UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Drusus Caesar, the son of Tiberius Shaw, Millo Lawrence Goodship 1990

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DRUSUS CAESAR, THE SON OF TIBERIUS By MILLO L.G. SHAW B.A. (Hons.), The U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a , 1974 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 LL.B., The U n i v e r s i t y o f , . B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C l a s s i c s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 ® M i l l o L.G. Shaw, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of 1 fl- S *> / c £ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) 0 ABSTRACT T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o d e d u c e f r o m t h e a n c i e n t s o u r c e s a n d a s s e s s t h e l i f e o f D r u s u s , t h e s o n o f T i b e r i u s , f o c u s s i n g upon h i s p o s i t i o n a n d c o n d u c t w i t h i n t h e J u l i o - C l a u d i a n p r i n c i p a t e a n d s u c c e s s i o n . The s t u d y i s w o r t h w h i l e , b u t d i f f i c u l t . D r u s u s was a p r o m i n e n t member o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , b u t t h e s u r v i v i n g l i t e r a r y r e f e r e n c e s ' t o h i m a r e d e f i c i e n t i n b o t h d e t a i l a n d q u a l i t y , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s were b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e J u l i a n s i d e o f t h e f a m i l y , c h i e f l y r e p r e s e n t e d by G e r m a n i c u s , and a g a i n s t t h e C l a u d i a n members, l i k e D r u s u s . He was b o r n on O c t o b e r 7 t h , p r o b a b l y b e t w e e n 15 and 13 BC. H i s f a t h e r , T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o , had i l l u s t r i o u s p a t r i c i a n f o r b e a r s a n d was s t e p s o n t o A u g u s t u s C a e s a r , w h i l e h i s m o t h e r , V i p s a n i a A g r i p p i n a , was d a u g h t e r o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s r i g h t - h a n d man, M a r c u s A g r i p p a . D r u s u s was i n i t i a l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e i m p e r i a l s u c c e s s i o n b e c a u s e he l a c k e d d i r e c t k i n s h i p w i t h t h e E m p e r o r , b u t i n AD 4 he was made t h e a d o p t i v e g r a n d s o n o f A u g u s t u s and f o u r t h i n t h e l i n e o f s u c c e s s i o n a f t e r T i b e r i u s , A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s , a nd G e r m a n i c u s , who were a l s o a d o p t e d . H i s name was c h a n g e d t o D r u s u s J u l i u s C a e s a r , r e f l e c t i n g h i s f u l l - f l e d g e d m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e J u l i a n d y n a s t y . He r e c e i v e d e x t r a o r d i n a r y h o n o u r s , i n c l u d i n g a d i s t i n g u i s h e d m a r r i a g e t o h i s c o u s i n , L i v i l l a , a c c e l e r a t e d p r o m o t i o n t h r o u g h t h e c u r s u s honorum, a nd o f f i c i a l p a i r i n g w i t h h i s a d o p t i v e b r o t h e r , G e r m a n i c u s . Upon t h e d e a t h s o f A u g u s t u s and P o s t u m u s a n d t h e a c c e s s i o n o f T i b e r i u s i n AD 14, D r u s u s s t o o d s e c o n d i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n . He l i v e d up t o h i s h i g h p o s i t i o n . I n 14 he e x p e d i t i o u s l y s u p p r e s s e d a d a n g e r o u s m u t i n y among t h e P a n n o n i a n l e g i o n s , and f r o m l a t e 17 t o e a r l y 20 h i s a c t i v i t i e s a l o n g t h e Danube f r o n t i e r s o weakened t h e German t r i b e s t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t b o t h e r t h e E m p i r e f o r a n o t h e r f i f t y y e a r s . As a c i v i l i a n m a g i s t r a t e and s e n a t o r he a c t e d c o m p e t e n t l y and f a i r l y . He was p r a i s e d f o r c h e c k i n g g r a v e a b u s e s o f t h e l a w o f t r e a s o n . He a p p e a r s t o h a v e had an o p e n , f r i e n d l y d i s p o s i t i o n a nd a b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e upon t h e E m p e r o r . G e r m a n i c u s ' d e a t h i n AD 19 l e f t D r u s u s as T i b e r i u s ' p r i m a r y s u c c e s s o r . T i b e r i u s f o r m a l l y c o n f i r m e d h i s new s t a t u s by s h a r i n g a c o n s u l s h i p w i t h h i m i n 21 a n d , i n p a r t i c u l a r , by r e q u e s t i n g t h e t r i b u n i c i a n power f o r h i m i n 22. N u m i s m a t i c e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , by 22 o r 23 a t t h e l a t e s t , t h e E m p e r o r t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i m p e r i a l d y n a s t y t o D r u s u s a s w e l l by p l a c i n g h i s t w i n s o n s , b o r n p r o b a b l y n e a r t h e end o f 19, a h e a d o f t h e s o n s o f G e r m a n i c u s i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n . T r a g i c a l l y , i n S e p t e m b e r , 2 3 , a t t h e v e r y peak o f h i s c a r e e r , D r u s u s d i e d . A t t h e t i m e he was t h o u g h t t o h a v e p a s s e d away f r o m n a t u r a l c a u s e s , b u t i n 31 t h e s t u n n i n g c h a r g e was made t h a t he had been p o i s o n e d by h i s w i f e and o t h e r s i n c o n s p i r a c y w i t h t h e commander o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n G u a r d , A e l i u s S e j a n u s . The a l l e g a t i o n was b e l i e v e d by T i b e r i u s and the source t r a d i t i o n , but the evidence preserved in the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d i s i n c o n c l u s i v e . Drusus" death proved a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s both f o r h i s f a m i l y and f o r the p r i n c i p a t e . The dynasty s h i f t e d back to the J u l i a n s and T i b e r i u s ' regime began to f a l l away from the moderation, j u s t i c e , and e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that had p r e v a i l e d while Drusus was a l i v e . Perhaps worst of a l l , the way was opened f o r C a l i g u l a to become the next Emperor. I f Drusus had s u r v i v e d to succeed h i s f a t h e r , the r e c o r d of h i s conduct and c h a r a c t e r suggests that h i s r e i g n c o u l d have matched Augustus 1 i n e x c e l l e n c e . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i« T a b l e of C o n t e n t s i v Acknowledgments v i Chapter 1: B i r t h and Background 1 E x c u r s u s I : Sources f o r the L i f e of Drusus 14 E x c u r s u s I I : Drusus" R e l a t i o n t o G a i u s A s i n i u s G a l l u s 30 E x c u r s u s I I I : Drusus' T r i b u n i c i a n Power and h i s Date of B i r t h 32 E x c u r s u s IV: Drusus' O r i g i n a l Name 34 F o o t n o t e s 39 Chapter 2: Drusus' E a r l y L i f e 46 F o o t n o t e s 60 Chapter 3: T h e ' B e g i n n i n g o f Drusus' C a r e e r 63 F o o t n o t e s 78 Chapter 4: The Death of Augustus... 83 E x c u r s u s I : The Chronology o f Drusus' M i s s i o n . . . 1 1 0 F o o t n o t e s 122 Chapter 5: The B e g i n n i n g o f T i b e r i u s ' P r i n c i p a t e 128 E x c u r s u s I : The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Drusus' Nickname, " C a s t o r " 144 F o o t n o t e s 146 Chapter 6: Drusus' M i s s i o n t o I l l y r i c u m : Background . 149 F o o t n o t e s 167 Chapter 7: Drusus i n I l l y r i c u m 172 F o o t n o t e s 194 Chapter 8: Drusus and the Death of Germanicus 200 E x c u r s u s I : The Date of B i r t h of Drusus' Twins..214 F o o t n o t e s 217 Chapter 9: Drusus' C a r e e r A f t e r h i s R e t u r n from I l l y r i c u m 220 F o o t n o t e s 241 Chapter 10: The C l i m a x o f Drusus' C a r e e r 246 Ex c u r s u s I : Change i n the S u c c e s s i o n : F i g u r a t i v e E v i d e n c e A p a r t from C o i n s 258 - v -E x c u r s u s I I : Change i n the S u c c e s s i o n : Drusus' Sons and the D i o s c u r i 262 F o o t n o t e s 265 Chapter 11: The Death of Drusus 271 E x c u r s u s I : Assessment of the Murder S t o r y 279 F o o t n o t e s 288 Chapter 12: P o s t Mortem ..' 291 F o o t n o t e s • 305 A b b r e v i a t i o n s 309 B i b l i o g r a p h y 313 - v i -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . A.A. B a r r e t t , who recommended t h e t h e s i s t o p i c , g u i d e d a n d c o r r e c t e d my w o r k , a nd showed e x t r a o r d i n a r y p a t i e n c e a t t h e l o n g g e s t a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k Dr. K.A. D u s i n g and D r . J . A . S . E v a n s , members o f t h e t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l comments and c r i t i c i s m . I am v e r y g r a t e f u l as w e l l t o my p a r e n t s , w i t h o u t whose g e n e r o u s s u p p o r t , i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e o f t h e i r w o r d p r o c e s s o r , I s h o u l d n o t h a v e been a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o my s i s t e r , J e n n i f e r H i d l e b a u g h , f o r h e r h e l p i n t y p i n g , e d i t i n g , a n d c o p y i n g . Many o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g Ed C l a r k , Andrew S h e r w o o d , D a v i d V o g t , D r . M. Y e d l i n , D r . C. S i m p s o n , a nd my f e l l o w s t u d e n t s i n t h e R e a d i n g Room, ha v e g i v e n me u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n a n d s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t i n d i v i d u a l h i s t o r i c a l a n d t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s . I t h a n k them a l l . - 1 -DRUSUS CAESAR, THE SON OF TIBERIUS CHAPTER 1: BIRTH AND BACKGROUND D r u s u s J u l i u s C a e s a r , t h e s o n o f T i b e r i u s , was a p r e - e m i n e n t member o f t h e J u l i o - C l a u d i a n d y n a s t y . I n A D 4 he was made g r a n d s o n o f A u g u s t u s by a d o p t i o n and t h e r e b y became a p o t e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e p r i n c i p a t e . Upon A u g u s t u s ' d e a t h i n AD 14 o n l y T i b e r i u s a n d G e r m a n i c u s s t o o d b e t w e e n h i m and t h e t h r o n e , and upon G e r m a n i c u s ' d e a t h i n 19 he became de  f a c t o h e i r p r e s u m p t i v e . T i b e r i u s c o n f i r m e d t h a t he i n t e n d e d D r u s u s t o be t h e n e x t e m p e r o r by s h a r i n g a c o n s u l s h i p w i t h h i m i n 21 and by b e s t o w i n g t h e t r i b u n i c i a n power upon h i m i n 22. P r e m a t u r e d e a t h i n 23 a l o n e f o r e s t a l l e d h i s a s c e n t t o t h e t h r o n e . D r u s u s a l s o won d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s o f t h e s t a t e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , he p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f T i b e r i u s ' r e g i m e i n AD 14 and i n p a c i f y i n g t h e E m p i r e ' s German f r o n t i e r , an o u t s t a n d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t h a t had e l u d e d A u g u s t u s , T i b e r i u s , N e r o D r u s u s , a n d G e r m a n i c u s . He d e s e r v e d a p r i m a r y p l a c e i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d . He d i d n o t g e t i t . He a p p e a r s , f o r t h e most p a r t , a shadowy, b a c k g r o u n d f i g u r e i n t h e r e c o r d o f e a r l y i m p e r i a l a f f a i r s . The s u r v i v i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o h i m a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n d i r e c t and p r e s e n t o n l y a f r a g m e n t a r y p i c t u r e . H i s u n d e s e r v e d o b s c u r i t y may be d u e , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o a d i s t o r t i o n i n t h e s o u r c e s . M o s t o f t h e s u r v i v i n g e v i d e n c e - 2 -a b o u t h i s l i f e i s p r e s e r v e d i n T a c i t u s ' A n n a l s and C a s s i u s D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y , composed, r e s p e c t i v e l y , n e a r l y one and two c e n t u r i e s a f t e r h i s d e a t h . They i n t u r n d e p e n d e d on a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h a p p e a r s t o h a v e been b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f D r u s u s ' c o u s i n and a d o p t i v e b r o t h e r , G e r m a n i c u s , and a g a i n s t D r u s u s and h i s f a t h e r ( s e e E x c u r s u s I ) . S u c h l i m i t a t i o n s p r e c l u d e a t o t a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f D r u s u s ' l i f e , b u t c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e c a n c l a r i f y i m p o r t a n t b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s , add i n s i g h t s , and h e l p , p e r h a p s , t o r e n d e r a f a i r e r a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e man and h i s d e e d s . The f r a g m e n t a r y p i c t u r e o f D r u s u s b e g i n s w i t h h i s b i r t h . The o n l y r e a s o n a b l y c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i s o r i g i n s and e a r l y l i f e c o n c e r n s h i s l i n e a g e . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t h i s p a r e n t s w e re T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o , E m peror i n AD 14, a n d V i p s a n i a A g r i p p i n a , t h e d a u g h t e r o f A u g u s t u s ' r i g h t - h a n d man, M a r c u s A g r i p p a . One p a s s a g e i n D i o s o u n d s a d i s s o n a n t n o t e : he e x p l a i n s T i b e r i u s ' h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d s G a i u s A s i n i u s G a l l u s as a r i s i n g i n p a r t f r o m t h e . l a t t e r ' s c l a i m t h a t D r u s u s was h i s s o n (U ( 0 5 ) . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , no e v i d e n c e e l s e w h e r e i n t h e s o u r c e s t o v e r i f y s u c h a c l a i m , and i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t D i o , a f t e r a l l , m e r e l y r e p o r t s i t ; he d o e s n o t v o u c h f o r i t . I n f a c t , D i o h i m s e l f e v i d e n t l y d i d n o t b e l i e v e i t b e c a u s e w h e r e v e r e l s e he makes r e f e r e n c e t o 2 D r u s u s 1 f a t h e r , he a l w a y s m e n t i o n s T i b e r i u s . P e r h a p s G a l l u s meant n o t h i n g more t h a n t h a t D r u s u s was h i s s t e p s o n , a c l a i m t h a t , a s t h e s e c o n d h u s b a n d o f D r u s u s ' m o t h e r , he w o u l d h a v e - 3 -been e n t i t l e d t o make ( s e e E x c u r s u s I I ) . A t a n y r a t e , t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n t h a t D r u s u s was t h e s o n o f T i b e r i u s and V i p s a n i a may be a c c e p t e d as a u t h o r i t a t i v e . D r u s u s 1 d a t e o f b i r t h i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o p i n down. The F e r i a l e Cumanum r e c o r d s t h e month and d a y as O c t o b e r 7 t h , b u t no a n c i e n t a u t h o r i t y i n d i c a t e s t h e y e a r . I t i s p o s s i b l e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t o e s t a b l i s h f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e a n a r r o w r a n g e o f y e a r s . On t h e one hand G e r m a n i c u s 1 c o n s i s t e n t p r e c e d e n c e o v e r D r u s u s i n t h e c u r s u s honorum p r e s e n t s t h e s t r o n g l i k e l i h o o d t h a t he was o l d e r t h a n D r u s u s . T i b e r i u s ' r e q u e s t t o t h e S e n a t e f o r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f G e r m a n i c u s t o t h e E a s t i n AD 17, p a r t l y on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t D r u s u s was t o o young f o r t h e j o b , s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w . S i n c e G e r m a n i c u s was b o r n May 24, 15 BC D r u s u s 1 b i r t h w o u l d 3 t h u s h a v e o c c u r r e d a f t e r t h i s d a t e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s i n c e b o t h D i o and S u e t o n i u s r e c o r d t h a t A u g u s t u s b e t r o t h e d J u l i a t o T i b e r i u s a f t e r V i p s a n i a had b o r n e h i m D r u s u s and had become p r e g n a n t a g a i n , and s i n c e D i o r e p o r t s t h a t t h e b e t r o t h a l t o o k p l a c e p r i o r t o T i b e r i u s ' c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t t h e P a n n o n i a n s i n 12 BC, i t f o l l o w s t h a t D r u s u s must h a v e been 4 b o r n b e f o r e t h i s c a m p a i g n . The o u t e r l i m i t s f o r h i s d a t e o f b i r t h c a n be f i x e d , t h u s , a t O c t o b e r 7, 15 BC and O c t o b e r 7, 12 BC. The c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f T i b e r i u s ' d i v o r c e f r o m V i p s a n i a 5 i n 12 BC p e r m i t a n a r r o w i n g o f t h i s r a n g e . A u g u s t u s o b l i g e d h i m t o d i v o r c e h e r a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f M a r c u s A g r i p p a b e c a u s e he was t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e c a n d i d a t e t o r e p l a c e A g r i p p a i n h i s _ 4 -e s s e n t i a l r o l e s a s c o l l e a g u e t o t h e E m p e r o r , h u s b a n d t o J u l i a , and f a t h e r a n d p o t e n t i a l r e g e n t f o r t h e E m p e r o r ' s g r a n d s o n s and a d o p t e d s o n s , G a i u s and L u c i u s C a e s a r . A g r i p p a seems t o have d i e d no l a t e r t h a n t h e end o f M a r c h , 12 BC. A u g u s t u s , o b v i o u s l y , c o u l d h a v e o r d e r e d t h e d i v o r c e o n l y a f t e r t h a t d a t e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , D i o , a s n o t e d , p l a c e s V i p s a n i a ' s s e c o n d p r e g n a n c y and t h e end o f h e r m a r r i a g e b e f o r e T i b e r i u s ' e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t t h e P a n n o n i a n s , w h i c h must have been l a u n c h e d p r i o r t o t h e end o f t h e c a m p a i g n i n g s e a s o n i n t h e summer o f 12. So t h e s e c o n d p r e g n a n c y and d i v o r c e must a l s o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e summer. The m a r r i a g e o f T i b e r i u s a n d V i p s a n i a must h a v e been g d i s s o l v e d , t h e n , s o m e t i m e i n t h e s p r i n g o r summer o f 12 BC. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e d i v o r c e o c c u r r e d i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e summer. S u e t o n i u s s a y s t h a t A u g u s t u s t o o k a l o n g t i m e ( d i u ) i n s e l e c t i n g a new h u s b a n d f o r J u l i a a f t e r A g r i p p a 1 s d e a t h . D i u c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d h e r e w i t h a r e l a t i v e v a l u e : a p e r i o d o f e v e n a few - p e r h a p s a s many as s i x -months c o u l d i n d e e d be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g t i m e f o r t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f a m a t t e r o f s t a t e a s w e i g h t y a s t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f M a r c u s A g r i p p a . So T i b e r i u s ' d i v o r c e f r o m V i p s a n i a , w h i c h came l a t e r t h a n b o t h t h e b i r t h o f D r u s u s and h e r s e c o n d p r e g n a n c y , c a n be a s s i g n e d w i t h some c o n f i d e n c e t o t h e l a t e summer, A u g u s t o r S e p t e m b e r a t t h e l a t e s t , o f 12 BC. I t seems s a f e t o c o n c l u d e , t h e n , t h a t D r u s u s was b o r n w e l l b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e summer i n 12. I t f o l l o w s t h a t h i s b i r t h c o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d no l a t e r t h a n O c t o b e r 7th o f t h e - 5 -7 p r e v i o u s y e a r , 13 BC. I t seems t h a t t h e r a n g e c a n be n a r r o w e d f r o m t h e e a r l y l i m i t as w e l l . I t c a n n o t be p r o v e d t h a t D r u s u s was n o t b o r n i n 15 BC b u t T i b e r i u s w o u l d s u r e l y n o t h a v e r e q u e s t e d t h e S e n a t e t o a p p o i n t G e r m a n i c u s t o an e a s t e r n m i s s i o n i n AD 17 on t h e g r o u n d s , i n p a r t , t h a t D r u s u s was n o t y e t o l d e nough f o r t h e t a s k _ i f D r u s u s had been b o r n i n t h e same y e a r as G e r m a n i c u s , n a m e l y , 15 BC. S u r e l y t h e e x p l i c i t d i s t i n c t i o n made by T i b e r i u s i n s u c h f o r m a l , o f f i c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s w o u l d r e q u i r e , o f n e c e s s i t y , t h a t D r u s u s s h o u l d 8 be a t l e a s t one y e a r y o u n g e r t h a n G e r m a n i c u s . T h i s i n f e r e n c e w o u l d r a i s e t h e e a r l y l i m i t o f D r u s u s ' b i r t h t o t h e y e a r 14. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d s o f a r , t h e n , t h e maximum r a n g e f o r D r u s u s ' b i r t h c a n be s e t , w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f p r o b a b i l i t y , b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 7 t h , 15 BC and O c t o b e r 7 t h , 13 BC. T h e r e i s , a d d i t i o n a l l y , a s t r o n g a r g u m e n t i n f a v o u r o f a d v a n c i n g t h e e a r l y l i m i t t o O c t o b e r 7 t h , 14 BC ( s e e E x c u r s u s I I I ) . P e r h a p s t h e d a r k e s t m y s t e r y b e s e t t i n g D r u s u s 1 o r i g i n s c o n c e r n s h i s name. The f u l l name t h a t T i b e r i u s b e s t o w e d upon h i m a t b i r t h r e m a i n s unknown. I n t h e s u r v i v i n g s o u r c e m a t e r i a l he i s d e s i g n a t e d o n l y as " D r u s u s , " " D r u s u s C a e s a r , " o r " D r u s u s J u l i u s C a e s a r , " and t h e l a t t e r two s e t s o f names c a n n o t be d a t e d a n y e a r l i e r t h a n h i s f a t h e r ' s a r r o g a t i o n by 9 A u g u s t u s i n AD 4. P e t e r s e n b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s o r i g i n a l f u l l name, t h a t i s , h i s t r i a n o m i n a , was "Nero C l a u d i u s D r u s u s " on - 6 -t h e b a s i s o f two - i n s c r i p t i o n s f r o m E p i d a u r u s , w h i c h r e f e r , i n G r e e k , t o "Nero C l a u d i u s D r u s u s , t h e s o n o f T i b e r i u s . " G a r d t h a u s e n , h o w e v e r , a r g u e s c o g e n t l y t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t i t l e f i t s T i b e r i u s ' b r o t h e r , N e r o D r u s u s , more a p t l y t h a n h i s s o n . C e r t a i n l y "Nero C l a u d i u s D r u s u s " i s a t t e s t e d e l s e w h e r e f o r t h e b r o t h e r as i t i s n o t f o r t h e s o n , and t h e f o r m e r ' s f a t h e r a l s o b o r e t h e name " T i b e r i u s " . I t c a n be s a f e l y assumed t h a t D r u s u s 1 f i r s t t r i a n o m i n a d i d i n c l u d e " C l a u d i u s " , t h e g e n t i l e nomen o f h i s f a m i l y . F u r t h e r s o u n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s o r i g i n a l name, h o w e v e r , i s d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e . The f r a g m e n t a r y s o u r c e s s u g g e s t a l o n g f a m i l y t r a d i t i o n i n w h i c h e v e r y f a t h e r , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e f i r s t T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o , t h e s o n o f Ap. C l a u d i u s C a e c u s , named h i s f i r s t - b o r n s o n a f t e r h i m s e l f . T h a t t r a d i t i o n must have w e i g h e d h e a v i l y w i t h t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e T i b e r i u s , t h e s o n o f L i v i a , when he was c o n s i d e r i n g names f o r h i s f i r s t - b o r n . W h e t h e r , h o w e v e r , he s u b m i t t e d t o o r r e s i s t e d t h e p r e s s u r e r e m a i n s unknown. The v e r y name, " D r u s u s " , t h e o n l y n o n - J u l i a n name o f T i b e r i u s ' s o n p r e s e r v e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d , a c t u a l l y c o m p l i c a t e s t h e a t t e m p t t o r e c o n s t r u c t h i s o r i g i n a l t r i a n o m i n a . I t begs t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , why w o u l d a f i r s t - b o r n m a l e i n t h e l i n e o f t h e C l a u d i a n N e r o n e s h a v e r e c e i v e d a n o n - C l a u d i a n name? S e c o n d , s i n c e " D r u s u s " c a n n o t be a t t e s t e d as one o f D r u s u s ' names b e f o r e t h e name c h a n g e r e s u l t i n g f r o m h i s a d o p t i o n i n t o A u g u s t u s 1 f a m i l y i n AD 4, when e x a c t l y d i d he become " D r u s u s " ? T h a t he need n o t h a v e h e l d t h e name f r o m b i r t h i s - 7 -d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e a n a l o g y o f h i s u n c l e , N e r o D r u s u s , whose praenomen had been c h a n g e d f r o m " D e c i m u s " t o "Nero".''"''" T h i r d , how c o u l d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l cognomen " D r u s u s " h a v e become a praenomen - as i t d i d no l a t e r t h a n AD 4 when D r u s u s r e c e i v e d h i s f i n a l name, " D r u s u s J u l i u s C a e s a r " ? T e n t a t i v e a n s w e r s c a n be s u g g e s t e d f o r a l l o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s b u t none o f them a r e v e r i f i a b l e . So, a p a r t f r o m t h e nomen " C l a u d i u s " , D r u s u s ' o r i g i n a l name r e m a i n s an e n i g m a ( s e e E x c u r s u s I V ) . T h r o u g h h i s f a t h e r D r u s u s b e l o n g e d t o one o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g p a t r i c i a n g e n t e s o f Rome, t h e C l a u d i i . T i b e r i u s c o u l d t r a c e b o t h h i s p a t e r n a l and m a t e r n a l a n c e s t r y b a c k t o Ap. C l a u d i u s C a e c u s , t h e famous c e n s o r i n 312 BC and c o n s u l i n 307 and 296 BC. From one o f C a e c u s ' s o n s , T i . C l a u d i u s N e r o , T i b e r i u s ' f a t h e r , a l s o named T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o , was d e s c e n d e d . From a n o t h e r s o n o f C a e c u s , P. C l a u d i u s P u l c h e r , c o n s u l i n 249 BC, was d e s c e n d e d T i b e r i u s ' m o t h e r , L i v i a D r u s i l l a . L i v i a ' s s i d e o f t h e f a m i l y had a c h i e v e d g r e a t e r p r o m i n e n c e t h a n had N e r o ' s . T h e ' l a s t C l a u d i u s N e r o t o h o l d t h e c o n s u l s h i p h ad been T i . C l a u d i u s N e r o i n 202, w h i l e C l a u d i i P u l c h r i h a d been c o n s u l s i n 92, 79, and 54, and numbered among t h e i r r a n k s C i c e r o ' s enemy, P. C l o d i u s , who had been t r i b u n e o f t h e p l e b s i n 58 BC. M o r e o v e r , L i v i a ' s f a t h e r had been a d o p t e d by M. L i v i u s D r u s u s , t r i b u n e i n 91 BC, and had t h e r e b y a c q u i r e d t h e name M. L i v i u s D r u s u s 12 C l a u d i a n u s . T h r o u g h h i s g r a n d m o t h e r , t h e n , D r u s u s c o u l d c l a i m a n c e s t r y i n b o t h t h e L i v i a n a n d t h e more i l l u s t r i o u s s i d e o f t h e C l a u d i a n h o u s e s , a n d i n h e r i t e d t h e name by w h i c h - 8 -t h e s o u r c e s g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f y h i m : D r u s u s . I t was a l s o t h r o u g h L i v i a t h a t D r u s u s ' f a m i l y was b r o u g h t i n t o t h e h o u s e h o l d o f t h e C a e s a r s . H i s g r a n d f a t h e r , N e r o , had been a s u p p o r t e r o f A n t o n y . A f t e r t h e d i s a s t e r o f t h e P e r u s i n e War i n 41 BC N e r o had been f o r c e d t o f l e e t o S i c i l y w i t h h i s young w i f e and i n f a n t s o n , T i b e r i u s . I n 39, h o w e v e r , N e r o b e n e f i t e d f r o m an a m n e s t y a n d r e t u r n e d t o Rome w i t h h i s f a m i l y , w h e r e u p o n he a p p e a r s t o ha v e become as o b l i g i n g a s p o s s i b l e t o w a r d s O c t a v i a n . I n d e e d , s o a c c o m m o d a t i n g was he t h a t , a f t e r O c t a v i a n had f a l l e n i n l o v e w i t h h i s w i f e , N e r o r e a d i l y d i v o r c e d h e r , p r e g n a n t t h o u g h s he was w i t h t h e i r s e c o n d c h i l d . On J a n u a r y 14, 38 BC, L i v i a g a v e b i r t h t o N e r o C l a u d i u s D r u s u s , a n d on J a n u a r y 1 7 t h was m a r r i e d t o O c t a v i a n . H e r f i r s t h u s b a n d c o n v e n i e n t l y d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m p u b l i c l i f e a n d d i e d i n o b s c u r i t y i n 33 B C . 