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The tales of Hoffmann : scenary, costumes and lighting Bjornson, Michelle 1971

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THE TALES OF HOFFMANN SCENERY, COSTUMES AND LIGHTING by MICHELLE BJORNSON B.A., University of Toronto, 1966. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of THEATRE We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA j In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The costume„ scenery and lighting de signs for this theoretical production of Offenbach's opera The Tales of Hoffman derive from a production concept centering in the year 1880. This concept Is the result of an understanding of the opera's music as well as an investigation of Its cultural con-text. The work consists of designs for thirty-one costumes and five settings s technical drawings, lighting plot, and instrument schedule. TABLE OF CONTENTS Bage ABSTRACT 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS I l l PRODUCTION CONCEPT 2 PART I. SCENERY AND TECHNICAL DRAWINGS I. PROLOGUE AND EPILOGUE ..... 16 II. ACT I SCENE I 17 SCENE II 18 III. ACT II 19 IV. ACT III 20 PART II. COSTUMES „ 21 PART III. LIGHTING PLOT AND INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE 62 BIBLIOGRAPHY i 71 NOTEt The work whioh follows Is only a record of the thesis. The thesis It s e l f con-sists of the original costuMe and set renderings, and technical drawings whioh are retained by the designer, the following reproductions have been provided for library purposes only. THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT THE DESIGN CONCEPT My designs for the settings, costumes, and lighting of the opera The Tales of Hoffmann derive from a central concept which Is essentially a new interpretation of the time period i n which the opera should be set. The opera was composed in 1880 by Jacques Offenbach, however the libretto derived from the fantastical writings of E. T. A. Hoffmann, an early Nineteenth Century leader of the German Romantic movement. Because of these origins, the opera has traditionally been set at the turn of the Nineteenth Cen-tury, and consequently such productions carry with them a l l the connotations of Romanticism. If one considers music as the dominant force i n the opera, then the designer's statement must express, above a l l , the Intent of the music (as opposed to that of the text). As the feeling of Offenbach's music i s very much that of the date of Its composition, I consider the opera as an a r t i s t i c entity entirely separate from i t s origins. I therefore decided to set She Tales of Hoffmann at the -&a&8 of composition—1880. This updating was not taken lightly as an attempt at novelty. It was the result of a thorough and conscientious familiarization with the music, the •>. ; composer, and the composer's world. My research revealed that Offenbach's works evoke his times best of a l l the composers of Second Empire Prance, This is an assessment made not only by posterity, 1 but also by con-2 temporaries. Indeed, the Empress Eugenie referred to the b r i l l i a n t epoch of the Second Empire as "just one great 3 Offenbach operetta." My investigations further revealed that Offenbach picked for emphasis in his opera only those aspects which he saw daily in his l i f e . This l i f e was that which i s called l a vie parislenne—-the Paris of cabaret can-can and Viennese waltz. The characters<, events and surroundings as portrayed by Offenbach's music are those of Offenbach's Europe—a Europe of French demi-monde, dazzling displays of mechanical wonders and glittering soirees held in re-furbished treasure houses. The lightness and exuberance Tihich characterizes Offenbach's opera, and indeed a l l of his operettas, are the very qualities as were captured by contemporary artists such as Manet, Degas, Renoir, and de Toulouse-Lautrec. These artists were pre-ocoupied with a particular l i f e style (as op-posed to the heroic subjects which pre-occupied artists .,.' "'"This i s , i n essence, a summation of Alain Decaux' ap-praisal of Offenbach, as set forth i n the Prologue of his book, Offenbach. Roi. du Second Empire. (Paris? Pierre Amiot, 1958.) 