966). Deer (mule and w h i t e t a i l ) 60,000 - 80,000 E l k 20,000 - 25,000 Mountain goat 15,000 - 20,000 Moose 7,000 - 8,000 Bighorn sheep 2,000 - 3,000 Bla c k bear 1,500 - 3,000 G r i z z l y bear 500 - 1,000 Caribou 200 — 400 Cougar 250 - 750 The numbers of bighorn sheep are based on estimates before the l a r g e d i e - o f f during the w i n t e r o f 1965-66. The above estimates merely show the unique v a r i e t y and abundance o f b i g game animals i n h a b i t i n g the East Kootenay d i s t r i c t of southeastern B r i t i s h Columbia. 4 I t i s n o t my p u rpose t o go i n t o d e t a i l s o f p a r a s i t e l i f e c y c l e s , t h e i r m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e h o s t . No attempt was made t o examine deer f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f p r o t o z o a n p a r a s i t e s . Some or g a n systems had t o ba o v e r l o o k e d as t h e r e was a l i m i t t o t h e amount o f t i m e t h a t c o u l d be s p e n t e x a m i n i n g one a n i m a l . No o p p o r t u n i t i e s were a f f o r d e d t o autopsy w i n t e r - k i l l e d d e e r , a l t h o u g h deer i n poor s p r i n g c o n d i t i o n were sampled. L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W There a r e v i r t u a l l y no p u b l i s h e d r e c o r d s o f t h e p a r a s i t e s o f w h i t e t a i l deer i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Cowan (1944) d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h e w h i t e t a i l d eer i n h i s s t u d y f "The p a r a s i t e s , d i s e a s e s and i n j u r i e s o f game a n i m a l s i n B a n f f , J a s p e r and Kootenay N a t i o n a l P a r k s . " Cowan (1951) r e c o r d s f i v e e c t o p a r a s i t e s , one l i v e r f l u k e , and one tapeworm c y s t o c c u r r i n g i n w h i t e t a i l deer i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. These r e c o r d s p r o v i d e no i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e s e p a r a s i t e s i n w h i t e t a i l d eer p o p u l a t i o n s . P e r s o n n e l o f t h e F e d e r a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e entomology l a b o r a t o r y a t Kamloops, B.C. have done an e x t e n s i v e amount o f work on B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t i c k s b u t t h i s l a b o r a t o r y h a s few r e c o r d s o f t h e t i c k i n f e s t a t i o n s o f w h i t e t a i l d e e r . A few s t u d i e s o f the p a r a s i t e s o f w i l d u n g u l a t e s have been done i n w e s t e r n Canada: Cowan (1944, 1946, 1951), M a r t i n (1965). The most n o t a b l e o f t h e s e i s Cowan's s t u d y o f t h e p a r a s i t e s o f t h e c o a s t deer O d o c o i l e u s hemionus c o l u m b i a n u s . T h i s i s t h e o n l y p u b l i s h e d p a r a s i t e s u r v e y o f u n g u l a t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n w h i c h enough a n i m a l s have been a u t o p s i e d t o p r o v i d e a good p i c t u r e o f t h e r a t e s o f i n f e s t a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s . A number o f s u r v e y s have been made i n t h e n o r t h -w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s : Brown (1961), Senger and C a p e l i e (1959), De N i o and West (1942), L o n g h u r s t (1956). Senger and C a p e l i e (1959) d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e l o u s e f l i e s o f mule deer and w h i t e t a i l deer i n w e s t e r n Montana, b u t I am aware o f no p u b l i s h e d r e c o r d s comparing t h e o v e r a l l p a r a s i t i s m o f mule deer and w h i t e t a i l deer o c c u p y i n g t h e same w i n t e r r a n g e s . Anderson (1962) s t a t e s t h a t g e n e r a l l y where t h e s e tv/o s p e c i e s o f deer i n h a b i t t h e same range t h e y share t h e same p a r a s i t e s . A good d e a l o f work has been done on t h e p a r a s i t i s m o f w h i t e t a i l d eer i n e a s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . Anderson 6 (1962) p r o v i d e s a f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e and an e x c e l l e n t summary o f t h e h e l m i n t h and a r t h r o p o d p a r a s i t e s o f t h i s s p e c i e s . He a l s o r e v i e w s t h e h o s t d i s t r i b u t i o n , g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , and p a t h o g e n i c i t y o f i t s p a r a s i t e s . N o t a b l e among th e e a s t e r n s t u d i e s i s Cheatum's 1951 r e v i e w o f t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s e a s e and p a r a s i t e s i n r e l a t i o n t o w i n t e r m o r t a l i t y . Cheatum showed a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f some s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s i n w i n t e r - k i l l e d deer compared w i t h t h o s e c o l l e c t e d by gun. Numerous a u t h o r s have commented on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r a s i t i s m o f deer and c o n d i t i o n s o f o v e r c r o w d i n g o f r a n g e s , o v e r b r o w s i n g , and m a l n u t r i t i o n , Van V o l k e n b e r g and N i c h o l s o n (1943), Cowan (1946), Cheatum (1951), L o n g h u r s t (1956) t o m e n t i o n a few. A number o f a u t h o r s have n o t e d a v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r a t e o f p a r a s i t i s m between young and o l d deer ( O l s e n and Fenstermacher 1943). A s t u d y o f t h e p a r a s i t e s o f w h i t e t a i l d eer i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a would p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s e t h e known l i s t o f p a r a s i t e s o f t h i s i m p o r t a n t game a n i m a l , p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s , i n c r e a s e our knowledge o f some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t economic p a r a s i t e s , n o t a b l y t h e 7 s p i n o s e e a r t i c k and p a r a l y s i s t i c k , and might shed some l i g h t on some o f the e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g p a r a s i t i s m o f d e e r . The stu d y would p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o compare t h e p a r a s i t i s m o f two s p e c i e s o f deer o c c u p y i n g the same a r e a . 8 METHODS 1. COLLECTION OF MATERIAL C o l l e c t i n g began i n J u l y , 1964. D u r i n g t h i s f i r s t summer deer were o b t a i n e d from t h r e e s o u r c e s : (a) deer s h o t i n t h e f i e l d by m y s e l f (b) deer k i l l e d by m o t o r i s t s on t h e highway (c) deer b r o u g h t i n t o government r o a d c h e c k s by h u n t e r s . Complete a u t o p s i e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d o n l y from deer s h o t i n t h e f i e l d . Road-checked deer had t o be examined a t t h e s i t e o f the check and e x a m i n a t i o n s were l i m i t e d t o th e l i v e r , l e g s , e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e , and head. The m a j o r i t y o f h u n t e r s were a n x i o u s t o r e t u r n home, hence e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r deer was e x t r e m e l y s u p e r f i c i a l . Deer k i l l e d on t h e highway v/ere h i t by m o t o r i s t s a t n i g h t , hence a deer c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d f o r autopsy p u r p o s e s u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g day, a f t e r t h e p o l i c e o r government crews had r e p o r t e d i t . The c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s e deer made i t d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n a c o m p l e t e a u t o p s y . A f t e r September .1964 no f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s were made t o autopsy h i g h w a y - k i l l e d a n i m a l s o r deer b r o u g h t i n t o government r o a d c h e c k s . 9 D u r i n g t h e f a l l o f 1964 t h e F i s h and W i l d l i f e B ranch examined deer b r o u g h t i n t o t h e r o a d c h e c k s f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f s p i n o s e e a r t i c k s . C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s were asked t o r e c o r d t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f t i c k s , and t h e numbers o f t i c k s p r e s e n t i n each e a r . The deer were c o l l e c t e d b o t h n o r t h and s o u t h o f K i m b e r l e y o v e r a g e n e r a l a r e a o f about 1200 s q . m i l e s . I t was n o t always p o s s i b l e t o choose i d e a l a r e a s from w h i c h t o o b t a i n d e e r . D u r i n g t h e l a t e s p r i n g and summer deer c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d o n l y from r a n g e s where t h e y were p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant hence r a n g e s w i t h h i g h d e n s i t i e s , o f l i v e s t o c k h ad t o be o v e r l o o k e d because o f t h e amount o f t i m e i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i n g one d e e r . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r many o f the h e a v i l y o verbrowsed r a n g e s were n o t a c c e s s i b l e b y c a r . A n average o f one hour was r e q u i r e d t o t r a n s p o r t a deer from t h e f i e l d t o t h e l a b . A l l deer were s h o t i n t h e neck.and g e n e r a l l y t h e f i r s t one e n c o u n t e r e d was t a k e n . D u r i n g J u n e , J u l y , and August, when t h e does were n u r s i n g fawns, b u c k s were s e l e c t e d . A l l deer were shot i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o r o a d s s i n c e t h e e n t i r e c a r c a s s had t o be t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e au t o p s y s i t e . 10 The numbers o f deer examined by month were as f o l l o w s : Month No. o f deer (mule deer i n b r a c k e t s ) March 10 (1) A p r i l 11 (3) May 12 (1) June 7 J u l y 7 August 9 September 11 (1)' November 3 (1) December 6 P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h a t p e r i o d from March t h r o u g h t o Jun e . The number o f or g a n systems a u t o p s i e d i s g i v e n i n appendix 1. 2 . AUTOPSY PROCEDURES A f t e r 10 a u t o p s i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e was found t o be most s a t i s f a c t o r y and was adhered t o as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e . An average o f e i g h t h o u r s was spent i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f each d e e r . Once t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f p a r a s i t i s m became e s t a b l i s h e d i t was p o s s i b l e t o spend more t i m e e x a m i n i n g o r g a n systems t h a t were l e s s f r e q u e n t l y p a r a s i t i z e d . I n o r d e r t o autopsy enough deer and because o f t h e r a p i d decay o f 11 the i n t e s t i n a l contents e i g h t t o ten hours seemed t o be about the maximum one could spend examining one animal hence some organ systems had t o be overlooked. No a t t e n t i o n was given t o the s p i n a l cord , rumen, r e t i c u l u m , or blood v e s s e l s other than the major a r t e r i e s l e a d i n g out from the h e a r t . To avoid excessive amounts of blood i n the l a b a l l deer were b l e d i n the f i e l d by severing the c a r o t i d a r t e r i e s . Deer were then t r a n s p o r t e d t o the l a b , where they were f i r s t weighed on a s p r i n g s c a l e . C o r r e c t i o n s were made f o r the l o s s of b l o o d . The abdominal and t h o r a c i c c a v i t i e s were then cut open along the m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e , the r i b cage on one s i d e was broken back to expose the e n t i r e t h o r a c i c c a v i t y . The surface of the v i s c e r a and w a l l s of the abdominal and t h o r a c i c c a v i t i e s were examined. Tapeworm c y s t s observed at t h i s p o i n t were c o l l e c t e d . The v i s c e r a were separated from t h e i r attachment along the s p i n a l column. The t r a c h e a , oesophagus and rectum were then t i g h t l y t i e d w i t h cord, the vagina and uterus removed and the remaining v i s c e r a t r a n s f e r r e d to a l a r g e washpail about 1/3 f u l l of s l i g h t l y s a l i n e water. 