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spatial plan within a contemporary milieu : the Republic of Korea Sunoo, Harold Jung Cooke 1972

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A SPATIAL PLAN WITHIN A CONTEMPORARY MILIEU: THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA  by  HAROLD JUNG COOKE SUNOO B.A., C e n t r a l Methodist C o l l e g e ,  1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the School o f Community and Regional P l a n n i n g  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1972  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the  Library  I further  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree  that  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree that  p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n shall not be allowed without my written  permission.  School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A p r i l 28, 1972  i  ABSTRACT  A  Spatial  Plan within  The an A  the  level  eventual  three that is  intention  underdeveloped three  t h e most  best  contemporary  rational  This  development  that  society.  andthat  runs  milieu.  into  which  throughout  The plan under  suggests  these  t h e form  the  constraints  of  development  of analysis  level  deals  with  i s currently  i n thecapital o f economic  undergoing  city  (1961)  t o economic  as well  trends i n urbaniza-  where  there  i s  as p o p u l a t i o n .  of t h e Korean  and Second  efficiency  rapid  of Seoul,  activity  i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  The F i r s t  centralization  government  (1966) F i v e - Y e a r  and increasing  Plans  the industrial-  sector. third  reveal  The  plan f o r  of the current  o f new d e v e l o p m e n t city  Korea  a spatial  t h e environment  theme  oriented  of  estates.  intense  level,  thecultural  f o r contemporary  of the current  philosophical  broad  based  an apparent  milieu,  society.  education  institutional  offers  up an h i s t o r i c  Examination  system  within  this  and t h e s t r u c t u r e  manifestation  of  of earlier  tenets. above  parallel  fashion,  of  -  Korea  The general  the country  second  i s t o develop  to describe  location  level  as a basis  government  f i t .  concentration  priority  The  context  i s taken  The Republic  theconstraints  of t h e primate  policy.  manufacturing  precedent  first  i s most  The  given  area  Korea;  a centripetal  have  within  be i n d u s t r i a l The  tion.  must  Milieu:  thesis  i s one of a central  t h e suburban  might  of this  country  approach plan  levels  a Contemporary  three  coming  suburban  levels  of investigation  together  development  i n t h e proposed  of industrial  a r edeveloped plan  estates  i n a  f o r the Republic near  Seoul.  i i.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  pAGE i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ii  PREFACE  iv  OVERVIEW  1  Chapter One CENTRALIZATION TRENDS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA  7  Population Growth in Korea Urbanization in Underdeveloped Countries Urbanization in Korea H i s t o r i c Perspective, Seoul C e n t r a l i z a t i o n of Population in Korea C e n t r a l i z a t i o n of Economic A c t i v i t y in Korea Chapter Two GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT POLICY  19  Economic Planning in Korea F i r s t Five-Year Plan Second Five-Year Plan F a i l u r e to Recognize Rural Regions Poor Performance in Rural Sector Policy Emphasis i n Industrial Sector Export Industry Inducements Growth of the Economy Chapter Three CULTURAL MILIEU H i s t o r i c Background to Current Central Summary H i s t o r i c Precedents Early History Si 11a Dynasty (?-9l8 A.D.) Koryo Dynasty (919-1392) Yi Dynasty (1392-1910) Philosophical Basis Manifestations of Philosophy Conclusi ons Educational System Traditional Contemporary Classroom Techniques Structure Conclusi on  29 Orientation  111.  PAGE Chapter  Three  CULTURAL  MILIEU  (Continued)  Government S t r u c t u r e Philosophical Tenets Twentieth Century to  I960 -  i960  1963  T h i r d Republic (1963-Present) Executive Legislature Local Government Two C a s e s o f C e n t r a l Control C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendment New P r e s i d e n t i a l P o w e r s Cultural Milieu: Summary Chapter A  Four  SPATIAL  PLAN  FOR  THE  REPUBLIC  OF  KOREA  6k  I n t r o d u c t i on The P l a n Defining Industrial Estates I n d u s t r i a l E s t a t e s as a Developmental Tool Types of Estates A Model f o r Korea Intramural Cooperation Development of E s t a t e s : A Constraint Location/Spatial Implications P r i n c i p l e of M u l t i p l e s P r i n c i p l e of Massing Reserves Principle of Bulk Transactions Non-Quantifiable Location Factors Metropolitan Location of Estates Dis-economies of Rural Location Decentralization i n India Deductions of General A p p l i c a b i l i t y L o c a t i o n Deductions from I n t e r n a t i o n a l Observation CONCLUSION  91  REFERENCES  9k  Bibliographies Books and A r t i c l e s  iv  PREFACE  In t h i s thesis an attempt has been made to develop a s p a t i a l plan for  an underdeveloped country.  i s one of suburban i n d u s t r i a l  The proposed plan for development  growth patterns.  I have not suggested  t h i s because of a preconceived preference for either ment or i n d u s t r i a l  expansion.  following c o n s t r a i n t s :  (1)  suburban develop-  This plan has been developed within the  the c u l t u r a l  m i l i e u ; and (2)  the  and development policy of a stable incumbent government. point  that  I consider to be the most s i g n i f i c a n t  raised by these e f f o r t s .  To w i t ,  It  is  this  issue that is to be  a plan must be b u i l t with a profound  understanding of the people and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l it  structure  environment  for which  i s conceived.  ability.  Planning for a society presupposes a good degree of  predict-  That  logical  i s , a planner  consequence of his plans.  ought to be able to indicate the  Planning in a foreign culture  is a l l  the more  i n t r i c a t e because the reaction of the people to the same stimulus may not be s i m i l a r to the reaction induced i n another environment. life  i n an a l i e n culture  involves tampering with basic habits that  manifest both i n behavior and b e l i e f . value systems. analysis  To influence  But, most of a l l ,  it  It  c a l l s for  a reorientation  are of  requires a constant and intensive  of the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the various aspects of  culture—economic, s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l  and r e l i g i o u s —  before any kind of prediction can be made of the r e s u l t s that w i l l follow the disturbance of the balance between them.  1.  OVERVIEW  Broadly speaking, t h i s thesis i s devoted to aspects of a phenomenon that i s occurring in Korea. the centripetal  force of Seoul, the c a p i t a l  the terms c e n t r i p e t a l , interchangeably text.  centralization,  to express the f i n e r  Generally, the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  city.  center  looking at  The phenomenon i s  Throughout the t h e s i s ,  oriented, et.  nuances of this  a l . a r e used  phenomenon i n con-  that i s being considered refers  only to the physical massing of population, economic a c t i v i t y t r a t i v e power i n one c i t y , value structure  but also refers  of the population.  and adminis-  The l a t t e r , a perceived pyramid of  authority  related  back to the Confucian structure during the Yi Dynasty.  (1)  not  to an h i s t o r i c and c u l t u r a l  central  and the equation of this with superior s t a t u s ,  The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  several  phenomenon w i l l  is  be examined i n three s e c t i o n s :  C e n t r a l i z a t i o n Trends in the Republic of Korea; ( 2 ) Government Devel-  opment P o l i c y ; and ( 3 ) The Cultural shall  Milieu.  Each thread  of the  picture  be developed in an independent manner converging in conclusion in  a suggested s p a t i a l  plan for development within the described circumstance.  That there is a massive demographic s h i f t present  i s undeniable.  occurring in Korea at  The primacy of Seoul has become firmly  established  and shows no sign of waning. It  is contended i n t h i s  paper that the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  is not based simply on a matter of economics, any more than i t education, history  or some mystical  aura.  It  i s clear  that the  in Seoul is s o l e l y migration  i s a complex phenomenon that must be studied from a broad i n t e r d i s c i p l i n ary base. Whether we view this centripetal  movement as a result  of "push"  2.  related  to poor conditions of the  rural  areas or " p u l l " related  economic, educational, government or whatever either  perceived or r e a l ,  What i s s i g n i f i c a n t  attraction  to the  i s not the primary concern i n t h i s  i s the fact  of centripetal  movement.  to city,  paper.  Energy w i l l  be expended to show various components of the phenomenon that suggest it  i s a combination of forces including h i s t o r i c antecedents.  degree of  importance that is attached to the various reasons for  migration is In  fact,  less important  than the fact  that a l l  the  the forces e x i s t .  the importance of the various component parts e x i s t s i n a  dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m .  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of push factors i n the  areas, be they poor harvest, plague, generally as well  The  as pull  tunities  in the primate c i t y w i l l  both ebb and flow i n s i g n i f i c a n c e .  of a large scale public works project  the c i t y may have a diminished pull harvest,  impact i f  or conversely, a s t a t i c  opportunity may become grossly exaggerated the a g r i c u l t u r a l  poor l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s ,  factors such as economic, education, government oppor-  For i n s t a n c e , the i n i t i a t i o n  bountiful  rural  in  it  should occur during a  level  of perceived economic  i n the event  of drought  in  regions.  Thus, the degree of importance of the various push and pull factors i s of less s i g n i f i c a n c e than to r e a l i z e  that these factors  exist  phenomenon, one must  and that to understand the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  understand i t s d i s t i n c t  all  component p a r t s .  CENTRALIZATION TRENDS The f i r s t  substantive section of t h i s thesis i s devoted to a  d e s c r i p t i o n of the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  trends i n the Republic of Korea today.  The bulk of t h i s deals with the population trends, e s p e c i a l l y during the  post-Korean war p e r i o d . The population growth rate for the country has dropped from  , (  2.9  i n 1955  tion shift  to 1.8  i n 1970;  this has been concurrent to a massive popula-  to the urban areas. Urbanization i n Korea, as urbanization throughout  oped world, has shown no signs of distinctive  i n that  internal  l e t t i n g up.  the underdevel-  The Korean example has been  migration has produced not so much a broadly  diffused hierarchy of urban areas as the increasing population concentrat i o n i n Seoul and to a lesser degree, After  Pusan.  looking at the migration per s e , the concept of  t i o n i s expanded to include economic concentration i n Seoul. expected, the c a p i t a l l a t i o n growth; here,  city  functions as more than just  some of the  centraliza-  As might be  the center  of popu-  linkages between economic expansion and  the migration are considered. Government Development Policy Economic expansion in Seoul can be considered as a natural cropping of the government development p o l i c y .  out-  In the F i r s t and Second  Five-Year Plans for economic development, the emphasis has been on the i n d u s t r i a l , manufacturing and export fisheries,  forestry,  sector to the neglect of  etc.  The absence of  locational  criteria  i n planning has done  to stem the t i d e of population and economic c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . ment's r o l e along with the c u l t u r a l significant  of a s p a t i a l  The govern-  focus a c e n t e r ,  government policy of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ,  dimension, there i s  little  d i c t a t e s , to be d i s c u s s e d , have been  i n shaping a society which has as i t s  There i s no e x p l i c i t  agriculture,  little  a hub.  but i n the absence  impetus to change e x i s t i n g  patterns.  k.  Cultural  Milieu The section on government development  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of various tangential  policy i s followed by  aspects of the c u l t u r a l  h i s t o r i c antecedents, modern education and government be discussed, and t h e i r  milieu.  The  structure w i l l  importance i n influencing the centripetal  each  pheno-  menon i l l u s t r a t e d . It  i s not s u f f i c i e n t  to study the contemporary trends  buttressed  by government policy and then expect to comprehensively understand behavior  of the population.  In the case of Korea, a look at  the  the  history  of the country adds to a broader, and hence, more profound perspective for understanding the migration and other  events.  During the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910), Confucian philosophy placed the rule of the country in the hands of the King. of s t a t e , derived his mandate from Heaven.  The structure  such that even the poorest people had a d i r e c t the King.  This disavowed the  such as the Daimyos (feudal  legitimacy  lords)  He, as the supreme head  linear  of authority  was  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  of any middle level  of  authority  of the Kamakura period in Japan.  An understanding of history  i s e s p e c i a l l y helpful  in putting  into  perspective, the values and outlook of the people i n a tradition-bound country  such as Korea.  the structure  The h i s t o r i c role of Confucianism in education and  of government have contemporary  manifestations.  Two facets of education shall be viewed in conjunction with the population s h i f t  and the centripetal  phenomenon.  role of education i s that of a catalyst individual  for  F i r s t , the more apparent  social change i n terms of  perception of education as a means of social and economic  advancement.  The second role of education in the centripetal  i s two-pronged:  the structure  of the educational  picture  system as a d i r e c t  5.  i n f l u e n c e ; and the teaching methodology and philosophy as an i n d i r e c t influence to the central  directed movement of the  migration and the  exaggerated primacy of Seoul. A section i s also devoted to the p o l i t i c a l structure.  The "central  and government  oriented" emphasis has been evident  government since before the Yi Dynasty to the present.  in  all  Here, as i n the  consideration of education in Korea, the influence can be viewed as having two d i s t i n c t  but related  aspects i n regard to the c e n t r a l i t y .  aspect i s again an h i s t o r i c t r a d i t i o n  of d i s t i n c t  central  The  first  authority.  The  second is the structure of modern government i n Korea. The Yi Dynasty ruled Korea with a strong central  government.  The influence of the Confucian form of government was considered universal i n that i t social  drew the frames of reference for the r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l  activity  of the day.  With t h i s as an antecedent, the Japanese held  Korea as a colony from 1910 government.  to  With the defeat  19^5,  maintaining  of Japan in 19^5,  a strict  the  from a foreign state to the hands of the people. tral  and  legal  autocratic  central  authority changed  However, the strong cen-  government continued under the increasingly strong hand of Rhee,  Syngman u n t i l  i960.  After  a student  changed to a parliamentary  revolution i n  i960,  the structure of government  system with a weak executive o f f i c e .  A year  later t h i s government was over-thrown by a m i l i t a r y junta which took over legislative, judicial  and executive f u n c t i o n s .  It  was i n 1963  that a new  c o n s t i t u t i o n was approved by popular referendum and Park, Chung-hee, the leader  of the m i l i t a r y j u n t a , was elected c h i e f executive of the ' T h i r d  Republic".' The enabling l e g i s l a t i o n of the Third Republic gives the President  6.  strong powers and further or j u d i c i a l control  review.  leaves him v i r t u a l l y  The power of the national  i s at the cost of  local autonomy.  s u f f i c e to say that t h i s  i s manifest  appointment  level.  of the  local  To t h i s p o i n t ,  independent of executive i n  In t h i s b r i e f  legislative  administrative  introduction,  i n the P r e s i d e n t ' s power of  executive  the purpose of t h i s thesis i s to present  milieu i n t o which a spatial  plan w i l l  terms of describing current  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n trends and then contributing  factors which are considered c a u s a l , ground and contemporary i n s t i t u t i o n a l  be introduced.  the  This i s done i n  — government p o l i c y , c u l t u r a l  back-  structure.  The Plan The f i n a l  substantive section of t h i s  d e s c r i p t i o n of a s p a t i a l Korea.  paper i s devoted to  planning concept that would be applicable  the in  The purpose of the scheme i s to r e l i e v e mounting pressures on  the c i t y  of Seoul.  of advocating rural  This i n and by i t s e l f would be a s i m p l i s t i c exercise d i s p e r s i o n of development, except that the success of  the plan depends ultimately on i t s function.  "fit"  with the milieu i n which i t  must  For t h i s reason, a comprehensive view of the problem and the  accompanying environment, h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c s and culture before a f e a s i b l e plan can be put  i s essential  forth.  Given:  -  the government policy p r i o r i t i e s  Proposal:  -  the concept of i n d u s t r i a l estates i s a viable economic development a l t e r n a t i v e which ought to s a t i s f y the s t r i c t economies of decision-making.  Given:  -  the high c e n t r i p e t a l migration the h i s t o r i c c e n t r i p e t a l orientation the present manifestations of central  -  location i n the Seoul suburban area would be a p o s i t i v e location for development.  Proposal:  of i n d u s t r i a l  growth.  power and s t a t u s .  7.  Chapter One  CENTRALIZATION TRENDS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA  Population Growth in Korea It  is d i f f i c u l t  to trend population figures from before 1945  to the present because of the p a r t i t i o n World War.  of the country after the Second  S u f f i c e to mention that from 1920 to 1 9 4 0 , the population of  the e n t i r e peninsula grew from 17 m i l l i o n to 2 3 . 5 m i l l i o n .  1 9 4 6 , the  In  19-4 million  estimated population of the Republic of Korea (south) stood at and by 1955 t h i s figure rose to 2 1 . 5 m i l l i o n  (Korea Annual, 1 9 7 0 »  succeeding decade brought about an exceedingly high level as a rate and in absolute f i g u r e s .  of growth both  By 1 9 6 6 , the population of the Republic  stood at 2 9 . 2 m i l l i o n , an increase of almost 8 m i l l i o n people and  Park, J . S . , 1 9 6 9 ) .  The  (Choe, E . H .  The most recent decennial census of 1970 put  population at 3 1 « 6 m i l l i o n  (Korea Annual,  the  1971)«  s i g n i f i c a n c e of such an increase in a country the s i z e  of Korea with i t s e x i s t i n g high population density i s d i f f i c u l t prehend.  The  to com-  The density for the whole of Korea in 1968 was 3 1 2 . 2 persons per  square kilometer Japan in I 9 6 8 .  2  (p/km ).  This was higher than the 2 5 3 p/km  2  figure  of  In terms of absolute numbers, an increase of 10 m i l l i o n  people in f i f t e e n years ending i n 1970 i s greater  than the e n t i r e popu-  l a t i o n of Formosa or the total combined population of Scotland, Ireland and Wales. 1955  This increase was equal to a 4 7 per cent  population of Korea (Korea Annual,  increase over the  1971).  As impressive as the absolute figures may be, the rate of increase provides a more readily comprehensible i n d i c a t i o n as to dynamic nature of the population growth phenomenon.  the  The average annual  8.  growth rate for the following years was: 1968,  2.2%;  1970,  1.8%  1971>  Republic of Korea, 1971  rate of net natural  1955-60, 2.9%; 1960-66, 2.4%;  (Choe, E.H. and Park, J . S . , 1969;  increase  C).  T h i s can be compared with the crude  of 1.01%  for the r e l a t i v e l y  country of Canada ("Vital S t a t i s t i c s , December,  in 1970  developed  1971", 1972).  The decline in Korea's growth rate from 1.8%  Korea Annual,  2.9% in i960 to  has been buttressed by government family planning programs  c a r r i e d out since 1962  (Republic of Korea, 1971  planning p u b l i c i t y has had greatest  effects  C).  The impact of  i n the major c i t i e s .  It  there that mass media has a wider audience and the population i s more receptive to new concepts. birth  rate in 1962,  before the implementation of the government  planning.  is  generally  There was some i n d i c a t i o n of a f a l l i n g  planning program, and now the net e f f e c t support of family  family  family  has been an apparent wide based  A recent government p u b l i c a t i o n boasts  •The percentage of persons who support the concept of family  planning has  increased to ninety per cent while t h i r t y per cent of the population a c t u ally  practice family  While the statement general  planning programs."  (Republic of Korea, 1971  i s broad and i l l - d e f i n e d , i t  does project  D:80).  a strong  sentiment. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the increase i n population on the  level  l i e s in the fact  This i s an important  that the increase has been at a d e c l i n i n g  fact  national  rate.  to bear i n mind when confronted with the  situation  in urban areas where the population i s increasing at an ever increasing r a t e . This  i s happening in a s i t u a t i o n where the crude rate of net natural  i s in a l l  l i k e l i h o o d well below the national  level.  increase i n urban areas then must be attributed increase, i . e . ,  *  a net in-migration from other  January to December, 1971 b i r t h r a t e ("Vital S t a t i s t i c s , December, 1971",  1.7^%  1972).  The net  to other than  population natural  areas.  minus death rate  increase  0.73%  9.  Urbanization  i n Underdeveloped The  unique  to  the  particular,  drift  Korean  apparent  urbanization  is  tion  not  however, that  contribute  a unique there to  the  defined.  total  phenomenon.  going  any  that  further,  nificant  areas  a proportionate  With  growth,  this  i n viewing  refers  i s concentrated  i n urban  urban  i n the  means  migration  urban  areas  everywhere  be  in  in  Urbanization  is  i n the  world  Korean  urbaniza-  raised  later,  contemporary  "urbanization"  (I965)  is  reflects  almost  no  milieu  phenomenon.  