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An evaluation of the effectiveness of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining Abbott, Rebecca Jane 1980-03-17

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AIM EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING * by REBECCA JANE ABBOTT ial College of Science and Technology University .of London, 197B A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT DF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER DF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) hie accept this as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1980 <D Rebecca Jane Abbott, 1980 Province Of ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY British Columbia HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE TO THE SECRETARY COMMISSIONERS: DAVID V. BATES. M.D.ICANTAB). F.R.C.P.. F. R.C.P.ICI. F.A.C.P.. F.R.S.ICl. CH Al RM AN JAMES W. MURRAY. PH.D.. F.G.S.E.. F.G.S.A., F.G.5. VALTER RAUDSEPP, P.ENG. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: BRIG.-GEN. E. D. DANBY (RETIRED) COMMISSION COUNSEL: RUSSELL J. ANTHONY. B.A.. LL.B.. LL.M. Permission is hereby granted to Ms. Rebecca Abbott to reproduce both the "Preliminary Rulings" and the First  Interim Report on Uranium Exploration of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining in her M.Sc. thesis, "An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining," University of British Columbia, 1980, and to the National Library of Canada to copy them on microfilm and to lend or sell copies of the film. All other publication rights are reserved. Dr. David V. Bates Commission Chairman Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Executive Secretary Dated 3724 WEST BROADWAY, VANCOUVER, B.C. V6R 2C1 (604) 224-2014 (604) 224-2412 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced, degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date June 2nd, 19BD ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to evaluate a commission of inquiry process in British Columbia to determine how successfully it helps elected representatives reflect more accurately their constituents' preferences in the formulation of government policies. It is hypothesized that public participation, as solicited by a com mission of inquiry, may serve to transmit a wider range of informed public opinion to decision makers than is otherwise possible. Furthermore, mem bers of the public may provide governments with important information. Hence, it seems worthwhile to assess how well commissions of inquiry facil itate the type of public participation that will help elected representativ reflect more accurately their constituents' preferences. In this study, the procedures adopted by the British Columbia Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining (RCIUM) are so evaluated. While the analysis is case specific, I make some general recommendations that should be of use to future commissions of inquiry. The criteria used in the evaluation stem from a participatory model of representative government. They reflect, also, the special nature of both the uranium issue and RCIUM's terms of reference (namely, that the RCIUM Commissioners should recommend standards for worker and public safety as a result of uranium exploitation in British Columbia, first examining existing standards and receiving public submissions on these matters). The evaluation framework postulates that RCIUM should design a public participation program that meets the following broad criteria: 1) secures a relevant body of accurate information; 2) informs the public of its findings; 3) elicits public views upon its findings; k) communicates its findings and the range of informed public views to the final decision makers. Since RCIUM was still in the process of collecting information when the thesis research terminated, only the first two criteria are applied. The most significant RCIUM activities in acquiring a relevant body of accurate information are community and technical hearings. Because of limitations in the general public's ability to participate in the community hearings, RCIUM learned less about local concerns than it might have done. A considerable volume of relevant information is being reviewed at the technical hearings. However, many of the participants at these proceedings are pressed for time and have insufficient funds; hence there are short comings in RCIUM's collection and testing of all relevant evidence. Ex tension of the technical hearings and formation of coalitions between parti cipant groups are recommended as ways of remedying these deficiencies. It is argued that a commission of inquiry, when faced with an issue as controversial as uranium mining, should perform a thorough public edu cation job. Although the RCIUM Commissioners do perceive their role to be partly one of education, little attempt is being made to instill under standing of the issues in the public. Increased use of the media is recom mended; for example, periodic, televised discussions between RCIUM parti cipants. As an alternative to the procedures adopted by RCIUM, an approach is outlined that involves the public in the design of the RCIUM process. This approach appears to be fairer than that used by RCIUM; probably, it would serve to transmit a more complete and accurate body of relevant information to the final decision makers than will actually be the case with RCIUM. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract • ii Table of Contents iv List of Figures ••• vi List of Appendices • vii Acknowledgements viiForeword • • ix PART I CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Public Participation & the Representative System of Government 1 Commissions of Inquiry in British Columbia 5 The Royal Commission of Inquiry into K Uranium Mining 7 Why It Idas Set UpThe Terms of Reference 9 Evaluation 10 The Concept of Evaluation 1Rationale for the Evaluation 1 II THE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK 13 Background 1Nature of the Evaluation 9 III COMMISSION ACTIVITIES 21 IntroductionPublic SessionsCommission Research 25 Visits 26 Library Network 7 Publicity 30 PART II Preface to Part II 32 Lff CRITERION I: SECURE A RELEVANT BODY OF . ACCURATE INFORMATION 3 IntroductionPublic Sessions 3iv CHAPTER Page Questions to be Addressed 33 Application of Criterion 6 Limiting Factors 6Commission Research • 8 Questions to be Addressed 6Application of Criterion * 69 Limiting Factors 6Visits 70 Questions to be Addressed 7Application of Criterion 2 Limiting Factors 75 Library Network 6 Questions to be Addressed 7Application of CriterionLimiting Factors 78 Summation 79 V CRITERION II: INFORM THE PUBLIC OF COMMISSION FINDINGS 81 Introduction 8Public Sessions • 82 Questions to be Addressed .................... 82 Application of Criterion 83 Limiting Factors 87 Library Network •• 88 Questions to be Addressed .................... 68 Application of Criterion 8Limiting Factors 90 Publicity « 9Questions to be Addressed 9Application of Criterion 1 Limiting Factors 93 Summation ....................................... 94 VI RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS 95 Introduction 9Commission Accomplishments 6 Commission Weaknesses: Proposed Remedies 97 Concluding Remarks •  102 LITERATURE CITED 103 APPENDICES HO LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 191 v; LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 TERMS OF REFERENCE 9 2 LAYOUT AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS 37 3 NUMBER OF WITNESSES AT THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS 3B k TIME DEVOTED TO THE MINING COMPANIES IN THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS 5 MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS 81 6 ATTENDANCE AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS Bk vi APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE 1 Preliminary rulings 110 2 The Commission staff and their advisors: roles and responsibilities 136 3 List of witnesses: community hearings 141 4 Visits to uranium mines and deposits 151 5 First Interim Report on Uranium Exploration 154 6 Depository libraries • 167 7 Participant funding 9 8 Public Notice: Participant Funding 174 9 Results of interviews with six major participants 176 10 Cross-examination of ten witnesses by major participants 182 11 Preliminary budget estimate: EAAUM 184 12 Items in the Commission library 186 13 Public education by six major participants ....... 189 vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I uiish to thank both Professor Andrew R. Thompson and Professor Irving H. Fox for their valuable guidance and advice during the pre paration Df this thesis. While Professors Thompson and Fox were my advisors, others offered advice or supplied information. Dr. David Bates and Mr. Russell Anthony of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining were particularly helpful. I am also deeply indebted to my fellow class members and friends for making these two years enjoyable, stimulating and warm. viii FOREWORD On 27 February 1980, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council approved and ordained Qrder-in-Council No. 442/80. This order, in declaring a seven year moratorium on uranium exploration and mining in British Columbia, terminated the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Min ing. The evaluation presented in this thesis applies to the activities of the Commission up to the end of January 1980 and to the original plans for the remainder of the Inquiry; the analysis is unaffected, therefore, by the Inquiry's sudden termination.;; ix 1 PART I CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Public Participation and the Representative  System of Government This study evaluates a commission of inquiry process in British Columbia to determine how successful it is in helping elected represent atives reflect more accurately their constituents' preferences in the formulation of government policies. Representative government postulates that elected representatives reflect the preferences of their constituents in the formulation of government policies (Fox 1978). This classical form of democratic govern ment is not measuring up to the strains of modern society (Thompson 1979a). For example, since I960, economic growth has resulted in devastating environmental pollution. In 1976, public opinion polls in the United States registered widespread public dissatisfaction with the effectiveness of Congress and governmental regulatory agencies in controlling air and water pollution (Zentner 1977); and in Canada, there was a growing lack of' confidence in the activities of government agencies in relation to problems of water quality and environmental pollution in the Great Lakes (Lee 1970). Because of the apparent failure of current procedures of representative government, there has been a clamour for increased public participation in decision making, particularly focusing on environmental issues (Thompson 1979b). Thus, the concerns of "government have multiplied in number and complexity with the following effects: 2 (1) Because substantial analytical resources are required to make in-depth analyses of alternate environmental policies, a feu agencies monopolize the capability to analyse alternatives. Hence, a very limited range of alternatives are examined. (2) Various groups have not been fully integrated into the political process and may feel that their interests are not properly represented by elected officials. (3) Elected representatives have to rely on civil servants for information on which to base their judgements. How ever, civil servants do not have a constituency of their own; hence, it is difficult for them to transmit public opinion on which elected representatives should base their decisions (Law Reform Commission of Canada 1977; Fox 1978; Lysyk 1978). The desire for increased public participation in decision making is also based upon the ethical consideration that people have a right to be consulted on decisions that affect them, and especially on those that involve the expenditure of public funds or that impinge upon individual rights. More and more planning and policy decisions, especially those concerned with environmental quality, are of this type in the resource management field (Sewell 1970). In addition, there is the pragmatic consideration that planning and policy proposals may not garner the neces sary public support, or may result in unpredicted consequences, if planners and decision makers do not accurately take public preferences into account (Sewell 1970; Thompson 1979a). Finally, environmental decision making in volves both cognitive and evaluative judgements (National Research Council 1977). Since the public is the expert on its own values (Heberlein 197Gb), the public must be consulted if rational decisions are to be made. Modern conditions dictate, therefore, a more populist form of repre sentative government; that is, a governmental system in which elected representatives are required to consult with their constituents between elections. Such a system, it is hypothesized, would enable elected 3 representatives to reflect more accurately the preferences of their con stituents in the formulation of government policies* This is because public participation, as solicited, for example, by a commission of in quiry, may perform the following roles: (1) Provide elected representatives and civil servants with a better idea of the public's priorities and preferences (Lysyk 1978; OECD 1978; Connor 1979). Although public participation cannot involve every one, it should help to communicate more accurately the views of those who do take part (Fox 1978). (2) Assure that differing views about a problem and how it might be solved are understood by government officials. This is of great help in seeing that all alternative possibilities for dealing with a problem are considerded (Fox 1978; Connor 1979). In addition, public participation may: (3) Provide useful information that the civil service, executive or legislature had not previously come across or conceived of (Lucas 1976; Robbins 1978; Connor 1979). (4) Inform, clarify and develop public awareness and understanding of a complex issue (Thompson 1976; Lysyk 1978). (5) Increase public confidence in government (Heber-lein 1976a; A. Lucas 1976). In light of this, it seems worthwhile to evaluate commissions of inquiry to determine how successfully they facilitate the type of public participation that will help elected representatives reflect more accur ately the preferences of their constituents. In this study, the British Columbia Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining (hereafter re-1 ferred to as RCIUM ) is so evaluated. Two major problems with such an evaluation are mentioned below. All abbreviations used in this thesis are listed after the appen dices; see p. 191. Problems of Representation Those who testify at a public inquiry are not representative of the public at large (OECD 1978; Sinclair 1978; Salter 1979); indeed, as Head (1971, p. 19) points out: ". • • • it is almost impossible for any one group to represent the diverse interests of all residents of any area." Furthermore, the views of well-organized, articulate interest groups tend to be given more weight than those of unorganized citizens (Fox 1972; Heberlein 1976a and 1976b; Salter 1979). As Jowell (1979, p. 141) notes: ". . . . the hearing. ... provides no way in which the preferences that are revealed may be ordered." Another problem is that the views expressed are often self-interested and parochial (People and  Planning 1969; O'Riordan 1976). Salter (1979, p. 9) concludes that: ". . . . participation usually comes from a small, conservative, middle class elite anxious to protect a local privilege against what might be a public good." Dion (1968), Emond (1975) and Burch (1976) reach a similar conclusion. Problem of Non-Participation Most people have no interest in participating at public inquiries (O'Riordan 1976; Connor 1979). Of those individuals and groups wishing to participate, some will not, either because they lack the time and/or resources to do so, or because they have little faith in participation (Fox 1978; OECD 1978). Sadler (1978, p. 6) notes that: "Non-participa tion becomes an issue where there is a demand for involvement, but the public is effectively excluded from review and debate by political bureau cracies.*1 5 Commissions of Inquiry  in British Columbia Commissions of inquiry are ad hoc» advisory committees established by government; that is, they advise government on policy (Lysyk 1978; Pape 1978; Salter 1979). Normally, their subject matter concerns more than one ministry, and is urgent and controversial enough to warrant special attention (Law Reform Commission 1971; Lysyk 1978). In theory, commissions of inquiry are on equal footing with the other institutions of government and, once appointed, are not under any ministerial control. However, they are dependent on government for funding and their mandates can be revoked by order-in-council (Le Dain 1971; Lysyk 1978). As an intrinsic part of its appointment by government, a commission of inquiry is given its "terms of reference" (Cartwright 1975). The terms of reference are a statement of the problems the commission is to consider; they are outlined in the order-in-council establishing the commission (Hanser 1965; Chapman 1973). A commission of inquiry prepares a report containing recommendations. Although commission recommendations are not binding on government, examples are rare where they have been completely disregarded (OECD 1978). Not all governments are legally bound to release the report to the public (as is the British Columbia government) but it is usually expedient politically for them to do so; otherwise the commission itself may release the report if the inquiry proceeds as a public hearing (Ritchie 1973). As Le Dain (1971, p. 80) paints out, the report: ". . . . can have important effects on public opinion and attitudes, legislative initiative, and individual rights." Public participation may or may not be solicited by a commission of inquiry. Most commissions do solicit public participation, usually by 6 holding public hearings. Witnesses may make depositions in writing, give oral statements, or both (Cartwright 1975; Lysyk 1978). The primary role of a commission of inquiry is to advise (Berger 1977). In order to do this, a commission must identify the issues within the constraints of the terms of reference, obtain the relevant information and make policy recommendations (Le Dain 1970). Commissions may perform other than an advisory role. For example, when the subject matter of a commission falls in the domain of more than one ministry, it may perform an integrating role that the normal functioning of government cannot ade quately perform (Thompson 1977; Lysyk 1978). When there is no general demand for public involvement but it is, nevertheless, required by law or administrative code, a commission performs a ritualistic role (Heberlein 1976a and 1976b; OECD 1978); sometimes, a commission performs an educational role (Hodgetts 1940). The Public Inquiries Act The legislative authority of the British Columbia Public Inquiries Act (R.S.BiC- 1960, c. 315) provides the structural and functional framework for commissions of inquiry in British Columbia. Under this Act, the Cabinet may establish a commission of inquiry to advise it upon: ". . . . any matter connected with the good government of the Province • . . ." (s. 3). The Act provides for the appointment of commissioners and outlines their duties (ss. 3,9). The Act also outlines the specific powers of commissioners: - to engage the services of a secretary, clerks and stenographers (s. 8); The federal Inquiries Act (R.S.C. 1971, c. 1-13) also applies in British Columbia but is not discussed since RCIUM was established under the provincial Act. 7 - to summon witnesses and to call for the production of documents (s. 10); - to compel attendance of witnesses and to punish for contempt (s. 10). A natural reading of section 8 of the Act would lead one to believe that the draughtsmen of the statute intended not to authorize commissioners to appoint legal counsel. However, as noted by Schmitt (1979, p. 14): ". . . . the power to appoint legal counsel does exist as a result of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council's power under section 12(e) of the Act to make provisions: '(e) generally, in respect of all such acts, matters and things, as may be necessary to enable complete effect to be given to every provision of this Act.'" It is the duty of commissioners appointed to conduct any inquiry under the Public Inquiries Act to report their findings to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. Moreover, every report thus made is submitted to the Legislature and hence becomes a public document (s. 9). It is apparent that British Columbia's Public Inquiries Act gives to commissioners designated thereunder many of the powers and privileges of a Judge of the Supreme Court of British Columbia. Accordingly, it would appear that inherent in all commissions under this Act is an inquiry process that is public and quasi-judicial in character; that is, conducted in the public view and having regard for the principles of fairness and the rights of individuals (WCELA 1979). The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining Why It Was Set Up The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining (RCIUM) was announced on 16 February 1979. In part, it was set up in response to the controversial nature of the uranium mining industry and increasing public a interest in the uranium question (Hewitt 1979, letter). Uranium deposits have been found in several locations in British Columbia. There is press ure to develop these resources quickly because the price of uranium oxide (U,0o) has risen from just over |15/kg. in the early 1970's to about 3 8 $125/kg. today (EMR Report 1979). There is a great deal of money to be made. For example, a Canadian mining company, Norcen Energy Resources Limited, has a conditional contract with Korea Electric Company for the sale of 1,965,366 kg. of U,0Q, worth $300 million (Mews Release, 1979). Total reserves of uranium in (Moreen's Blizzard property (53 km. southeast of Kelowna) have been estimated at approximately 4,767,000 kg. of U,0_ J o (Loucks et al. 1979). A number of factors should cause the price of U,0 to fall in the mid-1980's. Therefore, if British Columbia's deposits are to be exploited, mining companies understandably want to do it immediately (Schmitt 1979). In response to active uranium exploration all over the province, about 27 environmental groups have declared their opposition to nuclear energy in general and uranium exploration in particular (Schmitt 1979). In the case of Genelle, a small rural community in southeastern British Columbia, opposition amounted to non-violent protest and civil disobedience (Terral 1979). The resultant media coverage aroused public interest in the uranium issue and thereby helped spur the provincial government into promising a public inquiry into the issue. Additional reasons for setting up RCIUM were outlined by Mr. Hewitt (1979, letter) as follows: (1) There was a need to provide an assessment: ". . . . of the special conditions in British Columbia, which would be of significance if uranium was mined in the province." (2) There were such significant unknowns that a full and open study of the subject /"safety, health and environmental protection^ was called for." 9 The Terras of Reference On 18 January 1979, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council announced that, pursuant to the British Columbia Public Inquiries Act, three Commissioners had been appointed to: ". . . . inquire into the adequacy of existing measures to provide protection in all aspects of uranium min ing in British Columbia." (Order-in-Council No. 170/79). The Commissioners are: (1) Dr. David U. Bates (chairman), professor of medicine and physiology and associate member of the Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia (UBC) with a consider able knowledge of occupation and environmental health hazards; (2) Dr. James U. Murray, professor, Department of Geolog ical Sciences, Faculty of Geological Science, UBC; (3) Mr. Walter Raudsepp, P. Eng., Civil Engineer, former Deputy Minister in the British Columbia Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources, and former chair man of the Pollution Control Board and the Pesticides Control Appeal Board (PCAB) in British Columbia, with a thorough knowledge of water resources and hydraulic engineering -^Uranium Inquiry Digest (UID) loj. The terms of reference of RCIUM are outlined in Figure 1 below. They are defined further by the Preliminary Rulings (PR) adopted by RCIUM (see Appendix 1). FIGURE 1 TERMS DF REFERENCE (1) to examine the adequacy of existing federal and provincial requirements for the protection of the health and safety of workers associated with ex ploration, mining and milling of uranium in British Columbia, and for the protection of the environment and of the public, and, (2) to receive public input on these matters, and, (3) to make recommendations for setting and maintaining standards for worker and public safety as a result of the exploration for the mining and milling of uranium ores. (Order-in-Council No. 170/79) 10 Evaluation The Concept of Evaluation The term "evaluation" refers to the process of making judgements of worth; it implies some logical or rational basis for making such judge ments. Evaluation also encompasses the understanding of the process being evaluated and the redefinition of the process if its worth is found to be low. The process of evaluation has both objective and subjective elements. Thus, objective criteria are established as standards of performance and judgements are made as to how successful the process being evaluated is in meeting these criteria (Suchman 1967; St. Pierre 1977). Although some of the measurements made in an evaluation are quantitative, as opposed to intuitive (Homenuck et al. 1978), whatever the type of measurement used, a judgement has to be made as to whether the amount measured was sufficient to justify calling the process a success (Weiss 1972; Morgenstern et al. 1979). A very basic difficulty lies in the evaluation of any public parti cipation program; that is, not everyone will agree with the final outcome. It follows from this that one significant way of judging the success of a public participation program is to assess it as a process rather than to look solely or predominantly at the results (Nelson 1978). Indeed, as Fox (1976, p. 746) notes: "Since institutional performance cannot be assessed in terms of goals, we must make our assessment in terms of the process by which the course of action was decided on." My evaluation of RCIUM is, therefore, an ongoing evaluation; that is, it does not concern itself with the final output of RCIUM but, instead, focuses on the RCIUM process. 11 Problems with an Ongoing Evaluation An evaluation that occurs during the operation of a program has two inherent difficulties: (1) the presence of the evaluator may influence the operation of the program, and (2) the evaluator may make demands on program per sonnel (Morgenstern et al. 1979). As Weiss (1972, p. 102 notes: Often, the evaluator wants the practitioner .... to fill out forms or submit to interviews and observation. The practioner is trying to get a job done. He finds the intrusion time-consum ing and disruptive. Rationale for the Evaluation Little effort has so far been devoted to the task of evaluating commission of inquiry processes. This is unfortunate because, without a systematic approach to evaluation, the worth of any such process is determined by the individual impressions of the people who initiated or participated in it. This type of evaluation is fraught with the pre judices and biases of all involved, and contributes little to an under standing of the potential for public participation in commissions of inquiry (Ebbin 1974; Homenuck et al. 1978). By performing an independent evaluation, I hope to make a useful contribution to the current state of the art. A frequent criticism of evaluations to date is that they lack comprehensiveness (Sewell 1978). As Sewell and Phillips (1979, p. 357) point out: Most formal evaluations .... have been con ducted from the standpoint of the sponsoring agency. As a consequence, the tendency has been to emphasize the pursuit of agency goals .... Assuming that the people's ideology is a more populist form of repre sentative democracy, my evaluation is comprehensive. 12 Any evaluation provides basic information for redesigning a process since it seeks to determine not just whether a process succeeded or failed but why it succeeded or failed and what can be done about it (Suchman 1967; Detomasi 1979). I expect my evaluation, therefore, to suggest ways in which the RCIUM process could be revised, should this seem appropriate, such that it might better facilitate the type of public participation that will help the final decision makers reflect more accurately the preferences of their constituents in the formulation of government policy on uranium mining in British Columbia. 13 CHAPTER II THE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK Background As is apparent from Figure 1 (p. 9 above), the terms of reference of RCIUM have three elements. These elements are interrelated. Thus, while the second element, to receive public input, is necessary, as demonstrated below, in order for RCIUM to comply in a fully satisfactory way with the first element (to examine the adequacy of existing require ments related to uranium exploitation), the results of complying with the first and second elements must be weighed by RCIUM to arrive at its con clusions and recommendations as called for by the third element. The first element of the terms of reference requires the following types of information: (1) an identification of the known impacts upon workers, the public and the environment re sulting from the exploration, mining and mill ing of uranium, and (2) an evaluation of the known impacts. When one considers that there are major uncertainties associated with the impacts of uranium exploitation, especially in British Columbia where there is, as yet, no uranium mining, two further categories of information can be recognized: (3) an identification of possible impacts upon workers, the public and the environment re sulting from the exploration, mining and mill ing of uranium in British Columbia, and (4) an evaluation of the possible impacts. In addition to the above, the first element of the terms of reference requires a fifth category of information, namely: (5) an estimation of the capability of existing institutions (laws and agencies) to implement controls for achieving acceptable levels of impacts* Essentially, categories (1) and (3) above are factual types of in formation that, presumably, can be derived scientifically. However, as noted by Williams et al. (1976, p. 60S): ". . . . most pieces of tech nical advice come to have at least a penumbra of •transcience' • . • .," by which term is meant questions arising from the interaction of science-technology and society: ". . • • which can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science." (Weinberg 1972, p. 209). A great many trans-scientific questions underlie the uranium issue. For example, consider the controversy over the biological effects of low level radiation. Weinberg (1972) describes how, from a practical view point, it is impossible to determine at the 95 per cent confidence level by direct experiment whether 150 millirems (the accepted yearly dose of radiation exposure) will increase the mutation rate by 0.5 per cent (as is predicted by the linear dose-response hypothesis); to do so would require about B billion mice! This example transcends science since to get answers, and hence to reduce the level of uncertainty, would be im-practically expensive. In addition to the above, there are two further types of trans-scientific questions?^concerning: - the predictability of individual/institutional behaviour (further uncertainty); - the problem of establishing priorities in science. 15 Concerning the latter, Swainson (1976, p. 15) notes that: Technical specialists inevitably, . . . ., have their own views as to what the problems are and where the most likely roads tD their solution lie. Their per ceptions have a major impact in determining- the kinds •f data produced, the alternative forms of action or behaviour assessed, the quantum of resources allocated to this assessment, and the division of the resources between the assessments. And, as noted by Salter (1979, p. 12): ". . . . the nature of the expert's paradigm has profound impact upon the findings." This may be further frustrated by the personal, professional and organizational affiliations of the individual (Williams et al. 1976). It is imperative, therefore, that provision be made to ensure that a variety of perspectives are brought to bear upon the insights of the experts in order that they do not skew or misdirect the information generated (Swainson 1976). As Salter (1979, p. 12) points out: "There are some subjects on which the public is the repository of expertise." For example, local people are the source of special and expert information on the impact of development on community life. In addition, community residents may iden tify impacts that the experts have overlooked. Clearly, there is an im portant role for public participation in the identification of the impacts of uranium exploitation in British Columbia. Information categories (2) and (O (p,„13 above) require measurement of the significance of impacts. While some impacts can be quantified in commonly accepted measures of value (that is, in dollar terms), others cannot be measured in this way because the market does not function to measure their values in a satisfactory manner. Frequently, these latter types of values are referred to as intangibles. As Berger (1977, p. 229) notes: "If you are going to assess impact properly, you have to weigh a whole series of matters, some tangible, some intangible." Essentially, 16 this involves the weighing of fundamental values* For example, some of the people living in areas where uranium mining may be undertaken object strongly to the effects of such mining upon the visual character of the landscape. This aesthetic value of the landscape must be weighed against many other values, for example, the monetary value of the U,QD that is to j o be extracted by the mining companies. Since the public is the expert on its own values (Heberlein 197Gb), the public must be consulted directly. Uranium exploitation involves an important set of intangibles that may be referred to as ethical concerns. For example, because of its radioactive character and the thousands of years it takes to degrade, uranium can have far reaching effects upon living organisms. Is it morally responsible, with regard to members of future generations, to produce a commodity that can have such effects upon their welfare without giving them the choice as to whether or not they should be exposed to such risks? Such ethical dilemnas are unavoidably of general social relevance. Further-mare, given that the futures of British Columbians, and of their children and grandchildren, will be affected by the ultimate decision on uranium exploitation in British Columbia, it is extremely important that the citizens of this province be given the opportunity to voice their opinions on the moral questions. In a similar vein, it can be argued that public attitudes on acceptable levels of risk and uncertainty must also be determined. There is a great deal of risk and uncertainty underlying the uranium issue (for example, we do not know the exact effects of low level radiation on human health; nor do we know the associated risks). Since it is present and future generations of British Columbians that will have to live with these hazards and unknowns, it is only fitting that the public be consulted. 