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The may thirtieth incident in shanghai : Wu-sa shih-chien Ward, Robert Donald 1971

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THE MAY T H I R T I E T H I N C I D E N T IN-SHANGHAI: WU-SA S H I H - C H I E N by ROBERT DONALD WARD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1967 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE D E C R E E OF MASTE-R OF A R T S i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y We a c c e p t . t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r , 1971 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is f o r f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada THE MAY THIRTIETH INCIDENT IN SHANGHAI: WU-SA SHIH-CHIEN by Sobert Donald Ward ABSTRACT: On May T h i r t i e t h 1925 i n Shanghai, a group of Muni-c i p a l police o f f i c e r s under the command of a B r i t i s h Inspector f i r e d upon a crowd of Chinese students and pedestrians k i l l i n g twelve and wounding numerous others. This thesis i s an examination of the; May T h i r t i e t h Incident; but i t i s also an examination of the back-ground to the Incident and i t s r e s u l t i n g aftermath. Foreign interest and action i n China played an important ro l e i n the background to the May T h i r t i e t h Incident as did n a t i o n a l i s t and an t i - f o r e i g n propaganda and a g i t a t i o n . It was, however, domestic issues and events i n Shanghai that l e d d i r e c t l y to the student demonstrations on May 3 0 t h . Once the Incident occurred, n a t i o n a l i s t and a n t i -foreign sentiments again became quite important as did the r o l e and influence of the CCP. There ensued i n Shanghai and other centers further agitation,:, s t r i k e s , and general boycotts against f o r e i g n : . interests i n China. Page No. i i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION . . . 1 CHAPTER 1. THE BACKGROUND S e c t i o n A. PREFACE . . . 5 B. ANTI-FOREIGN ATTITUDES AND THEIR ORIGINS PRIOR TO MAY 3 0 t h . 9 A n t i - f o r e i g n A t t i t u d e s i n C h i n a A n t i - f o r e i g n A t t i t u d e s i n S h a n g h a i S h a n g h a i : A D e s c r i p t i o n S h a n g h a i : A n t i - f o r e i g n A t t i t u d e s The L e a d i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n s and G r o u p s Im-p o r t a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g A n t i - f o r e i g n A t t i t u d e s P r i o r to May 3 0 t h The KMT and CCP The S t u d e n t s The L a b o u r e r s The C h i n e s e M e r c h a n t s and I n d u s t r i a l i s t s C. THE EVENTS THAT LED TO THE MAY 3 0 t h INCIDENT . 50 The S t r i k e s i n t h e J a p a n e s e M i l l s The D e a t h o f Sun Y a t - s e n and t h e R e a d i n g o f h i s W i l l The P e k i n g I n c i d e n t The M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and i t s new B y l a w s The M i l l S t r i k e s o f May May 15th and t h e D e a t h o f Ku Cheng-hung The R e a c t i o n M o b i l i z a t i o n The M e m o r i a l M a r ch The M e e t i n g o f t h e SSU on May 2 7 t h The M e e t i n g o f t h e CC-CCP on May 2 9 t h The M e e t i n g of t h e SSU on May 2 9 t h CHAPTER I I . THE EVENTS OF MAY THIRTIETH A« PREFACE • • o o o « o « * « 8 « * 9 o e , o o « 79 B. THE MAY THIRTIETH INCIDENT . 80 D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e L o u z a A r e a N a n k i n g Road L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n E v e n t s L e a d i n g up t o t h e I n c i d e n t Page No. i v The I n c i d e n t A Q u i e t M o r n i n g o f P r e p a r a t i o n s The N a n k i n g R a i i w a y A s s e m b l y L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n The M i x e d C o u r t A s s e m b l y - P a r t I The S p e a k i n g B r i g a d e o f T a ' a i H u n g - l i The S p e a k i n g B r i g a d e o f L i a n g Yu-hua The L l o y d Road I n c i d e n t The F i r s t T h i b e t Road I n c i d e n t More P a t r o l l i n g The M i x e d C o u r t A s s e m b l y - P a r t I I The Second T h i b e t Road I n c i d e n t The M i x e d C o u r t P r o c e s s i o n on The C h e k i a n g Road N a n k i n g Road: More P a t r o l s The A r r i v a l o f t h e C h e k i a n g P r o c e s s i o n The P o l i c e R e t r e a t The F i r i n g Af t e r m a t h Summary DEBATES, CONFLICTS, AND CONTROVERSIES . . . . . 133 P r e f a c e The S t u d e n t s i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t P r i o r to t h r e e p.m. T h e i r Aims T h e i r S i z e T h e i r C o m p o s i t i o n The Crowds on N a n k i n g Road a t t h e t i m e o f t h e F i r i n g T h e i r Time o f A r r i v a l and T h e i r S i z e T h e i r C o m p o s i t i o n T h e i r Temperament M a i n C o n t r o v e r s i e s O t h e r D e b a t e R e s i s t a n c e Weapons R e f u s a l to D i s p e r s e V i o l e n c e T r a f f i c T i e - u p s The F i r i n g The S t a t e d C a u s e s The W a r n i n g The P r e c a u t i o n s An E x a m i n a t i o n of T h o s e K i l l e d . a n d Wounded P r e f a c e The R e p o r t s TFTC KWCP The D o c t o r s * R e p o r t s Page No. v The A n a l y s i s T h o s e K i l l e d T h o s e Wounded C o n c l u s i o n s The R o l e o f t h e CCP Summary CHAPTER I I I . THE AFTERMATH A. PREFACE 181 B. RESPONSES TO THE MAY 3 0 t h INCIDENT: AGITATION, INCIDENTS, AND STRIKES 183 S h a n g h a i The M e e t i n g o f May 3 1 s t The S h a n g h a i G e n e r a l S t r i k e O r g a n i z a t i o n s D i s s e n s i o n The G e n e r a l B o y c o t t S e t t l e m e n t The R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e SSU and t h e R i s e o f New U n i o n s O t h e r C e n t e r s A g i t a t i o n , D e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and f u r t h e r I n c i d e n t s C. THE SETTLEMENT OF THE INCIDENT 218 The D i p l o m a t i c E x c h a n g e s and t h e F i n d i n g s o f t h e M i x e d C o u r t The D i p l o m a t i c Body and C h i n e s e C o m m i s s i o n s The J u d i c i a l I n q u i r y D. THE EFFECTS OF THE MAY 3 0 t h INCIDENT AND SUBSEQUENT INCIDENTS ON THE UNEQUAL TREATIES 228 E. THE ROLE OF RUSSIA, THE COMINTERN, AND THE CCP IN THE VARIOUS INCIDENTS . . . . . 231 F. MAY THIRTIETH AND CHINESE NATIONALISM 234 CONCLUSIONS 236 FOOTNOTES 243 APPENDIX . . . . . . . . 269 BIBLIOGRAPHY 276 Page L I S T OF TABLES Page Summary o f t h e D o c t o r s ' R e p o r t . . . . . . 173 A L i s t i n g o f T h o s e K i l l e d . . . . . . . . 175 A L i s t i n g of T h o s e Wounded 177 Page No. v i i L I S T OF MAPS Map Page 1 • S l l 3. II g t l 3 i o o « o o o o a o o o « * « a » o o 1 8 2. S h a n g h a i Showing R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . . . 20 3. The L o u z a D i s t r i c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4. The L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . 84 5. A s s e m b l i e s From One p.m. to Two p.m. . . . . 91 6. The L o u z a D i s t r i c t - One p.m. t o Two p.m. . 92 7. A s s e m b l i e s From Two p.m. to T h r e e p.m. .-. . 103 8. Tbfe L o u z a D i s t r i c t - Two p.m. t o T h r e e . . . 104 9. A s s e m b l i e s From T h r e e p.m. t o 3:37 p.m.. . . 1.13 10. The L o u z a D i s t r i c t - T h r e e p.m. to 3:37 p.m. 114 11. The S i g h t o f t h e F i r i n g . 126 Page No. v i i i L I S T OF ABBREVIATIONS CCC The S h a n g h a i C h i n e s e Chamber of Commerce CC-CCP C e n t r a l Committee o f t h e C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y CCP C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y CKCN Chung-kuo c h ' i n g - n i e n ( CYB C h i n a Y e a r b o o k HTCP H s i a n g - t a o chou-pao {^fj S{ ff) ^ fJL ) I C J I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m i s s i o n of J u d g e s I C J - A ' R e p o r t o f E. J o h n s o n , A m e r i c a n J u d g e I C J - B R e p o r t o f G. G o l l a n , B r i t i s h J u dge I C J - J R e p o r t o f K, Suga, J a p a n e s e J u d g e Joint-Comm. J o i n t Committee o f L a b o u r , T r a d e s m e n , and S t u d e n t s KMT Kuomi n t a n g KWCP Kuo-wen chou-pao ( KWCP-1 "The B l o o d on N a n k i n g Road", June 7, 1925 KWCP-2 " A s p e c t s o f t h e P e r i o d S i n c e May 3 0 t h M a s s a c r e " , June 7, 1925 KWCP-3 "Waves f r o m t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t " , J une 14, 1925 NCH N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d NSU N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n SSU S h a n g h a i S t u d e n t s ' u n i o n TFTC T u n g - f a n g t s a - c h i h ( t o ) TFTC-1 "The R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and a R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d f & t " , J u l y 1925 TFTC-2 " A n a l y s i s and P r o o f f r o m t h e f a c t s o f May 3 0 t h M a s s a c r e " , J u l y 1925 TFTC-3 " R e c o r d s of t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t " J u l y 1925 TFTC-4 "Summation o f t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e M i x e d C o u r t " , J u l y 1925 THE MAY THIRTIETH INCIDENT IN SHANGHAI: WU-SA SHIH-CHIEN INTRODUCTION Page No. 1 INTRODUCTION In 1925, two mass movements t h a t had i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l , e c onomic^ and p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the h i s t o r y o f C h i n a were d e v e l o p i n g . A r u r a l movement was o r g a n i z i n g i n t h e p r o -v i n c e s o f Kwangtung, H u p e i and Hunan t h a t soon d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e e x p l o s i v e p e a s a n t movement o f 1926 and 1927. An i m p o r -t a n t u r b a n mass movement, known as the May T h i r t i e t h Movement, had a l s o begun t o t a k e f o r m i n many o f t h e m a j o r c i t i e s and s e a - p o r t s . When the B r i t i s h - o f f i c e r e d p o l i c e o f t h e S h a n g h a i M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l k i l l e d t w e l v e d e m o n s t r a t o r s i n N a n k i n g Road on May 3 0 t h , t h e r e e n s u e d a n a t i o n w i d e m u l t i c l a s s movement o f p r o t e s t s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , s t r i k e s and b o y c o t t s , m i l i t a n t l y a n t i - f o r e i g n and a n t i - t r e a t y i n n a t u r e . T h i s May 3 0 t h Move-ment soon t r a n s c e n d e d a l l p r e v i o u s a n t i - f o r e i g n movements as w o r k e r s , s t u d e n t s and m e r c h a n t s i n the b e g i n n i n g u n i t e d to oppose " f o r e i g n a g g r e s s i o n " and to b o y c o t t f o r e i g n g oods. I t was n o t o n l y t h e n e g a t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f o p p o s i -t i o n to f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s t h a t had u n i t e d w o r k e r s , s t u d e n t s and m e r c h a n t s i n t h i s movement. The p o s i t i v e n a t u r e o f a n t i -f o r e i g n i s m a t t h a t t i m e , n a t i o n a l i s m , had meant t h a t s t u d e n t s , w o r k e r s and m e r c h a n t s a l s o j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n c r i e s p r o c l a i m i n g t h e i r d e s i r e to c o n t r o l t h e i r own d e s t i n y and s a v e C h i n a f r o m b o t h t h e m i l i t a r i s t s and the f o r e i g n e r s . Page No . 2 The e f f e c t o f the movement was s w i f t and t u m u l t o u s . S h a n g h a i , the g r e a t f o r e i g n s t r o n g h o l d w i t h i t s W e s t e r n banks and m i l l s and i t s f o r e i g n c o n c e s s i o n s , was p a r a l y z e d by a g e n e r a l s t r i k e and b o y c o t t movement. The s t r i k e and b o y c o t t s p r e a d as o t h e r c i t i e s j o i n e d i n . W i t h th e Shameen I n c i d e n t o f J u n e , S o u t h C h i n a f o l l o w e d s u i t , and Hongkong, the f o r -t r e s s o f B r i t a i n i n C h i n a , soon became t o t a l l y i m m o b i l i z e d . The e v e n t s , w i t h o t h e r i n c i d e n t s and i s s u e s , a f f o r d e d a g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s and l a b o u r e r s to c o n t i n u e a g i t a t i o n and f o r most c l a s s e s i n C h i n a to m o b i l i z e i n a g r e a t n a t i o n a l c a u s e . B o t h the KMT and CCP t o o k a d v a n t a g e s o f t h o s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The s t r i k e and b o y c o t t i n t h e S o u t h e n a b l e d t h e KMT t o c o n s o l i d a t e i t s power i n Kwangtung. At t h e end o f June 1925, i t o r g a n i z e d and p r o c l a i m e d a new N a t -i o n a l Government o f C h i n a , and began to l o o k n o r t h w a r d t o -ward the s o u r c e s o f r e a l n a t i o n a l power i n C e n t r a l and N o r t h C h i n a . The t e r m "May 3 0 t h Movement" f i r s t came i n t o use w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s and the p r e s s s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e I n c i d e n t , and was meant t o a p p l y o n l y t o t h e I n c i d e n t o f May 3 0 t h i n S h a n g h a i and the a s s o c i a t e d n a t i o n w i d e e v e n t s w h i c h i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w e d -most n o t a b l y o t h e r i n c i d e n t s , and t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e s and boy-c o t t s a g a i n s t B r i t i s h and J a p a n e s e i n t e r e s t s i n C h i n a . I n l a t e r y e a r s , the t e r m g r a d u a l l y a c q u i r e d a much b r o a d e r m eaning. Page No. 3 T h r o u g h o u t C h i n e s e h i s t o r y , i m p o r t a n t "movements" have f r e q u e n t l y t a k e n t h e i r name f r o m the d a t e o f t h e i r most i m p o r -t a n t i n c i d e n t . F o r e x ample, May F o u r t h (1919) and December N i n t h (1936) ar e d e s c r i b e d as t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f o c a l p o i n t i n the e v e n t s o f the May F o u r t h Movement and t h e December N i n t h Movement. The same i s t r u e o f the May 3 0 t h Movement where May 30th i s s e e n as t h e " j u m p i n g - o f f " p o i n t , t h e f o c u s s i n g p o i n t o f the a n t i - f o r e i g n , p r o - n a t i o n a l i s t movement t h a t f o l l o w e d . The i n c i d e n t became a movement. How an i n c i d e n t becomes a movement i s a q u e s t i o n most complex i n n a t u r e , and w o u l d r e q u i r e a d i s s e r t a t i o n i n i t -s e l f . T h a t , however, i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r . I n -s t e a d , the e m p h a s i s w i l l be p l a c e d on t h e I n c i d e n t o f May 3 0 t h r a t h e r t h a n how i t became a movement. S u r p r i s i n g l y , a l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e work has been done on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the May 3 0 t h Movement, v e r y l i t t l e has been done on the May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t i t s e l f . In t h e work t h a t has been done, the n a t u r e and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f the I n c i d e n t , t h e i d e n t i t y o f i t s l e a d e r s h i p , and i t s d e f i n i t i o n have be-come p o i n t s o f d i s p u t e . V a s t amounts have been done on t h e s u c c e s s e s o f the Hongkong S t r i k e , b u t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e has b e e n done on S h a n g h a i and t h e I n c i d e n t . I t t h e r e f o r e i s the p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r to examine Page No. the I n c i d e n t o f May 30, 1925. To u n d e r s t a n d t h a t I n c i d e n t , i t w i l l be examined i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s : f r o m where d i d t h e I n c i d e n t a r i s e ( t h e b a c k g r o u n d ) , what a c t u a l l y was the I n c i d e n t ( t h e e v e n t s ) , and what were the r e s u l t s o f t h e I n c i d e n t ( t h e a f t e r m a t h ) . T h i s t h r e e - f o l d d e s c r i p t i o n i s v e r y much l i k e the a n a l y s i s o f the I n c i d e n t made by s t u d e n t and co-mmercial pub-l i c a t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the e v e n t s o f May 3 0 t h . T h i s does n o t , however, mean t h a t t h e s e were t h e o n l y s o u r c e s u s e d h e r e i n an a t t e m p t to r e c o n s t r u c t t h a t p e r i o d . O t h e r s o u r c e s s u c h as the t e s t i m o n y t o the M i x e d C o u r t , t h e f i n d i n g s o f the J u d i c i a l I n q u i r y , and l o c a l n e w s p a p e r s have p r o v e d most u s e -f u l . The t h r e e - f o l d a p p r o a c h o n l y seems to be the c l e a r e s t . C H A P T E R I THE BACKGROUND C H A P T E R 1 P a g e No. THE BACKGROUND A. P R E F A C E What was t e r m e d " a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m " i n C h i n a d u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s was a c o m p l e x i t y o f e m o t i o n s : r e s e n t m e n t s , s e n t i m e n t s a m b i t i o n s , a n d a s p i r a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s C h i n e s e d e r i v e d f r o m a c t i o n s o f f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s a n d f o r e i g n i n d i v i d u a l s . A n t i f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s w e r e o f t h r e e n a t u r e s - a n t i - f o r e i g n i n g e n e r a l , n a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - f o r e i g n a n d a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t i c . G e n e r a l a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s c o u l d b e b r o a d , i r r a -t i o n a l , r a c i s t a n d b i g o t e d i n n a t u r e , o r s p e c i f i c a n d v e r y r a t i o n a l . T h e y may h a v e b e e n a i m e d a t t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s , f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s , t h e I m p e r i a l i s t P o w e r s , o r o n l y l o c a l d i s -c r i m i n a t o r y p o l i c i e s . A n t i - f o r e i g n i s m as - m a n i f e s t e d i n n a t i o n a l i s t e x p r e s s -i o n c o u l d e n c o m p a s s b o t h g e n e r a l a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s a n d a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s . T h e s e n a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s , h o w e v e r , i m p l i e d a much m o r e p o s i t i v e n a t u r e t h a n x e n o p h o b i a , r a c i s m , o r o p p o s i t i o n t o f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e y d e m a n d e d a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a p o s i -t i v e s e n s e o n t h e p a r t o f e a c h p e r s o n t h a t h i s own n a t i o n a l s t a t e ' s i n t r i n s i c w o r t h a n d e x c e l l e n c e r e q u i r e d h i m t o b e l o y a l t o i t a b o v e e v e r y o t h e r t h i n g . F o r C h i n e s e i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s , n a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m was e x p r e s s e d i n a d e s i r e Page No. 6 f o r C h i n e s e to g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own d e s t i n y and to s a v e C h i n a f r o m f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s . A n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s , a l t h o u g h a n t i - f o r e i g n i n n a t u r e , were much more s p e c i f i c and demanded a h i g h l e v e l o f p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t i n o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e s e a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s s t r e s s e d o v e r and o v e r t h a t t h e i l l s o f C h i n a were due to f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i - s t e x p l o i t a t i o n and f o r e i g n - i m p o s e d t r e a t i e s . P r i o r to 1925, g e n e r a l a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m , n a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m , and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m were a l l to be f o u n d i n v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y . T h a t had n o t a l w a y s been the c a s e i n e i t h e r t h e 1 9 t h o r e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s . C h i n e s e r e a c t i o n to f o r e i g n e r s , i n i t i a l l y x e n o p h o b i c , became more s p e c i f i c a l l y a n t i - f o r e i g n and n a t i o n a l i s t i c as f o r e i g n powers became more e n t r e n c h e d i n C h i n a . N a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s was a c c o m p a n i e d by a breakdown i n t h e o l d s o c i a l s y s t e m , and r e a c t i o n to f o r e i g n e r s began t o be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s and t h e i r t r e a t i e s . The 1905 B o y c o t t Movement marks the b e g i n n i n g o f modern C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m ( C h i n a s e e n as a n a t i o n a l s t a t e w i t h d e f i n i t e s o v e r e i g n r i g h t s ) . What had been p r e v i o u s l y x e n o p h o b i c was q u i c k l y b e c o m i n g a k i n d o f n a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m , b u t one t h a t was p r i m a r -i l y l i m i t e d to i n t e l l e c t u a l s and C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n . The Page No. 7 May F o u r t h Movement saw the f u r t h e r s p r e a d i n g o f t h a t n a t i o n -a l i s t a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m . A bout the same t i m e , a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t a s s e r t i o n s began to s p r e a d amongst a few p r o m i n e n t i n t e l l e c t u a l s , and f r o m 1919 to 1926 M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t d o c t r i n e s f o u n d i n c r e a s i n g a c c e p t a n c e among t h e s t u d e n t and w o r k i n g c l a s s e s . U n t i l l a t e 1923, t h e o n l y a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t p r o g r a m i n C h i n a was t h a t , o f t h e CCP, a p a r t y w i t h a s m a l l membership, l i m i t e d to s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l b a s e s . A f t e r 1923, new g a i n s f o r a p r o g r a m o f a n t i - i m p e r i a l -i s m came when the CCP and KMT p a r t i e s j o i n e d i n J a n u a r y 1924 and c r e a t e d a u n i t e d f r o n t . T h r o u g h i m p o r t a n t p r o p a g a n d a work, t h e a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m o f more and more C h i n e s e was d i r e c t e d i n t o t h e c h a n n e l s o f M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t d o c t r i n e . I t s h o u l d n o t , however, be f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e s e a t t i t u d e s were m a i n l y f o u n d i n the u r b a n c e n t e r s c l o s e to f o r e i g n s e t t l e m e n t s and amongst a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . P r i o r t o May 3 0 t h , 1925, s t r o n g a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s , some a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t and n a t i o n a l i s t i c , had been d e v e l o p i n g i n many o f t h e m a j o r c i t i e s i n C h i n a . P r o p a g a n d a work o f t h e CCP and KMT had c o n v i n c e d many w o r k e r s and s t u d e n t s t h a t f o r -e i g n e r s and t h e i r t r e a t i e s were i n some manner the r e a s o n f o r C h i n a ' s b a c k w a r d n e s s . ^ The N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d had s e n s e d t h e s e 2 s e n t i m e n t s e a r l y i n 1925 when i t r e p o r t e d : P a g e N o . 8 T h e w a v e o f a n t i - C h r i s t i a n a n d a n t i - f o r e i g n p r o p a g a n d a i s now s w e e p i n g t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a . . What a p p e a r s t o us m o r e p r o b a b l e i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t p r o p a g a n d a i s p a r t o f a w i d e s p r e a d m o v e m e n t w o r k i n g up t o a g e n e r a l r e p u d i a t i o n o f t h e t r e a t i e s . S h a n g h a i , l i k e o t h e r m a j o r c i t i e s , a l s o saw w i d e s p r e a d a n t i - f o r e i g n s e n t i m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s . One o f t h e o r i g i n a l t r e a t y p o r t s , S h a n g h a i was a c u t e l y a w a r e o f t h e i m -p a c t o f f o r e i g n p r e s e n c e . O f t h i s , T. F. M i l l a r d , a n A m e r i c a n 3 i n C h i n a a t t h e t i m e , h a d s a i d : S h a n g h a i i s t h e r e a l c i t a d e l o f t h e o l d t r e a t y s t a t u s . T h e f o r e i g n s e t t l e m e n t s a t S h a n g h a i may h a v e b e e n g r a f t e d o n C h i n a , b u t t h e y h a v e g r o w n i n t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l , f i n a n c i a l a n d i n -d u s t r i a l o r g a n i s m s o f t h e c o u n t r y . . . E v e r y c o n d i t i o n c a u s e d b y t h e i m p a c t o f W e s t e r n p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t a n d m a t e r i a l e v o l u t i o n i s f o u n d t h e r e i n i t s b e s t a n d i t s w o r s t f o r m s . S h a n g h a i . . . i s a c o n c r e t e e x a m p l e o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f C h i n a . T h e f o r e i g n s e t t l e m e n t s e l s e w h e r e r e p r o d u c e d i t s f e a t u r e s o n a s m a l l e r s c a l e . A n t i - C h r i s t i a n s l o g a n s a n d c a m p a i g n s , a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t p r o p a g a n d a , t h e R i g h t s R e c o v e r y M o v e m e n t a n d t h e f a i l u r e t o r e v i s e t h e o l d t r e a t i e s , h a d h e l p e d t o make many C h i n e s e i n S h a n g h a i a w a r e o f t h e " e v i l s " o f i m p e r i a l i s m a n d t h e " i n j u s -t i c i e s " o f t h e t r e a t y s y s t e m . T h i s a w a r e n e s s was h e i g h t e n e d b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i s t s s e n t i m e n t s a l o n g s i d e a n t i -f o r e i g n o n e s . p o l i c y , S u c h p r o b l e m s as t h e M u n i c i p a l t h e S h a n g h a i p o l i c e f o r c e , t h e C o u n c i l , i t s e x p a n s i o n i s t M i x e d C o u r t a n d t h e l a r g e Page No. 9 f o r e i g n m i l l c omplexes had a l s o h e i g h t e n e d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s i n S h a n g h a i . A m i d s t t h i s , t h e May 3 0 t h i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d , and t h e movement t h a t f o l l o w e d s oon c o - o p t e d many o f t h e s e i s s u e s as i t s d r i v i n g f o r c e and b a s i s f o r s e t t l e m e n t . S p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d p r i o r to May 3 0 t h d i d have some d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g May 3 0 t h . A t t i t u d e s were a l s o i m p o r t a n t , and a l t h o u g h g e n e r a l a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s s u c h as t h o s e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e t r e a t i e s were p r e s e n t , t h e y were, however, n o t as i m p o r -t a n t as s p e c i f i c l o c a l g r i e v a n c e s t h a t were b o t h e r i n g many s t u d e n t s and w o r k e r s o f S h a n g h a i . I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r on b a c k -g r o u n d , to examine the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h o s e a t t i t u d e s and e v e n t s i n S h a n g h a i and C h i n a t h a t l e d d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f the May 3 0 t h i n -c i d e n t . B. ATTITUDES AND ORGANIZATIONS CONTRIBUTING TO ANTI-FOREIGN ATTITUDES PRIOR TO MAY 30TH 1. ANTI-FOREIGN ATTITUDES IN CHINA D u r i n g and a f t e r t h e May F o u r t h Movement, a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s i n c r e a s e d i n t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e . The y e a r 1924 marked a new change. F o l l o w i n g the l e c t u r e s o f Dr. Sun and h i s p r o -p a g a n d a teams, a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t Page No. 10 a t t i t u d e s began to s p r e a d w i t h g r e a t e r vehemence. As he t r a -v e l l e d f r o m c i t y t o c i t y and s c h o o l to s c h o o l , p r o p a g a n d a teams f o l l o w e d to c o m p l e t e t h e i n d o c t r i n a t i o n . O t h e r teams were d i s p a t c h e d to the i n t e r i o r to make the s t u d e n t s t h e r e aware o f t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s , f o r e i g n " a g g r e s s i o n " and w a r l o r d 4 " a t r o c i t i e s " . S t u d e n t s p r o v e d most r e c e p t i v e as t h i s a n t i -i m p e r i a l i s t and n a t i o n a l i s t theme c o n t i n u e d to spread."* F o r example, on J u l y 16, 1924, the R i g h t s R e c o v e r y Movement l e d by Yun T a i - y i n g i n P e k i n g began to o r g a n i z e a F e d e r a t i o n F o r A n t i - I m p e r i a l i s t A g i t a t i o n . C e n t e r i n g i t s a t t a c k s upon t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s , the F e d e r a t i o n soon had b r a n c h o f f i c e s i n v a r i o u s s c h o o l s i n P e k i n g , S h a n g h a i and C a n t o n . N a t i o n a l i s m a l s o p r o v e d to be one o f the main f e a t u r e s o f t h i s movement as i t s p r e a d a l o n g s i d e a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s . By 1925, a l t h o u g h n o t e v e r y C h i n e s e was n e c e s s a r i l y b e c o m i n g a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t i c , more and more were b e c o m i n g c o n -s c i o u s o f the i s s u e s t h a t b o t h e r e d many o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s , s t u d e n t s and w o r k e r s . The I s s u e s . A l l f o r e i g n a c t i v i t y i n C h i n a u l t i m a t e l y r e s t e d upon the t r e a t y s y s t e m , and i n t h i s s e n s e b o r e d i r e c t l y upon C h i n a ' s n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t was t h e s e t r e a t i e s t h a t u s u a l l y b o r e t h e b r u n t o f the a t t a c k . To C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s , t h e y were s e e n as u n e q u a l a g r e e m e n t s Page No. 11 t h a t had been f o r c e d upon a weak C h i n a . ^ In p a r t i c u l a r , t a r i f f r e s t r i c t i o n s ^ , e x t r a l i t y ^ , c o n c e s s i o n s and s e t t l e m e n t s ^ , and l e a s e d territory"'"''" were s e e n as the l e a d i n g u n e q u a l f e a t u r e s 12 i n t h o s e t r e a t i e s . Campaigns a g a i n s t t h e s e f e a t u r e s had o c c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y s i n c e the Twenty-One Demands o f 1915, and c o n t i n u e d to g a i n momentum i n the 1920's. D u r i n g t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , demands f o r change became s t r o n g e r and s t r o n g e r b o t h from t h e C h i n e s e government and 13 from the C h i n e s e p e o p l e . Soon, however, i t became o b v i o u s t h a t few f o r e i g n g o vernments were w i l l i n g to implement change, At b o t h the V e r s a i l l e s T r e a t y C o n f e r e n c e and the W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e , t h e C h i n e s e a t t e m p t e d to change the t r e a t i e s ; b o t h a t t e m p t s ended i n f a i l u r e . At the P a r i s P eace C o n f e r e n c e i n 1919, the C h i n e s e e n t e r e d c l a i m s , i n t e r a l i a , f o r the r e m o v a l o f the t r e a t y r e s t r i c t i o n s on t a r i f f autonomy, f o r t h e r e l i n q u i s h m e n t o f c o n s u l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n and e x t r a l i t y , f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n o f c o n c e s s i o n s and s e t t l e m e n t s , and f o r the r e t u r n o f the l e a s e d t e r r i t o r i e s . To t h e s e c l a i m s the v i c t o r i o u s powers t u r n e d a d e a f e a r , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e y had e n u n c i a t e d s u c h 14 a p o l i c y o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a d o p t e d i t f o r E u r o p e . By i n v i t a t i o n C h i n a was r e p r e s e n t e d at the W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e f o r Armaments L i m i t a t i o n s h e l d i n November 1921. Page No. 12 Her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t t e n d e d h o p i n g to e x t r a c t f r o m t h e Con-f e r e n c e , the " a b r o g a t i o n o f a l l e x i s t i n g i m p a i r m e n t s on h e r s o v e r e i g n t y " . ^ In t h i s t h e y were d i s a p p o i n t e d . A g r e e m e n t s were r e a c h e d i n r e g a r d to d o i n g away w i t h f o r e i g n p o s t o f f i c e s . A Commission was to be a p p o i n t e d to t a k e up i m m e d i a t e l y the m a t t e r o f t a r i f f r e v i s i o n and a n o t h e r Commission was to be a p p o i n t e d to v i s i t C h i n a f o r the p u r p o s e o f s t u d y i n g the j u d i c i a l s y s t e m w i t h a view to d e t e r m i n i n g when e x t r a l i t y m i g h t be s a f e l y a b o l i s h e d . " ^ Some C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s were somewhat g r a t i f i e d w i t h t h e outcome o f the W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e , and p a t i e n t l y w a i t e d f o r the r e s u l t s o f the C o m m i s s i o n s . As e v i d e n c e o f t h i s good f e e l i n g , an a n t i - J a p a n e s e e c o n o m i c b o y c o t t was d i s c a r d e d . ^ 18 O t h e r s , however, r e a l i z e d the s h o r t c o m i n g s o f the a g r e e m e n t s . A f t e r t h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e , C h i n a d i d a c h i e v e some s t e p s t h a t were s e e n as p r o g r e s s towards i n d e p e n d e n c e . In 1923, C h i n a r e c e i v e d f r o m J a p a n , the f i r s t r e m i t t a n c e o f the B o x e r i n d e m n i t y f u n d s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n . B r i -t a i n , U n i t e d S t a t e s and the S o v i e t U n i o n soon f o l l o w e d , r e -19 n o u n c i n g c l a i m s t h e y had r e c e i v e d s i n c e 1901. R e l a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h t h e V a t i c a n . F o r e i g n s h i p p i n g was p r o -h i b i t e d f r o m the S u n g a r i R i v e r . In 1924, the f i r s t ambassador 20 to C h i n a from the S o v i e t U n i o n a r r i v e d i n P e k i n g . Page No. 13 C h i n a ' s g a i n s , however, were i n d e e d q u i t e i n s i g n i f i c a n t when compared w i t h the major d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s and p r o b l e m s t h a t a r o s e d u r i n g the same p e r i o d ; p r o b l e m s and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s t h a t were most n o t i c e a b l e to the C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , the C h i n e s e were p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i -t i v e to J a p a n e s e i n t e r e s t s i n C h i n a . A t t e m p t s t o end the Twenty-One Demands o f 1915 and v a r i o u s new a g r e e m e n t s had c r e a t e d t e n s e moments between C h i n a and Japan t h r o u g h o u t the 1920's. On March 10, 1923, t h e C h i n e s e demanded the n u l l i f i -c a t i o n o f t h e a g r e e m e n t s made w i t h J a p a n c o n c e r n i n g l e a s e s , r a i l w a y s , e x t r a l i t y , m i n i n g , l o a n a g r e e m e n t s and so on, b u t to no e f f e c t . B o y c o t t s and a n t i - J a p a n e s e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s f o l l o w e d , and i n J u n e , J a p a n e s e M a r i n e s k i l l e d two C h i n e s e 21 d e m o n s t r a t o r s i n Changsha. The i n c i d e n t was s e t t l e d q u i e t l y , b u t i t r e c e i v e d wide p u b l i c i t y i n t h e C h i n e s e p r e s s . F o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s a l s o a c t e d s l o w l y i n c a r r y i n g o u t the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e , and t h a t o n l y f u r t h e r annoyed C h i n e s e p a t r i o t s . On May 31, 1923, an a g r e e -ment was d r a f t e d f o r the r e t u r n of the B r i t i s h l e a s e d t e r r i -t o r y o f W e i - h a i - w e i , b u t b e c a u s e t h e C h i n e s e Government o b j e c t e d to t h e terms p r o p o s e d , n e g o t i a t i o n s were s u s p e n d e d 22 by t h e B r i t i s h . F r a n c e p o s t p o n e d b o t h r a t i f i c a t i o n o f the T a r i f f T r e a t y and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the E x t r a l i t y C o m m i s s i o n 2 3 to p r e s s f o r s e t t l e m e n t of the g o l d f r a n c i s s u e . F o r the Page No. 14 24 same r e a s o n F r a n c e h e l d up the S a l t G a b e l l e . The C h i n e s e F o r e i g n O f f i c e a l s o b e l i e v e d t h e Powers'* i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the N i n e - P o w e r T r e a t y ' s p r o v i s i o n s were too s l o w , and thus d e c i d e d to a c t . On November 1, 1923 P e k i n g a s k e d f o r the C o n f e r e n c e on E x t r a l i t y , b u t t h e L e n c h i n g I n c i -25 d e n t p u t dampers on t h a t . On M a r ch 10, 1924, t h e C h i n e s e M i n i s t e r o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s p r o p o s e d a Customs C o n f e r e n c e w h i c h was t u r n e d down by the Powers b e c a u s e i t was r e g a r d e d 2 6 as p r e m a t u r e . A t t e m p t s were made to p r e s s f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f the M i x e d C o u r t a t S h a n g h a i , b u t t h e y t o o were t u r n e d b a c k 2 7 by the f o r e i g n e r s i n S h a n g h a i . These p r o b l e m s a l l r e m a i n e d s o r e s p o t s t h r o u g h o u t 1924 a t a t i m e when the p r o p a g a n d a work o f t h e KMT and the CCP was i n c r e a s i n g i t s a t t a c k a g a i n s t the G r e a t Powers and the t r e a -t i e s , and a t a t i m e when n a t i o n a l i s m and a s e n s e o f C h i n e s e i m p o r t a n c e were q u i c k l y s p r e a d i n g t h r o u g h o u t much o f C h i n a . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t c ampaign, v a r i o u s s l o g a n s a b o u t e c o n o m i c p e n e t r a t i o n by f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s t s became p r o -m i n e n t i n some q u a r t e r s . S l o g a n s f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d r e s e n t -ment o f f o r e i g n management, e x c e s s i v e f o r e i g n p r o f i t s , a l l e g e d e x c l u s i o n o f C h i n e s e from new forms o f e n t e r p r i s e , and " C h i n e s e 2 8 d e f i c i e n c i e s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the West". O t h e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t f o r e i g n f i r m s c o u l d evade C h i n e s e l e g i s l a t i o n and e s c a p e 29 f o r c e d l o a n s and t a x a t i o n t h a t the C h i n e s e c o u l d n o t . I t Page No. 15 was n o t uncommon to f i n d w o r k e r s who b e l i e v e d the c l a i m t h a t b e c a u s e f o r e i g n e r s were immune f r o m C h i n e s e l a w s , t h e y c o u l d 30 e x p l o i t C h i n e s e w o r k e r s as cheap l a b o u r e r s . I t was e a s y to c o n v i n c e them t h a t t h e i r low s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g w o u l d come o n l y w i t h the end o f the p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n o f f o r e i g n e r s and t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y t r o u b l e s o m e a s p e c t o f f o - r e i g n e c o n o m i c p e n e t r a t i o n was the f o r e i g n l o a n s made t o f i n a n c e p r o j e c t s o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and the C h i n e s e government i t s e l f . I t was c l a i m e d t h a t b e c a u s e i n t e r e s t had to be p a i d , the n e t e f f e c t was a b l e e d i n g o f C h i n a o f n e e d e d f u n d s f o r i n d u s t r i a -l i z a t i o n . The l o a n s were a l s o s e e n as a t t e m p t s on the p a r t o f t h e f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y J a p a n , to keep the m i l i t a r i s t s i n power i n C h i n a so as to g u a r a n t e e t h e i r own f o o t h o l d . Thus i t was b e l i e v e d the l o a n s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e 31 d i s u n i t y o f the C h i n e s e p e o p l e . C h i n e s e p a t r i o t s were a l s o annoyed a t the amount o f i n d u s t r y owned by f o r e i g n e r s . In the 1920's, f o r e i g n c a p i t a l owned n e a r l y h a l f o f the C h i n e s e c o t t o n i n d u s t r y . I t owned a t h i r d o f r a i l w a y s o u t r i g h t and h e l d m o r t g a g e s on the r e s t . I t owned and o p e r a t e d more t h a n h a l f o f t h e s h i p p i n g i n C h i n e s e w a t e r s and c a r r i e d n e a r l y 80% o f C h i n a ' s f o r e i g n and c o a s t a l 32 t r a d e . Page No. 16 P u b l i c i n d i g n a t i o n was f u r t h e r aroused by the a l l e g e d r e c k l e s s and s u r r e p t i t i o u s export of r i c e out of the country. Most p a t r i o t s charged that the smuggling proceeded d i r e c t l y under the p r o t e c t i o n of the government i n Peking and i n v o l v e d 33 mainly f o r e i g n t r a d e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Japanese. By e a r l y 1925, a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s i n China were wide-spread and were mainly focussed upon the unequal t r e a -t i e s , f o r e i g n economic p e n e t r a t i o n and f o r e i g n presence i n China. A n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s had continued to spread s i n c e 1924 amongst the students and working c l a s s e s . A n t i -f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s were not s o l e l y n e gative m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , but i n many cases were accompanied with important n a t i o n a -l i s t sentiments. Not only d i d many Chinese c a l l f o r the end of the unequal t r e a t i e s , but many now b e l i e v e d that that end would only come with the u n i f i c a t i o n of China and the d e s t r u c -t i o n of the m i l i t a r i s t s . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n had developed i n Shanghai. 2. ANTI-FOREIGN ATTITUDES IN SHANGHAI C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s unique to Shanghai had c r e a t e d a c i t y most r e c e p t i y e to a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s . Broad a n t i - f o r e i g n i s s u e s together with l o c a l a n t i - f o r e i g n i s s u e s made Shanghai, as the " b a s t i o n of f o r e i g n c o n t r o l " , p o t e n t i a l l y the most l i k e l y p l a c e f o r an a t t a c k on f o r e i g n c a p i t a l and the unequal t r e a t i e s . Page No. 17 a. SHANGHAI: A DESCRIPTION In 1925, t h e p o r t c i t y o f S h a n g h a i had a p o p u l a t i o n o f a bout two and o n e - h a l f m i l l i o n . Of t h e s e , a b o u t 40,000 were f o r e i g n e r s : 18,000 J a p a n e s e , 9,000 R u s s i a n s , 7,000 B r i t i s h , 4,200 A m e r i c a n s , 1,000 F r e n c h , 900 Germans, 300 I t a l i a n s , 300 D u t c h , and the r e m a i n d e r d i v i d e d among f i f t y 34 o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s . I t was a " s o c i e t y i n w h i c h , s e t t l e -ments, c e n t e r s o f c u l t u r e , d i v i s i o n s o f s o c i a l g r o u p s , s h a r p r e g i o n a l f e e l i n g s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n w e a l t h and i n t e r d e p e n -d e n c e , and t h e i m p a c t o f c r i t i c a l h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a l l a c t e d t o g e t h e r t o p r o d u c e a h i g h l y d i f f e r -35 e n t i a t e d and c l u s t e r s o c i e t y " . U n l i k e o l d P e k i n g , S h a n g h a i had a modern s e c t o r , a c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r , and had a p o p u l a t i o n h e t e r -o geneous i n n a t u r e . In 1925, a t l e a s t f i v e m a j o r g r o u p s had been e x e r t i n g v a r i o u s d e g r e e s o f s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e on t h a t s o c i e t y : the s m a l l f o r e i g n community; th e new i n t e l l i g e n t s i a t h a t i n c l u d e d p r o f e s s o r s , t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l men; t h e new c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s t h a t i n c l u d e d t r a d e r s , b u s i n e s s m e n , c l e r k s , and c o m p r a d o r s ; t h e u r b a n w o r k e r s t h a t i n c l u d e d common l a b o u r e r s , s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s , a r t i s a n s , and h a n d i c r a f t w o r k e r s ; and t,he "lumpen p r o l e t a r i a t " t h a t g e n e r a l l y c o m p r i s e d t h e unemployed v a g r a n t s and the s o c -3 6 i a l l y " u n d e s i r a b l e e l e m e n t s " . E a c h group had n o t a l w a y s b een a p a r t o f S h a n g h a i , b u t had a r r i v e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s MAP LISTING ONE SHANGHAI Major S c h o o l s , U n i v e r s i t i e s , and C o l l e g e s 1. S t . John's U n i v e r s i t y 2. Shanghai Law S c h o o l 3. T'ung-chi M e d i c a l S c h o o l k. Kwanghua U n i v e r s i t y 5. Futan U n i v e r s i t y 6. Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y 7. Tungwen C o l l e g e 8. S i c c a w e i (S t . Ignace) , 9. Aurora U n i v e r s i t y 10. Shanghai U n i v e r s i t y 11. Medhurst C o l l e g e 12. Chingchong Middle S c h o o l 13. Shanghai B a p t i s t C o l l e g e 14. Shanghai C o l l e g e 15. Tatung U n i v e r s i t y H o s p i t a l s and Others 16. Red Cross H o s p i t a l 17. P a o l i n H o s p i t a l 18. J e n - c h i H o s p i t a l 19* Louza P o l i c e S t a t i o n 20. C e n t r a l P o l i c e S t a t i o n 21. North S t a t i o n 22. Mixed Court i •> V, % V I I.... - ^ V i * ^ S i S ! « — u ^ , \ 2 / ." . ISI it 3s 6 1 IJIIJB T L . .... J JML ,/•*"*F . ' J ^ , ; . \ ^ T 6 0 C » 6 V R ^ : ' . C K C h a i l c M l i I ) . . r ^ ^ p ^ ^ ^ j ^ I ^ ^ f r ^ U - l M j • CHINESE I •f . ^ > l «« i c« sew* ,» 4 ^ ? s o > « ; « | .' \ ' " " " " co IS - > 2 ! O > i CENTRAL PORTION O F ( G R E A T E R S M A N G M A H TOTAL POPULATION. t,300,C0O B A S E D O N M A P P U 3 L I S H E D OY T H E N O R T H - C H I N A D A I L Y N E W S A N D H E R A L D . L T O , Pi (TO n> a o oo i Page No. 19 o v e r th e p r e v i o u s one h u n d r e d y e a r s . The o p e n i n g o f S h a n g h a i i n 1842 as a t r e a t y p o r t by the T r e a t y o f N a n k i n g opened t h e c i t y t o f o r e i g n r e s i d e n t s . F o r e i g n e r s began t o a r r i v e , b r i n g i n g w i t h them t h e i r own a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m s and e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Q u i c k l y t h e y f o r c e d many changes i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communi-c a t i o n , t r a d i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g . In o r d e r to- p r o t e c t t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , t h e f o r e i g n e r s f o r c e d on t h e C h i n e s e g o v e r n -ment the L a n d R e g u l a t i o n s o f 1845. T w e n t y - t h r e e i n number, t h e y d e a l t w i t h t h e "method o f a c q u i r i n g l a n d i n t h e a r e a s e t a s i d e f o r f o r e i g n e r s , t h e l a y i n g o u t and r e p a i r i n g o f r o a d s , t h e b u i l d i n g o f j e t t i e s , b r i d g e s , d r a i n s , and p u b l i c m a r k e t s , 37 and t h e l e v y i n g o f w h a r f a g e d u e s " . In t i m e , i t was p l a n n e d to e x c l u d e the C h i n e s e f r o m t h e f o r e i g n a r e a s . I n s t e a d , t h e o p p o s i t e o c c u r r e d . Due t o t h e e f f e c t i v e p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d by the f o r e i g n a u t h o r i t i e s , l a r g e numbers o f C h i n e s e f l o c k e d to t h e c i t y . At t h e same t i m e , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f modern c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s by t h e f o r e i g n community soon b r o u g h t e c o n o m i c g a i n s t o t h e c i t y . The r e s u l t was the r i s e o f t h e C h i n e s e f a c t o r y w o r k e r s , the C h i n e s e c l e r k s , mer-c h a n t s , and c o m p r a d o r e s , and the w h a r f c o o l i e s , s t e v e d o r e s , m a i d s , and c h a u f f e u r s . W i t h t h i s a l s o came the u nemployed, 3 8 t h e m a l c o n t e n t , th e p r o s t i t u t e s and the b e g g a r s . P a g e No. 20 I SHANGHAI SHOWING R E G I O N A L DEVELOPMENT P L A . N O F S H A N G H A I S H O W I N G R E G I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T . H Public Buildings, Baonks &, 0££\JJIS. H Shipping. H ItxiustKaJL Commercial, Sma01Tr<*d«5 & ResidaitiAL. R^idartL&L Oc&\slon4, Stmll Tracks. SC20JL o f MlLe5 Page No. 21 Modern l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r y , however, had l a r g e l y de-v e l o p e d o n l y s i n c e 1900. W i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f o r e i g n i n d u s t r y f o l l o w i n g the S i n o - J a p a n e s e War, some C h i n e s e owned i n d u s t r y a l s o began to d e v e l o p . A f t e r 1914 a l l t y p e s o f i n -d u s t r y r e c e i v e d tremendous i m p e t u s due to w a r t i m e s c a r c i t y o f p r o d u c t s , and n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r y , i n p a r t i c u l a r , d e v e l o p e d most r a p i d l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e t e m p o r a r y w i t h d r a w a l o f f o r -e i g n e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n C h i n a . A new b u s i n e s s and a new i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s began to grow a l o n g s i d e a l a r g e u r b a n w o r k i n g c l a s s . By 1925 S h a n g h a i no l o n g e r f u n c t i o n e d p r i m a r i l y as a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e to f o r e i g n e r s engaged i n t r a d e ; i n s t e a d the c i t y was c o m p r i s e d o f v a r i o u s g r o u p s w i t h an economy of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e to t h e d e v e l o p i n g economy o f C h i n a i t s e l f . I t was, i n f a c t , one o f the i n d u s t r i a l and f i n a n c i a l c e n t e r s o f C h i n a . In 1925, no l e s s t h a n 45% o f a l l f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t 40 i n C h i n a was i n v e s t e d i n S h a n g h a i . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f S h a n g h a i to the f o r e i g n Powers was b a s e d l a r g e l y on t h i s f a c t . F u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t a t t h a t time c l o s e to 90% o f a l l f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t i n S h a n g h a i be-l o n g e d to the J a p a n e s e (30%) and the B r i t i s h ( 6 0 % ) . Most o f t h a t , as w e l l as t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l S h a n g h a i f a c t o r i e s , 41 were l o c a t e d i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t . P a g e No. 22 To p u t S h a n g h a i i n t o p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e , i t m u s t r e a l l y b e r e g a r d e d as f o u r s e p a r a t e ' t o w n s ' . C o n t a i n i n g m o s t o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l l i f e o f t h e c i t y , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t , g o v e r n e d b y a M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , d o m i n a t e d t h e p o r t . T h e F r e n c h c o n c e s s i o n , l o c a t e d t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t , was c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e F r e n c h M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l . T h e two C h i n e s e c i t i e s o f N a n t a o ( s o u t h ) a n d C h a p e i ( n o r t h ) w e r e i n t h e o r y a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e C h i n e s e g o v e r n m e n t i n P e k i n g ; b u t i n p r a c t i c e , a f t e r 1 9 2 0 t h e y m a i n l y came u n d e r t h e v a r i o u s w a r l o r d p o w e r s who a t t e m p t e d t o c o l l e c t t a x e s f r o m t h e m . A l l o f t h e s e t o w n s w e r e f o u n d s o c l o s e t o o n e a n o t h e r t h a t a n y p e r s o n m i g h t m e r e l y c r o s s a s t r e e t t o p a s s 4 1 a i n t o a n o t h e r o n e . T h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t was o r i g i n a l l y s e t a s i d e f o r t h e r e s i d e n c e o f f o r e i g n t r a d e r s s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e O p i u m War. I n c o u r s e o f t i m e , h o w e v e r , t h e f o r e i g n e r s r e s i d i n g t h e r e a c q u i r e d t h e r i g h t o f " m u n i c i p a l home r u l e " , w i t h t h e r i g h t s o f p o l i c e a n d m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W i t h t h e L a n d R e g u -l a t i o n s a s t h e i r b a s i s o f a u t h o r i t y , a n d b y t h e a d o p t i o n o f b y l a w s w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e y e x t e n d e d t h e i r p o w e r t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t h a d b e e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o a " s m a l l s e p a r a t e s t a t e 42 i n t h e E m p i r e o f C h i n a " . As t i m e p a s s e d , a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o e x e r t t h e i r a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e C h i n e s e c i t i z e n s who P a g e No. 2 3 l i v e d o u t s i d e o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t a r e a s . T h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , t h e s o l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t , was n e i t h e r e x t e n s i v e n o r c o m p l e x . A c h a i r m a n a n d v i c e - c h a i r m a n w e r e c h o s e n a t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e C o u n c i l e a c h y e a r . T h e s e c r e t a r y , a p p o i n t e d a n d on a p a i d s a l a r y , was u s u a l l y t h e m o s t i m p o r -t a n t i n d i v i d u a l . T h e C o u n c i l was a s s i s t e d b y t w e l v e d i f f e r -e n t c o m m i t t e e s t h a t a c t e d a s a d v i s o r s i n s u c h a r e a s a s t a x a -t i o n , f i n a n c e , p u b l i c w o r k s , a n d p o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e B r i t i s h a s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e v o t i n g r a t e p a y e r s , m o n o p o l i z e d t h e v a r i o u s e l e c t e d p o s t s a s w e l l a s t h e a p p o i n t e d b u r e a u c r a t i c p o s i t i o n s . I n t h e p o s t - W a r p e r i o d , h o w e v e r , t h e i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e J a p a n e s e c o m m u n i t y i n S h a n g h a i was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f J a p a n e s e m e m b e r s t o t h e C o u n c i l , o f a c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f J a p a n e s e t o t h e C o u n c i l ' s a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e s , a n d i n t h e g r o w t h o f t h e J a p a n e s e B r a n c h o f t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e . No C h i n e s e s a t o n a n y c o m m i t t e e , 44 l e t a l o n e t h e C o u n c i l . T h e e l e c t o r a t e e x e r c i s e d i t s p o w e r s a n d p e r f o r m e d i t s f u n c t i o n s i n a n a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e R a t e p a y e r s a n d i n a n y s p e c i a l m e e t i n g t h a t m i g h t b e c a l l e d b y t h e C o u n c i l . I n D e c e m b e r o f e a c h y e a r , t h e C o u n c i l l i s t e d t h e q u a l i f i e d v o t e r s , a n d b e f o r e e v e r y m e e t i n g v o t i n g t i c k e t s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d a s t h e v o t e r e n t e r e d t h e m e e t i n g s . D e c i s i o n s a t a l l m e e t i n g s Page No. 24 were made by the m a j o r i t y of a quorum p r e s e n t . A l t h o u g h C h i -n e s e owned as much as 90% o f a l l p r o p e r t y and p a i d most o f the t a x e s , v e r y few were a c t u a l l y a l l o w e d t o a t t e n d t h e s e m e e t i n g s o r to v o t e . P o l i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t was b a s e d on a n u c l e u s o f f o r e i g n o f f i c e r s : a f o r e i g n c h i e f o f p o l i c e , i n s p e c t o r s , c a p t a i n s , s e r g e a n t s , p a t r o l m e n , and d e t e c t i v e s . C h i n e s e and S i k h s f i l l e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e 2,795 p o s t s , b u t t h e y d i d n o t h o l d i m p o r t a n t o r m a j o r p o s t s . In a l l , 310 w h i t e f o r e i g n e r s , 805 S i k h s , and 1680 C h i n e s e , a l l u n d e r t h e command o f t h e C h i e f o f P o l i c e and t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , were s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e S e t t l e m e n t d i s t r i c t s i n the v a r i o u s l o c a l p o l i c e s t a t i o n s . As w e l l as b e i n g armed, e a c h p o l i c e s t a t i o n h o u s e d t h e i r own c o n s t a b l e s i n b a r r a c k s a d j a -c e n t to t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e s . P o l i c e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the S e t t l e -ment e x t e n d e d to a l l i n h a b i t a n t s i n c l u d i n g t h e C h i n e s e . T h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n was n o t s u p p o s e d to e x t e n d to the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the C h i n e s e c i t i e s . In r e a l i t y , however, M u n i c i p a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a t v a r i o u s t i m e s e n t e r e d t h e C h i n e s e c i t i e s to c a r r y 46 o u t p a t r o l d u t y and to make a r r e s t s . S h a n g h a i a l s o r e m a i n e d one o f the g r e a t c e n t e r s o f l e a r n i n g i n C h i n a . Of t h e 111 i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n C h i n a , 25 were l o c a t e d i n S h a n g h a i (17 i n P e k i n g and 5 i n N a n k i n g ) . Of t h e 3,047 i n s t i t u t i o n s of s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , Page No. 25 141 were i n S h a n g h a i (75 i n P e k i n g and 25 i n N a n k i n g ) . Shang-h a i ' s s t u d e n t s had been a p a r t o f the new s c h o o l s s i n c e 1905, and a p a r t o f t h e new n a t i o n a l i s t c u r r i c u l u m s i n c e 1921. F u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f the s t u d e n t s i n S h a n g h a i were f r o m a l l p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y , and n o t from 4 7 C h e k i a n g and K i a n g s u a l o n e . Once i n S h a n g h a i , t h e s e s t u d e n t s were p - a r t i c u l a r l y r i p e f o r n a t i o n a l i s t and a n t i - f o r e i g n s e n t i m e n t s . C o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t s and f o r e i g n i d e a s were t h e c h i e f f a c t o r s f o r t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . b. SHANGHAI: ANTI-FOREIGN ATTITUDES The e n t i r e a r e a o f G r e a t e r S h a n g h a i , w h i c h had once s t a r t e d as a mud f l a t was v a l u e d i n 1926 a t about U.S. $100 b i l l i o n . I n t e r e s t s i n v e s t e d i n S h a n g h a i t o t a l l e d nore t h a n 48 t h r e e t i m e s t h a t amount. C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s s i m p l y w anted to r e g a r d t h i s as C h i n e s e p r o p e r t y open to C h i n e s e laws and t a x e s . Many f o r e i g n e r s , however, were n o t q u i t e p r e p a r e d to a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t r e a l i t y i n e i t h e r f a c t o r p r i n c i p l e . W i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n by t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e C h a p e i r e g i o n i n 1906, c o n f l i c t s o f j u r i s d i c -t i o n became more f r e q u e n t . C h i n e s e c i t i z e n s o u t s i d e o f the s e t t l e m e n t a r e a s began to a c t i v e l y o b j e c t to t h e e x t e n s i o n s o f s e t t l e m e n t b o u n d a r i e s and r o a d s , w h i l e the C h i n e s e r e s i -d e n t s i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t began to r e v o l t a g a i n s t Page No. " p a t e r n a l g overnment" and to demand a v o i c e i n m u n i c i p a l „ . 