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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of the effectiveness of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Uranium Mining Abbott, Rebecca Jane 1980

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AIM EVALUATION OF THE E F F E C T I V E N E S S OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING *  by REBECCA JANE ABBOTT ial  College  of  Science  University .of London,  Technology  and  197B  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T DF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER DF S C I E N C E  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School  of  hie  Community  accept to  the  this  as  required  THE UNIVERSITY  <D  and  Regional  Planning)  conforming standard  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  June,  1980  Rebecca  Jane  Abbott,  1980  Province Of  R O Y A L COMMISSION OF INQUIRY  British Columbia  H E A L T H A N D E N V I R O N M E N T A L PROTECTION URANIUM MINING  ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE  TO THE SECRETARY  COMMISSIONERS: D A V I D V . B A T E S . M . D . I C A N T A B ) . F . R . C . P . . F. R . C . P . I C I . F . A . C . P . . F . R . S . I C l . C H A l RM A N JAMES  W. MURRAY.  VALTER EXECUTIVE  PH.D.. F.G.S.E.. F.G.S.A., F.G.5.  RAUDSEPP,  P.ENG.  SECRETARY:  B R I G . - G E N . E . D. D A N B Y  COMMISSION RUSSELL  (RETIRED)  COUNSEL: J. ANTHONY.  B.A.. LL.B.. L L . M .  P e r m i s s i o n i s h e r e b y g r a n t e d t o Ms. R e b e c c a A b b o t t t o r e p r o d u c e b o t h t h e " P r e l i m i n a r y R u l i n g s " and t h e F i r s t I n t e r i m R e p o r t on U r a n i u m E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y i n t o U r a n i u m M i n i n g i n h e r M.Sc. t h e s i s , "An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e R o y a l Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g , " U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a , 1980, and t o t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of C a n a d a t o c o p y t h e m on m i c r o f i l m a n d t o l e n d o r s e l l copies of t h e f i l m . A l l other p u b l i c a t i o n rights are reserved.  D r . D a v i d V. B a t e s Commission Chairman  B r i g . G e n . E.D. D a n b y Executive Secretary  Dated  3724 WEST BROADWAY, VANCOUVER, B.C. (604) 224-2014 (604) 224-2412  V6R 2C1  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced, degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Community  and R e g i o n a l  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  J u n e 2 n d , 19BD  Planning  ABSTRACT  The  purpose o f t h i s study i s t o e v a l u a t e  a commission o f i n q u i r y  p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o d e t e r m i n e how s u c c e s s f u l l y i t h e l p s  elected  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f government p o l i c i e s . I t i s hypothesized  t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as s o l i c i t e d by a com-  m i s s i o n of i n q u i r y , may s e r v e t o t r a n s m i t a wider range o f i n f o r m e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o d e c i s i o n makers than i s o t h e r w i s e p o s s i b l e .  F u r t h e r m o r e , mem-  bers o f t h e p u b l i c may p r o v i d e governments w i t h i m p o r t a n t  information.  Hence, i t seems w o r t h w h i l e t o a s s e s s how w e l l commissions of i n q u i r y f a c i l i t a t e t h e type of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p e l e c t e d r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s .  representativ  In t h i s study,  the p r o c e d u r e s adopted by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g (RCIUM) a r e so e v a l u a t e d .  W h i l e t h e a n a l y s i s i s case  s p e c i f i c , I make some g e n e r a l recommendations t h a t should be o f use t o f u t u r e commissions o f i n q u i r y . The  c r i t e r i a used i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n stem from a p a r t i c i p a t o r y model  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government.  They r e f l e c t , a l s o , t h e s p e c i a l n a t u r e of  both t h e uranium i s s u e and RCIUM's terms o f r e f e r e n c e RCIUM Commissioners s h o u l d  (namely, t h a t t h e  recommend s t a n d a r d s f o r worker and p u b l i c s a f e t y  as a r e s u l t o f uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, f i r s t e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s and r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c s u b m i s s i o n s on t h e s e The  examining  matters).  e v a l u a t i o n framework p o s t u l a t e s t h a t RCIUM should d e s i g n  p a r t i c i p a t i o n program t h a t meets t h e f o l l o w i n g broad  criteria:  a public  1)  s e c u r e s a r e l e v a n t body o f a c c u r a t e  information;  2)  informs  3)  e l i c i t s p u b l i c v i e w s upon i t s f i n d i n g s ;  k)  communicates i t s f i n d i n g s and t h e range o f informed p u b l i c v i e w s t o t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers.  the p u b l i c of i t s f i n d i n g s ;  S i n c e RCIUM was s t i l l  i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n when t h e  thesis research terminated,  o n l y t h e f i r s t two c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d .  The most s i g n i f i c a n t RCIUM a c t i v i t i e s i n a c q u i r i n g a r e l e v a n t body o f accurate  i n f o r m a t i o n a r e community and t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s .  Because o f  l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e community h e a r i n g s , RCIUM l e a r n e d l e s s about l o c a l concerns than i t might have done. A c o n s i d e r a b l e volume o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s b e i n g reviewed a t t h e technical hearings. are pressed  However, many o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t h e s e p r o c e e d i n g s  f o r time and have i n s u f f i c i e n t funds;  hence t h e r e a r e s h o r t -  comings i n RCIUM's c o l l e c t i o n and t e s t i n g o f a l l r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e . tension of the t e c h n i c a l hearings  Ex-  and f o r m a t i o n o f c o a l i t i o n s between p a r t i -  c i p a n t groups a r e recommended as ways o f remedying these d e f i c i e n c i e s . It  i s argued t h a t a commission o f i n q u i r y , when faced w i t h an i s s u e  as c o n t r o v e r s i a l as uranium m i n i n g , s h o u l d perform a thorough p u b l i c education job.  A l t h o u g h t h e RCIUM Commissioners do p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e t o be  p a r t l y one o f e d u c a t i o n , standing  l i t t l e attempt i s being made t o i n s t i l l  of the issues i n the p u b l i c .  Increased  under-  use o f t h e media i s recom-  mended; f o r example, p e r i o d i c , t e l e v i s e d d i s c u s s i o n s between RCIUM p a r t i cipants. As an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e p r o c e d u r e s adopted by RCIUM, an approach i s o u t l i n e d t h a t i n v o l v e s t h e p u b l i c i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e RCIUM p r o c e s s . approach appears t o be f a i r e r than t h a t used by RCIUM; p r o b a b l y , serve t o t r a n s m i t a more complete and a c c u r a t e body o f r e l e v a n t  i t would information  to t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers than w i l l a c t u a l l y be t h e case w i t h RCIUM. iii  This  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page Abstract Table o f C o n t e n t s L i s t of Figures L i s t o f Appendices Acknowledgements Foreword  • ••• ••• •  •  i i iv vi v  i  i  viii i  x  PART I CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION Public P a r t i c i p a t i o n & the Representative System o f Government Commissions o f I n q u i r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia The R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o K Uranium M i n i n g Why  I t Idas S e t Up  The Terms o f R e f e r e n c e Evaluation The Concept o f E v a l u a t i o n R a t i o n a l e f o r the Evaluation II  III  1 1 5 7 7  9 10 10 11  THE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK Background Nature o f t h e E v a l u a t i o n  13 13 19  COMMISSION ACTIVITIES Introduction Public Sessions Commission Research Visits L i b r a r y Network Publicity  21 21 21 25 26 27 30  PART I I Lff  Preface t o Part I I CRITERION I : SECURE A RELEVANT BODY OF . ACCURATE INFORMATION Introduction Public Sessions iv  32 33 33 33  CHAPTER  Page Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n Limiting Factors Commission Research • Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n Limiting Factors Visits Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n Limiting Factors L i b r a r y Network Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n Limiting Factors Summation  V  VI  *  CRITERION I I : INFORM THE PUBLIC OF COMMISSION FINDINGS Introduction Public Sessions • Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed .................... A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n Limiting Factors L i b r a r y Network •• Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed .................... Application of C r i t e r i o n Limiting Factors Publicity « Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed Application of C r i t e r i o n Limiting Factors Summation ....................................... RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS Introduction Commission Accomplishments Commission Weaknesses: Proposed Remedies C o n c l u d i n g Remarks • •  LITERATURE CITED  33 36 63 68 68 69 69 70 70 72 75 76 76 76 78 79 81 81 82 82 83 87 88 68 88 90 90 90 91 93 94 95 95 96 97 102 103  APPENDICES  HO  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  191  v;  LIST  OF  FIGURES  FIGURE  Page  1  TERMS OF REFERENCE  9  2  LAYOUT AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS  3  NUMBER OF WITNESSES  37  AT THE COMMUNITY  HEARINGS k  3B  T I M E DEVOTED TO THE MINING THE COMMUNITY  COMPANIES  IN  HEARINGS  5  MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS  81  6  ATTENDANCE AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS  Bk  vi  APPENDICES APPENDIX  TITLE  1  Preliminary  2  The Commission s t a f f  PAGE  rulings  110 and t h e i r  advisors:  r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  136  3  L i s t of witnesses:  4  V i s i t s t o uranium mines and d e p o s i t s  151  5  F i r s t Interim  154  6  Depository l i b r a r i e s  7  P a r t i c i p a n t funding  169  8  Public Notice:  174  9  R e s u l t s o f i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s i x major participants C r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e n w i t n e s s e s by  10  community h e a r i n g s  Report on Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n •  167  P a r t i c i p a n t Funding  major p a r t i c i p a n t s budget e s t i m a t e :  141  176 182  11  Preliminary  12  Items i n t h e Commission l i b r a r y  186  13  P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n by s i x major p a r t i c i p a n t s .......  189  vii  EAAUM  184  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I uiish t o thank b o t h P r o f e s s o r Andrew R. Thompson and P r o f e s s o r I r v i n g H. Fox f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e guidance paration D f this  and a d v i c e d u r i n g t h e p r e -  thesis.  W h i l e P r o f e s s o r s Thompson and Fox were my a d v i s o r s , o t h e r s o f f e r e d advice or supplied information.  D r . David Bates and Mr. R u s s e l l Anthony  of t h e R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g were p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful. I am a l s o deeply i n d e b t e d t o my f e l l o w c l a s s members and f r i e n d s f o r making these two y e a r s e n j o y a b l e , s t i m u l a t i n g and warm.  viii  FOREWORD On  27 February 1980,  and o r d a i n e d  the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l approved  Qrder-in-Council  No.  442/80.  This order, i n declaring a  seven y e a r moratorium on uranium e x p l o r a t i o n and m i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t e r m i n a t e d ing.  The  t h e R o y a l Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n -  e v a l u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a p p l i e s to the  of the Commission up t o the end of January 1980  and  to the o r i g i n a l  f o r the remainder of the I n q u i r y ; the a n a l y s i s i s u n a f f e c t e d , by the I n q u i r y ' s sudden  termination.;;  ix  activities plans  therefore,  1  PART I  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e System of Government T h i s study  evaluates  Columbia t o d e t e r m i n e how  a commission of i n q u i r y p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h successful i t i s i n helping elected  a t i v e s r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s  representi n the  f o r m u l a t i o n of government p o l i c i e s . Representative  government p o s t u l a t e s t h a t e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  r e f l e c t the p r e f e r e n c e s  of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n  government p o l i c i e s (Fox 1978).  of  T h i s c l a s s i c a l form of d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n -  ment i s not measuring up t o the s t r a i n s of modern s o c i e t y (Thompson 1979a). For example, s i n c e I 9 6 0 , economic growth has r e s u l t e d i n d e v a s t a t i n g environmental p o l l u t i o n .  