UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Studies in early Greek tyranny Ferngren, Gary Burt 1972

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• STUDIES IN EARLY GREEK TYRANNY by GARY BURT FERNGREN B. A., Western Washington S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1964 M. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department o f C l a s s i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1972 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Gary B. Ferngren Department o f C l a s s i c s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B.C., Canada January 31, 1973 ABSTRACT In Chapter One, 'The Economic B a s i s o f Tyranny,' the view i s q u e s t i o n e d t h a t e a r l y t y r a n n i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n the Isthmian s t a t e s , were connected w i t h the growth o f commercial p r o s p e r i t y and were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the support o f a new c l a s s o f merchants and a r t i s a n s . I t i s argued t h a t i n C o r i n t h and elsewhere i n Greece economic c o n d i t i o n s seem not to have been s u f f i c i e n t l y advanced when the e a r l i e s t t y r a n t s came to power i n the mid-seventh cent u r y B . C. t o have c r e a t e d a new c l a s s p o w e r f u l enough to c h a l l e n g e a r i s t o c r a t i c c o n t r o l o f the p o l i s . E x t e n s i v e t r a d e i n the Aegean, a t r a d e i n volume capa b l e o f b r i n g i n g p r o s p e r i t y t o a l a r g e number o f people and s u f f i c i e n t t o produce s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l change, began l a t e r than the r i s e o f the e a r l i e s t t y r a n t s . Thus a connexion between the growth o f p r o s p e r i t y and the r i s e o f the e a r l i e s t t y r a n t s i s d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n . In Chapter Two, 'The H o p l i t e Reform and Tyranny,1 i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the e v i d e n c e argues a g a i n s t a s s o c i a t i n g the r i s e o f e a r l y Greek t y r a n t s w i t h the support o f a new h o p l i t e c l a s s . It i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d i n the mid-seventh c e n t u r y a s u f f i c i e n t l y prosperous c l a s s o f n o n - a r i s t o c r a t i c c i t i z e n s to supplement the nobles i n f i l l i n g the ranks o f the e a r l i e s t h o p l i t e a r m i e s . The e a r l i e s t h o p l i t e armies were i i i p r o b a b l y composed o f a r i s t o c r a t s , who were the o n l y c l a s s o f c i t i z e n s a b l e t o f u r n i s h t h e i r own armour and the m i l i t a r y s k i l l s r e q u i r e d to form the e a r l i e s t h o p l i t e l i n e s . There i s no e v i d e n c e to connect e a r l y t y r a n t s w i t h h o p l i t e support and none to suggest t h a t h o p l i t e s were a f o r c e i n p o l i t i c s or even a s e p a r a t e p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y i n the seventh c e n t u r y B. C. In Chapter Three, ' A r i s t o c r a t i c F a c t i o n a l i s m and the O r i g i n o f Tyranny,' e v i d e n c e i s adduced to i n d i c a t e t h a t f a c t i o n a l i s m w i t h i n e a r l y a r i s t o c r a c i e s e s p e c i a l l y amongst r i v a l f a m i l i e s was a r e c u r r i n g problem i n the a r c h a i c p o l i s and t h a t i n many c i t i e s tyranny arose from a r i s t o c r a t i c s t a s i s . Tyranny was o f t e n g a i n e d through the normal magis-t r a c i e s w i t h i n the framework o f a r i s t o c r a t i c p o l i t i c s . I t grew out o f two f e a t u r e s o f the a r i s t o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n : the p o s s e s s i o n by m a g i s t r a t e s o f grea t and sometimes n e a r l y unchecked power; and l o n g t e n u r e o f o f f i c e . The C r e t a n c i t i e s , M y t i l e n e , and Athens a r e c i t e d as examples o f c i t i e s i n which ty r a n n y seems t o have a r i s e n from a r i s t o c r a t i c f a c t i o n a l i s m . When a r i s t o c r a t s g a i n e d t h e tyranny t h e i r r u l e was o f t e n c o n s e r v a t i v e and employed o r d i n a r y methods o f a r i s t o c r a t i c r u l e . Tyranny i n a r c h a i c Greece was an a r i s t o c r a t i c , not a p o p u l a r , phenomenon. In Chapter F o u r , 'The Nature o f Tyranny,' i t i s su g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s much evidence t o c o n t r a d i c t the view t h a t e a r l y i v t y r a n t s usurped power and m a i n t a i n e d i t by f o r c e . Many accounts t h a t t e l l o f t y r a n t s who s e i z e d power i n a coup d'etat a r e l a t e , s t e r e o t y p e d , and s u s p e c t . Bodyguards g r a n t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s were not p r i v a t e armies but had the o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n o f the p o l e i s t h a t g r a n t e d them. It i s l i k e l y t h a t the grant o f a bodyguard accompanied a m a g i s t r a c y or the a s s i g n i n g o f s p e c i a l a u t h o r i t y t h a t eased the path to t y r a n n y . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t tyranny i n e a r l y Greece was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r a b s o l u t e monarchy as i t e x i s t e d i n L y d i a or anywhere e l s e i n A n a t o l i a . Rather i t denoted the assumption o f g r e a t power by ah i n d i v i d u a l w i t h l o n g t e n u r e i n the context o f f a m i l i a r m a g i s t r a c i e s i n t h e p o l i s . The p o s i t i o n o f a t y r a n t was p r o b a b l y ambiguous i n h i s own day. E x t r a o r d i n a r y m a g i s t r a c i e s e x i s t e d i n the a r c h a i c p o l i s f o r the g r a n t i n g o f s p e c i a l power t o i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e s e may have s e r v e d as models f o r a s p i r i n g t y r a n t s . E a r l y t y r a n t s seem f o r the most p a r t to have based t h e i r r u l e on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l m a g i s t r a c i e s . Tyranny was a Greek, not an o r i e n t a l , phenomenon. V TABLE OF CONTENTS A b b r e v i a t i o n s v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n x i Chapter One. The Economic B a s i s o f Tyranny 1 Chapter Two. The H o p l i t e Reform and Tyranny 47 Chapter T h r e e . A r i s t o c r a t i c F a c t i o n a l i s m and the O r i g i n o f Tyranny 80 Chapter F o u r . The Nature o f E a r l y Tyranny 137 B i b l i o g r a p h y 183 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t o the Canada C o u n c i l f o r the most generous support both d u r i n g my r e s i d e n c e at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and w h i l e t h i s t h e s i s was i n p r o g r e s s . To the members o f the Department o f C l a s s i c s o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia I s h a l l always be g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r t e a c h i n g and t h e i r h e l p i n many ways. P r o f e s s o r C. W. J . E l i o t r e a d an e a r l y d r a f t o f Chapters 1, 2, and 4 and h i s comments have proven h e l p f u l . I am i n d e b t e d t o David Smith and Ted Wilson f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f s e v e r a l p o i n t s o f t h i s t h e s i s . Thanks a r e due t o Mrs. J u l i a Bruce f o r her c a r e f u l t y p i n g o f a d i f f i c u l t m a n u s c r i p t . To my w i f e I owe a s p e c i a l debt o f g r a t i t u d e f o r her p a t i e n c e w h i l e t h i s t h e s i s was b e i n g w r i t t e n . My g r e a t e s t d e b t , however, i s t o my s u p e r v i s o r s , P r o f e s s o r s M. F . McGregor and P h i l l i p H a r d i n g . Dr. Harding has been most h e l p f u l and h i s c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g o f v a r i o u s d r a f t s o f t h i s t h e s i s has saved me from many e r r o r s o f f a c t , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and l o g i c . P r o f e s s o r McGregor has always been ready t o o f f e r a d v i c e and encouragement. My g r a t i t u d e and a f f e c t i o n f o r him, f o r h i s kindness and a i d i n many ways and on many o c c a s i o n s , i s deeper than I s h a l l ever be a b l e t o e x p r e s s . V i i ABBREVIATIONS I n c l u d i n g Works C i t e d by Author's Name Only A c t a A n t i g u a A c t a A n t i g u a Academiae S c i e n t i a r u a Hungaricae AJA American J o u r n a l o f Archaeology ^ AJP American J o u r n a l o f P h i l o l o g y A n t . C l a s s . L1A n t i g u i t e c l a s s i g u e A r c h . Eph. 'ApxaioXoyutTi 'Eq>Tiuepi<; ASAI A n c i e n t S o c i e t i e s and I n s t i t u t i o n s . S t u d i e s P r e s e n t e d to V i c t o r Ehrenberg on h i s 75th b i r t h d a y  A t h . M i t t . M i t t e i l u n g e n des deutschen a r c h S o l o q i s c h e n I n s t i t u t s . A t h e n i s c h e A b t e i l u n g  BCH B u l l e t i n de Correspondance h e l l e n i g u e BSA Annual o f the B r i t i s h S c h o o l at Athens CAH The Cambridge A n c i e n t H i s t o r y CIG Corpus I n s c r i p t i o n u m Graecarum C o l d s t r e a m , GGP C o l d s t r e a m , J . N. Greek Geometric P o t t e r y Cook, GPP Cook, R. M. Greek P a i n t e d P o t t e r y CP . C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y CQ C l a s s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y (N. S. i n d i c a t e s New . S e r i e s ) V l l l CR CSCA  CW D i e h l D i e l s - K r a n z FGrH  FHG F o r r e s t ^ GDI GRBS Hammond Hasebroek C l a s s i c a l Review (N. S. i n d i c a t e s New S e r i e s ) C a l i f o r n i a S t u d i e s i n C l a s s i c a l A n t i q u i t y  C l a s s i c a l World D i e h l , E . A n t h o l o g i a L y r i c a G r a e c a . T h i r d e d i t i o n D i e l s , H. and Kranz, W. Die Fragmente der V o r s o k r a t i k e r . E l e v e n t h e d i t i o n J a c o b y , F . Die Fragmente der g r i e c h i s c h e n H i s t o r i k e r M u l l e r , C. Fragmenta H i s t o r i c o r u m Graecorum F o r r e s t , W. G. The Emergence o f Greek  Democracy C o l l i t z , H., B e c h t e l , F., Hoffman, 0. Sammlunq der g r i e c h i s c h e n D i a l e k t -I n s c h r i f t e n  Greek, Roman and B y z a n t i n e S t u d i e s Hammond, N. G. L . A H i s t o r y o f Greece to 322 B. C. Second e d i t i o n Hasebroek, Johannes. Trade and P o l i t i c s i n A n c i e n t G r e e c e . T r a n s l a t e d by ... L . M. F r a s e r and D. C. MacGregor ix Hignett IG  Jdl JHS  JRS Lobel-Page Lorimer ' Num. Chron. OCT P. Oxy. Payne, NC PP RE REA  REG SEG Hignett, C. A History of the Athenian  Constitution to the End of the Fifth  Century B. C. Inscriptiones Graecae Jahrbuch des deutschen archaologischen Instituts Journal of Hellenic Studies Journal of Roman Studies Lobel, E. and Page, Denys. Poetarum Lesbiorum Fragmenta Lorimer, H. L. 'The Hoplite Phalanx with Special Reference to the Poems of Archilochus and Tyrtaeus,' BSA 42 (1947) 76-138 Numismatic Chronicle Oxford Classical Texts The Oxyrhynchus" Papyri Payne, Humfry. Necrocorinthia; A Study of Corinthian Art in the Archaic Period  La Parola del Passato Paulys Real-Encyclop'adie der classichen A3. % er X urns w i s s ens chaf X Revue des Etudes anciennes  Revue des Etudes grecgues  Supplement urn Epigraphicum Graecum Meiggs, R u s s e l l and L e w i s , D a v i d . A S e l e c t i o n o f Greek H i s t o r i c a l I n s c r i p t i o n s t o the End o f the F i f t h Century B. C. D i t t e n b e r g e r , W. S y l l o g e I n s c r i p t i o n u m Graecarum. T h i r d e d i t i o n Snodgrass, A. M. 'The H o p l i t e Reform and H i s t o r y , ' JHS 85 (1965) 110-122 S t a r r , Chester G. The O r i g i n s o f Greek , C i v i l i z a t i o n 1100-650 B. C. T r a n s a c t i o n s and Proceedings o f the American P h i l o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n U r e , P. N. The O r i g i n o f Tyranny Whibley, L e o n a r d . Greek O l i g a r c h i e s ; t h e i r C h a r a c t e r and O r g a n i s a t i o n INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s has had a c u r i o u s h i s t o r y . I t began as a h i s t o r y o f a r c h a i c M y t i l e n e . I i n i t i a l l y chose t o w r i t e on the e a r l y h i s t o r y o f M y t i l e n e because I was i n t e r e s t e d i n e a r l y Greek tyranny and wished t o i n v e s t i g a t e i n some d e t a i l p a r t i c u l a r t y r a n n y . The s u c c e s s i o n o f t y r a n t s i n a r c h a i c M y t i l e n e o f f e r e d an a t t r a c t i v e s u b j e c t because our most important sources a r e not o n l y contemporary but f i r s t - h a n d accounts o f the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s i n e a r l y M y t i l e n e ; and they a r e t a n t a l i s i n g l y fragmentary and g i v e the h i s t o r i a n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o n s t r u c t an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r i o d o f e a r l y Greek p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . I t was with t h i s i n t e n t i o n t h a t I began to r e a d about e a r l y t y r a n n y . I became i n t e r e s t e d i n the e x t r aor dinarj.' o f f i c e o f aisymnetes t h a t P i t t a k o s h e l d and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r k i n d s o f tyranny and I t r i e d t o f i n d where e l s e i n Greece t h i s o f f i c e had appeared. T h i s s e a r c h l e d me t o the s u r p r i s i n g statement o f Theodoros Metochites t h a t among those who h e l d t h i s o f f i c e was P e r i a n d r o s o f C o r i n t h . I examined the s o u r c e s f o r P e r i a n d r o s1 tyranny and f o r the tyranny o f h i s f a t h e r Kypselos i n an attempt to determine the b a s i s o f t h e i r r u l e . T h i s l e d e v e n t u a l l y to the s u b j e c t o f Chapter Four o f my t h e s i s , 'The Nature o f E a r l y Tyranny..' In s t u d y i n g the C o r i n t h i a n tyranny I r e p e a t e d l y encountered the commonly h e l d view t h a t tyranny had f i r s t a r i s e n i n important commercial c e n t r e s because the i n f l u x o f new wealth i n t o t h e se c i t i e s had c r e a t e d a new c l a s s o f wealthy men who were p r e p a r e d , by t h e i r support o f t y r a n t s , t o c h a l l e n g e men o f noble b i r t h i n t h e i r e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l o f p o l i t i c a l power. I began t o e x p l o r e the evidence f o r the •economic r e v o l u t i o n ' o f the e i g h t h c e n t u r y t h a t i s o f t e n c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g produced the p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s o f the seventh c e n t u r y t h a t i n many cases r e s u l t e d i n t y r a n n y . I came t o doubt t h a t economic growth had a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the p o l i t i c s o f the seventh c e n t u r y and even t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a n y t h i n g so widespread as an 'economic r e v o l u t i o n ' i n the e i g h t h c e n t u r y (which i s a f a r d i f f e r e n t t h i n g from the g r a d u a l growth o f t r a d e and c r a f t s t h a t d i d o c c u r ) . I have examined the e v i d e n c e i n what has become Chapter One o f my t h e s i s , 'The Economic B a s i s o f Tyranny.' I t i s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t economic growth i n the e i g h t h c e n t u r y produced i n Greece a new 'middle c l a s s ' o f a r t i s a n s , merchants and s m a l l h o l d e r s who were wealthy enough to be a b l e t o f u r n i s h t h e i r own armour and t o j o i n the ranks o f the new h o p l i t e a r m i e s , which r e q u i r e d t h e i r s e r v i c e . T h i s new c l a s s used t h e i r s e r v i c e i n h o p l i t e armies as a reason to c l a i m a share i n p o l i t i c a l power; and when they d i d not o b t a i n a share o f power they s u p p o r t e d men who were w i l l i n g t o promise them rewards i n r e t u r n f o r s u p p o r t , a s p i r i n g t y r a n t s who used h o p l i t e s to overthrow the r u l i n g n o b i l i t y and g a i n power f o r the m s e l v e s . Snodgrass had a l r e a d y c a s t s e r i o u s doubt on t h e connexion between the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f h o p l i t e t a c t i c s and the r i s e o f tyranny from an examination o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . Yet t h e r e were other reasons f o r denying t h a t h o p l i t e s p r o v i d e d the support f o r e a r l y t y r a n t s and I have d e a l t w i t h the q u e s t i o n i n Chapter Two, 'The H o p l i t e Reform and Tyranny.' I f the r i s e o f tyr a n n y was not due t o the support o f a new 'middle c l a s s1 o f h o p l i t e s what f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s development i n the seventh c e n t u r y ? An examination o f the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e a r c h a i c ^ p o l i s and s e v e r a l a r c h a i c t y r a n n i e s l e d me t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the r i s e o f Greek t y r a n n y i n many c i t i e s i n the seventh c e n t u r y can bes t be e x p l a i n e d as the r e s u l t o f the f a c t i o n a l s t r i f e t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a r i s t o c r a c i e s g e n e r a l l y and was a marked f e a t u r e o f the a r c h a i c p o l i s . The ev i d e n c e f o r t h i s view i s p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter T h r e e , ' A r i s t o c r a t i c F a c t i o n a l i s m and the O r i g i n o f Tyranny.' When I f i r s t began t o e x p l o r e these q u e s t i o n s I reg a r d e d them as merely p r e l i m i n a r y to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the e a r l y t y r a n n i e s i n M y t i l e n e . Yet i t soon became e v i d e n t t h a t x i v t h e s e q u e s t i o n s m e r i t e d d i s c u s s i o n i n a broader context than the h i s t o r y o f M y t i l e n e . Hence I r e l u c t a n t l y d e c i d e d t o abandon my o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g as a t h e s i s -t o p i c the e a r l y h i s t o r y o f M y t i l e n e and t o d e a l i n s t e a d with the q u e s t i o n s t h a t had been r a i s e d i n the course o f my r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g the o r i g i n o f e a r l y Greek t y r a n n y . I am g r a t e f u l t o my s u p e r v i s o r s , P r o f e s s o r s M. F . McGregor and P h i l l i p H a r d i n g , f o r t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n to change the s u b j e c t ' o f t h i s t h e s i s in_ mediis r e b u s . I am g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o many s c h o l a r s whose work I have fou n d i n v a l u a b l e i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . While many names c o u l d be mentioned, a few must s u f f i c e . I have l e a r n t much, by agreement or disagreement, from t h e w r i t i n g s o f A. Andrewes, R. M. Cook, T . J. Dunbabin, W. G. F o r r e s t , J. Hasebroek, A. M. Snodgrass, C. G. S t a r r , P. N. Ure, Edouard W i l l , and R. F . W i l l e t t s . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d a l l dates a r e B . C . CHAPTER ONE THE ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF TYRANNY It i s a commonplace of modern historical l i t e r a t u r e 1 that the origin of Greek tyranny was closely connected with the increase in prosperity brought about by the growth of trade and commerce that occurred in the eighth and seventh centuries, and, more particularly, with the demands of the discontented lower classes or the aspirations of a rising 'middle class' who challenged the traditional p o l i t i c a l monopoly of the landed aristocracy. Typical of this view is Andrewes' account of the economic conditions that led to the rise of tyranny: 1. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 78-81, and The Greeks 204-207; Forrest 94-95, 104-105; Hammond 145-146; Finley, Early Greece 106; Ure passim, and in CAH 4 120-121; Bum, The Lyric Age of  Greece 157-158; Mosse, La Tyrannie dans la Grece antique 3-9; Nilsson, The Age of the Early Greek Tyrants passim; White, Phoenix 8 (1955) 5-7; Glotz, Ancient -Greece at Work 79; Hignett 86. Contra; Starr 329, 356 n. 7, 365. 2. Andrewes, Probouleusis; Sparta's Contribution to the  Technique of Government 13. i • The isolation of primitive Greece had been ended in the middle of the eighth century; exploration, trade, and colonization developed very rapidly from 750 onwards; the transition from barter was brought towards a conclusion by the introduction of true coinage before the end of the seventh century. Through this period the material prosperity increased very greatly, so that, at the very least, a wider ci r c l e had now leisure to take an interest in p o l i t i c s , and the weight of wealth to back any claim they might make. Before long we find aristocratic poets, Alkaios and Theognis, complaining of the dilution of their class by men of low birth...there i s no doubt of the importance of increased prosperity as a general precondition for the new p o l i t i c a l development. 3 The locus classicus of this view is a passage in Thucydides that i s often cited in support: Auvaxwxepoc, 6c Y I Y v o u £ v T 1 Q ' *E\\<5,6OQ HOL\ X S V X P T ) U £ T U > V T T J V H T ^ o t v ex. yJBXkov TJ rcpSxepov TtotouuSvng xa 7 i o \ \ a xupavvf6ec, cv xalTc, 7i5\ea» naOCaxavxo, xEv • . - . • ' \ • • " ' \ 3 TtpooSScov uei£6vu)v y\.yvo]itv(av. In this chapter I shall argue that tyranny is not sufficiently explained as a result of the economic revival in Greece in the eighth and seventh centuries; that the evidence does not indicate that economic conditions were advanced enough to create in the seventh century a rising 'middle class' of merchants and craftsmen who were in a position to challenge the aristocracy by their support of tyrants; and that the volume of trade and industry necessary to produce social and p o l i t i c a l change i s not to be found in Greece t i l l the last quarter of the seventh century, at least a generation after the earliest tyrannies. It i s common in attempting to link tyranny with economic expansion in archaic Greece to point to the creation of early tyrannies in the Isthmian states (Corinth, Megara, and Sikyon), which were already centres of commercial a c t i v i t y . 5 But commercial c i t i e s did not always produce tyrants; there are several important states that were known for their trade and commerce in early Greece that did 4. Thucydides need not be taken to imply a causal connexion between an increasing prosperity in Greece and the establishment of tyranny, only a temporal one. 5. See, Hammond 145. 4 Q, not experience tyranny c Among the earliest and most enterprising of the Greek c i t i e s in commercial expansion in the period of the growth of trade were those on Buboia. Archaeological evidence indicates that New Sretria, founded in the early eighth century, very soon became one of the 6 largest and most prosperous Greek c i t i e s . Sretria and Chalkis were thriving trading c i t i e s active both in the Levant and in the West: the Euboians founded the earliest 7 8 colony, Pithekoussai, and A l Mina. Chalkis and Eretria colonised extensively in Italy, S i c i l y , and the North g Aegean, and Euboian exports to the West were numerous in 6. Boardman, BSA 52 (1957) 1-29; Schefold, Archaeology 21 (1968) 272-281; Coldstream, GGP 368. 7. Livy 8. 22. 5-6; Strabo 5. 4. 9, p. 247; for the pottery see Coldstream, GGP 354-355. 8. Boardman, op_. c i t . 5-7 and JHS 85 (1965) 12; Coldstream, GGP 310-316; Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece 334-335 and 357 n. 43. 9. Thucydides 6. 3-5; Herakleides Pontikos, FHG 2 219, f r . 25; Strabo 6. 1. 6, p. 257; and 10. 1. 8, p. 447 and 7, f r . 11. Chalkis alone i s credited with thirty colonies in the North Aegean and at least eleven in Italy and S i c i l y (Bradeen, A History of Chalkis to 338 B. C. 30 n. 1). the eighth century, both to their own colonies and to Etruria, with which the Euboians were the f i r s t Greeks to trade.^ Chalkis and Bretria were the most active commercially of the Greek c i t i e s in the eighth century and, on the assumption that commercial expansion made possible the conditions that led to tyranny, we might expect an early and important tyranny to have arisen in Euboia comparable to the tyrannies in the Isthmian states in the seventh century. But evidence for an important or long-lived tyranny on Euboia i s lacking. We do, indeed, have the names of two tyrants of Chalkis: Antileon, whose rule was followed by an oligarchy^; and Phoxos, who was overthrown by an alliance of the people and 12 13 nobles. There i s also mentioned by Plutarch a Suboian tyrant by the name of Tynnondas, who i s compared to Pittakos of Mytilene. We know that Tynnondas preceded Solon but the 14 tyrannies of Antileon and Phoxos cannot be dated. I think 10. Coldstream, GGP 370-371, 375-376; Boardman, The GIB eks  Overseas 210-211, 214. 11. Aristotle, Pol. 1316a 29-32. 12. Pol. 1340a 29-31. 13. Solon 14. 4. 14. Bradeen (op_. c i t . 221-222) places Phoxos in the fourth century on the grounds that his support by both the nobles that we are safe in arguing from the silence of our sources about these two tyrants that their tyrannies were short-lived and cannot be compared in importance to the Isthmian tyrannies of the seventh century. It i s unlikely that they are members of the same dynasty; instead their tyrannies should probably be regarded as temporary interruptions in the oligarchy of the Hippobotai at Chalkis.* 5 It might be argued, however, that the reason that no important tyranny arose in Chalkis or Eretria, despite their early economic advancement, was that the great period of Euboian commercial activity ended before the middle of the seventh century, when the f i r s t Isthmian tyrannies began in and the people suggests that the tyrant received support from an outside power and that this power was probably Thebes. This i s , by Bradeen's own admission, highly conjectural. I think that the tyrants are l i k e l y to have been earlier, perhaps in the sixth century. For possible evidence for Antileon 1s date see Maas, CR N. S. 6 (1956) 200. 15. Newman, The Politics of Aristotle 4 329 after Gilbert, Griechischen Staatsaltertumer 2 66. On the Hippobotai see Aristotle, Pol. 1289b 33-40; Aristotle f r . 603 Rose ap. Strabo 10. 1. 8, p. 447; Herakleides P-ontikos, FHG 2 222, f r . 31, 2. 7 Greece. But i f tyranny grew out of the rise to importance of a new class who challenged the aristocratic control of the state we should expect to find tyranny in Euboia in the eighth century, for Buboia was the most advanced area of Greece commercially and might therefore be expected to be the most 16. Euboian exports of pottery f e l l off after ca 700 both in the Bast and West (Coldstream, GGP 369). This almost complete disappearance of Euboian ceramic exports is attributed by Coldstream (GGP 369-370, 376) to exhaustion following the Lelantine War. But archaeological evidence indicates that, whereas in the seventh century Chalkis' prosperity declined, 'Eretria enjoyed continuous prosperity from the eighth to the sixth century with no alarming disasters or change of popula-tion' (Boardman, op. c i t . [n. 6 above] 28). Moreover, by the end of the eighth century Bretria had established a distinctive r-local tradition of vase-painting that lasted into the sixth century. A more l i k e l y explanation "of the decline of Buboian exports i s , I think, that they were simply edged out of the ceramic markets by Corinthian wares. Corinthian pottery had already begun to surpass Euboian pottery in use in the West in the eighth century and i t flooded the western markets after ca 700. In the seventh century Buboian imports of pottery are entirely lacking in the West (Coldstream, GGP 369). 8 advanced p o l i t i c a l l y . Corinth, on the other hand, did not come into her own in the commercial sphere t i l l the seventh century; hence we might expect tyranny in Eretria or Chalkis to have preceded the Isthmian tyrannies. But this was not the case and the Euboian c i t i e s clearly do not f i t the correlation between the growth of commerce and industry and the rise of tyranny. Another state that was important in early Greece as a 18 centre of commercial and industrial activity was Aigina. Aigina provided perhaps the earliest merchants among the 19 20 Greeks. According to Hesiod the Myrmidons of Aigina were the f i r s t to build ships and s a i l on the sea. At an early date the Aiginetans ran mule-caravans from Kyllene to 21 Arkadia. The island became a commercial state, according 22 to Ephoros, because of the poverty of the s o i l , which forced the Aiginetans to seek employment at sea as merchants. 17. According to the formula of Finley, Early Greece 106. 18. Aristotle, Pol. 1291b 22-24. 19. Heichelheim, An Ancient Economic History 1 240; s Hasebroek 52. 20. Ap_. Schol. Pindar, Nem. 3. 21. 21. Pausanias 8. 5. 8. 22. Ap_. Strabo 8. 6. 16, p. 376. \ i . -\ V. \ •' 9 Aigina's importance as a commercial power i s shown by the fact that whereas a l l other Greek states maintained a joint sanctuary at Naukratis only the Aiginetans, together with the 23 Samians and the Milesians, had separate sanctuaries. The merchant who had made the greatest fortune of any Greek trader known to Herodotos was, characteristically, an Aiginetan, 24 Sostratos. There is no doubt of Aigina's commercial importance from very eairly times; but, so far as we know, 25 there were no tyrants who came to power on the island. 23. Herodotos 2. 178. 3. On Naukratis see Cook, JHS 57 „ (1937) 227-237; Boardman, The Greeks Overseas 134-150; Roebuck, CP 45 (1950) 236-247, and CP 46 (1951) 212-220; Austin, Greece and Egypt in the Archaic Age 22-34. 24. Herodotos 4. 152. 3. 25. The failure of economic prosperity to produce tyranny on Aigina i s explained by Hegyi (Acta Antigua 17 [l969] 175-176) by the assumption that slaves rather than free men were the dominant labour-force on the island; hence there was a failure of a middle class to develop. Hegyi's thesis i s based on the statement of Aristotle (fr. 427 Rose ap. Athenaios 6. 2726) that there were 470,000 slaves in Aigina. Even i f Aristotle's figure i s not exaggerated (and i t almost surely is) i t w i l l certainly have reference to a later period, 10 The lack of evidence for a connexion between ceramic activity and tyranny in Chalkis, Eretria, and Aigina suggests that there was not a necessary correlation between the rise of tyranny and commercial importance. In these states, which developed extensive commerce at an early date, we might expect to find a powerful new class to support a tyrant against the landed aristocracy. But in none of them does tyranny seem to have played an important role in p o l i t i c a l development; nor , do these c i t i e s appear to have undergone greater p o l i t i c a l advancement earlier than other, less economically developed, states in Greece. But let us examine the situation in Corinth, a state for which i t has been argued that there was a connexion between the rise of manufacture and commerce and the advent of 26 tyranny. Corinth furnishes a good test-case inasmuch as i t s fortunate commercial location and the early widespread use of i t s pottery have seemed to provide the economic background for the growth of a class of merchants and for chattel slavery was not an important feature of archaic, Greece (Timaios, FGrH 3B 566 F © 11 [ap_. Athenaios 6. 264c]); see Theopompos, FGrH 2B 115 F 122 (ap_. Athenaios 6. 