12 Embryos v/ere l a t e r removed from t h e u t e r u s and t h e i r sex, crown-rump l e n g t h , and h i n d f o o t l e n g t h r e c o r d e d . The w a l l s o f the abdominal and t h o r a c i c c a v i t i e s were examined once more. The l o w e r l e g s and head were t h e n removed from t h e c a r c a s s and s e t a s i d e f o r l a t e r e x a m i n a t i o n . The c a r c a s s was s k i n n e d and t h e h i d e f o l d e d and s e t a s i d e f o r l a t e r e x a m i n a t i o n , s i n c e i t was f o u nd t h a t t h e e c t o p a r a s i t e s remained on t h e h i d e f o r s e v e r a l d a y s . As t h e g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l t r a c t r e q u i r e d t h e most ti m e and t h e e n d o p a r a s i t e s i n i t decay more q u i c k l y , t h i s o r g a n system v/as examined f i r s t . The omentum was removed and a t t a c h e d tapeworm c y s t s were c o l l e c t e d . The e n t i r e l e n g t h o f t h e l a r g e and s m a l l i n t e s t i n e was c u t f r e e f rom t h e a t t a c h i n g m e s e n t e r y . The aboraasum was d e t a c h e d and c u t a l o n g i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h . I t s c o n t e n t s v/ere t h e n s c r e e n e d w i t h w a t e r u s i n g a ten-mesh s c r e e n . The i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e o f t h e abomasum was s c r a p e d w i t h a d u l l s c a l p e l i n t o a l a r g e d i s s e c t i n g t r a y * R e s i d u e from t h e s c r e e n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h i s t r a y . Water was added and a l l o w e d t o s e t t l e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e abomasal c o n t e n t s were f l o a t e d o f f by d e c a n t i n g . 13 The remaining m a t e r i a l was t r a n s f e r r e d to p e t r i d i s h e s and the c o n t e n t s were examined under a d i s s e c t i n g microscope, Larger nematodes and c e s t o d e s c o u l d e a s i l y be removed from the d i s s e c t i n g t r a y w i t h o u t the use o f a microscope. Three two-foot s e c t i o n s from the top, middle and bottom o f the s m a l l i n t e s t i n e were c l o s e l y examined f o r e n d o p a r a s i t e s . T h i s procedure was adopted a f t e r a good d e a l o f t r i a l and e r r o r . Each s e c t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d to a d i s s e c t i n g t r a y p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d w i t h water. The sample of i n t e s t i n e was c u t along i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h . The i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e o f each s e c t i o n was scraped w i t h a d u l l s c a l p e l . Water was added t o f i l l the t r a y . The c o n t e n t s were allowed t o s e t t l e . The l i g h t e r i n t e s t i n a l m a t e r i a l was f l o a t e d o f f by d e c a n t i n g . The remaining 30 f e e t o f s m a l l i n t e s t i n e was c u t i n t o t h r e e - f o o t l e n g t h s . These s e c t i o n s were screened over a ten-mesh screen b y i n s e r t i n g a hose n o z z l e i n one end o f the s e c t i o n . When p a r a s i t e s were numerous t h i s procedure seemed q u i t e adequate f o r o b t a i n i n g l a r g e r nematodes and c e s t o d e s . In most cases the number o f nematodes c o u l d 14 be c o u n t e d , b u t when numerous t h e i r number had t o be e s t i m a t e d . The caecum was examined i n the same manner as t h a t o u t l i n e d f o r t h e abomasum. S i n c e i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o examine the whole caecum because o f t h e e x c e s s i v e amount o f c a e c a l c o n t e n t s a p o r t i o n f i v e i n c h e s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e s m a l l i n t e s t i n e and caecum was t i e d o f f and removed. The l a r g e i n t e s t i n e was c u t a l o n g i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h . The c o n t e n t s and i n n e r l i n i n g were examined g r o s s l y . A sample o f t h e rumen c o n t e n t s was c o l l e c t e d and s c r e e n e d on a ten-mesh s c r e e n , t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o 5% f o r m a l i n f o r l a t e r e x a m i n a t i o n . The l i v e r was removed and i t s e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e examined. S o f t d a r k p a t c h e s were c u t open and any l i v e r f l u k e s i n t h e s e p o c k e t s were squeezed o u t . The number o f f l u k e s i n each p o c k e t was r e c o r d e d . D u r i n g e a r l y e x a m i n a t i o n s o f the l i v e r t h e d u c t s were c u t open w i t h a p a i r o f s c i s s o r s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s t h e l i v e r v/as s i m p l y s l i c e d w i t h a s h a r p k n i f e . 15 The s p l e e n was removed and examined s u p e r f i c i a l l y . I n c a s e s where the s p l e e n seemed t o be u n d u l y l a r g e t h i s f a c t was r e c o r d e d . The l u n g s v/ere examined i n a d i s s e c t i n g t r a y . The p e r i p h e r y v/as p a l p a t e d , and any h a r d lumpswere removed and examined s e p a r a t e l y . Bladderworms w i t h i n t h e l u n g t i s s u e c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d by p a l p a t i n g and c o u l d be removed w i t h a p a i r o f s c i s s o r s . A l l a d u l t nematodes e n c o u n t e r e d were c o l l e c t e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one c u b i c i n c h o f l u n g t i s s u e from t h e p e r i p h e r y o r from s l i g h t l y d i s c o l o u r e d a r e a s was made f o r l a r v a l nematodes. The samples o f l u n g t i s s u e were t e a s e d a p a r t , t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o a l a r g e j a r . Water and a s m a l l amount o f b i c a r b o n a t e o f soda was added. The j a r was shaken v i o l e n t l y and c o n t e n t s a l l o w e d t o s e t t l e . The m a t e r i a l r e m a i n i n g a f t e r d e c a n t i n g was examined under t h e d i s s e c t i n g m i c r o s c o p e . The number o f l a r v a e was c o u n t e d o r i n h e a v i l y i n f e s t e d samples t h e number was e s t i m a t e d . The chambers o f t h e h e a r t and t h e l a r g e a r t e r i e s a t t a c h e d were c u t open and examined 0 The d o r s a l a o r t a was examined o v e r i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h and a p p r o x i m a t e l y one f o o t o f t h e c a r o t i d a r t e r i e s was opened. 16 The e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e o f t h e head was t h e n c l o s e l y examined f o r e c t o p a r a s i t e s . The e a r s were removed a t t h e i r b ase and t h e e a r c a n a l s and i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e o f th e e a r v/ere c l o s e l y examined. The n a s a l pharynx was opened v i a t h e h a r d p a l a t e and b o t f l y l a r v a e c o u n t e d . The r o o f o f t h e s k u l l was removed w i t h a meat saw and t h e b r a i n was e x t r a c t e d . The meninges o f t h e b r a i n and upper two i n c h e s o f the s p i n a l c o r d were examined f o r a d u l t and l a r v a l nematodes. The l o w e r l e g s were s k i n n e d t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e h o o f . The i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e o f the h i d e and tendon s h e a t h s o f t h e l e g were examined f o r nematodes. The h i d e was t h e l a s t o r g a n system examined. The g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e p e l a g e was n o t e d . Tumors, s c a r s , and b r u i s e s were r e c o r d e d . A t o t a l c o u n t was made o f a l l a d u l t t i c k s . Numbers o f l a r v a l t i c k s were s i m p l y c a t e g o r i z e d as v e r y l i g h t , l i g h t , moderate o r heavy. When s c a r c e , l i c e and l o u s e f l i e s c o u l d be c o u n t e d , o t h e r w i s e t h e y were c a t e g o r i z e d as f o r l a r v a l t i c k s . The g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n o f each deer was r e c o r d e d . Body w e i g h t , amount o f body f a t , and amount o f v i s c e r a l 1 7 f a t were used as i n d i c e s o f g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n . I n t h e l a t e s p r i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e bone marrow o f t h e t i b i a was used as t h e b e s t i n d e x t o n u t r i t i v e c o n d i t i o n . 3. IDENTIFICATION OF PARASITES Mr. P. R. W i l k i n s o n o f t h e F e d e r a l Entomology L a b o r a t o r y a t Kamloops, B.C. a s s i s t e d i n t h e i d e n t -i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t i c k s . Dr. J . R. Adams i d e n t i f i e d t h e tapeworm c y s t s . A l l o t h e r p a r a s i t e s were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e a u t h o r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s and museum specimens o f u n g u l a t e p a r a s i t e s were u t i l i z e d . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e nematodes and a d u l t c e s t o d e s s h o u l d be v e r i f i e d b y a competent p a r a s i t o l o g i s t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f u n g u l a t e p a r a s i t e s . 4 . PRESERVATION OF PARASITES A l l e c t o p a r a s i t e s , bladderworms, f l u k e s and t i s s u e samples were p r e s e r v e d i n 7 0 % a l c o h o l . Tape-worms were r e l a x e d by c h i l l i n g i n t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r , t h e n f i x e d i n A.F.A. and l a t e r t r a n s f e r r e d t o 7 0 % a l c o h o l . Nematodes v/ere f i x e d i n A.F.A. i f s t i l l a l i v e and were t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i v e . 18 C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF THE STUDY A R E A The Rocky M o u n t a i n t r e n c h i s bounded on t h e e a s t by t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s , w h i c h r i s e v e r y a b r u p t l y from t h e v a l l e y f l o o r . To t h e west a s e r i e s o f low f o o t h i l l s g r a d u a l l y g i v e s way t o t h e P u r c e l l r a n g e , a p a r t o f t h e S e l k i r k M o u n t a i n s , From C o l u m b i a Lake s o u t h t h e t r e n c h i s d r a i n e d by t h e meandering Kootenay R i v e r . The v a l l e y f l o o r v a r i e s from about 5-16 m i l e s i n w i d t h and has an average e l e v a t i o n o f about 3000 f t . The a r e a i s i n f l u e n c e d by extremes o f c l i m a t e . Temperatures i n J u l y , A u g ust, and September may r e a c h 90-95 F. The w i n t e r s are c o l d , r a n g i n g from f r e e z i n g p o i n t t o z e r o w i t h t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o c c a s i o n a l l y d r o p p i n g as low as -25 t o -35F f o r s e v e r a l weeks a t a t i m e . A n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s l i g h t , 15 i n c h e s b e i n g about t h e average and about 4 0 % o f t h i s b e i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r b y snow. Snow l e v e l s i n t h e v a l l e y v a r y a g r e a t d e a l , r a n g i n g from a few i n c h e s t o 2 ox* 3 f e e t . W i n t e r thaws o f t e n produce heavy c r u s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . T h e w i n t e r s o f 1964-65 and 1965-66 b o t h s t a r t e d o u t w i t h heavy snow w h i c h d i d n o t p e r s i s t . