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Study of teacher, methods, and cognitive style effects on achievement of science process skills Grimes, Alan David 1973

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A STUDY OF TEACHER, METHODS, AND COGNITIVE STYLE EFFECTS ON ACHIEVEMENT OF SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS by ALAN DAVID GRIMES B .Ed . , Un i ve rs i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS v i n the Facul ty of EDUCATION We accept th i s thes i s as conforming to the requi red standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f EDUCATION T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e JULY, 1973 ABSTRACT The purpose of th i s i n ves t i ga t i on was to answer two bas ic ques t ions , namely, (1) Is the mental f a c to r of F i e l d Dependence a s i g n i f i c a n t p re -d i c t o r of achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s ? and (2) To which of the three d i f f e r e n t l eve l s of F i e l d Dependence, G l oba l , Middle or A n a l y t i c , are the two major methods of teaching Science 8 in B r i t i s h Columbia s choo l s , (ISC, Labtext) best su i ted? This i n ves t i ga t i on grew out of the author 's classroom teaching exper ience. It was observed that in c lasses of grade 8 students using "Ldbtext in Science, Book 1" [Cannon et a l_ . , 1968] as a gu ide , some students seemed to experience d i f f i c u l t y in performing the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , while ce r t a i n other students found these inves t iga t ions to be exc i t i ng and rewarding. S im i l a r observat ions were made in c lasses using the text "Introducing Science Concepts in the Laboratory" [Schmid, 1971]. The d i f f e r e n t learn ing s t y l e s appeared to have no r e l a t i o n to the " i n t e l l i g e n c e " of students as measured by standard IQ t e s t s . Some students in both c lasses who experienced d i f f i c u l t y possessed a r e l a t i v e l y high IQ. The w r i t e r sensed that W i tk in ' s concept of F i e l d Dependence [Witkin et a l_ . , 1962] could be a useful way of exp la in ing why one method of sc ience i n s t r u c t i o n could s u i t the learn ing s t y l e of some students and not o the rs . In order to inves t iga te th i s not ion more s y s t ema t i c a l l y , two methods of teaching embodied in the two d i f f e r e n t texts i d e n t i f i e d above were, f i r s t of a l l , c a r e f u l l y de l i nea ted . B r i e f l y , the Labtext i i method was descr ibed as a l ea rn ing s i t u a t i o n which allowed much freedom of i nd i v idua l ac t ion during an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , while the ISC method was descr ibed as a s t ruc tured learn ing s i t u a t i o n in which s p e c i f i c i n s t ruc t i ons were given and guiding questions were asked. On the basis of W i tk in ' s f i nd ings [Wi tk in , 1969] i t was f e l t that f i e l d dependent (g lobal ) students would funct ion bet ter with the ISC method whi le f i e l d independent ( ana ly t i c ) students would be more successfu l with the Labtext approach. Cogni t ive s t y l e was assessed by means o f the Hidden Figures Test, and achievement was measured by means o f the Test of Science Processes. The experimental phase of th i s study took place over a per iod of one complete school semester. At the outset students were randomly assigned to s i x c lasses of which the author taught f o u r , with two c lasses assigned randomly to each method. A second teacher taught two c l a s s e s , randomly ass ign ing one c lass to each method. The i n v o l v e -ment of two d i f f e r e n t teachers allowed a study of the e f f e c t of teachers on achievement, and the f a c t that one teacher taught two c lasses with each method provided a s i t u a t i o n in which the e f f e c t of one teacher using the same methods with d i f f e r e n t c lasses could be s tud i ed . The expected super io r performance of a n a l y t i c a l students compared to global students in terms of achievement i n sc ience process s k i l l s was conf irmed. No evidence of ove ra l l s u p e r i o r i t y of one method of teaching over the other was found. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t ove ra l l teacher e f f e c t , however, the three-way i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t showed that the e f fec t i veness of a p a r t i c u l a r teaching method f o r a p a r t i c u l a r cogn i t i ve s t y l e var ied according to the teacher. No f i rm conc lus ion regarding the i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t s could be reached due to several in terven ing v a r i a b l e s . The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i n t e r a c t i on between tes t format and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of s tudents , and the i n t e r a c t i on between the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the student with that of the teacher were d i s cussed . The imp l i ca t ions of the const ruct of cogn i t i ve s t y l e f o r j u n i o r secondary sc ience educat ion were d iscussed in terms of methodo-l o g i c a l reform, and much needed research to determine the nature of the e f f e c t of a teacher ' s cogn i t i ve s t y l e on classroom learn ing s i t ua t i ons was suggested. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 The Problem 1 1.1 The General Problem 1 1.2 Importance of the Problem 2 1.3 The S p e c i f i c Problems 7 2.0 Method of Study 9 2.1 The Procedure 9 2.2 Ana lys is of the Data 10 3.0 Descr ip t ion of Terms . . . . . l u a 4.0 L imi ta t ions of the Study 11 II. CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 13 1.0 E f f ec t s of Cogn i t i ve S ty le on Achievement 13 1.1 Or ig ins of Cogni t i ve S ty le 13 1.2 Development o f Cogni t ive S ty le 15 1.3 Sex D i f fe rences 15 1.4 Re lat ion of Cogni t i ve S ty le to General I n te l l i gence 16 1.5 Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of F i e l d Dependence . . . . 17 1.6 How Students Learn i s Related to Cogni t ive S ty le 18 1.7 Matching the Teacher 's Cogni t ive S ty le with that of the Student 19 1.8 Summary 21 v Chapter Page 2.0 Desc r ip t ion and Comparison of the Teaching Methods 22 2.1 Desc r ip t ion of Suchman's Inquiry T ra in ing Model 22 2.2 Desc r ip t ion of Taba's Teaching Model . . . . 25 2.3 Comparison of the Labtext Teaching Method with Suchman's Inquiry T ra in ing Model 29 2.4 Comparison of the ISC Teaching Method with Taba's Inductive Model 30 2.5 Summary of Major D i f ferences between the Labtext and ISC Methods 31 2.6 Summary 35 III. METHOD OF STUDY 36 1.0 Subjects 36 1.1 Desc r ip t ion of the Subjects 36 1.2 Se lec t ion of Subjects and Classes 36 2.0 Instruments 37 2.1 Hidden Figures Test 37 2.2 Test of Science Processes . . . . . . . . . 38 3.0 Experimental Procedures . 41 3.1 Tes t ing Phase 41 3.2 Teaching Phase 42 4.0 S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures 45 ' s 4.1 Design of the Study 45 4.2 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses 46 vi Chapter Page IV. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 48 1.0 Summary of the Data 48 1.1 Summary of the Hidden Figures Test Scores 48 1.2 Summary o f TOSP Mean Scores fo r Pre-test and Post-test . . 4 9 1.3 Summary of Delayed Post-test Scores 4 9 2.0 Ana lys is of the Data 5 1 2.1 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses . . . . . 51 2.2 Summary of Ana lys is of Variance on Adjusted TOSP Post-test Mean Scores 5 3 2.3 Tests of S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses . 5 4 3.0 Summary of Results 51 V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6 3 1.0 Conclusions 53 1.1 E f f e c t of Cogni t ive S ty le 55 1.2 E f f e c t of Method 55 1.3 E f f e c t of Teacher 55 1.4 In terac t ion o f Teacher , Method, and Cogni t i ve S ty le . . . . . 56 1.5 Delayed Post-test 57 2.0 Impl icat ions and 'Recommendations f o r Further Research 58 REFERENCES 71 v i i Chapter Page APPENDIX A - Sample Items from the Hidden Figures Test 82 APPENDIX B - Sample Items from the Test o f Science Processes 84 APPENDIX C - Deta i led Lesson Plans f o r the Chemistry, B iology and Opt ics U n i t s , Using the Labtext Method and the ISC Method 86 vi i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I I-l. SUMMARY CHART: INQUIRY TRAINING MODEL 24 II-2. SUMMARY CHART: TABA'S INDUCTIVE MODEL 27 11-3. SUMMARY CHART: LABTEXT METHOD OF TEACHING . . . . . 33 II-4. SUMMARY CHART: ISC METHOD OF TEACHING . . . . . . . . 34 III-l. NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN EACH CLASS 37 III-2. ITEM ANALYSIS OF TOSP (POST-TEST) . . . . . 40 III-3. THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY 46 IV-1. SUMMARY OF HIDDEN FIGURES TEST SCORES 48 IV-2. SUMMARY OF TOSP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST SCORES . . . . . 50 IV-3. POST-TEST AND DELAYED POST-TEST RAW SCORES . . . . . . w IV-4. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON ADJUSTED TOSP POST- _ 0 TEST SCORES b 3 IV-5. SUMMARY OF CONTRASTS 5 5 IV-6. SUMMARY OF CONTRASTS 5 6 IV-7. DATA FOR GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION EFFECTS 5 8 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. In teract ion o f Cogni t ive S ty le (A) and Method (B) f o r Levels of Teachers (C) 59 x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My s incere thanks are extended to my supe rv i so r , Professor W. Boldt f o r h is ass is tance and encouragement. Thanks are a l so due to Professor J . Woodrow and Professor A . J . McCormack fo r t h e i r advice and support . I am extremely gra te fu l to my w i f e , M iche le , f o r her pa t ient a s s i s t ance . I would a l so l i k e to express my gra t i tude to the admin i s t r a t i on , s t a f f and students of Del view Junior High School fo r t h e i r cooperat ion during the experimental stage o f th i s study. My thanks are e s p e c i a l l y due to Mr. W. Gorkoff who was the "other teacher" in th i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . xi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.0 THE PROBLEM 1.1 The General Problem The general problem inves t iga ted in th i s study was the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t teachers , methods of i n s t r u c t i o n and l ea rn ing s t y l es on the achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , some learners seem to requ i re cons iderable d i r e c t i o n and guidance in order to learn to use and understand the processes of sc ience ( e .g . obse rv ing , comparing, measuring, exper iment ing) , whi le others seem to be more success fu l when allowed much i nd i v idua l freedom to pursue t he i r own modes o f l ea rn ing the processes. Research evidence dea l ing with the problem of i d e n t i f y i n g a s i n g l e , r e l i a b l e , mult ipurpose teaching s t ra tegy that can be used with confidence that i t i s the best approach i s remarkably ambiguous [Joyce and We i l , 1972, p. 4 ] . Cronbach [1967] c a l l e d fo r the abandonment o f the search f o r the one best i n s t r u c t i o n a l method and recommended that research should aim f o r the systemat ic adaptat ion of methods to d i f f e rences in l ea rn ing s t y l es among the l ea rne rs . M i t che l l [1969] adds that i f s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e rac t i ons between var ious methods of teaching and s tudents ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y were discovered they would have cons iderable in f luence on educat ional p lann ing . 2 1.2 Importance of the Problem Among the aims of teaching sc ience in B r i t i s h Columbia schools i s the ob jec t i ve that sc ience teaching "should develop a b i l i t i e s that make young people i n c r eas ing l y independent i nves t iga to rs and l ea rners " [Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968, p. 4 ] . Consequently, students enter ing the j un io r secondary school (grade e ight ) f o r example, can be expected to have acquired the a b i l i t i e s to vary ing degrees f o r var ious reasons, such as d i f f e rences in learn ing s t y l e s . It would seem reasonable to assume that teaching methods at the secondary school l eve l should be adapted to meet these d i f f e r e n c e s . C l e a r l y , research i s needed to uncover i nd i v idua l d i f f e rences in l ea rn ing s t y l es with respect to these a b i l i t i e s and attempt to meet these d i f f e rences with teaching s t r a teg ies which can f a c i l i t a t e the fu r the r development of these a b i l i t i e s . This study was an attempt to determine ind i v idua l d i f f e rences in learn ing s t y l e s of students enter ing the j u n i o r secondary school (grade e ight ) in terms of dependency on the teacher and to study the e f f e c t s of two d i f f e r e n t teaching s t r a teg ies adapted to take these d i f f e rences in to account. Witkin [1969] def ined a person 's " cogn i t i v e s t y l e " as the " cha rac te r -i s t i c , s e l f - cons i s t en t way of func t ion ing that an i nd i v idua l shows across perceptual and i n t e l l e c t u a l ( i . e . cogn i t i ve ) a c t i v i t i e s . " A battery of tes ts descr ibed by Witkin et a l . , [1962] i d e n t i f i e s a continuum of cogn i t i ve s t y l e s cha rac t e r i z i ng a popu la t ion . At one end of the continuum are people c lassed as f i e l d dependent. Such people have a mode of percept ion in which the ove ra l l o rgan iza t ion 3 of a p r e va i l i ng perceptual f i e l d i s dominant and parts of the f i e l d are i nd i s t i ngu i shab l e from each other and experienced as fused with t h e i r background. This mode of percept ion i s sa id to be " d i f f u s e " or " g l o b a l . " At the other end of the continuum is the f i e l d independent person who w i l l perceive parts of the f i e l d as d i s c re t e and the f i e l d as a s t ruc tured whole. This kind of percept ion i s r e f e r red to as " a r t i c u l a t e d " or " a n a l y t i c a l . " For example, a young, h igh ly g lobal student was handed a t ray of b a t t e r i e s , wires and bulbs and i ns t ruc ted to see what he could f i n d out about d i f f e rences in the e l e c t r i c a l res i s tance of d i f f e r e n t wires with th i s apparatus. One of h is f i r s t quest ions was "what i s the t ray f o r ? " An ana l y t i c a l student would immediately recognize the t ray as a non-operant f a c to r in t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A tendency towards a more global or more ana l y t i c mode of func t ion ing pervades a person's cogn i t i ve a c t i v i t y from chi ldhood to adulthood. As ea r l y as age f i v e , ch i l d r en have a tendency toward e i t h e r a g lobal or an ana l y t i c a l perceptual mode. Longi tudina l s tudies [Faterson and W i tk in , 1970] have shown that i n t e l l e c t u a l development can be ca tegor ized by a progress ion from global to ana l y t i c a l modes of f unc t i on ing . Re la t i ve to h is age group, however, a c h i l d ' s pos i t i on on the continuum from global to ana l y t i c a l remains constant . That i s , the group as a whole moves towards greater a r t i c u l a t i o n while the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the i nd i v i dua l remains constant r e l a t i v e to h is age group. W i tk in ' s const ruc t of cogn i t i ve s t y l e has some important imp l i ca t ions f o r sc ience teach ing . F i e l d dependent ch i l d ren e x h i b i t 4 dependence on others f o r guidance, i n a b i l i t y to s t ruc ture a set of s t i m u l i , i n a b i l i t y to see a l te rna te uses fo r the f a m i l i a r , i n a b i l i t y to r e s i s t persuasion by a u t h o r i t y , and the i n a b i l i t y to adopt ana l y t i c a l procedures when dea l ing with problems. F i e l d independent ch i ld ren are less conforming, and more ana l y t i c a l and s e l f - d i r e c t i n g in t h e i r classroom behavior. [Wi tk in , 1969, p. 224] speculates that "emphasis in teaching on both s p e c i f i c i t y and s t ruc tu r i ng would be most conducive to the development of a r t i c u l a t i o n . " Hence, f o r ch i l d ren categor ized as perceptua l l y g l o b a l , the teacher should begin with a s t ruc tured learn ing s i t u a t i o n in which s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i ons are given and guid ing quest ions are asked. Since these students are unable to adopt ana l y t i c a l procedures, they must be helped. Ana l y t i c a l s tudents , being more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g , do not requi re as much s t ruc ture in l ea rn ing s i t ua t i ons as global c h i l d r e n , and can be given cons ider -ably more freedom of choice and ac t ion r i gh t from the s t a r t . In r e l a t i n g the const ruc t of cogn i t i ve s t y l e to sc ience educat ion , i t i s c l e a r that the aims of sc ience teaching at the grade e ight l eve l inc lude the development of a s t y l e of l earn ing cons i s ten t with Wi tk in ' s concept of cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Imp l i c i t or e x p l i c i t i n the l i s t s of ob jec t ives f o r many sc ience courses today i s the a t t a i n -ment of s k i l l s in the processes of sc ience [Brown, 1968; American Assoc i a t i on f o r the Advancement of Sc ience , 1968; Nay, et a l , 1971]. This ob jec t i ve has been s ta ted in a va r i e t y of ways, a b i l i t y to th ink s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , a b i l i t y to use s c i e n t i f i c methods, a b i l i t y to think c r i t i c a l l y , a b i l i t y to th ink r e f l e c t i v e l y , or the attainment of s k i l l s 5 in problem s o l v i n g . The curr icu lum guide f o r teachers of grade e ight sc ience in B r i t i s h Columbia [Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968] recommends that sc ience teaching should develop an understanding of the methods of sc ience and a d i s p o s i t i o n to use the methods of sc ience whenever appropr ia te . In th i s way students w i l l become inc reas ing l y independent i nves t iga to rs [Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968, p. 4 ] . Gagne [1963] states that s ince enquiry i s the most c r i t i c a l type of s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y , then the teaching of the under ly ing methods o f enquiry i s one of the most essen t i a l ob jec t i ves of sc ience educat ion. Only a small number of the students in the j u n i o r high school w i l l enrol in sen ior sc ience courses and of these , very few w i l l proceed in to a career in sc ience . Keeping in mind that i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to fo recas t what s c i e n t i f i c content a c h i l d should know, Sears and Kessen [1964] descr ibe sc ience as a " s t ruc tu red and d i rec ted way of answering quest ions" and s ta te that " i t i s a pedagogical triumph to teach the c h i l d the f ac t s of sc ience i n r e l a t i o n to the procedures of s c i e n t i f i c enqu i r y . " For the vast numbers o f students who w i l l never undertake a s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n , Sears and Kessen [1964] be l ieve that a c h i l d who has been well taught to understand and use the processes of sc ience w i l l approach the problems of l i f e with the same s p i r i t that he adopts towards s c i e n t i f i c t heo r i e s . The b e l i e f that d i f f i c u l t problems may be solved by s c i e n t i f i c ana lys i s w i l l develop an o p t i m i s t i c apprec ia t ion of the strength of enqui ry . Gagne (1970) s tates that students need to engage i n systematic and de l i be ra t e p rac t i ce in the a c t i v i t i e s of 6 s c i e n t i s t s where they w i l l l earn genera l i zab le process s k i l l s which car ry the promise of broad t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y across many subject areas. T y l e r [1968] observed that there are vast d i f f e rences among ch i l d r en in the way they attack a problem. Some ch i l d r en make random-l i k e e f f o r t s and are unable to plan out a method of working in advance. Ty l e r advocates research to d iscover the best condi t ions under which a n a l y t i c a l cogn i t i ve processes w i l l develop. Science e n q u i r i e s , Ty l e r suggests , must be constructed so as to bu i l d on a l im i t ed cogn i t i ve l eve l and at the same time help to r a i se the leve l to greater f l e x i b i l i t y in modes of enquiry . Cronbach [1967] c a l l e d f o r the abandonment of the search f o r the one best i n s t r u c t i o n a l method and recommended that research should aim f o r the adaptat ion of methods to pupi l d i f f e r e n c e s . Sieben [1971] found that in c lasses of elementary school ch i l d ren (grades 5, 6, and 7) where students were given cons iderab le freedom in t he i r approach to i n ve s t i ga t i ng natural phenomena, students ca tegor ized as perceptua l l y global achieved lower scores on a t e s t of sc ience processes than d id a n a l y t i c a l l y perceptual c h i l d r e n . It may wel l be that f i e l d dependent ch i l d r en who r e l y on others f o r guidance could p r o f i t more from a teaching s t ra tegy designed to improve t h e i r attainment of sc ience process s k i l l s and that ch i l d r en who have an ana l y t i c a l cogn i t i ve s t y l e w i l l gain more from a teaching st rategy that o f f e r s more i nd i v idua l freedom of i n ves t i ga t i on at the secondary school l e v e l . 7 1.3 The S p e c i f i c Problems The s p e c i f i c quest ions in the order in which they were inves t iga ted in the study are as fo l l ows : 1. What e f f e c t do d i f f e r e n t cogn i t i ve s t y l es of students have on achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s ? 2. What e f f e c t do d i f f e r e n t approaches to teaching sc ience to grade e ight students have on achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s ? 3. What e f f e c t do d i f f e r e n t teachers have on student achievement o f sc ience process s k i l l s ? 