49 a f f a i r s . P r o t e s t and s e r i o u s r i o t s a g a i n s t f o r e i g n c o n t r o l had o c c u r r e d as e a r l y as 1874, b u t t h o s e r e m a i n e d p r i m a r i l y a n t i -C h r i s t i a n and x e n o p h o b i c i n n a t u r e . The y e a r 1905 saw a change i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f many C h i n e s e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e edu-c a t e d . I t became e v i d e n t t h a t many were no l o n g e r w i l l i n g t o s u b m i t p a s s i v e l y to what t h e y r e g a r d e d as an i n f r i n g e m e n t on t h e i r r i g h t s as C h i n e s e . T h a t y e a r , d u r i n g a campaign a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y , the L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n was b u r n t down, and a b o y c o t t a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n t r a d e was i n -s t i g a t e d . ^ ^ What had been x e n o p h o b i c was d i s t i n c t i v e l y be-c oming a k i n d o f n a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m . The May F o u r t h Movement i n S h a n g h a i saw t h e s p r e a d o f a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s and C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m as mer-c h a n t s , w o r k e r s , and s t u d e n t s j o i n e d i n a s t r i k e and g e n e r a l b o y c o t t movement a g a i n s t the J a p a n e s e . A f t e r 1922, w i t h the p r e s e n c e o f the i m p o r t a n t Communist members and p a r t y o r g a n s , a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s amongst the w o r k e r s began to s p r e a d . Those a t t i t u d e s , however, were l i m i t e d and n o t p a r -t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e . I n 1925, a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s began to s p r e a d a b o u t t h e same time t h a t l o c a l S h a n g h a i i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g f o r e i g n r u l e were once a g a i n f l a r i n g up. Page No. 2 7 The f o r m and n a t u r e o f t h e e x t e n t o f t h e government o f the s e t t l e m e n t r e m a i n e d the p r i m a r y c a u s e o f a n t a g o n i s m and o f m u t u a l s u s p i c i o n between t h e f o r e i g n community and the C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s r i g h t up u n t i l 1925. The C h i n e s e who l i v e d u nder t h i s s y s t e m had f r e q u e n t l y c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t a x a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e M u n i c i p a l 52 government. E f f o r t s to g a i n an a c t i v e and o f f i c i a l p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t government had f a i l e d s e v e r a l t i m e s p r i o r t o 1925. The C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s community i n p a r t i c u l a r had b e en a d r i v i n g f o r c e t o w a r d s t h i s g o a l f o r some t i m e . They had been q u i t e i n d i g n a n t o v e r the f a c t t h a t t h e y had no c o n t r o l o v e r the t a x e s t h e y p a i d , n o r o v e r t h e i n c r e a s e o f the l i c e n s e s o r w h a r f a g e f e e s . I n 1920, some C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n began t o a g i t a t e f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Many o f them had f e l t t h a t i f any o f them were to e v e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e complex l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p , t h e y w o u l d have t o g a i n r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n on t h e C o u n c i l , and t h u s l e a r n how t o e f f e c t t h e i r 53 c hange. E x t e n s i v e amounts o f p r o p a g a n d a were d i s t r i b u t e d and t h e campaign r e c e i v e d wide c o v e r a g e i n t h e C h i n e s e p r e s s . The l e a d e r s at t h a t t i m e a r g u e d t h a t t h e y had n e v e r been c o n -s u l t e d c o n c e r n i n g measures t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e C h i n e s e communi-t i e s . O t h e r s c h a r g e d t h a t o f the t a x e s t h a t t h e y p a i d , v e r y l i t t l e was e v e r used to h e l p them. I t was n o t i c e d t h a t o f Page No. 28 the f u n d s c o l l e c t e d by t h e C o u n c i l , 70% was u s e d f o r the edu-c a t i o n o f f o r e i g n c h i l d r e n , w i t h the r e m a i n d e r b e i n g u s e d t o 54 f i l l t he m u n i c i p a l l i b r a r i e s w i t h f o r e i g n b o o k s . Few S h a n g h a i C h i n e s e c o u l d f o r g e t t h a t t h e y p a i d a b o u t 90% o f the t a x e s . T h a t campaign a l s o ended i n f a i l u r e , b u t the r e s u l t was t h a t more and more C h i n e s e i n S h a n g h a i began to q u e s t i o n the "good i n t e n t i o n s " o f t h e i r f o r e i g n r u l e r s . D i f f e r e n t C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s had a t v a r i o u s t i m e s v o i c e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o r e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l Coun-c i l . I n c r e a s e s i n t h e v a r i o u s l i c e n s e s and t a x e s , i e . on r i c e s h o p s , m a r k e t s and b i c y c l e s had a n n o yed w o r k e r s and m e r c h a n t s a l i k e . A t t e m p t s to c o n t r o l the p r e s s and p u b l i c a t i o n media had annoyed many o f the s t u d e n t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s who ob-j e c t e d t o c e n s o r s h i p . ^ W o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and s a l a r i e s i n t h e f a c t o r i e s had f o r a l o n g time c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s t h e r e , w h i l e a t t e m p t s by the C o u n c i l to p r e v e n t c h i l d employment f r o m 1920-25 made m a t t e r s o n l y w o r s e . By 1925, t h e s e p r o -blems were b e g i n n i n g to come t o an e x p l o s i v e head. G r o w i n g o p p o s i t i o n to t h e C o u n c i l had n o t been l i m i t e d o n l y to the C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n the S e t t l e m e n t a r e a . As F. L. HawksV*said: The a t t e n t i o n o f the C h i n e s e became f i x e d on the g r a d u a l and i r r e s t a b l e p e n e t r a t i o n o f f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e i n t o C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r y . . . F o r e i g n m i l l s , f a c t o r i e s , and r e s i d e n c e s had Page No. 29 been e r e c t e d o u t s i d e o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t b o u n d a r i e s . . . and r o a d s had been c o n s t r u c t e d c o n n e c t i n g them w i t h the S e t t l e m e n t . The r i g h t o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s t o e x e r c i s e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e s e e x t r a - c o n c e s s i o n a l a r e a s and r o a d s had been a m a t t e r o f c o n s t a n t c o n f l i c t and d i s p u t e s i n c e 1906. I t c o n t i n u e d to be so d u r i n g the 1920's. One 59 w r i t e r o f t h a t time r e p o r t e d : S e t t l e m e n t e x t e n s i o n and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and c o n t r o l o f e x t r a - c o n c e s s i o n a l r o a d s a r e u n d o u b t e d l y among the q u e s t i o n s t h a t have c a u s e d i n n u m e r a b l e p r o t e s t s and c o u n t e r -p r o t e s t s , and have d i s t u r b e d t h e g e n e r a l p e a c e o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t . The C h i n e s e g o v e r nment's p o i n t o f view was e x p r e s s e d q u i t e c l e a r l y on September 16, 1922. I t s a i d : ^ ^ . . . The common l i m i t s o f C h i n e s e and f o r e i g n a r e a s a r e s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d . . . t h e r e i s no n e e d to t r o u b l e the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s to do t h e work f o r us. Q u e s t i o n s t h e n a r o s e as to how to s u p p l y t h e s e l o c a l i t i e s w i t h w a t e r and e l e c t r i c i t y , and o f p o l i c i n g the r o a d s and k e e p i n g them i n r e p a i r . The M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s f e l t t h a t the answer was to e x t e n d t h e i r a u t h o r i t y and have the M u n i c i -p a l P o l i c e p a t r o l t h e r o a d s . ^ The C h i n e s e o b j e c t e d s t r e n u -o u s l y ; y e t as l o n g as t h e C h i n e s e p o l i c e made no a t t e m p t to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the f o r e i g n p o l i c e t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y few c o n t r o v e r s i e s o r c o n f l i c t s u n t i l 1924, when i t became an i s s u e o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a g a i n . ^ Page No. The M i x e d C o u r t had a l s o become u n p o p u l a r w i t h t h e C h i n e s e community, i n a s m u c h as i t e x p r e s s e d v e r y c l e a r l y the dominant p o s i t i o n o f the f o r e i g n e r i n t h e C o u r t and t h e i n -f l a t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e C o u r t i t s e l f i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l 6 3 S e t t l e m e n t . From 1912 onward, s t r e n u o u s a t t e m p t s were made by t h e C h i n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s t o s e c u r e the r e s t o r a t i o n o f the M i x e d C o u r t t o i t s own r e a l m ; b u t i n s t e a d , t h e M i x e d C o u r t up u n t i l 1926 s t e a d i l y e x t e n d e d i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n i n 64 v a r i o u s d i r e c t i o n s . F o r e i g n a s s e s s o r s were a p p o i n t e d to h e a r C h i n e s e c i v i l c a s e s , w h i l e f o r e i g n j u d g e s a l o n e were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r e i g n c i v i l c a s e s . I n r e s p o n s e , C h i n e s e began to arg u e t h a t the p r e c i n c t s o f the C o u r t were e x c l u d e d 6 5 u n d e r the Land R e g u l a t i o n s f r o m M u n i c i p a l c o n t r o l . The f o r e i g n e r s d i s a g r e e d . A t f i r s t i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e Commi-s s i o n to r e v i e w E x t r a l i t y and thu s the M i x e d C o u r t , m i g h t f i n d a s o l u t i o n , b u t b e i n g d e l a y e d and b l o c k e d by t h e v a r i o u s t a c t i c s o f the f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s , i t bogged down and a p p e a r to u n dermine any chance a t change. The C h i n e s e b i t t e r l y c o m p l a i n e d t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was n o t m e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e C o u r t s o r M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l . C h i n e s e s p o r t s teams were n o t a l l o w e d to p l a y matches i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t , b u t the K o r e a n s and t h e J a p a n e s e 6 6 c o u l d . Many v i s i t o r s o b s e r v e d the c o n d e s c e n d i n g a t t i t u d e t oward the C h i n e s e by many f o r e i g n e r s . O t h e r s n o t i c e d t h a t Page No. 31 c o l o n i a l a t t i t u d e s were s t i l l s t r o n g i n many p a r t s o f S h a n g h a i . 6 7 B o t h were most n o t i c e a b l e i n the f o r e i g n - r u n p o l i c e f o r c e . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e was the m a t t e r o f e x c l u d i n g C h i n e s e f r o m p u b l i c p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n grounds i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l 6 8 S e t t l e m e n t i n s e l f . To many C h i n e s e i n S h a n g h a i , i t s t i l l a p p e a r e d t h a t i n 1925 t h e opium p r o b l e m had n e v e r been s e t t l e - d . The C h i n a 69 Y e a r Book o f 1926 r e p o r t e d : S h a n g h a i i s one o f t h e l a r g e s t opium t r a f f i c c e n t e r s i n the w o r l d . . . The C h i n e s e g o v e r n -ment i n May o f 1925 s e n t a C o m m i s s i o n e r t o S h a n g h a i to i n v e s t i g a t e the opium s c a n d a l . O f f i c i a l s c o n t i n u a l l y f o u g h t f o r c o n t r o l o f the i l l i c i t t r a d e . The N a t i o n a l A n t i - o p i u m A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e i r r e p o r t g i v e s the name o f t h i r t y - s i x s h o ps i n the F r e n c h C o n c e s s i o n a l o n e where opium i s s o l d s e c r e t l y . Two m a j o r s c a n d a l s i n 1925 r e c e i v e d much p u b l i c i t y t h a t i n -v o l v e d b o t h the J a p a n e s e m e r c h a n t s and a u t h o r i t i e s i n J a p a n , and the B r i t i s h t r a d e r s - f o r e i g n g r o u p s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e d by t h e S h a n g h a i C h i n e s e . The f i r s t was t h e H o s h i d e a l i n F ormosa. T u r k i s h opium was i m p o r t e d by a p e r m i t f r o m J a p a n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s . The c a r g o was s t o r e d a t Yokohama and s l o w l y f o u n d i t s way i n t o C h i n a v i a T a i w a n . The o u t c r y was l o u d and i m m e d i a t e . The s e c o n d was a b i g d e a l i n v o l v i n g t h e B r i t i s h f i r m o f E z r a . When t h e c a r g o c o u l d n o t r e a c h V l a d i v o s t o k as p l a n n e d , the d e a l e r s d e c i d e d to d i s c h a r g e the opium o u t s i d e o f S h a n g h a i . The opium f o u n d i t s way i n t o S h a n g h a i , and so o n Page No. 32 r e c e i v e d f r o n t page c o v e r a g e as t h e news was r e v e a l e d by t h e C h i n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s . ^ The C h i n e s e c i t i z e n s o f b o t h the S e t t l e m e n t a r e a s and the C h i n e s e c i t i e s had a p a r t i c u l a r d i s t a s t e f o r t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e F o r c e . The C h i n e s e e s p e c i a l l y d i s l i k e d t h e S i k h s who were s e e n t h r o u g h o u t S h a n g h a i as p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s and watchmen i n t h e f a c t o r i e s t h a t e m p l o y e d most o f the w o r k e r s The p o l i c e was a l s o d i s l i k e d f o r i t s a t t e m p t s t o e x t e n d i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t o the C h i n e s e c i t i e s . I t was n o t uncommon to see the M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e e n t e r C h a p e i to a r r e s t p e r s o n s t h e y c o n s i d e r e d " a c t i v i s t s " o r " d a n g e r o u s e l e m e n t s " . ^ F r e q u e n t c a s e s o f t h e p o l i c e a r r e s t i n g s o - c a l l e d l e f t - w i n g t e a c h e r s f o r B o l s h e v i k a c t i v i t i e s were o f t e n r e p o r t e d i n the C h i n e s e A 72 d a i l i e s . By 1925, t h e n , v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s i n S h a n g h a i were i n some c a p a c i t y i n v o l v e d i n a l o o s e l y d e f i n e d a n t i - f o r e i g n movement. A l t h o u g h t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r i n v o l v e m e n t may have been d i f f e r e n t , t h e y were u n i f i e d on one b a s i c aim - t h e end o f f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t i n S h a n g h a i . I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r t h e y i n 1925 f u l l y comprehended t h e i s s u e s t h a t d i s t u r b e d t h e a c t i v i s t s ( t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s , t h e M i x e d C o u r t , e c o n o m i c p e n e t r a t i o n ) ; t h e y , n e v e r t h e l e s s , were c o n s c i o u s o f a d o m i n e e r i n g f o r e i g n government and t h e p r e -s e n c e o f f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t . A n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s were Page No. p r e s e n t , b u t t h e y were l i m i t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s i n the w o r k i n g and s t u d e n t c l a s s e s . What now seemed to be n e e d e d i f a c t i o n was t o o c c u r were the l e a d e r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d b r i n g t o g e t h e r t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s . 3. THE LEADING ORGANIZATIONS AND GROUPS IMPORTANT IN INFLUENCING ANTI-FOREIGN ATTITUDES PRIOR TO MAY 30TH By 1925 s t r e e t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , p r e s s c a m p a i g n s , and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s had become an i m p o r t a n t r e a l i t y i n the a f f a i r s o f C h i n a . A n t i - C h r i s t i a n and a n t i -f o r e i g n campaigns had m o b i l i z e d many s t u d e n t s and i n t e l l e c -t u a l s i n t o s t r i k e s and marches t h r o u g h o u t 1924. S i n c e 1922, CCP i n f l u e n c e and a g i t a t i o n had e f f e c t i v e l y r e o r g a n i z e d a s t r o n g l a b o u r u n i o n f o r c e t h a t was i n v o l v e d i n s t r i k e s t h r o u g o u t C h i n a . A t t h e same t i m e , b u s i n e s s m e n and m e r c h a n t o r g a n -i z a t i o n s began to c o n t r i b u t e t o v a r i o u s a n t i - f o r e i g n cam-p a i g n s i n hope t h a t t h e y w o u l d somehow p u t an end to s p e c i f i c d o m e s t i c p r o b l e m s f o u n d i n S h a n g h a i , P e k i n g , and C a n t o n . E a c h group i n t h e i r own way c o n t i n u e d to a f f e c t a n t i -f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s as t h e y s p r e a d i n 1924 and 1925. a. THE KUOMINTANG AND THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA P r i o r t o 1924, two n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s , t h e KMT and the CCP, had v i e d f o r the s u p p o r t o f the C h i n e s e p u b l i c i n t h e i r campaigns to r i d C h i n a o f f o r e i g n e r s and the u n e q u a l t r e a -t i e s , and t o u n i f y C h i n a u n d e r one n a t i o n a l g overnment. The P age No. 34 KMT, an o l d r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y o f Sun Y a t - s e n , had a l w a y s had a s e n t i m e n t a l i m p a c t . W i t h i t s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1924, t h a t P a r t y was to have an even more i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t on a n t i -f o r e i g n and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s as i t c ampaigned f o r the end o f t h e t r e a t i e s . I t s new a l l i a n c e w i t h the CCP t h a t same y e a r was t o have i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s on t h e a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t mo vement. T h r o u g h o u t 1924, Dr. Sun and h i s p r o p a g a n d a teams c o n -t i n u e d to l e c t u r e to s c h o o l s and f a c t o r i e s t h r o u g h o u t S o u t h C h i n a w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t more and more s t u d e n t s and w o r k e r s b e gan to j o i n t h e i r r a n k s , some even h o l d i n g membership i n b o t h the CCP and KMT p a r t i e s . I n t u r n , more and more C h i n e s e b e g a n t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t w o u l d be o n l y t h r o u g h t h i s a l l i a n c e o f t h e CCP and KMT t h a t C h i n a w o u l d f i n a l l y be u n i t e d and 73 w o u l d end t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s . D u r i n g 1924, v a r i o u s communists were a b l e to become key men i n some w o r k e r s ' and s t u d e n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h u s were t o have s p e c i a l i n f l u e n c e on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e 74 a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s a t t h o s e l e v e l s . KMT o r g a n i z e r s who f a c i l i t a t e d a n t i - r e l i g i o u s and a n t i - f o r e i g n c a m p a i g n s , however, were n o t a l l communist s y m p a t h i z e r s . I n f a c t i n most c a s e s , t h e movement to r e v i t a l i z e C h i n a was r a p i d l y p r o -c e e d i n g among the s t u d e n t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s p r i o r to 1925 w i t h o u t i m p o r t a n t o r d i r e c t communist i n f l u e n c e . ^ T h a t was Page No. 35 n o t t r u e o f the l a b o u r movement. F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r , i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e p r e c i s e l y the d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l the CCP and i t s members had on the a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t movement. I n s t e a d i t w i l l be i m p o r t a n t to r e c o g n i z e t h a t KMT-CCP p r o -p a g a nda and i n s t i t u t i o n s were i m p o r t a n t i n h e l p i n g to s p r e a d a n t i - f o r e i g n and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s p r i o r to May 3 0 t h . KMT-CCP e f f o r t s t h r o u g h o u t 1924 were made to a r o u s e t h e " n a t i o n a l c o n s c i e n c e o f t h e p e o p l e , t o u n i f y the c o u n t r y , and to p r o t e s t a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s t i c i m p e r i a l i s m " . ^ E d u c a t i o n was s e i z e d upon and made to s e r v e t h e i d e a l s f o r w h i c h t h e KMT s t o o d , and by l a t e 1924 c o n c e p t s o f n a t i o n a l power, n a t i o n a l u n i t y , n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y f o u n d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , p r o m o t e d by t e a c h e r s s y m p a t h e t i c to KMT p l a t f o r m s . ^ A t t e m p t s were made t o r e a c h n o t o n l y t h e government s c h o o l s b u t the p r i v a t e f o r e i g n s c h o o l s as w e l l . W i t h KMT-CCP l e a d e r s h i p i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g , w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f the Y o u t h D e p a r t m e n t i n 1924 i n the c e n t r a l as w e l l as t h e l o c a l b r a n c h e s o f the KMT, and w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f the Young Communist L e a g u e s i n c o u n t e r - r e a c t i o n to the N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n , t h e s t u d e n t movement i n C h i n a 7 8 g r a d u a l l y became a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h i s n a t i o n a l i s t movement. ( P a g e N o . 36 T h r o u g h o u t 1924 KMT i n f l u e n c e i n S h a n g h a i had r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y weak. T h a t P a r t y was t h e n p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h a f f a i r s i n C a n t o n . By l a t e 1924, KMT members began to i n c r e a s e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n S h a n g h a i . The KMT c o u l d n o t f o r g e t t h a t Shang-h a i custom t a x e s p r o v i d e d c l o s e to 40% o f t h e r e v e n u e o f t h e 79 C h i n e s e government i n P e k i n g . F o l l o w i n g December 1924, the f o l l o w i n g l e a f l e t s o f t h e KMT were s e e n more f r e q u e n t l y i n 8 0 S h a n g h a i : "END: M i l i t a r i s m f r o m w i t h i n ; and I m p e r i a l i s m f r o m w i t h o u t . " Soon y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f b o t h t h e CCP and KMT were to have some i n f l u e n c e i n the s c h o o l s and on t h e S h a n g h a i S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n ( S S U ) . S i m i l a r to the n a t i o n a l s c e n e , t h e a n t i - f o r e i g n move-ment i n S h a n g h a i was p r o c e e d i n g w i t h o u t i m p o r t a n t communist g u i d a n c e . W i t h the i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f S h a n g h a i U n i v e r -s i t y i n t h e SSU a f t e r F e b r u a r y 1925, t h a t began to change somewhat ( s e e s e c t i o n on s t u d e n t s ) . As t h e KMT-CCP o r g a n i z e r s began to a c t i v a t e some o f the s t u d e n t s , CCP members became c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p o l i t i c i -z a t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . (See s e c t i o n on L a b o u r e r s . ) A s t r o n g L a b o u r S e c r e t a r i a t under t h e g u i d a n c e o f L i L i - s a n r e o r g a n i z e d o l d u n i o n s and f o u n d e d new o n e s . By l a t e 1924, t h o s e u n i o n s were w e l l o r g a n i z e d and p r e p a r e d f o r a c t i o n . I n November and December, the P a r t y and u n i o n s began t o s u p p o r t s t r i k e s i n f o r e i g n m i l l s and some l a r g e C h i n e s e f a c t o r i e s . P a g e No. 3 7 By F e b r u a r y , t h e i r i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e b . THE S TUDENTS W h e t h e r t h e h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n i s a s t r o n g f a c t o r o r n o t , m o d e r n s t u d e n t s i n C h i n a h a v e a l w a y s a s s u m e d a s p e c i a l s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n a n d t h e f u t u r e o f C h i n a , e v e n t o t h e p o i n t o f p l a c i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n p o s i t i o n s 8 2 o f f o r e m o s t l e a d e r s h i p . T h e May F o u r t h M o v e m e n t , t h e v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s t r i k e s , j o u r n a l s , a n d n e w s p a p e r s , t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e p r o p a g a n d a o f S u n Y a t - s e n , a n d t h e s e v e r a l a n t i - r e l i g i o u s cam-p a i g n s h a d p o l i t i c i z e d many s t u d e n t s i n t o a c t i o n . I n h i s t h e s i s , t h e May F o u r t h M o v e m e n t i n S h a n g h a i , J . C h e n a t t e m p t e d t o a n s w e r why s t u d e n t s w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o d i r e c t a c t i o n . He n -, A 8 3 e x p l a i n e d : S t u d e n t s as j u n i o r m e m bers o f t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , n a t u r a l l y i n h e r i t e d c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l a t t e r . T h e y s t r e s s e d s e l f -d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s h o w e d a u n i v e r s a l h a t r e d o f o p p r e s s i o n . T h e y t o o b e l i e v e d i n t h e i r o b l i -g a t i o n t o s e r v e f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e n a t i o n a n d t h e p e o p l e . T h e y t o o s h a r e d a d e e p r e s e n t -m e n t a n d a s e n s e o f d e p r i v a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l d i g n i t y w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d C h i n a ' s p o l i t i c a l h u m i l i a t i o n . . . T h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h W e s t e r n t h o u g h t a n d c u l t u r e . . . h a d l e d t h e m d i r e c t l y i n t o c r i t i c i z i n g a n d c h a l l e n g i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f C h i n e s e t r a d i -t i o n a l t h o u g h t , i n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d v a l u e s . 84 T h e r e was a l s o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r : a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s s e d o n t h e f o r e i g n m i l l s , J a p a n e s e . Page No. 38 S t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y were a r d e n t a c t i v i s t s when a r o u s e d and awakened. As t h e y e x a m i n e d th e e n t i r e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n C h i n a . . . t h e y r e a l i z e d n o t o n l y had the e a r l y R e p u b l i c a n R e v o l u t i o n f a i l e d , b u t the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l o u t l o o k f o r C h i n a was a l s o gloomy. S t u d e n t s , however, had n o t a l w a y s been th e most depend-a b l e i n n a t i o n a l movements. Aims f l u c t u a t e d f r e q u e n t l y as d i d t h e number o f t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d . Y e t , a d e d i c a t e d c o r e o f l e a d e r s d i d s u r v i v e and keep v a r i o u s i s s u e s a c t i v e . I n 1919, the N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n was f o u n d e d w i t h t h e aim o f a t t e m p t i n g to u n i f y the a c t i o n s o f the s t u d e n t s u n d e r the l e a d e r s h i p o f n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t l e a d e r s . L a c k o f i n t e r e s t made the t a s k d i f f i c u l t f o r i t s P r e s i d e n t , Ho P a o - j e n . By 1920, t h a t l a c k o f i n t e r e s t was a c c o m p a n i e d by s t u d e n t s r e -t u r n i n g to t h e i r c l a s s e s . S t u d e n t s t r i k e s were i n many c a s e s , no l o n g e r c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h the n a t i o n a l b o d i e s . Some s t u d e n t s r e m a i n e d a c t i v e , b u t t h e i r time was s p e n t on s t r i k e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h l o c a l i s s u e s . Chang M o n l i n w r o t e o f the s t u d e n t s o f t h a t 86 t i m e s a y i n g : . . . s t u d e n t s u s u r p e d the r i g h t s o f t h e a u t h o r -i t i e s t o engage o r d i s m i s s a t e a c h e r . . . s t r u c k a g a i n s t t e a c h e r s who r e q u i r e d a s e v e r e exam o r s t o o d f o r s t e r n e r d i s c i p l i n e . They demanded s u b s i d i e s f r o m the s c h o o l s f o r t r a v e l l i n g ex-p e n s e s . . . I t was a m a t t e r of g e t t i n g as much as p o s s i b l e o u t o f the s c h o o l i n e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e way . . . The i s s u e s were no l o n g e r n a t i o n a l , b u t l o c a l . F o r example, S h a n g h a i and P e k i n g d a i l y n e w s p a p e r s i n 1922 l i s t e d 106 s c h o o l s t r i k e s where s t u d e n t s r e f u s e d to t a k e exams o r c o n f l i c t e d w i t h Page No. 39 8 7 the t e a c h e r s o v e r s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . Some s t u d e n t s , however, a t t e m p t e d to f o c u s on n a t i o n a l i s s u e s . When the C o n f e r e n c e o f W o r l d C h r i s t i a n S t u d e n t s ' F e d -e r a t i o n met i n P e k i n g i n A p r i l 1922, s t u d e n t s i n S h a n g h a i and P e k i n g o r g a n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a n o n - C h r i s t i a n S t u d e n t F e d -e r a t i o n t h a t soon became a p a r t o f the s t r o n g a n t i - r e l i g i o u s c a m p aign. T h i s movement was m a i n l y c o n f i n e d to l a r g e c i t i e s and r a r e l y s p r e a d to any r u r a l a r e a . ^ A c c o m p a n y i n g t h i s p a t t e r n o f ' l o c a l c o n c e r n ' was t h e a c t u a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n the s c h o o l s t h e m s e l v e s . The p o l i -t i c a l s i t u a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e had had a d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t on e d u c a t i o n . A l m o s t a l l s c h o o l s were h a n d i c a p p e d by the l a c k o f s t r o n g f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g . Most s c h o o l s ' f u n d s were o f t e n a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s . Government s c h o o l s were o f t e n on the v e r g e o f c l o s i n g down, w h i l e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , a l w a y s u n d e r p a i d , were f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e n o t p a i d a t a l l . T h i s e c o n o m i c i n s e c u r i t y i n t h e s c h o o l s as i t grew worse o n l y h e l p e d to h e i g h t e n t h e s t u d e n t s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h 89 t h e i r d e p r e s s e d s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . C h i n a ' s f a i l u r e s a t t h e P eace C o n f e r e n c e , the d i s a p p o i n t -ments a t the W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e , an e f f e c t i v e R i g h t s R e c o v e r y Movement o f 1924, the p o w e r f u l a p p e a l o f Sun Y a t - s e n , the e f f e c t -i v e n e s s o f the new n a t i o n a l i s t i c e d u c a t i o n , and the a l l i a n c e P a g e N o . 40 o f t h e CCP a n d KMT, a l l h e l p e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o a g a i n f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n u p o n t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l s c e n e a n d t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t s e e m e d t o r e t a r d C h i n e s e u n i t y . S t u d e n t p u b -l i c a t i o n s b e g a n t o s e e t h e i r e n e m i e s as t w o , f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l -90 i s m , a n d i n t e r n a l m i l i t a r i s m . T h e t w o w e r e a l s o s e e n a s i n t e r l o c k i n g , b e c a u s e c i v i l s t r i f e f a c i l i t a t e d d o m i n a t i o n b y W e s t e r n i m p e r i a l i s m a n d i m p e r i a l i s t m a n e u v e r i n g s u s t a i n e d t h e r i v a l r y o f t h e f a c t i o n a l w a r l o r d s . T h e N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n a t t h e i r F i f t h ( 1 9 2 3 ) , S i x t h ( 1 9 2 4 ) a n d S e v e n t h ( 1 9 2 5 ) m e e t i n g s , p l e d g e d s u p p o r t t o t h e p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m o f t h e KMT a n d s e n t o u t d i r e c t i v e s t o f o l l o w i n a n a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t c a m p a i g n . "Down w i t h t h e I m p e r -i a l i s t s " a n d "Down w i t h t h e M i l i t a r i s t s " b e c a m e t h e i r m a i n s l o g a n s . D i s c u s s i o n s a n d l e c t u r e s w e r e t h e n s e t up i n m o s t s c h o o l s . A m o v e m e n t a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s m w a s g a i n i n g momentum among some s t u d e n t g r o u p s T h e s t u d e n t s o f S h a n g h a i h a d f o l l o w e d s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p -m e n t s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d o n t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l . S t r o n g s t u d e n t l e a d e r s h a d n o t p r e v e n t e d t h e i r f e l l o w s t u d e n t s f r o m b e c o m i n g a p a t h e t i c . S t r i k e s o c c u r r e d , b u t t h e y c e n t e r e d a r o u n d 92 l o c a l i s s u e s a n d e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s . By 1 9 2 5 , h o w e v e r , t h a t w a s b e g i n n i n g t o c h a n g e . Page No. 41 Under the l e a d e r s h i p o f Ho P a o - j e n and Ch'en Pao-o, the N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n and i t s l o c a l , S h a n g h a i S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n , had by 1921 c r e a t e d one o f the b e s t o r g a n i z e d and most 93 a c t i v e s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n C h i n a . The SSU was e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e . R e p r e s e n t i n g 61 s c h o o l s and 12,000 s t u d e n t s , t h e SSU was s u p p o s e d to a c t as the d i r e c t l i a i s o n f o r t h e N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n t o l o c a l s c h o o l s , b u t i n r e a l i t y t h e o p p o s i t e o c c u r r e d. E a c h s c h o o l i n t h e SSU was o r g a n i z e d u n d e r a l o c a l s t u d e n t u n i o n and where p o s s i b l e a s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n was 95 c r e a t e d f o r e a c h s c h o o l . I n t h e o r y , t h e s t u d e n t s i n e a c h o f t h o s e s c h o o l s were o r g a n i z e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t c o m m i t t e e s t o make t h e i r a c t i o n s more c o h e r e n t and b e t t e r d i s c i p l i n e d . They were: L e c t u r i n g C o r p s , I n s p e c t i o n C o r p s , Groups o f T e n , S t u -d e n t V o l u n t e e r s C o r p s , C o n s u l t a t i v e B r a n c h O f f i c e , t h e Pub-l i s h i n g C o r p s , E d i t o r i a l C o r p s , S e r v i c e C o r p s , L i a i s o n Commi-t t e e , and D i s c i p l i n a r y C o r p s . ^ I n p r a c t i c e , however, the a c t u a l c o m m i t t e e s f u n c t i o n i n g v a r i e d f r o m s c h o o l t o s c h o o l d e p e n d i n g on i t s s i z e and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i t s a u t h o r i t i e s . The most o r g a n i z e d s c h o o l s were g e n e r a l l y t h o s e most a c t i v e i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and l e c t u r e t o u r s . By 1925, t h e most p o w e r f u l u n i o n s i n the SSU were Shang-h a i U n i v e r s i t y , T ' u n g - c h i M e d i c a l S c h o o l , Nanyang U n i v e r s i t y , 9 7 and C h i n g c h o n g M i d d l e S c h o o l . P a g e N o . 42 T h e SSU was i n d e e d a n i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n S h a n g -h a i . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m v a r i o u s s c h o o l u n i o n s met f r e q u e n t l y t o d e c i d e p o l i c y a n d c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . E v e r y w e e k a SSU p u b -l i c a t i o n was s e n t t o members a n n o u n c i n g p o l i c y a n d p l a n s . T h r o u g h o u t 1924 a n d 1 9 2 5 , i t o r g a n i z e d s t r i k e s , s p e a k i n g t o u r s , a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n s u p p o r t o f v a r i o u s i s s u e s . S l o g a n s d e -m a n d i n g t h e e n d o f f o r e i g n r u l e a n d t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y s e e n i n i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s . C a l l s f o r s u p p o r t o f t h e w o r k e r s w e r e a l s o s e e n . ^ A l t h o u g h t h e r e . i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t CCP mem-b e r s d i r e c t l y m a n i p u l a t e d t h e SSU a n d i t s p o l i c y , a u n i v e r s i t y s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e C C P , S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , was o n e o f i t s m o s t a c t i v e m e m b e r s . T h r o u g h o u t 1 9 2 5 , s t u d e n t s f r o m t h a t s c h o o l s e r v e d a s P r e s i d e n t a n d S e c r e t a r y o f t h e S S U . O t h e r m e mbers 99 h e l d m i n o r o f f i c i a l p o s t s . T i m e a f t e r t i m e i t was t h e i r s p e a k i n g . b r i g a d e s t h a t w e n t o u t t o l e c t u r e a g a i n s t t h e t r e a -t i e s a n d t h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e m i l l s . Y e t , how e f f -e c t i v e l y . . Shanghai- U n i v e r s i t y c o n t r o l l e d t h e SSU a n d i t s p o l i c y i s u n k n o w n . M o s t l i k e l y , a d e d i c a t e d c o r e o f a c t i v i s t s m a i n l y f r o m t h e S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y r a n t h e SSU o f f i c e s a n d f i l l e d many o f i t s c o m m i t t e e s . O t h e r s c h o o l s may o r may n o t h a v e s u p p o r t e d t h a t s i t u a t i o n . T h a t i s u n k n o w n , f o r t h r o u g h o u t m o s t a c t i v i t y , o t h e r u n i o n m e mbers g e n e r a l l y a l l o w e d t h e S S U l e a d e r s t o r u n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s t h e y saw f i t t o . P r i o r Page No. 4 3 to May 3 0 t h , i t a p p e a r s t h a t no d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e was e v e r made to the SSU l e a d e r s h i p . S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , known as the "Red U n i v e r s i t y " to f o r e i g n e r s i n S h a n g h a i , was a t t e n d e d by many i n d i v i d u a l s sym-p a t h e t i c to the CCP and the a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t movement. Sev-e r a l f a c u l t y members and s t u d e n t s were a c t u a l members o f the CCP. The M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e had a t v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t t i m e s r a i d e d the campus, c o n f i s c a t i n g m a t e r i a l demanding t h e end o f t h e i m p e r i a l i s t r u l e i n C h i n a and t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s . F i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y came f r o m the C o m i n t e r n i n Moscow and the KMT i n C a n t o n . A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t known how b r o a d CCP i n f l u e n c e o v e r S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y was, i t i s i m p o r t a n t to know t h a t s t u d e n t s f r o m S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y were most r e c e p t i v e , t o CCP.. d i r e c t i v e s . They w o u l d t h e n p a s s t h o s e d i r e c t i v e s on to t h e i r own s t u d e n t u n i o n , who w o u l d t h e n p a s s i t on t o t h e SSU. How f a r t h o s e d i r e c t i v e s were c a r r i e d i n the p r o c e s s i s d i f f i c u l t to d e t e r m i n e . In o r d e r t o - h e l p the s t u d e n t s and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e a c h down to t h e p e o p l e more e f f e c t i v e l y , t h e S h a n g h a i s t u -d e n t s had d e v e l o p e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p a g a n d a t e c h n i q u e s d u r i n g t h e May F o u r t h Movement and t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o use them r i g h t up u n t i l May 30th:"*"^"*' Page No. 44 1) t h e s t a g i n g o f p a r a d e s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and p u b l i c s p e e c h e s ; 2) t h e f o r m i n g o f a d v i s o r y c o r p s ; 3) the f o r m u l a t i o n o f f o r c e f u l s l o g a n s and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e ; 4) the s t a g i n g o f f o l k - p l a y s and dramas; 5) t h e i s s u i n g o f e x t r a s ; 6) the i s s u i n g o f p u b l i c announcements and p a p e r s ; 7) the p u b l i s h i n g o f s t u d e n t d a i l i e s ; and 8) t h e c o n t a c t i n g o f o t h e r s t u d e n t g r o u p s o u t s i d e o f S h a n g h a i . Under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the SSU, the s t u d e n t s o f Shang-h a i had s u c c e e d e d i n making t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s known to the p e o p l e o f S h a n g h a i . T h r o u g h e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f the above m e n t i o n e d t e c h n i q u e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e s t u d e n t s were a b l e to m o b i l i z e and u n i f y a l a r g e number o f s t u d e n t s q u i c k l y and e f f i c i e n t l y ; and i t was p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t s had s u c h e f f e c t i v e means o f c o n t r o l and c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y were one o f t h e main l e a d e r s i n S h a n g h a i . c. THE LABOURERS U n i o n i z a t i o n i n the C h i n e s e l a b o u r f o r c e had o c c u r r e d w e l l b e f o r e the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e CCP, b u t f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s o f the CCP i n J u l y 1921, i t s members q u i c k l y moved to b r i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e u n d e r i t s i n f l u e n c e and g u i d a n c e . T h a t same month, the S e c r e t a r i a t of t h e C h i n e s e L a b o u r U n i o n (Chung-kuo l a o - t u n g t s u - h o s h u - c h i - p u ) was fo r m e d Page No. 45 (by the CCP) w i t h Chang K u o - t ' a o as i t s head to c a r r y o u t t h a t t a s k . To o r g a n i z e a g i t a t i o n , the CCP began e v e n i n g c l a s s e s 102 f o r w o r k e r s and f o u n d e d a p u b l i s h i n g o f f i c e . D e s p i t e ob-s t a c l e s and m i s t a k e s , the CCP soon s u c c e e d e d i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e l a b o u r u n i o n s i n major i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s , and among seamen and r a i l w a y w o r k e r s . In J a n u a r y 1922, t h e Hongkong Seamen's S t r i k e was l a u n c h e d , and was s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n c l u d e d 103 i n M a r c h . I n May, t h e CCP c o n v e n e d the F i r s t A l l - C h i n a L a b o u r C o n g r e s s i n C a n t o n . L a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n was m o v i n g q u i c k l y . On F e b r u a r y 7, 1923, t h e movement s u f f e r e d i t s f i r s t 104 m a j o r s e t - b a c k . Known as t h e " F e b r u a r y S e v e n t h M a s s a c r e " , i t was t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e Peking-Hankow R a i l w a y W o r k e r s ' S t r i k e by t h e s o l d i e r s o f G e n e r a l Wu P ' e i - f u . S u p p r e s s i o n o c c u r r e d i n o t h e r a r e a s and u n i o n membership was soon r e s t r i c t e d . S l o w l y the.CCP began t o r e - e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l o v e r t h e u n i o n s ; b u t t h a t was a l o n g and s t r e n u o u s t a s k . The f i r s t t r a d e u n i o n s t o be o r g a n i z e d i n S h a n g h a i , u n d e r the g u i d a n c e o f the CCP, were t h e m e c h a n i c s ' u n i o n , t h e p r i n t -e r s ' u n i o n , a n d . t h e t e x t i l e w o r k e r s ' u n i o n - a l l i n 1921. Those u n i o n s a l s o r e c e i v e d s e t - b a c k s i n 1923 t h r o u g h s u p p r e s s i o n and the a r r e s t o f t h e i r l e a d e r s ; b u t by the summer o f 1924, w i t h the f o u n d i n g o f the S h a n g h a i F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r U n i o n s , t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n S h a n g h a i was a g a i n b e c o m i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y Page No. 46 a c t i v e , and a g a i n u n d e r the i n f l u e n c e o f the CCP.^"* I t was i n the f a c t o r i e s t h a t CCP w o r k e r s f o u n d t h e l a b o u r e r s most r e c e p t i v e . In 1925, f a c t o r y l a b o u r e r s , t h e l a r g e s t segment, o f t h e w o r k i n g f o r c e i n S h a n g h a i , made up a b o u t 226,718 w o r k e r s ; l e s s t h an 10% o f t h e S h a n g h a i p o p u l a -t i o n . In a l l the w o r k i n g f o r c e was o n l y about 500,000.'''^^ S l o w l y L i L i - s a n and the G e n e r a l F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r U n i o n s r e b u i l t the o l d u n i o n s and o r g a n i z e d them i n t o a s t r o n g member-107 , , . s h i p . As the movement became s t r o n g e r , t h e o r g a n i z e r s be-gan t o . r e a l i z e the u s e f u l n e s s o f a n t i - f o r e i g n s e n t i m e n t . At f i r s t the work went s l o w l y , b u t as t h e w o r k e r s began to t h i n k t h a t t h e i r low s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g was d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s m , s t r i k e campaigns were q u i c k l y d i r e c t e d t owards f o r e i g n m i l l s and f a c t o r i e s . Members o f the CCP, KMT, and some s t u d e n t b o d i e s e f f e c t i v e l y c o n v i n c e d t h e w o r k e r s t h a t t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d w o u l d i m p r o v e o n l y upon r e s t o r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e s o v e r e i g n t y . The w o r k e r s l i s t e n e d and j o i n e d i n f o r s e v e r a l 108 re as ons . C o n d i t i o n s i n the f a c t o r i e s and m i l l s p r o v i d e d f o r much d i s c o n t e n t among the w o r k e r s . The a b s e n c e o f any i n d u s t r i a l r e g u l a t i o n s . b y e i t h e r the a u t h o r i t i e s o f the f o r e i g n s e t t l e -ments o r the C h i n e s e government had a l l o w e d the owners t o d i s -r e g a r d q u e s t i o n s as to h o u r s o f work, wages, and c o n d i t i o n s P <- V. I K 109 o f the l a b o u r . P a g e No. L o n g h o u r s h a d a l w a y s b e e n a c o m p l a i n t . T h e w o r k i n g d a y was f r o m n i n e t o f i f t e e n h o u r s w i t h many f a c t o r i e s m a i n -t a i n i n g two o r t h r e e s h i f t s . On t h e a v e r a g e , o n l y two s p e l l s o f f i f t e e n m i n u t e s w e r e g i v e n t o a l l o w t i m e f o r d i n n e r . I t was q u i t e common f o r e m p l o y e r s t o d e m a n d a c e r t a i n v o l u m e o f p r o d u c t i o n . F a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e t h i s r e s u l t e d i n f i n e s a n d i n many c a s e s t h o s e f i n e s w o u l d make t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n b a r e s u b s i s t e n c e a n d s u b - s u b s i s t e n c e . L o w w a g e s w e r e a l s o com-p l i c a t e d b y t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n i n t h e c u r r e n c y a n d b y t h e h i g h p r i c e s o f r i c e . ^ " ^ W ages w e r e f u r t h e r d e c r e a s e d i n v a l u e b y 112 e x c e s s i v e t a x a t i o n . I n a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t a f a m i l y o n t h e l o w w a g e s g a v e r i s e t o a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f women a n d c h i l d w o r k e r s . I n a d e q u a t e s t a i r w a y s , i n s u f f i c i e n t e x i t s , a n d i m -p r o p e r s t o r a g e r e s u l t e d i n u n n e c e s s a r y l o s s o f l i f e i n f i r e s A 1 • 1 1 3 a n d e x p l o s i o n s . S u c h w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f c o u r s e , p r o v i d e d a f e r t i l e f i e l d f o r a g i t a t i o n i n 1 9 2 4 a n d 1 9 2 5 . CCP l a b o u r o r g a n i z e r s , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s o n a g i t a t i n g f o r r e f o r m b u t i n s t e a d , on b u i l d i n g up t h e l a b o u r f o r c e o r g a n i z a -t i o n s . I n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o o r g a n i z e , CCP w o r k e r s f o u n d a n t i -f o r e i g n a g r e e m e n t s m o s t u s e f u l . As a r e s u l t , s t r o n g a n t i -i m p e r i a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s w e r e i n s t i l l e d i n t h e l a b o u r m o v e m e n t . 