1 3 O c t a v i a n ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h N e r o and L i v i a u n d o u b t e d l y h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i r s o n s , t r e a t m e n t t h a t w o u l d i n t u r n l a t e r h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e D r u s u s ' p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e E m p e r o r ' s h o u s e h o l d . On t h e one h a n d , b e c a u s e T i b e r i u s a n d N e r o D r u s u s were t h e s o n s o f a h u m i l i a t e d a d v e r s a r y a n d n o t o f h i s own b l o o d , O c t a v i a n d i d n o t show them t h e same f a v o u r t h a t he w o u l d l a t e r b e s t o w upon A g r i p p a ' s s o n s , G a i u s and L u c i u s . S o , f o r e x a m p l e , when he m a r r i e d L i v i a he d e c l i n e d t o a d o p t them b u t o n l y a c c e p t e d 14 g u a r d i a n s h i p f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , b e c a u s e b o t h b o y s w e re a l s o t h e o f f s p r i n g o f L i v i a , whom O c t a v i a n - 9 -a l w a y s h e l d i n h i g h e s t e e m and a f f e c t i o n , he r e s e r v e d i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s f o r them i n h i s i m p e r i a l p l a n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y T i b e r i u s and h i s b r o t h e r , and l a t e r h i s s o n , D r u s u s , a t f i r s t f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e p r i n c i p a t e ' s c e n t r e o f power and t h e s u c c e s s i o n , b u t a s s u r e d o f p r o m i n e n c e w i t h i n t h e s e c o n d a r y r a n k s o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y . I t was n o t l o n g b e f o r e O c t a v i a n b egan t o make us e o f T i b e r i u s . He b e t r o t h e d h i m t o M a r c u s A g r i p p a ' s d a u g h t e r , V i p s a n i a A g r i p p i n a . The a c t u a l d a t e o f t h e b e t r o t h a l i s n o t known, b u t s i n c e V i p s a n i a ' s m a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r , t h e k n i g h t T i t u s P o m p o n i u s A t t i c u s , was a l i v e a t t h e t i m e , i t must have o c c u r r e d b e f o r e h i s d e a t h on M a r c h 3 1 s t , 32 BC. I t i s known t h a t V i p s a n i a was b a r e l y a y e a r o l d when t h e a r r a n g e m e n t was made."^ T i b e r i u s h i m s e l f c o u l d h a v e been no more t h a n n i n e y e a r s o l d . O c t a v i a n , h o w e v e r , n e v e r showed h e s i t a t i o n t o e n g a g e i n s u c h m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s where t h e y c o u l d s e c u r e h i s i m p e r i a l and d y n a s t i c i n t e r e s t s . H i s i n t e r e s t s d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h t h o s e o f T i b e r i u s . The b e t r o t h a l c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be c o n s t r u e d as an h o n o u r f o r A g r i p p a who w o u l d h a v e t h e p r o s p e c t o f g r a n d c h i l d r e n b e l o n g i n g t o t h e C l a u d i a n g e n s , a s u b s t a n t i a l a t t r a c t i o n f o r a n o v u s homo. The a d v a n t a g e s f o r T i b e r i u s , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r more a m b i g u o u s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t L i v i a was t r y i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e C l a u d i a n h o u s e by e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i n k b e t w e e n i t and t h e p r i n c e p s ' most p r o m i n e n t henchman. One may s e e h e r e j u s t a s w e l l t h o u g h , - 10 -s u r e l y , t h e i n d e p e n d e n t hand o f O c t a v i a n s e e k i n g t o k e e p T i b e r i u s and h i s p o t e n t i a l d e s c e n d a n t s w i t h i n t h e c i r c l e o f h i s f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , w h i l e h o l d i n g them b a c k f r o m t h e f i r s t r a n k . However t h e b e t r o t h a l may h a v e b e n e f i t e d t h e i m p e r i a l C l a u d i a n s i t a l s o d i m i n i s h e d them, f o r i t e n g a g e d t h e p a t r i c i a n T i b e r i u s t o t h e g r a n d d a u g h t e r o f a mere k n i g h t a nd t h e d a u g h t e r o f a man who was, a f t e r a l l , d e s p i t e h i s c l o s e n e s s t o O c t a v i a n , a n o v u s homo o f o b s c u r e o r i g i n s . Many y e a r s l a t e r , i n f a c t , p a r t i s a n s w o u l d c i t e D r u s u s 1 e q u e s t r i a n a n c e s t r y a s p r o o f o f h i s i n f e r i o r i t y t o G e r m a n i c u s who c o u l d c l a i m A u g u s t u s a s h i s g r e a t u n c l e and Mark A n t o n y as h i s 16 g r a n d f a t h e r . O c t a v i a n i n t e n d e d t h e u n i o n o f T i b e r i u s a nd V i p s a n i a t o be a m i x e d , o r a t l e a s t l i m i t e d , b l e s s i n g . A t t h e s t a r t he showed t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o k e e p t h e p u r e l y C l a u d i a n l i n e i n a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n h i s h o u s e h o l d , a p o l i c y t h a t w o u l d r e s t r i c t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f D r u s u s ' c a r e e r u n t i l t h e d e a t h o f G e r m a n i c u s . O c t a v i a n c o n f i r m e d T i b e r i u s ' s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n h i s a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r h i s t r i u m p h on 13 - 15 A u g u s t , 29 BC, f o r h i s v i c t o r y a t A c t i u m . I n t h e t h i r d d a y ' s p r o c e s s i o n T i b e r i u s r o d e i n t h e p l a c e o f s e c o n d h o n o u r : on t h e l e f t - h a n d t r a c e - h o r s e . I n t h e p l a c e o f f i r s t h o n o u r on t h e r i g h t r o d e O c t a v i a n ' s nephew, M a r c u s C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s , b o r n , l i k e T i b e r i u s , i n 42 BC. H e r e , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e p e r h a p s , O c t a v i a n r e v e a l e d i n p u b l i c a p o l i c y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p a i r s a t t h e t o p o f t h e i m p e r i a l h i e r a r c h y w h i c h German-s c h o l a r s h a v e c a l l e d t h e " V i e r a u g e n s y s t e m " , i n w h i c h one - 11 -member was i n f e r i o r t o t h e o t h e r , u s u a l l y on t h e b a s e s o f 17 b l o o d k i n s h i p a n d a g e . D r u s u s w o u l d l a t e r p l a y h i s own p a r t i n t h i s s y s t e m a s t h e j u n i o r p a r t n e r o f G e r m a n i c u s . T i l l t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f h i s r e i g n A u g u s t u s a b i d e d by h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n t o e x c l u d e L i v i a ' s s o n s f r o m t h e f i r s t r a n k o f power. A r o u n d 25 BC he a p p e a r s ^ t o h a v e begun a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r a d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n by m a r r y i n g h i s d a u g h t e r J u l i a t o h i s nephew M a r c e l l u s . M a r c e l l u s ' p r e m a t u r e d e a t h h a v i n g t h w a r t e d t h a t scheme, A u g u s t u s t u r n e d , n o t t o T i b e r i u s , b u t t o h i s l o y a l p a r t i s a n , t h e e x p e r i e n c e d a nd p o p u l a r A g r i p p a , whom he c o m p e l l e d t o d i v o r c e M a r c e l l a , A u g u s t u s 1 own n i e c e , i n o r d e r t o m a r r y h i s widowed d a u g h t e r , J u l i a , i n 21 BC. He t h e r e b y k i l l e d two b i r d s w i t h one s t o n e : he c r e a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f h a v i n g d e s c e n d a n t s o f h i s own b l o o d w h i l e g u a r a n t e e i n g s u p p o r t and p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h o s e d e s c e n d a n t s f r o m t h e p o w e r f u l A g r i p p a . I t was a p o l i t i c a l l y 18 s a g a c i o u s d e c i s i o n . I t was n o t , h o w e v e r , a d v a n t a g e o u s t o t h e C l a u d i a n s . I n 20 BC and t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g , T i b e r i u s a nd h i s b r o t h e r saw t h e m s e l v e s moved f a r t h e r f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f p o w e r . I n 20 a son,' G a i u s , a n d t h u s a new p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s o r t o t h e p r i n c i p a t e a h e a d o f L i v i a ' s s o n s , was b o r n t o J u l i a a n d A g r i p p a . I n 18 BC A u g u s t u s b e s t o w e d t h e t r i b u n i c i a p o t e s t a s f o r f i v e y e a r s upon A g r i p p a . I n 17 BC J u l i a g a v e b i r t h t o L u c i u s a nd A u g u s t u s a d o p t e d b o t h g r a n d s o n s , t h e r e b y e l e v a t i n g them a b o v e e v e r y o n e e x c e p t t h e p r i n c e p s h i m s e l f and m a r k i n g them o u t as h i s h e i r s . - 12 -A u g u s t u s 1 scheme o f power and d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n was c o m p l e t e , c o n s i s t i n g o f two p a i r s : h i m s e l f and A g r i p p a as r u l e r , c o l l e a g u e , and g u a r d i a n s o f J u l i a ' s s o n s , a n d G a i u s 19 and L u c i u s as t h e n e i r s t o t h e p n n c i p a t e . From t h i s i n n e r c i r c l e o f power and s u c c e s s i o n T i b e r i u s and h i s b r o t h e r were e x c l u d e d . T hey were n o t , h o w e v e r , f o r g o t t e n . They s t i l l f i g u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e i m p e r i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A u g u s t u s c o n t i n u e d t o h o n o u r them a nd t o a l l o w them t o a d v a n c e a t a g e s y o u n g e r t h a n n o r m a l t h r o u g h t h e c u r s u s honorum w h i l e s h o w i n g due r e g a r d f o r t h e r i g h t s o f s e n i o r i t y by p r o m o t i n g T i b e r i u s 20 a t a f i x e d r a t e a h e a d o f h i s b r o t h e r . To a l a r g e e x t a n t t h e y d e s e r v e d t h e i r p r o m o t i o n s , f o r , i n a d d i t i o n t o p e r f o r m i n g t h e n o r m a l f u n c t i o n s o f a c i v i l i a n m a g i s t r a t e , T i b e r i u s c o n d u c t e d m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s t o t h e E a s t , G a u l , a n d Germany w h i l e N e r o D r u s u s f o u g h t and w o r k e d i n t h e West. A u g u s t u s may h a v e c o n t i n u e d t o f o s t e r t h e c a r e e r s o f L i v i a ' s s o n s o u t o f more t h a n s i m p l e r e s p e c t f o r L i v i a . He may h a v e w a n t e d t o make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t he and A g r i p p a c o u l d s u d d e n l y succumb t o t h e n a t u r a l i n f i r m i t i e s o f o l d age b e f o r e G a i u s a n d L u c i u s w o u l d be o l d enough t o l o o k a f t e r t h e i r own and Rome's a f f a i r s . He may h a v e l o o k e d t o h i s s t e p s o n s t o p r o t e c t a n d s u p p o r t h i s s o n s 22 i n s u c h a c o n t i n g e n c y . P r u d e n c e , t h e n , w o u l d h e l p t o e x p l a i n why A u g u s t u s r e t a i n e d T i b e r i u s a n d D r u s u s i n t h e t h i r d r a n k , as i t w e r e , o f h i s h i e r a r c h y . - 13 -T i b e r i u s and h i s b r o t h e r seem t o h a v e u n d e r s t o o d a n d a c c e p t e d t h e i r f u n c t i o n and r a n k w i t h i n A u g u s t u s 1 s y s t e m , as T i b e r i u s ' s o n w o u l d l a t e r o n . T hey d e m o n s t r a t e d u n s w e r v i n g l o y a l t y a nd o b e d i e n c e t o h i m , e v e n a t g r e a t p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e , a s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e c a s e o f T i b e r i u s ' d i v o r c e f r o m h i s b e l o v e d V i p s a n i a i n 12 BC. T i b e r i u s ' s e l f - i m p o s e d e x i l e t o Rhodes i n 6 BC m a r k e d t h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r u l e . I n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e E m p e r o r ' s p l a n s , t h e b r o t h e r s w e r e p r e p a r e d t o d e f e r t o A g r i p p a and h i s s o n s , a s T i b e r i u s showed when, as c o n s u l i n 13 BC, he p l a c e d t h e boy G a i u s n e x t t o A u g u s t u s i n t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s i n h o n o u r o f t h e E m p e r o r ' s 23 r e t u r n f r o m G a u l . L i v i a ' s s o n s seemed i n p u b l i c c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i r t h i r d r a n k . A t t h e t i m e o f h i s b i r t h , t h e n , b e t w e e n 15 and 13 BC, D r u s u s , t h e s o n o f T i b e r i u s , c o u l d l o o k f o r w a r d t o a l i f e o f p r i v i l e g e a nd power w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y o f A u g u s t u s . The i m p e r i a l s u c c e s s i o n , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r e d c l o s e d t o h i m . D e s p i t e h i s g r a n d m o t h e r L i v i a ' s m a r r i a g e t o and i n f l u e n c e upon t h e p r i n c e p s , h i s f o r t u n e s w e re d e t e r m i n e d l a r g e l y by h i s f a t h e r ' s , who r e m a i n e d a t t h e t i m e , a f t e r a l l , a s t e p s o n , n o t a s o n , o f A u g u s t u s . - 14 -EXCURSUS I  S o u r c e s f o r t h e L i f e o f D r u s u s P r i m a r y s o u r c e s o f e v i d e n c e a b o u t D r u s u s , s u c h as i n s c r i p t i o n s , c o i n s , s c u l p t u r e s , m e d a l l i o n s , a n d v a r i o u s o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a r t i f a c t s , s u r v i v e i n s u c h s p a r s e a n d f r a g m e n t a r y f o r m t h a t t h e y c a n p r o v i d e , i n g e n e r a l , i n f o r m a t i o n o f o n l y s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s l i f e . T h e y a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , h e l p f u l i n c o n f i r m i n g a n d a d d i n g t o t h e r e c o r d s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s , s u c h as d a y s and months o f b i r t h a n d d e a t h ; o f f i c e s , h o n o u r s , and p r i e s t h o o d s ; D r u s u s ' s t a t u s i n t h e p r i n c i p a t e ; a n d t h e names o f b o t h D r u s u s and h i s s o n s a f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n s o f AD 4. They h a v e p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n two a r e a s : i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e w i d e r a n g e o f D r u s u s 1 I l l y r i a n m i s s i o n b e g i n n i n g i n AD 17 and i n i n d i c a t i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t T i b e r i u s h a d d e c i d e d t o t r a n s f e r t h e i m p e r i a l s u c c e s s i o n f r o m 24 t h e s o n s o f G e r m a n i c u s t o D r u s u s ' t w i n s by AD 23. I n t h e i r c u r r e n t e x i g e n c y t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e s h a v e l i t t l e more t o o f f e r a b o u t D r u s u s ' l i f e . M o s t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t s u r v i v e s i n Roman l i t e r a r y w o r k s . Of t h e s e T a c i t u s ' A n n a l s , e s p e c i a l l y B o o k s 1 t o 4, c o n t a i n t h e most and b e s t m a t e r i a l . B o o k s 54 t o 57 o f C a s s i u s D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y a l s o p r e s e r v e much u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . D i o ' s t e x t , h o w e v e r , h a s a m a j o r s h o r t c o m i n g : i t b r e a k s o f f f o r t h e y e a r AD 17 and r e s u m e s a g a i n o n l y f o r 25 3 1 . The i n t e r v e n i n g p e r i o d i s c o v e r e d o n l y b r i e f l y and - 15 -s e l e c t i v e l y by v a r i o u s e p i t o m i z e r s . As a r e s u l t , i n t h e s u r v i v i n g c o m p i l a t i o n t h e l a s t c l i m a c t i c s i x y e a r s o f D r u s u s ' l i f e , i n c l u d i n g h i s m i s s i o n t o P a n n o n i a , h i s c o n f i r m a t i o n as T i b e r i u s ' s u c c e s s o r a f t e r G e r m a n i c u s 1 d e a t h , and h i s s u b s e q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s i n Rome, a r e o n l y c r u d e l y and i n a d e q u a t e l y s k e t c h e d . I n h i s L i v e s o f t h e C a e s a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f T i b e r i u s and A u g u s t u s , S u e t o n i u s r e p o r t s some n o t e w o r t h y d e t a i l s a b o u t D r u s u s . A d d i t i o n a l , l i m i t e d r e f e r e n c e s c a n be f o u n d s c a t t e r e d among t h e w o r k s o f Roman i m p e r i a l a u t h o r s , s u c h as Book 2 o f V e l l e i u s P a t e r c u l u s 1 H i s t o r y o f Rome, E u s e b i u s ' C h r o n i c a , Book 18 o f J o s e p h u s 1 J e w i s h A n t i q u i t i e s , O v i d ' s e x i l e p o e t r y , P h i l o ' s Embassy t o G a i u s , P l i n y ' s N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , S e n e c a ' s O c t a v i a and C o n s o l a t i o n t o M a r c i a , and S t r a b o ' s G e o g r a p h y . The t h r e e m a i n a u t h o r i t i e s , T a c i t u s , D i o , and S u e t o n i u s , l i v e d and w r o t e w e l l a f t e r D r u s u s ' d e a t h i n AD 23. T a c i t u s , s u f f e c t c o n s u l i n 97, p r o b a b l y began w r i t i n g t h e A n n a l s w e l l i n t o T r a j a n ' s r e i g n , p e r h a p s b e t w e e n 104 and 1 1 7 . D i o , s u f f e c t c o n s u l i n a b o u t 2 05, w o u l d h a v e r e s e a r c h e d a n d w r i t t e n h i s h i s t o r y b e t w e e n a b o u t 211 and 2 3 1 . S u e t o n i u s , b o r n p r o b a b l y b e t w e e n 61 and 70, became an i m p e r i a l s e c r e t a r y ab e p i s t u l i s u n d e r H a d r i a n and p u b l i s h e d h i s L i v e s o f t h e 2 6 C a e s a r s , p r o b a b l y , b e t w e e n 117 and 122. O b v i o u s l y , t h e s e l a t e r w r i t e r s d e p e n d e d , u l t i m a t e l y , on e a r l i e r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f D r u s u s . The l a t e r a u t h o r s a p p e a r t o have r e f e r r e d t o a g r e a t number o f w o r k s . T a c i t u s , f o r i n s t a n c e , c l a i m s t o c i t e t h e - 16 -most numerous a nd t r u s t w o r t h y a u t h o r i t i e s f o r h i s a c c o u n t o f D r u s u s 1 d e a t h . S i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e s t o m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s a r e common t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t s i x b o o k s o f t h e A n n a l s . D i o , t o o , n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y makes o b l i q u e , anonymous m e n t i o n o f a p p a r e n t l y numerous e a r l i e r s o u r c e s , a n d e v e n , i n e f f e c t , c l a i m s t o have r e a d n e a r l y a l l w o r k s on Roman h i s t o r y . S u e t o n i u s a p p e a r s t o h a v e drawn e c l e c t i c a l l y f r o m a g r e a t number and w i d e v a r i e t y o f w r i t e r s t o whom he" r e f e r s i n s u c h • . 27 t e r m s a s a l l 1 , q u i d a m , p l u r e s d i c u n t , a n d t h e l i k e . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t , h o w e v e r , t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e e a r l i e r a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y were drawn on . T a c i t u s , D i o , and S u e t o n i u s t e n d n o t t o name t h e i r s o u r c e s . I n t h e b o o k s o f t h e A n n a l s c o v e r i n g T i b e r i u s ' l i f e T a c i t u s i d e n t i f i e s o n l y two e a r l i e r w o r k s : t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e German wars by P l i n y t h e e l d e r a n d t h e memoirs o f A g r i p p i n a t h e y o u n g e r . He c i t e s e a c h , h o w e v e r , o n l y t o r e p o r t a p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l a b o u t t h e l i f e o f A g r i p p i n a t h e E l d e r , i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e e x p r e s s l y s t a t i n g and i n t h e f o r m e r i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n l i e s o u t s i d e t h e m a i n s o u r c e 2 8 t r a d i t i o n . N e i t h e r D i o n o r S u e t o n i u s e x p l i c i t l y l i n k s a n y e a r l i e r work w i t h t h e l i f e o f D r u s u s . S u r e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s i s r e n d e r e d , t h u s , i m p o s s i b l e . A t b e s t one c a n a t t e m p t o n l y t o d e d u c e t h e w o r k s t h a t m i g h t h a v e p e r t a i n e d t o D r u s u s a nd t h a t w o u l d h a v e been a v a i l a b l e t o t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s . F i r s t , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t e i t h e r T a c i t u s o r S u e t o n i u s m i g h t h a v e r e f e r r e d t o t h e o t h e r ' s w o r k , d e p e n d i n g on who p u b l i s h e d f i r s t , a n d t h a t D i o - 17 -m i g h t h a v e p e r u s e d e i t h e r o r b o t h o f them. The p r o p o s i t i o n , h o w e v e r , c a n be n e i t h e r p r o v e d n o r d i s p r o v e d . I n t h e i r c o v e r a g e o f t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h D r u s u s l i v e d , a l l t h r e e h a v e many s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n o f f a c t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r D i o ' s n a r r a t i v e c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s S u e t o n i u s ' w r i t i n g i n a number o f r e f e r e n c e s t o m i n o r m a t t e r s , e x p l a n a t i o n s , and 29 a n e c d o t e s . I n s u c h i n s t a n c e s t h e f o r m e r c o u l d w e l l be r e p r o d u c i n g t h e l a t t e r . I t c o u l d be e q u a l l y t h e c a s e , h o w e v e r , t h a t b o t h were f o l l o w i n g t h e same e a r l i e r s o u r c e . M o r e o v e r , r e g a r d l e s s o f any m u t u a l r e f e r e n c e s t h e t h r e e m i g h t h a v e made, t h e y a l s o d i s a g r e e w i t h e a c h o t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l s , s o t h a t t h e y must h a v e u s e d , t o some d e g r e e , d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s . S u e t o n i u s , f o r e x a m p l e , r e f e r s t o o n l y t h r e e t e s t a m e n t a r y d o c u m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A u g u s t u s 1 w i l l , w h i l e D i o i n c l u d e s f o u r . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e c a n be f o u n d i n S u e t o n i u s ' c l a i m t h a t T i b e r i u s h a t e d h i s s o n , w h i c h D i o e x p r e s s l y and T a c i t u s i m p l i c i t l y c o n t r a d i c t . T a c i t u s r e p r e s e n t s t h e s h a r e d c o n s u l s h i p o f T i b e r i u s and D r u s u s as a p r o p i t i o u s , o r a t l e a s t h a p p y , e v e n t . D i o d e s c r i b e s i t a s i l l - o m e n e d . A c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s and D i o , G e r m a n i c u s ' d e a t h p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e d e c l i n e o f T i b e r i u s ' r e g i m e i n t o v i c i o u s n e s s and c o r r u p t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o T a c i t u s , t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t was m a r k e d by D r u s u s ' d e a t h . D i o c a n be c a r e l e s s a b o u t c h r o n o l o g y . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s a c c o u n t o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n , f o r e x a m p l e , he r e f e r s t o i t e m s w h i c h o c c u r a s l a t e as AD 37 i n T a c i t u s . He may, t h e n , h a v e been d e p e n d i n g more upon n o n - a n n a l i s t i c s o u r c e s t h a n d i d - 18 -30 T a c i t u s . A t a n y r a t e , T a c i t u s , D i o , a n d S u e t o n i u s must h a v e had r e c o u r s e t o many more a u t h o r i t i e s t h a n e a c h o t h e r . O f f i c i a l d o c u m e n t s , p r e s e r v e d i n t h e S e n a t e and o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a r c h i v e s , w o u l d have o f f e r e d one s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . T a c i t u s c e r t a i n l y c o n s u l t e d t h e S e n a t e ' s r e c o r d o f p r o c e e d i n g s , t h e c o m m e n t a r i i S e n a t u s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h he d i d . B o t h he and S u e t o n i u s r e s o r t e d t o t h e d a i l y g a z e t t e , a s o r t o f j o u r n a l l i s t i n g d a i l y o f f i c i a l p u b l i c t r a n s a c t i o n s a nd p r o c e e d i n g s , a n d v a r i o u s l y known a s t h e a c t a p o p u l i , a c t a , d i u r n a p o p u l i 31 R o m a n i , e t c . I t may be p r e s u m e d t h a t s u c h d o c u m e n t s w o u l d h a v e h e l d t h e most a c c u r a t e and i m p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o l a t e r w r i t e r s s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y were o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s . The l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s m i g h t a l s o h a v e had t o hand c o l l e c t i o n s o f l e t t e r s , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e y o u n g e r P l i n y , a nd s p e e c h e s , w h e t h e r p u b l i s h e d o r p r e s e r v e d i n t h e S e n a t e a r c h i v e s . D r u s u s ' d e f e n c e o f t h e r i g h t o f w i v e s t o a ccompany t h e i r h u s b a n d s t o p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r s h i p s m i g h t h a v e f a l l e n i n t o t h e l a t t e r c a t e g o r y . O r a l t r a d i t i o n w o u l d 32 h a v e p r o v i d e d a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f s e c o n d a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . L a t e r w r i t e r s w o u l d h a v e had a c c e s s as w e l l t o t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y . T a c i t u s s a y s t h a t t h e m emoirs o f A g r i p p i n a t h e y o u n g e r , r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , r e c o u n t e d h e r own l i f e e t c a s u s s u o r u m . S i n c e she was b o r n i n AD 15 she c o u l d have r e c a l l e d d e t a i l s a b o u t D r u s u s ' l a t e r y e a r s . T i b e r i u s a l s o w r o t e a b r i e f summary o f h i s own l i f e . - 19 -I t s a u t h o r i t y w i t h l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s m a y b e q u e s t i o n e d , h o w e v e r . S u e t o n i u s c i t e s i t o n l y t o r e f u t e T i b e r i u s ' c l a i m t h a t h e p u n i s h e d S e j a n u s b e c a u s e o f h i s a t t a c k o n G e r m a n i c u s 1 c h i l d r e n . S u e t o n i u s a l s o s p e a k s o f t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s e t a c t a o f T i b e r i u s w h i c h w e r e a v i d l y r e a d b y D o m i t i a n . T i b e r i u s ' s p e e c h e s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y r e c o r d e d , a n d w e r e l a t e r r e a d b y T a c i t u s a t l e a s t . C l a u d i u s w r o t e a n a u t o b i o g r a p h y i n e i g h t b o o k s , a c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s , m a g i s i n e p t e q u a m i n e l e g a n t e r , a s w e l l a s a g e n e r a l h i s t o r y i n f o r t y - o n e b o o k s f r o m t h e e n d 33 o f t h e c i v i l w a r . T h e n a m e s o f a f e w c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r i a n s o u t s i d e t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y a r e k n o w n . T h e w o r k o f o n l y o n e m a n , V e l l e i u s P a t e r c u l u s , w h o s e r v e d i n t h e a r m y u n d e r T i b e r i u s , h a s s u r v i v e d . I n t h e s e c o n d b o o k o f h i s H i s t o r y o f R o m e h e g i v e s a s l i g h t s k e t c h o f t h e f i r s t s i x t e e n y e a r s o f T i b e r i u s ' p r i n c i p a t e . A s i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , h o w e v e r , t h i s w o r k , t h o u g h s t i l l e x t a n t , s a y s v e r y l i t t l e a b o u t D r u s u s . C r e m u t i u s C o r d u s a n d T . L a b i e n u s , a n o r a t o r , b o t h w r o t e h i s t o r i e s t h a t m i g h t h a v e i n c l u d e d t h e p e r i o d o f D r u s u s ' l i f e w h i l e A u g u s t u s w a s s t i l l a l i v e . S i n c e t h e S e n a t e h a d o r d e r e d t h e i r w o