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Terror in Marseilles : a case study of resistance to centralization during the French revolution Duschinsky, Peter 1973

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THE TERROR IN MARSEILLES : A CASE STUDY OF RESISTANCE TO CENTRALIZATION DURING' THE FRENCH REVOLUTION by PETER DUSCHINSKY B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF \ THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Depar tment o f HISTORY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a O c t o b e r , 1973-In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis fo r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT L o c a l i s m in M a r s e i l l e s was r oo ted in the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the a n c i e n  reg ime. As a f r e e p o r t , the c i t y was p o l i t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e from the County o f P rovence a n d en joyed c o n s i d e r a b l e economic p r i v i l e g e s . M a r s e i l l e s had a l a r g e , p r o s p e r o u s b o u r g e o i s i e , a n d as a n ' u r b a n commerc ia l c e n t r e was a l s o c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t f rom r u r a l P r o v e n c e . In the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d M a r s e i l l e s had ample o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p r e s s i t s p a r t i c u l a r i s m : d u r i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 1 7 8 9 - 1 7 9 3 newly founded m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , among them M a r s e i l l e s , became the b a s i c u n i t s o f government in F r a n c e . M a r s e i l l e s , in p a r t l o o k i n g back to a n c i e n regime p a r t i c u l a r i s m , and in p a r t d e v e l o p i n g i t s new r e v o l u t i o n a r y l o c a l i s m , a t t empted to sp read i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e s , a n d f u l f i l l i t s r e g i o n a l i s t a m b i t i o n s by f i g h t i n g a l l forms o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n in the r e g i o n , in p a r t i c u l a r the " r e a c t i o n a r y " a u t h o r i t i e s o f the depar tment o f the Bouches-du-Rhone, e s t a b l i s h e d in M a r s e i l l e s ' h i s t o r i c r i v a l , A i x - e n - P r o v e n c e . M a r s e i l l e s commerce d i d not s u f f e r d u r i n g the f i r s t t h r e e yea r s o f the R e v o l u t i o n . With s t eady food s u p p l i e s and p r o s p e r i t y t h e r e were no d i s t u r b a n c e s in the c i t y , and M a r s e i l l e s c o u l d rega rd i t s e l f as a p o l i t i c a l l y u n i f i e d , s e c u r e b a s t i o n o f the R e v o l u t i o n su r rounded by a sea o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n . In 1 7 9 2 , w i t h the o u t b r e a k o f war , F r a n c e , i n c l u d i n g M a r s e i l l e s , e n t e r e d a c r i s i s p e r i o d . With p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s and d e t e r i o r a t i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l u n i t y o f M a r s e i l l e s b roke up . When the P a r i s government a t t empted to impose c e n t r a l c o n t r o l on M a r s e i l l e s in the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 3 , the M a r s e i l l e s b o u r g e o i s i e r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t the c e n t r a l gove rnmen t ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . They had c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t , f o r many M a r s e i 1 1 e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s , hu r t by s h o r t a g e s and i i i n f l a t i o n , were ready to l i s t e n to p a r t i c u l a r i s t a p p e a l s . F e d e r a l i s m in M a r s e i l l e s r e p r e s e n t s a case o f l o c a l r e s i s t a n c e to the P a r i s gove rnment ' s f i r s t a t t empts a t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . The p e r i o d o f the T e r r o r , f o l l o w i n g the d e f e a t o f f e d e r a l i s m , d i d not w i t n e s s the d e f e a t o f M a r s e i l l e s l o c a l i s m . The M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s , hav ing been r e l e a s e d f rom f e d e r a l i s t p r i s o n s , and hav ing assumed c o n t r o l o f the c i t y , pursued a l o c a l l y based and r e g i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d p o l i t i c a l c o u r s e . S i n c e the c e n t r a l gove rnmen t ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h prob lems o f p r o c u r i n g s u p p l i e s and waging war , they a l l o w e d the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s a f r e e hand in M a r s e i l l e s . On ly in December 1793 and J anua ry 1 7 9 ^ d i d Ba r ras and F r e r o n a t t a c k the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s in M a r s e i l l e s . The a t t a c k was u n s u c c e s s f u l . Ins tead o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c e n t r a l government c o n t r o l i t p rovoked a power fu l l o c a l r e a c t i o n : M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l p r i d e was not p r epa red to s u b m i t . The Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y r e p u d i a t e d B a r r a s ' s and F r e r o n ' s p o l i c i e s because they were u n s u c c e s s f u l , but a l s o because they were f u n d a m e n t a l l y m i s g u i d e d . The Mounta in in tended the T e r r o r to be used p r a g m a t i c a l l y , to a i d in e s t a b l i s h i n g e f f i c i e n t n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s i s what the Montagnard p o l i c y o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n meant. Wei 1 - f u n c t i o n i n g l o c a l l y based a u t h o r i t i e s were not to be d e s t r o y e d , but were to be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M a i g n e t , B a r r a s ' s and F r e r o n ' s s u c c e s s o r , succeeded in a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s goa l in M a r s e i l l e s , and thus a p p l i e d the T e r r o r as i n t ended by the two r u l i n g commi t t e e s . Ma ignet was an o b e d i e n t , ha rd-work ing b u r e a u c r a t , the g rey a d m i n i s t r a t o r eve ry a u t h o r i t a r i a n government r e q u i r e s . T h a t the Montagnard war d i c t a t o r s h i p had too many s u p p o r t e r s l i k e Ba r ras and F r e r o n , and too few l i k e M a i g n e t , in p a r t a c coun t s f o r i t s f a i l u r e . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r Harvey M i t c h e l l , f o r the a i d he has g i v e n me d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g o f my t h e s i s . I have p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t e d h i s c l e a r , i n c i s i v e and a lways h e l p f u l c r i t i c i sm. I am i ndeb ted to P r o f e s s o r Janos M. Bak f o r encouragement and f o r h e l p w i t h many p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r s . I am much indeb ted to my w i f e f o r c o n s i s t e n t c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and encouragement . I would l i k e to acknowledge the e x t e n s i v e he lp g i v e n me in o b t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s by the i n t e r - l i b r a r y loan depar tment o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia L i b r a r y , the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington L i b r a r y , the l i b r a r y o f P h i 1 i p p s - U n i v e r s i t a t , M a r b u r g , W. Germany and my f r i e n d , Dr . Andrew Benedek. i v CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i i i CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES v i ABBREVIATIONS v i i PART ONE - INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I - C e n t r a l i s m , L o c a l i s m , R e v o l u t i o n and T e r r o r 1 NOTES FOR CHAPTER I 28 PART TWO - MARSEILLES FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION UNTIL THE END OF FEDERALISM CHAPTER II - The R i v a l r y o f A i x and M a r s e i l l e s , the B a s t i o n o f the R e v o l u t i o n in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n R e g i o n ; Growth o f M a r s e i l l e s ' M u n i c i p a l i s m and R e g i o n a l i s m . 32 NOTES FOR CHAPTER II 57 CHAPTER III - 1 7 9 2 - 1 7 9 3 : The Breakup o f M a r s e i l l e s ' U n i f i e d P o l i t i c a l Consensus 62 NOTES FOR CHAPTER III 79 CHAPTER IV - F e d e r a l i s m in M a r s e i l l e s , i t s O r i g i n s , Success and F a i l u r e ; the E a r l y C o n f r o n t a t i o n o f C e n t r a l i s m A g a i n s t L o c a l i s m in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n C i t y 8 2 NOTES FOR CHAPTER IV 107 V Page PART THREE - MARSEILLES DURING THE PERIOD OF THE TERROR CHAPTER V - The E a r l y P e r i o d o f the T e r r o r in M a r s e i l l e s : The T e r r o r as A p p l i e d by the L o c a l J a c o b i n s 113 NOTES FOR CHAPTER V 150 CHAPTER VI - An I 11-Conce ived E f f o r t to A p p l y the C e n t r a l Government ' s P o l i c y o f C e n t r a l i z a t i o n : Ba r r a s and F r e r o n ' s A t tempt to D i s l o d g e the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s f rom Power and to Rep lace the L o c a l l y D i r e c t e d T e r r o r w i t h T e r r o r A p p l i e d by O u t s i d e r s 15** NOTES FOR CHAPTER VI 173 CHAPTER VII - M a i g n e t ' s M i s s i o n in M a r s e i l l e s : the Rees tab1 i shment o f T r a n q u i l i t y and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e E f f i c i e n c y 176 NOTES FOR CHAPTER VII 2 0 3 PART FOUR CHAPTER VII I - C o n c l u s i o n 2 0 6 NOTES FOR CHAPTER VII I 2 1 3 BIBLIOGRAPHY 2^\k APPENDIX 2 2 0 v i LIST OF TABLES Page T a b l e 1 . O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Death S e n t e n c e s , and D i s t r i b u t i o n A c c o r d i n g to the Charges on the Bases o f wh ich the Accused were C o n v i c t e d . M a r s e i l l e s ( M a i 1 1 e t - G i r a u d ) R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l . August 1 7 9 3 " J a n u a r y 1 7 9 ^ 121 T a b l e 2 . O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Death S e n t e n c e s , and D i s t r i b u t i o n A c c o r d i n g to the Charges on the Bases o f wh ich the Accused were C o n v i c t e d . M a r s e i l l e s ( B ru tus ) M i l i t a r y Commiss ion . J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1 7 9 ^ 1 6 5 T a b l e 3 . O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Death S e n t e n c e s , and D i s t r i b u t i o n A c c o r d i n g to the Charges on the Bases o f wh ich the Accused were C o n v i c t e d . M a r s e i l l e s (Bompard-R iqu ie r ) R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l . M a r c h - A p r i l 1 7 9 ^ 183 T a b l e k. O c c u p a t i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Death S e n t e n c e s , and D i s t r i b u t i o n A c c o r d i n g , to the Charges on the Bases o f wh ich the Accused were C o n v i c t e d . M a r s e i l l e s ( M a i 1 1 e t - G i r a u d ) R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l . A p r i l 1 7 9 ^ 186 ABBREVIATIONS AULARD, v o l . n o . , page no . F . A . 1 A u l a r d , Recae i1 des a c t e s du Comi te du s a l u t p u b l i c e t c . , 28 v o l s . , + 2 v o l s , t a b l e s , P a r i s , 1891. AHRF, Anna l e s h i s t o r i q u e s de l a R e v o l u t i o n f r anca i se , ; ' B S F, page no. E. Poupe, L e t t r e s de Ba r ras e t F r e r o n en m i s s i o n dans l e M i d i . MICHON, v o l . n o . , page no. Gforrespondance de M a x i m i l i e n et A u g u s t i n R o b e s p i e r r e , r e c t a e i l l e t p u b l i e e par Georges M i c h o n , 2 vo l umes , P a r i s , 1 9 2 6 . MONITEUR, v o l . n o . , page no. Re- impress ion de l ' a n c i e n M o n i t e u r , 32 v o l s . + 2 v o l s , t a b l e s , P a r i s , 1 8 6 3 . RF, La R e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e . RICORD, p a r t i e n o . , page no . " P r e m i e r e (or Deuxieme) p a r t i e du r a p p o r t de R i c o r d e t c . . . , M c l u r e C o l l e c t i o n o f F rench R e v o l u t i o n a r y M a t e r i a l s e t c . . . , v o l . 1185, p a r t s 5 & 6 . PART ONE - INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I.- C e n t r a l i s m , L o c a l i s m , R e v o l u t i o n and T e r r o r . I In the New Cambridge Modern H i s t o r y , John Bosher has s u c c i n c t l y d e s c r i b e d an impor t an t h i s t o r i c a l tendency o f the second h a l f o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y : Du r i ng the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t he r e was a movement common to many European c o u n t r i e s towards power fu l and e f f i c i e n t c e n t r a l government . T h i s movement was the c o u n t e r p a h t t o f the more s p e c t a c u l a r endeavours to i n c r e a s e the l i b e r t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Thus the e r a o f the Amer i can D e c l a r a t i o n o f Independence , o f the D e c l a r a t i o n o f the R i gh t s o f Man, and o f Adam S m i t h ' s The Wea1th o f  N a t i o n s , the c h a r t e r o f economic l i b e r a l i s m was the t ime when the modern s t a t e began to c o n s o l i d a t e i t s f o r c e s . 1 On the c o n t i n e n t o f Europe the movement to governmenta l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was perhaps s t r o n g e s t in F r a n c e . The F rench roya l b u r e a u c r a c y grew in e f f i c i e n c y th roughou t the l a s t c e n t u r y o f the a n c i e n r eg ime . The roya l i n t e n d a n t s , d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to P a r i s , c o n t r o l l e d p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the c e n t r a l government became more comp lex , w i t h a l a r g e r , more r a t i o n a l l y f u n c t i o n i n g b u r e a u c r a c y a t i t s d i s p o s a l . 2 The c o n c r e t e ach ievements o f t h i s g r o w i n g , c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a c y were , however , not v e r y e x t e n s i v e f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . A m u l t i t u d e o f power fu l v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s were roo ted in the a r c h a i c s o c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the a n c i e n r eg ime , and they r e s i s t e d , on the whole s u c c e s s f u l l y , most o f the monarchy ' s a t t empts at r e f o r m . In f a c t , a g r e a t p r o f u s i o n o f o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g e conomic , p o l i t i c a l and j u d i c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s p e r s i s t e d u n t i l the R e v o l u t i o n . The a b s o l u t e mona rchy ' s 2 p o l i c y o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n d i d not d e s t r o y the chaos o f o u t d a t e d medieva l i n s t i t u t i o n s ; i t a t t empted to p l a c e the new c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a c y above them. As P i e r r e Gouber t has s t a t e d : Le p r o p r e de 1 ' A n c i e n Regime c ' e s t l a c o n f u s i o n . . . II Q ' A n c i e n Regime] e s t un magma de choses hab i tue11emen t s e c u l a i r e s , p a r f o i s m i l l e n a i r e s dont i l n 'a j ama i s suppr ime aucune . II f u t profondement c o n s e r v a t e u r , e t souvent c o n s e r v a t e u r de v i e i l l e r i e s , o u , s i 1 ' o n p r e f e r e , d ' a n t i q u i t e s , a l a f o i s r e s p e c t e e s , v e n e r e e s , d e f o r m e e s , o u b l i e e s , r e s s u s c i t e e s , f o s s i 1 i s e e s . 3 Ves ted i n t e r e s t s were not c o n t e n t to e x i s t in a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n to the roya l b u r e a u c r a c y . I n s t e a d , they a t tempted to r e v e r s e the p r o c e s s o f governmenta l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and r e g a i n a more d e c i s i v e v o i c e in g o v e r n i n g F r a n c e . T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to re fo rm and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was m a i n l y conduc ted th rough the par 1ements. The re were t h i r t e e n pa r l ements and f o u r o t h e r s o v e r e i g n c o u r t s in P a r i s and the p r o v i n c e s , a l l o f them mode l l ed on the o r i g i n a l pa r l ement o f P a r i s . 4 The p a r l e m e n t s , " t h e l a s t g r e a t r e l i c s o f the med ieva l F rench c o n s t i t u t i o n " , 5 were b a s t i o n s o f a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e , and f ough t a g a i n s t any measure which t h r e a t e n e d the s p e c i a l s t a t u s o f the n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y . Fundamenta l l y j u d i c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , in p o l i t i c s the pa r l emen t s o n l y pos ses sed the s i n g l e major weapon o f r e f u s i n g to r e g i s t e r r o ya l d e c r e e s ; but by u s i n g t h i s weapon they were a b l e between 1 7 1 5 and 1 7 8 9 e f f e c t i v e l y to s t i f l e a l l a t t empts o f the c e n t r a l government to i n s t i t u t e f i n a n c i a l r e f o r m s . T h u s , they were a b l e to p r e s e r v e the c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f the F i r s t and Second E s t a t e s . 6 The c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e and power o f the p a r i e m e n t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f nob l e and c l e r i c a l p r i v i l e g e s , o f p r i v i l e g e d p r o v i n c e s (pays d ' e t a t as opposed to pays d ' e l e c t ion) , o f c i t i e s w i t h s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s ( M a r s e i l l e s was one o f t h e s e ) , 9ndc6f:iarj vfttiniensely c o m p l i c a t e d and a r c h a i c sys tem o f i n t e r n a l t a r i f f s and t a x e s , ensured 3 the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f a n c i e n regime p a r t i c u l a r i s m s . The c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e r v e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y , i n t e n t on b a s i c r e f o r m s , c o n c e n t r a t e d in the c e n t r a l gove rnment , was, in the f i n a l a c c o u n t i n g , unab l e to overcome the i n e r t i a o f the a n c i e n r e g i m e ' s deep- roo t ed p a r t i c u l a r i s m s . To a l a r g e e x t e n t t h i s was due to the c h a r a c t e r o f F r a n c e ' s l a s t two monarchs . D e s p i t e the growing e f f i c i e n c y o f the roya l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the power o f the a b s o l u t e monarchy , f o l l o w i n g L o u i s X I V ' s e n e r g e t i c o p p o s i t i o n to p a r t i c u l a r i s m , d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y because o f the c h r o n i c i n a b i l i t y o f L o u i s XV and L o u i s XVI to p r o v i d e suppor t f o r t h e i r r e fo rm m i n i s t r i e s . The 1780 ' s saw the power fu l r e s u r g e n c e o f a r i s t o c r a t i c r e a c t i o n , and the R e v o l u t i o n s t a r t e d as the l a s t g r e a t F ronde o f the a n c i e n r eg ime . The pa r l emen t s c h a l l e n g e d the monarchy -- hard p r e s s e d because o f the u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e o f s t a t e f i n a n c e s -- to r e c a l l the long dormant E s t a t e s Genera l and the reby r e t r e a t f rom i t s p o l i c y o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and hand power to a l o o s e g a t h e r i n g o f n o b l e s , c l e r i c s and b o u r g e o i s , r e p r e s e n t i n g an a r r a y o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s . T h i s f i n a l r e a c t i o n o f the a n c i e n r e g i m e ' s a r i s t o c r a t i c v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s , u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d to as the r e v o l t e nob i1 a i r e , is seen by some h i s t o r i a n s as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f the R e v o l u t i o n , and is r e f e r r e d to by some -- E g r e t , f o r example -- as the p r e - R e v o l u t i o n . E g r e t , in a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s on the p r e - R e v o l u t i o n in the p r o v i n c e s , has shown tha t the r e v o l t e n o b i l a i r e was a many-face ted e v e n t , and tha t the F rench p r o v i n c i a l a r i s t o c r a c y , t r u e to i t s f r agmented n a t u r e , had ma in l y l o c a l i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and demands. For example , the p r o v i n c i a l n o b i l i t y o f P rovence c lamoured f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n o f the l o c a l P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s . 7 The F rench R e v o l u t i o n was an h i s t o r i c e v e n t , o r r a t h e r , a s e r i e s o f h i s t o r i c a l even ts in the c o u r s e o f which many problems tha t c o u l d not be s o l v e d by the monarchy were r e s o l v e d in a v i o l e n t manner. Ves ted i n t e r e s t s wh ich were u n w i l l i n g to change , to a d j u s t themse lves to a new, d e v e l o p i n g p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l r e a l i t y , were swept away. T h u s , among the f i r s t t a r g e t s o f 1789 were nob l e and c l e r i c a l p r i v i l e g e s , the power o f the par 1ements and the power o f the a b s o l u t e monarchy. The R e v o l u t i o n q u i c k l y d i d away w i t h the g r e a t p o l i t i c a l a d v e r s a r i e s o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The fundamenta l changes o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d shou ld n o t , however , b l i n d us to the e s s e n t i a l c o n t i n u i t y u n d e r l y i n g them. As de T o c q u e v i l l e p o i n t e d out ove r a c e n t u r y a g o : " t h e p r i n c i p l e o f the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power d i d not p e r i s h in the R e v o l u t i o n . . . t h i s v e r y c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of power was a t once the R e v o l u t i o n ' s s t a r t i n g - o f f p o i n t and one o f i t s g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s . " 8 What changed d u r i n g the R e v o l u t i o n was the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e th rough which power was e x e r c i s e d , and the p e o p l e who e x e r c i s e d i t , but the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f c e n t r a l i z e d , b u r e a u c r a t i c government remained a main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f F rance th roughout the modern e r a . I r o n i c a l l y , the p a r i e m e n t s , in work ing out and r e f i n i n g the t hese  n o b i l a i r e , p r o v i d e d not o n l y the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r the a r i s t o c r a c y ' o p p o s i t i o n to a b s o l u t e monarchy , but a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d to the f a s h i o n i n g o f a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r the T h i r d E s t a t e ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e s o f government . In the 1753 Grandes Remons t rances , as A l f r e d Cobban o b s e r v e s : the pa r l ement o f P a r i s speaks o f 'une espece the c o n t r a t 1 between the s o v e r e i g n and the p e o p l e , and a s s e r t s t ha t ' i f s u b j e c t s owe o b e d i e n c e to K i n g s , K ings f o r t h e i r p a r t owe o b e d i e n c e to the l a w s ' . They {the pa r i ements^ now cease to r e l y m a i n l y on t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l c l a i m s and beg in to appea l to the r i g h t s o f the n a t i o n , o f which they regard themse lves as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . . . It i s not u n r e a s o n a b l e to sugges t tha t the pa r i ements p l a yed a l a r g e p a r t in s p r e a d i n g the idea tha t the peop l e i s the o n l y r i g h t f u l s o u r c e o f p o w e r . 9 5 T h u s , a d e s i r e to de th rone a concep t o f the S t a t e which saw u n l i m i t e d s o v e r e i g n t y r e s t i n g in the pe rson o f the monarch was common to the most r e a c t i o n a r y , t r a d i t i o n - b o u n d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the a n c i e n regime and to the b o u r g e o i s o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a s s e m b l i e s a t t e m p t i n g to e s t a b l i s h a new d e f i n i t i o n o f s o v e r e i g n t y . Of c o u r s e , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y concep t o f the s t a t e p r o b a b l y owed as much to the E n l i g h t e n m e n t ' s f o r w a r d - l o o k i n g endeavours to i n c r e a s e the l i b e r t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l as to the par 1ement's b a c k w a r d - l o o k i n g endeavours to s a f e g u a r d the l i b e r t i e s o f two s m a l l , p r i v i l e g e d o r d e r s . N o n e t h e l e s s , Cobban has per fo rmed a v e r y u s e f u l s e r v i c e in p o i n t i n g out the R e v o l u t i o n ' s debt to the t hese n o b i l a i r e , f o r in the h i s t o r i o g r a p h y the emphas is had been p l a c e d a lmos t e n t i r e l y on the R e v o l u t i o n ' s debt to the ph i l o s o p h e s . In terms o f the new r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n c e p t i o n o f the S t a t e , the T h i r d E s t a t e -- a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y -- v a r i o u s l y saw i t s e l f as the " a s semb l y o f the r e c o g n i z e d and a c c r e d i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the F rench n a t i o n " ( S i e y e s ' s d e f i n i t i o n ) , o r as " t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' o f the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the F rench n a t i o n a c t i n g in absence o f the l e s s e r p a r t " ( M o u n i e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n ) . 1 0 In the e n d , a g a i n s t the r e c a l c i t r a n c e o f the f i r s t two E s t a t e s and the monarch , the T h i r d E s t a t e d e c l a r e d i t s e l f to be the " N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y " and i m p l i c i t l y made the c l a i m tha t s o v e r e i g n t y r e s t e d in i t s e l f , as the d i r e c t , e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body o f the F rench n a t i o n , r a t h e r than in the pe r son o f the k i n g . In j u r i d i c i a l terms the R e v o l u t i o n was a c c o m p l i s h e d when the r i g h t s o f the F rench " p e o p l e " o r " n a t i o n " r e p l a c e d the o b 1 i gat ions o f the n a t i o n to i t s k i ngs as the b a s i s f o r the d e f i n i t i o n o f the F rench S t a t e . The change o f d e s i g n a t i o n o f L o u i s XVI f rom r o i de F rance et de  Nava r re to r o i des f r a n c a i s s y m b o l i z e d the changed s t a t u s o f the k i ng f rom a b s o l u t e to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarch and i m p l i e d tha t whereas p r e v i o u s l y the k i ng was above the n a t i o n , h e n c e f o r t h the n a t i o n would 6 s t and above the k i n g . 1 1 A f t e r r e d e f i n i n g s o v e r e i g n t y , the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s needed to r e p l y to the q u e s t i o n s "who is the p e o p l e ? " and "what is the n a t i o n ? " The a t t empted answers to t hese d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e d one o f the main p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s o f the R e v o l u t i o n . When the T h i r d E s t a t e in the E s t a t e s Genera l d e f i n e d i t s e l f as the v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the peop l e o r the n a t i o n , i t in e f f e c t c l a i m e d s o v e r e i g n t y f o r a group p r e d o m i n a n t l y composed o f l a w y e r s , n o t a r i e s , and m i d d l e - l e v e l o f f i c i a l s -- p e o p l e who made up the work ing b u r e a u c r a c y o f the a n c i e n r eg ime , and who wanted to d i s p l a c e the f i r s t two e s t a t e s and c l a i m c r e d i t f o r a b i l i t y in p l a c e o f p r i v i l e g e . T h u s , as Cobban has shown, the r e v o l u t i o n a r y b o u r g e o i s i e was c h i e f l y composed o f l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s and b u r e a u c r a t s r a t h e r than o f the commerc ia l m i d d l e c l a s s e s . 1 2 N a t u r a l l y , the N a t i o n a l Assembly c o n c e i v e d o f the n a t i o n in a u n i f i e d s e n s e , f o r the r e v o l u t i o n a r y b o u r g e o i s i e i n h e r i t e d the p r i n c i p l e of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n f rom the a n c i e n regime and c a r r i e d i t o ve r to the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a . T h u s , in P a r i s , at the hea r t o f the R e v o l u t i o n , in the N a t i o n a l and C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l i e s and l a t e r in the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n became a c o r n e r s t o n e o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l o r a t o r y and t h o u g h t . The re a r e e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s r u l e . The G i r o n d i n s , f o r examp le , were w i l l i n g to abandon the p r i n c i p l e o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . However, they d i d t h i s not f rom c o n v i c t i o n , but r a t h e r because o f extreme p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s . However, many r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s in the p r o v i n c e s unde r s tood p o p u l a r s o v e r e i g n t y in an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t manner. M e d i e v a l l y - b a s e d p a r t i c u 1 a r i s t s en t imen t s were s t i l l s t r o n g in the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , e s p e c i a l l y in r e g i o n s f a r removed from P a r i s , and r e g i o n s such as B r i t t a n y and P r o v e n c e , wh ich had e n t e r e d the F rench monarchy o n l y r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y . It 7 was the pe r son o f the k ing tha t u n i f i e d many o f the o u t l y i n g p r o v i n c e s to F r a n c e , and not any deep roo ted sense o f be ing F r e n c h . Once p o p u l a r s o v e r e i g n t y was e n s h r i n e d in the D e c l a r a t i o n o f the R igh t s o f Man and the C i t i z e n , c e r t a i n a r t i c u l a t e p o l i t i c a l groups in the p r o v i n c e s c o u l d , and o f t e n d i d , t h i n k o f s o v e r e i g n t y as b e l o n g i n g d i r e c t l y to them, r a t h e r than to a f a r- removed r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body in P a r i s . Here too h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y t r iumphed ove r i n n o v a t i o n s . 1 3 A n c i e n reg ime p a r t i c u l a r i s m s s u r v i v e d not o n l y in a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r m , but assumed new r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r m s , as " m u n i c i p a l i s m " , as J a c o b i n l o c a l i s m , and in 1793~9^, as the h i g h l y f r a g m e n t e d , l o c a l i z e d s a n s - c u l o t t e movement. That the l o c a l i s m s o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d were indeed b a s i c , deep roo ted r e v o l u t i o n a r y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s is proved by t h e i r s p o n t a n e o u s , e n t h u s i a s t i c b e g i n n i n g s and by t h e i r t e n a c i t y . As both L e f e b v r e and Cobban have o b s e r v e d , d u r i n g the open ing months o f the R e v o l u t i o n , spontaneous r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements broke out in s c a t t e r e d c o m m u n i t i e s , l a r g e and s m a l l , t h roughout F r a n c e . 1 4 The l e a d e r s o f t he se movements e s t a b l i s h e d new r e v o l u t i o n a r y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The N a t i o n a l Assembly had , in f a c t , no c h o i c e but to a c cep t these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as a f a i t a c c o m p l i . Tha t the l e a d e r s o f the N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y , g u i d e d by the p r i n c i p l e o f government c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , d i s a p p r o v e d in p r i n c i p l e o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a g r e a t m u l t i t u d e o f m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s is shown by S i e y e s ' s l a t e r comments on t h i s s y s t e m , which he d e s c r i b e d as " l ' i n s i g n e f o l i e " . He c o n t i n u e d by s t a t i n g t h a t , "A l ' e p o q u e dont nous p a r l o n s , l e s qua ran te-q u a t r e mi l i e m u n i c i p a 1 i t e s se t r o u v e r e n t e x i s t e r t ou t a c o u p , non par I ' e f f e t t t d ' a n c i e n systeme p h i 1 o s o p h i q u e , mais par une i n e v i t a b l e s u i t e de 1 1 i n s u r r e c t i o n g e n e r a l e . " 1 5 T h i s sys tem o f l o c a l l y - d i r e c t e d , semi-autonomous r e v o l u t i o n a r y 8 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c r e a t i n g a degree o f permanent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ana rchy a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l -- remained the major a s p e c t o f F rench p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n t i l 1 7 9 3 - It was a b l e to s u r v i v e because the P a r i s government d i d not have the means to implement i t s p o l i c y o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . As Cobban has s t a t e d , " t h e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the a n c i e n regime had produced a system in which a l l power was p l a c e d in the hands o f commi t t e e s . ' Tou t l e monde d e l i b e r a i t , pe rsonne n ' a v a i t m i s s i o n d ' a g i r ! " ' 1 6 An e f f e c t i v e e f f o r t to c e n t r a l i z a government and d e s t r o y l o c a l i s t , c e n t r i f u g a l t e n d e n c i e s emerged o n l y in 1 7 9 3 ~ 9 ^ , d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f the T e r r o r . I I To t h i s p o i n t we have r e s t r i c t e d our a n a l y s i s to the p o l i t i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p e c t s o f c e n t r a l i s m and l o c a l i s m in a n c i e n regime and r e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e . But the R e v o l u t i o n was a major s o c i a l upheava l accompanied by and in pa r t caused by l a r g e - s c a l e f i n a n c i a l and economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , and cannot be unde r s tood w i t h o u t pay ing a t t e n t i o n , to these f a c t o r s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f the p e r i o d o f the Grea t T e r r o r in 1 7 9 3 - 9 2 * -To e x p l a i n the T e r r o r c l o s e a t t e n t i o n must be pa id to p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s , the most impor tan t o f wh ich was the o u t b r e a k o f war in 1 7 9 2 ; a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c t o r s , such as the c r y i n g need f o r a c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s -- t h e r e was runaway i n f l a t i o n o f the ass i g n a t , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y paper money in 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 ; economic f a c t o r s , above a l l the s h o r t a g e s o f food s u p p l i e s and war m a t e r i e l ; and s o c i a l f a c t o r s -- the growing e conomic , f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d a growing s t a t e o f u n r e s t among l a r g e segments o f the c o u n t r y ' s p o p u l a t i o n , who a t tempted to f i n d t h e i r own s o l u t i o n s to the problems 9 p l a g u i n g F r a n c e . A l l these f a c t o r s were c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , and a t r u l y i n t e g r a t e d p i c t u r e o f the Grea t T e r r o r o f 1793~9^ cannot omit any o f them. As v i r t u a l l y a l l s t u d e n t s o f F rench p o p u l a r movements? have o b s e r v e d , p o p u l a r a g i t a t i o n was a common phenomenon in p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e . In the a n c i e n reg ime the t y p i c a l p o p u l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n was the bread r i o t . George Rude has shown tha t the g r e a t P a r i s bread r i o t s o f May 1775 had as t h e i r o b j e c t the g u a r a n t e e i n g o f bread to the common p e o p l e a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e , and s q u a r e l y opposed the " p r o g r e s s i v e " , p h y s i o c r a t i c economic p o l i c i e s o f T u r g o t , wh ich advoca ted the f r e e movement o f g r a i n w i t h i n F r a n c e . 1 7 As Rose has p o i n t e d o u t , the normal economic p o l i c y o f the a n c i e n reg ime r e s t ed on the c a r e f u l r e g u l a t i o n o f the g r a i n t r a d e , i n c l u d i n g p r i c e f i x i n g in p e r i o d s o f d e a r t h . 1 8 W i l l i a m s , in a u s e f u l l i t t l e book , has summed up the r e s u l t s o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h on p o p u l a r movements. As he shows, in the " n o n - p o l i t i c a l " s o c i e t y o f p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e , the food r i o t and the t a x a t i o n p o p u l a i r e ( popu l a r en fo rcement o f a " j u s t p r i c e " ) were the t y p i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f crowd a c t i o n . 1 9 However, in the e a r l y s t ages o f the R e v o l u t i o n , the a c t i o n s o f b read-hungry mobs c o i n c i d e d w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n and assumed a p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t . " Th roughou t t h i s i n c r e d i b l e yea r 1789 ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' crowd a c t i o n s were drenched in the new r h e t o r i c o f r e v o l u t i o n a n d , in e f f e c t , ceased to be ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' M . 2 0 D e s p i t e t h i s , we must not l o s e s i g h t o f the e s s e n t i a l c o n t i n u i t y between the " t r a d i t i o n a l " p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y bread r i o t e r and the p o l i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s r e v o l u t i o n a r y s a n s - c u l o t t e o f 1793- However aware the s a n s - c u l o t t e may have been o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y r h e t o r i c , o f h i s r i g h t s as a member o f the " p e o p l e " or the " n a t i o n " , h i s b a s i c m o t i v a t i o n was s t i l l u s u a l l y e conomi c , a n d , as Rose o b s e r v e s , in m a t t e r s o f food d i s t r i b u t i o n he demanded a r e t u r n to p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y pr i nc i p i e s . 2 1 As Cobban has o b s e r v e d , H i p p o l y t e T a i n e made two b a s i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the s tudy o f the R e v o l u t i o n , d e s p i t e h i s v i o l e n t p o l e m i c s and h i s d e e p l y - r o o t e d , unshakab l e p r e j u d i c e s : In the f i r s t p l a c e he r e a l i z e d t h a t the R e v o l u t i o n was accompanied th roughout by the T e r r o r , and tha t t h i s was not an a c c i d e n t a l a b e r r a t i o n but an e s s e n t i a l and i n s e p a r a b l e e lement in i t . . . S e c o n d l y , T a i n e saw tha t a g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l movement l i k e the R e v o l u t i o n was not to be e x p l a i n e d in terms o f a s i m p l e p o l i t i c a l n a r r a t i v e , but o n l y by means o f the a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l f o r c e s . 2 2 T a i n e p l a c e d the menu peup l e a t the c e n t r e o f the dynamics o f the R e v o l u t i o n , but in h i s u n r e a s o n i n g ha t r ed o f the crowds he f a i l e d to see t ha t they were g e n e r a l l y o n l y agents and sometimes v i c t i m s o f the g r e a t s o c i a l upheava l s o f 1 7 8 9 , and tha t they were u s u a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d to a c t by overwhe lming economic needs . The R e v o l u t i o n s t a r t e d not o n l y as the l a s t g r e a t F r o n d e , but a l s o as the l a s t g r ea t bread r i o t o f the a n c i e n r eg ime . To unde r s t and the Grea t T e r r o r we must keep in mind tha t the p o p u l a r d i s t u r b a n c e s o f 1789 were s t i l l b a s i c a l l y bread r i o t s and assumed a p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y because they happened to c o i n c i d e w i t h the p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n o f 1 7 8 9 ; t ha t in 1 7 8 9 the menu peup l e had n e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s nor a deve loped c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f i t s e l f as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e ; and tha t f o l l o w i n g the d i s t u r b a n c e s o f 1 7 8 9 p o p u l a r i nvo l vement in the R e v o l u t i o n was min imal u n t i l l a t e 1791 and e a r l y 1 7 9 2 . Many h i s t o r i a n s have obse r ved t h a t the o u t b r e a k o f the war between r e v o l u t i o n a r y F r ance and the o l d c o n t i n e n t a l monarch i es in the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 2 p roduced a d e c i s i v e change in the i n t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n o f F r a n c e . Norman Hampson has s t a t e d t h a t the war " s i m p l i f i e d a l l i s sues and e l i m i n a t e d a l l nuances . H e n c e f o r t h the s t r u g g l e l ay between those who, w i t h whatever r e s e r v a t i o n s , w i shed f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n o f the roya l a u t h o r i t y a t the p r i c e o f the d e f e a t o f F r a n c e , and those whose a t tachment to the R e v o l u t i o n l ed them to make whatever c o n c e s s i o n s might be the p r i c e o f m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y . " 2 3 Hampson's s t a t e m e n t , e m p h a s i z i n g the extreme p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n produced by the war , in e f f e c t d e f i n e s the T e r r o r in i t s most b a s i c p o l i t i c a l s e n s e . I ts a l l impor tan t ph rase is "whatever c o n c e s s i o n s might be the p r i c e o f m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y . " The p r i c e t ha t the new r e p u b l i c p a i d f o r m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y was the i n s t i t u t i o n o f a r u t h l e s s sys tem o f "p rompt s e v e r e and i n f l e x i b l e j u s t i c e " a g a i n s t a l l enemies o f the R e v o l u t i o n , d e f i n e d by R o b e s p i e r r e as the T e r r o r . 2 4 A g a i n , we must remember t ha t an e s s e n t i a l c o n t i n u i t y u n d e r l a y the g r e a t changes o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d . As T a i n e has a s s e r t e d , T e r r o r , meaning the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e p o l i t i c a l enmity o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , had accompanied r e v o l u t i o n a r y deve lopments f rom the b e g i n n i n g , and the c r i s i s y e a r s o f 1 7 9 3 — 9 ^ saw o n l y the r e s o l u t i o n o f d e e p l y f e l t h a t r e d s at a h i g h e r degree o f i n t e n s i t y than ever b e f o r e . But who vier.e the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ? In the f i n a l a c c o u n t i n g , t h i s c o u l d be d e c i d e d o n l y by those who he l d power in P a r i s . In the emergency s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d by the war , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r s h i p had to dea l r a p i d l y w i t h i n t e r n a l enemies and so had to d i f f e r e n t i a t e in a r a p i d , b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e , a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner between f r i e n d s and foes o f the R e v o l u t i o n . But in o r d e r to a c t in an a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner a u t h o r i t y is needed . E a r l y in 1 7 9 2 , in a c o u n t r y w i t h o u t an e f f e c t i v e c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m , w i t h o u t an e f f e c t i v e j u d i c i a l sys tem or p o l i c e a p p a r a t u s , the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s had o n l y v e r y l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y . 2 5 T h i s is the p o i n t where the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s , the p o p u l a r movement, e n t e r the s t age o f the R e v o l u t i o n . In e a r l y 1 7 9 2 , i n f l a t i o n and food s h o r t a g e s provoked s p o r a d i c cases o f bread r i o t i n g . Through the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 2 the i n f l a t i o n and the s h o r t a g e s worsened , and p o p u l a r tempers r o s e . 2 6 As in 1 7 8 9 , economic and f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a g a i n c o i n c i d e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . With the monarchy o p e n l y t u r n i n g c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y , e x p e c t i n g imminent a i d f rom f o r e i g n p r i n c e s and e m i g r e s , i t was not d i f f i c u l t f o r the P a r i s J a c o b i n C l u b , the c e n t r a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f the c a p i t a l ' s l e a d i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , to d i r e c t the e n e r g i e s o f the P a r i s crowds i n t o p o l i t i c a l c h a n n e l s . In August 1 7 9 2 the P a r i s s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s , w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l Federe b a t a l 1 i o n s , t o p p l e d the monarchy and e s t a b l i s h e d the r e p u b l i c . 2 7 In a c c e p t i n g s a n s - c u l o t t e s u p p o r t , the p r e d o m i n a n t l y b o u r g e o i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r s h i p , b e l i e v i n g in the n e c e s s i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , e f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a c cep t ed the a i d o f c rowds , composed o f a r t i s a n s , sma l l m e r c h a n t s , w o r k e r s , t r a n s i e n t s and even some wea l t hy i n d i v i d u a l s , t ha t b e l i e v e d in d i r e c t government th rough t h e i r own l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . A b a s i c a s p e c t o f the e r a immed ia te l y p r e c e d i n g the Grea t T e r r o r was the f a c t t ha t the J a c o b i n l e a d e r s h i p was f o r c e d , in the absence o f any o t h e r e f f e c t i v e e x e c u t i v e a rm, to r e l y on the s u p p o r t o f the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s . A l b e r t S o b o u l ' s monumental s tudy o f the P a r i s i a n s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s has demons t ra ted tha t one b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s a n d e a r l i e r p o p u l a r movements was tha t in the c o u r s e o f 1 7 9 2 and 1793 the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s d i d not d i s p e r s e f o l l o w i n g t h e i r v i o l e n t a c t i v i t i e s on the s t r e e t s , but r e t u r n e d to t h e i r own newly formed o r newly conquered p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as the s e c t i o n s o f the c i t i e s , the P a r i s Commune, some p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s , and l a t e r in 1 7 9 3 , those most t y p i c a l o f s a n s - c u l o t t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i e s . 2 8 The advent o f the s a n s - c u l o t t e s produced a s e r i o u s r i f t w i t h i n the P a r i s J a c o b i n C l u b . One segment o f the J a c o b i n s , which l a t e r became known as the G i r o n d i n s , r e c o i l e d f rom an a l l i a n c e w i t h the P a r i s i a n s a n s - c u l o t t e s , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the September p r i s o n m a s s a c r e s . The second segment , e v e n t u a l l y emerging t r i umphant and a p p r o p r i a t i n g the g e n e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n o f J a c o b i n , r e c o g n i z e d tha t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s had energy and a b a s i c commitment to the R e v o l u t i o n ; and to ensu re the R e v o l u t i o n ' s v i c t o r y o ve r both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l enemies , i t was w i l l i n g to use the s a n s - c u l o t t e s ' s c a t t e r e d , but enormous e n e r g i e s . " 1 9 The f i r s t h i s t o r i a n to note the e s s e n t i a l o r g a n i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a n s - c u l o t t e s and J a c o b i n s was A l b e r t M a t h i e z . 