17 In summary,, public input is important to ensure adequate compliance with the first element of RCIUM's terms of reference for the following reasons: (a) RCIUM could overlook important information if it does not cast its net broadly and elicit information from all appropriate sources. (b) Scientific analysis is not completely neutral. Hence, differing perspectives are necessary in order to arrive at reasonable judgements about the impacts of uranium exploitation i n British Columbia. (c) Institutional behaviour is not subject to pre cise scientific determination. Thus, the views of a wide range of experts must be elicited. (d) The assessment of impacts involves the weighing of basic values; the public is the expert on its values and must therefore be consulted. (e) Ulhat constitutes an acceptable degree of risk and uncertainty, and what are appropriate answers to the moral questions underlying the uranium issue cannot be derived from science. Instead, both must be derived from the public. In addition to the above, there is another reason why public input is important. Adherence to democratic principles requires that: - people are informed about the consequences of decisions that will affect them; - public views upon these consequences are weighed by accountable elected representatives in arriv ing at the acceptable public policies. The above implies that RCIUM must make a positive effort: - to inform British Columbians of its findings; - to elicit public views upon its findings; - to communicate the range of informed public views to the final decision makers. 18 In total, RCIUM should design a public participation program that meets the following broad criteria: I. secures a relevant body of accurate information; II. informs the public of its findings; III. elicits public views upon its findings; IV. communicates its findings and the range of public views to the final decision makers. To elaborate on the above, criterion I involves the identification of: - the known and possible impacts of uranium ex ploitation, some of which will be tangible (for example, the economic benefits of uranium min ing) and others of which will be intangible (for example, many of the social costs); - the risks and uncertainty associated with uran ium exploitation (including the uncertainty sur rounding the capability of institutions to im plement controls); - the moral questions underlying the uranium issue. Criterion II requires the communication of this information to the public in a comprehensible manner. Criterion III involves the elicitation of informed public views on the above such that: - the impacts are evaluated according to the range of value systems held by British Columbians; - the acceptability of the risk and uncertainty is determined; - attitudes towards the moral questions are under stood and appreciated. Finally, criterion IV necessitates the communication to the final decision makers of: - the results of the impact evaluations; - informed public views on the risk, uncertainty and moral questions attached to the uranium issue, for the range of value systems held by British Columbians. 19 The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the RCIUM process in terms of how successfully it facilitates the type of public participa tion that can help final decision makers reflect more accurately the preferences of their constituents in the formulation of government policy on uranium exploitation in British Columbia. It is suggested that the extent to which the RCIUM process meets criteria I to IV above (see p. 18) is the best possible indication of its success in facilitating such participation. Because RCIUM will not be eliciting public views upon its findings (criterion III) nor communicating its findings and the range of public views to government (criterion IV) until after I complete my thesis, I am unable to apply criteria III and IV. Since the criteria are not expressed in quantitative terms, it is impossible to provide a precise determination of whether or not they are being met by RCIUM. It is passible, however, to describe the processes adopted by RCIUM and to identify the limitations of what is being done in terms of the criteria, and then to suggest ways in which RCIUM could have better arrived at criteria I and II above should such improvement seem appropriate. Nature of the Evaluation External Evaluation I am an external evaluator; that is, I am not hired by RCIUM or by a government agency or by any of the RCIUM participants. Ongoing Evaluation My evaluation is an ongoing evaluation; that is, it focuses on the RCIUM process rather than on the outcome. I attended all the community hearings (except those held at Fort Nelson) and a select number of the technical hearings. I did not attend the inaugural meetings. My study terminated about half way through the technical hearings' schedule. 20 Impartial Evaluation I am an impartial evaluator. I take no position on the uranium issue in British Columbia; as a matter of principle, I neither support nor oppose uranium mining. Comprehensive Evaluation Assuming that British Columbians desire a more populist form of repre sentative government, my evaluation is comprehensive. Information Sources My information sources are as follows: (a) the Commissioners, the RCIUM staff, and the technical advisors; (b) RCIUM participants. During the entire course of the study, I maintained repeated contacts with (a) and (b) above. Interviews with various people in these two categories constituted an important source of information. (c) observations made during the hearings; (d) conversations with members of the audience at the hearings; (e) conversations with people who, while not in attend ance at the hearings, have informed opinions on the RCIUM process; (f) the RCIUM Transcripts of Proceedings (TP) and assoc iated exhibits and statements of evidence; (g) media coverage of RCIUM (newspapers, radio, etc.); (h) items published by RCIUM. 21 CHAPTER III COMMISSION ACTIVITIES Introduction Following their appointment, the RCIUM Commissioners established an office in Vancouver and hired a staff (including technical advisors) to aid them in their work (see Appendix 2). Then, in order to satisfy their terms of reference, they decided upon a variety of activities: - public sessions; - Commission research; - visits; - library network; - publicity; This chapter describes each type of activity, thereby laying the ground work for Part II of the thesis in which I perform the evaluation. Public Sessions On the 6 and 16th of March 1979, RCIUM conducted inaugural public meetings in Vancouver and Kelowna respectively. The purpose of these meetings was to give members of the public an opportunity: ". • . . to express their views concerning the terms of reference, the timing and conduct of the Inquiry, and to discuss how they might effectively parti cipate in the work of the Commission" (Bates, TP, 1, p. 6). RCIUM is conducting two different and distinct sets of public hear ings; namely, informal community hearings and formal technical hearings. 22 The rules of procedure for these hearings are outlined in Appendix 1. Community hearings mere held throughout British Columbia from 4?-June 1979 to 4 July 1979, in communities either close to known uranium deposits or close to areas of interest to the uranium mining industry. The purpose of this first round of community hearings was to enable local concerns to be heard and to obtain information from the mining companies (Bates 1979, interview). In total, seven mining companies presented evidence and about 160 briefs were heard from local groups and individuals (see list, Appen dix 3). Witnesses presented their briefs under oath. After hearing each brief, the Commissioners, and members of the public, if they so wished, questioned the witness and/or commented on the brief. There was no cross-examination and no representation of witnesses by lawyers (with one exception), although opportunity for cross-examination by participants did exist (Letcher 1979, interview). Microphones were used and official reporters were present since a complete transcript of the proceedings at the community hearings was kept. The media were also present. The technical hearings, which commenced on 25 September 1979 and continue' till 27 June 1980, are subdivided into ten phases /see PR No. 5, Appendix lj. They are held at the Devonshire Hotel in downtown Vancouver. Phase X, however, will be held in Victoria. The purpose of these hearings, as explained by Dr. Bates (Vancouver Cable 10"s "Nuclear Crossroads?J 24 September 1979) is to obtain answers to the "tough" questions, both those suggested by and within the terms of reference and those raised in the community hearings. Dr. Bates (1979b, letter) also sees the technical hearings as constituting: ". . . . a major process of mutual education." Twenty-five groups, referred to as "major participants " participate full-time in the technical hearings (see list, PR No. 5, Appendix 1). 23 Dr. Bates is hopeful that the major participants mill raise, between them, sufficient information to answer the "tough" questions referred to above (Vancouver Cable 10*s "Nuclear Crossroads", 2k September 1979). The procedures adopted at the technical hearings are similar, in many respects, to those of a court of law. Sworn evidence is presented by witnesses who are then subjected to cross-examination by Commission counsel; by major participants, some of whom are represented by lawyers; and by members of the public, if they so desire and if sufficient time is available. The ordering of witnesses and of cross-examination by major participants is at the discretion of the Commissioners (PR No. 1, B.5.2, Appendix 1). Contrary to PR No. 1, B.5.1, a major participant does not re-examine his/her witness following the cross-examination by other major participants. Neither does a major participant examine his/her witness during the hearings and prior to the cross-examination. Witnesses are allowed 15-20 minutes in which to present a summary of their evidence; their full statements or evidence are filed with RCIUM. No uniform time limit is set for cross-examination although vigorous limitations based on relevance are imposed, and all major participants wish ing to cross-examine are required to give a time estimate for their quest ioning to the Executive secretary. As in the community hearings, official transcript reporters and media representatives are present. In March 1979, RCIUM created a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) consist ing of Mr. Hodge (research coordinator), Mr. Brawner, Dr. Fletcher, Or. Matthews, Dr. Sinclair and Dr. Morrison (see Appendix 2). In August 1979, TAG was formally dissolved because its initial purpose of identifying witnesses and defining technical questions had come to an end, and the expertise of existing members was recognized as being limited (there were no environmental, biological or social impact experts); hence RCIUM drew 2k in six additional technical advisors who are unable to meet on a regular basis (Hodge 1980a, interview). Also, in August 1979, RCIUM hired two more research coordinators (Mr. Culbert and Ms. Lexier) in order to reduce the work load of Mr. Hodge. Hence TAG was replaced by a team of three research coordinators and 11 technical advisors (see Appendix 2). The original technical hearings* schedule recognized only four phases (see PR No. 1, Appendix 1). On lk July 1979, RCIUM expanded the schedule tD ten phases (see PR No. 2) since it was recognized that the issue was becoming increasingly complex as more and more information was made avail able (Murray 1980, interview). This second schedule was modified in October 1979, in that Phase UII was extended by four days and "overflow" hearings were planned for February 1980. On 30 October 1979, RCIUM announced an expansion of its technical hearings' schedule from kB days to 66 days in order to accommodate an increased number of witnesses and to allow for the fact that cross-exam ination was taking longer than expected (TP, 32, pp. 5016-8). This was met with a request from a large number of major participants to extend the hearings still further to a total of 96 days (TP, 35, p. 5569). In re sponse, RCIUM announced, on 13 November 1979, that the hearings would be expanded to a total of 92 days (see PR, No. 5 for the current schedule). Major participants were asked to prepare a statement of the conclus ions that they reach from the technical hearings. These statements, which will assist the Commissioners in reaching their own conclusions, are to be discussed at a public session after the completion of the technical hearings. A second round of community hearings is scheduled for September and October, 1980. In these hearings, the public's response to the evidence presented in the technical hearings will be ascertained (Bates 1979, speech). 25 Commission Research In March 1979, the RCIUM Commissioners decided upon and initiated five research projects: - a bibliographic review of low level radiation exposure; - a study of the geochemistry of uranium in natural and man-made environments; - a survey of the geology and mineralogy of British Columbia's uranium deposits; - a review of uranium tailings disposal methods; - a study of natural radioactivity in biological pathways* (TP, 1, pp. 13-14). These projects were made the responsibility of TAG. In May 1979, the research projects were terminated because they were serving no useful purpose for RCIUM (Hodge 1980d, interview). The sole output of TAG's research was a report on uranium mining and waste disposal and a bibliography on epidemiological data from miners (Bates 1980c, inter view). RCIUM has since authorized about eight research studies. For example: (1) An assessment of the environmental impacts through biological pathways of uranium mining and milling in British Columbia by the Batelle Memorial Insti tute of Richland, Washington. (2) An appraisal of the possible benefits of bacterial-ly-assisted ferric iron leaching of uranium ores by British Columbia Research. (3) A study on the application of irrigation and fer tilizer to post-glacial uranium in the soil by Dr. Lavkulich, Department of Soil Science, UBC . (Culbert 1980e, interview) » 26 Visits In April and May, 1979, the RCIUM Commissioners visited a number of extraprovincial uranium mines in order to acquaint themselves with "con temporary problems" (Bates 1979, speech). Appendix 4 lists some of the observations made during these visits. The Commissioners are planning further visits to uranium mine sites in February and July, 19BD. In Feb ruary, Dr. Bates and Brigadier General Danby (the Executive secretary) will visit the Australian uranium mining industry, while Dr. Murray and Mr. Raudsepp will visit the Japanese uranium mining industry; and, in July, Dr. Bates and Dr. Murray will visit a number of uranium mines in Saskatchewan (Bates 1980b, interview). Concurrent with the first round of community hearings, the Commissioners, together with certain members of TAG and local environmentalists, visited all uranium deposits in British Columbia; at least, those deposits then known to RCIUM (TP, 6, p. 548). Appendix 4 lists the deposits visited. As explained by Or. Bates (1980c, interview), the reason the Commissioners wanted to see the deposits for themselves was twofold: (1) "The Department of Mines in Victoria had incomplete knowledge of the precise status of exploration activity. Ide felt it was necessary to know this status." (2) "QJe wanted to be able to form an opinion on the validity of public input about hazards. ... For example, there was a huge public outcry about risk at Genelle. Ule went to see if what they were say ing was true: for example, was their water supply close to the deposit. • . .?" On 15 August 1979, the Commissioners sent their First Interim Report  on Uranium Mining (hereafter referred to as the Interim Report) to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. Parts of this report are reproduced in Appendix 5. The Report contains a list of initial recommendations concern ing uranium exploration that the Commissioners felt should be brought to the government's immediate attention. These recommendations are based, in part, on the observations made by the Commissioners at the uranium deposits (see p.71 below). Library Network The RCIUM library (hereafter referred to as 'the Library') was established at the beginning of April 1979 in the same building as the RCIUM office. It contains a collection of: - books; - journal articles; - maps; - periodicals; - microfiches; - Transcripts of Proceedings; - statements of evidence; - exhibits; - legislation; - videocassettes; - exploration reports; - responses to Uranium Exploration Questionnaire. This collection serves the needs of the Commissioners, the RCIUM staff, the technical advisors, RCIUM participants and interested members of the public (Uranium Information Centre Fact Sheet 1980). The Library is open from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on weekdays. In addition, as of 2 October 1979, it is open on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday evenings from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., and on Saturday mornings from 9:Q0 a.m. to 12:00 noon, of weeks in which the technical hearings are in session (TP, 248, pp. 3235-6). 28 The RCIUM librarian, Miss McCall, maintains up-to-date Accession Lists of all the items in the Library, AISD available is a list of 1';;::-libraries in British Columbia (depository libraries) that hold copies of the Transcripts of Proceedings, statements of evidence, Accession Lists and the Interim Report, Copies of the exhibits are not sent to the depository libraries; the exhibits, however, at least those for the technical hearings, are similar in content to the corresponding statements of evidence (McCall 1980b, interview). Finally, a list of depository libraries that hold edited videocassettes of the first two phases of the technical hearings and facilities for viewing these can be obtained from Miss Mccall. Appendix 6 lists the depositary libraries. Books,journal articles and microfiches are added to the Library collection as and when they are referred to or requested by the Commissioners, RCIUM staff, RCIUM participants or interested members of the public (McCall 1979d, interview). The inclusion criterion adopted by Miss McCall is that, while she attempts to reflect all sides of the argument in her selection of materials for the Library, the items must be relevant to RCIUM1s terms of reference (McCall 1980a, interview). There are about fifteen sets of maps in the Library, illustrating such things as: - the location of mineral claims in British Columbia; - the level of uranium in streanv waters and stream sediments in different parts of British Columbia. In addition, there is a map prepared by the RCIUM staff entitled: Distribution of Uranium Exploration Mineral Claims and Radioactive Occurrences in British Columbia. The Library subscribes to about 30 different periodicals reflecting the interests of environmental groups, government agencies, mining 29 companies and pro-nuclear associations* In addition, the Library receives several science journals and three daily newspapers. In a letter addressed to UJCELA , (25 April 1979), Mr. Anthony, Com mission counsel, explained that RCIUM was: ". . . • prepared to enter into an agreement with UJCELA for the following research services: .... (UICELA) will hire one full time student of law to research the law and practise in effect in British Columbia and selected other jurisdictions as it relates to all of those issues falling with the terms of refer ence of/"RCIUM.?. ... The research will include all federal legislation in Canada, provincial legislation in other provinces of Canada and legislation in the United States of America and other jurisdictions of interest to the Inquiry. This research was conducted by Ms. Edwards from 1 May to 30 September, 1979. As a result, the Library contains some twenty volumes of legislation. The Library contains exploration reports from about 80 mining com panies that are, or have been, exploring actively for uranium in British Columbia, and the responses of k& mining companies to a Uranium Exploration  Questionnaire (October 1979)* This questionnaire was sent, at the end of October 1979, to 5k mining companies that RCIUM had identified as explor ing for uranium in British Columbia (Culbert 1980a, interview). Included in the Questionnaire are such requests as: - "Has your company taken out reclamation permits covering uranium exploration activities in British Columbia?" - "Are you involved in uranium exploration on or near Indian reservations?" - "Are alpha and gamma level ground surveys done over sites of disruptive exploration?" In accordance with PR No. 1, B. 3.1 and B. 3.2 (see Appendix 1), the Library contains lists of documents held by the British Columbia govern ment, the federal government, various boards and agencies, RCIUM major 30 participants and RCIUM, that are relevant to the subject matter before RCIUM. Enclosed with each list are details of how to obtain documents, at least, those that are public. The documents listed by RCIUM are all in the Library; so too are those listed by the Atomic Energy Control Board, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and the International Commission of Radiological Protection, and that Miss McCall could get access to. Miss McCall (1980d, interview) was directed: .... not to attempt to retrieve all the documents listed by the major participants but to be aware of where they could be located should it be necessary to use them. Publicity RCIUM sent public notices to all major newspapers in British Columbia announcing: - the dates and locations of the inaugural public meetings, the community hearings and the technical hearings; - the purpose of the various public sessions; - the guidelines for funding of participants; - the revised schedules of the technical hearings. In addition, RCIUM distributes fact sheets on the library network (Commission library plus depository libraries) to interested individuals. In September 1979, RCIUM hired the services of a Mr. Grant and a Mr. Shaw to report on RCIUM'sapraeeedings. Mr. Grant is RCIUM's news release officer. His selection was the responsibility of the advertis ing agency with which RCIUM placed a contract (Bates 1980c, interview). He is independent of RCIUM, and the information in his releases does not reflect, necessarily, the views of RCIUM. Mr. Grant issues a news re lease on each day that the technical hearings are in session. 31 Mr. Shaui writes, and is editor of, the Uranium Inquiry Digest (UID). Like Mr. Grant, he is independent of RCIUM, and undertakes: ". . . . to report, objectively, the varying viewpoints expressed by those making submissions to the Commission." (UID 15). UID is:". ... produced and distributed after each phase of the .... technical sessions" and "• • . • is . • . • sent to 269 public libraries in B.C. as well as nearly 600 interest groups, individuals, mining companies, news media and major participants in the Inquiry." (UID 1). By issue number 10 (5-15 February 19B0), about 1500 people had written to RCIUM asking for a subscription (Bates;19B0c, interview). The Metro Media Association of Greater Vancouver was contracted by RCIUM to videotape the proceedings at the technical hearings. The un edited videotapes are shown an Vancouver Cable 10, and as of the beginning of December 1979, on cable television in the interior and on Vancouver Island on a one-day delayed basis from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. an Wednes day to Saturday inclusive of the weeks in which the hearings are in session (TP, 44, p. 7499). Mr. Culbert, RCIUM research coordinator, is responsible for producing the edited videocassettes of each phase of the technical hearings. As of the end of January 1980, only those for the first two phases had been completed; Mr. Culbert (1980f, interview) had not had time to do more. RCIUM staff have been interviewed by the media on a number of occas ions. For example, Dr. Bates had appeared on Canadian Broadcasting's (CBC's) "Evening News" (9 June 1979); Vancouver Cable 10's "Nuclear Cross roads" (24 September 1979); and Vancouver Cable B's "Jack Webster Show" (24 January 19B0); and both Dr. Bates and Mr. Anthony were interviewed on Vancouver Co-Op Radio's "Legal Services Commission" (26 April 1979). , In addition, Dr. Bates made a speech at Simon Fraser's University's (SFU's) "Nuclear Awareness Week" (10 October 1979). 32 PART II Preface to Part II The second part Df the thesis consists of the evaluation of the RCIUM process against the first two of the four broad criteria listed on p. 18 above. Chapters IV and V contain the evaluations against criteria I and II respectively; Chapter VI contains recommendations and conclusions. Each of Chapters IV and V are divided into a number of sections. The first section ("Introduction") lists RCIUM activities that are relevant to the criterion under examination. Each of the following sections (one for each relevant activity) are divided into three parts: - "Questions to be Addressed" in the evaluation; - "Application of Criterion" (the actual evaluation); - "Limiting Factors" (an identification of those factors that influence the extent to which the criterion is not being met, if, this is the case). It is argued that there are two orders of limiting factors, higher order and lower order. Higher order factors include RCIUM's terms of reference; the nature of the uranium issue; political constraints; com missioners' powers as conferred by the Public Inquiries Act; RCIUM's budget; and the provision of government funding for major participants in RCIUM. In cases where these factors operate to limit the degree to which a particular criterion is met, RCIUM cannot be held responsible. Lower order factors include the Commissioners* understanding of the inquiry process; the choice of methods for gathering and receiving information; RCIUM's in terpretation of the use of its powers; and the capabilities and biases of the Commissioners, the RCIUM staff and the technical advisors. These limit--ing factors are self-imposed, and in cases where they reduce the degree to which a particular criterion is met, there are major opportunities for im provement. The final section ("Summation") in each of Chapters IV and V discusses RCIUM's overall success in meeting the particular criterion under examination. 33 CHAPTER IV CRITERION I: SECURE A RELEVANT BODY OF ACCURATE INFORMATION Introduction As described on p. IB above, a relevant body of information consists of the identification of: - the known and possible impacts of uranium exploitation; - the risks and uncertainties associated with uranium exploitation; - the moral questions underlying the uranium issue. RCIUM's activities pertaining to criterion I are: - public sessions; - Commission research; - visits; - library network. Public Sessions Questions to be Addressed With issues that are clearly scientific in nature, the academic system of hypothesis and proof, conducted through scientific congresses and published journals, is used to arrive at scientific conclusions (Thompson 1976). However, as Weinberg (1972, pp 215, 216) notes: Where the questions raised cannot be answered from exist ing scientific knowledge or from research which can be carried out reasonably rapidly and without disproportion ate expense, • • • • the adversary procedure seems .... to be the best alternative. 3k .... this procedure • . • • has considerable merit in forcing scientists to be more honest, to say where science ends and trans-science begins, as well as to help weigh the ethical issues which underlie ...» ^societaljchoices .... And as Thompson (1976, p. 20) points out: .... technical .... accuracy, and sounder judge ment and opinion are more likely to prevail where there has been full disclosure and open challenge in an ad versary fashion .... The questions presented by the uranium issue are complex and many of them transcend science. It is argued, therefore, that the adversary process, as is adopted at RCIUM's technical hearings, provides a signif icant opportunity for arriving at a relevant body of accurate information. For such to occur, the adversary process must exhibit the following char acteristics (Thompson 1976, p. 21): (1) There must be present effective adversaries who can take advantage of disclosure requirements, assemble competing technological information and persist in the hearings through the procedures of cross-examining witnesses and presenting their own cases. (2) All affected interests must be represented by such adversaries. The questions that arise from the above are: (a) Are all affected interests represented during the process by RCIUM participants (adversaries)? (b) Are participants able to summon all relevant witnesses? (c) Is there opportunity to cross-examine all witnesses? (d) Are all relevant documents made available? (e) Is there opportunity to assemble and present competing evidence? (f) Is there sufficient time in which to study materials, and to prepare witnesses and cross-examination? (g) Are adequate resources made available to do the above? 35 The purpose of the first round of community hearings utas: "• • . . to give the Commissioners the opportunity of understanding the local issues facing these communities that could be affected by uranium mining in British Columbia." (Vancouver Express, 7 May 1979). In other words, there was opportunity to learn from community people about known and possible local impacts of uranium exploitation. Given this purpose, it is fair to ask only question (a) above of the first round community hearings. In addition, it is necessary to ask whether RCIUM devoted sufficient time to hearing local concerns, since although most affected interests may have been represented at the community hearings, they may not have been given the attention they merited. It was made apparent during the actual proceedings, that the pur pose of the first round community hearings was also: ". . • • to provide information to the Commission and to the community on mining activity • . • . " (Anthony, TP, 3, p. 33); that is, the hearings were to have an educative value (Criterion II). It is argued that the information re ceived by RCIUM from the mining companies should be challenged within an adversary format. This, in fact, did occur during the technical hearings (which are fully evaluated against criterion I), although not in the first round community hearings. Public views on the information presented in the technical hearings are to be elicited in the second round community hearings (see p.-2k above). These hearings do not qualify, therefore, for evaluation against criterion I. 36 Application of Criterion Community Hearings Were all affected interests represented? Individuals and organiz ations wishing to appear before RCIUM at a community hearing were required (1) write immediately to inform the Executive secretary, and (2) prepare a brief to be forwarded to the Executive secretary prior to their appearance before the Commission (Public Notice, Vancouver Express, 16 February 1979) There was opportunity, however, for informal presentation to be made be fore RCIUM without prior notice being given. Local people experienced a number of inconveniences concerning the timing of the community hearings. In the Kootenays, the hearings coincided with the ranchers' sprinkling season, while in the Chilcotin (Williams Lake and Vanderhoof), they coincided with the haying season. Daytime sessions were inconvenient for working people; however, evening sessions were held in all the communities visited. Several participants complained about the formality of the proceed ings adopted in the first round community hearings. For example, Mr. Poole of the Committee for the Clear Kettle Valley made the following comments (TP, 9, pp. 1282-3): We found ourselves in a physical arrangement which, in our opinion, was not designed to encourage dialogue or maximize participation. The position of the Commissioners on a raised platform facing the assemblage suggested adversaries rather than comrades in a common search for truth. The necessity of being called upon and of walking to a microphone before one could speak discouraged spontaneity and overlooked the fact that many people are more comfortable with speaking off the cuff than reading a prepared state ment. 37 . . . • What uie are getting at is[that]the process . . . . seems formal enough to intimidate some people. 'It is not surprising that such comments were made about the formality of the proceedings. For example, because the transcript reporters, whose presence itself was somewhat daunting, had to see who was speaking, the lay out illustrated in Figure 2; below was essential; that is, people could not sit between the reporters and the witness table but had to sit at some dis tance away from the Commissioners (Bemininster 19B0, interview). At Castle-gar, there was about 30 feet between the Commissioners and the audience. Additional aspects that contributed to the formality of the proceedings in cluded the following: - there were press reporters and a videotape crew at most of the community hearings; - sometimes the Commissioners sat on a raised platform; - the Commissioners dressed formally (suits and ties). FIGURE 2 LAYOUT AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS Commissioners ssion nsel nscript orters Audience LEGEND » MICROPHONE CABLE 38 Although the witnesses appearing at the first round community hear ings represented a wide range of interests (see Appendix 3), except at Williams Lake, Vanderhoof, and Fort Nelson, those participating were few in comparison to the total number of people in the audiences (see Figure 3 below), and since they were few, it is probable that they were differ ent from society as a whole (Heberlein 1976a). Thus, based on my own observations, it seemed that there were three distinct groups of parti cipants: - professional experts (mining company representatives, professors, lawyers, medical doctors and others) who were not intimidated by the setting; - private citizens who had sufficiently high motivation to participate (individuals who would be directly and severely affected by uranium mining); - individuals who were not particularly aware of the behavioural norms of the setting or, if aware, were not intimidated by these norms (their testimonies tended to be long, rambling and often impassioned). FIGURE 3 NUMBER OF WITNESSES AT THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS Location of hearing Number of people in audience at most attended session Total number of witnesses Number of witnesses as a percentage of audience size Kelowna Clearwater Kamloops Rock Creek Grand Forks Castlegar Williams Lake Vanderhoof Fort Nelson Atlin 6 100 150 200 60 150 250 100 25 80 28 22 18 16 23 26 9 7 0 17 18.67 11.00 30.00 10.67 9.20 26.00 36.00 8.75 0.00 17. 00 To summarize, the formality of the proceedings adopted at the first round community hearings, together with the timing inconveniences, poss ibly limited the Commissioners' success in hearing about local concerns. In addition those participating were probably not representative of society as a whole. Was sufficient time devoted to hearing local concerns? Judging from the following comments, the RCIUM Commissioners were more intent upon obtaining information from mining companies than upon hearing local concerns at the first round community hearings: (1) CBC's "Evening Mews", 9 June 1979. Moderator: Have the major lines of debate come out? Bates: Yes. The major reason for coming /"to the communities_7 is to understand the communities' interests. All the aspects have come out; for example, tailings, disposal, irrigation water .... Moderator: Has anything surprised you? Bates: No. Anyone who knows anything about this industry /uranium mining,/ in  British Columbia should realize what  all the concerns are /my emphasis^. (2) Ms. Stairs, RCIUM community relations consultant (I960 interview): It is my feeling that the Commissioners saw these hearings as technical sessions with a com munity component. In addition: - the mining companies presented their briefs first; - mining company representatives occupied the witness stand for considerable lengths of time relative to other witnesses (see Figure U,, page. kO, below). 