r k s t o b e b a n n e d , i t m a y b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e y w e r e a n t i - C a e s a r i a n i n 34 t o n e . T h e b a n w a s l i f t e d b y C a l i g u l a . M . S e n e c a t h e r h e t o r w r o t e a h i s t o r y f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c i v i l w a r s t o a t l e a s t t h e d e a t h o f T i b e r i u s i n 37. H i s s o n , L . S e n e c a , s e e m s t o h a v e h a d a h i g h o p i n i o n o f t h e w o r k ' s o b j e c t i v i t y , 35 w h i c h w o u l d m e a n t h a t i t , t o o , w a s p r o b a b l y a n t i - C a e s a r l a n . M a r c u s S e r v i l i u s N o n i a n u s , w h o s e r v e d a s c o n s u l i n A D 35 a n d - 20 -d i e d i n 59, was b o t h o r a t o r a n d h i s t o r i a n . The r a n g e o f h i s h i s t o r y i n unknown, b u t S e r v i l i u s was h i g h l y r e g a r d e d by b o t h 3 6 Q u i n t i l i a n and T a c i t u s . Q u i n t i l i a n p r a i s e d v e r y h i g h l y t h e work o f A u f i d i u s B a s s u s , who w r o t e a l i t t l e e a r l i e r t h a n S e r v i l i u s . He composed a monograph on t h e "German war" and a g e n e r a l h i s t o r y s t i l l u n f i n i s h e d a t t h e t i m e o f h i s d e a t h , p r e s u m a b l y i n t h e m i d d l e o f N e r o ' s r e i g n . The l a t t e r work may h a v e c o v e r e d most o f t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h D r u s u s was a l i v e ; B a s s u s was c i t e d i n t h e C h r o n i c l e o f C a s s i o d o r u s , w r i t t e n i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y , f o r t h e l i s t o f Roman c o n s u l s b e t w e e n 8 BC and AD 31. I t c a n be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e monograph m i g h t have r e f e r r e d t o D r u s u s 1 o p e r a t i o n s on t h e Danube f r o m AD 17 t o 20, s i n c e t h e y e f f e c t i v e l y t e r m i n a t e d 37 t h e German t h r e a t t o t h e Roman E m p i r e f o r a l o n g t i m e . A u f i d i u s 1 h i s t o r y was r e s u m e d by P l i n y t h e e l d e r , who a l s o w r o t e an a c c o u n t o f t h e German w a r s , a s n o t e d e a r l i e r . S i n c e t h e l a t t e r work i s known t o ha v e r e f e r r e d t o G e r m a n i c u s ' e x p e d i t i o n i n t o Germany i n 15, i t i s t e m p t i n g , a g a i n , t o s u p p o s e t h a t i t m i g h t h a v e d e s c r i b e d as w e l l D r u s u s 1 3 8 r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e German p r o b l e m i n 17 t o 20. Gnaeus C o r n e l i u s L e n t u l u s G a e t u l i c u s , c o n s u l i n 26, i s known t o ha v e w r i t t e n s o m e t h i n g a b o u t C a l i g u l a . He may w e l l , t h e n , h a v e w r i t t e n a b o u t T i b e r i u s a n d D r u s u s , C a l i g u l a ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s 39 and p r e d e c e s s o r s i n t h e p r m c i p a t e a n d s u c c e s s i o n . The h i s t o r i e s o f C l u v i u s R u f u s a r e c i t e d by T a c i t u s f o r m a t t e r s o c c u r r i n g i n N e r o ' s r e i g n . R u f u s s e r v e d a s c o n s u l b e f o r e AD 65 a nd seems t o h a v e been a c t i v e p r i m a r i l y i n t h e r e i g n s o f - 21 -N e r o , G a l b a , a n d O t h o . S i n c e , h o w e v e r , he m i g h t a l s o h a v e been c o n s u l b e f o r e 4 1 , and s i n c e P l u t a r c h q u o t e s h i m a s an a u t h o r i t y on a m a t t e r r e l a t i n g t o t h e p l a g u e i n Rome o f 364 BC, h i s h i s t o r i e s m i g h t h a v e h ad a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t w e l l b e f o r e 40 N e r o came t o t h e t h r o n e . No o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s c a n be r e a s o n a b l y i d e n t i f i e d as p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s f o r t h e l i f e o f D r u s u s . One s u s p e c t s t h a t e v e n t h o s e whose names a r e known r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o whom T a c i t u s , D i o , a n d S u e t o n i u s c o u l d h a v e h ad a c c e s s . A s s e s s i n g t h e t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s i s d i f f i c u l t . I f p o s s i b l e , e r r o r a n d b i a s must be i d e n t i f i e d . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f n e a r l y a l l o r i g i n a l e v i d e n c e , t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e s o u r c e s must be d e d u c e d f r o m t h e w o r k s o f t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s . W i t h i n s u c h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s t h e d e d u c t i o n s w i l l be t e n t a t i v e a t b e s t . They w i l l a l s o be n e g a t i v e . S e a r c h i n g f o r s i g n s o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r b i a s i n t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s o f f e r s t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m . M e r e l y f i n d i n g s u c h s i g n s , h o w e v e r , i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . One must d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r b i a s was l i k e l y t o ha v e been i n t r o d u c e d by t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s t h e m s e l v e s . O n l y i f t h e l a t t e r a n a l y s i s p r o d u c e s a n e g a t i v e r e s u l t c a n a s e r i o u s a r g u m e n t be made f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f l a w s i n t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s . Of c o u r s e , f a i l u r e t o i d e n t i f y i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r b i a s p r o v e s n o t h i n g a b o u t a c c u r a c y . I t d e m o n s t r a t e s a t most t h e a p p a r e n t a b s e n c e o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r b i a s . The s c o p e f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e t r u t h o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a b o u t D r u s u s 1 l i f e i s , t h u s , v e r y n a r r o w - 22 -i n d e e d . I n f a c t i n c o n s i s t e n c y and b i a s do a p p e a r i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n . T h r e e e x a m p l e s s t a n d o u t . F i r s t , T a c i t u s , D i o , and S u e t o n i u s g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t a n e g a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f D r u s u s ' c h a r a c t e r w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a t i n g i t . S e c o n d , t h e y t e n d t o d o w n p l a y D r u s u s ' s i g n i f i c a n t m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s and t o h i g h l i g h t t h e more q u e s t i o n a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f G e r m a n i c u s . D r u s u s p u t down t h e P a n n o n i a n m u t i n y f i r m l y a nd e x p e d i t i o u s l y i n AD 14, y e t he i s g i v e n r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t s h r i f t by t h e m a i n t r a d i t i o n , w h i c h p r e s e r v e s a much more e x t e n s i v e and s y m p a t h e t i c a c c o u n t o f G e r m a n i c u s 1 b u n g l e d h a n d l i n g o f t h e R h i n e m u t i n y . I n t h e s p a c e o f l i t t l e more t h a n two y e a r s , f r o m l a t e 17 t o e a r l y 20, D r u s u s s t a b i l i z e d t h e Danube f r o n t i e r and weakened t h e Germans t o t h e p o i n t where t h e y w o u l d n o t b o t h e r t h e Roman E m p i r e f o r h a l f a c e n t u r y . A g a i n , h o w e v e r , t h e m a i n t r a d i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as e m b o d i e d i n T a c i t u s ' A n n a l s , p a y s v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s o u t s t a n d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t , p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o g l o r i f y G e r m a n i c u s ' f u t i l e a n d w a s t e f u l e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e Germans i n 15 and 16, and h i s e x c u r s i o n t h r o u g h t h e e a s t e r n E m p i r e f r o m 17 t o 19, w here he a c c o m p l i s h e d l i t t l e o f v a l u e t o t h e E m p i r e c o m p a r a b l e t o D r u s u s ' s u c c e s s . G e r m a n i c u s was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t i r r i n g up d i s c o r d and bad f e e l i n g t h r o u g h h i s q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h P i s o and P l a n c i n a and h i s u n a u t h o r i z e d e n t r y i n t o E g y p t . T h i r d , t h e s u r v i v i n g t r a d i t i o n p r e s e n t s more o r l e s s u n c r i t i c a l l y t h e s t o r y t h a t D r u s u s d i e d f r o m p o i s o n i n g a t t h e - 23 -hands o f h i s w i f e , L i v i l l a , a c t i n g i n c o n s p i r a c y w i t h S e j a n u s and o t h e r s . The p r o b l e m h e r e i s t h a t no s u b s t a n t i a t i n g e v i d e n c e i s o f f e r e d b e y o n d a s i n g l e , u n d e t a i l e d a l l e g a t i o n made some e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r t h e f a c t by a s o u r c e o f , p r i m a f a c i e , h i g h l y d u b i o u s c r e d i b i l i t y ' , c o r r o b o r a t e d o n l y by 41 t e s t i m o n y e x t r a c t e d u n d e r t o r t u r e . W i t h s u c h d o u b t f u l e l e m e n t s , t h e m a i n t r a d i t i o n a b o u t D r u s u s 1 l i f e h a s t o be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h s c e p t i c i s m . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t r e m n a n t s s u r v i v e o f a t r a d i t i o n c o n t r a d i c t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e m a i n p o r t r a y a l o f D r u s u s . V e l l e i u s P a t e r c u l u s , a c o n t e m p o r a r y o f D r u s u s , b e l o n g s t o t h e d i s s e n t i n g m i n o r i t y . I n one p a s s a g e he c o m p a r e s f a v o u r a b l y D r u s u s ' s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e P a n n o n i a n m u t i n y w i t h G e r m a n i c u s 1 c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e m u t i n e e r s on t h e R h i n e , n o t i n g t h a t , w h i l e G e r m a n i c u s g a v e much away, D r u s u s a c t e d d e c i s i v e l y , u s i n g p r i s c a a n t i q u a q u e s e v e r i t a t e . V e l l e i u s ' w r i t i n g i s v i t i a t e d by a s t r o n g p r o - T i b e r i a n b i a s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y d e g e n e r a t e s i n t o u n c o n c e a l e d , b o m b a s t i c f l a t t e r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , v i e w e d o b j e c t i v e l y , h i s c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n G e r m a n i c u s a nd D r u s u s a c c o r d s v e r y w e l l w i t h t h e f a c t s as l a i d o u t by T a c i t u s h i m s e l f . E v e n T a c i t u s p r e s e r v e s d e t a i l s t h a t do n o t s q u a r e w i t h t h e " a u t h o r i z e d v e r s i o n " a b o u t D r u s u s . He r e f e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , t o h i s n o b i l i t a s  i n g e n i t a i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e m u t i n e e r s , h i s c o n s i s t e n t l y e x c e l l e n t r e l a t i o n s w i t h G e r m a n i c u s and h i s s o n s , h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g h i s w i f e , h i s m o d e r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e on h i s f a t h e r , a n d h i s c o n g e n i a l i t y - 24 -4 2 and s o c i a b l e n e s s . M o r e o v e r , t h e s u r v i v i n g p o r t r a i t o f D r u s u s 1 p u b l i c c o n d u c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n T a c i t u s ' A n n a l s , shows h i m t o h a v e been a c o m p e t e n t o f f i c i a l and s t a t e s m a n . A l l o f t h e s e p o s i t i v e r e f e r e n c e s s u g g e s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e p r e v a i l i n g , s t r o n g l y p r o - G e r m a n i c u s t r a d i t i o n was n o t t h e o n l y one t h a t o r i g i n a l l y c i r c u l a t e d . The n e g a t i v e p i c t u r e o f D r u s u s i s n o t l i k e l y t o have* o r i g i n a t e d w i t h t h e l a t e r Roman h i s t o r i a n s . A c a s e c a n be made t h a t T a c i t u s ' i d e a l i z e d r e p u b l i c a n s y m p a t h i e s and d e t e s t a t i o n o f t h e E m p e r o r D o m i t i a n m i g h t h a v e t e m p t e d h i m t o a s s i m i l a t e T i b e r i u s t o an e v i l t y r a n t a nd t h e r e b y t o condemn D r u s u s a s w e l l f o r h i s c o n n e c t i o n t o h i m , a s t h o u g h by c o n t a m i n a t i o n . S u c h a t h e o r y , h o w e v e r , b e g s t h e q u e s t i o n o f what g r o u n d s , what o r i g i n a l e v i d e n c e , T a c i t u s w o u l d h a v e had f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t s u c h an a s s i m i l a t i o n was w a r r a n t e d . M o r e o v e r , D i o and S u e t o n i u s had no known r e a s o n s f o r p e r s o n a l a n i m o s i t y a g a i n s t e i t h e r D r u s u s o r T i b e r i u s . U n l i k e T a c i t u s t h e y t e n d e d t o t r e a t t h e i r s o u r c e m a t e r i a l u n c r i t i c a l l y , f u s i n g a nd r e g u r g i t a t i n g i t a c c o r d i n g t o f a i r l y s u p e r f i c i a l c r i t e r i a . D i o , f o r e x a m p l e , a p p e a r s t o h a v e i n c l u d e d some d e t a i l s s i m p l y b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d i n t e r e s t h i s r e a d e r s , a nd t o have l e f t o u t o t h e r s b e c a u s e he t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y w o u l d b o r e . He a l s o had a t e n d e n c y t o e x c l u d e e v i d e n c e t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d t o c o n f l i c t w i t h what he b e l i e v e d t o be t h e m a i n o r p r e f e r r e d t r a d i t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , b o t h T a c i t u s a nd D i o a p p e a r t o have r e a d t h e same s o u r c e ( s ) d e s c r i b i n g t h e j u d g m e n t s o f t h e Roman p o p u l a c e upon A u g u s t u s - 25 -d u r i n g h i s f u n e r a l . T a c i t u s , h o w e v e r , i n c l u d e d i n t h e A n n a l s b o t h f a v o u r a b l e and c r i t i c a l comments, w h i l e D i o , i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s own b i a s f o r m o n a r c h y , r e t a i n e d o n l y t h e f a v o u r a b l e v i e w s . The l a t t e r w o u l d , t h u s , have been i n c l i n e d t o s u p p r e s s t h e m i n o r i t y o f p r o - T i b e r i u s , p r o - D r u s u s h i s t o r i e s i n f a v o u r o f t h e m a j o r i t y e x a l t i n g G e r m a n i c u s . S u e t o n i u s , f o r h i s p a r t , a p p e a r s t o h a v e p r e f e r r e d a m a s s i n g m a t e r i a l f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s t o s u b j e c t i n g i t t o a c r i t i c a l a n d c o h e r e n t a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n c o n s e q u e n c e h i s n a r r a t i v e o f t e n seems a l o o s e and d i s j o i n t e d s u c c e s s i o n o f t o p i c s , f u r t h e r v i t i a t e d a t t i m e s w i t h c o n f u s i n g 43 i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r D i o o r S u e t o n i u s c o u l d h a v e i n v e n t e d t h e n e g a t i v e t r a d i t i o n a b o u t T i b e r i u s and D r u s u s . They m u s t , t h e n , h a v e i n h e r i t e d i t f r o m t h e i r s o u r c e s . S i n c e T a c i t u s ' g e n e r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f T i b e r i u s as man and e m p e r o r c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y t o t h a t o f D i o and S u e t o n i u s , h e , t o o , must h a v e r e p r o d u c e d i n i t s e s s e n t i a l s t h e same e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s how t h i s v e r s i o n o f e v e n t s , f a v o u r i n g G e r m a n i c u s and d e n i g r a t i n g T i b e r i u s and D r u s u s , c o u l d h a v e become e s t a b l i s h e d . T a c i t u s h i m s e l f may p r o v i d e p a r t o f t h e a n s w e r . He n o t e s f i r s t o f a l l t h a t , f r o m t h e t i m e o f T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n , Roman w r i t e r s b e gan t o d i s t o r t t h e r e c o r d o f h i s t o r y t h r o u g h f l a t t e r y w h i l e an e m p e r o r was a l i v e a n d t h r o u g h h a t r e d a f t e r he was d e a d . I t f o l l o w s f r o m t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e a c c o u n t s o f T i b e r i u s and D r u s u s w r i t t e n b e t w e e n AD 14 and 37 w o u l d h a v e been b i a s e d i n t h e i r f a v o u r . - 26 -The a d u l a t o r y w r i t i n g o f V e l l e i u s P a t e r c u l u s p r o b a b l y p r o v i d e s a g o o d e x a m p l e o f t h i s s o r t o f p r o d u c t i o n . When T i b e r i u s d i e d , h o w e v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o T a c i t u s ' r u l e , t h e p i c t u r e o f T i b e r i u s a n d D r u s u s w o u l d have been f a l s i f i e d 44 a g a i n , t h i s t i m e by u n f a i r d e f a m a t i o n . An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r w o u l d h a v e d e e p e n e d t h e i r e c l i p s e . I n h i s A n n a l s f o r t h e y e a r 17 T a c i t u s n o t e s a d i v i s i o n i n t h e i m p e r i a l c o u r t b e t w e e n s u p p o r t e r s o f D r u s u s and G e r m a n i c u s . The r i v a l r y seems t o h a v e f o c u s s e d on b l o o d and a n c e s t r y . I n e s s e n c e i t was a d i s p u t e o v e r r i g h t t o t h e s u c c e s s i o n b e t w e e n p a r t i s a n s o f t h e C l a u d i a n h o u s e , r e p r e s e n t e d by L i v i a , T i b e r i u s , D r u s u s , and L i v i l l a , and t h o s e o f t h e J u l i a n h o u s e , r e p r e s e n t e d by G e r m a n i c u s a n d A g r i p p i n a . L i v i a was A u g u s t u s 1 w i f e a n d , by t h i s t i m e , T i b e r i u s a n d D r u s u s w ere h i s s o n and g r a n d s o n by a d o p t i o n , b u t i t seems t h a t , i n t h i s r i v a l r y a t any r a t e , b l o o d k i n s h i p was c o n s i d e r e d t o o u t w e i g h s u c h a r t i f i c i a l l i n k s and n e i t h e r L i v i a , T i b e r i u s , n o r D r u s u s had any J u l i a n b l o o d . T h r o u g h t h e i r m a t e r n a l g r a n d m o t h e r , O c t a v i a , A u g u s t u s 1 s i s t e r , L i v i l l a 1 s n a t u r a l k i n s h i p t o A u g u s t u s was a s c l o s e as G e r m a n i c u s ' s , a n d , t h r o u g h t h e i r p a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s , G e r m a n i c u s had as much C l a u d i a n b l o o d as L i v i l l a . L i v i l l a ' s m a r r i a g e , h o w e v e r , t o D r u s u s , by whom s h e had had a t l e a s t one c h i l d , w o u l d have been v i e w e d as p l a c i n g h e r s q u a r e l y i n t h e C l a u d i a n s ' camp. S i m i l a r l y G e r m a n i c u s ' m a r r i a g e t o A u g u s t u s ' g r a n d d a u g h t e r , by whom he had numerous o f f s p r i n g , a d d e d t o h i s n a t u r a l k i n s h i p t o A u g u s t u s a n d h i s s t a t u s as - 27 -A u g u s t u s 1 a d o p t i v e g r a n d s o n and f a v o u r i t e , w o u l d h a v e c o n f i r m e d h i s a l i g n m e n t w i t h t h e J u l i a n s i d e . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h e p r o - J u l i a n s w o u l d h a v e r e g a r d e d T i b e r i u s , no d o u b t , as a C l a u d i a n i n t e r l o p e r on t h e p r i n c i p a t e , w h i c h t h e y w o u l d h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t o be a J u l i a n p r e r o g a t i v e . D o u b t l e s s , t o o , t h e y w o u l d h a v e f e a r e d t h a t T i b e r i u s m i g h t be t e m p t e d t o e x t e n d t h e C l a u d i a n i n t r u s i o n i n d e f i n i t e l y by r e s e r v i n g t h e s u c c e s s i o n f o r D r u s u s and h i s s o n s . H e n c e , e v e n as e a r l y as 17, t h e p r o - J u l i a n s w o u l d h a v e been a n x i o u s t o a s s e r t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f G e r m a n i c u s 1 and A g r i p p i n a ' s d y n a s t i c c l a i m s . So t h e d e a t h o f G e r m a n i c u s i n 19 and t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y b i r t h o f t w i n s t o L i v i l l a w o u l d have f a l l e n upon t h e J u l i a n p a r t y as g r i e v o u s b l o w s . T h e s e e v e n t s w o u l d h a v e b o t h g u a r a n t e e d t h e s u c c e s s i o n t o D r u s u s and o p e n e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r a C l a u d i a n d y n a s t y . I t i s no w o n d e r , t h e n , t h a t t h e t w i n s ' b i r t h e v o k e d a m e a n - s p i r i t e d r e s p o n s e f r o m G e r m a n i c u s ' 45 s u p p o r t e r s . T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s w o u l d h a v e d e e p e n e d and h a r d e n e d t h e a n t i p a t h y b e t w e e n t h e p r o - J u l i a n s and p r o - C l a u d i a n s s o t h a t i t w o u l d a c q u i r e , a s i t w e r e , a l i f e o f i t s own, l a s t i n g b e y o n d t h e d e a t h s o f D r u s u s , h i s s o n s , and T i b e r i u s . Upon C a l i g u l a ' s a c c e s s i o n , t h e C l a u d i a n memory w o u l d have had t o f a c e n o t o n l y t h e e x p e c t e d r e v e r s a l f r o m f l a t t e r y t o d i s p a r a g e m e n t by h i s t o r i a n s , b u t a l s o t h e t r i u m p h o f t h e J u l i a n h o u s e , whose a s c e n d a n c y w o u l d e n d u r e t h r o u g h t h e r e i g n s o f G e r m a n i c u s ' s o n , C a l i g u l a , h i s b r o t h e r , C l a u d i u s , and h i s g r a n d s o n , N e r o . The J u l i a n p a r t i s a n s , s e e i n g t h e i r h o u s e b a c k i n p o w e r , w o u l d h a v e w a n t e d - and - 28 -been a b l e - t o c o m p l e t e t h e C l a u d i a n s ' r o u t by e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e J u l i a n v e r s i o n o f i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y w o u l d p r e v a i l . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e J u l i o - C l a u d i a n p r i n c i p a t e w o u l d have become, and r e m a i n e d , d o m i n a t e d by w r i t e r s w i t h a p r o - J u l i a n , . p r o - G e r m a n i c u s b i a s . Works f a v o u r i n g t h e C l a u d i a n s , i n c l u d i n g D r u s u s and L i v i l l a , w o u l d h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d c o m p l e t e l y o r b een r e l e g a t e d , p r o b a b l y l i k e 46 V e l l e i u s P a t e r c u l u s 1 H i s t o r y , t o i n f e r i o r s t a t u s . C a l i g u l a h i m s e l f h e r a l d e d t h e new t r e n d a t T i b e r i u s ' f u n e r a l , when, a c c o r d i n g t o D i o , he d e l i v e r e d a s p e e c h d e v o t e d more t o t h e memory o f G e r m a n i c u s and A u g u s t u s , and t o h i s own 47 c o m m e n d a t i o n , t h a n t o T i b e r i u s . I t may be s u s p e c t e d , t h e n , t h a t more t h a n c o i n c i d e n c e i s i n v o l v e d when a l l t h e c h i e f members o f t h e i m p e r i a l C l a u d i a n f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g T i b e r i u s , L i v i a , D r u s u s , and L i v i l l a , as w e l l as T i b e r i u s ' c h i e f s u p p o r t e r , S e j a n u s , a r e g e n e r a l l y p o r t r a y e d as 48 u n p r e p o s s e s s i n g a t b e s t o r , f r e q u e n t l y , v i c i o u s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s ' d i s p a r a g e m e n t o f D r u s u s , n e g l e c t o f h i s a c h i e v e m e n t s , and a c c e p t a n c e t h a t he d i e d i n g l o r i o u s l y i n a s o r d i d p l o t h a t c h e d by h i s own a d u l t e r o u s w i f e and t h e commander o f t h e P r a e t o r i a n G u a r d may be b a s e d more on J u l i a n p r o p a g a n d a t h a n a c t u a l f a c t . The w o r k s most l i k e l y t o h a v e c a r r i e d t h i s b i a s w o u l d h a v e been composed by i n d i v i d u a l s who had no r e a s o n , o r way, t o e s c h e w i t . T h r e e t y p e s o f a u t h o r s c o u l d h a v e f a l l e n i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y : o u t r i g h t p a r t i s a n s , l i k e A g r i p p i n a t h e y o u n g e r , o p p o r t u n i s t s who w i s h e d t o c u r r y f a v o u r w i t h t h e - 29 -J u l i a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and p e r s o n s who w e re a f r a i d t o a n n o y them. S i n c e t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w came t o p r e v a i l , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e s o u r c e t r a d i t i o n became d o m i n a t e d by t h e t y p e s o f w r i t i n g t h a t t h e y w o u l d have been most l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e : l i t e r a r y w o r k s i n t h e f o r m o f m e m o i r s , h i s t o r i e s , o r b i o g r a p h i e s . T h e s e a u t h o r s w o u l d h a v e been u n d e r no o b l i g a t i o n s i m p l y t o r e c o r d f a c t s . T h e y w o u l d h a v e had t h e f r e e d o m t o s e l e c t , i n t e r p r e t , a n d , w here t h e y w i s h e d , a l t e r i n f o r m a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , w r i t e r s o f o f f i c i a l d o c u m e n t s w o u l d h a v e f e l t more o b l i g e d t o a v o i d d i s t o r t e d r e p o r t i n g . A c c u r a c y and o b j e c t i v i t y w o u l d , s u r e l y , h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d f u n d a m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e c o m p e t e n t p r o d u c t i o n o f o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s o f s e n a t o r i a l , j u d i c i a l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e e d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g s p e e c h e s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e p i c t u r e o f D r u s u s a p p e a r s most f r e e f r o m b i a s and d i s t o r t i o n when t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y T a c i t u s , show h i m a c t i n g i n some o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y , s u c h a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Roman g o v e r n m e n t c h a r g e d w i t h s u p p r e s s i n g a m u t i n y , o r s i m p l y a s a s e n a t o r s p e a k i n g and w o r k i n g i n t h e c u r i a . One may s u r m i s e t h a t , i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , T a c i t u s r e s o r t e d t o o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . I n s u c h c a s e s h i s n a r r a t i v e a p p e a r s much more b a l a n c e d t h a n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s e l s e w h e r e o f D r u s u s 1 p r i v a t e l i f e , f o r w h i c h he p r o b a b l y r e l i e d more on u n o f f i c i a l , l i t e r a r y w o r k s . - 30 -EXCURSUS I I  D r u s u s ' R e l a t i o n t o G a i u s A s i n i u s G a l l u s I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e what f a c t u a l g r o u n d s G a l l u s c o u l d h a v e had f o r h i s c l a i m , a c c o r d i n g t o D i o , t h a t D r u s u s was h i s s o n . He d i d m a r r y V i p s a n i a a t some p o i n t a f t e r h e r d i v o r c e f r o m T i b e r i u s , b u t a s S u e t o n i u s s a y s t h a t s h e had g i v e n b i r t h t o D r u s u s b e f o r e h e r d i v o r c e , G a l l u s c o u l d n o t h a v e f a t h e r e d D r u s u s a f t e r h i s m a r r i a g e t o h e r ( o r , i n f a c t , a t a n y t i m e 49 a f t e r h e r d i v o r c e ) . F u r t h e r c o n j e c t u r e t h a t D r u s u s c o u l d h a v e been c o n c e i v e d f r o m r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n G a l l u s and V i p s a n i a w h i l e s h e was s t i l l m a r r i e d t o T i b e r i u s seems u n w a r r a n t e d . N ot o n l y w o u l d G a l l u s h a v e p l a c e d h i m s e l f i n e x t r e m e o p p r o b r i u m and d a n g e r by a d m i t t i n g s u c h m o r a l t u r p i t u d e - and i m p e r i a l c u c k o l d i n g - b u t t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n g e n i a l i t y b e t w e e n T i b e r i u s a n d V i p s a n i a r e p o r t e d by S u e t o n i u s a p p e a r s g r e a t