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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Unionization of professional engineers McArthur, Grant Douglas 1973

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UNIONIZATION OF PROFESSIONAL  GRANT DOUGLAS McARTHUR  B. COmn. (1971) U.B.C.  A THESIS SUBMITTED P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  IN THE  DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE  WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE  REQUIRED  STANDARD  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H JUNE 29,  1973  COLUMBIA  ENGINEERS  In presenting  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference  and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or  It i s understood that copying or publication  of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada  II  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s s t u d i e s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r g r e a t e r development of unions f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers i n Canada, The a n a l y s i s of the paper  serves the purpose  or r e f l e c t i n g the i n i t i a l b e l i e f t h a t more  of s u p p o r t i n g widespread  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s i s l i k e l y f o r engineers. The method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to analyze a l l r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s through use of p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , unpublished m a t e r i a l , i n t e r v i e w s and conference data. The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t g r e a t e r involvement i n union a c t i v i t i e s are l i k e l y .  Throughout the paper i t  i s c l e a r t h a t f a c t o r s which i n h i b i t union f o r m a t i o n are becoming l e s s p r e v a l e n t i n Canada while the need f o r e n g i n e e r i n g unions i s growing,  A new  type of  "professional'  u n i o n " i s then d i s c u s s e d w i t h o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n the areas of union f u n c t i o n s , p r o c e d u r a l d e t a i l s , union and the company s i d e of u n i o n i z a t i o n .  Thesis Supervisor  0 00  structure  III.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter One  Introduction  p.  1.  Chapter Two  P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers i n the Canadian I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s System  p.  12,  Nature of O r g a n i z a t i o n and Organizing  p.  30.  Formation of E n g i n e e r i n g Unions  p.  56.  Chapter F i v e  L e g a l Aspects  p.  72.  Chapter S i x  S o c i a l Aspects  p.  92,  Chapter Seven  Forces I n h i b i t i n g U n i o n i z a t i o n  p.  109,  Chapter E i g h t  C o n c l u s i o n s and I n s i g h t s Bibliography  p. p.  121. 151•  Chapter Three Chapter Four  S p e c i f i c F o r c e s Conducive  to  IV.  LIST OF TABLES I. II.  III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.  IX. X. XI.  OVERALL FORCES ACTING ON ENGINEERS  p. 10  AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS AND TEACHERS  p.25  WORK FORCE GROWTH  p.40  WHITE COLLAR WORKERS  p.41  GROWTH OF ENGINEERS  p.42  TELESCOPING OF WAGES  p.69  SALARIES OF FEDERAL ENGINEERS  P. 87  ILLNESS BENEFITS OF FEDERAL ENGINEERS  p. 87  HIGHLIGHTS OF 1970 AGREEMENT  p.88  MONETARY TERMS OF CURRENT AGREEMENT  p. 89  A COMPARISON OF LOCAL AND COSMOPOLITAN  IDEALS  P.99  v.  LIST OF FIGURES I.  II, III.  A SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SYSTEM  p. 2  THE STRAUSS MODEL OF WORK ROLES  p. 13  A DIAGRAM SHOWING THE MOST LIKELY AREAS FOR UNIONIZED VS. NON-UNIONIZED WORKERS IN THE  IV. V. VI.  STRAUSS MODEL  p. 15  DISPERSION OF ENGINEER WORK ROLES  p 17 0  GREATER STRESS ON WORKER ROLE  p.18  CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS GOALS  p.6l  VI.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e to o f f e r my s i n c e r e thanks to Dr. G, Walter f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e operation  time and e f f o r t .  The c o -  o f the B. C. A s s o c i a t i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l  Engineers i s a l s o much  appreciated.  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  T h i s paper i s a systems a n a l y s i s  of the  possibilities  of widespread u n i o n i z a t i o n of Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l The t h e s i s of the paper i s engineers for  t h a t Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l  s h a l l organize to a wider extent  the purpose of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  analysis  of the environmental f a c t o r s ,  i n t e r a c t i o n processes and r e s u l t s  future  A thorough of  interest,  produces the c o n c l u s i o n probable i n  The C r a i g - D u n l o p model of the Canadian i n d u s t r i a l  relations analysis  i n the  parties  t h a t development of e n g i n e e r i n g unions i s Canada.  engineers.  system p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t b a s i s f o r because the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of the f a c t o r s  detailed studied  are more e a s i l y understood through use of t h i s model. F i g u r e One i s  the C r a i g - D u n l o p model which a l s o served  as  a b a s i s f o r the task f o r c e study i n t o Canadian i n d u s t r i a l relations.  -2-  A-SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SYSTEM Environmental Factors E c o l o g i c a l System  P a r t i e s of Interest Enterprises  Economic System  Employee Organizations  Political  v^;a Interaction '£%ik. Processes The Labour Market  "DependentContractor" Organizations  System  . P £ U *  York Stoppages  Personnel Administration  and/or  Social & Cultural System  Employer Organizations  Constitutional Systems  Legal Counsel & Consultants  Collective Bargaining  lovernment  Labour Standards Legislation  e-i  Terms and  Conditions of Work  The P u b l i c Interest  Legal  System  Basic  • flow of i n f l u e n c e  '•Feedback * « FIGURE ONE  The chapters are arranged  Results  1  Reverse  L  flow of  influence  to enhance d i s c u s s i o n  in  a systems manner and by r e f e r r i n g back to the Dunlop Model i t  is  p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r which elements  environmental f a c t o r s , processes,  or r e s u l t s .  p a r t i e s of i n t e r e s t ,  are  interaction  C o n c l u s i o n s of the paper  p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n to the body of the because a f i n a l chapter must p r e d i c t the e f f e c t s findings.  If  professional  engineers  should paper of  the  do form unions on a  wider s c a l e then some aspects of these unions may w e l l be different procedures A.  from b l u e - c o l l a r unions such as of p r o f e s s i o n a l  the form and  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  units.  Justification R a t i o n a l e f o r s t u d y i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n of Canadian  -3-  professional  engineers  i s based on growing numbers and  i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e of engineers colleagues.  and t h e i r  Walton (1961) j u s t i f i e s  w i t h the f o l l o w i n g l o g i c ,  professional  a study of t h i s  "The s i z e and growth of  nature  the  e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c a l segment of the work f o r c e g i v e s student of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s s t u d y i n g the experiences these employees.  sufficient  reason  for  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g among  Even g r e a t e r  s i g n i f i c a n c e may be  to a study of the e n g i n e e r i n g group when one i t as a p a r t of the w h i t e - c o l l a r area t e c h n i c a l workers, managers, c l e r i c a l and s a l e s workers)  attached  considers  (professional  officials  and  and p r o p r i e t o r s ,  s i n c e t h a t a r e a now exceeds  i n number the b l u e - c o l l a r a r e a . " states,  the  Strauss  further  (I963)  "Under a system of l a r g e - s c a l e commercial and  i n d u s t r i a l organizations  a l l those who occupy important  p o s i t i o n s w i l l g r a d u a l l y come w i t h i n  professional  a s s o c i a t i o n s or at l e a s t under t h e i r i n f l u e n c e . " 2 These arguments f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o u n i o n i z a t i o n of professional present  time.  engineers  are a p p r o p r i a t e  I n c r e a s i n g acceptance  i n g by the e n g i n e e r i n g f a c e t  i n Canada a t  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n -  of the w h i t e - c o l l a r  may r e f l e c t upon trends f o r o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s as changing a t t i t u d e s  the  sector as  well  on b e h a l f of s o c i e t y as a whole.  Engineers and p r o f e s s i o n a l  colleagues  are unique however  i n t h a t they are i n c r e a s i n g i n numbers and i n f l u e n c e more q u i c k l y than other work groups,  as  evidence i n l a t e r  chapters  clearly illustrates.  the main focus professionals  E n g i n e e r i n g unions  of t h i s paper but a p p l i c a t i o n s  constitute  to other  and s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l are noted i n the  discussion. B.  Goal One g o a l of t h i s paper i s  ities  to i n d i c a t e future  f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n by s t u d y i n g v a r i o u s f a c t o r s  t h e i r degrees of i n f l u e n c e on p r o f e s s i o n a l Probable f u t u r e calculated after  possibiland  engineers.  outcomes f o r e n g i n e e r i n g unionism must be exposure  to o p i n i o n s and f a c t s from both  s i d e s of the argument.  C o n c l u s i o n s of the paper a l s o  a f u r t h e r g o a l which i s  to present  set  a d e t a i l e d treatment of  how an e n g i n e e r i n g union would f u n c t i o n and what i s s u e s i t would l i k e l y be concerned w i t h 0  Methods of r e a c h i n g  t h i s end i n c l u d e a review of the l i t e r a t u r e which addressed  to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n many p e r i o d i c a l s ,  and books combined with u n w r i t t e n s o u r c e s , i n t e r v i e w s and conferences,  experience and l i t e r a t u r e conditions,  United States  i s v a l u a b l e because some  s i m i l a r to those e x i s t i n g i n Canada today  f o r engineers  engineers  such as  to formulate c o n c l u s i o n s with  the g r e a t e s t amount of i n p u t p o s s i b l e .  existed  is  i n the U . S . many years  ago,  and the  of the two c o u n t r i e s are of an a p p a r e n t l y  s i m i l a r nature.  The p l a n of the paper i s  intended to a i d  i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g a thorough treatment of the s u b j e c t by o r g a n i z i n g m a t e r i a l i n a l o g i c a l manner f o r  analysis.  -5-  C„  Plan of the Paper The l a y o u t of the paper i s  planned to enhance  d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o b a b i l i t y of widespread u n i o n i z a t i o n of Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l developments,  engineers.  the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n ,  T o p i c s i n c l u d e past attitudes  of  and f i n a l l y p r e d i c t i o n s and suggestions f o r the Relevant l a b o u r s t a t u t e s , influences,  as w e l l as  future.  the nature of e n g i n e e r s ,  factors  behavioural  f a v o u r i n g and opposing  o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g are a l l in deiail.  engineers,  discussed  Chapters have been arranged so t h a t  earlier  segments of the study b u i l d a f o u n d a t i o n f o r deeper i n l a t e r chapters. is  A b r i e f overview of the e n t i r e  analysis paper  i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the i n t r o d u c t i o n to i l l u s t r a t e  factors  which oppose change,  possibilities. of arguments section is  or enhance u n i o n i z a t i o n  There i s no d i s c u s s i o n of r e l a t i v e  at t h i s p o i n t because the s p e c i f i c  merits  aim of the  to i n t r o d u c e a l l the r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s  w i t h i n the realm of t h i s  all  which are  study.  Chapter Two deals with e n g i n e e r s '  work r o l e s  along  w i t h the nature of p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers.  chapter o f f e r s  p o i n t to s t a r t u n d e r s t a n d i n g  values  a good r e f e r e n c e  and needs of engineers  the term " e n g i n e e r . " illustrates  work r o l e s  understand e n g i n e e r s '  as w e l l as  the c o m p l e x i t y of  George S t r a u s s o f f e r s of engineers duties  This b u i l d i n g  a model which  to h e l p the  reader  i n organizations.  Movements  i n e n g i n e e r i n g work r o l e s may s t r e s s d i f f e r e n t  components  -6-  o f e n g i n e e r i n g s k i l l s and each a l t e r a t i o n of the work r o l e has d i f f e r e n t p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s on u n i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s , S t r a u s s ' model i s u s e f u l throughout the paper t o i l l u s t r a t e how  such f a c t o r s as b u r e a u c r a c y o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  treatment  a f f e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n of e n g i n e e r s . Needs, v a l u e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s a r e a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a t a v e r y e a r l y stage t o provide i n s i g h t i n t o engineers' behaviour.  While  these  needs and v a l u e s are d e a l t w i t h i n d e t a i l i n the s o c i a l c h a p t e r , t h e y must be c o n s i d e r e d a t an e a r l i e r time because they i n f l u e n c e engineers' a t t i t u d e s at a l l times.  Teachers  a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r two because t h e y a r e the c l o s e s t comparison  group t o e n g i n e e r s i n terms of p a s t  e x p e r i e n c e and p r e s e n t s t a t u s , t h e r e f o r e t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a v a l u a b l e r e f e r e n c e group f o r l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n . O r g a n i z i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e n g i n e e r s i s the s u b j e c t o f the n e x t s e c t i o n .  Reasons f o r u n i o n growth i n g e n e r a l ,  i n c l u d i n g economic, p o l i t i c a l ,  industrial relations,  s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s are presented.  and  A f t e r a macro=view of  u n i o n growth has been f u l l y e x p l a i n e d , the f o c u s moves t o reasons f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n growth.  Bain contributes  t o i s s u e s such as t r a d e u n i o n a s p e c t s , r e c o g n i t i o n by employers, p u b l i c p o l i c y and a s p e c t s of the work s i t u a t i o n t o i n t r o d u c e d i s c u s s i o n on w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n i s m .  Following  reasons f o r u n i o n growth, a c t u a l growth f i g u r e s c o n c e r n i n g the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e , w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s ,  professionals,  -7-  and  engineers are presented.  These f i g u r e s i l l u s t r a t e  the  g r e a t p o t e n t i a l w h i t e - c o l l a r a r e a which i s a v a i l a b l e f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n i f the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f o r c e s f o r union development are f a v o u r a b l e . A c t i v i t i e s , goals and i n f l u e n c e of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s are e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n the development of e n g i n e e r i n g unions.  Past p r a c t i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s  of  engineers* a s s o c i a t i o n s are presented i n c o n j u n c t i o n with s p e c i f i c type of a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada.  I f widespread  o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g were to occur, r o l e of a s s o c i a t i o n s may t h e i r importance.  the  a l t e r d r a s t i c a l l y and so might  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i f separate  bodies are formed f o r the purpose of c o l l e c t i v e bargaining,, S p e c i f i c reasons  f o r growth and v i a b i l i t y of  unions m e r i t a separate chapter.  engineers'  T h i s chapter delves with  great d e t a i l i n t o the arguments which f a v o u r u n i o n i z a t i o n of engineers.  S a l a r i e s , the l a b o u r market, the trade  union movement, a t t i t u d e s toward unionism, treatment  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  are a few elements which have p o s i t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s  for c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  Sources and  impact  of f o r c e s  which encourage union f o r m a t i o n are expanded upon i n t h i s s e c t i o n to analyze how engineers'  great the e f f e c t s s h a l l be  on  behaviour.  Labour law has played a major r o l e c o n c e r n i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers i n Canada.  Labour s t a t u t e s serve  -8-  as a v e h i c l e to i l l u s t r a t e the dogmatic stands o f most e n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the past to r e j e c t bargaining.  collective  U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y there were v e r y few  p r o v i n c e s where engineers were allowed t o b a r g a i n  legally  but due t o changes i t i s now p o s s i b l e f o r engineers i n Saskatchewan, Manitoba, O n t a r i o , New Brunswick, and Quebec (as w e l l as f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v a n t s ) to form bargaining units.  certified  Development and use of i n f o r m a l b a r g a i n i n g  i s the o n l y s t r a t e g y a v a i l a b l e i n other p r o v i n c e s , t h e r e f o r e labour s t a t u t e s e f f e c t i v e l y prevent a nation-wide towards u n i o n i z a t i o n .  movement  F e d e r a l l a b o u r law of 1947-48 served  as a model f o r p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r a c t s and the h i s t o r y of t h i s law i s t r a c e d i n the c h a p t e r .  Of course, Labour  R e l a t i o n s Boards are a l s o important  i n f l u e n c e s on any  u n i o n i z a t i o n attempt because o f t h e i r r o l e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the law and the use o f past p r a c t i c e to h e l p determine which u n i t s w i l l be l e g a l l y c e r t i f i e d .  Thus the boards  a l s o w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter F i v e , Chapter  S i x explores a wide range o f s o c i a l i s s u e s  concerning u n i o n i z a t i o n .  S p e c i f i c needs and v a l u e s of  engineers a i d i n determining t a r g e t s which unions must satisfy.  The b a s i c v a l u e system of e n g i n e e r s ' i s c r i t i c a l  to o r g a n i z a t i o n because u n i o n i z a t i o n can o n l y be s u c c e s s f u l if  these v a l u e s and needs are g i v e n top p r i o r i t y .  Conversion  of p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s i n t o a c t i o n i s r e l e v a n t f o r union  -9-  o r g a n i z e r s as w e l l as company r e c r u i t e r s .  Environmental  f a c t o r s and s p e c i f i c elements i n e n g i n e e r s *  backgrounds  may a f f e c t the a t t i t u d e s and f u t u r e b e h a v i o u r engineers  toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  I n f l u e n c e o f group  s i z e i s an a p p r o p r i a t e i s s u e f o r e n g i n e e r s  because o f the  s h i f t i n t h e i r employment t o l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f group s i z e a r e t h e r e f o r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n this section. P r e s s u r e s which i n h i b i t u n i o n f o r m a t i o n a r e i n c l u d e d i n Chapter Seven f o r a n a l y s i s i n d e t a i l .  Factors  inhibiting,  u n i o n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e the t r a d i t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f engineers,  t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l v i e w p o i n t , management l i n k s ,  f e a r o f u n i f o r m i t y , and management p r a c t i c e .  The a c t u a l  degree t o which i n h i b i t i n g f o r c e s reduce t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of u n i o n f o r m a t i o n i s c e n t r a l t o t h i s paper and t h e d i s c u s s i o n aims a t e s t i m a t i n g t h i s f a c t o r i n Canada a t t h e p r e s e n t . The  f i n a l c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s c o n c l u s i o n s on u n i o n i z a t i o n  p r o b a b i l i t i e s , organizing s t r a t e g i e s , issues f o r union o r g a n i z o r s , management a s p e c t s prospects.  o f u n i o n i z a t i o n , and f u t u r e  Issues such as s a l a r i e s , s e n i o r i t y , f r i n g e  b e n e f i t s , communication and autonomy a r e d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . Much o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n i s devoted t o g r e a t e r f o r engineers  satisfaction  w i t h o r w i t h o u t u n i o n s and i n some i n s t a n c e s  b o t h employer and employee may a c h i e v e g r e a t e r simultaneously.  satisfaction  The o u t l o o k f o r the f u t u r e i s a r e s u l t o f  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f the body o f the paper as w e l l as  -10-  e x t r a p o l a t i o n by the author. D.  A . G e n e r a l Overview At t h i s p o i n t i t i s v a l u a b l e to give the reader  g e n e r a l f e e l f o r the area c o n c e r n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l  a  engineers.  The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s not to d i s c u s s p r o b a b i l i t y of u n i o n i z a t i o n but r a t h e r to i l l u s t r a t e of f o r c e s  which might u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t  engineers.  the great number the behaviour of  A g e n e r a l overview of the s i t u a t i o n helps  erect  a f o u n d a t i o n on which the r e s t of the paper can be b u i l t . Detailed analysis  i n f o l l o w i n g chapters  presented here but f i r s t elements r e l a t e The t a b l e of f o r c e s ,  one can see  draws from t o p i c s  j u s t how v a r i o u s  to u n i o n i z a t i o n . presented i n t h i s  section is  NOT t h e i r magnitude nor future  s t u d y i n g engineers s i t u a t i o n as  i t is  an i l l u s t r a t i o n  influence.  e a s i e s t to b e g i n with the  In  present  follows:  OVERALL FORCES ACTING ON ENGINEERS F o r c e s which are conductive to union formation  2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  B . C . , O n t a r i o , and Quebec situations. Growth of bureaucracy. Employer r e c o g n i t i o n . Facilitating legislation. Labour market. Mobility.  7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.  New s o c i e t y a t t i t u d e s . Canadian Labour Congress. P a i d employment. P e r s o n a l treatment. P r o f e s s i o n a l treatment. Federal c i v i l servants.  1.  TABLE ONE  Forces which i n h i b i t union formation 1.  Association philosophy.  2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Incompatibility. Management p r a c t i c e . Legal aspects. Militancy. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with management. Upward m o b i l i t y . Traditional attitudes. Trade-union image.  7.  8.  9.  -11-  F o r c e s presented i n t h i s diagram were d i s c o v e r e d through evidence and v i e w p o i n t s of many sources which w i l l appear throughout the essay.  This s t a r t i n g point i s  f o r review and r e l a t i n g the s p e c i f i c i n the body of the paper.  useful  s u b j e c t s as they a r i s e  The p o i n t s are arranged i n  r o u g h l y the same order as they are d i s c u s s e d  i n the paper  so t h a t Table One may be used as a r e f e r e n c e f o r review of which f a c t o r s factors  have been p r e s e n t e d .  The d i v i s i o n of  i s meant s o l e l y f o r s i m p l i c i t y and i t i s noted  t h a t most of the elements i n Table One may be e i t h e r conducive or i n h i b i t o r y to union formation depending on the specific  situation,  (ie.  p e r s o n a l treatment may be unacceptable  i n some companies and e x c e l l e n t i n o t h e r s . )  -12-  CHAPTER TWO PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS IN THE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SYSTEM Chapter  two e s t a b l i s h e s a f o u n d a t i o n f o r f o l l o w i n g  s e c t i o n s by i n t r o d u c i n g important i n r e g a r d to engineers.  fundamental i n f o r m a t i o n  The S t r a u s s Model i l l u s t r a t e s work  r o l e s of engineers and t h i s diagram i s v e r y u s e f u l i n e x p l a i n i n g how d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e s such as bureaucracy and t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s of engineers ities.  a l t e r union  possibil-  The e f f e c t s of developments such as poor labour  markets, u n p r o f e s s i o n a l treatment, and engineers  codes of behaviour  new a t t i t u d e s i n s o c i e t y ,  may a l l be i l l u s t r a t e d  i n terms of the S t r a u s s Model, so i t i s a v a l u a b l e for analysis.  I n t r o d u c t i o n of the S t r a u s s Model a l s o  helps r e v e a l the unique nature the complexity  tool  of engineers  i n terms of  of work r o l e s and demands.  Engineers*  needs and values are a d d i t i o n a l b a s i c  elements which i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e s towards u n i o n i z a t i o n and t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y to u n i o n i z e . nature  of engineers  P r e s e n t a t i o n of the  i s c r i t i c a l to any a n a l y s i s of  engineers' future a c t i o n s , therefore a general o u t l i n e i s presented  i n the systems chapter but f u r t h e r refinement  appears i n the s o c i a l aspects s e c t i o n .  At t h i s  early  p o i n t i n the paper, f a c e t s of t e a c h e r s ' s i t u a t i o n are a l s o i n t r o d u c e d because teachers are the most comparable  -13-  reference  group f o r e n g i n e e r s .  t h i s chapter i s  A l l of the i n f o r m a t i o n i n  c r i t i c a l in later  fundamental nature which a f f e c t s h e l d by f o r c e s A.  i n engineers'  sections  because of  the amount of  its  influence  environments.  The S t r a u s s Model George S t r a u s s  (1963) o f f e r s  w i t h i n which the e n g i n e e r s ' fruitfully  discussed.  as c r a f t s m a n s h i p ,  a t y p o l o g y of work r o l e s  unique work r o l e i s  e a s i l y and  Through comparison of such dimensions  c o n t r o l , t r a i n i n g , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  S t r a u s s d e r i v e s a model which r e p r e s e n t s work r o l e s engineers.  These r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  are i l l u s t r a t e d  of in  F i g u r e Two below: THE STRAUSS MODEL OF WORK ROLES Executives  s &  Workers FIGURE TWO S t r a u s s , George, " P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m and O c c u p a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s " , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k l e y , V o l . 2, No. 3, May I963, p. 11.  -14-  I t would be erroneous however, to c o n s i d e r an to be a purework category i n i t s e l f . i n work r o l e s which demand s k i l l s as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l  Engineers  participate  of workers and managers  capabilities.  Each e n g i n e e r i n g  position requires  a different  Model i l l u s t r a t e s  the competing r o l e demands which  p l a c e d on e n g i n e e r s . engineer's a desire  mix of s k i l l s and the S t r a u s s are  Examples of manager segments of  work r o l e i n c l u d e h i g h p e r s o n a l  to get ahead,  confidential  "engineer"  responsibilityP  c o n t r o l over subordinates  status.  (Strauss,  I963).  are n e c e s s a r y to manage e f f e c t i v e l y  the  and  A l l of these  traits  i n any o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Worker f a c e t s of the engineer r o l e are evidenced by d e s i r e s for greater security, job d u t i e s ,  and the pursuance  fringe benefits. or r o l e f a c i t ideals  t a k i n g orders from a boss,  (Strauss,  f o r engineers  i n the s c i e n c e s ,  a desire  of overtime pay and i n c r e a s e d  I963).  as p r o j e c t s change over time.  It  such as role.  Different  combinations of  is  skills  t h e i r work r o l e s  imperative that  outlook as w e l l as a broad set  task requirements are to be f i l l e d  a r i s e i f engineers  high  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the group, and  t h a t engineers must a l t e r  possess a f l e x i b l e  professional  includes s e l f - d i r e c t i o n ,  e n g i n e e r i n g jobs r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t  if  F i n a l l y , the  for i n t e r a c t i o n with colleagues.  with the r e s u l t  distinct  effectively.  of  engineers skills Problems  have d i f f i c u l t y i n changing o r i e n t a t i o n  s h i f t i n g from a s c i e n t i f i c  r o l e to a managerial  -15-  A.  1.  Unions and the S t r a u s s Model  Attempts of engineers professionals  to g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n as  i n s p i t e of the worker and manager  of t h e i r r o l e requirements i s paper.  full aspects  an important i s s u e i n t h i s  Evidence i s presented i n the law s e c t i o n ,  social section,  and i n the p r e s s u r e s a g a i n s t union f o r m a t i o n  s e c t i o n to support the o u t s t a n d i n g importance of professional  the  s t a t u s to  full  engineers.  The S t r a u s s Model can be r o u g h l y d i v i d e d to c o i n c i d e w i t h u n i o n i z e d and n o n - u n i o n i z e d workers i n the r e s t of the work p l a c e .  This s p l i t  i n the diagram separates workers  who are more l i k e l y to u n i o n i z e from those who are This is  not.  important f o r engineers because many engineers  i n jobs which are a p p r o p r i a t e diagram i s u s e f u l  later  are  f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n and the  to see  shifts  toward or away from  the union s e c t i o n . A DIAGRAM SHOWING THE MOST LIKELY AREAS FOR UNIONIZED VS. NON-UNIONIZED WORKERS IN THE STRAUSS MODEL  LIKELY TO BE UNIONIZED  MORE LIKELY TO  Workers FIGURE THREE  S c i e n t i s t s and Professionals  -16-  T h i s i s not a d i v i s i o n which r e p r e s e n t s u n i o n i z e d versus n o n - u n i o n i z e d workers, work r o l e s  rather i t indicates  which  are most l i k e l y to enhance the chances  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  of  The diagram i n F i g u r e Three  p r e s e n t s the e n g i n e e r i n g enigma because e n g i n e e r i n g r o l e requirements are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the whole space and many engineers no doubt face r o l e  requirements  i n the a r e a which i s more l i k e l y to be organized c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  for  T h i s paper s h a l l study the  s i t u a t i o n to d i s c o v e r where engineers  are  engineers'  concentrated  on the diagram a t present  as w e l l as a n a l y z i n g f u t u r e  shifts  I f a l a r g e p o r t i o n of  i n concentration.  are moving towards  the u n i o n i z e d s e c t i o n then i t i s  to d i s c o v e r b e h a v i o u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of such a T h i s diagram i s of f o r c e s  B.  engineers  which are a p p r o p r i a t e  Dilemna of  critical  shift.  of f u r t h e r value i n i l l u s t r a t i n g  which push and p u l l  situations  engineers  effects  i n t o and away from  for unionization.  Professionals  E n g i n e e r s have exerted continuous attempts to have the term " p r o f e s s i o n a l status.  Full  engineer" r e f l e c t  a pure  documentation of these e f f o r t s  throughout the paper w i t h p a r t i c u l a r emphasis social,  professional are  presented  i n the law,  and pressures a g a i n s t u n i o n i z a t i o n c h a p t e r s .  a r i s e s a dilemna.  The term " p r o f e s s i o n a l  self-employed engineers, capacity,  p a i d engineers  and p a i d engineers  engineer"  hired i n a  Herein includes professional  hired i n a non-professional  -17-  capacity. fulfill  (Goldenberg,  jobs which f a l l  positions  tasks:  Professional  engineers  anywhere between b l u e - c o l l a r  to managerial r o l e s  work r o l e s Saunders  1968).  and the  non-professional  are becoming more dominant i n Canada.  and Wilson  (1933)  describe  Carr-  the breadth of e n g i n e e r i n g  "There are innumerable s m a l l graduations  knowledge and experience from the lowest l e v e l s l e a d e r s of the p r o f e s s i o n . " 3 " I t would be a great mistake homongeneous  (1963)  to  also  the states,  to t h i n k of engineers  as  a  class."^  The term " p r o f e s s i o n a l a great v a r i e t y of s k i l l s evidence.  Strauss  in skill,  The r e s u l t  e n g i n e e r " may wrongly imply  or job content i n l i g h t of  this  of t h i s s i t u a t i o n can be shown i n the  S t r a u s s Model i n the f o l l o w i n g manner i n F i g u r e F o u r : DISPERSION OF ENGINEERS WORK ROLES  Exec.  Clerical & Foremen  ENGINEER  F u n c t i o n a l S t a f f Men  Professional  S k i l l e d ' Craftsman  Worker FIGURE FOUR  -18-  Thus upon r e f l e c t i o n , "professional"  the g e n e r a l d e s i r e  full  s t a t u s may w e l l be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  p o r t i o n s of the e n g i n e e r i n g l a b o u r f o r c e . of engineers  for  experience work s i t u a t i o n s  large  A great number  which most  would be u n i o n i z e d i f any other worker h e l d t h a t R e j e c t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s not an  likely  job.  appropriate  response i f unacceptable  a s p e c t s at the work place c o u l d  be improved by a u n i o n .  