that  lation,  of  issue to  features  A d i s t i n c t i o n must  place with  The  by  Korean  an a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e .  proportion.  takes  is  are appropriate.  this  occurring  areas  the growth  the world;  at  Kings ley Davis  population  about  are unique  the  Before fully  place  to urban  d i s c u s s i n g the  i n general  throughout  taking  i s that  Before  comments  countries  increasingly  is  population  scene.  some b r o a d e r  underdeveloped  then  of  Countries  the world  it  b e made  growth is  between  i n the  not  some  as t h e  i n an u r b a n  and u r b a n i z a t i o n .  but  i n mind,  to  area  urbanization  by  to  be  The  overall  or  a rise  Gerald  i f  national this  Breese  of in  growth  former,  by  care-  proportion  population  urbanization  notes  ought  i t  popudefinition.  are  sig-  trends.  ...In r e l a t i v e terms, the w o r l d ' s population g r e w by . . . e l e v e n p e r c e n t i n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s , ten per c e n t i n t h e 1940's and n i n e t e e n per cent in the 1950's...Urban p o p u l a t i o n ( 2 0 , 0 0 0 and over) i n each of t h e s e four decades i n c r e a s e d b y 3 0 , 23, a n d 4 2 p e r c e n t ; t h e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n ( 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 a n d o v e r ) i n c r e a s e d b y 3 3 , 25, and 4 6 p e r c e n t ; t h e s u c c e s s i v e i n c r e a s e s i n b i g c i t y p o p u l a t i o n ( 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 and over) were 3 2 , 2 8 , and 57 p e r c e n t . (Breese, 1970:37). Breese urbanization reasons,  that  continues  i n developing they  might  and g i v e s  countries  that  be c o n s i d e r e d  several "...are  'givens'".  generalizations so defensible (Breese,  about for  1970:42).  known  10.  For unclear  i t  i s assumed  population. rapid  example,  It  that  i s further  increase i n urban  sources,  not only  he a s s e r t s  that  there  be a c o n t i n u e d  will  assumed  that  population.  has the rate  but there  increase  rapidly  i n t h e coming  Another  of Breese's  zation able;  i s that there  stitute one." the  very  "cities  (Breese,  ment  are hereto  invented;  without  that  large  stay.  to their  no modern  might  cities,  have  of urbanization.  It  something  else,  existing  how t h e i r  but whether  positive  aspects  speaking,  we a r e d o u b t l e s s  cities."  (Breese,  investigation  considered. International in  1970  a r e two thoughts  f o r some  Union  subwithout  was one o f  of  develop-  discovered the  of either  time  unexpend-  can exist  possibilities  planned  urbani-  no w o r k a b l e  cities  d i s t r i b u t i o n and s i z e  be b e s t  that  of the urbanization  The f i r s t  i s from  Conference  at Yonsei  committed  to  for.  or  a r e proper  "Realistically  to cities  and t o b i g  1970).  There fuller  might  to  clearly  the Soviet  t o o seem t o h a v e  city  Nations  increased  i n regard  of any s i z e  i s not a question  very  1970).  de-emphasis;  nation  total  t o be a  i s likely  are quite  demonstrated  but they  it  (Breese,  still  increase i n  migration  that  They  are  from United  few assumptions  necessity  and  t o urban  In h i s estimation,  1970:^3)«  few c o u n t r i e s  As he notes  years  ranges  is likely  i s a l s o much e v i d e n c e  a r e no a l t e r n a t i v e s  has been  there  of rural  considerably,  although  a paper  on Urban  University,  are appropriate and planning  that  Problems  Seoul,  Korea.  Breese  here  i n Korea  presented  and Regional  before  a  c a n be  to the  Development  held  11.  In newly d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s o f t h e w o r l d t h e day never ends w i t h o u t a n i n c r e a s e i n u r b a n population. There i s no l i k e l i h o o d that this s i t u a t i o n w i l l change. Responsible urban o f f i c i a l s and t h e i r c i t i z e n r y w i l l awaken every morning w i t h t h e uncomfortable knowledge that t h e problems of t h e i r c i t i e s a r e larger than they were t h e day before and w i l l again be l a r g e r t h e n e x t d a y . T h e t i d e n e v e r r e c e d e s ; i t o n l y comes i n . (Breese, 1970:52). The  problems  but  they  a  long  sion  of cities  must  time  appear  be overcome.  influential  t o be overwhelming  Fundamental  figure  issues  i n t h e work  and almost  unmanageable,  are involved.  of the Indian  Tarlok  Planning  Singh,  Commis-  has noted: An adequate urban p o l i c y cannot emerge u n t i l t h e r o l e o f t h e c i t i e s and towns as a p o s i t i v e i n g r e d i e n t i n n a t i o n a l economic development has been v i s u a l i z e d c l e a r l y . There a r e two questions to be answered. How c a n t h e g a i n s w h i c h t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n a t g i v e n p o i n t s and t h e development of economic and s o c i a l overheads a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t be t u r n e d i n t o a dynamic and constructive force for progress? How c a n t h e p o s s i b l e adverse consequences of t h i s process be k e p t t o a minimum? (Prakash and J a c o b s o n ,  1967:42).  Urbanization  i n As  migration  increase  population  5% w a s b y r u r a l blatantly rural that at  tion  rate  increase to urban  contrasted with  population this  least  i n most  developing  i s an issue i n Korea.  population urban  Korea  of  lived  There stood  rate  migration  defined  2.4%  shift,  I967.  as o f  i960—1968  1949,  urban  areas.  By  to  urban  average  annual  The average  1971)•  annual  1971).  only  rural  however,  annual  w a s 7%, o f This  growth  is  rate  which  rather for the  The t a b l e  below  shows  has been  going  on s i n c e  but one that  In  scale  a decreasing  (Ro, Chung-hyun,  Yang-boo,  the Korean w a r .  i n roughly  h a s been  at  t h e average  a recent  large  f o r t h e same y e a r ,  .75% ( C h o e ,  i s not just before  which  countries,  20.02% 1966,  of the total  the figure  popula-  had grown  12.  to  33.48%  people  1968, 48.3%.  and by  This  reflects  a total  14.76  of  million  1971:10).  (Ro, Chung-hyun,  t a b l e one Per  Cent  of Total  Year  Population City  Living  Population  1949  20.02  79.97  1955  25.50  74.43  i960  28.78  71.21  1966  33.58  66.21  1968  48.30  51.70  the national Studies  survey One  place the of  government,  Center  o f t h e main  during  five  of persons  time  of the survey.  were  living  another  Board,  (Choe,  years  five  years  E.H.  i n t h e same  conducted and P a r k ,  information  years  years  level  extensive  J . S . ,  the  province;  those  and those  into  of  concerning their  a t t h e new r e s i d e n c e  earlier;  I969).  respondents'  was secured  classified  bureau  and Develop-  an  o l d who h a d changed  and were  3).  the migration  By comparing  The p o p u l a t i o n was then five  a ministry  was t o monitor  years.  earlier,  than  the five  five  Table  1971:  the Population  University,  of the survey  more  living  place  at the  t h o s e who  who had changed who h a d moved  to  province. The  persons  issues  i n t h e same h o u s e  but were  Planning  National  the preceding  residence during  houses  of Seoul  purposes  Chung-hyun,  i n conjunction with  demographic  of residence  number  t h e Economic  1966,  of current  population  Population  (%5  In  ment  Rural  Areas  r-%1  (Ro,  in  i n City/Rural  h a d moved  survey's to cities  findings of  showed  50,000  that  or more  an e s t i m a t e d  during  the five  1.1  million  year  period.  13.  880,000  o f them  moved  inter-provincial have  When  an a g g r e g a t e , 8.41%  same  proportion  cities  soon, 90%  later  "...the  i n terms  1969:75).  rural-to-urban  movement  areas,  areas,  Historic  Perspective,  was about  in  pace  of  life  Roughly  It  represent  64.08%,  an  over-  I966). dealt  with  as an even  higher  of migration  related  (Lee, Han-  migration  i s disaggregated  "cross-current",  the  t h e purpose was  of movement."  net urban  J . S . ,  comprised to  show:  3'<%; a n d u r b a n t  Seoul  Man-gap  the turn  the middle  in Korea**.  40%j i n t e r - u r b a n ,  has recently  city  that  and P a r k ,  to  i s considered as  study,  and c h a r a c t e r  for  estimated  represents  urbanization  account  15»5%.  Lee,  before  areas  I969) t h a t  o f d i r e c t i o n and q u a n t i t y  to-rural  Just  then,  independent  pattern  indicate  E.H.  (Ahn, Kye-choon,  regards  In this  general  (Choe,  si_, e u p a n d my o n  (Lee, Han-soon,  only  people were  in-migration  Urbanization  study,  The r e s u l t s  of the i n t e r n a l  University  study,  the migration.  investigate  with  of  estimates  million  movement  of the migration  as t h e above of  1.1  These  and i n t r a - p r o v i n c i a l  respectively.  predominance  period  Another  the percentage  A  or Pusan.  in intra-provincial  inter-  27.51%  and  whelming  to  migration.  participated  1969:38).  t o Seoul  of  200,000. of  that  a noted  o u t some  the twentieth He w r i t e s  quiet  translated:  It i s assumed i nter-rural.  pointed  Chong-no,  i n that  (1970 A ) ,  a main  of  of t h e benchmarks  century,  Even  town  the remaining  twenty  and r u r a l  showing  later  the  dozing  leisurely  i n 1915,  aggregate.  10% u n a c c o u n t e d  growth.  of the c a p i t a l  "...oxen  (suggesting) years  National  i n Seoul's  the population  photographs  thoroughfare  city."  city,  s o c i o l o g i s t at Seoul  f o r by L e e i s  however,  14.  the  Japan which  pattern  rapid.  areas  This  and a l s o  agricultural  areas By  politan Korea with  Korean  national  economy,  centers  (Wilkinson,  was w e l l  to  cities  cause many in  of  of Japan stood  and e f f e c t , left  even  t o grow  t h e Korean  from until  Seoul later  and went  of the densely  had reached  400,000  ( L e e , Man-gap,  i n the populated  and t h e metroA ) .  1970  fortunes  As a  of Japan.  China,  Seoul's  1942,  i t reached  a high  of  not developing  as integrated  as subservient  exploitation  1.1  In  1936,  million.  parts  natural  colony,  population  of a  administrative  of Korean  t h e end o f t h e Second  fortunes  o f war as both  and t h e consequent a t 900,000  the capital's  and d i s t r i b u resources  more  again  citizens  troubled  reduced  were  the liberation  the city  i n the war.  on t o i n c r e a s e  By  diminished. liberation  economy  i n August,  than  worsened  more  Seoul's before  half-size,  rate,  "In a circle  where  was back  reaching  of as  difficult 1970  A ) .  population the  outbreak  and t h e m i l i t a r y  the population  at a constant  A ) .  prior  t h e popu-  ( L e e , Man-gap,  1,700,000 j u s t  t o less  just  of Korea,  became  1945,  conditions  population  B y 1945,  was f u r t h e r  away."  Wartime  1955,  1970  So as l i f e  driven  and had reached  w a r i n 1950.  World W a r , Seoul's  ( L e e , Man-gap,  for the countryside.  With began  opportunity  1954).  of Seoul  Seoul,  t h e Japanese was  and North  but primarily  Japan's  people  economic  by t h e p o l i t i c a l  By  were  under  influenced the  Manchuria  f o r t h e Japanese  the defeat  lation  into  heavily  1954).  underway  influenced  Towards reflected  i n Korea  conditions"  the population  730,000.  to  However,  tion  t o the ^'poverty  expansion  doubled  Urbanization  colony,  was due t o expanding  1935,  of t h e city  Japan's  as a de j u r e  (Wilkinson,  was strongly  nearly  Korea  of urbanization.  extremely urban  ruled  i t  retreat  remained  up t o  3,500,000  1,600,000 ten years  15.  later  i n I965.  Three  been  passed  that  i nOctober,  Annual,  ( L e e , Man-gap,  note,  1970 A ) .  when  statistics  but have  context.  growth  that,  i n 1968, t h e 4,500,000 l e v e l  Most  recently  population  population  had reached  had  figures  5«5 m i l l i o n  show (Korea  1971).  warrant  forth  after  1970, t h e S e o u l  These  some  years  little  relevance  The importance  viewed  together  f o rt h e c o u n t r y  i n and by themselves  o f these  with  t o the planner data  Seoul's  unless  i n the planning  such complementary  as a whole;  a r e i m p r e s s i v e and  growth  data  put into  process  as:  comes  population  v i s a v i s other  cities;  migration; e t c .  Centralization  of the Population It  urbanization scrutiny fact  has been  trends  i n Korea  of the data  i s largely  amply  illustrated  during  indicates  a movement  i n Korea  the last  that  towards  that  there  has been  15-20 y e a r s .  t h e movement the capital  towards  city  definite  Now, a c l o s e r the cities i n  o f Seoul  and perhaps  Pusan. Referring National some a  significant  broad  is  based  supported  For  Seoul  almost all  other  a  taking  by the following  regions. f o r Seoul  the country.  during  that  survey  a r e brought  phenomenon  times  t o t h e Economic  demographic  facts  and Pusan  four  migrants of  University  again  forth.  place  ratios  The net r e s u l t  -3.8:100 f o r a l l o t h e r  centers  a sa whole period  than  regions.  (See chart  J . S . ,  ratio  where  the  was  of  the ratio that  I969),  has not  a n d 4.4 t i m e s  two-thirds  was a net r a t i o  around  and Seoul  t o indigenous  I960-I966, t h i s  w a s a t t h e same  and Pusan was l e s s  urbanization  of in-migrants  the period  Board  E . H . and P a r k ,  That  i n many  f o rt h e country  This  (Choe,  Planning  country residents.  57.2:100 that f o r ofout-  of the  rest  48.6:100 v i s a v i s  below).  been  16.  table  two Migration  Status  Ratio A11 Korea  Out-migrants  Seoul Pusan  A l l Other Regions  p e r 100  indigenous  residents  15.2  8.6  16.4  l n - m i g r a n t s p e r 100 indigenous residents  15.2  57.2  12.6  48.6  - 3 . 8  Net-migrants indigenous  p e r 100 residents  In-migrants p e r 100 out-migrants  205.0 (adapted  from  Choe  93.0  E.H.  and P a r k ,  J . S . ,  1969:90)  Although Pusan, how it  an e a r l i e r  study  the disaggregated was e s t i m a t e d  gross  t h e above  that  in-migration  ratios  are aggregated  (Ahn, Kye-choon,  ratios  might  40.85% w e r e  f o r a l l other  look. bound  urban  gives  1966) Of  f o r Seoul  some  a l l migrants  for Seoul. areas  This  and  insight  as t o  i n the  country,  f a r exceeds  for a l l provinces  the  which was  23.23%. For phenomenon varied. a  rural  The  disparity  Pusan  from  an annual  province,  of growth  rates  growth  had a r a t e i s seen  i n comparison  with  had a gross  out-migration  of  the population,  E.H.  I966  to  and P a r k ,  1970,  Seoul  from  rate  131,000  3.8  of  I96O-I966,  whereas  5.5  where  6.96%  (Choe,  the second  Korea  continuing  Seoul  1971  million,  1971).  to  rural  city.  a city  out-migration  rates  Jeonbuk,  largest  Seoul,  Annual,  the  Yang-boo,  by c o m p a r i n g  absolute  to  was a  for  2.36%  of  Pusan,  1969:90).  grew  above  not only  had a s m a l l e r  J . S . ,  urbanization  as suggested  but also  times  (Choe,  although  witnessed  agricultural  regions,  2.9  i n Korea,  Seoul  I966-I968,  the period  of  reports  with  122,000 that  a net increase  of  17.  Pusan,  45%;  increase  during  of  t h e same  of Economic The  a  centers had  cities  of trade  as t h e i r  Paris  a shift  of economic  the great  raison  extreme.  Seoul  branch,  Every  entrepreneur  commercial  with  diplomatic  financial  activity  of A s i a  million,  1.88  a net  d'etre, which  palacial  originated  degree  bureau,  be s u s p e c t e d ,  This  i s worthy  such  as Peking,  and grew  Kyoto,  functions,  as centers  is  inasmuch  of  being  and Seoul  unlike  of  i n  there  of note  t h e European t r a d i t i o n  and temple  of  of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n city  and every  who w i s h e s that  falls  Likewise, becomes  the country located  t h e words  of  trade  economic  the main  office  London, and  government Seoul,  regulation,  place  The c i t y  and t h e head  of  permit  as the seat  a necessary trade.  activity  of the national  out a development  under  in international  i s consequently  houses  department  to take  bureaucracy.  t o deal  In  and t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  as might  as w e l l .  Cities  as the c a p i t a l  activity  center  Korea  do not share  mission to Korea,  men w i s h i n g  Korea  every  the central  in  in population;  present  every  in  to  1.43  1969).  (Breese, The  is  from  of urbanization  and commerce.  or Amsterdam,  commerce  Activity  phenomenon  i s not only  burgeoning  as  grew  31%-  Centralization  Seoul  period,  office  of  of  call  also  virtually government.  or  engage  must  deal  every for  business-  functions  of every  major  as the  bank  there.  o f t h e Mayor  of  Seoul:  Seoul i s the center of government, business, finance, i n d u s t r y , e d u c a t i o n , s c i e n c e , and c u l t u r e i n Korea. I n many w a y s S e o u l c o m b i n e s t h e f u n c t i o n s o f W a s h i n g t o n , New Y o r k , B o s t o n , P i t t s b u r g h a n d D e t r o i t . (Yang, Taeks h i k , 1970).  A  portion  boundary  of the population change  growth  i n the metropolitan  must  be a t t r i b u t e d  area.  to a  recent  i n  18.  The f o r e g o i n g a l l tend t o p o i n t up the f i n d i n g s o f the above demographic  survey which i n t h e words of the a u t h o r s i l l u s t r a t e s  t h a t i n K o r e a , " . . . i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n produced not so much a b r o a d l y d i f f u s e d u r b a n i z a t i o n as the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of an i n c r e a s i n g i n one or two l a r g e c i t i e s . " close  population  (Choe, E.H. and P a r k , J . S . , 1 9 6 9 : 3 5 ) .  A  look at the data from the survey as w e l l as other sources noted  above, f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t a l t h o u g h Korea may have two m i l l i o n a i r e c i t i e s , both growing at f a s t r a t e s , Seoul has been much more predominant as the c e n t e r of growth.  This  i s seen i n t h i s s e c t i o n on c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  t r e n d s , and w i l l be f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d  i n s u c c e e d i n g s e c t i o n s on h i s -  t o r i c development, government and economics, and f i n a l l y pi a n .  i n the proposed  Chapter  Two  GOVERNMENT D E V E L O P M E N T  Economic  Planning The  economic  havoc  upheaval, tion. his In  when  overthrew strong  system,  goal  tarily moved  In  party  which  military  modernization.  transferred increasingly  toward  of a stable  overcoming  Republic.  negativism  It  disrup-  i n power and  1968). students,  dismantled rule,  a year,  virtually  coup  of  Rhee's  and allowed  however,  paralyzed  brought  1961  leadership  that  there  the opera-  government  success,  i n  that  saw economic  and f r u s t r a t i o n  I963,  regime the  economic  as w e l l  power  a  the national was v o l u n government  development  as t o the e s t a b l i s h -  development  i n Korea  into  espoused  the military  the recognition  t h e k e y t o i t s own p o l i t i c a l  ment  than  social  I968).  After  to a civilian  or t o t a l  l e d by t h e n a t i o n ' s  less  (Henderson,  of  (Henderson,  s e t up p a r l i a m e n t a r y  and f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d  of economic  autocratic  tremendous  deal  continued  t h e new l e a d e r s  and p r e s s .  subsequent  unity  Syngman  uprising,  government,  o f t h e government  nationalistic  Rhee,  wrought  a great  political  increasingly  the national  i n 1950,  and created  either  1950's  i n the ruling  The  of  became  of speech  a split  was  the  t h e Rhee  started  t h e country  creating  presidential  freedom  tion  upon  Throughout  I960,  Korea  Korean War, which  without  government  was  i n  POLICY  a s t h e means  (Kim, C.I.  Eugene,  1964). With  t h e emergence  of a p o l i t i c a l  leadership  committed  to  economic  development,  The economic  1963. the  country's  the  early  an  initial  (GNP)  which  of  In addition, became  to  decrease  the country's  of monetary  expansion.  were  sidetracked  because  The  ties  as w e l l  First  Five-Year  attacked  a s by t h e p o l i t i c a l  a n d 1963,  and rather  curbing  promoting  of chronic  infla-  and  capital  1963  as a  result  f o r m a t i o n and  a i d through  by t h e b u s i n e s s  opposition.  a very  high  programs  1971)»  Annual,  economic  ignored efforts  policy  of i n f l a t i o n  exports  scaling at  down  were  on monetary  which  of t a r g e t s ,  efforts b y means  and e s t a b l i s h i n g  in  primarily  1964  poor  harvests  and  of f i s c a l  oblivion.  amounted  to a  was completed  the implementation  turned  communi-  was charged  to practical  Plan,  in  considered  policy  and subsequent  Five-Year  adopted  and academic  Goals  P l a n was r e l e g a t e d  arbitrary  The major  the rate  States  P l a n was f o r m a l l y  the drought  of the F i r s t  b u t i t was l a r g e l y  bilization.  by  With  the First  revision  government's  I96I  United  (Korea  -  the  massive  developments  1971)  1964,  despite  planning  (Kim,  drastic  and  income  of economic  and a n o v e r - e m p h a s i s  A  1950's  of the  war, per capita  on f o r e i g n  high  1962  of  After  between  unrealistically  of  i n view  Plan  official  Nak-kwan,  after  stagnation.  to increase  A number  rapidly  remarkable  was i n a s t a t e  of political  but was immediately  1962,  regime  dependency  rate  Five-Year  1958-1963  s i g n i f i c a n t l y worse  by t h e m i l i t a r y  ahead  economic  t h e Korean  the country  attempts  moved  The story  overall  from  from  of  First  history.  one o f  recovery  stationary  economy  was a l l t h e more  economic  had been  period  remained  tion,  progress  earlier  1960's  assistance.  the nation's  level.  toward  I965  devoted  and monetary  import-substitute  Instead,  economic  were  i n  stato  restraint,  industries  by  means  of devaluation  expanding resource efforts policy Work  the role  and import  of the price  a l l o c a t i o n by met w i t h  attention  again  Five-Year  by t h e P r e s i d e n t  January,  I967  During was  put f o r t h  agricultural incorporate plished to  Plan:  Stronger  buy  more  this led  dispersion concern  that  efficient world  linkages  n o t some  a  reluctance  1966  into  drive  on economic  and  growth.  i n 1965;  t h e p l a n was  and went  into  Rural  effect  in  Plan,  Regions one s e t o f  expansion  i t s body.  on a r u r a l  between of  proposals  of exports the plan  This  oriented  and of  ought  would  to  be accom-  industrial  impair  preferential  industrial  sector  1964).  accepted,  but t h e concept  was n o t .  was a w i l l i n g n e s s to smaller industry  implicit  might  to give  out i n t o  i n  exportof  T h e r e was g e n e r a l be  of Korean  scale  of  and  could  strategy  the competitiveness  such  were  they  The b a s i c  development  treatment  populations  so that  production  small-scale enterprises  there  t o t r y t o push  and r u r a l  inhabitants  was g e n e r a l l y  industrial  Although  the urban  the rural  growing  development  and thereby  if  stabilization  commodities.  