114 O f t h i s , B l a n s h a r d r e p o r t e d : P a g e No. 48 T h e S h a n g h a i s t r i k e s a r e p a r t i a l a n s w e r s t o b i t t e r e c o n o m i c o p p r e s s i o n , b u t f i r s t o f a l l t h e y a r e p a t r i o t i c s t r i k e s o f t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e a g a i n s t f o r e i g n a g g r e s s i o n . T h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e a r e w a r y o f s w a g g e r i n g o v e r l o r d s who k i c k a n d c u r s e t h e m , p a y t h e m 40 c e n t s a d a y , a n d t h e n r e t i r e t o L o n d o n , New Y o r k , a n d T o y k o t o l i v e on t h e f r u i t s o f t h e i r s a g a c i t y . By 1 9 2 5 , many C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s w e r e t r u l y b e g i n n i n g t o b e -l i e v e t h e s l o g a n t h a t f o r e i g n e x p l o i t a t i o n o f c h e a p C h i n e s e l a b o u r a n d f o r e i g n e n c r o a c h m e n t w e r e p r o t e c t e d b y t h e t r e a -t i e s a n d f o r c e d o n a w e a k g o v e r n m e n t i n P e k i n g . T h e s t r i k e s o f J a n u a r y a n d F e b r u a r y w e r e r e a c t i o n s t o t h a t s i t u a t i o n a n d a r e s u l t o f e f f e c t i v e w o r k b y t h e C C P . d. THE C H I N E S E MERCHANTS AND I N D U S T R I A L I S T S P r i o r t o May 3 0 t h , m e r c h a n t s a n d b u s i n e s s m e n h a d p l a y e d a m i n o r , y e t i m p o r t a n t , r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n t i -f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s a n d t h e s p r e a d i n g o f n a t i o n a l i s t s e n t i -m e n t s . T h e i r s u p p o r t o f b o y c o t t s a n d s t r i k e s a g a i n s t f o r e i g n g o o d s a n d m i l l s h a d t a u g h t many o f t h e m t h a t t h e y c o u l d p r o -b a b l y a d v a n c e t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s m o r e r e a d i l y w i t h t h e e n d o f t h e s p e c i a l s t a t u s o f f o r e i g n i n d u s t r y . C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s , h o w e v e r , h a d a l s o s h o w n some n a t i o n a l i s t z e a l e v e n w hen t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . T h e b o y c o t t o f 1 9 0 5 Page No. 49 was s u c h an example. D u r i n g , and o c c a s i o n a l l y a f t e r May F o u r t h , many began t o a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t b o y c o t t s , s t r i k e s and d e m o n s t r a -t i o n s w i t h f i n a n c i a l a i d . S t u d e n t s were s u p p o r t e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o end the t r e a t i e s , w h i l e w o r k e r s were s u p p o r t e d i n 116 t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o " c r i p p l e " f o r e i g n m i l l s . The m e r c h a n t s i n S h a n g h a i seemed to have been more a c t i v e t h a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s e l s e w h e r e . C o n c e r n e d a b o u t s u c h i s s u e s as l i c e n s e t a x e s , w h a r f a g e du e s , c o n f u s i n g p r o -p e r t y o w n e r s h i p l a w s , t h e y had p r o v i d e d p r e s s campaigns and p e r s o n a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t h e l p e d to make many C h i n e s e i n S h a n g h a i aware o f t h e i n e q u i t i e s i n the t r e a t y s y s t e m . I n e a r l y 1925, m e r c h a n t s and i n d u s t r i a l i s t s a g a i n c a m p a i g n e d f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l . O t h e r s cam-p a i g n e d a g a i n s t the newly p r o p o s e d b y l a w s . S t i l l o t h e r s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e y were b e i n g e x c e s s i v e l y t a x e d by b o t h 1 1 7 t h e C h i n e s e and f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s . F u r t h e r power to i n f l uence t h e S h a n g h a i c i t i z e n s l a y i n t h e C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce. I n t i m e s o f s t r i k e s , t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n had been c a l l e d on as a m e d i a t o r . I n t i m e o f b o y c o t t s , i t had f r e q u e n t l y s e r v e d as campaign h e a d q u a r t e r s . ^ By May 1925, s u p p o r t by the C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s and i n d u s -t r i a l i s t s had i n c r e a s e d . P r e s s campaigns a g a i n s t f o r e i g n P a g e No. " p a t e r n a l g o v e r n m e n t " a n d t h e new b y l a w s o c c u r r e d m o re f r e -q u e n t l y , w h i l e s m a l l m e r c h a n t s w e r e g e n e r o u s i n g i v i n g l a r g e d o n a t i o n s t o t h e s t r i k i n g w o r k e r s . C. THE E V E N T S THAT L E D TO THE MAY 30TH I N C I D E N T 1. THE S T R I K E S IN T H E J A P A N E S E M I L L S (JANUARY TO A P R I L ) A g i t a t i o n among t h e l a b o u r i n g m a s s e s i n t h e u r b a n c e n t e r s g r e w m o r e a n d m o r e m a n i f e s t i n 1 9 2 5 , a n d w o r k e r s i n S h a n g h a i b e c a m e e v e n m o r e p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e . T h e o r -g a n i z i n g o f w o r k e r s i n t o u n i o n s p r o c e e d e d w i t h a m a z i n g s w i f t n e s s , a n d m e e t i n g s a n d p r o c e s s i o n s h e l d t h r o u g h o u t J a n u a r y i n t h e C h i n e s e c i t i e s , c o n t i n u e d t o d e n o u n c e t h e 1 1 9 J a p a n e s e a n d f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l i s t s . O t h e r s d e n o u n c e d t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l a n d u r g e d t h e w o r k e r s o f S h a n g h a i t o p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s . u n d e r t h e b a n n e r o f t h e KMT a n d t o f i g h t 1 20 t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d m i l i t a r i s t s . T e n g C h u n g - h s i a , a CCP member, a t t h a t t i m e , d e s c r i b e d h i s w o r k w i t h t h e l a b o u r e r s a s f o l l o w s : A l m o s t e v e r y d a y , we h e l d a m a s s m e e t i n g , e v e r y d a y t h e r e was some k i n d o f new h a n d -b i l l a n d s o n g s h e e t s . T h e m a s s e s w e r e P a g e No. n o t a l l o w e d t o s i t l i k e w o o d e n s t i c k s , s o e a c h d a y t h i n g s w o u l d c h a n g e . . . When we h a d m e e t i n g s we d i d n o t j u s t h a v e s p e e c h e s , b u t mass a c t i v i t y b y s e c t i o n s . . . T h u s t h e w o r k e r s g r a -d u a l l y w e r e o r g a n i z e d a n d t h e l a b o u r u n i o n t h e n a c t u a l l y a s s u m e d c o n t r o l . S h a n g h a i l a b o u r e r s q u i c k l y m o v e d t o w a r d s p o i n t s o f d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n . I t was i n t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s o f t h e Y a n g t z e p o o d i s -t r i c t o f S h a n g h a i t h a t t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t b e g a n t o e v o l v e T h o s e m i l l s , a c c o r d i n g t o r e p o r t s a t t h a t t i m e , w e r e l a r g e , n ew, m o d e r n - e q u i p p e d , e f f i c i e n t a n d w e l l p o l i c e d . E f f i c i e n t m e t h o d s a n d b e t t e r m a c h i n e r y h a d e n a b l e d t h e J a p a n e s e t o 122 c u t t h e s t a f f a l m o s t i n h a l f . b y 1 9 2 5 . B e c a u s e t h e o w n e r s h a d f o u n d m a l e s m o r e p r o n e t o s t r i k e a n d c a u s e t r o u b l e , 123 m o r e women w e r e h i r e d t o r e p l a c e t h e m . C h i n e s e a t t h a t t i m e c o n t i n u a l l y c o m p l a i n e d o f c r u e l t y i n t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s 1 24 h i g h p a y d e d u c t i o n s , a n d o f b e a t i n g s a n d t o r t u r e . T h e y p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e w o r k m e n ' s r e t i r e m e n t f u n d i n t h e s e m i l l s t h a t o p e r a t e d o n a w i t h h o l d i n g b a s i s c u l m u -l a t i n g m t e n y e a r s . By J a n u a r y 1 9 2 5 , i n f l a m a t o r y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s h a d h e i g h t e n e d . Many w o r k e r s b e g a n t o s p e a k P a g e No. 126 o f s t r i k i n g . On J a n u a r y 1 8 t h , a s t r i k e was r e p o r t e d a t t h e B r i t i s h Ewo M i l l s i n Y a n g t z e p o o o v e r c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e f a m i l y o f a l a b o u r e r a l l e g e d t o h a v e d i e d f r o m b e i n g b e a t e n by a C h i n e s e w a t c h m a n a t t h e m i l l . Some 1 2 7 v i o l e n c e o c c u r r e d , b u t t h e s t r i k e was s e t t l e d . A s t r i k e o f a m o s t s e r i o u s n a t u r e c o m m e n c e d o n F e b r u a r y 9 t h a t t h e No. 5 m i l l o f t h e J a p a n e s e N a i g a i W a t a K a i s h a , 14 I c h a n g R o a d . By F e b r u a r y 1 5 t h , t h e s t r i k e h a d e x t e n d e d t o s i x d i f f e r e n t J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s i n t h e W e s t e r n a n d Y a n g t z e p o o d i s t r i c t s , i n v o l v i n g a r o u n d 1 9 ft 31 ,000 w o r k e r s . T h e d i s p u t e s e e m e d t o h a v e i t s o r i g i n i n t h e d i s -m i s s a l o f f o r t y m a l e w o r k e r s on F e b r u a r y 2 n d f o r d i s o b e -d i e n c e a t t h e No. 5 m i l l . T h e h o s t i l i t y was f u r t h e r a r o u s e d by t h e p r o s e c u t i o n a n d i m p r i s o n m e n t o f t h o s e 129 w o r k e r s a f e w d a y s l a t e r . T h i s l e d t o c a m p a i g n s a g a i n s t t h e m i l l s , v a r i o u s l e c t u r e s , a n d m e e t i n g s . On F e b r u a r y 9 t h , a J a p a n e s e f o r e m a n a l l e g e d l y b e a t a t w e l v e y e a r o l d g i r l w i t h a l a s h . T h e w o r k e r s o f No. 5 m i l l w a l k e d o u t . T h e y p r o c e e d e d t o . m a r c h t o N o s . 7, 8, a n d 12 m i l l s s i t u a -t e d i n t h e same c o m p o u n d t o c o m p e l t h e w o r k e r s t h e r e t o j o i n i n . T h e s t r i k e r s , b l o c k e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e e m p l o y e r s a n d s e v e r a l p o l i c e t h a t h a d b e e n c a l l e d i n , w e r e n o t a b l e P a g e No 1 30 t o e n t e r t h e p r e m i s e s a n d t h u s l e f t . A g i t a t o r s o f v a r i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s saw t h e i n c i d e n t a s t h e p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y t o f u r t h e r t h e i r a i m s . P r i n t e d h a n d b i l l s c o n t a i n i n g d e m a n d s f o r t h e r e - i n s t a t e m e n t o f t h e d i s m i s s e d men, an i n c r e a s e o f 1 0 % i n w a g e s , a n d i m -p r o v e d w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s a p p e a r e d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y , a l -t h o u g h no d i r e c t d e m a n d s w e r e made t o t h e J a p a n e s e a u t h o r -131 i t i e s . A C h i n e s e s c h o o l t h a t h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y m o v e d t o t h e C h i n e s e c i t y s o o n b e c a m e t h e s t r i k e h e a d q u a r t e r s , a n d f r o m h e r e t h e w h o l e m o v e m e n t was d i r e c t e d a s u n i o n 132 m e m b e r s l a i d o u t c a r e f u l p l a n s f o r t h e c o m i n g d a y s . I t s o o n b e c a m e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s t r i k e was n o t t o be a s p a s m o d i c o u t b r e a k ; b u t i n s t e a d u s e d t h e p r e t e x t o f t h e c h i l d b e a t i n g t o i m p l e m e n t p l a n s t h a t h a d b e e n c a r e -f u l l y made t h e p r e v i o u s d a y s . I t was n o t i c e d t h a t s t u -d e n t s w e r e a l s o i n v o l v e d a s l e a d e r s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 133 w o r k e r s . T h e C h i n a Y e a r B o o k r e p o r t e d : T h a t a g i t a t o r s o f t h e e d u c a t e d c l a s s w e r e b e h i n d t h e s t r i k e r s was e v i d e n t b y t h e g o o d c o m p o s i t i o n u s e d i n t h e h a n d b i l l s a n d by t h e p r e s e n c e among t h e w o r k e r s o f s t u d e n t s a n d o t h e r s c o n n e c t e d w i t h s e a t s o f l e a r n i n g n o t o r i o u s f o r t h e i r e x t r e m i s t p r o c l i v i t i e s . P a g e N o . 54 A t f i r s t t h e s t r i k e l i t e r a t u r e h a d t a k e n the f o r m o f h a n d b i l l s w h i c h a t f i r s t m e r e l y gave a resume o f t h e s t r i k e r s ' demands and g r i e v a n c e s , b u t l a t e r , w i t h t h e o b -j e c t o f w i n n i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e C h i n e s e p u b l i c i n S h a n g -h a i , t h e new h a n d b i l l s e n d e a v o r e d t o show t h a t as w e l l as t h e w o r k e r s ' d e m a n d s , n a t i o n a l i s s u e s o f f a r w i d e r i m p o r -1 34 t a n c e were a l s o i n v o l v e d . The w o r k e r s and s t u d e n t s , h o w e v e r , were a l s o t o l e a r n f r o m t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s as t h e s t r i k e c o n t i n u e d . As p r o c e s s i o n s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , a n d l e c t u r e s p r o v e d t o be s u c c e s s f u l , more a n d more w o r k e r s and s t u d e n t s were s e n t o u t t o e n g a g e i n f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . I n many w a y s , i t was t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e m e t h o d s u s e d i n t h e s e s t r i k e s t h a t c o n v i n c e d many o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e i r v a l i d i t y , a n d h e n c e o f t h e i r c o n t i n u e d a p p l i c a t i o n on and a f t e r May 3 0 t h . A c t i n g a p p a r e n t l y on i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m s t r i k e h e a d q u a r t e r s , 300 s t r i k e r s on F e b r u a r y 1 0 t h c r o s s e d t h e Soochow C r e e k f r o m C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r y and i n v a d e d t h e N a i g a i Wata K a i s h a N o . 9 1 35 m i l l . C o n s i d e r a b l e damage was done to o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e and m a c h i n e r y . W o r k e r s s t o p p e d and j o i n e d t h e m e l e e . The a g i t a -t i o n , h o w e v e r , h a d n o t b e e n a c o m p l e t e . s u c c e s s . P o l i c e a r r i v e d 136 on t h e s c e n e and 13 o f the o r i g i n a l a g i t a t o r s were a r r e s t e d . Page No. 55 T h e i r c o n v i c t i o n a month l a t e r was t o c a u s e f u r t h e r t r o u b l e . F o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , however, the a c t i v i s t s d e c i d e d n o t to be f o u n d i n the S e t t l e m e n t a r e a s . I n s t e a d , t h e y d e c i d e d t o con-c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s on the m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r k e r s who 137 l i v e d i n the C h i n e s e c i t i e s . F u r t h e r a g i t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s t r i k e on F e b r u a r y 11th t o m i l l s Nos. 7, 8, 12, 13, and 14 o f 138 the N a i g a i Wata K a i s h a . Nos. 3, 4, and 15 j o i n e d i n on 1 39 F e b r u a r y 1 3 t h , when a l l N a i g a i m i l l s c l o s e d down. E n c o u r a g e d by t h e s e new s u c c e s s e s , t h e s t r i k e p r o m o t e r s c o n t i n u e d t o o r g a n i z e f u r t h e r m e e t i n g s and i n t e n s i f i e d t h e i r p r o p a g a n d a . I n r e t u r n , t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e 140 C h i n e s e p o l i c e were n e g l e c t i n g t h e i r d u t i e s . New p r o c e s s -i o n s c o n t i n u e d , and p i c k e t s were s e n t to v a r i o u s l a n d i n g s t a g e s on t h e c r e e k where t h e y s e a r c h e d a l l w o r k e r s t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d 141 t o c o n f i s c a t e t h e i r m i l l b o o k s . By F e b r u a r y 1 5 t h , t h e s t r i k e had e x t e n d e d to t h e J a p a -nese-owned C h i n a M i l l , Dah Kong C o t t o n M i l l , and T o y o d a C o t t o n 142 M i l l . C e s s a t i o n o f work was e f f e c t e d u s u a l l y w i t h o u t s e r -i o u s t r o u b l e , b u t t r o u b l e d i d o c c u r a t t h e T o y o d a M i l l where 143 n i n e w o r k e r s and s t u d e n t s were a r r e s t e d . The M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o n t i n u e d to make a r r e s t s o f m a j o r a g i t a t o r s . W a r r a n t s were p r o d u c e d t o p r o c u r e t h e a r r e s t s Page No. 5 6 o f any p o s s i b l e a g i t a t o r w h e t h e r s t u d e n t , m e r c h a n t o r w o r k e r . In t h i s way, s i x t y p e r s o n s were a r r e s t e d w h i l e e i g h t e e n o t h e r s 144 managed to e s c a p e . The men a p p e a r e d b e f o r e the M i x e d C o u r t c h a r g e d w i t h s u b v e r s i o n and i n c i t i n g the s t r i k e s . T h i r t e e n were remanded f o r a new t r i a l . The N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d c o n t i n u e d to r e p o r t t h e p r e s e n c e o f s t u d e n t s among the s t r i k e r s and d e m o n s t r a t o r s . On F e b -r u a r y 1 8 t h and 2 1 s t , s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d u r g i n g the s t r i k e r s to keep on i n t h e s t r i k e so as t o c o n t i n u e the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t . 146 i m p e r i a l i s m . By m i d - F e b r u a r y , the J a p a n e s e m i l l owners were l o o k i n g f o r means to b r e a k the s t r i k e . At f i r s t , t h e owners o f f e r e d 30% o f the wages t o any w o r k e r s who made t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e i n the m i l l s . S l o w l y the numbers i n c r e a s e d as p o l i c e c o n t i n u e d to a r r e s t t h e s t r i k e l e a d e r s , b u t by F e b r u a r y 2 0 t h t h a t t a c t i c had n o t p r o v e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . Most m i l l s were s t i l l on 147 148 s t r i k e . Next the J a p a n e s e t u r n e d to t h e C h i n e s e government. The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n demands to the m i l l o wners, how-e v e r , e a s e d the s i t u a t i o n as t h e J a p a n e s e e x p r e s s e d t h e i r w i l l -149 i n g n e s s to e n t e r i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s . H a n d b i l l s c o n t i n u e d to be c i r c u l a t e d a t t a c k i n g t h e J a p a n e s e and i m p e r i a l i s m , and s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d to a s s e m b l e a t t h e L a b o u r e r s ' C l u b to d i s -t r i b u t e f u n d s to t h e w o r k e r s there."'""'^ P a g e No. 5 7 On F e b r u a r y 2 7 t h , a f t e r s e v e n t e e n d a y s o f a s t r i k e f u l l o f r i o t s a n d d i s t u r b a n c e s , a s e t t l e m e n t was r e a c h e d b e -t w e e n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e m i l l s a n d t h e C h i n e s e l a b -ourers."''^"'" T h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s a g r e e m e n t a r o u s e d g r e a t e n t h u s i a s m n o t o n l y a m o n g s t t h e m i l l w o r k e r s b u t a l s o a m o n g s t t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e . New h a n d b i l l s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e e n d a s a d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y o v e r t h e J a p a n e s e , a n d t h e r e l e a s e o r l i g h t s e n t e n c i n g o f m o s t men a r r e s t e d w e r e s e e n a s i m p o r t a n t v i c t o r i e s o v e r t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d t h e i r p o l i c e . 152 f o r c e . Few w o u l d f o r g e t how e f f e c t i v e t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d w e r e , a n d t h e y w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o b e u s e d i n t h e m o n t h s t o come . U n e x p e c t e d l y a n d c o n t r a r y t o g o o d f a i t h , s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e r e s u m p t i o n o f w o r k , t h e J a p a n e s e m a n a g e r s i n m o s t m i l l s r e f u s e d t o e x e c u t e t h e a g r e e m e n t s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , b e a t i n g a n d t o r t u r e s w e r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e i n -c r e a s e d w h i l e many o f t h e s t r i k e r s w e r e b e i n g d i s m i s s e d . No s a v i n g s a c c o u n t s w e r e r e f u n d e d , a n d i n some c a s e s , w a g e s w e r e 15 3 c u t t o p a y f o r t h e l o s s e s e n c o u n t e r e d w h i l e on s t r i k e . As a r e s u l t , many w o r k e r s c o n t i n u e d t o s t r i k e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e m o n t h s o f M a r c h a n d A p r i l , s t r i k e s c o n -t i n u e d i n S h a n g h a i . S t r i k e s c o n t i n u e d i n t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s . New d i s m i s s a l s r e s u l t e d i n m o r e w a l k - o u t s . T h e N a i g a i W a t a K a i s h a m i l l s i n p a r t i c u l a r , w e r e t h e h a r d e s t h i t a s t h e l a b -P a g e No. 58 154 o u r e r s c o n t i n u e d t o s p o r a d i c a l l y s t r i k e . S t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o g i v e s u p p o r t t o t h e w o r k e r s t h r o u g h d o n a t i o n s a n d c a m p a i g n s t h a t saw t h e m i n t h e s t r e e t s s p e a k i n g . T h e l a b o u r u n i o n s a n d t h e L a b o u r S e c r e t a r i a t , how-e v e r , w e r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o t h e r t h i n g s . D u r i n g M a r c h , t h e y b e g a n t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e c o m i n g S e c o n d A l l - C h i n a L a b o u r C o n g r e s s p l a n n e d f o r May. As a r e s u l t , i m p o r t a n t l e a d e r s c o u l d n o t f i n d t h e t i m e f o r s t r i k e c a m p a i g n s . N a t u r a l l y , t h e s t r i k e s b e c a m e l e s s f r e -q u e n t a n d m o r e d i s o r g a n i z e d . S t r i k e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n -A 1 5 5 t x n u e d. A r r e s t s c o n t i n u e d , a n d on M a r c h 1 0 t h , f i f t y - n i n e l a b -o u r e r s a n d s t u d e n t s w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o t h e M i x e d C o u r t o n v a r i o u s c h a r g e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s t r i k e s i n t h e J a p a -n e s e m i l l s . M o r e a p p e a r e d o n M a r c h 1 4 t h a n d 2 1 s t . M o s t r e c e i v e d s h o r t s e n t e n c e s , b u t f e w C h i n e s e w e r e p l e a s e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s . T h r o u g h o u t A p r i l , t h e S h a n g h a i p u b l i c c o n t i n u e d t o b e a g i t a t e d b y t h e s t r i k e s , b y t h e p a t r i o t i c a c t i v i t i e s a n d s l o g a n s o f v a r i o u s g r o u p s , a n d b y t h e s t u d e n t a c t i v i s t s . 2. THE D EATH OF SUN Y A T - S E N AND THE R E A D I N G OF H I S W I L L I n M a r c h , two e v e n t s o c c u r r e d t h a t w e r e t o h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e o n e v e n t s i n S h a n g h a i . T h o s e e v e n t s w e r e t h e d e a t h o f S u n Y a t - s e n on M a r c h 1 2 , 1 9 2 5 , a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t P a g e No. 59 r e a d i n g o f h i s w i l l f o l l o w i n g t h e f u n e r a l . P r i o r t o h i s t r i p t o P e k i n g , D r . S u n h a d s t o p p e d a t S h a n g h a i . When he a r r i v e d , h e g a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g t o t h e r . . 157 C h i n e s e p r e s s : S h a n g h a i i s C h i n a ' s t e r r i t o r y . . . We a r e t h e h o s t s . . . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , I , a s a c i t i z e n o f C h i n a , h a v e e v e r y r i g h t t o r e s i d e i n my t e r r -i t o r y , w h e r e a s f o r e i g n r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s c o u n t r y , a s o u r g u e s t s , h a v e no a u t h o r i t y w h a t e v e r t o o p p o s e t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i r h o s t s . . . I am p r e p a r e d t o t a k e d r a s t i c s t e p s . . . C h i n e s e p e o p l e a r e n o t t o b e t r i f l e d w i t h . . . i n t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y . I n d e e d , t h e t i m e h a s come when a l l f o r e i g n s e t t l e m e n t s s h o u l d b e a b r o g a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , D r . S u n g a v e v a r i o u s s p e e c h e s t o d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n t h e c i t y s p e a k i n g o n t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s . B u t h i s s p e e c h e s w e r e n o t t h e o n l y a d v a n t a g e s f o u n d i n h i s p r e s e n c e . M any g r o u p s h e l d m e e t i n g s t o w e l c o m e h i m a n d t o o r g a n i z e p r o c e s s -i o n s a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n s t o o p p o s e t h e f o r e i g n p r e s e n c e i n S h a n g h a i a n d t o w i s h h i m l u c k i n h i s a t t e m p t s t o u n i f y C h i n a . T i m e a f t e r t i m e h i s s p e e c h e s a n d s l o g a n s f o u n d p u b l i c i t y o n 15 8 t h e f r o n t p a g e s o f l o c a l C h i n e s e n e w s p a p e r s . D r . S u n p r o c e e d e d t o P e k i n g b u t he d i d n o t l i v e l o n g e n o u g h t o e f f e c t a n y c h a n g e o r come t o a n y a g r e e m e n t s . He d i e d o n M a r c h 1 2 t h , a n d a s m a l l q u i e t f u n e r a l was h e l d b y h i s f a m i l y . M e m b e r s o f h i s own P a r t y t h e n h e l d a n o t h e r l a r g e p u b -l i c f u n e r a l i n o r d e r t o d r a w more a t t e n t i o n t o h i s i d e a s . T h e m e m o r i a l m a r c h a s i t s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a p r o v e d m o s t u s e f u l Page No. 60 f o r i t " d r a m a t i z e d h i s i s s u e s and h i s p r o g r a m s , and s i m u l t a n -e o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d the r i v a l government a t P e k i n g as w e l l as 15 9 t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s i n P e k i n g . " A few days l a t e r h i s w i l l was r e a d t o t h e p e o p l e o f C h i n a . Newspapers t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a p u b l i s h e d i t i n whole o r i n p a r t and as s u c h i t r e a c h e d m i l l i o n s o f C h i n e s e . The w i l l had i m m e d i a t e i m p a c t i n S h a n g h a i as s t u d e n t s , w o r k e r s and r e s i d e n t s marched i n v a r i o u s p r o c e s s i o n s t o h o n o u r the man and h i s i d e a s , and t o r e a d h i s w i l l . S c h o o l a f t e r s c h o o l and f a c t o r y a f t e r f a c t o r y c l o s e d i n h i s h o n o u r and t h e r e a d i n g o f h i s w i l l c o n t i n u e d i n s m a l l g r o u p s . In h i s w i l l and t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e C e n t r a l E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e USSR, Dr. Sun a t t e m p t e d t o s a t i s f y t h e n e e d s of a l l members o f the CCP and KMT p a r t i e s , and o f f e r e d hope o f f r e e d o m f r o m i m p e r i a l i s m and f r o m f o r e i g n c o n t r o l . The • i i . . . 161 w i l l s t a t e d : . . . I l e a v e b e h i n d me a P a r t y w h i c h , as I a l -ways hop e d , w i l l be bound up w i t h you i n t h e h i s t o r i c work o f the f i n a l l i b e r a t i o n o f C h i n a . . . f r o m t h e yoke o f i m p e r i a l i s m . . . c o n t i n u e t h e work so t h a t C h i n a , r e d u c e d by t h e i m p e r i a -l i s t to t h e p o s i t i o n o f a s e m i - c o l o n i a l c o u n t r y , s h a l l become f r e e . . . Dr. Sun, w h i l e a l i v e , had p r o v e d a c o m p e l l i n g s p e a k e r and an e f f e c t i v e money r a i s e r . He had e f f e c t e d few changes i n h i s e f f o r t t o r i d C h i n a o f i m p e r i a l i s m and m i l i t a r i s m ; but h i s c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n had come t h r o u g h h i s a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i d e o l o g y of the new C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m . H i s Page No. 61 d e a t h was to p r o v i d e even f u r t h e r dynamism t o t h i s . More and more p e r s o n s came d i r e c t l y i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the a n t i - i m p e r -i a l i s t campaigns o f t h e CCP-KMT, and b e c o m i n g a r d e n t d i s c i p l e s o f Dr. Sun, many began to a c t i v e l y urge t h e masses t o f o l l o w him and h i s c a l l f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f the u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s and 16 2 f o r the u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a . 3. THE PEKING INCIDENT A n o t h e r e v e n t , a g a i n f r o m P e k i n g , was to e f f e c t Shang-h a i . T h a t e v e n t was t h e P e k i n g I n c i d e n t t h a t i n v o l v e d o v e r 30,000 s t u d e n t s . a n d t e a c h e r s i n marches a g a i n s t the p r o - J a p -anese A n f u Government. The P e k i n g . I n c i d e n t , however, d i d n o t have i t s b e g i n n i n g i n P e k i n g , b u t i n the T s i n g t a o J a p a n e s e c o t t o n m i l l s t r i k e s o f m i d - A p r i l . Some a g i t a t o r s f r o m S h a n g h a i and C a n t o n had o r g a n i z e d w o r k e r s i n the m i l l s e a r l y . i n March and had by mid-163 A p r i l , i n s t i g a t e d a s t r i k e . From t h e b e g i n n i n g , c l a s h e s be-tween management and t h e w o r k e r s had o c c u r r e d , and had assumed su c h t h r e a t e n i n g d i m e n s i o n s t h a t the J a p a n e s e Government s e n t a n o t e t o the W a i c h i a o p u ( t h e C h i n e s e F o r e i g n O f f i c e ) . Under i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e P e k i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , a l a r g e group o f C h i n e s e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s r a i d e d a s t r i k e r s m e e t i n g and a r r e s t e d s e v e r a l l e a d e r s and w o r k e r s . T h i s a c t i o n was f o l l o w e d by a s t r i k e and by s e r i o u s s t u d e n t d i s t u r b a n c e s . The i n c i d e n t r e -164 c e i v e d wide c o v e r a g e i n P e k i n g and S h a n g h a i n e w s p a p e r s . As Page No. 6 2 s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d to p r o t e s t , t h e p o l i c e o f P e k i n g on May 4 t h were i n s t r u c t e d to m a i n t a i n c l o s e s u r v e i l l a n c e o v e r the s c h o o l s . The a n n i v e r s a r y o f N a t i o n a l H u m i l i a t i o n Day (May 7th) was a p p r o a c h i n g , and t h i s A n f u Government d i d n o t want a r e p e a t o f the 1919 s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . ^ ^ F i n a l l y on t h e n i g h t o f May 6 t h , t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d -u c a t i o n i s s u e d an o r d e r f o r b i d d i n g the d e m o n s t r a t i o n p l a n n e d f o r May 7 t h , and i n s t r u c t e d the s c h o o l s to keep t h e i r s t u -d e n t s o c c u p i e d . As the N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d r e p o r t e d , " i t 16 6 was an u n p r e c e n d e n t e d o r d e r " . The Government s c h o o l s i n P e k i n g o b e y e d t h e law, b u t abo u t 400 s t u d e n t s f r o m p r i v a t e and C h r i s t i a n s c h o o l s t u r n e d o u t . They t r i e d t o h o l d a m e e t i n g o p p o s i t e t h e C e n t r a l P a r k b u t i n s t e a d f o u n d the p o l i c e who t o l d the s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e a r e a had been r e s e r v e d f o r a f i r e d r i l l by t h e f o r e i g n " P e k i n g Brigade". The s t u d e n t s t h e n marched o f f to C o a l H i l l , where Feng Y u - h s i a n g ' s f o r c e s a l l o w e d them to h o l d f h e i r m e e t i n g . R e s o l u t i o n s o f p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the A n f u Government's a c t i o n s were p a s s e d , and i t was d e c i d e d to t r y and see t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n . A c a l l t h e r e p r o d u c e d the r e p l y t h a t Chang S h i h - c h a o was at home. O f f the group marched to h i s home. T h e r e , t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s were t o l d t h a t Chang was n o t at home b u t at t h e M i n i s t r y . The s t u d e n t s t h e n f o r c e d e n t r y i n t o the r e s i d e n c e . B e f o r e the p o l i c e a r r i v e d , the s t u d e n t s had a l r e a d y smashed Page No. 6 3 windows and had b r o k e n f u r n i t u r e i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r Chang. W i t h the a r r i v a l o f the p o l i c e , s e v e n t e e n s t u d e n t l e a d e r s were a r r e s t e d . A melee f o l l o w e d i n w h i c h i t was l a t e r r e -16 7 p o r t e d , t h r e e s t u d e n t s were k i l l e d . The r e p o r t o f t h e d e a t h o f t h r e e s t u d e n t s and t h e a r r e s t o f s e v e n t e e n , i n c e n s e d o t h e r P e k i n g s t u d e n t s . On May 8 t h , a t v a r i o u s m e e t i n g s , i t was d e c i d e d t o h o l d a mammoth p a r a d e 16 8 f o r S a t u r d a y , May 9 t h . A n o t h e r m e e t i n g o f s t u d e n t s d e c i d e d to s e n d a c i r c u l a r t e l e g r a m to a l l p r o v i n c e s , c a l l i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to the a l l e g e d i l l e g a l p r o h i b i t i o n . o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the N a t i o n a l H u m i l i a t i o n Day o b s e r v a n c e . ^ ' On May 9 t h , twenty to t h i r t y t h o u s a n d s t u d e n t s f r o m most o f the c o l l e g e s and s c h o o l s i n P e k i n g p a r a d e d t h r o u g h the c i t y i n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the a c t i o n o f t h e Government and i t s p o l i c e . " ' " ^ ^ Demands a s k i n g f o r t h e d e a t h o f the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , the r e l e a s e o f t h e 17 s t u d e n t s , t h e d i s m i s s a l o f t h e C h i e f o f P o l i c e , and r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h o s e k i l l e d were p r e s e n t e d to the C h i e f E x e c u t i v e . P e n d i n g r e p l y to the demands, the s t u d e n t s r e t u r n e d home . Monday, May 1 0 t h p r o v e d q u i e t as t h e s t u d e n t s w a i t e d f o r the r e p l y . The Government f i n a l l y r e j e c t e d the demands, and on May 1 1 t h , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n P e k i n g had gone on s t r i k e . They w o u l d n o t r e t u r n Page No. 64 172 to t h e i r s t u d i e s u n t i l t h e i r demands were a c c e d e d t o . L a t e r i n the day, the s t r i k e was p a r t l y s e t t l e d . I t was a g r e e d t h a t b o t h p a r t i e s s h o u l d e x p r e s s r e g r e t f o r what o c c u r r e d . The Government a g r e e d , to r e l e a s e the a r r e s t e d s t u d e n t s . The s t r i k e , h owever, c o n t i n u e d s p o r a d i c a l l y as the s t u d e n t s c a l l e d f o r the d i s m i s s a l o f the M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n . By May 1 5 t h , most o f 173 the s t u d e n t s had r e t u r n e d to t h e i r c l a s s e s . T h r o u g h o u t th e I n c i d e n t and the s t r i k e t h a t f o l l o w e d , C h i n e s e communist p u b l i c a t i o n s day a f t e r day p u s h e d the theme o f i m p e r i a l i s t . c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the A n f u Government. O t h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t i t had been the r e s u l t o f t h e p r o - J a p a n e s e A n f u 174 C l i q u e . The r e s u l t was t h a t i n S h a n g h a i the s t u d e n t s be-came more a n t i - J a p a n e s e and even more d e t e r m i n e d to end f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n . ' ' " ^ K o t e n e v r e p o r t e d : ^ " ^ The news about the e v e n t s i n P e k i n g r e a c h e d S h a n g h a i and f i l l e d the masses o f y o u t h w i t h a k e e n d e s i r e f o r a c t i v i t y and movement, i n which, t h e i r i n d i g n a t i o n and p a t r i o t i s m c o u l d f i n d an o u t l e t . The e x c i t e d mass o f s t u d e n t s , e n c o u r a g e d . b y s u c c e s s i n the p a s t , r e s o l v e d to head the s t r i k e movement a g a i n s t t h e J a p -anese m i l l s . S t u d e n t s the n e x t few days were s e e n t h r o u g h o u t the S e t t l e m e n t a r e a t a l k i n g to w o r k e r s and p e d e s t r i a n s on the s t r e e t s . 4. THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL AND ITS NEW BYLAWS E v e n t s o u t s i d e o f S h a n g h a i c o n t i n u e d t o a f f e c t the n a t u r e o f a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s i n S h a n g h a i , b u t g r a d u a l l y t h e e v e n t s i n S h a n g h a i i t s e l f became more i m p o r t a n t , as t h e y Page No. 6 5 c r e a t e d new r e a s o n s to a g i t a t e and b r o a d e n e d the s c o p e o f t h e a n t i - f o r e i g n a t t i t u d e s . In e a r l y May 1925, the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l a n n o u n c e d i t s i n t e n t i o n s to r e i n t r o d u c e and have p a s s e d c e r t a i n amendments to the m u n i c i p a l r e g u l a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c h i l d l a b o u r w h a r f -age f e e s , the l i c e n s i n g o f s t o c k and p r o d u c e e x c h a n g e s , and a b y l a w on p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g o f n e w s p a p e r s , p a m p h l e t s , 17 8 l e a f l e t s , and p l a c a r d s . To e n a b l e the measures t o be c a r r i e d o u t , i t became n e c e s s a r y f o r the C o u n c i l to s e e k powers w i t h w h i c h i t was n o t i n v e s t e d u n d e r i t s t h e n e x i s t i n g admin-179 i s t r a t i v e c o d e . A S p e c i a l M e e t i n g o f R a t e p a y e r s was, t h e r e -f o r e , c o n v e n e d t o be h e l d i n t h e Town H a l l on A p r i l 1 5 t h w i t h a view to the a d o p t i o n o f a new b y l a w f r a m e d to p r o v i d e t h e s e p o w e r s . Due p u b l i c i t y was g i v e n to t h e C o u n c i l ' s i n t e n t i o n 180 t h r o u g h o u t t h e S e t t l e m e n t . C h i n e s e o p p o s i t i o n came a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y . A l t h o u g h some b u s i n e s s m e n had f a v o u r e d the r e s t r i c t i o n s on c h i l d l a -b o u r , few w o u l d s u p p o r t p r e s s c e n s o r s h i p and the i n c r e a s e i n t h e l i c e n s e and w h a r f a g e dues. Many C h i n e s e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e C h i l d L a b o u r Amendment was s i m p l y b a i t to get a f u l l quorum 181 to p a s s the o t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e m e a s u r e s . More i m p o r t a n t was the f a c t t h a t few C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s wanted th e amendment. Too many wanted t h e i r young c h i l d r e n to work. As a C h i n e s e 182 m i l l o w n e r at t h a t time s a i d : Page No. 66 . . the employment o f c h i l d r e n by m i l l o w n e r s i s a m a t t e r o f c h a r i t a b l e n a t u r e t o w a r d t h e w o r k e r s ' p a r e n t s ; f o r so l o n g as t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e e m p l o y e d i t adds to t h e i r income, r e l i e v i n g the b u r d e n o f s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and a l s o removes t h e i r a n x i e t y f o r the s a f e t y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n who, f r o m the p a r e n t s p o i n t o f v i e w , a r e s a f e r and more c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e m i l l s . . . The f o r e i g n community had s i m p l y n o t u n d e r s t o o d p u b l i c o p i n i o n . 18 3 As one w r i t e r ..to the N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d s a i d : . . . t h o s e who were f i g h t i n g the b a t t l e f o r the r e s t r i c t i o n o f C h i l d L a b o u r c o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . . . They were i n c o r r e c t l y i n f o r m e d o f C h i n e s e p u b l i c o p i n i o n by C h i n e s e C h r i s t i a n s and r e f o r m e r s , who had come to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r own ad-v a n c e d o p i n i o n s were the same as t h a t o f o t h e r C h i n e s e . . . C h i n e s e o p p o s i t i o n c o n t i n u e d and g a i n e d momentum as the days p a s s e d . S t u d e n t s and w o r k e r s t o g e t h e r gave s p e e c h e s i n the S e t t l e m e n t on main h i g h w a y s and i n t h e m i l l s . C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n s p e n t l a r g e sums on p r e s s campaigns and d o n a t e d 184 to the s t r i k e r s , and the s t u d e n t and w o r k e r c a m p a i g n s . A t f i r s t C h i n e s e a g i t a t i o n s e e m i n g l y p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l f o r on A p r i l 1 5 t h , no quorum was p r e s e n t at t h e r a t e p a y e r s m e e t i n g . However, a t t e m p t s t o have t h e amendments p a s s e d c o n -t i n u e d . On A p r i l 2 4 t h , a p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e S e t t l e m e n t c a l l i n g f o r a s p e c i a l m e e t i n g t o c o n s i d e r the C h i l d L a b o u r Bylaw. In a l l , s e v e n t y p e r s o n s o f v a r i o u s n a t i o n -a l i t i e s s i g n e d the p e t i t i o n . As. a r e s u l t , t h e C o u n c i l d e c i d e d Page No. 6 7 to c a l l a n o t h e r m e e t i n g f o r J une 2nd. In a d d i t i o n , the C o u n c i l 185 d e c i d e d to i n c l u d e the o t h e r b y l a w s a g a i n . C h i n e s e o p p o s i t i o n t o the s p e c i a l m e e t i n g , s e t f o r J u n e 2nd, d e v e l o p e d q u i c k l y d u r i n g t h e month o f May. P l a c a r d s , l e a f l e t s , and p a m p h l e t s were s e e n t h r o u g h o u t S h a n g h a i d e n o u n c i n g t h i s new a t t e m p t t o a b s c o n d w i t h the f r e e d o m s o f the S h a n g h a i c i t i z e n s . On May 2 9 t h , t h i r t y l e a d i n g C h i n e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h r o u g h the C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce, i s s u e d a m a n i f e s t o 186 d e n o u n c i n g . t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and i t s a c t i o n s . By t h a t t i m e , however, the r e a l i s s u e was no l o n g e r t h e b y l a w s , b u t w h e t h e r f o r e i g n e r s had t h e r i g h t to r u l e o v e r C h i n e s e c i t i -A ' * + 1 8 7 z e n s . As one f o r e i g n e r w r o t e : O p p o s i t i o n to t h e C h i l d l a b o u r r e f o r m came n o t t h r o u g h t h e i s s u e i t s e l f , b u t from t h o s e whose minds were s e t on h a v i n g no new r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t were n o t C h i n e s e , and o p p o s e d to c o - o p e r a t i o n i n any way what s o e v e r t h a t m i g h t i n c r e a s e the power o f the f o r e i g n M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l i n Shan g h a i . The r e a l i s s u e was a n t i - f o r e i g n i s m . A c t i o n s i n the c o t t o n m i l l s i n e a r l y May, however, were to s h i f t t h e e m p h a s i s away f r o m the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and the B r i t i s h , to t h e J a p a n e s e and J a p a n e s e m i l l owners. The May 30th I n c i d e n t l a t e r was to have the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t . Page No. 68 5. THE MILL STRIKES OF MAY The I n c i d e n t o f May 3 0 t h a r o s e n o t as a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e , b u t as a r e s u l t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n the J a p a n e s e m i l l s . T hose c i r c u m s t a n c e s , however, were a r e s u l t o f b o t h e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . S i n c e the F e b r u a r y s t r i k e s had n o t s p r e a d i n the J a p a n e s e m i l l s a f t e r the 2 5 t h , the o r g a n i z e r s o f the l a b o u r movement had c o n t e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t e s t i n g t h e i r p r o v e n t e c h n i q u e s and s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r c o n t r o l i n t h e l a b o u r u n i o n s . By May, t h a t was b e g i n n i n g t o change. a. MAY 15TH AND THE DEATH OF KU CHENG-HUNG D u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t o f May, new s t r i k e s began to b r e a k out i n the J a p a n e s e c o t t o n m i l l s as a r e s u l t o f CCP p r o p a g a n d a . . The N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d r e p o r t e d t h a t the r i o t s had become a d a i l y o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f the m i l l s 188 by t h a t t i m e , and spoke o f s t u d e n t s l e a d i n g them. On May 1 5 t h , t h e e m p l o y e e s o f No. 12 m i l l o f the N a i g a i Wata K a i s h a d e c l a r e d a s t r i k e as a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the d i s -c h a r g e o f two C h i n e s e f o r e m e n . The s t o p p a g e o f the m i l l s r e -s u l t e d i n the shutdown o f a n o t h e r m i l l (#4) w h i c h depended 189 on t h e f i r s t f o r m a t e r i a l . N o t i c e s were p o s t e d to the e f f e c t t h a t workmen unemployed w o u l d be g i v e n o n l y h a l f o f t h e i r wages. Page No. 69 S h o r t l y a f t e r f i v e p.m. t h a t e v e n i n g , t h r e e h u n d r e d w o r k e r s a s s e m b l e d i n f r o n t o f the m i l l demanding an e x p l a n a -t i o n o f the l o c k - o u t and c o m p l a i n i n g about t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t r a d e u n i o n l e a d e r s f r o m the f a c t o r y . The o p e r a t o r s f o r c e d t h e i r way i n t o t h e m i l l , b r e a k i n g down t h e c l o s e d d o o r s . P a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e f a c t o r y compound, t h e w o r k e r s were met by a l a r g e c o n t i n g e n t of S i k h and J a p a n e s e watchmen who had been p o s t e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n . The o p e r a t o r s s u c c e e d e d i n g e t t i n g t h r o u g h t h e b a r r i e r s o f t h e watchmen and began t o d e s t r o y m a c h i n e r y and t o o l s . A t t h a t t i m e , one o f t h e l a b o u r e r s , Ku Cheng-hung, i n a h e a t e d d e b a t e , was s h o t by a J a p a n e s e m i l l m a n a g e r . A g e n e r a l melee en-sue d d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e s e v e r a l S i k h g u a r d s were o r d e r e d t o f i r e i n t o t h e a i r . By t h i s t i m e , t h e p o l i c e had been n o t i f i e d o f t h e a f f a i r and as t h e s i t u a t i o n seemed to be d e v e l o p i n g i n t o a s e r i o u s r i o t , a s t r o n g f o r c e o f W e s t e r n and S i k h p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s were d i s p a t c h e d t o t h e s c e n e . A n o t h e r melee o c c u r r e d . The crowd t h e n a t t e m p t e d to r u s h No. 5 m i l l , n e a r b y , b u t were p r e v e n t e d f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e p r o p e r t y by t h e p o l i c e . The crowd a t t a c k e d t h e p o l i c e , and i n a h a n d - t o - h a n d s t r u g g l e a t t e m p t e d to o b t a i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e S i k h s ' c a r b i n e s . The p o l i c e were t h e n o r d e r e d t o open f i r e . S e v e r a l a r r e s t s were made o f the r i n g l e a d e r s and the most n o i s y a g i t a t o r s . T h a t n i g h t t h e 1 9 1 n e w s p a p e r s r e p o r t e d the wounding o f t e n p e r s o n s , and t h e 1 92 d e a t h o f Ku Cheng-hung. P a g e No. 70 b . THE R E A C T I O N i . M O B I L I Z A T I O N T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , v a r i o u s l a b o u r d e l e g a t e s t o o k t h e c o r p s e o f K u C h e n g - h u n g t o t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l B u i l d i n g a n d a s k e d t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o r e d r e s s t h e w r o n g . C o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n s t e a d o f e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e w o r k e r s ' g r i e v a n c e s w i t h s y m p a t h y , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o o k i n t o c u s t o d y t h e l a b o u r d e l e g a t e s , r e g a r d i n g t h e m a s t h e r i n g l e a d e r s o f 19 3 t h e d i s o r d e r , t h e . n i g h t b e f o r e . No a r r e s t w o u l d b e made o f t h e J a p a n e s e . , f o r e m a n who h a d k i l l e d K u . I m m e d i a t e l y . f o l l o w i n g K u ' s d e a t h , t h e L a b o u r S e c r e t a r i -t a t b e g a n t o o r g a n i z e t h e t e x t i l e w o r k e r s f o r a c t i o n . D e m ands b y i t s w o r k e r s . w e r e d r a w n up w h i l e o t h e r s w o r k e d o u t p l a n s 1 9 4 f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a n d m a r c h e s . A p p e a l s w e r e made t o t h e SSU a n d t h e C h i n e s e C h a m b e r o f C o m m e rce t o j o i n t h e w o r k e r s 195 a s t h e y made t h e f o l l o w i n g d e m a n d s t o t h e m i l l o w n e r s : D i s m i s s a l a n d p u n i s h m e n t o f p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e a t h a n d i n j u r i e s ; , p a y m e n t a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e b e r e a v e d f a m i l i e s ; p r o h i b i t i o n o f a r m s , c a r r i e d b y f o r e m e n ; r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n ; r e i n s t a t e m e n t - o f t h e . d i s c h a r g e d , e m p l a y e e s . ; . r e g u l a r w a g e s p e n d i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e s t r i k e , e n f o r e m e n t o f a b o n u s s y s t e m ; a n d a b o l i t i o n o f t h e g u a r a n t e e d . r e t i r e m e n t f u n d . On May 1 6 , 1 7 , a n d 18 t h e s i t u a t i o n was q u i e t , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f o p e r a t o r s a t w o r k . . T h e o w n e r s . w e r e r e p a i r i n g d amage Page No. 71 done t o t h e i r m a c h i n e r y . S t u d e n t s f r o m v a r i o u s c o l l e g e s were o u t s p e a k i n g a g a i n s t t h e a l l e g e d murder o f Ku, i m p e r i a l i s m , and t h e b y l a w s . U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t s h o u l d be p u b l i s h e d i n the p r e s s e s o f S h a n g h a i , and t h e y r e -g a r d e d what t h e y b e l i e v e d t o be t h e r e s t r i c t i o n and s o f t -p e d a l l i n g o f the i n c i d e n t as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i f i t c o u l d be p u b l i c i z e d , t h e y m i g h t g a i n the s u p p o r t o f the C h i n e s e pub-1 9 7 l i e . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y d e d i c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o p r o p a g a n d -i z i n g t h e i n c i d e n t v i r t u a l l y on " t h e f o r e i g n e r s ' d o o r s t e p as 198 w e l l as i n s i d e t h e i r homes". D e m o n s t r a t i o n s were h e l d w i t h a v i e w t o w a r d s c o l l e c t i n g f u n d s and t o w a r d s s p e a k i n g t o t h e C h i n e s e c i t i z e n s o f S h a n g h a i . E c o n o m i c i s s u e s , however, were n o t t h e o n l y i s s u e s r a i s e d . K o t e n e v n o t i c e d t h i s when . . 19 9 he w r o t e : Where the s t r i k e o f F e b r u a r y a p p e a r e d t o be , on t h e s u r f a c e one o f an e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r , t h i s t i m e the mask was thrown a s i d e and b a n n e r s b e a r i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m were o b s e r v e d much more f r e q u e n t l y . On May 1 6 t h , s t u d e n t s f r o m Wen-chih U n i v e r s i t y were se e n s p e a k i n g a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n c u r s i o n s upon n a t i o n a l s o v -e r e i g n t y to crowds i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t . O n May 1 7 t h , a group o f s t u d e n t s f r o m Nanyang and S h a n g h a i U n i v e r -s i t i e s were s p e a k i n g t o crowds on T u n g - c h i n g Road a g a i n s t t h e b y l a w s and a l l e g e d murder o f Ku. O t h e r s u r g e d t h e p e o p l e o f P a g e No. 72 S h a n g h a i t o s u p p o r t t h e w o r k e r s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t i m -201 p e r i a l i s m . F o l l o w i n g t h e s p e e c h e s , s e v e r a l o f t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a r r e s t e d a n d s e n t t o t h e P ' u - t u - l u P o l i c e S t a t i o n . On May 1 7 t h , t h e SSU h e l d a m e e t i n g . T h a t b o d y d e c i d e d t o s e n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n t o o b t a i n t h e r e l e a s e o f a l l a r r e s t e d w o r k e r s a n d s t u d e n t s , a n d t o f u r t h e r 202 s e n d a d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e W a i c h i a o p u t o a s k f o r . s u p p o r t . B o t h d e l e g a t i o n s f a i l e d , a n d t h e SSU t h e n d e c i d e d t o s e n d o u t new s p e a k i n g t e a m s t o r a l l y t h e p e o p l e a g a i n s t t h e a r r e s t s , 2 03 t h e new b y l a w s , a n d t h e J a p a n e s e i m p e r i a l i s t s . On May 1 9 t h , S h a n g h a i a n d N a n y a n g U n i v e r s i t i e s ' S p e a k i n g B r i g a d e s w e r e s e n t o u t t o s p e a k o n A n - s s u R o a d a n d A i - w e n - i 2 0 4 R o a d . M o r e a r r e s t s o c c u r r e d . T h e same d a y , a J a p a n e s e c o n s t a b l e a t t e m p t e d t o a r r e s t t h r e e d e m o n s t r a t o r s who w e r e d i s t r i b u t i n g p a m p h l e t s a t No. 5 m i l l ( N a i g a i ) o n W e s t S o o c h o w R o a d . T h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s r e t a l i a t e d a n d t h r e w t h e c o n s t a b l e i n t o S o o c h o w C r e e k . W h i l e i n t h e C r e e k , t h e c o n s t a b l e d r e w h i s r e v o l v e r f i r i n g t h r e e s h o t s a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s . H i s a i m p r o v e d a c c u r a t e f o r o n e o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s was k i l l e d a n d t h e o t h e r s w o u n d e d . M o r e s t u d e n t s ' s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s f r o m N a n y a n g U n i v e r s i t y , S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , a n d W e n c h i h U n i v e r s i t y w e r e l e c t u r i n g o n 206 May 2 0 t h o n K u - l i - m a R o a d . On May 2 2 n d , s t u d e n t s f r o m P a g e No. 7 3 N a n y a n g U n i v e r s i t y w e r e s p e a k i n g t o s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p e r s o n s o n L a o - p a - t z u R o a d . T h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e a r r i v e d t o b r e a k up t h e c r o w d a n d a g e n e r a l b r a w l o c c u r r e d . M o r e a r r e s t s . 