3 0 He has p o s i t e d a d i r e c t cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n between i n f l a t i o n and the mood, demands and a c t i o n s o f the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s . The consumers o f the c i t i e s , the peop l e l i v i n g on f i x e d incomes , the a r t i s a n s , the w o r k e r s , v i z . a l l t hose who c o u l d not compensate f o r the l o s s o f the ass i g n a t ' s v a l u e th rough i n c r e a s e d e a r n i n g s , were v i c t i m s o f i n f l a t i o n . They d i d not r e s i g n them-s e l v e s to pay ing the c o s t s o f the R e v o l u t i o n , but r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t the economic l i b e r a l i s m o f the b o u r g e o i s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , and demanded a r e t u r n to the pre-1789 system o f r e g u l a t i o n s . 3 1 The s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s imposed t h e i r economic ideas on the p r e d o m i n a n t l y b o u r g e o i s J a c o b i n g r o u p , and i t s p a r l i a m e n t a r y v a n g u a r d , the M o u n t a i n . In r e t u r n f o r e s s e n t i a l s a n s - c u 1 o t t e p o i i t i ca1 s u p p o r t , the Jacob ins were w i11 i ng to abandon l i b e r a l economic i d e a l s . The T e r r o r o f 1793~9^ was , a c c o r d i n g to M a t h i e z , the d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the maximum gene r a l on food p r i c e s , which in September 1793 was f o r c e d on an u n w i l l i n g J a c o b i n Conven t i on by the r i o t i n g P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s . The maximum a t t a c k e d most p a r t i c u l a r economic i n t e r e s t s , and in o r d e r t o e n f o r c e i t the Mounta in had to e s t a b l i s h a s y s t e m a t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the c e n t r a l power. In M a t h i e z ' s v iew p o l i t i c a l and economic T e r r o r were c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . 3 2 M a t h i e z ' s a n a l y s i s i m p l i e s t ha t the p o l i t i c a l T e r r o r was put i n t o e f f e c t in o r d e r to e n f o r c e the s a n s - c u l o t t e brand o f economic T e r r o r . T h i s , however , appears to be o n l y p a r t l y t r u e . The most b a s i c c o n c e r n o f the J a c o b i n s was to cope w i t h the p o l i t i c a l problems posed by the war c r i s i s ; they r e a l i z e d tha t the most u rgen t need o f the new r e p u b l i c was a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Economic i s sues concerned them o n l y to the e x t e n t t ha t the c o u n t r y ' s economy had to be o r g a n i z e d to wage war e f f e c t i v e l y . To be s u r e , they submi t t ed to s a n s - c u l o t t e economic demands in o r d e r to r e t a i n s a n s - c u 1 o t t e p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t ; but d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1 7 9 3 - 9 4 , as i t became c l e a r tha t many s a n s - c u l o t t e economic p o l i c i e s were i n j u r i o u s to the M o u n t a i n ' s u l t i m a t e goal o f e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t hese were d i s p e n s e d w i t h , and r e p l a c e d by the M o u n t a i n ' s own economic p o l i c i e s , o f t e n e q u a l l y s e v e r e , but p r i m a r i l y aimed a t s u p p l y i n g the a rmies and the c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n s r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l power fu l p r e s s u r e g r o u p s . D u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1792-93, the J a c o b i n s began a c o n c e r t e d d r i v e f o r power which e /en tua l l y c u l m i n a t e d in the p o l i t i c a l d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the two r u l i n g commit tees in the Year I I . 3 3 T h e i r f i r s t t a sk was to overcome G i r o n d i n o b s t r u c t i o n i s m , a b a s i c a l l y n e g a t i v e tendency embodied by a s c a t t e r e d group o f a n t i - J a c o b i n and a n t i - s a n s - c u 1 o t t e d e p u t i e s w i t h v a r i e d r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , u n i t e d o n l y in t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s . As the J a c o b i n s g r a d u a l l y g a i ned a w i d e n i n g base o f suppo r t in P a r i s and e s p e c i a l l y in the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , the G i r o n d i n s widened t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to i n c l u d e not o n l y the s a n s - c u l o t t e s , but a l s o the e n t i r e d e c i s i o n making appa r a tu s o f the n a t i o n c e n t e r e d in P a r i s . On the b a s i s o f Sydenham's s t u d i e s , one can h y p o t h e s i z e the concep t o f a nascen t J a c o b i n p o l i t i c a l p a r t y s t a n d i n g f o r c e n t r a l i z e d , e f f i c i e n t government , opposed by l o c a l i s t , d i s u n i t e d G i r o n d i n d e p u t i e s . 3 4 The J a c o b i n s b u i l t an e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y power base in the form o f a n a t i o n -wide system o f p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s in c o n s t a n t communica t ion w i t h the P a r i s J a c o b i n C l ub and u s u a l l y f o l l o w i n g the lead o f the P a r i s C l u b . 3 5 They e s t a b l i s h e d a system o f r e p r e s e n t a n t s en m i s s i o n ( r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n ) , r o v i n g d e p u t i e s o f the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , the overwhe lming m a j o r i t y o f whom were J a c o b i n s , and who were in s t eady c o n t a c t both w i t h P a r i s and w i t h l o c a l J a c o b i n b o d i e s in the p r o v i n c e s . In e a r l y 1 7 9 3 the J a c o b i n s e s t a b l i s h e d v i r t u a l l y a l l the i n s t i t u t i o n s -- v i g i l a n c e c o m m i t t e e s , the P a r i s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l , the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y -- which were to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g o v e r n i n g F r ance and the war d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the Year I I . 3 6 The J a c o b i n d r i v e to e s t a b l i s h a c e n t r a l i z e d government reached i t s f i r s t major c l i m a x w i t h the P a r i s j o u r n e e s o f May 31 and June 2 . Wi th the a i d o f the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s , the Mounta in was a b l e t o ous t the G i r o n d i n s f rom the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n . However, the d e f e a t o f the G i r o n d i n s d i d not y e t mean tha t the Mountaiim was s e c u r e l y in contr.od>l o f the r e p u b l i c . On the one hand the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s , ensconced in the P a r i s Commune and s e c t i o n s , and l ed by a hand fu l o f s k i l f u l p o p u l a r a g i t a t o r s , r ega rded the v i c t o r i e s o f May 31 and June 2 as t h e i r own and were p r e s s i n g f o r a more e f f e c t i v e r o l e in n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . On the o t h e r hand , the c e n t r a l i s t d r i v e o f the J a c o b i n s th rough the w i n t e r and s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 c l a s h e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and a s p i r a t i o n s in the p r o v i n c e s , and awakened the s u s p i c i o n s o f l o c a l l y - b a s e d , p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w i t h v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s , o f r o y a l i s t e lements s t i l l a c t i v e in the p r o v i n c e s , o f p a r t i c u l a r economic i n t e r e s t s , o f c e r t a i n l o c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d p r o v i n c i a l J a c o b i n s , and somet imes , as in the c a se o f L y o n s , and l e s s o b v i o u s l y o f M a r s e i l l e s , even o f some p r o v i n c i a l s a n s - c u l o t t e s . The M o u n t a i n , newly v i c t o r i o u s in P a r i s , was f a c e d , in June 1 7 9 3 » w i t h a hos t o f f e d e r a l i s t i n s u r r e c t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y in the major p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s such as L y o n s , M a r s e i l l e s , Bordeaux and C a e n . 3 7 111 B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f how the Mountain s o l v e d t h e p r e s s i n g problems o f m i d-1793 > we s h o u l d make an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y the n a t u r e o f s a n s - c u1 o t t i sm. To t h i s p o i n t we have p o s i t e d t h a t the d i r e c t a n c e s t o r s o f t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e s were the b r e a d - r i o t e r s o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h a t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s , l i k e t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , were b a s i c a l l y e c o n o m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d , but t h a t i n the c o u r s e o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y c r i s i s w h i c h s t a r t e d w i t h the o u t b r e a k o f the war, they began to emerge as an independent p o l i t i c a l f o r c e w i t h t h e i r own permanent i n s t i t u t i o n s ; i n d e e d , t h a t h a v i n g t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n s and a more o r l e s s d e f i n e d p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t r a n s f o r m e d the bread r i o t e r s i n t o s a n s - c u l o t t e s . S e v e r a l h i s t o r i a n s have a t t e m p t e d t o d e f i n e t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e s i n s o c i a l terms. In The Crowd i n the French R e v o l u t i o n , Rude a t t e m p t s t o use the d e s i g n a t i o n s a n s - c u l o t t e o n l y i n a s o c i a l and not i n a p o l i t i c a l s e n s e . 3 8 He sees the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s as composed o f " s m a l l s h o p k e e p e r s , p e t t y t r a d e r s , c r a f t s m e n , journeymen,- 1abourers, v a g r a n t s , and c i t y p o o r . " 3 9 In e f f e c t , Rude's s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n i s an e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e one. He d i v i d e s the p o p u l a t i o n of P a r i s i n t o two unequal segments: the f i r s t , c o n s i s t i n g o f the c l e r g y , the n o b i l i t y , and the f i n a n c i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , m a n u f a c t u r i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e , he d e s i g n a t e d as the " p r i v i l e g e d o r w e a l t h i e r c l a s s e s " , and the s e c o n d , c o n s i s t i n g o f the r e s t o f the P a r i s i a n p o p u l a t i o n and encompassing a l l p o o r e r elements -- p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r some 90 per cent o f the c i t y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s -- as the s a n s - c u l o t t e s . h 0 Yet even t h i s s i m p l e d e f i n i t i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r , as Rude h i m s e l f r e c o g n i z e s , from 1792 the term s a n s - c u l o t t e was " a p p l i e d t o extreme R e p u b l i c a n s i n g e n e r a l -- even to t h o s e o f p e r s o n a l wealth." 1*' 1 M a z a u r i c a l s o b e l i e v e s tha t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s can be d e f i n e d in c l a s s t e rms . He i n s i s t s t h a t : the P a r i s i a n s a n s - c u l o t t e s formed n o t h i n g l e s s than a s o c i a l c l a s s , i f by t h i s term we mean men bound t o g e t h e r by a c e r t a i n common p o s i t i o n in the economic p r o c e s s and s u b j e c t to the same ' i d e o l o g i c a l t e n d e n c i e s . The s a n s - c u l o t t e is one who l i v e s by h i s work , whether he is a s a l a r i e d j ou rneyman , an o c c a s i o n a l d a y - l a b o r e r , a s e l f - e m p l o y e d a r t i s a n , o r a keeper o f h i s own shop . The re is no " c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " in the modern sense o f the w o r d . 1 * 2 It i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t " t h e r e is 'no c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' in the modern sense o f the w o r d " , f o r d e s p i t e M a z a u r i c ' s a s s e r t i o n t h e r e appears to e x i s t no c l a s s in any sense o f the word . The " c l a s s " which M a z a u r i c d e s c r i b e s is in f;act a s o c i a l l y he te rogeneous m i x t u r e o f lower m i d d l e c l a s s , p r o l e t a r i a n , i n d i g e n t t r a n s i e n t , and b o u r g e o i s e l e m e n t s . M a z a u r i c h i m s e l f p o i n t s ou t tha t among the s a n s - c u l o t t e master a r t i s a n s we " f i n d the independent a r t i s a n in easy c i r c u m s t a n c e s , such as Dup l a y , the j o i n e r , who c o l l e c t e d 10,000 l i v r e s income from h i s h o u s e s , o r 'Mauvage, the f anmaker , a m i l i t a n t s a n s - c u 1 o t t e . . . who owned a f an f a c t o r y , emp loy ing more than s i x t y w o r k e r s " 1 . 4 3 It seems c l e a r t h a t Duplay and Mauvage l i v e d from the p roceeds o f p r o p e r t y and the p r o f i t s o f e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y , but not by t h e i r own work . At the o t h e r end o f the sans-c u l o t t e s o c i a l spec t rum were the l a r g e number o f f o o t l e s s i n d i g e n t s who in p e r i o d s o f s h o r t a g e s l i v e d as beggars o r c r i m i n a l s by t h e i r w i t s r a t h e r than by t h e i r work. Yet M a z a u r i c h i m s e l f t e s t i f i e d t h a t these men and women " p l a y e d a d e c i s i v e r o l e in the p o p u l a r u p r i s i n g s , t r i g g e r e d by f a m i n e , in yea r II and e s p e c i a l l y yea r I I I."44 But l e t u s , w i t h a r e a s o n a b l e degree o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n , a c c e p t t ha t the m a j o r i t y o f s a n s - c u l o t t e s was n e i t h e r b o u r g e o i s nor i n d i g e n t . Can we c a l l the mass o f s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s , stemming f rom smal l a r t i s a n , shopkeeper o r t radesman s o c i a l backgrounds a s o c i a l c l a s s ? To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n l e t us t u rn to c e r t a i n b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n s o f s o c i a l c l a s s : The lower s t r a t a o f the m i d d l e c l a s s -- the sma l l t r a d e s p e o p l e , s h o p k e e p e r s , and r e t i r e d t radesmen g e n e r a l l y , the h a n d i c r a f t s m e n and peasan t s -- a l l t hese s i n k g r a d u a l l y i n t o the p r o l e t a r i a t , . Thus the p r o l e t a r i a t i s r e c r u i t e d from a l l c l a s s e s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . 1 * 5 And f u r t h e r : The lower m i d d l e c l a s s , the sma l l m a n u f a c t u r e r , the s h o p k e e p e r , the a r t i s a n , the p e a s a n t , a l l these f i g h t a g a i n s t the b o u r g e o i s i e , to save from e x t i n c t i o n t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as f r a c t i o n s o f the m i d d l e c l a s s . They a r e t h e r e f o r e not r e v o l u t i o n a r y , but c o n s e r v a t i v e . Nay, more , they a r e r e a c t i o n a r y , f o r they t r y to r o l l back the wheel o f h i s t o r y . If by chance they a re r e v o l u t i o n a r y they a r e so o n l y in v iew o f t h e i r impending t r a n s f e r i n t o the > p r o l e t a r i a t . 4 6 The above two c i t a t i o n s , quoted f rom the Communist M a n i f e s t o , i n d i c a t e tha t Marx and E n g e l s , the o r i g i n a t o r s o f the n o t i o n o f s o c i a l c l a s s in the modern sense o f the wo rd , d i d not c o n s i d e r t ha t the s o c i a l g roups o f sma l l t r a d e s p e o p l e , sma l l m a n u f a c t u r e r s , s h o p k e e p e r s , a r t i s a n s , v i z . the s o c i a l groups most w i d e l y r e p r e s e n t e d among the s a n s - c u l o t t e s , formed a s e p a r a t e s o c i a l c l a s s , but c o n s i d e r e d these g roups to be the lower s t r a t a o f the m i d d l e c l a s s . A d m i t t e d l y , Marx and Enge l s expec ted tha t w i t h the coming o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n these g roups would s i n k i n t o the p r o l e t a r i a t , but they a l s o c l e a r l y warned tha t in p r e - i n d u s t r i a 1 c o n d i t i o n s these s o c i a l g roups might p l a y a c o n s e r v a t i v e h i s t o r i c a l r o l e . T h u s , in c l a s s i c a l M a r x i s t terms the c h i e f s o c i a l g roups composing the r e v o l u t i o n a r y sans-c u l o t t e r i e cannot be c o n s i d e r e d to c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l c l a s s . It i s no tewor thy tha t the b a s i c a l l y backward-1ook ing economic a s p i r a t i o n s o f the s a n s - c u l o t t e s , l o o k i n g back to the s i m p l e , pre-^ r e v o l u t i o n a r y days o f the " j u s t p r i c e " , o f the sma l l market p l a c e , o f a s o c i e t y o f s m a l l , i n d i v i d u a l p r o d u c e r s , f i t we l l the Marx i an n o t i o n o f a c o n s e r v a t i v e lower m i d d l e c l a s s . But i f the s a n s - c u l o t t e is d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e in s o c i a l o r c l a s s 19 t e r m s , i f in economic terms he looked to e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y norms, how can he be d e f i n e d as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y ? Soboul p r o v i d e s a p a r t i a l answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n : The s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f a s a n s - c u l o t t e must be q u a l i f i e d by a p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n : they cannot be s e p a r a t e d . '"One can o n l y f i n d v i r t u e and p a t r i o t i s m " , announces the Pere Duchesne , "amongst the s a n s - c u l o t t e s : w i t h o u t them, the R e v o l u t i o n would be f i n i s h e d . The s a l v a t i o n o f the R e p u b l i c l i e s in t h e i r h a n d s . " Here the word s a n s - c u l o t t e i s used as a synonym f o r p a t r i o t and r e p u b l i c a n . For the s a n s - c u l o t t e , i t was not s i m p l y a q u e s t i o n o f d e s c r i b i n g o n e s e l f as a s a n s - c u l o t t e , . . . , i t was a q u e s t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l c o n d u c t . "*' Two p o i n t s s t and out in S o b o u l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s a n s - c u l o t t e : f i r s t , the s a n s - c u l o t t e may be d e f i n e d in p o l i t i c a l terms as a p a t r i o t and a r e p u b l i c a n , w i t h o u t whom the R e v o l u t i o n and the r e p u b l i c would p e r i s h , and s e c o n d l y , the s a n s - c u l o t t e may be d e f i n e d not m e r e l y i i n p o l i t i c a l t e rms , but in dynamic p o l i t i c a l t e r m s , as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t o r . But how then does the s a n s - c u l o t t e d i f f e r f rom the s i m i l a r l y p o l i t i c a l l y d e f i n e d J a c o b i n ? To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n we must a g a i n r e t u r n to an e a r l i e r a s p e c t o f our a rgument . U n l i k e the J a c o b i n , the s a n s - c u l o t t e , a l t h o u g h p r e - e m i n e n t l y a p o l i t i c a l c r e a t u r e , r e c e i v e d h i s o r i g i n a l impetus f o r a c t i o n f rom economic c a u s e s . B e fo r e he was p o l i t i c i z e d , the sans- c u l o t t e was u s u a l l y a s i m p l e urban sma l l man, who wan ted , b e f o r e a l l e l s e , s t a b l e food p r i c e s and p l e n t i f u l f ood s u p p l i e s . As a s a n s - c u l o t t e he s tood a g a i n s t f o r c e s which menaced him d i r e c t l y , but wh ich he c o u l d n e i t h e r unde r s t and nor c o n t r o l . T h i s is why the s a n s - c u l o t t e ' s c h i e f enemies were i n f l a t i o n and d e a r t h , wh ich he p e r s o n a l i z e d as c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n a r y s p e c u l a t o r s and food hoa rde r s ( a c c a p a r e u r s ) . In a p o s i t i v e sense the s a n s - c u l o t t e s tood f o r the p romise o f f r e e d o m , 20 which he unde r s tood the R e v o l u t i o n to make to him p e r s o n a l l y : the s a n s - c u l o t t e , a l i t t l e man, would h e n c e f o r t h , as a member o f the " p e o p l e " o r the " n a t i o n " , as a d e f e n d e r o f the p a t r i e , have the power o f d e c i s i o n ove r h i s own a c t i o n s . Popu l a r s o v e r e i g n t y , the b a s i c p o l i t i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l i n n o v a t i o n o f the R e v o l u t i o n , had , in the pe r son o f the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e , reached the p e o p l e . The s a n s - c u l o t t e u n d e r s t o o d p o p u l a r s o v e r e i g n t y to a p p l y to h i m s e l f and t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d h i s own a c t i v i t i e s as r e v o l u t i o n a r y , and c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y any one o r any group tha t s tood a g a i n s t h im. Soboul has p o i n t e d ou t t ha t the s a n s - c u l o t t e c o n c e p t i o n o f u n r e s t r i c t e d p o p u l a r s o v e r e i g n t y l ed to the p r a c t i c e o f d i r e c t government by the s m a l l e s t armed s a n s - c u l o t t e u n i t s ( the s e c t i o n en  permanence , o r armed s e c t i o n in P a r i s ) , and tha t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s a t t a c h e d g r e a t e r impor tance to l o c a l a f f a i r s , to c o n t r o l l i n g the communal a s s e m b l i e s , the g e n e r a l a s s e m b l i e s , and p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s in the P a r i s s e c t i o n s , than to n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . 4 8 In a l a r g e body o f p u b l i s h e d work R i c h a r d Cobb has i n t r o d u c e d a v e r y impor t an t change o f emphasis i n t o the s tudy o f p o p u l a r movements d u r i n g the R e v o l u t i o n . He has i n s i s t e d not o n l y on examin ing the a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s o f the common peop l e d u r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a -- as Rude and Soboul have a l s o done — but has moved h i s main f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h o u t s i d e P a r i s . He is the f i r s t h i s t o r i a n to s tudy the s a n s - c u l o t t e s in the p r o v i n c e s . C o b b ' s work is based on a l a r g e s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l from a v a r i e t y o f p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s ; in t h i s way he i s a b l e to examine c e r t a i n e s t a b l i s h e d h i s t o r i c a l i s s u e s f rom a new p e r s p e c t i v e . Cobb emphas izes the e s s e n t i a l l y l o c a l , f r agmen ta r y c h a r a c t e r o o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o p u l a r movements, and i n s i s t s tha t they never had much hope o f i n f l u e n c i n g n a t i o n a l e v e n t s . 1 * 9 A c c o r d i n g to him " t h e deve lopment o f the s a n s - c u l o t t e movement d u r i n g 1793 was e n t i r e l y a c c i d e n t a l and a r o s e 21 f rom the c o n v e n i e n t p r e t e x t o f t o t a l m o b i l i z a t i o n and e m e r g e n c y . " 5 0 In the p r o v i n c e s the s a n s - c u l o t t e s were o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i r own, o f t e n p e t t y , l o c a l c o n c e r n s , and were i n c a p a b l e o f t h i n k i n g in n a t i o n a l t e r m s . 5 1 T h u s , C o b b ' s f i n d i n g s on the l o c a l l y o r i e n t e d conce rns o f p r o v i n c i a l s ans- cu 1ot_tes ,agrees w i t h S o b o u l ' s f i n d i n g s on the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s ; though p r e d i c t a b l y , the p r o v i n c i a l s a n s - c u l o t t e s , removed f rom the c e n t r a l s t a g e o f n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , were even more p a r o c h i a l than t h e i r P a r i s b r e t h r e n . 5 2 In the f i n a l account ing ' - , ' , the s a n s - c u l o t t e s r e p r e s e n t e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y v i o l e n c e a t i t s most b a s i c p o p u l a r , l o c a l l e v e l , and as such may perhaps bes t be d e f i n e d in terms o f temperament and m e n t a l i t y r a t h e r than in s o c i a l o r even s t r i c t l y p o l i t i c a l t e rms . The s a n s - c u l o t t e s , in the d i s o r g a n i z e d c o n d i t i o n s o f l a t e 1 7 9 3 and e a r l y 179** r e p r e s e n t e d , in C o b b ' s w o r d s ; a form o f ' p o p u l a r f e d e r a l i s m 1 . . . a n a r c h i c a l and u n d i s c i p l i n e d , i t a t t r a c t e d men o f a c e r t a i n t y p e , i n s t e a d o f a c e r t a i n s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n : i t a t t r a c t e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y o p t i m i s t s , z e a l o t s , and w i l d men, the ' p e r f e c t i o n i s t s ' o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d , who b e l i e v e d in t a k i n g on e v e r y t h i n g and everybody a t once and who, in the gove rnmen t ' s v iew d i d not know where to s t o p . 5 3 3 IV Hav ing d e f e a t e d the G i r o n d i n s , the Montagnards were y e t f a c e d w i t h an a r r a y o f p r o b l e m s . In o r d e r to f e e d , c l o t h e and s u p p l y the a rmies d e f e n d i n g F rance a g a i n s t o u t s i d e enemies, they had to o r g a n i z e d e f f e c t i v e l y the i n t e r n a l economic and p o l i t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c o u n t r y . But the g r e a t Montagnard c e n t r a l i z i n g i n i t i a t i v e was f ough t t o o t h and n a i l by a number o f l o c a l l y b a s e d c i n t e r e s t s . The c l e a r e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s l o c a l i s t r e a c t i o n were the f e d e r a l i s t r e v o l t s o f the summer o f 1 7 9 3 . Loca l i n t e r e s t s r e a c t e d a g a i n s t the p r e s e n c e o f c e n t r a l government a g e n t s ; a g a i n s t economic p o l i c i e s wh ich f a v o u r e d the i n t e r e s t s o f the J a c o b i n s ' u rban s a n s - c u l o t t e a l l i e s , 22 but i n j u r e d the i n t e r e s t s o f the r u r a l p roduce r s and o f the p r o v i n c i a l commerc ia l c l a s s e s ; and a g a i n s t the mass m i l i t a r y r e c r u i t m e n t o r d e r s o f e a r l y 1793-Tha t the Mounta in emerged v i c t o r i o u s a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l i s t r e v o l t s , wh ich b roke out in some s i x t y depar tments and v i r t u a l l y a l l l a r g e p r o v i n c i a l c i t i e s , p r o v i d e s c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e tha t the Montagnard l e a d e r s h i p ' s e a r l y i n i t i a t i v e s toward c e n t r a l i z a t i o n were s u c c e s s f u l . The d i s o r g a n i z e d , i n d e c i s i v e , h i g h l y f ragmented f e d e r a l i s t s were c o n t a i n e d in t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l s t r o n g h o l d s , and were d e a l t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l l y by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n , who were in d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y , by p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s in s t eady communica t ion w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h the J a c o b i n C lub in P a r i s , and by e n t h u s i a s t i c J a c o b i n and s a n s - c u l o t t e t r oops o f the r e p u b l i c a n a r m i e s . 5 4 But f e d e r a l i s m was o n l y the f i r s t o f the major c h a l l e n g e s f a c e d by the Mon tagna rds . The s a n s - c u l o t t e s , as we have s e e n , s tood f o r the p o l i t i c a l i d e a l o f d i r e c t p o p u l a r democracy and the economic i d e a l o f s t r i c t p r i c e c o n t r o l s f a v o u r i n g the u r b a n , in p a r t i c u l a r in P a r i s , menu p e u p l e . These s a n s - c u l o t t e i d e a l s were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n th rough the p e r i o d i c s a n s - c u l o t t e j o u r n e e s , the l a s t o f wh ich ( p r e v i o u s to the f a l l o f the Montagnard d i c t a t o r s h i p in T h e r m i d o r , Year l l ) on September k, 1793, f o r c e d the Mounta in to p romu lga te the "maximum g e n e r a l . A l ong w i t h the maximum, the Montagnards a l s o agreed w i t h s a n s - c u l o t t e demands f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the s a n s - c u l o t t e armees r e v o l u t ionna i r e s , wh ich were to a c t as e x e c u t i v e agen ts to e n f o r c e the m a x i m u m . 5 5 In t h e i r e f f o r t s to e n f o r c e the maximum in the c o u n t r y s i d e , the urban s a n s - c u l o t t e s o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a rm ies became f e a r e d and r e s e n t e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y in a r ea s which had food s u p p l y s u r p l u s e s . As Cobb has s t a t e d : 23 l a p l u p a r t des c u l t i v a t e u r s d e v a i e n t s ' o p p o s e r de l e u r mieux a une p o l i t i q u e congue dans l ' i n t e r e t de l a v i l l e . 5 6 Whether as e n f o r c e r s o f the maximum, p o p u l a r d e c h r i s t i a n i z e r s , or p o l i t i c a l shock t r oops a c t i n g a g a i n s t f e d e r a l i s t i n s u r r e c t i o n , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a rmies o p e r a t e d in an independent manner , on t h e i r own r e s p o s i b i 1 i t y and d i s p e n s e d t e r r o r au tonomous l y . But i t was not o n l y the u r b a n , e s p e c i a l l y the P a r i s , s a n s - c u l o t t e s who a c t ed in an independent manner in the p r o v i n c e s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n , chosen f o r t h e i r t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s and J a c o b i n s y m p a t h i e s , o f t e n unde r took to a c t q u i t e independent1y o f the c e n t r a l government . C a r r i e r ' s t e r r o r i s t a c t s in the Vendee , F o u c h e ' s d e c h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n in N i e v r e , B a r r a s ' s and F r e r o n ' s t e r r o r i s m in M a r s e i l l e s were a l l autonomous i n i t i a t i v e s , w i t h o u t P a r i s a p p r o v a l . In l a t e 1793 the a u t h o r i t y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n was misused (i>n o t h e r ways as w e l l . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s competed w i t h each o t h e r in p r o c u r i n g food s u p p l i e s and in o v e r s e e i n g the o p e r a t i o n s o f the a rmies and o f c i v i l i a n a u t h o r i t i e s . With i l l - d e f i n e d a u t h o r i t y , o f t e n o v e r l a p p i n g m i l i t a r y and c i v i l i a n j u r i s d i c t i o n s , and w i t h the i n e v i t a b l e a m b i t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s more a c u t e l y i n t e r e s t e d in t h e i r own p e r s o n a l advancement and en r i chment than in the good o f the r e p u b l i c , t h i s was v i r t u a l l y u n a v o i d a b l e . 5 7 N e i t h e r d i d - r e v o l u t i o n a r y l o c a l i s m and r e g i o n a l i s m d i s a p p e a r w i t h the de6£a£t o f the f e d e r a l i s t s . P r o v i n c i a l J a c o b i n s and s a n s - c u l o t t e s , many o f whom had s u f f e r e d a t the hands o f the f e d e r a l i s t s , o f t e n assumed t h a t f o l l o w i n g the d e f e a t o f f e d e r a l i s m they c o u l d a c t as autonomous l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Congresses o f p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s , power fu l J a c o b i n C lubs o f the c i t i e s , p r o v i n c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i e s , p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a r t r i b u n a l s and v i g i l a n c e commit tees a l l had t h e i r own n o t i o n s about the meaning o f 24 r e v o l u t i o n a r y government . In the o p i n i o n o f the Montagnard l e a d e r s h i p , such c e n t r i f u g a l p o l i t i c a l t e n d e n c i e s added up to a dangerous d e c e n t r a l i z i n g movement which t h r e a t e n e d to rend asunder the M o u n t a i n ' s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e . To conduct the war e f f e c t i v e l y , the two r u l i n g e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e s , wh ich in l a t e 1793 ga i ned comp le t e ascendency o v e r the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , came to b e l i e v e in the n e c e s s i t y o f d e a l i n g s e v e r e l y w i t h a l l e l ements whose a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e n t i o n a l l y o r u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , opposed the u l t i m a t e goa l o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an e f f e c t i v e , c e n t r a l i z e d and n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . With the p r o m u l g a t i o n o f the law o f 14 f r i m a i r e , d e f i n i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the temporary war d i c t a t o r s h i p , a s t r i c t a u t h o r i t a r i a n c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d , a t l e a s t in t h e o r y . To make the t heo r y r e a l i t y the T e r r o r was u s e d . 5 8 What was the T e r r o r ? We have a r r i v e d at the p o i n t where we must a t tempt to d e f i n e i t . We have a l r e a d y o f f e r e d a p a r t i a l , l a r g e l y t h e o r e t i c a l p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n when we a s s e r t e d , f o l l o w i n g T a i n e and Cobban , t ha t the T e r r o r accompanied the R e v o l u t i o n f rom the b e g i n n i n g , t h a t t h i s meant , f o l l o w i n g R o b e s p i e r r e ' s con tempora ry d e f i n i t i o n , the e x e r c i s e o f " p r o m p t , s e v e r e i n f l e x i b l e j u s t i c e " a g a i n s t a l l forms o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n , and t h a t , as Hampson has s u g g e s t e d , the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were w i l l i n g to take any a c t i o n , pay any p r i c e f o r the v i c t o r y o f the R e v o l u t i o n . 5 9 It i s e v i d e n t , t h e n , t ha t the T e r r o r , as f a r as the i n d i v i d u a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y was c o n c e r n e d , was based on a se t o f mental a t t i t u d e s , a frame o f mind wh ich he lped him d e f i n e h i m s e l f as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y by h i s i n f l e x i b l e s t a n d , m i r r o r e d in a c t i o n and in s p e e c h , a g a i n s t any r e a l o r s u s p e c t e d forms o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the T e r r o r in terms o f mental a t t i t u d e s b r i n g s us back to C o b b ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y and e s p e c i a l l y a s a n s - c u l o t t e in terms o f temperament and m e n t a l i t y . 6 0 T e r r o r was an e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t o f s a n s - c u l o t t e r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n s . In the form o f armed crowds d i s p e n s i n g r a p i d , m e r c i l e s s j u s t i c e to c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , o f r e l e n t l e s s , p e r i p a t e t i c r e v o l u t i o n a r y a rmies accompanied by t r a v e l l i n g g u i l l o t i n e s , o r o f m i l i t a r y c o m m i s s i o n s , o f t e n manned by P a r i s sans- cu l o t t e s , d i s p a t c h i n g ba t ches o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s to the g u i l l o t i n e in r e g i o n s o f c i v i l war , the T e r r o r was the weapon o f the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s in a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s form o f the T e r r o r was spontaneous and d e m o c r a t i c in the most e s s e n t i a l sense o f the wordd But i t was a l s o c o n c e i v e d in terms o f narrow l o c a l i n t e r e s t s , and was f ragmented and p a r o c h i a l -- as were the s a n s - c u l o t t e s t h e m s e l v e s . As both Cobb and Soboul have o b s e r v e d , g r a s s - r o o t s s a n s - c u l o t t e T e r r o r was i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the s u c c e s s f u l conduc t o f the war and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c e n t r a l i z e d , e f f i c i e n t g o v e r n m e n t . 6 1 Cobb has f o r m u l a t e d t h i s v iew in a c l e a r and s u c c i n c t manner : The c o n f l i c t between the J a c o b i n d i c t a t o r s h i p and the p o p u l a r movement, the p a r t i n g o f the ways between the r o b e s p i e r r i s t s and the s a n s - c u l o t t e s , was much more than has o f t e n been s u g g e s t e d . Programme p l a yed l i t t l e p a r t in t h i s d i v o r c e , nor can any ' i n e v i t a b i l i t y ' o f c o n f l i c t be d i s c o v e r e d in terms o f c l a s s . The two s i d e s r e p r e s e n t e d forms o f government (un-government might be a b e t t e r term to d e s c r i b e the communal ism o f the p o p u l a r m i l i t a n t s ) tha t c o u l d not c o - e x i s t f o r more than a few months . It took the c e n t r a l government some t ime to r e a l i z e what was go ing on in the Departments i t was un in fo rmed or m i s i n f o r m e d -- and a good dea l l o n g e r to make i t s w i l l f e l t and to put an end to the v a r i o u s expe r imen t s in p o p u l a r government . No government can t o l e r a t e ana rchy i n d e f i n i t e l y , and tha t o f the yea r II had both the w i l l and the means o f p u t t i n g an end to i t and o f s u b j e c t i n g F rance to a s i n g l e c e n t r a l i m p u l s i o n . 6 2 In e a r l y 179** the d i c t a t o r s h i p o f the Montagnard commit tees took the T e r r o r out o f the hands o f the v a r i o u s p o p u l a r e lements which p r e v i o u s l y e x e r c i s e d i t and tu rned i t a g a i n s t a l l enemies o f the new war d i c t a t o r s h i p . The s a n s - c u l o t t e s , by s t a n d i n g f o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d , d i r e c t p e o p l e ' s gove rnment , s tood in the way o f the M o u n t a i n ' s a u t h o r i t a r i a n c e n t r a l i z i n g i m p u l s e , and thus themse lves f e l l v i c t i m to the Montagnard T e r r o r . As Soboul has s t a t e d , "The s a n s - c u l o t t e s had asked f o r a s t r o n g government to c r u s h the a r i s t o c r a c y ; they never c o n s i d e r e d t h a t , in o r d e r to do t h i s , i t would be f o r c e d to d i s c i p l i n e the p o p u l a r m o v e m e n t . " 6 3 The Montagnards used T e r r o r , a d m i n i s t e r e d b u r e a u c r a t i c a l l y th rough the P a r i s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l , and th rough t r u s t w o r t h y agents o f the r u l i n g commit tees in the p r o v i n c e s , f i n a l l y to e s t a b l i s h an a u t h o r i t a r i a n war r e p u b l i c . Not o n l y the p o p u l a r movement, but a l l o t h e r c e n t r i f u g a l impu lses wh ich t h r e a t e n e d the Montagnard war r e p u b l i c were d e a l t w i t h m e r c i l e s s l y . D a n t o n i s t s , H e b e r t i s t s , r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i e s , c o n g r e s s e s o f p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s , independent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n , a l l f e l l v i c t i m to the M o u n t a i n ' s c e n t r a l i z i n g i m p u l s e . T h u s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the two b a s i c p o l i t i c a l impu lses o f l o c a l i s m and c e n t r a l i s m s u r v i v e d the a n c i e n r eg ime , remained impor tan t d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f the R e v o l u t i o n , and tha t the o p p o s i t i o n between them was one o f the c h i e f i s s u e s o f the Age o f the T e r r o r . V The s tudy o f m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s in s o u t h e r n F r ance has been , u n t i l now, a r e l a t i v e l y n e g l e c t e d f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h . R e c e n t l y , a group o f h i s t o r i a n s have p u b l i s h e d some a r t i c l e s about m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n in the M id i , under the d i r e c t i o n o f J acques G o d e c h o t . 6 1 * Bas ing h i s o p i n i o n on these s t u d i e s , Godechot has obse r ved tha t " l e M id i e t a i t , en g e n e r a l , p l u s p r o g r e s s i s t e en p o l i t i q u e , que l e nord de l a F r a n c e , " 6 5 and tha t many s o u t h e r n m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , roo ted in the a n c i e n  reg ime, s u r v i v e d the R e v o l u t i o n , and became b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f modern F r ench d e m o c r a c y . 6 5 A s tudy o f M a r s e i l l e s p r o v i d e s a deg ree o f f u r t h e r p r o o f f o r G o d e c h o t ' s a s s e r t i o n s . M a r s e i l l e s ' m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t r ans fo rmed d u r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a , but u n d e r l y i n g a l l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s was a deep-sea t ed l o c a l m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m . Because o f i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e f rom the c a p i t a l , o f the r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d a t e -- l a t e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y -- o f i t s a b s o r p t i o n by the monarchy , and o f i t s e x t e n s i v e p a r t i c u l a r p r i v i l e g e s which s u r v i v e d i n t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a , l o c a l i s t s en t imen t s were ve r y s t r o n g in M a r s e i l l e s . They found e x p r e s s i o n th rough r e v o l u t i o n a r y m u n i c i p a l ism between 1 7 8 9 and 1 7 9 3 , p a r t l y r e v e r t e d to the more r i g i d p a r t i c u l a r i s m o f the a n c i e n reg ime d u r i n g the f e d e r a l i s t i n t e r l u d e o f the summer o f 1 7 9 3 , but were a l s o exp res sed th rough the s t r o n g r e g i o n a l i s t p o s i t i o n o f the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s . How l o c a l i s m and r e g i o n a l i s m were e x p r e s s e d in M a r s e i l l e s d u r i n g the R e v o l u t i o n , and how the Montagnards d e a l t w i t h i t i s the main s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , my approach to the prob lem o f M a r s e i l l e s locar l i sm has been hampered by the f a c t t ha t I d i d not have a c c e s s to l o c a l a r c h i v a l s o u r c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y I was f o r c e d to use m a i n l y p r i n t e d p r imary s o u r c e s , and the work o f l o c a l h i s t o r i a n s . N o n e t h e l e s s , I b e l i e v e t ha t t h i s s t udy has v a l u e , s i n c e i t i s the f i r s t e f f o r t to a p p l y c e r t a i n r e c e n t g e n e r a l hypotheses on the T e r r o r , the p o p u l a r movements, the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f J a c o b i n s and G i r o n d i n s , and f e d e r a l i s m , to the p a r t i c u l a r c a se o f M a r s e i l l e s . Some o f the r e s u l t s o f t h i s e f f o r t shou ld h e l p to throw a sma l l measure o f new l i g h t on c e r t a i n b a s i c i s s u e s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y , most i m p o r t a n t l y the r e l a t i o n o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and l o c a l l y based r e a c t i o n d u r i n g the e r a o f the T e r r o r . 2 8 NOTES FOR CHAPTER I. 1. John B o s h e r , " F r e n c h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and P u b l i c F i n a n c e in t h e i r European S e t t i n g " , in The New Cambr idge Modern H i s t o r y , volume V I I I , The Amer i can and F rench R e v o l u t i o n s 1 7 6 3 " 9 3 , e d . A . Goodwi n, Cambr idge , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 , p. 5 6 5 -2 . I b i d . , pp . 5 6 5 - 5 9 1 . 3 . P i e r r e G o u b e r t , L'Ancien Regime, Tome I: La S o c i e t e , C o l l e c t i o n U, S e r i e " H i s t o i r e moderne " d i r i g e e par P. G o u b e r t , P a r i s , Armand C o l i n , 1 9 6 9 , pp . 2 2 - 2 3 . 4 . A l f r e d Cobban , A s p e c t s o f the F rench R e v o l u t i o n , London , J ona than Cape , 1 9 6 8 , p. 6 8 . 5 . I b i d . , p. 6 8 . 6 . I b i d . , pp . 7 0 - 7 1 . 7 . J ean E g r e t , " The P r e - R e v o l u t i o n in P r o v e n c e " , in J e f f r y Kap low, New P e r s p e c t i v e s on the F rench R e v o l u t i o n , New Y o r k , John W i l e y , 1 9 6 5 , p. 1 5 3 . 8 . A l e x i s de ITocquevi 11 e , The Old Regime and the F rench R e v o l u t i o n , t r a n s l . by S t u a r t G i l b e r t , New Y o r k , Doubleday A n c h o r , 1 9 5 5 , p. 60 . 9 . Cobban , o p . c i t . , pp . 7 6 ~ 7 7 -1 0 . Georges L e f e b v r e , The Coming o f the F rench RgVMu't: i o r i , 1 7 8 9 - t r . R.R. Pa lmer , New Y o r k , V intage-Random House , 1 9 4 7 , p. 7 1 . 1 1 . A l f r e d Cobban , The N a t i o n S t a t e and N a t i o n a l S e i f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n , London , Col 1 i n s - F o n t a n a , 1 9 6 9 , P- 35-1 2 . Cobban , A s p e c t s . . . , pp . 9 9 ~ 1 1 1 . 13- P i e r r e G o u b e r t , L o u i s XIV and Twenty M i l l i o n Frenchmen, t r . Anne C a r t e r , New Y o r k , V intage-Random House , 1 9 7 2 , p. 5 3 . Gouber t s t a t e s t ha t " as soon as the o l d C a p e t i a n domains o f the I l e - d e - F r a n c e , P i c a r d y , Champagne and the L o i r e were l e f t b e h i n d , the t r a v e l l e r p e n e t r a t e d i n t o p r o v i n c e s where the k i n g ' s a u t h o r i t y was l i m i t e d . . . R igh t up u n t i l 1 6 6 1 , L o u i s had been s i m p l y Count o f P rovence and Duke o f B r i t t a n y . " L e f e b v r e , op_. c i t . , pp . 1 0 7 — 1 1 3 -Cobban , A s p e c t s . . . , pp . 1 1 4 - 1 1 6 . Cobban , A s p e c t s . . . , pp . 115~116. 14. 1 5 . 29 16. I b i d . , p. 118. 17. George Rude, " The Bread R i o t s o f May 1775 in P a r i s and the P a r i s R e g i o n " , in Kaplow, op_. c i t . , pp . 1 9 1 - 1 9 3 . 18. R.B. Rose , " 1 8 t h Cen tu r y P r i c e R i o t s , the F rench R e v o l u t i o n and the J a c o b i n Maximum", I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review o f S o c i a l H i s t o r y , 4, 1 9 5 9 , pp . ^ 3 2 - 4 3 5 . 1 9 . Gw. A . W i l l i a m s , A r t i s a n s ' and S a n s - c u l o t t e s , New Y o r k , N o r t o n , 1 9 6 9 . 20 . I b i d . , p. 24 . 21 . Rose , op_. c i t . , p. 432 . 2 2 . Cobban , A s p e c t s . . . , p. 4 5 . 23 . Norman Hampson, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f the F rench R e v o l u t i o n , T o r o n t o , U. o f T . , 1963, p. 137. 2 4 . , M a x i m i l i a n R o b e s p i e r r e , quoted in Cobban , A s p e c t s . . . , p. 1 6 9 . 25. See Hampson, op_. c i t . , pp . 1 3 2 - 1 5 4 , o r Cobban , A s p e c t s . . . , p p . 1 1 2 - 1 3 0 . 2 6 . Hampson, op_. c i t . , pp . 141-143. 2 7 . I b i d . , pp . 144-148. 2 8 . A l b e r t S o b o u l , The P a r i s i a n Sans-Cu1ot tes and the F rench  R e v o l u t i o n , t r . Gwynne L e w i s , O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n , 1964, pp . 120-142. 2 9 . A l f r e d Cobban , A H i s t o r y o f Modern F r a n c e , Volume I: 1715-1799, Pengu in Books , 1968, p. 223 . 30 . A l b e r t M a t h i e z , La v i e c h e r e et l e mouvement s o c i a l sous l a T e r r e u r , P a r i s , P a y o t , 1927-3 1 . I b i d . , p. 6 0 8 . 3 2 . I b i d . , pp . 609-611. 33 . The idea o f a c o n c e r t e d J a c o b i n d r i v e f o r power i s a r e s u l t o f r e c e n t r e s e a r c h , e s p e c i a l l y by M. J . Sydenham; see Sydenham, The F rench  R e v o l u t i o n , London , Me thuen-U . P . , pp . 129"130 & pp . 160-161, a l s o see a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f Sydenham's ideas in C h . IV, p p . 8 5 - 8 6 . o f t h i s t h e s i s . 34. see f . n . 33 above . 35- Crane C . B r i n t o n , The J a c o b i n s , New Y o r k , M a c m i l l a n , 1930, p. 37 . 36 . Georges L e f e b v r e , The F rench R e v o l u t i o n f rom 1 7 9 3 t o 1799, t r . J . H . S tewar t 6 J . F r i g u g l i e t t i , New Y o r k , C o l u m b i a , 1967, pp . 47-49 . 3 7 . Hampson, o p . c i t . , pp . 1 7 2 - 1 9 8 . 3 8 . George Rude, The Crowd in the F rench R e v o l u t i o n , O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 5 9 , p. 1 2 , f . n . 5 . 39- I b i d . , p. 1 2 . 40. I b i d . , p. 12. 41 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 , f . n . 