4o FIGURE 4 TIME DEVOTED TO MINING COMPANIES IN THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS Location of hearing Approximate duration of hearing Cmins.) Approximate length of time devoted to mining companies (mins.) Percentage of total time devoted to mining companies Comments Kelouina 570 205 36.0 Clearwater 315 120 38.1 (Kamloops 300 85 28.3 Rock Creek 336 142 42.3 Grand Forks 290 65 22.4 ! Castlegar 430 43 i i 1 10.0 Stampede International Co. announced its decision to cease ex ploration. Williams Lake 130 0 0 No companies j appeared. Vanderhoof 140 0 0 As above. Fort Nelson - - - As above. Atlin - - - No data. At the Kelowna hearing, Dr. Bates (TP, 3, p. 35) said that the mining companies presented their briefs first since it was felt that an assess ment of the present status of exploration and possible plans for develop ment: ". • • . were essential information to get into the record at the first and earliest stage." Many participants were confused about the exact purpose of the first round community hearings. For example, at the Kelowna hearing, Mr. Chataway of the Okanagon Greenpeace Foundation expressed the concern that these sessions should not be characterized as public hearings (for which all groups have had the resources with which to prepare briefs), but rather 41 as community meetings (TP, 3, pp. 8-9). Mr. Anthony, Commission counsel. (TP, 3, p. 35) interpreted Mr. Chataway's concern as follows: .... The Qkanagan Greenpeace has some serious concerns about their ability to effectively parti cipate in these sessions. ... while the companies have had the time and the resources to make pre sentations. ... these • • • • will stand largely unchallenged by groups who may disagree with even the factual information .... and because of that .... these sessions .... may turn out .... to be more of a hearing than an informational sess ion, and the community groups not having the time and the resources could not effectively partici pate • • • • Or. Bates did not acknowledge a difference between public hearings and informational sessions. As a result, many participants understood the first round community hearings to be public hearings, and hence numerous complaints were heard about the difficulty of preparing relevant briefs for these sessions. Several participants complained that the community hearings had been convened too hastily and that they had not been able to prepare adequately (see, for example, TP, 4, p. 461). Indeed, details of the dates and locations of the first round community hearings did not appear in the press until the end of April 1979 (Charlton 1980, interview). In addition, much time was spent hearing about the diffi culties involved in obtaining relevant information. For example, at the Kelowna hearing, Mrs. Madsen of the Sierra Club and Mr. Moelaert of the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility (CCNR) each took about 30 minutes describing their struggles to obtain information on the uranium exploration activities of mining companies in British Columbia (see TP, k, pp. 421-2 and pp. 288-95 respectively). At the inaugural public meetings, Dr. Bates (TP, 1, pp. 3-4) ex plained how the Commissioners had interpreted RCIUM's terms of reference: k2 tile are committed to ensuring that all the relevant evidence is brought before us relating to the • . . • terms of reference. That does not mean that all of the many issues arising out of the nuclear fuel cycle or the use of nuclear energy are within this Commission's terms of reference. For example, it seems clear to us that the safety aspects of segments of the nuclear fuel cycle that go beyond mining and milling for uranium such as the safety of nuclear reactors. ... are not within our terms of reference. Nor are we directed to give advice .... an the comparative benefits or hazards of nuclear energy compared with different methods of energy generation. But having said that, the words in the Order-in-Council .... direct us to examine the adequacy of measures designed .... "For the protection of the environment and the public" These are very general words and we certainly have every intention of listening to any issues which any member of the public wishes to present to us bearing on the general question of public well-being and environmental protection arising out of uranium exploration and mining. Despite these words, the Commissioners listened to numerous briefs during the first round community hearings that were outside RCIUM*s terms of reference, at least as interpreted by the Commissioners. They did not point this out during the course of the hearings, but, instead, allowed people to believe that they had not narrowed the debate to the extent indicated at the inaugural meetings. Their reason for so doing, as explained by Dr. Bates (1980c, interview), was as follows: .... Ule /"the Commissioners^ had to be patient .... hearing views and questions outside our terms of refer ence if we were not to risk losing important input on matters relevant. Due to the time spent in hearing: - the briefs of mining companies; - the complaints of confused participants; - briefs that were outside the terms of reference, 1*3 less time uias spent learning about local concerns, and hence local impacts, than might have been. In addition, because of RCIUM's fairly tight schedule and frequent underestimates of the number of local people wish ing to present briefs, it was not uncommon for sessions to run late into, the night. Hasty summaries of briefs and condensed question periods re sulted.'' Technical Hearings Are all affected interests represented? The current list of major participants is included in PR No. 5 (see Appendix 1). Mr. Anthony, Commission counsel (Minutes of meeting with major participants, 1979b) explained that a major participant is a group that is active throughout the technical hearings and recognized as such either by its expertise, function, receipt of funds, or expressed intention. Fourteen of the major participants receive participant funding (see Appendix 7). The guidelines for funding are as outlined in Appendix 8 (Public Notice, Vancouver Express, 12 March 1979). RCIUM seems to have recognized all major affected interests in its support of major participants at the technical hearings. Ms. Stairs (community relations consultant) was expected to go ahead of RCIUM to help structure first round community hearings (see Appendix 2). However,, sheisp,ent%werytalitt,|a timeiinnthe communities ^before tha^hearings. Ms. Stairs* (1980, interview) explanation for this was as follows: I was only hired a few weeks before the hearings started and there wasn't much time. I had time to go to half the places two weeks before and to the rest of the places one day before. No one realized that this role /"structuring the community hearings^ was important until the hearings were right upon us. Had Ms. Stairs spent more time in the communities before the community hearings, some of the above problems might have been ameliorated (see pp.65-66 below). Are participants able to summon all relevant witnesses? More than half of the witnesses called between 25 September 1979 and 17 January 1980 have been RCIUM witnesses (27 out of a total of 50). Mr. Anthony's (1980b, interview) explanation for this is as follows: In this inquiry we have a very polarized, two-sided debate .... The Commission has to call most of the witnesses because the major participants' witnesses are just there to prove one side of the debate. We/"the Commission^have to call witnesses that will reflect both sides of the debate. On 7 August 1979, Mr. Anthony (Minutes of meeting with major parti cipants, 1979b) informed major participants that: .... the Commission has agreed to consider financing witnesses called by others. It would still be the re sponsibility of the participants to make the necessary arrangements for the witness. It is unlikely that this assistance will be provided to government or other in dependently funded organizations. Decisions on funding will be the responsibility of the Commissioners. As explained by Dr. Bates (1980c, interview), RCIUM agreed to the above in order: ". . . . to save the participants' money." Dr. Bates (1980c, interview) maintains that the criterion used by the Commissioners in decisions on funding is that the witness has "additional, unpublished material" to present to RCIUM. According to many major participants, RCIUM generally pays only for those witnesses that the Commissioners consider to have a high level of technical expertise (Boyce 1979, inter view; Minutes of first and second Kelowna meetings of participants, 1979; Clark 1980, interview). Major participants pay for the remaining witnesses if they wish to hear from them still and if they have sufficient funds. From time to time, however, RCIUM has funded witnesses who are not tech nical experts but have practical experience that is of relevance to RCIUM; for example, Mr. B. Newell of the Pulp, Paper and Woodworkers of Canada who has union experience (Culbert 19B0g, interview). 45 To obtain an idea of major participants* activity in summoning relevant witnesses, I questioned representatives of six major partici pant groups (see Appendix 9, column I). Their responses are presented in column II of Appendix 9. With the exception of Rexspar's witnesses, almost all the witnesses referred to in column II of Appendix 9 are being paid for by RCIUM (Culbert 19BDi, interview). In total, because of the polarized nature of the uranium issue, RCIUM has decided to call in most of the witnesses. RCIUM pays for witnesses identified by major participant groups that lack independent funds if the Commissioners are satisfied that such witnesses have useful, additional information for RCIUM. Is there opportunity to cross-examine all witnesses? Certainly, the opportunity exists for major participants to cross-examine witnesses called by others. Column III of Appendix 9 describes the way in which six major participants make use of this opportunity. It seems that most of them use cross-examination to bring out their individual cases and to determine the credibility of witnesses. In contrast, Mr. Anthony (1980b, interview) uses cross examination: - to obtain more information from a witness; - to test the accuracy of evidence; - sometimes, to determine a witness* reaction tD conflicting evidence. At the beginning of the technical hearings, Mr. Anthony told the major participants not to rely on the order of witnesses being as it is laid out in the time-table (Minutes of meeting with major participants, 1979a). Thus the Commissioners had agreed to the major participants* almost unanimous request that there be no time limit on cross-examination of witnesses; hence, in cases where the crass-examination of evidence takes longer than the time provided for in the technical hearings 46 schedule, the witnesses not heard from are re-scheduled to appear during the "overflow" hearings in February 19B0, and, if necessary, precedence is given to witnesses who have to travel great distances to appear before RCIUM (Memorandum to major participants, 1979). Pursuant to PR No. 1, B.6.2 (see Appendix 1), RCIUM may seek inform ation from parties without them appearing at a hearing. Hence, it is possible that some information is obtained by RCIUM from witnesses who are not cross-examined. The reason for this ruling is as follows. In British Columbia, a number of mining companies are interested in mining uranium. A few of these companies have fairly advanced proposals; for example, Norcen Energy Resources Limited. These companies may give information to RCIUM only if it is kept confidential since otherwise they might lose their competitive advantage. The .problem!is, as explained by Mr. Anthony (19813d, interview) jthat: .... the Commission is involved in an on-going competitive field. Lde are looking into an industry, not just one company .... The Commission regarded it /the uranium issued as broader than just one or two companies and tried to get information from all other companies too. Mr. Paterson, legal counsel for CCU, does not regard the issue as being very much broader than just one company (Norcen). His opinion is that RCIUM is dealing with the one proposed operating uranium mine in British Columbia for which there is already a contract signed for deliv ery of the mineral (see p. 8 above and TP, 48, p. 8423). Mr. Paterson would like RCIUM to focus its energies on Norcen's Blizzard property and demand full public disclosure of all relevant information from this company. However, RCIUM's role is to recommend standards for uranium mining throughout British Columbia. As Dr. Bates (TP, 2, p. 12) has said: "Our task is to examine all of the deposits in British Columbia kl and consider the particular issues raised by each so that the actual mining begins." If RCIUM mere to concentrate solely on Moreen's pro posal, it would run the risk of being able to make only specific recom mendations and not general ones. Often the Commissioners have told major participants to condense their cross-examination because time is so short (see, for example, TP, 56, p. 10D25 and 59, pp. 10689-90). This "hurrying" reduces the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses. It is postulated that the time shortages are the result of the following factors: (a) some of the witnesses take a long time to answer during cross-examination by major participants; (b) time is wasted with irrelevant and/or repititious cross-examination; (c) the Commissioners are in a hurry to finish. (a) Delays in answering. Ms. Boggild, legal counsel for LdCELA, (Vancouver Cable ID's "Nuclear Crossroads", 26 November 1979),has noted that: There's been a lot of cross-examination by major participants who are against uranium mining. But it's the proponents who are taking up the time—they take a long time to answer. Instances of such answering delays are documented by Ms. Konstantynowicz in her reports on RCIUM to AECL. For example: It was apparent .... that the panel /from the Department of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Re-sources./was ill-equipped for most of the questioning. They hesitated and paused in answering questions and quite often gave contradictory answers ... many of the questions were not clearly answered. (Report No. 1, 11 October 1979). Mr. Anthony's (1980c, interview) opinion on the above is that the problem can be overcome by the way questions are posed, by which he meant that kB sometimes witnesses are asked questions that would be better directed towards other witnesses who have the relevant expertise. It is the role of the Commissioner who is acting as chairman at a particular session (not always Dr. Bates) to maintain careful control over unnecessary repitition or irrelevant questioning. However, as Ms. Rounthwaite, legal counsel for EAAUM (1980b, interview)^pointed out, the Commissioners do not do this very rigorously. It is suggested that this is because the Commissioners possess, between them, very little legal experience. Mr. Raudsepp does have a fair amount of experience in chair ing legal procedures (see p. 9 above). However, based on my own observ ations and calculations, he presided over the proceedings on only about 12 per cent of the total number of hearing days between 25 September 1979 and 16 January 1980 inclusive, the corresponding percentages for Dr. Bates and Dr. Murray being &k and 2k respectively. On those occasions that he did preside, Mr. Raudsepp imposed rigorous rules of relevancy and proved himself to be the most willing of the Commissioners to rule questioners out of order (see, for example, TP, 23, pp. 2991, 3048-50 and 26, pp. 3636-7, 3780-1). (b) Time wasted in cross-examination. On 13 December 1979, Mr. Anthony (Minutes of meeting with major participants, 1979c) urged major participants to adopt what he called the "so what test" to cross-examin ation. This test, as explained by Terral (1980) is: .... a useful test, a way of keeping your eye on the target and reminding yourself what the basic issues are .... It goes something like this: suppose you ask your question, and sup pose you get your answer. Suppose you get the answer you expected. So what? What does it really mean? What does it matter? And, as Mr. Anthony (1980c, interview) added: "Does it help you make your case or advance the knowledge of the Commission in a meaningful 49 way?" Mr. Anthony's concern was that a lot of the major participants' cross-examination is irrelevant; by which he meant that it is not draw ing out much additional information. Or. Switzer of Rexspar (I960, interview) expressed the opinion that RCIUM has identified too many major participants with the result that a great deal of time is wasted with repititious cross-examination. But, as noted above, (p. 48), it is the chairman's responsibility to keep a check on unnecessary repitition. Based on my own observations and calculations: - 50 to 70 per cent of the major participants are in attendance at any given technical session; - less than half of the major participants cross-examine any given witness (see Appendix 10). Appendix 10 indicates that the same few major participants (BCMA, BCCUCC, UBCIC, SKID, bJCELA and EAAUM) undertake the bulk of the cross-examination. These participants each reflect different concerns (with the exception of UiCELA and EAAUM which cross-examined the same witness in just two cases out of the ten exampled in Appendix 10); hence it is unlikely that there is much overlap in cross-examination. Indeed, as Mr. Culbert, RCIUM research coordinator (1980h, interview),remarked, there is only about 15 to 20 per cent overlap in the questions posed by major partici pants, and since the groups involved question from different perspectives additional information is sometimes brought out. Both Mr. Rogers of UBCIC (1980d, interview) and Mrs. Boyce of BCCUCC (1980c, interview) agreed, but painted out that there was more overlap at the beginning of the tech nical hearings than there was later on. It is Mr. Culbert's (1980h, interview) impression that the major participants cooperate on a fairly regular basis and thereby consider ably reduce the length of RCIUM. Some of the major participants were 50 meeting once a week at the beginning of the technical hearings to discuss strategy and to ensure that all angles were being covered between them (Boggild 1980b, interview). These meetings broke down soon after they started since they involved too much work and the groups found it easier to work alone (Rogers 1980d, interview). Some major participants con tinue to meet on a regular basis to discuss general problems, such as the areas that need more attention in cross-examination (Boggild 1980, interview)• (c) Hurrying to finish. Despite Dr. Bates (1979, speech) having said that a government is not permitted to put a time limit on a commiss ion of inquiry, the Commissioners seem to be in a hurry to finish. It is hard to determine exactly why this is the case. Their reasons for the 27 June 1980 deadline on the technical hearings, as is illustrated by the following extract from the minutes of a meeting with major parti cipants (1980), are somewhat confused: Lois Boyce (United Church) questioned the • • • • deadline asking why it existed and why couldn't technical hearings not continue in the Fall? .... .... Jim Murray suggested it was difficult to get wit nesses to come in the summer. Lois Boyce asked again why hearings could not continue in the Fall. It appears that there is a predetermined mould rather than fitting the schedule to the job that must be done. Jim Murray said the Commissioners had not discussed it in detail but that the difficulty of obtaining additional funding was an important factor. Cliff Stainsby (EAAUM) asked why it was not possible to agree to end the Commission when the job is done. Walter Raudsepp pointed out that the Commissioners did have some other commitments and a number of factors had to be considerd. 51 The feeling of several major participants is that the Commissioners* other commitments are sometimes taking priority. This is not meant to be interpreted as a criticism of the Commissioners. Thus, it has to be realized that they have been drawn away from their normal commitments and that RCIUM is taking longer than originally was expected. Hence, they are under a great deal of pressure and seem to have adopted a personal deadline date (Thompson 1980c, interview). Concerning Phases VI to X, ten major participant groups are happy with the 27 June 1980 deadline providing a minimum of 12 more hearing days are added to the schedule, these groups being: UBCIC, BCCUCC, BCMA, CCU, JCUTH, UCELA, CCNR (Vancouver and Kelowna), YEA and CCBIM. Their concern is that at least 12 additional hearing days are required if all the witnesses scheduled for Phases VI to X are to be accommodated (Min utes of meeting with major participants, 1980). To summarize, most of the major participants interviewed use cross-examination to bring out their individual cases and to determine the credibility of witnesses. In contrast, Commission counsel uses cross-examination to draw out further information from witnesses. Because RCIUM is looking into an on-going competitive field, and because its task is to make general, as well as specific, recommendations, it is conceivable that RCIUM is receiving information in confidence that is not cross-examined. Since RCIUM is short of time, there is less opportunity to cross-examine witnesses than might otherwise be the case. In large part, the time constraints seem to be due to the 27 June 1980 deadline on the technical hearings. Probably, this deadline will prevent RCIUM from hearing all witnesses. In part, the time shortages are the result of 52 inadequate chairing of the technical sessions; the shortages do not appear to be caused by overlap in cross-examination by major participants. Are all relevant documents made available: As described on pp. 251-30 above, the RCIUM library contains lists of documents held by the British Columbia government, the federal government, various boards and agencies, major participants, and RCIUM, that are relevant to the subject matter before RCIUM. These lists, as Mr. Anthony (1979b, interview) re marked: ". . . . may have inadvertently been left incomplete." The pro blem for Mr. Paterson, legal counsel for CCU (19B0, interview), is that he lacks the time to file all relevant documents with RCIUM. Several other participants expressed the same concern. As outlined in PR No. 1, B.4.1 (see Appendix 1), each major parti cipant, whether presenting evidence him/herself or calling expert wit nesses on his/her behalf, is required to file with RCIUM a detailed statement of his/her evidence, together with a list of any reports, studies or other documents to which the witness may refer, and biograph ical notes on the witness (PR No. 1, B.4.1). This information is dis tributed to all major participants. Quite possibly, as in the above case, the lists of documents are not always complete. Under the British Columbia Public Inquiries Act, the Commissioners have the power to summon witnesses and to call for the production of documents (s.10). As explained by Mr. Anthony (TP, 50, pp. 8B2B-29): .... a subpoena .... is a tool of coercion .... forcing a witness to attend before the tribunal and re quiring him, when he attends to bring all relevant docu ments with him. In other words, you find out about the documents only when the witness appears. Mr. Anthony (1979b, interview) maintains that: 53 Forcing someone to appear is not the best may of getting information since a forced witness will not be particularly forthcoming with information. The sub poena is overrated—it is just the ultimate weapon. It is important to have it because it means that you can always tell reluctant people that they can be subpoenaed—then they usually cooperate. Mr. Anthony (1979b, interview) has told major participants that they must try to obtain documents themselves. If they cannot, they must contact him and he will try. If he finds difficulties, RCIUM will issue a subpoena. A Task Force representing 21 funded RCIUM participants (1979, letter) expressed the concern that this procedure is too time consuming in practice and the PR No. 1, B.7.1 (see Appendix 1) should be amended as follows: Subpoenas should be issued by the Commission upon application by any participant provided such participant has demonstrated that the evidence of the witness or the document is relevant to the Terms of Reference of the Commission. This means that the Commission will issue a subpoena on request, in accordance with normal court procedure; relevancy being the only consideration. Mr. Anthony's (1980c, interview) reply to the above was that while in court a party can be punished by having costs awarded against him for abuse of the subpoena power; there is no such control in inquiries. But, Dr. Thompson, Commissioner of the West Coast Oil Ports Inquiry (1980c, interview), agrees with the Task Force's request: The Commission's rule £%%1.U goes too far. It puts the onus on major participants to demon strate relevancy of a document or witness. This isn't fair. The subpoena should be issued rout inely unless the Commission has a goad reason not to allow this—such a refusal would have to be argued and would require a ruling. In other words, RCIUM should have the right to refuse the subpoena if it felt this power was being abused, but the onus should then be on 54 RCIUM to justify such a refusal. This obviates Mr, Anthony's concern above. Some of the major participants claim that Mr, Anthony is giving very conservative advice to RCIUM concerning the use of its powers (Roberts 1979, interview; Paterson I960, interview), Mr. Paterson (1980, interview) believes that: The subpoena is a normal way of getting inform ation. Mr. Anthony's approach is cooperation. But government departments aren't going to look through all their information just because the Commission asks them to. You have to go in and get it, using the subpoena to find out what's available—and you continue to use the subpoena power if you don't get what you wanted the first time around. But,?as noted above (p. 53), Mr. Anthony does not adhere to the use of the subpoena power as a tool of preliminary discovery. He claims that PR Wo. 1, B.3.1, B.3.2 and B.4.1 (see Appendix 1) allow for the collect ion by RCIUM of all relevant documents (Anthony 1980c, interview). Dr. Thompson (1980c, interview),however, acknowledges the use of subpoena for discovery, although he concedes that: • ... it is extremely difficult to get information if you don't know what you're looking for .... If someone is determined to hide something and if you don't know that it exists, it's really hard to get it. Perhaps, Mr. Anthony is being wise in not using the subpoena to find out what information exists, especially since a favourite tactic is to respond to a subpoena with an avalanche of irrele vant paper. •n 30 October 1979, Mr. Paterson suggested that RCIUM use its subpoena power to find out what documents are in the hands of relevant government agencies and mining companies (TP, 32, pp. 4896-8). Mr. Anthony's reply to Mr. Paterson was that the subpoena had not been necessary thus far, but, should major participants demand one, he would support them (TP, 32, pp. 4899-4901). On 11 December 1979, Mr. Paterson 55 (TP, 48, p. 8414) made a request of RCIUM, on the behalf of JCUTH, that a subpoena be issued to Norcen to compel it to produce certain documents. And on 17 January 1980, ACA requested the subpoena be issued to developers of a northern British Columbia molybdenum mine (Placer Development Limited) to appear at the hearings (TP, 58, p. 10297). RCIUM turned down both these requests since the companies agreed to provide the information voluntarily. As Mrs. Boyce of BCCUCC (1980b, interview) remarked, although RCIUM has not issued a subpoena: "It has not been denied any witnesses or documents that it went after." RCIUM's subpoena powers are limited because RCIUM is a provincial rather than a federal inquiry. As Mr. Anthony (1979c, interview) explained: The Commission can subpoena anything or anybody in B.C.—that's no problem. But there are problems if it wants to subpoena from another jurisdiction. It would have to go to B.C. Supreme Court which might issue a court order. I then'take this to..,., for example, _ the Ontario Court which may go along with the order. Quite possibly, Mr. Anthony would not consider going to such lengths to obtain an out-of-province witness or document, especially since: "The entire Commission would have to go to Ottawa /or wherever.7 to hear the witness. He can't be ordered to come to B.C." (Anthony 1979c, inter view). Pursuant to PR No. 1, B.G.3o(see Appendix 1), RCIUM may retain certain privileged information in confidence. Such information is not subjected to cross-examination. The reason for this ruling is the same as that for PR No. 1, B.6.2 (see p*.46 above). The Task Force of funded participants (1979, letter) made the following comments about the ruling on privilege: tile recognize that a claim of privilege could be made during the course of the hearings, tiie believe that the criteria to be applied to any such claim should be those applied in the British Columbia courts and estab lished in statute or common law. We would ask that you 56 announce your:adoption of these criteria well before the hearings commence. We further suggest that you rule that any appli cation for privilege be made in a public hearing, on reasonable notice to all major participants, subject to submissions by all major participants, and that the Commission announce its ruling with reasons at a public hearing. These demands have been met by RCIUM in the two particular in stances that the question of privilege came into play. The first of these instances concerned D.G. Leighton and Associates' document on young uranium deposits; the second concerned Norcen's contract with Korea Electric Company (see p. 6 above). Each company announced, in the hearings, that it had the information but insisted on its confidentiality. Hence, RCIUM retained the information in confidence but, later, following requests from major participants, released D.G..Leighton's document and Norcen's contract to RCIUM, although some of the financial aspects of the . contract were made available only to members of RCIUM. Mr. Anthony (19S0d, interview) assured me that the financial aspects of Norcen's contract is the only item held in confidence by RCIUM. In total, the lists of documents held by major participants and RCIUM, and the lists of documents referred to in witnesses' statements of evi dence, may not always be complete, probably because of time constraints. Mr. Anthony's interpretation of the subpoena power is time consuming in practice and puts the onus on major participants to demonstrate relevancy of a witness or document. Although Mr. Anthony does not adhere to the use of subpoena for discovery, which is perhaps justifiable, RCIUM has not been denied any witness or document that it has asked for. It is unlikely, however, that RCIUM would try to subpoena an out-of-province witness or document because of the difficulties and expense involved. 57 Because RCIUM is involved in an on-going competitive field, it may have to retain certain information in confidence. This appears to have occurred in just one minor instance. Is there opportunity to assemble and present competing evidence? A number of major participant groups are performing, or have completed, studies for RCIUM. I questioned six groups about their studies. Their responses are outlined in Column IV of Appendix 9. Apart from UBCICs study on the Atlin area, all the studies described are for presentation during the technical hearings; hence there is opportunity to cross-exam ine the authors of these studies. Is there sufficient time? In accordance with PR Wo. 1, B.4.1 (see Appendix 1), each major participant is given two weeks in which to review and to prepare cross-examination on the evidence to be presented in any one phase. On 13 November 1979, Mr. Anthony (Minutes of meeting with major participants, 1979c) informed major participants that each state ment of evidence, together with the list of reports, studies or documents to which the witness may refer or upon which he/she may rely and the biographical note on the witness, must be circulated three weeks in advance instead of two. This, as Ms. Boggild, legal counsel for UCELA (1980, interview);,remarked, puts a great deal of pressure on major parti cipants who are pressed for resources, but as Mr. Hodge, RCIUM research coordinator (1980d, interview);,explained, allows more time for the pre paration of cross-examination. Frequently, the RCIUM research coordinators feel pressed for time (Hodge 1980b, interview). This is because RCIUM has called so many witnesses (see p. kk above) and hence a great deal of time is spent in helping witnesses prepare testimony; relatively little time is left to 58 prepare cross-examination (Culbert 1980d, interview). Due to time con straints, the effectiveness of cross-examination prepared by the research coordinators for Commission counsel varies. As Mr. Hodge (1980b, inter view) commented: Sometimes our cross-examination is terrible. Some times, given the time constraints, we do rather well. There are only two or three sets of cross-examination that we felt satisfied with. The RCIUM research coordinators' work with RCIUM witnesses in the preparation of testimonies, in that they review the drafts of the state ments of evidence and then advise the witnesses as to what revisions, if any, are required. RCIUM's technical advisors also review briefs. The objective is to ensure that the testimonies address the questions that RCIUM is concerned with. However, as noted by Mr. Hodge (1980d, interview): In some cases, drafts are not submitted on time and there is no time to work with them. Sometimes they are submitted in plenty of time. Reviewing drafts was moderately successful in Phases I to VI. In Phase VII (Worker and Public Health), however, there were diffi culties; - the subject material was out of depth for the research coordinators; - most of the medical people come from far away and there was insufficient time to go over all their briefs. All major participants interviewed (see column I of Appendix 9), except Dr. Switzer of Rexspar, experience time constraints. This is because they review, and perhaps prepare cross-examination on, the state ments of evidence of so many Commission witnesses. As Mr. Paterson (1980, interview) pointed out: "This puts a considerable burden on major parti cipants." This burden is such that the thoroughness with which major participants review evidence is not always what it could be (see column 59 V of Appendix 9). The time constraints do not seem to heed major parti cipants in the extent to which they work with their own witnesses in preparing testimony (see column VI of Appendix 9). Or, Switzer (I960, interview) is not pressed for time because: - Rexspar's witnesses are people who are familiar with Rexspar's case and do not have to be helped in preparing testimony; - very few of the other witnesses are saying things that are critical to Rexspar's position (hence Dr, Switzer questions very few witnesses). To summarize, the RCIUM research coordinators are pressed for time because they have so many witnesses to prepare. This reduces the effect iveness of cross-examination prepared for Commission counsel. In add ition, the research coordinators do not always have sufficient time to work with RCIUM witnesses' draft statements; for example,because some drafts are submitted late. All major participants interviewed, except Dr. Switzer, experience time constraints because they have to review, and perhaps prepare cross-examination on^he statements of evidence of all Commission witnesses. The result is that the effectiveness of cross-examination by major participants is reduced. Are sufficient resources made available? The Public Notice appear ing in the Vancouver Express on 12 March 1979 (see Appendix 8) announced that RCIUM had been provided with limited funds (875,000) to assist interest groups in the preparation of briefs. RCIUM divided this first round of funding between 18 groups (see Appendix 7). The money was received at the end of June 1979. At a community hearing in June 1979, Dr. Bates (TP, 9, pp. 1125-6) made the following announcement: 60 You may have heard that we requested additional money to help public input into this inquiry and I uas very glad • ... to learn . • . . that the Cabinet has voted us an additional hundred and fifty thousand dollars. This .... means that there is a sizeable sum of money now available for us to help organize .... groups .... present evidence to the Commission .... This second allotment of funds was divided between 21 groups (see Appen dix 7); it was not distributed until August 1979. In reaction to the delay in the receipt of participant funding, the Task Force of funded participants (1979, letter) demanded that: .... ^technical^7 hearings . ... not commence before 90 days after actual receipt of additional funds • ... In any event, the commencement date of the .... technical hearings is not to take place until November 1st, 1979. Its reason was that additional time is required for: - cash outlays required for rental of premises, payment of staff, and preparation of documents. - receiving information as to which witnesses will be called by the /Commission7 in contrast to those that will be called by the participants. Thus, as noted by Schmitt (1979, p. 3), for major participants that lack independent financial assistance, time and money shortages interrelate, since: "Only when the money has been allocated will the concerned groups be in a position to realistically design their strategies and develop their submissions." Dr. Bates' (1979a, letter) response to the demands of the Task Force was as follows: .... I do not think it entirely reasonable that you should require there be a clear 90 days between the start of technical hearings and the receiptjjf the additional funds .... we /the Commissions are not responsible for sending out the actual cheques and therefore, we can not be held responsible for any delay which occurs between our recommendations being sent to the Government and the actual money becoming available. As is clear from Appendix 7, none of the major participants received the amount that they requested; at least, not in the first allotment. For 61 example, EAAUM requested $32,900 per month plus initial funding of $5500 (see Appendix 11). EAAUM has received a total of $45,000 for July 1979 to January 1980 inclusive. This amount represents about $6,400 per month, approximately one-fifth of the initial request. Mr. Stainsby of EAAUM (1979, interview) made the point that this amount does not permit full participation in RCIUM. But, as Mr. Anthony (1980c, interview) noted, no participant group, not even RCIUM, applied for two full time lawyers, and RCIUM is paying for the communication of information to the communities. In other words, EAAUM deliberately overstated its budget. However, judging from the minutes of the second Kelowna participants' meeting (1979), EAAUM sincerely believed, for example, that there was too much work for one lawyer to handle. On 30 October 1979, a large number of major participants requested that the hearings be expanded to a total of 96 days (see p. 24 above) and that the provincial government be asked for additional participant funding (TP, 35, p. 5569). The Commissioners agreed to seek additional funds. These, however, if approved, would not be for new research of new participants (TP, 36, pp. 5791-2). Wo word had been received from the government regarding the additional funds by the end of January 1980. Hence, at this time, groups did not know how much money they would be receiving in the third allotment (Charlten 1980, interview). As is evident from columns II, IV and V of Appendix 9, all the major participants interviewed, except Dr. Switzer (Rexspar), Mr. Rogers (UBCIC), and Dr. Young (BCMA), complained of a shortage of funds. This limits their ability to bring in witnesses of their choice; to perform independent studies; to thoroughly review the evidencejand to prepare cross-examination. 