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Developing a methodology for analysing and evaluating teaching strategies in university science teaching… Bashook, Philip G. 1971

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DEVELOPING A METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYSING AND EVALUATING TEACHING STRATEGIES IN UNIVERSITY SCIENCE TEACHING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY by PHILIP G. BASHOOK B.A., University of C a l i f o r n i a (S.B.), 1965 M.Sc, San Fernando Val l e y State College, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n the Department of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . P h i l i p LT. uasnook. Department o f Science Education ( F a c u l t y of Education) The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date J a n u a r y 15, 1971 Purpose of the study The study explored an approach to analysing and evaluating s t r a t e g i e s for teaching science concepts at the f i r s t - y e a r u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l based on B.O. Smith and co-workers conceptual framework of teach-ing. As such, the study represents an attempt to bridge the gap bet-ween a recently developed t h e o r e t i c a l view of teaching and p r a c t i c a l problems of classroom science teaching; A b a s i c assumption made i n the study was that teaching i s a type of goal-directed a c t i v i t y . The major goal of science teaching was taken to be the a c q u i s i t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c paradigms. According to T.S. Kuhn, s c i e n t i f i c paradigms constitute what a " s c i e n t i f i c com-munity thinks i t knows". Since science concepts ( i . e . rules governing the use of a term) are i n e x t r i c a b l y bound to s c i e n t i f i c paradigms, the teaching of science concepts was seen as an e s s e n t i a l aspect of science teaching s t r a t e g i e s . I t was pointed out, moreover, that teaching strategies used to teach science concepts are r a r e l y , i f ever, f i r m l y based on systematized knowledge of teaching. Procedure Development of the methodology was c a r r i e d forward i n four phases: i d e n t i f y i n g aspects of Smith and co-workers 1 t h e o r e t i c a l work p o t e n t i a l l y useful f o r analysing and evaluating the teaching of science concepts; characterizing records of a c t u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s ; analysing and evaluating actual teaching strategies f o r goodness-of-fit with i d e a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s ; and suggesting s p e c i f i c problems a r i s i n g from the study requiring further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The methodology was developed and i l l u s t r a t e d using a c t u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s employed by an i n s t r u c t o r i n a f i r s t - y e a r univer-s i t y physics course. The teaching strategies u t i l i z e d covered a time span of eleven lectures and were directed toward an understanding of eight d i f f e r e n t science concepts. The eight concepts taught were: "Mass", "Law i n Physics", " E l e c t r i c i t y " , " E l e c t r i c F i e l d " , "Number of F i e l d Lines", "Feedback", "Wave Superposition", and "Nuclear Binding Energy". Findings of the study A general conclusion of the study was that the t h e o r e t i c a l framework used i n the study appeared to be p o t e n t i a l l y u seful f o r ana-l y s i n g and evaluating c e r t a i n aspects of classroom teaching. The "venture" and "move" categorizations of the framework proved tractable f o r analysing and evaluating actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s performed i n a lecture-type teaching s i t u a t i o n . D i f f i c u l t y , however, i s l i k e l y to be encountered i f the "play" categorizations; at the present stage of development,•were to be included i n the methodology. C l a s s i f y i n g and organizing the information introduced by the various "moves" i n a teaching strategy, i n terms of the "functions to be accomplished i n teaching a concept", appeared u s e f u l not only f o r deducing "rule-formulations" ( i . e . rules governing the use of a term naming the concept) but also f o r evaluation purposes. In the eva-l u a t i o n process teaching functions which appear to be inadequately per-formed, because the appropriate information was not presented or be-cause the "moves" were defective i n some way, were i d e n t i f i e d . I t was pointed out that suggestions f o r a l t e r i n g ; a p a r t i c u l a r teaching strategy i n order to include the necessary information or to modify p a r t i c u l a r "moves" would require experimental investigations i n t o the most advantageous teaching strategy for producing s p e c i f i e d learning outcomes f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group of students. The r e s u l t s of analysing and evaluating teaching s t r a t e g i e s aimed at teaching concepts as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the study was seen as p o t e n t i a l l y u seful information f o r a classroom teacher. However, i t was emphasized that i d e n t i f y i n g the "intended product" of a teaching strategy ( i . e . expected rule-formulations deducible from information presented i n teaching a concept) i s most d i f f i c u l t . Although the methodology developed was only applied to con-cept teaching i t would appear to be generalizable to other kinds of teaching. F i n a l l y , four problems a r i s i n g from the study and deserving further i n v e s t i g a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d and described. The problems, [ viewed as ranging along a h y p o t h e t i c a l - p r a c t i c a l continuum, were: d i f -f i c u l t i e s encountered i n employing the "play" categorizations; a sug-gested expansion of the "conceptual venture" idea; devising teaching strategies f o r concept teaching by considering "teaching functions" i n terms of the " p o i n t - a t - a b i l i t y " of a concept; and a suggested use of the methodology for devising a "Handbook of Teaching Strategies f o r Selected Science Concepts." Page LIST OF TABLES . . . . . v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i Chapter I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT 1 1.00 Introduction . 1 1.10 Context Of The Study 2 1.20 Statement Of The Problem . 7 1.21 The General Problem 7 1.22 The S p e c i f i c Problem . . 9 1.30 Overview Of The Study 10 1.40 Limitations To The Study 11 I I . A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING CONCEPTS . . . . 15 2.00 Introduction ... 15 2.10 Description Of Terms Used . 15 2.11 Concepts 15 2.12 Epistemic Rules 16 2.13 Teaching Strategies . 16 2.14 Ventures 18 2.15 Moves 19 2.16 Plays 21 2.20 The o r e t i c a l Framework Underlying The Study . . . 22 2.21 Functions to be'Accomplished In The Teaching Of Concepts 22 2.22 Catalogue Of Moves Relevant To Teaching Concepts . 24 2.23 Procedure For Analysing Concept Ventures . . . . 29 2.24 Epistemic Rules For Analysing Conceptual Ventures 29 2.25 Catalogue Of Plays Relevant To Teaching Concepts 30 2.26 Epistemic Rules For I n f e r e n t i a l Plays . . . . . 34 2.30 Summary . 35 Chapter Page I I I . PROCEDURES AND DATA USED IN STUDY . < 37 3.00 Introduction 37 3.10 Four Phases of Development 37 3.20 Phase I: Iden t i f y i n g Aspects of Smith and Co-workers' Th e o r e t i c a l Framework . . . . 38 3.30 Phase I I : Characterizing A Record Of Actual Teaching Strategies . . 39 3.40 Phase I I I : Analysing And Evaluating Actual Teaching Strategies For Gbodness-o f - f i t with Ideal Teaching Strategies 40 3.50 Phase IV: Suggesting S p e c i f i c Problems Requiring Further Investigation . . . 42 3.60 Data Used To I l l u s t r a t e The Methodology . . . . . 42 IV. ILLUSTRATIONS OF PHASE II AND III IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY 46 4.00 Introduction .' m. 46 4.10 Characterizations Of Actual Teaching Strategies . 46 4.20 Analysis and Evaluation Of Actual Teaching Strategies 57 4.21 Analysis Procedure Y i e l d i n g a"Potential Product" from Actual Teaching Strategies 58 4.22 Analysis Procedure Y i e l d i n g an "Intended Product" from an Ideal Teaching Strategy . . . . . . . . 64 4.23 Evaluation Procedure . . 72 4.24 Suggestions f o r Improving the Match Between Actual Teaching Strategies and Ideal Teaching Strategies 75 4.30 Summary 77 V. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL PROBLEMS FOR FURTHER STUDY - 80 5.00 Introduction 80 5.10 The The o r e t i c a l Framework — Problems Concerning Plays . 80 5.20 The Th e o r e t i c a l Framework — Problems Concerning Conceptual Ventures 83 Chapter Page 5.30 Problems Concerning The Teaching Of Concepts . •. • 84 5.40 Classroom P r a c t i c e — A Handbook Of Teaching Strategies For Selected Concepts In Science 86 5.50 Summary 89 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . 90 6.00 Summary . . 90 6.10 Conclusions 92 LITERATURE CITED 96 APPENDICES 98 A. Conceptual Venture Presenting The Term "Wave Superposition" 98 B. C r i t e r i a For Id e n t i f y i n g Ventures 102 C. C r i t e r i a and Instructions For C l a s s i f y i n g Ventures • 106 D. Example of Pre-Lecture Analysis Form . . . . . . 108 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Data" on Concept Ventures Selected f o r Study 45 2. Representative Format for Information Presented i n Concept Ventures 48 3. P o t e n t i a l Information about the Concept Termed "Mass", Venture 1 50 4. P o t e n t i a l Information about the Concept Termed "Mass", Venture 2 51 5. P o t e n t i a l Information about the Concept Termed "Law i n Physics" j Venture 3 53 6. P o t e n t i a l Information about the Concept Termed "Law i n Physics", Venture 5 54 7. P o t e n t i a l Information about the Concept Termed "Law i n Physics", Venture 6 55 8. P o t e n t i a l Information about the Concept Termed "Wave Superposition", Venture 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 9. The " P o t e n t i a l Product": Rule-formulations f o r Actual Teaching Strategies 60 10. A d d i t i o n a l Rule-formulations Derived from Information Other Than Actual Teaching Strategies . . . . 69 11. The "Intended Product": Rule-formulations for Ideal Teaching Strategies . . . 73 12. Record of Moves Used In Actual Teaching Strategies . ' 87 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS " ' ' I am deeply indebted to Professor Walter B. Boldt f o r h i s constructive c r i t i c i s m , rigorous analysis and guidance i n every stage of t h i s study. A s p e c i a l thank you also goes to him f o r h i s kindness and guiding-hand throughout my graduate studies. Special acknowledgement goes to Professor Walter W. West-phal for h i s encouragement and refreshing approach to teaching. My appreciation i s expressed to Professor J e r r o l d R.:Coombs f o r suggesting a more penetrating look at teaching behaviour and f o r stimulating discussions throughout the study. To Professor L.B. Daniels I extend my gratitude f o r helping me think through l a t e r phases of the study. To my fellow graduate students and Physics Education Eva-l u a t i o n Project members, thank you for l i s t e n i n g and discussing the issues involved i n t h i s work. I would also l i k e to thank Mr. David L i n q u i s t f o r a s s i s t -ance i n recording the lectures used f o r the study. The assistance of Miss Linda Cuthbert for typing innumerable draf t s of the thesis i s most warmly appreciated. F i n a l l y , to my wife, thank you for t o l e r a -ting the numerous problems and complications inherent i n producing a t h e s i s . DEDICATED To Elephants and Crocodiles Generally and To a Special Elephant CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS CONTEXT _ 1.00 Introduction - Smith et a l (1962, 1967), followed by Coombs (1969), studied teaching strategies"*" with respect to various subject matter goals achieved and the l o g i c a l operations.used to achieve the teaching goals. The authors i d e n t i f i e d a number of teaching strategies which can lead, l o g i c a l l y , to d i f f e r e n t teaching goals. The work of these researchers make i t possible to assess, on l o g i c a l grounds, the goodness-of-fit of an actual teaching strategy to an i d e a l i z e d teaching strategy as i n d i -cated by a teaching goal. Included i n t h e i r study are procedures and c r i t e r i a f o r observing and analysing a c t u a l teaching behaviour i n the classroom.' The major concern of the present study i s the development of a method, u t i l i z i n g the r e s u l t s obtained by these investigators to evaluate the match between a c t u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s and i d e a l i z e d teaching s t r a t e g i e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r teaching goals i n an actual c l a s s -room s i t u a t i o n at the Un i v e r s i t y l e v e l , and an exploration of the educational implications of the goodness-of-fit. The thesis i s organised into s i x chapters. Chapter I des-cribes the educational context of the problem under consideration i n the study, the nature of the problem investigated, an overview of pro-cedures used to carry the study forward, and l i m i t a t i o n s to the study. Chapter II presents a d e s c r i p t i o n of s p e c i a l terms used and the theo-r e t i c a l framework underlying the study. Chapter III presents the pro-cedures used i n the study. Included i n the Chapter i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the procedures used to obtain data on a c t u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s and goals i n an actu a l classroom s i t u a t i o n , and the procedures used to characterise and analyse teaching strategies i n order to evaluate the match between act u a l and i d e a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s . These procedures constitute the "methodology" f o r analysing and evaluating teaching st r a t e g i e s which has been i d e n t i f i e d as the major purpose of the present study. Chapter I I I also contains a d e s c r i p t i o n of data used i n the study. Chapter IV presents an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the methodology f o r analysing and evaluating the teaching of science concepts. Chapter V explores some possible educational implications of the study i n l i g h t of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework underlying the t h e s i s . Included i n the Chapter are suggestions f o r a n a l y t i c and empirical investigations which could be used to extend the usefulness of t h i s study i n meeting problems of classroom p r a c t i c e . The thesis concludes with Chapter VI which summarizes the work presented and suggests improvements to be made i n future studies of the kind presented here. 1.10 Context Of The Study Among the group of contemporary philosopher-historians of science are those (Kuhn, f o r example) who view uniqueness of science i n terms of puzzle-solving a c t i v i t i e s . S c i e n t i f i c puzzles, l i k e puzzles i n playing chess, are theory-determined problems that serve to test the ingenuity or s k i l l of a s c i e n t i s t i n applying the "rules of the game" f o r a t t a i n i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n . For the mature sciences ( i . e . , physics, chemistry, and biology) puzzle-solving i s based on knowledge and experience with accepted models of s c i e n t i f i c achievement (Kuhn, 1962, p. 42). From t h i s view of science the education of s c i e n t i s t s i s seen as a r i g i d i n d o c t r i n a t i o n into a pre-established t r a d i t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c research, (Kuhn, 1963, p. 345). At the u n i v e r s i t y , undergraduate and graduate science courses are.designed to display and provide p r a c t i c e i s using s c i e n t i f i c paradigms, i . e . , the quasi-models to guide s c i e n -t i f i c research. • The nature and sequencing of courses i n physics, f o r example, a f f i r m t h i s f u nction (University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Faculty of Science Calendar, 1969-1970). St a r t i n g from introductory courses which display the elementary paradigms of physics, the courses required of future p h y s i c i s t s d i r e c t the student through d e t a i l e d explorations of the more complex paradigms cf physics. At the i n d i v i d u a l course l e v e l , one can f i n d an introductory course i n physics, even for a more general student audience, emphasizing knowledge and understanding of s c i e n t i f i c paradigms. Another important aspect of s c i e n t i f i c education i s the t e x t -book. Textbooks function as a major pedagogical v e h i c l e i n s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g . "Textbooks tr e a t the various experiements, concepts, laws and theories of the current normal science as separately and as nearly seriatum as possible, i n order to acquaint the student with what the contemporary s c i e n t i f i c community thinks i t knows" (Kuhn, 1962, p. 139). In other words, textbooks display what i s important for a s c i e n t i s t to know — e x p l i c i t l y and i m p l i c i t l y — through displaying quasi-models f o r research and through p r a c t i c e i n the use of these models i n solving puzzles. Glancing through sets of science textbooks, one immediately notices the commonality of content (Easley, 1967). The content i n -cluded seems to suggest a co n s i s t e n t l y s i m i l a r view among s c i e n t i s t s as to what the novice should l e a m ( R o l l , 1968). Also apparent i s the inconsistency of pedagogy between texts or the lack of a consistent view on pedagogical matters. For instance, Jay Orear i n h i s elemen-tary textbook, , F u j i ^ ^ i e i i t ^ Pb^y^sJ^ (2nd e d i t i o n , 1967), includes b a s i c a l l y the same content as F r a n k l i n M i l l e r J r . , i n College Physics (2nd e d i t i o n , 1967). But, Orear places greater emphasis,, from a pedagogical viewpoint, on the " f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s or fundamental laws of nature" (Orear, 1967, xp. x i i i ) rather than presenting "the topics of physics i n a s e m i - t r a d i t i o n a l sequence which preserves a l o g i c a l s t r u -cture" found i n M i l l e r ' s textbook ( M i l l e r , 1967, p. v ) . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n given f o r taking a p a r t i c u l a r pedagogical approach i n a u n i v e r s i t y science textbook.usually consists of " i t has been my experience that..." (Orear, 1967, p. xv), or "based on f i v e years of feedback from students and teachers..." (Orear, 1967, p. i x ) . In neither case does the pedagogy seem to be based on educational r e -search or t h e o r e t i c a l views of teaching. A number of advantages could accrue from taking a pedagogical approach based on systematized sources of knowledge. According to Broudy (1965), t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks may provide i n t e r p r e t i v e maps ( t h e o r e t i c a l constructs) f o r i d e n t i f y i n g an appropriate technology. Included i n such a technology are strategies f o r teaching and learning. A t h e o r e t i c a l consideration of teaching serves as a source of ideas which can be used to formulate and j u s t i f y teaching s t r a t e g i e s f o r at t a i n i n g s p e c i f i e d objectives (Broudy, 1965). More s p e c i f i c a l l y , with a knowledge of the conceptual basis underlying a teaching s t r a -tegy, one can use the teaching strategy to best advantage without over-stepping i t s inherent l i m i t a t i o n s . For example, the l e c t u r i n g tech-nique ' i s most h e l p f u l f o r transmitting large quantities of information, but students with educational d e f i c i e n c i e s do not do w e l l i n lecture s i t u a t i o n s (Ryan, 1969). The i n s t r u c t o r i n a u n i v e r s i t y science course, as f a r as the s c i e n t i f i c community i s concerned, performs functions very much l i k e those of a textbook i h science (Kuhn, 1962). He endeavours to display more f u l l y the paradigms presented i n the textbook and se l e c t s appropriate exercises to emphasize s p e c i f i c aspects of the paradigms. Having mastered the paradigms himself, and demonstrated competence i n puzzle-solving at the research l e v e l , the i n s t r u c t o r i s i n a strong p o s i t i o n to display what i s involved and implied i n the paradigms. However, because h i s studies do not generally extend beyond the l i m i t s of h i s d i s c i p l i n e , i t i s u n l i k e l y that h i s pedagogical approach w i l l be based on t h e o r e t i c a l views of teaching. In the few cases where science i n s t r u c t o r s are asking f o r help i n teaching, the advice given i s usually not based on t h e o r e t i c a l views of teaching, but i n t u i t i o n s based on p r a c t i c e . For instance, on the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia campus, the Faculty of Engi-neering organized a teaching/learning seminar to look into ways of improving the teaching of engineering courses; the Physics Depart-ment, l a s t year (1969), started an open seminar i h teaching; and there have been a s e r i e s of meetings and symposia on teaching improvement sponsored by various departments on campus; to c i t e other cases, M c G i l l University's Center for Learning and Development ("Learning and Development" — newsletters of the Center) i s making attempts to improve the U n i v e r s i t y teaching s i t u a t i o n ; Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y organized a program to t r a i n future p h y s i c i s t s i n the teaching of u n i v e r s i t y physics; the Center f o r Research and Development i n Higher Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, ("The Research Reporter" — newsletter of the Center) i s looking into ways of im-proving u n i v e r s i t y teaching generally; and the College of Engineering at the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s (Urbana) recently completed an attempt to improve i n s t r u c t i o n i n engineering courses . (Perlberg and O'Bryant, 1968). But, even i n these cases, the suggested teaching strategies are seldom, i f ever, f i r m l y based on systematized views of teaching. In the words of the American Council on Education: "the American college teacher i s the only high l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l man on the American scene who enters upon a career with neither the p r e r e q u i s i t e t r i a l of competence nor experience i n the use of the tools of h i s profession." (Bleger and Cooper, 1950) Smith (1961) has offered a conceptual framework f o r viewing teaching which seems to be us e f u l and f e a s i b l e as a source of ideas for devising teaching s t r a t e g i e s i n science. Taking the view that: "teaching i s a system of s o c i a l actions directed at p u p i l s . . . A l l the va r i a b l e s i n -volved in-and r e l a t e d to the actions which make up teaching can be placed i n three categories [independent v a r i a b l e s , i n t e r -vening v a r i a b l e s and dependent variables] but the actions themselves belong to only one of these [the independent v a r i -ables or teacher a c t i o n s ] . (Smith, 1961, p. 91) Smith and co-workers (1962, 1967), working within t h i s framework, have "attempted to describe i n as objective a fashion as- possible, the l o g i c a l behaviour of teachers as they deal with students and the content of information" (1967, p. 3). In contrast with the Flanders System of analysing teacher behaviour, on which a number of recent systems of analysis have been modelled (Flanders, 1970), Smith and co-workers' focus on the treatment of content i n the verbal manipulation of subject 2 matter, while, Flanders centers on patterns of c o n t r o l l i n g behaviour i n verbal i n t e r a c t i o n between the teacher and the student. From a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e (Gage, 1963, for example), no other framework, conceptual view or theory of teaching appears to approach the p o t e n t i a l usefulness of Smith and co-workers' conceptual framework as a source of ideas f o r formulating s t r a t e g i e s of classroom teaching. However, only one reported study (Nuthall, 1968), as far as could be determined, attempted to actualize this apparent potential. Studies on Smith's work (Henderson, 1967; Anderson, 1968; and Coombs 1969; among others) sought to extent and articulate the viewpoint rather than to utilize i t as a source of ideas for meeting the pro-blem. 3 Nuthall attempted to determine i f a difference in teaching strategies for two sociological concepts produce measurable differences in student learning and i f these differences are related to significant student characteristics. He was able to demonstrate that for two con-cepts in sociology "the concept of 'teaching strategies' developed by Smith and co-workers can be meaningfully related to student learning, and that elements within a teaching strategy interact with each other and with the knowledge a student already possesses". He concluded that there is a need for "some pedagogically significant method of classi-fying, for teaching purposes, the kinds of concepts contained in school curricula. But i t may not be possible to differentiate between concepts independently of the kinds of strategies which are used to teach them" (Nuthall, 1968, p. 583). In terms of Smith and co-workers' framework, a significant kind of teaching consists of performing logical verbal operations aimed at achieving particular teaching objectives. One might ask the question,, what particular logical operations a science teacher should perform, on logical grounds, to achieve a specific teaching objective? Their framework sets forth a model for performing logical operations in teach-ing with a p a r t i c u l a r end-in-view, and i t appears p o t e n t i a l l y f r u i t -f u l f o r meeting this problem. One approach to u t i l i z i n g the model i n classroom science teaching would e n t a i l an analysis of a c t u a l science teaching with a view to i d e n t i f y i n g conformity to and departure from the l o g i c a l standards for models of teaching s t r a t e g i e s i d e n t i f i e d by the authors. The r e s u l t s of such an analysis could serve as a source of ideas for devising and r e v i s i n g teaching strategies based on the model. The general problem, then, i s to formulate a method based on  Smith and co-workers' conceptual framework of teaching f o r analysing  the a c t u a l teaching used to achieve a p a r t i c u l a r teaching objective i n  a s p e c i f i c educational context. This approach to the problem of classroom teaching could serve as a basis for empirical investigations into appropriate s t r a -tegies for p a r t i c u l a r objectives and the connection between teaching s t r a t e g i e s and learning outcomes i n the educational context. 1.22 The S p e c i f i c Problem As mentioned previously, a major facet of science teaching e s p e c i a l l y at u n i v e r s i t y , has to do with teaching s c i e n t i f i c paradigms. Some paradigms i n science center on concepts while others focus on methods of ebservation and Instrumentation (Kuhn, 1962). The teaching of con-cepts then, plays an important part i n science teaching. For example, i n physics one teaches the concept of " e l e c t r i c charge" as a t h e o r e t i c a l paradigm b a s i c to solving s c i e n t i f i c puzzles having to do with the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. By analysing the l o g i c a l verbal operations i n teaching s t r a t e g i e s a c t u a l l y employed to teach a concept and assessing the r e s u l t s -in terms of the intended objective ( i . e . , e x p l i c a t i n g a par-t i c u l a r concept), one may be able to suggest on l o g i c a l grounds whether the strategy employed could lead to the intended objective. Having i d e n t i f i e d successful and unsuccessful teaching s t r a t e g i e s on this b a s i s , for p a r t i c u l a r objectives, i t should be possible to specu-l a t e on preferred science teaching s t r a t e g i e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r teaching objectives, and to o f f e r suggestions f o r subsequent empirical i n -v e s t i g a t i o n s . The s p e c i f i c problem proposed for the d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to develop a methodology for analysing and evaluating concept teaching i n  a u n i v e r s i t y science course using Smith and co-workers' (1967) frame- work, including r e v i s i o n s ( i . e . Coombs, 1969) and to explore the use- fulness of the methodology f o r science teaching. 1.30 Overview Of The Study The t h e s i s , taken as a whole, constitutes the development and i l l u s t r a t i o n of a methodology which forms a bridge between a theo-r e t i c a l viewpoint of teaching b u i l t upon the conceptual framework pro-vided by Smith and co-workers and a p r a c t i c a l problem i n u n i v e r s i t y science teaching (the teaching of science concepts). There were four phases i n the development of the methodology. The f i r s t phase i n -volved i d e n t i f y i n g aspects of Smith and co-workers (1962, 1967) t h e o r e t i c a l framework which appeared u s e f u l for meeting the problem of analysing and evaluating the teaching of science concepts. Chapter II i l l u s t r a t e s this phase i n the methodology. The second phase i n -volved characterizing descriptions of actual concept teaching i n science courses at u n i v e r s i t y , by matching the d e s c r i p t i o n to des-c r i p t i v e units of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Chapter IV contains an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s phase, while Chapter I I I outlines the procedures involved i n the phase. The t h i r d phase i n developing the methodology required developing procedures for analysing and evaluating the actual teaching of science concepts performed i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n , from the view-point of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Chapter I I I outlines the proce-dures and Chapter IV o f f e r s i l l u s t r a t i o n s f or using these procedures i n analysing and evaluating concept teaching i n science at u n i v e r s i t y . F i n a l l y , the l a s t phase i n developing the methodology involved sug-gesting s p e c i f i c problems a r i s i n g from the study which need further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Chapter V indicates four problems i d e n t i f i e d as d i f -ferent points along a hypothetical t h e o r e t i c a l - p r a c t i c a l continuum of educational problems. The problems range from d i f f i c u l t i e s i n applying the t h e o r e t i c a l framework to p o t e n t i a l applications of the methodology i n order to resolve p a r t i c u l a r questions about classroom p r a c t i c e . In the summary Chapter (VI) possible d i f f i c u l t i e s i n applying the method-ology are indicated as w e l l as some suggestions for modifying the meth-odology to meet r e l a t e d problems i n science teaching. 1.40 Limitations Of The Study The study explores the usefulness of a t h e o r e t i c a l source of knowledge f o r dealing with a problem of classroom p r a c t i c e , the teaching of science concepts i A number of l i m i t a t i o n s to the study should be recognized. F i r s t , the t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s concerned only with the cognitive aspects of teaching behaviour, that i s , the content of i n s t r u c t i o n and ignores behaviour of teachers i n the a f f e c t -ive domain. Secondly, the t h e o r e t i c a l framework only deals with verbal behaviour i n classroom discourse and ignores other aspects of teacher behaviour other than those concrete operations in v o l v i n g the content of i n s t r u c t i o n . In view of these r e s t r i c t i o n s on the t h e o r e t i c a l view of teaching, the methodology f o r analysing and evaluating c l a s s -room teaching developed i n the present study, i s l i m i t e d i n a p p l i c a -t i o n p r i m a r i l y to verbal behaviour i n classroom discourse. In addition to the l i m i t a t i o n s of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y des-cribed above, are l i m i t a t i o n s of a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the methodology developed to classroom teaching s i t u a t i o n s other than the one used i n the study. The methodology was developed i n the context of a f i r s t -year u n i v e r s i t y physics course. According to the philosopher-his-tori a n of science T.S. Kuhn (1962), the goal of science teaching, at l e a s t at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , i s t y p i c a l l y that of paradigm a c q u i s i -t i o n . The s c i e n t i s t - t e a c h e r i s concerned with displaying s c i e n t i f i c paradigms and providing opportunities for working with the paradigms i n laboratory s i t u a t i o n s from the standpoint of t r a i n i n g competent researchers i n science or at l e a s t t r a i n i n g persons to understand science. It should also be recognized that, i n the context within which the methodology was developed, the concepts taught have meanings which are generally agreed upon by s c i e n t i s t s . I t may be much more difficult to apply the methodology to the teaching of the more vague concepts in other subject matter areas. With concepts of this sort a difficulty could arise ih establishing model teaching strategies for comparison with actual teaching behaviour. Another limitation of the study has to do with the complexity of the methodology developed. The theoretical framework utilized in the study is couched in the language of philosophy and seems to require some familiarity with epistemology, at least, to understand the frame-work adequately. Further, the various categorizations of the methodol-ogy which were drawn from the theoretical framework require considerable s k i l l and experience in application. These difficulties, together with the problems of establishing ideal ventures and rule-formulations for concepts, would seem to limit the general usefulness of the methodology developed for classroom teaching purposes. Finally, i t should be recognized that the study is limited to being exploratory in nature. It is intended that the study provide an empirical base for subsequent experimental studies in teaching and that an instructor familiar with the methodology presented could use i t in attempting to evaluate his own concept teaching. In view of the present state of knowledge about the applicability of a com-paratively recent and important development in the area of classroom teaching, Smith and co-workers theoretical view of teaching, an ex-ploratory study designed to determine how this knowledge might be used in classroom teaching, seems justified. Footnotes — Chapter I "*"A definition of teaching strategies for the purposes of this study is given in thesis Section 2.13. 2 See Bellack et^  a l , (1966) for another content manipulation approach. 3 Notice that Nuthall is one of the co-workers in the reference Smith et a l , 1967. A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING CONCEPTS 2.00 Introduction Chapter II deals specifically with one aspect of the frame-work developed by Smith and co-workers — the teaching of concepts. Some of the presentation is based on the work of Coombs (1969), who has extended this aspect of the framework. The f i r s t section of the Chapter describes key terms in the theoretical framework used to analyse strategies for teaching concepts. The terms described are: concepts, epistemic rules, teaching strategies, ventures, moves and plays. In the second section of the Chapter the theoretical frame-work underlying the study is presented. 2.10 Description Of Terms Used 2.11 Concepts Coombs, in agreement with Green (1968), describes the term concept as "a rule or set of rules governing the use of a term" and "determining what things do or do not belong in a given class" (Coombs, 1969, p. I)."*" Implicit within this description of concept is a dis-tinction between the name, term or phrase used, and the class or category of things to which the term is used to make reference (i.e., the "referent"; Smith et a l , 1967, p. 58). For example, the names "force", "energy" , " e l e c t r i c i t y " , "magnetism", and "nuclear forces" are given to certain referents in the f i e l d of physics. A r u l e , or rules f o r placing a referent i n an appropriate class would be part of the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a concept. For instance, the following rules could be used to describe the concept " s c i e n t i f i c law": (Rule 1) A s c i e n t i f i c law i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of a r e g u l a r i t y i n nature seen by s c i e n t i s t s ; and (Rule 2) subsequently used by them (the s c i e n t i s t s ) i n solving s c i e n t i f i c puzzles. In summary, then, to have a concept i s to have "rules f o r using the term...and rules governing .one's behaviour with respect to including or excluding things from the class designated by the term" (Coombs, 1969, p. 1). 2.12 Epistemic Rules In the teaching of concepts Coombs (1969) describes the term epistemic rule as a set of conditions for appraising the correctness with which a s p e c i f i e d teaching function has been performed i n accom-p l i s h i n g the teaching of a concept.' For example, i n teaching concepts, an epistemic r u l e f o r guiding teacher action could be "the discussion must adduce a set of c r i t e r i a (necessary or t y p i c a l conditions) which are s u f f i c i e n t to warrant the use of the term" (Coombs, 1969, p. 1). 2.13 Teaching Strategies A number of writers i n education have pursued the idea that classroom teaching resembles a game. In game theory the concept "strategy" i s applied to s i t u a t i o n s where outcomes depend on the action a p a r t i c i p a n t expects others to take, and on what expectations others have of h i s actions. In the classroom both the teacher as a game-p a r t i c i p a n t and the students as pa r t i c i p a n t s act with respect to the action taken by the other. For classroom teaching Smith and co-workers apply the concept "strategy" to the set of verbal actions performed by the teacher and students i n the classroom which are directed toward "a cooperative a c t i v i t y that takes the student i n t o the domain of know-ledge possessed by the teacher" (Smith et a l , 1967, p. 49). Execution of a strategy by the teacher involves manipiJation of verbal a c t i v i t y along two dimensions, treatment and c o n t r o l . ' The treatment dimension applies to those operations that the teacher (and students) perform i n d i s c l o s i n g the content to be learned. Along this dimension, then, the teacher i s concerned with the content of i n - -^ r u c t i o n — explaining concepts, analysing casual conditions, .pointing out the emotional force of ideas, and the l i k e . The control dimension applies to the operations the teacher uses i n an e f f o r t to guide and con t r o l student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . For example, the teacher functions.along the c o n t r o l dimensions by persuading, c a j o l i n g , suggesting, demanding, or requesting the students to act i n such a manner that they p a r t i c i p a t e i n performing operations on the content. Although the two dimensions are not seen as independent by the w r i t e r s , t h e i r work has centered on the treatment dimension of a teaching strategy. In keeping with this emphasis the term teaching s t r a t e g i e s , f o r the purposes of the present study^ w i l l be taken to mean the co n t r o l of the subject matter of i n s t r u c t i o n by the teacher i n order to a t t a i n c e r t a i n outcomes or objectives and to guard against others (p. 49). 2.14 Ventures The authors designate the verbal behaviour occuring during a class session as a t o t a l discourse (p. 290). The verbal behaviour of one person at one point i n the t o t a l discourse i s termed an utterance (p. 290). "A segment of discourse consisting of a set of utterances dealing with a s i n g l e topic and having a s i n g l e overarching content 3 o b j e c t i v e " i s r e f e r r e d to, generally, as a venture (p. 6). Eight d i f f e r e n t classes of ventures have been i d e n t i f i e d by the authors through an analysis of a c t u a l classroom discourses: conceptual, cau-s a l , p a r t i c u l a r , evaluative, i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , procedural, reason and r u l e . The class of ventures termed "conceptual ventures" i s the cen-t r a l focus of the present study. -Conceptual Ventures have as t h e i r overarching content objec-t i v e or "primary cognitive import" " d i s c l o s i n g the conditions or c r i -t e r i a governing the use of a term" (Smith et a l , ' 1967, p. 294). The terms, to i l l u s t r a t e , may be s i n g l e words such as " f o r c e " or "energy", or an expression such as "nuclear binding energy" or "electro-magnetic induction". C r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g ventures, generally, and procedures governing the use of these c r i t e r i a are presented, f o r reference, i n Appendix B. C r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f y i n g ventures along with i n s t r u c t i o n s for classifying them have been included in Appendix C. 2.15 Moves A venture, according to the authors, can be further analysed into units termed "moves" (Smith et a l , 1967, p. 53). Move refers to the verbal activity which introduces one particular bit of information dealing with the venture objective. A teacher, a student, or a teacher and one or more students together may make a move (Coombs, 1969, p. 14). The present study wil l focus, exclusively, on the moves constituting conceptual ventures. In the teaching of a particular concept ( i .e . , in a conceptual venture) a move should help make clear the meaning of the concept. Smith and co-workers (1967, p. 55) view the activities of making clear the meaning of a concept, which are described by the term moves, as logical operations aimed at attaining a specific teaching objective. As a means of illustrating moves, consider the following s cheme: 'Let a_, b_, c_, constitute the conditions govern-ing the use of the term j i [biological mis-nomersj, and the objects to which d_ is applic-able be denoted by x_, y_, z_. (Smith et a l , 1967, p. 55). By offering instances of x_, y_, and z^ , the teacher and students could explicate the term cl, "biological misnomers". The following three moves might serve this purpose. T: Can you name any other animals that we usually r e f e r to as f i s h but that do not belong with the f i s h at a l l ? S: The whale i s a mammal... Move f o r y_ S: ...The s i l v e r f i s h i s an i n s e c t . T: Oh, we studied one and made a drawing of him. Move f o r z_ S: Crayf i s h T: The c r a y f i s h . We talked about that a while ago... (Smith et a l , 1967, p. 54) In e l i c i t i n g the names of animals (y, z) that have " f i s h as part of the i r name, or that are usually r e f e r r e d to as f i s h (x) the teacher has accomplished the objective of e x p l i c a t i n g " b i o l o g i c a l misnomer", (d). These moves serve to bring out the meaning of the term (p. 55). A c t i v i t i e s which introduce d i f f e r e n t kinds of information about a concept constitute d i f f e r e n t kinds of moves within a conceptual venture. F i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t kinds of moves, l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the teaching of concepts, have been i d e n t i f i e d by the authors (p. 62-82). In extending the authors i n i t i a l work Coombs r e c l a s s i f i e d and r e -l a b e l l e d these f i f t e e n moves i n concept ventures into fourteen moves. For the purposes of this study Coombs' fourteen moves w i l l be used (Coombs, 1969). The fourteen moves he designated are described f u l l y i n Section 2.22 of the thes i s . Procedures f o r c l a s s i f y i n g a conceptual venture i n t o moves are given i n Section 2.23. 