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An investigation into the differences in reading attitude and achievement of disadvantaged children instructed… Gaskill, Madeleine Kathryn 1971

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE DIFFERENCES IN READING ATTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT OF DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN INSTRUCTED BY AN INDIVIDUALIZED OR BASAL APPROACH by MADELEINE KATHRYN GASKILL (rice C? ' B.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1 9 6 7 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of EDUCATION  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard.  THE .UNIVERSITY. OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1971  ] j  In presenting  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference  and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or  It i s understood that copying or publication  of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  Abstract This study investigated the reading progress made by disadvantaged children instructed by either an individualized approach or a basal approach. A review of the literature indicated that children from disadvantaged homes frequently lack the motivation and attitudes to achieve academically.  In many cases the individualized approach to  reading instruction has been shown to improve attitudes toward reading. i  This study was designed to compare attitude and achievement growth of children instructed by either the papular basal reader approach or the individualized approach. The two instructional approaches were defined to ensure that a l l classrooms met the criteria for each program. The basal approach was one where the teacher followed the suggestions in the teachers  1  manual which accompanied the basal reader for a l l reading instruction. The individualized approach was defined as one which incorporated the principles of seeking, self-selection and pacing with individual conferences, s k i l l s instruction as needed^ sharing sessions and record sheets kept by each child. The sample was labelled "disadvantaged" and defined by father's occupation f a l l i n g in Classes five through seven of the Blishen Occupational Scale. Children were selected who met the criteria of, being disadvantaged, and were presently enrolled in grade three individualized or basal classrooms in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada. The children were placed in the four cells of the experimental design  depending on their sex, and instructional approach. Although there were originally twenty subjects per c e l l , attrition resulted in approximately sixteen subjects per c e l l for whom complete data were available. In February each subject was given the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test, a non-verbal measure of intellectual a b i l i t y .  In May,  each subject was tested on the San Diego Inventory of Reading Attitude. and the California Reading Test. Upper Primary. Form W. The four dependent variables- attitude, vocabulary, comprehension and total reading- were analyzed over the four c e l l s . Analysis of covariance removed effects due to intelligence, and three basic questions were answered about each dependent variable.  These questions  were: 1. Do significant differences i n scores exist because of the different instructional approaches used? 2 . Do the scores vary significantly between boys and girls? 3. Does an interaction effect of instructional approach and sex cause differences in scores? Of the twelve hypotheses which were tested, one proved to be significant at the .05 level.  This was Hypothesis Two, that different  attitudes to reading occurred because of sex, with the attitude of the girls being superior to that of the boys. Trends, significant at the .25 level, indicated that girls received higher scores on achievement measures, and that boys taught by the basal approach and girls taught by the individualized approach received best results on the vocabulary test.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page i i i  LIST OF TABLES Chapter 1. NATURE OF THE STUDY  1  Intrcxiuction  1  The Disadvantaged Student . . . . .  3  Environmental factors  .......  4  Educational deficiencies  5  Summary  8  The Reading Program . . . . .  •••  9  Aims of a reading program  9  The importance of interest  9  The individualized approach  10  The Setting  13  The Purpose  14-  Definitions  1?  Limitations  18  2. RELATED RESEARCH  . ..  20  Reading Achievement of the Disadvantaged  20  Individualized and Basal Reading Approaches  23  Chapter Summary  30  3. PROCEDURES Sample  •  32 3-+  ii Page Instrumentation  35  ......  Covariate measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35  Dependent variables . . . . . . . .  35 36  Design  38  4. RESULTS OF THE STUDY  38  Analysis of the Data Analysis of covariance  38  Hypotheses One, Two and Three  39  Hypotheses Four, Five and Six  39  Hypotheses Seven, Eight and Nine  42  Hypotheses Ten, Eleven and Twelve  45 45  Interpretation of the Analysis Teaoher Variable  48  5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS . . . Summary  51 51  *  53  Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implications  .  55 56  Suggestions for Further Research WORKS CITED  58  APPENDIX A  64  APPENDIX B  67  APPENDIX G  0  APPENDIX D  ,. . . .  70  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1. Analysis of Variance for the Attitude Measure . . . . . . .  40  2. Means and Standard Deviations for Each C e l l on the Attitude Measure  40  3. Analysis of Variance for the Vocabulary Measure . . . . . .  41  4. Means and Standard Deviations for Each Cell on the Vocabulary Measure  . . . . .  41  ....  43  5. Analysis of Variance for the Comprehension Measure 6. Means and Standard Deviations for thehCompr.ehension Measure . . 7. Analysis of Variance for the Total Reading Achievement Measure 8. Means and Standard Deviations for the Total Reading Achievement Measure  43 44 44  9. Means and Standard Deviations for the I.Q. Test . . . . . .  47  10. Correlations between I.Q. and Each Dependent Variable 11. Stanine Scores of Each Dependent Variable  47 . . . . . . . .  49  12. Percentile Scores for the Achievement Variables . . . . . .  49  13. Means, Standard Deviations and F-Score of Teachers . . . .  50  14. Analysis of Variance for the Attitude Measure  67  15* Analysis of Variance for the Vocabulary Measure  . . . . .  67  16. Analysis of Variance for the Comprehension Measure . . . .  68  17. Analysis of Variance for the Total Reading Measure . . . .  68  18. Correlations between Achievement and Attitude  69  CHAPTER 1 NATURE OF THE STUDY Introduction This study was concerned with a particular population of school children, and two forms of organizing reading instruction.  Specifically,  i t investigated differences i n reading attitude and achievement of disadvantaged students instructed by either a basal or individualized approach. During the past ten years these issues of disadvantaged children and instructional approaches to reading have both been independently discussed i n educational research. Students who did not achieve to levels their potential might indicate (7,29) were frequently found to be deprived of a number of experiences assumed prerequisite to formal school education ( 5 , 1 2 , 1 6 , 1 7 , 2 5 , 5 2 ) . Educators i n the last decade have tried to identify these students, determine possible causes of their deprivation, and devise educational approaches to overcome deficiencies and provide better education. Methods of reading instruction, too, have been investigated frequently.  Dissatisfaction with traditional means of grouping, instruc-  ting, and meeting the individual needs of each pupil, have caused many researchers to look closely at the most popular method of reading instruction- the basal reader program ( 9 , 6 0 ) .  Methods of individualizing  instruction, discussed for the past f i f t y years, have been examined as  an aid to alleviating these weaknesses. During the last decade much research has been concerned with establishing the superiority of one approach over the other (4,48,68). A review of the literature indicated that the individualized approach might be especially useful in meeting the needs of disadvantaged students. The reasons for this conclusion have been summarized by the following statements. 1. a)  Attitudes towards reading and interest i n reading must be positive i f reading s k i l l s are to be acquired  (14,47,58). b)  A common characteristic of disadvantaged students has been found to be lack of interest i n educational attainment (5,12,49,52,66).  c)  Individualized reading programs have proven to be superior to basal programs i n fostering positive attitudes to reading (1,34,36,61,64,65).  2. a)  Reading must be seen as meaningful to the reader for reading skills to be acquired (14,18,43,47,58,68,73).  b)  Typically, disadvantaged students lack value and respect for the reading act, because their environment lacks models and stimuli of reading behavior (5,12,20,24,49).  c)  Methods of instruction recommended i n an individualized program emphasize that understanding the purpose and value of the reading act precede formal rading and that the reader's own purposes, needs and interests guide his choice of materials (4,43,48,68).  3. a) "Much of the curricular content to which children are exposed i s based on the assumption that most of them have seen and understood certain objects and processes prior to entry into f i r s t b)  grade"(17:257).  Disadvantaged students frequently lack a great number of the s k i l l s , vocabulary and concepts necessary to successf u l instruction.  c)  Individualized programs recommend instruction i n s k i l l s , vocabulary and concepts procede at different paces and times as needed by each students (4,43,48,68).  4. a)  Reading i s an area i n which many disadvantaged students are deficient (17,20,21,38).  b)  Individualized instruction i n varied instructional areas has been suggested for overcoming the deficiencies of disadvantaged students (18,20,21,26,28,33,38,44,49,54, 72).  For these reasons, i t was hypothesized that disadvantaged students taught to read by an individualized approach would show greater achievement i n reading and have better attitudes toward reading than those taught by the basal method. The Disadvantaged Student The term disadvantaged or culturally deprived indicated that the students, i n some or many ways, were at a disadvantage i n the educational environment of the school, pxe characteristics attributable to them are many and the number of possible combinations of characteristics i s  4 large.  Thus any two disadvantaged students may be quite dissimilar.  The characteristics describing this population can be roughly divided into two categories: environmental factors that hinder acquisition of s k i l l s and/or attitudes necessary for educational competence, and, the educational factors themselves which are lacking.  There i s , of  course, overlap between the two divisions, but the division i s useful for the purpose of the discussion here. Environmental factors The major environmental characteristic of the disadvantaged students has been found to be their low socio-economic status (5,16, 24,52). Fathers are often unemployed (66), and the family structure i s extended (75) and disorganized (25), i.e., many relations live i n the same dwelling and divorces and out-of-wedlock children are frequent. The formal education of parents i s limited to high school level or below (25).  As a family there i s l i t t l e group activity; i n fact, the  family may not even eat together regularly (66). Low socio-economic families have been found to be frequently matriarchal.  Mothers are expected to make decisions and rear the  children; fathers, to impose constraints and be directive rather than supportive.  Children perceive their parents as being inaccessible for  communication and advice, and perceive adults i n general as being hostile. More dependence i s placed upon siblings and peers than on adult authority  (66,75).  L  Value systems of lower socio-economic families have been found to be similar to those held by upper and middle socio-economic groups,  5 in that honesty, happiness, consideration, obedience and dependability are desired by a l l .  However, behavioristic values of lower socio-  economic families tend more toward respectability (obedience, neatness, cleanliness) whereas middle classes placed more emphasis on internal standards of conduct (self-control, curiosity, consideration) (75)• Parents of disadvantaged children measure progress i n school not by academic achievement but ,by discipline standards.  