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Conjectures without refutations : Karl Popper's criticisms of Mannheim's sociology of knowledge Morrow, Raymond Allen 1973

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c  CONJECTURES WITHOUT REFUTATIONS:  KARL POPPER'S  C R I T I C I S M S OF MANNHEIM'S SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE  by  RAYMOND ALLEN MORROU B.A. POMONA COLLEGE, 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  t h e Department of  A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED  The  STANDARD  University  of B r i t i s h  April,  1973  Columbia  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis in partial  advanced degree at the  the  Library  University  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t of the  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for by  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his representatives.  be  thesis for financial  written  permission.  Department of  Afnf  gain  If/3  the  s h a l l not  Antliropolo^y-oociology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  g r a n t e d by  Head o f my  Columbia  be  that  thesis  Department  copying or  for  study.,  copying of t h i s  I t i s understood that  of t h i s  requirements  or  publication  allowed without  my  ii  ABSTRACT  The s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y the  philosopher  a d v a n c e d by  o f s c i e n c e K a r l Popper a g a i n s t t h e s o c i o l o g y o f  k n o w l e d g e and p h i l o s o p h y thesis of t h i s  i s the c r i t i c i s m s  o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e o f K a r l Mannheim.  a n a l y s i s i s t h a t Popper's arguments r e v e a l a remark-  able misunderstanding  o f Mannheim's p o s i t i o n and t h a t t a k i n g  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t o a c c o u n t r e v e a l s t h e more f u n d a m e n t a l plementarity  The  and c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e i r  That t h e s e  affinities  linked to the s p e c i f i c  these com-  views.  have n o t b e e n p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d i s  circumstances  o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and d e v e l -  opment o f t h e u o r k o f P o p p e r and Mannheim w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f post-world  Uarrll  That t h e i r  i n t e r e s t s and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s c o n v e r g e d  pite  incompatible  English-speaking  to English-speaking  Fascism  and s o c i a l  research. des-  n e o - p o s i t i v i s t and n e o - i d e a l i s t b a c k g r o u n d s i s r e -  lated to the t r a j e c t o r y of t h e i r fled  philosophy  careers  as l i b e r a l  intellectuals  who  democracies i n response to the r i s e of  i n t h e 1930's. These a r g u m e n t s a r e f o l l o w e d by a t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s w h i c h  a t t e m p t s t o show t h a t : cepts as  1)  Popper m i s i n t e r p r e t s t h e c e n t r a l con-  o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge, e r r o n e o u s l y  " s o c i o l o g i s m " ; 2) t h a t he t h u s f a i l s  o f h i s own e p i s t e m o l o g y  to perceive  the s i m i l a r i t y  w i t h t h a t o f Mannheim, f a l s e l y  t o h i m an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c primary  stigmatizingi t  theory  attributing  o f k n o w l e d g e ; and 3 ) t h a t h i s  d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h Mannheim i s n o t an a n t i t h e t i c a l t h e o r y  of  iia  social  s c i e n c e , c r even p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y ,  p e s s i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward the p o s s i b i l i t y as t h e b a s i s f o r a n o n - c o e r c i v e p o l i t i c a l sequence,  he a d o p t s a more r e s t r i c t i v e  individual In realized  so much a s a more  of s o c i a l  consensus.  knowledge As a c o n -  "negative" conception of  freedom. c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s argued t h a t Popper's  failure  t o have  t h e s e a f f i n i t i e s and t h u s g r a s p e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e  s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge calls-.into  f o r the philosophy of s o c i a l  question the c r e d i b i l i t y of h i s " c r i t i c a l  science rationalism"  in i t s present form.  Rlcardo Muratorio  iii  TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  T I T L E PAGE  i  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS  i  I.  INTRODUCTION:  CONJECTURES WITHOUT REFUTATIONS  II.  THE PROBLEM I N THE CONTEXT OF POST-WAR SOCIAL RESEARCH  i  i  i  i 1  6  III.  THE INTELLECTUAL CAREERS OF MANNHEIM AND POPPER  20  IV. V.  POPPER'S RATIONALISM DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE  35  l/I.  THE FOUNDATIONS  63  VII.  SOCIAL SCIENCE AND SOCIAL PLANNING  Will-  CONCLUSIONS:  IX.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  OF DBJECTIV/E KNOWLEDGE  THE L I M I T S OF C R I T I C A L RATIONALISM  50  85 120 129  -1-  I.  INTRODUCTION: The  CONJECTURES WITHOUT REFUTATIONS  philosopher  of h i s long career  K a r l Popper has d e v o t e d l e s s t h a n a decade  to the philosophy  of the s o c i a l sciences.  the  r e s u l t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s - The Open S o c i e t y  The  Poverty  by  verve,  a d e c i s i v e moment — claimed  and i t s E n e m i e s a n d  o f H i s t o r i c i s m - were g u a r a n t e e d a f a r - r e a c h i n g  their s t y l i s t i c  breadth of i n t e r e s t s ,  and p u b l i c a t i o n a t  t h e end o f t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War.  h i s means was t o t r a c e t h e i r  d i t i o n o f C l a s s i c a l European p h i l o s o p h y . as t h e c e n t r a l v i l l a i n s Aristotle,  J.S. M i l l  i n this  His self-pro-  sources i n the t r a -  P l a t o , H e g e l a n d Marx f i g u r e  intellectual  and K a r l Mannheim —  R e j e c t i n g the dogmatic formalism  drama, t h o u g h o t h e r s  and n a r r o w s p e c i a l i s m o f l o g i c a l  through the e l a b o r a t i o n of a l e s s v u l n e r a b l e , suasive,  philosophy  of science.  commitment  and t h e r e f o r e more  ultimately  civilization  this mission  change.  required the reformulation  problem o f the l o g i c o f v a l i d a t i o n through a s h i f t  he  v e r i f i c a t i o n to the f a l s i f i c a t i o n  felt  of theories.  of the  o f emphasis  v i o l a t e d or ignored  from  Negatively,  t o a c r i t i c i s m o f t h o s e methods o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s  to provide  the procedures of science  and t h u s  Popper  which failed  adequate grounds f o r the d e m a r c a t i o n o f t e s t a b l e from non-  testable propositions. logical  c o u l d , he  and r e a s o n f r o m t h e i r r a t i o n a l i s m  g e n e r a t e d by t h e f e a r o f s o c i a l  Positively,  per-  Only such a " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m "  d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e s o c i a l as w e l l as t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s thought, preserve  —  play secondary r o l e s .  p o s i t i v i s m , he s o u g h t t o a c t i v e l y r e s c u e i t s r a t i o n a l  turned  influence  t a s k was t h e d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l demons o f  totalitarianism;  the  Yet  Above a l l t h i s a t t a c k  challenged  the s o c i o -  a n a l y s i s o f h i s t o r y f o r i t s a l l e g e d h y p o s t a s i z a t i o n Df c a t e -  g o r i e s , whether o f concepts i n g e n e r a l  ("essentialism")  or of c o l -  -2-  lective with  F D T such e r r o r s ,  terms i n p a r t i c u l a r ( " h o l i s m " ) .  the fear  elicited  minated i n a doctrine  by r a p i d s o c i a l c h a n g e , had r e p e a t e d l y —  and f a c i l i t a t e d  Moreover, the o s t e n s i b l y  the r i s e  —  of t o t a l -  r a t i o n a l e f f o r t to control  change t h r o u g h c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g had f a i l e d rationalist  cul-  " h i s t o r i c i s m " or h i s t o r i c a l prophesy  which c r i p p l e d the s o c i a l sciences itarianism.  combined  i m p l i c a t i o n s of i t s "utopian,"  t o escape the i r -  " h i s t o r i ' E i s t " and  "holistic"  assumptions. In h i s s t u d i e s  i n the s o c i a l sciences,  K a r l Mannheim as t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n the academic s o c i o l o g y  o f h i s day.  purveyor of such  doctrines  o f k n o w l e d g e and h i s  a r e p r e s e n t e d as t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y  estation, a l b e i t i n r a t i o n a l guise, which c o n s t i t u t e d  upon  l\lo o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s  g i v e n s i m i l a r a t t e n t i o n ; Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y a d v o c a c y Df " u t o p i a n p l a n n i n g "  Popper s e i z e d  o f t h e same p h i l o s o p h i c a l  manif-  errors  t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f modern i r r a t i o n a l i s m  and t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . The t h e s i s o f t h i s e s s a y i s t h a t Mannheim c o n t a i n s  ambiguities  latent a f f i n i t i e s  between h i m s e l f  Popper's part ficiality  c a n be r e v e a l e d  Popper's polemic  and m i s c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h o b s c u r e t h e and Mannheim.  T h i s c o n f u s i o n on  t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r -  o f h i s e x e g e s i s o f Mannheim, as w e l l as t h r o u g h a  a t i o n o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f P o p p e r ' s own v i e w s . hypothesis requires (1)  demonstration of the f o l l o w i n g  That Popper t h o r o u g h l y m i s i n t e r p r e t s and  prepositions  of the sociology  to grasp i t s - claims historical (2)  pgainst  and o b j e c t i v e s  consider-  The a r g u m e n t o f t h i s points:  the c e n t r a l  concepts  o f k n o w l e d g e and t h u s  fails  as a mode o f s o c i o -  analysis;  T h a t he does n o t p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e a n a l y s i s  of the p h i l o s -  -3-  • p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s o c i o l o g y therefore his  h i s own  fails  That  and Mannheim's e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  Popper's  and  to grasp the fundamental c o m p a t i b i l i t y of  o b j e c t i v e b a s i s Df (3)  o f knowledge  v i e w s as t o t h e  knowledge;  primary disagreement with  Mannheim s t e m s n o t  from a f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i a l but r a t h e r  f r o m a more p e s s i m i s t i c v i e w o f t h e  of s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l ception  of  At f i r s t ill-advised ive  knowledge  freedom.  glance t h i s  proposed complementarity might  to the s k e p t i c a l reader.  by a b r i e f  possibilities  and f r o m a d i f f e r e n t c o n -  As a c o n s e q u e n c e ,  t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f Mannheim and P o p p e r ' s  plemented  science,  consideration  o f why  the  comparat-  r e l e v a n t works  t h i s convergence  appear  i s sup-  has  not  geen g e n e r a l l y n o t i c e d and an a c c o u n t o f t h e s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e i r  i n t e l l e c t u a l biographies  to the proposed a f f i n i t y  which  of t h e i r philosophies  That t h i s r e m a r k a b l e degree p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d and e m p h a s i z e d as a c o n s e q u e n c e exert  lend a d d i t i o n a l p l a u s i b i l i t y of s o c i a l  of convergence  science.  has n o t b e e n  i n the s t a n d a r d l i t e r a t u r e ,  and  that  P o p p e r ' s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Mannheim c o n t i n u e s t o  an i n f l u e n c e i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e c r i t i c a l  munity of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . previous f a i l u r e have f u l l y  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of the Anglo-American  inhibited Popper.  a s s i m i l a t e d the H e g e l i a n - M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n  a critical  —  created  —  community t o a situation  a m i l i e u which  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d by Mannheim  and  T h e s e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s were r e i n f o r c e d by t h e p r e m a t u r e  o f Mannheim and science.  i t i s congec'ture'd,tithe  social scientific  e x a c e r b a t e d f o r some t i m e by t h e C o l d War  com-  Popper's r e t u r n to problems  i n the l o g i c of n a t u r a l  death  -k-  The conjunction respective  biographical basis with  i n t e l l e c t u a l careers.  initiation  early twentieth the  Though i n i t i a l l y t r a i n e d i n a n t i -  and p o s i t i v i s t i c  philosophical traditions, their  i n t o the o v e r r i d i n g epistemological c e n t u r y C e n t r a l Europe - t h e t h r e a t  r i s e of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , t h e i r emigration  countries,  and t h e i r d e s i r e  of enlightened ful  convergence i s sketched i n  a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f Mannheim's a n d P o p p e r ' s  thetical idealistic early  of this  to  problematic of of r e l a t i v i s m ,  English-speaking  to r e - e s t a b l i s h the t h e o r e t i c a l legitimacy  r e a s o n and l i b e r a l  d e m o c r a c y c a n a l l be v i e w e d as p o w e r -  f a c t o r s shaping t h e i r c r i t i c i s m  o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s and f o r c i n g  a movement t o w a r d a c o m p a t i b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e a n d t a s k s of the s o c i a l sciences This  in  society.  s t u d y does n o t p r o p o s e t o p r o v i d e  of the s o c i a l t h e o r i e s i s simply  in a liberal  a comprehensive  o f e i t h e r P o p p e r o r Mannheim.  analysis  The a b j e c t i v e  t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c o n c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  Popper's attempt t o d i s a s s o c i a t e  Mannheim.  h i s own p o s i t i o n f r o m t h a t o f  Thus, t h e development o f t h e c r i t i c a l  presuppose or r e q u i r e position.  the elaboration  discussion  o f an e x t e r n a l  does n o t  philosophical  R a t h e r , t h e common g r o u n d b e t w e e n P o p p e r and Mannheim  t o i l l u m i n a t e same o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  o f Popper's a n a l y s i s .  c o n s e q u e n c e , P o p p e r ' s arch-enemy becomes a c r i t i c a l indicating  d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h , h a d P o p p e r been a b l e  m i g h t have a l l o w e d  him t o a v e r t  is  concluded, Popper's " c r i t i c a l  by  h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' o f Mannheim. argument w i l l  As a  instrument f o r  to take i n t o  account,  some o f t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f h i s  own p r a g m a t i c l i b e r a l s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y .  The  serves  For i n i t s present form, i t  rationalism" i s called into  question  be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r .  In  -5-  C h a p t e r I I t h e r a l e o f Mannheim and P o p p e r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p o s t war s o c i a l r e s e a r c h i s d i s c u s s e d .  In Chapter I I I the  biographical  c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r c o n v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e indicated. his  Then ( C h a p t e r IV/) P o p p e r ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n  "critical  attack  rationalism" —  on Mannheim.  i s outlined  a s an i n t r o d u c t i o n  theory of objective  cussion  Df s c i e n c e ,  k n o w l e d g e , and c r i t i c i s m  program o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a r e e l a b o r a t e d concluding chapter  to h i s  I n t h e t h r e e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s (V - V I I ) ,  P o p p e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y his  —  f o r Popper's " c r i t i c a l  of h i s ostensible  and a n a l y s e d .  ( V I I I ) , the i m p l i c a t i o n s  analysis of  In the  of the previous  dis-  r a t i o n a l i s m " are t e n t a t i v e l y developed.  -6-  II.  THE  PROBLEM IN THE  CONTEXT OF  POST-WAR SDCIAL RESEARCH  A d i s c u s s i o n l i m i t e d to Popper's c r i t i q u e seem t o be  removed from the  a view r e f l e c t s the into  focus.  And  indeed,  current tasks of s o c i a l research.  difficulty  of b r i n g i n g t h e i r  P o p p e r ' s i d e o l o g i c a l r h e t o r i c and  osophical pretensions  tend  t h i s s u s p i c i o n of anachronism uould  is  r e s o l v e d the little  concerns  Mannheim's  dilemmas t o which they  be  valid  the past  philera.'''  i f cumulative  quarter-century  directed attention.  b a s i s f o r s u c h an o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l .  When ue  l e g i t i m a c y and  universities of higher for  the  and  p l a c e o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h w i t h i n and  the g e n e r a l  lea-phi ng  and  d e c l i n e of the a u t h o r i t y of  Yet  look  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n of the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , on t h e  Such  clearly  t o mark them as p a r t o f a n o t h e r  developments i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s over had  o f Mannheim m i g h t  at  there at  attacks  outside  the  institutions  of government, t h e r e i s l i t t l e , j u s t i f i c a t i o n  c o n s o l i n g t h o u g h t t h a t t h e s c i e n c e s o f man  have  achieved 2  that envied  security  and  maturity  d i s p l a y e d by  those  of nature.  Such  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t more t h a n  a n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t s are to  served  i n the r e c e n t h i s t o r y  by r e - o p e n i n g  a closed chapter  of  be  social  science. A d e t a i l e d examination t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t he  i s one  of Popper's p h i l o s o p h y  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  i s warranted  philosophers  of  s c i e n c e t o have g i v e n e x t e n s i v e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . extent of t h i s  influence i s d i f f i c u l t  to estimate  of the feu major p h i l o s o p h e r s of h i s g e n e r a t i o n Df m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  ideological  i m p l i c a t i o n s , h i s work became a s i g n i f i c a n t  of the s c i e n t i f i c  As  The one  t o have u n d e r t a k e n  examination  formation  p r o b l e m s Df  precisely.  general interest  and  by  an  with  f a c t o r i n the  p e r s p e c t i v e of s o c i a l researchers  and  -7philosophers  i n the  This i s r e f l e c t e d —  immediate post-1945 p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y  i n t h e many e d i t i o n s and  nature  of t h i s  arguments — was  f o r such abstruse  i n f l u e n c e i s more r e a d i l y  h i s catalogue  assessed.  o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  u n d o u b t e d l y more e f f e c t i v e  than  His  his positive  t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s m i g h t become t r u l y  u e r e f e u uho  had  the breadth  o f a p p r o a c h e s t o be  avoided.  liberal-Marxist  t r a d i t i o n was  past  f r o m any  English-speaking  assessment of the n a t u r e  i n f l u e n c e , h i s work may  t o demon-  scientific,  d e b a t e s f o u n d i n West Germany and  there  be  critique  intro-  and  the  with a taste  i n the  extent  v i e w e d as an i m p o r t a n t  echo  France i n  readers late  —  While  only a d i s t o r t e d  k i n d s o f i s s u e s t h a t would re-emerge a g a i n Aside  sins  suggestions.  While h i s n e g a t i v e - c r i t i c a l  post-1945 p e r i o d , i t d i d provide of the  negative  o r w i t t o u n d e r t a k e an e x t e n s i v e  d u c t i o n to the Hegelian-Marxian of the  topics.  methodological  t h e r e u e r e a number o f p h i l o s o p h e r s o f s c i e n c e a t t e m p t i n g s t r a t e hou  Britain.  t r a n s l a t i o n s of h i s s t u d i e s  a popularity that i s especially s t r i k i n g  The  in  196Q's.^  Df  Popper's  point of  de-  p a r t u r e f o r the r e f o r m u l a t i o n of the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e p i s t e m o l o g y , philosophy but  s c i e n c e , and  of science, l o g i c  as p a r t o f , t h e h i s t o r y  rational activity. p h i l o s o p h i c a l or  And  s o c i a l philosophy.  i s not s i m p l y  and  considered  as an a b s t r a c t i o n  despite h i s c o n s i s t e n t r e p u d i a t i o n of  cognitive significance  l o g i c and  of the h i s t o r y  and  the  q u e s t i o n of the  relationcenter  As some o f h i s s u c c e s s o r s  of science leads i n e v i t a b l y  d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s o f t h e h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e and characteristicsnof.-^scientific  of  sociology  h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e emerges as t h e  of the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m a t i c . shoun, h i s t h e o r y  in his  t r a d i t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r type  of s c i e n c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n h i s uork the s h i p betueen the  For  methods.  t o r e c o g n i t i o n Df the  ideological  have the  -8Bc-pper's r e f o r m u l a t i o n Df t h e t h e o r y him away f r o m t h e n e o - p o s i t i v i s t  o f c o n f i r m a t i o n drew  camp and p u s h e d him t o u a r d  s o p h i s t i c a t e d pragmatism i n u h i c h the f a l l i b i l i s m  a  and u n c e r t a i n t y Df  5  k n o w l e d g e was e m p h a s i z e d .  Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s p r o v i d e d t h e  g r o u n d s f o r a c r i t i q u e o f •'the s c i e n t i s t i c and M a r x i s m a l i k e . for  supporting  This f a l l i b i l i s t i c  for institutionalizing  of u n c e r t a i n t y thus  competition  has s u g g e s t e d ,  " p e r h a p s he w i l l  (Radnitzky, In  freedom.  be c o n s i d e r e d  As one  S u c h an  foundation  philosopher  the John Locke o f our  1968:139).  t h i s way P o p p e r s i d e s t e p p e d  the extremes o f the l o g i c a l  p o s i t i v i s m and e x i s t e n t i a l i s m w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d a s p e c i f i c a l l y manifestation of the c r i s i s  of l i b e r a l i s m  and t h e f a i l u r e  s c i e n c e t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n f l i c t s o f modern s o c i e t y . f r o m what he c o n s i d e r e d included p o s i t i v i s t i c rationalism reason In  these  v e r s i o n s o f Marxism —  a r e f o r m u l a t i o n of the epistemology  circumstances,  Drawing  and t h e e x p l i c i t  he s o u g h t t o r e - e s t a b l i s h  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  In  tranquility  back  and i n i s o l a t i o n  which anti-  the place of  of the s c i e n c e s .  t h a t he moved i n t h e  g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f A m e r i c a n p r a g m a t i s m w h i c h had d e v e l o p e d lative  European  o f modern  t h e pseudo-rati'brnaMsm o f t h e former —  of the l a t t e r ,  through  pro-  s o c i a l c o n t r o l and  becomes f o r P o p p e r a new  the l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e of negative  century"  as t h e b a s i s  t h e p r o g r e s s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s c i e n c e and s o c i e t y .  epistemology for  emphasis served  the l i b e r a l t h e s i s that p l u r a l i s t i c  vided the best p r i n c i p l e ensuring  hubris of neo-positivism  i nr e -  from the c o n f l i c t s o f Europe.  t h i s way, p r a g m a t i s m p o i n t e d t h e way f o r 2 0 t h  century  liberalism.  P o p p e r m i g h t be v i e w e d as an i n d e p e n d e n t t h i n k e r whose c o n c e r n s l e d him i n a s i m i l a r  direction.  -9-  In  p r a c t i c e , the p o l i t i c a l  scale i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n by  o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h have been  a pragmatic-instrumental  nology  o f power.  l e a d e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  conception  W i t h i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e n e o - p o s i t i v i s m can  P r a g m a t i s m and  n o t p o s i t i v i s m has  and  p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the e l i t e s of  capitalist  democracies.^  have a r t i c u l a t e d  As one  congenial  c o n s t i t u t e s the contemporary  o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  the assumptions of such  be  techological  been t h e most  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f modern l i b e r a l i s m implicit  dominated  o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e as t h e t e c h - .  a s s i m i l a t e d o n l y to the degree t h a t i t f u r t h e r s such ends.  large-  a liberalism,  figures  Popper  to  should 7  be  c o n s i d e r e d one While  tradition  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t i d e o l o g u e s  Popper p r o v i d e d a c r i t i c a l  of s o c i a l philosophy  i n the  view of the  West.  Hegelian-Marxian  from h i s e x t e r n a l vantage p o i n t  as  a h e r e t i c a l n e o - p o s i t i v i s t , Mannheim c o n s t i t u t e d an e x a m p l e o f how s o c i o l o g i s t ' working  o u t o f t h a t t r a d i t i o n m i g h t a d a p t some o f i t s  b a s i c i n s i g h t s to a r e f o r m i s t research o r i e n t a t i o n . to  a  First  introduced  the E n g l i s h - r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n the open-minded, e x p e r i m e n t a l i n -  tellectual  c l i m a t e o f t h e m i d - 1 9 3 0 ' s , Mannheim e n j o y e d  e n t h u s i a s t i c acceptance. r e s e a r c h e r s the dimension  He  developed  s o c i a l theory  h i s t o r i c a l and  and  thus  r e - a p p r a i s a l by an e m e r g e n t r a d i c a l w i n g .  But  the t e r m i n a t i o n of the Depression, of the S t a l i n i s t  atrocities,  bined to d i s c r e d i t  initially  b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f many A m e r i c a n  lack of a f u l l y  i n pragmatist  an  and  W o r l d War  structural  contributed to i t s i n the f o l l o w i n g  I I , the gradual  decade  revelation  t h e emergence o f t h e C o l d War  com-  the aims o f t h e r a d i c a l - p r o g r e s s i v e e l e m e n t s  whose p o l i t i c s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and  re-organ-  ization.  and  Much as t h e c o n t e n t  and  r e c e p t i o n of Ideology  Utopia  -10typified Society  the f l u i d  intellectual situation  o f 1936, P o p p e r ' s  Open  and i t s E n e m i e s o f 19^5 e x p r e s s e d t h e p r o f o u n d p o l a r i z a t i o n  o f i n t e l l e c t u a l o p i n i o n by t h e end o f t h i s  period.  G i v e n t h e mood o f t h e C o l d War and t h e a n t i - m e t a p h y s i c a l , ahistorical, and  e m p i r i c i s t t r a d i t i o n s of Anglo-American s o c i a l  philosophy,  taken very  i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t P o p p e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were  s e r i o u s l y by most r e a d e r s .  i s t h a t Popper's c o n j e c t u r e s tD  —  What i s l e s s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  and h i s a t t a c k on Mannheim —  draui t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l  served.  For whatever h i s confusions  not  be e a s i l y  the  stakes  ignored  or dismissed  scholars turned  and e c c e n t r i c i t i e s ,  i n the long-run:  tosa  i n w h i c h t h e y had i n v e s t e d t h e i r  atically,  failed  a n a l y s i s they de-  i n v o l v e d i n the issues of the philosophy  V/arious ities  theory  Popper  he made  could  explicit  of science.  defense o f i n d i v i d u a l  personal-  academic r e p u t a t i o n s .  Symptom-  t h e most h e a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s came f r o m t h e f r a t e r n i t y o f  classicists  w h i c h was a r o u s e d t o d e f e n d P l a t o f r o m t h e c h a r g e o f 9  totalitarian  sympathies.  Given the s t a t e of Hegelian  scholarship,  P o p p e r ' s a c c o u n t o f H e g e l d i d n o t r o u s e more t h a n a t r i c k l e ition."^  O r t h o d o x M a r x i s t s , when t h e y d i d n o t s i m p l y  as a r e a c t i o n a r y i d e o l o g u e ,  to provide  of s o c i a l  cussion  Popper  o f Popper's  defenses  philosophy  science. o f P o p p e r ' s Open S o c i e t y  o f H i s t o r i c i s m were d e v o t e d t o Mannheim.  P l a t o , H e g a l and M a r x — port.  any c a s e , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l  a comprehensive c r i t i q u e  An e n t i r e c h a p t e r Poverty  ignore  r a r e l y had t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s k i l l s t o  meet h i m on h i s own g r o u n d . I n failed  of oppos-  and s e c t i o n s o f t h e  Curiously —  unlike  Mannheim h a s n o t e v e n f o u n d a modicum o f s u p -  As we s h a l l s e e , t h i s i s a l l t h e more r e m a r k a b l e b e c a u s e t h i s  dis-  o f Mannheim r e v e a l s some o f P o p p e r ' s c r u c i a l m i s c o n c e p t i o n s and  -11-  is  a key t o u n r a v e l i n g same a f h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s .  e n c e may  reflect  the widespread  In p a r t , t h i s  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h i s was  one  s t r o n g e s t and most c o n v i n c i n g s e c t i o n s o f P o p p e r ' s w o r k . suggested history "had  i n a 1952  r e v i e w by an a u t h o r i t y  of s o c i a l thought  —  John Plamenatz —  a l l t h e c h a p t e r s been as good as t h e l a s t  m i g h t i n d e e d have w r i t t e n what one d u s t c o v e r has The  i n the f i e l d  second  called  'beyond any  tinuing  importance  without c r i t i c a l  of t h i s  editorial  This of  was  that  f o u r , P r o f e s s o r Popper  doubt a g r e a t book'"  on  the  (1967:273).  w i t h Mannheim's v e r s i o n  A more r e c e n t e s t i m a t e o f t h e  chapter i s i m p l i c i t  the  the  concluded  of the r e v i e w e r s quoted  of these f o u r chapters i s concerned  of the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge.  who  of  sil-  con-  in i t s inclusion  —  comment o r f o r e w a r n i n g o f i t s . d e f i c i e n c i e s  —  12 i n the f i r s t  English-language  reader  i n the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge. -  But p e r h a p s t h e most r e v e a l i n g e v i d e n c e P o p p e r ' s a n a l y s i s has  o f the f a i l u r e  r e c e n t l y been p r o v i d e d by  f e s s o r o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e , who a r g u m e n t s as i f t h e y were a u t h o r i t a t i v e .  I . C.  to re-examine Jarvie,  naively repeats  have been d o g m a t i s m and in  superficiality.  Popper's  U n l i k e i n the p h i l o s o p h y  t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , where P o p p e r ' s d i s c i p l e s have shown t o be r e b e l l i o u s s u c c e s s o r s , t h e r e s u l t  a pro-  themselves  i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e s seems t o Thus J a r v i e n o t e s ,  of  writing  1972: I n t h e f o r m t h a t i t has come down t o u s , i . e . Mannheim's v e r s i o n , t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e has been v u l g a r i z e d i n a c r u c i a l way, n o t i n o r d e r t o o v e r c o m e r e l a t i v i s m , b u t t o s e r v e as a s t r a n g e and i n c o n s i s t e n t h y b r i d b e t w e e n r e l a t i v i s m , b u t t o s e r v e as a s t r a n g e and i n c o n s i s t e n t h y b r i d b e t w e e n r e l a t i v i s m and a b s o l u t i s m . Whereas S c h e l e r a r g u e d t h a t s o c i o e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e a r r i v a l o f an -idea a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e and p l a c e , b u t n o t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h a t i d e a , Mannheim c l a i m e d t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r m i n e c o n t e n t as w e l l as a r r i v a l . He t h u s u s e d t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e t o e x p o s e t h e d i s t o r t i o n s and ' f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t o t a l i d e o l o g i e s . Only the f r e e l y p o i s e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , 1  -12-  he a l l o w e d , c o u l d e s c a p e t h i s r e l a t i v i s m what t h e y w e r e , l i m i t e d and p a r t i a l .  and s e e t h e m ' f o r  In t h e i r c r i t i q u e o f Mannheim, B e r g e r and Luckmann e n t i r e l y f a i l t o m e n t i o n t h a t , as l o n g ago as 1945 i n The Open S o c i e t y and I t s E n e m i e s ( o r even ISkk), when The P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m was p u b l i s h e d i n E c o n o m i c a ) , P o p p e r , as we have s e e n , had e x e c u t e d a more e x t e n s i v e c r i t i q u e t h a n t h e i r s ... W h e t h e r P o p p e r ' s c r i t i q u e has any i n f l u e n c e i n b r i n g i n g a b o u t t h e s i t u a t i o n of n e g l e c t of the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge, which B e r g e r and Luckmann c o m p l a i n a b o u t , i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l . P o p p e r ' s work i s w i d e l y d i f f u s e d and r e a d , b u t r a r e l y r e f e r r e d t o . Moreover, b e l i e v e r s i n the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge could e a s i l y d i s m i s s Popper's c r i t i c i s m . Being unattached i n t e l l e c t u a l s , at l e a s t o s t e n s i b l y , i . e . free of imprisoning i d e o l o g i e s , i t w o u l d be e a s y f o r them t o i g n o r e P o p p e r ' s c r i t i c i s m - as t h e h o p e l e s s d i s t o r t i o n s o f b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y (1972:135-6). Jarvie's entire  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge i s  m a r r e d by c o n f u s i o n s stemming  from t a k i n g a paraphrase of Popper's  c h a p t e r on Mannheim as h i s p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e ( 1 3 1 - 3 3 ) .  In a c c e p t i n g  P o p p e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , he a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t it  n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s u l t Mannheim.  on "The  S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge  find  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , h i s e n t i r e c h a p t e r  Reconsidered" i l l u s t r a t e s  vividly  the  c o n t i n u i n g i m p a c t o f P o p p e r ' s m i s c o n c e i v e d comments on Mannheim. T h a t s u c h n a i v e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s c o u l d be g l i b l y quarter of a century critical  community  later  testifies  of s o c i a l science.  to the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the O b v i o u s l y , J a r v i e had r e a d  n o t h i n g t o shake h i s assessment o f Popper's a c c o u n t . reasons f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n the  repeated a  The  general  have been t o u c h e d upon i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n  mood o f p o s t - 1 9 4 5 p h i l o s o p h y and s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  Yet, i n p r i n c i p l e ,  one o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s be t o d e t e c t s u c h p r o b l e m s and f a c i l i t a t e  intra-  and  should  inter-disciplinary  communication.  B u t t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s has made  it  difficult  increasingly  ments.  t o keep up w i t h t h e f u l l  range of d e v e l o p -  And f u r t h e r , t h e meagre c o n c e r n o f p h i l o s o p h e r s w i t h  s c i e n c e and t h e i r  g e n e r a l l y narrow a n a l y t i c  and  of  social  non-historical  -13-  a p p r o a c h e s have n o t p r o v i d e d a m i l i e u i n w h i c h t h e k i n d s o f  issues  r a i s e d by Mannheim and P o p p e r m i g h t r e c e i v e s y s t e m a t i c a t t e n t i o n further  development.  Nor have t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t h e m s e l v e s p r o v e n  immune t o s u c h i n w a r d l y d i r e c t e d d i s c i p l i n a r y m y o p i a . L o u i s H o r o w i t z would lament i n the m i d - 1 9 6 0 s : 1  are emerging reason  ...  illiterate"  As  Irving  " t o o many  technicians  f r o m g r a d u a t e s c h o o l s and t o o few i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  i s t h a t we  l e a v e them as we  find  them —  One  philosophically  (1965:28).  Finally,  t h e r e a r e more s p e c i f i c  f a c t o r s w h i c h may  be  cited  as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e e v a s i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s as r a i s e d by and Mannheim i n p a r t i c u l a r . location  and  P e r h a p s d e c i s i v e h e r e was  Mannheim's  i n England, h i s lack of graduate students a f t e r  Germany, and h i s e a r l y  Popper  leaving  d e a t h . I n the case of Popper, the s h i f t  h i s i n t e r e s t s back t o the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e f o r t h e i n t e n s i v e r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f h i s own  position  occasion  and he does  seem t o have e n c o u r a g e d any o f h i s many s t u d e n t s t o do s o , a t with reference to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  of  not  least  H i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the  h i s t o r i a n Df s c i e n c e Thomas Kuhn i n 1965 m i g h t have been t h e o c c a s i o n f o r a r e a p p r a i s a l , but Popper  gave no i n d i c a t i o n o f m o d i f y i n g h i s Ik  hostility  to " h i s t o r i c a l  relativism".  In s h o r t , Popper's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f know-  l e d g e r e m a i n s one o f t h e most p a r a d o x i c a l and p e r p l e x i n g e l e m e n t s o f his theory of science.  D e s p i t e t h e many e l e m e n t s o f h i s own  w h i c h w o u l d seem t o make him a m e n a b l e t o an a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o l o g y of  thinking of the  science,  h i s p e r s i s t e n t a s s o c i a t i o n of such approaches w i t h i r r a t i a n a l i s m be v i e w e d as an a b e r r a t i o n .  Ironically,  the consequences  d o c t r i n a l r e j e c t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge  of  can  Popper's  would e n t a i l —  i f  taken s e r i o u s l y inquiries special Yet  —  a r e s t r i c t i o n of  w h i c h have p r o v e n t o be o f v a l u e .  Fortunately, the  disciplines  have n o t been g r e a t l y  inhibited  by h i s f e a r s .  h i s d o g m a t i s m has i m p e d e d c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y  interests  o f g e n e t i c and l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s t o k n o w l e d g e and t h e  elucidation and  by s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h e r s  of t h e i r  distribution  proper r o l e s  i n the production,  of v a r i o u s types of knowledge.  validation,  -15-  IMOTES:  CHAPTER I I  P o p p e r ' s m i l i t a n t l y l i b e r a l t o n e i s i n e v i t a b l y d i s c o m f o r t i n g even t o h i s s y m p a t h i z e r s . As f o r Mannheim t h e c h a r g e o f a n a c h r o n i s m was i m p l i c i t e v e n i n t h e f i r s t m a j o r E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e r e v i e w o f I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a i n 1936 (Von S c h e l t i n g , 1 9 3 6 ) . More r e c e n t l y i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t I n t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f s o c i o l o g y t o d a y , as i n most c o n t e m p o r a r y d i s c u s s i o n s , K a r l Mannheim's work i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e i s r e s p e c t e d — when i t i s a t . a l l r e c a l l e d — as a p i o n e e r i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a new i n q u i r y , b u t as a work u n f o r t u n a t e l y m a r r e d by c e r t a i n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s w h i c h a r e s e e n t o emanate i n p a r t f r o m t h e o b f u s c a t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f C e n t r a l European p h i l o s o p h y (Kettler, 1967:399). A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f t h i s mood can be f o u n d i n B e n d i x ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Gouldner. .'(,1970), F r i e d r i c h s ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and B i r n b a u m ( 1 9 7 1 ) . "^In West Germany t h e l e a d i n g f i g u r e s have been l i b e r a l s s u c h as Hans A l b e r t and R a l f D a h r e n d o r f v e r s u s n e o - M a r x i s t s o f t h e F r a n k f u r t School. I n F r a n c e G e o r g e s G u r v t i c h and Raymond A r o n have l o n g been s i m i l a r l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e n e o - M a r x i s m s o f H e n r i L e f e b v r e , J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , L u c i e n Goldmann, and L o u i s A l t h u s s e r . IMeedless t o s a y , B r i t a i n and IMorth A m e r i c a had no c o m p a r a b l e p o l e m i c s , a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e emergence Df H e b e r t M a r c u s e as a p o p u l a r f i g u r e i n the l a t e 1960's. Y e t even t h i s r e m a i n e d an echo o f the European debate. Most n o t a b l y , P a u l F e y e r a b e n d  (197C).  5 E l a b o r a t i o n of the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t Popper's p h i l o s o p h y of s c i e n c e be r e g a r d e d as a " l o g i c a l p r a g m a t i s m " w o u l d r e q u i r e a n o t h e r s t u d y . A few c i r c u m s t a n c i a l b i t s o f e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s c o n j e c t u r e can be a d v a n c e d , h o w e v e r . F i r s t , t h e r e i s t h e common r e v o l t a g a i n s t H e g e l i a n i s m and m e t a p h y s i c s . S e c o n d , t h o u g h P o p p e r s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t s i n s t r u m e n t a l i s m and p r a g m a t i s m i n f a v o r o f h i s own " r e a l i s m , " i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o r e c a l l N a g e l ' s argument w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e " i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t " and " r e a l i s t " view o f t h e o r i e s : "the o p p o s i t i o n between t h e s e views i s a conf l i c t o v e r p r e f e r r e d modes o f s p e e c h " ( 1 9 6 1 : 1 5 2 ) . Another clue i s f o u n d i n P o p p e r ' s a d m i s s i o n t h a t C h a r l e s S a n d e r s P e i r c e was "one o f t h e g r e a t e s t p h i l o s o p h e r s o f a l l t i m e " ( 0 K : 2 1 2 ) . It is a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s E r n e s t IMagel and S i d n e y Hook u n d e r t o o k s t u d i e s w h i c h p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e o f P o p p e r i n b o t h s t y l e , c o n t e n t , and c o n c l u s i o n s . I n f a c t , Hook, a s t u d e n t o f Dewey, had p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f e s s a y s by 1940 ( c f . Hook, 1940) w h i c h  -IB-  p r o v i d e d a s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r a g m a t i s t response to Marxism which P o p p e r ' s work f i v e y e a r s l a t e r l a r g e l y r e p e a t e d . IMagel, more a l o g i c i a n than a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h e r , f l i r t e d w i t h pragmatism i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s and r e m a i n e d a s y m p a t h e t i c c r i t i c . Even t h o u g h he was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s , h i s work n e v e r b e t r a y e d t h e i r dogmatism and i n f l e x i b i l i t y ( c f . N a g e l , 1956). This i s also r e f l e c t e d i n . h i s i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i a l sciences. Thus t h o u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Hook and N a g e l was s t r o n g e r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and P o p p e r i n B r i t a i n , t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s and l i b e r a l s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y were s i m i l a r . The s u b s t a n t i v e a f f i n i t y o f P o p p e r w i t h p r a g m a t i s m can be s e e n i n h i s r e v i v a l o f p a r a l l e l d o c t r i n e s t o two key i n j u n c t i o n s of the pragmatists.: t h e "autonomy o f i n q u i r y " and t h e d e n i a l o f the " q u e s t f o r c e r t a i n t y . " The e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e o f t r i a l a n d - e r r o r a l s o c e n t r a l t o p r a g m a t i s m comes t o be i d e n t i f i e d f o r P o p p e r w i t h r e a s o n , t h e good s o c i e t y , and t h e means f o r t h e g r a d u a l movement t o w a r d " t r u t h " . For the e v o l u t i o n a r y a s p e c t s of P o p p e r ' s e p i s t e m o l o g y s e e C a m p b e l l ( 1 9 7 0 ) ; f o r t h e p h i l o s o p h y of s c i e n c e o f pragmatism see K a p l a n ( 1 9 6 4 ) . D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e movement o f P o p p e r ' s work t o w a r d a s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r a g m a t i s m w o u l d be a n o t h e r way o f s u p p o r t i n g t h e t h e s i s a f a c o n v e r g e n c e w i t h Mannheim. F o r as t h e p r a g m a t i s t s were q u i c k t o r e c o g n i z e ( c f . e s p e c i a l l y M i l l s ( 1 9 6 7 ) and L a v i n e ( 1 9 4 4 ) , Mannheim's e p i s t e m o l o g y had i n i t s b o l d o u t l i n e s l o n g "been f a m i l i a r t o the American mind" (Merton, 1968:562). 