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Conjectures without refutations : Karl Popper's criticisms of Mannheim's sociology of knowledge Morrow, Raymond Allen 1973

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c CONJECTURES WITHOUT REFUTATIONS: KARL POPPER'S CRITICISMS OF MANNHEIM'S SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE by RAYMOND ALLEN MORROU B.A. POMONA COLLEGE, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia A p r i l , 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study., I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f A n t l i r o p o l o ^ y - o o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A f n f If/3 i i ABSTRACT The s u b j e c t of t h i s study i s the c r i t i c i s m s advanced by the p h i l o s o p h e r o f s c i e n c e K a r l Popper a g a i n s t the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge and p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e o f K a r l Mannheim. The t h e s i s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t Popper's arguments r e v e a l a remark-a b l e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Mannheim's p o s i t i o n and t h a t t a k i n g these m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n t o account r e v e a l s t h e more fundamental com-p l e m e n t a r i t y and convergence o f t h e i r v i e w s . That t h e s e a f f i n i t i e s have not been p r e v i o u s l y noted i s l i n k e d t o the s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and d e v e l -opment o f the uork o f Popper and Mannheim w i t h i n the framework o f p o s t - w o r l d U a r r l l E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p h i l o s o p h y and s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . That t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s converged des-p i t e i n c o m p a t i b l e n e o - p o s i t i v i s t and n e o - i d e a l i s t backgrounds i s r e -l a t e d t o the t r a j e c t o r y o f t h e i r c a r e e r s as l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s who f l e d t o E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g democracies i n response t o the r i s e o f Fascism i n the 1930's. These arguments are f o l l o w e d by a t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s which attempts t o show t h a t : 1) Popper m i s i n t e r p r e t s the c e n t r a l con-c e p t s o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge, e r r o n e o u s l y s t i g m a t i z i n g i t as " s o c i o l o g i s m " ; 2) t h a t he thus f a i l s t o p e r c e i v e the s i m i l a r i t y o f h i s own e p i s t e m o l o g y w i t h t h a t o f Mannheim, f a l s e l y a t t r i b u t i n g t o him an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c t h e o r y o f knowledge; and 3) t h a t h i s p r i m a r y disagreement w i t h Mannheim i s not an a n t i t h e t i c a l t h e o r y o f i i a s o c i a l s c i e n c e , c r even p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y , so much as a more p e s s i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s o c i a l knowledge as the b a s i s f o r a n o n - c o e r c i v e p o l i t i c a l c onsensus. As a con-sequence, he adopts a more r e s t r i c t i v e " n e g a t i v e " c o n c e p t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l freedom. In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s argued t h a t Popper's f a i l u r e t o have r e a l i z e d these a f f i n i t i e s and thus grasped the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge f o r the p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e c a l l s - . i n t o q u e s t i o n the c r e d i b i l i t y o f h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " i n i t s p r e s e n t form. Rlcardo Muratorio i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i I . INTRODUCTION: CONJECTURES WITHOUT REFUTATIONS 1 I I . THE PROBLEM IN THE CONTEXT OF POST-WAR SOCIAL RESEARCH 6 I I I . THE INTELLECTUAL CAREERS OF MANNHEIM AND POPPER 20 IV. POPPER'S RATIONALISM 35 V. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE 50 l / I . THE FOUNDATIONS OF DBJECTIV/E KNOWLEDGE 63 V I I . SOCIAL SCIENCE AND SOCIAL PLANNING 85 W i l l - CONCLUSIONS: THE LIMITS OF CRITICAL RATIONALISM 120 IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY 129 - 1 -I . INTRODUCTION: CONJECTURES WITHOUT REFUTATIONS The p h i l o s o p h e r K a r l Popper has devoted l e s s than a decade o f h i s l o n g c a r e e r t o the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Yet the r e s u l t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s - The Open S o c i e t y and i t s Enemies and The P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m - were guaranteed a f a r - r e a c h i n g i n f l u e n c e by t h e i r s t y l i s t i c v e r v e , b r e a d t h o f i n t e r e s t s , and p u b l i c a t i o n at a d e c i s i v e moment — the end of the Second World War. H i s s e l f - p r o -c l a i m e d t a s k was the d e m y s t i f i c a t i o n o f the i d e o l o g i c a l demons of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m ; h i s means was t o t r a c e t h e i r s o u r c e s i n the t r a -d i t i o n o f C l a s s i c a l European p h i l o s o p h y . P l a t o , Hegel and Marx f i g u r e as the c e n t r a l v i l l a i n s i n t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l drama, though o t h e r s — A r i s t o t l e , J.S. M i l l and K a r l Mannheim — p l a y secondary r o l e s . R e j e c t i n g the dogmatic f o r m a l i s m and narrow s p e c i a l i s m o f l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s m , he sought to a c t i v e l y r e s c u e i t s r a t i o n a l commitment through the e l a b o r a t i o n o f a l e s s v u l n e r a b l e , and t h e r e f o r e more p e r -s u a s i v e , p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e . Only such a " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " d i r e c t e d toward the s o c i a l as w e l l as the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s c o u l d , he tho u g h t , p r e s e r v e c i v i l i z a t i o n and reason from the i r r a t i o n a l i s m u l t i m a t e l y g e n e r a t e d by the f e a r o f s o c i a l change. P o s i t i v e l y , t h i s m i s s i o n r e q u i r e d the r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the problem o f the l o g i c o f v a l i d a t i o n through a s h i f t o f emphasis from the v e r i f i c a t i o n t o the f a l s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e o r i e s . N e g a t i v e l y , Popper t u r n e d t o a c r i t i c i s m o f those methods o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s which he f e l t v i o l a t e d or i g n o r e d the pro c e d u r e s o f s c i e n c e and thus f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e adequate grounds f o r the demarcation of t e s t a b l e from non-t e s t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n s . Above a l l t h i s a t t a c k c h a l l e n g e d the s o c i o -l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f h i s t o r y f o r i t s a l l e g e d h y p o s t a s i z a t i o n Df c a t e -g o r i e s , whether o f concepts i n g e n e r a l ( " e s s e n t i a l i s m " ) or o f c o l --2-l e c t i v e terms i n p a r t i c u l a r ( " h o l i s m " ) . F D T such e r r o r s , combined w i t h the f e a r e l i c i t e d by r a p i d s o c i a l change, had r e p e a t e d l y c u l -minated i n a d o c t r i n e — " h i s t o r i c i s m " or h i s t o r i c a l prophesy — which c r i p p l e d the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and f a c i l i t a t e d the r i s e of t o t a l -i t a r i a n i s m . Moreover, the o s t e n s i b l y r a t i o n a l e f f o r t t o c o n t r o l change through c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g had f a i l e d t o escape the i r -r a t i o n a l i s t i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i t s " u t o p i a n , " " h i s t o r i ' E i s t " and " h o l i s t i c " a s s u m p t i o n s . In h i s s t u d i e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , Popper s e i z e d upon K a r l Mannheim as the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d p u r v e y o r of such d o c t r i n e s i n the academic s o c i o l o g y o f h i s day. l\lo o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t i s g i v e n s i m i l a r a t t e n t i o n ; Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge and h i s advocacy Df " u t o p i a n p l a n n i n g " are p r e s e n t e d as the contemporary m a n i f -e s t a t i o n , a l b e i t i n r a t i o n a l g u i s e , o f the same p h i l o s o p h i c a l e r r o r s which c o n s t i t u t e d the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f modern i r r a t i o n a l i s m and t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . The t h e s i s o f t h i s essay i s t h a t Popper's p o l e m i c p g a i n s t Mannheim c o n t a i n s a m b i g u i t i e s and m i s c o n c e p t i o n s which obscure the l a t e n t a f f i n i t i e s between h i m s e l f and Mannheim. T h i s c o n f u s i o n on Popper's p a r t can be r e v e a l e d through an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s u p e r -f i c i a l i t y o f h i s e x e g e s i s o f Mannheim, as w e l l as through a c o n s i d e r -a t i o n o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Popper's own v i e w s . The argument of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s r e q u i r e s d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : (1) That Popper t h o r o u g h l y m i s i n t e r p r e t s the c e n t r a l c o ncepts and p r e p o s i t i o n s o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge and thus f a i l s t o grasp i t s - c l a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s as a mode o f s o c i o -h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s ; (2) That he does not p r o v i d e an adequate a n a l y s i s o f the p h i l o s --3-• p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge and t h e r e f o r e f a i l s t o grasp the fundamental c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f h i s h i s own and Mannheim's e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l views as t o the o b j e c t i v e b a s i s Df knowledge; (3) That Popper's p r i m a r y disagreement w i t h Mannheim stems not from a f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , but r a t h e r from a more p e s s i m i s t i c view o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l knowledge and from a d i f f e r e n t con-c e p t i o n o f freedom. At f i r s t g l a n c e t h i s proposed c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y might appear i l l - a d v i s e d t o the s k e p t i c a l r e a d e r . As a consequence, the comparat-i v e t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f Mannheim and Popper's r e l e v a n t works i s sup-plemented by a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f why t h i s convergence has not geen g e n e r a l l y n o t i c e d and an account o f the s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l b i o g r a p h i e s which l e n d a d d i t i o n a l p l a u s i b i l i t y t o the proposed a f f i n i t y o f t h e i r p h i l o s o p h i e s o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e . That t h i s r emarkable degree of convergence has not been p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d and emphasized i n the s t a n d a r d l i t e r a t u r e , and t h a t as a consequence Popper's m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Mannheim c o n t i n u e s t o e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e i s e v i d e n c e of the d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the c r i t i c a l com-munity of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s congec'ture'd,tithe p r e v i o u s f a i l u r e o f the Anglo-American s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c community t o have f u l l y a s s i m i l a t e d the H e g e l i a n - M a r x i s t t r a d i t i o n — a s i t u a t i o n e x a c e r b a t e d f o r some time by the C o l d War — c r e a t e d a m i l i e u which i n h i b i t e d a c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n of the i s s u e s r a i s e d by Mannheim and Popper. These g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s were r e i n f o r c e d by the premature death of Mannheim and Popper's r e t u r n t o problems i n the l o g i c o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . -k-The b i o g r a p h i c a l b a s i s o f t h i s convergence i s s k e t c h e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f Mannheim's and Popper's r e s p e c t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l c a r e e r s . Though i n i t i a l l y t r a i n e d i n a n t i -t h e t i c a l i d e a l i s t i c and p o s i t i v i s t i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s , t h e i r e a r l y i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the o v e r r i d i n g e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m a t i c o f e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y C e n t r a l Europe - the t h r e a t o f r e l a t i v i s m , the r i s e o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , t h e i r e m i g r a t i o n t o E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s , and t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the t h e o r e t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y o f e n l i g h t e n e d r e a s o n and l i b e r a l democracy can a l l be viewed as power-f u l f a c t o r s s h a p i n g t h e i r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s and f o r c i n g a movement toward a c o m p a t i b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the n a t u r e and t a s k s o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n a l i b e r a l s o c i e t y . T h i s s t u d y does not propose to p r o v i d e a comprehensive a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i a l t h e o r i e s o f e i t h e r Popper or Mannheim. The a b j e c t i v e i s s i m p l y t o demonstrate the c o n c e p t u a l c o n f u s i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n Popper's attempt t o d i s a s s o c i a t e h i s own p o s i t i o n from t h a t o f Mannheim. Thus, the development o f the c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n does not presuppose or r e q u i r e the e l a b o r a t i o n o f an e x t e r n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n . R a t h e r , the common ground between Popper and Mannheim s e r v e s t o i l l u m i n a t e same of the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f Popper's a n a l y s i s . As a consequence, Popper's arch-enemy becomes a c r i t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t f o r i n d i c a t i n g d i r e c t i o n s which, had Popper been a b l e t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t , might have a l l o w e d him t o a v e r t some of the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f h i s own p r a g m a t i c l i b e r a l s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y . For i n i t s p r e s e n t form, i t i s c o n c l u d e d , Popper's " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n by h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' o f Mannheim. The argument w i l l be developed i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r . In -5-Chapter I I the r a l e o f Mannheim and Popper i n the c o n t e x t o f p o s t -war s o c i a l r e s e a r c h i s d i s c u s s e d . In Chapter I I I the b i o g r a p h i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r convergent i n t e r e s t s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d . Then (Chapter IV/) Popper's p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n — h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " — i s o u t l i n e d as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s a t t a c k on Mannheim. In the t h r e e s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s (V - V I I ) , Popper's c o n c e p t i o n of Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y Df s c i e n c e , a n a l y s i s o f h i s t h e o r y o f o b j e c t i v e knowledge, and c r i t i c i s m o f h i s o s t e n s i b l e program o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g are e l a b o r a t e d and a n a l y s e d . In the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r ( V I I I ) , the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the p r e v i o u s d i s -c u s s i o n f o r Popper's " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " are t e n t a t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d . -6-I I . THE PROBLEM IN THE CONTEXT OF POST-WAR SDCIAL RESEARCH A d i s c u s s i o n l i m i t e d t o Popper's c r i t i q u e of Mannheim might seem t o be removed from the c u r r e n t t a s k s o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . Such a view r e f l e c t s the d i f f i c u l t y o f b r i n g i n g t h e i r c oncerns c l e a r l y i n t o f o c u s . Popper's i d e o l o g i c a l r h e t o r i c and Mannheim's p h i l -o s o p h i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s tend t o mark them as p a r t o f another era.''' And i n d e e d , t h i s s u s p i c i o n of anachronism u o u l d be v a l i d i f c u m u l a t i v e developments i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s over the p a s t q u a r t e r - c e n t u r y had r e s o l v e d the dilemmas t o which they d i r e c t e d a t t e n t i o n . Yet t h e r e i s l i t t l e b a s i s f o r such an o p t i m i s t i c a p p r a i s a l . When ue l o o k at the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , a t a t t a c k s on the l e g i t i m a c y and p l a c e of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the g e n e r a l d e c l i n e o f the a u t h o r i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r lea-phi ng and o f government, t h e r e i s l i t t l e , j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the c o n s o l i n g thought t h a t the s c i e n c e s o f man have a c h i e v e d 2 t h a t e n v i e d s e c u r i t y and m a t u r i t y d i s p l a y e d by those of n a t u r e . Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggest t h a t more than a n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t s are t o be s e r v e d by r e - o p e n i n g a c l o s e d c h a p t e r i n the r e c e n t h i s t o r y of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of Popper's p h i l o s o p h y i s w a r r a n t e d by the assumption t h a t he i s one o f the most i m p o r t a n t p h i l o s o p h e r s o f s c i e n c e t o have g i v e n e x t e n s i v e a t t e n t i o n t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . The e x t e n t of t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e p r e c i s e l y . As one of the f e u major p h i l o s o p h e r s o f h i s g e n e r a t i o n t o have undertaken an e x a m i n a t i o n Df m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems Df g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t and w i t h i d e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , h i s work became a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the f o r m a t i o n o f the s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h e r s and -7-p h i l o s o p h e r s i n the immediate post-1945 p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y i n B r i t a i n . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the many e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n s o f h i s s t u d i e s — a p o p u l a r i t y t h a t i s e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g f o r such a b s t r u s e t o p i c s . The n a t u r e of t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s more r e a d i l y a s s e s s e d . H i s n e g a t i v e arguments — h i s c a t a l o g u e o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s i n s — was undoubtedly more e f f e c t i v e than h i s p o s i t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s . While t h e r e uere a number of p h i l o s o p h e r s of s c i e n c e a t t e m p t i n g t o demon-s t r a t e hou the s o c i a l s t u d i e s might become t r u l y s c i e n t i f i c , t h e r e uere f e u uho had the b r e a d t h or w i t t o undertake an e x t e n s i v e c r i t i q u e o f approaches t o be a v o i d e d . While h i s n e g a t i v e - c r i t i c a l i n t r o -d u c t i o n t o the H e g e l i a n - M a r x i a n t r a d i t i o n was o n l y a d i s t o r t e d echo o f the l i b e r a l - M a r x i s t debates found i n West Germany and France i n the post-1945 p e r i o d , i t d i d p r o v i d e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g r e a d e r s w i t h a t a s t e of the k i n d s o f i s s u e s t h a t would re-emerge a g a i n l a t e i n the 196Q's.^ A s i d e from any assessment of the n a t u r e and e x t e n t Df Popper's past i n f l u e n c e , h i s work may be viewed as an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t o f de-p a r t u r e f o r the r e f o r m u l a t i o n of the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between e p i s t e m o l o g y , s c i e n c e , and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y . For i n h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e , l o g i c i s not s i m p l y c o n s i d e r e d as an a b s t r a c t i o n but as p a r t o f , t h e h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r type o f r a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . And d e s p i t e h i s c o n s i s t e n t r e p u d i a t i o n o f the p h i l o s o p h i c a l or c o g n i t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the h i s t o r y and s o c i o l o g y o f s c i e n c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n h i s uork the q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n -s h i p betueen the l o g i c and h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e emerges as the c e n t e r o f the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m a t i c . As some of h i s s u c c e s s o r s have shoun, h i s t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y t o r e c o g n i t i o n Df the d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s o f the h i s t o r y o f s c i e n c e and the i d e o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s n o f . - ^ s c i e n t i f i c methods. -8-Bc-pper's r e f o r m u l a t i o n Df the t h e o r y of c o n f i r m a t i o n drew him away from the n e o - p o s i t i v i s t camp and pushed him t o u a r d a s o p h i s t i c a t e d pragmatism i n u h i c h the f a l l i b i l i s m and u n c e r t a i n t y Df 5 knowledge was emphasized. Most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s p r o v i d e d the grounds f o r a c r i t i q u e o f •'the s c i e n t i s t i c h u b r i s o f n e o - p o s i t i v i s m and Marxism a l i k e . T h i s f a l l i b i l i s t i c emphasis s e r v e d as the b a s i s f o r s u p p o r t i n g the l i b e r a l t h e s i s t h a t p l u r a l i s t i c c o m p e t i t i o n p r o -v i d e d the b e s t p r i n c i p l e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g s o c i a l c o n t r o l and e n s u r i n g the p r o g r e s s i v e development o f s c i e n c e and s o c i e t y . Such an e p i s t e m o l o g y o f u n c e r t a i n t y thus becomes f o r Popper a new f o u n d a t i o n f o r the l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e o f n e g a t i v e freedom. As one p h i l o s o p h e r has s u g g e s t e d , "perhaps he w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d the John Locke o f our c e n t u r y " ( R a d n i t z k y , 1968:139). In t h i s way Popper s i d e s t e p p e d the extremes o f the l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s m and e x i s t e n t i a l i s m which c o n s t i t u t e d a s p e c i f i c a l l y European m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the c r i s i s o f l i b e r a l i s m and the f a i l u r e o f modern s c i e n c e t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t s o f modern s o c i e t y . Drawing back from what he c o n s i d e r e d the pseudo-rati'brnaMsm o f the former — which i n c l u d e d p o s i t i v i s t i c v e r s i o n s o f Marxism — and the e x p l i c i t a n t i -r a t i o n a l i s m o f the l a t t e r , he sought t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the p l a c e o f reason through a r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the e p i s t e m o l o g y of the s c i e n c e s . In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he moved i n the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f American pragmatism which had developed i n r e -l a t i v e t r a n q u i l i t y and i n i s o l a t i o n from the c o n f l i c t s o f Europe. In t h i s way, pragmatism p o i n t e d the way f o r 20th c e n t u r y l i b e r a l i s m . Popper might be viewed as an independent t h i n k e r whose concerns l e d him i n a s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n . -9-In p r a c t i c e , the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a r g e -s c a l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h have been dominated by a p r a g m a t i c - i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i a l s c i e n c e as the t e c h - . n o l o g y of power. W i t h i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e n e o - p o s i t i v i s m can be a s s i m i l a t e d o n l y t o the degree t h a t i t f u r t h e r s such t e c h o l o g i c a l ends. Pragmatism and not p o s i t i v i s m has been the most c o n g e n i a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of modern l i b e r a l i s m and c o n s t i t u t e s the i m p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the e l i t e s o f contemporary c a p i t a l i s t d e m o c r a c i e s . ^ As one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s t o have a r t i c u l a t e d the assumptions of such a l i b e r a l i s m , Popper s h o u l d 7 be c o n s i d e r e d one of the most i m p o r t a n t ideologues i n the West. While Popper p r o v i d e d a c r i t i c a l view of the H e g e l i a n - M a r x i a n t r a d i t i o n of s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y from h i s e x t e r n a l vantage p o i n t as a h e r e t i c a l n e o - p o s i t i v i s t , Mannheim c o n s t i t u t e d an example of how a s o c i o l o g i s t ' w o r k i n g out of t h a t t r a d i t i o n might adapt some of i t s b a s i c i n s i g h t s t o a r e f o r m i s t r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n . F i r s t i n t r o d u c e d to the E n g l i s h - r e a d i n g p u b l i c i n the open-minded, e x p e r i m e n t a l i n -t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e o f the mid-1930's, Mannheim en j o y e d an i n i t i a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a c c e p t a n c e . He brought t o the a t t e n t i o n of many American r e s e a r c h e r s the l a c k o f a f u l l y developed h i s t o r i c a l and s t r u c t u r a l dimension i n p r a g m a t i s t s o c i a l t h e o r y and thus c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s r e - a p p r a i s a l by an emergent r a d i c a l wing. But i n the f o l l o w i n g decade the t e r m i n a t i o n of the D e p r e s s i o n , World War I I , the g r a d u a l r e v e l a t i o n o f the S t a l i n i s t a t r o c i t i e s , and the emergence of the C o l d War com-b i n e d t o d i s c r e d i t the aims o f the r a d i c a l - p r o g r e s s i v e elements whose p o l i t i c s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and r e - o r g a n -i z a t i o n . Much as the c o n t e n t and r e c e p t i o n of I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a -10-t y p i f i e d the f l u i d i n t e l l e c t u a l s i t u a t i o n o f 1936, Popper's Open  S o c i e t y and i t s Enemies o f 19^5 e x p r e s s e d the pr o f o u n d p o l a r i z a t i o n o f i n t e l l e c t u a l o p i n i o n by the end of t h i s p e r i o d . Given the mood o f the C o l d War and the a n t i - m e t a p h y s i c a l , a h i s t o r i c a l , e m p i r i c i s t t r a d i t i o n s o f Anglo-American s o c i a l t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y , i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t Popper's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were taken very s e r i o u s l y by most r e a d e r s . What i s l e s s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i s t h a t Popper's c o n j e c t u r e s — and h i s a t t a c k on Mannheim — f a i l e d tD draui the comprehensive and d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s they de-s e r v e d . For whatever h i s c o n f u s i o n s and e c c e n t r i c i t i e s , Popper c o u l d not be e a s i l y i g n o r e d o r d i s m i s s e d i n the l o n g - r u n : he made e x p l i c i t the s t a k e s i n v o l v e d i n the i s s u e s o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e . V/arious s c h o l a r s t u r n e d t o s a defense o f i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l -i t i e s i n which th e y had i n v e s t e d t h e i r academic r e p u t a t i o n s . Symptom-a t i c a l l y , the most heated d i s c u s s i o n s came from the f r a t e r n i t y o f c l a s s i c i s t s which was aroused t o defend P l a t o from the charge o f 9 t o t a l i t a r i a n s y m p a t h i e s . Given the s t a t e o f H e g e l i a n s c h o l a r s h i p , Popper's account o f Hegel d i d not rouse more than a t r i c k l e o f oppos-i t i o n . " ^ Orthodox M a r x i s t s , when they d i d not s i m p l y i g n o r e Popper as a r e a c t i o n a r y i d e o l o g u e , r a r e l y had the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s k i l l s t o meet him on h i s own g r o u n d . I n any c a s e , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d e f enses f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive c r i t i q u e o f Popper's p h i l o s o p h y of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . An e n t i r e c h a p t e r o f Popper's Open S o c i e t y and s e c t i o n s o f the P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m were devoted t o Mannheim. C u r i o u s l y — u n l i k e P l a t o , Hegal and Marx — Mannheim has not even found a modicum of sup-p o r t . As we s h a l l see, t h i s i s a l l the more remarkable because t h i s d i s -c u s s i o n o f Mannheim r e v e a l s some of Popper's c r u c i a l m i s c o n c e p t i o n s and -11-i s a key t o u n r a v e l i n g same a f h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . In p a r t , t h i s s i l -ence may r e f l e c t the w i d e s p r e a d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h i s was one o f the s t r o n g e s t and most c o n v i n c i n g s e c t i o n s of Popper's work. T h i s was s u g g e s t e d i n a 1952 r e v i e w by an a u t h o r i t y i n the f i e l d o f the h i s t o r y of s o c i a l thought — John Plamenatz — who c o n c l u d e d t h a t "had a l l the c h a p t e r s been as good as the l a s t f o u r , P r o f e s s o r Popper might i n d e e d have w r i t t e n what one of the r e v i e w e r s quoted on the dust cover has c a l l e d 'beyond any doubt a g r e a t book'" (1967:273). The second o f t h e s e f o u r c h a p t e r s i s concerned w i t h Mannheim's v e r s i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge. A more r e c e n t e s t i m a t e of the con-t i n u i n g importance of t h i s c h a p t e r i s i m p l i c i t i n i t s i n c l u s i o n — w i t h o u t c r i t i c a l e d i t o r i a l comment or f o r e w a r n i n g of i t s . d e f i c i e n c i e s — 12 i n the f i r s t E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e r e a d e r i n the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge. -But perhaps the most r e v e a l i n g e v i d e n c e o f the f a i l u r e t o re-examine Popper's a n a l y s i s has r e c e n t l y been p r o v i d e d by I . C. J a r v i e , a p r o -f e s s o r o f the p h i l o s o p h y of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , who n a i v e l y r e p e a t s Popper's arguments as i f t h e y were a u t h o r i t a t i v e . U n l i k e i n the p h i l o s o p h y of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , where Popper's d i s c i p l e s have shown themselves t o be r e b e l l i o u s s u c c e s s o r s , the r e s u l t i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e s seems t o have been dogmatism and s u p e r f i c i a l i t y . Thus J a r v i e n o t e s , w r i t i n g i n 1972: In the form t h a t i t has come down to us, i . e . Mannheim's v e r s i o n , the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge has been v u l g a r i z e d i n a c r u c i a l way, not i n o r d e r t o overcome r e l a t i v i s m , but to s e r v e as a s t r a n g e and i n c o n s i s t e n t h y b r i d between r e l a t i v -ism, but t o s e r v e as a s t r a n g e and i n c o n s i s t e n t h y b r i d between r e l a t i v i s m and a b s o l u t i s m . Whereas S c h e l e r argued t h a t s o c i o -economic c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d determine the a r r i v a l o f an -idea at a p a r t i c u l a r time and p l a c e , but not the c o n t e n t o f t h a t i d e a , Mannheim c l a i m e d t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s determine c o n t e n t as w e l l as a r r i v a l . He t h u s used the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge t o expose the d i s t o r t i o n s and ' f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s 1 of t o t a l i d e o l o g i e s . Only the f r e e l y p o i s e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , - 1 2 -he a l l o w e d , c o u l d escape t h i s r e l a t i v i s m and see them'for what they were, l i m i t e d and p a r t i a l . In t h e i r c r i t i q u e of Mannheim, B e r g e r and Luckmann e n t i r e l y f a i l t o mention t h a t , as l o n g ago as 1945 i n The Open S o c i e t y  and I t s Enemies ( o r even ISkk), when The P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m was p u b l i s h e d i n Economica), Popper, as we have seen, had ex-e c u t e d a more e x t e n s i v e c r i t i q u e than t h e i r s ... Whether Popper's c r i t i q u e has any i n f l u e n c e i n b r i n g i n g about the s i t u a t i o n o f n e g l e c t o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge, which Berger and Luckmann co m p l a i n about, i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l . Popper's work i s w i d e l y d i f f u s e d and r e a d , but r a r e l y r e -f e r r e d t o . Moreover, b e l i e v e r s i n the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge c o u l d e a s i l y d i s m i s s Popper's c r i t i c i s m . B e i n g u n a t t a c h e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s , a t l e a s t o s t e n s i b l y , i . e . f r e e o f i m p r i s o n i n g i d e o l o g i e s , i t would be easy f o r them t o i g n o r e Popper's c r i t i c i s m - as the h o p e l e s s d i s t o r t i o n s o f b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y (1972:135-6). J a r v i e ' s e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge i s marred by c o n f u s i o n s stemming from t a k i n g a paraphrase of Popper's c h a p t e r on Mannheim as h i s p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e (131-33). In a c c e p t i n g Popper's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , he a p p a r e n t l y d i d not f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s u l t Mannheim. As a consequence, h i s e n t i r e c h a p t e r on "The S o c i o l o g y o f Knowledge R e c o n s i d e r e d " i l l u s t r a t e s v i v i d l y the c o n t i n u i n g impact o f Popper's m i s c o n c e i v e d comments on Mannheim. That such n a i v e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s c o u l d be g l i b l y r e p e a t e d a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y l a t e r t e s t i f i e s t o the d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the c r i t i c a l community of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . O b v i o u s l y , J a r v i e had r e a d n o t h i n g t o shake h i s assessment of Popper's a c c o u n t . The g e n e r a l r easons f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n have been touched upon i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f the mood of post-1945 p h i l o s o p h y and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . Y e t , i n p r i n c i p l e , one of the f u n c t i o n s o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s s h o u l d be t o d e t e c t such problems and f a c i l i t a t e i n t r a - and i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y communication. But the r a p i d growth of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s has made i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o keep up w i t h the f u l l range of d e v e l o p -ments. And f u r t h e r , the meagre concern of p h i l o s o p h e r s w i t h s o c i a l s c i e n c e and t h e i r g e n e r a l l y narrow a n a l y t i c and n o n - h i s t o r i c a l -13-approaches have not p r o v i d e d a m i l i e u i n which the k i n d s o f i s s u e s r a i s e d by Mannheim and Popper might r e c e i v e s y s t e m a t i c a t t e n t i o n and f u r t h e r development. Nor have the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s themselves proven immune t o such i n w a r d l y d i r e c t e d d i s c i p l i n a r y myopia. As I r v i n g L o u i s H o r o w i t z would lament i n the mid-1960 1s: "too many t e c h n i c i a n s are emerging from graduate s c h o o l s and too few i n t e l l e c t u a l s . One reason ... i s t h a t we l e a v e them as we f i n d them — p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i l l i t e r a t e " ( 1965:28). F i n a l l y , t h e r e are more s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s which may be c i t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the e v a s i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s as r a i s e d by Popper and Mannheim i n p a r t i c u l a r . Perhaps d e c i s i v e here was Mannheim's l o c a t i o n i n England, h i s l a c k o f graduate s t u d e n t s a f t e r l e a v i n g Germany, and h i s e a r l y d e a t h . I n the case of Popper, the s h i f t o f h i s i n t e r e s t s back t o the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s p r o v i d e d l i t t l e o c c a s i o n f o r the i n t e n s i v e r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of h i s own p o s i t i o n and he does not seem t o have encouraged any of h i s many s t u d e n t s t o do so, at l e a s t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . H i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the h i s t o r i a n Df s c i e n c e Thomas Kuhn i n 1965 might have been the o c c a s i o n f o r a r e a p p r a i s a l , but Popper gave no i n d i c a t i o n o f m o d i f y i n g h i s Ik h o s t i l i t y t o " h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i v i s m " . In s h o r t , Popper's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y o f know-ledge remains one o f the most p a r a d o x i c a l and p e r p l e x i n g elements o f h i s t h e o r y of s c i e n c e . D e s p i t e the many elements of h i s own t h i n k i n g which would seem t o make him amenable t o an acknowledgement of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o l o g y o f s c i e n c e , h i s p e r s i s t e n t a s s o c i a t i o n o f such approaches w i t h i r r a t i a n a l i s m can be viewed as an a b e r r a t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , the consequences o f Popper's d o c t r i n a l r e j e c t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge would e n t a i l — i f taken s e r i o u s l y by s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h e r s — a r e s t r i c t i o n o f i n q u i r i e s which have proven t o be of v a l u e . F o r t u n a t e l y , the s p e c i a l d i s c i p l i n e s have not been g r e a t l y i n h i b i t e d by h i s f e a r s . Yet h i s dogmatism has impeded c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the complementary i n t e r e s t s o f g e n e t i c and l o g i c a l approaches t o knowledge and the e l u c i d a t i o n o f t h e i r proper r o l e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n , v a l i d a t i o n , and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f knowledge. -15-IMOTES: CHAPTER I I Popper's m i l i t a n t l y l i b e r a l tone i s i n e v i t a b l y d i s c o m f o r t i n g even t o h i s s y m p a t h i z e r s . As f o r Mannheim the charge o f anachronism was i m p l i c i t even i n the f i r s t major E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e r e v i e w of I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a i n 1936 (Von S c h e l t i n g , 1936). More r e c e n t l y i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t In the main stream of s o c i o l o g y t o d a y , as i n most contemporary d i s c u s s i o n s , K a r l Mannheim's work i n the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge i s r e s p e c t e d — when i t i s a t . a l l r e c a l l e d — as a p i o n e e r i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a new i n q u i r y , but as a work u n f o r t u n a t e l y marred by c e r t a i n e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s which are seen t o emanate i n p a r t from the o b f u s c a t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f C e n t r a l European p h i l o s o p h y ( K e t t l e r , 1967:399). A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of t h i s mood can be found i n Bendix ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Gouldner. .'(,1970), F r i e d r i c h s ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and Birnbaum ( 1 9 7 1 ) . "^In West Germany the l e a d i n g f i g u r e s have been l i b e r a l s such as Hans A l b e r t and R a l f Dahrendorf v e r s u s n e o - M a r x i s t s of the F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l . In France Georges G u r v t i c h and Raymond Aron have l o n g been s i m i l a r l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the neo-Marxisms o f H e n r i L e f e b v r e , J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , L u c i e n Goldmann, and L o u i s A l t h u s s e r . IMeedless t o s a y , B r i t a i n and IMorth America had no comparable p o l e m i c s , at l e a s t u n t i l the emergence Df Hebert Marcuse as a p o p u l a r f i g u r e i n the l a t e 1960's. Yet even t h i s remained an echo of the European debate. Most n o t a b l y , P a u l Feyerabend (197C). 5 E l a b o r a t i o n of the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t Popper's p h i l o s o p h y of s c i e n c e be r e g a r d e d as a " l o g i c a l pragmatism" would r e q u i r e another s t u d y . A few c i r c u m s t a n c i a l b i t s o f e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s c o n j e c t u r e can be advanced, however. F i r s t , t h e r e i s the common r e v o l t a g a i n s t H e g e l i a n i s m and m e t a p h y s i c s . Second, though Popper s p e c i f i c a l l y r e j e c t s i n s t r u m e n t a l i s m and pragmatism i n f a v o r o f h i s own " r e a l i s m , " i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o r e c a l l Nagel's argument w i t h r e -s p e c t t o the d i f f e r e n c e between the " i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t " and " r e a l i s t " view o f t h e o r i e s : "the o p p o s i t i o n between th e s e views i s a con-f l i c t over p r e f e r r e d modes of speech" (1961:152). Another c l u e i s found i n Popper's a d m i s s i o n t h a t C h a r l e s Sanders P e i r c e was "one of the g r e a t e s t p h i l o s o p h e r s of a l l t i m e " (0K:212). I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s E r n e s t IMagel and Sidney Hook undertook s t u d i e s which p a r a l l e l e d those of Popper i n both s t y l e , c o n t e n t , and c o n c l u s i o n s . In f a c t , Hook, a s t u d e n t of Dewey, had p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s of e s s a y s by 1940 ( c f . Hook, 1940) which - I B -p r o v i d e d a s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r a g m a t i s t response t o Marxism which Popper's work f i v e y e a r s l a t e r l a r g e l y r e p e a t e d . IMagel, more a l o g i c i a n than a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h e r , f l i r t e d w i t h pragmatism i n h i s e a r l y y e a r s and remained a s y m p a t h e t i c c r i t i c . Even though he was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s , h i s work never b e t r a y e d t h e i r dogmatism and i n f l e x i b i l i t y ( c f . N a g e l , 1956). T h i s i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n . h i s i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Thus though the i n f l u e n c e o f Hook and Nagel was s t r o n g e r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Popper i n B r i t a i n , the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s and l i b e r a l s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y were s i m i l a r . The s u b s t a n t i v e a f f i n i t y o f Popper w i t h pragmatism can be seen i n h i s r e v i v a l o f p a r a l l e l d o c t r i n e s t o two key i n j u n c t i o n s of the pragmatists.: the "autonomy o f i n q u i r y " and the d e n i a l o f the "quest f o r c e r t a i n t y . " The e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e o f t r i a l -a n d - e r r o r a l s o c e n t r a l t o pragmatism comes t o be i d e n t i f i e d f o r Popper w i t h r e a s o n , the good s o c i e t y , and the means f o r the g r a d u a l movement toward " t r u t h " . For the e v o l u t i o n a r y a s p e c t s of Popper's e p i s t e m o l o g y see Campbell (1970); f o r the p h i l o s o p h y of s c i e n c e o f pragmatism see Kaplan ( 1 9 6 4 ) . D e m o n s t r a t i o n of the movement of Popper's work toward a s o p h i s t i c a t e d pragmatism would be another way of s u p p o r t i n g the t h e s i s a f a convergence w i t h Mannheim. For as the p r a g m a t i s t s were q u i c k t o r e c o g n i z e ( c f . e s p e c i a l l y M i l l s (1967) and L a v i n e (1944), Mannheim's e p i s t e m o l o g y had i n i t s b o l d o u t l i n e s l o n g "been f a m i l i a r t o the American mind" (Merton, 1968:562). 