UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Public attitudes toward mobile homes Rodgers, Eric Gordon 1972

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PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD MOBILE HOMES by E r i c Gordon Rodgers B.Sc.; B.Ed., M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y o f Newfoundland, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF SCIENCE I n the S c h o o l - o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia May 1972 I I In present ing th i s thesis ' in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un i ve rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make it f r ee l y ava i l ab l e for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extensive copying o f th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t i ves . It is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f th i s thes i s for f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The Un ive rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada I l l ABSTRACT G e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes a n d s p e c i f i c l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes i s p r e s e n t e d . The l i t e r a t u r e showed t h e s a l i e n t p r o b l e m s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m o b i l e homes. The p r o b l e m s were p r i m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t a x a t i o n m e t h o d s , s t a n d a r d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , f i n a n c i n g , l e g i s l a t i v e and r e g u l a t o r y p r o b l e m s . A l l o f t h e s e a p p e a r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o s t e r e o t y p i n g m o b i l e homes w i t h n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s , w h i c h i s t h e c r u x o f t h e p r o b l e m a n a l y s e d i n t h e t h e s i s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m o b i l e homes and i t s r e s i d e n t s a r e r e v i e w e d i n l i g h t o f r e g i o n a l a n d n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s c o m p l e t e d i n C a n a d a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s do d r a w v e r y s i m i l i a r c o n c l u s i o n s w h e r e a s t h e r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s d e v i a t e somewhat a n d show t h e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e g i o n , w h i c h may d i f f e r f r o m r e g i o n t o r e g i o n . The m e t h o d o l o g y l o o k e d a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o a n d a l s o some d i s t a n c e f r o m d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o v a r i o u s c l u s t e r s o f h o u s e h o l d s I n t h e s t u d y a r e a o f C o q u i t l a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o a n a l y s e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e p r o b l e m s a n d f i n d t h e e f f e c t t h e y p l a y i n s t e r e o t y p i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. A s e r i e s o f n u l l h y p o t h e s e s w e re u s e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f c h i s q u a r e t e s t s a n d c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . A f u r t h e r s e r i e s o f s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t t e s t s and c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i n a n a t t e m p t t o d e l i n e a t e c a u s a l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s . I V The m a j o r f i n d i n g s showed t h a t q u a l i t y o f m o b i l e home p a r k s was I m p o r t a n t t o t h e p u b l i c . The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s showed t h a t t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes r e l a t e d t o t h e i r r e s p o n s e s o n q u a l i t y o f m o b i l e homes. F u r t h e r m o r e , q u a l i t y r e s p o n s e s w e re f o u n d t o r e l a t e t o r e s p o n s e s o n t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f m a r k e t v a l u e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . I t was a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t t h e s t r o n g e r t h e s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s t h e n more n u l l h y p o t h e s e s were r e j e c t e d a n d t h e s t r o n g e r was t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . The t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s t h a t i n v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e o v e r a l l p r o b l e m s o f m o b i l e homes m u s t be e m e n d a t e d . C o r r e c t i o n o f o n l y some o f t h e p r o b l e m s , s u c h a s s t a n d a r d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , w i l l n o t l e a d t o t h e h e a l t h i e s t s o l u t i o n p o s s i b l e f o r m o b i l e homes. M o b i l e homes a r e deemed a n i m p o r t a n t s u p p l y o f h o u s i n g f o r p e o p l e who p r e f e r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i f e - s t y l e . T h e r e f o r e , a new m o b i l e homes p o l i c y h a s b e e n recommended a n d a b r i e f o u t l i n e f o r s u c h a p o l i c y h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d . To d e v e l o p a m o b i l e homes p o l i c y much r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d i n t h e a r e a s o f s t a n d a r d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t a x a t i o n a n d f i n a n c i n g m e t h o d s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s , d e s i g n i m p l i c a t i o n s , a n d a r e v i e w o f g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c i e s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Pace LIST OF TABLES 8 LIST OF FIGURES 10 Chapter I LITERATURE REVIEW OF MOBILE HOMES 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n •• 1 The Growth of Mobile Homes 2 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 2 General H i s t o r y 4 General Growth 7 The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Mobile Home Residents. 14 In t r o d u c t o r y Statement 14 The American Mobile Home Resident 14 The Canadian Mobile Home Resident 20 Reasons f o r Choosing Mobile Homes 25 B r i e f Comparison of the American and Canadian Mobile Home Resident 27 A n a l y s i s of the Major Problems 29 Lo c a t i o n 29 Standard of Development 31 Taxation 32 F i n a n c i n g 3° P u b l i c R e j e c t i o n 4 l Regulati o n s and By-Laws 42 VT C h a p t e r £a££ I I P U B L I C ATTITUDES TOWARD MOBILE HOMES 43 I n t r o d u c t i o n 43 P r e f a b r i c a t i o n A t t i t u d e s 43 L e g a l O p i n i o n s 44 A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t a l A t t i t u d e s 46 C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t a l A t t i t u d e s 49 G e n e r a l A m e r i c a n A t t i t u d e s 51 Summary 54 A C a s e S t u d y o f A t t i t u d e s i n C o q u i t l a m 55 I I I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 62 H y p o t h e s e s 62 H y p o t h e s i s 62 N u l l H y p o t h e s e s 62 S u b - N u l l H y p o t h e s e s 63 The S t u d y A r e a 64 S a m p l i n g M e t h o d 71 The P r o b l e m s o f M e a s u r i n g A t t i t u d e s 78 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D e s i g n 81 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e D i s t r i b u t i o n 86 T e s t i n g t h e H y p o t h e s i s 88 I V A N A L Y S I S OF RESEARCH 90 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A n a l y s i s 90 H y p o t h e s e s 106 Summary 114 V C O N C L U S I O N S AND RECOMMENDATIONS 117 G e n e r a l I s s u e s 11? S p e c i f i c I s s u e s 118 V I I P l a n n i n g P o l i c i e s 119 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 122 FOOTNOTES 125 BIBLIOGRAPHY 132 APPENDICES 136 A. L e t t e r s from the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s O f f i c e , B.C., Re. the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n toward m o b i l e homes .... 13& B. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 140 C. L e t t e r o f T r a n s m i t t a l 146 D. R e s u l t s o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A n a l y s i s o m i t t e d from t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t h e s i s . 1^ 8 E. R e s u l t s o f the S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s made on the N u l l H ypotheses and S u b - N u l l H ypotheses 153 V I I I 'LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page I I n d u s t r y Shipments o f M o b i l e Home U n i t s By S i z e 8 I I A n n u a l M o b i l e Home Shipment S i z e s 10 I I I The Canadian M o b i l e Home Ma r k e t 12 I V New M o b i l e Home U n i t s S o l d i n Canada 13 V U.S. S t a t i s t i c s on M o b i l e Home D w e l l e r s .... 15 •VI U.S. M o b i l e Home F a m i l i e s 16 V I I U.S. M o b i l e Home F a m i l i e s ( t a b l e s V and VI combined) 17 V I I I O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f M o b i l e Home Owners as compared w i t h Those o f the G e n e r a l P o p u l a t i o n f o r S e l e c t e d A r e a s 24 I X D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A n n u a l Incomes i n Canada V e r s u s the P r i c e o f H o u s i n g Each Income L e v e l Can A f f o r d .. 38 X M o b i l e Homes and M o b i l e Home P a r k s i n the Study A r e a 67 XI Q u a l i t y Survey o f M o b i l e Home P a r k s i n the Study A r e a 70 X I I Sample S i z e and R e t u r n s from t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 76 X I I I Responses to V a r i a b l e s 6-14 f o r C l u s t e r s A-F 94 XIV Responses to T a x a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t Forms o f Ho u s i n g 97 XV A t t i t u d e Change C o n c e r n i n g the Amount o f Ta x e s . p a i d by M o b i l e Home R e s i d e n t s 99 XVI Reasons Respondents gave f o r M o v i n g i n t o the P r e s e n t R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a 100 XVII F e e l i n g s About Any M o b i l e Home P a r k D e v e l o p i n g i n the Respondent* s R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a 101 I X T a b l e P a ge X V I I I R e a s o n s f o r n o t W a n t i n g t o L i v e i n a M o b i l e Home 10 3 X I X L o c a t i o n s S u g g e s t e d f o r M o b i l e Homes 105 XX S u g g e s t e d I m p o r t a n t F e a t u r e s f o r P l a n n i n g M o b i l e Home A r e a s 106 XXI F a m i l i a r i t y o f R e s p o n d e n t s t o M o b i l e Homes . 15.1 X X I I C h i - P r o b a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s o f t h e N u l l H y p o t h e s e s 15^ X X I I I C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s o f t h e N u l l H y p o t h e s e s g r e a t e r t h a n 0 . 7 155 X X I V C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s o f t h e N u l l H y p o t h e s e s g r e a t e r t h a n 0 . 5 • • • • 156 XXV T - P r o b a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s o f t h e S u b - N u l l H y p o t h e s e s 157 X L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e P a g e I The S t u d y A r e a w i t h i n i t s R e g i o n 65 I I S c h e m a t i c Map S h o w i n g t h e L o c a t i o n o f M o b i l e Home P a r k s a n d t h e C l u s t e r s s a m p l e d 73 XI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s t o D r . R o b e r t C o l l i e r , D r . N I r m a l a d e v i C h e r u k u p a l l e a n d t h e S c h o o l f o r t h e i r h e l p i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . T h a n k s a r e a l s o e x t e n d e d t o t h o s e who h a v e g i v e n me a w a r d s , w i t h o u t w h i c h none o f t h i s w o u l d h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e . F i n a l l y , t h a n k s go t o my w i f e C a r o l f o r h e r p a t i e n c e a n d h a r d w o r k i n t h e t y p i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER I LITERATURE REVIEW OP MOBILE HOMES INTRODUCTION E r n e s t R. B a r t l e y and F r e d e r i c k H. B a i r i n c o n c l u d i n g a book o n m o b i l e homes s a i d t h a t , "The u s e o f m o b i l e homes f o r p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s w i l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e f u t u r e . O n l y t h o s e who a r e o u t o f . t o u c h w i t h r e a l i t y c a n f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t f a c t . The a n s w e r d o e s n o t l i e i n d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , r e t a l i a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o p r o h i b i t m o b i l e homes o r make t h e i r u s e u n r e a s o n a b l y d i f f i c u l t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t we s h o u l d p l a n f o r m o b i l e homes. H o w e v e r , c h a p t e r s I a n d I I w i l l show t h a t m o b i l e homes h a v e many p r o b l e m s w h i c h make p r o p e r p l a n n i n g e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . The t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. I t i s f e l t t h a t s u c h a s t u d y w i l l f i n d o u t j u s t how many p r o b l e m s e x i s t a n d t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e s e a s f a r a s t h e p u b l i c a r e c o n c e r n e d . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t p r o b l e m s c h a n g e f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e . T h e r e f o r e , a s s u m i n g t h i s t o .be t h e c a s e , t h e s t u d y a r e a o f C o q u i t l a m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may n o t e x p e r i e n c e t h e same number o r d e g r e e o f p r o b l e m s a s o t h e r a r e a s c o v e r e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The r e s u l t s o f s u c h a p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t u d y w o u l d be more a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i n C o q u i t l a m . I t m i g h t a l s o be more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a t t i t u d e s e x i s t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r e v e n C a n a d a , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Many o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s may no l o n g e r be a p p l i c a b l e b u t may s t i l l t r a n s f e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y a r e . t o many r e a d e r s . The p u b l i c i n t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e h o u s e h o l d e r s s a m p l e d f r o m c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g f o r m s i n C o q u i t l . / - Z' -THE GROWTH OF MOBILE HOMES De f i n i t i o n of Termst There are numerous d e f i n i t i o n s of mobile homes, many of which are inadequate. The Mobile Home Manufacturers Association i n the United States has promoted the d e f i n i t i o n of a mobile home as M... a portable u n i t designed and b u i l t to be towed on i t s own chassis, comprised of frame and wheels connected to u t i l i t i e s g and designed without a permanent foundation." In contrast to t h i s a t r a v e l t r a i l e r i s defined as being "... towed by automobile, can be operated independently of connections, i s li m i t e d i n width to eight feet, i n length to t h i r t y two feet and i s designed to be used p r i n c i p a l l y as a temporary vacation dwelling. "3 Order i n Council 3130 of the B r i t i s h Columbia Health Act defines the mobile home as a "... structure manufactured as a unit intended to be occupied i n a place other than that of i t s manufacturer ^ and designed f o r dwelling purposes." 4 The Act further d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between "independent" and "dependent'' mobile homes. The former i s "... equipped with a water-closet and a bathtub or shower, waste from both of which may be dispossed of d i r e c t l y into a sewer. The l a t t e r means "... a mobile,home other than an independent mobile home. w 6 Presumeably then, the "dependent mobile home" i s a t r a v e l t r a i l e r as de f i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . In t h i s paper the term "mobile home" w i l l be s i m i l i a r to the d e f i n i t i o n s of the "mobile home" by the Mobile Home Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n o r the term "independent mobile home" as used i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Health Act. So then a mobile home w i l l be a u n i t which i s used as a permanent residence and which has adequate water and sewage f a c i l i t i e s . A mobile home park i s d e f i n e d as "... any p l o t of ground upon which two or more mobile homes occupied f o r d w e l l i n g purposes are l o c a t e d r e g a r d l e s s of whether o r not a charge i s made f o r such accomodation."'' "... a p a r c e l of land under s i n g l e ownership which has been planned and improved f o r the placement of mobile homes f o r non-transient use."" In t h i s paper a rented s i t e f o r a mobile home which i s to be used f o r d w e l l i n g purposes w i l l be designated as a "mobile home park". A "mobile home s u b d i v i s i o n " d i f f e r s from a mobile home park i n tha t the owner of the mobile home u n i t s buys h i s p l o t of land r a t h e r than r e n t s i t , i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area s p e c i f i c a l l y developed f o r the mobile home u n i t . - -General H i s t o r y : P r e v i o u s t o 1955 m o b i l e home l i v i n g was c a r r i e d o n l a r g e l y i n t r a v e l t r a i l e r s . A t t h i s t i m e m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a p p e a r e d t o be a more homogeneous g r o u p a n d f r e q u e n t m o b i l i t y was t h e way o f l i f e . I t i s d u r i n g t h i s t i m e p e r i o d t h a t t h e " t r a i l e r s l u m s " d e v e l o p e d a n d much o f t h e r e s e a r c h o n m o b i l e homes was s o c i o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e t r a i l e r s l u m s , t h e f r e q u e n t m o b i l i t y a n d o b s e r v i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s who r e s i d e d i n t r a i l e r s . H o w e v e r , s u c h s t u d i e s f o u n d t h a t t h e r e were no s e r i o u s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s d i v o r c e , d e l i q u e n c y o r c r i m e among m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a s a r e s u l t o f f r e q u e n t m o b i l i t y . A s a m a t t e r o f f a c t i t was f o u n d t h a t m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s w e r e n o t d i f f e r e n t i n k i n d o r amount o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s f r o m a n y o o t h e r c o m m u n i t y . W i l l i a m H. Whyte w r o t e t h a t "... The t r a n s i e n t s a r e n o t p l a g u e d by i n s t a b i l i t y a n d l o n e l i n e s s . " ! 0 I n 1953 a c c o r d i n g t o S c h o r r , t h e G i r l S c o u t s o f A m e r i c a d e c l a r e d : "... I n a way t h e s e f a m i l i e s a r e v a g a b o n d s , b u t n e v e r h a v e v a g a b o n d s b e e n so c o n s t r u c t i v e , so s e l f - ... s u f f i c i e n t , a n d so s e c u r e f i n a n c i a l l y . " Don H a g e r e v e n i n d i c a t e s t h a t many m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s h a d 12 a h a p p i e r l i f e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r m o b i l e home r e s i d e n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many o f t h e t r a i l e r c o u r t s were u g l y , c r o w d e d , u n s a n i t a r y a n d o b n o x i o u s , t h u s p r o b a b l y d e s e r v i n g / / - 5 -o f t h e p h r a s e " m o b i l e s l u m s . " T h i s p r o b l e m was a p t l y s u m m a r i z e d by Max W e h r l y . "... t r a i l e r homes were t h e n owned by l o w i n c o m e t r a n s i e n t s a n d t r a i l e r p a r k s were i n a d e q u a t e l y d e v e l o p e d and o v e r c r o w d e d , c a u s i n g s a n i t a t i o n , f i r e a n d p o l i c e p r o b l e m s . O f t e n l a r g e n u m b e r s R e g u l a t i o n s s u c h a s h e a l t h a n d z o n i n g and I n c r e a s i n g l a n d v a l u e s h a v e f o r c e d many o f t h e m a r g i n a l o p e r a t i o n s o u t o f b u s i n e s s a n d e n c o u r a g e d o t h e r s t o u p g r a d e t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . I n 1955 t h e p e r s i s t e n t l o b b y i n g o f t h e m o b i l e home I n d u s t r y r e s u l t e d i n p e r m i s s i o n i n s e v e r a l A m e r i c a n s t a t e s t o i n c r e a s e t h e w i d t h o f t r a i l e r s a l l o w e d o n h i g h w a y s f r o m an e i g h t f o o t 14 t o a t e n f o o t minimum. T h i s b r e a k t h r o u g h was i m p o r t a n t t o b e t t e r d e s i g n , more c o m f o r t a n d more s p a c e i n m o b i l e homes a s t h e y became l o n g e r a n d w i d e r . D u r i n g t h e m i d s i x t i e s t h e t e n - w i d e s e x p a n d e d t o t w e l v e - w i d e s w i t h o v e r a l l l e n g t h s o f f i f t y t o s e v e n t y - f i v e f e e t . F o u r t e e n - w i d e s and d o u b l e -w i d e s , t h a t i s two u n i t s put, t o g e t h e r f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y a f t e r a n d e v e n m u l t i p l e m o d u l a r u n i t s a p p e a r e d o n t h e m a r k e t . S i m i l i a r l y f u r n i s h i n g s , f a c i l i t i e s a n d i n t e r i o r d e s i g n a l s o a d v a n c e d so t h a t o n t h e i n t e r i o r , m o b i l e homes a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . o f c h i l d r e n were a l s o e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . I v e d , c r e a t i n g n S i n c e 1955 s t u d i e s made o n m o b i l e homes c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : "... f i r s t , t h e g e n e r a l s t u d y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a nd p r e f e r e n c e s o f p e o p l e r e s i d i n g i n m o b i l e homes ... - 6 -t h e n a t i o n a l s t u d y ; s e c o n d , s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o m m u n i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e m o b i l e home park..', t h e c o m m u n i t y o r i e n t e d s t u d y ; a n d t h i r d , s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t s ... t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p - o r i e n t e d study."15 A c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s e i n s t u d i e s o f m o b i l e homes o c c u r e d . H o w e v e r , m a j o r c h a n g e s were i n p h y s i c a l d i m e n s i o n s a n d t h e d e s i g n o f t h e m o b i l e home. M a t e r i a l s , c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e d e s i g n o f t h e new l a r g e m o b i l e homes were f o r p e r m a n e n t l i v i n g . F u r n i t u r e a n d f a c i l i t i e s o f many s t y l e s were a l s o made a v a i l a b l e w i t h t h e m o b i l e home so t h a t maximum s p a c e u t i l i z a t i o n was p r o v i d e d . T e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s i n t h e m o b i l e home r e s u l t e d i n t h e v i s u a l i z a t i o n o f o t h e r u s e s f o r m o b i l e homes. M o b i l e homes a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r u s e o n s t a n d a r d r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s i n a m o d e r n s u b d i v i s i o n a s w e l l a s b e i n g l o c a t e d i n m o b i l e home p a r k s o r o n p r i v a t e l o t s . U n i t s s i m i l i a r t o m o b i l e homes h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d by W a r r e n C h a l k f o r p l u g - i n u n i t s i n H i g h r i s e s . ^ S i m i l i a r l y E l m e r F r y h a s d e s i g n e d a p r o p o s e d t w i n h i g h r i s e m o b i l e home p a r k , a g a i n u s i n g t h e m o b i l e u n i t s 17 a s p l u g - i n s . Of c o u r s e , m o d u l a r u n i t s v e r y s i m i l i a r t o t h e i d e a o f t h e m o b i l e home h a v e l o n g b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a n d h a s b e e n i m p l e m e n t e d q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n n u m e r o u s c a s e s , f o r e x a m p l e , " H a b i t a t , " i n M o n t r e a l . More r e c e n t l y t h e m o d u l a r u n i t s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o c o n s t r u c t s i n g l e f a m i l y homes a n d s m a l l n fl a p a r t m e n t u n i t s s u c h a s t o w n h o u s e s a n d g a r d e n a p a r t m e n t s . G e n e r a l G r o w t h : G r o w t h r a t e s a n d t o t a l n u m b e r s o f m o b i l e homes i n C a n a d a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n n o t be c o m p a r e d , s i n c e t h e l a t t e r c o u n t r y h a s p l a y e d a r o l e a s i n n o v a t o r s and r i s k i n v e s t o r s , t h u s g i v i n g i t a n edge i n t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y . O t h e r w i s e , g e n e r a l l y more m i l d c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a n d l o w e r u n i t c o s t s a r e a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h h e l p e x p l a i n t h e l a r g e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s t h e r a p i d g r o w t h r a t e o f m o b i l e homes i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s w h i c h s h o u l d be a m a j o r c o n c e r n r a t h e r t h a n t h e a b s o l u t e number o f m o b i l e homes i n e i t h e r c o u n t r y . A s f a r a s a b s o l u t e number o f m o b i l e homes i s c o n c e r n e d i n C a n a d a , o n l y o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e 19 t o t a l h o u s i n g s t o c k o f 5*500,000 homes i s m o b i l e homes. y H o w e v e r , t h e C a n a d i a n M o b i l e Home a n d T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n s a i d i n t h e i r r e p o r t t o t h e H e l l y e r T a s k F o r c e , t h a t 90,000 C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s own m o b i l e homes o f w h i c h 83,000 o r 92.2 p e r c e n t a r e p e r m a n e n t . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e e s t i m a t e d two m i l l i o n m o b i l e homes r e p r e s e n t e d 3«^ p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l 1969 h o u s i n g s u p p l y w h i c h was 58»326,000 homes. A d e f i n i t e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e m o b i l e home m a r k e t h a s o c c u r e d . I n 1 9 ^ 7 , t h e 60,000 m o b i l e home u n i t s m a n u f a c t u r e d a c c o u n t e d f o r $146,000,000 i n s a l e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1 9 6 6 a t o t a l o f 217,000 m o b i l e home u n i t s w e r e m a n u f a c t u r e d and t h e e s t i m a t e d r e t a i l s a l e s t o t a l l e d $1 ,238,000,000. 2 1 T a b l e 1 ( p a g e S).'shows t h e ' growth; -rate'- ih'* :prbdu'c'tibh'or-'mobile homes. - 8 -T a b l e I INDUSTRY SHIPMENTS OF MOBILE HOME UNITS BY SIZE (Unifs in OOO's) 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 1955 _/ _J _i 8-v/ides 1956 1957 1958 • 1 0-v/ides v.f.-1959 1960 Double-v/ ides •ExDondables 1961 SJ2 1962 Sour.ce: Mobi le Homes Manufacturers Association 1963 1964 1965 1966 - 9- -i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m 1955 t h r o u g h 1966. T a b l e 11 ( p a g e 10) shows t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f u n i t s p r o d u c e d i n e a c h s i z e r a n g e i n t h e U.S. w h i c h r e f l e c t s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r w i d e r u n i t s i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s . M o b i l e homes h a v e become a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g m a r k e t . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m 1965 t o I969 m o b i l e homes i n c r e a s e d f r o m 65 p e r c e n t t o 94 p e r c e n t o f a l l new homes b u i l t u n d e r $15,000. A s a p e r c e n t a g e o f a l l new homes c o n s t r u c t e d ' f r o m i960 t o 1969 m o b i l e homes 22 i n c r e a s e d i n s a l e s f r o m 10 p e r c e n t t o 48 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . M o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t s h a v e a l s o g r o w n r a p i d l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m a t o t a l o f 16,700 i n i960 t o 22,000 i n 2 3 1966 w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a 33 p e r c e n t g a i n . J I n t h e l a t e f i f t i e s t h e m o b i l e home s u b d i v i s i o n was f i r s t c o n c e i v e d a n d by i960 t h e r e w e re a b o u t 50 s u c h s u b d i v i s i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e U n i t e d ?4 -S t a t e s . S i m i l i a r g r o w t h o f m o b i l e homes i n C a n a d a h a s b e e n e x p e r i e n c e d a n d t h e m o b i l e home i s t a k i n g a more i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g w i t h e a c h s u c c e e d i n g y e a r . I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t m o b i l e home s a l e s i n c r e a s e d s i n c e 2 5 I967, when t h e p r i c e o f h o u s i n g s t a r t e d t o s o a r i n Ca n a d a . J I n 1967 a n d 1968 t h e g r o w t h r a t e f o r m o b i l e homes were 59 p e r c e n t a n d 35 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n 1969 t h e m o b i l e home s a l e s r o s e 49 p e r c e n t t o 15,000 u n i t s f r o m a b o u t 10,068 26 u n i t s i n 1968. I n 1963, 3,075 m o b i l e homes were s h i p p * t o d e a l e r s w h i l e i n 1968 t h i s f i g u r e was more t h a n t h r e e - 1 0 --- • Table II Size of Unit 1955 1956 1957 ANNUAL MOBILE HOME SHIPMENT SIZES Year 1953 1 959 1 960 ' 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 % o f All Units . P r o d u c e d B e t w e e n 1955-1965 8-Wides 100.0% 91.0% 75.0% 31.0% 20.9% 9.5% 1.9% 2.0% 1.5% 0.9% 0.9% 0.5% 27.9 10-Wides none 9.0% 25.0.% 69.0% 79.1% 90.5% 98.1% 72.7% 73.3% 59.8% 41.4% 24.6% 53.5 12-Wid.es none none none none none none none 5.0% 6.4% 21.1% 45.1% 65.3% 11.9 Expandables & Double-Wides none none none- none . none none none 20.3% 18.8% 18.2% 12.6% 9.6% 6.5 Total Production of Mobile Home Units 111,900 124,330 119,300 102,000 120,500 103,700 90,200 118,000 150;840 191,320 216,470 217,300 Total Production for the above twelve years: 1,668,960 units. S-Wides accounted for about 466,000 units. 10-Wides accounted for about 893,000 units. 12-Wides accounted for about 199,000 units. Double-Wides and Expandable units accounted for roughly 109,000 units. Source: Mobile Homes Manufacturers Association. , United States - 11 -t i m e s a s h i g h , 10,103 m o b i l e homes b e i n g s h i p p e d t o d e a l e r s . The e s t i m a t e d f i g u r e s f o r 1969 a n d 1970 were r e s p e c t i v e l y 2? 15,000 a n d 1 8 , 0 0 0 . T a b l e 111 Op age-. 12).-shows t h e i n c r e a s e o f m o b i l e home u n i t s s o l d a n d t h e r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e i n s a l e s i n t h e C a n a d i a n m a r k e t f o r 1963 t o 1969. T a b l e I V ( p a g e 13) shows .the r e c e n t i n c r e a s e a n d t h e e s t i m a t e d f u t u r e i n c r e a s e o f m o b i l e home u n i t s s o l d i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a . I t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e number o f u n i t s s o l d e a c h y e a r h a s i n c r e a s e d by n e a r l y 25 p e r c e n t . I t i s e x p e c t e d by t h e i n d u s t r y t h a t t h i s p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e w i l l be r e a l i z e d e a c h y e a r , w h i c h w o u l d mean a t o t a l o f 120,000 t o 130,000 new m o b i l e homes o v e r t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s . N o t o n l y d i d t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y grow a n d s a l e s i n c r e a s e b u t c o s t s o f m o b i l e homes o n a s q u a r e f o o t a g e b a s i s a c t u a l l y d r o p p e d f r o m 1955 t o 1965 a s c o m p a r e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n 29 p r i c e f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . ' i I 1 i T a b l e I I I THE CANADIAN MOBILE HOME MARKET* Y e a r C a n a d i a n Made U.S. Made T o t n l M o b i l e Homes S o l d i n Ca n a d a Homes F a c t o r y V a l u e Homes F a c t o r y V a l u e Homes F a c t o r y . V a l u e U n i t s T h o u s a n d $ U n i t s T h o u s a n d $ U n i t s T h o u s a n d $ 1963 1,562 6,471 1,513 3,654 3,075 10,125 1964 2,152 10,529 1,960 •5,^22 4,112 15,951 19o5 3,093 15,174 1,784 5,153 4,877 20,327 1966 3,215 17,84o 1,473 6,134 . 4,688 23,974 196? 5,179 30,000 2,284 9,717 7,463 39,717 1963 7,068 43,200 2,268** 9,997** 9,336 — 1969 10,559 -- 12,000 — •DBS S o r a l l i m p o r t f i g u r e s ; DBS f o r a l l C a n a d i a n , p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e ' s - t o 1966; S p e c i a l i n d u s t r y s u r -v e y f o r C a n a d i a n p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s f o r I967 a n d .1968 and. f o r e c a s t f o r I969. * * T h e s e f i g u r e s a r e f o r n i n e months o n l y . S o u r c e : g r i e f i a S h S - H e l l Y f ? r -Taslc F o r c e ( T o r o n t o : CMH/TTA 1 9 6 8 ) , p.2. - , - 13 -T a b l e I V • * NEW MOBILE HOME UNITS SOLD 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 | N o r t h w e s t e r n O n t a r i o 175 218 2 72 340 425 M a n i t o b a 335 462 605 860 1,075 ' Saskatchewan 400 '508 645 '810 1,012 A l b e r t a 1,500 1,845 2,270 2,800 3,500 B r i t i s h Columbia' 1,382 1,728 2,160 '2,700 3,375 •TOTAL-. 3,812 4,?6i 5,952 7,510 9,367 1971 1972 1973 1974 • N o r t h w e s t e r n O n t a r i o 531 664 830 1,038 K a n i t o b a 1,34^ 1,680 2,100 2,625 Sa skatchewan 1,265 1,581 1,976 2,470 A l b e r t a 4,375 5,469 6,836 8,545 B r i t i s h Columbia 4,219 5,274 6,592 8,240 TOTAL 11,734 14,668 18,334 22,918 Source': T j ^ _ V ' p ? ^ o y . n f > r ^ * w n T"a.rVqt £sr MoM/l e Hone? (Winnipeg: Dept. o f I n d u s t r y & Commerce, P r o v i n c e of M a n i t o b a , 1969),PP.3-5. - 14 -THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MOBILE HOME RESIDENTS I n t r o d u c t o r y S t a t e m e n t : I t i s o f t e n h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p e o p l e who l i v e I n m o b i l e homes a r e r e g a r d e d a s t h e p o o r e r a n d more t r a n s i e n t p e o p l e o f s o c i e t y . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l l o o k a t s t u d i e s done i n t h i s a r e a a n d f i n d o u t i f t h e m o b i l e home d w e l l e r d o e s i n f a c t d i f f e r w i t h t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , a n d , i f s o , f i n d o u t w h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e . The A m e r i c a n M o b i l e Home R e s i d e n t : F r e d e r i c k B a i r s t a t e s : "... m o b i l e homes a p p e a l p a r t i c u l a r l y t o p e r s o n s i n t h e t w e n t y t o t w e n t y - n i n e a n d s i x t y - f i v e t o s e v e n t y age g r o u p s . F a m i l y - f o r m a t i o n s s e t t i n g up h o u s e k e e p i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e l i k e m o b i l e homes ... ( b u t ) when c h i l d r e n r e a c h s c h o o l age move t o a c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n c e ... ( a n d ) . . . p e r s o n s r e t i r i n g p r o v i d e a m a j o r m a r k e t . F a c t o r s h e r e a r e ( l o w c o s t , l e s s m a i n t e n a n c e ) a n d t h e n e i g h b o u r n e s s a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s t o be found..."30 H i s c o n c l u s i o n s w e re b a s e d o n i960 U n i t e d S t a t e s c e n s u s d a t a , see t a b l e V ( p a g e 15).' S i n c e t h e n new d a t a h a s b e e n a c c u m u l a t w h i c h p o s s i b l y d e c r e a s e s t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e a b o v e q u o t a t i o n , s e e t a b l e VT ( p a g e 16). The t a b l e s d i f f e r i n c a t e g o r i e s b u t t h e c h a n g e s f r o m i960 t o 196? c a n be s e e n . T a b l e V I I ( p a g e 17 shows a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s i n t a b l e s V ( p a g e 1 a n d VI ( p a g e 16). From t a b l e V I I ( p a g e 17) i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e age g r o u p l i v i n g i n m o b i l e homes a p p e a r s t o h a v e a m a j o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e u n d e r 35 y e a r - 15 -• Table V i U.S. STATISTICS ON MOBILE HOME DWELLERS* To taj U . 0 . M o b i l e Home A l l U.S. Are Grouos " Household Heads Household Heads % 35 and under 43 24 35 to 17 22 45 t o 54 i5 20 55 end o v e r • 25 34 Income &4,999 and under 5? ' 47 S5.000 to5,999 23 21 $7,000 to9,999 14 17 £10,000 end o v e r 11 • .15 O c c u p a t i o n s P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l 5.1 8.6 M a n n e r s , P r o p r i e t o r s 5.1 8.8 S a l e s w o r k e r s 2.8 5.1 C l e r i c a l 3.9 6.7 C r a f t s m e n ( s k i l l e d ) 21.4 15.? O p e r a t i v e s ( s e m i - s k i l l e d ) 18.8 15.3 S e r v i ce 4.4 : ' 5.2 l a b o r e r s 6.8 5.7 Household w o r k e r s .5 .9 Farmers 1.1 4.2 M i l i t a r y '7.8 1.5 No o c c u p a t i o n : r e t i r e d 22.3 22.8 *based on i960 U.S. Census. Source: B r T e f t o t h e • F e l l y e r Task F o r c e T ( T o r o n t o : CMK/TTA, T908"), p. 7. - 16 -Table VT MOBILE HOME F A K I I I S S L e s s t h a n 35 y e a r s 35 t o 54 55 t o 64 65 and o v e r I n c o n e * $4,999 and under S5.000 t o 6,999 $7,000 t o 9,999 £10,000 to 14,999 §15,000 o r more Median D o l l a r s Oc cuT*>^ > t^ or; s* P r o f e s s i o n a l , T e c h n i c a l Managers, O f f i c e r s , P r o p l e t o r s C r a f t s m e n ( s k i l l e d ) O n e r a t i v e s ( s e r . l - s k i l l ed ) C l e r i c a l , S a l e s S e r v i c e L a b o r e r s ( n o n - f n r n ) F a r n L a b o r e r s Not emoloyed , o r A c t i v e M i l i t a r y Duty, o r r.ot i n l a b o r F o r c e Mo b r i e Home i y 6 y Cr 1^ Survey A l l F a i l l e s 49.4 23.6 29.4 40.4 11.8 16.7 9.3 19.4 27.6 . 28.2 27.2 17.8 29.4 24.4 13.2 20.4 2.5 9.2 ,620 $7,440 7.1 10.9 8.1 15.0 21.5 16.5 21.4 15.7 7.2 10.5 4.8 6.2 7.5 3.7 1.4 1.0 20.9 20. 5 • *Based on a survey o f home owners c o n d u c t e d by Bureau o f Census f o r Department o f H o u s i n g & Urban D e v e l o p -ment o f 2,900 m o b i l e homes p u r c h a s e d from I O / I / 6 5 t h r o u g h 9 / 3 0 / 6 6 and used a s p r i m a r y r e s i d e n c e s . • • C u r r e n t P o p u l a t i o n Survey." S o u r c e : FI P. sh ? a c t s cn Mo"M T e Ho™??. ( C h i c a g o : Mobile' Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , I969), o.4. - 17 -Table VTI « MOBILE HOME F A M I L I E S T a b l e - Tab! e T a b l e i960 1967 a l l U.S. 1967 Acre G r o u p s % % % l e s s t h a n 35 43.0 . 4 9 . 4 2 3 . 6 35 - 54 3 2 . 0 2 9 . L 5 7 . 1 55 a n d over 2 5 . 0 21.1 19.4 Income l e s s t h a n $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 8 9 . 0 64 . 2 70 . 4 0 c c u p 3 t i on -P r o f e s s i o n a l M a n a g e r s 1 0 . 2 1 5 . 2 2 5 . 9 C r a f t s m e n & o p e r a t o r s 40 . 2 42 . 9 3 2 . 2 O t h e r s ( n o t i n c l . u n e m p l o y e d o r m i l \ t s r y ) 19. 5 ' 2 0 . 9 21 . 