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The effect of an oral reading program on reading achievement, listening vocabulary and attitude toward… San Andres, Maura Mendoza 1969

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THE EFFECT OF AN ORAL READING PROGRAM ON READING ACHIEVEMENT, LISTENING VOCABULARY AND ATTITUDE TOWARD READING OF GRADE FIVE CHILDREN  by MAURA MENDOZA SAN ANDRES. M . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f the P h i l i p p i n e s , 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA M a r c h , 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  f r e e l y available for  I. f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n for  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s  that  Study. thesis  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or  by h i s  representatives.  of t h i s  thesis  written  permission.  It  for f i n a n c i a l  is  understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  gain s h a l l  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  not be allowed without my  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  The Problem Hypotheses t e s t e d .  3 .  .  .  4  Importance o f the s t u d y .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  5  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  8  Reading program  8  Reading achievement  .  .  .  8  Listening  .  .  .  .  .  .  8  L i s t e n i n g vocabulary  9  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g . Scope and L i m i t a t i o n II.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  9 .  .  .  .  .  .  9  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  11  L i s t e n i n g as Mode o f L e a r n i n g  . . . . 1 1  F a c t o r s That I n f l u e n c e Reading and Listening Activities Reading achievement  14 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  1  Intelligence Socio-economic s t a t u s  4 17  .  .  .  .  .  .  Sex C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e Toward Reading .  .  .  .  .  .  1  9 20  .  .  23  V  CHAPTER III.  PAGE  DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES  26  S e l e c t i o n o f the P o p u l a t i o n  26  P r o c e d u r e s and Measurement o f V a r i a b l e s  28  The E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n and Statistical Analysis IV.  V.  .  .  .  FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS  33 34  A n a l y s i s o f Covariance  34  Coefficients of Correlation  40  SUMMARY AND FINDINGS  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  53  Summary o f the F i n d i n g s  53  Conclusion  57  Educational  Implications  Suggestions for Further Research BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  .  .  .  60 61 62  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE Comparison o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s  i n the G a i n S c o r e s o  o f a Program o f O r a l Reading v s . No Program o f O r a l R e a d i n g Between the Treatment Groups for -II.  Boys  Comparison o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s  35 i n the G a i n S c o r e s  o f a Program o f O r a l Reading v s . No Program o f O r a l Reading Between the Treatment Groups for III.  Girls  Comparison o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s  36 i n the G a i n  Between the Boys and the G i r l s i n  Scores  the  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group i n Each o f the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s IV.  Comparison o f Mean D i f f e r e n c e s  38 i n the G a i n  Scores  Between the Boys and the G i r l s i n the C o n t r o l Group i n Each o f the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s . V.  C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n Between the i n the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s f o r  .  .  39  Gains  the  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group VI.  .  41  C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n Between the G a i n s i n the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s f o r C o n t r o l Group  the 43  vii TABLE VII.  PAGE C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n Between  Intelligence  and G a i n S c o r e s on Each o f the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n the E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups vm>  44  C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n Between S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s and G a i n S c o r e s on Each o f the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n the E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups  IX.  .  .  .  .  .  .  46  C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n Between  Intelligence  and G a i n S c o r e s on Bach o f the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n the E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups tittien S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s Was H e l d Constant X.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  48  C o e f f i c i e n t s o f C o r r e l a t i o n Between S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s and G a i n S c o r e s on E a c h o f the S i x Dependent V a r i a b l e s i n the E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Groups When I n t e l l i g e n c e Was H e l d  .  .  .  .  50  ABSTRACT  THE EFFECT OF AN ORAL READING PROGRAM ON READING ACHIEVEMENT, LISTENING VOCABULARY AND ATTITUDE TOWARD READING OF GRADE FIVE CHILDREN  In a l l l e s s o n s ,  t e a c h e r s communicate i d e a s o r a l l y i n t h e i r  d a i l y contact with c h i l d r e n .  In t h i s o r a l presentation teachers  set  models f o r c h i l d r e n o f c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n , i n t o n a t i o n , and rhythm o f speech.  L i s t e n i n g to these speech p a t t e r n s i s o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t -  ance to c h i l d r e n i n d e v e l o p i n g comprehension i n any language a r t s or communication s k i l l s  program.  Because i t p l a c e s p r i m a r y emphasis on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , o r a l r e a d i n g by the teacher  i s one approach to r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n aimed  a t d e v e l o p i n g p u p i l ' s l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension.  When the teacher  reads o r a l l y to the c h i l d r e n , she can a l t e r  her s p e e d , use i n f l e c t i o n ,  emphasis and pause, and c r e a t e the  mosphere e s s e n t i a l to making the l i n e s sound as the author i n t e n d e d them t o .  at-  probably  I t i s assumed that t h i s k i n d o f r e a d i n g not o n l y  h e l p s to i n c r e a s e p u p i l s * l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y , but makes them aware o f the t y p e s o f c o n t e n t j u v e n i l e l i t e r a t u r e can o f f e r them. The major hypotheses o f t h i s s t u d y - w e r e : (1) to  determine  the e f f e c t o f a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the teacher on c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y ; a t t i t u d e  toward  r e a d i n g ; (2) to determine following factors  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each o f the  taken i n t u r n : s i l e n t reading  l i s t e n i n g vocabulary; attitude  achievement;  toward r e a d i n g ; i n t e l l i g e n c e ; s o c i o -  economic s t a t u s ; (3) to determine  the d i f f e r e n c e s  i f a n y , i n the  s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y , and a t t i t u d e r e a d i n g o f boys and  girls.  E i g h t grade f i v e t e a c h e r s ,  each t e a c h i n g two r e a d i n g  i n the Vancouver s c h o o l s , were u t i l i z e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l One c l a s s taught by each t e a c h e r s e r v e d as the other  the e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s .  study. the  the  However, i n the e x p e r i m e n -  t a l group the f i f t y minute r e a d i n g l e s s o n was shortened minutes.  The teacher r e a d a c h i l d r e n ' s n o v e l f o r  minutes.  The program l a s t e d f o r t w e l v e w e e k s .  Form M - l ,  classes  c o n t r o l c l a s s and  I n each case b o t h c l a s s e s got  same r e a d i n g l e s s o n s from t h e i r t e a c h e r .  As p r e t e s t s ,  toward  to f o r t y  the r e m a i n i n g t e n  the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s Survey D  the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t Form A , and the San  Diego County I n v e n t o r y o f Reading A t t i t u d e were g i v e n i n the week o f J a n u a r y , 1968.  first  A l t e r n a t e forms o f the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Read-  i n g T e s t s Survey D and o f the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t  togeth-  er w i t h the same form o f the San Diego County I n v e n t o r y o f Reading A t t i t u d e were g i v e n as p o s t t e s t s i n the l a s t week o f M a r c h , 1968. A n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was used to determine i n the  any d i f f e r e n c e  treatment. Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d  -X  between the means o f the g a i n s c o r e s on each o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s for b o t h boys and g i r l s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l as w e l l as i n t h e c o n t r o l group. The f i n d i n g s d i d not show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e l e n t r e a d i n g achievement, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e r e a d i n g between the treatment  in sitoward  groups.  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , the boys seem to have more than the g i r l s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension. prehended b e t t e r than the g i r l s a f t e r The o r a l r e a d i n g by the  the  benefited  The boys com-  treatment.  teacher seems to have n u l l i f i e d  the  i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f c h i l d r e n - o f low IQ and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l .  C h i l d r e n o f these c a t e g o r i e s  i n the  e x p e r i m e n t a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r g a i n s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . t h a n the same c a t e g o r i e s  children i n  i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  When s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s was h e l d c o n s t a n t ,  the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group between i n t e l l i g e n c e and g a i n s c o r e s on each o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t .  A l l the  c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group seemed to p r o g r e s s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r  intel-  ligence. When i n t e l l i g e n c e was h e l d c o n s t a n t ,  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and g a i n s c o r e s on each o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t .  However, the  n e g a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and  gain scores i n s i l e n t reading speed and accuracy and socio-economic status and t o t a l s i l e n t reading achievement for the g i r l s of low socio-economic l e v e l indicates that these g i r l s improved i n these two aspects or reading achievement.  Also, the boys as well as the  g i r l s o f low socio-economic l e v e l progressed i n their t o t a l s i l e n t reading achievement. These findings seem to suggest that boys p a r t i c u l a r l y need some kind o f reading materials ivhich increase their background o f reading vocabulary and comprehension. Also, children of low I Q and socio-economic level seem to need some acquaintance with unfamiliar words, phrases and sentencestructures which provide background for their l a t e r s i l e n t reading.  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  In a l l lessons,  t e a c h e r s communicate i d e a s o r a l l y i n t h e i r  d a i l y contact with c h i l d r e n .  In t h i s o r a l presentation  teachers  s e t models f o r c h i l d r e n o f c o r r e c t p r o n u n c i a t i o n , i n t o n a t i o n , and rhythm o f s p e e c h .  L i s t e n i n g to these speech p a t t e r n s i s o f p r i m a r y  importance to, c h i l d r e n i n d e v e l o p i n g comprehension i n any language a r t s o r communication s k i l l s program.  As S t r i c k l a n d has s a i d :  " L i s t e n a b i l i t y " l i k e r e a d a b i l i t y i s composed o f many f a c t o r s . ' Speech u t t e r e d i n p l e a s a n t t o n e s , e a s i l y h e a r d , and p r e s e n t e d i n r h y t h m i c a l and f a m i l i a r sentence p a t t e r n s f a c i l i t a t e s understanding. I n a d d i t i o n when t o p i c s are o f i n t e r e s t and w i t h i n the e x p e r i e n c e range o f c h i l d r e n , m o t i v a t i o n to l i s t e n i s i n c r e a s e d . Because i t p l a c e s p r i m a r y emphasis on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , r e a d i n g by the  oral  teacher i s one approach to r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n aimed  a t d e v e l o p i n g p u p i l ' s l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and compreh e n s i o n . O r a l r e a d i n g i n v o l v e s the a c t o f i n t e r p r e t i n g and e x p r e s s i n g 2 the thoughts and f e e l i n g s o f a w r i t e r to an i n t e r e s t e d  listener.  When the t e a c h e r reads o r a l l y to c h i l d r e n , she can a l t e r her use i n f l e c t i o n ,  emphasis and pause, and c r e a t e the atmosphere  speed, essential  to making the l i n e s sound as the a u t h o r p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d them t o . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s k i n d o f r e a d i n g not o n l y h e l p s to  increase  R u t h S t r i c k l a n d , The Language A r t s i n the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l ( B o s t o n : D. C . Heath and C o . , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 1 2 1 . 2 S t e r l A r t l e y , "Technique r o r D e v e l o p i n g O r a l Reading S k i l l , " A Report o f the T h i r t e e n t h Annual Conference and Course o n ' R e a d i n g , D. L . C l e l a n d , e d i t o r ( U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , June 1 7 - 1 8 , 1957) p.109  2 pupils'  l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and extend t h e i r  with different  types o f sentence  structure,  o f the types o f c o n t e n t j u v e n i l e l i t e r a t u r e P a u l McKee s t r e s s e d  acquaintance  but a l s o makes them aware can o f f e r  them.  that:  Some c l a s s p e r i o d s a s s i g n e d to i n s t r u c t i o n i n c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e i n Grades 3 through 6 s h o u l d be devoted to the t e a c h e r ' s r e a d i n g o f c h o i c e s e l e c t i o n to the p u p i l s . When t h i s o r a l r e a d i n g i s done w e l l , p u p i l s can g a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e enjoyment o f e x c e l l e n t w r i t i n g s and become aware o f and i n t e r e s t e d i n the t y p e s o f c o n t e n t w h i c h l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s . A t times they can a l s o add words to t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y , hear d i f f e r ent sentence s t r u c t u r e s w i t h w h i c h they need to be more f a m i l i ar t h a n they a r e , and a c q u i r e background f o r t h e i r l a t e r s i l e n t reading o f l i t e r a t u r e . ^ These g a i n s i n r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g achievement r e s u l t i n g from teachers'  r e a d i n g to c h i l d r e n have not been e x p e r i m e n t a l l y demonstrated.  I n the c l a s s r o o m , p u p i l s ' r e p e t i t i o n o f words i s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d p r o o f of listening.  Teachers have taken f o r g r a n t e d t h a t a background o f  knowledge and s k i l l  i s required for e f f i c i e n t l i s t e n i n g .  s e l v e s have not been f u l l y  They them-  i n s t r u c t e d about the s k i l l s o f l i s t e n i n g .  T h i s l a c k o f t r a i n i n g i s e v i d e n t when they c a u t i o n p u p i l s to l i s t e n w i t h o u t g i v i n g them any i n s t r u c t i o n i n how to l i s t e n . The s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e standing of reading process.  toward r e a d i n g i s needed f o r b e t t e r  under-  ' Spache b e l i e v e s t h a t many d i s c r e p a n c i e s  between i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g t e s t r e s u l t s can be e x p l a i n e d by f a c t o r s such as a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and  3 P a u l McKee, Reading a Program o f I n s t r u c t i o n f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , (New Y o r k : Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 453.  the exposure o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s performance.  4  a l l o f which i n f l u e n c e reading  On the o t h e r hand, McKee r e p o r t s  t h a t adequate  i o n i n r e a d i n g p r o v i d e s f o r the t e a c h i n g o f c e r t a i n c e r t a i n s k i l l s , and c e r t a i n a t t i t u d e s , 5  instruct-  understandings,  a l l o f which taken together  constitute r e a d i n g power. If  the development o f f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward r e a d i n g i s  an o b j e c t i v e i n r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , then s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i tude toward r e a d i n g s h o u l d be made. T h i s r e s e a r c h was an attempt to d i s c o v e r the  relationships  among f i n d i n g s i n r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and attitude  toward r e a d i n g .  » I.  THE PROBLEM  The major purposes o f t h i s study were: (1) to determine  the  e f f e c t o f a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r on c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e r e a d i n g ; (2) to determine ing factors  follow-  t a k e n i n t u r n : s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement; l i s t e n i n g v o c a -  bulary; attitude (3)  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between each o f the  toward  toward r e a d i n g ; i n t e l l i g e n c e ; s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ;  to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s ,  i f a n y , i n the s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e  ment, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g o f boys and g i r l  4 George D . Spache, " C o n s t r u c t i o n and V a l i d a t i o n o r a WorkType A u d i t o r y Comprehension Reading T e s t , " E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 1 0 : 2 4 9 , Summer, 1950.  5 P a u l McKee, The T e a c h i n g o f Reading i n the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l <>Gambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , 1 9 4 8 ) , p . 1 2 9 .  Hypotheses t e s t e d . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were  1.  There a r e  tested:  significant d i f f e r e n c e s between the means o f the  g a i n s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups i n each o f the f o l l o w i n g measured  variables: a.  s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y  b.  s i l e n t reading vocabulary  c.  s i l e n t reading  d.  t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement  e.  l i s t e n i n g vocabulary  f.  a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  comprehension  when t h e groups a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y equated w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e t e s t s c o r e s on those v a r i a b l e s , on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and on i n t e l l i g e n c e . 2.  There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the means o f  the g a i n s o f the boys and the g i r l s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group i n each o f t h e measured 3.  variables.  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups t h e r e aire s i g n i f i -  c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between g a i n s i n :  4.  a.  r e a d i n g achievement and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y  b.  l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  c.  r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  There a r e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e l l i g e n c e  as measured by an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t and the £galn s c o r e s i n each o f the measured v a r i a b l e s i n b o t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups. 5.  There a r e a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  socio-  economic s t a t u s as measured by an o c c u p a t i o n a l s c a l e and the g a i n s c o r e s i n each o f the measured v a r i a b l e s . 6.  I f socio-economic status i s h e l d constant,  there w i l l  be  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e l l i g e n c e and the g a i n s c o r e s i n each o f the measured v a r i a b l e s , i n b o t h sex groups and i n b o t h t r e a t ment g r o u p s . 7.  I f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s held constant,  t h e r e w i l l be p o s i t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and the g a i n s c o r e s i n each o f the measured v a r i a b l e s , i n b o t h sex groups and i n b o t h t r e a t ment g r o u p s . 5, 6, 7 , 8 Importance o f the s t u d y . S t u d i e s  have been made o f  the d i f f e r e n c e s between c h i l d r e n ' s l i s t e n i n g achievement and r e a d i n g achievement a f t e r  t h e y have e x p e r i e n c e d a s t r u c t u r e d program i n the  development o f l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s .  The f i n d i n g s o f these s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e 9 ' • the importance o f t e a c h i n g l i s t e n i n g . Hoivever, H o r r w o r t h s t a t e d t h a t , 5  C. I . E r i c k s o n I r v i n g K i n g , "A Comparison o f V i s u a l and O r a l P r e s e n t a t i o n o f L e s s o n i n the Case o f P u p i l s From the T h i r d to N i n t h G r a d e s , " S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , 6:146-48,1947. 6 R. D. R u s s e l l , "A Comparison o f Two Methods o f L e a r n i n g , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1 8 : 2 3 5 - 3 8 , 1928. W i l l i a m E . Young, "The R e l a t i o n o f R e a d i n g ' C o m p r e h e n s i o n and R e t e n t i o n to H e a r i n g Comprehension a n d ' R e t e n t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 5 : 3 0 - 3 9 , September, 1936. 8 R i c h a r d S. Hampleman, "Comparison o f L i s t e n i n g and Reading Comprehension A b i l i t y o f F o u r t h and S i x t h G r a d e . P u p i l s , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 220. 9 G l o r i a L . Horrworth, " L i s t e n i n g : A Facet o f Oral Language," E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 4 3 : 8 5 6 - 8 6 4 , O c t o b e r , 1966.  6 even though l i s t e n i n g was b e i n g taught  i n some s c h o o l s , the gap b e -  tween the a c t u a l t e a c h i n g o f l i s t e n i n g and r e s e a r c h on l i s t e n i n g was still  g r e a t due to the d i f f i c u l t y o f g a t h e r i n g d a t a ,  er p r e p a r a t i o n and o f a c c e s s by the teacher for  teaching t h i s s k i l l .  the l a c k o f  teach-  to the t o o l s and t e c h n i q u e s  E v i d e n t l y , s t u d i e s have not been done i n  w h i c h the c h i l d r e n are r e q u i r e d to l i s t e n but are not b e i n g t i d e l i b e r a t e l y taught a s t r u c t u r e d program o f l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s  development.  V i r t u a l l y the o n l y i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i s t e n i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n and young people r e c e i v e i n s c h o o l s i s the q u i t e u s e l e s s a d m o n i t i o n to 10 'pay a t t e n t i o n '  and l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y .  The teacher  i s not  aware t h a t i f ever c h i l d r e n u n d e r s t a n d what they h e a r ,  fully  i t i s because  the i d e a s they l i s t e n to are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s experiences.  and  On the o t h e r hand, i f c h i l d r e n are d i s t r a c t e d by people  and t h i n g s around them, they may appear  to be l i s t e n i n g to the  b e i n g p r e s e n t e d b u t l i t t l e or no i n t e r a c t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e .  ideas Thus  the c h i l d r e n may not be comprehending what they are h e a r i n g .  Since  57.5 per cent o f c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l days i s spent l i s t e n i n g to 11  the  teacher,  y~  i t i s i m p o r t a n t to determine the q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i s t e n -  i n g when they have r e c e i v e d no f o r m a l program o f l i s t e n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . The p r i m a r y purpose o f t h i s study was to determine the  effect  o f a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the teacher on c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t r e a d H a r o l d A . A n d e r s o n , "Needed R e s e a r c h i n L i s t e n i n g , " E l e m e n tary English, 36:215-25, A p r i l , 1 9 5 2 . 11 Miriam E . W i l t , "A Study o f Teacher Awareness o f L i s t e n i n g as a b a c t o r i n E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Pennsylvania State College, U n i v e r s i t y Park, 1949), pp.190-91.  i n g speed, v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension, t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e ment, l i s t e n i n g ' v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g when no d i s -  c u s s i o n o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g the o r a l r e a d i n g .  A need e x i s t e d to e v a l -  u a t e the o b j e c t i v e s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Language A r t s Program f o r Grades IV and V I , r e l a t e d to the development o f " s k i l l s o f l i s t e n i n g .  . . attitudes,  a p p r e c i a t i o n and h a b i t s n e c e s s a r y f o r 12  p r o g r e s s i n the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , "  efficient  when t e a c h e r s do not t e a c h a  program o f l i s t e n i n g and when no i n t e r a c t i o n o r d i s c u s s i o n between the c h i l d r e n and t e a c h e r t a k e s p l a c e . A second purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was to determine the  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s o f the mean g a i n s c o r e s between the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y , v o c a b u l a r y and compreh e n s i o n , and i n t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement, a l l as measured by the Gates M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s Survey D Forms M - l and M - 2 ; i n l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y as measured by the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t ; and i n a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g as measured by the San Diego I n v e n t o r y  o f Reading A t t i t u d e .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y  and r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e r e a d i n g , r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e  toward  toward r e a d i n g was a l s o  studied. A f i n a l purpose o f t h i s study was to determine  the e f f e c t  of  the v a r i a b l e s i n t e l l i g e n c e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and sex on c h i l d 12 Department o f E d u c a t i o n , A Guide to T e a c h i n g the E n g l i s h Language A r t s , I n t e r m e d i a t e L e v e l s 1 1 , 1 2 , and 13 (Grades I V , V , and V I ) ( V i c t o r i a , B . C . : The Department o f E d u c a t i o n , 1967!),pp. 1-11.  8 r e n ' s r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y , and a t t i t u d e s  to-  ward r e a d i n g .  I I . DEFINITION OF TERMS  Reading program.  I n t h i s s t u d y , each teacher taught r e a d i n g  to two grade f i v e c l a s s e s one o f which was the e x p e r i m e n t a l and the other  the c o n t r o l group.  both groups.  The teacher p r e p a r e d the same l e s s o n s  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , t e n minutes o f the  minute p e r i o d was devoted to o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r . c o n t r o l g r o u p , the f u l l  for  fifty I n the  f i f t y minute p e r i o d was used i n the same  manner as i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group e x c e p t t h a t the t e a c h e r d i d not r e a d to the c l a s s f o r t e n m i n u t e s , however, she c o n t i n u e d the d i s c u s s i o n o f the l e s s o n .  T h i s r e a d i n g program l a s t e d f o r twelve weeks.  Reading a c h i e v e m e n t .  The a s p e c t s o f r e a d i n g achievement  re-  f e r r e d to i n t h i s s t u d y are s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y , v o c a b u l a r y and comprehension, and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement. S i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y i s d e f i n e d by the r a p i d i t y o f r e a d ing w i t h understanding;  s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y as a s a m p l i n g o f  c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y ; s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension as c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to r e a d w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f i l l  the  i n blank  spaces i n c e r t a i n prose p a s s a g e s .  Listening.  L i s t e n i n g i n t h i s s t u d y i s d e f i n e d as the  passive  form o f l i s t e n i n g where no d i s c u s s i o n o r i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e b e tween the c h i l d r e n and the t e a c h e r d o i n g the o r a l r e a d i n g .  9 Listening vocabulary.  T h i s terra i s u s e d to d e s c r i b e the mean-  i n g o f a word the c h i l d r e n hear and a s s o c i a t e w i t h the p r o j e c t e d  pic-  t u r e s o f the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t .  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g . of attitude  T h i s term i n c l u d e s the  toward f h e u r e a d i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f , o f a t t i t u d e  i n r e a d i n g and o f the development o f a t t i t u d e reading materials. to r e a d ,  relationships and s u c c e s s  from the c o n t e n t o f  the  I t i s a l s o used to d e s c r i b e the c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i r e  t h e i r c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s and the time they spent i n t h e i r  reading.  I I I . SCOPE AND LIMITATION  T h i s study has been planned to e x p l o r e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the teacher on the development o f Grade F i v e c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y , and a t t i tude toward r e a d i n g .  Grade F i v e c h i l d r e n have been s e l e c t e d f o r 1 3 , 14  s t u d y because r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s  this  have shown the advantages o f  l i s t e n i n g over r e a d i n g as a mode o f l e a r n i n g to be g r e a t e s t e a r l y i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e grades and l e s s d u r i n g the l a t e r elementary  years.  A p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n o f the procedures i n t h i s experiment the f a c t t h a t the s t o r i e s were r e a d by e i g h t d i f f e r e n t teacher's interest  Young,  teachers.  is The  i n the program, h i s t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y , and h i s p e r -  op.  c i t . p . 32.  14 M y r t l e C l a r a S t u d d a r d B o n n e r , "A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the R e l a t i o n s h i p o f R e a d i n g A b i l i t y to L i s t e n i n g A b i l i t y , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Auburn U n i v e r s i t y , A u b u r n , 1960) , p . 1 3 0 .  10 s o n a l i t y would a f f e c t tests.  the o r a l r e a d i n g and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  the  However, many o f the i n d i v i d u a l teacher v a r i a b l e s w i l l be c o n -  t r o l l e d because the same t e a c h e r taught a p a i r o f c o n t r o l and e x p e r i mental c l a s s e s .  Similarly,  c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n g the o r a l  i n g was not p e r m i t t e d i n o r d e r to c o n t r o l the i n f l u e n c e o f  read-  different  t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t i e s to h e l p p u p i l s l e a r n through such d i s c u s s i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e , though, t h a t some "Hawthorne e f f e c t " may have permeated the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n and may have been c a r r i e d over to the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Because o f the l a c k o f r e s e a r c h d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the o f l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t y when no i n t e r a c t i o n between teacher  and c h i l d r e n  t a k e s p l a c e , the w r i t e r was a b l e to r e p o r t o n l y the l i t e r a t u r e i n g programs o f c r e a t i v e and a c t i v e forms o f l i s t e n i n g . review  study  concern-  The f o l l o w i n g  i n c l u d e s s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g (1) the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g as modes o f l e a r n i n g ; (2)  the f a c t o r s t h a t  ence l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; (3) c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e  influ-  toward  reading.  I . LISTENING AS MODE OF LEARNING  The importance o f t e a c h i n g l i s t e n i n g as one o f the  language  a r t s has r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n by b o t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and teachers.  S t u d i e s have been made to a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t o f such  t r a i n i n g on l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l and on r e a d i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r .  In  a t t e m p t i n g to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l e a r n i n g by l i s t e n i n g over  I .:. l e a r n i n g by r e a d i n g , R u s s e l l i n grades f i v e , by the teacher  planned a l i s t e n i n g program f o r c h i l d r e n  seven and e i g h t .  The same m a t e r i a l s were r e a d t w i c e  to one group o f c h i l d r e n , by the c h i l d r e n themselves  i n a second group a t the r a t e o f speed the teacher u s e d to r e a d i n the first  g r o u p , and by the c h i l d r e n themselves a t t h e i r own r e a d i n g speed  I R. D . R u s s e l l , "A Comparison o f Two Methods o f L e a r n i n g , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1 8 : 2 3 5 - 3 8 , 1928.  