If  more e n g i n e e r i n g p o s i t i o n s of the d i a g r a m (as engineers  a shift towards  i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n pushes the u n i o n i z a b l e  shown i n F i g u r e F i v e ) ,  sector  then many  and some p r o v i n c i a l governments may have to  alter  t h e i r stances on u n i o n i z a t i o n . F o r examples GREATER STRESS ON WORKER ROLE  FROM  Worker  Worker FIGURE FIVE  There i s engineers  evidence to show t h a t p r e s s u r e s are  forcing  i n t o work r o l e s which enhance the p r o b a b i l i t y of  u n i o n i z a t i o n on a wider s c a l e i n Canada and t h i s  evidence  -19-  i s presented l a t e r  i n the paper.  A g o a l of t h i s paper  to analyze the s t r e n g t h and permanence of t h i s s h i f t a d d i t i o n to the f o r c e s  which cause i t .  is  in  P r o b a b i l i t y of  e n g i n e e r i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n i n Canada w i l l be based on the degree of c o n c e n t r a t i o n of engineers  i n r o l e s which they  p e r c e i v e as u n p r o f e s s i o n a l and u n a c c e p t a b l e , movements toward emphasis  on worker r o l e s  and c o n t i n u i n g  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  enhance t h i s p r o b a b i l i t y g r e a t l y . C.  Nature of a P r o f e s s i o n a l The term " p r o f e s s i o n a l "  characteristics professional  and v a l u e s .  stands f o r a s p e c i f i c Strauss  set  of  (1963) a i d s i n d e f i n i n g  with a simple yet comprehensive set  of r e q u i r e -  ments : (1)  Expertise  - s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge and s k i l l s .  (2)  Autonomy.  (3)  Committment to a c a l l i n g - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with members of the p r o f e s s i o n not the company, cosmopolitan o r i e n t a t i o n r a t h e r than l o c a l (see s o c i a l chapter.)  (4)  A f e e l i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to s o c i e t y to m a i n t a i n performance standards or w o r k - i n c l u d i n g a code of e t h i c s and a code of d i s c i p l i n e . 5  A group of p r o f e s s i o n a l s characteristics category.  must possess a l l of these  to be t r u l y c l a s s e d i n the  A l l four aspects of t h e ' d e f i n i t i o n should be  remembered throughout the a n a l y s i s engineers  professional  are r e a l l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  engineers r e a l l y demonstrate  to conclude i f or what p o r t i o n of  these t r a i t s .  It  is  critical  -20-  to determine i f engineers are p r o f e s s i o n a l s p r o f e s s i o n a l work r o l e s  faced by non-  or i f v e r y few of these workers  have true claims to p r o f e s s i o n a l  status.  The nature of a p r o f e s s i o n a l i s  i n d i c a t i v e of h i s  d e s i r e d r o l e i n the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s  system.  This  is  important because engineers s t r i v e f o r s p e c i f i c needs and values and a l s o because the f i n a l professionalize  engineers i s  to u l t i m a t e l y have a l l  engineers e x h i b i t these t r a i t s . general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of most p r o f e s s i o n a l s  g o a l of the movement to  Many engineers  exhibit  t h a t are thought to be " t y p i c a l "  and these would i l l u s t r a t e members  of the p r o f e s s i o n a l category i n the S t r a u s s Model. C.  (1)  Needs and Values  Prandy ( I 9 6 5 )  and S t r a u s s  (I963)  which c h a r a c t e r i z e p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  p r e s e n t c e r t a i n needs  E n g i n e e r s " needs i n c l u d e  autonomy, c o m p l e t i o n , c h a l l e n g e , p r o f e s s i o n a l learning,  and p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n .  Needs e x h i b i t e d by most p r o f e s s i o n a l s  skill,  (Strauss,  I963).  are h i g h e r o r d e r ones  i n terms of the Maslow h i e r a r c h y because they l e a d to actualization,  self-  t h e r e f o r e these needs d i f f e r from t y p i c a l  b l u e - c o l l a r needs of s e c u r i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s so t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s  can be segragated from b l u e - c o l l a r  workers i n terms of needs.  A major problem  with a group such as engineers  associated  i n v o l v e s placement of  workers who have p r o f e s s i o n a l needs i n t o b l u e - c o l l a r jobs where changes to s e l f - a c t u a l i z e  are  non-existent.  -21-  Professionals which d i s t i n g u i s h e s values  a l s o possess a unique system of them from other workers.  such as freedom,  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on s c i e n t i f i c  to separate engineers  who p l a c e h i g h importance  P r o f e s s i o n values  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s  Aspects" D.  g e n e r a l l y tend  from b l u e - c o l l a r workers and  management because of t h e i r i d e a l i s t i c values  Specific  d e d i c a t i o n to work, and i n d i v i d u a l i s m  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s  ideals.  values  are presented  nature.  Specific  in detail i n "Social  i n Chapter F i v e .  An Overview of the R o l e s , Professionals  Needs and Values of  possess r o l e s ,  Professionals  needs and values  which  are c o m p l e t e l y separate from management or worker t r a i t s i n these a r e a s . fill  W h i t e - c o l l a r segments of the work f o r c e  a r o l e between t h a t of a manager and a worker and  w h i t e - c o l l a r workers to add b r e a d t h to the work system. P r i o r to the emergence of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers the work f o r c e was p o l a r i z e d w i t h management at one extreme and workers at  the opposite  work s i t u a t i o n s  end.  (Strauss,  formerly consisted  of those who gave  and those who took them, p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n work r o l e s ,  values  1963)- Whereas  have f i l l e d  orders  a gap  and needs.  The i n f l u e n c e of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i n the Canadian i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s  system and numbers of w h i t e -  c o l l a r workers have grown g r e a t l y over the past few decades.  Goldenberg (I968) s t a t e s , " W h i t e - c o l l a r  -22-  workers i n Canada are the f a s t e s t growing work s e c t o r ,  I96I  t h i s segment grew from 15-2% i n 1901 to 38.6% i n the worker t o t a l . " 6  Professionals  as  are a sub-group of w h i t e -  c o l l a r workers who i n t u r n grew much more q u i c k l y than the w h i t e - c o l l a r average. c o l l a r workers i t i s  With r a p i d growth of w h i t e -  evident t h a t such a t t e n t i o n must be  p a i d to needs and v a l u e s which are important to w h i t e c o l l a r employees on the job. all  values  Bureaucracy opposes v i r t u a l l y  and needs mentioned y e t i t i s becoming more  dominant as a method of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as l a r g e become more e v i d e n t . D.  (Bain,  organizations  1970).  Teachers Teachers c o n s t i t u t e  an o c c u p a t i o n group which has some  meaningful c o m p a r a b i l i t y to e n g i n e e r s . t r a i n i n g and job market s i t u a t i o n s professional  needs and values  They have  similar  as w e l l as many  l i k e those of  engineers.  E x p e r i e n c e s of teachers i n u n i o n i z a t i o n c o u l d prove to be important to engineers because of these E.  (1)  Teacher S i m i l a r i t i e s  Teachers e x h i b i t many s p e c i f i c as  seen by N a u l t (I969). (1)  similarities.  similarities  These s i m i l a r i t i e s  to  include:  Teachers f o r m e r l y faced economic i n j u s t i c e  t r a d i t i o n a l l y lower l e v e l s (any many trades as w e l l . )  of pay than other  with  professions  U n i o n i z a t i o n has changed  problem through c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n however and r a i s e d s a l a r i e s to an average of $7,124 i n 1970 from  engineers  $1,965  this the in  -23-  Much of t h i s r a i s e i s  1950.  due to a more m i l i t a r y stance  at the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e , illustrates.  as S e c t i o n E ( I I )  Engineers are not r e a l l y as  the t e a c h e r s were but they do have s a l a r y  poorly paid  as  problems  i n c l u d i n g r e l a t i v e l y lower s a l a r i e s i n comparison to  self-  employed engineers  an  as w e l l as  peaking of s a l a r i e s at  e a r l y stage i n the work l i f e . Teachers  (2) experience lives.  (Goldenberg,  1968).  s u b s c r i b e to bosses and they  r i g i d . c o m m u n i t y c o n t r o l over t h e i r  (Nault,  I969).  (3) engineers,  needs of  s i m i l a r v a l u e s to  "One can p a r a l l e l the percentage of engineers  99% p a i d  personal  This s i t u a t i o n contradicts  autonomy and c h a l l a n g e which are  work f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n  often  engineers.  who now  (95%) to teachers who i n c l u d e  employees."7 N a u l t s t a t e s t h a t teachers are upward mobile l i k e because teachers l o o k to such areas as  heads and p r i n c i p a l s as w e l l as school boards.  department  appointed p o s i t i o n s  Teachers a l s o face fewer  f o r advancement today much l i k e engineers  on  opportunities i n large  organizations. (4)  Teachers  are  expected  immediately upon e n t r y i n t o the engineers. engineers  to j o i n a s s o c i a t i o n s job market as  do most  These a s s o c i a t i o n s are p r o v i n c i a l such a s s o c i a t i o n s and many a c t i v i t i e s  except f o r c o l l e c t i v e  bargaining.  are  as  similar  -24-  M o o n l i g h t i n g occurs i n both occupations  (5) outside  with  i n t e r e s t s such as papers pursued by b o t h .  Engineers c o n s u l t to g a i n more money whereas  teachers  t u t o r p u p i l s to supplement t h e i r income. (6)  Teachers face i n c r e a s e d b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n and  l a r g e r work o r g a n i z a t i o n which present to those of e n g i n e e r s . (7)  (Nault,  similar  problems  1969).  Teachers face a r c h a i c personnel p r a c t i c e s  many s c h o o l s .  F o r example u n i l a t e r a l i s m ,  and c o n c e n t r a -  t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power are common p r a c t i c e s t e a c h i n g and these p r a c t i c e s  as  teacher  Nault  p a t r o n i z i n g and p a t e r n a l i s m  problems at the work place which make  u n i o n i z a t i o n more (8)  in  are becoming more p r e v a l e n t  i n e n g i n e e r i n g as b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , a l s o presents s o v e r e i g n t y ,  in  There i s  attractive. a fear  of power e r o s i o n i n s c h o o l s .  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s expect a l o s s of power where c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g e x i s t s and the t h r e a t  of m i l i t a n c y o c c u r s .  T h i s means l e s s c o - o p e r a t i o n may occur between t e a c h e r s and t h e i r bosses with the r e s u l t l e s s with upper l e v e l s  t h a t teachers may i d e n t i f y  of the p r o f e s s i o n .  A n x i e t y over  l o s s of power may be too great because c o l l e c t i v e  bar-  g a i n i n g has not a l t e r e d power bases f o r management and teachers to any huge degree. (9)  Teaching i s  professionalization  as  going through the process of is  engineering.  Teachers  are  -25-  making progress i n g a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  recognition i n spite  of  the use  (Nault,  is  an extremely important p a r a l l e l because of the impact  of  professional  s t a t u s on p r o f e s s i o n a l  1969).  engineers*  This  behaviour  toward u n i o n i z a t i o n , Teachers are a l s o a v e r y heterogeneous  (10)  i n knowledge, s k i l l s s u b j e c t s at  different  teachers  a result  as  and job c o n t e n t . levels  a heterogeneous  paths through  S i m i l a r l y engineers  group and they may take v a r i o u s  courses to a t t a i n e n g i n e e r i n g (11)  different  and may have ended up as  of many d i f f e r e n t  the u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m .  They teach  group  constitute different  skills.  "Age d i s t r i b u t i o n s  of engineers  and teachers  also  o  show great s i m i l a r i t y which c o u l d e f f e c t u n i o n i z a t i o n . " AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS AND TEACHERS  Total E n g i n e e r s 100% Teachers  -24  100%  25-29  30-3^  35-4^  45-54  55-64  7~£2  17.28  34.28  14.44  6771  1775  4.75  12.96  31.52  20.33  9.55  3.42  TABLE TWO E.  (II)  Teacher M i l i t a n c y and P r o f e s s i o n a l In General  Acceptance of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g by reflects  some general  relations.  trends  Social protest  Civil  has come to a new p e r s p e c t i v e  a c c o r d i n g to Goldenberg ( I 9 6 8 )  disobedience  teachers  i n Canadian i n d u s t r i a l  and Canadian s o c i e t y now sees a new e t i q u e t t e protest  Militancy  through e x e r c i s e  of  social  and N a u l t ( 1 9 6 9 ) .  of group power i s now  65+  -26-  accepted  by s o c i e t y as a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n i n u n j u s t  s i t u a t i o n s , whereas p r e v i o u s l y t h i s g e n e r a l approval not present. to support has  A new  c l i m a t e has  c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n and  evolved  was  i n labour r e l a t i o n s  the f e d e r a l government  played a l e a d i n g r o l e i n a l l o w i n g a l l workers, even  w h i t e - c o l l a r employers, to j o i n f o r the purpose of bargaining.  collective  Workers are g r a d u a l l y g a i n i n g an image of  competency and v a l u a b l e donators which was i n past times.  not  present  Workers are a l s o i n c r e a s i n g l y seen as  people with r i g h t s i n the work o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than subordinates  who  take orders e i g h t hours a day  q u e s t i o n i n g anything.  Even the  without  "most" p r o f e s s i o n a l  workers have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s t r e n d , so have teachers.  Evidence f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l involvement i n c l u d e s  a s t r i k e by doctors i n Saskatchewan i n 1963, policemen i n Quebec i n 1970,  and  a strike  by  a s t r i k e by p o s t a l  workers i n Canada i n I968. Democratic trends of the l a s t decade a l s o a f f e c t g e n e r a l acceptance of m i l i t a n c y by workers. now  Employees  demand the r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s which  i n f l u e n c e them or e l s e they take s t r o n g a c t i o n . d i g n i t y and  Workers'  human treatment of employees are much i n focus  i n the newspaper and  everyday news as these are i s s u e s  which l e a d to c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . E.  ( I l l ) Teachers P a t t e r n Development of teacher unions has  r e s u l t e d from  these  -27-  g e n e r a l i n f l u e n c e s as w e l l as situation.  the s p e c i f i c s  of t h e i r  A p a t t e r n which l e d to teacher a c t i o n took a  form which i s  s i m i l a r to the steps t h a t engineers  f o l l o w e d so f a r  i n t h e i r development.  At f i r s t , t e a c h e r s  formed a s s o c i a t i o n s with s i m i l a r  goals to present e n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s .  S t a t u s of the  p r o f e s s i o n and communication w i t h c o l l e a g u e s activities  have  were t y p i c a l  of teacher groups and these a s s o c i a t i o n s  e x h i b i t s i m i l a r segmentation to engineers with groups and p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s .  " u n i o n - l i k e " stance.  The economic  and t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the  was g i v e n more emphasis as  federal  In 1930 a change i n  goals came about i n teacher a s s o c i a t i o n s . p o s i t i o n of teachers  also  schools  the a s s o c i a t i o n s took a more  R e s u l t of the s h i f t  i n emphasis  was  b a r g a i n i n g over economic i s s u e s and attempts to o b t a i n h i g h e r pay r a i s e s than b e f o r e . new stance teachers  S i n c e a d o p t i o n of  the  have become more m i l i t a n t and c l o s e r  to t r a d e - u n i o n s i n some r e s p e c t s . R e s u l t of the change can be seen today as N a u l t (1969) shows o b j e c t i v e s (1)  of teacher a s s o c i a t i o n s  Improvement of t e a c h e r s '  today:  s a l a r i e s and working  conditions. (2)  E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a code of e t h i c s and a  system  of d i s c i p l i n e . (3)  A c q u i s i t i o n of a more i n f l u e n t i a l p o s i t i o n i n  the p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n power  structure.  -28-  A l b e r t a and New Brunswick are the o n l y two p r o v i n c e s where t e a c h e r s can l e g a l l y s t r i k e . f o r c e d to use pressure t a c t i c s publicity,  such as mass  are  resignations,  and study s e s s i o n s i n s t e a d of the t o t a l m i l i t a n c y  involved i n a s t r i k e . is  Other teachers  A good example of the use  the campaign of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers  of p u b l i c i t y Federation  a g a i n s t the S o c i a l C r e d i t government i n August, 1°?2. Teachers a c r o s s Canada w i l l continue to use  collective  b a r g a i n i n g as a pressure a g a i n s t management to  upgrade  t h e i r p o s i t i o n because implementation of b l u e - c o l l a r t a c t i c s to face management i s which i s  a r e f l e c t i o n on the  situation  f o r c i n g the teacher more and more i n t o a b l u e -  c o l l a r work s i t u a t i o n .  SUMMARY T h i s chapter has shown the complex requirements  and  job s k i l l s which are p a r t of the engineers * r o l e i n organizations.  Engineers f r e q u e n t l y do not perform work  n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a pure p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  rather  are r e q u i r e d to perform worker and manager f u n c t i o n s well.  The S t r a u s s Model i l l u s t r a t e s  roles  of  they as  engineers  i n the system with r e l a t i o n to other workers and t h i s model can be used to show how p r e s s u r e s and i n f l u e n c e s affect of  engineers  i n r e l a t i o n to u n i o n i z a t i o n .  the engineer i s burgeoning.  professional  status,  engineers  The dilemna  While s t r i v i n g f o r f i n d themselves  full  being  -29-  pushed more and more i n t o a b l u e - c o l l a r r o l e , values  Needs and  of engineers were touched on to p o i n t out  between engineers  and other workers.  Teachers are a good comparison group f o r because they have many s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s past experiences  differences  engineers and t h e i r  have p a r a l l e l e d e n g i n e e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e ,  except f o r the notable area of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Teachers w i l l be used as a r e f e r e n c e  group throughout  the paper to v e r i f y i s s u e s or show how e n g i n e e r i n g unionism c o u l d develop.  Teachers are g e n e r a l l y thought  to be at a s i m i l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l  s t a t u s to engineers  s l i g h t l y ahead of engineers but they have  accepted  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n s p i t e of p r o f e s s i o n a l which oppose  it.  or  values  -30-  CHAPTER THREE NATURE OF ORGANIZATION AND ORGANIZING A.  Reasons f o r General Union GrowthC e r t a i n f a c t o r s h e l p e x p l a i n movements i n numbers  of u n i o n i z e d workers i n Canada.  Blum (1968) breaks down  the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o f o u r general areas,  i n c l u d i n g economic, s o c i o l o g i c a l ,  and i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s there are s p e c i f i c  factors.  W i t h i n each t o p i c  f a c e t s which e f f e c t  and these elements w i l l be d i s c u s s e d four areas.  political,  u n i o n membership  i n d e t a i l for  all  I t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t movements i n union  membership cannot be f u l l y e x p l a i n e d by these but h o p e f u l l y some i n d i c a t i o n of trends  factors  can be d e r i v e d .  The value of b e g i n n i n g with g e n e r a l union growth i s it  g i v e s a macro p e r s p e c t i v e  before  the focus  centres  that  from which to commence  on d e t a i l s  of the e n g i n e e r i n g  sector. (1)  Economic F a c t o r s  Blum (1968) o f f e r s  economic f a c t o r s  b u s i n e s s c y c l e to e x p l a i n u n i o n growth.  such as  the  The s t a t e of  business i s  a key area which d i c t a t e s i f c o n d i t i o n s  appropriate  for organization.  employers,  and employees are a l l r e l a t i v e l y  because demand and p r o f i t s minimal.  D u r i n g boom times,  are  consumers,  satisfied  are h i g h while unemployment i s  Companies can a f f o r d  significant  pay r a i s e s and  job s e c u r i t y i s not an i s s u e f o r most workers,  therefore  -31-  u n i o n f o r m a t i o n i s not r e q u i r e d to enhance monetary needs nor to p r o t e c t have opposite d i m i n i s h as  job s e c u r i t y . consequences  Poor b u s i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s  since p r o f i t s  the b u s i n e s s c y c l e f a l l s .  and job  Under  security  stressful  c o n d i t i o n s which are experienced i n poor b u s i n e s s  times  a union i s more l i k e l y to form and grow as a means combat the severe t e n s i o n of r i s i n g unemployment the s o c i a l  to  (see  chapter.)  P r i c e s are f r e q u e n t l y used to e x p l a i n union movements i n the same way as business c y c l e s ,  however the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between p r i c e s and union impetus i s not so c l e a r as of b u s i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s . from many sources  effects  A p r i c e change may o r i g i n a t e  which means t h a t r e s u l t s a rise  of new p r i c e s  are u n c e r t a i n .  F o r example,  i n p r i c e s may b r i n g  higher p r o f i t s ,  more employment, and i n c r e a s e d wages but  the same r a i s e may a l s o l e a d to lower p r o f i t s share of the market.  and a s m a l l e r  P r i c e movements may r e s u l t  in a  v a r i e t y of responses from the market and u n c e r t a i n t y of p r i c i n g strategy is f a i r l y high. may a t t r a c t increased attempt  a l a r g e r market share,  job s e c u r i t y ,  greater  lower p r i c e s  p r o f i t and  but a cut i n p r i c e may a l s o be an  to minimize l o s s e s .  the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s  For instance,  P r i c e s o f t e n do not b r i n g  because e x p e c t a t i o n s  based on p r i c e  movements are vague at b e s t u n l e s s  the f i r m enjoys a monopoly  p o s i t i o n i n market.  such as marketing s t r a t e g i e s  Other f a c t o r s  combined w i t h p r i c e changes  further.complicates  -32-  the  area. (2)  P o l i t i c a l Factors  Blum presents p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s as another of u n i o n growth.  Legislation is  determinant  able to encourage  discourage u n i o n s i z e through m a n i p u l a t i o n of  or  regulations.  Rules i n v o l v i n g union f o r m a t i o n can be a l t e r e d  to  stimulate  union membership but they may a l s o be t i g h t e n e d to organization.  F o r example,  to encourage  the government may e s t a b l i s h including professionals, procedures rights  professors  If  the law p r o t e c t s u n i o n  (1971)  the law was the predominant  Where the law f o s t e r e d  inevitable  u n i o n formation  t h a t p r o f e s s o r s would u n i o n i z e .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n r e g a r d to u n i o n formation  is  another p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r  If  the  which a f f e c t s union  j u d i c i a r y allows a m b i g u i t i e s  j u d i c i a r y r e l a x e s evidence requirements then more c e r t i f i e d u n i t s  from the u n i t ,  to encourage u n i o n i z a t i o n .  Also, for  if  the  appropriateness  should develop i n Canada.  r e s o l u t i o n concerning decisions  of c e r t a i n employees  possibilities.  i n the law to work f o r  unions then u n i o n growth i s more l i k e l y .  swift  Garbarino  c l a i m through a study of u n i o n i z a t i o n of  in unionizing.  Judicial  with organizing,  l i k e l y to develop and grow.  i n which he found that  i t was almost  workers,  to u n i o n i z e , and c e r t i f i c a t i o n  by p r e v e n t i n g employer i n t e r f e r e n c e  supports t h i s  factor  u n i o n formation  new laws to a l l o w a l l  can be s i m p l i f i e d .  then unions are  restrict  regarding  i t is  Through  exclusion  further  possible  -33-  Great importance  of f a v o u r a b l e p u b l i c p o l i c y  unionism i s evident i n Canada.  toward  Most u n i o n growth i n  Canada has o c c u r r e d where l a b o u r law i s sympathetic  to  union f o r m a t i o n , or where r e s i s t a n c e of employers i s minimal.  (Goldenberg,  1968).  There are examples of  f a v o u r a b l e p o l i c y and i t s a f f e c t s throughout  the  paper  (eg. u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s , Quebec engineers, f e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v a n t s ) and t h i s a r e a may importance  o v e r r i d e others i n  b a s i c a l l y because of the severe setbacks  that  unfavourable p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s have on u n i o n i z a t i o n . (Blum, E s t e y , Kuhn, Wildman, and Troy, (3)  1971X  The I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s System  Blum argues t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n c l u d e s many elements  system  which e f f e c t union development  to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree,  A l i b e r a l stance toward  unionism  combined w i t h e x i s t e n c e of v o l u n t a r y r e c o g n i t i o n of b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n s u r e s c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r engineers i n s p i t e of unfavourable law.  The r o l e of  sympathetic  management i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Quebec and U n i t e d Kingdom experiences where management has p l a y e d a s t r o n g r o l e i n f o s t e r i n g union f o r m a t i o n .  Management t a c t i c s are  a v a i l a b l e to discourage union membership through mentation  imple-  of such a c t i o n s as f i r i n g u n i o n - o r g a n i z e r s or  waging a s t r o n g campaign a g a i n s t o r g a n i z a t i o n . E x i s t i n g trade unions i n f l u e n c e p o t e n t i a l u n i o n members through t h e i r p a t t e r n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  -34-  structure. are  Desires  of non-organized workers to j o i n unions  enhanced through demonstration of a f a i r  administration  which p r o t e c t s i n t e r e s t s of a l l union members.  Internal  o p e r a t i o n of the u n i t should e x h i b i t no f a v o u r i t i s m any group of members and a good c o l l e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the employer i s potential units  (especially  u n i o n members may be f u r t h e r  to  bargaining  d e s i r a b l e f o r some  professionals). discouraged  Potential  by u n e t h i c a l  behaviour or poor p u b l i c images of competing u n i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l techniques collar units  are f a r  different  than f o r b l u e - c o l l a r workers because of  unique v a l u e s of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers and t h e i r goals from b l u e - c o l l a r workers. difference  for white-  different  A good example of  between these workers i s  the  the  the w h i t e - c o l l a r  stance which opposes u n i f o r m i t y and conformity whereas most b l u e - c o l l a r unions seek equal b e n e f i t s  with the  stress  on s e n i o r i t y . Work environments w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l  relations  system,  the t e c h n o l o g i c a l and marketing s t r u c t u r e s ,  w e l l as  the s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n of the f i r m i n the  b r i n g d i f f e r i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r union growth. company faces d i s a s t e r as a r e s u l t wage i n c r e a s e ,  industry a  or l a r g e  then a hard b a t t l e i s more l i k e l y to be  fought a g a i n s t o r g a n i z a t i o n . with l i t t l e  of a s t r i k e  If  as  On the other hand a company  c o m p e t i t i o n or excess demand c o u l d pay h i g h e r  wages w i t h no i l l e f f e c t s .  P r o x i m i t y of u n i o n i z e d  -35-  workers w i t h i n the work environment i s unionization.  (Bain,  employees w i l l  organize when another group of nearby  1970).  It  also relevant  i s more probable  workers has u n i o n i z e d with c o n s i d e r a b l e and G o l d s t e i n , 19^3 )•  to  that  benefits.  (Indik  V i s i b l e r e t u r n s and s o l u t i o n s  to  common problems encourage n o n - u n i o n i z e d workers to t h i n k about b a r g a i n i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y , D.  Sociological  Factors  Blum a l s o s t u d i e s s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s  of  groups  which concern t h e i r development i n t o formal u n i t s . groups  emerge p r i o r to formal groups and the  f o r f o r m a l i z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r group i s to s t a b i l i t y example,  o f t e n some danger  i n the case of a union the impetus to  s e c u r i t y of the i n f o r m a l group, is  stimulus  or s e c u r i t y of the i n f o r m a l group.  c o u l d be wage c u t t i n g or u n j u s t  Informal  For formalize  d i s c i p l i n e which The formative  endangers  period  determined by four long-term and two s h o r t - t e r m I. (a)  or market  trends:  Long-term Employees s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l structure.  (b)  Workers b e l i e f "they w i l l remain workers.  (c)  Effect  (d)  P r e v a i l i n g community a t t i t u d e s .  II.  Short-term  (a)  Developments i n the l a b o u r market.  (b)  Fundamental u n r e s t  of community i n s t i t u t i o n s .  i n workers.  -36-  Short-term trends developments.  can o f t e n be l i n k e d v/ith long-terra  F o r example,  fundamental u n r e s t  i n workers  can be t i e d to community a t t i t u d e s or a l o s s of worker importance i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e  as w e l l  as  from i n c r e a s e d autonomation which leads to e r o s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l importance i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . i n the l a b o u r market are a s s o c i a t e d with  Developments  employees*  s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l and market as w e l l as result  community i n s t i t u t i o n s .  from more b a s i c elements  achievements  affecting  structures  Long-term f a c t o r s  such as  scientific  t e c h n o l o g y , government p o l i c y , and  emergency of permanent a t t i t u d e s short-term factors r e s u l t  i n society  whereas  from more temporary  influences.  These trends can e a s i l y be a p p l i e d to teachers to show : why they have u n i o n i z e d .  Teachers experienced l e s s c o n t r o l  over t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n schools  over time because they were  l e s s and l e s s able to make autonomous d e c i s i o n s t h e i r work. belief dictate  (Nault,  1969).  t h a t schoolboards rules  There was a l s o a fundamental  and bureaucracy intended to  f o r conduct at the s c h o o l as w e l l as  p e r t a i n i n g to behaviour d u r i n g after-work hours. a t t i t u d e s toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g have  rules New  resulted  from l i t t l e autonomy, d e c r e a s i n g p o s s i b i l i t y f o r mobility,  regarding  vertical  and an unimportant r o l e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  regarding teaching.  T h i s combination of s h o r t and l o n g -  term i n f l u e n c e s was s t r o n g enough to convince t e a c h e r s  -37-  that c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was the o n l y t a c t i c  which would  h e l p them e f f e c t i v e l y , E.  Overview of A t present  favourable  Factors the g e n e r a l pressures f o r u n i o n growth are  i n Canada.  Unemployment i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h ,  worker s e c u r i t y i s low, bureaucracy and l a r g e are i n c r e a s i n g ,  and community a t t i t u d e s are  toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , Bairstow,  I968).  institutions  positive  (Boyd, 1971. B a i n , 1970,  These t e n s i o n s  increase  the p r o b a b i l i t y  of o r g a n i z a t i o n because workers seek more s e c u r i t y and g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e i n important d e c i s i o n s The l e g a l aspects chapter i l l u s t r a t e s  effecting  themselves.  a growing r o l e  that  p u b l i c p o l i c y can p l a y and i s p l a y i n g f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n . (Goldenberg, protect  1968, G a r b a r i n o , 1971).  organization rights  Favourable  laws  f o r p o t e n t i a l u n i t members  while they l i m i t employer t a c t i c s a g a i n s t  organization.  