4 Source: Tab]>e V and Table VT - w -o l d c a t e g o r y and a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e i n t h e o v e r 55 c a t e g o r y . O t h e r w i s e t h e age b r a c k e t f r o m 35 t o 5^ i s l a r g e l y u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d a s l i v i n g i n m o b i l e homes. From t h i s , one m i g h t a d d t h a t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e l i f e - c y c l e when c h i l d r e n a r e o f s c h o o l a g e , t h e p o p u l a c e p r e f e r s a c comod-a t i o n o t h e r t h a n m o b i l e homes. A s f a r a s i n c o m e i s c o n c e r n e d i t c a n be s e e n t h a t m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s do e a r n s l i g h t l y l o w e r i n c o m e s b u t n o t p o o r i n c o m e s . The s l i g h t l y l o w e r i n c o m e s a r e i n e v i t a b l e s i n c e t h e age o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n m o b i l e homes a r e s u c h t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e a r e n o t y e t e a r n i n g t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l b e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y y o u n g age o r a r e p a s t maximum e a r n i n g s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r o l d e r a g e . A s f a r a s o c c u p a t i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d i t c a n be s e e n t h a t m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s a r e p r i m a r i l y s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . A l t h o u g h p r o f e s s i o n a l s do l i v e i n m o b i l e homes, t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s l o w e r t h a n f o r t h e a v e r a g e U n i t e d S t a t e s h o u s e h o l d . An e x t e n s i v e s a m p l e s u r v e y c a r r i e d o u t by W o o d a l l P u b l i s h i n g i n 1967 b r i n g s t o l i g h t o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s , A l l b e t t e r c l a s s m o b i l e home p a r k s l i s t e d w e r e s u r v e y e d , t h a t i s p a r k s w i t h a t h r e e s t a r o r h i g h e r r a t i n g . From t h e r e p l i e s 37 p e r c e n t h a d moved i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t u n i t f r o m a p r e v i o u s m o b i l e home; a n e q u a l number came f r o m a " r e a l e s t a t e home" and t h e r e m a i n d e r f r o m a p a r t m e n t s . Of t h o s e c o m i n g f r o m c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s e s , 6l p e r c e n t were r e t i r e d , and a n o t h e r 20 p e r c e n t were " m o s t l y s t u d e n t s , " v e r y l i k e l y m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s . So t h e n i n t h e c a s e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e seems t o be p r i m a r i l y two t y p e s o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be t h e p e r s o n who c h o o s e s t h e m o b i l e home a s a way o f l i f e a n d g e n e r a l l y t h i s t y p e o f p e r s o n i s e i t h e r r e t i r e d o r e l s e a y o u n g a d u l t . O t h e r w i s e a p e r s o n a p p e a r s t o c h o o s e a m o b i l e home b e c a u s e o f h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . A s t u d y done i n 1958 i n A r i z o n a f o u n d t h a t t h e m o b i l e home was more o f a s o c i a l u n i t t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l home. The a c t u a l f i g u r e s showed 139 v i s i t s w e r e e x c h a n g e d by m o b i l e home f a m i l i e s w i t h i n a month a s o p p o s e d t o o n l y 44 v i s i t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l home n e i g h b o r h o o d . 3 2 D r . J a m e s G i l l i e s f o u n d t h a t : "... m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a r e v e r y much a w a r e o f t h e n e e d t o r e s p e c t t h e i r n e i g h b o r s a n d t h e y a r e l e s s p r e j u d i c e d w i t h r e g a r d t o o n e ' s n e i g h b o r s f o i b l e s . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e s p e c t a s w e l l a s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d t o l e r a n c e f o r n e i g h b o r s i s one o f t h e i r s t r o n g e s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " 3 3 I n 1966 a s u r v e y o f n i n e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m o b i l e 34 home r e s i d e n t s . Of t h e h o u s e h o l d s s u r v e y e d o n l y one i n t h r e e h a d p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . T wenty p e r c e n t o f h o u s e h o l d s h a d c h i l d r e n i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l b u t t w e l v e p e r c e n t h a d o n l y one c h i l d . F i f t e e n p e r c e n t h a d c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s s e v e n t o t w e l v e b u t t w e l v e p e r c e n t h a d o n e c h i l d i n t h e s e g r a d e s . A s f a r a s m o b i l i t y i s c o n c e r n e d t h e s t u d y f o u n d t h a t t v r e n t y n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e o w n e r s l i v e d i n m o b i l e homes o v e r s i x y e a r s . Some f o r t y p e r c e n t h a d r e s i d e d i n m o b i l e homes f o r two t o s i x y e a r s . I t was f o u n d t h a t f i f t y f o u r p e r c e n t / • / - 20 -o f t h e o w n e r s h a d n o t moved f r o m t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n i n f i v e y e a r s . O n l y t w e n t y t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e o w n e r s h a d moved o n c e i n f i v e y e a r s . Of t h e p e o p l e who d i d move t h e r e was t h i r t y o ne p e r c e n t who l i s t e d r e a s o n s r e l a t e d t o a c h a n g e i n j o b . P o s s i b l y m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n be b e s t summed up by t h e f o l l o w i n g : "We w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p o f t r a i l e r d w e l l e r s a r e y o u n g l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s w o r k i n g f a m i l i e s who a r e l o o k i n g f o r a b e t t e r way o f l i f e b u t c a n n o t y e t a f f o r d t o buy a p e r m a n e n t home i n t h e s u b u r b s . The r e s i d e n t s o f t r a i l e r h o u s i n g , t h u s , may v i e w t h e i r home o n w h e e l s a s a n i n e x p e n s i v e e s c a p e i n t o s u b u r b i a w h i c h w i l l e n a b l e them t o s a v e f o r a p e r m a n e n t home w h i l e b e i n g a b l e t o i m m e d i a t e l y g e t o n e f o o t i n t h e s u b u r b a n d o o r . T h u s , t h e a t t r a c t i v e -n e s s o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g l i e s n o t i n i t s " m o b i l e n e s s " , b u t i n s t e a d i n h a v i n g a p l a c e t o c a l l o n e ' s own home an d p e r h a p s a s m a l l g a r d e n a n d a l a w n o n w h i c h f a m i l y b a r b e c u e s may be h e l d . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e m o b i l e home i s t h a t i t e n a b l e s many p e r s o n s t o a t t a i n t h e d e s i r e d g o a l o f m i d d l e c l a s s s u b u r b a n l i v i n g b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d o t h e r w i s e a f f o r d i t a n d p o s s i b l y , some p e o p l e who w o u l d o t h e r w i s e n e v e r be a b l e t o a f f o r d i t . " 3 5 The C a n a d i a n M o b i l e Home R e s i d e n t : T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be l e s s g o o d d o c u m e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n m o b i l e homes i n C a n a d a a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . H o w e v e r , i t c o u l d be s u s p e c t e d t h a t many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w o u l d be s i m i l i a r d e p e n d i n g o n t h e t y p e o f m o b i l e home p a r k i n w h i c h one w o u l d be l o c a t e d . J a m e s G i l l i e s b e l i e v e d t h a t two b a s i c t y p e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s e x i s t e d . One was t h e s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d p a r k s w h i c h a t t r a c t r e s i d e n t s who w i s h t o c e n t e r t h e i r l i f e around t h e i r home environment o r ne i g h b o r h o o d . The s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d p a r k p r o v i d e d p e o p l e w i t h a type o f h o u s i n g f a c i l i t y and environment which they c o u l d n o t f i n d e l s e w h e r e . The p e o p l e a t t r a c t e d t o t h i s t y p e o f p a r k were g e n e r a l l y r e t i r e d i n d i v i d u a l s o r o l d e r c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e s . R e s o r t - t y p e p a r k s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s t y p e o f park. The second type o f p a r k i s the h o u s i n g - o r i e n t e d p a r k which p r o v i d e s a c c o m o d a t i o n f o r w o r k i n g p e o p l e who spend most o f t h e i r time away from t h e p a r k . R e s i d e n t s i n t h i s p a r k were more i n t e r e s t e d i n p h y s i c a l o r economic f a c t o r s t h a n i n s o c i a l ones. C h i l d r e n were p e r m i t t e d i n t h i s park but i t was found t h a t t h e number o f c h i l d r e n was low w i t h o n l y twenty p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s h a v i n g c h i l d r e n and o n l y h a l f o f t h e s e b e i n g o f s c h o o l age. • P o s s i b l y one o f the b e s t i n f o r m a t i o n a l s t u d i e s c o m p l e t e d on m o b i l e homes i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a was done by the U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s i n the f a l l o f 1968.3? I n t h i s study 1 ,225 m o b i l e homes were sampled w i t h a complete response r a t e o f 3 6 . 3 p e r c e n t . I t was found t h a t the number o f p e r s o n s p e r h o u s e h o l d i n t h i s s t u d y was 2 . 4 compared w i t h 3 . 2 f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. Two and t h r e e p e r s o n h o u s e h o l d s r e p r e s e n t e d 7 0 . 7 p e r c e n t o f the study sample as compared w i t h 4 3 . 9 p e r c e n t o f h o u s e h o l d s i n the 1966 Canadian Census. A c c o r d i n g t o a study on m o b i l e homes i n the P r i n c e - 22 -G e o r g e a r e a t h e a v e r a g e number o f p e r s o n s p e r h o u s e h o l d i n m o b i l e homes was 3.2 a s c o m p a r e d w i t h ' 3 . 7 p e r s o n s p e r OR h o u s e h o l d i n s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s . The V a n c o u v e r s t u d y shows t h a t t h e 30 t o 40 y e a r age g r o u p i s u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d c o m p a r e d t o t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s . I n R e g i n a i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e 20-34 age g r o u p was a l s o o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d which c o i n c i d e s w i t h A m e r i c a n -JO s t a t i s t i c s . I n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a t h e number o f c h i l d r e n p e r m o b i l e home h o u s e h o l d was o n l y 0.5 a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 1.2 i n P r i n c e G e o r g e m o b i l e homes a s c o m p a r e d w i t h 1.7 a n d 1.9 a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l a n d N a t i o n a l l e v e l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t a l a r g e number (35.8 p e r c e n t ) o f c h i l d r e n i n m o b i l e homes w e r e o f p r e - s c h o o l a ge a s c o m p a r e d t o 25.1 p e r c e n t f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . I n Edmonton i t was f o u n d 40 t h a t 5 2 . 1 p e r c e n t were o f p r e - s c h o o l a g e . M o b i l e home f a m i l i e s w e r e shown t o h a v e l e s s c h i l d r e n o n t h e a v e r a g e t h a n h i g h r i s e a p a r t m e n t f a m i l i e s . ^ A s f a r a s i n c o m e l e v e l s a r e c o n c e r n e d t h e y seem t o g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w t h e same t r e n d a s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The i n c o m e l e v e l s o f m o b i l e home h o u s e h o l d s a p p e a r t o be s l i g h t l y b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e p o p u l a t i o n h o u s e h o l d i n c o m e . I n t h e V a n c o u v e r s t u d y t h e m e d i a n f a m i l y i n c o m e I n m o b i l e homes was $ 6 , 3 0 0 . a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e m e d i a n i n c o m e o f m e t r o p o l i t a n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e a s w h i c h was $6,742. I n t h e P r i n c e G e o r g e s t u d y t h e m e d i a n i n c o m e a p p e a r s t o be h i g h e r t h a n t h e m e d i a n i n c o m e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n C a l g a r y t h e m o b i l e r e s i d e n t s were f o u n d t o h a v e a n i n c o m e o f §1,000. p e r annum / ' / - 2 3 -h i g h e r t h a n the median income o f t h e C a l g a r y g e n e r a l 42 p o p u l a t i o n . So t h e n income does v a r y from p l a c e t o p l a c e . On a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s , s i n c e m o b i l e home f a m i l i e s a r e so much s m a l l e r t h a n the average f a m i l y , i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t the median income f o r m o b i l e homes would compare, i f n o t b e t t e r the median income o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n most c a s e s . Take f o r example the Vancouver s t u d y , t h e median income f o r the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n was $6,742. w i t h an average of 3.2 members per h o u s e h o l d which i s $2,107. p e r c a p i t a . The 2.4 members p e r h o u s e h o l d i n the m o b i l e home stu d y which had a median income o f $6 ,300. t h e r e f o r e has a p e r c a p i t a income o f $2,625. which i s $518. per c a p i t a h i g h e r t h a n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n the o t h e r s t u d i e s where m o b i l e homes had h i g h e r median incomes t h e r e might even be a g r e a t e r p e r c a p i t a d i f f e r e n c e . I n the Vancouver and P r i n c e George st u d y m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s had a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s which c o i n c i d e s w i t h A m e r i c a n s u r v e y s . T a b l e V l l l tpage -24) compares: occupations i n w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Both the Vancouver study and the P r i n c e George study show t h a t m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s a r e not as t r a n s i e n t a s i s o f t e n t h o u g h t . I n f a c t the Vancouver study goes on to say t h a t "When comparing the m o b i l e home p o p u l a t i o n to apartment d w e l l e r s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the l a t t e r a r e much more , mo b i l e t h a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s . . . " ^ The r e p o r t of the Cana d i a n M o b i l e Home and T r a v e l T r a i l e r - 24 -Table VIII OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF MOBILE HOME OWNERS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE OF THE GENERAL POPULATION FOR SELECTED AREAS American P o p u l a t i o n % * American Mobile Home P o p u l a t i o n ** Canadian P o p u l a t i o n . % Regina P o p u l a t i o n % Regina Mobile Home P o p u l a t i o n % ** Vancouver .Population % Vancouver Mobile Hone P o p u l a t i o n % Managerial 15.0 8.1 8.3. 9.2 5.5 10.5 5.6 P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l 10.9 7.1 9.7 t 7.5 7.1 10.9 8.7 C l e r i c a l and S o l e s 10.5 7.2 .19.2 13.6 6,3 25.1 11.7 S e r v i c e s and R e c r e a t i o n 6.2 4.8 12.3 U.3 13.2 12.4 Transport and Communication 15.7 21.5 6.1 ..5.6. 8.7 6.5 12.6 Farm and others ( l o g g e r s e t c . ) 1.0 l.h 12.8 1.5 1.2 3.1 2.9 Craftsmen 16.5 21.5 24. 1 17.6 37.9 23.7 38.3 Labourers 3.7 7.5 4.9 3.6 5.5 4.1 7.8 Not s t a t e d 20.5 20.9 1.0 - 2.4 2.9 — * Source: ** Source: *** Source: U.S. Department o f Housing and Urban Development, Housing Survey, Washington, D.C., 1968, p. 89. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1961 Census, Gat. No. 94.504, Labour Force, Occupation by Sex. The percentages are computed from occupation by sex; i n order to have the t o t a l labouv f o r c e , we added both f i g u r e s f o r males and females. The f i g u r e s are 9 years o l d and some changes may have occurred i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of occupations s i n c e - t h a t . t i m e . Regina, P l a n n i n g Department, Survey o f Mobile Homes i n Regina, I969, I - 25 -A s s o c i a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e K e l l y e r T a s k F o r c e h a s shown t h a t 72 p e r c e n t o f m o b i l e home o w n e r s h a v e n o t moved i n t h e p a s t 5 y e a r s . Tne P r i n c e G e o r g e s t u d y a d d s t h a t : " I t i s f o u n d t h a t t h e p a r k s p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , c l e a n a n d q u i e t l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , good l a n d -s c a p i n g a n d o t h e r g e n e r a l a m e n i t i e s h a s a t t r a c t e d more p e o p l e who s t a v e d f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s t h a n a v e r a g e . " 4 4 So t h e n i t c a n be s e e n t h a t m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s do h a v e s i m i l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t c a n a l s o be s e e n t h a t t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e n o t t h a t d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d where t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e y do n o t n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t s o c i e t y o r a n a r e a a s i s o f t e n b e l i e v e d . R e a s o n s f o r C h o o s i n g M o b i l e Homes: T h e r e a p p e a r t o be d i s t i n c t g r o u p s o f p e o p l e who l i v e i n m o b i l e homes s u c h a s : t h e r e t i r e d , o t h e r m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n , m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , and y o u n g m a r r i e d c o u p l e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . V e r y l i k e l y t h e r e a s o n s f o r c h o o s i n g a m o b i l e home w o u l d d i f f e r f r o m one g r o u p t o a n o t h e r . The m a j o r r e a s o n s l i s t e d i n t h e s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d a r e : economy, m a i n t e n a n c e , m o b i l i t y , p r i v a c y , f r e e d o m , s i n g l e m o n t h l y p a y m e n t , l e s s c r o w d i n g , way o f l i f e , n o t o t h e r s u i t a b l e h o u s e a v a i l a b l e , l o w t a x s i t u a t i o n a n d l o c a t i o n . A s f a r a s economy i s c o n c e r n e d , some p e o p l e b e l i e v e m o b i l e homes a r e more e c o n o m i c a l w h e r e a s o t h e r p e o p l e do n o t s h a r e t h i s b e l i e f . C o s t i n g a n d f i n a n c i n g w i l l be c o v e r e d more i n d e p t h i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . H o w e v e r , 62.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e o p l e s u r v e y e d u n d e r t h e U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s r e p o r t f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r , m e n t i o n e d economy a s t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r l i v i n g i n m o b i l e homes. I n t h e P r i n c e G e o r g e s t u d y i t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t c o s t $8. t o $10. p e r s q u a r e f o o t f o r a m o b i l e home a s 46 c o m p a r e d w i t h $14. p e r s q u a r e f o o t f o r a c o n v e n t i o n a l home. Ea s e o f m a i n t e n a n c e a l s o a p p e a r s t o be a m a j o r r e a s o n s i n c e t h e a l u m i n u m o r s t e e l s h e a t h i n g i s more d u r a b l e and r e q u i r e s l e s s m a i n t e n a n c e t h a n t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s e . E v e n t h e i n t e r i o r s p a c e s do n o t demand t o o much m a i n t e n a n c e b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e p l a n n e d i n t e r i o r l a y o u t o f t h e f u r n i t u r e a n d t h e c h o i c e o f i n t e r i o r f i n i s h i n g m a t e r i a l s . E a s e o f m o b i l i t y seems t o a p p e a l t o t h e y o u n g m o b i l e C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s . I t i s o f t e n s a i d t h a t i t i s so e x p e n s i v e t o move a m o b i l e home t h a t a s a r e s u l t t h e y a r e n e v e r moved. T h i s i s a f a l l a c y , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e moves a r e s h o r t and t h e y o u n g m o b i l e home f a m i l y l i k e t h e i r home. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s o f t r u c k i n g a m o b i l e home a r e o n l y i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f $.60 p e r m i l e . ^ A p e r s o n m o v i n g f r o m a c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s e w o u l d h a v e t o pay a s much o r more t o move h i s h o u s e h o l d g o o d s w i t h a t r u c k i n g company. T h i s d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e p r o b l e m s o f s e l l i n g h i s o l d h o u s e a n d b u y i n g a new h o u s e w h i c h a l s o r u n s i n t o l a w y e r s e x p e n s e s , t i m e , r e a l e s t a t e e x p e n s e s a n d h o u s e h o l d e x p e n s e s f o r s u c h t h i n g s a s new d r a p e s f o r t h e l i v i n g r oom, b e c a u s e t h e p r e s e n t d r a p e s do n o t f i t t h e new h o u s e . - 2? -Lawyers expenses and r e a l e s t a t e commissions a l o n e would range from §2,000. to $3,000. f o r a modest c o s t i n g house o f $25,000. T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d modest s i n c e a 1970 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Hou s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n survey shows t h a t l e s s t h a n 16 p e r c e n t o f new houses f o r s a l e were p r i c e d under §20,000., and the average was §28,614. See f o o t n o t e 64. These expenses a l o n e would p e r m i t a young p e r s o n t o move h i s m o b i l e home 1,200 to 1,800 m i l e s . However, i n such a case he would l i k e l y save most o f t h e s e c o s t s by s e l l i n g h i s home and b u y i n g a new m o b i l e home a t h i s p o i n t o f d e s t i n a t i o n , i f such d i s t a n c e s were i n v o l v e d . O t h e r f e a t u r e s such as freedom from maintenance o f s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s o r mowing lawns o r the f a c t t h a t a s i n g l e monthly payment, pays f o r the m o b i l e home, a l l f u r n i t u r e and h o u s e h o l d a p p l i a n c e s , i s o f t e n p r e f e r r e d by some p e o p l e . I t i s no t n e c e s s a r y t o e l a b o r a t e on the l a t t e r r e a s o n s m e n t i o n e d , s i n c e t hey a r e i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . B r i e f Comparison o f the A m e r i c a n and Canadian M o b i l e Home R e s i d e n t : G e n e r a l l y i t would appear t h a t Canadian and A m e r i c a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a r e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the younger (20-35 y e a r s ) age group and u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the m i d d l e age groups ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 to 54 y e a r s ) and o l d e r age group ( o v e r 55 y e a r s . ) So then i n bo t h the A m e r i c a n and Canadian s t u d i e s i t a p p e a r s t h a t the type o f p e r s o n who chooses m o b i l e home l i v i n g i s e i t h e r the young a d u l t o r the o l d e r p e r s o n . However, i n many c a s e s m i d d l e age p e o p l e w i t h few c h i l d r e n a l s o seem to p r e f e r m o b i l e home l i v i n g . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t the m o b i l e home i s a way f o r 7 • ' / - 28 -t h e y o u n g a d u l t t o a t t a i n a t y p e o f m i d d l e c l a s s s u b u r b a n l i v i n g b e f o r e t h e y a r e e a r n i n g t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n c o m e s a n d b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d o t h e r w i s e a f f o r d s u c h a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . I t h a s a l s o b e e n shown t h a t e a s e o f m a i n t e n a n c e a n d d u r a b i l i t y may be t h e f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o l d e r age g r o u p s 1 r e a s o n s f o r c h o o s i n g m o b i l e homes. O c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y d o e s seem t o h a v e a m i n o r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e c h o i c e o f m o b i l e homes s i n c e i t h a s b e e n shown t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f p e o p l e who move w h i l e i n m o b i l e homes a r e m o v i n g f o r j o b r e a s o n s . G e n e r a l l y b o t h c o u n t r i e s seem t o a g r e e t h a t t h e m o b i l i t y o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s i s n o t f r e q u e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e C a n a d i a n r e s i d e n t s a p p e a r t o be l e s s m o b i l e w i t h 72% l i v i n g i n m o b i l e homes f o r more t h a n f i v e y e a r s a s c o m p a r e d t o $k% f o r t h e A m e r i c a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t . From t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i t c a n be s a i d t h a t A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a r e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l o w e r Income g r o u p s . H o w e v e r , i t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t t h e i r i n c o m e s a r e s t i l l o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h l e v e l t o a f f o r d a r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . I t c o u l d f u r t h e r be c o n c l u d e d t h a t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s h a v e l e s s c h i l d r e n a n d a l s o l e s s c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age t h a n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s f a c t o r w o u l d r a i s e t h e p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s t o a l e v e l where o n a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s w o u l d e a r n n e a r l y a c o m p a r a b l e i f n o t b e t t e r i n c o m e t h a n t h e a v e r a g e p o p u l a t i o n . O c c u p a t i o n a l l y A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a r e u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s . I n t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n f i e l d t h e y a p p e a r t o be o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . H o w e v e r , i n t h i s f i e l d , d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e n o t i c e d b e t w e e n t h e C a n a d i a n s t u d i e s a n d t h e V a n c o u v e r s t u d y f o r e x a m p l e was much more o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d t h a n t h e R e g i n a s t u d y w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t may o c c u r . The A m e r i c a n a n d C a n a d i a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s were o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s k i l l e d a n d s e m i - s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e was a m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two. The A m e r i c a n m o b i l e home was o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p e r c e n t a g e o f 21.5 p e r c e n t f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f c r a f t s m a n w h i c h c o m p a r e d w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s o f 38.3% a n d 37-9% f o r V a n c o u v e r a n d R e g i n a r e s p e c t i v e l y . So t h e n i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t who a p p e a r l e s s m o b i l e t h a n t h e i r A m e r i c a n c o u n t e r p a r t s a r e a l s o more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e c r a f t s o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n t h e A m e r i c a n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t . From t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d t h e s e were t h e o n l y two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c o u l d be p i n p o i n t e d a s b e i n g n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t . H o w e v e r , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s d i f f e r f r o m e a c h o t h e r I n some r e s p e c t s . A N A L Y S I S OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS L o c a t i o n : L o c a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r o p e r o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g o f t h i s t y p e o f h o u s i n g a s w e l l a s t o t h e a r e a i n w h i c h m o b i l e homes a r e t o be l o c a t e d . Two m a j o r p r o b l e m s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes, b o t h o f w h i c h h a v e t e n d e d t o make t h i s h o u s i n g f o r m a n u n d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . • / - 30 -I n t h e l o n g r u n , t h e y h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. The two m a j o r p r o b l e m s a r e : ( 1 ) t h e l o c a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes away f r o m n e e d e d f a c i l i t i e s . (2) t h e l o c a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes i n a r e a s z o n e d f o r some u s e o t h e r t h a n r e s i d e n t i a l . G e n e r a l l y , t h e m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t i s l o c a t e d o n t h e f r i n g e o f t o w n s . P o s s i b l y p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m I s w i t h t h e d e v e l o p e r who l o o k s f o r t h e c h e a p e s t p o s s i b l e l a n d b u t p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m r e m a i n s w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r r e s t r i c t i n g m o b i l e homes t o s u c h l o c a t i o n s o r n o t p r o v i d i n g t h e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n a n a d e q u a t e d i s t a n c e o f t h e s e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . I f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p e r m i t t e d m o b i l e home s u b d i v i s i o n s t h e y c o u l d be s e r v i c e d a n d f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d a s t h e y s h o u l d be f o r any r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . The f a c t t h a t m o b i l e home a r e a s a r e s a i d t o s u p p l y l e s s r e v e n u e i n t h e f o r m o f t a x a t i o n a n d c o s t more t o s e r v i c e i s n o t a n e n t i r e l y v a l i d a r g u m e n t a s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d u n d e r t h e p r o b l e m o f t a x a t i o n . The r e s u l t i s t h a t f a c i l i t i e s s u c h a s s h o p s , b a n k s , p a r k s , o r s c h o o l s a r e g e n e r a l l y t o o f a r away. I n P r i n c e G e o r g e h a l f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s were l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e maximum w a l k i n g 48 d i s t a n c e t o e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . S i m i l i a r l y , one c o u l d t a k e t h e m o b i l e homes i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r a r e a a n d i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e m o b i l e homes do n o t o n l y e x i s t i n t h e s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s u c h a s C o q u i t l a m o r S u r r e y b u t t h e m o b i l e homes a r e o n t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n many c a s e s . The s e c o n d m a j o r l o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m i s t h e l o c a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes i n a r e a s z o n e d f o r u s e s o t h e r t h a n r e s i d e n t i a l , s u c h a s c o m m e r c i a l o r i n d u s t r i a l z o n e s . 7 I n V a n c o u v e r , m o b i l e homes a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d e x c e p t o n a t r a i l e r c o u r t w h i c h h a s t o be i n a (C2) c o m m e r c i a l a r e a . ^ I n C o q u i t l a m M o b i l e Home P a r k D i s t r i c t s w ere f o r m e d b u t a l l t r a i l e r c o u r t z o n e s w h i c h h o u s e " d e p e n d e n t " t r a i l e r s ( t r a v e l t r a i l e r s ) , a r e a l s o a u s e p e r m i t t e d I n t h e M o b i l e Home P a r k Zone.-''*' So t h e n , t h e r e h a s b e e n no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n made b e t w e e n " d e p e n d e n t " t r a v e l t r a i l e r s a n d " i n d e p e n d e n t " m o b i l e homes a n d t h e r e s u l t i s t h a t now m o b i l e homes a p p e a r o n l o t s w h i c h were f o r m a l l y t r a i l e r c o u r t s a n d w h i c h were p e r m i t t e d i n c o m m e r c i a l z o n e s . The m a j o r p r o b l e m s stem f r o m m i x i n g " d e p e n d e n t " and " I n d e p e n d e n t " t r a i l e r s a s w e l l a s l o c a t i n g " i n d e p e n d e n t " m o b i l e homes i n a z o n e o t h e r t h a n a r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . The r e s u l t i s t h a t m o b i l e homes do n o t t a k e o n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l l o o k i t s h o u l d a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t becomes d e g r a d e d by t h e a d j a c e n t u s e s a n d e v e n t u a l l y t h e m o b i l e home e n v i r o n m e n t becomes d e t e r i o r a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t i s n o t a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g a n d r e c e i v e s n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s f r o m c o m m u n i t y r e s i d e n t s . S t a n d a r d o f D e v e l o p m e n t ; O r i g i n a l l y , when m o b i l e homes were s m a l l t r a v e l t r a i l e r s t h e m o b i l e home p a r k was r e a l l y a t o u r i s t t r a i l e r c o u r t w h i c h was a c o m m e r c i a l u s e and w h i c h g e n e r a t e d a l o t o f m o v i n g t r a f f i c . Now t h a t m o b i l e homes a r e l a r g e a n d c o n t a i n a l l t h e mo d e r n f e a t u r e s t h e y s h o u l d n o t be m i x e d w i t h t r a v e l t r a i l e r s . The r e s u l t o f s u c h a m i x i s s u b s t a n d a r d d e v e l o p m e n t . A d e q u a t e p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s e x i s t f o r m o b i l e homes a nd m i x i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l u s e w i t h a - 32 -c o m m e r c i a l u s e i s n o t one o f them.- 3 A l a c k o f s u c h p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r m o b i l e homes h a s p r o d u c e d s u b s t a n d a r d d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o t h e r ways a s w e l l . L a c k o f s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s , p o o r i n t e r n a l l a y o u t , d e s i g n , s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t , l a n d s c a p i n g , p a v i n g , a n d b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a r e o n l y some o f t h e a r e a s t h a t s h o u l d c o n c e r n u s i f we want good q u a l i t y m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t s . S u b s t a n d a r d d e v e l o p m e n t s h a v e i n t u r n e n c o u r a g e d p e o p l e t o l o o k u n f a v o u r a b l y u p o n m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t s . One r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t : "The new s t a n d a r d s a r e c o n s i d e r e d m i n i m a l b u t e s s e n t i a l i f m o b i l e homes a r e t o o v e r c o m e much o f t h e i l l - f o u n d e d s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e t h a t now e x i s t s a g a i n s t them. -53 One s t u d y a l r e a d y d i s p r o v e s t h a t m o b i l e home p a r k s d e p r e s s t h e v a l u e o f a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y . ^ I f s t a n d a r d s were r a i s e d t h i s p o s s i b l y m i g h t a l s o be e l i m i n a t e d . I t i s v e r y d o u b t f u l i f l a c k o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g s t a n d a r d s c a n be u s e d a s a n a r g u e m e n t a g a i n s t m o b i l e homes a n y m o r e . I n 1971 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C a n a d i a n M o b i l e Home a n d T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e y a d o p t e d i m p r o v e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g s t a n d a r d s d r a w n up i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n S t a n d a r d s A s s o c i a t i o n . The C a n a d i a n M o b i l e Home a n d T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n a r e now so c e r t a i n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e s t a n d a r d s t h a t t h e y s t a t e d , " t h i s w i l l g u a r a n t e e a m o b i l e home l i f e s p a n o f 25 y e a r s . " T a x a t i o n : T a x a t i o n i s l a b e l l e d a s b e i n g one o f t h e l a r g e s t p r o b l e m s , e s p e c i a l l y a s f a r a s t a x c o l l e c t i n g a g e n c i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , s u c h ' / / - 33 -l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . G e n e r a l l y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c l a i m t h a t m o b i l e homes pay v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e f o r m o f t a x e s a n d t h a t t h e c o s t o f s e r v i c i n g m o b i l e homes I s t o o h i g h . I t i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t o s e e w h e t h e r m o b i l e homes do pay f e w t a x e s a t h i g h m u n i c i p a l c o s t s o r v i c e - v e r s a b u t r a t h e r t o g e n e r a l l y e x p l o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I n g e n e r a l t e r m s d e n s i t y w o u l d a f f e c t t h e c o s t o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a s w o u l d t h e d e s i g n a n d l a y o u t o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s . So t h e n i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y w o u l d h a v e t o o p t i m i z e s u c h f a c t o r s i f i t e x p e c t s t o k e e p s e r v i c e s a t a s l o w a c o s t a s p o s s i b l e b u t y e t h a v e a d e q u a t e s e r v i c e s . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e s i n c e : "One s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t m o b i l e home c o m m u n i t i e s do n o t p l a c e a g r e a t e r demand o n m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s t h a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l c o m m u n i t i e s . " 5 5 S i m i l i a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o c o s t o f f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s t h e F r e n c h a n d R a d d e n m o d e l s i m p l y t h a t m o b i l e homes may a c t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e more t o t h e c o m m u n i t y i n w h i c h t h e y a r e l o c a t e d t h a n t h e y r e c e i v e f r o m i t . - ^ The s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e demands o f t h e m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t f o r s c h o o l s , s t r e e t s , s e w e r s a n d t r a s h r e m o v a l a r e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l o w . Once a g a i n a s f a r a s t a x a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d i t i s up t o t h e c o m m u n i t i e s t o t a x m o b i l e homes s u f f i c i e n t l y t o pay f o r f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s t h e y r e c e i v e . A p p a r e n t l y m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a p p e a r w i l l i n g t o pay t a x e s f o r s u c h f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s . The K a m l o o p s a n d D i s t r i c t M o b i l e Homeowner's A s s o c i a t i o n s a i d : "... t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o pay m u n i c i p a l a n d s c h o o l t a x e s i f t h e m u n i c i p a l o r g o v e r n m e n t e n f o r c e s r e g u l a t i o n s t o k e e p m o b i l e home p a r k s u p t o a d e c e n t l i v i n g s t a n d a r d . " 5 7 - 34 -L i k e w i s e a n o t h e r s t u d y s t a t e s : "... many m o b i l e home o w n e r s w o u l d g l a d l y pay more t a x e s i f i t meant b e c o m i n g f i r s t c l a s s c i t i z e n s . " 5 8 I n some p l a c e s i t seems t h a t m o b i l e home o w n e r s do pay t h e i r s h a r e o f t a x e s . I n C a l g a r y a s t u d y o f t a x r e v e n u e s f r o m a s e v e n a c r e m o b i l e home p a r k a n d a s e v e n a c r e s i n g l e f a m i l y c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a showed t h a t t h e m o b i l e home p a r k p a i d $213 more i n t a x e s , $8,852 a s o p p o s e d t o $8,645.