4. Are there any i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t s between cogn i t i ve s t y l e and method in terms of achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s ? 5. Are there any i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t s between cogn i t i ve s t y l e and teachers in terms of achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s ? 6. Are there any i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t s between method and teachers in terms of achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s ? 7. Are there any i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between cogn i t i ve s t y l e , method, and teachers in terms of achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s ? 8. What i s the c o r r e l a t i o n between post-test scores and delayed post- tes t scores on the sc ience process tes t ? 8 The author f e l t that answers to these questions would provide much useful informat ion to teachers of grade e ight s c i ence . Very l i t t l e research was found which attempts to adapt s p e c i f i c methods o f teaching to the ind i v idua l d i f f e rences of students in th i s age group in terms of cogn i t i ve s t y l e . At present in B r i t i s h Columbia, there are in use two student t e x t s , both of which are based on the object ives o f sc ience teaching set fo r th by the Department of Education [Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968]. The f i r s t t e x t , " In t roduc ing Science Concepts in the Laboratory" [Schmid, 1971], herea f te r r e f e r red to as " ISC" , is designed in such a way that each i n ves t i ga t i v e a c t i v i t y i s accompanied by e l i c i t i n g quest ions and s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i ons to be fo l lowed by the student . The other t e x t , "Labtext in Sc ience , Book 1" [Cannon et aj_., 1968], herea f te r r e f e r red to as " Lab tex t , " confronts the student with a problem and attempts to invo lve the student in a per iod of s e l f -d i rec ted inqu i r y and data c o l l e c t i o n during which a minimum of guidance i s g iven . Afterwards the student i s asked to generate ideas or hypotheses to exp la in h is observat ions . The presence of these two t ex t s , and the d i f f e r e n t approach which each seemed to advocate,^ evoked the need to know which was more su i t ab l e f o r ce r t a in types of s tudents . From experience with these texts the author f e l t that there was some commonality among The two teaching approaches are descr ibed in de ta i l in Chapter I I I . 9 students who were s u c c e s s f u l l y using the t e x t s , but could not c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y what i t was. W i tk in ' s const ruct of cogn i t i ve s t y l e and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i e l d dependent and f i e l d independent ch i ld ren appeared to be a promising way of accounting fo r students who were having more success with one text than the other . 2.0 METHOD OF STUDY 2.1 The Procedure A su i t ab l e experimental s i t u a t i o n ex i s ted in the school where the author was teaching in D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Students in grade e igh t were randomly assigned to s i x sc ience c lasses of app rox i -mately t h i r t y students each and were made ava i l ab l e to the i n ves t i ga to r fo r the pruposes of t h i s study. Four of these c l a s s e s , se lec ted at random, were assigned to the i n ves t i ga to r and the remaining two c lasses to a second teacher who agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e in the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . During the f i r s t weeks of s c h o o l , beginning in September, 1972, two tes ts were administered to a l l s i x c l a s ses . The f i r s t t e s t 2 was a measure of f i e l d dependence and f i e l d independence, and the o second tes t was the Test of Science Processes [Tannenbaum, 1971]. The tes ts were administered to a l l c lasses by the i n v e s t i g a t o r , each c lass being tested separate ly in the classroom s i t u a t i o n . The Chapter I I I . Chapter I I I . The Group Hidden Figures Test i s descr ibed in !The Test o f Science Processes i s descr ibed in 10 results were recorded but not analyzed by the two teachers involved in the study until the conclusion of the teaching phase of the study. Teachers randomly assigned their classes to the two different teaching approaches, resulting in three classes for each approach. During the five months of the f i r s t school semester (September to January), classes were taught according to detailed lesson plans for each teaching strategy.^ Independent observers made random checks on the classroom behavior of both teachers to ensure that the teachers were following the lesson plans as prepared. At the end of the semester the Test of Science Processes was again administered as a post-test to each class. This same test was also administered at the end of April to provide a measure of the level of achievement of science process s k i l l s retained after instruction had ceased. 2.2 Analysis of the Data The computing f a c i l i t i e s of the University of British Columbia were used to analyze the results of this investigation. The tests were scored and item analyses were performed using the program UBC ED:TIA which also provides a KR-20 coefficient of r e l i a b i l i t y . The s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses were tested using an analysis A copy of the detailed lesson plans for the three units taught by each strategy is contained in Appendix C. 10a of var iance procedure. Computations were ca r r i ed out using the program UBC: MULTIVAR. A graphica l ana lys i s of i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t s was a lso performed. The l a t t e r ana l ys i s sought to c l a r i f y the s p e c i f i c nature of i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t s between teachers , teaching method and cogn i t i ve s t y l e . 3.0 DESCRIPTION OF TERMS The terms and phrases used in th i s study whose common meanings may be unclear f o r the purpose of th i s study are def ined as fo l l ows : Cognitive Style: The s e l f - c o n s i s t e n t ways of func t ion ing a person shows i n h is perceptual and i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s . Field Dependence: The lack of a b i l i t y to disembed a st imulus f i gu re from an i r r e l e v a n t but organized st imulus background or f i e l d . Global: An ad jec t i ve to descr ibe subjects f o r whom the o rgan iza t ion of the f i e l d as a whole d i c t a t es the way in which i t s parts are exper ienced; that i s , a f i e l d dependent person. For example, a f t e r a c l ass experiment in which the response of rad ish seedl ings to l i g h t was t e s t e d , a l i s t of observat ions from the experiment was compi led. Global students had d i f f i c u l t y in i s o l a t i n g those observat ions which were re levant to the problem and found great d i f f i c u l t y in reaching any v a l i d conc lus ion based on the da ta . 11 Articulated or Analytical: Synonymous ad jec t i ves to descr ibe a person who experiences parts of a f i e l d as d i s c r e t e and the f i e l d as a whole as s t r u c t u r e d ; that i s , a f i e l d independent person. In the example fo r " g l o b a l " above, ana l y t i c a l students were not only able to i d e n t i f y r e a d i l y those observat ions per t inent to the problem, but were a lso able to reach a v a l i d conc lus ion based on those observa t ions . Science Processes: The procedures fo l lowed by an i n ves t i ga to r dur ing a s c i e n t i f i c enquiry . For example, observ ing , comparing, c l a s s i f y i n g , q u a n t i f y i n g , measuring, exper iment ing, i n f e r r i n g and p red i c t i ng [Tannenbaum, 1971]. 4.0 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The instruments used in th i s study to e s t a b l i s h cogn i t i ve s t y l e and to measure achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s were group t e s t s . The KR-20 c o e f f i c i e n t of in te rna l r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the t e s t of f i e l d dependence (The Hidden Figures Test) was found to be 0.92, and f o r the Test of Science Processes ana l ys i s of the pre-test and post-12 5 t e s t data y i e l ded KR-20 c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.86 and 0.88 r e spec t i v e l y . Although these r e su l t s are encouraging, documentation of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y i s qu i te l im i t ed (see Chapter I I I ) . The r esu l t s should therefore be in te rp re ted with cau t ion . A l i m i t a t i o n of t h i s study i s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . The grade e igh t students used in th i s study cons t i tu te a random sample of s i x t y percent of the populat ion of grade e ight students in a p a r t i c u l a r suburban schoo l . As such, the r esu l t s should be app l ied with d i s c r e t i o n to students not in th i s popu la t ion . In terms of scope, only two teaching s t r a t eg i es were i n v e s t i -gated. A competent teacher of ten has a l a rge r r epe r to i r e of teaching methods to draw on, among which some may be be t te r adapted to d i f f e rences in cogn i t i ve s t y l e than those inves t iga ted in th i s study. However, the two approaches s tud ied here are f requent ly used not only in teaching s c i ence , but a l so across a l l subject areas where the i nqu i r y approach plays a major r o l e . The more d i r ec ted ISC approach i s qu i te s i m i l a r to Taba's more general Inductive Model f o r teaching s o c i a l s tudies s tud ies [Taba, 1967], whi le the Labtext approach bears strong resemblance to Suchman's Inquiry Training Model [Suchman, 1966]. Other areas o f equal concern to sc ience teachers are the development of laboratory s k i l l s , s c i e n t i f i c concepts and p r i n c i p l e s , and the development of favorab le a t t i tudes towards sc i ence . Further p a r a l l e l s tud ies are needed to inves t iga te the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t teaching s t r a t eg i es in these areas. 5 Further desc r ip t i ons and analyses of these tes ts are contained i n Chapter I I I . CHAPTER II CONTEXT OF THE STUDY 1.0 EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE STYLE ON ACHIEVEMENT 1.1 Or ig ins of Cogni t ive S ty le Many s tudies have shown that there i s a r e l a t i onsh ip between cogn i t i ve s t y l e and the way in which students learn and teachers teach , and in how students and teachers i n t e r ac t in the c lassroom. D i f ferences measured by the Rod and Frame Test, the Body Adjustment Test and the Embedded Figures Test have been found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t ed to d i f f e rences in cogn i t i ve func t ion ing and in p a r t i c u l a r , ana l y t i c a l func t ion ing [Witkin e_t a l_ . , 1962]. Some work has been c a r r i ed out to determine the o r i g i n s of i nd i v idua l d i f f e rences in cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Studies of fami ly experience of ch i l d ren who are r e l a t i v e l y f i e l d dependent or f i e l d independent have demonstrated that the kind of r e l a t i onsh ip the c h i l d has with h is mother whi le growing up i s very i n f l u e n t i a l in determin-ing h is cogn i t i ve s t y l e [Dyk, 1969; Dyk and Wi tk in , 1965; Witkin et al_. > 1962]. For example, the encouragement of autonomous f u n c t i o n -ing seems most c l o s e l y assoc ia ted with the development of a more a n a l y t i c cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Indeed, the e f f e c t on cogn i t i v e s t y l e of d i f f e r e n t p rac t i ces i n ch i l d- r ea r i ng has been shown in several c ross-cu l tu ra l s t ud i e s . Dawson [1967] compared two t r i b a l groups in 14 S i e r r a Leone, the Temne and the Mende, which d i f f e r g rea t l y in s o c i a l i z a t i o n emphases in c h i l d - r e a r i n g . Temne ch i ld ren are subjected to severe d i s c i p l i n e , and conformity to adul t au thor i t y i s en forced , whereas Mende ch i l d ren are seldom subjected to phys ica l punishment and great emphasis i s placed in g i v ing the c h i l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y at an ea r l y age. As expected, Dawson found that Temne ch i l d ren were r e l a t i v e l y more f i e l d dependent than Mende c h i l d r e n . Berry [1966] compared the Temne of S i e r r a Leone with the Eskimo of Ba f f i n I s land . Among the Eskimo, punishment of ch i l d ren i s genera l l y avoided and extreme freedom is allowed the i nd i v idua l c h i l d . There i s strong encouragement of personal s e l f - r e l i a n c e , i nd i v i dua l i sm and ingenu i t y , and discouragement of dependence and incompetence. Berry found the Eskimo group to be s t r i k i n g l y more f i e l d independent than the Temne group. The evidence accumulated from these c ross-cu l tu ra l s tud ies demonstrates impress ive ly that s o c i a l i z a t i o n fac to rs are undoubtedly of overwhelming importance in the development of i nd i v idua l d i f f e rences in cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Witkin and h is assoc ia tes are present ly pursuing the p o s s i b i l i t y that genet ic f ac to rs enter i n to the development of cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Three s tud ies [ou t l ined in W i tk in , 1972] are present l y being conducted to i nves t iga te the p o s s i b i l i t y that i f genet ic f ac to rs are invo lved in f i e l d dependence, the sex chromosomes are e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y to be imp l i c a t ed . 15 1.2 Development of Cogni t ive S ty le W i tk in , Goodenough and Karp [1967] have demonstrated by means of both l og i t ud ina l and c ross-sec t iona l studies that the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of an i nd i v idua l i s s u r p r i s i n g l y s tab le r e l a t i v e to his age group. A progress ive increase in extent of f i e l d independence was ev ident in subjects up to age seventeen, with no fu r the r change from seventeen to twenty-four. However, r e l a t i v e to the age group, ch i l d ren remained remarkably s tab le in t h e i r mode of percept ion . These s t a b i l i t y s tud ies dea l t with subjects who themselves were reared in s tab le fami ly and environmental se t t ings and f ind ings as ye t are not genera l i zab le to unstable ch i l d- r ea r i ng cond i t i ons . However, f ind ings seem to i nd i ca te that i f educators wished to a l t e r modes of pe rcep t ion , the ch i l d r en involved would have to be qu i te young. Several s tud ies with adul ts have shown marked s t a b i l i t y of cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Attempts have been made to a l t e r f i e l d dependence exper imenta l l y . In severa l s tud ies [ c i t ed by W i tk in , Goodenough and Karp, 1967] the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g , s t r e s s , and drugs were inves t iga ted with the r e s u l t that t e s t - r e t e s t scores on measures of f i e l d dependence were remarkably s t a b l e . 1.3 Sex D i f fe rences Witkin and his assoc ia tes [1962] have repeatedly found sex d i f f e rences on tes ts of f i e l d dependence. Females tend to be more global than a n a l y t i c a l . In the Rod and Frame Test, g i r l s and women are l i k e l y to t i l t the rod f a r t he r towards the t i l t e d frame 16 in order to perceive the rod as up r igh t , and in the Embedded Figures Test they f i n d i t harder to break up the complex con f igu ra t ion and f i n d the simple f i gu re w i th in i t . On these tes ts the d i f f e rence i n performance between the sexes i s small in magnitude compared to the range of i nd i v idua l tes t r e su l t s wi th in each sex, but i t i s c l ea r cu t and pervas i ve , although they may not occur in very young ch i l d r en [Goodenough and Eag le , 1963] nor in g e r i a t r i c groups [Schwartz and Karp, 1967]. Sex d i f f e rences have been found in many var ied c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s , i n c lud ing the United States and Western European countr ies [Witkin et a l_ . , 1962] and S i e r r a Leone [Dawson, 1967] although not among the Eskimo [Berry , 1966]. Witkin [1967] speculates that sex d i f f e rences may a r i s e from d i f f e r e n t emphasis on s o c i a l i z a t i o n , s ince boys in many cu l tu res are encouraged to be independent and a s s e r t i v e , whi le g i r l s are encouraged to be more dependent. The exception found among the Eskimo may a r i s e from the f a c t that women are not t reated as dependent and very loose cont ro l s are exerc ised over them. Genetic f ac tors are a l so being inves t iga ted as a poss ib le source of sex d i f f e rences [Wi tk in , 1972]. 1.4 Re la t ion of Cogni t i ve S ty le to General I n t e l l i gence Three main f a c t o r components of the commonly used Weschler sca les have been i d e n t i f i e d [Cohen, 1957; 1959]. Performance on tes ts of f i e l d dependence has been found to show low, non-s ign i f i c an t co r r e l a t i ons with scores on a verbal-comprehension c l u s t e r (Vocabulary, Information and Comprehension), and an a t ten t ion-17 concentrat ion c l u s t e r (D ig i t Span, Ar i thmet ic and Coding) of Weschler subtes ts . However, f i e l d dependence measures co r r e l a t e h igh ly with an . ana l y t i c a l c l u s t e r of subtests (Block Design, Object Assembly and P i c ture Completion) which tap the same kind of ana l y t i c a l a b i l i t i e s as do the tes ts of f i e l d dependence [Goodenough and Karp, 1961]. Witkin [1969] points out that " c h i l d r e n who are f i e l d independent are super io r to f i e l d dependent ch i l d r en only on the ana l y t i c a l c l u s t e r of subtes ts . . . . We cannot say that f i e l d independent ch i l d r en are super io r in ' gene ra l ' i n t e l l i g e n c e " [Wi tk in , 1969, p. 205]. 1.5 Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of F i e l d Dependence F i e l d dependence i s a mani festat ion in the perceptual sphere of a broad dimension of personal func t ion ing which extends in to the sphere of soc i a l behavior . In forming t he i r a t t i tudes on an i s s u e , f i e l d dependent people are e s p e c i a l l y prone to be guided by the pos i t i ons a t t r i bu t ed to an au thor i t y f i gu r e or peer group [ B e l l , 1964; Deever, 1967], hence they are s e l e c t i v e l y a t t en t i ve to the human content o f t h e i r environment, and studies have found tha t , in comparison with ana l y t i c a l people , they spend more time looking at the faces of those with whom they are i n t e r a c t i n g [Konstadt and Forman, 1965]. S ince f i e l d dependent people use external sources of informat ion f o r s e l f -d e f i n i t i o n th i s f a c t i s not s u r p r i s i n g s ince the face i s a major source of informat ion about what others are f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g . Many s tudies ind i ca ted that f i e l d dependent ch i l d ren would be prone to experience d i f f i c u l t y in unstructured learn ing s i t u a t i o n s . From case s t u d i e s , Witkin and h is assoc ia tes found ch i l d r en of " l i m i t e d 18 d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n " (h ighly f i e l d dependent) to be charac te r ized by the fo l low ing a t t r i b u t e s : . . . poverty of resources , lack of en te rp r i se and i n i t i a t i v e , underdeveloped i n t e r e s t s , lack of we l l-s t ruc tured con t ro l s and defenses and marked dependence on others [Witkin et a l_ . , 1962, p. 268). The scores of students on i n t e r e s t inventor ies and vocat ional preference inventor ies have been examined in r e l a t i o n to f i e l d dependence at var ious educat ional l e ve l s [Chung, 1966; DeRussy and Futch, 1971; G l a t t , 1969; P i e r son , 1965]. A cons i s ten t f i nd ing of these s tudies i s that the more f i e l d independent students favour vocat ions in which ana l y t i c a l s k i l l s are c a l l e d f o r (such as the s c i ences , mathematics, eng ineer ing , e t c . ) whi le the more f i e l d dependent students avoid such domains. Re f l e c t i ng the h igh ly developed soc i a l s k i l l s o f f i e l d dependent s tudents , the above s tudies a l so found that these students p re fe r red vocat ions in which day-to-day work requi res involvement with people (such as s o c i a l s c i ences , counse l i ng , elementary school teach ing , s e l l i n g rea l e s t a t e , e t c . ) . 1.6 How Students Learn i s Related to Cogni t ive S ty le In the l i g h t of the f i e l d dependent person 's need f o r s t ruc tu re from external sources i t seems reasonable to p red i c t that such students would learn more i n terms of s k i l l s , processes , and content i n a support ive s e t t i ng than in an unstructured s e t t i ng [Wi tk in , 1972]. Many s tudies have shown that r e l a t i v e l y f i e l d dependent s tudents , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r concern with the s o c i a l surround and t h e i r r e l i ance 19 on external s tandards , were h igh ly a f f ec ted in t he i r task performance by pra i se and c r i t i c i s m . On the other hand, r e l a t i v e l y f i e l d indepen-dent s tudents , l ess or iented to the soc i a l environment and more prone to use inner s tandards , tended to be much less in f luenced [Konstadt and Forman, 1965; Ruble and Nakamura, 1972; F i t z , 1970; Pac l i s anu , 1969; Randolph, 1971]. In terms of teaching methods, Grieve and Davis [1971] made a comparison of the amount of geography learned with d i f f e r e n t teaching methods by extremely global and ana l y t i c a l grade nine s tudents . Two teaching approaches were used, one an expos i tory method, and the other a d iscovery method where l ea rn ing took place through i n t e r a c t i on with the teacher . One f i nd ing was that the more global the s tudent , the more l i k e l y he was to bene f i t from discovery i n s t r u c t i o n , a context congenial to the soc i a l o r i e n t a t i o n of global s tudents . In other teaching areas , adaptat ion of teaching methods to cogn i t i ve s t y l e s has proved f r u i t f u l . S p i t l e r [1970] spe l l ed out a l t e rna t i v e methods of teaching mathematics to f i e l d dependent and f i e l d independent s tudents , each method e x p l o i t i n g the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the student . Relevant to th i s quest ion o f how to teach , i s the repeated observat ion that ch i l d r en with l ea rn ing d i s a b i l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in read ing , tend to be f i e l d dependent [Robbins, 1962; Keogh and Donlon, 1972]. 