decentralized,  markets.  The  The suggestion was that  ( F e i and R a n i s ,  by r u r a l  emphasis  of t h e Second  reliance  of the rapidly  industrial  efficient  as d i d t h e export  for continued  of t h e incomes  suggestion.  progressively  more  controls.  to Recognize  dimensions  the export  improvement  Failure  production. regional  to achieve  started  i n August,  argued  by i n c r e a s i n g  supply  Plan  the drafting  which  toward  and by  1969).  (Adelman,  Five-Year  success,  shifted  approved  Second  system  loosening direct  substantial  on t h e Second  liberalization  less  exports  at  industry, the rural  least  in equal,  there was areas  as  22.  Fei  and Ranis  agricultural ing, was  farm  sector  of  that  a First  this Plan  would  stable while  population  shift  in  that  Poor  (Cole  Performance At  expansion  i n the Rural time,  grains  no a t t e m p t  production made  the other  output.  Agricultural  the  plansj  estimated. Plan  kinds  however,  actual  I965-66  evidence  Plan  First  performance.  o f a slowdown  manufacturrate.  of the  It  continu-  population  was i n e v i t a b l e  o f employment  remained The  as i t was a  opportunities  would  occur  Sector part  of t h e Second  Although  investments  inputs  not only  of  land was expanded.  the goal  of the l i s t  required  t o expand  was t h i s food  Plan  Recently  in agricultural  levels,  (1968-69)  were  development  or  to  the agricultural target  above  but s l i g h t l y there  there  to targets  a major  targets  was i t s  self-sufficiency  n o t a c h i e v e d , b u t demand  grains  target  of  Plan  of targets,  and p o l i c i e s  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y has been  The Second  and t h e Revised  as a r e s u l t  areas  was a t t h e head  of  that  of the  a satisfactory  of arable  sector.  to relate  indicate  than  the agricultural  t h e weakest  in  the output  1964).  and Nam,  t h e same  at  partly  t o urban  for the agricultural  was  occur  that  rapidly  to rise  t h e amount  program food  less  where  rural  any r a p i d  the c i t i e s  grow  trend  from  recognizing  continue  relatively  priori  While  would  income would  expected  ation  proposed.  i n a l l was  the less  under-  First than  was a c t u a l l y  programs  (Kanesa-Thasen,  1969).  A c t u a l output o f r i c e and other g r a i n s exceeded t h e F i r s t Plan and R e v i s e d F i r s t P l a n t a r g e t s , b u t t h e n e t e x p o r t balance i n r i c e i n 1959-61 p r a c t i c a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d d u r i n g 1962-66, w h i l e imports o f other g r a i n s , c e r e a l s and c e r e a l p r e p a r a t i o n s r o s e s h a r p l y i n 1962-66 o v e r 1959-61 l e v e l s (KanesaThasen, 1969).  The after  World  credit  fragmentation  War I I ,  terms  but  to  raise  Another  factor—revealed  by  8% i n c o n s t a n t  only  difficult  that  to mobilize  of  impossible.  The government's  stantially,  holdings  e s p e c i a l l y because  on r e a s o n a b l e  slowdown.  of  response  t h e minimum in April,  new s m a l l  This  for  the  for  In  terms  "farm  households"  gap.  The  1969,  indicates  Korean  of  per c a p i t a  and "non-farm government's  that  while  I968 i n I965 c o n s t a n t per capita  agricultural  income  (GNP),  households"  Economic  the  credit  holding  sub-  size.  farmers'  incomes  investment  rose  i t  (Kuznets,  the extreme  cedented  failure  has been  market  of  prices.  reached  may b e s o m e w h a t crops  continuous  due t o  is evidencing Board,  i n farm  in  since  widening  and non-farm  From a p a r i t y  exaggerated  a  between  Economic  had i n c r e a s e d  a disparity  drought  and growing  the d i s p a r i t y  Planning  the difference  GNP d i f f e r e n c e  Although  ence  to  i960 a n d I 9 6 6 , m a k i n g  20,000 w o n p e r c a p i t a i n i 9 6 0 , t h i s amount  the  added  made  1969).  P.W.,  in  legal  reforms  holdings,  increase  was t h a t  1968,  land  certainly  was not t o  1956 p r i c e s b e t w e e n savings  followed  of  to  GNP w a s  45,000 w o n  position  2.2  in  considering  (Republic  in  i960,  I968. an  I967 a n d 1968, t h e i960  Survey,  of  unpredifferKorea,  1969,A). Policy  Emphasis  in Industrial  Meanwhile,  *  The  See  the main  Sector choices confronting  Korean  planners  n e g l e c t of government i n v e s t m e n t d e s c r i b e d by K u z n e t s further substantiated i n detailed econometric analysis K i m , M a h n - j e a n d I r m a A d e l m a n , I969. accompanying  table.  i s by  in  table Per  three  Capita  GNP o f F a r m a n d N o n - f a r m  Per  i960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 Note:  C a p i t a GNP o f t o t a l (won) Index  23,573 23,876 24,023 25,494 26,837 28,108 31,287 33,422  36,936 —All  Households  Figures  —Farm  Per  100.0 101.3 101.9 108.1 113.8 119.2 132.7 141.8 156.7 are estimated  households  includes  C a p i t a GNP o f f a r m Index (won)  I965  agriculture  126.4 116.0 115.4  — F a r m p o p u l a t i o n i n I968 i s e s t i m a t e d d u r i n g I963-I966.  100.0 92.7  104.2  110.1 108.5 118.9 132.2 152.4 179.9  63,340  market  and f i s h e r y population,  C a p i t a GNP o f N o n - f a r m (won) Index  36,015 33,399 37,521 39,654 39,068 42,812 47,596 54,882  118.2 114.9  constant  — T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s on t h e m i d - y e a r year-end population  — 1965:  100.0 100.3 98.2 103.4  15,853 17,473 15,543 16,368 18,711 18,196 20,023 18,510 18,279 at  Per  prices. households.  but farm  by t h e annual  population  of  i s on  1.6  increase  rate  Republic  of Korea,  per cent  271.50 W o n = $1.00 U . S . (Source:  1969 A:207)  25.  the  area  culture sis  on  of  industrial  and  manufacturing  light  related  to  and  the  production,  the  plan  n i n g was about  on  and  and  early  of  raising  have  since  the  idea  the  of  that  export  The  and  been the  a  the  need  ratio.  As  war  in  of  the  structure  the  been  the  s t i l l  high  levels  be  of in  structure.  there  to  thinking  emphasis  was  vs.  reflected  goods,  have  been  international  in  have  there  relatively  stated  has  empha-  capital-intensive  industrial  capital  gap would  also  shifts  Plan,  agri-  relative  industrial  which to  between  the  question  Although of  and  of  Five-Year  for  trade  the  relating  output  division  choice  the  number  Korea  First  of  thus  structure.  the  latter  labor-intensive  strategies  as  the  manufacturing,  integration  relative  acceptance the  of  industrial  r a i s i n g the  growing  between  There  targets As  and w i t h i n  specialization,  policy-makers  involved  industry.  degree  patterns.  Korean the  heavy  split  international trade  structure  in  plan-  concern  was  also  of  a  imports  closed mainly  by  Plan:  The u l t i m a t e c o u r s e o f t h e K o r e a n economy l i e s in industrialization. During the plan period of p r e p a r a t i o n for i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , emphasis w i l l be placed on...key i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s and adequate p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l overhead c a p i t a l , utilization o f i d l e r e s o u r c e s , some i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e b a l a n c e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l payments, p r i m a r i l y through i n c r e a s e d e x p o r t s , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement. ( R e p u b l i c o f K o r e a , 1962 B:29) As underway, and  as  tion of  preparation  positive  a consequence, industrial  far  marginal in  the  with  how  the  the  direction  or  aspects the  trends  seemed  policy  the of  Second  the  questions  structure  existing  adjustments  of  were  for  First  that the  would  Five-Year P l a n were  had  to  Second  be  Plan were  should  be  appropriate  rather  than  (Kuznets,  what  apparent  in  more  pursued  1969).  getting  becoming  answered  or  needed  P l a n was  connec-  in  and major  terms  what shifts  26.  The the  basic  modernization  tions  for  Major  Second  food and  steel  Plan  "Key  income  promotion be  dominated  emanated  demand  by  By  increased  and  to  on  the  import  B:33)•  and  management  these  targets  iron  sub-  of  man-  skills.  included  efficient  (Republic  in  substitution;  levels;  and  stability  founda-  1966  improvement  mobilization,  financial  promote  self-sufficiency  employment  emphasis  achieve  capital  build  Korea,  further  scientific  for  the  Second  Plan  the  desire  for  from  some their  of  the the  the  strongly.  Growth was  previously  seemed  and  visions  Plan  rapid  manpower  of  Korea,  in be  the  investment  bottlenecks  to  Second in  these  growth  the  rates  rapid  assured,  ample  so  industrial  structure  of  growth  increased  growth  of  and  exports,  to  and keep  by  projects  relying  the  which  in  I966 and  capacity  in  the  to  involved sectors  (Kuznets,  be  so  1969).  that  that  infrastructure  seriously  major  moving  I967  deficient.  a c c e l e r a t i o n and they  would  industries,  until  heavily  economy  rapid  proved  two  high  on  capital-intensive  fact  Plan  decisions  c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e manufacturing  intended  transportation  of  less  was  was  to  on  more  output  machinery,  of  pursued  capitalizing  mainly  delaying  power  of  of  c h e m i c a l , machinery  and h i g h e r  special  "  to  following:  the  expansion  with  and  (Republic  the of  planning  continuing  sum,  efficiency.  by  export  P l a n was  structure  economy."  output  to  Second  B). In  were  industrial  increased  by  and  the  included  growth,  expansion,  of  targets  family  strategies"  utilization  1966  of  resources  export  the  industries;  encouragement  power  of  a self-supporting  production;  stantial  objective  not  adequate  on  imported  ahead what  had  areas Early  of re-  expansion become  serious  27.  Export  Industry  Inducements  Expansion devaluation various cent  of t h ecurrency as total  exemption  from  thepersonal  exemption  production  and  lower  use  of domestic  credits  Growth  charges  were  t h ebusiness  incentives i n t a x ,fifty per  t a x and t h ecorporate and commodities  i n railway  for electricity.  i960  growth.  million;  itself  freight  Similar  To this  rates  treatment  package  (Kim, Nak-kwan,  In  to thepresent,  i960,  t h emain  payments  income t a x ,  imported f o r  f o r minerals  was g i v e n  for the  of incentives,  low-interest  1971:49-64).  goods  concentrated primary  difference  period,  accounted  bring  production  between  1971).  $32  goods  cannot  1967-1970  sector  goods.  margin  than  2.4%, grew  performance  By  production, the previously goods  of  rates, the  during  at a rate  levels,  i n  represents  The primary  whereas  This  i960,  exports.  fishery  growth  uneven.  1964,  From a b a l a n c e o f  as secondary  o f annual  by  growth h a s In  This  and unprocessed  i s markedly was only  (U.S.);  shown  was a t t a i n e d .  structure.  profit  I n terms  production from  mine  has  be overlooked.  i s a healthysign,  of farm,  million  18% o f t h e t o t a l  of t h etrade  i n a greater  picture  andi n d u s t r i a l  83% m a n u f a c t u r e d  sector.  Judging  export  o f $1 b i l l i o n  f o r barely  thesectors  t h esecondary  Nak-kwan,  this  on products  between  rate  growth  was r e v e r s e d ,  products  only  manufactured  of this  perspective,  Korea's  were  t h egoal  industrialization  industrial  growth  That  thrust  theratio  overall  exports  a n d b y 1970,  i s laudable.  manufactured  the  income  on raw m a t e r i a l s  and r e d u c t i o n  added  from  o f handsome  and continuous  o f t h e Economy  steady  an  exemption  raw m a t e r i a l s .  also  From  1970,  of duties  by a gradual  andt h e p r o v i s i o n  such  export  been  was s t i m u l a t e d  forms,  total  $100  of exports  sector  t h e same  o f 21.7% ( K i m ,  thebias  o f government  28.  development in  planning  export-led  the  primary  becomes  apparent.  industry-manufacturing  production  There sector  has  to  been  the  a decided  apparent  emphasis  neglect  of  sector.  Conclusions Rural development economy has tial  plans  have  been  development  been  n i l .  for  Korea.  neglected  These  controls  has  two  been  but  a minor  Traditionally, and  government  features  on development  are  part  the  rural  incentive  coupled with  locations  have  of  been  the  programmed  sectors  for  the  of  rural  fact  location  that  enumerated  in  the  no  the  spaofficial  plans. The  encouragement  of  the  secondary  conditions  has  been  economy  under  these  zation)  under  conditions  the  Republic  of  Korea,  prevalent  the  most  "economically  city.  Beyond  factors  in  decision-making  process  as  often  countries vant  such  factors  of  these  be  covered  A  Spatial  has  been  pressures  also  location in  shown  to  location  factors,  for  the be  Seoul.  location  these  dictate  some d e p t h  Plan  on  Korea,  both  with  manifest  in  of  to  also  the  function.  i n massive  and  largest and  presentation Korea.  nations  a myriad  culturally  In  sector  of  the  encouraging  rational"  theory,  quantifiable  the  Republic  tantamount  underdeveloped  primate  the  Western  in  production  including  location of In  urbani-  is  non-quantifiable underdeveloped  situationally  city.  A  rele-  discussion  non-quantifiable,  of  the  last  a foregoing  migration  and  the  will  chapter, chapter,  hence  this  spatial  29  Chapter  Three  CULTURAL  Historic  MILIEU  Background  In country,  central  evident  and  chapter  authority  loyalties  tended  directly  a  reason  strong  of  human  has  purely  than  to tracing that  create  to the central  seat  S i 11a  brought  o f moral  i s  of a  governto a  terms,  ( u p t o 918  this A.D.)  i n with  precept  a homogeneous of  terms  conditioned  In general  The Y i Dynasty merging  underdeveloped  the history  had been  of the unified  to further  f o r an  superficial  authority.  The complete  factors  significance. beings.  desires  ment"  of  history  are usually  i n urbanization.  It  an opportunity  tion  chain  terms  Summary  i t  and  population  governwith  power.  Precedents Economic  ive  i n more  i s devoted  (918-1392).  philosophy.  Orientation:  i n spatial  a constituency  oriented  Dynasties  Confucian  Historic  to plan  i n the early  Koryo  ing  This  Central  the milieu  and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  strictly is  purporting  understanding  imperative. ment  t o Current  arguments,  i s taken  to achieve  economic,  that those  Even  i s the basic  as a p r i o r i a higher  high  reasons  element  that  of  for success  "N A c h i e v e m e n t "  molds  through  (1964)  i s inherent  to  hold  lives  i n d i v i d u a l who  living  McClelland's  effect-  seem  which  not every  standard  excepting  the desire with  t o b e t h e most  Yet, the psychological  Attitude  to migrate.  considered  "N  migraAchieve-  and more  quotients  than  do not a l l  30.  f l o c k t o the c i t y  to present  their entrepreneurial s k i l l s .  not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the poorest to  move to the c i t i e s  sources  agricultural districts  i s the s t r o n g e s t .  It i s again  t h a t the  impulse  In many c o u n t r i e s , the main  of r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n have o f t e n been areas where the  c a p i t a output of a g r i c u l t u r a l  labor was  relatively high.  per  Therefore,  economic f a c t o r s operate w i t h i n a framework of e x t e r n a l i t i e s  (Breese,  1969). W i t h i n the Korean c o n t e x t , t h i s " p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r " i s what Ro,  Chung-hyun ( 1 9 7 0  c a l l s the " y e a r n i n g t o get a b e t t e r l i f e . "  h e l d t o be the impetus f o r the m a j o r i t y  of a l l m i g r a t i o n and  to  h i s t o r y and  the e a r l i e s t  p e r i o d of the c o u n t r y ' s  It i s  can be  f o l l o w e d to the  linked present.  Early History Among h i s t o r i a n s , t h e r e i s disagreement as t o the dates o r i g i n of K o r e a .  The  2300 B.C. t o 918 A.D.  h i s t o r y are from 918  A.D.  accepted  to 1392, date.  g e n e r a l l y accepted  the b e g i n n i n g 1392  Although the dates  dates  f o r the a n c i e n t p e r i o d  The medieval p e r i o d c o v e r s  of the Yi Dynasty and  t o the p r e s e n t  of the  i s considered  the f i r s t  of  from  fully  to be modern h i s t o r y .  of a n c i e n t h i s t o r y cannot be agreed upon, i t i s con-  s i d e r e d f a c t that the people were from a common s t o c k as were the northern Chinese. who  The  legendary  s e t t l e r s was  Tankun,  u n i f i e d a number of nomadic t r i b e s i n t o a s i n g l e kingdom i n the  of Pyong-yang, the present The  c a p i t a l of North Korea  S i n i f i e d government magnified  central authority. and  leader o f the f i r s t  a l l e g i a n c e to the  R u l i n g through c a r e f u l l y s t a n d a r d i z e d  r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m means, i t s s p i r i t was  d e d i c a t e d t o the o b l i t e r a t i o n of any  1970).  (Sunoo,  u n i t y and  region  institutions  t h a t of a j e a l o u s c e n t r a l i s m  unorthodox a c t i v i t i e s .  Not  only  political, regional  but also  growth,  influences  from  controlled-  steadily  of  its  had been  internal  tion  from  the  Dynasty  after  from  bureaucracy  (? -  diverse or  existed  were  years.  A  t h e 17th  the rapid of  of  rigidly  polity  the middle  the country,  of Japan,  and the  of  (Henderson,  certain  and e x i l e s  markets,  of the absence  there-  uniform  Century,  appointments  regional  the culture."  local  lack  or  feudal  1968:20).  was do d e v o i d  of  Not  of  devia-  A.D.) o f t h e S i 11a  of the twelfth  early  i n the tenth  was e s t a b l i s h e d ,  ranks  examination  or  forbidden  hundred  least  as a r e s u l t  c a n be had (Suematsu,  system.  and r e c e i v e d  grant.  gradually,  thirteen  chain  the records  fall  central  government  918  two sources  examination  but  either  the smallness  system,  the national  Chinese  government  encouraged  norm.  the final  servations  were  have  wealth,  as o r i g i n a l l y  by a t  "Moreover,  Although chiefly  created  t o homogenize  the kokutai,  S i 11a  through  the far-flung  even  would  individual  trade  differences  obstructions  tended  of  that  1968).  i n i t s social  officials,  power  through  regional  the Yi Dynasty.  fluidities  of  abroad  eliminated  nation-state  activities  the accumulation  (Henderson,  Such fore  economic  they  Even their  Originally, became  increased. candidates  lands,  these  A  lineage  limited  some  groups  rather  a primitive  theoretically  system  developed  to hereditary  long  valid  ob-  government version  drawn at  of the  from  least,  o f f i c i a l s were and t h e t i e s  a r e drawn  centuries,  semi-Sinified  o f f i c i a l s were  local  A bureaucratic were  century,  included local  of h i s t o r y  and t h i r t e e n t h  1954).  which  period  the  from  independent,  with  the central  such  that  ranks.  Merit  even and  32.  ascriptive  systems  began  ing  that  of  effect  By central local  the  central  concerns  S i 11a  power  tombs  countryside  Si 1l a ' s It  was  among  not  little  the  in  his  of  the  decisions.  four in  sanction.  sacred  the  peaks  society.  accompanied  by  access  to  to  council  the  capital  cityj A  They  The  right  would this  most  more  peculiar  persisted  ing  i n multi-membered device,  unusually  and  cultural  early  and  of be  councils  a  away  from  Buddhist  immense  capital  further  The  S i 11a  his  lineage  council  to  the  and  gulf of  that  the  elite  The  royal  viewed access  on  to  of  the  to  Korea's  met  on  also  capital  of  the  the  the  a veto drawn one  was  expression  values  history  have  of  numbers of  over on  of  was  a  to  central  (Suematsu,  role  seemingly of of  their election  of  the  done.  initiated a  the  the  played  power  is  non-  attraction  would  oligarchy  minimum  the  have  first  There  institutionalization  added  the  may  shamans  autocracy  as  exercised  feature.  the  status.  determined  always  potential  have  remarkable k i n g was  king,  have  centralized  in  the  hereditary  elite  The  a  religious  concentration  intensely  centraliz-  into  through  sometimes  not  the  rule.  than  of  High-born  certainly  so  may  of  A  and  alleged  and  to  system  long  rule.  capital.  political  and  from  council,  are  the  the  period.  rule.  throne  the  remains.  contained  in  attraction  has  this  the  derived  the  This  near  the  power  of  divinity  succession to  is  rank  drew  Except  standards  autocratic  hereditary  religious  the  legitimacy  indication  king's  impressive  values  an  it  local  continually  government.  few  between  but  incorporating  centralization  lodged  equals,  by  central left  show  betray  or  conflict,  here.  bureaucracy  toward  local  long  concern  examination  rank,  temples,  is  their  that  society  demand-  power.  Through  rule  began  195*0.  33.  Koryo  (918-1392)  Dynasty In  essence,  oriented  structure  extensive  Buddhist  the  capital  ands  with  of temples  i t  would  Buddhism,  of administrative  fight—for  Russia,  national  and i t s system,  interwoven  with  This  but these  rule.  system  t o Europe  distant  times,  institution,  central  and l o c a l  "With  and power  of  world  Korea  cultural  was soon  Dynasty  Korean  during  the Yi  much  t o stand  Ethiopia  useful  for  both  be c l o s e l y  close t o the  of t h e Koryo  r u l e r s weakened  Philosophical  i n dynastic  was accompanied change.  order  period,  Buddhist  forefront a  position  institutions."  from  the Koryo  more  T h e new g o v e r n m e n t  o f t h e monarchy  religion.  Basis  by c o n s i d e r a b l y  by Chu H s i i n t h e t w e l f t h  perpetuation state  change  political  expounded  l o s e when  (1392-1910): The  Dynasty,  achievement  culture  to pre-  1968:25).  (Henderson,  Yi  to  of Korean  country."  known  must  support  hierarchy  and t o  was a f r u i t f u l  the capacity  partly  of the  of that  The temple-monastery  associated  religion,  monastic houses  i s reminiscent  i t s rise  for the  existed  today.  purposes.  thous-  and t o communicate  and noble  i n more  agents  national  and t h e upper  the royal  an  literally  "Temples  security  center  counter-balance  local  as t h e e s t a b l i s h e d  this  developed  seem t o  i n essence,  throne  revolutionary  This  were,  1968:22).  (Henderson,  system.  continued  and f u r t h e r  and m o n a s t e r i e s  even  appropriately  S i 11a  force,  an instrument  the Koryo  from  local  became  for  inherited  (918-1392)  an e s s e n t i a l l y  government.  pray—and  Dynasty  monastic  central  to  the Koryo  century  revolution adopted  Ming  and t h e d i m i n i s h i n g  The p o l i t i c a l  qualities  period than  to the Yi previous  the Confucian  China,  form  and ensured  role  of Buddhism  of obedience  and l o y a l t y  the  as t h e ,  34.  