'Though pragmatism has been d e s c r i b e d as a v a r i a n t o f p o s i t i v i s m , t h i s i s a d e b a t a b l e p o i n t . The American s i t u a t i o n has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s : American thought i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the most a t t r a c t i v e o f the p o s i t i v i s t d o c t r i n e s , pragmatism. Pragmatism i s the t h e o r y o f n o n t h e o r y . U n l i k e the o l d e r p o s i t i v i s m , p r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y does not even r e t a i n the p r i n c i p l e of o b j e c t i v e t r u t h a r i s i n g from the correspondence of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e a l i t y . Pragmatism i s the e x p l i c i t r e d u c t i o n o f reason to i t s i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e , c a r r y i n g the u t i l i t a r i a n i s m o f l i b e r a l i s m t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n . In i t s most s o p h i s t i c a t e d form, pragmatism a s s e r t s the t r u t h o f any p r o p o s i t i o n i n the agreement of q u a l i f i e d s c i e n t i s t s about a p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon. The t e s t a f t r u t h i s i t s p r a c t i c a l v a l u e f o r the achievement Df human ends. R e a l i t y i t s e l f becomes an o b j e c t o f m a n i p u l a t i o n through human p r a c t i c e ... U n l i k e the o l d e r p o s i t i v i s m , which c l a i m s the r a d i c a l s e p a r a t i o n between v a l u e and t r u t h , pragmatism a s s e r t s t h e i r u n i t y . S u b j e c t and o b j e c t are u n i t e d and c r i t i c a l t h e o r y becomes pure p o e t r y or l i t e r a t u r e . For pragmatism, t h e r e are na t r a n s c e n d e n t a l c r i t e r i a f o r human a c t i o n . Such t r a n s c e n d e n c e i s a t t a c k e d -17-as m e t a p h y s i c s , s i n c e the v a l u e s which determine human a c t i o n are e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o a c t i o n i t s e l f . P r a g m a t i c p h i l o s o p h y has attempted to e l i m i n a t e the i m p r a c t i c a l from t h o u g h t , t o frame q u e s t i o n s which have p r a c t i c a l consequences and n o t h i n g e l s e . Thus i t l e a v e s no room f o r c r i t i c a l t h e o r y u h i c h r e l i e s on the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l premise o f o b j e c t i v e t r u t h , even i f h i s t o r i c a l l y grounded ( A r o n o w i t z , 1972:Xv'-Xv'I). Two American s o c i o l o g i s t s have r e c e n t l y t r i e d t o demonstrate the i d e n t i t y o f Dewey and Marx's c o n c e p t i o n s o f t r u t h ( R y t i n a and Loomis, 1970). Both are h e l d t o be d e f e c t i v e because they f a i l e d to p o s i t an e x t e r n a l l y v a l i d a t e d f o r m a l l o g i c a l system and arc . thus p e r m i t those w i t h power t o d e f i n e s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h . The a u t h o r s seem t o assume t h i s problem can be s o l v e d by assuming a l o g i c a l system independent o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . T h i s i s of course Popper's p o s i t i o n as w e l l . Yet they f a i l t o note the i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between pragmatism and Marxism, n o t a b l y the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l element i n the l a t t e r ' s p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y . See, f o r i n s t a n c e , K o l a k o w s k i (1968:38-66). Some c o n f u s i o n stems from narrow and broad c o n c e p t i o n s o f "pragmatism." R y t i n a and Loomis o p e r a t e w i t h a r e s t r i c t e d n o t i o n whereas t h i s s t u d y , i n i d e n t i f y i n g Popper w i t h pragmatism, assumes the broader one. Some precedent i s found f o r t h i s i n the argument t h a t : While i t i s easy t o say what pragmatism i s n o t , i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o say j u s t what pragmatism i s and what i s the r o l e t h a t a c t i o n p l a y s . I f one c o n s i d e r s pragmatism i n p e r s p e c t i v e as a movement t h a t has i t s b e g i n n i n g s w i t h P e i r c e and i s today m a n i f e s t e d i n the work o f Quine, S e l l a r s , Popper, Feyerabend, Hampshire, Nagel and many o t h e r s , we d i s c o v e r the o u t l i n e s o f a new approach t o knowledge, i n q u i r y , and conduct-( B e r n s t e i n , 1971': 174). 7 In a very r e a l sense Popper can be viewed as c o n t i n u i n g Dewey's r e -f o r m i s t p h i l o s o p h y i n t o the post-war p e r i o d . The c o n n e c t i o n s are not h i s t o r i c a l so much as a s i m i l a r attempt o f the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f problems i n European p h i l o s o p h y . Popper d i f f e r e d l a r g e l y i n h i s concern w i t h f o r m a l l o g i c as a c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h and h i s tendency t o emphasize the r o l e o f c h o i c e i n the ma t t e r o f v a l u e s . As B e r n s t e i n s u g g e s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o Dewey and Marx, "the i s s u e s t h a t a r i s e from t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n are the c e n t r a l i s s u e s o f s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y i n our t i m e " (71:81)'. I f so, Popper must be i n c l u d e d as w e l l . A c c o r d i n g l y , the R u s s i a n I.S. Hon, i n h i s two-volume s t u d y the p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y i n the 20th c e n t u r y , g i v e s Popper p r i d e o f p l a c e i n d i s c u s s i n g the impact o f n e o - p o s i t i v i s m on the l o g i c and methodology o f h i s t o r y (0564:275-324). As Hon p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e i s s c a r c e l y a " c r i t i c " o f Marxism who does not i n c l u d e a r e v e r e n t i a l r e f e r e n c e t o Popper's works ( 2 7 6 ) . - I B -K u r t W o l f f s u g g e s t s t h a t "Mannheinr's work a r r i v e d on the American scene between the D e p r e s s i o n and the war (and the war and postwar booms) and may have tempted i t s American r e a d e r s to e n v i s a g e the " r e a l i t y 1 1 o f s o c i e t y and to be b e w i l d e r e d about t h a t o f the i n d i v i d u a l ; t h u s i t may be u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t h i s r e c e p t i o n s s h o u l d have been as we have seen" (1967:24). For the subsequent impact of European t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m on American s o c i a l thought see Skotheim ( 1 9 7 1 ) . Some of t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s o f P l a t a have been c o l l e c t e d i n an a n t h o l o g y by Bambrough, ( 1 9 6 7 ) . Kauffman (1960 :95-12B) p r o v i d e d an i n s i g h t f u l defense of Hegel which was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1951. "'""'"For i n s t a n c e , C a r n f o r t h ( 1 9 6 8 ) . 1 2 C u r t i s and P e t r a s (1970:649-660). " ^ S h i l s (1970) p r o v i d e s a f a s c i n a t i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l account o f the d i f f e r -e n t i a l impact of Mannheim i n England and the Horkheimer l e d I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 14 See Lakatos and Musgrave ( 1 9 7 0 ) . 15 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i n e s o f such r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y ( S c r i v e n , 1972), p s y c h o l o g y ( M i s c h e l , 1971), f u t u r o l o g y ( B e l l and Mau, 1971), e v o l u t i o n a r y a n t h r o p o l o g y ( R i b e i r o , 1971), and c o g n i t i v e s o c i o l o g y ( M a r t i n s , 1972). As the p h i l o s o p h e r of s c i e n c e Toulmin has p o i n t e d out i n s u r v e y i n g the " F o r m a l i s t R e f o r m a t i o n " of which Popper i s an h e i r : In both s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y of s c i e n c e ... q u e s t i o n s about h i s t o r i c a l change were s e t a s i d e at the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y i n r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the h i s t o r i c i s m o f the German i d e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n and a g a i n s t the miscon-c e i v e d " e v o l u t i o n i s m " o f Spencer and h i s s u c c e s s o r s . What we now have t o do i s t o t a k e up the d i s c u s s i o n once a g a i n at the p o i n t where i t broke Dff some 60 y e a r s ago. Whether we are concerned w i t h c o n c e p t u a l change i n s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s , o r w i t h c u l t u r a l change i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , o r w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l change i n complex, i n d u s t r i a l i s e d s t a t e s : i n each case, the d i f f i c u l t y we now have i n ex-p l a i n i n g the grounds of r a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m s p r i n g s from a h a l f - c e n t u r y ' s f a i l u r e t o a n a l y s e c l e a r l y the h i s t o r -i c a l p r o c e s s e s of s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e v o l u t i o n (1971:63). -19-Toulmin n e g l e c t s the degree t o which t h i s a h i s t c r i c a l s h i f t r e f l e c t e d a r e a c t i o n to the t h r e a t o f Marxism. One advantage o f d i s c u s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o Popper i s t h a t t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i s c l e a r . Moreover, i n h a v i n g pushed f o r m a l i s m back toward the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by the problem o f h i s t o r i c a l change, h i s t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e o f f e r s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i a l o g u e w i t h i t s d i a l e c t i c a l o p p o s i t e . -20-I I I . THE INTELLECTUAL CAREERS OF MANNHEIM AND POPPER The c a r e e r s o f Mannheim and Popper i l l u s t r a t e the s o c i o -l o g i c a l t h e s i s t h a t p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought cannot be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r s o c i a l g e n e s i s . In s t r u g g l i n g t o e l a b o r a t e the broader i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the epi s t e m o -l c g i c a l c r i s i s o f l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y Europe, both uere swept i n t o h i s t o r i c a l c u r r e n t s which d i s r u p t e d t h e i r academic c a r e e r s and p r o f o u n d l y shaped t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f modern s o c i e t y . Only a b r i e f account of t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s can be developed here as a s u p p o r t i n g argument f o r the convergence o f t h i n k i n g d e s c r i b e d i n the a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r a c t u a l texts."'" Both Mannheim and Popper must be viewed w i t h i n the framework 2 of one o f the most remarkable f l i g h t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n h i s t o r y . The movement of the s e l a r g e l y German-speaking s c h o l a r s from Budapest, V/ienna, and the u n i v e r s i t y towns of Germany c r e a t e d p r o f o u n d d i s -c o n t i n u i t i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e , which would p r o f o u n d l y r e - d i r e c t and e n r i c h the i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s o f a g e n e r a t i o n . Only when we have an adequate account o f the impact o f t h i s m i g r a t i o n on the s o c i a l t h i n k e r s o f t h i s group of e x i l e s and of t h e i r impact upon t h e i r h o s t s , w i l l we be i n a p o s i t i o n t o a d e q u a t e l y i n t e r p r e t the s o c i a l thought o f the i n t e r - w a r and p o s t - W o r l d War I I p e r i o d s . The l a c k o f such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s makes i t d i f f i c u l t even now t o p r o v i d e more than a rough s k e t c h o f the impact o f these e v e n t s upon Mannheim and Popper." 5 The most r e c u r r e n t theme found i n the w r i t i n g s of these -21-e x i l e s , E s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the f i r s t decade f a l l o w i n g t h e i r f l i g h t , was e x p l a i n i n g the f a c t o f the c r i s i s o f C e n t r a l Europe. Above a l l t h i s r e q u i r e d an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i d e o l o g i c a l movements — Fascism and Communism — which had p r o v i d e d the i n t e l l e c t u a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r what came t o be termed a u n i t a r y phenomenon: t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . T h i s e l u s i v e c o n c e p t , whose q u e s t i o n a b l e meanings would become o n l y f u l l y apparent some time l a t e r , p r o v i d e d the a n a l y t i c a l framework w i t h i n which a g e n e r a t i o n of Western s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s worked. With the c o l l a p s e o f l i b e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a renewed awareness of the f r a g i l i t y o f l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c s t a b i l i t y c o n t r i b u t e d t o a p o l a r i z a t i o n between the d e f e n d e r s of "freedom" and i t s enemies. Mannheim and Popper were amongst those who opted f o r the former and were a l s o concerned w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e means f o r meeting the needs t o which t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m had been a r e s p o n s e . In r e a c t i n g t o t h i s c r i s i s , they were but two o f the many e x i l e s whose e f f o r t s would r e v i t a l i z e European s o c i a l thought and n o u r i s h n t h e mast 5 s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y f o l l o w i n g World War I I . The s t u d i e s i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e which are the f o c u s o f t h i s essay were w r i t t e n d u r i n g the y e a r s 1929 t o 1947. I t was i n t h e s e two decades of d e p r e s s i o n and war t h a t Mannheim and Popper attempted t o r e a s s e s s the methods and p l a c e o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n the l i g h t Df the c r i s i s o f l i b e r a l democracy. Around t h i s s e t of i s s u e s the t r a j e c t o r i e s o f t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l concerns would t e m p o r a r i l y converge. D e s p i t e h i s s h o r t l i f e t i m e o f same 51 y e a r s (1893-1947), K a r l Mannheim enjoyed an e x t r e m e l y p r o d u c t i v e and w i d e - r a n g i n g academic c a r e e r . H i s e a r l y y e a r s brought him i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h the person -22-• r work of the major f i g u r e s of 19th c e n t u r y and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the e c l e c t i c i s m t h a t marked h i s e f f o r t s t o b r i n g a l l t h e s e c u r r e n t s t o g e t h e r i n h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f knowledge. Born i n t o the German-speaking i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e of Budapest, u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s took him t o B e r l i n , P a r i s , F r e i b u r g and H e i d e l b e r g , then the c e n t e r of the German academic w o r l d . In 1926 he became a P r i v a t d o z e n t t h e r e and moved on t o F r a n k f u r t i n 193B when o f f e r e d a p r o f e s s o r s h i p . There he remained u n t i l h i s d i s m i s s a l i n the s p r i n g of 1933 l e d him t o move to England where he became a l e c t u r e r i n s o c i o l o g y from 1933 u n t i l 1945. At t h a t time he t r a n s f e r r e d t o the p o s i t i o n ' of p r o f e s s o r of s o c i o l o g y and p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n u n t i l h i s death i n 1947. 6 Mannheim's work f a l l s i n t o two d i s t i n c t phases which c o r r e s -7 pond c l o s e l y t o h i s r e s i d e n c e i n Germany and E n g l a n d . The f i r s t produced h i s s o c i o l o g y of knowledge; the second was marked by a t u r n toward p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y and e f f o r t s t o p o p u l a r i z e h i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f the c r i s i s o f modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . In t h i s phase the p r e v i o u s l y dominant e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l concerns dropped out of s i g h t . The f i r s t phase Df Mannheim's i n t e l l e c t u a l c a r e e r ranges from h i s y o u t h f u l pamphlet on " S o u l and C u l t u r e " (1918) t o an en-c y c l o p e d i a r e v i e w a r t i c l e an the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge ( 1 9 3 1 ) . Though he would not d e p a r t f a r England f o r a c o u p l e of y e a r s , h i s i n t e r e s t s had a l r e a d y been r e - d i r e c t e d ; t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n r e v i e w s of American and German s o c i o l o g y , as w e l l as i n d r a f t s of a r t i c l e s t h a t would e i t h e r be p u b l i s h e d posthumously or appear i n the German -23-e d i t i o n o f Man and S o c i e t y i n 1935. P r i o r t o t h i s s h i f t o f i n t e r -e s t s which c o i n c i d e d t o the p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s o f the l a s t y e a r s of the Weimar R e p u b l i c , Mannheim's r e s e a r c h had been c o n f i n e d t o e p i s t e m o l o g y and the e l a b o r a t i o n of the i d e a o f the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge. Here he broke w i t h the i d e a l i s m of the G e i s t e s w i s s e n -s c h a f t e n which c o n f i n e d themselves t o i n t e r n a l or immanent i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s o f thought p r o d u c t s . T h i s method, he would h o l d , had t o be complemented by the e x t r i n s i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o v i d e d by 8 s o c i o l o g y . Because of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s p o s i t i o n most o f h i s e f f o r t was devoted t o an a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the d e t a i l s o f such a s o c i o l o g y of "mind". The h i g h p o i n t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s were o f course I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a (1929) and the h i s t o r i c a l essay on " C o n s e r v a t i v e Thought"(1927) which e x e m p l i f i e d h i s method. Yet throughout t h i s p e r i o d the p o l i t i c a l concerns which would domin-ate the work o f h i s second phase i s i m p l i c i t i n the i s s u e s w i t h which he s t r u g g l e d . T h i s i s most e v i d e n t i n h i s s e a r c h f o r a " s c i e n c e of p o l i t i c s " i n I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a and i n some of h i s as g y e t s t i l l u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r s . The problem posed by the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge was a p e c u l i a r e x p r e s s i o n o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n f l i c t s o f Weimar Germany, a p e r i o d which Mannheim had f o r e c a s t s h o r t l y b e f o r e i t s c o l l a p s e would be l o o k e d back upon as a new P e r i c l e a n age."^ Thought the i n t e l l e c t u a l r o o t s of the s o c i o l o g y Df knowledge l e a d d i r e c t l y back t o Marx, i t s emergence i n the form of h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i v i s m was unique t o the Weimer p e r i o d ; " i t ' s most i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t i o n s are deeply r o o t e d i n the German i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e x t " and i t " m i r r o r s the methodo-l o g i c a l as w e l l as the s u b s t a n t i v e dilemmas of those days."'''''' -2k-B e g i n n i n g i n the e a r l y 193D's and a c c e l e r a t e d by h i s move to England, Mannheim's a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d t o u a r d an e f f o r t t o u n d e r s t a n d and diagnose the s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s o f h i s t i m e . As a consequence, i n none of h i s subsequent uork does the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge f i g u r e as a c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n , though i t i s o f t e n i m p l i c i t i n h i s a n a l y s i s . The f i r s t major e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n was the p u b l i c a t i o n of Man and S o c i e t y , a f i r s t e d i t i o n b e i n g p u b l i s h e d i n Amsterdam i n German i n 1935 and a second, ex-panded v e r s i o n i n E n g l i s h i n 13kU. Here the c r i s i s o f c a p i t a l - • i s t i c democracy i s p r e s e n t e d as the i r r a t i o n a l i t y o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e and unplanned r e g u l a t i o n ; the c h o i c e was thus not whether or not to p l a n , but whether p l a n n i n g would be d e m o c r a t i c or t o t a l i t a r i a n . In D i a g n o s i s of our Time, a p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of Man and  S o c i e t y which appeared d u r i n g the war, Mannheim e n t e r t a i n e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y might p l a y a r o l e i n c r e a t i n g the i n -t e g r a t i v e v a l u e s n e c e s s a r y f o r the planned s o c i a l o r d e r e n v i s i o n e d . F i n a l l y , i n the posthumously p u b l i s h e d Freedom, Power and Democratic  P l a n n i n g ( 1 9 5 0 ) , the q u e s t i o n o f power emerges as the c e n t r a l theme f o r . t h e f i r s t t i m e . T h i s r e f l e c t s h i s t u r n t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n emerging i n the immediate postwar p e r i o d . Though such p r e o c c u p a t i o n s earned Mannheim a r e p u t a t i o n as a d a r i n g and r a d i c a l t h i n k e r , t h e r e was n o t h i n g o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y element of Marxism and h i s p o l i t i c s c o u l d o n l y be d e s c r i b e d as l i b e r a l and r e f o r m i s t , even i f of a r a d i c a l v a r i e t y . T h i s a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t e d i n p a r t the c o n t r a s t between the Weimar s i t u a t i o n he had f l e d and the f u n c t i o n i n g l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c s o f B r i t a i n . T h i s s t i m -u l a t e d a new sense of optimism which i s m a n i f e s t e d i n h i s e f f o r t to p o p u l a r i z e h i s i d e a s and thus have some p e r s o n a l impact on the -25-course o f e v e n t s . Though some n i n e y e a r s younger than Mannheim, Popper can be d e s c r i b e d as p a r t of the same g e n e r a t i o n o f European i n t e l l e c t -u a l s . For b o t h , t h e c r u c i a l f o r m a t i v e y e a r s o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n took p l a c e d u r i n g and i n the a f t e r m a t h o f World War I . Yet t h e i r e a r l i e s t i n t e l l e c t u a l mentors r e p r e s e n t e d the o p p o s i t e p o l e s of p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h o u g h t . Whereas Mannheim uas n u r t u r e d by h e i r s t o German i d e a l i s m such as Simmel, D i l t h e y and T r . o e l t s c h , Popper's i n t e r e s t i n s c i e n c e brought him i n t o c o n t a c t u i t h the n e o - p o s i t i v i s t p h i l o s o p h e r s o f s c i e n c e u h i c h had come t o c e n t e r around the s o -c a l l e d "Vienna C i r c l e " . Such b e g i n n i n g s o f f e r e d l i t t l e h i n t o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a convergence o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , l e t alone o f the substance o f t h e i r t h i n k i n g . In the numerous b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s d i s p e r s e d throughout h i s work, Popper g i v e s a f r a n k i n d i c a t i o n o f the major s o u r c e s o f h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l development. C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f thes e d e t a i l s i s e s s e n t i a l because o f the i n s i g h t they p r o v i d e i n t o Popper's s h i f t i n m i d - c a r e e r t o problems o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . T h i s phase marked an abrupt d e p a r t u r e from h i s e a r l i e r and l a t e r p r e o c c u p a t i o n s u i t h the l o g i c o f p h y s i c s and of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e . The f i r s t phase o f Popper's i n t e l l e c t u a l development as a p h i l o s o p h e r o f s c i e n c e began i n the autiamn o f 1919, u i t h the e x c i t e -ment produced by Ed d i n g t o n ' s e c l i p s e o b s e r v a t i o n s u h i c h p r o v i d e d the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f i r m a t i o n o f E i n s t e i n ' s g r a v i t a t i o n a l t h e o r y . H i s oun uords b e s t convey h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n s : 'When s h o u l d a t h e o r y be ranked as s c i e n t i f i c ? ' or 'Is t h e r e  a c r i t e r i o n f o r the s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r or s t a t u s o f a t h e o r y ? ' The problem u h i c h t r o u b l e d me at the time uas n e i t h e r , 'When i s a t h e o r y t r u e ? ' n o r , "When i s a t h e o r y a c c e p t a b l e ? ' -26-My problem uas d i f f e r e n t . I u i s h e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between  s c i e n c e and p s e u d o - s c i e n c e ; knowing very w e l l t h a t s c i e n c e o f t e n e r r s , and t h a t p s e u d o - s c i e n c e may happen t o stumble on the t r u t h . I knew, of c o u r s e , the most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d answer t o my problem: t h a t s c i e n c e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from p s e u d o - s c i e n c e — or form 'metaphysics' — by i t s e m p i r i c a l method, which i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n d u c t i v e , p r o c e e d i n g from o b s e r v a t i o n or e x p e r i -ment. But t h i s d i d not s a t i s f y me. Dn the c o n t r a r y , I o f t e n f o r m u l a t e d my problem as one of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between a g e n u i n e l y e m p i r i c a l method and a n o n - e m p i r i c a l or even a p s e u d o - e m p i r i c a l method — t h a t i s t o say, a method which, a l t h o u g h i t a p p e a l s t o o b s e r v a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t , n e v e r t h e -l e s s does not come up t o s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d a r d s . The l a t t e r method may be e x e m p l i f i e d by a s t r o l o g y , w i t h i t s stupendous mass o f e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e based on o b s e r v a t i o n — on h o r o -scopes and on b i o g r a p h i e s . But as i t was not the example of a s t r o l o g y which l e d me t o my problem I s h o u l d perhaps b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e the atmosphere i n which my problem arose and the examples by which i t was s t i m u l a t e d . A f t e r the c o l l a p s e of the A u s t r i a n Empire t h e r e had been a r e v o l u t i o n i n A u s t r i a : the a i r was f u l l o f r e v o l -u t i o n a r y s l o g a n s and i d e a s , and new and o f t e n w i l d t h e o r i e s . Among the t h e o r i e s which i n t e r e s t e d me E i n s t e i n ' s t h e o r y of r n l u r . e l a t i v i t y was no doubt by f a r the most i m p o r t a n t . Three o t h e r s were Marx's t h e o r y of h i s t o r y , Freud's p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s , and A l f r e d A d l e r ' s s o - c a l l e d ' i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y ' .... I m y s e l f happened t o come i n t o p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h A l f r e d A d l e r , and even t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h him i n h i s s o c i a l work among the c h i l d r e n and young people i n the w o r k i n g - c l a s s d i s t r i c t s o f Vienna where he had e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l guidance c l i n i c s . I t was d u r i n g the summer of 1919 t h a t I began t o f e e l more and more d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h these t h r e e t h e o r i e s ... and I began tD f e e l dubious about t h e i r c l a i m s t o s c i e n t i f i c s t a t u s . My problem perhaps f i r s t took the s i m p l e form, "What i s wrong w i t h Marxism, p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s , and i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g y ? Ldhy are they so d i f f e r e n t from p h y s i c a l t h e o r i e s , from Newton's t h e o r y , and e s p e c i a l l y from the t h e o r y of r e l a t i v i t y ? ' (CR:33-4). The next 15 y e a r s were spent i n w r e s t l i n g w i t h t h i s problem i n p h y s i c s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n Die L o g i k der Forschung i n 1934. In c o n t r a s t t o the above s t a t e m e n t , where he p o i n t s out the s t i m u l a t i o n caused by h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l t h e o r i e s , Popper c l a i m s t h a t the t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e he s u b s e q u e n t l y developed made no attempt t o take i n t o -27-account the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and r e a l i z e d the a p p l i c a b i l i t y Df h i s t h e o r y t o them o n l y a f t e r the f a c t . As he puts i t : I have ev e r y reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the methods of s c i e n c e uas not i n f l u e n c e d by any know-ledge of the methods of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ; f o r when I developed i t f i r s t , I had o n l y the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s i n mind, and I knew next t o n o t h i n g about the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (PH:178-8). Yet one might p o i n t t o the g e n e r a l ambience of Vienna i n the y e a r s a f t e r World War I as an e x t r e m e l y f e r t i l e s i t u a t i o n f o r b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the problems of p h i l o s o p h y and e m p i r i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e . " ^ The g e n e r a l s t i m u l a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the Vienna C i r c l e o f l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s uas p a r t of a much l a r g e r m a t r i x i n u h i c h Marxism and F r e u d i a n i s m uere a l s o a t work. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t he most i m p o r t a n t uork f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s d i d not stem d i r e c t l y from the l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t group. Though o f t e n lumped w i t h them, Popper has always denied t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n and they have r e c i p r o c a t e d . The second phase of Popper's c a r e e r took shape i n the 1930's w i t h the p r o g r e s s i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Europe. As he would l a t e r e x p l a i n h i s t u r n t o the l o g i c o f s o c i a l science-: My i n t e r e s t i n t h i s problem was g r e a t l y s t i m u l a t e d by the r i s e o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m and by the f a i l u r e o f the v a r i o u s s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s t o make sense o f ' i t ( 0 S - I : 2 ) . S i n c e he l i v e d i n A u s t r i a , the y e a r 1933 d i d not have the immediate r e p e r c u s s i o n s i t d i d on Mannheim -- d i s m i s s a l , but the news of such events i n c r e a s i n g l y drew Popper toward s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s . By 1937 he had f l e d t o IMew Ze a l a n d where he remained throughout the second war. He would ac c e p t a post at the London S c h o o l o f Economics i n 1945. By t h a t time he had completed the major s t u d i e s t h a t made -28-up h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s : the two-volume Open 15 S o c i e t y and i t s Enemies and the P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m . These s t u d i e s were thus c o n c e i v e d as a d i r e c t response t o the r i s e of H i t l e r . As Popper noted i n a 1950 p r e f a c e of the Open S o c i e t y : A l t h o u g h much of what i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s book took shape at an e a r l i e r d a t e , the f i n a l d e c i s i o n t o w r i t e i t was made i n March 1938, on the day I r e c e i v e d the news of the i n v a s i o n o f A u s t r i a . The w r i t i n g extended i n t o 1943; and the f a c t t h a t most o f the book was w r i t t e n d u r i n g the grave y e a r s when the outcome o f the war was u n c e r t a i n may h e l p to e x p l a i n why some of i t s c r i t i c i s m s t r i k e s me today as more e m o t i o n a l and h a r s h e r i n tone than I c o u l d w i s h . But i t was not. the- time t o mince words — or at l e a s t , t h i s was what I then f e l t . N e i t h e r the war nor any o t h e r contemporary event was e x p l i c i t l y mentioned i n the book; but i t was an attempt t o un d e r s t a n d th o s e events and t h e i r background, and some of the i s s u e s which were l i k e l y t o a r i s e a f t e r the war was won. The e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t Marxism would become a major problem was the re a s o n f o r t r e a t i n g i t at some l e n g t h ( 0 S - I : v i i i ) . As Popper would admit more than a decade l a t e r , t h e s e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s sharpened the p o l e m i c a l tone o f h i s comments. In r e p l y to some"of h i s c r i t i c s , he s u g g e s t e d : I t s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t I l o o k e d upon my book as my war e f f o r t : b e l i e v i n g as I d i d i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f Hegel and the H e g e l i a n s f o r much of what happened i n Germany, I f e l t t h a t i t was my t a s k as a p h i l o s o p h e r , t o show' t h a t . t h i s p h i l o s o p h y was a p s e u d o - p h i l o s o p h y ( 0 S - I I : 3 9 3 ) . T h i s concern w i t h the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s absorbed n e a r l y a decade of Pepper's e n e r g i e s and had the e f f e c t c f d e l a y i n g the impact and development o f h i s t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e . Though h i s major study i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e -- The L o g i c o f D i s c o v e r y — had appeared i n 1935, the book d i d not appear i n E n g l i s h u n t i l 1959. T h i s d e l a y has a l s o been r e l a t e d by Popper t o h i s own l o n g s i l e n c e which r e s u l t e d from an overwhelming encounter w i t h R u d o l f Carnap i n 1932. Popper admits t h a t t h i s " s i l e n c e d me f o r many y e a r s " ; he d i d not b e g i n t o -29-p u b l i s h h i s d i f f e r e n c e s u i t h Carnap u n t i l 1955 (CR:254-5). As a consequence, h i s v i e u s and e s p e c i a l l y the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s they had as a c r i t i q u e o f the major t e n e n t s of the l o g i c a l e m p i r i c i s t s d i d not become u i d e l y knoun u n t i l h i s papers began a p p e a r i n g i n E n g l i s h i n the 1950's. This? marked the t h i r d phase o f h i s c a r e e r u h i c h c o n t i n u e s up u n t i l the p r e s e n t . T h i s uork has been g a t h e r e d i n tuo c o l l e c t i o n s pufcvtogether almost e x c l u s i v e l y from t h i s p o s t -war p e r i o d . The f i r s t appeared i n 1962 under the t i t l e C o n j e c t u r e s  and R e f u t a t i o n s : The Grouth o f S c i e n t i f i c Knouledge. Here f o r the f i r s t time the f u l l scope and i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e became u i d e l y a v a i l a b l e . The second volume, p u b l i s h e d a decade l a t e r , c o n t i n u e s a l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s but u i t h the a d d i t i o n of the concept of " e v o l u t i o n " t o h i s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l .vocabulary. E n t i t l e d O b j e c t i v e  Knowledge: An E v o l u t i o n a r y Approach, i t b r i n g s t o g e t h e r a number o f a r t i c l e s u h i c h suggest the d i s t a n c e t o u a r d pragmatism u h i c h he had t r a v e l e d . T h i s theme had o n l y been i m p l i c i t i n elements of h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . ',. ' What emerges from th e s e b r i e f a c c o u n t s of Mannheim's and Popper's c a r e e r s i s a sense o f t h e i r p r o f o u n d commitments as l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Both v a l u e d the p u r s u i t of r e a s o n and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n s c i e n c e as the supreme v a c a t i o n s , houever much they might d i s a g r e e about hou they are t o be d e f i n e d or advanced. Thus, the r e l a t i v i s m u h i c h had become p r e v a l e n t i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s uas v i e u e d by b o t h as a t h r e a t to the advancement of such r e a s o n and a s o u r c e of the r i s e of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . Only by e s t a b l i s h i n g new f o u n d a t i o n s f o r o b j e c t i v e knouledge i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s uas t h e r e hope f o r l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s t o F a s c i s m and Communism. T h i s f a i t h i n -30-the power of the p r o d u c t s o f the i n t e l l e c t and the sense o f t h e i r m i s s i o n as i n t e l l e c t u a l s was s t i m u l a t e d by t h e i r move to E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s . As s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p r o p h e t s t r y i n g to i n f l u e n c e the events of the post-war e r a , Mannheim and Popper t r i e d to com-municate w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e s o f America and E n g l a n d . W r i t i n g f o r a g e n e r a l r a t h e r than a s p e c i a l i z e d a u d i e n c e , t r y i n g to e x p l a i n the r i s e of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , committed t o l i b e r a l demo-c r a t i c r e f o r m , and s u s t a i n e d by a f a i t h i n the power of human i n -t e l l i g e n c e , Mannheim and Popper u n c o n s c i o u s l y moved toward s i m i l a r r e f o r m u l a t i o n s o f the q u e s t i o n of the c r i s i s of Western s o c i e t y and the p l a c e of s o c i a l s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y i n r e s o l v i n g i t . But Popper was s e e m i n g l y b l i n d t o t h i s and t u r n e d upon Mannheim as -an enemy of the "open s o c i e t y . " In sum, the p l a u s i b i l i t y o f the u n c o n s c i o u s and g e n e r a l l y u n n o t i c e d convergence of the t h i n k i n g o f Mannheim and Popper can be s u p p o r t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o the t r a j e c t o r y of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l b i o g r a p h i e s . E a r l y i n i t i a t i o n o f both i n t o the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m a t i c of e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y C e n t r a l Europe brought about by the r e l a t i v i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h (Marx, The H i s t o r i c a l S c h o o l , F r e u d , e t c . ) and the c h a l l e n g e of E i n s t e i n ' s t h e o r y t o c l a s s i c a l e p i s t e m o l o g y of s c i e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d a common framework of q u e s t i o n s which each developed r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c s p h e r e s . The r i s e o f t o t a l -i t a r i a n i s m and e m i g r a t i o n t o E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s s t i m u l a t e d both t o a p r o f o u n d concern w i t h the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the t h e o r e t -i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f l i b e r a l democracy as the b a s i s of a non-r e v o l u t i o n a r y a d a p t a t i o n t o the c r i s i s o f advanced c a p t i a l i s m . As a -31-consequence, i n t h i s e f f o r t t o d e a l u i t h the c o n c r e t e c r i s i s o f t h e i r day, each s u c c e s s i v e l y m o d i f i e d and c r i t i c i s e d the i d e a l i s t i c and p o s i t i v i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f h i s predecessors i n such a uay as t o re n d e r i t l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o i r r a t i o n a l i s t a t t a c k s and misunder-s t a n d i n g . T h i s convergent movement, houever, uas o b s c u r e d by Popper's p o l e m i c a l a t t a c k on Mannheim and the u n p r o p i t i o u s c i r c u m -s t a n c e s i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s i n the post-1945 p e r i o d f o r a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the i s s u e s a t s t a k e . -32-IMDTES: CHAPTER I I I At the p r e s e n t time t h e r e i s almost no d e t a i l e d b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r e i t h e r Popper or.Mannheim. David K e t t l e r , however, has p u b l i s h e d a study (1967a) which t a k e s up Mannheim's e a r l y a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Georg Lu k a c s . A c c o r d i n g to W o l f f ( 1 9 7 1 : l x x i ) K e t t l e r i s a l s o p r e p a r i n g an i n t e l l e c t u a l b i o g r a p h y spanning Mann-heim's f u l l c a r e e r . As f o r Popper, a volume i n the " L i b r a r y of L i v i n g P h i l o s o p h e r s " s e r i e s e d i t e d by P a u l S c h i l p p s h o u l d p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l as w e l l as some of the most i m p o r t a n t d i s c u s s i o n s of Popper's p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s l o n g - d e l a y e d volume i s s c h e d u l e d to appear i n the f a l l o f 1973. i The a n t h o l o g y o f s t a t e m e n t s by immigrants e d i t e d by Fleming and B a i l y n (1969) and the s k e t c h y s u r v e y by Fermi (1968) p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n s t o t h i s f l i g h t and some of i t s p e r s o n a l i t i e s . To my knowledge, the o n l y s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y of the s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s movement i s M a r t i n J a y ' s work on the F r a n k f u r t S c h o o l . See a l s o , S h i l s ( 1 9 7 0 ) . The q u e s t i o n of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m has g e n e r a t e d an e x t e n s i v e and im-p o r t a n t l i t e r a t u r e . An adequate account of Popper and Mannheim would attempt t o l o c a t e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n s w i t h i n t h i s frame-work. C a r l F r i e d r i c h ' s f o r m u l a t i o n has been most i n f l u e n t i a l among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and has been re-examined i n F r i e d r i c h , C u r t i s , and Barber ( 1 9 6 9 ) . See a l s o J a n i c k e (1971) and S c h a p i r o ( 1 9 7 2 ) . To name at random some of the f i g u r e s who would have t o be i n c l u d e d h e r e : Lukacs, Goldmann, Fromm, M i c h a e l and K a r l P o l a n y i , Hayek, Adorno, Horkheimer, Lowenthal, Marcuse, R e i c h , C a s s i r e r . C f . S h i l s (1968:557); Wolf ( 1 9 7 1 : x i ) f o r o b i t u a r y type accounts o f Mannheim's c a r e e r . Remmling (1961|1968) t r i e s tD f o r c e Mannheim i n t o f o u r p e r i o d s , g i v i n g them r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l w e i g h t . I have f o l l o w e d S h i l s (1968) and o t h e r s who emphasize the b a s i c d i s c o n t i n u i t y of Mannheim's German and E n g l i s h phases. Remmling's e f f o r t t o break up the E n g l i s h p e r i o d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s appears to be of dubious v a l u e . ' i t was here t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of Marxism and e s p e c i a l l y Lukacs came i n t o p l a y . C f . K e t t l e r ( 1 9 6 7 b : 4 1 6 f f ) ; L i c h t h e i m (1967:36-43). • These papers are d i s c u s s e d and the " m o r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l " c o n t i n u i t y of Mannheim's thought i s argued i n K e t t l e r (1967b). -33-Gay ( 1 9 6 8 : x i v ) . R i n g e r (1969:418). T h i s theme i s developed f u r t h e r i n Lenk (1972) uho t r a c e s the r e c e p t i o n a f the M a r x i a n t h e o r y o f i d e o l o g y i n German s o c i o l o g y a f t e r the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . H i s appointment as head of the n e u l y formed Unesco j u s t p r i o r t o h i s death s y m b o l i z e d t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v i s t o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s m i l i e u produced the p i o n e e r s o c i o l o g i s t o f s c i e n c e Edgar Z i l s e l and the i n f l u e n t i a l m e t h o d o l o g i s t P a u l L a z a r s f e l d . Z i l s e l , uho committed s u i c i d e r i g h t a f t e r World War I I u h i l e l i v i n g i n the U.S., p u b l i s h e d a number o f monographic s t u d i e s on the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i -o l o g y o f the r i s e o f modern s c i e n c e . As one o b s e r v e r has r e c a l l e d : There uere tuo o u t s t a n d i n g l y b r i l l i a n t minds i n Vienna uho, though c l o s e to us i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , never j o i n e d the C i r c l e : Edgar Z i l s e l and K a r l Popper. Both uere c o n v i n c e d of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l independence from us, and t r i e d t o p r e s e r v e t h a t independence by r e m a i n i n g o u t s i d e the c i r c l e . Indeed, I f e l t t h a t both th e s e men, each i n h i s oun uay, uere among our most v a l u a b l e c r i t i c s ( F e i g l , 1969:641). S u r p r i s i n g l y , Popper seems not to have been auare of Z i l s e l ' s s t u d i e s i n the h i s t o r y of s c i e n c e and t h a t they i n v o l v e d a p p l i c a t i o n of the i n s i g h t s of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge. L a z a r s f e l d , on the o t h e r hand, developed a s i m i l a r o r i e n t a t i o n t o u a r d s c i e n c e mare i n d i r e c t l y . L i k e Popper, he found h i s n a t i o n s Df s c i e n c e emerge from a c o n f r o n t a t i o n u i t h the c o n t r a s t betueen the achievements of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and the f a i l u r e s of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . As L a z a r s f e l d (1972:247) n o t e s : My r e f e r e n c e group uas the movement around A l f r e d A d l e r ... I n t e l l e c t u a l l y , the main i n f l u e n c e uas a group of u r i t e r s famous i n s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y of s c i e n c e : E r n s t Mach, H e n r i P o i n c a r e , and E i n s t e i n . Because he had " v i r t u a l l y no c o n t a c t u i t h the 'Wiener K r e i s , ' L a z a r s f e l d c o n c l u d e s h i s s i m i l a r v i e u s uere "p r o b a b l y more due to a common background than tD d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e " ( 2 4 8 ) . D e s c r i b i n g h i m s e l f as an a c t i v i s t i n the S o c i a l i s t Student Movement, L a z a r s f e l d r e l a t e s h i s t u r n t o s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y u i t h r e f l e c t i o n s upon the f a i l u r e o f h i s propaganda e f f o r t s : We uere concerned u i t h uhy our propaganda uas u n s u c c e s s -f u l , and uanted to conduct p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s t o e x p l a i n i t . I remember a f o r m u l a I c r e a t e d at the t i m e : a f i g h t i n g r e v o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s economics (M a r x ) ; a v i c t o r i o u s r e v o l -u t i o n r e q u i r e s e n g i n e e r s ( R u s s i a ) ; a d e f e a t e d r e v o l u t i o n c a l l s f o r p s y c h o l o g y ( V i e n n a ) ( 2 4 7 ) . -34-T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n of Marxism w i t h n e o - p o s i t i v i s m u h i c h took p l a c e i n Vienna (most n o t a b l y i n Neurath) s u g g e s t s the background of Popper's s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e t o u a r d the r e f o r m i s t a s p e c t s of Marxism. Moreover, he