1.7 Matching the Teacher 's Cogn i t i ve S ty le with that of the Student DiStefano [1969] s tud ied the consequences of match or mismatch in cogn i t i ve s t y l e between teacher and students . Teachers and students matched f o r cogn i t i ve s t y l e descr ibed each other in h igh ly p o s i t i v e terms, whereas teachers and students who were mismatched tended to descr ibe each other nega t i ve l y . Witkin [1972] c i t e s severa l other examples of s i m i l a r e f f e c t s of match or mismatch in other s i t u a t i o n s . In pa t i en t- the rap i s t i n t e r a c t i o n s , and in interv iewer-interv iewee i n t e r a c t i o n s , pos i t i v e f ee l i ngs developed between those who were r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r in t h e i r f i e l d dependence. Witkin and h is col leagues are at present studying three poss ib l e reasons why persons matched in cogn i t i ve s t y l e tend to get along be t te r [Wi tk in , 1972], The f i r s t reason i s that matched people have shared foc i of i n t e r e s t . F i e l d dependent people share the tendency to attend s e l e c t i v e l y to the soc i a l content of the env i ron -ment, whi le f i e l d independent persons share an i n t e r e s t in the more impersonal , abs t rac t aspects of t h e i r surroundings. Such mutual i n -t e r e s t should make f o r a p o s i t i v e outcome in t h e i r f ee l i ngs f o r each other . The second reason f o r greater mutual a t t r a c t i o n i s s i m i l a r i t y in personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c lud ing even the manner of dress . White and Kernaleguen [1971] found that f i e l d dependent female students tend to wear c lothes commonplace Tor t h e i r peer group, whereas f i e l d independent students wear r e l a t i v e l y unusual c l o thes . The t h i r d reason i s s i m i l a r i t y of communication modes, making f o r eas i e r and more e f f e c t i v e communication. Several s tudies [ c i t ed by W i tk in , 1972] have found that f i e l d dependent persons make fewer s e l f -references in t he i r speech than f i e l d independent people. Another study in progress [ c i t ed in W i tk in , 1972] i s examining teacher-student i n t e r a c t i ons under condi t ions of match or mismatch of cogn i t i ve s t y l e , in an attempt to i d e n t i f y the 21 s p e c i f i c i n t e rac t i ons which lead to e i t he r pos i t i v e or negative mutual eva luat ion of teachers and students . 1.8 Summary Indiv idual d i f f e rences in performance on tes ts of percept ion have been found re l a t ed to d i f f e rences in cogn i t i ve func t ion ing and in ana l y t i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g , and a tendency towards e i t h e r f i e l d dependence or f i e l d independence i s a s tab le personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . C ross-cu l tu ra l and in-depth s tud ies have shown that an i n d i v i d u a l ' s cogn i t i ve s t y l e i s l i nked c l o s e l y with d i f f e rences in ch i l d- rea r i ng in the ea r l y stages of development and poss ib l y genet ic d i f f e r e n c e s . Sex d i f f e rences have led to specu la t ion about sex-l inked genes a lso being invo l ved . F i e l d dependence i s assoc ia ted with h igh ly developed s o c i a l s k i l l s and d i f f i c u l t y in unstructured s i t u a t i o n s . S e n s i t i v i t y to the s o c i a l environment and the use of the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l frame to def ine the s e l f has been shown to a f f e c t vocat ional preference. Teaching methods have been adapted on th i s basis to s tudents ' cogn i t i ve s t y l es and have been shown to e f f e c t d i f f e rences in l e a r n -i n g . Studies have a l so shown that people matched in cogn i t i ve s t y l e get along be t t e r . This mutual a t t r a c t i on i s e s p e c i a l l y important i n the educat ional s e t t i n g . In th i s regard , however, the fo l low ing caut ionary note should be observed: 22 A dec i s ion on which student-teacher combination achieves the best l ea rn ing r e su l t s obv ious ly requi res cons idera t ion of many other cogn i t i ve s t y l e s , as well as va r i ab les of other s o r t s . To make appropr iate dec is ions about teacher-student mixes, we need to bu i l d up a fund of knowledge, gained through systematic r esea rch , on the many other va r i ab les that in f luence teaching and learn ing e f f e c t i v e -ness [Wi tk in , 1972, p. 42] . 2.0 DESCRIPTION AND COMPARISON OF THE TEACHING METHODS The purpose of th i s sec t ion is to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two methods of teaching Science 8 used in th i s study. This d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l be made i n terms of t h e i r resemblances to two d i f f e r e n t teaching models which are a lready we l l -es tab l i shed in educat ion . 2.1 Desc r ip t ion of Suchman's Inquiry T ra in ing Model Suchman's model of i nqu i r y t r a i n i n g begins with the assumption that inqu i r y i s " the pursu i t of meaning" and that i t i s motivated by the des i re " to obta in a new leve l of re latedness between and among separate aspects of one's consc iousness" [Suchman, 1966a, p. 178], Suchman be l ieves tha t , the i n d i v i d u a l , upon encountering a puzz l ing or d isc repant event , needs to gather and study data re levant to the event and to put i t together in new ways so as to make the event meaning-f u l . The goals which Suchman sets f o r t h i s program are to s t imula te and support the pursu i t of meaning, create cond i t ions in order to make th i s pursu i t poss ib l e and p roduc t i ve , and encourage inqu i r y i n to the inqu i r y process i t s e l f , s ince conscious awareness of the process and s t r a t eg i es of i nqu i r y i s an essen t i a l aspect of autonomous i nqu i r y [F ish and Goldmark, 1969]. The inqu i r y program developed by Suchman seeks to enable the learner to d i r e c t and contro l h is own l e a rn ing . E s s e n t i a l l y , three condi t ions have been i d e n t i f i e d which are necessary f o r inqu i r y to occur [Suchman, 1964]. F i r s t l y , ch i l d r en need a focus f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n : "Focusing and re focus ing is a continuous job fo r the teacher , by r a i s i n g new quest ions that reveal new d i sc repanc ies " [Suchman, 1966b, p. 16] . Secondly, the teacher must create a f ree environment by "a l low ing each c h i l d to pursue new meaning and new understanding in h is own way, to construct theor ies and explanat ions in his own terms, and to progress at a rate that s a t i s f i e s the l ea rner " [Suchman, 1966b, p. 15]. T h i r d l y , the c h i l d must have a responsive environment where, when he reaches out f o r data , he must procure something. The fo l low ing cha r t , Table I I-l , summarizes Suchman's Inquiry T ra in ing Model. 24 TABLE I1-1 SUMMARY CHART: INQUIRY TRAINING MODEL Syntax: Phase 1: Encounter with the problem. Phase 2: Inquiry through ques t ion ing , verbal or actual experimentat ion and generat ion of hypotheses. Phase 3: Ana lys i s of inqu i r y P r i n c i p l e s o f React ion: The Teacher: 1. insures that quest ions are phrased so that they can be answered in yes or no and that t h e i r substance doesn ' t requ i re the teacher to do the i nqu i r y . 2. acts to provide a f ree i n t e l l e c t u a l environment. 3. responds to l ea rne rs ' requests f o r informat ion and provides maximal st imulus fo r inqu i r y by f o cus i ng , r e f o cus i ng , or summarizing the i n q u i r y . Soc ia l System: Highly s t ruc tu red . Teacher i s the c o n t r o l l e r of the i n t e r a c t i on and prescr ibes the inqu i r y procedures. However, the norms of i nqu i r y are those of coopera t ion , i n t e l l e c t u a l freedom, and equa l i t y . Support System: The optimal support i s a prepared set of confront ing mater ia ls and a t r a i n i n g agent who understands process and s t r a t eg i es of i nqu i r y . [Source: Joyce and We i l , 1972, p. 150] In the c lassroom, inqu i r y t r a i n i n g has three phases [Suchman, 1966b]. The f i r s t phase begins with the presentat ion of a problem by f i l m or demonstrat ion. Th is o f f e r s the i n i t i a l mot ivat ion s ince many of the f i lms or demonstrations present a d isc repant event. Focusing quest ions are asked which chal lenge students to formulate and t e s t t h e i r own theor ies to exp la in the event. Then fo l lows a per iod of inqu i r y in which students gather data and t ry to generate ideas or hypotheses to account f o r the event. Students may quest ion the teacher , but the quest ions must be phrased in such a way that they can be answered "yes" or " n o . " The teacher , however, does not accept or r e j e c t statements of t heo r i e s , or rep ly to quest ions that attempt to obtain the teacher ' s approval of a theory. At a l l times the teacher responds p o s i t i v e l y to the student and neu t r a l l y to the product of the s tudent ' s t h i nk i ng . In the t h i r d phase, the teacher helps the students to examine the inqu i r y process i t s e l f , to come to understand how knowledge comes in to be ing , where theor ies come from and how they can be appra ised. During th i s phase, the teacher must be able to i d e n t i f y and use " teachable moments" when new ways to approach puzz l ing s i t ua t i ons may be introduced most e f f e c t i v e l y . In Suchman's inqu i r y t r a i n i n g model, the l ea rn ing of s p e c i f i c concepts such as dens i t y , p ressure , e t c . , i s subord inate . The program i s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to teach ch i l d ren to improve t h e i r own s t r a teg ies of i nqu i r y . The teacher nurtures a s p i r i t of c r e a t i v i t y and independence or autonomy in l e a rn i ng . The importance of these teacher funct ions i s ind i ca ted in a study reported by Suchman [1964] in which ch i ld ren who rated high on cogn i t i ve c o n t r o l , i m p u l s i v i t y , and autonomy were more e f f e c t i v e i nqu i r e r s than ch i l d ren who were low on any of these three f a c t o r s . 2.2 Desc r ip t ion o f Taba's Teaching Model H i lda Taba's s o c i a l s tud ies cur r i cu lum addressed i t s e l f to the mu l t ip l e ob jec t i ves of developing bas ic knowledge, t h i n k i n g , a t t i t u d e s , and s k i l l s . Development of d i f f e r e n t patterns of th ink -ing has long been considered important in curr icu lum cons t ruc t i on . However, Taba f e l t that development of th ink ing s k i l l s had been poor ly implemented because of i n s u f f i c i e n t ana lys is of the processes and s k i l l s involved [Taba, 1966]. Taba's induct i ve model f o r teaching soc i a l s tudies was based on the assumption that c e r t a i n ways of t h i n k i n g , such as induct i ve or deduct i ve , can be l ea rned , there fore they can be taught provided the s p e c i f i c processes and s k i l l s comprising a p a r t i c u l a r mode of thought can be descr ibed . Taba descr ibed the sequence of thought processes , which she c a l l e d " cove r t mental ope ra t i ons , " that are involved in induct ive t h i nk ing . The sequent ia l nature of the opera-t ions i s very important s i n c e , in order to master ce r t a in th ink ing s k i l l s , c e r t a i n other e a r l i e r ones must be mastered and th i s process cannot be reversed. In order to s t imulate students to perform these covert mental opera t ions , Taba i d e n t i f i e d c e r t a i n teaching moves in the form of e l i c i t i n g quest ions which cause the student to perform an "over t " a c t i v i t y such as enumerating, grouping, p r e d i c t i n g , e t c . , and i f the student i s su c ce s s fu l l y performing these overt a c t i v i t i e s then he must of necess i t y a lso be performing the assoc ia ted covert mental opera t ions . The teacher ' s func t ion i s to ask e l i c i t i n g quest ions at the appropr iate time so that the student w i l l be s t imulated to perform the necessary opera t ions . Hence, the teacher must monitor the ways in which students are process ing informat ion and use e l i c i t i n g quest ions to move the a c t i v i t i e s on to the next phase. 27 Table 11-2 summarizes Taba's induct ive model. Three cogn i t i ve tasks are i d e n t i f i e d , each conta in ing three phases of overt a c t i v i t i e s . Also shown are the covert mental operat ions and examples of the e l i c i t i n g quest ions to be used by the teacher . TABLE I1-2 SUMMARY CHART: TABA'S INDUCTIVE MODEL Syntax: Cogni t i ve Task 1: Concept Formation Overt A c t i v i t y Covert Mental Operation E l i c i t i n g Questions 1. Enumeration D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and l i s t i n g What d id you see? hear? note? 2. Grouping Iden t i f y ing common _ What belongs together? p r o p e r t i e s , abstract- On what c r i t e r i o n ? ing 3. L abe l i ng , Determining the hier- What would you c a l l c a t egor i z ing a r ch i ca l order of i tems, these groups? What Super- and sub-ordin- belongs under what? a t i on Cogn i t i ve Task 2: I n fe r r ing and Genera l i z ing Overt A c t i v i t y Covert Mental Operation E l i c i t i n g Questions 1. Iden t i f y ing D i f f e r e n t i a t i n g , What d id you note? points d i s t i n g u i s h i n g re levant see? f ind? informat ion from i r r e l e v a n t 2. Exp la in ing i d e n t i f i e d items of informat ion 3. Making inferences or genera l -i z a t i ons Re la t ing points to each o the r ; e s t ab l i sh -ing cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i onsh ip s Going beyond what i s g i ven ; f i n d i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s ; ex t rapo la t ing Why d id so-and-so happen? Why i s so-and-so true? What does th i s mean? What would you conclude? What genera l i za t ions can you make? 28 P r i n c i p l e s of React ion: Cogni t i ve Task 3: App l i c a t i on of P r i n c i p l e s Overt A c t i v i t y Covert Mental Operat ion E l i c i t i n g Questions 1. P r ed i c t i ng Analyz ing the nature consequences, and the dimensions of exp la in ing the problem or un fami l i a r cond i t ion phenomena, hypothes iz ing What would happen i f ? 2. Exp la in ing and support ing the p red i c t i on and hypotheses 3. V e r i f y i n g the p red i c t i ons Determining the causal Why do you think l i nks lead ing to a would happen? p r ed i c t i on or hypothesis th i s Using l o g i c a l reasoning What would i t take f o r to determine the necessary condi t ions and the degree of uni-v e r s a l i t y of the p r ed i c t i on so-and-so to be true? Would i t be true in al1 cases? At what times? e t c . The teacher : 1. must monitor the ways students are process ing in format ion . 2. match e l i c i t i n g quest ions to the s p e c i f i c phases w i th in each cogn i t i ve task . 3. ensure that the cogn i t i ve tasks occur in the optimum order . Soc ia l System: Support System: The atmosphere i s cooperat ive with much pupi l a c t i v i t y . The sequence of a c t i v i t i e s is determined in advance and the teacher i s in a c o n t r o l l i n g pos i t i on and i s the i n i t i a t o r of phases. Large quan t i t i e s of raw data must be ava i l ab l e so that students can organize and process the data in more complex ways, and to increase the general capac i ty of t h e i r systems f o r process ing data . [Source: Joyce and We i l , 1972, pp. 126-136] 29 2.3 Comparison of the Labtext Teaching Method with Suchman's  Inquiry T ra in ing Model The Labtext method of teaching has three phases. The f i r s t phase cons i s t s of conf ront ing the student with a problem, i f poss ib le in such a way as to puzzle the student . A d i scuss ion of the problem is guided by the teacher with the purpose of mot ivat ing students to i n ves t i ga t e . In the second phase, students work with the apparatus and equipment in any manner which they fee l w i l l help to solve the problem. They gather a l l data which seems re levant . When t h e i r data-gathering i s complete they t r y to generate ideas or hypotheses to exp la in or so lve the i n i t i a l problem. During th i s time the teacher responds only to those quest ions which may be answered "yes" or " n o , " and does not respond to any quest ions which w i l l t e l l the student how to perform the i nqu i r y . The teacher may, however, supply, necessary informat ion on request . The teacher must respond p o s i t i v e l y to the student so as to encourage a l l l i n e s of thought and i n q u i r y , but must respond neu t r a l l y to the products of the s tudent ' s t h i nk i ng . In the t h i r d phase, the teacher and students analyze the r esu l t s o f the i nqu i r y and students may be required to answer some wr i t ten questions concerning these r e s u l t s , but more emphasis i s placed on ana lyz ing the methods of inqu i r y used by the students than on the actual r e su l t s of the i n q u i r y . The teacher helps the students to examine d i f f e r e n t methods of inqu i r y and encourages them to apply these methods to the same problem i f a p p l i c a b l e . A comparison of the Labtext method with Suchman's inqu i r y t r a i n i ng model reveals very few d i f f e r e n c e s . Both methods have the same three phases with the func t ion of the teacher being the same in both methods. In phase one, the Labtext problems posed may not always appear as d iscrepant events as in the Suchman model. In phase two the two methods are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l , whi le i n phase three the only d i f f e rence i s that a l i t t l e more emphasis may be placed on the r esu l t s of the inqu i r y in the Labtext method, but at a l l times the examination and ana l ys i s of the methods of inqu i r y rece ive at l e a s t equal emphasis. 2.4 Comparison of the ISC Teaching Method with Taba's Induct ive  Model The ISC method of teaching has three phases. The f i r s t phase cons i s t s of confront ing the student with a problem and, by d i s c u s s i o n , the teacher t r i e s to arouse s tudents ' i n t e r e s t in so l v i ng the problem. In the second phase students are supp l ied with s p e c i f i c wr i t ten i n s t ruc t i ons which t e l l the students exac t l y how to manipulate the apparatus and mate r i a l s . E l i c i t i n g quest ions are provided whenever students should observe or measure a property or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . During th i s time the teacher ensures that a l l students are fo l low ing the i n s t ruc t i ons and answering the ques t ions . I f necessary the teacher may provide fu r the r ora l quest ions which e l i c i t the intended behavioral response from the student . The quest ions a l so guide the student in forming hypotheses and in drawing in fe rences . In th i s way 31 the student i s led through the inqu i ry process. The questions help him to observe, enumerate, group, c a t ego r i ze , i d e n t i f y re levant i n fo rmat ion , i n f e r , p r e d i c t , and hypothes ize , e t c . The t h i r d phase of the ISC method cons i s t s of analyz ing the r esu l t s of the i nqu i r y . Teacher and students together d iscuss the data c o l l e c t e d and the answers to quest ions dea l ing with g e n e r a l i z -a t ion and app l i c a t i on of the r e s u l t s . Students then answer a se r i es of wr i t ten questions which review the r esu l t s of the d i s c u s s i o n . The s i m i l a r i t y between the ISC method and Taba 's model l i e s e s s e n t i a l l y in the way e l i c i t i n g quest ions are used to lead students through the i nqu i r y . Taba emphasized a necessary sequence of a c t i v i t i e s and assumed that each a c t i v i t y i s accompanied by an-underly ing mental process. The requi red sequence of a c t i v i t i e s i s moved along by the teacher ' s e l i c i t i n g ques t ions . S i m i l a r l y , the ISC method uses e l i c i t i n g quest ions to move from one step in the inqu i r y process to the next . 2.5 Summary of Major D i f ferences between the Labtext and ISC Methods The fo l low ing cha r t s , Tables I1-3 and II-4 summarize the syntax, p r i n c i p l e s of r e a c t i o n , soc i a l system, and support system f o r each of the two methods. From the Tables i t can be seen that both methods are s i m i l a r in Phase One, where the student i s confronted with the problem. Another s i m i l a r i t y i s the atmosphere of cooperat ion that ex i s t s between the teacher and students . The major d i f f e rences between the methods l i e in Phases Two and Three. Phase Two i s e s s e n t i a l l y a time of exper imentat ion, data 32 c o l l e c t i o n , and formulat ion of ideas and hypotheses. In the Labtext method, students c o l l e c t whatever data they fee l i s necessary to exp la in the problem and they process th i s data in t h e i r own way and t ry to generate hypotheses. They r e f r a i n from asking d i r e c t quest ions of the teacher , and the teacher avoids asking e l i c i t i n g quest ions of the s tudents . The teacher encourages any l i n e of inqu i ry re levant to the problem. In the ISC method, experimentation and data c o l l e c t i o n proceeds according to s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s . E l i c i t i n g quest ions guide observat ions and data-processing along prescr ibed l i nes o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The teacher ensures that students are i n f a c t fo l low ing th i s procedure. In Phase Three the ISC method places the major emphasis on the ana lys i s o f the r esu l t s whi le the Labtext method gives a large por t ion o f the emphasis to the ana lys i s of the methods of i n q u i r y . 