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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Human experience in judicial administration for the adult offender in the Greater Vancouver area Ball, Leonard Rae 1965

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THE HUMAN EXPERIENCE IN JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE ADULT OFFENDER IN THE GREATER VANCOUVER AREA  by LEONARD RAE BALL  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l o f the Requirements  Fulfilment  f o r the Degree o f  MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1965 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t available for reference and study,  freely  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that, copying or publi-  cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission*  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date  3 o -*J, . CX^JLJ. /  y t'-»  ABSTRACT The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e , as f a r as  p o s s i b l e , t h e human element i n t h e p r o c e s s o f j u d i c i a l administration.  I t a t t e m p t s t o i n c l u d e some a s p e c t s , and  the e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n , o f s e v e r a l s o c i a l g r o u p i n g s i n c l u d i n g t h e s k i d row h a b i t u e To t h i s e x t e n t  and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i m i n a l .  i t t r i e s t o get a perspective  r e l a t i v e to the  intent of the offender. The  paper a l s o t r i e s t o d e v e l o p a scope t h a t r e l a t e s  e x i s t i n g m a c h i n e r i e s o f j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as t h e y r e l a t e to the various The  offenders.  p r i m a r y purpose i s , t h r o u g h a g e n e r a l  create questions future research  r a t h e r t h a n answer them.  survey, to  I t i s hoped t h a t  can and w i l l be done i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y  the p e r t i n e n t q u e r i e s made.  Among t h e q u e s t i o n s  indicated  as b a d l y i n need o f an answer a r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t o t a l change i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o answer t h e s p e c i f i c needs o f the s k i d row unemployed o r unemployable who may be t o t a l l y a c c e p t i n g t h e p r e s e n t j u d i c i a l syndrome t o get s u b s i s t e n c e and  the e f f e c t s of the process o f admission i n t o the c i t y  or p r o v i n c i a l j a i l which may r e s t r u c t u r e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s self-image and  so as t o a l i e n a t e him from h i s o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y  c r e a t e a p o s s i b l e r e c i d i v i s t as he adapts t o t h e j a i l  or p r i s o n  sub-culture.  Acknowledgments:  I w i s h t o thank t h e f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e i r co-operation preparation  of this  and a s s i s t a n c e  and i n the  theses:  C h i e f C o n s t a b l e R.M. Booth and the o f f i c e r s o f t h e Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e who made t h e i r t i m e and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o me so g e n e r o u s l y . The l a w f i r m s o f R a n k i n , Dean and Munro, and Macey Dowding and Co. The B.C. C i v i l L i b e r t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n . The B r i t i s h Columbia Law  Society  The S a l v a t i o n Army, C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s Department, and  f i n a l l y , P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m D i x o n who d i r e c t e d and  encouraged me and e d i t e d t h i s t h e s i s t o i t s c o m p l e t i o n .  Table o f Contents  Introduction  Chapter 1. 1.  The  i  The  Police:  recruitment. 2.  S t r u c t u r e of the J u d i c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e i r operating strenght, t r a i n i n g The  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Mechanism:  d e t e n t i o n a r e a , i t s a d e q u a c i e s and Courts:  and  the b u i l d i n g s , 3.  inadequacies.  The  t h e i r numbers, s t a f f and the problems o f the 1  magistrate Chapter 1 1 .  The  The  in  a S t a t e of I n t o x i c a t i o n i n a P u b l i c P l a c e and the  use of the example of the person a r r e s t e d as  o f the J u d i c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on him. Sippy : T  1  'Sippy'.  1.  T  Page i  the process  t h i s type of o f f e n d e r .  2.  The  being effect  P o l i c e and  the  of a r r e s t , b o o k i n g and d e t e n t i o n f o r 3-  The  Court and the  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o u r t process  'Sippy':  as i t i s a p p l i e d t o t h i s 12  offender Chapter 1 1 1 . The  D r i v i n g While  Impaired.  use o f t h i s o f f e n s e , a f f e c t i n g a g r e a t e r number o f persons  i n the t o t a l s o c i a l complex o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and processes  o f a r r e s t , booking,  detention, obtaining  o b t a i n i n g of b a i l , c o u r t a c t i o n and  sentencing  the evidence, 22  Page Chapter 17.  B r e a k i n g and E n t e r i n g .  A t h i r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f o f f e n s e , t h i s type i m p l i c a t i n g the premeditated  or 'professional' offender.  The d i f f e r e n c e  between t h i s and t h e p r e v i o u s o f f e n d e r s , t h e process d e t e n t i o n , b a i l , l e g a l a i d and c o u r t process  of a r r e s t ,  f o r t h i s type o f .32  offender Chapter V.  Summary and  Conclusion.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the J u d i c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver i n r e g a r d t o h i s r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s , t h e c o s t of the c o n d i t i o n s o f t r a u m a t i c of a d m i s s i o n  consequence i n t h e  process  i n t o the P r o v i n c i a l J a i l w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  d i s s o l u t i o n o f i d e n t i t y and subsequent r e c i d i v i s m  41  Bibliography  54  i INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s paper i s t o p r e s e n t an account of t h e p r o c e s s and procedures as a c i t i z e n i s a r r e s t e d , booked, d e t a i n e d , t a k e n t o t r i a l and p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h t o r e l e a s e o r i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o the sentence he r e c e i v e s .  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e r e are no  comparisons  made and such p r a i s e o r c r i t i c i s m i n t h i s s t u d y i n a t t r i b u t a b l e to commonly e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s o r a consensus h e l d by t h o s e who  of o p i n i o n  were i n t e r v i e w e d .  The s t u d y has two p l a n e s , h o r i z o n t a l and  vertical.  On t h e h o r i z o n t a l plane l i e s the s t r u c t u r e o f the s u r v e y ; the p r o c e s s e s o f a r r e s t , d e t e n t i o n , b a i l , c o u r t  appearance,  p l e a , s e n t e n c e , a p p e a l and f i n a l i n c a r c e r a t i o n .  On the  v e r t i c a l plane l i e the t h r e e a r e a s o f d e v i a n c e t h r o u g h which t h e s e phases o f j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be  demonstrated.  Thus t h e h o r i z o n t a l plane can be moved up o r down and d i f f e r e n c e s i n procedure can be shown. offenses are:  The t h r e e chosen  s t a t e of i n t o x i c a t i o n i n apublic place  ( P r o v i n c i a l Liquor A c t ) , D r i v i n g while impaired (Criminal Code o f Canada, s e c t i o n 2 2 3 ) , and B r e a k i n g and ( C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada, s e c t i o n  entering  293).  There i s good r e a s o n f o r t h i s c h o i c e .  The o f f e n s e  of b e i n g i n a s t a t e o f i n t o x i c a t i o n i s most o f t e n a p p l i e d to t h o s e o f l o w e r s t a t u s .  I t i s a ' s k i d road' o f f e n s e .  Seldom, except where the p o l i c e have no a l t e r n a t i v e , i s t h i s charge used i n any p l a c e beyond the s k i d road a r e a .  D r i v i n g while impaired  i s another matter.  v e h i c l e i n v o l v e d , t h e s k i d road habitue  By v i r t u e o f t h e  i s e x c l u d e d , but  almost every o t h e r s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y i s i n c l u d e d from l a b o u r e r s t o County C o u r t judges.  The t h i r d o f f e n s e ,  and E n t e r i n g , i s n o t a random, unpremeditated c r i m e .  Breaking It is  u s u a l l y planned and c a r r i e d out w i t h some f o r e s i g h t and a need t o make m a t e r i a l g a i n s .  , I t i s a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l * crime  i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e f i r s t two. T h i s , then, i s the.general plan o f the study. c h a p t e r must be out o f c o n t e x t base common t o a l l t h e r e s t .  The f i r s t  i n order t o l a y the s t r u c t u r a l The p o l i c e , t h e i r methods,  t r a i n i n g and equipment f o l l o w e d by the c o u r t s and t h e i r o p e r a t i o n a r e a l l common denominators t o t h e e x e r c i s e o f j u s t i c e and t h e treatment  of the offender.  F o r t h i s reason  the w r i t e r has chosen t o d e s c r i b e them as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e as a p r e l i m i n a r y t o how t h e i r powers a r e a p p l i e d to  t h e t h r e e chosen groups o f o f f e n d e r s .  CHAPTER  1.  The  S t r u c t u r e o f the J u d i c i a l  The  Police.  On December 3 1 s t . 1963,  ONE Administration  t h e r e were £51  the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e Department: p e r s o n n e l the remainder b e i n g  o f t h e s e were p o l i c e  c i v i l i a n personnel attached  various administrative o f f i c e s . rank o f c o n s t a b l e  710  persons employed by  I t i s o f note t h a t 467  to  the  held  the  and were, t h e r e f o r e , f o r the most p a r t , d o i n g  j o b s w h i c h p l a c e d them i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the c i t i z e n s o f the C i t y .  S i x t y e i g h t were i n the t r a f f i c d i v i s i o n , 345  p a t r o l d i v i s i o n s and  4 i n the d e t e c t i v e d i v i s i o n .  Those l e s s  l i k e l y t o meet the g e n e r a l p u b l i c were the 49 i n the d i v i s i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e s the d e t e n t i o n s e c t i o n and  identification section.  t o the t r a i n i n g academy. was  on the  public.  Nor does t h i s i n c l u d e the 188  o r d e t e c t i v e d i v i s i o n s and citizen.  One  constable  ' f r o n t l i n e ' d u t y as c o n s t a b l e s  who  services  s e c t i o n , communications  I n o t h e r words, two  from d e t e c t i v e t o s u p e r i n t e n d e n t  in  was  attached  t h i r d s o f the  dealing with  force  the  o t h e r s of ranks v a r y i n g  are i n the p a t r o l , t r a f f i c  are i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h  the  T h i s would b r i n g the percentage of the t o t a l  force  up to 86 %, w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of t e n p o l i c e women, who 1  meet  the p u b l i c and d e a l w i t h them on a day t o day Who  and how  do t h e y become policemen?  be 21 y e a r s o f age,  and measurements. 1.  To a p p l y one  must  a Canadian o r B r i t i s h c i t i z e n , have a  minimum of grade 10, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and  basis.  p r e f e r a b l y grade 12, e d u c a t i o n ,  be  p h y s i c a l l y sound as a s c e r t a i n e d by t e s t s The  c a n d i d a t e must be a t l e a s t 5 f e e t 9  T r a i n i n g Manual.  Vancouver P o l i c e Academy.  inches  2 t a l l and weigh over 165  pounds.  The  height l e v e l i s a  c r i t e r i a and r e p r e s e n t s a drop from the 5 f e e t 10-g demanded i n 1964.  the p o l i c e c h i e f asked t h a t t h i s  be changed so t h a t men  be o b t a i n e d who  inches  I t would seem t h a t g e t t i n g r e c r u i t s i s a  problem and e a r l y i n 1965 requirement  new  of necessary s t a b i l i t y could  had p r e v i o u s l y been r e j e c t e d f o r h e i g h t  reasons.  The Vancouver P o l i c e Commission m a i n t a i n s a P o l i c e Academy on the P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n Grounds w h i c h puts groups o f men  and women t h r o u g h an i n t e n s i v e e i g h t e e n week course a t  t i m e s as new recruits  p e r s o n n e l are needed.  T r a i n i n g w i t h the Vancouver  are c a n d i d a t e s from o t h e r B.C.  such as V i c t o r i a .  such  municipal police forces  These c a n d i d a t e s from o t h e r a r e a s are  covered  by P r o v i n c i a l Government g r a n t s however the Vancouver r e c r u i t s ; are not s u b s i d i z e d .  The Academy i s now  c l a s s i f i e d as a  V o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l and t h e r e f o r e c e r t i f i e d as p a r t o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system.  B.C.  P r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l funds are t h e r e f o r e  pending t o a s s i s t i n the support o f t h i s t r a i n i n g scheme. D u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g course 60 hours are devoted Law  to C r i m i n a l  r a n g i n g f r o m the government L i q u o r A c t , t h r o u g h an  historical  and contemporary d e f i n i t i o n o f J u r i s d i c t i o n and C o u r t s , t o a mock t r i a l .  Under a m i s c e l l a n e o u s s e c t i o n a l c o h o l i s m i s  a l l o c a t e d two hours when speakers from the A l c o h o l i s m i E o u n d a t i o n 1  o f B r i t i s h Columbia are guest There may to  lecturers.  be some doubt as t o the a b i l i t y o f the  recruit  a s s i m i l a t e a l l o f t h i s w i t h a background o f Grade 10  and b e i n g out o f s c h o o l from one t o f i v e y e a r s . v o c a t i o n a l programmes t h e r e are 'drop o u t s ' .  1.  T r a i n i n g Manual.  education  As i n o t h e r  Approximately  Vancouver P o l i c e Academy.  3 10 p e r c e n t o f a l l accepted one  r e c r u i t s r e s i g n b e f o r e the end o f the  year p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d .  O n l y 10 p e r c e n t  of the a p p l i c a n t s  get i n t o the T r a i n i n g Academy i n the f i r s t p l a c e . a f a i r l y competent s c r e e n i n g process  T h i s suggests  and a f a i r l y  competent  c o n s t a b l e as a r e s u l t . S e v e r a l c r i m i n a l l a w y e r s were asked f o r an o p i n i o n on s t a t u s o f the e x i s t i n g p o l i c e f o r c e i n Vancouver. were, f o r the most p a r t , s i m i l a r . d i s c i p l i n a r y charges i n 1963. making f a l s e s t a t e m e n t s ,  T h e i r answers  Twenty-one o f f i c e r s  faced  These i n v o l v e d ; n e g l e c t of  drunkenness, d i s o b e d i e n c e , 1  d r e s s and b e i n g absent w i t h o u t l e a v e .  i t was  Nowhere i s t h e r e a  i n t e r v i e w e d were s u r p r i s e d by t h i s  suggested t h a t such s i t u a t i o n s may  resignations. the f o r c e .  One  duty,  improper  s u g g e s t i o n o f d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n because of b r u t a l i t y . o f the l a w y e r s  the  None  although  be marked by r o u t i n e  Even so, such p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s do not remain on prominent c r i m i n a l lawyer  s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s way,  summed up the p o l i c e  'There i s d e f i n i t e l y a new  trend i n  r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g t h a t g i v e s us a f a r s u p e r i o r  product  t h a n we have been used to i n byegone y e a r s ' . S a l v a t i o n Army and newspaper p e o p l e , who  have a c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h p o l i c e and  o f f e n d e r , o f f e r the same g e n e r a l o p i n i o n . 