Community a t t i t u d e s ,  and l a b o u r  employer acceptance,  market c o n d i t i o n s are s t r o n g examples  of f o r c e s  for  u n i o n i z a t i o n i n Canada which i n d i c a t e that u n i o n growth is possible F,  and perhaps  even l i k e l y i n Canada.  Growth of W h i t e - C o l l a r Unions George B a i n (I969) o f f e r s  forces  which e f f e c t  a more s p e c i f i c  set  of  growth of w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n i s m .  B a i n presents such f a c t o r s r e c o g n i t i o n by employers,  as demographic  characteristics,  the economic p o s i t i o n of the  company, p u b l i c p o l i c y , aspects of the work  situations,  -38-  and  trade u n i o n images.  W h i t e - c o l l a r union  are i n c r e a s e d i f these i n f l u e n c e s  possibilities  s i g n a l t h a t union  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e under unacceptable  circumstances.  B a i n (1969) s t r e s s e s aspects of trade unions such as  p u b l i c image, r e c r u i t m e n t p o l i c i e s and union  which e f f e c t  w h i t e - c o l l a r outlooks on u n i o n i s m .  structure An  unfavourable p u b l i c image may imply a tendency to use m i l i t a n c y i n b a r g a i n i n g or i t may r e f l e c t  on unequal  treatment to u n i t members, both of which oppose values.  engineers*  An image of c o - o p e r a t i o n with the employer and  community f o r mutual b e n e f i t a t t r a c t s w h i t e - c o l l a r employees to a great extent. of  Union s t r u c t u r e  i s another determinant  w h i t e - c o l l a r u n i o n i z a t i o n because a f a i r ,  union structure  i s c r i t i c a l to w h i t e - c o l l a r workers,  whereas an undemocratic one i s r e p u l s i v e . r e c r u i t m e n t techniques f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s because hard s e l l b i t t e r campaigns not  democratic  must be  studied  a g a i n s t employers  compatible with e n g i n e e r i n g v a l u e s .  must have an image,  Special  are  P o t e n t i a l unions  r e c r u i t m e n t p o l i c y , and s t r u c t u r e  are as compatible as p o s s i b l e  with w h i t e - c o l l a r values  involvement of t h i s s e c t o r  unlikely.  is  which or  B a i n (1970) presents union r e c o g n i t i o n by employers as an important i n f l u e n c e i n v o l v e d i n w h i t e - c o l l a r unionization. positive factor  Voluntary recognition i s a  significant  f o r union development as i s  i n Quebec and B a i n a l s o c i t e s  evidenced  s t u d i e s done i n B r i t a i n  -39-  (McCormick-mining, B l a c k b u r n - b a n k i n g , and v a r i o u s on r e t a i l c l e r k s ) recognition. considerable  studies  to support the importance of v o l u n t a r y  T h i s type of b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s interest  i n Canada because w h i t e - c o l l a r  workers are r e s t r a i n e d many p r o v i n c e s .  of  from forming b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s  in  V o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y  to m a i n t a i n c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s p i r i t  of f r i e n d s h i p i n  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r a t h e r than f o r c i n g  adversary  relations. Government p o l i c y i s another c r i t i c a l f a c t o r o p i n i o n of B a i n (1969). effect  Government p o l i c y has  i n the  tremendous  on w h i t e - c o l l a r unionism through n e u t r a l i z a t i o n or  containment of a n t i - u n i o n t a c t i c s  on the p a r t of  as w e l l as making w h i t e - c o l l a r c e r t i f i c a t i o n to more employees. i n Saskatchewan  U n i o n i z a t i o n i s most  available  significant  and Quebec where p u b l i c p o l i c y f o s t e r s  o r g a n i z a t i o n more than other areas i n Canada, Bain offers  I968).  employers  some a l t e r n a t i v e s  (Goldenberg,  to i n c r e a s e  the  r o l e of p u b l i c p o l i c y i n w h i t e - c o l l a r unionisms (1)  F o r c e the union to demonstrate  amongst those v o t i n g , not those (2) before  Relax the requirements  a majority  only  eligible. for pre-signed  members  a vote.  (3)  Speed up the r e c o g n i t i o n p r o c e s s .  (4)  Give unions more access f o r exchange  employees  with  to give the union an equal o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h the  -40-  employer. All  of these suggestions i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of  union development by making the c e r t i f i c a t i o n more easy and l e s s time consuming.  procedure  These new procedures  would combat employer r e s i s t a n c e and i f the  initial  groups met with success then others may a l s o f o l l o w . G.  Engineers and W h i t e - C o l l a r U n i o n i z a t i o n i n Canada Growth of the W h i t e - C o l l a r Work Force  (1)  W h i t e - c o l l a r areas have grown tremendously d u r i n g r e c e n t decades.  (Kleingartner,  1968)  Increases i n  numbers commenced at the t u r n of the c e n t u r y but g r e a t e s t surge occurred a f t e r  1931.  "In 1901 w h i t e - c o l l a r  workers comprised 15.2% of the Canadian l a b o u r whereas  this  in I96I."9  figure  force  has r i s e n to 24.4% i n 1931 and 38.6%  W h i t e - c o l l a r growth has been g r e a t e r than most  s e c t o r s except f o r s e r v i c e illustrates  the  workers.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  the dramatic r i s e i n w h i t e - c o l l a r workers: WORK FORCE GROWTH* % INCREASE (Number of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers  Group  1931  A l l Workers 3,922 White-collar 958 Manual 1,323 Service 363 Primary 1,2?5  1941 4,196 1,059 1,402 440 1,285  1951  1961  1971  _**  1931-  1951-  96l  1961  1  (,000) )  1961-  1971  5,215 6,342 8,771 6~T77 2176' 3o7o 1,691 2,447 4 , 1 0 8 155.4 44.7 6 3 . 0 1,964 2,313 2 , ? 1 0 6 7 . 2 12,7 17.0 446 683 1,090 8 8 . 0 5 3 . 2 7 0 . 0 1,050 830 790 434.9 - 2 0 . 9 7.0 TABLE THREE  *  Goldenberg, S h i r l e y , Task Force on Labour R e l a t i o n s , Study No. 2 , P r o f e s s i o n a l Workers and C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , Queen's P r i n t e r Ottawa, 1968, p. 16.  -41-  Estimates  from Information Canada.  The w h i t e - c o l l a r s e c t o r  i n c r e a s e d by over 6 3 %  between I96I and 1971 which i s  f a r h i g h e r than the average  (38%) f o r the whole labour f o r c e .  The p r o f e s s i o n a l  segment of the w h i t e - c o l l a r c a t e g o r i e s as the f o l l o w i n g table  shows: WHITE-COLLAR WORKERS *  1951  196I 2,447  261  226 304  1,691 393 563  240  247  349  493  238  282  386  634  Class  1931 1 9 4 1  Total Managerial Clerical Financial & Commercial Technical Professional Sales Service Transportation Communication  958 220  1,059  (,000)  1971 *#  501 819  1931  1951  1961  155.4  128.0 214,2  44.7 22.5 45.4  59.7  105.5  41,2  166,4  64,5  -61  789  1,217  1,142  573 996  -61  431 TABLE FOUR  * **  Goldenberg, p. 16. From S t a t i s t i c s Canada - The P r o f e s s i o n a l and T e c h n i c a l category i s the c l o s e s t noncensus l a b o u r f o r c e category which i s comparable to the p r o f e s s i o n a l c a t e g o r y . No e a r l i e r data i s a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison to the 1971 f i g u r e because e a r l i e r data d i d not i n c l u d e l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n s and e n g i n e e r i n g a s s i s t a n t s . In the p r o f e s s i o n a l  and  journalists  area a r c h i t e c t s  (69,0%),  ( 8 0 . 5 % ) , teachers and c o l l e g e  professors,  ( 6 5 , 0 % ) , and nurses (75.0%) have l e d to upsurge professionals  constitute  w h i t e - c o l l a r workers,  authors  to a p o i n t  over t w e n t y - f i v e percent of a l l  (Goldenberg,  opportunity for v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y i s  1968),  Limited  evidenced by managerial  -71  79.9  -42-  f i g u r e s which show the lowest and t h i s  jobs.  strong,  categories  l a c k of v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y destroys di dent i f i c a t i o n  w i t h management their  growth r a t e of a l l  and a i t e r s e n g i n e e r s ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s from  Bureaucratic  positive  methods  influences  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  are  f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n when combined  and the trend towards p a i d employment and r a p i d growth of  engineers r a i s e s the p r o b a b i l i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n  significant (2)  degree. Growth of  Professional  Engineers  engineers have experienced  growth than many other p r o f e s s i o n a l still  to a  less  c a t e g o r i e s but  have e x h i b i t e d l a r g e i n c r e a s e s .  spectacular they  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e  c a t e g o r i z e s engineers and t h e i r s p e c i f i c  r a t e s of  increase:  GROWTH OF ENGINEERS* % Change Engineers 1931 Chemical NA Civil NA Electrical 3937 Mechanical & Industrial 2859  1941 NA NA  4567  1951 2572 7743 6349  1961 1931-61 1951-61** 16.4 2995 53.4 11,877 8,758 122.5 37.9  4518  8328  12,091  322.9  45.2  TABLE FIVE * **  Goldenberg, p. 17. There i s no d e t a i l e d breakdown at a l l f o r i n a rough form.  1971, even  While engineers have grown i n a b s o l u t e numbers, have s i m u l t a n e o u s l y employment.  experienced  they  g r e a t e r involvement i n p a i d  Muir (1971) and Goldenberg (1968) found t h a t  engineering positions  c o n s i s t of over 95% p a i d work and  -43-  l e s s then 5% self-employment. employment i s such as  T h i s movement towards  c o n s i s t e n t with other p r o f e s s i o n a l  economists,  teachers,  nurses,  and  paid  groups  accountants.  (Goldenberg,  1968).  The f o l l o w i n g chapter c l e a r l y  illustrates  the p o s i t i v e  i m p l i c a t i o n s which growth of e n g i n e e r i n g  numbers and c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n p a i d employment have f o r unionization. The i n c r e a s e e v o l u t i o n of l a r g e ,  of e n g i n e e r i n g numbers i s bureaucratic  becoming more e v i d e n t i n Canada. treatment  organizations  t i e d to  the  which are  Bureaucracy and  its  of workers i s a v e r y s t r o n g f o r c e f o r union  formation as l a t e r  sections  show but the purpose of  this  segment i s b a s i c a l l y to provide evidence of t h i s growth and the movement towards p a i d employment. (3)  Degree of U n i o n i z a t i o n of E n g i n e e r s  Most employed p r o f e s s i o n a l s form of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n d e s p i t e c o l l e c t i v e bargaining,  a l r e a d y engage i n some  r e s i s t a n c e to formal  Goldenberg (I968) s t a t e s ,  i t has l o n g been an accepted p r a c t i c e  for  "Although  professionals  to engage i n some form of c o l l e c t i v e economic a c t i o n , as  fee  setting,  there has been c o n s i d e r a b l e  such  resistance  i n the p u b l i c mind, to the i d e a of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g as  the term i s  illustrate fall  generally u n d e r s t o o d . " l 0  that bargaining a c t i v i t i e s  T h i s quote  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s  anywhere between i n f o r m a l c o n s u l t a t i o n to  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining,  helps  full  depending on the group and  its  may  circumstances, Although engineers  are l e g a l l y able to form b a r g a i n i n g  u n i t s i n O n t a r i o , New Brunswick, Quebec, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, place  the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t  i n Quebec  (Goldenberg,  o r g a n i z a t i o n has  (50%) and i n the f e d e r a l c i v i l  1968),  P r o f e s s i o n a l engineers  taken  service.  i n other  p r o v i n c e s must r e l y on v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h employers to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  Goldenberg (I968)  p r e s e n t s O n t a r i o as a prime example to support  the  f e a s i b i l i t y and v i a b i l i t y of v o l u n t a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s because one-tenth of t h a t p r o v i n c e ' s engineers i n t h i s form of u n i t . is  One s p e c i f i c  to study p o s s i b i l i t i e s  w e l l as a l t e r n a t i v e s  purpose  are  of t h i s  which may e v o l v e , and i n f o r m a l b a r g a i n i n g  P r e s e n t l y i n Canada there i s  b a r g a i n i n g done by engineers real  " b a r g a i n i n g agent" i s (4)  paper  f o r f u t u r e u n i o n i z a t i o n , as  c o u l d be one s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y f o r f u t u r e a c t i o n s engineers.  active  Professional  little  collective  and i n many i n s t a n c e s  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  the  association.  Associations  P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e a l l Canadian professional association  engineers  to some degree and the r o l e of the  i n a new b a r g a i n i n g u n i t i s a c r i t i c a l problem  which must be d e a l t w i t h . will alter  The f u n c t i o n s of the  association  d r a s t i c a l l y i f widespread u n i o n i z a t i o n of  engineers  develops and a s s o c i a t i o n s may p l a y a f a r  different  r o l e i n the  future.  -45-  In one sense engineers  are  t o t a l l y organized because  v i r t u a l l y every engineer i n Canada belongs association  which i s  to a  e i t h e r p r o v i n c i a l i n scope  Columbia P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers A s s o c i a t i o n ) j u r i s d i c t i o n such as There i s  professional (British  or wider i n  the E n g i n e e r i n g I n s t i t u t e of Canada.  an a s s o c i a t i o n  more i n f l u e n t i a l bodies  i n every p r o v i n c e , and two of  the  i n Canadian e n g i n e e r i n g are The  A s s o c i a t i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s of O n t a r i o and The F e d e r a t i o n of P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers i n Quebec.  (Goldenberg,  1968). Associations  do not p a r t i c i p a t e  in collective  b a r g a i n i n g but they o f t e n seek r e l a t i o n s b e h a l f of e n g i n e e r s . adversary  w i t h companies on  Engineers a s s o c i a t i o n s do not seek  s t y l e s of b a r g a i n i n g ,  communications which s e t  r a t h e r they engage i n  a g o a l of h e l p i n g both  and often the company.  Existence  to g r a n t i n g of time o f f  f o r conferences  of a s s o c i a t i o n s may l e a d or leaves of  absence f o r engineers  to r e t u r n to u n i v e r s i t y to  skills.  also strive  Associations  such as r e s e a r c h r i g h t s findings,  and r i g h t s  upgrade  to o b t a i n other to p u b l i s h  benefits  scientific  i n other words there are attempts to persuade  employers to grant p r i v e l e g e s Strauss  to e n g i n e e r s .  (1963) presents some s p e c i f i c  a s s o c i a t i o n s are meant to s e r v e . different  engineers,  (Hall, purpose  These goals are  I972), that  completely  from the goals of b l u e - c o l l a r unions because  they r e a l l y seek to s a t i s f y needs i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l  sense  -46-  more than i n monetary terms.  Purposes  of  professional  a s s o c i a t i o n s do not i n c l u d e the pursuance of wages nor g r e a t e r idealistic  fringe benefits,  i n nature.  increased  r a t h e r they are  These purposes  include:  (1) (2) (3)  Social fraternization. Occupational i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . R a i s i n g the s t a t u s of the p r o f e s s i o n .  (4)  Self-regulation.  It  is  apparent from these purposes  professional group.  association  is a special,  t h a t the t y p i c a l i d e a l type of  There i s a " s p i r i t " i n t h i s type of  which i s  organization  s t r o n g l y t i e d to t r a d i t i o n and i d e a l i s t i c  In the case of p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers  this s p i r i t  values. is  d i r e c t l y opposed to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g with the  result  t h a t B a i r s t o w , S t r a u s s , Goldenberg, and most other observers  f e e l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g should be done by a  completely d i f f e r e n t body i f i t the b a s i c  purposes  be many s p e c i f i c (5)  is  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  forms as  done at a l l .  Within  a s s o c i a t i o n s there can  the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n  illustrates.  Forms of A s s o c i a t i o n s  P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s may serve many f u n c t i o n s and S t r a u s s  (1963) a l s o p r e s e n t s a v a r i e t y of  i n this area. purposes  categories  While a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s serve the f o u r  which were p r e v i o u s l y mentioned they may have  completely d i f f e r e n t  orientations.  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g way: (1) Learned s o c i e t y .  S t r a u s s has  categorized  -47-  (2)  Technical  society.  (3)  Personal-achievement o r i e n t e d .  (4)  Sounding boards.  (5)  Fully certified units.  E n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada cover the  full  spectrum of c a t e g o r i e s but the v a s t m a j o r i t y f a l l  into  the f i r s t  four areas.  Advancement of knowledge i s  a  primary g o a l of the l e a r n e d s o c i e t y and v i r t u a l l y a l l e n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s s t r e s s t h i s aim. of knowledge i s because i t  Advancement  important to s t a t u s of the  separates p r o f e s s i o n a l s  profession  from b l u e - c o l l a r  workers.  A l l professional  a s s o c i a t i o n s are  societies  to some extent whereas b l u e - c o l l a r unions do  not s t r e s s t h i s aspect i n g e n e r a l .  learned  Technical  society  and p e r s o n a l achievement f u n c t i o n s a l s o f o s t e r  occupational  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n while a t t e m p t i n g to r a i s e the s t a t u s of the profession.  The f i r s t  three o r i e n t a t i o n s are common to  v i r t u a l l y a l l professional  a s s o c i a t i o n s because they are  i n h e r e n t i n the term " p r o f e s s i o n a l . " and values  Professional  are the v e r y reason f o r e x i s t e n c e  associations,  therefore  the f i r s t  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the  a s s o c i a t i o n s has served the  three areas as Jean-Real C a r d i n (1961) s t a t e s , r o l e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l profession,  association  as a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d ,  professional  three f u n c t i o n s must  serve these unique needs and v a l u e s . r o l e of p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  needs  is  first "The  to endow the  of some  representative  -48-  and it  administrative amongst  organizations  other p r o f e s s i o n s  community.  capable  of  representing  and toward the  entire  I t a l s o has to manage the p r o f e s s i o n  the b e s t i n t e r e s t  for  of i t s members and the p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l  by the r e c r u i t m e n t of members and c o n t r o l of t h e i r On the other hand Muir  (1971) b e l i e v e s  that t h i s  activity,"1!  traditional  stand of a s s o c i a t i o n s must change to serve the l a s t two functions these  if  engineers  are to o b t a i n maximum b e n e f i t  from  alliances. The f i n a l  two types  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  o r i e n t a t i o n and l e s s dominant i n Canada,  are unique i n Sounding board  functions  are g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y with Canadian  engineers  as new problems of bureaucracy emerge.  approach u t i l i z e s n o n - b a r g a i n i n g groups i n c l u d i n g those i n management,  to attempt  i n communication between engineers primary aim of t h i s approach i s before  of  The  performance  of  This  engineers, improvements  and management.  to r e s o l v e  relationships  engineers.  i n c i d e n c e of f u l l y c e r t i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g u n i t s  i n v o l v e s o n l y a small p o r t i o n of engineers because are eleven a c t i v e 1973).  A  problems  they s e v e r e l y hamper management-engineer  and a f f e c t  professional  e n g i n e e r i n g u n i t s i n Canada.  There are u n i t s such as  Employees A s s o c i a t i o n ,  there  (Carson,  the Northern E l e c t r i c  the G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c E n g i n e e r s  Group, Canadian N a t i o n a l Telecommunications,  Professional  E n g i n e e r s ' Group, and the O n t a r i o C i v i l S e r v i c e  Professional  -1+9-  E n g i n e e r s ' Group but these u n i t s e f f e c t of Canadian e n g i n e e r s .  only a small portion  A push f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n and changes  i n r e l e v a n t laws and p u b l i c p o l i c y c o u l d a l t e r  the Canadian  s i t u a t i o n so t h a t b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s become more common. A,  (6)  General A c t i v i t i e s  E n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y concerned themselves w i t h a c t i v i t i e s bargaining. values  outside  T h i s stance i s  the realm of c o l l e c t i v e  d e r i v e d from p r o f e s s i o n a l  and a p h i l o s o p h y which condemns c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  as a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r .  Types of a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r  purposes  have been d i s c u s s e d  analysis  of a s s o c i a t i o n  i n g e n e r a l so a more d e t a i l e d  activities  can now be  E n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s n o r m a l l y conduct and conferences outside first  presented. seminars  e i t h e r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h employers or  the work p l a c e .  These events  serve two purposes,  they upgrade s k i l l s and m a i n t a i n e x c e l l e n c e  in  e n g i n e e r i n g knowledge, and s e c o n d l y , they r e i n f o r c e p r o f e s s i o n a l values  and f o s t e r  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  colleagues.  Group c o h e s i o n i s maintained through c o n t a c t with f e l l o w engineers who a l s o s t r e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l to e d u c a t i o n a l experiences it  at  values.  seminars and  In a d d i t i o n  conferences,  i s not unusual f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s to conduct t h e i r own  r e s e a r c h or to j o i n w i t h u n i v e r s i t i e s knowledge.  (Hall,  issues outside  1972).  Associations  to upgrade sometimes  the e n g i n e e r i n g a r e a such as  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineering research  the p o s s i b i l i t y  engineers.  -50-  Unions c o u l d p l a y an important r o l e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g seminars,  courses at u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  a c t u a l l y b a r g a i n i n g f o r time o f f  and conferences  to attend such  by  activities.  E d u c a t i o n c o u l d r e c e i v e a number of hours per week to a t t e n d courses or seminars staff  so t h a t a company's  would be f a m i l i a r with a l l new e n g i n e e r i n g  Maintenance and p r o g r e s s i o n an a s s e t to o r g a n i z a t i o n s  because d i r e c t c o s t s (products).  aspects of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g would t i e and union c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r ,  techniques.  of e n g i n e e r i n g knowledge  or development of new processes  this  engineering  is  cutting  The e d u c a t i o n the  at l e a s t on t h i s  association  s u b j e c t but  does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean the a s s o c i a t i o n  and u n i o n  have to be one body. A c q u i s i t i o n of new members and r e g u l a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s and behaviour are f u r t h e r a c t i v i t i e s Professional all  engineers  success.  associations strive  or companies,  simple because e n g i n e e r s '  100% membership of  are a v a i l a b l e  therefore  fully  normative r e f e r e n c e  (Kemper,  obtained  to j o i n a s s o c i a t i o n s .  T h i s r o l e of  s o c i a l chapter)  conduct and values  fairly  a more c r i t i c a l  associations.  group (see  b l u e - c o l l a r behaviour.  are e a s i l y  expect  C o n t r o l of behaviour and a t t i t u d e s i s f u n c t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l  from  recruitment i s  whereabouts  and a l s o because engineers  professional  associations.  i n Canada and t h i s has been a v i r t u a l  Names of new engineers  universities  for  of  engineering  reinforces  which are d i f f e r e n t 1968).  the  from  There i s a code of  -51-  behaviour which i s maintained by group pressure and i n many a s s o c i a t i o n s r e s i s t a n c e to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g proper  conduct.  Engineers' Influence  a s s o c i a t i o n s are a c t i v e  of l e g i s l a t i o n  lobbyists  has been c a r r i e d on  i n the past and e x c l u s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e c t i v e bargaining is efforts  (see  legal  a direct result  aspects, Carrothers,  lobbying a c t i v i t i e s  desires.  engineers  to  while pursuing  further  Communication r e i n f o r c e s  Communication a l s o  allows  to o b t a i n r e c o g n i t i o n f o r s c i e n t i f i c  ments which enhances  possibilities  of  a c t u a l l y serve as warehouses f o r  to the c o r r e c t members.  information  dispersing  P l a n n i n g f o r conferences  c o n t a c t w i t h f e l l o w engineers  and  i n other p a r t s of the country  would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t without e x i s t e n c e of Wideman (1971) o f f e r s  achieve-  self-actualization.  exchange by g a t h e r i n g a l l incoming data and  far  a  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n through c o n t a c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s  throughout the p r o f e s s i o n .  Associations  enhance  values.  a c t i v i t y of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  scientists  group  engineers'  Communication and i n f o r m a t i o n exchange i s  occupational  from  Through  1965).  a s s o c i a t i o n s are a b l e to use  s t a t u s of the e n g i n e e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n  well.  of past l o b b y i n g  The primary g o a l of a l l l o b b y i n g i s  professional  as  effectively  power to i n f l u e n c e Canadian law i n favour of  it  is  activities  g r e a t e r importance i n the future  associations.  which w i l l  develop  than i n past  times.  -52-  These areas i n c l u d e l e g a l a d v i c e to a s s o c i a t i o n  members,  employment c o u n s e l l i n g , p u b l i c a t i o n of member f i n d i n g s , and job placement.  A l l of these a c t i v i t i e s  c o n d i t i o n s which are f o r c i n g engineers c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and a s s o c i a t i o n aimed at l o w e r i n g B.  to  r e f l e c t upon  contemplate  a c t i v i t i e s may be  dissatisfaction.  Conflict  E n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s attempt to minimize i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n f l i c t to m a i n t a i n harmonious with management and f e l l o w workers. for resolutions  relations  Associations  search  to problems r a t h e r than u s i n g economic  weapons to i n t i m i d a t e employers.  Strikes  are an  " u n p r o f e s s i o n a l " means of i n f l u e n c i n g management, a s s o c i a t i o n s a v o i d work stoppage at a l l c o s t s .  In s p i t e  of d i s d a i n f o r s t r i k e s ,  future  involvement i n s t r i k e s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Quebec.  an a c t i o n becomes necessary be p r o v i d e d to questions  therefore  developments may see  some  If  such  then some v i t a l answers  will  such as,  how l o n g would  engineers  support a s t r i k e ,  how would the government r e a c t ,  or would  the union r e c e i v e  100%  support?  M i l i t a n c e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a source of power for b l u e - c o l l a r unions.  B l u e - c o l l a r negotiaters  employers as a d v e r s a r i e s  i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and  the s t r i k e  is  bargaining. relations  the u l t i m a t e weapon to be used i n  view  unsatisfactory  N e g o t i a t i o n s based on m i l i t a n c y i n employer  i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l  values  -53-  possessed by e n g i n e e r s ,  this implies that s t r i k e  threats  may not be v i a b l e a c t i o n s i n the case of an e n g i n e e r i n g u n i and presents sort if  a b a r r i e r to u n i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of pressure  must be a v a i l a b l e  gains are to be made.  because some  to engineers*  (Carrothers,  1965).  negotiator  There may be  other weapons a v a i l a b l e which are more compatible to e n g i n e e r i n g values but the r e a l b a r g a i n i n g power of other threats  may not be v e r y g r e a t .  Teachers are a source of i n f o r m a t i o n i n the c o n f l i c t area.  Teachers h o l d values  s i m i l a r to those of  and they are s t r i v i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers,  engineers  s t a t u s , as  are  y e t they have e x h i b i t e d m i l i t a n c y i n r e l a t i o n s  w i t h employers.  There i s r e a l evidence i n the systems  chapter t h a t m i l i t a n c y has r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e gains teachers  for  y e t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n d r i v e seems  unhindered by t h i s m i l i t a n c y .  Changing needs of  were r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s  teachers  and a more u n i o n -  l i k e stance towards c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g adopted to meet these problems, SUMMARY Forces f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n of Canadian engineers occur at three separate l e v e l s , force,  forces  on the g e n e r a l l a b o u r  p r e s s u r e s on w h i t e - c o l l a r workers and s p e c i f i c  p r e s s u r e s which are unique to e n g i n e e r s . presents  the f i r s t  detailed analysis  two areas and leaves i n another c h a p t e r .  T h i s chapter the s p e c i f i c s  Blum  presents  for  -54-  ecomonic, s o c i o l o g i c a l ,  industrial relations  areas f o r the study of g e n e r a l union growth. area there are more s p e c i f i c cycles,  factors  such as  and p o l i t i c a l W i t h i n each business  employer r e c o g n i t i o n , and p u b l i c p o l i c y which  encourage of v a r i o u s  or i n h i b i t union growth. elements  Through  i n Canada, Blum b e l i e v e s  i n union growth can be e x p l a i n e d to a g r e a t Bain offers  white-collar factors  analysis that  trends  degree.  which are i n f l u e n c e d  by g e n e r a l f o r c e s but are more important f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r workers.  Bain's variables  sociodemographic elements, recognition, such as  i n c l u d e trade union image, economic p o s i t i o n , employer  and p u b l i c p o l i c y .  Some of the  factors  employer r e c o g n i t i o n and p u b l i c p o l i c y can be  facilitators  to union f o r m a t i o n whereas trade union aspects  and the work s i t u a t i o n h o l d n e g a t i v e  implications for  unionism which must be overcome. Growth i n numbers of p r o f e s s i o n a l s been phenomenal i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  i n Canada has  W h i t e - c o l l a r workers  comprise over one-quarter of the l a b o u r f o r c e and t h i s sector  is  still  increasing rapidly.  Professionals  are  the f a s t e s t growing segment of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers although engineers  are n o t 1 t h e l e a d e r s  i n professional  growth. Growth i n numbers of p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n recent years,  i s phenomenal  a l o n g with the t r e n d to l a r g e ,  c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada.  bureau-  D e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n and  -55-  segmentation are u t i l i z e d by l a r g e efficiency  and pools of engineers  size results  firms to o b t a i n are r e q u i r e d .  greater  Increasing  i n b u r e a u c r a t i c methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  which may w e l l be promotive to e n g i n e e r i n g u n i o n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada are one form of o r g a n i z i n g which engineers  have supported s o l i d l y .  Associations reinforce professional w h i l e s e r v i n g many purposes. of l e a r n e d s o c i e t i e s ,  values  Associations  technical societies,  and g o a l s take the form personal-  achievement o r i e n t e d groups,  sounding boards  c e r t i f i e d bargaining units.  These groups a i d i n s o c i a l  fraternizing,  occupational i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  and r a i s i n g the s t a t u s of the p r o f e s s i o n .  or  fully  self-regulation, Activities  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been e d u c a t i o n a l or d e d i c a t e d to r a i s i n g professional possible.  