2.16 Plays Coombs, i n his extension of Smith and co-workers work on con-ceptual ventures, defines a play as a "set of moves which i s l o g i c a l l y or f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d " (Coombs, 1969, p. 16). The following example i l l u s t r a t e s a set of moves c o n s t i t u t i n g a play: Move 1 3!: In the token demonstration where I separated two oppositely charged objects I was exerting a force on the objects' as I moved them apart... Move 2 T: S: T: ...Now, what i s a characteristic,; of what I suggested we c a l l a "force"? For one thing, the force seems to be connected with the motion of separation. Yes, you could t e l l I was exerting a force on the objects by how the objects moved. In separating them one object was accelerated r e l a t i v e to the other. The f i r s t move i n this example i s the teacher i n d i c a t i n g an instance of the concept "force". In the second move the student points out a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of force, "accelerating one of the objects r e l a t i v e to the other". These two moves constitute a play because they are l o g -i c a l l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a force mentioned i n Move 2 — ac c e l e r a t i o n of an object — constitutes evidence or a reason f o r regarding.the demonstration*as a case i n point. Coombs has i d e n t i f i e d "and"catalogued plays for conceptual ventures. In Section 2.25 of the thesis i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of these plays. The epistemic rules for appraising them are presented i n sec-t i o n 2.26. 2.20 Theoretical Framework Underlying The Study In this s e c t i o n of the Chapter a means f o r analysing the teaching of concepts i s presented. Building upon Smith and co-workers analysis of teaching concepts (Smith et a l , 1967, pp.,58-95) Coombs ex-tended t h e i r analysis of conceptual ventures by: 1. reorganizing the catagoue of concept moves, and 2. ' considering the functions to be accomplished i n teaching concepts. The l a t t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n by Coombs w i l l be discussed f i r s t ; then, Coombs' catagloue of moves and plays f o r conceptual ventures, as w e l l as e p i s -temic rules for the catalogue w i l l be described. 2.21 Functions to be Accomplished i n the Teaching of Concepts. Certain implications f o r the teaching of concepts derive from describing the term "concept" as "a set of r u l e s . . . " . If one assumed that an important goal of teaching a concept i s the attainment of the concept by those being taught, then following the aforementioned des-c r i p t i o n of the term."concept", a t t a i n i n g a concept would mean having "rules for using the term which names the concept and rules governing one's behaviour with respect to incl u d i n g or excluding things from the class designated by the term". (Goombs, 1969, p. 1). D i f f i c u l t i e s i n teaching f o r concept attainment could develop, however, when the rules guiding the use of a p a r t i c u l a r term do not c l e a r l y s p e c i f y the user's behaviour or the use of the term which names the concept. Those concepts which f i t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n would be c l a s s i -f i e d as "vague" according to Green (1968). Green argues that a lack of rules which c l e a r l y map the boundaries of a concept, separating i t from other concepts, i s an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of vague concepts (Green, 1968, p. 28). For example, i n chemistry the term "organic" lacks a clear r u l e or rules for di s t i n g u i s h i n g i t from inorganic. One r u l e which has been used f o r operating with this concept was that a molecule was considered organic i f i t contained carbon. Yet, a molecule of car-bon dioxide (CO^) contains carbon and i s not considered organic. Coombs (1968) suggests three functions to be accomplished i n teaching a concept f o r attainment whether or not i t i s vague. These are: 1. Make clear how the concept relates to a number of other concepts the student has (provide r e l a t i o n a l meaning); 2. Relate the concept to act u a l events, objects, actions or s i t u a t i o n s i n the students experience (provide e x p e r i - mental reference); 3. Make'clear the context within which the concept has a p p l i c a t i o n (provide content). (Coombs, 1969, p. 1) As a means of explaining teaching functions consider the follow-ing example. To teach the concept " g r a v i t a t i o n a l mass" i n a physics cl a s s the teachser could provide " r e l a t i o n a l meaning" by r e l a t i n g i t to the concept "weight". G r a v i t a t i o n a l mass, unlike weight, i s an unchanging property of a body. The weight of a body — the p u l l of g r a v i t y on i t — changes, for example, when the object i s moved from the earth to the moon. The g r a v i t a t i o n a l mass of the object remains unchanged (PSSC, 1965, p. 327). The teacher might provide experimental reference for the concept by b u i l d i n g upon the f o l l o w i n g : G r a v i t a t i o n a l mass i s what you measure with a beam balance i n equilibrium. Two masses that balance on earth w i l l also balance anywhere else — i n a rocket leaving the earth, on the planet J u p i t e r , or anywhere else i n the universe. (PSSC, ,1965, pp. 327-328) A contextual d e f i n i t i o n f o r " g r a v i t a t i o n a l mass" could be: It i s appropriate to use the term g r a v i -t a t i o n a l mass i n s i t u a t i o n s where i t makes sense to t a l k about what i s measured by a balance i n equilibrium under g r a v i -t a t i o n a l forces and where motion i s i r r e l e v a n t . (PSSC, 1965, pp. 327-328) 2.22 Catalogue of Moves Relevant to Teaching Concepts In conceptual ventures the concern i s with the presentation of information for the e x p l i c a t i o n of the concept. Smith and co-workers (1967, p. 60) i d e n t i f i e d three major concerns of teachers when e x p l i c a t i n g a concept: Presenting information which r e s u l t s i n students being able to describe the concept ( d e s c r i p t i v e  moves); i d e n t i f y i n g differences between the concept and some other concept (comparative moves); the d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or q u a l i -t i e s of the concept through a discussion of i n s -tances ( i n s t a n t i a l moves). Coombs (1969) o f f e r s moves f o r a further catagory of teacher concern which involves understanding the use of the concept i n reading or learning about more advanced subject matter (Usage moves). Coombs (1969) has described and offered an example f o r moves i n each of the four catagories. D e s c r i p t i v e Moves 1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c The referent i s described as having a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or feature. Example — concept being laught cerebrum: . T: What i s the form of the cerebrum? S: Spheres. T: Hemispheres. In other words i t i s divided . - i n t o two parts and we c a l l them hemispheres. 2. S u f f i c i e n t condition It i s pointed out that a given feature or set of features i s s u f f i c i e n t to i d e n t i f y something as an instance of the reference c l a s s . Example — concept being taught acid: T: Now, i f you were asked to i d e n t i f y an a c i d , could you? S: I t has i o n i z a b l e hydrogen. 2. 3. The reference class of the concept i s i d e n t i f i e d as a subclass of some more i n c l u s i v e c l a s s of things. Example — concept being taught habit: T: How would you define habit? S: I t ' s an acquired r e f l e x . 4. Subclass It i s pointed out that a given class of things i s a subclass of the reference class of the concept. Example — concept being taught crime: T: Is a felony one type of crime? S: Yes. 5. Case Characterization A case i s described and the concept term i s used to make a s i g n i f i c a n t statement characterizing the case. Example — concept being taught s o c i a l i z a t i o n : T: Can anyone t e l l me what s o c i o l i z a t i o n means? S: When a k i d plays with a group of kids and he s t a r t s to think l i k e them, to l i k e what they l i k e and that sort of thing, he's being s o c i a l i z e d . T: Yes, s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d i s taking place i n that case i s n ' t i t ? 6. Force It i s pointed out that the concept name.-has a given emotive, persuasive or evaluative f o r c e . Example — concept being taught propaganda: S: Doesn't propaganda mean something bad? T: Yes, we generally think of propaganda as something bad. Comparative Moves 7. Analogy The way i n which the referent i s s i m i l a r to the referent of some other concept i s pointed out. Example — concept being taught nervous system: 'T: What would the nervous system corres-pond to i n a building? S: The system of e l e c t r i c a l wiring. 8. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n The way i n which the r e f e r e n t ' d i f f e r s from the referent of some other concept i s pointed out here. Example-— concept being taught parole: T:..'. What's the diffe r e n c e between pro-bation and parole? S: Parole — you have to serve part of a prison sentence. Probation — you don't, but you s t i l l have to report p r a c t i c a l l y every week. 9. Contextual D e f i n i t i o n It i s pointed out that a given expression employing the concept name i s equivalent to another expression. Example — concept being taught pluralism: T: Can you t e l l me what pluralism means? _S: Well, a p l u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y i s — i s a society made up of people with l o t s of d i f f e r e n t points of view. 10. Instance Comparison The s i m i l a r i t i e s or differences between two or more things described as instances of the concept are pointed out. (sub-class comparison). Example — concept being taught amphibia: T:» Where else do we have a big d i f -ference i n these animals? S: The salamander s t i l l has i t s g i l l s but the frog l o s t i t s g i l l s from the tadpole stage i n t o the adult stage. I n s t a n t i a l Moves 11. P o s i t i v e Instance Some objects, event or condition i s described or pointed out and i s i d e n t i f i e d as an instance of the concept (member of the reference c l a s s ) . Example — concept being taught s a t i r e ; T: This book we're reading i s one of the f i n e s t examples of a novel that i s s a t i r e . 12. Negative Instance Something s i m i l a r to but not an instance of the concept i s described or pointed out and i d e n t i -f i e d as not being an instance of the concept. Example — concept being taught voluntary act: S: When something f l i e s at my eyes and I b l i n k , t h i s would be a voluntary act, wouldn't i t ? T: No, I don't think so. Usage Moves 13. Use The concept name i s correctly used i n the context of a sentence or a larger utterance. Example — concept being taught s c a r c i t y : S: I t ' s because of s c a r c i t y that we have to make p r i o r i t i e s to how we're going to spend the country's money. 14. M e t a - d i s t i h c t i o n The nature of a concept, the d i f f e r e n c e meanings a term can have etc., are described or pointed out. Example — concept being taught imperialism: T: Some terms l i k e imperialism have more than one kind of meaning. They t e l l what something i s , but they also t e l l how we f e e l about i t . (Coombs, 1969, pp. 14-15). T h i s c a t a g o l u e o f f o u r t e e n moves w i l l be u s e d f o r ana-l y s i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l v e n t u r e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r IV o f t h e t h e s i s . 2.23 P r o c e d u r e f o r A n a l y s i n g Concept V e n t u r e s S m i t h and co - w o r k e r s have s u g g e s t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o -c e d u r e i n a n a l y s i n g a v e n t u r e : 1. The a n a l y s t ' s t a s k i s t o d e c i d e what has been s a i d as d i s t i n c t f r o m what a t e a c h e r o r s t u d e n t i n t e n d e d t o s a y , o r s t a r t e d t o s a y . 2. The a n a l y s t must d e c i d e upon t h e r e l a t i o n o f what has been s a i d t o t h e t o p i c of t h e v e n t u r e . 3. The a n a l y s t must d e c i d e , f r o m t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n , whether some p a r t s a r e s u b s i d i a r y t o o t h e r p a r t s o r i n d e p e n d e n t u n i t s . 4. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n — t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a g i v e n s e c t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e as a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of move — i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e . ( S m i t h e t a l , 1967, p. 56) These p r o c e d u r e s have a l s o been ad o p t e d f o r t h e pu r p o s e s of t h e t h e s i s . 2.24 E p i s t e m i c R u l e s f o r A n a l y s i n g C o n c e p t u a l V e n t u r e s The moves i n a c o n c e p t u a l v e n t u r e s h o u l d l e a d t o e x p l i c a t i n g t h e c o n c e p t under d i s c u s s i o n . Coombs s u g g e s t s two e p i s t e m i c r u l e s f o r a n a l y s i n g a v e n t u r e . These a r e : 1. The d i s c u s s i o n must adduce a s e t o f c r i t e r i a ( n e c e s s a r y o r t y p i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ) w h i c h a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t t h e use of the c o n c e p t term. We check t o see i f we have a s e t of s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a by d e t e r m i n i n g whether the c r i t e r i a a l l o w s a p p l i c a t i o n of the term i n a l l cases we o r d i n a r i l y a p p l y i t , and r u l e s out i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n a l l c a s e s we o r d i n a r i l y don't apply i t . I f i t i s a technical term i t s use by the s p e c i a l i s t i n the te c h n i c a l areas rather than i t s use by ordinary care-f u l language users i s the point of reference. 2. Within reasonable l i m i t s the more sets of s u f f i c i e n t conditions adduced the better. Suf-f i c i e n t conditions provide recognition power. The greater the number of s u f f i c i e n t condi-tions one knows the greater the chances he w i l l be able to recognize cases i n which the concept appl i e s . (Coombs, 1969, p. 1) These two epistemic rules form the guides used to analyse concept ventures i n the thes i s . For examples of t h e i r use the reader i s r eferred to Section 4.20. 2.25 Catalogue of Plays Relevant to Teaching Concepts Moves that are l o g i c a l l y or f u n c t i o n a l l y related constitute a play (Coombs, 1969, p. 16). Plays can be separated i n t o two d i f f e r e n t general classes, " i n f e r e n t i a l plays" and " n o n - i n f e r e n t i a l plays". In the l a t t e r plays students are not expected to i n f e r the "rules governing the use of the concept term", rather as many as pos-s i b l e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , subclasses of the referents, and such, are named or presented i n order to help the student a t t a i n the con-cept . In i n f e r e n t i a l plays the student i s expected to a t t a i n a concept by i n f e r r i n g defining a t t r i b u t e s ( c r i t e r i a ) of a concept from instances and in d i c a t e concept attainment by c l a s s i f y i n g or us-ing the concept c o r r e c t l y . In one category of i n f e r e n t i a l plays " C r i t e r i o n Inference from Instance Plays", the student i s r e -quired to show h i s awareness of the c r i t e r i o n ; while, i n the other category of plays, "Non-criterion Inference from Instance Plays", the student attempts to demonstrate attainment of the concept d i r -e c t l y without showing h i s awareness of the c r i t e r i o n . Coombs off e r s some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c plays not as an i n c l u s i v e set (personal communication to the writer) but as a suggestion of the kinds of l o g i c a l or f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between moves pos-s i b l e i n concept ventures. The plays described by Coombs (1969, pp. 16-17) are given below verbatim. For the i n f e r e n t i a l plays shorthand symbols have been adopted by Coombs. Shorthand Symbols PI = P o s i t i v e Instance Move(s) Nl = Negative Instance Move(s) PI Comp = P o s i t i v e Instance Comparison Move(s) Nl Comp = Negative Instance Comparison Move(s) Anal = Analogous D i f f = D i f f e r e n t Cr = C r i t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s Non-Inferential Plays 1. C l a s s i c a l D e f i n i t i o n This type of play i s a combination of a c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n move and one or more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c moves. The referent i s i d e n t i f i e d as a sub-class of some more i n c l u s i v e class of the c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c moves. 2. Analysis This type of play i s composed of a set of charac-t e r i s t i c : : moves. These moves name or describe a set of parts c o n s t i t u t i n g an exhaustive p a r t i -tioning of the referent. 3. Sub-class Enumeration This kind of play includes a number of sub-class moves, and an exhaustive set of sub-classes of the referent i s named or described. 4. Instance Enumeration This play i s composed of a set of p o s i t i v e i n s -tance moves i n which a l l of the instances of the concept are pointed out. 5. Instance Substantiation This type of play i s comprised of both instance and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c moves. A p o s i t i v e or negative instance i s pointed out and the reasons or evidence f o r regarding i t as a p o s i t i v e or negative i n s -tance are dis cus sed. 6. Contrast A play of th i s sort i s made up of an analogy move and a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n move i n d i c a t i n g how the referent i s s i m i l a r to and d i f f e r e n t from some other concept. 7. I l l u s t r a t i o n by Instance In this kind of play one or more features of the referent are described i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c moves and then pointed out i n one orsmore cases iden-t i f i e d as instances. C r i t e r i o n Inference from Instance Plays 8. PI » Cr. A f t e r examining an array of p o s i t i v e instances students are required to i n f e r the c r i t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s . 9. PI + N l ' — - C r . A f t e r examining an array of p o s i t i v e and nega-t i v e instances students are required to i n f e r the c r i t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e s of the concept. 10. PI Comp — - C r . Alternate: Students are asked to i n f e r the c r i t e r i a of a con-cept from an array of p o s i t i v e instances. They are d i r e c t e d to attend to common features of the instances as possible c r i t e r i a . A lternate: A f t e r the teacher has pointed out the common features among a number of p o s i t i v e instances, students are asked to i n f e r the c r i t e r i a of the concept. 