2.  The The  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Mechanism Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e , the C o u r t s and the o f f i c i a l d o m  s t a f f i n g t h e s e o f f i c e s are a l l c o n t a i n e d  i n the Vancouver P u b l i c  S a f e t y B u i l d i n g a t 312 M a i n S t r e e t i n the h e a r t o f the s k i d a r e a o f downtown Vancouver.  T r a f f i c c o u r t s are h e l d i n a  road separate  b u i l d i n g a b l o c k away and t h e r e i s a second d i v i s i o n i n the 1.  A n n u a l R e p o r t , Vancouver P o l i c e Department, 1963,  pp.  2.  4  Oakridge a r e a which a c t s as a h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r a p a t r o l  subdivision.  W h i l e t h e r e are a few c e l l s i n the b u i l d i n g , i t i s not s t a f f e d f u l l time and the d e t e n t i o n i s u s u a l l y o f a v e r y s h o r t d u r a t i o n pending t r a n s f e r t o the main c i t y l o c k - u p i n the P u b l i c S a f e t y Building. T h i s d e t e n t i o n a r e a l e a v e s something t o be d e s i r e d .  It  adds g r e a t l y t o the problems o f b o t h the p o l i c e and the o f f e n d e r . A c c o r d i n g t o the P o l i c e Commission Report o f 1 9 6 3 , 25,510 b o o k i n g s i n t h a t y e a r .  Three hundred and  p r i s o n e r s were p r o c e s s e d from the J a i l  t h e r e were seventy  t o Vancouver G e n e r a l 1  H o s p i t a l and t h e r e were no f a t a l i t i e s i n t h e J a i l . of  On t h e b a s i s  s t a t i s t i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y and f a c e d w i t h t h e problems  that  w i l l be d e s c r i b e d l a t e r , p r i m a r i l y under the o f f e n s e o f S t a t e o f I n t o x i c a t i o n i n a P u b l i c P l a c e , t h i s i s a remarkable f e a t which . can be a t t r i b u t e d t o good a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , a t t e n t i v e j a i l e r s and capable m e d i c a l a t t e n d a n t s .  There .is l i t t l e  however, t h a t t h i s a r e a l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d .  doubt,  Perhaps  i t i s i d e a l i s t i c t o expect a drunk t a n k t o be much more t h a n a t i l e - f l o o r e d room a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty f e e t square w i t h a u r i n a l i n one c o r n e r but i t does not suggest a humane s i t u a t i o n when the f l o o r i s l i t t e r e d w i t h d i s o r d e r e d b o d i e s i n v a r i o u s states of consciousness or unconsciousness. These i n e b r i a t e s are kept i n t h i s a r e a f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r hours and t h e n moved i n t o d o r m i t o r y accomodation remainder o f t h e i r s t a y .  f o r the  O f f e n d e r s such as i m p a i r e d d r i v e r s ,  v a g r a n t s and o t h e r minor c r i m i n a l s are p l a c e d i n these d o r m i t o r i e s from the s t a r t . 1.  S e r i o u s o f f e n d e r s , whose crimes  Annual R e p o r t , Vancouver  P o l i c e Department, 1 9 6 3 ,  pp.  30.  5 w a r r a n t g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y , are p l a c e d bunk.  i n c e l l s h a v i n g a double  These, g e n e r a l l y , are o n l y p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d d u r i n g  normal twenty-fo.ur hour p e r i o d and  any  are never as crowded as  the  o t h e r t y p e s o f accomodation. A l l these a r e a s are r e g u l a r l y i n s p e c t e d j a i l e r s on d u t y .  The  i s put  population  o f the  two  drunk tank r e c e i v e s g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n  g e n e r a l l y because o f the c o n s t a n t a man  by one  f l o w of men  coming i n .  When  i n , the j a i l e r g e n e r a l l y i n s p e c t s the e n t i r e  n o t i n g t h e i r h e a l t h and  s t a t e and  i f t h e y appear i n  t r o u b l e t h e y are g e n e r a l l y moved or a matron i s c a l l e d . A l l detention:.areas  appearwarm and w e l l l i g h t e d .  number o r ' r e g u l a r s ' are kept as t r u s t e e s and up men', sum  w a i t e r s e t c . d u r i n g the day.  f o r t h i s and  A  s e r v e as  'clean  They are p a i d a s m a l l  e v i d e n t l y keenly appreciate  the  opportunity.  R e g u l a r l y p a i d s t a f f work i n the k i t c h e n and o t h e r such One  a r e a o f prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  areas.  concern b o t h i n the  c u s t o d i a l t r e a t m e n t o f l o n g e r t e r m inmates such as t r u s t e e s , and minor t r i b u l a t i o n s to the j a i l e r s i s the l a c k o f r e c r e a t i o n a l space.  The  f i f t e e n t r u s t e e s do have t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o s i n  t h e i r q u a r t e r s but t h e r e i s l i t t l e this.  space f o r a n y t h i n g  There are no o u t d o o r f a c i l i t i e s a t a l l .  beyond  A police  i n s p e c t o r , q u e s t i o n e d on t h i s p o i n t , suggested t h a t t h i s i s indeed a problem and one t r u s t e e s are a l l o w e d ,  not e a s i l y d e a l t w i t h .  on a r o t a t i o n b a s i s , and  While  the  under s u p e r v i s i o n  t o go o u t s i d e to work, such as t o sweep o f f the p a r k i n g l o t at t h e r e a r , t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e w i t h a g r e a t many o f the o v e r the normal one  o r two  days.  persons  To q u a l i f y t h i s , the same  p o l i c e o f f i c e r t o l d o f the s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f a group  6  o f t e n men  who  became a bone o f c o n t e n t i o n between the  p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. sentenced i n m a g i s t r a t e s  E v i d e n t l y the men  were  c o u r t , to p e n i t e n t i a r y 'time'.  e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , p r e v i o u s t o the d i s p u t e was  The  f o r the  offender  to move t o O a k a l l a f o r the w a i t i n g p e r i o d o f t h i r t y days pending appeals  by themselves o r the crown, a f t e r w h i c h t h e y  t r a n s f e r r e d t o the B.C.  P e n i t e n t i a r y a t New  are  Westminster.  d i s p u t e arose when t h e p r o v i n c i a l government r e f u s e d t o the p r i s o n e r s because t h e i r sentence was  t o be served  f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n and the consequence was f o r c e d t o keep these men  The accept,  under  t h a t the c i t y  o v e r the w a i t i n g p e r i o d .  jail  Lack o f  r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s became an o b v i o u s problem and the  men  d e t e r i o r a t e d m e n t a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y i n the cramped q u a r t e r s . C o n t a g i o n o f v a r i o u s , d i a g n o s e d , psychosomatic a i l m e n t s became a g r e a t concern t o the a t t e n d i n g p h y s i c i a n and the care conduct o f the men  brought g r e a t h a r d s h i p t o the j a i l  and  staff.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of such f a c i l i t i e s i n the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e and r e l a t e d case i s u n i q u e .  i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t the  The  t r u s t e e s are a d i f f e r e n t  They are g e n e r a l l y from ' S i p p y s * .  matter.  They are c o n t i n u a l  r e c i d i v i s t s s e r v i n g s h o r t sentences and t h e i r g r e a t e s t need i s warm f o o d , c l o t h i n g and  shelter.  As a r e s u l t i t i s  perhaps not of g r e a t consequence t h a t t h e r e are not r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r them. met  i n the e x i s t i n g The  E s s e n t i a l l y t h e i r g r e a t e s t needs are situation.  l a c k o f s o c i a l workers i s a n o t h e r c r i t i c a l a r e a .  S a l v a t i o n Army w o r k e r s are the o n l y ones c o n s t a n t l y i n the d e t e n t i o n a r e a w i t h i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t s  by  The  working  probation  o f f i c e r s o r John Howard S o c i e t y w o r k e r s , whose i n t e r e s t  and  7  intent i s generally i n regard to a singular i n d i v i d u a l with whom t h e y a r e d e a l i n g . population.  They a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e e n t i r e  I n s p e a k i n g t o j a i l o f f i c i a l s , l a w y e r s and  S a l v a t i o n Army w o r k e r s , i t would seem t h a t t h e r e i s adequate coverage i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e x i s t i n g needs a t t h i s l e v e l o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The i d e a l s i t u a t i o n would be f o r a s o c i a l  worker, t r a i n e d i n law, t o be a v a i l a b l e t o o f f e r some a s s i s t a n c e t o cases where i g n o r a n c e o f t h e l a w and such m a t t e r s as t h e w e l f a r e o f dependents c o u l d be s o r t e d out and r e f e r r e d t o other appropriate agencies e i t h e r l e g a l or s o c i a l .  During  t h e e v e n i n g o b s e r v a t i o n , one couple came i n , b o t h i n t o x i c a t e d and t h e husband's p r i m a r y concern was a c h i l d l e f t i n t h e care o f some men who he knew were l e a v i n g t h e next day. I n t h i s case t h e b o o k i n g o f f i c e n o t i f i e d a C h i l d r e n ' s A i d agency and i t i s presumed t h a t t h e m a t t e r was a c t e d upon.  T h i s does  i n d i c a t e , however, some need f o r a t r a i n e d person w i t h good d i a g n o s t i c a b i l i t y , t o s c r e e n out such c a s e s , i n t e r p r e t t h e i r r a m i f i c a t i o n s and d e a l w i t h them. A phone i s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e o f f e n d e r s t o c a l l lawyers, friends or r e l a t i v e s .  their  I t i s on a c o r r i d o r w a l l near  t h e j a i l e r s o f f i c e and i s made f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l t h e o c c u p a n t s depending o n l y on t h e s e c u r i t y n e c e s s a r y and t h e time a v a i l a b l e .  W h i l e i t i s not a pay phone i t i s a p u b l i c  phone and c o n v e r s a t i o n can be heard t h e l e n g t h o f t h e hallway.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no time l i m i t on t h e c a l l s any  abuse o f t h e e s t i m a t e d time r e q u i r e d , as reckoned by t h e j a i l e r , w i l l l e a d t o h i s a s k i n g t h e p e r s o n t o 'get o f f t h e phone as  8  there are ninety-nine others w a i t i n g * . The w r i t e r made these o b s e r v a t i o n s on l o c a t i o n and on a d i f f e r e n t o c c a s s i o n a t e a j a i l meal.  A l l p r i s o n e r s a r e served  ' h a l f r a t i o n s ' w h i c h i m p l i e s l e s s t h a n d e s i r e d but i s i n a c t u a l i t y , abundant f o r t h e i r needs.  I t has been shown t h a t  t h e c e l l confinement l o w e r s a p p e t i t e s and i t i s a waste t o serve l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f food t o t h e s e men. over a p e r i o d e x c e e d i n g f u l l rations.  Anyone d e t a i n e d  one day, and t h e t r u s t e e s , a r e s e r v e d  The food i s w e l l prepared  i n a good k i t c h e n w i t h  a w e l l b a l a n c e d menu s e t up on a t w e n t y - e i g h t  day s c h e d u l e .  I n g e n e r a l t h e d e t e n t i o n a r e a i s c l e a n and o r d e r l y . I t can become congested t o another  and t h e need f o r an e l e v a t o r from one f l o o r  can c r e a t e problems.  Offenders  are treated  reasonably  w e l l and no i n f r i n g e m e n t s o f t h e i r r i g h t s t o phone, t o be heard, o r t o be g i v e n t r e a t m e n t ,  are i n evidence.  Rooms a r e s e t a s i d e  f o r l a w y e r s i n t e r v i e w s a l t h o u g h some l a w y e r s s t a t e d t h e y a r e sure t h e rooms c o n t a i n hidden microphones and one s t a t e d he h a s , on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , noted a d i s c e r n a b l e hum as i s o f t e n e m i t t e d from an e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e such as a tape  recorder.  N e i t h e r he n o r any o t h e r s have p r o t e s t e d o r c o n t e s t e d t h i s , however. 3.  The C o u r t s . There a r e f i v e c o u r t rooms i n t h e P u b l i c S a f e t y B u i l d i n g and  t h r e e t r a f f i c c o u r t rooms i n t h e s e p e r a t e T r a f f i c B u i l d i n g . There i s a s e n i o r m a g i s t r a t e p l u s e i g h t o t h e r s . r o t a t e from one c o u r t t o another  These men  every two months.  Court i s h e l d  a t 9.30 a.m. every morning and c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t h e docket i s cleared.  Most c o u r t rooms handle a v a r i e t y o f cases w i t h t h e  e x c e p t i o n o f one w h i c h d e a l s n o t o n l y w i t h t h e g e n e r a l  traffic  9 but p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e a l c o h o l i c o f f e n d e r . on t h e second f l o o r and has a c o n n e c t i n g to the detention area. and  This court  room i s  passage l e a d i n g d i r e c t l y  On S a t u r d a y s o n l y , one c o u r t i s i n s e s s i o n  i t disposes o f the overnight  arrests.  Each c o u r t has a p r o s e c u t o r who handles t h e g e n e r a l f l o w o f o f f e n d e r s w i t h s p e c i f i c p r o s e c u t o r s moving i n o n l y when t h e o f f e n s e i s o f a s e r i o u s nature o r a c o n c e r t e d  e f f o r t t o get  a prosecution i s necessary. To quote S t u a r t J a f f a r y , ' T h e i r importance comes from t h e v e r y l a r g e powers we g i v e t o them, the power t o hear and d i s p o s e 1  o f a l l b u t t h e most s e r i o u s charges i n t h e C r i m i n a l Code.' He c o n t i n u e s ,  'Another source o f the importance o f m a g i s t r a t e ' s  c o u r t s i s t h a t we t r u s t them so much t h a t we channel  through 2  them n e a r l y 90 p e r c e n t o f a l l c r i m i n a l charges t h a t a r e l a i d . ' 'We g i v e almost no guides as t o how he i s t o use t h i s power, e i t h e r i n the Code, i n c o u r t d e c i s i o n o r i n any o t h e r form. 3 He i s l e f t on h i s own, o f t e n an i s o l a t e d and l o n e l y  official.'  J a f f a r y goes on t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s i s o l a t i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t i n a l l o f Canada t h e r s i s o n l y one F o r e n s i c  Clinic  t o a d v i s e the c o u r t s , seldom a r e m e n t a l h e a l t h c l i n i c s a v a i l a b l e f o r d i a g n o s t i c a s s i s t a n c e and even t h e b a s i c s e r v i c e of a probation o f f i c e r i s only a v a i l a b l e to a l l of the i n two p r o v i n c e s .  courts  T r a i n i n g and o r i e n t a t i o n programs a r e seldom  used t o p r e p a r e m a g i s t r a t e s . 1. J a f f a r y , S t u a r t . The M a g i s t r a t e s C o u r t , Canadian V o l . 38. No. 5 Sept 5/62 pp. 205. 2.  Ibid.  3.  Ibid.  Welfare  10 A r t h u r Maloney, speaking t o a c o n g r e s s o f C o r r e c t i o n s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1959  s t a t e s t h a t he  was  d i s t u r b e d by the ' f a c t o r y type atmosphere' o f the c o u r t s , e v i d e n t e v e r y morning w h i c h , i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s o f Canada, i s due  to  sheer p r e s s u r e and volume o f b u s i n e s s and r e s u l t s i n a l a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n to the needs and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f each o f 1 the accused who  i s b e f o r e the c o u r t s .  Yet a n o t h e r Queen's C o u n s e l ,  J.M.  