s t a t u s but some i n f l u e n c e on the employer i s  C o n f l i c t has been minimized by engineers  t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s because h o s t i l i t y v i o l a t e s conduct. teachers  Strikes  are not a c c e p t a b l e  have s i m i l a r values  professional  to engineers  yet  and goals to engineers  they have used m i l i t a n c y to g r e a t  advantage.  and  and  -56-  CHAPTER FOUR SPECIFIC FORCES CONDUCIVE TO THE FORMATION OF ENGINEERING UNIONS Forces encouraging u n i o n i z a t i o n of Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers  have become more p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g r e c e n t  Industrial relations these f o r c e s  scholars  and the r e s u l t  are presented  sections  of these  i n t h i s chapter.  u n i o n i z a t i o n of engineers therefore  and engineers  have  years.  studied  investigations  Forces conducive to  are unique to t h a t  group,  the t o p i c i s much narrower i n scope than p r e v i o u s which presented p r e s s u r e s which a c t upon a l l  workers ( i n c l u d i n g e n g i n e e r s . ) discussed  A l l of the  i n t h i s section increase  u n i o n f o r m a t i o n but i t i s influences  essential  actually affect  forces  the p o s s i b i l i t y of to d i s c o v e r which  behaviour of e n g i n e e r s .  These  p r e s s u r e s are g r e a t e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Quebec, O n t a r i o but they are growing elsewhere  i n Canada.  and (Muir,  197D. A.  P a i d Employment A growing c o n c e n t r a t i o n of Canadian engineers  themselves  working f o r l a r g e  find  companies i n p a i d employment.  Muir (1971) and Goldenberg (1968) r e v e a l t h a t over 90% of Canada's  professional  engineers  are engaged i n p a i d  employment r a t h e r than b e i n g s e l f - e m p l o y e d . potential catalyst  f o r unionism because of  This i s  a  bureaucratic  methods of l e a d e r s h i p which are used to a d m i n i s t e r  large  -57-  sub-groups  within organizations.  The e f f e c t s  of  large  groups are documented i n the s o c i a l chapter to show specific  connotations f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers.  The growth of Canadian i n d u s t r y has been l i n k e d  to  i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n of l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n to take advantage of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and economies of s c a l e .  It  i s becoming necessary to use l a r g e s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n , m a r k e t i n g , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n home and abroad. i n large,  to remain c o m p e t i t i v e  Canadian engineers  bureaucratic  f i n d t h a t employment  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s jobs which  are r o u t i n i z e d and l e s s demanding (and f u l f u l l i n g ) past work r o l e s .  (Muir,  removed from r o l e s  at  1971)-  than  Engineers have been  i n t o t a l p r o j e c t s so t h a t many are  v i c t i m s of d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n whereby i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the process cannot be B a i n (1970) i l l u s t r a t e s  engineers'  seen.  problems of working  i n a l a r g e company, "The development of  specialization  w i t h i n the e n g i n e e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n has l e d to mass t r a i n i n g of engineers  and the u t i l i z a t i o n of  engineers  on almost a p r o d u c t i o n l i n e b a s i s by many l a r g e As a r e s u l t many engineers  are d i s s a t i s f i e d  with b e i n g  one of a f a c e l e s s mass of engineers w i t h l i t t l e for incentive.  They are thus t u r n i n g to  corporations.  opportunity  collective  b a r g a i n i n g as a means of a s s e r t i n g themselves  and of having  a say i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i r s a l a r i e s and working conditions."12  -58-  As  engineers are moved towards b l u e - c o l l a r r o l e s and  s t a t u s by s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , one a p p r o p r i a t e means f o r p u r s u i n g engineers* (Boyd,  desires  is  through c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n .  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n manager  1970).  and  s c i e n t i s t r o l e s are d i s a p p e a r i n g at the work p l a c e ,  and  needSjother than worker needs,  through the job.  are not  Movement to a b l u e - c o l l a r p o s i t i o n  i s not c o n s i s t e n t w i t h needs nor goals of but  satisfied  domination of l a r g e ,  engineers  b u r e a u c r a t i c companies means  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l engineers are powerless to combat the situation.  (Blum et, al., 1971). Pursuance of  output at lower c o s t i s  greater  the o n l y goal-which concerns  many companies t h e r e f o r e group a c t i o n i s a most  effective  method to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n . B.  The Labour Market The  l a b o u r market a l s o i s  u n i o n i z a t i o n i n Canada.  a p o s i t i v e force  for  A b u y e r ' s market i n Canada  has r e s u l t e d from a supply of engineers which has o u t d i s t a n c e d demand d u r i n g the past decade. 1971),  T h i s market c o n d i t i o n i s  advantage.  to  seller's  G r a d u a t i n g engineers no l o n g e r have a wide  c h o i c e of job o f f e r s r e c e i v e no job o f f e r s Boyd,  (Boyd,  i n direct contrast  p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s when engineers enjoyed a  far  1971).  job market i s  they once d i d , and many graduates at a l l .  (Goldenberg, I 9 6 8 , and  One v e r y n e g a t i v e r e s u l t of the poor the i n a b i l i t y of engineers to seek jobs  -59-  which meet t h e i r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l needs because c o m p e t i t i o n f o r openings working  i s f i e r c e and job s e c u r i t y f o r  engineers i s important,  (Blum, 1971).  M o b i l i t y has f a l l e n because of poor l a b o u r market c o n d i t i o n s so t h a t s e c u r i t y p r e c a u t i o n s f o r c e  engineers  to remain a t one job r a t h e r than q u i t t i n g work even i f the job circumstances are completely unacceptable,  Intra-  company p i r a t i n g was once a common p r a c t i c e but today t h i s phenomena i s no l o n g e r an advantage f o r engineers because there are q u a l i f i e d , in  job market.  experienced engineers  available  V o l u n t a r y m o b i l i t y or c a r r y i n g out a  search f o r a new p o s i t i o n while employed i s a l s o more d i f f i c u l t f o r engineers w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h r e a t s to move to competitors no l o n g e r b r i n g r a i s e s f o r engineers.  ( o r promotions)  Job m o b i l i t y was p r e v i o u s l y a main  s t r a t e g y f o r v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y i n the h i e r a r c h y as w e l l as an a l t e r n a t i v e to f i n d a more s a t i s f a c t o r y  employer  o r g a n i z a t i o n but a l l the advantages of a heavy demand are not e x i s t e n t any l o n g e r . 1971, Muir,  (Boyd, Gross and McKay,  1971).  With s e c u r i t y becoming an i s s u e , engineers are f o r c e d to accept lower l e v e l s of need s a t i s f a c t i o n whereby they experience v i o l a t i o n of some p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l values,  A g l u t on the l a b o u r market makes i t i m p e r a t i v e  to f i n d and h o l d a job r a t h e r than search f o r a p o s i t i o n t h a t s a t i s f i e s higher order needs and Dvorak  (I963),  -60-  Walton ( 1 9 6 l ) and Hansen (1963) a l l s t r e s s the power of }  an unfavourable  job market to i n c r e a s e  acceptance of unionism. b r i n g engineers  closer  engineering  F e a r s i n v o l v i n g job to a b l u e - c o l l a r  stance and  i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of u n i o n i z a t i o n . P e r s o n a l power, which i s decreases, such as C.  security-  (Bain,  i n h e r e n t i n a buoyant  1970).  market,  thus i n c r e a s i n g a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of power t a c t i c s  those i n h e r e n t i n u n i o n i z a t i o n ,  Trade Union Movement The  trade union movement i s  seen as  a major  pressure  toward u n i o n i z a t i o n by Muir ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Nault (1969), and Goldenberg ( I 9 6 8 ) . is  s t a g i n g an overt attempt to organize  workers.  In an e f f o r t  engineers, of  to organize  the CLC has h i r e d a f u l l  white-collar organization,  (1971) o f f e r s Treasurer  the f e e l i n g s  with a f u l l  relations (3)  time  as  co-ordinator  Mr, A r t h u r Kube,  Muir  Secretary-  a s s a u l t the w h i t e - c o l l a r  time c o - o r d i n a t o r of w h i t e - c o l l a r areas organization  ofs  Develop an a f f i l i a t i o n between the CLC and  professional (2)  such workers  time c o - o r d i n a t o r of w h i t e - c o l l a r  the purpose (1)  white-collar  of B i l l Dodge,  of the CLC, "We w i l l  a r e a with a f u l l  for  The Canadian Labour Congree (CLC)  associations,  Remove p r o f e s s i o n a l  exclusions  from l a b o u r  acts, Develop " c r a f t - t y p e "  occupations,^  unions of  professional  -61-  The CLC pursues an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n where w h i t e - c o l l a r workers w i l l u n i o n i z e and a f f i l i a t e of  a l l professional  yet Sweden i s  exclusions  is  with the CLC.  a high goal to  attain  an e x c e l l e n t example t h a t w h i t e - c o l l a r  workers can be u n i o n i z e d n a t i o n - w i d e , 1968),  Removal  (Kleingartner,  (The estimate from the Vancouver l i b r a r y i s  w e l l over 80% of w h i t e - c o l l a r workers are Ideally,  that  unionized.)  the change i n the s i t u a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the  CLC can be seen v i a the S t r a u s s model i n f i g u r e  six:  CANADIAN LABOUR CONGRESS GOALS  FROM the Present Situation  More L i k e l y To be U n i o n i z e d  TO a situation where almost every worker may join a union.  More L i k e l y to be Unionized  FIGURE SIX D.  A t t i t u d e s Toward Unionism Muir (1971) and Goldenberg (1968) c i t e a changing  attitude  on the p a r t of p r o f e s s i o n a l s  in c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  toward involvement  This trend i s  true f o r  society  as a whole, as w e l l as w h i t e - c o l l a r workers and there evidence to show t h i s i n the chapter c o n c e r n i n g union growth.  Professionals  i n c r e a s i n g l y accept  collective  is  -62-  a c t i o n as  an a p p r o p r i a t e  employees  i n organization decision-making  (i960)  Bain  believes  method to i n v o l v e w h i t e - c o l l a r  t h i s viewpoint i s  necessary f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s justification  structures.  legitimate  and  because the l e g i t i m a c y and  of trade unions r e s t s upon a b e l i e f  value of democratic d e c i s i o n - a m k i n g . p o s t u l a t e s t h a t democracy i s  (1969)  Bain  a good t h i n g and the  way to m a i n t a i n democratic circumstances  i n the  is  only  f o r workers  to form groups which have some v o i c e i n d e c i s i o n s , softening attitude action is for  towards  the use of  collective  a long-term t r e n d w i t h favourable  union p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  New a t t i t u d e  influences  (See  A  organization  implications chapter).  have produced a dramatic r e v o l -  u t i o n i n e n g i n e e r i n g behaviour i n many p r o v i n c e s such as B.C.  and O n t a r i o (see  law chapter)  may a l s o produce f u r t h e r e f f e c t s  and these elsewhere.  Evidence of the changing a t t i t u d e  is  O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia e x p e r i e n c e s . Hall,  influences  p r o v i d e d by Mr. W i l l i a m  managing d i r e c t o r of the B. C. A s s o c i a t i o n of  Professional Engineers,  states that his A s s o c i a t i o n  a c t i v e l y seeking c o l l e c t i v e bargaining r i g h t s membership f u l l y supports t h a t i n I966, s e v e n t y - f i v e  this  goal.  is  and the  I t must be noted  percent of the membership  gave w r i t t e n support f o r changes i n the Engineers A c t to support c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . a favourable  attitude  Ontario also  exhibits  toward c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  In  -63-  1 9 6 1 a vote of engineers  crushed supporters  b a r g a i n i n g but by I966 the A s s o c i a t i o n of  of  collective  Professional  Engineers of O n t a r i o made a key p o l i c y change to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  (Globe and M a i l ,  The a s s o c i a t i o n  its  altered  o p p o s i t i o n to  accept  June 28,  1969).  engineering  unions i n I966 because some members were e x p e r i e n c i n g deep f r u s t r a t i o n s institutions, felt  i n large,  utilities  unusually impersonal,  and super c o r p o r a t i o n s .  Engineers  t h e i r value was n e i t h e r r e c o g n i z e d nor u t i l i z e d  and s a l a r i e s were a l s o unacceptable b a r g a i n i n g was the o n l y acceptable and M a i l , did f e e l  October 22,  1970).  so  collective  alternative,  (Globe  The O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n  t h a t b a r g a i n i n g should be c a r r i e d on i n an  e t h i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l  manner without use  of the  strike  weapon. A major problem of u n i o n i z a t i o n c e n t r e s  on the  use  of s t r i k e s and m i l i t a n c y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  Carrothers  (I965) s t a t e s t h a t a major  barrier  to union development i s not the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of unionism and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m  but the d i s c o v e r y of a  reasonable s u b s t i t u t e f o r the s t r i k e .  C a i n and Seidman  (1964) a l s o concur on c o m p a t i b i l i t y of u n i o n i z a t i o n and professionalism  but a g a i n the d i f f i c u l t y i s  acquiring  group power without economic weapons such a?s the E.  Professional  Treatment  W. Lee Hansen (1963) p r e s e n t s problems of treatment  strike.  faced by e n g i n e e r s ,  "The nature of  professional  discontent  -64-  and i t s apparent  growth among p r o f e s s i o n a l even a f t e r  literature  a perusal  on e n g i n e e r s ,  when the proceedings  engineers  becomes  of the growing body of  and c e r t a i n l y becomes q u i t e  of v a r i o u s  engineering  societies  are examined.  B a s i c a l l y the engineer seems to f e e l  h i s treatment  i s not t h a t which should be accorded a  professional f o r engineers  worker,"!^  A l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l  is a positive  Strauss  s t i m u l u s toward u n i o n i z a t i o n  and others have presented needs and v a l u e s  is  treatment.  (Bain,  1970).  bureaucratic,  need f o r engineers  There i s  of r e c o g n i t i o n of engineers assignment  to  support  a l s o an inadequate as p r o f e s s i o n a l s  t a s k s antagonizes  amount  standards  Assignment of b l u e - c o l l a r  engineers and i n c r e a s e s  of b l u e - c o l l a r t a c t i c s  as  i n the  of work which i s below p r o f e s s i o n a l  and r o u t i n i z e d i n many r e s p e c t s .  sympathy  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  t h e i r goals of upward m o b i l i t y and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s " s p e c i a l workers."  areas  t h a t lower s t a t u s and a  are e x p e r i e n c e d .  management i s a b a s i c  i n large,  Engineers f e e l l i t t l e  from management with the r e s u l t damaged self-image  deficient  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with management  one a r e a which i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  organization.  engineers  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  complaints h e l p i l l u s t r a t e  i n professional  of  (1971)  treatment than b l u e - c o l l a r  workers to achieve s a t i s f a c t i o n Specific  to improve  (1963), B a i r s t o w (1968), Muir  which r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t  that  treatment  because i n d i v i d u a l b a r g a i n i n g i s not s u f f i c i e n t conditions.  clear  the p o s s i b i l i t y  as a form of r e t a l i a t i o n .  -65-  I n a p p r o p r i a t e means of s e t t l i n g i n d i v i d u a l problems a l s o enhances union p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  It  is  imperative that  engineers p e r c e i v e themselves as v a l u a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n but the m e t h o d i c a l b l u e - c o l l a r treatment i n settlement of grievances i s unacceptable because everyday problem s o l v i n g and grievance settlement i n b u r e a u c r a t i c circumstances f o l l o w r u l e s and procedures which have always been used f o r b l u e - c o l l a r employees. A union c o u l d f o r c e management to d e a l w i t h e n g i n e e r i n g problems more q u i c k l y ,  perhaps through the c r e a t i o n of  a new p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a r c h y .  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to  engineers grievances may make them f e e l t h a t  their  c o n t r i b u t i o n i s not t r i v i a l nor e a s i l y r e p l a c e d l i k e  a  b l u e - c o l l a r worker. Communication a l s o enters treatment.  i n t o the area of p r o f e s s i o n a l  Management should a l l o w engineers to communicate  v e r t i c a l l y as w e l l as h o r i z o n t a l l y to meet needs of exchange w i t h c o l l e a g u e s If  and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with management.  channels of communication are b l o c k e d then engineers  must f i n d other ways to communicate or grows.  Strauss  dissatisfaction  (I963) shows t h a t engineers are  likely  to ignore b u r e a u c r a t i c channels and go s t r a i g h t  to the  man they wish to speak w i t h .  A. probable r e s u l t of  i g n o r i n g proper channels i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a reprimand or punishment which b r i n g s even g r e a t e r dissatisfaction  to e n g i n e e r s .  -66-  Regressive management p r a c t i c e s  push engineers  towards r o l e conceptions which are s i m i l a r to members of the u n i o n i z e d s e c t o r .  The f a u l t may not be due to  management p o l i c y so much as  the r i g i d r u l e s of  bureaucracy and p e r c e p t i o n s of engineers are important because t h e i r own b e l i e f s  affect  behaviour.  Bureaucracy  pushes management f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r away from  engineers  as r e d tape and formal r u l e s envelope the company, F.  P e r s o n a l Treatment Large, bureaucratic organizations  seldom  adequate r e c o g n i t i o n or treatment f o r the  offer  individual.  Separate treatment f o r each engineer ( r a t h e r than group treatment) (Walton,  is a c r i t i c a l  I96I).  element i n the needs of  Bureaucracy d i c t a t e s  be d e a l t with i n groups to f o s t e r  t h a t workers should  e f f i c i e n c y but  type of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n leaves l i t t l e change f o r treatment.  (Bain,  engineers,  this individual  I969),  Broad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of workers and a l a c k of titles  job  prevent engineers from measuring p e r s o n a l worth  to the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Engineers r e q u i r e reinforcement  from management and r e p o r t s  on progress to r e l i e v e  d i s s a t i f a c t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n .  Perhaps i n d u c t i o n procedures  or p e r i o d i c e v a l u a t i o n s c o u l d minimize  dissatisfaction,  y e t markers to measure p e r s o n a l progress are absent i n many o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Assignment to monotonous, b l u e - c o l l a r  tasks can be o f f s e t p a r t i a l l y by p r o j e c t r o t a t i o n and time o f f f o r conferences but p e r s o n a l treatment may s t i l l  -67-  be a source of  dissatisfaction.  Adoption of human r e l a t i o n s  type of  c o u l d a l s o d i s p e l problems of p e r s o n a l Although engineers  leadership  treatment.  do not want nor need a l e a d e r  over t h e i r shoulder, aware of e n g i n e e r s '  doting  they do r e q u i r e a l e a d e r who i s d e s i r e s f o r p r a i s e and c o n s u l t a t i o n .  Bureaucracy tends to provide l e a d e r s who are present only d u r i n g c r i s e s whereas  engineers  seek p r a i s e and r e c o g n i t i o n  of i n d i v i d u a l m e r i t .  A joint effort  union c o u l d seek the most e f f e c t i v e to o b t a i n g r e a t e r output and  by management leadership  style  satisfaction.  K l e i n g a r t n e r (1968) speaks of bureaucracy as " r e i g n of r u l e s " where f a v o r i t i s m and promotion f a r more than m e r i t .  often a f f e c t s A result  of  m e r i t , promotion, e t c . ,  r e i g n of r u l e s .  the  treated  as  regarding  to d e a l with the  Problems of p e r s o n a l  summarized by B a i n ( I 9 6 9 ) :  a  discipline  c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n c o u l d be p r o c e d u r a l safeguards dismissal,  and  treatment  are  "They do not f e e l they  i n d i v i d u a l s so they d o n ' t r e a c t as  and they are b e g i n n i n g to t h i n k i n terms of  are  individuals  collective  action."15 G.  Salaries S a l a r i e s are g a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e as a p o s i t i v e  to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . p a i d employment r e c e i v e  impetus  Engineers who are i n v o l v e d i n  significantly less  than t h e i r self-employed c o u n t e r p a r t s .  remuneration  An unpublished  -68-  study by The Department of Manpower and Immigration I967 revealed that  "engineers who are p a i d employees earn an  average income of $12,148 compared to $17,299 average for  self-employed  engineers.  Arguments on b e h a l f of p a i d engineers the f a c t  t h a t self-employed engineers  have made l a r g e r 1971).  Goldenberg (1968)  and other  gains i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  T h i s argument of r e l a t i v e  are based on professionals  (Blum et. aL,  deprivation is  to be a major source  of  shown by  discontent  because e n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s have i g n o r e d the Another f a c e t of the s a l a r y problem i s of  s i m i l a r jobs i n d i f f e r e n t  s i g n i f i c a n t variances  organization.  comparison There are  i n s a l a r i e s f o r engineers  s i m i l a r tasks i n competing companies.  professional I969).  values  and output  area.  Differences  i n i n e q u i t i e s between  companies which are unacceptable "Peaking" i s engineers, of  J.  to  (Strauss,  t y p i c a l of a  non-union a r e a where there i s no extra-company  result  therefore  and leads to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  r e q u i r e d i n the s a l a r y  are  violates  E x i s t e n c e of an unequal s i t u a t i o n i s  situations  performing  Engineers  a c u t e l y aware of m e r i t as a b a s i s f o r rewards unequal pay f o r s i m i l a r e f f o r t  situation.  comparisons  i n company  different  engineers.  another cause f o r complaint by p a i d  L. C o r n e i l l e ,  Engineers Quebec s t a t e s ,  v i c t i m s of a p l a t e a u  president "engineers  of the C o r p o r a t i o n seem to be the  syndrome - they r e a c h a c e r t a i n  -69-  s a l a r y and they never make any more.  A l t e r n a t i v e s such  as wage g u i d e l i n e s , adoption of by-laws by members  to;  implement a minimum wage s c a l e or p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n for  a province-wide s c a l e f o r engineers  alternatives  f o r study."-7  have expressed in  dissatisfaction  v/ith s a l a r y  P a i d engineers  maximum s a l a r y by the age of f o r t y years  Strauss  some  Engineers i n p a i d employment  other provinces as w e l l .  the f a c t  are  progression often reach  i n s p i t e of  t h a t much p r o d u c t i v e work l i f e s t i l l  remains.  (1964), C a i n and Seidman (1964), and Goldenberg  (1968) a l l s t r e s s the problem of t e l e s c o p i n g of for  professional  engineers.  be one way to j u s t i f y  salaries  Obsolescence of s k i l l s may  t e l e s c o p i n g but p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  education to update s k i l l s  i s a goal of e n g i n e e r i n g unions  which tends to n e u t r a l i z e t h i s T e l e s c o p i n g of wages i s  argument.  supported by the f o l l o w i n g  Department of Manpower study: T e l e s c o p i n g of Wages* l e s s than 9 years  $vel"o?§48  10 - 19 20 - 29  n c o m e  12,695 12,885  over 30 years  14,999 TABLE SIX  *  M u i r , J . Douglas, "Is a Trade Union I n e v i t a b l e f o r E n g i n e e r s ? " , Canadian P e r s o n n e l and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s J o u r n a l , V o l . 18, No. 1, January 19?1, P. 21.  SUMMARY S p e c i f i c forces  f o r the growth of e n g i n e e r s '  unions  -70  appear to be i n c r e a s i n g i n s t r e n g t h . movement, p r o f e s s i o n a l  treatment,  The trade  changing  union  attitudes  toward u n i o n i s m , an unfavourable labour market,  personal  treatment and s a l a r y problems provide j u s t i f i c a t i o n a union movement.  P r o f e s s i o n a l and p e r s o n a l  are symptoms of d i f f i c u l t i e s  which r e s u l t  for  treatment  from bureaucracy  because b u r e a u c r a t i c methods i n h e r e n t l y r e q u i r e dehumanization and a l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l s p i t e of decreased  satisfaction  treatment  i n the company.  improvement i n labour market c o n d i t i o n s would  in  An  lessen  the p r o b a b i l i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n because a l t e r n a t i v e s less bureaucratic  o r g a n i z a t i o n may be a v a i l a b l e .  problems are not l i k e l y to disappear action is  taken by e n g i n e e r s ,  association  in  Salary  unless  some form of  e i t h e r by the  professional  or through a u n i o n .  A softening  attitude  towards unionism f o r w h i t e - c o l l a r workers i s growing throughout s o c i e t y and i t w i l l bureaucracy i s  f l o u r i s h as  l o n g as  dominant form of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  A key to the i n f l u e n c e of p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s permanence of these f o r c e s . engineers'  If  the  severe v i o l a t i o n of  needs i s a l o n g - r u n s t a t e then p r o b a b i l i t y of  u n i o n i z a t i o n i s very high.  The l a b o u r market appears  to be l e a s t permanent of a l l f a c t o r s bureaucratic greater  is  because  large,  o r g a n i z a t i o n are l i k e l y to employ even a  percentage  of engineers  of treatment and a t t i t u d e s probable to disappear  i n the f u t u r e .  toward unionism are  i n the s h o r t - t e r m .  Areas least  The important  -71-  o u t l o o k here i s how p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n .  If  engineers  perceive  they view p o s i t i v e f o r c e s  long-term i n f l u e n c e s then u n i o n i z a t i o n may be the means of a s s e r t i n g  very w e l l .  only  an e n g i n e e r i n g outlook on management.  Perhaps one quote can sum the a r e a of forces  as  Mr. V a l S c o t t ,  positive  g e n e r a l manager of  the S o c i e t y of O n t a r i o Hydro P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s and Associates impersonal,  states,  "Engineers work i n l a r g e ,  institutes,  u t i l i t i e s and super  They are f r e q u e n t l y t o l d that they are p a r t but t h i s statement  usually coporations. of management,  w i l l not stand up under c l o s e  J u s t becasue they may s u p e r v i s e  a number of  does not mean t h a t they occupy an e f f e c t i v e  scrutiny.  subordinates management  p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e to t h e i r own c o n d i t i o n s of employment. Many of them f e e l  t h a t t h e i r value i s not  r e c o g n i z e d or u t i l i z e d ,  nor do they have an i n f l u e n c e  on working c o n d i t i o n s and standards with t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l  sufficiently  at a l l  commensurate  and e d u c a t i o n a l accomplishments.  S a l a r i e s are a l s o d e t e r i o r a t i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the r a t e s of pay i n s o c i e t y as a whole."1^  -72-  CHAPTER FIVE LEGAL ASPECTS L e g a l aspects are c r i t i c a l determinants probabilities engineers.  stifle  engineers*  of great consequence because l a b o u r  union development or encourage  implementation of favourable for  professional  The impact of l a b o u r law on the  situation is can  f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n of Canadian  i n studying  it  public p o l i c y .  statutes  through It  is  laws to prevent u n i o n i z a t i o n even where unions  s t r o n g l y d e s i r e d and needed by employees.  Seventy  percent of Canada's  are  professional  engineers  possible are  presently  able to form c e r t i f i e d u n i t s at one of the f o l l o w i n g three l e v e l s : privately. civil  federal,  (Carson,  engineers  any p r i v a t e  1973).  service  (provincial)  Not a l l p r o v i n c e s  or  allow  to b a r g a i n and many p r o v i n c e s d o n ' t a l l o w  engineers  under f e d e r a l  civil  to b a r g a i n e i t h e r but a l l  j u r i s d i c t i o n have the r i g h t to  engineers  collective  bargaining. E x c l u s i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l bargaining rights  is  u n i o n i z a t i o n attempt  engineers  from c o l l e c t i v e  p r e s e n t l y a b a r r i e r to any major i n Canada.  If  labour regulations  many Canadian p r o v i n c e s are not a l t e r e d  to a l l o w  in  engineers  to o r g a n i z e ,  then the r e a l i s s u e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers  becomes,  i n f o r m a l b a r g a i n i n g on a l a r g e s c a l e  possible  "Is  or p r o b a b l e ,  and how would d i f f e r e n t  circumstances  alter  -73-  that  probability?" Professional  engineers  i n the p r o v i n c e s of Quebec, Ontario,  and Manitoba.  engineers  are allowed to b a r g a i n New Brunswick,  only  Saskatchewan,  Other p r o v i n c e s do not a l l o w  to u n i o n i z e f o r the purpose of  collective  b a r g a i n i n g because of t h e i r c o n f i d e n t i a l s t a t u s i n most cases.  There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t other p r o v i n c e s  a l l o w engineers  to organize but t h i s development i s  w i t h more c l o s e l y i n the l a t t e r  stages of the  R e l a t i o n s Boards,  engineers,  dealt  chapter.  T h i s chapter i n c l u d e s a h i s t o r y of labour r e l a t i o n s concerning professional  shall  laws  the r o l e of Labour  p r e s s u r e s which c o u l d a l t e r  the law,  and a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l laws. A.  History  H i s t o r i c a l developments  i n labour law  reflect  engineers'  sentiments  toward unionism i n the p a s t .  Carrothers  (1965) t r a c e s the development of labour  l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g engineers regulations  evolved.  to show how present  The b a s i c reasons f o r  and p r o v i n c i a l e x c l u s i o n s  of engineers  are  federal revealed  through h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s although some of the p r o v i n c i a l laws and f e d e r a l  exclusions  have been a l t e r e d  Approximately 1,100 engineers  recently.  i n Canada were  covered by c o l l e c t i v e agreements f o l l o w i n g World War I I . Negotiations  of these pacts took place under j u r i s d i c t i o n  -74-  of  the Wartime Labour R e l a t i o n s R e g u l a t i o n s  of 1944, and  t h e i r e x p i r y date concurred w i t h the end of the war. These wartime c o n t r a c t s Canadian engineers  p r o v i d e the major experience  for  i n the a r e a of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ,  however the s i g n i f i c a n c e  of the agreements  s m a l l because of s p e c i a l wartime  is  relatively  circumstances.  A d v e r s a r y r e l a t i o n s which n o r m a l l y e x i s t between employer and employee d u r i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g was not  a major f a c t o r  i n these agreements  because the aim of  the c o n t r a c t s was to a v o i d work i n t e r r u p t i o n s at a l l A Wartime Labour R e l a t i o n s Board was formed to  cost.  protect  the good of the country d u r i n g wartime by p r e v e n t i n g slowdowns or s t r i k e s ,  therefore  the p h i l o s o p h y and terms  c o n t a i n e d i n these temporary c o n t r a c t s was meant to f a c i l i t a t e  p r o d u c t i o n f o r the war e f f o r t .  developments took place a f t e r  The f o l l o w i n g  the war and i t i s  time laws t h a t are most p e r t i n e n t to t h i s  solely  the  peace-  paper.  C a r r o t h e r s s t a t e s t h a t i n 1947 the House of Commons d r a f t e d a l a b o u r code whereby p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers  were to be covered by c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p r o v i s i o n s . The b i l l  was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the House but i t f a i l e d  to  pass and subsequently i t was t a b l e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n and possible  revision.  In 1948 t h i s b i l l  Parliament w i t h some minor r e v i s i o n s ,  was r e i n t r o d u c e d to one of the  alterations  b e i n g t h a t engineers were to be excluded from c o l l e c t i v e  -75-  bargaining rights.  