'Though p r a g m a t i s m has been d e s c r i b e d as a v a r i a n t o f p o s i t i v i s m , t h i s i s a debatable point. The A m e r i c a n s i t u a t i o n has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s : A m e r i c a n t h o u g h t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e most a t t r a c t i v e of the p o s i t i v i s t d o c t r i n e s , pragmatism. Pragmatism i s the t h e o r y o f n o n t h e o r y . U n l i k e t h e o l d e r p o s i t i v i s m , p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y does n o t even r e t a i n t h e p r i n c i p l e of o b j e c t i v e t r u t h a r i s i n g from the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f generalizations af experience with r e a l i t y . Pragmatism i s the e x p l i c i t r e d u c t i o n of reason to i t s i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e , c a r r y i n g the u t i l i t a r i a n i s m of l i b e r a l i s m to i t s logical conclusion. In i t s most s o p h i s t i c a t e d f o r m , p r a g m a t i s m a s s e r t s the t r u t h o f any p r o p o s i t i o n i n t h e a g r e e m e n t o f q u a l i f i e d s c i e n t i s t s a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon. The t e s t a f t r u t h i s i t s p r a c t i c a l v a l u e f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t Df human ends. R e a l i t y i t s e l f becomes an o b j e c t o f m a n i p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h human p r a c t i c e ... U n l i k e t h e o l d e r p o s i t i v i s m , w h i c h c l a i m s t h e r a d i c a l s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n v a l u e and t r u t h , pragmatism a s s e r t s t h e i r u n i t y . S u b j e c t and o b j e c t are u n i t e d and c r i t i c a l t h e o r y becomes p u r e p o e t r y o r literature. F o r p r a g m a t i s m , t h e r e a r e na t r a n s c e n d e n t a l c r i t e r i a f o r human a c t i o n . Such t r a n s c e n d e n c e i s a t t a c k e d  -17-  as m e t a p h y s i c s , s i n c e t h e v a l u e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e human action are e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l to action i t s e l f . P r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y has a t t e m p t e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e i m p r a c t i c a l f r o m t h o u g h t , t o f r a m e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h have p r a c t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s and n o t h i n g e l s e . Thus i t l e a v e s no room f o r c r i t i c a l t h e o r y u h i c h r e l i e s on t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r e m i s e o f o b j e c t i v e t r u t h , even i f h i s t o r i c a l l y g r o u n d e d ( A r o n o w i t z , 1972:Xv'-Xv'I). Two A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g i s t s have r e c e n t l y t r i e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e the i d e n t i t y o f Dewey and M a r x ' s c o n c e p t i o n s o f t r u t h ( R y t i n a and L o o m i s , 1 9 7 0 ) . B o t h a r e h e l d t o be d e f e c t i v e b e c a u s e t h e y f a i l e d to p o s i t an e x t e r n a l l y v a l i d a t e d f o r m a l l o g i c a l s y s t e m and a r c . t h u s p e r m i t t h o s e w i t h power t o d e f i n e s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h . The a u t h o r s seem t o assume t h i s p r o b l e m c a n be s o l v e d by a s s u m i n g a l o g i c a l system independent o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . T h i s i s o f course Popper's p o s i t i o n as w e l l . Yet they f a i l t o note the important d i f f e r e n c e s between p r a g m a t i s m a n d M a r x i s m , n o t a b l y t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e l e m e n t in the l a t t e r ' s philosophy of h i s t o r y . See, f o r i n s t a n c e , Kolakowski (1968:38-66). Some c o n f u s i o n stems f r o m n a r r o w a n d b r o a d c o n c e p t i o n s o f "pragmatism." R y t i n a and Loomis o p e r a t e w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d n o t i o n w h e r e a s t h i s s t u d y , i n i d e n t i f y i n g P o p p e r w i t h p r a g m a t i s m , assumes the b r o a d e r o n e . Some p r e c e d e n t i s f o u n d f o r t h i s i n t h e argument that: W h i l e i t i s e a s y t o s a y what p r a g m a t i s m i s n o t , i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o s a y j u s t what p r a g m a t i s m i s a n d what i s t h e r o l e t h a t a c t i o n p l a y s . I f one c o n s i d e r s p r a g m a t i s m i n p e r s p e c t i v e as a movement t h a t h a s i t s b e g i n n i n g s w i t h P e i r c e and i s t o d a y m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e work o f Q u i n e , S e l l a r s , P o p p e r , F e y e r a b e n d , H a m p s h i r e , N a g e l a n d many o t h e r s , we d i s c o v e r t h e o u t l i n e s o f a new a p p r o a c h t o k n o w l e d g e , i n q u i r y , a n d c o n d u c t ( B e r n s t e i n , 1971': 1 7 4 ) . 7 In a v e r y r e a l s e n s e P o p p e r c a n be v i e w e d a s c o n t i n u i n g Dewey's r e f o r m i s t p h i l o s o p h y i n t o the post-war p e r i o d . The c o n n e c t i o n s a r e n o t h i s t o r i c a l so much a s a s i m i l a r a t t e m p t o f t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f problems i n European p h i l o s o p h y . Popper d i f f e r e d l a r g e l y i n h i s c o n c e r n w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c as a c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h and h i s t e n d e n c y t o emphasize t h e r o l e o f c h o i c e i n t h e m a t t e r o f v a l u e s . As B e r n s t e i n s u g g e s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o Dewey and M a r x , " t h e i s s u e s t h a t a r i s e f r o m t h i s confrontation are the c e n t r a l issues of s o c i a l philosophy i n our t i m e " (71:81)'. I f s o , P o p p e r must be i n c l u d e d a s w e l l . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e R u s s i a n I . S . Hon, i n h i s t w o - v o l u m e s t u d y the p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y i n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , g i v e s P o p p e r p r i d e o f p l a c e i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e i m p a c t o f n e o - p o s i t i v i s m on t h e l o g i c a n d methodology o f h i s t o r y (0564:275-324). As Hon p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e i s s c a r c e l y a " c r i t i c " o f M a r x i s m who does n o t i n c l u d e a r e v e r e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e t o Popper's works ( 2 7 6 ) .  -IB-  K u r t W o l f f s u g g e s t s t h a t "Mannheinr's work a r r i v e d on t h e A m e r i c a n s c e n e b e t w e e n t h e D e p r e s s i o n and t h e war ( a n d t h e war and p o s t w a r booms) and may have t e m p t e d i t s A m e r i c a n r e a d e r s t o e n v i s a g e t h e "reality o f s o c i e t y and t o be b e w i l d e r e d a b o u t t h a t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; t h u s i t may be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t h i s r e c e p t i o n s s h o u l d have been as we have s e e n " ( 1 9 6 7 : 2 4 ) . For the subsequent i m p a c t o f E u r o p e a n t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m on A m e r i c a n s o c i a l t h o u g h t s e e Skotheim (1971). 1 1  Some o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s o f P l a t a have been c o l l e c t e d a n t h o l o g y by Bambrough, ( 1 9 6 7 ) .  i n an  K a u f f m a n (1960 :95-12B) p r o v i d e d an i n s i g h t f u l d e f e n s e o f H e g e l w h i c h was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 5 1 . "'""'"For i n s t a n c e , C a r n f o r t h 1 2  Curtis  and P e t r a s  (1968).  (1970:649-660).  " ^ S h i l s (1970) p r o v i d e s a f a s c i n a t i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l account o f the d i f f e r e n t i a l i m p a c t o f Mannheim i n E n g l a n d and t h e H o r k h e i m e r l e d I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 14 See  L a k a t o s and M u s g r a v e ( 1 9 7 0 ) .  15 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i n e s of such r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n a l psychology ( S c r i v e n , 1 9 7 2 ) , p s y c h o l o g y ( M i s c h e l , 1 9 7 1 ) , f u t u r o l o g y ( B e l l and Mau, 1 9 7 1 ) , e v o l u t i o n a r y a n t h r o p o l o g y ( R i b e i r o , 1 9 7 1 ) , and c o g n i t i v e s o c i o l o g y ( M a r t i n s , 1972). As t h e p h i l o s o p h e r o f s c i e n c e T o u l m i n has p o i n t e d o u t i n s u r v e y i n g t h e " F o r m a l i s t R e f o r m a t i o n " o f w h i c h P o p p e r i s an h e i r : I n b o t h s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e ... q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h i s t o r i c a l change were s e t a s i d e a t the t u r n of the century i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the h i s t o r i c i s m o f t h e German i d e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n and a g a i n s t t h e m i s c o n c e i v e d " e v o l u t i o n i s m " o f S p e n c e r and h i s s u c c e s s o r s . What we now have t o do i s t o t a k e up t h e d i s c u s s i o n once a g a i n a t t h e p o i n t where i t b r o k e D f f some 60 y e a r s a g o . Whether we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n c e p t u a l change i n s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s , o r w i t h c u l t u r a l change i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , o r w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l change i n c o m p l e x , i n d u s t r i a l i s e d s t a t e s : i n e a c h c a s e , t h e d i f f i c u l t y we now have i n e x p l a i n i n g the grounds o f r a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m s p r i n g s from a h a l f - c e n t u r y ' s f a i l u r e to analyse c l e a r l y the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e v o l u t i o n (1971:63).  -19-  Toulmin n e g l e c t s the degree t o which t h i s a h i s t c r i c a l s h i f t r e f l e c t e d a r e a c t i o n t o t h e t h r e a t o f M a r x i s m . One a d v a n t a g e o f d i s c u s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o Popper i s t h a t t h i s connection i s clear. Moreover, i n h a v i n g pushed f o r m a l i s m back t o w a r d t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by t h e p r o b l e m o f h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e , h i s theory of science o f f e r s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r dialogue w i t h i t s d i a l e c t i c a l opposite.  -20-  III.  THE INTELLECTUAL CAREERS OF MANNHEIM AND  The c a r e e r s o f Mannheim and P o p p e r l o g i c a l thesis that p o l i t i c a l ,  social,  POPPER  illustrate  the s o c i o -  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l  thought  c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r s o c i a l g e n e s i s . struggling  to elaborate the broader i m p l i c a t i o n s  lcgical crisis  In  of the epistemo-  o f l a t e 1 9 t h and e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y E u r o p e ,  both  u e r e swept i n t o h i s t o r i c a l c u r r e n t s w h i c h d i s r u p t e d t h e i r  academic  c a r e e r s and p r o f o u n d l y s h a p e d  society.  t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f modern  O n l y a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s c a n be d e v e l o p e d h e r e as a s u p p o r t i n g a r g u m e n t f o r t h e c o n v e r g e n c e in the analysis  of thinking  described  o f t h e i r a c t u a l texts."'"  B o t h Mannheim and P o p p e r  must be v i e w e d w i t h i n  the  framework 2  o f one o f t h e most r e m a r k a b l e f l i g h t s  of i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n h i s t o r y .  The movement o f t h e s e l a r g e l y G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g  s c h o l a r s from  Budapest,  V/ienna, and t h e u n i v e r s i t y t o w n s o f Germany c r e a t e d p r o f o u n d d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h w o u l d p r o f o u n d l y r e - d i r e c t and enrich  the i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s  have an a d e q u a t e social thinkers their  of a generation.  O n l y when we  a c c o u n t o f t h e i m p a c t o f t h i s m i g r a t i o n on t h e o f t h i s g r o u p o f e x i l e s and o f t h e i r i m p a c t upon  hosts, w i l l  we be i n a p o s i t i o n t o a d e q u a t e l y i n t e r p r e t t h e  s o c i a l t h o u g h t o f t h e i n t e r - w a r and p o s t - W o r l d War l a c k o f s u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s makes i t d i f f i c u l t  I I periods.  The  e v e n now t o p r o v i d e  more t h a n a r o u g h s k e t c h o f t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s e e v e n t s upon Mannheim and  Popper."  5  The most r e c u r r e n t theme f o u n d i n t h e w r i t i n g s  of these  -21-  exiles,  Especially  d u r i n g the f i r s t  decade f a l l o w i n g t h e i r  was  e x p l a i n i n g the f a c t of the c r i s i s  all  t h i s r e q u i r e d an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l movements  —  F a s c i s m and Communism —  justification  w h i c h had p r o v i d e d t h e  f o r what came t o be t e r m e d  totalitarianism. would  of C e n t r a l Europe.  flight,  This elusive  become o n l y f u l l y  a unitary  Above  intellectual phenomenon:  c o n c e p t , whose q u e s t i o n a b l e m e a n i n g s  a p p a r e n t some t i m e l a t e r ,  p r o v i d e d the  a n a l y t i c a l framework w i t h i n which a g e n e r a t i o n of Western s c i e n t i s t s worked. renewed awareness  With the c o l l a p s e of l i b e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , of the f r a g i l i t y  contributed to a p o l a r i z a t i o n its  enemies.  social  of l i b e r a l  democratic  a  stability  between t h e d e f e n d e r s o f "freedom"  Mannheim and P o p p e r  were amongst t h o s e who  and  opted  f o r t h e f o r m e r and were a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e means f o r meeting  t h e n e e d s t o w h i c h t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m had been a r e s p o n s e .  r e a c t i n g to t h i s e f f o r t s would  crisis,  revitalize  t h e y were b u t two European  In  o f t h e many e x i l e s whose  s o c i a l t h o u g h t and n o u r i s h n t h e mast 5  s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War I I . The  s t u d i e s i n the p h i l o s o p h y of s o c i a l s c i e n c e which  the focus of t h i s I t was  e s s a y were w r i t t e n  i n t h e s e two  and P o p p e r  decades  d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1929  o f d e p r e s s i o n and war  to  Df t h e c r i s i s  of l i b e r a l  t h i s set of i s s u e s the t r a j e c t o r i e s of t h e i r temporarily  democracy.  intellectual  concerns  converge.  Mannheim e n j o y e d an e x t r e m e l y p r o d u c t i v e and w i d e - r a n g i n g His early  social  Around  D e s p i t e h i s s h o r t l i f e t i m e o f same 51 y e a r s ( 1 8 9 3 - 1 9 4 7 ) ,  career.  1947.  t h a t Mannheim  a t t e m p t e d t o r e a s s e s s t h e methods and p l a c e o f t h e  sciences i n the l i g h t  would  are  y e a r s b r o u g h t him i n t o  contact with the  Karl  academic person  -22-  • r work o f t h e century  major f i g u r e s of 19th  philosophy.  This  century  and  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  intellectual Berlin,  of knowledge.  German a c a d e m i c w o r l d . and  moved on  T h e r e he  and  I n 1926  to F r a n k f u r t  until  1947.  he  i n 193B  then the  1945.  At  German-speaking  and  t o o k him  center  of  when o f f e r e d a  there  professorship.  s p r i n g o f 1933  t r a n s f e r r e d to the  philosophy  to  the  led  became a l e c t u r e r i n s o c i o l o g y  t h a t t i m e he  of s o c i o l o g y  in his  became a P r i v a t d o z e n t  remained u n t i l h i s d i s m i s s a l i n the  professor in  Born i n t o the  Heidelberg,  t o move t o E n g l a n d where he 1933  together  c u l t u r e of Budapest, u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s  Paris, Freiburg  20th  e c l e c t i c i s m that  marked h i s e f f o r t s t o b r i n g a l l t h e s e c u r r e n t s s o c i o l o g i c a l theory  early  of education  him  from  p o s i t i o n ' of  until his  death  6  Mannheim's work f a l l s  i n t o two  distinct  phases which  corres-  7 pond c l o s e l y t o h i s r e s i d e n c e produced h i s s o c i o l o g y  of knowledge; the  toward p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y p r e t a t i o n of the the  previously  dropped out The  i n Germany and  crisis  and  and  first  marked by his  historical  a  turn  inter-  In t h i s  phase  concerns  sight.  first  p h a s e Df Mannheim's i n t e l l e c t u a l c a r e e r  review a r t i c l e  Though he w o u l d n o t i n t e r e s t s had  The  o f modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y .  f r o m h i s y o u t h f u l p a m p h l e t on cyclopedia  s e c o n d was  e f f o r t s to popularize  dominant e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  of  England.  the  Culture"  sociology  ( 1 9 1 8 ) t o an  of knowledge  been r e - d i r e c t e d ; t h i s  German s o c i o l o g y ,  t h a t w o u l d e i t h e r be  and  published  as w e l l as  en-  (1931).  depart f a r England f o r a couple of years,  already  o f A m e r i c a n and  an  "Soul  ranges  his  i s r e f l e c t e d i n reviews i n d r a f t s of  articles  posthumously or appear i n the  German  -23-  e d i t i o n o f Man  and  Society  i n 1935.  e s t s which c o i n c i d e d to the o f t h e Weimar R e p u b l i c , e p i s t e m o l o g y and of knowledge. schaften  the  political  crisis  e l a b o r a t i o n of the  Here he b r o k e w i t h t h e  which c o n f i n e d  c o m p l e m e n t e d by  to t h i s  Mannheim's r e s e a r c h  the  s h i f t of  of the had  last  inter-  years  been c o n f i n e d  i d e a of the  to  sociology  i d e a l i s m of the  themselves to i n t e r n a l  p r e t a t i o n s of thought products. t o be  Prior  Geisteswissen-  o r immanent  inter-  T h i s m e t h o d , he w o u l d h o l d ,  extrinsic  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n provided  had by  8 sociology.  Because of the  p o s i t i o n most o f h i s e f f o r t details  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of was  of such a s o c i o l o g y of  s t u d i e s were o f c o u r s e I d e o l o g y e s s a y on Yet  "Conservative  throughout t h i s  d e v o t e d t o an "mind". and  The  Utopia  highpoints ( 1 9 2 9 ) and  political  "science  of p o l i t i c s "  yet s t i l l  unpublished  The expression  Weimer p e r i o d ;  the  the  these historical  and  i n the  i n h i s search  Utopia  the  sociology  and  with  for a  i n some o f h i s  conflicts  o f k n o w l e d g e was  as  P e r i c l e a n age."^  i t s c o l l a p s e would Thought t h e  knowledge l e a d d i r e c t l y  form of h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i v i s m " i t ' s most i m p o r t a n t  German i n t e l l e c t u a l  context"  substantive  period be  intellectual  back t o Marx, i t s  was  conceptions and  a peculiar  o f Weimar Germany, a  forecast s h o r t l y before  as w e l l as t h e  issues  domin-  papers.  s o c i o l o g y Df  emergence i n t h e  logical  i n Ideology g  b a c k upon as a new  r o o t s of the  i n the  i s most e v i d e n t  intellectual  w h i c h Mannheim had looked  This  p r o b l e m p o s e d by of the  of  of  concerns which would  a t e t h e work o f h i s s e c o n d p h a s e i s i m p l i c i t struggled.  articulation  Thought"(1927) which e x e m p l i f i e d h i s method.  p e r i o d the  w h i c h he  this  unique to  are  i t "mirrors  deeply the  the rooted  methodo-  d i l e m m a s o f t h o s e days."''''''  -2k-  Beginning to  i n t h e e a r l y 193D's and  a c c e l e r a t e d by  E n g l a n d , Mannheim's a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d t o u a r d  understand  and  h i s move  an e f f o r t  to  diagnose the s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s of h i s t i m e .  As  a  c o n s e q u e n c e , i n none o f h i s s u b s e q u e n t u o r k does t h e s o c i o l o g y  of  k n o w l e d g e f i g u r e as a c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n , t h o u g h i t i s o f t e n implicit  in his analysis.  o r i e n t a t i o n was being  The  first  t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Man  and to  and  democracy i s p r e s e n t e d  Here t h e  c h o i c e was  p l a n , b u t w h e t h e r p l a n n i n g w o u l d be In  Diagnosis  o f our  thus  of  of c a p i t a l - • laissez-faire  or  and  Mannheim e n t e r t a i n e d  s o c i a l order  envisioned.  Planning  (1950),  t h e q u e s t i o n o f power emerges as t h e  the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n  This r e f l e c t s  and  his politics  p a r t the  nothing  of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y element  c o u l d o n l y be  u l a t e d a new to  d e s c r i b e d as  democratic  sense of optimism  p o p u l a r i z e h i s i d e a s and  politics  he  and  reflected  had  of B r i t a i n .  which i s manifested  thus  liberal  This a t t i t u d e  c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e Weimar s i t u a t i o n  the f u n c t i o n i n g l i b e r a l  of  immediate postwar p e r i o d .  r e f o r m i s t , even i f of a r a d i c a l v a r i e t y . in  c e n t r a l theme  e a r n e d Mannheim a r e p u t a t i o n as a d a r i n g  r a d i c a l t h i n k e r , t h e r e was  o f M a r x i s m and  Democratic  h i s t u r n t o an e x a m i n a t i o n  emerging i n the  Though s u c h p r e o c c u p a t i o n s  the  i n c r e a t i n g the i n -  i n t h e p o s t h u m o u s l y p u b l i s h e d F r e e d o m , Power and  time.  not  totalitarian.  Finally,  for.the f i r s t  ex-  not whether or  democratic  f o r the planned  edition  a second,  crisis  t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y might p l a y a r o l e  t e g r a t i v e values necessary  this  Time, a p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f Man  S o c i e t y w h i c h a p p e a r e d d u r i n g t h e war, possibility  and  as t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y  unplanned r e g u l a t i o n ; the  of  Society, a f i r s t  p u b l i s h e d i n Amsterdam i n German i n 1935  panded v e r s i o n i n E n g l i s h i n 13kU. istic  major e x p r e s s i o n  in his  fled  and  This  stim-  effort  have some p e r s o n a l i m p a c t on  the  -25-  course  of events. Though some n i n e y e a r s  be  younger than  Mannheim, P o p p e r c a n  d e s c r i b e d a s p a r t o f t h e same g e n e r a t i o n  uals. took  For both,the  c r u c i a l formative  years  p l a c e d u r i n g and i n t h e a f t e r m a t h  earliest  of their  intellect-  education  o f W o r l d War I .  i n t e l l e c t u a l mentors r e p r e s e n t e d  p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought.  o f European  the opposite  Whereas Mannheim u a s n u r t u r e d  Yet t h e i r poles of  by h e i r s t o  German i d e a l i s m s u c h a s S i m m e l , D i l t h e y a n d T r . o e l t s c h , P o p p e r ' s i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e brought him i n t o  contact u i t h  p h i l o s o p h e r s o f s c i e n c e u h i c h h a d come t o c e n t e r called  "Vienna C i r c l e " .  possibility substance  Such b e g i n n i n g s  o f a convergence o f t h e i r  offered l i t t l e  interests,  t h e numerous b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s  his  work, Popper g i v e s a f r a n k i n d i c a t i o n  his  intellectual  development.  mid-career  an a b r u p t  dispersed  of the  from h i s e a r l i e r  throughout  o f the major sources o f  provide  details i s  i n t o Popper's  t o problems o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  departure  and l a t e r  shift  T h i s phase marked  preoccupations  uith  l o g i c o f p h y s i c s and o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . The  first  philosopher  phase o f Popper's i n t e l l e c t u a l  development as a  o f s c i e n c e began i n t h e autiamn o f 1 9 1 9 , u i t h  ment p r o d u c e d by E d d i n g t o n ' s e c l i p s e o b s e r v a t i o n s u h i c h the  hint ofthe  l e t alone  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these  e s s e n t i a l because o f t h e i n s i g h t they  the  around t h e s o -  of their thinking.  In  in  the n e o - p o s i t i v i s t  first  theory.  significant  the e x c i t e provided  confirmation of Einstein's gravitational  H i s oun u o r d s b e s t  convey h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n s :  'When s h o u l d a t h e o r y be r a n k e d a s s c i e n t i f i c ? ' o r ' I s t h e r e a c r i t e r i o n f o r the s c i e n t i f i c character or status of a theory?' The p r o b l e m u h i c h t r o u b l e d me a t t h e t i m e u a s n e i t h e r , 'When i s a t h e o r y t r u e ? ' n o r , "When i s a t h e o r y a c c e p t a b l e ? '  -26-  My p r o b l e m uas d i f f e r e n t . I u i s h e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between s c i e n c e and p s e u d o - s c i e n c e ; k n o w i n g v e r y w e l l t h a t s c i e n c e o f t e n e r r s , and t h a t p s e u d o - s c i e n c e may happen t o s t u m b l e on t h e t r u t h . I knew, o f c o u r s e , t h e most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d answer t o my p r o b l e m : t h a t s c i e n c e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from pseudo-science — o r f o r m ' m e t a p h y s i c s ' — by i t s e m p i r i c a l m e t h o d , w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n d u c t i v e , proceeding from o b s e r v a t i o n or e x p e r i ment. B u t t h i s d i d n o t s a t i s f y me. Dn t h e c o n t r a r y , I o f t e n f o r m u l a t e d my p r o b l e m as one o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n a g e n u i n e l y e m p i r i c a l method and a n o n - e m p i r i c a l o r e v e n a p s e u d o - e m p i r i c a l method — t h a t i s t o s a y , a method w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i t a p p e a l s t o o b s e r v a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t , n e v e r t h e l e s s does n o t come up t o s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d a r d s . The l a t t e r method may be e x e m p l i f i e d by a s t r o l o g y , w i t h i t s s t u p e n d o u s mass o f e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n — on h o r o s c o p e s and on b i o g r a p h i e s . B u t as i t was n o t t h e e x a m p l e o f a s t r o l o g y w h i c h l e d me t o my p r o b l e m I s h o u l d p e r h a p s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e t h e a t m o s p h e r e i n w h i c h my p r o b l e m a r o s e and t h e e x a m p l e s by w h i c h i t was stimulated. A f t e r the c o l l a p s e of the A u s t r i a n Empire t h e r e had been a r e v o l u t i o n i n A u s t r i a : t h e a i r was f u l l o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y s l o g a n s and i d e a s , and new and o f t e n w i l d t h e o r i e s . Among t h e t h e o r i e s w h i c h i n t e r e s t e d me E i n s t e i n ' s t h e o r y o f r n l u r . e l a t i v i t y was no d o u b t by f a r t h e most i m p o r t a n t . Three o t h e r s were M a r x ' s t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y , F r e u d ' s p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s , and A l f r e d A d l e r ' s s o - c a l l e d ' i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y ' .... I m y s e l f h a p p e n e d t o come i n t o p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h A l f r e d A d l e r , and e v e n t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h him i n h i s s o c i a l work among t h e c h i l d r e n and young p e o p l e i n t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s d i s t r i c t s o f V i e n n a where he had e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l g u i d a n c e clinics. I t was d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1919 t h a t I began t o f e e l more and more d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s e t h r e e t h e o r i e s ... and I began tD f e e l d u b i o u s a b o u t t h e i r c l a i m s t o s c i e n t i f i c status. My p r o b l e m p e r h a p s f i r s t t o o k t h e s i m p l e f o r m , "What i s wrong w i t h M a r x i s m , p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s , and i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y ? Ldhy a r e t h e y so d i f f e r e n t f r o m p h y s i c a l t h e o r i e s , f r o m Newton's t h e o r y , and e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h e t h e o r y o f r e l a t i v i t y ? ' (CR:33-4). The  n e x t 15 y e a r s  in physics, culminating to the  were s p e n t i n w r e s t l i n g w i t h t h i s  i n Die  Logik  above s t a t e m e n t , where he  der  F o r s c h u n g i n 1934.  p o i n t s out  he  subsequently  d e v e l o p e d made no  In  contrast  the s t i m u l a t i o n caused  h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l t h e o r i e s , Popper c l a i m s of science  problem  t h a t the  attempt to take  into  by  theory  -27-  a c c o u n t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and theory  r e a l i z e d t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y Df  t o them o n l y a f t e r t h e f a c t .  As  he  his  puts i t :  I have e v e r y r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e methods o f s c i e n c e uas n o t i n f l u e n c e d by any knowl e d g e o f t h e methods o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ; f o r when I d e v e l o p e d i t f i r s t , I had o n l y t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s i n m i n d , and I knew n e x t t o n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (PH:178-8). Y e t one years  a f t e r W o r l d War  together The  might p o i n t t o the g e n e r a l ambience of V i e n n a i n the I as an e x t r e m e l y  the problems of p h i l o s o p h y  general s t i m u l a t i o n provided  p o s i t i v i s t s uas Freudianism  and  by t h e  fertile  science."^  Vienna C i r c l e  logical  denied  group.  this The  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e most  a s s o c i a t i o n and  they  As  and  important  from the  logical  Though o f t e n lumped w i t h them, P o p p e r has  always  have r e c i p r o c a t e d .  second phase o f Popper's c a r e e r took  shape i n the  w i t h the p r o g r e s s i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l Europe.  of  i n u h i c h Marxism  uork f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s d i d not stem d i r e c t l y positivist  for bringing  empirical social  p a r t o f a much l a r g e r m a t r i x  uere a l s o at work.  situation  he w o u l d l a t e r e x p l a i n h i s t u r n t o t h e  situation logic  of  1930's in  social  science-: My i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o b l e m was g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by t h e r i s e o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m and by t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s t o make sense o f ' i t ( 0 S - I : 2 ) . S i n c e he  l i v e d i n A u s t r i a , the year  immediate r e p e r c u s s i o n s of such events 1937  he  had  f l e d t o IMew Z e a l a n d He  in  t h a t time  By  i t d i d on Mannheim --  d i d n o t have  d i s m i s s a l , but  i n c r e a s i n g l y drew P o p p e r t o w a r d s o c i a l  s e c o n d war. 1945.  1933  would accept he  had  at the  the  questions.  where he r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t  a post  the  London S c h o o l  of  news By  the Economics  c o m p l e t e d t h e m a j o r s t u d i e s t h a t made  -28-  up  h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s o c i a l sciences:  t h e t w o - v o l u m e Open 15  Society  and i t s E n e m i e s and t h e P o v e r t y  s t u d i e s were t h u s c o n c e i v e d  of Historicism.  These  as a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o t h e r i s e o f  Hitler.  As P o p p e r n o t e d i n a 1950 p r e f a c e o f t h e Open S o c i e t y : A l t h o u g h much o f what i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s book t o o k shape a t an e a r l i e r d a t e , t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n t o w r i t e i t was made i n M a r c h 1 9 3 8 , on t h e day I r e c e i v e d t h e news o f t h e i n v a s i o n o f A u s t r i a . The w r i t i n g e x t e n d e d i n t o 1 9 4 3 ; and t h e f a c t t h a t most o f t h e book was w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e g r a v e y e a r s when t h e outcome o f t h e war was u n c e r t a i n may h e l p t o e x p l a i n why some o f i t s c r i t i c i s m s t r i k e s me t o d a y as more e m o t i o n a l and h a r s h e r i n t o n e t h a n I c o u l d w i s h . B u t i t was not. the- t i m e t o m i n c e w o r d s — o r a t l e a s t , t h i s was what I t h e n f e l t . N e i t h e r t h e war n o r any o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t was e x p l i c i t l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e b o o k ; b u t i t was an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h o s e e v e n t s a n d t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d , a n d some o f t h e i s s u e s w h i c h were l i k e l y t o a r i s e a f t e r t h e war was won. The e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t M a r x i s m w o u l d become a m a j o r p r o b l e m was t h e r e a s o n f o r t r e a t i n g i t a t some l e n g t h ( 0 S - I : v i i i ) . As  stances  P o p p e r w o u l d a d m i t more t h a n a d e c a d e l a t e r ,  s h a r p e n e d t h e p o l e m i c a l t o n e o f h i s comments.  some"of h i s c r i t i c s ,  these  circum-  In r e p l y to  he s u g g e s t e d :  I t s h o u l d n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t I l o o k e d upon my book as my war e f f o r t : b e l i e v i n g as I d i d i n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f H e g e l a n d t h e H e g e l i a n s f o r much o f what h a p p e n e d i n Germany, I f e l t t h a t i t was my t a s k as a p h i l o s o p h e r , t o show' t h a t . t h i s p h i l o s o p h y was a p s e u d o - p h i l o s o p h y ( 0 S - I I : 3 9 3 ) . This concern with the s o c i a l sciences of Pepper's e n e r g i e s  a b s o r b e d n e a r l y a decade  and h a d t h e e f f e c t c f d e l a y i n g t h e i m p a c t and  development o f h i s theory  of science.  the p h i l o s o p h y  -- The L o g i c o f D i s c o v e r y  1935,  of science  Though h i s m a j o r s t u d y i n  t h e book d i d n o t a p p e a r i n E n g l i s h u n t i l  —  1959.  had appeared i n This  d e l a y has  a l s o been r e l a t e d by P o p p e r t o h i s own l o n g s i l e n c e w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m an o v e r w h e l m i n g e n c o u n t e r w i t h R u d o l f admits t h a t t h i s  Carnap i n 1932.  " s i l e n c e d me f o r many y e a r s " ;  Popper  he d i d n o t b e g i n t o  -29-  publish his differences uith c o n s e q u e n c e , h i s v i e u s and  Carnap u n t i l  especially  1955  the f u l l  had  as a c r i t i q u e o f t h e m a j o r t e n e n t s o f t h e  did  n o t become u i d e l y  E n g l i s h i n the  1950's.  uhich continues in  knoun u n t i l  up  period.  and  Refutations:  first  time  The  became u i d e l y continues  first  the f u l l  almost  a p p e a r e d i n 1962 Grouth  s c o p e and  available.  along  logical  similar  The  T h i s u o r k has exclusively  An  traveled.  been  in  of S c i e n t i f i c  gathered  from t h i s  Knouledge.  Here f o r t h e  i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s theory of  science  second volume, p u b l i s h e d a decade  T h i s theme had  Objective  a number  d i s t a n c e t o u a r d pragmatism u h i c h o n l y been i m p l i c i t  later,  concept  Entitled  E v o l u t i o n a r y Approach, i t b r i n g s together the  post-  Conjectures  l i n e s but u i t h the a d d i t i o n of the  of a r t i c l e s uhich suggest had  empiricists  under the t i t l e  of " e v o l u t i o n " to h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l .vocabulary. Knowledge:  a  i m p l i c a t i o n s they  h i s p a p e r s began a p p e a r i n g  u n t i l the p r e s e n t .  The  As  This? m a r k e d t h e t h i r d p h a s e o f h i s c a r e e r  tuo c o l l e c t i o n s pufcvtogether  war  (CR:254-5).  he  i n elements of h i s  conception of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . ',. ' What emerges f r o m t h e s e  brief  accounts  Popper's c a r e e r s i s a sense of t h e i r profound intellectuals. in  Both  o f Mannheim's  commitments as  valued the p u r s u i t of reason  and  they  a r e t o be  d e f i n e d or advanced.  u h i c h had  become p r e v a l e n t i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s uas  as a t h r e a t t o t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f s u c h rise  of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m .  O n l y by  reason  e s t a b l i s h i n g new  o b j e c t i v e k n o u l e d g e i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s uas democratic  a l t e r n a t i v e s to Fascism  Thus, the  and  and  disagree  relativism  v i e u e d by  a source  of  foundations  t h e r e hope f o r  Communism.  liberal  i t s manifestations  s c i e n c e as t h e supreme v a c a t i o n s , h o u e v e r much t h e y m i g h t  a b o u t hou  and  This f a i t h  both  the for liberal in  -30-  t h e power o f t h e p r o d u c t s mission  as i n t e l l e c t u a l s was  speaking  countries.  the events  intellect  s t i m u l a t e d by  and  As s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p r o p h e t s  to e x p l a i n the r i s e and  s u s t a i n e d by  seemingly  an enemy o f t h e  crisis  philosophy  b l i n d t o t h i s and  audience,  moved t o w a r d  turned  the p l a u s i b i l i t y  of the unconscious  and  by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t r a j e c t o r y Early initiation  ( M a r x , The  H i s t o r i c a l School,  i n t h e n a t u r a l and  ical possibility revolutionary  of l i b e r a l  adaptation  intellectual  C e n t r a l Europe brought  Freud,  about  socio-historical  e t c . ) and  the  challenge  of science e s t a b l i s h e d  spheres.  The  rise  total-  of the  d e m o c r a c y as t h e b a s i s o f a crisis  of  countries stimulated  w i t h the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  to the  be  i n t o the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  to English-speaking  concern  generally  which each developed r e s p e c t i v e l y  social scientific  emigration  to a profound  of t h e i r  to c l a s s i c a l epistemology  a common f r a m e w o r k o f q u e s t i o n s  and  But  P o p p e r can  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  of E i n s t e i n ' s theory  both  of both  of e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century  the r e l a t i v i s t i c  itarianism  and  upon Mannheim as -  supported  research  similar  in resolving i t .  c o n v e r g e n c e o f t h e t h i n k i n g o f Mannheim and  by  demo-  of Western s o c i e t y  unnoticed  problematic  trying  "open s o c i e t y . "  I n sum,  biographies.  England.  i n t h e power o f human i n -  Popper u n c o n s c i o u s l y  t h e p l a c e o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e and  t o com-  committed to l i b e r a l  a faith  r e f o r m u l a t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n of the  their  to i n f l u e n c e  Popper t r i e d  a specialized  of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m ,  t e l l i g e n c e , Mannheim and  P o p p e r was  trying  i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e s o f A m e r i c a and  f o r a g e n e r a l r a t h e r than  c r a t i c reform,  the sense of  t h e i r move t o E n g l i s h -  o f t h e p o s t - w a r e r a , Mannheim and  municate w i t h the Writing  of the  theoret-  non-  of advanced c a p t i a l i s m .  As  a  -31-  consequence, i n t h i s their  effort  to deal uith  day, each s u c c e s s i v e l y m o d i f i e d  and p o s i t i v i s t i c render  tradition  i t less vulnerable  standing.  This  the concrete  and c r i t i c i s e d  c r i s i s of the i d e a l i s t i c  o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n s u c h a uay as t o to i r r a t i o n a l i s t  a t t a c k s and m i s u n d e r -  c o n v e r g e n t movement, h o u e v e r , u a s o b s c u r e d by  P o p p e r ' s p o l e m i c a l a t t a c k on Mannheim and t h e u n p r o p i t i o u s stances  i n English-speaking  clarification  circum-  c o u n t r i e s i n the post-1945 p e r i o d f o r a  of the issues at stake.  -32-  IMDTES:  CHAPTER I I I  At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e i s a l m o s t no d e t a i l e d b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r e i t h e r Popper or.Mannheim. David K e t t l e r , h o w e v e r , has p u b l i s h e d a s t u d y ( 1 9 6 7 a ) w h i c h t a k e s up Mannheim's e a r l y a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Georg Lukacs. According to W o l f f ( 1 9 7 1 : l x x i ) K e t t l e r i s a l s o p r e p a r i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l b i o g r a p h y s p a n n i n g Mannheim's f u l l c a r e e r . As f o r P o p p e r , a volume i n t h e " L i b r a r y o f L i v i n g P h i l o s o p h e r s " s e r i e s e d i t e d by P a u l S c h i l p p s h o u l d provide i m p o r t a n t b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l as w e l l as some o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t d i s c u s s i o n s of Popper's p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s l o n g - d e l a y e d volume i s s c h e d u l e d to appear i n the f a l l of 1973. i  The a n t h o l o g y o f s t a t e m e n t s by i m m i g r a n t s e d i t e d by F l e m i n g and B a i l y n ( 1 9 6 9 ) and t h e s k e t c h y s u r v e y by F e r m i ( 1 9 6 8 ) p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n s t o t h i s f l i g h t and some o f i t s p e r s o n a l i t i e s . To my k n o w l e d g e , t h e o n l y s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f t h e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s movement i s M a r t i n J a y ' s work on School. See a l s o , S h i l s ( 1 9 7 0 ) .  social theorists the F r a n k f u r t  The q u e s t i o n o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m has g e n e r a t e d an e x t e n s i v e and i m portant l i t e r a t u r e . An a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t o f P o p p e r and Mannheim would attempt to l o c a t e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n s w i t h i n t h i s framew o r k . C a r l F r i e d r i c h ' s f o r m u l a t i o n has been most i n f l u e n t i a l among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and has been r e - e x a m i n e d i n F r i e d r i c h , C u r t i s , and Barber (1969). See a l s o J a n i c k e ( 1 9 7 1 ) and S c h a p i r o (1972). To name a t random some o f t h e f i g u r e s who w o u l d have t o be i n c l u d e d here: L u k a c s , Goldmann, Fromm, M i c h a e l and K a r l P o l a n y i , Hayek, Adorno, Horkheimer, Lowenthal, Marcuse, R e i c h , C a s s i r e r . Cf. S h i l s (1968:557); Wolf ( 1 9 7 1 : x i ) f o r o b i t u a r y Mannheim's c a r e e r .  type accounts  of  Remmling ( 1 9 6 1 | 1 9 6 8 ) t r i e s tD f o r c e Mannheim i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s , g i v i n g them r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l w e i g h t . I have f o l l o w e d S h i l s ( 1 9 6 8 ) and o t h e r s who e m p h a s i z e t h e b a s i c d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f Mannheim's German and E n g l i s h p h a s e s . R e m m l i n g ' s e f f o r t t o b r e a k up t h e E n g l i s h p e r i o d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s a p p e a r s t o be o f d u b i o u s v a l u e . ' i t was h e r e t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f M a r x i s m and e s p e c i a l l y L u k a c s came into play. Cf. K e t t l e r (1967b:416ff); Lichtheim (1967:36-43). •  These p a p e r s a r e d i s c u s s e d and t h e " m o r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l " o f Mannheim's t h o u g h t i s a r g u e d i n K e t t l e r ( 1 9 6 7 b ) .  continuity  -33-  Gay  (1968:xiv).  R i n g e r ( 1 9 6 9 : 4 1 8 ) . T h i s theme i s d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r i n Lenk ( 1 9 7 2 ) uho t r a c e s t h e r e c e p t i o n a f t h e M a r x i a n t h e o r y o f i d e o l o g y i n German s o c i o l o g y a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . H i s a p p o i n t m e n t as head o f t h e n e u l y f o r m e d U n e s c o j u s t p r i o r h i s death symbolized t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v i s t o r i e n t a t i o n .  to  T h i s m i l i e u produced the p i o n e e r s o c i o l o g i s t of s c i e n c e Edgar Z i l s e l and t h e i n f l u e n t i a l m e t h o d o l o g i s t P a u l L a z a r s f e l d . Z i l s e l , uho c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e r i g h t a f t e r W o r l d War I I u h i l e l i v i n g i n t h e U.S., p u b l i s h e d a number o f m o n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s on t h e h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o l o g y o f t h e r i s e o f modern s c i e n c e . As one o b s e r v e r has r e c a l l e d : There uere tuo o u t s t a n d i n g l y b r i l l i a n t minds i n V i e n n a uho, t h o u g h c l o s e t o us i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , n e v e r j o i n e d the C i r c l e : E d g a r Z i l s e l and K a r l P o p p e r . Both uere c o n v i n c e d of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l independence from us, and t r i e d t o p r e s e r v e t h a t i n d e p e n d e n c e by r e m a i n i n g o u t s i d e the c i r c l e . I n d e e d , I f e l t t h a t b o t h t h e s e men, e a c h i n h i s oun uay, u e r e among o u r most v a l u a b l e c r i t i c s ( F e i g l , 1 9 6 9 : 6 4 1 ) . S u r p r i s i n g l y , P o p p e r seems n o t t o have been a u a r e o f Z i l s e l ' s s t u d i e s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e and t h a t t h e y i n v o l v e d a p p l i c a t i o n of the i n s i g h t s of the s o c i o l o g y of k n o u l e d g e . L a z a r s f e l d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e v e l o p e d a s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n t o u a r d s c i e n c e mare i n d i r e c t l y . L i k e P o p p e r , he f o u n d h i s n a t i o n s Df s c i e n c e emerge f r o m a c o n f r o n t a t i o n u i t h t h e c o n t r a s t b e t u e e n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and t h e f a i l u r e s o f s o c i a l science. As L a z a r s f e l d ( 1 9 7 2 : 2 4 7 ) n o t e s : My r e f e r e n c e g r o u p uas t h e movement a r o u n d A l f r e d A d l e r ... I n t e l l e c t u a l l y , t h e main i n f l u e n c e uas a g r o u p o f u r i t e r s famous i n s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e : E r n s t Mach, H e n r i P o i n c a r e , and E i n s t e i n . B e c a u s e he had " v i r t u a l l y no c o n t a c t u i t h t h e 'Wiener K r e i s , ' L a z a r s f e l d c o n c l u d e s h i s s i m i l a r v i e u s u e r e " p r o b a b l y more due t o a common b a c k g r o u n d t h a n tD d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e " ( 2 4 8 ) . Describing h i m s e l f as an a c t i v i s t i n t h e S o c i a l i s t S t u d e n t Movement, L a z a r s f e l d r e l a t e s h i s t u r n t o s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y u i t h r e f l e c t i o n s upon t h e f a i l u r e of h i s propaganda e f f o r t s : We u e r e c o n c e r n e d u i t h uhy o u r p r o p a g a n d a uas u n s u c c e s s f u l , and u a n t e d t o c o n d u c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s t o e x p l a i n it. I remember a f o r m u l a I c r e a t e d a t t h e t i m e : a fighting r e v o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s economics (Marx); a v i c t o r i o u s r e v o l ution r e q u i r e s engineers (Russia); a defeated r e v o l u t i o n c a l l s f o r psychology (Vienna)(247).  -34-  This a s s o c i a t i o n of Marxism w i t h n e o - p o s i t i v i s m u h i c h took p l a c e i n V i e n n a (most n o t a b l y i n N e u r a t h ) s u g g e s t s t h e b a c k g r o u n d of Popper's sympathetic a t t i t u d e t o u a r d the r e f o r m i s t aspects of M a r x i s m . M o r e o v e r , he a b s o r b e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more f r o m t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t h a n he r e a l i z e d ; h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c community m i g h t have i t s r o o t s h e r e . I n any c a s e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e common t h r e a d o f M a r x i s m l i n k s t h e o t h e r u i s e a n t i t h e t i c a l e a r l y i n t e r e s t s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e a n i n g s o f P o p p e r and Mannheim. T h i s has been n o t e d by uho s u g g e s t s t h a t  both F e i g l  ( 1 9 6 9 : 6 4 1 ) and  Hempel ( 1 9 6 9 : 1 6 4 - 5 )  ... t h o u g h P o p p e r c a r r i e d on an i n t e n s i v e and f r u i t f u l e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s u i t h v a r i o u s l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s , and, although there uere important a f f i n i t i e s betueen h i s vieus and t h e i r s , he has c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f as an o u t s i d e c r i t i c o f t h e movement, and he c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e , be r e c k o n e d among i t s p r o p o n e n t s . Though t h e Open S o c i e t y uas p u b l i s h e d i n 1945, The P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m uas n o t p u b l i s h e d i n book f o r m i n E n g l i s h u n t i l 1957. Yet i t s t h e s i s — " t h a t t h e r e can n o t be p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e o f human h i s t o r y by s c i e n t i f i c o r any o t h e r r a t i o n a l methods -- goes b a c k t o t h e u i n t e r o f 1919-2D. The main o u t l i n e uas c o m p l e t e d by 1935 ..." ( P H : v ) . P u b l i c a t i o n uas d e l a y e d some y e a r s by i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n by a p h i l o s o p h i c a l j o u r n a l . I t f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n E c o n p m i c a i n t h r e e p a r t s i n 1944 and 1945.  -35-  IV.  POPPER'S  RATIONALISM  P o p p e r ' s a t t a c k on t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e t a k e s  as i t s  point of c r i t i c a l  reference  Accordingly,  on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p o s i t i o n can ue b e g i n  only  h i s oun p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n .  e x a m i n e t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t Mannheim. Popper's s o c i a l philosophy "fallibilistic" society."  theory  The c e n t r a l e l e m e n t s o f  are h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m , "  of science,  and t h e t h e o r y  And i t i s on p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d  o f t h e "open  from these s o u r c e s  he d e v e l o p s h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e " h i s t o r i c i s m , " " h o l i s m , " "Utopianism" uhich  to  are held to i n h i b i t  that  and  the growth of s o c i a l  scientific  knouledge. The c e n t r a l theme u n d e r l y i n g sciences and  i s the c o n v i c t i o n that  irrationalism  P o p p e r ' s u o r k on t h e s o c i a l  "the c o n f l i c t  betueen r a t i o n a l i s m  h a s become t h e m o s t • i m p o r t a n t i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  perhaps even m o r a l , i s s u e s o f our t i m e "  (0S-II:224).  and  By " r a t i o n a l i s m "  he r e f e r s n o t t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e r m u s e d as a c o n trast to "empiricism",  b u t t o " r a t i o n a l i s m " i n i t s u i d e s t s e n s e as  the  apposite  of " i r r a t i o n a l i s m . "  Thus, v e r y  much i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f  the  E n l i g h t e n m e n t he s p e a k s o f i t as "an a t t i t u d e t h a t s e e k s t o  s o l v e as many p r o b l e m s as p o s s i b l e by an a p p e a l t o r e a s o n , c l e a r t h o u g h t and e x p e r i e n c e , and  passion"  (224).  r a t h e r t h a n by an a p p e a l t o e m o t i o n s  Yet i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s n o t i o n  c r e t e l a n g u a g e , he r e v e a l s  i . e . to  a concern u i t h  r e a s o n as p a r t o f a p r o c e s s o f  i n t o more  con-  the s o c i a l dimension of  dialogue:  .... i t may be b e t t e r t o e x p l a i n r a t i o n a l i s m i n t e r m s o f p r a c t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . We c o u l d t h e n s a y t h a t r a t i o n a l i s m i s an a t t i t u d e o f r e a d i n e s s t o l i s t e n t o c r i t i c a l a r g u m e n t s and t o l e a r n f r o m e x p e r i e n c e . Iti s  -36-  f u n d a m e n t a l l y an a t t i t u d e o f a d m i t t i n g t h a t ' I may be u r o n g and y o u may be r i g h t , and by an e f f o r t , ue may g e t n e a r e r t h e t r u t h ' .... I n s h o r t , t h e r a t i o n a l i s t a t t i t u d e , o r , a s I may p e r h a p s l a b e l i t , t h e ' a t t i t u d e o f r e a s o n ableness', i s very s i m i l a r t o the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e , t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t i n t h e s e a r c h f o r t r u t h ue n e e d c o o p e r a t i o n , and t h a t , u i t h t h e h e l p o f a r g u m e n t , ue c a n i n time a t t a i n something l i k e o b j e c t i v i t y (225). This sense c f r a t i o n a l i s m uith  i t s many a n t i t h e s e s :  rationalism.  i s i l l u m i n a t e d through  a contrast  pseudo-rationalism, mysticism,  F o r Popper such  b a s e d upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n —  anti-rationalistic originally  and i r -  doctrines are  Platonic —  t h a t reason i s  a t y p e o f " f a c u l t y " u h o s e a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t v a r i e s u i d e l y among men. ualism" uith  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , " t h i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n  i t s belief  i n an " i n f a l l i b l e  method" f a i l s  b e t u e e n a man's i n t e l l e c t u a l p o u e r and h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s f o r a l l he c a n p o s s i b l y k n o u o r u n d e r s t a n d " i s not the g i f t  of genius  reasonableness"  (225).  telligent not  but a product  (227).  intellectto "distinguish to others  Thus,  rationality  of the " s o c i a l character of  F o r e x a m p l e , a R o b i n s o n C r u s o e m i g h t be i n -  enough tD a d a p t t o some d i f f i c u l t  s i t u a t i o n s , b u t he c o u l d  i n v e n t language o r argument o r s c i e n c e . In t h i s process  of rational  have no p l a c e f o r P o p p e r .  d i a l o g u e , ad hominem a r g u m e n t s  C l a i m s must be c r i t i c a l l y  t h e i r m e r i t s and n o t Dn c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h o s e  c o n s i d e r e d on  uho h o l d them.  O n l y by e v a l u a t i n g a r g u m e n t s c a n ue " r e c o g n i z e e v e r y b o d y u i t h ue  communicate as a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e  i n f o r m a t i o n ; i t thus  uhom  o f a r g u m e n t and o f r e a s o n a b l e  e s t a b l i s h e s u h a t may be d e s c r i b e d a s t h e  ' r a t i o n a l u n i t y o f mankind'"  (225).  This s o c i a l v i e u of reason  and s c i e n c e c o m m i t s P o p p e r t o an  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s under u h i c h they flourish.''"  And i t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n  he c a n j u s t i f y  political  may  -37-  intervention  i n t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of socio-economic s t r u c t u r e s .  R e a s o n c a n be g u a r a n t e e d o n l y by a p p r o p r i a t e  t r a d i t i o n s and i n -  stitutions : R e a s o n , l i k e s c i e n c e , g r o u s by way o f m u t u a l c r i t i c i s m ; t h e o n l y p a s s i b l e way o f ' p l a n n i n g ' i t s g r o w t h i s t o d e v e l o p those i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t safeguard the freedom o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e f r e e d o m o f t h o u g h t ((TJS~-II : 2 2 7 ) . As  a consequence: U l t i m a t e l y , i n t h i s way, r a t i o n a l i s m i s l i n k e d up w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p r o t e c t f r e e d o m o f c r i t i c i s m ... T h i s i s why r a t i o n a l i s m i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d up w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l demand f a r p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g ... i n t h e h u m a n i t a r i a n s e n s e , w i t h t h e demand f o r t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y , f o r p l a n n i n g f a r f r e e d o m , and f o r i t s c o n t r o l -by r e a s o n ; n o t by ' s c i e n c e ' , n o t by a P l a t o n i c , a p s e u d o - r a t i o n a l - a u t h o r i t y , b u t by t h a t S o c r a t i c r e a s o n w h i c h i s aware o f i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , and w h i c h t h e r e f o r e r e s p e c t s t h e o t h e r man a n d does n o t a s p i r e t o c o e r c e him -- n o t e v e n i n t o happiness (238-9). T h i s r a t i o n a l i s m and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l  and  conception  of science  f r e e d o m i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m H e g e l ' s " c o l l e c t i v i s m " on t h e one  hand a n d f r o m n o n - c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m on t h e o t h e r . ional version of science  differs  The  from t h a t o f the Hegelians  instituti n that:  H e g e l and t h e H e g e l i a n s a r e c o l l e c t i v i s t s . They a r g u e t h a t , s i n c e we owe D U T r e a s o n t o ' s o c i e t y ' — o r t o a c e r t a i n s o c i e t y s u c h as a n a t i o n — ' s o c i e t y ' i s everyt h i n g and t h e i n d i v i d u a l n o t h i n g ; o r t h a t w h a t e v e r v a l u e the. i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s e s i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c o l l e c t i v e ... As o p p o s e d t o t h i s , t h e p o s i t i o n p r e s e n t e d h e r e does n o t assume t h e e x i s t e n c e o f c o l l e c t i v e s ... T h e r e f o r e , i n speaking o f a ' s o c i a l ' theory of reason (or of s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d ) , I mean more p r e c i s e l y t h a t t h e t h e o r y i s an i n t e r - p e r s o n a l o n e , and n e v e r t h a t i t i s a c o l l e c t i v i s t t h e o r y (1226):.: "] This r a t i o n a l i s m i s also  "critical"  i n that i t accepts  own p o s i t i o n and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s  as s u b j e c t  to discussion.  importantly,  i t recognizes  c a n n o t be c o m p l e t e l y  that these u l t i m a t e  justified  by l o g i c a l  its  Most  presuppositions  argument o r e x p e r i e n c e  (230.).  -38-  The  p o s i t i o n o f t h e u n c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s t who  unwilling  to accept  or experience on t h e  a n y t h i n g u h i c h c a n n o t be  i s r e j e c t e d as c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  c o n t r a r y a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t i t s oun  a r g u e s t h a t he i s  justified  by  Critical  argument  rationalism  a s s u m p t i o n s r e q u i r e an  2 act of f a i t h , not  a "faith  scientific  " I am  i n reason"  deduction  a rationalist  but  F o r as P o p p e r  i n the a t t i t u d e of  o f f a c t s and  a r g u e s t h a t t h e method --  d e c i s i o n s , he  rational discussion —  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the  t h e same i n b o t h  i n some s e n s e " c o r r e s p o n d "  value judgements are not  " r i g h t " and  both  s h o u l d be  into  critical  cases.  The  i n t h e asymmetry b e t w e e n t h e c r e a t i o n o f f a c t s and  Whereas f a c t s  as  initial  p o i n t s , or e t h i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n g e n e r a l , to lapse Though he  ition,  reasonableness  to allow t h i s choice of  a q u e s t i o n o f mere t a s t e .  ence l i e s  emphasizes^  to v i o l e n c e " (CR:355).  Yet Popper i s u n w i l l i n g starting  This d e c i s i o n i s thus  a moral a c t .  b e c a u s e I see  the only a l t e r n a t i v e  (231).  "good."  Despite  f a c t u a l p r o p o s a l s and  rational scrutiny  as c l e a r l y  r e g u l a t e d by  this logical  standards  (OS-II:383-6).  to a statement  difference,  and differstandards.  propos-  nations  such  however,  of d e c i s i o n are s u b j e c t to  This p o s i t i o n renders  r a d i c a l s e p a r a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e and  or  nature  untenable  any  v a l u e s b e c a u s e k n o w l e d g e becomes  a means o f a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f d e c i s i o n s : The c h o i c e b e f o r e us i s n o t s i m p l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r , or a matter of t a s t e . I t i s a m o r a l d e c i s i o n ... arguments cannot determine such a fundamental m o r a l d e c i s i o n . But t h i s does n o t i m p l y t h a t o u r c h o i c e c a n n o t be h e l p e d by any k i n d o f a r g u m e n t w h a t e v e r . On t h e c o n t r a r y , w h e n e v e r we a r e f a c e d w i t h a m o r a l d e c i s i o n o f a mare a b s t r a c t k i n d , i t i s most h e l p f u l t o a n a l y s e c a r e f u l l y t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s which are l i k e l y t o r e s u l t from the a l t e r n a t i v e s between w h i c h we have t o c h o o s e . F o r o n l y i f we can v i s u a l i z e t h e s e c o n s e q u e n c e s i n a c o n c r e t e and p r a c t i c a l way, do we r e a l l y know what o u r d e c i s i o n i s a b o u t ; o t h e r w i s e we d e c i d e b l i n d l y (232).  -39-  It  i s i n t h e name o f t h i s  Popper's p h i l o s o p h i c a l e f f o r t s Though he aim  at  "critical  i n the  admits t h a t h i s l o g i c a l  rationalism" that  s o c i a l sciences  criticisms  of  are  justified.  "historicism"  " s o m e t h i n g l i k e s c i e n t i f i c s t a t u s " ( 0 S - I : 3 ) , he makes  pretensions  to the  " s c i e n t i f i c " nature  of h i s c r i t i c a l  an no  enterprise:  Many o f t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d a r e p e r s o n a l . What i t oues t o s c i e n t i f i c method i s l a r g e l y t h e a w a r e n e s s o f i t s limitation: i t does n o t o f f e r p r o o f s where n o t h i n g can be p r o v e d , n o r does i t p r e t e n d t o be s c i e n t i f i c where i t c a n n o t g i v e more t h a n a p e r s o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w . I t does n o t t r y t o r e p l a c e t h e o l d s y s t e m s o f p h i l o s o p h y by a new system. I t does n o t t r y t o add t o a l l t h e s e v o l u m e s f i l l e d w i t h w i s d o m , t o t h e m e t a p h y s i c s o f h i s t o r y and d e s t i n y , s u c h as a r e f a s h i o n a b l e nowadays ( 3 ) . But his  theory  theory  h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the of s c i e n c e .  can  ever  a t i o n s of the t h a t they  be  be  refuted.  t h e o r i e s w i t h the  hope o f f a l s i f y i n g  In Popper's view "the  of a theory  At b e s t  them by  criterion  is its falsifiability,  we  can  the  implic-  possibility  This f a l l i b i l i s t i c  an e l e m e n t o f u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y  problem of s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d a t i o n .  results.  the  from  scientific  Popper i s f o r c e d to accept  t e n t a t i v e n e s s o f a l l h y p o t h e s e s and day  does p r o c e e d  I n d i s m i s s i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t any  "verified,"  m i g h t one  introduces  s o c i a l sciences  assumption  transforms  hope f o r  the  testing  finding inconsistent  of the  scientific  or r e f u t a b i l i t y ,  or  status  testability"  (CR:37). This theory modern t h r e a t t o  of science  i s designed  to deal w i t h the  greatest  reason:  The m a i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l m a l a d y o f o u r t i m e i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l and m o r a l r e l a t i v i s m , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g a t l e a s t i n p a r t b a s e d upon t h e f o r m e r . By r e l a t i v i s m — o r , i f you l i k e , s c e p t i c i s m — I mean h e r e , b r i e f l y , t h e t h e o r y t h a t the c h o i c e between competing t h e o r i e s i s a r b i t r a r y (0S-II.-369). T h i s s c e p t i c i s m i s d e r i v e d f r o m a r e a c t i o n t o an  obsolete  -40-  epistemology: this is  i s the  search  for a general  c r i t e r i o n of t r u t h .  c o n t r i b u t i o n of such r e l a t i v i s m :  just that  Truth  the  there  i s rather  e x i s t s no  general  "The  criterion  d i r e c t e d even t h o u g h as humans we Popper terms h i s t h e o r y  are  k e r n e l of  of t r u t h "  something toward which s c i e n t i f i c  11  truth  (374).  e f f o r t s are  inevitably fallible.  o f k n o w l e d g e as  And  Thus,  f allibilism:"  By ' f a l l i b i l i s m I mean h e r e t h e v i e w , o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e f a c t , t h a t we may e r r , and t h a t t h e q u e s t f a r c e r t a i n t y ( o r even the q u e s t f o r h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y ) i s a m i s t a k e n q u e s t . But t h i s does n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e q u e s t f o r t r u t h i s m i s t a k e n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e i d e a o f e r r o r i m p l i e s t h a t o f t h e t r u t h as t h e s t a n d a r d o f w h i c h we may f a l l s h o r t ( 3 7 5 ) . 1  Now 11  i t i s c r u c i a l t o remember t h a t he  falsifiability  c r i t e r i o n of meaning."  i s not  I n h i s own  proposing  a  words:  I p e r s o n a l l y was n e v e r i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s o - c a l l e d p r o b l e m o f m e a n i n g ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , i t a p p e a r e d t o me a v e r b a l problem, a t y p i c a l pseudo-problem. I was i n t e r e s t e d only i n the problem of d e m a r c a t i o n , i . e . i n f i n d i n g a c r i t e r i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r of t h e o r i e s (CR:40). As as  a c o n s e q u e n c e , a l l s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h c a n n o t be  "scientific"  are  not  n e c e s s a r i l y nonsense.  ments have a m e a n i n g w h i c h d e r i v e s w h e t h e r as s c i e n t i f i c ditions.  Though he  conjectures  nowhere g i v e s  Many k i n d s  from t h e i r m y t h i c a l o r as any  briefly  has  a part  to play  T r a d i t i o n " where he  argues that  s o c i o l o g i c a l theory, omenon" ( C R : 1 2 3 ) . t r a d i t i o n s that  e s s a y on  I t i s i n the  context  Popper l o c a t e s the  traof  the  does s u g g e s t point  is  "Towards a R a t i o n a l T h e o r y  "a t h e o r y  because t r a d i t i o n  state-  functions,  detailed consideration  i n understanding i t . This  developed i n h i s short  of  components o f s o c i a l  l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f s u c h n o n - s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e , he sociology  classified  o f t r a d i t i o n must be  i s obviously of a theory  nature of  a social of  science:  of  a  phen-  institutional  -41-  My t h e s i s i s t h a t what ue c a l l ' s c i e n c e ' i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e o l d e r m y t h s n o t by b e i n g s o m e t h i n g d i s t i n c t f r o m a m y t h , b u t by b e i n g a c c o m p a n i e d by a s e c o n d order t r a d i t i o n — t h a t of c r i t i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g the myth ( 1 2 7 ) . IMor a r e n o n - s c i e n t i f i c rational criticism.  statements  J u s t because a theory  completely  immune f r o m  c a n n o t be c o n c l u s i v e l y  t e s t e d does n o t mean t h a t t h e c h o i c e b e t u e e n t h e o r i e s i s a r b i t r a r y . P o p p e r u s e s an e x a m p l e o f t h i s  the p o i n t of v i e u p r o v i d e d  "historical interpretations."  As he  by  general  argues:  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are important s i n c e they r e p r e s e n t a p o i n t o f v i e u . B u t ... a t h e o r y u h i c h can be t e s t e d and u h i c h i s t h e r e f o r e o f s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r can o n l y r a r e l y be o b t a i n e d ... But t h i s does n o t mean, o f c o u r s e , t h a t a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are of e q u a l m e r i t . F i r s t , t h e r e are a l u a y s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u h i c h are net r e a l l y i n keeping u i t h t h e a c c e p t e d r e c o r d s ; s e c o n d l y , t h e r e a r e some u h i c h need a number o f more o r l e s s p l a u s i b l e a u x i l i a r h y p o t h e s e s i f t h e y a r e t o e s c a p e f a l s i f i c a t i o n by t h e r e c o r d s ; n e x t , t h e r e a r e some t h a t a r e u n a b l e t o c o n n e c t a number o f f a c t s u h i c h a n o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can c o n n e c t , and i n so f a r •explain'. T h e r e may a c c o r d i n g l y be. a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f p r o g r e s s even u i t h i n the f i e l d of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r pretation. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e may be a l l k i n d s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e s b e t u e e n more o r l e s s u n i v e r s a l ' p o i n t s d f v i e u ' ... ( 0 S - I I : 2 6 6 ) . As  a consequence, Popper's task i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of  i c i s m " i s to provide type  r a t i o n a l arguments u h i c h render  of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  t h a t of a b e l i e f  in  historical  implausible.  iple reject  e i t h e r t h e need f o r o r t h e r a t i o n a l means f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g What he  i t i s c l e a r t h a t he  particular  p r o p h e c y --  such q u a s i - t h e o r i e s .  Yet  —  a  "histor-  i s concerned about i s the  g i v e them t h e s t a t u s o f s c i e n t i f i c h u m a n i t y m i g h t be and  committed.  t e n t a t i v e n e s s of both  p r e t a t i o n s can  the  does n o t  in princ-  d e s i r e to  l a u s i n u h o s e name c r i m e s  O n l y by  scientific  a c c e p t i n g the h y p o t h e s e s and  d a n g e r s o f d o g m a t i s m be  avoided.  against  uncertainty historical  inter-  -42-  Popper's primary is  t o unmask t h o s e  t a s k i n h i s s t u d i e s Df t h e s o c i a l . s c i e n c e s  methods u h i c h  s e n s e d e f i n e d by h i s p r i n c i p l e non-scientific  —  are p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c u i t h i n the  of f a l s i f i a b i l i t y .  i d e a s may have p o s i t i v e  t r a d i t i o n of science or l i b e r a l i s m , rationalist  forces.  Though m y t h i c a l --  f u n c t i o n s as i n t h e  i n o t h e r s t h e y may s e r v e i r -  Such i r r a t i o n a l i s m  i s not simply  arbitrary  d e v i a t i o n o r t h e r e s u l t o f some p e r v e r s i t y o f human n a t u r e . Popper l i n k s  t h e emergence o f i r r a t i o n a l i s t  Rather,  social theories' to  s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l features o f the t r a n s i t i o n  from p r i m i t i v e t o  modern s o c i e t i e s .  by h i s t e n d e n c y t o  This fact  describe philosophers predecessor. uith  as h a v i n g  succumbed t o t h e " i n f l u e n c e " o f some  Y e t a c l o s e r l o o k r e v e a l s t h a t Popper a c t u a l l y  a rudimentary  political  i s o f t e n obscured  "theory" of the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g of s o c i o -  ideas.  This aspect of. hou t h r o u g h image o f P l a t o .  o f Popper's a n a l y s i s i s r e v e a l e d i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n  h i s oun s e l f - c r i t i c a l  a t t i t u d e he came t o r e v i s e h i s  On t h e b a s i s o f an i n i t i a l  t e x t s , he h a d c o n c l u d e d  examination  that P l a t o n i c philosophy  i . e . , by k e e p i n g  in r u l i n g , the u a r r i o r slaving"  (0S-I:169).  totalitarian  i n u a r r i n g ; a n d , ue may i n f e r ,  party-politician,  hated"  dict this  (169-70).  happiness  the slave i n  P l a t o must be r e g a r d e d  as "a  u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s i m m e d i a t e and  b u t on t h e l o n g r u n o n l y t o o s u c c e s s f u l i n  h i s p r o p a g a n d a f o r t h e a r r e s t and o v e r t h r o u he  o n l y by  o n e ' s p l a c e ; t h e r u l e r must f i n d  • Consequently,  p r a c t i c a l undertakings,  of Plato's  c o u l d be s u m m a r i z e d  by. t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t " t r u e h a p p i n e s s ... i s a c h i e v e d justice,  operates  A search  of a c i v i l i z a t i o n  f o r any e v i d e n c e  uhich uould  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u c c e e d e d o n l y f o r one p o i n t :  uhich  contra-  Plato's  -43-  undeniably to  be  s i n c e r e hatred of tyranny.  resolved?  Popper  How  i s this contradiction  suggests:  ... my a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d P l a t o by a n a l o g y u i t h modern t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m l e d me, t o my own s u r p r i s e , t o m o d i f y my v i e w o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . I t d i d n o t m o d i f y my h o s t i l i t y , b u t i t u l t i m a t e l y l e d me .to see t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f b o t h t h e o l d and t h e new t o t a l i t a r i a n movements r e s t e d on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o answer a v e r y r e a l n e e d , hawe v e r b a d l y c o n c e i v e d t h i s a t t e m p t may have been (17D: emphasis added). Uith this  d i s c o v e r y , P o p p e r was  q u e s t i o n of the r i s E  of t o t a l i t a r i a n  manner as a t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y , interpretation." ition  from the  the source  " c l o s e d " to the  make t h e t r a n s i t i o n D i s r e g a r d i n g the  the  sociological  i n t h e t h e o r y Df  "open" s o c i e t y .  civilization  from  ideologies in a  o r as he w o u l d p h r a s e i t :  This i s expressed  of western  i n a p o s i t i o n t o frame  "historical  the t r a n s -  Thus t h e G r e e k s  b e c a u s e t h e y were t h e f i r s t  " t r i b a l i s m " tD  d i v e r s i t y of t r i b a l  "humanitarianism"  are to  (171).  s o c i e t i e s , n e a r l y a l l share  a " m a g i c a l or i r r a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e towards the customs of s o c i a l and in  the  corresponding  the f a i l u r e  s o c i a l order  tunity  of these  to d i s t i n g u i s h the  from those  continues to e x i s t taboos"  rigidity  —  found  "our  customs" (172).  Even t h o u g h t h i s  ways o f l i f e  are s t i l l  -- t h e r e i s a f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e : f o r p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s and  From t h i s  d i s t i n c t i o n stems the  results  "conventional r e g u l a r i t i e s " of  i n nature.  own  This  life,  the r e s u l t i n g  following  beset  the  attitude with  an i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r responsibilities.  definitions:  ... t h e m a g i c a l o r t r i b a l o r c o l l e c t i v i s t s o c i e t y w i l l a l s o be c a l l e d t h e c l o s e d s o c i e t y , and t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s , the open s o c i e t y ( 1 7 3 ) . . U h a t P o p p e r has  provided i s simply a schematic  the G e m e i n s c h a f t - G e s e l l s c h a f t  v e r s i o n of  dichotomy t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d c l a s s i c a l  19th  century s o c i a l theory.  versions of this  As i n b o t h  theme, P o p p e r e m p h a s i z e s t h a t d e s p i t e t h e c o s t s  t h i s movement c o n s t i t u t e s p r o g r e s s toujard i n d i v i d u a l the b i o l o g i c a l  freedom.  f o r uhich  o r g a n i c m o d e l i s a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e "open  f r e e d o m and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . the 6th century  beginning  i n t h a t i t made p o s s i b l e movement  Unlike "closed" societies,  p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r an e n d l e s s  in  t h e l i b e r a l and s o c i a l i s t  progression touard  individual  S u c h an " a b s t r a c t s o c i e t y " f i r s t  Greece uhere " t h e s t r a i n  t o be f e l t "  society"  began  o f c i v i l i z a t i o n uas  (0S-I:176).  What u e r e t h e p r e - c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s b r e a k d o u n o f t h e " c l o s e d society"?  Popper suggests  t h a t i n t h e case  o f S p a r t a and A t h e n s ,  " p e r h a p s t h e most p D u e r f u l c a u s e ... u a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and commerce" ( 1 7 7 ) . d u c e d by t h e n e u o r d e r  Moreover, t h e " s t r a i n "  c a n be "most c l o s e l y  pro-  r e l a t e d t o t h e problem  o f t e n s i o n b e t u e e n t h e c l a s s e s " , a p r o b l e m unknoun p r e v i o u s l y ( 1 7 6 ) . Yet these  very  c o n d i t i o n s made p o s s i b l e t h e emergence o f c r i t i c a l  thought: The r i s e o f p h i l o s o p h y i t s e l f c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d , I t h i n k , as a r e s p o n s e t o t h e b r e a k d o u n o f t h e c l o s e d s o c i e t y and i t s m a g i c a l b e l i e f s ... i t m o d i f i e s t h e t r a d i t i o n o f p a s s i n g on a t h e o r y o r a myth by f o u n d i n g a neu t r a d i t i o n — t h e t r a d i t i o n o f c h a l l e n g i n g t h e o r i e s and myths .and o f c r i t i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g them ( 1 8 8 ) . In such  a period of c r i s i s ,  h i s t o r i c a l prophecies  a s p i r a t i o n s a r e propounded and n o u r i s h e d this relationship  trations  Popper  i n i m p l i c i t l y s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms.  there i s the appeal of being or t h e chosen.  by l e a d e r s .  and u t o p i a n sees First,  p a r t o f an i n n e r c i r c l e o f t h e i n i t i a t e d  Then t h e r e a r e d e e p e r m o t i v e s  arising  from  frus-  u h i c h a r e g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e dreams o f p r o p h e t s .  -45-  Finally,  such b e l i e f s r e l i e v e i n d i v i d u a l s c f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  d o i n g s o m e t h i n g t o change t h e  course of e v e n t s , though  a d m i t s t h a t M a r x i s m i s somewhat o f an Paradoxically, of moral  exception  for  Popper  i n t h i s respect  such i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s are  the  (4).  result  idealism:  Why do a l l t h e s e s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s s u p p o r t t h e r e v o l t against c i v i l i z a t i o n ? And what i s t h e s e c r e t o f t h e i r popularity? Why do t h e y a t t r a c t and s e d u c e so many i n tellectuals? I am i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a s o n i s t h a t they give e x p r e s s i o n to a d e e p - f e l t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a w o r l d w h i c h does n o t , and c a n n o t , l i v e up t o o u r m o r a l i d e a l s and t o o u r dreams o f p e r f e c t i o n ( 5 ) . For necessarily  Popper the  f r e e d o m o f f e r e d by  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  what we  the  "open s o c i e t y " i s  s u b j e c t i v e l y experience  as  "strain":^ T h i s s t r a i n , t h i s u n e a s i n e s s ... ( i s ) ... c r e a t e d by t h e e f f o r t w h i c h l i f e i n an open and p a r t i a l l y a b s t r a c t s o c i e t y c o n t i n u a l l y demands f r o m us — by t h e e n d e a v o u r t o be r a t i o n a l , t o f o r e g o a t l e a s t some o f o u r e m o t i o n a l s o c i a l n e e d s , t o l o o k a f t e r o u r s e l v e s , and t o a c c e p t responsibilities. We m u s t , I b e l i e v e , b e a r t h i s s t r a i n as t h e p r i c e t o be p a i d by e v e r y i n c r e a s e i n k n o w l e d g e , i n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s , i n c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n m u t u a l h e l p , and c o n s e q u e n t l y f o r o u r c h a n c e s o f s u r v i v a l , and i n t h e s i z e of the p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s t h e p r i c e we have t o pay f o r b e i n g human ( 1 7 6 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . Popper c o n c l u d e s h i s f i r s t the  volume o f t h e  p a i n f u l r e a l i s m of h i s l i b e r a l theory  Open S o c i e t y  with  of h i s t o r y :  A r r e s t i n g p o l i t i c a l change i s n o t t h e remedy; i t c a n not b r i n g h a p p i n e s s . We can n e v e r r e t u r n t o t h e a l l e g e d i n n o c e n c e and b e a u t y o f t h e c l o s e d s o c i e t y . Our dream o f h e a v e n c a n n o t be r e a l i z e d on e a r t h F o r t h o s e who have eaten of the t r e e of knowledge, p a r a d i s e i s l o s t . The more we t r y t o r e t u r n t o t h e h e r o i c age o f t r i b a l i s m , t h e more s u r e l y do we a r r i v e a t t h e I n q u i s i t i o n , a t t h e S e c r e t P o l i t i c s , and a t a r o m a n t i c i z e d g a n g s t e r i s m . Beginning w i t h t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f r e a s o n and t r u t h , we must end w i t h t h e most b r u t a l and v i o l e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f a l l t h a t i s human. T h e r e i s no r e t u r n t o a h a r m o n i o u s s t a t e o f n a t u r e . I f we t u r n b a c k , t h e n we must go t h e w h o l e way — we must r e t u r n t o t h e b e a s t s ... We must go on i n t o t h e unknown, t h e u n c e r t a i n and i n s e c u r e , u s i n g what r e a s o n we may have t o p l a n as w e l l - as we can f o r b o t h , s e c u r i t y and f r e e d o m ( 2 0 1 ) .  •n position,  the  b a s i s of t h i s o u t l i n e of Popper's p h i l o s o p h i c a l  theory  of science,  some s u r p r i s i n g f e a t u r e s  emerge.  h i s t o r i c a l p r o p h e c y b a s e d on is  prepared to admit the  pret  the  re-introduces  historical interpretations.  n e c e s s a r y t o comprehend t h e as  the  ment and  " h i s t o r i c i s m " and  ideologies uhich  the  suffering. tinguished  an  political  can  be  o f t e n been t a k e n , Nor  i s he  t e s t i n g elements of  uay  pernicious  more r a t i o n a l ,  as  by  uilling such  i n uhich  specific  types  "Utopianism") represent  countered only  propositions  or m y t h i c a l  c o n s t i t u t e s absolute  i m p o r t a n t and  —  by  re-  conflict, produce  reasoned  argu-  i n t e r v e n t i o n e s s e n t i a l f o r e l i m i n a t i n g human  from n o n - t e s t a b l e  to c r i t i c i s m :  a t i o n and  by  "open s o c i e t y "  R a p i d s o c i a l change, c l a s s  Even t h o u g h s c i e n t i f i c  that science  subject  has  interoun  n a t u r a l d e s i r e f o r m o r a l p e r f e c t i o n a l l combine t o  irrational  i s not  he  Thus, h i s  he  U n d e r s t a n d i n g s o c i a l change i s a l s o  s p o n s e s t o r e a l human n e e d s . and  t h a t of the  of i n d i r e c t l y  "lau",  o f some e f f o r t t o  t o have r e j e c t e d a l t o g e t h e r .  possibility  of t h i n k i n g (such  h i s c a s t i g a t i o n of  of h i s t o r i c a l change.  a s t y l e of i n q u i r y uhich  to r e j e c t the  analysis,  some o s t e n s i b l y s c i e n t i f i c  of h i s t o r y —  s u p e r f i c i a l readers,  considered  Despite  c o g n i t i v e value  o v e r a l l pattern  l i b e r a l philosophy  h i s method o f h i s t o r i c a l  are  ones, t h i s  carefully disdoes n o t  t r u t h or t h a t m y t h i c a l  n e c e s s a r y component o f s o c i a l scientific  hypotheses are  t r a d i t i o n s can  for instance  the  be  replaced  by  thinking  life.  subject  mean  Both  to e l i m i n -  those uhich  are  replacement of t r a d i t i o n a l i s m  liberalism. In the  h i s oun  next three  chapters Popper's e f f o r t to d i s t i n g u i s h  p o s i t i o n f r o m t h a t o f Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y  of  are  knouledge  will  be e x a m i n e d i n d e t a i l .  This attack u i l l  be a n a l y s e d  • f the three c e n t r a l types of problems i t r a i s e s :  1) t h e  i n terms definition  o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s and c l a i m s o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e ; 2) t h e foundations  o f o b j e c t i v e k n o w l e d g e ; and 3 ) t h e t a s k o f t h e  s c i e n c e s i n modern s o c i e t y .  social  -ka-  IM0TE5:  CHAPTER IV  See e s p e c i a l l y h i s e s s a y "Towards a R a t i o n a l T h e o r y o f T r a d i t i o n " ( C R : 1 2 D - 3 5 ) . T h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k o f s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i s one o f t h e most n o v e l f e a t u r e s o f P o p p e r ' s theory of s c i e n c e . This s h i f t s the focus of epistemology from t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a s o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f method t o t h a t o f t h e g r o u p as a c r i t i c a l c o m m u n i t y . What he f a i l s t o s e e i s t h a t such a t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e p r e s u p p o s e s and r e q u i r e s a s o c i o l o g y o f s c i e n c e — t h a t p h i l o s o p h y o r h i s t o r y by t h e m s e l v e s do n o t suffice. C f . E l i a s (1972);; M a r t i n s ( 1 9 7 2 ) ; T o u l m i n ( 1 9 7 2 ) . 2 This f a i t h i n the i n t r i n s i c value of r a t i o n a l i t y i d e a l t o be r e a l i z e d , i s e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s :  as, a p r a c t i c a l  The ' w o r l d ' i s n o t r a t i o n a l , b u t i t i s t h e t a s k o f s c i e n c e to r a t i o n a l i z e i t . 'Society' i s not r a t i o n a l , but i t i s the task of the s o c i a l engineer to r a t i o n a l i z e i t . ( T h i s does n o t mean, o f c o u r s e , t h a t he s h o u l d ' d i r e c t ' i t , o r t h a t c e n t r a l i z e d or c o l l e c t i v i s t 'planning' i s d e s i r a b l e . ) Ordi n a r y language i s not r a t i o n a l , but i t i s our task t o ' r a t i o n a l i z e i t , o r a t l e a s t t o deep up i t s s t a n d a r d s o f clarity. The a t t i t u d e h e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as ' p r a g m a t i c r a t i o n a l i s m ' . T h i s p r a g m a t i c r a t i o n a l i s m i s r e l a t e d t o an u n c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m and t o i r r a t i o n a l i s m i n a s i m i l a r way as c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e two ... p r a g m a t i c r a t i o n a l i s m may r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e w o r l d i s n o t r a t i o n a l , b u t demand t h a t we s u b m i t o r s u b j e c t i t t o r e a s o n , a s f a r as p o s s i b l e ( Q S - I I : 3 5 7 , f n . 1 9 ) . 3  Though he makes no e f f o r t t o s p e c i f y t h e m a t t e r more c l e a r l y — an e s s e n t i a l problem which i s not d e a l t w i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y o f t h e Open S o c i e t y , P o p p e r o p e r a t e s w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t though " i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f u l l y understand mental developments w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d , i t i s a t l e a s t as i m p o s s i b l e t o understand economic developments without understanding the development o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , s c i e n t i f i c o r r e l i g i o u s i d e a s " (CR:332). • f c o u r s e t h e e f f o r t t o lump F a s c i s m and Communism t o g e t h e r as " t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m " and e x p l a i n them i n t e r m s o f a t h e o r y o f t o t a l i t arianism presents insuperable d i f f i c u l t i e s . Popper's e f f o r t i s one o f t h e more s i m p l i s t i c v e r s i o n s o f t h i s s t r a t e g y . C f . M a r c u s e (1972). F o r a d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i c i s m o f t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a t t e m p t s ( A r e n d t , F r i e d r i c h s ) see F r i e d r i c h s , C u r t i s , and B a r b e r (1969).  -k3-  T h e s e c o n c e p t s u e r e o f c o u r s e i n t r o d u c e d by T o e n n i e s . Popper c l a i m s t h a t he d e r i v e d t h e t e r m s "open" and " c l o s e d s o c i e t y " f r o m B e r g s o n , a t h i n k e r u i t h u h i c h he o t h e r u i s e has l i t t l e i n common. A p p a r e n t l y , B e r g s o n u s e d i t i n a r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t uhere the m y s t i c i s m of the " c l o s e d s o c i e t y " i s p o s i t i v e l y e v a l uated. As f o r D u r k h e i m , uho u o u l d seem a more l i k e l y s o u r c e f o r P o p p e r ' s g e n e r a l t h e s i s , he i s m e n t i o n e d o n l y i n p a s s i n g t o s u g g e s t t h a t he d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t "modern open s o c i e t i e s f u n c t i o n l a r g e l y by uay o f a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s , s u c h as e x c h a n g e or co-operation" (DS-I:175). C u r i o u s l y , t h i s misunderstanding o f D u r k h e i m e x t e n d s t o a f a i l u r e t o see t h e a f f i n i t y b e t w e e n " o r g a n i c " and " m e c h a n i c a l s o l i d a r i t y " and t h e "open" and " c l o s e d " society. 'This c o n c e p t o f " s t r a i n " i s n o t a c k n o w l e d g e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e themes o f c l a s s i c a l s o c i a l t h e o r y w h i c h b e a r an o b v i o u s r e semblance: a l i e n a t i o n ' ( M a r x ) , anomie ( D u r k h e i m ) , and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n (Weber). In f a c t , Popper's t h e s i s of the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e "open s o c i e t y " i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o Weber's a c c o u n t . A d e t a i l e d comparison of t h e i r views would l i k e l y b r i n g t h i s out more c l e a r l y .  -50-  V.  DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE  Popper's r e j e c t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y he  i d e n t i f i e s with  "sociologism"  that i t i s i r r a t i o n a l i s t i c o p h i c a l theory  objectives of this  with  But from t h e o u t s e t  the p h i l o s i ti s apparent  i s m a r r e d by a p r o f o u n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e discipline,  h i s t o r i c a l research  as d e f i n e d  a t l e a s t as a method o f s o c i o by K a r l Mannheim.  a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t Mannheim i s t h e l e a d i n g approach, i t i s appropriate r e j e c t o r modify Popper's A basic obstacle argument a g a i n s t  which  stems from h i s c o n v i c t i o n  and i n c o m p a t i b l e  o f knowledge.  that h i s discussion  —  o f knowledge —  Since  Popper  exponent o f t h i s  t o t u r n t o Mannheim's t e x t s t o c o n f i r m , accusations.  to the i s o l a t i o n  the sociology  ad hominem method o f a n a l y s i s .  of Popper's . c r i t i c a l  o f k n o w l e d g e i s p o s e d by h i s Mannheim i s assumed t o be g u i l t y  o f a l l t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i n s o f H e g e l and Marx-, t h o u g h we a r e given  only  c i r c u m s t a n c i a l evidence to substantiate  One c o u l d b e g i n w i t h  Popper's d i s c u s s i o n s  this  charge.  o f H e g e l and Marx t o  i n d i c a t e t h e ways i n w h i c h d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a r e t h e n e x t e n d e d t o Mannheim, f o r he d i d s h a r e their are  assumptions.  thinking ism"  Y e t Mannheim's d i v e r g e n c i e s  equally s i g n i f i c a n t  t h o s e o f Popper.'  '. F a r y  f r o m H e g e l and Marx  a n d a r e b a s e d upon c r i t i c i s m s s i m i l a r t o Mannheim c o n c l u d e s , t h a t  i s i n fact rationalistic  (IU:133).  ( a s does P o p p e r ) many o f  but i t culminates  "dialectical i n irrational-  Though he i s more s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e i d e a o f d i a -  l e c t i c a l t h i n k i n g t h a n P o p p e r , he a g r e e s t h a t i t h a s been u s e d f o r obscurantist  purposes.  proposition that  Since  t h e o b j e c t i v e here i s t o develop the  P o p p e r and Mannheim i n f a c t o p e r a t e w i t h  largely  -51-  ccimplementary a s s u m p t i o n s , u n r a v e l i n g respect  t o H e g e l and  specific ence.  question  t h a t Mannheim uas For  t h u s becomes:  Popper the  collectivist  this i s certainly not  for  be  Instead,  t a k e n as t h e  of  planning  theory  of r e f e r think  of c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g .  Since  Mannheim  a c e n t r a l theme o f h i s l a t e r  uork,  a l e g i t i m a t e assumption, though the r e l a t i o n s h i p Yet  t e r r o r of S t a l i n i s t may  focus  knouledge?  