^ The s t u d y a l s o s a i d t h a t w i t h o u t t h e c o m m e r c i a l a s s e s s m e n t a n d t h e l e v y i n g o f a b u s i n e s s t a x t h e m o b i l e home p a r k w o u l d n o t be p a y i n g i t s way. One o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s w i t h t a x a t i o n i s t h a t i n many p l a c e s m o b i l e homes a r e c o n s i d e r e d p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y a n d t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be t a x e d a s r e a l p r o p e r t y . H o w e v e r , a t l e a s t t h r e e s t a t e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , New Y o r k , M i c h i g a n and New H a m p s h i r e h a v e f o u n d ways t o t a x t h e m o b i l e home a s r e a l p r o p e r t y . ^ O t h e r w i s e , m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s pay a s a l e s t a x when t h e y buy t h e i r home, t h e y pay a l i c e n s e f e e e a c h y e a r w h i c h I s u s u a l l y b a s e d o n t h e s q u a r e f o o t a g e o f t h e home a n d t h e m o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p e r p a y s t a x e s b a s e d o n t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e o f t h e l a n d a n d b u i l d i n g s f i x e d t o t h e l a n d , w h i c h d o e s n o t I n c l u d e m o b i l e homes. T h e s e a r e t h e u s u a l f o r m s o f t a x a t i o n i n C a nada a n d i f t h e s e a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t , t h e n o t h e r f o r m s o f t a x a t i o n h a v e t o be i m p l e m e n t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e t a x b a s e . I n M i n n e s o t a a n " i n l i e u " t a x t a k e s t h e f a c t o r y r e t a i l l i s t a s a b a s i s and d e p e n d i n g o n t h e age o f t h e home a s s e s s e s t h e c o s t o f a n a n n u a l l i c e n s e p l a t e o n t h e b a s i s o f a s l i d i n g downward p e r c e n t a g e s c a l e , g e a r e d t o t h e d e c r e a s i n g age o f t h e home. Then t h e c u r r e n t m i l l r a t e i s m u l t i p l i e d by t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u e , w h i c h i s t h e p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h a t age t i m e s t h e - 35 -f a c t o r y p r i c e , t o a r r i v e a t t h e t a x . ^ To p r e v e n t e n c o u r a g i n g o l d e r u n i t s t o r e m a i n , t h e o l d e r u n i t s c o u l d be t a x e d a t a h i g h e r r a t e w h i c h c o u l d p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s e a s t h e u n i t r e a l l y g e t s o l d . S i n c e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s s e t t h e c e i l i n g f o r t a x a t i o n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y may w e l l h a v e t o w o r k w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e i n f i n d i n g a n a d e q u a t e t a x s o l u t i o n f o r m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t s . V e r y l i k e l y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l h a v e t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e , w h i c h w i l l n o t be done i f t h e y j u s t c o n t i n u e t o c o m p l a i n a b o u t m o b i l e homes n o t p a y i n g t h e i r s h a r e o f t a x e s . E x t e n s i v e l o b b y i n g by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s m i g h t h a v e t o o c c u r t o g e t t h e p r o v i n c e t o a c t o n t h i s m a t t e r . A l a c k o f s u c h l o b b y i n g w o u l d o n l y make one t h i n k t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e j e c t m o b i l e homes. P o s s i b l y t h e a n s w e r l i e s i n a n amendment t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . I f a n a d e q u a t e s o l u t i o n i s f o u n d t h e n i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t m o b i l e home o w n e r s w o u l d n o t be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t a x e s t h e y a l r e a d y p a y , s u c h a s s a l e s t a x a n d l i c e n s e t a x a n d t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f B.C., t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e t h e home o w n e r s g r a n t . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s m o b i l e home s u b d i v i s i o n s , s i n c e t h e n m o b i l e homes w o u l d be p e r m a n e n t l y a f f i x e d t o t h e l a n d a n d c o u l d be t a x e d a s r e a l p r o p e r t y o n t h e same b a s i s a s c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . P o s s i b l y , w h ere i m p r o v e m e n t s i n m o b i l e home p a r k z o n e s a r e n o t t a x e d , t h e n t h e l a n d i n m o b i l e home p a r k z o n e s c o u l d be t a x e d a t a h i g h e r r a t e t h a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s so t o e q u a l i z e t h e t o t a l t a x e s . A p p e n d i x A w h i c h i s l e t t e r s f r o m -. 36 -t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s o f f i c e , i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t u n t i l 1969 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were p e r m i t t e d t o t a x m o b i l e homes u n d e r s e c t i o n 430 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . A p p e n d i x A shows i t was a m i s u s e o f s e c t i o n 430 by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h u s c a u s i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o w a r d s m o b i l e homes, w h i c h b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e p r e s e n t O c c u p a n c y Fee m e t h o d s o f t a x a t i o n . T h i s a p p e a r s t o t h e a u t h o r t o be a b a c k w a r d s t e p i n t h e t a x a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes b r o u g h t o n by t h e T a c k o f f o r e s i g h t o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . S i n c e t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s h a s amended t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t a t a t i m e o f c r i s i s , t h e n i t a p p e a r s t h a t he i s r e c e p t i v e t o c h a n g e . So t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s do seem t o h a v e a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u g g e s t good c o n s t r u c t i v e c h a n g e s . F i n a n c i n g ; I t h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d t h a t economy was one o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r b u y i n g a m o b i l e home. One s t u d y h a s a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t m o b i l e homes were c h e a p e r t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . A n o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e same r e s u l t s s a y s t h a t t h e medium p r i c e d c o n v e n t i o n a l home w i t h f u r n i s h i n g s w o u l d c o s t $16.50 p e r s q u a r e f o o t ( e x c l u d i n g l a n d ) a s c o m p a r e d t o m o b i l e homes a t a c o s t o f $8.00 t o $9.00 p e r 62 s q u a r e f o o t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e C a n a d i a n M o b i l e Home a n d T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n r e p o r t t o t h e H e l l y e r T a s k F o r c e C a n a d i a n c o s t s a p p e a r t o be i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f $11.00 t o $16.00 p e r s q u a r e f o o t d e p e n d e n t o n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home a n d f u r n i s h i n g s . H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e t h i s l o w e r c o s t , i f - '37 -i t h o l d s t r u e a n d d e s p i t e t h e i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f m o b i l e homes, f i n a n c i n g , f o r m o b i l e homes i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n a n d i t c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d o n t h e same t e r m s a s c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . A t one t i m e m o b i l e homes w e r e c o n s i d e r e d l i k e a u t o m o b i l e s a n d c o u l d be a m o r t i z e d o v e r a v e r y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e w i t h a h i g h down payment. One U.S. a u t h o r i t y s t a t e d i n 1959 t h a t : "most b a n k e r s t h a t a r e i n t r a i l e r f i n a n c i n g r a t e m o b i l e home p a p e r a b o v e t h e i r a u t o m o b i l e l o a n s a t a b o u t 9s1 r a t i o . ° 3 T h i s shows t h a t m o b i l e home f i n a n c i n g i s b e c o m i n g more p o p u l a r . A n o t h e r s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n o n t h e C a n a d i a n s c e n e i s t h a t t h e Bank o f M o n t r e a l i n May 1971 i n c r e a s e d t h e a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d o n m o b i l e homes f r o m a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d t o a maximum o f t e n y e a r s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e NHA l o a n s a r e n o t u s u a l l y g i v e n t o p e o p l e f o r m o b i l e homes. A s a r e s u l t t h e m o b i l e home o w n e r h a s t o pay a h i g h downpayment o f t w e n t y f i v e p e r c e n t , h a s t h e l o a n a m o r t i z e d o v e r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e ( t e n y e a r s o r l e s s ) a n d p a y s a h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e ( 1 0 . 9 p e r c e n t ) . I f m o b i l e homes c o u l d be f i n a n c e d u n d e r N.H.A. m o r t g a g e s w h e r e t h e r e w o u l d be a l o w e r i n t e r e s t r a t e , a l o w e r downpayment and a l o n g e r a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d t h e n t h e m o n t h l y p a y m e n t s f o r m o b i l e homes w o u l d be r e d u c e d a n d t h e y w o u l d be w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f more p e o p l e . T a b l e IX ( p a g e 38): shows t h e d i . s t r i b u . t i o n o f a n n u a l ;income of C a n a d i a n s i n 1966, t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f C a n a d i a n s w h i c h f a l l i n e a c h i n c o m e g r o u p a n d t h e c o s t o f h o u s i n g e a c h i n c o m e l e v e l - 38 -: TABLE I X D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A n n u a l Incomes I n Canada, 1 9 6 6 — OVER $15,000 — 10,000-15,000 — 8,000-10,000 — 6,000- 8,000 — 4,000-6,000 — 2,000-4,000 — UNDER 2,000 Source: F i n a n c i a l P o s t , O c t o b e r 29, 1966 P r i c e o f Housing Each ^ Income L e v e l Can A f f o r d .$ 37,500 and over 25,000-37,500 20,000-25,000 15,000-20,000 10,000-15,000 5,000-10,000 UNDER 5,000 S o u r c e : 1 C a l c u l a t e d , u nder p r e s e n t NHA mortgage c o n d i t i o n s a t 10> i n t e r e s t r a t e / a m o r t i z e d o v e r 25 y r s and r e p r e s e n t i n g 27% o f the income l e v e l can a f f o r d . I n 1970 a C e n t r a l Mortgage and Hous i n g C o r p o r a t i o n s u r v e y shows t h a t l e s s than 16 p e r c e n t o f a l l new houses f o r s a l e were p r i c e d under $20,000. ( t h e average was $28,6l4.) I n Toronto l e s s t h a n one p e r c e n t o f new houses f o r s a l e were u n d e r $ 1 7 , 5 0 0 . ^ M o b i l e homes on the o t h e r hand u s u a l l y range from a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 6 , 5 0 0 . to $20,000., a c c o r d i n g to a r e p o r t by The Canadian M o b i l e Home and T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h r e p o r t e d t o t h e H e l l y e r Task F o r c e . The r e p o r t a l s o added, t h a t t h e most p o p u l a r s i z e o f m o b i l e home s o l d was t h e t h r e e bedroom, 12' x 6 0 ' o r 720 sq. f t , m o b i l e home, which was s o l d f o r $8,000. to $12,000. M o b i l e home owners r e n t t h e i r m o b i l e home spaces f o r $40. to $ 7 0 . p e r month a c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t which would add $480. to $840. p e r annum t o the c o s t o f m o b i l e homes. However, i t must be remembered t h a t m o b i l e homes come w i t h f u r n i s h i n g s and a p p l i a n c e s i n c l u d e d , which would save money f o r the m o b i l e home owner. Based on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and r e f e r i n g to t a b l e I X (page 42) t h e n p e o p l e who want c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y homes would have to e a r n a t l e a s t $6,000. to $8,000. wh i c h i s o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n . M o b i l e homes i t can be seen does l o w e r the p r i c e o f home own e r s h i p f o r more p e o p l e , i f N.H.A. f i n a n c i n g were implemented. M o b i l e homes can be a f f o r d e d w i t h a s a l a r y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 3,000., which r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 57 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n . A t the p r e s e n t t i m e , because o f s h o r t term 10 y e a r l o a n s and h i g h e r i n t e r e s t r a t e s o f 1 0 . 9 p e r c e n t few Canadians can a f f o r d m o b i l e homes e x c e p t t h o s e who make g o o d s a l a r i e s . O t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s s h o r t a g e o f good m o b i l e home p a r k s , p r e j u d i c e a n d r e z o n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s a l s o p r e s e n t o b s t a c l e s w h i c h p r e v e n t r a p i d e x p a n s i o n o f t h e m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y . M o b i l e homes do h a v e a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r m a k i n g more s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r C a n a d i a n s w h i c h 80 p e r c e n t o f C a n a d i a n s w a n t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e K e l l y e r T a s k F o r c e . The H e l l y e r T a s k F o r c e recommended t h a t : " s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n t o a m e n d i n g t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t a n d , where n e c e s s a r y , m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s t o a c c o r d s o - c a l l e d " m o b i l e " homes t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g m a r k e t . ••65 R e c e n t l y , C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e a n d H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n a g r e e d t o p r o v i d e 15 y e a r N.H.A. m o r t g a g e s a t i n t e r e s t r a t e s a s l o w a s 7 7/8 p e r c e n t , t o e s t a b l i s h a m o b i l e home p a r k I n e a c h p r o v i n c e , w h ere e a c h p a r k m u s t h a v e one h u n d r e d m o b i l e h o m e s . ^ So t h e n , f i n a n c i n g o f m o b i l e homes a p p e a r s t o be g r a d u a l l y i m p r o v i n g b u t t h e r e i s s t i l l a g r e a t d e a l t o be d o n e , w h i c h c o u l d g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e C a n a d i a n home o w n e r s h i p w h i c h C a n a d i a n s w a n t b u t c a n n o t a f f o r d . The m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y h a s a l r e a d y r e a l i z e d t h e p r o b l e m o f p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n a n d t h e y a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o c o u n t e r a c t t h i s f e e l i n g . The M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a ( C a n a d i a n M o b i l e Home a n d T r a v e l T r a i l e r A s s o c i a t i o n ) h a v e e v o l v e d one o f t h e most p u b l i c i z e d a n d e x t e n s i v e l o b b i e s i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y . I t h a s . a l r e a d y b e e n s e e n t h a t t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s l o b b y i n g h a s b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e m o b i l e home f r o m t r a v e l t r a i l e r s t o i t s ' p r e s e n t s t a t e . They hope t o / / / - 41 -c o n t i n u e t h e b a t t l e a g a i n s t p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n a n d p r e s e n t l y t h e y h a v e e n l i s t e d t h e C a n a d i a n S t a n d a r d s A s s o c i a t i o n (C.S.A.) t o h e l p them d e v e l o p i n d u s t r y - w i d e s t a n d a r d s f o r m o b i l e homes a n d m o b i l e home p a r k s . ^ They f e e l t h a t more and b e t t e r m o b i l e home p a r k s w i l l e n c o u r a g e more p e o p l e t o c o n s i d e r m o b i l e homes a s a v i a b l e h o u s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e t o a p a r t m e n t o r c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g . P u b l i c R e j e c t i o n s : O t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t a n y p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m o b i l e homes i s n o t j u s t i f i e d . ° H o w e v e r , where p o o r q u a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t s e x i s t p r e j u d i c e c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d b u t o n l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n a b i l i t y o r u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l o f f i c i a l s t o d e v e l o p p r o p e r s t a n d a r d s . The same a c c u s a t i o n c o u l d be made a s f a r a s o t h e r p r o b l e m s o f m o b i l e homes a r e c o n c e r n e d w h ere m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e i n t h e p o s i t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e c h a n g e s , s u c h a s i n t h e c a s e o f t a x a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e . o f f i n a n c i n g a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t a r e t o b l a m e w i t h . t h e m a j o r c r i t i c i s m a i m e d a t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t , s i n c e t h e y s h o u l d t a k e t h e i n i t i a l s t e p by p r o v i d i n g N.H.A. f i n a n c i n g . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s my b e l i e f t h a t p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n o f m o b i l e homes i s n o t t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f r e s i d e n t i a l l i v i n g b u t a r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes, w h i c h m u s t l o o k t o a l l l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t f o r g o o d c o n s t r u c t i v e c h a n g e s . S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h e r e i s w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n o f m o b i l e homes a n d t h i s h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d u n d e r p r e v i o u s t o p i c s t o some d e g r e e . I t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n m e n t i o n e d t h a t m o b i l e homes a r e n o t t r e a t e d l i k e c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s e s s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t r e g u l a t e d , f i n a n c e d o r t a x e d l i k e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l - hz -h o u s e s . P o o r r e g u l a t i o n s h a v e c a u s e d s u b s t a n d a r d m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h h a v e h e l p e d l e a d t o a p o o r i m a g e o f t h e m o b i l e home by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . O t h e r p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t a x a t i o n h a v e a l s o e n c o u r a g e d p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y by m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s , a s w e l l a s by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The f a c t t h a t m o b i l e homes a r e c a l l e d " m o b i l e " , h a s l e d p e o p l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e m o b i l e home d w e l l e r s a r e t r a n s i e n t p e o p l e who move f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e a n d a s a r e s u l t p i c t u r e t h e m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t s a s s l u m - l i k e t r a i l e r c o u r t s . T h i s t y p e o f t h i n k i n g i s no l o n g e r v a l i d . R e g u l a t i o n s a n d By - L a w s ; A s f a r a s r e g u l a t i o n s a n d b y - l a w s a r e c o n c e r n e d i t w i l l n o t be n e c e s s a r y t o d e v o t e a l e n g t h y s e c t i o n t o t h i s s i n c e t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n b r i e f l y c o v e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r I . To s u m m a r i z e , t h e m a j o r c h a n g e s w h i c h n e e d t o be i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h r e g u l a t i o n s a n d b y - l a w s a r e a s f o l l o w s : t o p r o v i d e good q u a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t s , t o p r e v e n t t h e m i x i n g o f " i n d e p e n d e n t " a n d " d e p e n d e n t " t r a i l e r s , t o p l a c e r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l e homes i n a r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e , t o N.H.A. f i n a n c e m o b i l e homes, t o p r o p e r l y t a x m o b i l e homes, t o p e r m i t " i n d e p e n d e n t " m o b i l e home p a r k z o n e s w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s , t o p r o v i d e " i n d e p e n d e n t " m o b i l e home a r e a s w i t h s e r v i c e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s a n d t o p e r m i t m o b i l e home s u b d i v i s i o n s . I t h a s a l s o b e e n shown t h a t w i t h o u t many o f t h e s e c h a n g e s n e g a t i v e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes may c o n t i n u e and p o s s i b l y m o b i l e . h o m e s w i l l d e c l i n e a s a h o u s i n g c h o i c e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s t o t e s t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p u b l i c t o w a r d m o b i l e homes t o d i s c o v e r t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s o n a t t i t u d e s . ; /. / - 43 -CHAPTER I I P U B L I C ATTITUDES TOWARD MOBILE HOMES INTRODUCTION I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e b e s t d e f i n i t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s i s one w h i c h h a s b e e n f o r m u l a t e d by t r a n s l a t i n g v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f a t t i t u d e s i n t o a common l a n g u a g e a n d w i t h t h e u s e o f t h e common l a n g u a g e , e s t a b l i s h d i r e c t i o n s o f c o n v e r g e n c e among t h e d e f i n i t i o n s . A good t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s t y p e a n d one w h i c h w i l l s e r v e a s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s a s f o l l o w s : "... A n a t t i t u d e i s a n I d e a c h a r g e d w i t h e m o t i o n w h i c h p r e d i s p o s e s a c l a s s o f a c t i o n s t o a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s o f s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . "°9 S e v e r a l a t t i t u d e s h a v e b e e n p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r I , when d e a l i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes. P o s s i b l y t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s , i s t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e f o r m u l a t e d a s a r e s u l t o f p r o b l e m s I n many c a s e s a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y t e n d t o be n e g a t i v e l y o r i e n t e d . M o s t o f t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes were e x t r a c t e d f r o m a r t i c l e s a n d b o o k s r a t h e r t h a n f o u n d i n t h e f o r m o f c o m p l e t e d s t u d i e s . P-REFABRI CATION ATTITUDES The a u t h o r f o u n d no e v i d e n c e o f any e m p i r i c a l s t u d y c o m p l e t e d o n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. One u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t w h i c h l o o k e d a t c o n s u m e r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p r e f a b r i c a t e d h o u s i n g , f o u n d one e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , The U r b a b a S t u d y . The r e p o r t s a y s , " T h i s i s t h e o n l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n s u r v e y o f i t s t y p e t h a t we ha v e e n c o u n t e r e d i n o u r r e s e a r c h . " ? 0 - 44 -The U r b a n a S t u d y was a s u r v e y o f p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p r e f a b r i c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l i n t h e C h a m p a i g n - U r b a n a , I l l i n o i s a r e a w h i c h was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e summer o f 1950. The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p r e f a b h o u s e s a s c o m p a r e d w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l s i n g l e f a m i l y o r d u p l e x h o u s i n g and a l s o t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f a d v e r t i s i n g a n d a r t i c l e s o n t h e s e a t t i t u d e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y r e f l e c t e d t h e p o s t w a r s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o p r e f a b s . The s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t p e o p l e w e r e b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f p r e f a b s t h a n w i t h t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s . The a d v a n t a g e s were e a s e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , c h e a p n e s s a n d t h e i r r a p i d a v a i l a b i l i t y . The d i s a d v a n t a g e s were p o o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , r a p i d d e p r e c i a t i o n , p o o r a p p e a r a n c e , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , a f f e c t o n n e i g h b o u r h o o d , h a r d t o h e a t a n d t h e s m a l l s i z e . The s t u d y a l s o showed t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l m a r k e t f o r p r e f a b s e x i s t e d a t l o w p r i c e l e v e l s b u t n o t a t h i g h e r p r i c e l e v e l s . I t showed t h a t a t t h e $8,000 p r i c e l e v e l , 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e f a v o u r e d p r e f a b s , 65 p e r c e n t f a v o u r e d s t a n d a r d homes and 10 p e r c e n t h a d no p r e f e r e n c e . A t t h e $12,000 p r i c e l e v e l o n l y 4 p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d p r e f a b s a n d a t t h e $20,000 p r i c e l e v e l t h e p e r c e n t a g e was n e a r l y z e r o . The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p u b l i c ' s i m p r e s s i o n s o f p r e f a b s a n d m o b i l e homes d i f f e r . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y some o f t h e m a t e r i a l was s u m m a r i z e d i n t h e a b o v e p r e f a b r i c a t i o n s t u d y , s i n c e a l t h o u g h i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , i t c a n n o t be n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l i e d t o m o b i l e homes. LEGAL OPINIONS The l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t l e g a l l y t h e f u t u r e o f m o b i l e - 45 -home p r o b l e m s a r e n o t g o i n g t o c h a n g e e a s i l y . An e a r l y c a s e i n 1936 q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r a t r a i l e r i s a n a u t o m o b i l e a c c e s s a r y o r a home. I t was d e c i d e d by J u s t i c e of t h e P e a c e , A r t h u r R. G r e e n , of O r c h a r d L a k e , M i c h i g a n o n November 12, 1936 t h a t , " a h o u s e t r a i l e r o f t h e t y p e o c c u p i e d by t h e d e f e n d e n t , " ( a t r a v e l t r a i l e r l e s s t h a n 400 s q u a r e f e e t , ) " a n d h a v i n g a g r e a t many of t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s of a m o d e r n home, w o u l d come u n d e r t h e s c o p e of a human d w e l l i n g , w h e t h e r i t s t a n d s u p o n b l o c k s o r w h e e l s a t t a c h e d t h e r e t o o r w h e t h e r i t be c o u p l e d t o o r d e t a c h e d f r o m a n a u t o m o b i l e . " ? ! The a r t i c l e s t a t e d a t t h e t i m e , t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n may h e l p e s t a b l i s h a n i m p o r t a n t l e g a l p r e c e d e n t w h i c h o b v i o u s l y d i d n o t o c c u r . The J u d i c a t u r e a r e s t i l l u n c e r t a i n a s t o t h e p l a c e o f m o b i l e homes i n s o c i e t y . P r o b l e m s w i t h m u n i c i p a l i t y a n d s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n s , d e t e r m i n a t i o n of w h e t h e r t h e m o b i l e home i s a v e h i c l e o r d w e l l i n g a n d t r a n s i e n c y of m o b i l e homes a r e s t i l l b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d . An e x a m p l e o f a c a s e o n t h e l a t t e r p o i n t r u l e d i n 1942 t h a t , " T r a i l e r s a n d t r a i l e r camps h a v e t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e i n p r e s e n t day l i f e when t h e y a r e u s e d a s t e m p o r a r y a c c o m o d a t i o n s f o r t r a n s i e n t s a s o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d , b u t t h e y c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o meet t h e more e x a c t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s of a p e r m a n e n t home."72 T h i s c a s e d e p i c t s t h e a t t i t u d e o f t e n h e l d by t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e c o u r t . The a u t h o r s of t h e book do n o t a g r e e w i t h t h i s a t t i t u d e . "The s h i f t f r o m m o b i l i t y a n d t r a n s i e n c e t o r e s i d u a l m o b i l i t y a n d p e r m a n e n c e h a s b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d i n f a c t , t h e w r i t e r s s u b m i t . S t i l l t h e c o u r t s f o r t h e m o s t p a r t e v i d e n c e j u d i c i a l b e w i l d e r m e n t a n d c o n f u s i o n . " 7 3 AMERICAN GOVERNMENTAL ATTITUDES The g o v e r n m e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes h a v e b e e n c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e a n d i s s u e t o i s s u e . G e n e r a l l y t h e a t t i t u d e s h e l d h a v e b e e n n e g a t i v e , even, i n p o s t war t i m e s . I n t h e summer o f 1943 t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A g e n c y (N.H.A.) i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e t r a i l e r i n d u s t r y o f t h a t t i m e . They s a i d : " t h e y w a n t e d n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t r a i l e r s and f e l t t h e y were o n l y a s t o p gap method o f h o u s i n g a n d t h a t t h e y w a n t e d t o b u i l d c o m f o r t a b l e homes f o r t h e w o r k e r s . " ? ^ " t h e y f e e l w ar w o r k e r s n e e d homes more c o m f o r t a b l e t h a n t r a i l e r s ... t h e y p l a n t o buy no more t r a i l e r s a n d c l o s e d t h e d o o r t o p r i v a t e s a l e s . " ' 5 Y e t t h e t r a i l e r i n d u s t r y c l a i m e d t h a t i f war w o r k e r s c o u l d g e t N.H.A. a u t h o r i z a t i o n t h e y w o u l d buy 12,000 t r a i l e r s i n t h e n e x t t h r e e m o n t h s , t h u s s h o w i n g t h a t t h e y d i d h a v e a m a r k e t . One o f t h e b e t t e r h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes shows t h a t p r i o r t o W o r l d War I I t h e U.S. B u r e a u o f C e n s u s i n 1940 e n u m e r a t e d t r a i l e r s a l o n g w i t h r a i l r o a d c a r s , t e n t s a n d s h a c k s . ' The a r t i c l e c o n t i n u e s t o s a y t h a t s i n c e W o r l d War I I t h e B u r e a u o f C e n s u s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d m o b i l e homes a s t e m p o r a r y a n d e m e r g e n c y h o u s i n g . The a r t i c l e s a y s t h a t "The c h a n g i n g t r a i l e r i m a ge i s r e f l e c t e d n o t o n l y i n p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e b u t a l s o i n m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t r a i l e r s by t h e U.S. B u r e a u o f C e n s u s . " 7 " A n o t h e r a r t i c l e s t a t e s t h a t : " I n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o i n h i b i t g r o w t h o f m o b i l e home p a r k s , m o s t c o m m u n i t i e s s a y s a r e c e n t iNew Y o r k s t a t e s u r v e y - h a v e r e s t r i c t e d m o b i l e - 47 -homes w i t h s t i f f e r , more a r b i t r a r y , more o b s o l e t e r e g u l a t i o n s ( p r o b a b l y u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l ) t h a n t h o s e g o v e r n i n g h o u s e s w i t h o u t wheels'*?? H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s r e f l e c t e d i n some s t u d i e s . A m u n i c i p a l s u r v e y o n m o b i l e home p a r k s i n W i c h i t a ' S e d g e w i c k C o u n t y , K a n s a s , c h a n g e d t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e a r e a f r o m n e g a t i v e t o p o s i t i v e . The f a c t s b r o u g h t t o l i g h t i n t h e s u r v e y , made t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e c o n s i d e r t h e z o n i n g f o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . The e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l z o n e s w h i c h p e r m i t t e d m o b i l e homes was c h a n g e d a n d a new m o b i l e home p a r k z o n e was i m p l e m e n t e d . T h e r e were a l s o c h a n g e s made i n p r e s e n t p o l i c y a n d t h e t r a i l e r c o d e was r e v i s e d w h i c h i n c l u d e d more e f f e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . A f t e r t h e c h a n g e s I t was f e l t t h a t t h e o l d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e home p a r k s o n c e s u p p o r t e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i s now o p p o s e d t o good c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g a n d p o s i t i v e s t e p s a r e t a k e n t o c h a n g e t h i s . 7 8 A n o t h e r r e p o r t o n m o b i l e homes i n F r e d e r i c k C o u n t y , M a r y l a n d h a s t a k e n p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. ?9 I n t h i s r e p o r t e v e n t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i c y i n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e when i t i s s t a t e d t h a t P r e s i d e n t N i x o n s a i d , " H o u s i n g must r e c e i v e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a n d t h a t i n c a l c u l a t i n g h o u s i n g g o a l s , new m o b i l e homes must be c o u n t e d a s p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n ' s h o u s i n g s u p p l y . " "The D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t h a s i n i t i a t e d two i m p o r t a n t p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o make t h e p u r c h a s e o f a m o b i l e home e a s i e r , a n d a l s o t o e n c o u r a g e s i t e s f o r them i n m o b i l e home p a r k s . The a r t i c l e f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t t h e B u r e a u o f P u b l i c R o a d s o n J a n u a r y 21, 1970 made f u n d s a v a i l a b l e t o a c q u i r e m o b i l e homes, - 48 -t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d r e a l t y o r p e r s o n a l i t y u n d e r s t a t e l a w a n d t h a t m o b i l e homes may be u s e d a s r e p l a c e m e n t h o u s i n g . O t h e r f a c t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e a more p o s i t i v e g o v e r n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e i s t h a t e l e v e n s t a t e s p e r m i t t e d f o u r t e e n f o o t w i d e s t o be t o w e d t o t h e s i t e o v e r S t a t e h i g h w a y s a n d t h e t r a i l e r i n d u s t r y e x p e c t s one h a l f o f t h e S t a t e s t o p e r m i t t h i s by 1 9 7 1 . I n December I 9 6 9 a l o a n p r o g r a m was a u t h o r i z e d by C o n g r e s s u n d e r w h i c h t h e F e d e r a l H o u s i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (F.H.A.) was a u t h o r i z e d t o i n s u r e p e r s o n a l b a n k l o a n s o f up t o $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 g r a n t e d t o p u r c h a s e new m o b i l e home: u n i t s a t l e a s t t e n f e e t w i d e a n d f o r t y f e e t l o n g . The s t u d y a r e a o f M o n t g o m e r y C o u n t y , M a r y l a n d p r e s e n t l y p e r m i t s a s a c o n d i t i o n a l u s e , m o b i l e homes I n R e s i d e n t i a l - A g r i c u l t u r a l , R u r a l - R e s i d e n t i a l , G e n e r a l C o m m e r c i a l a n d L i g h t a n d H e a v y I n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . I n v i e w o f t h e s t u d y t h e m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t i s n o t a l l o w i n g any new m o b i l e home p a r k s u n t i l a f u r t h e r s t u d y h a s b e e n made and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c h a n g e s s u b m i t t e d . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e s t a f f i s r e c o m m e n d i n g a s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t f o r m o b i l e homes. O t h e r A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n o r i e n t e d t o w a r d ... p e r m i t t i n g m o b i l e homes t o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r u s e s . I n Wood R i v e , I l l i n o i s m o b i l e homes were i n t e g r a t e d w i t h a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s i n a s u b d i v i s i o n scheme w h i c h i n c l u d e s a s h o p p i n g c e n t e r , d r i v e - i n t h e a t r e a n d n u r s i n g home. The b a s i s f o r t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n was t h e s i m i l i a r i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e t w e e n m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a n d a p a r t m e n t d w e l l e r s . ^ 1 A n o t h e r a r t i c l e r e v i e w s a m o b i l e home p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w h i c h i s q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . The a r t i c l e a l s o r e v i e w s a l o n g r a n g e m o b i l e home h o u s i n g p r o g r a m u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C h i c a g o H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . The p r o g r a m was t o s u p p l y 2 , 0 0 0 h o u s e s p e r y e a r , / - 49 -w h i c h w o u l d be composed o f t h r e e m o b i l e home m o d u l e s w h i c h when p u t t o g e t h e r w o u l d f o r m f o u r bedroom t o w n h o u s e s . The m a j o r i t y o f h o u s i n g was i n a n u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a b u t w o u l d n o t be l i m i t e d t o t h i s i n t h e f u t u r e . S i m i l i a r l y , t h e same h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y , u s e d m o b i l e homes f o r i n t e r i m r e l o c a t i o n h o u s i n g w h i c h was v e r y O p s u c c e s s f u l . CANADIAN GOVERNMENTAL ATTITUDES I n t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e a t t i t u d e s a r e e x p r e s s e d o n l y b r i e f l y b u t i t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o c a l c o u n c i l s h o l d h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d m o b i l e homes s i n c e t h e a r t i c l e s t a t e s t h a t , " l o c a l c o u n c i l s f e e l t h a t m o b i l e home p a r k s o f t e n p r o d u c e a b l o t o n t h e l a n d s c a p e and do n o t r e t u r n i n a s s e s s m e n t d u e s t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g them w i t h m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s s u c h a s s c h o o l i n g , r e c r e a t i o n , etc...."