2 0 7 we r e made. F r o m May 1 6 t h u n t i l May 2 3 r d , s t u d e n t s w e r e o u t a l m o s t e v e r y d a y i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f S h a n g h a i s p e a k i n g t o s m a l l a n d l a r g e c r o w d s . T h e i r s p e e c h e s w e r e m a i n l y d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e a l l e g e d . m u r d e r o f K u , t h e new b y l a w s , t h e a l l e g e d c r u e l t y o f t h e J a p a n e s e i m p e r i a l i s t s , a n d t h e a r r e s t o f s t u d e n t s a n d w o r k e r s . A t . t h e same t i m e , w o r k e r s i n a l m o s t a l l o f t h e f a c -t o r i e s w e r e h o l d i n g , d a i l y m e e t i n g s t o d e n o u n c e t h e J a p a n e s e " b u t c h e r s " a n d t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s . P r o p a g a n d a b e c a m e m o r e i n t e n s i v e a n d b e g a n , t o r e a c h . mo r e a n d m o r e C h i n e s e i n S h a n g h a i , T h e s t u d e n t s a n d w o r k e r s c a l l e d f o r . t h e r e v i v a l o f t h e s p i r i t r _ 2 0 8 o f May F o u r t h . S i n c e May 1 6 t h , t h e v a r i o u s S h a n g h a i l a b o u r u n i o n s a n d s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d b e e n p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e p r o p o s e d mem-o r i a l m a r c h , t o h o n o u r t h e d e a d man, K u C h e n g - h u n g . H i s b o d y h a d b e e n l y i n g i n s t a t e i n C h a p e i , d i r e c t l y a c r o s s t h e S o o c h o w C r e e k f r o m t h e c o t t o n m i l l t h a t he h a d b e e n k i l l e d i n . T h e 2 0 9 m a r c h w a s t o b e h e l d o n May 2 4 t h . i i . THE MEMORIAL MARCH, MAY 2 4 T H On May 2 4 t h , a m e m o r i a l m a r c h s e r v i c e was h e l d i n C h a p e i f o r K u C h e n g - h u n g . F r o m f i v e t o t e n t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s P a g e No. 7 4 210 a t t e n d e d t h e s e r v i c e . T h e c o f f i n c o n t a i n i n g t h e r e m a i n s o f t h e d e c e a s e d was e x h i b i t e d a m i d a m a s s o f s c r o l l s a n d b a n n e r s w i t h t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s i n v i t i n g r e t a l i a t i o n f o r h i s d e a t h . T h e m e e t i n g , h o w e v e r , p a s s e d w i t h o u t ' a n y i n c i d e n t a n d t h e p o l i c e r e m a i n e d away. P e a c e a n d o r d e r was g e n e r a l l y t h e c a s e f o r t h e c i t y , e x c e p t f o r t h o s e a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e m i l l s w h e r e s m a l l s k i r m i s h e s b r o k e o u t b e t w e e n a u t h o r i -t i e s a n d w o r k e r s . Some b u s i n e s s e s c l o s e d down f o r t h e s e r -v i c e , b u t b y a f t e r n o o n t h e b u s i n e s s a n d s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e 211 c i t y a p p e a r e d t o b e p r o c e e d i n g n o r m a l l y . Some s t u d e n t s who h a d a t t e n d e d t h e s e r v i c e f o r K u p l a n n e d t o s p e a k . t o C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s a n d s h o p p e r s i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t . L a t e r i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , a s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e f r o m S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y was s p e a k i n g t o a c r o w d o n C h a o - t e n g R o a d . One s t u d e n t was r e p o r t e d t o h a v e g i v e n t h e 212 f o l l o w i n g s p e e c h : T h e S h a n g h a i p e o p l e u n d e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f o r e i g n e r s a n d f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s a r e a l r e a d y n o d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e w r e t c h who h a d no c o u n t r y . T h e y a r e w i t h o u t t h e f r e e d o m o f s p e e c h , a c t i o n , a s s e m b l y , a n d e v e r y w h e r e a r e u n d e r t h e s u r v e i l l a n c e o f f o r e i g n e r s w i t h p o i n t e d s p e a r s a n d i r o n c l u b s . M o s t r e c e n t l y , i n t h e J a p a n e s e c o t t o n m i l l s , t h e J a p a n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h o u t r e a s o n , r e f u s e d t o a l l o w t h e w o r k e r s t o w o r k ; t h e w o r k e r s a t t e m p t e d t o t a l k w i t h t h e m b u t t h e y r e s p o n d e d w i t h i r o n c l u b s a n d t h e n o p e n e d f i r e w i t h h a n d - p i s t o l s k i l l i n g K u C h e n g - h u n g . . . T h e p o l i c e a r r i v e d a n d f o u r s t u d e n t s w e r e a r r e s t e d a n d t a k e n 213 t o t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n t o b e a r r a i g n e d . T h e s e s t u d e n t s Page No. 75 soon became a c e n t e r o f a t t r a c t i o n t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the c a l l i n g o f the d e m o n s t r a t i o n f o r May 3 0 t h . P l a n s , however, had to be made . i i i . THE MEETING OF THE SSU ON MAY 27TH F o l l o w i n g the e v e n t s o f May 2 4 t h , s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s o f S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y began a campaign among t h e i r own c o l l -eagues to f u r t h e r t h e demands f o r r e d r e s s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Ku's d e a t h and f o r the r e l e a s e o f a l l a r r e s t e d s t u d e n t s . More s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s were s e n t o u t , w h i l e s t u d e n t l e a d e r s s o u g h t s u p p o r t f r o m o t h e r s c h o o l s . F i n a l l y , a m e e t i n g o f t h e 214 SSU was c a l l e d . T h a t m e e t i n g was to be h e l d on May 2 7 t h . In t h e meantime, s m a l l g r o u p s were s t i l l s e n t o u t t o c o l l e c t f u n d s f o r the s t r i k e r s and to speak a g a i n s t t h e by-215 l a w s , Ku's d e a t h , and the a r r e s t s . On May 2 5 t h , two more s t u d e n t s were a r r e s t e d , b u t were r e l e a s e d a f t e r b e i n g warned 216 n o t to r e t u r n to t h e S e t t l e m e n t a r e a . E a r l y i n the m o r n i n g o f May 2 7 t h , s t u d e n t s at S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y met to d e c i d e t h e i r p o l i c y f o r the SSU m e e t i n g l a t e r t h a t day. A l t h o u g h l i t t l e i s a c t u a l l y known o f t h a t m e e t i n g , i t was, however, r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d t a k e the l e a d to demand r e d r e s s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the d e a t h o f Ku and t h e r e l e a s e o f the a r r e s t e d s t u d e n t s . T h i s w o u l d be done t h r o u g h s p e a k i n g - b r i g a d e s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . A d v i s o r s w o u l d a l s o be s e n t to t h e SSU m e e t i n g i n hope t h a t P a g e No. 76 217 t h e y c o u l d c o n v i n c e o t h e r s t o f o l l o w t h e i r e x a m p l e . L a t e r t h a t d a y , t w e n t y - t w o s t u d e n t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t w e n t y d i f f e r e n t u n i o n s i n t h e SSU met a t T ' u n g - c h i M e d i c a l S c h o o l . T h e s t u d e n t s a t t h a t m e e t i n g r e s o l v e d t h a t : m e a s u r e s s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o e f f e c t t h e r e l e a s e o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d on May 2 4 t h i f t h e y h a d n o t b e e n r e l e a s e d b e f o r e May 3 0 t h ; a n d t h a t a s s i s t a n c e s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h e s t r i k e r s i n t h e J a p a -n e s e m i l l s b y means o f s p e e c h e s a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c i r -218 c u l a r s . T h e s t u d e n t s , a p p e a r i n g t o h a v e a c c e p t e d s u g g e s -t i o n s p r o p o s e d b y S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r own s c h o o l s t o o r g a n i z e f e l l o w s t u d e n t s i n t o s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s a n d c o m m i t t e e s , a n d b e g a n t o p r i n t t h e n e e d e d c i r -219 c u l a r s . i v . THE M E E T I N G OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CCP ON MAY 2 8 T H On May 2 8 t h , t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e CCP i n S h a n g -220 h a i met i n an e m e r g e n c y m e e t i n g . T h e m e e t i n g was p a r t i -c u l a r l y d i s t u r b e d b y t h e a p p r o a c h i n g , m e e t i n g o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l R a t e p a y e r s a r r a n g e d f o r J u n e 2 n d , a t w h i c h t h e new b y l a w s w o u l d b e p u t t o a v o t e . T h e C o m m i t t e e was a l s o d i s -t u r b e d b y t h e r e c e n t news f r o m P e k i n g t h a t s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t s t h e r e h a d o c c u r r e d i n a c l a s h b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s a n d C h i n e s e p o l i c e . A c c o r d i n g t o L i M i n g o f t h e C C P , T s ' a i Ho " s e n , a n a s s o c i a t e o f Mao T s e - t u n g i n H u n a n , a t t h a t m e e t i n g a d v o c a t e d P a g e No. 7 7 " e x p a n d i n g t h e l a b o u r c o n f l i c t i n t o a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f S h a n g h a i a n d g i v i n g t h e m o v e m e n t a d e f i n i t e 2 21 a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t c h a r a c t e r " . H e a t e d d e b a t e o c c u r r e d b e -t w e e n T s ' a i a n d C h ' e n T i i - h s i u , who h a d o n l y a l u k e w a r m a t t i -t u d e t o w a r d t h e p l a n . I n t h e e n d , T s ' a i o v e r c a m e t h e h e s i t a -t i o n o f C h ' e n a n d i t w a s d e c i d e d t o h o l d a n o t h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n f o r " t h e c o m b i n e d p u r p o s e o f f u r t h e r c o m m e m o r a t i n g K u C h e n g -h u n g a n d o f s t i m u l a t i n g an a l l o u t f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e T r e a t y .. 2 2 2 P o w e r s . T h e w o r k e r s ' c l u b u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e CCP p r e -p a r e d t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n f o r May 3 0 t h , a n d made a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , c a l l i n g u p o n t h e m 2 2 3 t o " r e v i v e t h e s p i r i t o f May F o u r t h " . E x a c t l y how m u ch o f a n i m p a c t t h i s c a l l t o a r m s b y t h e CCP a n d i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a d o n t h e s t u d e n t s c a n n o t b e a s c e r t a i n e d . I n a n y c a s e , t h e S S U d e c i d e d t o c a l l a n o t h e r mee t i n g. v . THE M E E T I N G OF THE S S U ON MAY 2 9 T H On t h e e v e n i n g o f May 2 9 t h , t h e SSU c o n v e n e d a n o t h e r m e e t i n g , a n d i t w a s d e c i d e d : 1) t o o r g a n i z e m o r e s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s f r o m t h e v a r i o u s c o l l e g e s a n d s c h o o l s t h a t w o u l d go i n t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t o n May 3 0 t h a n d s p e a k f i r s t o n b e h a l f o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d a n d t h e n t o s p e a k a b o u t t h e Page No. 78 d e a t h o f Ku; and 2) to o r g a n i z e v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s on May 3 0 t h 224 to u n i t e f o r an a s s e m b l y a t the M i x e d C o u r t d u r i n g t h e t r i a l . The s t u d e n t s r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o f a s t u d e n t - w o r k e r d e m o n s t r a -t i o n t h a t w o u l d j o i n t o g e t h e r i n a march down N a n k i n g Road, a l t h o u g h t h e SSU had a c c e p t e d t h e i d e a o f a t l e a s t d e m o n s t r a t i n g on May 3 0 t h . I n s t e a d , the SSU had m a i n l y f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n -t i o n on the s p e a k i n g - b r i g a d e s and the i d e a o f a M i x e d C o u r t A s s e m b l y . T h a t n i g h t , s e v e r a l p a m p h l e t s were p r i n t e d by t h e s t u -d e n t s to e m p h a s i z e the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : 1) t h e c r u e l t y o f the J a p a n e s e managers to w a r d t h e i r w o r k e r s and t h e s i g n i f i -c a n c e o f the w o r k e r s ' o p p o s i t i o n to t h i s c r u e l t y ; 2) the f a i l u r e o f the C h i n e s e i n d u s t r i e s due to J a p a n e s e o p p r e s s i o n ; 3) t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s t u d e n t s a i d i n g t h e w o r k e r s ; 4) the r e a l i t y o f t h e G r e a t Powers s u p p r e s s i n g the C h i n e s e p e o p l e , 5) t h e n e e d to a b o l i s h the u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s and t h e c o n c e s s i o n a r e a s ; 6) t h e n e e d t o r e l e a s e the s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d , and 7) 225 the n e e d to oppose th e newly p r o p o s e d b y l a w s . Thus d i d the SSU p r e p a r e f o r the f o l l o w i n g day. CHAPTER I I THE INCIDENT Page No. 79 CHAPTER 2 THE EVENTS OF MAY THIRTIETH A. PREFACE A l t h o u g h t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t a p p e a r s t o be a w a t e r -s h e d i n C h i n e s e h i s t o r y , l i t t l e up t o t h i s t i m e has a c t u a l l y b e e n done to u n d e r s t a n d what a c t u a l l y h a p pened on t h e a f t e r -noon o f May 3 0 t h . D e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s can be f o u n d o f t h e s h o o t i n g a t 3:37 p.m. on N a n k i n g Road, b u t few can be f o u n d t h a t d e s c r i b e the e v e n t s o r a c t i o n s o f the s t u d e n t s o r p o l i c e l e a d i n g up to t h a t t i m e . The a c c o u n t s we have a r e f u l l o f c o n f l i c t i n g r e p o r t s and l e a v e g r e a t gaps. Few w r i t e r s have e v e r a t t e m p t e d t o answer s u c h b a s i c q u e s t i o n s a s : Why was t h e r e a b i g crowd o u t s i d e o f the L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n ? What was t h a t crowd's c o m p o s i t i o n ? and f r o m where d i d i t come? D e s p i t e the gaps and t h e c o n f l i c t i n g r e p o r t s , i t i s s t i l l c r u c i a l t h a t one t r y to u n d e r s t a n d what happened on May 3 0 t h i f one i s e v e r t o a t t e m p t to u n d e r s t a n d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e May 3 0 t h Movement. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o examine the e v e n t s o f t h a t day. I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t w i l l f o c u s on the N a n k i n g Road I n c i d e n t and t h o s e e v e n t s t h a t l e d up to i t ; e m p h a s i s w i l l be p l a c e d on t h e N a n k i n g Road a s s e m b l i e s and the M i x e d C o u r t A s s e m b l y . P a g e No. 80 T h i s c h a p t e r h a s b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o two m a j o r s e c t i o n s : ( 1 ) t h e I n c i d e n t a n d ( 2 ) t h o s e d e b a t e s a n d c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t c r e a t e d c o n f u s i o n a n d c o n f l i c t a b o u t t h e I n c i d e n t i t s e l f . T h e f i r s t w i l l b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t , f o r i t w i l l d e a l e n t i r e l y w i t h w h a t h a p p e n e d f r o m a b o u t e l e v e n a.m. t o a b o u t f o u r p.m. T h e s e c o n d w i l l a t t e m p t t o e x a m i n e w h a t v a r i o u s w i t n e s s e s t h o u g h t o c c u r r e d t h a t d a y , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t t h e y d e b a t e d . E a c h s e c t i o n w i l l c o n t a i n a s h o r t s u m m a r y , b u t t h e a c t u a l c o n c l u s i o n s made c o n c e r n i n g t h e I n c i d e n t w i l l b e l e f t f o r t h e e n d o f t h e p a p e r . B. THE MAY T H I R T I E T H I N C I D E N T 1. D E S C R I P T I O N OF THE L O U Z A A R E A a . NANKING ROAD (NANCHING I N M A N D A R I N ) 1 T h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s o n t h e a f t e r n o o n o f May 3 0 t h w e r e m a i n l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n o n e o f S h a n g h a i ' s m o s t i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t e r s , t h e L o u z a D i s -t r i c t ( L a o c h ' a ) . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i r a c t i v i t y was f o c u s e d o n a m a i n h i g h w a y t h a t r a n t h r o u g h t h a t d i s t r i c t , N a n k i n g R o a d . N a n k i n g R o a d , k n o w n i n C h i n e s e a s t h e t a - m a - 1 u o r t h e g r e a t h i g h w a y , was o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h o r o u g h f a r e s i n S h a n g -h a i . D e s c r i b e d a t t h a t t i m e a s t h e " t r a d i n g c e n t e r o f C h i n a ' s 2 g r e a t e s t c i t y " , i t was a l i t t l e o v e r a m i l e i n l e n g t h a n d e x t e n d e d f r o m t h e P a l a c e H o t e l i n t h e B u n d a r e a t o t h e R e c r e a -t i o n a l G r o u n d a t t h e o t h e r e n d . I t was w e l l p o p u l a t e d w i t h m a j o r s t o r e s a n d c o m p a n i e s i m p o r t a n t t o S h a n g h a i , s t o r e s a n d Page No. 81 c o m p a n i e s t h a t s e r v e d C h i n e s e a n d f o r e i g n e r s a l i k e . T r a m c a r s r a n down i t s m i d d l e , a n d m o d e r n a u t o m o b i l e s f i l l e d i t s p a v e d r o a d i n m o s t n o r m a l p e r i o d s o f t i m e . T e a s h o p s , b a k e r i e s , c o m p a n y o f f i c e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , a n d v a r i o u s m a r k e t s t h a t p o p u -l a t e d t h e r o a d o n b o t h s i d e s w e r e a l w a y s f i l l e d w i t h s h o p p e r s a n d s i g h t - s e e r s . T h e r o a d i t s e l f , was i n t e r s e c t e d w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s t r e e t s . S u c h s t r e e t s a s S z e c h u a n , K i a n g s e , S h a n g -t u n g , H o n a n , F u k i e n , C h e k i a n g , K w e i c h o u , Y u n n a 1 ) T h i b e t , a n d B u b b l i n g W e l l made N a n k i n g R o a d a c c e s s i b l e f r o m m o s t p a r t s o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t a r e a s . S t u d e n t s , w o r k e r s , a n d s h o p p e r s h a d no g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g o n t o N a n k i n g R o a d , n o r i n l e a v i n g i t . L a r g e c r o w d s w e r e a l w a y s s e e n o n N a n k i n g R o a d d u r i n g d a y l i g h t h o u r s . T h e d a i l y s h o p p e r s , s i g h t - s e e r s , p e d e s t r i a n s ( h s i n g - j e n ) a n d w o r k e r s f i l l e d t h e a r e a , a n d t r a f f i c r e m a i n e d h e a v y . I t was i n d e e d o n e o f S h a n g h a i ' s b u s i e s t s t r e e t s , a n d t h e a f t e r n o o n o f May 3 0 t h p r o v e d t o b e no e x c e p t i o n . L a r g e n u m b e r s o f p e r s o n s w e r e s e e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y , a n d t h e t r a f f i c r e m a i n e d b u s y r i g h t up u n t i l t h e t i m e o f t h e s h o o t i n g . T h e a r e a o f N a n k i n g R o a d was m a i n l y p a t r o l l e d b y t h e p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s o f L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n , a s t a t i o n u n d e r t h e command o f I n s p e c t o r R. E v e r s o n . T h e s t a t i o n , i t s e l f , P a g e N o . 82 „ . . , „ THE LOUZA DISTRICT 1. Northern Shanghai-Nanking Railway Station 2. The Mixed Court 3.. Louza Police Station k. Central Police Station 5. Recreation Grounds and Race Tract f^jf Louza District —— • Nanking Road Page No. 83 had a h i s t o r y o f c o n f l i c t w i t h the C h i n e s e community o f Shang-h a i . B o t h i n 1905 and 1919, C h i n e s e c i t i z e n s had a t t a c k e d t h a t s t a t i o n , and i n 1905 managed to b u r n i t down. S t u d e n t s had s e v e r a l t i m e s b e f o r e g a t h e r e d i n f r o n t o f the p o l i c e s t a -t i o n g a t e s to h e c k l e the o f f i c e r s on d u t y , and M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s r e m a i n e d e x t r e m e l y n e r v o u s o v e r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n s on N a n k i n g Road. b . THE LOUZA POLICE S T A T I O N 3 The p o l i c e s t a t i o n , the a c t u a l c e n t e r o f the I n c i d e n t , was s i t u a t e d d i r e c t l y between Kweichow and Yunnan Road. The s t a t i o n , however, was n o t r e a l l y on N a n k i n g Road. S e t i n f r o m N a n k i n g Road a b o u t one h u n d r e d f e e t , i t was s u r r o u n d e d on a l l f o u r s i d e s by c o m m e r c i a l shops and r e s t a u r a n t s . E n -t r a n c e t o the p o l i c e s t a t i o n o f f i c e s were a c c e s s i b l e by two g a t e s . One, t h e r e a r e n t r a n c e , was s i t u a t e d on Kweichow Road, and c o m p l e t e l y r e s t r i c t e d to o f f - d u t y c o n s t a b l e s . The d o o r was u s u a l l y l o c k e d o r k e p t c l o s e d . The o t h e r , t h e f r o n t e n t r a n c e , was w e l l o f f o f N a n k i n g Road a t the end o f a l o n g n a r r o w a l l e y a b o u t one h u n d r e d to one h u n d r e d and f i f t y f e e t i n l e n g t h . The e n t r a n c e onto t h e a l l e y f r o m t h e r o a d was about f i f t y f e e t i n w i d t h , c l o s e d by a l a r g e cement w a l l t h a t c o u l d be b l o c k e d by one l o n g c h a i n . B e h i n d t h i s w a l l s t o o d the v a r i o u s c o m m e r c i a l shops and the P o l i c e Compound a r e a . About one h u n d r e d f e e t from the f r o n t cement w a l l to t h e p o l i c e s t a -Page No. 8 Gore *• Z Gvrre * o i £ Fouice. — C O M P O U N D STORES 1 POLICE STATION Charge Room STOKeS Feng Cheng Ku 1 , Exchange Nanking Road •bro lies kvJf XCHOW R O A D 4. THE LOUZA POLICE STATION Page No. 85 t i o n b u i l d i n g , t h e r e was a n o t h e r l a r g e s t o n e w a l l t h a t r a n s t r a i g h t a c r o s s the a l l e y . Under the w a l l , t h e r e hung a heavy i r o n g a t e t h a t l e d i n t o the p o l i c e s t a t i o n b u i l d i n g . The g a t e a l s o was u s u a l l y c l o s e d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was an e n t r a n c e i n b e h i n d t h i s g a t e , i t was not the main e n t r a n c e . The main e n t r a n c e to the o f f i c e s and the Charge Room l a y f u r t h e r b a c k , a c c e s s i b l e o n l y by a n o t h e r s h o r t n a r r o w r a i s e d p a t h a b o u t f i f t y f e e t i n l e n g t h . At the end o f t h i s p a t h was a n o t h e r h e a v y i r o n g a t e and the e n t r a n c e to t h e Charge Room. The p o l i c e s t a t i o n was a f o u r s t o r e y b u i l d i n g t h a t c o n -t a i n e d b o t h t h e o f f i c e s as w e l l as the p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e s o f the p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s . The f i r s t f l o o r was u s e d f o r o f f i c e s and d e t e n t i o n c e l l s , w i t h a l a r g e mess h a l l s i t u a t e d i n the b a c k . The s e c o n d s t o r e y was us e d as the r e s i d e n c e f o r the S i k h and W e s t e r n p o l i c e m e n . The t h i r d s t o r e y s e r v e d as t h e dorms f o r t h e C h i n e s e c o n s t a b l e s ; t h e f o u r t h f o r s t o r a g e . P a t r o l s a r o u n d the e n t r a n c e o f t h e s t a t i o n were made e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f the s e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l s hops t h a t s u r r o u n d e d i t . O t h e r shops f o u n d i n the a l l e y w a y and f i l l e d w i t h c u s t o m e r s made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e p o l i c e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the c u s t o m e r s from p o s s i b l e t r o u b l e - m a k e r s . On May 3 0 t h , t h e f o r c e u n d e r the command o f I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n c o n s i s t e d o f 318 men, o f whom 25 were E u r o p e a n s , 65 P a g e No. 86 S i k h s , a n d 227 C h i n e s e . O f t h i s n u m b e r o n l y a b o u t o n e - t h i r d w e r e a c t u a l l y o n d u t y ; t h e r e m a i n i n g t w o - t h i r d s w e r e g e n e r a l l y a t l i b e r t y t o d i s p o s e o f t h e i r t i m e a s t h e y t h o u g h t f i t . I n a d d i t i o n , a s m a l l f o r c e k n o w n a s t h e " P e a c e k e e p i n g B r i g a d e " was a l w a y s o n c a l l i n p r e p a r a t i o n a g a i n s t a n y t r o u b l e t h a t m i g h t o c c u r i n t h e a r e a . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e no r e c o r d s s h o w i n g who was o n d u t y t h a t d a y , we do know t h a t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l , S e r g e a n t s W i l l g r o s s , P a p p , a n d T a t r u m , a n d C o n -s t a b l e s S t e v e n s , C o l e , W h y t e , a n d T a l b r u m w e r e . Few n a m e s c a n b e f o u n d c o n c e r n i n g t h e C h i n e s e o r S i k h c o n s t a b l e s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e r e p o r t s , t h e C h i n e s e a n d S i k h o f f i c e r s a r e r e f e r r e d t o b y t h e i r n u m b e r o r t h e i r r a c e , s e l d o m b y t h e i r n a m e s . T h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e w e r e a r m e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e S e t t l e -m e n t a n d t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n was no e x c e p t i o n . A t t h e s t a t i o n , t h e r e w e r e 66 c a r b i n e s (.303 c a l i b r e ) , 48 a u t o m a t i c p i s t o l s (.45 c a l i b r e ) , 8 a u t o m a t i c p i s t o l s (.32 c a l i b r e ) , a n d 10 r e v o l v e r s (.45 c a l i b r e ) , a s w e l l as 1 0 , 2 2 0 r o u n d s o f ammuni-t i o n f o r a l l a r m s . E a c h p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e o n p a t r o l a l w a y s c a r r i e d a t l e a s t o n e w e a p o n ; t h e S e r g e a n t s u s u a l l y c a r r i e d r e v o l v e r s , w h i l e t h e c o n s t a b l e s t h e c a r b i n e r i f l e s . " * Page No. 87 2. EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE INCIDENT P r i o r to May 3 0 t h , p l a n s f o r a d e m o n s t r a t i o n d e v e l o p e d s l o w l y . I n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t on May 2 7 t h , s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s at a m e e t i n g o f the SSU d e c i d e d to c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e a r r e s t e d s t u d e n t s . P l a n s were made to s e n d o u t l e c t u r e and p r o p a g a n d a teams, and to t a k e " a c t i o n " i f the s t u d e n t s were n o t r e l e a s e d by May 3 0 t h . I t a p p e a r s , however, t h a t no p l a n s were made a t t h a t t i m e t o h o l d a mammoth d e m o n s t r a t i o n . P r o p o s a l s f o r a mass d e m o n s t r a t i o n came on May 2 8 t h when CCP members i n a m e e t i n g o f the C e n t r a l Committee de-c i d e d to c a l l f o r a j o i n t s t u d e n t - w o r k e r a s s e m b l y and march on May 3 0 t h . Members o f the SSU, however, on May 2 9 t h , de-c i d e d a g a i n s t t h a t , I n s t e a d , t h e y made p l a n s t o h o l d t h e i r own a s s e m b l y o u t s i d e o f t h e M i x e d C o u r t . Student's , however, d e c i d e d to add to t h e i r l i s t o f c o m p l a i n t s , o t h e r i s s u e s s u p p o r t e d by the CCP. 3. THE MAY THIRTIETH INCIDENT a. A QUIET MORNING OF PREPARATIONS D u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g o f May 3 0 t h , n o t h i n g a bnormal a p p e a r e d to have o c c u r r e d i n the L o u z a D i s t r i c t , S h o r t l y b e f o r e noon, s t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d to have been s i g h t e d n e a r t h e N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y S t a t i o n i n t h e C h i n e s e C i t y , b u t no p o l i c e s t a t i o n n o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r r e p o r t e d t h e s i g h t i n g o f any o b v i o u s s t u d e n t P a g e No. 88 a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s i n t h e C h i n e s e a c t i v e . B i t b y b i t , t h e m o r n i n an e n d a s s t u d e n t s b e g a n t o p u t p l a n s t h a t h a d b e e n a g r e e d u p o n S t u d e n t s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s t h a t i n t h e m o r n i n g . w e r e now q u i e t l y S e t t l e m e n t w i t h t h e i r l e a f l e t s t h e y q u i c k l y m o v e d t o t h e a r e a s T h o s e who w i s h e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e p a t i e n t l y w a i t e d a t t h e r a i l w a y b y t h e M u n i c i p a l p o l i c e f o r c e s , m e n t a s S a t u r d a y s h o p p e r s , p r e p who n e e d e d i t . ^ S e t t l e m e n t b e f o r e n o o n . C i t y , h o w e v e r , w e r e i n d e e d g p r e p a r a t i o n s w e r e c o m i n g t o i n t o o p e r a t i o n t h e v a r i o u s d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e n i g h t s . h a d g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r e a r l i e r s l i p p i n g i n t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d b a n n e r s . O n c e i n s i d e w h e r e t h e y h a d a g r e e d t o " s p e a k , i n t h e m a r c h on t h e M i x e d C o u r t s t a t i o n t o a v o i d b e i n g a r r e s t e d S t i l l o t h e r s e n t e r e d t h e S e t t l e -a r e d t o g i v e s u p p o r t t o t h o s e T h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s h a d p l a n n e d t o f o r m two m a i n t y p e s o f g r o u p s o n c e i n s i d e t h e S e t t l e m e n t . E a c h s m a l l b r i g a d e o f two t o f i v e s t u d e n t s w o u l d p o s i t i o n i t s e l f a t t h e c o r n e r o f a n y b u s y i n t e r s e c t i o n . O n c e t h e g r o u p h a d a t t r a c t e d a c r o w d o f p e o p l e f r o m a s i z e o f f i v e t o t w e n t y i n n u m b e r , t h e m a i n l e a d e r w o u l d b e g i n t o s p e a k . As s o o n a s t h i s l e a d e r h a d g a i n e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e c r o w d , he was t o s p e a k o n l y f o r a s h o r t t i m e . One o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s was t h e n s u p p o s e d t o t a k e t h e l a s t f e w m i n u t e s . O n c e t h i s was d o n e , t h e o r i g i n a l s p e a k e r was t o move o n t o a n o t h e r c o r n e r a n d s t a r t t h e p r o c e s s P a g e No. 89 o v e r a g a i n . T h e p r o c e s s was t o b e r e p e a t e d o v e r a n d o v e r a g a i n s o l a r g e n u m b e r s o f t h e C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e c i t y w o u l d b e r e a c h e d . I t was h o p e d t h a t m embers o f t h e c r o w d w o u l d j o i n t h e s t u d e n t s e n a b l i n g t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t o c a r r y on w i t h o u t t h e i r a i d ; b u t i t was n o t a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . What was i m p o r t a n t was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s h a d r e l a y e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p e o p l e o f S h a n g h a i t h a t g t h e n e w s p a p e r s c o u l d n o t a n d w o u l d n o t c a r r y . T h e f i r s t m a j o r r e p o r t o f s t u d e n t a c t i v i t y i n t h e I n t e r -n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t a r e a was r e c e i v e d a t a b o u t o n e p.m., when i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t a b o d y o f s t u d e n t s h a d c o l l e c t e d i n t h e c o m p o u n d o f t h e S h a n g h a i - N a n k i n g R a i l w a y S t a t i o n . I t was f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w e r e c a r r y i n g a n u m b e r o f f l a g s a n d b a n n e r s , a n d t h a t t h e y w e r e j e e r i n g a t a n d h a r a s s i n g t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e who w e r e o n d u t y a t t h e B o u n d a r y R o a d 9 c r o s s i n g . b . THE NORTHERN RAILWAY S T A T I O N A S S E M B L Y Th e p o l i c e i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t h a d f i r s t h e a r d o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' a c t i v i t i e s s h o r t l y b e f o r e n o o n . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n w a s , h o w e v e r , q u i t e s k e t c h y . S u b - I n s p e c t o r G i v e n s o f t h e W e s t H a n k o w P o l i c e S t a t i o n h a d n o t i c e d t h a t t h e r e was a g a t h e r i n g o f s t u d e n t s a t t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n , a n d t h e f o l l -o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was r e l a y e d t o t h e C e n t r a l P o l i c e S t a t i o n - n K i o a t 1 1 : 3 5 a.m.: P a g e No. 90 P l e a s e t e l l y o u r S e r g e a n t on d u t y t h a t C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a r e d e l i v e r i n g v i o l e n t a n t i - J a p a n e s e l e c t u r e s on H o n a n R o a d a t t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . I n a b s e n c e o f a n y s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t a r e a s , t h e C e n t r a l P o l i c e S t a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e d e c i d e d t o t a k e no 11 e x t r a - o r d i n a r y p r e c a u t i o n s . T h e E m e r g e n c y C o r p s w o u l d n o t b e m o b i l i z e d , n o r w o u l d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n s b e n o t i f i e d o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . * A t 1 2 : 1 5 a n o t h e r t e l e p h o n e c a l l was made b y G i v e n s , t h i s 12 t i m e t o a l l p o l i c e s t a t i o n s . G i v e n s r e p o r t e d : S t u d e n t s a n d o t h e r s a r e p l a n n i n g t o d i s t r i b u t e a n t i - J a p a n e s e c i r c u l a r s a n d d e l i v e r a n t i - J a p -a n e s e s p e e c h e s . T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e h a s g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t o f f i c e r s i n c h a r g e o f t h e s t a t i o n m u s t t a k e s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e n o t e x t e n d e d . T h i s m e s s a g e was r e c e i v e d a t t h e L o u z a S t a t i o n , b u t i t d o e s n o t a p p e a r o n r e c o r d w h e t h e r o r n o t i t was r e c e i v e d a t t h e o t h e r s t a t i o n s . c . L OUZA P O L I C E S T A T I O N - 11 a.m. t o 1 p.m. On t h a t m o r n i n g f r o m t e n a.m. t o a b o u t 1 2 : 3 0 p.m., I n -s p e c t o r E v e r s o n was e n g a g e d i n p a y i n g t h e S i k h a n d C h i n e s e 13 c o n s t a b l e s u n d e r h i s command. A b o u t 1 2 : 4 0 , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s l a t e r s t a t e m e n t t o t h e J u d i c i a l I n q u i r y , he s t a t e s t h a t * I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e m i l l t r o u b l e s o n May 1 5 t h , t h e Comm-i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e h a d m o b i l i z e d an e m e r g e n c y c o r p s o f 1 2 0 a r m e d men, a n d k e p t i t a t G o r d o n R o a d S t a t i o n , r e a d y t o t u r n o u t a t a m o m e n t s n o t i c e . 1 5 P a g e N o . 91 L pi V r W K l - ' i K - V a . i , i r--53 9-1 5. A S S E M B L I E S FROM ONE P.M. TO TWO P.M. > 1-fixed Court Assembly Processions >C Speaking Brigades Page No. 92 — LVovo ROOD 1—THIBCY ROAD 6. THE LOUZA DISTRICT - ONE P.M. TO TWO P.M, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Ts'ai Hung-li with Shanghai University Speaking Brigade Ts'ai and his group at 1:15 \ • • • •> i. Ts'ai and his group at 1:20 'Liang Yu-hua and -Shanghai University Speaking Brigade about 1:20 Li ang and his ..roup at 1:30 ' Llpyd Road Incident 1:^ 5 - 2:20 Lloyd Road group moves into Charge Room P a g e N o . 9 3 he t h e n w e n t i n t o t h e C h a r g e Room, e x a m i n e d t h e o f f i c e b o o k s a n d h a d h i s a t t e n t i o n d r a w n b y C o n s t a b l e S t e v e n s t o t h e c i r -c u l a r m e s s a g e s e n t b y G i v e n s a n d t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e 14 a t 1 2 : 1 5 . A s t h e L o u z a D i s t r i c t w a s s u r r o u n d e d b y s e v e r a l o t h e r p o l i c e a r e a s , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s c i r -c u l a r m e s s a g e d i d n o t i m p o s e a n y s p e c i a l d u t y o n h i m , e x c e p t t h a t i t m e a n t he w o u l d h a v e t o s t a y i n t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n t h a t a f t e r n o o n . He d i d , h o w e v e r , c a u t i o n h i s men t o p r e v e n t 16 a n y s t u d e n t s f r o m . s p e a k i n g i n t h e L o u z a a r e a . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a n d i t s o f f i c e s r e m a i n e d g e n e r a l l y e m p t y . M o s t men o n d u t y r e m a i n e d e i t h e r o u t o n p a t r o l o r i f i n s i d e , a t t h e b a c k g e t t i n g c o f f e e o r h a v i n g a m e a l b r e a k . O n l y C o n s t a b l e S t e v e n s a n d S e r g e a n t W i l l g r o s s r e m a i n e d i n t h e C h a r g e Room f o r a n y g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e . S h o r t l y b e f o r e o n e o ' c l o c k , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a n d a s m a l l p o l i c e p a t r o l l e f t t h e L o u z a S t a t i o n f o r t h e b o u n d a r y a r e a t o c h e c k o n s t u d e n t a s s e m b l i e s . F i n i s h e d w i t h t h e i r own w o r k t h e r e , t h e y p r o c e e d e d t o t h e M i x e d C o u r t . No r e a s o n w a s e v e r g i v e n a s t o why I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n l e f t t h e L o u z a S t a t i o n f o r t h e M i x e d C o u r t a r e a ; b u t i t a p p e a r s t h a t i t w a s t o a c c o m -1 8 p a n y t h e g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d o n May 2 4 t h . P a g e No. 94 F i n a l l y a t 1 : 1 5 , C a p t a i n M a r t i n who was t h e n i n c h a r g e o f t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e w h i l e t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r was o f f - d u t y * , r e c e i v e d S u b - I n s p e c t o r G i v e n ' s m e s s a g e . M a r t i n i n s t r u c t e d G i v e n s t o t a k e away t h e f l a g s a n d b a n n e r s o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s a n d t o b r e a k up t h e p r o c e s s i o n i f i t s h o u l d e n t e r t h e S e t t l e -m e n t a r e a . He f u r t h e r a d d e d t h a t a f t e r t h i s he c o u l d o n l y b e r e a c h e d a t t h e R e c r e a t i o n G r o u n d s ; he was p l a n n i n g o n p l a y i n g c r i c k e t . ^ d . THE M I X E D COURT A S S E M B L Y - PART I S h o r t l y a f t e r . o n e o ' c l o c k , t h e f o u r s t u d e n t s c h a r g e d w i t h c r e a t i n g a r i o t a n d d e s t r o y i n g p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o n May 2 4 t h a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e J a p a n e s e A s s e s s o r , M r . T a j i m a , a n d M a g i s t r a t e L o h . As t h e M i x e d C o u r t c o n v e n e d , a g r e a t c r o w d o f s t u d e n t s a s s e m b l e d o u t s i d e o f i t t o a w a i t t h e r e s u l t s . 20 I n a l l t h e r e w e r e a b o u t f o u r h u n d r e d . T h e c r o w d r e m a i n e d g e n e r a l l y q u i e t , b u t u n h a p p y o v e r t h e f a c t t h a t i t was a J a p -a n e s e A s s e s s o r who s a t i n j u d g m e n t o v e r t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s . N e a r l y e v e r y C h i n e s e e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t was r e -p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c r o w d . M o s t p r o m i n e n t , h o w e v e r , w e r e t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s ' S p e a k i n g B r i g a d e s , t h e S h a n g h a i C o l l e g e o f * C o m m i s s i o n e r M c E u e n , a f t e r o n e p.m., l e f t h i s o f f i c e t o h a v e l u n c h w i t h two f r i e n d s a t t h e K i a n g w a n R a c e C l u b . He was p l a n n i n g t o t a k e t h e a f t e r n o o n o f f . P a g e No. 95 Law, N a n y a n g C o l l e g e , a n d S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y . T h e N o r t h 21 C h i n a H e r a l d r e p o r t e d : " T h e S h a n g h a i b r a n c h e s o f t h e KMT w e r e o u t i n s t r o n g f o r c e s . " T h e p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e C o u r t w e r e o f a f o r m a l c h a r a c -t e r o n l y , a n d a g a i n t h e a c c u s e d w e r e r e m a n d e d f o r a s p e c i a l h e a r i n g . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e a l l o w e d b a i l o f p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y o f o n e h u n d r e d d o l l a r s . U n a b l e t o p a y t h i s , t h e y w o u l d be f o r c e d t o r e m a i n i n c u s t o d y . N o n e o f t h e f o u r c o u l d p a y , a n d i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e r e t u r n e d 22 t o t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n t o a w a i t t h e s p e c i a l h e a r i n g . As t h e c r o w d c o n t i n u e d t o g r o w , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s d e c i d e d t o d e l a y t h e r e t u r n o f t h e s t u d e n t s t o L o u z a . M e a n w h i l e , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a n d h i s p a t r o l r e t u r n e d t o L o u z a w i t h o u t t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e s t u d e n t s o u t s i d e t h e M i x e d C o u r t w a i t e d 23 f o r t h e r e s u l t s . e. THE S P E A K I N G B R I G A D E OF T S ' A I H UNG-LI W h i l e I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n was a b s e n t f r o m L o u z a , s t u d e n t s b e g a n t o a s s e m b l e a n d s p e a k on N a n k i n g R o a d . A t o n e p.m., T s ' a i H u n g - l i , a l e a d e r o f o n e o f t h e S p e a k i n g B r i g a d e s f r o m Sh a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , b e g a n t o s p e a k t o a s m a l l c r o w d n e a r t h e G r a n d s t a n d , j u s t o f f o f B u b b l i n g W e l l R o a d . A r o u n d 1 : 1 5 , he m o v e d o n t o t h e New W o r l d B u i l d i n g a t t h e c o r n e r o f T h i b e t a n d N a n k i n g R o a d s . A t t h a t t i m e , he was a c c o m p a n i e d b y 12 o t h e r Page No. 96 s t u d e n t s . T o g e t h e r , t h e y p r o c e e d e d t o move a l o n g T h i b e t Road, 2 4 s p e a k i n g to s m a l l g r o u p s as t h e y w a l k e d . In c o u r t , T s ' a i l a t e r s a i d t h a t he had been s p e a k i n g of Ku's d e a t h as w e l l 25 as t h e need o f a s t r o n g C h i n e s e p a t r i o t i c movement. P o l i c e p a t r o l s a t t h a t t i m e r e p o r t e d s e e i n g o t h e r s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s on Honan, Kweichow, F u k i e n , and L l o y d Roads. f . THE SPEAKING BRIGADE OF LIANG YU-HUA A r o u n d 1:20 L i a n g Yu-h.ua, a n o t h e r s t u d e n t f r o m Shang-h a i U n i v e r s i t y , was w a l k i n g down N a n k i n g Road, h e a d i n g e a s t . He was a c c o m p a n i e d by s e v e n o t h e r s t u d e n t s . S e v e r a l o f the l a t t e r began to s peak to s e v e r a l p e r s o n s a t t h e c o r n e r o f Yunnan and N a n k i n g Roads, d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e the p o l i c e s t a t i o n . The s t u d e n t s were soon s p o t t e d , and a group o f p o l i c e m e n a r r -i v e d a b o u t 1:25 to i n q u i r e as to the n a t u r e o f t h e i r s p e e c h e s . A l t h o u g h L i a n g h i m s e l f had n o t y e t s p o k e n to any o f t h e p e r s o n s i n t h e crowd, when the p o l i c e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he was t h e s t u -d e n t s ' l e a d e r , t h e y d e c i d e d t o a r r e s t him and r e t u r n to t h e s t a t i o n . A f t e r b e i n g warned n o t to r e t u r n to t h e a r e a , L i a n g was f i n a l l y r e l e a s e d , and he r e t u r n e d t o h i s f r i e n d s , who were now a t the c o r n e r o f L l o y d and N a n k i n g Roads. They d e c i d e d to move up L l o y d Road. A g a i n t h e y began to s peak and p a s s 2 6 o u t t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e . g. THE LLOYD ROAD INCIDENT - 1:45 to 2:20 A t 1:55, I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n l e f t t h e mess h a l l to go to P a g e No. 97 h i s q u a r t e r s , h a v i n g j u s t a s h o r t t i m e b e f o r e a r r i v e d b a c k 2 7 f r o m t h e M i x e d C o u r t . A t t h a t t i m e he h e a r d t h e t e l e p h o n e r i n g i n g . He a n s w e r e d a n d was i n f o r m e d b y S e r g e a n t W i l l g r o s s , who was i n t h e C h a r g e Room, t h a t t h e s t a t i o n h a d j u s t b e e n i n f o r m e d b y C h i n e s e S e r g e a n t #254, C h ' i e n M o u - p i n g , t h a t s t u -d e n t s w e r e h o l d i n g a m e e t i n g a t t h e c o r n e r o f L l o y d a n d N a n k i n g R o a d s . E v e r s o n t h e n c a l l e d S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l a n d o r -d e r e d h i m t o go o u t a n d g u a r d t h e o u t e r e n t r a n c e . A f t e r t h i s , E v e r s o n w e n t t o t h e C h a r g e Room t o e x a m i n e t h e r e p o r t a n d t o t a l k t o t h e C h i n e s e S e r g e a n t . S e r g e a n t C h ' i e n h a n d e d t h e 2 8 f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t t o E v e r s o n : A t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f N a n k i n g a n d L l o y d R o a d s a t 1 : 5 5 , I saw many p e o p l e f a c i n g t h e a l l e y . I w e n t o v e r t o e x a m i n e , a n d saw s i x o r s e v e n s t u d e n t s p a s s i n g o u t w h i t e l e a f l e t s . O t h e r s w e r e s t a n d i n g b e s i d e t h e m , s p e a k i n g t o a c r o w d o f t h r e e h u n d r e d o r m o r e . I w a t c h e d t h e m a n d r e c o r d e d p a r t o f t h e i r s p e e c h . S i n c e many s t r e e t c a r s p a s s e d b y h e r e , I a s k e d t h e m t o go t o a q u i e t e r p l a c e . T h e y h e a r d me a n d r e -p l i e d t h a t s i n c e we w e r e C h i n e s e , how c o u l d we a i d t h e s e f o r e i g n e r s ? "Why n o t come a n d j o i n u s ? " A t t h i s p o i n t I r e t u r n e d t o t h e s t a t i o n . 29 W i t h h i m w e r e two o t h e r C h i n e s e p a t r o l m e n . L i Y u n g - s h e n g , who saw t h i s g r o u p a s he was w a l k i n g on N a n k i n g R o a d , d i d n o t f i n d t h e c r o w d q u i t e s o l a r g e . He . A 3 0 r e p o r t e d : N e a r t h e m o u t h o f t h e t a - c h u - l i , t h e r e w e r e a g o o d many s t u d e n t s s p e a k i n g ; m o r e s t o o d n e a r b y , some h o l d i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s s t a n d i n g o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e a l l e y w a y . A l t o g e t h e r , a l i t t l e m o r e t h a n o n e h u n d r e d l i s t e n e d n e a r b y . P age No . The b r i g a d e was i n f a c t the same one t h a t had p r e -v i o u s l y headed up L l o y d Road about 1:30. I t had r e t u r n e d to t h e i n t e r - s e c t i o n s h o r t l y b e f o r e 1:50, w i t h L i a n g Y i i - h u a s t i l l l e a d i n g them. As soon as the group a r r i v e d a t t h e c o r n e r , L i a n g began to speak i n f r o n t o f t h e M u - s h i h - c h i h -mao Company. M i n u t e s l a t e r , h i s s p e a k i n g was i n t e r r u p t e d by S e r g e a n t C h ' i e n and h i s two c o n s t a b l e s . A f t e r C h ' i e n l e f t , L i a n g began t o speak a g a i n . O t h e r s t u d e n t s p a s s e d o u t more 31 l e a f l e t s . I n a l l t h e r e were a b o u t s e v e n to t e n s t u d e n t s 32 w i t h a b o u t f i f t y t o one h u n d r e d p e r s o n s l i s t e n i n g . About 1:59, I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n d e c i d e d to i n v e s t i g a t e the s i t u a t i o n h i m s e l f . C o l l e c t i n g T a l b r u m and S t e v e n s from the C harge Room, and S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l a t t h e g a t e , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n p r o c e e d e d t o w a r d t h e a s s e m b l y a t the c o r -n e r , a b out f o r t y y a r d s from t h e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e . When the p a t r o l r e a c h e d t h e a r e a , t h e y saw t h e group o f s t u d e n t s s t a n d i n g on the s i d e w a l k a t the o p e n i n g , l e f t - s i d e o f Lloyd Road. Shang En-kan was now s p e a k i n g to the crowd. S t u d e n t s 33 on a l l s i d e s s u r r o u n d e d him w i t h s m a l l f l a g s and b a n n e r s . At f i r s t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a p p r o a c h e d the one making the s p e e c h , and i n q u i r e d as to i t s n a t u r e . The s p e a k e r r e -p l i e d t h a t he d i d . n o t u n d e r s t a n d o r speak E n g l i s h . W i t h the a i d o f an i n t e r p r e t e r , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n c o n t i n u e d to l i s t e n to t h e s p e e c h and had o t h e r s examine the l e a f l e t s and b a n n e r s P a g e No. 9 9 F i n d i n g t h a t t h e s p e e c h w a s a n t i - J a p a n e s e i n t o n e a n d a n t i -f o r e i g n c h a r a c t e r , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n d e c i d e d t o make s e v e r a l 34 a r r e s t s . S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l w as o r d e r e d t o s e i z e t h e m a i n s p e a k e r S h a n g , w h i l e T a l b r u m a n d S t e v e n s w e r e o r d e r e d t o t a k e H u a n g Y u n - h s i a n g a n d L i a n g Y u ' - h u a . * S h e l l s w e 1 1 . l e f t f i r s t f o r t h e s t a t i o n ; S t e v e n s a n d T a l b r u m f o l l o w e d r i g h t b e h i n d . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n d e c i d e d t o r e m a i n b e h i n d t o ob-it* s e r v e t h e c r o w d f o r a w h i l e l o n g e r ; b u t he h a d l i t t l e c h a n c e t o do s o , f o r a s S h e l l s w e l l l e f t , a g r o u p o f a b o u t f i f t e e n s t u d e n t s b e g a n t o f o l l o w t h e m . E v e r s o n s a w t h i s a n d d e c i d e d h e c o u l d l e a r n m o r e f r o m t h e p r i s o n e r s t h a n b y s t a y i n g w h e r e 35 h e w a s . T h e f i f t e e n s t u d e n t s m a r c h e d b e h i n d I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , a n d f o l l o w e d h i m a n d t h e t h r e e p r i s o n e r s i n s i d e o f t h e a l l e y , t h e n i n t o t h e C h a r g e Room. T h e t h r e e s t u d e n t s w e r e c h a r g e d . E v e r s o n t h e n b e g a n t o a s k t h e m q u e s t i o n s . T h e o t h e r f i f t e e n w a t c h e d q u i e t l y . A t f i r s t E v e r s o n s p o k e t o t h e m a i n s p e a k e r a n d a s k e d h i m q u e s t i o n s o n t h e n a t u r e o f h i s s p e e c h e s . I n g e n e r a l t h e s t u d e n t a n s w e r e d t h a t he o n l y s p o k e * A l t h o u g h L i a n g w a s n o t s p e a k i n g , S h e l l s w e l l h a d r e c o g n i z e d h i m f r o m b e f o r e a n d t h u s n o t i f i e d E v e r s o n . E v e r s o n , t h e n o r d e r e d h i m t o be a r r e s t e d . 3 ** E v e r s o n d e s c r i b e d t h e c r o w d a s : " T h e r e w e r e a b o u t 8 0 -1 0 0 p e r s o n s . A r o u n d 1 2 — 2 0 s t u d e n t s . O t h e r s c o n s i s t e d o f s h o p p e r s , w o r k e r s , a n d p e d e s t r i a n s . 3 7 Page No. 100 to show the s t u d e n t s ' o p p o s i t i o n to the J a p a n e s e k i l l i n g o f 3 8 C h i n e s e w o r k e r s . E v e r s o n t h e n spoke to the o t h e r two who had been a r r e s t e d . These s t u d e n t s a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e i r s p e e c h e s were a n t i - J a p a n e s e i n t o n e ; b u t warned E v e r s o n t h a t b e c a u s e th e y had c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r b r i g a d e s f r o m o t h e r s c h o o l s , he w o u l d have g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n a r r e s t i n g them 39 a l l . T h e i r p l a n s were too w e l l a r r a n g e d . Somewhat annoyed, E v e r s o n warned the t h r e e t h a t t h e y were b r e a k i n g the law o f the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , f o r t o march o r h o l d a d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n the S e t t l e m e n t a r e a , t h e y f i r s t had to g a i n the p e r m i s s i o n 40 o f the a u t h o r i t i e s . They had n o t . A f t e r s e v e r a l m i n u t e s o f h e a t e d d e b a t e , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n o f f e r e d t o r e l e a s e the s t u d e n t s i f t h e y w o u l d p r o m i s e t o l e a v e the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t and g i v e no more s p e e c h e s . The s t u d e n t s r e f u s e d to do s o , and E v e r s o n o r d e r e d them to be i n c a r c e r a t e d . The crowd was t o l d t o l e a v e t h e Charge Room, b u t t h e y r e f u s e d to do t h i s u n l e s s t h e i r t h r e e companions were r e l e a s e d . O t h e r w i s e , t h e y w o u l d have t o j o i n them i n a r r e s t . S u b s e -41 q u e n t l y , a l l e i g h t e e n s t u d e n t s were l o c k e d up. I n a l l , t h i s s h o r t a f f a i r had t a k e n about t w e n t y minu-t e s , f r o m a b o u t two p.m. to a b o u t t w o - t w e n t y . At 2:40 a t e l e p h o n e message was s e n t to C e n t r a l P . o l i c e S t a t i o n w h i c h r e a d " C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s p a r a d i n g i n the L o u z a D i s t r i c t , c a r r y i n g f l a g s and m a k i n g a n t i - J a p a n e s e s p e e c h e s . S e v e r a l have been A 2 a r r e s t e d " . The message was r e c e i v e d a t 2:50. P a g e No. 101 I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l , a n d C o n -s t a b l e s C o l e , S t e v e n s , a n d T a l b r u m , c o n t i n u e d t o s i g h t s p e a k i n g 43 b r i g a d e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a w h i l e o u t on p a t r o l s . O f t h i s , 44 E v e r s o n r e p o r t e d : S h o r t l y a f t e r two p.m., o n e r i g h t a f t e r a n o t h e r , my men w e n t t o T h i b e t R o a d , C h e k i a n g R o a d , N a n k i n g R o a d , a n d H o n a n R o a d , w h e r e t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s a s s e m b l i e s . I r e c o g n i z e d i t was n e c -e s s a r y t o a r r e s t t h e m a l l . . . s o a s t o e x a m i n e t h e i r m a t e r i a l a n d t o w a r n t h e m . . •. O f m o r e i m p o r t a n c e , was t h e n e c e s s i t y t o p r e v e n t t h e m f r o m f o r m i n g f u r t h e r a s s e m b l i e s . . . T h i s k i n d o f t h i n g c o n t i n u e d t o . h a p p e n r i g h t u n t i l two f o r t y - f i v e . R e v e r e n d S. R. A n d e r s o n , a m i s s i o n a r y i n C h i n a s i n c e 1 9 1 1 who was f u r t h e r down o n N a n k i n g R o a d , n o t i c e d a s s e m b l i e s t h e r e 45 a l s o . He s a i d : T r a v e l l i n g up N a n k i n g R o a d t o t h e New W o r l d B u i l d i n g , I n o t i c e d a s m a l l c r o w d o f s t u d e n t s a t t h e o p e n i n g o f H o n a n R o a d . T h e r e w e r e a b o u t f i v e o r s i x i n a l l t a l k i n g t o a S i k h p o l i c e m a n . . . i t was r a t h e r q u i e t . T h e p o l i c e b e g a n t o a r r e s t t h e s t u d e n t s i n g r e a t e r n u m b e r s t h a n b e f o r e . C o n s t a b l e C o l e , who was a l s o o n p a t r o l a t 46 t h a t t i m e , s a i d : A t 2:20 I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n o r d e r e d me t o go o u t a n d h e l p d i s p e r s e a n y c r o w d s on N a n k i n g R o a d , a n d t o a r r e s t a n y s t u d e n t s who w e r e s p e a k i n g t o t h o s e c r o w d s . B e t w e e n 2:20 a n d 2 : 3 0 , I s e i z e d s e v e r a l s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s a r o u n d t h e a r e a o f t h e P o l i c e S t a t i o n . h . THE F I R S T T H I B E T ROAD I N C I D E N T - 2:10 t o 2:30 A b o u t 2 : 1 0 , C h ' a H u n g - l i , t h e l e a d e r o f a S h a n g h a i P a g e No. 102 U n i v e r s i t y S p e a k i n g B r i g a d e , was a g a i n s p e a k i n g o n t h e c o r n e r o f T h i b e t a n d N a n k i n g R o a d s . B e c a u s e I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a n d o t h e r c o n s t a b l e s w e r e o c c u p i e d i n t h e P o l i c e S t a t i o n w i t h t h e g r o u p f r o m L l o y d R o a d , C h ' a w a s a b l e t o s p e a k u n i n h i b i t e d up u n t i l a b o u t 2 : 2 0 . By t h e n , E v e r s o n was a b l e t o t a k e o u t m o r e p a t r o l s t o e x a m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n s on N a n k i n g R o a d . A t f i r s t he d i d n o t n o t i c e a n y new a s s e m b l i e s ; b u t a s he w a l k e d w e s t w a r d t o w a r d T h i b e t R o a d , he saw C h ' a a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r s c a r r y i n g b a n n e r s . A t t h a t t i m e C h ' a was s t a n d i n g o n t h e 47 s i d e w a l k b y a r a i l s p e a k i n g t o a s m a l l c r o w d . N o t i c i n g w h a t he c o n s i d e r e d t o be a n t i - J a p a n e s e s l o -g a n s o n t h e b a n n e r s , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n d e c i d e d t o s e i z e t h e g r o u p ' s l e a d e r a n d t h o s e t wo s t u d e n t s b e s i d e h i m who w e r e h o l d i n g b a n n e r s . E v e r s o n , h i m s e l f , s e i z e d C h ' a , w h i l e t w o o f h i s C h i n e s e c o n s t a b l e s who h a d a c c o m p a n i e d h i m , s e i z e d 48 K a o T a o - c h * u n a n d o n e o t h e r . T h e men a n d t h e i r p r i s o n e r s a l l h e a d e d b a c k t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . A s b e f o r e , s e v e r a l o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c r o w d b e g a n t o f o l l o w t h e m . By t h e t i m e t h e y h a d r e a c h e d t h e S t a t i o n C o m p o u n d , o n l y 5 o r 6 s t u -d e n t s w e r e s t i l l f o l l o w i n g . S h o p p e r s , w o r k e r s , a n d p e d e s t r i a n s , h o w e v e r , h a d j o i n e d t h e s e f e w s t u d e n t s s w e l l i n g t h e g r o u p t o 49 w e l l o v e r t h i r t y p e r s o n s . T h e t i m e w a s 2:25 p.m. Th e p o l i c e d e c i d e d t o s t o p i n t h e a l l e y f o r a f e w mom-e n t s . C h ' a H u n g - l i , w h e n i n C o u r t , c l a i m e d t h a t b e f o r e b e i n g P a g e N o . 1 0 3 1 - J j j l l i j r j i > ^ l 0 | , , c ^ n ill! J ^ E A T , ° * ' y.m.r.i-i.y; uv2 . ; s*c5.;-.w »'; Ii • -.S..- \A X il t •; it; J M l , IS P' C< V " ' " l _l—«~r-~ I i /Wilh'.COAV, • 7. A S S E M B L I E S FROM TWO P.M. TO T H R E E P.M. Mixed Court-Caekiang Road Procession X Speaking Brigades \- CM, •HI - • *Vax; Page No. 104 »—Uavo ROOD j - — Q \ & ' i M < s ROAD L-Hofci ROAD 8. THE LOUZA DISTRICT - TWO P.M. TO THREE P.M. 1. ' The First Thibet Road Incident 2:10 - 2:30 2. The Second Thibet Road Incident 2:30 - 3:15 3. Lloyd Road Group and Shellsell at 2:30 k» First Thibet Road group in Charge Ro 5. Second Thibet Road group in Charge Room 6. Police Peacekeeping Brigade mobilized at 2:30 7. Anderson at 2:35 8. W. Cameron at 2:h0 9. Everson unti l 3:20 P a g e No. 105 t a k e n i n t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n o f f i c e s , h e was t i e d up s o a s t o p r e v e n t e s c a p e . ^ I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n d i d n o t r e m e m b e r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e p i s o d e , b u t a f o r e i g n e r o n N a n k i n g R o a d a t t h a t t i m e d i d . R e v e r e n d J o h n W e s l e y C l i n e r e p o r t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g t o t h e C o u r t : When I p a s s e d t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a l l e y , w a l k i n g w e s t w a r d , I saw o n e A s i a n p o -l i c e m a n , who h a d s e i z e d two s t u d e n t s , h e l p i n g a f o r e i g n p o l i c e o f f i c e r t i e t h e m up - w i t h r o p e s a s i f t h e y w e r e d a n g e r o u s c r i m i n a l s . T h e i n c i -d e n t o c c u r r e d a b o u t 2 : 3 0 . A n d e r s o n a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t e p i s o d e , b u t he r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e c r o w d f o l l o w i n g was q u i e t a n d o f f e r e d no r e s i s t a n c e as t h e 5 2 p o l i c e t i e d up t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s . A g a i n as t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a n d t h e i r p r i s o n e r s e n -t e r e d t h e C h a r g e . R o o m , t h e c r o w d o u t s i d e f o l l o w e d t h e m i n -s i d e . S e r g e a n t W i l l g r o s s was g i v e n t h e t a s k o f c h a r g i n g t h e p r i s o n e r s w h i l e I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a t t e m p t e d t o r e a d t h e v a r i o u s r e p o r t s o f t h e p a t r o l s r e c e i v e d w h i l e he was g o n e . 