i n the t h i r d g r o u p .  He r e p o r t e d t h a t grade f i v e  by the o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n  c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d more  than by t h e i r own s i l e n t r e a d i n g .  s e v e n , the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  I n grade  o f r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g were p r a c -  t i c a l l y e q u a l and i n grade n i n e , r e a d i n g was s l i g h t l y f a v o r e d .  Of these  two ways o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g , t h a t i s l i s t e n i n g to m a t e r i a l s t w i c e o r r e a d i n g s i l e n t l y , R u s s e l l c o n c l u d e d t h a t n e i t h e r was more e f f e c t i v e the  than  other. 2 Rankin  compared r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n  i n grades t h r e e t h r o u g h s e v e n .  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group he had the  t e a c h e r s r e a d the p o r t i o n o f the D e t r o i t R e a d i n g T e s t I I I w h i c h c h i l d r e n o r d i n a r i l y r e a d s i l e n t l y and had the c o n t r o l group r e a d the s i l e n t l y a c c o r d i n g to the p r o c e d u r e .  test  The grade placement median i n  l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g were compared a t each grade l e v e l .  The f i n d i n g s  showed t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the two modes o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was g r e a t l y i n f a v o r o f l i s t e n i n g at  the grade t h r e e l e v e l .  However, t h i s  advantage tended to become l e s s a t the b e g i n n i n g o f grade f i v e . seems e v i d e n t t h a t the l e s s competent better listeners for  It  the c h i l d r e n are i n r e a d i n g  they become and v i c e v e r s a .  the  Rankin concluded that  elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n the r a t e o f development i n l i s t e n i n g  comprehension i s much g r e a t e r t h a n i n r e a d i n g . 3 Young  s t u d i e d the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t  modes  o f p r e s e n t a t i o n namely; (1) the teacher r e a d a l o u d a s e l e c t i o n to 2 P a u l T . R a n k i n , " L i s t e n i n g A b i l i t y I I : I t s Importance, Measurement and D e v e l o p m e n t , " Chicago S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 1 2 : 4 1 7 - 2 0 , J u n e , 1930. 3 W i l l i a m E . Young, "The R e l a t i o n o f R e a d i n g Comprehension and R e t e n t i o n to H e a r i n g Comprehension and R e t e n t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 5:30:.39, September, 1936.  the  13  p u p i l s ; (2) the t e a c h e r r e a d a l o u d w h i l e the c h i l d r e n r e a d the same material silently;  (3) the c h i l d r e n r e a d the s e l e c t i o n s i l e n t l y once  a t t h e i r own r a t e ;  (4) the c h i l d r e n read the s e l e c t i o n s i l e n t l y once  f o r the l e n g t h o f time the teacher r e a d a l o u d i n the f i r s t method. Each s e l e c t i o n was p r e s e n t e d once i n each c l a s s , and each c l a s s e x p e r i e n c e d a t l e a s t t h r e e modes o f p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The f i n d i n g s showed a  p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o r o f the o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n a l o n e was e f f e c t i v e as when t h i s o r a l  The  teacher's  presentation  was s i m u l t a n e o u s w i t h the c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g o f the same s e l e c tion.  However, when the t e a c h e r v a r i a b l e was h e l d c o n s t a n t ,  the  posi-  t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o r o f the o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the f i r s t and second methods o v e r the r e a d i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the same m a t e r i a l s i n the t h i r d o f f o u r t h methods d i d not show; they were e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . From the above f i n d i n g s i t i s apparent  that l i s t e n i n g and  r e a d i n g as modes o f l e a r n i n g are a l m o s t e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e when the a t t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s o f the teacher  i s held constant.  However, i n the  lower g r a d e s , l i s t e n i n g seems to be a more e f f e c t i v e way o f l e a r n i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i f c h i l d r e n were taught l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s e a r l y i n these g r a d e s ,  t h e y c o u l d be more e f f i c i e n t r e a d e r s .  Nevertheless,  f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n s c h o o l i s d i r e c t e d more towards r e a d i n g than listening. Canfield  4  d e s i g n e d an e x p e r i m e n t to gather i n f o r m a t i o n on  4 G. R o b e r t C a n f i e l d , "How U s e f u l Are L e s s o n s on L i s t e n i n g , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 6 2 : 1 4 7 - 5 1 , December, 1 9 6 1 .  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  o f d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n f o r d e v e l o p i n g  the a b i l i t y o f grade f i v e c h i l d r e n to u n d e r s t a n d  the spoken language.  I n one e x p e r i m e n t a l group where d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n was u s e d , the i n g emphasized the q u a l i t i e s o f a good l i s t e n e r . group a t t e m p t e d ,  train-  The t e a c h e r s i n t h i s  w i t h the a i d o f twelve p r e p a r e d l e s s o n s , v a r i e d t e c h -  n i q u e s and d e v i c e s to d e v e l o p the l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s o f the c h i l d r e n . I n the second e x p e r i m e n t a l group where the i n s t r u c t i o n was i n d i r e c t , the t e a c h e r s used the same twelve l e s s o n s but the q u a l i t i e s o f a good l i s t e n e r were not g i v e n any emphasis.  A t h i r d group w h i c h s e r v e d as  the c o n t r o l group d i d not r e c e i v e any l e s s o n s o r t r a i n i n g f o r the d e v lopment o f a good l i s t e n e r .  The mean g a i n s i n l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y o f  b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l groups compared w i t h the c o n t r o l group were t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . s c o r e s were a d j u s t e d  statis-  N e v e r t h e l e s s , when the mean  by the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , the  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s among the mean g a i n s o f the groups independent o f i n i t i a l differences  in listening skill  the  f a i l e d to show.  Even though the g a i n s i n l e a r n i n g appear to f a v o r the who r e c e i v e d f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s ,  groups  the f o u r  c i t e d above do n o t s u p p l y s u f f i c i e n t evidence to i n d i c a t e t h a t  studies either  l i s t e n i n g o r r e a d i n g i s s u p e r i o r to the o t h e r as mode o f l e a r n i n g .  II.  FACTORS, THAT INFLUENCE READING AND LISTENING  Reading achievement.  ACTIVITIES  Most r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on the  s h i p between l i s t e n i n g and o t h e r language a r t s have been around the e f f e c t o f l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y on r e a d i n g  relationcentered  achievement.  15 Berry  5  s a i d t h a t comprehension o f the spoken word i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d 6  to comprehension o f the p r i n t e d i r o r d .  Hildreth  supported t h i s  state-  ment w i t h the f i n d i n g s t h a t l e a r n i n g to r e c o g n i z e words i s more e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d when the words met i n r e a d i n g are i n the l i s t e n i n g and 7 s p e a k i n g v o c a b u l a r y o f the c h i l d .  A c c o r d i n g to Young  intermediate  c h i l d r e n who do p o o r l y i n comprehending what they r e a d do p o o r l y i n comprehending what they h e a r .  Likewise, Spearitt  concluded that  c h i l d r e n who d i d w e l l on r e a d i n g and r e a s o n i n g t e s t s and who c o u l d remember l o n g sequences o f symbols tended to do w e l l i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension Winter  tests. 9 found a c o r r e l a t i o n o f ;53 between l i s t e n i n g and r e a d -  i n g comprehension, .51 between l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y b o t h o f w h i c h are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . i n g and r e a d i n g have many f a c t o r s ant as the o t h e r i n l e a r n i n g .  She c o n c l u d e d t h a t l i s t e n -  i n common xirtiich make one as i m p o r t 10  Many  s u p p o r t e d t h i s f i n d i n g : w i t h the  c o n c l u s i o5n t h a t a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s k i l l s i n v o l v e d A l t h e a B e e r y , " I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between L i s t e n i n g and Other Language A r t s A r e a s , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 3 1 : 3 6 - 4 5 M a r c h , 1954. 6 Gertrude H i l d r e t h , "An I n d i v i d u a l Study i n Word R e c o g n i t i o n , " Elementary School J o u r n a l , 35:606-19, A p r i l , 1 9 4 5 . 7 Young, o p . cit. 8 Donald S p e a r i t t , " A F a c t o r i a l A n a l y s i s o f L i s t e n i n g Comprehension," (unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 1 ) . 9 C l o t i l d a W i n t e r , " L i s t e n i n g and L e a r n i n g , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 43:569-72, October, 1966. 16 Wesley A . Many, " I s There R e a l l y Any D i f f e r e n c e - R e a d i n g v s . L i s t e n i n g ? " The R e a d i n g T e a c h e r , 1 9 : 1 1 0 - 1 3 , November, 1 9 6 5 .  i n comprehending o r a l l y and i n comprehending v i s u a l l y  presented  materials. 11 Hollow's  study was d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y to determine  whether  a p l a n n e d program o f l i s t e n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n would improve the l i s t e n ing a b i l i t i e s o f intermediate  grade c h i l d r e n and whether a b i l i t y  l i s t e n was r e l a t e d to r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t .  to  Her f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d a  p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .55 between l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g comprehension,  .47 between l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y b o t h o f which were  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01  level.  L i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g are s k i l l s w h i c h i n v o l v e the  processes  o f comprehension, e v a l u a t i o n , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n but b o t h d i f f e r i n t h e i r manner o f r e c e p t i o n .  Reading can be done a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  own r a t e o f speed and i f some p o r t i o n o f the s e l e c t i o n was not  fully  u n d e r s t o o d i t can be r e - r e a d .  depends  On the o t h e r hand, the l i s t e n e r  upon the speaker who c o n t r o l s the speed o f h i s u t t e r a n c e s , the o f h i s messages and the i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t may o c c u r i n the Therefore,  emphasis  listener.  the l i s t e n e r may o r may not have the o p p o r t u n i t y to compre-  hend the message and be a b l e to r e t a i n the p e r t i n e n t  information.  The f o r e g o i n g s t u d i e s have shown the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g .  This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s important i n l e a r n i n g  from a l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , a l s o ,  L i s t e n i n g i s the f i r s t o f the  language a r t s a c h i l d l e a r n s to u s e ,  so i t i s the b a s i s f o r l e a r n i n g  the o t h e r language a r t s .  Through l i s t e n i n g c h i l d r e n can l e a r n new  11 Mary K e v i n H o l l o w , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l Study o f L i s t e n i n g Comprension a t the I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade L e v e l , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Fordham U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 5 ) .  17 words, p h r a s e s , and sentence s t r u c t u r e s a l l o f which are i m p o r t a n t b u i l d i n g power i n r e a d i n g . i s equally effective  A l s o , because l e a r n i n g through  as l e a r n i n g through r e a d i n g ,  s k i l l s be taught f o r m a l l y and Intelligence.  the  reading  simultaneously.  The i m p o r t a n t  i n g l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g  listening  especially i n  e a r l y s c h o o l y e a r s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t b o t h l i s t e n i n g and  in  role intelligence  plays i n develop-  s k i l l s has been s t u d i e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s . -  12 Pratt  reported that intelligence  as i t i s i n l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y .  i s as i m p o r t a n t 13  Hollow  i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i s t e n i n g comprehension  concluded that substantially  p u p i l s w i t h l o w , average and h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e . t i o n s between l i s t e n i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t at  the .01 l e v e l .  i n reading  The p o s i t i v e  Consistent  those correla-  levels  f i n d i n g s between 14  l i s t e n i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e were r e p o r t e d by W i n t e r . indicated that intelligence i s a contributing factor and r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s o f  systematic  benefited  i n the t h r e e group  ability  These s t u d i e s i n the  listening  children.  A l t h o u g h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i s t e n i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e 15,16 was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , a major c r i t i c i s m Edward F r a t t , " E x p e r i m e n t a l E v a l u a t i o n o f a Program f o r the Improvement o f L i s t e n i n g , " Elementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 4 3 : 3 1 5 - 2 0 , M a r c h , 19 56. I b i d . , . p . 320. . 14, . ^ Winter, op. c i t . 15 W i l l i a m Bruce L e g g e , "Comparison o f L i s t e n i n g A b i l i t i e s o f I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade P u p i l s C a t e g o r i z e d A c c o r d i n g to I n t e l l i g e n c e , A c h i e v e ment and S e x , " ( u n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , D i s . A b s t . 2947-A, 1966). 16 Canfield, op. c i t . 1 3  T  18 o f l i s t e n i n g t e s t s i n t h e i r resemblance  to i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s .  The  same b a s i c method o f p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l o r a l l y to i n d i c a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s a p a t t e r n used i n b o t h t e s t s .  Therefore, i t i s  to be c a u t i o u s i n u s i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s as the o n l y t h a t would a f f e c t  necessary factor  the c h i l d ' s success i n s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t .  Ross s t a t e d  that:  'rfe commonly assume t h a t the d i r e c t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s from i n t e l l i g e n c e to l i s t e n i n g . How b r i g h t the c h i l d i s d e t e r m i n e d by how w e l l he l i s t e n s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to c o n j e c t u r e whether the o p p o s i t e might n o t be t r u e . The c h i l d who f o r one r e a s o n or a n o t h e r , never l e a r n s to l i s t e n l i v e s i n a self-made c e l l i s o l a t e d from the w o r l d about h i m . As s u r e l y as i f he l i v e d i n a h i d d e n mountain v i l l a g e or i n a d e s e r t , he i s c u t o f f from the s t i m u l a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e 17  to optimum development o f h i s i n t e l l e c t . 18 Legge c l a i m e d t h a t l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y i s even more h i g h l y l a t e d to s c h o l a s t i c achievement than i t i s to i n t e l l i g e n c e .  re19  Canfield  s u p p o r t e d t h i s c l a i m when he r e p o r t e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .50 between  lis-  t e n i n g t e s t s and i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s and .64 between l i s t e n i n g t e s t s and r e a d i n g comprehension t e s t s .  The h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between l i s t e n -  i n g t e s t s and r e a d i n g comprehension seemed to i n d i c a t e t h a t the a b i l i t y to l i s t e n can be a good i n d i c a t o r o f the c h i l d ' s s u c c e s s i n s c h o l a s t i c 20 a c h i e v e m e n t . Winter" c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e i s not the o n l y 17 Ramon R o s s , "A Look A t L i s t e n e r s , " J o u r n a l , 6 4 : 3 6 9 - 7 2 , A p r i l , 1964. 18 L e g g e , ojp. c i t . 19 Canfield, op. cit. 20 Winter, op. cit.  