They tend to be  satisfied as long as the children are not i n trouble (16), and they react to misbehavior i n terms of the immediate consequences not the intent of the action (66). It has been found that girls are usually/ overprotected whereas boys are inadequately disciplined (66). Conversation between adults and children i s limited. Children are seldom read to. Typically, newspapers and books are lacking in low socio-economic households.  Explanations and discussions seldom  occur. Rather, communication i s in terms of brief commands, terse expletives, and visual signs (5,17,49,51,66). Disadvantaged children tend to be competitive!;and aggressive, and to express their aggression openly (75)•  One study found that  parents with low occupational and educational levels tended to have extremely aggressive children (16). Educational deficiencies Generally i t has been found that disadvantaged children do not understand what reading i s , or have a desire to learn to read, because their home environments lack such reading stimuli as storybooks, newspapers, magazines, library cards and models of reading behavior (49,50,66).  6 Paucity of conversation with adults has a severe effect on language and vocabulary development of disadvantaged chidren (51).  An environ-  ment lacking vocal stimulation and adequate models which young children could imitate and thereby learn language i s characteristic of the disadvantaged (51).  On the other hand, a middle class child, "In a c i r -  cumstance that is characterized primarily by love, warm acceptance of the child's efforts to recreate the language of his culture, and individual instruction, where failure i s not considered possible,... makes tremendous, almost unbelievable growth in his language capacities" (15:18?). Auditory discrimination has been found to be poorly developed (17,24,49) and one researcher found that disadvantaged children are likely to have poor visual discrimination (49). The language structure of disadvantaged children has been found to be composed of short, simple, incomplete statements used primarily for social interchange;, as opposed to elaborate structures containing precise statements and embodying a large range of concepts, vocabulary, structural elements and information, of middle-class children (5,^9)• Elaborate language encourages cognitive use of language, whereas restricted slanguage lacks the breadth and depth for complex statements or thinking which leads to conceptual development (5,20)1 The  expressive  and receptive modes of language have not been adopted by disadvantaged children (24).  Their oral language is not at a l l fluent (17), the  dialect spoken might be somewhat foreign to standard English (17), and frequently a foreign language i s spoken i n the home (2). "The vocabulary of the culturally disadvantaged learner i s likely to be restricted because he i s encapsuled i n an environment that i s  7 l i n g u i s t i c a l l y isolated"(l7.258).  One investigation revealed that i n  the United States the vocabulary of children from marginal areas was half that of middle-class children (19). Disadvantaged children lack concepts which are necessary f o r functioning i n the middle-class classroom.  Missing are the pre-school  enrichment a c t i v i t i e s which are associated with growing up- educational toys, books, verbal i n t e r a c t i o n , and other opportunities for cognitive development (2,50).  Thus, cognitive functioning progresses slowly  (24).  Much of the c u r r i c u l a r content to which children are exposed i s based on the assumption that most of them have seen and understood c e r t a i n objects and processes prior to their entry into f i r s t grade. The disadvantaged c h i l d from a severely r e s t r i c t e d experiential background, however, w i l l not have the conceptual foundation upon which to b u i l d t h i s superstructure of the new concepts which are imposed on him at school (17:257)• I t i s the concepts of time, number, space and causality which are especially lacking (21), as w e l l as the a b i l i t y to use verbal and written language f o r cognitive clues (5,24,52). The self-concept developed.  In f a c t ,  of disadvantaged students i s not  positively  s o c i a l and personal, as w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l needs  have been neglected (17) • . Parental attitudes of f u t i l i t y and despair of t h e i r l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n , caused by lack of s k i l l s or lack of motivat i o n to get s k i l l s or employment (2), i s transferredMo the c h i l d r e n . Short range goals, geared to immediate needs, primarily physical and affectional,  are highly valued (21).  Education i s not seen by the disadvantaged as a dominant value i n the culture (5,16,52).  Lack of motivation to achieve  intellectually,  coupled with lack of concentration, persistence (24,15) and a t t e n t i v e ness (16,49,66) caused feelings of inadequacy i n school (24).  Skills  8  necessary for coping with the expectancies of the teaching-learning situation are non-existent i n these children (5,49).  The result i s  low achievement i n schoolwork (2,16,17,25,50), a defeatist attitude as a result of repeated failures (17), and an indifferent or noninquiring attitude towards problems (17»24) leading ultimately to dropping out of school. Edington found that the rate of attrition was higher i n rural areas than urban, and higher among children of unemployed fathers (16). Summary The characteristics of the disadvantaged are related to low socio-economic status.  Parents with limited education and income are  often too concerned with problems of job-seeking, earning a living and providing the necessities for their families to spare time, money and energy in increasing the educational aptitude and experiences of their children.  The mother who works long hours does not come home willing  to converse with her children.  Usually a few remarks i n the form of  brief commands and expletives are a l l she gives. Her children, deprived of auditory-vocal stimulation related to their environment, reach school deficient i n auditory discrimination, communication s k i l l s , powers of observation and concept development, a l l of which are necessary for success i n the reading act. Thus, disadvantaged children do not arrive at school ready for a reading program that i s suitable for the middle-«and upper-classes. They have unique disabilities which must be rectified as they are identified throughout the reading program.  9 The Reading Program Aims of a reading program The aims of teaching reading i n the educational system have always been the same regardless of the approach or methodology used. F i r s t the learner must make the transition from spoken to written language and understand what reading i s .  Listening to stories, dictating  stories, telling stories, writing stories, and making books a l l precede the formal s k i l l activities.  Skills such as vocabulary knowledge, word  attack methods, comprehension, reading orally, reading c r i t i c a l l y , outlining, skimming, summarizing, integrating and assimilating ideas, and assembling and organizing information are developed.  To be successful  the reader must learn to locate, select, use and search materials, and to identify his own interests and purposes. Sharing ideas, discussion and evaluation are important in developing thinking s k i l l s .  The reader  must learn to set standards for himself and to know when to get help. He must know how to read to gain enjoyment and to gain information. When these goals have been reached, the student can be said to be a reader  (•+2,43,53,64). The importance of interest A major motivating force has been found to be the interest and desire on the part of the reader (7,14,18,29,43,47,58,63,68,73). The reading-thinking process begins i n the mind of each reader as he experiences a state of doubt or curiosity about what he knows or does not know, and what he thinks w i l l or w i l l not happen... The self commitment on an intellectual as well as an emotional level has tremendous motivating force. The power of this force i s almost immeasurable as i t compels and sustains the reader until he finds an answer. The'ideas a pupil declares are his ideas; they reflect his  10 experience and knowledge, his associating and projection, his ego. He i s out to prove himself right or wrong. The self-actualizing tendency of self-declared purposes i s enormous (58:25). Lee and Allen say, "... i t i s the 'self-commitment of one child 1  ... that leads to individual writing and rapid progress i n reading" (43:67).  Where self-commitment i s not allowed to operate,  where 'school work' i s always seen as 'something I'm supposed to do because the teacher wants me to,' there i s often l i t t l e real incentive to accomplish i t . Further, not doing i t becomes a most satisfactory means of exercising power against the teacher and expressing hostilities toward her (43:82). Another result of external direction i s that the child never learns to direct his own learning or to become independent i n his own study procedures (43).  "The curriculum should be developed i n accordance  with the child's needs, interests and problems i f i t i s to have maximum significance and application" (73 15*0. :  Veatch agreed that the interest factor i s important i n motivation on an individualized reading program and said, "A child's energy and power while he i s reading on a self-selection basis enormously reduces the need for a teacher to d r i l l i n phonics, word-attack s k i l l s , the use of context and picture clues and the l i k e " (68:x). The individualized approach The individualized approach to the teaching of reading utilizes, as the main motivating force, the child's interests.  This approach has  been given several labels; individualized reading being the most popular name, whereas Barbe called i t personalized reading, and mentioned the language-experience approach to beginning reading (43) as being "not unlike what i s now being called the personalized approach" (4:51).  11 Three guiding principles of child development (as originally described by Willard Olson i n The Packet, 1952) have been followed by proponents of individualized instruction.  A child seeks that which he  i s ready to accept, he selects those items from the environment which have meaning at the present time, and he paces himself by accepting only as much as he can handle. principles.  The individualized approach implements these  The child selects his own material to read.  Seeking guides  his choice of material as i t does his acquisition of new s k i l l s .  The  teacher must be aware of the child's pace, so that he i s neither subjected to material or s k i l l s he i s not ready for and therefore cannot learn, nor waiting expectantly i n a void. Instruction takes place on a one-to-one, or small group basis, as i t i s needed by each child.  Diagnosis continually  takes place, through a variety of methods (48,68). Individualized approaches differ, since each i s designed to meet the individual needs of the teacher, of the student, of the class as a whole, and of the community i n which the school i s located. There are, however, standard practices i n which most programs engage (4,42,48,68). The child chooses his own reading material from a variety that i s available, both trade and textbooks.  He reads individually at his own speed.  He  discusses his book with the teacher during an individual conference. He then initiates a project related to his reading which he designs and completes independently, and later shares with his classmates. A variety of communication s k i l l s are employed. During the conference theteacher diagnoses the reader's strengths and weaknesses, and assigns individual or group instruction to alleviate the weaknesses. Diagnosis i s not the only purpose of the individual  12  conference.  Through close personal interaction between student and teacher  many psychological needs are f u l f i l l e d that could never be met in any other way. Skills and interest groups are frequently formed and as frequently disbanded, varying in size from one or two children to include the whole class. Students are partially responsible for evaluating their progress. This i s facilitated by record sheets and book l i s t s that each child keeps of his activities.  