I n 1976,  p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s i n the  United  S t a t e s r e g i s t e r e d w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Congress and governmental r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s i n c o n t r o l l i n g a i r and water p o l l u t i o n ( Z e n t n e r confidence  1977); and  i n Canada, t h e r e was  a growing l a c k of'  i n the a c t i v i t i e s of government a g e n c i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o problems  of water q u a l i t y and  e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l l u t i o n i n the Great Lakes (Lee  Because of t h e a p p a r e n t f a i l u r e of c u r r e n t p r o c e d u r e s of  1970).  representative  government, t h e r e has been a clamour f o r i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o c u s i n g on e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s (Thompson 1979b).  Thus, the c o n c e r n s of "government have m u l t i p l i e d i n number and  complexity  w i t h the f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t s :  2 (1)  Because s u b s t a n t i a l a n a l y t i c a l r e s o u r c e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o make i n - d e p t h a n a l y s e s o f a l t e r n a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l i c i e s , a f e u a g e n c i e s monopolize t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o a n a l y s e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Hence, a very l i m i t e d range o f a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e examined.  (2)  V a r i o u s groups have not been f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s and may f e e l t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are not p r o p e r l y r e p r e s e n t e d by e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s .  (3)  E l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have t o r e l y on c i v i l s e r v a n t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o base t h e i r judgements. Howe v e r , c i v i l s e r v a n t s do n o t have a c o n s t i t u e n c y of t h e i r own; hence, i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o t r a n s m i t p u b l i c o p i n i o n on which e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s should base t h e i r d e c i s i o n s (Law Reform Commission o f Canada 1977; Fox 1978; Lysyk 1978).  The  desire f o r increased  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making  i s a l s o based upon t h e e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t people have a r i g h t t o be c o n s u l t e d  on d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t them, and e s p e c i a l l y on t h o s e t h a t  i n v o l v e t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f p u b l i c funds o r t h a t impinge upon i n d i v i d u a l rights.  More and more p l a n n i n g  and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y those  concerned w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , a r e o f t h i s t y p e i n t h e r e s o u r c e management f i e l d ( S e w e l l 1970). consideration that planning  I n a d d i t i o n , there i s the pragmatic  and p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s  s a r y p u b l i c s u p p o r t , o r may r e s u l t i n u n p r e d i c t e d  may not g a r n e r t h e necesconsequences, i f p l a n n e r s  and d e c i s i o n makers do n o t a c c u r a t e l y t a k e p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s ( S e w e l l 1970; Thompson 1979a).  i n t o account  F i n a l l y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e c i s i o n making i n -  v o l v e s b o t h c o g n i t i v e and e v a l u a t i v e judgements ( N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l 1977).  Since the p u b l i c i s the expert  the p u b l i c must be c o n s u l t e d  on i t s own v a l u e s  ( H e b e r l e i n 197Gb),  i f r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a r e t o be made.  Modern c o n d i t i o n s d i c t a t e , t h e r e f o r e , a more p o p u l i s t form o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government; t h a t i s , a governmental system i n which e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n s u l t w i t h t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s between elections.  Such a system, i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d ,  would enable e l e c t e d  3 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y t h e p r e f e r e n c e s s t i t u e n t s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of government p o l i c i e s *  o f t h e i r con-  T h i s i s because  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as s o l i c i t e d , f o r example, by a commission o f i n q u i r y , may perform t h e f o l l o w i n g r o l e s : (1)  P r o v i d e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and c i v i l s e r v a n t s w i t h a b e t t e r i d e a o f t h e p u b l i c ' s p r i o r i t i e s and p r e f e r e n c e s ( L y s y k 1978; OECD 1978; Connor 1979). A l t h o u g h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n cannot i n v o l v e e v e r y one, i t s h o u l d help t o communicate more a c c u r a t e l y t h e views o f those who do t a k e p a r t ( F o x 1978).  (2)  A s s u r e t h a t d i f f e r i n g views about a problem and how i t might be s o l v e d a r e understood by government o f f i c i a l s . T h i s i s o f g r e a t help i n s e e i n g t h a t a l l a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r dealing with a problem a r e c o n s i d e r d e d ( F o x 1978; Connor 1979).  I n a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may: (3)  Provide u s e f u l information that the c i v i l s e r v i c e , e x e c u t i v e o r l e g i s l a t u r e had not p r e v i o u s l y come a c r o s s o r c o n c e i v e d o f ( L u c a s 1976; Robbins 1978; Connor 1979).  (4)  I n f o r m , c l a r i f y and d e v e l o p p u b l i c awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a complex i s s u e (Thompson 1976; Lysyk 1978).  (5)  I n c r e a s e p u b l i c c o n f i d e n c e i n government (Heberl e i n 1976a; A. Lucas 1976).  I n l i g h t o f t h i s , i t seems w o r t h w h i l e t o e v a l u a t e commissions of i n q u i r y t o determine how s u c c e s s f u l l y they f a c i l i t a t e t h e t y p e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e f l e c t more a c c u r ately the preferences  of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s .  I n t h i s study, the B r i t i s h  Columbia R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g  (hereafter r e -  1  f e r r e d t o as RCIUM ) i s so e v a l u a t e d .  Two major problems w i t h such an  e v a l u a t i o n a r e mentioned below. A l l a b b r e v i a t i o n s used i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e l i s t e d a f t e r t h e append i c e s ; see p. 191.  Problems of R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Those who  t e s t i f y a t a p u b l i c i n q u i r y a r e not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  the p u b l i c a t l a r g e (OECD 1978; S i n c l a i r 1978; S a l t e r 1979); i n d e e d , as Head ( 1 9 7 1 , p. 19) p o i n t s o u t :  ". • • • i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r  any one group t o r e p r e s e n t the d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l r e s i d e n t s of any area."  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e views of w e l l - o r g a n i z e d , a r t i c u l a t e  interest  groups tend t o be g i v e n more weight than t h o s e o f u n o r g a n i z e d c i t i z e n s (Fox 1972; H e b e r l e i n 1976a and 1976b; S a l t e r 1979). 141) n o t e s :  ". . . . t h e h e a r i n g . . . .  p r e f e r e n c e s t h a t a r e r e v e a l e d may  As J o w e l l (1979, p.  p r o v i d e s no way i n which t h e  be o r d e r e d . "  Another problem i s t h a t  t h e views expressed a r e o f t e n s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d and p a r o c h i a l ( P e o p l e and P l a n n i n g 1969; O'Riordan 1976).  S a l t e r (1979, p. 9) c o n c l u d e s t h a t :  ". . . . p a r t i c i p a t i o n u s u a l l y comes from a s m a l l , c o n s e r v a t i v e , m i d d l e c l a s s e l i t e a n x i o u s t o p r o t e c t a l o c a l p r i v i l e g e a g a i n s t what might be a p u b l i c good."  D i o n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Emond (1975) and B u r c h (1976) r e a c h a s i m i l a r  conclusion. Problem o f N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n Most p e o p l e have no i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g a t p u b l i c (O'Riordan 1976; Connor 1979).  inquiries  Of t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i s h i n g  t o p a r t i c i p a t e , some w i l l n o t , e i t h e r because t h e y l a c k the t i m e and/or r e s o u r c e s t o do s o , o r because they have l i t t l e f a i t h i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Fox 1978; OECD 1978).  S a d l e r (1978, p. 6) notes t h a t :  "Non-participa-  t i o n becomes an i s s u e where t h e r e i s a demand f o r i n v o l v e m e n t , but the p u b l i c i s e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e d from r e v i e w and debate by p o l i t i c a l bureaucracies.*  1  5 Commissions o f I n q u i r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia Commissions o f i n q u i r y a r e ad hoc» a d v i s o r y committees e s t a b l i s h e d by government; t h a t i s , they a d v i s e government on p o l i c y ( L y s y k 1978; Pape 1978; S a l t e r 1 9 7 9 ) .  N o r m a l l y , t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n c e r n s more  than one m i n i s t r y , and i s u r g e n t and c o n t r o v e r s i a l enough t o w a r r a n t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n (Law Reform Commission 1971; L y s y k 1978). commissions o f i n q u i r y a r e on e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r  In theory, institutions  of government and, once a p p o i n t e d , a r e not under any m i n i s t e r i a l However, they a r e dependent on government f o r f u n d i n g and t h e i r can  control. mandates  be r e v o k e d by o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l ( L e D a i n 1971; Lysyk 1 9 7 8 ) . As an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f i t s appointment by government, a commission  of  i n q u i r y i s g i v e n i t s "terms o f r e f e r e n c e " ( C a r t w r i g h t 1 9 7 5 ) .  The terms  of r e f e r e n c e a r e a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e problems t h e commission i s t o c o n s i d e r ; they a r e o u t l i n e d i n t h e o r d e r - i n - c o u n c i l e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e commission (Hanser 1965; Chapman 1 9 7 3 ) . A commission o f i n q u i r y p r e p a r e s a r e p o r t c o n t a i n i n g recommendations. A l t h o u g h commission recommendations a r e not b i n d i n g on government, examples are  r a r e where they have been c o m p l e t e l y d i s r e g a r d e d (OECD 1 9 7 8 ) .  Not a l l  governments a r e l e g a l l y bound t o r e l e a s e t h e r e p o r t t o t h e p u b l i c ( a s i s the  B r i t i s h Columbia government) b u t i t i s u s u a l l y e x p e d i e n t  politically  f o r them t o do s o ; o t h e r w i s e t h e commission i t s e l f may r e l e a s e t h e r e p o r t i f t h e i n q u i r y proceeds as a p u b l i c h e a r i n g ( R i t c h i e 1973). (1971, p. 80) p a i n t s o u t , t h e r e p o r t :  As Le D a i n  ". . . . can have i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t s  on p u b l i c o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e s , l e g i s l a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e , and i n d i v i d u a l rights." P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may o r may n o t be s o l i c i t e d by a commission o f inquiry.  Most commissions do s o l i c i t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , u s u a l l y by  6 holding  p u b l i c hearings.  Witnesses may make d e p o s i t i o n s  o r a l statements, or both (Cartwright  i n w r i t i n g , give  1975; Lysyk 1978).  The p r i m a r y r o l e o f a commission o f i n q u i r y i s t o a d v i s e ( B e r g e r 1977).  I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , a commission must i d e n t i f y t h e i s s u e s w i t h i n  the c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e , o b t a i n t h e r e l e v a n t and make p o l i c y recommendations o t h e r than an a d v i s o r y  role.  ( L e D a i n 1970).  Commissions  information  may perform  F o r example, when t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f a  commission f a l l s i n t h e domain o f more than one m i n i s t r y , i t may perform an i n t e g r a t i n g r o l e t h a t t h e normal f u n c t i o n i n g o f government cannot adequately  p e r f o r m (Thompson 1977; L y s y k 1978).  When t h e r e i s no  demand f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t but i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  general  required  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e code, a commission performs a r i t u a l i s t i c  role  by law o r (Heberlein  1976a and 1976b; OECD 1978); sometimes, a commission performs an  educational  r o l e ( H o d g e t t s 1940).  The P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t The l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t ( R . S . B i C - 1960, c. 315) p r o v i d e s t h e s t r u c t u r a l and f u n c t i o n a l for  commissions o f i n q u i r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  framework  Under t h i s A c t , t h e  C a b i n e t may e s t a b l i s h a commission o f i n q u i r y t o a d v i s e  i t upon:  ". . . . any m a t t e r connected w i t h t h e good government o f t h e P r o v i n c e • . . ." ( s . 3 ) . The A c t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e appointment o f commissioners and o u t l i n e s t h e i r d u t i e s ( s s . 