2 Rossini i s credited with naming Offenbach, "Mozart des Champs Elysees." -^Gerhart von Westerman, Opera Guide, trans, Anne Ross (Londoni Thames and Hudson, 196*4-), p.272. of the Romantic era), nr.d they approached their subject matter with the same delicacy as did Offenbach his single opera. The concept that the opera i s a mirror of Offenbach's ife world seems apt. To portray the world of E. T, A. Hoffmann .jj and his romantic tales of the early Nineteenth Century i s to deny Offenbach's music altogether. Offenbach was indeed greatly influenced by Hoffmann's belief in a dream ^orld which emerges from the every day, but he adapted Hoffmann's works to his purpose^aiid his style. The opera i s an account of the Second Empire, T*.e Act of Olympla portrays the inane and mad activity of Paris with Its automatic gaiety and vain champagne parties, a l l seen through the magic of coloured spectacles. The Act of Giulletta evokes the wearied aftermath of fleeting moment, spent beauty, and shining facade, a l l of which masked d i s i l l u -sion. In summary, Offenbach has presented with The Tales of  Hoffmann^a tale of his time3, and the production Is designed to this Intent. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR A PRODUCTION CONCEPT Hithout going into © study of the opera's susle or the dramatic method of the libretto, three design problems as they relate to the opera's intent should be outlined. These problems, which are part and parcel of the spe-c i f i c functions of scene design, are ©s followst the placing of the action, the establishment of a dominant mood, and the staging of action. They should be considered as a unit be-cause in this case, they are inter-dependent. Placing the action i s a problem not only of ti&s and locale, but also of mood and continuity. The scene must evoke a period feeling—Europe 1880—but i t also must conjure a mood of half fantasy and half realism. The fact that the scene of action jumps about into four different cities—Nuremburg, Paris, Venice, and Munich—pre-sents staging problems, for somehow there must exist continu-i t y despite the obvious visual architectural differences. Staging of action, or providing a continuous flow of action, i s alleviated somewhat, despite these mammoth scene changes, by the lengthy Intermissions allotted for <§et changes i n opera. Nevertheless, i t Is s t i l l the requirement of the music and the scene to provide unity so that the various tales with their various settings and moods relate t© one another i n the esta-blishment of one theme and one mood. The establishment of © pervasive mood is indeed tricky, for The Tales of Hoffmiaras defies traditional opera c l a s s i f i c a -tion. It i s neither tragically grand nor outrageously comic. It Is light, but i s by no means without weight. 1 Considering the opera's story. Tales i s very simply on account of one man's three encounters with love. The f i r s t scene opens very r e a l i s t i c a l l y , and Indeed the situations and characters of a l l three tales are quite plausible, i f only sosewhat odd. Each of the tales, including the concluding epilogue, end bizarrely however, and the antagonists i n the tales are the agents for the fantastical happenings. These strange events are established clearly as the produot of Hoffmann's imagination (except Act III, ^rhich i s the result of Antonia's imagination). Both E. T. A. Hoffmann In the original writings, and Offenbach i n his music, firmly believe that the fantastic world i s gifeen more authenticity i f i t emerges froia recognizable situations. I.e. from the real tjorld, and that fantasy i s but an extension of reality. This i s th® theme of the opera, and the mood of fantasy increases i f the stories weave constantly between the two worlds. The function of the scene must there-^Thls i s the chief point by Patrick J. Smith i n his a r t i c l e , "Tales for Our Times", Opera