5 3 T h e l a r g e c r o w d , i n s i d e now, w a t c h e d o n i n s i l e n c e . C o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s i n a n d a b o u t N a n k i n g R o a d w e r e t o c o n t i n u e , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n d e c i d e d m o r e men w e r e n e e d e d . He o r d e r e d t h e f i r e a l a r m t o b e r u n g , w h i c h h a d t h e e f f e c t o f b r i n g i n g t o h i s a s s i s t a n c e t h e a i d o f some f i v e W e s t e r n , s i x t e e n S i k h , a n d t w e l v e C h i n e s e c o n s t a b l e s . T h e s e men w e r e t h e n o r d e r e d t o c l e a r t h e C h a r g e Room a n d t h e P a g e No. 106 P o l i c e C o m p o u n d . W h i l e t h e s e men w e r e c l e a r i n g t h e a r e a , a n d w h i l e S e r g e a n t W i l l g r o s s c h a r g e d t h e f i v e o r s i x s t u d e n t s who r e f u s e d t o l e a v e t h e Room when o r d e r e d t o do s o , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n s e n t S e r g e a n t T a t r u m ( a b o u t 2 : 3 0 ) t o r e p o r t t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t o t h e D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e , C a p t a i n M a r -t i n . Among o t h e r m a t t e r s , S e r g e a n t T a t r u m t o l d t h e C a p t a i n t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was w e l l i n h a n d a n d t h a t I n s p e c t o r E v e r -s o n h a d a l l o f t h e men he w a n t e d . i . MORE P A T R O L L I N G B e t w e e n 2:30 a n d 3 o ' c l o c k , b y I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n ' s o r d e r s , v a r i o u s m e mbers o f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e w e r e o n p a t r o l d u t y o n N a n k i n g R o a d . O f t h i s p e r i o d S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s -w e l l r e p o r t e d : ^ A f t e r d r o p p i n g o f f t h e p r i s o n e r s t o be c h a r g e d , I r e t u r n e d t o N a n k i n g R o a d o v e r a n d o v e r . . . I b e g a n t o d i s p e r s e s e v e r a l p e o p l e who h a d b e g u n t o a s s e m b l e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . I w a l k e d e a s t w a r d s t o w a r d F u k i e n a n d saw s t u d e n t s d i s t r i b u t i n g l e a f l e t s t o p e d e s -t r i a n s . I a r r e s t e d o n e a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . . . T h e same t h i n g h a p p e n e d a t L l o y d a s w e l l a s C h e k i a n g a n d H o n a n R o a d s . A n d e r s o n a l s o r e p o r t e d : ^ A t 2 : 3 0 , I l e f t my f a m i l y a n d w e n t o u t t o w a r d s W i n g O n ' s . L a t e r I saw one W e s t e r n e r s e i z e two s t u d e n t s a s I p a s s e d b y t h e C o m p a n y . T h e c o n s t a b l e h a d s e i z e d t h e m b y t h e b a c k o f t h e n e c k . O t h e r s i n t h e f r o n t w e r e e x t r e m e l y q u i e t w h i l e t h o s e f o l l o w i n g s a i d l i t t l e a n d o f f e r e d no r e s i s t a n c e . C o n s t a b l e s C o l e a n d S t e v e n s C h e k i a n g a n d N a n k i n g R o a d s . w e r e p e r f o r m i n g s i m i l a r t a s k s o n P a g e No. 1 0 7 A t t h i s t i m e , t h e m a i n c r o w d o n N a n k i n g R o a d m a i n l y c o n s i s t e d o f S a t u r d a y s h o p p e r s , t h e s t o r e w o r k e r s , a n d t h o s e u s u a l p e d e s t r i a n s o u t f o r t h e i r s t r o l l . V a r i o u s s t u d e n t g r o u p s w e r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a s p e a k i n g t o s m a l l g r o u p s . No a c t s o f v i o l e n c e w e r e r e p o r t e d , n o r w e r e t h e r e a n y c a s e s w h e r e p e r s o n s w e r e f o u n d u n c o - o p e r a t i v e . I f a n y -t h i n g , t h e p o l i c e c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e t o o c o -o p e r a t i v e a s t h e p o l i c e c e l l s w e r e q u i c k l y f i l l i n g u p . A l -t h o u g h t h e c r o w d s w e r e l a r g e , t h e r e h a d b e e n "no i d e a p r e s e n t . i n t h e m i n d o f I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t h a t t h e p u b l i c p e a c e 5 8 was i n a n y way i n d a n g e r o f d i s t u r b a n c e " . By 2 : 4 5 , how-e v e r , t h i n g s b e g a n t o c h a n g e a n d I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n was b e -g i n n i n g t o n o t i c e i t . j . THE M I X E D COURT A S S E M B L Y - PART I I W h i l e w a i t i n g f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t i n g o f t h e f o u r p r i -s o n e r s t o t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n , t h e a s s e m b l y o f s t u d e n t s s l o w l y b e g a n t o d w i n d l e . Many o f t h e s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s r e -t u r n e d t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t a r e a s t h r o u g h o u t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r w o r k ; o t h e r s h e a d e d t o w a r d t h e N a n k i n g R o a d a r e a t o s u p p o r t a n y a s s e m b l i e s t h e r e . By t h e t i m e t h e p r i s o n e r s w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e C o u r t H o u s e , t h e 59 c r o w d h a d d w i n d l e d t o o n l y a b o u t two h u n d r e d . Some t i m e a r o u n d 2 : 4 5 , t h e a c c u s e d w e r e f i n a l l y m o v e d . T h e e n t i r e g r o u p a s s e m b l e d o u t s i d e d e c i d e d t o f o l l o w . A s t h e P a g e No. 108 p r o c e s s i o n b e g a n t o move away on t o C h e k i a n g R o a d , v a r i o u s m embers i n t h e c r o w d w e r e o b s e r v e d t o be c a r r y i n g b a n n e r s a n d p e n n a n t s p r o c l a i m i n g : " T h e J a p a n e s e h a v e t o r n o u r n a t -i o n a l F l a g . " " O p p o s e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r o a d s on C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r y . " " O p p o s e t h e p r i n t e d b y l a w s . " " L e t u s r e s c u e t h e s t u d e n t s who h a v e b e e n a r r e s t e d . " " C a n c e l a l l u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s . S l o w l y t h e g r o u p m o v e d down C h e k i a n g R o a d t o -w a r d N a n k i n g R o a d . As i t m o v e d c l o s e r t o N a n k i n g R o a d , i t s n u m b e r s b e g a n t o i n c r e a s e . S h o p p e r s , w o r k e r s , a n d p e d e s -t r i a n s o n t h e s t r e e t b e g a n t o j o i n t h e s t u d e n t s a s t h e y m a r c h e d a l o n g , c h a n t i n g l o u d l y f o r t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e s t u d e n t p r i s o n e r s . A s t h e y n e a r e d N a n k i n g R o a d a b o u t 3 : 3 0 , t h e i r n u m b e r h a d s w e l l e d t o o v e r a t h o u s a n d p e o p l e . ^ k. THE SECOND T H I B E T ROAD I N C I D E N T - 2:30 t o 3:15 A r o u n d 2 : 3 0 , t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a g a i n r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s o f a n o t h e r a s s e m b l y o n T h i b e t R o a d . T h e s t a t i o n , h o w e v e r , h a d o n l y s i x c o n s t a b l e s a n d c o u l d s e n d n o - o n e t o c h e c k i t . T h e o t h e r o f f i c e r s w e r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t N a n k i n g R o a d b r e a k i n g up s m a l l a s s e m b l i e s . O u t s i d e , C o n s t a b l e S t e v e n s , who h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y o r -d e r e d t o p r o t e c t t h e p o l i c e e n t r a n c e , n o t i c e d t h e d i s t u r b a n c e a t T h i b e t R o a d c o r n e r . S t e v e n s t h e n o r d e r e d two S i k h o f f i c e r s t o f o l l o w h i m . As t h e y p a s s e d b y L l o y d R o a d , t h e y saw s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s t h e r e s p e a k i n g t o a s m a l l g a t h e r i n g o f a b o u t t h i r t y Page No. 109 p e o p l e . Once p a s t t h i s g r o u p , t h e t h r e e men c o n t i n u e d t o w a r d T h i b e t Road. S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s f r o m the L l o y d Road group t h e n began t o f o l l o w the p o l i c e p a t r o l , h e c k l i n g them as t h e y w a l k e d , The p o l i c e and the s t u d e n t s f o l l o w i n g them r e a c h e d T h i b e t Road a r o u n d 2:45. S t e v e n s n o t i c e d t h a t one s t u d e n t was s p e a k i n g 6 2 to a crowd o f about one h u n d r e d . He d e s c r i b e d h i s a c t i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h i s a s : ^ I went to t h e one s p e a k i n g . He was a b l e to speak E n g l i s h and I p e a c e f u l l y a s k e d him to d i s p e r s e . He s a i d he w i s h e d to c o n t i n u e to s p e a k . I t h e n a r r e s t e d him and one o t h e r l e a d e r , and a t t e m p t e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n ; b u t a b o u t t w e n t y s t u d e n t s s u r r o u n d e d me p r e v e n t i n g me f r o m d o i n g s o . We f o u g h t f o r a w h i l e and I had to use my c l u b . But i n the end, I r e t a i n e d the two p r i s o n e r s . S e v e r a l S i k h o f f i c e r s h e a r d the commotion and went to S t e v e n ' s a i d . S e v e r a l more s t u d e n t s t h o u g h t t o be too rowdy were s e i z e d . S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l a l s o a r r i v e d on the s c e n e 64 and a t t e m p t e d to h e l p t h e men d i s p e r s e the g r o u p . In a l l s i x o f the a s s a i l a n t s were f i n a l l y a r r e s t e d and t a k e n t o t h e s t a t i o n . On a r r i v a l , the p o l i c e o f f i c e r s n o t i c e d a l a r g e crowd o f about two h u n d r e d p e r s o n s f o l l o w i n g 6 5 them. About t h r e e p.m., a p a r t o f t h i s group f o r c e d t h e i r way i n t o t h e Charge Room. A c c o r d i n g to p o l i c e w i t n e s s e s , t h i s group was about 80 to 100 i n number w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s i n 6 6 a m i n o r i t y . S e r g e a n t W i l l g r o s s n o t i c e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e crowd was c r e a t i n g g r e a t c o n f u s i o n , t h e r e was no v i o l e n c e , no P a g e No. 110 a c t s o f r e s i s t a n c e , n o r a n y o b s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e C h a r g e R o o n i . ^ A t t h a t t i m e , S t e v e n s i n f o r m e d I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n who h a d b e e n i n t h e C h a r g e Room s i n c e 2 : 3 0 , t h a t he h a d a r r e s t e d t h e s e s t u d e n t s f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n a m e e t i n g a t t h e c o r n e r o f T h i b e t a n d N a n k i n g R o a d s ; t h a t he h a d b e e n k n o c k e d down b y some o f t h e m ; a n d t h a t an e f f o r t h a d b e e n m a d e , t o t a k e h i s p i s t o l f r o m h i m . ^ ^ O r d e r s w e r e t h e n g i v e n t o d r i v e t h e c r o w d o u t o f t h e C h a r g e Room; a n d a g r e a t d e a l o f e n e r g y was e x h a u s t e d t o do s o . I n t h e c o n f u s i o n , h o w e v e r , t h e s i x s t u d e n t s who h a d b e e n c h a r g e d w i t h a s s a u l t m a n a g e d t o e s c a p e . F i n a l l y , t h e p o l i c e w e r e a b l e t o p u s h t h e c r o w d o u t s i d e o f t h e C h a r g e Room i n t o t h e P o l i c e C o m p o u n d a n d o n t o N a n k i n g R o a d i n a n e a s t w a r d d i r e c t i o n . T h e w h o l e a f f a i r h a d t a k e n o v e r t w e n t y m i n u t e s . I t was now 3 : 1 5 . A f t e r t h e c r o w d was f o r c e d o u t o f t h e C o m p o u n d , i t s l o w l y r e t r e a t e d e a s t w a r d . P o l i c e o f f i c e r s c o n t i n u a l l y u r g e d t h e c r o w d t o d i s p e r s e , p e a c e f u l l y i f p o s s i b l e . When a b o u t o n e h u n d r e d y a r d s e a s t o f t h e s t a t i o n g a t e s , d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e W i n g - o n ' s , t h e c r o w d h a l t e d a n d s e t u p o n two f o r e i g n c o n s t a b l e s , W h y t e a n d C o l e . A t t e m p t s w e r e made t o w r e s t away t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' f i r e a r m s . S e v e r a l p o l i c e r e s p o n d e d , a n d t h e y now P a g e No. I l l b e g a n t o u s e t h e i r s t i c k s much more f r e e l y t h a n t h e y h a d b e -9 f o r e . T h e c r o w d a g a i n r e t r e a t e d e a s t w a r d . ^ T h i s t i m e S t e -v e n s c o m p l a i n e d o f b e i n g b e a t e n . He s a i d : ^ As we p u s h e d t h e c r o w d a w a y , I was k n o c k e d t o t h e g r o u n d , a n d t h e s t u d e n t s b e g a n t o b e a t me w i t h t h e i r s t i c k s . G r a d u a l l y , t h e c r o w d i n f r o n t o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e was e n t i r e l y d i s p e r s e d . A n y o n e s t i l l i n t h e C h a r g e Room o r t h e C o m p o u n d was i m m e d i a t e l y a r r e s t e d . I n E v e r s o n 1 s own w o r d s , " p e a c e a n d q u i e t t e m p o r a r i l y r e t u r n e d t o t h e p o l i c e « - « . • " 7 2 s t a t i o n . A t t h a t t i m e , t h e r e w e r e a b o u t n i n e h u n d r e d t o a t h o u -s a n d p e r s o n s o n N a n k i n g R o a d ; p e r h a p s a s f e w a s e i g h t h u n -73 d r e d . Some o f t h e s e w e r e p o s i t i o n e d b e t w e e n t h e p o l i c e s t a -t i o n a n d L l o y d R o a d ; o t h e r s w e r e b e t w e e n t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e a n d K w e i c h o w R o a d . . T h e c r o w d a s s e m b e d b y K w e i c h o w R o a d was s t a n d i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l ; t h e o t h e r i n 74 f r o n t o f t h e W i n g - o n C o m p a n y . T h e c r o w d was l a r g e b u t was n o t y e t v i o l e n t n o r was i t b l o c k i n g a n y t r a f f i c . 1. THE MIXED COURT P R O C E S S I O N ON C H E K I A N G A s e a r l y as 2 : 4 5 , s m a l l g r o u p s o f t h e l a r g e r p r o c e s s i o n o n C h e k i a n g R o a d b e g a n t o a r r i v e a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f N a n k i n g R o a d . I m m e d i a t e l y , t h e y b e g a n t o d i s p e n s e p a m p h l e t s a n d t o s p e a k t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s g a t h e r e d t h e r e . S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s -w e l l n e a r b y , n o t i c e d t h i s g r o u p w hen he saw a s t u d e n t c l i m b P a g e No. 112 a t o p o f t h e t e a - h o u s e a t t h e c o r n e r , a n d t h r o w l e a f l e t s down 76 t o t h e c r o w d b e l o w . S h e l l s w e l l r e p o r t e d : I s t o o d e a s t o f t h e g a t e a t t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a n d i t was s o m e t i m e b e f o r e t h r e e p.m. I h e a r d s o u n d s on N o r t h C h e k i a n g R o a d . When I t u r n e d t o w a r d t h a t a r e a , I c o u l d n ' t s e e a n y t h i n g ; I o n l y saw a g o o d many l e a f l e t s f a l l i n g f r o m t h e e a s t a n d n o r t h c o r n e r s o f t h e t e a - h o u s e . T h e n I saw s e v e r a l p e r s o n s h o l d i n g b a n n e r s . By t h e t i m e I r e a c h e d t h a t a r e a , I was p r e t t y w e l l s u r r o u n d e d . I o n l y saw o n e S i k h a n d a s t u d e n t f i g h t i n g . I o r d e r e d t h a t s t u d e n t a r r e s t e d . L e a f l e t s c o n t i n u e d t o f a l l . T h e t r a f f i c h a d s t o p p e d a n d C h e k i a n g was c o v e r e d w i t h p a p e r . I p r o c e e d e d up C h e k i a n g t o d i s -p e r s e t h e c r o w d t h e r e a n d t o r e s t o r e t h e t r a f f i c f l o w . I was t h e r e a b o u t f i f t e e n m i n u t e s a n d r e t u r n e d t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a b o u t 3:1 8 . S e v e r a l t i m e s a f t e r t h i s , S h e l l s w e l l a n d o t h e r c o n s t a b l e s w e r e f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o C h e k i a n g R o a d t o d i s p e r s e new c r o w d s a n d t o a r r e s t s t u d e n t s s p e a k i n g . N o n e o f t h e m , h o w e v e r , r e p o r t e d t h e y h a d a t t h a t t i m e s p o t t e d a l a r g e g r o u p a r r i v e v i a C h e -v 7 7 k x a n g . m. NANKING ROAD - MORE P A T R O L S AND A S S E M B L I E S R e g a r d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s on N a n k i n g R o a d i t s e l f , t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e p r o v i d e d r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g e v i d e n c e . C o m m i s s i o n e r M c E u e n h a d l e f t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t t o h a v e l u n c h a t t h e K i a n g w a n C l u b a t 1 : 1 5 . A t a l i t t l e p a s t t h r e e , on h i s r e t u r n , he p a s s e d up N a n k i n g R o a d o n h i s way t o t h e R a c e C o u r s e . He was a c c o m p a n i e d b y two f r i e n d s , M e s s r s . M c G u i r e a n d W e s t o n , a n d a l l t h r e e o f t h e m l a t e r s t a t e d t h a t i j Page No. 113 1.1 . I to"**1***?*","! lt ^ ^ K ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ J ^ ^ I pL _ j ; • S P U B U C .'• |i R E djij E A 7 I 6 ! (I GROUND 11 fairs ?i - a i ! i i > & S A G A ^ " " " " 9. ASSEMBLIES FROM THREE P.M. TO 3:l37 P.M. —*> —i> Chekiang Road Procession X Speaking Brigades and Assemblies Page No. 114 S 10. THE LOUZA DISTRICT - THREE P.M. TO 3:37 P.M. , 1. Second Thibet Road group at 3 s 1 0 11.. Covey at 3 : 3 0 • f ' 2 . . Brawl on Kweichow Road at 3 : 2 0 1 2 . Covey at 3 : 3 7 , 3 . Anderson at 3 : 1 0 1 3 . Burtons in their car * k. Commssioner at 3 : 1 0 1*+. Westridge in tram at 3 : 3 0 5 . Tatlock at 3 p.m. 1 5 . Witchner in car at 3 : 2 0 6 . Tatlock at 3 : 3 0 1 6 . Cline at 3 : 3 0 7 • H.P. King at 3 : 2 0 1 7 . Brierly in car at 3 : 2 0 > •-' 8 . O'neill is beaten 1 8 . Peacekeeping ;Brigade Cameron at 3 : 2 8 A. Assemblies 3 : 1 5 1 0 . Arrival of Chekiang Groujp 3 : 2 5 B. Assemblies 3 : 3 7 P a g e N o . 1 1 5 a t t h a t t i m e ( 3 : 1 5 ) t h e r e w a s o n l y t h e S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n c r o w d o n t h e s t r e e t , a n d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g t o a t t r a c t t h e i r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n a s t o t h e s i z e o r t h e b e h a v i o r o f 7 8 t h a t c r o w d . M r . B r i e r l y c o n t r i b u t e d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f N a n k i n g R o a d . He s t a t e d t h a t h e p a s s e d t h e R a c e C o u r s e a b o u t 3:20 h e a d i n g e a s t w a r d , a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e r o a d t o t h e e a s t o f t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e R a c e C o u r s e t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e w a s c l e a r , a n d t o t h e e a s t o f i t c l e a r u n t i l h e came t o C h e k i a n g R o a d . T h e r e , a c r o w d h a d c o l l e c t e d , he s a i d , b e c a u s e o f a l a r g e n u m b e r o f p a m p h l e t s 79 h a v i n g b e e n t h r o w n a m o n g s t t h e c r o w d . 8 0 T h e c r o w d o f a b o u t o n e t h o u s a n d m o v e d up a n d d o w n , b a c k a n d f o r t h o n N a n k i n g R o a d . S e v e r a l t i m e s , d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s e n t e r e d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n o n l y t o b e q u i c k l y e x p e l l e d . P o l i c e w e r e s e e n f i g h t i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s ; s t u d e n t s w e r e s e e n 81 a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s a r m t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . T h e P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n e r , h a v i n g r e a c h e d t h e R a c e C o u r s e , r a n g up I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , a n d g o t h o l d o f h i m a b o u t 3:14 t o 3 : 2 0 . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t o l d t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r t h a t h e w a s h a v i n g t r o u b l e w i t h s t u d e n t s , t h a t he h a d l o c k e d up a l a r g e n u m b e r o f t h e m , t h a t t h e r e w e r e f i f t y o f t h e m i n t h e C h a r g e Room a t t h a t m o m e n t , a n d t h a t h e w a n t e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a s t o how P a g e No. 116 t o d e a l w i t h t h e m . T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r a t f i r s t t o l d t h e I n -s p e c t o r t o c a u t i o n t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e n s e n d t h e m away; b u t o n l e a r n i n g t h a t some h a d a s s a u l t e d t h e p o l i c e , he g a v e i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t t h e l a t t e r s h o u l d b e d e t a i n e d a n d t h e o t h e r s s e n t away. T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n e d t h e I n s p e c t o r a b o u t t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n L o u z a D i s t r i c t a n d i n q u i r e d o f t h e l a t t e r w h e t h e r h e h a d s u f f i c i e n t men; t o 8 2 w h i c h t h e I n s p e c t o r a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . A b o u t t h e same t i m e , S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l was a g a i n p a t r o l l i n g t h e a r e a o f C h e k i a n g R o a d o n h o r s e b a c k . As h e r e t u r n e d t o N a n k i n g R o a d , he n o t i c e d s e v e r a l p e r s o n s b r a w l i n g w i t h some p o l i c e o f f i c e r s n e a r K w e i c h o w R o a d . As h e h e a d e d t h a t way, f o u r W e s t e r n e r s i n an a u t o m o b i l e s t o p p e d h i m a n d c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e g r e a t c o n f u s i o n t h e y h a d s e e n a t t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . He w a s , h o w e v e r , c o n c e r n e d w i t h a i d i n g C o n s t a b l e s C o l e a n d S t e v e n s a t t h a t moment. T h e t h r e e men m a n a g e d t o f i n a l l y p u s h t h e c r o w d b a c k , e a s t w a r d , t o w a r d 84 t h e Town H a l l . A t t h e same t i m e , a n o t h e r c r o w d m a n a g e d t o a s s e m b l e d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . A much s m a l l e r c r o w d t h a n t h e o n e a t t h e Town H a l l , i t p r e s e n t e d l i t t l e d i f -f i c u l t y f o r t h e p o l i c e who q u i c k l y p u s h e d i t e a s t w a r d a n d 8 5 i n t o t h e g r o u p a t t h e Town H a l l . P a g e No. 1 1 7 I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , who was o u t s i d e a t t h a t t i m e , d i d n o t l i k e w h a t he saw. He d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e o f f i c e s t o t r y t o c o n t a c t t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r on t h e p h o n e a g a i n . As s o o n as he r e t u r n e d t o t h e C h a r g e O f f i c e , h e f o u n d a n o t h e r g r o u p o f a b o u t o n e h u n d r e d p e r s o n s t h e r e . 8 6 O n l y a s m a l l n u m b e r o f t h e m w e r e s t u d e n t s . S e r g e a n t P a p p c o m p l a i n e d t o t h e I n s p e c t o r t h a t t h e g r o u p was m a k i n g s o much n o i s e t h a t he c o u l d n o t c a r r y o u t h i s work-. I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t h e n a t t e m p t e d t o c o n t a c t t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o n t h e p h o n e ; b u t he f a i l e d t o do s o d u e t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g d i s o r d e r , W i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a b o u t s i x o t h e r p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s , t h e I n s p e c t o r a n d P a p p w e r e f i n a l l y a b l e t o e x p e l t h i s g r o u p 8 7 f r o m t h e C h a r g e Room. T h e t i m e was a b o u t 3 : 3 0 . O n c e o u t s i d e , t h e g r o u p was met b y S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l who was s t i l l o n h o r s e b a c k . W i t h two o t h e r s , he m a n a g e d t o p u s h t h i s g r o u p b a c k t o w a r d s K w e i c h o w R o a d a n d t h e Town H a l l . 8 8 By 3 : 3 1 , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n was a g a i n o u t s i d e t o r e -e x a m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n s on N a n k i n g R o a d . S o m e w h a t c o n c e r n e d , he d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was s e r i o u s e n o u g h t o s e n d S e r g e a n t P a p p t o i n f o r m C a p t a i n M a r t i n t h a t h i s p r e s e n c e was u r g e n t l y n e e d e d . P a g e No. 1 1 8 T h e c r o w d on N a n k i n g R o a d c o n t i n e d t o g r o w . As t h e c r o w d was f o r c e d b a c k , m o r e a n d m o r e p e d e s t r i a n s a n d o n -l o o k e r s j o i n e d i n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s p o l i c e w i t n e s -s e s , a t t h a t t i m e t h e c r o w d m o v e d s l o w l y b a c k t o a s p o t n e a r t h e m a i n e n t r a n c e o f t h e Town H a l l w h i c h was a b o u t t h r e e h u n d r e d f e e t t o t h e e a s t o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e . S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l a n d C o n s t a b l e s C o l e , S t e v e n s , a n d F i n n i g a n a s w e l l a s s e v e r a l S i k h p a t r o l m e n , w e r e i n f r o n t o f t h i s c r o w d f o r c i n g i t t o r e t r e a t . M o s t w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e p o l i c e w e r e now u s i n g t h e i r p o l i c e s t i c k s a n d b a t o n s 90 ^ u i t e f r e e l y i n o r d e r t o c o n t r o l t h e c r o w d . O n c e t h e p o -l i c e h a d f o r c e d t h e c r o w d a s f a r b a c k as t h e Town H a l l , t h e c o n g e s t i o n . b e c a m e s o g r e a t t h a t t h e y c o u l d p u s h i t b a c k no f u r t h e r . T h e t r a f f i c was f o r c e d t o s t o p , a n d t h e c r o w d b e -came much n o i s i e r t h a n b e f o r e . A t o n e p o i n t S h e l l s w e l l a n d 91 o t h e r s w e r e a t t a c k e d b y s t u d e n t s . He r e p o r t e d : I s e i z e d o n e o f t h e a t t a c k e r s . A t t h a t t i m e t h e p e o p l e r u s h e d a h e a d a n d k n o c k e d C o l e t o t h e g r o u n d a t t e m p t i n g t o s e i z e h i s g u n . O t h e r s a t t e m p t e d t o c u t t h e r o p e t h e g u n was o n . S e v e r a l o f us w e n t t o h i s a i d b u t w e r e a l s o a t t a c k e d . A f t e r s e v e r a l m o m e n t s S t e v e n s was i n j u r e d b y m e m b e r s o f t h e c r o w d who a l s o w a n t e d h i s g u n ; b u t t h e y c o u l d n o t k n o c k h i m d o wn... M o m e n t s l a t e r I was a t t a c k e d b y f i v e o r s i x m o r e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e l e a d e r w e n t f o r my g u n . T h e o t h e r s r e s c u e d me. • S l o w l y we c o n t i n u e d t o p u s h t h e c r o w d b a c k . . . T h e c r o w d b e c a m e n o i s i e r a n d n o i s i e r , a n d s e v e r a l t i m e s I h e a r d t h e w o r d s , " K i l l t h e f o r e i g n e r s " . Page No. 119 9 2 I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a l s o saw t h e c l a s h e s . He r e p o r t e d : At t h a t t i m e , I a g a i n saw my o f f i c e r s t r y i n g to s t o p the crowd t h a t was i n f r o n t o f them. S e v e r a l o f them were a t t a c k e d . S h e l l s w e l l and Whyte were b o t h i n j u r e d . C o l e and S t e v e n s were b o t h b e a t e n . The crowd was e x t r e m e l y h o s t i l e . A n d e r s o n c o u l d n o t a g r e e w i t h E v e r s o n o r S h e l l s w e l l as t o whom. 9 3 were v i o l e n t . He s t a t e d : As I l e f t N a n k i n g Road, I saw s e v e r a l p e o p l e b e i n g p u s h e d away from t h e po-l i c e s t a t i o n . S l o w l y the p o l i c e d i s -p e r s e d the crowd. As I w a l k e d , I saw no r e s i s t a n c e . . . b u t about two h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s w i t h s e v e r a l of them h o l d i n g f l a g s and b a n n e r s . . . H o w e v e r , i t was the l u - k u o - j e n who saw t r o u b l e and t h u s j o i n e d i n . The s t u d e n t s were s t i l l t a l k i n g to v a r i o u s g r o u p s i n t h e crowd . . . I saw no weapons; o n l y l o u d s h o u t -i n g . . . I d i d n o t h e a r any a n t i - f o r e i g n s l o g a n s e i t h e r . . . 94 Dr. C l i n e b a s i c a l l y a g r e e d w i t h h i s f r i e n d A n d e r s o n . T h e r e were a t t h i s time some armed p o l i c e m e n a t t h e e n t r a n c e to the p o l i c e s t a t i o n on N a n k i n g Road. I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n had p l a c e d S e r g e a n t T a t r u m to t a k e command w h i l e he went i n s i d e to t h e Charge Room to check t h e r e p o r t s . F i n -i s h e d w i t h the r e p o r t s , he t h e n r a n to t h e back o f the p o l i c e s t a t i o n at the e n t r a n c e on Kweichow Road to make s u r e i t s g a t e s were c l o s e d . A group o f armed S i k h s were t h e n o r d e r e d 95 on g u a r d t h e r e so as to p r e v e n t any one from e n t e r i n g . At t h a t moment s e v e r a l armed C h i n e s e and S i k h s began t o P a g e No. 1 2 0 r e t u r n f r o m t h e i r p a t r o l s . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n o r d e r e d t h e m o u t s i d e t o j o i n i n t h e g u a r d i n g o f t h e o u t s i d e f r o n t g a t e w i t h S e r g e a n t T a t r u m . ^ T h e c a l l f o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t s f r o m t h e men o f f - d u t y h a d b y t h i s t i m e a l s o b e g a n t o b e a n s w e r e d ; among t h e f i r s t t o a r r i v e w e r e a n u m b e r o f o f f i c e r s who h a d b e e n c a l l e d away f r o m t h e i r games a t t h e R e c r e a t i o n G r o u n d s , a n d who h a d j o i n e d t h e g e n e r a l m e l e e i n t h e i r s p o r t i n g a t -t i r e . M o s t o f t h e s e men, h o w e v e r , d i d n o t r e a l l y b e g i n t o a r r i v e i n a n y l a r g e n u m b e r s u n t i l a b o u t 3:35 a n d t h e y w e r e 9 7 f o u n d i n t h e c r o w d when t h e f i r i n g o c c u r r e d . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n s t a t e d t h a t he was b a c k a t t h e N a n k i n g R o a d e n t r a n c e a n d t h e p a t r o l a b o u t two o r t h r e e m i n -u t e s ( a b o u t 3:34) a t w h i c h p o i n t he s t o o d a n d w a t c h e d a p a r t y o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a t t e m p t i n g t o h o l d b a c k t h e c r o w d t h a t was 98 i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l . n . THE A R R I V A L OF THE C H E K I A N G ROAD P R O C E S S I O N By a b o u t 3:25 o r 3 : 3 0 , t h e l a r g e g r o u p t h a t was m a r c h i n g down C h e k i a n g R o a d f r o m t h e M i x e d C o u r t b e g a n t o a r r i v e o n N a n k i n g R o a d . N o t i c i n g t h e l a r g e c r o w d r e t r e a t i n g o n N a n k i n g R o a d b y t h e Town H a l l , t h i s g r o u p d e c i d e d t o h e a d t h a t way . t o g i v e t h e m r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . As t h e two g r o u p s m e t , a m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mood a n d t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e two 99 g r o u p s was n o t i c e d . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n n o t i c e d i t i m m e d i a t e l y , H . , 100 He s a i d : P a g e No. 121 I t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e p e o p l e w e r e m o v i n g s l o w l y i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l . No o n e c o u l d move e i t h e r way a s new f o r c e s r u s h e d w e s t w a r d f r o m C h e k i a n g b l o c k i n g o f f t h e r o u t e o f r e t r e a t . A t t h a t t i m e I saw s e v e r a l m o r e p a m p h l e t s b e i n g d i s -t r i b u t e d w h i l e a g o o d many p e o p l e h o l d -i n g b a n n e r s a n d f l a g s , w e r e h e a d i n g t o -w a r d s t h e n o r t h s i d e o f N a n k i n g . Pam-p h l e t s w e r e f l y i n g e v e r y w h e r e . . . I t a p -p e a r e d t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f N a n k i n g R o a d h a d g a i n e d new c o n f i d e n c e a n d t h u s t u r n e d a r o u n d , m o v i n g a g a i n t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . T h e r e was a m o t o r c a r s t a n d i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e . U n a b l e t o s e e t h e c r o w d a t t h e Town H a l l a n y l o n g e r , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n j u m p e d o n t o t h e h o o d o f i t t o g e t a b e t t e r v i e w . What he t h o u g h t he saw was a l a r g e u n c o n t r o l l e d c r o w d t h a t was m o v i n g away f r o m t h e Town H a l l t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . I n f r o n t o f t h a t c r o w d s t o o d s i x o r e i g h t p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s who w e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o s t o p i t . A b o u t 3:35 E v e r s o n j u m p e d o f f t h e c a r a n d r a c e d b a c k t o t h e a r m e d p a t r o l a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o p r e p a r e t o g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o how h i s men s h o u l d r e a c t . o. THE P O L I C E R E T R E A T T h e a d v a n c e o f t h e c r o w d t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n was a t f i r s t s l o w w i t h few c a s e s o f v i o l e n c e b e i n g r e p o r t e d . As t h o s e i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s d r e w c l o s e r t o t h e p o l i c e c l u b s , t h e y b e c a m e m o r e r e l u c t a n t t o a d v a n c e a n y f a r t h e r ; b u t t h o s e i n t h e r e a r p u s h e d a h e a d w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t many i n t h e P a g e No. 122 f r o n t w e r e p u s h e d o n t o t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a n d w e r e t h u s b a d l y c l u b b e d . S e v e r a l w e r e i n j u r e d , b u t t h e y h a d no way t o w i t h d r a w . T h o s e i n t h e r e a r c o u l d n o t s e e w h a t was h a p -p e n i n g a n d c o n t i n u e d t o p u s h a h e a d . T h e r e s u l t was t h a t many i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s b e g a n t o f i g h t b a c k . S e v e r a l p e r -s o n s s t r u c k o u t a t t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s w h i l e o t h e r s k n o c k e d t h e m t o t h e g r o u n d . T h e p o l i c e r e t a l i a t e d , a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o t e c t t h o s e members i n t h e i r r a n k s who h a d b e e n i n j u r e d . As t h e c r o w d p u s h e d a h e a d , many m o r e p e r s o n s b e g a n t o j o i n i n f r o m o f f t h e s i d e w a l k s . P e r s o n s p o u r e d i n f r o m Y u n n a n -102 a n d K w e i c h o w R o a d s . T h e f i g h t i n g c o n t i n u e d . C o n s t a b l e C o l e was k n o c k e d t o t h e g r o u n d a n d s e v e r a l p e r s o n s a t t e m p t e d t o d i s a r m h i m . He was r e s c u e d ; b u t imme-d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r d s , S t e v e n s was a t t a c k e d b y a n o t h e r g r o u p . N e a r b y , S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l was c a u g h t b y t h e t h r o a t ; b u t he m a n a g e d t o e s c a p e w i t h t h e a i d o f two S i k h c o n s t a b l e s , I n a n o t h e r a r e a , W h y t e was i n j u r e d a n d h a d t o b e c a r r i e d b a c k t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n .'''^ Q u i t e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n , S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l d e c i d e d t o o r d e r t h e o t h e r s t o f o l l o w h i m i n r e -104 t r e a t . He l a t e r r e p o r t e d : R e a l i z i n g t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , I o r d e r e d t h e o t h e r s t o f o l l o w me; a l l o f us h a l f d e a d f r o m e x h a u s t i o n . B e -c a u s e t h e c r o w d c o n t i n u e d t o r u s h f o r -w a r d , I o r d e r e d t h e men t o r e t u r n t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . I was t i r e d o f c o n t i n -u a l l y b e i n g a t t a c k e d . P a g e No. 1 2 3 T h e N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d was much m o r e v i v i d i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n . 105 o f t h e c r o w d . I t r e p o r t e d : G a t h e r i n g f o r f u r t h e r e f f o r t , t h e c r o w d s w e p t b a c k t h e p o l i c e c o r d o n a c r o s s t h e . s t r e e t a n d o n c e m o r e h e a d e d t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e . I t was a h e a v -i n g , s u r g i n g m a s s , t h e g r o u n d s t e w n w i t h h a t © a n d g a r m e n t s l o s t i n t h e s t r u g g l e , a n d p a s s e r s - b y who h a d b e e n q u i t e i n n o -c e n t l y d r a w n i n t o t h e mob b e i n g w i l l y n i l l y c a r r i e d i n t o t h e g e n e r a l r u s h t o -w a r d s t h e s t a t i o n g a t e s . . . T h e p o l i c e r e t r e a t e d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n ' s e n t r a n c e t o w a r d s a s t r e e t c a r t h a t was c o m i n g f r o m t h e d i r e c t i o n o f B u b b l i n g W e l l R o a d . When t h e y w e r e a b o u t two h u n d r e d f e e t away f r o m t h e e n t r a n c e , t h e t r a m p a s s e d b y t h e m s l o w l y , d i v i d i n g t h e m f r o m t h e c r o w d ; t h u s e n a b l i n g t h e m t o r e t r e a t t o t h e p a t r o l i n f r o n t o f t h e e n t r a n c e . T h e e f -f e c t o f t h e t r a m on t h e c r o w d was t o s l o w i t down. T h e t r a f f i c , h o w e v e r , was a l s o f o r c e d t o come t o a s t a n d s t i l l a s t h e c r o w d d r e w n e a r e r a n d n e a r e r t o t h e s t a t i o n . ^ ^ By 3 : 3 5 , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s on N a n k i n g R o a d w e r e f o u n d s t a t i o n e d d i r e c t l y o u t s i d e t h e e n -t r a n c e t o t h e P o l i c e C o m p o u n d , a l l u n d e r t h e command o f I n -s p e c t o r E v e r s o n . E a c h man was a r m e d a n d was p r e p a r e d f o r a n y t r o u b l e . M o s t o f t h e s e men w e r e p a r t o f t h e P e a c e k e e p i n g 10 7 B r i g a d e t h a t E v e r s o n h a d m o b i l i z e d e a r l i e r a t 2 : 3 0 . As t h e o t h e r c o n s t a b l e s r e t r e a t e d f r o m t h e l a r g e c r o w d , E v e r -s o n o r d e r e d t h e m t o s t a n d i n b e h i n d h i s c o l u m n s a n d r e s t f o r P a g e No. 1 2 4 a moment. A t t h a t t i m e S h e l l s w e l l , C o l e , a n d S t e v e n s s t o o d b y t h e w a l l i t s e l f , on t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e g a t e . I n f r o n t 10 8 o f t h e m w e r e 11 S i k h s , 12 C h i n e s e , a n d I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r 3 : 3 5 , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n o r d e r e d t h e men t o t a k e t h e f o r m o f a s e m i - c r e s c e n t s h a p e a n d t o make r e a d y f o r a n y c o u n t e r - a c t i o n s t h a t m i g h t h a v e t o b e t a k e n . T h e f o r m a t i o n was a b o u t f o u r f e e t f r o m t h e e n t r a n c e o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e e n t r a n c e , r i g h t i n f r o n t o f S h e l l s w e l l a n d C o l e . T h e e l e v e n S i k h c o n s t a b l e s s t o o d i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s b y I n s p e c -t o r E v e r s o n . T h e C h i n e s e c o n s t a b l e s s t o o d r i g h t b e h i n d t h e 109 S i k h s . S t e v e n s s t o o d o f f t o t h e W e s t . T h e c r o w d t h a t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a n d t h e o t h e r s w a t c h e d h a d a l r e a d y i n c r e a s e d t o m o r e t h a n two t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s a n d was s t i l l g r o w i n g . T h e m a i n g r o u p o f p e r s o n s was s p r e a d o u t f r o m t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n down N a n k i n g R o a d t o t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f C h e k i a n g a n d N a n k i n g R o a d s . S m a l l e r g r o u p s w e r e s e e n b y t h e I n s p e c t o r , o n e w e s t o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n ( a b o u t 50 t o 1 0 0 ) a n d a n o t h e r on Y u n n a n R o a d d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a t T ' a i - c h o n g ' s . S t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o p a s s o u t pam-p h l e t s a n d t o s p e a k a s t h e c r o w d m o v e d a h e a d . Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e m a i n e d o u t i n f r o n t s h o u t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . Many s t a y e d t h e r e r i g h t u n t i l t h e t i m e o f t h e ' s h o o t i n g . J u s t b e f o r e t h e a c t u a l f i r i n g o c c u r r e d , t h e p o l i c e r a n k s w e r e t h r o w n i n t o d i s o r d e r w hen a s t u d e n t n a m e d Page No. 125 Chu C h i n g - p a i a t t e m p t e d to c l i m b the s t o n e w a l l by the g a t e e n t r a n c e , and thus g a i n e n t r y to the P o l i c e Compound I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , who had s e e n t h e s t u d e n t e a r l i e r on Kweichow Road, t h o u g h t t h a t he was n o t h i n g more t h a n a v a n g u a r d of a crowd p r e p a r e d to s e i z e the s t a t i o n . The I n s p e c t o r o r d e r e d the s t u d e n t a r r e s t e d and t a k e n to the Charge Room. C o n s t a b l e S t e v e n s f o l l o w e d the I n s p e c t o r ' s o r d e r s and r e t u r n e d to t h e f r o n t r a n k s about 3:35. The crowd on the s t r e e t had become n o i s i e r and seemed more v i o l e n t i n i t s a c t i o n . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n was q u i t e f r i g h t e n e d by t h i s t u r n of e v e n t s . Of t h i s he l a t e r s a i d A r o u n d 3:34, I f e l t t h a t t h e r e was a b s o l u t e l y no way to d i s p e r s e the crowd. One c l a s h a f t e r a n o t h e r o n l y c o n v i n c e d me t h a t more was to come. « i -A 1 1 3 He a l s o s a i d : A t t h a t t i m e f c t h e r e were a l s o f o u r or f i v e c a r s and trams t h a t were s t o p p e d , c a r r y i n g f o r e i g n e r s . . M a n y of them had women i n them. They were thus i n d a n g e r . . . T h e crowd was annoy-i n g t h e s e p e o p l e from a l l s i d e s . p. THE FIRING The l a r g e mass o f p e o p l e c o n t i n u e d to s u r g e ahead to ward the p o l i c e s t a t i o n . W i t n e s s e s n e a r b y w a t c h e d but c o u l d n o t make ou t any s l o g a n s c r i e d o u t , n o r any h a r a s -s i n g c a l l s ; the n o i s e was too d e a f e n i n g . About 3:36, the crowd was about t e n y a r d s from t h e p o l i c e r a n k s . As t h e mass moved c l o s e r , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n o r d e r e d h i s S i k h and Page No. 126 13 11. THE SIGHT OF THE FIRING 1. Everson 2. Shellswell 3» Stevens k. Cole 5. Tatlock 6. O'Neill 7. Cameron 8. Cline 9. Westridge 10. Anderson 11. Covoy 12. Kingman 13.. Sergeant Willgross and Constable Whyte O Chinese (12) Q Sikhs (11) • Position of those k i l l e d and wounded P a g e No. 1 2 7 C h i n e s e c o n s t a b l e s t o " s t a n d r e a d y " , a n d t o l o a d t h e i r 114 g u n s . As he g a v e t h e o r d e r s , E v e r s o n b e l i e v e d t h a t he saw s e v e r a l m o r e s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t i n g t o c l i m b t h e s t o n e w a l l . 1 1 " ' No o t h e r p e r s o n , i n c l u d i n g o t h e r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , 116 n o t i c e d t h e s e s t u d e n t s . T h e c r o w d c o n t i n u e d t o move a h e a d . W e s t r i d g e , a w i t n e s s a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t f r o m t h e s t a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d t h e c r o w d s o m e w h a t e x c i t e d l y as f o l -l o w s : T h e c r o w d was a l l o u t s i d e t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n r u s h i n g t o w a r d i t ; t h e y h a d a l r e a d y a s s e m b l e d as a w i l d , c o n f u s e d , a n d d i s o r d e r l y mob. A t t h a t p o i n t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t o o k o u t h i s p i s t o l a n d p o i n t e d i t a t t h e c r o w d , i n p a r t i c u l a r a t t h e v a r i o u s p e r -s o n s i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s . I t was t o s e r v e as an i n i t i a l 1 1 8 w a r n i n g . E v e r s o n l a t e r s a i d o f t h i s w a r n i n g : I knew t h a t i t was u s e l e s s b u t I d i r e c -t e d i t a t t h e m a n y w a y . . . I d o n ' t t h i n k t h e y w o u l d h a v e d i s p e r s e d ; b u t t h e y s h o u l d h a v e k n o w n t h a t p o i n t i n g a g u n a t a c r o w d b y a p o l i c e o f f i c e r i s a g r a v e t h i n g . A n y p e r s o n s h o u l d know t h i s a n d o u g h t t o d i s p e r s e b e f o r e we f i r e . . . As he r a i s e d h i s g u n , t h e I n s p e c t o r y e l l e d o u t i n S h a n g h a i C h i n e s e , " T ' i n g , wu t ' i n g c h i h mo, y a o t a s h a " , m e a n i n g 119 " i f y o u d o n ' t s t o p , I w i l l f i r e a n d k i l l . " R e a l i z i n g t h a t f e w c o u l d h e a r h i m , he w a v e d h i s p i s t o l a g a i n a t t h e , 120 c r o w d . P a g e No. 1 2 8 W h e t h e r t h e c r o w d h e a r d o r n o t , t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o move t o w a r d t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . By t h e t i m e t h e y w e r e w i t h i n s i x f e e t o f t h e g a t e , E v e r s o n o r -121 d e r e d h i s men t o o p e n f i r e . T h e r e h a d o n l y l a p s e d t e n t o t w e l v e s e c o n d s b e t w e e n t h e t i m e t h e p o l i c e h a d f i r e d a n d t h e t i m e t h a t t h e I n s p e c t o r h a d g i v e n t h e w a r n i n g t o 122 s t o p . I t h a d a l l h a p p e n e d v e r y q u i c k l y . I t a p p e a r s f r o m t h e a c t u a l c o u n t t h a t f o r t y - f o u r 1 2 3 s h o t s w e r e f i r e d , m o s t o f w h i c h t o o k e f f e c t . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t h o u g h t t h a t he h a d o r d e r e d two r o u n d s t o b e f i r e d ; 124 b u t t h e f i r i n g was t o o q u i c k f o r h i m t o be s u r e . I n f a c t , b e t w e e n t h e t i m e t h e I n s p e c t o r o r d e r e d h i s men t o f i r e a n d t h e t i m e t h a t he o r d e r e d t h e m t o s t o p , t h e r e 125 e l a p s e d o n l y a f e w s e c o n d s . T h e S i k h s i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s h a d u s e d t h e i r m a g a z i n e c a r b i n e s (.333 c a l i b r e ) , w h i l e t h e I n s p e c t o r a n d S h e l l s w e l l b o t h u s e d t h e i r a u t o -m a t i c p i s t o l s (.32 c a l i b r e ) . A l l o f t h e s e men f i r e d d i -r e c t l y a t t h e f r o n t r a n k s . T h e C h i n s e s c o n s t a b l e s a t t h e r e a r , h o w e v e r , w e r e n o t a b l e t o f i r e t h r o u g h t h e t a l l e r S i k h s a n d t h u s d i d n o t f i r e d i r e c t l y a t t h e c r o w d . I n s t e a d t h e i r b u l l e t s h i t t h e b r i c k s o f t h e b u i l d i n g d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e t h e e n t r a n c e . T h e r e s u l t was i m m e d i a t e . W i t h i n a f e w m i n u t e s , t h e s t r e e t i n t h e i m m e d i a t e a r e a o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n was P a g e No. 129 c l e a r e d . S e v e r a l o f t h e p e r s o n s i n t h e c r o w d l a y d e a d on t h e p a v e m e n t , w h i l e m o r e l a y t h e r e w o u n d e d . Some o f t h e w o u n d e d a n d t h o s e k i l l e d w e r e c a r r i e d o f f b y t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s ; b u t many o t h e r s r e m a i n e d t h e r e w a i t i n g f o r t h e p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s t o p i c k t h e m up a n d s e n d t h e m t o t h e n e a r b y h o s p i t a l s . S e v e r a l f o r e i g n e r s i n t h e a r e a , a t t e m p t e d t o a i d t h e w o u n d e d , b u t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n ' s o r d e r s t o d i s p e r s e t h e e n t i r e c r o w d made t h i s d i f f i c u l t . T h e r e m a i n i n g w o u n d e d a n d k i l l e d w e r e t h e n m o v e d i n t o t h e P o l i c e C o m p o u n d , w h i l e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s made a r r a n g e -m e n t s t o t a k e t h e i n j u r e d t o t h e v a r i o u s h o s p i t a l s i n t h e 12 7 a r e a . I n a l l , t w e l v e w e r e k i l l e d , s i x t e e n w e r e k n o w n t o be s e r i o u s l y w o u n d e d , a n d i n c a l c u l a b l e n u m b e r s w e r e s l i g h t l y i n j u r e d . ( S e e t h e s e c t i o n on T h o s e K i l l e d a n d W o u n d e d ) . q . THE AFTERMATH I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f i r i n g , t h e f i r e h o s e s w e r e f i n a l l y b r o u g h t o u t b y I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n . T h e y s e r v e d a m o s t u s e f u l p u r p o s e ; t h e y w e r e u s e d t o w a s h o f f t h e 12 8 b l o o d s t a i n s on N a n k i n g R o a d . A t 3 : 4 3 , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n r e l a y e d t h e f o l l o w i n g m e s -129 s a g e t o H e a d q u a r t e r s a t t h e C e n t r a l S - t a t i o n : We a r e f i r i n g on s t u d e n t s o n N a n k i n g R o a d . C i r c u l a t e . P a g e No. 130 A t 3:55 C a p t a i n M a r t i n r e s p o n d e d t o i t w i t h a new c i r c u -l a r t h a t read:"*""^ A l l men a r e c o n f i n e d t o b a r r a c k s . No r e c o r d o f t h i s m e s s a g e b e i n g r e c e i v e d a t L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n was e v e r f o u n d ; a n d t h u s t h e men c o n t i n u e d t o p a -131 t r o l N a n k i n g R o a d a n d d i s p e r s e a n y o n e w a l k i n g t h e r e . A t f o u r p.m. a m e s s a g e was f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e Com-m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e a n d r e c o r d e d i n t h e C e n t r a l S t a t i o n . He h a d o r d e r e d i m m e d i a t e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e E m e r g e n c y Co r p s . As t h e c r o w d m o v e d o f f N a n k i n g R o a d , h e a v i l y a r m e d p o l i c e g u a r d s o f t h e E m e r g e n c y C o r p s w e r e p l a c e d a t t h e v a r i o u s m a j o r i n t e r s e c t i o n s a l o n g i t . A r m o u r e d c a r s , m o u n t e d w i t h m a c h i n e g u n s , m o v e d up a n d down i t on v a r i o u s 13 3 p a t r o l s . T h e s t r e e t was s l o w l y b e i n g e v a c u a t e d . F o l l o w i n g t h e s h o o t i n g , a n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s imme-d i a t e l y s e t o u t f o r t h e B u r e a u o f F u r e i g n A f f a i r s i n t h e F r e n c h C o n c e s s i o n A r e a , w h e r e t h e y i n t e r v i e w e d t h e C h i n e s e d e l e g a t e , S.K. C h e n . T h e y u r g e d an i m m e d i a t e p r o t e s t a n d d e m a n d e d t h e r e l e a s e o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d t h a t d a y a n d p r e v i o u s l y who w e r e b e i n g h e l d i n t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n . - T h e y f u r t h e r d e m a n d e d t h a t t h e p o l i c e " c u l p r i t s " b e p u n i s h e d ; t h a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s P a g e No. 131 b e c a l l e d u p o n t o a p o l o g i z e t o t h e C h i n e s e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e s c h o o l s c o n c e r n e d ; t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e no r e s t r i c -t i o n b e p l a c e d u p o n t h e " p a t r i o t i c m o v e m e n t ; " t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l o w n e r s b e a s k e d t o a c c e p t t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e i r e m p l o y e e s ; a n d t h a t no r e s t r i c t i o n b e p l a c e d u p o n t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f news c o n c e r n i n g t h e " m a s s a c r e " o f t h a t 134 d a y . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f s e v e r a l s c h o o l s l a t e r t h a t d a y a l s o a p p r o a c h e d t h e C h i n e s e G e n e r a l C h a m b e r o f C o m m e r c e a s w e l l as t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e v a r i o u s S t r e e t U n i o n s u r g -i n g t h e m t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s i n o b t a i n i n g r e d r e s s f o r t h e k i l l e d a n d w o u n d e d . I t was d e c i d e d t o h o l d a j o i n t -m e e t i n g f o r t h e n e x t d a y . 1 " ^ 4. SUMMARY D u r i n g t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g o f May 3 0 t h , s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h -o u t t h e c i t y o f S h a n g h a i b e g a n t o make p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s p l a n n e d t h a t a f t e r n o o n . S p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s o f t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s b e g a n t o c o l l e c t t o g e t h e r t o p r e -p a r e f o r t h e i r a f t e r n o o n a c t i v i t i e s . O t h e r s h e a d e d t o w a r d t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . As s e v e r a l b e g a n t o e n t e r t h e S e t t l e -m e n t a s S a t u r d a y s h o p p e r s , t h e g r o u p a t t h e r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s l o w l y i n c r e a s e d t o a s i z e o f a b o u t f o u r h u n d r e d p e r s o n s . P a t i e n t l y t h e y w a i t e d t o m a r c h t o t h e M i x e d C o u r t . Some-w h e r e a r o u n d o n e p.m., t h i s g r o u p e n t e r e d t h e S e t t l e m e n t a n d h e a d e d t o t h e M i x e d C o u r t . P a g e No. 132 T h e f i r s t m a j o r i n c i d e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e S e t t l e -m e n t i n v o l v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s a n d t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n t o o k p l a c e a b o u t 1:45 a t L l o y d a n d N a n k i n g R o a d . A t t h e e n d o f t h e a f f a i r a t 2 : 1 5 , e i g h t e e n s t u d e n t s h a d b e e n a r r e s t e d . I n c i d e n t s l i k e t h i s c o n t i n u e d t o o c c u r r i g h t up u n t i l 3 : 3 0 . M o r e a r r e s t s w e r e made. R e p o r t s o f v i o l e n c e a r o u n d 2:45 h a d b e e n r e c e i v e d a t t h e p o l i c e s t a -t i o n , b u t t h e s e r e m a i n e d s o m e w h a t i s o l a t e d u n t i l a b o u t 3 : 1 5 . A t t h e M i x e d C o u r t , t h e o f f i c i a l s h a d d e c i d e d t o r e -t a i n t h e s t u d e n t s f o r a s p e c i a l h e a r i n g . I t was d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n t h e s t u d e n t s t o t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n . When r e t u r n i n g t h e m t o t h e s t a t i o n , t h e g r o u p o u t s i d e o f t h e M i x e d C o u r t b e g a n t o f o l l o w . T h e g r o u p m a r c h e d down C h e k i a n g R o a d on t h e i r way t o t h e s t a t i o n . A s t h e i r s h o u t s g r e w l o u d e r a n d l o u d e r , v a r i o u s p e r s o n s f r o m t h e s i d e w a l k b e g a n t o j o i n i n , s w e l l i n g t h e r a n k s t o w e l l o v e r a t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s . S l o w l y , t h e r e m a i n i n g s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s o n N a n k i n g R o a d b e g a n t o d w i n d l e as m o r e a n d m o r e s t u d e n t s w e r e a r r e s -t e d . S o o n many s t u d e n t s w e r e j o i n e d b y p e d e s t r i a n s a n d c u r i o s i t y s e e k e r s as t h e y p r o t e s t e d t h e a r r e s t s i n f r o n t o f t h e s t a t i o n . S e v e r a l t i m e s , members o f t h e c r o w d s e n t e r e d t h e C h a r g e Room t o v o i c e t h e i r d i s s e n t . M o r e a r -r e s t s r e s u l t e d . S e v e r a l t i m e s p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s h a d t o P a g e No. 1 3 3 d i s p e r s e t h e c r o w d s a n d p u s h t h e m b a c k t o t h e Town H a l l . By 3 : 1 0 , t h e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c r o w d s h a d c h a n ge d. By 3 : 1 5 , v i o l e n c e b e c a m e m o r e f r e q u e n t , a t a t i m e when E v e r s o n a n d h i s men w e r e b e c o m i n g m o r e i n t o l e r a n t o f t h e e v e n t s on N a n k i n g R o a d . A m i d a l l o f t h i s , t h e g r o u p f r o m t h e M i x e d C o u r t a r r i v e d a n d u n i t e d w i t h t h i s g r o u p i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l . A d i s t i n c t c h a n g e i n t h e mood o f t h e c r o w d was n o t i c e d . As t h e u n i t e d g r o u p p u s h e d a h e a d t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e , v i o l e n c e o c c u r r e d e v e n m o r e f r e q u e n t l y . T h e p o l i c e u s e d t h e i r c l u b s a n d t h e c r o w d r e t a l i a t e d w i t h t h e i r f i s t s . T h e c r o w d s u r g e d a h e a d ; a n d E v e r s o n b e c a m e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e c r o w d w a n t e d t o a t t a c k t h e s t a t i o n . T h e r e s u l t was t h a t a t 3 : 3 7 , t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d . C.' D E B A T E S , C O N F L I C T S , AND C O N T R O V E R S I E S 1. P R E F A C E U p o n a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f a l l t h e e v i d e n c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e d o c u m e n t s o f t h e J u d i c i a l I n q u i r y ( O c t . 