5-42. C l aude M a z a u r i c , " The S a n s - C u l o t t e s and The F rench R e v o l u t i o n " , in Kaplow, o p . c i t . , p. 2 3 0 . 4 3 . I b i d . , p. 2 3 0 . 4 4 . I b i d . , p. 2 3 0 . 4 5 . Ka r l Marx and F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s , " M a n i f e s t o o f the Communist P a r t y " , in Marx and E n g e l s , S e l e c t e d Works, Moscow, P r o g r e s s , 1 9 6 8 , p. 42. 46. I b i d . , p. 4 4 . 4 7 . S o b o u l , op_. c i t . , p. 4 7 . 48. I b i d . , pp . 9 9 - 1 0 0 , p . 1 2 0 . 4 9 . R i c h a r d C . Cobb , The Pol i c e and the P e o p l e , F rench Popu l a r P r o t e s t  1 7 8 9 - 1 8 2 0 , O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 7 0 , p . - X V ! , 5 0 . I b i d . , p. 1 7 6 . 51 . I b i d . , p. 1 8 2 . 5 2 . I b i d . , p. 1 8 2 . 5 3 - I b i d . , p. 1 8 1 . 5 4 . See Chap te r IV o f t h i s t h e s i s . 5 5 - R i c h a r d C. Cobb , Les armees r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s . Instrument de l a T e r r e u r dans l e s d e p a r t e m e n t s , v o l . I, P a r i s , Mouton , 1 9 6 1 , pp . 5 4 - 5 8 . 5 6 . I b i d . , v o l . I I , p. 4 0 5 . 5 7 . See Chap te r V of t h i s t h e s i s , pp . l32- l3<&. 5 8 . See Chap t e r VI o f t h i s t h e s i s , pp . I 5 4 - I 5 7 . 5 9 - See above , f . n . 2 2 , 2 3 & 24. 6 0 . See above f . n . 5 3 , and R i c h a r d C . Cobb , "Some A s p e c t s o f the R e v o l u t i o n a r y M e n t a l i t y ( A p r i l 1 7 9 3 - T h e r m i d o r , Year I l ) " , in Kap low, o p . c i t . , pp . 3 0 5 _ 3 3 7 . 31 6 1 . S o b o u l , op_. c i t . , p. 2 5 0 & Cobb , The Pol i c e . . . , pp . 1 7 6 - 1 9 5 -6 2 . Cobb , The Pol i c e . . . , p. 1 8 4 . 6 3 . S o b o u l , op_. c i t . , p. 2 5 0 . 64. Anna l e s du M i d i , Tome 84, No. 1 0 9 , O c t . - D e c , 1 9 7 2 , pp . 3 6 3 - 4 9 2 . 6 5 . I b i d . , J a cques Godecho t , " L e s murv.iic i pa 1 i t es du M id i avant e t ap res la R e v o l u t i o n , " p. 3 6 7 . 6 6 . I b i d . , pp . 3 6 6 - 3 6 7 . PART TWO the B e g i n n i n g o f the R e v o l u t i o n the End o f F e d e r a l i s m CHAPTER II - The R i v a l r y o f A i x and M a r s e i l l e s ; M a r s e i l l e s , t he B a s t i o n o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n R e g i o n ; Growth o f M a r s e i l l e s ' M u n i c i p a l ism and R e g i o n a l i s m I One o f the o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e French R e v o l u t i o n on the M e d i t e r r a n e a n seaboard was the c o n f l i c t between t h e l a r g e commercial c i t y M a r s e i l l e s and the a n c i e n regime a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e A i x - e n - P r o v e n c e . By no means uniq u e t o P r o v e n c e , t h i s c o n f l i c t had c o u n t e r p a r t s i n B r i t t a n y where the l a r g e commercial p o r t Nantes c h a l l e n g e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e Rennes, and i n Auvergne where Clermont and Riom engaged i n a s t r u g g l e f o r p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . A l t h o u g h the M a r s e i 1 1 e s - A i x c o n f l i c t had s t r o n g s o c i a l o v e r t o n e s , the A i x e l i t e b e i n g h e a v i l y a r i s t o c r a t i c and the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s b e i n g a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y drawn from the i n t e l l e c t u a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and commercial b o u r g e o i s i e , t h e c o n f l i c t was i n es s e n c e p o l i t i c a l and r e g i o n a l . The M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , g a i n i n g independence from the r o y a l i s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e l i t e o f A i x i n e a r l y 1 7 9 0 , c a r r i e d t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n beyond t h e c o n f i n e s o f M a r s e i l l e s . In the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n a r c h y o f 1 7 9 0 - 9 2 they were f r e e t o do t h i s . The M a r s e i l l e s e f f o r t on b e h a l f o f the r e v o l u t i o n was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a d r i v e f o r r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l and from the b e g i n n i n g was based i n p a r t on l o c a l p r i d e . T h i s M a r s e i 1 1 e s from U n t l 1 l o c a l m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m was r e e n f o r c e d by the l a c k o f s e r i o u s c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n M a r s e i l l e s from mid-1790 u n t i l mid-1792 : when the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s compared t h e a p p a r e n t l y u n i f i e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y consensus of t h e i r c i t y w i t h the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a n a r c h y p r e v a i l i n g i n much o f t h e s o u t h e a s t , they f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n c o n g r a t u l a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s . M a r s e i l l e s ' r e v o l u t i o n a r y u n i t y depended on the p r o s p e r i t y o f M a r s e i l l e s ' commerce, wh i c h i n s u r e d the adherence o f the commercial b o u r g e o i s i e t o t h e R e v o l u t i o n , and on the p r o v i s i o n o f adequate food s u p p l i e s and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p r i c e s which i n s u r e d the adherence o f the lower c l a s s e s t o the R e v o l u t i o n . M a r s e i l l e s remained a r e l a t i v e l y u n i f i e d c i t y u n t i l t he f i r s t h a l f o f 1792, when t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were f i r s t s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d . In t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l t r a c e the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e between M a r s e i l l e s and A i x d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n and the d r i v e o f the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a g a i n s t c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n , a d r i v e w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n the M a r s e i l l e s F e d e r e s ' e x p e d i t i o n t o P a r i s i n 1792. I I In 1789 M a r s e i l l e s was the t h i r d l a r g e s t c i t y o f F r a n c e , a f t e r P a r i s and L y o n s , and was the l a r g e s t commercial s e a p o r t on the M e d i t e r r a n e a n . The o n l y o t h e r French p o r t comparable w i t h M a r s e i l l e s i n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n and w e a l t h was Bordeaux, but Bordeaux was o n l y one o f s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o r t s on the A t l a n t i c c o a s t , w h i l e M a r s e i l l e s was t h e o n l y i m p o r t a n t F r e n c h commercial p o r t on t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t . 1 M a r s e i l l e s was s i t u a t e d i n t h e c o u n t y o f Provence and the g e n e r a l i t e 34 o f A i x . The two h i g h e s t c o n s t i t u t e d b o d i e s o f Provence -- a pays d ' e t a t --were t h e P a r l e m e n t of A i x and the Assembly o f Communities. The i n t e n d a n t o f A i x , r e p r e s e n t i n g r o y a l power, h e l d the p o s i t i o n o f P r e m i e r - P r e s i d e n t of the P a r l e m e n t , and the A r c h b i s h o p o f A i x p r e s i d e d o v e r the Assembly of C o m m u n i t i e s . 2 In A i x , a l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l b u r e a u c r a c y , c o n t a i n i n g both n o b l e s s e de robe and r o t u r i e r (commoner) elements had grown up. In the Parlement n o b l e s were i n the m a j o r i t y , w h i l e the Assembly o f Communities c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y o f lawyers and s m a l l town a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . W h i l e the P a r l e m e n t was the more p r e s t i g i o u s of t h e two b o d i e s , the b u l k o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l a b o u r was performed by a s t a n d i n g committee o f the Assembly of Communities under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f an i m p o r t a n t A i x lawyer b e a r i n g the t i t l e o f A s s e s s o r . 3 The A i x b u r e a u c r a c y was i n g e n e r a l dominated by the l a r g e r towns o f P r o v e n c e , v i z . A i x , A r i e s and T o u l o n , e x c l u d i n g , however, Provence's l a r g e s t c i t y , M a r s e i 1 1 e s . h Demographica11y and e c o n o m i c a l l y M a r s e i l l e s dominated P r o v e n c e , c o n t a i n i n g 14% o f t h e c o u n t y ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and o v e r G0% o f i t s urban p o p u l a t i o n . 5 Yet because of the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s d a t i n g from the M i d d l e Ages, M a r s e i l l e s was e x c l u d e d from s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f t h e c o u n t y ; on the o t h e r hand, i t r e t a i n e d a l a r g e measure of f o r m a l (de j u r e ) p o l i t i c a l independence from P r o v e n c e . 6 D u r i n g t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y the monarchy a t t e m p t e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e the n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the hands o f the r o y a l b u r e a u c r a c y , i n o r d e r t o c o u n t e r a c t the c e n t r i f u g a l t e n d e n c i e s i n h e r e n t i n r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r i g h t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , c l a i m i n g v a r y i n g degrees o f l o c a l autonomy. Most P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s , i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f P r o v e n c e , were s u p p r e s s e d , and i n t e n d a n t s , d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o the crown were s e t above l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, i n the c o u r s e o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e c o n t r o l o f the monarchy o v e r the i n t e n d a n t s g r a d u a l l y weakened, and the P a r l e m e n t s waged a c o n t i n u a l b a t t l e f o r l o c a l autonomy and a g a i n s t r o y a l a b s o l u t i s m . In A i x , t he l a s t two i n t e n d a n t s came from the G a l l o i s de l a Tour f a m i l y , who r u l e d t he genera 1 i t e f o r about h a l f a c e n t u r y b e f o r e the R e v o l u t i o n and e s t a b l i s h e d a v e r i t a b l e " f a m i l y compact", rampant wi.th n e p o t i s m . The i n t e n d a n t ' s f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a r o y a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t e d by i n t e r e s t s and o b l i g a t i o n s imposed upon him by h i s p o s i t i o n as the P r e m i e r - P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Par l e m e n t o f A i x - - a p o s i t i o n w h i c h made him t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l d i g n i t a r y and t h e head o f the l o c a l n o b i l i t y . 7 The I n t e n d a n t o f A i x a l s o g a i n e d d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r the independent p o l i t i c a l and commercial i n s t i t u t i o n s o f M a r s e i l l e s : the Chamber o f Commerce, t h e Bureau d'Abondance and the Bureau du V i n . 8 The e l i t e o f M a r s e i l l e s r e s e n t e d the i n c u r s i o n s a g a i n s t the c i t y ' s independence by t h e i n t e n d a n t , whom i t rega r d e d as a member o f t h e A i x r u l i n g c l a s s . M a r s e i l l e s ' c l a i m t o equal and s e p a r a t e s t a t u s v i s - a - v i s t he county o f Provence was c o n t i n u a l l y r e i t e r a t e d by the e l i t e o f M a r s e i l l e s . The e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o l i t i c a l j e a l o u s i e s between the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e A i x and t h e commercial c e n t r e M a r s e i l l e s were the b a s i s f o r t h e r e g i o n a l enmity which forms a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f the h i s t o r y o f the R e v o l u t i o n i n t h e s o u t h e a s t . Commercial p r i v i l e g e s were the b a s i s o f M a r s e i l l e s ' p o w e r f u l economic p o s i t i o n , t h e two most s i g n i f i c a n t p r i v i l e g e s b e i n g t h e Freedom ( F r a n c h i s e )  of t he P o r t and t h e r i g h t o f q u a r a n t i n e . Through the Freedom o f the P o r t t h e c i t y r e c e i v e d an exemption from t h e 20% t a r i f f d u t y imposed on a l l m e r c h a n d i s e e n t e r i n g France from anywhere i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n , and t h rough the r i g h t o f q u a r a n t i n e a l l s h i p s e n t e r i n g F rance from the O r i e n t o r N o r t h A f r i c a were f o r c e d t o undergo s a n i t a r y i n s p e c t i o n a t M a r s e i l l e s . These p r i v i l e g e s gave M a r s e i l l e s a v i r t u a l monopoly o f f o r e i g n t r a d e on the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t . 9 M a r s e i 1 1 es 1 p r o s p e r i t y and p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y d u r i n g the decade p r e c e d i n g the R e v o l u t i o n . 1 0 By 1790, the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n was s l i g h t l y o v e r 100 ,000 , and M a r s e i l l e s had become the most i m p o r t a n t i m p o r t -e x p o r t c e n t r e i n the s o u t h e a s t . M a r s e i l l e s ' f o r e i g n t r a d e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t e a d y e x c e s s o f imports o v e r e x p o r t s , w i t h f o o d s t u f f s and raw m a t e r i a l s c o n s t i t u t i n g , t h e m a j o r i t y o f the imports and m a n u factured items a c c o u n t i n g f o r the m a j o r i t y o f the e x p o r t s . In the import c a t e g o r y c e r e a l s were o v e r w h e l m i n g l y i m p o r t a n t , making M a r s e i l l e s the g r e a t e s t g r a i n i m p o r t i n g c e n t r e o f the French kingdom and the l a r g e s t g r a i n market on the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t , s u p p l y i n g l a r g e a r e a s o f s o u t h e a s t e r n France w i t h b r e a d . M a r s e i l l e s a l s o s e r v e d as an e x p o r t o u t l e t f o r the m a n u f a c t u r i n g c e n t r e s o f the Rhone v a l l e y as f a r n o r t h as L y o n s . 1 1 The commercial o p e r a t i o n s o f the p o r t o f M a r s e i l l e s were o v e r s e e n by the M a r s e i l l e s Chamber o f Commerce, g e n e r a l l y s t a f f e d by l a r g e - s c a l e merchants ( n e g o c i a n t s ) , s h i p o u t f i t t e r s , and m a n u f a c t u r e r s -- members o f a f l o u r i s h i n g l o c a l economic e l i t e w h i c h had a c c u m u l a t e d g r e a t w e a l t h d u r i n g M a r s e i l l e s ' l o n g p e r i o d o f p r o s p e r i t y . Some o f the members o f t h i s commercial c l a s s came from o l d M a r s e i l l e s f a m i l i e s , but o t h e r s had e s t a b l i s h e d them-s e l v e s i n the c i t y o n l y r e c e n t l y , and a s i z e a b l e m i n o r i t y were P r o t e s t a n t s . They p r i d e d t h e m s e l v e s on t h e i r c u l t u r e and t h e i r c o s m o p o l i t a n o u t l o o k , but j e a l o u s l y guarded M a r s e i l l e s ' commercial p r i v i l e g e s , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d the f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e i r w e a l t h . D e s p i t e t h e i r g r e a t w e a l t h they were b a r r e d from p o l i t i c a l advancement i n Provence by the e n t r e n c h e d p o l i t i c a l e l i t e o f A i x , and from s o c i a l advancement by t h e i r commoner s t a t u s . 1 2 At l e a s t a segment o f the M a r s e i l l e s commercial e l i t e , l i k e w e a l t h y , commercial e l i t e s i n o t h e r French c i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the s e a p o r t s , welcomed the R e v o l u t i o n as a means o f b r e a k i n g down b a r r i e r s to p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l advancement . Yet f rom the b e g i n n i n g a p p r e h e n s i o n was e x p r e s s e d about the f a t e o f M a r s e i l l e s ' s p e c i a l commerc ia l p r i v i l e g e s , wh ich formed an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a n c i e n r e g i m e ' s p o l i t i c a l s y s t em. I l l With the c a l l i n g o f the P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s in 1787, long s m o l d e r i n g an tagon i sms between the a r i s t o c r a c y and the T h i r d E s t a t e were r e i g n i t e d in P r o v e n c e . The a r i s t o c r a c y a g i t a t e d f o r r e i n s t a t i n g the P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s in the a n c i e n t , pre-1639 manner , by means o f which the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f s e a t s would go to f i e f - p o s s e s s i n g n o b l e s ; w h i l e the T h i r d E s t a t e , l ed by the l e g a l e l i t e of the Assembly o f Commun i t i e s , r e s i s t e d the n o b l e s ' demands and proposed a b a s i c r e fo rm o f the a n c i e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n o f P rovence . Foremost on the re fo rm agenda were fundamenta l changes in the terms o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in the P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s and the a b o l i t i o n o f n o b l e immunity f rom f i s c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The n o b i l i t y , hav ing beh ind i t the power o f the Pa r lement o f A i x , and the suppo r t o f the i n t e n d a n t , was v i c t o r i o u s , and the P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s were convened in 1787 in the a n c i e n t m a n n e r . 1 3 The s t r u g g l e between the Second and T h i r d E s t a t e s l a s t e d from mid-1787 u n t i l e a r l y 1789. I ts l a s t phase conce rned the e l e c t i o n o f d e p u t i e s to the E s t a t e s G e n e r a l . The nob l es had c l a i m e d tha t o n l y the P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s , convened in the a n c i e n t manner , had the r i g h t to name d e p u t i e s to the E s t a t e s G e n e r a l , but the T h i r d E s t a t e , emboldened by two y e a r s c o n t i n u o u s o p p o s i t i o n to a r i s t o c r a t i c p r i v i l e g e , fought w i t h a l l i t s power a g a i n s t t h i s mode o f e l e c t i o n , and the P r o v i n c i a l E s t a t e s f i z z l e d out in a c o m p l e t e d e a d l o c k in e a r l y 1789• N e c k e r , f a c e d w i t h the d e a d l o c k in P r o v e n c e , d e c i d e d t h a t the b e s t s o l u t i o n would be t o submit Provence to the p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i n the n o n - p r i v i l e g e d pays d ' e l e c t i o n , and have the e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l i e s o f t h e senechaussees choose the r e g i o n ' s d e l e g a t e s t o the E s t a t e s G e n e r a l . In e f f e c t , Necker's d e c i s i o n meant a c o m plete v i c t o r y o f the T h i r d E s t a t e , f o r the T h i r d E s t a t e was a l l o w e d t o choose i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y , i n i t s own e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l i e s , and even i n the e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l i e s o f the Second E s t a t e and t h e f i e f - p o s s e s s i n g n o b l e s were outnumbered by n o b l e s who d i d not p o s s ess f i e f s . 1 4 M a r s e i l l e s , e x c l u d e d from the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f P r o v e n c e , showed r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e i n A i x . However, w i t h the c o n v e n i n g o f the e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l i e s and the d r a f t i n g o f the c a h i e r s , p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t was q u i c k l y aroused i n the p o r t c i t y . D i v i d e d i n t o two s e n e c h a u s s e e s , M a r s e i l l e s e l e c t e d t o the E s t a t e s General two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the n o b i l i t y , two f o r the c l e r g y and f o u r f o r the T h i r d E s t a t e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the n o b i l i t y and c l e r g y were chosen d i r e c t l y by s e n e s c h a l a s s e m b l i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a l l members o f t h e i r o r d e r , but the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the numerous T h i r d E s t a t e were e l e c t e d i n d i r e c t l y : e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l i e s were chosen which then chose the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . G e n e r a l l y , the l i t e r a t e , w e a l t h y commercial b o u r g e o i s were chosen t o the T h i r d E s t a t e ' s e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l i e s , and e v e r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the M a r s e i l l e s T h i r d E s t a t e t o the E s t a t e s G e n e r a l came from the ranks o f the i of p r o f e s s i o n a l ; ' y ' i e commercial b o u r g e o i s i e . The o v e r a l l tone o f the M a r s e i l l e s cah i e r s i s c o n s e r v a t i v e and p a r t i c u l a r i s t , demanding r e s p e c t f o r the c i t y ' s p r i v i l e g e s . The genera 1  c a h i e r o f t h e T h i r d E s t a t e i n s i s t e d t h a t s i n c e commerce was the l i f e b l o o d o f M a r s e i l l e s , t h e freedom o f the p o r t w h i c h was the c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h e c i t y ' s commerce s h o u l d be s a f e g u a r d e d . To be s u r e , t h e g e n e r a l c a h i e r o f the T h i r d E s t a t e , the cah i e r of the nob i l i t y and t h e cah i e r s o f the t h i r t e e n c o r p o r a t i o n s were a l l in f a vou r o f f reedom o f t r a d e , meaning by t h i s i n t e r n a l f r e e t r a d e , f r e e t r a d e w i t h the I n d i e s , and the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the Royal T r a d i n g Compan ies ' m o n o p o l i e s , but they exempted the M a r s e i l l e s - b a s e d Royal A f r i c a company from t h i s c a l l f o r f r e e t r a d e . 1 6 Thus the c a h i e r s g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n o f s a t i s f a c t i o n on the p a r t o f M a r s e i l l e s w i t h i t s economic s t a t u s , and a n x i e t y f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n . The M a r s e i l l e s c a h i e r s suppo r t Cobban ' s c o n t e n t i o n tha t the "merchan ts o f the towns wanted f reedom f o r t h e i r own t r a d e and p r o h i b i t i o n s on tha t o f any p o s s i b l e r i v a l s . " 1 7 At the h e i g h t o f the p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t accompany ing the e l e c t i o n s and the d r a f t i n g o f the c a h i e r s , a new e lement e n t e r e d the p o l i t i c a l p i c t u r e o f P r o v e n c e . The bad h a r v e s t o f 1788 and the s e v e r e w i n t e r o f 1 7 8 8 - 8 9 were f o l l o w e d by g r a i n s h o r t a g e s and r i s i n g food p r i c e s in the s p r i n g o f 1 7 8 9 -The p o p u l a c e o f P rovence r e a c t e d to the s h o r t a g e s in the usua l e i g h t e e n t h -c e n t u r y manner, th rough a s e r i e s o f bread r i o t s in March 1 7 8 9 • But the r i o t s in M a r s e i l l e s , A i x , T o u l o n and a s c o r e o f s m a l l e r communi t ies c o i n c i d e d w i t h the meet ing o f the s e n e s c h a l a s s e m b l i e s and q u i c k l y assumed a p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r , becoming m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a g a i n s t the l o c a l p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s : 1 8 The p o p u l a r r i o t i ' n g p roduced an immediate r e a c t i o n on the pa r t o f the M a r s e i l l e s commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e . A m i l i t a r y g r o u p , the garde b o u r g e o i s e , drawn p r i n c i p a l l y f rom the ranks o f b o u r g e o i s y o u t h , was formed in l a t e March to p r o t e c t p r o p e r t y , law and o r d e r . However, t h i s f o r e r u n n e r o f the N a t i o n a l Guard a l s o a t tempted to s e i z e the m u n i c i p a l government and e s t a b l i s h M a r s e i l l e s ' independence v i s - a - v i s the In tendant and the roya l b u r e a u c r a c y . The p o p u l a r r i o t e r s u n w i t t i n g l y a i d e d the d e s i g n s o f the ga rde b o u r g e o i s e by e x p e l l i n g the a r i s t o c r a t i c mayor and a s s e s s o r , c r e a t u r e s o f the i n t e n d a n t , f rom the c i t y . 1 9 In A i x , the March r i o t s evoked g r e a t c o n s t e r n a t i o n . Lega l b o u r g e o i s i e , e n f e o f f e d n o b i l i t y , and roya l b u r e a u c r a c y a l l saw power s l i p p i n g from t h e i r hands. Faced w i t h the common p o p u l a r f o e and the m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement o f M a r s e i l l e s , t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e T h i r d E s t a t e and t h e n o b l e s o f t h e P a r l e m e n t patched up t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . H e n c e f o r t h the i m p o r t a n t lawyers o f A i x , i n c l u d i n g the a s s e s s o r P a s c a l i s , who had l e d the T h i r d E s t a t e i n 1787 and 1788, assumed an i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l pos i t i on. The r o y a l b u r e a u c r a c y of A i x c o n s i d e r e d the f o r m a t i o n o f the M a r s e i l l e s garde b o u r g e o i s e and t h e e x p u l s i o n o f the l e a d i n g m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s from the p o r t c i t y a p r o v o c a t i o n a g a i n s t c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t y . The i n t e n d a n t d i s p a t c h e d t o M a r s e i l l e s a m i l i t a r y f o r c e under Count Caraman, the m i l i t a r y commander o f P r o v e n c e . Caraman d i s b a n d e d the garde b o u r g e o i s e and r e -e s t a b l i s h e d the o l d m u n i c i p a l i t y ; he r u l e d M a r s e i l l e s w i t h the s u p p o r t o f the i n t e n d a n t , the A r c h b i s h o p o f A i x and the P arlement u n t i l J u l y 1 7 8 9 . 2 0 The d i s m i s s a l o f Necker and the P a r i s r e v o l u t i o n o f J u l y 14 t r i g g e r e d a s e r i e s o f m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e s . 2 1 In M a r s e i l l e s , the i n i t i a t o r s o f the March m u n i c i p a l movement once more took m a t t e r s i n t o t h e i r hands, and on J u l y 23 a t an emergency g e n e r a l meeting o f the c i t y ' s t h r e e e s t a t e s d e c l a r e d the m u n i c i p a l government backed by Caraman's t r o o p s t o be i l l e g a l , l e g a l i t y r e s i d i n g w i t h the g a t h e r e d assembly. F u r t h e r m o r e , the M a r s e i l l e s assembly asked Caraman t o w i t h d r a w h i s t r o o p s , and r e f u s e d t o . r e c o g n i s e t h e A i x P a r l e m e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y o v e r M a r s e i l l e s . The m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a l s o r e o r g a n i z e d the garde b o u r g e o i s e , and renamed i t garde n a t i o n a l e . 2 2 The m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o f M a r s e i l l e s t e m p o r a r i l y succeeded i n J u l y 1789 because they had the s u p p o r t o f l a r g e p o p u l a r crowds, kept i n a s t a t e o f a g i t a t i o n by unfounded rumours o f f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n on the A l p s f r o n t i e r and o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y b r i g a n d s roaming the c o u n t r y s i d e . In the l a s t week o f J u l y the M a r s e i l l e s crowd opened the p r i s o n s o f the 41 e i t y , then marched to A i x and opened the p r i s o n s t h e r e . 2 3 However, the a c t i v i t y o f the crowd was t empora r y : the immediate r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x c i t e m e n t q u i c k l y s u b s i d e d , and as the rumours proved to be f a l s e , the p o p u l a r e lement d i s p e r s e d . A l t h o u g h the M a r s e i l l e s N a t i o n a l Guard put up de t e rm ined r e s i s t a n c e , Caraman 's t r oops were a b l e to r e c a p t u r e M a r s e i l l e s by l a t e August and to r e t a i n c o n t r o l u n t i l s p r i n g 1 7 9 0 . 2 4 Upon reassuming a u t h o r i t y in M a r s e i l l e s , Caraman impr i soned about f i f t y o f the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , supp ressed the N a t i o n a l G u a r d , and r e i n s t a t e d the o l d m u n i c i p a l i t y s u b s e r v i e n t to A i x ' s a u t h o r i t y . 2 5 The A i x e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s power ove r M a r s e i l l e s was f i n a l l y d e s t r o y e d in Feb rua r y 1 7 9 0 . In the m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s o f F eb rua r y 9> the n e g o c i a n t E t i e n n e M a r t i n , a r e s p e c t e d member o f the commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e , was e l e c t e d mayor and the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l was f i l l e d w i t h the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o f March and J u l y , 1 7 8 9 , many o f them s t i l l impr i soned a t the t ime o f t h e i r e l e c t i o n . 2 6 Caraman a t tempted to reach a compromise w i t h E t i e n n e M a r t i n , and thus r e t a i n p a r t i a l c o n t r o l o f M a r s e i l l e s , but p o p u l a r a c t i o n f o i l e d h i s d e s i g n s . In a number o f s tormy j o u r n e e s , d u r i n g March and A p r i l 1 7 9 0 , the r o y a l i s t b u r e a u c r a t s and o f f i c e r s and the Royal Mar ine Regiment were e x p e l l e d f rom the c i t y , and the new r e v o l u t i o n a r y m u n i c i p a l i t y assumed a u t h o r i t y . 2 7 S o c i a l l y , the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o f M a r s e i l l e s were drawn from the ranks o f the e n l i g h t e n e d i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e c o n t i n g e n t o f l awye r s , and f rom the ranks o f the commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e . In the immediate p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between these g r o u p s . They f r e q u e n t e d the same s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s , t h e i r l i t e r a r y s a l o n s were m o d e l l e d on those o f P a r i s , they read the same p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s , and not i n f r e q u e n t l y they had i d e n t i c a l i n t e r e s t s . For i n s t a n c e , the y o u t h f u l C h a r l e s Ba rba roux , a l e a d e r o f the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r y b o u r g e o i s i e , had l e g a l t r a i n i n g and had s t u d i e d s c i e n c e , but he came f rom a commerc ia l f a m i l y , h i s f a t h e r hav i been a n e g o c i a n t and a p l a n t a t i o n owner in the West I n d i e s . L a u t a r d , a r o y a l i s t h i s t o r i a n , a rgues tha t M i rabeau i n s p i r e d the j eunes l i t t e r a t e u r s o f M a r s e i l l e s w i t h r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e s , 2 8 but M i rabeau l e f t f o r Pa r i in the s p r i n g o f 1 7 8 9 • In e f f e c t the p r i n c i p a l members o f the m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y e l i t e were B r a n c a , a "man o f l e t t e r s " , B a r b a r o u x , the lawyers C h e r i , Chompre and B r e m o n d - J u l i e n , the wine and s p i r i t s d e a l e r R e b e c q u i , the n e g o c i a n t G r a n e t , and the p r i n t e r Mossy J r .-- a c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f what may l o o s e l y be termed the upper b o u r g e o i s i e o f M a r s e i l l e s . U s i ng a v a i l a b l e sou r ce s i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t to draw a s a t i s -f a c t o r y p i c t u r e o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y crowds o f M a r s e i l l e s . To be s u r e , the N a t i o n a l Guard remained b o u r g e o i s because o f p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . However, the crowds d u r i n g the j o u r n e e s c o n s i s t e d o f a much l a r g e r c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s ' p o p u l a t i o n than the N a t i o n a l Gua rd . Gu iba l c l a i m s tha t the s e c r e t w o r k e r s ' b r o t h e r h o o d s , the compagnons du d e v o i r , became the n u c l e i o f the most t u r b u l e n t e l ements o f the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . 3 0 T h i s is p o s s i b l e , but I have no f u r t h e r p r o o f f o r i t . M a r s e i l l e s , a major s e a p o r t , c o n t a i n e d at a l l t imes a l a r g e t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f s a i l o r s and i t i n e r a n t w o r k e r s . A con tempora ry o b s e r v e r , whose i d e n t i t y I c o u l d not a s c e r t a i n , but who i s quoted in a f o o t n o t e to B a r b a r o u x ' s Memoires s t a t e d tha t " T o u t e s l e s f o i s que l a garde n a t i o n a l e de M a r s e i l l e s s ' e s t mise en marche au dehors de ses murs l a horde de  b r i g a n d s sans p a t r i e n ' a j ama i s manque de se j e t e r a l a s u i t e . . . " 3 1 [emphasis m i n e ] . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on m i s s i o n R i c o r d s t a t e d in 1 7 9 4 t ha t M a r s e i l l e s ' p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f hOZ f o r e i g n e r s , and u n l e s s they were removed the c i t y would r e t a i n i t s t u r b u l e n t c h a r a c t e r . 3 2 V o v e l l e , in h i s s tudy o f M a r s e i l l e s ' f l o a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n in 1791 and 1 7 9 2 , does 43 not p r o v i d e a good independent e s t i m a t e o f the number o f o u t s i d e r s in M a r s e i l l e s d u r i n g the e a r l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d , but he does c o n s i d e r the e s t i m a t e o f 2 5 , 0 0 0 - - p r o v i d e d by the S t a t i s t i q u e de P r i s o n s de  M a r s e i 1 1 e s , a p u b l i c a t i o n from the 1 8 2 0 ' s ™ r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , V o v e l l e shows tha t the a rea o f the l o w e s t - c l a s s g a r n i s ( rooming houses ) c o i n c i d e d w i t h the most t u r b u l e n t d i s t r i c t o f M a r s e i l l e s . 3 3 The above e v i d e n c e l eads me to c o n c l u d e tha t t r a n s i e n t e l ements formed a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r y c rowds . On ly w i t h the s u p p o r t o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y crowds were the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a b l e t o assume c o n t r o l o f the c i t y . Yet i t would be wrong to p resuppose a permanent a l l i a n c e th roughout the R e v o l u t i o n between the r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r s h i p and the lower c l a s s e s . The c o n s i s t e n t s u p p o r t o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y crowds f o r the m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r s between m i d - 1 7 8 9 and s p r i n g 1 7 9 2 was p o s s i b l e o n l y because d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d M a r s e i l l e s had s u f f i c i e n t food s u p p l i e s , and r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p r i c e s ; the major causes o f c o n t e n t i o n between r i c h and poor were thus mi ss i ng . IV In P r o v e n c e , the a n c i e n r e g i m e ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e sys tem s u r v i v e d the w i n t e r o f 1789-9O. Not u n t i l the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 0 was the a n c i e n regime a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' power ove r M a r s e i l l e s b r o k e n , and by t h i s t ime t h e i r a u t h o r i t y in A i x had a l s o become p r e c a r i o u s . By the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 0 the i n t e n d a n t and the c h i e f members o f the r o y a l i s t e l i t e had e m i g r a t e d , among them the m i l i t a r y gove rno r C a r a m a n . 3 4 A weakened rump Par lement remained in s e s s i o n in A i x u n t i l m i d - 1 7 9 0 , when i t was p r o r o g u e d , never a g a i n to be r e c a l l e d . 3 5 In f a c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t changes in the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f P r o v e n c e , which t h r e a t e n e d t h e i r own as w e l l as t h e n o b i l i t y ' s and the r o y a l b u r e a u c r a c y ' s p o s i t i o n s , p a r t o f the A i x l e g a l e l i t e assumed an o p e n l y c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n . P a s c a l i s , the l e a d e r o f the T h i r d E s t a t e ' s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the n o b i l i t y d u r i n g the p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d , now became a c h i e f d e f e n d e r o f the P a r l e m e n t o f A i x and o f Provence's h i s t o r i c r i g h t s w i t h i n a w e l l - o r d e r e d m o n a r c h y . 3 6 Meanwhile the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly i n P a r i s was p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the work o f n a t i o n - w i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and the a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y g e n e r a l i t e s were r e p l a c e d by e i l g h t y - t h r e e d e p a r t m e n t s . The b a s i c purpose of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was t o n a t i o n a l i z e and t h e r e b y b r i n g u n i t y t o the c o u n t r y ' s a r c h a i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and t o r e p l a c e t h e a n t i q u a t e d , b a d l y f u n c t i o n i n g b u r e a u c r a c y . 3 7 However, th e C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly c r e a t e d no governmental machinery t o c o n n e c t l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and the c e n t r a l government; t h e r e f o r e u n t i l the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y ' s program o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n 1 7 9 3 - 9 4 , the e n t i r e r e v o l u t i o n a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a r g e measure o f l o c a l a u t onomy. 3 8 Provence was d i v i d e d i n t o t h e t h r e e departments o f V a r , B a s s e s - A l p e s and the Bouches-du-Rhone. A g a i n s t the M a r s e i l l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' s t r e n u o u s o p p o s i t i o n , the t h r e e major c i t i e s o f A i x , A r i e s and M a r s e i l l e s were a l l p l a c e d i n the department o f the Bouches-du-Rhone. The aim o f t h e new d i v i s i o n of P rovence was t o c o n t r o l P r o v e n c a l p a r t i c u l a r i s m by b r e a k i n g up the c o u n t y , and t o b a l a n c e M a r s e i l l e s ' overwhelming demographic and economic imp o r t a n c e by p l a c i n g t h e p o r t c i t y i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y w e i 1 - u r b a n i z e d department and by s i t u a t i n g the d e p a r t m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n A i x . 3 9 As Cobban o b s e r v e s , t h e " e s s e n t i a l o b j e c t o f . . . the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e change was t o d e s t r o y the p r o v i n c i a l s p i r i t . " 4 0 A g a i n s t the P a r i s lawmakers' i n t e n t i o n s , however, the new d i v i s i o n o f P r o v e n c e o n l y a c c e n t u a t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l a n t agonism between M a r s e i l l e s and A i x . In the absence o f e f f e c t i v e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c h a l l e n g e d the d e p a r t m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t A i x f o r the c o n t r o l o f the department. The c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l tone o f the d e p a r t -mental a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f members o f the o l d l e g a l b o u r g e o i s i e , f a c i l i t a t e d the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ' t a s k , because i t gave them a p l a u s i b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a t t a c k i n g the a l l e g e d c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n A i x . Yet t h e M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ' r e g i o n a l s t a n d a g a i n s t c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n r a p i d l y became f u s e d w i t h a j e a l o u s m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m w h i c h would l a t e r r e s i s t the c e n t r a l i z i n g tendency emanating from P a r i s . M a r s e i l l e s ' commercial p r i v i l e g e s were renamed i n 1 7 8 9 as a " p a r t i c u l a r c i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n " , but i n e f f e c t the c i t y r e t a i n e d i t s s p e c i a l s t a t u s , r e t a i n i n g t h e freedom o f the p o r t and a l l the r i g h t s p e r t a i n i n g t o i t , a l t h o u g h M a r s e i l l e s d i d l o s e i t s s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o v e r the Levant t r a d e . 1 * 1 T h i s meant t h a t u n t i l 1 7 9 3 , when the e f f e c t s o f t h e B r i t i s h M e d i t e r r a n e a n b l o c k a d e began t o be f e l t , M a r s e i l l e s ' f o r e i g n commerce c o n t i n u e d un-d i s t u r b e d and the commercial c l a s s e s remained p r o s p e r o u s . I r o n i c a l l y , o n l y the r e t e n t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s ' s p e c i a l economic s t a t u s , a l e g a c y o f the a n c i e n regime, i n s u r e d the adherence o f the c i t y ' s commercial b o u r g e o i s i e t o the R e v o l u t i o n . V The c e n t r a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y body o f M a r s e i l l e s , the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , o r Club o f the Rue Thubaneau, was founded amidst the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t u r b u l e n c e o f the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 0 . A l t h o u g h E t i e n n e M a r t i n , t h e newly e l e c t e d mayor, was a l s o chosen p r e s i d e n t o f the new c l u b , the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y was from i t s b e g i n n i n g s more r a d i c a l than the m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : many y o u n g e r , more r e v o l u t i o n a r y men who h e l d o n l y m i n o r p o s i t i o n s w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w e r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c l u b . F o r e x a m p l e , C h a r l e s B a r b a r o u x , who was a t t h i s t i m e o n l y a c l e r k i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , l i m m e d - i a t e l y became o n e o f t h e c h i e f a g i t a t o r s o f t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y . 4 2 T h e s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y was n o t a p p r e c i a b l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . B o t h b o d i e s w e r e d o m i n a t e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and c o m m e r c i a l b o u r g e o i s , p r o m i n e n t i n t h e m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements o f 1 7 8 9 - 9 0 . T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two b o d i e s was b a s e d more on t h e t e m p e r a m e n t a n d a g e o f t h e members t h a n on s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n . 1 * 3 To o p p o s e c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n i n M a r s e i l l e s , t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e l e g a l b o u r g e o i s i e o f A i x a n d army u n i t s u n d e r c o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n A i x , t h e M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y d e p e n d e d on t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y . Y e t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a l s o had t o p r o t e c t i t s e l f a g a i n s t b e i n g o v e r w h e l m e d by t h e r a d i c a l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c l u b , w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o f o r c e i t t o a s s u m e an e v e r s h a r p e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n . To be s u r e , t h e a l l i a n c e o f t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y r e m a i n e d u n s h a k e n u n t i l l a t e 1 7 9 2 , b u t o n l y i n t h e f a c e o f t h e common c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h r e a t a n d b u t t r e s s e d by t h e common d e s i r e t o e x t e n d M a r s e i l l e s ' a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n r e g i o n . N e i t h e r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y n o r t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y showed g r e a t c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , when i n November 1791 a c o a l i t i o n o f b l a c k s m i t h s p e t i t i o n e d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r wage i n c r e a s e s , t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y f u l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s r e j e c t i o n o f t h i s demand, a n d i s s u e d a s t r o n g l y w o r d e d w a r n i n g a g a i n s t a n y k i n d o f w o r k e r ' s a s s e m b l i e s f o r e c o n o m i c p u r p o s e s . 1 * 1 * The r a d i c a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y a s p e c t s o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s w e r e p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l o r e c o n o m i c , and c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y o f r e a d i n e s s t o i n i t i a t e o r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i o n a g a i n s t c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n , be i t m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t -i o n s a g a i n s t r o y a l i s t s o r a i d t o b e l e a g u e r e d s i s t e r P o p u l a r S o c i e t i e s . A m a j o r s o u r c e o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , and o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y u n i t y o f M a r s e i l l e s , was t h a t t h e C l u b o f t h e Rue T h u b a n e a u r e m a i n e d t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l c l u b o f M a r s e i l l e s . In o t h e r c i t i e s o f t h e s o u t h e a s t ( a n d t h r o u g h o u t F r a n c e ) l i k e A i x , A r i e s and T o u l o n , c o n s e r v a t i v e and r o y a l i s t p o l i t i c a l c l u b s c h a l l e n g e d t h e l o c a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y c l u b s a n d made t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l o c a l r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s h i g h l y i n s e c u r e . 1 * 5 F o l l o w i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s p r i n g o f 1790, t h e M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y , w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , o r g a n i z e d t h e f i r s t F e d e r a t i o n o f P r o v e n c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 1 * 6 By t h i s move M a r s e i l l e s d e m o n s t r a t e d t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e and i t s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a s s u m e l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e r e g i o n . Mean-w h i l e , t h e r e was a v i r t u a l e p i d e m i c o f d e s e r t i o n s f r o m t h e Army u n i t s i n A i x , t h e d e s e r t i n g s o l d i e r s d r i f t i n g t o M a r s e i l l e s i n l a r g e n u m b e r s . T h e i r s t o r i e s a b o u t t h e c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i r o f f i c e r s f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e a n i m o s i t y o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a g a i n s t A i x . 