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The tales of Hoffmann : scenary, costumes and lighting Bjornson, Michelle 1971

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THE TALES OF HOFFMANN SCENERY, COSTUMES AND LIGHTING by MICHELLE BJORNSON B.A., University of Toronto, 1966. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of THEATRE We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA j  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  thesis  advanced degree at Library  I further for  this  shall  agree  the  his  of  this  that  written  University  of  permission  representatives. thesis  f u l f i l m e n t of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  for  be  available  granted  gain  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  by  the  It i s understood  financial  for  for extensive  permission.  Department  British  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and c o p y i n g of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT The costume„ scenery and l i g h t i n g de signs f o r t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l production of Offenbach's opera The Tales of Hoffman derive from a production concept centering i n the year 1880. This concept Is the r e s u l t of an understanding of the opera's music as well as an investigation of I t s c u l t u r a l context. The work consists of designs f o r thirty-one  costumes and f i v e s e t t i n g s  s  technical drawings, l i g h t i n g p l o t , and instrument schedule.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Bage ABSTRACT  11  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Ill 2  PRODUCTION CONCEPT PART I. I. II.  III. IV.  SCENERY AND TECHNICAL DRAWINGS  PROLOGUE AND EPILOGUE ..... ACT I SCENE I  17  SCENE I I  18  ACT I I  19  ACT I I I  20 PART I I .  PART I I I . BIBLIOGRAPHY NOTEt  16  COSTUMES  „  LIGHTING PLOT AND INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE i  The work whioh follows Is only a record of the t h e s i s . The thesis I t s e l f cons i s t s of the o r i g i n a l costuMe and set renderings, and technical drawings whioh are retained by the designer, the following reproductions have been provided f o r l i b r a r y purposes only.  21 62 71  THE PRODUCTION CONCEPT  THE DESIGN CONCEPT My designs f o r the settings, costumes, and l i g h t i n g of the opera The Tales of Hoffmann derive from a central concept which Is e s s e n t i a l l y a new interpretation of the time period i n which the opera should be set. The opera was composed i n 1880 by Jacques Offenbach, however the l i b r e t t o derived from the f a n t a s t i c a l writings of E. T. A. Hoffmann, an early Nineteenth Century leader of the German Romantic movement.  Because of these o r i g i n s , the opera  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been set at the turn of the Nineteenth Century, and consequently such productions carry with them a l l the connotations of Romanticism. I f one considers music as the dominant force i n the opera, then the designer's statement must express, above a l l , the Intent of the music (as opposed to that of the t e x t ) .  As  the f e e l i n g of Offenbach's music i s very much that of the date of I t s composition, I consider the opera as an a r t i s t i c entity e n t i r e l y separate from i t s o r i g i n s . I therefore decided to set She Tales of Hoffmann at the -&a&8 of composition—1880.  This updating was not taken  l i g h t l y as an attempt at novelty.  I t was the r e s u l t of a  thorough and conscientious f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with the music, the •>.  ;  composer, and the composer's world. My research revealed that Offenbach's works evoke his times best of a l l the composers of Second Empire Prance,  This  i s an assessment made not only by p o s t e r i t y , but also by con2 temporaries. Indeed, the Empress Eugenie referred to the b r i l l i a n t epoch of the Second Empire as "just one great 1  3  Offenbach operetta." My investigations further revealed that Offenbach picked for  emphasis i n his opera only those aspects which he saw  d a i l y i n his l i f e .  This l i f e was that which i s c a l l e d  l a vie parislenne—-the Paris of cabaret can-can and Viennese waltz.  