Hews. XXIX, No. 16 (Feb-ruary 27, 19^5). fore be to establish a r e a l i s t i c world which lends i t s e l f to fantasy. The music of course creates the greatest emotional re-sponse, and to project the true mood of the opera one must f i r s t understand the qualities of the music. In the briefest of descriptions, the music displays Offenbach's characteristic combination of high s p i r i t s and delicacy. It i s through these two qualities that Offenbach handles the realism and the fantasy. It Is advisable to de-emphasize the languid melodiousness of the Venetian Act which unfortunately has categorized Tales as a quaint piece of old fashioned romance, Offenbach's music i s versatile enough to project rols-terous gaiety and whimsy in the Tavern scene, brilliance and comedy i n the Olympia Act, tenderness and frenzied fantasy i n the Antonia Act. The music does project a variety of moods because of i t s diversity of musical styles $ however the opera possesses an overall unity because of Offenbach's re-interpretation of E. T. A. Hoffmann's macabre tales into one bittersweet picture of European l i f e o. 1880. It i s this re- interpretation which simplifies mood into Its dual aspect of graceful fantasy and r e a l i s t i c joie do vivre. III SETTING In satisfying the three basic design problems as applied to setting, the music holds the key. Despite i^ ss variety of rhythms, Offenbach endowed his work with his own distinctive simplicity and c l a r i t y by repe-t i t i o n of melody and the establishment of one pervasive harmony which traces a single line throughout the whole opera. To visually establish this simplicity and unity, i t seemed that there should also be a repetition as well as a continuation of line throughout. To evoke a period feeling which conveyed the differences of Nuremburg, Paris, Venice, and Munich, but also to serve Offenbach's inat© simplicity and l y r i c a l , delicate romance, seemed virtua l l y impossible with a conventional box set or a highly i l l u s l o n l s t i c piece of painted realism. A degree of realism i s required, as established i n the preceding discussion of mood, but i t must be realism with a ligh t touch to projeot Offenbach's subtle capturing of a hidden world of fantasy. Taking a cue from the music, I decided to use suggestive realism whereby a repetition of similarly shaped set pieces i n combination with out-out celling borders would trace a single line throughout and would thereby convey the essence but not exact replica of the various period settings. Each act would be contained within a particular light pool 0 with the set pieces standing against a background coloured by lighting. Hot only would such a scheme simplify set changing, i t would also provldo visual continuity 0 as the ceiling borders would establish a stylised line pattern of simplified repre-> eentatione of period interiors, and th© repetition of shape i n set pieces would establish an additional visual pattern. The popularity of revivalism In Interior decoration styles during that time period further aided simplification and. unification of the scheme for there was a similarity i n detail. For example, in Parle, the current mode of interior deooration was Louis XV and Louis XVI Roooco while Second Rocooo was the mode in Munich. Mhlle Venice was experiencing Gothic and Renaissance Revival, Nuremburg was likewise i n -volved i n late Renaissance revival, A last aspect of setting should be mentioned, and that was the use of film and projection as a technical thematic aid i n the creation of fantasy. Their use fa c i l i t a t e s easy movement between the worlds of realism and fantasy as well as enhances. the quality of fantasy possible. IV COSTUMES The chief consideration for the costume designs was translation of the music's rhythm to that of the clothing. This was complicated by the opera's variety of rhythms. Looking f i r s t at the opera's lightness and exhilaration, the suggestion of dating costume designs at the height of Offenbach's popularity and l a vie parlsienne (o. 1870) seemed