Elementary School  19 factor factors  that affects  l i s t e n i n g a b i l i t y but t h a t t h e r e are a l s o o t h e r  which may be c o n s i d e r e d a l t h o u g h she d i d not mention t h e s e . Socio-economic s t a t u s .  The i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  status 21  on c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g has been the purpose o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s . discovered that c h i l d r e n ' s future economic l e v e l .  Davis  g o a l s i n l i f e d i f f e r e d w i t h each s o c i o -  C h i l d r e n from m i d d l e and h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s  have h i g h e r a s p i r a t i o n s ,  such as p u r s u i n g t h e i r  s t u d i e s i n the hopes  o f o b t a i n i n g a c o l l e g e degree whereas c h i l d r e n from l o w e r s o c i o - economic  l e v e l s have l i t t l e or no m o t i v a t i o n to c o n t i n u e t h e i r  ^  studies other  than the immediate g o a l s o f b e i n g a b l e to communicate and perhaps get any k i n d o f j o b . 22 Gaugh  round t h a t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between  socio-  economic l e v e l s and v o c a b u l a r y , r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and p e r s o n a l i t y 23 ment.  Hill  and Giammatteo  adjust-  found s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  economic s t a t u s and v o c a b u l a r y and r e a d i n g achievement.  These  socio-  findings  r e v e a l e d t h a t c h i l d r e n from l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s do not o v e r come t h e i r  c u l t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s by grade t h r e e .  The e f f e c t  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r was e v i d e n t i n the r e p o r t e d s c h o l a s t i c ment.  Ross  of  the  achieve-  s u p p o r t e d these f i n d i n g s w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t good  A . D a v i s , C h i l d T r a i n i n g and S o c i a l C l a s s i n C h i l d B e h a v i o r and Development, New Y o r k : .He: G r a w - H i l l , 1943. 22  • " ' H . G . Gaugh, " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s to P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y and Achievement T e s t s S u r v e y , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 3 7 : 5 4 0 , 1946. 23 Edwin H . H i l l and M i c h e a l C . Giammatteo, "Socio-economic S t a t u s and I t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o S c h o o l Achievement i n the Elementary S c h o o l , Elementary E n g l i s h , 40:265-70, March, 1963. 24 Ross, op. cit.  20 l i s t e n e r s tended to come from m i d d l e and upper middle s o c i o - e c o n o m i c levels of society. Sex.  R e p o r t s t h a t boys l a g b e h i n d g i r l s i n r e a d i n g achievement  25 have l e d to s t u d i e s o f t h i s phenomenon.  Gates  s t u d i e d the i n f l u e n c e  o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s on the r e a d i n g a b i l i t y o f Grades 3 through 8 .  He  r e p o r t e d t h a t when the d i f f e r e n c e s on r e a d i n g raw s c o r e s were c o n v e r t ed i n t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g g r a d e s , based on grade norms, the  girls  were s u p e r i o r by about 0.2 r e a d i n g grade i n Grades 3 and 4 , by about 0 . 3 i n Grades 5 and 6, and by 0 . 4 i n Grades 7 and 8 .  The d i f f e r e n c e s  f o r comprehension were 0.2, 0 . 3 and 0.2 grades r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Hov/ever,  when the d i f f e r e n c e s were c o n v e r t e d i n t o s t a n d a r d s c o r e s , no c o n s i s t e n t t r e n d was f o u n d ; the average f o r a l l grades and a l l t e s t s showed a s u p e r i o r i t y o f s l i g h t l y l e s s than 0.2 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n f o r the He f u r t h e r  e x p l a i n e d t h a t a l t h o u g h the boys made the h i g h e s t  a l i t t l e more f r e q u e n t l y than d i d the g i r l s ,  scores  the s t a t i s t i c a l f i n d i n g s  d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y were too i n c o n s i s t e n t from t e s t t e s t and from grade to grade to be r e l i a b l e .  The g r e a t e r  t i o n for g i r l s '  to  variability  o f the boys seemed to be due p r i m a r i l y to the f a c t t h a t a p o r p o r t i o n o f boys got l o w s c o r e s .  girls.  greater  He added t h a t the u s u a l e x p l a n a -  s u p e r i o r i t y i n r e a d i n g was t h a t they mature  earlier  than b o y s . Gates f i n d i n g s were based on the a p p r o x i m a t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e _ A r t h u r I. G a t e s , ' "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n R e a d i n g A b i l i t y , " Elementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l , 6 1 : 4 3 1 - 3 4 , May, 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 .  21 and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f 13,114 p u p i l s .  A l s o h i s study was a  s t a t u s r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g o n l y one s u r v e y type r e a d i n g t e s t r a t h e r t h a n a study i n v o l v i n g improvement i n r e a d i n g achievement u s i n g a pre and p o s t t e s t d e s i g n s .  He b e l i e v e d t h a t the d a t a suggested an  e n v i r o n m e n t a l r a t h e r than h e r e d i t a r y e x p l a n a t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r girls'  the  g r o w i n g s u p e r i o r i t y over the b o y s ' i n r e a d i n g achievement.  He s t a t e d t h a t : I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t more g i r l s t h a n boys pursue a k i n d o f l i f e i n w h i c h more r e s p e c t , more i n c e n t i v e s , and more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e a d i n g appear e a r l i e r and p e r s i s t l o n g e r . C o n t r a r i w i s e , more boys than g i r l s may f i n d l i t t l e o r no e a r l y need f o r l e a r n i n g to r e a d . These boys f a l l b e h i n d the g i r l s a t the b e g i n n i n g , and a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f them r e m a i n i n ^ t h e c o n s p i c u o u s l y poor r e a d i n g group throughout the g r a d e s . In Winter's  27  study the mean d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a d i n g achievement  f o r g i r l s was found to be h i g h e r t h a n the b o y s . 28 s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l .  Lundsteen  i n f a v o r o f g i r l s at., the .01 l e v e l .  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  found the mean d i f f e r e n c e  However, the g i r l s '  superiority  i n the d i f f e r e n t language a r t s cannot be d e f i n i t e l y c o n c l u s i v e . stated that understanding,  Winter  time and h e l p g i v e n to boys may l e a d to  the  development o f t h e i r d e l a y e d s k i l l s i n l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g a c h i e v e 29 ment.  26 27  Ibid. Winter,  op.  cit.  28 S a r a W. L u n d s t e e n , " T e a c h i n g and T e s t i n g C r i t i c a l L i s t e n i n g i n the F i f t h and S i x t h G r a d e s , " 21ementary E n g l i s h , 4 1 : 7 4 3 - 4 7 , N o v . , 1964. 29 Ibid.  22 Wyatt approaches  30  s t u d i e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a d i n g achievement i n t h r e e  to grade one r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , s e p a r a t e sex g r o u p i n g ,  l i n g u i s t i c , and a c o n t r o l group u s i n g the b a s a l r e a d e r . approach the t e a c h e r s were h e l p e d to a d j u s t  I n the  first  t h e i r r e a d i n g methods  to  the b e h a v i o r a l t e n d e n c i e s o f the boys and the g i r l s who were grouped separately for reading i n s t r u c t i o n .  I n the second g r o u p , the  linguis-  t i c approach to t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g was used w i t h the hope t h a t such a method would f a c i l i t a t e the l e a r n i n g o f boys because l i n g u i s t i c  approach  would r e q u i r e l i t t l e r o t e memory and would promote g e n e r a l i z i n g about sound-letter  relationships.  a b i l i t y grouping.  The c o n t r o l group used b a s a l r e a d e r s and  The d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e treatment  groups  were r e v e a l e d on t e s t s measuring l i s t e n i n g , v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and r a t e o f l e a r n i n g words a t  sight.  There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between b o y s ' and g i r l s ' achievement t e s t s c o r e s i n p a r a g r a p h meaning, o r a l r e a d i n g r a t e and a c c u r a c y , r e g a r d l e s s o f the approaches to b e g i n n i n g r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n used.  However, the s e x - g r o u p i n g approach seemed more e f f e c t i v e f o r  boys than the c o n t r o l approach f o r the t e s t s o f word meaning.  Wyatt  c o n c l u d e d t h a t the r e a d i n g achievement l a g o f the boys seemed to d e pend upon something o t h e r than the t e a c h i n g method used a f t e r c h i l d r e n e n t e r e d f o r m a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n the f i r s t  the  grade.  31  30 N i t a M . W y a t t , "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Reading A c h i e v e m e n t , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 4 3 : 5 9 6 - 6 0 0 , 1966. 3 1  Ibid.  23 III. CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD READING The a i m o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n developmental r e a d i n g i s to promote growth i n i m p o r t a n t a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s common to most r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as growth i n the s k i l l s w h i c h are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to reading process. attitude  However, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done on c h i l d r e n ' s 32  toward r e a d i n g .  Sister Josephina  attempted  to  determine  those s u b j e c t s w h i c h c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r e d the most, as w e l l as the i n school.  least  She d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 9 per cent o f 335 Grade F i v e c h i l d r e n  l i k e r e a d i n g " b e s t " w h i l e 3 per cent l i k e d E n g l i s h . t h a t the c r e a t i v e a s p e c t s ,  She c o n c l u d e d  and d r a m a t i c p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f the  child-  r e n ' s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , appear to have l o s t importance to t h e i r 33 i n g due p o s s i b l y to t e a c h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n . 34 Healy  the  s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s  o f changing c h i l d r e n ' s  toward r e a d i n g on a group o f grade f i v e c h i l d r e n .  think-  attitude  The c h i l d r e n were  a l l o w e d to choose r e a d i n g groups a c c o r d i n g to i n t e r e s t ,  select  from  a wide v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s , s e l e c t c h i l d group l e a d e r s on a r o t a t i n g b a s i s , and p l a n c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s .  A c o m b i n a t i o n o f s m a l l group  i n s t r u c t i o n , f l e x i b l e grouping, reading partners,  and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  32 S i s t e r Josephina, C . S . J . , "A Study o f A t t i t u d e s i n the E l e m e n t a r y Gjrades;," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y , 3 3 : 5 6 - 6 0 , O c t o b e r , 1956. 33 Ibid, p.59. 34 Ann K i r t l a n d H e a l y , " E f f e c t s o f Changing C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e s Toward R e a d i n g , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 42:269-72, March, 1965.  24 i n s t r u c t i o n was u s e d .  Changes i n a t t i t u d e s were a s s e s s e d by r e c o r d -  i n g r e a d i n g b e h a v i o r , o b s e r v i n g competency i n f i n d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and the use o f f r e e  t i m e , as w e l l as by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  ment was noted i n the c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e  A great improve-  toward r e a d i n g .  When the same c h i l d r e n were i n j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l H e a l y a g a i n assessed  t h e i r r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e s toward r e a d i n g .  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the  A.  .01 l e v e l was found between the e x p e r i -  mental group and c o n t r o l subj e c t s i n t o t a l r e a d i n g achievement and i n number o f books r e a d d u r i n g the f i r s t semester.  gains  She c o n c l u d e d  t h a t these s t u d e n t s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r achievement i n r e a d i n g and t h e i r 35 favorable attitude  toward r e a d i n g .  I n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f the norms o f the San Diego I n v e n t o r y  o f R e a d i n g A t t i t u d e f o r Grade F i v e c h i l d r e n i n Vancouver S c h o o l , w r i t e r found a d i f f e r e n c e b o y s ' and the g i r l s ' 36 ment, Wyatt  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l between  attitude  toward r e a d i n g .  reported s i g n i f i c a n t differences  the  the  U s i n g the same i n s t r u -  i n attitude  toward  r e a d i n g among sexes i n the l i n g u i s t i c approach compared w i t h two other approaches.  However, the e x a c t d i f f e r e n c e was, not  stated.  I f the development o f a more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g  can produce f o r b o t h sexes more r e a d i n g and b e t t e r r e a d i n g as they advance i n t h e i r 35 36  Ibid.  W y a t t , op_. c i t .  achievement  s c h o o l i n g , then i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t  attitude  toward r e a d i n g may be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g p o t e n t i a l s e s p e c i a l l y the b o y s .  However, D a v i s warned:  I t seems c l e a r t h a t the f i r s t t h i n g we have to d o , i f we are to h e l p ( d i s a d v a n t a g e d ) s t u d e n t s improve t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward themselves and toward the s c h o o l work, i s to change our a t t i t u d e s toward them. I f they are to d e v e l op hope f o r t h e i r f u t u r e s and f a i t h i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e a u s e f u l l i f e , we must have f a i t h i n them. No one does a n y t h i n g w e l l i n l i f e u n l e s s he f e e l s that^someone has f a i t h i n him and i n h i s a b i l i t y to a c h i e v e .  37 A l l i s o n Davis, " P r o c e e d i n g s o f the F i f t y - f o u r t h Annual C o n v e n t i o n o f the N . C . T . E . a t C l e v e l a n d , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 4 2 : 272, March, 1965.  CHAPTER  III  DESCRIPTION .OF EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE For a more p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l t h i s chapter  i s d i v i d e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g  procedure,  s e c t i o n s : (1) s e l e c t i o n o f  the p o p u l a t i o n , (2) procedure and measurement o f v a r i a b l e s , and (3) e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  I.  SELECTION OF THE POPULATION  In the f a l l  o f 1967, p e r m i s s i o n was o b t a i n e d from the Vancouver  S c h o o l Board to work i n s c h o o l s where grade f i v e t e a c h e r s were each i n s t r u c t i n g two r e a d i n g c l a s s e s . Board's assistant  W i t h the h e l p o f the Vancouver S c h o o l  d i r e c t o r o f R e s e a r c h and S t a t i s t i c s , two s c h o o l s were  s e l e c t e d a t random from each o f the nine a d m i n i s t r a t i v e zones o f the Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .  Because i t was i m p o r t a n t to c o n t r o l the  t e a c h e r v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study i t was necessary to s e l e c t from these s i x t e e n s c h o o l s o n l y those i n w h i c h the same t e a c h e r i n s t r u c t e d two different  s e c t i o n s o f grade f i v e r e a d i n g c l a s s e s .  Only nine out o f the  e i g h t e e n s c h o o l s o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d by random met t h i s c r i t e r i o n . The  p r i n c i p a l s o f the s c h o o l s d e s i g n a t e d f o r the study were  i n v i t e d to a conference at w h i c h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n d u c t i n g the iment was d i s c u s s e d .  exper-  The w r i t e r thus had the o p p o r t u n i t y o f meeting the  p r i n c i p a l s whose c o o p e r a t i o n was so n e c e s s a r y f o r the success o f the experiment.  A l l the p r i n c i p a l s except one gave p e r m i s s i o n to have  experiment conducted i n t h e i r  schools.  the  27 I t was suggested set  a s i d e a t which the t e a c h e r s concerned  experiment. ing of  a t the p r i n c i p a l s ' meeting, t h a t a day be might be i n t r o d u c e d to the  The w r i t e r met a l l the t e a c h e r s from the e i g h t p a r t i c i p a t -  s c h o o l s i n the study a t t h i s t e a c h e r s ' c o n f e r e n c e . the study and the procedures  i n v o l v e d were d i s c u s s e d w i t h the  t e a c h e r s and t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n was s o l i c i t e d . the experiment was s e t .  