The characters<, events and surroundings as portrayed  by Offenbach's music are those of Offenbach's Europe—a Europe of French demi-monde, dazzling displays of mechanical wonders and g l i t t e r i n g soirees held i n re-furbished treasure houses. The lightness and exuberance Tihich c h a r a c t e r i z e s Offenbach's opera, and indeed a l l of his operettas, are the very q u a l i t i e s as were captured by contemporary a r t i s t s such as Manet, Degas, Renoir, and de Toulouse-Lautrec.  These  a r t i s t s were pre-ocoupied with a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e style (as opposed to the heroic subjects which pre-occupied a r t i s t s .,.' "'"This i s , i n essence, a summation of A l a i n Decaux' app r a i s a l of Offenbach, as set forth i n the Prologue of his book, Offenbach. Roi. du Second Empire. (Paris? Pierre Amiot, 1958.) 2 Rossini i s credited with naming Offenbach, "Mozart des Champs Elysees." -^Gerhart von Westerman, Opera Guide, trans, Anne Ross (Londoni Thames and Hudson, 196*4-), p.272.  of the Romantic era), nr.d they approached t h e i r subject matter with the same delicacy as d i d Offenbach his single opera. The concept that the opera i s a mirror of Offenbach's ife world seems apt.  To portray the world of E. T, A. Hoffmann .jj  and his romantic tales of the early Nineteenth Century i s to deny Offenbach's music altogether.  Offenbach was indeed  greatly influenced by Hoffmann's b e l i e f i n a dream ^ o r l d which emerges from the every day, but he adapted Hoffmann's works to his purpose^aiid his s t y l e . The opera i s an account of the Second Empire,  T*.e Act  of Olympla portrays the inane and mad a c t i v i t y of Paris with Its automatic gaiety and vain champagne p a r t i e s , a l l seen through the magic of coloured spectacles.  The Act of  G i u l l e t t a evokes the wearied aftermath of f l e e t i n g moment, spent beauty, and shining facade, a l l of which masked d i s i l l u sion. In summary, Offenbach has presented with The Tales of Hoffmann^a tale of his time3, and the production Is designed to t h i s Intent.  GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR A PRODUCTION CONCEPT Hithout going into © study of the opera's susle or the dramatic method of the l i b r e t t o , three design problems as they r e l a t e to the opera's intent should be outlined. These problems, which are part and parcel of the spec i f i c functions of scene design, are ©s followst  the placing  of the action, the establishment of a dominant mood, and the staging of a c t i o n .  They should be considered as a unit be-  cause i n t h i s case, they are inter-dependent. Placing the action i s a problem not only of ti&s and l o c a l e , but a l s o of mood and continuity.  The scene must evoke  a period feeling—Europe 1880—but i t also must conjure a mood of h a l f fantasy and h a l f realism. The fact that the scene of a c t i o n jumps about i n t o four d i f f e r e n t cities—Nuremburg,  Paris, Venice, and Munich—pre-  sents staging problems, f o r somehow there must exist continui t y despite the obvious v i s u a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l differences. Staging of action, or providing a continuous flow of action, i s a l l e v i a t e d somewhat, despite these mammoth scene changes, by the lengthy Intermissions a l l o t t e d f o r <§et changes i n opera. Nevertheless, i t Is s t i l l the requirement  of the music and the  scene to provide unity so that the various tales with t h e i r various settings and moods r e l a t e t© one another i n the establishment of one theme and one mood. The establishment of © pervasive mood i s indeed t r i c k y , f o r The Tales of Hoffmiaras defies t r a d i t i o n a l opera c l a s s i f i c a tion.  I t i s neither t r a g i c a l l y grand nor outrageously comic.  I t Is l i g h t , but i s by no means without weight.  1  Considering the opera's story. Tales i s very simply on account of one man's three encounters with love.  The  first  scene opens very r e a l i s t i c a l l y , and Indeed the situations and characters of a l l three tales are quite p l a u s i b l e , i f only sosewhat odd.  Each of the t a l e s , including the concluding  epilogue, end b i z a r r e l y however, and the antagonists i n the tales are the agents f o r the f a n t a s t i c a l happenings.  These  strange events are established c l e a r l y as the produot of Hoffmann's imagination (except Act I I I , ^rhich i s the r e s u l t of Antonia's imagination). Both E. T. A. Hoffmann In the o r i g i n a l writings, and Offenbach i n his music, firmly believe that the f a n t a s t i c world i s gifeen more authenticity i f i t emerges froia recognizable s i t u a t i o n s . I.e. from the r e a l tjorld, and that fantasy i s but an extension of r e a l i t y .  