1 * 7 In t h e summer o f 1790 a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a t t e m p t t o o k p l a c e i n M a r s e i l l e s . L i e u t a u d , an e x - o f f i c e r who had g o o d c o n t a c t s i n P a r i s t h r o u g h M i r a b e a u , a n d who managed t o g a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f some i n f l u e n t i a l members o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , a t t e m p t e d t o g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t h e m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n . L i e u t a u d o b t a i n e d a power b a s e i n t h e N a t i o n a l G u a r d , w h o s e command he a s s u m e d i n J u n e 1790. He t h e n a t t a c k e d t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , n a t i o n a l g u a r d s l o y a l t o h i m b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n s t r e e t f i g h t i n g w i t h C l u b members. H o w e v e r , when L i e u t a u d a t t e m p t e d t o c l o s e t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y and t h e r e b y remove t h e c h i e f o b s t a c l e b e t w e e n h i m s e l f a n d c o n t r o l o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , many n a t i o n a l g u a r d s t u r n e d a g a i n s t h i m , a n d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , w i t h the s u p p o r t o f the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , deposed him from h i s p o s i t i o n as commander o f the N a t i o n a l Guard. L i e u t a u d escaped from M a r s e i l l e s b e f o r e he c o u l d be a r r e s t e d and f l e d t o P a r i s . 1 * 8 L i e u t a u d ' s a t t e m p t e d "coup" i n M a r s e i l l e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h i n c r e a s e d c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y t h r o u g h o u t the s o u t h e a s t ( t o be d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n ) , sharpened t h e M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ' f e e l i n g o f b e i n g an i s l a n d o f the R e v o l u t i o n i n a sea o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n , and t h e r e b y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r v i g i l a n c e and t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . F u r t h e r -more, s i n c e L i e u t a u d ' s coup was the l a s t major c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a t t e m p t i n M a r s e i l l e s u n t i l the o u t b r e a k o f F e d e r a l i s m i n 1793, t h e M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , comparing t h e i r own c i t y w i t h the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n , o r w i t h France as a w hole, c o u l d c o n g r a t u l a t e t hemselves on the r e v o l u t i o n a r y u n i t y o f the c i t y . VI To u n d e r s t a n d t h e a c t i o n s o f the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y , P o p u l a r S o c i e t y and N a t i o n a l Guard as d e f e n d e r s o f the R e v o l u t i o n i n the s o u t h e a s t , we s h o u l d examine the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n . We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t A i x remained a c e n t r e f o r the o l d l e g a l b o u r g e o i s i e o f P r o v e n c e , and t h a t t h i s same group dominated t h e new d e p a r t m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Bouches-du-Rhone. Of the o t h e r major c i t i e s o f the r e g i o n , T o u l o n was b a d l y d i v i d e d : the w o r k e r s o f t h e Naval A r s e n a l and t h e s a i l o r s o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n f l e e t f a c e d t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and the r o y a l i s t n a v a l o f f i c e r s , w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n an uneasy b a l a n c e . 4 9 Draguignan had a r o y a l i s t m u n i c i p a l i t y , as d i d A r i e s . 5 0 In t h e l a t t e r c i t y , the most a r i s t o c r a t i c o f p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y P r o v e n c e , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y M o n n a i d i e r C l u b was u n s u c c e s s f u l l y o p p o s i n g the power fu l r o y a l i s t C h i f f o n i s t C l u b . 5 1 In Ntmes the P r o t e s t a n t m i n o r i t y had g rasped c o n t r o l o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the Popu l a r S o c i e t y , awakening the a g e - o l d resentments o f the C a t h o l i c s , and making the h i n t e r l a n d o f the G a r d , A v e y r o n , A rdeche and L o z e r e a f r u i t f u l r e g i o n f o r c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a g i t a t i o n . 5 2 J u s t no r th o f the depar tment o f the Bouches-du-Rhone l ay the papa 1 e n c l a v e s o f Av ignon and Comtat V e n a i s s i n . C u l t u r a l l y t hese a reas were p a r t o f P rovence and the R e v o l u t i o n in F rance p r o v i d e d the impetus f o r an i nd igenous r e v o l u t i o n a r y o u t b r e a k . However, both i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y and s o c i a l l y the e n c l a v e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t a r e a s , w i t h A v i g n o n , the sea t o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a l i v e , c o m m e r c i a l l y a m b i t i o u s b o u r g e o i s i e f a v o u r i n g immediate un ion w i t h F r a n c e , and C a r p e n t r a s , the sea t o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , b e i n g f e a r f u l o f l o s i n g i t s p r i v i l e g e s and o f f a l l i n g i n t o A v i g n o n ' s power. Av ignon asked f o r h e l p from F rance c o n t i n u a l l y , the l o g i c a l p l a c e to wh ich i t t u rned b e i n g the s u r r o u n d i n g F rench d e p a r t m e n t s . 5 3 The danger o f u n r e s t in the s o u t h e a s t was i n c r e a s e d by the m a c h i n a t i o n s o f the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y shadow government a t T u r i n , l ed by the comte d ' A r t o i s , wh ich was aware o f the deepen ing i n t e r n a l d i v i s i o n s o f the s o u t h e a s t , and c o n s i d e r e d the e n t i r e r e g i o n f a v o u r a b l e f o r a r o y a l i s t r e v i v a l . 5 4 As we have seen e a r l i e r , the r i g h t - w i n g o f the A i x l e g a l b o u r g e o i s i e , l ed by Pasca l i s , a g i t a t e d a c t i v e l y a g a i n s t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f P rovence . In r e a c t i o n to Pasca l i s 1 c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n , rumours began to c i r c u l a t e among the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e lements about Pasca l i s ' and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ' c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n t a c t s , and o f the imminent danger o f a l o c a l r o y a l i s t t a k e o v e r . These rumours were w e l l - f o u n d e d , f o r Pasca l i s was indeed in c o n t a c t w i t h Ve rnegues , an agent o f the T u r i n r o y a l i s t s . In l a t e 1790, r e v o l u t i o n a r y a g i t a t i o n sp read 50 among th e A i x crowds, r e s u l t i n g i n the f o u n d a t i o n o f a new r a d i c a l c l u b c a l l e d the Ant i p o i i t i q u e s , by the d i s s i d e n t c l e r i c , Abbe R i v e , and c u l m i n a t i n g i n the r i o t i n g o f December 12 t o 12 and t h e mob l y n c h i n g o f P a s c a l i s and two o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s . 5 5 With the December r i o t s the i n i t i a l e f f o r t s o f the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n i n A i x were f r u s t r a t e d and a r a d i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n opposed the c o n s e r v a t i v e e l i t e o f Provence's a n c i e n t c a p i t a l . T h i s however d i d not mean t h a t r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s had come t o power i n A i x . The d e p a r t m e n t a l and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s remained c o n s e r v a t i v e , and f o l l o w i n g i t s b r i e f o u t b u r s t o f energy t h e A n t i p o i i t i q u e s Club remained i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the r u l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the c i t y , and t o the o r i g i n a l A i x P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , w h i c h , w i t h the d e p a r t u r e o f the f i r e b r a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s f o r the A n t i p o i i t i q u e s , became a m e e t i n g - p l a c e f o r c o n s e r v a t i v e s . The r i o t s o f A i x had f o l l o w e d the f i r s t r o y a l i s t m i l i t a r y assembly a t J a l e s ( i n the h i n t e r l a n d o f Gard) , L i e u t a u d ' s a t t e m p t e d c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n a r y "coup" i n M a r s e i l l e s , and the s h a r p e n i n g o f t e n s i o n s i n the Papal E n c l a v e s . A l l t h e s e c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y moves were p a r t o f a l a r g e - s c a l e p l a n f o r r o y a l i s t c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n by the T u r i n e m i g r e s , the s o - c a l l e d Languedoc P l a n . 5 6 Hence the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y danger in the s o u t h e a s t was not a remote p o s s i b i l i t y but a h i g h l y c o n c r e t e a c t u a l i t y . The M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y s e n t s p o r a d i c a i d t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o f A v i g n o n and t o s i s t e r P o p u l a r S o c i e t i e s , but M a r s e i l l e s ' f i r s t major r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e d i t i o n d i t not t a k e p l a c e u n t i l J u l y 1 7 9 1 , a f t e r the K i n g ' s f l i g h t t o Varennes and the Champs-de-Mars massacre had d e e p l y p o l a r i z e d French p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n i n t o p r o - and a n t i - r o y a 1 i s t f a c t i o n s . In May 1791 the C o n s t i t u e n t Assembly, i n v i e w o f the c o n t i n u i n g c i v i l war i n the Papal E n c l a v e s , d e c i d e d t o m e d i a t e between the o p p o s i n g f a c t i o n s , " r e s t o r e o r d e r and c o n s u l t the p o p u l a t i o n " c o n c e r n i n g u n i o n w i t h F r a n c e . 5 7 To t h i s end n a t i o n a l agents were d i s p a t c h e d t o A v i g n o n and the Comtat V e n a i s s i n . However, they were u n a b l e t o q u e l l the d i s t u r b a n c e s , and i n J u l y 1791 they r e q u e s t e d armed a i d from the d e p a r t -mental a u t h o r i t i e s o f the Bouches-du-Rhone. The c o n s e r v a t i v e Departmental D i r e c t o r y r e f u s e d t o send a i d and o r d e r e d the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y a l s o t o d i s r e g a r d t h e r e q u e s t . But the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y , s u p p o r t e d by t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , o v e r r o d e the d e p a r t m e n t a l o r d e r and i m m e d i a t e l y d i s p a t c h e d 5 0 0 M a r s e i l l e s N a t i o n a l Guards t o A v i g n o n . The M a r s e i l l e s detachment was the o n l y armed a i d t o A v i g n o n from the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a , and p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n s u p p o r t i n g the p r o - F r e n c h f a c t i o n i n the Papal E n c l a v e s . 5 8 F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n c i d e n t , the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y o f M a r s e i l l e s accused t h e Departmental D i r e c t o r y o f the Bouches-du-Rhone and t h e D i r e c t o r y o f the d i s t r i c t o f A i x o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e s i g n s . Two agents o f the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y were d i s p a t c h e d t o A i x w i t h a w a r n i n g t o t h e A i x a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s t h a t u n l e s s the l a t t e r changed t h e i r ways, the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s would make an appeal t h r o u g h o u t the department and " i n v i t e r o n s tous l e s g r i e f s q u 1 i1s ont c o n t r e vous, pour provoquer un t o u t q u i p r o v o q u e r a une j u s t i c e e x e m p l a i r e . 1 , 5 9 In l a t e August 1791 the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y s e n t 5 0 0 N a t i o n a l Guards t o T o u l o n , t o a i d the r e v o l u t i o n a r y S t . Jean Club i n i t s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the r o y a l i s t S t . P i e r r e C l u b , which was s u p p o r t e d by the c o n s e r v a t i v e Departmental D i r e c t o r y o f Var. With the a i d o f t h e armed f o r c e s from M a r s e i l l e s , the T o u l o n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were v i c t o r i o u s . 6 0 The e x p e d i t i o n s t o A v i g n o n and T o u l o n were t o be f o l l o w e d i n September 1791 by a n o t h e r p r o j e c t e d m i l i t a r y e f f o r t , a g a i n spearheaded by t h e M a r s e i l l e s N a t i o n a l Guards, t o s u p p r e s s the r o y a l i s t m u n i c i p a l i t y 52 o f A r i e s . A l t h o u g h a l a r g e m i l i t a r y f o r c e g a t h e r e d , t h i s e x p e d i t i o n was c a l l e d o f f a t the l a s t moment because o f the o b s t r u c t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e o f the A i x a u t h o r i t i e s , and the w a r n i n g s , r e c e i v e d from the r o y a l i s t F e u i l l a n t M i n i s t r y f rom P a r i s , a g a i n s t u n a u t h o r i z e d l o c a l m i l i t a r y a c t i o n s . The r o y a l i s t s remained in power in A r i e s , and the a l r e a d y p ro found r i f t between the A i x a u t h o r i t i e s and the m u n i c i p a l i t y and P o p u l a r S o c i e t y o f M a r s e i l l e s grew even d e e p e r . 6 1 In the 1 7 9 1 - 9 2 P a r i s s t r u g g l e between the r o y a l i s t F e u i l l a n t s and the a n t i - r o y a 1 i s t J a c o b i n s , M a r s e i l l e s gave i t s f u l l s u p p o r t to the J a c o b i n s . In P a r i s , the r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s o f M a r s e i l l e s were g a i n i n g a r e p u t a t i o n f o r a c t i v e adherence to extreme r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i n c i p l e s . On a number o f o c c a s i o n s , r o y a l i s t s in the N a t i o n a l Assembly had accused M a r s e i l l e s o f a t t e m p t i n g to b u i l d a l i t t l e empi re in the s o u t h e a s t . Thus the f i r s t a t t a c k s a g a i n s t M a r s e i 1 1 e s r e g i o n a l i s m were made by the r i g h t -wing o f the N a t i o n a l As semb l y . M a r s e i l l e s ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s argued in r e p l y t h a t M a r s e i l l e s o n l y w ished to de f end the hard-won f r u i t s o f the R e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t the i n t r i g u e s o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s who were s t r i v i n g to r e s u r r e c t the a n c i e n r e g i m e . 6 2 In the L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , the r i f t between the F e u i l l a n t s , a t t e m p t i n g to reach a compromise w i t h the monarchy , and the J a c o b i n s , f a v o u r i n g a r e p u b l i c a n s o l u t i o n , became even d e e p e r . T h e , p o s i t i o n o f the p a r t i s a n s o f compromise was becoming u n t e n a b l e as r e p o r t s o f an imminent c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y c r u s a d e a g a i n s t F r a n c e , led by the r o y a l i s t shadow-government at C o b l e n t z and suppo r t ed by the monarch i es o f Eu rope , became more and more b e l i e v a b l e . The F rench r o ya l f a m i l y was s t a l l i n g , e x p e c t i n g to be rescued by c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i e s , and a sma l l group o f J a c o b i n s f rom the p r o v i n c e s , l ed by B r i s s o t , began to a g i t a t e f o r a p r e e m p t i v e war . Thus compromise became i m p o s s i b l e , s i n c e both the m a j o r i t y of the J a c o b i n s w i t h i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly and the r o y a l i s t s had f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons o p t e d f o r a war p o l i c y . To be s u r e , a s m a l l number o f J a c o b i n s , l e d by R o b e s p i e r r e , were s u s p i c i o u s of a war p o l i c y , but t h e i r w a r n i n g s were not heeded. To the M a r s e i l l e s p a t r i o t s , a war p o l i c y i m p l i e d an immediate b a t t l e a g a i n s t the a l l too v i s i b l e enemies o f the R e v o l u t i o n i n s i d e F r a n c e . The E r n e s t Swiss Regiment, w h i c h the M a r s e i l l a i s had succeeded i n removing from t h e i r c i t y , was now s t a t i o n e d i n A i x , and t h e M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y viewed w i t h i n d i g n a t i o n t h e f r a t e r n i z a t i o n between t h i s s u s p e c t f o r e i g n Regiment and the d e p a r t m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s . On J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1 7 9 2 Mayor M o u r a i l l e summed up the s i t u a t i o n : " l e departement c h e r c h e a p a r a l y s e r n o t r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m u n i c i p a l e , i l a g i t en d e s p o t e ; i l c a s s e s u i v a n t ses c a p r i c e s , l e s d e l i b e r a t i o n s l e s p l u s sages e t l e s p l u s u r g e n t e s du c o n s e i 1 - g e n e r a 1; i l se montre ouvertement l'ennemi de l a c o n s t i t u t i o n pour l ' a n e a n t i r e t l a p e r d r e . " 6 3 M a r s e i l l e s d e c i d e d i n e a r l y 1 7 9 2 t o i n i t i a t e independent m i l i t a r y a c t i o n a g a i n s t A r i e s . Barbaroux and Loys were chosen t o j u s t i f y t o the N a t i o n a l Assembly the M a r s e i l l e s a c t i o n and t o p r e v e n t M a r s e i l l e s ' c o m p l a i n t s a g a i n s t the c i t y o f A r i e s and the department o f the Bouches-du-Rhone. Rebecqui and B e r t i n were named as commi sa i res  e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s c harged w i t h r a i s i n g an army o f N a t i o n a l G u a r d s . 6 4 W i t h t h e i r army o f o v e r 2 , 0 0 0 men, Rebecqui and B e r t i n marched a g a i n s t A r i e s , e n t e r i n g t h e c i t y on March 3 0 , 1 7 9 2 . Meanwhile, Barbaroux p r e s e n t e d M a r s e i l l e s ' case i n P a r i s , and, a g a i n s t the s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n o f the r o y a l i s t s , g a i n e d the a p p r o v a l of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Rebecqui and B e r t i n proceeded t o purge the m u n i c i p a l i t y of A r i e s and t o d e s t r o y the r o y a l i s t Ch i f f o n i s t e s . By rrniid-Apr i 1 , A r i e s was s e c u r e l y i n J a c o b i n h a n d s . 6 5 C i v i l s t r i f e c o n t i n u e d unabated in the fo rmer Papal e n c l a v e s d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1 7 9 1 - 9 2 . The M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n s i d e r e d the danger o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n i n t e n s e ; t h e r e f o r e , i t gave R e b e c q u i ' s army p e r m i s s i o n to march f rom A r i e s to A v i g n o n . The M a r s e i l l e s f o r c e s a i d e d the Av ignon p ro-F r ench r e v o l u t i o n a r y f a c t i o n to e s t a b l i s h two new d i s t r i c t s in the r e g i o n , wh ich were i n c l u d e d in the depar tment o f the Bouches-du-Rhone. On t h e i r r e t u r n to M a r s e i l l e s , R e b e c q u i , B e r t i n and the N a t i o n a l Guards were g r e e t e d as c o n q u e r i n g he roes However, in the N a t i o n a l Assembly M a r s e i l l e s ' a c t i o n in Av ignon was -rega rded w i t h g r a v e s u s p i c i o n , and in June Rebecqui l e f t f o r P a r i s to a i d Ba rba roux in d e f e n d i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s o f M a r s e i l l e s . 6 6 In the c o u r s e o f h i s m i s s i o n to P a r i s C h a r l e s Barbaroux became a s u p p o r t e r o f the B r i s s o t i n war p a r t y . The exposu re o f the i m p r e s s i o n a b l young M a r s e i l l a i s to Mme. R o l a n d ' s i n f l u e n c e p l a y e d a r o l e in d e t e r m i n i n g B a r b a r o u x ' s p o l i t i c a l s y m p a t h i e s . 6 7 A l s o , t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the s i m p l i s t i c m o r a l i s t i c appea l o f the B r i s s o t i n s f o r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y war o f l i b e r a t i o n seemed r e a s o n a b l e to the young M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r y , who had ample e v i d e n c e from the s o u t h e a s t o f the e f f i c a c y o f d i r e c t m i l i t a r y a c t i o n as an a n t i d o t e to c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n . 6 8 The B r i s s o t i n (Dumouriez) m i n i s t r y d e c l a r e d war on A p r i l 2 0 , 1 7 9 2 . The war began b a d l y , u n d i s c i p l i n e d F rench t r oops s u f f e r i n g s e t b a c k s on the n o r t h e a s t e r n f r o n t i e r . The k i n g , c o n f i d e n t o f imminent r e s c u e by the a p p r o a c h i n g c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s , d i s m i s s e d the B r i s s o t i n s . In the f a c e o f i n t e r n a l r o y a l i s t r e a c t i o n , the pro-war B r i s s o t i n s and the an t i -wa r R o b e s p i e r r i s t s momen ta r i l y j o i n e d f o r c e s . Meanwh i l e , the P a r i s crowd was se t in mot ion by the r i s i n g p r i c e s and food s h o r t a g e s in the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 2 . The a g i t a t i o n in the P a r i s s e c t i o n s q u i c k l y became p o l i t i c a l , t a k i n g r o y a l i s t r e a c t i o n as i t s p r i n c i p a l f o e . The j o u r n e e o f August 1 0 , 1 7 9 2 was the c u l m i n a t i o n o f the s t r u g g l e between the P a r i s J a c o b i n s and the r o y a l i s t s ; t he f a l l o f the monarchy and the f o u n d i n g o f the r e p u b l i c was a major v i c t o r y f o r the J a c o b i n s . August 10 a l s o marked t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the P a r i s crowd i n t o an independent p o l i t i c a l f o r c e , t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e movement, and h e n c e f o r t h the J a c o b i n s would f i n d i t p r o g r e s s i v e l y more d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l and channel s a n s - c u l o t t e e n e r g i e s . 6 9 A c o n t i n g e n t o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s F e d e r e s , p i c k e d members o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s N a t i o n a l Guard, s e n t t o P a r i s on Barbaroux's r e q u e s t , f o u g h t a l o n g s i d e t h e i r b r e t h r e n the B r e t o n FedeVes, and the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s i n s t o r m i n g the T u i l e r i e s P a l a c e . The Federes'- P a r i s e x p e d i t i o n was the apogee o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ' c r u s a d e a g a i n s t t h e c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n . T h e i r march through the French c o u n t r y s i d e , d r a g g i n g t h e i r cannon and s i n g i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y hymn which has borne t h e i r name ev e r s i n c e , i s p a r t o f the legend o f the R e v o l u t i o n . 7 0 B u t i n a n o t h e r sense th e M a r s e i l l e s Federes' P a r i s e x p e d i t i o n marks the end o f a p e r i o d i n M a r s e i l l e s ' r e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y , f o r even as the Federes were on the road t o the c a p i t a l , new elements were d e s t r o y i n g t h e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y consensus which had c h a r a c t e r i z e d M a r s e i l l e s p o l i t i c s from mid-1790 u n t i l mid-1792 . VI I L o c a l i s m , w h i c h can be t r a c e d back t o the a n c i e n regime, t o p r i v i l e g e w h i c h M a r s e i l l e s i n h e r i t e d from t h e M i d d l e Ages, was the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s d u r i n g the f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d . In the immediate p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f P r o v e n c e , a l t h o u g h f u l l o f anachronisms and i n e f f i c i e n c y , were r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . Nominal p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r a l l o f Provence o u t s i d e o f M a r s e i l l e s r e s t e d i n the hands o f the A i x n o b l e s s e de robe and l e g a l b o u r g e o i s i e , arid the M a r s e i l l e s commercial b o u r g e o i s i e n o m i n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d o v e r s e a s t r a d e and m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s . In f a c t , t h e i n t e n d a n t o f A i x had f i n a l say o v e r the a f f a i r s b oth o f A i x and o f M a r s e i l l e s . M a r s e i l l e s ' l e a d e r s j e a l o u s l y p r o t e c t e d the c i t y ' s r i g h t s a g a i n s t any o u t s i d e i n c u r s i o n , but t h i s was more r h e t o r i c a l than r e a l , s i n c e M a r s e i 1 1 p r i v i l e g e s had not been under s e r i o u s a t t a c k s i n c e the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In any c a s e , the i n t e n d a n t had t h e power t o t a k e s e r i o u s s t e p s a g a i n s t M a r s e i l l e s ' p r i v i l e g e s had he chosen to do so. He never d i d , f o r p r e s e r v i n g M a r s e i l l e s as a c o m m e r c i a l l y autonomous, p r o s p e r o u s f r e e p o r t was i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e monarchy. The R e v o l u t i o n d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n P r o v e n c e . The o l d i n s t i t u t i o n s were d e s t r o y e d and f o r some time t h e r e was no e f f e c t i v e n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e . The e n s u i n g p o l i t i c a l vacuum i n v i t e d the growth o f autonomous p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y , P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , and N a t i o n a l Guard. A new group o f p e o p l e , d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r r e v o l u t -i o n a r y z e a l and p a t r i o t i s m , and on some o c c a s i o n s r e l y i n g f o r s u p p o r t on urban crowds, o b t a i n e d the l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n s i n t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s . The M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s a c q u i r e d a good dea l o f autonomy and r a p i d l y sought t o s p r e a d t h e i r power beyond the immediate c o n f i n e s o f the c i t y , t o A i x and t o the h i n t e r l a n d o f P r o vence. 1791 and 1 7 9 2 saw a number of m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s by the M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , t o A i x , A r i e s , T o u l o n , A v i g n o n , and as the c r o w n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , t o P a r i s , t o h e l p t h e P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s o v e r t h r o w the monarchy. M a r s e i l l e s l o c a l i s m o r m u n i c i p a l i s m , o r m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m ( d i f f e r e n t terms d e s c r i b i n g d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f the same c o n c e p t ) e x a l t e d M a r s e i l l e s asaa b a s t i o n o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n . L o y a l t y t o the r e v o l u t i o n and l o y a l t y t o M a r s e i l l e s became c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s i n the p o p u l a r mind. NOTES FOR CHAPTER I I Paul Masson, M a r s e i l l e d u p u i s 1 7 8 9 , " v o l - 1 P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 1 9 1 9 , pp. 2 6 - 2 7 ; T.J.A. Le G o f f & J . Meyer, "Les c o n s t r u c t i o n s n a v a l e s en F rance pendant l a seconde moit&e du XVI M e s i e c l e " , Anna 1es 2 6 , 1 9 7 1 , PP- 1 7 3 - 1 8 5 -Masson compares f i g u r e s on M a r s e i l l e s and Bordeaux s h i p p i n g and a r r i v e s a t the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t M a r s e i l l e s l e d Bordeaux i n s h i p p i n g tonnages d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e R e v o l u t i o n . I found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l Masson's f i g u r e s , but a r e c e n t a r t i c l e by T.J.A. Le G o f f and J . Meyer c a s t s doubts on them. Le G o f f and Meyer show t h a t between 1 7 6 2 and 1 7 8 7 new s h i p c o n s t r u c t i o n was s t r o n g e s t on the A t l a n t i c c o a s t o f F r a n c e , i n B r i t a n n y and Bordeaux. In terms o f t h e number o f v e s s e l s c o n s t r u c t e d , the B r e t o n p o r t s Vannes, Nantes and S a i n t - M a l o were the l e a d e r s , w h i l e i n terms o f new tonnage c o n s t r u c t i o n Nantes and Bordeaux were the overwhelming l e a d e r s . Le G o f f ' s and Meyerss s t a t i s t i c s s u p p o r t the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t A t l a n t i c commerce and e s p e c i a l l y commerce w i t h the West I n d i e s , dominated French o v e r s e a s commerce i n the second h a l f o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Le G o f f ' s and Meyer's f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t A r t h u r Young's i m p r e s s i o n t h a t on the eve o f the R e v o l u t i o n Bordeaux was a more a c t i v e , imposing p o r t than M a r s e i l l e s , and appeared t o have a more b u s t l i n g commercial a c t i v i t y . (See A r t h u r Young, T r a v e l s i n F r a n c e , Cambridge, U. P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 , p. 2 2 9 - ) However,. Le G o f f ' s and Meyer's f i n d i n g s , do not d i s p r o v e Masson's c o n t e n t i o n , f o r t h e r e i s no n e c e s s a r y c o r r e l a t i o n between new s h i p p i n g tonnage c o n s t r u c t i o n i n a c i t y and the amount o f s h i p p i n g t r a f f i c w h i c h a p o r t c i t y h a n d l e s . Le G o f f and Meyer do not p o i n t out t h a t t h e l a r g e r v e s s e l s b u i l t i n Bordeaux (more than t w i c e as l a r g e on the a v e r a g e as the M a r s e i l l e s b u i l t s h i p s ) , c a r r i e d the l o n g d i s t a n c e , hazardous A t l a n t i c t r a f f i c , r e q u i r i n g much l o n g e r timespans f o r each voyage, a n d - t h a t thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t M a r s e i l l e s , h a n d l i n g the s h o r t d i s t a n c e t r a f f i c o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n , r e q u i r i n g genera 11y s h o r t t i m e p e r i o d s f o r each voyage, might have ha n d l e d as much t r a f f i c w i t h s m a l l e r and fewer s h i p s as Bordeaux. But even a c c e p t i n g t h a t M a r s e i l l e s ' t r a f f i c p r o b a b l y was i n f e r i o r t o Bordeaux's does not change the f a c t t h a t M a r s e i l l e s was by f a r the l a r g e s t commercial p o r t o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t and t h a t i t s r e l a t i v e r e g i o n a l i mportance was v e r y g r e a t . Raoul B u s q u e t , ? H i s t o i r e des i n s t i t u t i o n s de l a Provence de 1 4 8 8 a 1 7 9 0 -M a r s e i l l e , B a r l a t i e r , 1 9 2 0 , p. 35 and p assim. Jean E g r e t , "The P r e - R e v o l u t i o n i n P r o v e n c e " , am New P e r s p e c t i v e s on  the French R e v o l u t i o n . Ed. J e f f r y Kaplow, New Y o r k , John W i l e y , 1 9 6 5 , pp. 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ; and Busquet, op_. c i t . , pp. 2 0 3 - 2 1 1. A i x and T o u l o n were the most s i g n i f i c a n t b a s t i o n s o f t h e l e g a l b u r e a u c r a c y , and the c i t y o f A r i e s was the most s i g n i f i c a n t b a s t i o n o f the land-owning n o b i l i t y . The power o f the n o b i l i t y i n A r i e s may be gauged by t h e f a c t t h a t w h i l e the n o b l e s owned a p p r o x i m a t e l y 58 20% o f t h e t o t a l l a n d o f P r o v e n c e , i n A r i e s o v e r 50% o f t h e l a n d was owned by n o b l e s . I t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t i n o t h e r w i s e r o c k y a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l l y p o o r P r o v e n c e , A r i e s was s u r r o u n d e d by a r i c h g r a i n - p r o d u c i n g p l a i n . S ee Rene B a e h r e l , Une C r o i s s a n c e : l a B a s s e - P r o v e n c e r u r a l e . P a r i s , S.E.V.P.E.N., 1 9 6 1 , pp. 3 9 5 - 4 3 0 . 5 . P a u l M a s s o n , L a P r o v e n c e au XVI M e s i e c l e , P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 1 9 3 6 , p. 14 s p. 7 6 7 . 6 . B u s q u e t , o p . c i t . , pp. 4 0 - 6 0 . M a r s e i l l e s ' i n d e p e n d e n c e was j u r i d i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h r o u g h t h e c i t y ' s s p e c i a l s t a t u s a s t e r r e a d j a c e n t e a n d t e r r e s e p a r e e . 7 . Norman Hampson, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . T o r o n t o , U. o f T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 , p. 3 ; and B u s q u e t , o p . c i t . , p. 3 4 . 8 . M i r a i l l e Z a r b , L e s p r i v i l e g e s d e l a v i l l e d e M a r s e i l l e du  X s i e c l e a l a R e v o l u t i o n . P a r i s , A. & J . P i c a r d , 1961 , pp. 1 3 0 - 1 3 1 and p a s s i m . 9 . I b i d . , pp. 3 3 3 - 3 4 3 . M a r s e i l l e s ' f r e e d o m was g r a n t e d t o t h e c i t y by C o l b e r t , a f t e r i t became c l e a r t h a t m e r c a n t i l i s t e c o n o m i c p o l i c i e s w o u l d s t r a n g l e M a r s e i l l e s ' M e d i t e r r a n e a n t r a d e . 1 0 . L e G o f f a nd M e y e r , o p . c i t . , p. 1 8 4 . D u r i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s f o l l o w i n g t h e A m e r i c a n War o f I n d e p e n d e n c e , M a r s e i l l e s commerce e x p e r i e n c e d a s l u m p , w h i c h may be s e e n by t h e r e d u c e d amount o f s h i p b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y . B u t d u r i n g t h e 1 7 8 0 ' s s h i p c o n s t r u c t i o n i n M a r s e i l l e s , a s on t h e w h o l e M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t , i n c r e a s e d by l e a p s a n d b o u n d s , i n d i c a t i n g a d e c a d e o f p r o s p e r i t y . 1 1 . M a s s o n , L a P r o v e n c e . . . , p. 741 & p. 7 6 4 ; & M a s s o n , M a r s e i 1 1 e . . . , v o l . I , pp. 3 1 9 - 3 2 1 . 1 2 . M a s s o n , L a P r o v e n c e . . . , pp. 1 5 6 - 1 5 8 & pp. 3 5 3 " 3 5 6 . 13- E g r e t , o p . c i t . , p. 1 5 5 -14. I b i d . , pp. 1 6 6 - 1 6 9 . 15- J u l e s V i g u i e r , " M a r s e i l l e e t s e s r e p r e s e n t a n t s a l ' A s s e m b l e e n a t i o n a l e c o n s t i t u a n t e " , L a R e v o l u t i o n f r a n c h i s e 4 0 , 1901 , pp. i"34-2oo. 1 6 . M a s s o n , M a r s e i l i e . . . , v o l . I , pp. 3 2 - 3 4 . 17- A l f r e d C o b b a n , T h e S o c i a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . C a m b r i d g e , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1;968. p . J o . 1 8 . G e o r g e s G u i b a l , M i r a b e a u e t l a P r o v e n c e , 1. P a r t i e . P a r i s , T h o r i n , 1 8 8 9 , pp. I 6 0 - / 6 / . 1 9 . I b i d . , pp. 1 0 5 - 1 0 7 . 59 2 0 . Georges G u i b a l , M i rabeau e t l a P r o v e n c e , 2 . P a r t i e . P a r i s , T h o r i n , 1 8 9 1 , pp . 1 9 - 5 7 -2 1 . George L e f e b v r e , The Coming of the F rench R e v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k , V i n t a g e Books , 1 9 4 7 , pp . 1 0 7 " 1 1 2 . 2 2 . G u i b a l , op_. c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 6 1 - 6 3 . 2 3 . C. L o u r d e , H i s t o i r e de l a R e v o l u t i o n a M a r s e i l l e e t en P r o v e n c e , v o l . I, M a r s e i l l e , S enes , 1 8 3 8 , pp . 7 7 " 8 3 -24. G u i b a l , op_. c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 8 6 - 1 0 5 . 2 5 . L o u r d e , o p . c i t . , pp . 1 3 0 — 1 3 6 . 2 6 . G u i b a l , op_. c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 2 0 8 - 2 1 2 . 2 7 . I b i d . , pp . 2 3 2 - 2 7 5 . 2 8 . L au ren t L a u t a r d , E s q u i s s e s h i s t o r i q u e s . M a r s e i 1 1 e d e p u i s 1 7 8 9  j u s q u ' e n 1 8 1 5 , voTTT M a r s e i l l e , Mar ius O l i v e , 1 8 4 4 , p. 3 5 -2 9 . G u i b a l , op_. c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 6 0 - 6 1 . 3 0 . I b i d . , p. 8 8 . 3 1 . Memoires de C h a r l e s Ba rba roux , Ed . B e r v i l l e & B a r r i e r e , P a r i s , Baudoin f r e r e s , 1 8 2 2 , p. 4 1 , f . n . 1. 3 2 . J . F . R i c o r d , "Deuxieme p a r t i e du r a p p o r t de R i c o r d sue ses d i f f e r e n t e s m i s s i o n s a l ' a rmee d 1 I t a l i e , a M a r s e i l l e s e t dans que lques departemens m e r i d i o n a u x " . p. 9 in The M a c l u r e C o l l e c t i o n  o f F rench R e v o l u t i o n a r y M a t e r i a l s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , v o l . 1 1 8 5 , no. 6 . 33- M i c h e l V o v e l l e , " L e p r o l e t a r i a t f l o t t a n t a Marse i 1 1 e.> sous l a R e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e . " Anna l e s de Demographie h i s t o r i q u e , 1 9 6 8 , pp. 1 1 1 - 1 3 8 . 3 4 . G u i b a l , op_- c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 2 3 2 - 2 7 5 -3 5 . V i g u i e r , Les Debu ts . . . , pp . 3 3 2 - 3 3 6 . 3 6 . G u i b a l , o p . c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , p. 3 5 7 -3 7 - A l f r e d Cobban, A s p e c t s o f the F rench R e v o l u t i o n . London , J ona than Cape , 1 9 6 8 , pp . 1 1 3 - 1 1 6 . 3 8 . Hampson, o p . c i t . , p. 1 1 5 -39- V i g u i e r , Les Debu ts . . . , pp . 4 4 - 5 3 . 40 . A l f r e d Cobban , A H i s t o r y o f Modern F r a n c e , v o l . I. London , Pengu in Books , 1 9 5 7 , p - 1 6 6 . 6 0 4 1 . Z a r b , op_. c i t . , p. 1 1 9 ; Georges L e f e b v r e , The F rench R e v o l u t i o n f rom  i t s O r i g i n s to 1 7 9 3 - Co lumbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 , p. 161 -4 2 . L a u t a r d , op_. c i t . , p. 7 3 -4 3 . R i c h a r d Cobb , "Some a s p e c t s o f the R e v o l u t i o n a r y M e n t a l i t y " in J e f f r y Kaplow, New P e r s p e c t i v e s on the F rench R e v o l u t i o n : Readings  in H i s t o r i c a l S o c i o l o g y . New Y o r k , John W i l e y , 1 9 6 5 , p. 3 3 5 . 4 4 . L o u r d e , o p . c i t . , v o l . II, pp . 6 4 - 6 6 . 4 5 . H. Chobau t , "Compte-rendu de ' de C a r d e n a l , La p r o v i n c e pendant l a R e v o l u t i o n . H i s t o i r e d e s C lubs J a c o b i n 1 7 8 9 - 1 7 9 5 ' . " AHRF 6 , 1 9 2 9 , pp . 4 0 6 - 4 0 8 . 4 6 . G u i b a l , £ £ . c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 3 2 6 - 3 4 8 . 4 7 . L o u r d e , o p . c i t . , v o l . I, p a s s i m . 4 8 . G u i b a l , op_. c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 4 3 0 - 4 8 7 . 4 9 . Eugene C o u l e t , J a c o b i n s e t r o y a l i s t s a T o u l o n , 1 7 9 0 ~ 9 2 . T o u l o n , G a l l i a t i , 1 9 6 4 , pp . 7~17-5 0 . Emmanuel V i n g t r i n i e r , La C o n t r e - R e v o l u t i o n , p r em ie r e p e r i o d e  1 7 8 7 - 1 7 9 2 , v o l . I. P a r i s , E m i l e - P a u l , 1 9 4 2 , p. 1 3 5 -5 1 . L i u t e n a n t V i a l l a , " 1 ' I n s u r r e c t i o n d ' A r l e s et l a p r e m i e r e e x p e d i t i o n M a r s e i 1 l a i s e , " RF 5 8 , 1 9 1 0 , pp . 2 4 6 - 2 4 7 . 5 2 . E r ne s t Daudet , H i s t o i r e des c o n s p i r a t i o n s r o y a l i s t e s du M id i sous l a  R e v o l u t i o n 1 7 9 0 - 1 7 9 3 - P a r i s , H a c h e t t e , 1 8 8 1 , pp . 1 - 2 7 ; & James N. Hood, " P r o t e s t a n t - C a t h o l i c R e l a t i o n s and the Roots o f the F i r s t P o p u l a r C o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y Movement in F r a n c e . " J o u r n a l o f Modern H i s t o r y 4 3 , 1 9 7 1 , pp- 2 4 5 - 2 7 5 . James N. Hood, a rgues tha t the c i v i l d i s t u r b a n c e s in Ntmes r e p r e s e n t the f i r s t p o p u l a r c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e p o c h , and tha t " i t s l e a d e r s p r e m a t u r e l y expended i t s f o r c e and the reby he lped to d i s c r e d i t r oya l ism in s o u t h e a s t e r n F r ance u n t i l a f t e r T h e r m i d o r . " (p. 2 7 5 ) . It seems to me t h a t w h i l e Hood ' s argument c o n c e r n i n g Ntmes may be c o r r e c t , h i s c o n c l u s i o n about the d i s c r e d i t i n g o f r o y a l i s m in s o u t h e a s t e r n F rance f l i e s in the f a c e o f e v i d e n c e . In A r i e s , A i x , T o u l o n , the Av ignon r e g i o n and the r u r a l a r e a o f Gard and L o z e r e roya l ism remained a power fu l f o r c e th rough 1791 and 1 7 9 2 , and d u r i n g the F e d e r a l i s t o u t b r e a k . R o y a l i s t s a l s o headed the M a r s e i l l e s Depar tmenta l Army d u r i n g the l a s t s t age o f i t s o p e r a t i o n s and handed T o u l o n o v e r to the B r i t i s h . 5 3 . J u l e s V i g u i e r , " L a r e u n i o n d ' A v i g n o n e t du Comtat-Vena i s's i n a l a F r a n c e , p a r t I." RF 2 1 , pp . 4 2 4 - 4 4 9 . 5 4 . V i n g t r i n i e r , op_. c i t . , v o l . I I , pp . 7 0 - 7 5 . 5 5 - G u i b a l , op_. c i t . , 2 . P a r t i e , pp . 3 8 8 - 4 2 9 . 5 6 . Georges L e f e b v r e , The F rench R e v o l u t i o n from i t s O r i g i n s to 1 7 9 3 -New Y o r k , Co lumbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 , p. 1 4 2 . 61 57. I b i d . , p. 196. 58. V i g u i e r , "La r e u n i o n . . . p a r t I I I " , RF_ 26, p. 160; & Lou r d e , op. c i t . , v o l . I I , p. 31 • 59- L o u r d e , ojp_. c i t . , v o l . I I , pp. 34-37. 60. C o u l e t , op_. c i t . , pp. 11-16; & Lou r d e , op. c i t . , v o l . I I , pp. 95""98. 61. V i a l l a , op_. c i t . , pp. 255-263. 62. L o u r d e , op_. c i t . , v o l . I I , p assim and i n p a r t i c u l a r pp. 54-63. 63. I b i d . , pp. 298-299. 64. I b i d . , p. 300. 65. I b i d . , pp. 300-345. 66. I b i d . , v o l . I l l , pp. 2-25.. 67. M.J. Sydenham, The French R e v o l u t i o n . London, Methuen, 1969, p. 129. 68. I b i d . , p. 91• 69. As Hampson n o t e s , the s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s o f t h e e a r l y s p r i n g o f 1792 "had g i v e n a f o r e t a s t e o f what peasant and s a n s - c u l o t t e * demands were g o i n g t o i n v o l v e " , (p. 141). When th e p a s s i v e c i t i z e n s r e c e i v e d the v o t e i n the summer of 1792, t h e way was open f o r t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e s t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h the g r a s s - r o o t s ward a s s e m b l i e s , t h e s e c t i o n s o f the major c i t i e s . The war s i m p l i f i e d p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , d e s t r o y e d nuances, d e f i n e d i n t e r e s t s i n " b l a c k and w h i t e " , r e v o l u t i o n a r y v e r s u s c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e r m s , and t h i s l o s s o f c o m p l e x i t y f a v o u r e d the e n t r y o f the p o l i t i c a l l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d s a n s - c u l o t t e s i n t o r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c s as an independent f o r c e . See Norman Hampson, A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f t h e  French R e v o l u t i o n , T o r o n t o , U. o f T. P r e s s , 1964, pp. 137*142. 70. Sydenham, op. c i t . , p. 105-62 CHAPTER III - 1 7 9 2 - 1 7 9 3 : The Breakup o f M a r s e i l l e s * U n i f i e d P o l i t i c a l Consensus T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l t r a c e the d e s t r u c t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s ' p o l i t i c a l consensus and the emergence o f s t r o n g an tagon i sm between the two extremes o f the c i t y ' s p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n d u r i n g the autumn o f 1 7 9 2 and the w i n t e r o f 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 -P o p u l a r r i o t i n g was d e c i s i v e in the p r o c e s s o f p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n in M a r s e i l l e s . A f t e r two yea r s o f r e l a t i v e peace w i t h i n the c i t y , the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s became a c t i v e , and t h i s c a u s e d l a r g e numbers o f the p o l i t i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l b o u r g e o i s , u n s e t t l e d by the economic d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f e a r l y 1 7 9 2 , to adopt a c a u t i o u s , a n t i - J a c o b i n p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . They were opposed by the M a r s e i l l e s Popu l a r S o c i e t y , wh ich f a i t h f u l l y f o l l o w e d the d i r e c t i o n o f the P a r i s J a c o b i n s , and abandoned c e r t a i n o f i t s most impor tan t l e a d e r s , among them C h a r l e s B a r b a r o u x , who j o i n e d the a n t i - J a c o b i n r a n k s . The s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s p l a y e d an independent r o l e , o u t s i d e o f o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c s . In e a r l y 1 7 9 3 , the Popu l a r S o c i e t y r e l u c t a n t l y a l l i e d i t s e l f w i t h the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s , and w i t h p o p u l a r suppo r t made g r e a t s t r i d e s in g a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f the c i t y . However, the p o p u l a r e l e m e n t s , as we s h a l l s e e , were s u s c e p t i b l e to economic p r e s s u r e s and t o a p p e a l s to t h e i r r e g i o n a l l o y a l t i e s , and so t h e i r a l l i a n c e w i t h the J a c o b i n s was v u l n e r a b l e . A t t a c k s on the J a c o b i n s a n s - c u l o t t e bond d i d m a t e r i a l i z e in the s p r i n g o f 1 7 9 3 , but t hese w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d u n t i l the next c h a p t e r . 11 An i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s e r i o u s l y u n d e r m i n e d M a r s e i l l e s ' p o l i t i c a l u n i t y i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1 7 9 2 : t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a p e r money, t h e a s s i g n a t , u n d e r w e n t t h e f i r s t n a t i o n w i d e , s t e a d y , l o n g - t e r m d e p r e c i a t i o n o f i t s h i s t o r y . In t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n t h e a s s i g n a t f e l l f r o m 8k% t o 6k% o f i t s f a c e v a l u e b e t w e e n November 1791 and A p r i l 1 7 9 2 , t h e m o s t s e r i o u s r e g i o n a l i n f l a t i o n i n F r a n c e . 1 T h e i n i t i a l e n t r y o f t h e a s s i g n a t i n t o n a t i o n a l c i r c u l a t i o n d i d n o t a f f e c t a d v e r s e l y M a r s e i l l e s ' c o m m e r c i a l c l a s s e s . In f a c t , c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l l y p r i n t e d , s m a 1 1 - d e n o m i n a t i o n c o u p o n s d ' a s s i g n a t s , i s s u e d by n e w l y f o u n d e d c a i s s e s p a t r i o t i q u e s , p r o v i d e d l u c r a t i v e s p e c u l a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e c o m m e r c i a l b o u r g e o i s . 2 H o w e v e r , f o l l o w i n g t h e r u n a w a y i n f l a t i o n o f 1 7 9 1 - 9 2 , t h e M a r s e i l l e s Chamber o f Commerce, t h e s e m i - i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n c y s t a f f e d by t h e h i g h c o m m e r c i a l b o u r g e o i s i e and r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s i n t e r e s t , was r e p l a c e d by a m u n i c i p a l c o m m e r c i a l c o m m i s s i o n s i m p l y named b u r e a u p r o v i s o i r e , p r e s i d e d o v e r by t h e m a y o r , s o t h a t t h e commerce o f M a r s e i l l e s came u n d e r t h e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . 3 T h e i n f l a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by t h e o u t b r e a k o f w a r , a l s o u n d e r m i n e d t h e c r e d i t o f F r e n c h c o m m e r c i a l a g e n t s a b r o a d , and t h i s was v e r y u n s e t t l i n g f o r M a r s e i l l e s ' c o m m e r ce, h e a v i l y d e p e n d e n t on f o r e i t r a d e . 4 By t h i s t i m e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e m e r c a n t i l e e l e m e n t s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a l s o u n d e r a t t a c k , a n d M o u r a i l l e , an a s t r o n o m e r a n d a c a d e m i c i en c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , had r e p l a c e d t h e n e g o c i a n t E t i e n n e M a r t i n as m a y or o f M a r s e i l l e s i n O c t o b e r 1791 • 5 T h r o u g h o u t F r a n c e t h e i n f l a t i o n p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e f e a r o f f a m i n e : g r a i n t r a n s p o r t s w e r e s t o p p e d i n many l o c a l i t i e s , a n d d e s p i t e t h e r e l a t i v e l y g o od h a r v e s t s o f 1 7 9 1 , t h e r e w e r e s e r i o u s r e g i o n a l f o o d s h o r t a g e s . As an i m p o r t a n t g r a i n i m p o r t i n g c e n t e r , M a r s e i l l e s r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y s t e a d y f o o d s u p p l i e s . Y e t t h e g e n e r a l i n f l a t i o n f o r c e d b r e a d p r i c e s i n M a r s e i l l e s s t e a d i l y h i g h e r : t h e p r i c e o f w h i t e b r e a d r o s e by o n e - t h i r d b e t w e e n December 1791 a n d A u g u s t 1 7 9 2 . N o t o n l y w e r e b r e a d p r i c e s r i s i n g , b u t b r e a d q u a l i t y was d e t e r i o r a t i n g . D e s p i t e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s a t t e m p t s t o e x e r c i s e s t r i n g e n t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e b a k e r s , t h e r e w e r e c o m p l a i n t s t h a t t h e b a k e r s w e r e r e d u c i n g t h e s i z e o f b r e a d l o a v e s , a n d w e r e s e l l i n g b r e a d w i t h i m p u r i t i e s i n i t . 