265b-c) ; and Finley, Historia 8 (1959) 164. 26. See, e.g., Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 48-49. \ 11 craftsmen who are sometimes said to have supported the Kypselids in their rise to power. In order to render implausible the theory that the tyranny of the Kypselids owed i t s origin to the support of a new 'middle class' or even to the general commercial prosperity of Corinth, I propose to show, f i r s t , that the peak of Corinthian commerce and manufacturing, in which relatively large numbers of Corinthians were engaged, followed rather than preceded the rise of Kypselos to power; and, second, that there i s not l i k e l y to have existed in Corinth in the middle of the seventh century a sufficiently numerous class of craftsmen and merchants who were influential enough to challenge aristocratic control of p o l i t i c s . After nearly four centuries of isolation and decline the communities of mainland Greece began in the ninth century to resume communications with one another and with the Mediterranean world. But this resumption of contacts and 27 trade was very slow ; how slow i t was in the case of Corinth i s shown by the distribution of Corinthian pottery. There was l i t t l e i f any export of Corinthian Early Geometric in the 28 ninth century. During the f i r s t half of the eighth century 27. Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece. 332-335. 28. Hemtley (BSA 40 [l939-194o] 11-12). Robertson (BSA 43 12 the export of Corinthian pottery gradually increased: a few vases have been found in the south and east Aegean, but most Corinthian pottery was exported to a few sites west of 29 Corinth, primarily to Perachora, Delphoi, and Ithaka. It was not t i l l the Late Geometric period, in the third quarter of the eighth century, that Corinthian wares began to be 30 exported in some quantity throughout the Greek world. During the Late Geometric period Corinthian potters began to surpass their rivals, and they began to specialise in the two shapes that were to become so popular as Corinthian exports: 31 kotylai and aryballoi. When Corinthian potters became the f i r s t Greeks to adopt Orientalising patterns they established a dominance in the production of fine pottery that lasted for a century. From the last quarter of the eighth century to the last quarter of the seventh Corinth enjoyed a near [1948 ] 53-54, 122) found Corinthian Geometric at Aetos on Ithaka, which he dated to the ninth century (ca 850); but this date should now be lowered by half a century (see Dunbabin, JHS 68 [1948] 65 n. 52). See also Coldstream, GGP 91. 29. Coldstream, GGP 352; Weinberg, AJA 45 (1941) 32. 30. Coldstream, GGP 98, 365-367. 31. Ibid. 365. ^ \ 13 monopoly of the export of fine pottery on the Greek mainland 32 33 and in the West, but not in the East Aegean. It i s tempting to overrate the commercial importance of the manufacture and export of pottery for Corinth in the early archaic period. But i t i s important to observe that while Protocorinthian pots are found on many sites on the mainland and abroad they are by no means everywhere found in quantity. Even more important, however, is the date at which the production of pottery begins to assume indications of extensive production. It i s not t i l l the Late Protocorinthian and Transitional periods that we observe the characteristics of manufacture on a large scale: bigger and elongated figures of animals mechanically and negligently drawn, an exact 34 repetition of types, and very limited subject-matter. The real peak in the manufacture of Corinthian pottery was reached in the Early Ripe period in the last quarter of the seventh century, when indications of production of large quantities 32. Blakeway, BSA 33 (1932-1933) 203; Cook, GPP 40-41. 33. Cook, JHS 66 (1946) 83; Dunbabin, or>. c i t . (n. 28 above) 65. 34. Payne, NC 28-31, 48, 59; Cook, GPP 51-52. But even for this period the term 'mass production' i s a misnomer: see Will, Etudes d'archeologie classique 1 (1955-1956) 155. 14 of pottery become clearly evident. It was at this time that the Corinthian Kerameikos underwent a great period of 36 building a c t i v i t y . The chronology i s significant. The height of the manufacture and export of pottery at Corinth was not reached t i l l a quarter of a century after the rise 37 to power of Kypselos. Moreover, the large-scale production 35. Cook, GPP 53, 55. Corinthian vases are distributed over a much wider area than are Protocorinthian vases. Proto-corinthian pottery was not exported (so far as we can t e l l ) to the region of the Black Sea, to the heart of Asia Minor or Palestine, to Naukratis, Kyrene, or Spain; whereas Corinthian pottery was (Payne, NC 184, 25). 36. StULwell, Corinth 15, 1: The Potters' Quarter 20. Even so i t was not very large: 'cela est petit, mediocre, ramasse,—une sorte de souk, en somme* (Will, o£. c i t . [n. 35 above ] 154. 37. I adopt the traditional dating of the Kypselids that places their tyranny between 657 and 584/3. Busolt (Griechische Geschichte 1 638 n. 1) suggested a revised chronology that would place the Kypselids between ca 610 and ca 540, and this has been widely followed: see Lenschau, RE suppl. 4 cols. 1015-1017; Beloch, Griechische Geschichte 1, 2 274-284; Schachermeyr, RE 19 cols. 711-714; but contra, 15 of Corinthian pottery began after the middle of the seventh century. It i s precisely in this period, in the years immediately following the establishment of the tyranny of Kypselos, that conditions may have been favourable for the creation of a group of craftsmen and artisans who would be numerous enough to have some influence in p o l i t i c s . It is unlikely that before the period of large-scale production of Corinthian pottery they can have been important enough to Wade-Gery, CAH 3 764-765. Busolt's chronology was modified slightly by Will, following Smith (The Hearst Hydria  [University of California Publications in Classical  Archaeology, vol. 1 no. 10] 254-266, 273-277), who suggested dates of ca 620 to ca 550 (see Will's detailed discussion of the chronology of the Kypselids, Korinthiaka 363-440). But Will's dates have not been widely accepted: see the reviews of Korinthiaka by Roebuck, CP 53 (1958) 134-135; Harrison, CR N.S. 7 (1957) 63; and Benson, AJA 63 (1959) 306. Against the 'low chronology' see Page, Sappho and Alcaeus 152-161; Ducat, BCH 85 (1961) 418-425; Servais, Ant. Class. 38 (1969) 28-81; and Bradeen, Hesperia 32 (1963) 193-196. If Kypselos of Athens (who i s generally regarded as the tyrant's grandson) was archon in 597/6, Busolt's chronology i s certainly too low (SGHI p. 11). t \ 16 have provided the force that brought Kypselos to power. We might expect craftsmen to be engaged in the manufacture of products other than pottery, for the large-scale manufacture of pots may lead us to assume that Corinth was an important producer of other items for export. Dunbabin suggests that a Corinthian monopoly in the production of fine pottery in archaic times indicates a similar predominance in industry generally; that trade in Corinthian manufactures, moreover, must have been in Corinthian hands and, therefore, Corinthian manufactures must have been carried in Corinthian 39 ships. But our extremely fragmentary knowledge of trade in early Greece should make us cautious in obtaining such far-reaching deductions. As an example of how l i t t l e we know of such matters, let us take the question of what the Corinthians put in their vases for export. It has been inferred that because the Corinthians exported aryballoi in large quantities there existed a perfume-industry in Corinth, since i t seems unlikely to some that the Corinthians should export their 38. One cannot argue, moreover, that because a tyrant encouraged trade and commerce he owed his position to those who were engaged in these occupations (see Starr 356 n. 7). 39. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 228. i 17 vases, many of which were of poor a r t i s t i c quality, empty. But we can as easily infer that inasmuch as the Corinthians produced the most pleasing and the cheapest aryballoi in Greece the pots were imported for their own sakes without , 41 perfume. Dunbabin suggests that a Corinthian near-monopoly in the export of pottery to the West indicates a similar monopoly of trade with the West ; in fact, at the same time that Corinthian pottery was exported extensively to the West i t was exported in quantity throughout mainland Greece. If we argue for a monopoly of Corinthian trade with the West on the basis of the distribution of pottery, by the same token we must argue for a monopoly of Greek trade by the Corinthians 43 on the mainland. In fact, however, one cannot use the distribution of pottery as a guide to general trade. Fine pottery was imported rather than made locally by most Greek 44 states in the archaic (and classical) periods. Since 40. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 243 (but see 261-263); Beaumont, JHS 56 (1936) 184; Payne, NC 5 n, 3-6 (where Pliny, NH 13. 2 i s cited in support), 54. 41. Cook, CR 63 (1949) 115; and Jdl 74 (1959) 115. 42. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 226-227, 267. 43. Cook, op_. c i t . (n. 33 above) 84. 44. Cook, GPP 277. 18 Corinthian was the finest (and cheapest) ware produced in the seventh century i t was widely used. But this does not exclude 45 the po s s i b i l i t y of local manufactures of other products. It does not follow that because Corinthian ware was widely exported other Corinthian manufactures were as well. The manufacture of fine pottery was a speciality in Corinth in the seventh century and i t should not be used alone as evidence for the large-scale manufacture in Corinth of other items. 45. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 228. 46. Pace Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 17. For example, terra-cotta figurines were manufactured locally in the West rather than imported (Dunbabin 265). On the other hand, the large-scale production of Corinthian terra-cottas, indicated by the manufacture of figurines that could be made from a single mold, did not occur t i l l the late sixth century ( S t i l l w e l l , Corinth 15, 2: The Potters' Quarter: The Terracottas 9-10; see also Benson, AJA 60 [1956] 220-230). 47. Miss Richter (AJA 52 [l948J 331-335) has argued that the lite r a r y and archaeological evidence does not suggest that Corinth was predominant in the manufacture of terra-cotta sculptures more than any other city in early Greece; rather i t indicates that there were many centres, of which Corinth was i 19 That Corinthian artists produced fine examples of art in this period i s certain. Few examples of Corinthian art have survived in Corinth i t s e l f , but in dependencies of Corinth, especially in Perachora, there are pieces of excellent work-48 manship in, among other things, bronze and ivory. We must be cautious, however, in taking these as wholly representative of Corinthian art, for the best a r t i s t i c products of a 49 manufacturing-centre are often exported. Most large Corinthian vases,"for example, have been found outside Corinth. 5^ The quality of Corinthian workmanship has also been inferred from the art produced in Corinthian colonies and dependencies, which i s assumed to have imitated and reflected only one. 48. Richter, Archaic Greek Art 14-18; Payne, NC 210-262, and Perachora 1 70-71, 123, 168. Yet some of this evidence i s ambiguous and not a l l of i t can be said to be Corinthian. It is d i f f i c u l t in metalwork of this period to distinguish Corinthian from Argive and some of the objects found in, £.£., Perachora are Argive (Dunbabin, op. c i t . [n. 28 above] 63; Payne, NC 223, 247). 49. Boardman, op. c i t . (n. 6 above) 14. 50. Starr 233. 20 Corinthian art; an example is large sculpture, which i s entirely lacking at Corinth for the early archaic period. 5 1 Extensive a r t i s t i c influence, such as Corinthian art seems to have had, need not necessarily be taken, however, to indicate 52 a large trade. It may suggest widespread trade, but not always trade in quantity. It is natural that in Corinth's dependencies Corinthian art w i l l have been imitated. But we should not expect that trade or manufacture of certain kinds of art w i l l have been extensive: finely-carved sculpture i s not produced in quantity or by many a r t i s t s . Though Corinth may well have been an important a r t i s t i c centre in early Greece the number of artisans engaged in this kind of work w i l l most li k e l y have been small. Another qualification that must be made when estimating the size of industry and the influence of artisans in po l i t i c s at Corinth or any other city in archaic Greece i s that we do 53 not know the citizenship of most craftsmen. That many 51. Richter, Archaic Greek Art 15. 52. Cf. Richter, op. c i t . (n. 47 above) 334: 'But the invention of a technique does not imply continuous distinction or a flourishing export trade through several generations.' 53. The theory of the 'travelling potter' proposed by Bucher and adopted by Hasebroek (51; see also 42-43) has been widely 21 artisans were foreigners at this time i s suggested by Aristotle who says that ev ]i.cv ouv xoZq otpxaCotQ x P°voi g reap* evfoig r\v 6oE\ov T O p<£vaucrov $ £ C V I , H S V , biSncp oi TtoWol T O I O S T O I xa\ vEv."^ Evidence for the mobility of craftsmen comes from Philostratos, 5 5 who makes Apollonios of Tyana say: r\ 6c aya\\ia.xoix,oita. i\ dpxaCa ou T O U T O cKpatxcv, ou6e Ticpi^coav rag TISXCLQ a,7io6t66]i.cvoi Toug 8eoGg, aXX* an&yovTCQ u6vov Tag avxSv xctpag HOCI opyava AtOoupya H O U eXecpavTOvpya, U \ T ] V T C 7iapaxL0e)i.cvoi dpyov, cv avxoXc, xotg icpoEg Tag OTiVLioupyCag ^ T I O L O U V T O . A busy port like Corinth w i l l l i k e l y have attracted some craftsmen from abroad. It has been suggested, on good evidence, that Oriental craftsmen came to Greece in the eighth century, rejected: see Blakeway, op. c i t . (n. 32 above) 172-174; and Starr 213-214. Bucher and Hasebroek overstated their case, but there is a good deal of evidence, both in the sources and from archaeology, to indicate that there was some mobility amongst potters and other artisans. 54. Pol. 1278a 6-8. 55. Life of Apollonios 5. 20. On this passage see Barnett, JHS 68 (1948) 1, 6. 22 where they helped to introduce Orientalising patterns. Four Protocorinthian vases with inscriptions in different alphabets have been taken as evidence of non-Corinthian 57 potters working in Corinth. The influence of Corinthian 58 art on Corinth's dependencies may indicate that Corinthian 56. Dunbabin, The Greeks and their Eastern Neighbours 41, 49. Contra: Dunbabin, op_. c i t . (n. 28 above) 66; Starr 213-214. 57. Payne, NC 38-39; Lejeune, REA 47 (1945) 101-110; Starr 238; Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece 125 and n. 3, 139, 264. Miss Jeffery cites also a Late Corinthian krater in Berlin that shows the duel of Achilles and Memnon, with their names printed in Sikyonian script, as evidence of foreign potters in Corinth (139, 140-141). The evidence from pots of foreign potters working in Corinth i s augmented by Pliny's statement (NH 35, 151) that fingere ex a r g i l l a  similitudines Butades Sicyonius figulus primus invenit  Corinthi. For evidence of Argive craftsmen at Corinth see Payne, NC 223. Heichelheim (An Ancient Economic History 1 503 n. 40) regards g r a f f i t i on Attic vases of the sixth century as evidence of foreign merchants who exported Athenian pottery; but see Robertson, Arch. Eph. 92-93 (2) 1953-1954 (1958) 148. 58. Richter, Archaic Greek Art 15-18. 23 artisans migrated to areas where the demand for Corinthian 59 products was great. Demaratos, a Bakchiad, i s said to have fled from Corinth to Etruria after the overthrow of the Bakchiads with a number of workmen who included a craftsman 60 and three potters. In Homer artisans and craftsmen are very mobile. Demioergoi go from town to town as they are commissioned to do work and some make considerable reputations. The 59. Dunbabin has found imitations of Corinthian pottery made in local clays in the West by potters whose work i s so good that they must be regarded as Corinthian potters who migrated to the West (The Western Greeks 263-264). See also Dunbabin, Perachora 2 2 and references cited there for additional evidence of mobile Corinthian a r t i s t s ; and Blakeway, JRS 25 (1935) 132-133, 146. 60. Dionysios of Halikarnassos, Ant. Rom. 3. 46. 3-5; Pliny, NH 35, 16 and 152. For a defence of the authenticity of the story of Demaratos see Blakeway, op. c i t . (n. 59 above) 147-149. For the archaeological evidence of early Corinthian trade with Etruria see the bibliography cited in n. 10 above. 61. Glotz, Ancient Greece at Work 28-29; Walcot, REG' 80 (1967) 60-67. In the Odyssey Eumaios speaks of demioergoi, such as the seer, the physician, the carpenter, and the t. V 24 mobility of craftsmen continued into archaic times. Tyrants summoned well-known art i s t s to their courts where they patronised them handsomely. Polykrates of Samos i s said by Alexis to have encouraged the immigration of technitai at very high wages. Among those whom Polykrates brought to Samos was the Megarian engineer Eupalinos, who built Polykrates' 63 famous tunnel that so impressed Herodotos. Because we cannot be sure how many craftsmen in any early Greek city were citizens of that ci t y i t i s dangerous to infer the s k i l l of Corinthian craftsmen (as Miss Richter minstrel, as strangers whom one sends for aUo8cv (17. 382-386). Heralds are included in the category of demioergoi in 19. 135. Mention of the demioergoi occurs in Homer only in these two passages. On the word, the precise meaning o f which i s unclear, see Wace and Stubbings, Companion to Homer 537-538j Murakawa, Historia 6 (1957) 385-415; and Finley, The World o f Odysseus 62-64. Migrant craftsmen were a feature of the ancient Near East: see Gordon, 'Ugaritic Guilds and Homeric 6Tip.to£pYot ,« in The Aegean and the Ancient Near  East: Studies Presented to Hetty Goldman 136-143. 62. FGrH 3B 539 F 2 ap.. Athenaios 12 . 540d. 63. Herodotos 3. 60. 1-3. 25 has done ) from the golden statue of Zeus and the chest of Kypselos,^ both dedicated at Olympia, or from the golden bowl 67 in the Boston Museum that was dedicated by the Kypselids. These objects, of great value and requiring much s k i l l , may well have been commissioned of foreign artisans with 64. Archaic Greek Art 14. But see her warning against assigning specific sculptures to local schools (Archaic Greek  Art 194; Kouroi 5). Miss Richter cites the homogeneity of archaic Greek sculpture as evidence that sculptors travelled extensively i n their work (Archaic Greek Art 194-196). 65. Pausanias 5. 2. 3; Strabo 8. 3. 30, p. 353; Plato, " Phaedrus 236B; Diogenes Laertios 1. 96; the Suda and Photios js.v. Kix|>eXt6Sv avS.Qr\]ia cv 'OXuurcCa. See Servais, Ant. Class. 34 (1965) 144-174. 66. Pausanias 5, 17. 5 - 5 . 19. 10; Dio Chrysostomos, Or. 11. 45. 67. Payne, NC 161, 211-212; CAH 3 551 n. 1; Jeffery, The  Local Scripts of Archaic Greece 127-128. Miss Richter might also have mentioned the bronze palm tree with frogs and snakes on i t s base dedicated by the Kypselids at Delphoi (Plutarch, De Pyth. Or. 12 [ Moralia 399F], Sept. Sap. 21 [Moralia 164A-B]). 26 international reputations. That the commissioning of great works of art was a practice that preceded the tyrants i s suggested by the statement of Pausanias that the chest of Kypselos was supposed to have been made for an ancestor of Aft t -the tyrant ; and by Alexis remark that before Polykrates gained the tyranny he ordered expensive coverlets and drinking cups made, which he lent out to those celebrating 69 weddings or very.large entertainments. The practice of the tyrants of commissioning great works of art of foreign a r t i s t s was probably inherited from the nobles of early Greece who, as 70 the main consumers of the products of the artisans, 71 provided the market for items of luxury. There i s , in short, a good deal cf evidence to indicate 68. 5. 18. 7. But Payne (NC 351 and n. 4) follows Massow, (Ath. Mitt. 41 [1916] 13) in believing that the chest belongs to the f i r s t quarter of the sixth- century. 69. FGrH 3B 539 P 2 ap_. Athenaios 12. 540e. Ure's statement (79) that 1 i t could scarcely be more definitely stated that Pol vacates owed, his throne to his wealth in coverlets and drinking vessels' w i l l not commend i t s e l f to the sober-minded. 70. Starr 361. 71. For a long l i s t of early Greek art i s t s who travelled and worked abroad see Richter, Archaic Greek Art 195. 27 that by no means a l l artists and craftsmen engaged in Corinthian industry were citizens of Corinth. Hence we should be cautious in imputing p o l i t i c a l ambitions to the industrial class as a whole or in assuming that they might as a class support the ambitions of a prospective tyrant. How many people were engaged in industry in archaic Corinth? We have not the evidence for any industry other than the manufacture of pottery; but the evidence (what l i t t l e we have) suggests that the number engaged in what was probably Corinth's chief industry must have been relatively small even when that industry was flourishing. S t y l i s t i c studies of Corinthian vase-painting have found only a relatively small number of workshops producing figured vases 72 in Corinth in the seventh century. These workshops, 72. Dunbabin, in a study of painters of Corinthian vases from the middle and third quarter of the seventh century (JHS 71 [l95l] 63-69) finds *a close connection of Corinthian vase-painters of this time; there appear to have been a small number of workshops producing figured vases, which interacted on one another...' (69). See also Dunbabin and Robertson, BSA 48 (1953) 172-181: '...we have the impression that there were not very many workshops producing figured vases during the Protocorinthian period, the majority concentrating on linear' \ 28 moreover, seem to have been small, each supporting only a few potters or painters. We have a number of terra-cotta plaques from Corinth, most of them dating from the late seventh and early sixth century, which show Corinthian craftsmen at work. On no tablet are there more than two potters (or other 73 workers) depicted. The number of workshops w i l l have grown a good deal after the middle of the seventh century, but even then the numbers employed in the manufacture of pottery cannot have been great. Craftsmen employed in other industries w i l l not have added many to this number, so that the total number of those engaged in a r t i s t i c and manufacturing ac t i v i t i e s in Corinth must have formed only a very small (173); and Benson, Die Geschichte der korinthischen Vasen 13-30. There was, however, also a production of Sub-Geometric, pottery in the f i r s t half of the seventh century (Starr 237, 244) . 73. Hasebroek 57. Limitations of space may prevent the plaques from depicting more than two potters, but there are other indications that the numbers employed in workshops were generally small (see Cook, GPP 271-272 and Will, op_. c i t . [n. 34 above ] 154). On the small scale of industry in Athens in the f i f t h and fourth centuries see Hasebroek 71-76, and Jones, Athenian Democracy 14-18. 29 proportion of the total Corinthian population. Herodotos says that H O U Qpf[\.naQ nal EKOSOCQ nal Ucpaac, nal A U 6O U Q nal axe6ov TOJCVTOQ T O U Q pappapovc; aTtoxivioTcpouQ T S V aAAcov T^YTHICVOVQ TtoXuTiTewv T O U Q TOCQ T5X V C X Q v i a v8 < ^ V O V ' R A Q nai T O U Q C K Y O V O U Q toutwv/ He states that a l l Greeks and 75 w especially the Lakedaimonians held this opinion, tfrnaxa 6c KopCvOiou O V O V T O I T O U Q xc^po^^xvag. Dunbabin saw in this passage the key to the interpretation of the history of Corinth: 'The Corinthians, more than other Greeks, had an individual way of l i f e , recognised by their contemporaries, which can be used as a point from which to survey the Greek 76 world.' Dunbabin seems to me to make more of the statement 77 than Herodotos intended. Moreover, as Cook points out, although Dunbabin applied the remark to archaic Corinth, Herodotos i s describing the Corinthian attitude of his own day. As we have seen, Corinth could claim to be an industrial centre already in the late eighth century. But in the last 74. 2. 167. 75. See Xenophon, Const. Lak. 2. 1-2; Plutarch, Agesilaos 26.5; and Lykourgos 24. 2. 76. Dunbabin, op_. c i t . (n. 28 above) 59. 77. 0p_. c i t . (n. 33 above) 87, n. 163. 1 \ 1 30 quarter of the eighth century, when the export of Corinthian pottery began to reach significant proportions, the Buboian c i t i e s were considerably more advanced commercially than Corinth. Yet although Chalkis and Bretria were perhaps the most important commercial centres on the mainland they placed a great deal of importance on land, for they fought a long and exhausting war over the small but f e r t i l e Lelantine 78 Plain. This suggests that on Euboia commercial interests 78. There has been the widest disagreement as regards the date and extent of this war since our sources are fragmentary and chronological indications few. The war has been variously dated from the eighth to the sixth century. Blakeway ('The Date of Archilochus,• in Greek Poetry and  Lif e ; Essays Presented to Gilbert Murray 47-49), Forrest (Historia 6 [l957] 160-175), and Huxley (BCH 82 [l958] 588-601) assign the war to the late eighth century; Burn (JHS 49 [1929] 14-37) and Cary (CAH 3 622) to the f i r s t part of the seventh. Will (Korinthiaka 391-404) suggests that the war lasted with intervals from ca 700 to ca 550; and Boardman (op. c i t . [n. 6 above] 27-29) distinguishes two phases or even separate conflicts of the war, the f i r s t after ca 750, the second ca 700. For a f u l l discussion of the evidence* see Bradeen (TAPA 78 [l947] 223-241), whose dates I accept. 31 were s t i l l second to agricultural concerns. This was almost certainly true of Corinth in the archaic period as i t was, surely, of most Greek states. Strabo says that Corinthian s o i l was i n f e r t i l e and that Corinth owed i t s wealth to TOLQ TCXVOCQ rag 6 T U U O P Y I H & - ; . It has been assumed from this passage that the i n f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l forced the Corinthians Q Q O 1 to turn to manufacturing. But, as Blegen has shown, the plain between Corinth and Sikyon was famous in antiquity and modern times for i t s f e r t i l i t y . Will suggests that the Korinthia attracted settlers in prehistoric times on account of i t s agricultural potential. Corinth controlled in antiquity a large surrounding territory estimated at some 83 340 square miles. There is no reason not to assume that in Bradeen establishes 720 to 660 as outside dates of the war and places i t more closely between 675 and 670. I agree with Coldstream (GGP 369) that the cause of the war was over-population against Boardman (op_. c i t . 27) that i t was fought over copper and iron mines. 79. 8. 6. 23, p. 382. 80. See Hasebroek 55. 81. AJA 24 (1920) 10-12; cf. O'Neill, Ancient Corinth 28-29. 82. Korinthiaka 13-18. 83. Ehrenberg, The Greek State 29. V 32 Corinth, as in most c i t i e s in archaic Greece, the greatest 84 number of people made their living from the s o i l . The best evidence for this assumption is the large scale on which the Corinthians colonised in the seventh century. It has been much debated whether colonies were 85 founded primarily for trade or agriculture, but there i s , 84. Thucydides (2. 14. 2) says that as late as the beginning of the Peloponnesian War most Athenians s t i l l lived in the country. In 403, when the government of the oligarchs was abolished, Phormisios, a moderate conservative, introduced a measure that would have granted c i v i c rights only to those who possessed land. By this measure about 5000 Athenians were to lose their c i v i c rights (Dionysios of Halikarnassos, Lysias 32). This suggests that even near the end of the Peloponnesian War only a small part of the male population of Attika did not own some land (Bolkestein, Economic Li f e  in Greece's Golden Age 17; but the figure i s rejected by Gomme, The Population of Ancient Athens 27). From this figure i t has been estimated that three-fourths of the Athenians owned some land in Attika at the end of the f i f t h century (Busolt-Swoboda, Griechische Staatskunde 2 920). 85. Blakeway (BSA 33 [1932-1933] 170-208, and JRS 25 [l935] 129-149), in arguing for trade before the flag, suggested 33 I think, general agreement today that the primary reasons for the foundation of most colonies were overpopulation and land-hunger. Recent archaeological evidence has made our picture of pre-colonial trade with.the West clearer. A few imports of Mature Geometric pottery in Etruria indicate that some trade existed in central Italy in the f i r s t quarter of the eighth century, a generation before the founding of the 87 earliest colony in the West. But this trade was limited, ] that a flourishing Corinthian trade with Italy and S i c i l y existed before the foundation of the western colonies. He regarded the Corinthian colonies as intended for trade and as a means of gaining commercial advantage. Blakeway's thesis was based on a too early dating of Geometric pottery, which has since been revised downwards: see Cook, op_. c i t . (n. 33 above) 80-81, and CR 63 (1949) 113-114, a review of Dunbabin's The Western Greeks (Dunbabin followed Blakeway's views of pre-colonial trade); Will, Korinthiaka 319-323; and Graham, Colony  and Mother City in Ancient Greece 218-223. 86. The conclusions of Gwynn (JHS 38 [l918 ] 88-123), that colonisation was generally the result of overpopulation and the need for land, are firmly supported by Cook (op_. c i t . [n. 33 above] 80-83). See also Coldstream, GGP 373-374; and Graham, Colony and Mother City in Ancient Greece 5. . 87. Coldstream, GGP 354-355. 34 and elsewhere the earliest pottery begins with the foundation of a colony* There i s no evidence that colonies were established as markets for the goods of the mother-city or 88 as strategic commercial posts* For the most part, trade followed the f l a g . From about the middle of the eighth century colonies were 89 90 founded by Corinth in nearly every generation : Syracuse 91 92 93 94 and Kerkyra, ca 733; Chalkis, Makynia, Molykreon, 88. Ibid. 375. It i s sometimes argued that the earliest colonies, Pithekoussai and Cumae, were exceptions: see, e.g., Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece 335-336, who states the common theory that the metals of the region (iron ore from Elba and copper from Etruria) f i r s t attracted the Greeks. But see, contra, Cook, Historia 11 (1962) 113-114; and Woodhead, The Greeks in the West 34-35. 89. For the general chronology see Will, Korinthiaka 517-521; and Graham, Colony and Mother City 30-31. On the status of the colonies see Graham, Colony and Mother City 118-153. 90. Thucydides 6. 3. 2; Strabo 6. 2. 4, p. 269. 91. Strabo 6. 2. 3-4, pp. 269-270; Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 11 (Moralia 293A-B). 92. Thucydides 1. 108. 5; Graham, Historia 11 (1962) 246. 93. Strabo 10. 2. 4, p. 451; Hammond 659. 35 95 96 and Oiniadai, at the end of the eighth century; Sollion, 97 Ambrakia, Anaktorion, and Leukas, and Epidamnos (a joint 98 colony of Kerkyra and Corinth ), under Kypselos; and 99 100 Poteidaia and Apollonia, under Periandros, at the end of the seventh century. That Corinth founded as many colonies as she did in the eighth and seventh centuries indicates that most Corinthians were engaged in agriculture, and that when land at home became scarce the Corinthians went abroad to establish colonies instead of turning in large numbers to commerce as did the Aiginetans, who did not ' . 101 colonise. 94. Thucydides 3. 102. 2. 95. Thucydides 2. 102. 6; Kirsten, RE 17 2 c o l . 