This i s th® theme of the opera, and  the mood of fantasy increases i f the s t o r i e s weave constantly between the two worlds.  The function of the scene must there-  ^Thls i s the chief point by Patrick J . Smith i n his a r t i c l e , "Tales f o r Our Times", Opera Hews. XXIX, No. 16 (February 27, 19^5).  fore be to e s t a b l i s h a r e a l i s t i c world which lends i t s e l f to fantasy. The music of course creates the greatest emotional r e sponse, and to project the true mood of the opera one must f i r s t understand the q u a l i t i e s of the music. In the b r i e f e s t of descriptions, the music displays Offenbach's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c combination of high s p i r i t s and delicacy.  I t i s through these two q u a l i t i e s that Offenbach  handles the realism and the fantasy.  I t Is advisable to de-  emphasize the languid melodiousness of the Venetian Act which unfortunately has categorized Tales as a quaint piece of old fashioned romance, Offenbach's music i s v e r s a t i l e enough to project r o l s terous gaiety and whimsy i n the Tavern scene, b r i l l i a n c e and comedy i n the Olympia Act, tenderness and frenzied fantasy i n the  Antonia Act. The music does project a variety of moods because of i t s  d i v e r s i t y of musical styles $ however the opera possesses an o v e r a l l unity because of Offenbach's re-interpretation of E. T. A. Hoffmann's macabre tales into one bittersweet picture of European l i f e o. 1880. I t i s t h i s r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which s i m p l i f i e s mood i n t o I t s dual aspect of graceful fantasy and r e a l i s t i c joie do v i v r e .  III SETTING In s a t i s f y i n g the three basic design problems as applied to setting, the music holds the key. Despite i^ss variety of rhythms, Offenbach endowed h i s work with h i s own d i s t i n c t i v e s i m p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y by repet i t i o n of melody and the establishment of one pervasive harmony which traces a single l i n e throughout the whole opera. To v i s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h t h i s s i m p l i c i t y and unity, i t seemed that there should a l s o be a r e p e t i t i o n as well as a continuation of l i n e  throughout.  To evoke a period f e e l i n g which conveyed the differences of Nuremburg, P a r i s , Venice, and Munich, but a l s o to serve Offenbach's inat© s i m p l i c i t y and l y r i c a l , d e l i c a t e romance, seemed v i r t u a l l y impossible with a conventional box set or a highly i l l u s l o n l s t i c piece of painted realism. A degree of realism i s required, as established i n the preceding discussion of mood, but i t must be realism with a l i g h t touch to projeot Offenbach's subtle capturing of a hidden world of fantasy. Taking a cue from the music, I decided to use suggestive realism whereby a r e p e t i t i o n of s i m i l a r l y shaped set pieces i n combination with out-out c e l l i n g borders would trace a single  l i n e throughout and would thereby convey the essence but not exact r e p l i c a of the various period s e t t i n g s . be contained within a p a r t i c u l a r l i g h t p o o l  0  Each act would  with the set  pieces standing against a background coloured by l i g h t i n g . Hot only would such a scheme s i m p l i f y set changing, i t would a l s o provldo v i s u a l c o n t i n u i t y as the c e i l i n g 0  borders  would e s t a b l i s h a s t y l i s e d l i n e pattern of s i m p l i f i e d repre> eentatione of period i n t e r i o r s , and th© r e p e t i t i o n of shape i n set pieces would e s t a b l i s h an a d d i t i o n a l v i s u a l pattern. The popularity of revivalism In I n t e r i o r decoration s t y l e s during that time period further aided s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and. u n i f i c a t i o n of the scheme f o r there was a s i m i l a r i t y i n detail.  For example, i n Parle, the current mode of i n t e r i o r  deooration was Louis XV and Louis XVI Roooco while Second Rocooo was the mode i n Munich.  Mhlle Venice was experiencing  Gothic and Renaissance Revival, Nuremburg was likewise i n volved i n l a t e Renaissance r e v i v a l , A l a s t aspect of s e t t i n g should be mentioned, and that was  the use of f i l m and projection as a t e c h n i c a l thematic  a i d i n the creation of fantasy.  