3 , 9 ) . The A c t a l s o o u t l i n e s t h e s p e c i f i c powers o f c o m m i s s i o n e r s : - t o engage t h e s e r v i c e s o f a s e c r e t a r y , c l e r k s and stenographers ( s . 8 ) ;  The f e d e r a l I n q u i r i e s A c t (R.S.C. 1971, c. 1-13) a l s o a p p l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia but i s n o t d i s c u s s e d s i n c e RCIUM was e s t a b l i s h e d under the p r o v i n c i a l A c t .  7 - t o summon w i t n e s s e s and t o c a l l f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n of documents ( s . 1 0 ) ; - t o compel a t t e n d a n c e o f w i t n e s s e s and t o p u n i s h f o r contempt ( s . 1 0 ) . A n a t u r a l r e a d i n g o f s e c t i o n 8 o f t h e A c t would l e a d one t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e draughtsmen o f t h e s t a t u t e i n t e n d e d not t o a u t h o r i z e commissioners to appoint l e g a l c o u n s e l .  However, as noted by S c h m i t t (1979, p. 1 4 ) :  ". . . . t h e power t o a p p o i n t l e g a l c o u n s e l does e x i s t as a r e s u l t o f t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l ' s power under s e c t i o n 12(e) o f t h e Act t o make p r o v i s i o n s :  '(e) g e n e r a l l y , i n r e s p e c t o f a l l such a c t s , m a t t e r s and  t h i n g s , as may be n e c e s s a r y t o enable complete e f f e c t t o be g i v e n t o every provision of t h i s Act.'" I t i s t h e duty o f commissioners  a p p o i n t e d t o conduct any i n q u i r y under  the P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t t o r e p o r t t h e i r f i n d i n g s t o the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.  Moreover,  every r e p o r t thus made i s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e  and hence becomes a p u b l i c document ( s . 9 ) . I t i s apparent t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia's P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t g i v e s t o commissioners d e s i g n a t e d t h e r e u n d e r many o f t h e powers and p r i v i l e g e s o f a Judge o f t h e Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. appear t h a t i n h e r e n t i n a l l commissions  A c c o r d i n g l y , i t would  under t h i s A c t i s an i n q u i r y p r o c e s s  t h a t i s p u b l i c and q u a s i - j u d i c i a l i n c h a r a c t e r ; t h a t i s , conducted i n t h e p u b l i c view and h a v i n g r e g a r d f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f f a i r n e s s and t h e r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s (WCELA 1979). The R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g Why I t Was S e t Up The R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g (RCIUM) was announced on 16 F e b r u a r y 1979. I n p a r t , i t was s e t up i n response t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e o f t h e uranium m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and i n c r e a s i n g  public  a i n t e r e s t i n t h e uranium q u e s t i o n ( H e w i t t 1979, l e t t e r ) .  Uranium  have been found i n s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ure  deposits  There i s p r e s s -  t o d e v e l o p t h e s e r e s o u r c e s q u i c k l y because t h e p r i c e of uranium o x i d e  ( U , 0 ) has r i s e n from j u s t over |15/kg. i n the e a r l y 1970's t o about 3 8 o  $125/kg. today (EMR made.  Report 1979).  There i s a g r e a t d e a l of money t o be  F o r example, a Canadian m i n i n g company, Norcen Energy Resources  L i m i t e d , has a c o n d i t i o n a l c o n t r a c t w i t h Korea E l e c t r i c Company f o r the s a l e of 1,965,366 k g . o f U,0 , Q  worth $300 m i l l i o n (Mews R e l e a s e , 1979).  T o t a l r e s e r v e s o f uranium i n (Moreen's B l i z z a r d p r o p e r t y (53 km. s o u t h e a s t of  Kelowna) have been e s t i m a t e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,767,000 k g . o f  U,0_ J  (Loucks e t a l .  1979).  A number o f f a c t o r s s h o u l d cause the p r i c e of  o U,0  to  f a l l i n t h e mid-1980's.  T h e r e f o r e , i f B r i t i s h Columbia's d e p o s i t s a r e  to  be e x p l o i t e d , m i n i n g companies u n d e r s t a n d a b l y want t o do i t i m m e d i a t e l y  (Schmitt 1979). In  r e s p o n s e t o a c t i v e uranium e x p l o r a t i o n a l l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e , about  27 e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups have d e c l a r e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o n u c l e a r energy i n g e n e r a l and uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r ( S c h m i t t 1 9 7 9 ) .  I n the  case of G e n e l l e , a s m a l l r u r a l community i n s o u t h e a s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, o p p o s i t i o n amounted t o n o n - v i o l e n t p r o t e s t and c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e ( T e r r a l 1979).  The r e s u l t a n t media coverage aroused p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the uranium  i s s u e and t h e r e b y h e l p e d spur t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  into promising a  p u b l i c i n q u i r y into the i s s u e . A d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n s f o r s e t t i n g up RCIUM were o u t l i n e d by Mr. H e w i t t (1979, l e t t e r ) as f o l l o w s : (1) There was a need t o p r o v i d e an assessment: ". . . . of the s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , which would be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i f uranium was mined i n the province." (2) There were such s i g n i f i c a n t unknowns t h a t a f u l l and open s t u d y of the s u b j e c t /"safety, h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n ^ was c a l l e d f o r . "  9 The Terras of R e f e r e n c e  On 18 January 1979, t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l announced t h a t , p u r s u a n t t o the B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t , Commissioners had been a p p o i n t e d t o : of ing  three  ". . . . i n q u i r e i n t o t h e  adequacy  e x i s t i n g measures t o p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n i n a l l a s p e c t s of uranium mini n B r i t i s h Columbia."  ( O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l No. 170/79).  The  Commissioners  are: (1)  D r . David U. B a t e s ( c h a i r m a n ) , p r o f e s s o r o f m e d i c i n e and p h y s i o l o g y and a s s o c i a t e member of t h e Department of H e a l t h Care and E p i d e m i o l o g y , F a c u l t y o f M e d i c i n e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC) w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l h e a l t h hazards;  (2)  Dr. James U. Murray, p r o f e s s o r , Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s , F a c u l t y of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e , UBC;  (3)  Mr. W a l t e r Raudsepp, P. Eng., C i v i l E n g i n e e r , former Deputy M i n i s t e r i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f Lands, F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , and former c h a i r man o f t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board and t h e P e s t i c i d e s C o n t r o l A p p e a l Board (PCAB) i n B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h a thorough knowledge of water r e s o u r c e s and h y d r a u l i c engineering ^ U r a n i u m I n q u i r y D i g e s t (UID) l o j .  The terms of r e f e r e n c e of RCIUM a r e o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 1 below. They a r e d e f i n e d f u r t h e r by the P r e l i m i n a r y R u l i n g s (PR) adopted by RCIUM (see  Appendix 1 ) . FIGURE 1 TERMS DF REFERENCE (1)  t o examine t h e adequacy o f e x i s t i n g f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of workers a s s o c i a t e d w i t h exp l o r a t i o n , m i n i n g and m i l l i n g o f uranium i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e environment and of the p u b l i c , and,  (2)  t o r e c e i v e p u b l i c i n p u t on t h e s e m a t t e r s , and,  (3)  t o make recommendations f o r s e t t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r worker and p u b l i c s a f e t y as a r e s u l t of t h e e x p l o r a t i o n f o r t h e m i n i n g and m i l l i n g o f uranium o r e s . ( O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l No. 170/79)  10 Evaluation The Concept o f E v a l u a t i o n  The term " e v a l u a t i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s o f making judgements o f worth; i t i m p l i e s some l o g i c a l o r r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r making such judgements.  E v a l u a t i o n a l s o encompasses t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s b e i n g  e v a l u a t e d and t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s i f i t s worth i s found t o be low. The p r o c e s s of e v a l u a t i o n has both o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e  elements.  Thus, o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a a r e e s t a b l i s h e d as s t a n d a r d s of performance  and  judgements a r e made as t o how s u c c e s s f u l t h e p r o c e s s being e v a l u a t e d i s i n meeting t h e s e c r i t e r i a (Suchman 1967; S t . P i e r r e 1977).  A l t h o u g h some  of t h e measurements made i n an e v a l u a t i o n a r e q u a n t i t a t i v e , as opposed t o i n t u i t i v e (Homenuck e t a l . 1978), whatever  t h e t y p e o f measurement used, a  judgement has t o be made as t o whether t h e amount measured was s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y c a l l i n g t h e p r o c e s s a s u c c e s s (Weiss 1972; Morgenstern  et a l .  1979). A v e r y b a s i c d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of any p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program; t h a t i s , not everyone w i l l agree w i t h t h e f i n a l outcome. I t f o l l o w s from t h i s t h a t one s i g n i f i c a n t way o f j u d g i n g  the success of a  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program i s t o a s s e s s i t as a p r o c e s s r a t h e r than t o look s o l e l y o r p r e d o m i n a n t l y a t t h e r e s u l t s ( N e l s o n 1978).  Indeed, as  Fox (1976, p. 746) n o t e s :  cannot be  " S i n c e i n s t i t u t i o n a l performance  assessed i n terms of g o a l s , we must make our assessment  i n terms of t h e  p r o c e s s by which t h e c o u r s e of a c t i o n was d e c i d e d on." My e v a l u a t i o n o f RCIUM i s , t h e r e f o r e , an ongoing e v a l u a t i o n ; t h a t i s , i t does not concern i t s e l f w i t h t h e f i n a l o u t p u t o f RCIUM b u t , i n s t e a d , f o c u s e s on t h e RCIUM process.  11  Problems w i t h an Ongoing E v a l u a t i o n An e v a l u a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s d u r i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a program has two inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s : (1)  t h e presence o f t h e e v a l u a t o r may i n f l u e n c e t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e program, and  (2)  t h e e v a l u a t o r may make demands on program p e r s o n n e l ( M o r g e n s t e r n e t a l . 1979). As Weiss (1972, p. 102 n o t e s : O f t e n , t h e e v a l u a t o r wants t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r . . . . t o f i l l o u t forms o r submit t o i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n . The p r a c t i o n e r i s t r y i n g t o g e t a j o b done. He f i n d s t h e i n t r u s i o n time-consumi n g and d i s r u p t i v e . Rationale f o r the Evaluation  L i t t l e e f f o r t has so f a r been devoted t o t h e t a s k o f e v a l u a t i n g commission o f i n q u i r y p r o c e s s e s .  T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e because, w i t h o u t  a s y s t e m a t i c approach t o e v a l u a t i o n , t h e worth o f any such p r o c e s s i s determined by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i m p r e s s i o n s participated i n i t .  of t h e p e o p l e who  i n i t i a t e d or  T h i s type of e v a l u a t i o n i s f r a u g h t w i t h t h e p r e -  j u d i c e s and b i a s e s o f a l l i n v o l v e d , and c o n t r i b u t e s l i t t l e t o an unders t a n d i n g o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n commissions o f i n q u i r y ( E b b i n 1974; Homenuck e t a l . 1978).  By p e r f o r m i n g  an independent  e v a l u a t i o n , I hope t o make a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f the a r t . A frequent c r i t i c i s m  o f e v a l u a t i o n s t o date i s t h a t they  comprehensiveness ( S e w e l l 1978).  lack  As S e w e l l and P h i l l i p s (1979, p. 357)  point out: Most f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n s . . . . have been conducted from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e s p o n s o r i n g agency. As a consequence, t h e tendency has been t o emphasize the p u r s u i t o f agency g o a l s . . . . Assuming t h a t t h e p e o p l e ' s i d e o l o g y i s a more p o p u l i s t form o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy, my e v a l u a t i o n i s comprehensive.  12 Any e v a l u a t i o n p r o v i d e s  basic information f o r redesigning  a process  s i n c e i t s e e k s t o d e t e r m i n e not j u s t whether a p r o c e s s succeeded o r f a i l e d but why i t succeeded o r f a i l e d and what can be done about i t (Suchman 1967; Detomasi 1 9 7 9 ) .  