These include such things as books read,  points he learned or wishes to discuss, new vocabulary encountered, s k i l l s exercises and scores, and related activities.  During his indi-  vidual time with the teacher, he i s aided in evaluating his progress and charting his future course to eliminate weaknesses. This part of the program i s entirely individual, different for each child.  Compari-  sons are not made with other children or groups. The emphasis is on what a child can do, not on what others can do that he cannot but should be doing. The individualized reading approach emphasizes development of language s k i l l s . situation.  Oral reading has always a purpose and a true audience  The student chooses and reads a part of the story to his  teacher during his individual conference.  This leads to discussion  which checks his vocabulary and comprehension. Most children enjoy sharing, through oral reading, speaking, and explaining projects or stories, i n small interest groups or to the class during the "sharing periods". Written assignments are f i n a l expressions of the student's opinion of the book or related matter. Rather than writing answers to  1  3  questions, the student often creates his own activity that expresses his thoughts.  These typically include summaries, letters to authors,  book reports, plays.  These are often shared with other members of the  class, which gives a purpose to writing.  Sharing a story i s also done  through a r t i s t i c as well as verbal means. A book may be more suitable for clay model interpretation, or painting, or music. to the choice of the student.  The media i s l e f t  '  The Setting Special reading programs, "aimed at providing children with more of the same instruction i n reading, rather than a different type of instruction" (38'-5^) have not succeeded i n raising the reading achievement levels of the disadvantaged. It i s time to re-think the ways i n which reading i s taught to these children. Although the individualized approach has yet to gain widespread acceptance as an effective way to teach reading, the possibility of i t s use with deprived youngsters deserves careful consideration... The use of self-selected material (based upon i n terest and appeal) i s an excellent means of reaching the disadvantaged ... " (38:54). Fader found this i n his work with delinquent boys.  These boys  were allowed to read anything they wished and instructional materials took the form of paperbacks, magazines.and newspapers, which, he contended, related more to the outside world than typical school anthologies,. As a result, i f o r the f i r s t time, they coveted dictionaries and v  books. The interest force strongly motivated them (18). Reaching the child through his interests i s the f i r s t step. Then the special needs of the disadvantaged can be met by the very i n d i v i dual nature of this instructional approach.  Because instruction i s aimed  at deficiencies as they are identified, there i s a greater chance of  14  rectifying them. The close personal interaction available during the individual conferences can do much to improve the disadvantaged child's self-concept and attitude towards adults and education. Because the individual i s emphasized i n this approach to reading instruction, each child's worth and strengths can be used to improve his weaknesses i n attitude and s k i l l s . The present study was designed to test the effectiveness of an individualized approach to reading instruction for disadvantaged students who had already gained some competence i n reading.  Unless the  program specifically met the needs of these students they could be expected to make no greater progress than disadvantaged students instructed by a basal approach.  Thus, and individualized approach was compared to  a basal approach for children i n grade three. The Purpose This study compared the reading progress made by disadvantaged students instructed by an individualized approach with those instructed by a basal reader approach. s k i l l s and attitude.  Progress was measured on two variables:  A standardized reading achievement test measured  those s k i l l s generally considered to contribute to reading ability, vocabulary and comprehension, the sum of which indicated general or tot a l reading a b i l i t y .  An attitude inventory indicated the use made of  thesfreading s k i l l s , i.e., reading for enjoyment and interest, and the student's attitude towards reading. The design of the study enabled three questions to be tested about each variable.  The three questions concerned the nature of d i f f e r -  ences i n scores due to the differences i n instructional approach,  15 differences i n sex, and the interaction effect of instructional approach with sex.  The achievement test yielded a vocabulary score, a comprehen-  sion score, and a total reading score. The attitude inventory yielded one score.  The three questions were tested over each of the four measures,  giving twelve hypotheses. The hypotheses of this study were: H1. Scores on the attitude measure are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than those instructed by a basal approach. H2. Girls' scores on the attitude measure are higher than boys', independent of the instructional approach used. H 3 * There i s an interaction effect between the instructional approaches and sex as follows: (1) Scores on the attitude measure are higher for the girls i n the individualized group and (2) Scores on the attitude measure arehigher for the boys i n the basal group than for the girls i n the basal group. H4. Scores on the vocabulary measure are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than children instructed by a basal approach. H5. Girls' scores on the vocabulary test are higher than boys', independent of instructional approach used. H6. There i s an interaction effect between the instructional approaches and sex as follows: (1) Scores on the vocabulary measure are higher for the girls in the individualized group than for the boys i n the individualized group and  16 (2) Scores on the vocabulary measure are higher for the boys in the basal group than for the girls in the basal group. H7. Scores on the comprehension measure are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than children instructed by a basal approach. H8. Girls' scores on the comprehension test are higher than boys', independent of instructional approach used. HQ. There i s an interaction effect between the instructional approaches and sex as follows: (1) Scores on the comprehension measure are higher for the girls i n the individualized group than for the boys i n the individualized group and (2) Scores on the comprehension measure are higher for the boys i n the basal group than for the girls i n the basal group. H10. Scores of total reading are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than those instructed by a basal approach. H11. G i r l s  1  total reading scores are higher than boys', inde-  pendent of instructional approach used. H12. There i s an interaction effect betweenthe instructional approaches and sex as follows: (1) Total reading scores are higher for the girls i n the individualized group than for the boys i n the individualized group and (2) Total reading scores are higher for the boys i n the basal group than for the girls i n the basal group.  1?  Definitions In this study the following terms were used: 1. Disadvantaged: This term referred to elementary school children whose father's occupation f e l l into Classes five through seven of the Blishen Occupational Class Scale (6).  The choice  of the lowest three classes of the scale was somewhat arbitrary, including semi-skilled, unskilled, migrant and f r e quently unemployed workeres, and reflected generally low educational attainment and income status. (For a l i s t i n g of the occupations included i n classes five through seven, see Appendix A.) 2 . Individualized reading program: An individualized reading program i n this study was an instructional approach which incorporated the principles of seeking, self-selection, pacing, individual conferences, s k i l l instruction, sharing and individual record sheets kept by each child.  These seven  principles were the guiding criteria; materials and methodology were not controlled. 3. Basal reading program: The basal program followed the traditional pattern, where the children i n each group read a story from their reader-anthology and were instructed as suggested in the teacher's manual. Within the sample, the basal readers used were either the prescribed Copp-Clark series, the Winston series, or the Holt-Rinehart series.  Limitations  The f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s l i m i t e d the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of  this  study. 1.  Teacher v a r i a b l e : C h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d f r o m many classrooms  i n several schools.  The number o f  class-  teachers  i n v o l v e d w i t h the c h i l d r e n on b o t h programs was assumed t o have an e q u a l i z i n g e f f e c t .  Pertinent data regarding teacher  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was c o l l e c t e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s  assumption.  2. Nature of d e p r i v a t i o n : C r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n ( B l i s h e n O c c u pational Class Scale)  d i d n o t a l l o w the p o s s i b i l i t y  f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i s i t c s of d e p r i v a t i o n .  of s p e c i -  No one or more f a c t o r s  c o u l d be i s o l a t e d . %. 3. Sample s e l e c t i o n : The study was r e s t r i c t e d t o students  i n grade t h r e e i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n the lower  mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, k.  Existing  disadvantaged  programs:  In t h i s  the r e a d i n g programs u s e d .  Canada.  s t u d y no e f f o r t was made t o c o n t r o l B a s a l and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approaches  a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e were compared f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h advantaged c h i l d r e n .  dis-  Thus, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o compare c h i l d -  r e n who had been i n s t r u c t e d by a b a s a l approach f o r t h r e e y e a r s d u r i n g grades one, two and t h r e e w i t h c h i l d r e n who had been i n s t r u c t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach f o r the one e x p e r i m e n t a l y e a r d u r i n g grade t h r e e , preceded by two y e a r s b a s a l approach d u r i n g grades one and two.  of  Additional factors  such as i n s t r u c t i o n a l t i m e , l i b r a r y t i m e , amount of o r a l r e a d i n g ,  19 reading required i n other subjects were also not controlled. 5. Measures: As cautioned by Barbe (4) the standardized tests measure those aspects of reading emphasized by a basal approach.  Therefore, measurements taken on an individualized  approach by these tests are somewhat spurious.  23  CHAPTER 2 RELATED RESEARCH The research pertaining to this study f e l l into five categories. Three were discussed i n Chapter 1. These defined the nature and characteristics of disadvantaged children (see The Disadvantaged Student). the basic characteristics of reading instruction (see The Reading Program), and rationales for using an individualized approach with disadvantaged students (see The Setting). The present section covered the two remaining areas; the record of reading achievement of disadvantaged students, and a comparison of two reading approaches with which this study was concerned. Reading Achievement of the Disadvantaged This section examined literature pertaining to the reading performance of disadvantaged students i n elementary school. These studies have found that, of factors which have a detrimental effect upon reading behavior, low socio-economic status was among the most important. Factors related to low socio-economic status, such as limited education of parents, lack of reading stimuli i n the home, and limited opportunities for concept and language development were also important.  