Their use f a c i l i t a t e s easy  movement between the worlds of realism and fantasy as well as enhances. the q u a l i t y of fantasy possible.  IV COSTUMES The chief consideration f o r the costume designs was t r a n s l a t i o n of the music's rhythm to that of the clothing. This was complicated by the opera's variety of rhythms. Looking f i r s t a t the opera's lightness and exhilaration, the suggestion of dating costume designs a t the height of Offenbach's popularity and l a v i e parlsienne (o. 1870) seemed possible.  However the music also possesses a softer Viennese  quality which evokes the l a t e r , more Impressionist, decade of Parisian l i f e .  Furthermore,  there i s the highly languid and  voluptuous music of the Venetian Act which suggests the l a t e r time period 1890-1900 (the sensuality of which i s seen i n the very draping of women's c l o t h i n g ) .  Therefore to place the  costume design s t r i c t l y a t 18?0 would be t o place too much importance on the l i g h t comedy and the many layers of bouncing bouffant c r i n o l i n e s . To afford the variety of musical rhythms and allow f o r the pervasive f l u i d i t y of the music, a decision was made to have the opera cover a t h i r t y year period which i s experienced i n flas&gback technique.  Chronological progression i s sug-  gested by the story l i n e i t s e l f , f o r Hoffmann Is seen to mature throughout the various episodes.  Furthermore, the  opera Is h a l f fantasy as well as being episodic i n structure, and therefore unity of time i n the c l a s s i c a l sense i s of l i t t l e consequence. So that the costumes possessed v i s u a l continuity, a basic design method was  formulated which was  the choosing  of  common elements of c l o t h i n g cut and d e t a i l i n the time period 1870-1900, and the working of variations and extensions upon those elements.  As an example, there was  r e p e t i t i o n of de-  t a i l s such as s i m i l a r clothing p r o f i l e s f o r the four antagonists, feather accessories, breeches f o r the four servants, and a r e s t r i c t e d colour scheme within each act, with a progression of colours between acts. In s a t i s f y i n g the three basic design requirements, the costume method Is formulated b r i e f l y asi 1.  controlled but free adaptation of period clothing to create a mood of h a l f fantasy, h a l f realism,  2.  a s i m i l a r i t y of l i n e and shape to unify the scheme,  3.  the use of d e t a i l and colour to promote the uniqueness of each t a l e ,  Costumeijcolours  have been ©losely t i e d to those of set-  tings, and t h i s aspect w i l l be discussed under l i g h t i n g .  LIGHTING The chief importance of l i g h t i n g (besides v i s i b i l i t y ) was creation of mood, with the secondary purpose of blending within the settings, and providing unity to the production as a whole. Looking at mood f i r s t , the l i b r e t t i s t has mentioned i n the s c r i p t various special and atmospheric l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s , obviously with mood creation i n mind. forth arei  Some of the notes set  moonlight (opening Tavern scene), i l l u m i n a t i o n of  the flaming punch bowl (same soene), candlelight (opening scene;.of Olympia Act), lamp posts, chandeliers and animated b r i l l i a n c e (Venetian Act), sunset (Antonia Aot), and a luminous v i s i o n of the poet's Muse i n the tavern tun (Epilogue),  In combination with Offenbach's music, these  l i g h t i n g effects would produce a f e e l i n g of romance and l i g h t fantasy. But i t must be pointed out that the f a n c i f u l e f f e c t s project a c e r t a i n l e v e l of realism due to the p l a u s i b i l i t y of l i g h t sources  (except f o r the appearance of the Muse which i s  pure fantasy), and t h i s consideration overrules the use of f a n t a s t i c a l e f f e c t s Independent of story as an Improper Interpretation of the operate true l e v e l of fantasy.  Each act projects i t s own  s p e c i a l mood, and l i g h t i n g i s  paramount i n creating t h i s uniqueness. was  considered as possessing i t s own  Consequently each act  colour image, or l i g h t  pool, and the vividness of these images was determined by l i m i t e d colour keying of costumes and l i g h t i n g .  