absorbed c o n s i d e r a b l y more from t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t han he r e a l i z e d ; h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n c e p t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c community might have i t s r o o t s h e r e . In any case, i t i s c l e a r t h a t the common t h r e a d o f Marxism l i n k s the o t h e r u i s e a n t i t h e t i c a l e a r l y i n t e r e s t s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e a n i n g s of Popper and Mannheim. T h i s has been noted by both F e i g l (1969:641) and Hempel (1969:164-5) uho s u g g e s t s t h a t ... though Popper c a r r i e d on an i n t e n s i v e and f r u i t f u l exchange o f i d e a s u i t h v a r i o u s l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s t s , and, a l t h o u g h t h e r e uere i m p o r t a n t a f f i n i t i e s betueen h i s v i e u s and t h e i r s , he has c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f as an o u t s i d e c r i t i c o f the movement, and he cannot, t h e r e f o r e , be reckoned among i t s p r o p o n e n t s . Though the Open S o c i e t y uas p u b l i s h e d i n 1945, The P o v e r t y of  H i s t o r i c i s m uas not p u b l i s h e d i n book form i n E n g l i s h u n t i l 1957. Yet i t s t h e s i s — " t h a t t h e r e can not be p r e d i c t i o n of the course o f human h i s t o r y by s c i e n t i f i c or any o t h e r r a t i o n a l methods -- goes back t o the u i n t e r of 1919-2D. The main o u t l i n e uas completed by 1935 ..." ( P H : v ) . P u b l i c a t i o n uas d e l a y e d some y e a r s by i n i t i a l r e j e c t i o n by a p h i l o s o p h i c a l j o u r n a l . I t f i r s t appeared i n Econpmica i n t h r e e p a r t s i n 1944 and 1945. -35-IV. POPPER'S RATIONALISM Popper's a t t a c k on the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge t a k e s as i t s p o i n t o f c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e h i s oun p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , o n l y on the b a s i s of t h i s p o s i t i o n can ue b e g i n t o examine the charges a g a i n s t Mannheim. The c e n t r a l elements o f Popper's s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y are h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m , " " f a l l i b i l i s t i c " t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e , and the t h e o r y o f the "open s o c i e t y . " And i t i s on p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from these s o u r c e s t h a t he develops h i s c r i t i q u e o f the " h i s t o r i c i s m , " " h o l i s m , " and " U t o p i a n i s m " u h i c h are h e l d to i n h i b i t the growth of s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c k nouledge. The c e n t r a l theme u n d e r l y i n g Popper's uork on the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t "the c o n f l i c t betueen r a t i o n a l i s m and i r r a t i o n a l i s m has become the most•important i n t e l l e c t u a l , and perhaps even m o r a l , i s s u e s o f our t i m e " ( 0 S - I I : 2 2 4 ) . By " r a t i o n a l i s m " he r e f e r s not t o the t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l term used as a con-t r a s t t o " e m p i r i c i s m " , but t o " r a t i o n a l i s m " i n i t s u i d e s t sense as the a p p o s i t e o f " i r r a t i o n a l i s m . " Thus, very much i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the E n l i g h t e n m e n t he speaks o f i t as "an a t t i t u d e t h a t seeks t o s o l v e as many problems as p o s s i b l e by an a p p e a l t o r e a s o n , i . e . t o c l e a r thought and e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r than by an a p p e a l t o emotions and p a s s i o n " ( 2 2 4 ) . Yet i n t r a n s l a t i n g t h i s n o t i o n i n t o more con-c r e t e language, he r e v e a l s a concern u i t h the s o c i a l dimension o f reason as p a r t o f a p r o c e s s o f d i a l o g u e : .... i t may be b e t t e r t o e x p l a i n r a t i o n a l i s m i n terms o f p r a c t i c a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r . We c o u l d then say t h a t r a t i o n a l i s m i s an a t t i t u d e o f r e a d i n e s s t o l i s t e n t o c r i t i c a l arguments and to l e a r n from e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s -36-f u n d a m e n t a l l y an a t t i t u d e o f a d m i t t i n g t h a t ' I may be  urong and you may be r i g h t , and by an e f f o r t , ue may get  n e a r e r the t r u t h ' .... In s h o r t , the r a t i o n a l i s t a t t i t u d e , o r , as I may perhaps l a b e l i t , the ' a t t i t u d e of r e a s o n -a b l e n e s s ' , i s very s i m i l a r t o the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e , t o the b e l i e f t h a t i n the s e a r c h f o r t r u t h ue need co-o p e r a t i o n , and t h a t , u i t h the h e l p o f argument, ue can i n time a t t a i n something l i k e o b j e c t i v i t y ( 2 2 5 ) . T h i s sense c f r a t i o n a l i s m i s i l l u m i n a t e d through a c o n t r a s t u i t h i t s many a n t i t h e s e s : p s e u d o - r a t i o n a l i s m , m y s t i c i s m , and i r -r a t i o n a l i s m . For Popper such a n t i - r a t i o n a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e s are based upon the assumption — o r i g i n a l l y P l a t o n i c — t h a t r e a s o n i s a type o f " f a c u l t y " uhose a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l development v a r i e s u i d e l y among men. As a consequence, " t h i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n t e l l e c t -u a l i s m " u i t h i t s b e l i e f i n an " i n f a l l i b l e method" f a i l s t o " d i s t i n g u i s h betueen a man's i n t e l l e c t u a l pouer and h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s to o t h e r s f o r a l l he can p o s s i b l y knou or u n d e r s t a n d " ( 2 2 7 ) . Thus, r a t i o n a l i t y i s not the g i f t o f ge n i u s but a pr o d u c t of the " s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f r e a s o n a b l e n e s s " ( 2 2 5 ) . For example, a Robinson Crusoe might be i n -t e l l i g e n t enough tD adapt to some d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n s , but he c o u l d not i n v e n t language or argument or s c i e n c e . In t h i s p r o c e s s o f r a t i o n a l d i a l o g u e , ad hominem arguments have no p l a c e f o r Popper. C l a i m s must be c r i t i c a l l y c o n s i d e r e d on t h e i r m e r i t s and not Dn c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f those uho h o l d them. Only by e v a l u a t i n g arguments can ue " r e c o g n i z e everybody u i t h uhom ue communicate as a p o t e n t i a l s o urce o f argument and of r e a s o n a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n ; i t thus e s t a b l i s h e s uhat may be d e s c r i b e d as the ' r a t i o n a l u n i t y o f mankind'" ( 2 2 5 ) . T h i s s o c i a l v i e u o f re a s o n and s c i e n c e commits Popper t o an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s under u h i c h they may f l o u r i s h . ' ' " And i t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n he can j u s t i f y p o l i t i c a l -37-i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e s . Reason can be guaranteed o n l y by a p p r o p r i a t e t r a d i t i o n s and i n -s t i t u t i o n s : Reason, l i k e s c i e n c e , grous by way of mutual c r i t i c i s m ; the o n l y p a s s i b l e way of ' p l a n n i n g ' i t s growth i s t o develop those i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t s a f e g u a r d the freedom o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m , t h a t i s to say, the freedom o f thought ((TJS~-II :227). As a consequence: U l t i m a t e l y , i n t h i s way, r a t i o n a l i s m i s l i n k e d up w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p r o t e c t freedom o f c r i t i c i s m ... T h i s i s why r a t i o n -a l i s m i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d up w i t h the p o l i t i c a l demand f a r p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g ... i n the h u m a n i t a r i a n sense, w i t h the demand f o r the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y , f o r p l a n n i n g f a r freedom, and f o r i t s c o n t r o l -by r e a s o n ; not by ' s c i e n c e ' , not by a P l a t o n i c , a p s e u d o - r a t i o n a l - a u t h o r i t y , but by t h a t S o c r a t i c r e a s o n which i s aware o f i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , and which t h e r e f o r e r e s p e c t s the o t h e r man and does not a s p i r e t o coerce him -- not even i n t o h a p p i n ess ( 2 3 8 - 9 ) . T h i s r a t i o n a l i s m and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n o f s c i e n c e and freedom i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from Hegel's " c o l l e c t i v i s m " on the one hand and from n o n - c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m on the o t h e r . The i n s t i t u t -i o n a l v e r s i o n o f s c i e n c e d i f f e r s from t h a t o f the H e g e l i a n s i n t h a t : Hegel and the H e g e l i a n s are c o l l e c t i v i s t s . They argue t h a t , s i n c e we owe D U T r e a s o n t o ' s o c i e t y ' — or t o a c e r t a i n s o c i e t y such as a n a t i o n — ' s o c i e t y ' i s e v e r y -t h i n g and the i n d i v i d u a l n o t h i n g ; o r t h a t whatever v a l u e the. i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s e s i s d e r i v e d from the c o l l e c t i v e ... As opposed t o t h i s , the p o s i t i o n p r e s e n t e d here does not assume the e x i s t e n c e o f c o l l e c t i v e s ... T h e r e f o r e , i n sp e a k i n g o f a ' s o c i a l ' t h e o r y o f reason ( o r of s c i e n t i f i c method), I mean more p r e c i s e l y t h a t the t h e o r y i s an i n t e r - p e r s o n a l one, and never t h a t i t i s a c o l l e c t i v i s t t h e o r y (1226):.: " ] T h i s r a t i o n a l i s m i s a l s o " c r i t i c a l " i n t h a t i t a c c e p t s i t s own p o s i t i o n and p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s as s u b j e c t t o d i s c u s s i o n . Most i m p o r t a n t l y , i t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t these u l t i m a t e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s cannot be c o m p l e t e l y j u s t i f i e d by l o g i c a l argument or e x p e r i e n c e (230.). -38-The p o s i t i o n o f the u n c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s t who argues t h a t he i s u n w i l l i n g to a c c e p t a n y t h i n g u h i c h cannot be j u s t i f i e d by argument or e x p e r i e n c e i s r e j e c t e d as c o n t r a d i c t o r y . C r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m on the c o n t r a r y acknowledges t h a t i t s oun assumptions r e q u i r e an 2 a c t of f a i t h , a " f a i t h i n r e a s o n " ( 2 3 1 ) . T h i s d e c i s i o n i s t h u s not s c i e n t i f i c d e d u c t i o n but a m o r a l a c t . For as Popper emphasizes^ " I am a r a t i o n a l i s t because I see i n the a t t i t u d e o f r e a s o n a b l e n e s s the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e to v i o l e n c e " (CR:355). Yet Popper i s u n w i l l i n g t o a l l o w t h i s c h o i c e of i n i t i a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t s , or e t h i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n g e n e r a l , t o l a p s e i n t o a q u e s t i o n o f mere t a s t e . Though he d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the n a t u r e of f a c t s and d e c i s i o n s , he argues t h a t the method -- c r i t i c a l and r a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n — s h o u l d be the same i n both c a s e s . The d i f f e r -ence l i e s i n the asymmetry between the c r e a t i o n of f a c t s and s t a n d a r d s . Whereas f a c t s i n some sense " c o r r e s p o n d " t o a statement or propos-i t i o n , v a l u e judgements are not as c l e a r l y r e g u l a t e d by n a t i o n s such as " r i g h t " and "good." D e s p i t e t h i s l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e , however, both f a c t u a l p r o p o s a l s and s t a n d a r d s of d e c i s i o n are s u b j e c t t o r a t i o n a l s c r u t i n y ( O S - I I : 3 8 3 - 6 ) . T h i s p o s i t i o n r e n d e r s u n t e n a b l e any r a d i c a l s e p a r a t i o n o f knowledge and v a l u e s because knowledge becomes a means o f a n t i c i p a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s of d e c i s i o n s : The c h o i c e b e f o r e us i s not s i m p l y an i n t e l l e c t u a l a f f a i r , o r a m a t t e r o f t a s t e . I t i s a m o r a l d e c i s i o n ... arguments cannot determine such a fundamental m o r a l d e c i s i o n . But t h i s does not i m p l y t h a t our c h o i c e cannot be h e l p e d by any k i n d of argument whatever. On the c o n t r a r y , whenever we are f a c e d w i t h a m o r a l d e c i s i o n o f a mare a b s t r a c t k i n d , i t i s most h e l p f u l to a n a l y s e c a r e f u l l y the consequences which are l i k e l y t o r e s u l t from the a l t e r n a t i v e s between which we have t o choose. For o n l y i f we can v i s u a l i z e t h e s e consequences i n a c o n c r e t e and p r a c t i c a l way, do we r e a l l y know what our d e c i s i o n i s about; o t h e r w i s e we d e c i d e b l i n d l y ( 2 3 2 ) . -39-I t i s i n the name of t h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " t h a t Popper's p h i l o s o p h i c a l e f f o r t s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s are j u s t i f i e d . Though he admits t h a t h i s l o g i c a l c r i t i c i s m s o f " h i s t o r i c i s m " an aim at "something l i k e s c i e n t i f i c s t a t u s " ( 0 S - I : 3 ) , he makes no p r e t e n s i o n s t o the " s c i e n t i f i c " n a t u r e of h i s c r i t i c a l e n t e r p r i s e : Many of the o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d are p e r s o n a l . What i t oues t o s c i e n t i f i c method i s l a r g e l y the awareness of i t s l i m i t a t i o n : i t does not o f f e r p r o o f s where n o t h i n g can be p r o v e d , nor does i t p r e t e n d t o be s c i e n t i f i c where i t cannot g i v e more than a p e r s o n a l p o i n t of view. I t does not t r y to r e p l a c e the o l d systems of p h i l o s o p h y by a new system. I t does not t r y t o add to a l l t h e s e volumes f i l l e d w i t h wisdom, t o the m e t a p h y s i c s of h i s t o r y and d e s t i n y , such as are f a s h i o n a b l e nowadays ( 3 ) . But h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s does proceed from h i s t h e o r y of s c i e n c e . In d i s m i s s i n g the n o t i o n t h a t any s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y can ever be " v e r i f i e d , " Popper i s f o r c e d t o accept the i m p l i c -a t i o n s o f the t e n t a t i v e n e s s of a l l hypotheses and the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they might one day be r e f u t e d . T h i s f a l l i b i l i s t i c assumption i n t r o d u c e s an element o f u n c e r t a i n t y which c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s f o r m s the problem of s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d a t i o n . At b e s t we can hope f o r t e s t i n g t h e o r i e s w i t h the hope of f a l s i f y i n g them by f i n d i n g i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s . In Popper's view "the c r i t e r i o n o f the s c i e n t i f i c s t a t u s of a t h e o r y i s i t s f a l s i f i a b i l i t y , or r e f u t a b i l i t y , or t e s t a b i l i t y " (CR:37). T h i s t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e i s d e s i g n e d t o d e a l w i t h the g r e a t e s t modern t h r e a t t o r e a s o n : The main p h i l o s o p h i c a l malady of our time i s an i n -t e l l e c t u a l and m o r a l r e l a t i v i s m , the l a t t e r b e i n g at l e a s t i n p a r t based upon the f o r m e r . By r e l a t i v i s m — o r , i f you l i k e , s c e p t i c i s m — I mean here, b r i e f l y , the t h e o r y t h a t the c h o i c e between competing t h e o r i e s i s a r b i t r a r y (0S-II.-369). T h i s s c e p t i c i s m i s d e r i v e d from a r e a c t i o n t o an o b s o l e t e -40-e p i s t e m o l o g y : the s e a r c h f o r a g e n e r a l c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h . And t h i s i s the c o n t r i b u t i o n of such r e l a t i v i s m : "The k e r n e l of t r u t h i s j u s t t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s no g e n e r a l c r i t e r i o n of t r u t h " ( 3 7 4 ) . T r u t h i s r a t h e r something toward which s c i e n t i f i c e f f o r t s are d i r e c t e d even though as humans we are i n e v i t a b l y f a l l i b l e . Thus, Popper terms h i s t h e o r y of knowledge as 11 f a l l i b i l i s m : " By ' f a l l i b i l i s m 1 I mean here the view, or the acceptance of the f a c t , t h a t we may e r r , and t h a t the quest f a r c e r t a i n t y ( o r even the quest f o r h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y ) i s a m i s t a k e n q u e s t . But t h i s does not i m p l y t h a t the quest f o r t r u t h i s m i s t a k e n . On the c o n t r a r y , the i d e a of e r r o r i m p l i e s t h a t of the t r u t h as the s t a n d a r d o f which we may f a l l s h o r t ( 3 7 5 ) . Now i t i s c r u c i a l t o remember t h a t he i s not p r o p o s i n g a 11 f a l s i f i a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n o f meaning." In h i s own words: I p e r s o n a l l y was never i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o - c a l l e d problem o f meaning; on the c o n t r a r y , i t appeared t o me a v e r b a l problem, a t y p i c a l pseudo-problem. I was i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n the problem o f d e m a r c a t i o n , i . e . i n f i n d i n g a c r i t e r i o n o f the s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r of t h e o r i e s (CR:40). As a consequence, a l l s t a t e m e n t s which cannot be c l a s s i f i e d as " s c i e n t i f i c " are not n e c e s s a r i l y nonsense. Many k i n d s o f s t a t e -ments have a meaning which d e r i v e s from t h e i r m y t h i c a l f u n c t i o n s , whether as s c i e n t i f i c c o n j e c t u r e s or as components o f s o c i a l t r a -d i t i o n s . Though he nowhere g i v e s any d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the l o g i c a l s t a t u s of such n o n - s c i e n t i f i c knowledge, he does suggest s o c i o l o g y has a p a r t t o p l a y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t . T h i s p o i n t i s b r i e f l y developed i n h i s s h o r t essay on "Towards a R a t i o n a l Theory of T r a d i t i o n " where he argues t h a t "a t h e o r y of t r a d i t i o n must be a s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , because t r a d i t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y a s o c i a l phen-omenon" (CR:123). I t i s i n the c o n t e x t o f a t h e o r y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s t h a t Popper l o c a t e s the n a t u r e o f s c i e n c e : -41-My t h e s i s i s t h a t what ue c a l l ' s c i e n c e ' i s d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d from the o l d e r myths not by b e i n g something d i s -t i n c t from a myth, but by b e i n g accompanied by a second-o r d e r t r a d i t i o n — t h a t of c r i t i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g the myth ( 1 2 7 ) . IMor are n o n - s c i e n t i f i c s t a t e m e n t s c o m p l e t e l y immune from r a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m . J u s t because a t h e o r y cannot be c o n c l u s i v e l y t e s t e d does not mean t h a t the c h o i c e betueen t h e o r i e s i s a r b i t r a r y . Popper uses an example of t h i s the p o i n t o f v i e u p r o v i d e d by g e n e r a l " h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . " As he a r g u e s : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are i m p o r t a n t s i n c e they r e p r e s e n t a p o i n t of v i e u . But ... a t h e o r y u h i c h can be t e s t e d and u h i c h i s t h e r e f o r e of s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r can o n l y r a r e l y be o b t a i n e d ... But t h i s does not mean, of c o u r s e , t h a t a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are of e q u a l m e r i t . F i r s t , t h e r e are a l u a y s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u h i c h are net r e a l l y i n keeping u i t h the a c c e p t e d r e c o r d s ; s e c o n d l y , t h e r e are some u h i c h need a number o f more or l e s s p l a u s i b l e a u x i l i a r hypotheses i f they are t o escape f a l s i f i c a t i o n by the r e c o r d s ; n e x t , t h e r e are some t h a t are unable t o connect a number of f a c t s u h i c h another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can connect, and i n so f a r • e x p l a i n ' . There may a c c o r d i n g l y be. a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p r o g r e s s even u i t h i n the f i e l d of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . F u r t h ermore, t h e r e may be a l l k i n d s of i n t e r -mediate s t a g e s betueen more or l e s s u n i v e r s a l ' p o i n t s df v i e u ' ... ( 0 S - I I : 2 6 6 ) . As a consequence, Popper's t a s k i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of " h i s t o r -i c i s m " i s to p r o v i d e r a t i o n a l arguments u h i c h r e n d e r a p a r t i c u l a r type of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — t h a t of a b e l i e f i n h i s t o r i c a l prophecy -- i m p l a u s i b l e . Yet i t i s c l e a r t h a t he does not i n p r i n c -i p l e r e j e c t e i t h e r the need f o r or the r a t i o n a l means f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g such q u a s i - t h e o r i e s . What he i s concerned about i s the d e s i r e t o g i v e them the s t a t u s of s c i e n t i f i c l a u s i n uhose name cr i m e s a g a i n s t humanity might be committed. Only by a c c e p t i n g the u n c e r t a i n t y and t e n t a t i v e n e s s of both s c i e n t i f i c hypotheses and h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s can the dangers o f dogmatism be a v o i d e d . -42-Popper's p r i m a r y t a s k i n h i s s t u d i e s Df the s o c i a l . s c i e n c e s i s t o unmask thos e methods u h i c h are p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c u i t h i n the sense d e f i n e d by h i s p r i n c i p l e o f f a l s i f i a b i l i t y . Though m y t h i c a l --n o n - s c i e n t i f i c — i d e a s may have p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n s as i n the t r a d i t i o n o f s c i e n c e or l i b e r a l i s m , i n o t h e r s they may se r v e i r -r a t i o n a l i s t f o r c e s . Such i r r a t i o n a l i s m i s not s i m p l y a r b i t r a r y d e v i a t i o n o r the r e s u l t o f some p e r v e r s i t y of human n a t u r e . R a t h e r , Popper l i n k s the emergence o f i r r a t i o n a l i s t s o c i a l t h e o r i e s ' t o s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f the t r a n s i t i o n from p r i m i t i v e t o modern s o c i e t i e s . T h i s f a c t i s o f t e n obscured by h i s tendency t o d e s c r i b e p h i l o s o p h e r s as h a v i n g succumbed t o the " i n f l u e n c e " o f some p r e d e c e s s o r . Yet a c l o s e r l o o k r e v e a l s t h a t Popper a c t u a l l y o p e r a t e s u i t h a r u d i m e n t a r y " t h e o r y " o f the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g o f s o c i o -p o l i t i c a l i d e a s . T h i s a s p e c t o f Popper's a n a l y s i s i s r e v e a l e d i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of. hou through h i s oun s e l f - c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e he came t o r e v i s e h i s image o f P l a t o . On the b a s i s o f an i n i t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f P l a t o ' s t e x t s , he had c o n c l u d e d t h a t P l a t o n i c p h i l o s o p h y c o u l d be summarized by. the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t " t r u e h a p p iness ... i s a c h i e v e d o n l y by j u s t i c e , i . e . , by keeping one's p l a c e ; the r u l e r must f i n d h a p p i n ess i n r u l i n g , the u a r r i o r i n u a r r i n g ; and, ue may i n f e r , the s l a v e i n s l a v i n g " ( 0 S - I : 1 6 9 ) . • C o n s e q u e n t l y , P l a t o must be r e g a r d e d as "a t o t a l i t a r i a n p a r t y - p o l i t i c i a n , u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s immediate and p r a c t i c a l u n d e r t a k i n g s , but on the l o n g r u n o n l y too s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s propaganda f o r the a r r e s t and o v e r t h r o u of a c i v i l i z a t i o n u h i c h he h a t e d " (169-70). A s e a r c h f o r any ev i d e n c e u h i c h u o u l d c o n t r a -d i c t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n succeeded o n l y f o r one p o i n t : P l a t o ' s -43-u n d e n i a b l y s i n c e r e h a t r e d of t y r a n n y . How i s t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n to be r e s o l v e d ? Popper s u g g e s t s : ... my attempt t o u n d e r s t a n d P l a t o by analogy u i t h modern t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m l e d me, t o my own s u r p r i s e , t o modify my view of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . I t d i d not modify my h o s t i l i t y , but i t u l t i m a t e l y l e d me .to see t h a t the s t r e n g t h of both the o l d and the new t o t a l i t a r i a n movements r e s t e d on the f a c t t h a t they attempted t o answer a very r e a l need, haw-ever b a d l y c o n c e i v e d t h i s attempt may have been (17D: emphasis added). U i t h t h i s d i s c o v e r y , Popper was i n a p o s i t i o n t o frame the q u e s t i o n of the r i s E of t o t a l i t a r i a n i d e o l o g i e s i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l manner as a t h e o r y of h i s t o r y , or as he would phrase i t : " h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " T h i s i s e x p r e s s e d i n the t h e o r y Df the t r a n s -i t i o n from the " c l o s e d " t o the "open" s o c i e t y . Thus the Greeks are the source of western c i v i l i z a t i o n because they were the f i r s t t o make the t r a n s i t i o n from " t r i b a l i s m " tD " h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m " ( 1 7 1 ) . D i s r e g a r d i n g the d i v e r s i t y o f t r i b a l s o c i e t i e s , n e a r l y a l l share a " m a g i c a l or i r r a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e towards the customs of s o c i a l l i f e , and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g r i g i d i t y o f t h e s e customs" ( 1 7 2 ) . T h i s r e s u l t s i n the f a i l u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the " c o n v e n t i o n a l r e g u l a r i t i e s " o f the s o c i a l o r d e r from those found i n n a t u r e . Even though t h i s a t t i t u d e c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t — "our own ways o f l i f e are s t i l l b e s e t w i t h t a b o o s " -- t h e r e i s a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e : an i n c r e a s i n g oppor-t u n i t y f o r p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s and the r e s u l t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . From t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n stems the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : ... the m a g i c a l or t r i b a l or c o l l e c t i v i s t s o c i e t y w i l l a l s o be c a l l e d the c l o s e d s o c i e t y , and the s o c i e t y i n which i n d i v i d u a l s are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s , the open s o c i e t y (173).. Uhat Popper has p r o v i d e d i s s i m p l y a s c h e m a t i c v e r s i o n of the G e m e i n s c h a f t - G e s e l l s c h a f t dichotomy t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d c l a s s i c a l 19th c e n t u r y s o c i a l t h e o r y . As i n both the l i b e r a l and s o c i a l i s t v e r s i o n s o f t h i s theme, Popper emphasizes t h a t d e s p i t e the c o s t s t h i s movement c o n s t i t u t e s p r o g r e s s i n t h a t i t made p o s s i b l e movement toujard i n d i v i d u a l freedom. U n l i k e " c l o s e d " s o c i e t i e s , f o r u h i c h the b i o l o g i c a l o r g a n i c model i s a p p r o p r i a t e , the "open s o c i e t y " p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r an e n d l e s s p r o g r e s s i o n t o u a r d i n d i v i d u a l freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Such an " a b s t r a c t s o c i e t y " f i r s t began i n the 6 t h c e n t u r y Greece uhere "the s t r a i n o f c i v i l i z a t i o n uas b e g i n n i n g to be f e l t " ( 0 S - I : 1 7 6 ) . What uere the p r e - c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s breakdoun o f the " c l o s e d s o c i e t y " ? Popper s u g g e s t s t h a t i n the case o f S p a r t a and Athens, "perhaps the most p D u e r f u l cause ... uas the development o f s e a -communications and commerce" ( 1 7 7 ) . Moreover, the " s t r a i n " p r o -duced by the neu o r d e r can be "most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the problem of t e n s i o n betueen the c l a s s e s " , a problem unknoun p r e v i o u s l y ( 1 7 6 ) . Yet t h e s e v e r y c o n d i t i o n s made p o s s i b l e the emergence o f c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t : The r i s e o f p h i l o s o p h y i t s e l f can be i n t e r p r e t e d , I t h i n k , as a response t o the breakdoun o f the c l o s e d s o c i e t y and i t s m a g i c a l b e l i e f s ... i t m o d i f i e s the t r a d i t i o n o f p a s s i n g on a t h e o r y or a myth by f o u n d i n g a neu t r a d i t i o n — the t r a d i t i o n o f c h a l l e n g i n g t h e o r i e s and myths .and of c r i t i c a l l y d i s c u s s i n g them ( 1 8 8 ) . In such a p e r i o d o f c r i s i s , h i s t o r i c a l p r o p h e c i e s and u t o p i a n a s p i r a t i o n s are propounded and n o u r i s h e d by l e a d e r s . Popper sees t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n i m p l i c i t l y s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s . F i r s t , t h e r e i s the a p p e a l o f b e i n g p a r t o f an i n n e r c i r c l e o f the i n i t i a t e d or the chosen. Then t h e r e are deeper m o t i v e s a r i s i n g from f r u s -t r a t i o n s u h i c h are g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n i n the dreams o f p r o p h e t s . -45-F i n a l l y , such b e l i e f s r e l i e v e i n d i v i d u a l s c f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d o i n g something t o change the c o urse of e v e n t s , though Popper admits t h a t Marxism i s somewhat of an e x c e p t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t ( 4 ) . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , such i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s are the r e s u l t of m o r a l i d e a l i s m : Why do a l l t h e s e s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s s u p p o r t the r e v o l t a g a i n s t c i v i l i z a t i o n ? And what i s the s e c r e t of t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y ? Why do they a t t r a c t and seduce so many i n -t e l l e c t u a l s ? I am i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t the r eason i s t h a t they g i v e e x p r e s s i o n to a d e e p - f e l t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a w o r l d which does n o t , and cannot, l i v e up t o our m o r a l i d e a l s and t o our dreams o f p e r f e c t i o n ( 5 ) . For Popper the freedom o f f e r e d by the "open s o c i e t y " i s n e c e s s a r i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by what we s u b j e c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e as " s t r a i n " : ^ T h i s s t r a i n , t h i s u n e a s i n e s s ... ( i s ) ... c r e a t e d by the e f f o r t which l i f e i n an open and p a r t i a l l y a b s t r a c t s o c i e t y c o n t i n u a l l y demands from us — by the endeavour to be r a t i o n a l , t o f o r e g o at l e a s t some o f our e m o t i o n a l s o c i a l needs, t o l o o k a f t e r o u r s e l v e s , and t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . We must, I b e l i e v e , bear t h i s s t r a i n as the p r i c e t o be p a i d by every i n c r e a s e i n knowledge, i n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s , i n c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n mutual h e l p , and c o n s e q u e n t l y f o r our chances o f s u r v i v a l , and i n the s i z e o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s the p r i c e we have t o pay  f o r b e i n g human (176; emphasis added). Popper c o n c l u d e s h i s f i r s t volume of the Open S o c i e t y w i t h the p a i n f u l r e a l i s m of h i s l i b e r a l t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y : A r r e s t i n g p o l i t i c a l change i s not the remedy; i t can-not b r i n g h a p p i n e s s . We can never r e t u r n t o the a l l e g e d innocence and beauty of the c l o s e d s o c i e t y . Our dream of heaven cannot be r e a l i z e d on e a r t h For those who have eaten o f the t r e e o f knowledge, p a r a d i s e i s l o s t . The more we t r y t o r e t u r n t o the h e r o i c age o f t r i b a l i s m , the more s u r e l y do we a r r i v e at the I n q u i s i t i o n , at the S e c r e t P o l i t i c s , and at a r o m a n t i c i z e d g a n g s t e r i s m . B e g i n n i n g w i t h the s u p p r e s s i o n of r e a s o n and t r u t h , we must end w i t h the most b r u t a l and v i o l e n t d e s t r u c t i o n o f a l l t h a t i s human. There i s no r e t u r n t o a harmonious s t a t e of n a t u r e . I f we t u r n back, then we must go the whole way — we must  r e t u r n t o the b e a s t s ... We must go on i n t o the unknown, the u n c e r t a i n and i n s e c u r e , u s i n g what r e a s o n we may have to p l a n as w e l l - as we can f o r b o t h , s e c u r i t y and freedom ( 2 0 1 ) . •n the b a s i s of t h i s o u t l i n e of Popper's p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e , h i s method of h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , some s u r p r i s i n g f e a t u r e s emerge. D e s p i t e h i s c a s t i g a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l prophecy based on some o s t e n s i b l y s c i e n t i f i c " l a u " , he i s p r e p a r e d t o admit the c o g n i t i v e v a l u e o f some e f f o r t t o i n t e r -p r e t the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of h i s t o r i c a l change. Thus, h i s oun l i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y — t h a t of the "open s o c i e t y " — r e - i n t r o d u c e s a s t y l e o f i n q u i r y u h i c h he has o f t e n been t a k e n , by s u p e r f i c i a l r e a d e r s , to have r e j e c t e d a l t o g e t h e r . Nor i s he u i l l i n g t o r e j e c t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n d i r e c t l y t e s t i n g elements o f such h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g s o c i a l change i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o comprehend the uay i n u h i c h s p e c i f i c t y p e s of t h i n k i n g (such as " h i s t o r i c i s m " and " U t o p i a n i s m " ) r e p r e s e n t r e -sponses to r e a l human needs. Rapi d s o c i a l change, c l a s s c o n f l i c t , and the n a t u r a l d e s i r e f o r m o r a l p e r f e c t i o n a l l combine to produce i r r a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s u h i c h can be c o u n t e r e d o n l y by reasoned a r g u -ment and the p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n e s s e n t i a l f o r e l i m i n a t i n g human s u f f e r i n g . Even though s c i e n t i f i c p r o p o s i t i o n s are c a r e f u l l y d i s -t i n g u i s h e d from n o n - t e s t a b l e or m y t h i c a l ones, t h i s does not mean t h a t s c i e n c e c o n s t i t u t e s a b s o l u t e t r u t h or t h a t m y t h i c a l t h i n k i n g i s not an i m p o r t a n t and n e c e s s a r y component o f s o c i a l l i f e . Both are s u b j e c t t o c r i t i c i s m : s c i e n t i f i c hypotheses are s u b j e c t t o e l i m i n -a t i o n and p e r n i c i o u s t r a d i t i o n s can be r e p l a c e d by those u h i c h are more r a t i o n a l , as f o r i n s t a n c e the replacement of t r a d i t i o n a l i s m by l i b e r a l i s m . In the next t h r e e c h a p t e r s Popper's e f f o r t t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i s oun p o s i t i o n from t h a t of Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge w i l l be examined i n d e t a i l . T h i s a t t a c k u i l l be a n a l y s e d i n terms • f the t h r e e c e n t r a l t y p e s o f problems i t r a i s e s : 1) the d e f i n i t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s and c l a i m s o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge; 2) the f o u n d a t i o n s o f o b j e c t i v e knowledge; and 3) the t a s k of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n modern s o c i e t y . -ka-IM0TE5: CHAPTER IV See e s p e c i a l l y h i s essay "Towards a R a t i o n a l Theory o f T r a d i t i o n " (CR:12D-35). T h i s emphasis on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework o f s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i s one of the most n o v e l f e a t u r e s o f Popper's t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e . T h i s s h i f t s the f o c u s of e p i s t e m o l o g y from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a s o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f method t o t h a t o f the group as a c r i t i c a l community. What he f a i l s t o see i s t h a t such a t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e presupposes and r e q u i r e s a s o c i o l o g y o f s c i e n c e — t h a t p h i l o s o p h y or h i s t o r y by themselves do not s u f f i c e . C f . E l i a s (1972);; M a r t i n s (1972); Toulmin ( 1 9 7 2 ) . 2 T h i s f a i t h i n the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f r a t i o n a l i t y as, a p r a c t i c a l i d e a l t o be r e a l i z e d , i s e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s : The 'world' i s not r a t i o n a l , but i t i s the t a s k o f s c i e n c e t o r a t i o n a l i z e i t . ' S o c i e t y ' i s not r a t i o n a l , but i t i s the t a s k o f the s o c i a l e n g i n e e r t o r a t i o n a l i z e i t . ( T h i s does not mean, of c o u r s e , t h a t he s h o u l d ' d i r e c t ' i t , or t h a t c e n t r a l i z e d or c o l l e c t i v i s t ' p l a n n i n g ' i s d e s i r a b l e . ) Ord-i n a r y language i s not r a t i o n a l , but i t i s our t a s k t o ' r a t i o n a l i z e i t , o r at l e a s t t o deep up i t s s t a n d a r d s o f c l a r i t y . The a t t i t u d e here c h a r a c t e r i z e d c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as 'pragmatic r a t i o n a l i s m ' . T h i s p r a g m a t i c r a t i o n a l i s m i s r e l a t e d to an u n c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m and t o i r r a t i o n a l i s m i n a s i m i l a r way as c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m i s r e l a t e d t o these two ... p r a g m a t i c r a t i o n a l i s m may r e c o g n i z e t h a t the w o r l d i s not r a t i o n a l , but demand t h a t we submit or s u b j e c t i t t o  re a s o n , as f a r as p o s s i b l e (QS-II:357, f n . 1 9 ) . 3 Though he makes no e f f o r t t o s p e c i f y the ma t t e r more c l e a r l y — an e s s e n t i a l problem which i s not d e a l t w i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y of the Open S o c i e t y , Popper o p e r a t e s w i t h the assumption t h a t though " i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d m e n t a l d e v e l o p -ments w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r background, i t i s at l e a s t as i m p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d economic developments w i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the development o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , s c i e n t i f i c or r e l i g i o u s i d e a s " (CR:332). • f course the e f f o r t t o lump Fas c i s m and Communism t o g e t h e r as " t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m " and e x p l a i n them i n terms o f a t h e o r y o f t o t a l i t -a r i a n i s m p r e s e n t s i n s u p e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s . Popper's e f f o r t i s one o f the more s i m p l i s t i c v e r s i o n s o f t h i s s t r a t e g y . C f . Marcuse ( 1 9 7 2 ) . For a d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i c i s m o f the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a ttempts ( A r e n d t , F r i e d r i c h s ) see F r i e d r i c h s , C u r t i s , and Barber ( 1 9 6 9 ) . -k3-These concepts uere o f course i n t r o d u c e d by T o e n n i e s . Popper c l a i m s t h a t he d e r i v e d the terms "open" and " c l o s e d s o c i e t y " from Bergson, a t h i n k e r u i t h u h i c h he o t h e r u i s e has l i t t l e i n common. A p p a r e n t l y , Bergson used i t i n a r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t uhere the m y s t i c i s m of the " c l o s e d s o c i e t y " i s p o s i t i v e l y e v a l -u a t e d . As f o r Durkheim, uho u o u l d seem a more l i k e l y s o u r ce f o r Popper's g e n e r a l t h e s i s , he i s mentioned o n l y i n p a s s i n g t o sug-g e s t t h a t he d i d not u n d e r s t a n d t h a t "modern open s o c i e t i e s f u n c t i o n l a r g e l y by uay o f a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s , such as exchange or c o - o p e r a t i o n " (DS-I:175). C u r i o u s l y , t h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Durkheim extends t o a f a i l u r e t o see the a f f i n i t y between " o r g a n i c " and " m e c h a n i c a l s o l i d a r i t y " and the "open" and " c l o s e d " s o c i e t y . 'This concept of " s t r a i n " i s not acknowledged t o be r e l a t e d t o the themes of c l a s s i c a l s o c i a l t h e o r y which bear an o b v i o u s r e -semblance: a l i e n a t i o n ' ( M a r x ) , anomie (Durkheim), and r a t i o n a l -i z a t i o n (Weber). In f a c t , Popper's t h e s i s o f the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the "open s o c i e t y " i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o Weber's a c c o u n t . A d e t a i l e d comparison of t h e i r views would l i k e l y b r i n g t h i s out more c l e a r l y . -50-V. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE SOCIOLOGY OF KNOWLEDGE Popper's r e j e c t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge — which he i d e n t i f i e s w i t h " s o c i o l o g i s m " — stems from h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t i s i r r a t i o n a l i s t i c and i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the p h i l o s -o p h i c a l t h e o r y o f knowledge. But from the o u t s e t i t i s apparent t h a t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s marred by a p r o f o u n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s d i s c i p l i n e , a t l e a s t as a method o f s o c i o -h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h as d e f i n e d by K a r l Mannheim. S i n c e Popper acknowledges t h a t Mannheim i s the l e a d i n g exponent o f t h i s approach, i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to t u r n t o Mannheim's t e x t s t o c o n f i r m , r e j e c t o r modify Popper's a c c u s a t i o n s . A b a s i c o b s t a c l e to the i s o l a t i o n of Popper's . c r i t i c a l argument a g a i n s t the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge i s posed by h i s ad hominem method o f a n a l y s i s . Mannheim i s assumed t o be g u i l t y o f a l l the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i n s o f Hegel and Marx-, though we are g i v e n o n l y c i r c u m s t a n c i a l e v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c h a r g e . One c o u l d b e g i n w i t h Popper's d i s c u s s i o n s o f Hegel and Marx t o i n d i c a t e the ways i n which d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s are then extended t o Mannheim, f o r he d i d share (as does Popper) many of t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n s . Yet Mannheim's d i v e r g e n c i e s from Hegel and Marx are e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t and are based upon c r i t i c i s m s s i m i l a r t o those o f Popper.' '. F a r y Mannheim c o n c l u d e s , t h a t " d i a l e c t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s i n f a c t r a t i o n a l i s t i c but i t c u l m i n a t e s i n i r r a t i o n a l -i s m " ( I U : 1 3 3 ) . Though he i s more s y m p a t h e t i c to the i d e a o f d i a -l e c t i c a l t h i n k i n g than Popper, he agrees t h a t i t has been used f o r o b s c u r a n t i s t p u r p o s e s . S i n c e the o b j e c t i v e here i s to develop the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t Popper and Mannheim i n f a c t o p e r a t e w i t h l a r g e l y -51-ccimplementary a s s u m p t i o n s , u n r a v e l i n g t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s u i t h r e s p e c t t o Hegel and Marx u i l l be i g n o r e d . I n s t e a d , Popper's s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim u i l l be t aken as the f o c u s of r e f e r -ence. The q u e s t i o n thus becomes: uhat d i d Popper a p p a r e n t l y t h i n k t h a t Mannheim uas c l a i m i n g about the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge? For Popper the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge i s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d u i t h the c o l l e c t i v i s t t h e o r y of c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g . S i n c e Mannheim c e r t a i n l y makes s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a c e n t r a l theme of h i s l a t e r u ork, t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a l e g i t i m a t e a ssumption, though the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not a n e c e s s a r y one. Yet f o r Popper i t i s the i r r a t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y of knouledge propounded by. " s o c i o l o g i s m " , t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t e r r o r of S t a l i n i s t p l a n n i n g . Though the p r i n c i p l e o f p l a n n i n g may appear t o be a r a t i o n a l response t o the problem of r a p i d s o c i a l change, Popper concedes, i t i s undermined by the f a c t t h a t . .... i t o c c u r s i n c l o s e s t a l l i a n c e u i t h a d o c t r i n e u h i c h i s d e f i n i t e l y opposed t o r a t i o n a l i s m .... one u h i c h i s u e l l i n k e e ping u i t h the i r r a t i o n a l i s t and m y s t i c a l t e n d e n c i e s of our time ( 0 S - I I : 2 1 3 ) . T h i s i r r a t i o n a l element i s .... the M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e t h a t our o p i n i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Dur m o r a l and s c i e n t i f i c o p i n i o n s , are d etermined by c l a s s i n t e r e s t , and more g e n e r a l l y by the s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f o u r t i m e . Under the name of ' s o c i o l o g y of knouledge' or ' s o c i o l o g i s m ' , t h i s d o c t r i n e has been developed r e c e n t l y ( e s p e c i a l l y by M. S c h e l e r and H.. Mannheim) as a t h e o r y o f the s o c i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knouledge (213; emphasis added). T h i s l a t t e r statement r e v e a l s tuo assumptions about the s e l f -d e f i n i t i o n o f Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y of knouledge: t h a t i t p u r p o r t s t o be a s o c i o l o g i c a l .theory of s c i e n t i f i c knouledge and t h a t i t c l a i m s t h a t such s c i e n t i f i c knouledge can be d e t e r m i n i s t i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d by s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s l i s . An e x a m i n a t i o n of Mannheim's p o s i t i o n on -52-th e s e tuo p o i n t s r e v e a l s t h a t Popper has c o m p l e t e l y f a i l e d t o p e n e t r a t e the d i s t i n c t i v e e f f o r t s o f Mannheim t o a v o i d t h e s e two c h a r g e s . As i s s e l f - e v i d e n t u i t h Mannheim's p r e o c c u p a t i o n u i t h " i d e o l o g y " and " u t o p i a " , the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge f o r him i s m a i n l y a t o o l f o r the a n a l y s i s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t h o u g h t . Popper's d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t he f a i l s t o grasp the d i f f e r e n c e betueen the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l uses of the concept "knouledge". For the s o c i o l o g i s t , "knouledge" has been, used t o r e f e r t o u h a t e v e r people take as f a c t u a l o r t r u e r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s e p i s t e m o -l o g i c a l s t a t u s f o r the p h i l o s o p h e r . Such knouledge ( o r b e l i e f ) i s a c t e d upon as i f i t uere " t r u e " . Whereas Mannheim g e n e r a l l y concerned h i m s e l f u i t h the a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d b e l i e f s o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t h o u g h t , o t h e r s have a n a l y s e d v a r i o u s o t h e r t y p e s , r a n g i n g from the 2 s c i e n t i f i c - t e c h n o l o g i c a l t o t h o s e of everyday l i f e . Though Mannheim i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t — a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s oun u n c e r t a i n t i e s — he can be shoun t o have uorked from the premise o f a d i s t i n c t i o n betueen e x a c t and e x i s t e n t i a l l y - b o u n d knou^-ledge." 