°3 U n d e r t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , t h e a t t i t u d e o f t a x a n d a s s e s s m e n t a u t h o r i t i e s t o w a r d s m o b i l e homes c r e a t e s many o f t h e p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s h o r t a g e o f t a x e s m o b i l e homes pay a n d t h u s t h e d r a i n t h e y p u t o n m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t e n show t h e i r n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes t h r o u g h t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e i r b y - l a w s . E x a m p l e , t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y z o n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t b y - l a w p e r m i t s m o b i l e 84 nomes i n a C£ ( c o m m e r c i a l ) z o n e when i n a t r a i l e r c o u r t . The H e l l y e r T a s k F o r c e r e c o g n i z e d t h e m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w p r o b l e m s s i n c e one o f t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s was t h a t , " s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n t o amend t h e . N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t a n d , where n e c e s s a r y , - 50 -m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s t o a c c o r d s o - c a l l e d " m o b i l e " homes t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g m a r k e t . " ° 5 T h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes e x i s t a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l a s w e l l . A s t u d y o f m o b i l e homes i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h ft f\ C o l u m b i a p o i n t s o u t o t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g m u n i c i p a l a t t i t u d e s . F o r e x a m p l e t h e s t u d y shows t h a t n e a r l y 50 p e r c e n t o f m o b i l e homes i n t h e L o w e r m a i n l a n d were a d u l t p a r k s and t h a t t h e t r e n d was t o w a r d more a d u l t p a r k s s i n c e p a r k o p e r a t o r s f e l t t h a t p e r m i t t i n g c h i l d r e n I n t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s w o u l d g i v e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a r e a s o n t o i n c r e a s e t a x e s . I t seems f r o m t h i s t h a t y o u n g f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n a r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . The s u r v e y a l s o showed t h a t many m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t t h e p o o r m u n i c i p a l a t t i t u d e s w h i c h e x i s t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e s t u d y showed t h a t s i x o f t h e f o u r t e e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( R i c h m o n d , D e l t a , New W e s t m i n i s t e r , W h i t e R o c k , C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) h a d no m o b i l e home p a r k s . West V a n c o u v e r had one m o b i l e home p a r k o n I n d i a n l a n d b u t d o e s n o t p e r m i t m o b i l e home p a r k s o n l a n d u n d e r i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . F o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s ee f i g u r e I ( p a g e 6 5 ) . None o f t h e m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d p e r m i t s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m o b i l e home p a r k s , a l t h o u g h r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n i n some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e n o t i n f a v o u r o f m o b i l e homes. A n a r t i c l e i n a l o c a l n e w s p a p e r i n d i c a t e s t h e t y p e o f n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f W i l d w o o d M o b i l e 8 7 Home P a r k i n C o q u i t l a m . The a r t i c l e s a y s t h a t i n 1958 m u n i c i p a l - 51 -c o u n c i l s a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t b o t h t o o k a d i m v i e w o f t h o s e e a r l y m o b i l e home p a r k p r o j e c t s . M o b i l e homes were c o n s i d e r e d j u s t b i g t r a i l e r s a n d m o s t m o b i l e home p a r k s were u n k e p t v a c a n t l o t s w i t h f e w i f any a m e n i t i e s . To g e t d o o r t o d o o r m a i l d e l i v e r y t h e p a r k d e v e l o p e r had t o n e g o t i a t e a n d p e r s u a d e t h e C o q u i t l a m p o s t o f f i c e a n d t h e p o s t o f f i c e d e p a r t m e n t i n O t t a w a f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . A n o t h e r b a t t l e c o n c e r n e d a b y - l a w t h a t p r o h i b i t e d f o r s a l e s i g n s i n a m o b i l e home p a r k . The p a r k d e v e l o p e r , Mr. A l l i n g e r s t a t e s , "From t h e s t a r t , i t ' s b e e n a c a s e o f image ; b u i l d i n g . . . T h r o u g h a s y s t e m o f r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , t h e m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t was b e i n g t r e a t e d l i k e a s e c o n d c l a s s c i t i z e n . " GENERAL AMERICAN ATTITUDES Many g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes h a v e b e e n m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes. H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s t i l l s e v e r a l s o u r c e s w h i c h h a v e e x p r e s s e d a t t i t u d e s w h i c h w o u l d be w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g . One i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y f e e l s t h a t t h e image o f t h e t r a i l e r s h a v e b e e n t h a t o f s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g , o c c u p i e d by p e r s o n s n o t w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . I t c o n t i n u e s t o say t h a t t h e r e i s much e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l o w e r c l a s s t r a n s i e n t h o u s i n g image d o e s n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e n a t u r e o f m o b i l e h o u s i n g and t h a t t h e r e may be a n e e d t o r e - e x a m i n e o u r t h i n k i n g a b o u t a n d r e g u l a t i o n s o f m o b i l e h o u s i n g . O t h e r p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r t i c l e a r e t h a t t r a i l e r s a r e a new k i n d o f s u b u r b a n h o u s i n g , t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t r a i l e r d w e l l e r s own t h e i r own home (88 p e r c e n t c o m p a r e d w i t h 62 p e r c e n t f o r p e r m a n e n t h o u s i n g ) , 90 p e r c e n t o f / / - 52 -t r a i l e r h o u s i n g i s c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g i n sound c o n d i t i o n a s compared w i t h 83 p e r c e n t f o r permanent h o u s i n g , and t r a i l e r s do not f i t the s u b s t a n d a r d s t e r e o t y p e and i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t 88 the k i n d o f t r a i l e r p a r k has c r e a t e d the s u b s t a n d a r d image. One e a r l y study o f m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s i n the 1930's when t r a i l e r i n g was done p r i m a r i l y by the t r a n s i e n t auto gypsy and t h e v a c a t i o n e r , had n e g a t i v e o v e r t o n e s . The major s o c i a l p roblems a t t h a t t ime which caused n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s were t r a n s i e n c y , t r a i l e r c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age p u t t i n g a d r a i n on e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t a x e s , s a n i t a t i o n and h e a l t h , h i g h d e n s i t i e s , f i r e h a z a r d , r e j e c t i o n o f t r a i l e r s i n c i t i e s . I t i s s u r p r i s e i n g t h a t i t i s the s e same problems which have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d as b e i n g the problems i n r e c e n t s t u d i e s . However, even t h i s s t u d y f e e l s t h a t t r a i l e r s s h o u l d n o t be f o r c e d t o l o c a t e o u t s i d e the c i t y l i m i t s t h u s moving the problem to the 89 c i t y ' s o u t s k i r t s . A study c o m p l e t e d a few y e a r s l a t e r , on a t r a i l e r p o p u l a t i o n w o r k i n g i n a nearby d e f e n s e p l a n t came to d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s . The r e s i d e n t s sampled r a t e d b e t t e r t h a n d i d the g e n e r a l U.S. p o p u l a t i o n o f t h a t t i m e . The m a j o r i t y had no f r i e n d s i n t h e a d j a c e n t town but 48 p e r c e n t o f the r e s i d e n t s f e l t the town's p e o p l e were c o r d i a l , 30 p e r c e n t were i n d i f f e r e n t , 13 p e r c e n t f e l t the town's peop l e were a l o o f and o n l y 2 p e r c e n t f e l t the town's p e o p l e were a n t a g o n i s t i c . The study f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t r a i l e r r e s i d e n t s and town p e o p l e s h o u l d i n t e g r a t e i n t o a more s t a b l e community l i f e and t h a t the t r a n s i t i o n might be a i d e d t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ 0 / - 53 -T a x a t i o n h a s a l w a y s b e e n a n i s s u e a n d one e a r l y s t u d y s u p p o r t s many o f t h e v i e w s h e l d by t h e p u b l i c t o d a y . The a r t i c l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t r a i l e r r e s i d e n t o r v a c a t i o n i s t g e t a l l s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s a n d o t h e r b e n e f i t s f o r v e r y l i t t l e o r no t a x a t i o n . A s u r v e y c a r r i e d o u t by t h e A m e r i c a n M u n i c i p a l A s s o c i a t i o n v e r i f i e d t h i s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d s o f t a x a t i o n w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . The b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e s f o u n d was t a x a t i o n b a s e d o n t h e b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d p e r day a n d c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s t h r o u g h 91 t h e o p e r a t o r o f t h e t r a i l e r camp. A r e c e n t a r t i c l e e c h o e s w h a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y . The a r t i c l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f i n a n c i n g a t l o w e r i n t e r e s t r a t e s a r e b e c o m i n g more p o s i t i v e among a l l t y p e s o f l e n d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s . The p o s i t i v e c h a n g e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e g o o d e a r n i n g s r e c o r d a n d 92 l o w f a i l u r e r a t i o o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . One s t u d y m e n t i o n s t h a t t r a i l e r s a r e b a n n e d c o m p l e t e l y f r o m c i t i e s . I t s a y s t h a t "No T r a i l e r s W anted" s i g n s a r e a p p e a r i n g e v e r y w h e r e . The p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e s e a t t i t u d e s i s t h a t i f p e o p l e l i v e i n t r a i l e r s , f e w e r w i l l l i v e I n h o u s e s , l a n d l o r d s g e t l e s s r e n t , m o r t g a g e s a n d t a x e s go u n p a i d a n d m o r t g a g e c o m p a n i e s a n d m u n i c i p a l t a x o f f i c i a l s may f i n d t h e i r f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t i s e a s i e r t o ban t r a i l e r s f r o m t h e c i t y . ^ 3 One o f t h e e a r l y s t u d i e s s a y s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no u n j u s t r e f l e c t i o n s o n t h i s h i g h l y r e s p e c t a b l e , e n e r g e t i c a n d f l o a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n . The a r t i c l e n e i t h e r c o n d o n e s w a s t e , n e g l e c t , d e s o l a t i o n o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a m e n i t i e s by t r a i l e r s . F i n a l l y i t s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l t h i n g s w h i c h a r e n e e d e d . - 54 -T h e s e a r e , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m a n d a n h o n e s t a t t e m p t t o s o l v e i t ; p r o p e r l y p l a n n e d , s u p e r v i s e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d t r a i l e r r o a d s i d e camps a n d s u b u r b a n v i l l a g e s , w i t h w a t e r a n d s a n i t a r y c o n v e n i e n c e s ; a d e q u a t e l a w s f o r p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n a n d j u s t t a x a t i o n ; more h o m e l i k e a n d l e s s s t r e a m l i n i n g t r a i l e r d e s i g n ; p e r m a n e n t a t t r a c t i v e s e t t i n g s i n p e r m a n e n t 94 v i l l a g e s a n d r o a d s i d e g r o u p s . M o b i l e homes a n d p a r k s h a v e i n c r e a s e d , y e t t h e y h a v e n e v e r h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p i n t o a n a t t r a c t i v e home b e c a u s e o f t h e p a s t b a d r e p u t a t i o n o f t r a i l e r camps. The much b e t t e r q u a l i t y p o t e n t i a l s o f m o b i l e homes a n d p a r k s a r e r e c o g n i z e d a n d 95 i t i s f e l t t h e y s h o u l d be g i v e n a c h a n c e . M o b i l e homes a r e g e n e r a l l y b u i l t t o a n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d a n d m o b i l e home m a n u f a c t u r e r s h a v e b e e n t h e f i r s t t o w o r k o n s t a n d a r d i z e d p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i a . The r a p i d g r o w t h o f m o b i l e homes a n d b e t t e r q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s and f i n a l l y t h e i n c r e a s e d f a c t o r y e f f i c i e n c y s u g g e s t s t h a t m o b i l e homes s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t h e enemy a n d t h a t t h e h o u s i n g i n d u s t r y s h o u l d l e a r n f r o m t h e 96 m o b i l e home i n d u s t r y . SUMMARY The a t t i t u d e i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i d i n d i c a t e a c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. N e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s a p p e a r e d much s t r o n g e r i n t h e p r e w a r l i t e r a t u r e when t r a v e l t r a i l e r s a n d f r e q u e n t m o b i l i t y was t h e way o f l i f e . P o s t war l i t e r a t u r e , a l t h o u g h n e g a t i v e i n some c a s e s , g e n e r a l l y seems to p r o m o t e more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s . The n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s i n - 55 -t h e p o s t w a r l i t e r a t u r e may r e s u l t f r o m t h e r e m n a n t s o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t r a v e l t r a i l e r s d u r i n g t h e p r e w a r y e a r s . A l s o , p o o r q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s l e f t f r o m p r e war y e a r s o r b u i l t i n p o s t w a r y e a r s , m i g h t f o s t e r n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. A s f a r a s g o v e r n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s were c o n c e r n e d , t h e A m e r i c a n s a p p e a r e d t o h a v e s t r o n g p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s o f a t t i t u d e t o w a r d m o b i l e homes, e s p e c i a l l y i n more r e c e n t y e a r s . The C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be r e s p o n d i n g a s p o s i t i v e l y a s t h e A m e r i c a n s , p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e i t h a s n o t y e t r e a l i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g . I t a p p e a r s t h a t any new h o u s i n g f o r m h a s t o v i r t u a l l y be p r o b l e m f r e e b e f o r e i t i s a c c e p t e d o n a l a r g e s c a l e . The r e a s o n p r o b a b l y b e i n g t h a t i t i s a l w a y s u n d e r o b s e r v a t i o n a n d c l o s e s c r u t i n y a n d t h e r e f o r e a f e w p o o r q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f o t h e r m o b i l e home p a r k s . H o w e v e r , i t was t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s * r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h p e r m i t t e d t h e p o o r q u a l i t y p a r k s t o be b u i l t . C o n t r a r y t o t h i s , b e c a u s e s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s i n g i s so w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , t h e p o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d s i n g l e f a m i l y homes go p r a c t i c a l l y u n n o t i c e d by a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c . A s m o b i l e homes become a n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g p a r t o f t h e h o u s i n g s u p p l y , v e r y l i k e l y p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o c h a n g e . P u b l i c a t t i t u d e s may a l r e a d y d e v i a t e c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m a t t i t u d e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e A, CASE STUDY O? ATT ITUDES TN COQUITLAM One o f t h e b e s t e x a m p l e s o f n e g a t i v e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes r e c e n t l y o c c u r e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The i s s u e - 56 -was c e n t r e d o n a p r o p o s e d m o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t , r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e H o i n g D e v e l o p m e n t . See f i g u r e 2 ( p a g e 73 ) f o r t h i s p r o p o s e d p a r k . To d e t e r m i n e t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g m i n u t e s a t C o q u i t l a m C i t y H a l l were r e v i e w e d and s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s w e r e h e l d w i t h a s m a l l random s a m p l e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e c o n c e r n e d a r e a . A l l i n t e r v i e w s were i n f o r m a l a n d t h e r e was no f o r m a l s e t o f q u e s t i o n s . The r e s p o n d e n t s i n t e r -v i e w e d e x p r e s s e d a k e e n i n t e r e s t a n d t h e r e s u l t was t h a t t h e y e x p o u n d e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s w i t h no p r o d d i n g f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ^ m y s e l f ) . The f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o u g h t s by t h e p u b l i c d u r i n g t h e I n t e r v i e w s may r e s u l t f r o m a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s t r u g g l e t h e p u b l i c o f t h e a r e a h a d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . B r i e f n o t e s w e re t a k e n j d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w a n d t h e s e were e l a b o r a t e d u p o n i m m e d i a t e l y l a f t e r t h e i n t e r v i e w . Some p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a s a i d t h e y d i d n o t l i k e t h e way t h e w h o l e p r o j e c t was h a n d l e d e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . I n t h e f i r s t h e a r i n g t h e p u b l i c d i d n o t seem t o f e e l t h a t t h e s t a n d a r d s a n d p o l i c i e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e l a n d u s e c o n t r a c t w o u l d be met. So t h e p u b l i c d e f e a t e d t h e m o b i l e home p r o p o s a l a t t h e f i r s t p u b l i c h e a r i n g , h e l d S e p t e m b e r 8 , 1 9 7 1 . I n t h e s e c o n d h e a r i n g , November 9 » 1 9 7 1 F t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n o f t h e p u b l i c was t h e way i n w h i c h t h e d e v e l o p e r s a t t e m p t e d t o d e c e i v e t h e p u b l i c . P r i o r t o t h e h e a r i n g , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s s a i d t h a t a p r e f a b r i c a t e d h o u s i n g p r o j e c t was t o go up o n t h e p a r c e l o f l a n d i n q u e s t i o n . U n d e r t h e s t r a t a t i t l e s a c t e a c h p r e f a b r i c a t e d h o u s e was t o be t a x e d l i k e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g . I t t u r n e d o u t t h a t t h e p r e f a b r i c a t e d h o u s i n g was m o b i l e homes, w h i c h t h e p u b l i c - 57 -l e a r n e d o n l y t h e d a y b e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g . T h i s d e c e p t i o n was a m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h e s e c o n d d e f e a t o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k p r o p o s a l . T h i s l a t t e r a c t i o n seems t o h a v e f o s t e r e d e v e n more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes i n t h e a r e a . An u n o f f i c i a l s p o k e s m a n a n d l e a d e r i n t h e p e t i t i o n i n g o f t h e a r e a , Mr. W.P. W h a l e n , s a i d t h a t t h e y h a v e a l w a y s b e e n u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e l a n d i n t h e a r e a was t o be u s e d f o r a c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y became q u i t e d i s t u r b e d when t h e y f o u n d o u t a m o b i l e home p a r k was t o go I n t h e a r e a . Mr. W h a l e n a d d e d t h a t r e s i d e n t s d i d n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o p o s a l . He s a i d r e s i d e n t s f e l t t h a t e v e r y t h i n g seemed t o be s e c r e t i v e a n d t h a t t h e p u b l i c c o u l d o n l y s e e a s m a l l h a n d o u t s k e t c h o f t h e p r o p o s a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s p l a n s . He a l s o f e l t t h a t r e s i d e n t s d i d n o t f e e l v e r y h a p p y a b o u t one o f t h e d e v e l o p e r s o w n i n g a t r a i l e r s a l e s b u s i n e s s , t h u s i m p l y i n g t h a t he was d e v e l o p i n g a m o b i l e home p a r k so he c o u l d s e l l more t r a i l e r s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h i s p r o p o s a l by t h e p u b l i c . I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e t h e m a j o r c o m p l a i n t s o u t l i n e d i n t h e p e t i t i o n s w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h I n c r e a s e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n t h e a r e a , l o w t a x e s , h i g h d e n s i t y a n d more p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e a l r e a d y t o o many m o b i l e homes i n C o q u i t l a m a n d s u c h e x p e r i m e n t s s h o u l d be t r i e d e l s e w h e r e f o r a c h a n g e . T h e s e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s seem to e i t h e r be b a s e d o n l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes o r e l s e p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. P o s s i b l y a l i t t l e o f b o t h o c c u r e d . I n c i d e n t a l l y , d u r i n g t h e s a m p l i n g o f t h e a r e a i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t n o t a l l t h e p e o p l e e x p r e s s e d t h e s e n e g a t i v e - 58 -a t t i t u d e s . I t was a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t many o f t h e p e t i o n e r s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e a s a c o u p l e o f m i l e s away f r o m t h e p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t , t o o f a r away t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . The d e v e l o p e r ( D r . H o i n g ) i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t u p g r a d e d t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e p r o p o s a l so t h a t t h e y were a d e q u a t e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . B a s i c a l y , t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n s f r o m t h e d e v e l o p e r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w was t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s i n t h e p l a n : (1) Have 100 t r a i l e r s p a c e s o n 14.34 a c r e s o f l a n d f o r a d e n s i t y o f 7.15 u n i t s / a c r e . (2) Have a b u f f e r z o n e o f 25 f e e t i n w i d t h a r o u n d t h e p r o p o s e d m o b i l e home p a r k . (3) Have a c e n t r a l p a r k s p a c e o c c u p y i n g 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e s i t e a n d c o n t a i n i n g a r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e b u i l d i n g . (4) Have w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d g r e e n s p a c e s s e p a r a t i n g c l u s t e r s o f m o b i l e homes. (5) Have a n u n d e d i c a t e d one way r i n g r o a d , w i t h a r i g h t o f way o f 40 f e e t a n d a p a v e d r o a d s u r f a c e o f 20 f e e t i n w i d t h . ( 6 ) Have p a r k i n g s u f f i c i e n t t o a c c o m o d a t e 1.5 s p a c e s p e r t r a i l e r s p a c e . - 59 -(7) Have 75 p e r c e n t o f t r a i l e r s p a c e s 66* x 1 2 ' o r 3 , 2 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t a n d 25 p e r c e n t o f t r a i l e r s p a c e s 48* x 24' o r 4 , 7 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t . J u d g i n g f r o m p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d s i n t h e a r e a a n d s t a n d a r d s i n s e v e r a l o f t h e r e p o r t s r e f e r r e d t o i n c h a p t e r I , t h e n t h e o n l y p r o p o s a l w h i c h m i g h t be q u e s t i o n e d w o u l d be number ?. M o s t new s t a n d a r d s w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e 3 , 6 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t p e r s p a c e , a l t h o u g h o t h e r s t a n d a r d s s t i l l i n f o r c e r e q u i r e l e s s t h a n t h e p r o p o s e d 3 , 2 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t . B e s i d e t h i s , t h e d e v e l o p e r i n a n e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n a good q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k , p r o p o s e d o t h e r p o l i c i e s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : (1) Have c o n c r e t e s l a b s f o r a l l u n i t s . (2) R e q u i r e s k i r t i n g o f a l u m i n u m o r f i b r e g l a s s o n a l l m o b i l e homes. (3) . Have a 1 0 ' x 3 5 ' c o n c r e t e o r a s p h a l t p a t i o i n f r o n t o f a n d p a r a l l e l t o e a c h m o b i l e home. (4) Have a 4' b l a c k t o p p e d p a t h l e a d i n g t o e a c h home. (5) Have a u n i f o r m s t y l e o f 5 ' x 7 ' s t o r a g e s h e d s p l a c e d a t t h e r e a r o f e a c h p a t i o . (6) T e n a n t s may . p u r c h a s e u n i f o r m s t y l e a n d good q u a l i t y c a b a n a s o r c a n o p i e s . - 60 -(7) E a c h bay w o u l d h a v e a l a n d s c a p e d a n d p l a n t e d a r e a t o be m a i n t a i n e d by t h e t e n a n t . (8) A l a m p s t a n d a r d w i t h o r n a m e n t a l l i g h t w o u l d be p l a c e d n e a r t h e f r o n t o f e a c h m o b i l e home. (9) A l l s e r v i c e s w o u l d be u n d e r g r o u n d . (10) M o b i l e homes t h r e e y e a r s o l d o r l e s s w o u l d be p e r m i t t e d i n t h e p a r k . I t a p p e a r e d t o t h e a u t h o r t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l h a d a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l t o be a g o o d q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k . D e s p i t e t h e v e r y g ood p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y o f t h e p r o p o s e d m o b i l e home p a r k , t h e p u b l i c i n t h e a r e a s t i l l r e j e c t e d t h e p r o p o s a l . The p u b l i c a p p e a r e d t o be a l i t t l e s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n a n d t h i s s u s p i c i o n was n e v e r s a t i s f i e d by t h e d e v e l o p e r s . B e s i d e t h i s l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e d e v e l o p e r s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r d e c e p t i v e b e h a v i o r a n d i t i s b e l i e v e d by t h e a u t h o r t h a t t h i s was t h e n e g a t i v e f o r c e w h i c h u n d e r l a y t h e d e f e a t o f t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t . The end r e s u l t o f t h e d e v e l o p e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e p u b l i c i s s t i l l e v i d e n t . The a u t h o r f o u n d t h a t when d i s t r i b u t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n t h e a r e a t h r e e m o n t h s a f t e r t h e f i n a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g he s t i l l h a d t o c o n v i n c e some o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t he was n o t w o r k i n g f o r t h e H o i n g D e v e l o p m e n t . O t h e r p r o b l e m s were o u t l i n e d i n t h e p e t i t i o n s p r e s e n t e d by t h e p u b l i c a t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e • . - 61 -p r o b l e m s d i d n o t seem t o be t h e m a j o r o b s t a c l e t o t h e p r o p o s a l . A t a n y r a t e t h e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e p r o v e d t o be a s t r o n g e r f o r c e t h a n good p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y d e s i g n . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l t h o u g h g o o d q u a l i t y i s i m p o r t a n t t h e r e a r e many o t h e r . f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . So t h e n t h e c o r r e c t i o n o f one p r o b l e m w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p a v e t h e way f o r good m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t s . - 62 -CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  HYPOTHESES Hypo t h e s l s : 97 I f m o b i l e homes a r e g o o d q u a l i t y . I f m o b i l e homes pay t h e i r f a i r s h a r e o f t a x e s . I f m o b i l e homes do n o t d e g r a d e t h e a d j a c e n t 99 r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . I f d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n m o b i l e homes a n d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were d e c r e a s e d . I f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g w e r e 100 98 i n c r e a s e d . T hen p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n o f m o b i l e homes w o u l d o n l y •, ^  ^ * J 4 101 r e s u l t f r o m p r e j u d i c e . N u l l H y p o t h e s e s : 10 2 The a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e d s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t m o b i l e homes. (1) W i l l n o t v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k . (2) W i l l n o t v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d 10 ? d e g r a d a t i o n J o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . (3) W i l l n o t v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d . - 63 -(4) W i l l n o t v a r y w i t h d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e homes. (5) W i l l n o t v a r y w i t h f a m i l i a r i t y o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g . Sub N u l l - H y p o t h e s e s : T h e r e w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n : (1) q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k a n d t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . ( 2 ) q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k a n d t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d . (3) q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k a n d t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e homes. (4) q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g . (5) t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d a n d t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . (6) t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d and t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e homes. (7) t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g . - 65 -- 64 -(8) d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y a n d t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e homes. (9) d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g . (10) d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e homes a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g . (11) s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s f o r e a c h c l u s t e r s a m p l e d . (12) q u a l i t y r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h c l u s t e r s a m p l e d . (13) d e g r a d a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y f o r e a c h c l u s t e r s a m p l e d . (14) t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d f o r e a c h c l u s t e r s a m p l e d . THE STUDY AREA. The s t u d y a r e a c h o s e n was t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o q u i t l a m , w h i c h w i l l be c a l l e d " C o q u i t i a r a " o r " C o q u i t l a m M u n i c i p a l i t y " i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t h e s i s . C o q u i t l a m , i s a r e l a t i v e l y m o d e r n bedroom c o m m u n i t y o f V a n c o u v e r C i t y . I t s ' p o p u l a t i o n i n 1966 104 was 59,222 a n d t h e p r o b a b l e r e a s o n f o r i t s c o n t i n u e d r a p i d g r o w t h i s t h e f o u r l a n e h i g h w a y w h i c h c o n n e c t s i t w i t h downtown V a n c o u v e r , j u s t 17 m i l e s t o o t h e w e s t . F i g u r e 1 shows C o q u i t l a m M u n i c i p a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s e n v i r o n s a n d o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e s o u t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h w i l l be c a l l e d " R e g i o n " i n t h e r e m a i n d e r , o f t h e t h e s i s . - 66 -C o q u i t l a m was c h o s e n a s t h e s t u d y a r e a f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F i r s t o f a l l o u t o f t h e e l e v e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e R e g i o n s i x o f t h e s e d i d n o t p e r m i t m o b i l e home p a r k s a s c o v e r e d i n c h a p t e r I I ( p a g e 5 0 ) . From t h e r e m a i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o n l y C o q u i t l a m h a d i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d p e r m i t more m o b i l e home p a r k s . C o q u i t l a m h a s f u r t h e r e d i t s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d m o b i l e homes, s i n c e i n 1971 i t a d o p t e d a new m o b i l e home b y - l a w . B e s i d e t h i s a s p e c t , C o q u i t l a m h a s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f m o b i l e home p a r k s r a n g i n g f r o m v e r y p o o r q u a l i t y t o n e a r l y e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y . A d d e d t o t h e s e f a c t s , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c o f C o q u i t l a m a r e r e m i n d e d a b o u t m o b i l e homes more f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a a s new i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g m o b i l e homes c r o p u p . T h e r e f o r e i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e p u b l i c i n C o q u i t l a m a r e more a w a r e o f m o b i l e homes a n d i t s p r o b l e m s t h a n t h e p u b l i c i n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s a w a r e n e s s w i l l r e s u l t i n b e t t e r r e p l i e s a n d a b e t t e r r e s p o n s e r a t e . I f t h i s b e t t e r p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f m o b i l e homes d o e s e x i s t i n C o q u i t l a m , i t may be a b i g d i s a d v a n t a g e w i t h t h e s t u d y . The d i s a d v a n t a g e m i g h t be t h a t t h e p u b l i c i n C o q u i t l a m may d i f f e r . I n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes a s o p p o s e d t o o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r a d d e d . e x p o s u r e t o m o b i l e homes. O t h e r w i s e , C o q u i t l a m w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e t t e r r e f l e c t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f o t h e r s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i n c e i t i s f a r e n o u g h f r o m V a n c o u v e r t o h a v e t h e c o m m u n i t y s p i r i t o f a s m a l l c i t y o r l a r g e t o w n . An I n v e n t o r y showed t h a t t h e r e were n i n e m o b i l e home p a r k s i n C o q u i t l a m w i t h a t e n t h p a r k a c t u a l l y b e i n g j u s t o v e r t h e b o u n d a r y , i n P o r t Moody. ( s e e t a b l e X, page 6 7 ) . Two o f / - 67 -TABLE X MOBILE HOMES- I N STUDY AREA Number o f m o b i l e 2 homes M o b i l e X Home P a r k s 1966 1969 1970 1971 1 - F o u r A c r e s 35 45 41 41 2 - W i l l o w 34 36 34 34 3 - Ko s t u r 28 32 31 30 4 - W i l d w o o d 15 15 38 50 5 - W i n d s o r G l e n 40 134 158 162 6 - C e d a r A c r e s 21 21 21 19 7 - P a r k l a n d 46 47 48 47 8 - E v e r g r e e n 85 88 88 89 9 - H i d e a w a y 50 54 55 55 10 - C e d a r M a n o r " 38 3 S o u r c e : By-Law E n f o r c e m e n t C o q u i t l a m O f f i c e r , 2 S o u r c e : D e p a r t m e n t o f L i c e n s e s , C o q u i t l a m 3 S o u r c e : E n g i n e e r i n g Moody. D e p a r t m e n t , P o r t - 68 -t h e p a r k s - P o u r A c r e s a n d W i l l o w were a u t o c o u r t s w h i c h h a d m o b i l e homes a n d t r a v e l t r a i l e r s s q u e e z e d o n t o e v e r y a v a i l a b l e s p a c e . From t a b l e X ( p a g e 67) i t c a n be s e e n t h a t m o b i l e home u n i t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g n o t i c e a b l y i n o n l y two m o b i l e home p a r k s - ( W i l d w o o d a n d W i n d s o r G l e n . ) I n a l l o t h e r p a r k s c a p a c i t y h a s b e e n r e a c h e d a n d W i n d s o r G l e n h a s n e a r l y r e a c h e d t h a t s t a g e a t p r e s e n t . W i l d w o o d i s s t i l l u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t a nd i t w i l l h o l d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two h u n d r e d u n i t s when f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . A q u a l i t y s u r v e y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s i n C o q u i t l a m was n e c e s s a r y t o t h e s t u d y s i n c e t h e a u t h o r n e e d e d t o c h o o s e s a m p l e s n e a r v a r y i n g t y p e s o f q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s i n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e e f f e c t s o f q u a l i t y o n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e home p a r k s . The same q u a l i t y s u r v e y c o u l d s e r v e a s a c h e c k a g a i n s t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s * r e p l i e s t o q u a l i t y s t a t e m e n t s o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s u r v e y a n d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p l i e s w o u l d c o m p l e m e n t e a c h o t h e r i n t h e s e n s e o f d e t e r m i n i n g f o r c e r t a i n , w h i c h m o b i l e home p a r k s w e re o f g o o d , f a i r o r p o o r q u a l i t y . T h e n c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be made a s t o t h e e f f e c t s q u a l i t y p l a y o n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s . F i n a l l y , t h e y q u a l i t y s u r v e y w o u l d a i d t h e r e a d e r i n k n o w i n g t h e s t u d y a r e a a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r o b l e m s d i s c u s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s more f u l l y . The q u a l i t y s u r v e y was a v i s u a l s u r v e y w h i c h was b a s e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . 5 = V e r y good 4 = Good 3 = F a i r - 69 -2 •• = P o o r 1 = V e r y p o o r The r a t i n g s c a l e was a p p l i e d t o 2 3 d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y f e a t u r e s a l l o f e q u a l w e i g h t a n d was b r o k e n down u n d e r 5 m a j o r h e a d i n g s a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a u t h o r . The s c o r e s f o r e a c h m o b i l e home p a r k w e re t o t a l l e d a n d a v e r a g e s t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o v e r a l l q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k . A n a v e r a g e o f 4 o r o v e r w o u l d c l a s s i f y t h e p a r k a s b e i n g good q u a l i t y , a n a v e r a g e o f 2 . 5 o r . l e s s w o u l d c l a s s i f y t h e p a r k a s b e i n g p o o r q u a l i t y w h e r e a s a n a v e r a g e o f 2 . 6 t o 3 . 9 w o u l d c l a s s i f y t h e p a r k a s b e i n g f a i r q u a l i t y . A z e r o r a t i n g meant t h e p a r k d i d n o t h a v e t h e f e a t u r e s s u r v e y e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y a p p e a r i n t a b l e X I , page 7 0 . The t a b l e shows t h a t o n l y m o b i l e home p a r k s 4 a n d 5 w h i c h w e r e W i l d w o o d a n d W i n d s o r G l e n r e s p e c t i v e l y a c h i e v e d a g o o d q u a l i t y r a t i n g . M o b i l e home p a r k 6 ( C e d a r A c r e s ) a c h i e v e d a l o w f a i r r a t i n g w h e r e a s t h e r e m a i n i n g m o b i l e home p a r k s w e r e r a t e d a s p o o r q u a l i t y . - ?o -TABLE XI UALI TY SURVEY M o b i l e Home P a r k s V i s u a l F e a t u r e s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. G e n e r a l S e r v i c e s ( a ) l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s 3 2 2 5 5 2 3 3 3 3 ( b ) p a v e d r o a d s 2 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 ( c ) s t o r a g e s p a c e 1 1 1 5 5 2 3 3 3 3 2. R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s ( a ) r e c r e a t i o n h a l l 0 0 0 5 5' 0 0 0 0 0 ( b ) swimming p o o l 0 0 0 5 3 0 0 4 0 0 ( c ) p u t t i n g g r e e n 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 ( d ) c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a r e a 1 0 0 5 4 3 2 2 3 2 3. S i t e L o c a t i o n ( a ) n e a r s c h o o l s 5 5 5 4 5 4 2 2 2 3 ( b ) n e a r s h o p s 5 5 5 5 4 5 3 2 2 3 ( c ) n e a r p a r k s 5 5 5 3 5 4 2 2 2 2 ( d ) n e a r c h u r c h e s . 