2209. 96. Thucydides 2. 30. 1; Geyer, RE 3A1 c o l . 932. 97. Strabo 10. 2. 8, p. 452; but see Plutarch, De Sera Num. Vine. 7 (Moralia 552E-F). 98. Thucydides 1. 24. 2; Strabo 7. 5. 7, p. 316; Eusebios (ap. Jerome). 99. Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 59. 100. Strabo 7. 5. 8, p. 316; Plutarch, De Sera Num. Vine. 7 (Moralia 552 E-F); Thucydides 1. 26. 2; van Compernolle, Ant. Class. 22 (1953) 50-64. 101. See n. 22 above. 36 It i s often suggested that there existed in many Greek c i t i e s discontented classes who gave their support to tyrants such as small or dispossessed farmers similar perhaps 103 to those who existed in Attika at the time of Solon. Can we expect to find such a class in Corinth who may have given their support to Kypselos? Not only i s there l i t t l e evidence in Corinth or in most other Greek c i t i e s of a class of dispossessed farmers or of those who had been reduced to a status resembling that of the hektemoroi in Attika, but there i s , I believe, l i t t l e likelihood that conditions such as those that existed in Attika in Solon's time were widespread in archaic Greece. I suspect that Athens' social and economic problems at the time of Solon were relatively uncommon throughout the rest of Greece and that they were largely due in Attika to Athens' failure to colonise. The result was that in the absence of primogeniture kleroi in Attika were divided amongst a l l the sons t i l l some kleroi became too small to be 104 economically viable. To prevent a division of one's kleros 102. See, e.c_., Hammond 146; Finley, Early Greece 106; Andrewes, The Greeks 57. 103. Plutarch, Solon 13. 2-3. 104. Isaios, 6 (Philoktemon) 25, p. 58; Harrison, The Law of  Athens: the Family and Property 130-131; Burn, The World of 37 amongst heirs Hesiod recommended having only one son. Like Athens the Boiotian c i t i e s did not found colonies and perhaps faced a shortage of land as did Athens. I think that we should not assume that the economic situation that prevailed in Attika in Solon's time was normative for the rest of Greece, for colonisation ordinarily solved the problem of land-hunger that Athens found so c r i t i c a l . ^ 0 There i s , I think, no reason to believe that because discontented members of the small land-holding class or those reduced to serfdom were a problem in Attika in the sixth century they were a problem elsewhere in Greece. We should not, therefore, expect to find at Corinth in the seventh century an economically depressed class of small landholders, since Corinth colonised so extensively in the eighth and seventh centuries. Discontent (at least over economic problems) w i l l have been siphoned off to the colonies and there i s l i t t l e likelihood of a tyrant's having gained power through the Hesiod 111. 105. Erga 376-377. 106. Aigina did not found colonies but instead absorbed her population into commerce, while Sparta, another ci t y that did not colonise (with the exception of Taras), solved the problem of overpopulation by invading Messenia. \ 38 support of large numbers of depressed landholders. It is possible to reject the theory that the tyrants in the seventh century owed their positions to the support of a specific class of craftsmen and merchants and yet to hold that there was a connexion between growing prosperity in Greece generally and the rise of tyranny. This i s the view 107 of Forrest, for example. According to Forrest there was in the eighth century in Greece a general increase in prosperity that had by about 700 transformed perhaps a dozen c i t i e s into commercial centres. This increase in prosperity benefitted nearly everyone economically, the potter, the farmer, even the landless worker. Some obtained the leisure, the means, and the psychological independence to challenge the authority of the basileis . Through hoplite service they obtained the means to gain power by support of a tyrant. Forrest's view requires a rapid increase in trade in the f i r s t half of the seventh century and an equally rapid rise in the prosperity of a large proportion of the population, at least in the commercially important c i t i e s , especially those in the Isthmus. Was there a significant rise in trade in Greece as early as Forrest suggests? It i s clear that some commerce existed in Corinth from an early date; the 107. Forrest 67-97. \ 39 question for our purpose i s , when did trade and commerce assume proportions great enough to produce a significant increase in the prosperity of a large number of people? Thucydides furnishes evidence that the Corinthians were interested in shipbuilding and navies at the end of the 108 eighth century. The Corinthians are said to have been the f i r s t Greeks to deal with matters of shipping 'in a modern fashion* ( TcpOxou 6c KopCvGiot X£Y o v' c a<' cyytxaia TOU vuv xp8nou ucTaxeipCaou xa. ncpX xag vaTSg). To the Corinthians, moreover, were ascribed the f i r s t triremes in Greece. In the late eighth century Ameinokles of Corinth built four ships for the Samians about 300 years before the 109 end of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides says that the f i r s t battle at sea 'of which we know' was fought between the Corinthians and the Kerkyraians 260 years before the end of the Peloponnesian War (i..e_., 664). But an interest in navies and even in ship-building does not necessarily indicate extensive trade on the part of the 108. 1. 13. 2-4. 109. The question what kind of ship Ameinokles built for the Samians i s much disputed: see Davison, CQ 41 (1947) 18-24; Carpenter, AJA 52 (1948) 7; Kirk, BSA 44 (1949) 142; Williams, JHS 78 (1958) 126-127. 40 Corinthians. Other evidence has been used, however, to suggest that the Corinthians were active in widespread . HO commerce in the eighth century. Dunbabin states that at Perachora 'in the second half of the eighth century and the early seventh, scarabs are imported in scores, there are ivories, amber, and vases and fibulas from a number of Greek states.* But many of these are items of luxury, which had a limited market and do not indicate trade in q u a n t i t y . 1 1 1 The wide export of Corinthian pottery has also been taken to indicate extensive Corinthian trade in the late 112 eighth century. This, seems at f i r s t to be a reasonable inference, but we must be cautious where we know so l i t t l e of early trade and some qualifications seem to be necessary. 113 It has, for example, been pointed out that finds of Corinthian pottery t e l l us nothing about the nationality of 110. Op_. c i t . (n. 28 above) 65. 111. '...The exceedingly small number of Oriental artefacts from Geometric sites contrasts with the comparatively numerous indications of Oriental contacts, a puzzle which persists in the Orientalising period' (Lorimer 138). 112. See, e.cj., Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 16-17, 226-228. 113. By Woodhead, The Greeks in the West 33. 41 the trader or the origin of the ship that carried the pottery. There are several instances in which i t is l i k e l y that pottery (or other manufactures) was carried by foreign 114 traders. Thus i t seems probable that not a l l Corinthian pottery was carried in Corinthian ships and i t is reasonable to assume that other c i t i e s (such as Aigina) built ships that were employed in the carrying trade. Doubtless, too, the colonies imported manufactures in their own ships, built from 115 their extensive forests of pine and f i r . But how extensive was trade in quantity in Greece in the eighth and seventh centuries? The evidence, fragmentary as i t i s , indicates that i t was s t i l l very limited. The require-ments of l i f e were simple and in the archaic period overseas trade seems largely to have been confined to valuable raw 116 materials (especially metals), luxuries, and objets d'art. 114. See Vallet, Rhegion et Zancle 191; Coldstream, GGP 389; Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 232,234, 238, 240. 115. Cook, op. c i t . (n. 41 above, second item) 116-117. Contra, Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 228. 116. Hasebroek 49, 69; Roebuck, Ionian Trade and  Colonization 132; Cook, op_. c i t . (n. 33 above) 85-86; Heichelheim, An Ancient Economic History 1 225; Beaumont, op. c i t . (n. 40 above) 184. 42 The market for these objects was small and Heichelheim estimates that the amount of trade in Greece in the eighth and seventh centuries was not very much greater than that 117 carried in the tenth and ninth centuries. Indeed, the 113 evidence as a whole, according to Roebuck, indicates that 'the economically significant point in the development of trade in the Aegean comes in the last quarter of the seventh century.' Roebuck suggests that this i s true both of Ionia and the main-land: i t was not t i l l the last quarter of the seventh century 119 that extensive trade existed with the region of the Black Sea ; Corinthian manufacture of pottery did not reach large-scale 120 production t i l l the last quarter of the seventh century ; 117. An Ancient Economic History 1 244. 118. CP 48 (1953) 13; see also Starr 349-350, 364. 119. Roebuck thinks that extensive trade with the Black Sea began after the foundation of the grain-producing colonies of Istros, Olbia, and Apollonia pontika, which Cook dates to the last decade of the seventh century on the basis of archeological evidence (op_. c i t . [n. 33 above] 76). Cf. Heichelheim, An Ancient Economic History 242. 120. 'C'est au VII e s. seulement, voire au VI e, qu'il appartiendra de mettre en valeur le carrefour isthmique, et particulierement son axe maritime' (Will, Korinthiaka 78). 43 and Athens assumed real economic importance only in the middle of the sixth century, when Athenian pottery f u l l y 121 replaced Corinthian in the West. Heichelheim has observed that unt i l the second half of the seventh century there was no permanent export of cheap articles for mass consumption in 122 Greece. But the most important impetus to trade was the introduction of coinage (especially in small denominations), which greatly f a c i l i t a t e d commerce by replacing the method 123 of exchange by barter, and this was lacking before the 124 late seventh century. 121, See French, JHS 77 (1957) 239, for a similar conclusion. 122, An Ancient Economic History 1 241. 123. Ibid. 1 243; Toutain, The Economic Li f e of the Ancient  World 71. Contra; Kraay, JHS 84 (1964) 76-91. 124. I accept the 'low' dating for the introduction of coinage, based on a revised dating of the foundation-deposit from the Ephesian Artemision: see Robinson, JHS 71 (1951) 156-167; and Jacobsthal, JHS 71 (1951) 85-95. Robinson dates the f i r s t appearance of coinage 'well within the second half of the seventh century' (165). The f i r s t coins to appear in mainland Greece (those of Aigina) are brought down to the last quarter of the seventh century, while Corinthian coinage i s assigned to the reign of Periandros 44 From the point of view of economic history [writes 125T Roebuck J this solution, by the development of sea trade in bulk goods and mass volume, i s more important than a small trickle of luxury goods and exotics such as may be found even in very primitive cultures. Volume trade w i l l involve radical changes in the economic, social and p o l i t i c a l structure of the state, the other need not. If extensive trade in the Aegean, a trade in volume capable of bringing prosperity to a large number of people, began in the last quarter of the seventh century, the connexion between growing prosperity in Greece and the rise of tyranny i s d i f f i c u l t to maintain. This i s true not only for Corinth but for the other 'commercial' states of the Isthmus, Sikyon and Megara, as well. Tyrants arose in these states in the middle of the seventh century and therefore preceded the beginnings of the extensive commercial l i f e that could bring about an increase in the general level of prosperity sufficient to produce social and p o l i t i c a l change. It i s (166) and the f i r s t Athenian coinage i s placed later than the 590's. See also Brown, Num. Chron. (Sixth Series) 10 (1950) 177-204; and Cook, Historia 7 (1958) 257-262. 125. _____. C i t . (n. 118 above) 12. 45 d i f f i c u l t to see, moreover, how tyrants could look for support (in the seventh century, at any rate) to a large and prosperous industrial or commercial class. In Corinth and most likely in other states (to judge from the economic conditions that prevailed in the seventh century) such a class followed rather than preceded the tyrannies in the Isthmian states. There i s l i t t l e evidence, either, to suggest that tyrants received support from a class of economically depressed small landholders, for although the majority of the population of most states were employed in agriculture colonisation solved the problem of a shortage of land in most ci t i e s and probably acted as a 'safety-valve' for the economic causes of discontent. Indeed, economic factors do not play an important part in the accounts of most early tyrants: we read of no independent p o l i t i c a l force made up of commercial people, no 'merchant aristocracy,' not even of a mildly prosperous group of landowners who wished to gain some share in ruling their c i t y and so formed the power-base of the tyrants. Nor do the tyrants of the .seventh century, at any rate, appear as champions of the oppressed classes or even of the demos against their aristocratic rulers. Perhaps i t is reasonable to conclude that economic factors were, after a l l , not very important as causes of early tyranny and that i f we wish to account 46 for the rise of the tyrants in archaic Greece we must look elsewhere for an explanation. 47 CHAPTER TWO THE HOPLITE REFORM AND TYRANNY It has in recent years become common to connect the rise of the earliest Greek tyrants with the growth of the hoplite class. It has been suggested that an expansion of trade and manufacturing in the eighth century introduced into Greece new wealth that enabled an increasing number of men who were not aristocrats to furnish hoplite armour for themselves. According to this theory, the new hoplite force began to play a role in the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the polis as the hoplites* growing consciousness of their own military importance led them to challenge the monopoly of power that the nobles had previously enjoyed and to provide the support needed by aspiring tyrants to gain power. This view has been most f u l l y developed by Andrewes,1 who argues that the introduction of hoplite tactics produced great social and p o l i t i c a l changes in the polis. Andrewes believes that the system of fighting that prevailed 1. Firs t suggested by Andrewes in his Inaugural Lecture at Oxford, Probouleusis; Sparta's Contribution to the Technique  of Government 14-15;..and set out more f u l l y in The Greek  Tyrants 31-42. i \ v 48 before the introduction of the hoplite phalanx was essentially individualistic and stressed the aristocratic ideals of individual valour and prowess, virtues of the ruling nobility that were displayed in duels on the b a t t l e f i e l d . The introduction of hoplite tactics brought with i t two important consequences. F i r s t , i t necessitated adding large numbers of men from outside the aristocracy to the fighting force since the phalanx required more heavily-armed men than the system of warfare based on individual combat. Second, i t replaced individual fighting with the necessity of acting in concert in the hoplite line and increased the military importance of the new hoplites at the expense of the aristocracy. According to Andrewes, the introduction of the hoplite phalanx presupposes an increase in wealth generally throughout the Greek world, for each hoplite was required to furnish his own armour. The new hoplite class i s presumed to have represented a new 'middle class' that the recent economic prosperity of the eighth century had created. Once 2. For the view (which I accept) that the differences between 'heroic' warfare and hoplite warfare were not so great as i s usually thought, see Detienne in Problemes de la guerre en Grece ancienne 123-124._ V 49 this class had begun to take part in warfare i t was only a matter of time before i t demanded a share of the p o l i t i c a l power and this led to a widening of the basis of the constitution. Andrewes believes that inasmuch as the rule of the earliest tyrants began a generation after the introduction of hoplite armies there is li k e l y to have been a connexion between them. Supported by the new middle class the tyrants overthrew the aristocrats-and based their rule on the hoplite class. The new class developed a corporate identity and f i l l e d offices under the new regimes of the tyrants. The rule of the tyrants ended forever aristocratic rule so that when tyranny was overthrown the way lay open to isokratia. Andrewes1 theory has gained many adherents, but recent studies of the archaeological evidence have seriously undermined i t . In an important a r t i c l e based on a close 3 study of the archaeological evidence Snodgrass has presented cogent reasons for questioning Andrewes' thesis. I summarise them br i e f l y with some discussion passim. (1) Andrewes believes that 'the nature of hoplite equipment i s such that i t must from the f i r s t have been used 3. JHS 85 (1965) 110-122; see also Rlvista storica italiana 77 (1965) 434-444. V • V \in formation and cannot have been adopted piecemeal.' But Snodgrass believes that the evidence 5 indicates quite the reverse: that the adoption of the hoplite panoply was a long-drawn-out and piecemeal process that began about the middle of the eighth century. Although virtually a l l pieces 6 of hoplite equipment were in use by ca 700, the late eighth 4. The Greek Tyrants 33; for a similar view see Lorimer 107. 5. The evidence consists of contemporary literary sources, primarily the l y r i c poets; grave-finds of armour; and especially vase-paintings, which are d i f f i c u l t to assess because of the tendency of the vase-painters to portray figures nude and because of the d i f f i c u l t y of portraying the phalanx (Snodgrass 110; Lorimer 110). 6. Snodgrass 110. See the Late Geometric amphora in the Benaki Museum (Lorimer 87 and plate 19a); the Geometric pyxis from Phaleron (AJA 46 [l942] 39 and 37, fg. 21; Lorimer 90); the 'Bretrian' Geometric amphora in Athens (BSA 47 [l952_ 7 and plate 3A, and BSA 52 [l957 ] 29; Davison, Attic  Geometric Workshops 69-70); and the magnificent bronze plate-corslet from Argos (Courbin, BCH 81 [l957] 340-356, plates 1-3). \ i \ \ 51 and early seventh century was a transitional period in which both hoplite and pre-hoplite equipment and even tactics were 7 used simultaneously. A l l pieces of the hoplite panoply are 7. Snodgrass 113 and Early Greek Armour 84, 237 n. 37; Nierhaus, Jdl 53 (1938) 90-114. The warriors depicted on vases between ca 750 and ca 650 display a curious mixture of old- and new-style armour, weapons, and tactics: see, e.£., the aryballos from Perachora (Lorimer 94-95). On the Hymettus Amphora, while most of the combats are spear-duels, two are fought with spear against sword (Lorimer 87). Often two throwing spears 'mar the perfect picture of hoplite equipment' (Lorimer 104); this i s true, e,g_., of the Chigi vase (but see Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 138, 198-199, where i t i s suggested that two spears were carried by early hoplites and that one was thrown and one was used as a thrusting spear). The frequent mixture of hoplite and pre-hoplite equipment i s attributed by Miss Lorimer to the desire of the author to mark scenes as heroic by introducing anachronistic equipment (95). But in many instances i t i s more li k e l y that the a r t i s t s were merely depicting what they observed in their own day: a transition between two types of fighting-equipment and tactics. Evidence for this transition may also be found in contemporary l i t e r a r y V 52 shown together for the f i r s t time on single warriors on Protocorinthian vases of the f i r s t quarter of the seventh Q century. The phalanx, however, i s not clearly depicted on Q pottery before the middle of the seventh century. If, as the sources: see Kallinos 1 Diehl, lines 5, 10, and 14 (the use of the javelin, perhaps with hoplite shield and thrusting spear; contra Lorimer 120, but see Webster, From Mycenae to Homer 215 and Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 180-181); Archilochos, f r . 3 Diehl (fighting in close combat with swords); contrast with f r . 2 (mention of a thrusting spear) and f r . 6 (leaving behind a shield); Tyrtaios 1 and 9 Diehl (description of a shield as HOXXOQ [ l , 11 ]; but elsewhere as ojwpaXoeaaa [9, 25]: see Lorimer 122); and 8, 21-24 (mention of a body-shield, which Miss Lorimer [l27] excises as a late pastiche; but see Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 181). Tyrtaios seems to indicate that the phalanx was in use but not well established in Sparta: see Snodgrass 115-116 and Toynbee, Some Problems  of Greek History 256-257. 8. See, e.g., the Middle Protocorinthian aryballos from Lechaion (Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour, plate 15a), which depicts a hoplite warrior in battle with light-armed men carrying 'Boiotian' shields. 9. Snodgrass (Early Greek Armour 197-198) thinks that the 53 evidence from pottery suggests, the hoplite phalanx did not appear t i l l near the middle of the seventh century, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to argue, according to Snodgrass, that an established hoplite force provided the support for the seizure of tyranny by Kypselos or Pheidon of Argos. (2) Snodgrass observes that the original hoplite class was limited by the requirement of wealth that was needed for a hoplite to furnish his own armour. Since only men of considerable wealth could afford the hoplite panoply the new class was probably limited to large landholders and can hardly have formed a revolutionary group. Moreover, since hoplite fighting was extremely gruelling and dangerous, warfare w i l l have become even less attractive than before and the new class was probably not eager to fight. The traditional aristocratic warrior-class retained i t s supremacy t i l l the adoption of the hoplite phalanx. 'Aigina stand' (dated in the second quarter of the seventh century) i s the earliest possible portrayal of the phalanx (illustrated in Lorimer 90); and the Berlin aryballos (dated shortly after 650) the f i r s t certain example (illustrated in Lorimer 84). The earliest substantial representation i s on the Chigi vase (Early Greek Armour, plate 36; see also Lorimer 81-83). On the date of the Chigi vase see Cook, Gnomon 32 (1960) 718. 54 (3) According to Snodgrass, evidence from the Etruscans supports the thesis that hoplite tactics were adopted gradually 10 and piecemeal and that they did not involve immediate p o l i t i c a l or social change. In Etruria the adoption of the hoplite equipment occurred during the period of the kings, which was followed not by hoplite constitutions but by aristocratic r u l e . 1 1 Snodgrass believes that the introduction 12 of hoplite tactics at Rome was also an extended process 13 and he follows Roman tradition in assigning the introduction of hoplite armour and phalanx to the sixth century, which was a period of aristocratic (not hoplite) ascendancy at Rome. But d i f f i c u l t i e s in dating the introduction of the hoplite phalanx at Rome make i t unwise at present, I think, to state 10. For a summary of the archaeological evidence see Snodgrass 116-118. 11. See Momigliano, JRS 53 (1963) 119. 12. Cf. Nilsson, JRS 19 (1929) 2; and D'Arms, AJP 64 (1943) 424-426. 13. The Romans believed that the hoplite phalanx was derived from the Etruscans (Diodoros 23. 2. 1) and tradition seems to connect i t s introduction at Rome with Servius Tullius (Dionysios of Halikarnassos, Ant. Rom. 4. 16. 2; Livy 1. 43. 2). 55 categorically that i t produced no immediate p o l i t i c a l change in Rome. Snodgrass concludes that the adoption of hoplite tactics and equipment in Greece was gradual; that i t did not bring about immediate p o l i t i c a l and social change; and that the introduction of the hoplite phalanx was roughly coaeval with the earliest tyrannies and therefore the hoplite class i s not l i k e l y to have been the means by which the earliest tyrants seized power. Indeed, thinks Snodgrass, i t i s more li k e l y that the creation of the hoplite phalanx should be credited to an early tyrant who simply wished to organise a more effective means of defending the state. Snodgrass has adduced cogent reasons for questioning the connexion between the rise of the hoplite class and the beginnings of tyranny. 1 5 Nevertheless, the archaeological 14. The hoplite reform has been placed in the mid-fifth century after the Battle of Cremera by Nilsson, op_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 1-11; D'Arms, op_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 424-426; and Wieacker in Les Origines de la Republique r onaine  (Bntretiens sur 1'Antiquity Classigue 13, Fondation Hardt) 336. But see Ogilvie, CR N.S. 19 (1969) 325; and Momigliano, op. c i t . (n. 11 above) 120. 15. See Andrewes' remarks in The Greeks 58. i 56 evidence i s not conclusive. The view that the introduction of the hoplite phalanx did not take place before the middle of the seventh century i s to some extent based on an argumentum e silentio and some new find of pottery-sherds may provide us with evidence that the phalanx was introduced 17 at an earlier date. Moreover, though the analogies of 16. See, e.g., Jones, Sparta 33, who believes that the phalanx i s depicted on vases later than individual hoplites 'probably because the hoplite phalanx i s more d i f f i c u l t to portray and less effective a r t i s t i c a l l y than two or four warriors.' Cf. Webster, Greek Art and Literature 700-530  B. C. 260. 17. The phalanx has been placed as early as the mid-eighth century by Kirk (Museum Helveticum 17 [ 1960 ] 194) on the basis of the Argive corslet; by Webster, From Mycenae to  Homer 215; and by Detienne in Problemes de la guerre en  Grece ancienne 139-140. Detienne credits Timomachos the Aigeid, captor of Amyklai in the mid-eighth century, with hoplite tactics. But on the value of Pausanias for early Spartan history see Pearson, Historia 11 (1962) 397-426 and Starr, AJP 86 (1965) 111; see also Snodgrass, Early Greek  Armour 186. Both Detienne and Webster assume that hoplite armour and tactics are inseparable, an assumption that I 57 Etruria and Rome reveal that in those states the introduction of hoplite tactics probably did not bring about immediate p o l i t i c a l and social changes (and certainly not 'hoplite constitutions') they do not rule out the possibility of that 18 having happened in Greece. However, I believe that Snodgrass is correct in his view of the matter. Even should i t be possible to date the introduction of the hoplite phalanx earlier than the mid-seventh century, there are other grounds for denying that early tyrants came to power by means of the support of a hoplite class. It is common to attribute the invention of hoplite tactics to Argos or Corinth. This i s sometimes done to explain the rise of Kypselos in Corinth or of Pheidon in 19 Argos. Since Pheidon was the earliest tyrant of whom we follow Snodgrass in rejecting. On the date of the hoplite reform see also Benton, BSA 48 (1953) 340; and Kiechle, Lakonien und Sparta 266-270. 18. See Detienne in Problemes de la guerre en Grece ancienne 120 n. 5. Pleket, Talanta 1 (1969) 35-36, believes that hoplites were an important factor in establishing early tyrannies despite his acceptance of Snodgrass's conclusions. 19. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 39, 49; Huxley, BCH 82 (1958) 588-601. 58 know Argos i s often credited with being the birthplace of hoplite tactics: 'We have to account both for this sudden display of Argive strength [at Hysiai] and for the special position ascribed to Pheidon, and both can be explained i f we suppose that Argos was the f i r s t in the f i e l d with the 20 new tactics and so gained temporary advantage.' Archaeological evidence i s sometimes adduced to suggest that 21 hoplite tactics originated in Argos or Corinth ; in fact, however, there i s l i t t l e evidence, literar y or archaeological, that hoplite tactics were f i r s t used at either Argos or . . t. 22 Corinth. 20. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 39. 21. Snodgrass, Arms and Armour 67-68; Coldstream, GGP 363. 22. The literar y evidence (P. Oxy. 10, f r . 1241, c o l . 5, 30-36 for Argos) i s slight. The fact that the standard hoplite shield was by the f i f t h century called 'Argive' and the helmet 'Corinthian' (Snodgrass, Arms and Armour 67) i s no more evidence for the hoplite equipment having begun in Argos or Corinth than i s the widespread use of the 'Chalkidian' helmet evidence that hoplite tactics began in Buboia (Snodgrass, Arms and Armour 69-70). Moreover, to state that the chance find of the early hoplite panoply from Argos (see n. 6 above) i s evidence that hoplite tactics . . • • • • . • / 59 There i s another city in Greece that has a very good claim to the introduction of hoplite tactics: Chalkis in 23 24 Euboia 0 Aristotle cites Chalkis and Eretria as examples of oligarchies whose strength lay in their cavalry and who used horses in their wars against their neighbours. But we are unusually well informed about the early military history of Chalkis and Eretria and our sources indicate that the Euboians were thought in antiquity to excel in weapons and 25 tactics. There i s evidence to suggest that hoplite tactics began in Argos i s an argumentum e s i l e n t i o . Finally, the frequent representation of hoplite scenes on Corinthian vases i s no evidence that hoplite tactics began in Corinth, for the painters or the motifs may have come from outside Corinth ( c f 0 Snodgrass, Arms and Armour 63). 23. Suggested by Boardman, BSA 52 (1957) 29 (see also Lorimer 118); rejected by Snodgrass, Arms and Armour 71 (but see Early Greek Armour 202). 24. Pol. 1289b 36-39; see also 1297b 16-22 and 1321a 8-11. 25. To the Euboians were attributed several developments in arms and armour. According to legend the Kyklopes f i r s t made weapons in Euboia, where Briareos was the f i r s t to wear armour (P. Oxy. 10, f r . 1241, c o l . 4, 10-16; Istros [FGrH 3B 334 F 71 ap. Schol A Homer, I l i a d 10. 439; Eustathios 817. 21; \ were in use early in Euboia ; and the c i t i e s of Buboia (and Apollodoros 3. 15. 8; Hesychios, .s.v. X a \ K t 6 t K O Q XetuSv ) . The Kouretes of Buboia are said to have been the f i r s t to make and wear bronze weapons, presumably the bronze panoply (P. Oxy. 10, f r . 1241, col. 4, 26-29; Strabo 10. 3. 19, p. 472 [see also 10. 3. 8, p. 467]; Steph. Byz., .s.v. pXbi\tyoQ; Servius, Aeneid 9. 503). These legends may have some basis in fact: copper and iron were mined and worked in Chalkis (Strabo 10. 1. 9, p. 447; Steph. Byz., .s.v. X O C X H C Q ; Eustathios ad Dionys. Per. 764 and ad Iliad 10. 435; Pliny, NH 4. 64). Moreover, as early as the time of Alkaios Chalkis exported swords (Alkaios Z 34 Lobel-Page; cf. Aischylos, f r . 356 [Nauck, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta ]). For the early military reputation of Chalkis see Anth. Pal. 14, 73, Ion of Chios (FHG 2 51, f r . 17), Strabo 10. 1. 13, p. 449; and Bradeen, TAPA 78 (1947) 238, 240. 26. For evidence of possible early hoplite warfare in Buboia see Archilochos, f r . 3 Diehl, who speaks of the 6e0Ti$Tat EuPoCac, 6 o u p t H \ u x o C (see Boardman, op_. c i t . [n. 23 above ] 29); and P. Oxy. 30 no. 2508 (see Podlecki, CW 63 [1969] 75-76); Strabo 10. 1. 