Generally, children  from middle or upper socio-economic levels were more likely to read successfully i n elementary school than disadvantaged children from lower socio-economic backgrounds. A study to determine some of the physical, social, emotional  and enviornmental characteristics of successful readers showed that successful readers were those who score high on the following measures: good health, intelligence, access to reading material, being read to by parents, formal education of parents, and an emotionally integrated home l i f e which encouraged reading (39)• The latter four characteri s t i c s are those which are typically lacking i n a disadvantaged home. Vilscek concluded that mental age and socio-economic levels were the most powerful independent variables affecting reading success i n f i r s t grade.  The dependent variables of intelligence, reading readiness,  physiological, social and emotional maturity, family index of social position and f i n a l reading achievement were tested at the end of f i r s t grade.  Significant differences between the different socio-economic  levels for a l l the dependent variables were found (69). Hilliard and Troxell, using questionnaires and teachers' case studies, assessed the background of experience and home l i f e situation of kindergarten children.  A l l the children were of average and above  average intelligence and were evaluated on nine environmental characteristics.  The children forming the rich background group scored higher  on such measures as; parental occupation, mechanical means of communi;  cation i n the home, conversational inclinations, number of books i n the home, and preschool experiences.  The meagre background group scored  lower on a l l measures except average number of siblings, travelling less than one thousand miles, and having fewer than twenty-five books at home. Five tests were administered, testing information and vocabulary ranges, problem-solving and classification a b i l i t i e s , and reading readiness. The children of rich background scored significantly higher on a l l tests.  zz Fourteen percent of the children from rich backgrounds, compared to fifty-four percent of those from meagre backgrounds, were assessed as l i k e l y to f a i l in beginning reading. Tested on reading a b i l i t y i n grade 2.4, the rich background children were five months ahead of grade standard, while the poor group was one month below grade standard (32). As part of a study of social and cognitive variables related to reading achievement, Henderson and Long found high readers to be more socially oriented and more discriminating than poor readers. They concluded that "such a pattern would be consistent with a theory of reading which holds that the process i s i n part a dialogue in which the reader experiences a continual social interaction with persons both real and imaginary" (31*579). and that i t demands the reader to "continually weigh his values, thoughts, and anticipations against those of the author and the characters he directs" (31*580)^ Thus, experiences involving social interaction, communication and discrimination of self from others would tend to enhance reading a b i l i t y .  More opportunity for  varied social experiences i s available to the middle or upper class child than the lower class child. According to Wartenberg, who had had considerable experience teaching the disadvantaged, the characteristics of poor health, poor attitudes, and lack of continuity and stability i n learning s k i l l s affect academic progress (70).  The disadvantaged, more frequently than  middle class students, lack attitudes favoring academic achievement, and also frequently change schools, thereby decreasing chances for continuity and stability i n learning. Cohen reported about the reading performance of f i r s t , third and  eighth graders i n a Manhattan slum school. At the end of f i r s t grade a l l but ten of the 150 students were reading below grade level as measured by an indivdually administered test.  Of the grade three students,  approximately 78$ were reading below grade level.  By eighth grade,  one third of the pupils had dropped out of school, and of the remainder 62$ were reading below grade level.  In the same school d i s t r i c t i t was  found that 30$ of the children i n grades seven to nine did not even know the alphabet (12:26-29).  Here again the record shows the lack of  success i n reading behavior exhibited by disadvantaged children, growing increasingly worse as the children mov through the grades. According to Riessman, f i f t y percent of disadvantaged children were retarded i n reading, whereas the estimate of reading retardation for a l l children was only fifteen to twenty percent  (52).  Individualized and Basal Reading Approaches Evidence i s not lacking, then, to show that disadvantaged children do not succeed i n reading under current instructional practices. What i s now needed i s an approach which w i l l promote more growth i n this particular population. As reported above, their deficiencies are i n both the cognitive and affective domains. Cognitive deficiencies are in the areas of concept and language development which hinder s k i l l s acquisition. achieve.  Affective deficiencies concern motivation and desire to  Affective attributes are considered by some (25,75) to be less  stable and therefore more lammelable than cognitive a b i l i t i e s .  Zigler  contends that changes i n the affective state may cause or assist changes in intellectual functioning (25). An individualized reading approach subscribes to Zigler*s theory,  24 emphasizing the importance of the affective domain as the motivation upon which learning i s based. A guiding principle of an individualized approach i s to utilize each child's areas of interest.  According to  the proponents of an individualized approach, i t i s this internal motivation, as well as instruction given when and as i t i s needed for each individual, which accelerates growth in reading a b i l i t y . Much research which has compared an individualized approach with basal instruction has supported the contention that interest and  desire  to read are stronger i n children instructed by an individualized approach. Whether this, i n turn, enhances reading ability had not yet been unquestion ably established.  It must be remembered, as Barbe has warned, that  "the  achievement tests are measuring essentially those s k i l l s which are taugtt. in the basal reading program only omitting the more important s k i l l s such as ability to select appropriate materials, the frequency i t s e l f with which such materials are chosen, and attitudes and interests i n reading" (4:217). The latter s k i l l s , which he considers^ "the more important s k i l l s " , are the affective s k i l l s emphasized by an individualized approach. The studies cited i n this section compared an individualized approach to reading instruction with a basal approach i n order to define in which specific areas (cognitive or affective) each program excelled. The studies used readily available standradized reading tests to measure cognitive growth in reading.  In addition, those investigators  interested  in the affective area emplyed questionnaire, scale, observation and interview techniques to> measure growth i n reading attitudes.  Generally,  the findings indicated that affective growth was best promoted by an individualized approach, and that cognitive growth was equally sub-  25 stantial by either approach. Several investigators reported that both achievement and a t t i tude improved with individualized instruction.  In Huser's study, twelve  classes of intermediate grade children were randomly assigned to individualized or basal programs. The students, a l l of low or middle socioeconomic classes, were matched on age and reading achievement, and measured on a reading inventory and the Purdue Attitude Toward Reading Test. Results in achievement were statistically higher for the sixth graders on the individualized program. A l l the individualized classes had positive attitudes towards reading, whereas negative attitudes were noted for some basal groups (3k), Similar achievement and attitude growth was reported by Adams i n a study of f i r s t grade students taught by an individualized approach. Significantly greater results were reported for the individualized group over the basal group on the attitude variables and most achievement variables tested. Two standardized tests and three tests developed by the author were used. Adams specified the areas promoted best by the individualized approach as being readiness for reading, sight vocabulary, phonics s k i l l s , work study habits, attitude towards reading, pupil interest, and amount of reading done ( 1 ) . Another report of more reading done by a group using the selfselection technique than a basal group was made by Talbert and Merritt. A large sample of f i f t h grade students i n Tucson were randomly assigned to either a basal program or a basal plus self-selection program. Range of a b i l i t y and socio-economic  levels were controlled.  The students were  measure on three scales; reading achievement, attitude scale, and record of i n - and ou-of-school reading. Achievement and attitude were not sig-  26 nificantly different between the two instructional approaches.  The basal  plus self-selection group read a greater number of pages, significant at the .01 level (64). Similarly, Rothrock's comparison of homogeneous grouping, heterogeneous grouping, and individualized instruction, found that attitude and amount of reading were superior for the individualized group. Fourth and f i f t h grade children were matched on socio-economic status, size of class, materials used, and experience and training of the teachers, and were randomly assigned to each of the three teaching approaches.  Reading  comprehension and work study s k i l l s were measured by a standardized test. An attitude survey and a record of the number of library books read were used ot measure reading interest*  Rothrock reported that gains and losses  were made on&all programs, and that no one program promoted superior growth for a l l variables measured. However, the individualized approach was consistently second on a l l achievement measures and significantly better on the attitude measure. Rothrock concluded that a l l programs successfully promoted achievement with some students but that only the individualized approach promoted growth of attitudes toward reading (53)• Similar findings to the above;&were reported by Thatcher and Parker. They hypothesized that there should be greater opportunity for development of creativity and problem-solving techniques with f i f t h and sixth graders on an individualized instructional approach than on a basal approach.  The results of statistical analysis of their data showed no  significant differencegbetween the basal and the individualized groups on the Covington problem-solving test, difference approaching  signifi-  cance for the individualized group on the Torrance creativity test, and significant difference for the f i f t h grade individualized students on number of books read (65), Here again, a comparison of amount of reading  2? favored individualized instruction over basal instruction. Another study which compared achievement and attitude growth with f i r s t grade basal and individualized groups was conducted by Stauffer and Hammond. The achievement of the individualized group was s i g n i f i cantly superior to that of the basal group on word reading, paragraph meaning and spelling and approached significance on word study.  No  difference resulted between the groups on the attitude inventory, but the authors expressed dissatisfaction with this unstandardized instrument. Verbal responses and observed behaviors of the children i n the i n d i v i dualized group indicated much greater interest i n reading than their counterparts on the basal program (59)• Studying f i r s t graders i n rural areas, Spencer and Moquin found the individualized approach significantly better to the basal approach for children of a l l abilities i n a l l the areas tested- six phonics measures, and three comprehension measures.  Using subjective assessment they found  the individualized group was superior to the basal group i n quality, quantity and interest i n both written expression and reading  (61).  The individualized group i n Jenkins' grade two study made significantly greater gains i n vocabulary, comprehension and total reading achievement over the basal group.  Attitude was not measured i n this study,  but i n another comparison of basal and individualized instruction Jenkins reported that gains were i n other aspects of reading. By observing the reading behavior of students i n grades thnee to six, i t was found that those in the individualized classrooms exhibited more interest and enjoyment i n reading, and had a better developed habit of regular reading  (35)* In 1957,  Karlin reported on two early projects comparing basal  and individualized reading instruction.  