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e w i n t e r s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d h a r s h . 19 The E a s t Kootenay d i s t r i c t i s composed o f f c u r b i o t i c a r e a s . The w h i t e t a i l deer o c c u p i e s p r i n c i p a l l y one o f t h e s e a r e a s : t h e Dry F o r e s t B i o t i c A r e a , (Munro and Cowan 1947) e x t e n d i n g from t h e v a l l e y f l o o r t o about 4500 f t . i n e l e v a t i o n . The numbers o f w h i t e -t a i l deer m i g r a t i n g above t h e 4500 f t . l e v e l i n t o t h e S u b - A l p i n e F o r e s t B i o t i c A r e a p r o b a b l y form a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . The e a s t boundary o f t h e Dry F o r e s t B i o t i c A r e a g i v e s way a b r u p t l y t o t h e S u b - A l p i n e F o r e s t B i o t i c A r e a on t h e r a p i d l y a s c e n d i n g f l a n k o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s . On t h e s l o w l y a s c e n d i n g f o o t - h i l l s o f t h e P u r c e l l range t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s l e s s marked. T h i r t y t o 40 y e a r s ago t h i s a r e a was c o m p l e t e l y denuded o f a l l m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r . L o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s were f o l l o w e d by i n t e n s e f i r e s w h i c h have r e s u l t e d i n a v e r y s l o w s u c c e s s i o n . I n t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s many o f t h e s e b u r n e d o v e r a r e a s on t h e b e n c h l a n d s above t h e Kootenay R i v e r are g i v i n g way t o t h i c k s t a n d s o f d o u g l a s f i r , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , y e l l o w p i n e , and w e s t e r n l a r c h . The Kootenay R i v e r b o t t o m i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y w i l l o w , r e d o s i e r , b l a c k cottonwood, t r e m b l i n g aspen 20 and s p r u c e . The p r i n c i p a l browse s p e c i e s i n t h e Dry F o r e s t B i o t i c A r e a i n c l u d e : A m e l a n c h i e r sp., A r c t o s t a n p h y l o s u v a - u r s i , S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s , S y m p h o r i c a r p o s a l b u s . P u r s h i a t r i d e n t a t a , S a l i x sp„, a n < ^ Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a . P r i n c i p a l g r a s e s i n c l u d e Bromus t e c t o r u m , Poa p r a t e n s i s , Poa compressa,, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a and F e s t u c a s c a b r e l l a . The p r i n c i p a l l a n d u s e s i n t h e Dry F o r e s t B i o t i c A r e a i n c l u d e c a t t l e r a n c h i n g , l o g g i n g and the C h r i s t -mas t r e e i n d u s t r y . L a r g e a r e a s o f l a n d are now b e i n g u t i l i z e d f o r t h e l a t t e r . 21 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WHITETAIL DEER  IN SOUTHEASTERN B.C. The w h i t e t a i l deer i n h a b i t i n g s o u t h e a s t e r B.C. b e l o n g t o t h e s u b s p e c i e s O d o c o i l e u s v i r g i n i a n u s o c h r o u r u s 0 The r e c e n t abundant p o p u l a t i o n o f deer was the r e s u l t o f c l e a r i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s and t h e w i d e s p r e a d f o r e s t f i r e s o f t h e 1930's. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f deer i n t h e E a s t Kootenay i s e s t i m a t e d a t about 50,000 t o 80,000 a n i m a l s (Pearse and Bowden, 1966) o f w h i c h r o u g h l y h a l f are w h i t e -t a i l d e e r . Deer were p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant i n t h e summer and f a l l o f 1964. As a r e s u l t o f m o r t a l i t y d u r i n g t h e 1964-5 w i n t e r , deer were n o t as abundant i n t h e f o l l o w i n g summer. The a n n u a l w h i t e t a i l deer h a r v e s t b y h u n t e r s i n t h e a r e a i s about 7000 a n i m a l s . R e l a t i v e l y few deer are s h o t u n t i l t h e y are f o r c e d o n t o t h e w i n t e r r a n g e s by t h e f i r s t heavy s n o w f a l l s . Severe weather d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g i s p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t agent c o n t r o l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e s . P r e d a t o r s i n c l u d e t h e cougar and c o y o t e . The c o y o t e p o p u l a t i o n was h i g h d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y . 22 Wolves are s c a r c e i n t h e a r e a and hence a r e an i n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n p r e d a t i o n o f d e e r . W h i t e t a i l deer share t h e same w i n t e r range w i t h mule d e e r , e l k , b i g h o r n sheep and moose; o f t h e s e c o m p e t i t i o n i s g r e a t e s t w i t h e l k . W h i t e t a i l deer and mule deer compete t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t on t h e h i g h e r b e n c h l a n d s . Between A p r i l and October v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e w h i t e t a i l w i n t e r r a n g e s are o c c u p i e d by h o r s e s and c a t t l e . A good p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e summer range where t i m b e r i s open enough t o p e r m i t g r a z i n g i s a l s o h e a v i l y g r a z e d by d o m e s t i c s t o c k . U n l i k e w h i t e t a i l deer i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a t h o s e i n h a b i t i n g t h e Kootenays show marked s e a s o n a l m i g r a t i o n s . By mid-May deer b e g i n t o move o f f t h e open b e n c h l a n d s o f t h e w i n t e r range and move o n t o h i g h e r summer range o r t e n d t o move i n t o t h e t h i c k Kootenay R i v e r bottom. A few de e r move back o n t o t h e w i n t e r r a n g e s v / i t h t h e f i r s t s n o w f a l l i n November, b u t t h e m a j o r i t y do n o t m i g r a t e o n t o open b e n c h l a n d s u n t i l mid-December. As soon as t h e f i r s t g r a s s e s appear i n t h e s p r i n g , f o r a p e r i o d o f about 23 3 weeks deer can be seen g r a z i n g i n l a r g e groups on open f l a t s . The r e p r o d u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l o f deer i n t h e a r e a i s q u i t e h i g h . Twenty-two embryos were c o u n t e d from 13 a d u l t d e e r . Nine o f t h e does b o r e t w i n s and 4 had s i n g l e embryos. Seven o f the 13 deer v/ere examined i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1966 and t h e s e c a r r i e d 4 embryos. 24 R E S U L T S 1. G E N E R A L A S P E C T OF P A R A S I T I S M T w e n t y - f i v e s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s v/ere found on t h e 69 v / h i t e t a i l d eer examined. N i n e o f t h e s e were e c t o p a r a s i t e s and 16 were e n d o p a r a s i t e s . The e c t o p a r a s i t e s i n c l u d e d : 3 s p e c i e s o f l i c e , 3 s p e c i e s o f t i c k s , 2 l o u s e f l i e s , and one b o t f l y . The e n d o p a r a s i t e s i n c l u d e d : 4 c e s t o d e s , one t r e m a t o d e , and 11 nematodes. Only 3 o f t h e 25 s p e c i e s found e x h i b i t e d any marked e f f e c t s on t h e h o s t . The 3 s p e c i e s a f f e c t i n g t h e h o s t i n c l u d e : t h e b o t f l y l a r v a e Cephenemyia j e l l i s o n i , t h e l i v e r f l u k e F a s c i o l o i d e s magna, and t h e l a r v a l nematodes found i n t h e l u n g s . Other s p e c i e s m i g h t have produced h a r m f u l e f f e c t s i f t h e y had o c c u r r e d i n g r e a t e r numbers. Two s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s were t h e l o w e s t number found on a s i n g l e w h i t e t a i l deer and 11 s p e c i e s were t h e h i g h e s t . The number o f v / h i t e t a i l d eer t h a t were h o s t t o 11 t o 2 s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s i s l i s t e d h e r e u n d e r : 25 Number o f s p e c i e s Number o f deer o f p a r a s i t e s 11 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 7 13 13 1 7 7 3 The average number o f s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s p e r deer f o r t h e TABLE 1 SPECIES AND FREQUENCY OF PARASITES IN WHITETAIL DEER S p e c i e s Number o f p o s s i b l e o c c u r r e n c e s Times o c c u r r e d Deer I n f e s t e d % D a m a l i n i a l i p e u r o i d e s & D„ p a r a l l e l a S o l e n o p o t e s f e r r i s i . p t o b i u s m e g n i n i Derrnacentor a l b i p i c t u s p e r m a c j i j i t o r a n d e r s o n i Cephenemvia j e l l i s o n i L i p o p t e r a d e p r e s s a & N e o l i p o p t e n a f e r r i s i  F a s c i o l o i d e s magna  T a e n i a h y d a t i g e n a & T» o m i s s a ( l a r v a e ) Thysanosoma a c t i n o i d e s  M o n i e z i a s p . D i c t y o c a u l u s v i v i p a r u s  P r o b o s t r o n g y l u s 1 a r y a e  W e h r d i c k m a n s i a cervj.pedes  S]cr-j abinema p a r v a  O s t e r t a g i a o s t e r t a g i T r i c h o s t r o n g y l u s a x e i Mar s h a l l a g i a marsh a l i i . Haemonchus c o n t o r t u s N e m a t o d i r u s _ h e l v e t i a n u s  T r i c h u r i s s p . C o o p e r i a sp. 60 60 67 34 28 46 65 68 53 53 65 38 69 50 53 53 53 53 52 48 48 44 12 5 23 4 30 60 9 35 3 1 24 28 29 8 6 5 1 1 1 1 1 73 20 7.4 68 14 65 95 13.8 51.4 5.8 1.9 40 74 42 15.4 11 9.5 1.9 1.9 2 2.1 2.1 to 0> 27 55 complete a u t o p s i e s was 5.9. The 20 v / h i t e t a i l deer a u t o p s i e d i n March, A p r i l and May 1966 had an average o f 7.3 s p e c i e s p e r d e e r . A p r i l and May v/ere found t o be t h e months o f h e a v i e s t p a r a s i t i s m and J u l y and August t h e months o f l i g h t e s t p a r a s i t i s m , The s p e c i e s and f r e q u e n c y o f p a r a s i t e s f o u n d i s summarized i n T a b l e 1. 