Goldenberg, w r i t i n g i n  Macleans magazine, p o i n t s out danger i n the ' l e t ' s get t h i s o v e r 2 with' a t t i t u d e that p r e v a i l s i n magistrates  court.  He  argues  t h a t w h i l e judges o f h i g h e r c o u r t s o f t e n t a k e weeks or months t o b r i n g down a d e c i s i o n , the m a g i s t r a t e s are e x p e c t e d t o d e a l w i t h the m a t t e r s t h a t appear b e f o r e them  immediately.  A l l o f t h e s e w r i t e r s s t r e s s the one b a s i c element of p r e s s u r e and volume o f b u s i n e s s as the cause o f t h i s  and  o b s e r v a t i o n s made f o r t h i s t h e s i s bear out the a c c u r a c y people's f e a r s .  of  these  As w i l l be p o i n t e d out i n d i s c u s s i n g the  p e r p e t u a l a l c o h o l i c who  c l u s t e r i n the c o u r t d a i l y , t h e r e i s a  g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c y between the i d e a l and the r e a l i t y f a c i n g the overworked m a g i s t r a t e s .  There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t a g r e a t  o f the c r i t i c i s m l e v e l e d a t the m a g i s t r a t e s of l a w y e r s , p o l i c e m e n and r e l a t e d t o these  deal  i n the i n t e r v i e w s  c o u r t o f f i c i a l s can be  directly  problems.  Vancouver m a g i s t r a t e s are no l e s s v u l n e r a b l e under the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a n any o t h e r s i n Canada. 1. Maloneji, A. Q.C. M.P. o f B.C. Bar Review, V o l . 1 No. 2. G o l d e n b e r g , J.M. V o l . 74 No. 14 J u l y 15/61  To the  extent  'Effective Corrections' University 2 March I960 pp. 256.  T o r the Sake o f Arguement' Macleans pp. 5.  11 that  t h e y a r e a l l members o f t h e b a r and n o t ' l a y ' m a g i s t r a t e s a s a r e  o f t e n found  i n r u r a l areas,  a professional  and r e c e i v e l i t t l e  c o u r t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s who  obvious  concerns,  accused  c a n be s e r i o u s l y damaged  administration.  receives the benefit of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the law.  are g r o s s l y overloaded the  the accused  there  To t h e e x t e n t  t h a t the/  a s s i s t a n c e except f o r  c a n o n l y d e a l w i t h t h e most  i s a ' f a c t o r y type  a t m o s p h e r e ' and t h e  i n the process  o f the  judicial  CHAPTER 1 1 The  Sippy  The t e r m 'Sippy' stands f o r a p e r s o n a r r e s t e d as b e i n g i n a S t a t e o f I n t o x i c a t i o n i n a P u b l i c P l a c e w h i c h i s a summary o f f e n s e under the Government L i q u o r A c t .  F o u r t e e n thousand e i g h t  hundred and f i f t y two a r r e s t s were r e c o r d e d f o r a Government L i q u o r A c t o f f e n s e i n 1 9 6 3 by the Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e , a  little  1  over 40  persons per day f o r the e n t i r e y e a r .  Almost a l l charges  were S t a t e o f I n t o x i c a t i o n i n a P u b l i c P l a c e . The  p e r s o n a r r e s t e d f o r t h i s o f f e n s e can be  fairly  w e l l d e s c r i b e d , not o n l y p h y s i c a l l y , but a l s o g e o g r a p h i c a l l y . I t can be s t a t e d t h a t t h i s i s a 'low c l a s s ' crime. are t h o s e few v e r y young men a r e a i n q u e s t i o n or who  who  s t r a y i n t o the  The  exceptions  geographical  are so o f f e n s i v e i n another  part of  town t h a t t h e y must be d e t a i n e d but t h e r e i s no s p e c i f i c charge c o v e r i n g t h e i r a c t i o n s o t h e r t h a n the f a c t t h a t t h e y have consumed l i q u o r t o some unknown e x t e n t and are p r o b a b l y but n e i t h e r dangerous or d i s t u r b i n g . The are s k i d road h a b i t u e s .  b u l k o f the  unruly  offenders  A g e n e r a l , yet a c c u r a t e , d e s c r i p t i o n  o f them would p l a c e t h e i r age a t over 45  and t h e i r  social  e x i s t e n c e as unemployed o r unemployable, s i n g l e o r w i t h a v e r y l o o s e common-law m a r r i a g e ,  and g e n e r a l l y i n poor h e a l t h .  They  l i v e i n h o t e l s , h o s t e l s or rooms i n the a r e a w i t h i n a s i x b l o c k r a d i u s o f M a i n and H a s t i n g s S t r e e t s i n t e r s e c t i o n . 1.  They  A n n u a l Report o f the Vancouver P o l i c e Department, 1 9 6 3 .  13 l i v e on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e and what t h e y can beg o r s t e a l . d r i n k almost a n y t h i n g t h a t c o n t a i n s a l c o h o l .  They  A f t e r a few s h o r t  y e a r s and any number o f s h o r t terms i n O a k a l l a t h e y have l o s t t h e i r p r i d e , t h e i r w i l l and t h e use o f t h e i r body f u n c t i o n s . They a r e o f f e n s i v e t o t h e m s e l v e s and t o everyone e l s e .  Covered  w i t h u r i n e and v o m i t , d r e s s e d  they  i n r a g s , plagued  b a r e l y e x i s t , yet strangely l a s t a long time.  by l i c e ,  At l e a s t one o f  t h e i r members has been booked i n t o O a k a l l a on over 250 c o n s e c u t i v e occasions. A l a w y e r s t a t e d , 'This i s a c l a s s crime t h a t p o i n t s out Ai  t h a t t h e o f f e n d e r s a r e not any t„where n e a r " o u t o f l i n e as the l e g i s l a t i o n that leads to t h e i r a r r e s t . ' .  The o f f e n s e  itself  i s s u b j e c t t o q u e s t i o n as can be demonstrated by f o l l o w i n g what happens t o them as t h e y proceed t h r o u g h process.  the j u d i c i a l  The o f f e n s e , as i t i s charged, i s b e i n g i n t o x i c a t e d ,  under the i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l , i n a p u b l i c p l a c e ; t h a t i s , anywhere o u t s i d e o f a d w e l l i n g house.  Seldom a r e t h e y a r r e s t e d  p u r e l y on t h a t b a s i s and i f so any a l e r t p o l i c e m e n c o u l d  fill  any number o f wagons o u t s i d e r e p u t a b l e supper c l u b s and c o c k t a i l b a r s i n o t h e r downtown a r e a s . occurs.  The a r r e s t s o c c u r as a s t r e e t c l e a n i n g p r o c e s s  a r e a o f town most a c t i v l y covered 2.  T h i s seldom, i f e v e r ,  by p a t r o l l i n g  i n that  policemen.  The P o l i c e and t h e 'Sippy'. Any  n i g h t o f t h e week t h e p a t r o l l i n g o f f i c e r s on H a s t i n g s ,  Cordova and t h e a d j o i n g s i d e s t r e e t s come a c r o s s t h e human d e b r i s i n a l l e y s , doorways and g u t t e r s . f o r s a k e t h e i r duty as g u a r d i a n s  As a consequence t h e y  and p r o t e c t o r s and become s t r e e t  14  cleaners. What c r i t e r i a a r e used by t h e a r r e s t i n g o f f i c e r ? i a l l y t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e used.  Substant-  The man s m e l l e d o f l i q u o r o r had  a l c o h o l , i n some form, on him. He was w a l k i n g i n a manner suggesting a l o s s o f balance  such as o c c u r s under t h e i n f l u e n c e  o f a l c o h o l o r he was s e m i - c o n s c i o u s conspicuous  place.  o r unconscious  ina  T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t o f a 'conspicuous  place'  i s most r e l e v a n t a l o n g w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s o f t h e a r r e s t i n g officer.  W h i l e t h e o f f e n d e r may be down an a l l e y t h e r e a r e  t i m e s when t h e b a s i s f o r h i s a r r e s t and d e t e n t i o n l i e s not i n h i s s t a t e but i n t h e need t o p r o t e c t him from t h e elements. Many o f f i c e r s r e p o r t t h a t t h e r e a r e no s u i t a b l e l o d g i n g s i f the man has no money on him and o f t e n , even when t h e man i s c a r r y i n g an h o t e l key and i s r e t u r n e d t o h i s l o d g i n g s he w i l l be found o u t s i d e and wandering soon a f t e r .  Policemen  report  numerous cases o f t h i s .  The p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r a r r e s t t h e n ,  l i e s i n tow c a t e g o r i e s :  t h e man's immediate danger i n view  o f h i s c o n d i t i o n and-or h i s a c t i o n s o r appearance b e i n g conspicuous  and t h e r e f o r e embarassing t o t h e p a s s i n g  populace.  As a lawyer p o i n t e d o u t , t h e o f f e n s e o f S t a t e o f I n t o x i c a t i o n i n a P u b l i c P l a c e s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by a g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f causing a disturbance or being a nuisance.  I t i s not the  drunkeness t h a t a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n b u t t h e a c t s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a r r i e s o u t i n h i s drunken s t a t e . these acts are bothering passers-by  Common among  either v e r b a l l y or  p h y s i c a l l y , u r i n a t i n g o r v o m i t i n g on t h e s t r e e t o r i n doorways, l y i n g down so as t o o b s t r u c t p e d e s t r i a n s o r v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c  15 and becoming o f f e n s i v e when approached  by t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g o f f i c e r . .  There a r e two wagons whose d r i v e r s w a i t i n t h e d e t e n t i o n a r e a f o r t h e c o n s t a n t c a l l s t h a t r e p o r t a 'drunk' o r a 'man down', i n some b l o c k i n t h e a r e a .  By t h e time t h e y a r r i v e  t h e r e a r e f i v e o r s i x o t h e r r e p o r t s and t h e y go around c l e a n i n g t h e s t r e e t s i n a m e t h o d i c a l manner. compassionate  These policemen a r e s t r a n g e l y  men who see t h e same f a c e s day a f t e r day and week  a f t e r week u n t i l t h e y know most o f t h e men by t h e i r f i r s t names. They know what t o watch f o r , whose h e a r t i s bad, who becomes v i o l e n t and who j u s t comes a l o n g .  Most o f t h e o f f e n d e r s a r e  c a p a b l e o f w a l k i n g but some a r e o n l y s e m i - c o n s c i o u s .  Each  g e t s s p e c i f i c t r e a t m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e degree o f i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n t h e policeman's r e p e r t o i r e and t h e number o f p r e v i o u s t i m e s t h i s has happened.  Loaded i n t o t h e wagon, t h e y  a r e d r i v e n t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n where they a r e as c o n s i d e r a t e l y unloaded and t a k e n by e l e v a t o r t o t h e b o o k i n g a r e a .  Swearing,  s c r e a m i n g , c r y i n g o r j u s t l y i n g on t h e f l o o r o f t h e e l e v a t o r , t h e y a r e put i n t o a r e t a i n i n g cage-type booking.  c e l l to await formal  The wagon o f f i c e r s c a r r y a s l i p o f paper f o r each o f  them s t a t i n g t h e i r name, i f a s c e r t a i n e d , t h e a r e a o f a r r e s t and t h e number o f t h e a r r e s t i n g  officer.  The w r i t e r found i t a s t r a n g e s i g h t t o see t h e c a r e , p a t i e n c e and compassion a p p l i e d i n h a n d l i n g t h e s e men.  A  b u r l y o f f i c e r g e n t l y tows one p r o s t r a t e man from t h e e l e v a t o r and e q u a l l y as g e n t l y l e a n s him a g a i n s t a w a l l t e l l i n g him t o s t a y there- '-take i t easy'. the p l a c e .  F i r s t names a r e e v i d e n t a l l over  The group i s c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d f o r i n j u r i e s ,  c u t s o r i l l n e s s t h a t suggest immediate a t t e n t i o n .  I f these a r e  16  e v i d e n t a matron i s c a l l e d f o r and a r r i v e s w i t h a f i r s t - a i d k i t to  s t o p the b l e e d i n g , wash out c u t s and a b r a s i o n s o r check p u l s e s .  I f she d e c i d e s t h e r e i s the l e a s t s u g g e s t i o n o f i n j u r y beyond h e r c a p a c i t y to h a n d l e , she r e q u e s t s an amulance and the man sent d i r e c t l y to the Vancouver G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l .  I f the  is  man  i s a common ' s i p p y ' w i t h no c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r s he i s o f t e n sent w i t h o u t p o l i c e e s c o r t . the booking personnel.  Such i s the t r u s t and knowledge o f  In 1963,  377  persons were p r o c e s s e d  the j a i l t o the h o s p i t a l and i t i s n o t a b l e t h a t no  from  fatalities  occured. The w r i t e r d i d not w i t n e s s but heard d e s c r i p t i o n o f , one  case w h i c h occured a few minutes b e f o r e he a r r i v e d to  i n the d e t e n t i o n a r e a one e v e n i n g . was  A man  brought u p s t a i r s l i m p i n g v e r y b a d l y .  a r r e s t e d as  observe  intoxicated  The o f f i c e r s i n v e s t i g a t e d  i m m e d i a t e l y and were a s t o n i s h e d t o f i n d t h a t the l e g was  broken  j u s t above the a n k l e t o the e x t e n t t h a t the f o o t was f l o p p i n g t o one  s i d e and the man  time the man  was  how  i t f l o p p e d around and s i n g i n g  This i n c i d e n t i s described to i l l u s t r a t e  i n w h i c h these o f f e n d e r s a r r i v e a t the p o l i c e One  A l l the  w a i t e d f o r the ambulance he p l a y e d g a i l y w i t h h i s  i n j u r e d f o o t demonstrating happily.  w a l k i n g on the stump.  by one the o f f e n d e r s are booked.  s t i l l exists.  The men  the s t a t e  station.  The p o l i c e compassion  stand up o r are h e l d up w h i l e t h e y are  searched and r e l i e v e d o f v a l u a b l e s , b e l t s , l a c e s and  ties.  T h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s a r e ' g e n e r a l l y few but some c a r r y f a i r l y l a r g e sums o f money.  T h i s i s c a r e f u l l y noted, a r e c e i p t i s s i g n e d  and t h e goods are l o c k e d away.  S m a l l change i s kept as t h e r e  i s a c i g a r e t t e v e n d i n g machine i n the d e t e n t i o n a r e a *  17  The w r i t e r saw s e v e r a l t h i n g s o c c u r i n t h i s a r e a which demonstrate  b o t h t h e e f f i c i e n c y and p a t i e n c e o f t h e p o l i c e m e n  h a n d l i n g t h e s e men.  Asked t h e i r names, t h e o f f e n d e r s may g i v e  a number o f a l i a s e s .  T h i s does not i m p l y a d e c e p t i o n as much  as p a r t o f t h e game.  F r i e n d l y arguments ensue which  generally  end when t h e policemen makes a p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c a r r i e d on t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r by t h e s i m p l e e x p e d i e n t o f a s k i n g him t o s i g n t h e b o o k i n g sheet g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t s i n h i s s i g n i n g h i s c o r r e c t name.  which  Others  r e f u s e t o h e l p a t a l l and t h e booking sheet i s noted 'T.D.', i m p l y i n g t h e man was t o o drunk o r u n w i l l i n g t o s i g n .  Force  never  seems n e c e s s a r y and when n e c e s s a r y i n v o l v e s r e s t r a i n t r a t h e r than d i r e c t f o r c e .  The i n d i v i d u a l i s h e l d down b u t i t i s  • p r e s s u r e ' r a t h e r t h a n 'push' t h a t i s used. Swearing, t h r e a t e n i n g and c a u s i n g v a r y i n g degrees o f n o i s e and n u i s a n c e , t h e men a r e t a k e n t o t h e d e t e n t i o n a r e a . Most a r e p l a c e d i n t h e 'drunk' t a n k s b u t a r e f e r r a l t o an e x i s t i n g i n d e x may p o i n t out some s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r l e a d i n g to  a more i s o l a t e d o r open a r e a o r c e l l .  Epilepsy, chronic  h e a r t d i s o r d e r s , d i a b e t e s o r a d d i c t i o n w i l l be prime c a t e g o r i e s for  s p e c i a l treatment.  Such men a r e bedded down i n c e l l s  w h i c h a r e open t o i n s p e c t i o n b o t h v i s u a l l y and a u d i b l y . Younger o f f e n d e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y s e g r e g a t e d i n l a r g e r d o r m i t o r y s t y l e rooms i f t h e y a r e a t a l l c o n s c i o u s and c o n t r o l l e d . The t a n k s a r e i n s p e c t e d r e g u l a r l y not j u s t as a r o u t i n e but by v i r t u e of the constant t r a f f i c  i n and out o f them as t h e drunks  a r r i v e c o n s i s t e n t l y over the e v e n i n g .  