T h i s new b i l l  was a l s o delayed p r i o r  to b e i n g passed on to a s t a n d i n g Committee on I n d u s t r i a l Relations  f o r study i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l .  The Committee  concurred w i t h the d e c i s i o n t h a t engineers  should not be  allowed to b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y , mainly as a r e s u l t pressure exerted by e n g i n e e r s ' certification rights, to exclude engineers institute  associations  of  against  C a r r o t h e r s says the f i n a l  decision  was reached because every p r o v i n c i a l  of engineers  requested  to be excluded from the  bargaining area. When the F e d e r a l B i l l i n t o law,  of 1947-48 was f i n a l l y passed  i t excluded p r o f e s s i o n a l  bargaining.  engineers  because the  s t a t u t e was designed as a model f o r  p r o v i n c i a l labour law. of  from c o l l e c t i v e  This decision g r e a t l y influenced p r o v i n c i a l  r u l i n g s to exclude p r o f e s s i o n a l federal  engineers  structuring  C o n s i d e r a b l e pressure on b e h a l f  p r o v i n c i a l e n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s succeeded  influencing legislation, assume t h a t equal e f f o r t s  therefore  is  reasonable  would have been made at  p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l to have engineers bargaining  it  in to  the  removed from c o l l e c t i v e  provisions.  In 1948 i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a p o l i c y change may be r e q u i r e d i n the f u t u r e b e h a l f of a s s o c i a t i o n s . negative  despite strong objections There was s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t  p o s i t i o n of engineers  and t h e i r  on the  associations  -76-  may be unsound as a long-term s t r a t e g y , enacted w i t h the i d e a t h a t f u t u r e  so the law was  revisions  could occur.  E n g i n e e r s • a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s may not have been appropriate  for a l l engineers,  even at t h a t time.  system chapter v i v i d l y i l l u s t r a t e s ,  engineers  geneous group i n terms of work r o l e s , that t h e i r strong,  As the  are a h e t e r o -  w i t h the  result  u n i t e d stand opposing c o l l e c t i v e  b a r g a i n i n g was q u e s t i o n a b l e S u r e l y some engineers  as a long-term s t r a t e g y .  faced s i t u a t i o n s  where c o l l e c t i v e  b a r g a i n i n g was r e q u i r e d to combat bureaucracy and upgrade working c o n d i t i o n s even at t h a t time. evidence i t  is  c l e a r that actions  In l i g h t o f  of the engineers  1947 were a p a r t of t h e i r desparate attempt full  professional  A more f l e x i b l e  stance would have  does not f o r c e  to become i n v o l v e d w i t h b a r g a i n i n g ,  The o n l y  engineers possible  from e x c l u s i o n l i e i n the areas of upgrading  professional  s t a t u s and image but these gains come at  too high a c o s t i f a s i g n i f i c a n t require c o l l e c t i v e bargaining B.  to r e a c h  f o r the l o n g run because a v a i l a b i l i t y  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s  benefits  in  s t a t u s r a t h e r than a r e f l e c t i o n on the  needs of a l l engineers. been a p p r o p r i a t e  the  Labour R e l a t i o n s  p o r t i o n of  far  engineers  rights.  Boards  There are twenty-two l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  boards  Canada which possess much power to i n f l u e n c e the  in situation  -77-  r e g a r d i n g engineers and o r g a n i z a t i o n . changes do occur to a l l o w engineers  (Carson, 1973)»  If  to form b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s ,  then Labour R e l a t i o n s Boards must l e a d the way.  The  c o n s e r v a t i v e nature of p r o v i n c i a l boards upholds  exclusions  because extreme changes are not made q u i c k l y by these groups.  Reasons f o r t h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e nature are  based  on a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t unfounded, d r a s t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t e n harmful to i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s as w e l l as the involved.  (Oliver,  1973).  is  system,  easy to comprehend why much evidence i s  to support d e c i s i o n s .  groups  A major r o l e of Labour R e l a t i o n  Boards i s maintenance of peace and balance i n the thus i t i s  are  The c o n s e r v a t i v e nature of  required boards  evidenced by r e l u c t a n c e to c e r t i f y m u l t i - l o c a t i o n or  m u l t i - e m p l o y e r u n i t s even where they have been o p e r a t i n g i n f o r m a l l y f o r a l e n g t h y p e r i o d or are c l e a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e . The  s m a l l amount of experience and s h o r t h i s t o r y of  e n g i n e e r i n g unions i s one reason f o r r e l u c t a n c e c e r t i f y engineers unions and c r e a t e change.  to  (Oliver,  1973).  I t appears t h a t Labour R e l a t i o n s Boards would r a t h e r r e l y on v o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r than a l t e r  the law.  engineers  O n t a r i o experience i s p o s i t i v e  t h a t these u n i t s can form and f u n c t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y  evidence but the  r e a l q u e s t i o n i s how many more b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s would form if  the law were m o d i f i e d .  Many groups of engineers may  have met employer r e s i s t a n c e  to v o l u n t a r y r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h  -78-  the r e s u l t the  t h a t there i s no a l t e r n a t i v e  but to  accept  situation. Problems of d e c e r t i f y i n g e x i s t i n g b a r g a i n i n g  units  a l s o l e n d support to employment of v o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g relationships.  Under e x i s t i n g labour laws, a bare m a j o r i t y  of 5 1 % can m a i n t a i n a b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , but o p e r a t i o n of a union by t h i s method i s not acceptable Much b i t t e r resisted  would r e s u l t  i f a bare m a j o r i t y  a l l u n i t members was b a r e l y passed.  One p o s s i b l e  of f e u d i n g members c o u l d be a l a c k of communication  or l e s s c o o p e r a t i o n on the job, bring unsatisfactory more d i f f i c u l t i e s  both of which e v e n t u a l l y  performance.  engineers'  present  (ie.  one who does  work or one who has a degree and does l e s s e r  work, e t c . )  and d e c i s i o n s  Provincial 1.  U n i t boundaries  because there i s a problem r e g a r d i n g  d e f i n i t i o n of the term " e n g i n e e r "  C.  engineers.  d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n or i f a major p o l i c y d e c i s i o n  affecting result  disagreement  to  on management involvement.  Legislation  Quebec  Quebec has been the l e a d i n g province f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers  i n Canada.  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s affect  Success or  failure  i n Quebec c o u l d  l a b o u r s t a t u t e s i n other p a r t s of Canada by  r e i n f o r c i n g present  s t a t u t e s or p o i n t i n g to future  change.  A c t u a l c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n such areas as Quebec  is  -79-  the type of evidence which most i n f l u e n c e s boards  labour  relations  i n other Canadian p r o v i n c e s to implement change.  Goldenberg (I968) r e v e a l s t h a t Quebec i s  the o n l y a r e a  where formal trade union a f f i l i a t i o n a l o n g with p o t e n t i a l use of s t r i k e s have been e n f o r c e s . factors  There are  special  i n the Quebec context however, e s p e c i a l l y  "Quiet R e v o l u t i o n " which developed favourable toward development of trade u n i o n i s m .  the  attitudes  French-Canadians  appear to be more prone to b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y and they are more w i l l i n g to s t r i k e Scott  (1973)  than t h e i r E n g l i s h  a l s o c i t e s n a t i o n a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m as two  elements which make Quebec d i f f e r e n t In  counterparts.  s p i t e of these d i f f e r e n c e s  from other p r o v i n c e s .  a t t i t u d e s i n the r e s t of  Canada has shown a tendency to f o l l o w s i m i l a r paths' r e c e n t l y and the l i m i t a t i o n of French engineers outdated now.  (William H a l l ,  1972).  There are two laws c o n c e r n i n g c o l l e c t i v e i n Quebec,  the S y n d i c a t e s  may be  A c t c o n t a i n s no  bargaining  precise  d e f i n i t i o n of the term "employee" thus i t allows l o o p h o l e f o r management engineers unit.  and  to j o i n the b a r g a i n i n g  (Canadian Labour Law R e p o r t e r ,  hand the Labour Code does d e f i n e  1972).  acts i s  from j o i n i n g the  Another b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e  t h a t the S y n d i c a t e s  b a r g a i n i n g and c o n t r a c t s  On the other  the term "employee"  i t does prevent management engineers  bargaining u n i t .  a  between the two  A c t does not f o r c e  collective  cannot be made b i n d i n g u n l e s s  -80-  the employer agrees to n e g o t i a t e under the A c t . (Goldenberg,  1968),  The Labour Code i s  p i e c e of l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n wherein i f d o e s n ' t b a r g a i n he i s  a more t y p i c a l the employer  c o n s i d e r e d to be a c t i n g i n bad  f a i t h and i f he does b a r g a i n the r e s u l t i n g c o n t r a c t  is  legally binding. In r e a l i t y the Labour Code removed c o l l e c t i v e g a i n i n g from j u r i s d i c t i o n of the S y n d i c a t e s fact Act  has not h a l t e d use is  Act yet  of the 1924 s t a t u t e .  this  The S y n d i c a t e s  s t i l l u t i l i z e d to form u n i t s of 15 or more members  because of i t s and  bar-  ambiguities  r e g a r d i n g management  exclusion  seven of the nine e n g i n e e r i n g u n i t s e x i s t under the  p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s a c t .  (Carson,  1973)-  There has been  no push to d i s c o n t i n u e use of the S y n d i c a t e s existence  of the Labour Code so p r o f e s s i o n a l  Act despite engineers  i n management ranks b e l o n g to u n i t s a l o n g w i t h employee engineers. of  (Goldenberg,  1968).  Another p o s i t i v e  the S y n d i c a t e s A c t f o r engineers  is  aspect  t h a t u n i t members  may r e s i g n anytime w i t h a p e n a l t y of three months dues. (Canadian Labour Law R e p o r t e r ,  1972).  Use of the Syndicates A c t i n Quebec allows managerial,  and worker o r i e n t a t i o n s  bargaining u n i t .  professional,  to u n i t e i n a  D i f f e r i n g i n t e r e s t s and work  situations  w i t h i n one u n i t i n v o l v e s many p o t e n t i a l sources of between members.  Management-oriented engineers  pursue d i s s i m i l a r goals from engineers  single  conflict  generally  who perform more  -81-  tedious,  r e p e t i t i v e work t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e aims  for  each group i n b a r g a i n i n g may be c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t . For instance,  job s e c u r i t y ,  p e r s o n a l freedom and improved  communication may be a b s o l u t e l y c r i t i c a l to  engineers  lower i n the h i e r a r c h y whereas these demands are to top l e v e l engineers.  meaningless  Union l e a d e r s h i p and c o n t r o l i s  another p o t e n t i a l source of d i s p u t e because c e r t a i n key leaders  i n the union c o u l d a l l o w p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s  r u l e t h e i r a c t i o n s at the b a r g a i n i n g  to  table.  Quebec a l s o allows p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l  servants  to  organize f o r the purpose of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  The  C i v i l S e r v i c e A c t of I 9 6 5 extended p r o v i s i o n s of the Labour Code to c i v i l  servants  so t h a t engineers may  u n i o n i z e i f they d e s i r e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s .  1968).  Quebec l e g i s l a t i o n f u r t h e r p r o v i d e s f u l l  powers to engineers which are a v a i l a b l e engineers and f e d e r a l  employers can f o s t e r unionization.  o n l y to  strike Saskatchewan  engineers.  Experience of engineers  first  (Goldenberg,  i n Quebec i n d i c a t e s  that  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and encourage  Goldenberg  (1968)  states that  "engineers  formed b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r  t h i s i s where the l e a s t employer r e s i s t a n c e Garbarino  (1971),  B a i n (1969),Blum  (1971)  because  occurred. 9 m 1  and others  have a l s o s t r e s s e d the argument t h a t f a c i l i t a t i n g  legis-  l a t i o n g r e a t l y a i d s i n the t h r u s t f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n .  In  -82-  Quebec where the law has been a h e l p to o r g a n i z e r s , g r e a t e s t degree of u n i o n i z a t i o n of engineers has  the  taken  place, 2.  Saskatchewan  Goldenberg ( 1 6 8 ) e x p l a i n s Q  (1944) allowed a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l s c e r t i f i e d bargaining units. c o l l e c t i v e bargaining, doctors, the A c t .  dentists,  t h a t the Trade Union A c t i n Saskatchewan  to form  T h i s A c t excluded no one from  even "pure p r o f e s s i o n a l s "  such as  and lawyers c o u l d take a c t i o n under  One main problem w i t h t h i s l i b e r a l  legislation  was that i t allowed l a r g e r groups to h o l d s m a l l e r (ie.  engineers)  resolve  " c a p t i v e " i n the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t .  To  the s i t u a t i o n the Trade Union A c t was amended i n  1966 to a l l o w p r o f e s s i o n a l s  to leave the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t  v o l u n t a r i l y without need of d e c e r t i f i c a t i o n . the s t a t u t e p r o v i d e d f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s  for  In 1966 professionals;  (a)  J o i n and be p a r t of an i n d u s t r i a l employees*  (b)  The p r o f e s s i o n a l can v o l u n t a r i l y withdraw from an o f f i c e or employee's u n i o n .  (c)  P r o f e s s i o n a l s can form a separate union w i t h members of t h e i r s p e c i f i c p r o f e s s i o n c o m p r i s i n g the u n i t .  (d)  Professionals  This l e g i s l a t i o n i s flexibility is  groups  i t offers.  do not have to organize at  union.  all,20  i d e a l i n many ways because of the V o l u n t a r y s e p a r a t i o n from the union  compatible with e n g i n e e r s '  values,  especially i f  are f o r c e d i n t o a u n i t with n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  If  they engineers  -83-  feel  t h a t behaviour of the u n i o n v i o l a t e s  systems then withdrawal i s p o s s i b l e .  personal  value  One major problem  w i t h present Saskatchewan l e g i s l a t i o n i s  t h a havoc i t can  cause i n the o r d e r l y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the b a r g a i n i n g unit.  S i z e of the u n i t may change s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h i n a  s h o r t time and employee tampering or promotion can induce lay  members to q u i t the u n i t as b a r g a i n i n g (3)  approaches.  Ontario  O n t a r i o law p r o v i d e s a s p e c i a l s e c t i o n f o r  professional  engineers which allows b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s to c o n s i s t of  engineers u n l e s s  the Board i s  of  the engineers want to be i n a l a r g e r u n i t .  Labour Law R e p o r t e r , of  1972).  satisfied  that a majority (Canadian  In s p i t e of the a v a i l a b i l i t y  b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s O n t a r i o has no c e r t i f i e d u n i t s of  engineers Goldenberg  and i n f a c t v o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g i s  (1968)  professional  present.  estimates t h a t ten p e r c e n t of O n t a r i o ' s  engineers p a r t i c i p a t e  s h i p s w i t h employers.  i n voluntary r e l a t i o n -  S u r p r i s i n g l y these r e l a t i o n s  not  h e l p amend O n t a r i o labour r e g u l a t i o n s  and  i r o n i c a l l y i t is possible  until  that successful  (see  section B).  O n t a r i o Hydro i s  did  recently,  informal  b a r g a i n i n g a i d e d i n maintenance of p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  solely  exclusions  the o u t s t a n d i n g  example  v o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g as they have a r e l a t i o n s h i p which  allows disputes  to go to b i n d i n g a r b i t r a t i o n .  Continuing existence  (Scott,  of v o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s  is  1973).  -84-  evidence to prove t h a t changes i n the law are  unnecessary  because employees are a l r e a d y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  I t can a l s o be argued t h a t emergence  of these  u n i t s r e v e a l s a need f o r new laws because t e n percent a significant  l e v e l of involvement.  Perhaps  other  employers are u s i n g the poor job market as a t o o l r e s i s t v o l u n t a r y b a r g a i n i n g by t h r e a t e n i n g to unit  is  to  dismiss  organizers. Engineers and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s  have p e t i t i o n e d  the O n t a r i o government to a l l o w c o l l e c t i v e rights  for professionals  with the r e s u l t  has r e c e n t l y been a l t e r e d . to g a i n b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s  Engineers  bargaining  t h a t the law  j o i n e d the b a t t l e  i n 1966 when the A s s o c i a t i o n of  P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers of O n t a r i o changed i t s support c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  p o l i c y to  T h i s change i n  attitude  from an opposing stance r e s u l t e d from c o n d i t i o n s by O n t a r i o engineers  i n large,  (Globe and M a i l , A p r i l 18, D.  bureaucratic  faced  organization,  1967).  B r i t i s h Columbia  The B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of Engineers i s William H a l l ,  Professional  a c t i v e l y seeking bargaining r i g h t s .  Mr.  Managing D i r e c t o r of the A s s o c i a t i o n ,  t h a t the B . C . A s s o c i a t i o n submitted a p r i v a t e r e q u e s t i n g c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i n 1966. to the B . C . L e g i s l a t u r e  says  bill  This  presentation  was backed by s e v e n t y - f i v e  percent  -85-  w r i t t e n support of the membership.  B . C . engineers  desired  amendments i n the Engineers A c t so an a n c i l l a r y body separate from the B . C . P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d form f o r the purpose of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  This  goal  of c e r t i f i e d u n i t s t a t u s was not a t t a i n e d at the time of i n t r o d u c t i o n and the b i l l since  has been i n a s t a t e of limbo  Mr. H a l l says the A s s o c i a t i o n t r i e d to  1966.  i o b t a i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s and organize an a n c i l l a r y body f o r b a r g a i n i n g to beat trade unions to the punch!"21  Blum (1971) a l s o s t r e s s e d f e a r s of b e i n g  dragged i n t o b l u e - c o l l a r unions as an impetus to L e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g only p r o f e s s i o n a l  organize.  engineers  is  a c t i v e l y pursued i n l i e u of changes  i n the B . C . Labour  R e l a t i o n s A c t and Mr. H a l l b e l i e v e s  the New Democratic  government may be sympathetic Scott is  (1973) a l s o supports  towards e n g i n e e r s .  still  Val  the view t h a t the B . C . environment  conducive to such a change because of the government and  because of e n g i n e e r s ' E.  attitudes.  New Brunswick  New Brunswick allows engineers  to b a r g a i n ,  no u n i t s have been formed at t h i s time. previous e x c l u s i o n s was a r e s u l t committee of the L e g i s l a t u r e  although  The change from  of f i n d i n g s of a s e l e c t  of New Brunswick  (I967).  Recommendations of the Committee i n c l u d e d the removal of professional  exclusions  from the Labour R e l a t i o n s A c t  -86-  and t h i s has been done. The new law i s a t y p i c a l p i e c e of whereby engineers  legislation  who are managers or c o n f i d e n t i a l  employees may not by i n c l u d e d i n the u n i t . law p r o f e s s i o n a l s  but p r o f e s s i o n a l s  apart by s k i l l s where the d i v i s i o n i s  Under the law i t i s p o s s i b l e professional)  f o r engineers  appropriate. (or any  p e r t a i n i n g to p r o v i n c i a l c i v i l  are a l s o s i m i l a r to those i n the A c t so t h a t workers may a l s o form b a r g a i n i n g F.  unit.  servants  these  units.  F e d e r a l Experience  The P u b l i c S e r v i c e S t a f f  R e l a t i o n s A c t of 196?  the g u i d i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r engineers federal  are  to a p p l y f o r removal from a l a r g e r  The r e g u l a t i o n s  this  may be p l a c e d i n a u n i t with other  workers i f the Board sees f i t set  Under  jurisdictions.  bargain unless capacity.  they are  is  who are under  T h i s a c t allows a l l employees  to  i n a managerial or c o n f i d e n t i a l  Employees excluded are as  follows!  (1)  Those i n p o s i t i o n s which are c o n f i d e n t i a l to a M i n i s t e r , the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , a judge, the deputy head of a department, or a c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r of a p o r t i o n of the p u b l i c s e r v i c e .  (2)  Engineers i n v o l v e d i n executive d u t i e s and those r e s p o n s i b l e i n r e s p e c t to d e v e l o p i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g government programs.  (3)  Engineers who have p e r s o n n e l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u t i e s or those who are i n v o l v e d i n b a r g a i n i n g f o r the employer.  (4)  Engineers who have d e a l i n g s p a r t of t h e i r duty.  w i t h grievances  as  -67-  The l a r g e s t s i n g l e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t of Canadian professional (engineers  engineers  i s the P r o f e s s i o n a l  and land surveyors)  Treasury Board of Canada,  Institute  which b a r g a i n s  with the  T h i s u n i t was organized i n  1968 with a membership of one thousand, three hundred and  seventy engineers.  Vol.  11,  1969).  ( C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Review,  The i n i t i a l  agreement w i t h the  federal  government i n c l u d e d a three year agreement on wages and working c o n d i t i o n s which was s e t t l e d at the b a r g a i n i n g table.  S a l a r i e s and s i c k b e n e f i t s  were key i s s u e s  engineers  and they d e a l t m a i n l y with these areas i n  the f i r s t  contract.  for  Tables 7 and 8 present the most  important terms of the  agreement.  SALARIES OF FEDERAL ENGINEERS*  Starting J u l y 1, 1967 J u l y 1, 1968 J u l y 1, 1969  Base (en-2)  Top  (en-5)  $ 16,055  $ 8,312 8,894 9,385  17,179  18,124  TABLE 7 *  C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Review No. 11, of Labour,  I 9 6 9 , Canada Dept.  ILLNESS BENEFITS OF FEDERAL ENGINEERS Years  Days s i c k leave allowed  Under 2  30 165 300  8-11  over 20 TABLE 8  -88i  The next agreement was a two year pact which was settled  i n the a r b i t r a t i o n stage.  hundred and s i x t y engineers  One thousand,  seven  are members i n the u n i t which  i s covered by the c o n t r a c t which i s a f o u r hundred member i n c r e a s e  since  1968. G e n e r a l terms of the  agreement  are reviewed i n Table 9. HIGHLIGHTS OF 1970 AGREEMENT Base (en-2)  Date  Top  (en-5)  $ 19,211 {6% i n c r e a s e ) 20,175 (5fo i n c r e a s e )  $ 9»6o6 10,086  J u l y 6, 1970 J u l y 5 , 1971  *  _________________________ TABLE 9  * C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Review, No. 3 , 1971. The  i s s u e of overtime work was a l s o d i s c u s s e d ,  with  the s o l u t i o n that time and a h a l f r a t e s are p a i d f o r hours worked i n excess of two hours a f t e r (except f o r f i e l d workers.) was r a i s e d  regular  all  time  A f i e l d survey allowance  to $110 per month from the previous $100 as  further fringe benefit  for  a  engineers.  The c u r r e n t c o n t r a c t between the T r e a s u r y Board and professional  engineers  indicates  that f e d e r a l  engineers  are p r o f i t i n g from t h e i r involvement i n c o l l e c t i v e ing.  The f e d e r a l  group made l a r g e r  gains and d e a l t  bargainwith  more i s s u e s i n the agreement which may r e f l e c t upon valuable  experience gained d u r i n g the f i r s t  two c o n t r a c t s .  The overtime i s s u e was addressed i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l the r e s u l t  with  that time and a h a l f r a t e s are p a i d d u r i n g the  -89-  first  e i g h t hours of overtime and double time i s  after  that.  paid  Premium pay r a t e s are a l s o i n e f f e c t  during  p a i d h o l i d a y s and standby pay i s  i n c r e a s e d to a s i x  minimum f o r any l e n g t h of time.  Table 10 shows the monetary  gains i n the c u r r e n t  dollar  contract.  MONETARY TERMS OF CURRENT AGREEMENT * Effective Nov. 6, 1972 J u l y 2, 1973 Average i n c r e a s e 7.7 % hi EG - 1 $ 6,064 Base $ 6,428 EG - 8 12,859 Base 13,631 EG - 11 18,089 Base 21,790 R e t r o a c t i v e payment of $270 p a i d to cover J u l y 3 , 1972Nov. 5 , 1972 TABLE 10 * C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g Review, No. 12, 1972, The c o n t r a c t s  reached by f e d e r a l engineers  important because of t h e i r demonstration e f f e c t on engineers  i n other s e c t o r s .  w i t h success i n the future o r g a n i z a t i o n of engineers  If federal  and i n f l u e n c e  engineers  then p o s s i b i l i t i e s are enhanced.  are  for  Federal  meet  widespread engineers  have made e x c e l l e n t gains i n t h i s time and future for  government p o l i c y and g r e a t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n are  for  union development.  implications favourable  SUMMARY T h i s s e c t i o n s t u d i e s h i s t o r y of the law, r o l e of labour relations  boards,  and s p e c i f i c  provincial  Engineers have l e g a l b a r g a i n i n g r i g h t s Saskatchewan,  situations.  o n l y i n Quebec,  O n t a r i o , New Brunswick and Manitoba but  -90-  voluntary bargaining is possible for of  present  i n other p r o v i n c e s .  p r o v i n c i a l exclusions  engineering associations i n  influenced federal  l a b o u r law.  can be t r a c e d to  19*1-7  when they  Reasons  actions  successfully  Goals of enhancing  professional  r e c o g n i t i o n and s t a t u s have been major f a c t o r s i n the campaign to prevent engineers rights.  from g a i n i n g c o l l e c t i v e  The c o n s e r v a t i v e  nature of l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  (and o p p o s i t i o n from engineers significant  force  bargaining  associations)  is  boards  another  opposing u n i o n i z a t i o n because these  boards  are v e r y r e l u c t a n t to make changes which  affect  the i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s  greatly  system.  L e g a l aspects may be a key i n f a c i l i t a t i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n of  engineers  a positive engineers effects of not  also.  Future developments may see  the law p l a y  r o l e i n a i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i f changes a l l o w to form c e r t i f i e d u n i t s .  Labour law  greatly  p r o b a b i l i t y and p o s s i b i l i t y of widespread u n i o n i z a t i o n  engineers  and there i s  evidence t h a t l e g a l b a r r i e r s  be so g r e a t i n the f u t u r e .  will  V i r t u a l l y no c o l l e c t i v e  bargaining is  existent  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Manitoba,  Saskatchewan,  New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova S c o t i a ,  and  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ,  although laws do a l l o w b a r g a i n i n g i n  some of these a r e a s .  (Goldenberg,  engineers specific of  its  1968).  are allowed to b a r g a i n u n l e s s reason and the f e d e r a l  group i s  A l l federal  excluded f o r  important because  s i z e and value as a model group f o r other  The  a  engineers.  key i s s u e s i n the l e g a l a r e a i n c l u d e d e f i n i t i o n  -91-  and d e t e r m i n a t i o n of b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s f o r e n g i n e e r s , c l a u s e s , management e x c l u s i o n c l a u s e s , exit,  and p r o c e d u r a l d e t a i l s .  to r e f l e c t  favourable  If  altered  p u b l i c p o l i c y toward union development  engineers  u n i t s with d i f f e r e n t  ease of e n t r y and  labour laws are  then the l i k e l i h o o d of p r o f e s s i o n a l F o r example,  security  unions i s  enhanced.  c o u l d be allowed to form separate  goals from t h e i r b l u e - c o l l a r  counterparts  and e x c l u s i o n boundaries can be placed r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n h i e r a r c h y . union i s  desirable  procedures fair.) itself  (ie.  V o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  a l o n g w i t h l e g a l assurance of f a i r  possible  government i n v e s t i g a t i o n i f  S e c u r i t y of union o r g a n i z e r s  voting not  and indeed the union  must be assured and enforced r i g h t from the b e g i n n i n g .  The p r o c e d u r a l f a c e t s  of o r g a n i z i n g are v e r y important and  they s h a l l be d e a l t w i t h a t l e n g t h i n the f i n a l  chapter.  -92-  CHAPTER SIX SOCIAL ASPECTS S o c i a l aspects are r e l e v a n t  factors  i n s t u d y i n g the  l i k e l i h o o d of u n i o n i z a t i o n of Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l Such i s s u e s as influences,  effects  of group s i z e ,  and engineers  reference  t r a i t s are v a l u a b l e  a n a l y z i n g behaviour of engineers  group  aids i n  toward u n i o n i z a t i o n .  aspects which are reviewed i n t h i s chapter r e f e r l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s which a f f e c t (or non-formation) differs  of e n g i n e e r i n g u n i o n s .  from a t y p i c a l labour r e l a t i o n s  value of f o c u s s i n g union organizers not o b j e c t i v e ,  on these v a r i a b l e s  concrete v a r i a b l e s  lies  in its  is  A.  socio-  formation  approach the  e v i d e n t f o r both  labour  are  statutes,  or growth f i g u r e s but they are  vital  which  A prime c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s  effect  chapter  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and roles  i n the  industrial  system.  Nature of P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers,  as a group,  Engineers espouse a p a r t i c u l a r  v a l u e s and t r a i t s which r e i n f o r c e professionals.  set  their position  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  (or sought by most) engineers leadership  Social  S o c i a l issues  such as  p o s s i b l e changes i n the e n g i n e e r s ' relations  the  This  to a complete understanding of a l l i n f l u e n c e s union p r o b a b i l i t y .  to  a n a l y s i s but  and company o f f i c i a l s .  l a b o u r market data,  engineers.  are  as  inherent i n  with s t r o n g support  from the p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  associations.  and  Unique  -93-  values  and t r a i t s of engineers  are fundamental  components  f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g behaviour of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups r e l a t i o n to any d e c i s i o n ,  including unionization.  i n d i v i d u a l engineer c o u l d not be expected the " d e s i r a b l e " istics  attributes  for  a fundamental part of each e n g i n e e r s ' 1964). T h i s d e s i r e  presents both b a r r i e r s  critical  organization.  Freedom to pursue an i n d i v i d u a l r o l e i n the  (Strauss,  all  character-  are apparent and more i m p o r t a n t l y , they are  i n s t u d y i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  is  Every  to possess  but as a group these  in  value  organization  system.  f o r i n d i v i d u a l autonomy  and p o s s i b i l i t i e s  for unionization.  B l u e - c o l l a r unions do not s t r e s s p e r s o n a l freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y because these v a l u e s  are not r e l e v a n t  to  most b l u e - c o l l a r c a t e g o r i e s i n which the same work i s by each person i n h i s work g r o u p i n g . workers c l a s s e d as job d e s c r i p t i o n s equal treatment Engineers d e s i r e sense.  janitors  F o r example,  have s i m i l a r work r o l e s  which r e q u i r e l i t t l e f l e x i b i l i t y , i n pay and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s " e q u a l treatment  is  done  all and therefore  appropriate.  for a l l " i n a  different  They want equal o p p o r t u n i t y to f o l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l  r o l e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n while d e v e l o p i n g at one's own r a t e . Goals of an e n g i n e e r i n g union i n c l u d e attainment  of more  p e r s o n a l freedom f o r each engineer to u t i l i z e h i s unique capabilities  while d e v e l o p i n g at h i s own pace.  bureaucratic  organizations  (see  Large,  tend to l e s s e n p e r s o n a l  s e c t i o n on s i z e ) with the r e s u l t  freedom  t h a t e n g i n e e r i n g jobs  -94-  may be c a t e g o r i z e d or d e a l t out i n a way which v i o l a t e s engineering values.  