I expect my e v a l u a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t o suggest ways i n  which t h e RCIUM p r o c e s s c o u l d be r e v i s e d , should  t h i s seem  appropriate,  such t h a t i t might b e t t e r f a c i l i t a t e t h e t y p e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y t h e  preferences  of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f government p o l i c y on uranium mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  13  CHAPTER I I THE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK Background As i s apparent from F i g u r e 1 of RCIUM have t h r e e e l e m e n t s .  ( p . 9 a b o v e ) , t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e  These elements a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d .  Thus,  w h i l e t h e second element, t o r e c e i v e p u b l i c i n p u t , i s n e c e s s a r y , as demonstrated below, i n o r d e r f o r RCIUM t o comply i n a f u l l y  satisfactory  way w i t h t h e f i r s t element ( t o examine t h e adequacy o f e x i s t i n g  require-  ments r e l a t e d t o uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n ) , t h e r e s u l t s o f c o m p l y i n g w i t h t h e f i r s t and second elements must be weighed by RCIUM t o a r r i v e a t i t s conc l u s i o n s and recommendations  as c a l l e d f o r by t h e t h i r d element.  The f i r s t element o f t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e r e q u i r e s t h e f o l l o w i n g types of i n f o r m a t i o n : (1)  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e known impacts upon w o r k e r s , t h e p u b l i c and t h e environment r e s u l t i n g from t h e e x p l o r a t i o n , m i n i n g and m i l l i n g o f uranium, and  (2)  an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e known i m p a c t s .  When one c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e r e a r e major u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  i m p a c t s o f uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia  where t h e r e i s , as y e t , no uranium m i n i n g , two f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n can be r e c o g n i z e d : (3)  an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o s s i b l e impacts upon w o r k e r s , t h e p u b l i c and t h e environment r e s u l t i n g from t h e e x p l o r a t i o n , mining and m i l l ing o f uranium i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and  (4)  an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e i m p a c t s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above, t h e f i r s t requires a f i f t h category (5)  element o f t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e  o f i n f o r m a t i o n , namely:  an e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s ( l a w s and a g e n c i e s ) t o implement controls f o r achieving acceptable l e v e l s of impacts*  E s s e n t i a l l y , c a t e g o r i e s ( 1 ) and ( 3 ) above a r e f a c t u a l t y p e s o f i n formation  t h a t , presumably, can be d e r i v e d s c i e n t i f i c a l l y .  noted by W i l l i a m s e t a l . (1976, p. 60S):  However, as  ". . . . most p i e c e s o f t e c h -  n i c a l a d v i c e come t o have a t l e a s t a penumbra o f • t r a n s c i e n c e ' • . • .," by which term i s meant q u e s t i o n s technology  and s o c i e t y :  a r i s i n g from t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s c i e n c e -  ". . • • which can be asked o f s c i e n c e and y e t  which cannot be answered by s c i e n c e . "  (Weinberg 1972, p. 2 0 9 ) .  A g r e a t many t r a n s - s c i e n t i f i c q u e s t i o n s For example, c o n s i d e r t h e c o n t r o v e r s y  u n d e r l i e t h e uranium i s s u e .  over t h e b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f low  l e v e l r a d i a t i o n . Weinberg (1972) d e s c r i b e s how, from a p r a c t i c a l viewp o i n t , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e a t t h e 95 p e r c e n t c o n f i d e n c e  level  by d i r e c t experiment whether 150 m i l l i r e m s ( t h e a c c e p t e d y e a r l y dose o f r a d i a t i o n exposure) w i l l  i n c r e a s e t h e m u t a t i o n r a t e by 0.5 p e r c e n t ( a s  i s p r e d i c t e d by t h e l i n e a r dose-response h y p o t h e s i s ) ; t o do so would r e q u i r e about B b i l l i o n  mice!  T h i s example t r a n s c e n d s  science since to  get answers, and hence t o reduce t h e l e v e l o f u n c e r t a i n t y , would be impractically  expensive.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above, t h e r e a r e two f u r t h e r t y p e s o f t r a n s scientific  questions?^concerning:  - the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l / i n s t i t u t i o n a l behaviour (further uncertainty); - t h e problem o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s i n s c i e n c e .  15 Concerning t h e l a t t e r , Swainson (1976, p. 15) n o t e s t h a t : T e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s i n e v i t a b l y , . . . ., have t h e i r own v i e w s as t o what t h e problems a r e and where t h e most l i k e l y roads t D t h e i r s o l u t i o n l i e . T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s have a major impact i n determining- t h e k i n d s • f d a t a produced, t h e a l t e r n a t i v e forms o f a c t i o n o r b e h a v i o u r a s s e s s e d , t h e quantum o f r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o t h i s assessment, and t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e s between t h e assessments. And, as noted by S a l t e r (1979, p. 1 2 ) : ". . . . t h e n a t u r e o f t h e expert's  paradigm has profound impact upon t h e f i n d i n g s . "  T h i s may  be f u r t h e r f r u s t r a t e d by t h e p e r s o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( W i l l i a m s e t a l . 1976).  I t i s imperative,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t p r o v i s i o n be made t o ensure t h a t a v a r i e t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e brought t o bear upon t h e i n s i g h t s o f t h e e x p e r t s i n o r d e r t h a t they do not skew o r m i s d i r e c t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d (Swainson 1976). As S a l t e r (1979, p. 12) p o i n t s o u t :  "There a r e some s u b j e c t s on  which t h e p u b l i c i s t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f e x p e r t i s e . "  F o r example,  local  p e o p l e a r e t h e s o u r c e o f s p e c i a l and e x p e r t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e impact o f development  on community l i f e .  I n a d d i t i o n , community r e s i d e n t s may i d e n -  t i f y impacts t h a t t h e e x p e r t s have o v e r l o o k e d .  C l e a r l y , t h e r e i s an im-  p o r t a n t r o l e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e impacts of uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  I n f o r m a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s ( 2 ) and ( O of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of impacts.  (p,„13 above) r e q u i r e measurement  W h i l e some impacts can be q u a n t i f i e d i n  commonly a c c e p t e d measures o f v a l u e ( t h a t i s , i n d o l l a r t e r m s ) , o t h e r s cannot be measured i n t h i s way because t h e market does not f u n c t i o n t o measure t h e i r v a l u e s i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. types o f v a l u e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o as i n t a n g i b l e s . notes:  Frequently, these l a t t e r As B e r g e r (1977, p. 229)  " I f you a r e g o i n g t o a s s e s s impact p r o p e r l y , you have t o weigh a  whole s e r i e s o f m a t t e r s , some t a n g i b l e , some i n t a n g i b l e . "  Essentially,  16 t h i s i n v o l v e s t h e w e i g h i n g o f fundamental v a l u e s *  F o r example, some o f  the p e o p l e l i v i n g i n a r e a s where uranium mining may be undertaken o b j e c t s t r o n g l y t o t h e e f f e c t s o f such mining landscape.  upon t h e v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e  T h i s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e o f t h e l a n d s c a p e must be weighed a g a i n s t  many o t h e r v a l u e s , f o r example, t h e monetary v a l u e o f t h e U,Q j  be e x t r a c t e d by t h e m i n i n g  companies.  D  that i s to  o  S i n c e t h e p u b l i c i s t h e e x p e r t on  i t s own v a l u e s ( H e b e r l e i n 197Gb), t h e p u b l i c must be c o n s u l t e d Uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n i n v o l v e s an important may be r e f e r r e d t o as e t h i c a l c o n c e r n s .  directly.  s e t of i n t a n g i b l e s that  F o r example, because o f i t s  r a d i o a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r and t h e thousands o f y e a r s i t t a k e s t o degrade, uranium can have f a r r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s upon l i v i n g o r g a n i s m s . r e s p o n s i b l e , with regard t o  I s i t morally  members o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , t o produce a  commodity t h a t can have such e f f e c t s upon t h e i r w e l f a r e w i t h o u t g i v i n g them t h e c h o i c e as t o whether o r n o t they s h o u l d be exposed t o such r i s k s ? Such e t h i c a l dilemnas a r e u n a v o i d a b l y  of general s o c i a l relevance.  Further-  mare, g i v e n t h a t t h e f u t u r e s o f B r i t i s h Columbians, and o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n and g r a n d c h i l d r e n , w i l l be a f f e c t e d by t h e u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n on uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s extremely  important  that the  c i t i z e n s o f t h i s p r o v i n c e be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o v o i c e t h e i r on t h e m o r a l  opinions  questions.  I n a s i m i l a r v e i n , i t can be argued t h a t p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s on a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s o f r i s k and u n c e r t a i n t y must a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d .  There i s a g r e a t  d e a l o f r i s k and u n c e r t a i n t y u n d e r l y i n g t h e uranium i s s u e ( f o r example, we do n o t know t h e e x a c t e f f e c t s o f low l e v e l r a d i a t i o n on human h e a l t h ; nor do we know t h e a s s o c i a t e d r i s k s ) . generations  S i n c e i t i s p r e s e n t and f u t u r e  o f B r i t i s h Columbians t h a t w i l l have t o l i v e w i t h t h e s e hazards  and unknowns, i t i s o n l y f i t t i n g  t h a t t h e p u b l i c be c o n s u l t e d .  17 I n summary,, p u b l i c i n p u t i s i m p o r t a n t w i t h the f i r s t  t o ensure adequate compliance  element o f RCIUM's terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r the f o l l o w i n g  reasons: (a)  RCIUM c o u l d o v e r l o o k i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i f i t does not c a s t i t s net b r o a d l y and e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e s .  (b)  S c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s i s not c o m p l e t e l y n e u t r a l . Hence, d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s are n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t r e a s o n a b l e judgements about the i m p a c t s of uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  (c)  I n s t i t u t i o n a l behaviour i s not s u b j e c t t o p r e c i s e s c i e n t i f i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Thus, t h e views o f a wide range of e x p e r t s must be e l i c i t e d .  (d)  The assessment o f impacts i n v o l v e s the w e i g h i n g o f b a s i c v a l u e s ; the p u b l i c i s the e x p e r t on i t s v a l u e s and must t h e r e f o r e be c o n s u l t e d .  (e)  Ulhat c o n s t i t u t e s an a c c e p t a b l e degree o f r i s k and u n c e r t a i n t y , and what a r e a p p r o p r i a t e answers to t h e moral q u e s t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the uranium i s s u e cannot be d e r i v e d from s c i e n c e . I n s t e a d , b o t h must be d e r i v e d from t h e p u b l i c .  I n a d d i t i o n t o the above, t h e r e i s another r e a s o n why important.  Adherence t o democratic  - p e o p l e are informed decisions that w i l l  p u b l i c input i s  principles requires that:  about the consequences o f a f f e c t them;  - p u b l i c views upon these consequences are weighed by a c c o u n t a b l e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n a r r i v ing at the a c c e p t a b l e p u b l i c p o l i c i e s . The  above i m p l i e s t h a t RCIUM must make a p o s i t i v e e f f o r t :  - t o i n f o r m B r i t i s h Columbians o f i t s f i n d i n g s ; - t o e l i c i t p u b l i c views upon i t s f i n d i n g s ; - to communicate t h e range of informed the f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers.  p u b l i c views to  18 In t o t a l , RCIUM s h o u l d meets the f o l l o w i n g broad I. II. III. IV.  design  a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n program t h a t  criteria:  s e c u r e s a r e l e v a n t body of a c c u r a t e  information;  i n f o r m s the p u b l i c of i t s f i n d i n g s ; e l i c i t s p u b l i c v i e w s upon i t s f i n d i n g s ; communicates i t s f i n d i n g s and the range of p u b l i c views t o the f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers. To e l a b o r a t e on t h e above, c r i t e r i o n I i n v o l v e s the  identification  of: - the known and p o s s i b l e impacts of uranium exp l o i t a t i o n , some of which w i l l be t a n g i b l e ( f o r example, the economic b e n e f i t s o f uranium mini n g ) and o t h e r s of which w i l l be i n t a n g i b l e ( f o r example, many of the s o c i a l c o s t s ) ; - the r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u r a n ium e x p l o i t a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g t h e u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g the c a p a b i l i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s t o implement c o n t r o l s ) ; - the moral q u e s t i o n s Criterion  underlying  the uranium i s s u e .  