strengthened despised The  new  within  labor  and was  Confucian  government literary getting  which  and  the  value  likewise  leaders gave  the  heart  indolent  monks  modified  the  long  Chu-shi,  the  important  accorded  the  highest  theories,  ality  as  the  opposed  aristocratic  state  1970).  Sung  during with to  its  a  long  guild  only and  Europe.  dominance, depth,  for  clan. But  it  In  differed  church  and  state.  church  had  no  and  the  power own  upper  tended,  was  Unlike  separate  of  first  the  of  a l l , a  its  theories  or  of was  adoption  which  of  that  thoughts  influence  Near  The  apex  of  code." this  of  of  ration-  ruled  with  lack  the  and,  resorted of  medieval  family,  church  of  division  between  Eastern  society,  the  be  (Reischauer  penetrated  were that  It  of  Those  " . . . t o  in  for  the  It  peninsula  everything  him.  power  life.  terms  but  even  China,  of  Its  and  of  represented  but  corrupt  teachings,  Korean  complete  said  Officials  the  resembled  as  ethical  rule  conduct,  it  in  of  controlled  of  of  opportunity  the  Dynasty  order.  system  nothing  only  the  the  new  u n i v e r s a l i s t i c system.  and  that  interpretation  With  society.  and  respects,  European  saw  Master's  Koryo  portion  vitally  the  codes,  to  this  previous  them  had  I966). of  level  in  Confucian  Buddhist the  Koryo,  learning  they  various  explanation  hierarchy.  been  the  where  bureaucracy has  resent  subjected  organization  these  respect  denied  of  the  l i t t l e  recognition.  every  every  state  of  in  Confucian  and  the  (Henderson,  comprehensive  differing  not  and  politics  authority  for  of  innovator  Confucianism was, provided  Of  Dynasty  the  to  affairs  body  respect Yi  to  learned  recognition,  entrenched  Buddhism,  afforded  advantages  of  (Sunoo,  these  had  the  rhetorical  into  system.  was  monarch  exercising  absolute and  the  within  Fairbank,  king's  political  name.  their  19^0:30). Unlike  35.  Europe's  medieval  perhaps,  even  side  central  degree  Koryo  government  t o push  covert  social As  i n China,  younger  brother,  it  and s o n , husband friend  i s pertinent  t o observe  household family  viewpoint,  and v i l l a g e ,  heads  superiors  Yi  i n such  the  many  France,  viewed  of  a world  as to  power  induce  relatione l d e r and  of the relation-  formed  a linearity but  a "feudal  European"  Strong  or  within  individuals  the ruler—direct  at  or  least  i n relationships with and t h e throne  village  (Henderson,  domestic  (temple)  and temple became  three  i n which  the village  any  bonds,  or  one's  with  i t was weak  i n  I968).  Philosophy  was the problem  the taxes  central  and s u b j e c t ,  from  guidance  p o l i c i e s from Buddhist  t o t h e new d y n a s t y .  the church  could, with  the five  was i n c o m p l e t e .  Beyond  relationships  t h e major  o f t h e monks  Consequently,  between  organizations.  problems  new g o v e r n m e n t  century for  many  when  power  around  relationships  to provide  Manifestations  Changing brought  that,  power  out-  1966).  ruler  relationships with  failed  representational  Dynasty:  These  no i n s t i t u t i o n s  central  The f i r s t  the linearity  i n organizations  colleagues all  i t  and w i f e ,  or  o f p l u r a l i s m no p r o p a n d  (Henderson,  i t envisioned  had d i r e c t  emotionally—and  toward  and f r i e n d .  essential.  Japanese  i t  communities,  a way a s t o c h e c k  Confucianism was b u i l t  most  even  were  allowed  t h e development  t o reach  Islamic  or r e l i g i o u s  i n such  so powerfully  mobility  father  gave  degree,  system  moral  interfere  society  ships:  the Yi  i n which  The system  1970).  tended  or to a lesser  Buddhism,  of independence,  (Sunoo,  ships  church  of  One o f t h e b a s i c  land  held  much  officials  so heavy  economy. land,  t o work  Like  to  problems  for  eighteenth  eliminating for their  f o r t h e commoners  Confucian  that  t h e need  living. they  were  36.  physically to  solve  the  unable  the  Koryo to  the  an  increased  temple;  It not  is  soil  from  the  central  king  and  subject,  were ing  granted  and  was  rights  designee  holdings  from  and  two  only  at  1900.  court.  from  to  rural  (Sunoo,  and  only  the  actual  that  the  rendering  the  inner  one When  in  level  to  of  no  tendency  started one  at  fell  have  to  build  court  from  and  favor,  local  he  right  to  only  to  rights succeed-  keep  rare to  the  the  cases  have  his  1966). few  notable  came  The  subject  but  between  to  In  to  authority,  much  very  up  right  did  survived  had  land  agricultural  (Henderson,  aristocratic circles  the  each  land  1949,  the  that  enough  in  to  of  state  possible  fact  a meritous  today  t i t l e  loyalty.  The  the  made  local  only  During  the  relationship  alive.  reform  families  a  subject  perpetuity  land  the  tenure.  and  be  from  generally  king to  not  to  peasants  that  enhanced  life  either  income.  This  for  the  planned  peasants.  personal  between  land  to  came,  and  the  belonged  crop  controlled  to  Yi, government  old  large  until  recent  continuous power  own  or  forfeited  land  to  times  wealth  make  derive  his  a  bid  benefit  holdings  1970). In  academic  and  claim  T h e r e was  land.  lands  this  three  Rather,  the  The  land  land  renew  before the  the  intermediate  considered the  or  the  an  these  had  Even  since  sans  the  though,  government.  and  run w i t h  of  farmers,  harvest  relationship  the  half  production  the  strictly  generation  linear  about  to  situation.  distributing  significant,  the  the  distributing  rendered  l a n d was  by  national  t i l l  the  cope w i t h  problem  Dynasty,  or  was  to  order  to  institutions  Sunggyungwan,  promote as  a Confucian  Confucianism,  centers  of  university  the  Confucian attached  government  learning. to  erected  These  a Confucian  several  included  shrine  in  37.  Seoul. the  The u n i v e r s i t y  highest  level  Ritual surrounded people.  still  of Confucian and pageantry  t h e monarch  Witness  remains  i n operation  scholarship were  the following  i n Korea  important  and i n f l u e n c e d  from  as a symbol  he had over  a n 1894  issue  of  1970).  (Sunoo,  i n the mystique  the hold  account  today  that  the of  common  Harper's  Weekly: ...a r o y a l p r o c e s s i o n i n S e o u l i s by f a r t h e most extraordinary s p e c t a c l e o f t h e k i n d t o be seen on t h e face of the e a r t h . 'Barnum's grand parade i s nothing i n c o m p a r i s o n , ' my i n f o r m a n t t o l d m e , ' a n d t h e L o r d Mayor's pageant i n London i s p a l t r y b e s i d e i t . ' In t h e K i n g ' s company a r e t r u m p e t e r s and m u s i c i a n s , a n c i e n t bowmen i n t h e q u e e r e s t a n d m o s t preposterous u n i f o r m s , banners, masks, f a n - b e a r e r s , gorgeous noblemen a n d a l l t h e r e s t t h a t g o e s t o m a k e u p t h e m o s t s p l e n d i d and f a n t a s t i c O r i e n t a l p a g e a n t r y . He moves a b o u t w i t h a f o r c e o f a t l e a s t 2000 m e n , a n d t h e y i n c l u d e e v e r y s o r t o f f u n c t i o n a r y known t o an e a s t e r n potentate. H i s majesty h i m s e l f i s adorned beyond t h e l i l i e s i n magnificence. He w e a r s r o b e s o f p u r p l e ablaze w i t h g o l d , both before and b e h i n d . He w e a r s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y h a t , and i s s e a t e d i n a s p l e n d i d c h a i r t h a t i s c a r r i e d by s i x t y g o r g e o u s l y c l a d b e a r e r s . He i s s h e l t e r e d by a m a g n i f i c e n t awning o r canopy o f p u r p l e and g o l d . (Ralph, 1894:1039). The and  their  Tongnae Living  senior  Chongs  branches  from  more  of p o s i t i o n . i s hard  men,  whom  moved  to Seoul  more  became  known  by t h e i r  location  Hoedong, became  remote Except  to find  t h e Andong equated  Koreans  place.  one's  would  This  of the times  from with  to serve  residence,  as r e a l  loss  the less  was i t s c h i e f  was i n f l i c t e d upon  less  permanently  i n Seoul:  the  e t c .  of favor  or  with  government. chance  rebels  o f known local  or  Changdong,  the  Century  the thousands  describe  penalty  Kims  either  f o r a f e w 19th  a n y among  Symbolic remote  clans  and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s r e f u s a l The  it  family  i n the country  determined  had  great  one's  like  names  leaders  Hong  of Y i  Kyong-nae, Dynasty  (Henderson,  punishment—exile thousands  sons  1966).  to a  and i t was one  38.  of  the  only  system  Yi  forms  the  final  an enforcement  It  had  strong  it  had  no  sage.  felt the  the to  thened  so  were had  as  no  and  chief  position  the  of  systems moral with  not  of  a double  appointed  This of  a church  an  Its  head.  correctly  apply  them  to  respected in  the  role  in  a  dynastic  and  wiser  only  the  administration,  He  was  responsible  realm;  mandate:  effect,  system  of  organization  degree  and  but  only  the  ruling King.  administrators,  government and  to  consequently  was  the  system  of  true  but  left  a  of  higher  streng-  whose not  in  name,  his  The  any  and  be thus  "religious"  political  were who  his  and  sanctioned were  theologians.  strong  rivalry  and  the  literati  was  a  ruler  should  moral for  by  The  ruler  heaven  indi-  separate  decided  the  of  Individual  appointment.  for  a  whole, intent  theory  The  Yet by  such  the  one.  was  on t h e  the  was  judges  prevented  moral  question  government.  bureaucrats, heaven  but  official,  of  rule  rewarded,  essence,  The  political  ceremonies.  situation.  governmental the  a  religious  that  perceived  society.  by  was  occasionally  i n what  and and  progress  given  In  only  unitary  understanding, the  but  the  and  system.  dominate  and  the  hierarchy  in  theory  Social  not  rites  embracing,  the  the  were,  se.  in  as w e l l .  tone  the  hierarchy,  relative head  from  ethical  texts,  sage  no  sage,  of  individual  should  a moral,  the  place  church/religious the  to  body w i t h  understanding  was  at  also  per  part  sometimes  education  religious  was  C o n f u c i a n i s m was  impressive  worship  p l a c e when  classics  but  and  s a g e was  emperor  vidualism  analysis,  doctrines  the  take  insights  extractable  centralized.  system,  structured  But  development"  Conclusion  In  which  "local  uncompromisingly  Dynasty:  and  of  development  between  church  and  39.  state  could  hierarchy. others and  develop.  The  bureaucracy  grew;  its  church  the  society  even that  encroachments ized  were  completely. but  and  of  and  developed  Innovation  ever  present  not  just  and  to  to  society  government it  tended  and  to  qualms this  Two  not to  flood and  values  doctrinal  The  but,  in  practice, into  political a  induced  this  of  as  pockets  not  able be  to  from  it  were On  concern  hand,  and  religious  any  whole.  By  and  centralization  of  to  hand,  contest  for  criticism  was  change  involved  In  theory  combination riveting  on  almost  confined politics,  served  to  attentions,  concern w i t h  ethical,  Korea's  resist  one  religious  emotional  in  became  struggle.  religio-political  European  tantamount  the  opposition  or  institutional-  administration  other  within  detested  associations  could  all  Buddhism  the  fettered.  deep,  over  politics  religious geography,  administra-  emotion.  hardened  unquestioning  not  were  political,  Operating  strongly  s t i l l  a l s o moral  power  of  and  obedient  but  be  rival  only  criticism; the  its  multiplied.  to  political  effect,  an  Manifestations  time  rules  thus  On  pattern  enormous  even  and  a powerful  career;  example,  Caesar,"  were  of  state  departures  a d m i n i s t r a t i on w i t h  and  for  Government  vicious.  introduce  the  guilds  unto  change  together only  Contemporary  ment w i t h  in  highest  of  careers whetted  principles.  pattern  tion,  and  often  extent  its  polity  something  function,  precept;  Confucian and  into  Korea.  administrative  some  knot  in  alternative  forces  and  the  the  authoritarian  religious  through  became  "giving  make  heresy.  power  The  while  with  of  deprived  forced  Islam  entwined  lack  It  centripetal  hierarchy  avoided  a  not  of  Traditional  tradition  acceptance  has  of  Patterns  receiving  remained  in  the  word  evidence  of  govern-  i n many  phases  40.  of  Korean  tional  society.  belief  cannot  manifestations the  Confucian  quashed  by  Japanese  of  will  of  the  The cultural  of  economics,  all  or  structure  become  but  These  Dynasties  revolution  vertical  terms  Korea.  and Y i  war,  science,  and  tradi-  certain  indicate  has  not  that  been  modernity.  of  the  society,  education  manifest  in  the  and  govern-  viewing  the  of  this  System",  viewed.  to  chapter the  becomes  divided  educational  "Government  structure, which  is  these  crucial  with  the  two  sections.  philosophy  Structure"  is  president  sections if  into  reflect  a  at  and  policy  descriptive the  apex.  a philosophic  the  plan  is  to  philosophies  have  tended  be  and  appropriate  people. "Religion  implementation (Hayashi,  the  of  and  which  ancient  is  attempted  of  the  the  traditional  for  The is  a  problem  of  the  exists  Asiatic of  the  from  and  the  cultural  tradition  the  solution  than  the  the  morals. does  the  direct  exist  for  application  of  All  the  of  to  coordinate tradition,  too  often,  of  the  country.  Christianity, own  the  countries."  manifestations  their of  hinder  a Christian  implications  contemporary  Substitution  not  attempts  countries.  c u l t u r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l base of  to  i n many A s i a n in  concept  consideration  understanding mores  modernization  a Western  culture  without  intrinsic  basic  plans  1966:269).  modernization,  in  Koryo  policy,  pyramid  extent  in  behavior  Korea.  be  background  the  lies  as  in  the  a case  contemporary  the  in  first,"Educational  portrayal  with  of  remainder  structure  in  of  power,  scene  The  for  hard  as  occupation,  a s we11  contemporary  and  proven  seen  concepts  politics  the  modern  be  c a n be  centralization  In  c o r r e l a t i o n between  tradition  The  ment  The  religion  a "successful"  this  patterns  The of for is  answer the which  no  more  program  from  i»1.  some  other  tion  that  h a s made  up t h e fundamental  simply  replaced  or "planned  be the  experience.  Japanese  basic  modernization  philosophical The  the  Korean  that of  is typical  difference opment  with  original  standing  culture  Educational  System:  The  t h e outcome  role  example  have manifested education basis a  The  by r o t e  goal  economic  produced  plan  devel-  through  b e t h e same a s  Consequently,  and p o l i t i c a l  i s one  fundamental  of Western  1966:83).  to  function  legacy  of t h i s  one, can hardly  of a proposed  education  plays  i n Korea  perspective thinking  i n other  milieu  an i s  undermost  i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l .  i n the current  early  of education  i s possible  as well  to write  was to develop  of t h e Y i  i n regard  a small  of the as  itself.  philosophy  which  of  characters  learned  Dynasty  to education  the learning  Chinese  milieu  the role  to understand  as an end i n  Dynasty,  cultural  By v i e w i n g  of the Confucian  i n the Yi  and t h e a b i l i t y  i t  today.  of the people  fields  the influence  i n Korea  social  o f how t h e c e n t r a l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s  of the current  dominant ethics  that  in historic  Under  of the  Traditional  themselves  key t o success  of  a n d t h e new c u l t u r e  Jaihi,  of  i s foreign  the Korean  Because  of the cultural-philosophical i f  a good  (Choi,  and f l e x i b i l i t y  theory  tradition,  traditional  cannot  of the success  i n development  the two, the transplanting  of modernization  tradi-  1966).  the egalitarian  and c e n t r a l i s m .  the Korean  of the people  The secret  balance  of North American  significant  is  character  (Hayashi,  Unlike  between  cultural-philosophical  around."  of geographic  structure  schemes  contacts the  idea  rooted  lay i n the tolerance  beliefs  context.  vertical  A deeply  class,  became  Confucian were from  stressed. which  the  42.  wisest would  men a n d r u l e r s be able  social tion  to find  problem.  which  the  this  finer  forms  things  of this  who,  although  teaching.  value  t h e base  system.  tion  t h e proper  Little  There were under  of the country  ideal  alone  highly  T h e most  was placed  basically  life  ethical  of Western  Ideally,  of  would  be provided.  formula  to solve  on t h e k i n d  and as a source  i n the lives  r e c e i v e d no f i n a n c i a l  common m o t i v a t i o n  of r e l a t i v e  leisure,  were  solely  cheating most a  and nepotism were  common b a s i s  friends to  private date  advance.  The examination  schools giving  (Sunoo,  after  system was f o r c i b l y system  the  this  type  trialization  and entry  means  i n the classics  they  were t h e  procuring were  still  and no powerful  was t h e only  of education persisted  these  Actually,  of study  system was abandoned  the turn  of the century,  impressed on t h e Korean  of public education designed  Japanese  was that  f o r those  years  of moderate  their  i n 1895, long a f t e r  road although that  1970:24-47).  Shortly  a  competence  system.  Even  however,  for  Theoretically,  a n d a t some p e r i o d s  favoritism,  and f o r the son of a family  of the scholars,  appointment  an examination  appointment.  enjoying The opera-  however,  and p o s i t i o n .  n o t uncommon  personal  i n the government,  social  through  of governmental  p o s i t i o n through  essential,  wealth  of  rewards  for education,  into  filled  examina-  an education  a s a means  o f some  o f r e c e i v i n g a governmental  positions  of critical  of self-improvement.  e d u c a t i o n w a s a means life  any s p e c i f i c  for getting  education was valued  regarded,  clique  logic.  two motivations  i s found  This  cultural  sphere  scheme they  people.  to help  a n d t o make  them  had f o r t h e Korean  another  The Japanese  incorporate useful  colony.  educational adopted  t h e Koreans  citizens Through  into  of an indusJapanese  43.  influence, to  a  elementary education  larger  Korea, most  by  of  virtue  the  resentment training their sis  proportion  of  the  cultural  Educational  rate  the  in  removed  from  for  c h i l d r e n to  would  lead  one  free-thinking, philosophy of  innovative  marched  they  ideals the  of  The  the  to  good  school.  is  think  to  real,  to  but  the  view  is  at  product  of  of  for  in  held  reinforced education As  as  a  part  the  Confucian  both  of  empha-  tradition.  Techniques education"  at  the  such the  the  the  is  a  much  school  system would apparent  students  high  opportunity  grammar a  and  process  Although  generation, chance  population  maintained  part  spread  education,  of  educational  least  were  officials.  Japanese  "universal the  of  situation  countries.  younger  minimize  the which  for  the  This  Classroom  school,  that  level  administrative  rote,  the Western go  higher  Japanese  traditional  however, by  The  skills  level, be  a  educational  to  gain  a  sense  i n i t i a t i v e . *  on t o  listen  in  and  opportunity  innovative  tends  At is  to  elite  the  Contemporary  Korea  that  and  learning  technical  population.  positions.  pattern,  System;  Today,  all  the  some  comparably  Japanese  for  on u n c r i t i c a l  literacy  their  the  administrative  ground  own  of  of  and  At  a  beginning the  of  playing  s p e e c h by  observations  start  of  the  school week,  f i e l d where  the  scholarship, the  each  principal  obeying  of  each  Korean  the  class  the  standing of  the  teachers period,  educational  in  entire rigid  school. and the  student  the  formation,  He  espouses  regulations  students  system were  body  are  the of  called  gleaned  d u r i n g 1967-1970, w h e n t h e a u t h o r w a s a U . S . Peace Corps V o l u n t e e r i n r u r a l and u r b a n K o r e a n s c h o o l s w o r k i n g as a t e a c h e r and a l s o as an i n s t r u c t o r i n R . O . K . M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s ' workshops.  to  attention  whole  bows  class  is  by  to  the  to  is  marked  on  marked  on t h e  be  were  based  school  clases,  on command,  the  The  announces  teaching with  monitor  on  fixed  guidelines  body  rote  fact,  or  class  as  a  that  the  hierarchical  of  of  learning,  materials  examinations  expect  differ  form  presentation  of  struc-  where  and  are  on  rote  almost  learning.  fluidity  of  type  today,  of  and  a classical  one w o u l d  in  expression  rigid  a  tests  where  methods  Confucian  system  encouraged,  creative  find  l i t t l e .  of  and  to  the  virtue  Students  movement.  proportion,  of  are  Rather, shading  not  they and  are mastery  reproduction. In  henceforth, lum o f be  the  objective  art  to  teacher.  regimented  the  exception  creativity  vein,  very  In  The  the  and  listen.  examinations  without  monitor,  reminiscent of the  memorization.  of  salutes  are  This  state  class  another  material  ture.  or  ready In  the  a  all  step  practice who  1969,  "creative secondary  towards it  has  themselves  ill-equipped they cal ly  a  not have  to  unable. per  renders  student  an  Each  Ministry writing"  schools.  of  Education  was On  to  proven never  to  cope w i t h the  of  the  each  of  the  classes  the  task  of  evaluation  integral  a  this  of  creative  must has of  responsibility.  announced of  the  might  be  thought  gesture.  creative  activities.  policy,  they  instruct  five  fifty  seventy  even  one  to  that  part  philosophy,  token  methods  government  day;  overwhelming  than  in  teachers  Seoul  educational  the  pupils  an  in  surface,  more  learned  their  of  be  be  the  liberalization  guide  i l l - t r a i n e d to  classes This  the  to  assignment  Consequently,  the  curricu-  but The  in teachers  expression Not are  only  per task  are are  logisti-  seven boys  to  different or  girls.  week of  per  45.  meaningful are  generally  handed of  evaluation given  input  based  Within  not  i s a l l that  prepare  course  of  concert cal  them  life.  on i n c e n t i v e  they  Confucian  imagination  i n the approach  It  frowned i s easy  source In  of  upon  as being  of  extreme  will  will  meet  on r o t e  terms  c r i t i -  training,  g e t , does  i n the  ordinary  memorization,  unrelated  must  shown  deference.  