33 TABLE I1-3 SUMMARY CHART: LABTEXT METHOD OF TEACHING Syntax: Phase 1: Encounter with the problem. Phase 2: Inquiry through exper imentat ion. Students manipulate apparatus and equipment in the way they fee l w i l l best solve the problem. Phase 3: Teacher and students together analyze the r esu l t s and the methods of inqu i r y used. P r i n c i p l e s of React ion: The teacher : 1. acts to provide a f ree atmosphere of i n q u i r y . 2. insures that s tudents ' quest ions are phrased so that they may be answered by "yes" or " n o , " and that the substance of the questions does not requ i re the teacher to do the i n q u i r y . 3. responds dur ing phase three in such a way as to keep inqu i r y turned back onto the process o f i n ves t i ga t i on i t s e l f . Soc ia l System: A h igh ly s t ruc tured soc i a l system is necessary inasmuch as the teacher must move the inqu i r y sess ions from phase to phase, however, the students are f ree to inqu i re along whatever l i nes they see f i t . The teacher encourages students to i n i t i a t e i nqu i r y as much as p o s s i b l e . Support System: The necessary requirements are a prepared set of mater ia ls that confront the student with a problem and a teacher who understands the processes and s t r a t eg i es of i n q u i r y . 34 TABLE I1-4 SUMMARY CHART: ISC METHOD OF TEACHING Syntax: Phase 1: Encounter with the problem. Phase 2: Inquiry through exper imentat ion. Students manipulate apparatus and equipment accord -ing to prescr ibed wr i t ten i n s t r u c t i o n s . Data i s c o l l e c t e d and hypotheses are genera-ted by answering e x p l i c i t e l i c i t i n g quest ions . Phase 3: Teacher and students together analyze the r e su l t s of the i nqu i r y . P r i n c i p l e s of React ion: The teacher : 1. must provide a cooperat ive atmosphere and monitor the ways students are performing the i nqu i r y . 2. ensures that students are answering the e l i c i t i n g quest ions as the inqu i ry proceeds. I f the wr i t ten quest ions are not s u f f i c i e n t f o r i nd i v idua l students the teacher must supplement them by asking fu r the r quest ions that w i l l guide the student along the requi red method of i n q u i r y . Soc ia l System: The atmosphere i s cooperat ive . The sequence of a c t i v -i t i e s i s determined in advance and the teacher i s in a c o n t r o l l i n g pos i t i on and i s the i n i t i a t o r of phases. Support System: Each inqu i r y must be wel l-prepared in advance with s p e c i f i c wr i t ten i n s t ruc t i ons provided and e l i c i t i n g quest ions asked whenever data i s to be c o l l e c t e d or processed. The teacher ' s job is to help students process the data in more complex ways and ' to increase the general capac i ty of t h e i r systems f o r process ing data . 35 2.6 Summary Two models of teaching and the mod i f i ca t ion of these models fo r Science 8 c lasses have been desc r ibed . The Labtext approach confronts the student with a problem and attempts to involve him in a per iod of s e l f - d i r e c t e d inqu i r y a f t e r which the inqu i r y processes are analyzed in an attempt to produce more autonomous func t ion ing among students in future i n q u i r i e s . The ISC approach i s designed i n such a way that each inqu i r y i s accompanied by e l i c i t i n g quest ions and s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i ons to be fol lowed by the s tudents . Witkin [1969] s tates that emphasis in teaching on both s p e c i f i c i t y and s t ruc tu r i ng would be most conducive to development of a r t i c u l a t i o n . Hence, f o r f i e l d dependent or g lobal c h i l d r e n , the teacher should provide a s t ruc tured s i t u a t i o n in which s p e c i f i c i n s t ruc t i ons and guid ing quest ions are g iven. The ISC teaching method provides such a s i t u a t i o n . Ana l y t i c a l s tudents , being more s e l f - d i r e c t i n g , w i l l learn bet te r in a s i t u a t i o n which allows them more freedom to fo l low t h e i r own ideas . The Labtext approach provides such a s i t u a t i o n . CHAPTER III METHOD OF STUDY 1.0 SUBJECTS 1.1 Desc r ip t ion of the Subjects A l l the subjects used in th i s study Were grade e ight students en ro l l ed in Science 8 at Delview Jun ior Secondary Schoo l , in School D i s t r i c t 37, of the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Students in the school are t y p i c a l l y from suburban, middle-c lass homes. In age, the subjects ranged from twelve to fourteen years . 1.2 Se l ec t i on of Subjects and Classes Approximately 300 students en ro l l ed in Science 8 in September, 1972, and were randomly assigned by computer to ten d i f f e r e n t Science 8 c l a s ses . S ix of these c lasses were scheduled to take the course in the F a l l semester, dur ing which the study was to take p l ace . Of these s i x c l a s s e s , four were randomly assigned to one teacher (the wr i te r ) and two c lasses to a second teacher. The number of students in these s i x c lasses who were i n attendance f o r the whole semester was 160. These students cons t i tu ted the sample f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Table III-l gives the number of students in each c l a s s . 37 TABLE III-l NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN EACH CLASS CLASS NUMBER OF STUDENTS 1 27 2 25 3 27 4 29 5 26 6 26 TOTAL 160 2.0 INSTRUMENTS 2.1 Hidden Figures Test A measure of f i e l d dependence was obtained by means o f a group vers ion of the Hidden Figures Test, Form cf-1 [Buros, 1972, p. 440]. The tes t cons i s t s of 32 i tems, each of which requires the subject to i d e n t i f y a simple f i gu re w i th in a complex f i e l d . Sample items from the tes t are given in Appendix A. The t e s t was administered separate ly to each c lass by the i n v e s t i g a t o r , and care was taken to ensure un i formity o f t e s t i ng cond i t i ons . A t r i a l sheet was given to the students p r i o r to the t e s t in order to f a m i l i a r i z e the students with the tasks requi red in the t es t i tems. The tes t was administered in two ha lves , each with a time l i m i t of ten minutes, and a f i v e minute break between ha lves . The KR-20 c o e f f i c i e n t of in te rna l r e l i a b i l i t y was ca l cu la ted fo r the Hidden Figures Test and was found to be 0 .92. The t e s t i s s i m i l a r to W i tk in ' s embedded f igures tes ts used in i d e n t i f y i n g f i e l d dependency [ Jackson, Douglas, Messick and Myers, 1964] and parts o f the t es t have been used f o r t h i s purpose by Sieben [1971]. No data on the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the t es t has been reported by Educat ional Tes t ing Se r v i c e s , publ i shers of the t e s t . 2.2 Test of Science Processes The Test of Science Processes (TOSP) developed by Tannenbaum [1971], cons i s t s of 96 mu l t i p l e choice i tems. Each item is intended to measure a s p e c i f i c sc ience process s k i l l . For example, f o r the process of Measuring, one o f the s p e c i f i c s k i l l s tested (item 60) , i s that of s e l e c t i n g an appropr ia te un i t f o r measuring the d is tance from the earth to the moon. The KR-20 c o e f f i c i e n t of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the whole t e s t based on a norm group of suburban ch i l d ren i s 0.91 [Tannenbaum, 1971]. The ind ices given in Table II1-2 provide informat ion on how the students performed on each item of the pos t- tes t . The Difficulty Index o f an item i s the propor t ion of students who got i t r i g h t . L indqu i s t [1951] and Ebel [1965] recommend using items whose ind ices f a l l in the range 0.30 to 0.70. Items with ind ices in th i s range br ing out more i nd i v idua l d i f f e r ences in performance than more d i f f i c u l t or eas i e r i tems. Table 111-2 shows that only about one-h a l f of the 96 items meet th i s c r i t e r i o n . The Discrimination Index given f o r each item in Table 111-2 i s the po in t b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . The index provides informat ion on the extent to which a given item d i sc r im ina tes among students who d i f f e r in t he i r achievement of the sc ience process s k i l l s as measured by the t e s t as a whole. A po int b i s e r i a l r of 0.16 i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 leve l in the present case. Since the TOSP i s f a i r l y long (96 i tems) , ind ices as low as 0.16 were considered s a t i s f a c t o r y . Table III-2 shows that only 12 of the 96 items in the t e s t had ind ices lower than 0.16. About one-half o f the 96 items f u l f i l l e d both the d i f f i c u l t c r i t e r i o n and the d i s c r im ina t i on c r i t e r i o n . The r e su l t s of the item ana lys i s o f the TOSP post- tes t given in Table 111-2 were considered s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the purposes of the study and no f u r t he r attempt was made to improve the items of the publ ished form of the t e s t used in the study or to de le te the obv ious ly poor items. Resu l t s , t he re fo re , should be in te rp re ted with cau t i on . With regard to v a l i d i t y of TOSP, Tannenbaum [1971, p. 123] states that " there i s cons iderab le evidence of both the content and the c u r r i c u l a r v a l i d i t y of the t e s t . " In cons t ruc t ing a t e s t which would assess s tudents ' a b i l i t i e s to use sc ience processes regard less of p a r t i c u l a r sc ience content , Tannenbaum prepared a b luepr in t of the t e s t which s p e c i f i c a l l y def ined the sc ience processes in behavioral 40 TABLE II1-2 ITEM ANALYSIS OF TOSP (POST-TEST) ITEM DIFFICULTY DISCRIMINATION ITEM DIFFICULTY DISCRIMINATION INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX 1 0.98 0.15 49 0.70 0.29 2 0.95 0.28 50 0.75 0.23 3 0.90 0.26 51 0.51 0.14 4 0.95 0.14 52 0.20 0.14 5 0.96 0.23 53 0.26 0.24 6 0.96 0.21 54 0.86 0.30 7 0.86 0.29 55 0.88 0.29 8 0.26 -0.04 56 0.78 0.51 9 0.95 0.21 57 0.62 0.48 10 0.90 0.17 58 0.63 0.41 11 0.96 0.22 59 0.75 0.36 12 0.38 0.10 60 0.53 0.18 13 0.81 0.18 61 0.83 0.33 14 0.89 0.29 62 0.54 .0.46 15 0.59 0.35 63 0.72 0.54 16 0.61 0.11 64 0.76 0.55 17 0.75 0.35 65 0.53 0.30 18 0.72 0.44 66 0.57 0.25 19 0.60 0.34 67 0.52 0.14 20 0.47 0.19 68 0.61 0.31 21 0.59 0.21 69 0.44 0.29 22 0.89 0.38 70 0.42 0.16 23 0.59 0.19 71 0.65 0.52 24 0.95 0.18 72 0.65 0.47 25 0.98 0.33 73 0.38 0.31 26 0.91 0.44 74 0.65 0.25 27 0.90 0.33 75 0.78 0.41 28 0.70 0.16 76 0.71 0.12 29 0.78 0.12 77 0.75 0.23 30 0.96 0.33 78 0.34 0.07 31 0.81 0.19 79 0.60 0.29 32 0.78 0.46 80 0.50 0.36 33 0.74 0.36 81 0.30 0.32 34 0.81 0.24 82 0.92 0.29 35 0.62 0.50 83 0.52 0.30 36 0.89 0.40 84 0.29 0.08 37 0.41 0.34 85 0.48 0.42 38 0.76 0.29 86 0.37 0.23 3 9 , 0.92 0.27 87 0.70 0.36 40 0.85 0.16 88 0.81 0.56 41 0.97 0.32 89 0.44 0.35 42 0.61 0.42 90 0.41 0.24 43 0.95 0.15 91 0.74 0.20 44 0.80 0.44 92 0.70 0.35 45 0.86 0.34 93 0.54 0.06 46 0.87 0.16 94 0.45 0.33 47 0.71 0.27 95 0.39 0.26 48 0.86 0.37 96 0.70 0.11 41 terms [Tannenbaum, 1971, pp. 133-135]. This b luep r in t provided the gu ide l ines f o r the preparat ion of the tes t i tems. Both the b luepr in t and the items were submitted to experts in sc ience education who were requested to comment as to the c l a r i t y , appropriateness i n the l i g h t of cur rent sc ience educat ion , and d i f f i c u l t y with regard to the age-level (11 to 14 y ea r s ) . C r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y was a lso i n ves t i ga t ed , where the c r i t e r i o n was the teacher-rat ing of the s tudents ' a b i l i t i e s to use the processes . A c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.48 f o r t e s t scores versus teacher ra t ings was obta ined. The s i z e of th i s c o e f f i c i e n t gives some support f o r c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y . For the p re- tes t , the pos t- t es t , and the delayed pos t- t es t , the TOSP was administered separa te ly to each of the c lasses in two s i t t i n g s . In order to provide uniform t e s t i ng c o n d i t i o n s , the admin is t ra t ion procedures s p e c i f i e d in the Test Manual [Tannenbaum, 1971] were fo l lowed c l o s e l y with one except ion , the time l i m i t s s p e c i f i e d were not imposed. An e f f o r t was made to ensure that students had ample time to complete the t e s t . Students recorded t h e i r answers on spec ia l IBM answer cards used i n data p rocess ing . Sample t e s t items are contained in Appendix B. 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 3.1 Tes t ing Phase During the f i r s t week of the semester (September, 1972), the Hidden Figures Test was administered to a l l s i x c lasses separa te l y . 42 In the second week the Test of Science Processes was given to a l l s i x c lasses separate ly as a p re- tes t . Test r e su l t s were not analyzed un t i l the end of the semester to ensure that the teachers involved in the study would not have any knowledge of the scores of i nd i v idua l s tudents . During the l a s t week of the semester (January, 1973), the TOSP was again administered as a post-tes t to a l l c l asses in the same manner as the pre- tes t . To provide a measure of re tent ion of the sc ience process s k i l l s l ea rned , the TOSP was again administered at the end of A p r i l , 1973. A random sample of 36 students was se lec ted from the o r i g i n a l group of students by drawing two students from each o f the three l eve l s of cogn i t i ve s t y l e ( g l o b a l , midd le , and ana l y t i c ) from each c l a s s . The s i z e of the sample was r e s t r i c t e d to 36 due to admin is t ra t i ve d i f f i c u l t i e s . 3.2 Teaching Phase The teacher with the four c lasses (the author) randomly assigned two c lasses to each o f the two teaching approaches (Labtext or ISC) descr ibed in Chapter II. The teacher with two c lasses randomly assigned one c lass to each approach. During the f i v e months (September, 1972 to January, 1973) making up the f i r s t semester, c lasses were taught according to de ta i l ed lesson plans which were based on the fo l low ing s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r each method. The de ta i l ed lesson plans f o r each o f the three uni ts taught are contained in Appendix C. 43 (a) Spec i f i c a t i ons f o r the ISC Method of Teaching Step 1 - The teacher d iscusses with the c lass the p a r t i c u l a r problem to be i nves t i ga ted . New vocabulary may be in t roduced, and prev ious ly learned concepts may be reviewed. The co r rec t use of any necessary apparatus w i l l be demonstrated. Step 2 - Students perform the i nves t i ga t i on by fo l low ing the p r e c i s e , w r i t t en , step-by-step procedure. Students are guided in using the sc ience processes by d i r e c t quest ions that accompany each s tep . These e l i c i t i n g quest ions d i r e c t the inqu i r y in the des i red d i r e c t i o n . The teacher a s s i s t s i nd i v idua l students dur ing th i s t ime. Step 3 - A f t e r students have completed the procedure, a c lass d i scuss ion w i l l fo l low i f necessary. Students then answer wr i t ten quest ions f o r purposes of review, g e n e r a l i z -a t i o n , and a p p l i c a t i o n of r e s u l t s . (b) Spec i f i c a t i ons fo r the Labtext Method of Teaching Step 1 - The teacher d iscusses with the c lass the p a r t i c u l a r problem to be i nves t i ga ted . New vocabulary may be in t roduced , and prev ious ly learned concepts may be reviewed. The co r r e c t use of any necessary apparatus w i l l be demonstrated. Step 2 - The students read the ou t l i ne of the i n ves t i ga t i on in the text and d i s cuss ion o f t h i s may occur . 44 Step 3 - Whenever poss ib le no wr i t ten procedure i s prov ided. (Occas iona l l y the Labtext gives a s p e c i f i c procedure to fo l low when a d i f f i c u l t exerc i se i s to be done.) Students are encouraged to develop t h e i r own procedure once they understand the purpose. At times students w i l l be required to wr i te down the se r i es of steps they w i l l perform. In th i s way a va r i e t y of procedures w i l l be used throughout the c l a s s . I f appropr ia te , students w i l l make a p red i c t i on of expected r e s u l t s . Step 4 - No wr i t ten quest ions are provided to guide i n q u i r y . Students fo l low t h e i r own procedures and l i s t a l l t h e i r observat ions . The teacher a s s i s t s i nd i v i dua l s dur ing th i s t ime, but encourages students to ask "yes/no" quest ions . Step 5 - A c l ass d i scuss ion fo l lows and a l l observat ions are l i s t e d on the b lackboard. Students compare these and c l a s s i f y those that are re levant to the problem. Step 6 - By d i s c u s s i o n , poss ib l e so lu t ions to the problem are generated and these are compared with the p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 7 - D iscuss ion of the procedures f o l l ows , e s p e c i a l l y i f con -f l i c t i n g r esu l t s a r i s e . Students w i l l be asked to modify t h e i r procedure ( i f necessary) f o r a re-run o f the experiment, and new pred i c t ions are made. 45 Step 8 - Students perform the re-run as suggested i f appropr ia te . Step 9 - Students answer wr i t ten quest ions f o r purposes of review g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and app l i c a t i on o f r e s u l t s . 4.0 STATISTICAL PROCEDURES 4.1 Design of the Study The experimental design used in the study was a 3 x 2 x 3 f a c t o r i a l design with one cova r i a t e . Factor 1, Cogni t i ve S t y l e , was broken down in to three l e v e l s , G l o b a l , M idd le , and A n a l y t i c . Factor 2, Methods, was subdiv ided in to two l e v e l s , Labtext and ISC. Factor 3, Teacher , was subdiv ided in to three l eve l s represent ing three d i f f e r e n t teachers , T-j, l^* a n d Tg . T 2 represents a r e p l i c a t i o n of the study invo l v ing d i f f e r e n t c lasses but the same teacher (T-j). Tg represents a second teacher . The c r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the subjects according to cogn i t i ve s t y l e were scores on the Hidden Figures Test. The range of scores f o r each group was set so that as c lose as poss ib le to equal groups of students were contained w i th in each l e v e l . Subjects with scores in the range 0-23 were c l a s s i f i e d as g l o b a l . Scores ranging from 24-28 were used to i d e n t i f y the middle group, and subjects with scores in the range 29-32 were designated as the ana l y t i c group. Table 111-3 summarizes the f ac to rs inves t iga ted and gives the number of subjects in each experimental group. 46 4.2 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses The s p e c i f i c quest ions given in Chapter I were res ta ted in the form of nu l l hypotheses f o r t e s t i ng purposes as fo l l ows : I. Independent of teaching and methods, there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rences between mean scores on the TOSP o f the global group, the middle group, and the ana l y t i c group. TABLE III-3 THE DESIGN OF THE STUDY TEACHER TEACHING APPROACH POST-TEST SCORES ON TOSP TOTALS GLOBAL MIDDLE ANALYTICAL Teacher 1 ISC (Class 1) 7 6 14 27 LABTEXT (Class 2) 12 5 8 25 Teacher 2 ISC (Class 3) 11 5 11 27 LABTEXT (Class 4) 11 8 10 29 Teacher 3 *-ISC (Class 5) 10 7 9 26 LABTEXT (Class 6) 8 9 9 26 TOTALS 59 40 61 160 47 II. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rences between the mean scores on the TOSP o f students in the Labtext c lasses and students in the ISC c l a s se s . III. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rences between the mean scores on the TOSP of students in c lasses with d i f f e r e n t teachers . IV. There w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t between teaching method and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the s tudents . V. There w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between teacher and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the students . VI. There w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t between teacher and teaching method. VI I . There w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between teacher , teaching method and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the s tudents . VI I I . There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence between mean scores on the delayed post-tes t and the post-tes t of a random sample of subjects used in the study. Chapter IV presents a summary of the data obtained and an ana lys i s of these data . CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 1.0 SUMMARY OF THE DATA 1.1 Summary of Hidden Figures Test Scores The data given in Table IV-1 below was used to c l a s s i f y each student in one of the three categor ies o f cogn i t i ve s t y l e , G l o b a l , M idd le , and A n a l y t i c . TABLE IV-1 SUMMARY OF HIDDEN FIGURES TEST SCORES COGNITIVE STYLE GROUP N RANGE MEAN SCORE S.D. Global 59 0-23 17.69 5.2214 Middle 40 24-28 26.28 1.4140 Ana l y t i c 61 . 29-32 30.84 1.1667 The tab le shows the range, mean s co re , and standard dev ia t ion f o r students w i th in each leve l of cogn i t i ve s t y l e . The range of scores f o r each group was set so that as c lose as poss ib l e to equal groups of students were contained wi th in each l e v e l . 