12, p. 448 (concerning a treaty between Chalkis and Bretria forbidding the use of long-range missiles, perhaps a requisite to the use of hoplite tactics: 61 Chalkis in particular) have perhaps a better claim than any 27 other to have been the f i r s t to use hoplite armies. For see Lorimer 118); Plutarch, Amatorius 17 (Moralia 760E-761A), who mentions the use of hoplites in battle in the Lelantine War (on the date of this war see p. 30, n. 78 above). 27. There are three factors that lend credence to the thesis that hoplite tactics were f i r s t introduced on Euboia. F i r s t , i t has been pointed out by Snodgrass (Early Greek Armour 11-14, 35, 54-55, 66-68, 194-195; and JHS 83 [l963J 201) that metal helmets worn by hoplites as well as single-grip round shields resemble Urartian and Assyrian types. If the Near East provided models for certain elements of the hoplite panoply the most probable place for their influence to have been passed to the Greeks was at the Euboian settlement at Al Mina, where the Chalkidians, with their interest in metal-working, are the most li k e l y Greeks to have taken them over (Boardman, op_. c i t . [n. 23 above] 29, and The Greeks  Overseas 66; Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 200). Second, the Euboians enjoyed a reputation in the pre-hoplite period for prowess in hand-to-hand fighting in contrast to those who fought with long-distance weapons (see Strabo 10. 1. 13, pp. 448-449; Plutarch, Theseus 5. 2). The use of hoplite tactics may have developed from the Euboians' a b i l i t y to fight 62 this reason we might expect on Andrewes' theory to find early tyrannies in Euboia supported by a hoplite class. But the few tyrannies that we hear of in Chalkis seem to have been only 28 temporary interruptions in the oligarchy of the Hippobotai, who continued to hold power in Chalkis t i l l the time of 29 Perikles. In Eretria the oligarchy of the 'knights' 30 mentioned by Aristotle held power at least t i l l the middle of the sixth century: an Eretrian suitor was present at the well at close range. Finally, the Lelantine Plain was a bone of contention between Chalkis and Eretria for centuries and their border-warfare over the plain both preceded and followed the Lelantine War (see Plutarch, Sept. Sap. Con. 10 [ Moralia 153F] and Theognis 891-894; and Bradeen, c_p_. c i t . [n. 25 above] 228-229). The Euboian aristocrats may have introduced new tactics from a desire to gain military advantage after a succession of border-disputes in which cavalry-engagements repeatedly f a i l e d to prove effective. 28. See pp. 5-6 above on the Euboian tyrants and p. 6, n. 15 on the Hippobotai. 29. Plutarch, Perikles 23. 4. For mention of the Hippobotai in the late sixth century see Herodotos 5. 77. 2 and 6. 100. 1 and Aelian, VH 6. 1. 30. Pol. 1306a 35-36; see also 1289b 36-39. 63 court of Kleisthenes of Sikyon to bid for the hand of 31 Agariste ; and the aristocratic rulers of Eretria gave aid 32 to Peisistratos during his second exile. Thus, although there is evidence that the Euboian c i t i e s employed hoplite tactics at an early date, their p o l i t i c s long remained aristocratic. Chalkis and Eretria did not experience tyrannies supported by hoplites nor did they develop 'hoplite constitutions' at an early date. Rather they continued to be ruled for generations by traditional aristocracies. One reason for the failure of the hoplite reform to bring about rapid p o l i t i c a l change may be that the introduction of the phalanx did not immediately increase the number of men 33 under arms in the polis. It i s commonly held that the introduction of the phalanx necessitated an immediate widening of the army to include the non-aristocratic classes in order to provide enough men for the phalanx. The primary d i f f i c u l t y in this assumption i s that in archaic Greece even more than in classical times the expensive hoplite panoply w i l l have been prohibitive to a l l but a small number of citizens who could afford to supply their own armour. It 31. Herodotos 6. 127. 4. 32. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 15. 2. 33. See, , Starr 334; Snodgrass 114-115; Forrest 90. 64 must have been an expensive business to furnish a helmet, 34 breastplate, greaves, shield, spear and sword, especially since tin and iron, and often copper, had to be imported. 36 It has been suggested that in early Greece the only group likel y to have formed the original hoplite class, for a time at any rate, were the large landholders, since smallholders w i l l not have had the means to furnish their own armour. But surely the large landowners of the seventh century were, for 37 the most part, the aristocrats. In archaic Greece there was a close connexion between aristocracy and ownership of 38 land, which was the chief indication of wealth. Aristotle describes the aristocratic constitution as one Znov yc UT\ Vi6vov 7t\ouxCv6Tiv aXka wx\ apuoxCv&riv atpouvxai Tag dpx&Q^ and of the rule of the Hippobotai in Chalkis Strabo says, TCpocaxTjaav yap aixTJQ dno xip.T))j.<5cxa)v av6peg dpiCxoHpaxtHuSc; 34. See Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 89, 241 n. 58. 35. Cook, JHS 66 (1946) 85; Courbin in Pxoblemes de la guerre en Grece ancienne 85. On the effects of the introduc-tion of hoplite armour on metal-working see Benton, op. c i t . (n. 27 above) 338-340. 36. By Snodgrass 114. 37. Cf. Waters, JHS 80 (1960) 182. 38. See Whibley 112, 126. 65 apxovTCQ.^ Large estates were common in aristocracies of 41 'knights' such as those of Thessaly and Boiotia, and presumably they were also the rule on Buboia. In most poleis the nobles are l i k e l y to have been the largest landholders and the number of those possessing enough land to permit them to furnish hoplite armour who were not aristocrats was 42 probably small. It has been argued, of course, that the new economic prosperity of the seventh century created a new 'middle class' of men who had the means to serve in the new 43 hoplite armies, and indeed 'merchants, shippers, and craftsmen' have been included among those belonging to the 44 new class of hoplites. But a rise in trade sufficient to produce a significant increase in the prosperity of a large number of people in Greece seems not to have begun 45 t i l l the last quarter of the seventh century. There 39. Pol. 1293b 10-12. 40. 10. 1. 8, p. 447. 41. Toutain, The Economic Life of the Ancient World 38. 42. On the smallness of farms in classical Greece see Toutain, op_. c i t . 39; Michell, The Economics of Ancient  Greece 43-44; French, Historia 10 (1961) 510-511. 43. Forrest 94. 44. By Finley, Early Greece 101. 45. See pp. 42-44 above. 66 probably did not exist in Greece what could be described very loosely as a 'middle class' much before the sixth century. Nor do merchants and craftsmen appear to have been a class l i k e l y to have furnished soldiers for hoplite armies in the seventh century. There were a few merchants who gained great wealth from trade, such as Kolaios of Samos and Sostratos of 46 Aigina, but these were exceptional and that i s why we hear of them. Whether even wealthy merchants and artisans were drafted into hoplite armies is doubtful. By the Servian 47 reform, according to Dionysios of Halikarnassos, artisans were added to the second (non-hoplite) census-class at Rome; 48 though Livy says that two centuries of fabri served with the f i r s t class but without arms, their duty being to carry (have charge of?) siege-equipment. It appears, whichever 49 version we accept, that at Rome artisans were not given hoplite status. Whether they were in Hellas, where the hoplite army was based, in archaic and classical times, on 46. Herodotos 4. 152. 47. Ant. Rom. 4. 17. 3. 48. 1. 43. 3; cf. Cicero, De Rep. 2. 39. 49. Ogilvie (Commentary on Livy, Books 1-5 169) thinks that Dionysios is to be preferred to Livy. 67 landholders, i s questionable. In short, i t appears unlikely that there existed in the mid-seventh century a sufficiently prosperous class of non-aristocratic citizens to supplement the nobles in f i l l i n g the ranks of the earliest hoplite armies. The alternative to believing that hoplite arms were immediately extended to commoners i s to assume that the earliest phalanxes were composed only of aristocrats. This would be unlikely i f large numbers of men were required for the hoplite line as they were l a t e r . 5 1 But there are two good reasons why the f i r s t phalanxes should have relied on nobles. In the f i r s t place, hoplite fighting was a d i f f i c u l t business that required properly armed men who were highly trained and disciplined. The phalanx depended on steeled warriors, not 52 on men who had never carried a spear. Are we to assume 50. See Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 7. 4; Hignett 100; French, op. c i t . (n. 42 above) 510-512. Contra; Waters, op_. c i t . (n. 37 above )183. 51. So Starr, Historia 10 (1961) 136 n. 24. But the number of hoplites employed in the f i f t h century i s no indication of the number of hoplites a century or more earlier: see French, op. c i t . (n. 42 above) ,510. 52. Detienne, in Problemes de la guerre en Grece ancienne V \ 68 t h a t w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the h o p l i t e l i n e the a r i s t o c r a c y t u r n e d t o i n e x p e r i e n c e d commoners f o r as d i f f i c u l t a t a s k as h o p l i t e w a r f a r e ? Second, 'Can we b e l i e v e t h a t , from t r f i r s t , the a r i s t o c r a t s and men o f e x c e p t i o n a l wealth took t h e i r p l a c e 53 i n the phalanx b e s i d e t h e i r supposed i n f e r i o r s ? ' Snodgrass b e l i e v e s they d i d and he f o l l o w s H e l b i g ^4 i n t h i n k i n g t h a t a r i s t o c r a t s m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n by r i d i n g t o b a t t l e on t h e i r h o r s e s , where they dismounted and j o i n e d the l i n e . But i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how any r e a l d i s t i n c t i o n c o u l d be 134-142, c o n v i n c i n g l y shows t h a t h o p l i t e s i n a r c h a i c Greece were ' s p e c i a l i s t e s de l a f o n c t i o n g u e r r i e r e ' o r g a n i s e d i n many c i t i e s i n phalanxes o f 300 men. 53. Snodgrass 114. 54. 'Les 'iITJIEIS a t h d n i e n s , ' Monuments et Memoires p u b l i e s par  l'Academie des I n s c r i p t i o n s et B e l l e s - L e t t r e s 37 (1904) 157-264; and Uber d i e E i n f U h r u n q s z e i t der qeschlossenen Phalanx  p a s s i m . H e l b i g ' s view has r e c e n t l y been c h a l l e n g e d by A l f o l d i , 'Die H e r r s c h a f t der R e i t e r e i i n G r i e c h e n l a n d und Rom dem S t u r z der K o n i g e , ' i n G e s t a l t und G e s c h i c h t e : F e s t s c h r i f t  K a r l S c h e f o l d 13-47; and Accademia d i a r c h e o l o q i a l e t t e r e e  B e l l e a r t i , R e n d i c o n t i 40 (1965) 21-34. 69 maintained between aristocrats and commoners who wore the same panoply and fought side-by-side. It is more d i f f i c u l t to imagine that aristocrats who were used to fighting alongside aristocrats w i l l , with the introduction of the hoplite phalanx, have at once incorporated commoners into the ranks. It is far more li k e l y that the phalanx w i l l have been regarded as another means by which the traditional warrior -class could wage war. 5 5 When i t became necessary to f i l l the hoplite ranks, presumably men w i l l have been sought who could furnish their own armour, who were s k i l l e d in fighting, and who shared the same values and background as the aristocrats. These qualities could have been found in the early seventh century 55. The evidence from grave-finds in the eighth century suggests that '"hoplite" armour was f i r s t known as the possession of the eminent few' (Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 89). 'A Argos, la tombe de l'armure...a un caractere exceptionnel.. .en comparaison de la grande majorite* des autres tombes, ou les armes sont relativement tres rares, au protogeometrique comme au geometrique. II en est de meme a. Athenes, ou, au Ceramique, 56 tombes protogeometriques et plus de cent tombes geometriques sont depourvues d'armes...' (Courbin in Problemes de la guerre en Grece ancienne 87 n. 145). 70 only amongst other aristocrats. If there were not enough nobles available locally in a polis to form a hoplite line there were two possible alternatives: (1) to c a l l upon aristocrats from other c i t i e s who were bound to one's polis or family by ties of friendship or marriage; or (2) to engage mercenaries. Military aid was often given in archaic Greece on the basis of personal alliances (examples are Pheidon's aid to a1 56 57 faction in Corinth, Kleomenes' aid to Isagoras, Theagenes' 58 . . . aid to Kylon, Eretrian, Theban, and Naxian aid to 59 Peisistratos ) or sentimental ties with a polis such as with a mother-city (e_.g_., the aid given by the Chalkidian colonies 60 in Thrace to Chalkis during the Lelantine War ). The Thessalian cavalry often took part in wars outside Thessaly 55a. See Alkaios Z 104 Lobel-Page ( 0u6' eXnorcoia ylyvctai xa. ofniaxa) and the scholiast's explanation: oi xixpcoaHci. xa CTUot\-\ia on\a oi»6e a&xa xad' eauxa 6uvauiv exei, et UTJ apa 6 <p£pcov auxa eocv rj ^ p^l ycvvaXoc; (Schol. M on Aischylos' Septem 398) . 56. Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 35. 57. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 20. 2. 58. Thucydides 1. 126. 3-5. 59. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 15. 2 60. Plutarch, Amatorius 17 (Moralia 761A). 71 in aid of friends. Her cavalry helped Chalkis in the Lelantine War and fought br i e f l y for the Peisistratids 62 against Sparta near the end of the sixth century. A second source of manpower for early hoplite ranks were mercenaries. Mercenaries were a prominent feature of the Aegean in the seventh century. We hear of early Greek 63 . 64 hoplite mercenaries serving in Egypt, Babylonia, and Phrygia 6 5; Cretan archers are said to have taken part in the 66 67 F i r s t and Second Messenian Wars; and Karians were well 68 known as hoplite mercenaries. 61. Ibid. 760E-F. 62. Herodotos 5. 63. 3-4. 63. Herodotos 2. 152-154; SGHI 7 (Abu-Simbel inscription); Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 185, 203; Lorimer 120. 64. Alkaios Z 27 Lobel-Page ap_. Strabo 13. 2. 3, p. 617. 65. See AJA 64 (1960) 240 and plate 60, f i g . 25c; and Cold-stream, GGP 379. 66. Pausanias 4. 8. 3; 4. 10. 1. 67. Pausanias 4. 19. 4. 68. Archilochos, f r . 40 Diehl; Herodotos 2. 152. 4-5 (see Snodgrass, Early Greek Armour 262 n. 62). Against the ancient tradition that ascribed to the Karians the invention of hoplite armour see Snodgrass, JHS 84 (1964) 107-118. 72 The evidence for the composition of the f i r s t hoplite armies i s , of course, slight; but i t tends to support the 69 thesis that the earliest hoplites were aristocrats. We know, for example, that there were aristocrats who served as hoplite mercenaries, such as Alkaios' brother Antimenidas, 70 who fought with the Babylonians, and Archilochos, who 71 fought in the Aegean. Service as mercenaries may well have provided an outlet for the energies of nobles' sons or younger brothers who were unable to participate in p o l i t i c s 72 at home. Evidence that in Euboia at any rate armies were composed exclusively of aristocrats for a time comes from Archilochos, who speaks of bcaubxai E U P O C T J Q 6oupt>tA.uTot. 74 The warriors being described here may be hoplites ; and 69. For a similar view see Drews, Historia 21 (1972) 140-142 70. Alkaios Z 27 Lobel-Page ap. Strabo 13. 2. 3, p. 617. 71. Diehl f r . 40, 13, 2 (but see Bowra, On Greek Margins 67-71; Ehrenberg, CP 57 (1962) 239-240 [=Polis und Imperium 159-160]; Davison, From Archilochus to Pindar 141-145), 3, 61. On the question whether Archilochos was a mercenary see Drews op. c i t . 141 n. 54. 72. See Aristotle, Pol. 1305b 6-8, 12-16. 73. Fr. 3 Diehl. 74. See Boardman, ojo. c i t . (n. 23 above) 29. 73 they are specifically named as Euboian rulers. Additional evidence comes from Crete, where hoplite equipment appeared 75 perhaps before the seventh century. In the Song of 76 Hybrias, which has been dated as early as the sixth 77 century, the Cretan Hybrias, who calls himself bcanStac;, may be describing hoplite weapons when he says that his sword and spear are his wealth. Although he ca l l s his shield a Xatarjlov, »we suspect that Hybrias uses the word with a sense of i t s antique, heroic a i r , not to describe a 78 79 modern weapon.1 Hybrias may have been a mercenary, and he was certainly an aristocrat. Crete was known for the aristocratic constitutions of i t s c i t i e s even in classical 75. Snodgrass, Arms and Armour 63; Early Greek Armour 200-201. 76. Ap_. Athenaios 15. 695f; and Eustathios 1574. 7. Diehl 2 128; Edmonds, Lyra Graeca 3 572; Page, Poetae Melici Graeci f r . 909. 77. Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry 401; Willetts, Cretan Cults  and Festivals 323. 78. Bowra, Greek Lyric Poetry 401-402. 79. Ibid. 401-403. Contra; Willetts, Cretan Cults and  Festivals 319-320. Cretans were best known as archers (see Plato, Laws 625D) and Cretan archers often served as mercenaries abroad (see p. 71 above). 74 times. Possession of arms was limited to the small class 81 of free citizens who, like the Spartiates, underwent a 82 rigorous military training in their youth. Far from widening the basis of the army the introduction of hoplite tactics restricted military service to a small warrior-class 83 in Crete. Moreover, the basis of Cretan p o l i t i c s was not appreciably widened, for Crete kept i t s aristocratic society 84 and constitution for centuries. There i s , then, no reason to assume that the introduction of the hoplite phalanx brought with i t an immediate extension of hoplite arms to the non-aristocratic classes. Indeed several considerations make i t li k e l y that at f i r s t trained soldiers within the ranks of the aristocracy but from outside the polis were relied upon to supplement local nobles. There i s , moreover, some evidence to support this view. The 80. Aristotle describes the constitutional nature of the Cretan c i t i e s as SuvaOTcutuH^ (Pol. 1272b 1-3, 9-11). 81. Aristotle, Pol. 1264a 18-22; Willetts, Aristocratic Society in Ancient Crete 246, 248. 82. Strabo 10. 4. 16, pp. 480-481. 83. Aristotle, Pol. 1329a 40-1329b 5. 84. Willetts, Ancient Crete 69; Cretan Cults and Festivals 322. 75 employment of mercenaries and other aristocrats from outside the polis in the earliest hoplite phalanxes explains why mercenaries became so prominent a feature of Greek history in the seventh century; and i t explains why we do not hear of the emergence in the seventh century of a new 'hoplite class' as a force in p o l i t i c s . Indeed, perhaps the strongest argument against the view that hoplites provided the support for the earliest tyrants is the complete silence of our sources regarding a connexion 86 between hoplites and tyranny. There is no evidence whatever that hoplites were a force in p o l i t i c s in the seventh century. In none of the accounts of tyrants who seized power in the seventh century do hoplites play a part; nor do we hear of struggles between hoplites as a class and the aristocracy in the seventh century. 85. Perhaps the rapid spread of hoplite tactics in the mid-seventh century was due to the widespread use of mercenaries who introduced the phalanx throughout Greece. 86. 'But the tyrannies begin a generation or so after the introduction of hoplites, and i t is hardly possible that there should be no connection between them1 (Andrewes, The  Greek Tyrants 36). Of course this i s post hoc ergo propter  hoc and a weak argument. 76 Eventually non-aristocratic citizens were brought into the hoplite phalanx and in some states this resulted in widening the basis of the constitution. But the passage from 8 7 Aristotle that i s usually cited as evidence for the 'hoplite constitution' seems to indicate that the new hoplite class did not immediately enjoy much real influence in p o l i t i c s : n a l ii TtpcoTt] 6e uoXiTeta ev Toig " E X A J I O I V ey£vexo •acta, TOLQ (3aai\eCag C H TWV TtoXep-oOvTcov, TJ uev ci ; O'PX^Q C H TUJV I T U I C C J V. . .au£avoy.eva)v 6c TUJV KOXCOOV n a l TUJV ev T O ~ g OTcXoig loxuoavTov viaXXov TiXetoug u c x c t xo v ^ I Q TtoXixciag* 6L6TICP dg vCv naXovyxcv TcoXutcCag, ot Tip6xcpov cnaXouv 6THj.OHpaxCag* ^oav 6c at dpxatat noXncZoii euXoywg oXiyapxtnal n a i [3aci.Xt.HaC. 6i* 6Xtyav6panuav yap OI»H c t x 0 v no\v T O ucaov, toax* oXCyoi, T C ovTeg T O TcXrjSog n a l n a m TT^V aCvTa^iv p.aAXov u7icy.evov T O apxcoOai. I interpret this passage to mean that hereditary monarchies were succeeded by aristocracies in which the cavalry took a prominent part in warfare. Later, however, the basis of the constitution was widened by granting p o l i t i c a l rights to a l l who could furnish hoplite armour. But the extension of p o l i t i c a l rights to the hoplites did not 87. Pol. 1297b 16-18, 22-28. 77 bring with i t an immediate share in power since the hoplite class was s t i l l small and the structure of the state aristocratic. Aristotle thus indicates that while the basis of government was widened (hence the constitution was called a democracy) the polis continued to be ruled by aristocrats. 88 Andrewes cites this passage in support of his theory that early hoplites were able to secure a share of the p o l i t i c a l power of the polis and break the p o l i t i c a l monopoly of the aristocrats. But i f I have correctly interpreted the passage i t appears that hoplite participati n in the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the polis at f i r s t brought no real share in the rule of the state. Perhaps members of the new 'hoplite class' attended meetings of the assembly and voted but did not hold office . 89 or s i t on the council. When did the p o l i t i c a l influence of the new hoplite class begin to be f e l t in Greece? I have already suggested that economic conditions are not li k e l y to have created Aristotle's T O u£aov much before the sixth century. We certainly do not hear of the participation of the demos 90 in p o l i t i c s before the end of the sixth century. In Athens 88. The Greek Tyrants 34. 89. See de Ste. Croix, Historia .3 (1954) 23. 90. Cook, CR N. S. 7 (1957) 142. 78 the hoplites were not a p o l i t i c a l force before Kleisthenes 91 made them one. The assumption even for the sixth century that there was a 'hoplite identity' that made the hoplites a distinctive p o l i t i c a l group i s not supported by the evidence. It i s possible that hoplites might join together in the assembly or as a military force to support a noble who favoured granting to them additional rights or breaking the monopoly of office held by the noble clans. But what we know of p o l i t i c s in the archaic polis indicates rather that candidates for magistracies or even aspiring tyrants are more l i k e l y to have relied for support on their dependents, those who were bound to them by ties of locality . 92 or kinship. In summary, the evidence seems to argue against rather than for associating the rise of early Greek tyranny with the support of a new hoplite class. The Euboian c i t i e s , which perhaps have a better claim than any other c i t i e s in Greece to have f i r s t adopted hoplite tactics, produced neither important early tyrannies nor early hoplite 91. Herodotos 5. 66. 2; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 20. 1; Hignett 394-395. 92. See Sealey, Historia 9 (I960) 155-175; Forrest 48-49. 79 constitutions. There is some evidence to suggest that the earliest hoplite phalanxes were composed of nobles rather than of a new 'middle class' that had p o l i t i c a l aspirations. The complete silence of our sources regarding hoplites as a separate p o l i t i c a l entity in the seventh century together with the fact that they do not appear to have been a p o l i t i c a l force in Greece t i l l the end of the sixth century makes i t d i f f i c u l t to posit a connexion between hoplites and and the rise of tyranny. Finally, there i s no mention in our sources of hoplite support for any of the tyrannies in the seventh century. Perhaps i t i s reasonable to conclude that hoplites did not play an important role in the rise of the tyrants in the seventh century and that we must look for other factors to explain the origin of tyranny. 80 CHAPTER THREE ARISTOCRATIC FACTIONALISM AND THE ORIGIN OF TYRANNY The seventh century, in which the earliest Greek tyrants arose, was a period in which poleis were ruled by aristocracies.'' The number of governing aristocrats in each polis was smalls we hear of 100 oikiai that formed the aristocracy in 2 Epizephyrian Lokroi. The Bakchiads of Corinth numbered 1. On aristocratic government and society in archaic Greece see Busolt-Swoboda, Griechische Staatskunde 1 341-369; Whibley passim; Ehrenberg, The Greek State 17-22; and Forrest 45-66. For a f u l l discussion of aristocratic society and constitu-tional development in an area of Greece that remained aristo-cratic in i t s constitution throughout classical times see Willetts, Aristocratic Society in Ancient Crete. 2. Polybios 12. 5. 7. There is mention of assemblies of 1000 in several states: in Opountian Lokris (IG 9.1 334, lines 38-41); Epizephyrian Lokroi (Polybios 12. 16. 10-11); Kroton (Valerius Maximus 8. 15 ext. 1); Rhegion (Herakleides Pontikos, FHG 2 219, f r . 25); Akragas (Diogenes Laertios 8. 66; see Ehrenberg, The Greek State 60); Kolophon (Theopompos [quoting Xenophanes], FGrH 2B 115 F 117 ap_. Athenaios 12. 526c ); and Kyme (Herakleides Pontikos, FHG 2 217, f r . 11). Whibley 81 200, the aristocracy of Epidauros 180. The a r i s t o i , as they called themselves, formed a closed society within the polis in which marriage in many cases was allowed only within their own order. 5 Membership in the aristocracy depended on birth into a genos, a group of families that claimed to be descended from a single ancestor who was said to be of heroic or divine 6 origin. Birth into a noble genos conferred arete, on which 7 the a r i s t o i based their claim of an inherent right to rule. thinks that the assemblies of 1000 were connected with the constitutions of 100 oikiai (134); but they probably refer to hoplite constitutions (Ehrenberg, The Greek State 49). 3. Diodoros 7, f r . 9. 6. 4. Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 1 (Moralia 291 E). 5. See, , Herodotos 5. 92 pi on the Bakchiads of Corinth: G&tSooav 6C HOX T ) Y O V T O C £ 6.XXf[X(av. 6. It i s l i k e l y that in the seventh century gene were limited to noble o i k i a i . The literature on the Greek genos in archaic and classical times i s large. Recent discussions include Hignett 61-67; Andrewes, JHS 81 (1961) 1-15; and Hammond, JHS 81 (1961) 76-98. 7. boucZ 6e dptOTOHpaTCa p.ev civau uaAiaxa, TO TCXQ Ttuag vcvcu^oOai HO<.T' apcT^* apiOTOHpaTtag ucv \ap opOQ apcT^, oXiyapxCaQ 6c nXoVxo$ (Aristotle, Pol. 1294a 11-12). 82 In some c i t i e s one clan dominated to the exclusion of other noble gene (e.g_., the Bakchiads of Corinth ) ; in others the aristocracy comprised a l l gene (e.<_., the Eupatridai of g Athens ). The most important organ of aristocratic government was the council (boule or gerousia), which consisted of small numbers of men10 of noble b i r t h 1 1 and usually of mature 8. The Bakchiads traced their descent to Bakchis, a Heraklid and early king of Corinth (Diodoros 7, f r . 9. 4). 9. I take Eupatridai to be an inclusive term for a l l noble gene in Athens in the archaic period. The question whether the term refers to a genos (Isokrates 16. 25) as well as to 'nobility of birth' generally i s a vexed one: see Wade-Gery, CQ 25 (1931) 1-11, 77-89 (=Bssays in Greek History 86-115); Hignett 65-67, 315-316; Hammond, op_. c i t . (n. 6 above) 77-78; Wust, Historia 6 (1957) 176-191, and Historia 8 (1959) 1-11; Sealey, Historia 9 (1960) 178-180, and Historia 10 (1961) 512-514. 10. T ° U Q o c TipopouXouQ oXtyovq dvaYKatTov eivou T O n\?j0OQ, S O T ' 6XiyapxuH6v (Aristotle, Pol. 1299b 34-36) . The Spartan Gerousia consisted of 30 members (Plutarch, Lykourgos 5. 7) including the two kings; the council of Blis consisted of 90 men (Aristotle, Pol. 1306a 16-18); that of Knidos 60 (Plutarch, 83 age ; in some states i s was composed of ex-magistrates. The powers of the aristocratic council are only vaguely 14 defined in our sources. Councillors are referred to as Qu. Gr. 4 [Moralia 292 A ] ) ; and that of Corinth perhaps of 80 (Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 60 [2]; Will, Korinthiaka 614-615). 11. The councillors in Knidos were chosen en tSv ctpCoxcov (Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 4 fMoralia 292 A]); members of the Spartan Gerousia were chosen from oi naXoi Kayadot (Aristotle, Pol. 1270b 23-25; on the question whether a Spartan nobility i s meant here see Gilbert, Handbuch der griechischen Staatsalter-thumer 1^ 13 n. 1) ; in Crete O U H CC, ajcavtcov cupouvxat T O U Q H6O>OU<_ aXX' CH T L V C V yevftv (Aristotle, P_?_l. 1272a 33-34). 12. Members of the Gerousia were 60 years of age or above in Sparta (Plutarch, Lykourgos 26. 1); in a number of c i t i e s councillors were appointed for l i f e : e.j2.., in Athens (to the Areiopagos: Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 3. 6); E l i s (Aristotle, Pol. 1306a 16-18); and Knidos (Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 4 fMoralia 292 A]). 13. As was the Areiopagos in Athens (Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 3. 6) and the council in Crete (Aristotle, Pol. 1272a 34-35). 14. Headlam, CR 6 (1892) 296-297, followed by Whibley (161) and Hignett (83), thinks that the council's powers were not well defined because they were unrestricted. But our sources 84 TtpSpoiAoi TUSV > I C Y C O T U V o r in similar terms. But i t is clear that the council played an important role in decisions of s t a t e . 1 6 The right to hold magistracies was also limited by 17 birth into noble clans. The Bakchiads of Corinth, for indicate that individual magistrates often possessed a great deal of power in aristocratic constitutions (see below pp. 109-110); hence, councils must have had only limited powers, though perhaps they enjoyed a great deal of auctoritas over the magistrates. 15. Plutarch, Qu. G_r_. 4 (Moralia 292 A), where the council-lors of Knidos are also called enCoHorcot . Cf. Dionysios of Halikarnassos, Ant. Rom. 2. 14. 3 on the Spartan Gerousia: f[ yCpOVOLO. ^Sv C^X C 1®v HOtvffiV TO H0& T O Q . 16. See Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 3. 6 on the Athenian Areiopagos: r\ be T W V *Apco7taYUT0v P O U X T J T T J V p.ev Tcl^tv ctxc T O C BtoiTTipeiv T O U Q V 5U O U Q , StiSnet be Ta nAeiTaTa nat ra jieYtOTa T S V ev TTJ rcoXet, nat noXa^ovaa nat (_t]p.toftaa Tt&vTag T O U Q dnoop-ouvTag Huptcog. 17. See Aristotle, Pol. 1293b 7-12: ou U T | V aXX* etat Ttveg at 7ip6g T C TOCQ 6\tYapxouucvaQ exouot Statpopag nal naXoftvTat dptOTOHpaTtat nat rcpog Tt}v HaA.oup.e"viiv TtoXtTetav. O T I O U yap •UT) u6vov 7i\ouTtV6T]V aXXa. nat dptOTtvS-riv atpouVTat Tag dpxd<_, auTTj T[ TioXtTeta 6ta<pepet T C duipotv nat aptOTonpaTtHTi naXetTat. 85 example, annually chose one from their number to be prytanis. Magistrates may have been elected by the assembly as the 19 ephors were at Sparta, but in Athens the selection of 20 magistrates was entrusted to the Areiopagos. Neither Cf. Plutarch, Theseus 25. 2; and Aristotle, Pol. 1300a 15-19, where birth i s mentioned together with wealth and arete as a qualification of magistrates in some states; and Ath. Pol. 3. 6: ^ yap oupeciQ xffiv dpx6vxwv apioxtvbi\\> nai TCXOUXC V6TJV T[V HXX. On the necessity for a qualification of wealth for office in an aristocracy see Whibley 111-115 and Hignett 78. 18. Diodoros 7, f r . 9. 6. Cf. Pausanias 1. 43. 