A study of grade three pupils  which used few controls reported no significant differences in gains of reading a b i l i t y between the two approaches. In another study, children i n grades frou to six were matched for reading ability, I.Q., and socioeconomic status. Again there were no significant differences i n reading achievement, but those on the individualized program were reported by their teachers to exhibit more interest and do more reading on their own  (36).  Another early report of findings similar to the above, that children instructed by individualized techniques exhibited greater growth i n reading attitude, was a teaching approach instigated in Salt Lake City i n 1933*  This was a comparative study only i n the sense  that i n previous years the teachers had used the basal approach and during the 1933 teaching year introduced individual pacing, small group and individual activities, and discussion sessions. Differences between pre- and post-tests of achievement after the new approach were greater than the expected gains based on the basal approach. Teachers reported that they and their students were.>~<more satisfied with the new approach than the traditional method  (74).  Achievement gains favoring an individualized group were found at the end of a three-year period.  Grade three students were matched  for academic aptitude, reading achievement and socio-economic status, and randomly assigned to basal or individualized classrooms.  In grade  six, they were retested and the difference i n gains for. the individualized group was significant.  Even greater confidence i n the individualized  approach was given i n the author's conclusion that the individualized group was a less select group. Since the basal group had not promoted  the poorest students into grade six, whereas a l l of the individualized group had been promoted, the gains were actually higher for the individualized group (3). Although no measure of attitude change was taken, the results outstandingly favored achievement growth with the individualized approach to reading instruction. In contrast to this lengthy study with large achievement gains was Sartain's comparison over two three-month periods where no difference i n achievement was found.  In this study five second grade teachers used  the basal approach for the f i r s t three months and the individualized approach for the next three months. The other five teachers reversed the order.  The children's progress was measured at the end of each three  month period. The results showed that a l l children made greater gains during the f i r s t three months, regardless of the programs used, and that lower ability children made greater gains with the basal approach than with the individualized approach. He concluded that both programs were equally effective for children of low ability (56). Similar findings resulted from Lane's comparison of three approaches to the teaching of reading: basal, individualized or language-experience. He found that a l l groups made exceptional gains on the f i n a l achievement measure. There were no significant differences among the programs and he concluded that no one method could be considered superior for a l l students (41). In another similar study, sixth graders matched for I.Q. were studied for change i n reading s k i l l s .  One group received regular basal  reading instruction, the other group received one-half hour per day of s k i l l s instruction and one-half hour per day of free reading time. Reading time was held constant for both groups. No significant difference was reported i n performance with reading s k i l l s (71).  Opposite findings were reported by Safford after comparing districtunorms with gains made by children instructed by an individualized approach. The norms, he contended, were the results of children's progress on basal programs during previous years.  He found that the  individualized children made less gain i n reading achievement during a school year than expected gain shown by the norms. He concluded thatithe absence of Hawthorne effects, because a l l his testing had been done as part of the regular program, accounted for the difference between his results and those of so many researchers (55)* These studies showed the conflicting nature of achievement gains when researchers compare on approach with another.  The short term®  studies indicated that both basal and individualized approaches were equally effective, but that over a long period, such as reported by Aronow(3), achievement growth would be significantly better by an individualized approach than by a basal approach.  Gray, reporting on five  decades of studies in reading, concluded that both the individualized and basal approaches had advantages and disadvantages, and that both contributed to the effective development of reading achievement (27). However, effective development of affective growth i n reading would seem best accomplished by the individualized approach. Summary The research summarized in this chapter indicated that disadvantaged children were not successful readers.  Investigation into  characteristics of disadvantaged children which cause reading failures has revealed that lack of ambition and interest to succeed in schoolwork i s a major contributing factor.  Proponents of an individualized approach  have strrssed that improvement in attitude, by self-selection of reading  materials, i s a major motivating force upon which to base s k i l l s instruction.  Research regarding an individualized approach has concluded that  an individualized approach improves attitude toward reading more than does the traditional basal approach. These results generated the thesis of this study: Would the individualized approach used with disadvantaged students promote more growth i n reading attitude and achievement than the basal approach?  CHAPTER 3  PROCEDURES This study was designed to explore the effects of an i n d i v i dualized approach to reading instruction with disadvantaged children. These two independent concepts, therefore, were specifically defined above (see Chapter 1, Definitions).  Using a standardized attitude  inventory and a standardized reading test this study answered the following basic questions: 1. Are children's attitude toward reading different as a result of the instructional approaches used, the sex of the students, or an interaction effect of instructional approach with sex? This question yielded the following hypotheses: H1. Scores on the attitude measure are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than those instructed by a basal approach. H 2 . Girls' scores on the attitude measure are higher than boys', independent of the instructional approach used. H3. There i s an interaction effect between the instructional approaches and sex as follows: ( 1 ) Scores on the attitude measure are higher for girls i n the individualized group than beys i n the individualized group and ( 2 ) Scores on the attitude measure are higher for boys i n the basal group than girls i n the basal group. 2 . Are vocabulary scores different as a result of instructional approach, sex of the students, or an interaction effect of instructional approach with sex?  % This question yielded the following hypotheses: H4. Scores on the vocabulary measure are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than children instructed by a basal approach. H5. Girls' scores on the vocabulary test are higher than boys', independent of instructional approach used. H6. There i s an interaction effect between the instructional approaches and sex as follows: (1) Scores on the vocabulary measure are higher for girls i n the individualized group than boys i n the individualized group and (2) Scores on the vocabulary measure are higher for boys i n the basal group than girls i n the basal group. 3. Are comprehension scores different as a result of the instructional approaches used, the sex of the students, or an interaction effect of instructional approach with sex? This question yielded the following hypotheses: H7. Scores on the comprehension measure are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than children instructed by a basal approach. H8. Girls' scores on the comprehension test are higher than boys', independent of instructional approach used. H9| There i s an interaction effect between the instructional approaches and sex as follows: (1) Scores on the comprehension measure are higher for girls i n the individualized group than boys i n the individualized group and (2) Scores on the comprehension measure are higher for boys i n the basal group than girls i n the basal group.  4. Are total reading scores different as a result of the instructional approaches used, the sex of the students, or an interaction effect of instructional approach with sex? (See Appendix B) This question yielded the following hypotheses: H10. Scores of total reading are higher for children instructed by an individualized approach than children instructed by a basal approach. H11. Girls * total reading scores are higher than boys , inde1  pendent of instructional approach used. H12. There i s an interaction effect between the instructional approaches and sex as follows: (1) Total reading scores are higher for girls i n the individualized group than boys in the individualized group and (2) Total reading scores are higher for boys i n the basal group than girls in the basal group. Sample Subjects were chosen for this study from twelve grade three classrooms i n Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Classrooms using a basal reader approach and an individualized approach (as defined above) were f i r s t located.  Through discussions with the teachers, the author  ascertained whether the instructional approaches met the c r i t e r i a .  The  classrooms were later observed by the author for the same purpose. From the 12 classrooms disadvantaged children were identified according to the criteria.  Children who had previously repeated a grade were eliminated.  Samples of twenty boys and twenty girls were then randomly selected to be the 4 cells of the experiment. Attrition because of lack of complete data caused the f i n a l sample to be slightly reduced i n size.  The num-  bers i n each c e l l i n the following diagram indicate the f i n a l size of  35  the sample in this study. Instructional Approach Individualized Sex  Boys  16  Girls  19  Basal 1?  Instrumentation Covariate measure Goodenough-Harris Draw a Man Test.  The s t a t i s t i c a l procedure used  in this study was the analysis of covariance. Goodenough-Harris Draw a Man Test.  The covariate used was the  This test does not measure reading  a b i l i t y or verbal ability, but does correlate highly with individual intelligence tests ( 3 0 , 6 2 ) . the classroom teachers.  The test was administered in February by  It was scored by the researcher and the resulting  score of general intelligence was taken as a measure of the student's mental a b i l i t y .  By using this covariate, the influence of intelligence  upon reading a b i l i t y was effectually removed from the data so that the effects of the programs could be analyzed. Dependent variables California Achievement Test.  The achievement measure of this study  was ithe California Achievement Test. Reading Subtest. Upper Primary. Form W (67).  This test was chosen because of i t s r e l i a b i l i t y , ease of adminis-  tration, and because students i n the d i s t r i c t of Burnaby had not been previously exposed to this test.  Form W was found to be the only form  which had been standardized and was therefore suitable for research purposes. Standard scores from subtests A and B yielded a  vocabulary  score, from subtests C, D and £ a comprehension score, and the average of these two standard scores indicated total reading achievement. San Diego County Inventory of Reading Attitude.  The attitude  measure uied was the San Diego County Inventory of Reading Attitude (8). This scale had been well tested i n the San Diego School District and possesses high r e l i a b i l i t y (.?9) (8). The attitude and achievement tests were administered i n May by the classroom teachers to measure reading performance after one school year of each teaching approach. They were scored by the researcher. Design The design for this study was a two-way analysis of covariance with four c e l l s .  