The p r a c t i c a l  being  conditioned  into  accepting  observations,  traits form  to  practi-  i s  "brash".  or whatever  as unquestionable, position  upshot  i s that  of this  and  the  authority.  and l i n e a r i t y  be of s u p e r i o r  1967-1970.  exercises  of unquestioned  structure  the policy  considered  or even  the textbook  i s extolled  of the  and not  i n school  "improper",  a position  of v e r t i c a l  that  Proper  creativity  a setting,  the "authority"  are residual  to a problem  line",  be g i v e n  holds  Author's  school  students  learning  instruction.  "out of  virtue  the "authority"  there  and s o l u t i o n  i n such  would  a similar way—the If  placed  abstract  then,  methods  to see that  reinforced.  i s still  who e x h i b i t  reference,  in  1968:364-67).  the schools  Students  students  t h e main  and secondary  problems  and v e r b a l i z e d  which  experience,  for the practical  traditional  are  elementary  emphasis  noting  monitors  i sn i l .  and t h e l e a r n i n g  i s that  and student  The net change  of  (Henderson,  virtuous.  did not.  majority  Great  Within  of simply  the overwhelming  recitation,  life  and which  the school  of the curriculum  which  i s neglected  the responsibility  i n the assignments  student  cism  of the papers  i s  then  therefore  the students  of a broader  i t  societal  are  vertical  46.  structure  with  a  This  concept  organizational above  logically defined of  structure  described  apex  vertical of  the  educational  of  power.  structure  educational  "phi 1osophy"  manifests system  and  as  itself well  as  in  the  in  the  micro-environment  of  the  classroom.  Educational  System:  Structure  Immediately Military  Government,  transformed. tions in  of  its  after South  Japanese  Korean  place.  was  major  premise  objective  of  primary  education  essential  1970 •  Subsequently, were  Education children  written  Law  between  which  government government,  in or  into  the  ages  a  Public few  administrations.  dependency  are  Annual,  to  of  a by  the  for  schools  Schools to  observations,  of  1967-1970.  of  (Korea right  schooling  of  of  state  and  Education either  of by  city,  latter  type  of  level  Annual, the The  of  all  1963).  private the: the  by  that  basic  of  Korea,  financed  the  the  Constitution.  financed  elementary  1970 •  Author's  system  genera-  notion  with  basic  (Republic  American  substituted  l i f e . "  compulsory  are  two  the  child  a  Korea's  Ministry are  as  the  radically  nearly  s y s t e m was  national  old  combined  schools  limited  of  of  s y s t e m was  every  education  aegis  s y s t e m was  new  newer  years  the  a  the  reached  provide  serve  6-11  cases,  provincial  usually  the  Republic  has  supervised  Seoul. in  of  under  had  and  1949 c a l l e d  currently is  is  to  the  in  which  in  guarantees  enacted  Korea schools,  education  II,  educational  abolished  "...the  people  War  Korea's  education,  youth, The  World  national central  county  or  financial  institutions  (Korea  47.  According  to official  figures,  of  t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e 6-11 y e a r  by  1962, h o w e v e r ,  group.  Although  theofficial these  school  (44% o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y  middle  school  purported  enrollment  especially which  graduates),  true  place in  over, or  this  1945,  General  higher rate  (Paik,  advances  o f t h eJapanese  colonial  7,374 w e r e  beyond  t h ehigh  graduates Today, 3I.5  school  of colleges  by c o n t r a s t , o f whom  institutions  live  sities,  64 g r a d u a t e  22 v o c a t i o n a l Most  i n t h eRepublic learning  schools,  With  a s o f 1970  rate  o f 90% o r  t h evast  expansion  since  "educated"  3,150,000  o f 22,793,766.  or graduate  school  level  population  ( O h , John  Kiechang,  b y 45 m i l l i o n Of t h e s e ,  (Korea  70%  o f t h e Government-  were  1963).  people,  193,591 w e r e i n  A n n u a 1,  colleges,  1971).  16 t e a c h e r s '  s c h o o l s a n d 16 m i s c e l l a n e o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s have  population  i n t h e 71 c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r -  13 j u n i o r  of theinstitutions  has taken  i s perhaps  population  of Korea.  under  literacy  lists  i s populated  a r ee n r o l l e d  that  of thecountry's  22,064 o f t h e t o t a l schools  This i s  philosophy  T h e 1944 c e n s u s  at t h euniversity  or technical  students  I963).  (29%  close t o the  program  effective  out of a total  andonly  even  school  claims a literacy  government  t h epeninsula  of higher  These  tion.  enrolled  schools;  I963).  educational  steadily.  70% o f  primary  i s profound.  Hyun-ki,  that  Hyun-ki,  and high  of educational  theprofile  believe  19,692,775 " u n e d u c a t e d "  Only  schools  The government  observers  attending  of a figure  (Paik,  has changed  over  d r a s t i c a l l y f o r middle  graduates)  t h e impact  o f t h emassive  proportions.  a l i t t l e  and  impact  b u t most  o f f rather  school  are educated  were  a little  h a d r i s e n t o 95% f o r t h e s a m e a g e  o f t h eelementary  i n thesixties  drastic  drop  considering t h e type  thepupils The  age group  figure  figures  i n 1952,  responded  colleges,  of higher  t o t h e tremendous  educadesire  48.  for  higher  education  government  is  increasing, country.  but  Not it  There  are  enrolled  government  (Korea  are  the  bound  adult  to  Ministry  in  the  schools  number  largest  under  days  the  The  on  of  the  on  single or  allotted  24%  of  the  popula-  and  enrollments in  gross  the  the  of  future  the  of  that  many  total  organization  sanction  for  the  institutions  ideas  a week  effects  system  of  students,  1971).  six  lasting  of  control  controls  the  major  designation The  national  university  colleges  points  of  President  the  (Paik,  of  not  national  education  thinking  the  national  their  that  the  classroom teachers  has  been  system  formative of  the  years  future  Hyun-ki, opposed  1963). to  appoints  general the  the  provincial  policy,  holding  selection and  of  president  must of  universities for  and  textbooks  supplies  candidates  The  the  be  the as  well  teachers'  I963). control  are  relatively  that  One  criticism  to  free  political or  obvious  facilitates  deems  advancement  professional  the  extensive.  and  teachers,  presidential  government  indication  demotion,  of  of  whom t e x t b o o k s  national  government  the  the  the  is  standards  curricula,  Republic  Hyun-ki,  view  the  of of  government  dismissal  from  the  the  determines  and  selection  tight  by  agents  and  This  some  only  examinations,  bought.  controlling  education  employment  and  the  of  Education  of  in  the  excess  1970 •  educational  million  7.5  Annual,  grading  as  is  in  population. The  but  the  only  students have  of  students  Annual,  constitutes  population  on  (Korea  influence  immense.  impose  enrolling  a l 1 owances The  tion  by  be of  is  q u a l i f i c a t i o n has  of  direct  school  that  proscription  unacceptable.  a f f i l i a t i o n  transfer  the  been  principals  political  become  Although  interference, has  there  influential (Paik,  a f f i l i a t i o n  paramount  to  of  much  as  thinking  49.  in  the teachers'  vice-principal the  school  room where  looms.  to varying Students  role  Further,  s y s t e m makes  adjustment  high  school  the  examinations  for a rigidity  with  a prestigeous  institution,  as  much  as does  examination in  struggles  Seoul—approach  capacity making only The  to repay,  desperate  cattle child  examination  over.  Even  ment  upon  whelming will  a family  and land  constant  a shattering  father  skimping  study,  place  will  this  takes  does  place  The overwhelming graduation; odds,  this  they  the a s p i r i n g  be enhanced  Author's  majority  by t h e b e s t  observations,  student  leave  1967-1970.  conceivable and c l o t h i n g ,  farmers  crucial  outside  sell  not  college. entrance  accom-  until  the country  i t is  during  the  h i s examinations. where  success  success  beforehand. feels  located  The mother  and w a i t s  ensure  attainable  through  one s o n t h r o u g h  and every  seat  as t h e  on food  that  i n the academic  i n the succeeding  of college graduates  know  go  beyond  ambitious  crisis.  not  i n an arena  n o t by a n y means  passing  a coveted  as w e l l  borrows  to send  emotional  to the examination  odds,  schools—virtually a l l  one of h i s c h i l d r e n i s u n d e r g o i n g  of t r i a l s  rounds.  t o almost  government's  o f an i n d i v i d u a l  In the villages,  house  a high-ranking  All round  Many  permit  examinations  t o ensure  The f i n a n c i a l  the best  not  over  innovation.  overwhelming  scores  a l l property,  sacrifices.  becomes  the child  when  mortgaging  but sometimes  panies  time  the student.  pandemonium.  i s driven  high  of  or  control  does  i n national  of  the parents  t o enter  of c e n t r a l  by t h e c e n t r a l  t o compete  sufficiently  to principal  of policy which  In the face  in  pressure  degree  affected  have  and c o l l e g e .  promotion  or acceptance  are personally they  of  the high  situations  i n education where  for  the prospect  face  In the face  h i s chances  educational  unemploy-  of  record.  See a l s o Henderson,  of  over-  success Another  I968.  50.  rationalization than  t o be unemployed  educated The to  i s that  the nation's  of vast  excess  character  waste  cult  t o explain without  Such  This  i n the heart education  with  of even  i t s cause  They  an e d u c a t i o n ,  idolization  constitute  voluntarily  postulating  vain  1968).  (Henderson,  and f r u s t r a t i o n .  of o v e r r i d i n g  t o be unemployed  education.  ingrained  with  needs  i s better  without  men i s d e e p l y  abnormalities  i t  t h e poorest  farmer.  an important  key  mar t h e  imposed  of  profile  damage  i n cultural  i s  d i f f i -  drives  or  importance.  C l e a r l y i n K o r e a , these needs a r e not e d u c a t i o n alone...The tumorous spread of e d u c a t i o n and i t s c l u s t e r i n g i n the c a p i t a l , which has turned into p r o b a b l y t h e w o r l d ' s g r e a t e s t producer o f unemployed graduates, betray the single-mindedness of t h e c u l t u r e ' s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a c c e s s t o c e n t r a l power. ( C h o i , J a i h i , 1966)•  Educational  System;  Conclusion  Education thinking can  then,  of t h e Korean  be j u s t i f i e d  techniques  that  conditioned  a r e employed  to respect  classroom as well  and  the Ministry education  also are  be seen  people  the authority  i n the system work  i n the education  because  limited  the  of  key t o success  as the source  i n tandum  tendencies  sphere:  facilities  of school.  of those  and b)  i n any f u t u r e  This  who w r i t e  that  Although  of  textbooks The concept  of the people can  the central  a) t h e l i m i t e d  endeavors.  are  of the people.  to exaggerate  the concept  and t h e t e a c h i n g  Students  of authority.  goals  statement  a t t h e head  on t h e t h i n k i n g  of educational  i n directing the  focus.  of the teacher  as the a u t h o r i t y  force  force  as a process,  at a l l levels  of Education  that  a central  of education  as a c e n t r a l i z i n g  two f a c t o r s  as a strong  towards  on t h e b a s i s  the  of  c a n be s e e n  There oriented  opportunities education the  holds  limited  51.  opportunities  may b e r e a l ,  over  from  both  o f t h e above  in  Korea  the Yi  Dynasty factors  Structure:  Confucian  teachings,  are undeniably  Korean  between  tion  designed  However  carried  viewed,  centralizing  of government  the o f f i c i a l  Government  factors  i s viewed  a r e embodied  doctrines  body  and t h e people  to maintain  proper  relationship  arrange-  but as a natural among  in  of the Y i  not as a c o n t r a c t u a l  the governing  institu-  men i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l  order. Tongmong Sonsup  "ruler  ships  strong  a concept  Tenets  concepts  which were  (1392-1910).  ment  that  i s clearly  of e d u c a t i o n .  Philosophical  Traditional  social  perspective  factor  today.  Government  Dynasty  the second  (The F i r s t  and subject"  i n t h e human  represent  community  Reader  of Confucian  one of t h e f i v e  (Rutt,  Ethics)  natural  teaches  relation-  i960).  The d i v i s i o n between r u l e r and s u b j e c t i s t h e r e l a t i o n between heaven and e a r t h . One i s h i g h and r e s p e c t e d , t h e o t h e r i s l o w l y and b a s e ; t h e h i g h a n d r e s p e c t e d commands t h e l o w l y a n d b a s e , and t h e l o w l y and b a s e s e r v e s t h e h i g h and r e s pected. This i s t h e unchanging order of heaven a n d e a r t h , t h e same now a s o f o l d . ( R u t t , 1960:92). Government tially ted  as a "government  and followed  primarily  the rules  only  when  people  of proper  conduct.  could  by H e a v e n  and was expected Since  of wise  l a w , but was regarded  able  to cultivate  r u l e r was  to indoctrinate  not be swayed  virtue  subjects  his punitive  by r e a s o n  as a f a t h e r ,  powers  and i n s t r u c t i o n .  the welfare  within  essen-  men t o b e r e s p e c -  The ideal  He e x e r c i s e d  to regard,  government  virtuous  conduct.  and a p r e c e p t o r  h i s subjects  was charged  upon  of men"—ideally,  as models  a teacher  with  He  was not based  of the  himself.  w a s one o f m e n , man w a s r e s p o n s i b l e  i f the  52.  country viewed from The  disorder.  right  of  social  change  of government  Government  natural within  which  century  may b e a m o o t  of government  some  d i d much  From  of  19^5,  issue  of  immediate  Military  Government  i t s direction,  American,  reviewed  representatives  chairman,  Rhee,  for South  a mixed  foreign  of  within  central  government  the actual  strict  roots  of the  of the  created  Owes  during  their  Korea was l i b e r a t e d  by v i r t u e  national  framework.  Korea i t  independence,  were  taken  replaced  American-Korean  constitutions  A document  convened  of the  i n 1945  committee,  was adopted  Japan's i n  Korea  but few c o u l d  The f i r s t  the  on J u l y  steps  in  by t h e in  headed  to fashion  under  of  agreement  the Japanese  i n order  rule  1904).  to Japan",  popular  last  great  and a u t h o r i t a r i a n  law and o r d e r  was a general  as " t h e  structure  colony  after  the  rebellion  Korea was a de j u r e  of the committee  Syngman.  upwards  t o the Y i Dynasty  Korea  on a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  a constitution  American  for  ("What  i n the P a c i f i c War, there  the world.  the right  the Japanese  i t was t h e i r  when  of  i960  to  That  Although  1945,  order  by t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l  exist.  respect  u n r e s t was  r u l e r s who d e v i a t e d  the bottom  a strong  c a n be t r a c e d  Korea  until In  to agreement  Under  that  over  1910  empire.  on t h e b r o a d  The  feel  rule  must  point.  t o encourage  imperialistic  writing  with  although  Century  i s furthered  the populace  form  bitterness,  Twentieth  life"  present  defeat  or s o c i a l  i960).  (Rutt,  the perception  of  from  was not a l l o w e d ,  Structure:  order  Japanese  disfavor  initiated  i n the theory  Today,  come  catastrophe  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e p r e s c r i b e d  implicit  that  Natural  as an i n d i c a t i o n of Heaven's  their  order was  suffered  Korea. by an  a model.  temporary 12 a n d  and  promulgated  Throughout almost  constant  lature  and Rhee.  power. more  Over  tially  t h e Korean  political  period,  This  uprising  i960  of A p r i l ,  Government  continued  replaced  i960  which  amendment,  the presidential  system with  He  was t o be e l e c t e d  by a j o i n t  h i s r o l e was l i m i t e d  by  state  result poses  party  Second  Republic  1961.  with  of  the fulfillment  National  of more a n d  of the  essen-  student  o f t h e Rhee  would of  Reconstruction,  The  functions  lived.  also  of  regime.  The  legislature executive  pur-  by t h e Law  Reconstruction the  fundamental  tasks.  The Supreme  d i d not c o n f l i c t  for the junta,  suspended  as a  was f o r a l l  as they  functions  President.  1968).  insofar  body  similar  which was e l e c t e d  and superseded  that  Republic,  the  I n M a y , 1961,  for National  and j u d i c i a l  of the courts were  only.  (Henderson,  law provided  be h o n o r e d  system  the bicameral  junta  the governing  l e g i s l a t i v e , executive  t h e Second  the Constitution  revolutionary  the  of  by a c a b i n e t  Measures  The emergency  the people  Legis-  amendment,  t h e power  duties  was s h o r t  by t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y  of  rights  session of  revolution,  the Extraordinary  6,  reduced  to ceremonial  Concerning June  i960  the  i n t h e wake  i n the legislature  of the m i l i t a r y suspended  of the  became  a parliamentary  was t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d  the dominant The  until  the Constitution  and d r a s t i c a l l y  of  was an  was t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  had led t o the f a l l  t h e B r i t i s h model  power  t h e members  the President  was e f f e c t e d  to  and  of  there  I96O-I963  Structure; The  between  the office  a new c o n s t i t u t i o n ,  I960,  war and u n t i l  of the debate  trend  1956).  (Vinacke,  struggle  The crux  this  powerful.  17, 1948  on J u l y  of the  Council took  for over  government.  as was any element  of  5h.  the  Constitution  anticipation the  which was i n c o n f l i c t  of the restoration  revolutionary  tional  lawyers  government,  Constitution.  The proposed  lar  on December  referendum  ballots  cast  (Korea  Notwithstanding in  the civilian  military the  junta  Yun, Po-son  tion  military  elections liamentary of  held  badly  Democratic  Republican The  held for  Supreme  tion  months,  came  I963.  into  Government  system  force  Third  of the United  Third  Republic,  votes. with  Assembly.  Republican P a r t y ,  followers,  scored  I n t h e 175  110  seat  of the seats  for National  on December  Chung-hee  Republic  States,  popu-  Republic patterned  former  In the  par-  composed  mainly  a victory  over  legislature, the (Henderson,  power  I966).  which had  of the  nation  T h e new C o n s t i t u -  1 6 , 1963-  Annual,  i n  The t r a n s i -  Reconstruction,  Assembly  the  the general  opened  was i n a u g u r a t e d  (Korea  part  who headed  he defeated  l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a r y  day, Park,  Structure:  a  ran for President  was completed  a s t h e new N a t i o n a l  of the Third  The  took  was d i s s o l v e d  On t h e s a m e  President  forces.  Council  the administrative, 31  rule  for the National  Party  through  i n the  not t o take  150,000  of only  and t h e i r  opposition  constitu-  change  Chung-hee,  elections  the Democratic  officers,  split  Park,  1963  to civilian  elections,  I963,  of 7 8 % of the  declaration  government,  by a m a r g i n  i n November  ex-military  the  General  In the October,  President  was approved  i n  In  1970»  h i s public  government,  of  a substantial  1 9 6 2 by a m a j o r i t y  17,  and the subsequent  elections.  from  amendment  body.  activities  by a c o n t i n g e n t  proposed  Annual,  the ruling  of p o l i t i c a l  aided  and s c h o l a r s ,  with  on December as the  first  1970«  (1963-Present) mainly  was organized  after  the presidential  on t h e theory  of the  17,  separation lishments dominate  of  powers.  were the  to  the  of  Many  tion. the  These  office  enable  administrative  The  of  In  practice,  of  the  another  presidency,  were  him  exercise  offices  one  however,  powers to  l e g i s l a t i v e and  and  granted  to  so  the  that  almost  dictate  as  complete  in  estab-  one  would  branch,  the  President  all  no  executive  funtioned the  judicial  focal the  point  Constitu-  authority  government  and  over  policies  I966).  (Henderson,  Executive The  head  of  executive  state,  political National  head  party.  and  declare state  of  having  the  in  broad  of  I962  of  signing  of  Korea,  for  of  1962  is  The  vetoing A).  from  the  the  only  the  vis  a vis  State  accredit  and  leader  not  answerable  to  the  foreign  Council.  of  who the  is  the  ruling  to  electorate  powers time  economic President  or  of  the  of  civil in  the  and  the  financial  by  the  of  of  and the  to  issue  proclaim law.  He  a is  ordinances  a dangerous  c r i s i s . "  major  treaties,  issue  natural  situa-  calamity,  (Republic  l e g i s l a t i v e power National  Armed  prepares  conclude  in  the  empowered  him to  war,  case  is  envoys,  provisions  also wields  passed  laws,  permitting  of  states,  He  diplomatic  relations,  bills  President  Commander-in-Chief  enforcement  law " i n  and  the  1971).  also  state  and  branch,  responsible  is  foreign  a grave  A). or  independent  Annual,  the  e x e r c i s e d by  executive  emergency  a r i s i n g from  Korea,  He  is  accordance with  effect  account  is  receive  siege  with  the  appoints  decrees  vested  tion  and  war,  power  President  represents  legislation orders  He  (Korea  The Forces,  of  Assembly.  Constitution  on  key  executive,  independent  others.  especially power.  be  The  Assembly.  by  or of  means (Republic  56.  The  Legislative The  so-called by  the  "long  separation  National  convene  arm"  and  the  call  of  the  representatives.  and  d e c i d e upon by  requested,  are  answer  the  be  Assembly  it  The  If  may  "advise"  the  The  advice  Local  to  Except  is  of  committees.  Korea,  to  detained  in  session. is  executive or  to  of  felt  of  is  is  half  meeting  of  the  the  empowered  to  if  and  to  Assembly-  the  National  review  and  inspect  corruption  uncovered,  responsible on t h e  treaties  of  through  binding  consider  council,  no  establishment is  more  the  Assembly  delicto,  consent  or  to  President's  to  sessions  of  r a t i f i c a t i o n of  the  is  one-fourth  than  the  exercised  Assembly  empowered  flagrante  remove  across  emergency  of  more  the  without  Assembly  however,  any  case of  incompetence  not,  special, request  to  Members  attend  is  The  Assembly  consent  in  President  to  the  The  or  the  at  body.  attendance  a quorum.  National  activities  is  The  required  arrested  when  or  office  l e g i s l a t i v e power  subject  President.  questions.  m a n may  also  budgets,  The  unicameral  President  constitutes  negotiated  the  the  Executive  powers.  is  at  members  the  Assembly—a  annually of  of  of  its  the  public  President  standing Assembly  officials.  (Republic  of  1962).  