3: 'YTteptovoQ 6c xov 'Aya-aSuvovoQ - O U X O Q yap Meyocpfiuv epaatXcuaev uaxaxog - xouxou xov dv6po<; dnoOavovxog vizo Sav6Covog 6tot Tt\cove£iav nat upptv, pacaXeOeo'Oat uev O U H C X I , vino C V O Q C & O H C I acpfatv, etvau 6c apxovxag aipcxoug wat dva uepog dwoueuv d\Xfj\u)v. 19. Aristotle, Pol. 1270b 25-27. This i s the natural interpretation of this passage and i t i s further suggested by Aristotle's comparison of the ephorate with the Cretan office of kosmos (Pol. 1272a 28-34). On the interpretation of the passage.see Newman, The Poli t i c s of Aristotle 2 335-336. 20. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 8. 2: %b yap dpxatov r\ cv *A,[peC|,<j> [nayy P O U J \ T J dvaKa\eaau£vri nat npCvaaa nad* auxT|v xov ^7iixfj6ctov c<p*CHdaxTj xffiv dpxffiv cn* [cv],ia [UT]«OV ,[6iaTd£alott 86 councillors nor magistrates could, in ordinary circumstances, 21 be held accountable for their o f f i c i a l actions. The assembly existed in Greek cities from very early 22 times, but i t is doubtful i f i t was a formal or organised 23 body. At any rate i t certainly played a very limited part 24 in p o l i t i c a l affairs in aristocratic constitutions. Perhaps antaxcXXcv. Cf. Isokrates, Areopagitikos 7. 22. This is rejected by Hignett (78-79), mistakenly, I think. I see no conflict between Ath. Pol• 8. 2 and Pol. 1273b 41-1274a 3 (as do von Fritz and Kapp, Aristotle's Constitution of Athens and  Related Texts 155-156). On the selection of archons in Athens before 487 see Buck, CP 60 (1965) 96-101, with whom I agree. 21. The councillors in Knidos could not be held to account for their actions (Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 4 f Moralia 292 B]); nor could the kosmoi in Crete (Aristotle, Pol. 1272a 36-38). 22. Atkinson, CR N. S. 20 (1970) 58. To Odysseus the assembly was a sign of a c i v i l i s e d state that the Kyklopes did not possess (Od. 9. 112). 23. M. F. McGregor has suggested to me that the early Greek assembly resembled the Roman contio rather than the concilium. 24. On the function of the assembly in the early polis see Andrewes in ASAI 1-20; G r i f f i t h in ASAI 115-138; Butler, Historia 11 (1962) 385-396. t 87 i t i s for this reason that we are so badly informed about the composition and role of the assembly in the early pol i s . In many aristocracies assemblies seem to have consisted of male members of noble clans, and originally citizenship was 25 apparently limited to heads of noble families. At some later date the composition of the assembly was apparently enlarged to include a l l those who could furnish their own armour. That the poorer classes could attend the assembly is unlikely. In Athenes the thetes were not able to attend 27 the assembly before the time of Solon. 25. In a number of aristocratic constitutions only the head of the family enjoyed p o l i t i c a l rights (Pol. 1292b 4-5). In these constitutions sons were excluded from office and appar-ently even from citizenship so long as their fathers lived. The father would be succeeded in citizenship by his oldest son, though younger brothers were s t i l l excluded. Aristotle says that this kind of aristocratic constitution existed in Massilia, Istros, Herakleia, and Knidos (Pol. 1305b 2-16). 26. au£ocvop.evu)v 6e T C V Tt6\ecov H O C ! T C V ev T O I Q OKXOIQ iaxua^vroiv viaAAov T I X C C O U Q Lvetcuxov TTJQ TtoXiTcCag (Aristotle, Pol. 1297b 22-24). 27. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 7. 3; Pol. 1274a 15-17. Cf. Hignett 84. Aristotle does not say, in fact, that the ekklesia existed before Solon. 88 Whatever the composition of the assembly i t i s clear that i t possessed no real power in the aristocratic polis, where administration was in the hands of the magistrates guided by the council. In aristocratic Crete the assembly had no powers except to confirm the resolutions passed by the council and 28 the kosmoi. Aristotle makes i t plain that the demos were not usually permitted in oligarchies to speak against 29 proposals presented to the assembly. It is l i k e l y that the assembly in the aristocratic polis met only on rare occasions to listen to proposals of major concern to the community such 29a as the making of war or peace. Perhaps the fu l l e s t picture 28. Aristotle, Pol. 1272a 10-12. Cf. the limited function of the assembly at Carthage (which, although not a Greek polis. i s useful as an analogy): the decision whether or not to refer matters to the assembly rests with the basileis and the elders, i f they agree unanimously; i f they disagree the matter must be referred to the assembly (Aristotle, Pol. 1273a 6-9). 29. Pol. 1273a 9-13. 29a. Ostwald (Nomos and the Beginnings of the Athenian  Democracy 156) thinks that the Athenian assembly before Kleisthenes 'gave i t s assent in much the same way as the Spartan assembly didt i t listened and approved, but probably 89 that we have of the aristocratic assembly i s that presented in 30 Homer. The assembly in the aristocratic society of Homer's 31 . . time was rarely called and was advisory only, i t s purpose being to reveal the sentiment of the community. Opinion was expressed by acclamation (apparently the customary method of 32 voting in primitive assemblies ), but the king was not bound did not discuss.' He also thinks (157 n. 2) that most l i k e l y 'only members of the upper classes could address i t . ' 30. On the Homeric assembly see Finley, The World of Odysseus 90-95, 125-131; G r i f f i t h , op_. c i t . (n. 24 above) 117-118; Sealey, CSCA 2 (1969) 259-265. For the view that Homer described for the most part the social conditions and institutions of his own day see Finley, Historia 6 (1957) 133-159; but also Andrewes, Hermes 89 (1961) 129-140, esp. 138-140, and Snodgrass, The Dark Age of Greece 389-393. I think i t l i k e l y that Homer lived during the last half of the eighth century. For convenient summaries of evidence for this view see Wade-Gery, The Poet of the Il i a d 25-27 and Huxley, Greek Epic Poetry from Eumelos to Panyassis 124-125. 31. The assembly in Ithaka had not been summoned in Odysseus' absence for 20 years (Od. 2. 26-27). 32. II. 1. 22-25, 275-379. Cf. the method of election of members of the Spartan Gerousia (Plutarch, Lykourgos 26. 2). 90 to follow the assembly's opinion. Discussion at meetings of 33 the assembly was carried on by aristocrats. Only once in Homer did a commoner, Thersites, speak in the assembly, and 34 he was promptly beaten and humiliated by Odysseus. In the aristocratic milieu of the seventh century in Greece we look in vain for any role played by the non-aristocratic classes in p o l i t i c s . Aristocrats alone held the p o l i t i c a l power in the early Greek poleis. Those who were not born into a noble genos that gave arete, by which aristocrats could lay claim to the inherent right to rule, had no part in p o l i t i c a l power. Even the influx of sudden new wealth into a community did not give claim to a share 35 of power that was limited to those of noble birt h . Wealth See whibley 165 n. 1 and Sealey, op_. c i t . (n. 30 above) 262-263. 33. 11. 1. 54-305. 34. II. 2. 211-277. 35. It i s a commonplace of modern historical writing that an influx of new wealth in the seventh century 'introduced a new factor into politics--a regard for wealth as a r i v a l to regard for birth' (Hammond 246). In support of this view are often cited Theognis' nAoutOQ cuei£e yivoc, (line 190)and Alkaios' X P ^ V U X T ' aviip, Ti£vtxpoQ 6*ou6' C C Q HCXCT' eoXog ov»6c tfuiog 91 without birth did not grant the right to challenge the gene (Z 37 Lobel-Page)o But these statements do not suggest that wealth challenged birth as a factor in p o l i t i c s . Xpfjp.axa cannot refer to coined money in the latter passage. Alkaios 1 remark suggests simply that wealth (property and possessions) was important to an aristocrat. Magistrates were elected in aristocracies on the basis of birth and wealth (see n. 17 above). 'Even in the aristocracies of birth the government of the few was generally the government of the wealthy' (Whibley 126)• Moreover, the sentiment that Alkaios expresses was a stock theme from the time of Hesiod (see Page, Sappho  and Alcaeus 315 for parallels): ' i t i s no better evidence in him than in Hesiod, Pindar, or Timocles, for the "struggle between a class of impoverished aristocrats and parvenu merchant-princes,,.."' (Page, or>. c i t . 315-316). Nor does Theognis' statement that %XOZTOQ euet£e yivoc; indicate that in early Megara commoners were marrying into noble families. A careful reading of lines 182-192 w i l l reveal that Theognis' real complaint i s T I S V C T J : •tcQvap-evat.» cptAc Kupvri, rcevixpS pEXxepov dv6pC T| £co£iv x a^ cn% Teip6p.evov nevCij. Theognis sounds here rather like Alkaios' T C £ V I X P ° Q eaXoc.. It i s possible, moreover, that when Theognis speaks of baQXot in their monopoly of magistracies. 92 and Hanoi (lines 57-60, 891-894) he means not 'nobles' and •commoners' (Williams, JHS 23 [l903] 9-10) but 'good nobles' (those of whom Theognis approves) and 'bad nobles' (those whom he does not l i k e ) : see Starr 303 and n. 3 and wheeler, AJP 72 (1951) 156 and cf. Alkaios' reference to Pittakos as 'base-born' (HaHoraxTpCSai;, z 2 4 Lobel-Page, line 1), where the word i s employed as a term of abuse and t e l l s us nothing about Pittakos' parentage. In short, Theognis perhaps displays in these lines the envy of an aristocrat of small means who complains that the wealthiest nobles (not the nouveaux riches) secure the fairest brides. Neither the lines from Alkaios nor those from Theognis give more than doubtful support to the view that wealth was a r i v a l of birth in Greek p o l i t i c s in the seventh or early sixth century. 36. Forrest, who holds the common view (which I think i s wrong) that an expanding economy in the seventh century introduced a new social mobility that produced p o l i t i c a l revolutions and brought tyrants to power, writes (p. 75): '...a Hesiod or for that matter a Kolaios or a Sostratos who i s rich enough to relax, to buy for his son the equipment and the training to make him a leading warrior or an athlete, w i l l sooner or later begin to wonder why he i s not a basileus.' I think that this statement shows a misreading of the p o l i t i c a l 93 It was in the aristocratic milieu of the seventh century that tyranny arose in Greece. We have seen that economic conditions were not sufficiently advanced at this time to create a commercial or industrial class powerful enough to challenge aristocratic control of the p o l i s . Moreover, the evidence suggests that a non-aristocratic class of hoplites i s not l i k e l y to have existed early enough to have provided the support for the earliest tyrants in Greece. There i s another factor, however, that explains the circumstances that gave rise to the earliest Greek tyrants and f i t s quite well what we know of p o l i t i c s in Greece in the seventh century; psychology of the seventh century and of the factors that dominated aristocratic p o l i t i c s . In the classical polis descent and not merely residence conferred citizenship. Similarly in the aristocratic polis descent and not merely wealth conferred a claim to rule. Aristocratic society was bound by a deep sense of themis that included recognition that aristocrats alone enjoyed the privilege of governing (see Finley, The World of Odysseus 94-95; cf. Starr's remarks on eunoiiiia [343]). Wealth alone gave to no one the right to share in the privileges of the a r i s t o i from which one was excluded by b i r t h . 94 factionalism within the aristocracy, especially amongst r i v a l 37 families. Aristotle found factionalism to be the underlying cause 37a of revolutions in oligarchies and aristocracies : £v 6e xatg dptaxonpaxtatg ytyvovxa.1 at oxdaetQ at uev 6ta xo O A C Y O U C x53v xtp.ffiv p.exexctv, o-rcep etpT)xat Htvetv nat xaQ oXtyapxfac; H X X . ^ The circumstances differed but they often involved exclusion from office by one group or another and the resulting 39 formation of discontented factions. 'Op.ovooSaa 6c 37. The importance of stasis in aristocratic p o l i t i c s has recently been suggested by Butler, Historia 11 (1962) 385-396; Sealey, Historia 9 (1960) 155-180 (=Essays in Greek  Po l i t i c s 9-38), and CSCA 2 (1969) 247-269; E l l i s and Stanton, Phoenix 22 (1968) 95-110. A connexion between aristocratic factionalism and tyranny has been made by Hasebroek, Griechische Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftsgeschichte bis zur  Perserzeit 172; Heuss, Antike und Abendland 2 (1946) 45-48; Starr, Historia 10 (1961) 134; and Finley, Early Greece 102, 105-106. 37a. On the similarity between oligarchy and aristocracy see Aristotle, _Pol. 1306b 24-26, 1307a 34-35. 38. Pol. 1306b 22-24. 39. See Aristotle, Pol. 130Sb 1-16. 95 oXiyapxCa, Aristotle observed, O U H eufcuupOopoQ e£ cu't^Q. So long as power was shared by members of the aristocracy, as 41 at Corinth, where the Bakchiads ruled 'as a body,' the aristocracy was able to maintain i t s position* But when one or more members began to feel that they did not share sufficiently £v xoXc, dpxatg, or that they were excluded altogether, factions were formed and tyranny was often the result. The process i s described in a familiar passage by Herodotos: cv 6e 6\ I Y < X P X C T ) noKXoiai dpeTT|v CTiao>t£ouat eg TO HOtvov cx6ea ibia toxupa ipiXect cyytvcoQai.' auxoQ yap CHCXOTOQ (3ou\Suevo<; HOpixpaiOQ clvai yvfiu^aC TC vtuSv CQ cx6ea ueydXa aW^Xotau ditiHv£ovTai, e£ uv OTOUHCQ cyytvovxai., CH 6e xffiv oxaotuv (povoQ, CH 6c TOU tpSvou aTtcSti eg uouvapxtiiv Ht\. Solon observed a similar connexion between stasis and 43 tyranny, and Theognis uttered the same sentiment: 40. Pol. 1306a 9-10. 41. Diodoros 7, f r . 9. 6. 42. Herodotos 3. 82. 3. On the meaning of uovapxCa see Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 27. 43. Solon 10 (Diehl) lines 3-4: Av6pSv 6* C H ucyfiXoiv T I S X I Q oXXuxai CQ 6C uovapxou Sfyioc. albpcty 6ou\oauvi]v cncacv. 96 C K xc3v yap oraaiec; T C HCXI cvitpuXoi, ip8voi, avbp&v uoGvapxot Q'• a nSXci ufpcoxe T^J6C a6oi f There are several instances in which the rise of tyrants is connected in our sources with factional s t r i f e in aristocracies. In archaic Kolophon, where an oligarchy of 1000 ruled, on more than one occasion stasis broke out that 45 led to tyranny. In sixth-century Naxos Lygdamis, who 46 himself was a member of the ruling oligarchy, became tyrant 47 in a period of very great factional s t r i f e . Arkesilaos II of Kyrene converted his kingship into a tyranny (dvrt (3aaiX£wQ cycySvci tvpavvoq) during his reign that was marked by stasis amongst the king and his brothers. Two generations later, Arkesilaos III became involved in the c i v i c disorders that arose over the magistracies and in regard to the powers of the king after the reforms of Demonax. The king 44. Theognis 51-52. I adopt Ahrens' emendation of p.oCvapxoL 0*a for jiouvapxoi. 6c of the MSS. 45. Athenaios 12. 526c. 46. Aristotle, Pol. 1305a 40-41. 47. Athenaios 8. 348c. 48. Plutarch, De Mul. V i r t . 25 (Moralia 260 E); Herodotos 4. 160. 1; Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 50. See Stadter, Plutarch's Historical Methods: An Analysis of the Mulierum Virtutes 115-118. 97 formed a faction, was defeated, and fled to Samos, but later 49 returned and regained power, apparently as a tyrant. There are, I think, three observations that can be made regarding the rule of the earliest Greek tyrants that argue against the usual view of tyranny, which postulates a struggle of- the lower classes against the ruling aristocracy. F i r s t , a l l seventh-century tyrants whose backgrounds we know were aristocrats. Second, their rule was conservative and they generally l e f t the social order in their respective states unchanged and their rule was usually followed by oligarchy. Third, the earliest tyrants for the most part gained the tyranny through elective office rather than through revolution and thus l i e within the framework of aristocratic p o l i t i c s . An examination of the background of the earliest tyrants w i l l confirm, I think, the generalisation that the tyrants of the seventh century were aristocrats. Kypselos of Corinth was the son of a Bakchiad woman who had married into another SO aristocratic family of Corinth. Pxokles, tyrant of 49. Herodotos 4. 162. 1-164. 1. See Chamoux, Cyrene sous la  monarchic des Battiades 138-159; Mitchell, JHS 86 (1966) 99-113. 50. Herodotos 5. 92 B; Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 57. 98 Epidauros, was almost certainly of noble birth for he married his own daughter to Periandros, and he himself had married the daughter of Aristokrates, king of Arkadia. 5 1 The same can be said for Theagenes of Megara, whose daughter was married to Kylon, 'A6T]va?OQ avrip ' O A U U T U O V C H T I Q T C V naXai evyevfiQ xc nat bvvaxSc,. The one notable exception seems to have been Orthagoras of Sikyon, who is said to have been the son of a butcher or cook (udyctpog), 'a commoner and of no account' { 6TIP.6TT|V nat \paZ\ov) > 53 There are several grounds, however, for questioning the tradition of Orthagoras' humble origin. Charges of low birth were commonly used against one's opponents in the rough and tumble of aristocratic p o l i t i c s in 54 Greece. Alkaios called Pittakos yiaxouaxptbac,»  D u t n e VJ&S almost certainly a member of the aristocracy at Mytilene. 5 5 It i s , moreover, strange to find a common soldier, as Orthagoras i s supposed to have been, chosen polemarch in aristocratic Sikyon. Finally, i t i s surprising to find 51. Herakleides Pontikos ap_, Diogenes Laertios 1. 94. 52. Thucydides 1. 126. 3. 53. FGrH 2A 105 F 2 (P. Oxy. 11 no. 1365); Diodoros 8. 24. 54. Z 24 Lobel-Page, line 1. 55. Page, Sappho and Alcaeus 169-171. 56. Earp, The Tyranny of the Orthagorids (unpublished dissertation) 27. 99 Kleisthenes, the great-grandson of a cook, attracting the scions of noble families of Greece to woo his daughter. The f i r s t thing that Kleisthenes did after summoning the suitors was to enquire regarding the family and lineage of each 57 suitorI Despite the lateness and questionable authority of 58 our sources, we cannot rule out the possibility that Orthagoras was of humble birth and constitutes an exception to the rule that seventh-century tyrants were aristocrats; but i t i s more reasonable to assume that he was a noble than that he was a commoner who managed to break into the closed c i r c l e of aristocratic p o l i t i c s in Sikyon. Other less well known tyrants of the seventh century seem also to have been aristocrats. Panaitios of Leontinoi, whom Busebios dates in 59 the last decade of the seventh century, held the office of polemarch, 6 0 which in an aristocratic state w i l l most l i k e l y have been held by a member of the ruling aristocracy. 6 1 Melas, 62 an early tyrant of Bphesos, married a daughter of Alyattes, 57. Herodotos 6. 128. 1. 58. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 57. 59. 608 (Armenian version); 615 (Latin version of Jerome). 60. Polyainos 5. 47. 61. See n. 17 above. 62. Aelian, W 3, 26, 100 which indicates high birth for the tyrant. Not only were the earliest tyrants aristocrats, but, in spite of the reputation of tyrants as being champions of the lower classes, the earliest tyrants seem to have been quite conservative. Tyrants are often said to have relied on the 64 lower classes for support against the aristocracy. But Aristotle compared tyrannies with oligarchies in their similar treatment of TO 7 1 X ^ 6 0 ^ : tyrants distrust the people, they , strip them of weapons, they treat the mob badly, expel thera 65 from the city, and settle them apart. This statement does not suggest that the tyrants were social revolutionaries or 66 even favourably disposed towards the commons. Moreover, i f tyranny was based on the support of the lower classes, we should expect that tyrannies would have widened the basis of the constitutions that followed them and modified the aristocracies that preceded them. Yet in nearly every instance of which we know the rule of the early tyrants was followed by the restoration of aristocratic oligarchy. In 63. Cf. Hammond 150. 64. Aristotle, Pol. 1310b 12-16. 65. Pol. 1311a 12-15. 66. Though in some cases tyrants were popular: see Aristotle, Pol. 1315b 12-28. 101 Corinth the rule of the Kypselids was followed by an oligarchy in which the people were divided into eight tribes that 68 elected a board of eight probouloi and a council. The actual working of the constitution i s in doubt, but i t was oligarchic in nature: the election of magistrates by tribes, 69 for example, was an oligarchic device. After the tyrant 70 Theagenes was overthrown in Megara, says Plutarch, iXtyov XpSvov eauxpp6vT]aa.v. naxoc X T J V noXtxcCav » a n indication that a . conservative oligarchy had been established. In the sixth century Aischines, the last tyrant of Sikyon, was driven out 71 by the Spartans, who perhaps made certain that a pro-Spartan oligarchy took i t s place, as the Spartans later t attempted to ensure in Athens following the expulsion of the 72 Peisistratids. It i s l i k e l y that the oligarchy in 67. Photios, Suda s.v, T I & V X O . O K X O . 68. Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 60 (2). See Will, Korinthiaka 609-615. 69. Aristotle, Pol. 1305a 32-34. 70. Qu. Gr. 18 (Moralia 295 D). 71. FGrH 2A 105 F 1 (Rylands Pap. 18); Plutarch, De Mai. Her. 21 (Moralia 859 D) 72. Herodotos 5. 72; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 20. 102 Epidauros described by Plutarch followed the tyranny of 73 Prokles. After the death of Pheidon Argos reverted to aristocratic rule, in which power was vested in a board of 74 nine damiorgoi. In Akragas the rule of Phalaris was probably followed by an oligarchy,, Telamachos and his son, Emmenes, grandfather of Theron, are variously credited with 75 the overthrow of Phalaris, and a scholiast on Pindar says 76 that Telemachos himself seized power (though the two events are not connected in the sources)• But an anecdote preserved 77 in a fragment of Diodoros has been taken to suggest that Phalaris was overthrown by a concerted effort, probably of 78 aristocrats. The tyranny of Antileon of Chalkis and probably that of Phoxos, also of Chalkis, were followed by oligarchic rule, doubtless that of the aristocratic 79 Hippobotaio Even at the end of the sixth century the 73. Qu. Gr. 1 (Moralia 291 E). See Hammond 149 and Whibley 79 n. 24. 74. SEG 11. 336. See Hammond, CQ N. S. 9 (1959) 33-36. 75. Schol. Pindar 01. 3. 68. 76. Schol. Pindar 01. 2. 82d. 77. Diodoros 9 f r . 30. 78. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks 322. 79. Antileon: Aristotle, Pol. 1316a 31-32. Phoxos: Pol. i 103 Peasistratids were expelled from Athens by aristocrats. It appears, then, that the earliest tyrants were generally conservative in their rule and that they l e f t the social 81 fabric unchanged. Though they sometimes were popular they seem not to have been concerned with advancing the p o l i t i c a l 82 consciousness of the lower classes. We should expect, in fact, what we have some evidence for. that their sympathies were with the members of their own class and that they used 83 aristocratic methods in their rule. The third point that I wish to emphasise i s that the tyrants of the seventh century, where we know the circumstances regarding their rise to power, obtained their rule by means of legitimate magistracies. This i s not to say that there was not a good deal of violence associated with factional s t r i f e in the aristocratic polis. There i s ample evidence in our sources to indicate that armed s t r i f e was characteristic of aristocratic p o l i t i c s . But the 1304a 29-31. The Hippobotai held power with few interruptions at Chalkis t i l l their expulsion by the Athenians in 445 (Strabo 10. 1. 8, p. 447; Plutarch, Perikles 23. 2). 80. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 19. 81. See Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 16. 2 on Peisistratos. 82. See Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 15. 5 and 16. 3. 83. See Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 16. 9, 18. 4, 20. 1. 104 evidence indicates that the early tyrants usually made a magistracy the legal basis of their power and that they were no mere upstarts who seized power simply by force,, Kypselos, Orthagoras, and Panaitios used the polemarchy as a stepping-stone to power, though Kypselos seems to have become tyrant 84 ultimately through another magistracy. Aristotle says that Phalaris obtained the tyranny Ix T S V Ttp.Sv.^ According to 86 Polyainos he was elected TC\SVTJQ by the people of Akragas over construction of the temple of Zeus Polieus. In Miletos tyranny (perhaps that of Thrasyboulos) arose from the office 87 of prytanis. This seems also to have been the magistracy 88 that was held by the Kypselids in Corinth. This i s very nearly what Aristotle t e l l s us about the earliest tyrants. Aristotle must be used with caution, of course, for in describing the means by which tyrants arose he makes no distinction between the circumstances surrounding 84. Kypselos: Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 57. Orthagoras: FGrH 2A 105 F 2 (P. Oxy. 11 no. 1365). Panaitios: Polyainos 5. 47. 85. Pol. 1310b 28-29. 86. Polyainos 5. 1„ 1. 87. Aristotle, Pol. 1305a 17-18. 88. Diogenes Laertios 1. 97. 105 the rise of the earliest tyrants (those of the seventh and sixth centuries) and the conditions that led to the rise of tyrants in the fourth century. In neglecting to make this distinction he projects back into the seventh century the fourth-century phenomenon of the demagogue, and he finds in the demagogue the means to tyranny: C T U 6c xCv dcpxaCcuv, oxe ytvono 6 ocuxoc; 6t]p.aYWY°Q axpaxriYoc;, CIQ xupavvt6a p-CTePaAAov* axc6ov Y C * - P °>- TtXcTaxoi xffiv dpxaCcov xup&vvcov cn 6ti-|icxYa)Ywv ycySvaaiv.^ Aristotle's confusion i s evident from the examples that he gives of tyrants who arose from the position of demagogue. He cites Theagenes, Peisistratos, 90 and Dionysios, and elsewhere Panaitios, Kypselos, and 91 (again) Peisistratos and Dionysios. But of these five only Dionysios, who was tyrant in the fourth century, owed 92 his tyranny to being a demagogue and a general. The 6i]uaYcoY6Q was the product of a developed democracy that did not exist t i l l the f i f t h century. In calling the early 89. Pol. 1305a 7-10. Cf. 1310b 14-16: 0 Xe6ov yap oi KXCZOHOI xffiv xup&vvcov ycy6vaaiv hi 6nua.YWYfflv GJQ etTieiv, T C I , 0 X C U 0 £ V X C Q C K xou 6ia(3aX\.eiv xoug yyajpiuouQ. 90. Pol. 1305a 21-28. \ 91. Pol. 1310b 29-31. 92. Ure 30. 106 tyrants demagogues Aristotle i s reading into the aristocratic milieu of the seventh century a democratic phenomenon of the 93 94 fourth century. Moreover, as Ure demonstrated, Aristotle was greatly influenced in his views of tyranny by Dionysios of Syracuse, with whose career he was familiar. Dionysios began his career as a military S T I V I C X Y ^ Y ^ Q * H E ^ S frequently referred to by Aristotle in the P o l i t i c s , which contains eight references each to the tyrants of Athens and 1 Corinth, and twenty references to the tyrants of Syracuse. Aristotle has allowed the careers of the tyrants of the fourth century, who arose by different means from those employed by tyrants in the seventh century, to influence his understanding of early tyranny. If we bear in mind this caveat Aristotle's P o l i t i c s provides a useful source of information about Greek tyranny. Apart from this distortion his account of the rise of the earliest tyrants and the means by which they attained power i s consistent both with what we know of p o l i t i c a l conditions in the seventh century and with other information that we 95 have regarding the early tyrants. Aristotle says that 93. 94. 95. Ibid. 27-32. Ibid. 30. See Endt, Wiener Studien 24 (1902) 1-69; Nordin, Klio 5 107 tyranny often arose from stasis that resulted from the 96 excessive prominence of one or more persons. Elsewhere he observes that factions arise in aristocracies owing to the 97 fact that only a few have a share in the magistracies, and that factions are brought about by powerful men who wish to (1905) 394-390; Mosse, 'Aristote et la tyrannie,' in rEPAZs Studies presented to George Thomson 163-169; Hegyi, Acta  Antigua 13 (1965) 305. It might be argued that so basic a misunderstanding of tyranny by Aristotle would detract from the value of his information about tyrants. But de Ste. Croix's comment on Thucydides (Historia 3 [l954] 3) might also be applied to Aristotle: 'Thucydides was such a remarkably objective historian that he himself has provided sufficient material for his own refutation. The news columns in Thucydides, so to speak, contradict the editorial Thucydides, and the editor himself does not always speak with the same voice.' 96. 6 t ' uncpoxT|v 6£, oxav X I Q \ x?j buvauei ueCgwv etc, % T C X C C O U Q ) TJ naxa X T J V nSXtv nat X T J V 6uvautv xou no\ixevuaxoQ" yfvcaGai yap etu>9ev CH xffiv X O U O O T W V uovapxta TJ SuvaoxeCa (Pol. 1302b 15-18). 97. *Ev be TOXQ dptaxoKpaxfatQ yfyvovxat at oiaaciQ a i ucv bia. TO 6\tyovQ xffiv TIUCV uexexevv (Pol* 1306b 22-23). 108 be even greater in order that they may become sole rulers. 99 In an important passage Aristotle describes the means by which tyrants came to power. The greatest number of tyrants, he says, arose from being demagogues; but others before these (and here i t i s certain that he refers to much earlier tyrants, who rose to power in an aristocratic context) attained the tyranny by holding offices. There were several ways in which this happened: early tyrants arose from kings departing from their ancestral powers; from men who were elected to high magistracies (which in early times were of long tenure); and from single o f f i c i a l s who were elected to the highest magistracies in oligarchic states. Aristotle makes i t clear that i t was a combination of powerful office and long tenure that resulted in tyranny.*^ 98. cxi c£v X I Q }i£YaQ \ 6uvap.cvoc; cxi p.ei£a)v e i v o u , f v a p.ovapx^ (Pol. 1307a 2-3). 99. Pol. 1301b 14-26. 100. nSot yap UTiTjpxe X O I Q xpSrcoiQ X O O X O I Q X O HaxepyS.l,eoQai pabluiQ, cl p.6vov pouATjGeuev, bio. xo COvapav npoUTt&pxeiv TotQ jicv ^aaiXv^c, dpx^ Q xoXc, be XT\V XT\Q x i ^ g (Pol. 1310b 23-26). ou yap 6uoCa>£ paotov MaHOupyTJacu oAtyov X P ° V O V apxovxaQ xal T I O A U V , end 6ta xoX>xo ev X C U Q oAiyapxCaic; wat STivioHpaxtaLQ yiyvovxai xupavvC6cQ (Pol. 1308a 18-22) . 109 It should o c c a s i o n no s u r p r i s e t h a t i n a r i s t o c r a t i c p o l e i s magistracies should so o f t e n have been c o n v e r t e d into tyrannies. It was customary in aristocracies to e n t r u s t a great deal of power to magistrates 1*^ 1 and to grant them long 102 tenure of office. Unlike democratic states, aristocratic constitutions favoured the concentration of power in the hands of a few individuals, and sometimes in the hands o f 103 only one. We know of at least one oligarchic state that permitted, even encouraged, an individual to hold several offices at the same time.1**54 The combination of these two features—concentrated power and long tenure--in magistracies of aristocratic states offered a natural temptation to aspiring autocrats, and i t i s not surprising that Aristotle noted the prevalence of tyranny amongst those in power for a 105 long time. Aristotle observed that in Athens the powerful 101. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 13. 2j Thucydides 1. 126. 8; Aristotle, Pol. 1270b 28-30 and 1272a 37-39. 102. Aristotle, Pol. 1273a 15-17. Whibley 144, 151, 153. 103. See Aristotle, Pol. 1301b 25-26: oXiyapxiHOv &£ nal 6 apx<uv 6 cic, T|V C V TTJ T C O X U T E L C X rauTTj (Epidamnos). 