The s t a r t i n g date o f  The s e l e c t i o n o f the experimental  each p a i r o f c l a s s e s i n each s c h o o l was made.  group from  P e r m i s s i o n was o b t a i n e d  from the t e a c h e r s to a l l o w the w r i t e r to observe and  The nature  both  experimental  c o n t r o l c l a s s e s i n each s c h o o l as f r e q u e n t l y as p o s s i b l e d u r i n g  the experiment. A p l a n f o r each teacher group f o r t e n minutes o f t h e i r p e r i o d was d i s c u s s e d .  to r e a d o r a l l y t o the experimental a l l o t t e d d a i l y f i f t y minute r e a d i n g  A f l e x i b l e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t o t a l weekly  f i f t y minutes o f o r a l r e a d i n g was a l s o suggested, w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t the whole f i f t y minutes was not to be g i v e n i n one s i t t i n g . was  made c l e a r  t h a t the program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the teacher  not a l t e r or d i s t u r b the t e a c h i n g procedures t i o n s each teacher i n s t r u c t e d .  should  i n the two r e a d i n g  However, i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  It  sec-  class,  the teacher had to d e v i s e a means by which he e i t h e r had to l i m i t the d i s c u s s i o n o f the l e s s o n he was p r e s e n t i n g o r shorten the l e s s o n i t self  to p r o v i d e time f o r the t e n minutes o f o r a l r e a d i n g , a r e - o r g a n -  i z a t i o n which o b v i o u s l y reduced  the i n s t r u c t i o n which otherwise  have o c c u r r e d between teacher and c h i l d r e n . r e n t r e a d i n g program was made f o r the c o n t r o l  would  No r e v i s i o n o f the c u r group.  28 I t has been mentioned, t h a t the s c h o o l s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s were d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Vancouver.  the d i f f e r e n t  study  zones o f the C i t y o f  T h i s wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c h o o l s ensured a c r o s s - s e c t i o n  o f the v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s o f Vancouver s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The s i x t e e n f i f t h  grade c l a s s e s were composed o f 546 c h i l d r e n .  There were 274 boys and g i r l s i n the i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  e x p e r i m e n t a l group w h i l e 272 were  However, a change i n the r e a d i n g program w i t h i n  the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d p r e v e n t e d two s c h o o l s from c o n t i n u i n g p a r t i c i pation i n t h i s study.  I n the f i n a l  sample t h e r e s i x p a r t i c i p a t i n g  s c h o o l s w i t h a t o t a l o f 186 c h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and 174 i n the c o n t r o l group.  From t h i s f i n a l  sample a l l p r e t e s t s and  p o s t t e s t s i n r e a d i n g achievement and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and i n v e n t o r i e s o f r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s were o b t a i n e d f o r the d a t a a n a l y s i s ,  I I . PROCEDURES AND MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES  Three s t u d e n t p r e t e s t s - p o s t t e s t s were g i v e n : the Gates MacG i n i t i e Reading T e s t s Survey D Form M - l ,  the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabu-  l a r y T e s t Form A , and the San Diego I n v e n t o r y o f Reading A t t i t u d e were a d m i n i s t e r e d as p r e t e s t s and the Gates M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s Survey D Form M - 2 , the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t Form B and the San Diego I n v e n t o r y o f Reading A t t i t u d e were g i v e n as p o s t t e s t s ; . M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t s Survey D i n c l u d e s t h r e e major s u b t e s t  The Gates measures-  s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y , s i l e n t readings v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension a b i l i t i e s .  The t h r e e s u b t e s t s c o r e s were  added to o b t a i n the t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t .  Four s c o r e s  each form o f t h i s t e s t were t a b u l a t e d f o r each c h i l d .  The Peabody  for  29 P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t was the l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y t e s t .  A record  was k e p t o f each c h i l d ' s s c o r e on the two forms o f t h i s t e s t .  The  San Diego I n v e n t o r y o f R e a d i n g A t t i t u d e was a d m i n i s t e r e d before and after  the experiment to p r o v i d e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s  i v e l y on the v a r i a b l e a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g .  respect-  A t o t a l o f s i x sepa-  r a t e p a i r s o f p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t s c o r e s were t a b u l a t e d f o r each c h i l d . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t Survey D was the p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n ,  However, i t s h i g h r e l i a -  b i l i t y and i t s v a l i d i t y were a l s o two f a c t o r s w h i c h l e a d to i t s c h o i c e . T h i s r e a d i n g s u r v e y had a l s o two forms w h i c h were n e c e s s a r y f o r pretest, posttest  the  measures.  A l t h o u g h the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t i s g e n e r a l l y u s e d to measure c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n t h i s study i t was s e l e c t e d to measure the g e n e r a l l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y o f the c h i l d r e n r a t h e r  than  the l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the words they heard d u r i n g the t e a c h e r s '  oral reading.  Although t h i s test i s u s u a l l y  a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i t was g i v e n as a group t e s t i n t h i s 1  study.  G h i l d e f s found r ' s ,  group  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ,  between the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t and the O t i s and S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t , and thus e s t a b l i s h e d the  concurrent  v a l i d i t y o f the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h i s manner.  1  1 Perry R. C h i l d e r s , " C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y o f A Group A d m i n i s t e r e d Peabody V o c a b u l a r y T e s t , " The J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 6 0 : § 2 - 9 3 , O c t o b e r , 1966.  30 B e f o r e the t e s t i n g p e r i o d was s t a r t e d ,  a p i l o t study o f the  Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t was conducted to determine the b a s a l and c e i l i n g p o i n t s f o r grade f i v e  children.  T h i s p i l o t s t u d y was  conducted w i t h a group o f grade f i v e c h i l d r e n who were not p a t i n g i n the  partici-  experiment.  I n t h i s p i l o t s t u d y , and a l s o i n the main s t u d y , the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to groups o f c h i l d r e n by p r o j e c t i n g overhead t r a n s p a r e n c i e s o f each o f the t e s t p l a t e s onto a w h i t e w a l l a t 10 second i n t e r n a l s . the p l a t e s , plate.  As the p s y c h o m e t r i c i a n p r o j e c t e d  she p r e s e n t e d the verfral s t i m u l u s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each  I n the p i l o t s t u d y responses were s c o r e d w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h a t  p l a t e 31 would be the b a s a l p o i n t and 140 the c e i l i n g p o i n t . The San Diego I n v e n t o r y o f R e a d i n g A t t i t u d e i s an i n v e n t o r y for e v a l u a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e lationship of attitude s h i p between a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g .  I t t e s t s the  re-  toward the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f , the r e l a t i o n and s u c c e s s i n r e a d i n g and changes i n and d e v e l -  opment o f r e a d i n g a t t i t u d e s . ' I t a l s o a s c e r t a i n s c h i l d r e n ' s m o t i v a t i o n towards r e a d i n g , t h e i r c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l and the time they devote their reading.  to  One l i m i t a t i o n to t h i s i n v e n t o r y i s the absence o f an  e q u i v a l e n t form when the p o s t t e s t was g i v e n a f t e r  a t h r e e months time  lapse. Through the p e r m i s s i o n o f the San Diego C o u n t y ' s S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , the San Diego I n v e n t o r y o f R e a d i n g A t t i t u d e was u s e d f o r the Vancouver s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y . the Vancouver S c h o o l s had to be e s t a b l i s h e d .  However, the norm f o r  31 Through the R e s e a r c h and S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n o f the Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the grade f i v e norms o f the San Diego I n v e n t o r y o f R e a d i n g A t t i t u d e f o r Vancouver S c h o o l s was made i n the f i r s t week o f J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 8 .  S i x t e e n s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d a t  random from the Vancouver S c h o o l s and a t each s c h o o l the was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l grade f i v e c h i l d r e n .  instrument  The i n v e n t o r y was g i v e n  by the teacher and to encourage the c h i l d r e n to g i v e honest to the q u e s t i o n s , they were t o l d t h a t the s c o r e s would not t h e i r grades.  answers affect  The i n v e n t o r y was g i v e n to 537 g i r l s and 545 b o y s , a.  t o t a l o f 1,082 grade f i v e c h i l d r e n .  The norms e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  this  group o f c h i l d r e n were the b a s i s f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the data, i n this study. The IQ s c o r e s t h a t were used to determine i n t e l l i g e n c e were the s c o r e s on the Henmon-Nelson T e s t s o f M e n t a l A b i l i t y .  This  test  had been g i v e n a t the end o f the p r e v i o u s s c h o o l term by the R e s e a r c h D i v i s i o n o f the Vancouver S c h o o l Board to a l l the c h i l d r e n i n the Vancouver S c h o o l s .  The s c o r e s on t h i s t e s t f o r the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s  s t u d y were made a v a i l a b l e by the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and by the R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n o f the Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f each c h i l d was a s c e r t a i n e d by h a v i n g the c h i l d w r i t e about the o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s o f h i s f a t h e r mother.  T h i s o c c u p a t i o n , as d e s c r i b e d by the c h i l d , was  or  r e f e r r e d to  the B l i s h e n * s O c c u p a t i o n a l S c a l e . The two n o v e l s used by the t e a c h e r s i n the o r a l r e a d i n g were The K i n g ' s F i f t h and K i n g o f the W i n d .  These books were chosen by  32 a committee composed o f l i b r a r i a n s and the i n t e r m e d i a t e  supervisor of  the Vancouver S c h o o l s w i t h r e g a r d to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1.  That the book be s i m i l a r , i n c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l ,  to  the type o f books f r e q u e n t l y borrowed by b o t h boys and g i r l s ; 2.  That i t b e , i n the o p i n i o n o f the s e l e c t i o n com-  m i t t e e , o f good l i t e r a r y q u a l i t y ; 3.  That i t be a t l e a s t a t grade seven l e v e l o f r e a d -  a b i l i t y as determined by the D a l e - C h a l l Formula f o r P r e d i c t ing Readability; 4.  That as much as p o s s i b l e i t must not have been  seen o r r e a d by the c h i l d r e n b e f o r e . A l t h o u g h K i n g o f the Wind, was a Newbery Award winner i n 1949, it  seemed t h a t the p r e s e n t group o f c h i l d r e n to whom i t would be read  would be j u s t as much c a p t i v a t e d by i t s f r e s h n e s s would be The K i n g ' s F i f t h ,  and charm as  a r u n n e r - u p f o r the Newbery Award i n 1967.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r had the o p p o r t u n i t y to o b s e r v e a t throughout  they  intervals  the study the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f l e s s o n s f o r the two groups  o f c h i l d r e n i n each s c h o o l , the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l  groups,  whereby i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , t e n minutes o f the f i f t y  minute  r e a d i n g p e r i o d was d e v o t e d to o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r .  I t was  n o t e d t h a t t h e r e was c o n s i s t e n c y i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the same l e s son to b o t h c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s .  A l t h o u g h i n the e x p e r i -  mental g r o u p , t e n minutes per p e r i o d was spent i n the o r a l r e a d i n g , t h i s same amount o f time i n the c o n t r o l group was devoted to d i s c u s s i o n about the c u r r e n t r e a d i n g l e s s o n .  further  33 III.  THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS  Because the purpose o f t h i s study was to determine the o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r o f s e l e c t e d n o v e l s on the  effect  children's  s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e r e a d i n g , the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e was u s e d i n which the  toward  adjusted  means o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were compared. A t o t a l o f 360 c h i l d r e n i n b o t h treatment groups completed the experiment.  Pretestsscores,  i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s  were used as c o v a r i a t e s i n each c o m p a r i s o n .  Eighteen different  tests  o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were made u t i l i z i n g the BMD04V. Product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d b e tween the means o f the g a i n s c o r e s i n r e a d i n g achievement and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y ; l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g ;  read-  toward r e a d i n g f o r b o t h boys and g i r l s  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l as w e l l as i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p . The for  .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was s e l e c t e d as the c r i t e r i o n  acceptance o f the  hypotheses.  CHAPTER IV  FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATIONS  In t h i s chapter, s e n t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d .  the r e s u l t s o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s are  pre-  S i n c e the data a n a l y s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o two  s e c t i o n s , t h i s chapter d e a l s w i t h (1) the a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e and (2)  the c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n .  I.  ANALYSIS OF CQVARIANCE  o  T e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were made between the means of  the g a i n s o f the boys i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group and boys i n the  c o n t r o l group on each o f the s i x dependent v a r i a b l e s .  S i m i l a r com-  p a r i s o n s were made between the means o f the g a i n s o f the g i r l s i n these two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s .  Pretest  s c o r e s , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i o -  economic s t a t u s were u s e d as c o v a r i a t e s i n each o f the The  comparisons.  d a t a r e s u l t i n g from t h i s a n a l y s i s appear "in T a b l e s I and I I .  I t i s apparent  t h a t the orad. r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r , when implemented  w i t h i n the c o n c u r r e n t r e a d i n g program, caused no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence i n a l l measures o f r e a d i n g achievement, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and attitude  toward r e a d i n g f o r boys and g i r l s .  However, the t r e n d o f  improvement i s i n f a v o r o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . The major h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the teacher would s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e  the s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement, toward r e a d i n g was r e j e c t e d .  No  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between t r e a t m e n t groups i n b o t h sex  35  TABLE... I COMPARISON OF MEAN DIFFERENCES. IN THE GAIN SCORES OF A PROGRAM OF ORAL READING V S . NO PROGRAM OF ORAL READING BETWEEN THE TREATMENT GROUPS FOR BOYS  Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Mean G a i n s Ex Con  Difference  F  Significance Level  Silent reading: 5.08  4.04  1.04  1.035  (n.s.)  .50  1.75  -1.25  0.607  (n.s.)  5.85  4.15  1.70  1.935  (n.s.)  11.59  9.72  1.87  0.869  (n.s.)  2.56  1.28  1,28  0-025  (n.s.)  1.29  1.37  .08  0.524  (n.s.)  a . speed and a c c u r a c y b.  vocabulary  c . comprehension d.  total  achievement  Listening: e. v o c a b u l a r y Attitude: f.  toward r e a d i n g  df=1/174  F  =3.84  P r e t e s t , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s used as i n each c o m p a r i s o n .  