1 9 2 5 ) , t h e M i x e d C o u r t t e s t i m o n y ( J u n e 1 9 2 5 ) , t h e P o l i c e r e p o r t s , a n d t h e v a r i o u s n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s a n d j o u r n a l r e p o r t s , i t c a n e a s i l y be s e e n t h a t many o f t h e w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d u p o n c e r -t a i n f a c t s b u t w e r e e v i d e n t l y d i v e r g e n t on o t h e r s . S u c h q u e s t i o n s as t h e mood o f t h e c r o w d , t h e m a k e - u p o f t h e P a g e No. 134 c r o w d , t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e c r o w d , t h e t i m e o f i t s a r r i v a l , t h e r e a s o n why s t u d e n t s s p o k e t h a t d a y , t h e r e a s o n why t h e p o l i c e o p e n e d f i r e , a n d t h e n e e d o f b e t t e r p r e c a u t i o n s , s e r v e d t o d i v i d e t h e w i t n e s s e s i n t o two o p p o s i n g c a m p s . T h e p o l i c e a n d t h e w i t n e s s e s who s u p p o r t e d t h e m a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v e t h a t t h e m a s s a s s e m b l e d on N a n k i n g R o a d was i n -t e n t o n d e s t r o y i n g t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n . O t h e r s d i s -a g r e e d , a n d c l a i m e d t h a t t h e f i r i n g s h o u l d h a v e n e v e r o c -c u r r e d . I t was t h i s d e b a t e t h a t a l m o s t t o t a l l y m o n o p o l i z e d t h e v a r i o u s s t u d i e s a n d r e p o r t s o f t h e I n c i d e n t d u r i n g t h e y e a r , 1 9 2 5 . P o l i c e w i t n e s s e s w e r e c a l l e d i n t o t h e M i x e d C o u r t t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o s e c u t o r ' s c a s e a g a i n s t f i f t y - t w o s t u d e n t s . D e f e n s e l a w y e r s c a l l e d o t h e r w i t n e s s e s a n d m e d i -c a l p e r s o n n e l t o d i s p u t e t h a t c a s e . A n d s o o n . T h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t y o f S h a n g h a i , h o w e v e r , b o y c o t t e d b o t h t h e t r i a l s a n d t h e J u d i c i a l i n q u i r y . No C h i n e s e g a v e e v i d e n c e . W e s t e r n r e p o r t s a n d i n q u i r i e s h a d t o r e l y s o l e l y u p o n t h e p o l i c e w i t n e s s e s a n d some A m e r i c a n m i s s i o n a r i e s who d i d n o t h o l d t h e p o l i c e p o i n t o f v i e w . I t i s n o t s u r -p r i s i n g t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e a n d B r i t i s h j u d g e s w hen t h e y met f i v e m o n t h s l a t e r , e x o n e r a t e d t h e p o l i c e a n d b l a m e d t h e s t u d e n t s f o r t h e f i r i n g . P a g e No. 135 T h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i t y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d b y t h e f o r e i g n c o m m u n i t i e s . I n s t e a d , t h e y c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s on p r o v i d i n g e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r own f e l l o w C h i n e s e r e a d e r s . T h u s , C h i n e s e n e w s p a p e r s , j o u r n a l s , a n d m a g a z i n e s w e r e f l o o d e d w i t h r e p o r t s , s u m m a r i e s o f e y e -w i t n e s s a c c o u n t s , a r t i c l e s d e f e n d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s a n d o p p o s i n g t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e , a n d d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s e x a m -i n i n g w h a t e a c h w r i t e r t h o u g h t a c t u a l l y h a p p e n e d . S u c h m a g a z i n e s a s H s i a n g - t a o c h o u - p a o , T u n g - f a n g t s a - c h i h , K u o - w e n c h o u - p a o , a n d C h u n g - k u o c h ' i n g - n i e n o r g a n i z e d s p e -c i a l i s s u e s t o c o n v i n c e t h e i r r e a d e r s t h a t t h e M u n i c i p a l p o l i c e a n d a u t h o r i t i e s h a d m u r d e r e d C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . I t was t h e s e r e p o r t s , i n q u i r i e s , a n d a r t i c l e s f r o m b o t h s i d e s t h a t p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f m y t h s c e n t e r e d on t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t . D e p e n d i n g o n t h e s i d e y o u s u p p o r t e d , a p a r t i c u l a r m y t h o l o g y was c r e a t e d a n d d r a w n f r o m t o s u p p o r t t h a t v i e w p o i n t . T h e same w i t n e s -s e s w e r e c i t e d b y b o t h C h i n e s e a n d W e s t e r n e r s a l i k e t o p r o v e d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e c o n t e n t i o n s ; a n d t h e w i t n e s s e s t h a t c o u l d n o t b e c a t e g o r i z e d w e r e d e c l a r e d e i t h e r t o o h u m a n i -t a r i a n t o b e a b l e t o g i v e an h o n e s t a n s w e r o r t o o p r o -W e s t e r n t o p r e s e n t an a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e d a y . As p e r -s o n s b e g a n t o w r i t e a b o u t t h e I n c i d e n t much l a t e r , t h e y t o o , b e g a n t o a s s u m e t h e b i a s e s a l r e a d y f o u n d i n t h e r e p o r t s . P a g e No. 136 A n y e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e I n c i d e n t , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , m u s t a t l e a s t c o n t a i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s r e p o r t s a n d d e b a t e s t h a t w e r e r a i s e d b y t h e v a r i o u s w i t n e s s e s . What e a c h w i t n e s s t h o u g h t b e c a m e a p a r t o f t h e r e p o r t s t h a t f o l l o w e d . T h i s s e c t i o n , h o w e v e r , w i l l n o t d e a l w i t h t h e v i e w p o i n t s o f e a c h w i t n e s s s e p a r a t e l y , b u t w i l l d e a l o/t/y w i t h t h e m a j o r c o n t r o v e r s i e s . N o r w i l l a l l t h e w i t n e s s e s be i n c l u d e d i n t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s ; i n s t e a d o n l y t h o s e who h a d an i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t on t h e e v i d e n c e i t s e l f w i l l be m e n t i o n e d . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s d e b a t e s a n d p r o b l e m s i s n o t s u p p o s e d t o p r o v i d e t h e f i n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a s t o w h a t a c t u a l l y h a p p e n e d on May 3 0 t h . I t d o e s , h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e s m a l l p a r c e l s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a r e v i t a l l y i m -p o r t a n t t o a n y c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e I n c i d e n t i t s e l f . S o m e t h i n g , h o w e v e r , s h o u l d b e b r i e f l y s a i d a b o u t t h e t e s t i m o n i e s a n d i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f who w r o t e t h e a r t i c l e o r g a v e t h e t e s t i m o n y ( w h e t h e r f o r e i g n e r o r C h i n e s e , a n d o f w h a t p o l i t i c a l v i e w p o i n t ^ , t h e a c t u a l t i m e t h a t t h e a r t i c l e was p u b l i s h e d o r t h e t e s t i m o n y g i v e n a l s o p r e s e n t s p r o b l e m s o f a c c u r a c y a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n , i n many c a s e s , was c o l l e c t e d l o n g a f t e r t h e I n c i d e n t . T h e T F T C d i d n o t p u b l i s h i t s " S p e c i a l E d i t i o n " u n t i l l a t e J u l y : t h e KWCP Page No. 137 o n l y a f t e r J u l y 7 t h . I n CKCN and HTCP, a r t i c l e s a b o u t t h e I n c i d e n t came i n g r e a t numbers d u r i n g 1926, w i t h v e r y few b e f o r e . T e s t i m o n y c o l l e c t e d i n June and J u l y was i n t h e end n e v e r p u b l i s h e d , w h i l e t h e J u d i c i a l I n -q u i r y d i d n o t come i n t o b e i n g u n t i l l a t e O c t o b e r . Too o f t e n , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d t e n d e d to c o n -f u s e the a c t u a l n a t u r e o f a f f a i r s i n S h a n g h a i b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e I n c i d e n t . What were c o n s i d e r e d to be t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d a f t e r May 3 0 t h and t h e r o l e o f t h e CCP a f t e r the I n c i d e n t , were c o n s i d e r e d to have r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t s i n c e b e f o r e May 3 0 t h i t s e l f . F o r example, f o l l o w i n g t h e I n c i -d e n t , b r o a d a n t i - f o r e i g n i s s u e s became more i m p o r t a n t t h a n l o c a l d o m e s t i c o n e s . The r o l e o f t h e CCP ! was a l s o more i m p o r t a n t a f t e r t h e I n c i d e n t . Y e t many i n d i v i d u a l s , when t e s t i f y i n g o r w r i t i n g s i m p l y assumed t h a t p r i o r t o May 3 0 t h t h e r e was a s t r o n g a n t i - f o r e i g n campaign t h a t was b e i n g m a s t e r f u l l y m a n i p u l a t e d by t h e CCP f o r i t s own e n d s . I t was n o t s i m p l y an a n t i - f o r e i g n campaign m a n i p u l a t e d by t h e CCP. T h e r e were a l s o l o c a l l e a d e r s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . 2. • THE STUDENTS IN THE SETTLEMENT AREA PRIOR TO THREE P.M. a. THEIR AIMS Few w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d as to why t h e s t u d e n t s were i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t on May 3 0 t h . On t h e one ha n d , P a g e N o . 1 3 8 t h e p o l i c e a n d t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s s p o k e f o r two r e a s o n s : t o o p p o s e t h e J a p a n e s e b e c a u s e t h e y h a d s h o t K u C h e n g - h u n g , a n d t o i n c i t e c r o w d s t o s e e k t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d o n May 2 4 t h b y a t t a c k i n g t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , C h i n e s e w r i t e r s c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e o r i g i n a l -l y n o t s p e a k i n g a b o u t i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s a n d w e r e n o t a t t e m p -t i n g t o i n c i t e p e r s o n s t o a t t a c k t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . B o t h saw t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s as a n t i - f o r e i g n , a n d a n t i -J a p a n e s e i n p a r t i c u l a r . I n C o u r t , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n s p o k e o f t h e g r o u p s t h a t 136 he h a d o r d e r e d a r r e s t e d t h a t d a y : We h a d o n e man i n q u i r e o f t h e i r s p e e c h e s t o f i n d o u t w h a t w e r e t h e i r n a t u r e , a n d f o u n d t h e m t o b e c l e a r l y a n t i - J a p a n e s e . T h e i r g e n e r a l t o n e , h o w e v e r , was c l e a r l y an t i - f o r e i gn . A l t h o u g h t h e I n s p e c t o r was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e a n t i - f o r e i g n } a n t i - J a p a n e s e n a t u r e o f t h e s p e e c h e s , h e w a s , h o w e v e r , m o r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o t h e r p r o b l e m s . He was i n f a c t , m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s m i g h t i n c i t e a c r o w d l a r g e e n o u g h t o a t t a c k t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a n d t h u s o b t a i n t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e i r a r r e s -t e d c o m p a n i o n s . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n s t a t e d t h a t he h a d b e -come c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e i n t e n t o n a t t a c k i n g L o u z a as e a r l y a s two p.m., when a g r o u p o f e i g h t e e n Page No. 139 137 s t u d e n t s had t o be a r r e s t e d . The I n s p e c t o r r e s p o n d e d by r i n g i n g t h e f i r e b e l l ( a t 2:30) to put more men on d u t y . A l t h o u g h he r e a l i z e d the s t u d e n t s were n o t o u t i n any g r e a t numbers t h a t day, he t h o u g h t t h e r e a l d a n g e r l a y n o t i n the s i z e o f t h e s t u d e n t s b u t i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y 13 8 to i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s . P o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s were t h u s s e n t o u t on p a t r o l s to s e i z e any s t u d e n t t h a t was s p e a k i n g o r p a s s i n g out i n f o r m a t i o n t o p e r s o n s i n the S e t t l e m e n t 139 a r e a . In t h e p a s t , the M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e i n S h a n g h a i had r a r e l y u n d e r s t o o d why s t u d e n t s w o u l d go out and " s a c r i f i c e " t h e m s e l v e s by s p e a k i n g w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t a r e a s . Many t i m e s the M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s had c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e p o l i c e had n o t made enough e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l the s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s , and i n s t e a d a l l o w e d them to go u n i n h i b i t e d i n t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t and c a u s e t r o u b l e . On May 3 0 t h , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , b e l i e v i n g t h a t he had r e a d t h e minds o f t h e s t u d e n t s p r o p e r l y , was d e t e r -mined t h a t they w o u l d n o t r e m a i n i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t f o r l o n g and thus g a i n t h e chance to a t t a c k a s t a t i o n t h a t was n , 140 w e l l armed. Wang Yun-wu, i n t h e magazine TFTC, w r o t e an a c c o u n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e i r aims t h a t d i s a g r e e d w i t h I n s p e c -t o r E v e r s o n and t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s . He b e l i e v e d P a g e No. 1 4 0 t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s t h a t d a y w e r e o u t m a i n l y p a r a d i n g a n d s p e a k i n g f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : ( 1 ) b e c a u s e t h e J a p a n e s e h a d k i l l e d a C h i n e s e w o r k e r , t h e y s o u g h t i m m e d i a t e p r o s e c u t i o n o f t h e g u i l t y p a r t y as w e l l as b e t t e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e w o r k e r s ; ( 2 ) b e c a u s e f o u r s t u d e n t s h a d b e e n s e i z e d a n d a r r e s t e d f o r m a r c h i n g on May 2 4 t h , t h e y s o u g h t t o o b t a i n t h e i r r e l e a s e ; a n d ( 3 ) b e c a u s e t h e M u n i -c i p a l C o u n c i l w i s h e d t o p r o p o s e a p u b l i c a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n , t o l e v y w h a r f t a x e s , a n d t o p r o p o s e a new t r a d e r e g u l a t i o n , t h e y w e n t o u t t o w a r n t h e C h i n e s e c i t i z e n s o f S h a n g h a i , " a n d t h u s u r g e t h o s e p e o p l e t o make t h e i r f e e l i n g s k n o w n t o 141 t h e s e t t l e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e s e e n a s a g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e m p t i n g t o r a l l y C h i n e s e p u b l i c o p i n i o n a g a i n s t t h e s e i s s u e s , a n d n o t as a g i t a t o r s a t t e m p -t i n g t o i n c i t e a mob t o a t t a c k t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c e s t a t i o n . T h e N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d r e p o r t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s who " s e e m e d t o b e s o m e w h a t m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e J a p a n e s e , t h e a r r e s t s , a n d t h e b y -l a w s a n d who w e r e m a k i n g s p e e c h e s i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t a r e a 14 2 t h a t d a y . " I t r e p o r t e d t h a t o n e o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s m o s t 14 3 l i v e l y l e a f l e t s r e a d : B r e t h r e n . Do y o u e x p e r i e n c e p a i n a n d d i f -f i c u l t y i n g a i n i n g y o u r l i v e l i h o o d ? A n d do y o u know why y o u e x p e r i e n c e more p a i n a n d d i f f i c u l t y t h a n b e f o r e ? H e r e a r e t h e r e a s o n s : i P a g e No. 141. 1. T h e i m p e r i a l i s m o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d J a p a n h a ^ r e s u l t e d i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f C h i n e s e C u s t o m s . T h e y h a v e l e v i e d an i m p o r t d u t y l e s s t h a n t h e e x p o r t d u t y i n o r d e r t o r e t a r d t h e d e v e l o p -m e n t o f C h i n e s e i n d u s t r y . T h e f o r e i g n e r s h a v e t a k e n o u r money f r o m us b y m a k i n g us b u y t h e i r g o o d s , t h i s m a k i n g t h e C h i n e s e p o o r e r a n d p o o r e r d a y b y d a y ; 2. T h e s e n a t i o n s o f t e n a s s i s t C h i n e s e m i l i t a r i s t s i n e x c h a n g e f o r c o n c e s s i o n s a n d b e n e f i t s r e g a r d i n g m i n e s a n d r a i l w a y s . T h e m i l i t a r i s t s s e c u r e l o a n s a n d b u y a r m s a n d a m m u n i t i o n s o t h e y c a n r u n t h e i r c i v i l w a r s . . . ; 3. T h e J a p a n e s e h a v e k i l l e d o u r - b r e -t h r e n l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s a n d t h e p o l i c e h a v e a r r e s t e d w o r k m e n . I n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e t r o u b l e among t h e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s , s t u d e n t s a r e t r y i n g t o c o l l e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r t h e i r r e l i e f a n d y e t t h e p o l i c e h a v e a r r e s -t e d t h e m . When we p a i d o u r l a s t r e s p e c t s t o Ku C h e n g - h u n g who was k i l l e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e a g a i n a r r e s t e d b y t h e p o l i c e . T h e y h a v e p u t t h e m i n t o g a o l , c o l d a n d h u n -g r y . . . ; 4. R e c e n t l y t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l t r e s p a s s e d i n t o C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r y i n o r d e r t o make r o a d s a n d o c c u p y C h i n e s e a r e a . A-g a i n t h e y t r y t o c a r r y o u t t h e P r i n t e d - m a t -t e r a n d W h a r f a g e d u e s b y l a w s . . . U n i t e a n d d e f e a t I m p e r i a l i s m a n d C a p i -t a l i s m . T h e NCH r e p o r t e r s f u r t h e r n o t i c e d t h a t a m o n g s t t h e s e s t u -d e n t s , a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s l o g a n s f r e q u e n t l y t o o k t h e p l a c e o f a n t i - J a p a n e s e s l o g a n s ; w h i l e b r o a d e r i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g c a p i t a l i s m , t h e t r e a t i e s , a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e M u n i c i p a l 14 4 C o u n c i l w e r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e i r l e c t u r e s . U n l i k e many o f t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s , t h e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e o f t e n t r a i n e d r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s 145 KMT p a r t i e s . h o l d i n g membe r s h i p i n e i t h e r t h e CCP o r P a g e No. 142 S t u d e n t s i n s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s on N a n k i n g R o a d h a d o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o k e e p m o v i n g s o a s t o a v o i d a r r e s t * I t was h o p e d t h a t i n t h i s way t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s i n each, b r i g a d e w o u l d be a b l e t o r e a c h g r e a t e r n u m b e r s o f C h i n e s e s h o p p e r s a n d p e d e s t r i a n s on N a n k i n g R o a d . A t f i r s t , m o s t g r o u p s f o l l o w e d t h a t p l a n . By two p.m., how-e v e r , t h a t p l a n was b e g i n n i n g t o b r e a k down. I n s t e a d o f m o v i n g on when a l e a d e r was a r r e s t e d , s t u d e n t s i n t h e b r i -g a d e s b e g a n t o o f f e r t h e m s e l v e s up f o r a r r e s t . A t 2 : 1 0 , e i g h t e e n s t u d e n t s w e r e t a k e n i n t o c u s t o d y w hen t h e y r e - " f u s e d t o l e a v e t h e C h a r g e Room o f t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n . By 3 : 3 0 , m o r e t h a n 50 s t u d e n t s h a d b e e n a r r e s t e d i n a s i -m i l a r m a n n e r . T h e a i m s a n d a c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e M i x e d C o u r t a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n n o t a s w e l l d e f i n e d o r o r g a n i z e d as t h o s e o f t h e s t u d e n t s on N a n k i n g R o a d . T h e a s s e m b l y t h e r e was h e l d t o p r o t e s t t h e t r i a l o f f o u r s t u d e n t s a r -r e s t e d on May 2 4 t h . A l l s c h o o l s w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d , a l t h o u g h no p l a n s s e e m e d t o h a v e b e e n made f o r a c t i o n a f t e r t h e t r i a l . T h e a i m s o f t h e a s s e m b l y , h o w e v e r , b e c a m e m a n i f e s t when t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s d e c i d e d t o d e t a i n t h e s t u -d e n t s f o r t r i a l a t a l a t e . r d a t e . When t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e r e t u r n e d t o t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n , t h e a s s e m b l y d e c i d e d t o f o l l o w , f o r m i n g t h e C h e k i a n g R o a d P r o c e s s i o n . Page No. 143 b. THEIR SIZE B e f o r e 3:00 p.m. most w i t n e s s e s p l a c e d the m a j o r i t y o f the s t u d e n t s a s s e m b l e d o r s p e a k i n g i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y at the M i x e d C o u r t . I t was e s t i m a t e d by the N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d t h a t t h e r e were as many as t h r e e o r 146 f o u r h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s t h e r e as e a r l y as 1:20 p.m. Po-14 7 l i c e ' e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t e d t h a t r e p o r t . No o t h e r w i t n e s s e s were c a l l e d , and t h e C h i n e s e w o u l d n o t t e s t i f y . The number o f s t u d e n t s s p e a k i n g on N a n k i n g Road was a d i f f i c u l t f i g u r e t o e s t i m a t e . U n l i k e the a s s e m b l y at the M i x e d C o u r t , t h e s t u d e n t s on N a n k i n g Road were s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t the a r e a a t the m a j o r i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n s m a l l g r o u p s o r b r i g a d e s o f about f i v e to t e n p e r s o n s . Most w i t -n e s s e s , as t h e y w a l k e d a l o n g N a n k i n g Road, o n l y saw the b r i g a d e s i n t h e a r e a t h a t t h e y w a l k e d i n . F i g u r e s t h e y gave were thus o f t e n t o o low, and i n most c a s e s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o f no more t h a n two o r t h r e e b r i g a d e s . P o l i c e o f f i c e r s managed to s i g h t more b r i g a d e s , and t h u s t h e i r f i g u r e s were u s u a l l y h i g h e r . In e s t i m a t i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e s t u d e n t s s p e a k i n g , I n -s p e c t o r E v e r s o n s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were a b o u t one to two 14 8 h u n d r e d s t u d e n t s i n v a r i o u s b r i g a d e s a r o u n d N a n k i n g Road. S u p p o s e d l y , h i s f i g u r e s were b a s e d upon t h e c o l l e c t i v e r e p o r t s of h i s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t h a t day. S u b - I n s p e c t o r P a g e No. 144 S h e l l s w e l l , who s e e m e d t o be e v e r y w h e r e t h a t d a y , t h o u g h t t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a b o u t two h u n d r e d t o two h u n d r e d a n d 149 f i f t y . R e v . A n d e r s o n , who c o v e r e d a b o u t t h e same a r e a a s S h e l l s w e l l , e s t i m a t e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o be a b o u t o n e hun-d r e d a n d f i f t y . ' ' " " ^ By 2:00 p.m., t h e combined t o t a l o f the two a r e a s i m p o r t a n t to the May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t r e p r e s e n t e d a b o u t f i v e h u n d r e d s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s who were s p e a k i n g , p a s s i n g o u t l i t e r a t u r e , h o l d i n g b a n n e r s o r s i m p l y m a r c h i n g . The num-b e r , however, may have been as l a r g e as s e v e n h u n d r e d o r as s m a l l as f o u r h u n d r e d . c. COMPOSITION F o l l o w i n g the I n c i d e n t , t h e e x a c t b a c k g r o u n d o f the s t u d e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e M i x e d C o u r t and i n the s p e a k -i n g b r i g a d e s on N a n k i n g Road became e n t w i n e d i n t h e c o n t r o -v e r s i a l c h a r g e s t h a t t h e whole a f f a i r had been B o l s h e v i k i n s p i r e d and B o l s h e v i k l e d . As i t became known t h a t t h e CCP was p l a y i n g an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e S h a n g h a i G e n e r a l S t r i k e t h a t f o l l o w e d the I n c i d e n t , more and more w r i t e r s became c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e CCP had i n some manner m a n i p u l a t e d the s t u d e n t s to i n c i t e t h e I n c i d e n t . On June 6 t h , the N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d d e c l a r e d t h a t the s t u -d e n t a g i t a t o r s were B o l s h e v i k i n s p i r e d and t h a t a l l assem-b l i e s had been p l a n n e d from the "Red U n i v e r s i t y " -P a g e N o . 145 S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , 1 5 1 T h e p o l i c e f u r t h e r c h a r g e d t h a t S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y h a d a c t e d o n d i r e c t o r d e r s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e CCP on May 2 9 t h . T h u s , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s w e r e s e n t o u t t o a g i t a t e a n d s t a r t t r o u b l e i n a n y way t h e y c o u l d on May 3 0 t h . 1 5 2 D u r i n g t h e M i x e d C o u r t t r i a l s , m o s t o f t h e w i t n e s s e s a t t e m p t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e p o l i c e r e p o r t s ; s o m e , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t . On J u n e 4 t h , H a r r y K i n g m a n s e n t a l e t t e r t o t h e T a - l u - p ao n e w s p a p e r t h a t a t t e m p t e d t o r e f u t e t h e p o l i c e 15 3 c h a r g e s o f d i r e c t B o l s h e v i k g u i d a n c e . He s a i d : B e i n g p e r s o n a l l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h some o f t h e s t u d e n t s , I s t a t e w i t h c o n v i c -t i o n t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e g r e a t ma-j o r i t y , a t l e a s t p r i o r t o t h e k i l l i n g on S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n , w e r e n e i t h e r p r o - B o l s h e v i k n o r a n t i - f o r e i g n . T h e y w e r e t y p i c a l c o l l e g e a n d p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l m e n a n d n o t h i n g m o r e . T h e q u e s t i o n o f c o m p o s i t i o n , h o w e v e r , s h o u l d n o t b e s i d e - t r a c k e d b y t h e a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c o m m u n i s t a c t i v i s t s a m o n g s t t h e s t u d e n t s who w e r e a l l e g e d t o h a v e b e e n l o o k i n g f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a r t an i n c i -d e n t . I t s h o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t t o know t h a t s u c h p e r s o n s may h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t . T h e i r a c t u a l s i z e i s n o t i m p o r t a n t f o r i f t h e y as a c t i v i s t s w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f i c i e n t , i t w o u l d n o t t a k e many o f t h e m t o i n c i t e a l a r g e c r o w d o r P a g e No. 146 a s s e m b l y i n t o mob a c t i o n i n c o n d i t i o n s w h e r e p e r s o n s w e r e m o s t r e c e p t i v e t o t h a t k i n d o f s u g g e s t i o n . Few w i t n e s s e s a c t u a l l y saw t h e a s s e m b l y a t t h e M i x e d C o u r t . R e p o r t s w e r e k e p t by t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n i n t h a t a r e a , a n d i t was t h e s e r e p o r t s t h a t t h e N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d m a i n l y u s e d t o w r i t e v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s a n d e d i t o r i a l s c o n -c e r n i n g t h i s a s s e m b l y . One a r t i c l e i n p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i d e s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s g a -t h e r e d t h e r e . I t r e p o r t e d t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y s c h o o l i n S h a n g h a i was r e p r e s e n t e d . S t u d e n t s f r o m N a n y a n g C o l l e g e , S h a n g h a i Law S c h o o l , T ' u n g - c h i M e d i c a l S c h o o l , a n d S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y w e r e o u t i n t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r s ; b u t o t h e r s c h o o l s s u c h as S t . J o h n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , A u r o r a U n i v e r s i t y , S h a n g h a i B a p t i s t C o l l e g e , a n d F u t a n U n i v e r s i t y w e r e a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d . B a n n e r s a n d f l a g s w e r e s i g h t e d , a n n o u n c i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s f r o m e v e r y s c h o o l . S l o -g a n s r e p r e s e n t i n g e v e r y v i e w p o i n t w e r e n o t i c e d . T h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s on N a n k i n g R o a d i n t h e v a r i o u s s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s was o p e n t o m o r e d i s a g r e e m e n t a n d c o n f u s i o n . A l m o s t e v e r y s t u d e n t a r r e s t e d p r i o r t o 3:00 p.m. ( 4 9 o u t o f 50) was f r o m S h a n g h a i U n i -v e r s i t y . F o l l o w i n g t h e I n c i d e n t , i t t h e n b e c a m e v e r y e a s y f o r many w i t n e s s e s a n d w r i t e r s t o a c c e p t t h e " B o l s h e v i k c o n s p i r a c y t h e o r y " as b e i n g t h e r e a s o n t h a t a s s e m b l i e s h a d P a g e No. 147 o c c u r r e d on N a n k i n g R o a d t h a t d a y . No e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , was r e a l l y e v e r g i v e n t o s u p p o r t t h a t c o n t e n t i o n . T h e a c c u s a t i o n was s i m p l y r e p e a t e d o v e r a n d o v e r a t t h e t r i a l s a n d a t t h e J u d i c i a l I n q u i r y . 1 5 5 A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s f r o m S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y s e e m e d t o b e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e s p e a k i n g i n t h e L o u z a D i s t r i c t , a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s who made t h e a r r e s t s d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e c o m m u n i s t s . I n s t e a d , i t o n l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s w e r e a n t i - J a p a n e s e o r a n t i - f o r e i g n , m a i n l y s p e a k i n g a g a i n s t t h e a r r e s t o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s a n d 15 6 t h e d e a t h o f K u C h & n g - h u n g . O t h e r s w e r e r e p o r t e d t o b e s e e n s p e a k i n g a g a i n s t t h e M u n i c i p a l G o v e r n m e n t , t h e b y l a w s , a n d t h e t r e a t i e s ; b u t t h e i r s p e e c h e s w e r e n e v e r c a t e g o r i z e d as a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t o r a n t i - c a p i t a l i s t . Whe-t h e r t h e y w e r e B o l s h e v i k o r n o t was s i m p l y n o t p r o v e n . I t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t p r i o r t o t h r e e p.m. a t t h e M i x e d C o u r t a n d i n t h e L o u z a D i s t r i c t r e p r e s e n t e d a w i d e b a c k g r o u n d o f s c h o o l s . V a r i o u s v i e w -p o i n t s w e r e e x p r e s s e d r e p r e s e n t i n g c o n c e r n f o r l o c a l i s -s u e s as w e l l a s b r a o d n a t i o n a l o n e s . S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s w e r e p r e d o m i n a n t i n t h e L o u z a D i s t r i c t a l t h o u g h o t h e r s f r o m N a n y a n g C o l l e g e w e r e a l s o a r r e s t e d t h e r e f o r P a g e No. 1 4 8 s p e a k i n g . No c o n c l u s i o n s , h o w e v e r , c a n be d r a w n r e -g a r d i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d , a f f i l i a t i o n , o r p h i l o -s o p h y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . 3. THE CROWDS ON NANKING ROAD AT THE T I M E OF THE F I R I N G A l t h o u g h t h e t e s t i m o n y on t h e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t p r i o r t o t h r e e p.m. was r i d d l e d w i t h s e v e r a l m a j o r c o n t r o v e r s i e s , t h a t c o n t r o v e r s y was r e a l l y q u i t e m i n o r when c o m p a r e d t o t h e d e b a t e s u r -r o u n d i n g t h e c r o w d i n f r o n t o f t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n a t 3 : 3 7 . S u c h q u e s t i o n s a s i t s s i z e , t e m p e r a m e n t , a n d i t s c o m p o s i t i o n c r e a t e d m a j o r c l a s h e s i n b o t h t h e M i x e d C o u r t a n d t h e v a r i o u s e d i t o r i a l s i n t h e S h a n g h a i n e w s p a p e r s . a. THE TIM E S OF A R R I V A L AND THE S I Z E OF THE CROWDS M o s t w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e l a r g e a s s e m b l y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r i n g was s o m e w h e r e a r o u n d f i f t e e n h u n d r e d t o two t h o u s a n d two h u n d r e d p e o p l e , g e n e r a l l y s c a t t e r e d f r o m Y u n n a n R o a d t o C h e k i a n g R o a d . 1 5 ^ T h e w i t n e s s e s a l s o a -g r e e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c r o w d a r r i v e d f r o m t h e e a s t v i a C h e k i a n g R o a d ; t h e o t h e r s f r o m t h e v a r i o u s s i d e s t r e e t s s u r r o u n d i n g N a n k i n g R o a d . T h e y d i d , h o w e v e r , d i s a g r e e a s t o t h e t i m e t h a t t h i s l a r g e a s s e m b l y b e c a m e t h e l a r g e m a s s t h a t b e g a n t o p u s h down N a n k i n g R o a d t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . Some b e l i e v e d t h e c r o w d , o r a t l e a s t a l a r g e p a r t Page No. 149 o f i t , was on N a k i n g Road as e a r l y as 3:05 o r 3:10; o t h e r s f e l t t h a t i t was c l o s e r to 3:20 o r 3:25. O t h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t a m a j o r p a r t o f t h a t group was t h e r e as e a r l y as 15 8 3:00 p.m., p o s s i b l y as e a r l y as 2:45. The C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e had t e s t i f i e d t h a t he p a s s e d t h e p o i n t where the d i s t u r b a n c e s had o c c u r r e d a r o u n d 3:10; he had f o u n d e v e r y t h i n g to be q u i t e n o r m a l . A l -t h o u g h he had n o t i c e d many p e o p l e , he t h o u g h t t h e y were 159 m a i n l y S a t u r d a y s h o p p e r s . Dr. C l i n e had w a l k e d p a s t the e n t r a n c e to t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n s h o r t l y a f t e r t h r e e ( a b o u t 3:05). He n o t i c e d a l a r g e crowd; b u t he f e l t t h a t i t was no l a r g e r t h an a n o r m a l S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n crowd. He d i d , however, n o t i c e s e v e r a l s t u d e n t g r o u p s s p e a k i n g to d i f f e r e n t a s s e m b l i e s i n t h a t crowd. He e s t i m a t e d them t o ^ no more than f i f t y t o one h u n d r e d p e r s o n s i n a l l . The 16 0 s t r e e t was q u i e t . Mr. A n d e r s o n , a l s o s h o p p i n g on Nan-k i n g Road a t t h e t i m e , a g r e e d w i t h Dr. C l i n e . 1 ^ " ' " Mr. W i l l i a m Cameron, about 3:15, n o t i c e d t h a t t h e crowd i n f r o n t o f him was e x c e p t i o n a l l y t h i c k . At t h a t time he was s t a n d i n g a t the e n t r a n c e o f t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y i n t h e Town H a l l . As he w a l k e d towards C h e k i a n g Road, he a l s o saw how the crowd became t h i c k e r and t h i c k e r . About 3:20 o r 3:25 he n o t i c e d s e v e r a l more " r e i n f o r c e m e n t s " a r r i v i n g v i a C h e k i a n g Road, making i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t to t r a v e l on P a g e No. 150 16 2 N a n k i n g R o a d . M e s s r s . O ' N e i l l , H.P. K i n g , H a r o l d G. W i t c h e r , H a r r y W e s t r i d g e , a n d T h o m a s T a t l o c k , i n g e n e r a l , a l l s u p p o r t e d t h e t e s t i m o n y o f C l i n e , A n d e r s o n , a n d 16 3 C a m e r o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s on N a n k i n g R o a d . T h e s e men w e r e a t t h a t t i m e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t N a n k i n g R o a d ; some w e r e i n t h e i r a u t o s , o t h e r s w e r e w a l k i n g . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , when g i v i n g e v i d e n c e , f e l t t h a t t h e a s s e m b l y i n f r o n t o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a t 3:00 p.m. was as l a r g e a s e i g h t h u n d r e d o r a t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s . He s t a t e d : 1 ^ As e a r l y as 3:00 p.m., t h e r e w e r e a b o u t 8 0 0 - 1 0 0 0 p e r s o n s o n N a n k i n g R o a d b y t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . O f t h e s e a b o u t 7 0 - 1 0 0 w e r e i n s i d e t h e s t a -t i o n i n t h e C h a r g e Room. When he was r e c a l l e d t o t e s t i f y , t h e I n s p e c t o r was a g a i n a s k e d a b o u t t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s c r o w d . He a n s w e r e d t h a t some w e r e s t u d e n t s , some w e r e s h o p p e r s , some w e r e c u r i o s i t y w a t c h e r s , a n d some w e r e m e r e l y l o a f e r s . U p o n f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e I n s p e c t o r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t h i s a n -s w e r s on s i z e w e r e n o t s o much i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r w i t n e s s e s a s he h a d o n c e b e l i e v e d . I n h i s e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e s i z e o f t h e c r o w d , h e h a d i n c l u d e d e v e r y o n e t h a t was on N a n k i n g R o a d b y t h e e n t r a n c e ; t h e same p e r s o n s t h a t D r . C l i n e h a d s p o k e n o f . T h e d i f f e r e n c e h a d b e e n t h a t D r . C l i n e h a d s p o k e n o f t h e s e p e r s o n s a s P a g e No. 151 b e i n g a n o r m a l S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n c r o w d , w h i l e E v e r s o n s p o k e o f t h e m as b e i n g a p o t e n t i a l l y d a n g e r o u s g r o u p t h a t c o u l d j o i n i n w i t h a n y a s s e m b l y t h a t was f o r m i n g on N a n k i n g R o a d . " 1 ^ 5 I n t h e r e c o r d b o o k s a t t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n , t h e I n s p e c t o r a t 3:10 r e c o r d e d t h e s i z e o f t h e c r o w d on N a n -16 6 k i n g R o a d t o be a b o u t n i n e h u n d r e d p e r s o n s . I n c l u d i n g b o t h t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s a n d t h e o n - l o o k e r s , t h e f i g u r e s c o r r e s p o n d t o b o t h A n d e r s o n ' s a n d C l i n e ' s . T h e I n s p e c t o r f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e a b o u t o n e t o two h u n d r e d 16 7 s t u d e n t s i n t h e c r o w d s p e a k i n g . T h e f i g u r e was a l s o 16 8 t h e same as A n d e r s o n ' s . T h e I n s p e c t o r a g r e e d w i t h o t h e r w i t n e s s e s as t o t h e t i m e o f a r r i v a l o f t h e g r o u p f r o m 169 C h e k i a n g R o a d o n t o N a n k i n g R o a d . He s a i d : I saw m o r e p e o p l e r u s h i n f r o m C h e k i a n g R o a d a n d j o i n t h e c r o w d a s s e m b l e d o n N a n k i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l a b o u t 3 : 2 5 . I n a l l t h e r e w e r e now a b o u t two t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s ; b u t i t was g r o w i n g t o o q u i c k t o k e e p a c o u n t . F r o m a l l t h i s c o l l e c t i v e e v i d e n c e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t m o s t o f t h e w i t n e s s e s h a d n o t i c e d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e on N a n k i n g R o a d p r i o r t o 3 : 2 0 — i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , o n e t h a t was c l o s e t o t h e s i z e o f a n o r m a l S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n c r o w d . S t u d e n t s w e r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h a t g r o u p s p e a k i n g a n d p a s s i n g o u t l i t e r a t u r e . T h e c r o w d was no l a r g e r t h a n P a g e No. 152 o n e t h o u s a n d , b u t no s m a l l e r t h a n s e v e n h u n d r e d . T h e s t u d e n t s w e r e no m o r e t h a n o n e - f i f t h o f i t . T h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s a r r i v e d s o m e w h e r e a r o u n d 3:25 v i a C h e k i a n g R o a d ; a n d i t was t h i s g r o u p t h a t p u s h e d t h e s m a l l e r a s s e m b l y b a c k t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . b . THE C O M P O S I T I O N OF THE CROWDS By t h r e e p.m., t h e w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d , t h e s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s w e r e no l o n g e r t h e o n l y a c t i v e m e m bers on N a n -k i n g R o a d . As m o r e a r r e s t s w e r e made, n o n - s t u d e n t e l e m e n t s b e g a n t o j o i n t h e s t u d e n t r a n k s t o p r o t e s t t h e p o l i c e a c -t i o n . W h e r e b e f o r e 2:30 t h e s t u d e n t a c t i v i s t s w e r e m a i n l y t h e o n l y p e r s o n s e n g a g e d i n s p e a k i n g a n d m a r c h i n g on N a n -k i n g R o a d , b y 2:45 p.m., t h i s b e g a n t o c h a n g e . N o n -s t u d e n t e l e m e n t s j o i n e d t h e a s s e m b l i e s a n d b e g a n t o j o i n t h e s t u d e n t s as t h e y e n t e r e d t h e C h a r g e Room a t v a r i o u s t i m e s . F i n a l l y , a b o u t t h r e e p.m., t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e i n t h e m i n o r i t y . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a n d S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s -w e l l b o t h r e p o r t e d t h a t a f t e r t h r e e , o f t h e p e r s o n s who e n t e r e d t h e C h a r g e Room a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n w e r e s t u d e n t s . ^ " S e r g e a n t P a p p v e r i f i e d t h i s i n h i s t e s t i m o n y . I n f a c t , t h e y a l l r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e now o n l y a b o u t o n e - f i f t h o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s o u t s i d e o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n ( 2 0 0 o u t o f 1 0 0 0 ) . I t was a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t many o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r - f i f t h s w e r e no l o n g e r i d l y w a t c h i n g o r s h o p p i n g as t h e y h a d b e -c 1 7 3 f o r e . P a g e No. 1 5 3 T h e w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d t h a t i t was t h e s p e e c h e s , pam-p h l e t s , a n d a c t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t a g i t a t o r s as w e l l a s t h e c o u n t e r - a c t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c e t h a t e n t i c e d many o f t h e n o n - s t u d e n t members t o j o i n i n t h e c r o w d s a n d m a r c h e s 174 on t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . A s t h e p o l i c e c o n t i n u e d t o make m o r e a r r e s t s , t h e s e a c t i o n s o n l y made t h e w o r d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s m o r e b e l i e v a b l e . P e r s o n s w a t c h i n g , t h u s , j o i n e d t h e s m a l l g r o u p s as t h e y m a r c h e d t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n t o v o i c e t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s . B u t as D r . C l i n e a n d R e v . A n d e r s o n p o i n t e d o u t , many o f t h e p e r s o n s s t a n d i n g n e a r b y w e r e s w e p t i n t o t h e c r o w d s a s t h e y m a r c h e d b y . T h e s e p e r s o n s o f t e n f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a p o s i t i o n o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l s t a n d i n g p l a c e As t h e g r o u p a r r i v e d f r o m t h e M i x e d C o u r t , t h e s t u -d e n t s / n o n - s t u d e n t r a t i o r e m a i n e d much t h e s a m e . O f t h i s g r o u p f r o m C h e k i a n g R o a d o f a b o u t one t h o u s a n d i n n u m b e r , 17 6 t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e no m ore t h a n two t o t h r e e h u n d r e d . As t h i s g r o u p j o i n e d t h e m a s s o f p e o p l e i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l , a c o m b i n e d c r o w d o f now a b o u t two t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e a b o u t f o u r o r f i v e h u n d r e d i n n u m b e r , a b o u t o n e - f i f t h o f t h e t o t a l . T h e e x a c t b r e a k d o w n o f t h e n o n - s t u d e n t e l e m e n t s p a r -t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e l a r g e a s s e m b l y as i t m o v e d a h e a d t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . W i t n e s s e s n e a r b y o f t e n made no d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h o s e P a g e No. 154 p a r t i c i p a t i n g a n d t h o s e who w e r e n o t . O t h e r w i t n e s s e s w e r e l i m i t e d a s t o how many p e r s o n s t h e y c o u l d a c t u a l l y s e e . M o s t w i t n e s s e s , h o w e v e r , a g r e e d t h a t t h e s e n o n -s t u d e n t e l e m e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f c u r i o s i t y - s e e k e r s , o n -l o o k e r s , a f t e r n o o n s h o p p e r s , l o a f e r s , a n d o t h e r p e d e s -t r i a n s s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e i r d e m a n d s . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a n d S u b - I n s p e c t o r S h e l l s w e l l r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y saw " r o w d y u n d e s i r a b l e e l e m e n t s " a n d p r o f e s -s i o n a l t r o u b l e - m a k e r s who h a d m a n a g e d t o p u s h t h e demon-s t r a t i o n f a r b e y o n d t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s t u d e n t s . 1 ^ I n t h e same b r e a t h , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s t u -d e n t s i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s w e r e s t i l l s p e a k i n g , e n t i c i n g t h e o t h e r s t o f o l l o w t h e m i n an a t t a c k o n t h e p o l i c e s t a -1 7 8 t i o n . T h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c r o w d a t 3:30 h a d c h a n g e d r a d i c a l l y w i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e C h e k i a n g P r o c e s s i o n . S t u d e n t s f r o m S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y w e r e no l o n g e r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s o n N a n k i n g R o a d . S t u d e n t s f r o m s u c h s c h o o l s as N a n y a n g C o l l e g e , T ' u n g - c h i M e d i c a l S c h o o l , a n d C h i n g c f t o n g M i d d l e S c h o o l w e r e s e e n a s p a r t o f t h e f r o n t r a n k s as t h e c r o w d m o v e d t o w a r d t h e s t a -179 t i o n . S t u d e n t s f r o m S t . J o h n ' s U n i v e r s i t y , F u t a n U n i -v e r s i t y , S h a n g h a i Law S c h o o l , a n d S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y w e r e o b s e r v e d s p e a k i n g t o d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s i n t h e c r o w d i t s e l f . T h e s t u d e n t s f rom t h e M i x e d C o u r t w e r e now i n t h e m a j o r i t y . P a g e No. 155 T h u s , b y 3 : 3 0 , t h e e x a c t c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e p e r -s o n s i n v o l v e d i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o n N a n k i n g R o a d h a d r a -d i c a l l y c h a n g e d . T h e r e w e r e no l o n g e r o n l y s t u d e n t s m a r c h i n g . P e d e s t r i a n s , s h o p p e r s , a n d o t h e r s h a d j o i n e d i n d i f f e r e n t a s s e m b l i e s t o v o i c e t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o p o -l i c e a c t i o n a n d t o v o i c e t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a r i o u s s t u d e n t d e m a n d s . Some h a d w i l l i n g l y j o i n e d i n ; o t h e r s h a d no t . c . THE TEMPERAMENT OF T H E CROWDS i . MAIN C O N T R O V E R S I E S T h e t e m p e r a m e n t o f t h e c r o w d a t 3:30 p r o v e d t o b e o n e o f t h e m o s t h o t l y d i s p u t e d i s s u e s . On t h e o n e h a n d , t h e c r o w d was d e s c r i b e d a s a s c r e a m i n g w i l d mob t h a t was r u s h -i n g t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n ; w h i l e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t was d e p i c t e d as an o r d e r l y g r o u p , a d v a n c i n g s l o w l y , i n t e n t on a t t a c k i n g t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . One was c h a o t i c , t h e o t h e r c o n t r o l l e d . I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c r o w d s w e r e c o n t i n u a l l y b e c o m i n g l a r g e r a n d l a r g e r , r i g h t up u n t i l 3:00 o ' c l o c k I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t he w o u l d h a v e 180 no d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s p e r s i n g t h e " h o s t i l e " c r o w d s . 181 O t h e r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s f e l t t h e same as E v e r s o n d i d . By 3 : 2 0 , h o w e v e r , t h e y b e g a n t o c h a n g e t h e i r m i n d s , f o r t h e y n o t i c e d w h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o b e an i m p o r t a n t P a g e No. 156 c h a n g e i n t h e mood o f t h e c r o w d . E v e r s o n f e l t t h a t i t was b e c o m i n g e v e n m o r e i n t e n t on a t t a c k i n g t h e s t a t i o n 18 2 t o o b t a i n t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e s t u d e n t s . W i t h t h e a r r i -v a l o f t h e C h e k i a n g R o a d g r o u p a n d t h e i n c r e a s e i n v i o -l e n t a c t s , t h e I n s p e c t o r b e c a m e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o s s i -b i l i t y o f a t t a c k . E v e r s o n d e s c r i b e d t h e c r o w d a s v e r y 18 3 h o s t i l e a n d e x t r e m e l y d a n g e r o u s . D r . C l i n e , t h i s t i m e a t t h e c o r n e r o f T h i b e t R o a d h e a d i n g e a s t w a r d , n o t i c e d t h a t t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t o f n o i s e b e i n g made b y t h e c r o w d o n N a n k i n g R o a d , a n d t h e r e w e r e s e v e r a l f l a g s a n d b a n n e r s b e i n g w a v e d ; b u t s o f a r as he c o u l d s e e t h e c r o w d was n o t o f f e r i n g a n y v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h he n o t i c e d t h e p o l i c e w e r e 1 n- • j 184 s l o w l y b e x n g f o r c e d t o r e t r e a t . M r . A r t h u r C o v e y , who was p r o c e e d i n g up N a n k i n g i n a r i c k s h a w a b o u t 3 : 3 0 , saw t h e same c r o w d t h a t D r . C l i n e h a d d e s c r i b e d a s n o i s y . C o v e y r e p o r t e d i n C o u r t t h a t i t 185 was p r e c i s e l y as D r . C l i n e h a d d e s c r i b e d i t . A t C h e k i a n g R o a d he n o t i c e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e g a t h e r i n g o f p e o -p l e o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e r o a d ; b u t he c l a i m e d t h a t he saw 18 6 n o t h i n g p e c u l i a r t h a t w o u l d h a v e d r a w n h i s a t t e n t i o n . D r . a n d M r s . B u r t o n , a l s o a t C h e k i a n g a n d N a n k i n g R o a d s a t t h a t t i m e , d i s a g r e e d w i t h C o v e y . C a u g h t i n t h e P a g e No. 157 m i d s t o f w h a t he c a l l e d a w i l d a n d n o i s y m a s s , D r . B u r t o n f e l t t h e d e m e a n o u r o f t h i s c r o w d was d e f i n i t e l y h o s t i l e a n d d a n g e r o u s . T h e c r o w d a t t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n 187 a p p e a r e d t o be e v e n w o r s e . Mr. C a m e r o n , who was a l s o b y t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a t 18 8 t h a t t i m e , a g r e e d w i t h t h e B u r t o n s . Mr. O ' N e i l l , who was a t Y u n n a n R o a d s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e s h o o t i n g , h a d b e e n s t r u c k b y a bamboo s t i c k a n d p u s h e d a r o u n d b y a s m a l l g r o u p t h e r e . He n a t u r a l l y f e l t t h e c r o w d t o b e h o s t i l e , i f n o t 189 v e r y d a n g e r o u s . Mr. W i t c h e r d e s c r i b e d t h e d e m e a n o u r o f t h e c r o w d a s n a s t y ; w h i l e H a r r y W e s t r i d g e d e p i c t e d i t as a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e l o o k i n g f o r t r o u b l e . H a r r y K i n g m a n d i s a g r e e d a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e s i t u a t i o n as i 1 9 1 c a l m . A n y a c t u a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e d e m e a n o u r o f t h e c r o w d h o w e v e r , m u s t r e s t u p o n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e c r o w d a s i t p u s h e d t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . One o f t h e m o s t u s e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h a t c r o w d a t t h a t t i m e i s f o u n d i n t h e " S p e c i a l E d i t i o n o f t h e T ' u n g - f a n g t s a - c h i h a b o u t May 3 0 t h . T h e a u t h o r o f o n e a r t i c l e d e s c r i b e d t h e c r o w d n o t as a v i o l e n t r i o t n o r a s a c o n t r o l l e d a s s e m b l y , b u t a s a c o n f u s e d mass o f i n d i v i d u a l s , i n t e n t on v a r i o u s 192 d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s . T h e s i t u a t i o n t o h i m a p p e a r e d a s 19 3 f o l l o w s : P a g e No. 1 5 8 S h o r t l y b e f o r e 3 : 3 0 , a l a r g e c r o w d o f s e v e n t y t o o n e h u n d r e d p e r s o n s , n o t a l l s t u d e n t s , h a d b e e n f o r c e d s l o w l y o u t o f t h e C h a r g e Room o n t o N a n k i n g R o a d , a n d t h e n e a s t w a r d t o w a r d t h e Town H a l l . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e c r o w d m o v e d b a c k w a r d w i t h no r e s i s t a n c e . T h i s c r o w d was p u s h e d i n t o t h e g r o u p i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l . T h e r e w e r e a b o u t n i n e h u n -d r e d p e r s o n s now b e i n g s l o w l y p u s h e d b a c k . T h e n , t h i s g r o u p was s t o p p e d b y a much l a r g e r o n e c o m i n g f r o m C h e k i a n g R o a d . U n a b l e t o s e e w h a t was h a p p e n i n g o u t f r o n t , t h i s l a r g e r g r o u p m o v e d a -h e a d p u s h i n g t h e f r o n t r a n k s o n t o t h e p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s who w e r e t r y i n g t o p u s h t h e m b a c k . T h e p o l i c e r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e i r c l u b s a n d t h e c r o w d i n f r o n t c o u n t e r e d w i t h t h e i r f i s t s . T h e p o l i c e r e t r e a t e d a n d t h o s e a t t h e r e a r c o n t i n -u e d t o p u s h a h e a d . T h e a d v a n c e was n o t q u i c k f o r t h e c r o w d was f o r c e d t o s l o w down s e v e r a l t i m e s by t h e o n - c o m i n g t r a f -f i c . A s t h e c r o w d m o v e d c l o s e r t o t h e p o l i c e f o r m a t i o n a t t h e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e , s e v e r a l p e r s o n s i n t h e f r o n t s t o p p e d a n d a t t e m p t e d t o p u s h b a c k w a r d ; b u t t h o s e i n t h e r e a r who c o u l d n o t s e e , c o n t i n u e d t o p u s h a h e a d . As t h e y r e a c h e d w i t h i n t e n f e e t o f t h e e n t r a n c e , t h e p o l i c e f i r e d . I n t h e e n d , h o w e v e r , t h e a c t u a l d e m e a n o u r o f t h e c r o w d a t t h a t t i m e o r t h e way t h a t i t m o v e d t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n i s n o t t h a t i m p o r t a n t . What was i m p o r t a n t was t h a t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was h o s t i l e a n d d a n g e r -o u s , a n d t h a t i t was i n t e n t on a t t a c k i n g t h e s t a t i o n . T h e c r o w d was e x t r e m e l y n o i s y . I n c i d e n t s o f v i o l e n c e w e r e i n -c r e a s i n g m o r e f r e q u e n t l y a f t e r 3 : 2 0 . ' One s t u d e n t was s e e n t o r u s h t h e s t a t i o n w a l l s w h i l e o t h e r s f o l l o w e d h i m l a t e r . I t was t h e s e t h i n g s t h a t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n r e a c t e d t o . P a g e No. 159 i i . OTHER D E B A T E O t h e r i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e t e m p e r a m e n t o f t h e c r o w d w e r e r a i s e d i n t h e M i x e d C o u r t b y t h e C h i e f P r o s e c u t o r s o as t o c o n v e y t h e i d e a t h a t t h e c r o w d i n f r o n t o f t h e e n t r a n c e was r e a l l y q u i t e v i o l e n t a n d t h u s i n t e n t o n a t -t a c k i n g t h e s t a t i o n . S u c h q u e s t i o n s as w h e t h e r t h e s t u -d e n t s o r m e mbers o f t h e c r o w d c a r r i e d a n y t y p e o f w e a p o n s , w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t s h a d r e s i s t e d t h e p o l i c e w h en a r r e s -t e d , w h e t h e r t h e c r o w d w e r e u n w i l l i n g t o d i s p e r s e a t a n y g i v e n t i m e , w h e t h e r t h e r e w e r e f r e q u e n t o u t b r e a k s o f v i o -l e n c e , o r w h e t h e r t h e c r o w d s w e r e d e l i b e r a t e l y a t t e m p t i n g t o t i e up t h e t r a f f i c , w e r e a l l p u t f o r w a r d i n h o p e s t h a t a l l w o u l d b e a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . H o w e v e r , t h e t e s t i m o n y on t h e s e q u e s t i o n s was c o n f u s i n g a n d m o s t f r e q u e n t -l y i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p r o s e c u t o r ' s c o n t e n t i o n s . R E S I S T A N C E A l t h o u g h C h i e f P r o s e c u t o r M a i t l a n d a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s b e f o r e t h e f i r i n g h a d r e s i s t e d a r -r e s t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , t h e t e s t i m o n y , i n g e n e r a l , d i d n o t s u p p o r t h i m . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t e s t i f i e d t h a t he h a d e n c o u n t e r e d no r e s i s t a n c e w h a t s o e v e r w hen he h a d 19 4 o r d e r e d s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s t o b e s e i z e d . I n f a c t , w i t h t h e a r r e s t o f two o r t h r e e s t u d e n t s , he f o u n d t h a t s e v e r a l t i m e s he was f o r c e d t o a r r e s t s e v e r a l m o re s t u d e n t s u p o n t h e i r own r e q u e s t . A l t h o u g h some s t u d e n t s e s c a p e d w h e n P a g e No. 160 t h e C h a r g e Room was o c c u p i e d , o n l y S h e l l s w e l l c l a i m e d 19 5 t h a t he f o u n d r e s i s t a n c e a t a n y t i m e . S h e l l s w e l l ' s t e s t i m o n y was r e f u t e d b y D r . C l i n e when he t e s t i f i e d t h a t h e h a d s e e n S h e l l s w e l l t i e up h i s p r i s o n e r s , t h u s a l l o w i n g t h e m l i t t l e c h a n c e t o e s c a p e o r e v e n o f f e r r e -19 6 s i s t a n c e . I n g e n e r a l , o t h e r w i t n e s s e s s u p p o r t e d t h e v i e w t h a t p r i o r t o 3:15 p e r s o n s o f f e r e d l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e w h e n a r r e s t e d . A f t e r 3 : 1 5 , t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s b e g a n t o c h a n g e . V i o -l e n c e b e c a m e m o r e f r e q u e n t a s s t u d e n t s r e f u s e d t o w a t c h as t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s w e r e b e i n g a r r e s t e d . A r o u n d 3 : 2 0 , a t -t e m p t s w e r e made t o a r r e s t t h o s e s t u d e n t s s t i l l s p e a k i n g o r p a s s i n g o u t l i t e r a t u r e o n N a n k i n g R o a d . V a r i o u s p o -l i c e o f f i c e r s a t t e m p t e d t o do t h i s , b u t i n s t e a d f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o f i g h t o f f t h e s t u d e n t s who came t o t h e a i d o f t h e i r c o m p a n i o n s . C l a s h e s c o n t i n u e d t o o c c u r , u n t i l f i n a l l y S h e l l s w e l l o r d e r e d t h e men t o r e t u r n t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . R e s i s t a n c e , h o w e v e r , was n o t o n l y l i m i t e d t o t h e s t u -d e n t s . A t v a r i o u s t i m e s , n o n - s t u d e n t s w e r e s e e n d e f e n d -i n g s t u d e n t s w hen t h e p o l i c e a t t e m p t e d t o s e i z e t h e m . WEAPONS T h e q u e s t i o n o f w e a p o n s p r o v e d t o be a m o r e d i f f i -c u l t o n e t o a n s w e r . D r . C l i n e a n d R e v . A n d e r s o n , as w e l l P a g e No. 161 as s e v e r a l o t h e r w i t n e s s e s , c l a i m e d t h a t they, saw no 19 7 w e a p o n s . I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n s t a t e d t h a t he saw o n l y b a n n e r s a n d l e a f l e t s i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s ; b u t a f t e r t h r e e he was s e l d o m o u t s i d e o f t h e e n t r a n c e o f t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n e n t r a n c e , a n d was t h u s v e r y r e s t r i c t e d 19 8 as t o w h a t he c o u l d s e e . C o n s t a b l e s S t e v e n s a n d C o l e a g r e e d w i t h S h e l l s w e l l when he s t a t e d t h a t h e h a d s e e n some w e a p o n s i n t h e c r o w d i n f r o n t o f t h e Town H a l l . T h e y c l a i m e d t h a t a b o u t 3 : 3 0 , t h e y h a d s e e n f o u r f l a t -s t i c k s a n d s e v e r a l bamboo c l u b s i n t h e h a n d s o f d e m o n s t r a -199 t o r s . When a s k e d t o c l a r i f y as t o w h a t t h e y m e a n t b y b a m b o o c l u b s , C o l e r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t r e a l l y c l u b s , b u t w e r e t h e p o l e s o f t h e b a n n e r s a n d f l a g s t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s w e r e c a r r y i n g . T h u s , s o m e t i m e j u s t b e f o r e t h e f i r i n g , t h r e e c o n s t a b l e s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y h a d s e e n a sum t o t a l o f f o u r f l a t - s t i c k s a n d v a r i o u s t y p e s o f b amboo p o l e s t h a t c o u l d b e c o n s t r u e d as p o s s i b l e w e a p o n s ; a t o t a l o f a b o u t t w e n t y w e a p o n s i n a c r o w d o f w e l l o v e r two t h o u s a n d . R E F U S A L TO D I S P E R S E Few w i t n e s s e s d i s p u t e d t h e f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e l a s t m a r c h on t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n a t 3 : 3 5 , i t was v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r a s m a l l n u m b e r o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t o s t o p i t by a t t e m p t i n g t o p u s h i t b a c k w a r d s . T h e b r u t e f o r c e p a g e No. 162 o f t h e c r o w d as i t p u s h e d a h e a d made t h i s i m p o s s i b l e . W h e r e t h e w i t n e s s e s b e g a n t o d i s a g r e e was w h e t h e r t h e c r o w d w o u l d h a v e d i s p e r s e d i f g i v e n p r o p e r t i m e . E v e r s o n , who b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c r o w d was a b o u t t o a t t a c k t h e p o -l i c e s t a t i o n , d i d n o t t h i n k t h e y w o u l d d i s p e r s e w i t h t h e 201 u s e o f p e a c e f u l m e a n s . W i t n e s s e s s u c h as D r . C l i n e a n d R e v . ^ A n d e r s o n d i s a g r e e d , a n d f e l t t h a t h a d t h e p r o p e r w a r n i n g s b e e n g i v e n t h e c r o w d w o u l d h a v e d i s p e r s e d . H a d t h e p o l i c e f i r e d i n t h e a i r , t h e n no o n e w o u l d h a v e m i s -. , , . 202 t a k e n t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s . V I O L E N C E T h e f i r s t a c t o f v i o l e n c e o c c u r r e d a b o u t 2:45 o r 2:50 when some members o f t h e g r o u p on L l o y d R o a d f o u g h t w i t h 203 two S i k h s a n d C o n s t a b l e S t e v e n s . T h e r e w e r e no r e p o r t s o f m o r e v i o l e n c e o c c u r r i n g u n t i l a b o u t 3:15 when i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e p o l i c e w e r e u s i n g t h e i r c l u b s q u i t e f r e e l y a n d m e mbers i n t h e crowd w e r e a t t a c k i n g p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . A t t h a t t i m e , C o n s t a b l e s C o l e a n d W h y t e w e r e b o t h a t t a c k e d a n d a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o d i s a r m t h e m . S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , S h e l l s w e l l was a t t a c k e d as he a t t e m p t e d t o a i d s e v e r a l S i k h o f f i c e r s . N e i t h e r D r . C l i n e o r R e v . A n d e r s o n saw a n y o f t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s b e i n g b e a t e n ; b u t , a s t h e y r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d , t h e y w e r e n o t i n t h e f r o n t l i n e s a n d 204 t h u s t h e i r v i s i o n was l i m i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . M o s t o t h e r w i t n e s s e s w e r e n o t i n t h e e x a c t a r e a o f t h e m a r c h , a n d P a g e No. 163 t h u s d i d n o t g i v e a n y i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be h e l p f u l . I t i s k n o w n , h o w e v e r , t h a t a f t e r 3 : 1 5 , v i o l e n c e e s -c a l a t e d q u i c k l y ; q u i c k l y e n o u g h f o r t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t o f e e l t h r e a t e n e d a n d t h u s r e t u r n t o t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n . T R A F F I C T I E - U P S I n g e n e r a l m o s t w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e t r a f f i c h a d n o t b e e n d e l i b e r a t e l y t i e d up b y t h e s t u d e n t s o r t h e c r o w d s on N a n k i n g R o a d p r i o r t o 3 : 3 0 . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s w e r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e t r a f f i c a n d c o n v e y e d t h i s t o t h e c r o w d s t h e y t a l k e d t o , t h e t r a f f i c c o n t i n u e d t o f l o w r i g h t up u n t i l t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r i n g . M o s t w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e y h a d l i t t l e t r o u b l e d r i v i n g 205 up N a n k i n g R o a d o r on t h e s i d e r o a d s o f f f r o m i t . D r . B u r t o n , who f o u n d t h e c r o w d b o t h d a n g e r o u s a n d h o s t i l e , n e v e r t h e l e s s a d m i t t e d t h a t he f o u n d no d i f f i c u l t y i n 2 06 t r a v e l l i n g p a s t t h a t g r o u p . A t 3 : 3 0 , a s t h e c r o w d m o v e d on t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n , t h e t r a f f i c was d e f i n i t e l y f o r c e d t o s l o w down a n d a t t i m e s h a d t o s t o p ; b u t m o s t w i t n e s s e s a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e was n o d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o 2 0 7 k e e p t h e t r a f f i c s t o p p e d . A t r a m c a r h a d s t o p p e d f o r a f e w m o ments as t h e p o l i c e e s c a p e d i n b e h i n d i t ; b u t t h e t r a m was c e r t a i n l y n o t o v e r t u r n e d as o n e w i t n e s s a t t e m p t e d t o c l a i m . P a g e N o . 164 4. THE F I R I N G a . THE S T A T E D CAUSES Th e e v i d e n c e as t o t h e r e a l c a u s e o f t h e s h o o t i n g v a r i e d f r o m t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t no j u s t i f i a b l e c a u s e o r r e a s o n e x i s t e d f o r i t , t o t h e s t a t e m e n t made b y I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t h a t t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n d e s -2 09 t r o y e d h a d he n o t o r d e r e d h i s men t o f i r e . He s t a t e d : T h e y w o u l d h a v e t a k e n my s t a t i o n , a n a r m e d s t a t i o n . I h a v e n o t t h e s l i g h t -e s t d o u b t t h a t t h i s w o u l d h a v e h a p -p e n e d a t t h a t t i m e . R e v . A n d e r s o n d i s a g r e e d , f e e l i n g t h a t no o n e h a d t h e i n -210 t e n t i o n o f a t t a c k i n g t h e s t a t i o n . One o t h e r w i t n e s s a t -t e m p t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h i s p h e n o m e n a a s " t y p i c a l C h i n e s e i n ..211 a c r o w d r e a c t i o n . T h a t d a y , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n , p r i o r t o t h e f i r i n g , h a d b e e n u n d e r t r e m e n d o u s s t r a i n . He (who h a d e a r l i e r r e a l i z e d t h a t h e was s h o r t o f p o l i c e m e n t f o r p a t r o l l i n g ) ^ was a t o n e moment a s s i s t i n g i n t h e a r r e s t o f i n d i v i d u a l s some d i s -t a n c e away f r o m t h e s t a t i o n ; a t a n o t h e r t i m e , t r y i n g w i t h much d i f f i c u l t y t o r e p o r t t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e ; t h e n d i r e c t i n g a n d a s s i s t i n g t h e e j e c t i o n o f s e v e r a l l a r g e c r o w d s f r o m t h e C h a r g e Room; t h e n r u s h i n g o u t o n t o t h e s t r e e t t o a c q u a i n t h i m s e l f w i t h c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e a n d b a c k a g a i n i n s i d e t o c h e c k t h e r e p o r t s t h e r e ; r e m e m b e r i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f 1 9 0 5 when a l a r g e c r o w d h a d a t t a c k e d a n d P a g e No. 165 b u r n t t h e s t a t i o n a n d a l s o n o t i n g t h e g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n 212 t h e s i z e o f t h e c r o w d a n d i t s c h a n g e i n c h a r a c t e r . I t i s a m a z i n g t h a t I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n was a b l e t o g i v e o r d e r s t o h i s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a t a l l . F o r a l m o s t two h o u r s s t r a i g h t he h a d b e e n c o n s t a n t l y on t h e g o , a n d h i s m e n t a l c a p a c i t y a n d h i s s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w e r e c o n t i n u a l l y p u t u n d e r i n c r e d i b l e s t r a i n a n d s t r e s s . I t i s n o t a t a l l d i f f i c u l t t o s e e why he h a d h a d a h a r d t i m e i n g a u g i n g t h e t e m p e r a m e n t o f t h e c r o w d d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e a f t e r n o o n . I t was u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t t h e I n s p e c t o r was s u b m i t t e d t o e v e n g r e a t e r s t r e s s as t h e c r o w d p u s h e d a h e a d o n N a n k i n g R o a d . As t h i s l a r g e m a s s m o v e d a h e a d , o n e s t u d e n t a t t h a t t i m e a t t e m p t e d t o e n t e r t h e p o l i c e c o m p o u n d b y c l i m b i n g t h e s t o n e w a l l t o t h e w e s t o f t h e p o l i c e f o r m a t i o n . A f e w m o ments l a t e r , o t h e r s a t t e m p t e d t h e same t h i n g . E v e r s o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i s s t a t i o n was 213 u n d e r a t t a c k a n d t h u s d e c i d e d t o o r d e r h i s men t o f i r e . b . X.HE WARNING Th e p o l i c e w i t n e s s e s c l a i m e d t h a t a w a r n i n g h a d b e e n g i v e n i n C h i n e s e a n d E n g l i s h s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e p o l i c e f i r e d o n t h e c r o w d . S o o n t h i s b e c a m e a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e d e f e n s e t o j u s t i f y t h e s h o o t i n g . To h a v e w a r n e d a v i o l e n t c r o w d t h a t t h e p o l i c e w o u l d f i r e i f t h e y d i d n o t imme-d i a t e l y d i s p e r s e was t h o u g h t t o be s u f f i c i e n t w a r n i n g , no Page No. 166 214 m a t t e r how e f f e c t i v e t h a t w a r n i n g may have b e e n . O t h e r w i t n e s s e s , s u c h as A n d e r s o n , C l i n e , and Covey, c l a i m e d r 215 they head no w a r n i n g a t a l l . But e a c h one a d m i t t e d t h e crowd was e x t r e m e l y n o i s y and t h e w a r n i n g c o u l d have 1. * * 1 A 2 1 6 been m u f f l e d . L e s s than a m i n u t e b e f o r e t h e p o l i c e f i r e d , I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a t t e m p t e d to warn t h e crowd f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . He h e l d up h i s gun and t h e n p o i n t e d i t a t t h e crowd, a t 217 t h o s e i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s . W i t n e s s e s d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f t h e p o l i c e r a n k s t e s t i f i e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t see t h e gun, and I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n h i m s e l f a d m i t t e d t h a t he r e a l -l y d i d n o t e x p e c t t h e crowd t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s a c t i o n s o r 218 even see them. A In any c a s e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t v e r y many p e r s o n s i n t h e crowd a c t u a l l y saw t h e w a r n i n g . A few s e c o n d s l a t e r I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n t h e n s h o u t e d a w a r n i n g i n E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e a t t h e crowd. The warn-i n g was s h o r t , and i n C h i n e s e v e r y c o n f u s i n g . The warn-i n g had o n l y t o l d t h e crowd to s t o p . I t s a i d n o t h i n g o f 219 the n e e d to d i s p e r s e . Most w i t n e s s e s h e a r d no v e r b a l w a r n i n g a t a l l . S h e l l s w e l l , o n l y f i f t e e n f e e t b e h i n d t h e I n s p e c t o r , c l a i m e d t h a t he o n l y h e a r d t h e w a r n i n g i n 220 E n g l i s h . C o n s t a b l e s C o l e and S t e v e n s , i n t h e same p l a c e , h e a r d o n l y t h e words " T ' i n g . T'ing'.' At t h a t time t h e crowd was ab o u t t e n t o f i f t e e n y a r d s away. S h e l l s w e l l 221 and o t h e r o t h e r s were a b o u t t e n f e e t away. Page No. 167 When a s k e d w h e t h e r he t h o u g h t t h e crowd c o u l d h e a r him, E v e r s o n r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y p r o b a b l y c o u l d n o t as h i s v o i c e was q u i t e h o a r s e and w o u l d n o t p r o j e c t any g r e a t 2 22 d i s t a n c e . The crowd was a l s o too n o i s y . Ten s e c o n d s l a t e r , t h e p o l i c e were o r d e r e d t o f i r e . When q u e s t i o n n e d a b o u t t h e s h o r t n e s s o f t h e t i m e i n a l l o w i n g t h e crowd t o d i s p e r s e , E v e r s o n r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t have d i s -p e r s e d , b u t t h e y c o u l d have w i t h d r a w n from t h e " d a n g e r 223 a r e a . " He n e v e r e x p l a i n e d what he meant by " d a n g e r .,22 4 a r e a . S e v e r a l d e f e n s e l a w y e r s i n t h e M i x e d C o u r t t r i a l had a t t a c k e d t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e f o r n o t f i r i n g b l a n k s a t th e crowd. Dr. C l i n e had c r i t i c i z e d t h e f o r c e f o r n o t 225 f i r i n g a t l e a s t a t t h e i r f e e t o r e l s e o v e r t h e i r h e a d s . A n d e r s o n a l s o c r i t i c i z e d t h e p o l i c e f o r the same r e a s o n 226 i n v a r i o u s n e w s p a p e r s . E v e r s o n i n C o u r t r e p l i e d to 227 the c r i t i c i s m s . He s t a t e d : Had I done t h i s , I w o u l d have d i r e c t l y o p p o s e d my o r d e r s r e c e i v e d f r o m Head-q u a r t e r s . Those o r d e r s were " i f t h e crowd s h o u l d b a c k up, I was n o t t o f i r e ; b u t i f I had to f i r e , t h e n I was to s h o o t t o k i l l . " T h i s I had t o l d my men. Those were my o r d e r s and I c o u l d n o t d i s o b e y t h e m . . . N e i t h e r c o u l d I f i r e o v e r t h e i r heads f o r the same r e a s o n . B e s i d e s , I m i g h t have i n j u r e d some i n n o c e n t b y - s t a n d e r s . A w a r n i n g was thu s g i v e n ; b u t few i n d i v i d u a l s e v e r h e a r d o r saw i t . They were g i v e n l i t t l e c h a n c e t o d i s -p e r s e , f o r the p o l i c e f i r e d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w a r n i n g , Page No. 168 c. THE PRECAUTIONS Some w i t n e s s e s s u c h as Dr. C l i n e and Rev. A n d e r s o n b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e I n c i d e n t had o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e th e p o l i c e had n o t t a k e n any p r o p e r p r e c a u t i o n s p r i o r to t h e s h o o t -i n g . R e i n f o r c e m e n t s had n o t been s e n t f o r as i t was c u s t o m a r y i n t i m e s o f e m e r g e n c i e s . No e f f o r t s were made to d e f e n d the s t a t i o n from i n s i d e the P o l i c e Compound, where i t w o u l d have been n e c e s s a r y to f i r e a t o n l y t h o s e who a t t e m p t e d t o c l i m b the w a l l . I n s t e a d t h e men were p l a c e d i n a f o r m a t i o n o u t s i d e o f t h e e n t r a n c e , a l l o w i n g them to be d i r e c t l y a t t a c k e d . None o f t h e f r o n t g a t e s were e v e r c l o s e d d u r i n g t h a t day. Had t h e y been c l o s e d , few g r o u p s w o u l d have e v e r been a b l e to e n t e r the C h arge 22 8 Room. The p o l i c e were a l s o c r i t i c i z e d f o r n o t t a k i n g o u t t h e f i r e h o s e s and u s i n g them i n s t e a d o f t h e guns. C o l d w a t e r had p r o v e d q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n d i s p e r s i n g crowds 229 on N a n k i n g Road i n t h e p a s t . I t was w e l l known t h a t t w i c e t h a t a f t e r n o o n I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n had been a s k e d by b o t h C a p t a i n M a r t i n and Commis-s i o n e r McEuen i f he n e e d e d any more t r o o p s . B o t h t i m e s he r e p l i e d t h a t he d i d n o t . Y e t , i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f l a r g e r c r o w d s , E v e r s o n d e c i d e d t o p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n t h e P e a c e -k e e p i n g f o r c e . By 3:30, he f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t he was f a r t o o s h o r t o f men n e e d e d to s t o p the a d v a n c i n g crowd. A t 3:37 he gave the o r d e r s t o f i r e . Page No. 169 5. AN EXAMINATION OF THOSE KILLED AND WOUNDED a. PREFACE S i m i l a r to t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n and a r o u n d L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n a t t h e time o f t h e f i r i n g , t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e k i l l e d and wounded p r o v i d e d h e a t e d d e b a t e s and l e f t many p r o b l e m s u n a nswered. D o c t o r s d i s -a g r e e d as t o t h e s i z e o f t h e b u l l e t wounds, how f a r away t h e k i l l e d and wounded were from t h e a c t u a l s i t e o f t h e f i r i n g , and w h e t h e r t h e b u l l e t s e n t e r e d by t h e b a c k , f r o n t o r s i d e . Even t h e number o f t h o s e k i l l e d o r wounded v a r -i e d f r o m s i d e to s i d e . To make e v i d e n c e even more c o n f u s -i n g , some E n g l i s h m e d i c a l o f f i c e r s i g n o r e d p e r f o r m i n g any s e r i o u s a u t o p s i e s or d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h o s e woun-ded and y e t a t t e m p t e d t o answer d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s when a s k e d i n C o u r t . C h i n e s e d o c t o r s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s ; b u t w i t h e v i d e n c e i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h t h e i r h o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s ' r e p o r t s . I n a l l , a b o u t t w e l v e p e r s o n s were k i l l e d f r o m wounds r e c e i v e d w h i l e on N a n k i n g Road. The number o f t h o s e woun-ded i s more d i f f i c u l t to a s c e r t a i n . From the D o c t o r s ' R e p o r t s we know t h a t t h i r t y - s i x were t r e a t e d f o r wounds. J e n - c h i H o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s , however, s t a t e d t h a t t h e y 2 30 t r e a t e d t h i r t y p a t i e n t s f o r wounds. T w e n t y - f o u r a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r i n t h e r e c o r d s . T h e r e f o r e , we at l e a s t know f o r t y - t w o were t r e a t e d f o r wounds. As f o r t h o s e who were Page No. 170 n o t t r e a t e d , t h e r e i s no way to know t h e i r numbers, b. THE REPORTS 231 i . T u n g - f a n g t s a - c h i h An i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h o s e wounded and k i l l e d comes f r o m t h e r e p o r t s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the SSU i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e I n c i d e n t . The SSU Re-p o r t o f J une 3 r d i s d u p l i c a t e d i n t h e T u n g - f a n g t s a - c h i h and p r o v i d e s e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h o s e dead, t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d , p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e , and i f p o s s i b l e where t h e y were i n j u r e d . In a l l , t e n p e r s o n s a r e l i s t e d as d e a d . O n l y e i g h t p e r s o n s a r e l i s t e d as i n j u r e d , and a g a i n e x c e l l e n t breakdowns a r e p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h p e r s o n . The R e p o r t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t two o t h e r s were k i l l e d ; b u t no r e a s o n i s g i v e n as to why t h e y were n o t l i s t e d . The R e p o r t , however, does admit t h a t t h e many wounded were n o t l i s t e d o r e x a m i n e d as t o o many were d i s c h a r g e d b e f o r e p r e -c i s e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . 2 32 i i . Kuo-wen chou-pao In a d d i t i o n to t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e p o r t , t h e Kuo-wen c h o u - pao c o m p i l e d a n o t h e r l i s t t h a t was p u b l i s h e d i n one o f i t s summaries on t h e May 3 0 t h I n c i d e n t . T h i s l i s t i s s i m i l a r to t h a t o f t h e TFTC b u t d i s c r e p a n c i e s do o c c u r . E l e v e n names a r e l i s t e d as dead w h i l e t h i r t e e n as i n j u r e d . . Two o f t h o s e k i l l e d do n o t a p p e a r i n t h e TFTC r e p o r t Page No. 171 w h i l e s e v e n i n j u r e d do n o t . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e p o r t s a r e n o t as d e t a i l e d as t h o s e o f t h e TFTC; b u t t h e y do s e r v e as a u s e f u l check on t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f e a c h p e r s o n and the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r wounds. 2 33 i i i . The D o c t o r s ' R e p o r t An i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n comes f r o m t h e r e p o r t s to the M i x e d C o u r t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l d o c t o r s who had e x a m i n e d t h o s e k i l l e d and wounded - t h e d o c t o r s o f J e n - c h i H o s p i t a l on T i e n d o n g Road, t h e Red C r o s s H o s p i t a l on Avenue P e t a i n , and t h e P a o l u n H o s p i t a l on B u b b l i n g W e l l Road. The r e p o r t s o f t h e s e d o c t o r s have been summarized i n t h e c h a r t on "A Summary o f t h e L o c a t i o n of B u l l e t Wounds." I n a l l f o r t y - e i g h t k i l l e d and wounded a r e l i s t e d a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e l o c a t i o n where e a c h p e r s o n r e c e i v e d h i s wound. E a c h d o c t o r i s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y as w e l l as t h e p l a c e t h a t he w o r k e d . S e v e r a l p r o b l e m s , however, a r i s e as to how v a l i d o r how u s e f u l t h e v a r i o u s r e p o r t s a r e . Dr. M u i r , who p e r -f o r m e d an a u t o p s y on f i v e p e r s o n s , d e c i d e d t h a t a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n was n o t n e e d e d . He f i n i s h e d h i s work i n f i f -234 t e e n m i n u t e s . Dr. L e e d s , who t r e a t e d f i f t e e n p e r s o n s , 235 a l s o d e c i d e d to i g n o r e any d e t a i l e d r e p o r t . Y e t , b o t h men i n C o u r t p r o c e e d e d to answer q u e s t i o n s on b u l l e t e n -Page No. 172 t r y , powder wounds, and e v e n age, q u e s t i o n s t h a t had a l l 2 36 demanded a p r e c i s e e x a m i n a t i o n . B o t h C h i n e s e and W e s t e r n d o c t o r s c l a s h e d o v e r e v i -d e n c e . W e s t e r n d o c t o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r s o n s were i n -j u r e d i n t h e f r o n t o r s i d e ; t h e C h i n e s e d o c t o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t most p e r s o n s were s h o t i n t h e b a c k . The W e s t e r n d o c -t o r s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e p e r s o n s were c l o s e t o t h e r i f l e m u z z l e s ; C h i n e s e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e y had been q u i t e f a r 237 away. c. THE ANALYSIS i . Those K i l l e d I n a l l , t w e l v e p e r s o n s d i e d f r o m wounds r e c e i v e d on May 3 0 t h . E i g h t were p r o n o u n c e d dead on a r r i v a l a t the v a r i o u s h o s p i t a l s . F o u r succumbed t o t h e i r wounds t h e f o l l o w i n g day. Of t h e t w e l v e k i l l e d , s i x were s t u d e n t s , f i v e were w o r k e r s , and one was unemployed. A l l l i v e d i n S h a n g h a i . C o n t r a r y to t h e p o l i c e r e p o r t s , most o f t h e s i x s t u d e n t s k i l l e d were n o t from S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , b u t were f r o m 2 38 s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s i n S h a n g h a i . Two were f r o m T ' u n g - c h i M e d i c a l S c h o o l , one from Nanyang C o l l e g e , and one from a s m a l l m i d d l e s c h o o l . One o t h e r was f r o m S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y . The s i x t h s c h o o l was n o t 1. SUMMARY OF THE DOCTORS' REPORTS co o co w 55 <! •J W u 33 M H 2 P S3 o BE o 35 O H H O o •J 2 o U (4 W Q M CO H S3 O <! H O H OS W 33 H 04 Q O W Q !=) < >-> W W S3 33 Q M SB . •J <5 H M Pa CO O 33 a co o o o o <N CM t - n rH O CN CN sf rH rH CN 00 «tf r-H O O o o O O rH CN 8>S CN CO O rH /~\ o rH 00 CN 00 rH in U l CO CN CO CO rH CN rH 00 CN CTl rH oo OX 00 CN in rH -^^  co vO rH m CO vO in -* vO CO CM oo CM vO rH rH CO TJ CU u 3 TJ TJ TJ n «0 TJ CU TJ CU a) TJ (3 TJ CU ctf u CU u a a CO •H (0 TJ CU 3 u 3 to 0) CU TJ co TJ 3 co co T 3 -o (3 rH CO I-I a CO CO •H cd CU ti CO CO 4-1 Q M o -H o •H O u rC r4 X i H o u o O •H 1 1 ti rC CU CU T 3 c TJ a 3 o a a a 0) CU CU CU rH 1 cd <o <0 OS o a co CO CO CO <u • • • • CU •-> 00 rH CM rH CM •H a 00 •3 ti 00 CU ti ti 1 i rC a) 3 00 00 00 co r»> r<3 rC C ti ti 1 c 1 oo a (U fi CO *H n iH <U 1-1 ti i cu •H {H •n a •H 3 - co 3 i-t CU co rC 3 3 33 rC rfl OJ r J 33 S S3 u H Page No. 174 l i s t e d . The a v e r a g e age o f t h e s t u d e n t s was a b o u t 21 (2 1 , 23, 19, 2 1 ) , b u t one was as o l d as 38 and one as young as 14. O n l y one s t u d e n t i n t h e group was b o r n i n the K i a n g s u a r e a . The o t h e r s were from Kwangtung, S z e c h u a n , and S h a n t u n g . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t most o f them had been out t h a t day e i t h e r i n s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s o r a t t h e M i x e d C o u r t . A t t h e time o f t h e f i r i n g , t h e y were p r o b a b l y i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s . None o f t h e f i v e w o r k e r s came from t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s t h a t were on s t r i k e , as t h e N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d had s u g g e s -t e d . I n s t e a d , t h e y came f r o m o t h e r f o r e i g n c o m p a n i e s , a t h e a t r e , a r e s t a u r a n t , and a p r i v a t e home. A l l b u t one o f them was f r o m t h e C h e k i a n g - K i a n g s u a r e a . In g e n e r a l , most o f them were l i k e l y p e r s o n s on N a n k i n g Road who had j o i n e d t h e m e l e e , w i l l i n g l y o r u n w i l l i n g l y , and p u s h e d ahead t o w a r d s t h e s t a t i o n i n t h e f r o n t r a n k s . From t h e v a r i o u s r e p o r t s , i t can be s e e n t h a t a good many o f t h o s e k i l l e d d i e d f r o m wounds r e c e i v e d i n t h e b a c k . F r o n t Back S i d e O t h e r Unknown D o c t o r s ' r e p o r t s 59% 25% 8% 8% — KWCP-TFTC 8% 5 8% 26% 8% -Ave r a g e 35% 42% 17% 8% 6% A n o t h e r l a r g e group was s h o t i n t h e s i d e . O n l y a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e numbers k i l l e d were a c t u a l l y s h o t i n t h e f r o n t and f a c i n g t h e p o l i c e m e n as t h e y f i r e d . P a g e No. 175 2s A l L I S T I N G OF THOSE K I L L E D NAME Yin Ching-i CHARACTERS AGE Ho Nien-t'zu 4ft ^  *t Ch'en Yii-ch'ing Wu Chin-hua Ch'en Pao-tsung ^ Shih Tsung-sheng Wang Chi-fu tf ^ | 21 23 17 1i+ 38 20 36 21 36 ( 2 4 ) Shih Chih-ying 5g ±t ^ T'ang Liang-sheng Ch'en Fei-chang ^fi^^fe^ 1^ Chu Ning-shang v 16 T'an Chin-fu J L = 27 3 * BIRTH PLACE RESIDENCE ' OCCUPATION1 HOSPITAL T'ung-chi Medical Shantung M e d J e 8 l l S t u d e n t Jen-chi Szechuan Canton Fenghua School Shanghai University Nanyang University Great:. : World School Kwangtung T'ung-chi Chekiang Chekiang Chekiang Road Kiangsu -Kiangsu Kwangtung Kiangsu Kiangsu ChiuKiang Road student Jen-chi student Jen-chi student Jen-chi Medical student Jen-chi electrician Pao-. lun INJURY student Jen-chi telephone P a o - l u n company actor Red Cross servant Red Cross waiter Jen-chi DATE OF DEATH BACK May 30th side May 30 front May 30th unemployed Jen-chi front May. 30th back May 30th side May 30th SOURCE KWCP TFTC KWCP back May 31st T F T C back May 31st KWCP TFTC back May 31st KWCP KWCP TFTC KWCP TFTC back Hay 31st KWCP v , M K W C P back May 30th TFTC KWCP TFTC KWCP TFTC May 30th TFTC Page No. 176 i i . THOSE WOUNDED Of a l l t h e v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s and n o n - s t u d e n t s i n j u r e d on May 3 0 t h , c o m p l e t e r e c o r d s were k e p t f o r o n l y s i x t e e n . P o s i t i o n o f t h e b u l l e t wounds can be f o u n d f o r o n l y t h i r -t y - s i x p e r s o n s , b u t t h e s e a r e i n c o m p l e t e and a t t i m e s un-r e l i a b l e . Any e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e wounded, f o r t h i s r e a -s o n , w o u l d be i n c o m p l e t e i f n o t m i s l e a d i n g . Few c o n c l u -s i o n s can be drawn a b o u t t h e e n t i r e group t h a t was i n j u r e d ; b u t some can be made ab o u t t h o s e we do have r e c o r d s f o r . Of t h e s i x t e e n l i s t e d as i n j u r e d , o n l y two a r e s t u -d e n t s . No b a c k g r o u n d i s g i v e n f o r them. The o t h e r f o u r -t e e n a r e d i v i d e d between f a c t o r y w o r k e r s , company w o r k e r s , s e r v a n t s , and w a i t e r s . T h r e e p e r s o n s ' o c c u p a t i o n s a r e n o t l i s t e d . A l l o f t h e s i x t e e n l i v e d i n S h a n g h a i , b u t o n l y s e v e n o f them a c t u a l l y came f r o m t h e S h a n g h a i a r e a . I t seems most l i k e l y t h a t many o f t h e s e p e r s o n s were i n the crowd, n o t as a g i t a t o r s , but as f o l l o w e r s . From t h e r e p o r t s , i t can be s e e n t h a t most o f t h e p e r -s o n s l i s t e d as i n j u r e d were s h o t i n t h e b a c k . A n o t h e r l a r g e group was shot i n t h e s i d e . O n l y a b o u t o n e - e i g h t h o f t h o s e l i s t e d were a c t u a l l y f a c i n g t h e p o l i c e ranks when t h e y were s h o t . P a g e No. 177 3. A L S I T I N G OF THOSE WOUNDED o K :=> O c O < EH M CM o 33 o 1*3 •H Xl O I fl <D •"3 P-i o O (H 3= Pn id H a, o CM o • ^ CM o a Hi CM H O 1*3 3: Pn !*! EH CM O O EH 5: Pn i t EH .CM: O. O..EH. 3=:.Pn"/ CM O O EH 3! Pn 1*3 EH CM •rt • r l •rt •H •H •H • r l • ' • r l " • r l • r l X! X3 X i X l X! ' '>XS.- ' Xi X i O O O o o O o : o o o 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 a fl fl rt a £3 rt rt rt S3 Q) a> a> o CD a> 0) a> •-3 •"3 •-3 >"3 -0 >"3 >"3 •"3 CM O • r l x ! o I rt >"3 o o iJ- CM CM EH EH 1 O o Pn PM ; 13 EH o EH fed to 10 to IQ to (0 CO o o o o u u u u o o o u X ) x l T J a> a> © V « tt « K >H « •"3 s 2 3 O H EH < CM to U O w o M « M C O « o XI -P rt 0) X) -p CO TS « rt >H c • r l rH (M S o (0 •rl a u o > o 3 x J « S3 • r l 3^ rt rt i f xi x f X 3 OO CM rt I C3 •H^ X 3 O 0> o rt x : I c rt 3. EH ,« X l X 0) o • r l o I o s >» rt (0 rt rt (M x< X> X» rt rt -p ta rt r 3 ^ u 10 rt t>> ^ rt CD -P > o • r l .M > rt SM -p O >J O «H O o CO o -P fH • r l o x> to rt o o <H rt s «H o OJ C\J o I bO • r l *U rt ''N. C O h0 fcD rt •H rt rt to rt (0 w rt (0 w o • r l X3 • r l to EH < rt o A3 rt « 0 ) rt rt 0 J rt r H CM • r l .rt • r l PQ o !*3 o u b O rt • r l +> I rt • r l X ! O • r l a> rt o Xi o •H rt -Hf CM +> rt o u to • c i * rt rt xi ra rt rt EH to rt .rt N rt rt. rt-xl -(0 i X! • r l , Xi\ C O I rt; CD • r l X! O -P rt rt t> !M <U (0 1? I S • r l rt co +> i rt PM rt a> xl .u H y 1 rt •H X! o I rt rt S <4 o rt P. i rt X! O I f f o rt x> +> c o -cl rt (0 • • rt rt. « o « rt « o ha b O X J b O a rt rt rt • r l a rt =Hs b0 rt rt o 0) X! <U • r l rt x i • r l rt « O r-H . a.. X ) rt rt J<3 X i • I rt rt -P I • r l rt • r j O a) o rt • r l 0> X! O 1 to a x! a> • r l X! ^ a> U D 3 o X! O Pn «j rt o X! b0 O rt rt rt rt rt i: to CO rt rt rt bO C O b0 b O •rt rt rt rt fl rt fl J«! X3 X! • r l rt rt rt cu o o 1 ^! X! •rt • r l X! a> 0) a> CJ> O IS) 63 CM C O C O t>- r* ON VO O O OJ r u CM OJ OJ rt :rt o rt x> fH cu u o OJ b0 rt rt X! O x) • r l W •rt^ Jj rt • to bO a _ 5 ^ OJ ; rt • 5 b O rt , c . S3 I rt .v i J K Page No. 178 F r o n t B a c k S i d e O t h e r Unknown D o c t o r s ' r e p o r t s 18% 6% 12% 37% 3 7% 37% 22% 13% 17% 20% 19% 20% 3% 26% 14% TFTC-KWCP Ave r a g e d. CONCLUSIONS One o f t h e most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s o f an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e k i l l e d and wounded i s t h e f a c t t h a t many o f them came f r o m s u c h a wide v a r i e t y o f b a c k g r o u n d s and p r o f e s s i o n s . Of t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t known to be k i l l e d o r wounded, o n l y e i g h t were s t u d e n t s . The r e m a i n i n g twenty-two were wor-k e r s , b o a t s m e n , a c t o r s , s e r v a n t s , and w a i t e r s . The s t u -d e n t s had been v e r y a c t i v e . P e r s o n s from v a r y i n g b a c k -g r o u n d s had been c o n v i n c e d t o j o i n i n t h e a s s e m b l i e s . E v e n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e s t u d e n t s v a r i e d . A n o t h e r s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h o s e l i s t e d were s h o t i n e i t h e r t h e b a c k s i d e o r i n t h e s i d e . O n l y s m a l l numbers were s h o t i n t h e f r o n t . I t seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n s were s t i l l r u s h i n g t h e p o l i c e r a n k s as t h e p o l i c e c o n t i n u e d to f i r e . The p a r t p l a y e d by t h e CCP i n t h e e v e n t s o f May 30th does n o t a p p e a r t o have been as i m p o r t a n t as t h e i r p a r t f o l l o w i n g t h e I n c i d e n t . I n s t e a d , i t was an i n d i r e c t 6. THE ROLE PLAYED BY THE CCP IN THE MAY 3 0 t h INCIDENT Page No. 179 r o l e t h r o u g h i t s a d v i c e t o e i t h e r t h e SSU o r S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , and t h r o u g h i t s c o n t r o l o v e r t h e l a b o u r move-ment i n S h a n g h a i . S t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d on May 2 4 t h had been a r r e s t e d f o l -l o w i n g t h e m e m o r i a l march f o r a w o r k e r k i l l e d by a J a p a -n e s e manager. T h a t w o r k e r , a CCP member and o r g a n i z e r i n a l o c a l u n i o n , had been a r r a n g i n g s t r i k e s i n some J a p a n e s e m i l l s s i n c e e a r l y May. The p l a n s f o r t h o s e s t r i k e s had come f r o m t h e L a b o u r S e c r e t a r i a t u n d e r L i L i - s a n . P r i o r t o May 3 0 t h , t h e CCP had s u g g e s t e d a mass a s s e m b l y to be h e l d on May 30th w i t h b o t h w o r k e r s and s t u -d e n t s p r o t e s t i n g t h e d e a t h o f Ku, t h e b y l a w s , and t h e a r r e s t o f f o u r s t u d e n t s on May 2 4 t h . The i d e a had come 239 f r o m T s 1 a i H o-sen. A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t s r e j e c t e d the i d e a o f a j o i n t a s s e m b l y , t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s d e c i d e d to h o l d a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o u t s i d e o f t h e M i x e d C o u r t . I t was a l s o d e c i d e d to b r o a d e n t h e i s s u e s t h a t w o u l d be r a i s e d . 7. SUMMARY What w i t n e s s e s t h o u g h t o c c u r r e d , e i t h e r a t t h e M i x e d C o u r t o r on N a n k i n g Road on May 3 0 t h , c o n f l i c t e d . P o l i c e w i t n e s s e s were c a l l e d t o r e f u t e t h o s e who a p p e a r e d to oppose t h e p o l i c e t e s t i m o n y , and o t h e r s were t h e n c a l l e d to r e f u t e them. As the i n q u i r i e s p r o c e e d e d , i t became Page No. 180 o b v i o u s t h a t the main a t t e n t i o n was to be f o c u s s e d on t h e N a n k i n g Road I n c i d e n t a t 3:37. L i t t l e was to be a c t u a l l y s a i d a bout t h e M i x e d C o u r t A s s e m b l y . More w i t -n e s s e s were c a l l e d , and what now became i m p o r t a n t was w h e t h e r t h e p o l i c e had a c t e d j u s t i f i a b l y , and n o t an a c -c o u n t o f what h a p p e n e d . W i t n e s s e s , w h e t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , were f o r c e d to s u p p o r t one s i d e o r t h e o t h e r . The i n q u i r i e s bogged down, and a c c o m p l i s h e d l i t t l e i n d e c i d i n g what happened on May 3 0 t h . CHAPTER H I THE AFTERMATH Page No. 181 CHAPTER I I I THE AFTERMATH A. PREFACE The I n c i d e n t on May 3 0 t h was by no means t h e o n l y t i m e t h a t C h i n e s e c o l l e c t e d i n an a s s e m b l y had been k i l l e d o r wounded by C h i n e s e o r f o r e i g n p o l i c e . A t N a n k i n g , a f t e r May 4, 1919, C h i n e s e p o l i c e wounded 28 s t u d e n t s ; one o t h e r was k i l l e d a t Wuhan and one a t F u k i e n . 1 I n 1920, s o l d i e r s wounded more t h a n 80 s t u d e n t s a t T i e n t s i n who 2 were i n s t i g a t i n g a b o y c o t t movement t h e r e . O t h e r s h o o t -i n g s o c c u r r e d i n 1921, 1922, 1923, and 1924. I n A p r i l , 1925, a t Foochow, more s t u d e n t s were k i l l e d by l o c a l 3 t r o o p s and p o l i c e . As T s i n g t a o on May 2 9 t h , C h i n e s e f o r -ces p r o t e c t i n g J a p a n e s e m i l l s k i l l e d and wounded s e v e r a l 4 l a b o u r e r s and s t u d e n t s . S u d d e n l y t h e May 30t h I n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d , and t h e months t h a t f o l l o w e d p r o d u c e d s t r i k e s , b o y c o t t s , a g i t a t i o n , s h o o t i n g s , and v i o l e n c e t h a t had n o t been s e e n f o r many y e a r s . A g i t a t i o n , s t r i k e s , and boy-c o t t s s 0 o n s p r e a d , and more and more C h i n e s e became i n -v o l v e d i n an i m p o r t a n t u r b a n mass movement. CCP members, s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , C h i n e s e p a t r i o t s , and KMT w o r k e r s a l l e f f e c t i v e l y f o c u s s e d C h i n e s e a t t e n t i o n on the May 3 0 t h . The I n c i d e n t gave r i s e to t h e May T h i r t i e t h Movement. The I n c i d e n t , d i r e c t e d i n t h e b e g i n n i n g a g a i n s t l o c a l p r o b l e m s , Page No. 182 soon b r o a d e n e d i n s c o p e t o i n c l u d e p r o t e s t a g a i n s t f o r e i g n i n t e r e s t i n C h i n a , t h e t r e a t i e s , and f o r e i g n g o v e r n i n g b o d i e s . Those aims were i n t u r n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a and t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f w a r l o r d g o v e r n -m ents. T h i s c h a p t e r , however, i s n o t meant to be a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e May 30t h Movement. ( T h i s i s b e y o n d t h e p r e s e n t s c o p e o f t h i s p a p e r ) . I n s t e a d , i t w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on t h o s e e v e n t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e May 3 0 t h i n c i d e n t . A t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d t o c o n d i t i o n s and e v e n t s i n S h a n g h a i f o l l o w i n g t h e I n c i d e n t ( s u c h as t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e and boy-c o t t movements, f u r t h e r a g i t a t i o n , and more s h o o t i n g s ) as w e l l as t h e s p r e a d o f f u r t h e r i n c i d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a . A t t e m p t s t o s e t t l e t h e I n c i d e n t became an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e a f t e r m a t h as n a t i o n a l i s s u e s were added as a f i n a l b a s i s f o r s e t t l e m e n t . A t t e n t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , was f o -c u s s e d on t h e u n e q u a l t r e a t i e s as t h e y were a f f e c t e d by t h e i n c i d e n t s . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a l s o i n c l u d e an e x a m i n a -t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f the I n c i d e n t on S h a n g h a i , i t s f o r -e i g n c o n c e s s i o n s , and i t s f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t s . The q u e s -t i o n o f the r o l e s o f R u s s i a and t h e CCP i n t h e v a r i o u s i n -c i d e n t s has al w a y s been a m a t t e r o f g r e a t c o n t r o v e r s y . An a t t e m p t w i l l be made, a l t h o u g h o n l y i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , to examine t h o s e r o l e s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h i s c h a p t e r i s e n t i t l e d "The A f t e r m a t h " and n o t "The May 30t h Movement." Page No. 183 B. RESPONSES TO THE MAY 3 0 t h INCIDENT: A g i t a t i o n , I n c i d e n t s , S t r i k e s As soon as the e v e n t s o f May30th became known, C h i n e s e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y q u i c k l y u n i t e d i n t h e i r c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n o f the S h a n g h a i f o r e i g n p o l i c e . A g i t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d to o c c u r i n S h a n g h a i , and more C h i n e s e were s h o t by t h e f o r e i g n a u t h o r i t i e s . A g i t a t i o n s p r e a d to o t h e r c e n t e r s w i t h more i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r i n g . G e n e r a l s t r i k e s began and new o r g a n i z a t i o n s were fo r m e d to r u n t h o s e s t r i k e s . I n c i d e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o o c c u r w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t e a c h i n c i d e n t i n i t s e l f p r o v o k e d new i n c i d e n t s , u n t i l f i n a l l y on June 2 3 r d , a l a r g e number o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s were k i l l e d i n Shameen. A g e n e r a l b o y c o t t de-c l a r e d i n S o u t h C h i n a s u d d e n l y became t h e new c e n t e r o f the movement a g a i n s t f o r e i g n e r s and t h e i r g o o d s . J a p a n , a l l o f a sudden was r e p l a c e d by B r i t a i n , who was now f o r c e d t o b e a r t h e b r u n t o f t h e a t t a c k . 1. SHANGHAI a. THE MEETING OF MAY 3 1 s t A n o t h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n , b u t one l e s s m e n a n c i n g i n c h a r a c t e r , was o r g a n i z e d by s t u d e n t s on e a r l y Sunday morn-i n g , May 3 1 s t , t o p r o t e s t t h e e v e n t s o f t h e day b e f o r e . In s p i t e o f t h e r a i n , s t u d e n t s went o u t to s p e a k , N a n k i n g Road a g a i n b e i n g the l o c a t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n s . ^ Of t h a t g r o u p , t h e N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d r e p o r t e d : * * Page No. 184 Between 300-500 y o u n g s t e r s o f t h e s t u d e n t c l a s s d r i f t e d a l o n g from v a r i o u s q u a r t e r s e a r l y i n t h e day, a number o f g i r l s among them, and began t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l e a f -l e t s c a l l i n g upon the s h o p k e e p e r s t o s t r i k e . Some b u s i e d t h e m s e l v e s a t t h e Che-k i a n g Road t e a - h o u s e s t h r o w i n g down s h e a v e s o f h a n d b i l l s t o p e o p l e b e l o w , w h i l e o t h e r s p l a s t e r e d shop windows and s h u t t e r s w i t h more o r l e s s i n f l a m a t o r y n o t i c e s . The s t u d e n t s r e m a i n e d n o n - v i o l e n t and no a r r e s t s were made. L a t e r t h a t day, a mass m e e t i n g was h e l d i n t h e C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce, on N o r t h Honan Road, t o c o n -s i d e r t h e p o l i c y w h i c h s h o u l d be a d o p t e d by C h i n e s e r e s i -d e n t s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t i n c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the s h o o t i n g s o f t h e s t u d e n t s and r e s i d e n t s t h e day b e f o r e . In a l l 1500 p e r s o n s a t t e n d e d t h e m e e t i n g . The m a j o r i t y were s t u d e n t s and l a b o u r e r s , w i t h a m i n o r i t y t h a t i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m a b o u t 100 s e c o n d a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as the S t r e e t U n i o n s , r a d i c a l s o c i e t i e s , and shop a s s i s t a n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s . The l a b o u r e r s were r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e Shanghai k u n g - t ' u a n l i e n - h o - h u i ( S h a n g h a i F e d e r a -t i o n o f L a b o u r U n i o n s ) ; t h e s t u d e n t s by t h e C h i n e s e Na-t i o n a l S t u d e n t ' s U n i o n s and t h e S h a n g h a i S t u d e n t s ' Un-i o n s ( S S U ) . L i n g Kyung ( S h a n g h a i d i a l e c t ) , a r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o f t h e SSU, t o o k t h e c h a i r . 7 The m e e t i n g , a l t h o u g h somewhat d i s o r g a n i z e d , f i n a l l y d e c i d e d to c a l l a g e n e r a l s t r i k e . The N o r t h C h i n a H e r a l d r e p o r t e d : ^ Page No. 185 Wang Z a o - z u n g , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the S e n z a Road S t r e e t U n i o n , t h e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a gen-e r a l s t r i k e s h o u l d be d e c l a r e d . . . T h i s p r o p o -s a l was condemned... b u t o r d e r was a g a i n r e -s t o r e d by the a p p e a r a n c e o f Woo T s z - a u , C h a i r m a n o f the F o k i e n Road S t r e e t U n i o n s . . . h i s remarks c o n f i r m e d by Wong H a n - l i a n g , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the C a n t o n Road S t r e e t U n i o n s . P r o c e e d i n g s were t h e n s u s p e n d e d f o r t e n m i n u t e s , a f t e r w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s were a p p r o v e d , made by an unknown s t u d e n t : 1. T h a t t h e payment of t a x e s t o the S h a n g h a i M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l be i m m e d i a t e l y s u s p e n d e d : 2. T h a t a t e m p o r a r y b o y c o t t be de-c l a r e d a g a i n s t a l l f o r e i g n e r s ; and 3. T h a t t h e C h i n e s e be u r g e d to use o n l y C h i n e s e goods. D i g r e s s i o n s were t h e n made...by a man who r e p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f as a member o f t h e L a b o u r e r s ' C l u b i n Tan T s z -wen, C h a p e l who u r g e d t h a t a g e n e r a l s t r i k e be de c l a r e d . . . One Van Dah*tseng, owner o f the C h i n g - t s i n g Powder P a p e r F a c t o r y d i s a g r e e d . . . . L i n g Kyung to o k o r d e r as c h a i r m a n and spoke o f i l l t r e a t m e n t o f l a b o u r e r s by im-p e r i a l i s t s and m i l i t a r i s t s . . . d e l e g a t e s o f t h e C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce and t h e C h i n e s e R a t e p a y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n w a n t e d a s p e c i a l m e e t i n g b u t r a d i c a l e l e m e n t s wan-t e d a s t r i k e now w h i c h p a s s e d . . . s u p p o r t e d f i n a l l y by s t r e e t u n i o n s and t h e r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s o f t h e E l e c t r i c a l W o r k e r s ' U n i o n . A g e n e r a l s t r i k e had been d e c i d e d upon; y e t no d e f i n i t e d a t e had been s e t f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h a t m e e t i n g f u r t h e r a d o p t e d a form o f "13 Demands" and i t s f o u r p r e l i m i n a r y demands. Th e s e s e v e n t e e n demands were soon to r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t had t o be s e t t l e d i f t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e was to end. S t i l l Page No. 186 9 d i s o r g a n i z e d , t h e m e e t i n g a d j o u r n e d . No p l a n s had been made. The s t u d e n t s and s t r e e t un-i o n s , however, d e c i d e d to d e c l a r e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l s t r i k e f o r J une 3 r d ; ^ ^ b u t t h e y , t o o , d i d n o t have t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r l e a d e r s t h a t c o u l d manage the r u n n i n g o f the s t r i k e . T h a t w o u l d have t o w a i t u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g week. b. AGITATION, MORE SHOOTING D u r i n g t h e f i r s t few days of J u n e , more v i o l e n t i n c i -d e n t s o c c u r r e d i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t w i t h the p o l i c e and t h e V o l u n t e e r s s e v e r a l t i m e s f i r i n g on t h e s t u -d e n t s and l a b o u r e r s who were d i s t r i b u t i n g h a n d b i l l s and h a r a n g u i n g c r o w d s . ^ The S e t t l e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s a g a i n and a g a i n r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e use o f more f o r c e : t h e V o l u n t e e r s were m o b i l i z e d , m a r t i a l law was d e c l a r e d , 26 g u n b o a t s were b r o u g h t up the Whangpoo, m a r i n e s were l a n d e d , and v a r i o u s 12 s c h o o l s were o c c u p i e d o r c l o s e d . The S e t t l e m e n t was t o be p r o t e c t e d as m a c h i n e - g u n s and a r m o u r e d c a r s m a i n t a i n e d an e f f e c t i v e g u a r d from p o i n t s o f v a n t a g e . A r t i c l e s i n b o t h C h i n e s e and f o r e i g n n e w s p a p e r s c o n -t i n u a l l y a t t a c k e d one a n o t h e r . C h i n e s e c o m p l a i n e d o f massa-c r e s , f o r e i g n e r s o f a n a r c h y and p l a n n e d v i o l e n c e . One C h i n e s e p a t r i o t a t t e m p t e d to d e s c r i b e t h o s e days as f o l -l o w i n g : Page No. 187 . . . f o r 10 days f o l l o w i n g , a r e i g n o f t e r r o r p r e v a i l e d . On June 1 s t , some C h i n e s e p e r -s u a d i n g t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s t o b o y c o t t t h e E n g l i s h tramway i n S h a n g h a i were f i r e d upon by t h e p o l i c e . On June 2nd, E n g l i s h m e n a g a i n s h o t C h i n e s e . On t h e same e v e n i n g , The S h a n g h a i V o l u n t e e r C o r p s , coming i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h some C h i n e s e on t h e r o o f o f a p l e a s u r e r e s o r t , o p e ned f i r e w i t h m a c h i n e guns on C h i n e s e c i v i l i a n s . On June 5 t h , f o r e i g n p o l i c e and s o l d i e r s f i r e d on an un-armed crowd o f C h i n e s e l a b o u r e r s . As a r e -s u l t , a t o t a l o f 32 C h i n e s e were r e p o r t e d t o have been k i l l e d and 57 s e r i o u s l y wounded... A l t h o u g h e x a g g e r a t e d and o n e - s i d e d , t h a t t y p e o f a c c o u n t c o n t i n u e d to be p r i n t e d t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a , and w h e t h e r t r u e o r n o t , C h i n e s e seem to b e l i e v e i t . Monday, June 1 s t On June 1 s t , e a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g , t h e SSU met i n t h e i r o f f i c e s a t No. 20 Yang T s u n g - f o n g , a b u i l d i n g c o n -o u t d e l e g a t e s t o speak i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t and t h e C h i n e s e c i t i e s . O t h e r s were t o i n t e r v i e w t h o s e s h o p k e e p e r s i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t who were n o t c l o s e d and ur g e them to c l o s e t h e i r p r e m i s e s , t h r e a t e n i n g t h a t i f t h a t c o u r s e was n o t t a k e n t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d p r e v e n t c u s t o m e r s from e n t e r i n g . ^ L a t e r t h a t m o r n i n g S p e a k i n g B r i g a d e s o u t a g i t a t i n g c l a s h e d w i t h t h e S e t t l e m e n t p o l i c e . As a r e -s u l t s e v e r a l p e r s o n s were a r r e s t e d and many were i n j u r e d . ^ " C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e F r e n c h C o n c e s s i o n r e m a i n e d q u i e t s t a n t l y b e i n g g u a r d e d to p r e v e n t any r a i d byjthe M u n i c i p a l 14 a u t h o r i t i e s . T h a t m e e t i n g d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e to s e n d u n t i l l a t e i n t h e a f t e r n o o n when a few s t u d e n t s a t t e m p t e d Page No. 188 to d i s t r i b u t e p a m p h l e t s . T h i s was p r o m p t l y p u t to a s t o p by t h e F r e n c h p o l i c e w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s b e i n g t a k e n t o a p o l i c e s t a t i o n f o r a r r a i g n m e n t . 