104. Aristotle, Pol. 1273b 8-9: ipaZXov 6' av SS^etev eivat na! T O izkctovQ dpxa.Q T O V auTov apxeiv* onep cvboHi\xcZ Ttapa T O U Q KapxTi6ovCotQ.x 105. See n. 100 above. \ 110 nature of the office of archon encouraged s t a s i s . ^ 0 0 The aristocratic constitution, then, lent i t s e l f to the 107 growth of tyranny. This was in marked contrast to the democratic constitution, which made every attempt to discourage tyranny by restricting the powers of magistrates, by limiting their tenure in office, by employing the lot and frequent rotation to ensure f a i r and widespread distribution of magistracies, and by subjecting office-holders to 108 examination and audit. Tyranny was by i t s very nature closer to oligarchy than to democracy, for i t made use of a 109 number of oligarchic devices. The oligarchic man in Theophrastos' Characters says of magistrates d>Q bet OtUTOHp&TopCtQ TOUXOUQ CtVOU, KO.V aXXoi TtpoP&AAtDVXai 6eWX, A.£yeiv 'tnavoq CIQ eaxi, xoftxov be oxi beZ avopa elvai.' nat TCV 'Ojifjpou CTTSV xoftxo ev ]i6vov xaxexciv, oxi *ovx dya6ov TtoAuHotpavCr], CLQ Hoipavog coxa)' nxX. According to the 106. Ath. Pol. 13. 25-27. 107. Aristotle, Pol. 1306b 3-5. 108. Aristotle, Pol. 1317b 17-28. 109. Aristotle (Pol. 1301b 25-26) says that a single archon was an oligarchic feature of the constitution of Bpidamnos (cf. Pol. 1287a 6-8). 110. Theophrastos, Characters 26. 2. I l l constitution drawn up for the provisional government in Athens by the extreme oligarchs in 411 the ten generals were 111 apxeiv • . • auxoKp^TopaQ. Jacoby has made the interesting observation that favourable judgement of tyranny in the f i f t h century came from oligarchic c i r c l e s , while amongst the demos 112 tyranny was feared and hated. Aristotle recognised that certain forms of oligarchy had a f f i n i t i e s with tyranny, for he says that Suvaoxeia, his fourth kind of oligarchy, i s near 113 to uovapxta. The thesis that tyranny in early Greece arose out of factional conflict finds confirmation in a number of poleis in which several unrelated tyrannies were interspersed with periods of aristocratic rule. A common view of tyranny holds that the rule of tyrants usually lasted for two or three generations, during which time i t broke the monopoly of the aristocracy in p o l i t i c s . Representative of this view i s Mary White: Two or three generations were enough to ensure that there could be no return to the old regime. Then the individual champions could be dispensed with; 111. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 31. 2. 112. Atthis 375 n. 114. 113. Pol. 1293a 31; cf. Thucydides 3. 62. 3. 112 in most cases by the second generation their rule came to be regarded as repressive. The circumstances attending their overthrow differed in each city, but the basic reason was the same: they had outlived their necessity. This statement i s questionable in several respects: tyrants in most cases were not champions of the demos; and they did not 'ensure that there could be no return to the old regime,' for in many instances of which we know the downfall of tyranny • was followed by a restoration of the 'old regime,' though in some c i t i e s perhaps in modified form. Moreover, while some c i t i e s indeed experienced tyranny that lasted for two or three generations in a few cases where tyrants were able to pass on their power, in a greater number of poleis that we know of there was a succession of several apparently unrelated tyrants whose tyrannies were interspersed with periods of aristocratic rule. Dunbabin has pointed out that in Akragas there were three separate tyrannies within a period of a hundred years and that in each case the tyranny was followed by an ol i g a r c h y . 1 1 5 Dunbabin could find no contemporary parallels' 114. White, Phoenix 9 (1955) 18; cf. Aelian.VH 6. 13.. For a similar view see Burn, The Lyric Age of Greece 158. 115. The Western Greeks 323. 113 for this alternation of tyranny and oligarchy, though i n fact there are several. In M y t i l e n e t h e r e were t h r e e apparently unrelated tyrants within a period o f under half a century. 117 We hear of several tyrants in Ephesos : Pythagoras, who lived before the reign of Cyrus and overthrew the rule of the 118 Basilidai ; Melas, who married a daughter of Alyattes, and 119 his son, Pindaros, who was deprived of his rule by Kroisos ; 120 Pasikles, who was chosen aisymrsetes after the expulsion of 121 Melas ; Athenagoras and Komas, who were contemporaries of 122 123 the poet Hipponax (f l o r u i t 540-537 ); Aristarchos, who about the time when Cyrus overthrew the Medes and established 124 the Persian Empire seems to have been elected 116. See pp. 124-125 below. 117. See Blirchner, RE 5 2 2788-2789; and Ure 271-273. 118. Baton of Sinope, FGrH 3A 268 F 3. 119. Aelian, VH 3. 26; Polyainos 6. 50. 120. On the office of aisymnetes see pp. 143-144 below. 121. Aelian, VH 3. 26; Kallimachos F 102 Pfeiffer and Diegesis; Ovid, Ibis 623-624 (see Stroux, Philologus 89 [l934] 310-313),. 122. Suda, s.v. *IrotOva^ .. 123. Pliny, NH 36. 4. 11. 124. Suda, s.v. 'ApCo-tapxoc;. 114 aisymnetes ; and Melankoroas, whom Herakleitos persuaded to 126 gave up his tyranny. There was a succession of unrelated tyrants in Miletos. The earliest was Epimenes, who was appointed aisymnetes after 127 the f a l l of the monarchy. After Epimenes we know of two Milesian tyrants other than Thrasyboulos, Thoas and 123 Damasenor. They too had successors in the tyranny but these were overthrown and the city was rent by two factions, 129 which Plutarch c a l l s nXovxtq, and xetpoii&xcu Elsewhere 125. Burchner, ___ 5 2 2789, followed by Ure 272. According to the Suda's account Aristarchos was summoned to Ephesos from Athens as monarchos by some of his relatives. He ruled for five years. His aisymneteia perhaps was the result of the victory of his kinsmen's clan in Ephesian p o l i t i c s . 126. Herakleitos 22. 3 Diels-Kranz. 127. Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 53. 128. Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 32 (Moralia 298 C)„ 129. The meaning of these terms i s uncertain. They are often translated 'Capital' and 'Labour' (§_.£„, by Burn, The Lyric  Age of Greece 214) . The x clP°V&X a etcupeCa seems to be identified with the rtpyidcq mentioned by the Suda (s.v.) , where the word i s glossed as xc<<p£vaKTe<_ » a n a- by Herakleides Pontikos (<_£• Athenaios 12. 524a), who says that TipyiQcq w a-s 115 Plutarch mentions another tyrant of Miletos, Aristogenes, who 129a i s said to have been expelled by the Spartans. We hear of several possible tyrants in Aiolian Kyme. Diodoros mentions 130 a tyrant by the name of Malakas. A reformer (aisymnetes?) by the name of Pheidon changed the constitution of Kyme by making a law that granted p o l i t i c a l rights to everyone who 131 possessed a horse. A possible candidate for tyrant i s 132 Thrasymachos, who put down a democracy in Kyme. But he i s not called a tyrant and i t i s not specified which Kyme he was the name given to the demos by the wealthy. The Gergithes were a native people of Asia Minor (see Strabo 13. i . \gt p . 589; Herodotos 5. 122. 2 and 7. 43. 2), who appear to have formed the subject population o f Miletos (How and Wells, A Commentary  on Herodotos 2 147). Their presence apparently introduced a rac i a l factor into Milesian p o l i t i c s , which may have been the underlying cause of the factional s t r i f e . See Ure 269-270. 129a. De Herodoti Malignitate 21 (Moralia 859 I>) . 130. Diodoros 7 f r . 10. 131. Herakleides Pontikos, FHG 2 217 f r . 11 no. 6. Herakleides (loc. c i t . ) mentions another reformer, Promethios, who introduced an oligarchy of a thousand men. 132. Aristotle, Pol. 1304b 39 - 1305a 1. 116 active i n . There were several apparently unrelated tyrants in Samos: Phoibias held the office of aisymnetes at an 3 3 *_ x £' unknown date ; Demoteles was a holder of a p,ovapx£ct ' ,° 135 we hear of an early tyrant named Syloson ; and, of course, 136 there was Polykrates. The succession of unrelated tyrants in Akragas, Mytilene, Ephesos, Miletos, Kyme, and Samos, with apparent intervals of oligarchic rule by the aristocracy, suggests a constant struggle of factions and ambitious personalities to gain power. Miletos, in which we know of more than four tyrants, provides what may well have been a typical example of factionalism in an aristocratic state that resulted in a number of tyrannies. Our sources t e l l us that Miletos suffered a good deal from factional s t r i f e in the seventh 133. Theodoros Metochites, p. 663 in A r i s t o t e l i s Opera (ed. Bekker) 10 313. 134. Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 57 (Moralia 303 E-304 C). See n. 42 above. 135. Polyainos 6. 45. .136. Herodotos 3. 39. 1-2; 120. 3; Polyainos 1. 23. See White, JHS 74 (1954) 36-43; Homann-Wedeking, Arch. Eph. 92-93 (2) 1953-1954 (1958) 185-191; and Barron, CQ N. S. 14 (1964) 210-229, for attempts to prove the existence of a long continuous tyranny on Samos. 117 and sixth centuries. Herodotos says that the ci t y was troubled by two generations of c i v i l war in the sixth 137 133 century. We hear of a number of erect peCat , and Herakleides Pontikos gives us a grisly picture of 7ioAttt>icu 139 cxQpca in Miletos. The connexion between factionalism and tyranny in Miletos i s suggested by Aristotle. 140 Aristotle says that tyrants make war on xotc, yvwpCuotc and destroy and banish them because i t i s from this group that ca cut(3ovA.aC arise, since they themselves wish to rule. As an 141 example he cites the advice of Thrasyboulos to Periandros to decapitate any stalk that stands out above the rest &Q 6cov act T O U Q wiep8xovrac; xcSv 7ioA.txcov avatpelTv . It i s clear 137. Herodotos 5. 28. 138. See n. 129 above. 139. Ap_. Athenaios 12. 523f-524b. 140. Pol. 1311a 15-20. 141. Pol. 1311a 20-22; cf. 1284a 26-33. In both instances in the P o l i t i c s in which Aristotle relates the story he makes Periandros give the advice to Thrasyboulos. Aristotle takes the anecdote from Herodotos (5. 92^1-TJI) and his inversion of the account i s probably due to a lapse of memory (Neivmmn, The  Polit i c s of Aristotle 3 247). 118 from this anecdote that those whom Thrasyboulos had reason to fear were his p o l i t i c a l opponents, the leaders of r i v a l factions, who could be expected to try to gain power for themselves. Because of the factional s t r i f e that aristocracies engendered (Aristotle notes that oligarchies were more prone to stasis than democracies 1 4 2) 9 single tyrannies, i t appears, were much more common than those that lasted for several generations. This i s understandable in the context of continuous factional s t r i f e , for presumably i t was d i f f i c u l t to pass on a tyranny to a chosen successor. Indeed, this was successfully done in only a few states (Corinth, Sikyon v and Athens), while in most c i t i e s tyrants were unable to maintain their power for more than a generation and sometimes not even for l i f e because of the aristocratic factionalism that made their position tenuous. Clear evidence for a connexion between s t r i f e amongst noble families and tyranny in aristocratic states comes from the island of Crete. Cretan c i t i e s s t i l l had aristocratic 142. Pol. 1302a 8-13. Cf. Thucydides 8. 89. 3, where he describes the means by which an oligarchy formed from a democracy i s destroyed: TOSVTCQ y<*P au0T]ucpbv <x£totSatv o&x OTUDQ foot, aXka. nat KO\V rcpStoc; auxoQ enaaxoQ et vat. 119 governments in classical times. Crete, like Sparta, which was supposed to have derived i t s constitution from Crete, was of considerable interest to p o l i t i c a l analysts for i t s archaic way of l i f e , and the government of i t s c i t i e s was described 143 and analysed by Aristotle and Polybios. Cretan p o l i t i c s seem to have supported Aristotle's observation that oligarchies are more prone to stasis than are democracies, for throughout much of i t s history the island was notorious for the prevalence of factionalism and violence in i t s p o l i t i c s . Polybios (who contrasts Crete unfavourably with Sparta) remarks on the Cretans' involvement Iv nkctaxcLiq Ibtq (xa\) MCCTCX. KOIVOV ox&acoi HCU ipSvoic. KCU rcoXeuoic, cutpuXtoiQ.''^ This judgement finds general support in our sources for ^ * 145 Cretan p o l i t i c s . In this connexion Aristotle, in his detailed description of government in the Cretan poleis, gives a picture of a constitution that i s at once aristocratic and characterised 146 by excessive clan-strife : the kosmoi are chosen not from 143. Aristotle, Pol. 1271b 20 - 1272b 23 (on Aristotle's sources of Cretan history see Huxley, GRBS 12 [l97l] 515 n. 28); Polybios 6. 45. 1 - 47. 6. 144. Polybios 6. 46. 9. 145. See Pindar, 01. 12. 13-15 and Huxley, op_. c i t . 511. 146. Pol. 1272a 33 - 1272b 13. 120 the whole people but only from certain clans, and they cannot be held accountable for their o f f i c i a l actions; moreover, they exercise their office at their own discretion rather than according to written law. Aristotle does not think that the constitution i s a sound one, but he observes that the Cretans employ a curious remedy against the defect that the kosmoi are wholly unrestricted while in office: iioXK&mq yap CHS&A\OVO"I OUOTCCVTCQ TIVCQ TOUC. H6OUOUQ T| TEV OuvapxSvTcov CCUTSV t. TWV I6IU>T25V c£eoxi 6c HCU uexa^u TOTQ H5OUOI,Q drceinetv TTJV dpxnv. . . .7idvxa)v 6c (pau\6xaT0v TO T?JQ ctHOOuCag, TJV Ha0tOTaot KOXXSLHIQ olVdv UT) btnaq pou\u)VTa» 6ouvat TOV 6uvaTBv. . . .cl&Qaoi be 6ia\aupdvovTCQ TOV 6fjuov nal TOUQ (pCXoug uovapxtav noietTv Hal OTaoid^etv nat ]iaxcodai ltpbg dAAfjAovg. 148 In the last sentence of this passage recent editors have followed Be mays' emendation of dvapxCav for uovapxCav, which i s the reading of the MSS. But this emendation i s both unnecessary and wrong: i t deprives the sentence of 147. Contra, Spyridakis, PP 24 (1969) 265-268; but see Huxley, op_. c i t . 511. 148. Ross (OCX); Rackham (Loeb). 121 logic (men do not form p o l i t i c a l divisions to create anarchy but to help gain power for themselves); and i t destroys the contrast that i s intended with natxoi of the next sentence ( H C U T O I , T C Sicupepet TO TOiotkov T\ 6 i d T L V O Q X P ^ V O U urpte'Tt TI6\I,V eivcu TT]V T O L C C T T I V , aXXa. Xvcodai TT|V TXOA.LTI,HTIV H O I vcovictv;). Ratio et res ipsa support the reading of the MSS. It i s common practice, says Aristotle, to create tyranny by creating divisions amongst the people and one's friends and to produce stasis and armed fighting. Aristotle presents here a dreary picture of aristocratic factionalism that would reduce any government to perpetual c r i s i s . Politics are at the mercy of opposing clans that are willing to resort to any measure to secure power: waging war with one another; expelling p o l i t i c a l opponents from office; and suspending the office of kosmos altogether (perhaps when the magistracies were controlled by a clan's p o l i t i c a l 149 opponents)o The office of kosmos was a p o l i t i c a l prise that was eagerly and ruthlessly sought, and i t was passed back and forth, sometimes regularly, sometimes irregularly, amongst the opposing factions that controlled the various 149. According to Aristotle (Pol. 1272a 7) there were ten kosmoi; this i s , however, doubted by Willetts, Aristocratic  Society in Ancient Crete 167. 122 ci t i e s of Crete. Out of this factional s t r i f e tyranny arose on occasion in the Cretan poleis. How tyranny could arise out of clan-strife in Crete i s suggested by the interesting inscription frora Dreros, which has been dated to the latter half of the seventh century. 1 5 0 The inscription records a law (perhaps the earliest extant Greek law on stone) that prohibits anyone from holding the office of kosmos more than once in ten years. Several explanations have been offered for this prohibition, but the most convincing reason given (in the context of the passage from Aristotle cited above) i s that the law was intended to prevent anyone from using 151 repeated tenure of office as a stepping-stone to tyranny. A similar provision i s found in the Law-Code of Gortyn, where 150. SGHI 2; Demargne and van Effenterre, BCH 61 (1937) 333-348. 151. Demargne and van Effenterre, op. c i t . 343. Ehrenberg (CQ 37 [1943] 14-18 f=Folis und Imperiurn 98-104] ) suggests that the law was 'a safeguard of the nobility against individuals backed by their family or genos. It implies a struggle within the ruling class...' (16). This i s close to the view advocated in this chapter. For a different view see Willetts, Aristocratic Society in Ancient Crete 167-169. 123 the intention may be the same. If this explanation of the Drerian inscription is correct, i t adds weight to the thesis that tyrants in many cases came to power by means of p o l i t i c a l o ffice. Moreover, i t suggests that the office of kosmos was often suspended or the holders of the magistracy expelled because many had succeeded in transforming the office into a tyranny. Perhaps the best evidence that tyranny was the direct result of the aristocratic factionalism that characterised the polis in the seventh century comes from early Mytilene. It i s correct to say, I think, that we have more contemporary evidence for the events leading up to tyranny in Mytilene, in the form of first-hand accounts of one of the chief participants, than we have for almost any other c i t y in Greece. The fragments of Alkaios (and to a lesser extent of Sappho) reveal a p o l i t i c a l situation in which aristocratic feuding, struggles for power amongst strong personalities, p o l i t i c a l exile, and even pitched battles were the order of the day. There i s not a hint in the fragments of Alkaios that p o l i t i c s ever descended below the level of aristocratic families. Between the time of overthrow of the Penthilidai and the 152. Inscriptiones Creticae 4. 14, g-p, 2: Tpt [3] v /rcxtov xov d/=xov UTJ •pooue'v, j 6£na ucv yvouovaj;, | nivzc [be K O J C V C O Q . See SGHI p. 3„ 124 establishment of a ten-year aisymneteia by Pittakos--a period of perhaps half a century--strife amongst noble families seems to have been almost continuous» Coalitions were formed and dissolved readily. Expedience was the rule, the object power. Strabo says that Mytilene was ruled by several tyrants 153 because of factional s t r i f e . He refers to Pittakos as one of the tyrants, as well as to Myrsilos, Melanchros, and the Kleanaktidai na\ OXXOIQ -ricav. P o l i t i c a l s t r i f e preceded the f a l l of the hereditary monarchy. According to A r i s t o t l e 1 5 ' the Penthilidai used to go around striking people with clubs. Megakles and his friends did away with them and later Smerdis k i l l e d Penthilos after he had been beaten and dragged from his wife 0 The earliest tyrant of whom we know was Melanchros. He was overthrown by Pittakos and his friends, who included the 155 brothers of Alkaios. At some later date Myrsilos, a Kleanaktid, formed a conspiracy and became t y r a n t . 1 5 6 Alkaios 153. Strabo 13. 2. 3, p. 617. 154. P_ol. 1311b 26-30. 155. Diogenes Laertios 1. 74. See Page, Sappho and Alcaeus 151-152. 156. Herakleitos, Quaest. Horn. 5 on Alkaios Z 2 Lobel-Page; see Page, Sappho and Alcaeus 138. •i 125 and his friends formed a plot against him but i t failed, and 157 they fl e d to Pyrrha. There followed a battle with the 158 bodyguard of Myrsilos and a second exile, this time 159 abroad. Aklaios* brother as well as Sappho also seems to 160 have been exiled at about the same time. Allegiances were of short duration in such feuds, and alliances shifted rapidly. Pittakos, who was at one time associated with Alkaios in the plot against Myrsilos, later seems to have 161 deserted Alkaios and joined the tyrant. There i s mention 162 in a fragment of Alkaios of Myrsilos* death. The next 163 time that we hear of Pittakos he i s tyrant, having been chosen aisymnetes for a ten-year term of o f f i c e . 1 6 4 It i s natural [writes Denys Page ]. to expect that 157. Schol. Alkaios S 3 Lobel-Page. 158. Schol. Alkaios D 2 (a) Lobel-Page. 159. Strabo 1. 2. 30, p. 37; see Page, Sappho and Alcaeus 223-226. 160. Antimenidas: Alkaios Z 27 Lobel-Page. Sappho: Marmor  Parium (FGrH 2B 239 A 36). 161. Alkaios G 1, D 12 Lobel-Page; see Page, Sappho and  Alcaeus 236-237. 162. Alkaios Z 8 Lobel-Page. 163. Alkaios Z 24 Lobel-Page. 164. Aristotle, Pol. 1285a 25-37; Diogenes Laertios 1. 75. the poems of Alcaeus w i l l illuminate, with a brighter and more penetrating light than is available elsewhere, the history of the rise of tyrants in the Greek world at this era. Here, in considerable volume, i s the testimony of a witness to the whole course of the p o l i t i c a l revolution, from the f a l l of the royal house of Penthilus to the popular election of a dictator. That expectation i s not yet f u l f i l l e d . In particular, there i s no trace of evidence in Alcaeus or elsewhere that Pittacus was at any time the leader of a popular party, the champion of the oppressed, the spokesman of the s p i r i t of democracy. A l l these honourable t i t l e s have been, and continue to be, conferred upon him; but they have no foundation in evidence. Our records of the revolutions at Mytilene have nothing whatever to say about the struggle of the poor against the rich, or of the commons against the nobility, or of the parvenu merchant-prince against decadent landowners. They t e l l the story of noble families fighting against each other for supreme power in the 127 State. It makes l i t t l e difference to the constitution, and none to the welfare of the populace, whether the name of the victor be Penthilus or Melanchrus or Myrsilus or Alcaeus--or even Pittacus...o 1 6 5 The last city whose p o l i t i c s I wish to examine i s Athens, where attempts to gain tyranny seem to have been closely tied to factional s t r i f e . The f i r s t attempt at tyranny in Athens of which we know was that of Kylon. Kylon was an Athenian noble who had gained fame by winning the foot-race at the 166 Olympic Games. He had also won the hand of the daughter of the Megarian tyrant, Theagenes. 1 6 7 Perhaps in 632 1 6 8 165. Page, Sappho and Alcaeus 175-176; contra, Gomme, JHS 77 (1957) 255-257. 166. Thucydides 1. 126. 5; Herodotos 5. 71. 2; Eusebios (Armenian version), where the date i s given as 01. 35 (640). 167. Thucydides 1. 126. 3; Pausanias 1. 28. 1. 168. Thucydides says that Kylon's coup took place in an Olympic year and since we know that Kylon was an Olympic victor in 640 this provides a terminus post quern. The Ath. Pol. (4. 1) seems to date the event before Drakon (Cadoux, JHS 68 [l948 ] 91; on the date of Drakon see Stroud, Drakon's  Lav; on Homicide 66-70). Thus 636, 632, 628, and perhaps 624 are possible dates, though an earlier date i s more l i k e l y 128 Kyion and a band of his supporters, with the aid of Megarian troops supplied by Theagenes, seized the Akropolis 'with a 169 view to tyranny,' according to Thucydides. They were besieged by the people, who supported the magistrates. Kylon and his brother escaped; their followers surrendered on the promise that their lives would be spared, but they were massacred on the order of the archon, Megakles, even after 170 they had taken sanctuary at the altar of the Eumenides. 171 Plutarch says that the followers of Kylon who survived the massacre recovered their strength and were continually engaged in s t r i f e with the descendants of Megakles: 'At this particular time the quarrel was at i t s height and the people divided between two factions.' than a later one so that Kylon could exploit his recent Olympic victory (Thucydides 1. 126. 5). For the literature on the date of the Kylonian conspiracy see Stroud, op. c i t . 66 n. 7. 169. Ha.x£\a.$c XTjv dxpoTioXtv cog ini Ti>pctvvi6u (Thucydides 1. 126. 5); omoq c n l xupavvCSi cK&\ir\ac (Herodotos 5. 71). 170. The earliest accounts (those of Herodotos and Thucydides) do not mention Megakles but his connexion with the Kylonian coup is attested by Plutarch (Solon 12). 171. Solon 12. 2. 129 Presumably the s t r i f e had preceded Kylon's seizure of the 172 Akropolis. The dispute was not betxveen the commons and the nobles and there is no evidence that Kylon had any popular support; quite to the contrary, the people supported 173 the magistrates against the usurper,, Rather Kylon's seizure of the Akropolis and the massacre of his followers by Megakles seem to have been a particularly violent episode in 174 the rivalry of Athenian clans. Megakles, who held the archonship, was subject to an attempt by members of a r i v a l family to challenge the Alkmeonids' control of the 175 magistracies. Megakles, in turn, was prepared to offer 172. oi "6* ' A8T | V C U O I TT^Q K U A X O V C I O U Tcc7taup.evTiQ xapax^Q nat y.c6caTCJTaiv, wcmep cipr\'cai, xwv evaySv, TTJV raxAxuav CCUOIQ axdatv uTccp TT[Q TcoAtTciaQ ecracCa^ov (Plutarch, Solon 13. 1); see Hignett 87. 173. Thucydides 1. 126. 7-8. 174. See E l l i s and Stanton, op. c i t . (n. 37 above) 97. 175. Sealey, op. c i t . (n. 37 above, f i r s t item) 168, thinks that a l l nine archons were Alkmeonidai or their partisans. This seems to be implied by Plutarch ( copiiriae auA.Xap.pa.vcuv 6 MeyaMXffc. n a l oi auvdpxovTcg. . .ex T O U T O U bh HXP,6£VTCQ cvayetQ cutaouvxo [Solon 12. 1-2]) ; and by Thucydides, who lays the blame for the massacre of Kylon's supporters on a l l the 130 violence for violence,. Since his faction held the magistracies, he could c a l l the attack an insurrection and thereby claim justification for the massacre of Kylon's supporters,, But he was careless in k i l l i n g those of Kylon's followers who had taken sanctuary, for in so doing he incurred the charge of pollution a This provided a p o l i t i c a l tool that was used against Megakles and his family by r i v a l clans to force them 176 into exile and a charge that was to prove useful to the enemies of the Alkmeonidai for two centuries afterward. This episode reveals, I think, how illusory i t i s to impute an independent p o l i t i c a l consciousness to the demos in the seventh century. Thucydides' account indicates that the people were not particularly interested in the Kylonian coup: the Athenians came in from the fields and l a i d siege to the Akropolis, but they soon grexv weary and l e f t the siege to the archons next T O TI&V aiVtOHpctTopat 6ia0et*vcu ^  civ a p t O T a 177 biaYiyvMOHuaiv. The demos in most circumstances w i l l probably have supported the magistrates regardless of which family was in power. The p o l i t i c a l situation at Athens in the f i r s t half of magistrates (126. 8-11),*even though Megakles gave the order. 176. Thucydides 1. 126. 12; Plutarch, Solon 12. 2-3. 177. Thucydides 1. 126. 8. •> 131 the sixth century was characterised by i n t e n s e factional 173 s t r i f e . It has been suggested t h a t aristocratic factional ism was responsible for the appointment of Solon as archon 179 and arbitrator* Factionalism continued after Solon. In 590/89 stasis prevented the election of an archon and in 181 586/5 led to the suspension of the archonship. In 582/1 Damasias was chosen archon, but he remained in office for two years and two months before he was driven from office by force. Ten archons were then chosen 6tcc to axaaiS.C,civ in a 182 coalition of various groups in Attika. 183 We hear of three factions in Athens after Solon : the Paraloi, led by Megakles; the Pedieis, headed by 184 Lykourgos; and the Hyperakrioi, led by Peisistratos. 178. E l l i s and Stanton, op_0 c i t . (n. 37 above) 95-110. 179. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 5. 2. 180. For the dates of ava.px.ta, and of Damasias' archonship see Cadouxj, op. c i t . (n. 168 above) 93-95. 181. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 13. 1. 182. Ath. Pol. 13. 2. 183. Plutarch, however, attests their existence after Kylon' seizure of the Akropolis (Solon 13. 1). 184. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 13. 4 (where the form i s Paralioi and the faction of Lykourgos are called Pediakoi, that of 132 The nature of these factions has been much discussed. The names indicate a regional basis of the f a c t i o n s . 1 8 5 But Aristotle attributes different p o l i t i c a l positions to the factions: the Paraloi aimed at i\v y.coi\v noXnctav , the Pedieis sought oligarchy, and the Diakrioi drew their support from the popular element, the poor, and those of impure 13 & descent. Modern historians have suggested that the factions represented economic or occupational divisions 187 within Attika. But our earliest source, Herodotos, does not indicate that the factions comprised economic classes or that they offered different p o l i t i c a l programmes to the Athenians,, Herodotos describes aristocratic p o l i t i c s characterised by personal alliances and shifting coalitions Peisistratos the Diakrioi [cf. Pol. 1305a 24]); Herodotos 1. 59. 3 (where Lykourgos' faction are called 01 in xoX> ucblov); Plutarch, Solon 13. 1, 29. 1 (where the faction of Peisistratos are called the Diakrioi), and Amatorius 18 (Moralia 763 D), where the faction of Peisistratos are called the Epakrioi. 185. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 13. 5; Plutarch, Solon 13. 1. I860 Ath. Pol. 13. 4; cf. Plutarch, Solon 29. 1. 187. E.g., French, Greece and Rome Second Series 6 (1959) 46-57; Hignett 109-111; Mosse, Ant. Class. 33 (1964) 401-413. 133 not of classes, but of factional leaders. Out of this stasis Peisistratos gained the tyranny of Athens by a clever stratagem that got him a bodyguard, granted by the ejkklesia, with which he seized the Akropolis about 189 561/60. Later Megakles and Lykourgos combined to drive the tyrant from office. But the two leaders f e l l out and Megakles, rcepie\auvouevoc,. . ,xfj axaoei,, arranged an alliance with Peisistratos by giving him his daughter in marriage. He then helped to restore Peisistratos to the tyranny by means of another stratagem. But Peisistratos' desire not to have children by his new wife aroused the anger of Megakles, who reconciled himself to Lykourgos, and the two began to plot against the tyrant. Peisistratos withdrew, f i r s t to Sretria, then to Thrace, where during an exile of over ten years 188. Sealey, op_. c i t . (n. 37 above, f i r s t item) 162-165; Hopper, BSA 56 (1961) 205-207; Lewis Historia 12 (1963) 22; E l i o t , Historia 16 (1967) 285. 189. For the most part I accept the chronology of Peisis-tratos' tyranny proposed by Sumner, CQ N. S. 11 (1961) 37-48, against Adcock, CQ 18 (1924) 174-181. But I believe that the Battle of Pallene took place in 547/6 : see E l i o t , op. c i t . 283 n. 24; and Bradeen, Hesperia 32 (1963) 192 n. 24 for bibliography. 134 he c o l l e c t e d money, engaged m e r c e n a r i e s , and cemented p e r s o n a l a l l i a n c e s with heads of o t h e r states, a l l i n preparation for a return to Athens* Finally, Peisistratos returned to Attika, landed near Marathon, and won a victory at Pallene. He consolidated his rule over Attika and governed . 190 i t t i l l his death,, There can be no doubt of Peisistratos' popularity in Athens amongst a l l classes; he enjoyed widespread support in 191 . . a l l parts of Attika, But there i s no suggestion in our sources that he gained control of Athens on the basis of popular support. Tyranny in Athens in the sixth century, as in Mytilene, was brought about not by popular support but by factional p o l i t i c s amongst the aristocrats and their supporters. The evidence that we have, fragmentary as i t i s , points to the conclusion that the cause of tyranny in the seventh century (and in some instances in the sixth) i s not to be found in class-struggles or in the rise of a middle class of hoplites but rather in the factional s t r i f e amongst noble families that characterised aristocratic p o l i t i c s generally and was a marked feature of the archaic p o l i s . Stasis, always the bane 190. Herodotos 1. 