I I r e q u i r e s the communication of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o the p u b l i c  i n a c o m p r e h e n s i b l e manner.  C r i t e r i o n I I I i n v o l v e s the e l i c i t a t i o n of  informed p u b l i c views on the above such t h a t : - the impacts are e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the range of v a l u e systems h e l d by B r i t i s h Columbians; - the a c c e p t a b i l i t y determined;  of the r i s k and u n c e r t a i n t y i s  - a t t i t u d e s towards the moral q u e s t i o n s s t o o d and a p p r e c i a t e d .  are under-  F i n a l l y , c r i t e r i o n IV n e c e s s i t a t e s the communication t o the f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers o f : - t h e r e s u l t s of t h e impact e v a l u a t i o n s ; - informed p u b l i c views on the r i s k , u n c e r t a i n t y moral q u e s t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o t h e uranium i s s u e ,  and  f o r the range of v a l u e systems h e l d by B r i t i s h Columbians.  19 The  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o evaluate  terms o f how s u c c e s s f u l l y i t f a c i l i t a t e s  t h e RCIUM p r o c e s s i n  the type of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n t h a t can help f i n a l d e c i s i o n makers r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y t h e preferences  o f t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of government p o l i c y  on uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  I t i s suggested t h a t t h e  e x t e n t t o which t h e RCIUM process meets c r i t e r i a I t o IV above ( s e e p. 18) i s t h e best p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s s u c c e s s i n f a c i l i t a t i n g participation.  such  Because RCIUM w i l l n o t be e l i c i t i n g p u b l i c views upon i t s  f i n d i n g s ( c r i t e r i o n I I I ) nor communicating i t s f i n d i n g s and t h e range of p u b l i c v i e w s t o government ( c r i t e r i o n I V ) u n t i l a f t e r I complete my t h e s i s , I am u n a b l e t o apply c r i t e r i a I I I and I V . S i n c e t h e c r i t e r i a a r e n o t expressed i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms, i t i s impossible to provide a precise determination being met by RCIUM.  of whether o r n o t they a r e  I t i s p a s s i b l e , however, t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s e s  adopted by RCIUM and t o i d e n t i f y t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f what i s being  done  i n terms o f t h e c r i t e r i a , and then t o suggest ways i n which RCIUM c o u l d have b e t t e r a r r i v e d a t c r i t e r i a I and I I above s h o u l d such improvement seem appropriate. N a t u r e of t h e E v a l u a t i o n External Evaluation I am an e x t e r n a l e v a l u a t o r ; t h a t i s , I am n o t h i r e d by RCIUM o r by a government agency o r by any o f t h e RCIUM p a r t i c i p a n t s . Ongoing  Evaluation  My e v a l u a t i o n i s an ongoing e v a l u a t i o n ; t h a t i s , i t f o c u s e s RCIUM p r o c e s s r a t h e r than on t h e outcome. hearings  (except  a l l t h e community  those h e l d a t F o r t N e l s o n ) and a s e l e c t number o f t h e  technical hearings. terminated  I attended  on t h e  I d i d not a t t e n d t h e i n a u g u r a l m e e t i n g s .  about h a l f way through t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s '  My  study  schedule.  20 Impartial Evaluation I am an i m p a r t i a l e v a l u a t o r .  I t a k e no p o s i t i o n on t h e uranium i s s u e  i n B r i t i s h Columbia; as a matter o f p r i n c i p l e , I n e i t h e r support nor oppose uranium  mining.  Comprehensive E v a l u a t i o n Assuming t h a t B r i t i s h Columbians d e s i r e a more p o p u l i s t form o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, my e v a l u a t i o n i s comprehensive. I n f o r m a t i o n Sources My i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s a r e as f o l l o w s : (a)  t h e Commissioners, t h e RCIUM s t a f f , and t h e t e c h n i c a l advisors;  (b)  RCIUM p a r t i c i p a n t s .  During t h e e n t i r e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y , I m a i n t a i n e d ( a ) and ( b ) above.  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h v a r i o u s people  c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t  repeated  contacts with  i n these two c a t e g o r i e s  source o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  (c)  o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g s ;  (d)  c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h members o f t h e a u d i e n c e a t t h e hearings;  (e)  c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h people who, w h i l e not i n a t t e n d ance a t t h e h e a r i n g s , have informed o p i n i o n s on t h e RCIUM p r o c e s s ;  (f)  t h e RCIUM T r a n s c r i p t s o f P r o c e e d i n g s (TP) and a s s o c i a t e d e x h i b i t s and statements of e v i d e n c e ;  (g)  media coverage o f RCIUM (newspapers, r a d i o , e t c . ) ;  (h)  items p u b l i s h e d by RCIUM.  21  CHAPTER I I I COMMISSION ACTIVITIES Introduction  F o l l o w i n g t h e i r appointment, t h e RCIUM Commissioners e s t a b l i s h e d an o f f i c e i n Vancouver and h i r e d a s t a f f ( i n c l u d i n g t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s ) t o a i d them i n t h e i r work ( s e e Appendix 2 ) . Then, i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y  their  terms o f r e f e r e n c e , they decided upon a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s : - public sessions; - Commission r e s e a r c h ; - visits; - l i b r a r y network; - publicity; T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s each type of a c t i v i t y , t h e r e b y l a y i n g t h e groundwork f o r P a r t I I o f t h e t h e s i s i n which I perform t h e e v a l u a t i o n . Public  Sessions  On t h e 6 and 16th o f March 1979, RCIUM conducted i n a u g u r a l p u b l i c meetings i n Vancouver and Kelowna r e s p e c t i v e l y . The purpose o f these meetings was t o g i v e members o f t h e p u b l i c an o p p o r t u n i t y : express  t h e i r views c o n c e r n i n g  ". • . . t o  t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e , t h e t i m i n g and  conduct o f t h e I n q u i r y , and t o d i s c u s s how they might e f f e c t i v e l y  parti-  c i p a t e i n t h e work o f t h e Commission" ( B a t e s , TP, 1, p. 6 ) . RCIUM i s c o n d u c t i n g  two d i f f e r e n t and d i s t i n c t s e t s o f p u b l i c hear-  i n g s ; namely, i n f o r m a l community h e a r i n g s and f o r m a l t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s .  22 The r u l e s of procedure f o r t h e s e h e a r i n g s a r e o u t l i n e d i n Appendix Community h e a r i n g s mere h e l d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia to 4 J u l y 1979, i n communities  1.  from 4?-June 1979  e i t h e r c l o s e to known uranium d e p o s i t s or  c l o s e t o a r e a s of i n t e r e s t t o t h e uranium mining i n d u s t r y .  The  purpose  of t h i s f i r s t round of community h e a r i n g s was t o enable l o c a l concerns t o be heard and t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from the mining companies ( B a t e s interview).  1979,  I n t o t a l , seven mining companies p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e and about  160 b r i e f s were heard from l o c a l groups and i n d i v i d u a l s ( s e e l i s t , Appendix 3). W i t n e s s e s p r e s e n t e d t h e i r b r i e f s under o a t h . the Commissioners,  A f t e r h e a r i n g each b r i e f ,  and members of t h e p u b l i c , i f they so w i s h e d , q u e s t i o n e d  the w i t n e s s and/or commented on t h e b r i e f .  There was no c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n  and no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w i t n e s s e s by l a w y e r s ( w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ) , a l t h o u g h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n by p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d e x i s t ( L e t c h e r 1979, interview). a complete  Microphones  were used and o f f i c i a l  r e p o r t e r s were p r e s e n t s i n c e  t r a n s c r i p t o f the p r o c e e d i n g s a t the community h e a r i n g s was  kept.  The media were a l s o p r e s e n t . The t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , which commenced on 25 September 1979 continue' t i l l 5, Appendix  lj.  27 June 1980, a r e s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t e n phases / s e e PR They a r e h e l d a t t h e D e v o n s h i r e H o t e l i n downtown  Phase X, however, w i l l be h e l d i n V i c t o r i a . as e x p l a i n e d by Dr. B a t e s (Vancouver September 1979)  and No. Vancouver.  The purpose of t h e s e h e a r i n g s ,  C a b l e 10"s " N u c l e a r C r o s s r o a d s ? J  24  i s t o o b t a i n answers t o the "tough" q u e s t i o n s , both t h o s e  suggested by and w i t h i n t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e and those r a i s e d i n the community h e a r i n g s .  D r . Bates (1979b, l e t t e r ) a l s o sees t h e t e c h n i c a l  h e a r i n g s as c o n s t i t u t i n g :  ". . . . a major p r o c e s s of mutual e d u c a t i o n . "  T w e n t y - f i v e g r o u p s , r e f e r r e d t o as "major p a r t i c i p a n t s " p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l - t i m e i n the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ( s e e l i s t , PR No. 5, Appendix  1).  23 Dr. B a t e s i s h o p e f u l t h a t the major p a r t i c i p a n t s m i l l r a i s e , between them, s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o answer t h e "tough" q u e s t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o above  (Vancouver  C a b l e 10*s " N u c l e a r C r o s s r o a d s " , 2k September  The procedures adopted  1979).  at the t e c h n i c a l hearings are s i m i l a r , i n  many r e s p e c t s , t o those o f a c o u r t o f l a w . Sworn evidence i s p r e s e n t e d by w i t n e s s e s who a r e then s u b j e c t e d t o c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n by Commission c o u n s e l ; by major p a r t i c i p a n t s , some o f whom a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by l a w y e r s ; and by members o f t h e p u b l i c , i f they so d e s i r e and i f s u f f i c i e n t is available.  time  The o r d e r i n g o f w i t n e s s e s and o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n by major  p a r t i c i p a n t s i s a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e Commissioners (PR No. 1, B.5.2, Appendix 1 ) .  C o n t r a r y t o PR No. 1, B.5.1, a major p a r t i c i p a n t does n o t  re-examine h i s / h e r w i t n e s s f o l l o w i n g t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n by o t h e r major participants.  N e i t h e r does a major p a r t i c i p a n t examine h i s / h e r w i t n e s s  d u r i n g t h e h e a r i n g s and p r i o r t o t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . W i t n e s s e s a r e a l l o w e d 15-20 m i n u t e s i n which t o p r e s e n t a summary o f t h e i r e v i d e n c e ; t h e i r f u l l statements o r evidence a r e f i l e d w i t h RCIUM. No u n i f o r m time l i m i t i s s e t f o r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n a l t h o u g h v i g o r o u s l i m i t a t i o n s based on r e l e v a n c e a r e imposed, and a l l major p a r t i c i p a n t s w i s h ing  t o cross-examine  a r e r e q u i r e d t o g i v e a time e s t i m a t e f o r t h e i r  ioning to the Executive s e c r e t a r y .  quest-  As i n t h e community h e a r i n g s , o f f i c i a l  t r a n s c r i p t r e p o r t e r s and media r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e p r e s e n t . In March 1979, RCIUM c r e a t e d a T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Group (TAG) c o n s i s t ing  o f Mr. Hodge ( r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r ) , Mr. Brawner, D r . F l e t c h e r , Or.  Matthews, D r . S i n c l a i r and D r . M o r r i s o n ( s e e Appendix 2 ) . TAG was f o r m a l l y d i s s o l v e d because i t s i n i t i a l  I n August 1979,  purpose o f i d e n t i f y i n g  w i t n e s s e s and d e f i n i n g t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s had come t o an end, and t h e e x p e r t i s e o f e x i s t i n g members was r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g l i m i t e d ( t h e r e were no e n v i r o n m e n t a l , b i o l o g i c a l o r s o c i a l impact e x p e r t s ) ; hence RCIUM drew  2k  i n s i x a d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s who b a s i s (Hodge 1980a, i n t e r v i e w ) .  are u n a b l e t o meet on a r e g u l a r  A l s o , i n August 1979,  more r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s (Mr. C u l b e r t and Ms. the work l o a d of Mr. Hodge. r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s and The  Hence TAG  On lk  1, Appendix 1 ) .  t D t e n phases (see PR No.  L e x i e r ) i n o r d e r t o reduce  r e p l a c e d by a team of  schedule recognized  1979,  J u l y 1979,  2) s i n c e i t was  interview).  i n t h a t Phase UII was  were planned f o r F e b r u a r y On 30 October 1979, hearings'  RCIUM expanded the s c h e d u l e  recognized  t h a t the i s s u e  made a v a i l -  modified  "overflow"  hearings  RCIUM announced an e x p a n s i o n of i t s t e c h n i c a l  and t o a l l o w f o r t h e f a c t t h a t cross-examThis  s t i l l f u r t h e r t o a t o t a l o f 96 days (TP, 35, p. 5569).  