11. Alternate: PI + Nl Comp -Cr. Alternate: 12; Students are asked to i n f e r the c r i t e r i a of a con-cept from an array of p o s i t i v e and negative i n s -tances . They are directed or encouraged to attend to the features common to p o s i t i v e instances and to the features p o s i t i v e instances do not share with negative instances as possible c r i t e r i a . A f t e r the teacher has pointed out the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences among a number of p o s i t i v e and negative instances, students are asked to i n f e r the c r i t e r i a of the concept. Non-Criterion Inference from Instance Plays PI + Nl — - A n a l + D i f f . From an array of instances of both concepts A (the concept to be learned) and B, students are asked to i n f e r the ways i n which A and B are s i m i l a r and d i f f e r e n t . 13. PI Class. From an array of p o s i t i v e instances students are required to i n f e r the class to which the concept belongs. These t h i r t e e n plays form a catagolue of plays f o r clas f y i n g sets of moves i n conceptual ventures. This catalogue has been adopted f o r the thesis as one of the tools f o r analysing con-ceptual ventures. 2.26 Epistemic Rules for I n f e r e n t i a l Plays Coombs (1969, pp. 17-18) off e r s epistemic rules f o r " c r i t e r i o n inference from instance plays". The epistemic rules f o r the plays are: 1. PI — C r . Epistemic Rule: the range of instances must be s u f f i c i e n t l y wide that no non-necessary conditions are shared by a l l the instances. 2. PI + Nl — - C r . Epistemic Rule (1): Each negative instance should d i f f e r from one of the p o s i t i v e instances with r e s -pect to only one or as few features as possible. Epistemic Rule (2): There should be a range of negative instances such that each c r i t e r i a l a t t r i b u t e i s v a r i e d . 3. PI cbmp.;—-—Cr. Epistemic Rule: Epistemic rules f o r this play are the same as f o r 1. ( P I — — Cr). 4. PI + Nl Comp — - C r . Epistemic Rule: Epistemic rules f o r t h i s play are the same as f o r 2. (PI + Nl — — C r ) . Following " n o n - c r i t e r i o n inference from instance plays" the teacher may f i n d i n v a l i d h i s assumption that students understood c r i -t e r i a . In such cases a teacher would probably o f f e r more instances u n t i l there seem to be s u f f i c i e n t information f o r the students to i n f e r the concept. "In this version of PI + N l — — C r the t o t a l instances advanced by the teacher should meet the epistemic [rules] for the beginning array of instances i n PI + N i — — C r " (Coombs, 1969, p. 2 1 ) . 2.30 Summary Smith and co-workers have developed a framework f or ana-l y s i n g the teaching of concepts. In discussing t h e i r work i t i s necessary to c l a r i f y the use of c e r t a i n terms: concepts ( 2 . 1 1 ) , epistemic rules ( 2 . 1 2 ) , teaching strategies ( 2 . 1 3 ) , ventures ( 2 . 1 4 ) , moves ( 2 . 1 5 ) , and plays ( 2 . 1 5 ) . The numbers iri parenthesis following each term i n d i c a t e which section of this Chapter contains a de s c r i p -t i o n of the term. A discussion of an extension of Smith and co-workers' (1967) analysis of conceptual ventures by Coombs (1969) forms the cen t r a l focus of se c t i o n 2.20 of this Chapter. In addition to catalogues of plays and moves, epistemic rules and functions to be accomplished i n teaching concepts are discussed. This Chapter, then, i s an e x p l i c a t i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework to be used i n the present study f o r analysing the teaching of concepts. Footnotes — Chapter II "For some concepts i t is very difficult to state the "rule or set of rules governing the use of the concept term..." The concepts "red",."love", and "discipline", for example, are difficult to describe in terms of rules, but the concepts are s t i l l used correctly. i Ronald E. Hyman (editor), Teaching: Vantage Points for Study, "Section Five: Games", pp. 295-328, 1968. i 'in a discussion of a topic there are, usually, a number of content elements such as rules, generalizations, descriptions, definitions and facts. The element of content which is the central focus of discussion, that is the "one explicated, established, or set forth by the discussion of the topic as a whole" is what Smith and co-workers designated the '"overarching content objective" (Smith et a l , 1967, p. 8). CHAPTER III PROCEDURES AND DATA USED IN STUDY 3.00 Introduction The i n i t i a l part of the Chapter deals with the four phases i n the development of the methodology. The r e s u l t i n g pro-cedures not only apply to the s p e c i f i c problem investigated, the teaching of concepts, but also apply to other teaching s t r a t e g i e s . The f i n a l part of the Chapter presents the data on teaching s t r a -tegies and goals used to i l l u s t r a t e the methodology•developed. 3.10 Four Phases of Development A method for analysing and evaluating teaching s t r a t e g i e s with respect to t h e i r corresponding goal i s developed i n four phases as follows: Phase 1. Identify aspects of Smith and co-workers (1962, 1967) t h e o r e t i c a l framework which appear u s e f u l f o r analysing the actual teaching of science concepts;in a f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y physics course. Phase II. Characterize a record of act u a l teaching strategies employed i n teaching science concepts i n a u n i v e r s i t y science course by matching the d e s c r i p t i o n to d e s c r i p t i v e units ( i . e . , the catalogue of moves) of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Phase I I I . Analyse and evaluate r e s u l t s of Phase II with a view to devising teaching strategies f o r s p e c i f i c teaching goals based on l o g i c a l teaching operations con-forming to the teaching models developed by Smith and co-workers. Phase IV. Suggest s p e c i f i c problems a r i s i n g from t h i s study having general a p p l i c a t i o n to u n i v e r s i t y science teaching which need further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . At the crux of the methodology arecthe procedures developed i n Phase I I I , the procedures for analysing and evaluating a c t u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s performed i n a classroom s i t u a t i o n from a l o g i c a l viewpoint. In order to c l a r i f y the methodology, each phase i s d i s -cussed below i n the context of teaching science concepts i n a f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y physics course. 3.20 Phase I: Id e n t i f y i n g Aspects Of Smith and Co-workers' Th e o r e t i c a l Framework The basic task of t h i s phase i s to make e x p l i c i t the par-t i c u l a r concepts, constructs, and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework deemed u s e f u l f or analysing the teaching of concepts. As-pects dealing with the means of i n s t r u c t i o n and l o g i c a l operations involved i n performing various teaching acts are i d e n t i f i e d and des-cribed i n Chapter I I . The p a r t i c u l a r aspects of Smith and co-workers' t h e o r e t i c a l framework described i n Chapter II are l i m i t e d to con-ceptual ventures and the terminology needed to describe the ventures. 3.30 Phase I I : Characterizing A Record Of Actual Teaching Strategies There are two procedures i n the chara c t e r i z a t i o n phase. The actual teaching strategies observed are c l a s s i f i e d into con-, ceptual ventures. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are performed i n accordance with Smith =',and co-workers' procedures and c r i t e r i a which are i d e n t i f i e d i n Appendices B and C. Then f o r each conceptual venture i d e n t i f i e d the moves of the venture are catalogued using the procedures and categories described i n Chapter II of the thes i s . Chapter IV pre-sents the res u l t s of th i s phase; and f o r reference, Appendix A con-tains a part of a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of an actual venture which has been i d e n t i f i e d as a conceptual venture. Moves have been i d e n t i f i e d and cross-referenced to descriptions contained i n Section 2.24 of the th e s i s . To i l l u s t r a t e , following the techniques outlined i n Smith, et a l (1967, Appendix 1; Appendix B of the thesis) each selected l e c t u r e i s divided into i t s i d e n t i f i a b l e overarching content objec-t i v e s . Teaching s t r a t e g i e s i n the lecture having a content objec-t i v e f i t t i n g the c r i t e r i a f o r conceptual ventures are i d e n t i f i e d . Then, the conceptual ventures f o r a lecture are subdivided into moves and the moves f o r each venture catalogued. Actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s performed constitute some of the data used i n the next Phase ( I I I ) . R e l i a b i l i t y of the venture and move c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s per-formed by the writer was established through a comparison of the writer's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of act u a l teaching acts with that of an expert — one of the major researchers of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework used i n the study, Professor J. Coombs. The i n i t i a l i n t e n t of the thesis was to characterize the conceptual ventures into both moves and plays. The move charac-t e r i z a t i o n s were accomplished, but due to the following reasons i t became impossible to characterize the selected ventures into plays: F i r s t , the concept play was not completely developed at the time of (this work and the writer was unable to obtain enough working know-ledge about plays to f e e l confident i n applying the play catagoriza-tio n s . And, the predominant moves i d e n t i f i e d i n the act u a l ventures did not f i t the play catagorizations suggested by Coombs (thesis Section 2.25). 3.40 Phase I I I : Analysing And Evaluating Actual Teaching Strategies For Goodness-of-fit With Ideal Teaching Strategies. There are three procedures to th i s Phase: c u l l from the in s t r u c t o r ' s course r a t i o n a l e and other a v a i l a b l e sources the i n -struc t o r ' s hoped-for content objectives or teaching goals ( i . e . themes, or conclusions fcr the subject matter) for the selected lectures; use the data from Phase II to analyse and evaluate the l o g i c a l teaching operations employed f or p a r t i c u l a r content objec-t i v e s ; and suggest how (on l o g i c a l grounds) the teaching s t r a t e g i e s a c t u a l l y used might or might not lead to the Instructor's hoped-for content objectives. The r e s u l t s of this Phase are presented i n Chap-ter IV. The i n s t r u c t o r ' s content objectives were obtained from a questionnaire he completed p r i o r to each l e c t u r e . The d e t a i l s of the questionnaire and other information concerning the course and i n s t r u c t i o n are discussed i n Section 3.70 of this Chap-te r . The teaching s t r a t e g i e s used to achieve a p a r t i c u l a r content objective were obtained from transcribed, audio-tapes of. lectures.. The strategies i d e n t i f i e d were subsequently analysed by determining s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between the model moves described by Coombs (1969) and the actual moves performed and by applying the epistemic rules for moves i n conceptual ventures. Analysing the a c t u a l teaching strategies performed i n th i s way, i t i s possible to e s t a b l i s h , on l o g i c a l grounds, the goodness-of-f i t of the actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s to the model or i d e a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s . The match between actual and model teaching s t r a t e g i e s form the basis f o r suggesting"how" the teaching s t r a t e g i e s a c t u a l l y used might or might not lead to the i n s t r u c t o r ' s hoped-for content objectives. For example, i n those cases where the objective i s not attained by a p a r t i c u l a r i d e n t i f i a b l e teaching strategy a comparison between the actual l o g i c a l teaching operations and the i d e a l i z e d l o g i c a l operations, as implied by the content objective f o r the actual teaching strategy, i s performed i n order to f i n d out what l o g i c a l operations were missing or inappropriate. 3.50 Phase IV: Suggesting S p e c i f i c Problems Requiring Further Investigation I Information, such as that obtained in.the example c i t e d f o r Phase I I I on the comparison between an actual teaching strategy and the i d e a l i z e d teaching strategy, i s used to generate questions f o r experi-mental and a n a l y t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 3.60 Data Used To I l l u s t r a t e The Methodology-In order to demonstrate the methodology, examples of u n i -v e r s i t y science teaching have been selected. The l e c t u r e segment of an introductory u n i v e r s i t y physics course (Physics UO at the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1969-1970) forms the data source f o r teaching st r a t e g i e s and goals. The course was designed f o r a heterogeneous population of f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y students not planning to major i n physics (approximately 650 students i n a l l ; Physics Education Eva- luation Project, Interim Report, January 1970, p. 8). The course was divided into separate lecture sections but retained a common l a b o r a -tory experience. Data f o r t h i s study was obtained from two lecture sections, both.taught by the same i n s t r u c t o r . ' The i n s t r u c t o r w i l l i n g l y permitted and encouraged the c o l l e c -t i o n of the data which was used i n this study. To i l l u s t r a t e , he per-mitted unobtrusive audio-taping of h i s lectures and the presence of the wri t e r i n the lectures; he conscientiously completed a question-naire describing h i s teaching goal f o r each l e c t u r e and a c t i v e l y par-t i c i p a t e d i n many discussions with the writer concerning h i s (the i n s -tructor's) teaching goals i n the physics course. Transcripts of a selected set.of lectures from the i n s t r u c t o r ' s course form the data source f o r act u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s . The trans-c r i p t s have been made from audio-tapes which were obtained by recording o f f the pu b l i c address system during l e c t u r e s . A d d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n i n -formation presented i n the lecture on overhead transparencies was obtained but was not us e f u l f o r this study. Teaching goals for the teaching s t r a t e g i e s were obtained from two sources. The i n s t r u c t o r of the physics course prepared a course r a t i o n a l e i n which he gave h i s broad goals f o r the course and some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r these goals (Physics Education Evaluation Project, Interim Report, January 1970, pp. 10-17). The course r a t i o n a l e serves as a means to focus on the i n s t r u c t o r ' s broad teaching goals. The i n s t r u c t o r also completed, p r i o r to each l e c t u r e , an analysis of the objectives for the l e c t u r e , the importance of these objectives to the course and the lec t u r e , and other information about what he intended to do i n the l e c t u r e . Pre-lecture analyses form the data source to pinpoint s p e c i f i c content objectives f o r each l e c t u r e . Appendix D contains an example pf the pre-lecture analysis form used i n the study. From the approximately one hundred and f o r t y lectures pre-sented i n each of two sections of the introductory u n i v e r s i t y physics course, eleven lectures were selected f o r the purposes of the present study. The lecture s represent examples of teaching s t r a t e g i e s f o r each of the eight months of the course,excluding the f i r s t and l a s t month. The lectures selected met three c r i t e r i a : F i r s t , the i n s t r u c t o r had indicated on the pre-lecture analysis form that he planned to teach a concept; second, a record (audiotape, etc.) of the a c t u a l teaching strategies i n the lecture had been made; and t h i r d , the i n s t r u c t o r indicated on the pre-lecture analysis sheet the importance of the concept to the course — l e c t u r e s containing concepts which were moderate'to very important, as rated by the i n s t r u c t o r , were selected. The lectures are the data used i n i l l u s t r a t i n g the method-ology. Table 1 presents the concept terms taught (Concept Name), d i s -t r i b u t i o n of concept ventures over time (Month of Lecture), importance of the concept to the course (General Importance of Concept), the number of moves i n each conceptual venture (Number of Moves i n Venture), and the numerical order i n which the concepts ventures are presented i n Chapter IV. Concept Name Month Venture Performed General Importance Of Concept* Number of Moves i n Venture Venture Number Mass October 5 5 1 Mass October 5 17 2 Law i n Physics November 4 6 3 E l e c t r i c i t y November 2 10 4 Law i n Physics December 3 5 5 Law i n Physics January 4 5 6 E l e c t r i c F i e l d January 5 9 7 Number of F i e l d Lines February 2 4 8 Feedback March 5 6 9 Superposition of Waves March 4 12 10 Nuclear Binding energy March 5 7 11 *A composite score of what the i n s t r u c t o r stated to be important i n the le c t u r e . Scale endpoints are: 5 = very important 1 = minor importance See text f o r further information. CHAPTER IV ILLUSTRATIONS OF PHASES II AND I I I IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY 4.00 Introduction The Chapter i s divided i n t o two major parts corresponding to two phases of development. Part one of the Chapter describes and i l l u s t r a t e s Phase I I , the ch a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of act u a l teaching s t r a t e g -i e s , by applying the t h e o r e t i c a l framework to eight concepts taught i n an introductory u n i v e r s i t y physics course. Phase I II i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the second part of the Chapter. The general approach to analysing and evaluating actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s i s described; then, the analysis and evaluation procedures are described and i l l u s t r a t e d using actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s . 4.10 Characterizations Of Actual Teaching Strategies In the eleven ventures i d e n t i f i e d f o r the study, eight d i f -ferent concepts were taught. The eight concept terms are: "Mass", "Law i n Physics", " E l e c t r i c i t y " , " E l e c t r i c Field",,"Number of F i e l d Lines", "Feedback", "Wave Superposition", and "Nuclear Binding Energy". The concept termed "Mass" was taught i n two ventures while the concept termed "Law i n Physics" was taught i n three separate ventures; the remaining concepts were only taught i n a s i n g l e venture. The possible information contained i n these ventures was characterized into moves according to Smith and co-workers' move categorizations. The possible information about the concept pre-sented i n each venture has been organized i n separate figures f o r ease of disp l a y . Table 2 i s a representation of the possible information about a concept which could be introduced through the various moves. Note f i r s t that the moves have been arranged with respect to the functions they might accomplish i n teaching a concept. Column one of the Figure represents information providing t h e o r e t i c a l or r e l a t i o n a l mean-ing f o r the concept; the second column represents information on experi-i e n t a l reference; and the t h i r d column represents information on the context within which the concept has a p p l i c a t i o n . Secondly, the moves have been organized i n t o information categories according to the kind of information they provide about the concept. For example, below the information category termed "analogy" analogy and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n moves provide information of tl i i s type (move numbers 7 and 8 i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, Thesis Section 2.22). Also note that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and case c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n moves may provide r e l a t i o n a l meaning and/or e x p e r i e n t i a l reference. For instance, one could describe a watch by saying "one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a watch i s that i t i s used to t e l l time." In this type of charac-t e r i s t i c move the person has r e l a t e d the concept term "watch" to the concept term "time". Describing the watch by pointing out that "a watch has two hands which move on a face i n accordance with the ob-Concept: [ ] Venture: [ ] Lecture Date: [ ] FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING A CONCEPT* Provide-theoretical or relational meaning Provide-experiental references Provide-context - force (6) Analogy - analogy (7)+ - differentiation (8) - instance comparison (10) [Classification) • classification I I Characteristic! characteristic (1) case characteri-stic (5) Subclass - subclass (4) - positive instance (11) - negative instance (12) |Characteris tic| - characteristic (1) - case characteri-stic (5) Necessary and Sufficient Condition sufficient condition (2) Appropriate Context contextual definition (9) use (13) meta-dis-* tinction (14) * The teaching function accomplished by a particular move depends to some extent on the background information about the concept provided by the student. To that extent, the positioning of move categories in the table is an attempt by the writer to indicate which functions seem likely to be provided by the move categories. However, to determine the exact location of a move in the table empirical studies need to be performed. + The numbers in parenthesis refer to the type of move as described in Thesis Section 2.22. served motion of the sun" i s an example of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c move providing e x p e r i e n t i a l reference."