l y t o r e d u c e e v e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a d u l t e r y . Nor c a n a d o p t i o n o f D r u s u s by G a l l u s be g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . By Roman l a w , a c i t i z e n c o u l d o n l y t a k e on a n o t h e r ' s nomen t h r o u g h d i r e c t p e r s o n a l a d o p t i o n o r t h r o u g h t h e o t h e r ' s a d o p t i o n ( t e c h n i c a l l y c a l l e d " a r r o g a t i o n " ) o f t h e c i t i z e n ' s p a t e r f a m i l i a s . D r u s u s , t h e n , c o u l d o n l y h a v e a c q u i r e d h i s names, " J u l i u s C a e s a r " , t h r o u g h A u g u s t u s ' a d o p t i o n o f h i m o r h i s p a t e r f a m i l i a s . The s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e t h a t A u g u s t u s a d o p t e d d i r e c t l y j u s t two p e r s o n s 5 1 a f t e r G a i u s and L u c i u s : A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s and T i b e r i u s . A c c o r d i n g l y , when A u g u s t u s a d o p t e d T i b e r i u s i n AD 4 t h e - 31 -l a t t e r m u s t s t i l l h a v e b e e n t h e p a t e r f a m i l i a s o f D r u s u s . D r u s u s , t h e n , c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n t h e a d o p t i v e s o n o f G a l l u s . I n a d d i t i o n D r u s u s , i f h e h a d b e e n a d o p t e d b y G a l l u s , w o u l d h a v e a c q u i r e d , a c c o r d i n g t o n o r m a l p r a c t i c e , a t l e a s t o n e A s i n i a n n a m e . Y e t t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y n o e v i d e n c e t h a t h e h a d a n y t h i n g b u t J u l i o - C l a u d i a n a n d L i v i a n n a m e s e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r h i s a d o p t i o n b y A u g u s t u s . T h e r e s e e m s , t h e n , t o h a v e b e e n n o b a s i s t o t h e c l a i m a t t r i b u t e d t o G a l l u s b y D i o . P e r h a p s i t w a s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a n i n v e n t i o n b y a n a n t i - C l a u d i a n s o u r c e t r a d i t i o n i n h e r i t e d b y D i o , i n t e n d e d t o c a s t d o u b t s o n D r u s u s ' l e g i t i m a c y o r , a t l e a s t , o n h i s a n d h i s d e s c e n d a n t s * c l a i m s t o t h e t h r o n e . - 32 -EXCURSUS I I I D r u s u s ' T r i b u n i c i a n Power and h i s D a t e o f B i r t h T a c i t u s ' A n n a l s f o r AD 23 c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o b l e m o f D r u s u s ' d a t e o f b i r t h . He s a y s t h a t T i b e r i u s w r o t e t o t h e S e n a t e t o r e q u e s t t h e t r i b u n i c i a n power ( t r i b u n i c i a p o t e s t a s ) f o r D r u s u s a n d l i s t e d among h i s s o n ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h e f a c t t h a t he had r e a c h e d t h e age ( e a r n . . . a e t a t e m ) a t w h i c h T i b e r i u s h i m s e l f had been o r d e r e d by A u g u s t u s t o t a k e up t h e power i n 6 BC. When p r e c i s e l y i n 6 T i b e r i u s a c t u a l l y d i d assume i t i s unknown - a l t h o u g h he a p p e a r s t o h a v e done s o e a r l y i n t h e y e a r . A t any r a t e i t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t he w o u l d h a v e had t h e power w e l l b e f o r e h i s 52 t h i r t y - s i x t h b i r t h d a y on November 1 6 t h . I n o t h e r w o r d s , he w o u l d have been t h i r t y - f i v e , a n d p r o b a b l y c l o s e r t o h i s t h i r t y - f i f t h b i r t h d a y t h a n h i s t h i r t y - s i x t h . I f , t h e n , t h e r e i s no e x a g g e r a t i o n i n T i b e r i u s ' s t a t e m e n t t o t h e S e n a t e , D r u s u s w o u l d h a v e been a b o u t t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s o l d i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f AD 22. The q u a l i f i c a t i o n , " a b o u t " , must be a p p l i e d b e c a u s e T i b e r i u s * s t a t e m e n t d o e s n o t d r a w an e x a c t e q u i v a l e n c e i n y e a r s and months b e t w e e n h i s own and h i s s o n ' s a g e s . The c o m p a r i s o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t : i t p r o v i d e s t h e b e s t e v i d e n c e i n a l l t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r D r u s u s ' age a n d , t h u s , h i s d a t e o f b i r t h . How n a r r o w l y t h e e q u i v a l e n c e a s s e r t e d by T i b e r i u s s h o u l d be c o n s t r u e d i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e c k o n . On t h e one hand i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t T i b e r i u s w o u l d h a v e i n d u l g e d i n t h e - 33 -i n a c c u r a c i e s a n d e x a g g e r a t i o n s t h a t he s o l o a t h e d i n t h e S e n a t e ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v i e w o f t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e age c o m p a r i s o n : a f o r m a l l e t t e r 53 t o t h e S e n a t e c o n c e r n i n g an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i s s u e . I t c a n be a r g u e d , t h e n , t h a t i t i s i m p r o b a b l e t h a t he w o u l d h a v e i n t e n d e d h i s c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n h i s own and h i s s o n ' s a g e s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d b r o a d l y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , T i b e r i u s d o e s n o t g i v e n u m e r i c a l p r e c i s i o n t o h i s age c o m p a r i s o n . R a t h e r he c e n t r e s t h e c o m p a r i s o n on t h e n o n - n u m e r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , earn a e t a t e m . B e c a u s e o f t h e Roman t e n d e n c y f o r i n c l u s i v e r e c k o n i n g a p e r s o n c o u l d a c t u a l l y be up t o one y e a r y o u n g e r o r o l d e r t h a n h i s a p p a r e n t a g e . T h u s , when he r e c e i v e d t h e t r i b u n i c i a n power i n 6 BC T i b e r i u s h a d been t r i g i n t a q u i n q u e a n n o s n a t u s a nd t r i c e s i m o s e x t o anno. So T i b e r i u s ' s t a t e m e n t on D r u s u s ' a e t a s w o u l d h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d e x a c t enough i f D r u s u s h ad been a t t h i s t i m e e i t h e r 34 ( t r i c e s i m o q u i n t o anno) o r 35 ( a s T i b e r i u s ) o r e v e n 36 ( t r i g i n t a s e x a n n o s 54 n a t u s ) . W h a t e v e r D r u s u s 1 age h i s l a t e s t r e l e v a n t b i r t h d a y w o u l d h a v e f a l l e n i n AD 2 1 , s i n c e he g o t t h e t r i b u n i c i a n p ower b e f o r e h i s b i r t h d a y i n 22. The s u g g e s t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f T i b e r i u s ' c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n h i s own and h i s s o n ' s a g e s w o u l d t h u s p r o d u c e a r a n g e o f d a t e s f r o m O c t o b e r 7 t h , 16 BC 55 t o O c t o b e r 7 t h , 14 BC f o r D r u s u s ' b i r t h . T h i s r a n g e o v e r l a p s t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r i e s d e d u c e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r : 15 t o 13 BC. U n f o r t u n a t e l y T i b e r i u s ' age c o m p a r i s o n d o e s n o t p e r m i t a more e x a c t c o n c l u s i o n . - 34 -EXCURSUS IV  D r u s u s ' O r i g i n a l Name Any a t t e m p t t o r e c o n s t r u c t D r u s u s ' o r i g i n a l name must d e a l w i t h t h e t h r e e i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e name " D r u s u s " i t s e l f , n o t e d on p a g e s 6 and 7 a b o v e . The a s s o c i a t e d p r o b l e m s c a n n o t be s o l v e d b u t some d e d u c t i o n s c a n be made t h a t s h e d l i g h t on them. F i r s t , t h e C l a u d i a n T i b e r i u s d i d h a v e a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l p r e c e d e n t f o r i n c l u d i n g t h e n o n - C l a u d i a n " D r u s u s " among h i s s o n ' s names. T i b e r i u s ' y o u n g e r b r o t h e r h a d , a p p a r e n t l y , o r i g i n a l l y been named "Decimus C l a u d i u s D r u s u s " 5 6 o r , p o s s i b l y , "Decimus C l a u d i u s N e r o D r u s u s " . T h i s c h o i c e o f names was a n o m a l o u s . The a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e d o e s n o t show " D e c i m u s " t o h a v e s e r v e d as a common praenomen among t h e C l a u d i a n N e r o n e s , w h i l e " D r u s u s " b e l o n g e d t o none o f them a t a l l , b u t r a t h e r t o t h e L i v i i D r u s i , t o w h i c h g e n s L i v i a b e l o n g e d by v i r t u e o f t h e a d o p t i o n o f h e r f a t h e r , M. L i v i u s 57 D r u s u s C l a u d i a n u s . C . J . S i m p s o n o f f e r s t h e b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e a n o m a l y . By t h e t i m e o f L i v i a ' s y o u n g e r s o n ' s b i r t h s he had d i v o r c e d h i s f a t h e r - whose f o r t u n e s were a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y l o w ebb - and had m a r r i e d , o r was a b o u t t o m a r r y , O c t a v i a n : I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , i t w o u l d n o t h a v e been u n r e a s o n a b l e f o r D r u s u s ' s p a r e n t s t o h a v e l a i d l e s s e m p h a s i s on t h e i n f a n t ' s p a t e r n a l l i n e a g e a n d , i n b e s t o w i n g t h e cognomen D r u s u s , t o h a v e b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e t h e c h i l d ' s m a t e r n a l a n c e s t r y and l i n k s w i t h t h e L i v i a n g e n s t h r o u g h h i s g r a n d f a t h e r M. L i v i u s D r u s u s C l a u d i a n u s . ( 5 8 ) - 35 -The u s e o f n o m e n c l a t u r e i n t h i s c a s e t o o b s c u r e l e s s g l o r i o u s and e m p h a s i z e more g l o r i o u s c o n n e c t i o n s w o u l d n o t h a v e been an a b e r r a t i o n . O t h e r s i n t h e l a t e R e p u b l i c a n d e a r l y E m p i r e 59 a l s o e n g a g e d i n t h i s p r a c t i c e . The q u e s t i o n i s , t o what e x t e n t m i g h t T i b e r i u s , p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by h i s m o t h e r and s t e p f a t h e r , h a v e had r e c o u r s e t o i t i n naming h i s f i r s t - b o r n s o n ? I t was n o t h i s o n l y o r e v e n h i s most c o m p e l l i n g o p t i o n . He m i g h t have f e l t a t l e a s t as much p r e s s u r e t o c o n t i n u e t h e a n c e s t r a l t r a d i t i o n o f n a m i n g h i s f i r s t - b o r n s o n " T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o " . F o r i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e m i s f o r t u n e s o f one b e a r e r o f s u c h a t i m e - h o n o u r e d name, T i b e r i u s ' f a t h e r , s h o u l d h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y g r a v e t o k e e p i t s u p p r e s s e d f o r l o n g . C e r t a i n l y T i b e r i u s h i m s e l f a p p e a r s t o h a v e had no q u a l m s a b o u t r e t a i n i n g t h e f u l l name b e f o r e h i s a d o p t i o n by A u g u s t u s i n AD 4. M o r e o v e r , any a b a s e m e n t h i s f a m i l y h a d s u f f e r e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r he had more t h a n made up f o r by 15 t o 13 BC, d u r i n g w h i c h p e r i o d D r u s u s was most l i k e l y b o r n , w i t h t h e h i g h h o n o u r s and a p p o i n t m e n t s he had r e c e i v e d f r o m A u g u s t u s . T h e n , t o o , i f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p a t e r n a l d i s g r a c e h a d p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e naming o f T i b e r i u s ' y o u n g e r b r o t h e r t h e y had p r o b a b l y s t a r t e d t o become muted by a r o u n d 20 BC when, a c c o r d i n g t o S i m p s o n , t h e praenomen " D e c i m u s " was most l i k e l y t o h a v e been d r o p p e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e f a t h e r ' s a n d b r o t h e r ' s 6 0 " N e r o " . E v e n t h e praenomen " T i b e r i u s " made a r e a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e n a m i n g o f N e r o D r u s u s 1 s e c o n d s o n . The f u t u r e e m p e r o r - 36 -C l a u d i u s , b o r n i n 10 BC, was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d " T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s D r u s u s " . L a t e r - p r o b a b l y no l a t e r t h a n AD 4 - he i s r e c o r d e d as h a v i n g h e l d t h e f u l l t i t l e " T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o " . ^ I n f a c t , e a c h o f t h e t r i a n o m i n a o f L i v i a ' s f i r s t h u s b a n d a p p e a r e d i n v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r names among t h e J u l i o - C l a u d i a n s u n t i l t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e i r l i n e i n 68. So w h i l e L i v i a and h e r s o n s - and p o s s i b l y O c t a v i a n a s w e l l - may ha v e been e m b a r r a s s e d by T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o i n t h e f o u r t h d e c a d e BC, s u b s e q u e n t u s e o f h i s t h r e e names s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t h a v e been much b o t h e r e d by h i m by t h e s e c o n d d e c a d e , i n w h i c h t h e D r u s u s o f t h i s s t u d y was b o r n . M o r e o v e r , t h e a r g u m e n t c a n a t l e a s t be mooted t h a t , w h a t e v e r i g n o m i n y T i b e r i u s ' f a t h e r s u f f e r e d , t h e a n a l o g y b e t w e e n t h e m o t i v e s f o r naming T i b e r i u s ' b r o t h e r and T i b e r i u s ' s o n d o e s n o t h o l d . Naming n o v e l t i e s m i g h t o n l y h ave been a l l o w e d a f t e r t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t h e t i t l e , " T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o " , had been s e c u r e d i n t h e e l d e r s o n . A c c o r d i n g l y an o p t i o n w o u l d h a v e l a i n open f o r t h e naming o f L i v i a ' s y o u n g e r s o n w h i c h w o u l d n o t ha v e been a v a i l a b l e t o T i b e r i u s i n t h e nam i n g o f h i s f i r s t - b o r n . C e r t a i n l y i f D r u s u s d i d g e t t h e names " T i b e r i u s " a n d / o r " N e r o " he w o u l d most l i k e l y h a v e r e c e i v e d them a t b i r t h - s i n c e t h e y were h i s f a t h e r ' s names. B u t w h i l e T i b e r i u s may h a v e named D r u s u s " D r u s u s " a t b i r t h . t h e r e was no o v e r r i d i n g n e c e s s i t y f o r h i m t o do s o . The d e a t h o f D r u s u s 1 u n c l e , T i b e r i u s ' b e l o v e d b r o t h e r , N e r o D r u s u s , i n 9 BC w o u l d - 37 r h a v e o f f e r e d a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e o c c a s i o n f o r t h e b e s t o w a l o f t h e name. I f T i b e r i u s d i d p a s s " D r u s u s " on t o h i s s o n a t t h a t t i m e , he w o u l d h a v e been a c t i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l mood o f t h e S e n a t e , a n d , no d o u b t , o f t h e P e o p l e a nd h i s f a m i l y a s w e l l . The S e n a t e a t t h a t t i m e d e c r e e d t h a t L i v i a ' s y o u n g e r s o n and h i s s o n s s h o u l d h e n c e f o r t h b e a r t h e 6 2 t i t l e " G e r m a n i c u s " . T i b e r i u s , w i s h i n g t o do h i s p a r t i n h o n o u r i n g and m e m o r i a l i z i n g h i s b r o t h e r , may h a v e f o l l o w e d s u i t by g i v i n g t h e cognomen " D r u s u s " , by w h i c h h i s b r o t h e r had been b e s t known, t o h i s own s o n . T h e r e r e m a i n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o b l e m o f how " D r u s u s " , w h i c h h a d a l w a y s p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d as a cognomen, t h a t i s , a t h i r d o r l a s t name, c o u l d h a v e c h a n g e d t o a p r a e n o m e n , o r f i r s t name, i n t h e AD 4 a d o p t i o n when D r u s u s became " D r u s u s J u l i u s C a e s a r " . R e f e r e n c e must be made t o a f a s h i o n a r i s i n g among t h e n o b i l i t y o f t h e l a t e R e p u b l i c i n w h i c h t h e cognomen had begun i n c r e a s i n g l y t o r e p l a c e t h e 6 3 praenomen as a t e r m o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I f D r u s u s had p o s s e s s e d o n l y h i s f a t h e r ' s names i n a d d i t i o n t o " D r u s u s " , as he may v e r y w e l l h a v e d o n e , t h e n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by cognomen, " D r u s u s " , r a t h e r t h a n p r a e n o m e n , " T i b e r i u s " , w o u l d h a v e p r o v e d n o t o n l y f a s h i o n a b l e b u t e x t r e m e l y p r a c t i c a l : i t w o u l d h a v e p r o v i d e d a means o f d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e s o n f r o m h i s f a t h e r . And i f , f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , " D r u s u s " had become t h e name by w h i c h D r u s u s was g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d b e f o r e he was a d o p t e d i n t o A u g u s t u s ' f a m i l y i n AD 4 , i t w o u l d h a v e made s e n s e t h a t i t a l o n e o f h i s o l d e r ' names s h o u l d be r e t a i n e d i n - 38 -h i s new a d o p t i v e name and t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an i d e n t i f y i n g p r a e n o m e n . T h e r e was, m o r e o v e r , p r e c e d e n t f o r s u c h a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . From a t l e a s t t h e t i m e o f S u l l a a p r a c t i c e had a r i s e n i n some n o b l e f a m i l i e s o f g i v i n g s o n s n o t a b l e c o g n o m i n a as t h e i r f i r s t names i n p l a c e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r a e n o m i n a . So S u l l a F e l i x c a l l e d h i s s o n F a u s t u s S u l l a , L. A e m i l i u s P a u l l u s c a l l e d h i s s o n P a u l l u s A e m i l i u s L e p i d u s , and M a r k A n t o n y c a l l e d h i s y o u n g e r son I u l l u s A n t o n i u s i n h o n o u r o f J u l i u s C a e s a r ( " I u l l u s " b e i n g an o b s o l e t e name b e l o n g i n g 64 t o t h e J u l u ) . M o r e o v e r , r e p l a c e m e n t o f a name n o r m a l l y a praenomen by a name n o r m a l l y a cognomen c o u l d h appen e v e n w i t h i n t h e same g e n e r a t i o n . T i b e r i u s ' b r o t h e r l o s t t h e praenomen " D e c i m u s " i n f a v o u r o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l cognomen " N e r o " as h i s f i r s t name, w h i l e h i s s o n , who o n l y a c q u i r e d t h e cognomen " G e r m a n i c u s " i n 9 BC, had i t c h a n g e d t o h i s f i r s t name, t h a t i s , h i s p r a e n o m e n , upon h i s a d o p t i o n i n AD 4. I f t h e f a s h i o n p r e v a i l e d w i t h D r u s u s ' u n c l e and c o u s i n t h e n , s u r e l y , i t c o u l d h a v e p r e v a i l e d w i t h t h e y o u n g e r D r u s u s as w e l l . T h e r e i s t h u s no n e e d t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t " D r u s u s " s e r v e d as a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a cognomen b e f o r e AD 4. I n v i e w o f t h e a r g u m e n t s a b o v e i t c a n be h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t D r u s u s c o u l d h a v e been c a l l e d " T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s Nero"' a t b i r t h a n d " T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o D r u s u s " i n 9 BC o r , s i m p l y , " T i b e r i u s C l a u d i u s N e r o D r u s u s " f r o m b i r t h . N o t h i n g c e r t a i n , h o w e v e r , c a n be known a b o u t h i s name b e f o r e he e n t e r e d A u g u s t u s ' f a m i l y i n AD 4 as " D r u s u s J u l i u s C a e s a r " . - 39 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER 1 1. On Drusus i n g e n e r a l see PIR (2nd ed.) I 219, pp. 173-176; and V. Gardthausen, "Drusus J u l i u s C a e s a r , " RE 10.1, no. 136, pp. 431-434. The most comprehensive s t u d y of Drusus i n modern s c h o l a r s h i p has been c a r r i e d out by R.S. Rogers, "Drusus J u l i u s C a e s a r : A H i s t o r i c a l and B i o g r a p h i c a l Study," S t u d i e s i n the Reign of T i b e r i u s ( B a l t i m o r e : 1943), 89-153. He d e a l s o n l y summarily w i t h many a s p e c t s of Drusus' l i f e , however, and i n some cases h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n c l u s i o n s have become d a t e d . 2. G a l l u s ' c l a i m : Dio 57.2.7. T i b e r i u s ' as Drusus' f a t h e r : see, e.g., Dio 56.17.3, 25.4, 28.1. 3. F e r i a l e Cumanum: CIL X 8375; ILS 108; I n s c r . I t a l . 13.2.279. Request t o the Senate i n 17: Tac. Ann. 2.43.1. On Germanicus' b i r t h see PIR (2nd ed.) I 221, p. 179; AFA 38, CIL V I , 2028 c p. 468; f e r . Cum. I n s c r .  I t a l . 13. 2. 279 = ILS 108; f e r . P u r , c o l . 2, 12/13, Dura  F i n a l R eport 5, 1, 199. 4. B e t r o t h a l a f t e r b i r t h of Drusus and V i p s a n i a ' s second pregnancy: Dio 54.31.2; Suet. Aug. 63.2, T i b . 7.2; b e t r o t h a l p r i o r t o campaign: Dio 54.31.2. 5. See Sumner, 413-435. 6. The d i v o r c e : Dio 54.31.1-2; Suet. Aug. 63.2; T i b . 7.2. A g r i p p a ' d e a t h : Augustus l e a r n e d a t some p o i n t between March 19 and 24 t h a t A g r i p p a was g r a v e l y i l l i n Campania. He i m m e d i a t e l y d e p a r t e d Athens f o r I t a l y , but found him dead: Dio 54.28.3; see M. R e i n h o l d , Marcus A g r i p p a (Geneva, New York: 1933), 1 and 126. Pregnancy and d i v o r c e b e f o r e e x p e d i t i o n : Dio 54.31.2-3. For a summary of the e v i d e n c e of T i b e r i u s ' e x p e d i t i o n l a u n c h e d a g a i n s t the Pannonians i n 12 BC see Dobo, 15-16. Roman army campaigns were n o r m a l l y c a r r i e d out i n the summer months. See G. Webster, The Roman I m p e r i a l Army (London: 1969), 50. D i v o r c e i n s p r i n g o r summer of 12: Sumner, 427-428. 7. D i u : Suet. Aug. 63.2. I t may w e l l be, as Sumner, 428 s u g g e s t s , t h a t S u e t o n i u s i s under some c o n f u s i o n h e r e ; he may have i n mind "the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was a year o r more between J u l i a ' s b e i n g widowed and her r e m a r r i a g e [ i n 11 BC]." R e l a t i v e v a l u e of d i u : Sumner, 428. Terminus  ante quern: see Th. Mommsen, "Das A u g u s t i s c h e F e s t v e r z e i c h n i s s von Cumae," Hermes 17 (1882): 634. 8. See Tac. Ann. 2.43.1 and Rogers, 92; see the d i s c u s s i o n s by L e v i c k (1966), 238, and Sumner, 430. The argument can be made t h a t T i b e r i u s would not have drawn so e x p l i c i t a c o n t r a s t between Drusus' and T i b e r i u s ' ages u n l e s s Drusus - 40 -were a t l e a s t two y e a r s younger than Germanicus, t h a t i s , u n l e s s Drusus had been born i n 13 BC. On the o t h e r hand, T i b e r i u s may have made the p o i n t o n l y t o emphasize Germanicus' s e n i o r i t y , i n s u p p o r t of h i s s u p e r i o r c l a i m t o t he p r e s t i g i o u s e a s t e r n m i s s i o n . C e r t a i n l y Germanicus had had more e x p e r i e n c e t h a t Drusus i n d i p l o m a t i c and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s (see Sumner, 430), and the words a t t r i b u t e d by T a c i t u s t o T i b e r i u s may c a r r y a c o n n o t a t i o n of r e l a t i v e i n e x p e r i e n c e as much as y o u t h : "... aetatem ... D r u s i nondum s a t i s a d o l e v i s s e . " Whatever the a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r ages, however, t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t T i b e r i u s ' comparison i n d i c a t e s t h a t Drusus was younger than Germanicus. 9. PIR (2nd ed.) I 219, p. 174 sums up the e v i d e n c e b e s t : P a t r e a d o p t a t o ab Augusto anno 4 mense I u n i o i n f a m i l i a m  I u l i a m p e r v e n i t , d i c t u s ab hoc tempore Drusus I u l i u s  Caesar t . Veron. CIL V 2151 = VI 908 = Dessau 166; t . T i c i n e n s i s a r c u s CIL V 6416,2 anno 7/8 p. Chr. ( i t a  s u p p l e n d u s ) ; CIL I I 1553 ( s i ad eum e s t r e f e r e n d u s ) ; t .  Pergamenus F r a n k e l 389 = IGR 4, 324 ( a n t e annum 14 e i d e d i c a t u s ) . E p h e s i u s Wood D i s c o v e r i e s a t Ephesus, I n s c r .  o f the Augusteum n. 11; CIG 1774(?) 2657, E s p e r a n d i e u ILG  625, plerumque Drusus Caesar i n t i t u l i s e t nummis B r .  Mus. Emp. 1 n. 95 - 99.171, Drusus apud s c r i p t o r e s e t  nonnumquam i n t i t u l i s . " 10. "Nero C l a u d i u s Drusus:" L. P e t e r s e n , ed., PIR (2nd ed.) I 219, pp. 173-74: A t t . I.G. I I / I I I (2nd ed.) 3249. T i b e r i u s ' b r o t h e r : V. Gardthausen, " I n s c h r i f t e n aus E p i d a u r u s , " RhM 45 (1890): 612. T r a d i t i o n a l naming o f f i r s t - b o r n : see Mflnzer, " T i . C l a u d i u s Nero," RE 3.2 (1897): nos. 248-255, pp. 2775-78. 11. Suet. C l a u d . 1.1; see C.J. Simpson, "The Change i n Praenomen of Drusus Germanicus," Phoenix 42 (1988): 173-75. 12. L i v i a ' s a n c e s t r y : Suet. T i b . 2-3; Seager, 7. 13. Nero's m i s f o r t u n e s : Suet. T i b . 4-6; V e i l . P a t . 2.75.1-3, 7 6.1, 77.3; Tac. Ann. 5.1; Dio 48.15.3, 44.1. Nero's r e t u r n : Tac. Ann. 5.1; Suet. T i b . 4.3; V e i l . P a t . 2.77.3; Seager, 10. D i v o r c e : Suet. T i b . 4.3. B i r t h of Nero Drusus, m a r r i a g e t o O c t a v i a n , and d i s a p p e a r a n c e and death of f i r s t husband: Seager, 10-11. 14. Dio 48.44.5. The f a c t t h a t T i b e r i u s ' and Nero Drusus' f a t h e r was s t i l l a l i v e would not have p r e c l u d e d t h e i r a d o p t i o n by O c t a v i a n . W h i l e l i t t l e e v i d e n c e s u r v i v e s o f the a c t u a l p r a c t i c e and f r e q u e n c y of a d o p t i o (as opposed t o a d r o g a t i o ) i n t h i s p e r i o d , the l e g a l form of the p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p a t e r f a m i l i a s who would, i n most c a s e s , have been the n a t u r a l - 41 -f a t h e r . See A. Watson, The Law of Persons i n the L a t e r  Roman R e p u b l i c ( O x f o r d : 1967), 88-89, and J.A. Crook, Law and L i f e of Rome (London: 1967), 111-112. 15. A t t i c u s 1 d e a t h and V i p s a n i a ' s age: Nep. A t t . 19.4; see Sen. E p i s t . 21.4. 16. Honour f o r A g r i p p a : L e v i c k , 19. L i v i a t r y i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n the C l a u d i a n house: Seager, 14. I n f e r i o r i t y t o Germanicus: Tac. Ann. 2.43.6. 17. O c t a v i a n ' s t r i u m p h and the arrangements f o r i t : F. T r . Barb. ( E J 3 5 ) ; F. Ant. ( E J 50) ; Suet. T i b . 6.4; D i o 51.21.5-7; b i r t h : P r o p e r t i u s 3.18.15. "V i e r a u g e n s y s t e m " : Kornemann, 9. 18. J u l i a ' s m a r r i a g e t o M a r c e l l u s : see D i o 53.27.5, Suet. Aug. 63.1, and P l u t . Marc. 30. Augustus t u r n s t o A g r i p p a : Tac. Ann. 1.3; Suet. Aug. 63.1; Dio 54.6.5. Sa g a c i o u s d e c i s i o n : Seager, 21-22. 19. B i r t h o f G a i u s : Dio 54.8.5. A g r i p p a ' s t r i b u n i c i a  p o t e s t a s : D io 54.12.5. B i r t h o f L u c i u s and a d o p t i o n of grandsons: Dio 54.18.1; V e i l . P a t . 2.96.1; Suet. Aug. 64.1; see PIR (2nd ed.) I , p. 166. Augustus' scheme of two p a i r s : Kornemann, 13. 20. L e v i c k (1966), 235-236. So, whereas T i b e r i u s r e c e i v e d i n 24 BC the r i g h t t o seek the h i g h e r m a g i s t r a c i e s f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e the normal minimum age, Nero Drusus won i t i n 19 BC (Dio 53.28.3; 54.10.4; Tac. Ann. 3.29.). T i b e r i u s o b t a i n e d the q u a e s t o r s h i p f o r 23 BC, Drusus f o r , p r o b a b l y , 18 BC (see PIR [2nd ed.] C 857, p. 196). T i b e r i u s was awarded the ornamenta p r a e t o r i a i n 19 BC (Dio 54.10.4), Drusus i n 15 BC (Dio 54.22.3). T i b e r i u s became p r a e t o r i n 16 BC (Dio 54.19.6), Drusus i n 11 BC (Dio 54.32.-3.," 54.34.1) . 21. T i b e r i u s * e x p e d i t i o n s : see PIR (2nd ed.) C 941, p. 220. Nero Drusus' a c t i v i t i e s : see PIR (2nd ed.) C 857, p. 196. 22. L e v i c k , 30. 23. Dio 54.27.1; ILS 88. 24. See C h a p t e r s 6 and 10. 25. Syme I , 173; see Dio 57.18 - 58.4. 