5 Only i n the l a t t e r case d i d he argue t h a t s o c i a l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s i n f l u e n c e the c o n t e n t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s . Though t h i s d i s -t i n c t i o n l a r g e l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o , i t i s not i d e n t i c a l u i t h , the d i f f e r -ences betueen n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . He seems to g r a n t some a s p e c t s of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h ( f o r m a l s o c i o l o g y ) something l i k e the c a p a c i t y f o r n o n - e x i s t e n t i a i l y bound knouledge. As he e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e s on the v e r y f i r s t page o f I d e o l o g y  and U t o p i a , he i s not concerned u i t h the " s c i e n t i f i c " knouledge of p h i l o s o p h y . H i s c e n t r a l problem a r i s e s from the " p l u r a l i t y Df t h o u g h t - s t y l e s " u h i c h have emerged i n the modern u o r l d i n response -53-t o neu contexts of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . Not c o n t e n t w i t h the r a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of uhat "knowledge" s h o u l d l o o k l i k e , based on the example of a p a r t i c u l a r s c i e n c e , he i s i n t e n t upon the e x a m i n a t i o n of a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d knouledge: T h i s book i s concerned u i t h the problem of hDu men a c t u a l l y t h i n k . The aim of t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e not hau t h i n k i n g appears i n t e x t b o o k s on l o g i c , but hou i t  r e a l l y f u n c t i o n s i n p u b l i c l i f e and i n p o l i t i c s as an i n -strument of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ( I U : 1 ; emphasis added). T h i s t y p e of knouledge, Mannheim d e c l a r e s , has been i g n o r e d by the p h i l o s o p h e r s of s c i e n c e . Yet f o r anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a " s c i e n c e of p o l i t i c s " i t i s e v i d e n t such a s c i e n c e " i m p l i e s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t form of knouledge from one c u s t o m a r i l y c o n c e i v e d . Pure, i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m u o u l d not t o l e r a t e a s c i e n c e u h i c h i s so i n t i m a t e l y t i e d up u i t h p r a c t i c e " ( 1 6 4 ) . Because o f the f a i l u r e o f p o s i t i v i s t p h i l o s o p h e r s t o d e a l u i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n , he makes a d i s t i n c t i o n betueen the " e x a c t " s c i e n c e s d e s c r i b e d by l o g i c i a n s and the " s o - c a l l e d p r e - s c i e n t i f i c i n e x a c t mode of t h o u g h t " f o r u h i c h l o g i c must be supplemented by the a n a l y s i s o f h i s t o r i c a l g e n e s i s : Meanuhile,- a c t i n g men have, f o r b e t t e r or f o r u o r s e , proceeded t o develop a v a r i e t y of methods f o r the e x p e r i -e n t i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e n e t r a t i o n of the u o r l d i n u h i c h they l i v e , u h i c h have never been a n a l y s e d u i t h the same p r e c i s i o n as the s o - c a l l e d e x a c t modes o f k n o u i n g . Uhen, houever, any human a c t i v i t y c o n t i n u e s over a l o n g p e r i o d u i t h o u t b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l s or c r i t i c i s m , i t tends t o get out of hand ... T h i s s o - c a l l e d p r e - s c i e n t i f i c i n e x a c t mode of t h o u g h t , houever ( u h i c h , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , the l o g i c i a n s and p h i l o s o p h e r s a l s o use uhen they have t o make p r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s ) , i s not tD be u n d e r s t o o d s o l e l y by the use of l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . I t c o n s t i t u t e s a complex u h i c h cannot be r e a d i l y detached e i t h e r from the psycho-l o g i c a l r o o t s o f the e m o t i o n a l and v i t a l i m p u l s e s u h i c h u n d e r l i e i t or from the s i t u a t i o n i n u h i c h i t a r i s e s and u h i c h i t seeks t o s o l v e . I t i s ' t h e most e s s e n t i a l t a s k of t h i s book t o uork out a s u i t a b l e method f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h i s type of thought and i t s changes ... The method u h i c h ue u i l l seek to p r e s e n t i s t h a t of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge ( 1 - 2 ) . -54-In s h o r t , MannhEim does not seek t o c h a l l e n g e the k i n d o f f o r m a l and a b s t r a c t p r o p o s i t i o n s which Popper's p r i n c i p l e o f de-m a r c a t i o n seeks t o d i s t i n g u i s h as s c i e n c e . The problem w i t h such p r o p o s i t i o n s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s t h a t they f a i l t o p r o v i d e the k i n d o f knowledge n e c e s s a r y f o r s o c i a l l i f e t o be c a r r i e d on a t a l l . And i t i s w i t h p r o p o s i t i o n s which are impregnated w i t h human meanings which are the s o u r c e of c o n t r o v e r s y : IMor are we a i d e d when we are d i r e c t e d t o a few p r o p -o s i t i o n s i n which the c o n t e x t i s so f o r m a l and a b s t r a c t ( e . g . i n mathematics, geometry, and pure economics) t h a t i n f a c t t h e y seem t o be c o m p l e t e l y detached from the t h i n k -i n g s o c i a l i n d i v i d u a l . The b a t t l e i s not about t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s but about t h a t g r e a t e r w e a l t h o f f a c t u a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i n which man c o n c r e t e l y d i a g n o s e s h i s i n d i v i d u a l and. s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , i n which happenings ex-t e r n a l to us are f i r s t c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d . The b a t t l e r a ges c o n c e r n i n g those p r o p o s i t i o n s i n which every concept i s m e a n i n g f u l l y o r i e n t e d from the f i r s t , i n which we use words l i k e c o n f l i c t , breakdown, a l i e n a t i o n , i n s u r r e c t i o n , resentment — words which do not reduce complex s i t u a t i o n s f o r the sake o f an e x t e r n a l i z i n g , f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h o u t ever b e i n g a b l e t o b u i l d them up a g a i n and which would l o s e t h e i r c o n t e n t i f t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e i r e v a l u a t i v e e l e -ments, were dropped out ( 4 3 ) . For Mannheim the c r u c i a l t e s t f o r the s e p a r a t i o n o f e x a c t from i n e x a c t knowledge i s whether or not s o c i a l g e n e s i s has any i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r v a l i d i t y . T h i s l a r g e l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o Popper's d i s -t i n c t i o n between s c i e n c e and n o n - s c i e n c e . Thus, t h e r e seems t o be no b a s i s whatsoever f o r the assumption t h a t Mannheim i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a t h e o r y o f " s c i e n t i f i c knowledge". R a t h e r , he i s engaged i n a complementary e n t e r p r i s e . ' Whereas Popper sought t o develop a t h e o r y of the l o g i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l bases o f e x a c t s c i e n c e , Mannheim attempted t o develop a t h e o r y o f the l o g i c and s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n s o f i n e x a c t or a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d s o c i a l b e l i e f s . Thus Mannheim argu e s : -55-The h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l g e n e s i s o f an i d e a would be i r r e l e v a n t t o i t s u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y i f the t e m p o r a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of i t s emergence had no e f f e c t on i t s c o n t e n t and form. I f t h i s were the c a s e , any two p e r i o d s :in the h i s t o r y of human knowledge would o n l y be d i s t i n g -u i s h e d from one another by the f a c t t h a t i n the e a r l i e r p e r i o d c e r t a i n t h i n g s were s t i l l unknown and c e r t a i n e r r o r s s t i l l e x i s t e d w h i c h , t h r o u g h l a t e r knowledge, were com-p l e t e l y c o r r e c t e d . T h i s s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between an e a r l i e r i n c o m p l e t e and a l a t e r complete p e r i o d o f knowledge may t o a l a r g e e x t e n t be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the e x a c t s c i e n c e s ( a l t h o u g h i n d e e d to-day the n o t i o n of t h e . s t a b i l i t y o f the c a t e g o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the e x a c t s c i e n c e s i s , com-pared w i t h the l o g i c o f c l a s s i c a l physics,.. c o n s i d e r a b l y s h a k e n ) . For the h i s t o r y o f the c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s , how-ev e r , the e a r l i e r s t a g e s are not q u i t e so s i m p l y s u p e r -ceded ... Every epoch has i t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y new approach and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o i n t a f view, and c o n s e q u e n t l y sees the 'same' o b j e c t from a new p e r s p e c t i v e (III":271). T h i s view i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t of Popper. As n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , he emphasized the n e c e s s i t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s and g e n e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . Though Popper's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more r i g o r o u s than the vague n o t i o n of " e x a c t " knowledge, Mannheim p r o v i d e s a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of p e r s p e c t i v e s . IMor does Popper deny the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s k i n d of knowledge and i t s p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . Acknowledging " t h a t those u n i v e r s a l laws which h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n uses p r o v i d e no s e l e c t i v e and u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e , no ' p o i n t o f view' f o r h i s t o r y , " . h e goes on t o advocate t h a t we cannot l e t an " i n a p p l i c a b l e i d e a of o b j e c t i v i t y " from p r e v e n t i n g us from p r o v i d i n g such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s even though they cannot be " s c i e n t i f i c " i n the f o r m a l sense ( O S - I I : 2 6 5 - 9 ) . Popper would be f o r c e d then t o admit t h a t f o r such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s o c i a l g e n e s i s i s _ bound up w i t h t h e i r v a l i d i t y . For as he a d m i t s , s i n c e "each g e n e r a t i o n has i t s own t r o u b l e s and problems, and t h e r e f o r e -56-i t s own i n t e r e s t s and p o i n t o f view, i t f o l l o w s t h a t each gener-a t i o n has a r i g h t t o l o o k upon and r e - i n t e r p r e t h i s t o r y i n i t s own way ..." ( 2 6 7 ) . I t was p r e c i s e l y t h i s t y p e o f "knowledge" which i s the o b j e c t o f Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y . Popper not o n l y f a i l s t o note Mannheim's s o c i o l o g i c a l use of the term "knowledge", but then proceeds, t o assume t h a t the p o s i t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between thought and e x i s t e n c e i s a m e c h a n i c a l -d e t e r m i n i s t i c one. At l e a s t t h a t i s the i m p l i c a t i o n the r e a d e r i s l e f t to i n f e r . Taken l i t e r a l l y , h i s use o f the phrase " s o c i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n " has a r e d u c t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n which he makes every e f f o r t t o take advantage o f i n o r d e r t o d i s c r e d i t the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge. IMor does he make any attempt t o r e f e r to the k i n d o f l i n k a g e s e s t a b -l i s h e d by Mannheim i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s . The r e a d e r i s l e f t t o assume t h a t " d e t e r m i n a t i o n " i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n the sense o f r e d u c t i o n i n the form o f a h y p o t h e t i c o - d e d u c t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n . ^ To i n t e r p r e t Mannheim's i n t e n t i o n s i n t h i s way i s t o b e t r a y a 'complete m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge and of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n from which i t i s d e r i v e d . To b e g i n with,. " s o c i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n " i s not an adequate r e n d e r i n g o f the o r i g i n a l German S e i n s v e r b u n d e n h e i t which i s u s u a l l y termed " s i t u a t i o n a l " or " e x i s t e n t i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n " . Perhaps l e s s m i s l e a d i n g would be " e x i s t e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g " or the ve r y l i t e r a l " e x i s t e n c e - b o u n d e d n e s s " . For as Mannheim emphasized i n a f o o t n o t e t o the E n g l i s h e d i t i o n o f Id e o l o g y and U t o p i a : Here we do not mean by ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' a m e c h a n i c a l c a u s e - e f f e c t sequence: we l e a v e the meaning o f 'd e t e r m i n -a t i o n ' open, and o n l y e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l show us how s t r i c t i s the c o r r e l a t i o n between l i f e - s i t u a t i o n and t h o u g h t - p r o c e s s , or what scope e x i s t s ,for v a r i a t i o n s i n the c o r r e l a t i o n (267, f n . l ) . -57-To be s u r e , Mannheim does not r e s o l v e t h i s problem or. even attempt t o p r o v i d e a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s Df the p o s s i b l e ways 7 of c o n c e i v i n g such a r e l a t i o n s h i p . Had he been more a t t e n t i v e t o the r e a l dilemma h e r e , Popper as a p h i l o s o p h e r might have been a b l e t o p r o v i d e some c o n s t r u c t i v e a n a l y s i s . Yet h i s s i m p l i s t i c i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n o f the problem of the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge u i t h " s o c i o -l o g i s m " b l i n d e d him t o genuine i s s u e s . I r o n i c a l l y , as ue have j u s t seen u i t h r e s p e c t t o the t y p e s o f knouledge d i s t i n g u i s h e d , Popper does not r e a l l y d i s a g r e e u i t h uhat Mannheim i s t r y i n g t o say. In h i s Open S o c i e t y volumes Popper h i m s e l f had i n d u l g e d i n some a m a t e u r i s h s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s Df i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y . For i n s t a n c e , as p r e v i o u s l y p o i n t e d D u t , he p o s t u l a t e s t h a t " h i s t o r i c i s m " uas a phenomenon u h i c h became prominent o n l y under p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s — p e r i o d s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r a p i d change — and t h a t the context o f the r e s u l t i n g d o c t r i n e s m i r r o r e d the s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s o f the s o c i e t i e s i n q u e s t i o n . IMor uas Popper unauare of h i s use o f t h i s method or of i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l s o u r c e s : Everyone l e a r n e d from Marx t h a t the development o f i d e a s cannot be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d i f the h i s t o r y o f i d e a s i s t r e a t e d ( a l t h o u g h such a t r e a t m e n t may o f t e n have i t s g r e a t m e r i t s ) u i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r , o r i g i n and the s i t u a t i o n o f t h e i r o r i g i n a t o r s , among u h i c h the economic a s p e c t i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (CR:332). What Popper o b j e c t s t o i s a " v u l g a r m a t e r i a l i s m " u h i c h he i d e n t i f i e s u i t h Marx and t r a n s f e r s to Mannheim: N e v e r t h e l e s s I p e r s o n a l l y t h i n k t h a t Marx's economism — h i s emphasis on the economic background as the u l t i m a t e b a s i s o f any s o r t o f development — i s m i s t a k e n and i n f a c t u n t e n a b l e ... g r a n t e d t h a t i t i s at l e a s t as i m p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d economic developments u i t h o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the development o f , f o r i n s t a n c e , s c i e n t i f i c or r e l i g i o u s i d e a s - ( 3 3 2 ) . -58-W i t h i n t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s t h e n , he i s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t the p r i n c i p l e o f s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s : I do not deny t h a t t h e r e are c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i o -l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of Beethoven 1s u o r k . I t i s w e l l known, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t .the t r a n s i t i o n from a s m a l l t o a l a r g e symphony o r c h e s t r a i s connected, i n some way, w i t h a s o c i o -p o l i t i c a l development. O r c h e s t r a s cease t o be .pr.ivate'jhdbbies o f p r i n c e s , and are at l e a s t p a r t l y s u p p o r t e d by a middle c l a s s whose i n t e r e s t i n music g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s . I am w i l l i n g .to a p p r e c i a t e any s o c i o l o g i c a l ' e x p l a n a t i o n ' of t h i s s o r t , and I admit t h a t such a s p e c t s may be worthy of s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y . ( A f t e r a l l , I m y s e l f have attempted s i m i l a r t h i n g s i n t h i s book, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n my t r e a t m e n t of P l a t o . ) What t h e n , mare p r e c i s e l y , i s the o b j e c t a f my a t t a c k ? I t i s the e x a g g e r a t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f any a s p e c t of t h i s k i n d . I f we ' e x p l a i n ' Beethoven's symphony o r c h e s t r a i n the way h i n t e d above, we have e x p l a i n e d v e r y l i t t l e ... We cannot attempt, t o e x p l a i n Beethoven's g e n i u s i n t h i s way, or i n any way at a l l ( O S - I I : 2 1 0 - 1 ) . T h i s f i n a l comment r e v e a l s yet another m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge, t o the degree t h a t i t seeks to: p r o v i d e c a o s a l -f u n c t i a n a l type e x p l a n a t i o n s , i s concerned w i t h t y p e s of e v e n t s or a s p e c t s o f them r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l e v e n t s and t h e i r unique a s p e c t s . The e x p l a n a t i o n o f the " g e n i u s " o f an i n d i v i d u a l person i s more an h i s t o r i c a l than a s o c i o l o g i c a l problem. The t a s k of a s o c i o -l o g i c a l approach would be t o see t h a t g e n i u s or a s p e c t s pf i t as an i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , whether o f changes i n c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a c u l t u r a l r e n a i s s a n c e , new forms o f t e c h n o l o g y or whatever. None o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r s can u l t i m a t e l y e x p l a i n a l l of the unique elements of a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l phenomenon, though they can go a l o n g way toward e x p l a i n i n g the appearance of a type o f e v e n t . To the degree t h a t t h e r e i s an e f f o r t to e x p l a i n such unique f e a t u r e s of i n d i v i d u a l e v e n t s , the mode of e x p l a n a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y " i n t e r p r e t i v e " and l e s s " n o m o t h e t i c " . -59-I t i s d i f f i c u l t tD u n d e r s t a n d hou anyone c c u l d accuse Mannheim c f " s D c i a l a g i s m " uhen one of h i s mast d i s t i n c t i v e c o n t r i b -u t i o n s was t o have c o n f r o n t e d the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the immanent and e x t e r n a l e x p l a n a t i o n of c u l t u r a l phenomena. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem uas the c e n t r a l theme of much of h i s e a r l y uork i n p h i l o s o p h y . Having s t a r t e d i n the i d e a l i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f G e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t e , he g r a d u a l l y came to a p p r e c i a t e t h e ' s i g n i f i c a n c e of the M a r x i s t c o n t r i b u t i o n . To c i t e a c l e a r statement o f h i s p o s i t i o n : A second f a l l a c y u h i c h , much l i k e the immanence d o c t r i n e , has encumbered German r e f l e c t i o n s on h i s t o r y , i s e x p r e s s e d by the p o l a r i z e d c o n c e p t i o n of the i d e a l and the m a t e r i a l r e a l m of t h i n g s . Once a g a i n one cannot h e l p a s k i n g uhy a b a s i c a l l y s i m p l e s u b j e c t c o u l d be so p e r s i s t e n t l y m i s c o n s t r u e d . Hou uas i t p o s s i b l e t o doubt the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the mind and t o i g n o r e the mental i n v o l v e m e n t s of s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r ? To c o g i t a t e an a b s t r a c t i n t e l l e c t u i t h o u t c o n c r e t e persons uho a c t i n g i v e n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i s as absurd as t o assume the o p p o s i t e , a s o c i e t y u i t h o u t such f u n c t i o n s as communication, i d e a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n (1953:3.3-3). , In sum, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n the charge t h a t the s o c i o -l o g y of knouledge as a method of r e s e a r c h expounded by Mannheim i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y i r r a t i o n a l i s t i c or s o c i o l o g i s t i c . Remarkably, Popper attempted to burden Mannheim u i t h the i r r a t i o n a l i s m o f s o c i o l o g i s t i c r e d u c t i o n i s m uhen one of Mannheim's major c o n t r i b u t i o n s uas to have emphasized uays of overcoming t h i s problem. Uhen seen i n the c o n t e x t of Popper's oun a d m i s s i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of i d e a s , Mannheim's e f f o r t t o overcame can be seen as a p a r t i a l e f f o r t t o the k i n d s o f problems t o u h i c h Popper uas r e f e r r i n g . T h i s e r r o r on Popper's p a r t r e f l e c t s i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Hegel and Marx and thus his f u r t h e r f a i l u r e — stemming from h i s s u p e r f i c -i a l r e a d i n g of I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a — to d i s t i n g u i s h Mannheim's p o s i t i o n -60-from h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s . Popper s i m p l y g l o s s e s aver the p r o f o u n d l y r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o f Mannheim as e x p r e s s e d i n h i s quest f o r a " s c i e n c e of p o l i t i c s " and the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f modern s o c i e t y . As ue s h a l l see, t h i s i n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge as " s o c i o l o g i s m " c o n s t i t u t e s an e r r o r u h i c h undermines Popper's account o f Mannheim at every t u r n . But even a c c e p t i n g a l l t h i s , Popper c o u l d s t i l l argue t h a t n e i t h e r r a t i o n a l i n t e n t i o n s nor a more l i m i t e d c o n c e p t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y Df knouledge a l t e r h i s more fundamental o b j e c t i o n . Even i f the s o c i o l o g y .of knouledge may p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f hou s o c i a l s c i e n c e i s a c t u a l l y c r e a t e d , t h i s does not mean t h a t t h i s i s the uay i t s h o u l d be produced or even p r o v i d e s any i n s i g h t i n t o hou i t s h o u l d be. That, Popper u o u l d c o u n t e r , i s a q u e s t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c method. As a consequence, he might contend t h a t Mannheim's e f f o r t t o put the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s on a more s e c u r e f o u n d a t i o n through the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge uas mis-guided — a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the " i r r a t i o n a l and m y s t i c a l t e n d e n c i e s of pur time',' — because i t r e q u i r e s an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y i n u h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l knouer i s the b a s i s o f o b j e c t i v i t y . In s h i f t i n g h i s ' c r i t i c i s m t o the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l assumptions of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge, or at l e a s t uhat he took them to be, Popper thus might be a b l e t o c l a i m t h a t s k e p t i c a l r e l a t i v i s m i s a n e c e s s a r y i m p l i c a t i o n of the p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge f o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e . H i s a t t a c k on the presumed e p i s t e m o l o g y o f the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge i s the s u b j e c t o f the next c h a p t e r . -61-IMDTES: CHAPTER \1 Had Popper chosen some o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e — say P a r e t o o r Durkeim — he might have found some b a s i s f o r the charge o f " s o c i o l o g i s m " . As i t happens, Mannheim's v e r s i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge does not share the n o n - d i a l e c t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen thought and r e a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s o - c a l l e d " p o s i t i v i s t i c " s o c i o l o g i e s o f knouledge. i T h i s r a i s e s , o f c o u r s e , one o f the most fundamental c o n c e p t u a l prob-lems i n t h i s a r e a — the forms and t y p e s o f "knouledge" u h i c h are the o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y . In i t s most i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n as the " s o c i o l o g y o f c u l t u r e " the f i e l d embraces any c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t ( C f . C u r t i s and P e t r a s , 197D:65). The term " c o g n i t i v e s o c i o l o g y " ' has been proposed f o r the purpose a n a l y z i n g both n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c and s o c i a l i d e o l o g i c a l forms o f knouledge u i t h the same frame o f r e f e r e n c e ( M a r t i n s , 1972). The q u e s t i o n o f the forms and t y p e s o f "knouledge" has been d e a l t u i t h most e x t e n s i v e l y by G u r v i t c h (1971: 23-41) uhD "proposes a t y p o l o g y o f 7 t y p e s and 5 forms . The most d e f i n i t i v e e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n betueen e x a c t and i n e x a c t knouledge i s t o be found i n an as y e t u n p u b l i s h e d essay u h i c h uas u r i t t e n i n 1924. T i t l e d "A S o c i o l o g i c a l Theory o f C u l t u r e and i t s K n o u a b i l i t y : C o n j u n c t i v e and Communicative Thought", t h i s essay p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d e l a b o r a t i o n Df the c o n t r a s t betueen g e n e r a l s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n (communicative) and t h a t based upon the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f human meanings ( c o n j u n c t i v e ) , a c c o r d i n g t o K e t t l e r (1967b:42D-4). Such c o n j u n c t i v e knouledge c o r r e s p o n d s t o p r o d u c t s of t h i n k i n g . u h i c h can be d e s c r i b e d as ' m o r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c ' . Having .: uorked out f o r h i m s e l f the n a t u r e and s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s d i s -t i n c t i o n , he a p p a r e n t l y t a c i t l y took i t f o r g r a n t e d i n I d e o l o g y and  U t o p i a , l e a d i n g t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s on the p a r t o f some,readers. As K e t t l e r n o t e s : . T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r the l a c k o f c l a r i t y about j u s t uhat c o n s t i t u t e s 'knouledge' o f the s o r t f o r u h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n about s o c i a l g e n e s i s has a b e a r i n g on assessment; the concern throughout i s u i t h a ' c o n j u n c t i v e ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f ' c o n j u n c t i v e ' t y p e s of a s p e c t s o f knouledge. I t ac c o u n t s f o r Mannheim's s t r e n u o u s but u n c l e a r i n s i s t e n c e on the d i f f e r -ence betueen r e l a t i v i s m and r e l a t i D n i s m o r p e r s p e c t i v i s m ; c o n j u n c t i v e knouledge f i r m l y r o o t e d i n a group a t a time has a l l the c e r t a i n t y and s e c u r i t y o f u h i c h i t a l l o u s . And i t a c c o u n t s f o r the f r u s t r a t i n g l a c k o f p r e c i s i a n i n the terms used t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the presumed r e l a t i o n s h i p s betueen sub- and s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e s . The 'naming' and ' d e s c r i b i n g ' terms o f c o n j u n c t i v e i n q u i r y cannot a s p i r e -to u n i v o c a l i t y ; p r e c i s e l y the r i c h n e s s o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s g i v e s them t h e i r v i t a l i t y ( 4 2 4 ) . -62-To be f a i r t o Popper, some o f the f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n s from I d e o l o g y  and U t o p i a d i d not appear i n the o r i g i n a l German e d i t i o n (1929) he used. Tuo neu c h a p t e r s uere i n c l u d e d i n the 1936 E n g l i s h e d i t i o n . The f i r s t uas s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r the neu e d i t i o n . The cither uas a r e p r i n t o f an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n a u e l l - k n o u n s o c i o l o g i c a l handbook i n 1931. A l l of t h e s e s h o u l d have been r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o Popper. Moreover, he has had some time t o r e v i s e h i s v i e u s on the b a s i s of the a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e . As i s e v i d e n t from t h i s s t a t e m e n t , Mannheim i s u n c e r t a i n as to the degree o f c a t e g o r i c a l s t a b i l i t y i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . Thus, p a r t of h i s a m b i g u i t y stems from a r e l u c t a n c e t o make an a b s o l u t e d i s -t i n c t i o n betueen e x a c t and i n e x a c t knouledge. He i s c o n f i d e n t , houever, i n h i s emphasis on the p r a c t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e betueen the t u o : the p e r s p e c t i v i s t element i n the c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s i s e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g them and t h e i r h i s t o r y . Subsequent uork i n the h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y of s c i e n c e has i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n c e p t u a l change has i n d e e d been s i g n i f i c a n t and t h a t a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the c o n c e p t u a l e v o l u t i o n o f s c i e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y . See e s p e c i a l l y Toulmin (1972) and M a r t i n s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , as u e l l as the p i o n e e r i n g h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y by Kuhn ( 1 9 7 0 ) . ' i r o n i c a l l y , Mannheim has more o f t e n been c r i t i c i z e d by s o c i o l o g i s t s f o r not p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y r i g o r o u s c a u s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s i n h i s a n a l y s e s . Popper, on the o t h e r hand, c h i d e s him f o r " s o c i o l o g i s m " . i Merton (1968:552-6) p r o v i d e s the most s u c c i n c t d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i o u s forms o f " d e t e r m i n a t i o n " . t h a t appear i n Mannheim. S t a r k (1958:246-63) d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e g e n e r a l approaches t o s o c i a l de-t e r m i n a t i o n : the c a u s a l i s t i c , the f u n c t i o n a l i s t i c , . and e l e c t i v e a f f i n i t y . He a s s o c i a t e s Mannheim u i t h the l a t t e r t u o . -63-V I . THE FOUNDATIONS OF OBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE The c o n c l u s i o n of Popper's e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e o f Mannheim i s t h a t t h e s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge c u l m i n a t e s i n a r e l a t i v i s t i c s k e p t i c i s m . Tuo i n t e r r e l a t e d arguments l e a d him t o t h i s judgement: f i r s t , . t h a t the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge i s based upon an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y u h i c h assumes i m p a r t i a l i t y i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y ; and second, t h a t i t advocates the s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y d o c t r i n e t h a t the o b j e c t i v i t y o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s a k i n d o f " s o c i o t h e r a p y " p o s s i b l e o n l y f o r a " f r e e l y - p o i s e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " u n i q u e l y exempt from the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Mannheim's t e x t s , houever, r e v e a l s t h a t the f i r s t charge i s s i m p l y i n c o r r e c t : he n e i t h e r d e n i e s t he i m p o r t -ance o f s c i e n t i f i c t e s t s : nor the s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s o f s c i e n t i f i c p r o d u c t i o n . At the same time Popper's oun t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e , u i t h i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the i n d i s p e n s a b l e f u n c t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n s i n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , c o n t a i n s an auareness o f those a s p e c t s o f s c i e n c e u h i c h are the o b j e c t o f Mannheim's c o n c e r n . As a consequence, M a n n h e i m 1 s . d i s c u s s i o n o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l " p e r s p e c t i v e s can be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o Popper's c a l l f o r the r a t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m o f t r a d i t i o n s . E s t a b l i s h i n g these p o i n t s i s the t a s k o f the f i r s t p a r t of t h i s c h a p t e r . What c o n s t i t u t e s the problem o f o b j e c t i v i t y f o r Popper? Rather than s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t r y i n g t o make t h e i r "heads" more " o b j e c t i v e " , he. a r g u e s , they s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t : -64-I t i s a m a t t e r Df s c i e n t i f i c method. And, i r o n i c -a l l y enough, o b j e c t i v i t y i s c l o s e l y bound up u i t h the s o c i a l a s p e c t o f s c i e n t i f i c method, u i t h the f a c t t h a t s c i e n c e and s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y do not (and cannot) : ;  . r e s u l t from the attempts o f an i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t t o be ' o b j e c t i v e ' , but from the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f many s c i e n t i s t s . S c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y can be d e s c r i b e d as the i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v i t y o f s c i e n t i f i c method. But t h i s s o c i a l a s p e c t o f s c i e n c e i s almost e n t i r e l y n e g l e c t e d by those uho c a l l themselves s o c i o l o g i s t s o f knouledge (•S-II:217).. He i d e n t i f i e s tuo b a s i c elements o f t h i s " p u b l i c c h a r a c t e r of- s c i e n t i f i c method". F i r s t , the i d e a l o f " f r e e c r i t i c i s m " i m p e l s f e l l o u s c i e n t i s t s t o c h a l l e n g e every proposed t h e o r y because o f a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e means c r i t i z i n g e v e r y t h i n g . And second, t h i s assumes t h a t they t r y t o communicate t o each o t h e r i n a common language t h a t a v o i d s t a l k i n g at c r o s s - p u r p o s e s . T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e o f a " p u b l i c " c h a r a c t e r be the " i m p a r t i a l a r b i t e r " o f c o n t r o v e r s e y . A l l o f t h i s does not p r e c l u d e t h a t some i n d i v i d u a l may f a i l t o l i v e up t o such s t a n d a r d s , but does not undermine the p r o g r e s s o f s c i e n c e because " i t does not undermine the u o r k i n g o f v a r i o u s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s u h i c h have been d e s i g n e d t o f u r t h e r s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y and c r i t i c i s m ; f o r i n s t a n c e the l a b -o r a t o r i e s , the s c i e n t i f i c p e r i o d i c a l s , the c o n g r e s s e s " ( 2 1 8 ) . Popper's t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e i s thu s composed o f t h r e e e l e m e n t s : 1) s c i e n t i f i c method or the l o g i c o f t e s t i n g ; 2) s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o r g a n i z i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f such methods, g u a r a n t e e i n g t h e i r p u b l i c c h a r a c t e r ; and 3) a t r a d i t i o n o f f r e e c r i t i c i s m u h i c h r e f u s e s t o t a k e any p r e s u p p o s i t i o n f o r g r a n t e d . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t he p l a c e s a g r e a t d e a l o f s t r e s s upon the r o l e o f such t r a d i t i o n s and t h e i r r e -l a t i o n s h i p t o i n s t i t u t i o n s : I n s t i t u t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n s have much i n common ... But ue may say, perhaps, t h a t ue are i n c l i n e d t o speak o f -65-i n s t i t u t i o n s whereever a ( c h a n g i n g ) body c f people observe a c e r t a i n s e t o f norms or f u l f i l c e r t a i n prima f a c i e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s (such as t e a c h i n g , p o l i c i n g , o r s e l l i n g g r o c e r i e s ) which s e r v e c e r t a i n prima f a c i e s o c i a l p u r -poses (such as the p r o p a g a t i o n o f knowledge, or p r o t e c t i o n from v i o l e n c e or s t a r v a t i o n ) , w h i l e we speak o f t r a d i t i o n s m a i n l y when we wish t o d e s c r i b e a u n i f o r m i t y of p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s , or ways of b e h a v i o u r , o r aims or v a l u e s , t a s t e s ... They t a k e , as i t were, an i n t e r m e d i a t e p l a c e , i n s o c i a l t h e o r y , between persons and i n s t i t u t i o n s ... The d i f f e r -ence i n q u e s t i o n may be made c l e a r e r by r e f e r e n c e t o what I have sometimes c a l l e d the 'ambivalence of s o c i a l i n -s t i t u t i o n s ' , or the f a c t t h a t a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n may, i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f u n c t i o n i n a way which s t r i k -i n g l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h i t s prima f a c i e or 'proper' f u n c t i o n ... I t may be s a i d , perhaps, t h a t the l o n g - t e r m 'proper' f u n c t i o n i n g o f i n s t i t u t i o n s depends m a i n l y upon such t r a d i t i o n s (CR:133-4). Taken as a whole, however, h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f s c i e n c e i s an i m p l i c i t l y n o r m a t i v e one: a t h e o r y of what s c i e n c e s h o u l d be r a t h e r than an e m p i r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f how i t a c t u a l l y f u n c t i o n s . Popper pro« v i d e s no p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n as to the way i n which such a d e p a r t u r e from t h i s i d e a l might o c c u r , haw i t might be r e v e a l e d , what e f f e c t i t would have on s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s , o r haw i t might be overcome.''' •n the b a s i s of h i s s u p e r f i c i a l r e a d i n g o f ..Mannheim, Popper c o n c l u d e s t h a t the s o c i o l o g y o f knowledge opposes t h i s view w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y which f a i l s t o grasp the n a t u r e of s c i e n c e , t h a t i t .... shows an a s t o u n d i n g f a i l u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d p r e -c i c i s e l y i t s main s u b j e c t , the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of knowledge, or r a t h e r , o f s c i e n t i f i c method. I t l o o k s upon s c i e n c e or  knowledge as a p r o c e s s i n the mind or ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' of  the i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t , or perhaps as the p r o d u c t of such a p r o c e s s . I f c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s way, what we c a l l s c i e n -t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y must i n d e e d become c o m p l e t e l y ununder-s t a n d a b l e , or even i m p a s s i b l e ; and not o n l y i n the s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e s , where c l a s s i n t e r e s t s and s i m i l a r hidden m o t i v e s may p l a y a p a r t , but j u s t as much i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ... i f s c i e n t i f i c o b j e c t i v i t y were  founded, as the s o c i o l o g i s t i c t h e o r y of knowledge n a i v e l y  assumes, upon the i n d i v i d u a l s c i e n t i s t s i m p a r t i a l i t y or  o b j e c t i v i t y , then we s h o u l d have t o say good-bye t o i t ( 0 S - I I : 2 1 7 ; emphasis added). -66-As a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Mannheim's g e n e r a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n t h i s s tatement i s a pro f o u n d d i s t o r t i o n . Mannheim f l a t l y c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s view i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the s u c c e s s i v e emergence and mutual i n t e r a c t i o n o f the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and s o c i o l o g i c a l p a i n t s o f view i n the wake o f the break o f the m e d i e v a l s y n t h e s i s ( I U : 1 3 - 3 3 ) . As he c o n c l u d e s : The f i c t i o n o f the i s o l a t e d and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n d i v -i d u a l u n d e r l i e s i n v a r i o u s forms the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y and g e n e t i c p s y c h o l o g y ... i t i s much more c o r r e c t t o say t h a t knowledge i s from the very b e g i n n i n g a c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f group l i f e , i n which everyone un-f o l d s h i s knowledge w i t h i n the framework o f a common f a t e , a common a c t i v i t y , and the overcoming o f common d i f f i c -u l t i e s ... ( 2 8 - 9 ) . As a consequence: The i s o l a t e d t h i n k e r may have the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t h i s c r u c i a l i d e a s o c c u r r e d t o him p e r s o n a l l y , independent o f h i s s o c i a l s e t t i n g . I t i s easy f o r l i v i n g i n a p r o v i n c i a l and c i r c u m s c r i b e d s o c i a l w o r l d t o t h i n k t h a t the events which touch him are i s o l a t e d f a c t s f o r which f a t e a lone i s r e s p o n s i b l e . S o c i o l o g y , however, cannot be c o n t e n t w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g immediate problems and events emerging from t h i s myopic p e r s p e c t i v e which o b s c u r e s every s i g n i f -i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p ( 1 0 9-10). One o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Mannheim's a n a l y s i s i s to p r o -v i d e a s k e t c h o f the c o n d i t i o n s which made i t p o s s i b l e f o r those l i k e Popper t o develop t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n s o f s c i e n c e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c - p s y c h o l o g i s t i c K a n t i a n and E n g l i s h e m p i r i c i s t t r a d i t i o n s . For i n Mannheim's words, " i t was the m e r i t o f the s o c i o -l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view t h a t i t s e t a l o n g s i d e the i n d i v i d u a l g e n e s i s of meaning, the g e n e s i s from the c o n t e x t o f group l i f e " ( 2 8 ) . Popper has proceeded t o e l a b o r a t e the l o g i c o f v a l i d a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e .which views s c i e n c e as a pr o d u c t o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y . Popper seems t o have mistaken'Mannheim's comments on i d e o l o g y -67-c r i t i c i s m as a g e n e r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h u h i c h s e t i t s e l f a g a i n s t more c o n v e n t i o n a l norms Df s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d a t i o n . But Mannheim no t e s t h a t the s o c i o l o g y o f knauledge i s na s u b s t i t u t e 2 f o r d i r e c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n nor a l t e r n a t i v e t o e p i s t e m o l o g y . . He does not deny the normative p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y ; r a t h e r , he seeks t o supplement them u i t h a c o n c e r n - o f the s o c i a l f a c t o r s u h i c h i n h i b i t the r e a l i z a t i o n o f those f o r m a l i d e a l s and hou they might be c o r r e c t e d . As a consequence, Popper's defense o f the p r o c e d u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s o f s c i e n c e i s b e s i d e the p o i n t . As.Mannheim a c k n o u l e d g e s : . Df course i n t h e o r y the o n l y aim o f r e s e a r c h i s t o e s t a b l i s h the f a c t s o f the case and get at the t r u t h , and the forum i n u h i c h the m e r i t s of every achievement must be judged i s s c i e n t i f i c p u b l i c i t y (MS:27). Moreover: I t i s , o f c o u r s e , t r u e t h a t i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , as e l s e u h e r e , the u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n o f t r u t h o r f a l s i t y i s t o be found i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n ' o f the o b j e c t , and the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h i s ( I U : 5 ) . Mannheim a c c e p t s a l l t h i s i n p r i n c i p l e , but i s concerned about the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the s e f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . For the d i f f i -c u l t y i s ... the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i s not an i s o l a t e d a c t ; ; i t t a k e s p l a c e i n a c o n t e x t u h i c h i s c o l o u r e d by v a l u e s and c o l l e c t i v e - u n c o n s c i o u s , v o l i t i o n a l i m p u l s e . In the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i t i s t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t , o r i e n t e d i n a m a t r i x o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y , u h i c h p r o v i d e s not o n l y the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s , but the c o n c r e t e hypotheses f o r r e s e a r c h and the thought-models f o r the o r d e r i n g of e x p e r i e n c e . Only as ue succeed i n b r i n g i n g i n t o the areas of c o n s c i o u s and e x p l i c i t o b s e r v a t i o n the v a r i o u s p o i n t s of d e p a r t u r e and o f approach to the f a c t s ... can ue hope ... t o c o n t r o l the u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s and presuppos-i t i o n s u h i c h , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , . h a v e brought th e s e modes of thought i n t o e x i s t e n c e . A neu type o f o b j e c t i v i t y  i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s a t t a i n a b l e not through the ex-c l u s i o n o f e v a l u a t i o n s but through the c r i t i c a l auareness  and c o n t r o l of them ( 5 ; emphasis added). -68-Popper's a b s t r a c t a n a l y s i s of the s c i e n t i f i c community does not take i n t o account the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i t s d i v e r s i t y , o f i t s f r a g m e n t a t i o n i n t o a m u l t i p l i c i t y of p u b l i c s . The advantage of Mannheim's p o s i t i o n i s to be a b l e to b e g i n t o a s s e s s the s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f such f a c t o r s f o r the methods of s c i e n c e and to i n -v e s t i g a t e the very s p e c i a l i z a t i o n u h i c h Popper sees as a t h r e a t t o c r e a t i v e s c i e n c e . For as Mannheim n o t e s : In f a c t , from the s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of v i e u , t h e r e i s n o ' ^ s c i e n t i f i c p u b l i c i t y as s u c h . There are o n l y the s c i e n t i f i c p u b l i c s of h i s t o r i a n s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s , and so on, u h i c h i n h e r i t many of the c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f human groups, and very o f t e n b e t r a y a l l the symptoms of s e c t a r i a n t h i n k i n g . But a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of t h i s c o l l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e shous t h a t every branch of s c i e n c e i s e x p e r t , not merely at d e v i s i n g methods o f s t u d y i n g c e r t a i n p r o v i n c e s of l i f e , but a l s o at c r e a t i n g i n h i b i t i o n s and defence mechanisms u h i c h bar the uay t o a complete and adequate knouledge of s o c i e t y ... the contempt the s c i e n c e s so o f t e n f e e l f o r one a n o t h e r , the defence mechanisms they d e v i s e t o s h i e l d them-s e l v e s a g a i n s t each o t h e r ' s methods, are a k i n d o f p r o -f e s s i o n a l i d e o l o g y . . . " (MS:27-9). Here Mannheim i s a l l u d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e c u l t u r e s — the t r a d i t i o n s -- u h i c h make up and d i f f e r e n t i a t e the v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s . Whereas Popper can t a k e the m a t t e r of a c r i t i c a l , r a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n f o r g r a n t e d i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s , t h i s i s o n l y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e i n the modern u o r l d . When ue r e c a l l the o r i g i n s o f modern s c i e n c e , the d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s o f meta-p h y s i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g o s t e n s i b l y s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y can be seen t o produce d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of s c i e n c e . The example of the uork of t h o s e i n f l u e n c e d by alchemy comes t o mind. U l t i m a t e l y , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the s c i e n t i f i c r o l e as ue know i t r e q u i r e d the emergence of a new c o n c e p t i o n of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o and the p h i l o s o p h y of n a t u r e which came to be a c c e p t e d by the most p o w e r f u l groups competing i n s o c i e t y . " 5 Such a p e r s p e c t i v e — the -69-myth, as Popper u o u l d say — uas n e c e s s a r y f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s competing p h i l o s o p h i e s o f n a t u r e as s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t o r s . To the degree t h a t man i s c o n t i n u o u s u i t h n a t u r e and h i s i n t e r e s t i n such knouledge g e n e r a l l y s h a r e d , such a c o n c e p t i o n o f s c i e n c e can be d i r e c t l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o human b e h a v i o r . But t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t i s d i s c o n t i n u o u s , d i v e r g e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i e s compete to p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a s c i e n c e o f man. U n l i k e f o r n a t u r e , t h e r e has y e t t o emerge a u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the k p h i l o s o p h y o f the human s c i e n c e s . For the cor e p r o p o s i t i o n s o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u h i c h l e n d themselves t o f o r m a l i z a t i o n , the d i r e c t t r a n s f e r o f the n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e does not pose s i g n i f i c a n t problems. But t h i s h o l d s o n l y t o the degree t h a t s u c h p r o p o s i t i o n s do not presuppose or c o n t a i n judgements o f v a l u e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f meaning. Yet t h i s very p r o c e s s o f m e t h o d i c a l l y removing such m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e n t produces a r e s u l t uhose a b s t r a c t n e s s p r e v l u d e s a p p l i c a t i o n to the c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y u i t h i n u h i c h men l i v e and d e c i d e . T h i s i s the v e r y r e a s o n t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t s o c i o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s t e n d t o be a l s o the most i n t r a c t a b l e : t h e y presume p r o p o s i t i o n s u h i c h are so value-empregnated t h a t competing t h e o r i e s are the r u l e . The p h i l -osopher's c l a i m t h a t i n p r i n c i p l e s o c i a l s c i e n c e can be a h i s t o r i c a l l y o b j e c t i v e may i n some sense be v a l i d , but the very r e q u i r e m e n t s o f such o b j e c t i v i t y guarantees the a s s e n t o f a l l a t the expense o f f a c i l i t a t i n g the a c t i o n o f none. ( U h i c h r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f the v a l u e o f an e p i s t e m o l o g y u h i c h d e f i n e s s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h u i t h a c r i t e r i o n t h a t a s s u r e s the p r a c t i c a l t r i v i a l i t y o f the r e s u l t s . ) In s h o r t , the e x i s t e n c e o f m u l t i p l e t r a d i t i o n s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s cannot be r e a d i l y e l i m i n a t e d s i m p l y by i m i t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l -70-s c i e n c e . Refinement o f the s c i e n t i f i c method or of i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s c i e n c e s cannot by themselves come t o terms u i t h the problem o f m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s . Mannheim's e f f o r t i s d i r e c t e d t o u a r d the s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f such t r a d i t i o n s i n the hope o f f a c -5 i l i t a t i n g the emergence o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t v i e u p o i n t . Having argued t h a t Popper's c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim's o s t e n s -i b l y " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " e p i s t e m o l o g y uas m i s g u i d e d and t h a t Mannheim's concer n u i t h s o c i a l " p e r s p e c t i v e s " c o r r e s p o n d e d t o Popper's u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r o l e o f " t r a d i t i o n s " , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o move on t o Popper's second charge: t h a t the s o c i o l o g y o f knou-ledge b e l i e v e s i n a s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y form o f o b j e c t i v i t y u h i c h can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " s o c i o t h e r a p y " . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n , houever, i s b u i l t upon a s e r i e s o f erroneous assumptions u h i c h have a l r e a d y been i n d i c a t e d . On the b a s i s o f thes e c o r r e c t i o n s o f Popper's e r r o r s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e - i n t e r p r e t the s i g -n i f i c a n c e o f Mannheim's comments on the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . In the course of the remainder o f t h i s , c h a p t e r i t u i l l be su g g e s t e d t h a t Mannheim's c o n j e c t u r e s . t o u c h upon genuine d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and t h a t Popper i m p l i c i t l y t a k e s them i n t o a c c o u n t , even i f he g l o s s e s over t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e and f a i l s t o b r i n g them d i r e c t l y t o the a t t e n t i o n o f h i s r e a d e r s . Popper at t e m p t s t o r e f u t e Mannheim's remarks on the r o l e o f the a n a l y s i s o f i d e o l o g y i n s o c i a l r e s e a r c h through the s o p h i s t i c argument t h a t i t i s a s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y e n t e r p r i s e , t h a t the i n -t e l l e c t u a l s c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e r e s t group and u o u l d s i m p l y produce another d i s t o r t e d i d e o l o g y . F i r s t he d e s c r i b e s t h i s p r o p o s a l as Mannheim's r e s o l u t i o n o f the problem o f o b j e c t i v i t y , as h i s a l t e r n -a t i v e t o s k e p t i c a l r e l a t i v i s m : -71-... the s o c i o l o g y Df knouledge b e l i e v e s t h a t the h i g h e s t degree of o b j e c t i v i t y can be reached by the f r e e l y p o i s e d i n t e l l i g e n c e a n a l y z i n g the v a r i o u s hidden i d e o l o g i e s and t h e i r anchorage i n the u n c o n s c i o u s . The uay t o t r u e knouledge appears to be the u n v e i l i n g of u n c o n s c i o u s assump-t i o n s , a k i n d of p s y c h o - t h e r a p y , as i t u e r e , or i f I may say so a s o c i o - t h e r a p y . Only he uho has been s o c i o - a n a l y z e d or uho has s o c i o - a n a l y s e d h i m s e l f , and uho i s f r e e d from t h i s s o c i a l complex, i . e . from h i s s o c i a l i d e o l o g y , can a t t a i n t o the h i g h e s t s y n t h e s i s of o b j e c t i v e knouledge ( • S - I I : 2 1 5 ) . But, Popper s u g g e s t s , t h i s method can, l i k e p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s , be t u r n e d upon the s o c i o l o g i s t h i m s e l f : For i s not t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of an i n t e l l i g e n t s i a u h i c h i s o n l y l o o s e l y anchored i n t r a d i t i o n a v e r y neat d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r oun s o c i a l group? ... I s i t n o t , t h e r e f o r e , t o be e x p e c t e d ... t h a t t h o s e uho h o l d i t u i l l u n c o n s c i o u s l y d e c e i v e themselves by p r o d u c i n g an amendment to the t h e o r y i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h the o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e i r oun v i e u s ? Can ue, then take s e r i o u s l y t h e i r c l a i m t h a t by t h e i r s o c i o l o g i c a l s e l f - a n a l y s i s they have reached a h i g h e r degree of o b j e c t i v i t y ; and t h e i r c l a i m t h a t s o c i o -a n a l y s i s can c a s t out t o t a l i d e o l o g y (216)?" Yet t h i s argument depends upon the erroneous assumption t h a t Mannheim equates s o c i a l " d e t e r m i n a t i o n " u i t h f a l s i t y . I t uas one of the p i o n e e r i n g a s p e c t s of Mannheim's uork, houever, t o have i n s i s t e d t h a t a l l thought i s s o c i a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d , i n c l u d i n g v a l i d p r o pos-i t i o n s . ^ Mannheim acknouledges t h a t h i s n o t i o n of s y n t h e s i s i s another t o t a l i d e o l o g y , but i n s i s t s t h a t i t u o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a s u p e r i o r p e r s p e c t i v e from u h i c h t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y . As a consequence, h i s remarks on the l a c k of "attachment" o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s i s meant o n l y i n a r e l a t i v e sense: t h a t the t h e o r i s t has more autonomy u i t h r e s p e c t to h i s p a s t and c i r c u m s t a n c e s because he t a k e s c r i t i c a l s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n and m u tual c r i t i c i s m as h i s v a c a t i o n . A c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n of Mannheim's remarks makes t h i s e v i d e n t . Mannheim's comments on the r o l e o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l s cannot -72-be s e p a r a t e d from h i s concern u i t h the problem o f a s y n t h e s i z i n g p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t u o u l d overcome the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f p a r t y s c h o o l s of t h o u g h t . U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s i s v i e u e d not s i m p l y as a ma t t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l " s o c i o t h e r a p y " — though t h i s might be a byproduct — but one of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r t r a d i t i o n to guide s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . For he s u g g e s t s t h a t the " s c i e n c e o f p o l i t i c s " u h i c h he seeks u o u l d have to be c a r r i e d out i n i n s t i t u t i o n s or s p e c i a l i z e d i n s t i t u t e s . T h i s u o u l d not r e q u i r e t h a t t e a c h e r s be " p a r t y l e s s 1 1 , but t h a t they be open t o c a r e f u l d e l i b e r a t i o n and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m (IU':163). D e p a r t i n g from Max Weber's someuhat r e l a t e d c o n c e p t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y , Mannheim thus r e j e c t s the n o t i o n o f " i m p a r t i a l i t y " based upon a pure detachment j u s t i f i e d by an u n t e n a b l e d i s j u n c t i o n of t h e o r y and " v a l u a t i o n ( 1 6 3 ) . C o n t r a r y t o Popper's i m p r e s s i o n s , Mannheim's concern i s u i t h the auareness o f p a r t i a l i t y and not the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f some a b s t r a c t n o t i o n o f i m p a r t i a l i t y based upon an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y . For Mannheim v i e u s i d e o l o g y c r i t i c i s m as i n e v i t a b l y p a r t of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t and as a c r i t i c a l supplement r a t h e r than an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the normative p r i n c i p l e s o f the l o g i c o f s c i e n c e . Only by r e c o g n i z i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f such a p r o j e c t i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , Mannheim argues, u i l l p r o g r e s s be p o s s i b l e : A problem cannot be s o l v e d by o b s c u r i n g i t s d i f f i -c u l t i e s , but o n l y by s t a t i n g them as s h a r p l y and as pro-, nouncedly as p o s s i b l e . Hence i t i s our t a s k d e f i n i t e l y to e s t a b l i s h the t h e s i s t h a t i n p o l i t i c s the statement o f a problem and the l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d vary u i t h the p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f the o b s e r v e r ( 1 1 7 ) . One of Popper's f a i l u r e s uas t o have g l o s s e d over the s i g -n i f i c a n c e of such d i f f i c u l t i e s . For t h i s r e a s o n he c o u l d not grasp the p o i n t o f Mannheim's d i s c u s s i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s y n t h e s i s -73-— an emergent p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y -- u h i c h might u n i f y the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n a manner analagous to the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . The paradox o f Mannheim's e n t i r e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r i s t h a t i t i s p r o s p e c t i v e , based upon a proposed s y n t h e s i s u h i c h had not f u l l y emerged. What he proposes i s t h a t i f such a s y n t h e s i s uere t o appear, i t u o u l d t r a n s c e n d and encompass a l l e x i s t i n g v i e u p o i n t s , u o u l d l i k e l y a r i s e from the i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a t u m , and i t s d i f f u s i o n and a d o p t i o n u i t h i n t h i s group u o u l d r e q u i r e a p r o c e s s o f s e l f -c l a r i f i c a t i o n and i n t r o s p e c t i o n as b y - p r o d u c t s o f c r i t i c a l d i s -c u s s i o n . Without such a c o n s e n s u s - b u i l d i n g ' p e r s p e c t i v e , houever, Mannheim's program f o r a neu k i n d o f o b j e c t i v i t y may be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o an apology f o r uh a t e v e r i s i n f a c t the dominant p e r s p e c t i v e . Mannheim's, v i e u s here are developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n u i t h the q u e s t i o n o f uhy i t i s t h a t ue have s t i l l not u i t n e s s e d the emergence of a " s c i e n c e o f p o l i t i c s " . For " i n a u o r l d u h i c h i s as permeated by a r a t i o n a l i s t i c e t h o s , as i s our oun, t h i s f a c t r e p r e s e n t s a s t r i k i n g anomaly" ( 1 1 ) . Nou i t must be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t he i s u s i n g the n o t i o n o f a " s c i e n c e o f p o l i t i c s " i n a r e s t r i c t i v e sense based upon the d i s t i n c t i o n betueen " r o u t i n e a f f a i r s o f s t a t e " or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the n o n - r o u t i n i z e d , i r r a t i o n a l m a t r i x o f p o l i t i c s u i t h i n u h i c h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are embedded ( 1 1 3 - 4 ) . Whereas a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s can be made on the b a s i s o f an e x p l i c i t r u l e on the., analogy o f l e g a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , p o l i t i c s g i v e s r i s e t o a f i e l d of events governed by a "process o f becoming, i n u h i c h , i n i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s , d e c i s i o n s have tD be made t h a t g i v e r i s e t o neu and unique s i t u a t i o n s " ( 1 1 3 ) . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n betueen " r a t i o n -a l i z e d scheme" and " i r r a t i o n a l s e t t i n g " p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r h i s -74-d e f i n i t i o n o f the concept of conduct as "the 1 areas where r a t i o n a l -i z a t i o n has not y e t p e n e t r a t e d " and where "the"' whole problem of the r e l a t i o n s between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a r i s e s " (Iv':115). The t a s k of a s y n t h e s i z i n g p e r s p e c t i v e i s to guide conduct w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l r e a l m . T h i s would c o n s t i t u t e what has been 7 termed a " r e s p o n s i b l e i d e o l o g y " . For Mannheim t h i s meant o v e r -coming the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s age: b e a u c r a t i c c o n s e r v a t i s m , c o n s e r v a t i v e h i s t o r i c i s m , l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s e t h o u g h t , s o c i a l i s t - c o m m u n i s t c o n c e p t i o n s , and f a s c i s m ( 1 1 8 ) . He even r e l a t e s the o b j e c t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t r a n s c e n d e n t p e r -s p e c t i v e t o the f a c t o f i n c r e a s i n g awareness of and a b i l i t y t o a n a l y s e t h e s e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s : J u s t because to-day we are i n a p o s i t i o n t o see w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c l a r i t y t h a t m u t u a l l y o pposing views and t h e o r i e s are not i n f i n i t e i n number and are not p r o d u c t s o f a r b i t r a r y w i l l but are m u t u a l l y complementary and d e r i v e from s p e c i f i c s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , p o l i t i c s as a s c i e n c e i s f o r the f i r s t time p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y makes p o s s i b l e a p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e which w i l l not be merely a p a r t y s c i e n c e , but a s c i e n c e o f the whole. P o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y , as the s c i e n c e which comprehends the whole p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e , thus a t t a i n s the s t a g e of r e a l i z a t i o n ( 1 4 9 ) . Having e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i m s e l f the h i s t o r i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f such a s y t h e s i s , Mannheim then proceeds t o c o n j e c t u r e as to the s o c i a l o r i g i n s o f the c r e a t o r s and c a r r i e r s o f such an i n t e g r a l v i e w p o i n t . Thus, he r a i s e s the s o c i o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n : "how are we t o c o n c e i v e of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l b e a r e r s of whatever s y n t h e s i s t h e r e i s ? What p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t w i l l u ndertake the problem of s y n t h e s i s as i t s t a s k and who w i l l s t r i v e to r e a l i z e i t i n s o c i e t y " (153)? F i r s t i t i s acknowledged t h a t "the exponents of s y n t h e s i s have always r e p r e s e n t e d d e f i n i t e s o c i a l s t r a t a , m a i n l y c l a s s e s who f e e l t h r e a t e n e d from above and below and who, out of s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y , -75-seek a middle uay o u t " ( 1 5 4 ) . But i n c o n s i d e r i n g what a dynamic s y n t h e s i s i n h i s oun time u o u l d r e q u i r e , Mannheim c o n c l u d e d t h a t none o f the e x i s t i n g c l a s s e s o f f e r e d any hope of s u p p l y i n g such a u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e : Such an e x p e r i m e n t a l o u t l o o k , u n c e a s i n g l y s e n s i t i v e to the dynamic n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y and t o i t s u h o l e n e s s , i s not l i k e l y t o be developed by a c l a s s o c c u p y i n g a middle p o s i t i o n but o n l y by a r e l a t i v e l y c l a s s l e s s s t r a t u m u h i c h i s not too f i r m l y s i t u a t e d i n the s o c i a l o r d e r ( 1 5 4 ) . Such a p o s i t i o n i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r the "unanchored, r e l a t i v e l y c l a s s l e s s s t r a t u m " , t h a t i s , the " s o c i a l l y u n a t t a c h e d i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . " T h i s group cannot, he- c o n t i n u e s , be un d e r s t o o d e x c l u s i v e l y i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c t e r m s . While i t s members are s o c i a l l y hetereogeneous and draun from a l l u a l k s o f l i f e , t hey are l o o s e l y bound t o g e t h e r by a s i n g l e common t r a i t : e d u c a t i o n . T h i s f a c t a l l o u s a p r o g r e s s i v e r e p r e s s i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l t i e s such as b i r t h , s t a t u s , p r o f e s s i o n , and u e a l t h . Yet " n o t h i n g c o u l d be more urong than to m i s i n t e r p r e t t h i s v i e u and m a i n t a i n t h a t the c l a s s and s t a t u s t i e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l d i s a p p e a r c o m p l e t e l y by v i r t u e o f t h i s " ( 1 5 5 ) . 8 Why then are ue t o acc e p t the p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h i s s t r a t u m o f p r o d u c i n g such a p e r s p e c t i v e ? Mannheim l i n k s t h i s t o a c r u c i a l d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y i n modern l i f e : ... u n l i k e p r e c e d i n g c u l t u r e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y i s not c a r r i e d on e x c l u s i v e l y by a s o c i a l l y r i g i d l y d e f i n e d c l a s s , such as a p r i e s t h o o d , but r a t h e r by a s o c i a l s t r a t u s u h i c h i s t o a l a r g e degree u n a t t a c h e d t o any s o c i a l c l a s s and u h i c h i s r e c r u i t e d from an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c l u s i v e a r e a o f s o c i a l l i f e . T h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t determines e s s e n t i a l l y the uniqueness o f the modern mind, u h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a l l y not based upon the a u t h o r i t y o f the p r i e s t h o o d , u h i c h i s not c l o s e d and f i n i s h e d , but u h i c h i s r a t h e r dynamic, e l a s t i c , i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x , and p e r p e t -u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d by neu problems ( 1 5 6 ) . -76-T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s l a c k o f "attachment" has been a source of c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t i n t e l l e c t u a l s uho uere seen as a t h r e a t a g a i n s t p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s . Yet tuo d i f f e r e n t paths t o u a r d committment have i n f a c t been more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : a f f i l i a t i o n u i t h one of the e x i s t i n g c l a s s e s i n c o n f l i c t or " s c r u t i n y o f t h e i r oun s o c i a l moorings and the quest f o r the f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e i r m i s s i o n as the p r e d e s t i n e d advocate c f the i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s o f the u h o l e " (lU:'158).). While he a c c e p t s the i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o be p l a y e d i n the f i r s t c a s e , Mannheim emphasizes the l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y as the b a s i s f o r h i s hope f o r : ... the d i s c o v e r y of the p o s i t i o n from u h i c h .a t o t a l p e r -s p e c t i v e u o u l d be p o s s i b l e . Thus they might p l a y the p a r t of uatchman i n uhat o t h e r w i s e u o u l d be a p i t c h - b l a c k n i g h t ( 1 6 0 - 1 ) . U l t i m a t e l y , Popper too puts h i s v o l u n t a r i s t i c f a i t h , not i n " s c i e n c e " or even " r e a s o n , " but the " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " uho o f f e r the p r o s p e c t of r e - i n t e g r a t i n g uhat they had p r e v i o u s l y undermined. As he notes u i t h r e s p e c t to h i s oun t h e o r y of knouledge: I t may be s a i d t h a t t h i s neu uay of knouing i s too a b s t r a c t r and too s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o r e p l a c e the l o s s o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n r e l i g i o n . T h i s may be t r u e . But ue must not u n d e r r a t e the pouer o f the i n t e l l e c t and the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . I t uas the i n -t e l l e c t u a l s — the 'second-hand d e a l e r s i n i d e a s ' , as F. A. Hayek c a l l s them — uho s p r e a d r e l a t i v i s m , n i h i l i s m , and i n t e l l e c t u a l d e s p a i r . There i s no r e a s o n uhy some i n t e l l e c t -u a l s — some more e n l i g h t e n e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s — s h o u l d not e v e n t u a l l y succeed i n s p r e a d i n g the good neus t h a t the n i h i l i s t ado uas i n d e e d about n o t h i n g ( • S - I I : 3 8 3 ) . One of the p r i m a r y achievements of Mannheim's a n a l y s i s , hou-e v e r , uas t o c o n s i d e r a b l y advance the " c r i t i c a l " p r i n c i p l e o f r a t i o n a l i s m , a p o i n t Popper does not seem t o g r a s p . Popper s i m p l y cannot make sense o f the p r o p o s i t i o n " t h a t e p i s t e m o l o g y i s as i n -t i m a t e l y enmeshed i n the s o c i a l p r o c e s s as i s the t o t a l i t y o f our t h i n k i n g and .that i t u i l l make p r o g r e s s t o - t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t can -77-master the c o m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g out of the changing s t r u c t u r e o f g t h o u g h t " ( I U : 7 9 ) . Thus Mannheim's d i s t i n c t i o n betueen r e l a t i v i s m and r e l a t i o n i s m i s not r e c o g n i z e d as a p o s s i b l e way of r e f o r m u l a t i n g the problem of o b j e c t i v i t y i n the l i g h t o f the f a c t of c o n c e p t u a l change."^ R e l a t i v i s m r e s u l t e d from the d i s c o v e r y of the s o c i o -h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g of thought by those t i e d t o an e p i s t e m o l o g y whose model o f knowledge was s t a t i c . In response t o t h i s c r i s i s Popper e l a b o r a t e s such a r e l a t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n i n h i s : a n a l y s i s o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e and attempts t o t r a n s f e r i t t o s o c i a l s c i e n c e . L d i t h i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , however, t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f v i e w p o i n t s which must be r e l a t e d . T h i s r a i s e s the problem o f the mpst adequate vantage p o i n t . As Mannheim poses t h i s q u e s t i o n : "which s o c i a l s t a n d p o i n t v i s - a - v i s o f h i s t o r y o f f e r s the b e s t chance f o r r e a c h i n g an optimum of t r u t h " ("BO,)? But t h i s presupposes a t h e o r y of h i s t o r y and a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y whose f u n c t i o n as p a r t of the t r a d i t i o n o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e Popper has been r e l u c t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e . Yet i t i s apparent t h i s i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s g e n e r a l view of s c i e n c e . He i s very much aware t h a t the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s presuppose a common view o f n a t u r e and seeks t o impose a s i m i l a r one upon the s c i e n c e s of man. Thus, much of the d i f f e r e n c e between Mannheim's and Popper's c o n c e p t i o n s of o b j e c t i v i t y i s not so much a l o g i c a l one as i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of " r e a l i t y " d e s c r i b e d i n the n a t u r a l as opposed t o the s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s , though i t i s apparent t h a t b i o l o g i c a l and human e v o l u t i o n r a i s e s i m i l a r e x p l a n a t o r y p r o b l e m s . ^ Mannheim, of c o u r s e , would be the f i r s t t o agree, which i s why he r e j e c t e d from the o u t s e t the assumption t h a t the form of e x p l a n a t i o n i n the h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s . would be i d e n t i c a l - , t o t h a t .in p h y s i c s . -78-I r o n i c a l l y , i t i s Popper whose p o s i t i o n i s t h r e a t e n e d by the very r e l a t i v i s m he so d e p l o r e d . In p l a c i n g the problem of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n an ambiguous r e l a t i o n t o s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n , he runs the r i s k o f i m p l y i n g t h a t one i n t e r p r e t i v e t h e o r y i s as good as a n o t h e r , though he draws back from t h i s t h r o u g h the a d m i s s i o n t h a t such t h e o r i e s c o n t a i n some t e s t a b l e elements and d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r " f e r t i l i t y " . But i n r e j e c t i n g the f o r m a l s c i e n t i f i c s t a t u s of such t h e o r i e s because they cannot be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the e x p l a n a t o r y paradigm o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , he opens the door t o i r r a t i o n a l i s m and l e a v e s u n r e s o l v e d the l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f adequate h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . But i n p r a c -t i c e he does not c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e such m a t t e r s even i f he does not f a c e them d i r e c t l y : h i s t h e o r y of the "open s o c i e t y " and h i s p h i l -osophy of " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " c o n t a i n the r u d i m e n t s of a t h e o r y of h i s t o r y and a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y u h i c h c o u l d s e r v e as a p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . And t h i s was h i s u l t i m a t e ob-j e c t i v e as a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h e r . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r c e the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Popper's a n a l y s i s of Mannheim's e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n c o m p l e t e l y bypassed the a u t h e n t i c i s s u e s . In b u r d e n i n g Mannheim w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y , Popper engages i n o u t r i g h t d i s t o r t i o n . T h i s i n i t i a l a ssumption then p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r a whole s e r i e s o f c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim s u r r o u n d i n g h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the r o l e o f p e r s p e c t i v e s i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e . Yet as we saw, Popper's own t h e o r y o f s c i e n c e con-t a i n e d an acknowledgement o f the importance of t r a d i t i o n s i n s c i e n c e and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f r a t i o n a l l y c r i t i c i z i n g them. T h i s i s p r e -c i s e l y the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t a s k of the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge as e n v i s i o n e d by Mannheim. H i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l a t i v e autonomy -79-• f i n t e l l e c t u a l s i n mcdern l i f e p r o v i d e d a s o c i o l o g i c a l account o f why i t i s p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t i t i s nou p o s s i b l e f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s t o engage i n r a d i c a l s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . I t i s t h i s v e r y c a p a c i t y f o r c r i t i c i z i n g t r a d i t i o n s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t makes p o s s i b l e an advance i n the o b j e c t i v i t y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e . Popper's d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t he o v e r s i m p l i f i e s the problem of the k i n d of p e r s p e c t i v e n e c e s s a r y f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t h i s oun uark Dn the s o c i a l o r i g i n s of. " h i s t o r i c i s t " methods i s an example of the c r i t i c a l f u n c t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge. In p r e s e n t i n g h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e w i t h i n the framework of h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " and t h e o r y o f the "open s o c i e t y " he i s i m p l i c i t l y acknowledging the need f o r a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y t h a t makes some sense o f human h i s t o r y . But a c u t e l y aware of the d i f f i c u l t y o f f o r m i n g a consenus as t o the p e r s p e c t i v e of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , Popper f a l l s back upon a m i n i m a l d e f i n i t i o n as a r e a l i s t i c means of u n i t i n g o t h e r w i s e d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s . Mannheim's aims, on the o t h e r hand, are somewhat more U t o p i a n . He l o o k s upon the t a c t i c o f compromise i m p l i c i t i n such a m i n i m a l d e f i n i t i o n of the t a s k of s o c i a l s c i e n c e as i n a dequate e i t h e r f o r r e s o l u t i o n of the c r i s i s o f modern s o c i e t y or the. r e a l i z a t i o n o f human freedom. .Thus., i n the c o n t r a s t between Popper's and Mannheim's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b e g i n t o develop the l a t e n t d i f f e r e n c e s which emerge d e s p i t e the broad CDnvergencies i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g . •' T h i s i s the t o p i c o f the next c h a p t e r . -80-IMOTES: CHAPTER VI Though Popper admits t h a t t r a d i t i o n s are s u b j e c t t o r a t i o n a l s c r u t i n y — and t h a t t h i s i s l a r g e l y a s o c i o l o g i c a l problem, h i s misunder-s t a n d i n g o f the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge ob s c u r e s t h a t t h i s i s one o f i t s major t a s k s . As a consequence, he r e j e c t s the v e r y method e s s e n t i a l f o r the a n a l y s i s of those t r a d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r the proper f u n c t i o n i n g o f s c i e n t i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s . The problem o f p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the " t r a d i t i o n " o f s o c i a l r e s e a r c h . Such an a n a l y s i s ... i m p l i e s o n l y the s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h i s a s s e r t i o n might r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i a l v i e u ... but t h e s e a n a l y s e s ... do not by t h e m s e l v e s f u l l y r e v e a l the t r u t h because the mere d e l i m i t a t i o n o f the p e r s p e c t i v e s i s by no means a sub-s t i t u t e f o r the immediate and d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n betueen the d i v e r g e n t p o i n t s o f v i e u or f o r the d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n of the f a c t s 11 (IU:284-5) ... (As a consequence) ... e p i s t e -mology i s not s u p p l a n t e d by the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge' but a neu k i n d of e p i s t e m o l o g y i s c a l l e d f o r u h i c h u i l l r e c k o n u i t h the f a c t s brought t o l i g h t by the s o c i o l o g y of knou-ledge ( 2 9 4 ) . Tuo r e c e n t i m p o r t a n t s t a t e m e n t s of such a s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l l y auare e p i s t e m o l o g y are t o be found i n Habermas (1971) and Toulmin ( 1 9 7 2 ) . For an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o u a r d the h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s see Goldman (1 9 6 9 ) . On the m e t a p h y s i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s of modern s c i e n c e see Buchdahl (1971) and U a r t o f s k y (1968) uho have f o l l o u e d up the p i o n e e r i n g uork of hoyre and B u r t t . For the s c i e n t i f i c r o l e see Ben-David ( 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s v i e u assumes, of c o u r s e , t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s one o f degree and not o f k i n d . As Goldmann puts i t : In r e a l i t y ue knou today t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e betueen the u o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f ' p h y s i c i s t s , c h e m i s t s and p h y s i o -l o g i s t s ' and those of s o c i o l o g i s t s or h i s t o r i a n s i s not one of degree but o f k i n d ; a t the s t a r t o f p h y s i c a l or c h e m i c a l r e s e a r c h t h e r e i s a r e a l and i m p l i c i t agreement among a l l c l a s s e s u h i c h make up modern s o c i e t y on the v a l u e , the n a t u r e and the g o a l o f t h i s r e s e a r c h ... In t h i s c a s e , the uant of o b j e c t i v i t y i n the uork o f a s c i e n t i s t can be due o n l y t o p e r s o n a l d e f e c t s ( e s p r i t de systeme, l a c k o f g r e a t p e n e t r a t i o n , i m p a s s i o n e d c h a r a c t e r , v a n i t y , and, at u o r s t , l a c k of i n t e l l e c t u a l h o n e s t y " (1969:39). - a i -But note t h i s h o l d s o n l y f o r "pure" s c i e n c e y In the r e a l m of a p p l i e d s c i e n c e , d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d t o those of the c o n f l i c t s u i i t h i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s emerge. Assessment of Mannheim's p o s i t i o n i s not a t a s k of t h i s s t u d y . But i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to note t h a t a p r a g m a t i c l i b e r a l i s m , d i a l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m , and a c r i t i c a l neo-Marxism seem t o be the prime con-t e n d e r s f o r such a u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Much of the c o n f u s i o n s u r r o u n d i n g Mannheim's work stems from the a m b i g u i t i e s of h i s oun e c l e c t i c and only, p a r t i a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d p e r s p e c t i v e u h i c h s t a n d s somewhere between a l i b e r a l p r a g m a t i c and n e o - M a r x i s t pos-i t i o n . These u n r e s o l v e d t e n s i o n s mark the u n f i n i s h e d , e x p e r i m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r of h i s work. 'in Mannheim's words: Ue need not r e g a r d i t as a s o urce of e r r o r , t h a t a l l thought i s so r o o t e d . J u s t as the i n d i v i d u a l who p a r t i c -i p a t e s i n a complex o f v i t a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r men t h e r e b y e n j o y s a chance of o b t a i n i n g a more p r e c i s e and p e n e t r a t i n g i n s i g h t i n t o h i s f e l l o w s , so a g i v e n p o i n t o f view and a g i v e n s e t o f c o n c e p t s , because they are bound up w i t h and grow out of a c e r t a i n s o c i a l r e a l i t y , o f f e r , t hrough i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s r e a l i t y , a g r e a t e r chance of r e v e a l i n g t h e i r meaning ( I U : 8 0 ) . The n o t i o n of a " r e s p o n s i b l e i d e o l o g y " has been d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : The f u l l y r e s p o n s i b l e i d e o l o g y i s one i n which t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s and c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t t o f o r m u l a t e p u b l i c l y a l l Df the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s at each s t a g e of i n q u i r y ( C o n n o l l y , 67:137). 