The four acts  can be desoribed as followsi The Tavern Scene was tones of ales and wines.  conceived i n the warm and mellow The f e e l i n g of r i c h contentment which  these colours project comes d i r e c t l y from the action of both the prologue and epilogue.  In poetic terms, Hoffmann i s  experiencing the autumn of his l i f e , and therefore the choice of browns, rust, gold and crimsons i s natural. 27,  33,  would be used to create such warmth.  As f o r l i g h t i n g Of a l l the acts,  the tavern scene i s the warmest. The Olympia Act i s of course s p r i n g - l i k e with i t s naivete, Joy, and freshness so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f i r s t awakening to love.  I t possesses a l l the b r i l l i a n c e but  delicacy of youth.  Therefore the colours of spring set the  colour range of thle a c t — a predominance of soft green, with touches of v i v i d blue, white, yellow and gold, N  O S #  5^  would be used to create the e f f e c t of sparkle and newness.  39, ^ 9 , Of  the four acts, the Olympia Act i s medium cool i n f e e l i n g . The image of the Venetian Act i s of course most greatly determined by i t s s e t t i n g f o r one immediately thinks of the Grand Canal and of blue water and blue sky.  However the  action of the act a l s o projects an image of blue f o r i t i s of a l l the acts, the coolest i n i t s appraisal of love.  Silver  becomes evocative of the elegance and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of Venice, while shades of v i o l e t , t e a l , and navy, as well as tinges of pink and mauve, conjure up the courtesan world of G i u l i e t t a . The aspect of t w i l i g h t i s that which creates the mood of the Antonia Act and i t i s f i t t i n g f o r Hoffmann's f i n a l tale of love,  Antonia s father establishes early i n the act a 1  funereal atmosphere so that the heroine's death comes of no surprise.  Therefore a l l the c o l o u r s — p a l e blue, green,  brown, mauve—are muted with an ashen cast.  grey,  The act does  possess great tenderness however, and so the l i g h t i n g i s keyed f o r warmth,  N o s  would create the aot's peculiar blend of  eerie ooolness and gentle warmth. Because of the choice of fragmentary settings but also the e s s e n t i a l romantic delicacy of the opera as a whole, i t was necessary to oontain the settings within l i g h t l y coloured backgrounds, as opposed to the alternative of leaving set pieoes stranded against black drapes. a c o l o u r - l i t eye.  This would be done by  Not only would eye l i g h t i n g warm the scene,  i t would also t i e together set pieces within each setting, This aspeot of blending i s the second Important function of lighting. Lighting i s t h i r d l y important i n unifying the production as a whole.  Despite the strong colour differences of the four  aots, the achieving of the varying degrees of warms and cools depends on the combination warm and two cool.  of only four l i g h t i n g  colours—two  Added to the fact that there i s a  progression of costume oolours between the acts—brown, orange,  goldi gold, green, bluei blue, s i l v e r , v i o l e t j pale v i o l e t , ash* brownt brown, orange g o l d — t h e r e should r e s u l t a f e e l i n g of harmonious progression.  SCENERY AND TECHNICAL DRAWINGS  L u t h e r ' s Tavern i n Nuremburg C o u n c i l l o r L i n d o r f e n t e r s the empty t a v e r n and i n t e r c e p t s from the servant" Andres a l e t t e r and key Intended f o r Hoffmann from h i s c u r r e n t l o v e , the opera s i n g e r S t e l l a , A s t u d e n t a u d i e n c e r u s h i n t o the t a v e r n d u r i n g an a c t i n t e r v a l , c a l l i n g f o r wine and b e e r . The moody poet e n t e r s and the s t u d e n t s encourage him t o s i n g them a song. He f a l l s i n t o a r e v e r i e on the beauty of S t e l l a , and t h i s thought reminds him of h i s former t h r e e l o v e s . As the wine c o n t i n u e s t o f l o w , Hoffmann d r i f t s i n t o h i s dream w o r l d , and t o t h ^ a c c l a m a t i o n of the s t u d e n t s , he b e g i n s the s t o r y of h i s t h r e e l o v e s . "The name of the f i r s t was Olympia." EPILOGUE Luther's  Tavern  By t h i s t i m e , Hoffmann i s c o m p l e t e l y drunken by the wine and by the power o f h i s own t a l e s , Hoffmann i s l e f t a l o n e by the s t u d e n t s , and as he s i t s i n a s t u p o r , he i s v i s i t e d by the b r i l l i a n t v i s i o n o f