26. T a c i t u s : see Furneaux, 5; R. M a r t i n , T a c i t u s ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : 1981), 30-31. D i o : T.D. Barnes, "The C o m p o s i t i o n of C a s s i u s D i o ' s Roman H i s t o r y , " P hoenix 38 (1984): 252. Barnes' d a t i n g c o r r e s p o n d s c l o s e l y t o t h a t - 42 -of C. L e t t a , "La c o m p o s i z i o n e d e l l ' o p e r a d i C a s s i o Dione: c r o n o l o g i a e sfondo s t o r i o - p o l i t i c o , " R i c e r c h e d i s t o r i o g r a f i a g r e c a d i e t a romana ( P i s a : 1979): 183-85: AD 212-234. Barnes c o n v i n c i n g l y r e f u t e s e a r l i e r d a t i n g schemes such as those o f E. Sc h w a r t z , " C a s s i u s Dio C o c c e i a n u s , " RE 3.2 (1899): no. 40, 1684-1722: AD 194-216; E. Gabba, " S u l l a S t o r i a Romana d i C a s s i o Dione," RSI 67 (1955): 289-333: AD 196-218; and M i l l a r , 31: AD 197-219. S u e t o n i u s : see B a r r y B a l d w i n , S u e t o n i u s (Amsterdam: 1983), 3-27 and 39-51. 27. T a c i t u s : Ann. 4.10.1, Furneaux, 13; D i o : M i l l a r , 34-35; S u e t o n i u s : J.W. D u f f , A l i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Rome i n the  S i l v e r Age, 3rd ed., ed. A.M. Duff (London: 1964), 505-6, J . A i l l o u d , ed. t r a n s . , Suetone; V i e s des douze C e s a r s , v o l . I ( P a r i s : 1967), x x x v i . 28. German wars: Tac. Ann. 1.69.2; A g r i p p i n a ' s memoirs: Tac. Ann. 4.53.2; purpose o f c i t a t i o n s : see Furneaux, 13, and M a r t i n , op. c i t . , 199-200. 29. M i l l a r , 86. 30. Testamentary documents: Suet. Aug. 101.1, Dio 56.33.1; h a t r e d of son: Suet. T i b . 52.1, D i o 57.3-4a, see Tac. Ann. 4.11; sh a r e d c o n s u l s h i p : Tac, Ann. 3.31.1, Dio 57.20.1-2, see C. Questa, S t u d i s u l l e f o n t i d e g l i Annales  d i T a c i t o (Rome: 1960), 32-33; T i b e r i u s ' t u r n i n g - p o i n t : S uet. C a l . 6.3, Dio 57.13.6, 19.1, Tac. Ann. 4.7.1, see Questa, op. c i t . , 30; D i o ' s c h r o n o l o g y : M i l l a r , 91-92. 31. The c o m m e n t a r i i Senatus: Tac. Ann. 15.74. Syme I , 286 argues t h a t T a c i t u s used them e x t e n s i v e l y . In r e f u t a t i o n A.D. M o m i g l i a n o , Gnomon 33 (1961): 55-58 argues t h a t T a c i t u s ' c o n f u s i o n over the c o n s u l a r e l e c t i o n s i n 15 su g g e s t s t h a t he c o u l d not have been v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h the a c t a . D a i l y g a z e t t e : Furneaux, 19; see, e.g., Tac. Ann. 3.3 and Suet. C a l . 8. 32. L e t t e r s and speeches: Furneaux, 18, Tac. Ann. 3.34.6. T a c i t u s was c e r t a i n l y aware of o r a l t r a d i t i o n . He r e f e r s t o i t f o r a d e t a i l about P i s o ' s t r i a l (Ann. 3.16.1) and r e f u t e s the undocumented s t o r i e s ( a u d i t i o n e s ) t h a t T i b e r i u s was i n v o l v e d i n murde r i n g Drusus (Ann. 4.11.3). 33. A g r i p p i n a ' s memoirs: Tac. Ann. 4.53.2; T i b e r i u s ' a u t o b i o g r a p h y : Suet. T i b . 61.1; commentarios: Suet. Pom. 20, see W i l k e s , 181; speeches: Tac. Ann. 1.81.1; C l a u d i u s ' works: Suet. C l a u d . 41.2-3, see Furneaux, 14. 34. Cremutius Cordus: Dio 57.24.2-4, Suet. Aug. 55.2, Tac. Ann. 4.34-35; T. L a b i e n u s : Sen. C o n t r o v . 10 p r a e f . 4-8; l i f t i n g of the ban: Suet. C a l . 16.1. - 43 -35. Furneaux, 15, L. Seneca, f r . 15 (Haase). Suet. T i b . 73.2 r e f e r s t o Seneca's account o f T i b e r i u s ' d e a t h ; see W i l k e s , 184-85. 36. See Q u i n t . I n s t . 10.1.102, Tac. D i a l . 23, and Ann. 14.19. For S e r v i l i u s ' p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r w r i t e r s see Syme I , 275-77. 37. Q u i n t . I n s t . 10.1.103, P l i n y NH p r a e f . 20, e p i s t . 3.5.6, Chron. M i n. 2, pp. 112-13, 135-36, 161; see W i l k e s , 192-93; f o r Bassus' p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r w r i t e r s see Syme I , 274-75. 38. C o n t i n u a t i o n of A u f i d i u s ' h i s t o r y : P l i n y NH p r a e f . 20, E p i s t . 3.5.6, the German wars: Tac. Ann. 1.69.2. 39. Suet. C a l . 8.1-2; see PIR (2nd ed.) C 1390, W i l k e s , 185-86. 40. Rufus' h i s t o r i e s : Tac. Ann. 13.20, 14.2; c o n s u l s h i p and a c t i v i t y : S uet. Nero 21.2, see Dio 63.14.3; p o s s i b l e c o n s u l s h i p b e f o r e 41: see J o s . A J 19.91-92; p l a g u e : P l u t . Quaest. Rom. 107; on Rufus i n g e n e r a l see W i l k e s , 184, 202, and Groag, " C l u v i u s R u f u s , " RE 4.1 (1900): no. 12, p. 123. 41. N e g a t i v e assessment of Drusus: see Ch a p t e r 5, pp. 130-35; the m u t i n i e s : see Tac. Ann. 1.24-49, Dio 57.4-6, Suet. T i b . 25, C a l • 1, and Chapter 4; Germanicus' a c t i v i t i e s i n Germany: see Tac. Ann. 1.49-52, 55-71, 2.5-26; i n the O r i e n t : 2.53-61, 69-72; Drusus' a c t i v i t i e s on the Danube: Tac. Ann. 2.62-63; on the a d u l a t i o n o f Germanicus i n the s u r v i v i n g t r a d i t i o n see Syme I , 418 and n. 7; Drusus' d e a t h : see Chapter 11. 42. p r i s c a ... s e v e r i t a t e : V e i l . P a t . 2.125.4; Drusus' n o b i l i t a s i n g e n i t a : Tac. Ann. 1.29.1; r e l a t i o n s w i t h Germanicus and sons: see Tac. Ann. 2.43.6, 2.53.1, 4.4.1; f a m i l y a f f e c t i o n : 3.34.6; m o d e r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e and c o n g e n i a l i t y : 3.37.2. 43. D i o ' s s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a : M i l l a r , 85, 90-91; judgments upon Augustus: Syme I , 272, see Tac. Ann. 1.9-10 and Dio 56.43-45; S u e t o n i u s ' l a c k of c r i t i c a l d i s c e r n m e n t : D u f f , op. c i t . , 506; d i s j u n c t i o n : Syme I , 271, see A. W a l l a c e - H a d r i l l , S u e t o n i u s : the S c h o l a r and H i s Caesars (London: 1983), 14-15; i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s : B a l d w i n , op.  c i t . , 256. 44. D i s t o r t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d : Tac. Ann. 1.1.2. Tac. Ann. 4.11 i n d i c a t e s f a i r l y c l e a r l y t h a t T i b e r i u s , a t l e a s t , s u f f e r e d from posthumous d e f a m a t i o n . T a c i t u s r e j e c t s the rumour t h a t the Emperor was i n v o l v e d i n the murder of h i s own son, p a r t l y on the grounds t h a t "no - 44 -w r i t e r s have made the charge even though, i n t h e i r  h o s t i l i t y , t h ey have s e a r c h e d out and e x a g g e r a t e d  e v e r y t h i n g e l s e about T i b e r i u s . " 45. D i v i s i o n i n the i m p e r i a l c o u r t : Tac. Ann. 2.43; response t o t w i n s ' b i r t h : Tac. Ann. 2.84.2. 46. Domination of the t r a d i t i o n by pro-Germanicus, p r o - J u l i a n , a n t i - C l a u d i a n w r i t e r s : see Syme I , 418, n. 7. E. Sch w a r t z , " C a s s i u s Dio C o c c e i a n u s , " RE 3.2 (1899): no. 40, 1716-17, argues t h a t t h i s d o m i n a t i o n would have been p r i m a r i l y e f f e c t e d by the work of one unknown a n n a l i s t o f s u p e r i o r s k i l l w r i t i n g under C a l i g u l a . A c c o r d i n g t o Sc h w a r t z , both T a c i t u s and Dio would have depended upon the anonymous a u t h o r f o r t h e i r p o r t r a y a l s of T i b e r i u s and Germanicus. Schwartz's t h e o r y s t i l l has c u r r e n c y among some s c h o l a r s ( s e e , e.g., M a r t i n , op. c i t . , 204-05 and M.M. Sage, " T a c i t u s and the A c c e s s i o n of T i b e r i u s , " Anc. Soc. 13/14 [1982/1983]: 321), but s i n c e C a l i g u l a and the J u l i a n p a r t y would have c o n t r o l l e d the whole t r a d i t i o n , i t s c o n s i s t e n c y need not have depended, s u r e l y , on a s i n g l e a u t h o r . See Syme I , 272-73. 47. Dio 59.3.8. 48. The J u l i a n v iew of the .Claudians and S e j a n u s , and the rea s o n s f o r i t , , may be p r e s e r v e d by Su e t . T i b . 55: T i b e r i u s had advanced Sejanus to the h i g h e s t power "not so much out of good w i l l towards him as i n o r d e r to d i s p l a c e the c h i l d r e n o f Germanicus through h i s a s s i s t a n c e and d e c e p t i o n and to s e c u r e the s u c c e s s i o n f o r h i s own grandson, the c h i l d of h i s son Drusus." 49. M a r r i a g e t o V i p s a n i a : CIL V 6359 = ILS 165; CIL IX 2201; Tac. Ann. 1.12; Dio 57.2.7. Drusus' b i r t h b e f o r e d i v o r c e : Suet. T i b . 7.2; c f . Aug. 63.2; c f . Dio 54.31.2. 50. Suet. T i b . 7.2. 51. Roman law of a d o p t i o n : see B e r g e r , 350: adopt i o . A u gustus' a d o p t i o n s : Suet. T i b . 15.2, Aug. 65.1; Dio 55.13.2; V e i l . P a t . 2.103.3, 104.1, 112.7, 122.2; see PIR (2nd ed.) C 941, p. 222. 52. The d a t e of T i b e r i u s ' f i r s t t r i b u n i c i a p o t e s t a s : Suet. T i b . 9.3 appears to say t h a t T i b e r i u s got both the c o n s u l s h i p and the t r i b u n i c i a n power t o g e t h e r . S i n c e the c o n s u l s h i p f o r 6 would have begun i n J a n u a r y , so, by t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , would have T i b e r i u s ' t r i b . p o t . See V e i l . P a t . 2.99.1; Dio 55.9.4; and PIR (2nd ed.) C 941, p. 222. T i b e r i u s ' b i r t h d a y : Suet. T i b . 5; see 73.1; Tac. Ann. 6.50; Dio 58.28.5, 57.2.4. 53. Sumner, 427. - 45 -54. I b i d . 55. c f . L e v i c k (1966), 237. 56. Suet. C l a u d . 1.1 57. C.J. Simpson, "The Change i n Praenomen of Drusus Germanicus," Phoenix 42 (1988): 173-74. 58. I b i d . , 174. 59. R. Syme, "Imperator C a e s a r : A Study i n Nomenclature," H i s t . 7 (1958): 172-188, esp. 173-74 = Roman Papers I ( O x f o r d : 1979), 361-377, esp. 362-63. 60. Simpson, op. c i t . , 3. 61. B i r t h : S uet. C l a u d . 2.1; Dio 60.5.3. Names: Suet. C l a u d . 2.1; Dio 55.27.3;. see PIR (2nd ed.) C 942. 62. Suet. C l a u d . 1.3; Dio 55.2.3. 63. R. Syme, "Imperator C a e s a r : a Study i n Nomenclature," H i s t o r i a 7 (1958): 172. 64. I b i d . , 173-74. - 46 -CHAPTER 2: DRUSUS' EARLY L I F E D r u s u s ' f a m i l y c i r c u m s t a n c e s a f t e r h i s b i r t h g a v e p r o m i s e o f a c a r e e r o f g r e a t power a nd p r e s t i g e , b u t one t h a t w o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be l i m i t e d t o t h e t h i r d r a n k o f t h e i m p e r i a l s u c c e s s i o n , b e h i n d G a i u s , L u c i u s , and t h e i r n a t u r a l f a t h e r , M. A g r i p p a . T i b e r i u s , a s h i s own c a r e e r c o n t i n u e d t o a d v a n c e a t an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e , seemed c o n t e n t w i t h t h e r e l e g a t i o n o f h i m s e l f and h i s d e s c e n d a n t s o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r e o f power and a t t e n t i o n . I n 13 BC, a s c o n s u l , he w o u l d h a v e been i n s t r u m e n t a l .in i n t r o d u c i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n c o n f i r m i n g t h e r e n e w a l o f A g r i p p a ' s t r i b u n i c i a n power and t h e b e s t o w a l o f i m p e r i u m m a i u s upon h i m , h o n o u r s w h i c h made h i m , i n l e g a l t h e o r y a t l e a s t , i n f e r i o r t o A u g u s t u s o n l y i n a u c t o r i t a s . I n t h e same y e a r , i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r A u g u s t u s ' r e t u r n f r o m G a u l , T i b e r i u s d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o a r r a n g e t h a t G a i u s C a e s a r s h o u l d h a v e t h e s e a t o f h o n o u r n e x t t o h i s a d o p t i v e father."'" A s s u r e d o f p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e f o r h i s f a m i l y s e c o n d o n l y t o t h a t o f t h e i m p e r i a l s u c c e s s i o n , D r u s u s ' f a t h e r was t h u s n o t i n c l i n e d t o c h a f e p u b l i c l y a t h i s , and by i n f e r e n c e , h i s d e s c e n d a n t s ' c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The C l a u d i a n N e r o n e s had n e v e r s t o o d h i g h e r i n t h e Roman s t a t e . I n t h e o r y , t h e d e a t h o f A g r i p p a i n 12 BC, T i b e r i u s ' d i v o r c e f r o m V i p s a n i a , and h i s r e m a r r i a g e t o J u l i a i n 11 BC s h o u l d h a v e e l e v a t e d t h e C l a u d i a n N e r o n e s , i n c l u d i n g D r u s u s , T i b e r i u s ' s o n , one r u n g up t h e l a d d e r o f t h e i m p e r i a l - 47 -s u c c e s s i o n . I n f a c t , t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s do n o t a p p e a r t o ha v e b r o u g h t t h e f a m i l y much c l o s e r t o t h e c e n t r e o f p o w e r . A u g u s t u s d i d h a v e a c r i t i c a l n e e d f o r T i b e r i u s ' s e r v i c e s . He f o u n d h i m s e l f w i t h o u t a c o l l e a g u e and d e p u t y , h i s d a u g h t e r w i t h o u t a h u s b a n d , and h i s a d o p t e d s o n s , G a i u s a n d L u c i u s , w i t h o u t a f a t h e r o r g u a r d i a n i n t h e e v e n t o f h i s own d e m i s e . A u g u s t u s h ad no i n t e r e s t , h o w e v e r , i n r a i s i n g T i b e r i u s a n d h i s f a m i l y h i g h e r i n t h e s t a t e a n d s u c c e s s i o n . What, i n e f f e c t , he s o u g h t was someone t o s h a r e h i s b u r d e n s a nd r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , b u t n o t h i s power and p r e s t i g e . D i o e v e n s a y s t h a t A u g u s t u s c h o s e T i b e r i u s o n l y r e l u c t a n t l y , s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e r e was no one e l s e w i t h t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o f i l l t h e gap o p e n e d by A g r i p p a ' s d e a t h ( a n d , i t 2 may be a s s u m e d , no one e l s e whom A u g u s t u s c o u l d . t r u s t ) . He t o o k g r e a t c a r e t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e C l a u d i a n s w i t h i n h i s f a m i l y s h o u l d n o t g e t t o o much g l o r y . He g a v e T i b e r i u s n e i t h e r A g r i p p a ' s t r i b u n i c i a p o t e s t a s n o r h i s i m p e r i u m m a i u s . He d e n i e d t h e t r i u m p h v o t e d by t h e S e n a t e t o T i b e r i u s f o r h i s s u c c e s s a g a i n s t t h e P a n n o n i a n s a nd D a l m a t i a n s i n 12 BC. He r e f u s e d t o r a t i f y t h e t i t l e i m p e r a t o r g i v e n T i b e r i u s a n d h i s b r o t h e r by t h e i r t r o o p s i n 11 BC b u t t o o k i t f o r h i m s e l f i n s t e a d . He i n t e n d e d T i b e r i u s t o s e r v e s i m p l y as a s t a n d - i n u n t i l G a i u s and L u c i u s s h o u l d a t t a i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t u r i t y a n d 3 e x p e r i e n c e t o r e p l a c e h i m . So t h e d i v o r c e a n d r e m a r r i a g e i n 12 and 11 BC do n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e c h a n g e d much t h e p r o s p e c t s o f T i b e r i u s ' s o n , D r u s u s , f o r a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e p r i n c i p a t e . A u g u s t u s may h a v e had a s e c o n d a r y m o t i v e i n h i s - 48 -s e l e c t i o n of T i b e r i u s , which may e x p l a i n why he went so f a r as t o f o r c e him t o marry J u l i a . Upon the death of A g r i p p a he may have seen the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , i n the event of h i s own sudden d e a t h , T i b e r i u s would pose the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l c h a l l e n g e to h i s daughter and u n p r o t e c t e d sons. T i b e r i u s , the s e n i o r C l a u d i a n , m a r r i e d to a d a u g h t e r of A g r i p p a , b l e s s e d w i t h a son and e x p e c t i n g soon a n o t h e r c h i l d , p o s s e s s e d a ready-made p o t e n t i a l d y n a s t y c l o s e r t o the c e n t r e o f power than any o t h e r . By m a r r y i n g him t o J u l i a Augustus c o u l d remove t h i s t h r e a t w i t h the same economy and c ompleteness w i t h which he had s o l v e d an e a r l i e r , s i m i l a r p roblem, by m a r r y i n g A g r i p p a t o J u l i a . I n s t e a d o f menacing G a i u s and L u c i u s as a p o t e n t i a l a d v e r s a r y T i b e r i u s would be t h e i r g u a r d i a n , and any f u t u r e o f f s p r i n g T i b e r i u s might beget would h o l d , as sons of J u l i a , rank s u p e r i o r t o h i s C l a u d i a n son, Drusus, and i n f e r i o r t o t h e i r e l d e r J u l i a n b r o t h e r s . By the m a r r i a g e Augustus c o u l d s e c u r e t h e i n t e r e s t s of h i s own l i n e w h i l e a c t u a l l y p r e v e n t i n g any p o t e n t i a l advancement of 4 e i t h e r T i b e r i u s or Drusus above the second rank. Of c o u r s e , i f T i b e r i u s and J u l i a had produced any sons who s u r v i v e d , t h e e f f e c t would a c t u a l l y have been t o lower Drusus back t o the t h i r d rank w i t h i n the i m p e r i a l s u c c e s s i o n . As i t t u r n e d o u t , J u l i a d i d g i v e b i r t h to a son a t A q u i l e i a i n about 10 BC, but he d i e d i n i n f a n c y , and s i n c e J u l i a and T i b e r i u s s u b s e q u e n t l y d e c l i n e d t o l i v e t o g e t h e r , the t h r e a t t o Drusus c o u l d not a r i s e a g a i n . ^ He remained, w i t h h i s f a t h e r , e s t a b l i s h e d i n the second rank. - 49 -What D r u s u s f e l t a b o u t h i s p a r e n t s ' d i v o r c e a n d r e m a r r i a g e s c a n n o t be known. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n i t i a l e f f e c t s on h i m were m i n i m a l s i n c e he w o u l d n o t ha v e been o l d e r t h a n two o r t h r e e i n 12 BC. T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e a b o u t t h e l a t e r e f f e c t s b u t , g i v e n h i s p a t r i c i a n b a c k g r o u n d , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y w o u l d h a v e g r e a t l y u p s e t h i m . The Roman n o b i l i t y , c e r t a i n l y by t h e l a t e R e p u b l i c , r e g a r d e d d i v o r c e a n d r e m a r r i a g e as s t a n d a r d o p t i o n s i n t h e c o n s t a n t p u r s u i t o f f a m i l y a d v a n t a g e . I n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e e v e n t s o f 12 and 11 BC w o u l d p r o b a b l y i m p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s upon D r u s u s as o f f e r i n g a v i v i d and memorable l e s s o n o f t h e s u p r e m a c y o f i m p e r i a l d y n a s t i c a r r a n g e m e n t s o v e r e v e r y t h i n g e l s e . H i s c o n f o r m i t y t o s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s i n h i s own l i f e w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t , w h a t e v e r he m i g h t have f e l t a b o u t them p r i v a t e l y , he w o u l d n o t d i s s e n t p u b l i c l y f r o m t h e s y s t e m o f v a l u e s u n d e r p i n n i n g them. The s o u r c e s do n o t t e l l w h e r e , a n d u n d e r whose t u t e l a g e , D r u s u s went a f t e r t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f h i s p a r e n t s ' m a r r i a g e . S e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s s u g g e s t t h e m s e l v e s . He may h a v e gone w i t h h i s m o t h e r t o t h e home o f G a i u s A s i n i u s G a l l u s , an a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t m i g h t e x p l a i n t h e c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n t o h i m G a l l u s seems t o ha v e a s s e r t e d . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , he may ha v e gone t o l i v e w i t h h i s f a t h e r a n d s t e p m o t h e r , J u l i a , o r h i s g r a n d m o t h e r , L i v i a , o r , f i n a l l y , h i s C l a u d i a n r e l a t i v e s , h i s u n c l e N e r o D r u s u s a nd h i s a u n t A n t o n i a . The l a s t p o s s i b i l i t y has much t o commend i t . J o s e p h u s s a y s t h a t J u l i u s A g r i p p a , t h e g r a n d s o n o f K i n g - 50 -H e r o d , came t o Rome as a boy a l i t t l e b e f o r e H e r o d ' s d e a t h , w h i c h p r o b a b l y h a p p e n e d i n 4 BC. I n Rome he was b r o u g h t up i n c l o s e i n t i m a c y w i t h D r u s u s a nd f r i e n d s h i p w i t h A n t o n i a . The i m p l i c a t i o n o f J o s e p h u s ' r e c o r d i s t h a t A g r i p p a was l i v i n g i n A n t o n i a ' s home a n d , t h u s , t h a t D r u s u s was as w e l l a t some p o i n t b e f o r e 4 BC.^ S u c h h o s p i t a l i t y w o u l d n o t h a v e been u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f A n t o n i a . She had i n h e r i t e d h e r f a t h e r ' s c l o s e c o n t a c t s w i t h many e a s t e r n k i n g s and p o t e n t a t e s , s u c h a s H e r o d o f J u d a e a , a nd J u l i u s A g r i p p a 1 s m o t h e r , B e r e n i c e , was h e r p e r s o n a l f r i e n d . From AD 29 t o 31-32 h e r g r a n d c h i l d r e n , C a l i g u l a and D r u s i l l a , l i v e d w i t h h e r and s h e p r o b a b l y g a v e l o d g i n g a t t h e same t i m e t o t h e t h r e e s o n s o f t h e T h r a c i a n k i n g , R h o e m e t a l c e s , P o l e m o , a nd C o t y s , who were b e i n g e d u c a t e d i n Rome.^ I f D r u s u s was a l s o b r o u g h t up i n h e r home, t h e e x p e r i e n c e w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e g i v e n h i m c o n t a c t s i n t h e e a s t e r n E m p i r e i n a d d i t i o n t o J u l i u s A g r i p p a , and w o u l d h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t he e n j o y e d t h r o u g h o u t h i s a d u l t l i f e w i t h two o f A n t o n i a ' s c h i l d r e n , L i v i l l a , h i s f u t u r e w i f e , a n d G e r m a n i c u s , l a t e r h i s a d o p t i v e b r o t h e r . P r e c i s e l y when b e f o r e 4 BC D r u s u s m i g h t h a v e come u n d e r h i s C l a u d i a n r e l a t i v e s ' r o o f c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , be d e t e r m i n e d . W h a t e v e r t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r h i s c a r e and u p b r i n g i n g , D r u s u s saw l i t t l e o f h i s f a t h e r a f t e r t h e d i v o r c e f r o m V i p s a n i a . A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y T i b e r i u s was s e n t t o d e a l w i t h r e b e l l i o n s i n t h e n o r t h , i n w h i c h a c t i v i t y he was p r e o c c u p i e d f o r most o f t h e p e r i o d 12 t o 9 BC, p a r t i c u l a r l y - 51 -i n P a n n o n i a a nd D a l m a t i a . F o r a good p a r t o f 9 and 8 BC he was e n g a g e d i n Germany, w h e r e he went t o accompany t h e r e t u r n home o f h i s b r o t h e r ' s c o r p s e a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y , t o c o n t i n u e t h e war a g a i n s t t h e Germans. I n 7 BC he e n t e r e d h i s s e c o n d c o n s u l s h i p , b u t e v e n d u r i n g h i s t e n u r e o f t h i s o f f i c e h i s s t a y a t Rome was i n t e r r u p t e d by r e n e w e d t r o u b l e i n Germany. I n 6 BC he d e p a r t e d f o r h i s u n o f f i c i a l e x i l e i n Rhodes where he r e m a i n e d t i l l AD 2. T i b e r i u s c o u l d n o t , t h u s , h a v e e x e r c i s e d a d i r e c t hand i n t h e u p b r i n g i n g and e d u c a t i o n o f h i s s o n . T i b e r i u s ' d e p a r t u r e i n t o v o l u n t a r y e x i l e on Rhodes d e a l t a h e a v y b l o w t o t h e p r o s p e c t s a n d p r e s t i g e o f D r u s u s and t h e r e s t o f t h e C l a u d i a n s . I t l e f t D r u s u s i n e f f e c t f a t h e r l e s s and w i t h no one t o p r o m o t e h i m , c u t t i n g h i m o f f f r o m t h e i m p e r i a l s t a g e now o c c u p i e d by A u g u s t u s , G a i u s , and L u c i u s a l o n e . O n l y L i v i a r e m a i n e d t o d e f e n d h i s and t h e o t h e r C l a u d i a n s 1 i n t e r e s t s . The f a m i l y ' s p r o s p e c t s u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t i n u e d t o d i m as T i b e r i u s ' a b s e n c e l e n g t h e n e d . G a i u s and L u c i u s c o n t i n u e d t o a d v a n c e i n h o n o u r s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n G a i u s ' c o n s u l s h i p i n AD 9 1 when he was o n l y 10 y e a r s o l d . W i t h o u t d o u b t b o t h b r o t h e r s w o u l d h a v e c o n t i n u e d t o p r o g r e s s f r o m s t r e n g t h t o s t r e n g t h , l e a v i n g t h e C l a u d i a n s f a r b e h i n d , h a d n o t t h e i r l i v e s been c u t a b r u p t l y s h o r t . I n a d d i t i o n , a c r i s i s e r u p t e d w i t h i n A u g u s t u s ' own f a m i l y . I n 2 BC he l o s t a l l p a t i e n c e w i t h h i s d i s s o l u t e d a u g h t e r , J u l i a , a n d , a f t e r b a n i s h i n g h e r , s e n t h e r a b i l l o f d i v o r c e i n T i b e r i u s ' name. One e f f e c t o f - 52 -t h e d i v o r c e was s y m b o l i c a l l y t o s e v e r an i m p o r t a n t t i e b e t w e e n A u g u s t u s a nd T i b e r i u s - and t h u s D r u s u s . N or was A u g u s t u s r e a d y t o f o r g e new l i n k s : when, i n 2 o r 1 BC, t h e p e r i o d o f T i b e r i u s ' t r i b u n i c i a n power e x p i r e d and h e , now w i t h o u t .any f u n c t i o n o r o f f i c i a l power i n t h e s t a t e , r e q u e s t e d t o be a l l o w e d t o v i s i t h i s r e l a t i v e s , A u g u s t u s f l a t l y t u r n e d h i m down."