On each o c c a s i o n t h e  Crowded, n o i s y f l o o r was e x p e r t l y a p p r a i s e d and any q u e s t i o n a b l e  IB persons were i n v e s t i g a t e d and,  i f n e c e s s a r y , moved.  There i s one o u t s t a n d i n g ommission up t o and this point.  No evidence  gathered or requested. are o f f e r e d .  The  s u b s t a n t i a t i n g the charge has been No b l o o d samples o r b r e a t h a l a t o r t e s t s  evidence  i s purely circumstantial.  B a i l i s a v a i l a b l e t o most o f t h e s e men themselves  of i t .  including  but few  avail  E i t h e r t h e y l a c k the money o r the  t o sober up s u f f i c i e n t l y t o be r e l e a s e d .  ability  A J u s t i c e o f the  Peace i s a v a i l a b l e w i t h the a u t h o r i t y t o g r a n t b a i l on a predetermined  s c a l e a c c o r d i n g to p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , and  circumstances  surrounding the present offense.  can a v a i l themselves 3.  Few  the  'sippys'  o f t h i s s e r v i c e even though b a i l s are  The Court and the  low.  'Sippy . 1  W i t h morning comes the c o u r t appearance.  The w r i t e r  found  t h i s perhaps the most h o r r i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e to h i s e n t i r e scope o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Court room number two, on the t h i r d  f l o o r , i s used f o r these p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n d e r s . m a i n l y f o r convenience  T h i s i s done  as t h e r e i s a passageway l e a d i n g  d i r e c t l y t o t h e d e t e n t i o n a r e a and l a r g e numbers o f men t h e r e f o r e be moved v e r y q u i c k l y .  The docket  seems t o be s u f f i c i e n t t o h o l d s i x men two men,  can  i n t h i s court  a t one t i m e .  One  or  out on b a i l , w i l l j o i n the group but remain on the  f l o o r o f the c o u r t room b e f o r e the m a g i s t r a t e r a t h e r t h a n t o one  s i d e as the o t h e r s a r e .  Thus, as many as e i g h t  men  can be brought b e f o r e the m a g i s t r a t e a t one t i m e .  The  c l e r k stands and reads the charge a f t e r naming and  identifying  each and a l l o f t h e men. their plea.  court  They are t h e n asked, i n t u r n , f o r  Sojjjie i m m e d i a t e l y t r y t o e l a b o r a t e on t h e i r p l e a s  19 and a r e i g n o r e d as ' j u s t i c e ' g r i n d s on.  An e p i l e p t i c  pleads  'not g u i l t y ' and t r i e s t o s t a t e h i s case t h a t h i s a c t i o n s wepe because o f h i s d i s e a s e . f o l l o w i n g day. It  He i s t o l d t r i a l w i l l  be h e l d t h e  He asks f o r r e l e a s e on h i s own r e c o g n i z a n c e .  i s disallowed.  The p a t t e r n becomes m e c h a n i c a l .  The 'not  g u i l t i e s ' a r e l e d o f f f o r a n o t h e r 24 hours i n j a i l and the n i n e out o f t e n who know t h e r o u t i n e , and t h e f u t i l i t y as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r f a c e s , a r e l e f t i s g i v e n by t h e crown. time o r p l a c e .  standing.  No e v i d e n c e  There a r e no statements o f c i r c u m s t a n c e ,  The p r o s e c u t o r q u i c k l y asks each o f f e n d e r i f  i t was t r u e t h a t h i s l a s t appearance  was on a c e r t a i n date  and he had a number o f p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s . his  of i t  As the man nods  head t h e m a g i s t r a t e s a y s , '15 o r 10', o r '25 o r 30'.  E v i d e n t l y t h i s means d o l l a r s o r days but t h e r e does not appear to  be time f o r such t r i m m i n g s .  I f t h e r e i s no p r e v i o u s  r e c o r d sentence i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y suspended. are  Where statements  made about the need f o r h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o r an a v a i l a b l e  pay cheque, these a r e checked out by t h e e v e r - p r e s e n t S a l v a t i o n Army o f f i c e r .  On t h e morning t h e above f a c t s were  noted t h e r e were 104 ' S i p p y s ' on the c o u r t l i s t . ten  f a i l e d t o appear.  About  Court convened a t 9.30 a.m. and a  r e c e s s was c a l l e d a t t h e end o f t h e 'Sippy' l i s t .  The time  was p r e c i s e l y 10 a.m. A prominent  l a w y e r s t a t e s , 'The t r i a l  i s o f f e n s i v e t o any r a t i o n a l man.'.  i s a farce.  It  I f t h e above statements  c a r r y a tone t h a t s u g g e s t s t h a t an o p i n i o n i s b e i n g e x p r e s s e d when such i s not t h e purpose o f t h i s paper, i t can o n l y be  20 defended by the c l a i m s t h a t the w r i t e r f a l l s i n t o the o f a ' r a t i o n a l man'.  As yet another l a w y e r s t a t e s , 'The  s i t u a t i o n i s hopeless. c a t t l e and the t r i a l  category whole  They are brought i n t o c o u r t l i k e  becomes a j o k e , a type o f  entertainment.  They r e c e i v e f a r worse t r e a t m e n t t h a n those t h a t are c l a s s e d as  criminals.'. Does s o c i e t y g a i n a n y t h i n g and do these m u l t i p l e o f f e n d e r s  g a i n a n y t h i n g by t h i s crude s t r e e t s are c l e a n .  j u d i c i a l process?  For s o c i e t y the  That i s about a l l t h a t can be s a i d .  Society  pays a l a r g e b i l l f o r t h i s but t h i s i s not g e n e r a l l y known. Twenty-five i n 1963.  thousand, f i v e hundred and t e n persons were 'booked' 1  Over 79,000 meals were s e r v e d .  O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm  r e c o r d s 2,970 ' S i p p y s ' e n t e r e d as inmates i n the f i r s t s i x months o f 1963.  The  c o s t of d e t e n t i o n , t r i a l ,  t r a n s p o r t and  i n c a r c e r a t i o n i s t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n r e l a t i o n to t h e r e s u l t s obtained. The  T h i s i s indeed expensive garbage c o l l e c t i n g .  c i t y l o c k - u p expenses alone are budgeted a t a q u a r t e r o f  a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t 60 p e r c e n t  of  the d e t e n t i o n bookings were f o r t h i s o f f e n s e i t becomes an expensive The  i t e m t o the t a x payer. 'Sippy' g a i n s a l i t t l e  more.  He i s kept a l i v e .  He  i s not t r e a t e d i n any sense u n l e s s he has s u s t a i n e d i n j u r y . He may  s u f f e r from e p i l e p s y , d i a b e t e s , o r j u s t be  rotting  i n t e r n a l l y as the v a r i o u s compounds and l i q u i d s he consumes take t h e i r t o l l  a l o n g w i t h the crude e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s  he escapes i n t o j a i l t o get away from, and the normal 1.  Annual R e p o r t , Vancouver P o l i c e Department, 1963,  pp.  30.  21 deterioration them.  o f t h e age b r a c k e t .  Freedom f r o m t h e i r  responsibilities environment. him  physically  return  addiction  Jail  i s freedom  t o many o f  o r t h e overwhelming  o f having t o get a l o n g i n t h e normal  The f e w m e a l s  and t h e warm beds m e r e l y  and make i t p o s s i b l e  t o t h e same c o n d i t i o n s  social bolster  f o r him t o i m m e d i a t e l y  a n d t h e same j u d i c i a l  syndrome.  CHAPTER  111  D r i v i n g While 'Everyone who,  Impaired  w h i l e h i s a b i l i t y t o d r i v e a motor v e h i c l e  i s i m p a i r e d by a l c o h o l o r a d r u g , d r i v e s a motor v e h i c l e , o r , has care o r c o n t r o l o f a motor v e h i c l e whether i t i s i n motion or  n o t , i s g u i l t y o f an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e , o r an o f f e n s e  p u n i s h a b l e on summary c o n v i c t i o n and i s l i a b l e f o r a f i r s t o f f e n s e t o a f i n e not more t h a n $100.00 and not l e s s t h a n $50.00 o r , t o imprisonment  f o r 3 months o r t o b o t h ; f o r a  second o f f e n s e , t o imprisonment  f o r not more t h a n 3 months and  not l e s s t h a n 14 days and f o r each subsequent  offence to  imprisonment 3 months. One  f o r not more t h a n one y e a r and not l e s s t h a n 1 Code S 2 2 3 . '  thousand and s i x t y - f i v e persons were a r r e s t e d on t h i s 2  charge i n 1 9 6 3 ,  e i g h t more t h a n i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r .  Safety  o f f i c i a l s , p o l i c e and c o u r t s supported by e v e r y medium from bumper s t r i p s t o newspapers have r e a c t e d t o t h e m i x t u r e o f g a s o l i n e and a l c o h o l .  P r o b a b l y one o f the most e x t e n s i v e  campaigns i n the c o u n t r y has been d i r e c t e d a t p r e v e n t i n g t h i s o f f e n s e and p r o b a b l y no o t h e r campaign has r e c e i v e d such unanimous support and such l i t t l e c o u r t punishment,  success.  Roadblocks, high  t h r e a t s o f death and d i s a s t e r have had  l i t t l e e f f e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o the p o l i c e .  I t i s suggested t h a t  1. P o p p l e s , A. C r i m i n a l Procedure Manual. Co. L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1956, p. 70. 2.  Annual R e p o r t .  Vancouver  Carsewell  P o l i c e Department,  1963.  23  even, t h e r e a c t i o n o f the p o l i c e , t h e i r temperance i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e o f f e n d e r s may l i e i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e type o f person who i s apprehended.  T h i s was e v i d e n t from  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a number o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s and lawyers.. . T h i s , t h e n , can be c o n s i d e r e d a s e r i o u s o f f e n s e .  The  p r i m a r y d i s t i n c t i o n from the p r e v i o u s charge o f S t a t e o f I n t o x i c a t i o n i n a P u b l i c P l a c e l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t can be an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e .  This i s e v i d e n t l y decided a t the  d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e p r o s e c u t o r and i s based on p r e v i o u s r e c o r d o r s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s r i s i n g out o f t h e o f f e n s e .  I f t h i s offense  i n v o l v e s another o f f e n s e such as h i t and r u n , where damage i s done t o persons o r p r o p e r t y , t h e charge w i l l be made indictable.  I f t h i s i s a second o r t h i r d o f f e n s e o f a s i m i l a r  n a t u r e the charge w i l l be i n d i c t a b l e .  I f , however, t h i s i s a  f i r s t o f f e n s e and t h e r e were no c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r s t h e summary charge w i l l be l a i d . Another more s u b t l e d i s t i n c t i o n a l s o l i e s t h a t t h i s i s a ' c a t c h - a l l ' crime.  The p o l i c e  i n the f a c t officer,  s t o p p i n g a suspected d r i v e r has no knowledge o f the s t a t u s , s o c i a l l y , f i n a n c i a l l y o r p o l i t i c a l l y , o f the offender, other than an assessment o f t h e p r i c e o f t h e c a r .  T h i s p l a c e s him  i n a unique po.-.sition f o r he i s never sure o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a r r e s t he may make.  I t i s a known f a c t t h a t  at l e a s t one County Court judge has been a r r e s t e d i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s .  Several lawyers, i n t e r v i e w e d , s t a t e d t h a t the  a r r e s t e d man i s t r e a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r d e f e r e n c e and i s t r e a t e d w i t h care and concern by t h e a r r e s t i n g  officer.  24  T h i s o f f e n d e r w i l l be caught, u s u a l l y , i n one circumstances:,  p r i m a r i l y f o r t h i s purpose.  roadblocks maintained  On a p p r e h e n s i o n the s u b j e c t i s  t a k e n to the p o l i c e s t a t i o n where he i s s u b j e c t e d d i f f e r e n t r o u t i n e from the brought i n by a wagon. t h e a r r e s t conve ;y him  'Sippy'.  He  i s not  to a very  generally  U s u a l l y the o f f i c e r o r o f f i c e r s making i n a police car.  U s u a l l y h i s car i s  impounded u n l e s s a r e s p o n s i b l e d r i v e r i s  a v a i l a b l e to d r i v e the v e h i c l e away. the s t a t i o n by the same e n t r a n c e and i n t o one  two  e i t h e r as he comes t o the a t t e n t i o n o f a p r o w l  o r p a t r o l v e h i c l e o r , i n the s e a s o n a l  towed away and  of  W h i l e he may  come i n t o  e l e v a t o r he i s not  o f the cages t o a w a i t b o o k i n g .  The  put  arresting officers  must s t a y w i t h him f o r whatever p e r i o d o f t i m e i s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n a l l p o s s i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and he  evidence.  As a r e s u l t ,  i s g e n e r a l l y t a k e n i n t o a s i d e room where he can  be  q u e s t i o n e d about h i s a c t i o n s and h i s consumption o f a l c o h o l . The  weight o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l i e s w i t h the o f f i c e r s t o  s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r s u s p i c i o n s o f h i s g u i l t and  he need  c o - o p e r a t e i f he f e e l s i t would i n c r i m i n a t e him.  Herein  a g r e a t d e a l o f i g n o r a n c e w h i c h , combined w i t h the and mental s t a t e o f the o f f e n d e r , may d e n i a l of c i t i z e n  lies  physical  significant  rights.  Arrests f o r t h i s offense 434,,  l e a d to  not  are w i t h o u t w a r r e n t .  Section  C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada s t a t e s t h a t i n t h i s case,  'A  p o l i c e o f f i c e r i s ( f u r t h e r ) empowered t o a r r e s t a person 'on r e a s o n a b l e and  who  p r o b a b l e grounds) i s b e l i e v e d t o have  committed o r t o be about t o commit a c r i m e . ' .  Immediately  upon h i s a r r e s t t h e c o n s t a b l e must 'warn' h i s p r i s o n e r i n the p r o p e r manner a d v i s i n g him t h a t a n y t h i n g he says may be 1 used as e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t him. I t i s t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n from o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t t h i s sequence i s n o t c a r r i e d out and p r o b a b l y f o r s e v e r a l  reasons.  F i r s t l y , t h e o f f i c e r wants t o know who he i s d e a l i n g w i t h , particularly his social status. suspect's disadvantage,  W h i l e t h i s may work t o t h e  i n t h e sense t h a t t h e o f f i c e r has not  made a f o r m a l charge, and c o n s e q u e n t l y  t h e p e r s o n need not  have gone w i t h t h e o f f i c e r t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n , t h e suspect i s r e c e i v i n g some b e n e f i t o f doubt i n t h e o f f i c e r ' s mind and may be a b l e t o r e c o v e r from t h e i n i t i a l shock t o make sure he does not a l l o w f u r t h e r i n f r i n g m e n t s .  I n o t h e r words, t h e  shock may 'sober him up' enough t o r e a l i z e h i s r i g h t s and t h e p r e c a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n he i s i n . As an o b s e r v e r , t h e w r i t e r was not a l l o w e d t o be p r e s e n t during the i n i t i a l period of questioning.  He was t o l d t h a t  t h i s i s a r o u t i n e w h e r e i n d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g name,  address,  l i q u o r consumption, p o s s i b l e o t h e r causes o f impairment o r sequence o f e v e n t s p r e v i o u s t o a p p r e h e n s i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d . There was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t any mention o f a s p e c i f i c charge was made.  