possible. However the music also possesses a softer Viennese quality which evokes the later, more Impressionist, decade of Parisian l i f e . Furthermore, there i s the highly languid and voluptuous music of the Venetian Act which suggests the later time period 1890-1900 (the sensuality of which i s seen i n the very draping of women's clothing). Therefore to place the costume design s t r i c t l y at 18?0 would be to place too much im-portance on the light comedy and the many layers of bouncing bouffant crinolines. To afford the variety of musical rhythms and allow for the pervasive f l u i d i t y of the music, a decision was made to have the opera cover a thirty year period which i s experienced i n flas&gback technique. Chronological progression i s sug-gested by the story line i t s e l f , for Hoffmann Is seen to mature throughout the various episodes. Furthermore, the opera Is half fantasy as well as being episodic i n structure, and therefore unity of time i n the classical sense i s of l i t t l e consequence. So that the costumes possessed visual continuity, a basic design method was formulated which was the choosing of common elements of clothing cut and detail i n the time period 1870-1900, and the working of variations and extensions upon those elements. As an example, there was repetition of de-t a i l s such as similar clothing profiles for the four anta-gonists, feather accessories, breeches for the four servants, and a restricted colour scheme within each act, with a pro-gression of colours between acts. In satisfying the three basic design requirements, the costume method Is formulated br i e f l y asi 1. controlled but free adaptation of period clothing to create a mood of half fantasy, half realism, 2. a similarity of line and shape to unify the scheme, 3. the use of detail and colour to promote the uniqueness of each tale, Costumeijcolours have been ©losely tied to those of set-tings, and this aspect w i l l be discussed under lighting. LIGHTING The chief importance of lighting (besides v i s i b i l i t y ) was creation of mood, with the secondary purpose of blending within the settings, and providing unity to the production as a whole. Looking at mood f i r s t , the l i b r e t t i s t has mentioned i n the script various special and atmospheric lighting effects, obviously with mood creation i n mind. Some of the notes set forth arei moonlight (opening Tavern scene), illumination of the flaming punch bowl (same soene), candlelight (opening scene;.of Olympia Act), lamp posts, chandeliers and animated brilliance (Venetian Act), sunset (Antonia Aot), and a luminous vision of the poet's Muse i n the tavern tun (Epilogue), In combination with Offenbach's music, these lighting effects would produce a feeling of romance and light fantasy. But i t must be pointed out that the fanciful effects project a certain level of realism due to the pla u s i b i l i t y of light sources (except for the appearance of the Muse which i s pure fantasy), and this consideration overrules the use of fantastical effects Independent of story as an Improper Interpretation of the operate true level of fantasy. Each act projects i t s own special mood, and lighting i s paramount i n creating this uniqueness. Consequently each act was considered as possessing i t s own colour image, or light pool, and the vividness of these images was determined by limited colour keying of costumes and lighting. The four acts can be desoribed as followsi The Tavern Scene was conceived i n the warm and mellow tones of ales and wines. The feeling of rich contentment which these colours project comes directly from the action of both the prologue and epilogue. In poetic terms, Hoffmann i s experiencing the autumn of his l i f e , and therefore the choice of browns, rust, gold and crimsons i s natural. As for lighting 27, 33, would be used to create such warmth. Of a l l the acts, the tavern scene i s the warmest. The Olympia Act i s of course spring-like with i t s naivete, Joy, and freshness so characteristic of the f i r