Rules p l a y an i n c r e a s i n g l y important  r o l e i n l e s s e n i n g p e r s o n a l freedom as bureaucracy develops and they e l i m i n a t e i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Once the degree of p e r s o n a l freedom reaches  critically  low l e v e l s then u n i o n i z a t i o n becomes more probable as  the  group e x e r t s pressure  to m a i n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l o p p o r t u n i t y  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  E s t i m a t i o n and measurement of what  l e v e l of p e r s o n a l freedom i s r e q u i r e d to spur u n i o n i z a t i o n is  difficult,  i f not i m p o s s i b l e , but at some p o i n t engineers  p e r c e i v e themselves as becoming b l u e - c o l l a r employees with s t i f l i n g work r o l e s .  (Blem et. al., 1971).  Blum (1964) and S t r a u s s with colleagues  (1963) show t h a t communication  and management i s another d e s i r a b l e  for p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers.  This t r a i t reinforces  situation professional  v a l u e s w h i l e s e r v i n g e d u c a t i o n a l purposes as w e l l . b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n takes e f f e c t is  As  i n large organizations  there  l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y to communicate with f e l l o w engineers  with d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  r e s u l t i n g from t h i s l a c k of exchange.  Union p r i o r i t i e s i n c l u d e establishment of b e t t e r communication with management as w e l l as b r e a k i n g down some blockages i n communications between e n g i n e e r s .  B e n e f i t s of improved  i n f o r m a t i o n exchange are r e c e i v e d by management through b e t t e r work and by engineers through s a t i s f a c t i o n p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l  of  needs.  D i v e r s i t y i n the work r o l e i s a l s o sought by e n g i n e e r s .  -95-  They are d e d i c a t e d employees who w i l l work l o n g hours to achieve s c i e n t i f i c challenging. engineers  (Strauss,  1964).  i n t e r e s t i n g and  Tasks which motivate  are d i s a p p e a r i n g i n l a r g e ,  w i t h decreased result.  ends i f the job i s  bureaucratic  organizations  i n i t i a t i v e on the p a r t of engineers b e i n g a  Job enrichment or job r o t a t i o n are two  possibilities  to motivate engineers but the p r o b a b i l i t y of study i n the a r e a i s minimal without pressure from a u n i o n . assembly l i n e types of work r o l e s engineers  i n o r g a n i z a t i o n push  toward unionism because the r e s u l t  group who are r e a l l y g l o r i f i e d b l u e - c o l l a r Diversity is  a limited quantity i n highly  organizations  conferences, Strauss  specialized  (ie.  compensate  s h o r t e r work week, time o f f  (1963)  also stresses opportunities for  growth as sources  This t r a i t  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  Maintenance or i n c r e a s e grow must be f o s t e r e d  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  f o r most  organizations.  opportunities  to  by a u n i o n to serve i t s membership  As performance of engineers peaks at m i d -  c a r e e r they often r e q u i r e p r o j e c t r o t a t i o n or freedom to use s e l f - r e l i a n c e If  personal  i s a l s o p e r t i n e n t to u n i o n i z a t i o n  because of the impersonal nature of b u r e a u c r a t i c  effectively.  for  etc.)  and p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers.  evil  i s an e n g i n e e r i n g  employees.  so other areas may be needed to  f o r t h i s necessary  Emergence of  greater  i n order to remain p r o d u c t i v e .  a company does not r e c o g n i z e t h a t age a f f e c t s  and m o t i v a t i o n , then v a l u a b l e  experience  performance  i s wasted and work  -96-  q u a l i t y often f a l l s  below i t s  potential.  Perhaps a union  c o u l d open new areas f o r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l outside  growth  the o r g a n i z a t i o n by a r r a n g i n g f o r conferences  p u b l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s .  Prestige  and  i n a company's e n g i n e e r i n g  department may h e l p draw other b r i l l i a n t workers to the o r g a n i z a t i o n but t h i s p r e s t i g e i s  l i m i t e d under b u r e a u c r a t i c  conditions. S t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y i s a l s o r e q u i r e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers.  The extent to which jobs measure up to  expectations  of engineers has e f f e c t s  on m o t i v a t i o n and  satisfaction  i n the company.  (1957)  s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n c y as are  Goffman  the extent to which i n d i v i d u a l  expected to go together and communicate  s t a t u s to the i n d i v i d u a l and o t h e r s . states that status consistency i s preference  presents  consistent  Goffman  (1957)  inversely related  f o r change i n power d i s t r i b u t i o n .  words, people whose income and e d u c a t i o n are  ranks  further to  In other consistent  with t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l rank experience h i g h s t a t u s consistency.  Workers who are unable to r i s e  i n the  o r g a n i z a t i o n but a s p i r e to upward m o b i l i t y must seek changes  to reduce s t a t u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y .  s i t u a t i o n where they are unable to r i s e and  an i n c r e a s i n g percentage  other p o s i t i v e f o r c e s  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  of engineers  b l u e - c o l l a r working c o n d i t i o n s . and  Engineers face a  are faced  Unprofessional  with  treatment  are becoming more and more  dominant to a p o i n t where engineers may have to seek a  -97-  change, v i a p o l i t i c a l or u n i o n a c t i v i t y ,  to reduce  status  inconsistency. Engineers demand a f a i r chance to a t t a i n a s t a t u s which i s  p e r c e i v e d as  community.  If  equitable  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  outputs are not met by a p p r o p r i a t e  i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c rewards then u n i o n i z a t i o n may be one way to enhance rewards.  Input-output r a t i o s may be  unacceptable  o r g a n i z a t i o n where  find role,  i n bureaucratic  themselves  coming c l o s e r and c l o s e r to a b l u e - c o l l a r  I n t r i n s i c r e t u r n s e s p e c i a l l y may be l e s s than  professional  expectations  may be the a p p r o p r i a t e B.  engineers  which means t h a t u n i o n i z a t i o n  s t r a t e g y to deal w i t h the  situation.  L o c a l or Cosmopolitan A "professional  r o l e " implies c e r t a i n b e l i e f s  needs f o r engineers but w i t h i n these b a s i c engineers"'  may possess d i f f e r e n t  importance to u n i o n i z a t i o n .  If  similarities  characters,  cosmopolitan q u e s t i o n f o r engineers  is  of  The l o c a l or  particular  a group of engineers  to be more l o c a l i n nature t h i s i m p l i e s d i f f e r e n t toward the job,  and  company, and s c i e n c e which may a l l  tends  attitudes effect  the f o r m a t i o n of a u n i o n . The ' . ' l o c a l " engineer i s professional  l e s s committed to broad  goals and more o r i e n t e d towards  peer groups and the employer o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  immediate (Gouldner,  Cosmopolitans on the other hand are l e s s l o y a l to the employer and more committed to p r o f e s s i o n a l  s k i l l s and  1957).  -98-  values.  It  is  g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t most  tend to be cosmopolitans,  and i n the case of  where the s t r e s s on g a i n i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l great,  t h i s must s u r e l y be the case.  the s p e c i f i c  values  engineers  status i s  so  A union or company  must r e c o g n i z e p a r t i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s as w e l l as  professionals  of i t s  engineers  t h i s outlook i m p l i e s .  Gouldner (1957) presents three methods of d e t e r m i n i n g if  an engineer i s  organization, values,  l o c a l or c o s m o p o l i t a n .  L o y a l t y to the  committment to p r o f e s s i o n a l  and reference  s k i l l s and  group o r i e n t a t i o n s are  which a i d i n determining an e n g i n e e r s '  orientation.  l o y a l employees are l i k e l y to be l o c a l s , who are l e s s committed to p r o f e s s i o n a l  variables More  as are i n d i v i d u a l s  values.  I t may be  u s e f u l f o r the company and u n i o n o r g a n i z e r to determine group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  by a n a l y z i n g these three  O r i e n t a t i o n of a group of engineers  is  categories.  also c r i t i c a l  i n d e t e r m i n i n g what type of u n i o n they would j o i n ( i f he would j o i n at a l l . )  Cosmopolitans would r e q u i r e a u n i t  which s t r e s s e s s c i e n t i f i c v a l u e s items.  Communication, r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n and p e r s o n a l  freedom are e x c e l l e n t examples oriented union. is  r a t h e r than monetary  of p r i o r i t y f o r a cosmopolitan  A d i f f i c u l t y w i t h o r g a n i z i n g cosmopolitans  t h a t t h e i r tenacious  d e d i c a t i o n to p r o f e s s i o n a l  values  b r i n g s severe d i s a p p r o v a l to u n i o n i z a t i o n . L o c a l s devote more a t t e n t i o n to the company and p r o j e c t l e s s e r d e d i c a t i o n to s c i e n t i f i c  ideals.  L o c a l s are  often  -99-  more l o y a l to the employer and more upward mobile i n o r i e n t a t i o n than cosmopolitans.  L o c a l s are  consequently  l e s s devoted to v a l u e s which condemn unions with more worry attached ends.  to r a i s i n g p r o f i t s  than meeting  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e h i g h l i g h t s  scientific  differences  between  the two p h i l o s o p h i e s v e r y w e l l : A COMPARISON OF LOCAL AND COSMOPOLITAN IDEALS * Cosmopolitan  Local  1.  F u r t h e r i n g knowledge.  1.  Making money.  2.  Research as an end to itself.  2.  Research - a means to an end.  3.  Reward - p r e s t i g e  3.  Reward - pay.  4.  The bench.  4.  The desk.  5.  Research r e s u l t s belong to the s c i e n t i f i c community? should d e s s i n a t e d .  5.  F i n d i n g s b e l o n g to the company and are guarded.  6.  Publish results.  6.  Trade s e c r e t s .  7.  E v a l u a t e d by peers through 7. free discussion i n s c i e n t i f i c journals.  E v a l u a t e d by b o s s .  8.  S e n i o r c o l l e a g u e s who g u i d e s .  8.  Boss  9.  S t a t u s based on knowledge  9.  S t a t u s based on p o s i t i o n .  10. D e c i s i o n s by groups. 11.  directs.  10. D e c i s i o n s by h i g h e r - u p s .  A l l f i n d i n g s s u b j e c t to 11. c r i t i c i s m and are never f i n a l .  Bosses d e c i s i o n s final.  are  12. P e r f e c t i o n i s t - b l a c k and white answers.  12, P r a c t i c a l -  13. Acceptance based on l o g i c and p r o o f .  13. Acceptance based on power.  14. S t r o n g taboos a g a i n s t c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and popularization.  14. Taboos a g a i n s t theoretical thinking.  TABLE 11  compromises.  -100-  *  S t r a u s s , George, Glaswork f o r Course i n Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n l_9p_, W i n t e r , 1967, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , School of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p. 2. L o c a l s are c l a s s i c a l l y  the l i k e l y candidates  for  u n i o n i z a t i o n because t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n focusses on the company r a t h e r than on the whole a r e a of (Gouldner,  1957). L o c a l s tend to be more b u s i n e s s - l i k e with  more awareness of rewards benefits  engineering.  and l o c a l s  i n terms of money and f r i n g e  are a l s o more s e c u r i t y conscious  and  l e s s c o n f i d e n t of making i t on t h e i r own, i n c o n t r a s t cosmopolitans.  The l a b o u r market does not work f o r  i n the same way as cosmopolitans  it  does f o r cosmopolitans  are not as  flexible  i n many o r g a n i z a t i o n .  l i k e l y to seek s a t i s f a c t i o n  via  Locals  educational  l e a v e s nor improved communication with c o l l e a g u e s  as  cosmopolitans  because i n t r i n s i c rewards are not so  meaningful as  extrinsic  returns.  Cosmopolitans would organize f o r c o m p l e t e l y reasons than l o c a l s . of  cosmopolitans  l i k e l y to organize because of a v i o l a t i o n of L o c a l s are l e s s concerned with  treatment,  of  are more  professional  professional  autonomy and p r e s t i g e but cosmopolitans  severe s t r e s s i f these needs and values violated.  different  Whereas l o c a l s would u n i o n i z e because  t h r e a t s to t h e i r job s e c u r i t y ,  values.  If  engineers  locals  because  are more adaptable and have a more  o r i e n t a t i o n which i s u s e f u l  to  suffer  are c o n t i n u a l l y  s t r e s s reaches c r i t i c a l l e v e l s i s more probable f o r both l o c a l s  then u n i o n i z a t i o n and  cosmopolitans  -101-  but the source C.  of s t r e s s may be c o m p l e t e l y  Predispositions  different.  Toward U n i o n i z a t i o n  Another i s s u e of concern i n s t u d y i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n i s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to s t r i k e  and o r g a n i z e .  Predispositions  toward a c t i o n and u l t i m a t e behaviour are not consistent  but some t r a i t s of a worker may help p r e d i c t  h i s acceptance origin,  always  of a u n i o n .  Factors  political affiliation  possibilities  such as age,  sex,  or r e l i g i o n may h e l p p r e d i c t  of o r g a n i z i n g a p a r t i c u l a r group of  employees.  Stephen Cole (I969) s t u d i e d the c o n v e r s i o n of predisposition into action for teachers'  strikes.  found t h a t nonteaching s t a t u t e s such as age, family o r i g i n , e t c . , strike. if  religion,  c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n  S p e c i f i c a l l y a person i s more l i k e l y to  he o b t a i n s  He  s o c i a l support from c o l l e a g u e s  to  strike  and there  are  no c r o s s p r e s s u r e s i n the group. Results  of t h i s study are  important to show g e n e r a l  a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the a r e a and a l s o because teachers a good comparison group f o r e n g i n e e r s .  U s i n g a sample  of 900 t e a c h e r s to study the f a c t o r s Cole obtained following  are  the  results:  (1)  Teachers under t h i r t y years of age are more l i k e l y to support a s t r i k e than o l d e r t e a c h e r s .  (2)  As age r i s e s support  (3)  Working c l a s s o r i g i n teachers are more l i k e l y to s t r i k e than t e a c h e r s from other o r i g i n s .  (4)  Men are more l i k e l y to s t r i k e  for strikes  falls.  than women.  -102-  (5)  Behaviour by o t h e r s ' colleague, to a c t i o n  during a s t r i k e i s v i s i b l y affected v e h a v i o u r , i e . support of f r i e n d , means c o n v e r s i o n of p r e d i s p o s i t i o n i s more l i k e l y ,  (6)  Women i n schools w i t h more men are more l i k e l y to s t r i k e than women i n schools with few male teachers.  (7)  If l o c a l leadership is ineffective i t i s less probable t h a t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to s t r i k e w i l l be converted to a c t i o n .  C o l e ' s study r e v e a l s and t i e s can be u s e f u l to o r g a n i z e .  to unions t h a t group  characteristics  gauges f o r showing p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s  Perhaps odds of a s u c c e s s f u l  organization  campaign c o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d by f i r s t group  studying  characteristics. If  these r e s u l t s  are a p p l i c a b l e at a l l to  then the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a u n i o n are g r e a t .  engineers The union  would look f o r engineers who are l o c a l i n n a t u r e , from a working c l a s s o r i g i n , organizations  who work i n p o o r l y run  and with f r i e n d s  already i n unions.  optimal s i t u a t i o n would be to f i n d a l l these e x h i b i t e d by a group of engineers this is  young,  The  traits  i n one o r g a n i z a t i o n but  unlikely.  Indik and G o l d s t e i n (19&3) of engineers information.  to see  the e f f e c t s  The b a s i c  a l s o s t u d i e d backgrounds and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of such  q u e s t i o n was whether f a c t o r s  in a  workers background were r e l i a b l e i n p r e d i c t i n g sympathy towards unionism or r e j e c t i o n of i t . education i n d i c a t e greater  F o r example,does  less  u n i o n sympathy, or does lower  -103-  socio-economic o r i g i n , or b e l i e f s reflect  on union acceptance?  behaviour.  satisfaction such as  which i s  have l i t t l e e f f e c t  Rather i t  is  c r i t i c a l (ie.  interpersonal relations,  adequacy of f a c i l i t i e s ,  etc.,  T h i s study d i s c o v e r e d  u n i o n and non-union backgrounds engineers*  of one's p a r e n t s ,  that on  the degree of i n t r i n s i c rewards  attitude  of the company,  and e x t r i n s i c rewards.)  Conclusions  of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e f i n d i n g t h a t engineers more l i k e l y to organize at one s i t e where a l l  are  engineers  have common problems and where other unions i n the same company have been e f f e c t i v e  i n dealing with s i m i l a r  problems. Perhaps some of the f a c t o r s  such as age and  and working c l a s s o r i g i n are most r e l e v a n t f o r but t h i s i s  engineers,  d o u b t f u l i n l i g h t of the l a s t study.  t h a t treatment  of engineers  leadership  and success of groups  It  appears  i n near  p r o x i m i t y are v e r y important however. D.  Reference Group Theory Reference group theory p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n  on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s Normative,  of u n i o n i z i n g e n g i n e e r s .  comparison, and audience group theory may a l l  p l a y some r o l e i n r e s i s t a n c e or acceptance unions.  of  engineers'  Normative groups p r o v i d e a guide to a c t i o n by  e x p l i c i t l y s e t t i n g norms and by espousing values.  (Kemper, 1968),  The a c t o r i s  expected  particular  to comply with these  e i t h e r w i l l i n g l y or u n w i l l i n g l y although he may f i n d  values it  -104-  necessary  to a c t c o n t r a r y to the r u l e s  Kemper says t h i s type of group i s  important f o r maintenance  and c o n t r o l of group members as w e l l as activities  on o c c a s i o n .  support of  its  and the s t r o n g e r the committment to these  v a l u e s means the s t r o n g e r  the group i s as a whole.  In  Canada, e n g i n e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s are b a s i c a l l y normative groups and t h e i r c o n t r o l and maintenance of values  against  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g has s e v e r e l y hindered u n i o n i z a t i o n of e n g i n e e r s .  Rebel engineers  i n favour of a u n i o n must  be v e r y f i r m i n b e l i e f  or they w i l l not speak a g a i n s t the  group and i t s  T h i s h e l p s e x p l a i n why e n g i n e e r i n g  values.  a s s o c i a t i o n s have been so s u c c e s s f u l which would a l l o w engineers  i n combating l e g i s l a t i o n  to u n i o n i z e i n s p i t e of a need  f o r unions on the p a r t of many e n g i n e e r s .  Mr. W i l l i a m H a l l  of the B. C . P r o f e s s i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of E n g i n e e r s the common stand i s  changing however and soon  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g may be a value of  feels  acceptance  associations.  Comparison groups are a l s o p e r t i n e n t to u n i o n i z a t i o n of e n g i n e e r s . reference  These groups p r o v i d e a c t o r s with a frame of  to f a c i l i t a t e  judgement.  For example the comparison  group can a l s o be a l i g i t i m a t o r group to h e l p r a t i o n a l i z e behaviour.  The a c t o r r a t i o n a l i z e s  t h a t others behave l i k e  h i m s e l f so t h i s l i n e of behaviour must be c o r r e c t .  This  example i s  fellow  e a s i l y a p p l i e d to engineers who p o i n t a t  professionals  who are r e s i s t i n g unions although t h i s  i s becoming l e s s meaningful as  time p a s s e s .  logic  T h i s type of  -105-  group a l s o f i t s  i n t o the I n d i k and G o l d s t e i n (1963) study-  where unions i n the same company can have great i n f l u e n c e on engineers  i f they d e a l w i t h s i m i l a r problems  effectively.  Group S i z e  E.  Group s i z e  i s r e l e v a n t to u n i o n i z a t i o n because of the  t r e n d towards employment i n l a r g e many e n g i n e e r s . size  organizations  L a r g e r pools of engineers  of t h a t department i s common i n l a r g e  faced by  and i n c r e a s i n g companies.  Large groups b r i n g about a need to a d m i n i s t e r i n a b u r e a u c r a t i c way f o r e f f i c i e n c y to be a c h i e v e d . shows t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n tends  B a i n (1969)  to emphasize the  office  r a t h e r than the i n d i v i d u a l as the o r g a n i z a t i o n grows. People tend to be t r e a t e d as members of groups and not as i n d i v i d u a l workers as  size  increases.  Promotion i s more  apt to be determined by formal r u l e s r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l considerations  and sentiments  of managers  therefore  s t a n d a r d i z e d working c o n d i t i o n s are i n e v i t a b l e . As  has been argued p r e v i o u s l y , these aspects of  organizations values  and groups  as  1970).  larger  i n v a r i a b l y c o n t r a d i c t needs and  of engineers which are r e q u i r e d to meet lower l e v e l  needs l e t alone s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . may  (Bain,  Growth of  organizations  thus be a great f o r c e towards u n i o n i z a t i o n of they combat f o r c e w i t h f o r c e and s i z e with  size.  U n i t e d S t a t e s s t u d i e s have shown a p o s i t i v e between g r e a t e r  s i z e and u n i o n i z a t i o n .  the Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s ,  engineers  relationship  Studies  done by  S h e r i l l Cleland  (1955),  -106-  F r e d e r i c Myers (1956), and S t e e l e and Maclntyre (1959) all  support t h i s view as w e l l as  s t u d i e s i n Norway,  Sweden, Japan and A u s t r i a . Development of teamwork becomes a d i f f i c u l t y f o r a growing o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Collaboration is  separate and read one a n o t h e r s '  easier i f  papers but t h i s may present  problems of s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l .  A l s o i t i s hard to  put many b r i l l i a n t men onto one team as a does so problems may a r i s e h e r e . may be to u n i t e l o c a l s  department  One e f f e c t i v e  and cosmopolitans  combine p r a c t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c teamwork i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c  workers  solution  i n one group to  skills.  Problems of  o r g a n i z a t i o n or unions may  develop to improve c o n d i t i o n s i n the work p l a c e . SUMMARY Specific completion,  challenge,  professional needs are  needs of engineers  professional  recognition.  skill,  (Strauss,  resulting.  l e a r n i n g and  1963).  ignored or opposed by f o r c e s  with d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n engineers  i n c l u d e autonomy,  Many of these  i n large  organizations  A union c o u l d study  i n the employer o r g a n i z a t i o n to determine what  needs have to be concentrated on i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n campaign.  Modern o r g a n i z a t i o n s  opportunities  f o r freedom,  are i n c r e a s i n g l y r e d u c i n g  l e a r n i n g , c o m p l e t i o n , and  c h a l l e n g e because of any overwhelming d r i v e f o r and l a r g e - s c a l e d i v i s i o n of work. skills  and r e c o g n i t i o n of engineers  Use of is  efficiency  professional  also lacking i n  -107-  large bureaucratic  companies  to a p o i n t where  are d i s a p p o i n t e d with t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t i e s  to  engineers contribute  to the employer o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as chances i n t r i n s i c rewards.  An engineers*  for  union c o u l d focus  on  these problem areas and seek s a t i s f a c t o r y changes at bargaining  the  table.  Values and needs of engineers u n i o n i z a t i o n by the employer.  can be used to prevent  Blum (1964) presents many  ways that a company can combat o r g a n i z a t i o n  effectively.  Implementation of c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s at c r i t i c a l p o i n t s i n time can stave o f f  group d i s c o n t e n t and s t i f l e  o r g a n i z a t i o n campaign.  F o r example more p e r s o n a l  c o u l d be granted to engineers  cities  or time o f f  are p o s s i b i l i t i e s  w i t h jobs.  freedom  or an improvement of v e r t i c a l  communication c o u l d be u t i l i z e d . e d u c a t i o n a l seminars  an  A l s o arrangements f o r conferences  to enhance engineers*  for  i n other satisfaction  These s t r a t e g i e s and s t r a t e g i e s which a union  may f o l l o w w i l l be presented  i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the  final  chapter. The l o c a l or cosmopolitan q u e s t i o n i s future u n i o n i z a t i o n .  a l s o a key to  Cosmopolitans are b e i n g f o r c e d i n t o  a l o c a l r o l e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n which i n c r e a s e s dissatisfaction more l i k e l y . engineers  amongst engineers  and makes u n i o n i z a t i o n  A b i l i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n to make t h e i r  f e e l l i k e s c i e n t i s t s and not j u s t t o o l s  management w i l l be important i n t h i s a r e a .  of  I t would  -10,8-  appear t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n are f o r c i n g the values on a l l engineers If  without r e g a r d f o r the  of  locals  consequences.  the s i t u a t i o n comes too c l o s e to b l u e - c o l l a r c o n d i t i o n s  or cosmopolitan values  are s e v e r e l y v i o l a t e d then u n i o n i z a t i o n  i s more p r o b a b l e . A t t i t u d e s toward u n i o n i z a t i o n and f a c t o r s sex,  age,  work o r i g i n or p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n may a l s o h i n d e r  or h e l p u n i o n i z a t i o n .  Backgrounds of new engineers  e n t e r i n g the work place i n f l u e n c e the acceptance engineers place  such as  i n l a r g e numbers c o u l d of e n g i n e e r s '  unions.  from working c l a s s backgrounds  greatly As more  enter the work  there may be changes i n a t t i t u d e s towards  collective  b a r g a i n i n g although i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t common problems f o r a l l engineers organization.  Growing s i z e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  pools of engineers also.  i n one company c o u l d be the s t i m u l u s  have p o s i t i v e  meet e n g i n e e r s '  l e s s and i n f a c t many needs and values The t r e n d toward l a r g e r as  is  of  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r unions  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n by bureaucracy to g a i n  means t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s  and use  for  organization is  efficiency  needs l e s s and  are  violated.  evident i n Canada  the use of bureaucracy i n management.  -109-  CHAPTER SEVEN FORCES INHIBITING UNIONIZATION The f o r c e s engineers  i n h i b i t i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n of  professional  are c r i t i c a l i n p u t s f o r t h i s systems  analysis  because of the i n f l u e n c e on engineers a t t i t u d e s and behaviour.  Negative elements reduce the p r o b a b i l i t y of  u n i o n i z a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l the s t a t u s quo.  engineers and help m a i n t a i n  Many of these f a c t o r s have  already  been d e a l t with b r i e f l y but f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of  the  r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of each argument from an e n g i n e e r i n g standpoint i s u s e f u l .  Negative aspects of unionism  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominated i n the case of Canadian professional  engineers,  but d r a s t i c  changes i n t h e i r work  s i t u a t i o n negate many arguments which:oppose c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. R e s i s t a n c e toward unionism i s b a s i c a l l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e  i n nature whereas p o s i t i v e arguments  to be more o b j e c t i v e states,  Goldenberg (1968)  "The o p p o s i t i o n to c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r  professionals professional  has been argued mainly i n terms of ethics,  of i n d i v i d u a l i s m . " 2 2 of these arguments A.  and c o n c r e t e .  tend  public service, It  is  status,  and the p r o t e c t i o n  the s t r e n g t h and a u t h e n t i c i t y  that t h i s chapter hopes to d e a l w i t h .  T r a d i t i o n a l Philosophy One major f o r c e combating u n i o n i z a t i o n i s  the t r a d i t i o n a l  e n g i n e e r i n g p h i l o s o p h y which condemns c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  -110-  1968),  (Goldenberg, illustrated it  Some t y p i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g views  through the f o l l o w i n g quotes:  is better  "Now, whether  to have E n g i n e e r s - i n - T r a i n i n g i n a t r a d e  union i s  another p o i n t of c o n t r o v e r s y .  definite  - they should not be i n any u n i o n . " 3  and Gain  (1964)  thing.  Our stand  state,  "Professionalsim  is  is  Seidman  2  an i n d i v i d u a l  One must stand on h i s own m e r i t s and be g i v e n  freedom f o r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s .  Professionalism  based on s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n as i s unionism. emphasizes  p r e s t i g e and p r o f e s s i o n a l  professional him.  are  He i s  is  Unionism  standing.  A true  should not r e l y on a union to b a r g a i n lowering his status.  not  for  He should get p a i d what  he i s worth, r a t h e r than some base pay f o r hours put in."2^  These stands ignore s i t u a t i o n s  p r e s e n t l y by engineers  where s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n ,  prestige, unprofessional  tasks,  s e n i o r i t y are becoming f a c t s There i s  experienced a l a c k of  and rewards based on  of l i f e .  1970).  (Bain,  a growing number of p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers  i n Canada who d i s c o u n t the t r a d i t i o n a l stand on c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  (Muir,  19711 C a i n and Seidman, 1964).  Evidence to support the c l a i m t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l  sentiments  are weakening i s w e l l shown by Quebec unions and O n t a r i o experience  i n informal bargaining.  Engineers A s s o c i a t i o n i s  The B . C .  a l s o an e x c e l l e n t example of a  body of engineers which not o n l y accepts bargaining,  Professional  collective  but a l s o sees i t as a n e c e s s a r y development  -111-  f o r engineers.  (William H a l l ,  1972).  The  term " p r o f e s s i o n a l "  once meant condemnation of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n hut  recent  developments i n s o c i e t y a t t i t u d e s have a l t e r e d t h i s situation.  Today, such Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l s as  policemen, and  teachers  have entered  the realm of  doctors, collective  bargaining. In s p i t e of changes i n the work environment, t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f that unionism i s e v i l s t i l l and  i n some cases i t i s a s t r o n g f o r c e ,  the  exists  A r a d i c a l change  i n a t t i t u d e on the p a r t of many engineers would be r e q u i r e d to weaken the outdated a t t i t u d e t h a t bargaining B.  and  professionalism  are  collective  opposites.  P r o f e s s i o n a l Viewpoint Negative aspects from a p r o f e s s i o n a l viewpoint i s  another argument which condemns c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Goldenberg's (1968) view t h i s argument i s centred i s s u e s such as c r e a t i v i t y and  In  on  lower work standards.  Op-  ponents of unionism s t a t e t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l viewpoint of engineers would be unions e x i s t e d . and  damaged or s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i f  Discouragement of e n g i n e e r i n g  thinking  c r e a t i v i t y i s supported w i t h b l u e - c o l l a r examples  where workers t o i l  i n shallow, meaningless t a s k s .  Another  f a c e t of t h i s argument i s p o s s i b l e group c o n t r o l over i n d i v i d u a l output through s a n c t i o n s  on over-producers  (as w e l l as s l a c k e r s ) to f o r c e u n i f o r m i t y engineering  group.  onto  the  A. d i v i s i o n of l o y a l t y between  the  -112-  employer and employee groups of  this  is  a r e a l fear  supporters  argument.  