I n one case t h e suspect d i d ask f o r , and  r e c e i v e d , a p r o p e r answer as t o what h i s r i g h t s were.  As a  r e s u l t he r e f u s e d t o co-operate t o any e x t e n t and when asked to t a k e a b r e a t h a l a t o r t e s t he r e f u s e d on t h e grounds t h a t 'he did  n o t want t o be u n c o - o p e r a t i v e 1.  C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada.  P r o c e d u r e Manual pp. 3 9 6 .  but he f e l t such a c t i o n was Sectn. 2 9 .  Also Popples  26 not i n h i s b e s t i n t e r e s t * . persuade  W h i l e the o f f i c e r s d i d t r y t o  him, u s i n g the argument t h a t such a t e s t may as  e a s i l y exhonerate  him as i m p l i c a t e him, t h e y d i d , a t the same  t i m e , a s s u r e him t h a t i t was h i s r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o t a k e the test.  He was e q u a l l y as u n c o - o p e r a t i v e about t a k i n g t h e  p h y s i c a l t e s t and was booked as a r e s u l t o f t h e high-speed chase, l e a d i n g t o h i s a p p r e h e n s i o n , on a dangerous d r i v i n g  charge.  The w r i t e r i n t e r v i e w e d t h e a r r e s t i n g o f f i c e r s a f t e r t h e man was booked, and w h i l e t h e y e x p r e s s e d some f e e l i n g s about t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e y s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was a common occurence and d i d not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t r e s s e d .  They s a i d t h e man  was v e r y s u s p e c t b u t , as l o n g as t h e r e was any doubt and as l o n g as he r e f u s e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e , t h e y had no c h o i c e but t o g i v e up t h e i d e a o f c h a r g i n g him as i m p a i r e d . The second appeared  case noted was somewhat d i f f e r e n t .  The s u s p e c t  l e s s w e l l informed and much more under t h e i n f l u e n c e  of a l c o h o l .  He was not q u e s t i o n e d f o r as l o n g a p e r i o d  as t h e f i r s t man and r e a d i l y s u b j e c t e d h i m s e l f t o t h e b r e a t h a l i z e r and p h y s i c a l t e s t s .  The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e  machine was e x p l a i n e d t o him and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s b e i n g proven i n t o x i c a t e d was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i f he was capable o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g any a c t i o n o r a c t i v i t y i n h i s e x i s t i n g  state.  T h i s i s not t o say t h a t he was b e i n g t a k e n advantage o f , as the o f f i c e r made i t c l e a r t h a t he was t a k i n g e v i d e n c e .  After  the b r e a t h a l i z e r t e s t was r e c o r d e d a t .017, which i s above the l e v e l accepted as s u f f i c i e n t t o i n d i c a t e impairment, and a f t e r a p h y s i c a l t e s t which f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d a l a c k o f  27 c o - o r d i n a t i o n , the man  was  w i t h impaired d r i v i n g . Impaired treatment  infromed  He was  t h a t he was  being  charged  t h e n o f f i c i a l l y booked.  d r i v e r s are not u s u a l l y s u b j e c t t o p r e f e r r e d  i n detention.  They are p l a c e d i n t h e  type of c e l l w i t h s i m i l a r o f f e n d e r s .  'dormitory'  Some ' S i p p y s ' may  be  put i n w i t h them but g e n e r a l l y these are t h e young men  or  f i r s t o f f e n d e r s whose deportment does not w a r r a n t b e i n g put i n the t a n k s . difference.  I t might be s a i d t h a t c l o t h e s  I t i s n o t i c e a b l e that i n these d e t e n t i o n u n i t s  the d i s h e v e l e d , somewhat unkempt and d i r t y men absent. bringing  make a  Most o f these men  are  conspicuous  are a w a i t i n g l a w y e r s o r r e l a t i v e s  bail.  They are s u b j e c t t o f o u r hours minimum d e t e n t i o n a f t e r w h i c h time t h e y can l e a v e on t h e i r own b a i l e d out by f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s . s t a t u s a l s o e n t e r s i n these c a s e s .  recognizance  To some e x t e n t A man  social  r e s i d i n g i n , or  even b e t t e r , owning p r o p e r t y i n the c i t y and having respectable occupation  or be  a  i n v o l v i n g steady employment and  can r e a d i l y g a i n h i s freedom by s i g n i n g a bond v a l u e d  $100.00  and  $250.00.  same amounts and  income between  I f t h e r e i s any doubt, b a i l i n the  i n cash, may  be demanded.  The  p e r s o n from  out o f town o r not a b l e t o demonstrate ' s t a b i l i t y '  in  r e s i d e n c e o r income and l a c k i n g f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s ,  may  w e l l f i n d t h a t he cannot get r e l e a s e d . The  lawyers  i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h a t the b a i l s i t u a t i o n f o r  i m p a i r e d d r i v e r s i s , on the whole, b o t h good and f a i r . was  There  an i s s u e made by t h e s e gentlemen about the p r o f e s s i o n a l  28  bondsmen who  are e v i d e n t and c o n s i d e r e d somewhat q u e s t i o n a b l e  by some l a w y e r s .  I t i s t r a d i t i o n a l t h a t any person b e i n g a  landowner o r h a v i n g t a n g i b l e p r o p e r t y o r cash may s u r i t y f o r an accused  p r o v i d i n g such p r o p e r t y i s  o f any encumbrances o r l i a b i l i t i e s .  provide clear.•••7  I t i s u n l a w f u l , under the  o r i g i n a l o l d E n g l i s h system, f o r a bondsman t o get recompense for  p u t t i n g up b a i l .  However, i t i s s t a t e d t h a t bondsmen  i n Vancouver are c o l l e c t i n g 10 t o 15 p e r c e n t on b a i l which t h e y put up.  Here a g a i n t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n of- m o r a l i t y  v e r s u s the law.  W h i l e these bondsmen may  be c r i t i s i z e d  as  f r a u d u l e n t , t h e r e i s no doubt the s e r v i c e t h e y o f f e r has a high r i s k factor.  The danger l i e s i n the l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n  o r a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s s e r v i c e t o a l l o f f e n d e r s .  The p r o f e s s i o n -  a l bondsman i s g o i n g t o be e v e r y b i t as c a u t i o u s as the J u s t i c e o f the Peace, t o whom the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s made, and the same accused  t h a t was  and l e a v i n g on h i s own  r e f u s e d freedom by s i g n i n g a bond  recognizance  i s l i k e l y t o be seen as  an e q u a l l y poor r i s k by the bondsman.  To t h i s e x t e n t t h e r e  i s some d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the v i s i t o r , the s t r a n g e r , o r the c i t i z e n who In  may  be unemployed o r w i t h o u t p r o p e r t y .  the end most do get b a i l o r are r e l e a s e d on  recognizance  and are a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , to get l e g a l a d v i c e . Most i m p a i r e d d r i v e r s a r e t r e a t e d as summary o f f e n d e r s and l e g a l c o u n s e l i s , t h e r e f o r e , not e x p e n s i v e . a d v i s e d t o p l e a d one way  They are  o r the o t h e r so t h a t t r i a l s  are  f a s t and the l e g a l expense i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g w i t n e s s e s , w a i t i n g out remands and numerous c o n s u l t a t i o n s i s not  29  necessary.  The i n t e r v i e w e d  lawyers s t a t e t h a t , although the  f i n e s are very s t i f f , the offenders  get a v e r y f a i r  hearing  i n c o u r t and, as i n t h e p r o c e s s o r a r r e s t a r e t r e a t e d some r e s p e c t .  The f a c t t h a t most have l e g a l c o u n s e l  with isa  f a c t o r i n t h i s , of course. Many do r e c e i v e p r i s o n s e n t e n c e s .  During the f i r s t 1  6 months o f 1 9 6 3 , 2o"0 such o f f e n d e r s were committed t o O a k a l l a . It  i s impossible  t o d i s t i n g u i s h how many o f these were g i v e n  t h e o p t i o n o f a f i n e o r p r i s o n b u t , as t h e f i n e s a r e not t h a t h i g h , i t c o u l d be suggested t h a t most were not o f f e r e d t h a t alternative. regarding  A s t r i k i n g p o i n t mentioned by one l a w y e r  fines i s significant at t h i s point.  seldom d i s c e r n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e o f f e n d e r  Magistrates  t o pay. No  c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between t h e l e v i e d f i n e and t h e e a r n i n g power o f t h e o f f e n d e r .  W h i l e t h i s i s an i d e a l i s t i c  o f v i e w i t does r e p r e s e n t  point  a s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c y i n the  j u d i c i a l system because t h e $ 3 0 0 . 0 0 f i n e t o a w e a l t h y person may be i n c o n v e n i e n t  but t o a w o r k i n g man i t can be d i s a s t r o u s .  T h i s i s n o t t o suggest t h a t t h e punishment f i t the crime as much as t h e punishment b r i n g i n g e q u a l i t y o f consequence upon t h e c r i m i n a l .  The f a c t t h a t t h i s type o f crime c o v e r s  such a broad a r e a o f t h e s o c i e t y i n d i c a t e s a need t o s c a l e punishment w i t h r e g a r d  to the a b i l i t y of the offender t o  handle i t . As a r e s u l t t h e l o w e r wage e a r n e r can s u f f e r a g r e a t d e a l from t h i s and t h e l o s s o f w o r k i n g t i m e , o f p r i d e 1. P r o v i n c e o f B.C. of C o r r e c t i o n s . 1962/63.  Annual Report o f t h e D i r e c t o r  30  and p r e s t i g e when he has no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o s e r v e time i n a p r i s o n , i s an o b v i o u s The  over-punishment.  o f f e n d e r charged w i t h t h e crime as an i n d i c t a b l e  o f f e n s e i s i n a g r e a t d e a l more t r o u b l e b o t h i n r e g a r d t o expense and t i m e .  He must f i r s t  in a preliminary hearing. one o f t h r e e c h o i c e s : judge and j u r y .  appear b e f o r e a m a g i s t r a t e  D u r i n g t h i s he can  e l e c t t r i a l by  by a m a g i s t r a t e , by a judge o r by a  Most persons  charged w i t h an i n d i c t a b l e  o f f e n s e f i n d they must o b t a i n l e g a l c o u n s e l i f t h e y s e l e c t a judge o r judge and j u r y t r i a l .  As t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n  punishment, most e l e c t t r i a l by m a g i s t r a t e . money a v a i l a b l e t o t h e accused  Here a g a i n t h e  i s a great f a c t o r .  Few can  a f f o r d t h e expense o f a l a w y e r , t h e time n e c e s s a r y f o r s e v e r a l c o u r t appearances o r t h e c o s t o f b a i l over an extended p e r i o d o f t i m e . court.  As a r e s u l t few go beyond m a g i s t r a t e s  The same l a w y e r s who p r o v i d e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  i n d i c a t e d t h a t about one h a l f o f t h e people charged w i t h t h i s o f f e n s e were found, released.  i n subsequent t r i a l s ,  They term t h i s type o f t r i a l  s t a t e t h a t i t i s seldom d i f f e r e n t .  not g u i l t y and 'formula t r i a l ' and  I f a breathalizer test  has been t a k e n t h e r e i s almost a c e r t a i n t y o f c o n v i c t i o n whereas l a c k o f such evidence may ensure a r e l e a s e .  This  r e l a t e s back t o t h e p o i n t o f a r r e s t and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i n i t i a l a c t i o n s o f t h e accused  o f t e n when he i s l e s s  a b l e t o g e t l e g a l c o u n s e l o r make proper and r a t i o n a l decisions. It  i s o f t h e o p i n i o n o f l a w y e r s and j a i l employees t h a t  31  persons charged w i t h d r i v i n g w h i l e i m p a i r e d do g e t t h e b e s t possible  t r e a t m e n t except as t h e y a r e unable to d i s c e r n what  i s i n t h e i r best i n t e r e s t s i n g i v i n g evidence. policeman p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y s t a t e d ,  However, one  ' I f t h e y a r e so drunk t h e y  don't know what t h e y a r e d o i n g o r how t h e y a r e i m p l i c a t i n g themselves by t h e s e t e s t s , t h e y a r e o b v i o u s l y t o o drunk t o d r i v e and deserve t o be found g u i l t y . ' .  Perhaps t h i s i s s o .  However, i t i s a l s o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e o f f i c e r , not o n l y t o warn t h e accused o f t h e p o s s i b l e  outcome o f h i s g i v i n g  e v i d e n c e , b u t t o be sure he understands  i t . The g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  a r i s e s when t h e p o l i c e a r e i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f d e a l i n g w i t h an i n t o x i c a t e d person who, almost always, t u r n s out t o be t h e prosecutor's best witness.  CHAPTER IV B r e a k i n g and E n t e r i n g W h i l e i t i s not the i n t e n t o f t h i s paper to d i s c u s s  any  s p e c i f i c o f f e n s e , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the crime i n l e g a l terms s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e , b o t h i n the p r e v i o u s case and  in this  p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n s e , the j u d i c i a l environment w h i c h i s the framework i n w h i c h the accused r e c e i v e s a p p r o p r i a t e  justice.  B r e a k i n g and e n t r y i s an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e o f more s e v e r e , than i s g e n e r a l l y known o r a p p r e c i a t e d , consequence. P o p p l e s quotes the C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada, 'Everyone  who  (a) breaks and e n t e r s a p l a c e w i t h i n t e n t t o commit an i n d i c t a b l e offense t h e r e i n ;  (b) b r e a k s and e n t e r s a p l a c e  and  commits an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e t h e r e i n ; o r (c) b r e a k s o</£ o f a place a f t e r (1) (11)  committing  an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e t h e r e i n o r ,  e n t e r i n g the p l a c e w i t h i n t e n t t o commit an  indictable  o f f e n s e t h e r e i n i s g u i l t y of an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e and i s liable  (d) t o imprisonment f o r l i f e i f the o f f e n s e i s committed  i n r e l a t i o n t o a d w e l l i n g house; o r (e) t o imprisonment f o r f o u r t e e n y e a r s i f the o f f e n s e i s committed i n r e l a t i o n t o a 1  p l a c e o t h e r t h a n a d w e l l i n g house. (Code S. 292 (1)  )  By t h i s q u o t a t i o n the s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h i s o f f e n s e i s o b v i o u s and the r e s u l t a n t j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s e s must be  so  geared t o the s e v e r i t y t h a t the chance o f e r r o r s i s m i n i m i z e d . E r r o r means:  Ltd.  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the wrong man  i s arrested,  1. P o p p l e , A. C r i m i n a l Procedure Manual, C a r s w e l l Company Toronto, 1956, pp. 5 7 - 5 8 .  -33  t r i e d or convicted of the offense. There were 2 7 8 a r r e s t s f o r b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g i n Vancouver  i n 1963.  committed.  Comparison  attempts  There were 4 , 5 2 5 o f f e n s e s o f t h i s t y p e  number o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  o f t h e s e f i g u r e s w i l l bear out a F i r s t , t h a t not a l l t h e o f f e n d e r s  were caught; s e c o n d l y , t h a t t h o s e t h a t were caught  committed  numerous o f f e n s e s ; t h i r d , t h a t apprehending o r a r r e s t i n g f o r t h i s offense i s r e l & t i v l y d i f f i c u l t .  In actual fact, a l l  three are c o r r e c t a c c o r d i n g to v e t e r a n policemen. hard t o apprehend  t h i s type o f o f f e n d e r .  