5 5 5 3 3 4 2 2 2 3 4. S i t e A e s t h e t i c s ( a ) b u f f e r z o n e 1 l 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 2 ( b ) l a w n s l 0 0 3 5 2 2 1 1 2 ( c ) t r e e s a n d s h r u b s 0 0 0 3 5 3 3 2 2 2 ( d ) u s e o f o p e n s p a c e i l l 3 5 3 3 2 3 2 ( e ) d e n s i t y l l 1 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 • . ( f ) s i t e d e s i g n l l 1 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 5. M o b i l e Homes (a ) c o n d i t i o n o f homes 2 3 4 5 4 3 3 3 4 4 ( b ) r e g u l a t i o n s f o r homes 3 1 2 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 ( c ) s k i r t i n g o f homes 3 2 3 5 5 3 3 2 4 4 ( d ) c o n c r e t e p a d s f o r homes 3 2 3 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 ( e ) p a r k i n g s p a c e 2 2 2 5 5 3 2 3 3 3 ( f ) s i z e o f l o t s 1 1 2 5 5 3 2 2 3 3 T o t a l S c o r e s 46 4o 47 94 105 60 51 50 54 55 A v e r a g e S c o r e s 2.0 1.7 2.0 4.1 4.6 2.6 2.2 22 2.3 2.3 The name o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k r e p r e s e n t i n g e a c h number a p p e a r s i n t a b l e X. - 71 -SAMPLING METHOD The purpose of the thesis i s to analyze the general p u b l i c s attitudes toward mobile homes. Hence, i t was decided not to sample different groups, such as municipal park operators and other groups within the general public* per se. Many of these groups such as municipal o f f i c i a l s and mobile home park operators already openly express their opinions. Similiarly, the mobile home dwellers have been lobbying very strongly in favor of mobile homes. The attitudes of these groups have already been illu s t r a t e d and documented in chapter I of the thesis. Therefore, i t i s not necessary to elaborate on these views when the attitudes of the general publio have not been studied. Besides, i t i s the general public which has the greatest voice and who can best persuade municipal o f f i c i a l s or other levels of government, i f they feel a cause i s ju s t i f i e d . The general public have already rejected mobile homes on several occasions and many municipalities very l i k e l y hestitate in permitting this form of housing, because of such action. Therefore, a study of public attitudes toward mobile homes may uncover reasons for such problems, which might possibly be corrected and eventually result in mobile homes existing harmoniously in a municipality. In choosing a sample several problems had to be borne in mind. First of a l l , the sample had to be as representative of the total population as possible. Secondly, because i t was a desire to test the effects of distance from m o b i l e homes o n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s , s a m p l e a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s ( t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s ) a n d a t some d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e home p a r k s ( t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ) h a d t o be c h o o s e n . T h i r d l y , t h e l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n a n d l a r g e a r e a c o n t a i n e d by t h e R e g i o n , d i c t a t e d f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s . F o u r t h l y , t h e t o t a l s a m p l e s i z e o f 250 t o 300 w o u l d p l a c e c o n s t r a i n t s o n t h e m e t h o d o f s a m p l i n g . H o w e v e r , i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s s a m p l e s i z e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 . 5 - 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e number o f f a m i l i e s who w o u l d be l i v i n g i n a d w e l l i n g u n i t , was a n a d e q u a t e s i z e t o e l i c i t a r e l i a b l e r e s p o n s e , a s s u m i n g a g o o d r e t u r n r a t e . F i g u r e 2 , ( p a g e 73) shows t h e t e n m o b i l e home p a r k s i n t h e R e g i o n a n d t h e name o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o e a c h number may be s e e n i n t a b l e X, ( p a g e 6 7 ) . The l e t t e r s i n f i g u r e 2 , ( p a g e 73) d e n o t e t h e a r e a s s a m p l e d . • The l a r g e s t p r o b l e m w h i c h l i m i t s t h e s a m p l i n g m e t h o d f o r t h i s a r e a i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . F i r s t o f a l l , f o u r o f t h e t e n m o b i l e home p a r k s h a d no r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o them. See f i g u r e 2 , page 7 3 . M o b i l e home p a r k 3 was s u r r o u n d e d o n t h r e e s i d e s by c o m m e r c i a l o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l l a n d u s e s a n d h a d a n i n d u s t r i a l u s e a n d a h i g h w a y o n t h e f o u r t h s i d e . M o b i l e home p a r k s 6, 7 a n d 8 were o n t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a n d were t o t a l l y s u r r o u n d e d by u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d . 'The c l o s e s t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0 . 5 m i l e s f r o m m o b i l e home p a r k 6 , w h i c h was c o n s i d e r e d t o o d i s t a n t when i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s a m p l e a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . Where r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w e r e a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s 1» 2 , 4 , 5» 9 and 1 0 , t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s w e re o n two o c a s s i o n s / / / ST JOHNS ST SPENCE ir.^ .'.-.f.w.-.-.y.'AJ STANTON MADORE - 73 -BARNET". HWY MRP1 DE WDNEY COMO LAKE 1 SCHEMATIC MAP F I G U R E 2 MOBILE HOME PARKS WM AREAS SAMPLED PROPOSED PARK j - 74 -a d j a c e n t t o two m o b i l e home p a r k s , s e e m o b i l e home p a r k s 1 and 2 a n d 9 a n d 10. T h i s f u r t h e r r e d u c e d t h e s a m p l e a r e a s t o f o u r i n s t e a d o f s i x . B e c a u s e t h i s l i m i t e x i s t e d o n t h e number o f a r e a s t h a t c o u l d be s a m p l e d , t h e n i t was d e c i d e d t o s a m p l e a l l f o u r a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . Two o f t h e s e a r e a s ( B and C) were a d j a c e n t t o g o o d q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s (4 and 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e q u a l i t y s u r v e y . Two o t h e r s a m p l e a r e a s ( E a n d P) were c h o s e n a t a g r e a t d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e home p a r k s . Sample E was c h o s e n s i n c e i t r e c e n t l y r e j e c t e d a p r o p o s e d m o b i l e home p a r k a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g f o r t h a t a r e a . A s a r e s u l t , i t was f e l t t h a t p o s s i b l y r e a s o n s f o r t h a t r e j e c t i o n m i g h t be u n c o v e r e d a n d t h i s c o u l d p r o v i d e m o s t v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g p o l i c y . Sample F was c h o s e n a s a c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n c e i t was a t a g r e a t d i s t a n c e f r o m any m o b i l e home p a r k s a n d w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s n o t n e a r m o b i l e home p a r k s . Where r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s e x i s t e d a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s t h e r e were s t i l l o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h l i m i t e d t h e s a m p l i n g m e t h o d . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r e a c h r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s i s n e c e s s a r y . M o b i l e home p a r k s 1 a n d 2 w e r e b o u n d e d o n t h e s o u t h s i d e by t h e L o u g h e e d H i g h w a y , t h e e a s t s i d e by v a c a n t l a n d a n d o n t h e w e s t s i d e by C o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a (A) a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s 1 and 2 o n l y e x i s t e d o n t h e n o r t h s i d e . M o b i l e home p a r k 4 was boun d e d o n t h e e a s t , s o u t h a n d w e s t s i d e s by v a c a n t b u s h l a n d . Once a g a i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a was t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k a s shown i n f i g u r e 2. - 75 -F u r t h e r m o r e , a l a r g e , r i d g e a c t e d a s a p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r a t t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f s a m p l e B. T h e r e f o r e , more r e s i d e n t i a l • h o u s i n g t o t h e n o r t h o f t h e s a m p l e were o n t h e u p p e r s l o p e s o f t h e r i d g e a n d s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e h o u s e s o f s a m p l e B o n t h e l o w e r l a n d a d j a c e n t t o t h e m o b i l e home p a r k 4. I n t h e c a s e o f W i n d s o r G l e n , m o b i l e home p a r k 5 , b e c a u s e i t i s o n t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d l i e s o n t h e w e s t e r n , n o r t h e r n a n d e a s t e r n b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k . The s u b d i v i s i o n t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k e x t e n d s o n l y e a s t e r l y a n d h a s u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d o n i t s w e s t e r n a n d s o u t h e r n b o u n d a r i e s . Sample a r e a D a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s 9 a n d 10 i s t h e o n l y s u b d i v i s i o n n e a r t h e s e p a r k s a n d o t h e r w i s e u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d i s o n a l l o t h e r s i d e s o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s a n d o n a l l s i d e s o f s a m p l e D. Sa m p l e a r e a E was a l s o s u r r o u n d e d by u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d . So t h e n t h e s a m p l e a r e a s t h a t w ere a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s w e re s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i n s i z e a n d n u m b e r s . To g e t a n a d e q u a t e r e s p o n s e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s a m p l e 105 100 p e r c e n t o f t h e h o u s e h o l d e r s i n a l l s a m p l e a r e a s . T h i s w o u l d a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . A l l c l u s t e r s s a m p l e d r e p r e s e n t e d s i n g l e f a m i l y o r t h e o c a s s i o n a l d u p l e x home. T h e r e were no a p a r t m e n t h o u s e s a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . O t h e r w i s e , t h e s a m p l e s h o u l d be h e t e r o g e n e o u s a n d i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t i s f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s t u d y , a r e a , s i n c e C o q u i t l a m i s p r i m a r i l y a m i d d l e c l a s s s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l s u b u r b a n a r e a w i t h v e r y f e w n o t i c e a b l y h i g h c l a s s a r e a s . A l l c l u s t e r s w e r e b e l i e v e d h e t e r e o g e n e o s enough t o w a r r a n t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s a m p l e t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y . T a b l e X I I ( p a g e 76) shows t h e s a m p l e s i z e s a n d r e t u r n r a t e s . I - 76 -TABLE X I I SAMPLE S I Z E AND RETURNS 1 Number o f R e t u r n s P e r c e n t a g e C l u s t e r s Number S a m p l e d V a l i d I n v a l i d V a l i d R e t u r n s A 38 23 3 60.53 • B 40 12 4 30.00 C 52 22 2 42.38 D 55 19 2 34.55 E 26 11 4 42.31 P 36 26 1 72.22 T o t a l 247 113 16 45.75 I n v a l i d r e t u r n s w o u l d be r e t u r n s n o t f i l l e d o u t o r r e t u r n s w i t h f a r t o o many no r e s p o n s e s . - 77 -The a u t h o r f e e l s f r o m v i s i t s t o t h e s t u d y a r e a t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s a m p l e d h a d t o be c l o s e e n o u g h t o t h e m o b i l e home p a r k t o e l i c i t a d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n s e f r o m a c l u s t e r a t a g r e a t d i s t a n c e f r o m a m o b i l e home p a r k ( t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p F ) . F r e q u e n t v i s i t s t o t h e s t u d y a r e a p r i o r t o s a m p l i n g made one a w a r e o f a d i f f e r e n c e f r o m b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o a m o b i l e home p a r k a n d b e i n g one s t r e e t ( o r b l o c k ) away, so t h a t t h e m o b i l e home p a r k was b l o t t e d f r o m v i e w by h o u s e s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o i t . T h e r e f o r e , a l l c l u s t e r s a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s w e re s a m p l e d f o r a d i s t a n c e o f a t l e a s t t h r e e s t r e e t s ( o r t h r e e b l o c k s ) f r o m t h e m o b i l e home p a r k , t o i n c l u d e t h i s p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n t h e c l u s t e r s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s A t o D. - 78 -THE PROBLEMS OF MEASURING ATTITUDES M e a s u r e m e n t o f a t t i t u d e s i s a s c i e n c e i n i t s own r i g h t . H o w e v e r , a s y n o p s i s o f some o f t h e m a j o r i d e a s r e s e a r c h e d u n d e r t h i s t o p i c w o u l d a i d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n a n d r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y i n p a r t i c u l a r a n d t h e t h e s i s I n g e n e r a l . I n t h e t h e s i s t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s a r e p r i m a r i l y m e a s u r e d t h r o u g h t h e i r e x p r e s s e d a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f o p i n i o n s . I n t h i s c a s e t h e c o n c e p t " o p i n i o n " w i l l mean a w r i t t e n e x p r e s s i o n o f a t t i t u d e . The m e a s u r e m e n t o f a man*s a t t i t u d e s by h i s e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean a p r e d i c t i o n o f what he w i l l d o . On o c c a s i o n s t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d may be i n t e n t i o n -a l l y d i s t o r t i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s b u t a t l e a s t we a r e t h e n m e a s u r i n g t h e a t t i t u d e w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e t r y i n g t o make p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h e y h a v e . A l l t h a t c a n be done i s ' t o m i n i m i z e a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p r e v e n t t h e p u b l i c f r o m t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h o r e l s e a d j u s t o u r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . To make t h i s e v e n more d i f f i c u l t , i t m u s t be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s o f t e s t i n g a t t i t u d e s . When a t t i t u d e s c a l e s a r e u s e d , t h e y s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d o n l y a s t h e r o u g h e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n s o f t h e way i n w h i c h a t t i t u d e s a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n t h e m e n t a l l i f e o f i n d i v i d u a l s . M e a s u r e m e n t o f a t t i t u d e s c a n d e a l o n l y w i t h a t t i t u d e s t h a t a r e 'common* and t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w . E a c h p e r s o n p o s s e s s e s many c o n t r a d i c t o r y a t t i t u d e s a n d f o r t h i s r e a s o n h i s a t t i t u d e s a t t h e moment o f s u b m i t t i n g t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e may t e l l o n l y - 7.9 -a part of the story. Rationalization and deception inevitably occur, especially when the attitudes studied pertain to the moral l i f e or social status of the subject being questioned. Furthermore, attitudes often change and an investigation made under one set of conditions may not for long present a true picture of the attitudes of any given group. Several practical c r i t e r i a are applied to help overcome limitations of attitude measurement in a questionnaire. The statements should be as brief as possible. The statements should be such that they can be endorsed or rejected in accordance with the agreement or disagreement dependent on the attitude of the respondent. Every statement should be such that acceptance or rejection of the statement does indicate something regarding the reader's attitude about the issue in question. Double-barreled statements should be avoided. One must insure that at least a f a i r majority of the statements really belong on the attitude variable that 1.07 i s to be measured. Any statement to which persons with markedly different attitudes can respond i n the same way, i s unsatisfactory. It i s essential that a l l statements be expressions of desired behavior and not statements of fact. It i s essential to state each proposition in clear, concise, straight-forward statements. It would seem desirable to have the questions so worded that the modal reaction to some, i s more toward one end of the attitude continuum and to others more in the middle or toward the other end. If multiple choice statements are used, the different alternatives should involve only a single attitude variable and not several.' / / / - 80 -These are but a few of the considerations given to the questionnaire and research methodology which r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y to the t e s t i n g of public a t t i t u d e s . Naturally, the usual design techniques were also considered. - 81 -QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN Several good a l t e r n a t i v e s were open to t e s t i n g the p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s toward mobile homes. I t was f e l t that an i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l questions e l i c i t i n g a response based on v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n such as photographs, might be very good. I t was decided, however to c o n s t r u c t a standard q u e s t i o n n a i r e design which would b e t t e r meet the aforementioned c o n s t r a i n t s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed on the b a s i s that i t would serve two primary purposes. P i r s t , i t had to provide the s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n necessary to t e s t the n u l l hypotheses. Secondly, i t had to provide general i n f o r m a t i o n which might i n c r e a s e the value of the t h e s i s from a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of view. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed and used f o r the t h e s i s research i s i n appendix B. Question 1 e l i c i t s s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s toward mobile homes. These a t t i t u d e s are determined by a n a l y z i n g responses to a s e r i e s o f stereotype statements which seem to p r e v a i l i n the general p u b l i c ' s mind, based upon research completed i n chapters I and I I . N a t u r a l l y the Coquitlam p u b l i c may d i f f e r from the general u n i v e r s a l p u b l i c i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . A statement i n the f i r s t q u e s tion which c o u l d p o s s i b l y be agreed upon, i s t h a t mobile homes look l i k e drab r e c t a n g u l a r boxes. However, t h i s statement cannot t o t a l l y be agreed w i t h , since many of the new mobile homes and e s p e c i a l l y the double wides, have l o s t a great deal of the o r i g i n a l mobile home design and now c l o s e l y resemble c o n v e n t i o n a l housing design. P o s s i b l y one could argue that c o n v e n t i o n a l housing i s j u s t as drab as the o r i g i n a l mobile home e x t e r i o r design. Research i n chapters I and I I document the f a c t t h a t the remaining stereotype statements o f que s t i o n I are g e n e r a l l y f a l s e although the poorer q u a l i t y mobile home parks might present supporting evidence f o r some of these stereotype statements. Questions 2, 3 and 4 are general i n f o r m a t i o n questions which determine the area sampled and determine I f the r e s i d e n t s are aware of a mobile home park i n t h e i r neighbourhood. I f the respondents are not aware o f such a mobile home park then i t w i l l not have a f f e c t e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . ^However* they may not be as r e l i a b l e o r v a l i d respondents when attempting to determine such t h i n g s as, the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s o f the p u b l i c adjacent to good q u a l i t y mobile home parks as opposed to the a t t i t u d e s of the p u b l i c near poor q u a l i t y mobile home parks. Question 5 was necessary to analyze the n u l l h ypothesis on q u a l i t y . This q u e s t i o n i s a more s p e c i f i c type which e l i c i t s responses concerning d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g q u a l i t y and yet informs the respondent of these f a c t o r s , so tha t he o r she may b e t t e r answer the f i n a l o v e r a l l q u a l i t y statement. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s f i n a l statement w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e when compared with the oth e r statements i n the qu e s t i o n , so that o n l y I t may be used as a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r of q u a l i t y i n t e s t i n g the n u l l hypothe s i s. - 83 -Questions 6, 12, 13, 20, 21, 26 and 2? are the open end type. Questions 12 and 13 may serve as a check a g a i n s t o p i n i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s o f the p u b l i c . The o t h e r open end q u e s t i o n s are designed to gather i n f o r m a t i o n which w i l l prove to be u s e f u l from the p l a n n i n g p o i n t o f view. The i n f o r m a t i o n can p r o v i d e the p l a n n e r w i t h the o p i n i o n s o f the p u b l i c on p r o v i s i o n s f o r mobile homes. Questions 7, 8 and 9 d e a l with the tax problem and a r e necessary to t e s t one o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . Q u e s t i o n 7 determines the p u b l i c ' s p r e s e n t o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t a x a t i o n o f mobile homes i n comparison with o t h e r h o u s i n g forms. I t i s t r u e t h a t many o f the respondents may not know the t a x e s p a i d by each o f the h o u s i n g forms and t h i s w i l l p r obably be r e f l e c t e d by the number o f no responses. Of those who do respond we w i l l have i n f o r m a t i o n on the o p i n i o n o f the r e s p o n d i n g p u b l i c . Q u e s t i o n 8 t e s t s the knowledge o f each respondent on the s u b j e c t o f taxes p a i d by mobile homes. A l s o q u e s t i o n 8 forms the b a s i s o f q u e s t i o n 9 which i s a d i f f i c u l t one f o r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , because i t makes an assumption. The purpose o f q u e s t i o n 9 i s to see i f t h e r e has been any changes from q u e s t i o n 7 now t h a t the respondent i s aware o f v a r i o u s forms o f taxes mobile home r e s i d e n t s might have to pay. Q u e s t i o n s 8 and 9 c o u l d have been a l t e r e d so to g i v e the respondent the amount o f t a x e s p a i d by each h o u s i n g type i n Coquitlam. However, i f the i n f o r m a t i o n showed t h a t mobile homes d i d pay l e s s t a x e s than do o t h e r forms o f housing, then the respondents would give a n e g a t i v e r e p l y to the q u e s t i o n . T h i s would be an o b v i o u s answer and - 84 -would not t e s t present o p i n i o n s . Question 10 gathers more general i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the o p i n i o n s of the p u b l i c which might be h e l p f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g recommendations f o r the proper planning f o r mobile homes. Question 11 determines the strength of a respondent who has moved to the area since the mobile home park development, can not o b j e c t t h a t s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t a mobile home park. This question i s c a r r i e d f u r t h e r i n q u e s t i o n 12, 13, and 14 f o r the respondents who have i n d i c a t e d that the mobile home park developed a f t e r they had moved to the area. Question 15 i s concerned with people's a t t i t u d e s toward the a f f e c t s of market val u e s on t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l area, as a r e s u l t of being near mobile homes. These are s p e c i f i c questions which were formulated to t e s t the n u l l hypothesis and which were r e a l l y conceived as a r e s u l t of research i n chapter I which i n d i c a t e d t h a t people f e e l t h a t mobile homes a f f e c t market v a l u e s . Questions 16 and 1? deal with the f a m i l i a r i t y of the p u b l i c toward mobile homes. This i s necessary to t e s t the n u l l hypothesis. This could a l s o be an important q u e s t i o n In showing t h a t the p u b l i c should know more about mobile homes, i f t h i s type of housing i s to be accepted. Questions 18 and 19 were Included to a i d i n checking a g a i n s t questions 20 and 21. I t I s suspected, Judging from the study research, that f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n - 85 -would f i n d mobile homes too small and as a r e s u l t are not necessarily against l i v i n g i n a mobile home i f they were convenient space-wise. Questions 22, 23, 24 and 25 are oriented toward e l i c i t i n g information important to the proper planning of mobile homes. Therefore, these questions are of the general informational type although there i s an o r i e n t a t i o n toward s p e c i f i c possible changes i n present p o l i c i e s . These questions of course would complement and supplement the open end type questions previously mentioned. - 86 -QUESTIONNAIRE DISTRIBUTION The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n o t by m a i l , a s i s u s u a l . I n s t e a d , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d e l i v e r e d by h a n d , t o e a c h h o u s e h o l d i n t h e c l u s t e r s t o be s a m p l e d . A c o v e r i n g l e t t e r was d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n s t r u c t i n g t h e p u b l i c o n t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y . See a p p e n d i x C. The r e a s o n f o r t e l l i n g t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d be p i c k e d u p w i t h i n two d a y s was t o p r o d t h e p u b l i c i n t o c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e l i v e r e d d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e week, u s u a l l y T h u r s d a y o r F r i d a y , so t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c d i d h a v e t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o v e r p a r t o f t h e w e e k e n d , when t h e y w o u l d m o s t l i k e l y h a v e f r e e t i m e a v a i l a b l e . Two t o t h r e e d a y s a f t e r d e l i v e r y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d o o r t o d o o r v i s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o p i c k u p t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P e o p l e n o t a t home a n d p e o p l e who h a d n o t c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were n o t e d a n d a s e c o n d v i s i t was made t h e f o l l o w i n g d ay t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d be c o m p l e t e d . I f t h e p e o p l e were n o t a t home o n t h e s e c o n d v i s i t t h e n t h e y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s a no r e t u r n . I f t h e p e o p l e w e r e a t home o n t h e s e c o n d v i s i t b u t h a d f a i l e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e n a t h i r d v i s i t was made t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y . t o p i c k up t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f t h e y c o u l d a s s u r e t h a t i t w o u l d be r e a d y . T h i s t y p e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n m e t h o d p r o v e d t o be a v e r y g ood one and t h e number o f r e s p o n d e n t s r e p l y i n g h a d . - 87 -r e a c h e d t h e h o p e d f o r r e t u r n s . T a b l e X I I ( p a g e 76) shows t h e t o t a l r e t u r n s a n d r e t u r n s f o r e a c h c l u s t e r . - 88 -TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS The h y p o t h e s i s i s t o be t e s t e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f n u l l h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e h y p o t h e s i s . Then a f u r t h e r i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s w i l l be c o m p l e t e d t h r o u g h t h e t e s t i n g o f a s e r i e s o f s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h i n t u r n were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . T h i s l a s t a n a l y s i s i s i m p o r t a n t t o l o c a t i n g any I m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n v a r i a b l e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be o v e r l o o k e d . The p r o c e d u r e o f t e s t i n g w i l l be t h e same f o r b o t h n u l l h y p o t h e s e s a n d s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . O t h e r t h a n c o m p u t i n g t h e s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c o f t o t a l s a n d p e r c e n t a g e s , t h e f i r s t s t e p w i l l be t o t e s t f o r l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s by . u s i n g t h e C h i - S q u a r e t e s t a n d t h e T t e s t . The C h i - S q u a r e t e s t w i l l be c o m p u t e d w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e M u l t i v a r i a t e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b u l a t i o n s (MVTAB) c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . The T t e s t w i l l be c o m p u t e d w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e S m a l l T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n P a c k a g e STRIP) c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a T t e s t o n h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h h a d b o t h v a r i a b l e s c o m i n g f r o m d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n d e n t s . E x a m p l e , i f t h e h y p o t h e s i s w e r e ; t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e q u a l i t y r e s p o n s e s o f C l u s t e r A a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t y r e s p o n s e s o f C l u s t e r B, t h e n t h e ( S T R I P ) p r o g r a m w o u l d be u s e d t o g e t t h e T p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e v a r i a b l e s , so t h a t t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . The (MVTAB) p r o g r a m c o u l d n o t compute C h i - S q u a r e s f o r v a r i a b l e s i n t h a t t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n . H o w e v e r , (MVTAB) c o u l d be u s e d t o g e t C h i - S q u a r e s when t h e two v a r i a b l e s were a n s w e r e d by t h e same r e s p o n d e n t . E x a m p l e , i f - 89 -t h e h y p o t h e s i s w e r e : t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s a n d t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e homes. T h e r e f o r e , t h e C h i - S q u a r e a n d T d i s t r i b u t i o n were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . B e c a u s e t h e s e t e s t s o n l y l o o k e d a t l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n one w o u l d o n l y know i f t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e o r a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d . I f t h e y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t h e n t h e h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be r e j e c t e d b u t we w o u l d n o t know t o what d e g r e e t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e r e l a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e c o n d s t e p i n t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be t o c a l c u l a t e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e ( S T R I P ) c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . C o r r e l a t i o n s w o u l d g i v e t h e d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n v a r i a b l e s , i s a s e d o n t h e s e t e s t s t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d . - 90 -CHAPTER I V A N A L Y S I S OF RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE A N A L Y S I S I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s i m p l e s t way t o d i s c u s s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o a s s i g n e a c h o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s o r q u e s t i o n s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f A p p e n d i x B, a number. The n u m b e r s , i n p a r e n t h e s i s , w o u l d r e p r e s e n t e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s ( t h a t i s s t a t e m e n t s o r q u e s t i o n s ) i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . H e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n r e p e a t i n g w h o l e q u e s t i o n s t h e v a r i a b l e number w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o . T h i s w i l l be most i m p o r t a n t i n s i m p l i f y i n g t h e t y p i n g o f t a b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e t a b l e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s i s a s y n o p s i s o f t h e m a j o r d i s c r e p a n c i e s f o u n d w h i l e l o o k i n g t h r o u g h t h e o u t p u t o f t h e MVTAB c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . The o u t p u t d e a l t p r i m a r i l y i n t e r m s o f n u m b e r s and p e r c e n t a g e o f r e p l i e s f o r e a c h . v a r i a b l e i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . C l u s t e r s A t o F were a n a l y z e d a s one c o m b i n e d g r o u p and a s i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s , ( s e e t a b l e X a n d f i g u r e 2 , p a g e s 6? a n d 7 3 , and f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n a n d t h e l o c a t i o n o f e a c h c l u s t e r . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d a t a i s much more v a l u a b l e t h a n a s e p a r a t e a p p e n d i x h a v i n g more t h a n s i x t y t a b l e s s h o w i n g t h e d a t a f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e , s i n c e a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s v a s t amount o f d a t a w o u l d s t i l l be n e c e s s a r y . A l l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h seem t o i n d i c a t e p o s i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r u n d e r t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A n a l y s i s . A l l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h do n o t seem t o c o n c l u d e a n y t h i n g w i l l h a v e t h e i r r e s u l t s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d and w i l l a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i x D. - 91 -V a r i a b l e 6 w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s move f r e q u e n t l y shows a m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e s p o n s e s . I t was o r i g i n a l l y d i s c u s s e d t h a t v a r i a b l e s 6 - 1 4 were s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s a s d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s b e i n g t h e c a s e , d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p l i e s among d i f f e r e n t c l u s t e r s w o u l d show t h a t o n l y some p e o p l e w o u l d h o l d s u c h v i e w s . A n a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a b l e 6 shows t h a t c l u s t e r s E a n d P b o t h o f w h i c h a r e n o t a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s , a g r e e much more r e a d i l y w i t h t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t t h a n do p e o p l e who l i v e a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . C l u s t e r s E and F h a d 54.55 p e r c e n t a n d 61.54 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t when c l u s t e r s A t o D o n l y h a d 16.67 p e r c e n t t o 30.43 p e r c e n t a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . T h i s t e n d s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e p u b l i c who a r e l e s s f a m i l i a r w i t h m o b i l e home p a r k s t e n d t o a g r e e w i t h t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a b l e 8 showed t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s o f c l u s t e r s B a n d C, b o t h o f w h i c h a r e a d j a c e n t t o good m o b i l e home p a r k s , r e p l i e d w i t h 100 p e r c e n t a n d 90.91 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . A l l o t h e r c l u s t e r s d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t b u t by a much s m a l l e r m a j o r i t y w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m 52.63 p e r c e n t t o 65.22 p e r c e n t . So t h e n , i t a p p e a r s t h a t g o od m o b i l e home p a r k s do h a v e a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o n t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s . A n o t i c e a b l y h i g h e r number o f p e o p l e l i v i n g a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s d i s a g r e e d w i t h v a r i a b l e 9 a s o p p o s e d t o p e o p l e l i v i n g a d j a c e n t t o p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . C l u s t e r s B a n d C b o t h a d j a c e n t t o good m o b i l e homes r e p l i e d w i t h 91.67 p e r c e n t and / ' - / ' - 92 -72.73 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y d i s a g r e e i n g , w h e r e a s 52.17 p e r c e n t a n d 63.16 p e r c e n t o f c l u s t e r s A a n d D d i s a g r e e d w h i c h a r e a d j a c e n t t o p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . T h i s shows t h a t g ood q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s h a v e a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o n t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s . R e p l i e s t o v a r i a b l e 10 show t h a t t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o good m o b i l e home p a r k s s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t t h e l o w e r s o c i a l s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y . C l u s t e r s 5 a n d C r e s p e c t i v e l y r e p l i e d w i t h 100.00 p e r c e n t a n d 9 0 . 