Data from the intelligence test was used as the co-  variate because assignment of students to treatments was not possible. The analysis of covariance accounted for the effect of intelligence to allow analysis for program effect on reading attitude and achievement. The following procedures were used i n the analysis: 1. Analysis of covariance was computed for each of the four dependent variables (attitude, vocabulary, comprehension, total reading) using the BMDX64 computer program at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver 9, Canada. 2. The summary table for the analysis of covariance took the following form: Source s  Sprog  SS SOX  SS prog x sex SS error  df  Sum of Squares  Mean Square  37  ss regr 3. The resulting F-ratios&wereaanalyzed for significance at the .05 level.  38  CHAPTER 4 RESULTS OF THE STUDY Analysis of the Data Analysis of covariance The purpose of this study, to compare attitude to and achievement in reading of disadvantaged children required the use of intact groups rather than randomly selected subjects.  Thus, the s t a t i s t i c a l treat-  ment used to analyze the data was the analysis of covariance, which statistically compensated for i n i t i a l differences on the covariate measure (13»40)» Analysis of the data showed that the covariate, intelligence, was not a statistically significant factor i n this study. pendent s t a t i s t i c a l tests confirmed this.  Two inde-  In each hypothesis tested,  the F-ratio for the covariate was less than the F-ratio of 4.00 which would have been required for significance at the .05 level (Tables 1,3»5t?)« Thusi'i i t could be assumed that the groups used, in this study were equivalent i n intelligence.  Correlations computed between the scores  on the dependent variables (attitude, vocabulary, comprehension, and total reading) and intelligence were not higher than . 2 2 . This indicated that the covariate measure was not strongly related to the dependent variables. Since the covariate and the dependent variable's were not highly related, indicating that the subjects were not statistically different  on the measure of intelligence, analysis of variance would also have been an acceptable statistical treatment. Therefore although analysis of covariance was used, analysis of variance was also computed in order that a l l possible significant results be discovered (40).  By both  methods of analysis (analysis of covariance and analysis of variance), identical results were achieved; one of the twelve F-ratios was significant at the .05 level.  Therefore a l l results discussed in this chapter  are in terms of the analysis of covariance, with the analysis of variance tables included in Appendix B. Hypotheses One, Two and Three These three hypotheses concerned the differences in children's attitude towards reading as a result of either differences in instructional approach (Hypothesis One), differences i n sex (Hypothesis Two), or as a result of an interaction between instructional approach and sex (Hypothesis Three).  The results are shown i n Table 1.  Null hypotheses One and Three were not rejected, since the F-ratios were below the required c r i t i c a l valuesoff4.00. Null Hypothesis Two was rejected, the F-ratio of 4.822 being significant at the .05 l e v e l . This shows that girls i n grade three had different attitudes toward reading than boys, and that girls tended to have a more favorable attitude as shown by their higher mean scores (Table 2).  In this study  attitude was not affected by the different instructional approaches, nor by an interaction between sex and instructional approach. Hypotheses Four, Five and Six These three hypotheses concerned differences in scores of reading vocabulary as a result of either differences in instructional approach  40  Table 1. Analysis of Variance for the Attitude Measure  Source  Sum of Squares  D.F.  Mean Square  I  mm  179.13273  179.13273  Prog.  23.98275  23.98274  0.93570 n.s.  Sex  123.60139  123.60138  4.82235 .0(55  15.55613  15.55613  1.34210  1.34210  1563.48795  25.63094  Mean  Sex x Prog. Cov. Error  6.98893  0.60693 ns. 0.05236 n.s.  Table 2. Means and Standard Deviations for Each Cell on the Attitude Measure  Cell  Name of Group  Mean  S.D.  1-1  Boys- basal  13.59  5.49  1-2  Girls-basal  17.29  4.45  2 -1  Boys-individualized  15.87  5.12  2-2  Girls-individualized  17.68  4.90  1-1,2-1  Boys  14.70  :1-2,2-2  Girls  17.51  41 Table 3. Measure  Analysis of Variance for the Vocabulary  Source  Sum of Squares  Mean  1920.08304  1  1920.08301  18.40111  Prog.  12.80083  1  12.80083  0.12268  n.s.  Sex  67.5132?  1  67.51326  0.64701  n.s.  154.57994  1  154.57993  1.48142  .25  71.89854  1  71.89854  0.68904  n.s.  6365.11140  61  104.34605  Sex x Prog. Cov. Error  D.F.  Mean Square  F  Table 4 . Means and Standard Deviations for Each Cell on the Vocabulary Measure  Cell  Name of Group  Mean  S.D.  1-1  Boys-basal  58.76  7.95  1-2  Girls-basal  57.36  12.23  2-1  Boys-individualized  55.00  10.87  2-2  Girls-individualized  60.47  9.73  1-1,2-1  Boys  56.94  :t-2,2-2  Girls  59.15  r$ s* or.  (Hypothesis Four), differences in sex (Hypothesis Five), or as a result of an interaction between instructional approach and sex (Hypothesis Six). The results, shown in Table 3, indicated that there were no significant differences on the vocabulary measure between sexes or instructional approaches, nor did there exist an interaction effect between sex and instructional approach. A l l the F-ratios were below the required value of 4.00.  Therefore a l l three null hypotheses were accepted. In Table 4, i t can be seen that girls taught by the individu-  alized approach scored highest on the vocabulary measure, and that boys on the basal program also received high scores.  This result tended to  deny Hypothesis Six, that there was no interaction between program and sex, and was significant beyond the .25 level. Although this was not beyond the c r i t i c a l value for this study, i t did indicate some interaction effect. Hypotheses Seven. Eight, and Nine These three hypotheses concerned the differences in children's scores of reading comprehension as a result of either differences in instructional approach (Hypothesis Seven), differences in sex (Hypothesis Eight), or as a result of an interaction between instructional approach and sex (Hypbthesis Nine). The results of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis, shown i n Table 5 » indicated acceptance of the three null hypotheses; that no difference in comprehension scores occurred as a result of the three variables tested. Hypothesis Eight, which was significant at the .25 level, indicated a trend for girls in both groups to score higher than boys on the measure of reading comprehension. This trend i s also visible i n Table 6 , where group means are shown. Thus, differences in reading  43 Table 5» Analysis of Variance for the Comprehension Measure  Sum of Squares  Source Mean  971.58789  6.38815  6.38815  189.64772  189.64772  6.12602  6.12602  230.32092  230.32092  Sex x Prog Cov.  Mean Square  971.58802  Prog. Sex  D.F.  10.40906 0.06844 n.s. 2.03178 .25 O.O6563 n.s. 2.46753 .25  Table 6. Means and Standard Deviations for the Comprehension Measure  Cell  Group  Mean  S.D.  1-1  Boys-basal  49.29  9.49  1-2  Girls-basal  51.50  10.54  2-1  Boys-individualized  49.80  9.83  2-2  Girls-individualized  54.42  9.40  1-1,2-1  Boys  49.23  1-2,2-2  Girls  53.18  44  Table 7« Analysis of Variance for the Total Reading Measure  Source Mean  Sum of Squares  D.F.  Mean Square  F  _  1263.78184  1  1263.78184  14.37556  3.1753-+  1  3.17534  0.03612  n.s.  126.07279  1  126.07278  1.43408  .25  72.75742  1  72.75742  0.82762  n.s.  Cov.  163.08302  1  163.08302  1.85507  .25  Error  5362.62449  61  87.91182  Prog. Sex Prog, x Sex  Table 8. Means and Standard Deviations for the Total Reading Achievement Measure  Cell  Group  Mean  1-1  Boys-basal  52.71  8.45  1-2  Girls-basal  52.86  11.04  2-1  Boys-individualized  51.44  9.86  2-2  Girls-individualized  56.84  8.62  1-1,2-1  Boys  52.09  1-2,2-2  Girls  55.15  S.D.  comprehension scores seem to be caused by sex differences, favoring the girls. Hypotheses Ten. Eleven and Twelve These three hypotheses concerned differences i n total reading a b i l i t y (the sum of vocabulary and comprehension scores as measured by the California Achievement Test) as a result of either differences i n instructional approach (Hypothesis fen), differences i n sex (Hypothesis Eleven), or as a result of an interaction between instructional approach and sex (Hypothesis Twelve). As can be seen from Table 7, no differences were significant at the .05 level.  Therefore, the three n u l l hypotheses were accepted.  Neither instructional approach, sex, nor interaction between approach and sex caused differences i n total reading a b i l i t y . At the .25 level of significance, however, there was a trend for girls to score higher than boys, regardless of the instructional approach used.  (See mean scores i n Table 8).  Thus, Hypothesis Eleven,  that sex did not affect total reading ability, was not proved conclusively. Interpretation of the Analysis The results of this study showed that girls had a better a t t i tude towards reading than boys as measured by the San Diego County Inventory of Reading Attitude.  A l l the results, although not highly  significant (.25 and greater) indicated a trend for girls to receive higher scores on a l l measures of reading attitude and achievement. This was independent of intelligence, even though girls on the i n d i v i dualized program had the highest mean I.Q. scores and girls on the  46 basal program the lowest (Table 9)» since the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment removed the effects due to intelligence.  The finding, that girls  tended to achieve higher on measures of reading ability, supported previous research (7,29,61,63). However, the main thesis of this study, that for disadvantaged children, an individualized approach to reading instruction would result in greater attitude and achievement growth than a basal approach, was not confirmed.  There were no significant differences between  instructional approaches for any of the dependent variables tested. That i s , for grade three disadvantaged children i n this study both instructional approaches were equally effective, but more effective for girls than for boys. The following findings were not included i n the original questions to be answered by this study.  Following the advice of Kerlinger  (40:621) to seek out and study unpredicted relations i n the data, additional analyses were performed on the data.  None of the findings  were statistically significant but they indicated trends and relative placement of this population of disadvantaged children.  Further  research would be needed to substantiate the findings. Prediction of reading achievement scores from I.Q. was possible for the boys' groups only. Table 10 shows the correlations between intelligence and the four dependent variables to be positive for boys, although not highly so (the mean correlation i s .40) whereas there i s no correlation for the g i r l s ' scores. A l l variables tested were accompanied by stanine scores. Table 11 shows the results of converting the scores from the present sample into stanine scores. I t shows how the children i n this sample compared to the normative population; generally equal on reading comprehension and  47  Table 9. Means and Standard Deviations of the I.Q. Test  Cell  Group  Mean  S.D.  1-1  Boys-basal  96.94  10.44  1-2  Girls-basal  93.50  10.03  2- 1  Boys-individualized  99.81  11.35  2-2  Girls-individualized  103.20  12.90  Table 10. Correlations between I.Q. and Each Dependent Variable  Dependent Variable  1-1  Attitude  -.31  Cells* 1-2  2-1  2-2  .13  .00  .28  Vocabulary  .48  -.08  .23  -.08  Comprehension  .58  .04  .30  -.05  General Reading  .57  .04  .30  -.05  * Cell Cell Cell Cell  1-1 1-2 2-1 2-2  i s the group i s the group i s the group i s the group  of boys taught by the basal approach. of girls taught by the basal approach. of boys taught by the individualized approach. of girls taught by the individualized approach.  general reading ability, higher on the vocabulary measure, but lower on attitude toward reading.  