62 Mining companies, while not receiving participant funding, do have the benefit of Section 2D(l)(cc) of the Income Tax Act (R.S.B.C. 1961, c.l): 20.(1) Notwithstanding paragraphs 18(1) (a), (b) and (h), in computing a taxpayer's income for a taxation year from a business or property, there may be deducted such of the fallowing amounts as are wholly applicable to that source or such part of the following amounts as may reasonable be re garded as applicable thereto: .... (cc) an amount paid by the taxpayer in the year as of on account of expenses incurred by him in making any representation relating to a business carried on by him, (1) to the government of a country, province or state or to a municipal or public body per forming a function of government in Canada .... Clearly, the companies' expenses in relations to RCIUM are deductable from taxable income since RCIUM is a: "public body performing a function of government." (Schmitt 1979). Given that Rexspar can expect to make about $200 million from development of its Birch Island deposit (UID 1), and in light of the above tax deduction, I fail to see how Dr. Switzer can justify his complaints about a lack of financial resources: the potential gains far outweigh the costs. Neither Mr. Rogers (UBCIC) nor Dr. Young (BCMA) mentioned money as a constraint. However, both the UBCIC and BCMA are large organizations and have other funds to draw upon. But as Mr. Rogers (1980c, interview) pointed out: Without participant funding we /UBCIC/ would not have been involved in the Inquiry. I felt that the money we received was adequate except that it wouldn't have been sufficient for research. However, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development gave us funding assistance for our Atlin and Penticton studies. Dr. Young has offered his services free of charge to BCMA for the duration of RCIUM (Kansky 1980, interview). 63 In general, the amount of funding allocated to major participants determines their access to technical expertise. On questioning six major participants about provision of technical assistance during pre paration of cross-examination, I obtained the responses presented in column VII of Appendix 9. Possibly, the complaints of various major participants about fund ing shortages arise from the following factors: (a) The Commission has spread the available government participant  funding too thinly. Certainly, the funded major participants interviewed (Mr. Rogers, Ms. Raunthwaite and Mrs. Boyce; see column I of Appendix 9) merit the funds they receive since they reflect different concerns and therefore cross-examine from different perspectives, this sometimes add ing to RCIUM's acquisition of relevant information. However, given that many of the other funded major participants have similar concerns to those interviewed (for example, the interests of Greenpeace parallel those of EAAUM, and the concerns of CCNR are similar to those of BCCUCC), RCIUM may have done better had it insisted that more of the interest groups band together (as did three environmental groups to form EAAUM). Each coalition thus formed would then have a sizeable allowance and would be able to do more with it (money saved on legal fees, office rental pay ments, and so on, could be used to bring in additional witnesses, hire more technical expertise and perform more studies). (b) The funding is Inadequate however it is distributed. If the avail able participant funding ($225,000) had been divided between five coal itions, each coalition would have received $45,000, assuming that the money was split equally. EAAUM, however, which received $45,000 (see Appendix 7), finds that this amount allows for its participation only in the Environmental Impact Phase (see column V of Appendix 9). To have 64 participated in all phases, and hence to have questioned all witnesses from an environmental perspective, would have required at least five times as much funding. To have facilitated the participation throughout RCIUM of five funded coalitions would have necessitated, therefore, $1,250,000. But only $225,000 was made available (see Appendix 7). Neither the RCIUM research coordinators nor Commission counsel have referred to a shortage of funds, but then RCIUM has its own budget estim ated at $2 million (The Vancouver Sun, 28 February I960). In summary, the delays in the receipt of participant funding incon venience major participants, many of whom complain about their monies being inadequate. Lack of funds limits the ability of major participants to bring in witnesses of their choice; to perform studies; to thoroughly review evidence and to prepare cross-examination; and to hire technical assistance. It seems that the funding shortages for major participants arise from two factors. First, the available funds are spread too thinly; and second, the funds are insufficient anyway. RCIUM staff do not appear to be short of funds. Limiting Factors Community Hearings All the factors operating in the first round community hearings to limit RCIUM's success in learning about community impacts from local people appear to be of the lower order (see p. 32 above). The most significant factor seems to be the choice of public hear ings over other mechanisms of public involvement. Essentially, repre sentation at public hearings tends to be biased (Heberlein 1976a). Fur thermore, most people at a public hearing do not participate if the pro ceedings are too formal. As Heberlein (1976b, p. IB) notes: " ... • 65 the structural format of communication which is necessary at large meet ings inhibits information transfer." Public hearings, however, do serve to transmit information from a project proponent to the public, and, in the case of RCIUM, also to the Commissioners. It appears that the RCIUM Commissioners viewed the first round com munity hearings predominantly as technical sessions since mining companies were given priority over local people. In addition, because Dr. Bates con fused some participants about the purpose of these hearings, much time was spent listening to people's complaints about not being able to prepare adequately. Furthermore, numerous briefs were heard that were outside RCIUM's terms of reference. Overall, less was learnt about local impacts than might have been. Due to timing inconveniences, it is conceivable that agricultural interests were underrepresented in the Kootenays and the Chilcotin. In addition, and probably because RCIUM had not appreciated the existence of such a high level of interest in the uranium issue, the numbers of witnesses wishing to appear at many of the hearings were underestimated and the schedule was too tight. Had the Commissioners appreciated the importance of a community relations consultant sooner than they did, the above factors might have been less significant. Thus Ms. Stairs, had she had more time in the communities, could have: - ensured, perhaps, the participation in the hearings of more private citizens (possibly, by convincing people that their feelings about uranium mining were important); - ensured, perhaps, a more representative range of parti cipants at Williams Lake, Vanderhoof and Fort Nelson; - given potential participants a clearer idea of what the Commissioners wanted to learn from them; - explained how the Commissioners had interpreted their terms of reference; 66 - investigated the level of interest in each community prior to the drawing-up of the hearings schedule. Technical Hearings Both higher and lower order factors operate in the technical hear ings to limit RCIUM's success in securing a relevant body of accurate information. Since RCIUM calls most of the witnesses, both the RCIUM research coordinators and many major participants are pressed for time; the former because they have to prepare so many RCIUM witnesses, and the latter because they have to review the statements of evidence of all these witnesses. The overall result is that the effectiveness of cross-examination is reduced. In addition, the Commission research coordinators are less able to work with witnesses and ensure that all witnesses' drafts are submitted on time. Mr. Anthony maintains that the nature of the uranium issue is such that RCIUM has to bring in most of the witnesses since its witnesses will reflect both sides of the debate (see p. kk above). It is unlikely, however, that an expert on any aspect of uranium exploitation can take a neutral position on the uranium issue. Hence, RCIUM's interpretation of its role (lower order factor) rather than the nature of the issue (higher order factor) is limiting the effectiveness of cross-examination. The nature of the uranium issue is a limiting factor, but in a diff erent sense. Thus, because RCIUM is looking into an on-going, competitive field, the only way that it can obtain a full body of relevant information may be to accept certain types of information in confidence. Such inform ation is not tested by cross-examination and ,therefore, may not be accur ate. In addition, the nature of the issue is such that there is less cross-examination to bring out further information from witnesses that might otherwise be the case. Most major participants put a great deal of 67 effort during cross-examination into establishing their particular cases and into determining the credibility of witnesses who do not support their cases. There is nothing unusual or unexpected about this. As Dr. Thompson (1980c, interview) pointed out: "The nation that interveners will be impartial searches for truth is unrealistic." Since the amount of government funding for major participants in RCIUM is so small (higher order factor) and because RCIUM has over-frac-tionalized it (lower order factor), major participants are limited in their ability: - to bring in witnesses independently of RCIUM; - to hire technical expertise; - to conduct studies; - to thoroughly review evidence and prepare cross-examination. In addition, delays in the distribution of funds (higher order factor) limit the effectiveness of funded groups* participation in RCIUM. The Commissioners' subpoena powers are limited because RCIUM was established under the British Columbia Public Inquiries Act rather than under the federal Inquiries Act (see p. 55 above). Due to the difficulty and expense involved (higher order limiting factor), it is unlikely that RCIUM would go to the trouble of subpoenaing an out-of-province witness. Mr. Anthony's interpretation of the subpoena power (lower order limiting factor) is time-consuming in practice and puts the onus on major participants to demonstrate relevancy of a witness or document. The interpretation, however, has proved to be successful, and is, perhaps, a wise one given that it is very hard to get information from someone who has something to hide. The Commissioners' other commitments may well be determining the 27 June 19S0 deadline on the technical hearings schedule. It is also 6a plausible that the government has established an arbitrary reporting time-frame on RCIUM. While the former factor is partly higher order, partly lower order (the Commissioners can only be expected to go so far in reducing their other commitments), the second factor is entirely higher order in nature. The final limiting factor concerns chairmanship of the technical sessions. It appears that the Commissioners do not chair the proceedings rigorously enough. As a result, more irrelevant and repititious question ing occurs than would otherwise be the case. It is suggested that in efficient chairing is a lower order rather than a higher order factor, given that the Commissioners could do a better job, perhaps by having Mr. Raudsepp chair more frequently or by having procedural rules of relevancy included in the Preliminary Rulings. Commission Research questions to be Addressed Research conducted or authorized by RCIUM may contribute to the acquisition of a relevant body of accurate information. This research, if it is original, should be subjected to the adversary process. Hence, the following questions must be addressed in the evaluation of the re search activities against criterion I: (a) Is the research relevant to RCIUM's terms of reference? (b) If it is original research, is it subjected to the adversary process? If the response to (b) above is affirmative, the evaluation of the tech nical hearings against criterion I will indicate how thorough is the re view of RCIUM's research activities. 69 Application of Criterion Is the research relevant? The five RCIUM research projects (see p. 25 above) mere decided upon by the Commissioners while they were review ing the issues for the first time (Bates 1979, interview). They appear to reflect the interests of the Commissioners, except perhaps, for the last one (study of natural radioactivity in biological pathways). Be cause of their very general nature, it is unlikely that they would have contributed to RCIUM's acquisition of a relevant body of information. As Dr. Thompson (1980a, interview) remarked, their termination (see p. 25 above) was quite predictable: r:' TAG's project failed .... so too did those of WAG /Northern Assessment Group^3 funded by Justice Berger for the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. NAG went off on its own trip. It had no idea how the information it col lected would be used in the Inquiry or of its relevance. A lot of time and money was wasted on this. The more recently authorized research studies are very specific in focus (see p. 2;5 above). They were decided upon by the RCIUM research coordinators and technical advisors, in conjunction with the Commiss ioners. They serve to get answers to particular questions that RCIUM has identified as being relevant to its terms of reference (Culbert 1980h, interview). Is the research subjected to the adversary process? The author ized research studies, at least those that are original, are for present ation at a technical hearing (Culbert 1980e, interview). The opportunity exists, therefore, to cross-examine the authors of each commissioned research project. Limiting Factors Limiting factors here appear to be the Commissioners' understand ing of how TAG's research projects would have been relevant to RCIUM's 70 terms of reference and the ability of the RCIUM research coordinators and technical advisors to identify questions that RCIUM requires answer ing. While the former factor is entirely second order in nature, the latter factor is partly first order, partly second order. Thus, even if RCIUM had access to infinite funds such that it could afford to hire all the expertise that it needed, the required expertise may not always, be available at the right time. RCIUM does not have infinite funds but, perhaps, could have put more money into hiring relevant expertise. Visits Questions to be Addressed The Commissioners undertook visits to uranium mines in order to acquaint themselves with contemporary problems (see p. 26 above). Not having seen a uranium mine before, it is understandable that they should wish to visit one or two; this, no doubt, would save them some embarrass ment at a later stage. Indeed, as Commissioner of the West Coast Oil Port quiry (WCOPI), Dr. Thompson toured several large oil tankers before holding public hearing. His rationale for so doing was that he might better understand and interpret the testimony he was later to hear (Thomp son 1980b, interview). As described below (see pp. 72-3), it seems that the Commissioners collected some relevant information on their uranium mine visits. Since they were selected because of their expertise, they are surely quite competent to assess the accuracy of such information, and quite justifi ably, therefore, can make use of this information in drawing conclusions. Hence, the only question to be addressed in the evaluation of the uranium mine visits against criterion I is: "How much relevant information did the Commissioners collect from their visits to uranium mines?" 71 The Commissioners visited uranium deposits in British Columbia in order to learn the exact nature of these deposits and to form an opinion on the validity of public input about hazards (see ;p«. 26 atyove). How ever, they made more use of their observations of uranium deposits than is suggested by the above. Thus, on 15 August 1979, the Commissioners released their Interim Report. The recommendations in this report are based on: i) the uranium deposits' observations, as is evidenced by the opening sentences of paragraphs 1, 10 and 12 of the Report (see Appendix 5). ii. preliminary data available to RCIUM (paragraph 3U of the Report), this data having been used by RCIUM for: .... a study of its /uranium explorations'-^ impact on the environment, and of possible health hazards to exploration crews and to the public. (paragraph 3); and • ... a preliminary evaluation of, the risks to the public which these activities _uranium explor ation/ might cause. (paragraph 1); iii. the existing legislation relating to mineral exploration in British Columbia (section VII of the Report). It is suggested that the degree to which the information in the Report is accurate and relevant will be reflected in the responses to the following questions: (a) How representative were the observations made by the Commissioners during their visits to uranium deposits? (b) What preliminary data was available to the Commiss ioners, how accurate was it, and how accurate was their-evaluation of the risks to the public of uranium ex ploration? (c) How accurate was their interpretation of the relevant legislation? Application of Criterion How much information was secured from the uranium mine visits? It is hard to determine how much relevant information the Commissioners secured from their visits to uranium mines since there are no public reports on these visits (the Commissioners' memoranda on these visits are kept as confidential RCIUM documents), and the Commissioners rarely refer to the visits in the hearings. In the technical hearings' Transcripts, I found only two refer ences to the uranium mine visits, each of which was a mere passing com ment by Dr. Bates (see TP, 29, p. 4313 and 32, p. 4983). Generally, in his introductory remarks at the community hearings, Dr. Bates mentioned the fact that these visits were made, and sometimes, briefly alluded to their purpose. For example, at the Kamloops hearing, Dr. Bates (TP, 8A, p. 811) explained why the Commissioners had visited Salt Lake City: There are many abandoned tailings' sites in Utah and Wyoming, but the particular one in Salt Lake City happens to be of interest and importance because it's in the middle of a built-up area, and therefore we wanted to go and look at that very closely and discuss with people what they plan to do about it. At the Kelowna hearing, Dr. Bates (TP, 3, p. 4) discussed the visits to the Sherwood and Midnite Mines in Washington State: They're the closest uranium mines to us ... • and have special things to teach us, not only because in a geological sense the deposits they're working are almost the continuation of the deposits in British Columbia .... but also because one of them jTMidnite^? was estab lished on an Indian tribal reserve, and the integration of the Indian community into the quite major operation there was a matter of particular interest to this Com mission. In various speeches and interviews, Dr. Bates has been more specific about the types of information that the Commissioners obtained from their visits to uranium mines. For example, in a speech given last fall, Dr. Bates (1979, speech) described how the Commissioners, while visiting the 73 Midnite Mine, met with Indian council there to discuss the impacts of uranium mining on Indian communities; and, in a recent television inter view, Dr. Bates (Vancouver Channel 8's "Jack Webster Show", 24 January 1980) described briefly the French uranium industry's worker protection service. Clearly, the Commissioners collected some relevant information during their uranium mine visits. How representative were the observations made, during the uranium  deposits' visits? On 4 October 1979, a map was made available to all major participants and others who were interested. The purpose of the map, according to Mr. Anthony (TP, 26, p. 3697): ". ... is to present as comprehensive as possible a picture of uranium exploration in British Columbia." Although the map indicates that there are a significant number of uranium deposits in British Columbia not visited by RCIUM, many of these are not regarded as having potential commercial value at this time and are unlikely to be of much interest to the mining industry. However, the deposits in the North Okanagan and near Summerland are of considerable interest to the industry; RCIUM has planned visits to communities near these locations in the fall of 1980 and, no doubt, will visit these de posits at that time (Culbert 1980b, interview). Overall, RCIUM has visited, or will visit in the near future, most of the commercially viable uranium deposits in British Columbia. If the price of uranium oxide continues to rise, however, some of the deposits not visited may well attain significance. What preliminary data was available to the Commissioners, how  accurate was it, and how accurate was the evaluation of the risks? The preliminary data, apart from a table of radiation levels at rock surfaces and material adjacent to drill holes (see Appendix 5 of the Interim Report), 7k are not included in the Interim Report. Hence the public has no means of either assessing the accuracy of the data or of determining whether the Commissioners' recommendations are in its interest. Mr. Culbert (1980b, interview) is wondering why the Commissioners made recommend ations concerning uranium exploration before the Exploration Phase of the technical hearings. Judging from the following statements made by Or. Murray (TP, 25, pp. 3325-6) during the technical hearings, it is unlikely that the Com missioners had access to all the data required to evaluate the risks that they discuss in the Interim Report: It is very clear to us in the Commission that we must have relevant data. ... on a number of aspects of exploration and essentially we are unanimously agreed that we need to have data on radon gas surveys before and after drilling progresses. We need to have data on uranium and radium con centration in surface waters, groundwaters, seeps and hot springs both before and after exploration. We need data on gamma radiation levels at explor ation drill sites and claim blocks before and after exploration. We need .... data on radon in working level months in all places of exploration. We need information on personal dosimetry and we also need general geochemistry background data. Since Dr. Bates possesses a considerable knowledge of occupational and environmental health hazards, he is presumable quite competent to handle data that are used in the evaluation of health risks and the like. The fact that he was the Chairman and author of the Science Council of Canada report entitled: Policies and Poisons: The Containment  of Long-Term Hazards to Human Health in the Environment and in the Work  place (October 1977) and author or co-author of 151 other such published scientific reports gives support to this claim. The unknown factor, how ever, is the subjective element involved in the interpretation of scientific 75 information (see p. 15 above). This, together with the facts that: (1) the public was not consulted about the risk assessment; and (2) the Commissioners probably lacked all the relevant data, suggests that the recommendations in the Report are not necessarily in the public interest. How accurate was the Commissioners' interpretation of the legislation? As Mr. Anthony (1980a, interview) explainted: The Commissioners heard numerous submissions from many varied sources in the community hearings as to what institutional changes were felt to be necessary. They then examined the existing legislation to see what types of changes were feasible. But as he went on to say: "Although I advised them as to what the legis lation says or doesn't say, the Commissioners didn't always follow my advice." Perhaps we should not be too confident about the Commissioners' interpretation of the legislation given that none of them are lawyers. However, legal advice was available to them whether they chose to follow it or hat. Limiting Factors The Commissioners based their Interim Report on what appears to have been an untested body of incomplete data. This has led many people to wonder why the Report was produced before the technical hearings com menced. Perhaps the Commissioners were responding to public pressure; perhaps they felt that they should publish a report to prove that they had accomplished something. But whatever the reason, we must question their understanding of the public inquiry process (lower order limiting factor) since their recommendations were not the product of a full public review process. 76 Library Network Questions to be Addressed The RCIUM library contains a large amount of information that the Commissioners will make use of when they come to write their final report (Bates 1980a, interview). Questions pertaining to the evaluation of the Library material against criterion I are: (a) Is the information relevant? (b) Is it complete? and for information that has been specially generated for RCIUM: (c) Is it accurate? To the extent that specially generated information is drawn upon by wit nesses in their testimonies at the technical hearings, or, alternatively, is directed at a witness in cross-examination, the opportunity to determine its accuracy does exist. Application of Criterion Is the information relevant? Most of the information in the Library is highly relevant to RCIUM*s terms of reference. Appendix 12, which lists Library items 261 to 269 (received in May 1979) and 1410 to 1416 (received in November and December, 1979) illustrates this point and also supports Miss McCall*s (1980a, interview) comment that: "As time has gone by, the literature has become more and more focused as the issues have become more and more clearly defined." Is the information complete? There is no reason to believe that the information in the Library is complete. We cannot assume that interested parties have requested, between them, all relevant information. In add ition, some of the lists prepared by governments, boards, agencies and 77 major participants, as required by PR No. 1, 8.3.1. and B.3.2„(see Appendix 1), are incomplete (see p-.»52 above). Furthermore, edited videocassettes have been prepared only for the first t_o phases of the technical hearings (see p. 31 above). Finally, the Uranium Exploration Questionnaire (see p. 29 above) has not been returned by all mining companies. Is the information accurate? As noted above (p. 76), it is necessary to ask this question only of information that has been specially generated for RCIUM. The exploration reports, for the most part, and the responses to the Uranium Exploration Questionnaire constitute such information. On k October 1979, during the Exploration Phase of the technical hearings, 26 mining companies (who had been identified by RCIUM as participating or having participated in uranium exploration in British Columbia) were in attendance for questioning on their activities, as described in their ex ploration reports. Only nine of these 26 companies were cross-examined; there was not sufficient time to hear from the rest. It became apparent during the actual proceedings on this day, that a number of major partici pants had similar questions for each company. Hence, in order to save time, it was agreed that RCIUM would collect these "overlap" questions together and send a standard list of relevant questions to the various mining com panies involved in uranium exploration (TP, 26, pp. 3580-2). This list of questions constitutes the Uranium Exploration Questionnaire. In the "overflow" hearings, RCIUM plans to hear from certain of the mining companies that have responded to the questionnaire. As Mr. Anthony (TP, 26, pp. 3795-6) explained, if major participants feel that the return of a company is necessitated on the basis of their questionnaire responses, RCIUM will consider the recalling of the company; and as he advised the Commissioners: 78 It's up to you .... to decide whether the witnesses should be returned, once you know the nature of the evidence we're /Commission counsel and major participants/ seeking and we can demonstrate to you that it would serve the interest of the Commission to have the witness return. There will be opportunity, therefore, to cross-examine a few mining com panies on their questionnaire responses and further on their exploration reports. But due to time constraints, it is unlikely that many companies' will be recalled (Schmitt 1980, interview). Mr. Rogers of UBCIC (TP, 26, p. 3594) expressed his doubts about this process and wondered whether: . • • .we Ahe Commission and major participants-? haven't somehow moved away from the philosophy of what a Public Inquiry is . . • . "a Mr. Anthony had stated at an earlier session that: It's one thing to receive a report, but there's another thing to be able to question the basis of the report and how that report was prepared and do the other things that cross-examination permits us to do. Overall, it seems that there will be very little opportunity to cross-examine mining companies on the uranium exploration activities. Limiting Factors Two lower order factors seem to limit RCIUM's ability to ensure accuracy and relevancy of the material in the RCIUM library. First, RCIUM's interpretation of its role (it has to bring in most of the wit nesses, see p. 66 above) is such that members of RCIUM and many major participants are pressed for time. As a result^not all relevant documents are filed with RCIUM and Mr. Culbert has only prepared two edited video-cassettes. Second, the Commissioners' understanding of the inquiry process can be questioned given that the exploration reports and questionnaire responses of many mining companies are not being subjected to the adver sary process. 79 Summation The five RCIUM research projects mere a waste of time and money, and did little to contribute to the acquisition of a relevant body of information. The more recently authorized research studies are of much more relevance to RCIUM's terms of reference and are for presentation at a technical hearing where they are subjected to cross-examination. While there is a large volume of relevant material in the RCIUM library, this information is not necessarily complete, and that which was specially generated for RCIUM is hardly subjected to cross-examination. The Commissioners obtained some relevant information from their visits to uranium mines. It is likely that this information is accurate, given the high degree of expertise possessed by the Commissioners. The recommendations in the Interim Report, which were partly based on the Commissioners' observations of uranium deposits, were not the product of a full public review process and are therefore questionable. The effectiveness of cross-examination in the technical hearings is less than it might be for the following reasons; (1) RCIUM has brought in most of the witnesses, and hence many parties are pressed for time; (2) many of the major participants are under funded. (1) above also reduces the RCIUM research coordinators' ability to work with RCIUM witnesses and to ensure that all drafts are submitted on time. (2) above also limits the ability of major participants to bring in witnesses independently of RCIUM; to hire technical expertise; and to perform studies. It seems that the time shortages faced by RCIUM are due, in large part, to the 27 June 1980 deadline on the technical hearings. The time constraint means that there is less time to cross-examine witnesses than 80 might otherwise be the case, and that not all witnesses may be heard. In addition, the deadline imposed on the technical hearings increases the time pressures Felt by many of the major participants and by the RCIUM staff. The time shortages are partly due to some repititious and irre levant cross-examination that could be reduced if the sessions were chaired more rigorously. The nature of the uranium issue is such that cross-examination by major participants to bring out further information occurs at the expense of cross-examination to determine credibility and to bring out particular cases. Furthermore, because of the competitive nature of the uranium mining industry, RCIUM may be receiving some information in confidence. Such information is not tested in cross-examination. Finally, the Commiss ioners' subpoena powers are not particularly forceful and may limit, there fore, RCIUM's access to certain types of relevant information. Concerning the community hearings, RCIUM learned less about local impacts than it might have done. This is largely due to RCIUM's choice of public hearings to learn about local concerns; it is also due to the Commissioners' late appreciation of the importance.of a community relat ions consultant. 