expanded t o a t o t a l of 92 days (see PR, No.  5 f o r the c u r r e n t  i o n s t h a t they reach from the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s . w i l l a s s i s t the Commissioners i n r e a c h i n g  t h e i r own  A second round of community h e a r i n g s  the  rebe  schedule). conclus-  These s t a t e m e n t s , which c o n c l u s i o n s , are t o  a t a p u b l i c s e s s i o n a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n  and O c t o b e r , 1980.  In  t h a t the h e a r i n g s would  M a j o r p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o p r e p a r e a statement o f t h e  be d i s c u s s e d  was  from a l a r g e number of major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o extend  sponse, RCIUM announced, on 13 November 1979,  presented  i n October  1980.  t a k i n g l o n g e r than expected (TP, 32, pp. 5016-8).  with a request  hearings.  was  s c h e d u l e from kB days t o 66 days i n o r d e r t o accommodate an  i n a t i o n was  hearings  T h i s second s c h e d u l e was  extended by f o u r days and  i n c r e a s e d number of w i t n e s s e s  met  three  o n l y f o u r phases  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y complex as more and more i n f o r m a t i o n was a b l e (Murray 1980,  two  11 t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s (see Appendix 2 ) .  o r i g i n a l t e c h n i c a l hearings*  (see PR No.  was  RCIUM h i r e d  of the t e c h n i c a l  i s s c h e d u l e d f o r September  I n t h e s e h e a r i n g s , the p u b l i c ' s response t o the e v i d e n c e  i n the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s  w i l l be a s c e r t a i n e d ( B a t e s 1979,  speech).  25 Commission Research I n March 1979, t h e RCIUM Commissioners d e c i d e d upon and i n i t i a t e d f i v e research projects: - a b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e v i e w o f low l e v e l r a d i a t i o n exposure; - a s t u d y o f t h e g e o c h e m i s t r y o f uranium i n n a t u r a l and man-made e n v i r o n m e n t s ; - a s u r v e y o f t h e geology and m i n e r a l o g y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's uranium d e p o s i t s ; - a r e v i e w o f uranium t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l methods; - a study of natural r a d i o a c t i v i t y i n b i o l o g i c a l pathways* (TP, 1, pp. 13-14). These p r o j e c t s were made t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f TAG. In May 1979, t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s were t e r m i n a t e d because they were s e r v i n g no u s e f u l purpose f o r RCIUM (Hodge 1980d, i n t e r v i e w ) .  The s o l e  o u t p u t o f TAG's r e s e a r c h was a r e p o r t on uranium m i n i n g and waste and a b i b l i o g r a p h y  on e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l  disposal  d a t a from m i n e r s ( B a t e s 1980c, i n t e r -  view). RCIUM has s i n c e a u t h o r i z e d  about e i g h t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s .  (1)  An assessment o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s through b i o l o g i c a l pathways o f uranium m i n i n g and m i l l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia by t h e B a t e l l e M e m o r i a l I n s t i t u t e o f R i c h l a n d , Washington.  (2)  An a p p r a i s a l o f t h e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s o f b a c t e r i a l l y - a s s i s t e d f e r r i c i r o n l e a c h i n g o f uranium o r e s by B r i t i s h Columbia R e s e a r c h .  (3)  A study on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n and f e r t i l i z e r t o p o s t - g l a c i a l uranium i n t h e s o i l by D r . L a v k u l i c h , Department o f S o i l S c i e n c e , UBC . ( C u l b e r t 1980e, i n t e r v i e w ) »  F o r example:  26 Visits  In A p r i l and May,  1979, t h e RCIUM Commissioners v i s i t e d a number o f  e x t r a p r o v i n c i a l uranium mines i n o r d e r t o a c q u a i n t themselves w i t h "contemporary problems" ( B a t e s 1979, s p e e c h ) . o b s e r v a t i o n s made d u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s .  Appendix 4 l i s t s some o f t h e  The Commissioners a r e p l a n n i n g  f u r t h e r v i s i t s t o uranium mine s i t e s i n F e b r u a r y and J u l y , 19BD.  I n Feb-  r u a r y , D r . B a t e s and B r i g a d i e r G e n e r a l Danby ( t h e E x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y ) w i l l v i s i t t h e A u s t r a l i a n uranium m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , w h i l e Dr. Murray and Mr. Raudsepp w i l l v i s i t t h e Japanese uranium m i n i n g i n d u s t r y ; and, i n J u l y , D r . B a t e s and Dr. Murray w i l l v i s i t a number o f uranium mines i n Saskatchewan ( B a t e s 1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e f i r s t round o f community h e a r i n g s , t h e Commissioners, t o g e t h e r w i t h c e r t a i n members o f TAG and l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , v i s i t e d a l l uranium d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; a t l e a s t , those d e p o s i t s then known t o RCIUM ( T P , 6, p.  548).  Appendix 4 l i s t s t h e d e p o s i t s v i s i t e d .  As e x p l a i n e d by Or. B a t e s (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) , t h e r e a s o n t h e Commissioners wanted t o see t h e d e p o s i t s f o r themselves was  twofold:  (1)  "The Department o f Mines i n V i c t o r i a had i n c o m p l e t e knowledge o f t h e p r e c i s e s t a t u s of e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y . Ide f e l t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o know t h i s status."  (2)  "QJe wanted t o be a b l e t o form an o p i n i o n on the v a l i d i t y o f p u b l i c i n p u t about h a z a r d s . . . . For example, t h e r e was a huge p u b l i c o u t c r y about r i s k a t G e n e l l e . Ule went t o see i f what they were s a y i n g was t r u e : f o r example, was t h e i r water s u p p l y close to the deposit. • . .?"  On 15 August 1979, t h e Commissioners s e n t t h e i r F i r s t I n t e r i m Report on Uranium M i n i n g ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t ) t o t h e Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . Appendix 5.  P a r t s o f t h i s r e p o r t a r e reproduced i n  The Report c o n t a i n s a l i s t o f i n i t i a l recommendations c o n c e r n -  i n g uranium e x p l o r a t i o n t h a t t h e Commissioners f e l t s h o u l d be brought t o  the government's immediate a t t e n t i o n . i n p a r t , on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s  These recommendations a r e based,  made by t h e Commissioners a t t h e uranium  d e p o s i t s ( s e e p.71 b e l o w ) .  L i b r a r y Network The  RCIUM l i b r a r y ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as ' t h e L i b r a r y ' ) was  established a t the beginning RCIUM o f f i c e .  I t contains  o f A p r i l 1979 i n t h e same b u i l d i n g as t h e  a collection of:  - books; - journal articles; - maps; - periodicals; - microfiches; - T r a n s c r i p t s of Proceedings; - statements of evidence; - exhibits; -  legislation;  -  videocassettes;  - exploration reports; - r e s p o n s e s t o Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n This c o l l e c t i o n  Questionnaire.  s e r v e s t h e needs o f t h e Commissioners, t h e RCIUM s t a f f ,  t h e t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s , RCIUM p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n t e r e s t e d members o f t h e public  (Uranium I n f o r m a t i o n  C e n t r e F a c t Sheet 1 9 8 0 ) .  The L i b r a r y i s open from 8:30 a.m. t o 5:00 p.m. on weekdays.  In  a d d i t i o n , as o f 2 October 1979, i t i s open on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday evenings from 7:00 p.m. t o 9:00 p.m., and on Saturday mornings from 9:Q0 a.m. t o 12:00 noon, o f weeks i n which t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s are i n s e s s i o n (TP, 248, pp. 3235-6).  28  The  RCIUM l i b r a r i a n , M i s s M c C a l l , m a i n t a i n s  L i s t s o f a l l t h e items i n t h e L i b r a r y ,  AISD  up-to-date Accession  a v a i l a b l e i s a l i s t o f 1';;::-  l i b r a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( d e p o s i t o r y l i b r a r i e s ) t h a t h o l d of the T r a n s c r i p t s of Proceedings, L i s t s and t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t ,  statements of evidence,  copies  Accession  C o p i e s o f t h e e x h i b i t s a r e not s e n t t o  the d e p o s i t o r y l i b r a r i e s ; t h e e x h i b i t s , however, a t l e a s t those f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l hearings, a r e s i m i l a r i n content o f e v i d e n c e ( M c C a l l 1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) .  to the corresponding  statements  F i n a l l y , a l i s t of depository  l i b r a r i e s t h a t h o l d e d i t e d v i d e o c a s s e t t e s o f t h e f i r s t two phases o f t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s Miss M c c a l l .  f o r v i e w i n g t h e s e can be o b t a i n e d  from  Appendix 6 l i s t s t h e d e p o s i t a r y l i b r a r i e s .  B o o k s , j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s and m i c r o f i c h e s a r e added t o t h e L i b r a r y collection  as and when they a r e r e f e r r e d t o o r requested  by t h e Commissioners,  RCIUM s t a f f , RCIUM p a r t i c i p a n t s o r i n t e r e s t e d members o f t h e p u b l i c ( M c C a l l 1979d, i n t e r v i e w ) . The i n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i o n adopted by M i s s M c C a l l i s t h a t , w h i l e she a t t e m p t s t o r e f l e c t a l l s i d e s o f t h e argument i n h e r s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e L i b r a r y , t h e items must be r e l e v a n t t o RCIUM s terms 1  of r e f e r e n c e ( M c C a l l 1980a, i n t e r v i e w ) . There a r e about f i f t e e n s e t s o f maps i n t h e L i b r a r y , i l l u s t r a t i n g such t h i n g s a s : - t h e l o c a t i o n o f m i n e r a l c l a i m s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; - t h e l e v e l o f uranium i n streanv waters and stream sediments i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a map prepared  by t h e RCIUM s t a f f  entitled:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n M i n e r a l C l a i m s and R a d i o a c t i v e Occurrences i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The L i b r a r y s u b s c r i b e s t o about 30 d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d i c a l s r e f l e c t i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  g r o u p s , government a g e n c i e s ,  mining  29 companies and p r o - n u c l e a r a s s o c i a t i o n s *  In a d d i t i o n , the L i b r a r y receives  s e v e r a l s c i e n c e j o u r n a l s and t h r e e d a i l y newspapers. In a l e t t e r addressed  t o UJCELA , ( 2 5 A p r i l 1979), Mr. Anthony, Com-  m i s s i o n c o u n s e l , e x p l a i n e d t h a t RCIUM was: ". . . • prepared  t o enter  i n t o an agreement w i t h UJCELA f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h s e r v i c e s : . . . . (UICELA) w i l l h i r e one f u l l time s t u d e n t o f l a w to r e s e a r c h t h e l a w and p r a c t i s e i n e f f e c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia and s e l e c t e d o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s as i t r e l a t e s to a l l o f those i s s u e s f a l l i n g w i t h t h e terms o f r e f e r ence of/"RCIUM.?. . . . The r e s e a r c h w i l l i n c l u d e a l l f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada, p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f Canada and l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America and o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t to the Inquiry. T h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted by Ms. Edwards from 1 May t o 30 September, 1979.  As a r e s u l t , t h e L i b r a r y c o n t a i n s some twenty volumes o f l e g i s l a t i o n . The L i b r a r y c o n t a i n s e x p l o r a t i o n r e p o r t s from about 80 m i n i n g  com-  p a n i e s t h a t a r e , o r have been, e x p l o r i n g a c t i v e l y f o r uranium i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and t h e r e s p o n s e s o f k& m i n i n g companies t o a Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (October  1979)*  October 1979, t o 5k m i n i n g ing  T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t , a t t h e end o f  companies t h a t RCIUM had i d e n t i f i e d as e x p l o r -  f o r uranium i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( C u l b e r t 1980a, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Included  i n t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e such r e q u e s t s a s : - "Has your company taken o u t r e c l a m a t i o n p e r m i t s c o v e r i n g uranium e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia?" - "Are you i n v o l v e d i n uranium e x p l o r a t i o n on o r near Indian reservations?" - "Are a l p h a and gamma l e v e l ground s u r v e y s done over s i t e s of d i s r u p t i v e exploration?" In  accordance w i t h PR No. 1, B. 3.1 and B. 3.2 ( s e e Appendix 1 ) , t h e  L i b r a r y c o n t a i n s l i s t s o f documents h e l d by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia g o v e r n ment, t h e f e d e r a l government, v a r i o u s boards and a g e n c i e s , RCIUM major  30 p a r t i c i p a n t s and RCIUM, t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t RCIUM.  