59-64; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 14-15. 191. See Herodotos 1. 63. 1; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 16. 9, 13. 4, 14. 1 (and de Ste. Croix, op. ci-fc. [n, 95 above] 23). 135 of Greek p o l i t i c s , was (as Aristotle observed ) a greater problem in aristocracies, xvhere divisions arose out of the existence of a number of families who were competing for power, than i t was in democracies, where stasis often arose betvjeen only two factions, the few and the many. It was aristocratic factionalism and not the struggle of the lower or middle classes for representation or a share of power (of which 193 there i s no evidence in the seventh century ) that was the cause of the repeated p o l i t i c a l crises that occurred.in the early p o l i s . This i s not to deny the existence of discontented elements amongst the love r classes. Hesiod and Solon are witnesses to the fact that discontent was widespread amongst at least some members of the lower classes in archaic Greece. But their discontent centred on social and economic rather 194 than on p o l i t i c a l issues. Moreover, the lower classes had not the power or the means by which to bring about revolution. If we look for discontented elements in the polis who had the a b i l i t y to bring about p o l i t i c a l change we are more li k e l y to find them amongst members of the noble families who did not enjoy participation in government (for in aristocracies 192. See n. 142 above. 193. Forrest 113. 194. Finley, Early Greece 103. 136 p o l i t i c a l privileges were very restricted even amongst those of noble birth). Aristotle cites a number of aristocracies in which p o l i t i c a l rights were extended after younger brothers or sons who did not possess p o l i t i c a l privileges formed factions 195 and succeeded in widening the constitution,. Tyranny in the seventh century (and for the most part in the sixth century) grew out of a milieu that was firmly aristocratic, The earliest tyrants ware aristocrats, who ordinarily sought power by means of regular magistracies in the p o l i s . On occasion, either to gain extraordinary power for themselves or to deny i t to others, some aristocrats resorted to tyranny. In the early poleis of which we are best informed, such as Mytilene and Athens, tyranny seems to have been caused by aristocratic stasis. When aristocrats gained the tyranny their rule was generally conservative. Tyrants continued to maintain close personal ties with other aristocrats. There i s no evidence, on the other hand, that tyrants relied for support on the demos„ Tyranny in early Greece was an aristocratic, not a popular, phenomenon. 195. Pol. 1305b 1-16. 137 CHAPTER FOUR THE NATURE OF EARLY TYRANNY Aristotle's statement 1 that early Greek tyrants gained power by means of kingship or magistracies contradicts the accounts that portray the tyrants as having seized power by violent means such as capturing an akropolis. The violent seizure of power by tyrants is frequently pictured by an author like Polyainos. The theme is a stock one and the stories that depict tyrants having risen to power by such familiar stratagems are often quite similar. Freeman has observed that 'All these stories of the rise of tyrants are suspicious. There are so many of them; they a l l practise tricks, differing in detail, but essentially of the same kind ...nothing is easier than to put the name of one city and one 3 tyrant for another.' In order to seize an akropolis an aspiring tyrant needed men under arms, and the grant of a bodyguard to a tyrant by an assembly is another leitmotiv in 1. Pol. 1310b 16-29; cf. 1305a 15-18. 2. See, e.g_., Polyainos 1. 23 (Polykrates); 5. 1 (Phalaris); 5. 47 (Panaitios); 6. 45 (Syloson of Samos). On Polyainos' method of composition see Stadter, Plutarch's Historical Methods; An Analysis of the Mulierum Virtutes 13-29, especially 27-29. 3. The History of S i c i l y 2 82. Cf. 58, 68; and Dunbabin, The  Western Greeks 66. v \ • • \ 138 the accounts of the rise to power of tyrants. But, as Ure perceptively remarks, 'Armed forces are not to be had for the asking.' 5 In what circumstances were armed guards granted to aspiring tyrants? First of a l l , they are l i k e l y to have been circumstances in which armed violence had occurred or was a very real p o s s i b i l i t y . Our evidence indicates that there was a good deal of violence associated with factional s t r i f e amongst aristocrats in the seventh century. To Charondas, for example, is attributed a law against carrying a weapon into the assembly.6 This may suggest that an actual clash of arms in the assembly between supporters of various factions sometimes occurred. Second, the circumstances in which an armed guard was granted to a citizen are lik e l y to have been c r i t i c a l enough that one man could ask for (and receive) extraordinary power to deal with some immediate c r i s i s . The grant of a bodyguard may well have followed the grant of extraordinary power to magistrates who required protection for their office and enforcement of their authority. Aristotle says that i t was the custom to grant a bodyguard to one group of tyrants, the aisymnetai, 7 who are defined as 'elective tyrants.' 8 The — — — — — — — ' \ 4. See Aristotle, Rhet. 1357b. / . • 5. Ure 265. 6. Diodoros 12. 19. 2. 7. Aristotle. Pol. 1286b 37-39. 139 granting of a bodyguard may have been a necessity in view of the violence that characterised rivalry amongst aristocratic families in early Greece. The case of Peisistratos may be instructive. Peisistratos drove his chariot drawn by mules into Athens, having wounded himself and his animals. He appeared before the assembly and related that his enemies had wounded him in an attempt on his l i f e . Peisistratos persuaded the assembly to grant him a bodyguard. Shortly afterwards he seized the Akropolis with g the aid of his bodyguard. Peisistratos* bodyguard was no •private army,'10 nor was i t a body of foreign mercenaries hired by a private citizen. Rather i t was, according to Herodotos, a bodyguard of citizens voted to him by the people of Athens. In view of the connexion that is often made between the support of hoplites and the rise of tyrants i t is worth noting that Peisistratos 1 bodyguard consisted not of hoplites but of club-bearers. There is no evidence to connect Peisistratos* seizure of the Akropolis with the support of Athenian hoplites. Moreover, this i s not the only instance of the use of club-bearers as bodyguards. The Penthilidai of 8. Pol. 1285a 30-32. x 9. Herodotos 1. 59. 4-6; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 14. 1. 10. So Burn, The Lyric Age of Greece 305. . \ . • . i \ \ 140 Mytilene apparently employed club-bearers as bodyguards. Perhaps lightly-armed club-bearers were used as a domestic police-force in some cities in early Greece. When the assembly voted a bodyguard for Peisistratos i t w i l l surely have been granted for possible use and one wonders whether the seizure of the Akropolis can have come as a complete surprise to those who voted the bodyguard for Peisistratos. If Peisistratos was given a public bodyguard of f i f t y men he most li k e l y w i l l have been given some position by which he could exercise proper authority over his men. In a p o l i t i c a l situation marked by factional s t r i f e in which violence might be expected to occur Peisistratos may have been given a position accompanied by a bodyguard ne quid respublica 12 detrimenti caperet. 11. This seems to be the most sensible interpretation of Aristotle's Pol. 1311b 26-28. 12. Mary White, Phoenix 9 (1955) 9, suggests that Peisistratos may have held the office of polemarch when he captured Nisaia from Megara before his tyranny (Herodotos 1. 59. 4). Pleket, Talanta 1 (1969) 29, believes that Aristotle preserves a confused recollection of Peisistratos' polemarchy in his statement that most tyrants began as demagogues and in early times strategoi and demagogues were often the same (Pol. 1305a 141 Theagenes of Megara was a seventh-century tyrant whose rise to power was attributed to the use of force. Aristotle says that Theagenes was a champion of the demos who gained 13 power by slaughtering the flocks of the wealthy. Some steps evidently have been l e f t out of Aristotle's brief account of Theagenes' rise to power. Theagenes seems to have been an aristocrat, for he married his daughter to a distinguished Athenian noble and Olympic victor, Kylon. 1 4 As an aristocrat he was most li k e l y among the wealthy Megarians. 1 5 Moreover, as Hammond has observed, 'a wholesale destruction of stock would be absurd,' and he suggests that Theagenes slaughtered only the stock of his enemies. 1 6 Theagenes1 support of the demos against the wealthy members of his own class sounds like an anachronistic attempt to read the class-struggle back into the seventh century. Elsewhere Aristotle t e l l s us that 7-11; cf. 1310b 14-16). Aristotle specifically names Kypselos (who was polemarch) and Peisistratos as tyrants who began as demagogues (Pol. 1310b 29-31). It is possible that Peisis-tratos already held an office when he received a bodyguard. 13. Pol. 1305a 24-26. 14. Thucydides 1. 126. 3; Pausanias 1. 28. 1. 15. See p. 85 n. 17 above. 16. Hammond 149. 142 Theagenes, seeking to make himself tyrant, asked for a 17 bodyguard. A bodyguard is not given by the state to anyone who requests i t and there must have been a pressing reason to give one to Theagenes. As a public rather than a private force i t carried with i t public responsibility. Like Peisistratos, who was a distinguished citizen and a public hero, Theagenes is l i k e l y to have been a respected citizen to whom the Megarians were willing to entrust a public bodyguard for a specific purpose. Theagenes' slaughter of flocks may have been a phase of factional s t r i f e that ended when Theagenes* supporters succeeded in gaining control of an assembly that gave an extraordinary position to Theagenes 18 together with a bodyguard to accompany that position. Thus while in late authors like Polyainos the stories of tyrants' seizing power by force are often similar enough to • arouse suspicion about the credib i l i t y of the accounts we have more reliable evidence (such as Herodotos• account of Peisistratos) for at least some early tyrants having been granted bodyguards. But even in the case of Peisistratos i t is d i f f i c u l t to believe, in spite of the silence of Herodotos, 17. Rhet. 1357b. 18. Cf. Pittakos, leader of a faction in Mytilene, who was elected aisymnetes to resist his enemies (Aristotle, Pol. 1285a 35-37). 143 that Peisistratos received the bodyguard merely as a private citizen. Rather i t is l i k e l y that the grant of a bodyguard accompanied a magistracy or the assigning of special authority. The granting of a bodyguard w i l l have been an emergency-step, taken rarely and in time of c r i s i s ; and i t seems probable that i t was accompanied by extraordinary power that eased the path to tyranny. There were models in the archaic polis for the granting'of special power to individuals. A prominent feature of early aristocratic states was the existence of extraordinary magistrates who were appointed to arbitrate in factional disputes or constitutional crises. The two extraordinary magistrates who appear most frequently in our sources for the archaic period are the aisymnetes and the nomothetes. Aristotle called the aisymneteia an elective tyranny ( aipcTTj TvpavvCg ) and said that some aisymnetai held the office for i i f e while others held i t for certain fixed periods of time 19 or until the completion of their tasks. The aisymnetes 19. Pol. 1285a 29-35; cf. Theophrastos f r . 127 Wimmer (ap. Dionysios of Halikarnassos, Ant. Rom. 5. 73. 3). On the aisymneteia see Nordin, Klio 5 (1905) 392-409; BusoIt-Swoboda, Griechische Staatskunde 1 372-375; Luria, Acta Antigua 11 (1963) 31-36; Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen 1 94, 2 i \ 144 was an arbitrator who was invested with extraordinary powers; the most famous was Pittakos of Mytilene. The nomothetes must be placed in the same category. The terms of his commission were apparently somewhat different from those of the aisymnetes: Aristotle says that some introduced laws, others whole consti-20 tutions. But the reason for their appointment seems to have been the same: to restore order to cities torn by factional 21 s t r i f e . The number of aisymnetai and nomothetai whom we know of in early Greece is large enough to suggest that factional s t r i f e was very common in aristocratic c i t i e s . Among those who held the aisymneteia we know of Pasikies of 22 23 Ephesos, Epimenes of Miletos, Pittakos of Mytilene, 574-575; Gottlieb, Timuchen: ein Beitrag zum griechischen  Staatsrecht 20-22; Pleket, p_p_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 39 n. 70. Inscriptions show that the aisymnetes was a regular magistrate in Tcos (SGHI 30, line 4); Megara (SIG3642, i i n e s 1-2); Naxos (SIG 3 955, lines 1-2); Miletos (S_IG3 57, line 1); Chalkedon (GDI 3053, lines 1-5; CJ_G 379, line 7); and Selinos (G_p_I 3045, lines 5 f£). 20. Pol. 1273b 32-33. 21. Pol. 1273b 21-22. ^ 22. Aelian, y_H 3. 26; Kallimachos F 102 Pfeiffer and Diegesis. 23. Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 53. \ ' ' \ \ ' . -145 Phoibias of Samos, Chairemon of ApolIonia. The lawgivers of the seventh century, such as Drakon,^^ Zaleukos of Lokroi, Charondas of Katane (who legislated for his own city as well as for other Chalkidic colonies, especially Rhegion), Philolaos of Corinth (who legislated for Thebes), and Androdamas of Rhegion (who legislated for Thrakian Chalkidike), 27 were aristocrats whose laws were intended to preserve the 24. Theodoros Metochites p. 668 in Aristotelis Opera (ed. I Bekker 10 313). 25. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 4. 1, 41. 2; Pol. 1274b 15-18. 26. Aristotle, Pol. 1274a 22 - 1274b 26. 27. Charondas is credited by Aristotle with aristocratic legislation (Pol. 1297a 21-24), though he is made a member of the middle class together with Solon (who in fact was an aristocrat) in Pol. 1296a 18-21. But perhaps this may be attributed to Aristotle's own belief that the best lawgivers came from the middle class. Charondas was probably aristo-cratic as was Philolaos, who was a Bakchiad (Pol. 1274a 32-33). Zaleukos was said to have been of humble origin, the story being that he was a shepherd (Aristotle ap_. Schol. Pindar, 01_. 10. 17); but i t has been suggested that this tale derives from his being called something li k e "rcotuTjv XaOv 146 aristocracies in the c i t i e s for which they legislated. But (Oldfather, R_E 13 1319). Diodoros calls him an ctvrjp cuycv^g (12. 20. 1). His legislation was aristocratic (see the follow-ing note) and i t may safely be said that Zaleukos was also a noble. On Charondas and Zaleukos see Freeman, The History of  S i c i l y 2 60-63, 451-457; Busolt-Swoboda, Griechische Staats-kunde 1 375-379; Adcock, Cambridge Historical Journal 2 (1927) 95-109; Miihl, Klio 22 (1929) 105-124, 432-463; Dunbabin, The  Western Greeks 68-75; and Vallet, Rhegion et Zancle 313-320. 28. On the aristocratic constitutions of the cities for which Charondas and Zaleukos legislated see Vallet, Rhe*gion et Zancle 315-317. Aristotle records a law at Lokroi (presumably that of Zaleukos) that a man cannot s e l l his kleros unless he can prove that he has suffered a misfortune (Pol. 1266b 18-21). Philolaos enacted similar legislation to preserve the number of kleroi (Pol. 1274b 2-5). This device was undoubtedly meant to preserve the property-basis of the existing aristocracy. Aristotle (Pol. 1297a 14-35) records a number of measures that were intended to preserve oligarchies. They include among other things fines for the wealthy (but not for the poor) who do not participate in government. Most of these were probably derived.by Aristotle from the legislation of the lawgivers. One measure is specifically assigned to Charondas: \ 147 because of the prestige and nearly unlimited power that their offices conferred they may well have furnished models to holders of regular magistracies who desired greater power than their offices could give. In some cases extraordinary magistracies themselves led to tyranny: Aristotle says that in Larisa and Abydos a mediating magistrate became the master 29 of both factions. There i s evidence to suggest that a distinction was not always recognised between extraordinary constitutional offices and tyranny. This seems to have been true in the case of the aisymnetes. Although the aisymnetes was an 'elected tyrant,* and therefore held a constitutional magistracy, there is no doubt that he was regarded as a tyrannos at least by some in his own day. Pittakos, who was chosen aisymnetes in Mytilene, was called a tyrannos by his p o l i t i c a l r i v a l , the imposition of a large fine on wealthy persons i f they do not serve on the jury but of a small fine on others (Pol. 1297a 21-24). 29. Pol. 1306a 26-31. 30. See Aristotle f r . 524 Rose (ap_. Arg. 2, Sophokles' Oed. Rex): 6 6* 'ApioxoxeXTic, C V KvuaCcov TioXtxeCa T O U Q T U D C I V V O U Q <pt\ol xo npSxepov aiavuv^xaQ :rcpocKiYopeueo0cu. etVlV^xepov yap CHCZVO xouvoua. 31. Aristotle, Pol. 1285a 35-37. r \ 148 Alkaios, and Strabo includes him amongst the tyrannoi of 33 Mytilene. When Solon's friends urged him to make himself 0 tyrant, they pointed to the example of Pittakos whom the 34 Mytileneans had chosen to be their tyrannos. Theodoros Metochites names four men who held the office of aisymnetes; Pittakos of Mytilene, Phoibias of Samos, 35 Chairemon of Apollonia, and Periandros of Corinth. The mention of Pittakos as aisymnetes supports Aristotle's state-ment that he held this o f f i c e . Phoibias and Chairemon are otherwise unknown. It is surprising to find Periandros included amongst the aisymnetai in Theodoros' l i s t , for Periandros succeeded his father in the tyranny, and thus established a dynasty. Moreover, Aristotle says that the aisymnetes is elected and rules over willing subjects. Yet Aristotle makes Periandros the originator of most of the repressive safeguards of tyrants: suppressing outstanding men, prohibiting gatherings, employing spies, fostering 32. Z 24 Lobel-Page, ap_. Aristotle, Pol. 1285a 39 - 1285b 1. 33. Strabo 13. 2. 3, p. 617. 34. Plutarch, Solon 14. 7. 35. Theodoros Metochites p. 668 in Aristotelis Opera (ed. I. Bekker 10 313). ' • 36. Pol. 1285b 3, 1295a 15-16. 149 distrust amongst citizens, keeping subjects poor and occupied. There is a discrepancy here and i t is a discrep-ancy that is found in the sources that deal with Periandros, and, indeed, in the sources for the Kypselid tyranny 38 generally. The later accounts of Periandros, li k e that of Aristotle, reflect the anti-tyrannical temper of later Greek thought and represent Periandros as cruel and ruthless, the very archetype of the Greek tyrant. But another tradition was more favourable to the tyrant. This is shown most clearly by the inclusion of Periandros in the l i s t of the 'Seven Wise 39 Men' of Greece. Enough'survives in our sources to show that 37. Pol. 1313a 36 - 1313b 21. 38. See Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 45-48. 39. He is not included in the earliest extant l i s t of the Seven, which is found in Plato's Protagoras (343a). This l i s t named Thales of Miletos, Pittakos of Mytilene, Bias of Priene, Kleoboulos of Lindos, Solon of"Athens, Chilon of Sparta, and Myson, of Chen. But although Plato's l i s t represents our earliest extant source for the Seven i t reveals the anti-tyrannical feeling that caused Periandros' name to be dropped from the l i s t ; see Fornara, Historia 17 (1968) 420-422. Diogenes Laertios, who is our chief source for the Seven Wise Men, says that instead of Myson Periandros appeared in other .. \ ' • \ \ • • . 150 Periandros enjoyed something of a reputation as a lawgiver, apparently one of the functions of an aisymnetes Periandros limited expenditure on funerals; he drowned a l l procuresses; he forbade citizens to acquire slaves and to live in idleness; and he did not allow anyone to live in the city without his permission. 4 1 He had a reputation for practical wisdom, as the apophthegms attributed to him indicate: 'Never do anything for money'; 'Gain is ignoble'; 'Whatever agreement l i s t s (Diogenes Laertios 1. 30 and 1. 99). Periandros appears also in the following l i s t s : Plutarch, De E apud Delphos 3 (Moralia 385 E); Dio Chrysostomos 37. 456 M (103 R); Plato, Epistulae 2 (311a). On the 'Seven Wise Men' see Burn, The  Lyric Age of Greece 207-209. 40. Aristotle, Pol. 1274b 18-19. 41. Herakleides Pontikos, FHG 2 213; Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 58; Diogenes Laertios 1. 98 (quoting Ephoros and Aristotle). Ure (192) thinks that the statement that Periandros did not allow everyone to live in the city may be taken to mean that he tried to control the supply of labour in the city or to prevent the rural population from leaving the land. A more li k e l y reason, perhaps,vis that he wished to avoid stasis in the c i t y . Cf. Peisistratos 9 legislation (Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 16. 3; Plutarch, Solon 31. 5) and see Aristotle, Pol. 1311a 12-15. 151 you make, stay with i t . 142 That his reputation as arbitrator extended beyond the borders of Corinth in his own day is shown by his invitation to settle the dispute between Athens and 43 Mytilene over Sigeion. Theodoros Metochites is not the only author to c a l l Periandros an aisymnetes; his rule is called an aisymneteia by Diogenes L a e r t i o s . 4 4 We are told that Periandros, before he became tyrannical, was popular ( 6T J U O T I K6Q ) « 4 5 Popularity would have been a requisite to the election of an aisymnetes. But we know that Periandros inherited the tyranny from his 46 father, Kypselos, and passed i t on to Psammetichos. To discover how the rule was passed on we must examine the basis of Kypselos' power. The story of Kypselos' birth i s related by Herodotos, the 47 account of his rise to power by Nikolaos of Damaskos. Labda 42. Diogenes Laertios 1. 97. 43. Herodotos 5. 95. 2; Strabo 13. 1. 38, p. 600; Diogenes Laertios lb 74. 44. Diogenes Laertios 1. 100. 45. Gregory of Cyprus 3. 30 (von Leutsch and Schneidewin, Corpus Paroemiographorum Graecorum 2 89); cf. Schol. Plato, Hippias Major 304 E. ' -\ 46. Herodotos 5. 92 Cl; Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 58 Aristotle, Pol. 1315b 22-26. 152 the mother of Kypselos, belonged to the ruling Bakchiad aristocracy, but because of her lameness she was forced to marry outside the Bakchiads. Her husband was Aetion, who traced his descent from the pre-Dorian Lapithai. When a son was born to the couple the Bakchiads sent agents to k i l l the child, for an oracle had prophesied that Ae'tion's son would one day threaten them. But out of pity they did not k i l l the child, though they reported that they had done so. Kypselos was sent abroad by his parents, f i r s t to Olympia and later to Kleonai. Afterwards, encouraged by a Delphic oracle, Kypselos returned to Corinth, where he became very popular and was elected polemarch. He surpassed a l l those who had ever held the o f f i c e . Though the magistracy was a regular one, Kypselos succeeded in gaining additional powers: he introduced a law that gave himself judicial powers. He increased his popularity by showing leniency to debtors. In so doing he gained for himself a reputation for justice and clemency in contrast to the reputation of the Bakchiads. He won the support of the people, organised a excnpiHOv , and k i l l e d Patrokleides, the reigning basileus, who was acting i l l e g a l l y and was an object of hatred ( JiapAvouov ovxa KCLI CWXXQT\ ) • T n e demos quickly made 47. Herodotos 5. 92 fOL-Cl; Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 57. 153 him basileus in Patrokleides' place. He recalled those who had been banished by the Bakchiads and restored to f u l l rights those who had been deprived of their c i v i c rights. He ruled mildly and did not maintain a bodyguard. A significant aspect of Kypselos' rule is that he was elected to the positions he held. He held power constitution-a l l y , f i r s t as poleraarch, ther\ as bas ileus. In both instances he held ordinary magistracies but with apparently extraordinary powers or tenure. We do not know precisely which powers were included in the polemarchy at Corinth, but Kypselos had judicial powers added to,the office. The basileia that Kypselos held was the chief magistracy at Corinth and the Bakchiads had previously controlled i t . Diodoros says that when the Bakchiads ruled Corinth they annually chose one man to be prytanis and he held the position of king. The form of government, he says, lasted for ninety years t i l l i t was destroyed by the tyranny of Kypselos. But the office of prytanis was not destroyed by Kypselos, for Periandros held i t . In his epitaph, quoted by Diogenes 48. Diodoros 7. 9. Cf. Pausanias 2. 4. 4s nal Tc\taxr\v uev Hcxta C X6O Q 'ApieviQ H C U ncpavxag M T C C V O U O I , BaaiXeuc, 6c ov6etQ C T I cycvcTO. TtpvT&vcK; 6c ex B O H X ( > & & V ' eviauTov apxovtcQ, cc, 'o KG<J>eXoc, TvpavvJjoaQ & ' H C T C W V O Q c^SpaXc T O U Q Baxxt&aQe 154 49 Laertios, he is named prytanis. The f a l l of the Bakchiads and the rise to power of Kypselos may well have been due to factionalism that existed amongst r i v a l aristocrats in Corinth. Nikolaos says that while the Bakchiads held a monopoly of the chief magistracy, they deprived many of c i v i c rights and banished others. These w i l l most l i k e l y have been r i v a l aristocrats. The situation at Corinth seems to have been much like that of other poleis' of early Greece, with factional disputes existing amongst a number of families that sought power. 5 0 So long as the ____________ / 49. nXoUTOU KtXL OCHptl\Q TCpUTCCVlV KCXTplQ T)6c K5plv80C. H 6 \ 7 I O L Q ayxtaXoQ yT[ IIepCctv6pov exei. (Diogenes Laertios 1. 97). Kypselos is called basileus by Nikolaos of Damaskos (FGrH 2A 90 F 57, 58) and in the Delphic oracle quoted by Herodotos (5. 92 c2). But Pausanias and Diodoros say that the Bakchiads ruled by holding the prytaneia annually and Periandros held this office as well. Most l i k e l y the tyrants held the office of prytaneia, while basileus was their popular t i t l e ; for a discussion see Will, Korinthiaka 298-300. Freeman has observed that basileus seems to have been a popular t i t l e for Polykrates of Samos and Gelon (The  History of S i c i l y 2 434);'cf. Hegyi, Acta Antigua 13 (1965) 306. • \ ' • 155 Bakchiads were in power they were able to keep a monopoly of the chief magistracy and even to secure the banishment of some of their p o l i t i c a l enemies; but they were not able to control p o l i t i c a l affairs entirely to the exclusion of other clans. Enough members of r i v a l aristocratic families apparently had voting rights to elect Kypselos polemarch and to grant him extraordinary powers. Kypselos, a clan- or factional leader (of a cToupix6v ), later became involved in violence and k i l l e d the reigning basileus. 5 1 We hear of no hoplite armies, no class-struggle, only of aristocratic stasis. Violence was not uncommon in aristocratic stasis; this is clearly evident in 52 the accounts of Kylon and the Alkmeonidai in Athens, 50. Evidence for the existence of factional s t r i f e in Corinth in the seventh century is provided by Nikolaos of Damaskos (FGrH 2A 90 F 35), who says that Pheidon of Argos helped some Corinthian friends who were engaged in c i v i l war and was k i l l e d in an attack made by his supporters. 51. There is no evidence for (and much against) the view of Drews (Historia 21 [1972] 134) that Kypselos was not a Corinthian, but a mercenary captain of Corinthian troops hired by the Bakchiads who overthrew his employers. 52. Herodotos 5. 71; Thucydides 1. 126; Plutarch, Solon 12. 1. 156 Theagenes in Megara, and the factionalism in Mytilene at the time of Alkaios. 5 4 Pheidon's death in factional s t r i f e in Corinth a few years before Kypselos 1 rule indicates that violence was not unknown in Corinthian p o l i t i c s . Kypselos based his tyranny not on a hoplite revolution but on his being chosen basileus. We are told that he held 55 power without a bodyguard ( ovxc 6opuip6pov<; exwv )» which seems out of character with later views of tyranny. 5 6 Those who believe that Kypselos came to power with the support of hoplites interpret the absence of a bodyguard to mean that 'he 57 could rely on the army.* But his lack of a bodyguard surely / reflects a wider popularity than simply with the soldiers; and i t is quite natural that an elected magistrate who was con-sidered to be a constitutional ruler would not need a bodyguard. Later tradition considered Kypselos a tyrannos. But was his 53. Aristotle, Pol. 1305a 24-26. 54. Aristotle, Pol. 1311b 26-30; Diogenes Laertios 1. 74; Strabo 13. 2. 3, p. 617; see also Schol. Alkaios E.2, G 1 Lobel-Page. 55. Nikolaos of Damaskos 2A 90 F 57; Aristotle, Pol. 1315b 27-28. ^ 56. See Aristotle, PolV 1311a 7-8, 12-13. -,\ ' _ 57. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 49; cf. Pleket, op_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 35. • A 157 position in Corinth any different from that of the Bakchiads who had previously held the basileia? The Bakchiads used force and the reigning basileus whom Kypselos k i l l e d was acting i l l e g a l l y . 5 8 The Bakchiads were called mounarchoi, 5 9 a synonym for tyrannoi, 6 0 and indeed they f i t the description of a dynasteia, which Aristotle thought to be close to monarchia. 6 1 It is questionable whether the substitution of the Kypselids for the Bakchiads in control of the chief magistracy w i l l have been regarded by most Corinthians as any more than the replacement of one ruling clan by another. Our sources indicate, then, that Kypselos based his rule not on a hoplite revolution ( of which there is no evidence), nor on the possession of power seized i l l e g a l l y and maintained by force. Kypselos was elected to the highest magistracy and held i t as the Bakchiads had previously. This may have involved alliances with leaders of r i v a l anti-Bakchiad clans, who desired a share in the magistracies and who were willing to support Kypselos as Megakles supported his r i v a l 62 Peisistratos. Perhaps Kypselos' continued maintenance of 58. Nikolaos of Damaskos„ FGrH 2A 90 F 57. 59. Herodotos 5. 92 32.^  60. See Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 27. 61. Pol. 1293a 26-31." . 62. Herodotos 1. 60. 2-3. 158 power necessitated manipulation of the constitutional procedures. Whether he held repeated annual tenure of the prytaneia or was elected to this magistracy for l i f e is unknown. But the evidence indicates that the constitutional machinery was maintained in Corinth under the rule of the Kypselids as i t was under the Pesistratids in Athens. Aristotle says that Peisistratos governed constitutionally rather than tyrannically (uftMov noXiTtnGjc; ^ TupctvvtHcoc;) « 6 4 . According to Herodotos he did not disturb the existing magistracies or change the laws but governed Athens on the basis of the established constitution. 6 5 The Areiopagos 63. Pleket, op. c i t . (n. 12 above) 25 n. 25a, thinks that with 'the memory of the annual change of the basileus under the detested Bakchiads s t i l l fresh in their minds, the people decided to nominate Cypselos for l i f e . ' 64. Ath. Pol. 16. 2. The Ath. Pol. says that Peisistratos disarmed the demos after Pallene (15. 3-4); but this is doubted by Day and Chambers, Aristotle's History of Athenian  Democracy 20-21, Ehrenberg, From Solon to Socrates 80, and Pleket, op_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 26 n. 29. Thucydides says that i t was Hippias who disarmed the citizens after the murder of Hipparchos (6. 