people  I t i s very  He g e n e r a l l y p l a n s  w e l l f o r t h e crime he i s g o i n g t o commit.  He knows what i s  i n s i d e and i s somewhat d i s c r i m i n a t e b o t h i n what he t a k e s and how he g e t s i t , . 'There  A t t h i s p o i n t , as one l a w y e r s t a t e s i t ,  i s a s e p a r a t i o n o f pros and amateurs.  The amateur i s  most o f t e n caught on t h e premises o f t e n h a v i n g t r i p p e d a b u r g l a r alarm.  The p r o f e s s i o n a l i s l e s s l i k e l y , t o make such  and e r r o r and l e s s l i k e l y t o g e t caught.'. The g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r r e s t l i e s i n f i n g e r p r i n t s o r equipment t h a t can make i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h r o u g h methods.  scientific  The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e Vancouver  i d e n t i f i e d v e r y c l o s e t o t h r e e hundred  Police  such ' l a t e n t ' p r i n t s i n  1 9 6 3 l e a d i n g t o w a r r a n t s b e i n g sworn o u t .  Four t h i n g s must  be proven i n c o n v i c t i n g t h i s t y p e o f o f f e n d e r :  i d e n t i t y at  the scene, t h e c o m m i t t a l o f t h e a c t u a l a c t , t h e i n t e n t t o commit t h e a c t and the f a c t t h a t t h e a c t was committed  1.  Annual R e p o r t .  Vancouver  by t h e  C i t y P o l i c e Department, 1 9 6 3 .  34  accused.  T h i s i m p l i e s a need f o r a g r e a t d e a l o f c a r e f u l •  work by s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s o f the p o l i c e f o r c e i f a c o n v i c t i o n i s t o be made.  T h i s i s f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by a v e r y busy  crime l a b o r o t o r y and f i n g e r p r i n t squad.  The d e t e c t i v e s and  the p a t r o l s e c t i o n must ask a g r e a t many q u e s t i o n s >• . a g r e a t many t i m e s b e f o r e a f i r m a r r e s t can be made.  As i t i s not  the purpose o f t h i s paper to' e x p l o r e p o l i c e methods t o  any  g r e a t degree l i t t l e more can be s a i d except t h a t a g r e a t burden o f p r o o f r e s t s on the p o l i c e o f f i c e r i n such a case. The amateur i s l e s s l i k e l y t o i n v o l v e such an p o l i c e involvement.  intricate  U s u a l l y he i s apprehended on the  premises  e i t h e r by a s i l e n t a l a r m o r an a l e r t p a t r o l o f f i c e r .  This  has become a s t a n d a r d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the use o f the squads.  I n the p a s t , i f a b r e a k i n g and e n t r y was  i t meant c a l l i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e policemen t o the s u r r o u n d i n g the premises caught.  dog  discovered, scene,  and s e a r c h i n g u n t i l the suspect  was  O f t e n he escaped d u r i n g the time when r e i n f o r c e m e n t s  were on the way.  At p r e s e n t the more g e n e r a l procedure  i s to  prevent the d e p l e t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s and p r o t e c t i o n i n o t h e r c i t y areas by c a l l i n g a dog squad c a r and h a v i n g the.dog and h i s h a n d l e r s e a r c h the p r e m i s e s . was  D u r i n g 1963  the dog  i n v o l v e d i n 762 b u i l d i n g s e a r c h e s , 762 b r e a k i n g  squad  and  1  e n t e r i n g and 1,223  alarms a t t e n d e d .  Though many c i t i z e n s  have p r o t e s t e d the use o f dogs i n p o l i c e work t h i s i s perhaps one o u t s t a n d i n g argument f o r t h e i r use where the e n t i r e p o l i c e s h i f t , on d u t y , does not have t o 'spread t h i n ' because of 1.  Annual R e p o r t , Vancouver P o l i c e Department, 1963,  pp.  26.  35":  one a l a r m .  Many o f f i c e r s i n s i s t  t h a t i t i s not o n l y a g r e a t  economy but may w e l l save human l i v e s as t h e s e f r i g h t e n e d  and  c o r n e r e d amateurs r e a c t , i n the darkness o f a s t r a n g e b u i l d i n g , t o t h e need f o r f l i g h t .  C o n f r o n t e d by a l a r g e  b a r k i n g dog, t h e y are l e s s l i k e l y to become v i o l e n t u s u a l l y g i v e themselves up w i t h some r e l i e f .  and  Lawyers and  p o l i c e both s t a t e t h a t r a r e l y are t h e r e any s i g n s o f v i o l e n c e when a dog i s i n v o l v e d i n such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  Dogs are  c a r e f u l l y chosen and about n i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t are r e j e c t e d of those t h a t are o f f e r e d t o the p o l i c e .  The most common  f a c t o r i n e l i m i n a t i o n i s '.an u n d e s i r a b l e temperament' . highly skilled  These  a n i m a l s are a g r e a t a s s e t i n t h i s type o f  investigation. A g r e a t many o f the persons caught i n t h i s manner a r e youths.  To them i t i s o f t e n a crime ' f o r k i c k s ' , an  To t h e s e p e o p l e , o r t o the more p r o f e s s i o n a l  adventure.  criminals  a r r e s t e d a f t e r i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the o p p o r t u n i t y o f g e t t i n g the b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t i s f a r g r e a t e r t h a n f o r o t h e r s . They are more o f t e n o f f e r e d L e g a l A i d o r are found money f o r counsel.  W i t h a good lawyer and w i t h the p r o s e c u t o r h a v i n g  t h e g r e a t burden o f p r o o f , a c q u i t t a l i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e . D e t e n t i o n w i l l be i n a s e p e r a t e d u n i t and not the d o r m i t o r y o r 'tank' type c e l l .  The o f f e n d e r i s not booked  u n t i l the p o l i c e have c a r e f u l l y q u e s t i o n e d him o r f e e l t h a t t h e y have s u f f i c i e n t evidence to stand up i n c o u r t . t h e p r o c e s s o f a r r e s t , the b e n e f i t l i e s w i t h the  Even i n  accused.  E v e r y person booked on an i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e i s  36  f i n g e r p r i n t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r being i n detention.  T h i s i s made  p o s s i b l e by h a v i n g an i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r on d u t y twenty-four  hours a day. A copy o f t h e b o o k i n g sheet i s  sent t o t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r and t h e accused i s ' s e a r c h e d through the e x i s t i n g f i l e s .  The f i n g e r p r i n t s a r e coded o r  c l a s s i f i e d and, i f p o s s i b l e , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d . I f t h e r e i s evidence o f p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n o n l y t h e f i n g e r p r i n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s useable Code.  by d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e C r i m i n a l  Names o r p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n a r e not c o n s i d e r e d as  r e l i a b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n court. U n t i l t h e c u r r e n t charge i s d i s p o s e d  o f b e f o r e the c o u r t ,  any o t h e r procedure o r c h e c k i n g o f i d e n t i t y i s suspended. Once t h e r e i s a d i s p o s i t i o n , t h e f i n g e r p r i n t s a r e checked w i t h t h e R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e f i l e s i n Ottawa. The  o f f e n d e r , when c o n v i c t e d , i s f i n g e r p r i n t e d a t O a k a l l a  P r i s o n Farm o r a t t h e F e d e r a l P e n i t e n t i a r y and these a r e then cross referenced w i t h the f i n g e r p r i n t s taken at the time o f a r r e s t t o make sure t h a t t h e c o r r e c t p e r s o n has been d e l i v e r e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . None o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n gained  t h r o u g h t h i s process i s  a v a i l a b l e t o the offender or h i s lawyer.  As a r e s u l t ,  unless  the o f f e n d e r c o n f i d e s f u l l y w i t h h i s l a w y e r , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e only t o the prosecutor. B a i l i s a v a i l a b l e on much t h e same terms as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r w i t h the impaired d r i v e r .  The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s  the ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' o r known o f f e n d e r .  with  T h i s type o f o f f e n d e r  i s u s u a l l y w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h knowledge e n s u r i n g  availability  1  37 o f b a i l and l e g a l c o u n s e l .  I t i s s t a t e d , by one o f t h e  lawyers interviewed, that l e g a l a i d i s i n s u f f i c i e n t .  The  p r o c e d u r e s and p r o c e s s e s o f l e g a l a i d a r e w e l l l a i d out and a v a i l a b i l i t y t o every c i t i z e n .  As i n most l e g a l m a t t e r s  t h e r e does seem t o be a p l u r a l i t y o f i g n o r a n c e about t h e f u n c t i o n of the Legal A i d e f f o r t i n the province. Free l e g a l a i d has been a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c i t i e s o f Vancouver and V i c t o r i a s i n c e 1950. I n 1952 t h i s was extended t o i n c l u d e t h e remainder o f t h e p r o v i n c e t h r o u g h t h e o f f i c e s of t h e B.C. Law S o c i e t y . Eligibility  i s d e t e r m i n e d by f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e  f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the a p p l i c a n t .  The b r o c u r e a v a i l a b l e from  the Law S o c i e t y s t a t e s , 'No d o l l a r s and c e n t s s t a n d a r d has been l a i d down as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d each case on i t s own m e r i t s . aid  preferable to deal with  A person i s q u a l i f i e d f o r l e g a l  i f r e q u i r i n g him t o pay l e g a l f e e s would i m p a i r h i s  a b i l i t y t o f u r n i s h h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l s n e c e s s a r y t o keep them d e c e n t l y f e d , c l o t h e d , s h e l t e r e d and l i v i n g t o g e t h e r as a f a m i l y , o r where he i s a t t h e moment without  funds and r e q u i r e s immediate l e g a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e 1  preservation of his legal rights.  The c r u c i a l p o i n t i n t h i s  statement i s t h e c l a u s e , ' i t i s c o n s i d e r e d w i t h each case on i t s own m e r i t s ' . a Law S o c i e t y o f f i c i a l in  preferable to deal  An i n t e r v i e w w i t h  i l l u s t r a t e s the great  difficulties  this.  1. L e g a l A i d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. O f f i c e o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Law S o c i e t y o f B.C., Vancouver, B.C.  3,3' Initial  c o n t a c t w i t h the a p p l i c a n t i s g e n e r a l l y made  t h r o u g h a S a l v a t i o n Army worker i n O a k a l l a .  The  official  noted t h a t t h e r e i s no d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e nor i s i t common knowledge t h a t l e g a l a i d i s a v a i l a b l e .  The most common  c o n t a c t comes t h r o u g h a f e l l o w inmate i n the h o l d i n g wing at O a k a l l a p r i s o n and the accused must t h e n seek out S a l v a t i o n Army worker.  the  I n some cases the S a l v a t i o n Army worker  i n t h e C i t y J a i l o r courtroom  sees, hears o f , o r i s r e q u e s t e d  by the m a g i s t r a t e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e a p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a n t . same Law lay  Society o f f i c i a l  a d m i t t e d t h a t the g r e a t weakness  i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f an accused  statements counsel.  The  p e r s o n g i v i n g evidence  p r e v i o u s t o c o u r t appearance and w i t h o u t  or  legal  He d i d f e e l , however, t h a t most m a g i s t r a t e s were  c a u t i o u s and s u f f i c i e n t l y d e s i r o u s o f s e e i n g j u s t i c e done t h a t t h e y r e a d i l y remanded any case where t h e y  thought  c o u n s e l s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d and a d v i s e the accused  he  should  a v a i l himself of free l e g a l a i d i f p o s s i b l e . F i n a n c i n g o f the l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e i s by an honorarium p a i d to the l a w y e r on a per deirn r a t e w h i c h v a r i e s i n a c c o r d w i t h the c o u r t i n which the accused  i s t o be t r i e d .  monies f o r t h i s come from the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s  Office.  A l s o f i n a n c e d by the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l are the v e r y t r a n s c r i p t s necessary f o r appeals.  The  expensive  T h i s money i s f o r t h c o m i n g  so l o n g as the L e g a l A i d committee approves payment.  The  d e c i s i o n - t o g i v e l e g a l a i d , t o a p p e a l and to get the t r a n s c r i p t s , i s t h e r e f o r e i n the hands o f the Law S o c i e t y . In most cases t h i s means one a p p o i n t e d l a w y e r but i f t h e r e i s  39  doubt i n h i s mind a l e g a l a i d committee w i l l r e a c h a d e c i s i o n . Where t h e r e i s any doubt a t a l l t h e case i s u s u a l l y undertaken by t h e S o c i e t y and t h e Lav; S o c i e t y o f f i c i a l s t a t e s t h e l i m i t s s e t m e r e l y e l i m i n a t e t h e most o b v i o u s l y n e g a t i v e cases and g e n e r a l l y t h e s e people a r e t o o w i s e to a p p l y i n any c a s e . Some i d e a o f the scope and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e L e g a l A i d committee  c a n be e l i c i t e d from the pamphlet p r e s e n t e d by t h e  Law S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e year 1963 i n w h i c h i t was  s t a t e d t h a t , o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s r e f u s e d t h e r e were  208 c i v i l cases and 64 c r i m i n a l .  There were 295 c a s e s , many  o f them domestic m a r i t a l o r p r o p e r t y m a t t e r s , t h a t were d e a l t w i t h summarily.  F i n a l l y , t h e r e were 406 c a s e s , o f which  183 were o f a p u r e l y c r i m i n a l n a t u r e , t h a t were r e f e r r e d t o 1  solicitors. Another a r e a i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a d e t e r r a n t t o l e g a l A i d i s the c l a u s e s t a t i n g t h a t f r e e l e g a l a i d s h a l l n o t be g i v e n f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s from t h e date o f r e l e a s e from p r i s o n f o r any p r e v i o u s o f f e n s e .  T h i s c l a u s e has been  extended a g r e a t d e a l m a i n l y due t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g c o u n s e l f o r persons charged as h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l s . I t has now become an a u t o m a t i c procedure f o r such persons t o get l e g a l a i d and t h i s has been r e i n f o r c e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s w i t h i n t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s honorarium. The g r e a t weakness i n t h i s system l i e s i n t h e l a c k o f p u b l i c knowledge about i t .  1963.  1.  The Law S o c i e t y o f t h e p r o v i n c e ,  Report t o t h e L e g a l A i d Committee.  B.C. Law S o c i e t y  A  0  r e c o g n i z i n g t h i s , sent out a brochure t o a l l o f the mass media d a t e d November 30th. 1964,  a s k i n g them t o use any  possible  means t o d i s p e l the e x i s t i n g i g n o r a n c e and p r o v i d i n g them w i t h an i n f o r m a t i o n o u t l i n e o f the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The S o c i e t y o f f i c i a l s c o m p l a i n t h a t t h i s  s t i l l has not had f u l l coverage and are d e s i r o u s o f f i n d i n g a way  t o make t h e p u b l i c conversant o f t h e i r  service.  