h i s Muse who appears i n a g r e a t t u n t o o f f e r him c o n s o l a t i o n . W h i l e thus b l e s s e d and happy i n s e l f awareness, Hoffmann f a l l asleep S t e l l a e n t e r s t o meet the poet,' and f i n d i n g him t h u s , i s l e d away by the t r i u m p h a n t r i v a l L i n d o r f , 0  ROLOGUE & EPILOGUE -  ACT I The Home o f S p a l a n z a n i S p a l a n z a n i has c o n s t r u c t e d a m e c h a n i c a l d o l l so p e r f e c t t h a t he has d e c i d e d t o i n t r o d u c e h e r as h i s d a u g h t e r Olympia, Hoffmann, S p a l a n z a n i * s s t u d e n t , has a l r e a d v f a l l e n i n love w i t h her although he has seen h e r o n l y from a d i s t a n c e . On the o c c a s i o n o f the d e b u t , Hoffmann buys s p e c i a l g l a s s e s from C o p p e l i u s , S p a l a n ^ a r *3 m i r a c u l o u s p a r t n e r . The guests a r r i v e , and f o r h e r i n t r o d u c t i o n Olympia s i n g s an oddly m e c h a n i c a l b u t b r i l l i a n t c o l o r a t u r a . The young c o u p l e are l e f t a l o n e and the n a i v e Hoffmann proclames h i s l o v e f o r h e r , A m a g n i f i c e n t w a l t z f o l l o w s and Hoffmann i s d i z z i e d by h e r f a s t d a n c i n g . He f a l l s exhausted o n l y t o hear the c r a s h of b r e a k i n g machinery. The d o l l Olympia has been d e s t r o y e d by an angry, t r i c k e d C o p p e l i u s , Poor Hoffmann i s l e f t u t t e r l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d by h i s f i r s t encounter w i t h l o v e . 4  m  ACT  II  A P a l a z z o on the Grand i n Venice  Canal  Giulietta i s a beautiful c o u r t e s a n under the sway o f the s o r c e r e r . D a p e r t n t t o , She has a l r e a d y c a p t u r e d the shadow of h e r c u r r e n t l o v e r S c h l e m i l , and she a c c e p t s o r d e r s from h e r keeper t o s t e a l Hoffmann's r e f l e c t i o n from a magic m i r r o r . She succeeds i n c a p t i v a t i n g a somewhat c a u t i o u s Hoffmannj and h i s l o v e f o r h e r . l o s e s him h i s r e f l e c t i o n . S c h l e m i l i s n o t t o be so e a s i l y spurned, and so the two l o v e r s engage i n a d u e l over p o s s e s s i o n o f the key t o G i u l i e t t a ' s room, Hoffmann k i l l s S c h l e m i l , o n l y t o d i s c o v e r G i u l i e t t a g l i d i n g away i n a gondola, the c o q u e t t e now i n a mocking embrace w i t h h e r a d m i r e r , the hunchback PitichinacciOa  ACT I I I The  Home of C o u n c i l l o r C r e s p e l i n Munich  A n t o n i a , the l o v e l y and d e l i c a t e o n l y d a u g h t e r of C r e s p e l , has i n h e r i t e d from h e r mother, a c e l e b r a t e d s i n g e r , a w o n d e r f u l v o i c e . Her f a t h e r e n t e r s and f o r b i d s her t o c o n t i n u e h e r song. He f e e l s t h a t the e x e r t i o n might exhaust h e r and cause her e a r l y d e a t h as i t had h e r mother. He i s a l s o a f r a i d of Hoffmann's i n f l u e n c e and so endeavours t o keep the two l o v e r s separated. They meet s e c r e t l y and s i n g t o g e t h e r . W i t h C r e s p e l s appearance, Hoffmann h i d e s h i m s e l f by the window. The e v i l Dr. M i r a c l e appears and w h i l e the two c o n v e r s e , Hoffmann l e a r n s of the mother's f a t e which C r e s p e l s u s p e c t s was the r e s u l t of M i r a c l e ' s b e w i t c h i n g . C r e s p e l , t h e n Hoffmann, l e a v e , and under the s p e l l o f Dr. M i r a c l e , A n t o n i a i s i n d u c e d t o s i n g . F o r t h i s purpose, Dr. M i r a c l e c o n j u r e s up the s p i r i t of A n t o n i a ' s mother from a p o r t r a i t h a n g i n g on the w a l l . The t h r e e o f them s i n g and Dr. M i r a c l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y dances around the room w h i l e f r e n z i e d l y playing his v i o l i n , Antonia*s rapture i s u n e a r t h l y , and when Dr. M i r a c l e v a n i s h e s , C r e s p e l and Hoffmann r u s h i n only to f i n d Antonia dying i n t h e i r arms, 8  II COSTUMES  LINDORF Age:  55  Characterizations Social Station:  determined, w l l e y , unpleasant a c o u n c i l l o r o f Kuremburg  ANDRES Age s  16  Characterization: Social Station:  impish s e r v a n t of S t e l l a  LUTHER ' Age i  4-5  Characterizations Social Station:  bustling, an  innkeeper  jovial  NATHANAEL Agei  20  CharacterizationJ Social Statloni  pleasant a student  HERMANN Age t  20  Characterization* S o c i a l Station:  convivial a student  HOFFMANN Age i Characterization* S o c i a l Station!  