covariates  36  TABLE I I COMPARISON OF MEAN DIFFERENCES IN THE GAIN SCORES OF A PROGRAM OF ORAL READING V S . NO PROGRAM OF ORAL READING BETWEEN THE TREATMENT GROUPS FOR GIRLS  Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Mean G a i n s Difference Ex Con  F  Significance Level  Silent reading: a . speed and a c c u r a c y 4.51  4,. 57  -.06  0.255  (n.s.)  b,  vocabulary  2.13  3.97  -1,84  3.737  (n.s.)  c . comprehension  4.20  2,95  1.25  0.224  (n.s.)  t o t a l achievement 11.09  11.41  -.32  0.055  (n.s.)  4.32  3.56  .74  0.659  (n.s.)  .54  .24  .30  0.896  (n.s.)  d.  Listening: e. v o c a b u l a r y Attitude: f.  toward r e a d i n g  df=1/176  F  .95  =3.84  P r e t e s t , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s u s e d as i n each c o m p a r i s o n .  covariates  37 groups i n a l l measured v a r i a b l e s and no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  exist-  ed between the treatment groups f o r boys and g i r l s combined. A c c o r d i n g to T a b l e I I I ,  the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the means o f the g a i n s o f the boys and the g i r l s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was a c c e p t e d on the o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension.  variable  However, the h y p o t h e s i s was  reject-  ed f o r the o t h e r f i v e v a r i a b l e s because the mean g a i n d i f f e r e n c e s  were  non-significant. I t must be noted as shown i n Table IV t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o n any o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s r e s u l t e d between boys and the g i r l s i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  the  The unexpected sex d i f f e r -  ence i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l t r e a t m e n t on s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension was c o n t r a r y to the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the g i r l s would a c h i e v e more than the b o y s .  T h i s f i n d i n g s needs f u r t h e r  e x p l a n a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  The boys i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group b e n e f i t e d more t h a n d i d the g i r l s from the o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r .  Such an h y p o t h e s i s  i s borne out by the g r e a t e r g a i n score a c h i e v e d by the boys on s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension.  The mean d i f f e r e n c e between the b o y s ' and the  g a i n s c o r e s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l .  This gain indicates  that  the e x p e r i m e n t a l treatment had more impact on the boys than on the g i r l s i n s o f a r as s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension i s  concerned.  The program o f o r a l r e a d i n g a l s o might have h e l p e d the boys more than the g i r l s i n the development o f t h e i r s k i l l s i n l i s t e n i n g to and u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a s s a g e s . to s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension.  These s k i l l s might have some The n o v e l , The K i n g ' s F i f t h ,  transfer was  38  TABLE I I I COMPARISON OF MEAN DIFFERENCES IN THE GAIN SCORES BETWEEN THE BOYS AND THE GIRLS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP IN EACH OF THE S I X DEPENDENT VARIABLES  Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Mean G a i n s Difference Boys Girls  F  Significance Level  S i l e n t reading: a . speed and a c c u r a c y 5.07;  4.51  .56  0,248  (n.s.)  b.  vocabulary  .50  2113  -1.63  0.737  (n.s.)  c . comprehension  5.84  4.20  1.64  4.995  .05  t o t a l achievement 11.60  11.10  .50  0.501  (n.s.)  2.56  4.31  -1.75  0,596  (n.s.)  1.29  .52  .77  0.605  (n.s.)  d.  Listening: e. v o c a b u l a r y Attitude: f.  totward reading  df=1/181  F  .95  =3.84  P r e t e s t , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s u s e d as i n each c o m p a r i s o n .  covariates  39  TABLE IV COMPARISON OF MEAN DIFFERENCESIIN THE GAIN SCORES BETWEEN THE BOYS AND THE GIRLS IN THE CONTROL GROUP IN EACH OF THE S I X DEPENDENT VARIABLES  Dependent V a r i a b l e s  Mean G a i n s Boys ' G i r l s  Difference  F  Significance Level  Silent reading: a . speed and a c c u r a c y 4.04  4,51  b.« v o c a b u l a r y  1.75  2.97  c . comprehension  4.15  d.  t o t a l achievement  0.019  (n.s.)  -1.22  2.228  (n.s.)  2.95  1.20  2.221  (n.s.)  9.72  11.41  -1.69  0.003  (n.s.)  2.28  3.56  -1-26  0.829  (n, s.)  1.37  .24  1.13  0.186  (n.s.)  -.54  Listening: e. v o c a b u l a r y Attitude: f.  toward r e a d i n g  df=1/169  F  .95  =3.84  P r e t e s t . , i n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s used as c o v a r i a . t e s i n each c o m p a r i s o n .  40 a s t o r y o f the h e r o i c w o r l d o f the S p a n i s h conquerors and the K i n g o f the Wind was a s t o r y o f an A r a b i a n s t a l l i o n .  The p l o t o f each s t o r y  t o g e t h e r w i t h the f a c t t h a t t h e i r human c h a r a c t e r was a m a l e , might have m o t i v a t e d the boys to l i s t e n to the s t o r i e s w i t h more than the g i r l s showed.  T h i s more i n t e n s e  interest  interest  and l i s t e n i n g may  have been r e f l e c t e d i n the g r e a t e r g a i n s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension.  II.  COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION  I t can be seen i n T a b l e V , t h a t f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l the h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t  group  relationships  between g a i n s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , a n d l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y , l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g , and s i l e n t achievement and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g .  reading  The c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e -  l a t i o n i n d i c a t e i n d i f f e r e n t or n e g l i g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  As would  be e x p e c t e d , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement,  s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension and t o t a l  s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a.t the .01 l e v e l . A l s o , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y , and s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01  level.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension was not significant,  i n contrast  to the c o n t r o l group as shown i n Table V I .  41  TABLE V  '  COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GAINS IN THE S I X DEPENDENT VARIABLES FOR T . THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  V  SA SA  C  Tot  LV  Att  . 1  ** 1  .25  V  ** C  .24  **  *•*  Tot  LV  Att  1  .12  **  .69  .58  .73  1  -.07  -.03  .09  -.00  .05  .03  .05  .04  *: df=l/184  r  =.13S.v  r  ,05  .01  =.181  SA  S i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y  V  S i l e n t reading vocabulary  C  S i l e n t reading  Tot  Total s i l e n t reading  LV  L i s t e n i n g vocabulary  Att  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  comprehension achievement  1 .03  1  42 For these v a r i a b l e s , the d i f f e r e n c e between the r ' s o f the  experiment-  a l and the c o n t r o l groups was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . I n T a b l e V I , i t can be noted t h a t f o r the c o n t r o l group the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between g a i n s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and between tude toward r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y - w a s r e j e c t e d . thesis  atti-  The h y p o -  t h a t t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between g a i n s i n s i l e n t  r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g was a c c e p t e d .  However,  t h i s h y p o t h e s i s had to be r e j e c t e d f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group.  Also,  the . . r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and l i s t e n i n g vocabulary  was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l , a f i n d i n g  t h a t d i d n o t show i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p .  The d i f f e r e n c e  the r ' s o f the c o n t r o l and the e x p e r i m e n t a l group i n t h i s  between  particular  r e l a t i o n s h i p was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . As shown i n T a b l e V I I , the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e were f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by an  signi-  intelli-  gence t e s t and the g a i n s i n each o f the measured v a r i a b l e s was r e j e c t e d f o r the boys and f o r the g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y group.  i n the  experimental  However, i n the same e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , a n e g a t i v e  s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and the v a r i a b l e s i l e n t r e a d i n g s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e  .05 l e v e l .  relation-  comprehen-  T h e r e f o r e , the h y p o t h e s i s on  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p may be a c c e p t e d , a l t h o u g h the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s v e r y s m a l l and o f dubious  importance.  I n the c o n t r o l g r o u p , the h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d  between  43  TABLE V I COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GAINS IN THE S I X DEPENDENT VARIABLES FOR THE CONTROL GROUP  SA  V  C  Tot  LV  Att  1  SA  ** V  1  .35  **  **  US  C  .27  ** Tot  1  **  .65  **  .71  1  ,72  ** -.01  LV  .20  -.05  .08  .13  * Att  df=l/!74  r  *  *  .14  .05  =.138  *  r  1  .05  .01  .14  = .181  SA  S i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y  V  S i l e n t reading vocabulary  C  S i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension  Tot  T o t a l c s i l e n t reading  LV  L i s t e n i n g vocabulary  Att  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  achievement  **  .00  1  44 TABLE V I I COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND GAIN SCORES GN EACH OF THE S I X DEPENDENT VARIABLES IN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS  Boys 92  SA  Tot  Experimental Girls Total 94 186  -Boys 87  Control Girls 87  Total 174  .04  -.13  -.05  -.13  .07  -.02  .05  -.06  .02  .09  -.00  .08  -.14  -.08  -.13  .05  .07  .02  -.08  -.14  -.11  -.01  .06  .02  LV  .08  -.04  .04  Att  .12  -.01  .04  ** .30 -.09  d£=l/90  r  =.205  r  df=1/200  r „ =.138 .05  r  > 0 5  > Q 1  =.267  .01  SA  S i l e n t r e a d i n g - s p e e d and a c c u r a c y  V  S i l e n t reading vocabulary  C  S i l e n t r e a d i n g Comprehension  Tot  Total s i l e n t reading  LV  L i s t e n i n g vocabulary  Att  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  achievement  =.181  4*  .29  .31  -.18  -.16  45 i n t e l l i g e n c e and the g a i n s c o r e s o f the v a r i a b l e s l i s t e n i n g  vocabulary.  A c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l was found f o r the boys and the g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y a s w e l l a s f o r the t o t a l group o f c h i l d r e n .  A n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e  and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g was a l s o found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . I n t h e c o n t r o l group, the boys and the g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y and the c h i l d r e n as a group w i t h h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e tended t o l i s t e n more e f f e c t i v e l y than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s w i t h l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e .  Intelli-  gence seems t o have some i n f l u e n c e over g a i n s when no treatment i s g i v e n , b u t when treatment i s g i v e n t h i s e f f e c t i s overcome o r b a l a n c e d out.  On the o t h e r hand, t h e c o n t r o l group o f c h i l d r e n w i t h l o w i n t e l -  l i g e n c e tended t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g which might be a t t r i b u t e d t o some f a c t o r s n o t r e v e a l e d i n t h i s  study.  As t a b u l a t e d i n Table V I I I , the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between socio-economic  s t a t u s a s measured  by an o c c u p a t i o n a l s c a l e and tEee g a i n s c o r e s i n the measured v a r i a b l e s was r e j e c t e d f o r the boys i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group. a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between socio-economic  However,  s t a t u s and  the v a r i a b l e s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y ; and between s o c i o economic s t a t u s and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement f o r the g i r l s i n the same treatment group.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s were b o t h  significant  a t the i Q l ' c l e v e l , b u t a g a i n were: r a t h e r s m a l l . The  same h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d i n the c o n t r o l group except  46 TABLE V I I I COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND GAIN SCORES ON EACH OF THE SIX DEPENDENT VARIABLES IN THE EXPERIMENTAL ANDCONTROL GROUPS  Boys 92  SA  .01-  Experimental Total Girls 94 186 -.26  **  Boys 87  Control Girls 87  Total 174  -.12  -.13  .06  -.12  V  -.02  -.16  .08  .09  .04  -.00  C  -.12  -.16  -.13  .05  -.00  -.05  Tot  -.09  -.31  -.19  .01  .05  -.06  LV  -.01  -.07  -.04  .30  .04  .03  Att  .08  -.02  ..03  -.09  .16  .08  **  ** **  * df=l/90  r  of=1/200  r  .05 .05  = .205  ** r  *  = .138  r  SA  S i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y  V  S i l e n t reading vocabulary  .oi=' .01  267  =.181  0  C  S i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension  Tot  Total s i l e n t reading  LV  L i s t e n i n g vocabulary  Att  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  achievement  **  47 f o r the boys i n the v a r i a b l e  l i s t e n i n g vocabulary.  The  relationship  between socio-economic s t a t u s and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y v/as s i g n i f i cant a t the .01 l e v e l . What these r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t e l l i s t h a t the g i r l s from the  low socio-economic l e v e l i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group improved s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y as w e l l achievement  as t h e i r s i l e n t r e a d i n g  more than d i d the g i r l s i n the h i g h and m i d d l e  economic l e v e l s .  their  The t o t a l e x p e r i m e n t a l group.of c h i l d r e n  sociofrom the  l o w socio-economic l e v e l p r o g r e s s e d i n t h e i r s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehens i o n and i n t h e i r s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement more t h a n the c h i l d r e n i n the same same socio-economic l e v e l i n the c o n t r o l  group.  Apparent-  l y , the boys from t h e . h i g h and middle socio-economic l e v e l s i n the control  group l i s t e n e d more e f f e c t i v e l y than the boys i n the l o w s o c i o -  economic l e v e l .  Socio-economic  s t a t u s seems to have some i n f l u e n c e  over the g a i n s c o r e s when no treatment i s g i v e n , b u t when treatment i s g i v e n the e f f e c t i s overcome o r balanced' o u t . As shown i n T a b l e I X , the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be s i g nificant positive  relationships  between i n t e l l i g e n c e  and g a i n s c o r e s  i n each o f the measured v a r i a b l e s i n b o t h s e x groups and i n b o t h  treat-  ment groups when socio-economic s t a t u s was h e l d c o n s t a n t was r e j e c t e d . I n the c o n t r o l except f o r the v a r i a b l e  group, however, the h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d l i s t e n i n g vocabulary.  s h i p , between i n t e l l i g e n c e  The p o s i t i v e  relation-  and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y f o r the boys, f o r  the g i r l s and f o r the t o t a l boys and g i r l s were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  48 TABLE I X COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND GAIN SCORES ON EACH OF THE SIX DEPENDENT VARIABLES IN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS WHEN'SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS WAS HELD CONSTANT  Boys 92  SA  Experimental Girls Total 94 186  Boys 87  Con.trol Girls 87  Total 174  .04  -.05  -.02  -.04  .05  .00  -.06  -.01  .05  .13  -^02  .09  .12  -.03  -.09  .07  -.07  .04  Tot  .05  -.04  .05  .04  .05  .04  LV  .08  -.02  .05  .30  Att  .10  -.00  .03  .11  df=l/90  r  df=1/200  r  =,205 .05. • * .05  r  =il38  r  SA  S i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y  V  S i l e n t reading vocabulary  C  S i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension  Tot  Total s i l e n t reading  LV  L i s t e n i n g vocabulary  Att  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  achievement  **  .01 n  .01  .29  .24  =.267 =.181  **  ** **  .31 .19  ** **  49  .01 l e v e l .  