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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Federal government and education in Canada Andrews, Bruce Alfred 1972

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THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND EDUCATION IN CANADA by BRUCE ALFRED ANDREWS B.A., Royal M i l i t a r y College of Canada, 1960 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS f... i n the Faculty of EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S MARCH, 1972 In presenting,this thes i s--in- par-t-i al-fu 1 f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date I ^*/7* 7 I THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND EDUCATION IN CANADA ( 1867 - 1970 ) ABSTRACT The role of the Federal Government in education in Canada has been anmatter of increasing concern since the end of the Second World War. In the following pages an attempt has been made to ascertain the extent and significance of Federal participation in education from 1867 to 1970. The identification of these two dimensions, however, is largely dependent upon the concept applied to the term education and for the purposes of this inquiry education has been defined as an activity wherein instruction is given and/or learning takes place as part of a formal process in the context of a recognized educational institution. What this study demonstrates is that the Federal "presence' in education in Canada has dramatically, increased since 19A5» to the point that by 1970 in financial terms alone it exceeded an annual expenditure of one billion dollars, and additionally, that the nature of the '"presence' has become increasingly complex and diffuse. It is also demonstrated that there has been a lack of visible coordination at the Federal level with respect to its educational functions and establishes a case for more effective coordination both within the Federal structure and; between the Federal Government and' the provinces. The format of the document has largely been dictated by the nature of Federal educational programs. The first chapter has been devoted to a discussion of the constitutional position of the central government with respect to education. Succeeding chapters: then present a department by department description of Federal educational involvement. The last two chapters outline the chronological and legislative patterns that have evolved over the past century and: the conclusions derived from the study. Since this inquiry has been primarily concerned with the Federal as opposed to provincial perspective, three areas of source material have provided the content, the Statutes of Canada, the Public: Accounts and Auditor-General's Reports, and the annual reports of the several government departments concerned. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION Gv CHAPTER I THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, EDUCATION, AND THE CONSTITUTION 1 II THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 8 I'll THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MINES, AND RESOURCES . 24 IV THE DEPARTMENT OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS 33 V THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES AND FORESTRY . . . . 50 VI THE DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY, TRADE AND COMMERCE . 71 VII THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND THE SOLICITOR GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT 83 VIII THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND THE DEPARTMENT OF MANPOWER AND IMMIGRATION 101 IX THE DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT 151 X THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE 195 XI THE DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE . 224 XII THE DEPARTMENT OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE . . . . 251 XIII THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT 314 XIV THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS . 322 XV THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND RESEARCH IN CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES 337 i i CHAPTER PAGE XVI CHRONOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES AND LEGISLATIVE PATTERNS . 344 XVII OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 372 APPENDICES  DETAILED EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES AND ENROLMENT STATISTICS APPENDIX I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 388 II DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MINES AND RESOURCES 393 III DEPARTMENT OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS 400 IV DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES AND FORESTRY 404 V DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 408 VI DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 410 VII DEPARTMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND NORTHERN DEVELOPMENT VIII DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE 456 IX DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE 465 X DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT 504 XI DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 510 XII NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (ET AL) 520 i i i ANNEXURES ANNEX A AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION A C T , FORM OF AGREEMENT B CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY, SPECIAL PROGRAMS C STATISTICS CANADA, PUBLICATIONS (1968) D TECHNICAL EDUCATION ACT (1919) MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT E SCHOOL LANDS, NATURAL RESOURCES TRANSFER AGREEMENT F INDIAN EDUCATION, SCHOOL STATEMENTS ( 1 8 8 0 - 1 9 5 0 ) G NORTHWEST TERRITORIES SCHOOL SYSTEM, ANNUAL REPORT H ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE CURRICULUM I POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION PAYMENTS, REPORTS AND RETURNS J SCOPE OF PROVINCIAL PHYSICAL FITNESS PROGRAMS BIBLIOGRAPHY i v INTRODUCTION I I t i s the i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y t o examine t h e n a t u r e o f the F e d e r a l Government ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a . T h i s t o p i c has been s e l e c t e d f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . I n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e i t has become p a t e n t l y c l e a r , p a r t i c u l a r l y over the p a s t q u a r t e r c e n t u r y f o r example , t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e s o f Canada a r e no l o n g e r i n a p o s i t i o n t o f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h o u t F e d e r a l a i d . A F e d e r a l p r e s e n c e i n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n was not g e n e r a l l y a n t i