Government The  provinces Seoul, cities"  in  the  its  is  divided  administrative  capital,  are  stitution  country  and  empowered  provides  for  Pusan,  with  the  local  into  two  special  composition. the same  second status  The  largest as  self-government,  cities  and  special city.  provinces. under  the  nine  cities The The  Local  are  "special ConAutonomy  57.  Law  promulgated  special  city  in July,  and  provincial  strictly  local  autonomy  s y s t e m was  outbreak  of  the  held  on A p r i l  city  and  cities while  local  and  The  heads  of  and  of  local  e l e c t e d by  in  August,  1956  ally the  to  salient  cities  and  local  (Korea the  the  1971)•  student  uprising  local  features  in  the  governors  of  provinces  governments  including special  military  local of  councils  December, civilian  All  governments  I963, rule,  when local  were  local  national was  by  the  to  special  local  Law  was  a  full  revised  the  a l l  were  military  heads  held  the  One  of  special In  the  of  local  and members  of  and  secret  votes.  put  an end  to  d i s b a n d e d and government.  power  (Mailer,  vote.  the  provinces  of  should  drastic-  extent.  popular  however,  toppled  mayors  coun-  that  provinces  that  elect  government not  of  President  stipulate  i960  to  governments  picked  autonomy  I96I,  provincial,  mayors the  were  e l e c t i o n s were  i960,  and  the  e l e c t e d by  universal, direct  in April,  the  the  cities  the  direct  direct,  i n December,  e l e c t e d by  revolution  autonomy.  local  were  by  of  and  Autonomy  r e v i s i o n was  elections held  The  Local  of  by  to  local  cities  in  self-government  nation-wide  local  first  Annual,  the  were  The  of  between  elections  system,  1956,  special  The  local  up  levels  because  1952  appointed  officials  except  setting  rule.  members  two-tiered  February,  election.  of  first  elect  provinces were  government,  realize  a  the  intermediate  level  The to  1952  in  as  for  practice until  1950.  Under  governments direct  Syngman  10,  and  calls  national  into in  revised  Following Rhee,  of  cities  law was  be  May  councils.  governors  mayors  c i l s .  25  the  put  Korean war  law  governments  e n c l a v e s and not  The  1949.  was  1970).  the heads In  restored  to  58.  Currently, including viiages  special  are  councils  local  s t i l l  have  been  plans Just  the in  strong the  ably  apexes  ment  and  with in  the  this  at  office respect  oriented  executive.  the  In of  In unrest allow  due the  to  the  the  prospect future,  a  low  priority  educational  that as  the  the  1970).  (Mailer,  system  leads  to  pyramidal  structure  of  government  inevit-  the  President. in  the  which  turn  That  of  the  model  Central  show  this  endorse  the  of  Every  country  in  Confucian  exercise  from w i t h i n  no  near  two  been manifest  to  local  leads  case,  people  No  government  Cases  has  roles.  of  examples  first  case,  rule  Constitutional  milieu  local  structure  Seoul  Two  and  all  the  as  towns  the  agency  the  is  units  while  in  the  President.  follows  the  second  arbitrary  the  following  Korean  will  in  Structure: The  In  of  of  tendencies,  o f f i c e of  office  this  cities,  active  There  restored  structure  government  some  Government  clear  the  to  1961.  place  administrative  government,  restored  be  The  local  counties,  central  since  may  direction.  every  authority  the  of  provinces,  been  seem t o  as  heads  the  held  centralist  same  by  not  self-government  government  the  cities,  appointed  have  elections  all  has  has  as  link  cannot  denied.  be  government  Control i n which  the  office  a  system  stronger  of  ultimate  of  is  office  its  govern-  some d i r e c t  centrality  central  of  structure  ways in  level  power  the  the of  center  the  illustrated  is  of  chief by  central  extended  by  the power. the  President.  Amendment during  1969, the  the  ticklish  President  to  seek  spring  question a third  and of  f a l l ,  there  amending  the  term  in  office.  was  much  student  Constitution Central  to  to the  59.  controversy  was t h e fact  his  second  term,  the  Constitution  Constitution to  in office  tional  form  seek  of the Third  the ambition  procedure  closing  of schools  smell  and e f f e c t s  days;  troops  dressed  intersection, special  pass  t h e government  issue,  clear  mandate.  would  consider  the results Just this  majority,  Seventy-seven  prior  were  i n favor  g a s " were  rural  vote  where  area  ("Referendum  Passes",  observations.  d i f f i -  The p u b l i c  a r r e s t s , and  of Seoul,  the  in the a i r for  unapproachable  at  every  except  by  the  refer-  guards.* was r a i s e d an  the President If  unquestionably announced  he f a i l e d  effective  voters  over  cast  to  he  receive  immediately.  ballots,  65%  of  T h e i s s u e w a s c a r r i e d by t h e  was passed  I969).  third  i s to  no r e a l  ominously  expressed  resign his office  t h e amendment  personal  which  of the registered  posed  In areas  of confidence.  of the proposal'.  a  i t  and then t h e  summary  stationed  to the voting,  as a vote  per cent  furor  t o seek  legislature.  riots,  of the b a l l o t i n g  he would  which  Author's  of  or r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e s e c u r i t y  endum  clear  Assembly  b u i l d i n g s were  the great  amending  Constitution  Assembly  gas and "pepper were  i f the  then  President  t h e Korean  a majority  gear  that  under  1969).  the country.  in riot  Considering  a  was f e l t  Chong-in,  by u n i v e r s i t y  throughout  t o serve  in  the principles of a constitu-  of the National  enjoyed  was not only  law of the l a n d ,  by t h e N a t i o n a l  of tear  President  It  to denying  (Hong,  was punctuated  President  o f t h e incumbent  f o r amending  Endorsement  as the President  referendum  Republic.  was tantamount  t h e endorsement  electorate. culty  he was t h e f i r s t  o f government  The first  but that  t h e incumbent  was t o be t h e paramount  accommodate  term  that  by v i r t u a l l y  every  non-urban  60.  New  Presidential Most  power the  by  recently,  declaring  suspension  to  the  An  important  ence,  Prime  the  voked  of  the  state  broad  President  of  by  of  Canada  Prime  events.  This  on  the  in  constitutional  the  power  made  emergency  contradistinction,  move  his  a  Minister  immediate  and  Powers  however,  is  was so  front  of  his  This  War  in  in  Korea. a  and  Measures  that  base  the  similar  Act  in  1970.  Canadian  by  very  President  response  of  intimating  move was  precipitated  in  broad  Republic  rights. the  not  domestic  the  invoking  Minister was  use  to  experi-  specific  Park  i n -  international  affairs. The intended  to  "...make  international sula." ted  It  of  was  with  the Mr.  and  North  Korea and  years  and  that  ago  to  might  that  the  pointed  to  had  of  propaganda  declaration  matters'  and  (such  as  now  is  purported  that  he  enjoys  1970.  for  to  demands  be)  the  every  sake  of  rapid of  no  changes  the  " . . . a s  in  signs  his of  infiltrated from  was in  Korean  (Halloran,  power  penin-  1970 a  repor-  continua-  own  hands."  increased agents  the  had  the  terrorism  ' . . . a l l  social  tension been of  leaflets.  forbade  security',  declaration  motivated  shifted  national  national  Times  been  number  at  reality  be  weaken  on  (Halloran,  cold  had  agents  carrying  look  consolidate  there  these  emergency  New Y o r k  appeared to  his  people the  that  ments  freedom  at The  efforts  reported  that  Korean  declaration  Park's that  the  situation  Park's  also  declining three  stated  (Ha11oran, 1971).  that  tion  President  "  'prohibits that  irresponsible  in  critical  citizen  'concede  national  unrest argu-  situations some  security.'"  of  the  A  few days  promulgated prices take  into  people  authority.  Cultural  It  This  has  has been done  pointed  centripetal (1)  subjected (2)  ment. of  affected  every  of  i n Korea  i t  control  freedom and (Korean  i s significant  that  summary  executive  t o take  as they  use of  the decree  went  about  the  i n  personal  1971).  in this  i n terms  sections:  theme This  -  that  orientation  t h e Korean  i n this  the five was based portion  hundred  Each  level  model  of  i s that  Dynasty  of  the  a  population and  structure  contemporary  model  (1392-1910),  peninsula  a  society.  on t h e u n i v e r s a l i s t i c C o n f u c i a n of the Korean  displays  society;  institutional  i n the Y i Dynasty  year  of the sections  two p e r s p e c t i v e s :  i n the present  chapter  milieu.  Background",  society  from  on a p h i l o s o p h i c a l  of a pyrimidal  to describe the  of the cultural  Structure."  of the President  suggestion  chapter  "Historic  c a n be seen  has a h i s t o r i c basis  government  appeared  a millenium of a Confucian  on t h e o f f i c e  During  i t  of t h i s  (Halloran,  orientation  to half  orientation  thesis,  and "Government  orientation.  The  press  of emergency.'"  the contention  u p a common  the central  apexing  of t h i s  i n three  System"  the central  curb  " . . . t o  1971).  oblivious  environment  "Educational  t h e power  Summary  has been  contemporary  the 'state  business."  Milieu:  Park  unions,  (of Seoul)  appeared  commercial  labor  no overt c r i t i c i s m  "Residents  Most  gave  for Park,"  the context  registered  stride.  under  New P o w e r  t h e d e c l a r a t i o n of t h e President was  The b i l l  restrain  other, measures  In  and  law.  and wages,  Emergency,  later,  and every  of  govern-  the  rule  system. level  It of  62.  society. moral  The  s y s t e m was  behavior, One  subject; head  of  responsible  or  only  to  government.  and  educational and  on  to  to  have  respect  that  students look  to  of  is  a  linear of  in  is  the  the  authority  a direct but  that  Confucian  factors  cultural  a l l  and  support  historic  to  this  this  is the  church  unquestioned.  be  between  perpetuated of  the  of  the by  the  classroom  Students by  of  are  the  con-  capital,  government. forth  are  and  (2)  questioning  that  and  to  authority.  Republic to  the  would  Seoul,  without  power,  level  puts  in  of  direct  a middle  is  level  of  prevented  as  epitomized  the  represents model  such  philosophy.  manifestation it  apex  government  education  Third  the  level  national  of  relationship with  the  government  authority seat  and  relationship  country  higher  ruler  therefore,  manifestations  ultimate  unquestioned  with  a  the  respect  government  These it  to  the  assertion,  consistent  King,  the  dictates  at  responsibility  to  taught  of  of  theoretically  institution  loyalties  for  this  system  teaching  aspire  give  sat  of  the  as  King  level  students are  The  micro-environment  of  That  tenuous  the  levels  Seoul  to  ment.  that  on  were  level  two  The tured  national  system  The (1)  the  King  of  government,  relationship  the  the  attitude  a broad-based  ditioned and  the  the  linear  rival  discouraged of  was  a direct  This  strong  dictates  Today,  of  Heaven.  and  The  had  encompassing  relations.  precepts  subject.  any  concept  social  dictates  every  lords  individual  basic  to  of  and  subject  The  development feudal  the  every  state.  significance  the  religion  of  that  a total  head of  a  is  similarly of  the  central  Yi  similar  strucgovern-  Dynasty symbol  is  which  a is  undeniable. primacy  primacy  of  as w e l l  Seoul, as  indicating  contemporary.  In plan the  for  the  spatial  constraints  under  the  following  chapter,  development of  the  limitations  is  cultural imposed  by  the  final  proposed milieu  substantive  which  and  government  is  is  section,  developed  designed  policies.  to  from  a  within  function  Chapter  A  Four  SPATIAL  PLAN  FOR  THE  REPUBLIC  OF  KOREA  I n t r o d u c t i on In a  spatial  of  this,  development  the points  city  proper,  Heretofore, fashion shall  made  scheme  in earlier  and t h e h i s t o r i c t h e segments  with  essence  of  suburban  of  substantive  section,  a plan  for  The p l a n  i s a deductive  Korea.  sections:  demographic  and contemporary  the m i l i e u  have  into  a  the plan  areas  of  how a l l t h e s e logical  segments  "Korea-specific"  i s the development  i s proposed  pressures  complementary  been  few i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s e n u n c i a t e d .  be d e m o n s t r a t e d  incorporated  The  the f i n a l  on t h e arguments.  in  In  section,  merge plan  result  treated this  parallel  a n d how t h e y  c a n be  industrial  estates  policy  priorities  of  i n the  Seoul.  Plan Given:  the government growth;  Proposal:  the concept of i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s i s a v i a b l e economic development a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h ought to s a t i s f y t h e s t r i c t economies of government priorities.  Given:  the the the and  Proposal:  i t  for development.  of  industrial  high centripetal migration; historic centripetal orientation} present manifestations of c e n t r a l status;  as  power  l o c a t i o n i n the Seoul suburban area would a positive location for development.  be  The  65.  It of  the  has  been  government  manufacturing government  in  clearly Korea  i l l u s t r a t e d that  lies  with  sector  of  the  economy.  shown  in  the  adoption  was  the  of  and  the  subsequent  r e - e l e c t i o n of  date  for  the  government  to  estates  is  suggested  opment.  In  estates  will  Defining  a  later be  Industrial  for  provided were  and  to  usually  to  the  exerted  with  to  (United  A  variety  Nations,  support  concept  location Korean  for  of  a clear  man-  of  industrial  industrial  of  the  amendment  show  encouraging  the  devel-  industrial  situation.  for  lead  plan,  tracks  the  sites  prospective by  the  the  I966).  Europe  purpose  in  of for  were  the  investments  sold  among  the  provided  or  of  both  sale  by  the  or  plan  which were  the  zoning  area and  leases,  developers  industrial  The  or  over  build-  demand,  sewers,  leased,  and  activities  developing  some  States.  factory  upon  through  in  improving  occupants.  Control  deeds  United  or  and  of  applied  the  of,  agency  of  be  erecting  utilities  occupants.  in  to  new m e t h o d  assembling,  industrial and  a  and  advance  developing  s e r v i c e s was  began  frequently  prospective  compatibility of  the  and  century,  industry  Western  incorporated  protecting  ensuring  of  nineteenth  of  land,  rail  convenants  latter.  of  up  lease to  restrictive  and  set  i n s t a l l e d before  b u i l d i n g s was  pants  the  comprehensive  streets,  assured  a view  of  countries  were  a  or  The  metropolitan to  industrial-  recent  Chung-hee  plans.  relation  the  the  constitutional  Park,  method  servicing for  tracts  sale  for  otherwise  and  estates  subdividing  either  end  advanced  according  the  the  of  priorities  Estates  the  housing  economically  ings  section,  Industrial  organizing  a workable  discussed in  Towards  and  as  its  development  expansion  Further,  1970  pursue  the  and  occuof  agency  the  66.  These planned  or  trading  estates  zones in  in  features  organized or  Italy,  India  and  industrial  industrial  other  tions  reserved  from for  unimproved industry,  trial  and  or  for  sites  or  of  in  These  the in  these  tracts  improved  land  for  small  the  Rico, both  of  of  to  an  America,  industrial  the  for  as  North  industrial  zoning  offered  number  today  estates  site  communities  city  use  in  Kingdom,  industrial by  known  parks  United  refer  use  of  or  Puerto  terms  industrial  a very  organizations  districts  subdivisions  unplanned  establishment  the  tracts,  differentiate  from  to  estates  countries.  They  a city  common  industrial  installations. of  are  and  from  por-  ordinances,  sale  as  suitable  individual  industries  indus-  (United  Nations,  1962).  Industrial  Estates  as  Although larized up  the  tool  almost  is  this  for  Industrial  in  already  In  the  of  of  standard  economic  a  and  tool  social  The been  remains in  in  industrial when  1885 in  estates  industrialized  adaptation  as  the  Industrial  experience  that  Tool  District"  development  i s much  of  ago  of  estates  the  years  method  there  have  concept  contemporary.  developed  of  the  ninety  "Clearing  a Development  most has  estate  plans  Chicago,  was  were its  originated  first  popu-  for  setting  made  use  as  a  and were  development principally  countries. underdeveloped  yielded  planning  some  (United  to  be  learned  policies  of  location  countries,  distinctive  Nations,  about  the  and  growth  the  features In  1966).  value of  of  adoption calling  both  cases,  industrial  industry  and  about  ramifications.  relatively  short  used  explains  the  objectives  assigned  to  period  lack them  of in  of  time  appraisals development  i n which of  their  schemes.  industrial value It  in  also  estates achieving explains  67.  the  relative  scarcity,  on v i r t u a l l y factories etc.  Yet,  the  is  the  underdeveloped giving  major  upon  countries,  a  in  most  cases  Development end  of  was  given  out  of  were and  the  to  the  is a  ten  the  estates  by  industrial  completed  or  were  being  were  at  In utilizing small  thirty  on S m a l l the  early  industrial industrial  "industrial  planned  basis  estates  in  lease  accompanied  must  be  the  policies  other  up  in  recent  years;  I966).  its  development  the  Second  by  the  (International  indus-  planning.  Greater  the  impetus  Plan:  occupied,  occupancy  of  towards  1955-56,  Plan.  and  underdeveloped  establishment  were  judging  only  the  under  forty  in  estates  In  in  by question  development  Nations,  begun  terms,  I96I).  R i c o were  set  in  The  solved  industrial  Five-Year  for  estates,  in  i960,  thirty-eight  end  of  the  year,  Perspective  1963)• Puerto  Rico  planning.  throughout  Nations,  was  stages  s u b d i v i s i o n s " were  (United  of  that  program  planning  estates  that,  Puerto  been  in  First  readied  1950's,  and  (United  planned,  Industry,  sales  this  history  estates  estate  estates  costs,  industrial  have  long  the  of  programs.  exceptional,  120  Team  scale  statistics  unquestionable.  and  and  construction  industrial  the  India  and  types  (Rosenstein-Rodan,  full  relatively  covered  is  data  of  strong  estates  variable  experimental rather  so  establishment  of  forty-two  were  to  are  case  a total  Planning  of  an  period  of  with  recent  development  mid-sixties,  industrial  has  of  each  of  subject—number  favor  value  nationwide  on  estates  in  countries  India trial  of  the  few  the  outstanding  emphasis  embarking  countries,  acreage,  the  appropriateness Until  all of  arguments  planning,  "degree"  the  aspects  and w o r k e r s ,  judicious of  all  in  I966).  the  entered They  planned  island.  completed  the  and  By  field  of  countries  an e n t i r e the  twelve  end  of  network 1959,  additional  ones  68.  Types  of  Estates The  with  varying  outlay vast of (A)  by  of  a planned  body.  potential  planned  defines  that  estate  would  a  into  a  rational local  On  the  fully-planned  estate  A  larger  including  number  of  built  in  to  erected;  be  requirements the  commend where impact  and  of  itself  the of  demand.  The  would  built  a particularly  This  form  combining  full  planning  d i f f i c u l t i e s are  s u c c e s s or  failure  development the  early  factories  of  various  providing  workshop  in  full-fledged  the  Indian  sizes.  units  may  for  plants  lack  of  the success  of  good  be  and  operating  thoroughly  factories  would having  priority  from  the to  facility  flexibility  that  organization in  for  of  disadvantages.  high  usually  be  would  industries  estate.  the  factory  and  factories  needs  capital  designed  general-purposed  the by  a complete  the  custom  economic  assuring  obvious  and  of  illustrate  factories  designed  for  to  in  needs  general  of  to  some  industries  be  and  custom  level  industries  of  estate  ments  of  the  estates  1966).  that  hand,  have  both  use  designed  felt  other  presenting  greatest  controlled, An  they  stand-point  development  of  is  might  selected  advance  custom  industrial  here  Nations,  composition  a  tain  might  of to  listed  potentialities  account.  estate  are  (United  It  levels  relative  country  with  industries.  as  They  estate  pre-selected ensure  five  attractiveness  industrial  fully  taken  (C)  of  sponsoring  conditions,  (B)  Nations  degrees  the  spread  A  United  decisive—with  a  cer-  factories be  the  first  special both of  plant  from  the  would  initial  be met  for  further  seem  to  stages—  and where  flexible,  the  though  future. model,  These  featuring  may  range  handicrafts for  and  only  general  from  "'loft"  very  small  small-scale industries.  purpose  factories establishSuch  an  69.  estate for (D)  An  is  estate  bility to  if  need  The  advantage  here  be  the  near  large  incentive  to  the  of  for  for  large  The  as w e l l  guide  for  1970). of  good  prospects  of  land  be,  improved  medium-sized  allowing  and  in  sites  for  the  and  or  large  maximum  services  f l e x i -  extended  the  it  the  is  urban of  sites.  center  Establishment  may  industrial  industries  or as  frequently  of be  undertakings  build  growth  inputs  able  Korean  industry  as  custom  patterns  of  such  a  and  an  sufficient the  reloca-  in  Dynel  logs for  likely  of  quality  certain  a tentative  shown  also  easily  It  as  for  and  built  approach.  to  num-  lead  designed  factories  over  develop-  new  for  has on  future to  be  done  so  specific  veneer  export  The  the  anxious in  the  manu-  process-  earnings  a "carrot",  accepted.  developmental  a certain  itself  tariffs  plywood  a  for  examples  fields.  for  as  custom  as  has  factories be  seen  control  import  wigs  as  factories  maintain  specified  estates  factories  number  government  designed  would  a to  Phillipine  import  is  designed  standard  eliminating  such or  be a  that  general-purpose  building  to  The  of  and  offering  development  in  industrial  model  custom  and  s a l e would to  of  second  both  government,  export,  concept  the  including  reducing  By  improved  ones.  construction.  facturing ing  would use  formation  proposing  Korea,  leasehold  by  with  Korea  selected  private  a  existing  estate  demand.  past  and  or  In  to  organization  in  Model  ment  factories,  including,  estate  tion  for  localities  factories  only  of  rural  general-purpose  providing  scheme  and  industry.  An  ber  offering  in  estate  A  urban  built  plants.  A  for  industrialization.  custom  (E)  suitable  (Rose,  control  other  half  70.  