2. ECTOPARASITES B i t i n g l i c e - D a m a l i n i a p a r a l l e l a and D a m a l i n i a ' l i p e u r o i d e s S i x t y w h i t e t a i l deer h i d e s were examined f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f b i t i n g l i c e . F o r t y - f o u r o r 7 3 % were i n f e s t e d . I n f e s t a t i o n s v a r i e d f r om one o r two p e r a n i m a l t o s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d . The numbers o f l i c e were c l a s s i f i e d as: v e r y l i g h t ( l e s s t h a n 100 l i c e ) , l i g h t (200 t o 300), moderate (1 t o 5 p e r s q . i n . o f h i d e ) , heavy (5 t o 15 p e r s q . i n . o f h i d e ) , and v e r y heavy (15 t o 30 s q . i n . o f h i d e ) . The degree o f i n f e s t a t i o n o f t h e 44 deer was as f o l l o w s : 28 Degree o f i n f e s t a t i o n No. o f deer V e r y l i g h t L i g h t 13 13 9 6 3 Moderate Heavy V e r y Heavy Two s p e c i e s o f b i t i n g l i c e were f o u n d : D a m a l i n i a p a r a l l e l a and D. l i p e u r o i d e s . L i c e v/ere i d e n t i f i e d from 9 v / h i t e t a i l d e e r . Two o f t h e s e had mixed i n f e s t a t i o n s , two had D. l i p e u r o i d e s o n l y and f i v e had D. p a r a l l e l a o n l y . One hundred n i n e t e e n l i c e were examined from w h i t e t a i l d e e r . S e v e n t y -f o u r o f t h e s e were D. p a r a l l e l a and 4 5 D. l i p e u r o i d e s . L i c e showed a d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e abdominal a r e a . Where immature l i c e o c c u r r e d i n l a r g e numbers t h e y were u s u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d a l o n g t h e w h i t e h a i r o f t h e abdomen. However, deer h a v i n g moderate t o v e r y heavy i n f e s t a t i o n s o f l i c e showed a d i f f e r e n c e i n a r e a o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n . On some deer a v e r y heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n would be found i n t h e abdominal a r e a o n l y o r on t h e abdomen and neck o n l y . Other deer shov/ed a v e r y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i c e o v e r a l l p a r t s o f t h e body. One deer had a v e r y 29 heavy, even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i c e o v e r t h e p o s t e r i o r h a l f o f t h e a n i m a l and v i r t u a l l y none on t h e a n t e r i o r h a l f . Even t h e h e a v i e s t i n f e s t a t i o n s o f l i c e had no appa r e n t e f f e c t on t h e host„ D u r i n g t h e s p r i n g many o f th e l i c e v/ere f i l l e d w i t h b l o o d . L i c e i n h a b i t i n g t h e head r e g i o n around the e a r s showed a g r e a t e r tendency t o f e e d on b l o o d . P h y s i c a l i r r i t a t i o n t o t h e deer v/as n o t a p p a r e n t , and t h e r e was no s i g n o f r u b b i n g on any o f t h e h i d e s . No r e l a t i o n was app a r e n t between t h e e x t e n t o f i n f e s t a t i o n and age o f t h e d e e r . L i c e showed a g r e a t s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n , b e i n g most abundant i n t h e l a t e w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g . As t h e deer began t o improve i n c o n d i t i o n i n May and June and shed t h e w i n t e r c o a t , l o u s e p o p u l a t i o n s d e c l i n e d t o v e r y l o w l e v e l s . S e a s o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b i t i n g l i c e i n f e s t a t i o n s 30 Month N i l V e r y L i g h t Moderate Heavy V e r y L i g h t Heavy March 1 3 2 1 -A p r i l 1 2 3 3 1 May - 3 3 4 1 June 2 2 1 1 1 J u l y 2 3 1 1 -August 7 2 - . - . -September 2 - - - - -December 2 1 2 - 1 S u c k i n g Louse - S o l e n o p o t e s f e r r i s i Twelve o f 60 w h i t e t a i l deer examined were h o s t t o t h e s u c k i n g l o u s e S o l e n o p o t e s f e r r i s i . The 20% i n f e s t -a t i o n r a t e i s p r o b a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h e a c t u a l f i g u r e s i n c e t h e s u c k i n g l o u s e i s one o f t h e e a s i e s t p a r a s i t e s t o o v e r l o o k . A l l o f t h e i n f e s t a t i o n s were found between March 7 and May 30, 1966, A c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e 20% i n f e s t a t i o n r a t e f o u n d i n t h e s t u d y i s h i g h . The numbers o f s u c k i n g l i c e e n c o u n t e r e d on i n f e s t e d a n i m a l s v a r i e d from one t o 100, S u c k i n g l i c e v a r i e d more i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f s i t e on t h e deer t h a n b i t i n g l i c e . They d i d n o t show a marked p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e abdominal a r e a . The m a j o r i t y o f s u c k i n g l i c e seemed t o p r e f e r t h e h e ad, neck, and e a r s and a v o i d e d t h e b a c k and s i d e s . 31 T h e s e l i c e s h o w e d t h e same s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n a s b i t i n g l i c e , t h e i r n u m b e r s b e i n g t h e h i g h e s t i n l a t e w i n t e r a n d e a r l y s p r i n g . N o n e w e r e f o u n d o n d e e r a u t o p s i e d b e t w e e n J u n e a n d F e b r u a r y . T h e h o s t e x h i b i t e d n o v i s i b l e e f f e c t a r i s i n g f r o m t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e l i c e . S p i n o s e E a r T i c k - O t o b i u s m e g n i n i S i x t y - s e v e n w h i t e t a i l d e e r w e r e e x a m i n e d f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f e a r t i c k s . F i v e d e e r o r 7.4% w e r e f o u n d i n f e s t e d o A t f i r s t t h e s p i n o s e e a r t i c k s e e m e d t o b e a v e r y r a r e p a r a s i t e i n t h e a r e a s i n c e 34 d e e r w e r e a u t o p s i e d b e f o r e o n e t i c k h a d b e e n f o u n d . H o w e v e r , i n D e c e m b e r 1965 t h r e e d e e r i n a r o w w e r e e x a m i n e d f r o m t h e P r e m i e r L a k e a r e a w i t h 122, 17, a n d 2 e a r t i c k s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n F e b r u a r y 1966 s e v e r a l m o r e d e e r w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s a r e a a n d n o t o n e w a s f o u n d i n f e s t e d w i t h e a r t i c k s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s p i n o s e e a r t i c k i s n o t e a s i l y d e t e c t e d i n t h e e a r u n t i l a f t e r . t h e f a l l h u n t i n g s e a s o n , w h i c h w o u l d e x p l a i n t h e l o w i n c i d e n c e o f i n f e s t a t i o n s f r o m h u n t e r - c h e c k e d d e e r . I n 1955, 301 d e e r w e r e e x a m i n e d b y F i s h a n d Game B r a n c h p e r s o n n e l i n 32 t h e E a s t K o o t e n a y a n d o n l y f o u r w e r e f o u n d i n f e s t e d w i t h e a r t i c k s . A g a i n i n t h e f a l l o f 1964 a s p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y t h e F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e B r a n c h e x a m i n e d a b o u t 250 m o r e d e e r a n d f o u n d o n e a d u l t w h i t e t a i l d o e i n f e s t e d v / i t h 2 t i c k s . T h e e a r c a n a l s o f i n f e s t e d d e e r w e r e g e n e r a l l y c o m p l e t e l y b l o c k e d . F u r t h e r a u t o p s i e s w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o c o n f i r m t h e p e r i o d w h e n e a r t i c k s i n f e s t t h e d e e r a n d t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e n y m p h s f e e d . T h e W i n t e r T i c k - D e r m a c e n t o r a l b i p i c t u s T w e n t y - t h r e e o r 68% o f t h e 34 w h i t e t a i l d e e r e x a m i n e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d w h e n t h e w i n t e r t i c k i s a c t i v e w e r e f o u n d i n f e s t e d w i t h l a r v a e , n y m p h s o r a d u l t s . T h e f i r s t l a r v a e w e r e f o u n d o n D e c e m b e r 9, 1965 a n d M a y 10 w a s t h e l a t e s t d a t e w h e n a d u l t s w e r e s t i l l p r e s e n t . T h e n u m b e r s o f a d u l t t i c k s r a n g e d f r o m o n e t o 60. T h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f a d u l t t i c k s f o r i n f e s t e d d e e r w a s 6. O f 90 a d u l t D. a l b i p i c t u s c o u n t e d o n 15 d e e r , 21 w e r e c o l l e c t e d a n d c l a s s i f i e d . E i g h t o f t h e s e w e r e m a l e s a n d 13 w e r e f e m a l e s . O f t h e 13 f e m a l e s e x a m i n e d o n l y 3 e x h i b i t e d a n y d e g r e e o f 33 engorgement. Of t h e 60 a d u l t t i c k s found on one d e e r , about 1/3 showed some degree o f engorgement. Twelve o f t h e 19 a d u l t deer examined and 11 o f t h e 15 y e a r l i n g s were i n f e c t e d w i t h w i n t e r t i c k s , so t h a t h o s t age was not r e l a t e d t o degree o f i n f e s t a t i o n . L a r v a l w i n t e r t i c k s showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e d o r s a l s u r f a c e from neck t o rump, w h i l e a d u l t t i c k s p r e f e r r e d t h e e x t e r n a l p o r t i o n o f t h e e a r s , the. head and p e r i p h e r y o f t h e anus. Deer e x h i b i t e d a s m a l l r e d so r e a t t h e s i t e o f each f e e d i n g t i c k , o t h e r w i s e no v i s i b l e e f f e c t s on t h e deer were n o t e d . The P a r a l y s i s T i c k - Dermacentor j m d e r s o n i T w e n t y - e i g h t w h i t e t a i l deer were examined i n t h e s p r i n g when t h e p a r a l y s i s t i c k i s n o r m a l l y p r e s e n t . Four deer o r 14% o f t h o s e examined were f o u n d i n f e s t e d w i t h D. a n d e r s o n i . S i x a d u l t t i c k s were f o u n d . Three o f t h e s e were f e m a l e s , o n l y one o f w h i c h was engorged. T h i s t i c k was a t t a c h e d a t t h e base o f t h e ear and was f u l l y engorged. E i g h t deer were examined i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1965 and 20 i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1966. A l l 6 t i c k s v/ere found between A p r i l 5 and 21, 1966. The 4 w h i t e t a i l 34 deer found i n f e s t e d came from as many w i d e l y s e p a r a t e r a n g e s . The one engorged female p r o d u c e d a s m a l l r e d a r e a around t h e s i t e o f a t t a c h m e n t , o t h e r w i s e no e f f e c t s v/ere n o t e d . The B o t F l y - Cephenemyia j e l l i s o n i F o r t y - s i x w h i t e t a i l d eer were examined f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o t f l y l a r v a e between October and J u l y when t h i s p a r a s i t e i s a c t i v e . T h i r t y o f t h e s e deer o r 6 5 % v/ere i n f e s t e d w i t h Cephenemyia j e l l i s o n i l a r v a e The h i g h e s t number found i n a s i n g l e deer was 45. Three hundred and seven b o t f l y l a r v a e , o r an average of 10.2/deer were c o u n t e d i n the 30 i n f e s t e d d e e r . Bot f l y i n f e s t a t i o n s p r o b a b l y v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y from y e a r t o y e a r . Y e a r Number o f Average number deer examined b o t s / d e e r 1965 13 12.9 1966 14 9 The f i r s t b o t f l y l a r v a e were o b s e r v e d December 9 1965. No l a r v a e c o u l d be found i n r o a d - c h e c k e d deer a u t o p s i e d i n September. By t h e end o f June t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e deer seem t o be f r e e o f b o t s . The l a t e s t o c c u r r e n c e was J u l y 7, 1965 when a y e a r l i n g w h i t e t a i l s t i l l had 14 i n t h e naso-pharynx. No d i f f e r e n c e s were d e t e c t a b l e between r a t e s o f i n f e s t a t i o n i n y e a r l i n g and a d u l t d e e r . S i x t e e n y e a r l i n g s had 160 b o t f l y l a r v a e and 14 a d u l t deer had 147. B o t s d i d n o t appear t o be h i g h l y damaging t o t h e membranes o f t h e naso-pharynx. Only a v e r y s l i g h t r e d mark was n o t i c e a b l e a t the s i t e o f a t t a c h m e n t . ' However, t h e p r e s e n c e o f even 2 o r 3 b o t s i n t h e r e t r o p h a r y n g e a l pouches r e s u l t e d i n t h e s e p o c k e t s b e i n g many t i m e s t h e i r normal s i z e . When deer were i n f e s t e d w i t h 20 t o 50 b o t s t h e n a s a l c a n a l s were o f t e n p l u g g e d s o l i d . I n heavy i n f e s t a t i o n s b o t s o c c u p i e d t h e upper p o r t i o n o f t h e t r a c h e a around t h e g l o t t i s . These deer must have had d i f f i c u l t y i n b r e a t h i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i f chased by p r e d a t o r s . 