^ A l l t h a t T i b e r i u s a n d h i s s o n c o u l d r e l y upon a t t h i s p o i n t were t h e g o o d o f f i c e s o f L i v i a . T h e i r f o r t u n e s had n e v e r been a t a l o w e r e b b . I n AD 2, o s t e n s i b l y b e c a u s e G a i u s h a d a d o p t e d a more f a v o u r a b l e o p i n i o n o f T i b e r i u s , A u g u s t u s a l l o w e d h i m t o r e t u r n t o Rome on c o n d i t i o n t h a t he t a k e no p a r t i n s t a t e a f f a i r s . ' ' " " ' " U n d e r s u c h a r e s t r i c t i o n he c e r t a i n l y c o u l d n o t r e c o v e r any o f h i s l o s t power and p r e s t i g e , b u t a t l e a s t he was no l o n g e r b u r i e d i n t h e o b l i v i o n o f e x i l e . P e r h a p s , t o o , A u g u s t u s was no l o n g e r a l i e n a t e d f r o m T i b e r i u s and h i s s o n . F i n a l l y , a f t e r e i g h t y e a r s , D r u s u s was no l o n g e r f a t h e r l e s s and h i s f a m i l y had a l e a d e r o n c e a g a i n . F r om D r u s u s ' p o i n t o f v i e w T i b e r i u s ' r e t u r n f r o m Rhodes b r o u g h t t h e a d d e d a d v a n t a g e o f e n a b l i n g h i s f o r m a l i n i t i a t i o n i n t o manhood, i n c l u d i n g t h e d i v e s t m e n t o f t h e t o g a p r a e t e x t a , t h e d o n n i n g o f t h e t o g a v i r i l i s , a n d t h e d e d u c t i o 12 i n f o r u m . The c e r e m o n y had m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e , f o r , i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t , i t s i g n i f i e d a b o y ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s , i n c l u d i n g f u l l c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r a c t , t o make a w i l l , and t o m a r r y . M o r e o v e r , i t made h i m e l i g i b l e f o r t h e l a s t s t a g e s i n h i s e d u c a t i o n : f o r m a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r - 53 -p o l i t i c a l a n d l e g a l a c t i v i t y , a p e r i o d c a l l e d t h e t i r o c i n i u m f o r i , t o be f o l l o w e d by p r e p a r a t i o n f o r m i l i t a r y l i f e , t h e 13 t i r o c i n i u m m i l i t i a e . I n e f f e c t , h i s d o n n i n g o f t h e t o g a v i r i l i s m a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f D r u s u s ' p u b l i c c a r e e r as a Roman n o b l e . The p r e c i s e d a t e o f h i s i n i t i a t i o n c a n n o t be d e t e r m i n e d . H i s f a t h e r came b a c k t o Rome i n AD 2 a t some p o i n t p r i o r t o L u c i u s C a e s a r ' s d e a t h on A u g u s t 20th. S u e t o n i u s g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t T i b e r i u s c o n d u c t e d D r u s u s " d e d u c t i o s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n . S i n c e t h e p e r i o d o f m o u r n i n g , i n c l u d i n g p r o b a b l y a i u s t i t i u m , f o l l o w i n g L u c i u s ' d e a t h w o u l d h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h e e a r l y p e r f o r m a n c e o f a p u b l i c o f f i c e , i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n i t i a t i o n w o u l d 14 h a v e been h e l d a f t e r A u g u s t 20th. T h e r e i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y , t h e n , t h a t D r u s u s d o n n e d t h e t o g a v i r i l i s i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f AD 2. The u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n v o l v i n g t h e d a t e s o f D r u s u s ' d e d u c t i o a n d h i s b i r t h p r e c l u d e a n y p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f h i s age a t t h e t i m e o f t h e c e r e m o n y . I n t h e l a t e R e p u b l i c a n d e a r l y E m p i r e t h e Romans a p p e a r t o h a v e s e t f o u r t e e n a s , g e n e r a l l y , t h e minimum age f o r e n t r y i n t o manhood. The c e r e m o n y c o u l d be d e f e r r e d w e l l i n t o t h e l a t e r t e e n s b u t was u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d no l a t e r t h a n s i x t e e n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h i n A u g u s t u s ' h o u s e h o l d t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y , i f n o t a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y , t o i n d u c t b o y s i n t o manhood n o t t o o l o n g a f t e r t h e minimum age had been r e a c h e d -a t e n d e n c y w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l A u g u s t a n p o l i c y o f - 54 -a d v a n c i n g t h e y o u n g men o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y a t a r a p i d r a t e t h r o u g h t h e c u r s u s honorum. Thus G a i u s a n d L u c i u s C a e s a r , a s w e l l as A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s , were e i t h e r f o u r t e e n o r f i f t e e n when t h e y p u t on t h e t o g a v i r i l i s , w h i l e D r u s u s ' own f a t h e r , T i b e r i u s , was a b o u t f o u r t e e n and a h a l f y e a r s o l d 16 when he d o n n e d i t . D r u s u s , t h e n , c o u l d w e l l have been 17 f o u r t e e n t o f i f t e e n h i m s e l f . The s o u r c e s a r e s i l e n t a b o u t D r u s u s ' o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n AD 2 a n d 3. N o r m a l l y a y o u n g man b e g i n n i n g h i s t i r o c i n i u m f o r i w o u l d be c o n d u c t e d f o r a t l e a s t a y e a r by h i s f a t h e r o r by an e x p e r i e n c e d s t a t e s m a n and f a m i l y f r i e n d t h r o u g h t h e 18 v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f a c i t i z e n ' s p u b l i c l i f e . No i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s t o i n d i c a t e who m i g h t h a v e s u p e r v i s e d D r u s u s o r w h e t h e r he e v e n u n d e r w e n t t h e t i r o c i n i u m , b u t i t w o u l d h a v e been i n c h a r a c t e r f o r T i b e r i u s t o h a v e done h i s d u t y by h i s s o n . S u e t o n i u s d o e s s a y t h a t a f t e r c o n d u c t i n g D r u s u s ' d e d u c t i o T i b e r i u s i m m e d i a t e l y s e c l u d e d h i m s e l f i n h i s new r e s i d e n c e i n t h e g a r d e n s o f Maecenas on t h e E s q u i l i n e h i l l , p u b l i c o r u m munerum e x p e r s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s i m p o s e d by A u g u s t u s on h i s p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s . S u e t o n i u s a d d s , h o w e v e r , t h a t T i b e r i u s d i d i n f a c t d i s c h a r g e h i s p r i v a t a o f f i c i a , and t h i s c o u l d w e l l h a v e e m b r a c e d h i s t a k i n g d i r e c t c h a r g e o f D r u s u s ' t i r o c i n i u m , o r a t l e a s t p l a y i n g a d i r e c t r o l e i n d e l e g a t i n g some p r o m i n e n t s e n a t o r a c t i v e i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s . ^ W h a t e v e r D r u s u s ' a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f AD 2 a n d 3, t h e d e a t h o f L u c i u s C a e s a r on A u g u s t 2 0 t h i n 2 - 55 -d i d n o t c h a n g e h i s p o s i t i o n o r p r o s p e c t s . A u g u s t a s made no new a r r a n g e m e n t s . G a i u s C a e s a r ' s c a r e e r c o n t i n u e d t o c a s t i n t o t h e s h a d e a l l t h e o t h e r m a l e members o f t h e i m p e r i a l h o u s e h o l d e x c e p t A u g u s t u s . I n e f f e c t he f u n c t i o n e d a s b o t h d e p u t y and s u c c e s s o r t o t h e p r i n c e p s , s h u t t i n g o u t a l l o t h e r s 20 f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f power. The w h o l e s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e d , h o w e v e r , w i t h G a i u s 1 d e a t h f r o m a f e s t e r i n g wound on F e b r u a r y 21 2 1 s t , AD 4 . A t one f e l l swoop A u g u s t u s l o s t b o t h h i s d e p u t y a nd h i s s u c c e s s o r and was f o r c e d o n c e a g a i n t o r e s h a p e t h e r o l e s o f t h e o t h e r members o f t h e i m p e r i a l h o u s e h o l d t o make up t h e l o s s . The c h a n g e s f o r D r u s u s were d r a m a t i c . He became t h e a d o p t i v e , a g n a t i c g r a n d s o n o f t h e p r i n c e p s a nd b e a r e r o f a new name: D r u s u s J u l i u s C a e s a r . The new r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t e d f r o m A u g u s t u s 1 a r r o g a t i o n o f T i b e r i u s on J u n e 2 5 t h o r 2 7 t h , AD 4 . On t h e same d a y A u g u s t u s a l s o a d o p t e d h i s own g r a n d s o n , A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s , t h e y o u n g e s t b r o t h e r o f t h e d e c e a s e d G a i u s and L u c i u s . E a r l i e r , t h e E m p e r o r had 22 c o m p e l l e d T i b e r i u s t o a d o p t h i s own nephew, G e r m a n i c u s . T h u s , w i t h i n a f a i r l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , D r u s u s 1 s t e p - g r a n d f a t h e r t u r n e d i n t o h i s l e g a l g r a n d f a t h e r , h i s m a t e r n a l u n c l e and f o r m e r s t e p b r o t h e r , A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s , became h i s p a t e r n a l u n c l e , a n d h i s c o u s i n , G e r m a n i c u s , was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o h i s b r o t h e r . Y e t A u g u s t u s ' r a d i c a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s f a m i l y b o r e a g o o d d e a l more s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r D r u s u s , as w e l l as f o r t h e o t h e r s , t h a n a mere m e t a m o r p h o s i s o f p r i v a t e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . By - 56 -m a k i n g D r u s u s h i s a g n a t e g r a n d s o n t h e p r i n c e p s i n d i c a t e d t h a t he now i n t e n d e d h i m t o be a p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s o r t o h i s power and p r i v i l e g e i n a way t h a t he d i d n o t i n t e n d o t h e r s t o b e , e v e n t h o s e c o n n e c t e d t o h i m by b l o o d , s u c h as G e r m a n i c u s ' y o u n g e r b r o t h e r , t h e f u t u r e e m p e r o r C l a u d i u s . Some s c h o l a r s , s u c h as F.B. M a r s h a n d V. G a r d t h a u s e n , h a v e i n t h e p a s t t r i e d t o a r g u e t h a t , b e c a u s e A u g u s t u s t o o k no d i r e c t p a r t i n t h e a d o p t i o n o f D r u s u s , D r u s u s must have had no p l a c e i n h i s 23 p l a n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s i o n . B u t t h e mere f a c t , t h a t D r u s u s ' a d o p t i o n , h o w e v e r i n d i r e c t l y i t may h a v e come a b o u t , g a v e h i m t h e s p e c i a l names, " J u l i u s C a e s a r " , was s u f f i c i e n t t o show t h a t he r e p r e s e n t e d i n h i s own p e r s o n an e x t e n s i o n o f A u g u s t u s a n d , t h u s , c o n t i n u i t y o f h i s p o w e r , p r i v i l e g e , a n d 24 a u c t o r I t a s . W i t h t h o s e names D r u s u s c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s o r t o t h e E m p e r o r and a p o t e n t i a l c o n t i n u e r o f h i s d y n a s t y . T h i s p o i n t was o f f i c i a l l y e m p h a s i z e d i n t h e t i t u l a t u r e now a c c o r d e d D r u s u s i n i n s c r i p t i o n s and on c o i n s . H i s o f f i c i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , u s i n g e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e " s o n o f T i b e r i u s A u g u s t u s , g r a n d s o n o f t h e d i v i n e A u g u s t u s , " and e v e n "s o n o f T i b e r i u s A u g u s t u s , g r a n d s o n o f t h e d i v i n e A u g u s t u s , g r e a t g r a n d s o n o f t h e d i v i n e J u l i u s , " s t r e s s e d h i s c o n n e c t i o n t o 25 t h e f o u n d e r s and l e a d e r s o f t h e J u l i a n d y n a s t y . D r u s u s was now i n t e g r a l l y and i n s e p a r a b l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a t e . M o r e o v e r , D r u s u s 1 a d o p t i o n , r e s u l t i n g a u t o m a t i c a l l y f r o m T i b e r i u s ' a r r o g a t i o n , a l s o s h a r e d i n t h e supreme - 57 -i m p o r t a n c e o f t h a t a r r o g a t i o n . By a d o p t i n g T i b e r i u s d i r e c t l y ( u n l i k e D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s ) and by b e s t o w i n g upon h i m more and g r e a t e r h o n o u r s t h a n on a n y one e l s e , i n c l u d i n g t h e t r i b u n i c i a n power f o r t e n y e a r s and an army command i n Germany, a n d by d e c l a r i n g p u b l i c l y t h a t he a d o p t e d h i m r e i p u b l i c a e c a u s a , A u g u s t u s showed i n e f f e c t t h a t he i n t e n d e d t o make h i m b o t h h i s p r i n c i p a l s u c c e s s o r and h i s s e c o n d - i n - c o m m a n d . I n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a r r o g a t e d T i b e r i u s a s f i l i u s , c o l l e g a i m p e r i i , c o n s o r s t r i b u n i c i a e p o t e s t a t i s , T a c i t u s e m p h a s i z e s t h a t A u g u s t u s r a i s e d h i m 2 6 v i r t u a l l y t o h i s own l e v e l . S u c h p r e - e m i n e n c e i n p r e s t i g e and power must i n e v i t a b l y h a v e r e f l e c t e d upon T i b e r i u s ' n a t u r a l s o n , now a l s o t h e a d o p t i v e g r a n d s o n o f A u g u s t u s . I f n o t h i n g e l s e , T i b e r i u s ' p o s i t i o n must h a v e g u a r a n t e e d D r u s u s ' s t a t u s a s a p o t e n t i a l s u c c e s s o r t o A u g u s t u s . B a l a n c i n g t h i s , i t must be c o n c e d e d t h a t D r u s u s r e c e i v e d p e r s o n a l l y t h e l e a s t s t a n d i n g among A u g u s t u s ' f o u r a d o p t e e s . H i s f a t h e r and A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s p r e c e d e d h i m i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t h a t A u g u s t u s a d o p t e d them d i r e c t l y . M o r e o v e r , P o s t u m u s , a s t h e s o n o f J u l i a , h a d t h e a d v a n t a g e o f b l o o d k i n s h i p t o t h e p r i n c e p s . G e r m a n i c u s ' c a s e m i g h t p r ima  f a c i e a p p e a r t o p l a c e h i m i n a p o s i t i o n i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f D r u s u s . H i s c o n n e c t i o n t o A u g u s t u s was d e p e n d e n t on two a d o p t i o n s : T i b e r i u s ' o f h i m , t h e n A u g u s t u s 1 o f T i b e r i u s , i n c o n t r a s t t o D r u s u s ' d e p e n d e n c e on j u s t o n e . G e r m a n i c u s 1 a d o p t i o n by T i b e r i u s p r i o r t o T i b e r i u s ' own a r r o g a t i o n made t h e f o r m e r s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e l a t t e r a n d o f r a n k i n f e r i o r t o - 58 -27 t h a t o f P o s t u m u s . I n t h e sum t o t a l o f a l l i t s a s p e c t s , h o w e v e r , t h e p o s i t i o n o f G e r m a n i c u s a f t e r a d o p t i o n was s t r o n g e r t h a n t h a t o f D r u s u s . He, l i k e P o s t u m u s , was r e l a t e d by b l o o d t o A u g u s t u s , t h o u g h l e s s d i r e c t l y , t h r o u g h h i s m o t h e r , A n t o n i a m i n o r , t h e d a u g h t e r o f O c t a v i a , s i s t e r o f A u g u s t u s . He was o l d e r t h a n D r u s u s . W h i l e r e m a i n i n g g e n e r a l l y s i l e n t a b o u t t h e o p i n i o n i n w h i c h D r u s u s was h e l d by AD 4, t h e s o u r c e s t e s t i f y t o G e r m a n i c u s ' g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y b o t h w i t h h i s own f a m i l y a nd w i t h t h e p e o p l e . A g a i n , w h i l e t h e s o u r c e s g i v e no e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t i o n o f A u g u s t u s ' i n t e n t i o n s r e g a r d i n g D r u s u s , S u e t o n i u s s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r i n c e p s a t one t i m e c o n s i d e r e d • m a k i n g G e r m a n i c u s h i s s u c c e s s o r , e v e n i n p r e f e r e n c e t o T i b e r i u s . G e r m a n i c u s ' s u b s e q u e n t m a r k e d p r e c e d e n c e a h e a d o f D r u s u s i n p r o m o t i o n and i n a w a r d s o f h o n o u r and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o n f i r m e d t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e t i m e o f a d o p t i o n . I t seems t h a t A u g u s t u s i n t e n d e d D r u s u s t o p l a y L u c i u s t o G e r m a n i c u s ' G a i u s . V e r s e s f r o m one o f O v i d ' s e x i l e poems, t h r o u g h t h e p r i o r i t y t h e y g i v e G e r m a n i c u s , s u g g e s t s u c h a c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d , y e t u n e q u a l , r e l a t i o n : p r a e t e r i t i p s e s u o s a n i m o G e r m a n i c u s a n n o s , n e c v i g o r e s t D r u s i n o b i l i t a t e m i n o r . ( 2 8 ) T h e r e c a n be l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t , o f t h e f o u r men t o whom A u g u s t u s became p a t e r f a m i l i a s t h r o u g h h i s p r o g r a m o f a d o p t i o n s i n AD 4, D r u s u s h e l d t h e most j u n i o r r a n k . E v e n as t h e most j u n i o r o f t h e a d o p t e e s , h o w e v e r , D r u s u s was now e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e h i g h e s t c i r c l e o f t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y . - 59 -His s p e c i a l rank would determine the c h a r a c t e r and d i r e c t i o n of h i s whole c a r e e r . L i k e h i s f a t h e r and uncle before him Drusus seems to have accepted r e a d i l y the p o s i t i o n and r o l e mapped out and t h r u s t upon him by Augustus. No e x p r e s s i o n of h i s views on these matters has s u r v i v e d but i t would appear that he always responded promptly and r e s o l u t e l y to the tasks assigned him, never t r i e d to push beyond the ca r e e r and r a t e of advancement f i x e d f o r him, and always amicably d e f e r r e d to h i s s u p e r i o r s w i t h i n the p r i n c i p a t e , i n c l u d i n g Germanicus. He seems to have i n h e r i t e d h i s f a t h e r ' s i n c l i n a t i o n f o r s t r i c t adherence to the requirements of p i e t y and duty. - 60 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER 2 T i b e r i u s and A g r i p p a ' s honours: L e v i c k , 30. T i b e r i u s and G a i u s : D io 54.27.1; Seager, 24. Dio 54.31.1. D e n i a l of t r i u m p h : D io 54.31.4; Suet. T i b . 9.2. R e f u s a l t o r a t i f y i m p e r a t o r i a l a c c l a m a t i o n : D i o 54.34.3; 33.5. T i b e r i u s as s t a n d - i n : Dio 54.31.1. See Seager, 25. Son o f J u l i a and T i b e r i u s : Suet. T i b . 7.3. Consequences of i n f a n t ' s d eath and estrangement o f p a r e n t s : Seager, 25-26. J o s . A J 18.143. On J u l i u s A g r i p p a see PIR (2nd ed.) I 132, pp. 132-34. Where A n t o n i a and Nero Drusus l i v e d i s not known. S i n c e , however, many o f t h e i r prominent r e l a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g M. L i v i u s Drusus, Mark Antony, Augustus, L i v i a , T i b e r i u s , and, l a t e r , Germanicus, had homes on the P a l a t i n e , the most f a s h i o n a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t i n Rome, i t i s a r e a s o n a b l e i n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e y d i d t o o . See D.R. Dudley, Urbs Roma (London: 1967), 160-66, and P l a t n e r - A s h b y , 156-58, 181, 184, 191-94. On Antony's c o n t a c t s see G.W. Bowersock, Augustus and the Greek World ( O x f o r d : 1965), 42-61, esp. 42-43, 54-55 ( H e r o d ) , 58-59 ( T h r a c i a n k i n g s ) ; J.P.V.D. B a l s d o n , The  Emperor G a i u s ( O x f o r d : 1934), 13. S o j o u r n of C a l i g u l a and D r u s i l l a : Suet. C a l . 10.1, 24.1. On the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the t h r e e T h r a c i a n p r i n c e s were her g u e s t s , see Mommsen, EE I , pp. 270-72, Dessau, EE IX, pp. 691-93, SIG 798, and B a l s d o n , op. c i t . , 14. R e b e l l i o n s i n the n o r t h : Suet. T i b . 9.1-2, D i o 54.31.2-3, 54.33.5, 54.34.3, 54.36.2-3; see Rogers, S t u d i e s , 93. M i s s i o n f o r dead b r o t h e r : V a l . Max. 5.5.3; D i o 55.2.1; Suet. T i b . 7.3. C o n t i n u i n g war a g a i n s t Germans: Suet. T i b . 9.1-2; Dio 55.6; V e i l . P a t . 2.97.4. Second c o n s u l s h i p : D io 55.8.3. E x i l e on Rhodes: Dio 55.9.5-8; Suet. T i b . 14.1. On G a i u s ' and L u c i u s ' honours see Dio 55.9.4, 9.9, 9.10, 10.6, 10.18, and, i n g e n e r a l , PIR (2nd ed.) I 216, pp. 166-67 ( G a i u s ) , and 222, pp. 186-87 ( L u c i u s ) . D i v o r c e of J u l i a and T i b e r i u s : Suet. T i b . 11.4. E f f e c t : Seager, 33. T i b e r i u s ' r e q u e s t t o v i s i t : Suet. T i b . 11.5. Suet. T i b . 13.2 - 14.1. - 61 -12. S u e t . T i b . 1 5 . 1 . 13. M a r q u a r d t , 1 2 5; 13 1 - 1 3 3 ; s e e J . R e g n e r , " t i r o c i n i u m  f o r i , " RE V I A 2 ( 1 9 3 7 ) : 1 4 5 0 - 5 3 , a nd H.H. S c u l l a r d , F e s t i v a l s a n d C e r e m o n i e s o f t h e Roman R e p u b l i c ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : 1 9 8 1 ) , 92. 14. The t r a d i t i o n a l , p r e f e r r e d d a t e i n t h e R e p u b l i c f o r " c o m i n g o f age" had been s e t a t M a r c h 1 7 , t h e f e s t i v a l o f t h e L i b e r a l i a . By t h e t i m e o f t h e l a t e R e p u b l i c a n d e a r l y E m p i r e , h o w e v e r , s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o t h i s d a t e was no l o n g e r p r a c t i s e d : S c u l l a r d , o p . c i t . , 92. R e t u r n t o Rome: V e i l . P a t . 2.103.1; d a t e o f d e a t h : f a s t i  A n t i a t e s , C I L X 6638; D r u s u s ' d e d u c t i o : S u e t . T i b . 1 5 . 1 . 15 . M a r q u a r d t , 1 2 5 - 1 2 9 . 16. G a i u s , L u c i u s , a n d P o s t u m u s : D i o 54 . 8 . 1 8 , 22, 28; S u e t . Aug. 26; M a r q u a r d t , 127. T i b e r i u s : S u e t . T i b . 5; D i o 57 . 1 8 ; I L S 8 7 4 4 a ; s e e P I R ( 2 n d ed.) C 9 4 1 , pp. 2 1 9 - 2 2 0 , and M a r q u a r d t , 127. 17. T h i s r a n g e i s c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e b i r t h ^ d a t e s f o r D r u s u s s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r ( s e e pp. 3 - 5 ) : O c t o b e r 7 t h , 15 t o 13 BC. I f h i s d e d u c t i o was c o n d u c t e d a f t e r h i s b i r t h d a y i n AD 2, t h e n he w o u l d h a v e had t o h a v e t u r n e d a t l e a s t f o u r t e e n on O c t o b e r 7 t h , i n w h i c h c a s e he w o u l d have been b o r n i n 13 BC. I f , a s w o u l d seem more l i k e l y i n v i e w o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r , t h e d e d u c t i o was c o n d u c t e d b e f o r e h i s b i r t h d a y i n 2, i n f a c t , n o t much l a t e r t h a n A u g u s t 2 0 t h , t h e n he w o u l d h a v e had t o h a v e t u r n e d a t l e a s t f o u r t e e n on O c t o b e r 7 t h , AD 1, w h i c h w o u l d p l a c e h i s d a t e o f b i r t h i n 14 BC. I f he was f i f t e e n a r o u n d A u g u s t 2 0 t h i n 2 he w o u l d h a v e been b o r n i n 15 BC. N o t t o o much c a n be made o f t h i s c o i n c i d e n c e b u t a t l e a s t i t d o e s n o t b r i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a b o u t D r u s u s ' d a t e o f b i r t h . I t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t , a t l e a s t on t h e l e v e l o f t h e i n i t i a t i o n i n t o manhood, D r u s u s was n o t b e i n g e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e p r i v i l e g e s g r a n t e d t o o t h e r , b e t t e r p l a c e d members o f t h e i m p e r i a l h o u s e h o l d . 18. M a r q u a r d t , 132; R e g n e r , o p . c i t . , 1 4 5 0 . 19 . S u e t . T i b . 1 5 . 1 . 20. S e a g e r , 36. 21 . D a t e i n F. Gab., F. C u p r . ( E J , p. 3 9 ) ; F. V e r . ( E J , p. 4 7 ) ; I L S 140 ( E J , p. 6 9 ) . 22. A d o p t i o n a n d name c h a n g e o f D r u s u s : s e e f o o t n o t e no. 9 i n C h a p t e r 1, p. 40 a b o v e . A d o p t i o n o f T i b e r i u s and P o s t u m u s : S u e t . T i b . 1 5 . 2 ; Aug. 6 5 . 1 ; V e i l . P a t . - 62 -2.112.7; see PIR (2nd ed.) C 941, p. 222. A d o p t i o n of Germanicus: Suet. T i b . 15.2, 21; C a l . 1.1, 4; Tac. Ann. 1.3, 4.57; Dio 55.13.2, 55.27.4. 23. Marsh, 41, and V. Gardthausen, "Drusus I u l i u s C a e s a r , " RE X i (1917), no. 136, p. 432; see L e v i c k (1966), 228. 24. Schrfimbges, 31. 25. F i r s t t i t l e : TI.AVG.F.DIVI.AVG.N. (BMC I , p. 133, nos. 95-97); second t i t l e : T i . Aug. f i l i u s , d i v i Aug. nepos,  d i v i I u l i pronepos (CIL I I 2040, 3829 = IL5 167); see PIR (2nd ed.) I 219, p. 174 f o r more examples. Drusus' f u l l i n c l u s i o n i n the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y was l a t e r presupposed by O v i d . For example, w r i t i n g from e x i l e i n Tomis i n AD 15 (on the d a t e see H.B. Evans, P u b l i c a Carmina. O v i d ' s  Books from E x i l e [ L i n c o l n , Nebraska and London: 1983], 154), the poet says t h a t he m a i n t a i n s a p e r s o n a l c u l t f o r the f a m i l y w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n of s i l v e r p i e c e s r e p r e s e n t i n g Drusus and Germanicus i n a d d i t i o n t o A u g u s t u s , L i v i a , and T i b e r i u s : Ov. Pont. 4.9.105-112. I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. D. F i s h w i c k f o r p o i n t i n g out t h i s r e f e r e n c e t o me. 26. T r i b u n i c i a n power: Dio 15.13.2; Suet. T i b . 16.1; V e i l . P a t . 2.103.3; Tac. Ann. 1.3. Army command: V e i l . P a t . 2.104.2-4; Suet. T i b . 16.1; Dio 55.13.2. R e i p u b l i c a e  c a u s a : V e i l . P a t . 2.104.1; Suet. T i b . 21.3; on the complimentary c h a r a c t e r of t h i s f o r m u l a see H.U. I n s t i n s k y , "Augustus und d i e A d o p t i o n des T i b e r i u s , " ' Hermes 94 (1966): 324-343, and Seager, 37-38. T a c i t u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n : Tac. Ann. 1.3. 27. S u b o r d i n a t i o n of Germanicus t o T i b e r i u s : K u n t z , 40. 28. Germanicus' k i n s h i p w i t h Augustus: Suet. C a l . 1.1; P l u t . A n t . 87. H i s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h both the p e o p l e and A u g u s t u s : Suet. C a l . 4 ( t h e p o s s i b i l i t y s h o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d t h a t the g e n e r a l a d u l a t i o n c l a i m e d f o r Germanicus may be n o t h i n g more than a f i g m e n t of the p r o - J u l i a n s o u r c e t r a d i t i o n ; see Chapter 1, E x c u r s u s I ) . Germanicus' precedence i n p r o m o t i o n : see Sumner, 241, and Schrombges, 160. O v i d ' s view: Pont. 2.2.71-72; see Rogers, 95. - 63 -CHAPTER 3: THE BEGINNING OF DRUSDS' CAREER The e l e v a t i o n o f D r u s u s t o t h e s t a t u s o f g r a n d s o n o f t h e p r i n c e p s b r o u g h t w i t h i t a p p r o p r i a t e h o n o u r s . H i s c o u s i n and new b r o t h e r , G e r m a n i c u s , r e c e i v e d p r e f e r e n c e , y e t t h e h o n o u r s a w a r d e d b o t h upon t h e i r a d o p t i o n p a r a l l e l e d e a c h o t h e r s o c l o s e l y i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s t h a t t h e o f f i c i a l , p u b l i c image o f G e r m a n i c u s and D r u s u s must h a v e been t h a t o f a p a i r - a h i e r a r c h i c a l p a i r , t o be s u r e , b u t an i n s e p a r a b l e p a i r n e v e r t h e l e s s . A u g u s t u s , p e r h a p s t h i n k i n g o f h i s e a r l i e r s u c c e s s o r s , G a i u s and L u c i u s , p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d t h i s i m a g e . T h e i r m a r r i a g e s w ere c l o s e l y l i n k e d . B o t h became t h e h u s b a n d s o f p r o m i n e n t J u l i o - C l a u d i a n l a d i e s . D r u s u s r e c e i v e d t h e hand o f h i s c o u s i n L i v i l l a ( C l a u d i a L i v i a J u l i a ) , s i s t e r o f G e r m a n i c u s , t h e d a u g h t e r o f N e r o D r u s u s and A n t o n i a m i n o r , h e r s e l f t h e d a u g h t e r o f O c t a v i a , t h e s i s t e r o f A u g u s t u s . G e r m a n i c u s f o r h i s p a r t m a r r i e d A g r i p p i n a , t h e d a u g h t e r o f A g r i p p a a n d J u l i a . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e c i s e d a t e s o f b o t h m a r r i a g e s c a n n o t be a s c e r t a i n e d t h e y may n o t h a v e been s e p a r a t e d by much. The w e d d i n g o f D r u s u s and L i v i l l a must ha v e t a k e n p l a c e s o m e t i m e a f t e r F e b r u a r y 2 1 s t , AD 4, when G a i u s C a e s a r , L i v i l l a ' s f i r s t h u s b a n d , d i e d . B u t s i n c e J u l i a , t h e d a u g h t e r o f D r u s u s and L i v i l l a , became t h e w i f e o f G e r m a n i c u s ' s o n , N e r o , i n AD 20 and Roman l a w e s t a b l i s h e d t w e l v e y e a r s a s t h e minimum age f o r a f e m a l e t o wed, D r u s u s and L i v i l l a c o u l d n o t h a v e m a r r i e d l a t e r t h a n AD 7. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s i n c e N e r o , t h e e l d e s t known s o n o f G e r m a n i c u s - 64 -and A g r i p p i n a , was b o r n c. AD 6, t h a t c o u p l e c o u l d n o t h a v e wed a n y l a t e r t h a n c. AD 5.^ The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two m a r r i a g e s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s A u g u s t u s 1 i n t e n t i o n t o k e e p D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d i n h i s s y s t e m o f s u c c e s s i o n , a n d t h e y may e v e n have been p l a n n e d a s p a r t o f 2 t h e s u c c e s s i o n s e t t l e m e n t w o r k e d o u t i n AD 4. D r u s u s and G e r m a n i c u s may a l s o h a v e been l i n k e d by A u g u s t u s as p r i n c i p e s i u v e n t u t i s , " l e a d e r s o f t h e y o u t h . " The e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r had f i r s t g i v e n t h e t i t l e t o G a i u s a n d L u c i u s C a e s a r t o s i g n i f y t h a t e a c h was a l e a d e r o f t h e e q u i t e s equo p u b l i c o , e q u i t e s u n d e r t h e age o f 35 who were s t i l l i u n i o r e s t e c h n i c a l l y , a n d s o n s o f s e n a t o r s u n d e r t h e age o f 25 who had n o t y e t h e l d a s e n a t o r i a l m a g i s t r a c y . The h o n o u r p r o b a b l y a l s o meant t h a t G a i u s a n d L u c i u s , a s p r i n c i p e s , w e r e g e n e r a l l y , p e r h a p s e v e n o f f i c i a l l y , u n d e r s t o o d t o be s u c c e s s o r s t o t h e g r e a t p r i n c e p s h i m s e l f . T h e y r e c e i v e d s i l v e r s p e a r s a n d s h i e l d s a s b a d g e s o f o f f i c e . ^ No e x t a n t s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s t a t e s e x p r e s s l y t h a t D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s i n h e r i t e d t h e t i t l e , b u t s u f f i c i e n t c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e r e m a i n s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y d i d . C e r t a i n l y t h e name d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r w i t h G a i u s a n d L u c i u s ; b o t h T i b e r i u s G e m e l l u s a nd N e r o r e c e i v e d i t l a t e r . I n a f r a g m e n t a r y i n s c r i p t i o n c o n c e r n i n g f u n e r a l h o n o u r s p a i d t o D r u s u s , m e n t i o n i s made o f t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r f o r m a l l y b e a r i n g one o f t h e a r t i c l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t i t l e , a s i l v e r s h i e l d , i n t h e a n n u a l t r a n s v e c t i o e q u i t u m . A d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e e x i s t s f o r G e r m a n i c u s ' r e c e i p t o f t h e h o n o u r , a nd i f - 65 -G e r m a n i c u s was p r i n c e p s i u v e n t u t i s h i s p a r t n e r c o u l d only-h a v e been h i s a d o p t i v e b r o t h e r D r u s u s . I f t h e t i t l e was b e s t o w e d upon them i t w o u l d h a v e g i v e n f u r t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n , as i n t h e c a s e o f G a i u s and L u c i u s b e f o r e , o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s s u c c e s s o r s t o A u g u s t u s . 