58. 2). 65. Herodotos 1. 59. 6. Thucydides says (6. 54. 6) that the \ . . ' . * ' • . • \ - • ' • 159 continued to meet in Athens and Peisistratos was even summoned to stand t r i a l on a charge of homicide. How did Kypselos pass his rule on to Periandros? 'A second generation despot,' writes Forrest, 'has no right to his father's place. He must either abdicate, like Richard 67 Cromwell, or resist with force, like Tiberius or Periander.' Not always. In Athens Peisistratos was succeeded by his sons in an orderly manner in which Hippias replaced his father as head of the family. 6 8 How Hippias maintained his rule is clear from the fortunate discovery of a fragment of the Athenian archon-list, 6 9 which reveals that he maintained alliances with several leading families in Attika who supported the rule of the Peisistratids and in return held magistracies under them. Peisistratids took care to see that some of themselves should always hold the archonship. This was a practice no less characteristic of aristocratic pol i t i c s controlled by a single clan (c.£., the Bakchiads of Corinth) than of tyranny. 66. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 16. 8; Plutarch, Solon 31. 3. 67. Forrest 116. 68. Loenen (Mnemosyne Series 4 1 [1948] 81-89) argues (against Thucydides) that the sons of Peisistratos ruled jointly after the death of their father and that Hippias enjoyed supremacy because he was the oldest. 69. SGHI 6, f r . c. 160 Apparently the rule of one clan could be maintained most 70 successfully with the support of other clans. In Corinth, as in Athens, the tyranny was passed on to the head of the family in power, to Periandros, who succeeded his father as head of the Kypselids and heir to the family's p o l i t i c a l fortunes. Andrewes believes that 'this revolution was the f i r s t of many which put down aristocracies and replaced them for the time being by those dictatorships which the Greeks 71 called tyrannies.' 'The governing class had been broken, and Cypselus' council and minor magistrates w i l l have been 70. There is no reason to assume that the inclusion of other families in the archonship at the beginning of Hippias' tyranny in Athens was anything but a continuation of Peisistratos' policy of allying himself with friendly nobles. Peisistratos formed an early alliance with Megakles (Herodotos 1. 60. 2 - 1. 61. 1; Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 14. 4). Aristotle says that the majority of the nobles favoured Peisistratos during his tyranny (Ath. Pol. 16. 9). Though Herodotos denies i t , i t is possible that the Alkmeonidai remained in Athens during the rule of Peisistratos: see Bicknell, Historia 19 (1970) 129-131; contra, Herodotos 1. 64. 3 and 6. 123. 1. 71. Probouleusis: Sparta's Contribution to the Technique of  Government 14. 161 drawn from a new class not previously concerned with govern-72 ment.' But Kypselos was an aristocrat and i t is reasonable to assume that he maintained good relations with other non-Bakchiad Corinthian aristocrats. Phalios, an aristocrat, was 73 sent out under Kypselos as oikist of Epidamnos. There i s , pace Andrewes, no evidence that Kypselos brought the lower classes into the government, and there is no reason why he should have done so. Some nobles w i l l , in Corinth as in Athens, have preferred a share in government under a r i v a l family in return for their p o l i t i c a l support to no share at a l l in return for open h o s t i l i t y . We have no reason to assume that in Corinth or elsewhere most aristocrats suffered under tyrannies. Tyranny was not hostile to aristocracy, only to 74 certain (rival) aristocrats. Even then, accommodation could be, and often was, made. 72. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 48-49. 73. Thucydides 1. 24. 2. Miltiades went to the Thrakian Chersonese with a number of Athenians (as oikist of an apoikia?). I doubt i f this was without Peisistratos* blessing; though Miltiades had become irked at Peisistratos' rule (Herodotos 6. 35. 3). 74. I do not agree with Pleket (op_. c i t . [n. 12 above] 50) that the tyrants practised an anti-aristocratic or a 'levelling policy.' 162 Periandros, then, most likely succeeded his father by virtue of his being head of his family, and he continued to control poli t i c s in Corinth, drawing on the popularity of his father and relying for support, most probably, on other noble families. The constitutional machinery was maintained: as we have seen, Periandros held the office of prytanis. Yet he apparently also held the extraordinary office of aisymnetes. Why Periandros should have been chosen to this position in place of (orin addition to) the office of prytanis is not known and we can only speculate. It may be that factional s t r i f e broke out once more after the death of Kypselos and that Periandros sought additional authority to deal with the possibility of stasis amongst r i v a l families. This is suggested by Aristotle's statement that among the safeguards of tyrants introduced by Periandros were the prohibition of 75 syssitia and hetairia and paideia, perhaps an attempt to destroy the bonds of hetaireiai that created stasis. It seems paradoxical that the leader of a faction should be chosen as the 'mediator' between factions. Yet this was the position of Pittakos, who was chosen aisymnetes to oppose the exiles, who were his ri v a l s , under Antimenides and Alkaios. 75. Pol. 1313a 41 -1313b-l. 76. Aristotle, Pol. 1285a 35-37. A 163 Doubtless Pittakos and Periandros were able to gain this office because of the support of their dependents and a l l i e d clans. We are told that Periandros had an armed bodyguard of 300 77 . . men. He may have obtained this bodyguard with his election as aisymnetes, for Aristotle says that the aisymnetes was •> 78 granted a bodyguard with his appointment. It was after he received the advice of Thrasyboulos of Miletos that he should strengthen his aisymneteia by cutting off the tallest stalks 79 that Periandros began to k i l l or banish the chief citizens, perhaps members of r i v a l families. He is said to have changed his arche into a tyranny, and his rule became increasingly harsh. According to Aristotle, most of the ordinary safeguards 81 of tyranny were said to have been instituted by Periandros. It is commonly believed that tyrants secured their power by revolution and maintained their i l l e g a l rule by force. Of the archaic tyrannies this i s misleading and largely untrue. It is misleading because i t ignores the fact that the use of 77. Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 58. 78. Pol. 1286b 37-39. 79. Diogenes Laertios 1. 100. See p. 117 n. 141 above. 80. Diogenes Laertios 1. 98; cf. Herakleides Pontikos, FHG 2 213, f r . 5, and Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 58. 81. Pol. 1313a 34-37. 164 violence was not peculiar to tyrants or their supporters; rather i t seems to have been characteristic of aristocratic politics owing to the stasis that sometimes existed amongst noble families. Stasis was often violent in classical poleis because of the h o s t i l i t y between the few and the many; but aristocratic p o l i t i c s offered greater possibility of violence because of the number of families that might be involved in s t a s i s I n Athens in the seventh century and in Mytilene and Miletos in the sixth p o l i t i c a l rivalry was marked by 83 violence. Nor was violence employed only by those families that did not share in the control of the magistracies. The Penthilidai of Mytilene, the Bakchiads of Corinth, and the Alkmeonidai of Athens resorted to the use of violence while 84 in power. If those who did not share in the magistracies used violence they employed means that were practised by aristocratic factions in and out of power. Moreover, i l l e g a l 82. Aristotle, Pol. 1302a 8-13. 83. Athens: see n. 52 above. Mytilene: see n. 54 above. Miletos: see pp. 116-117 above. 84. Aristotle, Pol. 1311b 26-30 (Penthilidai); Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 57 (Bakchiads, who are described as upptoxdQ xc ovxac, Hal BiaCouC.); Thucydides 1. 126. 11-12, Herodotos 5. 71, Plutarch, Solon 12. 1 (Alkmeonidai*). 165 conduct was not a monopoly of tyrants. The Bakchiads of 85 Corinth were said to have acted i l l e g a l l y . In Athens Damasias i l l e g a l l y extended the duration of his archonship 86 t i l l he was expelled by force. By contrast, many of the early tyrants were exemplary in respect of constitutional forms. The long rule of the Orthagorids in Sikyon is 87 attributed partly to their obedience to the laws ; and Peisistratos governed according to the established constitu-88 tion. The evidence, moreover, seems to contradict the view that early tyrants usurped power and maintained i t by force. Many accounts that t e l l of tyrants that seized power in a coup d'etat are late, stereotyped, and suspect. Of hoplite revolutions we hear virtually nothing. We have several accounts of men who requested bodyguards and used them to seize power. These bodyguards, however, were not private armies but guards that had the o f f i c i a l sanction of the polis• The bodyguards are li k e l y to have been given along with the o f f i c i a l authority to use them i f the need arose. When they 85. Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 57. 86. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 13. 2. 87. Aristotle, Pol. 1315b 12-16. 88. See n. 64 and n. 65 above. 166 were used i t can hardly have come as a complete surprise to the citizens who granted the bodyguard. It does not appear that many tyrants in archaic Greece maintained themselves in power through force. Kypselos enjoyed popularity in Corinth and did 89 not require a bodyguard. The Orthagorids treated their subjects moderately and looked after the interests of the people. 9 0 The Peisistratids were popular with both the people 91 and the nobles. Aristotle is demonstrably wrong when he says that kings rule over willing subjects and according to law while tyrants rule over unwilling subjects and that for this reason kings have bodyguards of citizens and tyrants of 92 . foreigners. This reflects his view that tyranny represents the opposite of basileia, constitutional kingship. Many early tyrants ruled over willing subjects and some (like Peisistratos) had bodyguards of citizens. Some tyrants employed mercenaries: Peisistratos secured his rule in Athens after the Battle of 93 Pallene by the use of mercenaries. But the employment of mercenaries was not peculiar to tyrants: oligarchs also 89. See n. 45 and n. 47 above (second item). 90. Aristotle, Pol. 1315b 14-18. 91. Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 16. 9. 92. Pol. 1285a 25-29; cf. 1311a 7-8. 93. Herodotos 1. 64. 1. 167 94 employed mercenaries because of their distrust of the people. Mercenaries were a common feature of the Mediterranean world in archaic Greece and they seem to have been employed less to keep the tyrant in power than by those tyrants who, like 95 Polykrates of Samos, pursued a vigorous foreign policy and required additional troops for battle. Thus while armed violence was sometimes a prelude to tyranny most early tyrants based their rule on holding constitutional magistracies. Pheidon was basileus in Argos.^ 6 97 In Miletos tyranny arose from the office of prytanis. In Corinth, as we have seen, Kypselos was elected basileus (though the actual t i t l e of his office was probably prytanis) 98 and Periandros was chosen both prytanis and aisymnetes. 99 Orthagoras was chosen polemarch in Sikyon and Panaitios held 100 the same position in Leontinoi. The position of aisymnetes was held by many individuals in archaic p o l e i s , 1 0 1 but the 94. Aristotle, Pol. 1306  19-22. 95. Herodotos 3. 54. 2. 96. Aristotle, Pol. 1310b 26-28. 97. Aristotle, Pol. 1305a 15-18. 98. See n. 47 (second item) and n. 49 above (Kypselos); and n. 49 and n. 35 above (Periandros). 99. P. Oxy. 11, No. 1365 (FGrH 2A 105 F 2). 100. Polyainos 4. 47. 101. See pp. 144-145 above. A 168 aisymneteia was in no sense a special type of tyranny in being 'elective.' Whatever other characteristics tyrants possessed l 1 they were not mere usurpers who ruled extra-constitutionally. In most cases they seem rather to have been careful to ensure a constitutional basis for their r u l e . 1 0 3 It is commonly held that Greek tyranny had it s origins in Anatolia, particularly in L y d i a . 1 0 4 According to this view, tyranny represented a new kind of rule in the polis that was based on the usurpation of power and was patterned after oriental monarchy as i t existed in the ancient Near East. This view i s based primarily on two considerations: (1) the Greek tradition that Gyges was the f i r s t tyrannos; and (2) the belief that tyrannos is not a Greek word but a loan-word from Anatolia. 102. Lenschau, R_E 7A_> cols. 1838-1840; Hegyi, op_. c i t • (n. 49 above) 307; Labarbe, Ant. Class. 40 (1971) 471-504. Contra: Swoboda, Klio 12 (1912) 342; Busolt-Swoboda, Griechische  Staatskunde 1 381; Oliva, Klio 38 (1960) 81; Ehrenberg, The  Greek State 45^ -46 . 103. Nor din, op_. c i t . (n. 19 above) 404-408. 104. See most recently Hegyi, op_. c i t . (n. 49 above) 303-318; Labarbe, op_. c i t . (n.^ ,102 above) 471-504; Drews, op. ci t • (n. 51 above) 129-144. i \ \ v • \ 169 In a well known fragment Archilochos writes: Ou uot TO Tvycw xov 7io\t>xP&oou ueXet ou6* etX£ Tiw uc £?j\o<; ovb' ayatoy.a\, 0effiv epycc, ueyctXTic, 6* o w epeco xupavvC6oQ* dn67ipo8cv yap caxiv 6tp6aAucov euffiv. Hippias says that the word tyrannos was not used by the Greeks 106 t i l l the time of Archilochos. Euphorion calls Gyges the 107 f i r s t tyrant. One ancient etymology traces the word tyrannos to Tyrrhas, a Lydian city where Gyges was f i r s t 10S tyrant. On the basis of the fragment of Archilochos and the ancient tradition that referred to Gyges as a tyrant i t has been concluded that Gyges 'was called tyrannos by his 109 subjects and their Greek neighbours.' Yet Archilochos does not c a l l Gyges tyrannos in this fragment 1 1 0; he refers only to 105. Fr. 22 Diehl. 106 . Hippias fr . 9 Diels-Kranz (ap. Arg. 2, Sophokles ' Oed. Rex). 107. FHG 3 72, f r . 1. 108. Et. Gud. 537, lines 26-28 (cf. 538, lines 4-5 and Labarbe, op. ext. [n. 102 above] 476-477); E_. Mag. 771, lines 55-56. The MSS read 'Lykian' but this is usually emended to read 'Lydian* (Labarbe, op_. c i t . 475). 109. Drews, op. c i t . (n. 51 above) 143. 110. Mazzarino, Fra oriente e occidente 201; contra, Dunbabin, 170 Gyges1 wealth. The ancient etymologies that trace the word tyrannos are worth l i t t l e . 1 1 1 The only known aspect of Gyges* reign that might be held to support his identification as a 112 tyrannos is the fact that he apparently usurped power. But, as we have seen, the usurpation of power was not characteristic of Greek tyrants. The evidence that Gyges was called tyrant by the Lydians or by contemporary Greeks is too slender to support a strong argument that Gyges was known as a tyrant. It has been common to assume an Anatolian, and 113 specifically a Lydian, origin of the word tyrannos. But Mazzarino has shown that there did not exist a similar word The Greeks and their Eastern Neighbours 58. See also Labarbe, op. c i t . (n. 102 above) 492-493. If Herodotos 1. 12. 2 refers to this poem and is not an interpolation (see Labarbe, op_. c i t . 491 n. 86 for a defence of the passage) Archilochos may refer to Gyges as tyrant, but this is problematical. 111. For a discussion see Labarbe, op. c i t . 471-477. 112. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants 22. 113. Busolt-Swoboda, Griechische Staatskunde 1 381; Wade-Gery, CAH 3 549; Whatmough, The Foundations of Roman Italy 231; Forrest 78; Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen 1 3. 171 in Lydian: the Lydian word for king was palnA. In a thorough discussion of the etymology of the word tyrannos Hegyi also finds a Lydian origin of the word doubtful.1''"5 Of the four Lydian words that denote a reign none can be related to tyrannos. Hegyi suggests that the word may derive from the Lykian word tern for farmy.? But he admits that problems exist in postulating this derivation and concludes that '...the exact meaning and etymology of the word tyrannos is for the time 116 being an open question.* How problematical an Anatolian origin of the word is may be seen by the divergent suggestions 117 that have been made regarding the derivation of the word. / Not only must the verdict in regard to an Anatolian borrowing 114. Fra oriente e occidente 201-203. 115. Hegyi, op_. c i t . (n. 49 above) 314-318. 116. Ibid. 318. 117. In spite of the common opinion that tyrannos is not Indo-European Riemschneider derives i t from tarawanas, a Luwian word that denoted a Hi t t i t e arbiter (Hegyi, ojp_. c i t . [n. 49 above] 318). On the other hand a Semitic origin of the word has been found in the Hebrew seran, used of Philistine rulers (Dunbabin, The Greeks and their Eastern Neighbours 58, following Cuny). For a long l i s t of other attempts to trace the etymology of the word tyrannos see Labarbe, op. c i t . (n. 102 above) 478-479. 172 be 'not proven,' but there are several considerations that argue against tyranny having been taken over from the ancient Near East. If tyrannos was a loan-word we should expect to find i t used f i r s t among the Greeks in Asia Minor. Yet the earliest use of the word that we know of comes from Archilochos 118 and Semonides. The earliest use of the word tyrannos that 119 we have from the Eastern Greeks is found in Alkaios long after the word had gained currency elsewhere in Greece. Moreover, tyranny does not seem to have been introduced into Ionia before i t appeared on the mainland: the earliest 120 tyrannies that we know of were those in the Isthmian states. The absence of tyranny in Ionia before i t appeared in the area of the Isthmus argues against the view that tyranny began in Anatolia. The belief that tyranny had its origins in Lydia has fostered the view that i t represented an oriental conception of monarchy that was borrowed from the Near East. This view 118. Archilochos f r . 22 Diehl; Semonides7 line 69 Diehl. An-other early possible mention of tyranny occurs in a papyrus-frag-ment ascribed to Archilochos: KeCviK avaoae next T[ upav] vtr\v £ x c (P. Oxy. 22 No. 2310, f r . 1, col. 1, line 20). 119. Z 24 Lobel-Page. 120. White, op_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 4. 173 has recently been restated by Labarbe, who traces the origin of tyranny to Lydia and believes that tyranny represented the introduction into Greece of the idea of absolute monarchy from Lydia. This theory might be said to find support in the close relations that were maintained between several early tyrants and the rulers of Egypt and Lydia as well as in the vigorous foreign policies of some tyrants. Individual tyrants, such as Polykrates of Samos, may indeed have been influenced by ideas of oriental monarchy, but on the whole i t i s d i f f i c u l t to find a consistent influence of ideas of oriental kingship on tyranny in Greece. The care that' early tyrants took to rule through established magistracies and to rule within the constitutional framework of the polis, as well as the failure of some early tyrants to maintain bodyguards, argues against the theory that early tyrants t r i e d to impose an oriental conception of 122 absolute monarchy in any form on the early polis. 121. 0p_. c i t . (n. 102 above) 500-504. 122. Even i f the word tyrannos should prove to be a loan-word from Anatolia i t need not follow that tyranny represented a new concept imported into Greece from that area. Early tyrants seem to have been called basileus more commonly than tyrannos in the seventh and sixth centuries, indicating perhaps that to the demos they were more closely identified with traditional rulers of the polls. i • • 174 It is doubtful, then, that tyranny in Greece was patterned after absolute monarchy as i t existed in Lydia or anywhere else in Anatolia. It signified neither usurpation of legal authority nor rule secured or maintained by force. What did tyranny mean to the Greeks in the seventh and sixth 123 centuries? Andrewes suggests that the original use of the word tyrannos was as 'a simple equivalent' for basileus; and that when Archilochos adopted the word he 'meant no distinction between tyrannos and basileus.' The word 'went downhill* in conversation and prose and had already become a derogatory term in the poetry of Solon and Theognis. It retained this dyslogistic sense in ordinary prose in the f i f t h century but kept its original meaning in, e.g_., Attic drama, where i t is 124 synonymous with basileus. Forrest finds Andrewes unconvincing and believes rather that the word tyrannos described a new phenomenon, a ruler who had seized power by force. He points out that to Solon '"tyranny" was already a bad thing,' while 'Archilochos uses the word in a context where he is almost certainly thinking of Gyges whose rule was founded on revolution; the word was at once applied to Greeks 123. The Greek Tyrants 22-23. 124. Forrest 82-84., 175 who did the same.' This is very questionable: we cannot be certain that Archilochos called Gyges a tyrant; nor are we sure that the word was immediately applied to Greek tyrants. Mary white has observed that i t is not certain that seventh-1 century tyrants were called tyrannoi by their contemporaries. But the greatest objection to Forrest's view is that the seizure of power by revolution was not necessarily a mark of tyranny in the seventh century. Forrest is correct in finding Andrewes' discussion of the word tyrannos unconvincing, but his view that tyrannos was used to describe a man who, like Gyges, seized power violently is equally questionable. Yet tyranny seems to have had a distinctive meaning in the seventh and sixth centuries. Far from being a neutral term, tyrannos was used as a term of reproach by Solon and 1 2 7 12 8 Theognis. But a passage in Plutarch's l i f e of Solon indicates that i t was not always used dyslogistically: 125. Ibid. 82, 83. 126. 0p_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 4. Miss White errs, however, in saying that there i s no certainty that tyrants of the sixth century were called tyrants by their contemporaries. Pittakos is called tyrannos by Alkaios (Z 24 Lobel-Page). 127. Theognis 823, 1181, .1204; Solon 23 lines 6, 9, 19 Diehl. 128. Plutarch, Solon 14. 7-8. 176 i u&Xiaxa 6' OL auvfjGeiQ C H & H I £ O V , et 6ia xouvop.cc SuaeoTTxiTCU XTJV -aovocpxCccv, wancp oin dpeTTj xou- Xccp6vxoQ CU6UQ dv poccaXeCocv Y E V O V L C V T I V , * Y E Y e v Tiy-£ V Tl v npoxepov p,ev Eupoetfot Tuvvcov6ccv, vuv 6c Mixu\T|val"oiQ III.XTOCHOV C X O U S V O U Q xOpocvvov. xouxcov ouSev cZ,£npovac xov £6Xtova XTIQ ocuxou npoaipSaccoc;, aXXa iipoc; uev xoug (pCXovc; ciTtev, cog X £ Y C T C U , HOCXOV p.ev eivcu t\v xupavvi6a Xcoptov, OVJH exetv 6* aTtSpocat v. wxX. This passage makes i t clear that tyranny was a position to be desired, for Solorfs friends (his hetaireia?) suggested that he make himself tyrant. We are also told that the leaders of both sides of the conflict in Athens urged Solon to establish 1 oo a tyranny. The tyrant was open to reproach, but the tyrannies of Tynnondas and Pittakos had become b a s i l e i a i . I t was the name of tyranny that was to be feared. The office i t s e l f was not bad: xccXov ucv eivcu x\v xupavvt*6oc x w p £ ° v K 1 C ^ ."""a0 The office reflected the reputation of its holder, whose arete could give i t a good name. What did tyranny mean to Solon's friends? I believe 129. Ibid. 14. 4-5. 130. On this passage see\den Boer, Mnemosyne Series 4 19 (1966) 46-47, who argues that the line is a fragment of one of Solon's poems. 177 that i t denoted an. extraordinary position marked by power entrusted to an individual for a long period of time. It referred neither to an oriental despotism nor to power that had been obtained by usurping legally-constituted authority. Rather i t reflected the culmination of tendencies already present in the aristocratic polis. I have argued in Chapter Three that tyranny grew out of two features of the aristocratic constitution: the possession by magistrates of great and 131 sometimes nearly unchecked power; and long tenure of of f i c e . Tyranny was not a foreign idea transplanted to Greece, but the assumption of great power by an individual with long tenure in the context of familiar magistracies in the polis. In short tyranny was a Greek, not an oriental, phenomenon. Nor was tyranny a unique form of one-man rule in the archaic polis. Archaic Greece produced a number of outstanding 132 individuals who held extraordinary positions in the polis . The age of tyrants was also the age of the great nomothetai — 131. See pp. 108-109 above. 132. 'It i s , of course, no accident that the p o l i t i c a l rise of the individual belonged chiefly to an age in which individuality found i t s decisive expression in l y r i c poetry' (Ehrenberg, The Greek State 45). i \ ''X ' \ 178 Drakon, Charondas, Zaleukos, and Solon. There was a tendency towards personal government in archaic Greece even within aristocratic constitutions. We have seen how tyranny could develop out of ordinary magistracies, making use of the power already present in these offices. It was not a d i f f i c u l t step to go beyond the existing magistracies to create extraordinary offices such as the aisymneteia by which long tenure could be granted, even for a lifetime. A dominant faction could make use of the existing constitutional machinery or supplement i t to give its leaders extended tenure of office and longer control of the polis. It was the great and lasting power of a tyrant that made tyranny more than a basileia and at once an object of admiration and hatred. For although i t was based on the grant of authority by the polis i t was most often the result of the dominance of one family or a coalition of families over the polis, of a faction over the state. Mary White has suggested that in many ways Augustus' Principate and Perikles' strategia offer analogies to the rule 133. Jacoby has observed that 'every ancient legislation of which we know is the work of an individual, not of a board or a commission; commissions are an invention of radical democracy' (Atthis 94). 179 of the early Greek tyrants. I believe that the nature of Augustus' rule was quite unlike that of the early Greek tyrants; but although there was a very great difference between the nature of the constitutions in which the early tyrants, like Peisistratos, and Perikles operated I think that Perikles' position in Athens offers a closer analogy. Perikles was re-elected strategos for the last fifteen years of his l i f e ; though he held no greater power than any of his colleagues his prestige and reputation were greater and resulted in unsurpassed authority in Athens. Thucydides says that although Athens was,in name a democracy i t was in reality 135 government by one man. Thucydides surely refers here to his auctoritas rather than to his imperium. Perikles did not have despotic power; he was limited by his magistracy and tenure and in his policy by his a b i l i t y to convince the ekklesia. He needed the support of his followers and of 136 varying groups or factions in the assembly. To some extent this w i l l have been true of the early tyrants. They were, I believe, in many cases leaders of aristocratic families who 134. 0p_. c i t . (n. 12 above) 9-10. 135. Thucydides 2. 65. 9; see the whole of 2. 65 - 66. 136. Perikles and his friends were called the 'new Peisistratidai' (Plutarch, Perikles 16. 1). V 180 gained power by winning control of important magistracies of the polis. This did not always occur without violent s t r i f e (a characteristic element of tyranny according to the later Greek view of tyrants); but i t usually involved constitutional procedure. In some cases this control was gained by the support of other families. The early career of Peisistratos reveals, however, that such coalitions could be as readily dissolved as formed. Thus a tyrant's lasting power was based on his a b i l i t y to control factionalism and to retain the allegiance of his supporters. As long as a tyrant was a man of a b i l i t y who was widely admired and respected he might retain his position by repeated election to a magistracy, by election to office for l i f e , or by ensuring that his supporters always held the magistracies (as did the Peisistratids). He might retain the support of a l l i e d families by helping them to secure magistracies and so share in power. But the dissolution of a coalition of aristocratic families might bring an end to tyranny as happened in the case of Peisistratos before he 137 established his f i n a l tyranny. Sometimes after the death of a tyrant his successors had d i f f i c u l t y in maintaining the coalition that had supported him. This seems to have been true in Sikyon after the\death of Orthagoras when Isodemos 137. Herodotos 1. 61. 2. i 181 lost support to Kleisthenes. Tyranny, then, was not merely a synonym for basileia; nor did i t refer to the rule of a man who had usurped power and who ruled by force. Rather i t denoted the rule of an individual who held supreme power in a polis over a long period of time and so gained unsurpassed authority in the state. But no tyrant, as far as we know, ever held the formal t i t l e of tyrannos. Most early tyrants were like l y known within their' respective poleis by the names of the magistracies they held. When did a magistracy become a tyranny? To this question, I think, there is no simple answer. I suggest that the position 139 of a tyrant may have been ambiguous in his own day. An important factor w i l l have been the length of time a magistrate held his position. Repeated tenure of magistracies or election to an extraordinary position is the most probable way in which a man who perpetuated his control of the polis came to be recognised as a tyrant. To a tyrant's supporters tyranny 138. See Nikolaos of Damaskos, FGrH 2A 90 F 61, where there are indications of rivalry amongst the brothers Myron, Isoderaos, and Kleisthenes. Isodemos slew Myron and ruled Sikyon jointly with Kleisthenes, but Charidemos, a friend of Isodemos, transferred his allegiance to Kleisthenes, who made himself sole tyrant. 139. Cf. Hegyi, op_. c i t . (n. 49 above) 306. 182 meant the continued maintenance of power by one's own clan or faction and the tyrant w i l l have been the factional leader who succeeded in keeping power. To those clans who were denied a share in the rule of the polis tyranny became a p o l i t i c a l catchword that was used as a term of reproach against a successful opponent. It is so used by Alkaios of his erst-140 while friend Pittakos. To the demos tyranny represented the outcome of struggles for power amongst various factions of the aristocracy. It probably did not make a great deal of difference except to the dependents of those nobles involved who won the struggle. There were exceptions, of course: in Corinth the rule of the Bakchiads had become unpopular and the rule of Kypselos was welcomed. Where local issues were involved the rule of one clan might be favoured above another. It would be wrong to deny that the demos had any interest in p o l i t i c s ; but there were more pressing matters and p o l i t i c a l decisions were le f t to those who had always made them. To the demos in the archaic polis each period of stasis and the faction that i t brought to power w i l l have been merely another episode in the continuing struggle of the a r i s t o i for power, in which the demos w i l l have been involved for the most part only as spectators.\ 140. See n. 126 above. i \ 133 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1_. 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