49 1.2 Summary of TOSP Mean Scores fo r Pre-test and Post-test Table IV-2 summarizes the TOSP pre-test mean sco res , unadjusted TOSP post-test mean scores , adjusted TOSP post-tes t mean sco res , and the s i zes of the various groups inves t iga ted in the study. The randomness of the sampling procedures used can be roughly evaluated by an inspect ion of the TOSP pre-test mean scores f o r each of the s i x c lasses in the l a s t column of Table IV-2. The scores are qui te c lose except in one case where they range from 58.7 to 64 .0 . This d i f f e rence suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y that at l e as t these two c lasses assigned to d i f f e r e n t methods of i n s t r u c t i o n d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on past achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s . Fur ther , Table IV-2 reveals cons iderable v a r i a t i on in mean scores on the pre-test across and w i th in each l eve l of cogn i t i ve s t y l e . For example, mean scores f o r ana l y t i c students ranged from 59.5 in c l ass 3 to 69.0 in c lass 2. In order to al low f o r these and other i n i t i a l d i f f e rences on ach ieve -ment of sc ience process s k i l l s p r i o r to i n s t r u c t i o n , the TOSP post-tes t scores were adjusted by ana lys is of covariance in comparing group performance. 1.3 Summary of Delayed Post-test Scores Table IV-3 contains the raw scores on the post- tes t and the delayed post-tes t f o r a sample of 36 s tudents . This sample was obtained by randomly s e l e c t i n g two students from wi th in each c e l l of the matr ix shown in Table IV-2. The maximum poss ib le score on the t e s t was 96. Table IV-3 a l so shows the mean and standard dev ia t ion f o r each t e s t . 50 TABLE IV-2 SUMMARY OF TOSP PRE-TEST AND POST-TEST SCORES TEACHER (C) METHOD (B) COGNITIVE STYLE (A) MEANS GLOBAL (a 2 ) MIDDLE (a 3 ) ANALYTIC T l ( c l > (class 1) ISC 55.6 63.7 68.5 7 62.2 68.8 68.4 6 63.0 70.7 69.7 14 60.9 68.5 68.9 27 (b 2 ) (c lass 2) Labtext 57.1 64.9 68.5 12 66.2 74.4 70.9 5 69.0 75.1 69.4 8 62.7 70.1 69.6 25 T2 <c2) (b 3 ) (c lass 3) ISC 55.4 58.8 63.7 11 64.2 62.0 60.0 5 59.5 66.1 67.8 11 58.7 62.4 63.9 27 (b 2 ) (c lass 4 Labtext 59.5 62.2 63.8 11 64.8 68.5 66.1 8 68.2 72.6 67.5 10 64.0 67.5 65.8 29 T3 (c3) (b,) (c lass 5) ISC 54.4 56.7 62.4 10 59.1 66.1 68.1 7 65.8 68.9 65.7 9 59.6 63.5 65.4 26 (b 2 ) (c lass 6) Labtext 55.0 61.5 66.7 8 63.6 66.4 65.0 9 67.6 73.6 69.0 9 62.3 67.4 66.9 26 MEANS 56.3 61.3 65.6 59 63.2 67.6 66.4 40 65.1 70.9 68.2 61 61.4 66.6 66.7 160 ii , KEY | TOSP pre-test > 55.6 63.7 Unadjusted TOSP mean 6 8 . 5 * ^ _ post-test mean Ce l l s i ze (N) * - f - ? — - 1 Adjusted TOSP Cel Entries in Table IV-2 post-test mean 51 Table IV -3 reveals that the mean scores f o r the groups on each tes t are qu i te c l o s e , i n d i c a t i n g that the group as a whole has shown no marked change i n performance over the per iod of three months dur ing which no sc ience i n s t r u c t i o n was g iven. A c l o s e r inspec t ion revea ls that i nd i v i dua l s show some marked changes. S ix students have shown a -decrease of greater than f i v e points on the delayed pos t- tes t , whi le nine other students have shown an increase of greater than f i v e . These r esu l t s are analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y in Sect ion 2 . 0 . 2 . 0 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 2 . 1 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses The s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses, as given in Chapter I I I , and corresponding to the s p e c i f i c quest ions s tated i n Chapter I, are r e -stated below as nu l l hypotheses to be t es ted . Main Effects: 2 1 . H Q : E „ H = 0 , Cogni t ive s t y l e (A) has no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . 2 . H Q : = 0 , Method o f i n s t r u c t i o n (B) has no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . 2 3 . H Q : _Yj = 0 , Teachers (C) have no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . Interaction Effects: 2 4 . HQ*. -(aB^.) = 0 , No s i g n i f i c a n t AB i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . 2 5 . H Q ! £ ( a Y n j ) = 0 , No s i g n i f i c a n t AC i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t . 2 6 . H Q : E ( B Y ^ ) = 0 , No s i g n i f i c a n t BC i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . 7 . H Q : E ( c tBY , . . ) 2 = 0 , No s i g n i f i c a n t ABC i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t . TABLE IV-3 POST-TEST AND DELAYED POST-TEST RAW SCORES STUDENT NUMBER POST-TEST DELAYED POST-TEST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 75 77 86 73 67 78 73 76 81 72 77 74 42 67 77 75 66 77 84 76 76 68 78 71 68 72 88 53 78 62 56 60 54 62 69 67 76 76 81 74 59 83 78 74 81 63 83 68 58 78 65 74 75 84 86 74 71 72 81 60 65 67 88 67 78 64 63 79 57 71 74 58 MEAN S . D . 70.97 9.64 MEAN S . D . 72.36 8.64 53 Delayed Post-test: 8. H Q : U-J = u.2> No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence on delayed post-tes t compared to pos t- tes t . 2.2 Summary of Ana lys is of Variance on Adjusted TOSP Post-test  Mean Scores In order to determine whether the various group d i f f e rences on the TOSP pre-test (covar ia te ) s u f f i c e to account f o r d i f f e rences on the TOSP post-tes t ( c r i t e r i o n ) , or whether the d i f f e rences on the c r i t e r i o n are due to d i f f e r e n t methods of i n s t r u c t i o n (treatments) or teachers , an ana lys i s of var iance on the adjusted post- tes t scores was ca r r i ed out . The r esu l t s are summarized in Table IV-4 below. TABLE IV-4 • ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON ADJUSTED TOSP POST-TEST SCORES SOURCE OF VARIATION SUM OF SQUARES D.F. MEAN SQUARES F P A: Cogni t ive S ty le 206.4 2 103.2 2. 48* <0.0872 B: Method 39.7 1 39.7 0. 96 <0.3298 C: Teacher 464.4 2 232.2 5. 59** <0.0047 AB: Cog. S ty le X Method 2.2 2 1.1 0. 03 <0.9721 AC: Cog. S ty le X Teacher 81.6 4 20.4 0. 49 <0.7429 BC: Method X Teacher 6.8 2 3.4 0. 08 <0.9217 ABC: Cog. S ty le X Method X Teacher 235.6 4 58.9 1. 42*** <0.2316 E r ro r : 5865.6 141 41.6 54 Key to Table IV-4 • S i g n i f i c a n t at = 0.10 leve l ••S ign i f i can t at = 0.05 leve l •••S ign i f i cant at = 0.25 leve l 2.3 Tests of S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses Table IV-4 ind ica tes that f o r fac tors A and C, s i g n i f i c a n t F-ratios were obta ined , leading to the r e j e c t i on of nu l l hypotheses 1 and 3. The table a lso shows that the three-fac tor i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t , ABC, (nu l l hypothesis 7) approaches conventional l e ve l s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 1. Main E f f e c t s : The A (Cogni t ive S ty le ) mean square corresponds to a comparison of the adjusted means f o r the three d i f f e r e n t cogn i t i ve s t y l es averaged over the two l e ve l s of B (Method) and three l e ve l s o f C (Teacher) . The adjusted means on the TOSP f o r the three l eve l s of A are given i n Table IV-2 and are reproduced here f o r convenience: a ] (Global ) 65.6 a 2 (Middle) 66.4 a 3 (Ana ly t i c ) 68.2 The f a c t that the A mean square i s s i g n i f i c a n t impl ies that the three adjusted means d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . In order to e s t a b l i s h which means are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , 90% confidence i n t e r va l s were constructed around est imates of contras ts between the means according to the S-method [Glass and S tan ley , 1970, p. 393]. The r e su l t s are given in Table IV-5 below. TABLE IV-5 SUMMARY OF CONTRASTS K " ^a ) a i a ^ N 0.8 2.6* \ 1.8 • S i g n i f i c a n t at 0.10 l eve l The tab le shows that only the cont ras t between the g lobal and ana l y t i c students i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.10 leve l and contr ibutes to the ove ra l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of f a c t o r A. The achievement of the ana l y t i c group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y super io r to the global group. The f a c t o r C (Teacher) mean square represents a comparison between means of c lasses designated as being taught by Teacher 1 (c-j), Teacher 2 (C2), and Teacher 3 (c^), averaged over the three l e ve l s of A and two l e ve l s of B. The adjusted means f o r these three groups are as f o l l ows : c 1 (Teacher 1) 69.2 c 2 (Teacher 2) 64.8 c 3 (Teacher 3) 66.1 56 Table IV-6 gives a summary of contrasts between the adjusted means of students taught by the three teachers . TABLE IV-6 SUMMARY OF CONTRASTS J 0 y c c l y c c 2 y c 4.4* 3.1* 1.3 \ \ • S i g n i f i c a n t at 0.05 l e v e l . The table shows that the contrasts between some of the c lasses designated as having been taught by T-j, T^, and T 3 are s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 leve l and cont r ibuted to the ove ra l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of f a c t o r C. The two teachers designated as Teacher 1 and 2 were a c tua l l y one and the same person, i . e . , the i n ves t i ga to r in the present study. The o r i g i n a l in tent was to use the two c lasses designated as having been taught by Teacher 2 f o r r e p l i c a t i n g the teaching performance invo l v ing the c lasses designated as having been taught by Teacher 1. As i t turned ou t , the order i n which the c lasses were taught d id not remain the same. As a consequence, only two l eve l s of f a c to r C a c tua l l y e x i s t e d , namely, l eve l c-, + c 0 and leve l c v 57 In order to determine whether the combined achievement of students designated as having been taught by T-j and T 2 d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the achievement of Teacher 3's s tudents , a 95% confidence i n t e r va l was constructed f o r estimates of the contras t u r - l /2 (u r + u . ), i . e . , X r - l /2(X r + X k using the S-method. c 3 c l c 2 c 3 1 2 the r e su l t s are given below: Estimates of con t r a s t s : 0.9 95% confidence i n t e r v a l : (-3.6, 1.8) The f a c t that the confidence in te r va l spans 0 impl ies that the combined achievement of the w r i t e r ' s students d id not cont r ibute to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the F-rat io of f a c to r C. The ove ra l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f a c t o r , then, was due to un iden t i f i ed d i f f e rences between some of the c lasses taught by the wr i t e r and not necessa r i l y due to a Teacher e f f e c t . 2. In terac t ion E f f e c t s : Table IV-4 shows that the th ree- fac tor i n t e r a c t i on mean square i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.25 l e v e l . This r e s u l t suggests that q u a l i f i e d statements about the e f f e c t s of t eachers , methods, and cogn i t i ve s t y l e could be made. In order to determine what q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to make, a graphica l ana lys i s of the data summarized f o r t h i s purpose in Table IV-7 was ca r r i ed out . 58 TABLE IV-7 DATA FOR GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION EFFECTS ( i ) ( i i ) c-j and c 2 (Teachers 1+2) c 3 (Teacher 3) b l (ISC) b 2 (LAB) MEAN b l (ISC) b 2 (LAB) MEAN a l (Global ) 66.08 66.15 66.12 a l 62.35 66.68 64.52 a 2 (Middle) 64.23 68.48 66.36 a 2 68.10 64.97 66.54 a 3 (Ana ly t i c ) 68.74 68.47 68.60 a 3 65.69 68.97 67.33 MEAN 66.35 67.70 . 67.02 MEAN 65.38 66.88 66.13 ( i i i ) Combined e 's (Overal l AB) MEAN b l (ISC) b 2 (LAB) a l 64.84 66.33 65.59 a 2 65.53 67.32 66.42 a 3 67.73 68.64 68.18 MEAN 66.03 67.43 66.73 Figure 1 ( i , i i ) shows that the non-zero ABC in te rac t ions were not the same over a l l l eve l s o f C (Teachers) . According to F igure 1, the Labtext method (b 2 ) i s super io r to the ISC approach (b,) only f o r 59 Figure 1 Interact ion of cogni t ive s t y l e (A) and method (B) for leve ls of teachers (C). the middle cogn i t i ve s t y l e groups (a 2 ) as taught by the w r i t e r . In the case of Teacher 3, the Labtext method (b 2 ) i s super io r to the ISC approach (b-j) f o r both the global (a-j) and ana l y t i c (a 3 ) groups of s tudents . The s u p e r i o r i t y of the ISC approach f o r the middle group (a 2 ) i s opposite to that obtained by the wr i t e r (c-j and c 2 ) . These r esu l t s i nd i ca te that the s u p e r i o r i t y of the Labtext method over the ISC method depends on the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the learners and, e v i den t l y , on the teacher as w e l l . 3. Delayed Post-test Resu l t s : For convenience the means given in Table IV-3 f o r the post-tes t and the delayed post- tes t f o r a sample of 36 students are r ep ro -duced as f o l l ows : Post-test 70.97 Delayed Post-test 72.36 A co r re l a t ed t- tes t between the scores shown in Table IV-3 y i e l ded a t-value o f 1.13 which i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.10 l e v e l . On the basis of th i s r e s u l t , nu l l hypothesis 8, that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r ence between the scores on the post-tes t and the scores on the delayed post-tes t f o r a random sample of 36 s tudents , was accepted. 61 3.0 SUMMARY OF RESULTS The r esu l t s of t h i s study can best be summarized as answers to the s p e c i f i c questions s ta ted in Chapter I. 1. Independent of the teacher or teaching method, the achievement o f ana l y t i c students was super io r to that of g lobal s tudents . 2. Independent of the teacher and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the s tudents , ne i ther method of teaching resu l ted in a higher leve l of ach ieve-ment in sc ience process s k i l l s . 3. Independent of cogn i t i ve s t y l e and method, the r esu l t s ind i ca ted that the two teachers a t ta ined comparable r e su l t s with respect to achievement of sc ience process s k i l l s . The combined achievement of Teacher 1 and Teacher 2 students was found to be not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to the achievement o f students of Teacher 3. 4. There was no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between the teaching method and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the s tudents . 5. There was no i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t between the teacher and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the s tudents . 6. There was no i n t e r a c t i on e f f e c t between teacher , teaching method, and the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of the s tudents . For students taught by Teacher 1 and Teacher 2, the Labtext method was super io r to the ISC method only f o r the middle cogn i t i ve s t y l e groups. For students taught by Teacher 3, the Labtext approach was super io r to the ISC approach f o r both global and a n a l y t i c s tudents , whi le the ISC method was super io r to the Labtext method f o r middle s tudents . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence between the mean post-test score and the mean delayed post-tes t score f o r a sample of 36 students three months a f t e r terminat ion of sc ience i n s t r u c t i o n . CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1.0 CONCLUSIONS This i n ves t i ga t i on grew out of the author ' s classroom teaching exper ience. It was observed that in c lasses of grade 8 students using "Labtext in Science, Book 1" [Cannon et a _ . , 1968] as a gu ide , some students seemed to experience d i f f i c u l t y in performing the inves t iga t ions while c e r t a i n other students found these i nves t iga t ions to be e x c i t i n g and rewarding. S im i l a r observat ions were made in c lasses using the text "Introducing Science Concepts in the Laboratory" [Schmid, 1971]. The d i f f e r e n t l ea rn ing s t y l es appeared to have no r e l a t i o n to the " i n t e l l i g e n c e " of students as measured by standard IQ t e s t s . Some students in both c lasses who experienced d i f f i c u l t y possessed a r e l a t i v e l y high IQ. The wr i t e r sensed that W i tk in ' s concept of F i e l d Dependence [Witkin et a l_ . , 1962] could be a useful way of exp la in ing why one method of sc ience i n s t r u c t i o n could s u i t the l ea rn ing s t y l e o f some students and not o the rs . In order to inves t iga te th i s not ion more s y s t ema t i c a l l y , two methods of teaching embodied in the two d i f f e r e n t texts i d e n t i f i e d above were, f i r s t of a l l , c a r e f u l l y de l i nea ted . B r i e f l y , the Labtext method was descr ibed as a l ea rn ing s i t u a t i o n which allowed much freedom of i nd i v idua l a c t i on during an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , whi le the ISC method was descr ibed as a s t ruc tured learn ing s i t u a t i o n 64 in which specific instructions were given and guiding questions were asked. On the basis of Witkin's findings [Witkin, 1969] i t was felt that field dependent (global) students would function better with the ISC method while field independent (analytic) students would be more successful with the Labtext approach. Cognitive style was assessed by means of the Hidden Figures Test, and achievement was measured by means of the Test of Science Processes. The experimental phase of this study took place over a period of one complete school semester. At the outset students were randomly assigned to six classes of which the author taught four, with two classes assigned randomly to each method. A second teacher taught two classes, randomly assigning one class to each method. The involvement of two different teachers allowed a study of the effect of teachers on achievement, and the fact that one teacher taught two classes with each method provided a situation in which the effect of one teacher using the same methods with different classes could be studied. It was hoped that the results of this investigation would suggest answers to two basic questions, namely, (1) Is the mental factor of Field Dependence a significant predictor of achievement of science process skills? and (2) To which of the three different levels of Field Dependence, global, middle, or analytic are the two major methods of teaching Science 8 in British Columbia schools (ISC, Labtext), best suited? 65 1.1 E f f e c t of Cogni t ive S ty le A c lear-cut answer to the f i r s t quest ion was obta ined. Ana l y t i c students scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the global students on the c r i t e r i o n measure, the TOSP pos t- tes t . This r e s u l t i s not s u r p r i s i n g in the l i g h t of several f a c t o r s . The ana l y t i c a l nature of sc ience can be expected to favour ana l y t i c students and indeed research has shown that these students do favour sc ience in terms of academic and vocat ional preference [Chung, 1966; DeRussy and Futch, 1971]. Messick [1970] a l so points out that t es t formats and t e s t cond i t i ons , such as those used in th i s s tudy , may favour a n a l y t i c s tudents . 1.2 E f f e c t of Method Since no evidence of ove ra l l s u p e r i o r i t y of one method of i n s t r u c t i o n over the other was obta ined , no simple answer can be given to the second ques t ion . The evidence suggests that in order to answer the quest ion of which method i s best su i t ed to a p a r t i c u l a r cogn i t i ve s t y l e , the teacher must a l so be taken in to account. I t may be, as suggested l a t e r i n th i s chapter , that the cogn i t i ve s t y l e o f the teacher i s the operat ive va r i ab l e in th i s regard. 1.3 E f f e c t of Teacher The evidence obtained ind i ca tes that there was no ove ra l l s u p e r i o r i t y in the achievement o f sc ience process s k i l l s of students taught by one teacher or the other . Rep l i ca t ion of the s tudy , in which 66 the wr i t e r taught four d i f f e r e n t c lasses using the two d i f f e r e n t methods d i d , however, produce s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rences between the mean scores of some of h is own c l a s s e s . This f i n d i n g suggests t ha t , o v e r a l l , the in ter- teacher e f f e c t s can be as great or greater than the i n t r a-teacher e f f e c t s . Although the ana lys i s of main e f f e c t s made i t impossible to c la im overa l l s u p e r i o r i t y o f the students of any p a r t i c u l a r teacher , ana lys i s of i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s suggested that a q u a l i f i e d statement about teacher e f f e c t s could be made. Further d i scuss ion of th i s po in t i s given in the next s e c t i o n . 1.4 In terac t ion of Teacher, Method and Cogni t ive S ty le No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found between any two of the Teacher , Method, or Cogni t ive S ty le f a c t o r s . However, the three-way i n t e r a c t i on between these fac tors d id approach a leve l o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e which suggested the need f o r a n a l y s i s . A general conc lus ion i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to formulate because of the nature of the i n t e r a c t i on and the many in terven ing v a r i ab l e s . However, graphica l ana lys i s suggests that the e f f ec t i veness of a teaching method f o r a p a r t i c u l a r cogn i t i ve s t y l e does depend on the teacher. For one teacher the Labtext method appears super io r to the ISC method only f o r the middle cogn i t i ve s t y l e groups. For the other teacher , the Labtext method was super ior to the ISC approach fo r both global and a n a l y t i c students while the ISC approach was super ior to the Labtext approach f o r the middle s tudents . In e f f e c t , the teachers obtained almost opposite r e s u l t s . 