s t awakening to love. It possesses a l l the brilliance but delicacy of youth. Therefore the colours of spring set the colour range of thle a c t — a predominance of soft green, with touches of vivid blue, white, yellow and gold, N O S # 5 ^ 39, ^ 9 , would be used to create the effect of sparkle and newness. Of the four acts, the Olympia Act i s medium cool i n feeling. The image of the Venetian Act i s of course most greatly determined by i t s setting for one immediately thinks of the Grand Canal and of blue water and blue sky. However the action of the act also projects an image of blue for i t i s of a l l the acts, the coolest i n i t s appraisal of love. Silver becomes evocative of the elegance and sophistication of Venice, while shades of violet, teal, and navy, as well as tinges of pink and mauve, conjure up the courtesan world of Giulietta. The aspect of twilight i s that which creates the mood of the Antonia Act and i t i s f i t t i n g for Hoffmann's f i n a l tale of love, Antonia 1s father establishes early i n the act a funereal atmosphere so that the heroine's death comes of no surprise. Therefore a l l the colours—pale blue, green, grey, brown, mauve—are muted with an ashen cast. The act does possess great tenderness however, and so the lighting i s keyed for warmth, N o s would create the aot's peculiar blend of eerie ooolness and gentle warmth. Because of the choice of fragmentary settings but also the essential romantic delicacy of the opera as a whole, i t was necessary to oontain the settings within lightl y coloured backgrounds, as opposed to the alternative of leaving set pieoes stranded against black drapes. This would be done by a colour-lit eye. Not only would eye lighting warm the scene, i t would also t i e together set pieces within each setting, This aspeot of blending i s the second Important function of lighting. Lighting i s thirdly important i n unifying the production as a whole. Despite the strong colour differences of the four aots, the achieving of the varying degrees of warms and cools depends on the combination of only four lighting colours—two warm and two cool. Added to the fact that there i s a progression of costume oolours between the acts—brown, orange, goldi gold, green, bluei blue, si l v e r , violetj pale violet, ash* brownt brown, orange gold—there should result a feeling of harmonious progression. SCENERY AND TECHNICAL DRAWINGS Luther's Tavern i n Nuremburg C o u n c i l l o r L i n d o r f enters the empty tavern and i n t e r c e p t s from the servant" Andres a l e t t e r and key Intended f o r Hoffmann from h i s c u r r e n t l o v e , the opera s i n g e r S t e l l a , A student audience rush i n t o the tavern d u r i n g an a c t i n t e r v a l , c a l l i n g f o r wine and beer. The moody poet enters and the students encourage him to s i n g them a song. He f a l l s i n t o a r e v e r i e on the beauty of S t e l l a , and t h i s thought reminds him of h i s former three l o v e s . As the wine continues to flow, Hoffmann d r i f t s i n t o h i s dream world, and t o t h ^ acclamation of the students, he begins the s t o r y of h i s three l o v e s . "The name of the f i r s t was Olympia." EPILOGUE Luther's Tavern By t h i s time, Hoffmann i s completely drunken by the wine and by the power of h i s own t a l e s , Hoffmann i s l e f t alone by the students, and as he s i t s i n a stupor, he i s v i s i t e d by the b r i l l i a n t v i s i o n of h i s Muse who appears i n a great tun t o o f f e r him c o n s o l a t i o n . While thus blessed and happy i n s e l f awareness, Hoffmann f a l l a s l e e p 0 S t e l l a enters t o meet the -poet,' and f i n d i n g him thus, i s l e d away by the triumphant r i v a l L i n d o r f , ROLOGUE & EPILOGUE -ACT I The Home of Spalanzani Spalanzani has constructed a mechanical d o l l so p e r f e c t t h a t he has decided t o introduce her as h i s daughter Olympia, Hoffmann, Spalanzani*s student, has alreadv f a l l e n i n love w i t h her although he has seen her only from a d i