6 T h e r i s i n g b r e a d p r i c e s p r o v o k e d t h e f i r s t c a s e s o f p o p u l a r r i o t i n g i n M a r s e i l l e s s i n c e e a r l y 1 7 9 0 : on A p r i l 19 a n d A p r i l 2 0 , 1 7 9 2 , a n g r y women m a r c h e d t o t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y a n d demanded arms p r e s u m a b l y t o f o r c e t h e b a k e r s t o s e l l them c h e a p e r a nd b e t t e r q u a l i t y b r e a d . 7 T h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f w a r i n l a t e r A p r i l was f o l l o w e d by r o y a l i s t r e a c t i o n i n P a r i s . F e d e r e s f r o m a l l p a r t s o f t h e k i n g d o m , i n c l u d i n g M a r s e i l l e s , d e p a r t e d t o t h e c a p i t a l t o j o i n t h e P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s . News o f L a f a y e t t e ' s summons t o t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y on J u n e 18 t o b r e a k up t h e p o p u l a r d e m o c r a t i c movement o f P a r i s , r e a c h e d t h e p r o v i n c e s . T h e p r o v i n c i a l s a n s - c u l o t t e s showed t h e i r s y m p a t h i e s by t u r n i n g a g a i n s t t h e F a y e t t i s t s a n d F e u i l l a n t s . 8 In M a r s e i l l e s , L a f a y e t t e ' s " b e t r a y a l " o f t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e s was s e e n a s p r o o f o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t r i g u e . L a f a y e t t e was h a n g e d i n e f f i g y on J u l y 11 and J u l y 14, a n d on e a c h n i g h t d u r i n g e a r l y J u l y l a r g e c r o w d s roamed t h e c i t y s t r e e t s . Rumours o f a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p l a n t o t a k e o v e r t h e m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s o f M a r s e i l l e s , a n d o f a p l a n f o r a m a s s a c r e g e n e r a l o f p a t r i o t s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y ' s newspaper . On the morn ing o f J u l y 21 an angry crowd l ynched B o y e r , a marchand d r a p i e r , l e a d e r o f the supposed c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t r i g u e . Du r i ng the f o l l o w i n g two n i g h t s e i g h t more l y n c h i n g s o f s u s p e c t e d c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s took p l a c e : O l i v i e r and B e a u c a i r e , p r o f e s s e u r s d ' e s c r i m e ( f e n c i n g t e a c h e r s ) , B e l a n , a p e r r u q u i e r (w igmaker ) , N u i r a k and T a s s y , p r i e s t s b e l o n g i n g to a r e l i g i o u s o r d e r , Chaber t de NTmes, a c o u r t i e r (commercia l b r o k e r ) , M e l o n , a c i - d e v a n t garde de p o l i c e ( ex-po l i ceman) f e l l v i c t i m s to p o p u l a r a n g e r . 9 These a c t s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y vengeance d i d not d e r i v e f rom a deve loped sense o f c l a s s a n t a g o n i s m , .for the v i c t i m s were s o c i a l l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s ; n e i t h e r d i d the c rowd ' s anger have economic c a u s e s , s i n c e none o f the v i c t i m s stemmed f rom a s o c i a l s t r a tum to wh ich s e r i o u s blame c o u l d be a t t a c h e d f o r the r i s i n g bread p r i c e s . The o n l y t e n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the J u l y r i o t s i s t ha t they were a p o l i t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n a g a i n s t c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n and roya l ism and in s u p p o r t o f the r e p u b l i c a n and p o p u l a r movements o f P a r i s . The r i o t i n g o f J u l y 1792 marked the b e g i n n i n g o f the p o p u l a r movement in M a r s e i l l e s . C e r t a i n l y p o p u l a r a c t i o n had i n f l u e n c e d p o l i t i c s in M a r s e i l l e s b e f o r e J u l y 1792, as the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r has shown; but p r e v i o u s l y the c rowd ' s a c t i o n s had l a cked i n d e p e n d e n t , w e l l - d e f i n e d p o l i t i c a l aims and the c rowd ' s energy had been q u i c k l y d i s s i p a t e d . It is o n l y w i t h the J u l y r i o t s t ha t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s become a p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r in t h e i r own r i g h t , a l t h o u g h they remained o u t s i d e the e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s -- excep t f o r one o f t h e i r l e a d e r s , Jean Savon. However, they o b t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f f i v e o r s i x s e c t i o n s (out o f twen t y- fou r ) o f the c i t y , and w h i l e t h i s d i d not e n a b l e them to i n f l u e n c e d i r e c t l y d e c i s i o n s made by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s , i t p r o v i d e d them w i t h an impor t an t ex t r a-gove rnmen ta l power b a s e . 66 Leaders o f the r i o t i n g crowds came f rom the lower c l a s s e s : both Jean Savon and Armand GaTt were p o r t e f a i x ( p o r t e r s ) , and Lau ren t Savon (whose o c c u p a t i o n I c o u l d not a s c e r t a i n ) p resumably came from the same s o c i a l s t r a t u m as h i s b r o t h e r J e a n . 1 0 P o r t e r s , the manual t r a n s p o r t a t i o n workers o f M a r s e i l l e s , formed a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l group in the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . V o v e l l e d i v i d e s the M a r s e i l l e s p r o l e t a r i a t i n t o t h r e e s t r a t a and the p o r t e f a i x a re found in the l o w e s t , a l o n g w i t h r o b e y r o i s (manual workers o f the ha rbour ) and mend i c a n t s . T h i s lowest s o c i a l s t r a t u m o f the M a r s e i l l e s p r o l e t a r i a t was c o n c e n t r a t e d in the d i s t r i c t o f b u t t e de Carmes, an a r ea o f d i n g y boug i es ( rooming houses f o r poor t r a n s i e n t s ) , and the most t u r b u l e n t d i s t r i c t o f the c i t y , c o n t a i n i n g the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s 9 , 11 and 1 3 . 1 1 Faced w i t h the angry crowds and the f a i t a c comp l i o f the l y n c h i n g s , the m u n i c i p a l i t y approved the p o p u l a r a c t i o n s and Jean Savon even became a minor a d v i s o r o f mayor M o u r a i l l e . 1 2 The impor tan t v o i c e s among the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s a c t e d l i k e w i s e : M o u r a i l l e , the Popu l a r S o c i e t y , and Ba rbaroux a l l a c c e p t e d the r i o t s as n e c e s s a r y a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h r e a t e n i n g c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n . 1 3 The b l oody a c t s o f the crowd awakened the dormant f e a r s o f the M a r s e i l l e s b o u r g e o i s i e , a l l the more s i n c e the r i o t s came at a t ime when the commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e ' s s t a t u s was under a t t a c k from the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and i n f l a t i o n was h u r t i n g the n e g o c i a n t s ' f o r e i g n t r a d e . M o m e n t a r i l y , i t even appeared tha t the m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was on the s i d e o f the r i o t e r s . Faced w i t h t hese f a c t s , a l a r g e segment o f the M a r s e i l l e s b o u r g e o i s i e was becoming wary o f any new r e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p -ments , e s p e c i a l l y i f they would mean f u r t h e r economic d e t e r i o r a t i o n and a g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l v o i c e f o r the p o p u l a r e lements o f the c i t y . However, as long as the r i o t i n g s a n s - c u l o t t e s were in the s t r e e t s and the M a r s e i l l e s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p a c q u i e s c e d in the s a n s - c u l o t t e d a c t i o n s , o p p o n e n t s o f p o p u l a r a c t i v i t y d a r e d n o t o p e n l y o p p o s e t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e s . F o l l o w i n g t h e r i o t s t h e r e was a m i n o r u p s u r g e o f e m i g r a t i o n among t h e c o m m e r c i a l b o u r g e o i s i e , a l t h o u g h n one o f t h e m a j o r n e g o c i a n t s w e r e among t h e e m i g r e s . 1 4 I I I T h e i n c r e a s e d r e a d i n e s s o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s c r o w d s t o e n g a g e i n v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n , a n d t h e v i c t o r y o f t h e r e p u b l i c a n f o r c e s i n P a r i s on A u g u s t 10, e n c o u r a g e d t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y t o t a k e f u r t h e r d e t e r m i n e d a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s o f t h e s o u t h e a s t . In l a t e A u g u s t , t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y d e s p a t c h e d an armed f o r c e t o A i x and f o r c e d t h e D e p a r t m e n t a l A s s e m b l y a n d C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l o f t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e t o move t o M a r s e i l l e s . W i t h t h i s move A i x ' s p o w e r was f u r t h e r r e d u c e d , a nd M a r s e i l l e s ' — i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y ' s -- c l a i m t o p r e d o m i n a n c e i n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n r e c e i v e d a s t r o n g b o o s t . 1 5 T h e E l e c t o r a l A s s e m b l y o f t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e , s i t t i n g a t A v i g n o n i n l a t e A u g u s t arid e a r l y S e p t e m b e r , u n a n i m o u s l y a p p r o v e d t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o M a r s e i l l e s ; t h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e B a r b a r o u x , a z e a l o u s M a r s e i l l e s p a t r i o t and a l e a d e r o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , p r e s i d e d a t t h e E l e c t o r a l A s s e m b l y ' s m e e t i n g s and o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , f o r e x a m p l e , C h o m p r e , p l a y e d i m p o r t a n t r o l e s a t t h e A v i g n o n A s s e m b l y . 1 5 In t h e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e r i o t s o f J u l y a n d new r i o t s i n S e p t e m b e r M a r s e i l l e s was r e l a t i v e l y p e a c e f u l . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s o f M a r s e i l l e s f o u n d e d t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l f o r t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f c o n t r o l l i n g p o p u l a r " a n a r c h y " I r o n i c a l l y , the i n i t i a t i v e f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f the new j u d i c i a l body came from the same C h a r l e s Barbaroux who i n J u l y had defended the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s ' a c t i o n s b e f o r e the N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . 1 7 B a r b a r o u x 1 s p r o p o s a l was welcomed by the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y and by the c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t i e s : a l l p a r t i e s agreed t h a t s a n s - c u l o t t e e n e r g i e s had t o be curbed t o e n s u r e the c o n t r o l o f M a r s e i l l e s . Only Mayor M o u r a i l l e was opposed t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the new c o u r t on l e g a l grounds -- the f o u n d i n g o f a new l o c a l c o u r t w i t h o u t the p e r m i s s i o n of n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s was i l l e g a l but e v e n t u a l l y he was persuaded by h i s c o l l e a g u e s t o a c q u i e s c e . The M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l was v o t e d i n t o b e i n g by an assembly o f t h e t h r e e c o n s t i t u t e d b o d i e s on August 30, 1792 and was i n s t a l l e d i n o f f i c e on O c t o b e r I . 1 8 The M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l was e s t a b l i s h e d on the model o f the P a r i s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l , w i t h each o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r s e c t i o n a s s e m b l i e s o f the c i t y naming one member t o the Chambre d ' A c c u s a t i o n and one t o the Chambre de J u g e m e n t . 1 9 That t h e members o f t h e a n t i - s a n s - c u i o t t e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l were chosen by the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s i s not a c o n t r a -d i c t i o n : the m a j o r i t y o f the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s were dominated by e l e ments opposed t o p o p u l a r a c t i o n . B a r b a r o u x and Rebecqui were e l e c t e d as d e p u t i e s t o the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n i n September 1792. With t h e i r permanent absence from M a r s e i l l e s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o v e r the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y was g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d . In the l o c a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1792 the c o m p l e x i o n o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y remained l a r g e l y unchanged, w i t h M o u r a i l l e r e t a i n i n g the p o s t o f mayor and S e y t r e s t h a t o f p r o c u r e u r . However, the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the f o r m e r l y c o n s e r v a t i v e Departmental Assembly and C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l , changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . Through the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r Society: 1, M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s were e l e c t e d as l e a d e r s o f the two d e p a r t m e n t a l b o d i e s : M a i l l e t J r . , G i r a u d and Chompre became r e s p e c t i v e l y the p r e s i d e n t , the p r o s e c u t o r and the c l e r k ( g r e f f i e r ) o f the C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l and P a r i s became the p r e s i d e n t o f the Depar tmenta l A s s e m b l y . 2 0 T h u s , by mid-autumn 1792 the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s had changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y f rom what i t had been in the s p r i n g . M a r s e i l l e s ' p o l i t i c a l u n i t y was shaken by the doub l e o n s l a u g h t o f economic d e t e r i o r a t i o n and s a n s - c u l o t t e r i o t i n g . The l a t t e r c o i n c i d e d w i t h the g r e a t c o n f r o n t a t i o n between r e p u b l i c a n s and r o y a l i s t s in P a r i s , and t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e d the r e l u c t a n t s u p p o r t o f the l o c a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t i e s . In the p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e ca lm f o l l o w i n g the r i o t s t h e r e was gene ra l agreement t ha t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s had to be c o n t r o l l e d and the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l was f o u n d e d . But a f t e r a new bout o f s a n s - c u l o t t e r i o t i n g a t the end o f September — c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the September massac res in P a r i s -- wh ich took the l i v e s o f s i x s u s p e c t e d M a r s e i l l e s c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , a new p o l i t i c a l spec t rum emerged i n Marse i 1 1 e s . On the " r i g h t " o f the new p o l i t i c a l spec t rum " l aw and o r d e r " mixed r o y a l i s t and p r o ~ B r i s s o t i n e l e m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g most o f the m e r c a n t i l e b o u r g e o i s i e , dominated the new P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l . Ba rbaroux and R e b e c q u i , who had become s t aunch opponents o f the Mounta in and who s t r o n g l y opposed p o p u l a r a c t i o n and the d o m i n a t i o n by P a r i s o v e r the p r o v i n c e s , became the c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h i s new M a r s e i l l e s " r i g h t - w i n g " in the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n . The c o r n e r s t o n e o f the M a r s e i l l e s p o l i t i c a l " l e f t " was the Popu l a r S o c i e t y . The S o c i e t y ' s new l e a d e r s , a f t e r the d e c l i n e o f B a r b a r o u x ' s i n f l u e n c e , were M a i l l e t J r . , G i r a u d , Chompre and P a r i s , a l l o f whom a l s o p l a y e d l e a d i n g r o l e s in the newly e l e c t e d Depar tmenta l Assembly and C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l . Among the M a r s e i l l e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n who j o i n e d the Mounta in and r e p r e s e n t e d the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s in P a r i s , Moyse Bay l e and Granet s t ood o u t . In g e n e r a l , the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y f o l l o w e d the p o l i t i c a l l i n e o f the P a r i s J a c o b i n s . Mayor M o u r a i l l e a t t empted to m a i n t a i n a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n th rough the w i n t e r o f 1792-93- T h i s became i n c r e a s i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t s i n c e the " G i r o n d i n " , r o y a l i s t r i g h t - w i n g , remembering h i s o r i g i n a l r e j e c t i o n o f the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l , charged him w i t h s h e l t e r i n g Jean Savon and e x c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e on h i s a d v i c e . T h e r e i s l i t t l e p r o o f t ha t t h i s cha rge was t r u e , but i t s e r v e d to push M o u r a i l l e f u r t h e r toward the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y ' s p o s i t i o n . On the o t h e r hand , M o u r a i l l e was a f r a i d f o r h i s own a u t h o r i t y in f a c e o f p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e from the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y ; h i s p o s i t i o n may be bes t d e s c r i b e d as be i ng in the c e n t e r , but l e a n i n g s t r o n g l y toward the J a c o b i n s . M o u r a i l l e ' s p o s i t i o n in the m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was b a l a n c e d by the r o y a l i s t s ympath ies o f the m u n i c i p a l p r o c u r e u r , S e y t r e s . IV E a r l y in Oc tobe r 1792, o n l y a few days a f t e r the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l had begun to f u n c t i o n , the " l a w and o r d e r " f a c t i o n won a major v i c t o r y : S e y t r e s , the p r o c u r e u r , was a b l e to pe rsuade the M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l to ex tend the a u t h o r i t y o f the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l to the s u r r o u n d i n g d e p a r t m e n t s . As the h i s t o r i a n R o b e r t , g e n e r a l l y ve ry s y m p a t h e t i c to the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l , o b s e r v e d , t h i s was c l e a r l y an iililiegal a c t . But the v e r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Popu l a r T r i b u n a l was i l l e g a l , s i n c e i t took p l a c e w i t h o u t the app rova l o f n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Thus the Popu l a r T r i b u n a l a r b i t r a r i l y assumed r e g i o n a l i s t p r e t e n s i o n s . 2 1 On h i s r e t u r n t o P a r i s , Barbaroux i m m e d i a t e l y became i n v o l v e d i n Roland's campaign t o " p r o t e c t " t he N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n and i n t i m i d a t e t h e P a r i s Commune. 2 2 He a g a i n asked M a r s e i l l e s t o come t o the a i d o f the F a t h e r l a n d by s e n d i n g a second Federe b a t t a l i o n t o P a r i s . The M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y , not r e c o g n i z i n g t he a n t i - J a c o b i n i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e q u e s t , responded by r e c r u i t i n g a b a t t a l i o n o f 800 men, w h i c h a r r i v e d i n P a r i s on October 20. As Barbaroux s t a t e d , "ce c o r p s e s t compose d'hommes e n t i e r e m e n t independents du c o t e de l a f o r t u n e . " 2 3 Of c o u r s e , the d e p a r t u r e o f a b o u r g e o i s armed f o r c e o f t h i s s i z e l e f t t h e a n t i -s a n s - c u l o t t e elements i n the c i t y c o n s i d e r a b l y weakened. As a r e s u l t o f h i s a n t i - P a r i s s t a n d , B a r b a r o u x , as w e l l as o t h e r B r i s s o t i n s , was e x p e l l e d from the P a r i s J a c o b i n C l u b . A t t h i s p o i n t the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y c o m p l e t e l y abandoned i t s former l e a d e r , whom i t now re g a r d e d as a _ c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y . 2 4 By a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l t he P a r i s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s t hrough t h e use o f p r o v i n c i a l armed f o r c e s Barbaroux a l s o l e f t h i m s e l f v u l n e r a b l e t o the charge o f f e d e r a l i s m . Thus, i n the p e r i o d between s p r i n g and autumn 1792, M a r s e i l l e s r e g i o n a l i s m had e v o l v e d t he novel a s p e c t o f a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y tendency used by the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l t o e x t e n d i t s i n f l u e n c e i n t h e s o u t h e a s t , and by Barbaroux as the b a s i s f o r an a n t i - P a r i s and a n t i - J a c o b i n p o i i t i c a l s t a n d . D u r i n g the autumn o f 1792 the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l d e a l t w i t h a number o f c harges a g a i n s t s u s p e c t e d c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s . In a l l o f t h e s e cases the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l was o p e n l y s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e a c c u s e d , and i n a l l cases t h e ch a r g e s were d i s m i s s e d by the Chambre d ' A c c u s a t i o n . 2 5 In O c t o b e r , f o l l o w i n g t he f i r s t mass d i s m i s s a l o f charges a g a i n s t s u s p e c t e d c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s by the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l , t he M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s once more began t o clamour f o r d i r e c t a c t i o n : l i s t s o f s u s p e c t s w e r e d r a w n up a n d t h e r e was t a l k o f new h a n g i n g s . T h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , a l t h o u g h s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o t h e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l ' s a c t i o n s , was n o t r e a d y t o c o u n t e n a n c e a n o t h e r b o u t d f r i o t i n g a nd j o i n e d t h e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l i n a p r o c l a m a t i o n a g a i n s t v e n g e f u l , " a n a r c h i c " a c t i o n . 2 6 I r o n i c a l l y , t h e f e a r o f i n d e p e n d e n t p o p u l a r a c t i o n — t h e b a s i c f a c t o r i n t u r n i n g t h e M a r s e i l l e s b o u r g e o i s i e a g a i n s t t h e R e v o l u t i o n and s o t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c a u s e f o r t h e b r e a k u p o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n c i t y ' s p o l i t i c a l u n i t y a l s o s e r v e d t o p r e v e n t t h e c o m p l e t e p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s u n t i l e a r l y 1 7 9 3 , s i n c e t h e M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s w e r e a l s o w a r y o f i n d e p e n d e n t p o p u l a r a c t i o n . As we h a v e s e e n , comm i s s a i r e s o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y had b e e n a c t i v e i n t h e s o u t h e a s t s i n c e m i d - 1 7 9 1 , and armed f o r c e s f r o m M a r s e i l l e s h e l p e d t o q u e l l c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e r e g i o n on a number o f o c c a s i o n s . T h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y ' s a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e M a r s e i l l e s d i d n o t d i m i n i s h w i t h t h e g r o w i n g p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s i n t h e autumn o f 1 7 9 2 . In m i d - S e p t e m b e r e m i s s a r i e s o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y f r u s t r a t e d a r o y a l i s t p o l i t i c a l t a k e o v e r i n t h e s m a l l town o f A u r i o l , a n d i n e a r l y 1 7 9 3 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e M a r s e i l P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , a c c o m p a n i e d by e m i s s a r i e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e , c h e c k e d a r i g h t - w i n g t a k e o v e r a t t e m p t i n S a l o n . 2 7 T h i s c o n t i n u e d e x e r t i o n o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y ' s p ower t h r o u g h o u t t h e s o u t h e a s t m e ant t h a t i n t h e a u t u m n o f 1 7 9 2 M a r s e i l l e s r e g i o n a l i s t e x p a n s i o n had two o p p o s i n g m a n i f e s t a t i o n s : a n t i - J a c o b i n t h r o u g h t h e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l , and p r o - J a c o b i n t h r o u g h t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y . V In mid- January 1 7 9 3 , the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s mounted a de t e rm ined a t t a c k a g a i n s t the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l . T h i s a t t a c k was o c c a s i o n e d by an i s o l a t e d case o f s a n s - c u l o t t e vengeance : on J anuary 13 a p o p u l a r crowd l ynched a p r i e s t known f o r h i s c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y s y m p a t h i e s . Suppor ted by some o f M a r s e i l l e s ' c o n s e r v a t i v e s e c t i o n s , the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l i s s u e d a p u b l i c s ta tement condemning "mob J u s t i c e " . In r e s p o n s e , s e c t i o n 13 ~ - the s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r Jean Savon ' s home s e c t i o n -- s u p p o r t e d by the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , p e t i t i o n e d the m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r a purge o f the Popu l a r T r i b u n a l . T h i s p e t i t i o n was s e r i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d by the m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s , but e lements f a v o u r i n g the T r i b u n a l were s t i l l too power fu l in the m u n i c i p a l i t y , and the p e t i t i o n was r e j e c t e d . However, on t h i s o c c a s i o n , u n l i k e a number o f p r e v i o u s ones in 1 7 9 2 , the Popu l a r S o c i e t y backed the s a n s - c u l o t t e s . J a c o b i n i n f l u e n c e in the m u n i c i p a l government was s t r o n g enough to c r i p p l e the o p e r a t i o n s o f the Popu l a r T r i b u n a l : f rom mid- January to mid-March no cases o f any impor tance were r e f e r r e d to i t , and in e f f e c t i t l o s t i t s power. The c r i p p l i n g o f the Popu l a r T r i b u n a l demons t ra tes the i n f l u e n c e wh i ch an a 1 1 i ance o f the M a r s e i 1 1 e s s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s and the Popu1ar S o c i e t y c o u l d w i e l d . 2 8 In J anua ry 1793 the p o l i t i c a l s p l i t in P a r i s deepened even more o v e r the i s s u e o f the e x e c u t i o n o f L o u i s XVI . The " G i r o n d i n s " f a v o u r e d p u t t i n g the q u e s t i o n o f the K i n g ' s f a t e to the F rench p e o p l e by a l l o w i n g the p r imary e l e c t o r a l a s s e m b l i e s to d e c i d e whether L o u i s s h o u l d l i v e o r d i e , w h i l e the Montagnards wanted him to be execu ted on the a u t h o r i t y o f the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n . The Montagnards r e l i e d on the P a r i s sans-c u 1 o t t e s and the P a r i s Commune and p r e f e r r e d to make the d e c i s i o n on the k i n g ' s f a t e in P a r i s , w h i l e the " G i r o n d i n s " wanted to de t e rm ine the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n f a c i n g the R e p u b l i c o u t s i d e o f P a r i s , s i n c e they d e e p l y m i s t r u s t e d the growing i n f l u e n c e o f the e x t r a -p a r l i a m e n t a r y J a c o b i n movement in P a r i s . The d e l e g a t i o n to the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on from the Bouches-du-Rhone was s p l i t on the q u e s t i o n o f the " a p p e a l to the p e o p l e " . B a rba roux , Rebecqui and o t h e r opponents o f the Mounta in vo t ed f o r the a p p e a l , but the J a c o b i n s y m p a t h i z e r s , among them Moyse Bay l e and G r a n e t , vo ted a g a i n s t the a p p e a l . The Montagnards won a narrow v i c t o r y , and the k i ng was execu ted on J anua ry 21 . The M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d the Montagnards and the P a r i s J a c o b i n C lub on the i s s u e o f the " a p p e a l to the p e o p l e " . In a l e t t e r to the d e p u t i e s o f the Bouches-du-Rhone i t d e c l a r e d those d e p u t i e s who were a g a i n s t the k i n g ' s e x e c u t i o n and f o r the " a p p e a l ™ to be t r a i t o r s a g a i n s t the F a t h e r l a n d . The M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s s i n g l e d out B a r b a r o u x , a c c u s i n g him o f f a i l i n g to ac t in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s oa th and m a n d a t e . 2 9 Wi th i t s p r o - J a c o b i n and a n t i - B a r b a r o u x s t a n d , the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y put the f i n i s h i n g touches on the p r o c e s s o f p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n in M a r s e i l l e s , a l i e n a t i n g a l l s u p p o r t e r s o f Barbaroux in the c i t y , who a c coun ted f o r a l a r g e segment o f the commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e . The M a r s e i l l e s Popu l a r S o c i e t y ' s d i s c r e d i t i n g o f the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l and i t s s t r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l o f " G i r o n d i n " o b s t r u c t i o n i s m in P a r i s were p a r t o f a de te rmined b i d to o b t a i n comp le t e p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f M a r s e i l l e s between J anuary and A p r i l 1793- In Feb rua ry the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y e s t a b l i s h e d a C e n t r a l Committee o f twe l ve members to d i r e c t " s e c r e t a f f a i r s " and to spea rhead the J a c o b i n p o l i t i c a l d r i v e . By mid-March the J a c o b i n s were s t r o n g enough to d i c t a t e to the c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t i e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new m u n i c i p a l F i n ance Committee to tax a l l w e l l - t o - d o c i t i z e n s , and on March 19 the C e n t r a l Committee o f the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y i n i t i a t e d a c i t y - w i d e d i s a r m i n g o f s u s p e c t s . 3 0 A l s o in mid-March the l e a d e r s o f the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , Ma i l l e t J r . , Chompre and Gu ino t p r epa red an a d d r e s s to the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on -- a s t a tement o f the p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s . The a d d r e s s a ccused those who had wanted to d e f e r the k i n g ' s f a t e to the n a t i o n o f p e r f i d y , d e c l a r i n g tha t they had l o s t the c o n f i d e n c e o f M a r s e i l l e s . 3 1 F u r t h e r m o r e , the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y avowed i t s adhe rence to the J a c o b i n s o f P a r i s by d e c l a r i n g tha t i t r e c o g n i z e d o n l y the Mounta in as the t r u e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n and tha t in s o l i d a r i t y w i t h the Mounta in i t would save the F a t h e r l a n d . The " G i r o n d i n s " g r e e t e d the M a r s e i l l e s add ress w i t h d e r i s i o n , c a l l i n g i t a f e d e r a l i s t t r a c t wh ich would c a s t F rance i n t o the t h r o e s o f C i v i l War, but the J a c o b i n s welcomed the adherence o f M a r s e i l l e s and a v e r r e d tha t w i t h t h i s a d d r e s s the s o u t h e r n c i t y once more proved i t s e l f to be the c i t a d e l o f F rench l i b e r t y . 3 2 VI F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f economic r e c o v e r y f rom Augus t to Oc tobe r 1 7 9 2 , r e f l e c t e d in a temporary r a l l y o f the ass i g n a t , M a r s e i l l e s ' economic s i t u a t i o n once more began to d e t e r i o r a t e . 3 3 The h a r v e s t o f 1 7 9 2 was d e f i c i e n t th roughout F r a n c e , but in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n r e g i o n the s i t u a t i o n was e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l . The be s t g r a i n lands o f the Bouches-du-Rhone, around A r i e s and T a r a s c o n , had s u f f e r e d so much f rom f l o o d s , t ha t in t h i s r e g i o n , u s u a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t in g r a i n s , the t o t a l h a r v e s t was s u f f i c i e n t f o r no more than two months . In V a r , the g r a i n s u p p l y was e x p e c t e d t o l a s t l e s s t h a n a h a l f y e a r , and t h e s i t u a t i o n was s i m i l a r i n t h e A l p i n e r e g i o n s o f o l d P r o v e n c e . Wheat s h i p m e n t s f r o m B u r g u n d y a n d L a n g u e d o c d e s t i n e d f o r A v i g n o n a n d O r a n g e w e r e commandeered a l o n g t h e way by o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f L o z e r e was a l s o w i t h o u t w h e a t . T h i s e n t i r e r e g i o n was c o u n t i n g o n g r a i n i m p o r t s v i a M a r s e i l l e s t o e a s e t h e s h o r t a g e . 3 " * H o w e v e r , M a r s e i l l e s ' a b i l i t y t o s u p p l y t h e r e g i o n w i t h g r a i n was s l o w l y w e a k e n i n g . W h i l e t h e n e e d i n c r e a s e d , g r a i n s h i p m e n t s t o M a r s e i l l e s d i m i n i s h e d i n v o l u m e . The g r a i n p u r c h a s e d a b r o a d by a g e n t s o f t h e A f r i c a Company had l a r g e l y t o be p a i d f o r i n n u m e r a i r e , s i n c e t h e a s s i g n a t was a c c e p t e d o n l y r e l u c t a n t l y a s a medium o f f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e . 3 5 In m i d - O c t o b e r t h e a s s i g n a t a g a i n b e g a n r a p i d l y t o d e p r e c i a t e , and c o n t i n u e d on i t s i i n f 1 a t i o n a r y c c o u t r s e u n t i l A u g u s t 1 7 9 3 - W i t h t h e i n f l a t i o n , t h e p r i c e o f b r e a d r e s u m e d i t s r a p i d r i s e : by A p r i l 1 7 9 3 , b r e a d i n M a r s e i l l e s c o s t t w i c e a s much as i t had i n A p r i l 1 7 9 1 - Y e t e v e n w i t h t h e r i s i n g p r i c e s t h e b a k e r s w e r e o p e r a t i n g a t a l o s s , a nd d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 f i f t e e n M a r s e i l l e s b a k e r s c l o s e d t h e i r o v e n s . 3 6 P r o d d e d by t h e w o r s e n i n g e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n , t h e g r o u p o f n a t i o n a l d e p u t i e s i n f a v o u r o f e a s i n g F r a n c e ' s e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s t h r o u g h t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f s t r i c t c o n t r o l s on t h e n a t i o n a l economy became more v o c i f e r o u s i n l a t e 1 7 9 2 . T h e s e d e p u t i e s f o r m e d no r e c o g n i z a b l e p a r t y , c o u n t i n g among t h e i r n u mbers some J a c o b i n s , l i k e R o b e s p i e r r e , who f a v o u r e d p l a c i n g c o n t r o l s on g r a i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , b u t a l s o some n o n -J a c o b i n s . 3 7 In t h e f i e l d o f f o r e i g n t r a d e a number o f i n f l u e n t i a l d e p u t i e s l e d by B a r e r e f o l l o w e d t h e t h e o r i e s p r o m u l g a t e d by t h e e c o n o m i s t D u c h e r , a d v o c a t i n g a p r o t e c t i o n i s t t r a d e p o l i c y by i m p o s i n g r e s t r i c t i o n o n b o t h e x p o r t s and i m p o r t s . 3 8 T h e e c o n o m i c d e t e r i o r a t i o n g e n e r a t e d d i s c o n t e n t among t h e P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s , and the f l ames o f t h e i r u n r e s t were fanned by a g i t a t o r s l i k e V a r l e t and Jacques Roux. The main s a n s - c u l o t t e demands were economic and i n c l u d e d o u t l a w i n g h o a r d i n g , impos ing a c o n t r o l l e d p r i c e on g r a i n , and e s t a b l i s h i n g the ass igna t as the s o l e l e g a l t e n d e r . In e f f e c t , the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s wanted the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the c o n t r o l s t ha t had been a f e a t u r e o f the a n c i e n regime d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f economic p r e s s u r e and food s h o r t a g e s . 3 9 Thus the group in the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on f a v o u r i n g a c o n t r o l l e d economy r e c e i v e d impor tan t suppo r t f rom the s t r e e t s o f P a r i s . By l a t e Feb rua r y 1 7 9 3 , under the p r e s s u r e o f a s e r i e s o f s a n s - c u l o t t e food r i o t s , the P a r i s J a c o b i n s and the Montagnards in the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on adopted the p o l i c y o f a r e g u l a t e d economy, p a r t l y because some o f them b e l i e v e d in i t , but p r i n c i p a l l y to ga in the p o l i t i c a l suppo r t o f the P a r i s s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s . The war , wh ich had been f a v o u r a b l e to F rance in l a t e 1 7 9 2 , a l s o took a d r a s t i c t u rn f o r the worse e a r l y in 1 7 9 3 . Dumour i ez ' s t r ea tmen t o f conquered B e l g i u m , the F rench s a c t i o n a g a i n s t Hoi 1 a n d , i n c l u d i n g the o p e n i n g o f the S c h e l d t , and the F rench R e p u b l i c ' s newly announced i n t e n t i o n to c a r r y the R e v o l u t i o n abroad by the f o r c e o f a rms , caused p r e v i o u s l y n e u t r a l B r i t a i n to adopt an i n c r e a s i n g l y b e l l i g e r e n t s t a n c e toward F r a n c e . In J anua ry P i t t put i n t o e f f e c t a l i m i t e d commerc ia l b l o c k a d e by h a l t i n g sh ipments o f g r a i n and raw m a t e r i a l s to F r a n c e . F o l l o w i n g L o u i s X V I ' s e x e c u t i o n the B r i t i s h asked the F rench ambassador to l eave B r i t a i n , and an o u t r a g e d N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n d e c l a r e d war a g a i n s t E n g l a n d , and E n g l a n d ' s p r o t e g e H o l l a n d . As we have s e e n , M a r s e i l l e s ' p r o s p e r i t y depended on f o r e i g n t r a d e and the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f her s t a t u s as a f r e e p o r t . A r e g u l a t e d d o m e s t i c economy, a p r o t e c t i o n i s t t r a d e p o l i c y , and the war w i t h B r i t a i n , p r o m i s i n g a B r i t i s h M e d i t e r r a n e a n nava l b l o c k a d e , p r e s e n t e d enormous economic dangers to M a r s e i l l e s and e s p e c i a l l y to i t s commerc ia l c l a s s e s . The commerc ia l c l a s s e s blamed the J a c o b i n s f o r the t h r e a t e n i n g d e s t r u c t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s ' commerce, and the a l r e a d y deep p o l i t i c a l s p l i t between the t e m p o r a r i l y a scendan t M a r s e i l l e s Popu l a r S o c i e t y and the commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e o f the c i t y became u n b r e a c h a b l e . On ly the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s o f M a r s e i l l e s p r o v i d e d the Popu l a r S o c i e t y w i t h p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t i t s enemies , but as the next c h a p t e r w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e , the s a n s - c u l o t t e s ' l o y a l t i e s were not c o n s t a n t . 79 NOTES FOR CHAPTER I I I . 1. S.E. H a r r i s . T h e A s s i g n a t s . C a m b r i d g e , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , p. 1 2 3 . 2 . P a u l M a s s o n , M a r s e i 1 1 es . . ., v o l . I , pp. 9 3 _ 9 4 . 3 . I b i d . , pp. 3 9 - 4 1 . 4 . I b i d . , pp. 1 0 5 - 1 0 6 . 5 . I b i d . , p. 7 2 . 6 . I b i d . , pp. 8 9 - 9 0 . W h i l e a c c o r d i n g t o H a r r i s t h e i n f l a t i o n i n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n r e g i o n r e a c h e d a p e a k i n A p r i l 1 7 9 2 , M a s s o n c l a i m s t h a t i n M a r s e i l l e s b r e a d p r i c e s r o s e u n t i l A u g u s t 1 7 9 2 . H o w e v e r , H a r r i s d o e s p o i n t o u t t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s a r e b a s e d on d a t a g a t h e r e d o v e r a l a r g e a r e a , a n d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l l o c a l i t i e s may p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s t o t h e o v e r - a l l f i n d i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , M a s s o n ' s f i n d i n g s a r e p r o b a b l y more r e l i a b l e t h a n H a r r i s ' f o r M a r s e i l l e s . 7. C. L o u r d e , op_. c i t . , v o l . I l l , p. 2 0 , f . n . 1 . L o u r d e c l a i m s t h a t t h e women r i o t e d b e c a u s e c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r i e s t s p r o v o k e d them. W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p r i e s t s may h a v e a c t e d a s a g i t a t o r s , i t a p p e a r s t o me t h a t r i s i n g b r e a d p r i c e s h a d a p r o b a b l e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e women's r i o t i n g . 8 . S e e f . n . 6 9 , c h a p t e r I I , p.61. 9 . L o u r d e , op_. c i t . , v o l . I l l , pp. 6 5 - 6 8 . 1 0 . I b i d . , p p . 5 8 - 7 0 S G e o r g e s G u i b a l , L e Mouvement F e d e r a l i s t e en  P r o v e n c e e n 1 7 9 3 , P a r i s , P l o n , 1 9 0 8 , p. 1 6 . 1 1 . M i c h e l V o v e l l e , op_. c i t . , pp. 1 2 9 - 1 3 3 -1 2 . G u i b a l , L e mouvement . . ., p. 16 & P.A. R o b e r t , L e T r i b u n a l P o p u l a i r e  1 7 9 2 - 1 7 9 3 , P a r i s , A r t h u r R o u s s e a u , p. 1 2 . B o t h G u i b a l a n d R o b e r t r e f e r t o S a v o n a s a c l o s e a d v i s o r a n d i n t i m a t e f r i e n d o f mayor M o u r a i l l e . (The f a c t t h a t t h e s e s o u r c e s c o r r o b o r a t e e a c h o t h e r i s m i s l e a d i n g , f o r R o b e r t ' s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o b a b l y s t e m s f r o m G u i b a l . ) B u t t h e r e i s no p r o o f t h a t S a v o n was i n d e e d an i m p o r t a n t a d v i s o r o f M o u r a i l l e , w h e r e a s e v e n t s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1793 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two men was n o t c l o s e . ( s e e c h a p t e r I V , p . 9 8 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , I c o n c l u d e t h a t S a v o n ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a m i n o r o n e . 13- L o u r d e , o p . c i t . , v o l . I l l , p. 6 8 , f . n . 1 . B a r b a r o u x d e f e n d e d t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s c r o w d i n f r o n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y a s t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s p o n s e a g a i n s t a n i m m i n e n t c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t r i g u e . He o n l y t o o k e x c e p t i o n t o t h e s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s a c t i n g o u t s i d e t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e l a w . 8 0 14. Masson, M a r s e i 1 l e . . . , v o l . I, pp. 84-85 . 15- G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 4. 16. I b i d . , p. 4 & B a r b a r o u x , Memoi r e s . , op. c i t . , p. 8 8 . 17- B a r b a r o u x , op. c i t . , pp. 85 -86 & R o b e r t , op. c i t . , p. 14. B a r b a r o u x ' s a c t i o n s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s r e s e r v a t i o n a g a i n s t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s a c t i n g o u t s i d e the law. F u r t h e r m o r e , he defended the M a r s e i l l e s crowds i n P a r i s , not f u l l y c o g n i z a n t o f t h e e x t e n t o f P o p u l a r r i o t i n g ; once he a r r i v e d back i n M a r s e i l l e s , he t u r n e d a g a i n s t what he, a l o n g w i t h many o f h i s b o u r g e o i s a s s o c i a t e s , c o n s i d e r e d t o be 'outrages committed by the c a n a i 1 1 e ' . 1 8 . R o b e r t , op_. c i t . , pp. 1 6 - 2 1 . 1 9 . R o b e r t , op_. c i t . , pp. 14-17-2 0 . G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 5-2 1 . I b i d . , pp. 2 9 - 3 0 . 2 2 . J.M. Thompson, The French R e v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 , p. 3 3 5 -2 3 - L o u r d e , op_. c i t . , v o l . I l l , p. 1 2 2 . 24. M.J. Sydenham, op_. c i t . , pp. 1 3 4 - 1 3 5 - U s i n g t h e word B r i s s o t i n i n s t e a d o f " G i rond i n"^ and p l a c i n g " G i r o n d i n " between i n v e r t e d commas, i s j u s t i f i e d by Sydenham's r e d e f i n i t i o n o f the power s t r u g g l e i n the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n i n 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 - For a more co m p l e t e t r e a t m e n t o f Sydenham's t h e s i s , see c h a p t e r IV, pp.85-86. 25- R o b e r t , op_. c i t . , pp. 2 4 - 6 0 . 2 6 . I b i d . , pp. 40-41. 27- G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , pp. 7 - 8 . 2 8 . R o b e r t , o_p_. c i t . , pp. 6 1 - 6 8 . 29- L o u r d e , op. c i t . , v o l . I l l , p. 1 5 2 . 3 0 . G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , pp. 5 " 2 2 . 31 . I b i d . , pp. 23-24. 3 2 . M o n i t e u r , v. 1 5 , pp- 7 5 6 - 7 6 8 & pp. 8 0 7 - 8 0 8 . 3 3 - H a r r i s , op_. c i t . , p. 1 2 3 . 3 4 . Masson, M a r s e i 1 l e - - - , v o l . I, pp. 103-104. 3 5 - I b i d . , p. 1 0 6 . 81 36. H a r r i s , op_. c i t . . , p. 123 & C h a r l e s C a r r i e r e , "Le probleme des g r a i n s e t f a r i n e s a M a r s e i l l e " , Memoires e t Documents 82 Congres  des S o c i e t e s S a v a n t e s , P a r i s , 1958, p. 167. 37- M a x i m i l i e n R o b e s p i e r r e , "On Food S u p p l i e s (December 2, 1792)" as quoted i n R o b e s p i e r r e , ed. George Rude, Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1967, p. 45. 38. Georges L e f e b v r e , The French R e v o l u t i o n from 1793 t o 1799-New Y o r k , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967, pp. 40-41. 