1 ^ E v e r y t h i n g r e m a i n e d q u i e t i n C h a p e i and t h e N a t i v e C i t y w i t h no d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g . Numerous d e p u t a -t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s and l a b o u r e r s , however, v i s i t e d t h e Yamen o f H u i h a i T a o y i n and t h e S h a n g h a i D i s t r i c t M a g i s t r a t e as w e l l as the C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e and C o m m i s s i o n e r o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s w i t h r e q u e s t s t h a t t h e C h i n e s e o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d t a k e up t h e a f f a i r as s t r o n g l y as p o s s i b l e and de-mand a hea v y i n d e m n i t y and f u l l a p o l o g i e s f r o m t h e f o r e i g n 18 o f f i c i a l s c o n c e r n e d . The S e t t l e m e n t a r e a was n o t q u i t e so f o r t u n a t e . Many shops r e m a i n e d c l o s e d o r had t h e i r s h u t t e r s up. S t r i k e r s and s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d to speak to crowds and t o demon-s t r a t e . V a r i o u s p o l i c e s t a t i o n s r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s t h a t C h i n e s e were s e e n b r e a k i n g windows and m a n h a n d l i n g f o r e i g n -e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f N a n k i n g Road. The p o l i c e 19 were t h e n o r d e r e d to a r r e s t a l l d e m o n s t r a t o r s . S h o r t l y a f t e r mid-day a l a r g e group o f s t r i k e r s came i n t o c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c e . R e p o r t e d as " l o o k i n g f o r t r o u b l e , " t h e group o f a b o u t 1000-2000 a t t a c k e d a 20 J a p a n e s e who was r e s c u e d by a S i k h p o l i c e m a n . The S i k h r e t u r n e d to t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n to o b t a i n s u p p o r t . Page No. 189 Under t h e command o f I n s p e c t o r E v e r s o n a g a i n , t h e p o l i c e p a r t y f i r e d s e v e r a l s h o t s i n t o t h e crowd. The crowd 21 d i s p e r s e d w i t h many r e p o r t e d i n j u r e d . ( R e p o r t s h e r e a r e m o s t l y b a s e d upon NCH a c c o u n t s ) . F u r t h e r t r o u b l e came to t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e a t 5:30 p.m. when a l a r g e crowd o f n e a r l y 1000 a s s a u l t e d t h r e e J a p a n e s e i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f C a r t e r and S i n z a Roads. The crowd, f r o m a l l r e p o r t s , had been m o l e s t i n g t h e t r a m s , p u l l i n g o f f t r o l l e y s , and t h r o w i n g b r i c k s . The a r r i v a l o f I n s p e c t o r M i l l s and a p a r t y o f men from S i n z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n b r o u g h t about the d i s p e r s a l o f t h e crowd. I n j u r -22 i e s were r e c e i v e d , b u t no one was r e p o r t e d k i l l e d . I n c i d e n t s s u c h as t h e s e g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d t h e e v e n t s i n S h a n g h a i f o r t h e n e x t t e n d a y s . S t u d e n t s , w o r k e r s , and s t r i k e r s c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s on c l o s i n g a l l shops i n t h e S e t t l e m e n t , and r e a c h i n g a l l C h i n e s e i n S h a n g h a i . The r e a c t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e i n a t t e m p t i n g to a r r e s t t h e l e a d e r s and t r o u b l e - m a k e r s o n l y r e s u l t e d i n r e s i s t a n c e and f u r t h e r v i o l e n c e . T h a t r e s u l t ' s i n more s h o o t i n g s t h a t were e x a g g e r a t e d i n r e p o r t s t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a . The p o l i c e , however, were n o t a l w a y s s u c c e s s f u l i n d i s p e r s i n g a g i t a t o r s . F o r ex a m p l e , on June 1 s t , when p o l i c e a t t e m p t e d to a r r e s t two s t u d e n t s d i s t r i b u t i n g h a nd-Page No. 190 b i l l s on J e s s f i e l d Road, t h e y were s t o p p e d by C h i n e s e 2 3 n e a r b y and by t h e C h a p e i M e r c h a n t s ' V o l u n t e e r s . I n r e s p o n s e to t h e e v e n t s o f J u n e 1 s t , t h e S h a n g h a i M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l l a t e r t h a t day d e c l a r e d a " s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y , " e q u i v a l e n t to a p r o c l a m a t i o n of m a r t i a l law. The p r o c l a m a t i o n was p o s t e d t h r o u g h o u t th e c i t y w i t h e a c h document p e r s o n a l l y s i g n e d by t h e C o u n c i l S e c r e t a r y , E.S. Benbowe Rowe. I t p r o h i b i t e d : (1) any a c t i o n t h a t m i g h t c a u s e a crowd to c o l l e c t i n any p u b l i c s t r e e t o r p u b l i c a r e a ; (2) p u b l i s h i n g , p r i n t i n g , o r e x h i b i t i n g o f any do-cument, p i c t u r e o r f l a g ; (3) i n v e n t i n g o r s p r e a d i n g any 24 rumour t h a t m i g h t foment t r o u b l e . T u e s d a y , June 2nd J u n e 2nd was the day t h a t t h e R a t e p a y e r s ' M e e t i n g was t o be h e l d t o a d o p t t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l b y l a w s . Compounded w i t h t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f m a r t i a l l a w , T u e s d a y p r o v e d to.;be an e v e n t f u l day. E a r l y i n t h e m o r n i n g , members o f t h e " C i t i z e n s ' De-f e n s e L e a g u e a g a i n s t J a p a n e s e D i p l o m a c y " met t o d i s c u s s S a t u r d a y ' s and Monday's e v e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e m e e t i n g a d v o c a t e d a b o y c o t t a g a i n s t a l l f o r e i g n e r s i n S h a n g h a i , i t s members t h o u g h t t h a t i t was more i m p o r t a n t t o c o n t i n u e the l e c t u r e s and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p a m p h l e t s i n s p i t e o f the o r d i n a n c e . I t was f u r t h e r r e s o l v e d to " t e l e g r a p h a l l Page No. 191 p a r t s o f C h i n a to s e c u r e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a f f o r d i n g r e d r e s s . " The word B r i t i s h was a l s o added t o 25 i t s name to be e q u a l w i t h J a p a n . A l s o d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g , m a l c o n t e n t s a t t a c k e d trams on N a n k i n g Road, threw s t o n e s a t t h e t r o l l e y s , and i n s u l -t e d p a s s e n g e r s i n t h e motor c a r s . T h e i r number c o n t i n u e d to i n c r e a s e and one l a r g e group on H o p e i and N a k i n g Roads was h o s e d down and f o r c e d to d i s p e r s e . L a t e r , t h e same a s s e m b l y c l a i m e d i t was f i r e d upon by a group o f p o l i c e 2 6 o f f i c e r s when i t w o u l d n o t d i s p e r s e . J u s t b e f o r e 11 a.m., s t u d e n t s a t t a c k e d a group o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s by L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h r e e s t u d e n t s were k i l l e d and f o u r t e e n were wounded. I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h o s e s t u d e n t s had e a r l i e r been a t -t e m p t i n g to c l o s e shops o f t h e m e r c h a n t s t h a t r e m a i n e d open. In t h e meantime, the a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t had n o t been i d l e . The S h a n g h a i V o l u n t e e r C o r p s t h a t had b e en m o b i l i z e d t h a t m o r n i n g was d i s p a t c h e d t o v a r i o u s p o i n t s to p r e v e n t a s s e m b l i e s . L i n e s o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were s t a t i o n e d a c r o s s m a j o r roadways t o p r e v e n t d i s r u p t i o n o f t r a f f i c . V a r i o u s a s s e m b l i e s were d i s p e r s e d and more . 28 a r r e s t s were made. 27 Page No. 192 29 S h o r t l y a f t e r s i x p.m., armed C h i n e s e made an a t t a c k upon f o r e i g n t r o o p s and c i v i l i a n s f r o m the r o o f o f the New W o r l d B u i l d i n g , a t t h e c o r n e r o f N a n k i n g and T h i b e t Roads. T h e r e was a f a i r amount o f f o r e i g n t r a f f i c , t r a m c a r s , and a u t o m o b i l e s i n t h e t h o r o u g h f a r e , and a mere h a n d f u l o f A m e r i c a n t r o o p e r s and s e v e r a l M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e and " S p e c i a l s . " The a t t a c k came w i t h t h e c o n c l u -s i o n o f t h e R a t e p a y e r s ' M e e t i n g t h a t had ended f o r a l a c k o f a quorum. F i r i n g c o n t i n u e d by b o t h s i d e s a t a g r e a t p a c e . Two h u n d r e d V o l u n t e e r s a r r i v e d w i t h t h e i r L e w i s guns and armoured c a r s . By s e v e n , t h e f i r i n g h ad s t o p p e d . The p o l i c e and V o l u n t e e r s a d v a n c e d on t h e b u i l d i n g , smashed i n t h e d o o r s and made a t h o r o u g h s e a r c h o f t h e p r e m i s e s . No guns were f o u n d a l t h o u g h s i x h u n d r e d p e r s o n s were a r r e s t e d and e s c o r t e d t o t h e L o u z a P o l i c e S t a t i o n . Most were f r e e d " w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e who seemed to be o f t h e s t u d e n t c l a s s e s , " and N a n k i n g Road was d e c l a r e d a 30 f o r b i d d e n a r e a to e v e r y C h i n e s e . More c l a s h e s o c c u r r e d t h a t n i g h t , and i t was l a t e r r e p o r t e d t h a t two w o r k e r s had 31 been k i l l e d i n t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s . In s p i t e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t day, t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s d e c i d e d t o a r a i g n t h o s e p e r s o n s a r r e s t e d on S a t u r d a y and Monday. Some 49 p e r s o n s a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e M i x e d C o u r t , In o r d e r to p r e v e n t any t r o u b l e on t h e p a r t of t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e e n t r a n c e was h e a v i l y g u a r d e d and Page No. 193 f i r e e n g i n e s were p l a c e d i n t h e y a r d . The g a t e s o f the C o u r t were a l s o c l o s e d . The p r i s o n e r s were bound o v e r f o r t r i a l w i t h s e v e n remanded w i t h o u t b a i l , f i v e r e l e a s e d 32 on $100 b a i l , and t h e r e m a i n d e r on $5 e a c h . Wednesday, June 3 r d More s k i r m i s h e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e -33 ment, and more were r e p o r t e d k i l l e d o r wounded. The D e f e n s e F o r c e and V o l u n t e e r C o r p s r e c e i v e d s t r o n g r e i n -f o r c e m e n t s as B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n s a i l o r s and m a r i n e s 34 c o n t i n u e d to a r r i v e i n S h a n g h a i . T h u r s d a y , June 4 t h As more t r o o p s began to a r r i v e i n S h a n g h a i , accommo-d a t i o n s p a c e f o r them became c r i t i c a l . F i n a l l y , on J u n e 4 t h t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s d e c i d e d to b a r r a c k t h e men a t v a r i o u s s c h o o l dorms. T h a t day, A m e r i c a n m a r i n e s were s e n t t o S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y w i t h o r d e r s t o o c c u p y and c l o s e i t f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f u s i n g i t as t h e i r l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s r e s i s t e d , b u t t h e campus was e v e n t u a l l y 35 o c c u p i e d and t h e s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d . O t h e r s c h o o l s were 3 6 o c c u p i e d and c l o s e d t h e f o l l o w i n g few d a y s . F r i d a y , June 5 t h Tram c a r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the S e t t l e m e n t were a g a i n b e s i e g e d and s t o n e d . S t u d e n t s a g a i n c l a s h e d w i t h t h e p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s , and a n o t h e r i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d a t Page No. 194 37 the New W o r l d B u i l d i n g . The SSU o f f i c e s were r a i d e d the same day w i t h two s t u d e n t s a r r e s t e d and a l l b a n n e r s 3 8 and s e d i t i o u s l i t e r a t u r e b e i n g c o n f i s c a t e d . More s h o o t i n g o c c u r r e d on June 8 t h , 9 t h , and 1 0 t h , w i t h as many as t h r e e r e p o r t e d k i l l e d . More r i o t s o c -c u r r e d and more a r r e s t s . S c h o o l s n o t on s t r i k e soon f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s o c c u p i e d and c l o s e d down. The week f o l l o w i n g May 30th p r o v e d t o be a h e c t i c one f o r b o t h t h e C h i n e s e and t h e S e t t l e m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s . R i o t s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o c c u r r e d a l m o s t c o n t i n u a l l y , and a l -though i t i s n o t g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d , at l e a s t e i g h t more C h i n e s e were k i l l e d and f o r t y - f o u r wounded by f o r e i g n 39 t r o o p s o r p o l i c e . As c o n d i t i o n s began t o d e t e r i o r a t e , t h e S h a n g h a i g e n e r a l s t r i k e began t o t a k e on a more im-p o r t a n t r o l e ; c. THE SHANGHAI GENERAL STRIKE i . ORGANIZATION In c o n c u r r e n c e w i t h t h e s e n t i m e n t s e x p r e s s e d a t t h e m e e t i n g o f May 3 1 s t , work came t o a s t o p i n many shops i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t and t e a c h i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on J une 1 s t . The s t r i k e soon g a i n e d momentum i n t h e v a r -i o u s f a c t o r i e s as l a b o u r e r s f o r c e d many o f t h e i r e m p l o y e r s to c l o s e down. S t u d e n t s and w o r k e r s c o n t i n u e d to e n c o u r a g e Page No. 195 t h o s e shops and s c h o o l s n o t c l o s e d to j o i n t h e s t r i k e . In t h e f i r s t few d a y s , however, l e a d e r s h i p r e m a i n e d r a t h e r h e l t e r - s k e l t e r , and was l e f t t o f a l l q u i t e q u i c k l y i n t o t h e hands o f t h e communist w o r k e r s and u n i o n s . On t h e e v e n i n g o f May 3 1 s t , Communist P a r t y members 40 i n S h a n g h a i met w i t h w o r k e r s from d i f f e r e n t u n i o n s . Tak-i n g t h e i r s a n c t i o n s f r o m v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s p a s s e d a t t h e Second N a t i o n a l L a b o u r C o n g r e s s , t h e group p r e s e n t h a s t i l y o r g a n i z e d the S h a n g h a i t s u n g - k u n g - h u i ( S h a n g h a i G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n ) f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e s t r i k e movement and new u n i o n s . The U n i o n was to s u p e r c e d e t h e 4 1 S h a n g h a i F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r U n i o n s . A t f i r s t o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y commu-n i s t c o n t r o l l e d , a t t e m p t e d t o b r o a d e n t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e . On June 3 r d , t h e SSU, t h e N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n s , and 42 t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t r e e t U n i o n s met to d e c l a r e t h e i r 43 i n t e n t i o n s and t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r a g e n e r a l s t r i k e . S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y , t h r o u g h i t s i n f l u e n c e i n t h e SSU, s o o n d i r e c t e d t h o s e t h r e e g r o u p s t o w a r d s t h e S h a n g h a i G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n . I t s own s t u d e n t s , t h r o u g h i t s own s t u d e n t p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e J e - h s u e h J i h - p a o (Hot B l o o d D a i l y News), 4 4 e d i t e d by Ch'u C h ' i u - p a i , s o o n r e a c h e d many o t h e r s t u -d e n t s , c o n v i n c i n g them t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h t h e w o r k e r s . As the s t r i k e c o n t i n u e d , t h a t J o u r n a l soon became t h e c h i e f 45 p r o p a g a n d a o r g a n o f t h e s t r i k i n g w o r k e r s and s t u d e n t s . Page No. 196 By June 4 t h , t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e was making i m p o r t a n t g a i n s . About 74,000 s t r i k e r s were i n v o l v e d . Many f o r e i g n e n t e r p r i s e s had been c l o s e d , w i t h t h e B r i t i s h and J a p a n e s e b e i n g the h a r d e s t h i t . S h i p s were i m m o b i l i z e d i n t h e d ocks as goods were l e f t s t a n d i n g on t h e w h a r f s . The t e l e p h o n e s c e a s e d to f u n c t i o n , and f o r e i g n n e w s p a p e r s were f o r c e d t o p u b l i s h l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . The p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s were empty e x c e p t f o r t h e e l e c t r i c a l o f f i c e t h a t was b e i n g run by t h e R u s s i a n s . S e v e r a l S i k h s and C h i n e s e were r e p o r t e d to have " d e f e c t e d " f r o m t h e M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e . The 46 S e t t l e m e n t was f i n d i n g i t s e l f n e a r p a r a l y s i s . Between June 1 s t and 4 t h , t h e G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n had i n e a c h f a c t o r y been r a p i d l y o r g a n i z i n g new u n i o n s and r e o r g a n i z i n g o l d ones so t h a t by June 5 t h o v e r 128 u n i o n s 47 r e p r e s e n t i n g 218,000 w o r k e r s were u n d e r i t s l e a d e r s h i p . Many o f them may have been p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d , b u t t h e y were n e v e r t h e l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to communist p r o p a g a n d a . On June 5 t h , t h e G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n d e c i d e d t o b r i n g t h e whole s t r i k e movement u n d e r i t s d i r e c t o r c o n t r o l T h a t same day, i t p r o p o s e d c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s who had shown i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t r i k e . The C h i n e s e Chamber of Commerce r e f u s e d to p a r t i c i p a t e , b u t t h e two s t u d e n t f e d e r a t i o n s and t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t r e e t U n i o n s a g r e e d to On J u ne 7 t h , an a c t i o n committee was c o n v e n e d a t t h e i n s t i g a t i o n o f t h e G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n . The f o u r Page No. 197 g r o u p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g (SSU, N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S t u -d e n t s , t h e U n i o n , and S t r e e t U n i o n s ) a g r e e d to e a c h ap-p o i n t s i x members t o s e r v e on a k u n g - s h a n g - h s u e h l i e n - h o w e i - y u a n - h u i ( J o i n t Committee o f L a b o u r , T r a d e s m e n , and 49 S t u d e n t s ) . The committee became t h e g e n e r a l g u i d i n g f o r c e o f t h e S h a n g h a i g e n e r a l s t r i k e , and f r o m t h e o u t s e t i t was t h e G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n t h a t d o m i n a t e d t h a t com-m i t t e e . W h i l e some c o n f l i c t e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d among the v a r i o u s g r o u p s , i n t h e b e g i n n i n g r e l a t i o n s among t h e s t u d e n t s , w o r k e r s , and m e r c h a n t s were p a r t i c u l a r l y good."'''" The same week the N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' U n i o n s c a l l e d a c o n f e r e n c e t o d i s c u s s t h e p r o b l e m . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r p o i n t s were a d o p t e d as t h e y a t t e m p t e d to make p u b l i c t h e i r 52 f e e l i n g s t o w a r d t h e s t r i k e movement: 1. To endo r s e t h e l a b o u r e r s ' c a u s e i n t h e i r f i g h t a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m and a s s i s t them to s e c u r e a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e g overnment. 2. To r e n d e r n e c e s s a r y a s s i s t a n c e i n s t a r t -i n g l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o n t i n u e to c a r r y o u t p r o p a g a n d a work. 3. To e s t a b l i s h n i g h t s c h o o l s and p u b l i c mass e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e t o h e l p t h e w o r k e r s to a c q u i r e a d e q u a t e knowledge i n p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s . 4. To g i v e p r o p e r b a c k i n g t o i d l e w o r k e r s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t r i k e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h a t work b u r d e n , n a t u r a l l y , r e s t e d on t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e SSU who began t o o r g a n i z e a l m o s t imme-Page No. 198 d i a t e l y . One r e s u l t o f t h a t work was t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t u n i o n s t r u c t u r e i n S h a n g h a i , an e v e n t t h a t was to a f f e c t t h e development o f s t u d e n t p o l i t i c s i n S h a n g h a i f o r some time to come. (See t h e s e c t i o n on R e o r g a n i z a t i o n , p a r t d . ) . Once the m a c h i n e r y f o r t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e had been s e t i n m o t i o n , j u d g m e n t s e x p r e s s i n g t h e i s s u e s i n v o l v e d b egan to t a k e s h a p e . At t h e m e e t i n g o f t h e J o i n t Committee on June 7 t h , t h e d e l e g a t e s drew up a l i s t o f terms f o r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e s t r i k e , a l l b a s e d on the recommenda-t i o n s o f May 3 1 s t . F o u r p r e l i m i n a r y demands c a l l e d f o r " t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e o f e m e r g e n c y , the w i t h d r a w -a l o f l a n d i n g p a r t i e s and d e m o l i t i o n o f t h e V o l u n t e e r C o r p s , t h e r e l e a s e o f a l l p e r s o n s a r r e s t e d , and t h e r e t u r n 5 3 o f a l l c o l l e g e s s e i z e d . " T h e s e were f o l l o w e d by a r a t i -f i c a t i o n o f the 13 " f o r m a l demands" a c c e p t e d on May 3 1 s t . 54 They were: 1. To p u n i s h t h e c r i m i n a l s . C o n c e r n i n g t h e m u r d e r -e r s who q u i c k l y gave t h e o r d e r t o open f i r e and t h o s e who f i r e d k i l l i n g w o r k e r s , s t u d e n t s , and c i t i z e n s , we o p p o s e and m o r e o v e r ask t h a t t h e y be h anded o v e r to t h e C h i n e s e government f o r t r i a l , d e t e n t i o n , and p u n i s h m e n t . 2. To c ompensate. B e c a u s e t h i s c r u e l c a s e had c a u s e d d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n j u r i e s and c a s u a l t i e s . . . a l l must be c a r e f u l l y e x amined to d e t e r m i n e a c o m p e n s a t i o n w h i c h o u g h t t o be d i r e c t l y from t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l . 3. To a p o l o g i z e . . . t h e two c o n c e r n e d c o u n t r i e s o f E n g l a n d and J a p a n ought to i n d e t a i l a p o l o g i z e t h r o u g h t h e i r a mbassador t o t h e C h i n e s e government and m o r e o v e r to a s s u r e them t h a t h e r e a f t e r t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g w i l l n o t h a p p e n . Page No. 199 4. To remove t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , Mr. Rowe. 5. The C h i n e s e i n t h e I.S. must have the a b s o l u t e f r e e d oms o f s p e e c h , p u b l i c a t i o n , and a s s e m b l y . 6. To t r e a t w i t h p o l i t e n e s s t h e w o r k e r s . The f a c -t o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by f o r e i g n e r s must t h r o u g h j o i n t a c t i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l and C h i n e s e R a t e p a y e r s A s s o c i a t i o n c o n -c l u d e a law t h a t w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e C h i n e s e w o r k e r , t h a t w o u l d a l s o n o t a l l o w i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f the w o r k e r . In a d d i -t i o n i t w o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e w o r k e r to o r -g a n i z e l a b o u r u n i o n s and to s t r i k e . F i n a l l y i t w o u l d n o t be a b l e to f i r e the w o r k e r s b e c a u s e t h e y had s t r u c k . 7. To a l o t the u p p e r e s c h e l o n o f t h e p o l i c e . The p o l i c e o ught t o e s t a b l i s h a C h i n e s e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o l i c e ^ w e l l u n d e r him t h e r e o u g h t to be C h i n e s e i n one h a l f o f a l l p o s i t i o n s . 8. They must remove t h e p u b l i s h i n g b y l a w , c a n c e l the i n c r e a s e i n t h e w h a r f t a x , and c a n c e l t h e b y l a w c o n c e r n -i n g l i c e n s i n g o f e x c h a n g e . . . 9. To r e s t r i c t the e n c r o a c h m e n t p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g highway c o n s t r u c t i o n . The C o u n c i l must n o t o v e r - e x c e e d the s p h e r e o f t h e S e t t l e m e n t i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i g h w a y s , and t h o s e a l r e a d y b u i l t must be r e t u r n e d to t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e C h i n e s e government. 10. To r e t u r n the M i x e d C o u r t to C h i n e s e j u r i s d i c t i o n . 11. The Case o f M u n i c i p a l v o t i n g r i g h t s . . . B e f o r e t h e S e t t l e m e n t i s r e t u r n e d , t h e m u n i c i p a l r i g h t s o f the S e t -t l e m e n t ought to c o n s i s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g two r e g u l a t i o n s : 1. The M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l and Tax C o l l e c t i n g C o n f e r -ence w o u l d c o l l e c t t a x e s , o r g a n i z e d by C h i n e s e . The q u o t a o f C h i n e s e d i r e c t o r s and t a x c o l l e c -t o r s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by r e l a t i v e amount o f t a x c o l l e c t e d . The a t t e n d a n c e and v o t i n g r i g h t s o f t h e t a x c o l l e c t o r s a t the y e a r l y a s s e m b l y w i l l be a b s o l u t e l y e q u a l . 2. The r i g h t to v o t e s h a l l be d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g to o w n e r s h i p and p r o d u c t i o n . 12. E x t r a l i t y s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d f o r t h w i t h . 13. B r i t i s h and J a p a n e s e g u n b o a t s must be w i t h d r a w n from S h a n g h a i p e r m a n e n t l y . The demands were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l t h a t same n i g h t . Page No. 200 At t h i s p o i n t , t h e S h a n g h a i G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n was i n f i r m c o n t r o l o f the S h a n g h a i g e n e r a l s t r i k e . From i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s i n C h a p e i , t h a t U n i o n c o n t i n u e d to e s -t a b l i s h new b r a n c h e s i n P o o t u n g , Y a n g t z e p o o , and H s i a o h a t u so as to d e a l more e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f s t r i k e d u t i e s . I n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e p r o p a g a n d a i n C h i n e s e i s s u e d by t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , t h e U n i o n e s t a -b l i s h e d a b u l l e t i n and p r o v i d e d a d a i l y s u p p l e m e n t to t h e J e - h s u e h J i h - p a o . " * ^ Such l e a d e r s as L i L i - s a n , L i u Shao-c h i , L i u Hua, Sun L i a n g - h u i ( l e a d e r o f t h e West S h a n g h a i W o r k e r s ' C l u b ) , Yang C h i h - h u a , H s i a n g Y i n g , and T s ' a i Ho-s e n , a l l members o f the CCP, c o n t i n u e d to c o n t r o l t h a t U n i o n , and t h u s t h e s t r i k e . ^ 7 As T h u r s t o n G r i g g s p o i n t e d o u t , t h e "Communist u s e d t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e t o s p r e a d t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s and t h e i r i d e o l o g y among s u c h g r o u p s as L a b o u r V o l u n t e e r s , A g r i c u l t u r e V o l u n t e e r s , S t u d e n t A s s o -c i a t i o n s , A n t i - I m p e r i a l i s t A l l i a n c e , P e o p l e ' s Freedom S o c i e t y , L o y a l W o r k e r s ' U n i o n , Masons' and C a r p e n t e r s ' U n i o n s , R i c k s h a P u l l e r s ' U n i o n , and t h e C h i n e s e C o m p o s i -t o r s ' U n i o n . . . a l l d e d i c a t e d to o v e r t h r o w t h o s e o p p o s e d 5 8 t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f the KMT." E a c h group was p e r s u a d e d to d i s t r i b u t e s t r i k e c e r t i f i c a t e s , to o r g a n i z e p i c k e t s , and t o make c o n t a c t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c r e a t i n g a s t r i k e f und. Page No. 201 In o r d e r to meet t h e c o s t o f t h e s t r i k e , a s t r i k e f u n d was f i n a l l y o r g a n i z e d w i t h the h e l p o f t h e s t u d e n t s , and c o n t r i b u t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d i n t h e C h i n e s e - o w n e d f a c -t o r i e s , f r o m t h e s h o p k e e p e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s , and f r o m s y m p a t h e t i c c i t i z e n s t h r o u g h o u t S h a n g h a i . Funds soon were c o l l e c t e d f r o m most a r e a s i n C h i n a as w e l l as f r o m KMT o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e C o m i n t e r n . ^ Y e t , as t h i s s t r i k e c o n t i n u e d to g a i n momentum, d i s s e n s i o n i n i t s own r a n k s began t o weaken i t s own e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i i . DISSENSION I t i s n o t a t a l l c e r t a i n t h a t C h i n e s e f a c t o r y owners were t r u l y s i n c e r e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n on May 3 1 s t to en-d o r s e t h e i d e a o f a g e n e r a l s t r i k e . W r i t e r s a t t h a t t i m e had s u g g e s t e d t h a t members o f the Chamber o f Commerce and the C h i n e s e R a t e p a y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n had b een c o e r c e d i n t o a g r e e m e n t . Many, however, r e a l i z e d t h a t the t i m e was o p p o r t u n e f o r w i n n i n g c o n c e s s i o n s from t h e M u n i c i p a l au-t h o r i t i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o s u c h i s s u e s as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e b y l a w s , and t h e M i x e d C o u r t . Y e t t h a t group was soon t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e J o i n t Committee o v e r the demands p r e s e n t e d t o t h e C o u n c i l . Once the demands were p r e s e n t e d to t h e C o u n c i l , t h e Chamber o f Commerce, u n d e r the a u s p i c e s o f Yu H s i a - c h ' i n g , 6 2 d e c i d e d t o r e v i s e t h e s e v e n t e e n p o i n t s l i s t e d . The J o i n t Committee r e a c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y c a l l i n g f o r a mass Page No. 202 m e e t i n g f o r June 1 1 t h . On t h a t day, 20,000 w o r k e r s and s t u d e n t s marched i n C h a p e i and r a t i f i e d t h e demands as 6 3 p r o p o s e d by t h e J o i n t Committee. I g n o r i n g t h e p a r a d e , Yu t h e n s u b m i t t e d the r e v i s e d l i s t t o t h e P e k i n g g o v e r n -ment, w h i c h r e l a y e d t h a t l i s t t o t h e f o r e i g n d i p l o m a t i c c o r p s , a l i s t t h a t was t o form t h e b a s i s o f n e g o t i a t i o n w h i c h s h o r t l y f o l l o w e d between C h i n a and t h e f o r e i g n pow-e r s . The Chamber o f Commerce had made t h e f o l l o w i n g de-l e t i o n s . 1. The P r e f a c e , 2. I t d e l e t e d t h e demands c a l l i n g f o r a b o l i t i o n o f e x t r a l i t y , p e r m a n e n t w i t h d r a w a l o f f o r e i g n t r o o p s , and the a p p o i n t m e n t o f a C h i n e s e c o m m i s s i o n e r o f p o l i c e ; and 3. I t d e l e t e d t h e s e c t i o n on l a b o u r i m p r o v e m e n t . C o n f l i c t s a l s o a r o s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e s t r i k e r e l i e f f u n d s . The s t r i k e had m a i n l y b een s u p p o r t e d by c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n C h i n a , w i t h o t h e r s coming f r o m o u t s i d e . Among t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s were the C o m i n t e r n , o v e r s e a s C h i -n e s e ($38,873 and 10,000 t a e l s ) , F e ng Y i i - h s i a n g ($15 , 0 0 0 ) , and M a r s h a l Tuan's Government ($100,000 from t h e M i n i s t r y o f F i n a n c e ) ^ 5 Some o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s were s e n t d i r e c t -l y t o t h e J o i n t Committee o r t o t h e G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n , bu t most were s e n t t o t h e Chamber o f Commerce, who r e p o r -t e d a c o l l e c t i o n f u n d o f $2.2 m i l l i o n . I n s t e a d o f t u r n i n g t h e f u n d s o v e r t o t h e J o i n t Committee, t h e Chamber o f Commerce d e c i d e d t o f o r m t h e C h i - a n - h u i ( R e l i e f Committee) t h a t w o u l d d i s t r i b u t e t h e f u n d s to t h e w o r k e r s . ^ T h a t Page No. 203 C o mmittee, t h r o u g h r e p o r t s o f a l l e g e d i n e f f i c i e n t and c o r r u p t management, came i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e J o i n t C o m m ittee, and when t h e Chamber o f Commerce began to o p e n l y oppose the J o i n t Committee, i t t h e n d e c i d e d to " c h oke o f f t h e f l o w o f f u n d s t h e n p u t i n t o t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e w o r k e r s . " ^ 7 The gap between t h e Chamber o f Commerce and t h e s t r i k e o r g a n i z e r s c o n t i n u e d to w i d e n . N e a r t h e end o f J u n e , C h i n e s e b u s i n e s s m e n began t o c o m p l a i n o f t h e i r l o s s e s as 6 8 a r e s u l t o f t h e s t r i k e . The Shameen I n c i d e n t and t h e p r o s p e c t o f a g e n e r a l b o y c o t t seemed to o f f e r a t e m p o r a r y s o l u t i o n f o r them. As W i l l i a m A y e r s s t a t e d : ^ C h i n e s e c a p i t a l i s t s saw t h e y c o u l d remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n and a t t h e same time p r o f i t a t the e x p e n s e o f a l i e n i n d u s t r y by c a l l -i n g o f f t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e , w h i c h a f f e c t e d many o f t h e i r own e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , l i m i t i n g the s t r i k e to f o r e i g n f a c t o r i e s , and c o n -c e n t r a t i n g on t h e b o y c o t t o f f o r e i g n g o o d s . They were t h u s , i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , p r e p a r e d to g i v e f u l l s u p p o r t to t h e b o y c o t t movement. i i i . THE GENERAL BOYCOTT To f u r t h e r t h e i r own a i m s , t h e C h i n e s e Chamber o f Commerce s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e come t o an end a t m i d n i g h t June 2 5 t h . S m a l l s h o p k e e p e r s who had a l s o s u f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l l o s s e s i n t h e s t r i k e a g r e e d w i t h them, and f i n a l l y t h e J o i n t Committee c o n s e n t e d . The g e n e r a l Page No. 204 s t r i k e , t h u s , i n t h e o r y came to an end on June 2 6 t h . T h a t same day, t h e g e n e r a l b o y c o t t o f f o r e i g n goods and t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s t r i k e i n t h e f o r e i g n owned f a c -t o r i e s were d e c l a r e d by the S h a n g h a i G e n e r a l L a b o u r TT < 7 0 U n i o n . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e t t l e m e n t a g a i n f o u n d i t s e l f p a r a -l y z e d as even t h e p o o r e s t w o r k e r c o n t i n u e d t o s t r i k e . C h i n e s e w o r k e r s l e f t t h e i r j o b s i n t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , i n the p r i n t i n g d e p a r t m e n t o f l e a d i n g f o r e i g n n e w s p a p e r s , and among s h i p p i n g f i r m s . A g a i n , t h e B r i t i s h and J a p a n e s e m i l l s were s e v e r e l y h i t . I n answer to t h e b o y c o t t movement, t h e M u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s n o t i f i e d the C h i n e s e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s t h a t t h e i r e l e c t r i c a l power w o u l d be s h u t o f f on J u l y 6 t h . C o n s c i o u s o f t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and t h e s t r i k e o r g a n i z e r s , f o r e i g n a u t h o r i t i e s had hoped t h a t t h i s move w o u l d c r i p p l e the l a b o u r u n i o n s t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s u r e o f the o wners. The c u t - o f f o c c u r r e d and C h i n e s e owners were f o r c e d to compensate t h e i r e m p l o y e e s . From t h i s p o i n t on, few C h i n e s e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s were p r e p a r e d t o o u t w a r d l y s u p p o r t t h e b o y c o t t o r t h e s t r i k e r s . ^ 1 W h i l e t h e s t r i k e and b o y c o t t movement c o n t i n u e d to s u f f e r s e t - b a c k s , o t h e r e v e n t s n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o Page No. 205 t h e s e movements o c c u r r e d t h a t had t h e e f f e c t o f d i s r u p -t i n g the C h i n e s e r e s i s t a n c e . In t h e e a r l y p a r t o f J u l y , G e n e r a l H s i n g S h i h - l i e n , f r i e n d l y to t h e B r i t i s h and J a p a n e s e as w e l l as C h i n e s e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , o c c u p i e d S h a n g h a i and d e c l a r e d m a r t i a l law. A l t h o u g h o r d e r s were g i v e n t o a r r e s t a l l l a w - b r e a k e r s o r t r o u b l e - m a k e r s a t t h a t t i m e , however, he d e c i d e d to make no move a g a i n s t t h e s t r i k e r s t h a t m i g h t l o o k as i f he were a t t e m p t i n g t o 72 d e s t r o y t h e l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n . i v . SETTLEMENT The s t r i k e o f J a p a n e s e and B r i t i s h m i l l s c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t J u l y and t h e f i r s t week o f A u g u s t . The d i s -c o u r a g i n g t r e n d o f i t , however, s o o n c a u s e d l a b o u r t o a l -t e r i t s s t r a t e g y and o r i g i n a l a i m s . The CCP d e c l a r e d t h a t the "May 3 0 t h M o v e m e n t " s h o u l d d e s c e n d f r o m t h e h e i g h t o f ' n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y demands' t o t h e p l a n e o f ' economic 73 l e g a l demands'". P o l i t i c a l aims s h o u l d be p u r s u e d o n l y i f t h e y were o f m i n o r l o c a l n a t u r e ; t h e w o r k e r s s h o u l d recommend t h a t m a j o r p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s be t u r n e d o v e r t o a j o i n t c o m m i s s i o n a p p o i n t e d by t h e N o r t h e r n and Sou-t h e r n g o v e r n m e n t s . The P a r t y ' s d e c i s i o n was made b e c a u s e o f t h e change o f a t t i t u d e by t h e b o u r g i o i s i e , t h e n e e d t o a v o i d s u p p r e s s i o n by t h e m i l i t a r i s t s , and b e c a u s e d i s s e n t s i o n was a l s o n o t i c e d among c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f t h e l a b o u r . 73a f r o n t . Page No. 206 W i t h the o r g a n i z e r s l a r g e l y a b a n d o n i n g t h e i r p o l i t i -c a l demands, many s t u d e n t s were a l s o l o s t as a r d e n t a l l i e s Summer v a c a t i o n had commenced and many s t u d e n t s had r e -t u r n e d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s ' home. About t h e same t i m e , many w o r k e r s began to b e l i e v e t h a t now was t h e t i m e t o s e t t l e . W i t h t h e end o f t h e i m p o r t a n t s t r i k e f u n d ( See D i s s e n s i o n ) , most w o r k e r s r e c e i v e d no s t r i k e pay and t h u s 7 3b had a c c u m u l a t e d l a r g e d e b t s o v e r the p a s t t h r e e months. On A u g u s t 1 1 t h , t h e s t r i k e s i n t h e J a p a n e s e - m i l l s were s e t t l e d , a l t h o u g h t h e s e t t l e m e n t p r o v e d to be no s p e c t a c u l a r v i c t o r y f o r t h e w o r k e r s . In r e s p o n s e t o v a r i o u s demands o f t h e w o r k e r s , t h e e m p l o y e r s a g r e e d t o " r e c o g n i z e f a c t o r y u n i o n s o n l y i f t h e P e k i n g government p a s s e d a l a b o u r u n i o n law, t o c o n s i d e r a wage i n c r e a s e on-l y a f t e r l a b o u r p r o d u c t i o n resumed, t o f o r b i d f o r e m e n t o c a r r y arms, and to make no d i s m i s s a l s w i t h o u t good c a u s e . " I n t h e B r i t i s h m i l l s , n e g o t i a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d i n hope o f an end t o the s t r i k e s . As t h e C h i n e s e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s c o n t i n u e d to f i g h t f o r the end o f t h e s t r i k e s and the s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e b o y c o t t , t h e y became f u r t h e r a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e l a b o u r movement. In r e s p o n s e to t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e owners' s u p p o r t , t h e l a b o u r unions" began t o c a l l t h e i r men out on s t r i k e Page No. 207 a g a i n s t C h i n e s e owned m i l l s . By September, more t h a n h a l f the m i l l s on s t r i k e were C h i n e s e owned. 7^ As the s i t u a t i o n became t i g h t e r , t h e C h i n e s e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s t u r n e d t o G e n e r a l H s i n g f o r s u p p o r t . E a r l i e r i n J u l y , G e n e r a l H s i n g had u n s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t e m p t e d to c l o s e t h e J o i n t Committee o f f i c e s , b u t i n September he f o u n d l i t t l e 76 o p p o s i t i o n and d e c i d e d t o move a g a i n . B o t h t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e J o i n t Committee and t h e G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n were s u c c e s s f u l l y c l o s e d . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y s , h i s t r o o p s began to s e a l t h e p r e m i s e s o f the 120-odd a f f i l i -a t e s o f t h e U n i o n . 7 7 T h i s s u p p r e s s i o n r e s u l t e d i n q u i c k s e t t l e m e n t o f s t r i k e s i n B r i t i s h t e x t i l e m i l l s and o f the s h i p p i n g s t r i k e s . S e t t l e m e n t was b a s i c a l l y t h e same as t h a t i n t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s . The l a b o u r e r s had g a i n e d few a d v a n t a g e s . Y e t , G e n e r a l H s i n g ' s a c t i o n s had n o t e n t i r e l y d e s t r o y e d t h e G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n w h i c h now moved u n d e r g r o u n d . T h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n i n g months o f 1925, t h a t u n i o n c o n -t i n u e d t o o r g a n i z e s m a l l b u t e f f e c t i v e s t r i k e s . F o r t h e most p a r t , however, the s t r i k e and b o y c o t t movement i n S h a n g h a i had now l o s t i t s i m p e t u s , and i t was t h e b o y c o t t and s t r i k e movement i n S o u t h C h i n a t h a t was b e g i n n i n g t o 7 8 t a k e on t h e more i m p o r t a n t r o l e . Page No. 208 D. THE REORGANIZATION OF SSU AND THE RISE OF NEW STUDENT UNIONS IN THE SUMMER OF 192579 As the s t u d e n t s i n S h a n g h a i c o n t i n u e d t o p l e d g e t h e i r s u p p o r t t o a i d the w o r k e r s ' s t r i k e and t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e , t h e SSU d e c i d e d to r e o r g a n i z e i t s s t r u c t u r e w i t h t h e aim o f making i t more e f f i c i e n t and c l o s e r to i n d i v i d u a l member u n i o n s . The main f o r c e b e h i n d t h i s campaign was S h a n g h a i U n i v e r s i t y . Soon, the SSU had e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r the s t r i k e a c t i v i t i e s o f the m a j o r u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , and m i d d l e s c h o o l s i n S h a n g h a i . I n t h i s way, t h e SSU was a b l e t o p r o v i d e more w o r k e r s who c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n p i c k e t l i n e s , on c o l l e c t i n g com-m i t t e e s , s p e a k i n g - b r i g a d e s , p r o p a g a n d a b r i g a d e s , and so on. T h a t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , however, made i t e a s i e r to be sup-p r e s s e d . W i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f S h a n g h a i by G e n e r a l H s i n g , the SSU and i t s a f f i l i a t e s became more open t o d i r e c t a t t a c k . As s t u d e n t s became more d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n l a t e J u l y , H s i n g was a b l e t o move i n and c l o s e down more s t u d e n t 80 h e a d q u a r t e r s and a r r e s t t h e s t u d e n t l e a d e r s . In t h i s way, i m p o r t a n t l e a d e r s were swept away a t a t i m e when many s t u d e n t s were b e c o m i n g t e r r i b l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d . The r e s u l t was t h a t a f t e r S e p tember, 1925, t h e s t u d e n t movement i n S h a n g h a i f e l l i n t o t h e hands o f v e r y d e d i c a t e d a g i t a t o r s ; and i t was t h e y who c o n t i n u e d to keep c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e l a b o u r e r s and to se n d o u t s p e a k i n g b r i g a d e s . Page No. 209 S t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r t h e May 30th I n c i d e n t was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n the May F o u r t h Movement and t h e December N i n t h Movement of 1936. I n i t i a l l y , s t u d e n t s became i n v o l v e d t h r o u g h a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n . In 1919, i t was t h e Twenty-One demands o f 1915 and t h e V e r s a i l l e s T r e a t y ; i n 1936 i t was b e c a u s e o f J a p a n e s e a g g r e s s i o n i n N o r t h C h i n a . I n 1925 i t was b e -cau s e o f t h e d e a t h o f Ku Cheng-hung and t h e a r r e s t o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s . A c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e -s u l t e d i n an ' i n c i d e n t ' . T h a t r e s u l t e d i n b r o a d p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t s . To f o c u s t h a t a c t i o n , new l e a d e r s h i p and o r g a n i z a t i o n s came i n t o b e i n g . As t h e movement a d v a n c e d , d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t s e t i n , and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n was l e f t to a s m a l l c o r e o f d e d i c a t e d a g i t a t o r s . I n S h a n g h a i , t h e y were u s u a l l y members o f t h e CCP. A n o t h e r r e s u l t o f t h e May30th I n c i d e n t i n S h a n g h a i was the i n v o l v e m e n t o f many new s c h o o l s i n t h e a n t i - f o r e i g n c a m p a i g n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e m i s s i o n s c h o o l s i n S h a n g h a i . On June 5 t h , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e E a s t e r n C h i n e s e C h r i s t i a n C o l l e g e s and U n i v e r s i t i e s ( N a n k i n g , G i n l i n g , Soochow, S h a n g h a i C o l l e g e , and S t . J o h n ' s ) met to d e p l o r e the a c t i o n o f the p a s t few d a y s . The p r e s i d e n t o f SSU met w i t h them and c o n v i n c e d many d e l e g a t e s to j o i n i n t h e 81 s t r i k e c ampaign. The s t u d e n t s who r e t u r n e d to S t . J o h n ' s Page No. 210 a t t e m p t e d to i n s t i g a t e a s t r i k e , b u t t h a t was s u p p r e s s e d by t h e s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s . The c o n f l i c t s t h a t f o l l o w e d r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a s e p a r a t e u n i v e r s i t y (Kwanghua) by t h o s e who d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e f o r e i g n a d m i n i -s t r a t o r s . I n s p i t e o f t h e q u i c k end o f t h e g e n e r a l s t r i k e and t h e breakdown o f t h e b o y c o t t movement i n S h a n g h a i , t h e s e movements, n e v e r t h e l e s s , had a c h i e v e d some i m p o r t a n t c o n -s e q u e n c e s . T h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s t r o n g - G e n e r a l L a b o u r U n i o n u n d e r t h e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f c o m m u n i s t s , the p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e l a b o u r e r s had been r a i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h r o u g h r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s , s t u d e n t r a d i c a l s and communists had g a i n e d i m p o r t a n t i n -r o a d s t h e r e . The b o y c o t t o f B r i t i s h goods was f a r more e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h a t a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e , b u t t h e s e "blows a t f o r e i g n e c o n o m i c p r i v i l e g e c o m p e l l e d t h e g r a n t i n g o f 8 3 p o l i t i c a l c o n c e s s i o n s . " 2. OTHER CENTERS a. AGITATION, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND MORE INCIDENTS The r e a c t i o n to t h e s h o o t i n g on May 3 0 t h was by no means l i m i t e d to t h e r e s i d e n t s o f S h a n g h a i . D e m o n s t r a t i o n s , m a r c h e s , and s t r i k e s o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t C h i n a , b u t i n no c a s e were t h e y as i n f l a m a t o r y as t h o s e t h a t o c c u r r e d i n S h a n g h a i d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week o f J u n e . Page No. 211 P e k i n g On June 2nd, v a r i o u s m e e t i n g s t o o k p l a c e i n t h e c o l -l e g e s and s c h o o l s o f P e k i n g to d i s c u s s t h e S h a n g h a i a f f a i r . On June 3 r d , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s were on s t r i k e to p r o t e s t t h e k i l l i n g s . Be-tween 10,000-15,000 s t u d e n t s p a r a d e d t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s t h a t a f t e r n o o n w i t h a l l s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d i n a t t e n d a n c e , e v e n t h e m i s s i o n a r y s c h o o l s . Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s were s e e n h a r a n g u i n g p a s s e r s - b y and d i s t r i b u t i n g h a n d b i l l s . L a t e r i n the day, d e l e g a t e s were r e c e i v e d a t b o t h t h e W a i c h i a o p u and t h e r e s i d e n c e o f P r e m i e r Tuan where the demands o f t h e s t u d e n t body were p r e s e n t e d . They r e q u e s -t e d p u n i s h m e n t o f g u i l t y p a r t i e s , r e l e a s e o f a r r e s t e d s t u -d e n t s , a p o l o g i e s , a i d . f o r the m i l l s t r i k e r s a t S h a n g h a i , a b o l i t i o n o f c o n c e s s i o n a r e a s and e x t r a l i t y , and w i t h d r a w -a l o f f o r e i g n m i l i t a r y f o r c e s , a l l r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o 84 t h e demands i n S h a n g h a i . On J une 5 t h t h e U n i o n o f C h i n e s e Chambers o f Com-merce i n P e k i n g a p p e a l e d to t h e government to s e v e r 85 C h i n a ' s e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h B r i t a i n and J a p a n . F o r s e v e r a l days t h e s t u d e n t a g i t a t i o n c o n t i n u e d . Up to t h a t t i m e , however, no v i o l e n c e had been r e p o r t e d a l t h o u g h m e r c h a n t s were o b s e r v e d t o have been t h r e a t e n e d . p h y s i c a l l y by s t u d e n t s i f t h e y showed r e l u c t a n c e t o j o i n _ t 86 t h e b o y c o t t . Page No. 212 On June 1 5 t h , 15,000 s t u d e n t s a g a i n p a r a d e d t o Tuan's r e s i d e n c e t o p r e s e n t t h e i r demands. On J u n e 1 8 t h , p r o p a g a n d a i n c r e a s e d i n i n t e n s i t y as p l a n s were b e i n g 8 7 l a i d f o r a mass p a r a d e i n v o l v i n g 100,000 p e r s o n s . S t u -d e n t f e r v o r c o n t i n u e d to mount and f i n a l l y t h e mass p a r a d e was h e l d . S t u d e n t s from P e i - t a l e d t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s t o Tuan's r e s i d e n c e . A n e r v o u s r e g i m e n t r e a c t e d and f i r e d upon t h e d e m o n s t r a t o r s . When f i n i s h e d , a t l e a s t 24 were 8 8 r e p o r t e d k i l l e d and more than 100 wounded. A g i t a t i o n f o l l o w e d i n t h e c a p i t a l f o r s e v e r a l weeks and a l t h o u g h l i m i t e d a t f i r s t t o t h e s t u d e n t s , i t q u i c k l y 89 s p r e a d to s u p p o r t f r o m t h e m e r c h a n t s and l a b o u r e r s . F i n a l l y , i n r e a c t i o n , C h i n e s e t r o o p s were a s k e d to s u r r o u n d t h e L e g a t i o n Q u a r t e r s to p r o t e c t i t , and t h e y d i d . T i e n t s i n More t h a n 1,000 s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e n a t i v e c i t y on June 4 t h and 5 t h . The s t u d e n t s were j o i n e d by s e v e r a l p r o f e s s o r s and s t r i k e r s f r o m t h e J a p a n e s e m i l l s i n t h e days t o come. Demands f o r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f D a i r e n , a b o y c o t t o f B r i t i s h goods, and t h e a b o l i t i o n o f a l l c o n c e s s i o n s were p r e s e n t e d to t h e T i e n t s i n a u t h o r i -t i e s . C h i n k i a n g At C h i n k i a n g on June 5 t h ,