This r e a s o n i n g ignores engineers  i n bureaucratic  situations  the g r e a t e s t f o r c e s  is  d e s t r u c t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n a l  bureaucratic  freedom are s t i f l e d  toward u n i o n i z a t i o n  viewpoint by  (Hansen,  for  In r e a l i t y one  pushing engineers  organization.  actualization.  which e x i s t  organization.  of  and  of  Creativity  1963).  a l o n g w i t h changes f o r  L o y a l t y to the company i s  large,  self-  decreased  by  bureaucracy simply because of the manner i n which workers are t r e a t e d  i n such an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  (Bain,  1969).  Engineers are t r e a t e d more l i k e cogs i n a machine than the v a l u a b l e  i n d i v i d u a l s which they a t r i v e  f a c t many engineers creative C.  In  perform t a s k s which are no more  nor more c h a l l e n g i n g than b l u e - c o l l a r  jobs.  Management L i n k s A traditional tie  to management i s  opposing u n i o n i z a t i o n of e n g i n e e r s , In  to be.  past times engineers  with management,  (Strauss,  force 1963).  have supported and i d e n t i f i e d  yet they have r e c o g n i z e d management  p e r o g a t i v e s as necessary elements Engineers  another  i n the work p l a c e .  i d e n t i f y with management because they are  upward mobile i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and many expect promotion.  (Blum et a l ,  I97I).  There i s  also a b e l i e f  t h a t management w i l l use m e r i t as a measure of r a t h e r than simple r u l e s  such as  future  seniority.  performance  Proponents  -113-  of t h i s view b e l i e v e t h a t a u n i o n of engineers would l e a d to a l o s s of management r i g h t s i n areas of promotion, transfer,  and work assignment which would not be a  d e s i r a b l e development.  There i s  also a f e e l i n g that  engineers would be l e s s l i k e l y candidates after  f o r promotion  o r g a n i z a t i o n because management would be the  adversary not the a l l y . Management l i n k arguments are o f t e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r engineers employed i n l a r g e ,  bureaucratic organizations.  Rules and s e t procedures are f o l l o w e d to reach d e c i s i o n s on promotion and t r a n s f e r  i n b u r e a u c r a t i c companies,  t h e r e f o r e l i t t l e weight i s g i v e n to m e r i t . Fewer and fewer h i g h e r l e v e l because c o m p e t i t i o n i s  jobs are a v a i l a b l e to  greater  It  engineers  and b u r e a u c r a t i c methods  of management a l l o w a few managers workers.  ( B a i n , 1970).  to a d m i n i s t e r many  i s a l s o tenuous to argue t h a t  engineers  and management are c l o s e a l l i e s under b u r e a u c r a t i c circumstances because  of the methods used to a d m i n i s t e r  engineers. C o n f i d e n t i a l s t a t u s i s v a l u a b l e i n meeting p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l needs of engineers but t h i s p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s may be l o s t i f u n i o n i z a t i o n o c c u r s . confidential  Loss of  s t a t u s i m p l i e s t h a t union members would not  be allowed to work on many key p r o j e c t s  because d i v u l g e n c e  of s e c r e t s would be an overwhelming b a r g a i n i n g t o o l .  If  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c h a l l e n g i n g p r o j e c t s was one r e s u l t of  -114-  an e n g i n e e r i n g u n i o n , to s e l f - a c t u a l i z e  then fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s  On the other  hand a l o s s of c o n f i d e n t i a l s t a t u s may f o r c e to promote more engineers  to work on s e c r e t  and upward m o b i l i t y c o u l d f e a s i b l y  companies projects  increase.  Also  there  t y p i c a l l y l e s s and l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y to work on  challenging, D.  engineers  and meet other p e r s o n a l needs would be  a severe disadvantage to u n i o n i z i n g .  is  for  key p r o j e c t s i n l a r g e b u r e a u c r a t i c  organizations.  Fear of U n i f o r m i t y U n i f o r m i t y and c o n f o r m i t y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n  oppose e n g i n e e r s '  values  roles  yet they are d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e d  with normal use of the word " u n i o n " .  In s p i t e of the  fact  t h a t many e n g i n e e r i n g jobs are moving p r e c i s e l y i n t h i s direction,  professional  engineers  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t engineers of work.  d o n ' t want to  recognize  would perform t h a t  U n i f o r m i t y and c o n f o r m i t y i n work r o l e s  "unprofessional" by the b e l i e f  t h a t emergence of a union c o u l d speed up  and job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  f o r pay  B l u e - c o l l a r unions are  examples  t h i s argument which t i e s u n i f o r m i t y and  c o n f o r m i t y to union f o r m a t i o n . differences  are  t h e r e f o r e u n i o n formation i s i n h i b i t e d  the t r e n d toward u n i f o r m i t y through groupings  which support  type  are c r i t i c a l items  I n d i v i d u a l freedom and i n the e n g i n e e r s '  h i e r a r c h y and trade unionism i s viewed as  restricting  i n these areas because of the u n i f o r m i t y which i s i n t y p i c a l b l u e - c o l l a r unions.  need  present  U n i f o r m i t y i n pay r a t e s  -115-  is  another h i g h l y unacceptable  which i s not compatable  Management  of b l u e - c o l l a r unions  with engineers*  t r a i t s may be overcome (as E.  trait  d e s i r e s , but these  t e a c h e r s unions have  shown.)  Practice  A growing a b i l i t y of management  to appease  engineers  and prevent union development through u t i l i z a t i o n of certain practices  opposes e n g i n e e r i n g unionism.  Management  can l e a r n t a c t i c s through communication w i t h other companies  or from h a n d l i n g of other p r o f e s s i o n a l s  organization.  B a i n (1970) and Walton (1961) have  i n the offered  v a r i o u s methods of combating u n i o n i z a t i o n : (1)  B a i n (1970) and Walton ( I 9 6 I ) suggest t h a t  salary  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be used to l e s s e n p r o b a b i l i t y of organization.  S a l a r i e s may be r a i s e d  to higher  levels  than pay i n u n i o n i z e d firms or e l s e a c o m p e t i t i v e can be maintained.  Timing of wage hikes i s  because i n c r e a s e s i n pay at times f a c t i o n may appease e n g i n e e r s .  level  important  of i n c r e a s i n g  A l s o t i m i n g of  may c o i n c i d e with gains i n u n i o n i z e d companies  dissatisraises or  implementation of s a l a r y hikes may a l s o be used to one jump ahead of u n i o n i z e d e n g i n e e r s . is  another u s e f u l  Profit  s t r a t e g y because bonuses are  near Christmas or at other c r i t i c a l times when  stay  sharing paid dissatisfaction  may be minimized. There i s a r e a and t h a t  an a d d i t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e is  to r e i n f o r c e  i n the  salary  l o y a l t y by paying l o y a l  -116-  workers more money than t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s ,  ( B a i n , 1970)  and a d e c i s i o n to use of m e r i t to determine s a l a r y  changes  i s both m o t i v a t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g  the  f o r engineers  if  company has the means and i n c l i n a t i o n to do t h i s . Another method of combating union formation and  (2)  simultaneously increasing organization e f f i c i e n c y encouragement (Strauss,  is  of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l communication.  1963).  E x i s t i n g channels may be unblocked or new  channels f o r i n f o r m a t i o n flow can be opened because communication between c o l l e a g u e s present  and management would  s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n f o r a union "organizer.  A sense of l o y a l t y and p e r s o n a l value to the is  better  raised  through b e t t e r  organization  communication and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  with management i s a f u r t h e r f o r c e which v e r t i c a l communication reinforces  to reduce p r o b a b i l i t y of union f o r m a t i o n .  Engineers a l s o need c o n t a c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l effectiveness  third useful  satisfy  needs while i n c r e a s i n g e n g i n e e r i n g  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  J u s t and s w i f t  (3)  to  alternative  A r r i v a l at a f a i r  *  settlements of grievances f o r management.  settlement  is  a  (Kleingartner,  i n dealing with  engineers*  problems should be accomplished i n a s h o r t p e r i o d to s a t i s f y engineers*  d e s i r e s and values  organization efficiency. grievances feelings  By i g n o r i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s  presented by e n g i n e e r s ,  of s e l f  while promoting and  the company may reduce  worth h e l d by engineers  and make them  I968),  -117-  feel  like blue-collar  R e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  (4) engineers (Hansen,  employees.  i s a f o u r t h method to impede u n i o n f o r m a t i o n . 1963).  Unhappiness i n l a r g e ,  organization is a direct result  bureaucratic  of the l o s s of a sense of  i n d i v i d u a l i t y on the p a r t of e n g i n e e r s .  Values and needs  i l l u s t r a t e d i n the s o c i a l chapter c l e a r l y  demonstrate  the importance of i n d i v i d u a l i t y to p r o f e s s i o n a l Bureaucratic organizations assembly l i n e r o l e s differences  is  is  in  and the r e s u l t i n g l o s s of p e r s o n a l  d i s c o u r a g i n g and u n a c c e p t a b l e . with  Perhaps  administrative  to a d m i n i s t e r other engineers  members of the s t a f f  engineers.  tend to p l a c e engineers  companies can appoint engineers qualities  between  and show the  that t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n  recognized. (5)  F o s t e r i n g of c o n t i n u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h  management and p r o v i s i o n s f o r alternatives  job s e c u r i t y are  which m e r i t c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  important to m a i n t a i n e n g i n e e r s '  It  further  is  especially  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  management r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l to f e e l l i k e o r d i n a r y workers w i t h no s p e c i a l  scientists status.  Communication and s p e c i a l treatment above b l u e - c o l l a r standards are two ways to accomplish t h i s (6)  Strategic  goal.  use of promotion and t r a n s f e r  companies to i n f l u e n c e key f i g u r e s of a. union and s u c c e s s f u l  allow  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  t a c t s can s t i f l e  union a c t i v i t y  -118-  before  i t starts.  to f i r e  (Bain,  engineers  promote v a l u a b l e Dismissal  1970),  Companies may f i n d ways  who are sympathetic contributors  of engineers  to unionism or  to management  i n a b u y e r ' s market i s  form of d i s c i p l i n e because o t h e r companies to h i r e a u n i o n sympathizer when there i s of  engineers  i n the job market.  the most e f f e c t i v e fear is  ranks. a harsh  are not l i k e l y a wide c h o i c e  T h i s s t r a t e g y may be  and l e a s t c o s t l y of a l l but r u l e by  one way to f o r c e  good workers to search f o r a new  employer. F.  Other Arguments Goldenberg (I968) p r e s e n t s the f a c t t h a t arguments  opposing e n g i n e e r i n g unions are p s y c h o l o g i c a l and traditional  i n nature.  two g e n e r a l  categories:  These arguments may be summed i n t o  (1)  Unions are  (2)  There w i l l be harmful e f f e c t s  The f i r s t engineer's  unneeded. from u n i o n s .  argument i s b l i n d to changing c o n d i t i o n s i n  work s i t u a t i o n s and labour market f o r  engineers.  Unions are c l e a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e  number of engineers  professional  for a  considerable  because c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n i s  the o n l y means of changing t h e i r The second view i s  virtually  situation.  the more c r i t i c a l one.  than s t a t i n g t h a t unions are not r e q u i r e d ,  this  presents the n o t i o n t h a t u n i o n i z a t i o n i n i t s  Rather argument  blue-collar  form c o u l d cause s e r i o u s problems f o r e n g i n e e r s .  Such  difficulties  lower  c o u l d i n c l u d e a d i v i s i o n of l o y a l t y ,  -119-  morale, r e l i a n c e on s e n i o r i t y i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and increasing uniformity.  A u n i o n must address  to answering t h i s argument and l e s s e n i n g the  itself inappropriate  f e a t u r e s of a t y p i c a l b l u e - c o l l a r u n i t . SUMMARY Factors  opposing e n g i n e e r i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n are based  on l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d the p r o f e s s i o n . because they f a i l  attitudes  which are t r a d i t i o n a l f o r  Many n e g a t i v e  arguments are  outdated  to r e c o g n i z e changing c o n d i t i o n s which  are faced everyday by p a i d e n g i n e e r s . management l i n k s , p r o f e s s i o n a l  T r a d i t i o n a l philosophy,  viewpoint, etc.  have a l l  been r e i n f o r c e d by the group as s t r o n g d e t e r r e n t s unionism through past b e h a v i o u r .  Traditional belief  c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g i s not compatible with has been a prime reason f o r the present of n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada. by most s c h o l a r s  and observers  ( B a i n , Goldenberg, C a r r o t h e r s , t h i s stand comes from R u s s e l  for  professionalism..  state  T h i s stand i s  disputed  of the e n g i n e e r s ' etc).  that  situation.  A. good example of  (1954), "It  has  generally  been accepted by the v a s t m a j o r i t y of membership t h a t unionism and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m viewpoint i s  are not c o m p a t i b l e .  i n no way, s l i g h t i n g to trade u n i o n s .  unions are f o r the t r a d e s , but not f o r the This is  the o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e  Association."  This Trade  professions.  of The C o u n c i l of The  v  These arguments  give some i n d i c a t i o n of the  barriers  -120-  f a c e d by u n i o n o r g a n i z e r s .  Some f a c t o r s  such as  the  t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e and p r o f e s s i o n a l v i e w p o i n t are changing (see influences  law chapter) but others are s t i l l powerful  i n Canada.  -121-  CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSIONS AND INSIGHTS The r e s u l t  of t h i s systems a n a l y s i s  i s a confirmation  of the t h e s i s that p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers  l i k e l y to u n i o n i z e on a g r e a t e r  s c a l e i n the  The i n f l u e n c e s  i n the e n g i n e e r s •  i n Canada are future.  system i n d i c a t e  that  the p r e s s u r e s toward union f o r m a t i o n are becoming more and more dominant f o r a l a r g e work f o r c e .  p o r t i o n of the e n g i n e e r i n g  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s  w e l l by the f e e l i n g s  study are summarized  of Seymour F o g e l s o n ( I 9 6 9 ) ,  w i t h a masters degree,  "I d o n ' t l i k e ,  an/engineer  of course to be  put i n the same category as b l u e - c o l l a r workers, t h i n k some a s s o c i a t i o n engineers  has to be e s t a b l i s h e d  something l i k e a u n i o n , ' ' These  to  I give  sentiments,  which t h e i r speakers concede c o n f l i c t with l o n g - h e l d p r i n c i p l e s of independence and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m p a r t of e n g i n e e r s ,  are t y p i c a l of a growing v o c a l n e s s  from a b i t t e r segment of the s o - c a l l e d The c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s paper i s  silent  majority."  t h a t engineers  organize on a wider s c a l e but as Peter Carson says,they w i l l  on the  do i t r e l u c t a n t l y .  will  (1973)  P o s i t i v e forces  in  Canada are v e r y great now and they continue to grow i n i n f l u e n c e every day.  T r a d i t i o n a l arguments which  oppose unions are f a s t becoming i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a p o r t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l are not able job.  engineers because  to s a t i s f y t h e i r unique needs  large  professionals through the  Goldenberg arid S t r a u s s are key sources  to  -122-  illustrate  the e r o s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e and  d i g n i t y which i s  t a k i n g place f o r engineers  and Muir  (1971) p r e s e n t s these reasons and other l e g i t i m a t e which i n d i c a t e engineers a l s o supports belief  u n i o n i z a t i o n of engineers  t h a t democracy i s  professionals outside  it.  should form u n i o n s .  through h i s  i n the f i r m as w e l l  as  there i s no i n c o n s i s t e n c y between  the s t a t u s of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i o n when one d i s c o v e r s professional  B a i n (I969)  l e s s complete i f groups of  are not r e p r e s e n t e d In f a c t  forces  engineers  and use of c o l l e c t i v e  the terms under which many  engineers work.  Blum (1971) a l s o  support  t h i s c l a i m t h a t unions are the most e f f e c t i v e  means  to r e - e s t a b l i s h  standing.  There i s  self-respect  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  evidence throughout the paper to prove  s t i m u l i which enhance union p o s s i b i l i t i e s l e v e l s which f o r c e engineers In  past years  large,  as  dominant as today,  therefore  frustration.  o r g a n i z a t i o n were not  traditional  were e a s i l y r e i n f o r c e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l  attitudes  associations,  today an e n t i r e l y new s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s . forces  are r e a c h i n g  to a c t out of  bureaucratic  that  but  Whereas p o s i t i v e  f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n were not p r e v i o u s l y widespread  enough to e f f e c t  engineers'  b e h a v i o u r , they have  increased  to a p o i n t where many arguments a g a i n s t unionism are negated.  P r i o r to widespread u n i o n i z a t i o n of  engineers,  some c r i t i c a l problems must be d e a l t with to make unionism more compatible with e n g i n e e r s ' new  values.  type of union emerges without many b l u e - c o l l a r  If  a  -123-  " e v i l s " then l i k e l i h o o d of u n i o n i z a t i o n i s far  greater  extent.  enhanced to a  With the g o a l of i n c r e a s e d  compat-  i b i l i t y i n mind t h i s chapter o f f e r s  alternatives  e n g i n e e r i n g unions through a n a l y s i s  of key i s s u e s .  A.  for  The Law As a prelude to widespread u n i o n i z a t i o n of  laws i n many p r o v i n c e s must be a l t e r e d to omit exclusions. facilitate i n Canada.  Present r e s t r i c t i o n s  engineers, professional  i n labour law do not  a major movement towards c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g S i n c e the F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n of 1947-48  was enacted with future r e v i s i o n s  i n mind there i s  s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t engineers  c o u l d lobby to have  the laws amended, of  B r i t i s h Columbia i s  a good example  an a s s o c i a t i o n which c u r r e n t l y seeks changes  p a r a l l e l Saskatchewan, and Quebec s i t u a t i o n s bargain c o l l e c t i v e l y .  to  Manitoba, O n t a r i o , New Brunswick where engineers are allowed to is a definite  possibility  t h a t other p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l  f o l l o w more  It  powerful groups to push f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n r i g h t s respective  provinces.  professionals  a  in their  A t t i t u d e s of s o c i e t y and  continue to view c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  as a l e g i t i m a t e v e h i c l e f o r worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work place and h o p e f u l l y the law w i l l society's  soon  reflect  attitudes.  Peter Carson a l l o w engineers  (1973)  believes  that the law should  to form t h e i r own b a r g a i n i n g u n i t s ,  -124-  p l a c e management e x c l u s i o n s  at a high p o i n t i n the  organ-  i z a t i o n h i e r a r c h y , provide f o r i n d i v i d u a l choice to j o i n or withdraw from the u n i t , achieved without s t r i k e s .  and r e l a t i o n s  should be  These goals are v e r y compatible  w i t h the f i n d i n g s  of the r e s t of the paper i n r e g a r d  engineers'  and needs.  values  I t would be  appropriate  to r e q u i r e a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y vote to g a i n if  certification  the law d i d not provide f o r v o l u n t a r y withdrawal,  because engineers majority.  are extremely adverse to r u l e by bare  Separate u n i t s f o r management engineers  not n e c e s s a r y i f the e x c l u s i o n p o i n t i s high.  F o r example,  placed  personnel f u n c t i o n s .  sufficiently except  and those who work i n  The r o l e of the l a b o u r  relations  boards would be mainly p r o c e d u r a l to ensure t h a t given a f a i r  are  a l l engineers may be e l i g i b l e  those who d i r e c t other engineers  are  to  engineers  o p p o r t u n i t y to form t h e i r own u n i t  with a democratic v o t e .  The boards would a l s o p l a y  a v e r y important r o l e i n d e c i s i o n s  p e r t a i n i n g to  elig-  i b i l i t y and maintenance of i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . F o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter r e s t s on the assumption t h a t labour laws w i l l be a l t e r e d professional  engineers  to o r g a n i z e .  Labour law i s  u l t i m a t e b a r r i e r to unionism i n t h a t i t effectively  As p o s i t i v e  aspects i n a p p r o p r i a t e  i n large  the  can be used  as a weapon by employers even i f a l l  seek b a r g a i n i n g p r i v i l e g e s . negative  to a l l o w a l l  forces  engineers render  butreaucracies  -125-  the o n l y weapon a v a i l a b l e through s t r i c t favourable as  to h a l t union formation  adherence to the law.  The e f f e c t  is of  p u b l i c p o l i c y i s presented i n the paper  i t applies  to engineers and other  professional  workers. Following sections  help analyze what new p o l i c i e s  may emerge and much of the d i s c u s s i o n i s meant to new approaches  to w h i t e - c o l l a r b a r g a i n i n g or  discover  "professional"  unions. B,  Union S t r a t e g i e s and Goals Wideman (1971) s t a t e s t h a t a change i n  attitude  towards c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g has taken p l a c e i n s o c i e t y , and he says, engineers,  " U n d e s i r a b l e as  the f a c t  of pressure groups.  is  i t may appear to many  today's  democracy i s a system  In the past engineers were i n d i v i d u a l l y  r e c o g n i z e d and i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n was o f t e n to d e a l w i t h an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y longer the case.  situation.  sufficient This i s no  U n p r o f e s s i o n a l though i t may seem,  appears t h a t the only remedy a v a i l a b l e  today i s  formation of an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the s p e c i f i c of promoting the employed p r o f e s s i o n a l  it  the  purpose  engineers*  economic  interests."27 O r g a n i z a t i o n should do f a r more than promote pure economic i n t e r e s t s  for professional  v i o l a t i o n of other values is  engineers because  a s i d e from s a l a r y  issues,  the source of much of the impetus f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n .  -126-  A union c o u l d s a t i s f y engineers best by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i n t r i n s i c rewards as w e l l as monetary items. The new " p r o f e s s i o n a l u n i o n " i s more l i k e l y to be an a n c i l l a r y body than the p r o f e s s i o n a l itself.  association  P r o f e s s i o n a l unions w i l l r e q u i r e new l e a d e r s  who are capable a d m i n i s t r a t o r s than men with pure p r o f e s s i o n a l  and b a r g a i n e r s  rather  orientations.  a good p o s s i b i l i t y that the a s s o c i a t i o n  There i s  and union  would merge i n the l o n g run because of unhealthy c o m p e t i t i o n f o r l o y a l t y and the e x i s t e n c e goals is  (as  w e l l economies of space and manpower.)  also possible  affiliated  of many common It  that unions may s t a r t out b e i n g  with a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i l e not a c t u a l l y b e i n g  a p a r t of the p r o f e s s i o n a l  association.  T h i s would be  most probable where a s s o c i a t i o n s push h e a v i l y f o r union r i g h t s and where a s s o c i a t i o n s recognize t h a t t h e i r existence (1)  future  depends on support of the new u n i o n . Individualism  Evidence has been presented throughout the paper to i l l u s t r a t e for engineers.  how bureaucracy has destroyed i n d i v i d u a l i s m Unionization i s  g r e a t l y a i d e d through  n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l value to the o r g a n i z a t i o n because engineers place a high value on p e r s o n a l worth and e n g i n e e r i n g unions would attempt to r e c t i f y s i t u a t i o n to some degree through b a r g a i n i n g . is  this  One method  to seek reward based on m e r i t which would f o r c e  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n to recognize i n d i v i d u a l i n p u t , with the  result  -127-  t h a t h i g h e r rewards would i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r company.  value to the  Rewards based on m e r i t do not prevent de-  p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n nor s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n of t a s k s , still  therefore  l i m i t talents  it  is possible  that  job r o l e s may  and i n p u t s of the engineers  to some  extent. There are many p r o c e d u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d i v i d u a l rewards but the s i t u a t i o n i s not One p o s s i b i l i t y i s engineer's  in facilitating impossible.  to u t i l i z e p e r i o d i c reviews of  performance.  the  This may be accomplished  through monthly meetings between s u p e r i o r and subordinate to m u t u a l l y assess outcomes and g o a l s . may i n v o l v e c o l l e a g u e s  Another method  and peer a p p r a i s a l .  Peer  appraisal  seems to be compatible with both e n g i n e e r i n g v a l u e s individualism,  therefore  the problem of e q u i t a b l e  i t may be an i d e a l s o l u t i o n to returns.  I n d i v i d u a l i s m i n the u n i t a l s o means t h a t must be able  and  to decide f o r themselves  if  engineers  they want to  j o i n and be p a r t of an e n g i n e e r i n g a l l i a n c e .  Perhaps  a 70-80% vote i n favour of o r g a n i z i n g should be a pre-requisite  to prevent many unhappy i n d i v i d u a l s from  b e i n g stuck i n a u n i t . e l e c t i o n of l e a d e r s also possible shop i s  Democratic p r a c t i c e s  such as  and the use of peer e v a l u a t i o n  to p r o t e c t i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s .  imperative to f a c i l i t a t e  is  An agency  v o l u n t a r y membership  i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l union and to ensure union  security  -128-  as  well. Another u s e f u l  recognition is  alternative  through d i f f e r e n t  Perhaps an engineers*  to i n c r e a s e i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s of  union c o u l d b a r g a i n f o r  who p r o v i d e s c i e n c e - o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p normal b u r e a u c r a t i c  leadership. leaders  rather  than  s t y l e s which are d i r e c t i v e i n n a t u r e .  Contact w i t h l e a d e r s who are knowledgeable and who m e r i t their  jobs i n c r e a s e s t i e s to management,  allows  individuals  to measure progress through p r a i s e or punishment, and at  the same time i n c r e a s e s f e e l i n g s  professional leaders, engineers (2)  of s e l f - w o r t h .  The  union would have l i t t l e c o n t r o l over  a s i d e from p r e s s u r i n g management to promote on the b a s i s of m e r i t . Salary Determination  Engineers seek d i f f e r e n t  goals than b l u e - c o l l a r  d e s i r e s f o r g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e s and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n Engineers a l s o pursue an e q u i t a b l e  of  jobs.  system of reward  whereby r e t u r n s are based on o n e ' s worth r a t h e r than some uniform r a t e of pay.  It  is  f a r more important  gain f a i r  rewards  than hugh increments,  engineers  r e q u i r e an e q u i t y system of reward r a t h e r  i n other words  an e q u a l i t y system such as b l u e - c o l l a r workers have.  to  In some cases the increment f o r p a i d  than  generally  engineers  may be v e r y l a r g e to o b t a i n e q u i t y but t h i s may not be true i n a l l c a s e s . organizations  If  engineers  ideal conditions existed  in  would have r e t u r n s based on  -129-  effort,  p r o d u c t i v i t y , and s k i l l  i n p u t to complete  task and a l l i n d i v i d u a l wages would be r e v e a l e d prevent s p e c u l a t i o n and unhappiness Perhaps  the goal of engineers  due to  the  to  rumours.  i s b e s t seen through use  of Adams' theory on i n e q u i t y .  Adams' theory s t a t e s  that  e q u i t y e x i s t s whens Outcomes f o r Others Inputs by Others  _  Outcomes to Person Inputs by Person  Implementation of safeguards to preserve i n the system and p r o t e c t is  also desirable.  to p r o t e c t  equity  those who are u n f a i r l y rewarded  An a p p r a i s a l  system i s  appropriate  j u s t i c e i n the system through p e r i o d i c a l l y  review of rewards  and m e r i t .  Some o r g a n i z a t i o n s  have  a l r e a d y implemented a review system with success but engineers'  v a l u e s would be more s a t i s f i e d  to appeal was made a v a i l a b l e  i f the  to a l l e n g i n e e r s .  right The  r i g h t of r e d r e s s i s r e a l l y a chance to c h a l l e n g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on an i s s u e to i n s u r e I n d i v i d u a l engineers t h e i r own a p p r a i s a l  supervisor. j u s t i c e has not been  steps are c o n c l u d e d , then f u r t h e r  decisions  in  by d i s c u s s i n g work goals and work  I f an engineer s t i l l f e e l s  to appeal  treatment.  should be allowed to p a r t i c i p a t e  accomplishment w i t h the  after appraisal  just  the  should e x i s t .  would be the g r e a t e s t b a r r i e r  steps  P r a c t i c a l problems  d e r i v i n g a formula f o r determing outputs  served  of  and i n p u t s  to an e q u i t y reward system  because c o m p a r a b i l i t y between jobs i s  r e q u i r e d i n the  -130-  formula.  E n g i n e e r s work on t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t  with various effort  s k i l l requirements so f a i r  are v e r y d i f f i c u l t .  projects  comparisons  of  Perhaps a work procedure  committee or an e n g i n e e r i n g c o u n c i l c o u l d be g i v e n specific  duties  and ensure  i n the area to develop a f a i r  j u s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  formula  it.  E n g i n e e r s would i n i t a l l y t r y to r a i s e l e v e l s  of  pay to prevent f a l l i n g behind the g e n e r a l work f o r c e while s t r i v i n g f o r rewards which are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r education,  a b i l i t y , and s e r v i c e .  The problem of  telescoping  must be c o r r e c t e d to motivate experienced engineers recognize greater  worth to the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  union may b a r g a i n f o r g r e a t e r  benefits  and  The p r o f e s s i o n a l  f o r mature  engineers  who o f f e r v a l u a b l e experience but t h i s scheme must be based on m e r i t .  Overtime payment c o u l d be a new i s s u e  because many engineers  on s a l a r y r e c e i v e no overtime  pay although some engineers are allowed to take t i m e - o f f to compensate.  In the future  engineers may be p a i d at  premium r a t e s f o r overtime or have a c h o i c e of time o f f i n s t e a d of pay.  Use of scheduled overtime i s a l s o a  p o s s i b i l i t y to d i s t r i b u t e  e x t r a pay more f a i r l y throughout  the e n g i n e e r i n g group. (3)  Job S e c u r i t y  Job s e c u r i t y has become a r e l e v a n t i s s u e f o r Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l  engineers.  Unionism c o u l d c l e a r l y  s t r e n g t h e n t h i s area through c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g  -131-  through t r a d e o f f s  for lesser benefits  formulae f o r pay cuts are a l t e r n a t i v e s  i n other areas or to i n c r e a s e  job  security. If off  a company r e q u i r e s  l e s s engineers  then the  system must be f a i r with j u s t methods of  lay-  release.  An e l e c t e d e n g i n e e r i n g c o u n c i l and management c o u l d review s k i l l s engineers lay-offs  and performance  to m u t u a l l y decide which  are l e a s t d e s e r v i n g of  jobs.  are not based on pur s e n i o r i t y as  c o l l a r case because o r g a n i z a t i o n s valuable  Professional  engineers.  