67 1.5 Delayed Post-test No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence was found between the scores o f 36 randomly se lec ted students on the post- tes t and the scores on the delayed pos t- tes t . From th i s r e s u l t i t can be concluded that these students re ta ined the knowledge of sc ience processes over the per iod of three months during which no sc ience i n s t r u c t i o n was g iven . Regret tab ly , the delayed post- tes t could not be given to a l l the students invo lved in the study because of admin i s t ra t i ve problems w i th -in the s choo l . There was an i n t e r e s t i n g s l i g h t trend towards higher scores on the delayed pos t- t es t , which may have been a consequence o f one or more fac tors such as maturation (which was not con t ro l l ed in th i s s tudy ) , chance, or t e s t u n r e l i a b i l i t y . One f a c to r which could have had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the outcome of t h i s study was the f a c t o r i a l design used. Ana lys is of r eg re s s i on , Walberg [1971] points ou t , i s the pre fe r red method of ana lys i s because the e r ro r component due to a r t i f i c i a l cu to f f s of a continuous va r i ab le ( cogn i t i ve s t y l e ) i s reduced. Another f a c to r which may have a f f ec ted the r esu l t s i s the cogn i t i ve s t y l e o f the teacher . Th is p o s s i b i l i t y i s d iscussed in Sect ion 2 .0 . As prev ious ly noted in Chapter I I I , item ana lys i s of the TOSP post-test revealed a lack o f p r e c i s i on in the measuring instrument. Only one-half of the 96 items f u l f i l l e d the d i f f i c u l t y c r i t e r i o n and the d i s c r im ina t i on c r i t e r i o n . Results should therefore be in te rp re ted accord ing ly and researchers contemplating using th i s t e s t in the future should check the operat iona l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a r e f u l l y . 68 2.0 IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH This study has shown that the cogn i t i ve s t y l e of students i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t ed to achievement in sc ience process s k i l l s at the grade e ight l e v e l . There i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence to j u s t i f y the deve lop-ment of f u r the r s tud ies to determine the e f f e c t of cogn i t i ve s t y l e on other measures such as a t t i t u d e , and the learn ing of s c i e n t i f i c f ac ts and p r i n c i p l e s at a l l grade l e v e l s . Furthermore, in th i s i n ves t i ga t i on only two methods of teaching were s tudied and other methods may be developed which w i l l be be t te r su i t ed to students with d i f f e r e n t cogn i t i ve s t y l e s . The concept of cogn i t i ve s t y l e o f f e r s severa l p o s s i b i l i t i e s fo r educat ion but many of these depend upon the r e su l t s of much needed research . A problem in th i s area i s that the very pervasiveness of cogn i t i ve s t y l es among people i n t e r f e r e s with eva luat ion techniques which attempt to assess the e f f e c t o f c o n t r o l l e d educat ional v a r i ab l e s . Research i s necessary to d i scover whether t e s t formats tend to favour one p a r t i c u l a r cogn i t i ve s t y l e group. This study has provided evidence that the e f f ec t i veness of a p a r t i c u l a r teaching method f o r p a r t i c u l a r cogn i t i ve s t y l e groups depends on the teacher . It may be that the teacher ' s own cogn i t i ve s t y l e i s the va r i ab le which i s respons ib le fo r th i s dependency. The e f f e c t o f a match or mismatch of the teacher ' s cogn i t i ve s t y l e with that of students was inves t iga ted by DiStefano [1969]. However, only a t t i tudes were measured. Research that showed super io r achievement in c lasses where teachers and students were matched f o r cogn i t i ve s t y l e would prove i nva luab l e f o r i n ves t i ga t i ng the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t teaching methods on cogn i t i ve s t y l e . A promising p o s s i b i l i t y f o r future educat ion , impl ied in the preceding paragraph, i s the homogeneous grouping of students on the basis of cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Many educators today are v igorous ly opposed to homogeneous grouping on the bas is of so-ca l l ed " i n t e l l i g e n c e " be-cause of the stigma attached to students in the lower a b i l i t y c l a s se s . By means of group t e s t s , students can e a s i l y be placed i n c lasses according to cogn i t i ve s t y l e , and i t i s un l i k e l y that detr imental l abe l s w i l l be attached to such c lasses s ince Witkin et al^., [1962] has shown that a global student has as much chance as an ana l y t i c student of scor ing high on standard IQ and verbal a b i l i t y t e s t s . As y e t , i t i s by no means c l ea r that such placement of students w i l l f o s t e r l e a r n i n g , but a l t e r n a t i v e l y , as pointed out by Messick [1970, p. 197] , " i t i s by no means c l ea r that homogeneous a b i l i t y grouping i s uniformly b e n e f i c i a l . Research in th i s area should provide many valuable answers to th i s problem. Witkin and h is assoc ia tes [1962] have amassed cons iderable evidence regarding the s t a b i l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s cogn i t i ve s t y l e . Messick [1970] suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of developing the a b i l i t y o f a student to make "a conscious choice among a l t e rna t i v e modes of pe r c e i v i ng , remembering, t h i n k i n g , and problem so l v ing as a func t ion of the condi t ions o f p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s " [Messick, 1970, p. 198]. In e f f e c t , what i s recommended i s that research aim at determining the age at which cogn i t i ve s t y l e s become immutable i f , in f a c t , they do. Furthermore, researchers should attempt to determine the degree to which cogn i t i ve s t y l e s are mal leable before a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e becomes predominant. The importance of cogn i t i ve s t y l es not only in the f i e l d o f educa t ion , but i n l i f e i t s e l f has been appropr ia te ly descr ibed by Messick: Cogni t ive s t y l e s , by embracing both perceptual and i n t e l l e c t u a l domains and by t h e i r f requent imp l i c a t i on in pe rsona l i t y and soc i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , promise to provide a more complete and e f f e c t i v e cha rac t e r i za t i on of the student than could be obtained from i n t e l l e c t u a l tests a lone. . . . These s t y l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s should have relevance . . . not only f o r the course of i nd i v i dua l l ea rn ing in var ious subject matter a reas , but a lso f o r the nature of teacher-pupi l i n t e rac t i ons and of soc i a l behavior in the c lassroom, the f a m i l y , and the peer group. [Messick, 1970, pp. 195-196] REFERENCES American Assoc i a t i on f o r the Advancement of Sc ience , 1968. Science -- A Process Approach, Parts 1 to 7 (A and B). Miscel laneous P u b l i c a t i o n s . Belanger, Maur ice, 1969. Learning studies in Science educat ion . Review of Educat ional Research, 39, 377-395. B e l l , D.R., 1964. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between reward and punishment-avoidance o r i en ta t ions and se lec ted perceptual v a r i a b l e s . Unpublished doctora l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Un i ve r s i t y of Oregon. Berry , J .W. , 1966. Temne and Eskimo perceptual s k i l l s . In ternat ional  Journal of Psychology, 1, 207-229. 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Which one of these uni ts would be best su i ted f o r use in measuring the weight of a loaded f r e i g h t car? 1. Pounds 2. L i t e r s 3. Tons 4. Kilograms 5. Grams 60. Which one of these uni ts would be best to use in measuring the d is tance from the earth to the moon? 1. Yards 2. Feet 3. Inches 4. Mi 1 es 5. L igh t Years Science Process S k i l l : I n fe r r ing 94. In order to prove that "NOT ALL THINGS GET BIGGER AS YOU HEAT THEM," which of the fo l low ing would you need to do? 1. Find one th ing that does not get bigger when i t i s heated. 2. F ind a l l the things that do not get bigger when they are heated. 3. Find one th ing that gets bigger when i t i s heated. 4. F ind a l l the things that get bigger when they are heated. 5. F ind a l l the things that do not change s i z e when they are heated. APPENDIX C DETAILED LESSON PLANS FOR THE CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY, AND OPTICS UNITS, USING THE LABTEXT METHOD AND THE ISC METHOD CHEMISTRY UNIT Introducing Science Concepts in the Laboratory (Method 1) Period l - Uni t I: Chemistry: The Study of Matter . Begin Expt. 1-1. (page 4) Purpose: Just f o r f u n , to mix 3 chemicals and see what happens. Step 1. (a) Define chemistry as a study of matter . L i s t d i f f e r e n t mater ia ls and c l a s s i f y as man-made or n a t u r a l . (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. (a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 4. Step 3. (a) Students answer quest ions 1 to 3 (page 5 ) . Period 2 -Step 2. (b) Complete procedure 4 of Expt. 1-1. Step 3. (b) Discuss answers to quest ions 1 to 3. Begin Expt. 1-2. (page 5) Purpose: To use i nd i ca to r s to group ma te r i a l s . Step 1. (a) Show how to use graduated cy l i nde rs to measure volume (see a l so page 200). (b) Lead from step 3(b) above which shows the need fo r measuring, to de f ine the purpose f o r t h i s experiment. (c) Vocabulary: d i l u t e Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 8. Period 3 -Step 2. Students complete procedures 1 to 8. (cont . ) Step 3. Students complete quest ions 1 to 4 (page 7 ) . Period 4 - Begin Expt. 1-3. (page 8 ) . Purpose: To review the proper t ies o f water. Step 1. Discuss water as in the i n t r o d u c t i o n . Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 5 (thought experiment) . Vocabulary: evaporate, condense, phase, d i s s o l v e . Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 4 (page 9 ) . 88 Period 5 - Begin Expt. 1-4. (page 9 ) . Purpose: To inves t iga te phase changes of water. Step l . (a ) Teach the c lass the co r rec t use of a bunsen burner ( r e f e r to Appendix 1, page 196). (b) Review vocabulary from Period 2. (c) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 4. Step 3. Students complete quest ions 1 to 4 (page 10). Period 6 - Begin Expt. 1-5. (page 11) . Purpose: To inves t iga te d i f f u s i o n in l i q u i d s . Step 1. T e l l students that th i s experiment w i l l provide a c lue about what matter i s made o f . Step 2. Students fo l low procedure 1 and make sketches. Vocabulary: d i f f u s i o n . Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 4, 6, 7 (page 11, 12). Period 7 - Begin Expt. 1-6. (page 12). Purpose: To develop a p a r t i c l e model of matter . Step 1. Discuss the in t roduc t ion and def ine the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Demonstrate procedures 1 to 10. Stop f o r d i s cuss ion a f t e r each demonstrat ion. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 4 (page 14) . Period 8 - Begin Expt. 1-7. (page 15). Purpose: To see what happens when p a r t i c l e s of d i f f e r e n t s i zes are mixed. Step l . (a ) Discuss the s i z e of p a r t i c l e s in d i f f e r e n t sub-stances (see i n t r o d u c t i o n ) , (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 6. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 5 (page 16) . 89 Period 9 - Begin Expt. 1-8. (page 17). Purpose: To inves t iga te d i f f u s i o n in gases. Step l . (a ) Review the p a r t i c l e model. (b) Extend the p a r t i c l e model to inc lude p a r t i c l e s of d i f f e r e n t masses (see i n t r o d u c t i o n ) . (c) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2.(a) Demonstrate procedures 1 and 2. (b) Students fo l low procedures 3 to 10. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 4 (page 19). Period 10 - Begin Expt. 1-9. (page 20) . Purpose: To f i n d out i f gases and l i q u i d s can be compressed. Step l . (a ) Review p a r t i c l e model (as in i n t r o d u c t i o n ) . (b) Define the purpose of t h i s experiment. Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. (b) Students fo l low procedure 4 (graph). Period 11 -Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 6 (page 21) . Begin Expt. 1-10. (page 22). Purpose: To i nves t iga te sub l imat ion . Step l . (a ) Review the p a r t i c l e model. (b) Review phase changes. (c) Def ine the purpose of t h i s experiment and d iscuss the procedure. Period 12 -Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 6. Step 3. Vocabulary : subl imat ion Students answer quest ions 1 to 6 (page 23). Period 13 - Begin Expt. 1-11. (page 24) . Purpose: To inves t iga te s o l u t i o n s . Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: s o l u t i o n , s o l u t e , so l ven t , concen-t r a t e d , sa tu ra ted , s o l u b i l i t y . (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 7. 90 Period 14 Period IS Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 7 (page 25) : Begin Expt. 1-12. (page 26) , Purpose: To measure the s o l u b i l i t y of potassium n i t r a t e . Step l . (a ) Teach students how to use the centigram balance. (See Appendix 3, page 200). Step l . (b ) Review vocabulary f o r s o l u t i o n s . (c) Define the purpose of the experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 7. Period 16 - Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 9 (page 28) . Discuss the graph fo r quest ion 9 with reference to procedure 8. Period 17 - Begin Expt. 1-13. (page 29) . Purpose: To f i n d the dens i ty of water. Step l . (a ) Review l eng th , area and volume (see Appendix 2, page 197), and use worksheets f o r p rac t i ce and re inforcement . Discuss the use of un i ts such as c . c . or cm3. Period 18 - Step l . (b ) Develop the concept of dens i t y , e . g . Which i s heav ie r , a pound of feathers of a pound of lead? (c) Define the purpose of th i s experiment -- to f i n d the mass o f 1 ml . (or 1 crn^.) of water. (d) Show the use of a graduated c y l i nde r and medicine dropper to obta in accurate measurements. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 6. Period 19 - Step 2. (cont . ) Students fo l l ow procedures 8, 9. (Allow students to t r y to f i n d the dens i ty o f i c e . ) Step 3.(a) Students answer questions 1 to 4 (page 31) . Period 20 - Begin Expt. 1-14. (page 32) . Purpose: To f i n d the dens i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t mate r i a l s . Step l . (a ) Review dens i ty concept. (b) Discuss with students methods of f i n d i n g the volume of a s o l i d (see Appendix 5, page 205). Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 6. 91 Period 21 - Step 2.(b) Discuss r e su l t s from procedures 1 to 6. Step 2.(c) Students fo l low procedure 7. Step 3.(a) Students answer questions 1 to 9 (page 33-35). Period 22 - Step 3.(b) Discuss answers to questions 1 to 9. Begin Expt. 1-15. (page 35) . Purpose: To see what happens to mass when a chemical change occurs in a c losed system. Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: chemical reac t ion or chemical change, substance. (b) Define the purpose o f th i s experiment. (c) Demonstrate the co r rec t technique f o r f i l t e r i n g . Students fo l low procedures 1 to 10. Students answer questions 1 to 6 (page 36) Period 24 -Period 25 -Period 23 - Step 2. Step 3. Begin Expt. 1-16. (page 37) . Purpose: To study mass change during a chemical r eac t ion in an open system. Step 1. Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 4. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 4 (page 38) . Begin Expt. 1-17. (page 38) . Purpose: To measure the rate of a chemical r e a c t i o n . Step l . (a ) Discuss " r a t e " of a reac t ion and i t s importance (see i n t r o d u c t i o n , page 38) . (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Students fo l low the procedures 1 to 6. Period 26 - Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 4 (page 39) . Period 27 - Begin Expt. 1-18. (page 40) . Purpose: To see how a c a t a l y s t speeds up a chemical r e a c t i o n . Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: c a t a l y s t . (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. (c) Warn students of the dangers of a c i d . Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 8. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 4 (page 41) . 92 Labtext in Sc ience , Book 1 (Method 2) Period 1 - Begin Sect ion 8: The Nature of S tu f f . Purpose: To gather evidence to develop a model of matter . Step l . (a ) Discuss some of the propert ies of matter (see 8.A.1) and make students see that we want to know why things behave as they do. (b) Discuss models in general ( e .g . so l a r system) and the need fo r a model. (c) Define the purpose of sec t ion 8. (d) Vocabulary: phase or s t a t e . Step 4. Teacher demonstrates 8.A.2 (mercury and g lass ch ips) and students are to l i s t as many observat ions as p o s s i b l e . Step 5. L i s t a l l the observat ions on the blackboard and have students answer v e rba l l y the questions asked in 8.A.2. Period 2 - Step l . (a ) Vocabulary : d i f f u s i o n . (b) Define the purpose of 8.B.I. Step 2.(a) Read and d iscuss 8.B.1 and exp la in mod i f i ca t ions in apparatus. Demonstrate what happens when ammonia gas and HC1 gas mix. (b) Caution students on the use of the chemica ls . Step 4. Students fo l low the o u t l i n e in 8.B.1 and l i s t observa t ions . • Step 5. L i s t a l l observat ions on the b lackboard. Step 6. Have students use these observat ions to answer the quest ions a t the end o f 8.B.1 ( v e rba l l y ) . Period 3 - Step 7. Discuss the procedure used in 8.B.1 and have students suggest modi f i ca t ions to help exp la in the quest ions more c l e a r l y . Step 8. Students perform 8.B.1 again and make care fu l observa t ions . Step 9. Students wr i te answers to the questions in 8.B.I. Period 4 - Step 1. Teach the co r r e c t way to use a bunsen burner and the co r rec t way to heat water in a t es t tube. Step 2.(a) Read and d iscuss 8.C.1 and t e l l students that they are to make ca re fu l wr i t ten observat ions that w i l l have to be expla ined by t he i r "mode l . " Step 4.(a) Students fo l low 8.C.1 and l i s t observa t ions . 93 Period 5 - Step 5.(a) Discuss the r e su l t s of 8.C.I. Step 6.(a) Students t r y to exp la in 9.C.1 in terms of t h e i r model. Step 2.(b) Read and d iscuss 8 .C .2 . Remind students that observat ions w i l l have to be expla ined by the model. Step 4.(b) Students fo l low 8 .C .2 . Step 5.(b) Discuss the r esu l t s of 8 .C .2 . Step 6.(b) Students t r y to exp la in 8.C.2 in terms of t h e i r model. Period 6 - Step 1. Vocabulary: evaporat ion , condensat ion, me l t i ng , f r e e z i n g , sub l imat ion . Step 4.(a) Demonstrate 8.A.3 (bromine tubes ) . Students make wr i t ten observa t ions . (b) Demonstrate 8.A.4 ( iod ine tubes ) . Students make wr i t ten observa t ions . Step 5. L i s t observat ions on the blackboard and note those common to iod ine and bromine. Step 9.(a) Students wr i te an explanat ion of observat ions in terms of the p a r t i c l e model. (b) Students answer 8.D. Nos. 2, 3. Period 7 - Step 1. Review vocabulary : d i f f u s i o n . Step 2. Students fo l low 8.B.2 and make care fu l observat ions. Step 5. L i s t observat ions on the blackboard and again have students formulate quest ions to be answered by the p a r t i c l e model. Step 6. Discuss poss ib l e answers to these quest ions but do not add any informat ion other than what the students supply . Period 8 - Step 1. Review vocabulary : sub l imat ion . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 8 .B .3 . Step 3. Students t r y to p red i c t what w i l l happen. Step 4. Students perform 8.B.3 and l i s t a l l observa t ions . Step 5. L i s t a l l observat ions on the blackboard and have students group those that are re levant to sub l imat ion . 94 Period 9 - Step 7. Step 8. Step 9. Period 10 - Step 1. Step 4. Step 5. Step 9. Step 1. Period 11 Step 2. Step 4. Period 12 - Step 6. Step 9. Period 13 - Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 1. Step 4. Period 14 - Step 9. Step 1. Step 2. Discuss the procedure and have students rewr i te the procedure to improve the experiment; make new p r e d i c t i o n s . Students fo l low t he i r new procedure. Students wr i te answers to questions in 8 .B .3 . T e l l students that the fo l low ing demonstrations w i l l imi ta te the behavior of matter . Demonstrate 8.A.6 and 8 .A .7 . L i s t observat ions on the blackboard and have students wr i te a desc r i p t i on of the behavior of the p a r t i c l e s in each of the three phases of matter. Students exp la in questions 1, 2, 4 (page 82) in 8 .A .7 . Ass ign Chapter 19 of R .A.S . , page 83. (a) Vocabulary: compress. (b) Define the purpose o f 8.B.4. Read and d iscuss 8.B .4; students design a data tab le to record observa t ions . Students perform 8.B.4 with a i r and then with natural gas. Students draw a graph of the r e su l t s fo r each gas. Discuss the graphs. Students answer quest ions in 8.B.4. (a) Vocabulary: volume, l i t r e , mi 1 1 i l i t r e . (b) Teach students the co r rec t use of a graduated c y l i n d e r to measure l i q u i d volume. (c) Define the purpose of 8 .B .5 . Read and d iscuss 8 .B .5 . (a) Students fo l l ow 8 .B .5 . (d) Teach students the co r rec t f i l t r a t i o n technique. (b) Students separate the sand and water by f i l t r a t i o n . Students answer the f i n a l quest ions in 8 .B .5 . Discuss the answers. Define the purpose of 8 .B .6 . Read and d iscuss 8.B .6. 95 Step 3. Students make a p red i c t i on fo r 8 .B .6. Step 4. Students perform 8.B .6. Step 9. Students answer the quest ions in 8 .B .6 . Discuss the answers. Period 15 - Step 1. Define the purpose of 8 .B .7 . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 8 .B .7 . Step 4.(a) Students fo l low 8.B.7 and record observa t ions . (b) Demonstrate 8 .C .4 ; students record observa t ions . Step 9.(a) Have students exp la in observat ions from 8.B.7 and 8.C.4 using the K ine t i c Molecular Theory. (b) Students answer 8 .D . , questions 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 18, 19, 22, as an assignment. Period 16 - Begin Sect ion 9: Bulk Proper t ies of Matter . Purpose: To study some proper t ies of mater ia l s that w i l l be useful in i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Discuss proper t ies of matter as in 9 . A . 1 , and def ine the general purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n . Read and d iscuss 9.B.I. Students fo l low 9.B.1 and make observa t ions . Students exp la in observat ions using the p a r t i c l e theory . Period 17 - Step l . (a ) Define the purpose of 9 .B .3 . (b) Teach students how to read a thermometer. Step 2.