A l s o , the. r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and  attitude  toward r e a d i n g f o r the g i r l s and the t o t a l boys and g i r l s were p o s i t i v e a t the .05 and .01 l e v e l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  boys and the g i r l s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group were bene-  f i t e d by the t r e a t m e n t .  The  g a i n s c o r e s they made i n l i s t e n i n g voca-  b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g become independent o f i n t e l l i g e n c e a f t e r the t r e a t m e n t . and the g i r l s '  On the o t h e r hand, i n the c o n t r o l group the boys'  g a i n s c o r e s i n l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y tended to f o l l o w  t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l . So d i d the boys' and g i r l s ' a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g .  gain scores i n  Under the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , the  children's  g a i n s c o r e s i n l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g were dependent on i n t e l l i g e n c e . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e would be p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s tween socio-economic  be-  s t a t u s and g a i n s c o r e s on each o f the measured  v a r i a b l e s , i n b o t h sex groups and i n both treatment groups 'when i n t e l l i g e n c e was  h e l d c o n s t a n t was  r e j e c t e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group.  However,as shown i n T a b l e X, t h e r e were some unexpected n e g a t i v e r e lationships.  These were found between socio-economic  s t a t u s and  the  v a r i a b l e s s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y ; and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement f o r the g i r l s and between socio-economic  s t a t u s and  the  t o t a l boys and g i r l s f o r the v a r i a b l e t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e ment.  These f i n d i n g s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 I n the c o n t r o l group, the h y p o t h e s i s was  i a b l e a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g .  level. a c c e p t e d on the v a r -  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between  socio-econo-  50 TABLE X COEFFICIENTS OF CORRELATION BETWEEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND GAIN SCORES ON EACH OF THE S I X DEPENDENT VARIABLES IN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS WHEN INTELLIGENCE WAS HELD CONSTANT  Boys 92  SA  Experimental Girls Total 94 186  Boys 87  Control Girls 87  Total 174  .00  -.23  -.12  -.34  .04  -.12  -.04  -.14  -.09  -.15  .05  -.02  -.08  -.14  -.10  -.10  -.02  -.06  Tot  -.07  ,28  -.17  -.24  .03  -.07  LV  -.03  -.06  -.05  -.03  -.04  -.05  .02  .07  .22  Att  .05  •..02.  df=l/90  r  df=1/200  r  .05 - ° , =  2  5  =.138 .05  SA  S i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y  V  S i l e n t reading vocabulary  C  S i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension  Tot  Total s i l e n t reading  LV  L i s t e n i n g vocabulary  Att  A t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g  achievement  r  r  .oi=* .01  267  =.181  -.13  51 mic s t a t u s and a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g when i n t e l l i g e n c e constant ivas s i g n i f i c a n t the  only positive  was  a t the . 0 5 l e v e l f o r the g i r l s .  finding.  This  relationship r e a d i n g was  were n e g a t i v e f o r the boys.  between socio-economic s t a t u s and a t t i t u d e a t the . 0 5 l e v e l  also significant  g i r l s o f the same treatment  total  A negative toward  f o r the t o t a l boys and  group.  What t h i s Says i s t h a t the g i r l s i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l ment who  was  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i o - e c o n o -  mic s t a t u s and (a) s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and (b) s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement  held  came from the low socio-economic l e v e l  r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y as w e l l as t h e i r  treat-  increased their  total  s i l e n t reading achieve-  ment more than the g i r l s i n the h i g h and middle socio-economic The  silent  levels.  t o t a l boys and g i r l s i n the low socio-economic l e v e l p r o g r e s s e d  more i n t h e i r  total  s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement  from the h i g h and middle socio-economic In the c o n t r o l group, level  tended to improve  w e l l as t h e i r  their  than those  children  levels.  the boys from the loxv socio-economic s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y as  t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement.  However, not un-  e x p e c t e d l y , the g i r l s i n the same treatment group from the h i g h and and middle socio-economic l e v e l s ing  had a b e t t e r a t t i t u d e toward r e a d -  than the g i r l s from the low socio-economic l e v e l .  When the boys  and the g i r l s were taken as a group, the c h i l d r e n from the low economic l e v e l  improved  their  a t t i t u d e toward r e a d i n g -Snore.*  f a v o r a b l y ; than the c h i l d r e n from the h i g h and middle  socio:;:o  socio-economic  52  levels.  This change of attitude toward reading for the boys and g i r l s  •from the low socio-economic l e v e l might be attributed to some factors not revealed  i n t h i s study.  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND FINDINGS This chapter i s devoted to a summary o f the findings o f t h i s study, to the formulation o f some conclusions that;;seem warranted by the f i n d i n g s , to a consideration o f the educational implications o f the f i n d i n g s , and to some suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . chapter  The  i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s i n the o r d e r i n d i c a t e d i n the  p r e v i o u s sentence*  I,  SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS  T h i s s t u d y had a t t e m p t e d  to determine the e f f e c t . ; o f a program  o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r on grade f i v e c h i l d r e n ' s s i l e n t ing  read-  speed and a c c u r a c y , s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y , s i l e n t r e a d i n g  comprehension, t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g .  A l t h o u g h no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  were found between the t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t the r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group b e n e f i t e d by the program o f o r a l  child-  read-  i n g by the t e a c h e r even when no i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d r e n and the teacher d o i n g the o r a l r e a d i n g took p l a c e . When the d a t a f o r sex d i f f e r e n c e s  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l  group  were a n a l y z e d , the f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t the t r e a t m e n t a f f e c t e d boys more t h a n the g i r l s . significantly i n their  The e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f boys  s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension.  the  progressed  However, no  s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s i n any o f the measured v a r i a b l e s were found b e -  54  tween the boys and the g i r l s i n the c o n t r o l group. I n the o p i n i o n o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r , a probable r e a s o n f o r  this  sex d i f f e r e n c e i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group i s t h a t the o r a l r e a d i n g p r o gram may have i n d u c e d the boys more than the g i r l s to hear new w o r d s , phrasesand sentence s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h would e n r i c h t h e i r language  back-  ground and thus improve t h e i r s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement and each o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y , s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension; and between s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and each o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension; and between s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was s u b s t a n t i a t e d  f o r the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  I t was a l s o  s u s t a i n e d f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l group except f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tween s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension w h i c h p r o v e d to be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the program o f o r a l r e a d i n g made the r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group more c o n t e x t c o n s c i o u s than were c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  child-  the  T h i s c o n t e x t c o n s c i o u s n e s s might have  m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t the e x p e r i m e n t a l group on the v o c a b u l a r y i n i s o l a t i o n , synonym type o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y t e s t u s e d i n the Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t Survey D . A p p a r e n t l y , the o r a l r e a d i n g program seemed to have e r a s e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group some sources o f v a r i a n c e due to the i n f l u e n c e  55 of intelligence.  I n t h i s group no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were  found between i n t e l l i g e n c e and each o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g .  These f i n d i n g s  h e l d t r u e f o r the c o n t r o l group a l s o except f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tween i n t e l l i g e n c e and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y .  I n the c o n t r o l group  a p o s i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between i n t e l l i g e n c e and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y f o r the boys and f o r the g i r l s and f o r the t o t a l group o f c h i l d r e n .  separately  T h i s r e s u l t might have been  a n t i c i p a t e d because i t would appear l o g i c a l t h a t c h i l d r e n o f h i g h and average i n t e l l i g e n c e would l i s t e n more e f f e c t i v e l y than c h i l d r e n o f low i n t e l l i g e n c e . The o r a l r e a d i n g program a l s o , appeared to have n u l l i f i e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group some s o u r c e s o f v a r i a n c e due to the i n f l u e n c e of socio-economic s t a t u s .  VJhile the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group improved  i n t h e i r s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e ment, the improvement was shown most by the c h i l d r e n o f l o w s o c i o - e c o nomic l e v e l .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the c h i l d r e n i n the h i g h and average  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s were a l r e a d y more f a c i l e w i t h the w o r d s , phrases and sentence  structures  they heard from the o r a l r e a d i n g by the  er than the c h i l d r e n from the l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l .  teach-  T h i s program  p r o b a b l y gave the c h i l d r e n from the l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l  some  a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the w o r d s , p h r a s e s and sentence  which  structures  they had not a c q u i r e d b e f o r e the o r a l r e a d i n g program. I n the c o n t r o l g r o u p , however, as i t was to be e x p e c t e d ,  the  56  boys o f h i g h and middle s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s l i s t e n e d more e f f e c t i v e l y than the boys i n the low.' s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l o f the same group. When s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s .'was h e l d c o n s t a n t ,  the  relationships  i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group between i n t e l l i g e n c e and g a i n s c o r e s on each o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . t h i s group seemed to p r o g r e s s r e g a r d l e s s  A l l the c h i l d r e n i n  of their intelligence.  f i n d i n g s were not r e v e a l e d i n the c o n t r o l g r o u p .  These  The b o y s , and the  g i r l s s e p a r a t e l y and the c h i l d r e n w i t h h i g h and average  intelligence  i n the c o n t r o l group tended to l i s t e n more e f f e c t i v e l y than those w i t h low i n t e l l i g e n c e . h i g h and average  A l s o , i n the same group the c h i l d r e n w i t h  i n t e l l i g e n c e had a b e t t e r a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g  than those w i t h l o w i n t e l l i g e n c e . When i n t e l l i g e n c e was h e l d c o n s t a n t ,  i n the  experimental  g r o u p , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and g a i n s c o r e s on each o f the dependent v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . the n e g a t i v e  However,  s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s  and g a i n s c o r e s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and s o c i o - e c o nomic s t a t u s and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement f o r the g i r l s o f l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l i n d i c a t e d t h a t these g i r l s improved i n these two a s p e c t s o f r e a d i n g achievement.  A l s o , the boys as w e l l  as the g i r l s o f l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l p r o g r e s s e d i n t h e i r  total  s i l e n t reading achievement.  attrib-  These f i n d i n g s c o u l d perhaps be  u t e d to the o r a l r e a d i n g program.  57 I n the c o n t r o l g r o u p , the boys from the l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l improved i n t h e i r s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and t o t a l s i l e n t reading achievement.  On the o t h e r h a n d , the  girls  from the h i g h and m i d d l e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s tended to have better attitude  toward r e a d i n g .  These f i n d i n g s were to be e x p e c t e d .  However, the c h i l d r e n from the l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l i n the c o n t r o l group seemed to have changed t h e i r a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g  more than the c h i l d r e n from the h i g h and m i d d l e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c levels.  T h i s change o f a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g f o r the boys and  g i r l s i n the l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l might be a t t r i b u t e d to some f a c t o r s not r e v e a l e d i n t h i s  II.  study.  CONCLUSION  On the b a s i s o f the f o r e g o i n g summary o f f i n d i n g s these c o n c l u s i o n s seem w a r r a n t e d : 1.  The program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r d i d n o t  ficantly affect  signi-  the s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y , s i l e n t r e a d i n g  v o c a b u l a r y , s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension, t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g a c h i e v e ment, l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g o f the  child-  r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group compared to those c h i l d r e n i n the control  group. 2.  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -  ence between the g a i n s c o r e s o f the boys and the g i r l s i n s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension. the  treatment.  The boys comprehended b e t t e r than the g i r l s  after  58 3.  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s were found between the g a i n s c o r e s on the t o t a l s i l e n t  read-  i n g achievement and each o f l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and a t t i t u d e reading.  toward  When the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and  a c c u r a c y and each o f s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension; ..and between s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension were a n a l y z e d , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i l e n t r e a d i n g v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension was f o u n d .  I t would appear t h a t the program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the  t e a c h e r made the c h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group more c o n t e x t conscious. I n the c o n t r o l group, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement and a t t i t u d e  toward r e a d i n g .  A l s o , a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between s i l e n t  reading  v o c a b u l a r y and s i l e n t r e a d i n g comprehension. 4.  I n the e x p e r i m e n t a l group, t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e l l i g e n c e and the g a i n s c o r e s on each o f the s i x dependent v a r i a b l e s . I n the  c o n t r o l g r o u p , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between i n t e l l i g e n c e and l i s t e n i n g v o c a b u l a r y and between gence and a t t i t u d e 5.  intelli-  toward r e a d i n g .  Invithec'experimental g r o u p , t h e r e were no p o s i t i v e r e l a -  t i o n s h i p s between s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and the g a i n scores on each o f the s i x dependent v a r i a b l e s .  