of  this  allow  model  the  dynamic direct in  schedule  of  supervision  this  type  effective  of  tion. the  capture  erection They  technical, one  collective  and  capable  of  where  to  industry  alone,  Tangential1y,  organize  amenities  laborer for  undertaking  in  the  of  readily  proven and  effort  by  services which  could  not  administrative  as w e l l  as  something  no  public  be  its  in u t i l i -  common  supported  an  for  a  industrial transportation  industry  (Rosenstein-Rodan,  of  agglomera-  securing  of  most  expense  housing,  single  a  industry.  of  feasible  unit  managerial  be  because  and  labor  the  to  economies  economically  by  enforced  medium  of  be  a  sizable.  i n s t a l l a t i o n of  division  to  efficiency  investment  external deal  of  is  small  private  emphasis  be more  has  would  could  be  1961).  Cooperation assistance to  In  the  and  independently  problems.  from  a typical one  enterprise of  to  of  factories,  adjust  level  estates  growth  could  workers,  underdeveloped  nosis  but  high would  a great  a better  information  throughout  each  save  for  Technical  factory,  can  to  participation  volatile  provide and  the  inducement  otherwise  estates  The  industrial  can  unit.  Intramural  of  buildings  repair  flexibility  government  encourage  strong the  general-purpose  standards  factory  could  social  enunciated  of  small  estate  or  a  the  projections.  establishment  Industrial  ties.  trade  instrument  to  estate,  administrators  estate  can c o n s t i t u t e  ability  by  industrial  government  The  It  of  is  city  limited  operational  proposed  remedies  countries  case, or  an  and  of  is and  an  or  areas  engineering  village  problems are  individual  to  small raises  a number  expert  goes  another.  usually  The  employed  recommending  interim  industries  stopgap  time  kind  or  of  from he  difficult  factory  to  devote  to  may  i n making  remedial  scattered  a  rapid  diag-  measures.  Whether  consist  long  of  71.  range  reorganization  industrialist  which  competence—to mation  and  advice  industrialist secure  recruited, existing even and  to  and  sources  problems  and  if  able  to  fairly  long  time.  strued  or  but  small  a  large  arise  as  possible  impractical number  practical  of  to  and  serve  enterprises  grouping  of  small  economical  be  to  by  means  and  in  a  for  the  the  need  licenses; manpower  as w e l l  exceedingly  experience  as  to  difficult  or  administrative  limited  which  for  do  not  carrying or  advice  may  may  from  result  limited  provide  raise  import  access  be  raise  them  do  to  so  such  out, only  neglected  difficulties—which  also  to  will  new  to  infor-  instance,  provided  enough—stem  have  some  complicated and  or  he  may  after or  a  miscon-  up.  these  They  time  additional  measure  his  For  small  i960).  (Bredo,  crop  be  of  the  supervised,  l i t t l e  interim,  frequently  industry.  may  for  provide  machinery  often  financial  lack  taken.  recommendations,  extent,  organizations  The it  the  his  be of  instructions  i s s u e s may  large  economically  generally to  a  scale  assistance as  In  may  proposes  detailed up  be  raised  generally  which  to  problems  expert  follow  could  training  financing  the  further To  present  of  leaves  be  need  small  be  authorizations  a man w i t h  procedures,  Even  of  These  may  able—for  may  pieces  control may  be  he  which  specialized  for  not  financing,  exchange  some  may  certain  of  machinery  problems  though  steps  purchase  insurmountable  commercial  not  the  employees.  business  experts  a problem  of  further  himself,  on  foreign  installation  the  solve  recommendation  to  plans,  from  resources a  large  lengthy,  enterprises them  the  fact  which  number  all  not  on  over an  only  not  structural  of  concentrated  scattered  give  the  are  a  weaknesses  that  must  technical  be  apportioned  needs. and  always  It  is  costly  help  country.  industrial sustained  estate  makes  assistance,  72.  but  i n many  extended  estates.  fields  project.  tories also  extension  receivers.  a n d more  up  same  and supervised  estate,  prises  would cost  supplying  be p a r t i c u l a r l y  Also, a  type  ment  technical  for sites  and working  of  capital  a r e located  of their  part  of  testing  of  labora-  assistance can  i n areas of  where permanent  i960). t o both  work would  on s o l v i n g  g i v e r s and  would  not only  different  teaching  b e more be  aspects  could  be  of  followed  time.  relationships could  exist  among  some  be simultaneously  the other  place  and f i n a l  c a n seldom  be g i v e n  receive  advice  prospective  enter-  assist-  estates—  (Bredo,  t o would-be  under  of  and lowering t h e  involved  be p r o v i d e d  could  requirements,  the quality  to  Such  of i n d u s t r i a l  products  could  occupants  extended  manufactures.  outside  i n improving  or f a c t o r i e s  equipment,  Multiple  and i n s t r u c t o r s  Their  i n  i n t h e form  centers,  be b e n e f i c i a l  advisors  assistance  of assistance which  Applicants  evidently  centered  effective  of  as an i n t e g r a l  (Bredo,  or  facilities  the establishment  the region  takes  the intermediate  they  justify  products  or never  maintenance  training  when  utilized.  assistance  and u s i n g  seldom  of both  t o serve  complementary  large,  institutes.  The implementation  technical  ance—which  estates  a period  c a n seldom be  may b e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  of technical  over  that  of cooperatives  c a n be i n c l u d e d  research  but cooperatively  problems.  control,  development  economically  outside  vocational  s e r v i c i n g would  Where an  t o smaller  The time  coordinated, the  centers,  a benefit  i s sufficiently  quality  facilities  institutions Group  fully  the estate  of industrial  assistance  enterprises  technological  be p r o v i d e d  assistance,  and finance  Certain  or even  prospects  If  training  industrial  small  as engineering,  management, the  integrated  to individual  industrial such  cases,  i960).  entrepreneurs,  traditional on c h o i c e  marketing  of  set ups. invest-  and other  73.  prerequisites  Development  (United  of Estates:  There praise trial  industrial approach  o f many  be a c a u t i o n a r y  site  of the people  were  such  of  This  i s not t h e c a s e .  was  industrialization  i n large,  i f  authorities'  The and be  location.  the  s p e c i f i c s of  in  Korea,  1963).  the idea  of  This  process  shall  Indusabout  i n India,  the  familiar  type  of thinking i s such  minor  of the early such  have  o f some  Although  of  a  Indian  criteria  of  is powerful  significance.  error  be covered  the development become  manifest  the following  stated  the case  no r e g i o n a l  i n general  at hand.  policy today  remarks terms,  in  estates judgement  on t h e p a r t  i n much  of  detail.  incentives  the  government  in spatial  terms can  on e x t e r n a l  economies  As t h e economic  preferences,  of  these  can be r e l a t e d  development  or p r o h i b i t i o n  t h e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  as an  o f t h e most  significant  criteria  to  plans for  of growth  entrepreneural  decisi on. Some  plant.  as c o n s t r u c t i o n  estate  location  bring  to other  as soon  of just  a l l .  o r a new f e r t i l i z e r  i s of only  o f many  a result  between  as they  i n terms  listed  as that  the industrial  The f a i l u r e  Below,  linkage  and  Korea  introduced  results  location  to end i t  sounding  Implications  the results seen  that  t o go about  not a u t o m a t i c a l l y  w a s t h e same  that  decision-making  Location/Spatial  will  immediate  not t o t a l l y ,  1963)-  (Alexander,  as the wherefore  (Alexander,  of the attitude  tool  which  as an i r r i g a t i o n canal  expecting  was completed  reflective  estate  a i r with  A s t h e scheme was newly  projects  people  Constraint  i n and by themselves  growth.  development  the  A  for the industrial estates  These  must  1966).  Nations,  for the industrial  74.  location  in  developing  external  economies.  to  document.  of  them,  their to  developed  cases of  these  There  is  external  thought  to  be  no  tools  for  primary  their  is  economies or  these  too  other  the  or  the  literature,  than  factors  considerations  the  of in  heading  most  systematic  considerable  c a n more  under  are  analysis  descriptive  There  labor  considered  comprehensive,  ample  countries.  transportation,  are  exists  positive  effect.  are  Unfortunately,  There  nor  countries  of  difficult  categorization  measurement but  evidence  of  pertinent  that  compensate  for  production  that  in  only  many  higher  costs  generally  location decisions  (Alonso,  1971). Analysis external  economies.  economies: (E.M.  Hoover,  city  can as  Principle  since  ment  is  of  step  machines six  Multiples  In  the  case is  for  of  B,  one  and  at  following  points  to  reserves  step of  1948).  A,  is  the  the  a classic  three and  location  equal  statement  elements  bulk  in  of  external  transactions  firm,  the  the  is  that  By  way  of  at  step  machine the  step A,  at  of  to  show  how  concept  firms; the  of  the  con-  size/of  capacities,  which  ensures  that  of  size  step  B,  no  imagine the  accommodates  efficient  machines  implies  certain  illustration,  B  multiples  at  C accommodates  step  minimum two  size  a  significant.  operate  firm  and  validity  to  machine  one  to  designed  under-utilized. If  by  of  with  center  of  machines  (Hoover,  apply  applied  economic  size  process:  Hoover  massing  concepts  machinery  efficient  begin  1948:120-30).  a l s o be  an  can  E.M.  multiples,  The verse  here  of  of  output  one  minimum  of  a three  a plant  and  piece  output  the  the  would  machine  equipstep  two of  that  machines three  consist of  step  of C  75.  The  same  required  for  forms  infrastructure.  of  forming same  one  as  of  time,  justify  the  logic  and  the  repair  these  advanced  that  the  permitting A  firms  firm  to  could  multiples, through  its  and  experienced  from  lawyer  who  is  proper  get  its  tools,  Principle  of  and  Imagine, use of  ten  and of  it  will  space, the ten  units  so  of  or  must  will  massing  that  there but  printed type  etc.  of  by  men who  of  reserves  a  on  know  should  result  to such  leasnoted  higher  but  also  by  productivis  espe-  seek  issues  them w e l l  be  in  who  could  the  the  publications,  increase  it  At  equipment  printer  work;  per-  services,  capacity,  thus  other  reached  trade  It  may  idle  and  by  have  twelve  a total On  are each  orders,  additional  need  ibr 20%.  of  narrowly  be  services,  sense,  knowledgeable  of  a material,  an  full  must  agencies,  consulting  its  cost.  supporting  laboratories,  that  repaired  sizes  or  in  unit  is  at  advice hand;  and  have  the  Reserves  unexpected  need  financial  system,  over-capacity  greater  certain  size  forth.  instance,  each  five  machines  principle  units  spoilage  that in  for  more  in  mean  avoidance  particularly  Massing  The  in  minimum  a transport  specialized  catalogues  up  could  will  certain  therefore,  of  the  specialize  set  it  and  A  airport,  sizes  facilities,  have  city.  printing,  cially a  an  jobbers,  specialized  only  a  importantly,  and  education  not  of  existence  shippers  of  to  Smaller  more  into  principle  productivity  use  functions,  perhaps  services,  ing,  ity.  efficient  coming  specialized  applies  the  of  sixty hand,  firms,  which,  units.  units  other  of  considers  two  of  five  is  if  all  each  there  these  material units.  actuarial of  because  that If  an  for  of is  firms that  principle.  which the an  plans  possibility  even  are  chance  separated  level  This  constitutes  five  firms  are  to  of a  safety, reserve  close  to  76.  each  other  and  each  other,  use  only  four  needed  as  to  advantages  the  the  a  reserve  product  duction,  and  repair  advantages  of  deals  the  fact and  that  and  less  waste  product calls  Principle  Bulk  In  shipping In  in  rates  lower  transfer  the  and  commercial  of  of  new  the  are  finds  in  larger  of  a  refers  the  will  logic  be applies  markets  factors  for  of  pro-  It  size.  numbers,  and  there  will  city,  converse  based  more  on  the  predictable  much  a  greater  firm  new w a s t e be  some  thus  holds  reserves  circum-  1971)*  be where a  is  of  unforeseeable  (Alonso,  could  is  permit  often  i t s e l f with  The  determinate  sheer  numbers  smaller  the  massing  open  city  to  p r i n c i p l e of  large  large  point  large  than  of  changing  above  a  same  assist  changes  its  product.  It  other  firm  transforming true  if  the  the  new  pro-  input.  Transactions element  the in  case and  it  in  labor,  to  material  The  suppliers  over  Further,  thereby  the  safety.  multiples  spread  the  of  3%  skilled  combinations,  to  or  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  services.  a by-product.  third  prices.  have  numerous  opportunities  of  some  transactions. or  of  special  when  that  into  The  level  pools  more  or  units  p r i n c i p l e of  and  use  for  of  same  adaptability  likely  c a n make  buying  or  risky.  example  which  cess  the  other  the  process  more  one-half  larger  because more  production  supplier  p r o b a b i l i s t i c advantages  and  An  far  of  uncertainty,  flexibility  is  for  particular  therefore  stances  and  larger  Whereas  with  a common  case  services,  of  larger of  more  terminal  in  the  the the  formulation firm,  quantities city,  frequent  facilities. primarily  the and  this  is  usually  large  because  s a m e may fixed  the  principle  based  on  results  scale  convenient  The  is  of  the in  fact  lower  operations  service apply  c o s t s may  for  to  of  bulk that  unit may  result  large-scale  other  public  d e c l i n e per  and  unit  77.  and is  because  frequently  operate either been of  more  efficient  suggested,  under  settled  however,  diminishing  internal  to  by  contention  the  function  or  who  be  used  many  among and  argue  at  larger  functions  principally  research  those  can  that  returns,  empirical  between  processes  because  functions.  constitutes for  and  in  large  of  This the  against  scales.  cities  congestion, point  has  principal big  It  not  bone  cities  (Alonso,  1 9 7 0 .  The tage,  already  scale  of  the  large  a wide  efficient  and  fessionals,  hospitable  to  events  variety  of  needs  subsequent the  associated  to  they  etc.  which  and  less  increased make  standardized  and  fall  into  that  producer.  greater  are  found  it  The  therefore  city  is  reason  pro-  does  not  particularly for  supporting  the  big  cities;  and  to  more  This  for  specialized  large  repairmen,  need  in  very  possible  category.  large  A  advan-  productivity:  shippers,  this  the  equivocal  multiples.  transactions  has  be more  of  Specialized  argument  applicability  location  nations.  But,  businessmen  on  decision the  suggests  decision-making" countries of  manner.  producer  will  preneural  myriad  a  a  this  is  that  services  further,  standardized  and  and  in therefore  use. The  Western  in  has  principle  and  non-standardized  activities  cities  the  specialization  of  unstandardized  easier  permits  costly  transactions  under  subcontractors, the  large  bulk  number  less  contradict  the  of  encountered  operations  very  handle  principle  factors  are  other that  the  is  perhaps  hand,  the  gaining  from where which  of  principles  the  of  a moot  question  relative  "Western  tools  acceptance  most  this  cannot  be  (Meier, is  These  1970)  derived, too,  the  entre-  underdeveloped  'least-cost'  theory  quantified.  in  in  sophistication  of  broader of  location  are  of  Korean  corporate Like there  the is  factored  a  78.  into  the  able  factors  to  the  decision-making are  case.  location  tied  The  within  The not  Yet,  many  reasons.  poorer mail  cation  business  this  by At  finance  and  than  the  Korea  mouth,  most  in  systems.  less  situation  factors  of  these  trait  has  importance  the  between  are  been  non-quantifi-  that to  is  peculiar  induce  level,  to  the  air  is  formulation in"  he  of  central  are  scarcer  connections  are  of  external  less  for  have  dependable,  rarer.  Consequently,  barrier those  is  econo-  context  countries  and  formidable  concentration  relations  Korean  underdeveloped  a more  spatial  face-to-face  crucial  Telephones  persons  of  preceding  dependable,  Further, the  social  i n developed  same  of  are  less  as  of  a  formal  These  of  countries  far  and  less  social  where  to  who  government countries,  tend  has  communi-  must  do  contact  to  impersonal  information  and  contracts,  terms  follow  thus  Confucian  and  transother of  the  product  established  method.  where  depend  people  two-way  is  publications  countries  require  when  less  stronger  s p e c i f i c a t i o n of  standardized,  traditional  an even  are  much  communications  circumstances  that  exert  messages  underdeveloped and  may  delivery,  contracts  other  are  Most  developed  established  society  rituals  in  payment  in  procedures  in  however,  catalogues,  time,  other  as w e l l  forces,  concentration.  journals,  negotiation.  tion,  enormous  obvious  details  a myriad  patterns  and  many  Factors  the  leads  trade  media.  of  but  spatial  standardized  In  or  these  contacts  Korea,  toward  mitted  Korea,  together. In  force  of  personal  and  distance  and  cultural  recognized  At  slower  physical  and  subtle  these  In  country.  communication  is  a  Location  sufficiently  mies.  to  influence  the  Non-quantifiable  process.  far  calling to  business more for  come  social  on  word  discussion  together. stratifica-  communication  is  necessary  79.  are  very  mutual be  elaborate.  respect,  shown.  subtlety  Even and  developed and  time  Considerable  and  no  the  substance  estimates An  letter  are  plexities  order  There  which  blank,  instruments (Alonso,  contact  are  largest  city.  and  more  not  defined  The  In  roles  only social  exerts  which  into  is  when  important  are  limited  no  certain often  particular  unpredictably;  more  available  to  blunt  of  to  yes  and  expressions  the be  meeting  treated  procedures  Which  gentle  telephone  be  of  may  with  the  in  mean  no,  price  probings  and  subtle  call,  a cable  insensitive  at  of  for  or  business  these  of  regulations  contacts the  class  to  the  com-  is are  at  of  many  hand.  changed,  toward  more  the and  frequently  including segmented In  of  business into  well  underdeveloped  sources,  to  establish  Information  on  new  Since  rumors  modes  communication  hand.  intervals,  informed.  with  more  at  firms  enter  cultivate  positions.  form  of  types,  are  issues  irregular  being  all  customary  draw  matrix  contacts  to  the  which  relations  contact  business  type  and  Personal  important or  taking in  this  countries,  attitudes  unpredictable,  else,  institutional  human  of  be  saying  to  must  used  communication of  pulls.  commonality  to  of  too  of  and  often  open  devoted  substance  those  something  are  be  conversation  baffles  forces  is  kept  it  which  developed  becomes  the  the  long-distance  it  opments  to  are ways  problems  pervasively  countries, a  the  also  relations.  of  mean a  get  must  1968).  Mechanical  information  to  i n d i r e c t i o n which  countries.  hints.  haste  time  or  people  and  channels  the  information  confidential and  Conditions ministries  to  see  change are  devel-  must  be  is  reportage,  them  even  frequently  reorganized,  T h i s i s a matter of d e g r e e , e . g . , even i n developed c o u n t r i e s , b u s i n e s s i s o f t e n p u r s u e d by w a r m i n g p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e s h a r i n g of m e a l s or l e i s u r e .  and the  80.  relative shift  costs  suddenly.  influence, permits one  and  availability  It  is  are  often  to  ence  and  because  great the  officials lost  on  some  desk  It  has  lack  of  pull  forcefully  few  or  of  have  range pulled  with  them.  The  tion  and  efficient  wash  out  any  some  recognizes  of  of  a  at  an  likely  depths  of  city.  the  and  few  time  bring  alternative  an  persist-  will  get  situation, of  the  the  one  or  including and  long  management  production  in  by  firms,  and  the  contacts  magnified  management  points  pro-  government  papers  most  adaptability  percentage  many  production  the  the  and  also  management,  discussed,  of  but  the  is  In  purchasing,  f l e x i b i l i t y , scarce  of  pull  capital.  they  from  many  personalization  This  reasons  of  of  ministry.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of finance,  rules  flattery,  that  a  maze  of  func-  functions  the  conserva-  are  likely  transportation,  to  labor  location.  Location idea  of  metropolitan  underdeveloped and  competence it  centers  shepherded  including bribery,  investment  city  advantage  The in  largest  the  because  by  the  the  cost  or  lubricated  make the  financing  because  and  of  other  only  procedures,  For  advantages  not  fluidity  the  the  in  at  personally  the  marketing,  toward  be  and  bureaucratic  that  use  Metropolitan  opment  all  to  here  and  planning.  are  or  the  entrepreneurs  management,  short  tions  argued  towards  be  be  contradictory,  levels  file  to  heavy  professional  top  of  is  persuasion,  of  dusty  been  individuals  general and  very  standardization  scarcity a  the  The  papers  even  factors  crucial  This  needs  of  standards  below  that  or  machine  resources  low  often  another.  confused  over-bureaucratized  production  information.  licenses requires  o f f i c i a l ' s desk  cedures  therefore  d e c i s i o n and  and  of  countries  accommodates  the  location is  a  natural  for  further  relatively tendencies.  economic  modern  scheme  Francois  develwhich  Perroux  (1955)  81.  talks  of the poles de croissance as a formula for development.  The basic  idea is that economic growth never takes place at a uniform rate throughout an economy but tends to concentrate on one or a limited  number of  nodes or po*1es de croissance from which "spread e f f e c t s " are generated the rest  of the economy (Perroux,  not include spatial  Although the o r i g i n a l  i m p l i c a t i o n , more recently  taken on compatible s p a t i a l theory  1955).  to  theory did  the "growth pole" idea has  connotations (Rodwin,  1970).  The basis of  i s that economic growth ought to be encouraged where i t  the  has the most  l i k e l i h o o d of succeeding, ergo where seeds of development have begun to sprout, they ought to be f e r t i l i z e d The implication of t h i s metropolitan further  (Higgins,  theory  I968).  for development i n Korea i s that  location around Seoul would be the most p o s i t i v e  industrial  growth.  