4 T h e r e i s a l s o e v i d e n c e o f a p r a c t i c e , p e r h a p s o f f i c i a l l y e n c o u r a g e d , o f a s s i m i l a t i n g D r u s u s and G e r m a n i c u s t o t h e d i v i n e b r o t h e r s , t h e D i o s c u r i . O v i d , f o r e x a m p l e , d e s c r i b e s t h e y o u n g men a s s i d u s i u v e n a l e , t h e r e b y l i n k i n g them t o t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n G e m i n i , r e p r e s e n t i n g C a s t o r and P o l l u x ( o r , s i m p l y , t h e C a s t o r e s , as t h e Romans f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d t h e m ) . He makes t h e c o n n e c t i o n e v e n more e x p l i c i t i n h i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a d o p t i v e b r o t h e r s as f r a t r i b u s a d s i m i l e s , q u o s p r o x i m a t e m p l a t e n e n t i s  d i v u s ab e x c e l s a I u l i u s a e d e v i d e t , n a m e l y , o f c o u r s e , C a s t o r and P o l l u x . 5 The b r o t h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e D i o s c u r i g a v e them t h e i r own c u l t w i t h a 6 f l a m e n a t Nemausus ( N i m e s ) . The c o n n e c t i o n w o u l d h a v e e n h a n c e d t h e i r p u b l i c t w i n n e d i m a g e . M o r e o v e r , t h e i m a g i n e d l i n k w i t h t h e d i v i n e and superhuman w o u l d have s e r v e d t o e n h a n c e D r u s u s ' and G e r m a n i c u s ' p r e s t i g e and a u c t o r i t a s , q u a l i t i e s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e c r e d i b i l i t y a n d s e c u r i t y o f a l a r g e l y e x t r a - c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d y n a s t y l i k e t h e J u l i o - C l a u d i a n p r i n c i p a t e . The v e r y e f f o r t t o h o n o u r D r u s u s and G e r m a n i c u s i n t h i s way w o u l d h a v e shown t h a t t h e y were now p e r c e i v e d t o be f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o A u g u s t u s ' d y n a s t y . The a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e D i o s c u r i s t r e n g t h e n s t h e - 66 -p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e b r o t h e r s were i n d u c t e d i n t o t h e p r i n c i p a t u s i u v e n t u t i s . The Roman k n i g h t s w o r s h i p p e d t h e D i o s c u r i a s t h e i r g u a r d i a n and p a t r o n gods a nd r e g a r d e d t h e p r i n c i p e s i u v e n t u t i s n o t o n l y as e q u e s t r i a n l e a d e r s b u t as t h e human c o u n t e r p a r t s t o and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t w i n 7 d e i t i e s . O v i d i n t i m a t e s t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f b o t h D r u s u s and G e r m a n i c u s a s s i d u s i u v e n a l e , n o t e d a b o v e , i n w h i c h he n o t o n l y r e f e r s t o t h e G e m i n i b u t e c h o e s g i u v e n t u t i s i n i u v e n a l e . W h i l e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c a n n o t p r o v e t h a t D r u s u s and G e r m a n i c u s w ere made p r i n c i p e s i u v e n t u t i s i t c e r t a i n l y p r e s e n t s a r e m a r k a b l e c o i n c i d e n c e and c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e h o n o u r . C o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h a n d , p e r h a p s , c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e i r c l o s e o f f i c i a l b o n d , D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s a l w a y s m a i n t a i n e d t h e p u b l i c a p p e a r a n c e o f a c l o s e , h a r m o n i o u s f r i e n d s h i p . T a c i t u s r e p o r t s t h a t e v e n when t h e c o u r t became s p l i t i n t o o p p o s i n g f a c t i o n s f a v o u r i n g D r u s u s o r G e r m a n i c u s , t h e 9 b r o t h e r s s t a y e d e g r e g i e Concordes. They r e m a i n e d s o t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r l i v e s . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t e i t h e r e v e r t r i e d t o s e e k a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e o t h e r d u r i n g e i t h e r A u g u s t u s 1 o r T i b e r i u s ' r e i g n . T h e i r p u b l i c l y d i s p l a y e d f r a t e r n i t y c o n f o r m e d w e l l w i t h t h e d u a l p o s i t i o n t h a t A u g u s t u s h ad a s s i g n e d them i n h i s s y s t e m o f s u c c e s s i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , n o t l o n g a f t e r t h e i r a d o p t i o n s b o t h D r u s u s and G e r m a n i c u s a p p e a r t o have r e c e i v e d n u m e r o u s , r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t h o n o u r s , t h o u g h t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d a t i n g many o f them r e n d e r s p r e c i s e c o m p a r i s o n i m p o s s i b l e . F o r - 67 -e x a m p l e , b o t h had t h e i r p o r t r a i t s s e t up, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e o f A u g u s t u s and T i b e r i u s , i n A t h e n s i n AD 4. I n AD 7/8 t h e i r p o r t r a i t s a p p e a r e d b e s i d e e a c h o t h e r , no d o u b t , a s Kornemann s u g g e s t s , " a l s p r a e s u m t i v e N a c h f o l g e r " , among t h e t e n s e t up on t h e a r c h o f T i c i n u m . . A t some p o i n t b e f o r e G e r m a n i c u s 1 d e a t h d e d i c a t i o n s t o G e r m a n i c u s and D r u s u s were i n s c r i b e d a t Forum C l o d i i . 1 1 ^ S u c h h o n o u r s r e f l e c t e d , a g a i n , t h e c l o s e u n i o n o f t h e b r o t h e r s i n t h e i m p e r i a l h i e r a r c h y . Y e t , h o w e v e r c l o s e l y y o k e d t o g e t h e r t h e y may ha v e a p p e a r e d o f f i c i a l l y , t h e r e c a n a l s o be no d o u b t t h a t , b e t w e e n t h e p a i r , f r o m t h e t i m e o f t h e i r a d o p t i o n s , D r u s u s h e l d t h e j u n i o r , i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n . T h e i r m a r r i a g e s c l e a r l y showed t h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e . D r u s u s ' w i f e , L i v i l l a , c e r t a i n l y h a d e x a l t e d r a n k : n o t o n l y was she t h e d a u g h t e r o f t h e g r e a t D r u s u s G e r m a n i c u s and A n t o n i a m i n o r , d a u g h t e r o f O c t a v i a , s i s t e r o f A u g u s t u s , b u t s h e had been m a r r i e d t o G a i u s C a e s a r , i n h i s t i m e t h e E m p e r o r ' s c h o s e n s u c c e s s o r . S t a t u e s and i n s c r i p t i o n s r e f l e c t e d h e r p r o m i n e n c e as a member o f t h e i m p e r i a l family."''"'" Y e t s h e c o u l d n o t , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , m a t c h G e r m a n i c u s ' w i f e , A g r i p p i n a , f o r t h e l a t t e r c o u l d c l a i m d i r e c t d e s c e n t f r o m A u g u s t u s h i m s e l f , h e r m o t h e r ' s f a t h e r . I t i s t r u e t h a t w i t h i n t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y t h e r e were few l a d i e s e l i g i b l e t o wed D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s i n any c a s e . I f t h e E m p e r o r had w i s h e d , h o w e v e r , t o p r e s e r v e t h e b r o t h e r s ' e q u a l i t y i n m a r r i a g e he d i d h a v e t h e means t o h a n d . He c o u l d h a v e made h i s o l d e r g r a n d d a u g h t e r , J u l i a , a v a i l a b l e f o r 12 e i t h e r o f t h e p a i r . He c h o s e n o t t o . So t h e r e s e r v a t i o n - 68 -o f a d e s c e n d a n t f o r G e r m a n i c u s a l o n e c a n l e a v e no d o u b t t h a t A u g u s t u s r a n k e d h i m a h e a d o f D r u s u s . M o r e o v e r , t h e i n e q u a l i t y i n m a r r i a g e was more t h a n j u s t s y m b o l i c o r f o r m a l . I t had i m p o r t a n t p r a c t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s . Any c h i l d r e n t h a t G e r m a n i c u s and A g r i p p i n a m i g h t have w o u l d s h a r e a good d e a l more J u l i a n b l o o d t h a n w o u l d o f f s p r i n g p r o d u c e d by t h e C l a u d i a n D r u s u s and L i v i l l a . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e f o r m e r c o u p l e w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m A u g u s t u s ' p r e f e r e n c e f o r a d v a n c i n g h i s own b l o o d r e l a t i o n s , w h e r e p o s s i b l e , a h e a d o f a l l o t h e r s , a s t h e e x a m p l e s o f h i s nephew M a r c e l l u s , h i s g r a n d s o n s G a i u s and L u c i u s , a nd h i s g r a n d n e p h e w G e r m a n i c u s d e m o n s t r a t e d . As w i l l be s e e n , G e r m a n i c u s 1 s u b s e q u e n t r a p i d a c c e l e r a t i o n a h e a d o f D r u s u s i n h o n o u r s w o u l d c o n f i r m h i s s u p e r i o r i t y . . The s o u r c e s r e v e a l l i t t l e a b o u t D r u s u s ' a c t i v i t i e s o v e r t h e y e a r s AD 5 t o 10. As e a r l y a s AD 4, a f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n s , A u g u s t u s had s e n t T i b e r i u s t o Germany t o d e a l w i t h r e s t i v e German t r i b e s w h i c h he s t r o v e t o p a c i f y t i l l t h e y e a r 6. A p p a r e n t l y he s p e n t o n l y t h e w i n t e r s o f 4/5 and 5/6 i n Rome."'"^ D r u s u s m i g h t h a v e a c c o m p a n i e d h i s f a t h e r , p e r h a p s o n l y a s an o b s e r v e r , on one o f h i s German e x p e d i t i o n s . S i n c e he had d o n n e d t h e t o g a v i r i l i s i n 2, he was by 4 ( i n w h i c h he w o u l d have p a s s e d a t l e a s t h i s s i x t e e n t h y e a r ) e l i g i b l e f o r 14 t h e t i r o c i n i u m m i l i t i a e . He h a d , m o r e o v e r , t h e p r e c e d e n t o f h i s own f a t h e r who, i n 26/25 BC, o n l y f o u r t e e n o r f i f t e e n h i m s e l f , h ad a c c o m p a n i e d A u g u s t u s on a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n t o S p a i n i n t h e o f f i c e o f m i l i t a r y t r i b u n e . C e r t a i n l y s u c h e x p e r i e n c e w o u l d h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d i n v a l u a b l e , i f n o t - 69 -e s s e n t i a l , f o r a s u c c e s s o r t o Augustus. Germanicus was soon t o be i n i t i a t e d , i f he had not a l r e a d y been, and Drusus would d e f i n i t e l y have need of the e x p e r i e n c e by AD 14 a t the v e r y l a t e s t when he would have to d e a l w i t h the Pannonian mutiny. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g must, however, remain h y p o t h e t i c a l . There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t Drusus even l e f t Rome b e f o r e 14. Whatever Drusus d i d i n 6 the gap between h i s c a r e e r and Germanicus' began t o widen. The l a t t e r was g r a n t e d the r i g h t t o e n t e r the c u r s u s honorum w i t h the q u a e s t o r s h i p f i v e y e a r s i n advance of the l e g a l l y s t i p u l a t e d age, t h a t i s , t w e n t y - f i v e . Drusus, f a l l i n g b e h i n d , was n o t , however, f o r g o t t e n . In e i t h e r 7 or 8 he was made p o n t i f e x and was thus i n i t i a t e d i n t o the h i g h e s t o r d e r o f p r i e s t h o o d i n 16 Rome. Membership among the p o n t i f i c e s was c o n s i d e r e d a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r promotion to t h e h i g h e s t p r i e s t l y o f f i c e i n the s t a t e , t h a t o f p o n t i f e x maximus, which Augustus h i m s e l f had been c a r e f u l t o s e c u r e on the death o f L e p i d u s i n 12 17 BC. Drusus' a d m i s s i o n i n t o the p o n t i f i c a t e showed t h a t , w h i l e he h e l d lower rank than Germanicus, he s t i l l had p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s . In f a c t , Drusus' p o n t i f i c a t e c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as c r e a t i n g an anomaly i n the i m p e r i a l h i e r a r c h y , a t l e a s t i n r e g a r d t o h i s s t a t u s r e l a t i v e t o Germanicus. Around the time t h a t Drusus was made p o n t i f e x , Germanicus became augur. Yet the a u g u r a t e was d e f i n i t e l y c o n s i d e r e d the i n f e r i o r o f f i c e . Moreover, the b e s t o w a l of t h e s e p r i e s t h o o d s on members of - 70 -A u g u s t u s " f a m i l y n o r m a l l y c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e w i t h i n i t . T h u s , t h e s e n i o r members, M a r c e l l u s , T i b e r i u s , a n d G a i u s C a e s a r , w e re a l l made p o n t i f i c e s , w h i l e t h e j u n i o r members, i n c l u d i n g T i b e r i u s ' y o u n g e r b r o t h e r , N e r o D r u s u s , L. C a e s a r , and C l a u d i u s , who seems n e v e r t o h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e s u c c e s s i o n , were a l l made a u g u r s . Y e t D r u s u s , who was G e r m a n i c u s ' j u n i o r , r e c e i v e d b o t h t h e p o n t i f i c a t e a n d t h e a u g u r a t e w h i l e G e r m a n i c u s was made o n l y 18 a u g u r . The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i r p r i e s t l y h o n o u r s i n AD 7/8 w o u l d seem, t h u s , p r i m a f a c i e an i n e x p l i c a b l e a b e r r a t i o n f r o m A u g u s t u s 1 g e n e r a l p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e p a i r . The p r i e s t h o o d s o f t h e a d o p t i v e b r o t h e r s , h o w e v e r , must be s e e n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r c a r e e r s , w h i c h c a n n o t l e a v e a n y d o u b t a b o u t A u g u s t u s ' o v e r a l l p r e f e r e n c e f o r • G e r m a n i c u s . I n AD 7 he e n t e r e d t h e c u r s u s honorum as q u a e s t o r f i v e y e a r s i n a d v a n c e o f t h e n o r m a l minimum a g e . I n t h e same y e a r A u g u s t u s s e n t h i m o u t a t t h e head o f a n e w l y c o n s c r i p t e d army t o r e i n f o r c e T i b e r i u s i n D a l m a t i a , w here he w o u l d d i s t i n g u i s h h i m s e l f i n t h e f i g h t i n g . On t h e a r c h o f T i c i n u m s e t up i n 7/8 G e r m a n i c u s ' p o r t r a i t was p l a c e d one 19 p o s i t i o n c l o s e r t o A u g u s t u s ' p o r t r a i t t h a n was D r u s u s ' . D r u s u s ' p o n t i f i c a t e a l o n e , w h a t e v e r i t s p r e s t i g e and s i g n i f i c a n c e , c o u l d n o t m a t c h t h e sum o f G e r m a n i c u s ' h o n o u r s . G e r m a n i c u s ' c a r e e r c o n t i n u e d t o a c c e l e r a t e a h e a d o f D r u s u s 1 o v e r t h e n e x t few y e a r s . I n AD 8 A u g u s t u s c o n d u c t e d c i r c u s games i n t h e name o f G e r m a n i c u s a n d C l a u d i u s , p e r h a p s i n memory o f t h e i r d e a d f a t h e r . I n 9, f o r h i s p a r t i n t h e - 71 -c r u s h i n g o f B a t o ' s r e b e l l i o n i n D a l m a t i a , G e r m a n i c u s was a w a r d e d t r i u m p h a l o r n a m e n t s , p r a e t o r i a n r a n k , t h e r i g h t o f g i v i n g h i s o p i n i o n f i r s t a f t e r t h e c o n s u l s i n t h e S e n a t e , a n d , f i n a l l y , t h e r i g h t t o h o l d t h e c o n s u l s h i p b e f o r e t h e e s t a b l i s h e d minimum a g e . D r u s u s was g r a n t e d o n l y t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f a t t e n d i n g t h e S e n a t e b e f o r e b e c o m i n g a s e n a t o r h i m s e l f and o f d e l i v e r i n g h i s o p i n i o n b e f o r e t h e e x - p r a e t o r s when he s h o u l d become q u a e s t o r . T h e s e h o n o u r s , h o w e v e r , were 20 n o t i n s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e y showed t h a t D r u s u s s t i l l had s p e c i a l s t a t u s t r a n s c e n d i n g t h a t o f Romans o u t s i d e t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y . D i o s a y s t h a t t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s w e r e g i v e n D r u s u s e v e n t h o u g h he had n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e D a l m a t i a n war. I t m i g h t be i n f e r r e d f r o m t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n e i t h e r t h a t A u g u s t u s d e l i b e r a t e l y e l e v a t e d D r u s u s a t t h e t i m e t o p r e v e n t t h e a p p e a r a n c e - o f h i s e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e s u c c e s s i o n i n l i g h t o f t h e r a p i d a d v a n c e m e n t o f G e r m a n i c u s , o r t h a t D r u s u s had w i t h i n A u g u s t u s 1 h i e r a r c h y an a s s u r e d p o s i t i o n t h a t w o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o a s t r i c t t i m e t a b l e i n d e p e n d e n t o f a l l 21 o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . E i t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d a f f i r m D r u s u s ' c o n t i n u i n g i m p o r t a n c e i n A u g u s t u s ' p l a n s . D r u s u s was c e r t a i n l y f a r i n g much b e t t e r t h a n t h e u n h a p p y A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s whose s t a t u s had b e e n , i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t , on a p a r w i t h T i b e r i u s ' a f t e r t h e a d o p t i o n s o f AD 4 . P o s t u m u s a c q u i r e d t h e t o g a v i r i l i s i n AD 5 b u t no o t h e r h o n o u r s . I n f a c t , s u f f e r i n g a p p a r e n t l y f r o m some s o r t o f w o r s e n i n g d e p r a v i t y o f c h a r a c t e r o r m i n d , he r e c e i v e d n o t - 72 -a d v a n c e m e n t b u t h u m i l i a t i o n a t A u g u s t u s ' h a n d s . He was f i r s t c o n f i n e d t o S u r r e n t u m and t h e n , i n AD 7/8, b a n i s h e d u n d e r g u a r d t o t h e i s l a n d o f P l a n a s i a . He w o u l d n e v e r l e a v e i t a l i v e . H i s d i s a p p e a r a n c e e f f e c t i v e l y l e f t G e r m a n i c u s as t h e o n l y s u c c e s s o r h a v i n g b l o o d k i n s h i p w i t h A u g u s t u s , a n d , a f t e r A u g u s t u s ' d e a t h , i t w o u l d be t o G e r m a n i c u s t h a t t h e members an d s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e J u l i a n h o u s e w o u l d l o o k as t h e i r n a t u r a l l e a d e r . P o s t u m u s ' d i s g r a c e a l s o , h o w e v e r , r e m o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t J u l i a n c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n f r o m T i b e r i u s a n d D r u s u s and p l a c e d g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon 22 them. I n t h e y e a r 1 1 , a c c o r d i n g t o D i o , D r u s u s e n t e r e d t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f t h e c u r s u s honorum, t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p . T h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t D i o ' s e v i d e n c e t h a t D r u s u s d i d s e r v e as q u a e s t o r f o r t h a t y e a r . The a u t h o r ' s e a r l i e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a q u a e s t o r s h i p was i n p r o s p e c t , a t l e a s t , f o r D r u s u s i n 9 23 v i r t u a l l y c o n f i r m s t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p i n 11. To be e l i g i b l e 24 f o r t h e o f f i c e he had t o meet i t s age q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I n p r i n c i p l e , t h e minimum age had been e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r A u g u s t u s a s t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a n g e o f b i r t h d a t e s d e d u c e d f o r D r u s u s e a r l i e r , O c t o b e r 7 t h , 15 t o 13 BC, he c o u l d n o t s a t i s f y t h a t r e q u i r e m e n t . E v e n i f he had b e en b o r n i n 15 BC he w o u l d h a v e been o n l y t w e n t y - f o u r on December 5 t h i n AD 10 when t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p f o r 11 a c t u a l l y 25 b e g a n . P r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , had e s t a b l i s h e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e s t r i c t r u l e . F o r e x a m p l e , a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p c o u l d be deemed t o have s a t i s f i e d t h e age - 73 -r e q u i r e m e n t so l o n g a s he had m e r e l y begun h i s t w e n t y - f i f t h y e a r , t h a t i s , h a d p a s s e d h i s t w e n t y - f o u r t h b i r t h d a y , b e f o r e 2 g he e n t e r e d o f f i c e . T h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n w o u l d a d m i t D r u s u s t o t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p f o r 11 i f he had been b o r n i n 15 BC. F u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n o f t h e minimum age was p e r m i t t e d by t h e l e x P a p i a P o p p a e a a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p was p e r m i t t e d t o s u b t r a c t one y e a r f r o m t h e minimum age f o r e a c h c h i l d b o r n t o h i m . S i n c e by t h e t i m e t h a t he s t o o d f o r t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p D r u s u s had a t l e a s t one 27 c h i l d , h i s d a u g h t e r J u l i a , he c o u l d c l a i m t h e p r i v i l e g e . The c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f t h e d e e m i n g p r o v i s i o n and t h e l e x P a p i a P o p p a e a meant t h a t D r u s u s n e e d e d o n l y t o h a v e p a s s e d h i s t w e n t y - t h i r d b i r t h d a y on O c t o b e r 7 t h , AD 10, i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h a t he c o u l d have been b o r n on O c t o b e r 7 t h , 14 BC. F u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n s f r o m t h e minimum age r e q u i r e m e n t do n o t 2 8 a p p e a r t o ha v e been a v a i l a b l e t o h i m . H i s q u a e s t o r s h i p i n 11 w o u l d seem, t h e n , t o r u l e o u t 13 BC as h i s y e a r o f b i r t h w h i l e l e a v i n g 15 o r 14 a s p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . So D r u s u s w o u l d h a v e been t w e n t y - t h r e e o r t w e n t y - f o u r when he began t h e c u r s u s honorum. I n t h e v e r y y e a r i n w h i c h D r u s u s e x e r c i s e d h i s q u a e s t o r s h i p , A u g u s t u s c o n t i n u e d t o a f f i r m t h e r e l a t i v e p r e - e m i n e n c e o f G e r m a n i c u s . N o t o n l y d i d t h e l a t t e r a c company T i b e r i u s i n t o Germany f o r t h e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p u r p o s e o f r e s t o r i n g Roman p o w e r , i n f l u e n c e , a n d p r e s t i g e a f t e r t h e V a r a n d i s a s t e r i n AD 9, b u t he was a l s o made c o n s u l 29 d e s i g n a t e f o r 1 2, i n e f f e c t b y p a s s i n g t h e p r a e t o r s h i p . By - 74 -t h e end o f h i s c o n s u l s h i p G e r m a n i c u s was w e l l a h e a d o f D r u s u s i n h o n o u r s and r a n k . I n AD 13 t h e s p e c i a l s t a t u s o f A u g u s t u s ' a d o p t e d h e i r s , a p a r t f r o m w r e t c h e d P o s t u m u s , became e v e n more a p p a r e n t . The E m p e r o r s o u g h t t o h a v e t h e s u c c e s s i o n 30 r e g u l a t e d p u b l i c l y as' f a r a s was p o s s i b l e . To t h i s end he had T i b e r i u s ' t r i b u n i c i a n power r e n e w e d , made t h e c o n s u l s c a r r y a l a w t h a t T i b e r i u s s h o u l d a d m i n i s t e r t h e p r o v i n c e s j o i n t l y w i t h h i m , h a d t h e S e n a t e and P e o p l e d e c r e e t h a t T i b e r i u s s h o u l d h a v e power e q u a l t o h i s own, and g a v e T i b e r i u s t h e r i g h t t o c o n d u c t t h e c e n s u s w i t h h i m . T i b e r i u s may e v e n h a v e won t h e r i g h t t o a t t a c h " A u g u s t u s " t o h i s own name. H i s e l e v a t i o n was p u b l i c i z e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e E m p i r e by 31 a new i s s u e o f g o l d and s i l v e r c o i n s m i n t e d a t Lugdunum. C u m u l a t i v e l y T i b e r i u s ' new h o n o u r s made h i m v i r t u a l l y A u g u s t u s ' e q u a l i n l e g a l power and i n f e r i o r t o h i m o n l y i n 32 a u c t o r i t a s . A u g u s t u s c o u l d n o t go much f a r t h e r i n a s s i m i l a t i n g T i b e r i u s ' p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e s t a t e t o h i s own i n o r d e r t o c l e a r t h e way f o r a smooth and s p e e d y s u c c e s s i o n . S i n c e G e r m a n i c u s and D r u s u s were i n t e g r a l l y c o n n e c t e d t o T i b e r i u s i n A u g u s t u s ' p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s i o n , T i b e r i u s ' e l e v a t i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d t h e e nhancement o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s as w e l l . G e r m a n i c u s had c o m p l e t e d h i s f i r s t c o n s u l s h i p i n AD 12 a n d , p r o b a b l y l a t e r i n 13, was s e n t t o Germany as l e g a t u s A u g u s t i p r o p r a e t o r e t o t a k e up t h e supreme command o f t h e a r m i e s t h e r e , some e i g h t l e g i o n s , a 33 p o s i t i o n most r e c e n t l y h e l d by T i b e r i u s . A t t h e same t i m e - 75 -A u g u s t u s began t o n a r r o w t h e gap i n r a n k a n d h o n o u r s t h a t h a d , i n r e c e n t y e a r s , been w i d e n i n g b e t w e e n G e r m a n i c u s a nd D r u s u s . He g r a n t e d D r u s u s t h e same p r i v i l e g e he had b e s t o w e d on G e r m a n i c u s i n 9, t h e r i g h t t o h o l d t h e c o n s u l s h i p w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o s e r v e as p r a e t o r , and d e s i g n a t e d 15 as h i s y e a r o f o f f i c e . The s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s i n t h e s t a t e was f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d when A u g u s t u s r e o r g a n i z e d h i s c o n s i l i u m t o a i d h i m i n h i s d e l i b e r a t i o n s now t h a t o l d age was r e s t r i c t i n g h i s a b i l i t y t o a t t e n d t h e S e n a t e . The new c o n s i l i u m was t o c o n s i s t o f h i m s e l f , t w e n t y c o u n s e l l o r s ( p r o b a b l y s e n a t o r s ) a n n u a l l y a p p o i n t e d , t h e c o n s u l s o f t h e y e a r , t h e c o n s u l s d e s i g n a t e , T i b e r i u s , D r u s u s , a nd G e r m a n i c u s , a nd o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s whom A u g u s t u s m i g h t f r o m 35 t i m e t o t i m e d e s i r e t o c o n s u l t . The o l d c o n s i l i u m had been m e r e l y p r o b o u l e u t i c . A c c o r d i n g t o D i o t h e new c o n s i l i u m , a n d t h u s D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s , had g r e a t p o w e r s , f o r t h e S e n a t e v o t e d t h a t a l l d e c i s i o n s r e a c h e d by t h e p r i n c e p s w i t h t h e c o n s i l i u m s h o u l d be a s v a l i d as i f t h e y h a d been made by t h e 3 6 w h o l e S e n a t e . D r u s u s ' and G e r m a n i c u s ' p r o m i n e n c e i n t h e s t a t e was f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d i n an i n d i r e c t way. I n AD 6 A u g u s t u s had e s t a b l i s h e d a f i v e p e r c e n t t a x on i n h e r i t a n c e s and b e q u e s t s ( t h e v i c e s i m a h e r e d i t a t u m ) t o h e l p f u n d h i s a e r a r i u m 37 m i l i t a r e . A c c o r d i n g t o D i o t h e t a x became s o u n p o p u l a r t h a