(a) Read and d i scuss 9.B.3 (use paradich lorobenzene) . Step 4.(a) Students perform 9.B.3 and record a l l readings in a su i t ab l e t a b l e . Step 5.(a) L i s t the melt ing points and f r eez ing points f o r each group on the blackboard and have students c a l cu l a t e the averages. Period 18 - Step 2.(b) Students are to gather data f o r a coo l i ng curve . Expla in the procedure -- melt the substance to about 10C° above the melt ing po int and record the temperature every 30 seconds as i t c o o l s , un t i l the substance has completely s o l i d i f i e d . Step 4.(b) Students proceed as above. Step 5.(b) Students draw a coo l ing curve and est imate the melt ing temperature. Step 7. Discuss the procedure and have students suggest m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 6. 96 Period 19 - Step 1. Define the purpose of 9 .B .4. Step 2. Read and d iscuss 9.B .4. Step 3. Students p red i c t the r e su l t s of 9 .B .4 . Step 4. Students perform 9.B.4 and record observa t ions . Period 20 - Step 5. Students draw a graph of t he i r r e su l t s and compare with p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 6. Students make a general conc lus ion about the temperature of a b o i l i n g l i q u i d . Step 7. Discuss the procedure and any suggested modi f i ca t ions Step 9. Students exp la in " b o i l i n g " in terms of the K ine t i c Theory. Period 21 - Step 1. Define the purpose of 9 .C .4 ; Students are to f i n d the answer to the f i r s t quest ion in 9 .C .4 . Step 3. Students design t h e i r procedure and p red i c t the r e s u l t s . Step 4. Students fo l low t h e i r procedure and record a l l observa t ions . Step 6. Discuss the r e su l t s o f 9.C.4 and compare with p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 7. Discuss the procedures fo l lowed. Period 22 - Step U a ) (b) Teach the use of a centigram balance. Discuss the d i f f e r ence between mass and weight as in 9 .A .2 . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 9 .B .5 . Step 4. Students fo l low 9.B.5 and record a l l read ings . Step U a ) (b) Define the purpose of 9 .B .6 . Worksheet on volume of s o l i d s . Period 23 - Step 2.(a) Read and d iscuss the f i r s t part of 9.B.6 (using 1 cm3 cubes) . Step 4.(a) Students fo l low the f i r s t part of 9.B.6 and complete the f i r s t data t ab l e . Step 5.(a) Compare c l ass r e su l t s f o r the mass of 1 cm 3 of d i f f e r e n t s o l i d s . Period 24 - Step 2.(b) Read and d iscuss the second part of 9 .B .6 . (Note: f i n d the volume of the cy l i nde rs by d isplacement . ) Step 4 . ( b ) Students fo l low the second part of 9.B.6 and complete the second data t ab l e . 97 Step 6, Period 25 - Step 1, Step 3. Step 4. Step 5. Step 6. Period 26 - Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 5. Step 6. Step 9. Period 27 - Step 1. Step 2. Step 5.(b) Compare c l ass r e su l t s f o r the mass of 1 cm of of each s o l i d . (c) Compare the r e s u l t s f o r the two parts of 9 .B .6 . Define density and r e l a t e i t to the experiment. Step 4. Step 5. Period 28 - Step 1. Define the purpose of 9 .B .7 . Students are to f i n d the dens i ty of a small tangle of copper wi re . Students design their, own procedure and p red i c t r e s u l t s . Students fo l low the i r procedure and ca l cu l a t e the dens i ty of the w i re . Compare c l a ss r e s u l t s and compare with p r e d i c t i o n s . Have students make a general conc lus ion about the dens i ty of a substance. Def ine the purpose' of 9 .C .5 . Students are to f i n d the dens i ty of water. Read and d iscuss 9 .C .5 . Students fo l low 9.C.5 and complete the data t ab l e . Compare c l a ss r e s u l t s . Make a general conc lus ion about the dens i ty of water. Students answer 9 .D . , Questions 3, 4, 7. (a) Vocabulary : s o l u t i o n , s o l u t e , so l v en t , (9 .A .3 ) . (b) Define the purpose of 9.B .8. (To f i n d the s o l u b i l i t y of s a l t pe t e r at room temperature and at near b o i l i n g . ) Read and d iscuss 9.B.8 and exp la in mod i f i ca t ions as f o l l ows : 1. Find out how many spoonfuls of s a l t pe t e r w i l l d i s so l v e in 25 ml . of water at room temperature. 2. Heat the so l u t i on to almost b o i l i n g and repeat . 3. Watch the so lu t i on as i t c o o l s . Students fo l low the procedure as above and record a l l observa t ions . Discuss c l ass r e su l t s f o r 9.B.8 so f a r . (a) Again de f ine the purpose of 9 .B .8 . (Students are to use the saturated so lu t i on from above to f i n d the s o l u b i l i t y of potassium n i t r a t e in grams by evaporat ion . ) (b) Vocabulary: sa tura ted . 98 Period 29 Period 30 -Period 31 -Discuss with students the procedure to be des igned. Students design t h e i r own wr i t ten procedure. Students fo l low t h e i r own procedure. C o l l e c t c l a ss r e su l t s on the blackboard and d iscuss these. Define the purpose of 9.B.9 (modi f ied) : Students are to separate a mixture of sand and s a l t . Discuss the necessary s teps . Students wr i te t he i r own procedure. Students fo l low t h e i r own procedure and return to the teacher the separated s a l t and sand. Define the purpose of 9.B .10. Read and d iscuss 9.B .10. Students p red i c t how many bo t t l e s of gas w i l l be in a bo t t l e of pop. Students fo l low 9.B.10. Compare r e su l t s f o r d i f f e r e n t types of pop. Assignment: Students answer 9.D. Questions w, 12, 13, 19, 29. Begin Sect ion 10: Reactions of Matter . Purpose: To study some proper t ies of chemical r e a c t i ons . Step l . (a ) Discuss chemical react ions (10 .A .1 ) . Vocabulary: Substance, chemical r e a c t i o n , open and c losed systems. (b) Define the purpose of 1 O.B.I. Step 2. Read and d iscuss 10 .B .1 . Students p red i c t what w i l l happen to the mass in 1 O.B.I. Step 4. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step 5. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step 5. Step 9. Period 32 Students fo l low 10.B.1 and record a l l observa t ions . Compare r e su l t s with p r e d i c t i o n s . Students answer quest ions at the end of 10.B.1 Define the purpose of 10.B .2 . Read and d iscuss the procedure f o r 10.B .2 . Step 6. Step 9. Step 1. Step 2. Students p red i c t the r e su l t s f o r 10.B .2 . 99 Step 4. Students fo l low 10.B.2 and l i s t a l l observat ions . Step 6. Compare r e su l t s with pred ic t ions and d i s c u s s . Step 9.(a) Students exp la in what happened to the l o s t mass, (b) Students answer 10.D. No. 4. Period 33 - Step l . (a ) Def ine the purpose f o r 10 .B .3 . (b) Vocabulary: c r u c i b l e . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 10.B .3 . Step 4. Students fo l low 10.B.3 and l i s t a l l observa t ions . Step 6. Discuss r e su l t s and have students attempt to exp la in these r e s u l t s . Step 9. Students answer quest ions in 10 .B .3 . 100 BIOLOGY UNIT Introducing Science Concepts in the Laboratory (Method 1) Unit I I : L i v ing Things Detect and Respond to S t imu l i . Period 1 - Begin Expt. 11-1. (page 43). Purpose: To compare the growth of d i f f e r en t seedl ings. Step l . (a) Vocabulary: b io logy, organism, st imulus, s t imul i (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 9. Period 2 - Step 2. Students complete procedures 1 to 9. (cont.) Step 3. Students answer questions 1, 2, 3. (page 44). Begin Expt. 11-2. (page 45). Purpose: To f ind out how l i v i n g things d i f f e r from non-l i v i n g th ings . Step l . (a) Ask students for obvious examples of l i v i n g and non-l iv ing th ings. Discuss dif ferences of opinion (e .g. a dry seed). (b) Define the purpose of th is experiment. Period 3 - Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 3. (b) Teacher demonstrates procedures 4 and 5 (micro-projector) and students make observations. (c) Students fo l low procedures 6, 7, 8. Students answer questions 1 to 6, page 46. (To be completed for homework). Period 4 - Step 3. Begin Expt. 11-3. (page 47). Purpose: To f ind out how growing plants respond to l i g h t . Step l . (a) Ask students to name some s t imul i that might a f fec t the growth of p lants . (Vocab: environment) (b) Discuss pos i t i ve and negative responses. (c) Define " tropism" and show the d i f f e ren t types as l i s t e d on page 48. (d) Define the purpose of th is experiment. Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 5. 101 Period 5 - Step 2.(b) Students fo l low procedures 6 to 9. (Note: Procedures 8 and 9 continue throughout the next 5 or 6 periods un t i l students are s a t i s f i e d with the r e s u l t s . ) Step 3.(a) Discuss the nature of a con t ro l l ed experiment and the concept of constant and va r i ab l e f ac to rs ( re fe r to procedure 6 ) . (b) Have students point out how var ious f ac to rs are con t ro l l ed in th i s experiment. (c) Expla in how hormones a f f e c t behavior and growth, and r e f e r to RAS Chapter 8. (d) Students answer quest ions 1 to 4. (page 50). Period 6 - Begin Expt. I1-4. (page 52). Purpose: To f i n d out how growing plants respond to g r a v i t y . Step l . (a ) Ask students why roots grow down and stems grow up: lead up to g r a v i t y . (b) Discuss contro l of other v a r i a b l e s . (c) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 8. Note: This experiment i s to be continued in periods 9 and 10. Period 7 - Mod i f i ca t i on of Expt. 11-5. Purpose: To inves t iga te the nature of nas t i c movements. Step l . (a ) Discuss p lants such as Mimosa and Venus F ly Trap (samples present ) . (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students demonstrate procedures 2 and 6. Step 3.(a) Discuss the d i f f e r ence between a tropism and a nas t i c response. (A tropism is a growth response and a nas t i c movement i s movement in the same d i r e c t i o n regard less o f st imulus d i r e c t i o n ) . (b) Students answer quest ions 1 and 3. (page 56). (c) Show f i l m on plant movement. Period 8 - Step 2(cont. from per iod 6) Students fo l low procedures 9 and 10 in Expt. 11-4. Begin Expt. 11-6. (page 58) . Purpose: To study the s t ruc tu re of earthworms. Step l . (a ) Discuss d i f f e rences between plants and animals , with emphasis on the nervous system. (b) Def ine the purpose o f th i s experiment. 102 Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 7. Step 2 (cont. from periods 6 and 8) Students fo l low pro -cedure 11 in experiment II-4. Step 3.(a) Discuss r esu l t s of Expt. 11-4. (b) Ass ign questions 1 to 5 (page 54) f o r homework. Step 2.(b) Students complete procedures 1 to 7 of Expt. 1 1 - 6 . Step 3.(a) Review with the c lass the observat ions on the earthworm. (b) Students answer quest ions 1, 2, 3, 5, 6. (page 60). Begin Expt. 11-7. (page 60) . Purpose: To study the responses of earthworms. Step l . (a ) Review earthworms' method of movement. (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2.(a) D iv ide the c l ass into 2 groups and ass ign each group e i t he r part A or part B. (b) Students fo l low the procedure f o r t he i r part of the experiment. (c) A l l students do part C, procedures 12, 14, and 15. Step 3.(a) Summarize r e su l t s o f parts A and B on the b l ack -board, (data t a b l e ) . (b) Review r e su l t s of part C. (c) Define t a x i s , and review tropism and nas t i c movement. (d) Students answer quest ions 1 to 4 (page 62) . Begin Expt. 1 1 - 8 , page 63. Note: Expts. 1 1 - 8 and 1 1 - 9 depend on arthropods being a v a i l a b l e . Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: a r thropod, thorax, abdomen. (b) Define the purpose. (To study the s t ruc tu re of a r thropods ) . Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 6. Step 2. Students complete procedures 1 to 6 of Expt. (cont . ) II-8. Step 3.(a) Review the s t ruc tu re of ar thropods: body cove r ing , l e g s , eyes , mouth, body, wings. (b) Students answer quest ions 1 to 7, page 65. (Complete f o r homework). 103 Period 14 - Begin Expt. II-9 (page 66) . Purpose: To study the responses of ar thropods. Step l . (a ) Review the s t ruc tu re of ar thropods. (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2.(a) Students choose one of parts A, B, C, or D. (b) Students fo l low the procedure f o r t he i r se lec ted pa r t . Period 15 - Step 3.(a) Summarize the f i nd ings fo r each part on the b lackboard. (b) Students answer quest ions 1 to 5. (page 69) . Period 16 - Begin Expt. 11-10. (page 70) . Purpose: To study the s t ruc tu re and responses of a f i s h . Step l . (a ) Discuss the func t ion of a backbone. Vocabulary: ve r t eb ra te , i nve r tebra te , (b) Define the purpose o f th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 10. Students complete procedures 1 to 10. Period 17 Period 18 Period 19 -Period 20 -Step 2. (cont . ) Step 3.(a) Discuss r e su l t s of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; summarize on the b lackboard. (b) Students answer questions 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8. (page 73). Begin Expt. 11-11. (page 74) . Purpose: To examine your own sense of s i g h t . Step 1. Define the purpose o f th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 10. Step 2. Students complete procedures 1 to 10. (cont . ) Step 3.(a) Discuss f i n d i n g s : contro l of pupi l s i z e , focuss ing , stereo v i s i o n , b l i nd spo t , movement, per iphera l v i s i o n . (b) Cross-sec t iona l view of the eye. (diagram). (c) Students answer quest ions 1 to 7, page 77. (Complete f o r homework). 104 Period 21 - Begin Expt. 11-14: A F i e l d Study (page 84) . Purpose: To study an organism in i t s natural s e t t i n g . Step l . (a ) Expla in the purpose of th i s study. (b) Discuss the procedure and read examples on page 85. Step 2. Ass ign students to chose an organism and f i nd out how i t reacts to i t s environment. Results are to be presented on a wa l l-char t . Period 22 Begin Expt. 11-12 (page 78). Purpose: To study the s t ruc tu re o f the eye. Step l . (a ) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. (b) Review the s t ruc tu re of the eye. (c) Show the co r r e c t use of f o r c eps , tongs, s c i s s o r s , and razor blade f o r the purpose of d i s s e c t i o n . Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 10. Period 23 Period 24 -Step 2. (cont . ) Students complete procedures 1 to 10. I Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 5. (page 80) . Begin Expt. 11-13. (page 81) . Purpose: To study learned responses, (maze l e a r n i n g ) . Step l . (a ) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. (b) Vocabulary: l e a r n i n g , t r i a l and e r ro r l e a rn ing . (c) Show a maze and exp la in that 3 choices or dec i s ions must be c o r r e c t l y made to reach the g o a l . Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 2, 3, and 4. Period 25 - Step 3.(a) Discuss and compare r e s u l t s ; use s tudents ' r e su l t s as examples. (b) Students answer questions 1 to 8. (page 83) . 105 Labtext in Sc ience , Book 1 (Method 2) Period 1 -Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 -Begin Sect ion 11: The L i v i ng and the Non- l i v ing . Purpose: (a) To d i s t i n g u i s h between l i v i n g and non-l i v i n g t h i ngs . (b) To inves t iga te the growth rate of moulds. Step l . (a ) Ask students to decide what l i v i n g things do that d i s t i ngu i shes them from non- l i v ing th ings . (This i s a general d i s cuss ion only as more o f th i s fo l lows in 11 .A .3 . ) (b) Vocabulary: b io logy , organism. ( l l . A . l ) . (c) Define the purposes. Step 2. Read and d iscuss 11.A.2 and l l . B . l . Step 3. Students set up the experiments in 11.A.2 and l l . B . l . Step 4. Students make observat ions on 11.A.2 and l l . B . l Step 5. (a) Discuss l i f e processes in more d e t a i l (11 .A .3 ) . (b) Discuss methods of reproduct ion of moulds. (11 .A .4 ) . Ass ign students to i nves t iga te th i s from re fe rences . (c) Discuss d i f f e r e n t types of mould and the i r mediums. Students must then choose one of the quest ions in l l . C . l , and set up an experiment to answer the ques t ion . Step 4. (cont . ) Step 5. (cont . ) Step 6. Step 7. Students make observat ions on 11 .A .2 , l l . B . l , and l l . C . l . L i s t observat ions from 11.A.2 and l l . B . l and the b lackboard. By d i s c u s s i o n , group the observat ions in terms of l i v i n g and non- l i v ing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , (mould versus rust ) and compare with prev ious ly l i s t e d l i f e processes . Ask students to suggest mod i f i ca t ions f o r an improvement of l l . B . l . Begin Sect ion 12: Cont ro l l ed Experiments in B io logy. Purpose: (a) To learn how to contro l an experiment. (b) To inves t iga te the e f f e c t s of var ious s t imu l i on the growth of moulds. 106 Step l . (a ) Discuss 12 .A .1 ; Vocabulary: s t i m u l u s , s t i m u l i , v a r i a b l e s . (b) Discuss the "thought experiment" in 12 .A .2 , and have students suggest how the va r i ab les could be c o n t r o l l e d . (c) Define the purpose of 12 .B .1 . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 12.B.1 and d iscuss the va r i ab les that must be c o n t r o l l e d . Step 3. Students prepare a wr i t ten procedure fo r 12 .B .1 , •. . and make a p red i c t i on of expected r e s u l t s . Step 4.(a) Students prepare 12.B.1 according to t h e i r own procedure. (b) Students choose one of 1 2 . C l , 1 2 . C l , 12 .C .3 , or 12 .D .1 , and prepare an experiment to answer the quest ion asked. Period 5 - Step 4. (c ) Students make observat ions on 12.B.1 and t he i r own se lec ted experiment. Step 9. Students answer questions in 12.D.2 , 12 .D.3 , 12. D.4. Period 6 - Step 4.(d) Students make continued observat ions on 12.B.1 and (cont . ) t h e i r se lec ted experiment. Step 5. L i s t observat ions on the blackboard and d i s c u s s . Step 6. Make conc lus ions about the e f f e c t s of the va r i ab les used and compare with p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 7. Discuss any va r i a t i ons in procedure and have students suggest any improvements needed in t he i r des ign . Step 8. Students can se t up a re-run of the experiment i f they wish. Period 7 - Begin Sect ion 13: Plants and t he i r Response to S t i m u l i . Purpose: To perform con t ro l l ed experiments to see how plants respond to var ious s t i m u l i . Step 1. Discuss with the c lass the var ious s t imu l i that may a f f e c t the growth of p l an t s . Step 2.(a) Read c a r e f u l l y the ou t l i n e of 12.B.1 and ask students i f any mod i f i ca t ions could be suggested. Step 3.(a) Students set up the rad ish seeds as descr ibed in 13. B.1, and make a p red i c t i on of the r e s u l t s . Continued observat ion i s necessary f o r the next 4 or 5 days. 107 Step 2.(b) Discuss other s t imu l i and guide the d i scuss ion to the e f f e c t s of g r a v i t y . Read the ou t l i ne fo r 12.B.2 and ask students to suggest m o d i f i -c a t i ons . Period 8 - Step 3.(b) Students set up 13.B.2 and p red i c t the r e s u l t s . Record any necessary observat ions fo r 13 .B .1 . Step 2.(c) Read the questions in 13.C.1 and 13.C.2 and have students pose other s i m i l a r questions re- . garding d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l i . Students are to s e l e c t one of these questions and descr ibe the procedure f o r t e s t ing the e f f e c t of that s t imulus . Step 3.(c) Students set up t he i r experiment to t e s t the se l ec ted st imulus according to t h e i r procedure. Period 9 - Step 3.(d) Students make observat ions on the three e x p e r i -ments they have in progress . Step 4.(a) Expla in the meaning of " t rop ism" and def ine the var ious tropisms that may be encountered. (M.B. Magnetotropism.) (b) Discuss pos i t i v e and negative responses. (c) Show f i l m on p lant movements. Period 10 - Step 3.(e) Record observat ions fo r the three experiments. Rotate seed conta iners f o r 13 .B .2 . Step 4.(b) Demonstrate the e f f e c t s o f touching a Mimosa p lant and a Venus F ly Trap. Expla in the nature of a nas t i c response. Step 4. (c ) Read Chapter 8 of R.A.S. and d iscuss the e f f e c t s of auxins on roots and stems. Vocabulary: hormone, aux in . Period 11 - Step 3. ( f ) Record observat ions f o r the three experiments. Step 5. Discuss r e s u l t s of these experiments and compare the genera l ized r e su l t s with the p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 7. Ask students f o r modi f i ca t ions of the experiment that might improve the r e s u l t s . Step 9. Students answer questions in 13 .B .1 , 13 .D .1 , and 13.B .2 . Period 12 - Begin Sect ion 14: Animals and t h e i r Response to S t i m u l i . Purpose: To perform con t ro l l ed experiments to see how animals respond to s t i m u l i . 108 Step l . (a ) Review s t imu l i and name those that may a f f e c t animals. (b) Vocabulary: a n t e r i o r , p o s t e r i o r , d o r s a l , v e n t r a l , l a t e r a l , se tae , anus, c l i t e l l u m . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 14.A.1 Step 4. Students fo l low the ou t l i n e in 14.A.1 and make a diagram of t h e i r worm and labe l the respect i ve parts as observed. Step 5. Class d i s cuss ion to compare observa t ions : e .g . number of segments, se tae , food in d iges t i v e t r a c t , e t c . Period 13. Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: t ax i s and types of taxes . Relate to t ropisms. (b) Define the purposes of 14.B.1 and 14.B .2 . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 14.B.1 and 14.B .2 . Step 3. Students p red i c t r e su l t s f o r 14.B.1 and 14.B .2 . Step 4. Students perform 14.B.1 and 14.B.2 and l i s t a l l observa t ions . Step 5. L i s t observat ions f o r 14.B.1 and 14.B.2 on the blackboard. (Data t a b l e ) . Step 6. Compare r esu l t s with p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 7. Discuss procedure f o r 14.B.2 and have students suggest mod i f i ca t ions f o r a re-run. Make new p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 8. Perform re-run i f time a l lows . Step 9. Students answer quest ions in 14 .B .1 , 14 .B .2 , 14 .D .1 , 14 .D.2 , 14 .D .3 , 14 .D .4 , and 14.D.5 . Period 14 - Step l . (a ) Vocabulary : P l ana r i an , p l a n a r i a , pharynx. (b) Def ine the purpose f o r 14.A.3 and 14 .B .3 . Step 2. Read the ou t l i n e f o r 14.A.3 and 14.B .3 . Step 3. Students p red i c t the r e su l t s f o r 14 .B .3 . Step 4.