39- I b i d . , pp. 42-43. CHAPTER IV - F e d e r a l i s m in M a r s e i l l e s , i t s O r i g i n s , Success and F a i l u r e ; the E a r l y C o n f r o n t a t i o n o f C e n t r a l i s m a g a i n s t L o c a l i s m in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n C i t y . I T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine the f e d e r a l i s t t akeove r o f power in M a r s e i l l e s , the reasons f o r the i n i t i a l f e d e r a l i s t s u c c e s s , the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the f e d e r a l i s t r eg ime , and how and why the J a c o b i n s t r iumphed ove r f e d e r a l i s m . F e d e r a l i s m has not ye t been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d in F rench r e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . A dominant s choo l o f thought sees i t as p a r t o f a " G i r o n d i n " d r i v e f o r power; and u n t i l r e c e n t l y i t has g e n e r a l l y been supposed to have been the work o f l andowners , p r o p e r t y owners , the haute b o u r g e o i s i e . Yet no d i r e c t l i n k can be demons t r a t ed between the " G i r o n d i n s " in P a r i s and the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r ; and Cobb , Hampson and Goodwin have shown tha t f e d e r a l i s m en joyed c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r suppo r t and was not o n l y the work o f the p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s . In my v i ew , the f e d e r a l i s t t akeove r o f power in M a r s e i l l e s was an example o f l o c a l r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the n a t i o n a l gove rnmen t ' s e a r l y a t t empts a t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . It became a n t i - J a c o b i n because the J a c o b i n s f a v o u r e d the c e n t r a l i z i n g t endency . The m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m wh ich was the i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s m was an e x p r e s s i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y " m u n i c i p a l i s m " which e v o l v e d d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f the R e v o l u t i o n , when, in the absence o f e f f e c t i v e c e n t r a l government , the r e v o l u t i o n a r y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o semi-?ndependent l o c a l c e n t r e s o f government . In M a r s e i l l e s , m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m was f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d by the f a c t tha t a l a r g e pa r t o f the M a r s e i l l e s p o p u l a t i o n regarded t h e i r c i t y as the bu lwark o f the R e v o l u t i o n in s o u t h e a s t e r n F r a n c e . Thus i t was n a t u r a l t ha t f e d e r a l i s m would a t i t s i n c e p t i o n en j o y a wide measure o f p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . Of c o u r s e , as we have seen in Chapte r II, M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m had s t r o n g r o o t s in the a n c i e n reg ime . P a r t i c u l a r i s m was imbedded in the c i t y ' s s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s d a t i n g back to the M i d d l e A g e s , and M a r s e i l l e s p r o t e c t e d her s p e c i a l s t a t u s a g a i n s t the i n c u r s i o n s o f roya l a b s o l u t i s m and o f the A i x p o l i t i c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . Dur ing the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a M a r s e i l l e s p a r t i c u l a r i s m had assumed a new r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r m , but as the f e d e r a l i s t i n t e r l u d e d e m o n s t r a t e s , i t c o u l d a l s o r e v e r t to i t s o l d e r f o r m , r e s i s t the r e v o l u t i o n a r y gove rnmen t ' s a t tempt at c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and the reby become c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y . The r e s t r i c t e d r e g i o n a l i s t n a tu r e o f f e d e r a l i s m l a r g e l y a c c o u n t s f o r the f e d e r a l i s t movement 's (or r a t h e r movements ' ) f a i l u r e . Wh i l e J a c o b i n i s m was a dynamic n a t i o n a l movement w i t h w e l l - d e f i n e d p o l i t i c a l a i m s , f e d e r a l i s m c o u l d never d i v o r c e i t s e l f f rom i t s l i m i t e d r e g i o n a l bases and c o u l d not d e v e l o p a c o h e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p rogram. The f e d e r a l i s t s were n e i t h e r r e p u b l i c a n s nor r o y a l i s t s , and t h e i r l a c k o f d e c i s i v e n e s s made them the easy prey o f the J a c o b i n s . I I A t t empts by the h i s t o r i a n s o f the F rench R e v o l u t i o n to e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s o f the f e d e r a l i s t o u t b r e a k s o f the summer o f 1793 have encoun t e r ed c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s . Good l o c a l s t u d i e s l i k e G u i b a l ' s ( P rovence ) and R i f f a t e r r e ' s (Lyons) have been p r o d u c e d , but t h e r e e x i s t s no s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n o f f e d e r a l i s m on a g e n e r a l i z e d , n a t i o n a l bas i s . 1 S e v e r a l h i s t o r i a n s have attempted t o s e t up a model o f f e d e r a l i s m . M a t h i e z has advanced the vie w t h a t i t was t h e work o f b o u r g e o i s c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s w i s h i n g t o d e s t r o y the R e p u b l i c . 2 He has s t a t e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l i s t r i s i n g "was e s s e n t i a l l y t he work o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , composed o f r i c h p r o p e r t y - h o l d e r s . " 3 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s i n a l l i a n c e w i t h the J a c o b i n s saved the R e p u b l i c a g a i n s t the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y f e d e r a l i s t r e b e l s . In L e f e b v r e ' s v i e w -- wh i c h f o l l o w s e s s e n t i a l l y , and e l a b o r a t e s J a u r e s ' s c o n c e p t i o n -- the q u e s t i o n o f power was u n r e s o l v e d u n t i l l a t e June 1793> t h e " G i r o n d i n s " t h r e a t e n i n g the J a c o b i n s as w e l l as the J a c o b i n s t h e " G i r o n d i n s " . The J a c o b i n "coup" i s seen by him as a d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t a " G i r o n d i n " push f o r power and the f e d e r a l i s t movement as a p a r t o f t h i s push. The " G i r o n d i n " i n i t i a t i v e was by no means l i m i t e d t o the p r o v i n c e s , s i n c e t h e p r o - " G i r o n d i n " s e c t i o n a l movement, w h i c h was a common m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f f e d e r a l i s m i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l c e n t e r s , a l s o had numerous a d h e r e n t s i n P a r i s . L e f e b v r e sees as the main elements o f f e d e r a l i s m the s u p p o r t o f c e r t a i n p r o v i n c e s f o r the " G i r o n d i n s " ; t h e f e a r o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and o f the l o s s o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t y by p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ; p a r t i c u l a r i s m , i . e . the at t a c h m e n t o f c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s t o p a r t i c u l a r p r i v i l e g e s d a t i n g back t o t h e a n c i e n regime; arid a g r a s s - r o o t s f e d e r a l i s t democratism by p r o v i n c i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s who remembered Rousseau's t e a c h i n g s . 4 Hampson o b s e r v e s t h a t the m u n i c i p a l f e d e r a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n s o f Lyons and M a r s e i l l e s were t r i g g e r e d by resentment o v e r t h e new l e v y o f t r o o p s w h i c h was n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e m i l i t a r y c r i s i s o f the s p r i n g o f 1793- T h i s a n a l y s i s f i t s w e l l w i t h h i s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the war 85 was the major cause o f p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y F r a n c e . Hampson a l s o p o i n t s out t ha t the moderates who s e i z e d power had a measure o f p o p u l a r s u p p o r t : " The m u n i c i p a l r e v o l u t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y the work o f the s e c t i o n s " and the s e c t i o n s were u s u a l l y g r a s s - r o o t s a s s e m b l i e s . He quotes B a r b a r o u x ' s c l a i m tha t in M a r s e i l l e s " t h e poo re r c l a s s e s themse lves j o i n e d the p r o p e r t y o w n e r s " . Goodwin ' s f i n d i n g s on Caen , and Hampson's s tudy on the dockya rd workers o f T o u l o n p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r the v iew tha t the f e d e r a l i s t r e b e l l i o n s were not the work o n l y o f the r i c h p r o p e r t y owners , but had c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . 5 Cobb , in h i s work on the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i e s , s t a t e s t ha t the pe r sonne l o f the depa r tmenta l ( f e d e r a l i s t ) and r e v o l u t i o n a r y ( t e r r o r i s t ) a rmies were i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . But he warns a g a i n s t drawing has t y c o n c l u s i o n s , i n s i s t i n g tha t the depa r tmen ta l a rmies remained c l a s s i n s t rumen t s o f the grande b o u r g e o i s i e because i t c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p . 6 In a more r e cen t s tudy Cobb concedes t h a t liih Lyons f e d e r a l i s m was a t r u l y p o p u l a r movement: " i n t h e i r own v i ew , they the Lyons f e d e r a l i s t s r e p r e s e n t e d the ve r y e s sence o f s a n s - c u 1 o t t i s m e " ; f u r t h e r m o r e , the f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r had p o p u l a r suppo r t in M a r s e i l l e s , the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s " d i d what the s e c t i o n a r y l e a d e r s t o l d them; f o r the s e c t i o n c o u l d never be wrong , be i ng the q u i n t e s s e n c e o f s a n s - c u l o t t i s m e . " 7 The v iew t h a t the j o u r n e e s o f May 31 and June 2 were p receded by a power s t r u g g l e between " G i r o n d i n s " and J a c o b i n s , and r e p r e s e n t e d a J a c o b i n r e a c t i o n to a " G i r o n d i n " a t t a c k has been c h a l l e n g e d by Sydenham. A c c o r d i n g to Sydenham " T h e G i r o n d i n ' p a r t y ' o r ' f a c t i o n ' was f o r the most p a r t a p o l i t i c a l myth manufac tu red by . . . J a c o b i n s f o r t h e i r own p u r p o s e s , and . . . the r e a l an tagon i sm l ay not between Mounta in and G i r o n d e but between the M o u n t a i n , an a g g r e s s i v e m i n o r i t y , and the r e s t o f the Conven t i on which i t w i shes to d o m i n a t e , and o f which the G i r o n d i n s were mere l y the most c o n s p i c u o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . ' The Mounta in was " t h e spearhead o f an e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y movement, t ha t o f the J a c o b i n s . . . " , 9 and thus the s t r u g g l e was between a l a r g e l y amorphous, d i s o r g a n i z e d C o n v e n t i o n and a w e i 1 - o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l movement based on the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l c l u b s , e s p e c i a l l y the J a c o b i n C lub o f P a r i s . A l l i s o n P a t r i c k has r e j e c t e d Sydenham's t h e s i s and has a rgued tha t the Mounta in was as u n o r g a n i z e d as the G i r o n d e . On the b a s i s o f an a n a l y s i s o f v o t e s on key i s s u e s in the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on she sees both as f r a g m e n t e d , but n e v e r t h e l e s s r e c o g n i s a b l e p o l i t i c a l g r o u p s . In my o p i n i o n the s t a t i s t i c s o f v o t i n g p a t t e r n s which P a t r i c k p r o v i d e s as e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t Sydenham's c o n c l u s i o n s and b e l y her o w n . 1 0 F u r t h e r m o r e , P a t r i c k ' s f i n d i n g tha t d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f o f 1793 the Montagnards were do ing most o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work o f the C o n v e n t i o n , both on the commit tees and as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n , sugges t t ha t they formed a p a r t y work ing to t ake ove r the g o v e r n m e n t . 1 1 Sydenham's v iew o f the " G i r o n d i n s " and J a c o b i n s combined w i t h C o b b ' s and Hampson's o b s e r v a t i o n s on p o p u l a r suppo r t f o r the f e d e r a l i s t s p r o v i d e c l u e s f o r a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the o r i g i n s o f f e d e r a l i s m . If the " G i r o n d i n s " were not a p a r t y f i g h t i n g the J a c o b i n s f o r power, then the c o n c e p t i o n o f the f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r s as a p a r t o f a " G i r o n d i n " push f o r power ceases to be c o n v i n c i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f f e d e r a l i s m had w idesp read p o p u l a r s u p p o r t in majors c e n t r e s l i k e Lyon and M a r s e i l l e s , and in s m a l l e r c i t i e s l i k e T o u l o n and Caen , then i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t to regard i t as a movement o f r i c h p r o p e r t y -h o l d e r s and the grande b o u r g e o i s i e . The l a t t e r v iew can r e t a i n a l a r g e deg ree o f v a l i d i t y , f o r p o p u l a r e l ements may suppo r t a p o l i t i c a l movement l ed by r i c h p r o p e r t y h o l d e r s o r the grande b o u r g e o i s i e ; in t h i s c a s e a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f why t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e s s u p p o r t e d t h e r i c h s h o u l d be a t t e m p t e d . M a r s e i l l e s p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e f o r t e s t i n g an i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n s o f f e d e r a l i s m , b e c a u s e M a r s e i l l e s was t h e f i r s t c i t y i n w h i c h t h e f e d e r a l i s t s came t o p o w e r . Of c o u r s e , o n e s h o u l d u s e g r e a t c a u t i o n i n d r a w i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f a s i n g l e e x a m p l e a b o u t a movement w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e d a l a r g e p a r t o f F r a n c e . Y e t , i f t h e f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r i n M a r s e i l l e s c a n be shown t o f i t a new a p p r o a c h t h e n p o s s i b l y c o n c e p t s b o r r o w e d f r o m r e c e n t i m p o r t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s s u c h a s S y d e n h a m ' s , C o b b ' s and Hampson's may be p r o p r o f i t a b l y a p p l i e d t o o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f f e d e r a l i s m . As we h a v e s e e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h e M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s h a d made a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o g a i n p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e c i t y i n t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f 1793- T h e i r a d h e r e n c e t o t h e M o n t a g n a r d p o s i t i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e K i n g ' s e x e c u t i o n , t h e i r l o s s o f c o n f i d e n c e i n B a r b a r o u x , a n d t h e i r a d d r e s s i n M a r c h f u l l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e M o u n t a i n , d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e y n a r r o w l y f o l l o w e d t h e p o l i t i c a l l i n e o f t h e P a r i s J a c o b i n C l u b . L i k e t h e i r b r e t h r e n i n P a r i s , t h e M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s f o r m e d an a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s t o p u r s u e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a i m s . U n t i l e a r l y A p r i l i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y c o u l d d e p e n d on t h e s e c t i o n s . T h e v o l a t i l e s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s o f t h e b u t t e de C a r m e s d i s t r i c t s u p p o r t e d e s p e c i a l l y v o c i f e r o u s l y t h e m e a s u r e s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y c o n c e r n i n g a g e n e r a l d i s a r m a m e n t o f s u s p e c t s and t a x a t i o n o f t h e r i c h . 1 2 B u t t h e e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s was d e t e r i o r a t i n g q u i c k l y i n e a r l y 1793, p r i n c i p a l l y b e c a u s e o f a s e r i o u s i n f l a t i o n a r y w a v e . U n d e r t h e p r e s s u r e o f r a p i d l y r i s i n g p r i c e s t h e l o y a l t i e s o f o f t h e p o l i t i c a l l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d common p e o p l e w e r e e a s i l y s w a y e d . E v e n M a t h i e z , o n e o f t h e m o s t c o n s i s t e n t a d v o c a t e s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s o b s e r v e s : "As f o r ' t h e a r t i s a n s o f t h e t o w n s a n d t h e l a b o u r e r s o f t h e c o u n t r y d i s t r i c t s , t h e p r i v a t i o n s and t h e d e s t i t u t i o n a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e y w e r e s t r u g g l i n g made them a l t e r n a t e l y r e a d y t o l i s t e n t o t h e i n c i t e m e n t s o f t h e r e a c t i o n a r i e s a n d t h e a p p e a l s f o r a f r e s h r e v o l u t i o n . " 1 3 T h e n o n - p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s s u f f e r e d m ost a c u t e l y f r o m t h e e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d s k i l f u l a n t i - J a c o b i n a g i t a t o r s c o u l d t u r n t h e i r s y m p a t h i e s a g a i n s t t h e J a c o b i n s . A c c o r d i n g t o G u i b a l , t h e r e was no s h o r t a g e o f a g i t a t o r s i n M a r s e i l l e s , f o r i n e a r l y 1 7 9 3 many e m i g r e s a n d r o y a l i s t s r e e n t e r e d s o u t h e a s t e r n F r a n c e . 1 4 A number o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o i n c i d e d i n A p r i l T793 t o make t h i s p e r i o d e s p e c i a l l y f a v o u r a b l e f o r a n t i - J a c o b i n a g i t a t i o n i n M a r s e i l l e s . T h e f i r s t was t h e a r r i v a l i n M a r s e i l l e s on M a r c h 28 o f M o y s e B a y l e a n d B o i s s e t , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n . T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had b e e n s e n t t o t h e s o u t h e a s t t o o v e r s e e r e c r u i t i n g i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e , b u t t h e i r c o m m i s s i o n e x t e n d e d t o t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y o u t b r e a k s a n d t h e r e v i e w o f l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s , t h u s p l a c i n g them a b o v e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r B a y l e n o r B o i s s e t was a member o f t h e P a r i s J a c o b i n C l u b , b o t h w e r e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e M o u n t a i n a nd b o t h had v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e " a p p e a l t o t h e p e o p l e " . 1 6 T h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , g l a d o f r e c e i v i n g r e e n f o r c e m e n t f r o m P a r i s , g a v e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s an e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n . 1 7 In t h e i r f i r s t r e p o r t t o P a r i s , B a y l e a n d B o i s s e t w e r e f o r c e d t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e ar m e d f o r c e s i n t h e s o u t h e a s t ( t h e Army o f I t a l y ) w e r e b a d l y l e d , a n d t h a t t h e n a v a l f o r c e s a t T o u l o n ( t h e m a i n M e d i t e r r a n e a n n a v a l h a r b o u r ) w e r e d i s o r g a n i z e d , s u f f e r i n g f r o m manpower s h o r t a g e s a n d f r o m i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n among t h e c r e w s . 1 8 T h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Roubaud a nd D e s p i n a s s y c o n f i r m e d B a y l e ' s a n d B o i s s e t ' s g l o o m y r e p o r t : t h e r e w e r e i n t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s a n d s h o r t a g e s o f a l l k i n d s o f p r o v i s i o n s a t T o u l o n , and t h e B r i t i s h f l e e t h a d e n t e r e d t h e Med i t e r r a n e a n . 1 9 To t h e s e w o r r i e s w e r e a d d e d t h e news o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y d i s t u r b a n c e s : i n B e a u c a i r e n a t i o n a l g u a r d s had k i l l e d t h r e e l o c a l J a c o b i n s , a n d i n T a r a s c o n a J a c o b i n l e a d e r was s t o n e d a n d t h r o w n i n t o t h e Rhone by an a n t i - J a c o b i n mob. R e p o r t s f r o m t h e c a n t o n o f F o n t v i e i l l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o c a l p a t r i o t s w e r e a t t h e m e r c y o f r o y a l i s t s , a n d r e p o r t s o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y s t i r r i n g s r e a c h e d M a r s e i l l e s f r o m t h e f o r m e r P a p a l E n c l a v e s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e s o u t h -e a s t e r n r e g i o n t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s w e r e r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t r i s i n g f o o d p r i c e s a n d l a r g e - s c a l e r e c r u i t i n g . 2 0 B a y l e a n d B o i s s e t r e g a r d e d t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n P r o v e n c e ' s h i n t e r l a n d w i t h g r a v e m i s g i v i n g s . T h e y f e a r e d t h e o u t -b r e a k o f a s e c o n d V e n d e e , a nd t o f o r e s t a l l c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n o r d e r e d t h e i m m e d i a t e l e v y o f a 6,000 man s p e c i a l s e c u r i t y f o r c e i n t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e , o f whom 2,000 men w e r e t o be r a i s e d i n M a r s e i l l e s . 2 1 W i t h t h i s o r d e r t h e n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b e g a n t o e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t a l b o d i e s . M a y o r M o u r a i l l e a n d p r o c u r e u r S e y t r e s r e s e n t e d t h i s ' a r b i t r a r y ' e x e r c i s e o f o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t y , a n d w e r e s l o w t o t r a n s m i t t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o r d e r t o t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . T h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , f u l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h e M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s a g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y t o remove t h e i n d e c i s i v e m a y o r a n d t h e o p e n l y a n t i - J a c o b i n p r o c u r e u r , a c c u s e d t h e two m u n i c i p a l l e a d e r s o f o b s t r u c t i o n i s m a n d demanded t h e i r a r r e s t by B a y l e a n d B o i s s e t . The J a c o b i n demand r e c e i v e d the s u p p o r t o f the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s : the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s were s t i l l f o l l o w i n g the J a c o b i n s ' l e a d , w h i l e the a n t i - J a c o b i n s had t h e i r own g r i e v a n c e s a g a i n s t M o u r a i l l e , whom they regarded as a p r o t e c t o r o f the Savon b r o t h e r s , and were g l a d o f the o p p o r t u n i t y to o b s t r u c t the c i t y ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . To s a f e g u a r d t h e i r own a u t h o r i t y , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o r d e r e d the a r r e s t o f M o u r a i l l e and Sey t r e s on A p r i l 1 3 - 2 2 Meanwh i l e , a g i t a t o r s un l e a shed a d i r e c t a t t a c k a g a i n s t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s : rumours c i r c u l a t e d in the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s a 11 eg i tha t the s p e c i a l s e c u r i t y f o r c e was to be formed not to f i g h t a g a i n s t c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s in the s o u t h e a s t , but to a i d the Mounta in in P a r i s in i t s s e c t a r i a n b a t t l e f o r c o n t r o l o f the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n . 2 In A i x , the f o u r s e c t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y more c o n s e r v a t i v e than the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s , r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the s p e c i a l r e c r u i t m e n t o r d e r , s e t themse l ves up in permanence, and a t t a c k e d the J a c o b i n Ant i- p o i i t iques C lub and the A i x m u n i c i p a l i t y . 2 4 Bay le and B o i s s e t f e l t a u t h o r i t y s l i p p i n g f rom t h e i r g r a s p . They r e a c t e d to the even t s in A i x by immed ia te l y d e s p a t c h i n g t h e r e a M a r s e i l l e s armed f o r c e under the command o f M o i s s o n , the c a p t a i n o f the M a r s e i l l e s Federe c o n t i n g e n t o f August 10, and accompanied by P a r i s , the J a c o b i n p r e s i d e n t o f the depa r tmen ta l assembly o f the Bouches-du-Rhone. The M a r s e i l l e s c o n t i n g e n t q u i c k l y r e p r e s s e d the A i x s e c t i o n s ' m o v e m e n t . 2 5 Whi l e M a r s e i l l a i s were r e p r e s s i n g the s e c t i o n a l movement in A i x a s i m i l a r movement was d e v e l o p i n g in M a r s e i l l e s . A s e c r e t r e v o l u t i o n a r y commi t t e e , cha rged w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t M o u r a i l l e and S e y t r e s , was se t up in each s e c t i o n . R e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s o f s e c t i o n 11 , one o f the most v o c i f e r o u s s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s proposed tha t the s e c r e t s e c t i o n a l commit tee be made a permanent i n s t i t u t i o n , and t h a t a new c e n t r a l commi t t ee , c o n s i s t i n g o f two d e l e g a t e s from each o f the twen t y- fou r urban s e c t i o n s , be fo rmed . On A p r i l 17 the C e n t r a l Committee o f the M a r s e i l l e s S e c t i o n s had i t s f i r s t m e e t i n g , and i t s i n i t i a l a c t was to i n v i t e the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to r e c o g n i z e the s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y o f the peop l e o f M a r s e i l l e s , meaning by t h i s the a u t h o r i t y o f the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s . 2 6 The d i e was c a s t : M a r s e i l l e s had c h a l l e n g e d the newly imposed n a t i o n a l a u t h i r o t y in the pe rsons o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on mi ss i o n . The M a r s e i l l e s Popu l a r S o c i e t y was f a c e d w i t h the d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n o f whether to adhere to the d i r e c t i o n o f the P a r i s J a c o b i n C lub by r e s p e c t i n g the Montagnard r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' a u t h o r i t y , o r to j o i n the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s ' r e g i o n a l i s t d r i v e , thus t u r n i n g a g a i n s t the n a t i o n a l J a c o b i n movement. The M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s made the fo rmer c h o i c e : they r e f u s e d to adhere to the s e c t i o n s ' d e c l a r a t i o n o f independence and so l o s t c o n t a c t w i t h the p o l i t i c a l movement in the s e c t i o n s . Now the o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y l e f t to the J a c o b i n s was to a t tempt to d e f e a t the s e c t i o n a l movement. On A p r i l 19 the Popu l a r S o c i e t y sen t a t h r e a t e n i n g c i r c u l a r to the s e c t i o n s , warn ing them tha t a r i s t o c r a t s were l e a d i n g them a s t r a y . 2 7 The J a c o b i n s ' f e a r s indeed came t r u e : b e r e f t o f J a c o b i n d i r e c t i o n , r e s e n t i n g the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' a u t h o r i t y and the M a r s e i l l e s ' J a c o b i n s ' rihijgh-handed w a r n i n g s , the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s e a s i l y f e l l under the i n f l u e n c e o f a n t i - J a c o b i n , emi g re -- and a t t imes even r o y a l i s t — a g i t a t o r s . No l o n g e r f e a r i n g p o p u l a r o p p o s i t i o n , the a n t i - J a c o b i n l e a d e r s h i p un l eashed a f u l l - s c a l e a t t a c k a g a i n s t the s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r Jean Savon , 92 u s i n g as i t s i n s t rument the s e c t i o n a l i s t movement. Bay le and B o i s s e t , s t i l l a t t e m p t i n g to rescue t h e i r c r u m b l i n g a u t h o r i t y , bent o v e r backwards to s a t i s f y the s e c t i o n s ' w i s h e s . They o r d e r e d the a r r e s t o f Jean Savon , and to p l e a s e the l o c a l a n t i - J a c o b i n s r e f e r r e d the f a t e o f Savon , M o u r a i l l e and S e y t r e s to the long dormant P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l . 2 8 However, a new c i r c u m s t a n c e tu rned M a r s e i l l e s i r r e v o c a b l y a g a i n s t the l o c a l J a c o b i n s and the Montagnard r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n . On A p r i l 21, P h i l i p E g a l i t e , the fo rmer Duke o f O r l e a n s , and h i s two sons a r r i v e d in M a r s e i l l e s . 2 9 The Duke o f O r l e a n s ' p r e sence in P a r i s had become h i g h l y e m b a r r a s s i n g to the Mounta in d u r i n g e a r l y 1793• A n t i -J a c o b i n o r a t o r s such as Buzot (fiad i m p l i e d tha t the M o u n t a i n , many o f whose members had c l o s e t i e s w i t h the Duke o f O r l e a n s , ha rboured r o y a l i s t d e s i g n s : w i t h the e x e c u t i o n o f L o u i s XVI the roaduwould be open f o r the J a c o b i n s to p l a c e t h e i r c a n d i d a t e on the t h r o n e . 3 0 D u m o u r i e z ' s d e s e r t i o n p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r removing the Duke from P a r i s . The Montagnards (with the e x c e p t i o n o f Marat ) abandoned h im, he was a c cused o f c o l l u s i o n w i t h the t r a i t o r g e n e r a l , and was sen t as f a r f rom the c a p i t a l as p o s s i b l e , to M a r s e i l l e s . 3 1 As Bay l e and B o i s s e t r e p o r t e d , c o r r o b o r a t e d by the r e p o r t s o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Beauva i s and P i e r r e B a i l i e , the a r r i v a l o f the O r l e a n s f a m i l y was the l a s t s t raw t i p p i n g the b a l a n c e in f a v o u r o f the a n t i -J a c o b i n e lements in the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s . The a n t i - J a c o b i n s were p r o v i d e d w i t h a power fu l propaganda weapon: the despa t ch o f P h i l i p E g a l i t e c o u l d e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as a P a r i s J a c o b i n i n s u l t a g a i n s t the r e v o l u t i o n a r y honour o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c i t y . Now M a r s e i l l e s o p i n i o n was ready f o r a d i r e c t a t t a c k a g a i n s t the Montagnard r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . On A p r i l 27 the s e c t i o n s d e c i d e d to l aunch an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Bay l e and B o i s s e t , who f l e d the c i t y on A p r i l 29.32 M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s m 93 was now a n a c c o m p l i s h e d f a c t . I t i s s t r i k i n g t h a t o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r s e c t i o n s o f M a r s e i l l e s t w e n t y - t w o a d h e r e d t o t h e l a u n c h i n g o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f B a y l e and B o i s s e t ; 3 3 t h a t t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n 11 was among t h e o r i g i n a t o r s o f t h e s e c t i o n a l movement; a n d t h a t o n l y s e c t i o n 13» t h e home o f t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r , d e f e n d e d J e a n S a v o n a g a i n s t a t t a c k . 3 4 An a d d r e s s w h i c h t h e M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t p r e s e n t e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n on May 2 5 a l l e g e d l y c a r r i e d t w e n t y - f i v e t h o u s a n d s i g n a t u r e s a n d e v e n i f o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e s e i s a u t h e n t i c , t h e y show t h a t t h e s e c t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t had w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t a t t h e s t a r t o f i t s a s c e n d e n c y . T h e s e p o i n t s a l l s u p p o r t t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e f e d e r a l i s t s e c t i o n a l movement i n M a r s e i l l e s had c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . H o w e v e r , t h e a d d r e s s o f May 25 made r e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e d e f e n c e o f p r o p e r t y , a n d t h i s p r o v i d e s i n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s was a l l i e d w i t h t h e p r o p e r t i e d e l e m e n t s . 3 5 Was t h e f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r i n M a r s e i l l e s p a r t o f a n a t i o n w i d e " G i r o n d i n " p o l i t i c a l d r i v e ? My e v i d e n c e a p p e a r s t o p r o v i d e a n e g a t i v e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . B a r b a r o u x was t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t member f r o m M a r s e i l l e s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " G i r o n d i n " i n n e r c i r c l e . As we h a v e s e e n , u n t i l t h e a u t u m n o f 1 7 9 2 he was o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l l e a d e r s o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y and t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p a r t y o f M a r s e i l l e s . Were t h e f e d e r a l i s t movement i n M a r s e i l l e s p a r t o f a n a t i o n w i d e ' G i r o n d i n ' p u s h f o r p o w e r , B a r b a r o u x s h o u l d h a v e b e e n i n s t e a d y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r o - ' G i r o n d i n ' e l e m e n t s o f M a r s e i l l e s . B u t i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n on May 1 3 , 1 7 9 3 , more t h a n two w e e k s a f t e r t h e f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r i n M a r s e i l l e s , B a r b a r o u x s t a t e s t h a t he had c o n d u c t e d no c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h M a r s e i l l e s f o r two m o n t h s . M o r e o v e r , B a r b a r o u x w o n d e r s why t h e M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s had a r r e s t e d M o u r a i l l e , whom he knew t o be a g o o d r e p u b l i c a n . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t • Barbaroux was out o f touch w i t h the r e cen t p o l i t i c a l deve lopments in M a r s e i l l e s , an i m p o s s i b l e s u p p o s i t i o n i f the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t t akeove r were indeed pa r t o f a n a t i o n w i d e " G i r o n d i n p o l i t i c a l push . Thus one may c o n c l u d e — suppos ing t h a t Barbaroux had w r i t t e n the t r u t h -- tha t the f e d e r a l i s t t akeove r o f power in M a r s e i l l e s was independent o f a " G i r o n d i n " p o l i t i c a l d r i v e , and was b a s i c a l l y a l o c a l event w i t h n a t i o n a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s . 3 6 J a u r e s ' a n d L e f e b v r e ' s concep t t ha t f e d e r a l i s m was p a r t o f a n a t i o n w i d e " G i r o n d i n " push is not s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the M a r s e i l l e s example . Sydenham's t h e s i s about the myth o f a " G i r o n d i n " p a r t y p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r a t t a c k i n g the idea o f a n a t i o n w i d e " G i r o n d i n " push : i f no " G i r o n d i n " p a r t y e x i s t e d such a push is u n l i k e l y . The f a c t t ha t the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s a p p a r e n t l y were not connec t ed w i t h a " G i r o n d i n " d r i v e p r o v i d e s a measure o f i n d i r e c t p r o o f f o r Sydenham thes i s . M a t h i e z ' s s u g g e s t i o n tha t the f e d e r a l i s t r i s i n g o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the depa r tmen ta l and d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a l s o cannot be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the example o f M a r s e i l l e s , where the depa r tmen ta l and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t the d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s were under J a c o b i n c o n t r o l a f t e r l a t e summer 1 7 9 2 ; f o l l o w i n g the f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r many impor tan t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f l e d M a r s e i l l e s . S i n c e the major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the causes o f f e d e r a l i s m a r e not s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the M a r s e i l l e s examp le , I have drawn a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s -- based on the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d in t h i s c h a p t e r about the f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r o f power in M a r s e i l l e s . r The economic d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f e a r l y 1 7 9 3 c r e a t e d f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r a f e d e r a l i s t t akeove r in M a r s e i l l e s , s i n c e i t shook the l o y a l t i e s o f the p o p u l a r c l a s s e s to the J a c o b i n s . Then the c o n j u n c t i o n o f two c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y on M a r s e i l l e s t h r o u g h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n , and the d e s p a t c h o f the O r l e a n s f a m i l y t o M a r s e i l l e s , t u r n e d the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s a g a i n s t J a c o b i n i s m . Through the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e r e was an attempt to impose o u t s i d e a u t h o r i t y on M a r s e i l l e s f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e e a r l y 1790. In the p e r i o d between e a r l y 1790 and e a r l y 1793, M a r s e i l l e s r e g i o n a l i s m e v o l v e d not as a r e a c t i o n a r y , i d e a l i s t i c p a r t i c u l a r i s m l o o k i n g back t o the v i r t u e s o f t h e a n c i e n regime, but as the e x p r e s s i o n o f p r a g m a t i c m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s through w h i c h , i n the absence o f e f f e c t i v e c e n t r a l government, the c i t y was g o v e r n e d , and i t s a u t h o r i t y e x tended t o the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n . M a r s e i l l e s ' l o c a l p a t r i o t i s m and r e g i o n a l i s m became such p o w e r f u l f o r c e s t h a t a l l wings o f t h e l o c a l p o l i t i c a l s pectrum embraced them. When i n A p r i l 1793 the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y t u r n e d a g a i n s t i t s own s t r o n g l o c a l i s t p o s i t i o n t o s u p p o r t the Montagnard r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n , M a r s e i l l e s p u b l i c o p i n i o n t u r n e d a g a i n s t i t . The p o p u l a t i o n o f M a r s e i l l e s , i n c l u d i n g most o f the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s , opposed the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s because they c o u l d be d e p i c t e d as b e t r a y e r s o f l o e a l i n t e r e s t s i n f a v o u r o f the c e n t r a l i z i n g i n t e r e s t s o f P a r i s . A l t h o u g h p r i m a r y s o u r c e s s t r e s s the importance o f t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e O r l e a n s f a m i l y t o M a r s e i l l e s , h i s t o r i a n s have m i s s e d i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . 3 I b e l i e v e t t h a t t h i s i s due t o an u n c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l p a t r i o t i s m and r e g i o n a l i s m i n M a r s e i l l e s . S i n c e a p o w e r f u l l o c a l p a t r i o t i s m -- a l t h o u g h i t had s t r o n g r o o t s i n a n c i e n regime m u n i c i p a l p a t r i o t i s m -- e v o l v e d i n M a r s e i l l e s d u r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p e r i o d and s i n c e a l a r g e p a r t o f the M a r s e i l l e s p o p u l a t i o n regarded t h e i r c i t y as the b u l w a r k o f the R e v o l u t i o n i n s o u t h e a s t e r n F r a n c e , l o y a l t y t o M a r s e i l l e s and l o y a l t y t o the R e v o l u t i o n were c l o s e l y l i n k e d i n the p o p u l a r m ind . The J a c o b i n s had i n s u l t e d M a r s e i l l e s by send ing the s u s p e c t e d t r a i t o r P h i l i p E g a l i t e to the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c i t y -- a v iew e a s i l y sp read by a n t i - J a c o b i n a g i t a t o r s among the u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d -- and an i n s u l t a g a i n s t M a r s e i l l e s was an i n s u l t a g a i n s t the R e v o l u t i o n . T h i s a rgument , when added to the a l r e a d y a n t i - J a c o b i n mood o f the s e c t i o n s , s u f f i c e d to t i p the b a l a n c e in M a r s e i l l e s in f a v o u r o f r a d i c a l a n t i -J a c o b i n i s m . Thus I see M a r s e i l l e s r e g i o n a l i s t r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the f i r s t P a r i s a t t empts at c e n t r a l i z a t i on as the p r i n c i p a l cause o f the f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r in M a r s e i l l e s . F e d e r a l i s m swept the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s ou t o f power because they were caught on the s i d e o f the a n t i -M a r s e i l l e s c e n t r a l i z i n g t endency . To be s u r e , the main b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f the f e d e r a l i s t t akeove r were the l o c a l r i g h t w i n g e l e m e n t s , the members o f the haute b o u r g e o i s i e ; ye t they had w idesp read p o p u l a r s u p p o r t , s i n c e f o r the moment they r e p r e s e n t e d M a r s e i l l e s ' p r e t e n t i o n s to r e g i o n a l autonomy. I I I To g i v e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f e d e r a l i s t p e r i o d in M a r s e i l & e s would be p o i n t l e s s s i n c e t h i s has been a l r e a d y a d e q u a t e l y done by G u i b a l . However, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to o u t l i n e the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s i n t e r l u d e in o r d e r to a ccoun t f o r the f e d e r a l i s t s ' f a i l u r e . Wi th the f e d e r a l i s t a ssumpt ion o f power the Genera l Committee o f the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s became the e f f e c t i v e government o f the c i t y . Many J a c o b i n l e a d e r s o f the t h r e e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s and o f the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y f l e d from M a r s e i l l e s a l o n g w i t h Bay le and B o i s s e t . They immed ia te l y a t t empted to a c t a g a i n s t the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s by s e t t i n g up a J a c o b i n C e n t r a l Committee at Sa lon to s t i f l e c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n . Bay le and B o i s s e t p u b l i s h e d a dec r ee from M o n t e l i m a r b r e a k i n g the power o f the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s and o f the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l . 3 8 From i t s i n c e p t i o n , the f a t e o f M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s m was p r e c a r i o u s . Both the J a c o b i n s f rom Sa lon and the f e d e r a l i s t s f rom M a r s e i l l e s appea l ed f o r s u p p o r t to M o i s s o n , the c a p t a i n o f the M a r s e i l l e s f o r c e sent to A i x in A p r i l to supp re s s the s e c t i o n a l movement and s t i l l s t a t i o n e d t h e r e . M o i s s o n ' s d e c i s i o n in f a v o u r o f 3 9 M a r s e i l l e s gave f e d e r a l i s m an i n i t i a l advan tage . M o i s s o n ' s d e c i s i o n a l s o may have i n f l u e n c e d the A i x s e c t i o n s , wh ich were a g a i n s e t up in permanence and adhered to the f e d e r a l i s t s o f M a r s e i l l e s . 1 * 0 In v iew o f the d e t e r i o r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n the J a c o b i n s were f o r c e d to abandon t h e i r Sa lon b r i d g e h e a d and to r e t r e a t toward the N o r t h . 1 * 1 Dur ing the weeks b e f o r e the j o u r n e e s o f May 31 and June 2 , the a n t i -J a c o b i n e lements in the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on r e a c t e d to J a c o b i n and sans-c u l o t t e p r e s s u r e by l a u n c h i n g a v i g o r o u s a n t i - J a c o b i n c o u n t e r - o f f e n s i v e ; Ba rbaroux and Gaudet a t t a c k e d B a y l e ' s and B o i s s e t ' s a n t i - f e d e r a 1 i s t d e c r ee and succeeded in hav ing i t t e m p o r a r i l y s u s p e n d e d . 1 * 2 The May 25 add res s o f the M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n a l government to the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on p r o v i d e d s u p p o r t f o r the a n t i - J a c o b i n d r i v e . The a l l e g e d 2 5 , 0 0 0 s i g n a t u r e s accompany ing the add re s s were meant to demons t ra te t ha t a n t i - J a c o b i n i s m in M a r s e i l l e s had p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . 1 * 3 As we have s e e n , the M a r s e i l l e s r i g h t - w i n g had been s t r o n g l y a n t a g o n i s t i c to the s a n s - c u l o t t e s eve r s i n c e the r i o t s and l y n c h i n g s o f J u l y 1 7 9 2 . T h i s h a t r e d was deepened by f u r t h e r s p o r a d i c r i o t i n g in the autumn o f 1 7 9 2 and the w i n t e r o f 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 - F o l l o w i n g the f e d e r a l i s t t akeove r i t c o u l d f i n d e x p r e s s i o n . Jean Savon a l r e a d y had been a r r e s t e d at the b e g i n n i n g o f the s e c t i o n a l independence movement, and the Genera l Committee immed ia te l y o r d e r e d the a r r e s t o f s i x more s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r s , i n c l u d i n g Lau ren t Savon and Armand G a i t . I r o n i c a l l y , two o f those o r d e r e d a r r e s t e d were o f f i c e r s in M o i s s o n ' s b a t a l l i o n , whose s u p p o r t the f e d e r a l i s t s b a d l y needed . The a ccused p o p u l a r l e a d e r s were q u i c k l y b rought b e f o r e the r e - i n s t a t e d P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l , t r i e d and s e n t e n c e d . On May 1 6 the Savon b r o t h e r s and G a i t were e x e c u t e d . The o t h e r p o p u l a r l e a d e r s commit ted s u i c i d e in p r i s o n , w h i l e one o f M o i s s o n ' s accused o f f i c e r s , P e y r o n , was a b l e to escape and make h i s way t o Par is . 1 * 1 * These a c t s o f vengeance u n d e r l i n e the n a t u r e o f the f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p : i t championed " l a w and o r d e r " and was v i o l e n t l y opposed to p o p u l a r a c t i o n . I am f o r c e d to r e l y on a p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f the f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p , f o r a d e f i n i t i o n f o r m u l a t e d in terms o f s o c i a l s t a t u s does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between f e d e r a l i s t and the J a c o b i n l e a d e r s h i p : P e l o u x , marchand de son (bran merchant ) was the p r e s i d e n t o f the f e d e r a l i s t Genera l Commit tee , C a s t a l l e n e t a n o t a r y , was i t s s e c r e t a r y , and Paul Rambaud R u s s a c , ma t t r e de langues ( l anguage t e a che r ) was i t s v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . 1 * 5 None o f the f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s was s o c i a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f rom the J a c o b i n l e a d e r s o f M a r s e i l l e s . A f t e r the f e d e r a l i s t s had s a t i s f i e d t h e i r d e s i r e f o r vengeance a g a i n s t the s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r s , they r e l e a s e d M o u r a i l l e and S e y t r e s f rom p r i s o n . 4 6 T h i s was not s u r p r i s i n g in the case o f S e y t r e s , an advoca t e o f the Popu l a r T r i b u n a l s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n and an a l l y 6>f the M a r s e i l l e s r i g h t - w i n g . On the o t h e r hand , M o u r a i l l e had opposed the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Popu l a r T r i b u n a l andxa11eged1y had p r o t e c t e d Jean Savon and r e l i e d on h i s c o u n s e l . M o u r a i l i e ' s q u i c k r e l e a s e by the f e d e r a l i s t s s u g g e s t s t h a t the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mayor and Jean Savon had been e x a g g e r a t e d . A f t e r assuming power the f e d e r a l i s t s r e o r g a n i z e d M a r s e i l l e s ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . They q u i c k l y f o r c e d the t h r e e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s t o a c c e p t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e G e n e r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e c t i o n s . T h e C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l o f t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e was n o t o f f i c i a l l y b a n n e d , b u t n e i t h e r was i t a l l o w e d t o f u n c t i o n d u r i n g t h e f e d e r a l i s t s ' r u l e ; i t s p l a c e was t a k e n by t h e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l . N e x t , t h e s e c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p b o l s t e r e d i t s p o s i t i o n by a l l o w i n g t h e e i g h t r u r a l s e c t i o n s o f M a r s e i l l e s t o name r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b o t h t o t h e G e n e r a l C o m m i t t e e and t o t h e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l . By t h i s move t h e number o f M a r s e i l l e s s e c t i o n s was i n c r e a s e d f r o m t w e n t y - f o u r t o t h i r t y - t w o , a n d t h e f e d e r a l i s t s i n s u r e d t h a t e v e n i f t h e c e n t r a l w a r d s o f t h e c i t y w e r e t o t u r n a g a i n s t M a r s e i l l e s ' new r u l e r s , t h e p o p u l a r s e c t i o n s w o u l d be o u t v o t e d . 