t an i n s u r r e c t i o n t h r e a t e n e d . A u g u s t u s , f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f d e f u s i n g t h e a n i m o s i t y a g a i n s t h i m s e l f as t h e - 76 -a u t h o r o f t h e t a x w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e s o u r c e o f e s s e n t i a l r e v e n u e , h i t upon a c l e v e r p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n t h a t w o u l d s h i f t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o n t o t h e S e n a t e . He r e q u e s t e d t h e s e n a t o r s t o f i n d o t h e r s o u r c e s o f r e v e n u e , k n o w i n g f u l l w e l l t h a t , s i n c e t h e y w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o , t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o a c c e p t a nd r a t i f y t h e v i c e s i m a h e r e d i t a t u m , t h e r e b y d r a w i n g upon t h e m s e l v e s a l l r e s e n t m e n t p r e v i o u s l y d i r e c t e d a t t h e p r i n c e p s . He was a l s o f u l l y a w a r e , h o w e v e r , t h a t D r u s u s a nd G e r m a n i c u s w ere g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d s o p r o m i n e n t a nd s o i n t i m a t e w i t h h i m t h a t a n y comment t h a t t h e y m i g h t make a b o u t t h e t a x w o u l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y be c o n s t r u e d t o r e f l e c t h i s own m i n d . The S e n a t e w o u l d be s u r e t o a c t on i t and w o u l d t h e n be deemed by a l l t o be c a r r y i n g o u t A u g u s t u s ' own i n s t r u c t i o n s . A t t h a t p o i n t t h e u n p o p u l a r i t y o f and blame f o r t h e t a x w o u l d d e f l e c t b a c k o n t o t h e E m p e r o r . A c c o r d i n g l y , he i n s t r u c t e d D r u s u s a n d G e r m a n i c u s t o h o l d 38 t h e i r p e a c e . D r u s u s ' c a r e e r c o n t i n u e d t o b l o s s o m i n AD 14. On May 1 4 t h he was c o - o p t e d i n t o t h e p r i e s t l y c o l l e g e o f t h e F r a t r e s 39 . . . A r v a l e s . Of o b s c u r e o r i g i n s i n e a r l y Roman a n t i q u i t y , t h e F r a t r e s w e r e r e v i t a l i z e d by A u g u s t u s . They h e l d t h e i r m e e t i n g s i n a s a c r e d g r o v e n e a r t h e f i f t h m i l e s t o n e o f t h e V i a Campana. D u r i n g t h e E m p i r e t h e y a p p e a r t o h a v e p r a c t i s e d two m a i n c u l t s : f o r t h e m y s t e r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l , f e r t i l i t y g o d d e s s , Dea D i a , and f o r t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y , f o r whom t h e y s o u g h t d i v i n e p r o t e c t i o n a n d b l e s s i n g . I n c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e l a t t e r d e v o t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e F r a t r e s became one o f t h e - 77 -most e x c l u s i v e . a n d p r e s t i g i o u s p r i e s t h o o d s i n i m p e r i a l Rome. T h e i r m e m b e r s h i p was r e s t r i c t e d t o t w e l v e men, g e n e r a l l y d r awn f r o m t h e most d i s t i n g u i s h e d s e n a t o r i a l f a m i l i e s , p l u s t h e E m p e ror h i m s e l f as a s u p e r n u m e r a r y . M e m b e r s h i p was f o r l i f e , and e n r o l l m e n t t o o k p l a c e s o l e l y by c o - o p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n e l e c t i o n i n t h e p o p u l a r a s s e m b l i e s , t h e n o r m a l p r o c e d u r e f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t h e p o n t i f i c e s , t h e a u g u r e s , a nd t h e 40 q u i n d e c i m v i r i s a c r i s f a c i u n d i s . D r u s u s h i m s e l f was c o - o p t e d t o r e p l a c e t h e d e c e a s e d member, L u c i u s A e m i l i u s P a u l l u s . H i s i n i t i a t i o n on May 1 4 t h a p p e a r s t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e d u r i n g t h e F r a t r e s ' m a i n a n n u a l f e s t i v a l i n h o n o u r o f t h e Dea D i a . The f r a g m e n t a r y r e c o r d s o f t h e c o l l e g e r e v e a l h i s a t t e n d a n c e a t m e e t i n g s on a t l e a s t t h r e e o t h e r o c c a s i o n s : December 15 i n 14, May i n 16, and May i n 2 1 . H i s a d m i s s i o n i n t o t h i s e x c l u s i v e , a u g u s t company g i v e s a f u r t h e r s i g n t h a t h e , l i k e G e r m a n i c u s who was a l s o a member, had g r e a t p r o m i n e n c e a nd i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n b o t h t h e Roman s t a t e a n d t h e i m p e r i a l f a m i l y . 4 ' ' " - 78 -FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER 3 1. Death of G a i u s : D io 55.10a.9; V e i l . P a t . 2.102.3; Tac. Ann. 1.3.3; f a s t i C u prenses, CIL IX 529 0 = I t a l . I n s c r . 13.1, p. 245; f a s t i G a b i n i , CIL XIV 2801 = I t a l . I n s c r . 13.1, p. 257. Minimum age: Marquardt, 28. Date of D r u s u s 1 m a r r i a g e : see PIR (2nd ed.) I 219, pp. 174-75. Date o f Germanicus' m a r r i a g e : see PIR (2nd ed.) I 221, pp. 179-80, 188, and R.A. B i r c h , "The Correspondence of Augustus: Some Notes on S u e t o n i u s , T i b e r i u s 21.4-7," CQ 31 (1981): 159. 2. B i r c h , op. c i t . , 159. 3. The t i t l e : W. B e r i n g e r , " P r i n c e p s i u v e n t u t i s , " RE 22.2 (1954): 2301, f o l l o w i n g Mommsen, RS I I ( 3 r d e d . ) , 826-27. Spears and s h i e l d s : RG, c. 14, l a t . , 11.46 - I I I . 6 : E q u i t e s [ a j u t e m Romani u n i v e r s i p r i n c i p e m i u v e n t u t i s  utrumque eorum p a r m [ i s ] e t h a s t i s a r g e n t e i s donatum  a p p e l l a v e r u n t . 4. Gemellus and Nero: Suet. C a l . 15.2; Tac. Ann. 12.41; CIL VI 921. S i l v e r s h i e l d : ... cum t i t u l o eum clupeum ab  i p s i s ( s c . e q u i t i b u s ) datum esse Druso C a e s a r i T i .  C a e s a r i s Aug. F., CIL VI 31,200 b 1 : see J.P.V.D. B a l s d o n , "Gaius and the Grand Cameo of P a r i s , " JRS 26 (1936): 152-160. Germanicus and the honour: O v i d r e f e r s t o him as p r i n c e p s iuvenum, v i r t u a l l y a synonym f o r p r i n c e p s i u v e n t u t i s ( P o n t . 2.5.41). O v i d a l s o employs p r i n c e p s iuvenum t o r e f e r t o an o t h e r p r i n c e p s i u v e n t u t i s , G a i u s Caesar ( A r s Am. 1.1.194; see L.G. Koch, De p r i n c i p e  i u v e n t u t i s [ L e i p z i g : 1883], 2 2 ) . T a c i t u s r e p o r t s t h a t the e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r renamed t h e i r cuneum i u n i o r u m the cuneum G e r m a n i c i a f t e r Germanicus' d e a t h , and o r d e r e d t h a t turmae i d i b u s I u l i i s imaginem e i u s [ G e r m a n i c i ]  s e q u e r e n t u r j u s t as they would have f o l l o w e d Germanicus, w h i l e l i v i n g , had he been p r i n c e p s i u v e n t u t i s (Tac. Ann. 2.83; Koch, op. c i t . , 22-23). Meaning f o r the s u c c e s s i o n : B e r i n g e r , op. c i t . , 2301. 5. s i d u s i u v e n a l e : Ov. T r . 2.167; l i n k t o Ge m i n i : Rogers, 102. C a s t o r e s : see Ch a p t e r 5, Appendix I . f r a t r i b u s  a d s i m i l e s : Ov. Pont. I I . 2 . 8 3 - 8 4 . 6. CIL X I I 3180, 3207. Drusus and Germanicus a l s o appear t o g e t h e r as the D i o s c u r i i n i n s c r i p t i o n s a t P a t a r a i n L y c i a , a t Olympia, and on c o i n s . ( R o g e r s , 103: CIL X I I 3180, 3207, IGRR I I I 680; I n s c r . Olymp. 372; BMC L y d i a , Sardes 104 - 109; see 110 - 112; BMC C a r i a , Tabae 61, 62; see BMC P h r y g i a , H i e r a p o l i s , 111; and CAH, P l a t e s IV, 200q.). 7. Thus, the c e r e m o n i a l parade of the k n i g h t s ( t h e - 79 -t r a n s v e c t i o equitum) took p l a c e on the f e a s t of the D i o s c u r i , J u l y 1 5 t h , and was l e d by the p r i n c i p e s  i u v e n t u t i s , p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t i n g the D i o s c u r i e n t e r i n g Rome a t the head of t h e e q u e s t r i a n o r d e r ( B e r i n g e r , op. c i t . , 2301). 8. Rogers, 102. 9. Tac. Ann. 2.43.6. 10. A t h e n s : M. S t u a r t , "How Were I m p e r i a l P o r t r a i t s D i s t r i b u t e d Throughout the Roman Empire?" AJA 43 (1939): 605. T i c i n u m : Kornemann, 40; CIL XI 3308; S t u a r t , op.  c i t . , 604. Forum C l o d i i : CIL XI 3308; S t u a r t , op. c i t . , 604. In a d d i t i o n the b i r t h d a y s o f Drusus, Germanicus, and T i b e r i u s were a l l o b s e r v e d a t Cumae by s u p p l i c a t i o n s t o the same goddess: V e s t a ( I t a l . I n s c r . 13.2, p. 279). I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. D. F i s h w i c k f o r t h i s l a s t r e f e r e n c e . 11. S t a t u e s : Tac. Ann. 6.2.1: e f f i g i e s ; i n s c r i p t i o n s : e.g. a s s o c i a t i n g her w i t h A p h r o d i t e : ILS 8787; SEG XI 922 -23; E J 87 - 89, no. 102; see M e i s e , 62. 12. She had, t o be s u r e , been m a r r i e d t o L. A e m i l i u s P a u l u s , p r o b a b l y s i n c e 4 BC, but Augustus had never shown squeamishness b e f o r e about d i s s o l v i n g and a r r a n g i n g m a r r i a g e s t o s a t i s f y h i s own p r i o r i t i e s - as Drusus' own f a t h e r c o u l d a t t e s t . On J u l i a see PIR (2nd ed.) I 635, p. 301. 13. T i b e r i u s ' m i s s i o n t o Germany: V e i l . P a t . 2.104.2-4; Suet. T i b . 16.1; Dio 55.13.2. D u r a t i o n o f m i s s i o n : V e i l . P a t . 2.105-108, 122.2; Dio 55.28.5-7, 29.1, 30.1; Tac. Ann. 2.46. W i n t e r s i n Rome: V e i l . P a t . 2.105.3; 107.3; Dio 55.27.5. 14. M a r q u a r d t , 132. 15. Suet. T i b . 9.1; Dio 53.25-26; Seager, 15. 16. Germanicus' quinquennium: Suet. C a l . 1.1, CIL I I I 334 = ILS 174, CIL V 6416 = ILS 107. Drusus as p o n t i f e x : CIL V 6416, I I 2040, 2338, VI 910, X 4573, 4617, 4638, XI 4777, X I I 147; ILS 107, 169; see Rogers, 102. 17. D i o 54.27.2-3; L e w i s , 94. 18. Germanicus as augur: PIR (2nd ed.) I 221, p. 185: Tac. Ann. 2.83.1, CIL V 6416 = ILS 107; CIL I I I 334 = ILS 174; CIL I I 1517, 2198; VI 909, 921; IX 2326; X 460, 513, 1198, 1415, 4572. R e l a t i v e v a l u e of a u g u r a t e and p o n t i f i c a t e and t h e i r b e s t o w a l upon members of the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y : L e w i s , 94. Drusus' a u g u r a t e : CIL X I I 147 = ILS 169; CIL V 6416 = ILS 107. The l a t t e r - 80 -i n s c r i p t i o n r e f e r s t o both Drusus and Germanicus and i n d i c a t e s t h a t Drusus h e l d the p o n t i f i c a t e when Germanicus d i d n o t . 19. Germanicus' q u a e s t o r s h i p : Dio 55.31.1; Suet. C a l . 1.1. Commander i n D a l m a t i a : Dio 55.32.1,3; V e i l . P a t . 2.116.1. T i c i n u m : CIL VI 6416; Schrombges 161. 20. C i r c u s games: Dio 55.33.4. Germanicus' honours i n 9: Dio 56.17.2. Drusus" p r i v i l e g e s : Dio 56.17.3. U n l e s s he was s p e c i a l l y i n v i t e d , no c i t i z e n c o u l d e n t e r the senate-house u n t i l he became q u a e s t o r ( R i c h a r d J.A. T a l b e r t , The Senate of I m p e r i a l Rome [ P r i n c e t o n : 1984], 14, 154-56). In normal p r a c t i c e , f o r m a l i z e d by the l e x  J u l i a of 9 BC, s e n i o r i t y d e t e r m i n e d the o r d e r of s p e a k i n g i n the Senate; as the most j u n i o r members, q u a e s t o r s would speak l a s t ( i b i d . , 222, 240-41, 249). So Drusus was indeed g r a n t e d s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s . 21. D i o 56.17.3; see Rogers, 104. 22. Postumus' toga v i r i l i s : D i o 55.22.4; h i s savage d i s p o s i t i o n : D io 55.32.1-2, Suet. Aug. 65.1, Tac. Ann. 1.3.4, 4.2, V e i l . P a t . 2.112.7; h i s d i s m i s s a l t o Surrentum: Suet. Aug. 65.1; e x i l e i n P l a n a s i a : D io 55.32.2, Tac. Ann. 1.3.4, see 6.2; see, i n g e n e r a l , Seager, 46 and PIR (2nd ed.) I 214, p. 155. 23. E n t r y i n t o the c u r s u s honorum: ILS 169, Dio 56.25.4. P r o s p e c t of q u a e s t o r s h i p : Dio. 56.17.3; Sumner, 428. 24. The f o l l o w i n g argument c o n c e r n i n g D r u s u s 1 age a t the time of h i s q u a e s t o r s h i p i s based l a r g e l y on the cogent s t u d y of Sumner, 413-435. 25. Minimum age: Mommsen, RS ( 3 r d ed.) I , 573. B e g i n n i n g of q u a e s t o r s h i p : F.F. A b b o t t , A H i s t o r y and D e s c r i p t i o n o f  Roman P o l i t i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , 3rd ed. (New York: 1963), 171; C i c . V e r r . 1.30; CIL I 202. 26. U l p i a n , D i g e s t , L 48; see P a u l u s , i b i d . , 36.1.76, Sumner, 422. 27. Lex P a p i a Poppaea: D i g . , IV.4.2; Mommsen, GS, 4, 414-15; RS ( 3 r d ed.) I , 575; see Sumner, 428-29. Drusus' e l i g i b i l i t y : The l e x P a p i a Poppaea was passed by the c o n s u l s o f AD 9 so i t would have been a v a i l a b l e t o Drusus i n AD 10 when he s t o o d f o r the q u a e s t o r s h i p . He would have been a b l e t o t a k e advantage of the law because h i s daughter J u l i a c o u l d have been born no l a t e r than AD 8. She was m a r r i e d t o Nero Caesar i n 20 when she would have had t o have been a t l e a s t t w e l v e y e a r s o l d , the minimum l e g a l age. See Tac. Ann. 3.29.3, M a r q u a r d t , 28. - 81 -28. A c t u a l l y , a n o t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e minimum age r e q u i r e m e n t was a l s o p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o D r u s u s : t h e s p e c i a l f i v e - y e a r r e m i s s i o n known as t h e q u i n q u e n n i u m . T h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y p r i v i l e g e was a c c o r d e d t o a number o f D r u s u s ' c l o s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i m p e r i a l h i e r a r c h y : h i s f a t h e r T i b e r i u s , h i s u n c l e N e r o D r u s u s , and h i s c o u s i n and a d o p t i v e b r o t h e r G e r m a n i c u s a l l r e c e i v e d i t ( D i o 5 3 . 2 8 . 3 ; 5 4 . 1 0 . 4 ; T a c . Ann. 3.29; S u e t . C a l . 1 . 1 ) . I t w o u l d n o t , t h e n , h a v e been a n o m a l o u s i f D r u s u s h i m s e l f had a l s o been s o h o n o u r e d . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y ( s e e Sumner, 4 2 8 ) . F i r s t o f a l l , no i n d i c a t i o n o f so g r e a t a d i s t i n c t i o n s u r v i v e s i n t h e s o u r c e s . S e c o n d l y , i f D r u s u s h a d r e c e i v e d i t i n i t s f u l l f o r m , h i s age c o u l d n o t be s q u a r e d w i t h t h e b e s t t h e o r i e s as t o t h e r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e d a t e s f o r h i s b i r t h . By t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e q u i n q u e n n i u m t o t h e g e n e r a l l a w , D r u s u s , i f he had r e c e i v e d t h e p r i v i l e g e , n e e d e d o n l y t o h a v e been t w e n t y r a t h e r t h a n t w e n t y - f i v e when he e n t e r e d t h e q u a e s t o r s h i p . H i s t w e n t i e t h b i r t h d a y , t h u s , w o u l d h a v e f a l l e n on O c t o b e r 7 t h , AD 10; b u t t h i s w o u l d mean t h a t he must h a v e been b o r n no e a r l i e r t h a n O c t o b e r 7 t h , 11 BC, a f u l l two y e a r s a f t e r t h e l a t e s t p o s s i b l e d a t e i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , a h i g h l y u n l i k e l y r e s u l t . Of c o u r s e , i f a d d i t i o n a l r e m i s s i o n s had been g r a n t e d h i m , s u c h a s t h e d e e m i n g p r o v i s i o n and t h e P a p i a P o p p a e a r e d u c t i o n , r e m i s s i o n s t o w h i c h D r u s u s w o u l d h a v e b e e n , i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t , • e n t i t l e d , h i s b i r t h d a t e w o u l d h a v e t o be a d v a n c e d a n o t h e r one t o two y e a r s - t o 10 o r e v e n 9 BC - d a t e s w h i c h a r e v i r t u a l l y i n c o n c e i v a b l e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , D r . D. F i s h w i c k has p o i n t e d o u t t o me t h a t i t i s n o t i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t A u g u s t u s m i g h t h a v e g r a n t e d D r u s u s t h e q u i n q u e n n i u m as a f o r m a l h o n o u r b u t , c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h h i s p o l i c y o f a d v a n c i n g h i s g r a n d s o n s a t f i x e d r a t e s t h r o u g h t h e c u r s u s honorum, p r e v e n t e d h i m f r o m t a k i n g i t up a t t h e e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e d a t e . 29. G e r m a n i c u s ' a c c o m p a n i m e n t o f T i b e r i u s : D i o 5 6 . 2 5 . 2 - 3 . C o n s u l d e s i g n a t e : Apam. B i t h . I l l 334 = I L S 174; D i o 5 6 . 2 5 . 2 - 3 . 30. R. Syme, The Roman R e v o l u t i o n ( O x f o r d : 1 9 3 9 ) , 433. 3 1 . T r i b u n i c i a n power: D i o 5 6 . 2 8 . 1 ; T a c . Ann. 1.10. P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : S u e t . T i b . 2 1 . 1 . E q u a l p o w e r : V e i l . P a t . 2.121.1. C e n s u s : S u e t . T i b . 2 1 . 1 . " A u g u s t u s " : K u n t z , 41 - 42, c i t i n g C I L I I I Sup. F a s c . 3.10768; s e e S u e t . T i b . 26. I n h i s w i l l A u g u s t u s a c t u a l l y bade T i b e r i u s , as w e l l as L i v i a , t o u s e h i s name: S u e t . Aug. 1 0 1 . S u e t . T i b . 26 s a y s t h a t T i b e r i u s o n l y d i d so i n h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h o t h e r h e a d s o f s t a t e ( s e e D i o 5 7 . 8 . 1 ; G. K a m p f f , " T h r e e S e n a t e M e e t i n g s i n t h e E a r l y P r i n c i p a t e , " P h o e n i x 17 [ 1 9 6 3 ] : 3 0 ) . New c o i n s : S u t h e r l a n d ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 76. - 82 -32. S u t h e r l a n d ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 77. 33. V e i l . P a t . 2.123.1; T a c . Ann. 1.3.5; S u e t . C a l . 8.3; O r o s . 7.4.3. 34. D i o 5 6 . 2 8 . 1 . 35. D i o 5 6 . 2 8 . 2 - 3 ; R o g e r s , 105; s e e M. Hammond, The A u g u s t a n  P r i n c i p a t e (New Y o r k : 1 9 3 3 , 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 6 8 , a nd J.A. C r o o k , C o n s i l i u m P r i n c i p i s ( C a m b r i d g e : 1 9 5 5 ) , 1 4 -18. 36. D i o 5 6 . 2 8 . 2 - 3 ; R o g e r s , 105; H.H. S c u l l a r d , From t h e G r a c c h i t o N e r o ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n & Co., L t d . , 1 9 7 0 ) , 2 3 0 - 3 1 . D i o do e s n o t d e f i n e t h e l e g a l n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s i l i u m ' s ^ d e c i s i o n s : "Tr<*.\/&' r v f / x . C X U 7 T 3 f Aacpfa'cj <kJ±foc\sr:'eL ^ W . 1" C r o o k y ( o p . cit.,c« 15T and- S c u l l a r d ( o p . c i t . , 231) b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y h a d v a l i d i t y e q u a l t o s e n a t u s c o n s u l t a . 37. D i o 5 5 . 2 5 . 5 ; S c u l l a r d , o p . c i t . , 229. 38. D i o 5 6 . 2 8 . 4 - 6 ; R o g e r s , 105. 39. AFA (He n z e n ) XXIX-XXX = AFA ( P a s o l i ) I I I . 2 , 106 = I L S 5026 = C I L V I 20 2 3 a ; R o g e r s , 1 02. On t h e A r v a l B r o t h e r s s e e E. O l s h a u s e n , "Uber d i e r o m i s c h e n A c k e r b r u d e r ; G e s c h i c h t e e i n e s K u l t e s , " ANRW I I . 1 6 . 1 , 8 2 0 - 8 3 2 , a n d M. B e a r d , " W r i t i n g and R i t u a l : A S t u d y o f D i v e r s i t y a n d E x p a n s i o n i n t h e A r v a l a A c t a , " PBSR 53 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 1 1 4 - 1 5 2 . 40. O l s h a u s e n , o p. c i t . , 826. Under t h e p r i n c i p a t e e l e c t i o n o f p r i e s t s by c o m i t i a was r e d u c e d l a r g e l y t o a f o r m a l i t y s i n c e t h e E m p e r o r a n d p r i e s t l y c o l l e g e s s e l e c t e d t h e c a n d i d a t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t c o m i t i a l e l e c t i o n c o n t i n u e d i n some f o r m t i l l a t l e a s t t h e r e i g n o f T r a j a n ( s e e L e w i s , 1 5 - 1 6 ) . 4 1 . D r u s u s ' c o - o p t i o n : AFA (He n z e n ) XXIX-XXX = AFA ( P a s o l i ) I I I . 2 , 106, R o g e r s , 102; h i s i n i t i a t i o n a t f e s t i v a l o f Dea D i a : B e a r d , o p. c i t . , 1 28; o c c a s i o n s o f h i s a t t e n d a n c e : F i r s t : AFA (He n z e n ) XXX = AFA ( P a s o l i ) I I I . 2 , 106 I L S 5026; s e c o n d : A. e p i g r . 1947, no. 5 2, pp. 24 - 25; t h i r d : AFA (H e n z e n ) XXXI = AFA ( P a s o l i ) I I I . 4 , 1 0 8, C I L V I 2023b. G e r m a n i c u s ' m e m b e r s h i p : AFA (He n z e n ) XXX = AFA ( P a s o l i ) I I I . 2 , 1 06, C I L V I 2 0 2 3 , I L S 5026. < - 83 -CHAPTER 4: THE DEATH OF AUGUSTUS On A u g u s t 1 9 t h , AD 14, A u g u s t u s d i e d . A r r a n g e m e n t s had t o be made t o b u r y h i m , s e t t l e h i s e s t a t e , c o n c l u d e t h e u n f i n i s h e d b u s i n e s s o f h i s r e g i m e , a n d s e c u r e t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t t h a t had e v o l v e d . U n f o r e s e e n c o n s e q u e n c e s o f h i s d e a t h , s u c h as u n r e s t i n t h e army, a l s o h a d t o be d e a l t w i t h . I n t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g p r e s s o f e v e n t s T i b e r i u s , A u g u s t u s ' c h o s e n a n d c a r e f u l l y p r e p a r e d s u c c e s s o r , t r i e d t o l e a v e as much as p o s s i b l e o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o b l e m s t o t h e S e n a t e , w h i l e he t u r n e d t o t h e n e x t r a n k o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n t o h e l p h i m meet h i s f a m i l y a n d m i l i t a r y o b l i g a t i o n s . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f G e r m a n i c u s , who was o c c u p i e d w i t h h i s d u t i e s a s g o v e r n o r o f t h e t h r e e G a u l s , t h e new p r i n c e p s had t o r e l y upon D r u s u s . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t D r u s u s m i g h t h a v e been i n v o l v e d i n t h e f i r s t b l o o d s h e d a f t e r t h e d e a t h , t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f A g r i p p a P o s t u m u s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m u r d e r c o u l d n o t be d e f i n i t e l y a s s i g n e d , t h o u g h A u g u s t u s ( t h r o u g h s e c r e t o r d e r s made b e f o r e h i s d e a t h ) , T i b e r i u s , a n d L i v i a , w h e t h e r a c t i n g t o g e t h e r o r i n d e p e n d e n t l y , w e re t h e most l i k e l y suspects."'" D r u s u s d i d , h o w e v e r , b e n e f i t f r o m P o s t u m u s ' l i q u i d a t i o n . W h a t e v e r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r i n c i p a t e i n A u g u s t u s ' d e c l i n i n g y e a r s , t r a n s m i s s i o n o f power h ad come t o be c o n s i d e r e d , t o a l a r g e d e g r e e , de 2 f a c t o h e r e d i t a r y . O b v i o u s l y t h e h e i r by b l o o d had a p o t e n t i a l l y s t r o n g e r c a s e f o r s u c c e s s i o n t h a n t h e a d o p t i v e - 84 -h e i r s . A c c o r d i n g l y , h i s r e m o v a l h e l p e d t o s e c u r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f T i b e r i u s ' p r i n c i p a t e a n d , t h u s , o f D r u s u s ' and G e r m a n i c u s ' p o s i t i o n s a s s u c c e s s o r s . D r u s u s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t o r a t l e a s t h i g h l y v i s i b l e r o l e i n A u g u s t u s ' l a s t r i t e s , t h e r e a d i n g o f h i s t e s t a m e n t a r y p a p e r s , and t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n upon and t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o b l e m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m h i s d e a t h . F i r s t o f a l l , he a c c o m p a n i e d T i b e r i u s i n t o t h e s e n a t e - h o u s e on t h e d a y a f t e r A u g u s t u s 1 body had been b r o u g h t i n t o Rome f r o m N o l a . The f a t h e r and s o n o b s e r v e d t h e f o r m a l i t i e s o f o f f i c i a l m o u r n i n g by w e a r i n g d a r k c l o t h e s a n d o f f e r i n g i n c e n s e ( a n d w i n e , a c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s ) . N e x t , when h i s f a t h e r p r o v e d u n a b l e t o f i n i s h h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s p e e c h o u t o f g r i e f , w h e t h e r f a k e d o r r e a l , D r u s u s c o m p l e t e d i t f o r h i m . S u b s e q u e n t l y , a c c o r d i n g t o D i o , he was c h a r g e d w i t h f e t c h i n g 3 A u g u s t u s ' t e s t a m e n t a r y p a p e r s f r o m t h e V e s t a l V i r g i n s . The i m p e r i a l f r e e d m a n , P o l y b i u s , d e c l a r e d t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e w i l l , b u t D r u s u s was g i v e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e a d i n g o u t t h e t h r e e ( a c c o r d i n g t o S u e t o n i u s ) o r f o u r ( a c c o r d i n g t o D i o ) o t h e r d o c u m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g A u g u s t u s 1 own d e t a i l e d f u n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ; t h e E m p e r o r ' s a c c o u n t o f h i s l i f e - u s u a l l y -r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Res G e s t a e D i v i A u g u s t i ; a summary o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e E m p i r e , f o c u s i n g on t h e number o f men i n t h e army, t h e amount o f a s s e t s i n t h e t r e a s u r y and f i s c i , a n d t a x a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e ; a n d , f i n a l l y , a c c o r d i n g t o D i o , a l i s t 4 o f o r d e r s and i n j u n c t i o n s f o r T i b e r i u s a n d t h e Roman p u b l i c . A f t e r t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e w i l l a n d a s s o c i a t e d - 85 -documents i n t h e c u r i a the f u n e r a l p r o c e s s i o n began. Augustus' body was t r a n s p o r t e d from h i s house t o a pyre i n the Campus M a r t i u s . A l o n g the way the p r o c e s s i o n stopped t o a l l o w Drusus t o d e l i v e r a e u l o g y on the dead Emperor, m a i n l y from a p r i v a t e , f a m i l y p e r s p e c t i v e , from the o l d r o s t r a , and T i b e r i u s t o p r a i s e him on a more o f f i c i a l p u b l i c theme from the temple of J u l i u s C a esar. The e u l o g y had o c c u p i e d an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n f u n e r a l s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h e d Romans from a t 5 l e a s t the second c e n t u r y BC. To share the p r i v i l e g e of e u l o g i z i n g so pre-eminent a Roman as Augustus amounted, t h u s , t o a g r e a t honour f o r Drusus. H i s h o l d i n g of the honour on so p u b l i c an o c c a s i o n would have r e i n f o r c e d i n the minds o f a l l Romans h i s prominence w i t h i n both the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y and the s t a t e . A f t e r the p a n e g y r i c s , the p r o c e s s i o n c o n t i n u e d t o the Campus M a r t i u s f o r Augustus' c r e m a t i o n . Augustus' w i l l c o n f i r m e d the h i e r a r c h y t h a t he had e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l a s t decade of h i s l i f e . The a c t u a l h e i r s , t h a t i s , i n the f i r s t degree, were T i b e r i u s f o r two t h i r d s o f A u g u s t u s 1 e s t a t e and L i v i a f o r one t h i r d . Among the h o n o r a r y h e i r s , t h a t i s , i n the second degree, Germanicus and h i s t h r e e sons were bequeathed two t h i r d s of the e s t a t e w h i l e Drusus was g i v e n o n l y one t h i r d . The l a r g e r award t o Germanicus can be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by the f a c t t h a t , when Augustus completed h i s w i l l i n A p r i l , 13, Germanicus a l o n e of 7 h i s two a d o p t i v e grandsons had male h e i r s . In the mam, however, i t r e f l e c t s Germanicus 1 precedence over Drusus i n the i m p e r i a l h i e r a r c h y . Yet i t was not an enormous - 86 -p r e c e d e n c e : D r u s u s s h a r e d G e r m a n i c u s ' l o f t y s t a t u s as h e i r i n t h e s e c o n d d e g r e e , and a t h i r d o f A u g u s t u s ' e s t a t e w o u l d s t i l l h a v e amounted t o an immense b e q u e s t . The a w a r d k e p t Q h i m f i r m l y e n s c o n c e d n e a r t h e a