f o r Popper i t i s the  irrationalist  o f k n o u l e d g e p r o p o u n d e d by. " s o c i o l o g i s m " , t h a t  the  Popper's  uhat d i d Popper a p p a r e n t l y sociology  uith  s o c i o l o g y of knouledge i s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d  a n e c e s s a r y one.  theory  ignored.  c l a i m i n g about the  c e r t a i n l y makes s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  is  be  c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim u i l l  The  u i t h the  Marx u i l l  their relative positions  a p p e a r t o be  planning.  Though t h e  i s responsible  principle  a r a t i o n a l response to the  s o c i a l c h a n g e , P o p p e r c o n c e d e s , i t i s u n d e r m i n e d by  of  problem of r a p i d the  fact that.  .... i t o c c u r s i n c l o s e s t a l l i a n c e u i t h a d o c t r i n e u h i c h i s d e f i n i t e l y o p p o s e d t o r a t i o n a l i s m .... one u h i c h i s u e l l i n k e e p i n g u i t h t h e i r r a t i o n a l i s t and m y s t i c a l t e n d e n c i e s of our time ( 0 S - I I : 2 1 3 ) . This  i r r a t i o n a l element i s .... t h e M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e t h a t o u r o p i n i o n s , i n c l u d i n g D u r m o r a l and s c i e n t i f i c o p i n i o n s , a r e d e t e r m i n e d by c l a s s i n t e r e s t , and more g e n e r a l l y by t h e s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n of our time. Under t h e name o f ' s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e ' o r ' s o c i o l o g i s m ' , t h i s d o c t r i n e has been d e v e l o p e d r e c e n t l y ( e s p e c i a l l y by M. S c h e l e r and H.. Mannheim) as a theory of the s o c i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knouledge (213; emphasis added). This  definition t o be  latter  statement r e v e a l s tuo  o f Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y  a s o c i o l o g i c a l .theory  t h a t such s c i e n t i f i c  s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s l i s . An  of knouledge:  of s c i e n t i f i c  k n o u l e d g e can  assumptions about the  be  that i t  k n o u l e d g e and  self-  purports  that i t claims  d e t e r m i n i s t i c a l l y explained  e x a m i n a t i o n o f Mannheim's p o s i t i o n on  by  -52-  t h e s e tuo p o i n t s r e v e a l s t h a t Popper penetrate the d i s t i n c t i v e  has c o m p l e t e l y f a i l e d  to  e f f o r t s o f Mannheim t o a v o i d t h e s e  two  charges. As i s s e l f - e v i d e n t u i t h " i d e o l o g y " and  Mannheim's p r e o c c u p a t i o n u i t h  " u t o p i a " , the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge  a t o o l f o r the a n a l y s i s of p h i l o s o p h i c a l , thought. betueen  Popper's  difficulty  f o r him i s m a i n l y  political  i s t h a t he f a i l s  and  to grasp the  t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l u s e s o f t h e  "knouledge".  For the s o c i o l o g i s t ,  social difference  concept  " k n o u l e d g e " has been, u s e d t o r e f e r  t o u h a t e v e r p e o p l e t a k e as f a c t u a l o r t r u e r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s t a t u s f o r the p h i l o s o p h e r . a c t e d upon as i f i t u e r e " t r u e " .  Such  knouledge  (or b e l i e f ) i s  Whereas Mannheim g e n e r a l l y  himself u i t h the a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d b e l i e f s  of p o l i t i c a l  and  concerned  social  t h o u g h t , o t h e r s have a n a l y s e d v a r i o u s o t h e r t y p e s , r a n g i n g f r o m t h e 2 s c i e n t i f i c - t e c h n o l o g i c a l to those of everyday Though Mannheim i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y o f h i s oun u n c e r t a i n t i e s — premise of a d i s t i n c t i o n ledge."  5  he can be s h o u n  life.  explicit  knou^-  c a s e d i d he a r g u e t h a t s o c i a l c i r c u m Though t h i s  corresponds t o , i t i s not i d e n t i c a l u i t h ,  e n c e s b e t u e e n n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  He  capacity for non-existentiaily  bound  disthe  differ-  seems t o g r a n t some  aspects of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h ( f o r m a l s o c i o l o g y ) something  like  the  knouledge.  As he e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e s on t h e v e r y f i r s t and U t o p i a , he i s n o t c o n c e r n e d u i t h t h e " s c i e n t i f i c " philosophy.  reflection  b e t u e e n e x a c t and e x i s t e n t i a l l y - b o u n d  Only i n the l a t t e r  largely  a  t o have u o r k e d f r o m t h e  stances i n f l u e n c e the content of p r o p o s i t i o n s . tinction  —  page o f I d e o l o g y knouledge  H i s c e n t r a l problem a r i s e s from the " p l u r a l i t y  of  Df  t h o u g h t - s t y l e s " u h i c h have emerged i n t h e modern u o r l d i n r e s p o n s e  -53-  t o neu  contexts  of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y .  Not  content  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of uhat "knowledge" s h o u l d example of a p a r t i c u l a r  s c i e n c e , he  w i t h the  look l i k e ,  rational  b a s e d on  i s i n t e n t upon t h e  the  examination  of a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d knouledge: T h i s book i s c o n c e r n e d u i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f hDu men a c t u a l l y t h i n k . The aim o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e n o t hau t h i n k i n g a p p e a r s i n t e x t b o o k s on l o g i c , b u t hou i t r e a l l y f u n c t i o n s i n p u b l i c l i f e and i n p o l i t i c s as an i n strument of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n (IU:1; emphasis added). This type by t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s possibility  o f k n o u l e d g e , Mannheim d e c l a r e s , has of s c i e n c e .  Pure, i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m u o u l d  of p o s i t i v i s t  philosophers  d i s t i n c t i o n betueen the the  practice"  not  science  customarily  tolerate a science  (164).  to deal u i t h t h i s  uhich  Because o f the  failure  q u e s t i o n , he makes a  " e x a c t " s c i e n c e s d e s c r i b e d by  "so-called pre-scientific  must be  i t i s e v i d e n t such a  f o r m o f k n o u l e d g e f r o m one  i s so i n t i m a t e l y t i e d up u i t h  ignored  f o r anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e  of a "science of p o l i t i c s "  "implies quite a different conceived.  Yet  been  i n e x a c t mode o f t h o u g h t "  s u p p l e m e n t e d by t h e a n a l y s i s o f h i s t o r i c a l  logicians for uhich  and logic  genesis:  Meanuhile,- a c t i n g men h a v e , f o r b e t t e r o r f o r u o r s e , p r o c e e d e d t o d e v e l o p a v a r i e t y of methods f o r the e x p e r i e n t i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e u o r l d i n u h i c h t h e y l i v e , u h i c h have n e v e r been a n a l y s e d u i t h t h e same p r e c i s i o n as t h e s o - c a l l e d e x a c t modes o f k n o u i n g . Uhen, h o u e v e r , any human a c t i v i t y c o n t i n u e s o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d u i t h o u t b e i n g s u b j e c t e d to i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l s or c r i t i c i s m , i t t e n d s t o g e t o u t o f hand ... T h i s s o - c a l l e d p r e - s c i e n t i f i c i n e x a c t mode o f t h o u g h t , h o u e v e r ( u h i c h , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e l o g i c i a n s and p h i l o s o p h e r s a l s o use uhen t h e y have t o make p r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s ) , i s n o t tD be u n d e r s t o o d solely by t h e use o f l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t c o n s t i t u t e s a c o m p l e x u h i c h c a n n o t be r e a d i l y d e t a c h e d e i t h e r f r o m t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o o t s o f t h e e m o t i o n a l and v i t a l i m p u l s e s u h i c h u n d e r l i e i t o r f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n i n u h i c h i t a r i s e s and uhich i t seeks to s o l v e . I t i s ' t h e most e s s e n t i a l t a s k o f t h i s book t o u o r k o u t a s u i t a b l e method f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h i s t y p e o f t h o u g h t and i t s c h a n g e s ... The method u h i c h ue u i l l seek to p r e s e n t i s t h a t of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge ( 1 - 2 ) .  -54-  In  s h o r t , MannhEim does n o t s e e k t o c h a l l e n g e t h e k i n d  of  f o r m a l and a b s t r a c t p r o p o s i t i o n s w h i c h P o p p e r ' s  p r i n c i p l e of  de-  m a r c a t i o n s e e k s t o d i s t i n g u i s h as s c i e n c e .  problem w i t h  such  The  p r o p o s i t i o n s i n the s o c i a l sciences i s that they f a i l to provide the k i n d o f knowledge And  necessary f o r s o c i a l  life  t o be c a r r i e d on a t a l l .  i t i s w i t h p r o p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e i m p r e g n a t e d w i t h human m e a n i n g s  which are the source of c o n t r o v e r s y : IMor a r e we a i d e d when we a r e d i r e c t e d t o a few p r o p o s i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e c o n t e x t i s so f o r m a l and a b s t r a c t (e.g. i n m a t h e m a t i c s , g e o m e t r y , and p u r e e c o n o m i c s ) t h a t i n f a c t t h e y seem t o be c o m p l e t e l y d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e t h i n k ing s o c i a l i n d i v i d u a l . The b a t t l e i s n o t a b o u t t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s but about t h a t g r e a t e r w e a l t h o f f a c t u a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i n w h i c h man c o n c r e t e l y d i a g n o s e s h i s i n d i v i d u a l and. s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , i n w h i c h h a p p e n i n g s e x t e r n a l t o us a r e f i r s t c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d . The b a t t l e rages c o n c e r n i n g those p r o p o s i t i o n s i n which every concept i s m e a n i n g f u l l y o r i e n t e d f r o m t h e f i r s t , i n w h i c h we use words l i k e c o n f l i c t , b r e a k d o w n , a l i e n a t i o n , i n s u r r e c t i o n , r e s e n t m e n t — words w h i c h do n o t r e d u c e c o m p l e x s i t u a t i o n s f o r t h e s a k e o f an e x t e r n a l i z i n g , f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h o u t e v e r b e i n g a b l e t o b u i l d them up a g a i n and w h i c h w o u l d l o s e t h e i r content i f t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e i r evaluative e l e m e n t s , were d r o p p e d o u t ( 4 3 ) . For  Mannheim t h e c r u c i a l t e s t f o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f e x a c t  from i n e x a c t knowledge  i s whether  implications for validity.  o r n o t s o c i a l g e n e s i s has  This largely  corresponds to Popper's  t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n s c i e n c e and n o n - s c i e n c e . no b a s i s w h a t s o e v e r  of  the l o g i c a l  knowledge".  T h u s , t h e r e seems t o be  R a t h e r , he i s e n g a g e d i n a  e n t e r p r i s e . ' Whereas P o p p e r  sought to develop a theory  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s e s o f e x a c t s c i e n c e ,  attempted to develop a theory of the l o g i c  and  Mannheim  socio-historical  o r i g i n s of i n e x a c t or a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d s o c i a l b e l i e f s . argues:  dis-  f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t Mannheim i s i n t e r e s t e d i n  a theory of " s c i e n t i f i c complementary  any  Thus Mannheim  -55-  The h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l g e n e s i s o f an i d e a w o u l d be i r r e l e v a n t t o i t s u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y i f t h e t e m p o r a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f i t s emergence had no e f f e c t on i t s c o n t e n t and f o r m . I f t h i s were t h e c a s e , any two p e r i o d s : i n t h e h i s t o r y o f human k n o w l e d g e w o u l d o n l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m one a n o t h e r by t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d c e r t a i n t h i n g s were s t i l l unknown and c e r t a i n e r r o r s s t i l l e x i s t e d w h i c h , t h r o u g h l a t e r k n o w l e d g e , were completely corrected. T h i s s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n an e a r l i e r i n c o m p l e t e and a l a t e r c o m p l e t e p e r i o d o f k n o w l e d g e may t o a l a r g e e x t e n t be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e x a c t s c i e n c e s (although indeed to-day the n o t i o n of t h e . s t a b i l i t y of t h e c a t e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x a c t s c i e n c e s i s , comp a r e d w i t h t h e l o g i c o f c l a s s i c a l physics,.. c o n s i d e r a b l y shaken). F o r t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s , howe v e r , t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s a r e n o t q u i t e so s i m p l y s u p e r c e d e d ... E v e r y e p o c h has i t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y new a p p r o a c h and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o i n t a f v i e w , and c o n s e q u e n t l y s e e s t h e 'same' o b j e c t f r o m a new p e r s p e c t i v e (III":271). This view i s almost i d e n t i c a l to t h a t of Popper. p r e v i o u s l y , he the  interpretations.  more r i g o r o u s  k n o w l e d g e , Mannheim p r o v i d e s question  t h e o r i e s and  Though P o p p e r ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f  knowledge i s c o n s i d e r a b l y  of the  than the  k n o w l e d g e and  i t s p r a c t i c a l importance.  u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e , no  t o a d v o c a t e t h a t we from p r e v e n t i n g  genesis  vague n o t i o n  of  Acknowledging  us  "that  uses p r o v i d e  " i n a p p l i c a b l e idea of  of  those  no s e l e c t i v e  'point of view' f o r h i s t o r y , " . h e  c a n n o t l e t an  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s kind  u n i v e r s a l laws which h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n  w o u l d be  scientific  of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n IMor does P o p p e r deny t h e  t h e y c a n n o t be  general  a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y s i s  perspectives.  and  noted  emphasized the n e c e s s i t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s c i e n t i f i c  "exact"  As  goes  on  objectivity"  from p r o v i d i n g such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s even though  "scientific"  i n the  formal  sense ( O S - I I : 2 6 5 - 9 ) .  Popper  f o r c e d then to admit t h a t f o r such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s o c i a l i s _ bound up w i t h  "each g e n e r a t i o n  has  their validity.  i t s own  t r o u b l e s and  For  as he  admits,  p r o b l e m s , and  since  therefore  -56-  its  own i n t e r e s t s a n d p o i n t o f v i e w , i t f o l l o w s t h a t e a c h  a t i o n has a r i g h t  t o l o o k upon a n d r e - i n t e r p r e t h i s t o r y i n i t s  own way ..." ( 2 6 7 ) . is  the object  I t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s t y p e o f " k n o w l e d g e " w h i c h  o f Mannheim's  Popper n o t o n l y of t h e term  sociology.  fails  t o n o t e Mannheim's s o c i o l o g i c a l u s e  " k n o w l e d g e " , b u t t h e n p r o c e e d s , t o assume t h a t t h e  p o s i t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h o u g h t and e x i s t e n c e d e t e r m i n i s t i c one. left  to i n f e r .  determination" to take  gener-  i s a mechanical-  At l e a s t t h a t i s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h e reader i s  Taken l i t e r a l l y , has a r e d u c t i v e  advantage o f i n order  h i s use o f t h e p h r a s e  connotation to discredit  "social  w h i c h he makes e v e r y the sociology  o f knowledge.  IMor does he make any a t t e m p t t o r e f e r t o t h e k i n d o f l i n k a g e s l i s h e d by Mannheim i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s . t o assume t h a t reduction  "determination"  The r e a d e r  effort  estab-  i s left  i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e s e n s e o f  i n t h e form o f a h y p o t h e t i c o - d e d u c t i v e  explanation.^  To i n t e r p r e t Mannheim's i n t e n t i o n s i n t h i s way i s t o b e t r a y a 'complete m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o w l e d g e a n d o f t h e philosophical tradition "social determination"  from which i t i s d e r i v e d . i s n o t an a d e q u a t e r e n d e r i n g  To b e g i n  with,.  of the o r i g i n a l  German S e i n s v e r b u n d e n h e i t w h i c h i s u s u a l l y t e r m e d " s i t u a t i o n a l " o r " e x i s t e n t i a l determination".  Perhaps l e s s m i s l e a d i n g  " e x i s t e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g " or the very For  literal  a s Mannheim e m p h a s i z e d i n a f o o t n o t e  Ideology  w o u l d be  "existence-boundedness".  to the English e d i t i o n of  and U t o p i a :  Here we do n o t mean by ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' a m e c h a n i c a l c a u s e - e f f e c t s e q u e n c e : we l e a v e t h e m e a n i n g o f ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' o p e n , a n d o n l y e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l show us how s t r i c t i s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l i f e - s i t u a t i o n a n d thought-process, o r what s c o p e e x i s t s , f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n the c o r r e l a t i o n (267, f n . l ) .  -57-  To be s u r e ,  Mannheim does n o t r e s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m or.  even a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e  a systematic  a n a l y s i s D f t h e p o s s i b l e ways  7  of c o n c e i v i n g the  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Had he been more a t t e n t i v e t o  r e a l d i l e m m a h e r e , P o p p e r as a p h i l o s o p h e r  to provide  some c o n s t r u c t i v e a n a l y s i s .  m i g h t have been  Yet h i s s i m p l i s t i c  c a t i o n of the problem of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge u i t h logism"  as ue have j u s t s e e n u i t h  respect  o f k n o u l e d g e d i s t i n g u i s h e d , P o p p e r does n o t r e a l l y u h a t Mannheim i s t r y i n g had i n d u l g e d  "socio-  postulates that  to say.  disagree  uith  I n h i s Open S o c i e t y v o l u m e s  F o r i n s t a n c e , as p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d  " h i s t o r i c i s m " u a s a phenomenon u h i c h  under p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l  r a p i d change  —  the  traditions  specific  to the types  Popper  i n some a m a t e u r i s h s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s D f  intellectual history.  only  identifi-  b l i n d e d him t o g e n u i n e i s s u e s . Ironically,  himself  able  conditions —  and t h a t t h e context  periods  D u t , he  became p r o m i n e n t  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  of the r e s u l t i n g d o c t r i n e s  mirrored  and c o n f l i c t s o f t h e s o c i e t i e s i n q u e s t i o n .  IMor u a s P o p p e r u n a u a r e o f h i s use o f t h i s method o r o f i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l sources: E v e r y o n e l e a r n e d f r o m Marx t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i d e a s c a n n o t be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d i f t h e h i s t o r y o f i d e a s i s t r e a t e d ( a l t h o u g h s u c h a t r e a t m e n t may o f t e n have i t s great m e r i t s ) u i t h o u t mentioning the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r , o r i g i n and t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e i r o r i g i n a t o r s , among u h i c h the economic a s p e c t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (CR:332). What P o p p e r o b j e c t s  to i s a "vulgar materialism" uhich  he  identifies  u i t h Marx and t r a n s f e r s t o Mannheim: N e v e r t h e l e s s I p e r s o n a l l y t h i n k t h a t M a r x ' s economism — h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d as t h e u l t i m a t e b a s i s o f any s o r t o f d e v e l o p m e n t — i s m i s t a k e n and i n f a c t u n t e n a b l e ... g r a n t e d t h a t i t i s a t l e a s t as i m p o s s i b l e to u n d e r s t a n d economic developments u i t h o u t understanding the development o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , s c i e n t i f i c or r e l i g i o u s ideas-(332).  -58-  W i t h i n t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s t h e n , he i s w i l l i n g p r i n c i p l e of s o c i o l o g i c a l  to accept  the  analysis:  I do n o t deny t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l aspects of Beethoven s uork. I t i s w e l l known, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t .the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a s m a l l t o a l a r g e symphony o r c h e s t r a i s c o n n e c t e d , i n some way, w i t h a s o c i o p o l i t i c a l development. O r c h e s t r a s c e a s e t o be . p r . i v a t e ' j h d b b i e s o f p r i n c e s , and a r e a t l e a s t p a r t l y s u p p o r t e d by a m i d d l e c l a s s whose i n t e r e s t i n m u s i c g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s . I am w i l l i n g .to a p p r e c i a t e any s o c i o l o g i c a l ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' o f t h i s s o r t , and I a d m i t t h a t s u c h a s p e c t s may be w o r t h y o f s c i e n t i f i c study. ( A f t e r a l l , I m y s e l f have a t t e m p t e d s i m i l a r t h i n g s i n t h i s b o o k , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n my t r e a t m e n t of P l a t o . ) 1  What t h e n , mare p r e c i s e l y , i s t h e o b j e c t a f my a t t a c k ? I t i s t h e e x a g g e r a t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f any a s p e c t o f this kind. I f we ' e x p l a i n ' B e e t h o v e n ' s symphony o r c h e s t r a i n t h e way h i n t e d a b o v e , we have e x p l a i n e d v e r y l i t t l e ... We c a n n o t a t t e m p t , t o e x p l a i n B e e t h o v e n ' s g e n i u s i n t h i s way, o r i n any way a t a l l ( O S - I I : 2 1 0 - 1 ) . This f i n a l  comment r e v e a l s y e t a n o t h e r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  s o c i o l o g y of knowledge, t o the degree  t h a t i t seeks to: p r o v i d e c a o s a l -  f u n c t i a n a l type e x p l a n a t i o n s , i s concerned  with types of events  a s p e c t s o f them r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l e v e n t s and t h e i r aspects.  The  The  or  unique  e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e " g e n i u s " o f an i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n i s  more an h i s t o r i c a l t h a n a s o c i o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m . l o g i c a l approach  would  The  task of a  socio-  be t o see t h a t g e n i u s o r a s p e c t s p f i t as  an  i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of s p e c i f i c s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l circumstances, whether o f changes i n c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , new  forms  of technology or whatever.  f a c t o r s can u l t i m a t e l y  None o f t h e s e  e x p l a i n a l l of the unique  s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon, t h o u g h e x p l a i n i n g the appearance t h e r e i s an e f f o r t  a cultural renaissance,  elements  of a type of event.  to e x p l a i n such unique  less  "nomothetic".  of a  t h e y c a n go a l o n g way To t h e d e g r e e  f e a t u r e s of  e v e n t s , t h e mode o f e x p l a n a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y becomes " i n t e r p r e t i v e " and  conditioning  toward that  individual  increasingly  -59It i s d i f f i c u l t Mannheim c f " s D c i a l a g i s m " u t i o n s was  tD u n d e r s t a n d uhen one  hou  anyone c c u l d a c c u s e  o f h i s mast d i s t i n c t i v e  t o have c o n f r o n t e d t h e d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h e immanent and  contribbetween  e x t e r n a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l phenomena.  This  p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m uas  t h e c e n t r a l theme o f much o f h i s e a r l y  in philosophy.  s t a r t e d i n the i d e a l i s t i c  Having  G e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t e , he  tradition  uork  of  g r a d u a l l y came t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e ' s i g n i f i c a n c e  of the M a r x i s t c o n t r i b u t i o n .  To  cite  a c l e a r statement  of h i s  position: A s e c o n d f a l l a c y u h i c h , much l i k e t h e immanence d o c t r i n e , has e n c u m b e r e d German r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s t o r y , i s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p o l a r i z e d c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l and t h e m a t e r i a l r e a l m o f t h i n g s . Once a g a i n one c a n n o t h e l p a s k i n g uhy a b a s i c a l l y s i m p l e s u b j e c t c o u l d be so p e r s i s t e n t l y misconstrued. Hou uas i t p o s s i b l e t o d o u b t t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e m i n d and t o i g n o r e t h e m e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t s of s o c i a l behaviour? To c o g i t a t e an a b s t r a c t i n t e l l e c t u i t h o u t c o n c r e t e p e r s o n s uho a c t i n g i v e n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i s as a b s u r d as t o assume t h e o p p o s i t e , a s o c i e t y u i t h o u t s u c h f u n c t i o n s as c o m m u n i c a t i o n , i d e a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n (1953:3.3-3). , I n sum,  i t is difficult  t o s u s t a i n the charge t h a t the s o c i o -  l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e as a method o f r e s e a r c h e x p o u n d e d by Mannheim i s intrinsically attempted  irrationalistic  or s o c i o l o g i s t i c .  t o b u r d e n Mannheim u i t h  r e d u c t i o n i s m uhen one  Remarkably,  the i r r a t i o n a l i s m  of  Popper  sociologistic  o f Mannheim's m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s uas  t o have  emphasized uays of overcoming t h i s problem.  Uhen s e e n i n t h e  o f P o p p e r ' s oun  of a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s  admission  of the p o s s i b i l i t y  o f i d e a s , Mannheim's e f f o r t  t o o v e r c a m e can  be  t o t h e k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s t o u h i c h P o p p e r uas Popper's p a r t r e f l e c t s i n the f i r s t H e g e l and ial  Marx and  and  Utopia —  s e e n as a p a r t i a l  referring.  —  effort  T h i s e r r o r on  instance h i s misunderstanding  thus his f u r t h e r f a i l u r e  reading of Ideology  context  of  stemming f r o m h i s s u p e r f i c -  t o d i s t i n g u i s h Mannheim's  position  -60-  from h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s .  Popper s i m p l y  glosses  aver the  profoundly  r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f Mannheim as e x p r e s s e d i n h i s q u e s t f o r a "science  of p o l i t i c s " As ue  and  the  s h a l l see,  o f k n o u l e d g e as  rationalization  this  "sociologism"  initial  identification  c o n s t i t u t e s an  P o p p e r ' s a c c o u n t o f Mannheim a t e v e r y t u r n . this,  Popper c o u l d  a more l i m i t e d  still  conception  of the  sociology  Even i f t h e  provide  s o c i a l science  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f hou  t h i s does n o t  mean t h a t t h i s  even p r o v i d e s  any  i s t h e uay  i n s i g h t i n t o hou  i s a question  guided — pur  uhich  the  i t should  As  through the  the  p r e s c r i p t i o n s of the  i s the  subject  the  "irrational  and  he  s o c i a l sciences  on  chapter.  a  mis-  m y s t i c a l tendencies epistemology  basis of o b j e c t i v i t y .  t o o k them t o be,  uould  a consequence,  In  of  in  shifting  sociology  of  Popper thus might  be  i s a necessary i m p l i c a t i o n of  s o c i o l o g y of knouledge f o r s o c i a l  next  may  or  That, Popper  individualistic  presumed e p i s t e m o l o g y o f the  of the  nor  his  produced  s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e uas  to c l a i m that s k e p t i c a l r e l a t i v i s m  H i s a t t a c k on  the  be  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l assumptions of the  k n o u l e d g e , o r a t l e a s t u h a t he able  even a c c e p t i n g a l l  i s a c t u a l l y created,  of s c i e n t i f i c method.  i n d i v i d u a l knouer i s the to the  undermines  Df knouledge a l t e r  be.  b e c a u s e i t r e q u i r e s an  his'criticism  But  i t should  a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  time',' —  error uhich  sociology  s o c i o l o g y .of k n o u l e d g e  m i g h t c o n t e n d t h a t Mannheim's e f f o r t t o p u t more s e c u r e f o u n d a t i o n  of the  argue t h a t n e i t h e r r a t i o n a l i n t e n t i o n s  more f u n d a m e n t a l o b j e c t i o n .  counter,  o f modern s o c i e t y .  sociology  of  science. knouledge  -61-  IMDTES:  CHAPTER \1  Had P o p p e r c h o s e n some o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e — s a y P a r e t o o r D u r k e i m he m i g h t have f o u n d some b a s i s f o r t h e c h a r g e o f " s o c i o l o g i s m " . As i t h a p p e n s , Mannheim's v e r s i o n o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e does not share the n o n - d i a l e c t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen t h o u g h t and r e a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " p o s i t i v i s t i c " s o c i o l o g i e s of knouledge. i  T h i s r a i s e s , o f c o u r s e , one o f t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t u a l p r o b lems i n t h i s a r e a — t h e f o r m s and t y p e s o f " k n o u l e d g e " u h i c h a r e the o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y . I n i t s most i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n a s t h e " s o c i o l o g y o f c u l t u r e " t h e f i e l d e m b r a c e s any c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t ( C f . C u r t i s and P e t r a s , 197D:65). The t e r m " c o g n i t i v e s o c i o l o g y " ' has been p r o p o s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e a n a l y z i n g b o t h n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c and s o c i a l i d e o l o g i c a l f o r m s o f k n o u l e d g e u i t h t h e same f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e ( M a r t i n s , 1 9 7 2 ) . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e f o r m s and t y p e s o f " k n o u l e d g e " h a s been d e a l t u i t h most e x t e n s i v e l y by G u r v i t c h ( 1 9 7 1 : 2 3 - 4 1 ) uhD "proposes a t y p o l o g y o f 7 t y p e s a n d 5 f o r m s . The most d e f i n i t i v e e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t u e e n e x a c t and i n e x a c t k n o u l e d g e i s t o be f o u n d i n an as y e t u n p u b l i s h e d e s s a y u h i c h u a s u r i t t e n i n 1 9 2 4 . T i t l e d "A S o c i o l o g i c a l T h e o r y o f C u l t u r e and its Knouability: C o n j u n c t i v e and C o m m u n i c a t i v e T h o u g h t " , t h i s essay p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d e l a b o r a t i o n Df the c o n t r a s t betueen g e n e r a l s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n ( c o m m u n i c a t i v e ) and t h a t b a s e d upon t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f human m e a n i n g s ( c o n j u n c t i v e ) , a c c o r d i n g t o K e t t l e r (1967b:42D-4). Such c o n j u n c t i v e k n o u l e d g e c o r r e s p o n d s t o p r o d u c t s o f t h i n k i n g . u h i c h c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s ' m o r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c ' . H a v i n g .: u o r k e d o u t f o r h i m s e l f t h e n a t u r e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , he a p p a r e n t l y t a c i t l y t o o k i t f o r g r a n t e d i n I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a , l e a d i n g t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s on t h e p a r t o f s o m e , r e a d e r s . As Kettler notes: . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e l a c k o f c l a r i t y about j u s t uhat c o n s t i t u t e s 'knouledge' o f the s o r t f o r u h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s o c i a l g e n e s i s h a s a b e a r i n g on a s s e s s m e n t ; t h e c o n c e r n throughout i s u i t h a 'conjunctive' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f 'conjunctive' types of aspects of knouledge. I t accounts f o r Mannheim's s t r e n u o u s b u t u n c l e a r i n s i s t e n c e on t h e d i f f e r ence b e t u e e n r e l a t i v i s m and r e l a t i D n i s m o r p e r s p e c t i v i s m ; c o n j u n c t i v e knouledge f i r m l y r o o t e d i n a group a t a time has a l l t h e c e r t a i n t y and s e c u r i t y o f u h i c h i t a l l o u s . And i t accounts f o r the f r u s t r a t i n g lack of p r e c i s i a n i n the terms used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e presumed r e l a t i o n s h i p s betueen s u b - and s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e s . The 'naming' a n d ' d e s c r i b i n g ' t e r m s o f c o n j u n c t i v e i n q u i r y c a n n o t a s p i r e -to u n i v o c a l i t y ; p r e c i s e l y t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s g i v e s them t h e i r v i t a l i t y (424).  —  -62-  To be f a i r t o P o p p e r , some o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n s f r o m I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a d i d n o t a p p e a r i n t h e o r i g i n a l German e d i t i o n ( 1 9 2 9 ) he u s e d . Tuo neu c h a p t e r s u e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e 1936 E n g l i s h e d i t i o n . The f i r s t uas s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e neu e d i t i o n . The c i t h e r uas a r e p r i n t o f an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n a u e l l - k n o u n s o c i o l o g i c a l handbook i n 1 9 3 1 . A l l o f t h e s e s h o u l d have been r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o P o p p e r . M o r e o v e r , he has had some t i m e t o r e v i s e h i s v i e u s on the b a s i s of the a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e . As i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h i s s t a t e m e n t , Mannheim i s u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e degree o f c a t e g o r i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . Thus, p a r t o f h i s a m b i g u i t y s t e m s f r o m a r e l u c t a n c e t o make an a b s o l u t e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t u e e n e x a c t and i n e x a c t k n o u l e d g e . He i s c o n f i d e n t , h o u e v e r , i n h i s e m p h a s i s on t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t u e e n t h e tuo: the p e r s p e c t i v i s t element i n the c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s i s e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g them and t h e i r h i s t o r y . S u b s e q u e n t u o r k i n t h e h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e has i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n c e p t u a l change has i n d e e d been s i g n i f i c a n t and t h a t a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o n c e p t u a l e v o l u t i o n of s c i e n c e i s necessary. See e s p e c i a l l y T o u l m i n ( 1 9 7 2 ) and M a r t i n s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , as u e l l as t h e p i o n e e r i n g h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y by Kuhn ( 1 9 7 0 ) . ' i r o n i c a l l y , Mannheim has more o f t e n been c r i t i c i z e d by s o c i o l o g i s t s f o r not p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y r i g o r o u s c a u s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n h i s analyses. P o p p e r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , c h i d e s him f o r " s o c i o l o g i s m " . i  M e r t o n ( 1 9 6 8 : 5 5 2 - 6 ) p r o v i d e s t h e most s u c c i n c t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f " d e t e r m i n a t i o n " . t h a t a p p e a r i n Mannheim. Stark ( 1 9 5 8 : 2 4 6 - 6 3 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o s o c i a l determination: t h e c a u s a l i s t i c , t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t i c , . and e l e c t i v e affinity. He a s s o c i a t e s Mannheim u i t h t h e l a t t e r t u o .  -63-  VI.  THE FOUNDATIONS OF OBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE  The c o n c l u s i o n  of Popper's e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e of  Mannheim i s t h a t t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e c u l m i n a t e s relativistic this  skepticism.  judgement:  Tuo i n t e r r e l a t e d  arguments l e a d him t o  f i r s t , . t h a t the sociology  o f knouledge i s based  upon an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y u h i c h the  foundation  of o b j e c t i v i t y ;  self-contradictory sciences for  assumes i m p a r t i a l i t y i s  and s e c o n d , t h a t i t a d v o c a t e s t h e  doctrine that the o b j e c t i v i t y  of the s o c i a l  therefore requires a kind of "sociotherapy"  a "freely-poised i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " uniquely  of s o c i a l  in a  possible  only  exempt f r o m t h e e f f e c t s  determination. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Mannheim's t e x t s , h o u e v e r , r e v e a l s  the  first  charge i s simply  incorrect:  he n e i t h e r d e n i e s t h e  that import-  ance o f s c i e n t i f i c t e s t s : n o r t h e s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s o f scientific  production.  science, uith traditions aspects  A t t h e same t i m e P o p p e r ' s oun t h e o r y  i t s understanding  of the indispensable  i n s c i e n t i f i c research,  of science  uhich  contains  are the object  functions of  an a u a r e n e s s o f t h o s e  o f Mannheim's c o n c e r n .  consequence, M a n n h e i m s . d i s c u s s i o n o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l 1  s o c i a l " p e r s p e c t i v e s c a n be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o rational task  c r i t i c i s m of t r a d i t i o n s .  of the f i r s t  part of t h i s  of  As a  analysis of  Popper's c a l l  f o r the  E s t a b l i s h i n g these p o i n t s  i s the  chapter.  What c o n s t i t u t e s t h e p r o b l e m o f o b j e c t i v i t y Rather than s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t r y i n g " o b j e c t i v e " , he. a r g u e s , t h e y s h o u l d  t o make t h e i r realize  that:  f o r Popper?  " h e a d s " more  -64-  I t i s a m a t t e r D f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d . And, i r o n i c a l l y e n o u g h , o b j e c t i v i t y i s c l o s e l y bound up u i t h t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t o f s c i e n t i f i c method, u i t h t h e f a c t t h a t s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y do n o t ( a n d c a n n o t ) : ; . r e s u l t f r o m t h e a t t e m p t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t t o be ' o b j e c t i v e ' , b u t f r o m t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f many scientists. S c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y c a n be d e s c r i b e d as the i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v i t y o f s c i e n t i f i c method. But t h i s s o c i a l a s p e c t o f s c i e n c e i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y n e g l e c t e d by t h o s e uho c a l l t h e m s e l v e s s o c i o l o g i s t s o f k n o u l e d g e (•S-II:217).. ;  He i d e n t i f i e s t u o b a s i c e l e m e n t s o f t h i s of- s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d " .  First,  the i d e a l of "free c r i t i c i s m "  f e l l o u s c i e n t i s t s t o challenge every recognition that the s c i e n t i f i c And  individual  may f a i l  of a "public"  to live  undermine t h e p r o g r e s s  means c r i t i z i n g  everything.  t r y t o communicate t o each  i n a common l a n g u a g e t h a t a v o i d s t a l k i n g  arbiter" of controversey.  impels  proposed theory because o f a  attitude  s e c o n d , t h i s assumes t h a t t h e y  requires that experience  "public character  at cross-purposes.  other This  c h a r a c t e r be t h e  "impartial  A l l o f t h i s does n o t p r e c l u d e  t h a t some  up t o s u c h  standards,  o f s c i e n c e because  b u t does n o t  " i t does n o t u n d e r m i n e t h e  u o r k i n g o f v a r i o u s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s u h i c h have been d e s i g n e d t o further s c i e n t i f i c oratories,  objectivity  and c r i t i c i s m ; f o r i n s t a n c e t h e l a b -  the s c i e n t i f i c p e r i o d i c a l s ,  the congresses"  Popper's theory o f s c i e n c e i s thus  composed o f t h r e e  1) s c i e n t i f i c method o r t h e l o g i c o f t e s t i n g ; organizing the application  o f such  (218).  2) s o c i a l  methods, g u a r a n t e e i n g  elements:  institutions their public  c h a r a c t e r ; and 3 ) a t r a d i t i o n o f f r e e c r i t i c i s m u h i c h r e f u s e s t o t a k e any  presupposition f o r granted.  It i s significant  g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e s s upon t h e r o l e lationship  But  o f such  t h a t he p l a c e s a  traditions  and t h e i r r e -  to i n s t i t u t i o n s :  I n s t i t u t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s have much i n common ... ue may s a y , p e r h a p s , t h a t ue a r e i n c l i n e d t o s p e a k o f  -65-  i n s t i t u t i o n s w h e r e e v e r a ( c h a n g i n g ) body c f p e o p l e o b s e r v e a c e r t a i n s e t o f norms o r f u l f i l c e r t a i n p r i m a f a c i e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s ( s u c h as t e a c h i n g , p o l i c i n g , o r s e l l i n g g r o c e r i e s ) which serve c e r t a i n prima f a c i e s o c i a l purp o s e s ( s u c h as t h e p r o p a g a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e , o r p r o t e c t i o n f r o m v i o l e n c e o r s t a r v a t i o n ) , w h i l e we s p e a k o f t r a d i t i o n s m a i n l y when we w i s h t o d e s c r i b e a u n i f o r m i t y o f p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s , o r ways o f b e h a v i o u r , o r a i m s o r v a l u e s , t a s t e s ... They t a k e , as i t w e r e , an i n t e r m e d i a t e p l a c e , i n s o c i a l t h e o r y , b e t w e e n p e r s o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s ... The d i f f e r ence i n q u e s t i o n may be made c l e a r e r by r e f e r e n c e t o what I have s o m e t i m e s c a l l e d t h e ' a m b i v a l e n c e o f s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ' , o r t h e f a c t t h a t a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n may, i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f u n c t i o n i n a way w h i c h s t r i k i n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h i t s prima f a c i e or 'proper' f u n c t i o n ... I t may be s a i d , p e r h a p s , t h a t t h e l o n g - t e r m ' p r o p e r ' f u n c t i o n i n g o f i n s t i t u t i o n s depends m a i n l y upon s u c h t r a d i t i o n s (CR:133-4). Taken as a w h o l e , h o w e v e r , h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f s c i e n c e i s an implicitly  normative  one:  a t h e o r y o f what s c i e n c e s h o u l d be r a t h e r  t h a n an e m p i r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f how v i d e s no p a r t i c u l a r from  this  direction  i t actually  as t o t h e way  i d e a l m i g h t o c c u r , haw  functions.  i n which  such  a  P o p p e r pro« departure  i t m i g h t be r e v e a l e d , what e f f e c t i t  w o u l d have on s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s ,  o r haw  i t m i g h t be  overcome.'''  •n t h e b a s i s o f h i s s u p e r f i c i a l r e a d i n g o f ..Mannheim, P o p p e r concludes  t h a t the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge opposes t h i s view w i t h  individualistic  epistemology  which  fails  to grasp  the n a t u r e  of  science, that i t ci  .... shows an a s t o u n d i n g f a i l u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d p r e c i s e l y i t s main s u b j e c t , the s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f knowledge, or r a t h e r , o f s c i e n t i f i c method. I t l o o k s upon s c i e n c e o r k n o w l e d g e as a p r o c e s s i n t h e m i n d o r ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t , o r p e r h a p s as t h e p r o d u c t o f s u c h a process. I f c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s way, what we c a l l s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y must i n d e e d become c o m p l e t e l y u n u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , o r even i m p a s s i b l e ; and n o t o n l y i n t h e s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e s , where c l a s s i n t e r e s t s and s i m i l a r h i d d e n m o t i v e s may p l a y a p a r t , b u t j u s t as much i n t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ... i f s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y were f o u n d e d , as t h e s o c i o l o g i s t i c t h e o r y o f k n o w l e d g e n a i v e l y a s s u m e s , upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t s i m p a r t i a l i t y o r o b j e c t i v i t y , t h e n we s h o u l d have t o s a y good-bye t o i t (0S-II:217; emphasis added).  an  -66-  As  a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Mannheim's g e n e r a l  p o s i t i o n t h i s statement i s a profound d i s t o r t i o n .  