4 7 L e a d i n g J a c o b i n s who r e m a i n e d i n M a r s e i l l e s w e r e f o r c e d t o r e s i g n f r o m t h e i r o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s a n d w e r e a r r e s t e d . Among them w e r e M a i l l e t , t h e p r e s i d e n t o f b o t h t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y and t h e C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l , a n d G i r a u d , t h e p r o s e c u t o r o f t h e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l . In a l l a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y J a c o b i n s w e r e i m p r i s o n e d by t h e M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s . 1 * 8 On J u n e 3, t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y was c l o s e d down. 1* 9 L i k e t h e J a c o b i n s a n d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s o f t h e P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l b e f o r e t h e m , t h e M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s h a d a s t r o n g r e g i o n a l i s t , e x p a n s i o n i s t o r i e n t a t i o n . Soon a f t e r a s s u m i n g power t h e y d e s p a t c h e d t o t h e h i n t e r l a n d o f P r o v e n c e a l a r g e number o f f e d e r a l i s t a g e n t s , who p u r g e d t h e t o w n s o f J a c o b i n i n f l u e n c e -- u s u a l l y t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t i e s -- a n d p r e a c h e d a n t i - P a r i s p r o p a g a n d a . T h e y a i d e d t h e T o u l o n f e d e r a l i s t s t o a s s u m e p o w e r , a nd e x e r c i s e d c o n t r o l o v e r a r e a s a s f a r r e m o v e d f r o m M a r s e i l l e s a s t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f B a s s e s - A l p e s . 5 0 In M a r s e i l l e s i t s e l f , t h e d a n g e r o u s p o p u l a r s e c t i o n s w e r e k e p t r e l a t i v e l y q u i e t u n t i l m i d - A u g u s t t h r o u g h e c o n o m i c means: f r o m A p r i l u n t i l A u g u s t t h e p r i c e o f b r e a d r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t , a n d g r a i n s h i p s c o n t i n u e d t o d e l i v e r p r o v i s i o n s u n t i l l a t e J u n e . 5 1 100 Y e t t h e f e d e r a l i s t s o f M a r s e i l l e s f a c e d some s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e y w e r e u n a b l e t o s p r e a d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e b e y o n d t h e i r l i m i t e d r e g i o n a l s t r o n g h o l d . To be s u r e , t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h t h e f e d e r a l i s t s o f L y o n , B o r d e a u x and o t h e r f e d e r a l i s t c e n t r e s , b u t t h e m a j o r f e d e r a l i s t c e n t r e s c o u l d n o t e f f e c t a n y u n i t e d c o u r s e o f a c t i o n a g a i n s t P a r i s , a n d t h e J a c o b i n s w e r e a b l e t o d e a l w i t h e a c h f e d e r a l i s t s t r o n g h o l d s e p a r a t e l y . 5 2 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s p o s s e s s e d o n l y b a d l y o r g a n i z e d , i n e f f e c t i v e m i l i t a r y f o r c e s t o o p p o s e t h e n a t i o n a l a r m i e s . A l t h o u g h C a p t a i n M o i s s o n o r i g i n a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e s e c t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h e J a c o b i n s , h i s d e c i s i o n was t h e r e s u l t o f a d i f f i c u l t c h o i c e . As he s t a t e d i n e a r l y May: " l e s o r d r e s que j e r e g o i s s e c o n t r a r i e n t p r e s q u e t o u s e t . . . j e ne s a i s p a r c o n s e q u a n t a q u i o b e i r , n i a v e c q u i c o r r e s p o n d r e p o u r l e s d i s p o s i t i o n s de l ' a r m e e " 5 3 . The f e d e r a l i s t s c o n s i d e r e d h i m s u s p e c t , a n d M o i s s o n , t h e most r e s p e c t e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o l d i e r i n M a r s e i l l e s , t h e l e a d e r o f t h e M a r s e i l l e s c o n t i n g e n t o f A u g u s t 10, w i t h d r e w f r o m p u b l i c l i f e d u r i n g t h e f e d e r a l i s t p e r i o d . R o u s s e l e t a nd V i l l e n e u v e -T o u r e t t e s , who a s s u m e d c o n t r o l o f t h e f e d e r a l i s t s ' d e p a r t m e n t a l a r m y , p r o v e d t o be m e d i o c r e commanders l e a d i n g h i g h l y d i s o r g a n i z e d f o r c e s , a n d t h e i r army s u f f e r e d a s e r i e s o f h u m i l i a t i n g d e f e a t s . 5 4 U n t i l t h r e e w e e k s b e f o r e t h e i r f i n a l c o l l a p s e , t h e M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s i n s i s t e d on m a i n t a i n i n g t h e f i c t i o n t h a y t h e y a nd n o t t h e P a r i s J a c o b i n s w e r e t h e l e g i t i m a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e F r e n c h R e p u b l i c . W h i l e t h e i r l a n g u a g e was e x t r e m e , t h e y d i d n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w a n e x t r e m e a n t i - J a c o b i n c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , R o u s s e l e t , t h e f i r s t g e n e r a l o f t h e f e d e r a l i s t f o r c e s , was r e l u c t a n t t o e n g a g e t h e n a t i o n a l army d e s p i t e t h e f e d e r a l i s t s ' d e c i d e d manpower a d v a n t a g e . 5 5 T h i s , l i k e t h e f e d e r a l i s t a r m y ' s weak p e r f o r m a n c e , c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d by R o u s s e l e t ' s incompetence a l o n e , f o r C a r t e a u x , the commander o f the J a c o b i n army, was a l s o an i n e x p e r i e n c e d gene r a l and l a t e r proved h i m s e l f i n c o m p e t e n t . 5 6 It seems to me tha t the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t a rmy ' s f a i l u r e was o c c a s i o n e d by a gene ra l l a ck o f c o n f i d e n c e , a f o r e b o d i n g o f f a i l u r e , wh ich permeated M a r s e i l l e s d e s p i t e the f e d e r a l i s t s ' b rave words . U n t i l e a r l y August the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s a t t empted to pursue a m i d d l e r oad v be tween J a c o b i n i s m and roya l i sm; but in the p o l i t i c a l a tmosphere o f the summer o f 1 7 9 3 a m i d d l e road was u n r e a l i s t i c . A p r i n c i p a l sou r ce o f the f e d e r a l i s t s ' f a i l u r e was t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to d e c i d e upon a f i r m c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . The most s t r i k i n g example o f f e d e r a l i s t p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n i s the f a t e o f the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s , who, a r r e s t e d e a r l y in the f e d e r a l i s t p e r i o d , were never b rought to t r i a l and emerged unharmed from the c i t y ' s p r i s o n s when Ca r t eaux e n t e r e d M a r s e i l l e s . Wh i l e the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l p r o s e c u t e d and condemned s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r s f rom A i x and S a l o n , i t c o n t i n u a l l y r e f u s e d to b r i n g the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s to t r i a l . In g e n e r a l , the P o p u l a r T r i b u n a l ' s a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the t h r e e months o f f e d e r a l i s t r u l e was r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r a i n e d : I c o u l d t r a c e no more than twenty-two death sen tences d u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r i o d . 5 7 Only in A u g u s t , as the J a c o b i n army approached M a r s e i l l e s , d i d the Genera l Committee o f the M a r s e i l l e s S e c t i o n s t u rn r e l u c t a n t l y to roya l i sm. By August 1 5 , the f e d e r a l i s t s were open r o y a l i s t s : on tha t da te a r o y a l i s t r e l i g i o u s p r o c e s s i o n was he l d in M a r s e i l l e s . 5 8 To f o r e s t a l l the p r e d i c t a b l e a n t i - r o y a l i s t r e a c t i o n in the p o p u l a r s e c t i o n s the f e d e r a l i s t s o r d e r e d the d i s a r m i n g o f s e c t i o n 11 on August 18, However, s e c t i o n 11 r e s i s t e d , tu rned a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s o f M a r s e i l l e s , and on August 21 a c c e p t e d the J a c o b i n C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1 7 9 3 . 5 9 On the same day b o u r g e o i s p a n i c o c c a s i o n e d an a s t r o n o m i c r i s e in the p r i c e o f b r e a d . 6 0 On August 2 3 , s e c t i o n s 9, 12, 13 and 14 j o i n e d s e c t i o n 11 , announc ing t h e i r adhe rence to the new c o n s t i t u t i o n , and f i g h t i n g b roke ou t between the p o p u l a r s e c t i o n s and the N a t i o n a l G u a r d . 6 1 On August 22 the Genera l Committee o f the s e c t i o n s , f a c e d w i t h the imminent e n t r y o f the J a c o b i n t r o o p s i n t o M a r s e i l l e s , d e c i d e d to t ake the extreme s t e p o f i n v i t i n g the B r i t i s h M e d i t e r r a n e a n F l e e t to p r o t e c t the c i t y . Two agents were d i s p a t c h e d to Admi ra l Hood ' s f l a g s h i p , c r u i s i n g a few m i l e s o f f the c o a s t . 6 2 However, b e f o r e the B r i t i s h c o u l d take advantage o f the f e d e r a l i s t s ' o f f e r , Ca r t eaux e n t e r e d M a r s e i l l e s . He was welcomed by the f i g h t i n g s a n s - c u l o t t e s o f the p o p u l a r s e c t i o n s ; f o r a l t h o u g h the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s had been w i l l i n g to abandon J a c o b i n i s m , they were not w i l l i n g to s u p p o r t the f e d e r a l i s t s ' s l i d e i n t o r o ya l ism and t r e a s o n . IV The s e c t i o n s ' a s sumpt ion o f power in M a r s e i l l e s was f o l l o w e d by f e d e r a l i s t t a keove r s in o t h e r p a r t s o f F r a n c e . For a s h o r t p e r i o d the a n t i - J a c o b i n wave seemed immensely power fu l and i t appears d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n how the J a c o b i n s emerged v i c t o r i o u s l y in a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e , and w i t h r e l a t i v e l y m inor l o s s e s o f manpower, a g a i n s t the f o r c e s o f 6 0 r ebe l depar tments and o f g r e a t c i t i e s l i k e L y o n s , M a r s e i l l e s and Bordeaux . Yet a p a r t f rom the r o y a l i s t army in the Vendee and l a t e r the Chouan g u e r i l l a f o r c e s in B r i t a n n y , o n l y Lyons and T o u l o n the l a t t e r w i t h a l a r g e - s c a l e i n f u s i o n o f E n g l i s h and Span i sh m i l i t a r y f o r c e s -- were a b l e to r e s i s t the J a c o b i n a rmies f o r any l eng th o f t i m e . If one c o n s i d e r s t ha t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the a n t i - J a c o b i n r i s i n g s in the p r o v i n c e s the F rench R e p u b l i c was a l s o f a c i n g f o r e i g n f o e s , and tha t d e s p i t e the j o u r n e e s o f May 31 and June 2 the Mounta in was f o r c e d to work in P a r i s w i t h o n l y a tenuous ho ld on government u n t i l a t l e a s t l a t e J u l y , the J a c o b i n s u c c e s s e s appear even more r e m a r k a b l e . However, Sydenham's idea o f the "myth o f a G i r o n d i n p a r t y " comes once a g a i n to our a i d . The " G i r o n d i n s " c e r t a i n l y welcomed the a n t i - J a c o b i n f e d e r a l i s t v i c t o r i e s o f A p r i l and May. Gaudet g r e e t e d the t u r n o v e r in M a r s e i l l e s w i t h the c r y o f "Heu reuse r e v o l u t i o n ! " and o p t i m i s t i c a l l y p r o p h e s i e d tha t the p r o v i n c i a l f e d e r a l i s t g roundswe l l would sweep away the J a c o b i n f a c t i e u x and deso rgan i s a t e u r s . 6 3 (Two f a v o u r i t e e x p r e s s i o n s o f the a n t i - J a c o b i n wing in the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n ; w h i l e the fo rmer f i t s the J a c o b i n s w e l l enough the l a t t e r i s more j u s t l y a p p l i e d to t h e i r enem ies . ) Yet as we have seen in the c a se o f M a r s e i l l e s , t h i s by no means i m p l i e s t h a t the " G i r o n d i n s " were the i n s t i g a t o r s o f the f e d e r a l i s t movements. On the c o n t r a r y , the d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the f e d e r a l i s t s and the i n a b i l i t y o f the f e d e r a l i s t c e n t e r s to f o r m u l a t e a p r a c t i c e b t l e e common c o u r s e o f a c t i o n sugges t t h a t the f e d e r a l i s t o u t b r e a k s were independent r e g i o n a l i s t a n t i - J a c o b i n and a n t i - c e n t r a 1 i z i n g r e a c t i o n s , and d i d not form a n a t i o n a l movement. The J a c o b i n s , on the o t h e r hand , formed a r e l a t i v e l y w e l l -o r g a n i z e d n a t i o n a l movement which c o u l d a c t in a u n i f i e d manner a g a i n s t the f ragmented f e d e r a l i s t c h a l l e n g e . In l a r g e p a r t t h i s e x p l a i n s the J a c o b i n s u c c e s s e s o f the summer o f 1793-The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n p l a yed an impor tan t r o l e in o r g a n i z i n g the J a c o b i n v i c t o r y . They r e l a y e d the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y ' s o r d e r s to the a r m i e s ; they accompanied the a rmies on t h e i r campaigns and rev iewed the m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p ; they a t t empted to c r e a t e a f u n c t i o n i n g n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework by r e l y i n g on p r o v i n c i a l J a c o b i n s and P o p u l a r S o c i e t i e s and by r e v i ew ing the membership o f p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . In s h o r t , they p r o v i d e d a n a t i o n a l governmenta,lienet'Wbr k" i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h P a r i s . However weak t h i s network was and one cannot deny t h a t i t was weak -- i t was much more than the " G i r o n d i n s " o r t h e f e d e r a l i s t s p o s s e s s e d . 6 4 Why were the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o n - m i s s i o n chosen p r e d o m i n a n t l y from Montagnard ranks? Thompson argues t h a t " G i r o n d i n s " were s t i l l i n c o n t r o l o f the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n i n March 1793 and c h o s e , i n the main, J a c o b i n s y m p a t h i z e r s f o r r e c r u i t i n g m i s s i o n s i n o r d e r t o weaken the J a c o b i n s i n P a r i s . 6 5 L e f e b v r e argues a l o n g the same l i n e s , s t a t i n g t h a t " t h e G i r o n d i n s had j u d g e d i t shrewd t o s e l e c t t h e s e d e p u t i e s from among the Montagnards, i n o r d e r t o weaken o p p o s i t i o n i n the C o n v e n t i o n , . . . 1 1 6 6 P a t r i c k ' s r e c e n t d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n ' s c o m p o s i t i o n s u g g e s t s a d i f f e r e n t answer. She has d emonstrated t h a t the Montagnards formed a v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y o f the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , not a s m a l l group as has been p r e v i o u s l y supposed; i n f a c t they were more numerous than t h e " G i r o n d i n s " . She a l s o s t a t e s t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n stemmed from the Montagnard r a n k s . Thus the d e s p a t c h o f Montagnards as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n appears t o be a l o g i c a l consequence o f the g r o w i n g Montagnard i n f l u e n c e i n the n a t i o n a l government r a t h e r than the r e s u l t o f a " G i r o n d i n " p o l i t i c a l m a n o e u v e r . 6 7 A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r which h e l p e d t o p r e p a r e a J a c o b i n v i c t o r y was t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a network of J a c o b i n s o c i e t i e s , p r o v i d i n g a n a t i o n a l communication network and a s o u r c e o f manpower f o r the armies and f o r t h e r e c o n s t i t u t e d l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . The army w h i c h marched a g a i n s t M a r s e i l l e s was accompanied by the c o n v i n c e d Montagnard r e p r e s e n t a t i A l b i t t e , was under the command o f t h e s a n s - c u l o t t e g e n e r a l C a r t e a u x , and c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e number o f c o n v i n c e d J a c o b i n s ; the A l l o b r o g e c o n t i n g e n t , c o n s i s t i n g o f e n t h u s i a s t i c Savoyard J a c o b i n s under Doppet's command, was e s p e c i a l l y f e a r e d by the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s . 6 8 In r e p l y to the f e d e r a l i s t danger the J a c o b i n s o f the Rhone v a l l e y immed ia te l y began to o r g a n i z e ; the f i r s t cong re s s o f Popu l a r S o c i e t i e s was se t up at V a l e n c e , ha l fway between M a r s e i l l e s and L y o n s , in June 1793. That f a i t h f u l l o c a l J a c o b i n s o c c u p i e d the Rhone v a l l e y p l a y e d an impor tan t p a r t in p r e v e n t i n g the M a r s e i l l e s and Lyons f e d e r a l i s t s f rom j o i n i n g f o r c e s . T h u s , the d e c i s i v e d i f f e r e n c e between f e d e r a l i s t s and J a c o b i n s was t h a t the fo rmer r e l i e d on g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i s o l a t e d r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s o f power, and were i n e f f e c t u a l beyond t h e i r s t r o n g h o l d s , w h i l e the l a t t e r p o s s e s s e d a rud imen ta r y n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework s u p p o r t e d by the e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y n a t i o n - w i d e J a c o b i n movement. V For the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the p e r i o d w i t h which Pa r t II ( chap te r s 2, 3 and k) o f t h i s t h e s i s has been c o n c e r n e d , F rance was a c o l l e c t i o n o f semi-autonomous m u n i c i p a l r e p u b l i c s r a t h e r than a c e n t r a l i z e d s t a t e governed f rom i t s c a p i t a l . L o c a l i s m d u r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t o f t h i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d i n t e r l u d e . Loca l l o y a l t i e s o f t e n became more power fu l than c l a s s o r p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s . The m a j o r i t y o f the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s p l a c e d l o y a l t y to t h e i r c i t y b e f o r e l o y a l t y to the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s o r to the M a r s e i l l e s J a c o b i n s . With the p o l i t i c a l u n s o p h i s t i c a t ion o f the u n e d u c a t e d , they f e l l prey to the f e d e r a l i s t s who c l a i m e d to r e p r e s e n t M a r s e i l l e s ' i n t e r e s t s a g a i n s t o u t s i d e r s . The M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s were q u i c k l y d i s a b u s e d o f t h e i r i l l u s i o n s . Once the M a r s e i l l e s r i g h t - w i n g e r s ga i ned power as f e d e r a l i s t s , t h e i r f i r s t move was to wreak vengeance upon the s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r s , whom they had come to d e s p i s e more and more in the c o u r s e o f the major r i o t i n g o f J u l y 1 7 9 2 , and the minor but f r e q u e n t r i o t s o f the autumn o f 1792 and the w i n t e r o f 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 -With the war and na t i on-w ide economic d i f f i c u l t i e s in l a t e 1 7 9 2 , a movement to c e n t r a l i z e F rance and to c r e a t e a t r u l y n a t i o n a l government s l o w l y began . F e d e r a l i s m was a l o c a l i s t r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h i s nascen t c e n t r a l i z i n g t endency . With the d e f e a t o f the f e d e r a l i s t s , a major r o a d -b l o c k o b s t r u c t i n g governmenta l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was removed. To be s u r e , in the p e r i o d immed ia te l y f o l l o w i n g the d e f e a t o f f e d e r a l i s m in M a r s e i l l e s the c e n t r a l gove rnmen t ' s agents were too busy w i t h f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n and the procurement o f food s u p p l i e s to pay ve r y much a t t e n t i o n to u p r o o t i n g l o c a l i s m in M a r s e i l l e s , and M a r s e i l l e s remained in l o c a l J a c o b i n hands t r u s t w o r t h y in the eyes o f the m a j o r i t y ©f the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s -- f o r ano the r f o u r months . N o n e t h e l e s s , the p e r i o d o f the T e r r o r in M a r s e i l l e s is c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the p r e v i o u s e r a , s i n c e the T e r r o r as c o n c e i v e d by the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y a t tempted r a d i c a l l y to r e s o l v e the b u r n i n g i s s u e o f l o c a l i s m ve r sus c e n t r a l i s m in f a v o u r o f the l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e , but met w i t h s t i f f l o c a l o p p o s i t i o n . NOTES FOR CHAPTER IV Georges G u i b a l , Le mouvement . . . , & C. R i f f a t e r r e , Le mouvement  a n t i - J a c o b i n et a n t i p a r i s i e n a L yon . P a r i s , P i c a r d , 1 9 1 2 . A l b e r t M a t h i e z , The F rench R e v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k , G r o s s e t and Dun l ap , 1 9 6 4 , p. 3 3 3 - M a t h i e z a c c e p t s the v iew o f h i s hero R o b e s p i e r r e : " T h e i n t e r n a l dangers come from the m i d d l e c l a s s e s ; in o r d e r to d e f e a t the m i d d l e c l a s s e s we must r a l l y the p e o p l e . " R o b e s p i e r r e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f an a l l i a n c e w i t h the p e o p l e , meaning the s a n s - c u l o t t e s , became a b a s i c t ene t o f J a c o b i n i s m . For a long t ime F rench r e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r i o g r a p h y pushed to the background the p o s s i b i l i t y tha t the s a n s - c u l o t t e s may not have w ished f o r such an a l l i a n c e . However, more r e c e n t l y i t has been demons t ra ted by h i s t o r i a n s as d i v e r s e in o u t l o o k s as Soboul and Cobb, t ha t on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s the s a n s B c u l o t t e s d i d assume an a n t i - J a c o b i n p o l i t i c a l pos i t i o n . I b i d . , p. 3 3 6 . Georges L e f e b v r e , Le gouvernement r e v o l u t i o n a i r e . P a r i s , T o u r n i e r & C o n s t a n s , 1 9 4 7 , pp . 5~13 & pp. 2 4 - 3 1 . & Jean J a u r e s , H i s t o i re  s o c i a l i s t e ( 1 7 8 9 - 1 9 0 0 ) . Volume IV, La Conven t i on II 1 7 9 3 - 1 7 9 4 . P a r i s , J u l e s R o u f f , 1 9 0 3 , pp . 1 2 6 7 - 1 2 8 9 . Norman,Hampson, op_. c i t . , p. 1 7 3 ; A . Goodwin , " The F e d e r a l i s t Movement in Caen d u r i n g the F rench R e v o l u t i o n " , B u i l e t i n o f John  Ry lands L i b r a r y , 42 , 1 9 6 0 . pp . 3 1 3 - 3 ^ 3 ; Norman Hampson, " L e s o u v r i e r s des a r senaux de l a mar ine pendant l a R e v o l u t i o n f r a n c a i s e " , Revue  d ' H i s t o i r e Economique e t S o c i a l e , 3 9 , 1961 , pp R i c h a r d Cobb , Les armees r e v o l u t i o n a i r e s . Instrument de l a T e r r e u r  dans l es d e p a r t m e n t s . A v r i l 1 7 9 3 ' F l o r e a l An II. Volume 1 , P a r i s , Mouton & C o . , 1961 , p. kS. R i c h a r d Cobb , The P o l i c e and the P e o p l e . F rench Popu l a r P r o t e s t . 1 7 8 9 - 1 8 2 0 . O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n , 1 9 7 0 , pp . 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 . In a s s e r t i n g tha t the S e c t i o n was " T h e q u i n t e s s e n c e o f s a n s - c u l o t t i sme" , Cobb c a r r i e s h i s argument a l i t t l e too f a r . The s e c t i o n s were c i t y w a r d s , and each had i t s own p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l l o y a l t i e s . C e r t a i n s e c t i o n s were d e f i n i t e l y s a n s - c u l o t t e , wh ich in e s s e n c e meant t h a t they were loud and s i m p l e s u p p o r t e r s o f the R e v o l u t i o n , p r o v i d i n g the " s h o c k t r o o p s " o f the p o p u l a r movement. In f a c t , t hese s e c t i o n s were in a m i n o r i t y in M a r s e i l l e s , but they e x e r c i s e d a power fu l i n f l u e n c e because th rough r i o t i n g they had i n t i m i d a t e d the m a j o r i t y o f M a r s e i l l e s ' s e c t i o n s . W i thout a doubt the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s had to be pe rsuaded to suppo r t o r a c q u i e s c e in a f e d e r a l i s t t a k e o v e r o f power. I hope to show in the main t e x t how t h i s was a c h i e v e d . But c a l l i n g the S e c t i o n the qu i mfeess.enee .of s a n s - c u l o t t i sm seems to d e p r i v e even f u r t h e r the much abused term s a n s - c u l o t t e o f c o n c r e t e mean ing . ( Th i s i s in no way meant as a g e n e r a l c r i t i q u e o f Cobb ' s book , wh ich I t h i n k i s an e x c e l l e n t t r ea tment o f p o p u l a r p r o t e s t d u r i n g the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e r a . ) 108 8 . M i chae l J . Sydenham, "The Montagnards and T h e i r Opponen t s : Some C o n s i d e r a t i o n s on a Recent Reassessment o f the C o n f l i c t s in the F rench N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 . " J o u r n a l o f Modern  H i s t o r y , 4 3 , 2 , June 1 9 7 1 , p. 2 8 7 - T h i s d e f i n i t i o n is r e a l l y A l l i s o n P a t r i c k ' s , but Sydenham s t a t e s t ha t " So c o n c i s e and f a i r a s t a tement . . . o f Sydenham's v iew shou ld . . . be a l l o w e d to s t and in f u l l " ; so I f e e l no compunc t ion in t a k i n g P a t r i c k ' s d e f i n i t i o n . See A l l i s o n P a t r i c k , " P o l i t i c a l D i v i s i o n in the F rench N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 , " J o u r n a l o f Modern H i s t o r y 41 (December 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 421 . 9 . M i chae l J . Sydenham, The F rench R e v o l u t i o n , p. 1 3 0 . 1 0 . P a t r i c k , op_. c i t . , pp . 4 2 1 - 4 7 4 . Here I must argue w i t h Sydenham's s ta tement t h a t h i s remarks do not " I n v a l i d a t e the c o n c l u s i o n s which a r e drawn from them P a t r i c k ' s s t a t i s t i c s . " (Sydenham, "The Montagna rds . . . " , p. 2 9 1 ) . P a t r i c k , a f t e r d i s m i s s i n g Sydenham's t h e s i s o f a u n i t e d Montagnard p a r t y says in a f o o t n n o t e : " T h e a p p e l s a r e the o n l y o c c a s i o n s on which d e p u t i e s f o r m a l l y r e c o r d e d f i n a l p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . The M o u n t a i n , as f a r as i t s v o t i n g went , was a s t o n i s h i n g l y u n i t e d " ; ( f . n . 1 9 1 , p. 4 7 4 ) . Indeed, i f one examines P a t r i c k ' s T a b l e s 3 and 4 (p. 448 & p. 4 5 0 ) , i t becomes e v i d e n t t ha t on the a p p e l s o n l y 7 0 . 8 % o f the " G i r o n d e " vo ted f o r a re fe rendum on the k i n g ' s f a t e , w h i l e 9 4 . 3 % o f the Mounta in vo t ed a g a i n s t i t ; and o n l y 7 1 . 9 % o f the " G i r o n d e " vo ted f o r mercy toward L o u i s XV I , w h i l e 9 4 . 8 % o f the Mounta in vo ted a g a i n s t mercy . P a t r i c k ' s next t a b l e o f v o t i n g i s on the Marat impeachment (Tab l e 5 , p. 4 5 8 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s was a d i r e c t " G i r o n d i n " a t t a c k a g a i n s t the " l ' a m i du p e u p l e " , o n l y 6 2 . 8 % o f the " G i r o n d e " vo ted f o r impeachment, w h i l e 1 0 . 3 % o f the " G i r o n d i n s " a b s t a i n e d . Yet s u r p r i s i n g l y , o n l y 21.2% o f the Mounta in vo ted a g a i n s t impeachment. On f i r s t s i g h t t h i s i m p l i e s t ha t the Mounta in was not as u n i t e d as may have appea red f rom the v o t i n g on the k i n g ' s f a t e . Bu t , i f we take i n t o account t ha t 3 1 - 8 % o f the Mounta in was away on m i s s i o n a t the t ime o f the Marat impeachment vo t e and tha t ano the r 3 1 - 5 % were absen t f rom the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e b e g i n s to emerge. F i r s t , one s h o u l d note tha t the v o t e f o r M a r a t ' s impeachment was r a p i d l y f o r c e d th rough a ha l f - empty N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n : " t h e v o t i n g was begun ve ry l a t e a t h i g h t and d i d not end u n t i l 7 : 0 0 A . M . " ( f . n . 1 3 5 , p. 4 5 9 ) . The " a b s t a i n e d / f o r a d j o u r n e m e n t " vo t e s h o u l d in l a r g e p a r t be taken as a c o n d i t i o n a l v o t e a g a i n s t impeachment, f o r as P a t r i c k s t a t e s , t h e r e were "demands f o r an ad journement ( to c o n s i d e r the e v i d e n c e and a l l o w Marat to de fend h i m s e l f ) " . ( f . n . 1 3 5 , pp . 4 5 8 - 4 5 9 ) . P a t r i c k c o n c l u d e s tha t "What happened on A p r i l 13 was not t ha t the C o n v e n t i o n as a whole tu rned away f rom Montagnard p o l i c y , but r a t h e r t ha t the R igh t was p r e s e n t in much l a r g e r numbers than the L e f t and had t h e r e f o r e no d i f f i c u l t y in t a k i n g c o n t r o l . " (p. 4 5 9 ) . C o n s i d e r i n g the r i g g e d c h a r a c t e r o f the Marat impeachment v o t e and the c o n f u s i o n wh ich p r e v a i l e d in the C o n v e n t i o n , the one r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r f o r Montagnard o p i n i o n is the p e r c e n t a g e o f the Mounta in tha t vo ted f o r M a r a t ' s impeachment: t h i s i s a ve ry low 2 . 3 % . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f one compares the vo te o f the " M o u n t a i n / J a c o b i n " g r o u p , i . e . d e p u t i e s who were members o f the J a c o b i n C lub and whom P a t r i c k c l a s s i f i e s as b e i n g members o f the Mounta in and who were thus the innersr. c o r e o f the Mountai n, jwiilthht'heevote o f the " G i r o n d i n " " i n n e r s i x t y " , one , n o t i c e s tha t the c o r e o f the " G i r o n d i n s " was more lukewarm about the 109 impeachment than the " G i r o n d e " as a whole ( 6 0 . 0 % v s . 6 2 . 8 % f o r impeachment ) , w h i l e the Montagnard c o r e s t ood a g a i n s t the impeachment more d e t e r m i n e d l y than the Mounta in as a whole ( 3 7 - 5 % v s . 27.2% a g a i n s t impeachment ) . L a s t l y , i f we a c c e p t P a t r i c k ' s c l a i m tha t the Mounta in was a lmos t tw i ce as numerous as the " G i r o n d e " ( 3 0 2 members v s . 1 7 5 members) i t becomes even more remarkab le t h a t on a l l t h r e e vo t e s the Mounta in showed g r e a t e r c o h e s i o n than the " G i r o n d e " . In the v o t e on the " r e i n s t a t e m e n t o f the Commiss ion o f T w e l v e " ( Tab l e 7 , p. 4 6 5 ) the p a t t e r n is once more r e e n f o r c e d . If we s u b t r a c t those d e p u t i e s who were away on m i s s i o n f rom the g i v e n p e r c e n t a g e s , ( P a t r i c k does not do t h i s and t h e r e f o r e her pe r cen t ages a r e somewhat m i s l e a d i n g ) , 7 6 . 9 % o f the G i r o n d e vo ted f o r the r eens ta tement w h i l e 8 0 % o f the Mounta in vo ted a g a i n s t i t ( on l y 5% o f the Mounta in vo ted f o r i t ) . Thus i t seems to me tha t P a t r i c k ' s s t a t i s t i c s show t h a t the Mounta in was much more c o n s i s t e n t in i t s v o t i n g p a t t e r n s than the " G i r o n d e " , in s p i t e o f i t s l a r g e r membersh ip ; t ha t the M o u n t a i n ' s members had taken ove r n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by s e r v i n g as r e p r e s e n t ? a t i v e s on m i s s i o n ( 22 t o 32% o f the Mounta in was away on m i s s i o n at the t ime o f the l a s t two v o t e s compared w i t h o n l y 4 to 5% o f the " G i r o n d e " ) ; in s h o r t t h a t the Mounta in was indeed a nascen t p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , w h i l e the " G i r o n d e " was but a group o f v o c i f e r o u s l y a n t i - J a c o b i n d e p u t i e s . 1 1 . I b i d . , p. 4 6 6 f . n . 1 5 5 & T a b l e s 5 and 7 , p. 4 5 8 & p. 4 6 5 . 1 2 . G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , pp . 5 " 2 2 . 13- M a t h i e z , The F rench R e v o l u t i o n , pp . 1 0 - 1 2 . 1 4 . G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , pp . 1 0 - 1 2 . 1 5 . I b i d . , p. 2 4 . 1 6 . A . K u s c i n s k i , D i c t i o n n a i r e des C o n v e n t i o n n e l s , P a r i s , 1 9 1 9 , p. 41 and p. 6 4 . 17- G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 2 4 . 1 8 . AUUARDI , I I I , p. 1 4 . 1 9 . I b i d . , I I I , p. 1 0 6 . 2 0 . G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 2 5 . 2 1 . I b i d . , pp . 2 5 - 2 7 . It s h o u l d be emphas ized t h a t t h i s r e c r u i t m e n t o r d e r was a s p e c i a l r e c r u i t m e n t o r d e r . It seems to me tha t the f e d e r a l i s t r e a c t i o n in M a r s e i l l e s was not a g a i n s t gene r a l r e c r u i t m e n t as supposed by Hampson, Sydenham and o t h e r s . (Hampson, The S o c i a l  H i s t o r y . . . , p. 1 7 3 ; Sydenham, H i s t o r y o f the F rench R e v o l u t i o n , p~i 1 5 4 ) . P o s s i b l y a c e r t a i n degree o f c o n f u s i o n has e n t e r e d the h i s t o r i o g r a p h y o f the F rench R e v o l u t i o n on t h i s p o i n t . It i s a c c e p t e d tha t the o u t b r e a k o f the war in the Vendee was , a f t e r many yea r s o f i r r i t a t i o n , touched o f f by o p p o s i t i o n to r e c r u i t m e n t . As we have s e e n , in the r u r a l a r eas o f the s o u t h e a s t t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n to r e c r u i t m e n t . It i s t empt ing to a c c e p t r e c r u i t m e n t as 110 one o f the reasons f o r the f e d e r a l i s t r e a c t i o n . But r e c r u i t m e n t was a cause o f a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e a c t i o n in r u r a l a r eas where the g e n e r a l c a l l - u p o f e a r l y 1793 was a r a l l y i n g p o i n t to r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s which a l r e a d y g r e a t l y r e s e n t e d urban i n c u r s i o n s in the c o u n t r y s i d e . (The c l e a r e s t demons t ra ted example f o r t h i s i s the Vendee. See C h a r l e s T i l l y , The Vendee , Cambr idge , M a s s . , Ha rva rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964, p. 309) • Marse i 1 l e s -- p r o b a b l y l i k e o t h e r urban a r ea s p r e v i o u s l y had shown on a number o f o c c a s i o n s tha t she c o u l d e a s i l y se t up armed f o r c e s , and tha t she was w i l l i n g to f i g h t f o r the R e v o l u t i o n . As Gu iba l has shown, at the t ime o f B a y l e ' s and B o i s s e t ' s s p e c i a l r e c r u i t m e n t o r d e r t h e r e was adequate manpower in M a r s e i l l e s to s e t up a 2,000 men c o n t i n g e n t , s i n c e both Federe b a t t a l i o n s had r e t u r n e d to the c i t y and were eager to s e r v e the R e v o l u t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' o r d e r was the e x e r c i s e o f " a r b i t r a r y " , i . e . not l o c a l l y b a s e d , a u t h o r i t y above l o c a l government . 22. G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , pp . 28-29, & A u j a r d , I I I , p. 237-23. G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 27. 24. I b i d . , pp . 49-50. 25. I b i d . , pp . 57-62. 26. I b i d . , pp . 50-52. A l s o the s e c t i o n s swore to de fend t h o s e who i n c r i m i n a t e d M o u r a i l l e and Sey t r e s and d e c l a r e d the N a t i o n a l Guard to be in permanent s t a t e o f r e q u i s i t i o n . 27. I b i d . , p. 55. 28. I b i d . , pp . 69-70. 29. I b i d . , p. 62. 30. J a u r e s , o p . c i t . , volume IV, p a r t II, pp . 866-867. 31. K u s c i n s k i , o p . c i t . , p. 241 . 32. G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 72. 33- flbid., p. 69. 34. R o b e r t , op_. c i t . , p. 73-35. M0NITEUR, XV I , pp . 372-373-36. Ba rba roux to Manent , 13 May 1793, in P. V a i l l a n d e t , " L e t t r e s i n e d i t s de B a r b a r o u x " . AHRF 10, 1933, pp . 348-350. 37. M0NITEUR, XV I , p. 371 - L e t t e r o f Bay l e and B o i s s e t to the N a t i o n a l C C o n v e n t i o n , 4 May, 1793-38. AULARD, op_. c i t . , IV, pp . 216-224. 39? G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 83. 111 40. I b i d . , p. 8 6 . 41 . I b i d . , p. 107-kl. MONITEUR, 1 6 , pp . 4 7 6 - 4 7 8 . 4 3 . I b i d . , 16, pp . 4 7 6 - 4 7 8 . 4 4 . R o b e r t , op_. c i t . , pp . 1 9 3 T 9 9 -4 5 - G u i b a l , o p . c i t . , p. 1 1 6 . 46. I b i d . , p. 1 1 1 . 4 7 . R o b e r t , op_. c i t . , p. 107 & P- 129-48. I b i d . , pp . 103-104. 4 9 . G u i b a l , op_. c i t . , p. 147. 5 0 . G . L . P e l i s s i e r , " L a propagande f e d e r a l i s t e dans l e s Bouches-du-Rhone ( 30 mai - 11 j u i 1 l e t 1 7 9 3 ) " , Anna l e s R e v o l u t i o n n a i r e s II, 1 9 0 9 , pp. 395-425. 5 1 . C a r r i e r e , op_. c i t . , pp . 1 6 6 - 1 6 9 . 5 2 . The e a r l i e s t f e d e r a l i s t idea f o r s e t t i n g up a new government was to c a l l the s u p p l e a n t s ( s u b s t i t u t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) , and se t up a new f e d e r a l i s t C o n v e n t i o n at Bou rges , away f rom the i n f l u e n c e o f P a r i s . Ano the r idea was to form a u n i t e d army o f the f e d e r a l i s t c i t i e s . It seems to me tha t the most impor tan t a s p e c t o f t he se ideas was tha t they came to n o t h i n g , and thus i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t o f f e d e r a l i s t d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 5 3 . G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , p. 8 3 . 5 4 . J oseph E t i e n n e M i che l d ' E y g i e r e s , H i s t o i r e de l ' a rmee depa r t emen ta1e  des Bouches-du-Rhone. P a r i s , du Pon t , An V - 1 7 9 7 , pp . 9 4 - 1 2 0 . On the d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the M a r s e i l l e s depa r tmen ta l army the e yew i tness a ccoun t o f f e d e r a l i s t commi ssa i re c i v i l in t ha t army, M i che l d ' E y g i e r e s is p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u c t i v e . 5 5 . G u i b a l , Le mouvement. . . , pp . 2 0 9 " 2 1 0 , pp . 2 3 0 - 2 3 4 . 5 6 . C a r t e a u x ' s pe r fo rmance a t the s i e g e o f T o u l o n was second r a t e . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s S a l i c e t t i , G a s p a r i n and A u g u s t i n R o b e s p i e r r e r e p o r t e d on v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s to the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y t h a t he was a bad g e n e r a l and c o u l d not l i v e up to the r e p u t a t i o n he g a i n e d a t M a r s e i l l e s . See AULARD V I I , pp . 7 9 " 8 1 , pp . 3 9 2 - 3 9 3 ; V I I I , p. 1 9 5 , p. 4 8 0 . 57- R o b e r t , ojp. c i t . , pp . 1 3 6 - 1 3 9 - Of c o u r s e , the f a c t t ha t the M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t s p rompt l y avenged themse lves on the sans- cu 1 o t t e s , but d i d not a c t a g a i n s t the l e a d i n g c a p t u r e d J a c o b i n s i m p l i e s t ha t the f e d e r a l i s t s c o n s i d e r e d the c l a s s - t i e s wh ich bound them w i t h the l e a d i n g J a c o b i n s more impor tan t than the p o l i t i c a l 112 o p p o s i t i o n between them. N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s i m p l i e s l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i v e n e s s ; the J a c o b i n s , a f t e r a l l , had no s i m i l a r qualms when the f a t e o f the R e p u b l i c was at s t a k e . In t h i s r e s p e c t , a compar i son o f the a c t i o n s o f w h i t e t e r r o r i s t s w i t h those o f the f e d e r a l i s t s would p rove to be i n s t r u c t i v e : f o l l o w i n g the T e r r o r , the Whi te t e r r o r i s t s took s y s t e m a t i c p o l i t i c a l vengeance on l e a d i n g J a c o b i n s . (That Whi te t e r r o r i s t a c t i v i t y was s y s t e m a t i c r a t h e r than d i s o r g a n i z e d -- as g e n e r a l l y supposed -- is p e r s u a s i v e l y a rgued by R i c h a r d Cobb in The P o l i c e and the P e o p l e . ) 58. L a u t a r d , op_. c i t . , v o l . I, pp . 269-270. 59. J . B . Buchez & P .C . Roux, H i s t o i r e par1ementa i re de l a R e v o l u t i o n  f r a n c a i s e , v . 28, P a r i s , Pau1 in , 1836, p. 494, L a u t a r d , ' o p . ' c i t 7 , v o l . I, p. 269. 60. C a r r i e r e , op_. c i t • , p. 169 -61. Buchez & Roux, op_. c i t . , v . 28, p. 494, & L a u t a r d , op_. c i t . , v . I, p. 269. The s t r e n g t h o f the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s may be gauged by the f a c t tha t a mass meet ing was he l d when the f i v e p o p u l a r s e c t i o n s c o n c l u d e d t h e i r a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l i s t s : Buchez and Roux e s t i m a t e 5,000 t o 6,000 p e o p l e p r e s e n t at t h i s mee t ing and L a u t a r d e s t i m a t e s 2,000. 62. L a u t a r d , op_. c i t . , v o l . I, p. 267-63. M 0 N I T E U R XV I , p. 372. 64. AULARD IV, pp . 23-43. The f i r s t ex tended d e f i n i t i o n o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' d u t i e s and powers appeared on May 7, 1793 in a p r o p o s a l p r epa red by the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y . T h u s , the f u n c t i o n s o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n were a l r e a d y we l l d e f i n e d d u r i n g the summer o f 1793, a l t h o u g h o f c o u r s e , they underwent major r e d e f i n i t i o n s d u r i n g the T e r r o r . Very s i g n i f i c a n t l y the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y p roposed tha t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s h o u l d have u n l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y , ( p o u v o i r s i l l i m i t e s ) and tha t a l l a s p e c t s o f p r o v i n c i a l F rench a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , both m i l i t a r y and c i v i l , shou ld be under t h e i r surve i11ance . 65- J . M . Thompson, The F rench R e v o l u t i o n . New Y o r k , Ox fo rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966, pp . 381-382. 66. Georges L e f e b v r e , The French R e v o l u t i o n f rom 1793 to 1799, p. 48 . 67. See no te 10, above . 68. L a u t a r d , o p . c i t . , v o l . I, p. 251. T a i es c i r c u l a t e d among the M a r s e i l l e s b o u r g e o i s about the f e r o c i t y o f the A l l o b r o g e s . A c c o r d i n g to L a u t a r d they had the "renomme de nouveaux V a n d a l e s , e t M a r s e i l l e , l a r i c h e p r o i e , compta . . . l e u r s j o u r s de marche en f r e m i s s a n t . " 69- Cobb , Les armees r e v o l u t i o n n a i e e s . . . , v o l . I, p. 52. PART THREE - M a r s e i l l e s d u r i n g the P e r i o d o f the T e r r o r CHAPTER V - The E a r l y P e r i o d o f the T e r r o r in M a r s e i l l e s : The T e r r o r as A p p l i e d by the Loca l J a c o b i n s . I T h e r e were impor tan t v a r i a t i o n s in the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the T e r r o r t h roughou t F r a n c e . It was a p p l i e d w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f s e v e r i t y a c c o r d i to the i n t e n s i t y o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y d i s t u r b a n c e s ; in r e g i o n s o f c i v i l war , i n v a s i o n , o r c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y g u e r i l l a a c t i v i t y i t was u s u a l l y more s e v e r e , and in p e a c e f u l a reas i t was u s u a l l y l e s s s e v e r e . The T e r r o r d i f f e r e d in P a r i s and the p r o v i n c e s , and in urban and r u r a l a r e a s . The v a r y i n g s e r i o u s n e s s o f the economic c r i s i s , e s p e c i a l l y the c r i s i s o f food p r o v i s i o n i n g , a l s o g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d the forms which the T e r r o r t o o k . L a s t l y , the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f both l o c a l and c e n t r a l l y d e l e g a t e d p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s p l a y e d s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s in d e t e r m i n i n g the c o u r s e o f the T e r r o r in d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s . As R i c h a r d Cobb r i g h t l y s u g g e s t s , i f one w ishes to remain s t r i c t l y a c c u r a t e , one ought hot to speak o f a s i n g l e u n i f i e d T e r r o r , but o n l y o f the T e r r o r in p a r t i c u l a r c i t i e s , r e g i o n s o r d e p a r t m e n t s . 1 N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e r e were two major p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n s f rom the i n t e r a c t i o n o f wh ich a u n i f i e d — i f app rox ima te -- model o f the T e r r o r may be c o n s t r u c t e d . The f i r s t was the s o - c a l l e d p o p u l a r , " s p o n t a n e o u s " , o r l o c a l l y d i r e c t e d T e r r o r , wh ich o f t e n tended to i n c r e a s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The second was the c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d T e r r o r imposed by the N a t i o n a l Conven t i on and i t s Committees o f P u b l i c S a f e t y and Genera l S e c u r i t y , one o f whose c h i e f g o a l s was to curb the o v e r l y e n t h u s i a s t i c e n e r g i e s un l eashed by the " s p o n t a n e o u s " T e r r o r and up roo t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s o r d e r . In M a r s e i l l e s the l o c a l l y d i r e c t e d T e r r o r was r e l a t i v e l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d . The autmun o f 1793 was a p e r i o d o f l o c a l J a c o b i n c o n t r o l in the c i t y , y e t i t was not a p e r i o d in wh ich " s p o n t a n e o u s " p o p u l a r i n i t i a t i v e s dom ina t ed . D u r i n g t h i s e a r l y phase o f the T e r r o r , M a r s e i l l e s was t r a n q u i l and the T e r r o r was c h i e f l y m a n i f e s t e d in a j u d i c i a l manner th rough the smooth and r a p i d work o f the M a r s e i l l e s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l . T h i s i s not to say t ha t t h e r e were no " s p o n t a n e o u s " p o p u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f ' t h e T e r r o r : but these were c o n t r o l l e d and u t i l i z e d by the c i t y ' s J a c o b i n l e a d e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s conce rned w i t h the p e r i o d o f l o c a l l y d i r e c t e d T e r r o r in M a r s e i l l e s , and t r a c e s t h i s p e r i o d to the p o i n t when r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e s o f the c e n t r a l government f i r s t made a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to d e s t r o y l o c a l J a c o b i n r u l e in e a r l y December, 1793• I I OneAugust 25, 1793 C a r t e a u x ' s t r oops e n t e r e d a c i t y much o f whose p o p u l a t i o n was a p p a r e n t l y g l a d to be l i b e r a t e d ; the f i g h t i n g s a n s - c u l o t t e s o f the f i v e a n t i - r o y a l i s t s e c t i o n s j o y o u s l y welcomed the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n ' army i n t o M a r s e i l l e s . 