*" A d i s t i l l a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l information contained i n each venture concerning the concept terms "Mass", "Law i n Physics" and "Wave Superposition", i s displayed i n Tables 3-8. As an a i d to the reader f o r checking how the information displayed i n Tables 3-8 was obtained, the following p r o v i s i o n has been made:. Appendix A contains a trans-c r i p t of the segment-of an a c t u a l lecture i d e n t i f i e d as a conceptual venture ( i . e . , a ctual teaching s t r a t e g i e s ) . Teaching the concept termed "Wave Superposition" has been i d e n t i f i e d as the major teaching goal f o r th i s venture. In Appendix A, the l e t t e r s i n the margin next to parts of the t r a n s c r i p t are for convenience i n cross-referencing with the s p e c i f i c information displayed i n Table 8. The numbers i n parenthesis next to the l e t t e r s represent moves i d e n t i f i e d i n the venture. Concept .Term: "Mass" Venture: 1 Lecture Date: October 1, 1970 FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING THE CONCEPT Provide-theore- Provide-experiential Provide-Context t i c a l . or reference r e l a t i o n a l meaning | Analogy| D.^  - (7) : Mass i s s i m i l a r to weight. | C l a s s i f i c a t i o n | | C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ! |Context| A^ - (.3) : Mass B^ - (5): Appearance E - (9): Mass= i s used i n des- of object i s one Momentum cr i b i n g causes i n d i c a t i o n of amount V e l o c i t y of motion along of mass. and v e l o c i t y with force,,and proportional to acc e l e r a t i o n . B.. - (5): Difference distance and X i n speed between two objects i n motion use-f u l f o r i n d i c a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n mass of therefore mass of object r e l a t e d to distance moved. objects. C 1 - (5): Motion a f t e r c o l l i s i o n slower f o r greater mass. Concept Term: "Mass" Venture: 2 Lecture Date: October 3, 1970 FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING A CONCEPT Provide-theore- Provide-experiential Provide-Context t i c a l or references r e l a t i o n a l meaning C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Characteris t i c | 1 Contextl F 2 - (3): Mass, H 2 - (1): Objects which E 2 - (4): Mass= l i k e force i s are i d e n t i c a l have Force. a concept used the same mass. Ac c e l e r a t i o n i n dynamics, an I„ - (1): Mass of two objects added together K 2 - (9): area of mechanics Mass, Velocity,, i s sum of i n d i v i d u a l 1 — L masses Mass ? "Velocity.. J 2 ~ (5'): Ratio of K 2 - (9): v e l o c i t i e s of objects D i r e c t i o n of given same push i s a Movement a f f e c t s means f o r measuring mass measurement i the r e l a t i v e masses D2 " ( 9 ) : of objects. Mass = L 2 - (5): In measu- Density x Volume. ring r e l a t i v e masses B 2 - (14): by comparing v e l o c i - Give secure f e e l -t i e s objects must both ing by knowing s t a r t from rest.. . where one knows C - (5): Size of object can make a information. G 2 - (14): d i f f e r e n c e i n i t ' s Defining the term mass. "mass" i s not equivalent to the deri v a t i o n of the concept. Concept Term: "Mass (continued) Venture: 2 Lecture Date: October 3, 1970 FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING A CONCEPT Provide theore- Pr ov i d e -exp er lent i a 1 Provide Context t i c a l or references r e l a t i o n a l meaning C - (5): Distance object thrown can be G 2 - (14): Look fo r d e f i n i t i o n used as measure of mass which describes of object by consider- s i t u a t i o n most ing distance proport- simply. i o n a l to speed and A 2 - (13): making comaprison Applies to mat-between objects when e r i a l objects. given same push (momentum of each). Concept Term: "Law i n Physics" Venture: 3 Lecture Date: November 18, 1970 FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING THE CONCEPT Provi d e - t h e o r e t i c a l or r e l a t i o n a l meaning Provide-experiential reference Provide-Context Analogy B 1 - (8): Law i s used d i f f e r e n t l y i n society and physics a. s o c i e t a l law could be d i f f e r e n t b. law i n society i s a convention c. law i n physics independent of what humans do d. law i n physics holds whether or not humans i n t e r -f ere. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c E 1 - (5) Law describes structure i n nature. C x - (5): Objects obey c e r t a i n structure i n t h e i r behaviour. Subclass T>1 - (11) : Kepler's Laws are an example of Laws i n Physics C h a r a c t e r i s t i c F]_ - (5): S c i e n t i s t s believe i n general v a l i d i t y of a law. Context A 1 - (6): Law i s of main im-portance i n physics. Concept Term: "Law i n Physics" Venture: 5 Lecture Date: December 2, 1970 FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING THE CONCEPT Provide-theoretieal or r e l a t i o n a l meaning Provide-experiential reference Provide-Context |Characteristic| ( C h a r a c t e r i s t i c | Context E 2 - (1): Probe law by looking f o r cases which do not obey the law. A 2 - (1): Experience shows nature behaves that way. B 2 - (1): Nature's behaviour not a choice of observer. C^ - (1): Law stated so that only one contradictory experi-ence-is needed to d i s -prove i t . D 2 - (14): Exception proves a r u l e but proving a c t u a l l y means probing. Concept Term: "Law i n Physics" Venture: 6 Lecture Date: January 7, 1970 FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING THE CONCEPT Provid e - t h e o r e t i c a l or r e l a t i o n a l mean-ing Provide-experiential reference Provide Context Analogy C 3 - (8) D i f f e r e n t -iation-' between d e f i n i -t i o n and law. a. d e f i n i t i o n i s j u s t name, no observation needed. b. a r b i t r a r y statement l i k e person's f i r s t name. E - (8): Law can be disproved but d e f i n i t i o n cannot be proved. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c A 3 - (1) Nature behaves that way. A 3 - (1): Structure found i n nature. jCharacteris tic~] B 3 - (1) Single contradictory experience or experiment disproves general v a l i d i t y of the law. D^ - (1): Same as B (1) Concept Term: "Wave Superposition" Venture: 10 Lecture Date: March 3, 1970 FUNCTIONS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TEACHING THE CONCEPT Provi d e - t h e o r e t i c a l Provide-experiential Provide-Context or r e l a t i o n a l reference meaning |Subclass| B - (11): Standing waves are example of wave super-p o s i t i o n C - (11): This point-ing to example i s a standing wave. Characteris t i c | | C h a r a c t e r i s t i c |Context| ' E - (1): When A - (5): Waves I - (13): For two waves pass deflected back mechanical waves same point at and returning along superposition only same time a l - same path w i l l super- applies to small ways superimpose impose with waves amplitude waves; L - (5): Where s t i l l on path. applies f o r a l l waves super- F - (5): Waves electro-magnetic impose there i s t r a v e l l i n g opposite waves. point does not d i r e c t i o n along same move c a l l e d node. surface w i l l add up when meeting. G - (5): Cancelling out i s a type of adding up. H - (5): Resulting wave pattern when waves meet i s add i t i o n wave pattern of one wave and that of another. J - (5): Combining amplitudes i s means of adding up. An analysis of information introduced i n a teaching s t r a -tegy concerned with a concept y i e l d s "rules governing one's use of the concept term and one's behaviour with respect to including or ex-cluding things from the class designated by the term" (Coombs, .1969, p . l ) . The rule-formulations ( i . e . statement of the rule) e l i c i t e d from the information introduced by the moves i n an actual conceptual venture. From the viewpoint of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework the " i n -tended product" of concept teaching i s a complete set of rule-formu-l a t i o n s f o r each concept taught. The analysis procedure, then, involves deducing rule-formu-l a t i o n s which are the " p o t e n t i a l product" of an actual teaching strategy and deducing the rule-formulations c o n s t i t u t i n g the' "intended product" through analysis of the corresponding model conceptual venture, or i d e a l teaching strategy. In the subsequent evaluation procedure the "intended product" i s compared with the " p o t e n t i a l product" and sug-gestions made f o r improving the match between them. Subsection 4.21 i l l u s t r a t e s an analysis procedure r e s u l t i n g i n an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the " p o t e n t i a l product". Subsection 4.22 i l l u s t r a t e s a procedure f o r obtaining the "intended product". Sub-section 4.23 i l l u s t r a t e s the matching step i n the evaluation procedure. F i n a l l y , subsection 4.24 indicates some suggestions f o r improving the match between i d e a l and actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s . 4.21 Analysis Procedure Y i e l d i n g A " P o t e n t i a l Product" From An Actual Teaching Strategy. An epistemic r u l e has been formulated to serve as a guide for e l i c i t i n g the rule-formulations of a concept from the information presented i n act u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s . The epistemic rule i s : The-statement of each rule used i n the de s c r i p t i o n of a concept must be such that the rule accurately r e f l e c t s the meaning and implications about the context of the concept term i n f e r r e d from informa-t i o n i n a venture. The epistemic r u l e i s used to determine i f information pre-sented by the i n s t r u c t o r i n a venture has been interpreted c o r r e c t l y i n the analysis procedure. The test f o r correctness of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s whether the d e s c r i p t i o n of a concept deduced from the venture i s accurately displayed i n the form of "a set of rules governing the use of the [concept] term" and "determining what things do or do not be-long i n a given c l a s s " ( D e f i n i t i o n of a Concept, Coombs, 1969, p. 1) . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the analysis procedure consider the following d e s c r i p t i o n of the concept c a l l e d "Wave Superposition". Information presented i n the form of moves i n the venture concerned with "Wave Superposition" was characterized i n Phase II into three categories according to "the function to be accomplished i n teaching a concept": Providing r e l a t i o n a l meaning, providing e x p e r i e n t i a l reference, and providing context. The displayed information, Table 7, i s analysed by extracting key phrases or ideas which help to des-cri b e or define the concept. For instance, the information; " f o r mechanical waves superposition only applies to small amplitude waves; applies for a l l electro-magnetic waves" suggests ideas f o r formulating a r u l e to di s t i n g u i s h what things do or do not belong to the class designated by the term "Wave Superposition". One formulation of the r u l e might be: "The class of things having the property . 'Wave Super-p o s i t i o n ' should be l i m i t e d to small-amplitude mechanical waves and a l l electro-magnetic waves." Another formulation of the same r u l e might be: "Mechanical waves other than those having small amplitudes are not to be placed i h the clas s of things which have the property *Wave Superposition' but the term applies to a l l electro-magnetic waves." The epistemic r u l e i s brought to bear on these rule-formu-l a t i o n s by suggesting a further search for meanings and implications not already present i n the r u l e , which could be i n f e r r e d from the information given. Since the two rule-formulations stated above, accurately r e f l e c t , as f a r as can be ascertained from the information given, the meaning and implications of the concept term "Wave Super-p o s i t i o n " i n the context given they constitute a " p o t e n t i a l product" of at le a s t this..: part of the venture. Rule-formulations f o r the eight concepts contained i n the selected ventures are presented i n Table 9. The f i r s t column indicates the concept term. The second column indicates the teaching function accomplished i f the rule-formulation i s the product of teaching the con-. Concept Term Function Provided i n Teaching Concept Coded Section of Venture .Rule-Formulations * Mass E.R. (E x p e r i e n t i a l reference) R.M. (Relational Meaning) E.R. Cont. (Context) B l > H 2 H l > F 2 J 2 ' L 2 ' E2> °2 (1) The appea-rance of an object can be used to give an induction of i t s mass. (2) The term mass i s used only when speaking about causes of motion (dynamics). (3) The measurement of an object's i n e r t i a l mass can be per-formed by comparing the v e l o c i t y of one object r e l a t -ive to another when both are started from re s t with i d e n t i c a l push. (4) Mass i s used i n con-junction with other terms l i k e force and density i n order to describe a p a r t i c u l a r property of mat-ter or to explain the motion of matter. Concept Term Function Provided i n Teaching Concept Coded Section of Venture Rule-Formulations Law i n Physics (1) The term "law" i s applied to a d e s c r i p t i o n of a structure found i n nature. R.M. + E.R. A 2 -(2) A law i s not an a r b i t -rary choice of an observer, but a d e s c r i p t i o n based on e x p e r i -ence. " R.M. + E.R. C2' E 2 ' B3 (3) A law must be stated so that a s i n g l e contradictory experience or experiment disproves the general v a l i d i t y of the law. E.R. F l (4) In the s t a t e -ment of a law there i s i m p l i c i t the assumption or b e l i e f i n i t s general v a l i d i t y . (5) To check the v a l i d i t y of a law, s c i e n t i s t s probe the law by looking f o r cases which do not obey i t . Concept Term Function Provided i n Teaching Concept Coded Section of Venture Rule-Formulations Superposition of Waves R.M. A (1) The term should be applied to the meeting of two waves t r a v e l l i n g along the same path but i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s . E.R. E (2) When two waves pass the same point at the same time the concept term a p p l i e s . E.R. F,G,H,J (3) Adding the amplitude of two waves i s c a l l e d super-p o s i t i o n of waves. E.R. F,G,H,J (4) When two waves super-impose they are i n the class of things to which the term wave superposition may be applied. Cont. I (5) The term only applies to small amp-l i t u d e mechani-c a l waves but the term applies to a l l e l e c t r o -magnetic waves. Concept Function Coded Section Rule-Term Providing i n Teach-ing Concept of Venture Formulations Superposition R.M. L (6) I f waves of Waves superimpose, (continued) at l e a s t one point along the wave w i l l not move: This point i s c a l l e d a node. *Based on a pooling of information i n the ventures involving the concept terms "mass" and "Law i n Physics",.respectively. cept. The t h i r d column contains l e t t e r s representing the s e c t i o n of the venture shown i n Tables 3 - 8 which formed the information used to deduce the rules f o r each concept taught. For the concept termed "Wave Superposition"; f o r example, the l e t t e r s represent the section of the venture from which information about the concept was abstracted, con-densed and presented i n Table 8. The l e t t e r s f o r this concept are also indicated next to sections of the a c t u a l t r a n s c r i p t shown i n Appendix A. The l a s t column contains the rules formulated f o r the con-cepts as deduced from information contained i n the ventures. 4.22 Analysis Procedure Y i e l d i n g an "Intended Product" From An Ideal Teaching Strategy. The overarching content objective f o r a conceptual venture i s the d i s c l o s i n g of conditions or c r i t e r i a governing the use of the term (Smith et a l , 1967, p. 294). For a model conceptual venture ( i d e a l teaching strategy concerning concepts) according to the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a or conditions must be disclosed to warrant the use of the concept term. The epistemic rules suggested by Coombs (1969, p. 1; also Thesis Section 2.25) serve as a guide i n developing c r i t e r i a . Such a set of c r i t e r i a are the " i n -tended product" of an i d e a l teaching strategy. In the form of rules governing the use of the term they are comparable to the rule-formula-tions r e s u l t i n g from an analysis of actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s . In summary, then, this subsection presents a procedure which can be used to y i e l d intended rule-formulations from i d e a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s that meet the epistemic rules suggested by Coombs. The theoretically possible information about a concept which could be introduced through moves in a.conceptual venture has been displayed in Table 2. The kind of information each move can provide in teaching a concept is the starting point for pr-oposing i n -tended rule-formulations for the conceptual venture carried out by the instructor. Note, however, that the concern i s with information at the level of abstraction identified by the instructor and the textbook for the course as suitable for first-year university physics students. Information for this purpose was obtained from first-year physics textbooks, the actual teaching strategies, statements of the instructor's intended goals (i.e. Appendix D, the Pre-lecture Analysis Form), and other members of the Physics Faculty involved in under-graduate physics courses. The resulting information is then classified into moves and the moves characterized according to the teaching func-tions which could be accomplished in teaching the concept. The characterized information is used to formulate "rules governing the use of the term...". Each rule-formulation is checked for correctness by applying the epistemic rule described in Thesis Section 4.21. The set of rule-formulations obtained in this way i s checked for completeness by applying the epistemic rules described in Thesis Section 2.25. The "intended product" then, i s a set of rule-formulations or c r i t e r i a sufficient to warrant use of the concept term. As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the procedures the concept termed "Wave Superposition" has been selected. Table 8 presents information obtained from characterizing the actual teaching strategy for this con-cept. Rule-formulations of the concept were deduced from the information and are presented i n Table 9. The rule-formations obtained i n this way constitute a possible subset of the i d e a l set of rule-formulations f o r the concept term — the "intended pro-duct" of teaching the concept. A d d i t i o n a l rule-formulations are now sought .in order to have a set of c r i t e r i a s u f f i c i e n t f o r using the concept term. We seek to formulate necessary or t y p i c a l rules which are s u f f i c i e n t to allow a p p l i c a t i o n of the term i n a a l l s i t u a t i o n s to which i t i s t y p i c a l l y applied i n f i r s t - y e a r u n i v e r s i t y physics course and rules which eliminate a p p l i c a t i o n of the term i n a l l cases not appropriate to th i s school l e v e l . For example, Orear (1967, p. 242) indicates that when a s i n g l e wave pulse i s set i h motion from one end of a taut s t r i n g and simultaneously a s i n g l e wave pulse i s started at the other end, "the two pulses w i l l cross through each other and continue to proceed i n t h e i r own d i r e c t i o n s , " unchanged i n shape and v e l o c i t y . The a d d i t i o n a l information i s that the waves continue a f t e r crossing as i f unaffected i n the crossing event. Orear points to this occurance as the charac-t e r i s t i c of "Wave Superposition" ("consequence of the P r i n c i p l e of Superposition", i n Orear's terms, 1967, p. 242). Since the information provides a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of the concept that i s p o t e n t i a l l y observable by students, the information could be characterized f o r teaching purposes, as providing e x p e r i e n t i a l reference. A rule-formulation deduced from the