to the subject matter before  E n c l o s e d w i t h each l i s t a r e d e t a i l s of how t o o b t a i n  at l e a s t , those that are p u b l i c .  documents,  The documents l i s t e d by RCIUM a r e a l l  i n t h e L i b r a r y ; so t o o a r e t h o s e l i s t e d by t h e Atomic Energy C o n t r o l Atomic Energy o f Canada L i m i t e d  Board,  ( A E C L ) , and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission  of R a d i o l o g i c a l P r o t e c t i o n , and t h a t M i s s M c C a l l c o u l d g e t a c c e s s t o . M i s s M c C a l l (1980d, i n t e r v i e w ) was d i r e c t e d : . . . . not t o a t t e m p t t o r e t r i e v e a l l t h e documents l i s t e d by t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s b u t t o be aware o f where they c o u l d be l o c a t e d s h o u l d i t be n e c e s s a r y to use them. Publicity RCIUM s e n t p u b l i c n o t i c e s t o a l l major newspapers i n B r i t i s h Columbia announcing: - t h e d a t e s and l o c a t i o n s o f t h e i n a u g u r a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , t h e community h e a r i n g s and t h e t e c h n i c a l hearings; - t h e purpose o f t h e v a r i o u s  public  sessions;  - the g u i d e l i n e s f o r funding o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ; - the revised schedules of the t e c h n i c a l hearings. I n a d d i t i o n , RCIUM d i s t r i b u t e s f a c t s h e e t s on t h e l i b r a r y network (Commission l i b r a r y p l u s d e p o s i t o r y  l i b r a r i e s ) to interested i n d i v i d u a l s .  I n September 1979, RCIUM h i r e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f a Mr. G r a n t and a Mr.  Shaw t o r e p o r t on RCIUM'sapraeeedings.  release o f f i c e r .  Mr. G r a n t i s RCIUM's news  H i s s e l e c t i o n was t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e a d v e r t i s -  i n g agency w i t h which RCIUM p l a c e d a c o n t r a c t  ( B a t e s 1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) .  He i s independent o f RCIUM, and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e f l e c t , n e c e s s a r i l y , t h e views o f RCIUM.  i n h i s releases  does not  Mr. G r a n t i s s u e s a news r e -  l e a s e on each day t h a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s a r e i n s e s s i o n .  31 Mr. Shaui w r i t e s , and i s e d i t o r o f , t h e Uranium I n q u i r y D i g e s t ( U I D ) . L i k e Mr. G r a n t , he i s independent o f RCIUM, and u n d e r t a k e s :  ". . . . t o  r e p o r t , o b j e c t i v e l y , t h e v a r y i n g v i e w p o i n t s e x p r e s s e d by t h o s e making s u b m i s s i o n s t o t h e Commission."  (UID 1 5 ) . UID i s : " . . . .  d i s t r i b u t e d a f t e r each phase o f t h e . . . .  produced and  t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s " and  "• • . • i s . • . • s e n t t o 269 p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s i n B.C. as w e l l as n e a r l y 600 i n t e r e s t groups, i n d i v i d u a l s , m i n i n g companies, p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Inquiry."  news media and major  (UID 1 ) . By i s s u e number 10 (5-15 February  19B0), about 1500 p e o p l e had w r i t t e n t o RCIUM a s k i n g f o r a s u b s c r i p t i o n (Bates 19B0c, ;  interview).  The Metro Media A s s o c i a t i o n o f G r e a t e r Vancouver  was c o n t r a c t e d by  RCIUM t o v i d e o t a p e t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s . e d i t e d v i d e o t a p e s a r e shown an Vancouver  The un-  Cable 10, and as o f t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f December 1979, on c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n i n t h e i n t e r i o r and on  Vancouver  I s l a n d on a one-day d e l a y e d b a s i s from 9:00 a.m. t o 2:00 p.m. an Wednesday t o S a t u r d a y i n c l u s i v e o f t h e weeks i n which t h e h e a r i n g s a r e i n s e s s i o n (TP, 44, p. 7499).  Mr. C u l b e r t , RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r , i s r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r p r o d u c i n g t h e e d i t e d v i d e o c a s s e t t e s o f each phase of t h e t e c h n i c a l hearings.  As o f t h e end o f January 1980, o n l y t h o s e f o r t h e f i r s t two  phases had been completed; Mr. C u l b e r t ( 1 9 8 0 f , i n t e r v i e w ) had n o t had time t o do more. RCIUM s t a f f have been i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e media on a number o f o c c a s ions.  F o r example, D r . B a t e s had appeared on Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g ' s  (CBC's) "Evening News" ( 9 June 1979); Vancouver r o a d s " (24 September 1979); and Vancouver  C a b l e 10's " N u c l e a r C r o s s -  C a b l e B's "Jack Webster Show"  (24 January 19B0); and both D r . B a t e s and Mr. Anthony were i n t e r v i e w e d on Vancouver  Co-Op R a d i o ' s " L e g a l S e r v i c e s Commission" (26 A p r i l 1979). ,  I n a d d i t i o n , D r . B a t e s made a speech a t Simon F r a s e r ' s U n i v e r s i t y ' s (SFU's) " N u c l e a r Awareness Week" (10 October  1979).  32  PART I I  Preface The  to Part I I  second p a r t Df t h e t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e RCIUM  p r o c e s s a g a i n s t t h e f i r s t two o f t h e f o u r broad c r i t e r i a l i s t e d on p. 18 above.  C h a p t e r s IV and V c o n t a i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n s  a g a i n s t c r i t e r i a I and  I I r e s p e c t i v e l y ; Chapter V I c o n t a i n s recommendations and c o n c l u s i o n s . Each o f Chapters IV and V a r e d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f s e c t i o n s . f i r s t s e c t i o n ("Introduction")  The  l i s t s RCIUM a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o  the c r i t e r i o n under e x a m i n a t i o n .  Each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s (one f o r  each r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t y ) a r e d i v i d e d i n t o  three  parts:  - " Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed" i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n ; - " A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n " ( t h e actual e v a l u a t i o n ) ; - " L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s " (an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e c r i t e r i o n i s not being met, i f , t h i s i s t h e c a s e ) . I t i s argued t h a t t h e r e a r e two o r d e r s o f l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s , h i g h e r o r d e r and lower o r d e r .  Higher order  f a c t o r s i n c l u d e RCIUM's terms o f  r e f e r e n c e ; t h e n a t u r e o f t h e uranium i s s u e ; p o l i t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s ; commissioners'  powers as c o n f e r r e d  by t h e P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t ;  budget; and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f government funding RCIUM.  RCIUM's  f o r major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  I n cases where t h e s e f a c t o r s o p e r a t e t o l i m i t t h e degree t o which a  p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i o n i s met, RCIUM cannot be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e . f a c t o r s i n c l u d e t h e Commissioners* u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n q u i r y the c h o i c e o f methods f o r g a t h e r i n g  Lower  order  process;  and r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; RCIUM's i n -  t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e use o f i t s powers; and t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s and b i a s e s o f the Commissioners, t h e RCIUM s t a f f and t h e t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s . ing  factors are self-imposed,  These l i m i t - -  and i n cases where they reduce t h e degree t o  which a p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i o n i s met, t h e r e a r e major o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r improvement. discusses  The f i n a l s e c t i o n ("Summation") i n each o f C h a p t e r s IV and V RCIUM's o v e r a l l s u c c e s s i n meeting t h e p a r t i c u l a r c r i t e r i o n under  examination.  33  CHAPTER IV CRITERION I : SECURE A RELEVANT BODY OF ACCURATE INFORMATION Introduction  As d e s c r i b e d on p. IB above, a r e l e v a n t body o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i s t s of t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f : - t h e known and p o s s i b l e impacts o f uranium  exploitation;  - t h e r i s k s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h uranium exploitation; - t h e m o r a l q u e s t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e uranium  issue.  RCIUM's a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o c r i t e r i o n I a r e : - public sessions; - Commission  research;  - visits; - library  network. Public Sessions Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed  With i s s u e s t h a t a r e c l e a r l y s c i e n t i f i c i n n a t u r e , t h e academic system o f h y p o t h e s i s and p r o o f , conducted through s c i e n t i f i c c o n g r e s s e s and p u b l i s h e d j o u r n a l s , i s used t o a r r i v e a t s c i e n t i f i c (Thompson 1976).  However, as Weinberg  conclusions  (1972, pp 215, 216) n o t e s :  Where t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d cannot be answered from e x i s t i n g s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o r from r e s e a r c h which can be c a r r i e d o u t r e a s o n a b l y r a p i d l y and w i t h o u t d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e expense, • • • • t h e a d v e r s a r y procedure seems . . . . t o be t h e b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e .  3k  .... t h i s procedure • . • • has c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t i n f o r c i n g s c i e n t i s t s t o be more honest, t o say where s c i e n c e ends and t r a n s - s c i e n c e b e g i n s , as w e l l as t o h e l p weigh t h e e t h i c a l i s s u e s which u n d e r l i e . . . » ^societaljchoices . . . . And as Thompson (1976, p. 20) p o i n t s o u t : .... t e c h n i c a l . . . . a c c u r a c y , and sounder judgement and o p i n i o n a r e more l i k e l y t o p r e v a i l where t h e r e has been f u l l d i s c l o s u r e and open c h a l l e n g e i n an adversary fashion . . . . The q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d by t h e uranium i s s u e a r e complex and many of them t r a n s c e n d s c i e n c e . p r o c e s s , as i s adopted  I t i s argued, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a d v e r s a r y  a t RCIUM's t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , p r o v i d e s a s i g n i f -  i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a r r i v i n g a t a r e l e v a n t body o f a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . F o r such t o o c c u r , t h e a d v e r s a r y p r o c e s s must e x h i b i t t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Thompson 1976, p. 2 1 ) : (1)  There must be p r e s e n t e f f e c t i v e a d v e r s a r i e s who can t a k e advantage o f d i s c l o s u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s , assemble competing t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p e r s i s t i n t h e h e a r i n g s t h r o u g h t h e procedures of c r o s s - e x a m i n i n g w i t n e s s e s and p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r own c a s e s .  (2)  A l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s must be r e p r e s e n t e d by such a d v e r s a r i e s .  The q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e from t h e above a r e : (a)  Are a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s by RCIUM p a r t i c i p a n t s ( a d v e r s a r i e s ) ?  (b)  A r e p a r t i c i p a n t s a b l e t o summon a l l r e l e v a n t witnesses?  (c)  I s t h e r e o p p o r t u n i t y t o cross-examine  (d)  Are a l l r e l e v a n t documents made a v a i l a b l e ?  (e)  I s t h e r e o p p o r t u n i t y t o assemble and p r e s e n t competing e v i d e n c e ?  (f)  I s t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t time i n which t o s t u d y m a t e r i a l s , and t o p r e p a r e w i t n e s s e s and c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ?  (g)  A r e adequate r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e t o do t h e above?  a l l witnesses?  35  The  purpose o f t h e f i r s t round o f community h e a r i n g s utas:  "• • . . t o g i v e t h e Commissioners t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e l o c a l i s s u e s f a c i n g t h e s e communities t h a t c o u l d be a f f e c t e d by uranium mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia."  (Vancouver E x p r e s s , 7 May 1979).  I n other  words, t h e r e was o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n from community people about known and p o s s i b l e l o c a l impacts o f uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n .  Given t h i s purpose,  i t i s f a i r t o ask o n l y q u e s t i o n ( a ) above o f t h e f i r s t round community hearings.  I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o ask whether RCIUM  devoted  s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o h e a r i n g l o c a l c o n c e r n s , s i n c e a l t h o u g h most a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s may have been r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e community h e a r i n g s , they may not have been g i v e n t h e a t t e n t i o n they I t was made apparent  merited.  