9 1 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e i n g w h e r e a s o t h e r c l u s t e r s r a n g e d f r o m 63.16 p e r c e n t t o 82 .62 p e r c e n t . C l u s t e r s A and E r e s p e c t i v e l y r e p l i e d w i t h 81.82 p e r c e n t a n d 82 .62 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e i n g . T h i s c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a n I s s u e i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e p r o p o s e d m o b i l e home p a r k f o r c l u s t e r E t o h a v e s u c h a s t r o n g o p i n i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t shows t h a t g ood m o b i l e home p a r k s h a v e a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o n p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s . R e p l i e s t o v a r i a b l e 11 showed t h a t o n c e a g a i n t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o go o d m o b i l e homes d i s a g r e e d more s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a n t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o p o o r m o b i l e homes. C l u s t e r s B a n d C h a d 100.00 p e r c e n t a n d 95.45 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y d i s a g r e e w h i l e c l u s t e r F w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a n o t n e a r any m o b i l e homes ( t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ) was c l o s e w i t h 92.31 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e i n g . C l u s t e r s A, D a n d E r a n g e d f r o m 63.16 p e r c e n t t o 82.61 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e i n g . V a r i a b l e 13 was the' o n l y s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t w h e r e a l l c l u s t e r s c o m b i n e d t e n d e d t o a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e p e r c e n t a g e a g r e e i n g a n d d i s a g r e e i n g was v e r y c l o s e b e i n g 47.79 p e r c e n t t o 48.67 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s q u i t e a c h a n g e f r o m t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e o t h e r s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s where f a r more p e o p l e d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t s t h a n a g r e e d w i t h them. V a r i a b l e 6 was a l s o s t r o n g l y a g r e e d u p o n s i n c e 37.17 p e r c e n t o f t h e p u b l i c a g r e e d t h a t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s moved f r e q u e n t l y w h e r e a s 56.64 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e d . T h i s w o u l d t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a t l e a s t b o t h o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d be r e s e a r c h e d f u r t h e r a n d c h a n g e s i n t h e s e a t t i t u d e s be made, i f p o s s i b l e . Once a g a i n i t was t h e p u b l i c o f c l u s t e r C, a d j a c e n t t o a g o o d m o b i l e home p a r k , w h i c h m o s t s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d (63.64 p e r c e n t w i t h v a r i a b l e 1 3 . ) F u r t h e r m o r e c l u s t e r s D, E a n d F more s t r o n g l y a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t a n d t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o a p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k o r e l s e t h e p u b l i c n o t n e a r a m o b i l e home p a r k . I n t h e c a s e o f v a r i a b l e 14 t h e p u b l i c m o s t s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t w e re a d j a c e n t t o t h e good m o b i l e home p a r k s . F o r e x a m p l e , c l u s t e r C a d j a c e n t t o W i n d s o r G l e n , a good m o b i l e home p a r k , m o s t s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t w i t h 8 6 . 3 6 p e r c e n t v o i c i n g t h i s a t t i t u d e . The r a n g e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s f o r c l u s t e r s D t o F were 5 2 . 6 3 p e r c e n t t o 6 5 . 3 8 p e r c e n t . A f t e r a n a l y s i n g t h e d a t a f o r v a r i a b l e s 6 t o 14, two i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s a p p e a r t o s t a n d o u t . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e c l u s t e r s B a n d C a d j a c e n t t o good m o b i l e home p a r k s u s u a l l y s t r o n g l y v o i c e d d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s . C l u s t e r s A, D, E and F who r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k s o r t h e p u b l i c n o t n e a r any m o b i l e home p a r k s , d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r r e p l i e s f r o m c l u s t e r s B and C a n d . u s u a l l y t e n d e d t o more s t r o n g l y a g r e e w i t h t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s . T h i s shows t h a t good q u a l i t y - 94 -m o b i l e home p a r k s do have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l e homes i n g e n e r a l . A second n o t i c e a b l e p o i n t i s t h a t some s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s were more s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e d w i t h than o t h e r s . T a b l e X I I I i n d i c a t e d which s t a t e m e n t s had the s t r o n g e s t agreements and d i s a g r e e m e n t s a f t e r a l l c l u s t e r s were combined. Responses do not t o t a l 100 p e r c e n t s i n c e t h e r e were * n o ' r e s p o n s e s * to each v a r i a b l e . TABLE X I I I RESPONSES TO VARIABLES 6 - 14 FOR CLUSTERS A - F ANSWER VARIABLES ( f i g u r e s a r e i n p e r c e n t a g e s ) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Di sagree Agree 56.64 91.15 70.80 66.37 79.65 90.27 76.99 48.6? 37.17 2.65 24.78 28.32 15.04 6.19 15.04 47.79 70.88 25.66 The t a b l e shows t h a t a t l e a s t v a r i a b l e s 7 and 11 are p r o b a b l y n o t v a l i d as a s t e r e o t y p e statement i n C o q u i t l a m j u d g i n g from the h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n s e s d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a b l e s can be ranked from the p e r c e n t a g e s and i t can th e n be seen w h i c h v a r i a b l e s a r e s t i l l s t r o n g l y c o n s i d e r e d as s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . R a n k i n g the v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r from the s t r o n g e s t s t e r e o t y p e statement to the weakest would show the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : V a r i a b l e s 13, 6, 9, 14, 8, 12, 10, 11 and 7. N a t u r a l l y , i t would have to be remembered t h a t r e p l i e s to s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s d i f f e r from a sample a d j a c e n t to a good m o b i l e home park v e r s u s a sample t a k e n a d j a c e n t to a poor m o b i l e / / i • - 95 -home p a r k o r n o t n e a r any m o b i l e home p a r k . The c o n t r o l g r o u p F w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c n o t a d j a c e n t t o any m o b i l e home p a r k a s w e l l a s a l l o t h e r c l u s t e r s n o t a d j a c e n t t o good m o b i l e home p a r k s , w o u l d h a v e e v e n s t r o n g e r n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t h a n t a b l e X I I I i n d i c a t e s . S i n c e good m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e so f e w , t h e n i t c a n be s a i d t h a t s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes a r e s t i l l h e l d - b y t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . V a r i a b l e s 1? t o 28 d e a l w i t h q u a l i t y f e a t u r e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . I n a l l v a r i a b l e s , c l u s t e r s B a n d C w h i c h a r e a d j a c e n t t o g o o d m o b i l e home p a r k s gave t h e v a r i o u s q u a l i t y f e a t u r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r g o o d r a t i n g s a n d l o w e r p o o r r a t i n g s t h a n d i d t h e o t h e r c l u s t e r s . T h e r e a r e two e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s b o t h o f w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d i n a p p e n d i x D, page 149 . Th e s e p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o w a r d good m o b i l e home p a r k s s u p p o r t s t h e q u a l i t y s u r v e y d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r I I I a n d v e r i f i e s t h a t c l u s t e r s B a n d C a r e g o o d q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s . O t h e r t h a n t h e two e x c e p t i o n s i n a p p e n d i x D, c l u s t e r s a d j a c e n t t o good m o b i l e home p a r k s g a v e a n o t i c e a b l y h i g h e r g o o d r a t i n g a n d a n o t i c e a b l y l o w e r p o o r r a t i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y f e a t u r e s i n v a r i a b l e s 17 t o 2 8 , a s o p p o s e d t o r a t i n g s by c l u s t e r s a d j a c e n t t o p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k s o r c l u s t e r s n o t n e a r any m o b i l e home p a r k s . A n i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i n v a r i a b l e s 17 t o 19 w h i c h a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e n s i t y , r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a n d o p e n s p a c e r e s p e c t i v e l y showed t h a t c l u s t e r s A a n d D b o t h o f w h i c h a r e a d j a c e n t t o p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k s gave s l i g h t l y l o w e r g o o d r a t i n g s a n d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p o o r r a t i n g s t h a n c l u s t e r s E a n d F w h i c h a r e n o t n e a r any m o b i l e home- p a r k s . T h i s m i g h t be a n e x a m p l e o f t h e - 96 -n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e a p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k c a n i n s t i l l i n t h e p u b l i c . V a r i a b l e 29 w h i c h a s k s t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o l i s t a ny o t h e r f e a t u r e s t h a t w o u l d a d d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f m o b i l e home p a r k s f o u n d t h a t m o s t o f t h e f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a l i t y were c o v e r e d i n v a r i a b l e s 17 t o 28. From t h e r e p l i e s 82.0 p e r c e n t m e n t i o n e d t h e q u a l i t y f e a t u r e s c o v e r e d i n v a r i a b l e s 17 t o 28. N e a r l y h a l f o f t h e s e r e p l i e s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , l a w n s a n d p a r k s . E i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p l i e s r e q u e s t e d a more d i v e r s i f i e d m o b i l e home s i t e p l a n a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t r e a l l y l i k e t h e way m o b i l e homes were a l i g n e d w h i l e i n t h e m o b i l e home p a r k . F o u r p e r c e n t w a n t e d t o r e s t r i c t t h e number o f homes i n e a c h p a r k . A n o t h e r f o u r p e r c e n t w a n t e d h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s f o r m o b i l e homes w h e r e a s two p e r c e n t t h o u g h t t h e r e s h o u l d be a new b y - l a w t o u p g r a d e m o b i l e homes. V a r i a b l e s 30 t o 3^  w h i c h d e a l w i t h a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t a x a t i o n d o e s n o t show any m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p l i e s b e t w e e n c l u s t e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e p l i e s f o r a l l c l u s t e r s d o e s show a b i a s t o w a r d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a n d s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a n d a p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. T a b l e X I V shows t h e r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e . The r e s p o n s e s w i l l n o t t o t a l 100 p e r c e n t b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s n o t a l w a y s b e i n g a n s w e r e d . TABLE X I V RESPONSES TO TAXATION OF DIFFERENT FORKS OF HOUSING P o s s i b l e R e p l i e s V a r i a b l e s ( e x p r e s s e d i n p e r c e n t a g e ) 30 31 32 33 34 More t h a n t h e i r s h a r e 1.77 - 57.52 61.06 1.77 T h e i r s h a r e 30.09 30.09 32.74 31.86 24.78 L e s s t h a n t h e i r s h a r e 57.52 54.87 1.77 0.88 43.36 A l o o k a t t a b l e X I V shows t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h a t v a r i a b l e s 30 a n d 31 ( a p a r t m e n t r e s i d e n t s a n d m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s ) p a y l e s s t h a n t h e i r s h a r e o f t a x e s . C o n v e r s e l y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h a t s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s p ay more t h a n t h e i r s h a r e ( v a r i a b l e 32) a n d t h a t t h e y ( v a r i a b l e 33) pay e v e n more t h a n s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t s . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a s t r o n g b i a s by t h e p u b l i c t o w a r d t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n a n d a s t r o n g p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s a n d a p a r t m e n t r e s i d e n t s . E s p e c i a l l y i s t h i s so i n l i g h t o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n v a r i a b l e s 35 t o 39 w h i c h f o l l o w s a n d w h i c h shows t h a t t h e p u b l i c knows v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s t o m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s i n m o b i l e home p a r k s . V a r i a b l e 34 p h r a s e d i n a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t m anner s t i l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. T h i s w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t m a t t e r s s u c h a s t a x a t i o n s h o u l d be r e a s s e s s e d by p e o p l e who w o u l d be i n a more n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c i t y c o u n c i l o r c i t y o f f i c i a l s who l i v e i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y home w o u l d r e a l l y f e e l t h e same way. An e q u i t a b l e t a x a t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h d o e s n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e - 98 -b e t w e e n t y p e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g s h o u l d be w o r k e d o u t so t h a t s u c h p r e j u d i c e c a n be l i m i t e d . V a r i a b l e s 35 t o 39 w h i c h p r o b e s some k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p u b l i c c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes d i d n o t show any m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e s f r o m c l u s t e r t o c l u s t e r . H o w e v e r , t h e s e v a r i a b l e s d i d i l l u s t r a t e how l i t t l e t h e p u b l i c a c t u a l l y k nows a b o u t m o b i l e homes. V a r i a b l e 35 w h i c h s h o u l d h a v e a 'yes' a n s w e r b a s e d o n r e s e a r c h i n c h a p t e r I , f o u n d t h a t 2 9 . 2 0 p e r c e n t a n s w e r e d 'no* a n d 4 3 . 3 6 p e r c e n t a n s w e r e d ' d o n ' t know'. S i m i l i a r l y v a r i a b l e 36 f o u n d t h a t o n l y 4 7 . 7 9 p e r c e n t knew t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r w h i c h was • y e s ' . The m a j o r i t y 48.67 p e r c e n t s a i d t h e y d i d n o t know. O n l y 18.58 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o v a r i a b l e 37 knew t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r w h i c h o n c e a g a i n was ' y e s * . N e a r l y e v e r y o n e (88.50 p e r c e n t ) knew t h a t m o b i l e home o w n e r s d i d p a y a m o n t h l y r e n t a l f e e t o a m o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p e r i n v a r i a b l e 3 8 . H o w e v e r , t h e r e was s t i l l I O . 6 3 p e r c e n t w h i c h s a i d t h e y d i d n o t know. Su c h a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g by t h e p u b l i c c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes may w e l l be one r e a s o n f o r a n y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h e x i s t t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. The p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s d i d n o t know a n y more a b o u t m o b i l e homes t h a n d i d t h e p u b l i c n o t n e a r a n y m o b i l e home p a r k s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s shows t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c t o new t y p e s o f h o u s i n g . I n v a r i a b l e 39 where s e v e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s , w h i c h a r e t r u e , •were made w i t h r e g a r d t o some o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l b u r d e n s m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s p a y , a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e o f a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e amount o f t a x e s m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s p ay was e v i d e n t . T h i s c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e was b a s e d o n a s s u m p t i o n . I f t h e e x t r a b u r d e n s ' m o b i l e - 99 -home r e s i d e n t s pay we r e s u b s t a n t i a t e d w i t h f a c t , a s t h e y c o u l d b e , t h e n i t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e c h a n g e w o u l d h a v e b e e n much more d r a m a t i c . T h i s f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be e d u c a t e d t o t h e r e a l d i l e m m a s o f t a x a t i o n . T a b l e XV shows t h e amount o f a t t i t u d e c h a n g e w i t h r e g a r d t o t a x e s p a i d by m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s when v a r i a b l e 39 i s c o m p a r e d w i t h v a r i a b l e yi, A f a r s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p u b l i c f e e l s m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s p a y l e s s t h a n t h e i r s h a r e a f t e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n a n d more o f t h e p u b l i c f e e l t h a t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s pay t h e i r s h a r e o r more t h a n t h e i r s h a r e . The p e r c e n t a g e s do n o t t o t a l 100 p e r c e n t b e c a u s e o f 'no r e s p o n s e s . * . TABLE XV ATTITUDE CHANGE CONCERNING AMOUNT OF TAXES P A I D BY MOBILE HOME RESIDENTS P o s s i b l e R e p l i e s V a r i a b l e s ( e x p r e s s e d i n p e r c e n t a g e s ) 31 39 More t h a n t h e i r s h a r e - 6 . 19 T h e i r - s h a r e 3 0 . 0 9 3 3 . 6 3 L e s s t h a n t h e i r s h a r e 54.87 24.78 Variables 40 and 4 l show that the majority of respondents agreed with both varia b l e s . In variable 40, 32.74 percent did not think that the p r o v i n c i a l taxes paid by mobile homes should go to the municipality. In the case of variable 4 l , 70.80 percent said the mobile home park was i n the area before they moved to the area. I f mobile home parks were such a bad influence why vrould a l l these - 100 -p e o p l e move t o t h e a r e a ? Why i s i t t h a t t h e same p e o p l e when q u e s t i o n e d , c o m p l a i n e d a b o u t m o b i l e homes i n t h e a r e a , when t h e y v o l u n t a r i l y moved t o t h e a r e a ? C o u l d one r e a s o n be t h a t i t i s r e a l l y o n l y t h e r e s i d e n t s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o a m o b i l e home 110 p a r k t h a t a r e a f f e c t e d a n d t h a t t h e o t h e r r e s i d e n t s c o m p l a i n f o r t h e s a k e o f c o m p l a i n i n g a n d n o t b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ? V a r i a b l e 42 w i l l be p u t i n t h e f o r m o f a t a b l e w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t r e a s o n s f o r m o v i n g i n t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a h e a d i n g t h e l i s t . See t a b l e X V I . TABLE XVI REASONS FOR MOVING INTO THE PRESENT R E S I D E N T I A L AREA R e a s o n s P e r c e n t a g e R e p l i e d l i k e d t h e a r e a 20.5 c l o s e t o f a c i l i t i e s e g . s h o p p i n g , s c h o o l s 15.2 o r i g i n a l l y t h e a r e a was m o d e r a t e l y p r i c e d 12.5 q u i e t a r e a 12.5 c l o s e t o w o r k 8.9 v i e w l o t 7.5 t o g e t away f r o m t h e c i t y 5.6 h o u s e w i t h i n b u d g e t 5.6 t r e e d a p p e a r a n c e o f a r e a 3.4 s i z e o f l o t 2.7 moved t o a r e a b e f o r e m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t 1.4 c l e a n a r e a 1.4 a c c e s s t o a r e a 1.4 o n l y l o t a v a i l a b l e 0.7 s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o b i l e home p a r k 0.7 T a b l e XVT shows t h a t v e r y f e w were c o n c e r n e d w i t h a m o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e a r e a a n d d i d n o t l e t i t a f f e c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o move i n t o t h e a r e a . / / - 101 -V a r i a b l e 43 was i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o d i s c o v e r t h e f e e l i n g s o f r e s i d e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e d t h e m o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t m o v i n g i n t o t h e i r a r e a . L e s s t h a n 25.0 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e r e p l i e d t o t h i s q u e s t i o n and t h e r e p l i e s a p p e a r i n t a b l e X V I I . TABLE X V I I F E E L I N G S ABOUT THE MOBILE HOME PARK DEVELOPING I N THE RESPONDENT'S R E S I D E N T I A L AREA F e e l i n g s P e r c e n t a g e R e p l i e d Okay i f a d e q u a t e s t a n d a r d s 48.0 was n o t i n f a v o u r o f d e v e l o p m e n t 30.0 d i d n o t m i n d 17.5 Okay i f c o u l d n o t see m o b i l e home 4.5 V a r i a b l e 44 shows t h a t o f t h e p e o p l e who r e s p o n d e d t o v a r i a b l e 43, 98.0 p e r c e n t o f them s t i l l h e l d t h e same o p i n i o n . R e p l i e s t o v a r i a b l e s 4 l t o 43 i n c l u s i v e show t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c a r e n o t s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o m o b i l e home p a r k s i f t h e s t a n d a r d s a r e a d e q u a t e . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p u b l i c moved t o a r e a s n e a r m o b i l e home p a r k s a n d i n v a r i a b l e s 42 a n d 43 t h e r e were f e w n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o w a r d m o b i l e home p a r k s . 'The m a j o r i t y o f n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s came f r o m c l u s t e r s n o t a d j a c e n t t o g o o d m o b i l e home p a r k s . T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t s t a n d a r d s o f t h e good m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e a d e q u a t e . S e v e r a l p e o p l e f e e l t h a t s t a n d a r d s o f t h e p o o r p a r k s a r e a d e q u a t e a l t h o u g h many f e e l t h e y s h o u l d be i m p r o v e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e r e s u l t s w o u l d s u g g e s t - 102 -t h a t when t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n d n e g a t i v e l y t o v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s w i t h m o b i l e home p a r k s , i t i s t h e p r o b l e m s a n d n o t t h e m o b i l e home p a r k s t h a t t h e y h a v e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d . T h e r e f o r e , a s o l u t i o n t o t h e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p u b l i c t o w a r d m o b i l e home p a r k s l i e s i n t h e e m e n d a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h r . o b i l e home p a r k s . V a r i a b l e 54 shows t h a t t h e r e was a t o t a l o f 216 c h i l d r e n i n t h e s a m p l e f o r a n a v e r a g e o f 1.91 c h i l d r e n p e r s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s e h o l d . T h i s a v e r a g e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e 0,5 c h i l d r e n p e r m o b i l e home h o u s e h o l d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r s t u d y , c o m p l e t e d by t h e U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s . See page 27, c h a p t e r I . V e r y l i k e l y i t i s t h e number o f c h i l d r e n w h i c h p r e v e n t s more p e o p l e f r o m l i v i n g i n m o b i l e homes. V a r i a b l e 55 showed t h a t a n e x t r e m e l y h i g h number o f t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e o f p r e - s c h o o l a g e . The p e r c e n t a g e was 40.8 w h i c h p l a c e s i t much h i g h e r t h a n t h e u s u a l a n d i n some c a s e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e number o f p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n f o r m o b i l e homes. See p a ge 27, c h a p t e r I . H o w e v e r , t h i s was a s m a l l s a m p l e c o m p l e t e d i n one s p e c i f i c R e g i o n a n d t h u s c o u l d n o t be c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e l a r g e s c a l e s t u d i e s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d i n c h a p t e r I . V a r i a b l e 56 c o u l d o n l y be a n s w e r e d by p e o p l e who l i v e d i n m o b i l e homes a n d a s a r e s u l t t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s was v e r y s m a l l . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t was f o u n d t h a t 50.0 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y moved f r o m m o b i l e homes b e c a u s e o f i n s u f f i c i e n t s p a c e . A n o t h e r 25.0 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d t h a t m o b i l e homes was a t e m p o r a r y h o u s i n g m e a s u r e . O n l y 1 p e r s o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t he l i v e d i n a m o b i l e home down s o u t h d u r i n g t h e summer and t h a t a n o t h e r ' / / - 10 3 -p e r s o n moved b e c a u s e o f p o o r s e r v i c e s . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e moves a p p e a r t o be v e r y l e g i t i m a t e and t h e y do n o t r e f l e c t o n m o b i l e homes a s a b a d f o r m o f h o u s i n g . The c o n c e r n f o r s p a c e s u p p o r t s t h e s t u d i e s d o c u m e n t e d i n c h a p t e r s I a n d I I w h i c h showed t h a t o n l y f a m i l i e s w i t h f e w o r no c h i l d r e n l i v e i n m o b i l e homes. V a r i a b l e 57 r e q u e s t e d r e a s o n s f o r n o t w a n t i n g t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home. T h i s c o u l d h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d by a l l r e s p o n d e n t s and t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n was t o f i n d o u t t h e p r o b l e m s o f t e n e n v i s a g e d by t h e p u b l i c c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes. T a b l e X V T I I shows t h e r e s p o n s e s . TABLE XVI I T REASONS FOR NOT WANTING TO L I V E I N A MOBILE HOME R e a s o n s P e r c e n t a g e R e p l i e d m o b i l e homes t o o s m a l l 23.5 h i g h d e n s i t y 19.0 i n s u f f i c i e n t p r i v a c y 12.9 m o b i l e home l o t t o o s m a l l 11.4 l i t t l e s e c u r i t y o r i n v e s t m e n t i n a m o b i l e home 10.6 a t e m p o r a r y f o r m o f h o u s i n g 4.5 c a n a f f o r d a c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s e 3„8 p o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s 3.8 no b a s e m e n t f o r e x t r a u s e 3.0 m o b i l e homes a r e p o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d 2.3 n o t my i d e a o f a home 2.3 p o o r e x t e r i o r d e s i g n 1.5 t o o many p a r k r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s 0.7 p o o r s e r v i c e s 0.7 P o s s i b l y p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n many r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h a t m o b i l e homes a r e t o o s m a l l i s t h a t t h e y a r e t o o s m a l l f o r t h e i r f a m i l y . H o w e v e r , t h e m o b i l e home c a n p r o v i d e a s i t d o e s , s m a l l f a m i l i e s w i t h a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g . H i g h d e n s i t y , i n s u f f i c i e n t p r i v a c y a n d a s m a l l m o b i l e - 1 0 4 -home l o t a r e r e l a t e d a n d a r e t h e r e s u l t o f p o o r s t a n d a r d s w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . Many o f t h e p r o b l e m s c a n be o v e r c o m e a nd many o f t h e p r o b l e m s do n o t r e a l l y r e l a t e t o m o b i l e homes a s a h o u s i n g f o r m b u t r a t h e r t o s t a n d a r d s , a p e r s o n s ' o p i n i o n s o r t o o t h e r f a c t o r s a l l o f w h i c h h a v e t o be a l t e r e d t h r o u g h p o l i c y c h a n g e . Once a g a i n t h e s o l u t i o n t o n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes i n m o b i l e home p a r k s i s t o emendate t h e p r o b l e m s . T h i s seems t o n e c e s s i t a t e p o l i c y c h a n g e . V a r i a b l e s 58 t o 6l a r e more i n f o r m a t i o n a l t y p e q u e s t i o n s . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c l u s t e r s i s t h e more n e g a t i v e o u t l o o k by c l u s t e r E t o w a r d v a r i a b l e s 58, 5 9 a n d 6l a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e o t h e r c l u s t e r s . T h i s may be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t c l u s t e r E w h i c h d e f e a t e d a p r o p o s e d m o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t a nd a r e now p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m o b i l e home p a r k s . O t h e r w i s e , v a r i a b l e 58 i n d i c a t e s t h a t 4 0 . 7 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h a t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d r e c e i v e t h e Home Owners G r a n t . R e s p o n s e s t o v a r i a b l e 59 i n d i c a t e t h a t 63.72 p e r c e n t f e e l t h a t m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o r e c e i v e W .H .A. f i n a n c i n g . V a r i a b l e 6l shows t h a t 5 6 . 6 4 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d l i k e t o see m o b i l e homes w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s w h e r e a s 3^.51 p e r c e n t a r e o p p o s e d t o t h i s v i e w . T h i s s u p p o r t s o t h e r p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s a l r e a d y c o v e r e d , w h i c h shows t h a t t h e p u b l i c a r e n o t a g a i n s t m o b i l e homes i n m o b i l e home p a r k s . T h i s f u r t h e r shows t h a t many o f t h e p u b l i c f e e l m o b i l e homes s h o u l d be t r e a t e d l i k e s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l homes* V a r i a b l e s 62 and 63 a t t e m p t t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h nay h a v e some v a l u e i n p l a n n i n g f o r m o b i l e homes. T a b l e X I X - 105 -shows the features respondents would l i k e to see near mobile homes. TABLE XIX LOCATIONS SUGGESTED FOR MOBILE HOMES Locations Percentage near commercial f a c i l i t i e s 26.0 near recreational f a c i l i t i e s 13.8 near parks 12.0 near services (eg, bus, highway) 12.0 develop l i k e single family area 12.0 near public f a c i l i t i e s (eg. church, schools) 8.7 develop where sufficient: land 6.9 not mixed with r e s i d e n t i a l 5.2 near apartment zones 3.A Table XX, page 106 i l l u s t r a t e s the respondents opinions on planning areas for mobile homes, which i s based on re s u l t s from variable 63. Many of the features mentioned by respondents f o r both tables XIX and XX have previously been covered i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n chapter I. Table XIX shows that the features considered important and which should be located near mobile homes are the same type of f a c i l i t i e s and services one would expect near any r e s i d e n t i a l area. This could indicate that the public accepts mobile homes as a r e s i d e n t i a l form of housing. S i m i l i a r l y , there is nothing s t a r t l i n g about the information gathered from table XX with regard to planning mobile home areas. / - 106 -f A B L E XX SUGGESTED IMPORTANT FEATURES FOR PLANNING iOBILE HOME AREAS  F e a t u r e s . . . P e r c e n t a g e g o o d l a n d s c a p i n g 22.^ s p a c i o u s n e s s 12.5 away f r o m s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s 12.5 r e c r e a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s 8.3 s u f f i c i e n t l o t a r e a 7.5 n e a r f a c i l i t i e s s e r v i c e s ( e g . s h o p p i n g , s c h o o l s , r o a d s ) 7.5 u p k e e p o f m o b i l e home a r e a 4.2 b u f f e r z o n e 3.3 u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e s 3,3 m o b i l e homes as p e r m a n e n t homes o n l o t s 3,3 more p r i v a c y 2.D same a s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s 2.5 l o w d e n s i t y 1.7 c o n c r e t e f o u n d a t i o n pads 1.7 g o o d s i t e d e s i g n 1.7 u n i f o r m s k i r t i n g 0.9 s u f f i c i e n t p a r k i n g 0.9 pa v e d r o a d s 0.8 c o n d o m i n i u m d e v e l o p m e n t 0.8 c o o p e r a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t 0.8 c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s ( e g . l a u n d r y r o o m s , s t o r a g e ) 0.8 However, both t a b l e s do show w h i c h f e a t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t and i n t h i s sense t h e t a b l e s may s e r v e a purpose. When p l a n n i n g m o b i l e home ar e a s e f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o see t h a t t h e more i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s a r e i n c l u d e d f i r s t . T h e r e f o r e , the t a b l e s may s e r v e as a g u i d e l i n e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s . HYPOTHESES ANALYSIS The n u l l h y p o t h e s e s w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the o r d e r they o c c u r i n c h a p t e r I I I , page 62 o f t h e t h e s i s . To a n a l y z e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s , f u l l u s e w i l l be made o f t h e t e s t s on t h e d a t a as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Rese a r c h Methodology. - 107 -The c e s t r e s u l t s completed on t h e d a t a appear i n t a b l e s X X I I t o XXV o f Appendix E. N u l l H y p o t h e s i s I - s t a t e s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e of s t e r e o -typed s t a t e m e n t s about m o b i l e homes w i l l not v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home park. f a b l e X X I I w h i c h l o o k s at t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s f o r a l l c l u s t e r s combined, p o i n t s out t h a t o n l y v a r i a b l e s 7 and 11 were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d w i t h v a r i a b l e 28, w h i c h d e a l s w i t h o v e r a l l q u a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s n u l l h y p o t h e s i s cannot be r e j e c t e d when d e a l i n g w i t h s t e r e o t y p e v a r i a b l e s 7 and 11. However, t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d f o r v a r i a b l e s 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14 when i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o v a r i a b l e 28. f a b l e s X X I I I and XXIV show t h e s t r e n g t h o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s f o r each c l u s t e r . T a b l e X X I I I shows t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s 9 and 28 and 14 and 28 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r c l u s t e r s D and B a r e s t r o n g enough t o i n d i c a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f one v a r i a b l e from t h e o t h e r . T a b l e XXIV shows t h e c l u s t e r s w hich i n d i c a t e a f a i r l y s t r o n g degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s . I t can be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s 11 and 28 f o r any o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l u s t e r s . V a r i a b l e s 7 and 28, a l t h o u g h t h e y show no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r a l l combined c l u s t e r s , do show a f a i r l y s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p based on c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r c l u s t e r s A and B. By u s i n g t h e t a b l e s i n Appendix D i n t h i s manner we a r e a b l e t o a n a l y z e v e r y t h o r o u g h l y both t h e weak and s t r o n g - 108 -r e l a t i o n s h i p s . b e t w e e n v a r i a b l e s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . So t h e n , t h e t a b l e s not o n l y t e l l us whether we s h o u l d a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . They a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e s t r e n g t h of r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i a b l e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l c l u s t e r s and a l l c l u s t e r s combined. The purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o p o i n t out t h e v e r y n o t i c e a b l e and more i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n c a r r y out an e x t r e m e l y p r e c i s e a n a l y s i s f o r each n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . However, t h e t o o l s e x i s t t o c a r r y out such a p r e c i s e a n a l y s i s , i f a f u t u r e r e a d e r w i s h e s t o e x t r a c t o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e t h e s i s t h a n i s p r e s e n t e d . In c o n c l u s i o n o f n u l l h y p o t h e s i s I , t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e d s t a t e m e n t s 7 and 11 w i l l not v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home park, s i n c e t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d not be r e j e c t e d . T h e r e f o r e , from t h e n i n e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between seven o f t h e s e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s (6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14) and the a t t i t u d e s toward q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home park. Hence, n u l l h y p o t h e s i s I was r e j e c t e d f o r v a r i a b l e s ( 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14) and t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s (6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 and 14) about m o b i l e homes w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home park i s a c c e p t e d . I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t s i n c e s e ven o f t h e n i n e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s were r e j e c t e d , t h e n i n g e n e r a l t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d be r e j e c t e d and t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s a c c e p t e d . However, thr o u g h o u t t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e hy p o t h e s e s i t must be remembered t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s may not be independent s i n c e t h e sample was not chosen a t random. - 109 -N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 2 - s t a t e s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s about m o b i l e homes w i l l not v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o a t t i t u d e s toward d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . T a b l e X X I I shows t h a t t h i s n u l l h y p o t h e s i s can not be r e j e c t e d f o r v a r i a b l e s 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12. However, t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s must be r e j e c t e d f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r v a r i a b l e s ( 6 , 10, 13 and 14) T h e r e f o r e , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t , t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s 6, 10, 13 and 14 about m o b i l e homes w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t i t u d e s toward d e g r a d a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s , i s a c c e p t e d . S i n c e o n l y f o u r o f t h e n i n e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s were r e j e c t e d t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d not be r e j e c t e d g e n e r a l l y . T a b l e XXIV shows t h a t t h e r e a r e r e a l l y not t h a t many c l u s t e r s showing s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s and t h a t c l u s t e r C a d j a c e n t t o a good q u a l i t y m o b i l e home park shows more s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a n o t h e r c l u s t e r s . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 3 - s t a t e s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s about m o b i l e homes w i l l not v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o a t t i t u d e s toward t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d . T a b l e X X I I shows t h a t t h i s n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d f o r s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s 12 and 13 v e r s u s v a r i a b l e 31. The same n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d f o r v a r i a b l e 13 v e r s u s 39, s i n c e both v a r i a b l e s 31 and 39 a r e i m p o r t a n t t a x s t a t e m e n t s . The r e a s o n v a r i a b l e 39 has l e s s r e j e c t i o n of t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s might be t h a t v a r i a b l e 39 was f e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f s o r t s and t h i s c r e a t e d a s l i g h t a t t i t u d e change. The a t t i t u d e change was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e d a t a d i s c u s s e d under t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s on page 99, but t h e change was - 110 -not t o o g r e a t s i n c e t a b l e X X I I shows t h a t v a r i a b l e s 31 and 39 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d . At any r a t e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d o n l y be r e j e c t e d on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s out o f a p o s s i b l e e i g h t e e n f o r a l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h i s ve r y l i t t l e . T h e r e f o r e , i f we were t o c o n s i d e r s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s i n ' t o t a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n as i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s , i t would n ot be p o s s i b l e t o r e j e c t n u l l h y p o t h e s i s 3. However, n u l l h y p o t h e s i s 3 i s r e j e c t e d f o r s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s 12 and 13. The a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s 12 and 13 about m o b i l e homes w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s toward t h e amount o f t a x e s p a i d , i s a c c e p t e d . M i l l h y p o t h e s i s 4 - s t a t e s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e d s t a t e m e n t s about m o b i l e homes w i l l not v a r y w i t h d i s t a n c e from m o b i l e homes. Ta b l e X X I I shows t h a t o n l y v a r i a b l e 6 and 64 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d and t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s must be r e j e c t e d . The a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e statement 6 w i l l v a r y w i t h d i s t a n c e from m o b i l e homes, i s a c c e p t e d . O t h e r w i s e v a r i a b l e s 7 t o 14 a r e not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o v a r i a b l e 64 and t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s can not be r e j e c t e d . This n u l l h y p o t h e s i s has i n g e n e r a l been s t r o n g l y r e j e c t e d s i n c e e i g h t o f t h e n i n e v a r i a b l e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 5 - s t a t e s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o -t y p e d s t a t e m e n t s about m o b i l e homes w i l l not v a r y w i t h f a m i l i a r i t y o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t v a r i a b l e s 47, 48, 51, 52 and 53 c o u l d best r e p r e s e n t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g . V a r i a b l e 47 w h i c h asks i f t h e respondent has e v e r l i v e d i n a m o b i l e home, shows t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p - I l l -between this variable and the stereotype statements 6 - 14. Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis concerning these variables could not be rejected. Variable 48 which asks the respondents i f they have ever been i n a mobile home i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to only one stereotype statement, variable 10. Therefore, the n u l l hypothesis as applied to variable 10 was rejected and the a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis was accepted. Variable 51, which asked i f the respondent had friends or r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g i n a mobile home was s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to stereotype statements 8, 10 and 14 and therefore the n u l l hypothesis was rejected f o r these statements and the a l t e r n a t i v e hypothesis accepted. Variable 52 which questioned the frequency of meeting with friends or r e l a t i v e s i n mobile homes was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to any of the stereotype statements and the n u l l hypothesis could not be rejected. However, variable 53 which questioned the frequency of meeting residents of mobile homes other than friends or r e l a t i v e s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to stereotype statements 6 and 14 and the n u l l hypothesis was rejected for these variables. So then i t seems that generally speaking n u l l hypothesis 5, f o r a l l variables combined, could not be rejected. It would appear that the more fa m i l i a r the respondent is with mobile home l i v i n g the stronger the n u l l hypothesis could not be rejected. Variables 47 and 52 are an example of t h i s . Therefore, this would indicate that the acceptance of stereotyped statements about mobile homes w i l l vary with the degree of f a m i l i a r i t y with mobile home l i v i n g to some extent. However, n u l l h ypothesise could not be rejected i n the majority of cases. / - 112 -I n summary, Che r e s u l t s o f Che f i v e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s showed t h a t i n g e n e r a l terms o n l y n u l l h y p o t h e s i s I was s t r o n g l y r e j e c t e d . N u l l h y p o t h e s i s 2 was weakl y not r e j e c t e d and n u l l h y p o theses 3 t o 5 were s t r o n g l y not r e j e c t e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e t h e s i s w h i c h f o l l o w s , must be r e j e c t e d when c o n s i d e r i n g a l l n i n e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s . I f m o b i l e homes a r e good q u a l i t y . I f m o b i l e homes pay t h e i r f a i r s h a r e o f t a x e s . I f m o b i l e homes do not degrade t h e a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y . • I f d i s t a n c e between m o b i l e homes and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were d e c r e a s e d . I f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h m o b i l e home l i v i n g were i n c r e a s e d . Then p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n o f m o b i l e homes would o n l y r e s u l t from p r e j u d i c e . To have proven t h i s h y p o t h e s i s t r u e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o show t h a t a l l n u l l h y p otheses were t o be r e j e c t e d . However, o n l y n u l l h y p o t h e s i s I was r e j e c t e d t h u s showing t h a t q u a l i t y was t h e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e . h y p o t h e s i s . I t appears t h a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s i s most i m p o r t a n t t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . T a b l e X I I I has a l r e a d y shown t h a t not a l l t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s were c l a s s e d as such by t h e p u b l i c s u r v e y e d . Table X I I I shows t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h best r e p r e s e n t s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s a r e v a r i a b l e s 13, 6, 9 and 14. The o t h e r s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h become s u c c e s s i v e l y weaker a r e v a r i a b l e s 8, 12, 10, 11 and 7 w i t h t h e l a t t e r two s t a t e m e n t s b e i n g so weak t h a t t h e y c o u l d not be c l a s s e d as s t e r e o t y p e s at a l l . R e f e r e n c e t o t a b l e X X I I and I - 113 -p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s shows chat t h e s t r o n g e s t s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s v a r i a b l e s 13 and 6 o c c u r i n t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h r e e o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s , V a r i a b l e 13 as a s t e r e o t y p e statement combines w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s t o r e j e c t n u l l h y p otheses 1, 2 and 3. V a r i a b l e 6 combines w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s t o r e j e c t n u l l h ypotheses 1, 2 and 4. S i m i l i a r l y v a r i a b l e s 14 and 10 combine w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s t o r e j e c t n u l l h y p o t h e s e s 1 and 2, The weakest s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s 11 and 7 combined w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s do not r e j e c t any o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . The r e m a i n i n g weaker s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s 9, 8 and 12 combine w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s t o r e j e c t one n u l l h y p o t h e s i s each. T h i s shows t h a t t h e s t r o n g e r t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s t h e n t h e s t r o n g e r i s t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s and t h e s t r o n g e r i s t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . T h e r e f o r e , even though t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s not a c c e p t e d , t h e a f f e c t o f g e n u i n e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s has been d e t e r m i n e d . The s u b - n u l l hypotheses a r e a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . S u b - n u l l hypotheses 1 t o 10 were a n a l y z e d by t h e c h i - p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f t a b l e XXI. From t h i s t a b l e o n l y one s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d whereas t h e r e m a i n d e r were not r e j e c t e d . S u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s i s 1 which s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e between q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home park and t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y as measured by v a r i a b l e s 28 v e r s u s 45 was r e j e c t e d , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . I t f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a d i f f e r e n c e between q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home park and - 114 -t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y , i s a c c e p t e d . S u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s 11 t o 14 a s p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d i n t h e R e s e a r c h M e t h o d o l o g y w e r e t o be a n a l y z e d by t h e t - t e s t c o m p u t e d by t h e S T R I P c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . T a b l e XXV shows t h e T - p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s 11-14 f o r t h e v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n o f c l u s t e r s . On a g e n e r a l o v e r a l l b a s i s s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s 11-14 c o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e r e j e c t e d f o r v a r y i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s o f c l u s t e r s . The r e a s o n b e i n g t h a t t h e number o f r e j e c t i o n s a s s e e n i n t a b l e XXV w e r e i n e v e r y c a s e a s m a l l number o f t h e t o t a l p o s s i b l e r e j e c t i o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e j e c t i o n s u s u a l l y o c c u r b e t w e e n c l u s t e r s c o m b i n i n g w i t h c l u s t e r A o r c l u s t e r C. C l u s t e r A and C a r e b o t h a d j a c e n t t o p o o r q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s a n d t h e y d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s f r o m o t h e r c l u s t e r s a s w e l l a s b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s . So t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be a n y p a t t e r n o f i m p o r t a n c e e s t a b l i s h e d . SUMMARY The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s h a s shown t h a t t h e r e d e f i n i t e l y i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n r e p l i e s f r o m t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o g o o d m o b i l e home p a r k s v e r s u s t h o s e a d j a c e n t t o p o o r q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s . A m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e p l i e s was t h a t t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o good m o b i l e home p a r k s t e n d e d t o h o l d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e s t e r e o t y p e a n d q u a l i t y s t a t e m e n t s much more so t h e n t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o p o o r m o b i l e home p a r k s . A n o t h e r f i n d i n g was t h a t s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s w e r e shown ' ' • /• / ' / - 115 -Co e x i s t a g a i n s t m o b i l e home p a r k s . I n f a c t t a b l e X I I I o n p a g e 9 4 shows t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s r e a l l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n C o q u i t l a m do n o t f e e l t h a t some o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e s t e r e o t y p e a t a l l . T h i s d o e s d i f f e r w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a nd d o e s show t h a t s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s may v a r y w i t h l o c a t i o n . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t a x a t i o n s t a t e m e n t s , w e r e b i a s t o w a r d t h e i r own f o r m o f h o u s i n g . I t a l s o showed t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c knew l i t t l e a b o u t t h e t h i n g s w h i c h make m o b i l e homes somewhat d i f f e r e n t t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l h o u s i n g f o r m s . B a s e d on t h e i r l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g m o b i l e homes a n d t h e b i a s e s a g a i n s t t a x a t i o n p a i d by m o b i l e home r e s i d e n t s , i t i s s u s p e c t e d t h a t g r o u n d s f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m o b i l e homes i s f a i r l y p r e d o m i n a n t . T h i s a l s o s u p p o r t s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c t o d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g t y p e s . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c on q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g why t h e y c h o s e t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o r what t h e y f e l t a b o u t t h e m o b i l e home p a r k i n t h e v i c i n i t y d i d n o t show p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m o b i l e homes as a f o r m o f h o u s i n g . I t was s u s p e c t e d t h a t t h e m o b i l e home c o m m u n i t i e s a s w e l l a s t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c o m m u n i t i e s t e n d , t o be i n w a r d l o o k i n g a n d t h a t e x c e p t f o r t h e q u e s t i o n o f t a x a t i o n , t h e y seem t o e x i s t q u i t e v ; e l l s i d e by s i d e a n d i n d e p e n d a n t o f e a c h o t h e r . The r e s p o n s e s o n s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e n e g a t i v e a t t i c u d e s c h a t e x i s t a r e n o t t o w a r d m o b i l e homes p e r s e b u t r a t h e r t o w a r d t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p o l i c y c h a n g e s t o - 116 -e m e n d a t e t h e s e p r o b l e m s . The m a j o r f i n d i n g i n t h e h y p o t h e s e s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e s t u d y was r e j e c t e d . H o w e v e r , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e s t r o n g e r t h e s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s t h e n t h e s t r o n g e r was t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . I t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t q u a l i t y was a l e a d i n g c o n c e r n s i n c e t h e n u l l - h y p o t h e s i s I s t r o n g l y r e j e c t e d t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t m o b i l e homes w i l l n o t v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k . Thus t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s w i l l v a r y t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k was a c c e p t e d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d i n g ways i n w h i c h t o r e d u c e o r p o s s i b l y e l i m i n a t e s t e r e o t y p e i d e a s a b o u t m o b i l e homes i n m o b i l e home p a r k s . A n o t h e r f i n d i n g t h a t c o u l d be e x t r a c t e d by t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e r e j e c t i o n o f s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s i s I . T h e r e f o r e , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k a n d t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y , i s a c c e p t e d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f p r o p e r r e s e a r c h a n d p r o p e r p l a n n i n g w h i c h w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n C h a p t e r V. - 117 -CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  GENERAL ISSUES The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w has p o i n t e d out t h e major problem a r e a s w i t h m o b i l e homes i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. B r i e f l y t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t a x a t i o n , s t a n d a r d s o f development, f i n a n c i n g , r e g u l a t i o n s and p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n . T h i s r e s e a r c h i n t h e Study A r e a has not f o u n d as many o r t h e same degree o f problems as c o v e r e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e u nder t h e major h e a d i n g s mentioned above. The g e n e r a l f i n d i n g s showed t h a t t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o good q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s had more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t oward m o b i l e homes, t h a n t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o poor q u a l i t y mobile, home parks o r t h e p u b l i c a t some d i s t a n c e from m o b i l e home p a r k s . Other f i n d i n g s showed t h a t t h e p u b l i c ' s r e p l i e s and b i a s e s i l l u s t r a t e c o n c e r n about t h e i s s u e s o f t a x a t i o n and t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f market v a l u e s o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t o m o b i l e home p a r k s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e sample f e l t t h a t m o b i l e homes s h o u l d r e c e i v e N.H.A. f i n a n c i n g , be d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s and be s i t e d i n c o n v e n t i o n a l s u b d i v i s i o n s . Fewer p e o p l e (40.71 p e r c e n t ) f e l t t h a t m o b i l e homes s h o u l d r e c e i v e Home A c q u i s i t i o n G r a n t s and 52.21 p e r c e n t f e l t t h e y s h o u l d n o t . The major s o u r c e o f disag r e e m e n t came from t h e p u b l i c who te n d e d t o have n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward m o b i l e homes. The p u b l i c s u r v e y e d d i d not seem t o mind a m o b i l e home park i n t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a and t h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t / - 118 -i f c h e y f e l t s t a n d a r d s w e r e a d e q u a t e . The r e s p o n s e s o f t h e p u b l i c f o r n o t w a n t i n g t o l i v e i n a m o b i l e home c o n c e n t r a t e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e s m a l l n e s s o f s i z e , h i g h d e n s i t y , i n s u f f i c i e n t p r i v a c y a n d l i t t l e s e c u r i t y o r i n v e s t m e n t . A l l o f t h e s e may be c o r r e c t e d t h r o u g h c h a n g e s i n p l a n n i n g p o l i c y . I t was f o u n d t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e p u b l i c e x p r e s s e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s o n s e v e r a l i s s u e s , s u c h a s t a x a t i o n , t h e y d i d n o t know e n o u g h a b o u t m o b i l e , homes t o d e v e l o p t h e s e a t t i t u d e s p r e c i s e l y . T h e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d may n o t r e s u l t f r o m p r e j u d i c e a s t h e y s o m e t i m e s a p p e a r t o b u t r a t h e r may be t h e r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n a b o u t m o b i l e homes. S e v e r a l t i m e s t h e p u b l i c ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be t o w a r d m o b i l e homes a s a h o u s i n g f o r m b u t t o v / a r d t h e p r o b l e m s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes. T h e r e w e r e n o t a n y s t r o n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o a c o m p l e t e d m o b i l e home p a r k . As d o c u m e n t e d by p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , when t h e p u b l i c seem t o be c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m o b i l e home p a r k a s was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e H o i n g d e v e l o p m e n t d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r I I , t h e y t e n d t o s t r o n g l y e x e r t p r e s s u r e t o p r e v e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h a t t i m e . The r e s u l t i s t h a t p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes g r o w o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n , t e m p e r s f l a i r and p r e j u d i c e s seem t o p r e v a i l . SPECIFIC ISSUES The m a j o r f i n d i n g s showed t h a t s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes i n m o b i l e home p a r k s d i d e x i s t , Some o f t h e s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s s t u d i e d , b a s e d o n t h e l i t e r a t u r e - 119 -r e v i e w , p r o v e d n o t t o be s t e r e o t y p e f o r t h e S t u d y A r e a . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t o t g o o d q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s h a d w e a k e r s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s as o p p o s e d t o t h e p u b l i c a d j a c e n t t o p o o r q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s o r t h e p u b l i c a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m m o b i l e home p a r k s . I t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s s t r o n g l y h e l d by t h e g e n e r a l s a m p l e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n o f a s many a s t h r e e o f t h e f i v e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s t h u s p r e s e n t i n g a s t r o n g e r c a s e f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . Where s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s w e r e weak, t h e g e n e r a l s a m p l e o n l y r e j e c t e d o n e o r n o n e o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s t h u s p e r m i t t i n g s t r o n g r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . T h e r e f o r e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s t r o n g e r t h e s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p u b l i c , t h e s t r o n g e r t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s e s be r e j e c t e d a n d t h u s t h e s t r o n g e r t h e h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be a c c e p t e d . The s t r o n g r e j e c t i o n o f s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s i s I t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n q u a l i t y o f t h e m o b i l e home p a r k a n d t h e d e g r a d a t i o n o f m a r k e t v a l u e s o f a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y f u r t h e r shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s o f q u a l i t y and d e g r a d a t i o n . T h e r e w e r e no o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d a s a r e s u l t o f t e s t i n g t h e s u b - n u l l h y p o t h e s e s . PLANNING P O L I C I E S The r a p i d g r o w t h r a t e o f m o b i l e homes i n d i c a t e s t h a t m o b i l e homes a r e p l a y i n g a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n s u p p l y i n g t h e p u b l i c w i t h h o u s i n g a n d w i l l l i k e l y c o n t i n u e t o f u l f i l l t h i s r o l e . H o w e v e r , as a h o u s i n g t y p e t h e y h a v e many p r o b l e m s . T h e s e s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l o n e make t h e s t u d y o f m o b i l e homes - 120 -v e r y i m p o r t a n t . R e s e a r c h o n t h i s r e l a t i v e l y new h o u s i n g f o r m i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e d u c i n g t h e p r o b l e m s o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g a n d t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y t o t h e p r o p e r p l a n n i n g o f t h i s h o u s i n g f o r m . The t h e s i s t h r o u g h a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w h e l p s t h e p l a n n e r u n d e r s t a n d m o b i l e , homes. I t a l s o s u p p l i e s t h e p l a n n e r w i t h p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes w h i c h h e l p s f o r e c a s t t h e p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c a l a r e a s . T h i s e n a b l e s t h e p l a n n e r t o make a p p r o p r i a t e c h a n g e s t o d e v e l o p m e n t s , w h e r e p o s s i b l e , s o t h a t t h e f i n i s h e d d e v e l o p m e n t i s more s a t i s f a c t o r y . P u b l i c a t t i t u d e s may a l s o i m p a r t i d e a s o r s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e p l a n n e r may f i n d u s e f u l t o i m p l e m e n t . F i n a l l y , p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s may a i d t h e p l a n n e r i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m o b i l e homes. T h i s t h e s i s shows t h a t t h e r e a r e many p r o b l e m s some o f w h i c h a r e o f more c o n c e r n t h a n o t h e r s . To p r o p e r l y p l a n f o r m o b i l e homes a s a f o r m o f r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g t h e s e p r o b l e m s must be e m e n d a t e d . I t i s f e l t t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n d o e s n o t l i e i n a t t e m p t s t o d i s p o s e o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p r o b l e m . The end r e s u l t o f s u c h a s o l u t i o n w o u l d be t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i t y w o u l d l e a d t o l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n a n d more p r o b l e m s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a c o o r d i n a t e d o v e r a l l p o l i c y c h a n g e o c c u r s o t h a t most p r o b l e m s w o u l d be e m e n d a t e d a n d a c o o r d i n a t e d s o l u t i o n be f o u n d . The end r e s u l t w o u l d be a new m o b i l e homes p o l i c y . A l l g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l s s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u c h a p o l i c y c h a n g e a l t h o u g h p r i m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e s t s w i t h t h e . m u n i c i p a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , To d e v e l o p s u c h a p o l i c y w o u l d mean r e s e a r c h i n n e a r l y a l l t h e a r e a s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . The p o l i c y s h o u l d / / - 121 -i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c a b o u t m o b i l e homes w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . To e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c a b o u t m o b i l e homes t h r o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s w o u l d r e q u i r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i n k s w h i c h c o u l d be most u s e f u l i n l a t e r p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s . The new p o l i c y c o u l d o c c u r i n t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s a n d be b a s e d o n much o f t h e m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h e s i s . The f i r s t s t a g e s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e f i n i n g m o b i l e homes a n d d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t y p e o f a r e a i n w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d be l o c a t e d . M o b i l e homes s h o u l d c l e a r l y d i f f e r f r o m t r a v e l t r a i l e r s by d e f i n i t i o n as. b o t h a r e u s e d f o r d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . M o b i l e homes c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s a r e s i d e n t i a l u s e t h e r b y p e r m i t t i n g ' , t h e m t o be l o c a t e d i n m o b i l e home p a r k s a n d m o b i l e home s u b d i v i s i o n s . T h e s e c o u l d be l o c a t e d o n s p e c i a l l y z o n e d r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e s i z e t o f o r m s m a l l n e i g h b o r h o o d s . A f t e r d e t e r m i n i n g p o l i c y l e v e l o n e s p e c i f i c s t h e s e c o n d p h a s e o f t h e p o l i c y c o u l d o c c u r . T h i s p o l i c y ' l e v e l w o u l d d e a l m o r e d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e v a r i o u s p r o b l e m a r e a s a n d s u g g e s t ways t o emendate t h e s e p r o b l e m a r e a s . T h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d mean d e c i d i n g w h i c h o f t h e p r o b l e m s as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y s h o u l d be a l t e r e d and t o what d e g r e e , t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e m o b i l e homes p o l i c y . A t t h i s s t a g e some o f t h e s u g g e s t e d c h a n g e s t o be i m p l e m e n t e d s h o u l d be: p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s f o r m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t s , p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e f i n a n c i n g a n d p r o v i d e e q u a l i t y t a x a t i o n m e t h o d s . A l l s u c h c h a n g e s w o u l d h a v e t o o c c u r b a s e d o n t h e f i n d i n g s o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . = 122 -The t h i r d p o l i c y l e v e l w o u l d be a n i n d e p t h s t u d y o f e a c h o f t h e g o a l s c o v e r e d i n p o l i c y l e v e l s o n e a n d t w o , i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t h i r d p o l i c y l e v e l w o u l d c a r r y t h e f i n a l c o o r d i n a t e d a n d d e t a i l e d new m o b i l e homes p o l i c y . SUGGESTIONS FOR..-FURTHER RESEARCH Many o f t h e p r o b l e m s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , s i n c e t h e r e i s s t i l l v e r y l i t t l e known a b o u t t h e s e p r o b l e m s . R e s e a r c h may be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e a r e a s o f : ( a ) T a x a t i o n : E m p h a s i s may be p l a c e d o n m u n i c i p a l o r p r o v i n c i a l t a x a t i o n o f m o b i l e homes. A t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l c o n c e r n s h o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n o f t a x a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i m i l i a r h o u s i n g f o r m s b a s e d o n a - c o s t - b e n e f i t t y p e s t u d y o f t h e s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d , c o s t s o f s e r v i c e s and t a x a t i o n r e v e n u e . A t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l a r e v i e w o f t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r new p o l i c i e s w o u l d be a most i m p o r t a n t s t u d y , ( b ) S t a n d a r d s o f D e v e l o p m e n t : A c o m p l e t e r e v i e w o f p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d s i s n e c e s s a r y a n d new c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e q u a l i t y a n d s i t i n g o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . S u c h a s t u d y s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new p o l i c i e s a n d t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s u p o n t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r o f m o b i l e home p a r k s . - 123 -( c ) F i n a n c i n g : A r e v i e w o f f i n a n c i n g p o l i c i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e i n t h e f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s i s n e c e s s a r y . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r e n d s , p r o b l e m s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r new p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be t h e g o a l . ( d ) M o b i l e Home R e s i d e n t s a n d P a r k s : M o r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e d o n t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m o b i l e home p a r k s , t h e d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s t h a t e x i s t i n e a c h , t h e r o l e o f e a c h t y p e o f p a r k i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e b e n e f i t s e a c h t y p e o f p a r k p r o v i d e s t h e r e s i d e n t s a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h i s r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t u d i e s . O t h e r a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h c o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i m p o s i n g h i g h e r q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s . I f t h e s t a n d a r d s i m p o s e d a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s t h e n t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e h i g h e r q u a l i t y m o b i l e home p a r k s w o u l d h a v e t o be d e t e r m i n e d . I n c r e a s e d q u a l i t y w o u l d l i k e l y r e s u l t i n h i g h e r r e n t a l r a t e s o f m o b i l e home s p a c e s , w h i c h m i g h t l e a d t o a r e d u c t i o n o f m o b i l e home a c c o m o d a t i o n f o r t h e l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a t l e a s t i n some c a s e s t h e p u b l i c o n l y e x p r e s s e s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s when; a m o b i l e home d e v e l o p m e n t i s g o i n g t o o c c u r . S o m e t i m e s s i m i l i a r p u b l i c r e a c t i o n s a r e a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s , s u c h a s u r b a n r e n e w a l , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f h o u s i n g , o r h i - r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s f e l t t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e p r o c e s s e s / / - 124 -w h i c h l e a d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e g a t i v e p u b l i c r e a c t i o n s t o w a r d v a r i o u s t y p e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , m i g h t be most u s e f u l i n t h e r e d u c t i o n o f a n i m o s i t y b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c a n d p l a n n i n g o f f i c i a l s . - 125 -.FOOTNOTES 1. E r n e s t R. B a r t l e y a n d F r e d e r i c k H. B a i r , J r . , M o b i l e Home P a r k s and C o m p r e h e n s i v e Community P l a n n i n g S t u d i e s i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , NcTI 19 ( P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C l e a r i n g S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , i960), p. 122 2. F l a s h F a c t s , o n M o b i l e Homes. ( C h i c a g o : M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , I969) p. 2 3. I b i d . 4. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t , H e a l t h A c t . The M o b i l e Home P a r k s R e g u l a t i o n , ( V i c t o r i a : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 196?,) p. 1 5 . I b i d . 6. I b i d . 7. M o b i l e Home L i v i n g i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , 1971"^  *P» 2 8. P r o p o s e d CSA M o d e l M o b i l e Home P a r k s Code. ( C a n a d i a n S t a n d a r d s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , May 1, 1970), p. 1 9. A l v i n L. S c h o r r , " F a m i l i e s o n W h e e l s " , H a r p e r * s M a g a z i n e J a n u a r y , 1958, p. 72 10. W i l l i a m H. Whyte, J r . , "The T r a n s i e n t s , " F o r t u n e ( J u n e 1953) -P. 129 11. A l v i n L. S c h o r r , OP, c i t . . p. 72 12. Don J . H a g e r , "The C o n s t r u c t i o n W o r k e r a n d T r a i l e r L i v i n g i n B u c k s C o u n t y , P e n s y l v a n i a , " H o u s i n g R e s e a r c h No. 7 A p r i l 1954, p. 4 8 13. Max W e h r l y , "The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e House T r a i l e r " U r b a n L a n d XXVI ( M a r c h I967) , p . 5 1 4 . F.D. B o y n t o n , " F i n a n c i n g t h e M o b i l e Home I n d u s t r y , " The  F i n a n c i a l A n a l y s t s J o u r n a l ( M a r c h - A p r i l i960) p. 87 1 5 . M a r g a r e t J . D r u r y , M o b i l e Homes: The- U n r e c o g n i z e d R e v o l u t i o n  i n A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g (M.A. T h e s i s , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , I t h a c a , New Y o r k , I 9 6 7 I pT 1 9 16. D e s i g n Q u a r t e r l y 63. 1965 17. A r t i n A m e r i c a . J u l y 1966 1 8 . N e w H o u s i n g S y s t e m s C o n c e p t s , ( C h i c a g o : M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1§67) - 126 -19. P a u l T. H e l l y e r a n d o t h e r s , R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e o n  H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t l O t t a w a : Q ueen's p r i n t e r , 1969.). p. 14 20. U n i t e d S t a t e s S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t , ( W a s h i n g t o n : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1969), p. ?02 21. S i t e P l a n n i n g K i t ( C h i c a g o : M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1966. 22. U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, B u r e a u o f C e n s u s D a t a C o n v e n t i o n a l Homes, C o n s t r u c t i o n R e v i e w . M a r c h 1970. 23 D r u r y , o p . c i t . , p. 101 24. I b i d , p. 100 25. C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s , ( O t t a w a : C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1970) p. 85 26. The M o t i o n l e s s M o b i l e Home i n U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t . ( P r i n c e Seorge"J B. C. : R e g i o n a l ' D i s t r i c t o f F r a s e r F o r t G e o r g e , A u g u s t , 1970) p. 16 27. M o b i l e Home L i v i n g i n t h e L o w e r ^ M a i n l a n d o p . c i t , , p. 4 28. The W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n M a r k e t f o r M o b i l e Homes ( W i n n i p e g : D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r y a n d Commerce, P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , 1969) P. 5 29. D r u r y , OP. c i t . . p. 96 30. F r e d e r i c k H. 3 a i r , J r . , " M o b i l e Homes - A New C h a l l e n g e " Law and C o n t e m p o r a r y P r o b l e m s . ( N o r t h C a r o l i n a : Duke U n i v e r s i t y Spring~l967) pT 2,099 31. " P r o f i l e o f M o b i l e Home P a r k R e s i d e n t s , " ( H i g h l a n d P a r k : W o o d a l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1968) p. 1 32. J e s s i e B. C a r n e v a l e , A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f N e i g h b o r i n g i n A M o b i l e Home N e i g h b o r h o o d and a F i x e d - H o m e N e i g h b o r h o o d "("Unpublished M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a , F l a g s t a f f , 1961) p. 89 33. J a m e s M. G i l l i e s , A n A p p r a i s a l o f M o b i l e Home L i v i n g L o s A n g e l e s : T r a i l e r C o a c h A s s o c i a t i o n , p. 8 34. C a r l t o n E d w a r d s , M o b i l e L i f e Consumer S u r v e y : M o b i l e Homes (New Y o r k : A D a v i s P u b l i c a t i o n , l§bo) 35. R o b e r t M i l l s F r e n c h a n d J e f f r e y : K. Had d e n , "An A n a l y s i s o f t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M o b i l e Homes i n A m e r i c a , " L a n d E c o n o m i c s (May I965), p. 134 / / - 127 -36. J a m e s M. G i l l i e s , F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g S o c i a l i P a t t e r n s i n M o b i l e Home P a r k s : M o b i l e Home P a r k s a n d M u n i c i p a l C o s t s and R e v e n u e s V o l . 