2 But a l a r g e p a r t o f M a r s e i l l e s ' p o p u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y among the b o u r g e o i s i e , was d e e p l y f e a r f u l o f J a c o b i n revenge and many pe rsons f l e d , accompany ing the f e d e r a l i s t army, wh ich beat a h a s t y and d i s o r g a n i z e d r e t r e a t toward T o u l o n . A c c o r d i n g to G ree r " a t l e a s t two t h o u s a n d . . . f u g i t i v e s f o l l o w e d V i l l e n e u v e to T o u l o n , and many o t h e r s s c a t t e r e d ove r the c o u n t r y , escaped by s e a , o r reached I t a l y by l a n d . " 3 A l t h o u g h w i t h the s o u r c e s a t my d i s p o s a l I c o u l d make no exac t e s t i m a t e o f the number o f f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s who e m i g r a t e d from M a r s e i l l e s a t t h i s t i m e , t h e r e can be no doubt t ha t a l a r g e number escaped f rom the c i t y . C a r t e a u x ' s army, which was a c o n t i n g e n t o f the Army o f the A l p s , was accompanied by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n A l b i t t e , E s c u d i e r , G a s p a r i n , N'iidche and S a l i c e t i . On August 29 t hese r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were t e m p o r a r i l y j o i n e d by R i c o r d and A u g u s t i n R o b e s p i e r r e , who were on t h e i r , way to N i c e and the Army o f I t a l y ; Ba r ras and F r e r o n , a l s o w i t h the Army o f I ta ly . )pwere in M a r s e i l l e s f rom September 3 t o September 6. Du r ing September and O c t o b e r , 1793 the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Pomme l ' A m e r i c a i n , C h a r b o n n i e r and S e r v i e r e were a l s o in M a r s e i l l e s f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f t i m e . h To the s u r p r i s e o f many f r i g h t e n e d b o u r g e o i s , the i n i t i a l t r ea tment a c co rded to M a r s e i l l e s by the c e n t r a l gove rnmen t ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was m i l d . The memorandum wh ich the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s add re s sed to M a r s e i l l e s upon e n t e r i n g the c i t y s t r e s s e d the he ro i sm o f the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s who had r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l i s t s , d e s p i t e v i c i o u s f e d e r a l i s t a n t i - J a c o b i n and a n t i - P a r i s p ropaganda ; , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w h i l e condemning the r e b e l s , conveyed the i m p r e s s i o n tha t they c o n s i d e r e d M a r s e i l l e s to posses s a s o l i d r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o r e , and tha t t h e r e f o r e M a r s e i l l e s would not be pun i shed i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . 5 A l b i t t e urged gene r a l c l emenc y , and the punishment o n l y o f the f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s ; he avowed t h a t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f M a r s e i l l e s ' p o p u l a t i o n had a i d e d the f e d e r a l i s t s in some way, but he c o n s i d e r e d the s i m p l e M a r s e i l l a i s to have been l ed a s t r a y ( egares ) A u g u s t i n R o b e s p i e r r e a l s o b e l i e v e d tha t the mass o f M a r s e i l l e s ' i g n o r a n t and g u l l i b l e p o p u l a t i o n had been l ed a s t r a y by c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ; he warned h i s b r o t h e r t h a t w h o l e s a l e punishment o f f e d e r a l i s t s by p a t r i o t s would lead to a renewed r i g h t - w i n g r e a c t i o n and i n t e r m i n a b l e c i v i l w a r . 7 C a r t e a u x had an even more u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a t t i t u d e , a c c e p t i n g a number o f M a r s e i l l a i s i n t o h i s army, among them some t u r n c o a t o f f i c e r s o f the f e d e r a l i s t a r m y . The new m a s t e r s o f M a r s e i l l e s q u i c k l y r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e p r e - f e d e r a l i s t l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s and r e o p e n e d t h e P o p u l a r S o c i e t y . M o u r a i l l e r e m a i n e d t h e m a y o r o f t h e c i t y , b u t he was e c l i p s e d by t h e J a c o b i n I s o a r d , who a s s u m e d t h e p o s t o f m u n i c i p a l p r o c u r e u r a n d was t o r e m a i n a l e a d i n g s p o k e s m a n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y u n t i l e a r l y D e c e m b e r 1 7 9 3 - A n o t h e r l e a d i n g member o f t h e l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was R i c o r d J r . ; (no r e l a t i o n o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on m i s s i o n , R i c o r d ) , who was t h e p r o c u r e u r g e n e r a l s y n d i c o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a n d t h e e d i t o r o f t h e J a c o b i n J o u r n a l r e p u b l i c a i n de  M a r s e i 1 1 e s . In g e n e r a l , J a c o b i n s r e l e a s e d f r o m j a i l o r r e t u r n i n g t o M a r s e i l l e s i n t h e w a k e o f C a r t e a u x ' s a r m y , d o m i n a t e d t h e r e c o n s t i t u t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . J a c o b i n s who w e r e members o f M a r s e i l l e s ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s p r e v i o u s t o t h e f e d e r a l i s t r e g i m e t e n d e d t o g a i n t h e i r o l d p o s t s , w h i l e p o s t s v a c a t e d by h i d i n g o r e s c a p e d f e d e r a l i s t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y a l s o f i l l e d by J a c o b i n s . T h e o n l y i m p o r t a n t b o dy w h i c h r e t a i n e d i t s p r e - f e d e r a 1 i s t m e m b e r s h i p c o m p l e t e l y u n c h a n g e d was t h e C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l o f t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e : u p o n e m e r g i n g f r o m p r i s o n M a i l l e t J r . and G i r a u d i m m e d i a t e l y r e a s s u m e d t h e i r o l d p o s i t i o n s as p r e s i d e n t and p r o s e c u t o r o f t h e T r i b u n a l . M a i l l e t J r . a l s o r e o c c u p i e d t h e p o s t o f p r e s i d e n t i n t h e M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y , and t h u s h a d a p o s i t i o n o f u n u s u a l s t r e n g t h o n t h e l o c a l p o l i t i c a l s c e n e . A V i g i l a n c e C o m m i t t e e ( c o m i t e d e s u r v e i l l a n c e ) was c r e a t e d ; o n e o f i t s members whom F r e r o n s i n g l e d o u t f o r m e n t i o n was L o y s . A c c o r d i n g t o F r e r o n t h e M a r s e i l l e m u n i c i p a l i t y and t h e V i g i l a n c e C o m m i t t e e , i n t h e p e r s o n s o f I s o a r d a n d L o y s w o r k e d c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r i n s e a r c h o f s u s p e c t s i n t h e a u t u m n o f 1 7 9 3 • T h e a r r e s t o f a u s p e c t s b e g a n i m m e d i a t e l y u p o n t h e e n t r y o f C a r t e a u x i n t o M a r s e i l l e s . T h e s u s p e c t s w e r e r e f e r r e d t o t h e now " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l o f t h e B o u c h e s - d u - R h o n e , w h i c h had i t s f i r s t s i t t i n g on A u g u s t 28. One o f the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' f i r s t a c t s was to o r d e r the g e n e r a l d isarmament o f M a r s e i l l e s , except f o r the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s . How t h i s d isarmament p roceeded I have no means o f a s c e r t a i n i n g , but I presume t h a t the armed s a n s - c u l o t t e s must have been the c h i e f i n s t rumen t s th rough whom the f e d e r a l i s t s and o t h e r s u s p e c t s were d i s a r m e d . By August 29 the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n c o u l d r e p o r t to the Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y t ha t M a r s e i l l e s ' d isarmament had been a c c o m p l i s h e d . 1 0 Tha t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the r e s u l t s o f the gene r a l d i s -armament may be gauged f rom t h e i r r e p o r t o f e a r l y September to the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n , in wh ich they s t a t e d t h a t enough weapons and m u n i t i o n s had been tu rned up in M a r s e i l l e s to arm 60,000 m e n . 1 1 In l a t e August o b j e c t i o n s were r a i s e d in P a r i s a g a i n s t the l e n i e n t t r ea tment o f r e b e l l i o u s M a r s e i l l e s . Dan ton , f o r i n s t a n c e , advoca ted making an example o f the M a r s e i l l e s commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e : La n a t i o n v i e n t de donner une grande l e§on a 1 ' a r i s t o c r a t i e marchande des M a r s e i l l a i s . II f au t que c e t t e legon ne s o i t pas p e r d u e ; . . . i l f a u t que l e s commercants qui on t vu avec p l a i s i r 1 ' aba i s sement des nob l e s et des p r e t r e s , dans l ' e s p e r e n c e de s ' e n g r a i s s e r de l e u r s b i e n s , e t qu i a u j o u r d ' h u i d e s i r e n t l a c o n t r e r e v o l u t i o n avec p l u s de p e r f i d i e s o i e n t a b a i s s e s ; 1 2 However, t h i s was a m i n o r i t y v i ew . The Committee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y in formed A l b i t t e t h a t i t e n t i r e l y t r u s t e d h i s judgement on how to p roceed in M a r s e i l l e s , and thus gave i t s i m p l i c i t a p p r o v a l to the m i l d t r ea tmen t o f the s o u t h e r n c i t y . 1 3 S i n c e in e a r l y September the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n and i t s commit tees were hav ing d i f f i c u l t y p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r a u t h o r i t y in the c a p i t a l in f a c e o f a s a n s - c u l o t t e c h a l l e n g e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t at t h i s t ime they c o u l d not pay v e r y c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to p r o v i n c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , and e n t r u s t e d the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s in d i s t a n t M a r s e i l l e s w i t h v i r t u a l l y u n l i m i t e d powers . 111 C o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t Adm i r a l T r o g o f f had i n v i t e d the B r i t i s h to occupy T o u l o n and had handed the F rench M e d i t e r r a n e a n F l e e t to the enemy reached M a r s e i l l e s one day a f t e r the event and the n a t i o n a l ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' a t t e n t i o n immed ia te l y s h i f t e d to the new danger a r e a . By August 29 C a r t e a u x ' s t r oops were l e a v i n g f o r T o u l o n and o n l y the armed s a n s - c u l o t t e s remained beh ind to g a r r i s o n Marse i 1 l e s . 1 4 A l b i t t e obse r ved tha t the f e d e r a l i s t s f e a r e d tha t the d e p a r t u r e o f C a r t e a u x ' s f o r c e s would l e ave them d e f e n c e l e s s a g a i n s t l o c a l J a c o b i n and sa ths-cu lo t t e v e n g e a n c e . 1 5 The expenses o f s u p p l y i n g the army a s s e m b l i n g under T o u l o n were borne in l a r g e measure by the M a r s e i l l e s commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e . On August 29 the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s in M a r s e i l l e s o r d e r e d the c i t y ' s commerc ia l c l a s s e s to c o n t r i b u t e f o u r m i l l i o n l i v r e s t o t h i s e n d . 1 6 It would be t empt ing but wrong t o c o n s i d e r t h i s f o r c e d loan as c l a s s pun i shmen t : M a r s e i l l e s ' commerc ia l c l a s s e s were burdened w i t h expenses because they had ready f u n d s , and were v u l n e r a b l e t o p r e s s u r e , and thus i t was e x p e d i e n t to tax them. The N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o r d e r e d the M i n i s t e r o f the I n t e r i o r to r e imburse the l o a n , and to send an a d d i t i o n a l two m i l l i o n l i v r e s to the T o u l o n a r m y . 1 7 To be s u r e , o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t hese sums was a c t u a l l y sen t to the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t , but t h i s was due to the s e v e r e gene r a l s h o r t a g e o f f u n d s , and not to a c o n s c i o u s l y f o r m u l a t e d c e n t r a l p o l i c y o f c l a s s pun i shment . In e a r l y September 1793, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the s a n s - c u 1 o t t e s , w e r e c l a m o u r i n g f o r i t , c l a s s punishment was not a p a r t o f the nascen t sys tem o f c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i t i c a l and economic T e r r o r . C a r t e a u x ' s 2 ,000 men were j o i n e d under T o u l o n by a 4 ,000 man u n i t from the Army o f I t a l y . The Army o f I t a l y was l e a d e r l e s s , f o r B r u n e t , i t s c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f , had been a r r e s t e d in August by Ba r r a s and F r e ron f o r hav ing shown p r o - f e d e r a l i s t l e a n i n g s and hav ing r e f u s e d to send p a r t o f h i s army a g a i n s t the T o u l o n f e d e r a l i s t s . 1 9 D e s p i t e h i s l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , Ca r t e aux was the s e n i o r o f f i c e r under T o u l o n , and was o f f i c i a l l y made head o f the new, temporary Army o f the Var on September 1 1 . 2 0 The new army was encumbered by s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s . It s u f f e r e d from s h o r t a g e s o f b r e a d , meat , f o r r a g e , c l o t h e s and ammun i t i on , and had o n l y v e r y i n s u f f i c i e n t funds to buy s u p p l i e s . I ts e f f e c t i v e s t r e n g t h was about s i x thousand men; thus i t was o r i g i n a l l y i n f e r i o r in number to the a l l i e d B r i t i s h - S p a n i s h f o r c e h o l d i n g T o u l o n . U n t i l m i l i t a r y l e v i e s in the s o u t h e a s t began to p r o v i d e r e c r u i t s l a t e in September , an e f f e c t i v e s i e g e o f T o u l o n c o u l d not even be ^ . c o n s i d e r e d . 2 1 The Commit tee o f P u b l i c S a f e t y was v e r y conce rned about the s i t u a t i o n in T o u l o n . A f t e r a number o f s topgap measu re s , in November 1793 i t o r d e r e d a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n r e g i o n to c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s on the r e-conques t o f T o u l o n . . 2 2 But t h i s o r d e r l e f t the way open f o r p e r s o n a l j e a l o u s i e s and c o n f l i c t s between too many r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s cha rged w i t h the same t a s k . IV A f t e r the end o f September 1793, none o f the numerous r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s t a t i o n e d in the s o u t h e a s t were p r i m a r i l y conce rned w i t h a f f a i r s in M a r s e i l l e s , s i n c e they were more u r g e n t l y needed a t the s i e g e o f T o u l o n o r to o v e r s e a a rmies and the procurement o f food s u p p l i e s . The l i o n ' s sha re o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and j u d i c i a l work in M a r s e i l l e s , i n c l u d i n g the punishment o f c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s and f e d e r a l i s t s , thus f e l l t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , so t h a t in e f f e c t M a r s e i l l e s was under loca i l and not n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l . The C r i m i n a l T r i b u n a l o f the Department o f the Bouches-du-Rhone, renamed the M a r s e i l l e s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l in the autumn o f 1 7 9 3 , was the j u d i c i a l o rgan wh ich p r o s e c u t e d p o l i t i c a l s u s p e c t s in M a r s e i l l e s in the autumn o f 1 7 9 3 - In a d d i t i o n to p r e s i d e n t M a i l l e t J r . and p r o s e c u t o r G i r aud i t c o n s i s t e d o f s i x j udges and a c l e r k ( g r e f f i e r ) . 2 3 The M a r s e i l l e s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l was " r e v o l u t i o n a r y " in tha t f o l l o w i n g l a t e August 1 7 9 3 i t f u n c t i o n e d w i t h o u t j u r i e s , j udged w i t h o u t a p p e a l , and i t s s en t ences were c a r r i e d out at the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e s p e e d . 2 4 Gree r does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p e r i o d s o f a c t i v i t y o f the M a r s e i l l e s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l and thus does not t ake i n t o a c coun t the changed p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s between the autumn o f 1 7 9 3 ( the f i r s t p e r i o d o f the T r i b u n a l ' s a c t i v i t y ) and M a r c h - A p r i l 1 7 9 4 ( the second p e r i o d d f the T r i b u n a l ' s a c t i v i t y ) . C o n s i d e r i n g t hese two p e r i o d s o f the T r i b u n a l ' s a c t i v i t y s e p a r a t e l y s h o u l d shed l i g h t on the d i f f e r e n c e s in a t t i t u d e s and approaches to r e v o l u t i o n a r y j u s t i c e by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s Ba r r a s and r ' F r e rdn , on m i s s i o n in M a r s e i l l e s d u r i n g the f i r s t p e r i o d , and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e M a i g n e t , on m i s s i o n in M a r s e i l l e s d u r i n g the s e c o n d . G ree r e v i d e n t l y d i d not possess s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to a n a l y s e the o c c u p a t i o n a l ( s o c i a l ) i n c i d e n c e o f the T e r r o r in M a r s e i l l e s ; but by u s i n g a l i s t o f v i c t i m s p r o v i d e d by G a f f a r e l I can a t tempt to do t h i s Us ing G a f f a r e l ' s l i s t I can a l s o a t tempt to a n a l y s e the s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c h a r g e s on the bases o f wh i ch the accused were condemned to dea th (see the Append ix p . 2 2 . 0 f o r methodo logy o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ) . A c c o r d i n g to G ree r the M a r s e i l l e s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l passed 1 8 6 dea th s en t ences between August 1 7 9 3 and A p r i l 1 7 9 4 . 2 5 U s i ng IZI I CATEGORIES C H A f c O E S ON THE B A S E S OF W H I C H T H E ACCVS£X> W E R E CONVICTED CONDEMNATIONS ?ER OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORY PERCENTAGE OF CONJUNCTIONS PER OCCt)PATIC^/?t C A T E G O R Y texa .t>DitJ6 N.O.S.G CN OTtfER) LPAt>ERSHIJ> OF FEDERALIST J O W E S itf MARSEILLES MlhlOR B U T SPECIFIC FEDERALIST ACTIVITY l»l MARSEILLES G E N E R A L CUHSpECIFIEJ*) FEDERALIST OR COUKTeRREV. ACTIVITY OR SENTIMENTS 1KI MARSEILLES FEDERALIST OK COWsJTERREV. ACTIVITY OR SEMTIMEK/TS OOTSlpE MARSEILLES OTHER i 1 5 7 8 . 3 PEASANT i 1 1 3 3 . G BOURGEOIS APMJhi&TR. 3 / 1 3 8 3 . 5 PKOPESSIPM- 2 . 5 5 3 1 5 I T 9 CONWflMAL 7 2 . 1 2L /£> 19-1 wope*Tv HOLPCR 1 5 2 1 9 IO-7 TOTAL BOURGEOIS 13 12. 12 5 7 . 2 5 1 7 . 2 . ARTISAN \mm\M I 1 1.2 5 5 * H Z 3 2 2 . 6 N - O X G . EL O T H E R 3 Z H G 15* T O T A L 2 9 2 / ZZ 1 9 6 Table 1 . Occupational Distribution of Death Sentences, and Distribution According to the Charges on the Bases of which the Accused were Convicted. Marseilles (Mai11et-Giraud) Revo 1utionary Tribuna 1 August 1793- January 1 7 9 4 . i n f o r m a t i o n from G a f f a r e l I have a s c e r t a i n e d the names o f 1 9 5 v i c t i m s . Of t h e s e , 99 o r about o n e - h a l f were c o n v i c t e d between l a t e August and December 1 7 9 3 , b e f o r e the R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l s topped f u n c t i o n i n g on B a r r a s ' and F r e r o n ' s s o r d e r s . 2 6 The o c c u p a t i o n a l i n c i d e n c e o f dea th sen tences and the d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the cha rges on the b a s i s o f wh ich the a c cused were c o n v i c t e d a r e t a b u l a t e d in T a b l e 1 . T a b l e 1 r e v e a l s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t m a j o r i t y ( 57% ) o f the condemned whose o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c o u l d be de t e rm ined were b o u r g e o i s , and t h a t among the b o u r g e o i s v i c t i m s the commerc ia l and p r o f e s s i o n a l b o u r g e o i s p r e d o m i n a t e d . In f a c t , t he se two s u b c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n c l o s e to k0% o f a l l the v i c t i m s whose o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . T a b l e 1 a l s o shows t h a t the most common cha rge on the b a s i s o f wh ich the a ccused were c o n v i c t e d was the s e r i o u s cha rge o f l e a d e r s h i p o f f e d e r a l i s t b o d i e s in M a r s e i l l e s . The two o c c u p a t i o n a l g roups which s t and ou t in hav ing had a l a r g e number o f the condemned from t h e i r ranks cha rged w i t h be i ng M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s were the commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s and the o f f i c e r s ( m i l i t a r y o r n a v a l ) . The condemned f rom the p r o f e s s i o n a l bourgeo and b o u r g e o i s p r o p e r t y h o l d e r groups were m a i n l y cha rged e i t h e r w i t h minor f e d e r a l i s t o r c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y in M a r s e i l l e s , o r w i t h g e n e r a l ( u n s p e c i f i e d ) f e d e r a l i s t o r c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i v i t y o r s e n t i m e n t s in M a r s e i l l e s . On ly a v e r y sma l l number o f condemned f rom these two groups ( t h r ee i n d i v i d u a l s ) were c o n v i c t e d on the more s e r i o u s cha rge o f f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p in M a r s e i l l e s . The c a t e g o r y o f p r i e s t i s r emarkab le s i n c e o f the few p r i e s t s condemned (seven i n d i v i d u a l s ) f i v e were c o n v i c t e d f o r c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r f e d e r a l i s t a c t i v i t y o r s en t imen t s o u t s i d e M a r s e i 1 1 e s . A number o f c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn on the b a s i s o f T a b l e 1. The predominance o f b o u r g e o i s o c c u p a t i o n s among the v i c t i m s s u g g e s t s t ha t the 123 M a r s e i l l e s b o u r g e o i s were e s p e c i a l l y numerous among the opponents o f J a c o b i n i s m and the s u p p o r t e r s o f f e d e r a l i s m . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the r e l a t i v e l y h i gh number o f commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s execu ted as f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r p r o o f f o r the h y p o t h e s i s , p r e s e n t e d in Chap t e r s 3 and k, t h a t p o l i t i c a l and economic deve lopments d u r i n g 1 7 9 2 - 9 3 pushed the M a r s e i l l e s commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s i e towards an a n t i - J a c o b i n , a n t i - c e n t r a 1 i s t , f e d e r a l i s t p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . The f a c t t ha t a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the condemned b e l o n g i n g to the p r o f e s s i o n a l and p r o p e r t y h o l d e r b o u r g e o i s c a t e g o r i e s were c o n v i c t e d on the b a s i s o f minor c h a r g e s , and o n l y an i n s i g n i f i c a n t number on the b a s i s o f the major cha rge o f f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p , p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r p r o o f t ha t the commerc ia l b o u r g e o i s were the c h i e f l e a d e r s o f M a r s e i l l e s f e d e r a l i s m , the o t h e r b o u r g e o i s be i ng m a i n l y f e d e r a l i s t s u p p o r t e r s and s y m p a t h i z e r s . The l a r g e number o f o f f i c e r s among the f e d e r a l i s t l e a d e r s s u g g e s t s tha t many o f f i c e r s s t a t i o n e d in M a r s e i l l e s a l s o tu rned a g a i n s t J a c o b i n i s m and assumed the l e a d e r s h i p o f the f e d e r a l i s t army. The l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f p r i e s t s cha rged w i t h c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r f e d e r a l i s t a c t i v i t y o r s en t imen t o u t s i d e M a r s e i l l e s compared w i t h the sma l l p r o p o r t i o n o f p r i e s t s charged w i t h c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r f e d e r a l i s t a c t i v i t y o r s e n t i m e n t s in M a r s e i l l e s a l l o w s us to make two h y p o t h e s e s . F i r s t , p r i e s t s in l a r g e , u r b a n , s o p h i s t i c a t e d M a r s e i l l e s were p r o b a b l y too u n i n f 1 u e n t i a l to take an a c t i v e p a r t in p o l i t i c s . But s e c o n d l y , in the s m a l l e r r u r a l communes o f the c o u n t r y s i d e o f Lower P rovence they were e v i d e n t l y s t i l l l e a d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and many o f them assumed an a n t i - J a c o b i n , f e d e r a l i s t o r c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . In summary, T a b l e 1 demons t r a t e s t ha t in p u n i s h i n g the p o l i t i c a l opponents o f the r e v o l u t i o n a r y reg ime d u r i n g the autumn o f 1 7 9 3 , the M a r s e i l l e s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l h e a v i l y pun i shed the c i t y ' s b o u r g e o i s i e w h i c h i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d had assumed a m i l i t a n t l y a n t i - J a c o b i n p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . W h i l e the R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l ' s a c t i v i t y was r a p i d , and i n about 70% o f the cases i n which g u i l t y v e r d i c t s were handed down the p e n a l t y was d e a t h , more than h a l f o f the accused were a c q u i t t e d , and each c a s e was ju d g e d i n d i v i d u a l l y ( t h e r e were no mass c o n d e m n a t i o n s ) . Thus, d u r i n g the autumn o f 1793 t h e M a r s e i l l e s R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l appears g e n e r a l l y t o have judged on a f a i r and r a t i o n a l b a s i s . 2 7 M i l i t a r y u n i t s r e c r u i t e d i n s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s o f M a r s e i l l e s p r o v i d e d armed s u p p o r t f o r t h e V i g i l a n c e Committee i n r o u n d i n g up s u s p e c t s f o r the R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n w i t h C a r t e a u x ' s army a gendarmerie n a t i o n a l e ( n a t i o n a l p o l i c e ) was o r g a n i z e d i n M a r s e i l l e s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the r e c o n q u e s t o f the c i t y . 2 8 T h i s g e n d a r m e r i e n a t i o n a l e was not mentioned a g a i n i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' r e p o r t s . Cobb, who has made a thorough s e a r c h f o r p o p u l a r armed f o r c e s i n the M i d i d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f the T e r r o r , does not mention them e i t h e r . But the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n f i r m e d t h a t a f t e r t h e g e n e r a l d i s -armament o f M a r s e i l l e s i n l a t e August o n l y t h e l o y a l s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s remained armed, and Cobb d e s c r i b e s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e i n M a r s e i l l e s c a l l e d the b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s , w h i c h was p r i m a r i l y "employe pour p r o t e g e r l e desarmement e t 1 ' a r r e s t a t i o n des gens s u s p e c t s dans l e t e r r o i r de M a r s e i l l e s . . . ." 2 9 A secondary d u t y o f the s a n s - c u l o t t e b a t a l l i o n was t o p o l i c e M a r s e i l l e s ; f o r example, on Oc t o b e r 6 t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r d e r e d i t t o s u p p r e s s gangs o f j u v e n i l e s who were d i s t u r b i n g t h e p e a c e . 3 0 Based on the above i n f o r m a t i o n i t seems s a f e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t the g e n d a r m e r i e n a t i o n a l e e i t h e r merged w i t h t h e b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s o r was renamed and became the b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s . The name o f t h e b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s g i v e s a c l u e t o i t s s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n s most o f i t s s o l d i e r s were poor l o c a l s a n s - c u l o t t e s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by a number o f f a c t s : the b a t a ? 1 1 on's commander-in-chief and f o u r o f f i c e r s whose names a r e known a l l stemmed from M a r s e i l l e s and none o f them were p r o f e s s i o n a l s o l d i e r s ; M a r s e i l l e s was d i s a r m e d i n l a t e August e x c e p t f o r the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s ; and on September 7, t h e department o f t h e Bouches-du-Rhone f i x e d t h e d a i l y pay o f a v o l u n t e e r i n t h e b a t a l l i o n a t 2 l i v r e s , and t h e p r o s p e c t o f a w e l l - p a i d j o b l i k e l y a t t r a c t e d many poor men i n t o the b a t a l l i o n . S i n c e the department passed t h e d e c r e e on the s a n s - c u l o t t e s o l d i e r s ' pay, t h e b a t a l l i o n ' wages were presumably p a i d by t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s and hence t h e b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s was p r o b a b l y under the d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the d e p a r t m e n t . 3 1 The work o f t h e b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s was c o n d u c t e d i n s i d e t h e c i t y o f M a r s e i l l e s and c o n s i s t e d o f p o l i t i c a l o r p o l i c e d u t i e s ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e M a r s e i l l e s r e v o l u t i o n a r y army d i f f e r e d s h a r p l y from most o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a r m i e s , whose work to o k p l a c e c h i e f l y i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , and was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y economic, aimed a t p r o v i s i o n i n g t h e urban a r e a s o f F r a n c e . As mentioned i n Chapifcet IV, i n June 1793 t h e p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s o f t h e M i d i formed a c o n g r e s s i n V a l e n c e t o f i g h t f e d e r a l i s m and t h i s c o n g r e s s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a i d e d t h e r e p u b l i c ' s army t o d e f e a t f e d e r a l i s m i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n r e g i o n . 3 2 In the f i r s t days o f September, t h i s c o n g r e s s , w h i c h had become i n a c t i v e as the danger o f f e d e r a l i s t c o n q u e s t r e c e d e d , was a g a i n r e a c t i v a t e d . The c h i e f reason f o r i t s r e a c t i v a t i o n was the new extreme danger from T o u l o n . In o r d e r t o get as c l o s e t o t h e danger a r e a as was g e o g r a p h i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , t h e Congress f i r s t moved i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s t o A v i g n o n , and thence on October 3 t o M a r s e i l l e s . 3 3 The V a l e n c e Congress d e c i d e d t o r a i s e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y army, t h e Leg i o n  de l a Montagne, whose h e a d q u a r t e r s moved to M a r s e i l l e s w i t h the C o n g r e s s . V 126 U n l i k e the M a r s e i l l e s b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s , the L e g i o n de l a Montagne had p r e t e n s i o n s o f be ing a n a t i o n a l f o r c e . It was e s t a b l i s h e d as a " f i l l e des s o c i e t e s p o p u l a i r e s " , meaning a l l p o p u l a r s o c i e t i e s o f the r e p u b l i c . T h e r e were a p p e a l s f o r men f o r t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y army in p l a c e s as f a r removed from the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t as L i l l e and G r e n o b l e . The c h a r a c t e r o f the L e g i o n de l a Montagne was indeed c o s m o p o l i t a n : i t s c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f , a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o l d i e r , stemmed from Savoy , w h i l e i t s second in command and a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s membership came f rom the depar tments o f Drome and A r d e c h e . In t h i s r e s p e c t the L e g i o n de l a Montagne resembled i t s o r i g i n a t o r , the M a r s e i l l e s Congress o f P o p u l a r S o c i e t i e s . A l t h o u g h the L e g i o n de l a Montagne ' s h e a d q u a r t e r s remained in M a r s e i l l e s , under the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f the C o n g r e s s , i t s t r o o p s d e p a r t e d f o r the s i e g e o f T o u l o n as soon as they were r a i s e d . 3 4 P a r t l y because i t was a c e n t e r o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y s e n t i m e n t , but more i m p o r t a n t l y because i t r a i s e d s o r e l y needed t r o o p s f o r the s i e g e o f T o u l o n , the M a r s e i l l e s Congress o f Popu l a r S o c i e t i e s was c o n s i d e r e d by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n to be a most u s e f u l r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r g a n ; Pomme, S e r v i e r e and C h a r b o n n i e r e o r d e r e d t h a t each deputy to the Congress be pa id a s a l a r y o f 10 f r a n c s per d a y . 3 5 Thus the l o c a l c e n t e r s o f power in M a r s e i l l e s in the autumn o f 1 7 9 3 were the m u n i c i p a l d i r e c t o r y o f M a r s e i l l e s , the depa r tmen ta l d i r e c t o r y o f the Bouches-du-Rhone, the V i g i l a n c e Commi t tee , the R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r ibuna l , a f c f c i e tRopu la r S o c i e t y and the Congress o f P o p u l a r S o c i e t i e s o f the M id i in permanent s e s s i o n a t M a r s e i l l e s . Of these b o d i e s the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y appea rs to have been the most f a v o u r a b l y p l a c e d to ho ld the c e n t r a l power p o s i t i o n in the c i t y : i t s p r e s i d e n t , M a i l l e t J r . , was a l s o the p r e s i d e n t o f the R e v o l u t i o n a r y T r i b u n a l , and the c h i e f l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were g e n e r a l l y a l s o l e a d i n g members o f the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y . As the h o s t , the M a r s e i l l e s P o p u l a r S o c i e t y e x e r c i s e d a d o m i n a t i n g i n f l u e n c e ove r the d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f the Congress o f P o p u l a r S o c i e t i e s , and th rough i s s u i n g the c e r t i f i c a t s de c i v i s m e the P o p u l a r S o c i e t y had a s t r o n g check over the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . But in two r e s p e c t s the Popu l a r S o c i e t y ' s power p o s i t i o n was i n s e c u r e : the b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s , the o n l y l o c a l armed f o r c e , was under the c o n t r o l o f the depa r tmen ta l d i r e c t o r y , and the growth o f c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y i n e v i t a b l y tended to undermine a l l l o c a l c e n t r e s o f power. V How were the J a c o b i n s o f M a r s e i l l e s a b l e to c o n t r o l s a n s - c u l o t t e e n e r g i e s in the autumn o f 1793? Tha t the f e d e r a l i s t s had execu ted a l l s a n s - c u l o t t e l e a d e r s who gave d i r e c t i o n to the c rowds ' anger in 1792-93 o f f e r s a t e n t a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e l a t i v e ca lm in the s a n s - c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s . But the s a n s - c u l o t t e crowds d i d not a lways r e q u i r e l e a d e r s h i p . When the e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i were p r e s e n t the crowds c r e a t e d t h e i r l e a d e r s on the spur o f the moment. T h i s u n d o u b t e d l y took p l a c e in the M a r s e i l l e s r i o t s o f 1789 and 1790, when the p o p u l a r l e a d e r s h i p remained f a c e l e s s and n a m e l e s s . Even in J u l y 1792 a g i t a t i o n by a few l e a d e r s would o b v i o u s l y have been i nadequa t e to keep the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s in a s t a t e o f e x c i t e m e n t f o r two weeks had they not been p repa red f o r r i o t i n g by the c o n j u n c t i o n o f e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l and economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The sans- c u l o t t e s e c t i o n s ' r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the f e d e r a l i s t s ' s l i d e i n t o t r e a s o n p r o v i d e s the f i n a l p r o o f t h a t they were a b l e to a c t d e c i s i v e l y even w i t h o u t t h e i r o l d l e a d e r s h i p when c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e q u i r e d . A much w e i g h t i e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the M a r s e i l l e s s a n s - c u l o t t e s ' ca lm is t h a t they were f i r s t coop ted by and then in p a r t b rought under the 128 d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f M a r s e i l l e s ' J a c o b i n l e a d e r s h i p . S e r v i c e in the b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s p r o v i d e d a s e c u r e l i v e l i h o o d f o r a l a r g e r number o f poor s a n s - c u l o t t e s and p l a c e d them under the s u r v e i l l a n c e o f J a c o b i n a u t h o r i t i e s . A l s o , f rom the end o f September the a t e l i e r s o f M a r s e i l l e s began to work to p roduce war m a t e r i a l f o r the a rmies o f the M i d i , p r o v i d i n g work f o r an a d d i t i o n a l number o f s a n s - c u l o t t e s , so r e d u c i n g economic h a r d s h i p and c o n s e q u e n t l y the r e a d i n e s s o f the c i t y ' s poor f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n in the s t r e e t s . 3 6 On ly thus can i t be e x p l a i n e d tha t d e s p i t e the M a r s e i l l e s haute b o u r g e o i s i e ' s f e a r s , the p e r i o d between l a t e August and e a r l y December 1793 was r e l a t i v e l y p e a c e f u l , the punishment o f f e d e r a l i s t s arid c o u n t e r -r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s p roceeded in an o r d e r l y manner, w i t h o u t a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e o f s a n s - c u l o t t e r i o t i n g . I r o n i c a l l y , the b a t a i l l o n des s a n s - c u l o t t e s became such a t r u s t w o r t h y p i l l a r o f law and o r d e r tha t i t was used to c o n t a i n o c c a s i o n a l o u t b r e a k s o f h o o l i g a n i s m . To a v e r t s a n s - c u l o t t e u n r e s t in M a r s e i l l e s i t was not enough t o p r o v i d e the lower c l a s s e s w i t h a s t eady s o u r c e o f income, i t was o f the h i g h e s t impor tance t h a t the c i t y a l s o be p r o v i s i o n e d w i t h a s t e ady f l o w o f f o o d , e s p e c i a l l y g r a i n s u p p l i e s . Cobb o b s e r v e s t h a t the r e g i o n between N i c e and M a r s e i l l e s was the o n l y a r e a o f F r ance where c o n s t a n t a r r i v a l o f g r a i n from Genoa p r e s e r v e d the c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n f rom f a m i n e . 3 7 C a r r i e r e ' s d e t a i l e d s tudy o f M a r s e i l l e s ' b read and f l o u r p r o v i s i o n i n g shows c o n d i t i o n s to have been worse than C o b b ' s g e n e r a l s t a tement s u g g e s t s : at t imes d u r i n g the autumn o f 1793 g r a i n r e s e r v e s in M a r s e i l l e s were exhaus ted and o n l y l a s t -minu te a r r i v a l s o f g r a i n sh ipments a v e r t e d hunge r , However, C a r r i e r e c o n c l u d e s tha t excep t f o r a ifiew p e r i o d s , M a r s e i l l e s was n o r m a l l y s u p p l i e d , and w h i l e the s c e p t r e o f f amine i n t e r m i t t e n t l y t h r e a t e n e d the c i t y , in the end famine was a lways a v e r t e d . Compared to the r e s t o f F r ance the M e d i t e r r a n e a n seaboard was w e l l p r o v i s i o n e d . 3 8 From the b e g i n n i n g o f the R e v o l u t i o n u n t i l the end o f the f e d e r a l i s t reg ime the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p r o v i s i o n i n g M a r s e i l l e s was in l o c a l hands , under the c o n t r o l o f the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y . U s u a l l y M a r s e i l l e s ' p r i n c i p a l g r a i n s u p p l i e r s were Nor th A f r i c a and I t a l y , but in June 1 7 9 3 the a l l i e d b l o c k a d e o f F r ance became f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l and from t h i s t ime u n t i l the end o f 1 7 9 3 no g r a i n s h i p s reached M a r s e i l l e s and the p o r t v i r t u a l l y ceased o p e r a t i o n s . 3 9 N e v e r t h e l e s s , u n t i l the end o f the f e d e r a l i s t r u l e , agents o f the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y were a b l e to pu r chase g r a i n from the p l a i n o f A r i e s and from Languedoc . T h i s g r a i n c o s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y tw i c e as much as o v e r s e a s g r a i n -- 180 1 i v r e s per cha rge f o r the fo rmer a g a i n s t 9 0 t o 100 1 i v r e s per c h a r g e f o r the l a t t e r (1 M a r s e i l l e s cha rge = 1 hO kg . ) -- but a t no t ime u n t i l the end o f August d i d g r a i n s h o r t a g e s a c t u a l i z e in M a r s e i l l e s . 4 0 With the a r r i v a l o f C a r t e a u x ' s f o r c e s in M a r s e i l l e s and the o c c u p a t i o n o f T o u l o n by the enemy, the prob lem o f M e d i t e r r a n e a n g r a i n s u p p l i e s assumed a new u r g e n c y . To the d i f f i c u l t y o f the h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e A n g l o -Span i sh M e d i t e r r a n e a n b l o c k a d e Was added the d i f f i c u l t y o f enemy-occup ied T o u l o n b l o c k i n g the major l a n d r o u t e from Genoa to M a r s e i l l e s . A l s o , the army b e s i e g i n g T o u l o n , the Army o f I t a l y , and the Army o f the E a s t e r n Pyrenees s t a t i o n e d on the Span i sh f r o n t i e r a l l had to be s u p p l i e d , in a d d i t i o n to the c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f the s o u t h . The e n t i r e q u e s t i o n of; food s u p p l i e s was r e d e f i n e d on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l by the law o f the Genera l Maximum, vo ted i n t o e f f e c t by the N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n on September k and c l a r i f i e d on September 2 9 , as a r e s u l t o f p r e s s u r e from the P a r i s s a n s - c u l o t t e s . The maximum g e n e r a l e f r o z e the p r i c e o f g r a i n and o f most o t h e r f o o d s , and a t the f r o z e n p r i c e s F rench f a rmer s were r e l u c t a n t to s e l l to the urban markets o r the a r m i e s . Thus d e s p i t e the good h a r v e s t o f 1 7 9 3 s e r i o u s food s h o r t a g e s deve l oped th roughou t F r a n c e , and o n l y th rough r e q u i s i t i o n i n g c o u l d the maximum g e n e r a l e be e n f o r c e d . The food s u p p l i e s prob lem o f P rovence was somewhat d i f f e r e n t f rom the prob lem in the r e s t o f F r a n c e . S i n c e P rovence was never s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t in c e r e a l s , r e q u i s i t i o n i n g was not in i t s e l f a r e a l i s t i c s o l u t i o n to adequa te food p r o v i s i o n i n g . The b u l k o f P r o v e n c e ' s c e r e a l s u p p l i e s had a lways come from o v e r s e a s , and w i t h t h r e e a rmies and l a r g e c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n s compet ing f o r the l i m i t e d s u p p l y o f d o m e s t i c g r a i n f rom the p l a i n o f A r i e s and Languedoc , the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t h ad , more than eve r to r e l y on f o r e i g n s u p p l i e s . But the major p r o c u r o r o f s u p p l i e s , the h igh commerc ia l c l a s s o f M a r s e i l l e s , was power l e ss to a c t s i n c e a l l s e a - r o u t e s t o M a r s e i l l e s were c u t . The M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s bureau de s u b s i s t e n c e s was r e o r g a n i z e d in l a t e A u g u s t , but i t q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d i t s own impotence : g r a i n b e l o n g i n g t o M a r s e i l l e s was w a i t i n g in Genoa and L e g h o r n , but the M a r s e i l l e s n e g o c i a n t s had no means o f t r a n s p o r t i n g i t to F r a n c e . In t h i s d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n the M a r s e i l l e s m u n i c i p a l i t y r e l i n q u i s h e d i t s ho ld ove r p r o v i s i o n i n g On September 11 the bureau de s u b s i s t e n c e s reached an agreement w i t h the Army o f I t a l y : the Army was g i v e n a l l r i g h t s to M a r s e i l l e s ' b l o ckaded g r a i n in Genoa in exchange f o r p r o v i d i n g adequa te g r a i n f o r the c i t y . Thus the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n s u r i n g M a r s e i l l e s ' p r o v i s i o n i n g d e v o l v e d on the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on m i s s i o n . 1 * 1 A l b i t t e and h i s c o l l e a g u e s rega rded the g r a i n s u p p l i e s s i t u a t i o n as v e r y s e r i o u s . In h i s r e p o r t on c o n d i t i o n s in M a r s e i l l e s in e a r l y September , A l b i t t e p o i n t e d ou t t h a t commerce had ground to a h a l t and tha t f amine was t h r e a t e n i n g . 1 * 2 In mid-September t h e r e was o n l y a ten d a y s ' s u p p l y o f g r a i n l e f t in M a r s e i l l e s , and A l b i t t e d i s p a t c h e d Pomme l ' A m e r i c a i n to A r i e s t o p r o c u r e g r a i n . 1 * 3 131 T h u s , from mid-September t h e r e were two groups o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f e e d i n g M a r s e i l l e s : R i c o r d and R o b e s p i e r r e J r . added the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s u p p l y i n g M a r s e i l l e s to t h e i r j o b o f s u p p l y i n g the Army o f I t a l y , c h i e f l y f rom a b r o a d , e s p e c i a l l y I t a l y ; and Pomme l ' A m e r i c a i n j o i n e d S e r v i e r e and C h a r b o n n i e r e in p r o c u r i n g i n l a n d g r a i n . Tha t t hese groups o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were on the whole s u c c e s s f u l i s borne but-;by the f a c t tha t the r e v o l u t i o n a r y a rm ies o f M a r s e i l l e s remained p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s and d i d not need to become urban s a n s - c u l o t t e u n i t s roaming the c o u n t r y s i d e and f o r c i n g the f a rmers o f the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n to g i v e up t h e i r g r a i n in o r d e r to feed the c i t i e s ; the l a t t e r be i ng the p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y a rm ies in a l l p a r t s o f F r ance excep t f o r the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c o a s t . I r o n i c a l l y , the s u c c e s s o f the n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s in f e e d i n g M a r s e i l l e s i n c r e a s e d the p o l i t i c a l power o f the M a r s e i l l e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s . In the f i r s t p l a c e , s i n c e the M a r s e i l l e s ba ta i1 Ion des s a n s - c u l o t t e s was not r e q u i r e d as a food r e q u i s i t i o n i n g f o r c e o u t s i d e M a r s e i l l e s , i t remained a m u n i c i p a l army under the c o n t r o l o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . S e c o n d l y , Pomme, S e r v i e r e and C h a r b o n n i e r e , away on g r a i n r e q u i s i t i o n i n g m i s s i o n s , spent too l i t t l e t ime in M a r s e i l l e s to i n f l u e n c e s t r o n g l y l o c a l p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . On September 29, Pomme and C h a r b o n n i e r d e c l a r e d M a r s e i l l e s to be in a s t a t e o f war . T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n was an economic and not a p o l i t i c a l measure , and c o n f e r r e d a f a v o u r e d s t a t u s on M a r s e i l l e s , s i m i l a r to t h a t o f P a r i s , f o r i t i m p l i e d tha t because o f i t s s i z e and s t r a t e g i c ri importance, s u p p l y i n g the M e d i t e r r a n e a n c i t y w i t h food had become a n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 4 5 A l t h o u g h the M a r s e i l l e s bureau de s u b s i s t a n c e s u r v i v e d , i t was renamed the bureau de l i q u i d a t i o n et r e p a r t i t i o n and became d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r a t h e r than to the m u n i c i p a l i t y . 4 6 Food t