moody, dramatic a poet  NICKLAUSSE Age t  b8  Characterization: S o c i a l Stationt  calm, p r a c t i c a l Hoffmann's companion  SPALANZANI Aget  38  Characterization* S o c i a l Station*  odd, f a n a t i c a l , fancy an inventor  COCHENILLE Ages  16  Characterizations S o c i a l Stations  awkward, t i m i d a servant of Spalanzani  HOFFMANN Age:  18  Characterization: Social Station:  earnest, naive a  student  NICKLAUSSE Age t  20  CharacterizationJ S o c i a l Stations  mild,  reasoning  Hoffmann's companion  COPPELIUS Age: Characterization: Social Station:  f i e r c e , impetuous, a  trickster-charlatan  unbalanced  CHORUS Agei  35  Characterizationi S o c i a l Stationt  affected society guest  CHORUS Aget  35  Characterization* S o c i a l Station!  pretensions society guest  OLYMPIA Agei  16  Characterization* S o c i a l Stations  dainty, d o l l - l i k e the "daughter" of Spalanzani  0lYmp>ia  GIULIETTA Age J  28  Characterization* Social Statlom  enticing, a r t f u l a courtesan  HOFFMANN Age:  33  Characterizations S o c i a l Stations  worldly a poet  NICKLAUSSE Age t  35  Characterization: Social Station:  reserved,  cautious  Hoffmann's companion  PITICHINACCIO Agei  40  Characterization: Social Statiom  malicious an admirer of G l u l i e t t a  SCHLEMIL Age:  38  Characterizations S o c i a l Stations  s n e e r i n g , shady Giulietta's  lover  DAPERTUTTO Age i  42  Characterization! Social Statlom  polished ( o i l y ) , devious a sorcerer  CHORUS Age i  35  Characterizationi S o c i a l Stationi  suave a guest  CHORUS Age:  30  Characterization1 S o c i a l Station*  glamorous a guest  ANTONIA Age:  23  Characterization: Social Station:  romantic,  natural  the d a u g h t e r o f C r e s p e l  CRESPEL Age t  50  Characterization: Social Station:  grave, a u t h o r i t a t i v e a c o u n c i l l o r of Munich  FRANTZ Age:  70  Characterization: Social Station:  foolish s e r v a n t of C r e s p e l  HOFFMANN Age:  39  Characterization* Social Station:  tender, dignified. a poet  DR.  MIRACLE  Age:  ^5  Characterization: Social Station:  h y p n o t i c , urbane a  physician  PORTRAIT Age:  37  Characterization: Social Station:  e l e g a n t , commanding mother of A n t o n i a ' s , an opera s i n g e r  THE  MUSE  Age :  25  Characterization: Social Station:  divine, inspiring the Muse of P o e t r y  STELLA Agei  35  Characterizations S o c i a l Stations  womanly, vivacious an opera singer  Ill LIGHTING PLOT AND INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE  NUMBER  1  6" ellps spot  750  2nd FOH  2  "  "  "  2  w  »  •»  «  ^  H  W  6  -  7  «  •  8 o; •  10 11  •  51 2  3  M  " "  n  w  •  area 1  •  w  "  5  "  "  1  17  *  2  '•  6  M  5f  n  w  7  ' • ii  -  "  3  17  8" slips ref  k  1000  oroh.  w  clear  ^2  W  *  "  tl  W  ^2  w  »  •»  «  tt  6" ellps spot  750  "  .15  "  •  "  16  «  17  *  18  -  19  " • • * ' . '  "  6  20  "  "  7  21  «•  "  "  8  22  »  «  23  w  «»  24  '«  "  25  "  "  lfc  "  w  •*  •»  .5 8 9  51 M  lfl)  w  w  17  area  17  n  9 10  n  l e t FOH "  1 2  " 51 "  INSTRUMENT NUMBER  26  6" fres spot  27  6" e l l p s spot  »  28  6" fres spot  „  29  6* e l l p s spot  n  30  6" fres spot  M  31  n  1st FOH  o  51  Antonia  "  47  prologue  4  51  "  2*7 54  6" e l l p s spot  „  33  6" fres spot  w  n  Giuletta  M  32  34  5**  3  5  51 47  n  35  6" e l l p s spot  „  1  17  36;  6" fres spot  „  6  47  37  6" e l l p s spot  „  2  17  38  6" fres spot  „  6  5^  39  n  51  w  40  6" e l l p s spot  „  41  6" fres spot  „  42  6" e l l p s spot  „  43  6" fres spot  „  44  6" fres spot  „  *5  6" e l l p s spot  „  46  8" e l l p s r e f  47  i000 to  48  6" fres spot  750  49  6" e l l p s spot  "  50  6" fres spot  "  n  •»  •»  -  7  47 51  51 3 n  followspot  17 clear  «,  n  a  "Q  3  36  4  17 36  INSTRUMENT NUMBER  INSTRUMENT  WATTAGE  POSITION  750  1st FOH  51  6" ellps spot  52  6" fres spot  n  IS3  6  tt  5*>  6" fres spot  n  B  55  6" ellps spot  tt  56  n  W  ellps spot  FOCUS  w  17  5 n  36  8  51  «  54  n  9  51  n  n  10  «  6  36  n  17  7  36  n  17  5?  