81 CHAPTER V CRITERION II: INFORM THE PUBLIC OF COMMISSION FINDINGS Introduction As outlined in Chapter II (see p. 18 above), the second criterion requires that RCIUM communicate the information it receives tD the public in a manner that is comprehensible to all British Columbians. In other words, for this criterion to be fully met, RCIUM must thoroughly educate the public about all aspects of the uranium issue that are within its terms of reference. It can be argued that it is not a commission's role to communicate the information that it receives to the public; that, instead, it is the role of the media to perform such a function. However, it is a well under stood principle that the media are event oriented and that they are in effective at sustaining interest in a long and drawn-out issue (Thompson 1980b, interview). This is illustrated below. While very few news reporters attended the first round community hearings (see Figure 5 below), attendance at the technical hearings is even lower. As Terral (1980) notes: FIGURE 5 MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS Location of Hearing Number of Reporters Rock Creek 1 Grandforks 2 Castlegar k Williams Lake 2 Vanderhoof 3 Atlin 1 82 The press table is almost invariably empty. This has led, among other things, to national coverage for .... //BCMA's_7 brief on uranium exploration. The story quoted the brief extensively as if it had in fact been presented to the Commission. But the truth is that the brief uias never heard. Misreporting of the above type has also been referred to during the proceedings at the technical hearings (see for example, TP, 48. pp. 7497-9 and 58, pp. 10302-3). Since the media cannot be relied upon to cover RCIUM proceedings in a reliable manner, it becomes the role of RCIUM to communicate the inform ation that it receives to the public. Furthermore, it is the role of RCIUM to communicate the information in a comprehensible form in order that people can have informed opinions on the uranium issue. In point of fact, the Commissioners do perceive RCIUM's role to be partly one of edu cation. As Or. Bates (1980b, interview) commented: .... definitely it's the Commission's role to educate the public; the /"RCIUM/ process is more im portant than the outcome. RCIUM's activities pertaining to criterion II are: - public sessions; - Library network; - publicity. Public Sessions Questions to be Addressed Those in attendance at a public session may derive some educational benefit from the proceedings. In addition, these people may tell others about what they have learned. A final point is that those who read the Transcripts of Proceedings may learn about the uranium issue. Questions to be addressed in the evaluation of the public sessions against criterion II are as follows: (a) Houi many people attend the public sessions? (b) What is the educative value of these sessions? (c) To what extent da those in attendance at the sessions tell others about what they have learned? (d) How many people read the Transcripts? (e) What is the educative value of the Transcripts? Application of Criterion How many people attend the public sessions? The audiences at the first round community hearings were generally quite large (see Figure 6, p. 84 below). Thus a signigicant number of people would have learned about the activities of mining companies that presented briefs at these sessions; this, indeed, is what the Commissioners had intended (see p. 35 above). In contrast to the community hearings, the audiences at the tech nical hearings are very small. On average only about 15 people attend any given session and hence I feel that the educational benefits to thes people is not significant. This, however, ignores the attendance of major participants at the technical hearings who benefit from the "major process of mutual education" that Dr. Bates envisages these sessions as being (see p. 22 above), and those who view the televised proceedings or videocassettes of these sessions. 84 FIGURE 6 ATTENDANCE AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS Location of Hearing Date Time of day of session Approximate Number of People in Audience Kelouina 5 June 5 June 6 June 7 June morning evening morning morning 75 150 70 25 Clearwater 8 June 9 June evening morning 1 200 30 Kamloops 11 June 11 June morning evening 30» 50 Rock Creek 18 June 19 June evening morning 150 ! 50 | Grand Forks 20 June 21 June evening morning 250 j 30 ' Castlegar 21 June 22 June evening morning 100 35 ' Williams Lake J 26 June 26 June j morning evening 25 ; Vanderhoof 27 June evening 80 Fort Nelson 3 July evening 6 Atlin 4 July evening 100 What is the educational value of the public sessions? The information presented by the mining companies during the first round community hearings was not tested by cross-examination and may not, therefore, have been com plete and totally accurate. Hence, it's educative value is disputable. The community hearings, however, were obviously not the ones in which to tegt, through cross-examination, the validity of evidence presented. This would have hindered RCIUM's success in learning about local concerns. 85 The Commissioners were not intent upon informing or educating the people attending the community hearings themselves; rather they mere there to receive information. As Dr. Bates (TP, 17, p. 2300) remarked at the Fort Nelson community hearing: .... as a Commission uie spend ninety-nine percent of the time listening and one percent right at the end say ing what we think. So that it's a little difficult for us to come and provide information .... For major participants, the educative value of the technical hear ings is potentially very high. To the extent that criterion I is met for these sessions, the information presented is accurate and relevant; this, in turn, determing its educative value to major participants. Those who watch the televised proceedings of the technical hearings may be educated about the uranium issue. However, since the television broadcasts are shown during working hours (with the exception of those on Saturdays), it is unlikely that many people view them. In addition, because the information presented is highly esoteric and technical, it is of little educative value to most lay people. The videocassettes are no more comprehensible than the televised proceedings; furthermore, they provide a very slow means of collating evidence (as of the end of January, only the first two had been produced; see p. 31 above). In total, the educative value of the first round community hearings was very low. That of the technical hearings is potentially very high for major participants, but is low for those who view the televised proceedings or edited videocassettes of these sessions. 1 To what extent do major participants educate others? Dr. Bates, (1980 interview) maintains that RCIUM alone is fulfilling the educational 1 The extent to which RCIUM educates others is the theme of this chapter. This aside, only major participants are discussed here since only they derive significant educational benefit from the public sessions. 86 role and hence he has not: .... given out ^participant funds/ specifically for education . . . . /although some/ groups have used some money for this; for example, the United Church's wit nesses have been used on TV for public education. However, some money has been allocated to major participants, at least in the first round of funding, for public education (see Appendix 13). A number of major participants are putting a great deal of energy into public education. Appendix 13 discusses the public education activities of a sample of major participants. In addition to the activ ities listed in Appendix 13, members of all these groups took part in an "Open Forum on Uranium Mining in British Columbia" during SFU's "Nuclear Awareness Week" (9-13 October 1979). Apparently there exists a great deal of confusion among major parti cipants concerning the use of participant funds for public education. Whether they use these funds for this or not, all groups interviewed put considerable effort into educating the public. Ms. White (1980, interview) explained that the opponents of uranium mining feel obliged to educate the public: ". • . . because the Commission is doing this so inadequately." This still remains to be seen. 1 L How many people read the Transcripts? Appendix 6 lists the libraries which hold the Transcripts. Major participants are furnished with free copies. Based on Miss McCall's Commission library use statistics (see p. 89 below), it is exceedingly unlikely that many lay people read the Transcripts. Witnesses, major participants and members of RCIUM, however, make considerable use of them. What is the educative value of the Transcripts? The educative value of the Transcripts is a function of: 1 Only the Transcripts of the technical sessions are relevant here since only these sessions are of educative value. 87 - the extent to which the information presented at the technical hearings is relevant and accurate (criterion I; see Chapter IV); - the comprehensibleness of this information. Concerning the latter point, it is exceedingly difficult for the lay person to understand much of the information presented at the technical sessions because it is so esoteric and technical. Additional problems with the Transcripts are: - they are not perfectly intelligible in all places; - they are not completely accurate—frequently Mr. Culbert (1980, interview) finds errors in the Transcripts of the technical hearings, especially where testimony is very technical in nature. Limiting Factors The educative value of the proceedings of the technical hearings and the corresponding Transcripts, edited videocassettes and televised proceedings are limited by the following factors: - RCIUM's success in meeting criterion I; - the somewhat boring, esoteric and technical nature of the information presented at the technical hearings; - the length of time it takes to produce edited video-cassettes; - the broadcasting of the televised proceedings pre dominantly on week days. The second factor above is of the higher order (see p. 32 above). RCIUM's terms of reference and the nature of the uranium issue are such that the Commissioners have to hear a great deal of highly technical and esoteric evidence, much of which is exceedingly dull. The technicalities, in turn, present problems for the Transcript reporters, none of whom are experts on any aspect of uranium exploitation. Hence, occasional inaccuracies in their reporting is understandable. 88 Mr. Culbert does not have sufficient time to prepare edited video-cassettes; this is a result of RCIUM's interpretation of its role (lower order factor; see p. 66 above). The fact that the proceedings of the technical sessions are shown on television predominantly during working hours is presumably a higher order factor; there is a great deal of competition for evening and weekend viewing time. This aside, bothitne edited videacassettes and the televised proceedings are of limited educat ive value because of the nature of the uranium issue and RCIUM's terms of reference (higher order factors). The technical hearings are primarily of educative value to major participants, many of whom take it upon themselves to educate the public. If indeed, RCIUM is doing an inadequate job of educating the public, the major participants' perceived obligation to do this themselves is real istic, and reduction of the confusion (second order limiting factor) surrounding such activities would be beneficial. Library Network Questions to be Answered Basically, a library is a resource for those interested in obtain ing information about a given subject. Questions pertaining to the eval uation of the library network against criterion II, therefore, are: (a) How many interested individuals make use of the library network? (b) What is the educative value of the material dis tributed throughout the network? Application of Criterion How much use is made of the library network by interested individuals? According to Miss McCall, the RCIUM librarian (1980c, interview): 89 About 30-40 people use the Commission library each week. Approximately, 75 per cent of these people are major participants, witnesses or members of TAG; 15 per cent are students; and 10 per cent are reporters (or others). On average, I answer 7-10 letter requests per week. These include requests for documents, out of town loans, general information packages, and so on. Most of these requests come from British Columbians who live outside of the lower mainland area. In add ition, I handle about 45-60 telephone reference calls each week. Over half of these calls come from the Van couver area. Questions range from the very specific to the very general (for example, "When is the Library open?") Also, there are about 5-8 new subscriptions per week to the Accessions Lists. These originally came from British Columbia entirely, but increasingly are now coming from the rest of Canada, the United States, and sometimes from Europe. I do not have library use statistics for the depository libraries. In total, Miss McCall feels that the Library is very accessible: "It is used heavily for such a small library," and: "People can even phone in collect within British Columbia" (1980d and c respectively, interviews). However, some of the major Library users (those directly involved in RCIUM) lack the time to read as much Library material as they would like to. For example, Ms. Lexier, RCIUM research coordinator . (1980, interview), pointed out that: "I don't use the books and articles in the Library very much. I'd like to, but I don't have time." And while Mr. Hodge, RCIUM research coordinator (1980c, interview), refers to Library material as much as possible when he is preparing cross-exam ination, he noted that: "There's never enough time to do this as much as I'd like to." Dr. Bates (1980b, interview) is reading Library material: ". ... all the time." In summary, most use is made of the Library by those directly in volved in RCIUM. Because of time constraints, it is unlikely that these people read as much Library material as they would like to. 90 What is the educative value of the material distributed throughout  the library network? The educative value of the Transcripts, video-cassettes and UID are commented on elsewhere in this chapter. The question remaining, therefore, is: "What is the educational value of the books, journal articles, periodicals, microfiches, exploration reports and Uranium Exploration Questionnaire responses that are in the RCIUM library? Given that the main readers of this material are those directly involved in RCIUM, the educative value is determined by the answers to the questions pertaining to the evaluation,of the Library material against criterion I (see pp. 76-8 above); comprehensibility of the material by these users is assumed. Limiting Factors The factors operating to limit RCIUM's success in educating the public about the uranium issue through the library network appear to include those limiting RCIUM's ability to ensure accuracy and relevancy L of the material in the RCIUM "'Library (see p. 78 above). In addition, RCIUM's interpretation of its role (second order factor) is such that many of those directly involved in RCIUM are pressed for time and hence are unable to do as much reading of Library material as they would wish. Publicity Questions to be Addressed RCIUM's publicity mechanisms (described on pp. 30-31 above) are: - public notices; - library network fact sheets; - televised proceedings of the technical hearings; - videocassettes; - various interviews and speeches; - news releases; - UID. Only the last two of the above warrant consideration against criterion II since these represent RCIUM's attempts to communicate its findings to the public in a comprehensible manner. Questions pertaining to the evaluation of these mechanisms against criterion II are: (a) What publics do they reach? (b) What is their educative value? Application of Criterion What publics are reached by the various mechanisms? The news re leases are sent to all major newspapers in British Columbia and are used by many press reporters: ". • • . as the kernel of their reports." (Grant 1980, interview). Presumably, the information in the news re leases is absorbed by a large number of British Columbians. UID is read by members of the public who are particularly interested in RCIUM. At least 1500 people are on the UID mailing list. Perhaps , there would be a longer mailing list if RCIUM advertised UID more widely than it does. To my knowledge, Dr. Bates has referred to UID only twice during the technical hearings (see TP, 19, p. 2459 and 44, p. 7499). In addition, Dr. Bates referred to UID during his interview with Mr. Webster on Vancouver Cable 8's "Jack Webster Show" (24 January 1980) and in his speech at SFU (1979). However, he did not explain how members of the public could obtain copies of UID except when asked about this in a "phoned-in" question to the television show. Dr. Bates (1980d, interview) explained that if RCIUM had advertised UID: ". . . . the government may have been extremely upset." since, as he went on to explain: 92 You must be very sure that you're not using public money to publicize the proceedings for political purposes .... All inquiries have been accused of this* In total, it is probable that the neuis releases reach the attention of a large number of British Columbians. The same can not be said of UID, largely because RCIUM is doing an inadequate job of advertising it. What is the educative value of the various mechanisms? Mr. Grant (1980, interview), RCIUM's news release officer, has made the following comments about his work: It's hard to make good news out of this inquiry every day. Some of my releases are not as newsworthy as I would have liked but I have to report what happened each day. Sometimes, I feel that I have missed some of the fine points because it's hard to follow all the argu ments and the technical language. The reason why Mr. Grant's releases are sometimes dull is that they are attempting to convey to the public the fact that RCIUM is addressing, in detail, the information that is needed to answer technical questions. They are not editorializing, for example, on the answer to what is an acceptable risk as many press reporters do (see TP, 44, pp. 7497-9), without first investigating what the risk is and how accurately it can be determined. In addition, Mr. Grant's releases are a little "dry" since: - they rarely acknowledge the presence of uranium mining opponents; - they focus on the contents of witnesses' briefs and have little to say about the cross-examination that ensues. In total, while Mr. Grant is reassuring the proponents of uranium mining that their side of the argument is being attended to, the opponents, in all likelihood, are wondering whether anyone is representing their parti cular concerns at the technical hearings. Given that many news reporters take advantage of Mr. Grant's release (see p. 91 above), this is not a satisfactory situation. 93 UIO provides an easily comprehensible record of the proceedings adopted at the technical hearings. It describes the cross-examination by all parties as well as the witnesses statements of evidence. To summarize, only UID is of significant educative value to British Columbians. Limiting Factors The news releases have a low educative value for the following reasons: - Mr. Grant misses some of the "fine points"; - they are one-sided (focus on the proponents' arguments); - they say little about cross-examination. It is suggested that RCIUM's terms of reference and the nature of the uranium issue (both higher order factors) are such that the relevant evi dence is highly esoteric and technical, and thereby limit Mr. Grant's abi lity to report fully the proceedings of the technical hearings. In addition, Mr. Grant faces the dilemna that his news releases will be unacceptable to the majority of newspaper editors unless they contain information that will catch the public's attention; he would be wasting his time, therefore, if he attempted to write very detailed accounts of the proceedings at the technical sessions. RCIUM does an inadequate job of advertising UID. Dr. Bates' ration ale for this (see pp. 91r2 above)is unacceptable; there is little point in using public money to produce a digest if it is then not advertised. In total, it is suggested that a lower order factor limits RCIUM's success in educating the public; namely the Commissioners' understanding of how they should attempt to do this. Summation RCIUM is doing a very poor job of educating British Columbians about its findings. The proceedings at the technical hearings are only satisfactorily summarized and presented in layperson terms by Mr. Shaw in UID. UID is inadequately advertised by RCIUM and is read probably by no more than 2000 interested individuals. Given the above, it is not surprising that major participants put so much effort into public education. It mould be preferable, however, if RCIUM bore this responsibility more fully since it is not advocating a particular case and is in the best position, therefore, to inform the public about all aspects, including all sides of the argument, of the uranium issue. 95 CHAPTER VI RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Introduction As described in Chapter I (see pp. 2-3 above), the participation of the public in a commission of inquiry may result in elected represent atives reflecting more accurately their constituents' preferences in the formulation of government policies. Concerning RCIUM and provincial gov ernment policy on uranium exploitation in British Columbia, it was post ulated that this mill occur if four broad criteria are met. These criteria (described on p. IB above) stem from a participatory model of representative government; they reflect, also, the specific nature of RCIUM's terms of reference. Because of the time frame for my thesis research, I was unable to apply two of the four criteria. Hence, I evaluated the RCIUM process only in terms of its success in: (1) securing a relevant body of accurate information; and (2) informing the public of its findings. For these two aspects of RCIUM, I was able to identify a number of major accomplishments and weaknesses. The remainder of this chapter is divided into three sections. In the first section, I discuss the accomplishments of RCIUM; as much can be learned from these as can be learned from RCIUM weaknesses. In the second section, I discuss major weaknesses in the RCIUM process, focusing on those that arise from lower order limiting factors since for these 96 there^Sre magor opportunities for improvement. Recommendations are made as to how the deficiencies might be remedied. Rather than make specific recommendations, applicable only to RCIUM, I make general recommendations that should be of use to future commissions of inquiry. The final section presents some brief concluding remarks. Commission Accomplishments RCIUM should be commended for its use of a diverse range of activi ties to fulfil its terms of reference. Thus it is holding community and technical hearings; authorizing research; visiting uranium mines and deposits; maintaining a library network; and publicizing its proceedings. Certainly, the first round community hearings were a positive ele ment in the total RCIUM process since they made it possible for many interested groups and local people to participate. However, as pointed out in the following section, these hearings were not as effective as they might have been in securing community involvement. RCIUM seems to have recognized all major affected interests in its support of full-time participants at the technical hearings. In addition, RCIUM's requests for additional government funds enable the participation in RCIUM of groups that lack independent financial assistance. RCIUM is receiving evidence from a large number of highly qualified witnesses. Its expansion of the technical hearings, at which there is the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses, recognizes the complexity of this evidence. Although Commission counsel has narrowly interpreted RCIUM's subpoena power, RCIUM has not been denied any witness or document that it has gone after. Neither has it sheltered very much information from public disclosure, despite the competitive nature of the industry that RCIUM is investigating. 97 Some major participants groups are performing studies, which, together with those authorized by RCIUM, are almost all for presentation at a tech nical hearing. Hence, there is opportunity to cross-examine the authors of most of the studies. In addition, RCIUM is collecting a significant amount of relevant information in its Library and from its visits to uranium mines and deposits. Overall, RCIUM is gathering and testing a large body of relevant information. Certainly, it will be able to advise the provincial government on expert solutions to the uranium issue in British Columbia. The Commissioners do perceive RCIUM's role to be partly one of edu cation, and, for this reason, have established a library network and pub licized their proceedings. However, as the following section suggests, these activities have not been very successful. Commission Weaknesses: Proposed Remedies Securing a Relevant Body of Accurate Information Community Hearings As a mechanism of public involvement, community hearings of the type conducted by RCIUM have several disadvantages. For example, because of their formal nature, many people are inhibited from participating. Fur thermore, those who do participate probably represent only very narrow bands on the spectrum of public interests. Additional problems with RCIUM's community hearings were as follows: - some participants were confused about the purpose of these hearings and what was required of them; - summer time hearings were inconvenient for various agricultural interests; - mining companies were given priority over local people; for example, companies presented their briefs first. 98 Overall, less was learned about local impacts than might have been. At the commencement of a commission of inquiry, three activities seem to be required: (1) The public should be informed of the commission's existence. (2) The public should be alerted to the issues that the commission is to investigate and advise upon. In the case of RCIUM, British Columbians should be in formed about the uranium exploration activities of mining companies in their province. (3) The public should be consulted about appropriate procedures for: - collecting and testing relevant information; - communicating information to the public; - eliciting informed public views. In other words, members of the public should be asked to comment on such things as: - how to ensure the fullest representation of the public as possible; - how to interpret the terms of reference; - how much funding is required for interested groups; - what rules of procedure are required. Overall, the preliminary stages of an inquiry should be concerned with laying the groundwork for a fair public process. The following approach is suggested as an alternative to that adopted by RCIUM in its early stages. First, RCIUM would hold one or more workshops at which tentative rules of procedure would be drafted. About 15 people, both representatives of interested groups and individuals from areas likely to be affected by uranium mining in British Columbia would be invited to each workshop. The small size of these meetings would serve to promote an uninhibited exchange of ideas. 99 Following the workshops, a first round of community hearings would be held throughout British Columbia. At these sessions, the public's response to suggested rules of procedure would be elicited. RCIUM com munity relations' consultants would ensure that community people knew about the community hearings and what type of public involvement was required. Also at the first round community hearings, mining company re presentatives would present brief submissions, in layperson's terms, on their uranium exploration activities to date. Lastly, based on the pro ceedings at the community hearings, a finalized version of the rules of procedure (Preliminary Rulings) would be produced. These rules would be widely distributed throughout the Province. It is recognized that local people can provide RCIUM with a signif icant amount of relevant information. Hence it is necessary for RCIUM to conduct a second round of community hearings to tap this reservoir of experiential knowledge. Perhaps these community hearings could be held concurrently with the technical hearings. RCIUM could break off its technical sessions from time to time to conduct a number of second round community hearings; at these hearings additional information could be collected, and, in addition, public views on the information being pre sented at the technical sessions could be elicited. In order to ensure a wide range of participants at the second round community hearings, commun ity relations' consultants could visit the communities ahead of RCIUM, en couraging people to participate and ensuring that potential participants understood what is required of them. Technical Hearings A basic deficiency in RCIUM's technical hearings is a lack of ade quate funding for many major participants. Funding constraints limit the ability of groups. 100 - to bring in witnesses independently of RCIUM; - to hire technical expertise; - to conduct studies; - to thoroughly review evidence and prepare cross-examination. The effectiveness of the participation in a commission of inquiry by public interest groups that lack independent financial assistance could be enhanced by encouraging the formation of coalitions since less money would then be required for hiring legal assistance, renting office space, photocopying documents, and so on. In the case of RCIUM, there is a fairly diverse range of interests; hence, at least five coalitions could have emerged representing the following concerns: - well-being of residents in communities close to proposed uranium mines; - well-being of native Indian populations living close to proposed uranium mines; - health of miners and the general public; - ethics; - environmental protection. Mining interests would support themselves. Because RCIUM is calling most of the witnesses, both the RCIUM research coordinators and most major participants are pressed for time with the result that the overall effectiveness of cross-examination is reduced. The 27 June 19BQ deadline on the technical hearings aggravates this problem, with the consequence that there may not be sufficient time for cross-examination of all witnesses, including many mining companies on their uranium exploration activities in British Columbia. It is suggested that the responsiblity of bringing in witnesses should fall more or less equally on the staff of a commission of inquiry and its full-time inquiry participants. In addition, participants should 101 DE funded to call witnesses independently of the commission. Having recog nized participant groups, it is only fair that a commission fully trust groups with this responsibility. Otherwise, the commission of inquiry process is not as public as it should be. Finally, a commission of inquiry process cannot function within arbitrary deadlines if it is to receive and cross-examine all relevant information. Certainly, in the case of RCIUM, the technical hearings' schedule should be extended by at least 12 days so that all witnesses can be heard. Informing the Public RCIUM's public education activities are not successful. While the televised proceedings of the technical hearings and the edited video-cassettes have little educative value, RCIUM's news releases are dull and UID reaches only a tiny fraction of British Columbians. In addition, the : RCIUM library is used by very few members of the public. Lacking a thorough public education job, it is unlikely that RCIUM will be able to elicit in formed public views on the uranium issue and transmit these to the final decision makers. When faced with an issue as controversial as the future of uranium mining, a commission of inquiry must recognize the importance of perform ing a thorough public education job and should allocate a sizable fraction of its budget to this activity. While it is recognized that it is extrem ely difficult to gain news coverage in a free media situation, a conscien tious effort should nevertheless be made to utilize the media more effect ively. For example, the following could merit more attention: - radio broadcasts of summaries of the evidence presented at each technical session; - periodic, televised discussions between inquiry staff and participants about the proceedings at the technical sessions, 102 both at convenient times to members of the public. Perhaps, in the case of RCIUM, the neuis release officer could have been made responsible for arranging the above, rather than issuing bland press releases. Concluding Remarks Without doubt, RCIUM has had some major achievements and, as a result, bjill be able to supply the provincial government uiith a considerable volume of informed advice on uranium mining in British Columbia. However, pre vious sections in this chapter have identified a number of lost opportun ities. First, there were shortcomings in the general public's ability to participate in the first round community hearings; second, the effect iveness of the participation by interest groups in the technical hearings is reduced because of funding and time constraints, and lack of ability to bring in witnesses independently of RCIUM. Finally, there are major shortcomings in the public education activities of RCIUM. As Berger (1977, p. 224) notes: .... commissions of inquiry have became an important means for public participation in democratic decision making as well as an instrument to supply informed advice to government .... Hence, it is important to consider the way in which commissions of inquiry are conducted and whether or not they have fulfilled the above functions. It is hoped that future commissions of inquiry will profit from the eval uation presented in this thesis and will give serious attention to the recommendations contained therein; here, it is suggested, is an opportunity to learn. 103 LITERATURE CITED Accessions Lists 1 to 13. Uranium Information Centre,RCIUM. 1 April 1979 to 12 February I960. Anthony, Russell J. Senior Commission counsel to RCIUM. Interviews, 22 June 1979a; 5 July 1979b; 21 January 1980a; 29 February 1980b; 19 March 1980c; 23 March 1980d. Anthony, Russell J. Letter of 25 April 1979 to WCELA, 2 pp. Bates, David V. Chairman of RCIUM. Interviews, 11 June 1979; Ik January 1980a; 12 February 1980b; 20 April 1980c; 25 April 1980d. Bates, David V. Letters of 25 July 1979a and Ik August 1979b to the Task Force of funded participants (k pp. and 2 pp. respectively). Bates, David V. Speech at SFU's "Nuclear Awareness Week", 10 October 1979. Bemister, William. Transcript report for RCIUM. Interview, 27 June 1980. Berger, T.R. Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: The Report of the  Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, Vol. 2. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services. 1977. Boggild, Kriss. Legal counsel for WCELA. Interview, 25 January 1980. Boyce, Lois. Representative for BCCUCC in RCIUM. Interviews, 16 July 1979; 15 January 1980a; 1 March 1980b; 8 April 1980c. Burch, J.R. and William, R. "Who Participates - A Sociological Inter pretation of Natural Resource Decisions." Natural Resources Journal 16 (1976): pp. kl-5k. CBC. "Evening News." 9 June 1979. Cartwright, T.J. Royal Commissions and Departmental Committees in Britain. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975. Chapman, Richard A. (ed.). The Role of Commissions in Policy-Makinq. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1973. Charlten, Lorae. Senior Administrator for RCIUM. Interview, 12 March 1980. Clark, Bert. Member of CCNR (Vancouver). Interview, 17 March 1980. 