strive  i n the b l u e -  to keep more  T h i s method of l a y - o f f  m o t i v a t o r i n the poor labour market which  is  presently  e x i s t s i n Canada and i t a l s o conforms with values.  a great  engineers'  There would be great i n c e n t i v e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  to upgrade h i s s k i l l s worth t h e r e f o r e  i f lay-offs  organizations  r e s i s t a n c e to s k i l l  were based on p e r s o n a l  would have a b u i l t i n  obsolescence.  Senior  engineers  c o u l d not s l a c k l i k e s e n i o r b l u e - c o l l a r workers and upgrading would be f o r c e d upon o l d e r engineers benefit  the  of the company.  Walton ( I 9 6 I ) for lay-offs choices  to  skill  suggests three f u r t h e r  alternatives  which may be c o n s i d e r e d by a u n i o n .  include lay-offs  by a r a t i n g system,  comparison ( s i m i l a r to p r e v i o u s on an inter-company b a s i s .  The f i r s t  are congruent with e n g i n e e r s ' one because m e r i t i s  suggestion), two  These  man-to-man and s e n i o r i t y  possibilities  values more than the  the b a s i s f o r r a t i n g the  third  engineers.  -132-  There are p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n constructing rating  systems and e v a l u a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s but these  barriers  are f a r from insurmountable. Another method of i n c r e a s i n g job s e c u r i t y i s arrange f o r a l l engineers  to  to take a s l i g h t cut i n pay  r a t h e r than have a f e l l o w engineer r e l e a s e d .  This  al-  t e r n a t i v e would h e l p companies by r e t a i n i n g v a l u a b l e workers w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r e v e n t i n g the c o n d i t i o n of labour market o v e r s u p p l y . would r e c e i v e a v e r y s l i g h t  Each engineer  drop i n pay of f a r  f i v e percent but the b e n e f i t s great. as  probably  Blum (1970) supports  less  than  i n group cohesion are t h i s n o t i o n of work s h a r i n g  one method of a v o i d i n g unemployment and i n c r e a s i n g  worker s o l i d a r i t y at a r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t . Clauses  p e r t a i n i n g to automation are a l s o goals  b a r g a i n i n g i n some c a s e s .  There c o u l d be  for  obligations  f o r the company to make new jobs f o r those d i s p l a c e d by automation or some s p e c i a l monetary b e n e f i t s to those who are l a i d o f f .  (Blum, 1970).  may be g i v e n Professional  unions and a s s o c i a t i o n s would not oppose t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances lose  but they would demand a s s i s t a n c e to those who  jobs and programs  (Blum,  to f a c i l i t a t e  re-employment.  1970).  The u n i o n s p e c i f i c engineers'  duties  and committments  s e c u r i t y through the use  to  of employment  -133-  c o u n s e l l i n g and job placement a c t i v i t i e s . It  is possible  for l o c a l units  to communicate on a  n a t i o n a l s c a l e to ensure t h a t engineers r i g h t a c r o s s Canada.  (Blum, 1970),  are aware of  jobs  The p r o f e s s i o n a l u n i o n c o u l d a l s o  go f u r t h e r than t h i s by b a r g a i n i n g f o r c l a u s e s which r e q u i r e the employer to h e l p the engineers  relocate  through c o n t a c t w i t h other employers. (4)  Development of E n g i n e e r s  E d u c a t i o n c o u l d be one of the most important b a r g a i n i n g areas to i n c r e a s e  engineers'  satisfaction.  Issues c o n c e r n i n g education may be used to l e s s e n satisfaction  dis-  on the job while i n c r e a s i n g i n t r i n s i c rewards.  An e n g i n e e r i n g union c o u l d demand " X " hours per week f o r e d u c a t i o n purposes  to prevent obsolescence  while a l l o w i n g c o n t a c t with f e l l o w Perhaps an arrangement i s p o s s i b l e  of  skills  professionals. whereby a nearby  u n i v e r s i t y becomes i n v o l v e d i n a r r a n g i n g weekly seminars and i n s t r u c t i o n .  Another a l t e r n a t i v e  i s use of  association  personnel to help update knowledge through g a t h e r i n g and d i s p e r s i n g of new techniques or t h e o r i e s  i n engineering.  E d u c a t i o n a l leaves of absence f o r one year or l o n g e r provide an a d d i t i o n a l b a r g a i n i n g i s s u e of concern f o r all  engineers. Leaves  of absence would assure the i n d i v i d u a l  engineer  t h a t h i s p l a c e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n would be saved while he gained extensive  educational benefits.  Attendance at  -134-  e n g i n e e r i n g conferences f i n a n c e d by companies Increased  and n i g h t c l a s s e s might be  or at l e a s t p a r t of the c o s t  e d u c a t i o n programs  experience  fullyshared.  ensure t h a t engineers  can s t a y a b r e a s t w i t h s c i e n t i f i c  with  developments  and apply them to the o r g a n i z a t i o n (while overcoming the problem of s k i l l a b s o l e s c e n c e . ) and more e f f i c i e n t  C o s t - s a v i n g processes  p r o d u c t i o n methods are  probable  d i v i d e n d s f o r the company i f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n of engineers  is  facilitated.  "cosmopolitanizes" other companies  The upgrading of s k i l l s  also  workers to make them more u s e f u l  i n case of unemployment.  Continuing  edcuation a l s o l e s s e n s needs i n other areas because meets such needs as c o n t a c t w i t h c o l l e a g u e s ,  Fringe  it  increased  p e r c e p t i o n of p e r s o n a l worth, and p r o f e s s i o n a l (5)  for  status.  Benefits  Fringe benefits  such as pension plans and v a c a t i o n s  are other i s s u e s to be d e a l t w i t h .  Wideman (1971)  offers  many areas which unions must study as p o t e n t i a l  bargaining  issues.  pension  funds,  These b e n e f i t s  include l i f e  insurance,  d i s a b i l i t y income, s i c k n e s s income,  coverage, insurance,  household i n s u r a n c e ,  professional  hospital liability  and unemployment b e n e f i t s .  There i s a l a c k of f r i n g e b e n e f t i s because engineers  are s a l a r i e d  i n many o r g a n i z a t i o n s  workers who are not  secure as b l u e - c o l l a r employees but engineers  are  as paid  f a i r l y h i g h r a t e s compared to most b l u e - c o l l a r workers,  -135-  therefore  engineers  Fringe benefits  have not pushed f o r a d d i t i o n a l  are of g r e a t e r concern to b l u e - c o l l a r  workers because e x t r i n s i c rewards injuries  gains.  and p h y s i c a l b e l o n g i n g s  such as guards a g a i n s t are c r i t i c a l to these  workers. Pension schemes with v o l u n t a r y involvement are n e c e s s a r y f o r engineers. m o b i l i t y f o r engineers career  is  Poor job markets  therefore  result  much of an  i n less  engineer's  l i k e l y to be spent w i t h one o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Longer job spans mean t h a t a pension fund can be developed and a d m i n i s t e r e d whereas  constant  c r e a t e s g r e a t problems.  V a r i o u s options f o r  payment can be modelled a f t e r t h a t engineers  turnover of p e r s o n n e l engineer  b l u e - c o l l a r formulae  so  can put up to " X " percent of t h e i r income  i n t o the pension fund.  C o o p e r a t i o n with other unions i n  the o r g a n i z a t i o n can give b e n e f i t s pension fund with high r e t u r n s .  It  t h a t the p e n s i o n fund be p o r t a b l e take i t to h i s next  to g a i n a l a r g e , is also  desirable  so the engineer can  job.  V a c a t i o n time c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d f o r engineers t i m i n g of v a c a t i o n s engineers  year,  c o u l d be n e g o t i a t e d .  or,  i f the p r o j e c t  of lab f a c i l i t i e s  which meets p r o f e s s i o n a l  is  needs.  projects  takes more than one  then v a c a t i o n time can be accumulated.  hours use  or  F o r example,  may be allowed to take h o l i d a y s a f t e r  are completed,  stable  another f r i n g e If  Afterbenefit  the engineer i s  not  -136-  b e i n g c h a l l e n g e d on the job then experiments of h i s own c o u l d h e l p to reduce d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . results  R i g h t s to p u b l i s h  of experiments i s another a t t r a c t i v e  situation for  engineers. Communication  (6)  The r o l e of communication has been s t r e s s e d throughout the paper.  Improvement of v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l  communication i s a primary concern f o r an e n g i n e e r i n g union.  Union power may f o r c e more v e r t i c a l exchange to  take place because management would be more aware of engineers and t h e i r v a l u e s . facilitate  Union n e g o t i a t i o n s c o u l d a l s o  h o r i z o n t a l communication through l e s s adherence  to formal channels of communication.  Perhaps engineers  c o u l d be p h y c i s a l l y c l o s e to one another so c o n s u l t a t i o n is  easier  and group c o h e s i o n i s  i n c r e a s e d because adminis-  t r a t i o n by bureaucracy tends to s t i f l e  communication f o r  the cause of e f f i c i e n c y , but b u r e a u c r a t i c r u l e s may l e a d to lower p r o d u c t i o n due to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n engineers.  on the p a r t of  Management must communicate w i t h union  representatives  on c r i t i c a l  i s s u e s and perhaps t h i s i s  g r e a t e s t v a l u e of u n i o n i z i n g .  the  Regular meetings w i t h  management by union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  seems to be one  a p p r o p r i a t e way to impress e n g i n e e r s ' views on h i g h e r l e v e l s of the h i e r a r c h y . Through p e r i o d i c a p p r a i s a l s  of e n g i n e e r s ' work the  u n i o n c o u l d f o r c e management to communicate with e n g i n e e r s .  -137-  Channels of communication may be unblocked and new ones may be opened f o r g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n the P o s s i b l y an engineers  organization,  c o u l d go d i r e c t l y to the person he  needs to c o n s u l t with u n l e s s  the problem i s  a major  Rise of s t r i c t h i e r a r c h a l r u l e s and e x i s t e n c e red  tape o f t e n r e s u l t  i n great d i f f i c u l t i e s  one. of  in solving  minor problems. (7)  Conflict  Resolution  R e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t i s  one area where e n g i n e e r i n g  unions are v e r y l i k e l y to diverge from t h e i r b l u e - c o l l a r counterparts. unions i s  The m i l i t a n t c o n f l i c t s t y l e  o r i e n t e d to s t r i k e s and severe economic t h r e a t s  which are e n t i r e l y unacceptable (1973) p o i n t s  such a s t r i k e  (1973) questions  engineers  effectiveness are  lengthy  and workshops  s t r a t e g i e s to a p p l y p r e s s u r e on the employer  but these t a c t i c s a l s o v i o l a t e  engineers  the  which are e a s i l y delayed f o r  Slowdowns, mass r e s i g n a t i o n s ,  are a l t e r n a t i v e  standards.  V a l Scott  anyway because e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s  long-term e f f o r t s periods.  to e n g i n e e r s .  out there has never been a s t r i k e by  i n Canada and John O l i v e r of  of b l u e - c o l l a r  engineers'  There are f u r t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s  behavioural available  however and these are most l i k e l y to be  to  used.  B a i n (1969) suggests t h a t compulsory, b i n d i n g a r b i t r a t i o n may be agreed upon to r e s o l v e  disputes.  A  t h i r d p a r t y may be agreed upon to hand down a b i n d i n g award so t h a t s t r i k e s are a v o i d e d .  Perhaps m e d i a t i o n  -138-  and  c o n c i l i a t i o n stages are p o s s i b l e  to s e t t l e  disputes  as w e l l because most p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  acts  provide c o n c i l i a t i o n machinery. Shrum (1970) suggests a more lengthy set for  engineers  to r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s .  of steps  F i r s t of a l l the  employer and the union would t r y to work t h i n g s out by themselves perhaps  as  i n any c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n and  they may even agree on mediation and a r b i t r a t i o n  on t h e i r own.  I f the f i r s t  s t e p brought no agreement  then a f a c t - f i n d i n g body c o u l d be appointed by a commission to get the two p a r t i e s  together.  I f t h i s second stage  a l s o f a i l e d then the c o n f l i c t may be r e f e r r e d to the legislature commission.  with or without recommendations from the A l l of these steps would have time l i m i t s  but Shrum would not h u r r y the procedure so the could cool off.  T h i s procedure appears to be  parties acceptable  to both engineers and companies so some form of d i s p u t e method c o u l d w e l l appear Val Scott settlement  (1973) o f f e r s  future.  another method of  dispute  f o r engineers c a l l e d the " F i n a l Offer  (Columbian, A p r i l 4, 1973, p . 2 1 ) . is  i n the  this  "The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e  t h a t i f two s i d e s i n a d i s p u t e are unable to  their differences,  Selection."  a m u t u a l l y acceptable  resolve  'selector'  or  s e l e c t i o n o f f i c e r would have the power to choose between the f i n a l of  offers  presented by both s i d e s . T h i s  type  mechanism would c a l l f o r b a r g a i n i n g to s t a r t s i x months  -139-  before is  the e x p i r y date of the c o n t r a c t and as  settled  it  months before  i s removed from the agenda.  P r i o r to two  the e x p i r y date the s e l e c t o r  is  to hear p o s i t i o n s on the agenda. selector offer  each item  introduced  on the o u t s t a n d i n g items remaining  F o l l o w i n g an attempt  the remaining items are  whereby the s e l e c t o r  at m e d i a t i o n by the  then put to the  a c c e p t s one o f f e r  and does not have to j u s t i f y  his decision.  eliminates  s t r i k e s and l o c k o u t s which are  engineers'  values  final  or the  This method i n v i o l a t i o n with  and wishes.  The " O n e - o r - t h e - O t h e r " c r i t e r i o n i s  also  supported  i n Donald Brown's Task Force study i n t o i n t e r s e t T h i s model seeks to overcome the c e n t r a l f a u l t tripartite  arbitration.  with  a r b i t r a t i o n by s t i m u l a t i n g the p a r t i e s  adopt r e a l i s t i c to s t i m u l a t e  positions.  Brown s t a t e s ,  "The aim  to s t r i k e  2  i s no r i g h t to s t r i k e  model and e i t h e r p a r t y i s The model i s  designed  c o s t of a r b i t r a t i o n .  of  or l o c k o u t under  this  f r e e to invoke a r b i t r a t i o n .  to f o r c e  c o n c e s s i o n and compromise  because each p a r t y must examine i t s  are  is  and thereby make the main  d e c i s i o n processes p r e - a r b i t r a l n e g o t i a t i o n s . " 9 there  to  a c o n f l i c t - c h o i c e s i t u a t i o n as would be  c r e a t e d by a t h r e a t  course  other  expected  The main o b j e c t i o n s  that i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  conflicts  opportunity  to the model  facing  negotiators  may l e a d to implementing a r b i t r a t i o n i n order to a v o i d t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of making d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s  or  -140-  e l s e both s i d e s may adopt u n r e a l i s t i c s t a n d s . The f i r s t  (Brown, 1968).  problem may be overcome by making sure  that  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s p l a c e d s o l e l y i n the hands of the negotiators,  so they cannot s h i r k r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The second problem i s  avoided by i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r o v i d i n g  f o r appeal to another t h i r d (8)  party.  Special Professional  Issues  There are many s p e c i a l p r o f e s s i o n a l  i s s u e s which  s h a l l be n e g o t i a t e d by e n g i n e e r i n g u n i o n s . m e r i t i s an i s s u e of i n t e r e s t .  Individual  T h i s element has  already  been reviewed i n the s a l a r y s e c t i o n but i n d i v i d u a l i s m is  important i n other areas as w e l l .  important i n l a y - o f f s , engineers  Merit is  promotions, and l e a d e r s h i p  combined with g r e a t e r  are l i k e l y t o p i c s  professional  s t a t u s of the  f o r company and union to  f o r mutual b e n e f i t  i n work q u a l i t y and image.  imperative that professional be kept at h i g h l e v e l s satisficing Styles  It  cooperate It  is  performance and standards  r a t h e r than f a l l i n g i n t o a  situation. of l e a d e r s h i p may be questioned by a u n i o n .  (1963) d i r e c t s  the q u e s t i o n as to which  of l e a d e r s h i p i s a p p r o p r i a t e dominating,  profession  of d i s c u s s i o n with management.  would be reasonable  Strauss  of  i n general.  Improvement of working c o n d i t i o n s f o r engineers  also  or s u p p o r t i v e .  f o r engineer,  style  laissez-faire,  Bureaucracy p r o v i d e s  leaders  -141-  who are not human r e l a t i o n s are  dominating i n n a t u r e .  o r i e n t e d at a l l , r a t h e r Engineers require  which i s based on s c i e n t i f i c frequent  they  supervision  knowledge combined w i t h  i n t e r a c t i o n to a i d the engineer i n measuring  i n d i v i d u a l worth and s t a t u s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . i d e a l l e a d e r f o r an e n g i n e e r i n g group i s r a t h e r than d i r e c t s  as w e l l as  An  one who guides  one who i s  capable  of  both p r a i s e and punishment. A study done by Frank Andrews and George F a r r i s provides  i n s i g h t i n t o the l e a d e r s h i p  found t h a t s c i e n t i s t s i n human r e l a t i o n s desire  of e n g i n e e r s .  d i d not want l e a d e r s who were s k i l l e d  or a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r a t h e r these  l e a d e r s who are c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t i v e ,  i n f l u e n c e work g o a l s , who are a v a i l a b l e i n c u r r e n t procedures, of the subordinates  They  employees  who can  and competent  and who know the t e c h n i c a l  work.  details  A good l e a d e r can a l t e r  the  c l i m a t e i n the group and i n s p i r e high achievement while guarding h i s subordinates  from e x t e r i o r f o r c e s .  Effective  l e a d e r s a l s o keep t h e i r hand i n by c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h themselves is  or t a k i n g part  i n c u r r e n t s c i e n t i f i c work.  It  a l s o important t h a t the l e a d e r be g i v e n only a few  groups  to supervise  the work.  If  supervisors  to a few groups ordinates  so he may be s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e are unable to r e s t r i c t  then Andrews and F a r r i s  The s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t  is  themselves  state that  should be granted more freedom to e f f e c t that a good e n g i n e e r i n g  to  subdecisions.  leader  -142-  may  be a poor a d m i n i s t r a t o r and c o o l towards h i s subO  ordinates,  yet he may be v e r y e f f e c t i v e .  These  results  imply t h a t the e n g i n e e r i n g u n i o n must push f o r promotion which i s based s o l e l y on competence, not s e n i o r i t y , the s a t i s f a c t i o n C.  of engineers  for  and the good of the company.  S t y l e of O r g a n i z a t i o n O r g a n i z i n g s t r a t e g y of an e n g i n e e r i n g union would  not  f o l l o w a h a r d - s e l l , b i t t e r campaign s t y l e .  An  effective  means of s t i m u l a t i n g u n i o n i z a t i o n i s  engineers  they are f a l l i n g i n t o b l u e - c o l l a r r o l e s  a union i s  a b s o l u t e l y necessary  s t a t u s and n e e d - s a t i s f a c t i o n . doctors and teachers professionalism  to m a i n t a i n e n g i n e e r s '  are a v a i l a b l e  to i l l u s t r a t e  that  i s not destroyed not l i m i t e d by u n i o n i z a t i o n .  fact  of  P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineers s a y s ,  as Peter Carson (1973) of the B. C. A s s o c i a t i o n  a different  style  the c h a l l e n g e i s  t h a t c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m incompatible.  Many sources  and  (1965) r e j e c t  Carrothers irrelevant.  to  sell  of c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  Evidence throughout the paper has o f f e r e d  reveals  i n which  Comparison groups such as  In  as  to convince  the  opinion  are NOT  i n c l u d i n g Goldenberg (1968) the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y argument  An excerpt from the Globe and M a i l i n 1967  the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e  toward t h i s  "Although some members of the p r o f e s s i o n s  situation, (engineers  i n c l u d e d ) are not much pleased by the prospect of b e i n g trade u n i o n i s t s ,  the move i s  overdue.  F o r too l o n g now  -143-  the word p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  once honored, has been confused  with the word mercenary.  When knighthood i s  for  sale,  surely bargaining i s permissable. " 3 0 I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t to determine i f  professional  unions should be an e x t e n s i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n separate e n t i t y a l t o g e t h e r .  or a  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s  paper  suggest t h a t the union should be separate from the e n g i n e e r i n g association 1968).  f o r the i n i t i a l p e r i o d at l e a s t .  The p h y s i c a l requirements of a new union are  that new o f f i c e s if  (Goldenberg, sufficient  and storage spaces must be l o c a t e d even  the a s s o c i a t i o n wishes to take p a r t i n c o l l e c t i v e  bargaining.  S e p a r a t i o n of the two e n t i t i e s  l e s s d i s r u p t i o n i n the a s s o c i a t i o n the more e n t h u s i a s t i c  engineers  the help of outside c o n s u l t a n t s . i s not r e a l l y d e s i r a b l e may be s u i t a b l e a new s o r t  would cause  and i t would a l l o w  to l e a d the new union' with A dichotomy of  engineers  i n the l o n g r u n , however, and i t  to combine the union and a s s o c i a t i o n  into  of o r g a n i z a t i o n where the two p h i l o s o p h i e s  can c o - e x i s t .  There c o u l d be p a r t i c i p a t i v e and non- '  p a r t i c i p a t i v e members i n the " c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g d i v i s i o n " and f u l l facit.  a c t i v e membership i n the  "association"  Combination of the two u n i t s would prevent  r a i d i n g and o f f e r  economies of s c a l e through use  dues and s e c r e t a r i a l  pools e t c .  It  of  seems that unions  and a s s o c i a t i o n s would both be more v i a b l e i n the l o n g term i f a compremise c o u l d be  struck.  -144-  Implementation of a campaign based on l o g i c and hard f a c t s would a i d the cause of u n i o n i z a t i o n .  Engineers  would be more r e c e p t i v e  to a l o g i c a l d i s p l a y of  which proves  and i n j u s t i c e s  situations Structure  inequities  evidence  i n h e r e n t i n work  than they would be to an emotional of the new union must i n s u r e f a i r  appeal.  treatment  f o r a l l members, with no f a v o r i t i s m allowed f o r .  All  members should have the r i g h t to be heard and bare m a j o r i t y r u l e i s not acceptable  on major i s s u e s .  Perhaps  the union c o n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d r e q u i r e e i g h t y or n i n e t y percent agreement the u n i t . i n union D.  on a l l d e c i s i o n s  to decide p o l i c i e s  for  I n d i v i d u a l i s m and e q u i t y are c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s structure.  Company Side P r e v e n t i o n of union f o r m a t i o n has p r e v i o u s l y been  reviewed i n the paper and t h i s of u n i o n i z a t i o n .  i s r e a l l y the company s i d e  An i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r companies  occurs  when they can prevent union f o r m a t i o n a t minimal c o s t . Problems of bureaucracy are of primary importance u n i o n i z a t i o n of engineers concerning professional treatment  is  if  to be b l o c k e d because problems  treatment,  communication, p e r s o n a l  and poor s t y l e s of l e a d e r s h i p are sources of  dissatisfaction way to impress  for engineers. on engineers  Companies must d i s c o v e r  t h a t they are  individuals in  the o r g a n i z a t i o n and not j u s t an employee number. have to p e r c e i v e themselves  a  Engineers  as v a l u a b l e members w i t h i n  -145-  o r g a n i z a t i o n who c o n t r i b u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n p u t to the  process. Employers c o u l d a l s o use education to o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l the job,  engineers.  stifle  E d u c a t i o n on  e d u c a t i o n a l leaves of absence, and p a i d time  f o r attendance  at seminars  and conferences  p o l i c i e s f o r meeting p r o f e s s i o n a l these p o l i c i e s  very q u i c k l y and, as a r e s u l t ,  in a  and prevent  Knowledge i n a l l s c i e n t i f i c  good  Not o n l y do  s a t i s f y needs of engineers  sense but they a l s o update s k i l l s of s k i l l s .  needs.  are  off  professional obsolescence  areas i s  advancing  graduates of twenty years  ago r e q u i r e exposure to new ideas so they can c o n t r i b u t e a fair  share to the  organization.  O r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d a l s o improve communication at little  cost.  receive  Engineers need to exchange  i n f o r m a t i o n and  encouragement from higher l e v e l s  to i d e n t i f y with management.  Better  of the h i e r a r c h y  communication with  managers and f e l l o w s c i e n t i s t s ensures that feel  they are v a l u a b l e  to the o r g a n i z a t i o n because each  engineer sees h i m s e l f r e c e i v i n g d i f f e r e n t b l u e - c o l l a r workers.  engineers  treatment  E a s i e r communication a l s o  e f f i c i e n c y because i t prevents  from  helps  d u p l i c a t i o n of work  and a i d s i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Employers can a c t u a l l y go outside to prevent o r g a n i z a t i o n . and t h e i r i d e a l s  the  organization  Support of e n g i n e e r s '  i s an e f f e c t i v e  associations  way to h a l t u n i o n i z a t i o n .  -146-  Funds c o u l d be given to the a s s o c i a t i o n  for  pamphlets  and seminars which oppose c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . i z a t i o n s c o u l d a l s o combat changes Lobbying i s  i n labour  one way to prevent new labour  and t h i s t a c t i c associations.  Organ-  laws.  regulations  a l s o can be done i n c o n j u n c t i o n with Recruitment of new engineers  could also  h i n d e r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h a t companies c o u l d seek out cosmopolitans  or workers with outlooks who would be  l e s s l i a b l e to support c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g under any circumstances.  Companies may study f a c t o r s  i n engineers'  backgrounds to f i n d which elements i n d i c a t e a n t i - u n i o n i s m s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the purpose of l o c a t i n g sympathetic engineers. S e c u r i t y c o u l d a l s o be r a i s e d by companies at cost.  O r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d . e n f o r c e pay cuts  l a y i n g o f f engineers  little  r a t h e r than  i n p e r i o d s where l o s s e s are i n c u r r e d .  A l o n g v/ith t h i s s e c u r i t y companies c o u l d ensure v e r t i c a l m o b i l i t y f o r engineers with i n c r e a s e d amounts of work on confidential If  projects.  the company cannot prevent u n i o n i z a t i o n then i t  must adapt to new c i r c u m s t a n c e s . u n i t r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n changes F o r example,  A d a p t a t i o n to a new  to d e a l with the u n i o n s .  b a r g a i n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and goals must be  day to day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c o n t r a c t i s  discussed,  imperative  and the company must l o c a t e p e r s o n n e l to c a r r y out these functions.  Grievance procedures  are l i a b l e  to become more  -Un-  c o s t l y and more formal i f a u n i o n forms because r u l e s and steps f o r dispute settlement w i l l  specific  emerge.  Perhaps a p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a r c h y w i l l be c r e a t e d to deal with e n g i n e e r s '  grievances  of  a l s o probable t h a t companies  the c o n t r a c t .  It  is  and ensure f a i r governing  may form ah a l l i a n c e to d e a l w i t h engineers because there are economies to be d e r i v e d and a l s o group power may be greater.  Eventually i t is possible  t h a t groups of employers  may b a r g a i n with many u n i t s to give a l l similar  engineers  contracts. PROSPECTS  The future h o l d some dramatic changes f o r engineers  i n Canada.  formation w i l l  It  professional  i s h i g h l y probable that u n i o n  occur on a l a r g e r s c a l e w i t h B r i t i s h  Columbia and Ontario l e a d i n g the way. to the law are e f f e c t e d  If  alternations  i n B r i t i s h Columbia and elsewhere  then a good p o r t i o n of Canda's engineers are l i k e l y j o i n professional unions.  A n c i l l a r y bodies f o r c o l l e c t i v e  b a r g a i n i n g should be s t r u c t u r e s professional associations  to  which are separate from  i n the f i r s t  opment, then the two may u n i t e  stages of d e v e l -  later.  Unions are l i k e l y to be a long-term phenomenom because the t r e n d towards l a r g e ,  bureaucratic  w i l l not d i m i n i s h i n Canada, i n f a c t  organizations  i t could well  increase.  P o s i t i v e forces>vwill continue to grow and negative  attitudes  are d i s a p p e a r i n g as time passes.  The f u t u r e f o r u n i o n i z a t i o n  -148-  of  p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers w i l l be v e r y b r i g h t i f the  few unions adhere to e n g i n e e r i n g values and i n s t r u c t u r e .  i n bargaining  These unions w i l l have a d i f f e r e n t  o r i e n t a t i o n than b l u e - c o l l a r u n i t s and h o p e f u l l y leaders w i l l  emerge who r e c o g n i z e e n g i n e e r s 1  values as w e l l as h a v i n g t a l e n t s u n i t and b a r g a i n as  first  well.  effective  needs and  to h o l d together  the  -149-  FOOTNOTES 1.  Walton, R i c h a r d E . , The Impact of the P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r i n g U n i o n , D i v i s i o n of Research, Graduate S c h o o l of Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , Boston, Massachusetts, 1961, p. 4.  2.  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C a r d i n , Jean-Real, "The P r o f e s s i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n : A Confused N o t i o n " , R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s , Volume 16, no. 4, October 1961, p. Wo~. 12. B a i n , George S a y e r s , The Growth of W h i t e - C p i l a r Unionism, Clarendon P r e s s , Oxford, 1970, p. 23. 13. M u i r , J . Douglas, "Is a Trade Union I n e v i t a b l e f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s ? " , Canadian Personnel and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s J o u r n a l , V o l . 18, No. 1, January 1971, p. 20. 14. Hansen, W. Problems", Relations, No. 3, May  Lee, " P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s : Salary Structure I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , Volume 2, 1963, p. 33.  -150-  15.  B a i n , George S a y e r s , "The Growth of W h i t e - C o l l a r Unionism and P u b l i c P o l i c y i n Canada", R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s , Volume 24, No. 2, A p r i l 1969, p. 263.  16.  M u i r , Is a Trade Union I n e v i t a b l e f o r E n g i n e e r s , Volume 18, No. 1, p. 21.  Professional  17.  Toronto Globe and M a i l ,  June 7, 1967t  p. B2.  18.  Toronto Globe and M a i l ,  October 22,  19.  Goldenberg, C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g ,  20.  Muir,  21.  H a l l , W i l l i a m , Managing D i r e c t o r of the A s s o c i a t i o n of B. C. E n g i n e e r s , P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w , November 9,  Inevitable,  p.  1970, p. B4. p. 136.  22.  1972.  22.  Goldenberg, C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g ,  23.  R u s s e l , D. W., "Beyond The T h i n E d g e " , The B . C . P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r , October 1954, p. 9.  24.  C a i n , Glen G . , and Seidman, J o e l , " U n i o n i z e d Engineers and Chemists: A Case Study of a P r o f e s s i o n a l U n i o n " , J o u r n a l of B u s i n e s s , U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o , Volume 37, No. 3, J u l y 1964, p. 252.  25.  Russel,  26.  New York Times, October 4,  27.  Wideman, R. M . , "The Second Report to the Member S e r v i c e s Committee on Welfare and C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining for Engineers", Engineering Journal, November 1971, p. 8.  28.  Columbian, Newspaper, A p r i l 4, 1973, p. 21.  29.  Brown, Donald J . M . , I n t e r e s t A r b i t r a t i o n , Task Force on I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , Study No, 18, Osgoode H a l l Law S c h o o l , York U n i v e r s i t y , October I968, p. 5 .  op. c i t . ,  p.  p. 20.  8. I969,  p.  11.  2  30.  Toronto Globe and M a i l ,  1967, p. 6.  — 151-  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Adams, J . 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