information could be: Superposition of waves does not a f f e c t the i n i t i a l form of •" , Another rule-formulation concerning wave superposition could be deduced from information supplied by M i l l e r (1967). M i l l e r s p e c i f i e s an important contextual l i m i t a t i o n i s applying the term "Wave Superposition". To use M i l l e r ' s (1967, p. 217) words, there i s "a d e f i n i t e assumption about a medium when we involve the super-p o s i t i o n p r i n c i p l e of waves.of some sor t i n a medium." An example of'such an assumption i s the i d e a l i z a t i o n that f o r pulses on a c o i l spring, the c o i l spring must be p e r f e c t l y f l e x i b l e , have no i n t e r n a l resistance, and be kept i n a vacuum. In the actual teaching strategy the information concerning large amplitude mechanical waves does not seem to imply the same necessary rule-formulation. Not enough i n -formation was given about why the p r i n c i p l e applies only to small amplitude mechanical waves. The rule-formulation deducible from combining M i l l e r ' s information and that presented i n Table 8 i s : The term wave superposition can be used i n discussing a l l electromagnetic waves, and i t can be used i n discussing mechanical waves of small amplitude i n which case deviations from i d e a l conditions of the med-ium are,or can be considered to be n e g l i g i b l e . The epistemic rules i n Thesis Section 2.25 are applied to the rule-formulations presented i n Table 9 i n combination with the two a d d i t i o n a l rule formulations stated above, by ascertaining whether the rules as formulated are s u f f i c i e n t to warrant using the term "Wave Superposition". Examination of t y p i c a l cases to which the term i s applied in the two first-year university physics texts mentioned above, and the transcript of the venture for the concept, reveals that the term is only applied to ideal cases — idealized springs, strings, liquid surfaces — and electromagnetic fi e l d s , and not to situations that oceanographers or engineers, for example, have to deal with. The rule-formulation given above allows application of the term "Wave Superposition" to typical cases and rules out ap-plication to atypical situations with significant deviations from idealized conditions such as waves along real springs, real strings held loosely, and real liquid surfaces. The rule formulated above, therefore, can be considered part of the "intended product" of the ideal teaching strategy for the concept called "Wave Superposition". The "intended product" for the ideal teaching strategy of each concept can be formulated by the procedure indicated. In Table 10, column 1, contains the concept term; column 2 presents the source of the additional information; and column 3 contains a summary of the information needed in addition to that presented in Tables 3 - 8 . The rule formulated from the additional information, teaching function to be accomplished by using the i n -formation, and a tentative move category are presented in columns 4 to 6 of Table 10, respectively. The rule-formulations given in Table 9 combined with those given in Table 10 represent the "intended product" of ideal teaching strategies of each concept described. The complete set of rule-formulations for each concept — the "intended product" — is presented TABLE 10. Additional Rule-Formulations Derived From Information Other Than Actual Teaching Strategies. Concept Term (1) Source of Information " (2) Additional Information (3) Rule-Formulations (4) Function i n Teaching (5) Move Cate-gory (6) 1. Mass M i l l e r , (1967 P ; 70) There are d i f -ferent types of mass depen-ding on what property of matter i s being consid-ered. Mass i s a general term des-c r i b i n g a property of matter. E.R.* 4 M i l l e r , (1967, p. 70) and Orear, (1967, p. 55). Examples of types of mass are: i n e r t i a l , g r a v i t a t i o n a l , r e l a t i v i s t i c , and rest mass. Terms s p e c i -f y i n g the type of mass ana-lysed are prefixed i n to the term mass. These are i n e r t -i a l , g r a v i -t a t i o n a l , r e l a t i v i -s t i c , and res t mass. E.R. 11 Concept Source of Additional Rule- Function Move Term Information Information Formulations i n Cate-Teaching gory (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 2. Law i n Kuhn, (1962), Sc i e n t i s t s Laws are E.R. 5 Physics Thesis Section use laws to used by 2.11. solve scien- s c i e n t i -t i f i c puz- sts to zles . solve s c i e n -t i f i c puzzles. 3. Wave Orear, (1967 Two pulses Super- E.R. 1 Super- p. 242). cross thro- p o s i t i o n or .position ugh each of waves 5 other and does not continue to a f f e c t proceed i n the own d i r e c - i n i t i a l t ion un- shape changed i n and shape and- v e l o c i t y v e l o c i t y . of the waves. Concept Source of Additional Rule- Function Move Term Information Information Formulations i n Cate-Teaching gory (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 3. Wave M i l l e r , Important The term Cont. 13 Super- (1967, assumption wave super-p o s i t i o n p. 217). about a p o s i t i o n can (continued) medium are be used i n made when discussing invoking the a l l e l e c t r o -superposition magnetic-; p r i n c i p l e waves, and for waves. i t can be used i n discussing mechanical waves of small amp-li t u d e i n which devia-tions from i d e a l con-diti o n s of the medium are n e g l i g i -b l e . * These abbreviations are explained i n Table 3 Refers to move categories described i n Thesis Section 2.22 4.23 Evaluation Procedure Matching rule-formulations'of the " p o t e n t i a l product" to rule-formulations of the "intended product" i n order to i d e n t i f y missing, ambiguous, incomplete or redundant rules i n the former, i s the f i r s t step i n the evaluation procedure. The second step i s to specify a move or moves which should be performed i n order to pro-duce the missing r u l e s . Choosing a move may be f a c i l i t a t e d by consider-ing the nature of the teaching function to be provided ( i . e . Table 2). Finally,-model moves are suggested which could be performed i n order to meet the function proposed. to i l l u s t r a t e the steps i n the procedure. Table 9 contains the set of rule-formulations comprising the " p o t e n t i a l product" and Table 11 contains a set of rule-formulations comprising the "intended product" fo r i l l u s t r a t i o n purposes. Again, the concept c a l l e d "Wave Superposition" w i l l be used The rule formulations i n Table 9 and Table 11 are compared. II Table 9 P o t e n t i a l Product Rule Formulations II II Table 11 Intended Product" Rule Formulations Rule 1 Rule 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ^ Rule-Formulations f o r Ideal Teaching Strategies Concept Name Rule-Formulations Mass (1) The appearance of an object can be used to give an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s mass. (2) The term mass i s used when speaking about causes of motion (dynamics). (3) The measurement of an object's • i n e r t i a l mass can be performed by comparing the v e l o c i t y of one object r e l a t i v e to another when both are started from rest with an i d e n t i c a l push. (4) Mass i s used i n conjunction with other terms l i k e force and density i n order to describe a p a r t i c u l a r property of matter, or to explain the motion of matter. (5) Mass i s a general term describing a property of matter. (6) Terms spe c i f y i n g the type of mass are placed i n fr o n t of the term mass. These are: i n e r t i a l , g r a v i t a t i o n a l , r e l a t i v i s t i c and r e s t . Law i n Physics (1) The term i s applied to a d e s c r i p t i o n of a structure found i n nature. (2) A law i s not an a r b i t r a r y choice of an observer, but a d e s c r i p t i o n based on experience. (3) A law must be stated so that a s i n g l e contradictory experience or experiment d i s -proves the general v a l i d i t y of the law. (4) In the statement of a law there i s i m p l i c i t the assumption or b e l i e f i n i t s general v a l i d i t y . Concept Name R u l e - F o r m u l a t i o n s Law i n P h y s i c s (5) To check t h e v a l i d i t y of a law s c i e n t i s t s ( c o n t i n u e d ) p r o be t h e law l o o k i n g f o r c a s e s w h i c h do n o t obey i t . (6) Laws a r e used by s c i e n t i s t s t o s o l v e s c i e n t i f i c p u z z l e s . Wave S u p e r p o s i t i o n (1) The term s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e m e e t i n g of two waves t r a v e l l i n g a l o n g the same p a t h : b u t i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s . (2) When two waves pass t h e same p o i n t a t same ti m e t h e co n c e p t term a p p l i e s . (3) A d d i n g up of two waves c r o s s i n g i s c a l l e d s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f waves. (4) When two waves superimpose t h e y a r e i n the c l a s s of t h i n g s t o w h i c h t h e term a p p l i e s . (5) The term o n l y a p p l i e s t o s m a l l a m p l i t u d e m e c h a n i c a l waves b u t a p p l i e s t o a l l e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves. (6) I f waves superimpose a t l e a s t one p o i n t a l o n g t h e wave w i l l n o t move. That p o i n t i s c a l l e d a node.-(7) S u p e r p o s i t i o n o f waves does n o t a f f e c t t he i n i t i a l shape and v e l o c i t y o f t h e waves. (8) The term wave s u p e r p o s i t i o n can be used i n d i s c u s s i n g a l l e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves, and i t can be used i n d i s c u s s i n g m e c h a n i c a l waves o f s m a l l a m p l i t u d e i n w h i c h case d e v i a t i o n s f r o m i d e a l c o n d i t i o n o f the medium a r e n e g l i g i b l e . I t i s evident that rules 7 and 8 i n Table 11 are not present i n Table 9. However, rules 5 and 8 (Table 11) describe s i m i l a r features of the concept ( r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r the type of wave one may use with the concept term), but rule 5 i s not as complete as rule 8. The next step i s to speci f y p a r t i c u l a r moves based on teaching experience which when performed would present the information needed to deduce the missing r u l e s . For instance, i n Table 10, column 5 contains suggestions f o r providing information which should r e s u l t i n producing the missing r u l e s . For r u l e 7 as suggested i n Table 10, the r u l e might be deduced by moves containing information which provides e x p e r i e n t i a l reference (E.R.). For ru l e 8 providing context (Cont.) might be the appropriate teaching function accomplished. The p a r t i c u l a r type of move which could serve the teaching function i s indicated i n the same Table (column 6). For rule 7 e i t h e r a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c move (1) or a case c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n move (5) would be appropriate. For r u l e 8 a usage move (13) could accomplish the teaching function. The same procedure can be applied to the concept terms "Mass" and "Law i n Physics". 4.24 Suggestions - For Improving The Match Between Actual Teaching Strategies And Ideal Teaching Strategies. The suggested move types (Table 10, column 6) can be used as a guide f o r suggesting new teaching a c t i v i t i e s which should be added to the actual teaching strategy; or, these move categories can be used as a guide f o r suggesting modifications to e x i s t i n g teaching a c t i v i t i e s which already had been c l a s s i f i e d as a p a r t i c u l a r move. Both suggestions could serve to improve the a c t u a l teaching strategies by bringing them more i n l i n e with the i d e a l . The act u a l teaching strategies for.teaching the concept "Wave Superposition" evaluated and discussed i n Thesis Section 4.23 w i l l serve as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of ways to use the developed methodology f o r improving teaching. The actual teaching strategy for "Wave Superposition"could be modified s l i g h t l y i n order to integrate into i t the information need-ed to deduce the two a d d i t i o n a l rule-formulations (Table 10). The information concerning wave independence (Table 11, column 3) could be integrated with coded s e c t i o n F of the act u a l lecture t r a n s c r i p t (Ap-pendix A). Since this s e c t i o n was catalogued as a case c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n move, a phrase i n d i c a t i n g the independent nature of the crossing waves i n the case c i t e d would be s u f f i c i e n t . Another way of introducing the same information would be i n the form of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c move placed between coded sections E and F (Appendix A). The move might be stated i n the same words used i n the rule-formulation. For the information concerning the nature of the medium, the "usage move" presenting i n -formation about mechanical and electromagnetic waves (Section 1^13, Appendix A) might be expanded to include the information on medium. For example, the ru l e concerning transmitting medium could be deduced from the phrase: "A large amplitude wave would be one which permanently deformed the medium through which the wave t r a v e l l e d — l i k e — shock waves breaking a c r y s t a l glass". These modifications to the teaching strategy concerning "Wave Superposition" are only examples of possible ways of improving the match between actual and i d e a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s . The s p e c i f i c teaching strategy proposed (including the suggested additions) should be l o g i -c a l l y sound and would require an experimental v e r i f i c a t i o n of the effectiveness of the strategy for meeting s p e c i f i e d teaching goals. An i n s t r u c t o r ' s task would involve determining which rule-formulation he can assume the students already have and which rule-formulations \ the students must deduce from information introduced i n the teaching strategy. In this way, he could decide how to organize h i s teaching i n order to maximize the c l a r i t y and p r e c i s i o n of the " p o t e n t i a l pro-duct". 4.30 Summary The Chapter contains i l l u s t r a t i o n s of Phase II and I I I i n the developing methodology. For Phase II the ch a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s e n t a i l s the following procedures: categorizing a conceptual venture i n t o movas, organizing the information i n the moves with respect to the functions they accomplish i n teaching the concept and displaying the organized information i n summary form (Table 2). Phase III requires four procedures. In the analysis of teaching s t r a t e -gies,' two procedures are involved; deducing rule-formulations describing a concept which are the " p o t e n t i a l product" of an act u a l teaching strategy and deducing rule-formulations from-other sources which when integrated with the " p o t e n t i a l product" are the "intended product" of an i d e a l teaching strategy f o r the same concept. In the evaluation procedure of the Phase the "intended product" and the " p o t e n t i a l product" are matched. In the final procedures of Phase III a specific teaching strategy is suggested for the analysed concept.' "It could be argued that both characteristic moves relate the concept to another concept (i.e., "Watch" to "Time" and "Watch"to "Sun movements"). However, a distinguishing feature is that "Time" as a.;concept only has abstract referents while the referent of the concept termed "Sun movements" is an observable event. Put another way, describing a concept by relating i t to another concept having an observable referent (i.e., one that could be in the person's experience) is a way of providing experiental reference for the former concept. CHAPTER V THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL PROBLEMS FOR FURTHER STUDY 5.00 Introduction A r i s i n g from the study are a number of problems ranging from questions about theory to questions about classroom p r a c t i c e , deserving further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The problems were delineated i n Phase IV of the study and are displayed i n the present Chapter. The d i f f i c u l t i e s are viewed as ranging along a hypothetical continuum from t h e o r e t i c a l problems at one end, to more p r a c t i c a l problems at the other. Since the methodology developed f o r the study i s , to a large extent, a bridge between a t h e o r e t i c a l viewpoint of teaching b u i l t upon the conceptual framework providedljiy Smith and co-workers and some p r a c t i c a l problems i n science education ( s p e c i f i c a l l y concept teaching) the problems i d e n t i f i e d i n the Chapter concern d i f f i c u l t i e s i n connecting the two ends of the hypothetical t h e o r e t i c a l - p r a c t i c a l continuum. For the sake of order and c l a r i t y of presentation the problems are presented s t a r t -ing with the t h e o r e t i c a l and proceeding to the p r a c t i c a l . 5.10 The Th e o r e t i c a l Framework — Problems Concerning Plays As mentioned i n a preceding section, the i n i t i a l intent of the study was to use both the move and play categories f o r characterizing a c t u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s . However, major d i f f i c u l t i e s arose concerning plays and consequently the play aspect of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework was not employed. I t may be of help f o r those wishing to-employ the theore-t i c a l framework to take cognizance of these d i f f i c u l t i e s . The r e a l i -zation that these d i f f i c u l t i e s are present i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of the framework may stimulate a d d i t i o n a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n or even further developmental work on the framework. At the outset of the study i t seemed to the w r i t e r that the play concept was s u f f i c i e n t l y complete to warrant an attempt at u t i l i z -ing the play categorizations. I t became apparent during Phase II of the study, however, that some d i f f i c u l t i e s would have to be resolved f i r s t . According to Coombs, the d e l i n e a t i o n of plays i s s t i l l not complete (Professor J . Coombs, personal communication). The d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n using plays developed from c e r t a i n misconceptions about the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moves, rule-formulations, plays and teaching functions. Moves are distinguished by the d i f f e r e n t sorts of information provided and r u l e -formulations are r e l a t e d to moves i n that the information contained i n each move implies a r u l e . Thus, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moves and r u l e -formulations was seen as a l o g i c a l connection. One misconception was that plays provide information i n addition to the information con-tained i n the constituent moves. Another misconception was that plays, while composed of l o g i c a l l y interconnected moves, were misconstrued as being l o g i c a l l y connected to teaching functions when, i n f a c t , plays should have been seen as being e m p i r i c a l l y connected to them. Accordirig to Coombs (personal communication) plays do not provide information beyond the constituent moves. The concept play has to do with the way i n which one introduces moves. For example, a p a r t i c u l a r play may be more e f f e c t i v e than another i n terms.of teach-ing function, based on empirical f a c t , f o r producing understanding of a concept. Teaching functions are attempts to describe what has been e f f e c t i v e i n producing understanding of the concept. I t may be pos-s i b l e f o r a teaching strategy ( i . e . a pattern of moves and plays) to be complete, i n that a l l necessary information needed to understand the concept has been presented, and yet, not produce an understanding of the concept. Stated another way, the strategy may not f u l f i l l any of the three teaching functions. Thus, the connection between plays and teaching functions i s empirical and not l o g i c a l as was o r i g i n a l l y con-ceived by the w r i t e r . A consequence of these misconceptions was the attempt to use plays for deducing rule-formulations i n a d d i t i o n to those determined from the moves. Another r e s u l t was that the w r i t e r t r i e d to evaluate, on l o g i c a l grounds, which plays should or should not have been performed i n terms of teaching functions. Evaluation of plays i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to teaching functions would require further study of the empirical con-nections, between plays and teaching functions. Since r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h i s kind have not been i d e n t i f i e d as yet, further consideration of plays i n t h i s l i g h t was abandoned as being beyond the scope of the present study. The problem of determining empirical r e l a t i o n s h i p s bet-ween plays and actual learnings i s offered as an important area f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to the t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s with plays as pointed out above, a p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y was encountered i n the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of moves into plays. None of the teaching s t r a t e g i e s ana-lysed seemed to f i t the play categories described by Coombs (Thesis Section 2.25). A considerable number of the moves i d e n t i f i e d i n the ventures were of the "case c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n " type,•and therefore i t was not possible to characterize these moves into plays because no plays employing these moves were i d e n t i f i e d . 