104 Commission photograph collection. RCIUM. April-May, 1979. Commission staff timetable. RCIUM. June-July,1979. Connor, Desmond M. "Design and Implementation of Public Participation Programs." A paper prepared for the National Workshop on Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making held in Banff, Alberta. April 17-20, 1979. (Mimeographed). Culbert, Robert R. Research coordinator for RCIUM. Interviews, 14 Janu ary 1980a; 28 January 1980b; 5 February 1980c; 29 February 1980d; 3 March 1980e; 11 March 1980f; 21 March 1980g; 8 April 1980h; 6 May 1980i. Detomasi, D.D. "The Evaluation of Public Projects: The CMHC Evaluation of NIP." Plan Canada 19/1 (March 1979): 56-73. Dion, Leon. "Participating in the Political Process." Queen's Quarterly 75 (1968): 432-48. Ebbin, Steven and Hasper, Raphael. Citizen Groups and the Nuclear Power  Controversy: Uses of Scientific and Technological Information. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 1974. Emond, D. Paul. "Participation and the Environment: A Strategy for Democratizing Canada's Environmental Protection Laws." Osgoode Hall Law Journal 13 (1975): 784-837. EMR Report EP-79-3. 1979 Assessment of Canadian Uranium Supply and Demand. Fox, Irving. "Institutional Arrangements for Dealing with the Environ mental Effects of Energy Production and Use." Paper presented to the Conference on Energy and the Environment, Puerto Rico, March 1972. (Mimeographed). Fox, Irving K. "Institutions for Water Management in a Changing World." Natural Resources Journal 16 (Dctober 1976): 743-59. Fox, Irving K. "Public Involvement and Canadian Government" in Background  Materials for Workshop on Public Involvement in Pipeline Impact Man  agement. Whitehorse, Yukon. 22 April, 1978. Grant, Owen. Press Release Officer for RCIUM. Interview, 15 January 1980. Hanser, Charles J. Guide to Decision: The Royal Commission. New Jersey Bedminster Press, 1965. Head, Wilson A. "The Ideology of Participation", in Citizen Participation: Canada: A Book of Readings, pp. 14-29. Edited by James A. Draper. Toronto: New Press, 1971. Heberlein, Thomas A. "Mechanisms for Public Involvement: the Hearing, Public Opinion Poll, the Workshop and the Quasi-Experiment." Natural Resources Journal 16 (1976a): 197-212. 105 Heberlein, Thomas A. "Principles of Public Involvement." Staff paper Series in Rural and Community Development, Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. April 1976b. (Mimeo graphed). Hewitt, James J. Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Province of British Columbia. Letter of 23 November 1979 to author, 2 PP. Hodge, R. Antony. Research coordinator for RCIUM. Interviews, 17 Janu ary 1980a; 5 February 198Db; 12 February 1980c; 13 March 1980d. Hodgetts, J.E. Royal Commissions of Inquiry in Canada: A Study of In vestigative Techniques. M.A. Thesis; University of Toronto, 1940. Homenuck, Peter; Jerry Durlak, and Jim Morgenstern. "Evaluation of Public Participation Programs", in Involvement and Environment. Proceedings  of the Canadian Conference on Public Participation, Vol. 1. pp. 113-19. Edited by Barry Sadler. Edmonton, Alberta. 1978. Jowell, Jeffrey. "The Limits of the Public Hearing as a Tool of Urban Planning." Administrative Law Review 21, No. 2 (1969): 123-52. Kansky, Marilyn. Representative of BCUIC (as of the end of January 1980). Interview, 29 February 1980. Konstantynowicz, Karin. Report on RCIUM for AECL. 1979-80. Law Reform Commission of Canada. "Commissions of Inquiry." Administrat ive Law Working Paper 17. Ottawa: L.R.C.C., 1977. Le Dain, Gerald E. "The Role of the Public Inquiry in our Constitutional System" in Law and Social Change, pp. 80-97. Edited by Jacob S. Ziegel. Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, 1971 Lee, T.R. "Perception of Goals in the Management of Water Quality of the Great Lakes," in Perceptions and Attitudes in Resources Manage ment, Selected Proceedings of a Symposium on the Role of Perceptions  and Attitudes in Decision-Making in Resources Management, pp. 121-24. Edited by W.R. Derrick Sewell and Ian Burton, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources. Ottawa, Canada. 1970. Letcher, Gary A. Associate Commission counsel to RCIUM. Interview, 17 October 1979. Lexier, Jill. Research coordinator for RCIUM. Interview, 14 March 1980. W.A. Loucks, D.A. Sawyer, J. Neville and P.G. Sagert. Submission of Norcen Energy Resources Ltd. to RCIUM. Kelowna, British Columbia. 5 June 1979. Lucas, Alistair, R. "Legal Foundations for Public Participation in Envir onmental Decision-Making. Natural Resources Journal 16 (January 1976): 73-102. 106 Lysyk, Kenneth M. "Public Inquiries and the Protection of the Public In put in Resources Development Projects." Journal of Natural Resources  Management and Interdisciplinary Studies 3, No. 1 (1978): 2-9. McCall, Keltie. Librarian for RCIUM. Interviews, 17 January 1980a; 1 February 1980b; 4 February 1980c; 6 March 1980d. Memorandum to major participants from Mr. Anthony of RCIUM, 15 August 1979. Minutes of first and second Kelowna meetings of RCIUM participants. 14 July 1979 and 18 August 1979 respectively. Minutes of meetings with major participants, RCIUM. 25 September 1979a; 7 August 1979b; 13 November 1979c; 21 February 1980. Morgenstern, Jim; Jerry Durlak, and Peter Homenuck. "Making the Evalu ation of Public Participation Programs Feasible." Institute of . Environmental Research Inc., Toronto, Ontario. March 1979. (Mimeo graphed). Murray, Jim. Commissioner of RCIUM. Interview, IB January 1980. National Research Council. Analytical Studies for the U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency, vol. 1: Perspectives on Technical Information  for Environmental Protection. National Academy of Sciences, Wash ington, D.C., 1977. Nelson, J. Gordon. "Setting the Stage," in Involvement and Environment, ibid., vol. 1, pp. 13-25. . News Release, RCIUM. 11 December 1979. Q'Riordan, Timothy. "Policy Making and Environmental Management: Some Thoughts on Processes and Research Issues." Natural Resources  Journal 16 (1976): 54-72. Orders-in-Council Nos. 170/79 and 442/80. Executive Chambers, Victoria, British Columbia. 18 January 1979 and 27 February 1980 respectively. O.E.C.D. Public Participation in Decision-Making Related to Science and  Technology. Paris, September, 1978. Pape, Arthur. "Inquiries - A Political Phenomenon." Energy File 1, No. 4 (May-June 1978). Paterson, Craig. Legal counsel for CCU, KNSG and YEA. Interview, 27 February 1980. People and Planning. Report of the Committee on Public Participation in Planning. London: HMS0, 1969. Public Notices: RCIUM. Vancouver Express, 16 February 1979; 12 March 1979 and 7 May 1979. 107 Ritchie, Ronald S. "Sources of Policy Advice: Royal Commissions, Task Forces, Advisory Councils and the Research Institute", in Bureau  cracy in Canadian Government, Edited by W.D. Kernaghan, Methuen Pub, Co., 1973. Robbins, Richard L. "Organizing for Involvement: Citizen Participation Groups in Great Lake Decisions", in Involvement and Environment, ibid, vol. 2, pp. 23-B. Roberts, Kim. Director of WCELA. Interview, 23 June 1979. Rogers, John. Representative of UBCIC. Interviews, 22 January 1980a; 26 February 1980b; 14 March 1980c; 8 April 1980d. Rounthwaite, Ann. Legal counsel for EAAUM. Interviews, 26 February 1980a; k April 1980b. R.S.B.C. Income Tax Act, 1961, cl. R.C.B.C. Public Inquiries Act, I960, c.315. R.S.C. Inquiries Act, 1971. c.1-13. St. Pierre, Paul Robert. Public Participation in an Inter-Agency Committee: The Airport Planning Committee in Vancouver. M.A. Thesis. UBC, 1977. Sadler, Barry. "Basic Issues in Public Participation: A Background Per spective", in Involvement and Environment, ibid., vol. 1, pp. 1-12. Salter, Liora. "Public Process and the Public Interest." SFU, Vancouver, British Columbia. 1979. (Mimeographed). Schmitt, Doug. "The B.C. Uranium Inquiry." Paper presented to the Envir onmental Control Technology Seminar, March 1979. (Mimeographed). Schmitt, Rolf. Assistant to Dr. Sinclair, technical advisor for RCIUM. Interview, 10 April 1980. Sewell, W.R. Derrick. "Integrating Public Views in Planning and Policy-Making", in Perceptions and Attitudes in Resource Management, Selected  Proceedings of a Symposium on the Role of Perceptions and Attitudes  in Decision-Making in Resources Management, ibid., pp. 125-32. Sewell, W.R. Derrick. "Public Participation: Towards an Evaluation of Canadian Experience", in Involvement and Environment, ibid.', vol. 2 pp. 205-24. Sewell, W.R. Derrick and Phillips, Susan D. "Models for the Evaluation of Public Participation Programmes." Natural Resources Journal 19 (April 1979): 337-58. Sinclair, Margaret. "A Review of the International Joint Commission's Public Hearings on the Great Lakes: 1972-74," in Involvement and  Environment, ibid., vol. 2, pp. 321-29. 108 Smith, Judy. Representative of JCUTH. Interview, 15 January 1980. Stainsby, Cliff. Member of EAAUM and Director of SPEC. Interview, 16 July 1979. Stairs, Sonia. Community relations consultant for RCIUM. Interviews, 6 June 1979a; k October 1979b; 17 March 1980. Suchman, E.A. Evaluative Research. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1967. Swainson, Neil A. "Defining the Problem", in Managing the Water Environ ment, pp. 1-30. Edited by Neil A. Swainson, Vancouver: UBC Press, 1976. Switzer, Bruce. Environmental coordinator of Consolidated Rexspar Min erals and Chemicals Ltd. Interview, 27 February 1980. Task force of funded participants. Letter of 19 July 1979 to RCIUM, 7 PP. Terral, Jim. The Hazards of Uranium Mining. Slocan Park, British Columbia: Rainweed Books, 1979. Terral, Jim. Representative of KNSG. Interview, lk January 1980. Terral, Jim. "The 'So What' Inquiry", The Energy File 3, No. 1, February 1980. The Trumpet. 1. November 1979. BCCUCC. The Vancouver Sun, 28 February 1980. Thompson, Andrew R. "In Defence of Accountability." Paper presented to the SCC Seminar oh Northern Development. January 1976. (Mimeo graphed). Thompson, Andrew R. Opening Statment to WC0PI. Westcoast 1, No. 1 (1977) Westwater Research Centre, UBC. Thompson, A.R. "A Disciplined Framework for Public Participation." Paper presented to the Second Banff Conference on Public Participation, 1979. (Mimeographed). Thompson, Andrew R. "Public Involvement in Environmental Impact Assess ment." Paper presented to the second Environmental Impact Assessment Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, November 1979b. (Mimeographed). Thompson, Andrew R. Director of Westwater Research, UBC and Chairman of WC0PI. Interviews, 7 February 1980a; 19 February 1980b; 7 March 1980c. Transcripts of Proceedings: RCIUM. Vancouver, British Columbia: Allwest Reporting Ltd., 1979-80. 109 Uranium Exploration Questionnaire, RCIUM, October 1979. Uranium Information Centre Fact Sheet, RCIUM, 1980. UID 1 (17 September 1979); 10 (5-15 February 1980). Edited by Robert Sham. Vancouver Cable 10. "Nuclear Crossroads." 24 September 1979; 26 Nov ember 1979. Vancouver Cable 8. "Jack Webster Show." 24 January 1980. Vancouver Co-Op Radio. "Legal Services Commission." 26 April 1979. Weinberg, Alvin M. "Science and Trans-Science." Minerva 10 (1972); 2-9-22. Weiss, Carol H. Evaluation Research: Methods of Assessing Program  Effectiveness. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1972. WCELA. Submission to the Inaugural Public Meeting of RCIUM, Vancouver, British Columbia. 6 March 1979. (Mimeographed). White,"Del. Office Coordinator of EAAUM. Interview, 10 January 1980. Williams, Roger and Bates, David. "Technical Decisions and Public Accountability." Canadian Public Administration 19 (1976): 604-32. Young, Eric. Representative of BCMA. Interview, 26 February 1980. Zentner, R.D. "Public Attitudes on Environmental Pollution." Ecolibrium 6 (1977): 13-15. 110 APPENDIX 1 Preliminary rulings Ill Province of British Columbia ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE TO THE SECRETARY COMMISSIONERS: DAVID V. BATES, M.O. (CANTAB), F.R. CP., F.R. CP. (C>. F. A. CP.. F.R.S.IC CHAIRMAN JAMES W. MURRAY. PH.D.. F.G.S.E.. F.G.S.A.. F.G.S. VALTER RAUDSEPP, P.ENG. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: BRIG.-GEN. E. D. DANBY (RETIRED) May Ik, 1979 COMMISSION COUNSEL: RUSSELL J. ANTHONY, B.A., LL.B.. UL. M. PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. 1 RULES OF PROCEDURE In fulfilling its Terms of Reference as outlined in Order in Council No. 170 dated January 18th, 1979, the Royal Commission of Inquiry Into Uranium Mining will hold public hearings throughout the Province of British Columbia. To ensure maximum participation the Commission will gather evidence and receive public comments regarding the matters described in its Terms of Reference by holding public hearings, con sisting of formal hearings and local hearings, and by receiving written briefs. 112 A. PROCEDURE FOR LOCAL HEARINGS 1. The Commission will, through the Executive Secretary, advise the various communities likely to be affected by proposed uranium exploration, mining or milling in British Columbia and the major participants of the locations and times for local hearings. The dates, location and time of the commun ity public hearings mill be advertised through the local media well in advance of the hearings. 2. Apart from rules of decorum and courtesy there will be no formal rules governing the local hearings. Those who have something to say will be asked to come forward and be sworn and then can give their evidence in whatever way they are most comfortable. Several persons may make their present ation in a group rather than individually if they so wish. Individuals presenting detailed or technical evidence are encouraged to file their presentations with the Commission in advance. 3. The Commission members will be entitled to ask questions of persons making presentations but no one else will be accorded this privilege. If someone wishes a matter clarified he may request the Commission to seek such clarification of the person making the presentation or request the attend ance of such witness at the formal hearings where the evi dence can be tested under cross-examination. 113 B. PROCEDURE FOR FORMAL HEARINGS 1. Participants 1.1 Any person who advises the Commission in writing of his intention to appear and give evidence at any formal hearing or who actually appears, gives his name and address to the Commission and states his intention to give evidence will be deemed a participant. 1.2 The Executive Secretary shall maintain a list of parti cipants and the list shall be available for public in spection at the Commission's office. 1.3 The Commission shall, from time to time, identify cer tain parties as "major participants" in the proceedings in the sense that they either have indicated an intention to participate in the proceedings on a more or less regular basis or have been identified as possessing information of particular interest and relevance to the work of the Commission. The participation of these major participants shall be governed by further procedural rules of the Commission. 2. Phasing of Formal Hearings 2.1 The formal hearings shall be divided into the following phases: 114 Phase I: Overview This phase will consist of evidence called by Commission Counsel designed to deal generally with the occurrence and geochemistry of uranium and the physical environ ment of identified uranium deposits in B.C.; describe exploration, mining, milling, transport, and disposal techniques and outline the jurisdiction and authority of monitoring and regulating bodies. The purpose of this Overview is to present information of a background and introductory nature and is designed primarily as a public information session. For that reason cross-examination, except for questions by the Commissioners themselves, will not be allowed. All issues raised in the Overview will be reviewed at the appropriate time during the subsequent formal hearings of the Commission and, at that time, further evidence and cross-examination will be allowed. A copy of the witnesses' statements shall be circulated for comment before the witnesses appear. This phase of the Inquiry will be held in Vancouver• Phase II; Project Descriptions Included will be a description of the geology and physical environment at specific sites; a description 115 of the present and proposed project development plans, including consideration of the design, engineering and construction techniques proposed and an examination of alternatives. Phase III: Impact of Uranium Exploration, Mining and Milling on the Physical and Living Environment  This phase will examine the impact on the environment of each of the major activities associated with uranium mining - exploration, mining, milling, processing, tailings and wate disposal and transportation; identify the impacts on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and terrasphere, in both the short and long term; review the techniques available for environmental pro tection, conservation and reclamation and examine the adequacy of environmental monitoring and regulation. Phase IV: Impact of Uranium Exploration, Mining and Milling on the Human Environment  This phase will examine the potential impact on indiv iduals and society at large of the various aspects of uranium exploration, mining and milling. This will include an identification of hazards to workers, the effects on the public at large particularly the com munities adjacent to uranium sites, an analysis of the 116 proposed monitoring and protective measures respecting the human environment and the social and economic impact of proposed uranium mining. 2.2 The division of the formal hearings into phases is for purposes of convenience only. Commission Counsel mill invite participants to consult with him from time to time to determine whether there should be any further divisions of the hearings within each phase, whether additional phases are required or otherwise determine the most efficient and fairest way to have all the relevant evidence presented before the Commission. 2.3 The Commission will determine the place and date for the commencement of hearings for each of the phases as soon as it is in a position to do so. After the date and place for a particular phase are determined the Executive Secretary will send to each participant a notice of hearing. In addition, the Executive Sec retary will, through the news media, advise the public generally of the commencement date of each phase, the place of hearing and the matters to be considered during such phase. 3. ProduetlonadfT Studies.^' 'Repgrts;Jand-uOther; Docum'entsr  3.1 Commission Counsel will be responsible for requesting that reports and documents of interest to the Commission 117 in the possession or power of the government of British Columbia, the Federal Government and various boards and agencies, both provincial and federal, are made available. To that end, Commission Counsel will com municate with these various governments and boards and arrange for them to provide the Commission with the documents and reports required. 3.2 All of the major participants and the Commission Counsel shall, no later than June 15, 1979, file with the Commission and circulate to the other major partici pants a list of the reports, studies and other docu ments within their possession or power which are re levant to the subject matter before the Commission, including those for which privilege may be proposed to be claimed. 3.3 Supplementary lists are to be filed from time to time as further reports, studies or other documents come to the attention of major participants. 3.4 Each list of reports shall to the extent possible identify the study, report or document by stating, (a) the name of the person or persons who made or compiled it; (b) The date it was made or compiled; (c) A brief description of the subject matter with which it is concerned; 118 (d) Whether the study, report or document is available to the general public and, if it is, the name and address of the publi sher or distributor; The list shall also contain the name, address and phone number of the person to be contacted to review the documents listed. 3.5 The list of documents shall be available for inspec tion by any participant and, upon notice to Commis sion Counsel and to the major participant filing the list, any participant may demand production of any document on the list for review. 3,6.- Upon.reasonable? notice,being~giveh>to the Commission and to Commission Counsel, any participant may bring before the Commission an application for production of any listed document if production has been refused or for a further or better list of documents. A par ticipant may, in addition, request production of any reports, study or document relevant to the subjet matter before the Commission known to them and in the possession or power of any of the participants. 3.7 If any dispute arises as to any claim of privilege or confidentiality made respecting a document, such dis pute shall be referred to the Commission for a ruling. 119 3,8 For purposes of Rule 3 only (Production of Studies, Reports and Other Documents) the following shall be regarded as major participants required to file a list of documents: (1) Commission Counsel, on behalf of the Commission staff and Government Departments and Agencies; (2) Alliance Against Uranium Mining (3) The Atlin Council (4) Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club (Grand Forks) (5) British Columbia & Yukon Chamber of Mines (6) Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility (Kelowna) (7) Canadian Kelvin Resources Limited (8) Committee for a Clean Kettle Valley (9) Consolidated Rexspar Minerals & Chemicals Ltd. (10) E a B Explorations Ltd. (11) The Greenpeace Foundation (Vancouver) (12) Greenpeace (Okanagan) Foundation (13) Indigenous Peoples of the Western Hemisphere (14) The Kootenay Nuclear Study Group (15) The Mining Association of British Columbia (16) Noranda Exploration Company Limited (17) Norcen Energy Resources Limited (18) Placer Development Ltd. (19) PNC Exploration (Canada) Co. Ltd. (20) Shell Canada Resources Limited (21) South Okanagan Environmental Coalition (22) Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs (23) The United Church of Canada - The British Columbia Conference (24) United Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union (25) West Coast Environmental Law Research Foundation (26) Yellowhead Ecological Association - Clearwater (27) Yellowhead Ecological Association - Kamloops (28) Chinook Construction & Engineering Ltd.' (29) Stampede International Resources Ltd. (30) Solar Alternatives to Nuclear Energy 120 t*m Notice of Evidence to be Presented 4.1 Every participant before giving evidence or calling witnesses on its behalf at the formal hearings shall file with the Commission (5 copies) and circulate to the major participants and Commission Counsel, at least two weeks before giving or calling such evidence, a text or full synopsis of that evidence, a text or full synopsis of that evidence together with a list of any reports, studies or other docu ments to which the witness may refer or upon which he may rely and a biographical note on the witness. 4.2 Where a witness is called by subpoena the participant requesting the subpoena shall comply with Rule 4.1 as much as possible indicating the issue the witness is expected to address and his qualifications. 4.3 If a participant cannot comply with the two week rule that will not necessarily preclude the taking of evidence of the witness in question but it may mean the witness will have to be recalled later for cross-examination. 5. Examination of Witnesses 5.1 The participant calling a witness shall be permitted to examine him first. The witness shall then be cross-examined by Commission Counsel and by the other participants. The participant calling the witness shall be entitled to re-examine. 121 5.2 The order for presenting evidence and cross-exam ining mill be determined by the Commission from time to time as the nature of the evidence requires. Generally, Commission Counsel mill lead off the cross-examination to be followed by Counsel for other major participants and finally by any other participant. 5.3 Witnesses may give evidence individually or as part of a group or panel testifying concurrently. In the Commission's discretion, any witness or witnesses may be called more than once. 6« Documentary Evidence 6.1 Any study, report or other document relied upon in the evidence of any witness shall be filed as an exhibit at the hearing unless the Commission other wise directs. 6.2 Where appropriate, the Commission may seek informa tion from parties, whether they are participants or not, by having Commission Counsel communicate with them. The questions posed and the answers received shall then form part of the evidence before the Commission. The Commission may, in its discretion, require that the person providing such answers appear at a hearing to verify his evidence and be cross-examined. 122 6.3 Where a participant claims that a study, report or other document, or any part thereof, is of a confidential or privileged nature, the participant shall produce such study, report or other document for inspection by the Commission and the Commission, without disclosing the contents thereof, shall rule upon the claim. 6.4 The Commission may, in their discretion and if they think it just and necessary for carrying out their Terms of Reference, consider as part of the evidence before them any study, report or document or any part thereof though it may be ruled to be confidential or privileged. 7. Applications to the Commission 7.1 Subpoenas may be issued by the Commission, at its discretion, upon application by any participant pro vided such participant has demonstrated he has attempted to obtain the attendance of the witness or the docu mentary evidence without success, that a subpoena is necessary to obtain the witness or document, and that the witness or document is necessary and relevant to the Terms of Reference of the Commission. 7.2 Notice of an application for a subpoena to obtain the attendance of a participant or an employee of or consultant to a participant or for production of a document in the possession or power of a par ticipant shall be given to that participant. 123 7.3 An application may be made by a participant to the Commission for any relief whatsoever provided it is made upon reasonable notice to the Commission, Com mission Counsel and the major participants as well as any other participants that may be affected. 8. Changes in These Rules 8.1 The Commission retains the power to add to, alter or modify these rules, to suspend the operation of any or part of them or to require any participant not already bound by them to comply in whole or in part, as well as the power to exempt any participant from complying with these rules in whole or in part, as the justice of the situation demands. C. RULES RELATING TO WRITTEN BRIEFS 1. The Commission shall at any time accept written briefs from anyone, whether a participant in the proceedings or not. If possible, the brief should be typewritten and five copies provided. 2. The Commission may request that the person or group pre senting a written brief attend before it so that the issues raised in the written brief may be explored before a public hearing. 124 Province of British Columbia ADORESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE TO THE SECRETARY ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING COMMISSIONERS: DAVID V. BATES, M-D.fCANTABl. F.R.C.P.. JAMES W. MURRAY, PH.D.. F.G.S.E,, F.G.S VALTER RAUDSEPP, p,ENG. . CHAIRMAN EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: BRIG.-GEN. E. D. DANBY (RETIRED! July 24, 1979 COMMISSION COUNSEL: RUSSELL J. ANTHONY, B.A., LL.B..LL.M. PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. 2 - TECHNICAL HEARINGS The following Rulings are supplementary to the Preliminary Rulings No. 1 - Rules of Procedure, issued on May 14th, 1979. 1. Where the words "formal hearings" were used they shall be replaced by the words "technical hearings". This does not denote any change in the nature of the hearings. 2. Pursuant to Technical Hearing Rule No. 1.3 the following are hereby declared as major participants for the Technical Hearings. From this date these organizations will be regarded as major partic ipants and, as such, are entitled to receive the filed statements of evidence circulated pursuant to Rule No. 4.1 and otherwise be bound by the Procedural Rules as they apply to major participants. 125 MAJOR PARTICIPANTS LIST (1) British Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines 84D West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6C ICS 681-5328 (2) British Columbia Conference, United Church of Canada 2D0 - 1955 West 4th Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V6J 1M7 Att: Michael Lewis, Chairman Uranium Working Group (3) B.C. Department of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources c/o Mr. George Cumming, Q.C. Cumming, Richards, Underhill, Fraser, Skillings Barristers and Solicitors Suite 600 - 900 West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1G1 682-3664 (4) B.C. Federation of Labour & United Steelworkers of America 3110 Boundary Road Burnaby, B.C. V5M 4A2 430-1421 Attn: Mr. David Rice (5) Canadian Association of Industrial, Mechanical and Allied Workers (CAIMAW)  c/o Sun, Paterson & Brail Barristers and Solicitors 305 Dominion Building 207 West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 669-7311 Attn: Mr. Craig Paterson (6) Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility Kelowna Branch P.O. Box 1093 Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 7P8 764-4949 Attn: Mr. John Meolaert, Chairman (7) Consolidated Rexspar Minerals and Chemicals Ltd. P.O. Box 11575 650 West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4N7 669-2226 Attn: Mr. Bruce Switzer (8) Environmental Alliance Against Uranium Mining #405 - 2D7 W. Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 688-8361 Attn: Mr. David Garrick (9) Joint Committee - Uranium Technical Hearings c/o Andrew Orkin Box 30 Rock Creek, B.C. VOH 1Y0 446-2392 (10) Kootenay Nuclear Study Group Box 205 Nelson, B.C. V1L 5P9 354-4195 & 359-7618 Attn: Mr. Brian Carpendale (11) Mining Association of British Columbia 480 - 1066 West Hastings Street P.O. Box 12540 Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3X1 681-8429 Attn: Miller H. Mason, Counsel (12) Norcen Energy Resources c/o Russell & DuMoulin Barristers and Solicitors 17th Floor - 1075 West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3G2 688-3411 Attn: D.M.M. Goldie, Q.C. (13) Placer Development Limited 700 - 1030 West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3A8 682-7082 Attn: Mr. Ian Marshall, Legal Counsel (14) PNC Exploration (Canada) Co. Ltd. 3060 - 650 West Georgia Street Box 11571, Vancouver Centre Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4N8 681-6151 127 (15) Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs 3rd Floor - 440 West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1L1 684-0231 Attn: Rosalee Tizya, Administrator (16) Vellowhead Ecological Association Box 23 Clearwater, B.C. VQE IND 674-3330 Attn: Ms. Colleen Foster, Secretary (17) Commission Counsel 1900 - 1D3D West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3E9 689-1811 Attn: Mr. Russell J. Anthony Participants earlier named as major participants for purposes of filing a list of documents are no longer regarded as major participants but are required, in any event, to file supplementary lists of documents as further documents come into their possession. 3. Procedural Rule No. 2.1 outlining the phases of the Tech nical Hearings is hereby deleted and the following phases are established. Also, pursuant to Procedural Rule No. 2.3 the dates and times for hearing evidence at each phase will be as set out below. PHASE I - Overview September 25th - 28th, 1979 PHASE II - Exploration October 2nd - 5th, 1979 PHASE III - Mining October 16th - 19th, 1979 128 PHASE IV - Milling and Chemical Extraction October 3Dth - November 2nd, 1979 PHASE V - Waste November 13th - 16th, 20th - 23rd, 1979 PHASE VI - Environmental Impact December 4th - 7th, 11th - 14th, 1979 PHASE VII - Public and Worker Health Protection January 8th - 11th, 1980 PHASE VIII - Social Impact January 22nd - 25th, 1980 PHASE IX - Ethical questions January 22nd - 25th, 1980 PHASE X - Jurisdiction, Regulation and Enforcement February 5th - 8th, 1980 Phases I through IX mill be held in Vancouver, B.C., at the Devonshire Hotel, 849 West Georgia Street. Phase X mill be held in Victoria, B.C.. at the Empress Hotel, 721 Government Street. All sessions mill commence at 9:00 a.m. and conclude at 4:00 p.m. each day. Participants may call evidence and cross-examine witnesses called by others in all of the ten Phases. 129 Province of British Columbia ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE TO THE SECRETARY COMMISSIONERS: DAVID V. BATES. M.D.IC ANTAB1. F.R.C.P.. F.R.C.P.ICt. F.A.C.P.. F.R.S.lCl. CHAIRMAN JAMES W. MURRAY, PH.D.. F.G.S.E., F.G.5.A.. F.G.S. VALTER RAUDSEPP, P.ENG. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: BRIG.-GEN. E. •. DANBY (RETIRED) September 11, 1979 COMMISSION COUNSEL: RUSSELL J. ANTHONY. B.A.. LL.B.. LL.M. PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. 3 - TECHNICAL HEARINGS The following Rulings are amendments to Preliminary Rulings No. 2, issued on July 2k, 1979. 1. Pursuant to Technical Hearing Rule No. 1.3 the following are changes to the list of major participants: Added to Major Participants B.C. Medical Association West Coast Environmental Law Removed as Major Participants Placer Development Limited Province of British Columbia ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE TO THE SECRETARY COMMISSIONERS: DAVID V. BATES. M.D.(CANTAB).F.R.C.P..F.n.c.P.(C>.F. JAMES W. MURRAY, PH.D., F.G.S.E.. F.G.S.A., F.G.S. VALTER RAUDSEPP, P.ENG. CHAIRMAN EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: October 10, BRIG.-GEN. E. D. DANBY (RETIRED) COMMISSION COUNSEL: RUSSELL J. ANTHONY, B.A., LL.B., LL.M. PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. k - TECHNICAL HEARINGS The following Rulings are amendments to Preliminary Rulings No. 3, issued on September 11, 1979. 1. Pursuant to Technical Hearing Rule No. 1.3 the fallowing are changes to the list of major participants: Added to Major Participants B.C. Ministry of the Environment B.C. Ministry of Health Greenpeace Foundation Confederation of Canadian Unions (CCU) is to be recog nized as a Major Participant in place of Canadian Association of Industrial, Mechanical and Allied Workers (CAIMAW). 131 Province of British Columbia ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE TO THE SECRETARY COMMISSIONERS: DAVID V. BATES. M.O.ICANTABI, F.R.C.P.. f.R.CP.IC), F.A.C.P.. F.R.S.lCl. CHAIRMAN JAMES W. MURRAY, PH.D.. F.G.S.E., F.G,S.A., F.G.S. VALTER RAUDSEPP, P.ENG. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: BRIG.