As i t  has been i l l u s t r a t e d  in the f i r s t  second chapters, economic growth has been focused on the facturing  sector and the Seoul geographical area.  location for and  industrial-manu-  To the extent that  this  would appear to be the most promising l o c a t i o n , and to the extent that government p o l i c y gives t a c i t alternatives  acceptance of this  pfile de croissance ,  would have to be considered secondary at  B r i t t o n Harris  ( 1 9 5 9 ) in t a l k i n g  the  other  best.  about underdeveloped countries  in general  points up the s i g n i f i c a n c e of l o c a t i o n factors in planning for  industrial  development.  the i n d u s t r i a l  From his experiences, he suggests that growth  sector can be seen as roughly proportional  population of small i n d u s t r i a l  to the  in  existing  firms in industries capable of expansion.  This he suggests can be generalized to include the sector as a whole. By and large, t h i s means that e x i s t i n g large metrop o l i t a n centers w i l l have an advantage which w i l l tend to give a multitude of advantages to further growth. The largest c i t i e s a r e . . . p a r excellence, the incubators of small industry. (Harris, 1959; see also Vernon, 1957).  82.  Within of  reasons,  interests  these  tend  cities,  t o center  to the fringe,  fruits  of central  impact  on t h e p r e s s u r e s  cult  operation.  things forms of  factory  established  Pis-economies  which w i l l larger ment of  o f lower  depressed region  t o surmise  that  other  the older  to traditional  forms  reason  that  organizations,  i s an e x i s t i n g  development  cost  i n that  andhigher centers  of labor (Harris,  element  income  i n the rural  of a low level  Trying  be l o w , t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y  will  past  examples  the "cheap  have  shown  that  to a factory a previous  was r e f e r r e d  c a nb e seen  t o a very areas,  even  section,  Hoover's  t o i n regard  basis.  labor"  does  i n the instru-  a new s o u r c e  extent towns  industry  Although  growth  The focus  the smaller  i n a l l likelihood  (Gerschenkron,  into  n o t mean  and t h e rural  i n that  the cost be even  of  labor  lower. that  Many i tcan  I966). (19^8)  to industries  principle i n large  of  by t h e  i n a  or underemployment  decision.  of  as a powerful  limited  to locate  o f employment  sound  of population  on a p e r c a p i t a  i s offset  1959).  element  i t c a nbe t r a n s l a t e d  will  reserves  centers,  i s for this  this  i s not an economically  In  It  Concurrently,  regions  itself  to cling  their  and d i f f i -  t o overtake  established  there  area  adapt  tend  these  Location  on l a r g e r  because  be a d e l i c a t e  t h e new c o n c e n t r a t i o n  skills  pull  with  of  t o enjoy t h e  of established  will  variety  and y e t minimize  will  organization.  t o compete  be a b l e  to accelerate  f o r economic  process  terms)  of the latter  and i n d u s t r i a l  i s easy  this  interests  for a  The t r a n s p l a n t i n g  still  core,  w i l l ,  markets.  tend  capital,  core.  of t h e importance  t h e newer  be a b l e  industries  would  of t h e urban  of Rural  cities.  they  ( i n regional  of t h e tendency  will  It  where  In spite  work  firms  on t h e urban  location  equal,  because  young in  being  t h e small  of massing metropolitan  83.  areas of  being  able  production  development area  than  would  areas.  This  can maintain  unemployment Conversely, absorbed with is  full  levels  Indian  ally the  principle  margin  with  in  i t  a higher  government's growth  increase  that  rate  labor.  which  of i d l e  A  less  at  labor  lower unemployment.  likely  growth  of  several  metropolitan  rates?of  seek  a policy  over  reserves  are far  materials  t o be  together  decentralization  1968)•  (Alonso,  India  contradistinction  against  city  of  spread  at higher  nations  recognize  to  i n labor  area  i n a small  reserves  capacity  applies  of safety  Therefore,  should  smaller  production  can a smaller  firms.  to carry  In  same  by one f i r m  employment  maintaining  t h e same  than  layoffs  Decentralization  while  a higher  by o t h e r  likely  the  to exist  policy  i n larger  o f employment  to this of  principle,  industrial  cities  Harris  development  and i n f a v o r  opportunities  (1959)  as being  of e f f o r t s  i n the rural  describes  areas  to  basic-  accelerate  and smaller  ci t i e s . There Congress  Party  phenomenon who  f o r such  that  constitute  were  a r e many  familiar  many  with  improvements  bined  with  the  this  exist  (Harris,  1959).  Party  The s c a r c i t y  of creating  of  a source  underemployed  growth  ties  with  i n economic  masses  to give  resources  labor  enough  and businessmen rural  r e l a t i v e s and  emphasis  on a g r i c u l -  development rise  would  in self-help  has com-  to the  f o r development  of c a p i t a l which  rural  of the  i s a recent  The l e g i t i m a t e  step  for the rural  and t h e i d e o l o g y  intellectuals  had c l o s e  conditions.  as an important  concern  by m o b i l i z i n g  Urban  of the metropolitan  rural  program.  desirability  i n the culture  an a t t i t u d e .  the Congress  tural  development  bases  not  community suggests otherwise  projects  84.  I n I n d i a , t h e government seems w e l l e q u i p p e d w i t h policy but i l l coordinated i n i t s execution. Too many a g e n c i e s c o n t r o l l a n d u s e , f a c t o r y c o n s t r u c t i o n , investment, e t c . Only i n the case of the very l a r g e s t e n t e r p r i s e s d o we s e e a n y c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a tion of the policy of industrial decentralization t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f new t o w n s a n d , a s t h e e x a m p l e of B a n g a l o r e i l l u s t r a t e s , t h i s i s only p a r t i a l l y successful. (Harris, 1959:195). The factor If  utilization  in Harris'  the matter  industrial  analysis  i s pressed  in a locality  standard  of  living,  and thus  the detailed  attracts  like  but unlike  the migration  and c r e a t e s  towards  the belief  to rest  attracts  t o be a  primary  decentralization.  i n the importance  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n opportunities,  additional  If  industrial  and employment  migration  would  This  would  tial  migrants  lead  i n turn  trends  lead  (1959)  of this  affect  the classical  that  of new  raises the  migration  from  more  centers  leads  through  eventually asserts  labor  slow  that  centers  down  this  policy  turn, down  of industry  would  strenuously any c o n t i n u e d  i n levels  a " b a d name"  further  in  develop-  of slowing  r e s t r i c t e d so that  centers  population  which,  be  decline  i n the  economic  the process  further  these  pool  to the  i s not c l e a r l y  of  industrial  the relocation  i n these  opportunities  to giving  migration  a few l o c a l i t i e s  i s correct,  expansion  i n contradiction  interpretations  mobile  to a disastrous  and would  Harris  structure  a l l this  to the larger  that  seem t o be l a r g e l y  to the cities  repressed  able:  policy  employment  an occupational1y  industry.  migration require  provides  Apparently,  States,  movement, ment  seems  p o s i t i o n would  although  understood. United  f a r enough,  i s considered  areas. This  facts,  labor  of Indian  decentralization  industry  remote  of r u r a l  of  living.  among  growth  (Rodwin,  i s totally  unwork-  poten-  1970).  85.  (1)  because of the tremendous c o n t r i b u t i o n to economic growth which would be n u l l i f i e d and  (2)  because the worsening of c o n d i t i o n s which would be necessary to d i s c o u r a g e m i g r a t i o n would be s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y d i s a s t r o u s .  Deductions of General A p p l i c a b i l i t y In a d d i t i o n t o l a b o r , H a r r i s problems t h a t would tend to d i s c o u r a g e development, and  (1959) t a l k s to many other s p e c i f i c r u r a l d i s p e r s i o n of  industrial  by the same token would lead to the n a t u r a l  i z a t i o n of an e x i s t i n g c o r e .  Some examples of these s p e c i f i c s f o l l o w :  - p u b l i c s e r v i c e s may - water supply may - electric  metropolitan-  be  inadequate  be inadequate and  s e r v i c e may  be  unreliable  i r r e g u l a r and/or  insufficient  - telecommunications w i t h the c e n t e r may be p o o r , i n t e r n a t i o n a l telecommunications may be near i m p o s s i b l e - c o n t a c t w i t h c o m p e t i t o r s , c u s t o m e r s , s u p p l i e r s and the market p l a c e or s h i p p i n g t e r m i n a l s may be g r e a t l y impaired - c o n t a c t with pursue  government agencies may  be d i f f i c u l t  to  - managers and p r o p r i e t o r s w i l l f e e l l o s s of s t a t u s from c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n ; inadequate s c h o o l s and n o n - e x i s t e n t c u l t u r a l events - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of goods w i l l be expensive both i n time and a c t u a l c o s t s - dirt It  s t r e e t s become mud  i s of i n t e r e s t  and  slime i n r a i n y season  that many of these examples taken from H a r r i s '  (1959) a c t u a l f i e l d work are v i r t u a l l y the same problems of l o c a t i o n t h a t Hoover  (1948) t a l k e d about i n theory a decade b e f o r e . Harris  (1959) a s s e r t s t h a t o u t s i d e the immediate v i c i n i t y of a  l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r , any tenuous at b e s t .  Smaller  attempt t o b u i l d up  i n d u s t r i a l centers i s  c e n t e r s c o u l d not p r o v i d e the general  external  86.  economies  of  scale which  Only coming  all  location. units;  that  skills  be  the  are  largest  needed  difficulties  It  almost  their  easily  and  costs  acquired  be  and  can  afford  s a c r i f i c e the  imperative  labor  industry.  enterprises  these is  by  that  of  that  they  initial  external  build  dominating their  the  large  be  of  economies  over-  of  self-contained  importance;  product  cost  and  fairly  that  their  homogeneous  and  standardized.  Location  Deductions An  scale  and  mendously capital  with  costs  highest  have  been  inadequate of  the  and  ted  of  is  clear  success  planning  or  In  that  of  conducted  per  are  estates.  reached  as  a or  less  of  Ford  estates  has  dollar  factory estates  reasonable  causes on  of  study  Team,  per  twelve  losses The  as  foot  the  taken  sizable  decisions  such  square  among  a  Planning  industrial  measures  found  ratios  on many  experts  Perspective  employment was  Observation  this  than  Foundation, varied  return space,  test  may  of  tre-  on a  surveyed.  misdirected for  small  If  good  expenditures be  linked  comprehensive  to  analysis  situation.  among in  the  variation  it  the  location.  incurred  In test  the  that  benefit-cost  performance,  team  (International  observed  thirteen-fold the  International  international  industries  I963)  from  an  this  ten  for  study, which  industrialized  the  most  these city  successful estate  tests with  a  could 1.1  be made  partial  by was  ratio.  a crude a  large Its  benefit-cost estate  1 oca-  reported  O n l y c a p i t a l expended f o r l a n d and e s t a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n was i n c l u d e d . M a c h i n e r y and equipment a r e i g n o r e d . Net o u t p u t h e r e i s a rough a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f v a l u e a d d e d , a t 25% of the v a l u e of gross output— a r e l a t i o n s h i p s u g g e s t e d by p r i o r s t u d i e s ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Perspective P l a n n i n g Team, I963).  87.  employment sample,90 benefits capital sons  per square persons  of  per 10,000  Planning  .1  or  having  few i f  Team,  for  appears  developed we11  estates  with  i n one e s t a t e  15 t o  lowest  was a sharp with  falling  i n the  drop  partial  i n  output—  as low as 7  (International  utilization  Only  functioning 18 m o n t h s  of  rates  per-  Perspective  just  advantages 11  (International  c i t e d were  and l a c k i n g  o f t h e 5*+  i n December,  factory  sheds  Perspective  i n  entre-  1962, although  It  where It  i s these  important cities  rather  the greatest suggests  than  in  they  Planning  (United  social,  or s t r a t e g i c  large  Indian  of other  and speed cities.  countries,  been  s e t up i n r u r a l  may b e o b s e r v e d  that  i n the United  industrial  estates  Areas  clusters  was t o promote  and t o check of estates  t h e ones  located  with  i t  have Areas  I966).  1966) t h a t  where  other  aims,  Kingdom, the  i n the been  as  already  s e t up  and i n  Northern  i n the hinterland  Nations,  (United  Nations,  ones,  located  the scope  have  success  do not c o n f l i c t  establishing estates  near  i n c e r t a i n Development  industrialization political  estates  i n t h e Development  centers,  EC0S0C  located  that  by t h e e x p e r i e n c e  of establishing  of t h e main  evidenced  are indications  i n estates  localities.  industry  some  Ireland.  there  and underdeveloped,  industrialized around  noted,  t o be corroborated  the object  growth  ing  employment  level.  are greater  as i n urban  where  have  were  already  development  This  major  the highest  I963). As  of  of three  any i n d u s t r i a l  estates  open  There  of the four  these  been  was a l s o  feet.  feet  on a d e v e l o p e d  had  area  square  less,  preneurship three  factory  I963).  Team,  towns  group  square  Three small  of  per 10,000  i n t h e next ratios  foot  the goals  in particular  they  might  best  on zoned  sites  i n or near  that  be achieved  of  with by  encourag-  the existing  88.  metropolitan be  centers.  definitely  improved of  sites  might  43.2%  of  industrial  was  even  in  Israel  in  Tel-Aviv  vast  goal  of  to  and of  the  and  its  control  gradual in  estates  the  industrialization The  support  and  can  largely  be  or  Israel  concentration providing  spatial  relative be  cores  can  only  characteristics  of  of  attributed  to  a good  as  basis  Jerusalem the  in  achievement, economic  growth  the  export  was  a general  as  emotional  that  an  to  and  Its  share  the  1948, This  made  made  imperative  society. goals  values  with  instead and  motives. to  Settling  overcoming  than  (Johnson,  limit  1948,  After  eye  important  in  activities  achieving  earnings  policy  national  core  prime  with  social  centralized  and  social  be  organization  national  not  more  dollar  national  new  with  to  1971)-  Israeli  such  regions  fact  population.  arrivals  were  how  spatial  Haifa.  i . e . ,  goals  of  cultural  extremely  formulated  ought  defining the  and  and  new  and  (Shachar,  existing  the  settled  of  The  an  conflicting  example  enterprises  development  this  important  population  of  not  reflected: in  described  economic  increasing  success  is  planners  sparsely in  is  restructuring  Basic of  is  population.  outnumbered  and  estates  economic  Israeli  economic  imbalances  goals  commercial  spatial  rate  heretofore  industrial  incorporation  makers not  of  Tel-Aviv  can  1948  migrants  a high  regional  to  a purely  total  efficiency.  maintaining remote  to  secondary  social,  economic  industrial  localities,  strategic  detail.  the  than  rethinking  of  or  primacy'of  Policy a  location  production,  prior  the  of  some  of  higher  stream  such  sufficient  opposed  The  housed  possible  in  be  it  be  political  here  priorities.  vast  idea  social,  policy  a  may  in  toward  growth.  The  discussed  tendencies  ascertained  industrial  other  If  growth  ideological  maximizing  1970). in  Tel-Aviv  discontent  89.  with  living  in  The development lated  at  well  (Shachar, verse  to  trated its  what  an  connotations Tel-Aviv.  First  to  show  how  transfer  of  goals  emphasize  points  are  important  the  that  situation.  primate Shachar  light  of  becomes is  the  quite  alone  of  industrial  potential  transportation,  less  likely  such  factors  with  the  to as  social  the  of  borne  they  arise poor  is an  support  economic  out  tendency in  to  success of  people in  in  of  to a  has  not  had  existed  legis-  was  people"  government,  had  have  was  policy  the  have  Seoul  of  social;  application  d i s c u s s i o n , the  by  Team not  the as  conillus-  accomplishing  positive the  with  policy  orien-  negative  the for  area  create  in  of or  First,  industry. They  light  services  suggested  recommendations  (1963).  and  with  s u c c e s s be  location  some  necessary.  elements  because  milieu.  the  Korean  intimates  foregoing  economic  highest' p r i o r i t y  Korean Life  experience  Jews  in  Korean  clear.  in  these  the  given  city.  could  development  Second,  has  International  estates  could  First,  (1971)  further  mentioned  spatially,  that  These  Second,  coordination  from  "natural  industrial  ing  fact  Israel  decentralization  the  to  ties,  the  the  called  goals.  This  industrial  of  section,  In  development  mention  earlier  towards  1970*  c a n be  Korean  economic  viously  two-fold.  1971).  in  tation  making  further  the  (Shachar,  of  conscious  to  within  cities  purpose  is  the  secondly,  large  they An  suggest  of  pre-  suggested  combining  that approach  analysis  facilities,  industries. both  the  integrated  existing  estates  of  Only  by  u t i l i -  guarantee-  sectorially  and  assured.  that  experience  faulty  physical  failure  to  has  shown  planning  coordinate  failures  than  are  because  development  of  efforts  90.  T h i r d , they suggested t h a t p r e - p l a n n i n g on a l l a s p e c t s be i m p o r t a n t ,  a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e  of i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e p l a n n i ng, which e x p e r i e n c e should  be g i v e n by knowledgeable e x p e r t s .  e x p e r t s , however, must not only be the most e c o n o m i c a l l y but  that which takes  political  shows t o  The work of t h e rational  decision,  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n c u r r e n t government, economic and  p o l i c y ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e P l a n n i n g Team, I 9 6 3 ) .  91.  CONCLUSION The diagram  development  below.  It  centralization the  country"s  their  ent  portrays  trends  of  of  each  devolopment  in  milieu.  relationship  sideration  other.  this  thesis  a common  Korea—as  Three  to  these  that  of  c a n be  physical  merely  central  oriented  three  factors  were  In  fitted  into  lead  the  of  the  to  the  were  migration  parallel  c o n c l u s i o n , they  c a n be  "tip  factors  the  in  schematic  phenomenon—the  the  contributing  seen  and  internal  iceberg"  then  explored  pattern.  The  basically  a plan  constraints  for  in in  con-  independ-  spatial  imposed  by  the  frame-  work.  Government  Centralization  The nificant plan  of  long to 1971 "It  of the  industrial  tool.  government framework estates  developmental of  the  near  for  dispersal  economic m o d e l l i n g ,  but  the  Year  (the)  development  of  current  Message  paramount for  the  of  the  task  and  President,"  and  goal  modernization  of  of  of  the  (Korea)  so  run  forth  to  as  in is  a  more  expedite  viable  terms  In  stated  earliest  sig-  suggested  results.  Chung-hee  the  the  function  put  nation at  that  government  short  Park,  p r i o r i t i e s was  would  c a n be  posture  operations  plan  Seoul  Arguments  efficiency  "New is  constraint  suburban  run  the  Trends  in determining  development  Policy  of attuned  his that  economic  possible  date..."  92.  (Republic  of K o r e a , 1971  D:3)«  To maximize the economies of s c a l e , a  c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n which would minimize the problems of while  internalizing An  c o s t s and  linkages  maximizing b e n e f i t s seems most a p p r o p r i a t e .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the massive p o p u l a t i o n  shift taking  place  i n Korea today i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g c e n t r i p e t a l o r i e n t a t i o n concurrent the d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e of the country  as a w h o l e .  There i s  an a c c e l e r a t i o n i n the p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e s of the urban a r e a s . i s most obvious i n the primate c i t y tinuous  of Seoul where t h e r e has  growth i n p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e a f t e r the Korean war.  mushroomed from 1.6  million  i n 1955  t o 5-5  Throughout t h i s paper i t has Seoul has respect  million in  the decision-making than p a s s i n g  hub  This  been a con-  Population  has  1970.  been suggested that a t t r a c t i o n  been motivated by more than g l i b  for education;  with  reasons.  to  A historic desire  and  a deep-seated u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c a p i t a l c i t y f o r government, business  i n f l u e n c e on  and  c u l t u r e have had  i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n s of growth, m i g r a t i o n  as more  and  politics. W h i l e i t i s not  intended  t h a t we  " t r a v e l i n t o the f u t u r e l o o k i n g  through a r e a r view m i r r o r , " i t i s suggested that a more than  cursory  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e i s necessary to comprehend and w i t h the c u r r e n t behavior and Yi D y n a s t y , the Confucian the hands of the K i n g . and  s o c i e t a l s t r u c t u r e of a p e o p l e .  philosophy  The  historic  p l a c e d the  During  r u l e of the country  r o l e of C o n f u c i a n i s m i n  plan the  in  education  government have contemporary m a n i f e s t a t i o n s ; these have been shown  to be s i g n i f i c a n t  i n the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e .  That the main t h r u s t of a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y today i s i n Seoul i s indicative  of the f a c t t h a t no other c i t y can be expected to f u l f i l l i t s  r o l e or t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i m i n i s h the c e n t r a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the  country.  93.  Any government planning is likely to f a i l unless it  considers the socio-  cultural factors involved above and beyond the pure economics. A city and especially Seoul, as suggested in previous sections, plays a role in the Korean milieu that is more than economic, it faceted center.  is a many  9k.  BIBLIOGRAPHIES  Breese, 1969  Chung,  Gerald Modernization and U r b a n i z a t i o n : E x i s t i n g and P o t e n t i a l "Relationships i n the 'Third World." Exchange Bibliography No. 7 0 « (Monticello, Illinois: Council of Planning Librarians). Yong-sun Publications  1965  on Korea  19^9-&3, A S e l e c t e d Research Elrod,  J .  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