Percentile ranks for the achievement  variables (Table 12), also showed similar relative placement of the sample tested compared to the normative group. In summary, the results of this study showed that girls generally tended to have higher achievement i n reading and definitely had a better attitude towards reading than boys. No difference i n achievement or attitude was s t r i c t l y the result of the teaching methodology employed, although the combination of the individualized approach with girls was somewhat superior to other combinations of program and sex.  Percen-  t i l e and stanine scores comparing this select sample of disadvantaged students with a more representative group showed this sample to achieve at or near the mean of the larger group. We may thus conclude that "disadvantaged" i n this case applied to background factors only, not school performance. Teacher Variable Since the teacher variable was uncontrolled i n this study, data was collected from the teachers on four measures. These were age, teaching certificate held which, for the purpose of analysis, was converted into the number of years required for such a certificate, total number of years of teaching experience, and number of years experience with the reading approach used at the time of this study.  The mean  results are summarized i n Table 13. The teachers were a l l female, and similar on the characteristics tested. The small differences between the means are not s i g n i f i cant at the .05 level, indicating that the teachers of each approach were equivalent i n these characteristics.  49 Table 11. Stanine Scores of Each Dependent Variable  Dependent Variable  1-1  Cell*  1-2  2-1  2-2  Attitude  4  5  4  5  Vocabulary-  7  6  6  7  Comprehension  5  5  5  6  General Reading  5  5  5  6  •Note- for names of each c e l l , refer to note accompanying Table 10.  Table 12. Percentile Scores for the Achievement Variables  Cell*  Variable  1-1  1-2  2-1  2-2  Vocabulary  79-82  76-79  69  84-86  Comprehension  46-50  54-58  46-50  66-69  Total Reading  58-62  58-62  54-58  73-76  *Hote- for names of each c e l l , refer to note accompanying Table 10.  50  Table 13- Means, Standard Deviations, and F-score of Teachers  Program Basal  Age  Certification  Total Experience  Reading Experience  Mean  31 .43  3-57  5.00  4.86  S.D.  12.77  1 .-+0  3.27  3.29  27.60  3-20  5.20  2.20  3.29  .45  2.17  .84  Difference 3.83 between means  .37  -.20  2.66  Indivi- Mean dualized S.D.  F= 2.636  n.s.  51  CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Summary This study compared reading progress made by a restricted sample of grade three children instructed by either a basal or an individualized approach. The two instructional approaches were defined to ensure that a l l classrooms met the criteria for each program. The basal approach was one where the teacher followed the suggestions in the teacher's manual for a l l reading instruction.  Each short story i n the reader  was presented in the traditional pattern: discussion before reading occurred to provide motivation and purposes© for reading, new vocabulary was taught, the story was read silently, written questions were i  answered, the story was discussed and parts read orally.  The individua-  lized approach was defined as one which incorporated the following: each child selected his own reading material, individual conferences were held, instruction in s k i l l s took place as needed by each child, sharing sessions were held, and individual record sheets were kept by each child. The sample was labelled "disadvantaged" and defined by the father's occupation.  The Blishen Occupational Scale (6) delineated  seven occupational levels by the two criteria of average income attained and amount of education required by each job.  Classes five to seven  were used i n this study as being the lower socio-economic levels.  That  i s , homes where the father's occupation f a l l s i n classes five through seven were taken as being those homes which usually lack the stimulating environments leading to value and regard for education. Children were selected who met the criteria of diadvantagement, and were presently enrolled i n grade three individualized or basal classrooms i n the d i s t r i c t of Burnaby, British  Columbia, Canada.  The children were placed in the four cells of the experimental design depending on their sex, and instructional approach. Although there were originally twenty subjects per c e l l , attrition through loss of subjects or incomplete data, resulted i n approximately sixteen subjects per c e l l for whom a l l data was available. In February each subject was given the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (39), a non-verbal measure of intellectual a b i l i t y . In May, each subject was tested on the San Diego Inventory of Reading Attitude and the California Reading Test. Upper Primary, Form W (67). The former gave a score indicating attitude towards reading, the latter gave separate vocabulary and comprehension scores which when summed gave a total reading ability score. The four dependent variables- attitude, vocabulary, comprehension and total reading- were analyzed over the four c e l l s .  Analysis  of covariance removed effects due to intelligence, and three basic questions were answered about each dependent variable. These questions were: 1. Do significant differences i n scores on the dependent variables exist because of the difference between the basal and individualized instructional approaches?  2. Do the scores on the dependent variables vary significantly between boys and girls? 3. Does an interaction effect of instructional approach and sex cause difference i n scores on the dependent variables? Of the twelve hypotheses which were tested, one proved to be significant at the .05 level,  yhis was Hypothesis Two, that different  attitudes to reading occurred because of sex, with the attitude of the girls being superior to that of the boys. Trends, significant at the ,25ilevel, indicated that girls received higher scores on achievement measures, and that boys taught by the basal approach and girls taught by the individualized approach received better results on the vocabulary test. Conclusions The results of this study showed that a significant difference existed between boys and girls with respect to their attitude towards reading.  The study was not able to show other reasons for this difference  in attitude; either because of different classroom procedure, different reading materials provided, amount of reading done outside-school. Many associated factors were also not controlled (time spent i n reading instruction, library, teacher reading, and instructions reading time provided, amount of reading done i n other subjects at school or for pleasure outside of school). The study looked instead at the effectiveness of two current instructional procedures with disadvantaged children. Although significant results occurred only i n the area of a t t i tude noted above, consistent trends occurred which indicated a pattern that could be investigated further.  On achievement measures, boys'  scores consistently correlated with their intelligence scores, whereas g i r l s ' scored did not correlate at a l l .  However, g i r l s ' scores were  consistently higher than those of the boys. No trends were evident between the two programs, indicating that the basal and the individualized approaches to reading instruction were both equally effective with disadvantaged children, but slightly more effective with girls than with boys. Stanine and percentile scores for the sample tended to consistently f a l l close to the mean of the standardization sample. This led to two possible conclusions; either the assumption of low socio-economic status being associated with educational deprivation was false, or existing deficiencies had been overcome by the time the children reached grade three.  Investigations into specific characteristics of the dis-  advantaged child, rather than socio-economic status, would reveal which of theses i s the case.  A more sensitive instrument for identifying dis-  advantaged children than the scale used in this study could be mployed. The results of this study corresponded, to those of Karlin, Rothrock, Lane, Wilson and Harrison, Talbert and Merritt, Sartain, and Gray, cited i n Chapter 2, that there was no significant difference i n reading achievement by either approach.  It contradicted the results  of Karlin, Rothrock, Adams, and Huser, also cited i n Chapter 2, that children on individualized reading programs have better attitudes towards reading. From this study i t can be concluded that i f low socio-economic status, as defined by parental occupation, i s associated with low educational stimulation, as was assumed by this author, then neither instructional approach tested produces superior growth i n reading attitude or  achievement.  Both instructional approaches are equally effective i n  meeting national achievement norms. With disadvantaged students, as defined i n this study, I.Q. i s also not a factor related to achievement or attitude, but sex and attitude are related. Implications The results of this study raised several questions which remained unanswered.  First, as noted above, research had established that no  special approach to reading instruction was consistently superior i n promoting better attitudestto reading or achievement i n reading.  Thus,  the methodology issue remained unchanged, that no one method was superior with a l l students, or superior with one sex rather than the other, or with different levels of intelligence.  I t would seem, then, that  certain approaches might produce better results with some students but that the relationship would have to be defined by other factors than sex or intelligence.  The question remained unanswered: Which approach i s  best for which type of student? Second, a sex difference was evident both i n the attitude and achievement areas, favoring girls i n both cases. Did this fact mean that the school curriculum catered to the girls i n the materials used, both trade and instructional, and methodology employed? Or did i t mean that grade three children exhibited different sexual roles, such as active versus sedentary interests, reacting against or obeying social expectancies, which affected reading behavior? Third, a consistent trend appeared when I.Q. was correlated with the achievement measures.  Reading achievement scores were related  to I.Q. for the boys groups but were unrelated for the g i r l s ' . Again, 1  did classroom materials and methodology influence this difference?  Were there some other factors (conceptual, affective, social, classroom) which caused differences between boys and girls in the relationship of I.Q. to reading achievement? Suggestions for Further Research In order to understand why differences in reading attitude and achievement occurred, this writer sees the major question as being not one of different apps-coaches to instruction, nor sex differences, nor  I.Q.  differences. Rather some other factors, inherent i n the student, i n fluence his functioning during the reading act. Since reading behavior i s a conceptual process, some of these other factors must exist i n the cognitive domain. Therefore,  research  into the relationship of various styles of cognitive functioning to the reading process would seem to be of major importance.  This writer  recognizes that current investigations are concerned with both cognitive and affective factors affecting reading behavior.  It is beyond  the scope of this study to do more than emphasize the need for further research into these factors. The following suggestions focus oh cognitive and affective factors.  The suggestions were based on the outcome of this study,  namely, the recognition that important variables affecting reading performance were not program or sex differences, but might be differences in the cognitive and affective f i e l d s .  Recommended for further research  are: 1. experiments using cognitive s t y l e a s variables seek to determine the effectiveness of various instructional approaches with particular styles of learning.  