36 The Louse F l i e s - L i p o p t e n a d e p r e s s a and N e o l i p o p t e n a f e r r i s i The l o u s e f l y was t h e commonest p a r a s i t e e n c o u n t e r e d , 9 5 % o r 60 o f t h e 63 deer examined b e i n g i n f e s t e d . Louse f l i e s were c o l l e c t e d and c l a s s i f i e d f rom 13 w h i t e t a i l d e e r . Two s p e c i e s were i d e n t i f i e d , L i p o p t e n a d e p r e s s a and N e o l i p o p t e n a f e r r i s i . L. d e p r e s s a was by f a r t h e commonest s p e c i e s e n c o u n t e r e d . Of 342 l o u s e f l i e s examined o n l y 22 v/ere N. f e r r i s i . The 22 R' f e r r i s i were c o l l e c t e d from 3 deer i n August 1964, a l l o f wh i c h were a l s o i n f e s t e d w i t h L. d e p r e s s a . Louse f l y i n f e s t a t i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d a s : v e r y l i g h t (1 - 5 0 ) , l i g h t (50 - 2 0 0 ) , moderate (200 - 5 0 0 ) , o r heavy (more t h a n 5 0 0 ). The v e r y l i g h t i n f e s t a t i o n s c o u l d be c o u n t e d , o t h e r s had t o be e s t i m a t e d . The degree o f i n f e s t a t i o n o f the 60 deer was as f o l l o w s : V e r y l i g h t L i g h t Moderate Heavy P r e s e n t (road-checked 37 14 6 N i l d e er) 3 37 No d i f f e r e n c e i n r a t e s o f i n f e s t a t i o n w i t h age were n o t e d and l o u s e f l i e s had no a p p a r e n t e f f e c t on t h e i r h o s t . Louse f l y i n f e s t a t i o n s were h e a v i e s t i n l a t e summer and e a r l y f a l l when t h e a d u l t f l i e s nad j u s t emerged and s l o w l y became l i g h t e r u n t i l May and June when t h e y were d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d . S e a s o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Louse F l y I n f e s t a t i o n s V e r y Month N i l l i g h t L i g h t Moderate . Heavy March 1 4 2 -A p r i l - 9 1 - -May - y 2 -June 1 6 - - -J u l y 1 2 3 1 • -August 1 3 1 2 -September - 2 4 - -December 1 . 1 1 3 3. ENDOPARASITES L i v e r F l u k e - F a s c i o l o i d e s magna S i x t y - f i v e v / h i t e t a i l l i v e r s were examined. Nine l i v e r s o r 13.8% c o n t a i n e d t h e g i a n t l i v e r f l u e F a s c i o l o i d e s magna. A t o t a l o f 7y f l u k e s , an average o f 8.7 p e r i n f e c t e d deer was c o l l e c t e d . The h i g h e s t number o f f l u k e s t a k e n from a s i n g l e deer was 20, on two o c c a s i o n s . 38 No s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s were n o t e d i n the r a t e s o f i n f e c t i o n . S e a s o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f L i v e r Flvtke I n f e c t i o n s Month No. de e r examined No. deer i n f e c t e d March 7 1 A p r i l 10 2 May 11 2 June 7 N i l J u l y 7 N i l August y • N i l September 10 1 November 2 1 December 6 2 S i x o f t h e 36 a d u l t s examined and 3 o f t h e 28 y e a r l i n g s were i n f e c t e d hence age o f t h e h o s t and t h e r a t e o f i n f e c t i o n d i d n o t appear t o be r e l a t e d . T i s s u e damage t o the l i v e r by f l u k e s was v e r y a p p a r e n t . C a p s u l e s c o n t a i n i n g f l u k e s were f i l l e d w i t h a t h i c k g r e y i s h b l a c k exudate and some c o n t a i n e d a h a r d g r a n u l a r m a t e r i a l . Lymph nodes s u r r o u n d i n g t h e l i v e r were b l a c k i n c o l o u r and lymph nodes t h r o u g h o u t t h e body were o f t e n d i s c o l o u r e d . A t l e a s t 1/3 o f t h e l i v e r o f 2 deer i n f e c t e d v / i t h 20 f l u k e s was c o m p l e t e l y t a k e n up v/ i t h c y s t w a l l s . The m a j o r i t y o f l i v e r f l u k e c a p s u l e s c o n t a i n e d 2 f l u k e s , some c o n t a i n e d as many as 39 An a c t u a l e f f e c t o f l i v e r f l u k e s on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e deer v/as n o t a p p a r e n t . Lungworm - D i c t y o c a u l u s v i v i p a r u s Only one s p e c i e s o f a d u l t nematode was found i n t h e l u n g s , t h i s v/as t h e t h r e a d lungworm D i c t y o c a u l u s  v i v i p a r u s . The l u n g s o f 65 w h i t e t a i l deer were examined and 24 o r 4 0 % were i n f e c t e d . No heavy i n f e c t i o n s were e n c o u n t e r e d , t h e h i g h e s t number o f worms i n one deer b e i n g 27. The average number o f worms p e r i n f e c t e d deer was 4.7. A s m a l l amount o f y e l l o w mucus u s u a l l y s u r r o u n d e d t h e a r e a o f t h e b r o n c h i o l e v/here t h e nematodes were s i t u a t e d . T h i r t e e n o f t h e 29 y e a r l i n g s examined and 1 1 o f th e 36 a d u l t s examined were i n f e c t e d . N i n e t y - t w o nematodes were c o l l e c t e d from t h e y e a r l i n g s and o n l y 2 1 from t h e a d u l t s ; t h u s y e a r l i n g s seem t o be more s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h i s p a r a s i t e . No s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s were n o t e d i n t h e r a t e s o f i n f e c t i o n . F i f t e e n o f t h e 24 i n f e c t e d deer were c o l l e c t e d from 3 s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t i e s . The r e m a i n i n g 9 were 40 w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d . None o f t h e 10 deer c o l l e c t e d between December l f 1965 and May 30, 1966 from t h e Q u a r t z R i d g e a r e a , w h i c h s u p p o r t s one o f t h e h e a v i e s t w i n t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f deer were i n f e c t e d w i t h t h i s nematode. The t h r e a d lungworm had no a p p a r e n t e f f e c t on t h e w h i t e t a i l d eer examined. Lungworms - l a r v a l nematodes The l u n g s o f 38 w h i t e t a i l deer were examined f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r v a l nematodes. T w e n t y - e i g h t o r 74% were found i n f e c t e d . These l a r v a e a re p r o b a b l y p r o t o s t r o n g y l e s . No a d u l t p r o t o s t r o n g y l e s were found i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s . The numbers o f l a r v a e i n a c u b i c i n c h sample o f l u n g t i s s u e were c o u n t e d , o r e s t i m a t e d when numbers were e x c e s s i v e . I n f e c t i o n s o f l a r v a e v a r i e d from 1 0 / c u . i n . o f l u n g t i s s u e t o 2 0 0 0 / c u . i n . I n f e c t i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d as f o l l o w s : L i g h t - up t o 2 0 0 / c u . i n . Moderate - 200 t o 1 0 0 0 / c u . i n . Heavy - more t h a n 1 0 0 0 / c u . i n . 41 The degree o f i n f e c t i o n o f t h e 28 deer i s l i s t e d b e l o w : Degree o f i n f e c t i o n No. o f deer L i g h t Moderate Heavy 18 9 1 Twelve a d u l t s and 16 y e a r l i n g s were found i n f e c t e d w i t h nematode l a r v a e . Lungs c o n t a i n i n g l a r v a l nematodes o f t e n showed y e l l o w , brown, d i s c o l o u r e d a r e a s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e d i s c o l o u r e d p a t c h e s d i d n o t i n e v e r y c a s e i n d -i c a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f l a r v a e . One s e t o f l u n g s h a v i n g a heavy i n f e c t i o n o f l a r v a e had a v e r y g r a n u l a r s u r f a c e . Bladderworms - T a e n i a h y d a t i g e n a and T a e n i a o m i s s a S i x t y - e i g h t w h i t e t a i l d eer were examined f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f tapeworm c y s t s . T h i r t y - f i v e o r 51.4% c o n t a i n e d c y s t s . The average number o f c y s t s p e r deer was 1.6. The maximum number found i n one deer was 18. Two s p e c i e s o f bladderworms were found i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f 47 c y s t s . T w e n t y - e i g h t were T. h y d a t i g e n a and 19 v/ere T. o m i s s a . The two s p e c i e s seemed t o show a p r e f e r e n c e i n t h e s i t e o f attachment i n t h e body c a v i t y . S i t e o f attachment T. o m i s s a T. h y d a t i g e n a M e d i a s t i n u m Lung t i s s u e L i v e r t i s s u e Omentum 7 8 1 2 1 2 2 5 16 1 Mesocolon I n f e c t i o n s o f bladderworms were l i g h t and had no ap p a r e n t e f f e c t on t h e d e e r . No d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d i n t h e r a t e s o f i n f e c t i o n between y e a r l i n g s and a d u l t d e e r . A d u l t C e s t o d e s - Thysanosoma a c t i n o i d e s and M o n i e z i a sp. F i f t y - t h r e e d eer were examined f o r a d u l t tapeworms and 4 o r 7.5% v/ere found i n f e c t e d . A l l tapeworms were found i n t h e abomasum o r f i r s t 3 f e e t o f t h e s m a l l i n t e s t i n e . Tapeworms i n t h e abomasum were h i g h l y c o i l e d . T h i r t e e n Thysanosoma a c t i n o i d e s were found i n one d e e r . A s i n g l e T. a c t i n o i d e s was f o u n d i n 2 o t h e r deer and a s i n g l e M o n i e z i a sp. v/as found i n t h e s m a l l i n t e s t i n e o f y e t a n o t h e r d e e r . Three y e a r l i n g s and one a d u l t c o n t a i n e d c e s t o d e s . 43 Deer Legworm - Wehrdickmansia c e r v i p e d e s The l o w e r l e g s o f 69 w h i t e t a i l d e e r were s k i n n e d and examined f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e deer legworm. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e nematodes were s i t u a t e d d i r e c t l y under t h e s k i n . Worms s i t u a t e d a l o n g t h e tendon s h e a t h s o f t h e l e g were more d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e and hence t h e numbers o f worms r e c o r d e d w i l l be m i n i m a l . Twenty-nine deer o r 4 2 % were found i n f e c t e d . The r a t e s o f i n f e c t i o n v a r i e d from one t o 48 w i t h an average o f 7 p e r i n f e c t e d d e e r . A d u l t s were m a r k e d l y more i n f e c t e d t h a n y e a r l i n g s . Only 6 y e a r l i n g deer v/ere h o s t t o t h i s p a r a s i t e and i n t h e 6 c a s e s n o t more t h a n one worm c o u l d be found. One hundred n i n e t y - n i n e nematodes were c o l l e c t e d f r om t h e 23 a d u l t d e e r examined. The deer legworm d i d n o t show a p r e f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r t h e f r o n t o r h i n d l e g s . N i n e t y - f o u r nematodes were c o l l e c t e d from f r o n t l e g s and 104 from t h e h i n d l e g s . No nematodes were found on t h e i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e o f th e h i d e on t h e r e m a i n d e r o f the body. 44 T h i s nematode was commonest i n t h e l a t e summer and e a r l y f a l l . I n f e c t i o n s d e c r e a s e d i n t h e s p r i n g months. D u r i n g March and A p r i l numerous d i s i n t e g r a t e d worms were fou n d . No s k i n l e s i o n s , lameness, o r d e f o r m i t i e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s p a r a s i t e as r e p o r t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , De N i o and West (1942) a l t h o u g h th e r a t e s o f i n f e c t i o n were low. The Pinwcrm - skr.j abinema p a r v a Of 52 deer examined 8 o r 15.4% were i n f e c t e d w i t h t h e pinworm S k r j abinema p a r v a . I n f e c t i o n s v a r i e d from one t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300 nematodes. The caecum was t h e f a v o r e d s i t e and i n heavy i n f e c t i o n s t h i s nematode o c c u r r e d i n t h e r e c t u m and o c c a s i o n a l l y a l o n g th e l a r g e i n t e s t i n e . F i v e a d u l t s and 3 y e a r l i n g s were i n f e c t e d . No pinworms were found d u r i n g J u l y and A u g ust. I n f e c t i o n s were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n i n g months. Any e f f e c t s w h i c h t h i s p a r a s i t e m i g h t have on i t s h o s t were n o t a p p a r e n t . 