'See Lenk (1967) and IMevsuss (1968) f o r d e t a i l e d c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of Mannheim s t h e o r y of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a t u m . S u b s e q u e n t l y , Mannheim came to r e a l i z e t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n had been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . Thus he added: Let us re-emphasize at t h i s p o i n t t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l s do not form an e x a l t e d s t r a t u m above the c l a s s e s and are i n no way b e t t e r endowed w i t h a c a p a c i t y to overcome t h e i r awn c l a s s attachments than o t h e r groups ... The e x p r e s s i o n s i m p l y a l l u d e d to the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t t h a t i n t e l -l e c t u a l s do not r e a c t t o g i v e n i s s u e s as c o h e s i v e l y as f a r example employees and workers do ... A f t e r t h i s r e m i n d e r , my t h e s i s t o the e a s i l y r e f u t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i s an e x a l t e d s t r a t u m above a l l c l a s s e s or t h a t i t - i s p r i v y t o r e v e l a t i o n s . In r e g a r d t o the l a t t e r my c l a i m was merely t h a t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s have a maximum o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e s t and employ the s o c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e v i s t a s and to e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s (1953:105-6). -82-But even i n I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a t h i s p o i n t i s c l e a r t o the c a r e f u l r e a d e r . There he n o t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e : H i t h e r t o a l l c l a s s e s have i n c l u d e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o those uho a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r d i r e c t i n t e r e s t s , a s t r a t u m more o r i e n t e d t o u a r d s uhat might be c a l l e d the r e a l m c f the s p i r i t . S o c i o l o g i c a l l y , they c o u l d be c a l l e d " i n t e l l e c t u a l s " , but f o r p r e s e n t o p u r p o s e ue must be more p r e c i s e . Lie are not r e f e r r i n g here t o those uho bear the o u t u a r d i n s i g n i a o f e d u c a t i o n , but t o those f e u among them uho c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , are i n t e r e s t e d i n some-t h i n g e l s e than s u c c e s s ( 2 5 8 ) . *-i ' • In t h e s e terms i t i s c l e a r t h a t Mannheim's p e r s p e c t i v e o f f e r s a more fundamental c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n u h i c h i l l u m i n a t e s Popper's i n c a p a c i t y t o grasp t h e 1 i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t h i s oun p o s i t i o n , a s i d e from h i s apparent a p r i o r i assumption o f the autonomy of l o g i c , had l a r g e l y converged u i t h t h a t o f Mannheim. Popper's h e r e t i c a l v e r s i o n o f n e o - p o s i t i v i s m may be taken as the most d a r i n g e f f o r t t o r e s c u e s c i e n c e from the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s t o r i c i z a t i o n . He s i m p l y c o u l d not c o n c e i v e of a n y t h i n g o t h e r than i r r a t i o n a l s i m as the a l t e r n a t i v e t o the autonomy of l o g i c . Mannheim uas p r o f o u n d l y auare o f t h i s k i n d of c o n c e r n , but sau i t as the e x p r e s s i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n t a l i t y of an a c a d e m i c . p h i l o s o p h y u h i c h sought t o c o n s t r u c t an e p i s t e m o l o g y i n -dependent of the r e s u l t s of a l l the s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s : • u r p o i n t i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge u i l l , by i t s very n a t u r e , s u p p l a n t e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and n o o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y , but r a t h e r t h a t i t has made c e r t a i n , d i s c o v e r i e s u h i c h have more than a.mere f a c t u a l r e l e v a n c e , and u h i c h cannot be a d e q u a t e l y d e a l t u i t h u n t i l some o f the c o n c e p t i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s o f contemporary e p i s t e m o l o g y have been r e v i s e d ... Under the dominant p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s o f p r e s e n t - d a y p h i l o s o p h y i t u i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o u t i l i z e t h i s neu i n s i g h t f o r e p i s t e m o l o g y , because modern t h e o r y o f knouledge i s based on the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t bare f a c t -f i n d i n g has no r e l e v a n c e t o v a l i d i t y . Under the s a n c t i o n s of t h i s a r t i c l e o f f a i t h , e very enrichment of knouledge a r i s i n g out of c o n c r e t e r e s e a r c h , u h i c h — seen from a u i d e r p o i n t *of v i e u — dares t o open up more fundamental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i s s t i g m a t i z e d u i t h the phrase " s o c i o -logism"- ... U i t h the peace of mind t h a t comes from the a p r i o r i premise t h a t e p i s t e m o l o g y i s independent of the " e m p i r i c a l " s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s , the mind i s once and f o r a l l c l o s e d t o the i n s i g h t u h i c h a broadened e m p i r i c i s m might b r i n g . The r e s u l t i s t h a t one f a i l s t o see t h a t t h i s t h e o r y of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , t h i s g e s t u r e of s e l f - p r e s e r v -a t i o n , s e r v e s no o t h e r purpose than t h a t o f a b u l u a r k f o r a c e r t a i n t y p e of academic e p i s t e m o l o g y u h i c h , i n i t s l a s t s t a g e s , i s a t t e m p t i n g t o p r e s e r v e i t s e l f from the c o l l a p s e u h i c h might r e s u l t from a more developed e m p i r i c i s m ( I U : 2 8 8 ) . -83-As a consequence, f o r n e i t h e r Nagel nor Merton — d e s p i t e t h e i r o t h e r c r i t i c i s m s and f a i l u r e t o f u l l y t a k e i n t o account the i m p l i -c a t i o n s of Mannheim's u n d e r s t a n d i n g of p e r s p e c t i v e s , does the p r i n c i p l e of " r e l a t i o n i s m " i m p l y a s k e p t i c a l r e l a t i v i s m . IMagel goes so f a r as t o argue t h a t " i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see i n uhat uay ' r e l a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y ' d i f f e r s from ' o b j e c t i v i t y ' u i t h o u t the q u a l i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e and i n the customary sense o f the u o r d " (1961:5D1). Merton concurs u i t h the v i e u t h a t : In expounding h i s r e l a t i o n i s t v i e u s ... Mannheim has come f u l l c i r c l e t o h i s p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e ; so much so t h a t h i s p r e s e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s may be r e a d i l y a s s i m i l a t e d t o those by R i c k e r t and Max Ueber... the ' p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g f u n c t i o n ' o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge s i m p l y a s s i s t s us i n a s c e r t a i n i n g the l i m i t s u i t h i n u h i c h g e n e r a l i z e d prop-o s i t i o n s are v a l i d . What Mannheim c a l l s p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t h i n g but a neu term f o r a u i d e l y r e c o g -n i z e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r e c e p t , namely, t h a t u h a t e v e r i s found t r u e under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d not be assumed to be t r u e u n i v e r s a l l y o r u i t h o u t l i m i t s and c o n d i t i o n s ... Mannheim's c o n c e p t i o n of " p e r s p e c t i v i s m " i s sub-s t a n t i a l l y the same as the R i c k e r t - W e b e r c o n c e p t i o n o f Wertbeziehung ( u h i c h h o l d s t h a t v a l u e s are r e l e v a n t t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c problem and c h o i c e of mat-e r i a l s but are not r e l e v a n t t o the v a l i d i t y o f the r e s u l t s ) ... In p a r t , Mannheim's i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n h i s e a r l i e r u r i t i n g s stems from an i n d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n betueen i n - -c o r r e c t n e s s ( i n v a l i d i t y ) and p e r s p e c t i v e ( o n e s i d e d n e s s ) . P e r s p e c t i v a l s t a t e m e n t s are presumably not i n c o r r e c t , i f _ t h e i r a u t h o r r e c o g n i z e s and a l l o u s f o r t h e i r p a r t i a l n a t u r e ; they are then s i m p l y a b s t r a c t f o r m u l a t i o n s of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f the c o n c r e t e a c t i o n . They a r e , houever, d e f i n -i t e l y i n v a l i d i f they are s u b m i t t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y complete r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the phenomena i n q u e s t i o n . ( W h i t e h e a d 1 s ' f a l l a c y o f m i s p l a c e d c o n c r e t e n e s s ' (1969:559-6D). IMor does Merton see the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a l l t h a t r e v o l u t i o n a r y , at l e a s t f o r anyone a c q u a i n t e d u i t h American p r a g -matism: As f o r the v e r i t a b l e r e v o l u t i o n i n the t h e o r y of knou-ledge u h i c h sees as d e r i v i n g from an a p p r o p r i a t e e x t e n s i o n o f W i s s e n s s o z i o l o g i e , i t can be s a i d t h a t i n i t s b o l d o u t -l i n e s t h i s e p i s t e m o l o g y has f o r some time been, f a m i l i a r to the American mind. I t i s t h a t of P e i r c e and James, mediated by Deuey and Mead... ( 5 6 2 ) . Moreover, at l e a s t tuo books i n the t h e o r y of s o c i o l o g i c a l method ta k e as t h e i r p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t "the r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s and measurement s c a l e s of .any s c i e n c e can be v i e u e d as a problem i n the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge" ( C i c o u r e l , 1964:7); c f . S j o b e r g and I\lettw(1968). A c c o r d i n g l y , the mast g e n e r a l e p i s t e m o l a g i c a l model i s perhaps h i s t o r i c a l . Mannheim o u t l i n e s the b a s i c a l l y D a r u i n i a n c o n c e p t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l change i n h i s essay on " C o m p e t i t i o n as a C u l t u r a l Phenomenon" uhere he argues t h a t : ... the s o - c a l l e d ' d i a l e c t i c a l ' (as d i s t i n c t from the u n i l i n e a r ( c o n t i n u o u s ) form o f e v o l u t i o n and change i n mental l i f e can be l a r g e l y t r a c e d back t o tuo very s i m p l e s t r u c t u r a l d e t e r m i n a n t s of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r : t o the e x i s t e n c e o f g e n e r a t i o n s , and t o the e x i s t e n c e o f the phenomenon of c o m p e t i t i o n ... (1952:193). Popper d e s c r i b e s t h i s phenomenon as f o l l o u s : A l l t h i s may be e x p r e s s e d by s a y i n g t h a t the g r o u t h of our knouledge i s the r e s u l t o f a p r o c e s s c l o s e l y r e -se m b l i n g uhat D a r u i n c a l l e d ' n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n ' ; t h a t i s , the n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n o f hypotheses : our knouledge con-s i s t s , at every moment, of those hypotheses u h i c h have shoun t h e i r ( c o m p a r a t i v e ) f i t n e s s by s u r v i v i n g so f a r i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e ; a c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e u h i c h e l i m i n a t e s those hypotheses u h i c h are u n f i t ... T h i s s t a t e -ment of the s i t u a t i o n i s meant t o d e s c r i b e hou knouledge r e a l l y g r o u s . I t i s not meant m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , though o f course i t makes use of metaphors. The t h e o r y o f knouledge u h i c h I u i s h t o propose i s a l a r g e l y D a r u i n i a n t h e o r y o f the g r o u t h o f knouledge (CK:261). U i t h i n t h i s frameuork the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the v a l u a t i o n a l or i d e o l o g i c a l component of the s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s becomes f u l l y a p p a r e n t . T h i s " e v o l u t i o n a r y e p i s t e m o l o g y " has r e c e i v e d i m p o r t a n t r e c e n t t r e a t m e n t s and developments i n Campbell (197D) and Toulmin ( 1 9 7 2 ) . -85-V I I . SOCIAL SCIENCE AND SDCIAL PLANNING In Chapter V, ue sau hou Popper's c a r i c a t u r e o f Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge as " s o c i o l o g i s m " b e t r a y e d a pr o f o u n d m i s -u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s c l a i m s and o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s l e a d d i r e c t l y t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l v i e u p o i n t s o f Popper and Mannheim i n Chapter V I . Both uere i n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s r e v o l t a g a i n s t c l a s s i c a l ( K a n t i a n and e m p i r i c i s t ) p h i l o s o p h y u i t h i t s c e n t e r i n g o f the problem o f o b j e c t i v e knouledge on the c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s o f the i n d i v i d u a l s k n o u e r . Popper, houever, misunder-s t o o d Mannheim's comments on the i n t e l l e c t u a l s as a g e n e r a l s t a t e -ment i n the t h e o r y o f knouledge r a t h e r than a s o c i o l o g i c a l e x p l a n -a t i o n o f t h e i r s o c i a l t h e o r e t i c a l c r e a t i v i t y c o u p l e d u i t h an a p p e a l f o r a neu, t r a n s c e n d e n t u o r l d v i e u . Moreover, both sought t o a s s i m -i l a t e the problem posed by h i s t o r y f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e areas o f c o n c e r n . For Popper t h i s meant an e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n c e p t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c " t r u t h " as s i m p l y a p r o g r e s s i v e movement t o u a r d a r e g -u l a t i v e i d e a l . For Mannheim i t assumed the i d e a l of a r e l a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e s . Thus both r e j e c t e d any a b s o l u t e c l a i m s t o c e r t i t u d e or t r u t h , i n t r o d u c e d dynamic elements i n t o e p i s t e m o l o g y , and sought t o c o u n t e r a c t the r e l a t i v i s t i c , s k e p t i c a l , and n i h i l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s c o i n c i d e n t u i t h the breakdoun o f c l a s s i c a l e p i s t e m o l o g i e s . T h e i r r e s u l t i n g e v o l u t i o n a r y and h i s t o r i c a l e p i s t e m o l o g i e s uere based upon the n a t u r a l and the h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each had been s t i m u l a t e d by the i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v o l -u t i o n s u h i c h had dominated the concerns o f t h e i r g e n e r a t i o n i n -86-C e n t r a l Europe: E i n s t e i n ' s t h e o r y f o r Popper and the H e g e l i a n -M a r x i a n t r a d i t i o n f o r Mannheim. D e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f e r e n t s t a r t i n g p a i n t s , both developed a s o c i a l e s p i s t e m a l o g y u h i c h s t r e s s e d the t r a d i t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s c i e n c e and d i s t i n g u i s h e d the p e c u l i a r d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i n t r o d u c i n g s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r o l s i n t o h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " ' " T h i s g e n e r a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l convergence o f Popper and Mannheim uas accompanied by rem a r k a b l y s i m i l a r f o r m u l a t i o n s o f the r o l e o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n s o c i e t y . Indeed, ue f i n d both em-p h a s i z i n g the i n s t r u m e n t a l and a d a p t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c k nouledge. A c c o r d i n g l y , both conclude i n response t o the r i s e Df t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m t h a t o n l y a s e l f - c r i t i c a l r e ason as embodied i n e x p e r i m e n t a l l y g u i d e d p l a n n i n g by t e c h n i c a l e l i t e s p r o v i d e s hope 2 f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l i b e r a l democracy and r a t i o n a l i t y i t s e l f . Yet a g a i n Popper p e r s i s t s i n h i s e f f o r t t o c o n v i n c e the r e a d e r o f h i s fundamental d i v e r g e n c e from Mannheim. T h i s p o i n t i s e l a b o r a t e d i n a d i s t i n c t i o n betueen " p i e c e m e a l " and " U t o p i a n " s o c i a l e n g i n -e e r i n g . Popper r e a d i l y acknouledges t h a t the q u e s t i o n of the " p r a c t i c a l t a s k o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s " p r o v i d e d a common ground o f d i s c u s s i o n betueen h i m s e l f and some h i s t o r i c i s t s , • n a m e l y , Mannheim (PH:57). The t e r m i n o l o g i c a l emphasis on " p i e c e m e a l " r e f l e c t s a d e s i r e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e h i s p o s i t i o n from t h a t o f the the U t o p i a n " c o l l e c t i v i s t p l a n n i n g " o f Mannheim. T h i s p o i n t i s u l t i m a t e l y based on Popper's t h e o r y o f knouledge. Only a d e q u a t e l y t e s t e d — p i e c e -meal — knouledge s h o u l d be the b a s i s f o r s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , he ar g u e s . C e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s t y p e s o f knouledge u h i c h s i m p l y do not e x i s t . Even i f such knouledge d i d e x i s t , i t c o u l d -87-not be s u f f i c i e n t l y c e n t r a l i z e d i n one head i n the manner r e q u i r e d f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (PHiSA-)." 3 Thus, w h i l e i t " i s easy t o c e n t r a l i z e power" i t i s " i m p o s s i b l e t o c e n t r a l i z e a l l t h a t knowledge which i s d i s t r i b u t e d over many i n d i v i d u a l minds, and whose c e n t r a l i z a t i o n would be n e c e s s a r y f o r the wise w i e l d i n g o f power" ( 8 9 - 9 0 ) . P r e -c i s e l y t h i s i m p e r f e c t knowledge makes c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g i m p o s s i b l e . As a consequence, Popper c o n c l u d e s , a l l p l a n n i n g i s i n f a c t " p i e c e -meal," f o r ':the g r e a t e r the h o l i s t i c changes att e m p t e d , the g r e a t e r are the u n i n t e n d e d and l a r g e l y unexpected r e p e r c u s s i o n s , f o r c i n g upon the h o l i s t i c e n g i n e e r the e x p e d i e n t o f p i e c e m e a l " i m p r o v i s a t i o n " ( 6 8 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the b e l i e f i n t o t a l p l a n n i n g has the ' e f f e c t of p r e j u d g i n g d e c i s i o n s i n f a v o r o f a n e c e s s a r y t o t a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n : " i t p r e j u d i c e s the U t o p i a n i s t a g a i n s t c e r t a i n s o c i o l o g i c a l hypotheses which s t a t e l i m i t s t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l ..." ( S 9 ) . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the. case w i t h the u n c e r t a i n t y c r e a t e d by the "human f a c t o r " . The o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s s o r t o f u n c e r t a i n t y i s c o e r c i o n and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of man such t h a t he becomes p r e d i c t a b l e (70-). For such p l a n n i n g aims a t what Popper d e s c r i b e s — c i t i n g p hrases from Mannheim out o f c o n t e x t — as r e m o d e l l i n g ... the 'whole o f s o c i e t y ' i n accordance w i t h a d e f i n i t e p l a n o r b l u e p r i n t ; i t aims a t ' s e i z i n g the key p o s i t i o n s ' and a t e x t e n d i n g 'the power o f the S t a t e ... u n t i l the S t a t e becomes n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h ' s o c i e t y ' , and i t aims, furthermore,' a t c o n t r o l l i n g from the s e 'key p o s i t i o n s ' the h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s t h a t mould the f u t u r e o f the d e v e l o p i n g s o c i e t y : e i t h e r by a r r e s t i n g t h i s development, or e l s e by f o r s e e i n g i t s course and a d j u s t i n g t o i t - ( 6 7 ) . The t a s k nowi i s t o a s s e s s Popper's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Mannheim's t h e o r y o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . B e f o r e we t u r n t o the d e t a i l s o f t h i s , however, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i g r e s s f o r a moment t o c l a r i f y the c e n t r a l concept o f Popper's c r i t i q u e : h i s t o r i c i s m . -88-In the f i r s t pages Df The P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m Popper p r o v i d e s t h i s s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s s u b j e c t : ... I mean by ' h i s t o r i c i s m ' an approach t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u h i c h assumes t h a t h i s t o r i c a l p r e d i c t i o n i s t h e i r p r i n c i p a l aim, and u h i c h assumes t h a t t h i s aim i s a t t a i n a b l e by d i s c o v e r i n g the 'rhythms' o r the 'pat-t e r n s ' , the ' l a u s * or the ' t r e n d s ' t h a t u n d e r l i e the e v o l u t i o n o f h i s t o r y (PH:3). The importance of such b e l i e f s i s underscored'by h i s con-v i c t i o n t h a t "such h i s t o r i c i s t d o c t r i n e s o f method are at bottom r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e o f the t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ( o t h e r than economic t h e o r y ) ..." ( 3 ) . He concedes t h a t he i s u s i n g a type c o n s t r u c t u h i c h does not c o r r e s p o n d t o any e x i s t -i n g d o c t r i n e . R a t h e r , he s u g g e s t s t h a t . h e has c o n s t r u c t e d the b e s t p o s s i b l e case f o r a number of i n t e r r e l a t e d i d e a s u h i c h share common elements u h i c h have r e p e a t e d l y appeared d u r i n g p e r i o d s of r a p i d s o c i a l change and c o n f l i c t . By i n t r o d u c i n g such an u n f a m i l i a r l a b e l , he had hoped to a v o i d merely v e r b a l q u i b b l e s : ... f o r nobody, I hope, u i l l be tempted t o q u e s t i o n u h e t h e r any of the arguments here d i s c u s s e d r e a l l y o r p r o p e r l y o r e s s e n t i a l l y b elong t o h i s t o r i c i s m , or uhat the uord ' h i s t o r i c i s m ' r e a l l y or p r o p e r l y means ( 4 ) . T h i s hope has i n f a c t been dashed, the term " h i s t o r i c i s m " has been s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e commentary i n u h i c h Popper's i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n has been s u b j e c t to sev e r e c r i t i c i s m . At l e a s t f i v e b a s i c c o n t e x t s o f use have been i d e n t i f i e d (Lee and Beck, 1.954).^ The f i r s t r e f e r s t o the g e n e r a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t 18th c e n t u r y r a t i o n a l i s m and i s a s s o c i a t e d u i t h the emerg-ence o f g e n e t i c - h i s t o r i c a l t y p e s o f a n a l y s i s as the b a s i s o f ex-p l a n a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . T h i s i n v o l v e d i n p a r t emphasis on development and i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n p l a c e o f the s t a b i l i t y of human -89-n a t u r e and re a s o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the n a t u r a l l a u t h e o r i s t s . In t h i s sense, the term r e f e r s t o an "age" or p e r i o d of European h i s t o r y ( 5 6 8^70). The second meaning r e f e r s t o the s p e c i f i c s c h o o l o f h i s t o r i o g r a p h y u h i c h became the source o f a m e t h o d i c a l e l a b -o r a t i o n o f a s p e c t s o f t h i s " h i s t o r i c i s t " t r a d i t i o n . T h i s German 7 H i s t o r i s m u s came t o embody a Weltanschauung,as u e l l (57G). T h i s movement, though i n d e b t e d t o Hegel i n many uays, uas a n t i - H e g e l i a n , 8 e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s r e j e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l dynamics. The c e n t r a l n o t i o n emerging o f the c u l m i n a t i n g f i g u r e s o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n — T r o e l t s c h and M e i n i c k e — i s an emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f events and the i n t u i t i v e and s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the h i s t o r -i a n uho i s a l s o p a r t o f the h i s t o r i c a l stream he atte m p t s t o des-c r i b e . Thus, " h i s t o r i c i s m f o r M e i n i c k e i s a uay of l o o k i n g a t l i f e and the u o r l d — a Weltanschauung — but i t i s not a d e t e r m i n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y . L i f e i s too f l u i d and too c o n c r e t e f o r t h a t . In s h o r t , h i s h i s t o r i c i s m i s h i s t o r i c i s i n g . i q f l i f e and e n l i v e n i n g of h i s t o r y " ( 5 7 1 ) . A t h i r d v e r s i o n has been d e s c r i b e d as the 1 h i s t o r i c i z a t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h y 1 and i s m a n i f e s t e d i n the uork o f Croce and C o l l i n g u o o d . For Croce h i s t o r i c i s m becomes "the a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t l i f e and r e a l i t y are h i s t o r y and h i s t o r y a l o n e . " C o l l i n g u o o d ' s r e l a t e d t h i n k i n g , u h i l e s t o p p i n g s h o r t o f such a f o r m u l a t i o n , does i n v o l v e an attempt to f r e e h i s t o r y from s c i e n c e t h r o u g h the n o t i o n Df h i s t o r y as the h i s t o r y o f thought ( 5 7 2 - 3 ) . A f o u r t h sense i d e n t i f i e s " h i s t o r i c i s m " u i t h h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i v i s m and r e l a t i o n i s m u i t h e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o Mannheim ( 5 7 3 - 4 ) . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , houever, c o r r e s p o n d s t o uhat Popper -go-r e f e r r e d t o as e i t h e r " s o c i o l o g i s m " or " h i s t o r i s m " . As he put i t : A t h e o r y o f t h i s k i n d u h i c h emphasizes the s o c i o -l o g i c a l dependence o f our o p i n i o n s i s sometimes c a l l e d s o c i o l o g i s m ; i f the h i s t o r i c a l dependence i s emphasized, i t i s c a l l e d h i s t o r i s m ( 0 S - I I : 2 0 8 ) . The f i n a l sense o f h i s t o r i c i s m i s Popper's uhere i t i s a s s o c i a t e d u i t h h i s t o r i c a l p r e d i c t i o n . In the l i g h t o f the above v a r i a t i o n s of meaning, i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t the r e v i e u e r s o f the h i s t o r y o f the concept s u g g e s t : ... Popper's use of the term ' h i s t o r i c i s m ' t o mean a methodology t h a t 'aims a t h i s t o r i c a l p r e d i c t i o n ' u o u l d seem u n f o r t u n a t e because almost a l l the proponents o f h i s t o r i c i s m r e p u d i a t e any s e a r c h f o r ' l a u s ' i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e sense, and hence deny t h a t h i s t o r y o f f e r s a b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i o n (Lee and Beck, 1951+1571'). T h i s c o n c l u s i o n , houever, o n l y h o l d s f o r uhat Popper terms " n a t u r a l i s t i c " h i s t o r i c i s m , as ue s h a l l s e e . For he a l s o d i s t i n g -uishes' a l e s s o b v i o u s " a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t i c " v a r i e t y u h i c h p r o p h e s i z e s u i t h o u t i n v o k i n g the n a t u r a l s c i e n t i f i c model. T h i s s u g g e s t s a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f Popper's a p p l i c a t i o n o f the concept i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s h i s v e r s i o n . In any case, f o r e x p o s i t o r y con-v e n i e n c e , Popper's d i s t i n c t i o n betueen " h i s t o r i c i s m " and " h i s t o r i s m " u i l l be f o l l o u e d u i t h the above d e f i n i t i o n s i n mind. A s i d e from t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n a l m a t t e r s , Popper's use of the term h i s t o r i c i s m s u f f e r s from a s e r i o u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y . W i t h i n i t s s t r i c t d e t e r m i n i s t i c sense the i d e a o f " h i s t o r i c i s m " has some use as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i e t y of p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y . I n i t s a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t i c form t h i s i s m a n i f e s t e d i n an i n e x o r a b l e , i n t u i t i o n a l l y p e r c e i v e d d e s t i n y ; i n i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c form i t a s s e r t s a s i n g l e l a u of h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n . In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e the form o f e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r o p h e t i c and i n the second i t -91-i s p r e d i c t i v e . Popper d i s m i s s e s the f i r s t as sheer m y s t i c i s m . As f o r the second, u h i c h he t a k e s more s e r i o u s l y because of i t s s c i e n t i f i c p r e t e n s i o n s , he argues t h a t i t i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y a p p l i e s the concept o f a s c i e n t i f i c l a u t o a unique e v e n t . T h i s r e j e c t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of such a " l a u of the e v o l u t i o n of s o c i e t y " i s p e r s u a s i v e and need not d e t a i n us. H i s argument i s s i m p l e and cogent: 1) t h a t h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n i s a s i n g l e , unique event and cannot be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a s i n g l e l a u any more than can b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n (PH:108-9); and 2) t h a t the f u t u r e course of h i s t o r y cannot be p r e d i c t e d because of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of p r e -d i c t i n g the f u t u r e g r o u t h of s c i e n t i f i c knouledge ( v i - v i i i ) . At the same time he admits the l e g i t i m a c y of t r e n d statements' u i t h the p r o v i s o t h a t they do not c o n s t i t u t e s c i e n t i f i c l a u s . The f a i l u r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s , he c l a i m s , i s the p r i m a r y c o n f u s i o n u n d e r l y i n g " h i s t o r i c i s m " ( 1 1 5 - 6 ) . Yet hou many p h i l o s o p h e r s of h i s t o r y have r e a l l y h e l d to such p r o p h e t i c and p r e d i c t i v e v i e u s ? C e r t a i n l y not as many as Popper u o u l d have us b e l i e v e . A p p a r e n t l y , he i s r e a c t i n g t o the p o p u l a r v u l g a r i z a t i o n s of h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r i e s p r e v a l e n t i n the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s . In h i s c a s e , the v i e u s o f S p e n g l e r and of " v u l g a r " Marxism uere the tuo most i n f l u e n t i a l i n the p e r i o d i n u h i c h he r e s i d e d i n A u s t r i a . The d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t as the h i s t o r i c a l " d e t e r m i n i s m " of s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s d e p a r t s from the pure type of h i s t o r y - a s - a - l a u , i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y q u e s t i o n a b l e to l a b e l them as s u c h . At uhat p o i n t does an h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n became n a n - h i s t o r i c i s t ? In p o l e m i c a l l y p o l a r i z i n g the dichtomy of s c i e n t i f i c ex-p l a n a t i o n and h i s t o r i c i s t m y s t i f i c a t i o n and p s e u d o - s c i e n c e , Popper -92-f a i l e d to develop h i s a n a l y s i s of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the n o n - h i s t o r i c i s t v a r i e t y . In f a i l i n g t o e l a b o r a t e t h i s i s s u e , he l e a v e s many r e a d e r s u i t h the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t anyone uho makes an e f f o r t to p r o v i d e a dynamic d e s c r i p t i o n of s o c i e t y i s an "historicist™. But t h i s i s not q u i t e the case as ue have seen in. h i s acknouledgement of the p r a c t i c a l importance of " h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " . What he o b j e c t s t o i s t h a t h i s t o r i c i s t s p r e s e n t them as s c i e n t i f i c l a u s r a t h e r than as "more or l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s of v i e u ... u h i c h are f u n d a m e n t a l l y on the same l e v e l of both s u g g e s t i v e n e s s and a r b i t r a r i n e s s (even though some o f them may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r f e r t i l i t y — a p o i n t o f some i m p o r t a n c e ) " ( 1 5 1 ) . Ue are g i v e n no f i r m i n d i c a t i o n o f the c r i t e r i a by u h i c h ue might determine such " f e r t i l i t y " . In l o g i c a l l y s e v e r i n g the q u e s t i o n of e x p l a n a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s from s c i e n t i f i c ex-p l a n a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , he l e a v e s c o m p l e t e l y open the m atter of the l o g i c a l n a t u r e and s t a t u s of such i n t e r p r e t i v e " t h e o r y " and opens the uay f o r the r e l a t i v i s m he f e a r s . As ue have seen, t h i s i s a m a t t e r u h i c h Mannheim has g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to under the g heading of " p e r s p e c t i v e s " . Popper's tendency t o r e i f y the concept of h i s t o r i c i s m and s t r e t c h i t t o accomodate any h i s t o r i c a l t h e o r y he does not l i k e r e s u l t s i n an ; a m b i g u i t y of meaning u h i c h becomes most apparent i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of " u t o p i a n h i s t o r i c i s m " . Such thought i s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c a f t h e o r i s t s l i k e P l a t o and Marx (and Mannheim) uho combine, he s u g g e s t s , a f a i t h i n h i s t o r i c a l p r e d i c t i o n u i t h a d e s i r e to c o n t r o l or speed up the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s . For i n s t a n c e , P l a t a had a p e s s i m i s t i c v i e u of h i s t o r y i n u h i c h change uas i d e n t i f i e d u i t h decay so he p r o j e c t e d a " Utopian b l u e p r i n t " u h i c h u a u l d a r r e s t change -93-a l t o g e t h e r . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Popper, uhat amounts to a s t a t i c , as opposed t o the dynamic M a r x i s t v e r s i o n , of the f u s i o n of " h i s t o r i c i s m " and " a c t i v i s m " (FH:73i5. For M a r x i s t s , "a h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o l o g y can even be i n t e r p r e t e d as a k i n d of t e c h n o l o g y u h i c h may h e l p (as Marx put i t ) t o ' s h o r t e n and l e s s e n the b i r t h pangs' of a neu h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d " ( 7 1 ) . What makes p o s s i b l e such a f u s i o n of p e r f e c t i o n i s t , v o l u n t a r i s t , and d e t e r m i n i s t elements? The s o u r c e , Popper s u g g e s t s , i s a s hared m e t h o d o l o g i c a l - " h o l i s m " . T h i s method i s a l s o the b a s i s of the "moral h i s t o r i c i s m " a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of U t o p i a n s and h i s t o r i c i s t s : "both b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r aims or ends are not- a m a t t e r o f c h o i c e , or of m o r a l d e c i s i o n , but t h a t they may be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d i s c o v e r e d by them u i t h i n t h e i r f i e l d s of i n q u i r y " ( 7 4 ) . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y " Utopian h i s t o r i c i s m " c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n the i n i t i a l d e f i n i t i o n of " h i s t o r i c i s m " as f a i t h i n the l a u of h i s t o r y . For ue are l e f t u i t h the p r o s p e c t o f v o l u n t a r i s t i c h i s t o r i c i s t s uho u o u l d s t o p , spped-up, and/or c o n t r o l h i s t o r y ! Popper u o u l d have perhaps b e n e f i t e d from a more r e f i n e d t y p o l o g y of p h i l o s -o p i e s of h i s t o r y . In t h i s case he might have a d m i t t e d a type of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t o r y u h i c h argued t h a t u i t h o u t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s human i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a t h i s t o r i c a l change u o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y , on the b a s i s of r a t i o n a l l y d e s c r i b a b l e and p a r t i a l l y t e s t a b l e p r o c e s s e s , proceed i n a p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t i o n . But t h i s u o u l d be more a k i n t o uhat he c a l l s " t r e n d s t a t e m e n t s " , a method o f a n a l y s i s u h i c h he f i n d s p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e . The b a n k r u p t c y of Popper's c o n c e p t u a l monism becomes f u l l y apparent i n h i s a n a l y s i s of Mannheim's " u t o p i a n h i s t o r i c i s m " . As Popper a v e r s u i t h r e s p e c t to Mannheim's uork: i t i s "the most -3k-e l a b o r a t e e x p o s i t i o n of a h o l i s t i c and h i s t o r i c i s t programme known to me" ( 6 7 ) . For i t r e p r e s e n t s the t h r e a t posed by c o l l e c t i v i s t p l a n n i n g , the t h e o r e t i c a l consequence of an "unholy a l l i a n c e " betueen h i s t o r i c i s m and U t o p i a n i s m . Thus, Mannhaim's c o n j e c t u r e s on the p l a c e of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s are a t t a c k e d f a r : 1) an i r r a t i o n a l s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y of knou-l e d g e ; 2) h i s t o r i c i s m ; 3) h o l i s t i c methods, and k) m o r a l U t o p i a n i s m . The t a s k of the remainder of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o a s s e s s the v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e charges i n the l i g h t o f Popper's oun c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . 1. For Popper one of the f l a u s of Mannheim's p r o p o s a l s f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s t h a t i t " o c c u r s i n c l o s e s t a l l i a n c e u i t h a d o c t r i n e u h i c h i s d e f i n i t e l y opposed to r a t i o n a l i s m " — the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge ( O S - I I : 2 1 2 - 3 ) . H i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s tD bypass q u e s t i o n s based on an i r r a t i o n a l t h e o r y of knouledge, "to f o r g e t a l l about the v e r b a l f i r e u o r k s and to t a c k l e the p r a c t i c a l problems of our time u i t h the h e l p of the t h e o r e t i c a l methods u h i c h a r e . f u n d a m e n t a l l y the same i n a l l s c i e n c e s " ( 2 2 2 ) . T h i s stems from h i s erroneous b e l i e f t h a t Mannheim s u g g e s t s t h a t a l o o f n e s s and detachment are the b a s i s of o b j e c t i v i t y i n s o c i a l research.''"'"' Popper c r e a t e s the i m p r e s s i o n of an o p p o s i t i o n betueen h i s oun advocacy of e m p i r i c a l p r o c e d u r e s and Mannheim's i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge: . : As opposed to t h i s , the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge hopes to r e f o r m the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s by making the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t auare of the s o c i a l f o r c e s and i d e o l o g i e s u h i c h u n c o n s c i o u s l y b e s e t him ; ( 2 ' 2 2 ) . . , More a c c u r a t e l y Popper might have s a i d " i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s . " For as has been demonstrated p r e v i o u s l y Mannheim uas very much auare of the p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c method a p p l i e d t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . -95-Ldhat he sought t o do uas move one s t e p beyond t h i s by a s k i n g about hou the a p p l i c a t i o n o f such methods o c c u r r e d i n a s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l frameuork. Only by a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d i s Popper goi n g t o be a b l e t o un d e r s t a n d uhy i n f a c t the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s are underdeveloped and the p a r t i c u l a r forms t h a t under-development takes."'"''" Only u i t h such r e s e a r c h u o u l d i t be p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h c l e a r g u i d e l i n e s as t o e x a c t l y uhat k i n d o f "demo-c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s " are n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r o g r e s s o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e and uhat p r o g r e s s u o u l d a c t u a l l y mean. I I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see hou Popper can p e r s i s t i n the a s s e r -t i o n t h a t Mannheim d i s a s s o c i a t e d " u i l l " and " i n t e r e s t " from " t h e o r y " and " p r a c t i c e " uhen Mannheim's e n t i r e e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h the b a s i s f o r a " s c i e n c e o f p o l i t i c s " assumes t h a t i n t e r e s t and c o g n i t i o n are u l t i m a t e l y i n s e p a r a b l e . Moreover, the volume Man and S o c i e t y i s devoted p r i m a r i l y t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the importance o f s o c i a l t e c h n o l o g y f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Mannheim's c a l l f o r a r e l a t i v e detachment r e l a t e s t o another q u e s t i o n , t h a t o f per s p e c t i v e s ? ? and i s a response t o h i s auareness of the dangers o f a n o n - c r i t i c a l pragmatism t o t a l l y c o n f i n e d t o immediate p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . Far from t h e r e b e i n g any o p p o s i t i o n betueen the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge and Popper's c o n c e p t i o n o f " p i e c e m e a l " p l a n n i n g they are i n f a c t complementary. While i n d e e d " s e l f a n a l y s i s i s no sub-s t i t u t e f o r those p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n s u h i c h are n e c e s s a r y f o r e s t a b -l i s h i n g the d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s u h i c h a l o n e can guarantee the freedom o f t h o u g h t , and the p r o g r e s s o f s c i e n c e " ( 0 S - I I : 2 2 3 ) , t h i s i s not the s p e c i f i c t a s k , but r a t h e r one o f the b y p r o d u c t s o f such s o c i o l o g i c a l -96-a n a l y s i s . Popper can a p p e a l o n l y t o " r e a s o n " , a r e a s o n u h i c h has ceased t o be s e l f - c r i t i c a l because i t r e f u s e s t o acknouledge i t s e l f as something l e s s than c o m p l e t e l y autonomous. The a b s u r d i t y o f Popper's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i m p l i c -a t i o n s o f the p r i n c i p l e of the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n i n g o f knouledge and of b e h a v i o r i n g e n e r a l i s r e v e a l e d by h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f o l l o u i n g statement by Mannheim uho u r i t e s : There i s an i n c r e a s i n g tendency t o u a r d s making con-s c i o u s the f a c t o r s by u h i c h ue have so f a r been uncon-s c i o u s l y r u l e d ... Those uho f e a r t h a t our i n c r e a s i n g knouledge of d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s may p a r a l y s e our d e c i s i o n s and t h r e a t e n "freedom" s h o u l d put t h e i r minds at r e s t . For o n l y he i s t r u l y determined uho does not knou the most e s s e n t i a l d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s but a c t i m m e d i a t e l y under the p r e s s u r e o f d e t e r m i n a n t s unknoun t o him ( C i t e d OS-* IX: 223; c f . IU:18D). To t h i s Popper r e p l i e s : l\lou t h i s i s c l e a r l y j u s t a r e p e t i t i o n o f a pet i d e a of Hegel's u h i c h E n g e l s n a i v e l y r e p e a t e d uhen he s a i d : 'Freedom i s the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n e c e s s i t y . ' And i t i s a r e a c t i o n a r y p r e j u d i c e . For are those uho a c t under the p r e s s u r e o f u e l l - k n o u n d e t e r m i n a n t s , f o r example of p o l i t i c a l t y r a n n y , made f r e e by t h e i r knouledge (DS-II:223)?' Uhat he f a i l s to note i s t h a t Mannheim adds i n h i s f o l l o u i n g s e n t e n c e : Whenever ue become auare of a d e t e r m i n a n t u h i c h has dominated us, ue remove i t from the r e a l m of u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n i n t o t h a t o f c o n t r o l l a b l e , c a l c u l a b l e , and o b j e c t i f i e d . Choice and d e c i s i o n are t h e r e b y not e l i m i n -a t e d ; on the c o n t r a r y , m o t i v e s u h i c h p r e v i o u s l y dominate us become s u b j e c t t o our d o m i n a t i o n ... (IU:1B9-90). Running throughout Mannheim's uork i s the assumption t h a t knouledge s e r v e s as the b a s i s f o r a c t i o n . For Popper to accuse Mannheim of H e g e l i a n q u i e t i s m — " t h a t freedom i s the a p p r e c i a t i o n of n e c e s s i t y " — i s m i s g u i d e d . Mannheim's v o l u n t a r i s m i s fundamental to h i s uhole t h e o r y of p l a n n i n g : _ 9 7 -... the man Df to-day has f a r more freedom i n the d e t e r -m i n a t i o n of h i s d e s t i n y than the u n s o c i o l o g i c a l e t h i c s of the past u o u l d have us b e l i e v e ... R i g h t l y u n d e r s t o o d , r e c e n t t e n d e n c i e s t o u a r d s a mass s o c i e t y , and our ever i n c r e a s i n g auareness of the d e t e r m i n i s m of s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s do not r e l e a s e us from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f u t u r e ; r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s . u i t h every advance i n the course of h i s t o r y , and has never been g r e a t e r than i t i s to-day (MS:3B1). 2. Mannheim i s taken up by Popper i n the c o n t e x t of the " a n t i - n a t u r a l i s t " v a r i e t y o f h i s t o r i c i s m u h i c h i m p l i e s t h a t he i s g u i l t y o f the " p r o p h e t i c " r a t h e r than " p r e d i c t i v e " i m p u l s e . The c e n t r a l p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e used to s u s t a i n t h i s charge of Mannheim's b e l i e f i n h i s t o r i c a l prophecy i s h i s f r e q u e n t a s s e r t i o n o f the i n -e v i t a b i l i t y o f p l a n n i n g . Thus as one of the advocates of "Utopian p l a n n i n g " , he i s used by Popper t o i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t t h a t they " t e l l us t h a t p l a n n i n g i s s i m p l y i n e v i t a b l e , o u i n g t o the d i r e c t i o n i n u h i c h h i s t o r y i s p r o c e e d i n g ; and t h a t ue must p l a n , uhether ue 12 l i k e i t or n o t " (PH:75). And i n d e e d , t h i s t h e s i s does u n d e r l i e Mannheim's concerns i n Man and S o c i e t y : I t seems to the u r i t e r t h a t a f t e r s t u d y i n g the m a t t e r from many a n g l e s and u e i g h i n g the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the changes of the l a s t decade, ue are boillnd t o come to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n the p e r i o d b e f o r e us, p l a n n i n g u i l l be i n e v i t a b l e . Ue n a t u r a l l y hope i t u i l l t a k e a very d i f f e r e n t form from t h a t c o n c e i v e d by the d i c t a t o r -s h i p s ... Given t h i s assumption t h e r e i s no l o n g e r any c h o i c e betueen p l a n n i n g and l a i s s e r - f a i r e , but o n l y be-tueen good p l a n n i n g and bad ( 6 ) . But i s t h i s an example o f " h i s t o r i c i s m " ? C e r t a i n l y , i t does assume a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y u h i c h Mannheim l i n k s i n p a r t t o a n o t i o n o f " t h r e e fundamental s t a g e s i n the h i s t o r y o f t h o u g h t " ( 1 5 0 ) . These are the s t a g e s of "chance d i s c o v e r y " , " i n v e n t i n g " and " p l a n n i n g " . In the f i r s t custom and t r a d i t i o n r u l e and d i s c o v e r y i s based e x c l u s i v e l y on chance. N a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n -98-tended t o p r e s e r v e those groups u h i c h can r e t a i n and t r a n s m i t those f i n d i n g s u i t h a d a p t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . At the second s t a g e , " s i n g l e t o o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s uere c o n s c i o u s l y m o d i f i e d and then d i r e c t e d t o u a r d s p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s " ( 1 5 1 ) . ,Yet i n , t h i s s t a g e , u h i c h brought f o r t h the development of t e c h n o l o g y c u l m i n a t i n g i n the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , c o n s c i o u s r e g u l a t i o n by s o c i e t y i s m i n i m a l . Though Mannheim c o n s i d e r e d t h i s " i n v e n t i n g " s t a g e s t i l l t o be dominant, he a n t i c i p a t e d an i n c i p i e n t t r a n s i t i o n t o the t h i r d or p l a n n i n g s t a g e uhere ... man arid s o c i e t y advance from the d e l i b e r a t e i n v e n t i o n o f s i n g l e o b j e c t s or i n s t i t u t i o n s t o the d e l i b e r a t e r e g -u l a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n t mastery of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s be-tueen t h e s e o b j e c t s ... The most d e c i s i v e change o c c u r s uhen man auakes t o the n e c e s s i t y of r e g u l a t i n g t h e s e gaps betueen e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and uhen, i n response t o ' t h i s , neu p a t t e r n s o f thought a r i s e ( 1 5 2 - 3 ) . IMou Mannheim e x p l i c i t l y d e n i e s t h a t t h i s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s i s i n t e n d e d as a form o f prophecy: IMone of us can c l e a r l y prophesy to-day uhat form the s o c i e t y o f the f u t u r e u i l l t a k e . But ue knou from h i s t o r y t h a t even uhat i s r a d i c a l l y neu i n the contemporary s i t u -a t i o n i s u s u a l l y o n l y one f a c t o r i n the l a t e r r e a l i t y , f o r h i s t o r y a l u a y s has more f o r c e s at uork than r e f o r m e r s uho l o o k f o r a s i n g l e panacea are u i l l i n g t o admit (13).12 T h i s statement e x p r e s s e s Popper's s e n t i m e n t s e x a c t l y . More-o v e r , uhen ue r e c a l l Popper's c r i t i c i s m o f Marx, ue f i n d t h a t i t i s the i n a c c u r a c y of h i s supposed p r e d i c t i o n s t h a t are the problem. For Popper i s concerned t o emphasize t h a t the f a i l u r e o f the s o c i a l i s t s t o have a n t i c i p a t e d the need f o r s o c i a l t e c h n o l o g y uas l a r g e l y r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r ' t h e i r f a i l u r e once they g a i n e d pouer. T h i s i s p r e -c i s e l y the argument t h a t Mannheim uses t o j u s t i f y h i s emphasis on 14 the importance o f d e v e l o p i n g the t e c h n o l o g y of p l a n n i n g . Upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n ue f i n d both Mannheim and Popper -99-s p e a k i n g of a " t h i r d uay" betueen the p o l a r i z e d v i e u s of h i s t o r y 15 as i n e x o r a b l e l a u s v e r s u s h i s t o r y as b l i n d chance. For i n s t a n c e , Mannheim speaks o f the "post-mortem p o i n t o f v i e u of the s p e c i a l -i z e d h i s t o r i a n s " u h i c h i s "based on the i d e a t h a t the p r e s e n t cannot be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y s t u d i e d because i t i s s t i l l i n the p r o c e s s of emergence and t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o knou u h i c h s e r i e s of-f s e t s i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t "(MS •'•'.