2. that materials available for grade three students be investigated to ascertain the appeal for both boys and girls, i n order to discover why girls have a more positive attitude towards reading than boys, 3. that the appeal of various instructional approaches be i n vestigated, with variables other than sex and intelligence being of primary concern, 4. that investigation occur into the factors associated with socio-economic status, which influence reading behavior, such as, reading materials available i n the home, models of reading behavior available, parental and peer values about the reading process, and social, educational and conceptual attributes of the reader; and that sensitive instruments to measure them be developed, 5. that instruments measuring attitude toward reading, in specif i c areas as well as i n general, be refined, 6. that replication of the present study occur with stricter controls over associated factors such as, instructional time, recreational reading time, amount of library material and time available, oral reading by the teacher, independent reading required i n other subjects, 7. and that replication of the present study occur over a longer time»>period, particularly where the individualized approach was consistently used from f i r s t grade, as i s common with the basal approach.  58  WORKS :CITED-  :  1. 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"Differentiating Instruction to Provide for the Needs of Learners: Through Methods and Materials," New Frontiers i n Reading: 5,Delaware: I.R.A. (1960), 32-36. 46. McDonald, CR. "Language Development through Literature: A Program for Yound Spanish Speaking Children. Claremont Reading Conferences,, ed., M.P. Douglass, California: Claremont Graduate School, 1967, 121-134. 4?. McKillop, Anne S. "The Influence of Personal Factos on the Reading Development of Children," New Frontiers i n Reading. 5. Delaware: I.R.A. (1960), 73-77. 48. Miel, A., ed. Individualizing Reading Practices. New York: Columbia University, 1958. 49. Mills, Queenie B. "The Preschool Disadvantaged Child," Vistas i n Reading, ed., J.A. Figurel, Delaware: I.R.A., 1966, 345-349. 50. Morrison, oleman. "Individualizing Reading: SOme Unanswered Questions ," Improvement of Reading through Classroom Practices, ed., J.A. Figurel. Delaware: I.R.A., 1964, 93-94. c  51. Raph, Jane B. "language Development i n Socially Disadvantaged Children," Review of Educational Research. 5 (19^5)• cited by D.lThomas, VOur Disadvantaged Older Children." Vistas i n Reading:II. ed. J.A. Figurel, Delaware: I.R.A., 1966, 349-355. 52. Riesmann, F. The Culturally Deprived Child. New York: Harper and Row, 1962. 53. Rothrock, Dayton G. "An Evaluation of Three Approaches to the Teaching of Reading," Unpublished doctor's dissertation, University of Nebraska Teachers Colledge, 1961. 54. Rougton, Edgar L. "Reading Improvement in a Rural Community," Reading and Inquiry: 10, Delaware: I.R.A., 1965, 261-263. 55. Safford, Alton L. "Evaluation of an Individualized Reading Program," The Reading Teacher. 4 (1960), 266-270. 56. Sartain, Harry W. "The Roseville Experiment with Individualized Reading," The Reading Teacher. XIII (i960), -277-281. 57. Sheldon, William. "Language Skills of the Culturally Disadvantaged," Reading and Inquiry: 10, Delaware: I.R.A., 1965, 255-256.  62i 5 8 . Stauffer, Russell G. Teaching Reading as a Thinking Process. New York^ Harper, Row, 19^9• 59.  , and Hammond, D. "Effectiveness of a Language Arts and Basic Reader Approach to First Grade Reading Instruction," U.S.O.E. Project No. 2679, 1 9 6 5 .  60. Spache, G.D. and Spache, E.B. Reading i n the Elementary School. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., ^96 9. ^  61. Spencer, D.U., and Moquin, D.L. "Individualized Reading versus a Basal Reader Program at First Grade Level i n Rural Communities," U.S.O.E. Project No. 2673, 1 9 6 5 . 6 2 . Stewart, Naomi. "Review of Goodenough-Harris Drawsa Man Test," Fourth Mental Measurements Yearbook, ed., O.K. Buros, New Jersey: The Gryphon Press, 1953, 392. 63. Strang, R.SDiagnostic Teaching of Reading. New York: McGar-Hill, 1 9 6 4 . 6 4 . Talbert, D.G., and Merritt, C.B. "The Relative Effectiveness of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Reading i n Grade Five," The Reading Teacher: XIX ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 1 8 3 - 1 8 6 . 65. Thatcher, D.A., and Parker, C.J. "Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching Reading i n Grades Five and Six," U.S.O.E. Project No. 1 8 3 ,  1965.  6 6 . Thomas, Dominic. "Our Disadvantaged Older Children," Vistas i n Reading:II ed., J.A. Figurel, Delaware: I.R.A., 1966, 3 4 9 - 3 5 5 . 67. Tiegs, E.W., and Clark, W.W. California Achievement Test. California: McGraw-Hill, 1963. 6 8 . Veatch, Jeanette. Individualizing Your Reading Program. New York; ®i Putnam's Sons, 1 9 5 9 . 69. Vilscek, Elaine E. "An Analysis of the Effects of Mental Age Levels and Socio-Economic Levels on Reading Achievement i n First Grade," Unpublished doctor's dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1 9 6 4 . 70. Wartenberg, Hazel M. "How Come Johnny Can Read?" Elementary English: LXV,  (1966),  365-369.  7 1 . Wilson, Richard C , and Harrison, Robert. " S k i l l Growth with Individualized Reading," Elementary English:- LXII ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 4 3 3 - 4 3 5 . 72. Wilson, Rosemary. "The Big City Story, Philadelphia," Challenge' and Experiment i n Reading: 7 « Delaware: I.R.A., 1 9 6 2 , 1 0 1 - 1 0 4 . 7 3 * Witty, Paul. "Reading Instruction: A Forward Look," Elementary English: XXXVII ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 5 1 - 1 6 4 . 7 4 . Worlton, J.T. "Individualizing Instruetioniin Reading," Elementary School Journal: XXXV, 9: ( 1 9 3 6 ) , 7 3 5 - 7 4 7 . 7 5 . Zigler, E., "Social Class and the Socialization Process," Review of  63 Educational Research: Education of Socially Disadvantaged Children, ed. G.V. Glass, XL, 1 : ( 1 9 7 0 7 . 87-110.  APPENDIX A Occupational Class Scale constructed by B.R. Blishen Two criterion were used i n constructing this scale, the average years of schooling possessed by the worker, and the average annual income earned, based on Canadian data. The scale was constructed i n sus.  1951, and  updated and used i n the  1960,aCanadian cen-  Occupations are grouped into seven classes, ranging from  professional i n Class 1, through skilled laborers, unskilled laborers to frequently unemployed or seasonal workers i n class 7. Parental educationrand income are factors which help define a disadvantaged child.  The factors were combined i n this scale.  Disadvantaged children i n this study were those whose parents held occupations listed i n Classes 5,6,  and 7, shown below, or did  not hold jobs at a l l .  Class 5 Patternmakers Compositors Inspectors, metal Paper-makers Photographers Policemen Office clerks Mechanics, airplane Inspectors, metal products Music teachers Firemen, f i r e depart, ment Pressmen and plate printers Telephone operators Electricians Machinists, metal  Welders Mechanics N.E.S. Mechanics, railroad Fitters, metal Cutters, textile goods Millmen Wire drawers Core makers Riggers Sheetmetal workers Shipping clerks Logging foremen Labellers Nurses, i n training Meat canners Farm managers Plasterers??. Textile inspectors Other pulp and paper workers  65 Linemen and servicemen Baggagemen Rolling millmen Auctioneers Inspectors • and graders Farmers Photographic occupations, N.E.S. Collectors Dental mechanics Sulphite cookers Wire drawers Other ranks, armed forces Electroplaters Plumbers Motormen Quarriers Machine operators,metal Paint makers Filers Upholsterers Knitters Wood inspectors Barbers Tobacco products workers Furnacemen Furriers Brothers Paper box makers Other bookbinding workers, N.E.S. Coremakers Vulcanizers Liquor and beverage workers Polishers, metal  Engineering officers (on ships) Transportation inspectors Mechanics, motor Textile inspectors Cabinet and furniture makers Loom fixers Weavers, textile Butchers Miners Assemblers, electrical equipment Operators,electric street railwayStationary engineers Bookbinders Tire and tube builders Canvassers Telephone operators Switchment and signalmen Opticians Jewellers and watchmakers Personal service workers Assemblers, electrical equip. Tire and tube builders Millwrights Religious workers, N.E.S. Fitters, metal Milliners Construction foremen Opticians Bus drivers Heat treaters Photographic workers, N.E.S. Machine operators, metal Sales clerks Hoistmen, cranemen Transportation, storage, communication workers  Class 6 Winders and warpers Carders and drawing frame workers Moulders, metal Tailoresses Textile inspectors Timbermen Oilers, power plant Paper box makers Waiters Sewers and sewing machine operators  Inspectors N.E.S., graders Postmen Nurses, practical Cutters, textile goods Elevator tenders Potmen Prospectors Liquor and beverage workers Kiln burners Carpenters Forest rangers Lock keepers, canalmen  Wood turners Brick and stone masons Bakers Cement and concrete finishers Dressmakers and seamstresses Box and basket makers Coopers Harness and saddle makers Construction machine operat. Painters and decorators Porters Millers Bleachers and dyers Tailors Rubber shoe makers Spinners  Labourers, mines and quarries Textile inspectors Ehitters Guards Glove makers Cutters, leather Firemen, on ships Launderers Sailors Nuns La boilers Service station attendents Hat and cap makers Spinners and twisters Rubber shoe makers Blacksmiths Weavers Chauffeur Boiler foremen  Class 7 Cooks laundresses, cleaners Sectionmen and trackmen Sawyers,-* Longshoremen Labourers Cooks Ushers Housekeepers and matrons Newsboys Farm labourers Charworkers and cleaners Bootblacks Hunters and trappers  Janitors Dyers Paper bag, box, and envelope makers Waitresses Glove makers Hawkers Janitors Hotel cafe and household workers Guides Lumbermen Fishermen Fish canners, curers and packers  APPENDIX B The scores from the vocabulary and comprehension subtests were combined to give one score of total reading a b i l i t y . Analysis of this new score was not expected to produce more trends than those discovered in the separate treatments of vocabulary and comprehension. Indeed, trends apparent i n the separate subtests may well be negated by the combining of the scores. However, this standard score of total reading a b i l i t y i s included with the achievement test, thereby suggesting i t s use to classroom teachers. For this reason, i t was f e l t that the additional analysis of the total reading score was important to discover whether differences did occur between the separate vocabulary and comprehension scores and the total reading score.  66  APPENDIX C.; Table 14. Analysis of Variance for the Attitude Measure  Source Mean Prog. Sex Prog, x sex Error  Sura of Squares  D.F.  Mean Square  16918.94149  1  16918.94141  670.34424  29.38511  1  29.38510  1.16426  n.s.  123.57639  1  123.57639  4.89621*  .05  14.53054  1  14.53054  0.57571  n.s.  1564.83005  62  25.23918  F  Table 15. Analysis of Variance for the Vocabulary Measure  Source Mean Prog. Sex Prog, x sex Error  Sum of Squares  D.F.  Mean Square  F  218582.14421  1  218582.14421  2105.34033  1.71208  1  1.71208  0.01i649  67.37751  1  67.37750  0.64897  192.96949  1  192.96948  1.85864  6437.00995  62  103.82269  6  9  Table 16. Analysis of Variance for the Comprehension Measure  Source  Sum of Squares  Mean Prog. Sex Prog, x sex Error  D.F.  Mean Square  Z  pr.  171308.64455  1  171308.64455  1792.86963  48.20905  1  48.20905  0.50454  n.s  189.24048  1  189.24046  1,98054  .25  23.52571  1  23.52570  0.24621  n.s  5924.09849  62  95.54996  Table 17. Analysis of Variance for the Total Reading Measure  Source  Sum of Squares  D.F.  Mean Square  F  pr..  186355.79451  1  18635.79451  2090.96436  30.07456  1  30.07456  0.33745  n.s.  Sex  125.79339  1  125.79339  1.411144  .25  Prog, x sex  112.46726  1  112.46726  1.26191  n.s.  5525.70751  62  89.12430  Mean Prog.  Error  70  APPENDIX D Since the data analysis revealed l i t t l e correlation between I.Q. and reading achievement, i t was suspected that achievement might correlate with the other factor employed i n this study, namely attitude to reading.  Therefore, a correlation matrix was computed for each c e l l  between attitude and general achievement scores.  The results are  recorded i n Table 18. Table 18. Correlations between Achievement arid Attitude  Instructional Approach Indiv.  Basal  Boys  -.05  .06  Girls  -.04  -.64  There was no correlation for three of the groups and a negative correlation of -.64 for one group. This group was composed of girls instructed by the basal approach. This result indicated that girls instructed by a basal approach who read poorly had ai»more positive attitude than those who read well.  With boys on the basal program and  a l l students i n the individualized group there was no relationship. The correlations among the dependent variables for a l l subjects were Y"(comprehension, vocabulary)*-: .6674 Vtcomprehension, attitude) = -.0887 V(vocabulary, attitude) = -.0659  

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