2 s t u d i e s by C o n s t r u c t i o n R e s e a r c h I n d u s t r y , I n c . , ( L o s A n g e l e s : T r a i l e r C o a c h A s s o c i a t i o n , F e b r u a r y I960). 37. M p b i l ^ H o m e L i v i n g i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d . o p. c i t . 38. The M o t i o n l e s s M o b i l e Home i n U r b a n _ E n v i r o n m e n t T op. c i t . 39. R e g i n a P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , S u r v e y o f M o b i l e Homes i n R e g i n a ( R e g i n a : R e g i n a P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1969) 40. Edmonton P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , M o b i l e Homes i n t h e U r b a n E n v i r o n a e n t , ( E d m o n t o n : Edmonton P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , A u g u s t 1961 41. C a n a d i a n Homes ( O n t a r i o , J a n u a r y 1971) p. 11 42. C a l g a r y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , S u r v e y o f T r a i l e r C o u r t s i n C a l g a r y ( C a l g a r y : C a l g a r y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1969) 43. M o b i l e Home L i v i n g i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d , o p . c i t . . p. 12 44. The M o t i o n l e s s M o b i l e Home i n U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t , op. c i t . P. 37 45* M q b i l e . H o a e L i v i n g i n . t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d , op. c i t . p. 12 46. The M o t i o n l e s s M o b i l e Home i n U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t , o p , c i t . P. 19 47. C a n a d i a n Homes, op, c i t . p. 11 48. I b i d , p. 41 49. I b i d , p. 42 50. Z o n i n g and. D e v e l o p m e n t By-Law No. 35,7 5. ( C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: Amended t o November 3, 1970,) p. 119 51. Z o n i n g Amendment By-Law No. 1565. ( B . C . : The D i s t r i c t o f C o q u i t l a m , p a s s e d i n J u n e , 1969j 52. P r o p o s e d C.S.A, M o d e l M o b i l e Home P a r k s Code o p , c i t . 53« C a l g a r y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , An E x a m i n a t i o n o f M o b i l e Home  D e v e l o p m e n t , ( C a l g a r y : C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , F e b r u a r y 25, 196T) P. 2 54. D r u r y , o p. c i t . . p. 66 55. I b i d 56. R o b e r t M i l l s F r e n c h a n d J e f f e r y K. Hodden, op. i c i t . , p. 138 - 128 -57. V a n c o u v e r Sun. ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C., O c t o b e r 1970) 58. M o b i l e Home L i v i n g I n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d , o p , c i t . . p. 26(a) 59. An E x a m i n a t i o n o f M o b i l e Horse D e v e l o p m e n t , o p. c i t . , p. 10 60. O h i o D e p a r t m e n t o f T a x a t i o n , T a x a t i o n o f House T r a i l e r s i n O h i o S t a t e and O t h e r S t a t e s ( C o l u m b u s : The D e p a r t m e n t , 1958) PP. 7-8 61. B a i r , op. c i t . pp. 300-303 62. V i n c e n t C a n d i a n o , The M o b i l e Home I n d u s t r y (New Y o r k : A n I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e p o r t f o r P.W. B r o o k s a n d Co., November 1965) p. 8 63. N o r v a l M. A n d e r s o n , :A B i g S c a l e M o b i l e Home F i n a n c i n g O p e r a t i o n , " B u r r o u g h s C l e a r i n g House ( A u g u s t 1959) P. 47 64. H a r r i s M i t c h e l l , "The R e a l C r i s i s i n C a n a d a ' s H o u s i n g , " The R e a d e r ' s D i g e s t . O c t o b e r 1971, PP. 31-32 65. P a u l H e l l y e r a n d o t h e r s , op. c i t . . p. 50 66. H a r r i s M i t c h e l l , " D o n't L a u g h : Y o u r N e x t Home may be M o b i l e , " C a n a d i a n Homes. J a n u a r y 1971, P. 12 67. H a r r i s M i t c h e l l , o p, c i t . . p. 9 68. The M o t i o n l e s s M o b i l e Home I n U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t , o p. c i t . , P. 43 69. H a r r y C. T r i a n d i a , A t t i t u d e a n d A t t i t u d e Change ( J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , I n c . , New Y o r k , 197ll p. 2 70. N i r r a a l e d e v i C h e r u k u p a l l e , Consumer A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d  M a n u f a c t u r e d ^ P r e a s s e m b l e d a n d P r e f a b r i c a t e d H o u s i n g a n u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o , O n t a r i o , 1968, p. 34 o f t h e p h a s e I r e p o r t 71. " A u t o T r a i l e r a H o u s e , C o u r t R u l e s , " A m e r i c a n C i t y V o l . L I ( D e c e m b e r , 19 36) p. 66 72. E r n e s t R. B a r t l e y a n d F r e d e r i c k H. B a i r , J r . , M o b i l e Home  P a r k s a n d C o m p r e h e n s i v e Community P l a n n i n g S t u d i e s i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , N o T 19 ( P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C l e a r i n g S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f F l o r i d a , i960), p. 58 73. I b i d , p. 59 74. "No More T r a i l e r s , " B u s i n e s s Week ( J u l y 17, 1943), p. 19 - 1 2 9 -75. "Xo More T r a i l e r s , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum V o l . 79 August 19^3, P. 43 76. R o b e r t M i l l s F rench and J e f f r e y K. Hodden, Op. c i t . . p. 132 77. R i c h a r d W. O ' N e i l l " M o b i l e Home L e s s o n : There 1 s a b i g d i f f e r e n c e between s t i c k i n g y o u r head i n the sand and k e e p i n g y o u r e a r to the ground." House and Home XX V I I I ( A u g u s t , 1965) P. 77 78. L.L. L i t t l e " T r a i l e r P a r k s Can be Good N e i g h b o u r s , " A m e r i c a n  C i t y LXXV (November, i960) p. 148 79• The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact o f the M o b i l e Home On F r e d e r i c k County A r e p o r t by the F r e d e r i c k County P l a n n i n g Commission, F r e d e r i c k , M a r y l a n d . (June 11, 1970.) 80. I b i d , p. 5 81. " M o b i l e Homes l o s e gypsy image, g e t zoned w i t h A p a r t m e n t s , " House and Home XXV (May, 1964) p. 8 82. " M o b i l e Home P r i n c i p l e g e t t i n g t r y - o u t by P u b l i c H o u s i n g , Renewal, Model C i t y A g e n c i e s , " J o u r n a l o f Ho u s i n g XXV, No. 7 ( A u g u s t , I968), pp. 365-36T 83» Suggested G u i d e l i n e s , f o r M o b i l e Home P a r k s , Waterloo County A r e a P l a n n i n g B o a r d , K i t c h e n e r , O n t a r i o (1967) p. 1 84. Z o n i n g and Development,By-Law No. 3575, C i t y o f Vancouver op. c i t . , - p. 119 8 5 . P a u l T. H e l l y e r and o t h e r s , op. c i t . . pp. 49-50 86. M o b i l e Home L i v i n g i n the Lower M a i n l a n d , op. c i t . 87. " M o b i l e Home Communities Improve Image," The P r o v i n c e Vancouver, B.C. ( F r i d a y , O c t o b e r 1, 1971)1 p. 6 88. R o b e r t M i l l s F rench and J e f f r e y K. Hodden, op. c i t . 89. C.D. C l a r k and C.E. W i l c o x , "House T r a i l e r Movement," S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R esearch XXII ( J u l y , 1938) 90. L. O l s o n and R. S c h r a d e r " T r a i l e r P o p u l a t i o n i n a Defense A r e a , " S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h XXVII (March, 1943) 91. How S h a l l t he T r a i l e r Be Taxed," A m e r i c a n C i t y L I I I (May, 1937), P. 81 92. N o r r i s W i l l o t t , " M o b i l e Home P a r k s - t h e y a r e p r o v i n g to be more than a t r a n s i e n t phenomenon," B a r r o n s ( J u l y , I967) - 130 -9 3 W i l l i a m K. L u d l o w " T r a i l e r s a n d C i t i e s , " A m e r i c a n C i t y . L I ( O c t o b e r , 1936'). P. 61 94. P.H. E l d w o o d "The T r a i l e r - L i b e r a t o r o n M e n a c e ? " A m e r i c a n C i t y L I ( D e c e m b e r , 1936) 95 S t e p h a n S u s s n a " M o b i l e Homes Can Be A Community A s s e t , " A m e r i c a n C i t y . LX.XIV ( D e c e m b e r , 1959) P. 1^1 96. R i c h a r d W. O ' N e i l l , OP. c i t . , p. 77 97. Q u a l i t y o f m o b i l e homes i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p u b l i c ' s r e s p o n s e s t o s t a t e m e n t s o n s u c h f e a t u r e s a s o p e n s p a c e , l a n d s c a p i n g , s e r v i c e s , v i s u a l a p p e a r a n c e a n d o t h e r s . A l l s t a t e m e n t s ( V a r i a b l e s 17 t o 28 i n c l u s i v e ) a p p e a r o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x B. 98. P a i r s h a r e o f t a x e s i n t h i s s t u d y means a r a t e w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l t o o t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g , so t h a t no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g t y p e s c a n o c c u r a s a r e s u l t o f l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a x a t i o n r a t e s . 99. D e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e a d j a c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y means i n t h i s s t u d y a l o w e r i n g o f m a r k e t v a l u e s a s c o m p a r e d v ; i t h o t h e r s i m i l i a r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t m o b i l e homes h a v e o n t h e m a r k e t v a l u e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . 1 0 0 . F a m i l i a r i t y o f m o b i l e home l i v i n g v a r i e s i n d e g r e e , f r o m l i v i n g n e a r a m o b i l e home t o h a v i n g l i v e d i n a m o b i l e home. T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o f i n d i f d i f f e r e n c e s I n a t t i t u d e s do v a r y w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f f a m i l i a r i t y . 101 P u b l i c r e j e c t i o n o f m o b i l e homes i n t h i s s t u d y o c c u r s when t h e p u b l i c , w h e t h e r i t be a s p e c i f i c g r o u p o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , h a s made known o p e n l y t h e i r n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes a n d h a v e t h e r e f o r e c a u s e d harm t o t h e g e n e r a l i m age o f m o b i l e homes. I t i s b e l i e v e d b y - t h e a u t h o r t h a t i f no p r o b l e m s e x i s t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes t o c a u s e p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n , t h e n p u b l i c r e j e c t i o n w o u l d o n l y o c c u r a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p u b l i c ' s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes b a s e d o n no g r o u n d s w h a t s o e v e r t h u s b e i n g p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m o b i l e homes. 102 S t e r e o t y p e s t a t e m e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a n d p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o b i l e homes a p p e a r t o be f i x e d i n t h e p u b l i c ' s m i n d . The a u t h o r f e e l s s u c h a f i x e d a t t i t u d e i s w r o n g s i n c e m o b i l e homes and m o b i l e home p a r k s a r e c o n t i n u a l l y i m p r o v i n g a n d g r o w i n g a n d t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be s u s c e p t i b l e t o a t t i t u d e c h a n g e w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y h a p p e n i n g d e s p i t e s t e r e o t y p e a t t i t u d e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , . t h e s t e r e o t y p e . s t a t e m e n t s a r e s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h were o n c e p r o b a b l y t r u e b u t a r e now f a l s e a n d a s a r e s u l t t e n d t o p r e s e r v e n e g a t i v e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d m o b i l e homes. - 131 -103 Any a t t i t u d e s o r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d c o n c e p t s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s c o v e r e d i n t h e f o o t n o t e s a r e t h o s e o f t h e p u b l i c s a m p l e d . A l s o a l l a t t i t u d e s o r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e c o n c e p t s h a v e b e e n a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x B. 104 D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1966 C e n s u s . 105 T h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e t h e s i s t h e w o r d c l u s t e r w i l l r e f e r t o t h e d i f f e r e n t s a m p l e g r o u p s a s i n t h e g e n e r i c m e a n i n g o f t h e word r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l m e a n i n g o f t h e wo r d a s i n a c l u s t e r s a m p l e . 106 G o r d o n W. A l l p o r t , " A t t i t u d e s , " R e a d i n g s i n A t t i t u d e 'Theory  a n d M e a s u r e m e n t e d . M a r t i n F i s h b e i n ( J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , New Y o r k , A p r i l , 1967) p. 12. 107 L . L . T h u r s t o n e , " A t t i t u d e s Can Be M e a s u r e d , " s u p r a , pp. 78-85. 108 R e n s i s L i k e r t , "The M e t h o d o f C o n s t r u c t i n g a n A t t i t u d e S c a l e , " s u p r a , pp. 90-91. 109 A m a j o r r e f e r e n c e t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n was A. S t u a r t B a s i c I d e a s o f S c i e n t i f i c S a m p l i n g . - ( C h a r l e s G r i f f e n & Co. L t d . , L o n d o n , 1968. 110 I n t h i s c a s e i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o m o b i l e home p a r k s means t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g p a r a l l e l i n g t h e m o b i l e home p a r k b o u n d a r y a n d n e a r e s t t o i t . ' t - 132 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l p o r t , Gordon W. " A t t i t u d e s , " Reading i n A t t i t u d e Theory and  Measurement. ed. M a r t i n F i s h b e i n , New York: John W i l e y &. Sons, I n c . , A p r i l 1967. Anderson, N o r v a l M. 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Vancouver, B.C., F r i d a y O c t o b e r 1, 1971. M o b i l e Home L i v i n g i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . Vancouver: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s , 1971. " M o b i l e Home P r i n c i p l e g e t t i n g t r y - o u t by P u b l i c h o u s i n g , r e n e w a l model c i t y a g e n c i e s , " J o u r n a l o f Housing V o l , XXV, No. 7, August 1968. " M o b i l e Homes l o s e gypsy image, get zoned w i t h A p a r t m e n t s , " House and Home. V o l . XXV, May 1964. New Housing Systems C o n c e p t s , C h i c a g o : M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967. "No More T r a i l e r s , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. V o l . LXXIX, August 1943. "No More T r a i l e r s , " B u s i n e s s Week. J u l y 17, 1943. O l s o n , L. and R. S c h r a d e r . " T r a i l e r P o p u l a t i o n i n a Defense A r e a , " S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h . V o l . X X V I I , March 1943. O ' N e i l l , R i c h a r d W. " M o b i l e Home L e s s o n : There's a b i g d i f f e r e n c e between s t i c k i n g y o u r head i n t h e sand and k e e p i n g y o u r e a r t o t h e ground," House and Home. V o l . X X V I I I , August 1965. Ostrom, Thomas M. "The Emergence o f A t t i t u d e Theory: 1930-1950," P s y c h o l o g i c a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f A t t i t u d e s . ed. Greenwald, Brock and Ostrom, New York: Academic P r e s s , 1968. " P r o f i l e o f M o b i l e Home Park R e s i d e n t s , " H i g h l a n d P a r k : Woodall P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1968. Proposed C.S.A. Model M o b i l e Home P a r k s Code. Ottawa: C a n a d i a n S t a n d a r d s A s s o c L a t i o n , 1970. Regina P l a n n i n g Department. Survey o f M o b i l e Homes i n Regina. R e g i n a : Regina P l a n n i n g Department, 1969. S c h o r r , A l v i n L. " F a m i l i e s on Wheels," H a r p e r ' s Magazine. ( J a n u a r y 1958,) p. 72. S i t e P l a n n i n g K i t . C h i c a g o : M o b i l e Home M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1966. S t u a r t , A. B a s i c Ideas o f S c i e n t i f i c S a m p l i n g s . London: C h a r l e s G r i f f e n and Co. L t d . , 1968. Suggested G u i d e l i n e s f o r M o b i l e Home P a r k s . Waterloo County a r e a P l a n n i n g Board, K i t c h e n e r , O n t a r i o , 1967. Sus s n a , Stephan. " M o b i l e Homes Can Be A Community A s s e t , " A m e rican C i t y . V o l . LXXIV, December, 1959. The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact o f t h e M o b i l e Home on F r e d e r i c k County. A r e p o r t by t h e F r e d e r i c k County P l a n n i n g Commission, F r e d e r i c k , M a r y l a n d , June 1970. The M o t i o n l e s s M o b i l e Home I n Urban Environment. P r i n c e George B.C. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f F r a s e r F o r t George, 1970. The Western'Canadian Market f o r M o b i l e Homes. Winnipeg: Department o f I n d u s t r y and Commerce, P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , 1969. T h u r s t o n e , L.L. " A t t i t u d e s Can Be Measured," Readings i n A t t i t u d e I h e o r y and Measurement. ed. M a r t i n F i s h b e i n , New York: John W i l e y & Sons, I n c . , A p r i l , 1967. r r i a n d i s , H a r r y C. A t t i t u d e and A t t i t u d e Change. New York: John W i l e y & Sons, I n c . , 1971. U n i t e d S t a t e s S t a t i s t i c a l A b s t r a c t . Washington: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1968 U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f Commerce, Bureau o f Census Data C o n v e n t i o n a l Homes, C o n s t r u c t i o n Review. March 1970. Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, B.C.: October 1970 Ohio Department o f T a x a t i o n . T a x a t i o n o f House t r a i l e r s i n Ohio and  Other S t a t e s . Columbus: The Department, 1958. Wehrly, Max. "The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e House T r a i l e r , " Urban Land V o l . XXVI, 1967. Whyte, W i l l i a m H. : J r . "The T r a n s i e n t s , " F o r t u n e Magazine. June, 19o3, p. 129 W i l l o t t , N o r r i s . " M o b i l e Home P a r k s - t h e y a r e p r o v i n g t o be more t h a i a t r a n s i e n t phenomenon," B a r r o n s . J u l y 1967. Zo n i n g Amendment By-Law No. 1565. B.C.: The D i s t r i c t o f C o q u i t l a m , passed i n June, 196y, Zo n i n g and Development By-law No. 3575 Vancouver, B.C.: amended " t o November 3, 1970. / • / APPENDIX A LETTERS FROM THE MINISTER OF MUNICIPAL A F F A I R S O F F I C E RE DISCRIMINATION TOWARD MOBILE HOMES - 138 -VI CTO R l A PROVINCE OF With respect to the amendments to the Municipal Act in regard to t r a i l e r taxation i t i s perhaps not realized that the Municipal Act provided, under Section 430, the right for municipalities to tax t r a i l e r s . During the past two years i t has become evident that many municipalities have moved toward the use of this Section in a discriminatory way insofar as mobile home owners were concerned and in the middle of last year I suggested that municipalities not use the existing Section 430 of the Act. An amendment to the Municipal Act put forward t h i s year to replace the existing authority to tax by introducing an occupancy fee payable upon the passage of a by-law by the municipality concerned in line with the following schedule: Area of Mobile Building Monthly Occupancy Fee 900"sq.ft. or more. .$10.00 800 sq.ft. or more but less than 900 sq. f t 9.00 700 sq.ft. or more but less than 800 sq.ft.. 8.00 600 sq.ft. or more but less than 700 sq.ft 7.00 500 sq.ft. or more but less than 600 sq.ft... 6.00 400 sq.ft. or more but less than 500 sq.ft 5.00 300 sq.ft, or more but less than 400 sq.ft 4.00 Less than 300 sq.ft .... n i l It i s to be noted that this legislation, as the previous Section 430, is permissive, and It i s the responsibility of the municipality to introduce a by-law in this regard i f they so desire. The original authority provided no limitations and in some instances municipalities were undertaking the passage of by-laws introducing a level of taxation oh mobile homes exceeding, in some cases, $500 per unit which I considered to be both onerous and discriminatory. I trust that this w i l l indicate to you the nature of the amendments which have now received the unanimous approval of the Legislature. Yours sincerely, Minister. - 139 -VICTORIA June, 1971. RE: MOBILE HOME PARK FEE ACT Under the provisions of the B i l l introduced at the l a s t session of the L e g i s l a t u r e on mobile homes i n a rented park s i t u a t i o n , they are exempted from a l l taxation under the Taxation Act, Public Schools Act, Municipal Act and Vancouver C i t y Charter. The fee involved i s a business fee for the owner of the park. On the basis of the business returns to the mobile home park operator for h i s investment i t would seem that the business fee involved i s not out of l i n e . In a d d i t i o n , l a s t year a very serious s i t u a t i o n developed i n that double wide t r a i l e r s were being t o t a l l y placed on the tax r o l l . T h i s was causing taxation to be placed on these units i n the neighbourhood of $250 to $300 per year. Right along side of these units s i n g l e wide units of a s i m i l a r f l o o r space were not so assessed. In addition, assessment procedures were placing on the tax r o l l s i n a very unwieldy way a l l the appurtenances connected to the mobile home. It should be noted as well that the Home Owner Grant i n B r i t i s h Columbia applies f i r s t to taxation under the Public Schools Act which i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i l l not be l e v i e d . In f a c t , because the mobile homes are not on the assessment r o l l for school purposes the P r o v i n c i a l Educational Finance Formula compensates the l o c a l d i s t r i c t for that fact by increasing the P r o v i n c i a l Government share from consolidate revenue. I have noted i n p a r t i c u l a r the question concerning v o t i n g r i g h t s , which, I should t e l l you, i s under study by the Department, i n v o l v i n g as i t does a major r e v i s i o n to the Municipal Act which would make a l l residents of the Province e l i g i b l e to vote on l o c a l issues whether they are money by-laws or not. As you know, we have re c e n t l y amended the Municipal- Act to permit residents and/or tenants to vote on almost every question, in c l u d i n g the r i g h t to run for o f f i c e and e l e c t a Council,' both i n a municipality and a regional d i s t r i c t The whole trend i n r e v i s i o n s which I have recommended to the Municipal Act has been towards the extension of the franchise to a l l people and not the reverse. Yours s i n c e r e l y , M i n i s t e r . 1 R 71 1 9 7 1 M A R K S T H E I O O ™ A M w I VET R S A R V or T H E E N T R Y O F C 1 R I T I 5 H C O L U M B I A I N T O C A N A D I A N C O N F E D E R A T I O N O N J U L Y 2 0 1871 : . • 1971 APPENDIX B  QUESTIONNAIRE - 141 -1. Check ( V ) the category which best represents your answer. — Disagree A^ree Mobile home r e s i d e n t s move f r e q u e n t l y . Mobile home r e s i d e n t s have l a r g e r than average f a m i l i e s . Mobile home r e s i d e n t s u s u a l l y represent the low income bracket. Mobile home working r e s i d e n t s u s u a l l y represent the u n s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d occupations. Mobile home r e s i d e n t s u s u a l l y represent the lower s o c i a l s t r a t a of s o c i e t y . Mobile home r e s i d e n t s u s u a l l y l i v e i n t h e i r mobile home only p a r t of the year. Mobile home r e s i d e n t s do not take p r i d e i n t h e i r surroundings. Mobile homes look l i k e drab r e c t a n g u l a r boxes. Mobile home parks should not be permitted i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y . Where necessary complete the blanks, otherwise put a check mark (\y) i n the space which best represents your answer. 2. I s there a mobile home park near your place of residence? Yes No . 3. I f so, what i s the name of t h i s mobile home park? ________ 4. I f you do not know the name of the mobile home park, what s t r e e t i n t e r s e c t i o n would i t be near? (example: Brunette Avenue and Lougheed Highway.) - 142 -5. Please rate the following quality features as you see them existing in mobile home parks. Good Fair Poo: s p a c e b e t w e e n h o m e s recreation (community centre, pools, putting greens etc.) open space area trees and lawns overall landscaping water and sewerage services other services (garbage, f i r e , police) roads and walks street lighting overall visual appearanoe storage places, carports or other additions overall quality 6 . List any other features you feel would add to the quality of mobile home parks. • 7. Please rate the following residents according to the amount of taxes you feel they pay. More than Less thai Their share Their Share their shaa apartment residents mobile home park residents single family home residents which category do you feel you personally come under? i f there i s a mobile home park near you, do you feel i t s ' residents pay? - 143 -(35) (36) (37) (38) 8. Do mobile home families have less children of school age, than the average family? Do mobile home owners pay a provincial sales tax when they buy their home? Do mobile home owners pay a license tax based on the size of the mobile home? Do mobile home owners pay a monthly rental fee to a mobile home park developer? Yes No Don't Kno (39) 9. If the answer to the four (4) previous questions were yes then less children of school age would mean less burden on the school system by mobile home residents, mobile home owners would pay a provincial saler tax, a license tax and they would pay the developers land tax through their rental fees. If this were the case, would you feel that mobile home residents would be paying more than their share _ their share less than their share (40) (41) (42) 10. Do you think that the provincial taxes paid by mobile homes (example: the sales tax), should go to the municipality? 11. If you live near a mobile home park, was i t there before you moved into your home Yes _____ No _________ 12. Please state the reasons for your moving into the present residential area. (43) 13. If the mobile home park developed after you moved to the area, how did you feel about such a development? _________ (44) 14. Do you s t i l l hold these opinions ? Yes No - 144 -1 5 . (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50) (51) Inorease In value Remain the same In g e n e r a l , do you think p r i c e s of r e s i d e n t i a l homes neighboring mobile home parks .... Has the p r i c e of your home .... 16. Have you ever l i v e d i n a mobile home? Have you ever been i n a mobile home? Have you considered l i v i n g i n a mobile home? Yes Yes Yes I f so, are you s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g mobile home l i v i n g ? Yes Do you have r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s l i v i n g i n a mobile home? Yes Decrease No No No No No 17. (52) I f some of your r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s l i v e i n a mobile home how o f t e n do you see them? (53) How o f t e n do you meet r e s i d e n t s of mobile homes, other than r e l a t i v e s o r f r i e n d s ? Frequently (more than twice/month) F a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y (once o r twice/month) Seldom or never ( l e s s thar once/mont (54) (55) ( 5 6 ) 18. 1 9 . 20. C i r c l e the number which i n d i c a t e s the number of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g w i t h you 1 2 3 4 5 more How many of the c h i l d r e n are a t t e n d i n g school I f you have l i v e d i n a mobile home, why d i d you move out? (571 21. Please l i s t your reasons f o r not wanting to l i v e i n a mobile v ' home? - 145 -(58) 22. Should mobile home r e s i d e n t s r e c e i v e the Home Owners o r Home A c q u i s i t i o n Grants? Yes _________ No ___________ (59) 23. Should mobile home r e s i d e n t s be permitted to re c e i v e N a t i o n a l Housing A u t h o r i t y f i n a n c i n g ? Yes No (60) 24. Should mobile homes be permitted to develop i n s u b d i v i s i o n s l i k e s i n g l e f a m i l y housing whereby they would r e c e i v e community s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s , and be taxed l i k e s i n g l e f a m i l y homes? Yes _______ No ________ (61) 25. Would you l i k e to see mobile homes w i t h i n the boundaries of a m u n i c i p a l i t y ? Yes _______ No ________ (62) 26. I f so, near what f e a t u r e s would you l i k e to see mobile homes l o c a t e d w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y ? ____________________________ (63) 2 7 - How should areas be planned f o r mobile homes? APPENDIX C LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL / APPENDIX D RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE ANALYSIS OMMITIED FROM THE CONTENT OF THE THESIS - 149 -Variable 7, concerned with family s i z e did not vary greatly i n the responses. However, c l u s t e r F which represents residents who do not l i v e adjacent to a mobile home park shows that 96.15 percent of the responses disagreed with the statement as opposed to a range of 86.96 percent to 91.67 percent f o r cluste r s A to E. This statement shows that there i s not a negative understanding by the public of Coquitlam regarding mobile home family s i z e . The only noticeably difference in r e p l i e s to v a r i a b l e 12, was the high amount of agreement to the statement by c l u s t e r E, where 36.36 percent of the people agreed. The other clu s t e r s expressed a range from 8.70 percent to 25,00 percent agreeing with the statement. This would i n d i c a t e that the people of cl u s t e r E who petitioned against the proposed mobile home park for t h e i r area at two public hearings must have considered t h i s variable important i n t h e i r protest against the proposed Hoing Development. Cluster B's response to variable 20, which i s trees and lawns varied from the usual good responses discussed e a r l i e r . In t h i s case 75.00 percent of c l u s t e r B responded with a poor r a t i n g which placed i t the highest poor ra t i n g for a l l the clu s t e r s Cluster B is near Wildwood mobile home park which i s a new park s t i l l in the developing stages. As a result the park has very l i t t l e i n the form of trees and lawns at present. It i s suspected that t h i s is the reason why clus t e r B gave such a high poor rating to this q u a l i t y feature. - 150 -Variable 23 had a higher good racing by clust e r s B, C and D. However, these clusters also gave a l i t t l e higher poor r a t i n g and a lower f a i r r a t i n g . Therefore, the analysis of v ariable 23 which represents ocher-services such as garbage, f i r e and p o l i c e does noc d i f f e r very much from c l u s t e r Co cluscer. This might indicate that the public feels that a l l types of mobile home parks receive these basic services. It might also indicate that the general public can judge best those q u a l i t y features which are more noticeable. Variables 45 and 46 which i s primarily concerned with market values of r e s i d e n t i a l houses adjacent to~ mobile home parks did not d i f f e r very much from c l u s t e r to c l u s t e r . In variable 45 there was a s l i g h t d ifference in the percentage of r e p l i e s who said that homes decreased in value. Clusters B and C had 16.67 percent and 27.27 percent re s p e c t i v e l y i n d i c a t e a decrease i n value, whereas the remaining c l u s t e r s ' r e p l i e s ranged from 47.83 percent to 63.64 percent. Clusters B and C which are both adjacent to good mobile home parks thus shows that the public f e e l s t h e i r i s less of a decrease on r e s i d e n t i a l property then i f the property were adjacent to a poor q u a l i t y mobile home park. However, th i s d i f f e r e n c e appears to be s l i g h t . The r e p l i e s f o r a l l c l u s t e r s to variable 45 showed that 11.50 percent thought there was an increase i n value, 38.94 percent thought the property remained the same value and 43,36 percent thought che property decreased in value. However, when variable 46 questioned the market value of the respondents' house the re p l i e s changed considerably. Now 58.41 percent thought that the value of t h e i r own house:increased in value, 21.24 percent / / - 151 -t h o u g h t t h e i r h o u s e r e m a i n e d t h e same v a l u e a n d o n l y 3.54 p e r c e n t t h o u g h t t h e i r h o u s e d e c r e a s e d i n v a l u e . The o n l y r e a s o n s b e l i e v e d f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n v a r i a b l e 46 d i d n o t c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s a s b e i n g n e a r m o b i l e home p a r k s o r e l s e t h e r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e b i a s t o w a r d t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f t h e i r own h o u s e s . V a r i a b l e s 47 t o 53 a r e p r i m a r i l y i n f o r m a t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s t o f i n d o u t t h e f a m i l i a r i t y r e s p o n d e n t s h a v e w i t h m o b i l e homes. T a b l e X X I shows t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . T ABLE X X I RESPONSES TO DETERMINE THE F A M I L I A R I T Y OF RESPONDENTS TO MOBILE HOMES  P o s s i b l e R e p l y V a r i a b l e s ( e x p r e s s e d i n p e r c e n t ) 47 48 49 50 51 Yes 10.62 91.15 31.86 8.85 55.75 No 88.49 7.96 66.37 69.91 42.48 V a r i a b l e 47 shows t h a t o n l y 10.62 p e r c e n t h a v e l i v e d i n a m o b i l e home. The c l u s t e r w i t h t h e h i g h e s t number o f r e s p o n d e n t s l i v i n g i n m o b i l e homes was c l u s t e r E w i t h 27.27 p e r c e n t . I t was t h i s c l u s t e r w h i c h s u c c e s s f u l l y d e f e a t e d a m o b i l e home p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t y e t t h e i r r e p l i e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a v e n o t d i f f e r e d t h a t much f r o m o t h e r c l u s t e r s . E a r l i e r i n t h e t h e s i s i t was m e n t i o n e d t h a t many o f t h e p e t i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t came f r o m c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s away f r o m t h e p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t . P o s s i b l y i t was t h e s e p e o p l e who r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e b a c k b o n e I - 152 -of the f i g h t against the mobile home development and the animosity of the area to be affected ( c l u s t e r E), was not r e a l l y as great as everyone believed. Variable 48 in the table shows that 91.15 percent of the respondents have been in a mobile home. Variable 49 shows that only 31.86 percent have considered l i v i n g i n a mobile home and variable 50 shows that only 8.85 percent are s t i l l considering mobile home l i v i n g . Variable 51 shows that 55.75 percent of the respondents have r e l a t i v e s or friends l i v i n g i n mobile homes. Since such a high percentage of the respondents have been i n mobile homes and since negative stereotype attitudes exist toward mobile homes, then i t can be expected that just being i n a mobile home f o r a v i s i t of some sort is not strong enough to create p o s i t i v e attitudes. It i s suspected that people gain p o s i t i v e attitudes toward mobile' homes only a f t e r a longer f a m i l i a r i t y with them. Variables 52 and 53 show that the respondents seldom reinf o r c e or perceive what mobile home l i v i n g i s l i k e since 43.36 percent and 63.72 percent respectively r e p l i e d that they seldom see r e l a t i v e s , friends or meet residents who l i v e i n mobile homes. Only 6.19 percent and 7.96 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y said they saw mobile home friends frequently which was classed as being more than twice per month, It i s suspected that mobile home parks are communities of t h e i r own which are primarily inward looking rather than outward looking. S i m i l i a r l y , r e s i d e n t i a l areas probably perceive mobile home parks as some sort of enclave outside t h e i r reach. APPENDIX £ RESULTS OF THE S T A T I S T I C A L TESTS MADE ON THE NULL HYPOTHESES AND SUB-NULL HYPOTHESES I'ABLK XXII CHI-PKOBABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE NULL HYPOTHESES * V A R I A B L E S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 28 31 39 45 4? 48 51 52 53 64 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 28 X X X X X X X 31 X X 39 X X 45 X X X X X 47 48 X 51 X, X X X 52 X 53 X X X 64 X X > A l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y related variables for clusters A to F Inclusive, are indicated by an X marked in the appropriate square. The variables compared were determined to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related i f the chL-problem was less than .05 as determined by the MVTAB computer program, thereby permitting the n u l l hypothesis to be rejected. 1 - l i o -f ABLE XXIII CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF THE NULL HYPO THESES •< VARIABLES 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 23 31 39 45 47 48 51 52 53 64 6 7 E 8 9 E 10 E E E 11 D C C 12 13 D D 14 28 D B 31 39 45 B E 47 B E 48 E. E -51 52 U BC C I 53 E 64 « A l l l e t t e r s represent the clusters sampled which have a cor r e l a t i o n for the intervening variables of greater than 0.7. This high c o r r e l a t i o n was necessary since i t i s at this l e v e l that variables are able to be predicted from each other since nearly half of the v a r i a t i o n i s explained. Sees Hubert N. Blalock Social S t a t i s t i c s , McGraw H i l l Book Co., Toronto 1960, p. 299 - 156 -TABLE XXIV CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF THE NULL HYPOTHESES * V A R I A B L E S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 28 31 39 45 47 48 51 52 53 64 6 7 C E 8 C <-< ii 6 E 9 D £ C E 10 C D E A C E F E 11 A C E D C A D C D C D 12 E B E E c 13 C D A A D c £ D B 14 A B D CD E B C F B C 28 A B • D F D B F B C D B 31 A C E £ F 39 A A B E A B E 45 B C E F C C E F C £ E 47 E £ B E £ 1 E E £ • 48 £ E £ E • 51 B A E B D £ 52 B D E B U FD 53 D B E C £ £ E 64 B D A l l l e t t e r s represent the - cl u s t e r s sampled which have a c o r r e l a t i o n for the intervening variables of greater than 0.5. This data is important for i l l u s t r a t i n g the important clusters f o r each variable correlated. Only 0.25 of the \ a r i a t i o n has been explained for a c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.5 so this data should only be used for exploratory purposes and not prediction purposes. TABLE XXV T - P R O B A B I L I T Y A N A L Y S I S OF THE SUB-NULL HYPOTHESES* C l u s t e r s C o m p ared V A R I A B L E S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 28 31 39 45 A - B X X X A - C X X X X X X A - D X X A - E X X X X A - F X B - C B - D B - E 3 - F C - D X C - E X C - F X X X X D - E X D - F X E - F A l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d c l u s t e r s f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e a r e i n d i c a t e d by a n X m a r k e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s q u a r e . I h e c l u s t e r s c o m p a r e d w e r e d e t e r m i n e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d i f t h e f - p r o b l e m v/as l e s s t h a n .05 a s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e S T R I P c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m , t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t o be r e j e c t e d . 

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