epistemological  Mannheim  c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s view i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the s u c c e s s i v e and  mutual i n t e r a c t i o n o f the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l ,  flatly  emergence  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and  s o c i o l o g i c a l p a i n t s o f v i e w i n t h e wake o f t h e b r e a k o f t h e m e d i e v a l synthesis  (IU:13-33).  As he c o n c l u d e s :  The f i c t i o n o f t h e i s o l a t e d a n d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l u n d e r l i e s i n v a r i o u s forms t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y a n d g e n e t i c p s y c h o l o g y ... i t i s much more c o r r e c t t o say t h a t knowledge i s from t h e very b e g i n n i n g a c o - o p e r a t i v e process o f group l i f e , i n which everyone unf o l d s h i s k n o w l e d g e w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f a common f a t e , a common a c t i v i t y , a n d t h e o v e r c o m i n g o f common d i f f i c u l t i e s ... ( 2 8 - 9 ) . As  a consequence: The i s o l a t e d t h i n k e r may have t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t h i s c r u c i a l i d e a s o c c u r r e d t o him p e r s o n a l l y , i n d e p e n d e n t of h i s s o c i a l s e t t i n g . I t i s easy f o r l i v i n g i n a p r o v i n c i a l and c i r c u m s c r i b e d s o c i a l w o r l d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e events which touch him a r e i s o l a t e d f a c t s f o r which f a t e alone i s r e s p o n s i b l e . S o c i o l o g y , h o w e v e r , c a n n o t be c o n t e n t w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g immediate problems and e v e n t s emerging from t h i s myopic p e r s p e c t i v e which obscures every s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (109-10). One o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Mannheim's a n a l y s i s i s t o p r o -  vide  a sketch  of the conditions  Popper t o develop t h e i r  conceptions of science  individualistic-psychologistic traditions. l o g i c a l point  w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h o s e  Kantian  F o r i n Mannheim's w o r d s , " i t was t h e m e r i t o f view t h a t i t s e t alongside  proceeded t o elaborate  to the  and E n g l i s h e m p i r i c i s t  of meaning, t h e g e n e s i s from t h e context has  i n opposition  of the socio-  the i n d i v i d u a l genesis  o f group l i f e "  ( 2 8 ) . Popper  the l o g i c of v a l i d a t i o n appropriate  t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e .which v i e w s s c i e n c e  like  to  as a p r o d u c t o f c o l l e c t i v e  activity. P o p p e r seems t o have m i s t a k e n ' M a n n h e i m ' s comments on  ideology  -67-  criticism itself But  as a g e n e r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h u h i c h s e t  a g a i n s t more c o n v e n t i o n a l norms D f s c i e n t i f i c  Mannheim n o t e s  validation.  t h a t t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n a u l e d g e i s na s u b s t i t u t e 2  for  direct  i n v e s t i g a t i o n nor a l t e r n a t i v e t o epistemology. .  does n o t deny t h e n o r m a t i v e  p r i n c i p l e s of s c i e n t i f i c  he s e e k s t o s u p p l e m e n t them u i t h uhich  inhibit  a concern-of  the r e a l i z a t i o n o f those  m i g h t be c o r r e c t e d .  He  inquiry; rather,  the s o c i a l f a c t o r s  f o r m a l i d e a l s and hou  they  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , P o p p e r ' s d e f e n s e o f t h e  p r o c e d u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s o f s c i e n c e  i s beside  the p o i n t .  As.Mannheim a c k n o u l e d g e s : . Df c o u r s e i n t h e o r y t h e o n l y a i m o f r e s e a r c h i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f a c t s o f t h e c a s e and g e t a t t h e t r u t h , and t h e f o r u m i n u h i c h t h e m e r i t s o f e v e r y a c h i e v e m e n t must be judged i s s c i e n t i f i c p u b l i c i t y (MS:27). Moreover: It i s , of course, true that i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , as e l s e u h e r e , t h e u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h o r f a l s i t y i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ' o f t h e o b j e c t , and t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h i s ( I U : 5 ) . Mannheim a c c e p t s  a l l this  about t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f these  in principle,  but i s concerned  formal requirements.  For the d i f f i -  culty i s ... t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i s n o t an i s o l a t e d a c t ; i t t a k e s p l a c e i n a c o n t e x t u h i c h i s c o l o u r e d by v a l u e s and c o l l e c t i v e - u n c o n s c i o u s , v o l i t i o n a l i m p u l s e . In the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i t i s t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t , oriented i n a matrix of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , uhich provides not only the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , but the c o n c r e t e hypotheses f o r r e s e a r c h and t h e t h o u g h t - m o d e l s f o r t h e o r d e r i n g o f experience. O n l y as ue s u c c e e d i n b r i n g i n g i n t o t h e a r e a s o f c o n s c i o u s and e x p l i c i t o b s e r v a t i o n t h e v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f d e p a r t u r e and o f a p p r o a c h t o t h e f a c t s ... c a n ue hope ... t o c o n t r o l t h e u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s u h i c h , i n the l a s t analysis,.have brought these modes o f t h o u g h t i n t o e x i s t e n c e . A neu t y p e o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n the s o c i a l sciences i s a t t a i n a b l e not through the exc l u s i o n of e v a l u a t i o n s but through the c r i t i c a l auareness and c o n t r o l o f them ( 5 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . ;  -68-  Popper's a b s t r a c t a n a l y s i s of the does n o t  take  scientific  community  i n t o account the i m p l i c a t i o n s of i t s d i v e r s i t y ,  of i t s fragmentation  into a m u l t i p l i c i t y  o f Mannheim's p o s i t i o n  i s t o be  of p u b l i c s .  able to begin  The  to assess  the  n i f i c a n c e o f s u c h f a c t o r s f o r t h e methods o f s c i e n c e and v e s t i g a t e the  very  advantage sig-  to i n -  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n u h i c h P o p p e r s e e s as a t h r e a t  to c r e a t i v e s c i e n c e .  For  as Mannheim  notes:  In f a c t , from the s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v i e u , t h e r e i s n o ' ^ s c i e n t i f i c p u b l i c i t y as s u c h . There are o n l y the s c i e n t i f i c p u b l i c s of h i s t o r i a n s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , anthrop o l o g i s t s , and so on, u h i c h i n h e r i t many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f human g r o u p s , and v e r y o f t e n b e t r a y a l l t h e symptoms o f s e c t a r i a n t h i n k i n g . B u t a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of t h i s c o l l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e shous t h a t every branch of s c i e n c e i s e x p e r t , not merely at d e v i s i n g methods o f s t u d y i n g c e r t a i n p r o v i n c e s o f l i f e , b u t a l s o a t c r e a t i n g i n h i b i t i o n s and d e f e n c e m e c h a n i s m s u h i c h b a r t h e uay t o a c o m p l e t e and a d e q u a t e k n o u l e d g e o f s o c i e t y ... t h e c o n t e m p t t h e s c i e n c e s so o f t e n f e e l f o r one a n o t h e r , t h e d e f e n c e m e c h a n i s m s t h e y d e v i s e t o s h i e l d thems e l v e s a g a i n s t each o t h e r ' s methods, are a k i n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e o l o g y . . . " (MS:27-9). Here Mannheim i s a l l u d i n g —  the t r a d i t i o n s  disciplines.  -- u h i c h make up  Whereas P o p p e r can  rational tradition  f o r granted  to the s p e c i f i c and  cognitive cultures  differentiate  take the matter  the  of a  various  critical,  i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , t h i s  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e i n t h e modern u o r l d . r e c a l l t h e o r i g i n s o f modern s c i e n c e , t h e  be  seen to produce d i f f e r e n t  the uork of those  i n f l u e n c e d by  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  r e q u i r e d t h e emergence o f a new and  the philosophy  powerful  kinds of s c i e n c e .  of nature  The  a l c h e m y comes t o m i n d .  of the s c i e n t i f i c conception  r o l e as ue  5  activity  example  of  Ultimately, know i t  o f man's r e l a t i o n s h i p  w h i c h came t o be  groups competing i n s o c i e t y . "  When ue  d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s of meta-  physical presuppositions underlying ostensibly s c i e n t i f i c can  i s only  accepted  by t h e  Such a p e r s p e c t i v e —  to  most the  -69m y t h , as P o p p e r u o u l d s a y —  uas necessary  f o r the elimination  of p r e v i o u s competing p h i l o s o p h i e s o f nature To  t h e d e g r e e t h a t man i s c o n t i n u o u s  i n such  knouledge g e n e r a l l y shared,  as s e r i o u s  u i t h nature such  and h i s i n t e r e s t  a conception  t r a n s f e r r e d t o human b e h a v i o r .  o f s c i e n c e can  be  directly  is  discontinuous, divergent philosophical anthropologies  t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r a s c i e n c e o f man. has  competitors.  But t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t compete  Unlike f o rnature,  there  y e t t o emerge a u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e k  philosophy  o f t h e human s c i e n c e s .  For t h e core p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u h i c h themselves  to formalization,  scientific  attitude  lend  the d i r e c t transfer of the n a t u r a l  does n o t p o s e s i g n i f i c a n t  problems.  But t h i s  holds  o n l y t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t s u c h p r o p o s i t i o n s do n o t p r e s u p p o s e o r c o n t a i n j u d g e m e n t s o f v a l u e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f m e a n i n g . t h i s very process  o f m e t h o d i c a l l y removing such m e a n i n g f u l  p r o d u c e s a r e s u l t uhose a b s t r a c t n e s s p r e v l u d e s concrete r e a l i t y reason  u i t h i n u h i c h men l i v e  t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t  a l s o t h e most i n t r a c t a b l e :  Yet  content  application to the  and d e c i d e .  This i s the very  s o c i o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s t e n d t o be  t h e y presume p r o p o s i t i o n s u h i c h a r e so  value-empregnated t h a t competing t h e o r i e s are the r u l e .  The p h i l -  o s o p h e r ' s c l a i m t h a t i n p r i n c i p l e s o c i a l s c i e n c e c a n be a h i s t o r i c a l l y o b j e c t i v e may i n some s e n s e be v a l i d , such  objectivity  facilitating  guarantees  the assent  t h e a c t i o n o f none.  v a l u e o f an e p i s t e m o l o g y c r i t e r i o n that assures  but the very requirements o f a l l a t t h e expense o f  (Uhich r a i s e s the question o f the  uhich defines s c i e n t i f i c  the p r a c t i c a l t r i v i a l i t y  truth uith a  o f the r e s u l t s . )  In s h o r t , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m u l t i p l e t r a d i t i o n s s c i e n c e s c a n n o t be r e a d i l y  of  i n the s o c i a l  e l i m i n a t e d s i m p l y by i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l  -70-  science.  R e f i n e m e n t o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c method o r o f i n s t i t u t i o n s  of sciences  c a n n o t by t h e m s e l v e s come t o t e r m s u i t h  of m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s . the  Mannheim's e f f o r t  the problem  i s directed  s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f such t r a d i t i o n s  touard  i n t h e hope o f f a c 5  ilitating  t h e emergence o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t  vieupoint.  H a v i n g a r g u e d t h a t P o p p e r ' s c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim's ibly  "individualistic"  e p i s t e m o l o g y uas m i s g u i d e d and t h a t  Mannheim's c o n c e r n u i t h s o c i a l Popper's understanding  "perspectives" corresponded to  of the role of " t r a d i t i o n s " ,  t o move on t o P o p p e r ' s s e c o n d c h a r g e :  i ti s possible  t h a t t h e s o c i o l o g y o f knou-  ledge b e l i e v e s i n a s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y form o f o b j e c t i v i t y can  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s " s o c i o t h e r a p y " .  is built  This  conclusion,  upon a s e r i e s o f e r r o n e o u s a s s u m p t i o n s u h i c h  been i n d i c a t e d .  ostens-  uhich houever,  have  already  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e c o r r e c t i o n s o f P o p p e r ' s  errors of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t i s necessary to r e - i n t e r p r e t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Mannheim's comments on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . of the remainder o f this, chapter conjectures.touch and  over t h e i r  be s u g g e s t e d t h a t  upon g e n u i n e d i f f i c u l t i e s  t h a t Popper i m p l i c i t l y  glosses  i tuill  takes  In the course  i n the s o c i a l  Mannheim's sciences  them i n t o a c c o u n t , e v e n i f he  s i g n i f i c a n c e and f a i l s  t o b r i n g them  directly  to the a t t e n t i o n of h i s readers. P o p p e r a t t e m p t s t o r e f u t e Mannheim's r e m a r k s on t h e r o l e o f the  analysis of ideology  i n s o c i a l research  through the s o p h i s t i c  argument t h a t i t i s a s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y e n t e r p r i s e , t h a t t h e i n tellectuals  c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e r e s t g r o u p and u o u l d  another d i s t o r t e d ideology.  First  he d e s c r i b e s  simply  t h i s proposal  Mannheim's r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m o f o b j e c t i v i t y , ative to skeptical relativism:  produce as  as h i s a l t e r n -  -71-  ... t h e s o c i o l o g y Df k n o u l e d g e b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f o b j e c t i v i t y can be r e a c h e d by t h e f r e e l y p o i s e d i n t e l l i g e n c e a n a l y z i n g the v a r i o u s hidden i d e o l o g i e s and t h e i r a n c h o r a g e i n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . The uay t o t r u e k n o u l e d g e a p p e a r s t o be t h e u n v e i l i n g o f u n c o n s c i o u s assumpt i o n s , a k i n d of psycho-therapy, as i t u e r e , o r i f I may s a y so a s o c i o - t h e r a p y . O n l y he uho has been s o c i o - a n a l y z e d o r uho has s o c i o - a n a l y s e d h i m s e l f , and uho i s f r e e d f r o m t h i s s o c i a l c o m p l e x , i . e . f r o m h i s s o c i a l i d e o l o g y , can a t t a i n to the h i g h e s t s y n t h e s i s of o b j e c t i v e knouledge (•S-II:215). But,  Popper s u g g e s t s ,  upon t h e s o c i o l o g i s t  t h i s method c a n ,  like  p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s , be  turned  himself:  F o r i s n o t t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n o f an i n t e l l i g e n t s i a uhich i s only l o o s e l y anchored i n t r a d i t i o n a very neat d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r oun s o c i a l g r o u p ? ... I s i t n o t , t h e r e f o r e , t o be e x p e c t e d ... t h a t t h o s e uho h o l d i t u i l l u n c o n s c i o u s l y d e c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s by p r o d u c i n g an amendment to the theory i n order to e s t a b l i s h the o b j e c t i v i t y of t h e i r oun v i e u s ? Can ue, t h e n t a k e s e r i o u s l y t h e i r c l a i m t h a t by t h e i r s o c i o l o g i c a l s e l f - a n a l y s i s t h e y have r e a c h e d a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f o b j e c t i v i t y ; and t h e i r c l a i m t h a t s o c i o a n a l y s i s can c a s t o u t t o t a l i d e o l o g y ( 2 1 6 ) ? " Yet  this  argument depends upon t h e  Mannheim e q u a t e s s o c i a l the p i o n e e r i n g aspects  "determination" uith  another  I t uas  conditioned, including valid  that  one  of  insisted  propos-  Mannheim a c k n o u l e d g e s t h a t h i s n o t i o n o f s y n t h e s i s i s t o t a l i d e o l o g y , but  i n s i s t s that i t uould  s u p e r i o r p e r s p e c t i v e from u h i c h  to understand  a c o n s e q u e n c e , h i s r e m a r k s on t h e i s meant o n l y i n a r e l a t i v e autonomy u i t h critical  falsity.  o f Mannheim's u o r k , h o u e v e r , t o have  that a l l thought i s s o c i a l l y itions.^  erroneous assumption  sense:  r e s p e c t to h i s past  s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and  c l o s e r examination  l a c k of  constitute a  historical reality.  "attachment" of  t h a t the t h e o r i s t and  circumstances  has  intellectuals more  b e c a u s e he  m u t u a l c r i t i c i s m as h i s v a c a t i o n .  o f Mannheim's r e m a r k s makes t h i s  Mannheim's comments on t h e r o l e  As  takes A  evident.  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s  cannot  -72-  be s e p a r a t e d  from h i s concern u i t h  perspective  that uould  of thought. individual but  U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s i s vieued —  not simply  to guide  of p o l i t i c s "  This uould  not r e q u i r e that teachers  Departing  and " v a l u a t i o n ( 1 6 3 ) .  Mannheim's c o n c e r n i s u i t h  1 1  self-criticism  Contrary  t o Popper's  F o r Mannheim v i e u s  as i n e v i t a b l y p a r t o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  "impartiality"  impressions,  the auareness of p a r t i a l i t y  epistemology.  of  by an u n t e n a b l e d i s j u n c t i o n  o f some a b s t r a c t n o t i o n o f i m p a r t i a l i t y  individualistic  uhich  f r o m Max Weber's someuhat r e l a t e d c o n c e p t i o n  b a s e d upon a p u r e d e t a c h m e n t j u s t i f i e d  resurrection  social  be " p a r t y l e s s ,  p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y , Mannheim t h u s r e j e c t s t h e n o t i o n o f  of theory  —  have t o be c a r r i e d o u t i n i n s t i t u t i o n s o r s p e c i a l i z e d  t h a t t h e y be open t o c a r e f u l d e l i b e r a t i o n and  (IU':163).  schools  as a m a t t e r o f  a particular tradition  F o r he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e " s c i e n c e  institutes.  of party  t h o u g h t h i s m i g h t be a b y p r o d u c t  one o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g  he s e e k s u o u l d  but  overcome t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n  "sociotherapy"  research.  the problem of a s y n t h e s i z i n g  context  and n o t t h e  b a s e d upon an  ideology  and as a  criticism  critical  s u p p l e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e n o r m a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s o f the  logic of science. O n l y by r e c o g n i z i n g  the  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , Mannheim a r g u e s , u i l l  o f such a p r o j e c t i n  progress  be p o s s i b l e :  A p r o b l e m c a n n o t be s o l v e d by o b s c u r i n g i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s , b u t o n l y by s t a t i n g them as s h a r p l y and as pro-, n o u n c e d l y as p o s s i b l e . Hence i t i s o u r t a s k d e f i n i t e l y to e s t a b l i s h the t h e s i s t h a t i n p o l i t i c s the statement o f a p r o b l e m and t h e l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d v a r y u i t h the p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f the observer (117). One o f P o p p e r ' s f a i l u r e s u a s t o h a v e g l o s s e d n i f i c a n c e of such d i f f i c u l t i e s . the  over the s i g -  F o r t h i s r e a s o n he c o u l d n o t g r a s p  p o i n t o f Mannheim's d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  of a synthesis  -73-  —  an e m e r g e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y -- u h i c h m i g h t u n i f y  the  s o c i a l sciences  The  p a r a d o x o f Mannheim's e n t i r e  it  i n a manner a n a l a g o u s t o t h e n a t u r a l  discussion of t h i s matter i s that  i s p r o s p e c t i v e , b a s e d upon a p r o p o s e d s y n t h e s i s u h i c h  fully  emerged.  and  l i k e l y arise  adoption  clarification cussion.  transcend  and encompass a l l e x i s t i n g  from t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a t u m ,  uithin this  group u o u l d  vieupoints,  and i t s d i f f u s i o n  and i n t r o s p e c t i o n as b y - p r o d u c t s o f c r i t i c a l  Without such a consensus-building' p e r s p e c t i v e ,  an a p o l o g y f o r u h a t e v e r i s i n f a c t  dis-  houever,  may be t r a n s l a t e d  t h e dominant  perspective.  Mannheim's, v i e u s h e r e a r e d e v e l o p e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n question  o f uhy i t i s t h a t ue have s t i l l  of a "science by  of p o l i t i c s " .  a r a t i o n a l i s t i c ethos,  striking using  anomaly" ( 1 1 ) .  the notion  For " i n a u o r l d uhich fact  uith the  t h e emergence  i s as permeated represents  a  Nou i t must be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t he i s  of a "science  of p o l i t i c s " i n a r e s t r i c t i v e  betueen  sense  "routine a f f a i r s of state" or  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e n o n - r o u t i n i z e d , uhich  not uitnessed  as i s o u r oun, t h i s  b a s e d upon t h e d i s t i n c t i o n  uithin  uere  require a process of s e l f -  Mannheim's p r o g r a m f o r a neu k i n d o f o b j e c t i v i t y into  had n o t  What he p r o p o s e s i s t h a t i f s u c h a s y n t h e s i s  to appear, i t uould uould  sciences.  i r r a t i o n a l matrix  of p o l i t i c s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e embedded ( 1 1 3 - 4 ) .  Whereas  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s c a n be made on t h e b a s i s o f an e x p l i c i t rule  on the., a n a l o g y o f l e g a l  to a f i e l d  cases,  rise  d e c i s i o n s have tD be made t h a t g i v e r i s e t o  and u n i q u e s i t u a t i o n s "  alized  p o l i t i c s gives  o f e v e n t s g o v e r n e d by a " p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g , i n u h i c h ,  in individual neu  decision-making,  (113).  This  scheme" a n d " i r r a t i o n a l s e t t i n g "  distinction provides  betueen  "ration-  the basis f o r h i s  -74-  d e f i n i t i o n of the ization  has  not  c o n c e p t o f c o n d u c t as  yet penetrated"  the r e l a t i o n s between t h e o r y The  and  and  "the  1  a r e a s where  where "the"' w h o l e p r o b l e m  practice arises"  task of a s y n t h e s i z i n g p e r s p e c t i v e  w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l realm.  rationalof  (Iv':115).  i s to guide  conduct  T h i s w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e what has  been  7  termed a " r e s p o n s i b l e i d e o l o g y " . coming the  irreconcilable perspectives  beaucratic conservatism, bourgeoise He  F o r Mannheim t h i s meant  conservative  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s  s p e c t i v e to the  age:  historicism, liberal-democratic  thought, socialist-communist  even r e l a t e s the  over-  conceptions,  objective possibility  and  fascism  of a transcendent  f a c t o f i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s o f and  ability  (118).  perto  analyse  these  different perspectives: J u s t b e c a u s e t o - d a y we a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o see w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c l a r i t y t h a t m u t u a l l y o p p o s i n g v i e w s and t h e o r i e s a r e n o t i n f i n i t e i n number and a r e n o t p r o d u c t s o f a r b i t r a r y w i l l b u t a r e m u t u a l l y c o m p l e m e n t a r y and d e r i v e f r o m s p e c i f i c s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , p o l i t i c s as a s c i e n c e i s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y makes p o s s i b l e a p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e w h i c h w i l l n o t be m e r e l y a p a r t y s c i e n c e , but a s c i e n c e o f the w h o l e . P o l i t i c a l sociology, as t h e s c i e n c e w h i c h c o m p r e h e n d s t h e w h o l e p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e , thus a t t a i n s the stage of r e a l i z a t i o n (149). Having e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i m s e l f the  historical possibility  s u c h a s y t h e s i s , Mannheim t h e n p r o c e e d s t o c o n j e c t u r e o r i g i n s of the T h u s , he of the  r a i s e s the  s o c i a l and  What p o l i t i c a l its  c r e a t o r s and  t a s k and  First  sociological question:  p o l i t i c a l bearers  interest w i l l  who  will  strive  integral  "how  a r e we  undertake the to r e a l i z e  to  conceive  problem of s y n t h e s i s  is? as  i t i n s o c i e t y " (153)? "the  exponents of  d e f i n i t e s o c i a l s t r a t a , mainly  f r o m above and  social  viewpoint.  of whatever s y n t h e s i s there  i t i s acknowledged t h a t  have a l w a y s r e p r e s e n t e d f e e l threatened  c a r r i e r s o f s u c h an  as t o t h e  of  b e l o w and  who,  out  synthesis  classes  of s o c i a l  who  necessity,  -75-  seek a middle  uay o u t " ( 1 5 4 ) .  B u t i n c o n s i d e r i n g what a d y n a m i c  s y n t h e s i s i n h i s oun t i m e u o u l d r e q u i r e , Mannheim c o n c l u d e d none o f t h e e x i s t i n g  that  c l a s s e s o f f e r e d any hope o f s u p p l y i n g s u c h  a  universal perspective: S u c h an e x p e r i m e n t a l o u t l o o k , u n c e a s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e to t h e d y n a m i c n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y and t o i t s u h o l e n e s s , i s n o t l i k e l y t o be d e v e l o p e d by a c l a s s o c c u p y i n g a m i d d l e p o s i t i o n b u t o n l y by a r e l a t i v e l y c l a s s l e s s stratum uhich i s not too f i r m l y s i t u a t e d i n the s o c i a l order (154). Such a p o s i t i o n relatively  i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r t h e " u n a n c h o r e d ,  c l a s s l e s s stratum",  intelligentsia." exclusively  that i s , the " s o c i a l l y  T h i s group cannot,  i n socio-economic  he- c o n t i n u e s , be  terms.  While  they  fact  allous a progressive repression of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l t i e s  such  s t a t u s , p r o f e s s i o n , and u e a l t h .  urong than  (155). Why  producing  Yet "nothing  as  c o u l d be more  t o m i s i n t e r p r e t t h i s v i e u and m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e c l a s s and  status t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l disappear this"  education.  are loosely This  birth,  common t r a i t :  understood  i t s members a r e s o c i a l l y  h e t e r e o g e n e o u s and d r a u n f r o m a l l u a l k s o f l i f e , bound t o g e t h e r by a s i n g l e  unattached  by v i r t u e o f  8  then  such  tinguishing  completely  a r e ue t o a c c e p t  a perspective?  the p r o b a b i l i t y of t h i s stratum of  Mannheim l i n k s t h i s t o a c r u c i a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n t e l l e c t u a l  activity  i n modern  dis-  life:  ... u n l i k e p r e c e d i n g c u l t u r e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y i s n o t c a r r i e d on e x c l u s i v e l y by a s o c i a l l y r i g i d l y d e f i n e d c l a s s , s u c h as a p r i e s t h o o d , b u t r a t h e r by a s o c i a l s t r a t u s u h i c h i s t o a l a r g e d e g r e e u n a t t a c h e d t o any s o c i a l c l a s s and u h i c h i s r e c r u i t e d f r o m an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c l u s i v e a r e a o f social life. This s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t determines e s s e n t i a l l y t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e modern m i n d , u h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y n o t b a s e d upon t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e p r i e s t h o o d , u h i c h i s n o t c l o s e d and f i n i s h e d , b u t u h i c h i s r a t h e r d y n a m i c , e l a s t i c , i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x , and p e r p e t u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d by neu p r o b l e m s ( 1 5 6 ) .  -76-  Traditionally, of  criticism  this  lack of "attachment"  d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t i n t e l l e c t u a l s uho  against p a r t i c u l a r  interests.  has been a  uere  Yet tuo d i f f e r e n t paths  c o m m i t t m e n t have i n f a c t been more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : one  of the e x i s t i n g  s o c i a l m o o r i n g s and  classes in conflict the quest  the p r e d e s t i n e d advocate (lU:'158).). W h i l e  he  as a t h r e a t  touard  affiliation  or " s c r u t i n y of t h e i r  f o r the f u l f i l m e n t  c f the i n t e l l e c t u a l  uith oun  of t h e i r mission  i n t e r e s t s of the  as  uhole"  a c c e p t s t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o be p l a y e d i n t h e  c a s e , Mannheim e m p h a s i z e s t h e l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y his  seen  source  first  as t h e b a s i s f o r  hope f o r : ... t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e p o s i t i o n f r o m u h i c h .a t o t a l p e r s p e c t i v e u o u l d be p o s s i b l e . Thus t h e y m i g h t p l a y t h e p a r t o f uatchman i n u h a t o t h e r w i s e u o u l d be a p i t c h - b l a c k night (160-1). Ultimately,  Popper too p u t s h i s v o l u n t a r i s t i c  n o t i n " s c i e n c e " o r even " r e a s o n , " b u t t h e  " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " uho  the p r o s p e c t of r e - i n t e g r a t i n g uhat  t h e y had  As he n o t e s u i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s oun  theory of  r  faith,  previously  offer  undermined.  knouledge:  I t may be s a i d t h a t t h i s neu uay o f k n o u i n g i s t o o a b s t r a c t and t o o s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o r e p l a c e t h e l o s s o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n religion. T h i s may be t r u e . But ue must n o t u n d e r r a t e t h e p o u e r o f t h e i n t e l l e c t and t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s . I t uas t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s — t h e ' s e c o n d - h a n d d e a l e r s i n i d e a s ' , as F. A. Hayek c a l l s them — uho s p r e a d r e l a t i v i s m , n i h i l i s m , and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e s p a i r . T h e r e i s no r e a s o n uhy some i n t e l l e c t u a l s — some more e n l i g h t e n e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s — s h o u l d n o t e v e n t u a l l y s u c c e e d i n s p r e a d i n g t h e good n e u s t h a t t h e n i h i l i s t ado uas i n d e e d a b o u t n o t h i n g ( • S - I I : 3 8 3 ) . One  e v e r , uas  t o c o n s i d e r a b l y advance the  rationalism, cannot  of the primary achievements  o f Mannheim's a n a l y s i s ,  "critical"  principle  a p o i n t P o p p e r does n o t seem t o g r a s p .  make s e n s e  of the p r o p o s i t i o n  hou-  of  Popper s i m p l y  "that epistemology  i s as i n -  timately  enmeshed i n t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s as i s t h e t o t a l i t y  thinking  and .that i t u i l l  of  our  make p r o g r e s s t o - t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t c a n  -77-  master the  complications arising  out  of the  changing s t r u c t u r e of  g thought" and  (IU:79).  Thus Mannheim's d i s t i n c t i o n b e t u e e n  r e l a t i o n i s m i s not  recognized  the problem of o b j e c t i v i t y  i n the  as a p o s s i b l e way l i g h t of the  change."^  R e l a t i v i s m r e s u l t e d from the  historical  c o n d i t i o n i n g o f t h o u g h t by  whose m o d e l o f k n o w l e d g e was  static.  attempts  those  of viewpoints  question:  the best  "which s o c i a l s t a n d p o i n t  presupposes a theory  has  crisis  i n h i s a n a l y s i s of :  i s complicated  related.  and  v i s - a - v i s of h i s t o r y ("BO,)?  But  Yet  i t i s apparent t h i s i s not He  i s v e r y much aware  the  upon t h e s c i e n c e s o f man.  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n Mannheim's and  objectivity  i s not  different  so much a l o g i c a l one  kinds of  "reality"  human e v o l u t i o n r a i s e s i m i l a r  of course,  w o u l d be  the f i r s t  Popper's conceptions  of  as i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e n a t u r a l as  explanatory  to agree,  and  T h u s , much  t o the s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s , though i t i s apparent t h a t and  this  Popper  t h a t t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s p r e s u p p o s e a common v i e w o f n a t u r e  of the  offers  a p h i l o s o p h i c a l anthropology  i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s g e n e r a l view of s c i e n c e .  s e e k s t o i m p o s e a s i m i l a r one  the  This r a i s e s the  t r a d i t i o n of s o c i a l science  been r e l u c t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e .  by  Ldithin  As Mannheim p o s e s  an optimum o f t r u t h "  of h i s t o r y  whose f u n c t i o n as p a r t o f t h e  epistemology  to t r a n s f e r i t to s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  w h i c h must be  chance f o r r e a c h i n g  conceptual  In response to t h i s  p r o b l e m o f t h e mpst a d e q u a t e v a n t a g e p o i n t . this  f a c t of  t i e d t o an  the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , however, t h i s p r i n c i p l e multiplicity  of r e f o r m u l a t i n g  d i s c o v e r y of the s o c i o -  Popper e l a b o r a t e s such a r e l a t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and  relativism  problems.^  w h i c h i s why  of  opposed biological  Mannheim,  he r e j e c t e d  from the o u t s e t the assumption t h a t the form of e x p l a n a t i o n i n the h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s . w o u l d be  i d e n t i c a l - , t o t h a t .in p h y s i c s .  -78-  Ironically, by  the very  historical  relativism  he  runs the r i s k  i s as good as a n o t h e r ,  the  admission  and  d i f f e r with respect  the  formal s c i e n t i f i c  be  so d e p l o r e d .  to  o f i m p l y i n g t h a t one t h o u g h he  problem  scientific  interpretive  draws b a c k f r o m t h i s  to t h e i r  "fertility".  But  s t a t u s of such t h e o r i e s because they explanatory  door to i r r a t i o n a l i s m  does n o t  completely  f a c e them d i r e c t l y : osophy of  "critical  o f h i s t o r y and perspective jective  and  ignore  h i s theory  leaves  unresolved  the  of the  But  "open s o c i e t y " and  f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  epistemology,  And  t h i s was  o f Mannheim s u r r o u n d i n g  and  the  conclusion that  cisely  as  a ob-  h i s conception  as we  saw,  This  Mannheim.  initial  criticisms  of the r o l e of p e r s p e c t i v e s  P o p p e r ' s own  of r a t i o n a l l y  bypassed  individualistic  the b a s i s f o r a whole s e r i e s o f  the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  e n v i s i o n e d by  theory  Popper's  theory  of science  acknowledgement o f the i m p o r t a n c e of t r a d i t i o n s  possibility  phil-  his ultimate  I n b u r d e n i n g Mannheim w i t h an  assumption then provides  t a i n e d an  not  could serve  Popper engages i n o u t r i g h t d i s t o r t i o n .  Yet  does  philosopher.  issues.  social science.  prac-  his  a n a l y s i s o f Mannheim's e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n c o m p l e t e l y authentic  in  r a t i o n a l i s m " c o n t a i n the rudiments of a uhich  he  logical  s u c h m a t t e r s e v e n i f he  a p h i l o s o p h i c a l anthropology  as a s o c i a l  cannot  paradigm of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e ,  These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r c e t h e  the  through  in rejecting  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adequate h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . t i c e he  of  t h a t s u c h t h e o r i e s c o n t a i n some t e s t a b l e e l e m e n t s  a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the  opens t h e  threatened  In p l a c i n g the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n an a m b i g u o u s r e l a t i o n  e x p l a n a t i o n , he theory  i t i s P o p p e r whose p o s i t i o n i s  criticizing  them.  This  in  His  d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l a t i v e  con-  science  i s pre-  t a s k of the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge  in  as  autonomy  -79•f why  intellectuals  i n mcdern l i f e  i t i s possible  scientists capacity  provided  t o assume t h a t i t i s nou  for c r i t i c i z i n g  t r a d i t i o n s and  advance i n the  Popper's d i f f i c u l t y  i s t h a t he  k i n d of p e r s p e c t i v e  necessary f o r the  f a c t t h a t h i s oun  u a r k Dn  example of the  In p r e s e n t i n g  the  critical  h i s philosophy  acknowledging the  science,  other  hand, are  as  theory  of the  planning,  But  to the  acutely  interests. He  of  as  next  framework is  a  social realistic  upon t h e of the  latent  broad CDnvergencies i n t h e i r  of  crisis  .Thus., i n  on  tactic  task  Mannheim's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f  chapter.  the  Mannheim's a i m s ,  looks  i t i s p o s s i b l e to b e g i n to develop the  t o p i c of the  knouledge.  aware o f  perspective  i n such a minimal d e f i n i t i o n  the  methods  "open s o c i e t y " he  inadequate e i t h e r f o r r e s o l u t i o n of the  w h i c h emerge d e s p i t e i s the  of  the  need f o r a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y  somewhat more U t o p i a n .  b e t w e e n P o p p e r ' s and  the  despite  w i t h i n the  modern s o c i e t y o r t h e . r e a l i z a t i o n o f human f r e e d o m . contrast  science.  problem of  b a c k upon a m i n i m a l d e f i n i t i o n  of compromise i m p l i c i t s o c i a l science  of s o c i a l  sociology  of s o c i a l science  means o f u n i t i n g o t h e r w i s e d i v e r g e n t the  very  perspectives  social sciences,  f u n c t i o n of the  of  social  s o c i a l o r i g i n s of. " h i s t o r i c i s t "  o f f o r m i n g a c o n s e n u s as  Popper f a l l s  philosophical  objectivity  t h a t makes some s e n s e o f human h i s t o r y . difficulty  for  It i s this  o v e r s i m p l i f i e s the  o f h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " and implicitly  possible  t o engage i n r a d i c a l s e l f - c r i t i c i s m .  t h a t makes p o s s i b l e an  i s an  a s o c i o l o g i c a l account  of  the social  differences  t h i n k i n g . •' T h i s  -80-  IMOTES:  CHAPTER  VI  Though P o p p e r a d m i t s t h a t t r a d i t i o n s a r e s u b j e c t t o r a t i o n a l s c r u t i n y — and t h a t t h i s i s l a r g e l y a s o c i o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m , h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e o b s c u r e s t h a t t h i s i s one of i t s major t a s k s . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , he r e j e c t s t h e v e r y method e s s e n t i a l f o r the a n a l y s i s of those t r a d i t i o n s necessary f o r the proper f u n c t i o n i n g of s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . The p r o b l e m o f p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the " t r a d i t i o n " of s o c i a l research. S u c h an  analysis  ... i m p l i e s o n l y t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h i s a s s e r t i o n m i g h t r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i a l v i e u ... b u t t h e s e a n a l y s e s ... do n o t by t h e m s e l v e s f u l l y r e v e a l t h e t r u t h b e c a u s e t h e mere d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s i s by no means a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e i m m e d i a t e and d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n b e t u e e n t h e d i v e r g e n t p o i n t s of v i e u or f o r the d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n of the f a c t s ( I U : 2 8 4 - 5 ) ... (As a c o n s e q u e n c e ) ... e p i s t e mology i s n o t s u p p l a n t e d by t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e ' b u t a neu k i n d o f e p i s t e m o l o g y i s c a l l e d f o r u h i c h u i l l r e c k o n u i t h t h e f a c t s b r o u g h t t o l i g h t by t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u ledge (294). 11  Tuo r e c e n t i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t s o f s u c h a s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l l y a u a r e e p i s t e m o l o g y a r e t o be f o u n d i n Habermas ( 1 9 7 1 ) and T o u l m i n ( 1 9 7 2 ) . F o r an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o u a r d t h e h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s see Goldman ( 1 9 6 9 ) . On t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f modern s c i e n c e see B u c h d a h l ( 1 9 7 1 ) and U a r t o f s k y ( 1 9 6 8 ) uho have f o l l o u e d up t h e p i o n e e r i n g u o r k o f h o y r e and B u r t t . F o r t h e s c i e n t i f i c r o l e see B e n - D a v i d ( 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s v i e u assumes, of c o u r s e , t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s r e s p e c t one o f d e g r e e and n o t o f k i n d . As Goldmann p u t s i t : I n r e a l i t y ue k n o u t o d a y t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t u e e n t h e u o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f ' p h y s i c i s t s , c h e m i s t s and physiol o g i s t s ' and t h o s e o f s o c i o l o g i s t s o r h i s t o r i a n s i s n o t one of degree but of k i n d ; at the s t a r t of p h y s i c a l or c h e m i c a l r e s e a r c h t h e r e i s a r e a l and i m p l i c i t a g r e e m e n t among a l l c l a s s e s u h i c h make up modern s o c i e t y on t h e v a l u e , t h e n a t u r e and t h e g o a l o f t h i s r e s e a r c h ... I n t h i s c a s e , t h e u a n t o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n t h e u o r k o f a s c i e n t i s t can be due o n l y t o p e r s o n a l d e f e c t s ( e s p r i t de s y s t e m e , l a c k o f g r e a t p e n e t r a t i o n , i m p a s s i o n e d c h a r a c t e r , v a n i t y , and, a t u o r s t , l a c k of i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty" (1969:39).  is  -ai-  But n o t e t h i s h o l d s o n l y f o r " p u r e " s c i e n c e y In the r e a l m of a p p l i e d s c i e n c e , d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d to those of the c o n f l i c t s u i i t h i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s emerge. A s s e s s m e n t o f Mannheim's p o s i t i o n i s n o t a t a s k o f t h i s s t u d y . But i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to note t h a t a pragmatic l i b e r a l i s m , d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , and a c r i t i c a l n e o - M a r x i s m seem t o be t h e p r i m e c o n tenders f o r such a u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g Mannheim's work s t e m s f r o m t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f h i s oun e c l e c t i c and only, p a r t i a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e u h i c h s t a n d s somewhere b e t w e e n a l i b e r a l p r a g m a t i c and n e o - M a r x i s t p o s ition. These u n r e s o l v e d t e n s i o n s mark t h e u n f i n i s h e d , experimental c h a r a c t e r of h i s work. 'in Mannheim's w o r d s : Ue n e e d n o t r e g a r d i t as a s o u r c e o f e r r o r , t h a t a l l t h o u g h t i s so r o o t e d . J u s t as t h e i n d i v i d u a l who partici p a t e s i n a complex of v i t a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r men t h e r e b y e n j o y s a c h a n c e o f o b t a i n i n g a more p r e c i s e and p e n e t r a t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o h i s f e l l o w s , so a g i v e n p o i n t o f v i e w and a g i v e n s e t o f c o n c e p t s , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e bound up w i t h and grow o u t o f a c e r t a i n s o c i a l r e a l i t y , o f f e r , through intimate contact with t h i s r e a l i t y , a greater chance of r e v e a l i n g t h e i r meaning ( I U : 8 0 ) . The  n o t i o n of a " r e s p o n s i b l e  ideology"  has  been d e f i n e d  as  follows:  The f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e i d e o l o g y i s one i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s and c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t t o f o r m u l a t e p u b l i c l y a l l Df t h e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s a t e a c h s t a g e of i n q u i r y (Connolly, 67:137). 'See Lenk ( 1 9 6 7 ) and IMevsuss ( 1 9 6 8 ) f o r d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f Mannheim s t h e o r y o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a t u m . Subsequently, Mannheim came t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n had been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . Thus he a d d e d : L e t us r e - e m p h a s i z e a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s do n o t f o r m an e x a l t e d s t r a t u m above t h e c l a s s e s and a r e i n no way b e t t e r endowed w i t h a c a p a c i t y t o overcome t h e i r awn c l a s s a t t a c h m e n t s t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s ... The expression s i m p l y a l l u d e d to the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s do n o t r e a c t t o g i v e n i s s u e s as c o h e s i v e l y as f a r e x a m p l e e m p l o y e e s and w o r k e r s do ... A f t e r t h i s r e m i n d e r , my t h e s i s t o t h e e a s i l y r e f u t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i s an e x a l t e d s t r a t u m above a l l c l a s s e s o r t h a t i t - i s p r i v y to r e v e l a t i o n s . In regard to the l a t t e r my c l a i m was m e r e l y t h a t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s have a maximum o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e s t and e m p l o y t h e s o c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e v i s t a s and t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s (1953:105-6).  -82-  But e v e n i n I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a t h i s p o i n t i s c l e a r t o c a r e f u l reader. T h e r e he n o t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e :  the  H i t h e r t o a l l c l a s s e s have i n c l u d e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e uho a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r d i r e c t i n t e r e s t s , a s t r a t u m more o r i e n t e d t o u a r d s u h a t m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e realm c f the s p i r i t . S o c i o l o g i c a l l y , t h e y c o u l d be c a l l e d " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " , b u t f o r p r e s e n t o p u r p o s e ue must be more precise. Lie a r e n o t r e f e r r i n g h e r e t o t h o s e uho b e a r the o u t u a r d i n s i g n i a o f e d u c a t i o n , b u t t o t h o s e f e u among them uho c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n somet h i n g e l s e than success (258). *i  '  •  I n t h e s e t e r m s i t i s c l e a r t h a t Mannheim's p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e r s a more f u n d a m e n t a l c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n u h i c h i l l u m i n a t e s P o p p e r ' s i n c a p a c i t y to grasp the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t h i s oun p o s i t i o n , a s i d e f r o m h i s a p p a r e n t a p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e autonomy o f l o g i c , had l a r g e l y c o n v e r g e d u i t h t h a t o f Mannheim. P o p p e r ' s h e r e t i c a l v e r s i o n o f n e o - p o s i t i v i s m may be t a k e n as t h e most d a r i n g e f f o r t t o r e s c u e s c i e n c e f r o m t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s t o r i c i z a t i o n . He s i m p l y c o u l d n o t c o n c e i v e o f a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n i r r a t i o n a l s i m as t h e a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e autonomy of l o g i c . Mannheim uas p r o f o u n d l y a u a r e o f t h i s k i n d o f c o n c e r n , b u t s a u i t as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n t a l i t y o f an a c a d e m i c . p h i l o s o p h y u h i c h s o u g h t t o c o n s t r u c t an e p i s t e m o l o g y i n dependent of the r e s u l t s of a l l the s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s : 1  •ur p o i n t i s not, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the s o c i o l o g y of k n o u l e d g e u i l l , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , s u p p l a n t e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and n o o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y , b u t r a t h e r t h a t i t has made c e r t a i n , d i s c o v e r i e s u h i c h have more t h a n a.mere f a c t u a l r e l e v a n c e , and u h i c h c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y d e a l t u i t h u n t i l some o f t h e c o n c e p t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y e p i s t e m o l o g y have been r e v i s e d ... Under t h e d o m i n a n t p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f p r e s e n t - d a y p h i l o s o p h y i t u i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o u t i l i z e t h i s neu i n s i g h t f o r e p i s t e m o l o g y , b e c a u s e modern t h e o r y o f k n o u l e d g e i s b a s e d on t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t b a r e f a c t f i n d i n g has no r e l e v a n c e t o v a l i d i t y . Under t h e s a n c t i o n s of t h i s a r t i c l e of f a i t h , every enrichment of knouledge a r i s i n g out of c o n c r e t e r e s e a r c h , u h i c h — seen from a u i d e r p o i n t *of v i e u — d a r e s t o open up more f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i s s t i g m a t i z e d u i t h the phrase " s o c i o l o g i s m " - ... U i t h t h e p e a c e o f m i n d t h a t comes f r o m t h e a p r i o r i premise t h a t e p i s t e m o l o g y i s independent of the " e m p i r i c a l " s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s , t h e m i n d i s o n c e and f o r a l l c l o s e d to the i n s i g h t u h i c h a broadened e m p i r i c i s m might bring. The r e s u l t i s t h a t one f a i l s t o see t h a t t h i s theory of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , t h i s gesture of s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n , s e r v e s no o t h e r p u r p o s e t h a n t h a t o f a b u l u a r k f o r a c e r t a i n type of academic e p i s t e m o l o g y u h i c h , i n i t s l a s t s t a g e s , i s a t t e m p t i n g to p r e s e r v e i t s e l f from the c o l l a p s e u h i c h m i g h t r e s u l t f r o m a more d e v e l o p e d e m p i r i c i s m (IU:288).  -83-  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , f o r n e i t h e r N a g e l n o r M e r t o n — despite their o t h e r c r i t i c i s m s and f a i l u r e t o f u l l y t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Mannheim's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e r s p e c t i v e s , does t h e p r i n c i p l e of " r e l a t i o n i s m " imply a s k e p t i c a l r e l a t i v i s m . IMagel goes so f a r as t o a r g u e t h a t " i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see i n u h a t uay ' r e l a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y ' d i f f e r s from ' o b j e c t i v i t y ' u i t h o u t the q u a l i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e and i n t h e c u s t o m a r y s e n s e o f t h e u o r d " (1961:5D1). Merton concurs u i t h the v i e u t h a t : I n e x p o u n d i n g h i s r e l a t i o n i s t v i e u s ... Mannheim has come f u l l c i r c l e t o h i s p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e ; so much so t h a t h i s p r e s e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s may be r e a d i l y a s s i m i l a t e d t o t h o s e by R i c k e r t and Max U e b e r . . . t h e ' p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g f u n c t i o n ' o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e s i m p l y a s s i s t s us i n a s c e r t a i n i n g the l i m i t s u i t h i n u h i c h g e n e r a l i z e d propo s i t i o n s are v a l i d . What Mannheim c a l l s p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t h i n g b u t a neu t e r m f o r a u i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r e c e p t , namely, t h a t u h a t e v e r i s f o u n d t r u e u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be assumed t o be t r u e u n i v e r s a l l y o r u i t h o u t l i m i t s and c o n d i t i o n s ... Mannheim's c o n c e p t i o n o f " p e r s p e c t i v i s m " i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same as t h e R i c k e r t - W e b e r c o n c e p t i o n o f Wertbeziehung ( u h i c h holds t h a t v a l u e s are r e l e v a n t to the f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c p r o b l e m and c h o i c e o f mate r i a l s but are not r e l e v a n t to the v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s ) ... I n p a r t , Mannheim's i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s e a r l i e r u r i t i n g s s t e m s f r o m an i n d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t u e e n i n - c o r r e c t n e s s ( i n v a l i d i t y ) and p e r s p e c t i v e (onesidedness). P e r s p e c t i v a l s t a t e m e n t s are presumably not i n c o r r e c t , i f _ t h e i r a u t h o r r e c o g n i z e s and a l l o u s f o r t h e i r p a r t i a l n a t u r e ; they are then s i m p l y a b s t r a c t f o r m u l a t i o n s of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n c r e t e a c t i o n . They a r e , h o u e v e r , d e f i n i t e l y i n v a l i d i f t h e y a r e s u b m i t t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o m p l e t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e phenomena i n q u e s t i o n . ( W h i t e h e a d s ' f a l l a c y of misplaced concreteness' (1969:559-6D). 1  IMor does M e r t o n see t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a l l t h a t r e v o l u t i o n a r y , a t l e a s t f o r anyone a c q u a i n t e d u i t h A m e r i c a n p r a g matism: As f o r t h e v e r i t a b l e r e v o l u t i o n l e d g e u h i c h s e e s as d e r i v i n g f r o m an o f W i s s e n s s o z i o l o g i e , i t can be s a i d l i n e s t h i s e p i s t e m o l o g y has f o r some to the American mind. I t i s t h a t of m e d i a t e d by Deuey and Mead... ( 5 6 2 ) .  i n the theory of knouappropriate extension that i n i t s bold outt i m e been, f a m i l i a r P e i r c e and James,  Moreover, at l e a s t tuo books i n the t h e o r y of s o c i o l o g i c a l method t a k e as t h e i r p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t " t h e r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s and measurement s c a l e s o f .any s c i e n c e can be v i e u e d as a p r o b l e m i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e " ( C i c o u r e l , 1 9 6 4 : 7 ) ; c f . S j o b e r g and I\lettw(1968).  A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e mast g e n e r a l e p i s t e m o l a g i c a l m o d e l i s p e r h a p s historical. Mannheim o u t l i n e s t h e b a s i c a l l y D a r u i n i a n c o n c e p t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a n g e i n h i s e s s a y on " C o m p e t i t i o n as a C u l t u r a l Phenomenon" u h e r e he a r g u e s t h a t : ... t h e s o - c a l l e d ' d i a l e c t i c a l ' ( a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e u n i l i n e a r ( c o n t i n u o u s ) f o r m o f e v o l u t i o n and change i n m e n t a l l i f e c a n be l a r g e l y t r a c e d b a c k t o t u o v e r y s i m p l e s t r u c t u r a l determinants of s o c i a l character: to the e x i s t e n c e o f g e n e r a t i o n s , and t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e phenomenon o f c o m p e t i t i o n ... ( 1 9 5 2 : 1 9 3 ) . P o p p e r d e s c r i b e s t h i s phenomenon a s f o l l o u s : A l l t h i s may be e x p r e s s e d by s a y i n g t h a t t h e g r o u t h of our knouledge i s the r e s u l t o f a process c l o s e l y r e sembling uhat Daruin c a l l e d ' n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n ' ; that i s , the n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n o f hypotheses : our knouledge cons i s t s , a t e v e r y moment, o f t h o s e h y p o t h e s e s u h i c h have s h o u n t h e i r ( c o m p a r a t i v e ) f i t n e s s by s u r v i v i n g so f a r i n t h e i r struggle f o r existence; a competitive struggle uhich e l i m i n a t e s t h o s e h y p o t h e s e s u h i c h a r e u n f i t ... T h i s s t a t e ment o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s meant t o d e s c r i b e hou k n o u l e d g e r e a l l y grous. I t i s n o t meant m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , t h o u g h o f c o u r s e i t makes u s e o f m e t a p h o r s . The t h e o r y o f k n o u l e d g e uhich I u i s h t o propose i s a l a r g e l y D a r u i n i a n theory of the grouth o f knouledge (CK:261). U i t h i n t h i s frameuork the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a l u a t i o n a l o r i d e o l o g i c a l component o f t h e s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s becomes fully apparent. T h i s " e v o l u t i o n a r y e p i s t e m o l o g y " has r e c e i v e d i m p o r t a n t r e c e n t t r e a t m e n t s and d e v e l o p m e n t s i n C a m p b e l l ( 1 9 7 D ) and T o u l m i n (1972).  -85-  VII.  SOCIAL SCIENCE AND SDCIAL PLANNING  I n C h a p t e r V, ue s a u hou P o p p e r ' s c a r i c a t u r e o f Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e as " s o c i o l o g i s m " b e t r a y e d understanding  of i t s claims  and o b j e c t i v e s .  to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the general  its  against  classical  (Kantian  lead  directly  Both uere i n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  and e m p i r i c i s t ) p h i l o s o p h y  uith  c e n t e r i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m o f o b j e c t i v e k n o u l e d g e on t h e c h a r -  a c t e r i s t i c s of the individualsknouer. stood  ation of t h e i r  social theoretical creativity uorld vieu.  coupled  uith  stateexplan-  an a p p e a l  Moreover, both sought t o assim-  t h e p r o b l e m p o s e d by h i s t o r y f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s o f  concern.  F o r P o p p e r t h i s meant an e v o l u t i o n a r y  scientific ulative  " t r u t h " as s i m p l y  ideal.  a progressive  to c e r t i t u d e or t r u t h ,  epistemologies.  of  movement t o u a r d  Thus b o t h r e j e c t e d any  introduced  e p i s t e m o l o g y , and s o u g h t t o c o u n t e r a c t nihilistic  conception  a reg-  F o r Mannheim i t assumed t h e i d e a l o f a r e l a t i o n a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of perspectives. claims  as a g e n e r a l  of knouledge r a t h e r than a s o c i o l o g i c a l  f o r a neu, transcendent ilate  Popper, houever, misunder-  Mannheim's comments on t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s  ment i n t h e t h e o r y  and  This  mis-  epistemological vieupoints of  P o p p e r and Mannheim i n C h a p t e r V I . revolt  a profound  tendencies  absolute  dynamic elements i n t o  the r e l a t i v i s t i c ,  skeptical,  c o i n c i d e n t u i t h the breakdoun o f c l a s s i c a l  Their r e s u l t i n g evolutionary  and h i s t o r i c a l  epistemologies  u e r e b a s e d upon t h e n a t u r a l and t h e h i s t o r i c a l  respectively.  E a c h had been s t i m u l a t e d by t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v o l -  utions uhich  had d o m i n a t e d t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n i n  sciences  -86C e n t r a l Europe: Marxian  E i n s t e i n ' s theory  tradition  p a i n t s , both traditions  f o r Mannheim.  developed  Despite  these  a s o c i a l espistemalogy  and i n s t i t u t i o n s  difficulties  f o r P o p p e r and t h e H e g e l i a n different  starting  uhich stressed the  o f s c i e n c e and d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e p e c u l i a r  of introducing s c i e n t i f i c  controls into  historical  interpretation."'" T h i s g e n e r a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n v e r g e n c e o f P o p p e r and Mannheim u a s a c c o m p a n i e d by r e m a r k a b l y  similar  r o l e o f the s o c i a l sciences i n s o c i e t y . p h a s i z i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l and a d a p t i v e knouledge.  A c c o r d i n g l y , both  totalitarianism  conclude  I n d e e d , ue f i n d b o t h  em-  functions of s c i e n t i f i c i n response to the r i s e Df  that only a s e l f - c r i t i c a l  experimentally guided  formulations of the  reason  as e m b o d i e d i n  p l a n n i n g by t e c h n i c a l e l i t e s p r o v i d e s  hope 2  for  the p r e s e r v a t i o n of l i b e r a l  Yet  again  his  fundamental divergence  d e m o c r a c y and r a t i o n a l i t y  Popper p e r s i s t s i n h i s e f f o r t  in a distinction  to convince  f r o m Mannheim.  betueen "piecemeal"  itself.  the reader  of  This point i s elaborated  and " U t o p i a n "  social  engin-  eering. Popper r e a d i l y "practical  acknouledges that the question of the  task o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s " provided  a common g r o u n d o f  d i s c u s s i o n b e t u e e n h i m s e l f and some h i s t o r i c i s t s , • n a m e l y , (PH:57).  The t e r m i n o l o g i c a l e m p h a s i s on " p i e c e m e a l "  desire to differentiate "collectivist on  meal — argues. simply  reflects  a  h i s p o s i t i o n from t h a t o f the t h e Utopian  p l a n n i n g " o f Mannheim.  Popper's theory  Mannheim  of knouledge.  This p o i n t i s u l t i m a t e l y based  Only a d e q u a t e l y  tested —  piece-  k n o u l e d g e s h o u l d be t h e b a s i s f o r s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , he C e n t r a l i z e d planning r e q u i r e s types do n o t e x i s t .  of knouledge  Even i f s u c h k n o u l e d g e d i d e x i s t ,  uhich  i t could  -87-  not  be s u f f i c i e n t l y  c e n t r a l i z e d i n one h e a d i n t h e manner r e q u i r e d  for decision-making  (PHiSA-)."  power" i t i s " i m p o s s i b l e  Thus, w h i l e  3  to centralize  i t " i s easy t o c e n t r a l i z e  a l l t h a t knowledge which i s  d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r many i n d i v i d u a l m i n d s , a n d whose w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y cisely As  f o r t h e w i s e w i e l d i n g o f power" ( 8 9 - 9 0 ) .  t h i s imperfect  k n o w l e d g e makes c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g  a consequence, Popper c o n c l u d e s ,  a l l planning  m e a l , " f o r ':the g r e a t e r t h e h o l i s t i c are t h e u n i n t e n d e d and l a r g e l y upon t h e h o l i s t i c (68).  "it  engineer  Nevertheless,  of p r e j u d g i n g  impossible.  i s i n fact  "piece-  unexpected r e p e r c u s s i o n s , f o r c i n g  the expedient  the b e l i e f  Pre-  changes a t t e m p t e d , t h e g r e a t e r  of  piecemeal"improvisation"  i n t o t a l planning  d e c i s i o n s i n favor o f a necessary  prejudices the Utopianist against  which s t a t e l i m i t s  centralization  has t h e ' e f f e c t  total reconstruction:  certain sociological  t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l ..." ( S 9 ) .  hypotheses  This i s  e s p e c i a l l y the. c a s e w i t h t h e u n c e r t a i n t y c r e a t e d by t h e "human factor".  The o n l y  alternative to this sort of uncertainty i s coercion  and  the transformation  For  such p l a n n i n g  o f man s u c h t h a t he becomes p r e d i c t a b l e (70-).  a i m s a t what P o p p e r d e s c r i b e s  f r o m Mannheim o u t o f c o n t e x t  —  —  citing  phrases  as r e m o d e l l i n g  ... t h e 'whole o f s o c i e t y ' i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a d e f i n i t e p l a n o r b l u e p r i n t ; i t aims a t ' s e i z i n g t h e key p o s i t i o n s ' and a t e x t e n d i n g ' t h e power o f t h e S t a t e ... u n t i l t h e S t a t e becomes n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h ' s o c i e t y ' , and i t a i m s , f u r t h e r m o r e , ' a t c o n t r o l l i n g f r o m t h e s e 'key p o s i t i o n s ' t h e h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s t h a t mould t h e f u t u r e o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g society: e i t h e r by a r r e s t i n g t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , o r e l s e by f o r s e e i n g i t s c o u r s e and a d j u s t i n g t o i t - ( 6 7 ) . The  task  Mannheim's t h e o r y of t h i s , the  nowi  i s t o assess  of s o c i a l planning.  however, i t i s n e c e s s a r y  Popper's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Before  we t u r n t o t h e d e t a i l s  t o d i g r e s s f o r a moment t o c l a r i f y  c e n t r a l concept o f Popper's c r i t i q u e :  historicism.  -88-  In t h e f i r s t provides  p a g e s Df The P o v e r t y  o f H i s t o r i c i s m Popper  this succinct d e f i n i t i o n of h i s subject:  ... I mean by ' h i s t o r i c i s m ' an a p p r o a c h t o t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u h i c h assumes t h a t h i s t o r i c a l p r e d i c t i o n i s t h e i r p r i n c i p a l a i m , and u h i c h assumes t h a t t h i s a i m i s a t t a i n a b l e by d i s c o v e r i n g t h e ' r h y t h m s ' o r t h e ' p a t terns', the 'laus* or the 'trends' that underlie the e v o l u t i o n o f h i s t o r y (PH:3). The viction  that  importance o f such b e l i e f s "such h i s t o r i c i s t  i s underscored'by h i s con-  d o c t r i n e s o f method a r e a t b o t t o m  responsible f o r the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y state of the t h e o r e t i c a l sciences he  ( o t h e r than economic t h e o r y )  i s using a type  ing  doctrine.  construct uhich  Rather,  ..." ( 3 ) .  p o s s i b l e c a s e f o r a number o f i n t e r r e l a t e d elements uhich  have r e p e a t e d l y  s o c i a l change a n d c o n f l i c t . he  He c o n c e d e s  does n o t c o r r e s p o n d  he s u g g e s t s t h a t . h e  that  t o any e x i s t -  has c o n s t r u c t e d ideas uhich  appeared during  social  the best  share  periods  common  of rapid  By i n t r o d u c i n g s u c h an u n f a m i l i a r  label,  had hoped t o a v o i d m e r e l y v e r b a l q u i b b l e s : ... f o r n o b o d y , I hope, u i l l be t e m p t e d t o q u e s t i o n u h e t h e r any o f t h e a r g u m e n t s h e r e d i s c u s s e d r e a l l y o r p r o p e r l y o r e s s e n t i a l l y belong t o h i s t o r i c i s m , or uhat t h e u o r d ' h i s t o r i c i s m ' r e a l l y o r p r o p e r l y means ( 4 ) . T h i s hope h a s i n f a c t been d a s h e d , t h e t e r m  has  been s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e  commentary i n u h i c h  p r e t a t i o n h a s been s u b j e c t t o s e v e r e At l e a s t f i v e b a s i c c o n t e x t s (Lee  and B e c k , 1.954).^ The f i r s t  against  18th century  "historicism" Popper's  inter-  criticism. o f u s e have been  r e f e r s to the general  identified reaction  r a t i o n a l i s m and i s a s s o c i a t e d u i t h t h e emerg-  ence o f g e n e t i c - h i s t o r i c a l t y p e s p l a n a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n .  This  development and i n d i v i d u a l i t y  o f a n a l y s i s as t h e b a s i s o f e x i n v o l v e d i n p a r t e m p h a s i s on  i n place of the s t a b i l i t y  o f human  -89-  nature  and r e a s o n  t h i s sense, history  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the n a t u r a l l a u t h e o r i s t s .  In  t h e t e r m r e f e r s t o an " a g e " o r p e r i o d o f E u r o p e a n  (568^70).  The s e c o n d m e a n i n g r e f e r s t o t h e s p e c i f i c  o f h i s t o r i o g r a p h y u h i c h became t h e s o u r c e oration of aspects  of t h i s  "historicist"  of a methodical tradition.  school  elab-  This  German  7 Historismus  came t o embody a W e l t a n s c h a u u n g , a s u e l l  movement, t h o u g h i n d e b t e d  (57G).  This  t o H e g e l i n many u a y s , u a s a n t i - H e g e l i a n , 8  especially  i n i t s rejection of h i s t o r i c a l  dynamics.  n o t i o n emerging o f t h e c u l m i n a t i n g f i g u r e s o f t h i s Troeltsch events ian  Life  short, h i s historicism  of p h i l o s o p h y  understanding  1  t o des-  i s a uay o f l o o k i n g a t l i f e  but i t i s not a d e t e r m i n i s t i c  i s too f l u i d  and t o o c o n c r e t e  i s historicising.iqf  and i s m a n i f e s t e d  life  for that.  and e n l i v e n i n g  free history  1  historicization  i n t h e u o r k o f C r o c e and C o l l i n g u o o d .  becomes " t h e a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t l i f e  and h i s t o r y  uhile stopping  alone."  Collinguood's  and r e a l i t y  related thinking,  s h o r t o f s u c h a f o r m u l a t i o n , does i n v o l v e an a t t e m p t from s c i e n c e through  h i s t o r y of thought  the notion Df h i s t o r y  as t h e  (572-3).  A f o u r t h sense i d e n t i f i e s  (573-4).  —  of the h i s t o r -  he a t t e m p t s  v e r s i o n has b e e n d e s c r i b e d as t h e  For Croce h i s t o r i c i s m  relativism  tradition  (571).  A third  are h i s t o r y  f o r Meinicke  a Weltanschauung —  of history.  of h i s t o r y "  to  and s y m p a t h e t i c  Thus, " h i s t o r i c i s m  the u o r l d —  central  i s an e m p h a s i s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f  uho i s a l s o p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l s t r e a m  philosophy In  —  and t h e i n t u i t i v e  cribe. and  and M e i n i c k e  The  and r e l a t i o n i s m u i t h This d e f i n i t i o n ,  "historicism" uith  explicit  historical  r e f e r e n c e t o Mannheim  houever, corresponds  t o uhat  Popper  -go-  referred  t o as e i t h e r  "sociologism"  or "historism".  As he p u t i t :  A theory o f t h i s kind uhich emphasizes the s o c i o l o g i c a l dependence o f our o p i n i o n s i s sometimes c a l l e d s o c i o l o g i s m ; i f t h e h i s t o r i c a l dependence i s emphasized, i t i s c a l l e d historism (0S-II:208). The  f i n a l sense o f h i s t o r i c i s m i s Popper's uhere i t i s  associated  uith historical prediction.  variations  o f meaning, i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t  the  history  o f the concept  I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e above the revieuers  of  suggest:  ... P o p p e r ' s u s e o f t h e t e r m ' h i s t o r i c i s m ' t o mean a m e t h o d o l o g y t h a t 'aims a t h i s t o r i c a l p r e d i c t i o n ' u o u l d seem u n f o r t u n a t e b e c a u s e a l m o s t a l l t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f h i s t o r i c i s m r e p u d i a t e any s e a r c h f o r ' l a u s ' i n t h e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s e n s e , and hence deny t h a t h i s t o r y o f f e r s a b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i o n ( L e e and B e c k , 1951+1571'). This conclusion,  houever, o n l y h o l d s f o r uhat Popper terms  " n a t u r a l i s t i c " h i s t o r i c i s m , as ue s h a l l s e e . uishes' a l e s s obvious uithout closer  invoking  F o r he a l s o  " a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t i c " variety uhich  the natural  s c i e n t i f i c model.  examination o f Popper's a p p l i c a t i o n  i n order to assess h i s version.  prophesizes  This suggests a  o f the concept i s r e q u i r e d  I n any c a s e , f o r e x p o s i t o r y  v e n i e n c e , P o p p e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t u e e n " h i s t o r i c i s m " and uill  be f o l l o u e d  disting-  con-  "historism"  u i t h t h e above d e f i n i t i o n s i n m i n d .  A s i d e from t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n a l m a t t e r s , Popper's use o f the  term h i s t o r i c i s m s u f f e r s  its  strict  use  as a d e s c r i p t i o n  history.  deterministic  sense t h e idea  inconsistency.  Within  o f " h i s t o r i c i s m " h a s some  of a particular variety  of philosophy of  I n i t s a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r m t h i s i s m a n i f e s t e d i n an  inexorable,  intuitionally  form i t a s s e r t s instance  from a s e r i o u s  a single  perceived destiny;  in its naturalistic  l a u of h i s t o r i c a l evolution.  In the f i r s t  t h e form o f e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r o p h e t i c and i n t h e second i t  -91-  is predictive. As  f o r the  second, uhich  scientific the  pretensions,  he  the  first  cogent:  and  need not  argues that  c a n n o t be  described  biological evolution history  c a n n o t be  dicting  the  proviso  us.  e v o l u t i o n of s o c i e t y " i s  His  evolution  ( P H : 1 0 8 - 9 ) ; and  admits the  t h a t t h e y do n o t  "historicism" Yet  argument i s s i m p l e  i s a s i n g l e , unique  2) t h a t t h e  because of the  hou  many p h i l o s o p h e r s  and  believe.  20th c e n t u r i e s .  resided  of  preAt  statements' u i t h The  primary confusion  Apparently,  C e r t a i n l y not he  the  failure underlying  In h i s case, the  in Austria.  tuo  The  vieus  most i n f l u e n t i a l  difficulty  history-as-a-lau,  i n the  does an  i n the  i s t h a t as t h e  historical  to Popper  popular  late  19th  o f S p e n g l e r and period  and  of in  uhich  historical  pure type  i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y q u e s t i o n a b l e  At u h a t p o i n t  held  as many as  i s r e a c t i n g to the  "determinism" of s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s departs from the  as s u c h .  can  course  o f h i s t o r y have r e a l l y  predictive vieus?  " v u l g a r " Marxism uere the he  future  laus.  v u l g a r i z a t i o n s of h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s p r e v a l e n t early  more t h a n  knouledge ( v i - v i i i ) .  constitute scientific i s the  event  i m p o s s i b i l i t y of  l e g i t i m a c y of t r e n d  claims,  and  (115-6).  such p r o p h e t i c u o u l d have us  he  This r e j e c t i o n  i n t e r m s o f a s i n g l e l a u any  predicted  to understand t h i s ,  mysticism.  i t indiscriminately applies  f u t u r e grouth of s c i e n t i f i c  same t i m e he  sheer  l a u to a unique event.  detain  1) t h a t h i s t o r i c a l  as  t a k e s more s e r i o u s l y b e c a u s e o f i t s  p r i n c i p l e of such a " l a u of the  persuasive  the  he  concept of a s c i e n t i f i c  of the  and  Popper d i s m i s s e s  of  t o l a b e l them  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n became  nan-historicist? In p o l e m i c a l l y p o l a r i z i n g the planation  and  dichtomy of s c i e n t i f i c  h i s t o r i c i s t m y s t i f i c a t i o n and  pseudo-science,  ex-  Popper  -92-  failed the  to  develop his a n a l y s i s  non-historicist variety.  of  historical interpretation  In f a i l i n g  to e l a b o r a t e t h i s  he  l e a v e s many r e a d e r s u i t h t h e  an  e f f o r t to p r o v i d e a dynamic d e s c r i p t i o n  "historicist™.  But  t h i s i s not  in. h i s a c k n o u l e d g e m e n t o f  the  What he  them as  laus rather  p o i n t s of  vieu  ...  distinguished (151). ue  Ue  by  are  planation  uay  f o r the  ue  "more o r  —  the  m a t t e r u h i c h Mannheim has  have s e e n  less  the  In  the  interesting  same l e v e l o f  criteria  by  both be  uhich  l o g i c a l l y severing  the  h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s from s c i e n t i f i c  such i n t e r p r e t i v e  r e l a t i v i s m he  an  a p o i n t o f some i m p o r t a n c e ) "  i n d i c a t i o n of  of  is  h i s t o r i c i s t s present  l e a v e s c o m p l e t e l y open t h e  status  makes  ( e v e n t h o u g h some o f them may  "fertility".  e x p l a n a t i o n of  l o g i c a l n a t u r e and the  firm  i n g e n e r a l , he  c a s e as  f u n d a m e n t a l l y on  their fertility  might determine such  q u e s t i o n of  t h a n as  arbitrariness  g i v e n no  the  anyone uho  society  o b j e c t s to i s that  u h i c h are  s u g g e s t i v e n e s s and  quite  of  issue,  p r a c t i c a l importance of " h i s t o r i c a l  interpretations". scientific  impression that  of  fears.  As  ue  matter of  " t h e o r y " and  ex-  the  opens  have s e e n , t h i s i s a  given considerable attention  to  under  the  g heading of  "perspectives".  Popper's tendency to r e i f y the stretch  i t to  results  i n an  his  a c c o m o d a t e any ;  of  "utopian h i s t o r i c i s m " .  af t h e o r i s t s  like  he  suggests, a f a i t h  or  s p e e d up  pessimistic so  he  h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r y he  historicism does n o t  the vieu  Plato  and  Mannheim) uho  in h i s t o r i c a l prediction  h i s t o r i c a l process. of  Such t h o u g h t i s  Marx (and  history  For  i n u h i c h change uas  p r o j e c t e d a "Utopian b l u e p r i n t "  Plata  combine,  had  to  control  a  identified uith  uhich uauld arrest  in  character-  uith a desire  instance,  and  like  a m b i g u i t y o f m e a n i n g u h i c h becomes most a p p a r e n t  discussion  istic  concept of  change  decay  -93-  altogether.  This  to a s t a t i c ,  as o p p o s e d t o t h e  of  " h i s t o r i c i s m " and  sociology help neu  constituted, according  can  i t ) to  'shorten  (71).  and  a l s o the  o f U t o p i a n s and  of the  be  historicists:  scientifically  inquiry"  initial  history.  determinist  pangs' of  elements?  The  "holism".  This  or of m o r a l d e c i s i o n , but  contradictory  a of  source, method  by  them u i t h i n  aims or  that  their  ends  they  fields  F o r ue  are  uho  of  "Utopian h i s t o r i c i s m " c a l l s  " h i s t o r i c i s m " as  l e f t u i t h the  uould stop,  u o u l d have p e r h a p s b e n e f i t e d of h i s t o r y .  of  In t h i s  c a s e he  "trend  finds perfectly The  lau  question of  voluntaristic  describable  and  Popper  of p h i l o s -  m i g h t have a d m i t t e d a t y p e  argued t h a t u i t h o u t  proceed i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n . calls  prospect of  i n the  f r o m a more r e f i n e d t y p o l o g y  human i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s of r a t i o n a l l y  faith  into  spped-up, and/or c o n t r o l h i s t o r y !  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y uhich  u h a t he  birth  "both b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r  discovered  definition  historicists  opies  the  may  (74). This  the  historical  "moral h i s t o r i c i s m " a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  a r e not- a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e , may  fusion  What makes p o s s i b l e s u c h a f u s i o n  v o l u n t a r i s t , and  basis  M a r x i s t s , "a  lessen  Popper s u g g e s t s , i s a s h a r e d methodologicalis  v e r s i o n , of the  i n t e r p r e t e d as a k i n d o f t e c h n o l o g y u h i c h  h i s t o r i c a l period"  perfectionist,  dynamic M a r x i s t  " a c t i v i s m " (FH:73i5. F o r  e v e n be  ( a s Marx p u t  t o P o p p e r , u h a t amounts  of  self-conscious  change u o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y , on partially But  testable  the  processes,  t h i s u o u l d be more a k i n  s t a t e m e n t s " , a method o f a n a l y s i s u h i c h  to  he  acceptable.  bankruptcy of Popper's conceptual  a p p a r e n t i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f Mannheim's " u t o p i a n Popper a v e r s u i t h r e s p e c t  t o Mannheim's u o r k :  monism becomes historicism". i t i s "the  most  fully As  -3k-  elaborate e x p o s i t i o n of a h o l i s t i c t o me"  (67).  and  historicist  programme known  F o r i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e t h r e a t p o s e d by  p l a n n i n g , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f an betueen h i s t o r i c i s m  and  Utopianism.  collectivist  "unholy  alliance"  T h u s , Mannhaim's c o n j e c t u r e s  on t h e p l a c e o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n t h e s o c i a l p l a n n i n g  process  are a t t a c k e d f a r :  knou-  1) an i r r a t i o n a l s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f  l e d g e ; 2) h i s t o r i c i s m ; The  3) h o l i s t i c m e t h o d s , and  t a s k of the remainder of t h i s  of these 1.  charges  chapter  moral  i s to assess  i n t h e l i g h t o f P o p p e r ' s oun  F o r P o p p e r one  k)  critical  Utopianism.  the  validity  principles.  o f t h e f l a u s o f Mannheim's p r o p o s a l s f o r  s o c i a l planning i s that i t "occurs  i n closest alliance uith  doctrine uhich i s d e f i n i t e l y  opposed to r a t i o n a l i s m " —  o f knowledge ( O S - I I : 2 1 2 - 3 ) .  His a l t e r n a t i v e  a  the s o c i o l o g y  i s tD b y p a s s  questions  b a s e d on an i r r a t i o n a l t h e o r y o f k n o u l e d g e , " t o f o r g e t a l l a b o u t t h e v e r b a l f i r e u o r k s and  to t a c k l e the p r a c t i c a l problems of  t i m e u i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l methods u h i c h t h e same i n a l l s c i e n c e s " ( 2 2 2 ) . t h a t Mannheim s u g g e s t s of o b j e c t i v i t y  and  i n s o c i a l research.''"'"'  Mannheim's i n t e r e s t  are.fundamentally  T h i s stems from h i s e r r o n e o u s  t h a t a l o o f n e s s and  o f an o p p o s i t i o n b e t u e e n h i s oun  our  detachment are the  Popper c r e a t e s the  advocacy of e m p i r i c a l  belief  basis  impression procedures  i n the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge: .  : As o p p o s e d t o t h i s , t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e h o p e s t o r e f o r m t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s by m a k i n g t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t a u a r e o f t h e s o c i a l f o r c e s and i d e o l o g i e s u h i c h u n c o n s c i o u s l y b e s e t him ; ( 2 ' 2 2 ) . . , More a c c u r a t e l y P o p p e r m i g h t have s a i d F o r as has  " i n a d d i t i o n to  been d e m o n s t r a t e d p r e v i o u s l y Mannheim uas  this."  v e r y much a u a r e  o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c method a p p l i e d t o t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  -95-  Ldhat he s o u g h t t o do u a s move one s t e p hou  the application  historical  sciences  o f s u c h methods o c c u r r e d  frameuork.  Popper going  clear  such r e s e a r c h  and uhat p r o g r e s s It i s difficult  uould  actually  the s o c i a l  forms t h a t uould  "practice"  uhen Mannheim's e n t i r e  for  a "science  of p o l i t i c s "  inseparable.  devoted p r i m a r i l y technology  of s o c i a l  mean.  and " i n t e r e s t "  effort  i n the asserfrom  to establish  assumes t h a t i n t e r e s t  "theory"  the basis  and c o g n i t i o n a r e  M o r e o v e r , t h e volume Man and S o c i e t y i s  t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the importance o f s o c i a l  forsocial  fora relative  perspectives??  under-  i t be p o s s i b l e  t o s e e hou P o p p e r c a n p e r s i s t  t h a t Mannheim d i s a s s o c i a t e d " u i l l "  ultimately  kind i s  g u i d e l i n e s a s t o e x a c t l y u h a t k i n d o f "demo-  and  call  of this  i n s t i t u t i o n s " are necessary f o r the progress  I tion  questions  t o u n d e r s t a n d uhy i n f a c t  Only u i t h  about  i n a s o c i a l and  a r e u n d e r d e v e l o p e d and t h e p a r t i c u l a r  to e s t a b l i s h  science  O n l y by a s k i n g  t o be a b l e  d e v e l o p m e n t takes."'"''"  cratic  b e y o n d t h i s by a s k i n g  control  of the planning  detachment r e l a t e s  process.  Mannheim's  t o another question,  that of  and i s a r e s p o n s e t o h i s a u a r e n e s s o f t h e dangers o f  a non-critical  pragmatism t o t a l l y  confined  t o immediate  practical  interests. Far  from there  being  any o p p o s i t i o n b e t u e e n t h e s o c i o l o g y  of knouledge and Popper's c o n c e p t i o n are  i n fact  complementary.  o f "piecemeal" planning  While indeed  stitute  f o r those p r a c t i c a l  actions uhich  lishing  the democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s uhich  f r e e d o m o f t h o u g h t , and t h e p r o g r e s s the  specific  they  " s e l f a n a l y s i s i s no s u b are necessary f o r estabalone can guarantee the  of science"  (0S-II:223),  t a s k , b u t r a t h e r one o f t h e b y p r o d u c t s o f s u c h  this  i s not  sociological  -96-  analysis.  P o p p e r can a p p e a l o n l y t o " r e a s o n " , a r e a s o n u h i c h  has c e a s e d t o be s e l f - c r i t i c a l itself  as s o m e t h i n g The  because i t r e f u s e s to  l e s s than c o m p l e t e l y autonomous.  a b s u r d i t y of Popper's  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  a t i o n s of the p r i n c i p l e of the s o c i a l of  acknouledge  implic-  c o n d i t i o n i n g of knouledge  and  b e h a v i o r i n g e n e r a l i s r e v e a l e d by h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e  follouing  statement  by Mannheim uho  urites:  T h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y t o u a r d s m a k i n g c o n s c i o u s t h e f a c t o r s by u h i c h ue have so f a r been u n c o n s c i o u s l y r u l e d ... Those uho f e a r t h a t o u r i n c r e a s i n g k n o u l e d g e o f d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s may p a r a l y s e o u r d e c i s i o n s and t h r e a t e n " f r e e d o m " s h o u l d p u t t h e i r m i n d s a t r e s t . For o n l y he i s t r u l y d e t e r m i n e d uho does n o t knou t h e most e s s e n t i a l d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s but a c t i m m e d i a t e l y under the p r e s s u r e o f d e t e r m i n a n t s unknoun t o him ( C i t e d OS-* IX: 223; c f . IU:18D). To t h i s P o p p e r  replies:  l\lou t h i s i s c l e a r l y j u s t a r e p e t i t i o n o f a p e t i d e a o f H e g e l ' s u h i c h E n g e l s n a i v e l y r e p e a t e d uhen he s a i d : 'Freedom i s t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n e c e s s i t y . ' And i t i s a reactionary prejudice. F o r a r e t h o s e uho a c t u n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e o f u e l l - k n o u n d e t e r m i n a n t s , f o r example o f p o l i t i c a l t y r a n n y , made f r e e by t h e i r k n o u l e d g e ( D S - I I : 2 2 3 ) ? ' Uhat he f a i l s  t o n o t e i s t h a t Mannheim adds i n h i s f o l l o u i n g  sentence: Whenever ue become a u a r e o f a d e t e r m i n a n t u h i c h has d o m i n a t e d u s , ue remove i t f r o m t h e r e a l m o f u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n i n t o t h a t o f c o n t r o l l a b l e , c a l c u l a b l e , and objectified. C h o i c e and d e c i s i o n a r e t h e r e b y n o t e l i m i n a t e d ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , m o t i v e s u h i c h p r e v i o u s l y d o m i n a t e us become s u b j e c t t o o u r d o m i n a t i o n ... ( I U : 1 B 9 - 9 0 ) . Running knouledge  throughout  Mannheim's u o r k i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n  s e r v e s as t h e b a s i s f o r a c t i o n .  Mannheim o f H e g e l i a n q u i e t i s m — of  necessity" —  i s misguided.  to  h i s uhole theory of p l a n n i n g :  For Popper to  " t h a t freedom  i s the  that  accuse  appreciation  Mannheim's v o l u n t a r i s m i s  fundamental  _ 79  ... t h e man Df t o - d a y has f a r more f r e e d o m i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of h i s d e s t i n y than the u n s o c i o l o g i c a l e t h i c s o f t h e p a s t u o u l d have us b e l i e v e ... R i g h t l y u n d e r s t o o d , r e c e n t t e n d e n c i e s t o u a r d s a mass s o c i e t y , and o u r e v e r i n c r e a s i n g auareness of the determinism of s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s do n o t r e l e a s e us f r o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f u t u r e ; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s .uith every advance i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s t o r y , and has n e v e r been g r e a t e r t h a n i t i s t o - d a y (MS:3B1). 2.  Mannheim i s t a k e n  up  by  Popper i n the  " a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t " v a r i e t y of h i s t o r i c i s m uhich guilty  of the  " p r o p h e t i c " r a t h e r than  i n h i s t o r i c a l prophecy i s h i s frequent  evitability planning", "tell in  of planning. he  i s u s e d by  us t h a t p l a n n i n g  uhich  Thus as one  of the  Popper to i l l u s t r a t e  i s simply  h i s t o r y i s proceeding;  inevitable, and  of  the  i m p l i e s t h a t he  is  " p r e d i c t i v e " impulse.  c e n t r a l p i e c e of evidence used to s u s t a i n t h i s belief  context  The  c h a r g e o f Mannheim's a s s e r t i o n of the i n -  advocates of  "Utopian  the p o i n t t h a t ouing  to the  they  direction  t h a t ue must p l a n , u h e t h e r  ue  12 like  i t or not"  (PH:75).  Mannheim's c o n c e r n s i n Man  And and  indeed,  t h i s t h e s i s does u n d e r l i e  Society:  I t seems t o t h e u r i t e r t h a t a f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e m a t t e r f r o m many a n g l e s and u e i g h i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e c h a n g e s o f t h e l a s t d e c a d e , ue a r e boillnd t o come to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e u s , p l a n n i n g u i l l be i n e v i t a b l e . Ue n a t u r a l l y hope i t u i l l t a k e a v e r y d i f f e r e n t f o r m f r o m t h a t c o n c e i v e d by t h e d i c t a t o r s h i p s ... G i v e n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n t h e r e i s no l o n g e r any c h o i c e b e t u e e n p l a n n i n g and l a i s s e r - f a i r e , b u t o n l y bet u e e n good p l a n n i n g and bad ( 6 ) . But  is this  assume a p a r t i c u l a r in  (150).  " i n v e n t i n g " and discovery  "historicism"?  C e r t a i n l y , i t does  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t o r y u h i c h Mannheim  part to a n o t i o n of  thought"  and  an e x a m p l e o f  "three  fundamental stages  These a r e t h e "planning".  stages  In the  of  first  i s b a s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on  "chance  i n the h i s t o r y of discovery",  c u s t o m and  chance.  links  tradition  rule  Natural selection  -98-  tended  t o p r e s e r v e t h o s e g r o u p s u h i c h can r e t a i n and  findings uith adaptive s i g n i f i c a n c e . t o o l s and  i n s t i t u t i o n s uere  touards p a r t i c u l a r  goals" (151).  ,Yet i n , t h i s s t a g e , u h i c h c u l m i n a t i n g i n the  " i n v e n t i n g " stage s t i l l  he a n t i c i p a t e d an i n c i p i e n t  "single directed  transition  t o be  to the t h i r d  brought  industrial  c o n s c i o u s r e g u l a t i o n by s o c i e t y i s m i n i m a l .  Mannheim c o n s i d e r e d t h i s  stage  stage,  c o n s c i o u s l y m o d i f i e d and t h e n  f o r t h the development of t e c h n o l o g y revolution,  At t h e s e c o n d  t r a n s m i t those  Though dominant,  or p l a n n i n g  uhere  ... man arid s o c i e t y a d v a n c e f r o m t h e d e l i b e r a t e i n v e n t i o n of s i n g l e o b j e c t s or i n s t i t u t i o n s to the d e l i b e r a t e r e g u l a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n t m a s t e r y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t u e e n t h e s e o b j e c t s ... The most d e c i s i v e change o c c u r s uhen man a u a k e s t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f r e g u l a t i n g t h e s e gaps b e t u e e n e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and u h e n , i n r e s p o n s e t o ' t h i s , neu p a t t e r n s o f t h o u g h t a r i s e ( 1 5 2 - 3 ) . IMou Mannheim e x p l i c i t l y i s i n t e n d e d as a f o r m o f  denies that t h i s kind of  analysis  prophecy:  IMone o f us can c l e a r l y p r o p h e s y t o - d a y u h a t f o r m t h e s o c i e t y o f t h e f u t u r e u i l l t a k e . B u t ue knou f r o m h i s t o r y t h a t e v e n u h a t i s r a d i c a l l y neu i n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y situa t i o n i s u s u a l l y o n l y one f a c t o r i n t h e l a t e r r e a l i t y , f o r h i s t o r y a l u a y s has more f o r c e s a t u o r k t h a n r e f o r m e r s uho l o o k f o r a s i n g l e p a n a c e a a r e u i l l i n g t o a d m i t ( 1 3 ) . 