s t a n c e . On the occasion of the debut, Hoffmann buys s p e c i a l glasses from Coppelius, Spalan^ar 4 *3 miraculous partner. The guests a r r i v e , and f o r her i n t r o d u c t i o n Olympia sings an oddly mechanical but b r i l l i a n t c o l o r a t u r a . The young couple are l e f t alone and the naive Hoffmann proclames h i s love f o r her, A magnificent w a l t z f o l l o w s and Hoffmann i s d i z z i e d by her f a s t dancing. He f a l l s exhausted only to hear the crash of breaking machinery. The d o l l Olympia has been destroyed by an angry, t r i c k e d Coppelius, Poor Hoffmann i s l e f t u t t e r l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d by h i s f i r s t encounter w i t h l o v e . m ACT I I A Palazzo on the Grand Canal i n Venice G i u l i e t t a i s a b e a u t i f u l courtesan under the sway of the sorcerer. Dapertntto, She has already captured the shadow of her current l o v e r S c h l e m i l , and she accepts orders from her keeper to s t e a l Hoffmann's r e f l e c t i o n from a magic m i r r o r . She succeeds i n c a p t i v a t i n g a somewhat cautious Hoffmannj and h i s love f o r her. l o s e s him h i s r e f l e c t i o n . S c h l e m i l i s not t o be so e a s i l y spurned, and so the two l o v e r s engage i n a duel over possession of the key to G i u l i e t t a ' s room, Hoffmann k i l l s S c h l e m i l , only to d i s c o v e r G i u l i e t t a g l i d i n g away i n a gondola, the coquette now i n a mocking embrace w i t h her admirer, the hunchback P i t i c h i n a c c i O a ACT I I I The Home of C o u n c i l l o r Crespel i n Munich Antonia, the l o v e l y and d e l i c a t e only daughter of C r e s p e l , has i n h e r i t e d from her mother, a c e l e b r a t e d s i n g e r , a wonderful v o i c e . Her f a t h e r enters and f o r b i d s her t o continue her song. He f e e l s that the e x e r t i o n might exhaust her and cause her e a r l y death as i t had her mother. He i s a l s o a f r a i d of Hoffmann's i n f l u e n c e and so endeavours to keep the two l o v e r s separated. They meet s e c r e t l y and s i n g together. With C r e s p e l 8 s appearance, Hoffmann hides himself by the window. The e v i l Dr. M i r a c l e appears and while the two converse, Hoffmann l e a r n s of the mother's f a t e which Crespel suspects was the r e s u l t of M i r a c l e ' s bewitching. C r e s p e l , then Hoffmann, leave, and under the s p e l l of Dr. M i r a c l e , Antonia i s induced t o s i n g . For t h i s purpose, Dr. M i r a c l e conjures up the s p i r i t of Antonia's mother from a p o r t r a i t hanging on the w a l l . The three of them s i n g and Dr. M i r a c l e simultaneously dances around the room whi l e f r e n z i e d l y p l a y i n g h i s v i o l i n , Antonia*s rapture i s u n e a r t h l y , and when Dr. M i r a c l e vanishes, C r e s p e l and Hoffmann rush i n only t o f i n d Antonia dying i n t h e i r arms, II COSTUMES LINDORF Age: 55 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s determined, w l l e y , unpleasant S o c i a l S t a t i o n : a c o u n c i l l o r of Kuremburg ANDRES Age s 16 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : impish S o c i a l S t a t i o n : servant of S t e l l a LUTHER ' Age i 4-5 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s b u s t l i n g , j o v i a l S o c i a l S t a t i o n : an innkeeper NATHANAEL Agei 20 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n J pleasant S o c i a l S t a t l o n i a student HERMANN Age t 20 Characterization* convivial Social Station: a student HOFFMANN Age i Characterization* moody, dramatic Social Station! a poet NICKLAUSSE Age t b8 Characterization: calm, practical Social Stationt Hoffmann's companion SPALANZANI Aget 38 Characterization* odd, fanatical, fancy Social Station* an inventor COCHENILLE Ages 16 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s awkward, t i m i d S o c i a l S t a tions a servant of Spalanzani HOFFMANN Age: 18 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : earnest, naive S o c i a l S t a t i o n : a student NICKLAUSSE Age t 20 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n J m i l d , reasoning S o c i a l S t a t i o n s Hoffmann's companion COPPELIUS Age: C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : f i e r c e , impetuous, unbalanced S o c i a l S t a t i o n : a t r i c k s t e r - c h a r l a t a n CHORUS Agei 35 Characterizationi affected Social Stationt society guest CHORUS Aget 35 Characterization* pretensions Social Station! society guest OLYMPIA Agei 16 Characterization* dainty, d o l l - l i k e Social Stations the "daughter" of Spalanzani 0lYmp>ia GIULIETTA Age J 28 Characterization* enticing, ar t f u l Social Statlom a courtesan HOFFMANN Age: 33 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s w o r l d l y S o c i a l S t a tions a poet NICKLAUSSE Age t 35 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : reserved, cautious S o c i a l S t a t i o n : Hoffmann's companion PITICHINACCIO Agei 40 Characterization: malicious Social Statiom an admirer of Glulietta SCHLEMIL Age: 38 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s sneering, shady S o c i a l Stations G i u l i e t t a ' s l o v e r DAPERTUTTO Age i 42 Characterization! polished (oily), devious Social Statlom a sorcerer CHORUS Age i 35 Characterizationi suave Social Stationi a guest CHORUS Age: 30 Characterization1 glamorous Social Station* a guest ANTONIA Age: 23 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : romantic, n a t u r a l S o c i a l S t a t i o n : the daughter of Crespel CRESPEL Age t 50 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : grave, a u t h o r i t a t i v e S o c i a l S t a t i o n : a c o u n c i l l o r of Munich FRANTZ Age: 70 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : f o o l i s h S o c i a l S t a t i o n : servant of Crespel HOFFMANN Age: 39 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n * tender, d i g n i f i e d . S o c i a l S t a t i o n : a poet DR. MIRACLE Age: ^5 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : hypnotic, urbane S o c i a l S t a t i o n : a p h y s i c i a n PORTRAIT Age: 37 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : elegant, commanding S o c i a l S t a t i o n : mother of Antonia's, an opera s i n g e r THE MUSE Age : 25 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n : d i v i n e , i n s p i r i n g S o c i a l S t a t i o n : the Muse of Poetry STELLA Agei 35 Characterizations womanly, vivacious Social Stations an opera singer I l l LIGHTING PLOT AND INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE NUMBER 1 6" ellps spot 750 2nd FOH area 1 51 2 " " " 2 " 2 w » M 3 " • •» « n w ^ H W " 5 " 6 - " 1 17 7 « w * 2 '• 8 • • M 6 5f o; • n wk 7 ' • ii 10 • - " 3 17 11 8" slips ref 1000 w oroh. clear ^2 W * " tl W ^2 w » •» « tt lfc 6" ellps spot 750 " area 17 .15 " • " .5 16 « w " 8 51 17 * •* •» 9 M 18 - w lfl) 19 " • • * ' . ' " 6 17 20 " w " 7 21 «• " " 8 n 22 » « 9 23 w «» n 10 " 24 '« " let FOH 1 51 25 " " " 2 " INSTRUMENT NUMBER 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36; 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 *5 46 47 48 49 50 6" fres spot 6" ellps spot » 6" fres spot „ 6* ellps spot n 6" fres spot M n M 6" ellps spot „ 6" fres spot w n n 6" ellps spot „ 6" fres spot „ 6" ellps spot „ 6" fres spot „ n w 6" ellps spot „ 6" fres spot „ 6" ellps spot „ 6" fres spot „ 6" fres spot „ 6" ellps spot „ 8" ellps ref i000 to 6" fres spot 750 6" ellps spot " 6" fres spot " 1st FOH 3 5** 51 " 47 4 51 o " 2*7 54 5 51 47 1 17 6 47 2 17 6 5^ 51 n •» •» - 7 47 51 51 3 17 n followspot clear «, n a "Q 3 36 4 17 36 Giuletta Antonia prologue INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT WATTAGE POSITION FOCUS COLOUR REMARKS NUMBER 51 6" ellps spot 750 1st FOH 5 17 52 6" fres spot n w n 36 IS3 6W ellps spot tt 8 51 5*> 6" fres spot n B « 54 55 6" ellps spot tt n 9 51 56 n n n 10 « 5? 