6" fres spot  w  •i  58  6" ellps spot  ft  it  59  6" fres spot  n  tt  60  6" ellps spot  n  it  6l  6" fres spot  n  II  62  6" ellps spot  it  tt  63  H  n  it  9  64  n  it  M  10  65  M  n  66  n  n  67  6" fres spot  COLOUR  1st stand-1  n  »  8  36  •  17 w n  " light x  2 a  "  1st pipe area 11  51  68  n  tt  tt  12  69  n  n  it  13  70  ft  at  «  14  tt  71  ft  tt  11  17  72  w  ft  12  n  73  M  tt  tt  15  51  74  ft'  n  «  16  n  75  tt  tt  It  17  it  w  REMARKS  INSTRUMENT NUMBER  75  INSTRUMENT  6" fres spot  WATTAGE  POSITION  FOCUS  COLOUR  750  1st pipe  17  51  «t  13  17  14  n  76  a  77  tt  w  78  n  tt  tt  18  51  n  n  n  19  tt  80  »  n  tt  15  17  81  tt  •i  16  n  82  n  n  n  17  tt  83  n  ft  tt  18  tt  84  «  ft  it  19  n  X-llght  67  79  85  6  n  e l l p s spot  n  86  it  87  tt  88  n  tt  89  ft  ft  90  n  ti  91  n  n  92  n  it  93  n  tt  94  ft  it  95  n  tt  96  tt  tt  97  n  it  98  n  tt  99  tt  n  100  a  n  1st stand-R  «  2nd stand-L tt  2nd stand-R it  3rd stand-L  it  n  2  a  H  tt  •  REMARKS  67 it  special  51  X-llght  2  Hffman entr.  n  2nd p o r t a l stand-R 3rd stand-R  special  17  X-llght  67  stand-stage L-rear  special  »  platform stage-R  tt  entrance  4  progression 9 focus areas  6,7.16.17.  tt  36  »t  1 7 prologue,. 17 door Backing  101  16" beam  1000  2nd pipe  downlight  54  stand-stage rear  speolal  18  apron  footlights primary  102  103 104  105  106  6 x6* s t r i p w  150  107 108 109 110 111 112  1st  pipe  blending  113 114  115  2nd pipe  116 117 118  119 120  3rd pipe  121  "  122  123 124 125  4th-pipe  bafiers borders  4,13, 15  prologue & moonlight speolal  4th pipe  borders 4 13,  131  set wall stage-L  special  132  set wall stage-R  17,51  133  set wall stage-R  red blue white amber  126  6"x6* s t r i p  150  B  15  12? 128 129 130  134 135  window f l a t  "  136  stand stage-R "  3,^5  act 3 window backing act 3 door aroh backing prologue archway backing  3.^5 24  act 1 so 1 mirrors focus & position to avoid glare & s p i l l onto acting area  137 138 stand stage-L "  139 140 141 142  wall-sconce  143 144  chandelier  set wall stage-L  stage-R  special -  act 1 so 1 & 2 flame shaped bulbs  to  145  chandelier  aot 1 sc 2 flame shaped bulbs  special  146  aot 1 sc 2 " etc.  147 148  M  149  portrait sconce  150  chandelier  portrait frame  act 3 flame shaped bulbs prologue flame etc. act 2 flame etc* as above  border 1  aot 1 so 2 walte spec  151 152 153 154 155 156  standing candelabra n  ceiling lamps  100  6**x8 strip  150  9  border 2 eye flood 27.35. 56,17. n 16,63, 24. n 16,38, 49. n 36,61, 63. n 16.51, 56 n  157 158 159 160 161 162 163  6  n  x 6  9  strip  scrim masking  colour flood n  164  ft  165  ti  prologue act 1 sc 1 act 1 sc 2 act 2 act 3  27,33. prologue 56,17. n n  16,51, act 3 56. n  lo  166 167 168  169 170  projector  stage rear s p e c i a l  act 2-set background Glulletta s exit 9  mirror special also reposition 1 projector f o r act 3 portrait special & epilogue muse special  BIBLIOGRAPHY Decaux, A l a i n . 1958.  O f f e n b a c h . R o i du Second E m p i r e .  Paris*  Amiot  Hewett-Thayer, Harvey W. Hoffmanns A u t h o r o f t h e T a l e s . P r i n c e t o n s P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1948. Hoffmann, E.T.A. T a l e s o f Hoffmann. T r a n s l a t e d by M i c h a e l B u l l o c k . New Yorks Ungars 1963. Hoffmann, E.T.A. The B e s t T a l e s o f Hoffmann. E d i t e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n by E.F. B l e i l e r . New Yorks Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1967. Hoffmann, E.T.A. S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s . E d i t e d and t r a n s l a t e d by Leonard J . Kent and E l i z a b e t h C. K n i g h t . Chicago* U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1969. K r a c a u e r , S i e g r i e d . O f f e n b a c h and t h e P a r i s o f h i s Times. London* C o n s t a b l e , 1937* Schneider, Louis.  Offenbach. P a r i s *  P e r r i n e t C i e , 1923.  S m i t h , P a t r i c k J . " T a l e s f o r Our Time," No. 16 (February 27, 1 9 6 5 ) .  Opera News. XXIX,  Stedman, Jane W. "A F i d d i i n g D e v i l ? " Opera News. XXIX, No. 16 (February 27, 1 9 6 5 ) . S t e v e n s , D a v i d . "Magic L a n t e r n , " Opera News. XXIX, No. 16 ( F e b r u a r y 27, 1 9 6 5 ) . S t o k e s , A d r i a n Durham. 1965.  Venice.  Londons  L i o n and U n i c o r n ,  Walker-McSpadden, J . Operas and M u s i c a l Comedies. Cromwell, 1946.  New Yorks  von Westerrman, G e r h a r t . Opera Guide. T r a n s l a t e d by Anne Ross Londons Thames and Hudson, 1964.  

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