(a) Students fo l low 14.A.3 and make a diagram of a p lanar ian and make a l l observat ions on the diagram. (b) Students fo l low 14.B.3 and l i s t a l l observa t ions . Step 5. L i s t a l l observat ions f o r 14.B.3 on the blackboard. Step 6. Make a conc lus ion fo r 14.B.3 and compare with p r e d i c t i o n s . 109 Step 7. Have students devise a bet ter way to perform 14.B .3 . Step 8. Students fo l low t he i r rev ised method. Step 9. Students answer the quest ion in 14.B .3 . Period IS and 16 - Step 1. Def ine the purpose: Students are f ree to devise an experiment to t e s t br ine shrimp using any p r a c t i c a l v a r i a b l e . Step 2. Discuss with the c lass some of the poss ib le experiments, (see 14 .C .3 ) . Step 3. Students concoct t he i r wr i t ten procedure and p red i c t the r e s u l t s . Step 4. Students fo l low t h e i r procedure and l i s t a l l observa t ions , inc lud ing a diagram. Step 5. Class d i s c u s s i o n : students give a b r i e f repor t of t h e i r r e s u l t s . L i s t these on the b lackboard. Step 6. Compare the conclus ions with the p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 7. Discuss mod i f i ca t ions that are f e l t necessary f o r any of the experiments, e s p e c i a l l y i f c o n f l i c t i n g reports a r i s e . Step 8. If appropr i a te , perform re-runs of the experiments. Period 17 - Step l . (a ) Define the purpose f o r 14.B .5 . (b) Vocabulary: receptors (sense organs) . (c) Show how to use a cm. r u l e r and how to make and use the simple apparatus. Step 2. Read and d iscuss the ou t l i n e in 14.B.5 and show students how to use the data t ab l e . Encourage students to make t he i r own data tab le i f the one given seems inappropr ia te to them. Step 3. Students make a p red i c t i on of the r e s u l t s . Step 4. Students fo l low the method of t e s t i ng given and record observat ions in t he i r data t ab l e . Step 6. Students examine t h e i r completed tab le and l i s t the areas in order of inc reas ing s e n s i t i v i t y . Step 7. Compare these r e su l t s with p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 9. Students answer questions in 14 .B .5 . no Period 18 - Step 1. Define purpose: Students are to choose one of 1 4 . C . 5 , 1 4 . C . 6 , or 14 .C .7 . Step 3. Students make an ou t l i n e of the procedure they w i l l perform and design a data t ab l e . P red ic t ions should be made. Step 4. Students fo l low t he i r procedure. Step 6. Students make t he i r conclus ions and compare with the p r e d i c t i o n s . L i s t conc lus ions on the b l ack -board. Period 19 - Step l . (a ) Define purpose fo r 14.B.6 and ass ign i t as a home experiment. Step 2.(a) Discuss the ou t l i n e of 14.B .6 . Step l . (b ) Define the purpose f o r 14 .B .7 . Step 2.(b) Discuss the procedure f o r 14 .B .7 . Step 3. Students const ruc t a data tab le and make a p r ed i c t i on fo r 14 .B .7 . Step 4. Pairs of students demonstrate while the c l ass records observa t ions . Step 6. Compare r e su l t s with p r e d i c t i o n s . Period 20 - Step l . (a ) Define the purpose fo r M . A . 5 and 14.B .8 . (b) Vocabulary: Use the model of the eyebal l to show the var ious pa r t s . Students make a l a b e l l e d diagram. Step 2. Read and d iscuss the f i r s t two paragraphs of 14.B .8 . Step 4. Students fo l low the i n s t ruc t i ons in the f i r s t two paragraphs of 14 .B .8 . Period 21 and 22 - Step l . (a ) Show the use of f o r c eps , tongs, s c i s s o r s , and razor blade f o r the purpose of d i s s e c t i o n of the eye. (b) Students make a tab le f o r observat ion in which they w i l l l i s t the parts of the eye and the appearance of each. Step 2. Read and d iscuss the remainder of 14.B .8 . Step 4. Students d i s e c t the eye fo l l ow ing the i n s t ruc t i ons in 14.B .8 . Step 9. Students l i s t the parts of the eye and descr ibe the func t ion of each. (Refer to 14 .A .5 . ) I l l Period 23 -Period 24 and 25 Step l . (a ) (b) Step 2.(a) Step 4.(a) Step 9. Step U c ) Step 2.(b) Step 4.(b) Step U c ) Step 4. (c ) Step 5. Step 9. Step l . (a ) Step 2.(a) Step 4. Step 6. Step Mb) Step 2.(b) Step 4. Step 5. Step 6. Step 9. Students exp la in why there i s a b l i nd spot in each eye. 14.B.10. observa t ions . Discuss the observat ions and form a conc lus ion about compound eyes. Students answer the quest ion in 14 .C .11 . Demonstrate as in 14 .A .6 , students make observa t ions . Discuss the nature of the image formed, w i l l be fo l lowed up in the Opt ics u n i t . ) (This Students t e s t t h e i r per iphera l v i s i o n as in 14 .B .11 , and a l so attempt to inves t iga te t h e i r f i e l d of co lour v i s i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t co lou r s . Discuss the var ious observat ions noted. Have students make conc lus ions about t he i r per iphera l v i s i o n . Students answer quest ions in 14.B .11. OPTICS UNIT Introducing Science Concepts in the Laboratory (Method 1) 112 Period 1 - Unit IV: L i gh t . Begin Expt. IV-l. (page 145). Purpose: To observe d i f f e r e n t types of l i g h t sources . Step l . (a ) Discuss d i f f e r e n t types of l i g h t sources (see i n t r o d u c t i o n ) . (b) Vocabulary: Luminous, non-luminous, po int source , broad source. (c) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 8. Step 3. Students answer questions 1, 3, 4, 5 (page 147). (Assign R.A.S. Chapters 26, 27; pages 120-125). Period 2 - Begin Expt. IV-2. (page 148). Purpose: To f i n d the path that l i g h t f o l l ows . Step l . (a ) Discuss the cond i t ions f o r seeing l i g h t ( in t roduct ion ) (b) Define the purpose o f th i s experiment. Step 2.(a) Demonstrate part A (procedures 1 to 3 ) . (b) Students fo l low procedure 4. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 to 8 (pages 149-150). (Assign R.A.S. Chapter 28; page 126). Period 3 - Begin Expt. IV-3. (page 151). Purpose: To f i n d out what happens when l i g h t s t r i k e s var ious ob j ec t s . Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: t ransparent , t r ans lucen t , opaque. (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedure 1. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1 and 2 (page 151). Begin Expt. IV-4. (page 151). Purpose: To study shadows. Step 1. Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 9. Step 2. Students complete procedures 1 to 9. (cont . ) Period 4 -Period 5 -113 Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 7 (pages 153-154). (Assign R.A.S. Chapter 30; page 132). Period 6 - Begin Expt. IV-5. (page 155). Purpose: To see what happens when l i g h t from a candle passes through a pinhole and s t r i k e s a screen. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Period 7 - Step 3. Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 10. Students answer questions 1 to 6 (pages 156-157). Students complete questions 1 to 6. Discuss answers to these quest ions . Begin Expt. IV-6. (page 158). Purpose: To study r e f r a c t i o n of l i g h t by a t ransparent s o l i d . Step l . (a ) Teach students the co r r e c t use of a p ro t r a c to r . (See Appendix 7, page 206. Use a worksheet f o r p rac t i c e in measuring, naming and const ruc t ing ang les . ) Period 8 - Step l . (b ) Vocabulary: perpend icu la r , r i g h t ang le , normal, i nc iden t ray . (c) Define the purpose o f th i s experiment. Step 2. Period 9 - Step 3. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 8. r e su l t s obta ined . Discuss the Students answer quest ions 1 to 5 (pages 160-161). Begin Expt. IV-7. (page 162). Purpose: To study l i g h t passing through l enses . Step l . (a ) Relate the use of lenses to var ious op t i c a l equipment. (b) Vocabulary: p a r a l l e l beam, converge, d i ve rge , c y l i n d r i c a l , convex, concave. Period 10 - (c) Define the purpose o f t h i s experiment. (d) Vocabulary: p r i n c ipa l a x i s , lens a x i s , op t i c a l cen t re . Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 3. (b) Discuss r e su l t s and def ine p r i n c i p a l focus and foca l l eng th . (c) Students fo l low procedures 4 to 8. 114 Period 11 Period 12 Step 3. Students answer questions 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 (pages 165-166). Begin Expt. IV-8. (page 166). Purpose: To use a spher i ca l convex lens to produce an image. Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: s p h e r i c a l . (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 8. Vocabulary: v i r t u a l image. Period 13 - Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 5 (page 168). Begin Expt. IV-9. (page 171). Purpose: To study how an eye works and how to co r rec t defects in v i s i o n . Step l . (a ) Review the s t ruc tu re of the eye. (b) Define the purpose o f th i s experiment. Period 14 - Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 and 2. (b) Discuss r e su l t s and r e l a t e these to the func t ion ing of the eye. (c) Students fo l low procedures 3 to 6. (d) Discuss r e s u l t s . Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 6, and 9 (page 173-174). Period 15 - Begin Expt. IV-10. (page 175). Purpose: To see how l i g h t passes through a pr ism. Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: pr ism. (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 5. Period 16 - Step l . ( c ) Vocabulary: spectrum, ROYGBIV (co lours of the spectrum). Step 2.(b) Students fo l low procedures 6 to 9. Step 3. Students answer quest ions 1, 4 , 5 (pages 177-178). Period 17 - Begin Expt. IV-11. (page 179). Purpose: To study r e f l e c t i o n from a plane mi r ror . Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: p lane. (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2.(a) Students fo l low procedures 1 to 7. Period 18 - Step l . ( c ) Vocabulary : normal, i nc iden t ray , r e f l e c t e d ray , angle of i nc idence , angle of r e f l e c t i o n . Step 2.(b) Students fo l low procedures 8 to 12. Period 19 - Step l . (d ) Vocabulary: d i f f u s e r e f l e c t i o n . Step 2.(c) Students fo l low procedures 13 and 14. Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 13 (pages 181 to 183). Period 20 - Begin Expt. IV-12. (page 183). Purpose: To f i n d the image formed by a plane m i r ro r . Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 8. Period 21 - Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 3 (page 185). Begin Expt. IV-13. (page 186). Purpose: To study r e f l e c t i o n from curved c y l i n d r i c a l m i r r o r s . Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: c y l i n d r i c a l . (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Period 22 - Step 2. Step 3. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 3. Vocabulary: converge, d i ve rge , p a r a b o l i c , p r i n c i pa l a x i s , p r i n c i pa l f o cus , foca l l eng th . Students answer quest ions 1 to 5 (pages 187-188). Period 23 - Begin Expt. IV-14. (page 189). Purpose: To study images formed by curved m i r ro r s . Step l . (a ) Review vocabulary : concave, convex, spher i ca l (b) Define the purpose of th i s experiment. Step 2. Students fo l low procedures 1 to 3. Period 24 - Step 3. Students answer questions 1 to 6 (page 190). 116 Labtext in Sc ience , Book 1 (Method 2) Period 1 Period 2 -Period 3 -Begin Sect ion 3: How L ight T r a ve l s . Purpose: To inves t iga te the path o f l i g h t and the formation of shadows. Step l . (a ) Discuss "What i s l i g h t ? " (b) Define the purpose of th i s s e c t i o n . Step 4. Demonstrate as in 3.A.I. Vocabulary : luminous, non-luminous. Step 5. L i s t observat ions from 3.A.1 on the blackboard and d iscuss quest ions asked in 3.A.I. Read and d iscuss 3 .B .1 (a ) . Students fo l low 3.B .1(a ) . Step 2 Step 4 Step 6 Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 5. Step 9. Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 5. Period 4 - Step 1 Students use observat ions to answer quest ions in 3.B .1(a ) . (Assign R.A.S. Chapters 26, 27; pages 120-125). Show students how to use a ray box. Read and d iscuss 3.B .1(b) . Students fo l low 3.B.1(b) and answer the quest ions, Vocabulary: t ransparent , t r ans lucen t , opaque. Read and d iscuss 3.B.2. Students fo l low 3.B.2 and l i s t observa t ions . Discuss observat ions from 3.B.2. Students answer quest ions in 3.B.2. Chapter 28; page 126). (Assign R.A.S. Vocabulary: point source , broad source. Read and d iscuss 3 . C 1 . Students fo l low 3.C.1 and make diagrams and answer questions as d i r ec ted in the t ex t . L i s t observat ions on the blackboard and d i s c u s s . Vocabulary: umbra, penumbra. (Assign R.A.S. Chapter 30; page 132). Define the purpose of 3 .C .2 : To see what happens when l i g h t from a candle passes through a p inhole and s t r i k e s a sc reen . 117 Step 3. Do not r e f e r to the text at t h i s po in t . Ask students to p red i c t (using a diagram) what they w i l l see on the sc reen . Step 4. T e l l students to experiment with the apparatus and make as many observat ions as pos s i b l e . Step 5. L i s t a l l observat ions on the blackboard and d i s c u s s . Step 6. Have students draw a ray diagram to exp la in the observa t ions . Step 9. Students answer 3.D, questions 1, 2, 5. Period 5 - Begin Sect ion 4: R e f l e c t i o n . Purpose: To study r e f l e c t i o n by a plane m i r ro r . Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: p lane. (b) Define the purpose of th i s s e c t i o n . Step 4. Students fo l low 4.A.I. Step 5. Discuss observat ions from 4.A.I. Step l . ( c ) Teach students the use of a p ro t r a c to r . Use a worksheet f o r p rac t i ce in measuring, naming and cons t ruc t ing ang les . Period 6 - Step 2.(a) Read and d iscuss 4.B.I. (b) Vocabulary: normal, perpend icu la r , r i g h t ang le , i nc iden t ray , r e f l e c t e d ray , angle of i n c idence , angle of r e f l e c t i o n . Step 4. Students fo l low 4.B.I. Step 5. Discuss r e su l t s o f 4.B.I. Step 6. Students make a wr i t ten conc lus ion f o r 4.B.I. Period 7 - Step 1. Define the purpose of 4 .B .2 . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 4 .B .2 . Step 3. Students p red i c t where the image w i l l be found. Step 4. Students fo l low 4 .B .2 . Step 5.(a) Discuss the r e su l t s of 4 .B .2 . (b) Vocabulary: v i r t u a l and rea l images (see 4 . C . 1 ) . Step 6. Compare r e s u l t s with p red i c t ions and complete a ray diagram showing how the image i s l o ca t ed . Step 9. Students answer quest ions in 4 .B .2 . 118 Period 8 - Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 5. Step 6. Step 9. Period 9 - Step 1 . Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Define the purpose of 4 .B .3 : To see how l i g h t r e f l e c t s from d i f f e r e n t types of su r faces . Read and d iscuss 4 .B .3 . Students fo l low 4.B.3 and record observa t ions . L i s t observat ions on the blackboard and d i s c u s s . Compare the d i f f e r e n t types of surfaces and def ine d i f f u s e r e f l e c t i o n . Students answer quest ions in 4 .B .3 . Define the purpose of 4 .C .2 : To see how many images are formed by two mir rors set at var ious ang les . Read and d iscuss 4 . C . 2 . Students design a data tab le to record the angles they are to t e s t , the pred ic ted number of images and the observed number of images. Students fo l low 4.C.2 and record observa t ions . Period 10 Step 5. L i s t r e s u l t s from a l l groups on the blackboard. Step 6.(a) Discuss the r e su l t s and compare the d isc repanc ies between groups. Step 7. Discuss the procedure and have students suggest any improvements. Step 8. Students perform the experiment again making use of suggested improvements. Step 6.(b) Compare c lass r e su l t s with the p r e d i c t i o n s . Ask students to f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the number of images, the number of degrees in a c i r c l e , and the angle between the m i r ro r s . Period 11 - Step 9. Students answer quest ion in 9.D, nos. 1, 3, 4, 7, and 8. Students may make use of equipment i f necessary to t e s t t he i r answers. Period 12 - Begin Sect ion 5: Curved M i r r o r s . Purpose: To study r e f l e c t i o n by curved m i r ro r s . Step l . (a ) Define the purpose of th i s s e c t i o n . (b) Vocabulary: convex, concave, c y l i n d r i c a l . Step 4.(a) Students fo l low the f i r s t par t of 5.A.1 ( looking in to convex and concave mirrors and desc r ib ing the image at var ious d is tances^ 119 Period 13 - Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: aper ture . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 5.B.I. Step 4. Students fo l low 5.B.1 and record observat ions . Step l . (b ) Vocabulary: centre of curva ture , p r i n c ipa l a x i s , foca l po in t , p r i n c ipa l f ocus , foca l l eng th , radius of curvature . Step 5. L i s t observat ions on the blackboard (diagram) Step 6. Discuss angles of inc idence and r e f l e c t i o n and make a conc lus ion about r e f l e c t i o n from the curved m i r ro r . Step 9. Students answer questions at the end of 5.B.I. Period 14 - Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: spher i ca l concave m i r ro r . (b) Discuss 5.A.1 (the need f o r a "bundle"of p a r a l l e l rays and the way to obta in these. (c) Define the prupose f o r 5.B.2. Step 2. Read and d iscuss 5.B.2. Step 4. Students fo l low 5.B.2 and record observat ions . Step 5. Discuss observat ions and compare the measurements of the foca l l ength . Step 6. Review the d i r e c t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n of a ray p a r a l l e l to the p r i n c i pa l a x i s , and a ray through the p r i n c i pa l focus . Period 15 - Step l . (a ) Define the purpose of 5 .A .3 . (b) Review as in step 6 above. Step 2. On the blackboard draw the diagram as in 5.A.3 and show students how to p red i c t the pos i t i on of the image at pos i t i on C. Descr ibe the image expected. Step 3. Students draw a se r i es of diagrams f o r pos i t ions B, C, A , and F to p red i c t the image. Descr ibe each image. Period 16 - Step 1. Define the purpose of 5.B.3. Step 2. Read and d iscuss 5.B.3. Step 3. Students design a data tab le to record the pos i t i on of the source , the predic ted pos i t i on of the image and the actual pos i t i on of the image. 120 Step 4. Students fo l low 5.B.3. Step 5. Compare c lass observat ions and compare these with the p r e d i c t i o n s . Step 9. Students answer the quest ions at the end of 5. B. 3. Period 17 - Step 2. Read and d iscuss 5.C.I. Step 3. Students p red i c t the pos i t i on of the image as in 5 .C .1 . Step 4. Students t es t t he i r p r e d i c t i o n . Step 5. Discuss the r e su l t s of 5.C.I. Period 18 - Step 1. Define the purpose of 5 .C .2 . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 5 .C .2 . Step 4. Students fo l low 5.C.2 and t ry to f i n d the foca l length of a convex m i r ro r . Step 5., Discuss the r e su l t s of 5 .C.2 . Step 9. Students answer quest ions 2, 3, 5 in 5.D. Period 19 - Begin Sect ion 6: Re f r a c t i on . Purpose: To study l i g h t passing from one transparent substance to another. Step 1. Define the purpose of sec t ion 6. Step 4.(a) Students fo l low 6.A.1 and l i s t observa t ions . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 6.B.I. Step 4.(b) Students fo l low 6.B.1 and l i s t observa t ions . Step 9. Students answer quest ions at the end of 6 .B .1 . Period 20 - Step l . (a ) Vocabulary: medium, r e f r a c t i o n . (b) Define the purpose of 6 .B .2 . Step 2. Read and d iscuss 6 .B .2 . part 1 (a) on ly . Step 4. Students fo l low part 1 (a) of 6 .B .2 . Step 5. Discuss observat ions from 6.B .2 . Vocabulary: r e f r ac ted ray , angle of r e f r a c t i o n . Step 9. Students answer quest ions at the end of part 1 (a) o f 6 .B .2 . 121 Period 21 - Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step 5. Step 6. Period 22 - Step 2. Step 4. Define the purpose of 6 .B .3 . Read and discuss 6 .B .3 . Students design a data tab le to record angle measurements. Students fo l low 6.B .3 . Discuss and compare observat ions from 6.B .3 . Students make a conc lus ion about the way l i g h t bends at an i n t e r f a c e . Read and d iscuss 6 .C .2 . Students t r y to answer (using diagrams) the quest ions asked in 6 .C .2 . Discuss observat ions from 6 .C .2 . Students answer questions 1, 2, 5, 7 in 6.D. Period 23 -Step 5. Step 9. Begin Sect ion 7: Lenses. Purpose: To study the passage of l i g h t through lenses, Step 1. Define the purpose of th i s s e c t i o n . Step 4.(a) Demonstrate 7.A.1 and have students make observat ions by making a diagram. Step 2. Read and d iscuss 7.B.I. Step 4.(b) Students fo l low 7.B.1 and make observa t ions . Period 24 - Step 5. Period 25 -Step 9. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Step 6. Step 1. Step 2. Step 3. Step 4. Discuss observat ions from 7.B.I. Review vocabulary: p r i n c i pa l a x i s , aper ture , foca l po in t , p r i n c i pa l f o cus , foca l l eng th , converge, d i ve rge . Students answer questions in 7.B.I. Define the purpose of 7.B.3. Read and d iscuss 7 .B .3 . Students design a data tab le to record a l l measurements. Students fo l low 7.B.3 (use two l enses ) . Compare r e su l t s of d i f f e r e n t groups f o r each l ens . Define the purpose of 7.B.4. Read and d iscuss 7.B.4. Students design a data tab le to record observat ions f o r 7.B.4. Students fo l low 7.B.4 and record observa t ions . 122 Period 26 Step 5. Step 9. Step 1. Step 2. Step 4. Step 5. Step 6. Period 27 - Step 9. Discuss and compare observat ions from 7.B.4. Students answer the quest ions at the end o f 7.B.4. Define the purpose fo r 7 .C .2 . Read and d iscuss 7 .C .2 . Students fo l low 7.C.2 and record a l l observat ions , Discuss observat ions from 7 .C .2 . Students answer the questions in 7 .C .2 . Students answer questions 1, 2, 5, 6, 10 in 7.D. Students may use apparatus to t es t t h e i r ideas i f necessary. 

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