5.20 The Theoretical Framework — Problems Concerning Conceptual Ventures The problem with conceptual ventures, as s p e c i f i e d i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, i s that they are too r e s t r i c t i v e . Evaluation of a p a r t i c u l a r case of concept teaching should include a l l the relevant a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by teachers and students as they deal with the content of i n s t r u c t i o n , not j u s t what was said i n classroom discourse. R e c a l l i n g Smith and co-workers' (Smith et a l , 1967, p. 1) de s c r i p t i o n of " s t r a t e g i e s " as "the c o n t r o l of the subject matter of i n s t r u c t i o n " one r e a l i z e s that classroom discourse i s a major means of c o n t r o l l i n g subject matter. However, the framework should be extended to other controls of subject matter ( i . e . , w r i tten material — textbooks) i n order to give a more complete d e s c r i p t i o n of teaching behaviour. I f the t h e o r e t i c a l framework' could be extended to include the written, as well as spoken wordy, utilization of the framework to meet problems of teaching concepts, as taught in the classroom would be enhanced considerably. One way of extending the framework would be to analyse text-books and other written material using the moves for conceptual ventures. Three problems are foreseen; first, the relationship between written and oral activity as they pertain to classifying a conceptual venture would need clarification. Second,. additional move categories for written material might also be required. And third, categorizations of other concrete operations in teaching such as demonstrations, text-book illustrations, and films might also be needed. The result of these extensions of the theoretical framework should be a more complete description of "the behaviour of teachers as they deal with students and the content of instruction" (Smith et al , 1967, p. 3). 5.30 Problems Concerning The Teaching Of Concepts Nuthall in a study involving alternative strategies for teaching conceptsand the resultant learnings, identifies an important problem in concept teaching. Nuthall (1968) points out that i t may be difficult to separate the teaching strategy from the kind of concept being taught. It may well be that each concept to be taught requires its own particular teaching strategy. Analysing teaching strategies with respect to the denotative meaning of a concept (describing the physical features of a referent; Nunnally, 1967, p. 540) was accomplished by Anderson (1968). Anderson described the denotative meaning of concepts i n terms of the "ease-of-pointing" to features of the r e -ferent and the "number of pointings" necessary to describe the con-cept ( i . e . , p o i n t - a t - a b i l i t y of a concept; Anderson, 1968, p. 60). Taking Anderson's approach to the problem of analysing the kinds of concepts to be taught and combining i t with the approach taken i n the present study — as delineated i n Table 2 — may be one way of viewing the d i f f i c u l t y posed by-Nuthalli The following i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of some of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n using the combined approach: Considering the concept termed "Mass", as described by the rule-formulations l i s t e d i n Table 11, one might s t i l l have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n pointing to p a r t i c u l a r instances where the concept term "Mass" could be used. Yet, given an-instance, one could say whether the term "Mass" was used properly i n the instance or not. The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature between the two s i t u a t i o n s i s that f o r the f i r s t s i t u a t i o n one i s asked to "point-at" an instance, while i n the second s i t u a t i o n an instance i s "pointed-out" and one must indi c a t e whether the term "Mass" applies or not. Now, i f the same two s i t u a t i o n s are considered f o r the concept termed "Wave Superposition"'it would appear more l i k e l y that the rule-formulations f o r th i s concept (Table 11) are adequate for one to apply the concept term c o r r e c t l y i n both s i t u a t i o n s . The differ e n c e between the concepts i n these two s i t u a t i o n s l i e s i n t h e i r " p o i n t - a t - a b i l i t y " — the concept termed "Wave Super-p o s i t i o n " seems easier to "point-at" than the concept termed "Mass". The teaching s t r a t e g i e s employed, d i f f e r f o r each concept. Table 12 summarizes the types of moves a c t u a l l y employed f o r each. Note that approximately the same number of moves were involved f or the concepts when the teaching functions were to "provide r e l a t i o n a l meaning" or " e x p e r i e n t i a l reference", and that more than twice the number of moves were used i n providing context for the concept termed "Mass" when compared with "Wave Superposition". Keeping i n mind the " p o i n t - a t - a b i l i t y " , of the two concepts, "Mass" being more d i f f i c u l t to "pointr-at" than "Wave Superposition",•the d i f f e r e n t functions to be accomplished i n teaching these concepts should be considered. To i l l u s t r a t e ; i t may be advisable to provide a d d i t i o n a l context i n teaching concepts d i f f i c u l t to "point-at" (less point-at-able) such as "Mass" than to more point-at-able concepts such as "Wave Superposition". It i s suggested that the problem of devising teaching s t r a t e g i e s f or concept teaching be approached by considering the "functions to be accomplished i n teaching a concept" i n terms of the " p o i n t - a t - a b i l i t y " of a concept. 5.40 Classroom Practice — A Handbook Of Teaching Strategies For Selected Concepts In Science The methodology developed i n t h i s study could be used as a means of proposing s p e c i f i c teaching strategies f or selected important science concepts. A f t e r e m p i r i c a l l y determining preferred teaching s t r a t e g i e s , development could begin on a "Handbook of Teaching Strategies" TABLE 12. Record Of Moves Used In Actual Teaching Strategies Functions To Be Accomplished In Teaching The Concept Concept -Term Provide Relational Meaning Provide E x p e r i e n t i a l Reference Provide Content (Move Number)* 1 3 5 7 8 10 Total Moves (Move Number)* 1 4 5 11 12 Tot a l Moves (M 2 ove Number)* 6 9 13 14 Tot a l Moves Mass 2 1 3 2 | 5 7 4 1 2 7 Law i n Physics 2 1 3 6 5 2 1 8 1 1 2 E l e c t r i c i t y 2 1 3 1 2 3 1 7 -E l e c t r i c F i e l d 2 2 1 3 4 3 3 Number of F i e l d Lines — 2 2 2 2 Feedback 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 Wave•Super-p o s i t i o n 1 1 2 5 2 7 3 v 3 Nuclear Binding Energy 1 1 3 1 A z: 2 Tot a l . . . .3 5 3 2 5 - 18 9 3 25 5 42 - 1 9 ':8 3 21 *As described i n Thesis Section 2.22 for selected science concepts. I t could be possible to incorporate i n the"Handbook" a l l the rule-formulations for a p a r t i c u l a r concept which seem to be necessary i n order for a student at a given l e v e l of school-ing to use the concept c o r r e c t l y . I d e n t i f i e d with the rule-formulations for the concept could be preferred teaching s t r a t e g i e s . In addition, suggested techniques for implementating the s t r a t e g i e s could be included. As an example of a way of using the methodology to begin developing a Handbook, consider the concept termed "Wave Superposition". Assuming that the teaching strategy for this concept as described i n the thesis was the preferred teaching strategy, one might include the following i n the Handbook: The segment of Tabel 11 describing r u l e -formulations for "Wave Superposition"; next to each rule-formulation the d e s c r i p t i o n of a,move which could function to provide the necessary i n -formation f o r deducing the rule; a suggested ordering for the moves; and a proposed format or method presenting each move, i ^ e . , s t r a i g h t l e c t u r e , discussion, demonstration, f i l m , or any mixture of these methods. The contents of the "Handbook" could take the form of Programmed Ins-t r u c t i o n or ass-;a programme i n Computer Aided I n s t r u c t i o n , ,because of an apparent resemblence between the l o g i c a l structure of a computer pro-gram and conceptual ventures i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework. For the u n i v e r s i t y science i n s t r u c t o r the "Handbook" might serve as a "Teach-ing Manual" for teaching those concepts which must be attained i n order for a student to understand a p a r t i c u l a r paradigm. 5.50 Summary The Chapter displays four problems which a r i s e from the study and which deserve further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The problems are viewed as ranging along a hypothetical continuum from t h e o r e t i c a l at one end to p r a c t i c a l at the other. In order of presentation, the problems begin with t h e o r e t i c a l considerations and move toward p r a c t i c e . The problems i d e n t i f i e d were: The d i f f i c u l t i e s of employing the "play" concept of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, a suggested expansion of the conceptual ven-ture idea to include written material with other discourse when analysing a teaching strategy; devising teaching strategies f o r concept teaching by considering the "functions to be accomplished i n teaching a concept" i n terms of the " p o i n t - a t - a b i l i t y " of a concept; and a suggestion f o r employing the methodology as a t o o l i n devising "A Handbook of Teaching Strategies f o r Selected Science Concepts". These four problems describe a range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r i s i n g from the work i n this study. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 6.00 Summary A fundamental assumption of the study i s that teaching i s a goal-directed a c t i v i t y . Viewed from one perspective, the major goal of science teaching i s to display s c i e n t i f i c paradigms. S c i e n t i f i c paradigms constitute what a " s c i e n t i f i c community thinks i t knows" (Kuhn, 1962, p. 139). Science concepts are an important part of s c i e n t i f i c paradigms, and therefore, teaching science concepts becomes an e s s e n t i a l aspect of teaching strategies used to display them. However, the teaching s t r a t e g i e s used to teach science concepts are r a r e l y , i f ever, f i r m l y based on systematized knowledge of teaching. This study has explored the p o s s i b i l i t y of devising a method, based on a t h e o r e t i c a l framework of teaching, which could be used to analyse and evaluate the teaching strategies employed i n science courses to teach science concepts. The goal of the study has been to prepare a method to bridge the gap between t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of teaching and p r a c t i c a l problems i n science teaching. The methodology developed i n the study, was i l l u s t r a t e d by applying i t to act u a l teaching strategies used to teach concepts i n a f i r s t - y e a r u n i v e r s i t y physics course. The development of the methodology required four phases: I d e n t i f y i n g aspects of the t h e o r e t i c a l framework p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r analysing and evaluating the teaching of science concepts; characterizing records of act u a l teaching s t r a t e g i e s ; analysing and evaluating actual teaching strategies f o r goodness-of-fit with i d e a l teaching strategies;.and suggesting s p e c i f i c problems a r i s i n g from the study requiring further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I l l u s t r a t i o n s of each phase were presented and discussed. The t h e o r e t i c a l framework described i n Chapter II i s the r e s u l t of Phase I. The methodology for the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of actual teaching s t r a t e g i e s , developed i n Phase I I , e n t a i l s the following procedures: Categorizing a conceptual venture into moves; organizing the information i n the moves with respect to the functions they accomplish i n teaching the concept; and d i s p l a y i n g the organized information i n summary form (Table 2 ) . The methodology a r t i c u l a t e d further i n Phase III r e s u l t e d i n four a d d i t i o n a l procedures. One procedure has to do with deducing rule-formulations f o r a concept seen as the " p o t e n t i a l product" of an a c t u a l teaching strategy., Another procedure concerns deducing an i d e a l set of rule-formulations as the "intended product" of an i d e a l teaching strategy f o r the same concept. An evaluation procedure was developed i n which the "intended product" and " p o t e n t i a l product" were matched f o r s i m i l a r i t y of information about a p a r t i c u l a r concept. A procedure was developed f o r devising teaching strategies s p e c i f i c f or a p a r t i c u l a r concept, based upon the matching r e s u l t s . In Phase IV, four s p e c i f i c problems a r i s i n g out of the development of the methodology and requiring further study wete i d e n t i f i e d and described. The problems were envisioned as being along a h y p o t h e t i c a l continuum from t h e o r e t i c a l problems at one' end, to p r a c t i c a l problems at the-other. The t h e o r e t i c a l problems had to do with s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s i n using the "play" and "conceptual venture" categorizations. At a somewhat less t h e o r e t i c a l place i n the continuum, s p e c i f i c problems were raised concerning concept teach-ing. At the p r a c t i c a l end of the spectrum a problem of classroom p r a c t i c e was i d e n t i f i e d and a tentative s o l u t i o n suggested i n the form of a "Handbook of Teaching Strategies f o r Selected Science Concepts". 6.10 Conclusions A general conclusion of the study i s that the t h e o r e t i c a l framework used i n the study appears to be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l f o r ana-l y s i n g and evaluating c e r t a i n aspects of classroom teaching. The ven-ture and move categorizations of the framework'proved tractable f o r analysing a c t u a l teaching strategies performed i n a '.lecture-type teaching s i t u a t i o n . D i f f i c u l t y , however, i s l i k e l y to be encountered i f the play categorizations, at the present stage of development, are to be included i n the methodology: It should be emphasized that i d e n t i f y i n g the "intended product" of a teaching strategy i s most d i f f i c u l t . I f the methodology i s employed by a teacher, then h i s personal determination of what he hopes to be the information presented i n teaching would be the source if:dr deducing rule-formulations representing the "intended product". On the other hand, i f a person external to the teaching ( i . e . an evaluator of the course or curriculum designer) were to employ the methodology some c l e a r statement of the necessary and s u f f i c i e n t rule-formulations needed to understand the concept would be required as the "intended product". The rules might be otained by requesting a group of experts i n the subject matter area to indicate what information must be presented, in a teaching strategy or available to the students, for the students at a given level of schooling to understand the concept. Classifying and organizing the information introduced by the various moves of a venture in terms of the functions to be accomplished in teaching a concept, appears useful not only for deducing rule-formulations for the concept embodied in a teaching venture, but also for evaluation purposes by identifying which function probably was not accomplished because appropriate moves were not made, or because the moves made were defective in some way.-Tabulations of the information introduced about a concept in the form of moves made in accomplishing the teaching functions can also be used to suggest teaching strategies that may, on logical grounds, be more effective than others. It was pointed out i n the study, that concepts appear to differ in "point-at-ability" and that i t may be advisable to consider devising teaching strategies with this aspect of concept teaching in mind. In addition, in. cases, for example, where the concepts are hard to define because of d i f f i c u l t y in accomplishing the "experiential reference" function, i t is suggested that additional moves providing "relational meaning" and "contextual information", be included i n the teaching strategy, to be devised. Although the metho-dology developed does not suggest a "best" strategy for any particular concept, a problem for experimental study, i t does suggest at least some considerations for devising teaching strategies for a concept. The results of analysing conceptual ventures as demonstrated in the study are seen as potentially useful information to the teacher. In particular, a display of the rule-formulations for a concept deduced by this procedure, constituting both the "potential product" and the "intended product" of concept teaching is seen as a useful check for the instructor on how congruent his teaching was with his intents. Information about congruency of intents with teaching acts may suggest additional actions which need to be taken for improving teaching per-formance and identifying possible sources of difficulty students may be having in learning a concept. Further experimental study is needed to determine what the effects are on student learning of different kinds of teaching strategies and the degree of accomplishment of the functions of a particular teaching strategy. Although the methodology developed was only applied to concept teaching, i t would appear to be generalizable to other kinds of teach-ing as well. For example, in science teaching there is considerable concern with causal ventures in which cause-effect relations are taught. Concept and causal ventures, along with six other common classroom teach-ing ventures are provided for in the theoretical framework used in the study and should therefore make the methodology applicable in these teaching situations. Finally, within the limitations specified in Chapter I of the study, the methodology developed is seen as providing a possible way of linking an important theoretical.";, view of teaching to class-room practice and, in so doing, providing a basis for future experi-mental investigation. Anderson,,Eugene. 1968. "An Exploratory, Study of the Relationship Between Kinds of Concepts and Teaching St r a t e g i e s " (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , Urbana, I l l i n o i s : U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s ) . Bellack, Arno A.; Herbert M. Kliebard, Robert T. Hyman, and Frank L. Smith, J r . 1966. The Language of the Classroom.'- New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia Un i v e r s i t y . Bleger, T.C., and R.M. Cooper, ( e d i t o r s ) . 1950. The Preparation of  Teachers. Washington, D.C.: American Council of Education, p. 123. Broudy, Harry S. 1965. " C r i t e r i a f o r the Professional Preparation of Teachers". Journal of Teacher Education. 16 (4), 408-415. Coombs, J e r r o l d . 1969. "Teaching Concepts" (Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia: Faculty of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, mimeographed). Easley, John A;, J r . 1967. "Logic and H e u r i s t i c i n Mathematics Curriculum Reform". Problems i n the Philosophy of Mathematics, edited by Imre Lakatos. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishers, pp. 208-241. Faculty of Science Calendar, 1969-1970, University' of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia: Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Flanders, Ned A. 19 70. Analysing Teaching Behaviour. Don M i l l s , Ontario: Addison-Wesley. Gage, N.L. ( e d i t o r ) . 1963. Handbook of Research on Teaching. Chic-ago: Rand McNally. Green, Thomas F. 1968. "A Topplogy.of the Teaching Concept". Concepts of Teaching: P h i l o s o p h i c a l Essays, edited by G.J.B. MacMillan, and Thomas W. Nelson. Chicago: Rand McNally. pp.28-62. Henderson, Kenneth B. 1967. "A Model for Teaching Mathematical Concepts". The Mathematics Teacher.. 60, 513-577. Hyman, Ronald T. ( e d i t o r ) . 1968. Teaching: Vantage Points For Study New York: Hypincott. Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962. The Structure of S c i e n t i f i c Revolutions. Chic-ago: Un i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press. Kuhn, Thomas S. 1963. "The E s s e n t i a l Tension: T r a d i t i o n and I n -novation i n S c i e n t i f i c Research". S c i e n t i f i c C r e a t i v i t y :  Its Recognition and Development, edited by Calvin W. Taylor and Frank Barron. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 341-354. M i l l e r , F r a n k l i n J r . 1967. College Physics. Second e d i t i o n . New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. Nunnally, Jum. C. 1967. Psychometric Theory. Toronto: McGraw-H i l l . Nuthall, Craham. 1968. "An Experimental Comparison of Alternate Strategies for Teaching Concepts". American Educational Research  Journal. 5 (4), 561-584. Orear, Jay.• 1967. Fundamental Physics. Second e d i t i o n . New York: John Wiley & Sons. Perlberg, A., and D.C. O'Bryant. 1968. "The Use of Video Tape Recording and Micro-Teaching Techniques to Improve I n s t r u c t i o n on the Higher Education Level". (Urbana, I l l i n o i s . : Department of General Engineering, College of Engineering, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , mimeographed). Phy s i c a l Science Study Committee. 1965. Physics, Second E d i t i o n . Toronto: Heath, pp. 327-328. Physics Education Evaluation Project. 1970. "Evaluation of Physics Teaching at the F i r s t Year U n i v e r s i t y Level: An Interim Re-port, January 1970". (Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, mimeographed). R o l l , Peter G. 1968. "Introductory Physics Textbooks". Physics  Today. 21 C D , 63-71. Ryan, T.A. 1969. ' "Research:. Guide f o r Teaching Improvement". Improving College and Univ e r s i t y Teaching. 12 (4), 270-276. Smith, B.O. 1961. "A Concept of Teaching". Language and Concepts  i n Education, edited by B.O. Smith and Robert Ennis. Chicago: Rand-McNally. pp. 86-101. Smith, B.O., M. Meux, et a l . 1962.. "A Study of the Logic of Teaching" (Urbana, I l l i n o i s : Bureau of Educational Research, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , mimeographed). Smith, B.O., Mi l t o n Meux, J e r r o l d Coombs, Graham Nuthall and Richard Presians. 1967. "A Study of the Strategies of Teaching" (Urbana, I l l i n o i s : Bureau of Educational Research, Un i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , mimeographed). APPENDICES APPENDIX A Conceptual Venture Presenting the Term "Wave Superposition" could f i n d about the wave length of th i s wave. We could do i t i n the following way. We could have a wave t r a v e l l i n g i n one d i r e c t i o n . The wave w i l l be deflected at the other end — w i l l t r a v e l backwards towards me; and the two waves, the one wave t r a v e l l i n g i n th i s d i r e c t i o n and the other wave t r a v e l l i n g back-wards w i l l then superimpose. B (11) Let's do t h i s , and the pattern I get with a frequency j u s t looks l i k e a wave, but i t doesn't run. It's standing. So this i s what we c a l l a standing wave. C (12) Let's do i t again with a d i f f e r e n t frequency. Let's t r y to make another standing wave. I ' l l take a higher frequency — (pause) — . This i s a standing wave. D (13) Now l e t ' s try to understand how these standing waves come about. To understand this we have the f i r s t — and e s s e n t i a l p r i n c i -p l e . Have to remember...for most of you i t ' s something .you already did i n school.' We have to remember the p r i n c i p l e of superposition of waves. So what we are s e t t i n g out to do i s , we are looking f o r . experimental.proofs of the wave nature of electromagnetic r a d i a t i o n -- (pause) — . E (1) And to do this we w i l l make use of the p r i n c i p l e of super-p o s i t i o n . — (pause) — . We could phrase I t as follows. When two waves pass the same point at.the same time the waves at t h i s point always superimposed• Just l e t ' s write this down l i k e t h i s , and then we w i l l discuss what i t means. — (pause) — . F (5) The meaning of this i s as follows. Let's say we have one wave on t h i s s t r i n g . For instance, the wave I generated by moving my hand. And we have another t r a v e l l i n g along the s t r i n g . In,this case the wave i s t r a v e l l i n g the other d i r e c t i o n along this s t r i n g . And this generated by r e f l e c t i o n of the primary wave at the w a l l . Then, these two waves, add up. This means, f o r instance, i f at th i s point we have a d e f l e c t i o n upwards by the wave coming from this d i r e c t i o n and upwards at the same time...by the way, from t h i s .direction.we-will-:get twice the amplitude,;twice the d e f l e c t i o n i n t h i s point. G (5) Whereas, i f the wave i n this d i r e c t i o n , f o r instance, upwards and the wave coming from the other d i r e c t i o n would be down-wards, then those two, i f they have the same amplitude i n this point, these two would cancel out. In this way the waves superimpose. H (5) So to f i n d the resultant wave pattern simply add up the wave pattern of the one wave and the wave pattern of the other wave and you get the re s u l t a n t wave. Is this clear? That's c a l l e d super-imposed waves. I (13) Now,-I have to add a notice of caution f o r mechanical waves. This only holds f o r small amplitudes. When the amplitudes are large i t doesn't hold any more. But with electromagnetic waves this always holds. J (5) Now, l e t ' s t r y, on these grounds, to understand the stand-ing waves we saw j u s t now. Let's look at t h i s p r i m i t i v e machine I've got here. This i s simply a wire wound around another wire. And when I turn the crank here t h i s looks l i k e a wave moving.- I t ' s rather a shaky machine, but anywa/it works. So t h i s symbolizes a wave t r a v e l l i n g toward the l e f t . Now we have another wire of this kind and t h i s wire i s bent such that the wave i s coming the other way. Now i f we were going to superimpose those two waves, we would j u s t be i n the s i t u a t i o n as we were with the rubber s t r i n g . One wave t r a v e l l i n g i n one d i r e c t i o n , the other wave t r a v e l l i n g the other d i r e c t i o n , and both waves being sine waves. So l e t ' s j u s t look at the s i t u a t i o n point by point, and l e t ' s see how these two waves add up. — (pause) — . I drew a l i n e . Let's assume these two waves are t r a v e l l i n g along the same s t r i n g . So the l i n e , the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the l i n e with this wave are the same point on the s t r i n g a c t u a l l y . We are superimposing those two waves. We have them side by side j u s t to compare. And l e t ' s see what w i l l happen. Now you w i l l see that the wire i n the centre between those j u s t i s bent that way, that i t looks l i k e a superposition of those two waves. At l e a s t i t should. K (13) Now you see at t h i s moment the upper wave and the lower are j u s t ending t h e i r amplitudes and therefore the r e s u l t i s a de-f l e c t i o n of higher amplitude. Now, at this moment both of them are zero or almost counteracting. They are not quite properly bent I see. So they cancel out at this moment. Now both of them have nega-t i v e amplitude. They add up that way that we have a negative de-f l e c t i o n downwards. And so these two waves l e t ' s say here, f o r i n s -tance, .then you w i l l notice that the upper wave and the lower wave which are models f or the wave t r a v e l l i n g on the same s t r i n g are a l -ways opposite, so they w i l l cancel out. The upper wave i s p o s i t i v e now, the lower wave i s negative, c a n c e l l i n g . Both are .zero. The upper i s negative; the lower i s p o s i t i v e ; they.are c a n c e l l i n g out. And therefore the superposition of those.two waves i n this point doesn't give a d e f l e c t i o n . a l l the time. Whereas the superposition of the waves i n this point gives a maximum o s c i l l a t i o n . . And that i s exactly what we saw when we saw the waves on the s t r i n g . I produced a sine wave t r a v e l l i n g the other d i r e c t i o n . They superimpose i n such a way that there are places of maximum o s c i l l a t i o n and that there are places with no o s c i l l a t i o n at a l l . L (5) That's low frequency wave. We have one point which doesn't move at a l l . That's c a l l e d a node. That doesn't move.at a l l . Now l e t ' s take a.higher frequency. I t ' s s t i l l low frequency. Let's damp th i s down f i r s t . Now we have several nodes. Because I produced a since wave t r a v e l l i n g i n d i r e c t i o n towards the wall, and the sine wave was t r a v e l l i n g back and those two were superimposing. APPENDIX B C r i t e r i a f o r I d e n t i f y i n g Ventures 1. The .verbal behaviour occurring during a class period is called the total discourse. 2. An utterance is the complete verbal behaviour of one person at one point in the total discourse. 3. An episode is a unit of discourse involving a werbal exchange between at least two persons and focusing on a single point or item'. It always contains more than one utterance. 4. A venture is a unit of discourse consisting of a set of utterances dealing with a single topic and having one overarching objective. It contains fewer utter-ances than the total discourse. Criteria for Identifying a Venture. 1. The beginning of a venture is identified by one or more of the following: 1.1 An utterance or part of an utterance containing an explicit indication (announcement or pro-posal) , usually by the teacher, that a particular topic is to be considered. Such an announce-ment is usually followed by a question which initiates discussion of the proposed topic or by an invitation to speak on the topic. 1.2 An utterance not explicitly indicating that a particular topic is to be taken up, but con-taining a question or statement that makes a marked change In the course of the discussion. 1.3 An utterance containing a question or statement that initiates a discussion'.characterized by a new overarching objective. 2. Qualifications. 2.1 When a venture includes one or more utterances containing a story, poem, student report, etc., or parts of such works or reports, new ventures may be identified in the subsequent discussion by criteria 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3 a l-though the discussion continues to be about the particular story, poem, etc. 2.2 When a set of utterances concerns a number of mathematical problems, •grammatical exercises or other examples and instances illustrating a single general principle (a rule of usage, a formula, a type of proof), these utterances together with any discussion of the general principle or further discussion of the ins-tances shall count as a single venture. 2.3 When an utterance or set of utterances announces two or more topics to be taken up, the discussion of each topic counts as a venture, provided that each one is discussed independently rather than concurrently, provided that the discussions of the topics together do not form a topic unit having a single overarching objective. Discussions of the "pro" and "con", the "old and "new," and other such bifurcations of the topic shall not count as separate ventures. Exceptions. 3.1 If an utterance contains an explicit indication (announcement.or proposal) that a particular topic is to be considered but another topic is discussed instead of the one announced, the utterance in which the topic is announced does not count as the beginning of a new venture. Such utterances are to be labeled 'misfires' and are not to count as part of any venture. 3.2 An utterance or set of utterances occurring within the discussion of a.topic but wholly unrelated to the topic is not to be counted as the beginning of a new venture. Rather i t is to be marked off from the venture and labelled 'disruption'. 3.3 An utterance or set of utterances containing a statement of the general subject with which class discussion is to be concerned for an entire period or longer, or statements of assignments, school announcements, etc., counts as an orienting statement and is not to be considered as part of any venture. 3.4 An utterance or set of utterances occurring within the discussion of a topic but only loosely ..related to the topic is .to be counted neither as the beginning of a new venture nor as a disruption. It is to be counted rather as part of the venture within which i t occurs. Leaf 104 missing i n page numbering. 4. The end of a venture i s marked, by no s p e c i a l cues. The termination of a venture i s signaled only by the beginning of a new venture or by the occurrence of an orien t i n g statement. 5. The duration of a venture i s l i m i t e d by the following considerations: '5.1 A venture always contains fewer utterances than the t o t a l discourse. 5.2 Ventures generally contain more than one episode. A venture i s only coextensive with an episode i f i t i s not possible to l e g i t i m a t e l y consider the episode as part of the discussion of a more i n c l u s i v e topic having a s i n g l e overarching content objective. The procedural rules governing the use of these c r i t e r i a are as follows: 1. Read the e n t i r e t r a n s c r i p t through without attempting to apply the c r i t e r i a . Get a general idea • of the sorts of topics the lesson i s divided i n t o , the way i n which the teacher groups things f o r the sake of discussion. 2. Read the t r a n s c r i p t through again. This time mark off ventures using a l l the c r i t e r i a except 1.3. I f the t r a n s c r i p t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t i t may be advisable to mark the r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e ven-tures f i r s t and then return to the hard portions. 3. Use c r i t e r i o n 1.3 to correct the markings made i n (2) above. Remember, every venture must have a -single overarching objective. 4. While length i s not a c r i t e r i o n of a venture, length i n excess of three or four pages of t r a n s c r i p t does serve as a warning s i g n a l , i n d i c a t i n g that the s t a r t of a new venture may have been missed. APPENDIX C C r i t e r i a and Instructions f o r C l a s s i f y i n g Ventures 1. A venture i s a unit of discourse consisting of a set of utterances dealing with a sing l e topic and having a primary cognitive meaning. 2. The cognitive meaning of a venture i s the sense or import of the venture taken as a whole.. A venture t y p i c a l l y contains one or more submeanings or points which contribute to or make up the venture's primary meaning, and i n some cases i t contains i r r e l e v a n t or peripheral materials. These sub^-points and perip h e r a l materials are to be distinguished from the venture's primary cognitive import. 2.1 The cognitive meaning of a venture i s not to be confused with the purpose or objective of the teacher. Nor i s i t to be mistaken for e i t h e r the outcome of i n s t r u c t i o n or student learning. The cognitive meaning of a venture i s derived from the discourse that makes up the venture and not from e f f o r t s to divine the int e n t or purpose of the teacher or the e f f e c t s of the venture upon students. Conceptual Venture 1. The primary cognitive import of this type of venture i s that of disclosing, the conditions or c r i t e r i a governing the use of a.term. . A term may be a sin g l e word such as "imperialism" or an expression of two or more words such as " c o e f f i c i e n t of ex-pansion". A conceptual venture may be i d e n t i f i e d by one or more of the following, c r i t e r i a : 2.1 An X i s mentioned and the class discussion i s pri m a r i l y directed to such questions as: What i s X? What does X mean? What do we mean by X? How can we t e l l when something i s an X? 2.2 Something i s named or referred to, -and the class discussion i s mainly devoted to describing i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , functions, uses, or parts. 2.3 Something i s named or ref e r r e d to, and the class discussion i s p r i m a r i l y devoted to men-tioning or considering examples of i t . INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLASSIFYING VENTURES Each venture can be c l a s s i f i e d by i t s cognitive objective i n t o one of the following categories: causal, conceptual, evaluative, p a r t i c u l a r , i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , procedural, reason, and r u l e ventures. Read the en t i r e venture f o r the sense of i t as a whole. Then read i t again and try to formulate the question with which the venture deals: For example, does i t deal with the cause of something? Does i t attempt to get at the reasons f o r an act, decision, or whatever?. By using the c r i t e r i a given f o r each categoryi c l a s s i f y the venture i n t o the category which i t f i t s best. No venture may have more than one objective. I f a venture i s very d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y , put i t aside. When the easier cases have been grouped, return to the more d i f -f i c u l t ones. In some cases i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l whether a venture belongs In the reason or i n the r u l e category. Where there are a number of s p e c i f i c decisions or.actions f a l l i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r category and a l l regulated by the same r u l e or j u s t i f i e d by the same reason (e.g., students are asked to decide which words i n a number of sentences are verbs),.the venture i s to be ca l l e d . a rule venture. If the s p e c i f i c d ecision or acti o n i s j u s t i f i a b l e by d i f f e r e n t reasons.(e.g., students are asked why Mr. X went in t o the house), the venture i s to be c l a s s i f i e d as a reason venture. I t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to decide.whether or not to put a venture i n the evaluative category, although i t contains a number of value judgments about d i f f e r e n t objects, ideas, etc. As a r u l e , when a venture centres i n the evaluation of a si n g l e object^ event,'and the l i k e , . i t fe to be classed i n the evaluative category. I f the venture contains a number of evaluations about a number of d i f f e r e n t . o b j e c t s , events, reasons,.and so f o r t h , along with other materials, i t does not belong among the evaluative ventures. Particular, ventures are sometimes d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h from other sorts of ventures because a l l . ventures are i n -formative, and many provide information.about p a r t i c u l a r objects or persons or e n t i t i e s . However, when information i s given concerning the c l a s s i f i c a t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an object or e n t i t y , and when information i s given i n r e s -ponse to some dominant l o g i c a l enterprise such as evaluation, explanation, etc., the venture should not be c l a s s i f i e d as a p a r t i c u l a r venture. APPENDIX D Example of Pre-Lecture A n a l y s i s Form Lecture sect fori A L e c t u r e date March 3rd, 1970 TRANSACTIONt WAVE SUPERIMPOSE  PURPOSE? STATE IMPORTANT WAVE PROPERTY AMD LIMITATIONS w Hi Number o f s h e e t s f o r t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n 1 o f 1 APPROPRIATE TAXONOMY POSITION % 1 • 22 COG-h). A FfBCJ\ I/EL . ( C o g n i t i v e doma in , or i f a p p l i c a b l e A f f e c t i v e domain) METHOD OF PRESENTATION % / ' L e c t u r e / F i Im SI i d e s (pI ease c i r e Ie a p p r o p r i a t e me thod ( s ) ) D e m o n s t r a t i o n Token d e m o n s t r a t i o n O the r ( s p e c i f y ) IMPORTANCES Fo r each group o f s t u d e n t s how i m p o r t a n t i s t h f s pu rpo se of t h i s t r a n s a c t i o n ? P l e a s e use a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e w i t h 5= v e r y impor tan t , , and 1 = u n i m p o r t a n t , Use a que s t i onma rk (?) f o r no t s u r e . C o g n i t i v e A t t i t u d e a l 1 j up low 1 s t |2nd pass pass f o r " s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a c y " 4-1 i . . f o r r e i n f o r c i n g a c o n c e p t 1 i - | f o r t e c h n i c a l pu rpo se i n c o u r s e 3 f o r t e c h n i ca 1 purpose i n l e c t u r e f o r p h y s i c s i n g e n e r a l .. -i — J . . f o r t h i s c o u r s e f o r t h i s l e c t u r e EXPECTED STUDENT INTERESTS ( p l e a s e c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l f o r each) S t u d e n t s 1 s t c l a s s low 1 2 2nd c l a s s 1 2 Upper Pas s 1 2 Lower pass 1 2 P r o b a b l e f a i I 1 2 EXPECTED STUDENT PREPARATION: P r e v i o u s l e c t u r e ( s ) : 4 4 4 4 4 5 h i g h 5 5 5 5 Tex t m a t e r i a l : L a b . E x p e r i ences A February 25th, 1970 . ( p l e a s e i n d i c a t e da te ) COM,' .in E-x-ppHment ( F o r t h o s e who d i d i t ) Othe r ( s p e d f y ) s E x p e r i e n c e w i t h water waves  EVIDENCE OF STUDENT UNDERSTANDING WILL BE OBTAINED? ( c i r c l e a p p r o p r i a t e ) /"Do" no t know/. A t t i t u d e " t e s t 1 s t m id te rm C h r i s t m a s exam Not a t a l l L a b . r e p o r t s 2nd m id t e rm F i n a l exam Home a s s i g n . O the r ( s p e c i f y ) 

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