6" fres spot w • i 6 36 58 6" ellps spot ft it n 17 59 6" fres spot n tt 7 36 60 6" ellps spot n it n 17 6 l 6" fres spot n II 8 36 62 6" ellps spot it tt • 17 63 H n it 9 w 64 n it M 10 n 65 66 M n n n 1st stand-1 x " light » " 2 a 67 6" fres spot n 1st pipe area 11 51 68 n tt tt 12 69 n n it 13 w 70 ft at « 14 tt 71 ft tt 11 17 72 w ft 12 n 73 M tt tt 15 51 74 ft' n « 16 n 75 tt tt It 17 it INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT WATTAGE POSITION FOCUS COLOUR REMARKS NUMBER 75 6" fres spot 750 1st pipe 17 51 76 a «t 13 17 77 tt w 14 n 78 n tt tt 18 51 79 n n n 19 tt 80 » n tt 15 17 81 tt •i 16 n 82 n n n 17 tt 83 n ft tt 18 tt 84 « ft it 19 n 85 6 n ellps spot n 1st stand-R X-llght 67 86 it « it 87 tt 2nd stand-L n 2 88 n tt tt a H 89 ft ft 2nd stand-R tt 67 90 n ti it • it 91 n n special 51 92 n it 3rd stand-L X-llght 2 93 n tt n 94 ft it 2nd portal special 17 stand-R 95 n tt 3rd stand-R X-llght 67 96 tt tt 97 n it stand-stage 4 L-rear special 98 n tt tt 9 99 tt n » tt 36 100 a n platform »t 17 Hffman entr. entrance progression focus areas 6,7.16.17.  prologue,. stage-R door Backing 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 16" beam 1000 6 w x6* strip 150 2nd pipe downlight 54 stand-stage speolal rear apron 18 prologue & moonlight speolal footlights primary 1st pipe blending 4,13, 15 2nd pipe 3rd pipe bafiers " borders 4th-pipe 126 12? 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 6"x6* strip 150 4th pipe 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 wall-sconce borders 4B13, 15 set wall stage-L set wall stage-R set wall stage-R special 3,^ 5 17,51 red blue white amber window f l a t " stand stage-R " 3.^ 5 24 stand stage-L " chandelier set wall stage-L stage-R special -act 3 window backing act 3 door aroh backing prologue archway backing act 1 so 1 mirrors focus & position to avoid glare & s p i l l onto acting area act 1 so 1 & 2 flame shaped bulbs to 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 chandelier special portrait sconce chandelier standing candelabra n ceiling lamps 6**x89 strip 6 n x 6 9 strip portrait frame 100 150 border 1 border 2 scrim masking aot 1 sc 2 flame shaped bulbs aot 1 sc 2 " etc. M act 3 flame shaped bulbs prologue flame etc. act 2 flame etc* as above aot 1 so 2 walte spec eye flood 27.35. prologue 56,17. n 16,63, act 1 sc 1 24. n 16,38, act 1 sc 2 49. n 36,61, act 2 63. n 16.51, act 3 n 56 colour 27,33. prologue flood 56,17. n n n ft 16,51, act 3 ti 56. n lo 166 167 168 169 170 projector stage rear special act 2-set background Glulletta 9s exit mirror special also reposition 1 projector for act 3 portrait special & epilogue muse special BIBLIOGRAPHY Decaux, A l a i n . Offenbach. Roi du Second Empire. P a r i s * Amiot 1958. Hewett-Thayer, Harvey W. Hoffmanns Author of the Tales. Princetons P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1948. Hoffmann, E.T.A. Tales of Hoffmann. Tra n s l a t e d by Michael B u l l o c k . New Yorks Ungars 1963. Hoffmann, E.T.A. The Best Tales of Hoffmann. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E.F. B l e i l e r . New Yorks Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1967. Hoffmann, E.T.A. Se l e c t e d W r i t i n g s . E d i t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by Leonard J . Kent and E l i z a b e t h C. Knight. Chicago* U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Pr e s s , 1969. Kracauer, S i e g r i e d . Offenbach and the P a r i s of h i s Times. London* Constable, 1937* Schneider, L o u i s . Offenbach. P a r i s * P e r r i n et C i e , 1923. Smith, P a t r i c k J . "Tales f o r Our Time," Opera News. XXIX, No. 16 (February 27, 1965). Stedman, Jane W. "A F i d d i i n g D e v i l ? " Opera News. XXIX, No. 16 (February 27, 1965). Stevens, David. "Magic Lantern," Opera News. XXIX, No. 16 (February 27, 1965). Stokes, Adrian Durham. Venice. Londons L i o n and Unicorn, 1965. Walker-McSpadden, J . Operas and M u s i c a l Comedies. New Yorks Cromwell, 1946. von Westerrman, Gerhart. Opera Guide. Tra n s l a t e d by Anne Ross Londons Thames and Hudson, 1964. 

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