45 Stomach-worms - O s t e r t a g i a o s t e r t a g i T h i s v e r y s m a l l nematode was f o u n d i n 6 o f 53 abomasums examined. Only 21 worms were c o l l e c t e d f rom t h e 6 i n f e c t e d deer and 8 was t h e g r e a t e s t number i n one h o s t . The a c t u a l numbers o f nematodes would be c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r s i n c e t h i s i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t p a r a s i t e t o l o c a t e . Cowan (1951) r e p o r t s t h e h e a v i e s t i n f e c t i o n s o f stomach-worms i n J u l y and August. The i n f e c t i o n s found i n t h i s s t u d y o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f J u l y and A u g ust. I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s p a r a s i t e would have any e f f e c t on t h e h o s t even i f i t had been found i n l a r g e numbers. T r i c h o s t r o n g y l u s a x e i F i v e o f t h e 53 abomasums examined c o n t a i n e d t h i s m i n u t e nematode. I t i s o n l y 3 - 4 mm. l o n g and can s c a r c e l y be seen w i t h t h e eye. Because o f i t s s m a l l s i z e i t was p r o b a b l y more p r e v a l e n t t h a n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s . Only 11 worms were c o l l e c t e d from t h e 5 i n f e c t e d d e e r . The h i g h e s t number c o l l e c t e d from one deer was 4. Three o f t h e i n f e c t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n December, one i n March and one i n A p r i l . The 5 i n f e c t e d 46 deer i n c l u d e d 3 a d u l t s and 2 y e a r l i n g s . Mar s h a l l a g i a mar s h a l l i One female o f t h i s s p e c i e s v/as c o l l e c t e d from t h e abomasum o f a 3 y e a r o l d w h i t e t a i l on A p r i l 17, 1966. Stomach-v/orm - Haemonchus c o n t o r t u s One male was c o l l e c t e d from t h e abomasum o f a y e a r l i n g w h i t e t a i l on A p r i l 4, 1966. T h i s nematode i s e a s i l y seen v / i t h t h e eye and i f i t had o c c u r r e d a t a l l f r e q u e n t l y i t would have been e a s i l y d e t e c t e d . Tnread-necked S t r o n g y l e - Nematodirus h e l v e t i a n u s One male was c o l l e c t e d from t h e s m a l l i n t e s t i n e o f an o l d deer on March 31, 1966. B e c k l u n d and Senger (1967) r e p o r t e d t h i s p a r a s i t e as o c c u r r i n g i n Rocky M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n sheep i n Montana. Whipworm - T r i c h u r i ' s sp. One female was c o l l e c t e d from t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e s m a l l i n t e s t i n e and caecum o f a y e a r l i n g deer on March 7, 1966. T h i s worm was washed o u t o f t h e caecum and was e a s i l y o b s e r v e d on t h e 10-mesh s c r e e n . 4 7 M i s c e l l a n e o u s O ne m a l e n e m a t o d e t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d a s C o o p e r i a s p . w a s c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e s m a l l i n t e s t i n e o f a y e a r l i n g d e e r o n A p r i l 4, l y 6 6 . F i v e o r 6 u n i d e n t -i f i e d f e m a l e n e m a t o d e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t w o o t h e r d e e r . T h e s e w o r m s c o u l d n o t h e a s s i g n e d t o a n y o f t h e a b o v e s p e c i e s . 4. P A R A S I T I S M OF MULE DEER » O d o c o i l e u s h e m i o n u s h e m i o n u s A t o t a l o f 22 s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s w a s f o u n d i n t h e s e v e n m u l e d e e r e x a m i n e d . T h e m a x i m u m c o l l e c t e d f r o m a s i n g l e d e e r w a s 1 3 s p e c i e s . T n e a v e r a g e f o r t h e 5 c o m p l e t e a u t o p s i e s w a s 1 0 . 6 s p e c i e s p e r d e e r . O n l y o n e s p e c i e s N e m a t o d i r e l l a l o n g i s p i c u l a t a f o u n d i n m u l e d e e r d i d n o t o c c u r i n t h e w h i t e t a i l d e e r . F i v e s p e c i e s S o l e n o p o t e s f e r r i s i , D e r m a c e n t o r a l b i p i c t u s . M a r s h a l l a g i a  roar s h a l l i , N e m a t o d i r u s h e l v e t i a n u s , a n d M o n i e z i a s p . w e r e f o u n d m o r e f r e q u e n t l y i n m u l e d e e r t h a n w h i t e t a i l d e e r . T h e e f f e c t s o f t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o r w h i t e t a i l d e e r a n d h a v e 48 been d i s c u s s e d e l s e w h e r e . The sample s i z e o f mule deer was t o o s m a l l t o note any age o r s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r a s i t i s m . i 49 T A B L E I I S P E C I E S AND F R E Q U E N C Y OF P A R A S I T E S OF S E V E N M ULE DEER S p e c i e s N u m b e r P o s s i b l e O c c u r r e n c e s Average Times Number O c c u r r e d p e r Deer D a m a l i n i a l i p e u r o i d e s & D. p a r a l l e l a S o l e n o p o t e s f e r r i s i O t o b i u s m e g n i n i Dermacentor a l b i p i c t u s Dermacentor a n d e r s o n i Cephenemyia j e l l i s o n i L i p o p t e n a d e p r e s s a T a e n i a h y d a t i g e n a & T. o m i s s a Thysanosoma a c t i n o i d e s M o n i e z i a sp. D i c t y o c a u l u s v i v i p a r u s Lungworm - l a r v a e W e h r d i c k m a n s i a  c e r v i p e d e s S k r j abinema p a r v a O s t e r t a g i a o s t e r t a g i 6 6 6 6 5 6 6 7 5 5 7 5 7 5 5 4 5 1 5 3 6 3 4 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 L i g h t 150 1 40 4 18 V e r y L i g h t 3.5 4 4 1 1 5 0 0 / i n ? l u n g 1 35 11 50 T r i c h o s t r o n g y l u s a x e i 5 1 2 M a r s h a l l a g i a m a r s h a l l i 5 3 5 Nematodirus h e l v e t i a n u s 6 6 250 N e m a t o d i r e l l a l o n g i s p i c u l a t a 5 1 2 T r i c h u r i s sp. 5 1 2 51 5. NUTRITIONAL STATE OF DEER DURING LATE WINTER AND EAR.LY SPRING By t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f A p r i l 1966 i t was n o t e d t h a t deer were showing s i g n s o f poor c o n d i t i o n . Body w e i g h t s and amount o f body f a t were v e r y low. Many deer o b s e r v e d i n t h e f i e l d were l i s t l e s s . S e v e r a l mule deer were o b s e r v e d w i t h drooped neck and e a r s . An attempt was made on t h e l a s t 9 deer a u t o p s i e d t o a s s e s s t h e n u t r i t i o n a l s t a t e by e x a m i n i n g t h e f a t c o n t e n t o f t h e bone marrow o f the t i b i a , Cheatum (1951). TABLE I I I NUTRITIONAL STATE OF 9 DEER AUTOPSIED, APRIL - MAY 1966 S p e c i e s Sex Age Body Weight l b s . Date C o l l e c t e d F a t C o n t e n t Bone Marrow C o n d i t i o n P a r a s i t e Load W h i t e t a i l F 10 mos 57 A p r i l 19/66 70% F a i r L i g h t W h i t e t a i l M 10 mos 82 A p r i l 21/66 70% i F a i r V e r y l i g h t W h i t e t a i l F 10 mos 48 A p r i l 24/66 1.5% Poor Moderate W h i t e t a i l F 4 y r s 115 A p r i l 26/66 1.5% Poor L i g h t W h i t e t a i l F 6 y r s 130 May 2/66 1.5% Poor Moderate W h i t e t a i l F 10 mos 72 May 4/66 7 0 % F a i r L i g h t W h i t e t a i l F 10 mos 66 May 10/66 50% F a i r L i g h t W h i t e t a i l F 10 mos 73 May 17/66 1.5% Poor L i g h t W h i t e t a i l • M 6 y r s 152 May 30/66 9 0 % V e r y Good r L i g h t ro 53 D I S C U S S I O N The v / h i t e t a i l deer i s v / i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and i s h o s t t o a l a r g e number o f p a r a s i t e s . Many o f t h e s e are c o n f i n e d t o d e f i n i t e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s , so t h a t t h e p a r a s i t e complex o f deer v a r i e s v / i d e l y from one a r e a t o a n o t h e r . Anderson (1963), i n h i s r e v i e w o f t h e h e l m i n t h and a r t h r o p o d p a r a s i t e s o f t h e w h i t e t a i l d e e r , r e c o r d s 66 s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s t o w h i c h i t i s h o s t . Anderson makes no r e f e r e n c e t o 4 o f t h e 25 s p e c i e s found i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . These i n c l u d e t h e bladderv/orm T a e n i a o m i s s a , t h e pinworm S k r j abinema p a r v a , and the t r i c h o s t r o n g y l e s T r i c h o - s t r o n g y l u s a x e i and M a r s h a l l a g i a m a r s h a l l i . The l a t t e r 3 s p e c i e s have been r e c o r d e d i n mule deer p r e v i o u s l y i n w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . A number o f t h e s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s found on deer i n t h i s s t u d y are c l e a r l y w e s t e r n i n d i s t r i b u t i o n : Dermacentor a n d e r s o n i . Thysanosoma a c t i n o i d e s , N e o l i p o p t e n a f e r r i s i , L i p o p t e n a d e p r e s s a and Cephenemyia j e l l i s o n i . C l i m a t e and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t e h o s t s p r o b a b l y p l a y a major r o l e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e above p a r a s i t e s . The w h i t e t a i l deer does n o t seem t o be a f a v o u r -a b l e h o s t f o r the p a r a l y s i s t i c k . Only one a t t a c h e d engorged t i c k was found. I have had o c c a s i o n t o examine a number o f g r i z z l y and b l a c k b e a r s d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g . P a r a l y s i s t i c k s a re common on b o t h t h e s e a n i m a l s . The w h i t e t a i l deer does n o t appear t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t agent i n t h e s p r e a d o f t h i s e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t p a r a s i t e . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e w e s t e r n - d i s t r i b u t e d p a r a s i t e s show a s i m i l a r r a t e o f i n f e s t a t i o n t o t h a t i n o t h e r a r e a s . Of t h e s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s found i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t o c c u r a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e r e i s l i t t l e a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e n s i t y o f i n f e c t i o n s . The bladderworm and g i a n t l i v e r f l u k e showed a s i m i l a x -f r e q u e n c y o f i n f e c t i o n t o t h a t i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . T r i c h u r i s sp. appears t o be a r a r e p a r a s i t e o f deer i n a l l a r e a s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . The t h r e a d lungworm D i c t y o c a u l u s v i v i p a r u s was n o t a p r e v a l e n t p a r a s i t e and t h e s e f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t Anderson's v i e w t h a t : 55 "... f i n d i n g s i n O n t a r i o t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h o s e o f O'Roke 1936 and Gdble 1941 who n o t e d t h a t o n l y a few specimens were e v e r r e c o v e r e d from a s i n g l e deer and t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h a t found i n sheep and c a t t l e where masses o f t h e worms may p r a c t i c a l l y o c c l u d e some o f t h e a i r p a s s a g e s . " I n f e c t i o n s o f g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l nematodes were e x t r e m e l y l i g h t i n w h i t e t a i l deer and t h i s study a g r e e s w i t h the g e n e r a l v i e w s t a t e d by Anderson t h a t : "There a r e no r e c o r d s i n d i c a t i n g t h e y ( t r i c h o s t r o n g y l e s ) a re s e r i o u s pathogens o f O d o c o i l e u s v i r g i n i a n u s . " The s u c k i n g l o u s e S o l e n o p o t e s f e r r i s i i s d e s c r i b e d as a r a r e p a r a s i t e o f deer t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a , (Anderson 1963; S c a n l o n , 1960). I t was common i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. w i t h 20% o f t h e deer i n f e s t e d . T h i s r l o u s e may be more f r e q u e n t t h a n o t h e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s i n c e i t i s e a s i l y o v e r l o o k e d i n making e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r e c t o p a r a s i t e s . Anderson (1963) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e w i n t e r t i c k Dermacentor a l b i p i c t u s i s r a r e l y f o u n d on O n t a r i o d e e r ; s i m i l a r l y W h i t l o c k (1939) d i d n o t f i n d t h i s p a r a s i t e on M i c h i g a n d e e r . The w i n t e r t i c k was common on deer i n t h i s s t u d y b u t was n o t found i n h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . 5 6 A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h i s s t u d y w i t h Cowan's 1946 s t u d y o f t h e p a r a s i t e s o f the c o a s t deer O d o c o i l e u s hemionus  co l u m b i a n u s shows a number o f v a r i a t i o n s between t h e s p e c i e s p r e s e n t and t h e d e n s i t y o f i n f e c t i o n s . Cowan's p a r a s i t o l o g i c a l d a t a was t a k e n from a random sample o f 40 w i l d deer and 25 a d d i t i o n a l deer examined i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . Nine s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s r e p o r t e d i n f e c t i n g c o a s t deer were n o t found on w h i t e t a i l d e e r : t h e C a l i f o r n i a t i c k I x o d e s c a l i f o r n i c u s , t h e threadworm C a p i l l a r i a , t h e t h r e a d - n e c k e d s t r o n g y l e N e m a t o d i r e l l a l o n g i s p i c u l a t a , t h e caecum worm Oesophagostomum  venulosum, t h e threadworm S e t a r i a c e r v i , t h e bloodworm E l a e o p h o r a Schneideri, t h e tapeworm M o n i e z i a b e n e d e n i , t h e h y d a t i d c y s t E c h i n o c o c c u s g r a n u l o s u s , and t h e t a p e -worm c y s t C y s t i c e r c u s o v i s . F i v e s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s found on w h i t e t a i l deer were n o t r e c o r d e d by Cowan f o r c o a s t d e e r . These i n c l u d e : t h e p a r a l y s i s t i c k Dermacentor a n d e r s o n i , t h e s p i n o s e e a r t i c k O t o b i u s  m e g n i n i , t h e f r i n g e d tapeworm Thysanosoma a c t i n o i d e s , t h e bladderworm o f T a e n i a o m i s s a , and t h e t r i c h o s t r o n g y l e M a r s h a l l a g i a m a r s h a l l i . 57 S e v e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e w h i t e t a i l deer i n t h i s s t u d y and 73% o f t h e c o a s t deer were i n f e s t e d w i t h b i t i n g l i c e b u t no i n f e s t a t i o n s were comparable t o t h e enormous numbers found by Cowan on c o a s t d e e r . . The number o f v / h i t e t a i l deer i n f e s t e d w i t h l o u s e f l i e s exceeded t h e 90% l e v e l , as f o r c o a s t d e e r . The h e a v i e s t i n f e s t a t i o n o f l o u s e f l i e s i n t h i s s t u d y was about 400, compared w i t h r e c o r d s f o r t h e c o a s t deer o f up t o 2500. These d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be due t o v a r i a t i o n s i n l o u s e f l y p o p u l a t i o n s from y e a r t o y e a r . Tne s u c k i n g l o u s e o c c u r r e d i n 5% o f c o a s t deer examined compared w i t h 20% f o r w h i t e t a i l d e e r . I n f e c t i o n s o f e n d o p a r a s i t e s were l i g h t compared t o the c o a s t d e e r . Cowan found t h e t h r e a d lungworm D i c t y o c a u l u s v i v i p a r u s one o f t h e most s e r i o u s p a r a s i t e s o f t h e c o a s t d e e r . The t h r e a d lungworm o c c u r r e d i n such s m a l l numbers i n w h i t e t a i l deer t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s e r i o u s p a r a s i t e . Cowan r e c o r d e d i n f e c t i o n s o f 200 o r more legworms p e r deer compared w i t h a maximum o f 48 i n t h i s s t u d y . The c o a s t deer i s h e a v i l y i n f e c t e d w i t h O s t e r t a g i a sp. and Oesophagostomum  venulosum, whereas i n f e c t i o n s o f i n t e s t i n a l nematodes i n w h i t e t a i l deer v/ere l i g h t . 58 The f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e , absence o r d e n s i t y o f p a r a s i t e i n f e s t a t i o n s from one l o c a l i t y t o a n other are n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d . C l i m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between Vancouver I s l a n d and t n e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a are p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a c c o u n t i n g f o r the demonstrated d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r a s i t i s m . S o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. has a g r e a t e r extreme o f c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . Summers are h o t and d r y , w i n t e r s o f t e n c o l d w i t h deep snow. The c o a s t has a wet, moderate c l i m a t e w h i c n may promote b e t t e r s u r v i v a l o f t h e l a r v a l s t a g e s , o r i n t e r m e d i a t e h o s t s i n t h e c a s e o f S e t a r i a c e r v i , B l a e o p h o r a Schneider1 and M o n i e z i a b e n e d e n i . Tne s p i n o s e e a r t i c k and p a r a l y s i s t i c k do n o t seem t o f l o u r i s h i n a wet e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h may a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r absence i n c o a s t d e e r . Deer d e n s i t i e s on Vancouver I s l a n d are h i g h e r t h a n s o u t h -e a s t e r n B.C., w h i c h may h e l p t o promote t h e s p r e a d o f p a r a s i t e s . However, w i n t e r r a n g e s i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. a r e h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d when b i g h o r n sheep, e l k and c a t t l e a r e c o n s i d e r e d . Anderson (1962) s t a t e s : 59 " G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , where O d o c o i l e u s hemionus and O d o c o i l e u s v i r q i n i a n u s o c c u r t o g e t h e r , t h e y seem t o share the same p a r a s i t e s . " The mule deer and w h i t e t a i l deer compared i n t h i s s tudy s h a r e d t h e same e c t o p a r a s i t e s h u t t h e y d i d n o t share t h e same i n t e s t i n a l p a r a s i t e s . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1966, f i v e mule deer were sho t f o r the purpose o f comparing t h e i r p a r a s i t e s w i t h t h o s e o f w h i t e t a i l d eer u s i n g t h e same w i n t e r r a n g e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e 2 deer occupy t h e same ra n g e s t h e r e i s a degree o f e c o l o g i c a l p r e f e r e n c e shown i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c h o i c e o f h a b i t a t . Mule deer p r e f e r h i g h e r b e n c h l a n d s and i f snow i s n o t deep t h e y w i l l spend t h e w i n t e r on h i g h , open r o c k y h i l l s i d e s . The w h i t e t a i l deer occupy t h e l o w e r b e n c h -l a n d s and r i v e r b o t t o m s . I n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g mule deer come down o f f t h e h i l l s i d e s t o g r a z e on new s p r i n g g r a s s and i t i s a t t h i s t i me t h a t the two s p e c i e s can be o b s e r v e d f e e d i n g t o g e t h e r . The number o f mule deer a u t o p s i e d was s m a l l b u t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p a r a s i t i s m o f t h e two s p e c i e s v/ere n o t i c e a b l e . Louse f l i e s were s c a r c e on mule d e e r . Only 13 l o u s e f l i e s were found on the 5 d e e r . The mule deer seems t o be a much b e t t e r h o s t f o r t h e w i n t e r t i c k . A t o t a l o f 202 60 a d u l t t i c k s were c o l l e c t e d from t h e 5 mule deer compared t o 90 a d u l t t i c k s c o l l e c t e d from 15 v / h i t e t a i l d e e r . S u c k i n g l i c e were p r e s e n t on a l l 5 mule deer and t h e two h e a v i e s t i n f e s t a t i o n s , 300 and 400 l i c e r e s p e c t i v e l y , o c c u r r e d on t h i s s p e c i e s . Only 20% o f t h e w h i t e t a i l deer examined were h o s t t o the s u c k i n g l o u s e and 100 was t h e maximum number found on a w h i t e -t a i l d e e r . I n t e s t i n a l p a r a s i t e s showed t h e l a r g e s t v a r i a t i o n i n i n f e c t i o n between t h e 2 s p e c i e s o f d e e r . P a r a s i t e s were common i n t h e s m a l l i n t e s t i n e o f mule deer and v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t i n a l l w h i t e t a i l deer examined. One specimen o f M a r s h a l l a g i a mar s h a l l i , one Nematodirus h e l v e t i a n u s and no tapeworms M o n i e z i a sp. o c c u r r e d i n t h e w h i t e t a i l d e e r . Tne above 3 p a r a s i t e s were common i n t h e 5 mule d e e r . I n f e c t i o n s o f Nematodirus  h e l v e t i a n u s averaged 250 worms p e r mule d e e r . Many o f t h e f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d c o n d u c i v e t o i n c r e a s -i n g t h e s t a t e o f p a r a s i t i s m o f u n g u l a t e s were p r e s e n t i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . Few a r e a s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a o c c u p i e d by w h i t e t a i l deer o f f e r t h e v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e n o s t s : moose, e l k , b i g h o r n sheep, mule d e e r , c a t t l e , and h o r s e s a l l r e l a t i v e l y abundant and u t i l i z i n g t he same r a n g e s . C o n d i t i o n s o f 61 o v e r c r o w d i n g o f deer and e l k were e v i d e n t on many o f the r a n g e s , a l t h o u g h f i g u r e s on t h e numbers p e r u n i t a r e a a re n o t a v a i l a b l e . Large numbers o f c a t t l e and w i l d u n g u l a t e s have r e s u l t e d i n o v e r g r a z i n g and o v e r -b r o w s i n g . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1965-66 a l a r g e d i e - o f f o f b i g h o r n sheep occurred, i n t h e E a s t Kootenay. Poor r a n g e s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e major cause o f t h i s d i e - o f f . The above c o n d i t i o n s p l u s t h e extremes o f c l i m a t e r e s u l t i n a s t a t e o f m a l n u t r i t i o n w h i c h was e v i d e n t i n deer i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f A p r i l . L a r g e numbers o f mule deer and w h i t e t a i l deer b e g i n g r a z i n g on open f l a t s as soon as t h e s p r i n g g r a s s e s and f o r b s appear. These open f l a t s are t h e a r e a s most h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d by c a t t l e from A p r i l t o O c t o b e r . Van V o l k e n b e r g and N i c h o l s o n (1943) f e l t t h a t t r i c h o s t r o n g y l e were p i c k e d up by deer f o r c e d t o g r a z e on s h o r t p a s t u r e g r a s s e s because o f s h o r t a g e o f browse. A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e l e a d s one t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e above f a c t o r s s h o u l d be c o n d u c i v e t o p r o d u c i n g a heavy s t a t e o f p a r a s i t i s m . The p a r a s i t i s m o f w h i t e t a i l deer was n o t heavy i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y . W h i l e a maximum s t a t e o f p a r a s i t i s m v/as rea c h e d i n t h e s p r i n g , o n l y t h e e c t o p a r a s i t e s showed any major i n c r e a s e . The s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n t r i c h o s t r o n g y l e s i n t h e l a t e w i n t e r and s p r i n g was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s h a r d t o a t t r i b u t e t h e i n f e s t a t i o n s o f e c t o p a r a s i t e s t o m a l n u t r i t i o n and p o or range f a c t o r s . L i c e r e a c h e d a maximum o f abundance i n the s p r i n g , b u t deer i n poor c o n d i t i o n d i d n o t i n e v e r y c a s e h a r b o u r heavy i n f e s t a t i o n s o f l i c e . S e v e r a l deer had f a i r l y heavy i n f e s t a t i o n s o f l i c e i n December. The w i n t e r p e l a g e may have some i n f l u e n c e on l o u s e p o p u l a t i o n s s i n c e numbers o f l i c e become n e g l i g i b l e as soon as the w i n t e r c o a t i s shed. However, i t i s more p r o b a b l e t h a t h o s t c o n d i t i o n a f f e c t s t h e numbers o f l i c e . The nose b o t and 2 s p e c i e s o f t i c k s have l i f e c y c l e s t h a t produce t h e i r most h a r m f u l e f f e c t s a t t h e t i m e when deer are i n t h e i r weakest c o n d i t i o n . Whether more b o t s and t i c k s a re a b l e t o r e a c h m a t u r i t y on weakened deer i s a m a t t e r o f c o n j e c t u r e . Deer i n poor s p r i n g c o n d i t i o n d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y show heavy b o t o r t i c k i n f e s t a t i o n s . The s p i n o s e e a r t i c k and l o u s e f l i e s a r e b o t h s c a r c e on d eer i n t h e s p r i n g . 