I n t h i s same brochure t h e y i n d i c a t e one g r e a t s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r system as i t d i f f e r s from the p u b l i c system i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  defenders  The brochure s t a t e s , 'The  S o c i e t y does not f a v o r t h e P u b l i c Defender  system.  Law  The S o c i e t y  i s endeavouring t o d e v e l o p a l e g a l a i d scheme a l o n g the l i n e s o f the l e g a l a i d scheme i n Great B r i t a i n .  It is felt  t h a t t h i s has an advantage over t h e P u b l i c Defender  system i n  the the person o b t a i n i n g t h e s e s e r v i c e s i s s e r v e d i n e f f e c t h i s own  l a w y e r who  by  i s c o m p l e t e l y u n f e t t e r e d by any t i e s o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e Crown o r the Government.'* I n summary, the o f f e n d e r charged w i t h B r e a k i n g and E n t e r i n g does r e c e i v e a good o p p o r t u n i t y t o m a i n t a i n h i s freedom i f i n n o c e n t w h i l e t h e s o c i e t y i s f a i r l y p r o t e c t e d i f he i s g u i l t y .  adequately  The n e c e s s i t y of p r o o f which  l i e s as an o b l i g a t i o n o f the p r o s e c u t o r , the care and he r e c e i v e s o r h i s a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l , b o t h  attention  spiritual  and l e g a l and the f a c i l i t i e s i n w h i c h he i s d e t a i n e d are a l l w i t h i n expected norms.  On the o t h e r hand, the improvement o f  s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n procedures and the e x t e n s i v e p r o c e s s e s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and f i n g e r p r i n t i n g can r e a d i l y a s s u r e t h a t a t r u e o f f e n d e r i s apprehended and t a k e n out o f s o c i e t y .  CHAPTER V Summary and C o n c l u s i o n J u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s f a r more i m p o r t a n t t o each and  every c i t i z e n than i s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d .  The i m p l i c a t i o n s  o f t h i s l i e i n s e v e r a l a r e a s ; i n the r i g h t s o f a c i t i z e n on the s t r e e t and i n t h e c o u r t , i n t h e c o s t t o the c i t i z e n f o r p o l i c e , c o u r t s and g o a l s and i n the guarantee s o c i e t y t h a t something i s b e i n g accomplished  t o the e n t i r e t o assure h i s  s a f e t y and h i s p r o p e r t y as o f f e n d e r s a r e apprehended,  sentenced  and t r e a t e d i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s . F i r s t , l e t us d e a l w i t h t h e mechanism o f j u s t i c e as i t can a f f e c t t h e c i t i z e n on t h e s t r e e t and i n t h e c o u r t s h o u l d he be a r r e s t e d . The C i v i l L i b e r t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i n r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t any c i t i z e n ' s r i g h t s can be j e o p o r d i z e d , 1 has t u r n e d out an e x c e l l e n t pamphlet e n t i t l e d ' A r r e s t ' . T h i s b o o k l e t c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e s t h e r i g h t s and t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f b o t h t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r and t h e c i t i z e n .  The need which  c r e a t e d t h i s b o o k l e t l i e s , not i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r  rights  are t r a m p l e d on, but i n t h e g r o s s i g n o r a n c e w h i c h p r e v a i l s throughout  the s o c i e t y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e l a w , i t s  s t r u c t u r e and i t s f u n c t i o n .  The number o f persons  s t r e e t a t any time t h a t a r e s u b j e c t t o b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d and d e t a i n e d i s tremendous.  on t h e  stopped,  One o n l y needs t o  count t h e number o f l i q u o r o u t l e t s i n t h e downtown a r e a and 1.  Arrest.  B.C. C i v i l L i b e r t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver, B.C.  42  r e l a t e t h i s t o the number o f customers t h a t d r i v e away from t h a t a r e a t o t h e i r homes t o equate how  many persons are  t o a charge of i m p a i r e d d r i v i n g , f o r example.  I t i s only  d i s c r e t i o n o f the p a t r o l l i n g policeman t h a t d e c i d e s who l i a b l e t o be stopped and who  i s not.  judge.  He  He  nor  can o n l y a c t as he i s t r a i n e d to a c t o r as he He  is  i t is  can be n e i t h e r p r o s e c u t o r  e t s the e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e .  the  To t h i s e x t e n t he b e a r s  a tremendous o b l i g a t i o n i n d e c i d i n g when, and who appropriate to a r r e s t .  subject  interpr-  i s not o b l i g e d t o i n t e r p r e t the  C r i m i n a l C o d e n o r i s he expected to i n f o r m the n a i v e or enlighten,.-, the i g n o r a n t .  He has an i n s t r u m e n t ,  a C r i m i n a l Code, which  he must t r y t o use to p r o t e c t the m a j o r i t y from a few.  To  t h i s extent, h i s p o s i t i o n i s unenviable. Shakespeare s a i d , 'The  law i s an a s s ' , but e q u a l l y as  t h i s beast o f burden has been r e p l a c e d by modern m e c h a n i c a l conveyances so has the law become a machine. e v i d e n t i n the l a r g e i m p e r s o n a l From the moment a man  T h i s i s most  urban a r e a s such as Vancouver.  i s a r r e s t e d on the s t r e e t , o r apprehend-  ed i n s u s p i c i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  the m a t t e r becomes a s e r i e s  o r syndrome which must go f u l l c y c l e . t o h a l t a t any p o i n t w i t h o u t  I t cannot be brought  r e p e r c u s s i o n s t o somebody  o r some p a r t i n the j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s l  To the  extent  t h a t the p o l i c e become b e t t e r t r a i n e d and more e f f i c i e n t t h e y are a b l e to d e a l w i t h more p e o p l e .  The  intake into  the machine i n c r e a s e s and u n f o r t u n a t e l y , not a l l of the machine i n c r e a s e s i t s e f f i c i e n c y c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y .  The  g e n e r a l p u b l i c a l s o remains s t a t i c i n i t s knowledge o f what  43 t h e y can do t o p r o t e c t themselves when t h e y a r e caught up i n the p r o c e s s . The laws themselves a r e q u e s t i o n a b l e i n some cases and t h e r e was a g e n e r a l consensus o f o p i n i o n among a l l t h e people i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y t h a t i n c e r t a i n a r e a s such as t h e S t a t e o f I n t o x i c a t i o n c a s e s , t h e e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i s not a l i g n e d o r i n accordance w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g problems.  A g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t e n t i o n e x i s t s b o t h i n and out  o f l e g a l c i r c l e s about t h e use o f compulsory b r e a t h a l i z e r t e s t s f o r suspected impaired d r i v e r s .  The use o f r a d a r  t o t r a p t h e u n s u s p e c t i n g m o t o r i s t has not been c o n t e s t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y , and i n t h i s age o f s c i e n t i f i c  achievement,  t h e use o f s i m i l a r m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e s a r e e q u a l l y * . a l l o w a b l e . As s t a t e d by t h e p o l i c e m a n i n t h e case o f the s u s p e c t e d i m p a i r e d d r i v e r might not t h e t e s t s as e a s i l y exhonerate t h e s u s p e c t e d i m p a i r e d d r i v e r and i n d e e d , i f made compulsory f o r t h e 'Sippy* might i t not a l s o d i s c r i m i n a t e t h e a l c o h o l i c from t h e p h y s i c a l l y o r m e n t a l l y i l l s u s p e c t but not proven.  person whose a c t i o n s a r e  S u r e l y we s h o u l d be a b l e t o  d i s c r i m i n a t e t h e s i c k from t h e sodden and t r e a t eahh i n accordance w i t h h i s problems. Another common e x p r e s s i o n i s t h a t * i g n o r a n c e o f the law i s no excuse*.  Indeed, t h e r e i s no excuse f o r b r e a k i n g  t h e l a w and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how one c o u l d be i g n o r a n t o f t h e more o b v i o u s laws which would a f f e c t t h e great m a j o r i t y , but ignorance o f l a w f u l l process i s another t h i n g and a l l t o o common.  Nor i s i t easy t o see how i t can  44be d i s p e l l e d .  The  C i v i l L i b e r t i e s S o c i e t y , t h e Law  and s e v e r a l p u b l i c a g e n c i e s  Society  do t r y to b r i n g such knowledge  t o the people but the v e r y people who  have the d e s i r e or  i n t e l l i g e n c e t o i n q u i r e are those who  would l e a s t need the  information.  I t was  s t a t e d by one of the l a w y e r s  interviewed  t h a t what i s r e q u i r e d i s a ' b r a k i n g d e v i c e ' b u i l t i n t o m a c h i n e , .  The  the  s e t t i n g - u p of a s o c i a l agency w i t h i n the  j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s w h i c h c o u l d i n t e r v e n e a t the b e g i n n i n g d i s c e r n who purpose.  needed a i d o r who  to  needed a d v i c e , c o u l d serve  this  T h i s would not be l e g a l a i d but r a t h e r , a  d i s p e n s a t i o n o f knowledge and a i d t o ensure the p r o t e c t i o n o f not o n l y the d e f e n d e r but h i s dependents, h i s home and h i s job. D u r i n g the summer of 1964,  t h i s candidate,  working  as a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n a Vancouver I s l a n d c i t y , extended t h i s type o f s e r v i c e t o the l a r g e I n d i a n community i n the area, w i t h a great d e a l of success.  He was  supported  in  t h i s by the p o l i c e and the m a g i s t r a t e and on s e v e r a l o c c a s s i o n s , a t t h e i r r e q u e s t or by a v i s i t from a p e r s o n charged w i t h an o f f e n s e , he was  able to protect a  person,  not n e c e s s a r i l y from a m i s c a r r i a g e o f j u s t i c e , but more o f t e n from b e i n g overwhelmed and or t h e i r ignorance. may  Although  c o n v i c t e d by t h e i r f e a r  t h i s sample o'£ p o p u l a t i o n  be ''..atypical they v e r y o f t e n gave a p l e a of g u i l t y to  something t h e y had not done o r a t l e a s t not w i t h the i n t e n t l a i d out i n the C r i m i n a l Code and the subsequent charge.  45 The  consequent d i g n i t y i n t h e c o u r t and t h e c r e a t e d p r i d e t  o f t h e accused i n a t l e a s t f i g h t i n g h i s case had profound consequences throughout t h e e n t i r e I n d i a n group.  The m a g i s t r a t e  f e l t l e s s o f aburden o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c e were tempered by t h e knowledge t h a t every a r r e s t was not n e c e s s a r i l y a c o n v i c t i o n . A person,  o r agency, f i l l i n g t h i s r o l e i n t h e c i t y o f  Vancouver i s l o n g overdue. probably  The s a v i n g t o t h e s o c i e t y would  pay f o r t h e a d d i t i o n a l c o s t and t h e ignorance o f  t h e - c i t i z e n c o u l d be, f o r t h e most p a r t , a l l e v i a t e d  before  he was swept i n t o t h e machinery and i n t o t h e crowded, courts.  impersonal  T h i s i s not t o i m p l y t h a t t h e r e should be l e s s p o l i c e  e f f o r t o r more people a c q u i t t e d when t h e i r g u i l t is" proven but i t does mean t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c does have some balance  o f power i n t h e f a c e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d t e c h n i c a l  .methodology and e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e j u d i c i a l machine of today. The  second view o f t h e e x i s t i n g j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  must t i e i n w i t h t h e c o s t t o t h e t a x p a y e r .  While the e x i s t i n g  j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a machine i t - i s not as c o m p l e t e l y e f f i c i e n t n o r as e c o n o m i c a l as i t c o u l d be. The Vancouver P o l i c e budget f o r 1963 one h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s .  was over s i x and  B e t t e r t h a n two t h i r d s o f t h i s  was f o r s a l a r i e s w i t h t h e l a r g e s t payments f o r employee f r i n g e b e n e f i t s and p e r s o n a l equipment, t h e c i t y  lock-up  1 . expenses and automotive and mounted equipment 1.  Annual Report.  Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e ,  maintainance. 1963.  4.6 A c a r e f u l survey o f the r a t i o s o f a c t i v e f o r c e t o  clerical  s t a f f and the o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n and out o f the  Police  Headquarters  would suggest t h a t the t a x p a y e r i s g e t t i n g h i s  d o l l a r ' s v a l u e f o r the job now  b e i n g done.  On t o p o f t h i s are the expenses f o r the p r o s e c u t o r s 1 o f f i c e o f $135,733.00 and the c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e 2 c o u r t s o f $601,770.00  t o t a l l i n g $737,503.00.  This i s a  g r e a t amount o f money f o r m a i n t a i n i n g peace and o r d e r under e x i s t i n g laws and l e g i s l a t i o n . i t may  I n the case o f the  'Sippys'  be c o n s i d e r e d t o o e x p e n s i v e when the c o s t o f m a i n t a i n -  i n g t h e s e men  i n O a k a l l a i s added to t h e b i l l .  Oakalla's  budget f o r the f i s c a l year ending March 3 1 s t . 1963 $2,931,758,09.00.  S t a y i n g i n the c a t e g o r y o f the  was Sippy,  t h e r e were '..76,743 men p l a c e d i n O a k a l l a under the Government L i q u o r A c t , most o f them ' S i p p y s ' . The c o s t per day, per 3 man  was  per man  $6.30.  I f a rough e s t i m a t e o f 15 days  sentence  can be a l l o w e d t h i s amounts t o n i n e t y - o n e  d o l l a r s per y e a r .  thousand  T h i s i s v e r y expensive a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r  a 'law not i n accordance t o , o r a l i g n e d w i t h , the  existing  problem'. F i n a l l y t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n o f what i s b e i n g  accomplish-  ed.  This candidate, working  1963,  1. C i t y o f Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Statement December 31st pp. 37. 2.  I b i d . pp.  i n O a k a l l a i n the summer o f  37.  3. A n n u a l Report o f the D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s 1962-^63 pp. T 58 - T 63.  •'.47  1963  o b s e r v e d s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s t h a t d i s t u r b e d him.  i n d u c t i o n i n t o an i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be a t r a u m a t i c  experience  even i f o n l y i n t o h o s p i t a l f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t r e a t m e n t . There i s a d e f i n i t e l o s s o f i d e n t i t y i n t h i s p r o c e s s .  One  l o s e s ones c l o t h e s , and e f f e c t s t o v a r y i n g degrees and t o e q u a l l y v a r y i n g degrees l o s e s p a r t o f ones i d e n t i t y , ones s e l f image.  The e f f e c t t h i s w i l l have w i l l depend a g r e a t  d e a l on t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e  of allegiance or the motivation  the i n i t i a t e has. The man e n t e r i n g t h e h o s p i t a l i s w e l l m o t i v a t e d t o remain, as much as p o s s i b l e , amember o f the s o c i e t y f r o m which he came and r e t u r n t o i t as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e u n l e s s he f i n d s i t l a c k i n g i n accordance w i t h h i s needs whereupon he can become a c h r o n i c and r e o c c u r i n g patient.  The man e n t e r i n g p r i s o n i s b e i n g r e j e c t e d by h i s  s o c i e t y and, t o v a r y i n g degrees, a l i e n a t e d t o i t .  