However, t h e r e were  negative  59  significant relationships between socio-economic status and silent reading speed and accuracy and socio-economic status and total s i lent reading achievement for the total boys and g i r l s . Among the boys in the control group, there xvas a positive significant relationship between socio-economic status and listening vocabulary. 6.  When socio-economic status was held constant, a l l the  children in the experimental group benefited in a l l of the measured dependent variables.  The oral reading program had improved the  children's silent reading achievement, listening vocabulary and attitude toward reading regardless of their intelligence. On the other hand, when socio-economic status was held constant in the control group, the children's listening vocabulary and attitude toward reading were influenced by their intelligence.  The  children from the high and average intelligence groups listened more effectively and had better attitude toward reading than the children of low intelligence. 7.  When intelligence was held constant, in the experimental  group, a l l children of low socio-economic level progressed in their silent reading speed and accuracy and total silent reading achievement. However, when intelligence was held constant in the control group, the girls attitude toward reading was influenced by their socio-economic status.  The boys of low socio-economic level seemed  60  to have improved t h e i r s i l e n t r e a d i n g speed and a c c u r a c y and t o t a l s i l e n t r e a d i n g achievement.  A l s o , the c h i l d r e n o f l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  l e v e l seemed to have changed t h e i r a t t i t u d e some f a c t o r s not r e v e a l e d i n t h i s  III.  EDUCATIONAL  toward r e a d i n g due to  study.  IMPLICATIONS  W h i l e t h i s s t u d y i s not c o n c l u s i v e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the  effect  o f a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r when no i n t e r a c t i o n b e ween the c h i l d r e n ! , and teacher d o i n g the o r a l r e a d i n g t a k e s p l a c e , e v i d e n c e seems to s u p p o r t r e n o f l o w IQ and did the  the i n f l u e n c e o f such a program w i t h  or socio-economic l e v e i l  A l t h o u g h the  child-  findings  not show any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the treatment  groups,  program b e n e f i t e d the c h i l d r e n i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p .  o v e r , the sex d i f f e r e n c e r e v e a l e d i n the study suggested t h a t boys p a r t i c u l a r l y need some k i n d o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s w h i c h their interest hension.  the  Morethe  increase  and expand t h e i r background o f v o c a b u l a r y and compre-  I t i s reasonable  t h a t i f o r a l r e a d i n g by the t e a c h e r  is  implemented i n the c o n c u r r e n t r e a d i n g program, the c h i l d r e n w i l l  be  i n d u c e d to l i s t e n and they w i l l be exposed to u n f a m i l i a r w o r d s , p h r a s e s and sentence s t r u c t u r e s .  T h i s acquaintance w i t h u n f a m i l i a r  elements o f the language w i l l p r o v i d e lent reading.  I t i s a l s o reasonable  background f o r t h e i r l a t e r  si-  t h a t the o r a l r e a d i n g by the  teacher w i l l l e a d to improved t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Further-  more, the model o f the t e a c h e r ' s enthusiasm f o r r e a d i n g may r e s u l t  61 i n better pupils' attitude  toward r e a d i n g f o r c h i l d r e n i n l o w IQ  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . F i n a l l y , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g by the teacher such as the one d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s study might have had more s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s i f the teacher had been p e r m i t t e d to d i s c u s s the s t o r y w i t h the c h i l d r e n as she r e a d i t  to  them.  IV.  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  I f and when a randomized groups o f s c h o o l s and group o f  child-  r e n are a v a i l a b l e and two s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e groups o f t e a c h e r s can be u s e d , one group t e a c h i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s and the o t h e r  group  t e a c h i n g c o n t r o l c l a s s e s , a more c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d y w i l l be possible. If  the c o n d i t i o n s s t a t e d above were f o l l o w e d and i f c l a s s  d i s c u s s i o n s f o l l o w e d and o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the o r a l r e a d i n g the  study  might r e s u l t i n more s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . A l t h o u g h t h i s study was not d e s i g n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e  the  e f f e c t s o f stich a program o f o r a l r e a d i n g a t d i f f e r e n t IQ o r s o c i o economic l e v e l s , the f i n d i n g s seem to s u p p o r t the v i e w t h a t t h i s k i n d o f program would be b e n e f i c i a l to p u p i l s i n these c a t e g o r i e s .  Re-  s e a r c h d e s i g n e d to c o n f i r m o r r e f u t e tti&se f i n d i n g s s h o u l d be u n d e r taken.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books  1.  D a v i s , A . C h i l d T r a i n i n g and S o c i a l C l a s s i n C h i l d B e h a v i o r and Development. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1943.  2.  Garrett,  3.  McKee, P a u l . The T e a c h i n g o f Reading i n the Elementary S c h o o l . New Y o r k : Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1948.  4.  ,  Henry E . S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : D a v i d McKay Company, I n c . , 1958.  R e a d i n g : A Program o f I n s t r u c t i o n f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l . B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f l i n 1966.  Company,  5.  S m i t h , Henry P . and Dechant, Emerald V . P s y c h o l o g y i n Teaching R e a d i n g . Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1961.  6.  S t r i c k l a n d , R u t h G . Language A r t s i n the Elementary S c h o o l . B o s t o n : D. C . Heath and Company, 1957.  P e r i o d i c a l s , P u b l i c a t i o n s o f Learned and Other O r g a n i z a t i o n s  Societies  7.  A n d e r s o n , H a r o l d A . "Needed R e s e a r c h i n L i s t e n i n g , " Elementary E n g l i s h . 39:215-25 ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 2 ) .  8.  A n d e r s o n , H a r o l d V . and R o b e r t J . B a l d a u f . "A Study o f A Measure o f L i s t e n i n g , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research. 57:197-200 (December , 1 9 6 3 ) .  9.  A r t l e y , S . A . "Technique f o r D e v e l o p i n g O r a l Reading S k i l l , " A R e p o r t o f the T h i r t e e n t h Annual Conference and Course on R e a d i n g . D . L . C l e l a n d , e d i t o r ( U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , June 1 7 - 1 8 , 1 9 5 7 ) .  10.  B a r b e , W a l t e r B . and C a r r , J a c k A . "Research R e p o r t : L i s t e n i n g Comprehension as a Measure o f P o t e n t i a l R e a d i n g A b i l i t y , " Reading i n A c t i o n . International Reading A s s o c i a t i o n Conference P r o c e e d i n g s , 2 , 1957. New Y o r k : S c h o l a s t i c M a g a z i n e s , 1 9 5 7 .  63 11.  B e r r y , A l t h e a . " I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s Between L i s t e n i n g and Other Language A r t s A r e a s , " E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h . 3 1 : 3 6 - 4 5 , M a r c h , 1954.  12.  B l i s h e n , B . "The C o n s t r u c t i o n ' a n d Use o f a n O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e . " Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . 24:519-531 (November, 1 9 5 8 ) .  13.  Caffrey, John. " A u d i n g , " Preview o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 25:121-38 ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 5 ) .  14.  C a n f i e l d , R o b e r t G . "Approaches to L i s t e n i n g Improvement," Elementary E n g l i s h . 35:525-28 (December, 1 9 5 8 ) .  15.  . "How U s e f u l Are L e s s o n s o n L i s t e n i n g ? " ' Elementary School J o u r n a l . 62:147-51 (December, 1961) .  16.  Cashman, P a u l H . "What R e s e a r c h T e l l s Us About the D e v e l o p ment o f L i s t e n i n g S k i l l s , " Conference on R e a d i n g . Pittsburgh University, Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh Press, 1958.  17.  C h i l d e r s , P e r r y R . " C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y o f A Group Admini s t e r e d Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t , " The Journal of Educational Research. 60:92-93, October, 1966.  18.  C l e l a n d , Donald L . , and I s a b e l l a H . T o u s s a i n t . "Interrelat i o n s h i p s o f R e a d i n g , L i s t e n i n g , A r i t h m e t i c Computat i o n , and I n t e l l i g e n c e , " Reading T e a c h e r . 25:228-31, J a n u a r y , 1962.  19.  Davis, A l l i s o n . " P r o c e e d i n g s o f the F i f t y - f o u r t h Annual C o n v e n t i o n o f the N . C . T . E . a t C l e v e l a n d , " Elementary E n g l i s h . 42:272, March, 1965..  20.  E r i c k s o n , C . I . and I r v i n g K i n g , and O r a l P r e s e n t a t i o n o f P u p i l s from the T h i r d to and S o c i e t y . 6:146-148,  21.  Gaugh, H . G . " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S o c i o - e c o n o m i c S t a t u s to P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y and Achievement T e s t s S u r v e y , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 3 7 : 5 3 7 - 5 4 0 , 1946.  22.  G a t e s , A r t h u r I. "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Reading A b i l i t y , " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 6 1 : 4 3 1 - 3 4 , May, 1 9 6 0 - 6 1 .  " A Comparison o f V i s u a l L e s s o n s i n the case o f N i n t h Grades". School August 4 , 1947.  64  23.  Hampleman, R i c h a r d S . "Comparison o f L i s t e n i n g and Reading Comprehension A b i l i t y o f F o u r t h and S i x t h Grade P u p i l s , " (unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana University),1955.  24.  H o l l o w , K e v i n , S i s t e r M . " L i s t e n i n g Comprehension, a t I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade L e v e l . " E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 56:158-61 (December, 1 9 5 5 ) .  25.  H e a l y , Ann K i r t l a n d . " E f f e c t s o f Changing C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e s Toward R e a d i n g , " Elementary E n g l i s h . 4 2 : 2 6 9 - 7 2 , M a r c h , 1965.  26.  H i l d r e t h , Gertrude. "An I n d i v i d u a l Study i n Word R e c o g n i t i o n , " ' Elemerrtary_ School_ JojarnaA. 3 5 : 6 0 6 - 1 9 , A p r i l , 1945..  27.  H i l l , Edwin H . and M i c h e a l C . Giammatteo. "Socio-economic S t a t u s and I t s R e l a t i o n s h i p to S c h o o l Achievement i n the Elementary S c h o o l , " Elementary E n g l i s h . 4 0 : 2 6 5 - 7 0 , M a r c h , 1963.  28.  Horrworth, G l o r i a L . " L i s t e n i n g : A Facet o f O r a l Language," E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h . 4 3 : 8 5 6 - 8 6 4 , O c t o b e r , 1966.  29.  Josephina S i s t e r , C . S . J . "A Study o f A t t i t u d e s i n the Elementary Grades," J o u r n a l o f Educational S o c i o l o g y . 3 3 : 5 6 - 6 0 , O c t o b e r , 1956.  30.  K i n g , W . H . ' "An E x p e r i m e n t a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the R e l a t i v e M e r i t s o f L i s t e n i n g and Reading Comprehension f o r Boys and G i r l s o f Primary S c h o o l A g e , " B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 2 9 : 4 2 - 4 9 , F e b r u a r y , 1959.  31.  L a r s e n , R o b e r t P . and F e d e r , D . D . "Common and D i f f e r e n t i a l F a c t o r s i n Reading and H e a r i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n , " Journal o f Educational Psychology. 31:241-52, A p r i l , 1940.  32.  L u n d s t e e n , S a r a W. "Teaching and T e s t i n g C r i t i c a l L i s t e n i n g i n the F i f t h and S i x t h G r a d e s , " E l e men t a r y , E n g l i s h . 4 1 : 7 4 3 - 4 7 , November, 1964.  33.  Many, Wesley A . " I s There R e a l l y Any D i f f e r e n c e - R e a d i n g v s . L i s t e n i n g ? " The Reading T e a c h e r . 19 ::110-13, November, 1965.  the  65  34.  P r a t t , Edward. " E x p e r i m e n t a l E v a l u a t i o n o f a Program f o r the Improvement o f L i s t e n i n g , " "Elementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 43 :315-20 M a r c h , 19 56.  35.  R a n k i n , Paul T. " L i s t e n i n g A b i l i t y I I : I t s Importance, Measurement a n d ' D e v e l o p m e n t , " Chicago S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 1 2 : 4 1 7 - 2 0 , J u n e , 1930.  36.  R o b i n s o n , H . A l a n . R e a d i n g and the Language A r t s . Supplementary E d u c a t i o n a l Monographs, No. 9 3 . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1963.  37.  R o s s , Ramon. "A Look A t L i s t e n e r s , " Elementary S c h o o l J o u r n a l . 6 4 : 3 6 9 - 7 2 , A p r i l , 1964.  38.  R u s s e l l , R . D . "A Comparison o f Two Methods o f L e a r n i n g , " ' J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Resear c h . 1 8 : 2 3 5 - 3 8 , 1928.  39.  Spache, Gaorge D . " C o n s t r u c t i o n and V a l i d a t i o n o f a WorkType A u d i t o r y Comprehension Reading T e s t , " E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement. 1 0 : 2 4 9 , Summer, 1 950.  40.  T o u s s a i n t , I s a b e l l a H . "A C l a s s i f i e d Summary o f L i s t e n i n g , 1 9 5 0 - 5 9 , " ' The J o u r n a l o f Communication. 1 0 : 1 2 5 - 3 4 , September, 1 9 6 0 .  41.  T r i v e t t e , Sue E . "The E f f e c t o f T r a i n i n g i n L i s t e n i n g f o r S p e c i f i c Purposes," Journal o f Educational Research.. 54:276-77, March, 1961.  42.  W y a t t , N i t a M . "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n Reading A c h i e v e m e n t , " Elementary E n g l i s h . 4 3 : 5 9 6 - 6 0 0 , 1966.  43.  Winter, C l o t i l d a . " L i s t e n i n g and L e a r n i n g , " E n g l i s h . 4 3 : 5 6 9 - 7 2 , O c t o b e r , 1 966.  44.  W i l t , M i r i a m E . "Study o f Teacher Awareness o f L i s t e n i n g as a F a c t o r i n Elementary E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 4 3 : 6 2 6 - 3 6 , A p r i l , 1950.  Elementary  r  45.  Young, W i l l i a m E . "The R e l a t i o n o f Reading Comprehension and R e t e n t i o n to H e a r i n g Comprehension and R e t e n t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n . 5 : 3 0 - 3 9 , September, 1936.  66 Unpublished M a t e r i a l s ;  46.  Baldauf, Robert J . "A Study o f a Measure o f L i s t e n i n g Compreh e n s i o n and I t s R e l a t i o n to the S c h o o l Achievement o f F i f t h Grade P u p i l s . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o , 1960.  47.  Bonner, M y r t l e C l a r a Studdard, " A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Reading A b i l i t y to L i s t e n i n g A b i l i t y . 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"Comparison o f L i s t e n i n g A b i l i t i e s o f I n t e r m e d i a t e Grade P u p i l s C a t e g o r i z e d A c c o r d i n g to I n t e l l i g e n c e , Achievement and S e x . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , cited i n Dissertation Abstracts, University Microfilm, 2947-A, 1966.  5 1 . P e i f e r , Edgar J . "The Development o f an A t t i t u d e S c a l e to Measure S t u d e n t ' s A t t i t u d e Toward Reading i n the Secondary S c h o o l s . " Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y , 1962. 52.  S p e a r i t t , D o n a l d . "A F a c t o r i a l A n a l y s i s o f L i s t e n i n g Comprehens i o n , " Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1961.  53.  Wenger, Thelma Wood. "A Study o f the E f f e c t on L i s t e n i n g T e s t S c o r e s o f Change i n Methods o f P r e s e n t a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a , 1967.  54.  W i l t , M i r i a m E . " A Study o f Teacher Awareness o f L i s t e n i n g as a F a c t o r i n Elementary E d u c a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l dissertation, Pennsylvania State College, U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , 1949.  67 Guide and Manuals 55.  Department o f E d u c a t i o n , A Guide to Teaching the E n g l i s h L a n g uage A r t s , I n t e r m e d i a t e L e v e l s 1 1 , 12 and 13 (Grades nr7~V~¥nd V I ) V i c t o r i a , B . C.: The Department o f Education,1967.  56.  G a t e s , A r t h u r I . and W a l t e r M . M a c G i n i t i e . Manual f o r D i r e c t i o n f o r Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading T e s t s . New Y o r k : Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1965.  57.  Dunn, L l o y d M . Manual f o r the Peabody P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t . M i n n e a p o l i s , M i n n . : A m e r i c a n Guidance S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1959.  58.  San Diego C o u n t y , O f f i c e o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , Improving R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n , An I n v e n t o r y o f Reading A t t i t u d e , Monograph N o . 4 , San Diego County, C a l i f o r n i a , November, 1961.  

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