1 2 This statement o v e r , uhen ue r e c a l l  expresses  Popper's sentiments e x a c t l y .  Popper's c r i t i c i s m  o f M a r x , ue f i n d t h a t i t i s  the i n a c c u r a c y of h i s supposed p r e d i c t i o n s t h a t are the For Popper i s concerned  to emphasize t h a t the f a i l u r e  cisely  failure  once t h e y g a i n e d p o u e r .  t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t Mannheim u s e s  to j u s t i f y  problem.  of the  t o have a n t i c i p a t e d t h e n e e d f o r s o c i a l t e c h n o l o g y uas sponsible for'their  More-  socialists  largely  re-  This i s pre-  h i s emphasis  on  14 the importance  of d e v e l o p i n g the technology of p l a n n i n g .  Upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n ue  find  b o t h Mannheim and  Popper  -99-  speaking  o f a " t h i r d uay"  betueen the p o l a r i z e d v i e u s of  history  15 as i n e x o r a b l e l a u s v e r s u s Mannheim s p e a k s o f t h e  history  as b l i n d  chance.  For i n s t a n c e ,  "post-mortem p o i n t o f v i e u of the  i z e d h i s t o r i a n s " u h i c h i s " b a s e d on t h e i d e a t h a t t h e c a n n o t be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y o f emergence and  s t u d i e d because i t i s s t i l l  i m p o r t a n t "(MS •'•'.•IBB). On  those  groups u h i c h s i m i l a r l y  attitude  present i n the  process  t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o knou u h i c h s e r i e s of-  fsets i s really political  special-  the o t h e r hand, t h e r e  i n t h a t t h e y assume t h a t t h e y  oppose the  are  scientific  have c e r t a i n  knouledge of  the  outcome o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s : Thus t h e y r e n o u n c e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e i n f a v o u r o f a p r o p h e t i c one ... U h a t i t r e a l l y does uhen i t c l a i m s to grasp the s i g n i f i c a n c e of events u h i c h are t a k i n g p l a c e and t o r e n d e r u n p r o b l e m a t i c u h a t i s r e a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c i s no more t h a n t o d e s c r i b e d o g m a t i c a l l y u h a t u i l l happen i n t e r m s o f i t s oun u i s h e s " ( 1 8 9 ) . 1 ^ I n s h o r t , ue "naturalistic" these  f i n d Mannheim s h a r e s  historicism.  tuo approaches guided  Rather, by  he  Popper's h o s t i l i t y  calls  touard  f o r a s y n t h e s i s of  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  attitude:  B e s i d e s t h e p o s t - m o r t e m a p p r o a c h t o h i s t o r y and t h e p r o p h e t i c a t t i t u d e o f d e t e r m i n e d p o l i t i c i a n s , ue must p l e a d f o r a t h i r d method o f o b s e r v a t i o n u h i c h i s i n s t a t u n a s c e n d i and p r o c e e d s i n t e r m s o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e . A method o f a p p r o a c h must be d e v e l o p e d u h i c h t r e a t s t h e h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s as an open h o r i z o n , and n o t as a map u h i c h c h a r t s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t s ... Ue, h o u e v e r , uho a r e on t h e p a i n t o f t r a v e r s i n g a neu s e c t i o n o f o u r h i s t o r y , must f i n d t h e uay f o r o u r s e l v e s . B u t ue c a n n o t b u i l d o u r r o a d s j u s t as ue p l e a s e . F a c e d u i t h s u c h obs t a c l e s , men i n t h e age o f m a g i c u o u l d have t r i e d t o c o m p e l t h e h i d d e n f o r c e s t o a c t as t h e y u i s h e d . I n a . l a t e r age of r e l i g i o u s f a t a l i s m , though a c t i v e i n c a r r y i n g out i n d i v i d u a l u n d e r t a k i n g s , s o u g h t t o l e a v e e v e n t s as a u h o l e i n t h e hands o f ,God. The e s s e n t i a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e p l a n n i n g age seems t o be s y n t h e s i s o f t h e s e t u o t y p e s o f approach. Once more i t d i s p l a y s t h e c o u r a g e t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e i n t e r p l a y o f f u n d a m e n t a l f o r c e s ; on t h e o t h e r hand i t i n h e r i t s something of the h u m i l i t y of the r e l i g i o u s m i n d i n t h a t i t does n o t p r e t e n d t o a c t as a c r e a t o r o f t h e s e f o r c e s , b u t r a t h e r as a s t r a t e g i s t , uho o n l y u a t c h e s e v e r t h e f a c t o r s as u o r k i n s o c i e t y i n o r d e r t o d e t e c t  -100-  the neu p o s s i b i l i t i e s u h i c h a r e coming t o t h e s u r f a c e a t t h e p r o p e r moment, and t o r e i n f o r c e them a t t h o s e p o i n t s u h e r e v i t a l d e c i s i o n s must be made ( 1 9 0 ) . Similarly,  Popper's  "third  possibility":  I t a p p e a r s t h a t one o f t h e m o v i v e s o f h i s t o r i c i s m i s t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c i s t does n o t s e e t h a t t h e r e i s a t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , b e s i d e s t h e t u o u h i c h he a l l o u s : e i t h e r t h a t t h e u o r l d i s r u l e d by s u p e r i o r p o u e r s , by an ' e s s e n t i a l d e s t i n y ' o r H e g e l i a n ' R e a s o n ' , o r t h a t i t i s a mere u h e e l o f c h a n c e , i r r a t i o n a l , on t h e l e v e l o f a gamble.. B u t t h e r e i s a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y : that ue may i n t r o d u c e r e a s o n i n t o i t ... t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e u o r l d does n o t p r o g r e s s , ue_ may p r o g r e s s , individually as u e l l a s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n ( 0 S - I I : 3 6 6 , f n . 2 7 ) . For a theory  Mannheim, h o u e v e r , t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r e a s o n e n t a i l s  o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t s  to guide i t . This seem t o c l e a r l y our  i s Popper's v i e u as u e l l ,  t h o u g h he does n o t  heed Mannheim's i n j u n c t i o n t h a t  r o a d s j u s t as ue p l e a s e "  "ue c a n n o t b u i l d  (MS:190).  P o p p e r a c k n o u l e d g e d t h e need f o r u h a t , h e c a l l e d  "historical  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " e v e n t h o u g h he c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d them f r o m scientific  theories.  h i s theory  o f t h e "open s o c i e t y " —  of h i s t o r y . like  H i s oun u o r k i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ,  Apparently  r a t i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c  c o n s t i t u t e s j u s t such a  b o t h he and Mannheim a g r e e t h a t  a " t h i r d uay" i s p o s s i b l e  and t h a t t h i s r e p r e s e n t s  ansuer t o t h e questions  h e a d i n g o f u h a t he t e r m e d " p e r s p e c t i v e s " interpretations formal  a more Under t h e such  and c o n c l u d e d t h e y c o u l d n o t be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e  model o f s c i e n t i f i c  explanation.  themselves they could not force context  posed.  philosophy  something  Mannheim c o n s i d e r e d  As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h o u g h  e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e and t e s t s o f p r o p o s i t i o n s  this  especially  a choice  uere important,  of theories.  t h a t he s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  by  I t uas i n uith his  -1D1-  relative  autonomy, s e l f - c r i t i c a l  v i s i o n , was  t h e most l i k e l y  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . And  t o o k t o be  as p r o o f  culties  of  Yet  "objectivity"  t e s t s do n o t  i t uas  see  i n an  Popper  peculiar  diffi-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , uhere  s u f f i c e to resolve a l l c o n f l i c t s ,  t o Mannheim's p r e v i o u s l y d e n o u n c e d  that  individualistic  Popper t u r n to the  in historical  of  all-encompassing  t h i s suggestion  o f Mannheim's b e l i e f uhen ue  broader f i e l d  s o u r c e o f a more  historical  epistemology.  h a b i t s , and  he moves v e r y  formal close  "sociotherapy":  The m a i n t h i n g i s t o be c o n s c i o u s o f o n e ' s p o i n t o f v i e u , and c r i t i c a l , t h a t i s t o s a y , t o a v o i d , as f a r as t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , u n c o n s c i o u s and t h e r e f o r e u n c r i t i c a l b i a s i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f a c t s . In e v e r y o t h e r r e s p e c t , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must s p e a k f o r i t s e l f ; and i t s m e r i t s u i l l be i t s f e r t i l i t y , i t s a b i l i t y t o e l u c i d a t e t h e f a c t s o f h i s t o r y , as u e l l as i t s t o p i c a l i n t e r e s t s , i t s a b i l i t y t o i l l u c i d a t e t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e day ( O S - I I : 2 6 8 ) . I n s h o r t , P o p p e r has  moved f u l l  p o s i t i o n u i t h o u t , houever, being of knouledge provides s c i o u s and place  circle  auare of the  t h e r e f o r e u n c r i t i c a l b i a s " and  For  i n t h e m e t h o d o l o g y and  philosophy  of the  more o f a h i s t o r i c i s t  v o c a t e the  a p p l i c a t i o n of reason to the  historical  forces.  Popper d e f i n e s  the  sciences.  irrationalism  himself and  and  ad-  c o n t r o l of  term  d i f f e r e n t senses of the  "uncon-,  important  than Popper  understanding  sociology  such  historical  pejorative methodological  through a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of tuo  the  t h u s assumes an  i n t h a t b o t h r e j e c t h i s t o r i c a l p r o p h e c y and  social  fact.  an e x c e l l e n t means o f i d e n t i f y i n g  M o r e o v e r , Mannheim i s no  3.  t o embrace Mannheim's  "holism"  "uhole"  in  science: a)  the t o t a l i t y of a l l the p r o p e r t i e s or aspects of a t h i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y o f a l l t h e r e l a t i o n s h o l d i n g b e t u e e n i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , and  b)  c e r t a i n s p e c i a l p r o p e r t i e s or aspects of the t h i n g s i n q u e s t i o n , n a m e l y t h o s e u h i c h make i t a p p e a r an o r g a n i z e d s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r t h a n a 'mere heap' ( P H : 7 6 ) .  -102-  Uhile accepting c e d u r e e x e m p l i f i e d by b e c a u s e " i f ue aspects  the  G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , he  u i s h to study  of i t " (77).  l e g i t i m a c y c f b)  a t h i n g , ue  as a s c i e n t i f i c r e j e c t s the  pro-  first  a r e bound t o s e l e c t c e r t a i n  Referring specifically  t o Mannheim he  adds:  But t h e f a c t t h a t u h o l e s i n t h e s e n s e o f t o t a l i t i e s c a n n o t be made t h e o b j e c t o f s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y , o r o f any o t h e r a c t i v i t y s u c h as c o n t r o l o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , seems t o have e s c a p e d t h e h o l i s t s , e v e n t h o s e o f them uho a d m i t t h a t , as a r u l e , s c i e n c e i s s e l e c t i v e ( 7 B ) . As  a consequence: The d o c t r i n e t h a t ue may o b t a i n a k i n d o f c o n c r e t e knouledge of ' r e a l i t y i t s e l f i s a u e l l knoun p a r t o f u h a t can be t e c h n i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as m y s t i c i s m ; and so i s the clamour f o r 'uholes' (78, f n . 3 ) . First  recognizes  that  o f a l l , i t i s c l e a r t h a t Mannheim i s one "science  is selective".  As  he  of those  describes  uho  his  " e v a l u a t i v e " approach to h i s t o r y : I t i s u i t h t h i s type of s o c i o l o g i c a l approach to h i s t o r y t h a t ue i d e n t i f y o u r s e l v e s ... S u c h a method o f d i a g n o s i n g an e p o c h , t h o u g h t i t may b e g i n n o n - e v a l u a t i v e l y , u i l l not long remain so. Ue s h a l l be f o r c e d e v e n t u a l l y t o assume an e v a l u a t i v e p o s i t i o n . The t r a n s i t i o n t o an e v a l u a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e u i s n e c e s s i t a t e d f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g by t h e f a c t t h a t h i s t o r y as h i s t o r y i s u n i n t e l l i g i b l e u n l e s s c e r t a i n of i t s a s p e c t s are emphasized i n c o n t r a s t to o t h e r s . T h i s s e l e c t i o n and a c c e n t u a t i o n o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f h i s t o r i c a l t o t a l i t y may be r e g a r d e d as the f i r s t step i n the d i r e c t i o n u h i c h u l t i m a t e l y leads to an e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e d u r e and t o o n t o l o g i c a l j u d g m e n t s (IU:93-4; emphasis added). The  very  ical  concept of  " p e r s p e c t i v e " i n Mannheim,like that of  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " i n P o p p e r , assumes t h e  partiality  p l a n a t i o n , though t h e i r e q u a l i t y i s r e j e c t e d . uould simply  imply  a total relativism;  t o deny any  reminiscent  To  "histor-  of each  accept t h e i r  exequality  to acknouledge t h e i r p a r t i a l i t y  c l a i m to absolute  of Popper i n t h i s r e g a r d ,  cognitive status. Mannheim  argues:  In uords  is  -103-  Hence i t has became e x t r e m e l y q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r , i n the f l u x of l i f e , i t i s a genuinely worthwhile i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o b l e m t o s e e k t o d i s c o v e r f i x e d and i m m u t a b l e i d e a s o r a b s o l u t e s ... i t i s n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n s h o c k i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h o s e p e r s o n s who c l a i m t c have d i s c o v e r e d an a b s o l u t e a r e u s u a l l y t h o s e p e r s o n s who a l s o p r e t e n d t o be s u p e r i o r t o t h e r e s t ( 8 7 ) . Mannheim l i n k s t h e n o t i o n s t r u c t u r e o f phenomenon t o t h e  of a s e l e c t i v e view of the  idea of a "genuine"  total  empiricism:  G e n u i n e s o c i o l o g i c a l e m p i r i c i s m can n e v e r c o n s i s t o f o f p i e c e m e a l o b s e r v a t i o n b u t must a l w a y s i n c l u d e t h e o r e t i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w h o l e . p r o c e s s as w e l l as an e m p h a s i s on p e t t y d e t a i l s ... f a c t s and s t r u c t u r e a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r and f a c t s o n l y become more t h a n d a t a i f t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h e w h o l e m e c h a n i s m i s adequately r e a l i z e d , f a r i t i s the t o t a l ' s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y a l o n e w h i c h r e v e a l s t h e r e a l f u n c t i o n and m e a n i n g o f t h e p a r t s (MS:26).18 It  i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t Mannheim a r g u e s t h e  of the  t o t a l s t r u c t u r e as t h e  priority  e v a l u a t i v e guide f o r the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a c t u a l e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of the  of t h i s  view  selection  k i n d Popper  and  ad-  vocates: The f o r c e d i m p o s i t i o n o f m a t h e m a t i c a l and m e n s u r a t i v e methods has g r a d u a l l y l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h c e r t a i n s c i e n c e s no l o n g e r ask what i s w o r t h k n o w i n g b u t r e g a r d as w o r t h k n o w i n g o n l y what i s m e a s u r a b l e . As a g a i n s t t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w we s h o u l d i n s i s t t h a t i n t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s we a r e a b s o l u t e l y bound t o c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s w i t h the immediate t a s k of the t o t a l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , and t h a t can o n l y be a d e q u a t e l y g r a s p e d t h r o u g h q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s ... Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s c a n n o t t a k e p l a c e u n t i l a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s has been made ( 1 8 5 ) . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a " h o l i s t " only concept of in  the  science As  i n the  "historical  illegitimate  s u g g e s t t h a t Mannheim can  be  degree to which Popper i s w i l l i n g  to admit h i s  interpretation" necessarily involves  sense.  to s o c i a l r e a l i t y  Both seek to guide the on  "holism"  a p p l i c a t i o n of  the b a s i s of such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n P o p p e r and  conception  considered  of t h i s r o l e of the  s o c i a l sciences  begins with  Mannheim's their  -10k-  someuhat d i v e r g e n t  t h e o r i e s of h i s t o r y  concept of freedom i m p l i c i t  and  most e s p e c i a l l y  i n them.  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d uhen ue theory it  of p l a n n i n g .  examine Mannheim's  Though P o p p e r c a s t i g a t e s i t as  i s c l e a r t h a t Mannheim has  as much as P o p p e r .  the  "holisitic",  b e n e f i t e d from the l e s s o n of S t a l i n i s m  Thus t h e a l l e g a t i o n t h a t Mannheim s p e a k s o f  a  19 " b l u e p r i n t " i g n o r e s h i s many s t a t e m e n t s point i s carefully and"planning".  The  developed founding  i n an a b s t r a c t m i l i e u and  i n the  contrary.  d i s t i n c t i o n betueen  of a c i t y ,  thus  to the  This "founding"  f o r instance, takes  can be p a t t e r n e d  place  after a blueprint  (191).  On t h e o t h e r h a n d : I n t h i s s e n s e s o c i e t y as a u h o l e can n e v e r be e s t a b l i s h e d or founded, f o r the elements of u h i c h i t i s cons t r u c t e d are aluays found i n a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ... e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r o c e e d s f r o m a f i x e d and f i n i s h e d scheme u h i c h e x i s t s i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e founders'before i t i s c a r r i e d o u t , and l i k e t h e F i c h t i a n i d e a s i t i s t r a n s l a t e d from t h i s supersensory c o n d i t i o n i n t o a c t u a l f a c t ... P l a n n i n g , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , b e g i n s u i t h t h e .use of uhat i s immediately a v a i l a b l e . The e n d s , means, and f o u n d a t i o n s o f p l a n n i n g e x i s t on t h e same p l a n e o f h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y ... ( 1 9 2 ) . U n l i k e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of completely  such p l a n n i n g t r o l over  is political  organized structures,  i n that i t i s concerned u i t h  h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s p r e v i o u s l y r e g u l a t e d o n l y by  gaining  con-  conflict  2D and  competition.  t h a t d o g m a t i s m and  In these the e f f o r t  circumstances to plan every  Mannheim  acknouledges  d e t a i l must be  avoided  at a l l c o s t s : The r e a l d a n g e r i n p l a n n e d t h i n k i n g i s t h a t i n s t e a d of c o n s t a n t l y experimenting, i t tends to t u r n i n t o a r i g i d system. 'Dogmatism' on t h e p l a n n i n g l e v e l i s n o t h i n g b u t a m i s t a k e n v i e u o f p l a n n i n g as b e i n g a p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l scheming. In p l a n n i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l of e x p e r i m e n t a l t h o u g h t and c o n d u c t i s r e a c h e d ... D o c t r i n a i r e , r i g i d c o n s i s t e n c y i s u s e l e s s uhen ue e n t e r i n t o u h a t i s s t i l l unknoun ... But i n s p i t e o f t h i s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e s s  -105-  f o r u a r d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , i n a s p i r i t of i n q u i r y . This r e c k o n i n g u i t h f a c t s u h i c h are not yet f u l l y understood f r o m t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p o i n t Df v i e u i s by no means t o be confused u i t h the t h o u g h t l e s s n e s s u h i c h to-day c a l l s itself irrationalism. In our present h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n p l a n n e d t h i n k i n g c o u n t e r b a l a n c e s t h i s g r o u i n g and e v e r more d e s t r u c t i v e i r r a t i o n a l i t y (MS':234-5). Mannheim's c o n c e p t i o n guided  activity  For both  b a s e d on  i m p e r f e c t knouledge c o i n c i d e s u i t h  " p l a n n i n g f o r freedom" i s the o n l y r a t i o n a l  to i n c r e a s i n g i r r a t i o n a l i s m . t o be  o f p l a n n i n g as an e x p e r i m e n t a l l y  Where t h e y  Popper's.  alternative  p a r t i s over  the  "freedom"  realized.  4.  From P o p p e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e u p e r h a p s t h e most s e r i o u s  c i s m o f Mannheim's c o n c e p t i o n T h i s term  of p l a n n i n g i s i t s "moral  r e f e r s tD the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i v i s m  l o g i c a l v i e u o f m o r a l c a t e g o r i e s as a p r o d u c t stances. positive  This p o s i t i o n  historicism." i n the s o c i o -  of h i s t o r i c a l  circum-  d e n i e s , Popper h o l d s , the p o s s i b i l i t y  e t h i c a l theory except  possibility  implicit  of s c i e n t i f i c  t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t one  h i s t o r i c a l prophecy.  assumes  context  (DS-II:202-4).  But  as P o p p e r c o n c l u d e s ,  p r o p h e t i c s o c i o l o g y t o h e l p us i n s e l e c t i n g  of the  histor-  " t h e r e i s no  a m o r a l system!.' -(2D8). £  Thus he t a k e s Mannheim's p r o p o s a l t h a t p l a n n i n g i s an  historical  necessity  reasonable  course  as an a t t i t u d e u h i c h s u g g e s t s  any  Such f o r e s i g h t p r o -  v i d e s the b a s i s f o r knouledge o f the m o r a l i t y o f the emergent ical  criti-  t h a t t h e most  o f a c t i o n " i s t o a d j u s t o n e ' s s y s t e m o f v a l u e s as t o make i t  conform to impending changes" (PH:54-5). t e c h n o l o g i s t and  engineer  U n l i k e the  f o r uhom v a l u e s a r e a m a t t e r  piecemeal of " d e c i s i o n " :  ... t h e h i s t o r i c i s t and t h e U t o p i a n i s t ... b o t h b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r a i m s o r ends a r e n o t a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e , o r o f m o r a l d e c i s i o n , b u t t h a t t h e y may be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d i s c o v e r e d ... B o t h t h e . h i s t o r i c i s t and t h e U t o p i a n i s t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y can f i n d o u t u h a t t h e t r u e a i m s o r ends o f ' s o c i e t y ' a r e ; f o r e x a m p l e , by d e t e r m i n i n g i t s h i s t o r i c a l t e n d e n c i e s , o r by d i a g n o s i n g 'tire n e e d s o f t h e i r time" (74-5).  -106-  l\low i t i s t r u e t h a t Mannheim, e s p e c i a l l y e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s , e x h i b i t e d a degree c f such But w i t h the r i s e  "moral  o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m he s h i f t e d  assumption t h a t a l l moral systems  i n some c f h i s . historicism".  away f r o m t h e  had a m e a n i n g f u l and n e c e s s a r y 21  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t o t a l i t y  of the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s .  c u l m i n a t e d i n a more v o l u n t a r i s t i c  stance which viewed  This totalitar-  i a n i s m as an a b e r r a t i o n o f r a t h e r t h a n a n e c e s s a r y s t a g e o f ical  development.  The  histor-  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s o c i o l o g y o f v a l u e  and p h i l o s o p h i c a l e t h i c s r e m a i n e d , h o w e v e r , a t e n s i o n i n h i s t h o u g h t w h i c h was h i s own  never f u l l y  belief  resolved.  This i s a c r u c i a l problem g i v e n  t h a t e v e r y p e r s p e c t i v e b e g i n s and i s b a s e d  evaluative presuppositions.  I n s h o r t , he n e v e r c a r e f u l l y 22  a t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h h i s Dwn Granted the d i f f i c u l t i e s  position  upon articul-  rested.  p o s e d by e f f o r t t o b r e a k o u t o f  the dilemmas imposed  by t h e d e n i a l o f e x t r a - h i s t o r i c a l autonomy t o  e t h i c a l theory, this  does n o t mean t h a t Mannheim t o o k t h e  s t e p of assuming problem.  t h a t knowledge  of the laws of h i s t o r y  comprehend h i s t o r i c a l l y  the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o l o g i s t a d a p t i v e v a l u e changes 23  only conjecture i n the p r e s e n t .  There  " t r u e aims o r ends o f ' s o c i e t y ' " .  h i s e f f o r t to "diagnose" the c r i s i s s e n s e does t h i s  the  can b e g i n t o  i n the past but  U h a t t h e n a r e we  o f modern s o c i e t y ?  t o make o f I n what  pejorative  does t h i s c o u p l i n g o f m o r a l i m p e r a t i v e w i t h  ates of s o c i a l trends d i f f e r  can  i s n o t h i n g i n Mannheim o f  imply "moral h i s t o r i c i s m " i n Popper's  sense?. Moreover,  line?  solved  F o r Mannheim s u c h a n a l y s i s o f v a l u e s i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e  r a t h e r than p r o s p e c t i v e :  the  further  f r o m P o p p e r j s own  efforts  along  estimthis  -1D7-  There i s every  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t P o p p e r assumes a c l o s e  betueen h i s theory of h i s t o r y value choices t h i s values to the  implies.  and He  "needs o f t h e t i m e " .  e n g i n e e r i n g on those  ative.  phasis  advocates  o f t h e c o m m u n i s t s and  Mannheim's.  of  For i n s t a n c e , d e s p i t e h i s  the grounds t h a t w i t h o u t  T h i s a n a l y s i s and  on t h e r a n g e  shows a t e n d e n c y t o a d j u s t h i s  t r u s t o f a l l s t a t e a u t h o r i t y , he  like  the r e s t r i c t i o n  link  a program o f  such  social  i n t e r v e n t i o n movements  fascists will  justification  dis-  p r o v i d e the  i s analgous  T h i s becomes e v e n c l e a r e r when we  note  altern-  to that of Popper's  em-  that  ... p r o g r e s s r e s t s w i t h u s , w i t h o u r w a t c h f u l n e s s , w i t h our e f f a r t s , . w i t h the c l a r i t y o f our c o n c e p t i o n o f our e n d s , and w i t h t h e r e a l i s m o f t h e i r c h o i c e (0S-II:28D; emphasis added). The  notion af " r e a l i s t i c  c h o i c e " i s an echo o f  "moral  h i s t o r i c i s m " which presumes t h a t i t i s i n f a c t p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r the a c t u a l t r e n d s of s o c i a l development which render aspirations unrealistic  and  illusory.  some v a l u e  It is difficult  t o see  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a r g u m e n t s Df and  Mannheim i n t h i s r e s p e c t .  different  conceptions  af the h i s t o r i c a l process  the freedom which both For both  freedom —  w h i c h were The  of h i s t o r y ization"  assume t o be  v a l u e c l a i m s had  kind real h i s t o r i c a l  Their differences r e f l e c t  t o be  Popper somewhat  the scope  the u l t i m a t e g o a l of such  of choices.  j u s t i f i e d w i t h r e s p e c t to both  c o n s t r a i n t s and  ultimate value claims  —  fundamental.  For both  c o n s t i t u t e s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  Popper's  the process  philosophy of  "rational-  e x p r e s s i o n of the  historical  2k process.  The  some  ethical-philosophical.  d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n Mannheim and  are not  and  the  possibility  o f s c i e n c e and  of s o c i a l  technology  -1D8thus  represents  t h e most r e c e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e  o f human r e a s o n .  Mannheim i s , t o be  s u r e , more a u a r e o f t h e  c o n s t r a i n t s upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s and  this  l e a d s him  in suggesting uhich uould  the  kinds of s t r u c t u r a l  o b l i v i o u s to the  of reason  s c i e n c e and  this  k i n d of  "planning  and  of  rationalization  for social  But  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  u o u l d not  social  science  i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes  a more a u a r e p o p u l a c e .  Popper i s not and  process  to emphasize a g r e a t e r r o l e  facilitate  achievements  as ue  have s e e n ,  traditional  in principle  be  apposed  basis to  f o r freedom" u i t h o u t c o n t r a d i c t i n g h i s  oun  arguments. But pect  there  i s a fundamental d i v i s i o n  b e t u e e n them u i t h  to the o b j e c t i v e of such r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n ,  freedom.  It i s this  the source  that i s , individual  d i f f e r e n c e above a l l u h i c h p e r h a p s l i e s  of Popper's i n s t i n c t i v e  For both  at  r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Mannheim's  p o s a l s d e s p i t e the remarkable s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r social science.  res-  other vieus  t a k e r a t h e r d i s t a n t p o s i t i o n s on  proon  the  con-  25 tinuum of  "positive"  and  " n e g a t i v e " freedom.  divergent p h i l o s o p h i c a l starting idealism —  exert a f i n a l  touard a shared industrial  conception  points —  n e o - p o s i t i v i s m and  their  neo-  c h e c k on t h e movement o f t h e i r t h i n k i n g of the t a s k of s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n advanced  societies.  Popper d e f i n e s h i s c o n c e p t i o n c o n t r a s t to the to  I t i s here t h a t  " r a d i c a l i s m " of those  of i n d i v i d u a l like  P l a t o and  freedom i n Marx uho  i m p o s e an " a e s t h e t i c " i d e a l o f s o c i e t y and p e r s o n a l i t y : This sueep, t h i s extreme r a d i c a l i s m of the P l a t o n i c a p p r o a c h ( a n d o f t h e M a r x i a n as w e l l ) i s , I b e l i e v e , c o n nected u i t h i t s a e s t h e t i c i s m , i . e . u i t h the d e s i r e to b u i l d a u o r l d u h i c h i s n o t o n l y a l i t t l e b e t t e r and more r a t i o n a l than o u r s , but u h i c h i s f r e e from a l l i t s u g l i ness: n o t a c r a z y q u i l t , an o l d g a r m e n t b a d l y p a t c h e d , b u t an e n t i r e l y n e u . g o u n , a r e a l l y b e a u t i f i c neu u o r l d  seek  -109-  ... But h e r e I must p r o t e s t . I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t human l i v e s may be made t h e means f o r s a t i s f y i n g an a r t i s t ' s d e s i r e f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Ue must demand, r a t h e r , t h a t e v e r y man s h o u l d be g i v e n , i f he u i s h e s , t h e r i g h t t o m o d e l h i s l i f e h i m s e l f , as f a r as t h i s does n o t i n t e r f e r e t o o much u i t h o t h e r s ( 0 3 - 1 : 1 6 4 - 5 ; e m p h a s i s added). As negative  a c o n s e q u e n c e , he  utilitarianism  —  projects only negative  goals  t o g u i d e t h e work o f p i e c e m e a l  —  a  engineer-  ing : ... e v e r y g e n e r a t i o n o f men, and t h e r e f o r e t h e l i v i n g , have a c l a i m ; . p e r h a p s n o t so much a c l a i m t o be made h a p p y , f o r t h e r e a r e no i n s t i t u t i o n a l means o f m a k i n g a man h a p p y , b u t a c l a i m n o t t o be made unhappy, u h e r e i t can be avoided. They have c l a i m t o be g i v e n a l l p o s s i b l e h e l p , i f t h e y suffer. The p i e c e m e a l e n g i n e e r u i l l , a c c o r d i n g l y , a d o p t t h e method o f s e a r c h i n g f o r , and f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t , t h e g r e a t e s t and most u r g e n t e v i l s o f s o c i e t y , r a t h e r t h a n s e a r c h i n g f o r , and f i g h t i n g f o r , i t s g r e a t e s t good ( 1 5 B ) . As  opposed to t h i s ,  a c t i o n t o be before  coercion uith  rational ultimate p o l i t i c a l  planning  c a n n o t be  can  decided and  begin  (157).  upon by  purely  v i o l e n c e became t h e  a more l i m i t e d  there  only  "Utopian engineering"  But  the  a i m s must be  decided  only  for  upon  s i n c e such a Utopian b l u e p r i n t  r a t i o n a l or s c i e n t i f i c  g o a l s u c h as t h e  hope o f g a i n i n g  assumes t h a t  alternative  methods,  (CR:359).  Only  e l i m i n a t i o n of s u f f e r i n g  necessary consensus f o r  is  democratic  action. I t i s not of the  kind of  c l e a r , h o u e v e r , t h a t Mannheim r e p r e s e n t s  " U t o p i a n i s m " t h a t Popper i s warning a g a i n s t .  i n s t a n c e , Mannheim a g r e e s t h a t t h e c a n n o t be  a case  ultimate  a g r e e d upon d e m o c r a t i c a l l y , b u t u h e t h e r i t i s not  aim  of a planned s o c i e t y  suggests that  ask  ourselves  the  tuo  the  d i c t a t o r i a l i m p o s i t i o n o f a c l o s e d s y s t e m o f dogmas"  extremes of absolute  For  "ue  must  ...  p a s s i b l e t o f i n d t h e mean b e t u e e n  indeterminateness  of s o c i a l aims  and  (MS:346).  -110-  But  t h i s suggestion  i s o f f e r e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the k i n d s  a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t m i g h t he  available  r a i s e such  and  likely  questions.  War  i n the s i t u a t i o n s uhich  economic upheaval  o c c a s i o n f o r the n e c e s s i t y of such  suggestions  are not  an u n r e g u l a t e d Not  as n e c e s s a r y  a choice  f o r adapting  (346-7).  Such of  to the breakdoun  of  society.  t h a t Mannheim i s n o t  " l i b e r a l freedom".  F o r as he  critical  of the proponents  does n o t p r o p o s e a s p e c i f i c  (346).  i d e a l o f p e r s o n a l i t y as  the o b j e c t i v e of freedom, but seeks i n s t e a d t o decide the p r e r e q u i s i t e s of i n d i v i d u a l  of  notes:  No a n s u e r i s g i v e n t o t h e s i m p l e q u e s t i o n : "freedom for uhat?" I n s t e a d , freedom i s d e s c r i b e d i n n e g a t i v e t e r m s as t h e n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e s t a t e i n t h e p r i v a t e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , o r i n t h e f o r m o f maxims u h i c h m e r e l y l i m i t i t s r a n g e , as i n t h e d i c t u m t h a t i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m o f a c t i o n i s o n l y r e s t r i c t e d as f a r as i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t i t e n c r o a c h i n g on t h e f r e e d o m Df o t h e r s Y e t he  uould  u o u l d be t h e most  d i r e c t e d simply touard the r e a l i z a t i o n  " a e s t h e t i c " - - i d e a l s but  of  social  choice:  P l a n n i n g f o r f r e e d o m does n o t mean p r e s c r i b i n g a d e f i n i t e f o r m u h i c h i n d i v i d u a l i t y must t a k e , b u t h a v i n g b o t h t h e k n o u l e d g e and e x p e r i e n c e t o d e c i d e u h a t k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n , u h a t k i n d Df s o c i a l g r o u p s and u h a t k i n d o f s i t u a t i o n s a f f o r d the b e s t chance of k i n d l i n g i n i t i a t i v e , t h e d e s i r e t o f o r m o n e ' s oun c h a r a c t e r and d e c i d e one's oun destiny (265). As a c o n s e q u e n c e , he r e g a r d s as one  the  of the v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of  liberal  i d e a l of p e r s o n a l i t y  liberalism:  ... f r o m t h e u r e c k a g e o f l i b e r a l i s m n o t h i n g can be s a v e d b u t i t s v a l u e s , among o t h e r s , t h e b e l i e f i n a f r e e p e r s o n ality. B u t i t s t e c h n i q u e , u h i c h i s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e , i s gone f o r e v e r ... Thus t h e o l d i d e a l o f f r e e d o m can o n l y be a t t a i n e d by t h e t e c h n i q u e o f p l a n n i n g f o r freedom. Freedom and d e m o c r a c y can no l o n g e r be p r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h t h e i d l e p r a i s e o f a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s by men uho are e n t i r e l y i g n o r a n t of the s o c i a l t e c h n i q u e s u h i c h c o u l d r e n d e r them e f f e c t i v e ... ( 3 6 3 ) .  -111-  LI i t h P o p p e r he  acknowledges:  T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , one q u e s t i o n u h i c h ue c a n never ansuer s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , namely: Uhat are the unique and i n d i v i d u a l p a t h s u h i c h a g i v e n p e r s o n must f o l l o u t o a t t a i n a r a t i o n a l and m o r a l uay o f l i f e (MS':51)? Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e v a l u e s i f f o r Mannheim a m a t t e r  of u i l l  and  c h o i c e and n o t a m a t t e r  of  historical  destiny: To p r e d i c t i s t h e t a s k o f p r o p h e t s , and e v e r y p r o p h e c y of n e c e s s i t y transforms h i s t o r y into a purely determini s t i c s y s t e m , d e p r i v i n g us t h e r e b y o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h o i c e and d e c i s i o n ... The o n l y f o r m i n u h i c h t h e f u t u r e p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t o us i s t h a t o f p o s s i b i l i t y , u h i l e t h e i m p e r a t i v e , t h e " s h o u l d " , t e l l s us u h i c h o f t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s ue s h o u l d c h o o s e . As r e g a r d s k n o u l e d g e , t h e f u t u r e — i n so f a r as ue a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d u i t h t h e p u r e l y o r g a n i z e d and r a t i o n a l i z e d p a r t o f i t — p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as an i m p e n e t r a b l e medium, an u n y i e l d i n g u a l l . And uhen o u r a t t e m p t s t o see t h r o u g h i t a r e r e p u l s e d , ue f i r s t b e come a u a r e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f u i l l f u l l y c h o o s i n g o u r c o u r s e and, i n c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n u i t h i t , t h e n e e d f o r an i m p e r a t i v e ( a u t o p i a ) t o d r i v e us o n u a r d ( I U : 2 6 0 ) . And  as he  admits:  The c h a n c e s o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s neu s o c i e t y , t o be s u r e , are l i m i t e d . . I t i s not a b s o l u t e l y predetermined. B u t t h i s i s j u s t u h e r e o u r neu f r e e d o m b e g i n s ( M S : 3 8 0 ) . Even t h o u g h P o p p e r i s u n u i l l i n g  t o e n t e r t a i n such a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f r e e d o m as a p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t i v e , he a similarly  voluntaristic  broad  concludes  note:  A l t h o u g h h i s t o r y has no e n d s , ue c a n i m p o s e t h e s e ends d f o u r s upon i t ; and a l t h o u g h h i s t o r y has no m e a n i n g , ue can g i v e i t a m e a n i n g ... I n s t e a d o f p o s i n g as p r o p h e t s ue must become t h e m a k e r s o f o u r f a t e (OS-II:278-8D).  on  -  IMDTES:  CHAPTER  112-  VII  T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e y s u c c e e d e d i n d e v e l o p i n g an a d e q u a t e a n a l y s i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t u e e n t h e f o r m a l and h i s t o r i c a l sciences. P e r h a p s t h i s i n t e r e s t has been most n o t a b l y a d v a n c e d i n t h e r e c e n t u o r k o f T o u l m i n , Habermas, and A l t h u s s e r . Each u o r k s u i t h i n a d i s t i n c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n o f their positions i s d i f f i c u l t . The theme o f e c o n o m i c p l a n n i n g c o n s t i t u t e d one Df t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n s o f s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 193D's and 1 9 4 0 ' s , f i r s t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e D e p r e s s i o n and t h e R u s s i a n e x p e r i m e n t s and l a t e r i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f u a r and p o s t - u a r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The s u r v i v a l of r e g u l a t e d (but planned) c a p i t a l i s t economies i n the p o s t u a r p e r i o d uas a c c o m p a n i e d by a d e c l i n e o f i n t e r e s t i n s u c h i s s u e s at the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l . But t h e c o n t i n u o u s d e v e l o p m e n t o f neu p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s u h o s e use uas l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o l a r g e p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s gave some i n d i c a t i o n remarkable breakthroughs i n planning c a p a b i l i t i e s . The emergence o f an " e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i s i s " a f t e r t u o d e c a d e s o f s p e c t a c u l a r e c o n o m i c g r o u t h r e f l e c t e d b o t h c h a n g i n g s e n s i b i l i t i e s and t h e f a c t o f r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s u h i c h p r o v i d e a neu b a s i s f o r t h e n e c e s s i t y of economic p l a n n i n g . Thus, the a d a p t a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s s u c h as " s t e a d y - s t a t e " have i n c r e a s i n g l y become t h e b a s i s f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n of " t o t a l " or "systems" planning. As a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e q u e s t i o n o f s o c i e t a l g u i d a n c e has r e - e m e r g e d as a c e n t r a l theme o f p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y . For a b r i e f r e v e i u o f t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n see S a r t o r i (1965:384-415); important recent t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s o c i e t i e s as s e l f - g u i d e d c y b e r n e t i c o r l e a r n i n g s y s t e m s have been p r o v i d e d by t h e s o c i o l o g i s t E t z i o n i ( 1 9 6 8 ) and t h e e c o n o m i s t Dunn (1971). The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c y b e r n e t i c s f o r s o c i a l t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y has been e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d by a number o f w e s t Germans; t h e a c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s has been l a r g e l y A m e r i c a n . Mannheim's c o n c e r n s a r e no l o n g e r a n a c h r o n i s t i c , n o r i s " U t o p i a n i s m " q u i t e u h a t i t u s e d t o be. The d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern c o m p u t e r s and s y s t e m s t e c h n o l o g i e s o f f e r s t h e p r o s p e c t o f c e n t r a l i z i n g k n o u l e d g e as u e l l as p o u e r . To t h i s e x t e n t , P o p p e r ' s and H a y e k ' s c a s e h e r e has been u n d e r m i n e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e . F o r a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h i s p o s i t i o n u h i c h t a k e s s u c h f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t , see D a h r e n d o r f ' s e s s a y " U n c e r t a i n t y , S c i e n c e , and D e m o c r a c y " ( 1 9 6 8 : 2 3 2 - 5 5 ) . " Though Mannheim e l a b o r a t e s some o f h i s i d e a s on p l a n n i n g i n more d e t a i l i n l a t e r u o r k , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p o s t h u m o u s Freedom, P o u e r and D e m o c r a t i c P l a n n i n g ( 1 9 5 D ) , Man and S o c i e t y s t a t e s h i s b a s i c p o s i t i o n .  -113-  S i n c e t h i s l a t t e r book i s P o p p e r ' s p r i m a r y s o u r c e , examination o f h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim u i l l be b a s e d l a r g e l y on t h e same text. ' T h i s i s a d u b i o u s t h e s i s u h o s e o p p o s i t e i s more l i k e l y . The h i s t o r i c a l c o n c e r n s o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s began t o d e c l i n e i n E n g l i s h speaking s o c i a l thought u i t h the r e v o l t a g a i n s t Daruinism i n the 1 9 2 0 ' s . The r e c o g n i t i o n d u r i n g t h e p a s t f e u y e a r s t h a t " s o c i a l c h a n g e " has been a n e g l e c t e d a r e a o f r e s e a r c h c o n f i r m s t h i s p o i n t . I t u o u l d seem t h a t t h e " h i s t o r i c i s t s " u e r e d e a l i n g u i t h g e n u i n e p r o b l e m s e v e n i f t h e y d i d n o t p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e s o l u t i o n s . A more p l a u s i b l e t h e s i s as t o t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u o u l d p r o b a b l y be more s o c i o l o g i c a l t h a n i n t e l l e c t u a l philosophical. H o u e v e r , P o p p e r ' s v i e u has been r e c e n t l y g i v e n s u p p o r t i n a s u r v e y o f s o c i o l o g y from 1945-1965: I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a t t r i b u t e s o c i o l o g y ' s recent s c i e n t i f i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o any one s o u r c e , b u t I b e l i e v e t h a t S i r K a r l P o p p e r ' s u r i t i n g s ... d e s e r v e s p e c i a l m e n t i o n ... The i n f l u e n c e o f s u c h v i e u s on p o s t war s o c i o l o g i s t s has been immense; h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e g r a n d s c a l e , so p o p u l a r i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h and l i n g e r i n g u e l l i n t o t h e t u e n t i e t h , has v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d as a s o c i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y ( M e n n e l l , 1 9 7 2 : 1 5 4 - 5 5 ) . 3  See a l s o Iggers  ( 1 9 6 8 : 2 8 7 - 9 0 ) f o r f u r t h e r comments and  ^ T h i s v e r s i o n o f " h i s t o r i c i s m " uas essays in-1924 (1952:84-133). ^As  Iggers  i n h i s study  t h e s u b j e c t o f one  o f German h i s t o r i o g r a p h y  of  references. Mannheim's  concludes:  The German H i s t o r i c a l S c h o o l , u i t h i t s e m p h a s i s upon d i v e r s i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y , i s i n t e r p r e t e d as an EX* p r e s s i o n o f h i s t o r i s m i n c o n t r a s t by t h e a t t e m p t s by H e g e l i a n s t o see i n h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a u n i f i e d , l o g i c a l process (1968:289). ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e n Mannheim d i d n o t g i v e any s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l o g i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f e v o l u t i o n a r y and h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n ations. P o p p e r , o f c o u r s e , assumed i n h i s l o g i c a l s t u d i e s t h a t s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n a r e s y m m e t r i c a l ( L S D : 5 9 - 6 0 ) ; ( P H : 1 2 4 ) . Y e t i n h i s more r e c e n t u o r k he seems t o have a c c e p t e d t h e s t a t u s o f b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n as a f o r m o f e x p l a n a t i o n d e s p i t e i t s l a c k o f u n i v e r s a l l a u s and p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s . Thus he u r i t e s : A u o r d may be added h e r e on t h e l o g i c a l f o r m o f a t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n ... I can o n l y b r i e f l y m e n t i o n a point or t u o . The t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n i s an h i s t o r i c a l one: i t c o n s t r u c t s a s i t u a t i o n and s h o u s t h a t , g i v e n t h a t s i t u a t i o n , t h e s e t h i n g s u h o s e e x i s t e n c e ue u i s h to e x p l a i n are indeed l i k e l y t o happen. 1  -114-  To p u t i t more p r e c i s e l y , D a r w i n ' s t h e o r y i s a generalized h i s t o r i c a l explanation. T h i s means t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i s s u p p o s e d t o be t y p i c a l r a t h e r t h a n u n i q u e . Thus i t may be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a t t i m e s a s i m p l i f i e d model o f t h e s i t u a t i o n (•K:270). Nevertheless: Dar.win's d i s c o v e r y o f t h e t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n has o f t e n been compared t o Newton's d i s c o v e r y o f the theory o f g r a v i t a t i o n . This i s a mistake. Newton f o r m u l a t e d a s e t o f u n i v e r s a l laws i n t e n d e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , and c o n s e q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , o f t h e p h y s i c a l universe. D a r w i n ' s t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n p r o p o s e d no s u c h u n i v e r s a l laws. T h e r e a r e no D a r w i n i a n l a w s o f e v o l u t i o n ... N e v e r t h e l e s s , D a r w i n ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n f l u e n c e upon o u r p i c t u r e o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d us was a t l e a s t a s g r e a t ... F o r D a r w i n ' s t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n showed t h a t i t i s i n p r i n c i p l e p o s s i b l e t o reduce t e l e o l o g y t o c a u s a t i o n by e x p l a i n i n g , i n p u r e l y p h y s i c a l t e r m s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d e s i g n and p u r p o s e i n t h e w o r l d : ( 2 6 7 ) . What P o p p e r f a i l s t o do, h o w e v e r , i s r e l a t e t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s back t o t h e problem o f e x p l a n a t i o n i n t h e h i s t o r y o f s o c i e t i e s . I f he were t o do so he m i g h t be a b l e t o c o n c e i v e o f n o n - p r e d i c t i v e but n e v e r t h e l e s s s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s . T h i s might r e t u r n t o problem.of " h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " back t o the f o l d o f s c i e n c e . The asymmetry o f p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n h a s been emphasi z e d by S c r i v e n who s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e most i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n t o be l e a r n e d from e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y today i s a n e g a t i v e one: t h e t h e o r y shows us what s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s n e e d n o t do" ( 1 9 6 9 : 1 1 7 ) . As he concludes: I t i s n a t u r a l enough t h a t t h e l o g i c o f e x p l a n a t i o n s h o u l d appear t o p a r a l l e l t h a t o f p r e d i c t i o n . Sometimes, i n f a c t , i t does. There a r e s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c l a s s i c a l p h y s i c s , when we e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e same l a w s . B u t t h i s i s an a c c i d e n t , not a n e c e s s i t y , as i t t u r n s o u t . P u t t h e m a t t e r i n g e n e r a l l o g i c a l t e r m s and t h e s i m i l a r i t y s t i l l a p p e a r s to hold: t o p r e d i c t we n e e d a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p r e s e n t e v e n t s and f u t u r e ones — t o e x p l a i n b e t w e e n p r e s e n t ones and p a s t o n e s " ( 1 2 1 ) . C f . Toulmin (1972: 1 3 5 f f ) on t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . 'Popper w r i t e s : S o c i o l o g i s m b e l i e v e s that i t i s not t h e i r u n p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r , b u t r a t h e r t h e f a c t t h a t p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s a r e t o o much i n t e r t w i n e d i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l k n o w l e d g e , t h a t c r e a t e s t h e methodo-  -115-  l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e s e s c i e n c e s ... To t h i s ue can r e p l y t h a t ' k n o u l e d g e ' and ' u i l l ' a r e , i n a. c e r t a i n s e n s e , a l u a y s i n s e p a r a b l e ... P r a c t i c e i s n e t t h e enemy o f t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e b u t t h e mast v a l u a b l e i n c e n t i v e to i t . Though a c e r t a i n amount o f a l o o f n e s s may be b e c o m i n g t o t h e s c i e n t i s t , t h e r e a r e many e x a m p l e s t o shou t h a t i t i s not a l u a y s i m p o r t a n t f o r a s c i e n t i s t to be t h u s d i s i n t e r e s t e d . But i t i s _ i m p o r t a n t f o r him to r e m a i n i n t o u c h u i t h r e a l i t y , u i t h p r a c t i c e , f o r t h o s e uho o v e r l o o k i t have t o pay by l a p s i n g i n t o s c h o l a s ticism (0S-II:222). Mannheim u o u l d c e r t a i n l y a g r e e u i t h a l l t h i s , b u t s u g g e s t a u a r e n e s s o f t h o s e " i n t e r e s t s " i s c r u c i a l and c a n n o t be t a k e n f o r granted. F o r i n s t a n c e , e v e n t h e use o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e f a r l i m i t e d a i m s r e q u i r e s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n u i t h l a r g e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s and the necessary machinery r e q u i r e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . Such p r o j e c t s have been e x t r e m e l y r a r e and u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e most u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and r a r e l y r e p e a t e d , n o t s i m p l y b e c a u s e o f a l a c k of s o c i a l t e c h n i q u e , but because of v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s . The c a s e o f t h e TVA p r o j e c t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . Most s o - c a l l e d "experiments" a r e s i m p l y ad hoc g o v e r n m e n t r e s p o n s e s t o c r i s i s . s i t u a t i o n s i n u h i c h s o l u t i o n s are designed around p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s r a t h e r than e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , most p l a n n i n g i s " r a t i o n a l " only i n a p o l i t i c a l sense. B u t uhen ue r a i s e q u e s t i o n s like this a sociological perspective i s essential. The " p r o g r e s s " of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , d e s p i t e Popper's e f f o r t to g l o s s over these q u e s t i o n s , c a n n o t be s u s t a i n e d u i t h o u t r e d u c i n g r e s e a r c h t o t h e s e r v a n t o f t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e o f p o u e r u h i c h may have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n the maintainance of s u f f e r i n g . M a r c u s e , one o f t h e f e u t o have p r o v i d e d a c o g e n t c r i t i q u e P o p p e r ' s c o n c e p t o f " h i s t o r i c i s m " d e f e n d s Mannheim on t h i s  of point:  - P o p p e r c i t e s Mannheim's p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t 'the p o u e r o f t h e S t a t e i s bound t o i n c r e a s e u n t i l t h e S t a t e becomes n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l u i t h s o c i e t y ' ; he c a l l s t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n a ' p r o p h e c y * and t h e ' i n t u i t i o n ' e x p r e s s e d i n i t t h e 'totalitarian intuition'. I\lou I t h i n k i t i s r a t h e r obv i o u s t h a t t h e c i t e d p a s s a g e has l o n g s i n c e c e a s e d t o be a ' p r o p h e c y ' and has become a s t a t e m e n t o f f a c t . Moreover, one may c r i t i c i z e Mannheim on many g r o u n d s , b u t t o c o u n t him among t h e ' h o l i s t s ' and t o c h a r g e him u i t h ' t o t a l i t a r i a n i n t u i t i o n ' i s t o c o n f u s e an a n a l y s i s o f o b s e r v a b l e t r e n d s u i t h t h e i r a d v o c a c y and j u s t i f i c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 2 : 2 0 2 ) . At a n o t h e r  p o i n t he  emphasizes  again:  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t o u r t a s k t o make p r o p h e c i e s , but r a t h e r t o seek out a c l u e u h i c h u i l l h e l p us.observe t h e e f f e c t o f t h e most e s s e n t i a l s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c u l t u r e " (MS:80).  Popper  reflects:  L o o k i n g b a c k a t t h e e v e n t s f r o m 1864 t o 193d, I t h i n k t h a t b u t f o r t h e somewhat a c c i d e n t a l f a c t t h a t Marx d i s c o u r a g e d r e s e a r c h i n s o c i a l t e c h n o l o g y , E u r o p e a n a f f i a r s m i g h t p o s s i b l y have d e v e l o p e d , u n d e r t h e i n fluence of t h i s p r o p h e t i c r e l i g i o n , towards a s o c i a l i s m of the n o n - c o l l e c t i v i s t t y p e . A thorough preparation f o r s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g , f o r p l a n n i n g f o r f r e e d o m , on t h e p a r t o f t h e R u s s i a n M a r x i s t s as w e l l as t h o s e i n C e n t r a l E u r o p e , m i g h t p o s s i b l y , have l e d t o an u n m i s t a k a b l e s u c c e s s c o n v i n c i n g t o a l l f r i e n d s o f t h e open s o c i e t y . But'this w o u l d n o t have been a c o r r o b o r a t i o n D f a s c i e n t i f i c prophecy. I t w o u l d have been t h e r e s u l t o f a r e l i g i o u s movement — the r e s u l t of the f a i t h i n h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m , c o m b i n e d w i t h a c r i t i c a l use o f o u r r e a s o n f o r t h e purpose of changing the w o r l d (05-11:198; emphasis added). T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a v i r t u a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e e n t i r e argument o f Mannh e i m ' s Man and S o c i e t y where t h e i d e n t i c a l t h e s i s i s p r o p o s e d : ... i t s h o u l d a l s o n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t e v e n t h e most a b s o l u t e power i s u s e l e s s i f we have n o t t h e t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e t o show us how i t c o u l d be w h o l e s o m e l y a p p l i e d i n the i n t e r e s t of the e n t i r e community. The p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y t h a t we a r e l i v i n g i n an age D f c l a s s w a r f a r e and t h a t s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e D f no i m p o r t a n c e has d e l a y e d . t h e r a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n of the problem whether p l a n n i n g and d e m o c r a c y a r e c o m p a t i b l e ... t h e t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s o f s o c i e t y c a n n o t be s o l v e d by t a c t i c s and c l a s s w a r f a r e alone. There i s a t e r r i b l e d e s t i n y i n s t o r e f o r genera t i o n s who a r e b r o u g h t up t o b e l i e v e i n t h e f a l s e a l t e r n a t i v e d e m o c r a c y o r p l a n n i n g , no s y n t h e s i s on t h e plane of t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s being p o s s i b l e (MS:339). Mannheim d e v e l o p s h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f p r i n c i p i a m e d i a w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d as "a k i n d o f r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g s p e c i a l l a w s , s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s Df a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l phase i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s e t t i n g " (MS:177). Thus, they c o n s t i t u t e " u n i v e r s a l f o r c e s i n a c o n c r e t e s e t t i n g as t h e y become i n t e g r a t e d o u t o f t h e v a r i o u s f o r c e s i n a c o n c r e t e s e t t i n g as t h e y become i n t e g r a t e d o u t o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a t work i n a g i v e n p l a c e a t a g i v e n t i m e — a p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h may n e v e r be r e peated". U h i l e i n p r i n c i p l e r e d u c i b l e to general p r i n c i p l e s , t h e i r a c t u a l u t i l i z a t i o n must be " i n t h e i r c o n c r e t e s e t t i n g as t h e y c o n f r o n t us a t a c e r t a i n s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t ..." (178). In a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s C o n f i n e d t o P e r i o d s " P o p p e r t a k e s up t h e m a t t e r o f p r i n c i p i a m e d i a and seems t o a c c e p t i t s e s s e n t i a l c o n t e n t i o n , t h o u g h t h i s i s o b s c u r e d by c r i t i c i s m o f Mannheim Dn a p e r i p h e r a l l o g i c a l p o i n t . F o r what P o p p e r w i s h e s t o a r g u e i s s i m p l y t h a t t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s have s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s  • f e s t a b l i s h i n g i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o p o s i t i o n s u h i c h may f a c t be c o n f i n e d t o a h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d ( P H : 9 7 - 1 D 4 ) . Mannheim d e s c r i b e s t h i s  c o n t r a s t i n more d e t a i l as  in  follous:  ... H i s t o r i a n s have t r i e d t o g r a s p t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f e a c h epoch as s o m e t h i n g u h i c h can be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y by i m m e d i a t e i n t u i t i o n ( R o m a n t i c i s m ) o r t o deduce i t as a type of unique h i s t o r i c a l d i a l e c t i c ( h i s t o r i c i s m , H e g e l i a n i s m , and M a r x i s m ) . The f i r s t s o l u t i o n r e n o u n c e d s c i e n t i f i c methods i n t h e s t u d y o f h i s t o r y c o m p l e t e l y . The s e c o n d c o n s t r u c t e d t u o i n d e p e n d e n t and c o - e x i s t e n t l o g i c s ; a g e n e r a l i z i n g l o g i c u h i c h d e a l s u i t h uhat i s g e n e r a l , and a n o t h e r u h i c h t r a c e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s betueen events i n a unique h i s t o r i c a l i s s u e . As t h e l a t t e r , t h e o r e t i c a l approach c r e a t e s a d i a l e c t i c u h i c h i s e n t i r e l y independent of a g e n e r a l i z i n g theory of f a c t o r s , i t i s a l s o i n c l i n e d t o use u n s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s . I n i t s c o n c r e t e f o r m i t i s m a i n l y i n s p i r e d by a p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y , u h i c h draus i t s v i s i o n o f the course of h i s t o r y f r o m t h e p a r t i c u l a r aims o f c e r t a i n g r o u p s . Ue t h i n k t h a t i n s p i t e of t h i s the exponents of the d i a l e c t i c a l approach r i g h t l y understood t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l u n i t s had t o be s t u d i e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y and c o u l d n o t s i m p l y be l e f t t o t h e c a u s a l e p i c s t y l e o f t h e h i s t o r i a n . The m i s t a k e t h e y made uas t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l frameuork o f a s o c i e t y , or i t s i n d i v i d u a l development u i t h o u t t a k i n g u n i v e r s a l f a c t o r s i n t o account (MS:178). i  Mannheim s h o u s an a c u t e a u a r e n e s s o f t h e d a n g e r s Df " i n t u i t i o n i s m " and s e e s h i s oun e f f o r t as a r a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e : . E v e r y t h i n g ue have s a i d above c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g and p r i n c i p i a m e d i a , i s c o n t r a r y tD t h e t r e n d o f i n t u i t i v e t h o u g h t . B u t o u r aim i s n o t t h a t o f t h e R o m a n t i c s -- t o e s c a p e t h e g e n e r a l r a t i o n a l i z i n g p r o c e s s o f modern t i m e s . Ue u a n t t o tD r e f i n e and e x t e n d t h e methods o f r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e y e n a b l e us t o grasp s c i e n t i f i c a l l y the concrete o b j e c t i n i t s concrete context. T h i s i s t r u e even ... ( f o r ) t h e t y p e o f i n v e s t i g a t o r uho ... l o o k s upon i n t e r d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g as an i n c u r s i o n i n t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e i r r a t i o n a l ... He f o r g e t s ... t h a t t h e s e p r i n c i p i a m e d i a a r e i r r a t i o n a l i t i e s o n l y uhen m e a s u r e d by h i s a b s t r a c t s y s t e m o f c o - o r d i n a t e s , and t h a t t h e method u h i c h has been d e s c r i b e d h e r e does n o t t r y t o g r a s p t h e i n d i v i d u a l by i n t u i t i o n o r by a p p r e h e n s i o n ( S c h a u ) , but r a t h e r through a f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e r a t i o n a l i z i n g f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e (MS:17D). ' F u r t h e r m o r e , Mannheim e m p h a s i z e s myopia:  aJbstif-ihe d a n g e r  of  disciplinary  -118-  •nee a s i n g l e b r a n c h o f k n o u l e d g e i s s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n i t becomes u n r e a l , and p a r a d o x i c a l a s i t may s o u n d , t h e o n l y p e r s o n uho i s a c t i n g r e a l i s t i c a l l y i s t h e t h e o r i s t , uho p i e c e s t h e s e f r a g m e n t a r y observations t o g e t h e r t o f o r m a c o h e r e n t scheme ... E v e r y s p e c i a l i s t i s a c t i n g i n good f a i t h uhen he b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s oun method i s t h e r i g h t o n e , f o r he u n c o n s c i o u s l y confuses t h e s e c t i o n o f r e a l i t y on u h i c h he i s u o r k i n g u i t h r e a l i t y i t s e l f ..." ( M S : 2 9 ) . 19  Most e x p l i c i t l y  he u r i t e s i n Freedom, P o u e r and D e m o c r a t i c  Planning:  T h i s book g i v e s no b l u e p r i n t s ; i t i s n e i t h e r a l i s t of a b s t r a c t d e s i d e r a t a f o r the philosopher nor a d e t a i l e d p r o g r a m f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The l a s t b i t t e r d e c a d e s have t a u g h t us t h a t one c a n n e i t h e r c o n c e i v e o f a good s o c i e t y u i t h o u t reference to the a c t u a l s t a t e of a f f a i r s n o r c o n s t r u c t a u h o l e s o c i a l o r d e r by p i e c e m e a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reforms. B u t ue c a n v e r y u e l l l a y doun p r i n c i p l e s t o convey t h e g e n e r a l v i s i o n o f t h e k i n d o f s o c i e t y ue u a n t t o b u i l d (1950.: x v i i ) . 20  In h i s uords: P l a n n i n g i s t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an h i s t o r i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t y i n t o a u n i t y u h i c h i s r e g u l a t e d more and more p e r f e c t l y by m a n k i n d f r o m c e r t a i n c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n s ... As ue u n d e r s t a n d i t , p l a n n i n g i s f o r e s i g h t d e l i b e r a t e l y a p p l i e d t o human a f f a i r s , so t h a t t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s . i s no l o n g e r m e r e l y t h e p r o d u c t o f c o n f l i c t and c o m p e t i t i o n (MS:193).  21  Thus K e c s k e m e t i  notes:  ... t h e p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s t o r i c r e a l i t y and a d a p t i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y ' r i g h t * p o s i t i o n assumed a n e u f o r m f o r Mannheim uhen t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m emerged a s a d o m i n a n t t r e n d ... F o r t h a t t h e o r y p r e s u p p o s e d a ' u h o l e n e s s ' o,f s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n u h i c h no p a r t c o u l d be m i s s e d , a n d none u a s i l l e g i t i m a t e ... U i t h t h e emergence o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , h o u e v e r , t h e s p e l l o f h i s t o r y u a s b r o k e n ; one had t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y d o m i n a n t t r e n d u a s a d e s t r u c t i v e a b e r r a t i o n ... T h i s t r e n d had t o be o v e r come i n o r d e r t o r e s t o r e t h e u h o l e n e s s and m e a n i n g f u l h e s s o f human r e a l i t y ( 1 9 5 3 : 2 - 3 ) . Rempel n o t e s t h i s s h i f t and r e l a t e s i t t o Mannheim's r e v i s i o n o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v a l u e c u l m i n a t i n g i n a "more i n t e n s i v e v o l u n t a r i s t i c emphasis" (65:104). 22  This point i s c a r e f u l l y  developed  i n Rempel  (1965).  -119-  As he p u t s i t : F u r u h i l e UE can s e e t h e m e a n i n g , t h e g o a l - d i r e c t e d n e s s o f t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t i n so f a r as c l o s e d p e r i o d s a r e c o n c e r n e d , ue c a n n o t see s u c h a g o a l - m e a n i n g f o r o u r oun p e r i o d . S i n c e the f u t u r e i s a l u a y s a s e c r e t , ue can o n l y make c o n j e c t u r e s a b o u t t h e t o t a l p a t t e r n o f m e a n i n g o f u h i c h o u r p r e s e n t i s a p a r t ; and s i n c e ue c a n have n o t h i n g more t h a n c o n j e c t u r e s , i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e enough t h a t e a c h c u r r e n t o f t h o u g h t assumes t h a t the goal-meaning o f the p r e s e n t i s i d e n t i c a l u i t h those contemporary t r e n d s u i t h u h i c h t h a t c u r r e n t happens t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f ( 1 9 5 2 : 1 7 2 ) . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s i m p l i c i t i n P o p p e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e "open s o c i e t y " and i n Mannheim's t h i r d s t a g e o f " p l a n n i n g " i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f human l e a r n i n g . A d e t a i l e d comparison of t h e i r concepts of r a t i o n a l i t y u o u l d be i n s t r u c t i v e b u t i s n o t p a s s i b l e h e r e . F o r a c o m p a r i s o n o f Mannheim and U e b e r ' s t h e o r i e s o f t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s see B o r i s ( 1 9 7 1 : 1 1 - 4 6 ) . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s s u b t l y e x p l o r e d by B e r l i n i n h i s e s s a y on "Tuo Concepts of L i b e r t y " (1966:118-72). See a l s o A r o n ( 1 9 7 D ) , and Wood ( 1 9 7 2 ) .  -120-  VIII.  CONCLUSIONS:  THE  L I M I T S OF  "CRITICAL RATIONALISM"  In the c o u r s e o f t h i s essay a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f Popper's  c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim|s s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e  vealed surprising misinterpretations. it  Taking these i n t o  has been p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g o u t t h e r e m a r k a b l e  convergent  elements  has r e s t r i c t e d a comparison  A more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  and  This study  Mannheim.  i n q u i r y u o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o  t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s and  r a i s e d by b r i n g i n g  account,  to a demonstration of t h i s p o i n t through  o f t h e t e x t s o f P o p p e r and  more p r e c i s e l y  has r e -  complementary  o f t h e u o r k o f P o p p e r and Mannheim.  itself  Karl  the  establish  issues  t o g e t h e r the p h i l o s o p h i e s of s o c i a l s c i e n c e of  Mannheim and P o p p e r .  Some o f t h e d i r e c t i o n s •r  l e a d have been i n d i c a t e d i n t h e n o t e s . t h e q u e s t i o n s u h i c h d i v i d e d and o b s c u r e d  i n uhich this  Suffice  might  i t t o say here  communication  that  betueen  the  f o l l o u e r s o f P o p p e r and t h e s y m p a t h i z e r s o f Mannheim c o n s t i t u t e of the d e c i s i v e Working  uithin  problems  of contemporary  t h e common f r a m e u o r k  s o c i a l t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y .  of a s o c i a l - e v o l u t i o n a r y  o l o g y , P o p p e r and Mannheim t a k e n t o g e t h e r d e f i n e most o f t h e i s s u e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e H e g e l i a n - M a r x i a n u i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of meaning, h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t and testability  the n e o - p o s i t i v i s t  of t h e o r i e s .  and  f o c u s on t h e f a l s i f i c a t i o n  of i n d u s t r i a l  principal  social and thus,  t h e s e t u o t r a d i t i o n s become m a n i f e s t  i n the pragmatic l i b e r a l i s m u h i c h d e f i n e d t h e i r to the c r i s i s  totalities  epistem-  concern  I n t h e i r u o r k p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t and  of p o t e n t i a l d i a l o g u e betueen  some  capitalism.  convergent  response  -121That the Mannheim has  not  convergent a s p e c t s of the received  a t t e n t i o n has  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Western p h i l o s o p h y English-speaking uell  as  countries  to s p e c i f i c  i n the  of the  foundations  social scientific  Popper a g r e a t  the  his conjectures  reconsideration  social sciences.  community as  as These  This  of  failure  a c r i t i c a l medium has him  of the  the  k i n d of  done challenge  a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e - a p p r a i s a l of h i s p o s i t i o n , t o d o g m a t i c ends r a t h e r  but  owes i t s e x i s t e n c e  to r a t h e r  In t h i s c u r r e n t  than  serving  their  compromises t e n d tD o f f e n d  neo-Marxism. t h a t the  must be  P e r h a p s one  failure  fully  s o c i a l sciences  cases of Popper  as a n a c h r o n i s t i c  the  of the  and  c e n t r a l lessons  are  to salvage  and  because  p a r t i s a n s of both  neo-positivism  of t h i s  D f l i b e r a l p r a g m a t i s m as a s o c i a l  u n d e r s t o o d i f we  is in  different historical -  debate the  Mannheim have been l a r g e l y i g n o r e d  study  philosophy  something o f the  spirit  "critical rationalism." T h a t P o p p e r and  i n the  philosophy  backgrounds —  of the  science  —  century  has  Mannheim came t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l sciences  despite  common p r o b l e m s  their  divergent  Mannheim i n German n e o - i d e a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y  P o p p e r i n modern p h y s i c s  the  II period,  academic c a r e e r s .  a general  of the  have been t u r n e d  circumstances.  of  in  a spur to c r i t i c a l " r e f l e c t i o n .  process,  is  general  s o c i a l science  Today s u c h a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  and  and  k i n d of response to Pepper's p o l -  disservice; in depriving  t h a t w o u l d have e l i c i t e d  as  and  p o s t ^ W o r l d War  e m i c s t h a t m i g h t have f a c i l i t a t e d epistemological  been l i n k e d t o  circumstances of t h e i r  f a c t o r s combined t o i n h i b i t  uork c f Popper  and  n e o - p o s i t i v i s t i c philosophy  been t r a c e d t o t h e i r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  d e b a t e s i n German p h i l o s o p h i c a l c i r c l e s  of  and natural  turn  of  generated  by  -122thE  challEngE  Df Marxism.  I t i s this  above a l l c r e a t e d t h e i n i t i a l bring together bined  uith  speaking to  pervasive  i n f l u E H C E uhich  common t h r e a d u h i c h  t h e i n t e r e s t s o f P o p p e r and Mannheim.  the r i s e of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m  countries, provided  speaking  to appreciate  the matrix  for their  community o f s c h o l a r s t o have p o i n t e d  thE t r a j e c t o r y  This,  com-  parallel  efforts  Popper's  apparent  t h i s , and t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h i t o u t , has  r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c o n v e r g e n t movement o f i d E a s uith  later  and f l i g h t t o E n g l i s h -  r e a s s e r t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l i b e r a l democracy.  inability  and  uould  of their  uhich  i n t E l l e c t u a l careers  prevented  coincided  t h r o u g h t h e 1930's  1940's. P o p p e r ' s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s and c l a i m s  of the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge i s manifested o f i t s most b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . ectical relationship pressed  i n h i s treatment  He does n o t g r a s p t h e t y p e  b e t u e e n t h o u g h t and s o c i a l  by t h e n o t i o n o f " e x i s t e n t i a l  c o n t e x t u a l :use o f t h e t e r m c o n s e q u e n c e , he i s . a b l e  to l a y a spurious  of d i a l -  circumstances  determination"  " k n o u l e d g e " by s o c i a l  of tuo  ex-  and i g n o r e s t h e  scientists.  As a  charge o f i r r a t i o n a l i s t i c  " s o c i o l o g i s m " a g a i n s t Mannheim u h o i s h e l d t o be p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r y of the " s o c i a l  detErmination"  o f " s c i e n t i f i c k n o u l E d g s " uhEn i n  f a c t hE p r E S E n t s a t h s o r y o f t h e " e x i s t e n t i a l "inexact" or S D c i o - h i s t o r i c a l knouledge. to  Though Mannheim does  f u l l y c l a r i f y the i m p l i c a t i o n s of s o c i a l  s c i e n c e s and t o p r o v i d e various types  genesis  f o r the "formal"  o f k n o u l e d g e , he does d e v e l o p a b r i l l i a n t  criticize  fail  an a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f  historical socio-political ideologies. constructively  determination" of  Rather than  account of  attempting  to  Mannheim's a n a l y s i s by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  p r o b l e m s i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f s c i e n c e , P o p p e r becomes e m b r o i l e d i n  -123-  self-generated  issues that r e l a t e only  In a t t e m p t i n g •n  to s u s t a i n the  to a c a r i c a t u r e . charge af  e p i s t e m c l o g i c a l grounds, Popper o n l y  strating  his s u p e r f i c i a l reading  a t t r i b u t e s tD  him  an  o f k n o w l e d g e p r e s u m e s a s o c i a l and a n a l y s i s of the  --  i s t a k e n by  statement of a theory  f o r the  the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f an  authentic  Popper h i m s e l f . h a s had  defined  as p r o p e r l y  r a t i o n a l i s m " and as a t t e m p t i n g  h i s theory  of the  Df  science,  Finally,  with  of a l l h i s previous  c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n h i s own be  fundamentally  terms c f the planning  "critical  social  be  seen sciences  anthropology. of p l a n n i n g , i t  " h i s t o r i c i s m " , "holism" foundation,  and  representing  e r r o r s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  proposal  he  for s o c i a l planning  Upon  could  not  d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h a t o f Mannheim, e x c e p t i n  relative  process.  his  f o r the  a philosophical  charges of  con-  a subject  "open s o c i e t y " p o p p e r can  " m o r a l h i s t o r i c i s m " were l a r g e l y w i t h o u t culmination  a  allow  c o r r e s p o n d s t o what  I n P o p p e r ' s a t t a c k on Mannheim's t h e o r y becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e  As  of  t h a t Mannheim's c o n c e r n  a unitary perspective  o f h i s t o r y and  overcome t a  of p o l i t i c s " .  "traditions"  sociological.  to provide  through a theory  "science  seem t o r e a l i z e  termed the  characteristic  partially  of s o c i a l research  1  epistemological  of perspectives  t r a d i t i o n must be  "perspectives'.  the  T h u s , h i s c r i t i c i s m s b y p a s s Mann-  social scientific  w i t h the  Mannheim's  found i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of  the  s e q u e n c e , P o p p e r does n o t  sociology  emergence a f a t r a n s -  P o p p e r as a g e n e r a l  conflict  erroneously  h i s t o r i c a l one.  —  of s c i e n c e .  heim's c o n c e r n t h a t the  He  e p i s t e m o l o g y when t h e  social pre-conditions  cendent s y n t h e s i z i n g p e r s p e c t i v e intellectuals  s u c c e e d s i n f u r t h e r demon-  o f Mannheim.  individualistic  irraticnalism  For  scope of the bath,  f r e e d o m t o be  planning  was  r e a l i z e d by  s e e n as an  the  experimental  a  -124-  t a s k t o be c a r r i e d c u t by d e m o c r a t i c a l l y r e s t r a i n e d t e c h n i c a l e l i t e s uhich uould provide a pragmatically l i b e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e to totalitarianism. him  to r e s t r i c t  suffering.  Popper's f e a r of "utopianism",  houever, l e d  the o b j e c t i v e s of planning to the e l i m i n a t i o n of  H i s p e s s i m i s t i c v i e u o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  knouledge precluded  t h e i d e a l o f any s t a b l e c o n s e n s u s on a l a r g e r  range o f i s s u e s embracing p o s i t i v e  freedoms.  Accordingly,he  t h a t c o e r c i o n c o n s t i t u t e d t h e o n l y means f o r r e a l i z i n g ives. lishing and  Mannheim, h o u e v e r , u a s c o n v i n c e d scientifically  t o develop  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l  objectof estabchoice  s o c i a l c o n t r o l s t o b r i n g them i n t o as l a r g e l y  a  being.  respons-  stratum.  a r e ue t o v i e u t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s Df t h e p o s i t i o n s  o f Mannheim and P o p p e r as s t a r t i n g s o c i a l science?  felt  the s o c i a l p r e - c o n d i t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l  the necessary  Hou t h e n  such  of the p o s s i b i l i t y  He s a u t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s U t o p i a n s p i r i t ibility  of s o c i a l  points f o r the understanding  I t i s t h e t h e s i s Df t h i s s t u d y  t h a t Popper's  of mis-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Df Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e r e v e a l s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " . on t h e o t h e r h a n d , p r o v i d e s t h e r u d i m e n t s nature  and s o u r c e s  suggested  Mannheim's p e r s p e c t i v e , f o r comprehending the  of Popper's d i f f i c u l t i e s .  As L u c i e n Goldmann h a s  on t h e p r o b l e m Df c o m p a r i n g tuo d i f f e r e n t u o r l d - v i e u s :  V i e u e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r e f f e c t on s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t , d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s and i d e o l o g i e s do n o t e x i s t on t h e same p l a n e . Some v a l u e - j u d g m e n t s p e r m i t a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g Df r e a l i t y t h a n o t h e r s . Uhen i t i s a q u e s t i o n Df d e t e r m i n i n g u h i c h o f t u o c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i o l o g i e s has the g r e a t e r s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e , t h e f i r s t s t e p i s t o ask u h i c h o f them p e r m i t s t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o t h e r as a s o c i a l and, human phenomenon, r e v e a l s i t s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and c l a r i f i e s , by m e a n s , o f an immanent c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e , i t s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s (1969:52). Popper's i n a b i l i t y  t o grasp  t h e a r g u m e n t o f Mannheim's  soci-  -125-  ology of knouledge  p r o v i d e s c o n v i n c i n g support of the t h e s i s  t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e o f " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " has upon i t s " i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and auare  of the d i f f i c u l t y  limitations".  And  Mannheim uas  he uas  r e a c t i o n o f t h o s e uho  a priori  as " s o c i o l o g i s m " .  o f t h e autonomy o f e p i s t e m o l o g y  consequently, served  "no  " t h i s gesture of o t h e r purpose  n o t one  o f t h o s e uho  from  of a  broader  self-preservation",  than t h a t of a buluark f o r  a c e r t a i n t y p e o f a c a d e m i c e p i s t e m o l o g y ...." uas  inter-  uould dogmatically s t i g -  s p e c i a l i z e d s c i e n c e s , c l o s e s the mind t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  as he t e r m e d i t ,  f o r the  also able to  matize the p r o p o s i t i o n s of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge  e m p i r i c i s m and  uell  u h i l e he r e c o g n i z e d t h e p a r t t o p l a y  by t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r y o f k n o u l e d g e ,  For the assumption  touched  p o s e d by t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e  autonomy o f p h i l o s o p h y .  pret the i n s t i n c t i v e  that  (IU:2B7-8).  Yet, P o p p e r  a l l e g e d t h e autonomy o f e p i s t e m o l o g y  from  t h e s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s ; on t h e c o n t r a r y , as he p o i n t s o u t i n h i s criticism  of l i n g u i s t i c  and o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e  to analyse the s c i e n t i f i c  problems,  theories,  p h i l o s o p h i e s , they procedures  c u s s i o n s u h i c h a r e t h e key t o t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m the grouth of knouledge  (LSD:22).  of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge him  to dispense u i t h  social science. h i s demarcation  As ue have s e e n , scientific  scientific  —  results  value  alloued  i t s f i n d i n g s into h i s theory  of  he p r o v i d e d a p s e u d o - s o l u t i o n u i t h and n o n - s c i e n t i f i c  W h a t e v e r v a l u e t h i s m i g h t have as a n o r m a t i v e  science taken i n t h i s r i g o r o u s sense.  Only  knouledge.  guide, i t f a i l s  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d i l e m m a s p o s e d by t h e a l m o s t  provides the c r i t i c a l  dis-  of epistemology  h i s r e j e c t i o n of the  as h a v i n g any  incorporating  betueen  But  and  fail  total  absence of  the s o c i o l o g y of  t o o l s f o r understanding the k i n d s of  u h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e b u l k o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e and  to  philosophy.  social  knouledge knouledge  -126-  In s h o r t , such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s "critical" it  self-awareness  of the p e c u l i a r circumstances holds  knouledge. present  i n t o question the  of Popper's r a t i o n a l i s t  be a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e e a r l i e r  matically  call  vieus uere a b e r r a t i o n s ,  of their genesis.  NOT c a n  credo.  expressions  For Popper  dog-  f a s t to h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the sociology of  More r e c e n t l y , he u e n t so f a r as t o s u g g e s t t h a t " t h e  trend i n the s o - c a l l e d e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the  natural sciences (1970b:258).  i s likely  t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e decay o f s c i e n c e "  A t t h e same t i m e he i s p u z z l e d  of the s o c i a l sciences  by t h e c o n t i n u e d  failure  and i s f o r c e d t o l a m e n t t u o d e c a d e s a f t e r t h e  p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s studies i n the philosophy  of social  science:  Somehou o r o t h e r , t h e u n i n t e n d e d r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f o u r h e e d l e s s t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e seem tD be n o b o d y ' s business. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n seem t o be i n t o x i c a t i n g ... The p r o b l e m o f t h e u n i n t e n d e d c o n sequences o f our a c t i o n s , consequences u h i c h are not only unintended but o f t e n very d i f f i c u l t t o f a r s e e , i s t h e . f u n d a m e n t a l problem o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (1969b: 56-7). This to formulate legitimacy uhy  i s certainly  the s o c i a l sources of t h i s f a i l u r e .  In denying the  o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e , he c a n n o t b e g i n  i t i s that  readily  a l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n , b u t Popper i s unable  " c r i t i c a l reason"  has n o t e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f  i n t h e s o c i a l as i n t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s .  t h e uay i n u h i c h  to explain as  Nor c a n he s e e  h i s oun d o c t r i n e s have a c t u a l l y been an o b s t a c l e  t o f i n d i n g o u t uhy s u c h m a t t e r s as " h e e d l e s s t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e " seem-to be "nobody's b u s i n e s s " . been t o r e v o l t a g a i n s t had  militantly  the very  Ironically,  thesis of rationalization  d e f e n d e d i n t h e Open S o c i e t y .  of contemporary s c i e n c e  h i s only response has.  F o r he s e e s t h e v i l l a i n  the problem o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n u i t h  s u l t i n g e m p h a s i s on " n o r m a l " s c i e n c e .  t h a t he  As he l a m e n t s :  i t sre-  -127-  I f t h e many, t h e s p e c i a l i s t s , g a i n t h e day, i t u i l l be t h e end o f s c i e n c e as ue k n o u i t — Df g r e a t s c i e n c e . I t u i l l be a s p i r i t u a l c a t a s t r o p h y c o m p a r a b l e i n i t s ' c o n s e q u e n c e s t o n u c l e a r armament ( 1 9 7 0 b : 2 5 9 ) . F u r t h e r , he  d r a u s a p a r a l l e l b e t u e e n t h e n a t u r a l and  s o c i a l s c i e n c e s uhere "the  degeneration  o r l e s s empty v e r b a l i s m has sciences"  (258).  Yet  into impressive  gone f u r t h e r t h a n  but  the  more  i n the n a t u r a l  even i n the n a t u r a l - s c i e n c e s :  More and more PhD. c a n d i d a t e s r e c e i v e a m e r e l y t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , a t r a i n i n g i n c e r t a i n techniques of measurement; t h e y are not i n i t i a t e d i n t o the s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n , t h e c r i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f q u e s t i o n i n g , Df b e i n g t e m p t e d and g u i d e d by g r e a t and a p p a r e n t l y i n s o l u b l e r i d d l e s r a t h e r t h a n by t h e s o l u b i l i t y o f l i t t l e p u z z l e s ( 2 5 9 ) . And  this  i s t h e man  s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g " and  uho  the  critic  laments the d e c l i n e of types decades e a r l i e r  not  t h e s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e be "critical  had  tried  an i n t e g r a l p a r t and  g r e a t and  apparently  of l i t t l e  p u z z l e s " be  Might not  by  as much a p r e r e q u i s i t e o f t h e  t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s as t h e  the  and  upon t h e t r a g i c .  the  r a t i o n a l i s m r a t h e r than the he  f a c t t h a t no i s u n a b l e tD  one  solubility  creativity  a misunderstanding  s e e s i t as t h e p r i m a r y  source  as a means o f i t s c o n t r o l .  seems c o n c e r n e d u i t h  formulate  by  of  natural?  B u r d e n e d by  s o c i o l o g y o f k n o u l e d g e , he  effects  guided  Popper's a g o n i z i n g r e - a p p r a i s a l of c u r r e n t trends borders  of  sociology  " t e m p t e d and  i n s o l u b l e r i d d l e s r a t h e r than  Might  expression  of the sources  t h e n e e d t o be  he  uhich  to dismiss i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  Df s c i e n c e c o n t r i b u t e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g Might nat  Here  i n natural science  t r a d i t i o n of q u e s t i o n i n g " ?  of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ?  "piecemeal  of t h e o r e t i c a l h i s t o r y ?  of i n q u i r y  tuo  this  he  i s a l s o the advocate of  of  the  Df i r -  Beuildered  the e f f e c t s of  t h e p r o b l e m t o e x p l a i n uhy  i n science  by  technology,  t h i s i s the  -128-  case, f o r again i t r e q u i r e s a s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . laments of  the r e l e n t l e s s  the generalizing  break-throughs,  p r e s s u r e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e f a i l u r e  c a p a c i t y uhich i s the source o f a l l c r e a t i v e  y e t cannot  l i n k t h i s to a theory of history  u o u l d make s e n s e o f t h e p r o c e s s  and i n d i c a t e  m i g h t be i n s t i t u t e d t o a l t e r i t . of r e c o g n i z i n g h i s a f f i n i t y  hou human  o f f from  truncated  the very source  "critical  I n sum, P o p p e r ' s i n c a p a b i l i t y  u i t h Mannheim, a man u h o s e  of insight  rationalism"  uhich  controls  relationship  to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s p a r a l l e l e d Popper's t o the n a t u r a l , him  He  cuts  t h a t might t r a n s f o r m h i s  i n t o a l i b e r a t i v e one.  -129-  IX.  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PH  The P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m . 3 r d ed.. NY: Harper T o r c h b o o k s , 1964; ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 4 4 - 4 5 ) .  Mannheim,  Karl  IU  I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a : •An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e S o c i o l o g y o f K n o u l e d g e . t r a n s . L o u i s W i r t h and Eduard S h i l s . NY: H a r c o u r t , Brace & U o r l d (Harvest B o o k s ) , 1964; ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 3 6 ) .  MS  Man and S o c i e t y i n an Age o f R e c o n s t r u c t i o n : S t u d i e s i n . Modern S o c i a l S t r u c t i o n . t r a n s . Eduard S h i l s . NY: H a r c o u r t , Brace & w o r l d ( H a r v e s t B o o k s ) , 1940.  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