•IBB). On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e are those p o l i t i c a l groups u h i c h s i m i l a r l y oppose the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e i n t h a t they assume t h a t they have c e r t a i n knouledge of the outcome of c u r r e n t t r e n d s : Thus they renounce the e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e i n f a v o u r of a p r o p h e t i c one ... Uhat i t r e a l l y does uhen i t c l a i m s t o grasp the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f events u h i c h are t a k i n g p l a c e and t o r e n d e r u n p r o b l e m a t i c uhat i s r e a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c i s no more than t o d e s c r i b e d o g m a t i c a l l y uhat u i l l happen i n terms o f i t s oun u i s h e s " ( 1 8 9 ) . 1 ^ In s h o r t , ue f i n d Mannheim s h a r e s Popper's h o s t i l i t y t o u a r d " n a t u r a l i s t i c " h i s t o r i c i s m . R a t h e r , he c a l l s f o r a s y n t h e s i s of these tuo approaches gu i d e d by the e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e : B e s i d e s the post-mortem approach t o h i s t o r y and the p r o p h e t i c a t t i t u d e o f determined p o l i t i c i a n s , ue must p l e a d f o r a t h i r d method o f o b s e r v a t i o n u h i c h i s i n s t a t u  n a s c e n d i and proceeds i n terms of an e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e . A method of approach must be developed u h i c h t r e a t s the h o r i z o n o f e x p e c t a t i o n s as an open h o r i z o n , and not as a map u h i c h c h a r t s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t s ... Ue, houever, uho are on the p a i n t of t r a v e r s i n g a neu s e c t i o n of our h i s t o r y , must f i n d the uay f o r o u r s e l v e s . But ue cannot b u i l d our roads j u s t as ue p l e a s e . Faced u i t h such ob-s t a c l e s , men i n the age of magic u o u l d have t r i e d to compel the hidden f o r c e s to a c t as they u i s h e d . In a . l a t e r age of r e l i g i o u s f a t a l i s m , though a c t i v e i n c a r r y i n g out i n -d i v i d u a l u n d e r t a k i n g s , sought t o l e a v e e v e n t s as a uhole i n the hands o f ,God. The e s s e n t i a l a t t i t u d e o f the p l a n n i n g age seems t o be s y n t h e s i s of t h e s e tuo t y p e s o f approach. Once more i t d i s p l a y s the courage t o i n t e r v e n e i n the i n t e r p l a y o f fundamental f o r c e s ; on the o t h e r hand i t i n h e r i t s something of the h u m i l i t y of the r e l i g i o u s mind i n t h a t i t does not p r e t e n d t o a c t as a c r e a t o r of these f o r c e s , but r a t h e r as a s t r a t e g i s t , uho o n l y u a t c h e s ever the f a c t o r s as uork i n s o c i e t y i n o r d e r t o d e t e c t -100-the neu p o s s i b i l i t i e s u h i c h are coming t o the s u r f a c e at the pr o p e r moment, and t o r e i n f o r c e them at those p o i n t s uhere v i t a l d e c i s i o n s must be made ( 1 9 0 ) . S i m i l a r l y , Popper's " t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y " : I t appears t h a t one o f the movives o f h i s t o r i c i s m i s t h a t the h i s t o r i c i s t does not see t h a t t h e r e i s a t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e , b e s i d e s t h e tuo u h i c h he a l l o u s : e i t h e r t h a t the u o r l d i s r u l e d by s u p e r i o r pouers, by an ' e s s e n t i a l d e s t i n y ' or H e g e l i a n 'Reason', or t h a t i t i s a mere u h e e l o f chance, i r r a t i o n a l , on the l e v e l o f a gamble.. But t h e r e i s a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y : t h a t ue may i n t r o d u c e r e a s o n i n t o i t ... t h a t a l t h o u g h the u o r l d does not p r o g r e s s , ue_ may p r o g r e s s , i n d i v i d u a l l y as u e l l as i n c o - o p e r a t i o n ( 0 S - I I : 3 6 6 , f n . 2 7 ) . For Mannheim, houever, t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f re a s o n e n t a i l s a t h e o r y o f the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s and the development o f i n s t r u m e n t s t o guide i t . T h i s i s Popper's v i e u as u e l l , though he does not seem t o c l e a r l y heed Mannheim's i n j u n c t i o n t h a t "ue cannot b u i l d our roads j u s t as ue p l e a s e " (MS:190). Popper acknouledged the need f o r uhat,he c a l l e d " h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " even though he c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s . H i s oun uork i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y h i s t h e o r y o f the "open s o c i e t y " — c o n s t i t u t e s j u s t such a p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y . A p p a r e n t l y both he and Mannheim agree t h a t something l i k e a " t h i r d uay" i s p o s s i b l e and t h a t t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a more r a t i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c ansuer t o the q u e s t i o n s posed. Under the heading o f uhat he termed " p e r s p e c t i v e s " Mannheim c o n s i d e r e d such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and c o n c l u d e d they c o u l d not be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the f o r m a l model o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n . As a consequence, though e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e and t e s t s o f p r o p o s i t i o n s uere i m p o r t a n t , by themselves they c o u l d n ot f o r c e a c h o i c e o f t h e o r i e s . I t uas i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t he suggested t h a t the i n t e l l e c t u a l , u i t h h i s -1D1-r e l a t i v e autonomy, s e l f - c r i t i c a l h a b i t s , and broader f i e l d o f v i s i o n , was the most l i k e l y s o u r c e of a more a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . And i t uas t h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Popper took t o be as p r o o f of Mannheim's b e l i e f i n an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y . Yet uhen ue see Popper t u r n to the p e c u l i a r d i f f i -c u l t i e s of " o b j e c t i v i t y " i n h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , uhere f o r m a l t e s t s do not s u f f i c e t o r e s o l v e a l l c o n f l i c t s , he moves v e r y c l o s e to Mannheim's p r e v i o u s l y denounced " s o c i o t h e r a p y " : The main t h i n g i s t o be c o n s c i o u s of one's p o i n t o f v i e u , and c r i t i c a l , t h a t i s t o say, t o a v o i d , as f a r as t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , u n c o n s c i o u s and t h e r e f o r e u n c r i t i c a l b i a s i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f a c t s . In e v e r y o t h e r r e s p e c t , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must speak f o r i t s e l f ; and i t s m e r i t s u i l l be i t s f e r t i l i t y , i t s a b i l i t y t o e l u c i d a t e the f a c t s of h i s t o r y , as u e l l as i t s t o p i c a l i n t e r e s t s , i t s a b i l i t y t o i l l u c i d a t e the problems of the day ( O S - I I : 2 6 8 ) . In s h o r t , Popper has moved f u l l c i r c l e t o embrace Mannheim's p o s i t i o n u i t h o u t , houever, b e i n g auare of the f a c t . For the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t means of i d e n t i f y i n g such "uncon-, s c i o u s and t h e r e f o r e u n c r i t i c a l b i a s " and thus assumes an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n the methodology and p h i l o s o p h y of the h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s . Moreover, Mannheim i s no more of a h i s t o r i c i s t than Popper h i m s e l f i n t h a t both r e j e c t h i s t o r i c a l prophecy and i r r a t i o n a l i s m and ad-v o c a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n o f r e a s o n to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o n t r o l of h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s . 3. Popper d e f i n e s the p e j o r a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l term " h o l i s m " t hrough a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f tuo d i f f e r e n t senses of the " u h o l e " i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e : a) the t o t a l i t y of a l l the p r o p e r t i e s or a s p e c t s o f a t h i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y of a l l the r e l a t i o n s h o l d i n g betueen i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , and b) c e r t a i n s p e c i a l p r o p e r t i e s or a s p e c t s of the t h i n g s i n q u e s t i o n , namely those u h i c h make i t appear an o r g a n i z e d s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than a 'mere heap' (PH:76). -102-U h i l e a c c e p t i n g the l e g i t i m a c y c f b) as a s c i e n t i f i c p r o -cedure e x e m p l i f i e d by G e s t a l t p s y c h o l o g y , he r e j e c t s the f i r s t because " i f ue u i s h t o study a t h i n g , ue are bound to s e l e c t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f i t " ( 7 7 ) . R e f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t o Mannheim he adds: But the f a c t t h a t u h o l e s i n the sense of t o t a l i t i e s cannot be made the o b j e c t o f s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y , or of any o t h e r a c t i v i t y such as c o n t r o l or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , seems t o have escaped the h o l i s t s , even those of them uho admit t h a t , as a r u l e , s c i e n c e i s s e l e c t i v e ( 7 B ) . As a consequence: The d o c t r i n e t h a t ue may o b t a i n a k i n d o f c o n c r e t e knouledge o f ' r e a l i t y i t s e l f i s a u e l l knoun p a r t of uhat can be t e c h n i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as m y s t i c i s m ; and so i s the clamour f o r 'uholes' (78, f n . 3 ) . F i r s t o f a l l , i t i s c l e a r t h a t Mannheim i s one o f those uho r e c o g n i z e s t h a t " s c i e n c e i s s e l e c t i v e " . As he d e s c r i b e s h i s " e v a l u a t i v e " approach to h i s t o r y : I t i s u i t h t h i s type o f s o c i o l o g i c a l approach to h i s t o r y t h a t ue i d e n t i f y o u r s e l v e s ... Such a method o f d i a g n o s i n g an epoch, thought i t may b e g i n n o n - e v a l u -a t i v e l y , u i l l not l o n g remain s o . Ue s h a l l be f o r c e d e v e n t u a l l y t o assume an e v a l u a t i v e p o s i t i o n . The t r a n s -i t i o n t o an e v a l u a t i v e p o i n t of v i e u i s n e c e s s i t a t e d from the very b e g i n n i n g by the f a c t t h a t h i s t o r y as h i s t o r y i s  u n i n t e l l i g i b l e u n l e s s c e r t a i n of i t s a s p e c t s are emphasized i n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r s . T h i s s e l e c t i o n and a c c e n t u a t i o n of  c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of h i s t o r i c a l t o t a l i t y may be r e g a r d e d as the f i r s t s t e p i n the d i r e c t i o n u h i c h u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s t o an e v a l u a t i v e procedure and to o n t o l o g i c a l judgments (IU:93-4; emphasis added). The v e r y concept of " p e r s p e c t i v e " i n Mannheim,like t h a t o f " h i s t o r -i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " i n Popper, assumes the p a r t i a l i t y o f each ex-p l a n a t i o n , though t h e i r e q u a l i t y i s r e j e c t e d . To a c c e p t t h e i r e q u a l i t y u o u l d i m p l y a t o t a l r e l a t i v i s m ; t o acknouledge t h e i r p a r t i a l i t y i s s i m p l y t o deny any c l a i m t o a b s o l u t e c o g n i t i v e s t a t u s . In uords r e m i n i s c e n t of Popper i n t h i s r e g a r d , Mannheim arg u e s : -103-Hence i t has became e x t r e m e l y q u e s t i o n a b l e whether, i n the f l u x o f l i f e , i t i s a g e n u i n e l y w o r t h w h i l e i n t e l -l e c t u a l problem t o seek t o d i s c o v e r f i x e d and immutable i d e a s or a b s o l u t e s ... i t i s n o t h i n g l e s s than s h o c k i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t those persons who c l a i m t c have d i s c o v e r e d an a b s o l u t e are u s u a l l y t h o s e persons who a l s o p r e t e n d t o be s u p e r i o r t o the r e s t ( 8 7 ) . Mannheim l i n k s the n o t i o n of a s e l e c t i v e view of the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of phenomenon to the i d e a of a "genuine" e m p i r i c i s m : Genuine s o c i o l o g i c a l e m p i r i c i s m can never c o n s i s t of of p i e c e m e a l o b s e r v a t i o n but must always i n c l u d e t h e o r e t i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the n a t u r e of the whole .process as w e l l as an emphasis on p e t t y d e t a i l s ... f a c t s and s t r u c t u r e are c o n t i n u o u s l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r and f a c t s o n l y become more than d a t a i f t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n the whole mechanism i s a d e q u a t e l y r e a l i z e d , f a r i t i s the t o t a l ' s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y a l o n e which r e v e a l s the r e a l f u n c t i o n and meaning of the p a r t s (MS:26).18 I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t Mannheim argues the p r i o r i t y of t h i s view of the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e as the e v a l u a t i v e guide f o r the s e l e c t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a c t u a l e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of the k i n d Popper ad-v o c a t e s : The f o r c e d i m p o s i t i o n o f m a t h e m a t i c a l and mensurat-i v e methods has g r a d u a l l y l e d t o a s i t u a t i o n i n which c e r t a i n s c i e n c e s no l o n g e r ask what i s worth knowing but r e g a r d as worth knowing o n l y what i s m easurable. As a g a i n s t t h i s p o i n t of view we s h o u l d i n s i s t t h a t i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s we are a b s o l u t e l y bound t o concern o u r -s e l v e s w i t h the immediate t a s k of the t o t a l s o c i a l s i t u -a t i o n , and t h a t can o n l y be a d e q u a t e l y grasped through q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s ... Q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s cannot take p l a c e u n t i l a q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s has been made ( 1 8 5 ) . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggest t h a t Mannheim can be c o n s i d e r e d a " h o l i s t " o n l y i n the degree t o which Popper i s w i l l i n g t o admit h i s concept o f " h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s " h o l i s m " i n the i l l e g i t i m a t e s e n s e . Both seek t o guide the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n c e t o s o c i a l r e a l i t y on the b a s i s of such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . As a consequence, the major d i f f e r e n c e between Popper and Mannheim's c o n c e p t i o n of t h i s r o l e of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s b e g i n s w i t h t h e i r -10k-someuhat d i v e r g e n t t h e o r i e s of h i s t o r y and most e s p e c i a l l y the concept of freedom i m p l i c i t i n them. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d uhen ue examine Mannheim's t h e o r y of p l a n n i n g . Though Popper c a s t i g a t e s i t as " h o l i s i t i c " , i t i s c l e a r t h a t Mannheim has b e n e f i t e d from the l e s s o n of S t a l i n i s m as much as Popper. Thus the a l l e g a t i o n t h a t Mannheim speaks of a 19 " b l u e p r i n t " i g n o r e s h i s many st a t e m e n t s t o the c o n t r a r y . T h i s p o i n t i s c a r e f u l l y developed i n the d i s t i n c t i o n betueen " f o u n d i n g " a n d " p l a n n i n g " . The f o u n d i n g of a c i t y , f o r i n s t a n c e , t a k e s p l a c e i n an a b s t r a c t m i l i e u and thus can be p a t t e r n e d a f t e r a b l u e p r i n t ( 1 9 1 ) . On the o t h e r hand: In t h i s sense s o c i e t y as a uhole can never be e s t a b -l i s h e d or founded, f o r the elements of u h i c h i t i s con-s t r u c t e d are a l u a y s found i n a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p ... e s t a b l i s h m e n t proceeds from a f i x e d and f i n i s h e d scheme u h i c h e x i s t s i n the minds of the f o u n d e r s ' b e f o r e i t i s c a r r i e d o u t , and l i k e the F i c h t i a n i d e a s i t i s t r a n s l a t e d from t h i s s u p e r s e n s o r y c o n d i t i o n i n t o a c t u a l f a c t ... P l a n n i n g , on the o t h e r hand, b e g i n s u i t h the .use of uhat i s i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e . The ends, means, and f o u n d a t i o n s of p l a n n i n g e x i s t on the same p l a n e of h i s t o r -i c a l r e a l i t y ... ( 1 9 2 ) . U n l i k e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c o m p l e t e l y o r g a n i z e d s t r u c t u r e s , such p l a n n i n g i s p o l i t i c a l i n t h a t i t i s concerned u i t h g a i n i n g con-t r o l over h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s p r e v i o u s l y r e g u l a t e d o n l y by c o n f l i c t 2D and c o m p e t i t i o n . In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s Mannheim acknouledges t h a t dogmatism and the e f f o r t t o p l a n every d e t a i l must be a v o i d e d at a l l c o s t s : The r e a l danger i n planned t h i n k i n g i s t h a t i n s t e a d of c o n s t a n t l y e x p e r i m e n t i n g , i t tends t o t u r n i n t o a r i g i d system. 'Dogmatism' on the p l a n n i n g l e v e l i s n o t h i n g but a m i s t a k e n v i e u of p l a n n i n g as b e i n g a p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l scheming. In p l a n n i n g the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e x p e r i m e n t a l thought and conduct i s reached ... D o c t r i n a i r e , r i g i d con-s i s t e n c y i s u s e l e s s uhen ue e n t e r i n t o uhat i s s t i l l un-knoun ... But i n s p i t e o f t h i s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o p r e s s -105-f o r u a r d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , i n a s p i r i t o f i n q u i r y . T h i s r e c k o n i n g u i t h f a c t s u h i c h are not yet f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d from the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o i n t Df v i e u i s by no means to be confused u i t h the t h o u g h t l e s s n e s s u h i c h to-day c a l l s i t s e l f i r r a t i o n a l i s m . In our p r e s e n t h i s t o r i c a l s i t u -a t i o n p lanned t h i n k i n g c o u n t e r b a l a n c e s t h i s g r o u i n g and ever more d e s t r u c t i v e i r r a t i o n a l i t y (MS':234-5). Mannheim's c o n c e p t i o n of p l a n n i n g as an e x p e r i m e n t a l l y g u i d e d a c t i v i t y based on i m p e r f e c t knouledge c o i n c i d e s u i t h Popper's. For both " p l a n n i n g f o r freedom" i s the o n l y r a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n c r e a s i n g i r r a t i o n a l i s m . Where they p a r t i s over the "freedom" to be r e a l i z e d . 4. From Popper's p o i n t of v i e u perhaps the most s e r i o u s c r i t i -c ism of Mannheim's c o n c e p t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i s i t s "moral h i s t o r i c i s m . " T h i s term r e f e r s tD the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i v i s m i m p l i c i t i n the s o c i o -l o g i c a l v i e u o f m o r a l c a t e g o r i e s as a p r o d u c t of h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m -s t a n c e s . T h i s p o s i t i o n d e n i e s , Popper h o l d s , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f any p o s i t i v e e t h i c a l t h e o r y except t o the e x t e n t t h a t one assumes the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r i c a l prophecy. Such f o r e s i g h t p r o -v i d e s the b a s i s f o r knouledge of the m o r a l i t y of the emergent h i s t o r -i c a l c o n t e x t ( D S - I I : 2 0 2 - 4 ) . But as Popper c o n c l u d e s , " t h e r e i s no p r o p h e t i c s o c i o l o g y t o h e l p us i n s e l e c t i n g a m o r a l system!.'£-(2D8). Thus he t a k e s Mannheim's p r o p o s a l t h a t p l a n n i n g i s an h i s t o r i c a l n e c e s s i t y as an a t t i t u d e u h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t the most r e a s o n a b l e course of a c t i o n " i s t o a d j u s t one's system o f v a l u e s as t o make i t  conform to impending changes" (PH:54-5). U n l i k e the p i e c e m e a l t e c h n o l o g i s t and e n g i n e e r f o r uhom v a l u e s are a m a t t e r of " d e c i s i o n " : ... the h i s t o r i c i s t and the U t o p i a n i s t ... both b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r aims or ends are not a m a t t e r of c h o i c e , or of moral d e c i s i o n , but t h a t they may be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d i s -c o vered ... Both t h e . h i s t o r i c i s t and the U t o p i a n i s t be-l i e v e t h a t they can f i n d out uhat the t r u e aims or ends of ' s o c i e t y ' a r e ; f o r example, by d e t e r m i n i n g i t s h i s t o r -i c a l t e n d e n c i e s , or by d i a g n o s i n g 'tire needs of t h e i r t i m e " ( 7 4 - 5 ) . -106-l\low i t i s t r u e t h a t Mannheim, e s p e c i a l l y i n some c f h i s . e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s , e x h i b i t e d a degree c f such "moral h i s t o r i c i s m " . But w i t h the r i s e o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m he s h i f t e d away from the assumption t h a t a l l m o r a l systems had a m e a n i n g f u l and n e c e s s a r y 21 r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the t o t a l i t y o f the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s . T h i s c u l m i n a t e d i n a more v o l u n t a r i s t i c s t a n c e which viewed t o t a l i t a r -i a n i s m as an a b e r r a t i o n o f r a t h e r than a n e c e s s a r y s t a g e of h i s t o r -i c a l development. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s o c i o l o g y o f v a l u e and p h i l o s o p h i c a l e t h i c s remained, however, a t e n s i o n i n h i s thought which was never f u l l y r e s o l v e d . T h i s i s a c r u c i a l problem g i v e n h i s own b e l i e f t h a t every p e r s p e c t i v e b e g i n s and i s based upon e v a l u a t i v e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s . In s h o r t , he never c a r e f u l l y a r t i c u l -22 a t e d the p r i n c i p l e s upon which h i s Dwn p o s i t i o n r e s t e d . Granted the d i f f i c u l t i e s posed by e f f o r t t o break out of the dilemmas imposed by the d e n i a l o f e x t r a - h i s t o r i c a l autonomy t o e t h i c a l t h e o r y , t h i s does not mean t h a t Mannheim took the f u r t h e r s t e p o f assuming t h a t knowledge of the laws of h i s t o r y s o l v e d the problem. For Mannheim such a n a l y s i s of v a l u e s i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e r a t h e r than p r o s p e c t i v e : the h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o l o g i s t can b e g i n t o comprehend h i s t o r i c a l l y a d a p t i v e v a l u e changes i n the p a s t but can 23 o n l y c o n j e c t u r e i n the p r e s e n t . There i s n o t h i n g i n Mannheim of the " t r u e aims or ends o f ' s o c i e t y ' " . Uhat then are we t o make of h i s e f f o r t t o " d i a g n o s e " the c r i s i s o f modern s o c i e t y ? In what sense does t h i s i m p l y "moral h i s t o r i c i s m " i n Popper's p e j o r a t i v e s e n s e ? . Moreover, does t h i s c o u p l i n g o f m o r a l i m p e r a t i v e w i t h e s t i m -a t e s of s o c i a l t r e n d s d i f f e r from P o p p e r j s own e f f o r t s a l o n g t h i s l i n e ? -1D7-There i s every i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Popper assumes a c l o s e l i n k betueen h i s t h e o r y of h i s t o r y and the r e s t r i c t i o n on the range of v a l u e c h o i c e s t h i s i m p l i e s . He shows a tendency t o a d j u s t h i s v a l u e s to the "needs of the t i m e " . For i n s t a n c e , d e s p i t e h i s d i s -t r u s t o f a l l s t a t e a u t h o r i t y , he advocates a program o f s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g on the grounds t h a t w i t h o u t such i n t e r v e n t i o n movements l i k e those of the communists and f a s c i s t s w i l l p r o v i d e the a l t e r n -a t i v e . T h i s a n a l y s i s and j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s analgous t o t h a t o f Mannheim's. T h i s becomes even c l e a r e r when we note Popper's em-p h a s i s t h a t ... p r o g r e s s r e s t s w i t h us, w i t h our w a t c h f u l n e s s , w i t h our e f f a r t s , . w i t h the c l a r i t y o f our c o n c e p t i o n of our ends, and w i t h the r e a l i s m o f t h e i r c h o i c e (0S-II:28D; emphasis added). The n o t i o n a f " r e a l i s t i c c h o i c e " i s an echo of "moral h i s t o r i c i s m " which presumes t h a t i t i s i n f a c t p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r the a c t u a l t r e n d s o f s o c i a l development which r e n d e r some v a l u e a s p i r a t i o n s u n r e a l i s t i c and i l l u s o r y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the arguments Df Popper and Mannheim i n t h i s r e s p e c t . T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s r e f l e c t somewhat d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s a f the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s and the scope of the freedom which both assume t o be the u l t i m a t e g o a l of such c h o i c e s . For both v a l u e c l a i m s had t o be j u s t i f i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o both some k i n d r e a l h i s t o r i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and u l t i m a t e v a l u e c l a i m s — freedom — which were e t h i c a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l . The d i f f e r e n c e s between Mannheim and Popper's p h i l o s o p h y o f h i s t o r y are not f u n d a m e n t a l . For both the p r o c e s s o f " r a t i o n a l -i z a t i o n " c o n s t i t u t e s the most s i g n i f i c a n t e x p r e s s i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l 2k p r o c e s s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f s c i e n c e and of s o c i a l t e c h n o l o g y -1D8-t h u s r e p r e s e n t s the most r e c e n t e x p r e s s i o n o f the achievements of human r e a s o n . Mannheim i s , t o be s u r e , more auare of the s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s upon the development of t h i s p r o c e s s o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and t h i s l e a d s him t o emphasize a g r e a t e r r o l e f o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n s u g g e s t i n g the k i n d s of s t r u c t u r a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes u h i c h u o u l d f a c i l i t a t e a more auare p o p u l a c e . But as ue have seen, Popper i s not o b l i v i o u s t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l and t r a d i t i o n a l b a s i s of reason and s c i e n c e and u o u l d not i n p r i n c i p l e be apposed to t h i s k i n d of " p l a n n i n g f o r freedom" u i t h o u t c o n t r a d i c t i n g h i s oun arguments. But t h e r e i s a fundamental d i v i s i o n betueen them u i t h r e s -pect t o the o b j e c t i v e o f such r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , t h a t i s , i n d i v i d u a l freedom. I t i s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e above a l l u h i c h perhaps l i e s a t the source o f Popper's i n s t i n c t i v e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Mannheim's p r o -p o s a l s d e s p i t e the remarkable s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r o t h e r v i e u s on s o c i a l s c i e n c e . For both t a k e r a t h e r d i s t a n t p o s i t i o n s on the con-25 tinuum of " p o s i t i v e " and " n e g a t i v e " freedom. I t i s here t h a t t h e i r d i v e r g e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t s — n e o - p o s i t i v i s m and neo-i d e a l i s m — e x e r t a f i n a l check on the movement of t h e i r t h i n k i n g t o u a r d a s h a r e d c o n c e p t i o n o f the t a s k of s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . Popper d e f i n e s h i s c o n c e p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l freedom i n c o n t r a s t t o the " r a d i c a l i s m " of those l i k e P l a t o and Marx uho seek t o impose an " a e s t h e t i c " i d e a l o f s o c i e t y and p e r s o n a l i t y : T h i s sueep, t h i s extreme r a d i c a l i s m o f the P l a t o n i c approach (and of the M a r x i a n as w e l l ) i s , I b e l i e v e , con-n e c t e d u i t h i t s a e s t h e t i c i s m , i . e . u i t h the d e s i r e t o b u i l d a u o r l d u h i c h i s not o n l y a l i t t l e b e t t e r and more r a t i o n a l than o u r s , but u h i c h i s f r e e from a l l i t s u g l i -n e s s : not a c r a z y q u i l t , an o l d garment b a d l y p a t c h e d , but an e n t i r e l y neu.goun, a r e a l l y b e a u t i f i c neu u o r l d -109-... But here I must p r o t e s t . I do not b e l i e v e t h a t human l i v e s may be made the means f o r s a t i s f y i n g an a r t i s t ' s d e s i r e f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Ue must demand, r a t h e r , t h a t every man s h o u l d be g i v e n , i f he u i s h e s , the r i g h t t o model h i s l i f e h i m s e l f , as f a r as t h i s does  not i n t e r f e r e too much u i t h o t h e r s (03-1:164-5; emphasis added). As a consequence, he p r o j e c t s o n l y n e g a t i v e g o a l s — a n e g a t i v e u t i l i t a r i a n i s m — t o guide the work of p i e c e m e a l e n g i n e e r -i n g : ... every g e n e r a t i o n of men, and t h e r e f o r e the l i v i n g , have a c l a i m ; .perhaps not so much a c l a i m t o be made happy, f o r t h e r e are no i n s t i t u t i o n a l means of making a man happy, but a c l a i m not t o be made unhappy, uhere i t can be a v o i d e d . They have c l a i m t o be g i v e n a l l p o s s i b l e h e l p , i f they s u f f e r . The p i e c e m e a l e n g i n e e r u i l l , a c c o r d i n g l y , adopt the method of s e a r c h i n g f o r , and f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t , the g r e a t e s t and most urgent e v i l s o f s o c i e t y , r a t h e r than s e a r c h i n g f o r , and f i g h t i n g f o r , i t s g r e a t e s t good ( 1 5 B ) . As opposed to t h i s , " U topian e n g i n e e r i n g " assumes t h a t f o r a c t i o n t o be r a t i o n a l u l t i m a t e p o l i t i c a l aims must be d e c i d e d upon b e f o r e p l a n n i n g can b e g i n ( 1 5 7 ) . But s i n c e such a U t o p i a n b l u e p r i n t cannot be d e c i d e d upon by p u r e l y r a t i o n a l or s c i e n t i f i c methods, c o e r c i o n and v i o l e n c e became the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e (CR:359). Only u i t h a more l i m i t e d g o a l such as the e l i m i n a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g i s t h e r e o n l y hope o f g a i n i n g the n e c e s s a r y consensus f o r d e m o c r a t i c a c t i o n . I t i s not c l e a r , houever, t h a t Mannheim r e p r e s e n t s a case of the k i n d o f " U t o p i a n i s m " t h a t Popper i s warning a g a i n s t . For i n s t a n c e , Mannheim agrees t h a t the u l t i m a t e aim of a p l a n n e d s o c i e t y cannot be agreed upon d e m o c r a t i c a l l y , but s u g g e s t s t h a t "ue must ... ask o u r s e l v e s u h e t h e r i t i s not p a s s i b l e t o f i n d the mean betueen the tuo extremes o f a b s o l u t e i n d e t e r m i n a t e n e s s of s o c i a l aims and the d i c t a t o r i a l i m p o s i t i o n of a c l o s e d system of dogmas" (MS:346). -110-But t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i s o f f e r e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the k i n d s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t might he a v a i l a b l e i n the s i t u a t i o n s u h i c h u o u l d r a i s e such q u e s t i o n s . War and economic up h e a v a l u o u l d be the most l i k e l y o c c a s i o n f o r the n e c e s s i t y of such a c h o i c e ( 3 4 6 - 7 ) . Such s u g g e s t i o n s are not d i r e c t e d s i m p l y t o u a r d the r e a l i z a t i o n o f " a e s t h e t i c " - - i d e a l s but as n e c e s s a r y f o r a d a p t i n g t o the breakdoun o f an u n r e g u l a t e d s o c i e t y . Not t h a t Mannheim i s not c r i t i c a l o f the proponents of " l i b e r a l freedom". For as he n o t e s : No ansuer i s g i v e n t o the s i m p l e q u e s t i o n : "freedom f o r u h a t ? " I n s t e a d , freedom i s d e s c r i b e d i n n e g a t i v e terms as the n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n of the s t a t e i n the p r i v a t e l i f e o f the i n d i v i d u a l , or i n the form o f maxims u h i c h merely l i m i t i t s range, as i n the dictum t h a t i n d i v i d u a l freedom o f a c t i o n i s o n l y r e s t r i c t e d as f a r as i s nec-e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t i t e n c r o a c h i n g on the freedom Df o t h e r s ( 3 4 6 ) . Yet he does not propose a s p e c i f i c i d e a l o f p e r s o n a l i t y as the o b j e c t i v e of freedom, but seeks i n s t e a d t o d e c i d e the s o c i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e : P l a n n i n g f o r freedom does not mean p r e s c r i b i n g a d e f i n i t e form u h i c h i n d i v i d u a l i t y must t a k e , but h a v i n g both the knouledge and e x p e r i e n c e t o d e c i d e uhat k i n d of e d u c a t i o n , u h a t k i n d Df s o c i a l groups and uhat k i n d o f s i t u a t i o n s a f f o r d the b e s t chance of k i n d l i n g i n i t i a t i v e , the d e s i r e t o form one's oun c h a r a c t e r and d e c i d e one's oun d e s t i n y ( 2 6 5 ) . As a consequence, he r e g a r d s the l i b e r a l i d e a l o f p e r s o n a l i t y as one of the v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of l i b e r a l i s m : ... from the ureckage of l i b e r a l i s m n o t h i n g can be saved but i t s v a l u e s , among o t h e r s , the b e l i e f i n a f r e e p e r s o n -a l i t y . But i t s t e c h n i q u e , u h i c h i s based on the p r i n c i p l e o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e , i s gone f o r e v e r ... Thus the o l d i d e a l of freedom can o n l y be a t t a i n e d by the t e c h n i q u e of p l a n n i n g f o r freedom. Freedom and democracy can no l o n g e r be p r e s e r v e d through the i d l e p r a i s e of a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s by men uho are e n t i r e l y i g n o r a n t of the s o c i a l t e c h n i q u e s u h i c h c o u l d r e n d e r them e f f e c t i v e ... ( 3 6 3 ) . -111-LI i t h Popper he acknowledges: There i s , o f c o u r s e , one q u e s t i o n u h i c h ue can never ansuer s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , namely: Uhat are the unique and i n d i v i d u a l paths u h i c h a g i v e n person must f o l l o u t o a t t a i n a r a t i o n a l and m o r a l uay of l i f e (MS':51)? Most i m p o r t a n t l y , the r e a l i z a t i o n o f these v a l u e s i f f o r Mannheim a m a t t e r of u i l l and c h o i c e and not a m a t t e r of h i s t o r i c a l d e s t i n y : To p r e d i c t i s the t a s k of p r o p h e t s , and every prophecy o f n e c e s s i t y t r a n s f o r m s h i s t o r y i n t o a p u r e l y d e t e r m i n -i s t i c system, d e p r i v i n g us t h e r e b y o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c h o i c e and d e c i s i o n ... The o n l y form i n u h i c h the f u t u r e p r e s e n t s i t s e l f t o us i s t h a t of p o s s i b i l i t y , u h i l e the i m p e r a t i v e , the " s h o u l d " , t e l l s us u h i c h of t h e s e pos-s i b i l i t i e s ue s h o u l d choose. As r e g a r d s knouledge, the f u t u r e — i n so f a r as ue are not concerned u i t h the p u r e l y o r g a n i z e d and r a t i o n a l i z e d p a r t of i t — p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as an i m p e n e t r a b l e medium, an u n y i e l d i n g u a l l . And uhen our attempts t o see through i t are r e p u l s e d , ue f i r s t be-come auare o f the n e c e s s i t y o f u i l l f u l l y c h o o s i n g our course and, i n c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n u i t h i t , the need f o r an i m p e r a t i v e (a u t o p i a ) t o d r i v e us onuard ( I U : 2 6 0 ) . And as he a d m i t s : The chances o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s neu s o c i e t y , t o be s u r e , are l i m i t e d . . I t i s not a b s o l u t e l y p r e d e t e r m i n e d . But t h i s i s j u s t uhere our neu freedom b e g i n s (MS:380). Even though Popper i s u n u i l l i n g t o e n t e r t a i n such a broad u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f freedom as a p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t i v e , he c o n c l u d e s on a s i m i l a r l y v o l u n t a r i s t i c n o t e : A l t h o u g h h i s t o r y has no ends, ue can impose the s e ends d f ours upon i t ; and a l t h o u g h h i s t o r y has no meaning, ue can g i v e i t a meaning ... I n s t e a d o f p o s i n g as p r o p h e t s ue must become the makers of our f a t e (OS-II:278-8D). - 112-IMDTES: CHAPTER V I I T h i s i s not t o say t h a t they succeeded i n d e v e l o p i n g an adequate a n a l y s i s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen the f o r m a l and h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e s . Perhaps t h i s i n t e r e s t has been most n o t a b l y advanced i n the r e c e n t uork o f Toulmin, Habermas, and A l t h u s s e r . Each uorks u i t h i n a d i s t i n c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n and comparison of t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t . The theme of economic p l a n n i n g c o n s t i t u t e d one Df the c e n t r a l con-cerns of s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s t h r o ughout the 193D's and 1940's, f i r s t i n response t o the D e p r e s s i o n and the R u s s i a n e x p e r i m e n t s and l a t e r i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f uar and p o s t - u a r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The s u r -v i v a l o f r e g u l a t e d (but p lanned) c a p i t a l i s t economies i n the p o s t -uar p e r i o d uas accompanied by a d e c l i n e of i n t e r e s t i n such i s s u e s at the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l . But the c o n t i n u o u s development of neu p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s uhose use uas l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o l a r g e p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s gave some i n d i c a t i o n remarkable b r e a k t h r o u g h s i n p l a n n i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . The emergence of an " e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i s i s " a f t e r tuo decades of s p e c t a c u l a r economic g r o u t h r e f l e c t e d both changing s e n s i b i l i t i e s and the f a c t of r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s u h i c h p r o v i d e a neu b a s i s f o r the n e c e s s i t y of economic p l a n n i n g . Thus, the a d a p t a t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l concepts such as " s t e a d y - s t a t e " have i n c r e a s i n g l y become the b a s i s f o r a t h e o r e t i c a l r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n of " t o t a l " or "systems" p l a n n i n g . As a consequence the q u e s t i o n of s o c i e t a l guidance has re-emerged as a c e n t r a l theme of p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y . For a b r i e f r e v e i u o f the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n o f the q u e s t i o n see S a r t o r i (1965:384-415); i m p o r t a n t r e c e n t t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s o c i e t i e s as s e l f - g u i d e d c y b e r n e t i c or l e a r n i n g systems have been p r o v i d e d by the s o c i o l o g i s t E t z i o n i ( 1 9 6 8 ) and the economist Dunn (197 1 ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c y b e r n e t i c s f o r s o c i a l t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y has been e x t e n s i v e l y d i s c u s s e d by a number of west Germans; the a c t u a l development of the t e c h n i q u e s has been l a r g e l y American. Mannheim's concerns are no l o n g e r a n a c h r o n i s t i c , nor i s " U t o p i a n i s m " q u i t e uhat i t used t o be. The development of modern computers and systems t e c h n o l o g i e s o f f e r s the p r o s p e c t of c e n t r a l i z i n g knouledge as u e l l as pouer. To t h i s e x t e n t , Popper's and Hayek's case here has been undermined by t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance. For a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h i s p o s i t i o n u h i c h t a k e s such f a c t o r s i n t o a c c o u n t , see Dahrendorf's essay " U n c e r t a i n t y , S c i e n c e , and Democracy" (1968:232-55)." Though Mannheim e l a b o r a t e s some o f h i s i d e a s on p l a n n i n g i n more d e t a i l i n l a t e r u ork, e s p e c i a l l y the posthumous Freedom, Pouer and  Democratic P l a n n i n g (195D), Man and S o c i e t y s t a t e s h i s b a s i c p o s i t i o n . -113-S i n c e t h i s l a t t e r book i s Popper's p r i m a r y s o u r c e , e x a m i n a t i o n of h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim u i l l be based l a r g e l y on the same t e x t . 'This i s a dubious t h e s i s uhose o p p o s i t e i s more l i k e l y . The h i s t o r -i c a l concerns of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s began t o d e c l i n e i n E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g s o c i a l thought u i t h the r e v o l t a g a i n s t D a r u i n i s m i n the 1920's. The r e c o g n i t i o n d u r i n g the p a s t f e u y e a r s t h a t " s o c i a l change" has been a n e g l e c t e d a r e a of r e s e a r c h c o n f i r m s t h i s p o i n t . I t u o u l d seem t h a t the " h i s t o r i c i s t s " uere d e a l i n g u i t h genuine problems even i f they d i d not p r o v i d e adequate s o l u t i o n s . A more p l a u s i b l e t h e s i s as to the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e of the t h e o r e t i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e s u o u l d p r o b a b l y be more s o c i o l o g i c a l than i n t e l l e c t u a l -p h i l o s o p h i c a l . Houever, Popper's v i e u has been r e c e n t l y g i v e n s u p p o r t i n a s u r v e y o f s o c i o l o g y from 1945-1965: I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a t t r i b u t e s o c i o l o g y ' s r e c e n t s c i e n t i f i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o any one s o u r c e , but I b e l i e v e t h a t S i r K a r l Popper's u r i t i n g s ... deserve s p e c i a l mention ... The i n f l u e n c e of such v i e u s on p o s t -war s o c i o l o g i s t s has been immense; h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n on the grand s c a l e , so p o p u l a r i n the n i n e t e e n t h and l i n g e r i n g u e l l i n t o the t u e n t i e t h , has v i r t u a l l y d i s -appeared as a s o c i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y ( M e n n e l l , 1972:154-55). 3See a l s o I g g e r s (1968:287-90) f o r f u r t h e r comments and r e f e r e n c e s . ^This v e r s i o n o f " h i s t o r i c i s m " uas the s u b j e c t of one of Mannheim's essays in-1924 (1952:84-133). ^As I g g e r s i n h i s s t u d y of German h i s t o r i o g r a p h y c o n c l u d e s : The German H i s t o r i c a l S c h o o l , u i t h i t s emphasis upon d i v e r s i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y , i s i n t e r p r e t e d as an EX* p r e s s i o n of h i s t o r i s m i n c o n t r a s t by the a t t e m p t s by H e g e l i a n s t o see i n h i s t o r i c a l development a u n i f i e d , l o g i c a l p r o c e s s (1968:289). ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , even Mannheim d i d not g i v e any s p e c i f i c a t t e n t i o n to the l o g i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f e v o l u t i o n a r y and h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n -a t i o n s . Popper, of c o u r s e , assumed i n h i s l o g i c a l s t u d i e s t h a t s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n are s y m m e t r i c a l (LSD:59-60); (PH:124). Yet i n h i s more r e c e n t uork he seems t o have a c c e p t e d the s t a t u s o f b i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n as a form of e x p l a n a t i o n d e s p i t e i t s l a c k of u n i v e r s a l l a u s and p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s . Thus he u r i t e s : A u o r d may be added here on the l o g i c a l form of a t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n ... I can o n l y b r i e f l y mention a p o i n t or t u o . The t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n i s an h i s t o r i c a l one: i t c o n s t r u c t s a s i t u a t i o n and shous t h a t , g i v e n t h a t 1 s i t u a t i o n , these t h i n g s uhose e x i s t e n c e ue u i s h t o e x p l a i n are i n d e e d l i k e l y t o happen. -114-To put i t more p r e c i s e l y , Darwin's t h e o r y i s a g e n e r a l i z e d h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s means t h a t the s i t u a t i o n i s supposed t o be t y p i c a l r a t h e r than u n i q u e . Thus i t may be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a t tim e s a s i m p l i f i e d model o f the s i t u a t i o n (•K:270). N e v e r t h e l e s s : Dar.win's d i s c o v e r y of the t h e o r y of n a t u r a l s e l -e c t i o n has o f t e n been compared t o Newton's d i s c o v e r y o f the t h e o r y o f g r a v i t a t i o n . T h i s i s a m i s t a k e . Newton f o r m u l a t e d a s e t of u n i v e r s a l laws i n t e n d e d t o d e s c r i b e the i n t e r a c t i o n , and consequent b e h a v i o u r , o f the p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e . Darwin's t h e o r y o f e v o l u t i o n proposed no such u n i v e r s a l l a w s . There are no D a r w i n i a n laws o f e v o l u t i o n ... N e v e r t h e l e s s , Darwin's r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n f l u e n c e upon our p i c t u r e o f the w o r l d around us was at l e a s t as g r e a t ... For Darwin's t h e o r y o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n showed t h a t i t i s i n p r i n c i p l e p o s s i b l e t o reduce t e l e o l o g y t o  c a u s a t i o n by e x p l a i n i n g , i n p u r e l y p h y s i c a l terms, the  e x i s t e n c e o f d e s i g n and purpose i n the w o r l d : ( 2 6 7 ) . What Popper f a i l s t o do, however, i s r e l a t e these c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s back t o the problem of e x p l a n a t i o n i n the h i s t o r y o f s o c i e t i e s . I f he were to do so he might be a b l e t o c o n c e i v e o f n o n - p r e d i c t i v e but n e v e r t h e l e s s s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s . T h i s might r e t u r n to problem.of " h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " back t o the f o l d o f s c i e n c e . The asymmetry of p r e d i c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n has been emphas-i z e d by S c r i v e n who s u g g e s t s t h a t "the most i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n to be l e a r n e d from e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y today i s a n e g a t i v e one: the t h e o r y shows us what s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n s need not do" (1969:117). As he c o n c l u d e s : I t i s n a t u r a l enough t h a t the l o g i c o f e x p l a n a t i o n s h o u l d appear t o p a r a l l e l t h a t o f p r e d i c t i o n . Sometimes, i n f a c t , i t does. There are s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n s , p a r t i c -u l a r l y i n c l a s s i c a l p h y s i c s , when we e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t by r e f e r e n c e t o the same l a w s . But t h i s i s an a c c i d e n t , not a n e c e s s i t y , as i t t u r n s o u t . Put the matter i n g e n e r a l l o g i c a l terms and the s i m i l a r i t y s t i l l appears t o h o l d : t o p r e d i c t we need a c o r r e l a t i o n between p r e s e n t e v e n t s and f u t u r e ones — to e x p l a i n between p r e s e n t ones and pa s t ones" ( 1 2 1 ) . C f . Toulmin (1972: 1 3 5 f f ) on the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . 'Popper w r i t e s : S o c i o l o g i s m b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s not t h e i r u n p r a c t i c a l c h a r a c t e r , but r a t h e r the f a c t t h a t p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r -e t i c a l problems are too much i n t e r t w i n e d i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l knowledge, t h a t c r e a t e s the methodo--115-l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e s e s c i e n c e s ... To t h i s ue can r e p l y t h a t 'knouledge' and ' u i l l ' a r e , i n a. c e r t a i n sense, a l u a y s i n s e p a r a b l e ... P r a c t i c e i s net the enemy of t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge but the mast v a l u a b l e i n c e n t i v e to i t . Though a c e r t a i n amount of a l o o f n e s s may be becoming to the s c i e n t i s t , t h e r e are many examples to shou t h a t i t i s not a l u a y s i m p o r t a n t f o r a s c i e n t i s t to be thus d i s i n t e r e s t e d . But i t i s _ i m p o r t a n t f o r him to remain i n touch u i t h r e a l i t y , u i t h p r a c t i c e , f o r those uho o v e r l o o k i t have t o pay by l a p s i n g i n t o s c h o l a s -t i c i s m ( 0 S - I I : 2 2 2 ) . Mannheim u o u l d c e r t a i n l y agree u i t h a l l t h i s , but suggest auareness of those " i n t e r e s t s " i s c r u c i a l and cannot be taken f o r g r a n t e d . For i n s t a n c e , even the use of s o c i a l s c i e n c e f a r l i m i t e d aims r e q u i r e s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n u i t h l a r g e groups of people i n n a t u r a l s e t t i n g s and the n e c e s s a r y machinery r e q u i r e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . Such p r o j e c t s have been e x t r e m e l y r a r e and undertaken i n the most unu s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and r a r e l y r e p e a t e d , not s i m p l y because of a l a c k o f s o c i a l t e c h n i q u e , but because of v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s . The case of the TVA p r o j e c t i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . Most s o - c a l l e d " e x p e r i m e n t s " are s i m p l y ad hoc government responses t o c r i s i s . s i t u a t i o n s i n u h i c h s o l u t i o n s are d e s i g n e d around p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s r a t h e r than e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . As a consequence, most p l a n n i n g i s " r a t i o n a l " o n l y i n a p o l i t i c a l s e n s e . But uhen ue r a i s e q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h i s a s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s e s s e n t i a l . The " p r o g r e s s " of s o c i a l s c i e n c e , d e s p i t e Popper's e f f o r t t o g l o s s over these q u e s t i o n s , cannot be s u s t a i n e d u i t h o u t r e d u c i n g r e s e a r c h t o the s e r v a n t of the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e of pouer u h i c h may have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n the m a i n t a i n a n c e of s u f f e r i n g . Marcuse, one of the f e u to have p r o v i d e d a cogent c r i t i q u e o f Popper's concept of " h i s t o r i c i s m " defends Mannheim on t h i s p o i n t : - Popper c i t e s Mannheim's p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t 'the pouer of the S t a t e i s bound t o i n c r e a s e u n t i l the S t a t e becomes n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l u i t h s o c i e t y ' ; he c a l l s t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n a 'prophecy* and the ' i n t u i t i o n ' e x p r e s s e d i n i t the ' t o t a l i t a r i a n i n t u i t i o n ' . I\lou I t h i n k i t i s r a t h e r ob-v i o u s t h a t the c i t e d passage has l o n g s i n c e ceased t o be a 'prophecy' and has become a statement of f a c t . Moreover, one may c r i t i c i z e Mannheim on many grounds, but to count him among the ' h o l i s t s ' and to charge him u i t h ' t o t a l -i t a r i a n i n t u i t i o n ' i s to confuse an a n a l y s i s of o b s e r v -a b l e t r e n d s u i t h t h e i r advocacy and j u s t i f i c a t i o n (1972:202). At another p o i n t he emphasizes a g a i n : I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , not our t a s k t o make p r o p h e c i e s , but r a t h e r t o seek out a c l u e u h i c h u i l l h e l p us.observe the e f f e c t o f the most e s s e n t i a l s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c u l t u r e " (MS:80). Popper r e f l e c t s : L o o k i n g back at the e vents from 1864 t o 193d, I t h i n k t h a t but f o r the somewhat a c c i d e n t a l f a c t t h a t Marx d i s c o u r a g e d r e s e a r c h i n s o c i a l t e c h n o l o g y , European a f f i a r s might p o s s i b l y have dev e l o p e d , under the i n -f l u e n c e of t h i s p r o p h e t i c r e l i g i o n , towards a s o c i a l i s m of the n o n - c o l l e c t i v i s t t y p e . A thorough p r e p a r a t i o n  f o r s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g , f o r p l a n n i n g f o r freedom, on the  p a r t of the R u s s i a n M a r x i s t s as w e l l as those i n C e n t r a l  Europe, might p o s s i b l y , have l e d t o an u n m i s t a k a b l e s u c c e s s  c o n v i n c i n g t o a l l f r i e n d s of the open s o c i e t y . B u t ' t h i s would not have been a c o r r o b o r a t i o n Df a s c i e n t i f i c prophecy. I t would have been the r e s u l t o f a r e l i g i o u s movement — the r e s u l t of the f a i t h i n h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m , combined w i t h a c r i t i c a l use of our r e a s o n f o r the purpose o f changing the w o r l d (05-11:198; emphasis added). T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s a v i r t u a l a cceptance of the e n t i r e argument of Mann-heim's Man and S o c i e t y where the i d e n t i c a l t h e s i s i s proposed: ... i t s h o u l d a l s o not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t even the most a b s o l u t e power i s u s e l e s s i f we have not the t e c h n i c a l knowledge t o show us how i t c o u l d be wholesomely a p p l i e d i n the i n t e r e s t of the e n t i r e community. The p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y t h a t we are l i v i n g i n an age Df c l a s s w a r f a r e and t h a t s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r -a t i o n s are t h e r e f o r e Df no importance has d e l a y e d . t h e r a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n of the problem whether p l a n n i n g and democracy are c o m p a t i b l e ... the t e c h n i c a l problems of s o c i e t y cannot be s o l v e d by t a c t i c s and c l a s s w a r f a r e a l o n e . There i s a t e r r i b l e d e s t i n y i n s t o r e f o r gener-a t i o n s who are brought up to b e l i e v e i n the f a l s e a l t e r n a t i v e democracy or p l a n n i n g , no s y n t h e s i s on the p l a n e o f t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s b e i n g p o s s i b l e (MS:339). Mannheim d e v e l o p s h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h the concept of p r i n c i p i a media which are d e s c r i b e d as "a k i n d o f r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g s p e c i a l l a w s , s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s Df a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l phase i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s e t t i n g " (MS:177). Thus, they c o n s t i t u t e " u n i v e r s a l f o r c e s i n a c o n c r e t e s e t t i n g as they become i n t e g r a t e d out of the v a r i o u s f o r c e s i n a c o n c r e t e s e t t i n g as they become i n t e g r a t e d out o f the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s at work i n a g i v e n p l a c e at a g i v e n time — a p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n of c i r c u m s t a n c e s which may never be r e -p e a t e d " . U h i l e i n p r i n c i p l e r e d u c i b l e t o g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , t h e i r a c t u a l u t i l i z a t i o n must be " i n t h e i r c o n c r e t e s e t t i n g as they c o n f r o n t us at a c e r t a i n s t a g e of development ..." ( 1 7 8 ) . In a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s C o n f i n e d t o P e r i o d s " Popper t a k e s up the m a t t e r o f p r i n c i p i a media and seems to accept i t s e s s e n t i a l c o n t e n t i o n , though t h i s i s o b scured by c r i t i c i s m o f Mannheim Dn a p e r i p h e r a l l o g i c a l p o i n t . For what Popper wishes to argue i s s i m p l y t h a t the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s have s i m i l a r problems • f e s t a b l i s h i n g i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o p o s i t i o n s u h i c h may i n f a c t be c o n f i n e d t o a h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d (PH:97-1D4). Mannheim d e s c r i b e s t h i s c o n t r a s t i n more d e t a i l as f o l l o u s : ... H i s t o r i a n s have t r i e d t o grasp the uniqueness of each epoch as something u h i c h can be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y by immediate i n t u i t i o n (Romanticism) or t o deduce i t as a type o f unique h i s t o r i c a l d i a l e c t i c ( h i s t o r i c i s m , H e g e l i a n i s m , and M a r x i s m ) . The f i r s t s o l u t i o n renounced s c i e n t i f i c methods i n the s t u d y of h i s t o r y c o m p l e t e l y . The second c o n s t r u c t e d tuo independent and c o - e x i s t e n t l o g i c s ; a g e n e r a l i z i n g l o g i c u h i c h d e a l s u i t h uhat i s g e n e r a l , and another u h i c h t r a c e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s betueen e v e n t s i n a unique h i s t o r i c a l i s s u e . As the l a t t e r , t h e o r e t i c a l approach c r e a t e s a d i a l e c t i c u h i c h i s e n t i r e l y independent of a g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e o r y o f f a c t o r s , i t i s a l s o i n c l i n e d t o use u n s c i e n t i f i c methods. In i t s c o n c r e t e form i t i s m a i n l y i n s p i r e d by a p h i l o s o p h y of h i s t o r y , u h i c h draus i t s v i s i o n o f the course of h i s t o r y from the p a r t i c u l a r aims of c e r t a i n g roups. Ue t h i n k t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h i s the exponents o f the d i a l e c t i c a l approach r i g h t l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t he i n d i v -i d u a l development of c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l u n i t s had t o be s t u d i e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y and c o u l d not s i m p l y be l e f t t o the c a u s a l e p i c s t y l e o f the h i s t o r i a n . The m i s t a k e they made uas to r e c o n s t r u c t the i n d i v i d u a l frameuork o f a s o c i e t y , or i t s i n d i v i d u a l development u i t h o u t t a k i n g u n i v e r s a l f a c t o r s i n t o account (MS:178). i Mannheim shous an acute auareness of the dangers Df " i n t u i t i o n i s m " and sees h i s oun e f f o r t as a r a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e : . E v e r y t h i n g ue have s a i d above c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g and p r i n c i p i a media, i s c o n t r a r y tD the t r e n d o f i n t u i t i v e t h o u g h t . But our aim i s not t h a t o f the Romantics -- t o escape the g e n e r a l r a t i o n a l i z i n g p r o c e s s of modern t i m e s . Ue uant t o tD r e f i n e and extend the methods o f r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h a t they enable us t o grasp s c i e n t i f i c a l l y the c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i n i t s c o n c r e t e c o n t e x t . T h i s i s t r u e even ... ( f o r ) the type of i n v e s t -i g a t o r uho ... l o o k s upon i n t e r d e p e n d e n t t h i n k i n g as an i n c u r s i o n i n t o the realm of the i r r a t i o n a l ... He f o r g e t s ... t h a t t h e s e p r i n c i p i a media are i r r a t i o n a l i t i e s o n l y uhen measured by h i s a b s t r a c t system o f c o - o r d i n a t e s , and t h a t the method u h i c h has been d e s c r i b e d here does not t r y t o grasp the i n d i v i d u a l by i n t u i t i o n or by appre-h e n s i o n ( S c h a u ) , but r a t h e r through a f u r t h e r d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n o f the r a t i o n a l i z i n g frame o f r e f e r e n c e (MS:17D). 'Furthermore, Mannheim emphasizes aJbstif-ihe danger of d i s c i p l i n a r y myopia: -118-19 20 21 •nee a s i n g l e branch o f knouledge i s s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n i t becomes u n r e a l , and p a r a d o x i c a l as i t may sound, the o n l y person uho i s a c t i n g r e a l i s t i c a l l y i s the t h e o r i s t , uho p i e c e s t h e s e fragmentary o b s e r v a t i o n s t o g e t h e r to form a coherent scheme ... Every s p e c i a l i s t i s a c t i n g i n good f a i t h uhen he b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s oun method i s the r i g h t one, f o r he u n c o n s c i o u s l y c o n f u s e s the s e c t i o n o f r e a l i t y on u h i c h he i s u o r k i n g u i t h r e a l i t y i t s e l f ..." (MS:29). Most e x p l i c i t l y he u r i t e s i n Freedom, Pouer and Democratic P l a n n i n g : T h i s book g i v e s no b l u e p r i n t s ; i t i s n e i t h e r a l i s t o f a b s t r a c t d e s i d e r a t a f o r the p h i l o s o p h e r nor a d e t a i l e d program f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The l a s t b i t t e r decades have tau g h t us t h a t one can n e i t h e r c o n c e i v e of a good  s o c i e t y u i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the a c t u a l s t a t e of a f f a i r s nor c o n s t r u c t a u h o l e s o c i a l o r d e r by p i e c e m e a l admin-i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m s . But ue can very u e l l l a y doun p r i n c -i p l e s t o convey the g e n e r a l v i s i o n o f the k i n d o f s o c i e t y ue uant t o b u i l d (1950.: x v i i ) . In h i s uo r d s : P l a n n i n g i s the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an h i s t o r i c a l l y d eveloped s o c i e t y i n t o a u n i t y u h i c h i s r e g u l a t e d more and more p e r f e c t l y by mankind from c e r t a i n c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n s ... As ue un d e r s t a n d i t , p l a n n i n g i s f o r e s i g h t d e l i b e r a t e l y a p p l i e d t o human a f f a i r s , so t h a t the s o c i a l p r o c e s s . i s no l o n g e r merely the pr o d u c t o f c o n f l i c t and c o m p e t i t i o n (MS:193). Thus Kecskemeti n o t e s : ... the problem o f i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s t o r i c r e a l i t y and a d a p t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l l y ' r i g h t * p o s i t i o n assumed a neu form f o r Mannheim uhen t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m emerged as a dominant t r e n d ... For t h a t t h e o r y presupposed a 'uholeness' o,f s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n u h i c h no p a r t c o u l d be m i s s e d , and none uas i l l e g i t i m a t e ... U i t h the emergence o f t o t a l -i t a r i a n i s m , houever, the s p e l l o f h i s t o r y uas broken; one had to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l l y dominant t r e n d uas a d e s t r u c t i v e a b e r r a t i o n ... T h i s t r e n d had t o be o v e r -come i n o r d e r t o r e s t o r e the uhole n e s s and m e a n i n g f u l h e s s of human r e a l i t y (1953:2-3). Rempel notes t h i s s h i f t and r e l a t e s i t to Mannheim's r e v i s i o n of h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v a l u e c u l m i n a t i n g i n a "more i n t e n s i v e v o l -u n t a r i s t i c emphasis" (65:104). 22 T h i s p o i n t i s c a r e f u l l y d eveloped i n Rempel ( 1 9 6 5 ) . -119-As he puts i t : Fur u h i l e UE can see the meaning, the g o a l - d i r e c t e d -ness o f the o v e r a l l development i n so f a r as c l o s e d p e r i o d s are concerned, ue cannot see such a goal-meaning f o r our oun p e r i o d . S i n c e the f u t u r e i s a l u a y s a s e c r e t , ue can o n l y make c o n j e c t u r e s about the t o t a l p a t t e r n o f meaning of u h i c h our p r e s e n t i s a p a r t ; and s i n c e ue can have n o t h i n g more than c o n j e c t u r e s , i t i s under-s t a n d a b l e enough t h a t each c u r r e n t o f thought assumes t h a t the goal-meaning o f the p r e s e n t i s i d e n t i c a l u i t h t hose contemporary t r e n d s u i t h u h i c h t h a t c u r r e n t happens t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f (1952:172). T h i s assumption i s i m p l i c i t i n Popper's p h i l o s o p h y of the "open s o c i e t y " and i n Mannheim's t h i r d stage of " p l a n n i n g " i n the e v o l u t i o n of human l e a r n i n g . A d e t a i l e d comparison of t h e i r c o n cepts of r a t i o n a l i t y u o u l d be i n s t r u c t i v e but i s not p a s s i b l e h e r e . For a comparison of Mannheim and Ueber's t h e o r i e s o f the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s see B o r i s (1971:11-46). T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s s u b t l y e x p l o r e d by B e r l i n i n h i s essay on "Tuo Concepts of L i b e r t y " (1966:118-72). See a l s o Aron (197D), and Wood (19 7 2 ) . -120-V I I I . CONCLUSIONS: THE LIMITS OF "CRITICAL RATIONALISM" In the course of t h i s essay a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of K a r l Popper's c r i t i c i s m s o f Mannheim|s s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge has r e -v e a l e d s u r p r i s i n g m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T a k i n g t h e s e i n t o a c c o u n t , i t has been p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g out the remarkable complementary and convergent elements o f the uork of Popper and Mannheim. T h i s study has r e s t r i c t e d i t s e l f t o a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t through a comparison of the t e x t s of Popper and Mannheim. A more comprehensive i n q u i r y u o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h more p r e c i s e l y the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s a n a l y s i s and the i s s u e s r a i s e d by b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the p h i l o s o p h i e s of s o c i a l s c i e n c e of Mannheim and Popper. Some o f the d i r e c t i o n s i n u h i c h t h i s might • r l e a d have been i n d i c a t e d i n the n o t e s . S u f f i c e i t t o say here t h a t the q u e s t i o n s u h i c h d i v i d e d and obscured communication betueen the f o l l o u e r s o f Popper and the s y m p a t h i z e r s of Mannheim c o n s t i t u t e some of the d e c i s i v e problems of contemporary s o c i a l t h e o r y and p h i l o s o p h y . Working u i t h i n the common frameuork o f a s o c i a l - e v o l u t i o n a r y e p i s t e m -o l o g y , Popper and Mannheim taken t o g e t h e r d e f i n e most of the p r i n c i p a l i s s u e s g e n e r a t e d by the c o n f l u e n c e of the H e g e l i a n - M a r x i a n concern u i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of meaning, h i s t o r i c a l t o t a l i t i e s and s o c i a l development and the n e o - p o s i t i v i s t f o c u s on the f a l s i f i c a t i o n and t e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e o r i e s . In t h e i r uork p o i n t s of c o n t a c t and thus, of p o t e n t i a l d i a l o g u e betueen these tuo t r a d i t i o n s become m a n i f e s t i n the p r a g m a t i c l i b e r a l i s m u h i c h d e f i n e d t h e i r convergent response t o the c r i s i s o f i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m . -121-That the convergent a s p e c t s of the uork c f Popper and Mannheim has not r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n has been l i n k e d t o g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Western p h i l o s o p h y and s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s i n the p o s t ^ W o r l d War I I p e r i o d , as u e l l as to s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e i r academic c a r e e r s . These f a c t o r s combined t o i n h i b i t the k i n d of response to Pepper's p o l -emics t h a t might have f a c i l i t a t e d a g e n e r a l r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . T h i s f a i l u r e o f the s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c community as a c r i t i c a l medium has done Popper a g r e a t d i s s e r v i c e ; i n d e p r i v i n g him of the k i n d of c h a l l e n g e t h a t would have e l i c i t e d a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e - a p p r a i s a l of h i s p o s i t i o n , h i s c o n j e c t u r e s have been t u r n e d t o dogmatic ends r a t h e r than s e r v i n g as a spur t o c r i t i c a l " r e f l e c t i o n . Today such a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s i n p r o c e s s , but owes i t s e x i s t e n c e to r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l -c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In t h i s c u r r e n t debate the cases of Popper and Mannheim have been l a r g e l y i g n o r e d as a n a c h r o n i s t i c and because t h e i r compromises t e n d tD o f f e n d the p a r t i s a n s o f both n e o - p o s i t i v i s m and neo-Marxism. Perhaps one of the c e n t r a l l e s s o n s o f t h i s s tudy i s t h a t the f a i l u r e Df l i b e r a l pragmatism as a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y must be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d i f we are to s a l v a g e something o f the s p i r i t o f " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m . " That Popper and Mannheim came to d e a l w i t h common problems i n the p h i l o s o p h y of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s d e s p i t e t h e i r d i v e r g e n t backgrounds — Mannheim i n German n e o - i d e a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y and Popper i n modern p h y s i c s and n e o - p o s i t i v i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y of n a t u r a l s c i e n c e — has been t r a c e d t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t u r n of the c e n t u r y debates i n German p h i l o s o p h i c a l c i r c l e s g e n e r a t e d by -122-thE c h a l l E n g E Df Marxism. I t i s t h i s p e r v a s i v e i n f l u E H C E u h i c h above a l l c r e a t e d the i n i t i a l common t h r e a d u h i c h u o u l d l a t e r b r i n g t o g e t h e r the i n t e r e s t s of Popper and Mannheim. T h i s , com-b i n e d u i t h the r i s e o f t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m and f l i g h t to E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s , p r o v i d e d the m a t r i x f o r t h e i r p a r a l l e l e f f o r t s t o r e a s s e r t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f l i b e r a l democracy. Popper's apparent i n a b i l i t y to a p p r e c i a t e t h i s , and the f a i l u r e o f the E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g community o f s c h o l a r s t o have p o i n t e d i t o u t , has p r e v e n t e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f the convergent movement of i d E a s u h i c h c o i n c i d e d u i t h thE t r a j e c t o r y o f t h e i r i n t E l l e c t u a l c a r e e r s through the 1930's and 1940's. Popper's m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the b a s i c c o n c e p t s and c l a i m s of the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge i s m a n i f e s t e d i n h i s t r e a t m e n t of tuo o f i t s most b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . He does not grasp the type o f d i a l -e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p betueen thought and s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ex-p r e s s e d by the n o t i o n o f " e x i s t e n t i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n " and i g n o r e s the c o n t e x t u a l :use o f the term "knouledge" by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . As a consequence, he i s . a b l e t o l a y a s p u r i o u s charge o f i r r a t i o n a l i s t i c " s o c i o l o g i s m " a g a i n s t Mannheim uho i s h e l d t o be p r o v i d i n g a t h e o r y of the " s o c i a l d e t E r m i n a t i o n " o f " s c i e n t i f i c k n o u l E d g s " uhEn i n f a c t hE p r E S E n t s a t h s o r y o f the " e x i s t e n t i a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n " o f " i n e x a c t " or S D c i o - h i s t o r i c a l k n o u l e d g e . Though Mannheim does f a i l t o f u l l y c l a r i f y the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s o c i a l g e n e s i s f o r the " f o r m a l " s c i e n c e s and t o p r o v i d e an adequate account o f the p r o p e r t i e s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f k n o u l e d g e , he does develop a b r i l l i a n t account of h i s t o r i c a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s . Rather than a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n s t r u c t i v e l y c r i t i c i z e Mannheim's a n a l y s i s by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f problems i n the s o c i o l o g y o f s c i e n c e , Popper becomes e m b r o i l e d i n -123-s e l f - g e n e r a t e d i s s u e s t h a t r e l a t e o n l y t o a c a r i c a t u r e . In a t t e m p t i n g to s u s t a i n the charge a f i r r a t i c n a l i s m •n e p i s t e m c l o g i c a l grounds, Popper o n l y succeeds i n f u r t h e r demon-s t r a t i n g h i s s u p e r f i c i a l r e a d i n g of Mannheim. He e r r o n e o u s l y a t t r i b u t e s tD him an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e p i s t e m o l o g y when the s o c i o l o g y of knowledge presumes a s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l one. Mannheim's a n a l y s i s o f the s o c i a l p r e - c o n d i t i o n s f o r the emergence a f a t r a n s -cendent s y n t h e s i z i n g p e r s p e c t i v e — found i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s -- i s t a k e n by Popper as a g e n e r a l e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l s tatement of a t h e o r y of s c i e n c e . Thus, h i s c r i t i c i s m s bypass Mann-heim's concern t h a t the c o n f l i c t o f p e r s p e c t i v e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n must be p a r t i a l l y overcome t a a l l o w the development o f an a u t h e n t i c " s c i e n c e of p o l i t i c s " . As a con-sequence, Popper does not seem to r e a l i z e t h a t Mannheim's concern w i t h the "perspectives'. 1 of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h c o r r e s p o n d s t o what Popper h i m s e l f . h a s termed the " t r a d i t i o n s " Df s c i e n c e , a s u b j e c t he had d e f i n e d as p r o p e r l y s o c i o l o g i c a l . F i n a l l y , w i t h h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " and h i s t h e o r y of the "open s o c i e t y " popper can be seen as a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e a u n i t a r y p e r s p e c t i v e f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t hrough a t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y and a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . In Popper's a t t a c k on Mannheim's t h e o r y of p l a n n i n g , i t becomes apparent t h a t the charges of " h i s t o r i c i s m " , " h o l i s m " and "moral h i s t o r i c i s m " were l a r g e l y w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g a c u l m i n a t i o n o f a l l h i s p r e v i o u s e r r o r s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Upon c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n h i s own p r o p o s a l f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g c o u l d not be f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h a t o f Mannheim, except i n terms c f the r e l a t i v e scope o f the freedom t o be r e a l i z e d by the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . For b a t h , p l a n n i n g was seen as an e x p e r i m e n t a l -124-t a s k t o be c a r r i e d c u t by d e m o c r a t i c a l l y r e s t r a i n e d t e c h n i c a l e l i t e s u h i c h u o u l d p r o v i d e a p r a g m a t i c a l l y l i b e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e t o t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . Popper's f e a r of " u t o p i a n i s m " , houever, l e d him t o r e s t r i c t the o b j e c t i v e s o f p l a n n i n g to the e l i m i n a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g . H i s p e s s i m i s t i c v i e u o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f s o c i a l knouledge p r e c l u d e d the i d e a l o f any s t a b l e consensus on a l a r g e r range o f i s s u e s embracing p o s i t i v e freedoms. A c c o r d i n g l y , h e f e l t t h a t c o e r c i o n c o n s t i t u t e d the o n l y means f o r r e a l i z i n g such o b j e c t -i v e s . Mannheim, houever, uas c o n v i n c e d o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b -l i s h i n g s c i e n t i f i c a l l y the s o c i a l p r e - c o n d i t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e and t o develop the n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l c o n t r o l s t o b r i n g them i n t o b e i n g . He sau the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s Utopian s p i r i t as l a r g e l y a r e s p o n s -i b i l i t y o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a t u m . Hou then are ue t o v i e u the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s Df the p o s i t i o n s of Mannheim and Popper as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e ? I t i s the t h e s i s Df t h i s s t u d y t h a t Popper's mis-i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Df Mannheim's s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge r e v e a l s the l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " . Mannheim's p e r s p e c t i v e , on the o t h e r hand, p r o v i d e s the rud i m e n t s f o r comprehending the n a t u r e and s o u r c e s of Popper's d i f f i c u l t i e s . As L u c i e n Goldmann has suggested on the problem Df comparing tuo d i f f e r e n t u o r l d - v i e u s : Vieued i n terms o f t h e i r e f f e c t on s c i e n t i f i c t h o u g h t , d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s and i d e o l o g i e s do not e x i s t on the  same p l a n e . Some value-judgments p e r m i t a b e t t e r under-s t a n d i n g Df r e a l i t y than o t h e r s . Uhen i t i s a q u e s t i o n Df d e t e r m i n i n g u h i c h o f tuo c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i o l o g i e s has the g r e a t e r s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e , the f i r s t s t e p i s t o ask u h i c h o f them p e r m i t s the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the o t h e r as a  s o c i a l and, human phenomenon, r e v e a l s i t s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and c l a r i f i e s , by means,of an immanent c r i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e , i t s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and i t s l i m i t a t i o n s (1969:52). Popper's i n a b i l i t y t o grasp the argument o f Mannheim's s o c i --125-o l o g y o f knouledge p r o v i d e s c o n v i n c i n g s u p p o r t of the t h e s i s t h a t the s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e o f " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " has touched upon i t s " i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s " . Mannheim uas u e l l auare of the d i f f i c u l t y posed by the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge f o r the autonomy of p h i l o s o p h y . And u h i l e he r e c o g n i z e d the p a r t t o p l a y by the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r y o f knouledge, he uas a l s o a b l e t o i n t e r -p r e t the i n s t i n c t i v e r e a c t i o n o f those uho u o u l d d o g m a t i c a l l y s t i g -m a t i z e the p r o p o s i t i o n s of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge as " s o c i o l o g i s m " . For the assumption a p r i o r i o f the autonomy o f e p i s t e m o l o g y from s p e c i a l i z e d s c i e n c e s , c l o s e s the mind to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a broader e m p i r i c i s m and c o n s e q u e n t l y , " t h i s g e s t u r e of s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n " , as he termed i t , s e r v e d "no o t h e r purpose than t h a t of a b u l u a r k f o r a c e r t a i n type o f academic e p i s t e m o l o g y ...." (IU:2B7-8). Yet, Popper uas not one of those uho a l l e g e d the autonomy of e p i s t e m o l o g y from the s p e c i a l s c i e n c e s ; on the c o n t r a r y , as he p o i n t s out i n h i s c r i t i c i s m o f l i n g u i s t i c and o r d i n a r y language p h i l o s o p h i e s , they f a i l t o a n a l y s e the s c i e n t i f i c problems, t h e o r i e s , p r o c e d u r e s and d i s -c u s s i o n s u h i c h are the key t o the c e n t r a l problem of e p i s t e m o l o g y — the g r o u t h o f knouledge (LSD:22). But h i s r e j e c t i o n o f the r e s u l t s of the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge as h a v i n g any s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e a l l o u e d him to d i s p e n s e u i t h i n c o r p o r a t i n g i t s f i n d i n g s i n t o h i s t h e o r y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e . As ue have seen, he p r o v i d e d a p s e u d o - s o l u t i o n u i t h h i s d emarcation betueen s c i e n t i f i c and n o n - s c i e n t i f i c knouledge. Whatever v a l u e t h i s might have as a n o r m a t i v e g u i d e , i t f a i l s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the dilemmas posed by the almost t o t a l absence of s o c i a l s c i e n c e taken i n t h i s r i g o r o u s s e n s e . Only the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge p r o v i d e s the c r i t i c a l t o o l s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the k i n d s of knouledge u h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the b u l k of s o c i a l s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y . -126-In s h o r t , such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n the " c r i t i c a l " s e l f - a w a r e n e s s of Popper's r a t i o n a l i s t c r e d o . NOT can i t be argued t h a t t h e s e e a r l i e r v i e u s uere a b e r r a t i o n s , e x p r e s s i o n s of the p e c u l i a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r g e n e s i s . For Popper dog-m a t i c a l l y h o l d s f a s t to h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge. More r e c e n t l y , he uent so f a r as t o suggest t h a t "the p r e s e n t t r e n d i n the s o - c a l l e d e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s i s l i k e l y t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the decay of s c i e n c e " (1970b:258). At the same time he i s p u z z l e d by the c o n t i n u e d f a i l u r e o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and i s f o r c e d t o lament tuo decades a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s s t u d i e s i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e : Somehou or o t h e r , the u n i n t e n d e d r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f our h e e d l e s s t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance seem tD be nobody's b u s i n e s s . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n seem t o be i n t o x i c a t i n g ... The problem o f the u n i n t e n d e d con-sequences o f our a c t i o n s , consequences u h i c h are not o n l y u n i n t e n d e d but o f t e n very d i f f i c u l t t o f a r s e e , i s t h e . f u n d a m e n t a l problem o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s (1969b: 5 6 - 7 ) . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n , but Popper i s unable t o f o r m u l a t e the s o c i a l s o u r c e s o f t h i s f a i l u r e . In denying the l e g i t i m a c y o f the s o c i o l o g y o f knouledge, he cannot b e g i n t o e x p l a i n uhy i t i s t h a t " c r i t i c a l r e a s o n " has not e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f as r e a d i l y i n the s o c i a l as i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . Nor can he see the uay i n u h i c h h i s oun d o c t r i n e s have a c t u a l l y been an o b s t a c l e t o f i n d i n g out uhy such m a t t e r s as " h e e d l e s s t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance" seem-to be "nobody's b u s i n e s s " . I r o n i c a l l y , h i s o n l y response has. been t o r e v o l t a g a i n s t the very t h e s i s o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n t h a t he had m i l i t a n t l y defended i n the Open S o c i e t y . For he sees the v i l l a i n o f contemporary s c i e n c e the problem o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n u i t h i t s r e -s u l t i n g emphasis on "normal" s c i e n c e . As he laments: -127-I f the many, the s p e c i a l i s t s , g a i n the day, i t u i l l be the end of s c i e n c e as ue knou i t — Df g r e a t s c i e n c e . I t u i l l be a s p i r i t u a l c a t a s t r o p h y comparable i n i t s ' con-sequences t o n u c l e a r armament (1970b:259). F u r t h e r , he draus a p a r a l l e l betueen the n a t u r a l and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s uhere "the d e g e n e r a t i o n i n t o i m p r e s s i v e but more or l e s s empty v e r b a l i s m has gone f u r t h e r than i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s " ( 2 5 8 ) . Yet even i n the n a t u r a l - s c i e n c e s : More and more PhD. c a n d i d a t e s r e c e i v e a merely t e c h -n i c a l t r a i n i n g , a t r a i n i n g i n c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s o f measurement; they are not i n i t i a t e d i n t o the s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n , the c r i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f q u e s t i o n i n g , Df b e i n g tempted and g u i d e d by g r e a t and a p p a r e n t l y i n s o l u b l e r i d d l e s r a t h e r than by the s o l u b i l i t y o f l i t t l e p u z z l e s ( 2 5 9 ) . And t h i s i s the man uho i s a l s o the advocate of "piecemeal s o c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g " and the c r i t i c o f t h e o r e t i c a l h i s t o r y ? Here he laments the d e c l i n e of t y p e s of i n q u i r y i n n a t u r a l s c i e n c e u h i c h tuo decades e a r l i e r he had t r i e d t o d i s m i s s i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e . Might not the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge be an i n t e g r a l p a r t and e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s " c r i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f q u e s t i o n i n g " ? Might not the s o c i o l o g y Df s c i e n c e c o n t r i b u t e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s o u r c e s and e f f e c t s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ? Might nat the need to be "tempted and g u i d e d by g r e a t and a p p a r e n t l y i n s o l u b l e r i d d l e s r a t h e r than by the s o l u b i l i t y o f l i t t l e p u z z l e s " be as much a p r e r e q u i s i t e of the c r e a t i v i t y o f the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s as the n a t u r a l ? Popper's a g o n i z i n g r e - a p p r a i s a l o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n s c i e n c e b o r d e r s upon the t r a g i c . Burdened by a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s o c i o l o g y of knouledge, he sees i t as the p r i m a r y source Df i r -r a t i o n a l i s m r a t h e r than as a means o f i t s c o n t r o l . B e u i l d e r e d by the f a c t t h a t no one seems concerned u i t h the e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g y , he i s unable tD f o r m u l a t e the problem t o e x p l a i n uhy t h i s i s the -128-case, f o r a g a i n i t r e q u i r e s a s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . He laments the r e l e n t l e s s p r e s s u r e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and the f a i l u r e of the g e n e r a l i z i n g c a p a c i t y u h i c h i s the so u r c e o f a l l c r e a t i v e b r e a k - t h r o u g h s , y e t cannot l i n k t h i s t o a t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y u h i c h u o u l d make sense o f the p r o c e s s and i n d i c a t e hou human c o n t r o l s might be i n s t i t u t e d t o a l t e r i t . In sum, Popper's i n c a p a b i l i t y of r e c o g n i z i n g h i s a f f i n i t y u i t h Mannheim, a man uhose r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s p a r a l l e l e d Popper's t o the n a t u r a l , c u t s him o f f from the very source o f i n s i g h t t h a t might t r a n s f o r m h i s t r u n c a t e d " c r i t i c a l r a t i o n a l i s m " i n t o a l i b e r a t i v e one. -129-IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY ABBREVIATIONS OF FREQUENTLY CITED TEXTS: Popper, K a r l R. CR. C o n j e c t u r e s and R e f u t a t i o n s : the Grouth o f S c i e n t i f i c Knouledge. 2nd. ed. NY: Harper T o r c h -books, 1968; ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1962). LSD L o g i c o f S c i e n t i f i c D i s c o v e r y , end ed. NY: Harper Torchbooks, 1968. ( F i r s t Eng. ed. 1959; f i r s t Ger. ed. 1935). OK O b j e c t i v e Knouledge: An E v o l u t i o n a r y Approach. London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972. OS-I The Open S o c i e t y and i t s Enemies, v o l . I : The S p e l l o f - P l a t o . 4th ed. NY:.Harper Torchbooks, 1963; ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1945). OS-II The Open S o c i e t y and i t s Enemies, v o l . I I : The  High T i d e o f Prophecy: H e g e l , Marx and the A f t e r m a t h . NY: Harper Torchbooks, 1963; ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1945). PH The P o v e r t y o f H i s t o r i c i s m . 3 r d ed.. NY: Harper Torchbooks, 1964; ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1944-45). Mannheim, K a r l IU I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a : •An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the S o c i o l o g y o f Knouledge. t r a n s . L o u i s W i r t h and Eduard S h i l s . NY: H a r c o u r t , Brace & U o r l d ( H a r v e s t B o o k s ) , 1964; ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1936). MS Man and S o c i e t y i n an Age of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n : S t u d i e s i n . Modern S o c i a l S t r u c t i o n . t r a n s . Eduard S h i l s . 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