-GEN. E. D. DANBY (RETIRED) November 21, 1979 COMMISSION COUNSEL: RUSSELL J. ANTHONY, B.A., LL.B., LL.M. PROCEDURAL RULINGS NO. 5 - TECHNICAL HEARINGS The following Rulings are further to Preliminary Rulings No. 1 to 4 following the initial Rules of Procedure issued May 14th, 1979. (1) Pursuant to Technical Hearing Rule No. 1.3 the Yellowhead Ecological Association (Kamloops) is added as a Major Participant. (2) Pursuant to Technical Hearing Rule No. 1.3 the Coalition of Con cerned Citizens of the Bulkley-Nechako is added as a Major Participant. Attached is an updated and revised List of Major Participants. (3) Technical Hearing Rule No. 2.1 setting out the phases of the Technical Hearings is deleted in its entirety and the following phasing is substituted therefor: - Overview - Exploration Phase III - Mining Phase IV - Milling and Chemical Extraction - Waste Disposal - Environmental Impact - Public and Worker Health Phase VIII - Social Impact Phase IX - Ethical Questions Phase X - Jurisdiction, Regulation and Enforcement Phase I Phase II Phase V Phase VI Phase VII TECHNICAL HEARINGS MAJOR PARTICIPANTS LIST (1) Atlin Community Association Box 125 651-7648 Atlin, B.C. VOW 1A0 Attn: Ms. Ann Wright (2) British Columbia and Yukon Chamber of Mines 840 West Hastings Street 681-5328 Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1C8 Attn: Mr. F.G. Higgs (3) British Columbia Conference, The United Church of Canada c/o Mrs. Lois Boyce, Secretary 277-4527 Uranium Working Group 8971 Heather Street Richmond, B.C. V6Y 2R7 (4) B.C. Federation of Labour & United Steeluorkers of America 3110 Boundary Road 430-1421 Burnaby, B.C. V5M 4A2 Attn: Mr. David Rice (5) B.C. Medical Association Academy of Medicine Building 1807 West 10th Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V6J 2A9 Attn: Dr. Eric Young 736-5551 (6) B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources c/o Mr. George Cumming, Q.C. 682-3664 Cumming, Richards, Underhill, Fraser, Skillings Barristers and Solicitors Suite 600 - 900 West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1G1 (7) B.C. Ministry of Environment Pollution Control Branch 387-5321 1106 Cook Street Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4 Attn: Mr. Joe Negraeff Mr. Kelvin Hicke 133 (8) B.C. Ministry of Health 828 West 10th Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V5Z 1L8 Attn: Dr. Wayne Greene (9) Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility Kelowna Branch P.O. Box 1093 Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 7P8 874-2331 764-4949 < (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) Attn: Mr. John Moelaert Coalition of Concerned Citizens of the Bulkley-Nechako Box 61 567-9451 1636 Columbia Street Vanderhoof, B.C. VOJ 3A0 Attn: Mr. Bruce Kanary Confederation of Canadian Unions (CCU) c/o Sun, Paterson a Brail 669-7311 1400 Dominion Building 207 West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1K5 Attn: Mr. Craig Paterson Consolidated Rexspar Minerals & Chemicals Ltd. P.O. Box 11575 669-2226 650 West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4N7 Attn: Mr. Bruce Switzer Environmental Alliance Against Uranium Mining EAAUM c/o Ms. Del White 688-8361 Suite 405 - 207 West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 Greenpeace Foundation c/o Environmental Alliance Against Uranium Mining 688-8361 Suite 405 - 207 West Hastings Street Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 Attn: Mr. Peter Chataway Joint Committee - Uranium Technical Hearings Suite 405 - 207 West Hastings Street 688-8361 Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 Attn: Mr. Ralph Torrie Kootenay Nuclear Study Group #2 - 2828 West 6th Avenue 731-3287 Vancouver, B.C. V5M 1R8 Attn: Mr. Jim Terral 134 (17) Mining Association of British Columbia 480 - 1066 West Hastings Street 681-8429 P.O. Box 12540 Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3X1 Attn: Mr. Miller H. Mason, Counsel (18) Moreen Energy Resources c/o Russell & DuMoulin 688-3411 Barristers and Solicitors 17th Floor - 1075 West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3G2 Attn: Mr. John B.L. Robertson (19) PiMC Exploration (Canada) Co. Ltd. c/o Russell & DuMoulin 688-3411 Barristers and Solicitors 17th Floor - 1075 West Georgia Street Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3G2 Attn: Mr. John B.L. Robertson (20) South East Kelowna Irrigation District c/o Robin Luxmoore 763-6011 City Hall - Engineering Department 1435 Water Street Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 1J4 (21) Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs 3rd Floor - 440 West Hastings Street 684-0231 Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1L1 Attn: Rosalee Tizya, Administrator (22) West Coast Environmental Law Association #1012 - 207 West Hastings Street 684-7378 Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 Attn: Mr. Kim Roberts (23) Yellowhead Ecological Association (Clearwater) c/o Dr. Robert MacKenzie Brookfield Medical Centre Clearwater, B.C. V0E 1N0 (24) Yellowhead Ecological Association (Kamloops) c/o Mr. L. Isert 578-7537 R.R. #3 4868 Spurraway Road Kamloops, B.C. V2C 5K1 (25) Commission Counsel 1900 - 1030 West Georgia Street 689-1811 Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3E9 Attn: Mr. Russell J. Anthony 135 ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING Revised Schedule of Hearings As of November 13, 1979 Devonshire Hotel, Vancouver 1979 Nov. 13-16; 20-23: Dec. 4-7; 11-14: 1980 Jan. 8-11; 15-16: Jan. 29 - Feb. 1 Feb. 5-8; 12-15: Mar. 4-7; 11-14; 25-28; Apr. 1-3: Apr. 15-18; 22-25; May 27-30: Jun. 3-6: Jun..l?i.20:i: Jun* 24-27: Phase V: Waste Management Phase VI: Environmental Impact: Ground water, Surface Water, Biological Pathways. Phase VII: Public and Worker Health Continuation of Phases: II-Exploration; Ill-Mining; IV-Milling; V-Waste Management Phase VI: Environmental Impact: Biological Pathways, Atmosphere, Decommissioning, Reclamation, Long Term Control, Emergency Measures Phase VII: Public and Worker Health Phase VIII: Social Impact Phase IX: Ethical Questions Phase X: Jurisdiction, Regulation and Enforcement Community hearings will be rescheduled to September and October, 1980. APPENDIX 2 The Commission staff and their advisors: roles and responsibilities 137 FIGURE 1 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COMMISSIONERS, COMMISSION STAFF AND THEIR ADVISORS Commissioners Commission counsel Technical staff: Research coordinators Librarian, Transcript indexers Technical advisors -) Administrative staff: Executive secretary, Adminis trative assistant, Senior administrator, Clerical workers Commission counsel 1. Senior Commission counsel: Mr. Russell Anthony, whose role it is: (a) to advise RCIUM on procedural matters and any other "legal issues"j ;£b) to set up and structure the technical hearings in con junction with the Commissioners; (c) to meet with RCIUM participants to schedule witnesses for the technical hearings; (d) to work with the Technical Advisory Group to identify problems and RCIUM witnesses; (e) to arrange to have RCIUM witnesses attend; (f) to attend tech nical hearings to cross-examine witnesses; and (g) to help write and review the final report (Anthony 1979a, interview). Mr. Anthony re presented a public interest group (Canadian Arctic Resources Committee) before the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, appeared for the provincial Fish and Wildlife Branch in the Revelstoke hearings, and was Commission counsel for the West Coast Oil Ports Inquiry. 2. Associate Commission counsel: Mr. Gary Letcher, whose role it is to assist Mr. Anthony. Mr. Letcher attends certain phases of the technical hearings in the place of Mr. Anthony. 136 Technical staff 1. Research coordinators: uihose role it is to assist RCIUM in: (a) the structuring of the technical hearings; (b) the definition of the technical questions that must be addressed by RCIUM; (c) the testing of the evidence in the technical hearings; (d) the identification, hiring and organization of RCIUM witnesses; (e) the writing .of the final report. The three research coordinators are: (1) Mr. R.A. Hodge who has a background in engin eering geology and groundwater; (2) Mr. R. Culbert who has a background in civil engineering and works for a consulting firm (Talisman Projects) in Vancouver; (3) Ms. J. Lexier who has a background in geo logical engineering. 2. Librarian: Miss Keltie McCall. 3. Transcript indexers: Ms. Marilyn Kansky and Ms. Karin Hanstantynowicz. Technical Advisors The role of the technical advisors is to give technical advice to the research coordinators. The specific responsibilities and backgrounds of the 11 technical advisors are as follows: Dr. B. Morrison: low level radiation exposure. Dr. Morrison is a statistician with a background in cancer research. She is a medical doctor and works in the Faculty of Medicine at UBC. Mr. Frank Everard: milling of uranium. Mr. Everard has a background in milling and metallurgy and has his own consulting firm in Toronto. Dr. Pervez Umar: mining of uranium. Dr. Umar is a mining engineer and has his own consulting firm in Toronto. Dr. Lloyd Skarsgard: effects on health of uranium exploitation. Dr. Skarsgard has a medical background. Dr. J. Miller: effects on health of uranium exploit ation. Dr. Miller has a background in medical genetics. 139 Mr. CO. Brawner: established Golder firm, and recently at UBC. uranium mine waste disposal. Mr. Brawner Associates, a geochemical engineering entered the Mining Engineering Department Dr. UI.K. Fletcher: geochemistry of uranium. Dr. Fletcher is a geochemist in the Department of Geological Sciences at UBC. Dr. Ul.H. Matthews: physical environmental studies and impact of uranium on the natural environment. Dr. Matthews has a background in engineering geology, ground-water and environ mental studies; he works in the Department of Geological Sciences at UBC. Dr. A.J. Sinclair: geology and mineralogy of uranium deposits in British Columbia. Dr. Sinclair is a geological engineer : with a background in mineral deposits and geostatistics. He works in the Department of Geological Sciences at UBC. Mr. CT. Hatfield and Mr. J. Villamere of Hatfield Consultants Limited. This company, which specializes in environmental and pollution management, assists in the cross-examination of various witnesses in Phases I-VI of the technical hearings. Dr. Arthur Scott: radiological aspects of uranium exploitation. Dr. Scott has a background in nuclear physics and has his own consulting firm in Toronto. In addition, RCIUM has a community relations' consultant, Ms. Sonia Stairs. Ms. Stairs is: "half staff, half advisor" (Hodge 19B0d, inter view). While her role in the community hearings is to intervene between the community participants and RCIUM, and to thereby keep the participants informed of RCIUM's activities (Stairs 1979a, interview), her role in the technical hearings is: (a) to assist community participants through orien tation to both the procedure and the information; (b) to advise, to some extent, on the dissemination of appropriate and useful information to the communities (Stairs 1979b, interview). Ms. Stairs, as a member of the Secretariat of the Canadian Council of Resources and Environment Ministers, undertook the conceptual design and initial planning of the Man and Re source Conference Program. She also helped set up the Community Relations Department and the inter-departmental work groups of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority. IkO Administrative staff 1. Executive secretary: Brigadier General E.D. Danby (retired), whose role it is: (a) to act as the Commissioner of Baths; (b) to take responsibility for the exhibits; (c) to contact participants, certain other organizations and expert witnesses to arrange for their appearance at a suitable time and place; and (d) to supervise the activities of the rest of the staff. In Dr. Bates' words: "Brigadier General Danby .... is responsible for organizing the work Df the Commnssion so that it is done efficiently and done well." (TP, 1, p. 5). Brigadier General Danby has been re sponsible for the administration of numerous commissions and inquiries, including the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Property Assessment and Taxation. 2. Administrative assistant: Mr. John Erb, whose role it is to assist General Danby during the public sessions. In General Danby's absence, Mr. Erb acts as the Commissioner of Oaths. 3. Senior administrator: Mrs. Lorae Charlten, an administrator, personnel manageress and coordinator of information flow in the RCIUM office. <+. Clerical workers. APPENDIX 3 List of witnesses: community hearings 142 Kelowna - June 5 and 6 Presentations Placer Development Ltd. PNC Exploration (Canada) Co. Ltd. Norcen Energy Resources Ltd. Vernon Branch of SPEC verbal presentation South Okanagan Environmental Coalition Greenpeace (Okanagan) Foundation verbal presentation British Columbia Conference -The United Church of Canada Inter-Church Committee Anglican Church South and East Kelowna Okanagan Mission Local of the B.C. Fruit Growers Association South East Kelowna Irrigation District Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility - verbal presentation St. Paul's United Church - Kelowna cerbal presentation International Association of Machineists - verbal presentation Personal Kelowna Chapter of Registered Nurses Assoc. of B.C. verbal presentation Witnesses Mr. D. Howard Mr. UJ. Bulmer, Mr. B. Jenkins, Mr. M. Suginohara Mr. Ui.A. Loucks, Mr. D.A. Sawyer, Mr. J. Neville, Mr. P.G. Sagert Ms. L. Warrington Mr. J. Beattie, Mr. J. Lewis, Mr. J.W. Warnock, Mr. C. Johnson Mr. P. Chataway Dr. T.R. Anderson Mrs. D. Burnstill Mr. M. Irwin Mr. R. Luxmoore Mr. J. Moelaert Mr. J. Oakes Mr. A.E. Beaulier Rev. S.W. Rowles Mrs. C. Fletcher 143 South Okanagan Similkameen Union Board of Health Canadian Public Health Association Personal Holy Spirit Parish International Hostess Service verbal presentation Sierra Club of Western Canada Okanagan Group Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs verbal presentation Verbal presentation Summerland United Church - read into the record by Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Kelowna Business and Professional Women's Club - read into the record by Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Personal Personal - read into the record by Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Verbal presentation Dr. D.A. Clarke Ms. E. Clarke Mr. W. McGrath Mr. W. Gilmour Rev. J. Smith Mrs. J.R. Donati Ms. K. Madsen Miss L. Basil, Mr. J. Rogers Mr. W.A. Gray Ms. L. Reinertson Ms. M. Fedison Mr. F. Snouisell Mr. D. Cursons Mr. A. Proudfoot Clearwater - June B and 9 Consolidated Rexspar Minerals & Chemicals Ltd. B.C. Medical Association Personal Upper North Thompson Livestock Association B.C. Federation of Labour and United Steelworkers of America Yellowhead Ecological Association - Clearwater Mr. B. Switzer, Mr. J. Mitchell Mr. J. Kerr Dr. R.F. Woollard Dr. R.F. Woollard Mr. W.H. Sedgewick Mr. K. Graham, Mr. E. Steele Dr. R.E. MacKenzie North Thompson Chapter of Registered Nurses Association of B.C. Ms. H. MacKenzie Clearwater Secondary School Students' Council - verbal presentation Ms. G. Watson Verbal presentation Mr. L.W. Sakals Verbal presentation Mr. G. Briggs Verbal presentation Sister Regina Jacek Personal Mrs. J. Nistor Verbal presentation Mr. UJ. MacLennan Verbal presentation Ms. H. MacLennan Verbal presentation Mr. K.D. Simmerling Verbal presentation Dr. R.E. MacKenzie Personal - read into the record by Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Mr. and Mrs. Voysey Personal - read into the record by Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Mr. D. Boudreau Personal Dr. C. Lam Verbal presentation Mr. G. Blidook Verbal presentation Mr. L. Bishop Personal Mr. R. Jackson Kamloops - June 11 Presentations Witnesses Consolidated Rexspar Minerals & Chemicals Ltd. Mr. Mr. B. J. Switzer, Mr. Kerr Yellowhead Ecological Assoc. Kamloops Mr. L. Isert, Mr. J, North Shuswap Environmental Mr. D. Charlton Committee Canadian Union of Public Employees, Local 90D Mr. B. Ferguson Ms. M. Bentley Beaverdell Concerned Citizens Committee for a Clean Kettle Valley Diocese of Kootenay, Anglican Church Personal Verbal presentation Verbal presentation Hydrological Map - Norcen Property British Columbia Conference United Church of Canada Verbal presentation Personal Verbal presentation Personal Verbal presentation Rock Creek Women's Institute verbal presentation Mr. C. Holly Mr. li). Poole Rev. T. Mumford Mr. R. Rexin Mr. A.J. Drkin Mr. F. Cromwell Mr. J. Neville Mr. D.A. Sawyer Dr. E.G. Miller Dr. C. Levitt Ms. S. Stairs demons Mrs. N. McGarvie Mr. G. Dihm Ms. L. Taylor Ms. M. Cannon Grand Forks - June 2D and 21 Presentations Chinook Construction & Engineering Limited Radiation Protection Service, Ministry of Health, Government of B.C.. Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club Personal Committee for a Clean Kettle Valley verbal presentation Witnesses Mr. T. Schorn Dr. W. Greene Dr. L. Olsen Mr. B. Bloom Mr. D. White Verbal presentation Mr. J. Kelly 146 Personal - read into the record by Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Mount Paul United Church Thompson-Nicola Regional District Verbal presentation Kamloops Medical Society verbal presentation Hospital Employees Union, Local ISO Personal Personal Personal B.C. Honey Producers' Association verbal presentation Personal Personal PROBE - BRITISH COLUMBIA City of Kamloops - read into the record by Dr. D.V. Bates Personal - read into the record by Brig. Gen. E.D. Danby Kamloops and District Labour Council verbal presentation Personal - read into the record by Mr. K.M. Wyllie Ms. C. Foster Rev. P. Rolston Mr. K. Simmerling Ms. J. Lee Dr. CL. Webster Mr. H.A. Theobald Mr. L.P. Jensen Mr. J.R. Kerr Mr. L. Isert Mr. A.E. Hooper Mr. P. Jones Mr. P. Bamford Mr. D. Ellsay Mayor R.M. Latta Ms. B.M.A. Wheatcroft Mr. D. MacPherson Mrs. J. Jensen Rock Creek - June 18 and 19 Presentations Witnesses PNC Exploration (Canada) Co. Ltd, Norcen Energy Resources Ltd. Kettle River Stockmen's Assn. Mr. W. Bulmer Mr. J. Neville Mr. D.A. Sawyer Mr. W.H. Price, Mr. J. Eek'; Mrs. D. Bubar Personal Mr. D. Planedin Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club Mr. P. Tchir USCC Union of Youth (Union of Spiritual Communities of Christ) Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - verbal presentation Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - verbal presentation Union of Spiritual Communities of Christ Ms. L. Plotnikoff Mr. N. Reynolds Mr. S. Bastien Mr. 111. Kootnekoff Personal Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - verbal presentation Ladies Organization of the USCC verbal presentation Union of Spiritual Communities of Christ Committee for Justice and Human Rights - verbal presentation Personal - read into the record by Mr. R. Anthony Personal - read into the record by Mr. R. Anthony Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - verbal presentation Mr. J. Carson Mr. K. Garrison Mrs. M. Fofonoff Mrs. I. Malloff Dr. R. Walton Mr. D. Campbell Dr. E. Rice Castlegar - June 21 and 22 Presentations Witnesses Stampede International Co. Mr. E. Amendolagine Kootenay Presbytery of the Rev. C. MacGuire United Church of Canada Religious Society of Friends -Argenta Mr. N. Polster Personal Verbal presentation Personal Slocan Valley Resource Society Genelle Concerned Citizens Verbal presentation Verbal presentation Trinity United Church Women of Creston Personal Personal Personal Personal Personal - read into the record by Mr. R. Banner Personal Verbal presentation Verbal presentation Personal Personal Personal Personal City of Castlegar Personal Verbal presentation Mr. R. Brisco, MP for Nelson/West Arm Mr. E. Clough Ms. C. Gaskin Mrs. S. Lamare Mr. T. MacKenzie Mr. H. McGregor Ms. D. Moore Mrs. L.B. Beduz Mr. 3. Terral Mr. D. Jack Mr. B. Carpendale Ms. Joan Renold Mr. Ul. Schwartz Ms. Penny Bonnett Ms. B.N. Daniel Rev. T. Bristow Mr. E. Taylor Mr. D. Pierce Mr. G. Rutley Mr. Ul. Niemann Mr. R. Banner Alderman B. Godderis Mr. R. Ploss Mr. K. Tucker Williams Lake - June 26 Presentations Personal Personal - read into the record by Mr. G. Letcher Personal - read into the record by Mr. G. Letcher Verbal presentation Troopers of Williams Lake verbal presentation Troopers of Williams Lake verbal presentation Greenpeace Foundation verbal presentation Personal Verbal presentation Witnesses Alderman M.M. Hallaur Mr. E. Sager Mr. G. Eichel Mr. R. Woods Mr. D. Diether Ms. L. Enquist Mr. R. Marining Rev. P. Davis Mr. G. Rainey Vanderhoof - June 27 Presentations B.C. Council, Confederation of Canadian Unions Verbal presentation Smithers Conservative Centre Vanderhoof Environmental Society CAIMAW, Local 10 verbal presentation Nechako Valley Regional Cattlemen's Association Stuart Trembleur Indian Band Witnesses Mr. G. Schlesinger Mr. A. Patrick Ms. L. Price Mr. B. Kanary Mr. J. Bell Mr. D. Weaver Mr. C. Gregg Fort Nelson - July 3 No formal presentations Atlin - July k Presentations Serapheim Engineering verbal presentation Placer Development verbal presentation Verbal presentation D.G. Leighton & Associates verbal presentation Department of Energy, Mines & Resources Government of Canada verbal presentation B.C. Energy Coalition Atlin Community Association B.C. Conference, United Church of Canada Atlin Community Association verbal presentation Verbal presentation Verbal presentation Verbal presentation Personal - read into the record by Mr. Ul. Spira Verbal presentation Personal - read into the record by Ms. M. Ripple Atlin District Board of Trade -read into the record by Mr. Anthony Personal - read into the record by Mr. Anthony Witnesses Mr. T. Lyle Mr. S. Tennant Mr. J. Wallace Mr. D. Culbert Mr. B. Ballantyne Mr. D. Dobyns Mr. W. Merry Mrs. L. Boyce Ms. A. Wright Mr. J. Davidson Mr. L. Verlinden Mrs. J. Spira Mr. A. Passerell, MLA for Atlin Mr. B. Johnson Mr. J. Fulton, MP for Skeena Mr. H. Loken Mr. R. Yorke-Hardy APPENDIX 4 Visits to uranium mines and deposits 152 A. V/isits tD Uranium Mines  1-11 APRIL, LIMOGES, FRANCE Beny open pit mine Fanay underground mine Health protection laboratory Filled in, revegetated pit mine Bessines mill Bessines tailings pond with surface leaching pipes Dr. Chameaud's experiments on rats exposed to radon gas 8-9 MAY, ELLIOT LAKE, ONTARIO Quirke Lake barium treatment plant Quirke tailings disposal Quirke site, revegetation experiment Quirke Lake tailings - dry and wind blown Quirke Lake tailings dam with experiment water treatment plant Nordic tailings, giving acid Quirke Lake settling ponds below tailings Ik MAY, MIDNITE MINE, WASHINGTON Midnite mine open pit Newly constructed pond to contain seepage from pit Seepage waters from open pit Tailings pond with saw mill waste being used to cover tailings Dyke at open pit Mill tailings wind blown material Open pit office buildings Seepage from pit: radioactive calcium sulphate (?) white precipitate 153 15 MAY, SHERWOOD MIME, WASHINGTON Sherwood mine open pit Sherwood mine mill Reservoir below open pit Berns to prevent water washing down to the reservoir Ore bin Barium sulphate (BaSO^) settling pond for heating effluent Tailings pond Seepage from BaSO^ treatment pond going underground Seepage from BaSO^ precipitation pond re-emerging in gully above main highway 17 MAY, SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH Vitro plant, Salt Lake City tailings pile Salt Lake City Vitro site Farming adjacent to Vitro site Vitro plant, partly revegetated B. Visits to Uranium Deposits k June - Blizzard, Fuko, Lassie Lake, Donen and Hydraulic Lake deposits in the east Okanagan of central British Columbia B June - Birch Island deposit on the south slope of the North Thompson Valley, 100 km. north of Kamloops 19 June - Beaverdell deposit, south-east of Kelowna 20 June - Boundary deposit, near Grand Forks 21 June - China Creek deposit, near Castlegar 27 June - Nechako River deposit, near Vanderhoof 5 July - Surprise Lake and Ruby Creek deposits, northeast of Atlin (Commission staff timetable, June-July 1979). APPENDIX 5 First Interim Report on Uranium Exploration 155 ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FIRST INTERIM REPORT ON URANIUM EXPLORATION August 15, 1979. I. INTRODUCTION 1. The Commissioners have now visited the major sites of uranium exploration in the Province of British Columbia, and have completed a preliminary evaluation of the risks to the environment and to the public which these activities might cause. We have come to the position that the present methods of control of exploration far uranium are not yet adequate to ensure proper protection Df the public and the environment, having at this time in mind the existing radiation standards set by the Federal and Provincial authorities. 2. The purpose of this FIRST INTERIM REPORT is to detail this evalu ation and to recommend changes in the existing regulations and enforce ment procedures. We wish to stress that our present conclusions and recommendations are only preliminary, and may.be modified or expanded after we have heard the evidence presented to us at the Hearings due to be held in the Fall of 1979 and Spring of I960. II. QUESTION OF A TOTAL MORATORIUM ON EXPLORATION 3. To date, our consideration Df uranium exploration has been limited to a study of its impact on the environment, and of possible health hazards to exploration crews and to the public. 4. The Public Hearings we have conducted so far have indicated to us that some members of the public believe that there are ethical grounds which are strongly held, for a total prohibition of uranium exploration. We have planned specific consideration of these ethical questions early in 1980 and wish to make it clear that the recommendations in this Report are those which we feel to be necessary at this point of time, viewed from the standpoint of public and environmental protection. We are not yet prepared to indicate our position on the ethical questions which are involved, though we anticipate making a comment on this aspect of the questions we have been asked to consider when our Final Report is submitted. 5. It may be argued by some that our unwillingness at this point to recommend a total ban on exploration for uranium represents a tacit con sent to the extraction of any ore found, and its later utilization for nuclear energy; this does not follow. III. ADDITIONAL REASONS FOR INTERIM REPORT 6. The Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada has recently indicated that in the future it will not be licensing uranium exploration, unless this involves removal of more than ten kilograms of uranium or thorium from 156 any one deposit in any one calendar year. (See Appendix I). In our view this makes it necessary for the Province of British Columbia to accept the responsibility to license uranium exploration, and it is now essential that the Provincial Government should move expeditiously to control this activity. 7. A further reason for submitting this Interim Report is that we have been made aware in public testimony of some hardship, for example, extra costs to individual prospectors, currently being caused by un certainty concerning future policy in the Province of British Columbia in relation to uranium exploration. IV. SPECIAL HAZARDS FROM URANIUM EXPLORATION ACTIVITY 8. It has become clear to us that the Provincial Regulations con trolling exploration were originally drafted with a view to general coal and mineral exploration and were not concerned with the possible special hazards associated with uranium exploration. 9. Uranium exploration raises' particular problems from three points of view. Firstly, the possibility of contamination of water by material released as a result of exploration activity; secondly, the possibility of radon gas and its daughters being emitted from exposed radioactive sources; and thirdly, the importance of some special protection methods needed for employees. 10. An examination of the main sites of exploration for uranium in British Columbia reveals that the possible hazards occasioned by this activity vary greatly in different locations, partly because the natural levels of radioactivity are different, but more particularly be cause the local conditions are far from uniform. We wish to stress that some of the public fears expressed to us in testimony in relations to the possible hazards resulting from drilling for uranium do not, in our opinion, constitute a significant risk. Some members of the public have been led to believe that a single drill hole some miles from the nearest habitation could present a hazard by virtue of the leakage into the general- atmosphere of gas containing radon and its daughters. Such a possibility is unsupported by data, and the physics of gas dispersion and dilution make it exceedingly unlikely that any enhanced risk could result from such limited exploration activity. However, a more extensive program including large numbers of drill holes in a known radioactive deposit, could pose a hazard to nearby habitation unless these holes were promptly closed. 11. A potential hazard, in our opinion, is that drill holes will disrupt the pattern of groundwater flow causing a compositional change in the water and leading to contamination of a water supply previously unaffected. The possibility of increased uranium content, or the intro duction of other constituents such as radium 226 or toxic heavy metals associated with uranium deposits, makes the problem particularly diffi cult. The contaminated water might be used for public drinking purposes, or irrigation, or for the watering of livestock. 157 V. PRESENT SITUATION 12. hie have noted examples where the hazards of uranium exploration are illustrated. At the B/D deposit of Consolidated Rexspar Mines (Birch Island), broken radioactive rock is distributed downwards into Foghorn Creek. At China Creek near Castlegar, there is a possibility of contamination of the creek which supplies the water to the local population of Genelle from exploration activity on both sides of the creek. Southeast of Kelowna in the Hydraulic Lake area the problem is that of possible future waterborne radionuclide or uranium affecting the Southeast Kelowna Irrigation District. Another problem exists at Eneas Creek west of Summerland, where uranium in the creek water at the present time appears to be naturally in excess of the proposed public drinking water standard (20 ppb uranium). A recent intensification of exploration and drilling in this area might have the effect of further increasing the uranium content in this and other creeks. VI. PROBLEM OF COMMUNICATION 13. It has been brought to our attention at a number of the Public Hearings we have so far conducted, that there have been difficulties with communication between all levels involved in uranium exploration. Not only has the public found it difficult to get information to which one would have supposed it was clearly entitled, such as exploration programmes, safety measures, etc., but the extent of information dis tributed to local health officers seems to have been exceedingly vari able; the communication between mining inspectors and health officers and the public seems to have been deficient; the communication between the exploration companies and the public has been variable and in some instances unsatisfactory; and the Atomic Energy Control Board, which has been issuing licenses for uranium exploration, seems to have been too distant from the problems in the area to have provided an effective source of information. 14. The public testimony that we have heard has provided us with a great deal of evidence of the frustration encountered by concerned members of the public, including physicians^ ministers, and represent atives of cattlemen, fruit growers or other food producers. It is clear that an improvement of this aspect of the present situation should be a priority. VII. PRESENT LEGISLATION 15. The intensification of uranium exploration in British Columbia is so recent that proper information channels have not yet been developed, and the existing regulations covering exploration have not been amended to take specific account of the problems associated with uranium exploration. 158 16. UJe note that in the present Mines Regulation Act, the definition of "mine" in Section 2 means "any underground, open-pit, or quarry working, or other working of the ground, for the purpose of prospecting, mining, opening up, developing, or proving any>mineral or mineral-bearing substance . • . ." Later in Section 11, subsection 18, there occurs the paragraph "Notwithstanding the provisions of this section in respect of all placer mining operations other than hydraulic monitoring, and in respect of all mines in the exploration stage, the Chief Inspector has the same power and authority that is granted to any person, except the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, under this section, where the employment of mechanical equipment is likely to disturb the surface of the land in clearing, stripping, trenching, or such other operations as the Chief Inspector may consider likely to cause significant disturbance Df the surface of the land, and he may approve programmes for reclamation and conservation of the land surface and issue permits required under this section, subject to such terms and conditions as he may prescribe." 17. UJe interpret these sections as clearly indicating that the Chief Inspector of Mines has responsibility over exploration activities. It seems clear that he has power to require a wide variety of actions in relationto exploration, or actions which should be taken in advance of exploration; but it appears to us that up to this point in time these powers have not been widely used. For example, they would in our view have empowered the Chief Inspector to designate what baseline studies of water or air concentrations of radioactive materials should be made on a given site before any exploration involving detailed drilling or trenching on a large scale had been permitted. UJe have not found evidence that the legislation has been used for this purpose, though in our view in some instances it clearly should have been. 18. The wording of the Pollution Control Act seems to us to bring contamination of water with uranium or with radionuclides, and air with radon daughters clearly within the definition of "pollution". However we have not found evidence that the Pollution Control Branch to this point has been involved in a discussion or survey of problems that might be caused by current uranium exploration. The licenses previously issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board required the exploration company to state what health and safety provisions it had made in re lation to its activities, arid what precautions it was taking to protect the environment. The undertakings which were given to the Atomic Energy Control Board by individual companies under this section do not appear to have been generally known by the District Mining Inspectors, although these individuals have presumably been responsible far checking whether or not these commitments were being discharged. VIII. TYPES OF EXPLORATION 19. Mineral exploration involves those activities designed to locate mineral deposits and evaluate their economic potential. In order to describe what steps should be taken to control uranium exploration, it is helpful to view these activities in an orderly framework. Consequently, we have adopted the following general structure for those activities which follow the inception and design of an exploration program. 159 LEVEL DIME - REGIONAL EXPLORATION 20. This includes the compilation and assesment of existing information and the collection of exploration data of a reconnaissance nature includ ing : (a) Airborne and ground geophysical surveys (b) Geological mapping (c) Sediment, soil and mater sampling (d) Radon determinations LEVEL TUP - DETAILED GROUND EXPLORATION 21. Exploration procedures at this level are designed to thoroughly evaluate local areas of interest. Common activities include: (a) Detailed ground geophysical and geochemical surveys often requiring line cutting in forested areas. (b) Road building, trenching (including blasting) and stripping. (c) Diamond and/or percussion drilling. LEVEL THREE - DETAILED SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION 22. Detailed subsurface exploration provides a thorough information base for evaluating the feasibility of mineral production. In practice it may be difficult to ascertain where Level Two ends and Level Three begins. Activities at this level include the following: (a) Systematic drilling and sampling (b) Excavation of large surface pits and/or driving exploratory adits and shafts. 23. Ground acquisition by claim staking or purchase normally coincides with the onset of Level Two. IX. GUIDELINES FDR URANIUM EXPLORATION 24. Exploration surveys and ancillary physical work can be classified as disruptive or non-disruptive of the physical environment. There should normally be little or no significant disturbance of the land surface up to and including Level Two activity (a). Ue are therefore most concerned with those activities occurring in Levels Two and Three that can result in physical and/or chemical contamination of the environ ment. The general problems associated with these activities are common to exploration for all natural materials, but in the case of uranium there is the added possibility of problems arising from uranium and the radioactivity of its decay products. 25. Insofar as special hazards are associated with uranium exploration, we wish to suggest that the following guidelines be used to supplement the present regulations, some of which are contained in "Guidelines for Coal and Mineral Exploration in British Columbia" (B.C. Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1978). 160 ROAD BUILDING 26. Removal of cover material during construction of access roads to uranium exploration sites may result in exposure of radioactive materials. Consequently, such roads should be surveyed radiometrically and results provided to the Inspecting Officer as soon as is feasible. Where potentially hazardous radioactivity is recognized, the Inspecting Officer may require burial, redesign or relocation. STRIPPING, TRENCHING AND TEST PITTING (including Blasting) 27. Stripping, trenching and test pitting lead to the possibility of exposing high grade uranium concentrations, increasing the rate of radon emission, producing debris piles subject to new conditions of erosion, and altering the surface drainage regime. All these problems can be avoided or minimized by strict adherence to the Guidelines for Clearing, Stripping and Trenching and other relevant sections on Reclamation and Revegetation in "Guidelines for Coal and Mineral Exploration" (B.C. Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1978) uiith the added provis ions that excavated overburden should be sorted according to level of radioactivity. In backfilling the most radioactive material should then be replaced first. Following reclamation, a scintillometer survey should be undertaken to ensure that radiation levels do not significantly ex ceed those present prior to the disturbance. DRILLING 28. Water flowing in drill holes may lead to contamination of previously uncontaminated surface or groundwaters. Therefore, all drill holes not approved by the Inspecting Officer for monitoring purposes must be filled to depth with appropriate sealing material. The sealing procedure must be acceptable to the Inspecting Officer. Additional contamination may arise from drilling muds, sludge and unused cuttings. To minimize the dispersal of these materials a sump tank in an ex cavation shall be used for their containment. On completion of drilling, such materials shall be covered by overburden to a depth of at least one meter or more as directed by the Inspecting Officer. An effort should be made to reuse drilling mud from one drill site to another. 29. On the completion of drilling, the site should be reclaimed as specified in "Guidelines for Coal and Mineral Exploration" (B.C. Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1978) and checked by a final scintillometer survey to verify that no significant changes in levels of radioactivity have occurred. 30. Upon completion of a drill hole, the location, date, and name of the exploration company must be posted at the drill hole site in a permanent manner analogous to a claim post. 161 31. In cases of detailed drilling programs corresponding to Level Three - "Detailed Subsurface Exploration" a monitoring program shall be instituted as follows: (a) Samples of surface waters are to be taken before and during detailed subsurface exploration. These must be analyzed for uranium and other constituents as required by the Inspecting Officer. (b) Groundwater should be analyzed for uranium and other constituents and flow system characteristics. (c) Air samples should be taken for determination of radon concentrations. ADITS AMD SHAFTS 32. Adits and Shafts are normally driven as a means of direct in vestigation of bulk sampling of mineral deposits. In our opinion, the hazards associated with these activities correspond more closely to those encountered in underground mining 0;f uranium than in surface ex ploration activities currently taking place in British Columbia. For this reason, we recommend a moratorium on the driving of exploratory adits and shafts at sites of uranium exploration. This moratorium should be concurrent with the existing moratorium on uranium mining in British Columbia. SAMPLE AMD CORE STORAGE 33. Many of the exploration activities referred to previously give rise to a variety of samples including drill core, requiring storage prior to examination and/or analysis. Much of the more highly radio active material encountered in an exploration program will be represented in such samples. It follows that sample storage must be undertaken in an orderly fashion, either on site or at some other site agreed to by the Inspecting Officer, but in premises to which only authorized personnel have access. These premises should be clearly posted, well ventilated to avoid accumulation of radon daughters, and monitored for levels of radon and gamma radiation. A detailed record of samples shipped must be maintained. 34. On the basis of the preliminary data available to the Commission, we recommend: X. RECOMMEMDATIOMS R-l. That the Province of British Columbia should licensing procedure for uranium exploration. institute a R-2. That the Province of British Columbia should prohibit the driving of exploratory adits and shafts at sites of uranium exploration. R.3 That strict guidelines and regulations for the control of uranium exploration be introduced as part of the licensing process. 162 R-4. That consideration be given to transferring the responsib ility for the surveillance of exploration activity in the Province of British Columbia from the District Mines Inspector to the District Geologist. The District Geologist should be given such staff as is required to carry out the surveillance program in his region, having regard to the extent of uranium exploration within it, and he should also be required to be the main and publicized source of information in the locality on all matters concerned with uranium exploration. This inform ation should include public information on exploration activ ities, on the level of radioactivity around individual drill sites, and on the status of reclamation on exploration sites. In oarpiview, the District Geologist is well equipped to super vise local surface exploration activity. He has detailed know ledge of the geology of the region, he is very interested in the results of drilling programs, he has means of access to any location in the region, and he is equipped to make the measure ments of surface radioactivity which would be required. Liaison between the District Mines Inspector and the District Geologist should be simple since in general they occupy adjacent offices. R-5. That dosimeters should be worn by exploration staff for at least a month DO any specific drilling project, but at the discretion of the Inspecting Officer the wearing of dosimeters could be discontinued. With most surface work there seems to be little possibility that significant levels of radiation exposure either from gamma sources or inhalation of radon gas and its daughters would be likely. R-6. That information on levels of radioactivity recorded at drill sites or from surface rock or core storage areas should be routinely sent by the District Geologist to the local Health Officer and the Regional Manager of the Pollution Control Branch, so that both of those officials and the public are fully informed of the present status of uranium exploration in the district. R-7. That where radioactive cores are being stored on the site, un restricted public access to these should not be possible, and that there be proper protection for members of the drilling crew who would have access to the storage area. This area must be well ventilated and measurements of radon gas concentration should be made periodically if workers are to be employed in the immediate location of such core samples. The responsibility for ensuring worker protection on the site should be shared with the local Health Officer and the representative of the Pollution Control Branch after notification by the Inspecting Officer that radioactive cores were present in the area. 163 R-B. That there be a public warning displayed at places where outcrops of rock are specially radioactive. During the course of our visits to the main sites of uranium exploration in British Columbia, we have had an opportunity to take read ings of radiation levels at rock surfaces (tabulated in Appen dix II). In two instances the radiation levels seemed to us to be high enough to require some special action. (a) The radiation count at the surface of the Fuko deposit, in the upper Kettle River watershed, which is immediately adjacent to a public road, is approximately 1,000 microrems per hour or about 500 times the average natural background. It would seem to us that the existence of this exposed rock should necessitate a public warning notice which would in dicate the nature of the deposit, with possibly the following wording: DANGER HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE ROCK IN THIS AREA We suggest that this notice could be pasted on the authority of the local Health Officer. (b) Similar high count rates were noted at the rock face of the B/D deposit above Birch Island on the Consolidated Rexspar claims. This is also adjacent to a logging road to which the public has unrestricted access, and a similar notice should be posted in this situation. The other data in Appendix II in dicate that some material adjacent to drill holes has a count rate of up to 200 and 500 microrems per hour. At these sites the special precautions we have indicated in Section IX would eliminate any significant hazard. R-9. We recommend the development of a province-wide radiation observation network. This is necessitated by the considerable variation in natural radiation levels. Lde anticipate making a more detailed recommendation on this matter in our Final Report. XI. CONCLUSIONS 35. After visiting the existing sites of uranium exploration in British Columbia, we have concluded that the operation of the existing regulations is still unsatisfactory. We concluded that additional legislation is not specifically needed for this situation to be rectified, but have recom mended a change in individual responsibility, together with the involve ment in the locality of the local Health Officer and the representative of the Pollution Control Branch in decisions concerning the protection of water resources or the protection of public?health. We believe at this time that these recommendations, if implemented, would eliminate the poss ibility of significant public hazard from uranium exploration. We also recommend that the Province of British Columbia should initiate a licens ing procedure for uranium exploration, and prohibit the driving of adits and shafts in exploration areas at the present time. 164 36. UJe wish to emphasize again that this Interim Report on Uranium Exploration does not preclude our making other or more detailed recom mendations on these matters in our Final Report. The series of Technical Hearings scheduled to start in September 1979, may lead us to modify these recommendations, but we wish to bring them to the attention of the Government of British Columbia at their present stage of formulation. (Readings of Radiation Levels at Rock Surfaces and Material Adjacent to Drill Holes Appendix II Interim Report on Uranium Exploration dated August 15, 1979 DATE SITE LOCATION DETAIL SCINTILLOMETER MICROREM/HOUR SOUND/MINUTE 23 June 3 June 4 June 4 June 8 June 18 June 20 June MANNING PARK VANCOUVER BLIZZARD (Norcen) DONEN (PNC) FUKU OUTCROP BIRCH ISLAND (Consolidated Rexspar) PENTICTON (Pacific Petroleum) GRAND FORKS BOUNDARY SHOWING (Chinook Construction) Alpine Meadows Point Grey Top of Basalt dome Stream N.W. edge Cores Core Storage Road gravel on way to FUKO Central surface Above Deposit B Zone - general over drill hole 30 yards up hill Road to A site A Zone - general over drill hole B-D Zone rock face Rock into Foghorn Creek Abandoned core hut Apex Road (Potassium radioactivity) Outcrops Farleigh Lake Pink coutcrop on bank Showing No. 2 Borehold PH78C25 Country rock KIWI drill site cuttings 2-3 2-3 2-3 ^ : ?Bo 6 20 - 25 800 - 1000 15 - 20 100 120 25 18 25 20 1000 200 40 - 80 40 25 25 40 12 - 15 200 - 500 35 10 - 15 25 - 32 c 90 c 90 - 100 i-1 cn 20 June 21 June 27 June WILLIAMS LAKE GENELLE (Stampede International) VANDERHOOF 5 July ATLIN Natural outcrop Road to cabin Snowball Creek Inside old cabin Sample bags Granite outcrop Alexis Creek China Creek Hilltop drill & blast site Nechako River Kenney Dam Road Site EN1 (E & B Co.) Cuttings Perimeter Drill cores Site EN2 Site 2 cores KLUSKUS Log Road Sire El (Shell Co.) Core remains on site Cemetery Surprise Lake (lower end) Road by Surprise Lake Ruby Creek Granite bed Molybdenum drill cores & boxes ID 6 2 -16 10 - 18 2-3 20 - 25 6 5 10 - 11 less than 5 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 15 - 17 15-25 5-10 NOTE: These measurements of radioactivity were made by the use of a scintillometer (Ludlum Measurements Inc., Sweetwater, Texas, Model 19 micro/R meter) which was kindly lent to the Royal Commission for this period of its work by Dr. Wayne Greene, Chief Radiation Protection Division, Department of Health, Province of British Columbia, to whom we are greatly indebted. APPENDIX 6 Depository libraries 168 A. Libraries Holding Transcripts, Statements of Evidence, Accession Lists and the Interim Reportv Abbotsford Public Library Atlin Community Library Campbell River Library Castlegar Public Library Fraser Valley College-Learning Resources Centre, Chilliwack Clearwater Library Cranbrook Public Library Dawson Creek Public Library Fort Nelson Public Library Grand Forks Public Library Greenwood Public Library Cariboo-Thompson-Nicola Regional Library, Kamloops Kelowna Branch of the Okanagan Regional Library Vancouver Island Regional Library, Nanaimo New Westminster Public Library Prince George Public Library Prince Rupert Public Library Quesnel Library Revelstoke Library The Library, North West College, Terrace Royal Commission on Uranium Mining, 3724 W. Broadway, Vancouver The Library, B.C.I.T., 3700 Willingdon Ave., Burnaby Special Sciences Division-Documents, Simon Fraser University Library, Burnaby The Library, University of British Columbia, 2075 Westbrook Place, Vancouver Vancouver Public Library, 750 Burrard Street, Vancouver Vanderhoof Public Library B. Libraries Holding Edited Videocassettes Fraser Valley College, Learning Resources Centre, Abbotsford Selkirk College, Library, Castlegar East Kootenay College, Library, Cranbrook Northern Lights College, Library, Dawson"-Creek Cariboo College. Library,,Kamloops Okanagan College, Library, Kelowna Malaspina College, Library, Nanaimo College of New Caledonia, Library, Prince George North West College, Library, Terrace B.C.I.T. Library, Burnaby Royal Commission on Uranium Mining, 3724 West Broadway, Vancouver, B.C. Camosun College, Library, Victoria 169 APPENDIX 7 Participant funding NAME1 INITIAL REQUEST FIRST ALLOTMENT NEW REQUEST ADDITIONAL ALLOTMENTS TOTAL EAAUM (B.C. Federation of Naturalists, SPEC, Western Canada Chapter of the Sierra Club) $34,0D0/mo 130,000 $15,000 $45,000 ACA $ 2,050 $ 2,000 119,025 $ 6,000 $ 8,000 Beaverdell Community Club Funds to sent to rep resentatives $ 3,700 $ 3,700 BCCUCC $ 5,600/mo. +11,500 $ 2,000 $ 6,000 $ 8,000 British Columbia & Yukon Chamber of Mines 118,275 $ 2,000 $ 2,000 $ 4,000 Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club $ 1,625 S 1,600 $ 1,870 $ 1,800 $ 3,400 CCNR - Kelowna 119,000 S 3,000 $ 4,000 $ 7,000 CCNR - Vancouver $ 5,560/mo. x 6 months =33,900 $ 4,000 $ 4,000 Canadian Public Health Association 1 2,500 $ 2,500 $ 2,500 Consult List of Abbreviations for the legend. o NAME INITIAL REQUEST FIRST ALLOTMENT NEW REQUEST ADDITIONAL ALLOTMENTS TOTAL CCCBN $ 8,000 $ 6,000 $ 6,000 Committee for a Clean Kettle Valley $56,050 $ 3,000 $ 2,000 $ 5,000 Greater Victoria Environmental Centre $ 2,000 $ 2,D00 $ 2,000 Greenpeace Foundation (Okanagan) $25,200 $ 3,000 $ 3,000 Greenpeace Foundation (Vancouver) $10,968 (6 mos.) $ 2,000 $ 6,000 NIL $ 2,000 Indigenous Peoples of the Western Hemisphere $63,750 $ 500 $ 500 OCUTH representing Interest Groups in Kelowna, Beaverdell, Christian Valley, Westbridge, Bridesville, Rock Creek, Midway, Greenwood, Grand Forks $42,000 $25,000 $25,000 Kamloops Honey Producers* Association $ 500 $ 500 $ 500 KNSG $ 3,525/mo. $ 4,000 $ 4,450 (for addit ional project) - -$20,D00 $24,000 NAME INITIAL REQUEST FIRST ALLOTMENT NEW REQUEST ADDITIONAL ALLOTMENTS TOTAL North Shuswap Environmental Committee unspecified ($ 3,700 held in reserve) Solar Alternatives to Nuclear Energy $ 5,500 $ 1,000 $ 1,000 SKIP unspecified $ 3,700 $ 3,700 South Okanagan Environmental Coalition , $ 5,500/mo. ($ 2,000 withdrawn) -UBCIC $96,815 $ 9,500 $10,000 $19,500 United Fishermen & Allied Workers' Union $ 8,000 $ 2,000 $ 2,000 WCELA $ 9,780 $ 1,500 $ 3,500 $ 5,000 YEA $ 8,000 $ 2,200 $ 5,800 $ 8,0D0 TOTAL Reserve $71,500 3,500 $75,000 $129,300 20,700 $150,000 $200,800 24,200 $225,000 173 NOT ELIGIBLE FOR FUNDING NAME REQUESTED B.C. Energy Coalition Unspecified Patrick Britten $ 500 Douglas C.5. Caldwell S 4,250 Brian Carpendale $ 5,210 Consumers' Association of Canada (B.C. Advocacy) $ 6,900 First Baptist Church S 750 Fusion Energy Foundation $ 4,000 Mike Gilfillar S 4,450 (2 mos.) Kelowna Prospectors $ 1,000 Scott Lawrance Unspecified The Pulp, Paper and Woodworkers of Canada, Workers' Compensation Board Representatives - Gary 0. Newell S 3,150 South nkanagan 8 Sjmilkameen Union Board of Health $10,000 174 APPENDIX 8 Public Notice: Participant Funding Province of British Columbia PUBLIC NOTICE ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING PARTICIPANT FUNDING The Commission has been provided with limited funds for interested groups within the Province of British Columbia to assist them in preparing their briefs for presentation at a Public Hearing. GUIDELINES The guidelines for funding of participants before the Commission are as follows: (a) There should be a clearly ascertainable interest that ought to be represented at the Inquiry. (b) It should be established that "separate and adequate represen tation of that interest will make a necessary and substantial contribution to the Inquiry. (c) Those seeking funds should have an established record of concern for, and should have demonstrated their own commitment to, the interest they seek to represent. (d) It should be shown that those seeking funds do not have sufficient financial resources to enable them adequately to represent that interest, and will require funds to do so. (e) Those seeking funds should have a clear proposal as to the use they intend to make of the funds, and should be suf ficiently well organized to account for the funds. in order to avoid duplication, various groups of similar interests are encouraged to jointly prepare a brief for presentation. APPLICATION FOR FUNDS Application for funding should be made in writing to the Executive Secretary at the address beiow, and should provide the following infor mation: (a) A statement of how the applicant satisfies the guidelines for funding. (b) A description, including a detailed budget, of the purposes for which the funds are required, how the funds will be disbursed and how they will be accounted for. (c) A statement of the extent to which the applicant will con tribute funds and personnel to participate in the Inquiry. (d) The name, address, telephone number and position of the individual within the group who will be responsible for administering the funds. The deadline for submitting an application will be Monday, April 30, 197S. On behalf of the Commission; Brig. Gen. ED. Danby (retired) Executive Secretary Royal Commission of Inquiry Health and Environmental Protection — Uranium Mining APPENDIX 9 Results of interviews with six major participants COLUMN NUMBER I II Ill i-IV | Representative interviewed, name erf group and description of groups' primary concern Witness identified Use of cross-examination Studies Mr. Roger (laid graduate) of the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs (UBC1C) uhoae prime con cern is the Indian situation (1980b, interview). Calling in witnesses for the Social Impact 8 Jurisdiction Phases. We would rather do this than leave it to the Commission to bring in and fund these wit nesses. Thoroughly cross-examine evidence that ia: - important & relevant to the Indian situations; - contentious; - vulnerable; - hurtful to our case. Basically, use cross-exam ination to bring out our case, but, sometimes, to determine a witness' cred-ability. We are finding out which Indian bands would be affected by uranium min ing in British Columbia and preparing two studies: - a land use and occupancy study in the Atlin area (for presentation at the second round of community hearings); - a development conflict study in the Okanagan (for presentation in Phase Will). Dr. Young (medical doctor) of the British Columbia Medical Associat ion (BCMA)-whose prime concern is public health (1980, interview) Identified on our own initiative: - one witness for the 0v. view Phase; - one witness for the Waste Management Phase; - five witnesses for the Public & worker Health Phase; - one witness for the Environmental Impact Phase. Only cross-examine evidence that: - is incorrect; - could be seen from other points of view - could alter the final out come of RCIUM. Use cross examination: - to assess whether a wit ness is competent; - to discredit a witness if he/she is biasing the evidence; - to show that the evidence is not universally agreed upon; - to point out the existence of new evidence; - to bring into focus re levant points. BCMA is doing a study on baseline epidemiology and a comparison of occupationa L health in Canada and the United States. ————— -0 1 J See pp. 180-1 for columns V, VI and VII. I II Ill IV Dr. Suiitzer, environmental coor dinator of Consolidated Rexspar Minerals and Chemicals Ltd. (Rexspar)-whose prime concern is acceptance of a specific uranium mine proposal (I960, interview). Identified as many witnesses as we can afford. Rexspar is a small company and cannot afford numerous consultants and lawyers from other com panies. Prepare a thorough cross-examination of evidence that: - can help along our final cause; - may not be accurate (is the witness credible?) Have done a lot of preliminary work on our uranium mine pro posal. Ms. Rounthwaite (lawyer), legal counsel for the Environmental Alliance Against Uranium Mining (EAAUM). EAAUM is a coalition between the Federation of British Columbia Naturalists , The Sierra Club of Western Canada, and the Canadian Scientific Protection and Environmental Control Society (19B0a, interview). Identified six witnesses for the Environmental Impact Phase whose testimonies cover ground not covered by Commission witnesses; for example, radio-ecology. Prepare a thorough cross-examination of witnesses appearing in the Environ mental Impact Phase. If something important has not been covered by a witness but he/she is com petent in this area, will question him/her about it. EAAUM is presenting a major submission for Phase VI (March) on the potential environmental impacts of uranium min ing in British Columbia. EAAUM has commissioned Aspect Consultants to do a study of the envir onmental implications of uranium derived radio nuclides in biological systems with particular reference to British Columbia. Mr. Paterson (lawyer), legal counsel, primarily, for the Confederation of Canadian Unions (CCU), whose prime concern la the health and safety of workers, but also for the Kootenay Nuclear Study Groups,(KNSG) and the Yel lowhead Ecological Association (YEA), and from time to time, for the Atlin Community Association (ACA) (1980, interview). CCU, YEA & KNSG do not have the money to call many wit nesses themselves. Hence, we lobby the Commission to bring in witnesses of our choice; this has been suc cessful. The CCU has iden tified four witnesses for the Public & Worker Health Phaae. Given the nature of the CCU's concerns, focus cross-examination on evidence to do with: - worker and public health; - the relationship be tween government and industry; - government administra tion. Use cross-examination: - to bring out additional paints; - to emphasize important information; Presenting a major brief in Phase X on jurisdic tion and enforcement. Updating two items in the Commission Library (see numbers 262 and 263 in Appendix 12). We would have done more but our funds are limitec CD I II Ill IV CCU, KIM5G, YEA (cont'd) - to test the credibility of the witness; - to determine the philos-opy of the witness. Overall, try to get points in the transcripts that can be used to make our final case. Mrs. Boyce of the British Columbia Conference of the United Church of Canada (8CCUCC) (I960, interview). Calling six witnesses for the Ethics Phase. We would like to hear from a resource economist still. Prepare questions on the evidence. Use cross-ex amination: - to try to sensitize witnesses to moral questions; - to get points in the transcripts that can be used in the Ethics Phase; - to make witnesses aware of the technical uncer tainties in their evi dence and the value judgements they are making that are based on theBe uncertainties. Make summaries of those statements of evidence that are significant, focusing on the moral and ethical points. Pass these onto a "reference group" of theologians and ethicists. Mr. Evans, outreach educator for BCCUCC, will prepare a brief for Phase IX based on the summaries. COLUMN NUMBER I \l UI UII Representative Extent of review tilork with witnesses Technical assistance Mr. Rogers (UBCIC) Review each brief before and after its presentation at the technical hearings. Time is a constraint. Definitely work alongaide our witnesses. Usually, have no technical assistance. For the Social Impact Phase, however, will receive help from other people in UBCIC. Dr. Young (BCMA) Review each brief. More time is needed (suggests an extra week off between each phase). Work with our witness as much as possible. Usually, have no technical asaistance. Dr. Switzer (Rexspar) Thoroughly review all evidence that has a baais in fact; look up the scientific reference too. Absolutely no time con straints. However, we have limited funds; hence I do not have the statements of evi dence reviewed by outside ex perts. Edit (grammatically) our own witnesses' statements; that is all. Rely solely on my own experience. (Dr. Switzer has a Ph.d. in Zoology and has worked alongaide the beat lawyers in the United States). Ms. Rounthwaite (EAAUM) EAAUM participates only in the Environmental Impact Phase and parts of other phases that deal with environmental con cerns. Not sufficient time or money to attend all phases. Listen to evidence as it is presented. Make notes on statements that I can make use of in cross-examination. Want our witnesses to pre sent parts of our caae so we send them a list of ques tions that we want addressed. Also we suggest to our wit-, nesses what they should con centrate on in their verbal presentations at the hear ings. Tony Pearce of Aspects Consultants helps prepare cross-examination. CD o I V VI VII Mr. Paterson (ecu, KNSG, YEA) Cannot do as thorough a re view of the evidence as the government agencies and the mining companies can since our financial resources and my time are limited. Work with our witnesses to a considerable extent; that is they send ua their evidence and we critique it and send it back, and so on until we are happy. Also we send the witnesses copies of the re levant transcripts and state ments of evidence. Have two scientific reaearchers working with me. Mrs. Boyce (BCCUCC) r Review each brief, concen trating in particular, on the ethical and moral com ponents. Not enough time to read the references cited, except for those on ethics. If the Church did not help us out financially there would be no one mono-toring the hearings. •ther people in my group will work with the witnesses; for example, Dr. Anderson and Mr. Evans. Receive no technical assistance-no funds for this. Some of the technical information is beyond my understanding. 182 APPENDIX 10 Cross-examination of ten witnesses by major participants • 3 CD C B cr 1 a a rt »—i tH «= c III III v-t ~—-— f Phase Number CO !-• 1 (0 3 X O m • 3 H* O 3 -» ra a e R-rt-3 Dr. John Nelson Dr. Frank Patton Dr. Donald Langmulr Dr. John Cherry 1 Dr. Al Henry Dr. D'Appol-onia Earl J. Klohn -< P» 3 O 1 C 3 . i-J H 3! rt • • 3 cn o) • rt X rt • 3-C0 E CD Norcen panel Provincial De partment of EMPR, Mine & Inspection & Engineering Branch Witness — ID — CD CD CD 10 X X X X X X X 1 X BCMA X X X X X X X BCCUCC ^J X X X X X X X UBCIC -o X" X X X X X X SKID cn X X X X X X WCELA ui X X X X X EAAUM X X X X KNSG 3 B C_l 13 70 TJ B 70 -t t-H n t-H TJ B Z —1 cn X X X X CCC/BN X X X X ACA X X X NOR CEN X X JCUTH X X GREEN PEACE , X MABC I-* X REX-SPAR 1—1 X BCM EMPR X BCF LUSA h-« X PNC X CCNR KELOWNA CD o t-» o •J cn ^1 01 Total no. of major partici pants cross-examing 184 APPENDIX 11 Preliminary budget estimate: EAAUM 185 Senior Legal Counsel: $75/hr. 8 hrs./day, 29 days/month Junior Legal Counsel: $5D/hr. 8 hrs./day, 20 days/month Co-ordinator: Researchers (2) $1200/month each Secretary: Office and Overhead: Communication with Constituency: (a) IMewletter: Twice/month, 15000 copies (b) Meetings, travel for 10 people: Twice/month Documents and Research Materials: Reproduction of Documents: f12000/month $ 8000/month S 1500/month $ 2400/month $ 1000/month $ 2000/month $ 2000/month $ 4000/month $ 3000 Total: $32,900/month plus initial funding of $5500 for documents, research materials and reproduction thereof. 186 APPENDIX 12 Items in the Commission library 187 Sample of items received between 23 May and 30 May, 1979 261 Sweet, Ul. "Unresolved: the front end of nuclear waste disposal." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. May 1979. pp. 44-48. 5 p. 262 Canadian Association of Industrial Mechanical and Allied Workers. Correspondence on mining safety, 1978-1979. CAIMAUJ. 1979. various pagings. 263 Canadian Association of Industrial Mechanican and Allied Workers. Proposed amendments to the Mines Regulations  Act; submission to the ministry of mines and petroleum  resources of the Province;-,of British Columbia. CAIMAW. Jan. 1978. 264 p. 264 Band, P., et al. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey  among uranium miners and controls. 1977? 22 p. 265 Boulton, J., ed. Management of radioactive fuel wastes: the Canadian disposal program. AECL-6134. Oct. 1978. 135 p. 266 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy. Public participation in decision making related to  science and technology: a basis for the forum  discussion held on October 10, 1978. Sept. 1978. 139 p. 267 U.S. Dep't. of Health, Education, and Welfare. A review of the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment  of benign diseases: vol. 1; a report. HEW Public ation (FDA) 78-8043. Sept. 1977. 53 p. 268 Rotblat, J. "The risks for radiation workers." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Sept. 1978. pp. 41-46. 6 p. 269 Morton, J.D. Surface disposal of uranium tailings and mine waste: a geotechnologi viewpoint: presented  to the Canadian Institute of Mines and Metallurgy; 81st A.G.M.-Montreal, April 1979. 10 p. Sample of items received between 2 November and 27 December 1979 1410 Russell, R.S., et al. "Naturally occurring radioactive substances: the uranium and thorium series." Radio-Activity and Human Diet, Chap. 17, 1966. pp. 365-379. 8 p. 188 1411 Tanner, kJ.U. "Natural radiation effects of vertebrate animals inhabiting the uranium areas of Southeastern Utah." Radioecology, 1963. pp. 325-326. 2 p. 1412 Dobson, R.L. "Binucleates lymphocytes and low-level rad iation exposure." Immediate and low-level radiation  exposure, 1960. pp. 247-251. 5 p. 1413 Delarue, N.C., et al. "Multiple fluoroscopy of the chest: carcinogenicity for the female breast and implications for breast cancer screening programs." Canadian  Medical Association Journal, vo. 112, June 21, 1975, pp. 1405-1413. 7 p. 1414 Myrden, J.A. et al. "Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis." Canadian Medical Associa  tion Journal, vol. 100, June 14, 1969. pp. 1032-1034. 3 P. 1415 Cohen, B.H., et al. "The epidemiological study of mongolism in Baltimore." Annals of the N.Y. Academy of Science, vol. 171, 1970. pp. 320-327. 8 p. 1416 Lyon, J.L., et al. "Childhood leukemias associated with fallout from nuclear testing." The New England Journal  of Medicine, vol. 300, no. 8, Feb. 22, 1979. pp. 398-402. 6 p. (Accessions Lists 1 and 4, Uranium Information Centre, 1979). APPENDIX 13 Public education by six major participants 190 Major participant Public education activities EAAUM (White 1980, interview) EAAUM was given money for public education in the first round of funding; this will not happen in the second round of funding. The EAAUM office itself serves an educational function. KNSG (Terral 1980 interview) I /YerralJ attend the technical hearings. Rich ard Banner writes press releases and produces the KNSG Newsletter in the interior (Nelson). Both of us receive participant funding. The Commission knows that the KNSG uses some funds for public education. JCUTH (Smith 1980, interview) We didn't put down public education when we ap plied for the second round of funding because we knew the Commission would ignore that. We face a real dilemna—should we intervene in the Inquiry or educate the public? We decided to intervene but, in so doing, we perform some public education since we communicate what hap pens at the technical hearings back to the com- • munities. WCELA (Boggild 1980, interview) WCELA is doing same public education, for ex ample, I've been on radio and TV, and so has Kim Roberts. The association has also done some workshops on nuclear issues. We haven't used participant funds for public education. BCCUCC (Boyce 1980a interview;" The Trum-pet 1 November 1979). The United Church.hired Mr. Moelaert to educ ate primarily members of the Church, but also interested members of the public about the issues involved in uranium exploitation. We didn't use participant funds to hire him; indeed, the Commission probably wouldn't have given us money to have Mr. Moelaert touring around the province. The United Church produces a weekly half-hour television series called "Nuclear Crossroads." It is scheduled on Vancouver Cablevision (Cable 10) Mondays at 8:00 p.m. and repeated Sundays at 1:30 p.m. Western Cable-vision (Surrey, etc.) carries the series on Wed nesdays at 6:30 p.m. and Victoria Cablevision plans to run the series on its mid-band (E-18). In this program, Mrs. Boyce (hostess) takes a look at the RCIUM hearings, interviewing a diff erent actor (Commissioner, major participant, witness, etc.) each week. BCUIC (Rogers 1980a interview) It is BCUIC's policy to use a lot of money for public education. We hold workshops, issue newsletters, and so on, and use participant funds for all this. The Commission knows that this is how we use a lot of our funds. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACA Atlin Community Association AECL Atomic Energy Control Limited BCCUCC British Columbia Conference of the United Church of Canada BCMA British Columbia Medical Association BCFLUSA British Columbia Federation of Labour and United Steelworkers of America BCMEMPR British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources CBC Canadian Broadcasting Corporation CCNR Canadian Coalition of Nuclear Responsibility CCCBN Coalition of Concerned Citizens of the Bulkley-Nechako CCU Confederation of Canadian Unions EAAUM Environmental Alliance Against Uranium Mining EMR Department of Energy, Mines and Resources JCUTH Joint Committee - Uranium Technical Hearings KNSG Kootenay Nuclear Study Group MABG Mining Association of British Columbia MVP I Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development PCAB Pesticides Control Appear Board PNG Power Nuclear Corporation of Japan PR Preliminary Rulings RCIUM Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining RSBC Royal Statute of British Columbia RSC Royal Statute of Canada sec Science Council of Canada SPEC Scientific Pollution and Environmental Control Society SFU Simon Eraser University SKID Southeast Kelowna Irrigation District TAG Technical Advisory Group TP • Transcripts of Proceedings UBCIC Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs UBC University of British Columbia UID: Uranium Inquiry Digest UJCELA West Coast Environmental Law Association U1COPI West Coast Oil Ports Inquiry YEA Yellowhead Ecological Association 

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