As he  l o o k s around h i s new s o c i a l environment f o r support he f i n d s many men f e e l i n g e q u a l l y as r e j e c t e d and e q u a l l y as alienated.  He may w e l l have t h i s r e j e c t i o n o r a l i e n a t i o n  w i t h him when he l e a v e s and has become a c o n t i n u i n g  member  o f t h e group t h a t gave him support and a c c e p t a n c e , t h e prison  sub-culture.  E r v i n g Goffman i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f what he terms t h e t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n ' d i s c u s s e s t h i s problem i n T  r e l a t i o n t o c l o s e d i n s t i t u t i o n s such as m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s and  prisons.  He speaks o f what he c a l l s  ' c o l o n i z a t i o n ' where  the d i s p a r i t y between i n n e r and o u t e r w o r l d s c o l l a p s e s . s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a form o f a d a p t i o n  which i n c r e a s e s as  He  4'S  a consequence o f making i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e more b e a r a b l e . He a l s o d i s c u s s e s and  states, 'Not  the 'proactive  1  status* of the prisoner  f  only i s h i s r e l a t i v e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n  w i t h i n t h e w a l l s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from what i t was o u t s i d e b u t , as he comes t o l e a r n i f and when he g e t s o u t , h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n on t h e o u t s i d e w i l l never a g a i n be q u i t e 2  what i t was p r i o r t o e n t r a n c e . ' I believe the c o l o n i z a t i o n adaption i s very to the 'Sippy'.  The 'Sippy' sees no d i s p a r i t y .  appropriate He may  indeed f e e l a g r e a t e r freedom where h i s t o t a l dependence i s r e s o l v e d by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  The ' p r o a c t i v e s t a t u s ' i s  a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s but may be v a r i e d i n accordance w i t h the amount o f s t r e s s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l brought on by i n d u c t i o n and adjustment t o t h e p r i s o n sub-culture. I believe the induction into Oakalla reactions.  f o s t e r s these  Men a r e moved from Vancouver l o c k - u p t o O a k a l l a  i n wagon l o a d s o f 28 t o 29vans a r e 'Sippys'  Two t h i r d s o f the men i n the  and w i t h t h e l o s s o f t h e i r body f u n c t i o n s  t h r o u g h y e a r s o f abuse t h e s i g h t s and.the s m e l l s a r e stultifying.  Once at- t h e j a i l t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e d , s e a r c h e d ,  1. Goffman E. ' C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T o t a l I n s t i t u t i o n s ' I d e n t i t y and Anxiety,- S t e i n . V e d i c h & White (eds.) Free P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , I960, pp. 461-462. 2. I b i d pp. 465, see a l s o V e d i c h & S t e i n 'The D i s s o l u t i o n o f I d e n t i t y i n M i l i t a r y L i f e ' I b i d . pp. 493-506.  49 have t h e i r e f f e c t s t a k e n away and t r e a t e d i n such a m e c h a n i c a l manner t h a t a f t e r the o r d e a l t h e y f i n d themselves w i t h n o t h i n g but s t r a n g e p r i s o n i s s u e c l o t h i n g and a number. I t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o imagine t h e i r s e a r c h f o r r e establishment  of i d e n t i t y i n the new  establishment  of c l o s e and  continuous  environment and  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the  c o n f i n e s of t h e i r p r i s o n u n i t . R e f e r r i n g t o the r e p o r t by the D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the environment f a c i n g the new  arrival,  he•states, •The ( o t h e r ) a r e a i n O a k a l l a r e q u i r i n g immediate a t t e n t i o n i s the A d m i s s i o n S e c t i o n .  D u r i n g the  course  o f a year $0,OOOmovements pass t h r o u g h t h i s basement a r e a , w h i c h i s q u i t e u n s u i t e d f o r i t s purpose. p r i s o n e r received or discharged processed  from the j a i l  through the A d m i s s i o n s a r e a .  The  Every or  records  department r e c o r d s the d e t a i l s o f h i s c o n v i c t i o n and sentence;  he i s bathed and,  i f necessary,  deloused  b e f o r e b e i n g i s s u e d w i t h p r i s o n c l o t h i n g and f i n g e r printed.  On r e l e a s e the same p r o c e s s  i s carried  in reverse.  T h i s basement a r e a i s o l d and  w i t h cracked  cement f l o o r i n g and  cockroach  antiquated  inadequate plumbing.  I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o keep c l e a n and s u b j e c t t o l i c e and  out  s a n i t a r y and  infestation.  is  Besides  a l l t h i s t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t room to process  the  number of p r i s o n e r s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h and a b o t t l e - n e c k i s created.  There have been days when up t o 50 men  have  been kept w a i t i n g o u t s i d e i n p o l i c e vans up t o 2 hours v/  w h i l e the s t a f f have been a t t e m p t i n g t o c l e a r t h e c o n g e s t i o n i n s i d e p r e p a r a t o r y t o r e c e i v i n g new a d d i t i o n s . ' Perhaps the r e a d e r can r e l a t e t h i s , i n h i s mind, t o  29 men  i n a p o o r l y v e n t i l a t e d van w h e r e i n the p r e v i o u s l y  d e s c r i b e d persons  are p u t r i f y i n g the a i r c o n t i n u o u s l y  u n t i l t h e y are bathed and imagine  i s s u e d new  c l o t h i n g , or  can  the e f f e c t , the s t r e s s , the d i s o r i e n t a t i o n and  the  d i s s o l u t i o n o f i d e n t i f y t h a t can t r a n s p i r e i n such a p r o c e s s . I t must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t not a l l o f t h e s e men be s e n t e n c e d .  As o f March 3 1 s t  1963  i n O a k a l l a w i t h u n f i n i s h e d cases. men  will  t h e r e were 301  There had been  d i s m i s s e d a f t e r b e i n g found not g u i l t y and  men 287  21 whose 2  cases were d i s m i s s e d subsequent t o b e i n g d e t a i n e d .  All  o f t h e s e were b e i n g d e t a i n e d on remands, l a c k i n g o r not a l l o w e d b a i l and s u b s e q u e n t l y  released.  T h i s p o i n t s up  the  f a c t t h a t not j u s t the g u i l t y are s u b j e c t t o the s t r e e s of admission,  i n d u c t i o n and  adoption.  Once a g a i n s t a y i n g i n t h e a r e a o f the t h r e e o f f e n d e r sub-groups chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y ; out o f the 1 4 , 8 4 4 who  e n t e r e d O a k a l l a i n 1 9 6 2 / 6 3 , 6 , 7 4 3 were S i p p y s ,  were i n f o r B r e a k i n g and E n t e r i n g and drivers.  P r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , r e c o r d s g i v e us a p i c t u r e o f Only 3 , 9 6 3 o f  t h i s t o t a l have no p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s , 1 , 7 9 4 1. D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s Report March 3 1 , 1 9 6 3 . pp. T. 14. 2.  752  665 were i m p a i r e d  the s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d w i t h the o f f e n d e r s .  59.  men  have r e t u r n e d  f o r the year  D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s Report March 3 1 ,  ending  196&.  pp.  T.  1  s i x t o t e n t i m e s , 1,770 b o o k i n g s , 1,884  have t e n t o twenty p r e v i o u s  have twenty one t o twenty s i x and 520 have  r e c o r d o f over s i x t y r e t u r n t r i p s t o P r o v i n c i a l Almost a l l o f t h i s l a s t group a r e r e p e t i t i v e a l t h o u g h some o f t h e i r o f f e n s e s may  Jails.  alcoholics  be f o r begging or •  v a g r a n c y w h i c h are a l t e r n a t i v e charges t o S t a t e o f Intoxication.  I f a minimum f i g u r e o f f i f t e e n days f o r each  o f f e n s e i s approximated t h e y have accumulated  f o r t h i s group i t would mean t h a t  c l o s e t o h a l f a m i l l i o n days. . At a  c o s t o f $6.30 per day t h e y have c o s t t h e s o c i e t y v e r y near three m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n t h e i r l i f e t i m e careers. c a n d i d a t e remembers a man consecutive time.  iaoo&ed i n  He a l o n e has  This  f o r over h i s 250th  c o s t the t a x p a y e r twenty-  f i v e thousand d o l l a r s i n j a i l c o s t s a l o n e . The sum t o t a l o f t h e s e f i g u r e s i s indeed h i g h and a p e r u s a l o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s Report f o r 1962/63 r e v e a l s t h e s o c i a l d i s o r d e r t h a t p a r a l l e l the c o s t s and demand some e n q u i r y .  Of t h e t o t a l o f 14,844 inmates d u r i n g  t h e term o f t h i s r e p o r t , over 8,000 s e r v e d sentences o f l e s s t h a n one month, 5,924 were over t h e age o f 40, 11,658 were c l a s s e d as i n t e m p e r a t e and 10,000 had than eight, years s c h o o l i n g .  At l e a s t one  less  interpretation  o f t h e s e f i g u r e s c o u l d suggest t h a t the S i p p y , t h e i n t e m p e r a t e p e r s o n , l a c k i n g the youth and e d u c a t i o n to get him o f f the j u d i c i a l t r e a d m i l l , i s b e i n g p o o r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t o under the e x i s t i n g laws and p r o c e s s e s o f law.  1.  D i r e c t o r of C o r r e c t i o n s Report.  1962/63.  pp. T 58-  ^3.  5.2  T h i s c a n d i d a t e would s t r o n g l y suggest t h i s i s ao. a r e a f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n by t h e s o c i a l workers i n t h e near f u t u r e . For t h e r e s t , the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s o f varying  consequence depending upon t h e i r s t a t u s ,  resources,  assistance  financial  from the s o c i e t y and r e a c t i o n t o  i n d u c t i o n and i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n t o a p r i s o n . The  e x i s t i n g j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e not p e r f e c t ,  i s a t l e a s t e f f i c i e n t so f a r as t h e p o l i c e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n a r e concerned.  The c o u r t s a r e now r e c e i v i n g some  a t t e n t i o n and a newspaper r e p o r t  i s s u e d d u r i n g t h e week o f  A p r i l 1 1 t h s t a t e s and. e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s now b e i n g The  considered. laws w i l l not e a s i l y be changed nor w i l l t h e concern  o f t h e populace r i s e s u f f i c i e n t l y t o b r i n g about the n e c e s s a r y l e g i s l a t i o n t o change o r a d j u s t t h e s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the e x i s t i n g j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . p o l i c e m a n ' s r o l e i n the s k i d r o a d a r e a w i l l  The  probably  remain as more o f a s t r e e t c l e a n e r f o r some time t o come. U n t i l t h e tremendous l o s s e s i n c u r r e d by t h e c o n s t a n t r e c i d i v i s m o f one p a r t i c u l a r group i s r e a l i z e d and t h e y are s u b j e c t t o t r e a t m e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x i s t i n g e x p e n s i v e detention,  i t cannot be s a i d t h a t t h e present  administration The  judicial  i s efficient.  lawyer, l i k e h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l counterpart  i s looking to h i s r o l e i n the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e .  the doctor,  I f he  w i s h e s t o be p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s he must be i n the c o u r t rooms where the p r o c e s s a f f e c t s him most.  I f he does n o t ,  .53 l e g i s l a t i o n , i n the f a c e o f The  economic and  s o c i a l expediency,  may  r e p l a c e him.  e x p a n s i o n o f the m a g i s t r a t e s '  may  allchw the m a g i s t r a t e s g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to see  done w i t h o r w i t h o u t a l a w y e r . aid  The  courts justice  a l t e r n a t i v e i s the  legal  system i s not p r o v i d i n g f u l l coverage nor b e n e f i t to  eyeryone.  C o n s i d e r i n g the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d  possibility  o f r e c i d i v i s m as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n t o a f i r s t c o n v i c t i o n and  i n c a r c e r a t i o n i t i s not p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e to suggest  t h e i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n s e o f f e r e d f r e e l e g a l a i d a t one  point  c o u l d have been f o r e s t a l l e d i f the same a i d were g i v e n f o r a p r e v i o u s summary c o n v i c t i o n . F i n a l l y , g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o the s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s surrounding p o s s i b l e imprisonment.  full  an a r r e s t , d e t e n t i o n  and  Nowhere i n t h i s thes> i s i s  c a l c u l a t e d the a d d i t i o n a l burden t o the t a x p a y e r c o s t s f o r . t h e dependents of the o f f e n d e r .  i n welfare  A g e n c i e s must  be c r e a t e d t o keep these economic and  s o c i a l r e a c t i o n s to  a minimum.  t o r e c e i v e the  F a m i l i e s must be prepared  e x - c o n v i c t and  support  can be a l l e v i a t e d .  him u n t i l h i s ' p r o a c t i v e s t a t u s '  Innocents should not f e e l  over l o n g p e r i o d s f o r one  persons  repercussions  deviance.  The g r e a t weakness l i e s i n t h i s a r e a .  As the system  becomes more e f f i c i e n t , i t becomes more i m p e r s o n a l .  Men  become s t a t i s t i c s , c o u r t s become computors and p r i s o n s have no f u n c t i o n except t o take i n and r e l e a s e .  The  law  indeed  becomes g g r e a t machine and the j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of sequence o f programming and b u t t o n  pushing.  54  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Manuscript sources. a.  O f f i c i a l Reports Annual Report o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s . Department of the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h f o r t h e year ending March 3 1 s t , 1963. Queen's,Printers, V i c t o r i a ,  Columbia,  A. S u t t o n ,  B.C.  Annual Report o f t h e Vancouver  P o l i c e Department.  Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the year e n d i n g December 3 1 s t , 1963. C i t y o f Vancouver, F i n a n c i a l Statements and Annual R e p o r t , f o r t h e year e n d i n g December 3 1 s t , 1963.  P r i n t e d Sources. a.  Books Goffman, E. ' C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T o t a l  Institutions'.  I d e n t i t y and A n x i e t y , S t e i n V e d i c h and White Free P r e s s o f Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , P o p p l e s , A. Ltd., b.  I960.  C r i m i n a l Procedure Manual.  Tononto,  (eds.),  C a r s w e l l Co.  1956.  Periodicals Goldenberg, J.M.  'For the Sake o f Arguement'  Magazine V o l . 74, No. 14, J u l y 1 5 t h , J a f f a r y , S. Vol.  3 d , No.  Macleans  1961  'The M a g i s t r a t e s C o u r t ' , Canadian W e l f a r e , 5, Sept. 2nd,  1962.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Maloney, A.  Q.C.,  M.P.,  (continued)  'Effective Corrections',  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Bar Review, V o l . 1., No. 2, March I 9 6 0 . Pamphlets L e g a l A i d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, O f f i c e o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the Law S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. ' A r r e s t ' , C i v i l R i g h t s and P o l i c e Powers, L i b e r t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver,  B.C.  B.C.  Civil  

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