63 B o t h w h i t e t a i l deer and mule deer seem t o have e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o become i n f e c t e d v/ith t r i c h o — s t r o n g y l e s and c e s t o d e s , y e t mule deer were i n f e c t e d and w h i t e t a i l deer were n o t . W h i l e a c e r t a i n degree o f e c o l o g i c a l p r e f e r e n c e i s shown between the. two deer i t does not seem t o be c l e a r c u t enough t o account f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r a s i t i s m . W h i t e t a i l deer i n many a r e a s i n t h e s p r i n g can be o b s e r v e d g r a z i n g on t h e same s i t e s u t i l i z e d by mule d e e r . T r i c h o s t r o n g y l e s and c e s t o d e s f l o u r i s h i n mule deer b u t not i n w h i t e -t a i l d e e r . C a t t l e appear t o c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e t o t h e p a r a s i t i s m o f w h i t e t a i l deer b u t may be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e t r i c h o s t r o n g y l e i n f e c t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e mule deer s i n c e t h e s e p a r a s i t e s are c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y c a t t l e p a r a s i t e s . Compared w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f m a l n u t r i t i o n , p a r a s i t e s would seem t o c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e t o t h e m o r t a l i t y o f w h i t e t a i l deer i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B.C. No o p p o r t u n i t i e s were p r e s e n t e d t o autopsy w i n t e r - k i l l e d d e e r ; however, w h i t e t a i l d eer i n poor s p r i n g c o n d i t i o n showed no s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e o f p a r a s i t i s m . 6 4 SUMMARY • T h e w h i t e t a i l d e e r o f s o u t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s h o s t t o a b o u t 2 5 s p e c i e s o f p a r a s i t e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e 1 1 n e m a t o d e s , 4 c e s t o d e s , o n e t r e m a t o d e , 3 t i c k s , 3 l i c e , 2 l o u s e f l i e s a n d o n e b o t f l y . O n l y 3 p a r a s i t e s p r o d u c e d m a r k e d e f f e c t s o n t h e h o s t t i s s u e s ; t h e b o t f l y C e p h e n e m y i a j e l l i s o n i , t h e g i a n t l i v e r f l u k e F a s c i o l o i d e s m a g n a , a n d t h e l a r v a l l u n g w o r m s . I n s p i t e o f t h e l a r g e n u m b e r s o f a l t e r n a t e w i l d a n d d o m e s t i c h o s t s , e x t r e m e s o f c l i m a t e , o v e r -b r o w s e d r a n g e s , m a l n u t r i t i o n , a n d t h e s p r i n y g r a z i n g h a b i t o f w h i t e t a i l d e e r p a r a s i t i s m w a s r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t . T h e t r i c h o s t r o n g y l e s N e m a t o d i r u s h e l v e t i a n u s a n d M a r s h a l l a g i a m a r s h a l l i , t h e c e s t o d e M o n i e z i a s p . , a n d t h e w i n t e r t i c k D e r m a c e n t o r a l b i p i c t u s s h o w a p r e f e r e n c e f o r m u l e d e e r , o r a r e a b l e t o s u c c e e d m o r e r e a d x l y o n t h i s h o s t o n r a n g e s w h e r e b o t h u t i l i z e t h e same h a b i t a t . 65 5. T h e d e n s i t y o f i n f e s t a t i o n s o f p a r a s i t e s w a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e a v y e n o u g h , t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e m o r t a l i t y o f d e e r . 6. C a t t l e a p p e a r t o h a v e l i t t l e e f f e c t o n t h e p a r a s i t e c o m p l e x o f w h i t e t a i l d e e r i n t h e a r e a s t u d i e d . 66 LITERATURE CITED A n d e r s o n , R . C . 1 9 6 2 . T h e h e l m i n t h a n d a r t h r o p o d p a r a s i t e s o f t h e w h i t e - t a i l e d d e e r ( O d o c o i l e u s V i r g i n i a n u s ) : P r o c . F i r s t N a t i o n a l W h i t e - t a i l e d D e e r D i s e a s e S y m p o s i u m , A t h e n s , G e o r g i a , 1 6 2 - 1 7 4 . A n d e r s o n , R . C . 1 9 6 2 . T h e h e l m i n t h a n d a r t h r o p o d p a r a s i t e s o f t h e w h i t e - t a i l e d d e e r ( O d o c o i l e u s  v i r g i n i a n u s ) : a g e n e r a l r e v i e w . T r . R o y a l C a n a d . I n s t . 3 4 ( 1 ) : 5 7 - 9 2 . B e c k l u n d , W.W. a n d S e n g e r , C M . 1 9 6 7 . P a r a s i t e s o f O y i s c a n a d e n s i s c a n a d e n s i s i n M o n t a n a , w i t h a c h e c k -l i s t o f t h e i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l p a r a s i t e s o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n b i g h o r n s n e e p i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . J . P a r a s i t o l , 5 3 ( 1 ) : 1 5 7 - 1 6 5 . B r o w n , E.R. 1 9 6 1 . T h e b l a c k - t a i l e d d e e r o f w e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n . B i o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n N o , 1 3 , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Game D e p t . C h e a t u m , E . L . 1 9 4 9 a . B o n e m a r r o w a s a n i n d e x o f m a l n u t r i t i o n i n d e e r . New Y o r k S t a t e C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t . 3 ( 5 ) : 1 9 - 2 2 . C h e a t u m , E . L . 1 9 5 1 . D i s e a s e i n r e l a t i o n t o w i n t e r m o r t a l i t y o f d e e r i n New Y o r k . J o u r n . W i l d l i f e M g t . 1 5 ( 2 ) : 2 1 6 - 2 2 0 . C o w a n , I . M c T . 1 9 4 6 . P a r a s i t e s , d i s e a s e s , i n j u r i e s , a n d a n o m a l i e s o f t h e C o l u m b i a n b l a c k - t a i l e d d e e r , O d o c o i l e u s h e m i o n u s c o l u m b i a n u s ( R i c h a r d s o n ) i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C a n a d . J . R e s e a r c h (D) 2 4 ( 3 ) : 7 1 - 1 0 3 . C o w a n , I . M c T . 1 9 5 1 . T h e d i s e a s e s a n d p a r a s i t e s o f b i g game m a m m a l s o f w e s t e r n C a n a d a . P r o c . 5 A n n . Game C o n v e n t , 2 5 - 2 8 A p r i l , V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a , p . 3 7 - 6 4 . D e N i o , R.M. a n d R.M. W e s t . 1 9 4 2 . T h e f o o t - w o r m d i s e a s e i n d e e r i n t h e N o r t h e r n R o c k y M o u n t a i n R e g i o n . J„ F o r e s t r y . 4 0 : 5 4 0 - 5 4 3 . 6 7 G o b l e f F.C. 1941. T i s s u e changes i n w h i t e - t a i l e d deer accompanying n a t u r a l i n f e c t i o n s o f lungworms ( g e n e r a l P r o t o s t r o n g y l u s and D i c t y o c a u l u s ) . J o u r n . W i l d l i f e Mgt. 5: 141-158. L o n g h u r s t , W.M. 1956. P o p u l a t i o n dynamics o f d e e r . Study o f deer h e r d r e v e a l s i n t e r n a l p a r a s i t e s and s t a r v a t i o n are most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o m o r t a l i t y o f d e e r . C a l i f o r n i a A g r i c u l t u r e 1 0 ( 7 ) : 9-10, 12, 14. O l s e n , O.W. and F e n s t e r m a c h e r , R. 1943. The h e l m i n t h s o f N o r t h American deer w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e o f w h i t e - t a i l e d deer i n M i n n e s o t a . Tech. B u l l . ( 159). Minn. A g r i c . E x p e r . S t a . 20 pp. P e a r s e , P.H. and Bowden, G. 1966. B i g game h u n t i n g i n t h e E a s t Kootenay, P r i c e P r i n t i n g L t d . , 39 pp. Senger, C M . and C a p e l i e , K . J . 1959, Louse f l i e s from mule and w h i t e - t a i l e d deer i n w e s t e r n Montana. J . P a r a s i t o l . 45: 32 s u p p l . Van V o l k e n b e r g , H.L. and N i c h o l s o n , A . J . 1943. P a r a s i t i s m and m a l n u t r i t i o n o f deer i n Texas. J o u r n . W i l d l i f e Mgt. 7: 220-223. W h i t l o c k , S.C 1939. The p r e v a l e n c e o f d i s e a s e and p a r a s i t e s o f w h i t e t a i l d e e r . T r . 4 N o r t h Am. W i l d l i f e Conf., 244-249. 68 APPENDIX I Number o f Deer Examined T o t a l number o f deer examined 76 T o t a l number o f v / h i t e t a i l deer examined 69 Number o f v / h i t e t a i l deer examined a t r o a d c h e c k s 6 Number o f w h i t e t a i l deer examined from r o a d k i l l s 4 Number o f v / h i t e t a i l deer examined w h i l e h u n t i n g 6 Number o f v / h i t e t a i l deer s h o t i n f i e l d 53 Number o f complete a u t o p s i e s o f w h i t e t a i l d eer 55 Number o f p a r t i a l a u t o p s i e s o f w h i t e t a i l d eer 14 Number o f mule deer s h o t i n f i e l d 7 Number o f complete a u t o p s i e s o f mule deer 5 Number o f p a r t i a l a u t o p s i e s o f mule deer 2 The 14 p a r t i a l l y examined w h i t e t a i l s i n c l u d e d 6 r o a d - c h e c k e d d e e r , 2 h i g h w a y - k i l l e d deer and 6 deer s h o t d u r i n g t h e f a l l h u n t i n g season. The l a t t e r 6 deer were n o t s h o t i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o r o a d s and hence t h e e n t i r e a n i m a l c o u l d n o t be b r o u g h t b a c k t o t h e l a b . Organ Systems A u t o p s i e d Organ System No. o f deer examined (Mule d e e r i n b r a c k e t s ) Lungs 71 (7) L i v e r 72 (7) H e a r t 61 (6) E a r s 73 (6) N a s a l pharynx 63 (6) Legs 76 (7) B r a i n 53 (5) Hide 70 (6) Abomasum 58 (5) 69 S m a l l i n t e s t i n e 57 (5) Caecum 53 (5) Rectum 54 (5) Large i n t e s t i n e 53 (5) Body C a v i t y 75 (7) Omentum 62 (7) R e t i c u l u m 7 B l a d d e r 2 B l o o d smears 17 Rumen samples 47 (5) Age and Sex C o m p o s i t i o n o f Deer Examined No. o f deer No. males No. fe m a l e s 2 39 37 35 13 9 4 4 7 2 F i f t y p e r c e n t o f the deer examined were under 2 y e a r s o f age. O l d e r d e e r , e s p e c i a l l y o l d males, were seldom seen between t h e months o f June and December w h i l e t h e y were on t h e i r summer r a n g e s . Y e a r l i n g s were easy, t o c o l l e c t i n May, June and J u l y because o f t h e i r tendency t o wander and c o n g r e g a t e around s l o u g h s . Age Fawn ( l e s s t h a n 5 mos.) 1- 1*3 2- 2*5 3 4 5 5+ A d u l t 7 0 APPENDIX II - SAMPLE AUTOPSY SHEET AUTOPSY SHEET Host: Number: Date Collected: Sex: Age: Location: Time Collected: Collected by: Time Post Mortem Before Examination: ORGANS EXAMINED PARASITES Type Number Location F i x a t i v e Remarks 

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