d u r i n g t h e a c t u a l p r o c e e d i n g s , t h a t t h e pur-  pose o f t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s was a l s o :  ". . • • t o p r o v i d e  i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e Commission and t o t h e community on mining • . • . "  activity  (Anthony, TP, 3, p. 3 3 ) ; t h a t i s , t h e h e a r i n g s were t o have  an e d u c a t i v e v a l u e ( C r i t e r i o n I I ) .  I t i s argued t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e -  c e i v e d by RCIUM from t h e mining companies s h o u l d be c h a l l e n g e d w i t h i n an adversary format.  T h i s , i n f a c t , d i d occur d u r i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l  hearings  (which a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I ) , a l t h o u g h not i n t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s . P u b l i c views on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d  i n the t e c h n i c a l  hearings  a r e t o be e l i c i t e d i n t h e second round community h e a r i n g s ( s e e p.-2k  above).  These h e a r i n g s do not q u a l i f y , t h e r e f o r e , f o r e v a l u a t i o n a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I.  36 Application of C r i t e r i o n Community  Hearings  Were a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d ?  I n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z -  a t i o n s w i s h i n g t o appear b e f o r e RCIUM a t a community h e a r i n g were r e q u i r e d  (1)  w r i t e immediately to inform t h e Executive s e c r e t a r y , and  (2)  prepare a b r i e f t o be forwarded t o t h e E x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y p r i o r t o t h e i r appearance b e f o r e t h e Commission ( P u b l i c N o t i c e , Vancouver E x p r e s s , 16 F e b r u a r y 1979)  There was o p p o r t u n i t y , however, f o r i n f o r m a l p r e s e n t a t i o n t o be made bef o r e RCIUM w i t h o u t p r i o r n o t i c e b e i n g g i v e n . L o c a l people e x p e r i e n c e d a number o f i n c o n v e n i e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e t i m i n g o f t h e community h e a r i n g s .  I n t h e Kootenays,  the hearings coincided  w i t h t h e r a n c h e r s ' s p r i n k l i n g season, w h i l e i n t h e C h i l c o t i n ( W i l l i a m s Lake and V a n d e r h o o f ) , t h e y c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e h a y i n g season.  Daytime  s e s s i o n s were i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r working p e o p l e ; however, evening s e s s i o n s were h e l d i n a l l t h e communities v i s i t e d . S e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s complained i n g s adopted  about t h e f o r m a l i t y o f t h e proceed-  i n t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s .  F o r example, Mr.  P o o l e o f t h e Committee f o r t h e C l e a r K e t t l e V a l l e y made t h e f o l l o w i n g comments ( T P , 9, pp. 1282-3): We found o u r s e l v e s i n a p h y s i c a l arrangement w h i c h , i n o u r o p i n i o n , was n o t designed t o encourage d i a l o g u e o r maximize p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e Commissioners on a r a i s e d p l a t f o r m f a c i n g t h e assemblage suggested a d v e r s a r i e s r a t h e r than comrades i n a common s e a r c h f o r t r u t h . The n e c e s s i t y o f b e i n g c a l l e d upon and o f w a l k i n g t o a microphone b e f o r e one c o u l d speak d i s c o u r a g e d s p o n t a n e i t y and o v e r l o o k e d the f a c t t h a t many people a r e more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h s p e a k i n g o f f t h e c u f f than r e a d i n g a prepared s t a t e ment.  37 . . . • What uie are g e t t i n g at i s [ t h a t ] t h e p r o c e s s . . . . seems f o r m a l enough t o i n t i m i d a t e some p e o p l e . ' I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t such comments were made about the f o r m a l i t y of the p r o c e e d i n g s . For example, because the t r a n s c r i p t r e p o r t e r s , whose presence i t s e l f was somewhat d a u n t i n g , had to see who was s p e a k i n g , the l a y out i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 below was e s s e n t i a l ; t h a t i s , people c o u l d not s i t between the r e p o r t e r s and the w i t n e s s t a b l e but had to s i t at some d i s t a n c e away from the Commissioners ( B e m i n i n s t e r 19B0, i n t e r v i e w ) . At C a s t l e g a r , t h e r e was about 30 f e e t between the Commissioners and the a u d i e n c e . A d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the f o r m a l i t y of the p r o c e e d i n g s i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : ;  - t h e r e were p r e s s r e p o r t e r s and of the community h e a r i n g s ;  a v i d e o t a p e crew at most  - sometimes the Commissioners s a t on a r a i s e d - the Commissioners d r e s s e d f o r m a l l y  ( s u i t s and  platform; ties).  FIGURE 2 LAYOUT AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS  Commissioners  ssion nsel  nscript orters  LEGEND » MICROPHONE CABLE Audience  38 A l t h o u g h t h e w i t n e s s e s a p p e a r i n g a t t h e f i r s t round community heari n g s r e p r e s e n t e d a wide range o f i n t e r e s t s ( s e e Appendix W i l l i a m s L a k e , Vanderhoof, i n comparison 3  3 ) , except  at  and F o r t N e l s o n , t h o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g were few  t o t h e t o t a l number o f people i n t h e audiences ( s e e F i g u r e  b e l o w ) , and s i n c e they were few, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t they were d i f f e r -  ent from s o c i e t y a s a whole ( H e b e r l e i n 1976a).  Thus, based on my own  o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t seemed t h a t t h e r e were t h r e e d i s t i n c t groups o f p a r t i cipants: - p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t s ( m i n i n g company r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , p r o f e s s o r s , l a w y e r s , m e d i c a l d o c t o r s and o t h e r s ) who were n o t i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e s e t t i n g ; - p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s who had s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h m o t i v a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e ( i n d i v i d u a l s who would be d i r e c t l y and s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d by uranium m i n i n g ) ; - i n d i v i d u a l s who were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y aware o f t h e b e h a v i o u r a l norms o f t h e s e t t i n g o r , i f aware, were not i n t i m i d a t e d by t h e s e norms ( t h e i r t e s t i m o n i e s tended t o be l o n g , r a m b l i n g and o f t e n i m p a s s i o n e d ) .  FIGURE 3 NUMBER OF WITNESSES AT THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS Location of h e a r i n g  Number o f people i n audience a t most a t t e n d e d session  Kelowna Clearwater Kamloops Rock Creek Grand F o r k s Castlegar W i l l i a m s Lake Vanderhoof Fort Nelson Atlin  150 200 60 150 250 100 25 80 6 100  T o t a l number of witnesses  28 22 18 16 23 26 9 7 0 17  Number o f w i t n e s s e s as a percentage of audience size 18.67 11.00 30.00 10.67 9.20 26.00 36.00 8.75 0.00 17. 00  To summarize, t h e f o r m a l i t y o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s adopted a t t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the t i m i n g i n c o n v e n i e n c e s , possi b l y l i m i t e d the Commissioners' In  s u c c e s s i n h e a r i n g about l o c a l c o n c e r n s .  a d d i t i o n those p a r t i c i p a t i n g were p r o b a b l y not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  s o c i e t y as a whole.  Was  s u f f i c i e n t t i m e devoted t o h e a r i n g l o c a l concerns?  from t h e f o l l o w i n g comments, t h e RCIUM Commissioners  Judging  were more i n t e n t  upon o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from m i n i n g companies t h a n upon h e a r i n g l o c a l concerns a t t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s : (1)  CBC's "Evening Mews", 9 June  1979.  Moderator:  Have the major l i n e s o f debate come out?  Bates:  Yes.  The major r e a s o n f o r coming /"to  the communities_7 i s t o understand t h e  communities' i n t e r e s t s . A l l t h e a s p e c t s have come o u t ; f o r example, t a i l i n g s , d i s p o s a l , i r r i g a t i o n water ....  (2)  Moderator:  Has a n y t h i n g s u r p r i s e d you?  Bates:  No. Anyone who knows a n y t h i n g about t h i s i n d u s t r y /uranium mining,/ i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d r e a l i z e what a l l the concerns are /my emphasis^.  Ms. S t a i r s , RCIUM community r e l a t i o n s c o n s u l t a n t ( I 9 6 0 interview): I t i s my f e e l i n g t h a t t h e Commissioners saw t h e s e h e a r i n g s as t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s w i t h a community component.  In  addition: - t h e m i n i n g companies p r e s e n t e d t h e i r b r i e f s  first;  - m i n i n g company r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o c c u p i e d t h e w i t n e s s stand f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e lengths of time r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r w i t n e s s e s ( s e e F i g u r e U,, page. kO, b e l o w ) .  4o FIGURE 4 TIME DEVOTED TO MINING COMPANIES IN THE COMMUNITY HEARINGS L o c a t i o n of hearing  Approximate d u r a t i o n of hearing Cmins.)  Approximate l e n g t h of time devoted to m i n i n g companies (mins.)  Percentage of t o t a l t i m e devoted to mining companies  Kelouina  570  205  36.0  Clearwater  315  120  38.1  (Kamloops  300  85  28.3  Rock Creek  336  142  42.3  Grand F o r k s  290  65  22.4  Castlegar  430  43  i  i  Comments  !  10.0  Stampede International Co. announced i t s decision to cease exploration.  1  W i l l i a m s Lake  130  0  0  No companies j appeared.  Vanderhoof  140  0  0  As above.  F o r t Nelson Atlin  -  -  -  As above. No d a t a .  At t h e Kelowna h e a r i n g , D r . B a t e s (TP, 3, p. 35) s a i d t h a t t h e mining companies p r e s e n t e d t h e i r b r i e f s f i r s t s i n c e i t was  f e l t t h a t an a s s e s s -  ment of t h e p r e s e n t s t a t u s of e x p l o r a t i o n and p o s s i b l e p l a n s f o r d e v e l o p ment:  ". • • . were e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o get i n t o the r e c o r d a t the  f i r s t and e a r l i e s t s t a g e . " Many p a r t i c i p a n t s were confused about the e x a c t purpose o f the f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s . of  For example, a t the Kelowna h e a r i n g , Mr. Chataway  the Okanagon Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n expressed t h e concern t h a t these  s e s s i o n s s h o u l d not be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p u b l i c h e a r i n g s ( f o r which a l l groups have had t h e r e s o u r c e s w i t h which to p r e p a r e b r i e f s ) , but r a t h e r  41 as community meetings (TP, 3, pp. 8-9).  Mr. Anthony, Commission  counsel.  (TP, 3, p. 35) i n t e r p r e t e d Mr. Chataway's concern as f o l l o w s : .... The Qkanagan Greenpeace has some s e r i o u s c o n c e r n s about t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n these s e s s i o n s . . . . w h i l e the companies have had the t i m e and the r e s o u r c e s t o make p r e sentations. . . . t h e s e • • • • w i l l stand l a r g e l y u n c h a l l e n g e d by groups who may d i s a g r e e w i t h even the f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . . . . and because of t h a t .... these s e s s i o n s . . . . may t u r n out .... to be more of a h e a r i n g than an i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e s s i o n , and the community groups not having the t i m e and t h e r e s o u r c e s c o u l d not e f f e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i pate • • • • Or. B a t e s d i d not acknowledge a d i f f e r e n c e between p u b l i c and i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s .  As a r e s u l t , many p a r t i c i p a n t s understood  t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s t o be p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , and numerous c o m p l a i n t s  hence  were heard about the d i f f i c u l t y of p r e p a r i n g  b r i e f s f o r these s e s s i o n s . community h e a r i n g s  hearings  had  relevant  S e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s complained t h a t  been convened too h a s t i l y and  the  t h a t they had  not  been a b l e t o p r e p a r e a d e q u a t e l y ( s e e , f o r example, TP, 4, p. 4 6 1 ) . d e t a i l s of the d a t e s and did  l o c a t i o n s of the f i r s t round community  not appear i n the p r e s s u n t i l t h e end of A p r i l 1979  interview).  I n a d d i t i o n , much time was  hearings  (Charlton  spent h e a r i n g about t h e  c u l t i e s involved i n obtaining relevant information.  Indeed,  1980,  diffi-  For example, a t  t h e Kelowna h e a r i n g , M r s . Madsen of the S i e r r a C l u b and Mr. M o e l a e r t of the Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r N u c l e a r  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (CCNR) each took about  30 m i n u t e s d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r s t r u g g l e s t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e uranium e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s of m i n i n g companies i n B r i t i s h Columbia (see k, pp. 421-2  and pp. 288-95 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .  At t h e i n a u g u r a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , Dr. B a t e s (TP, 1, pp. 3-4) p l a i n e d how  TP,  the Commissioners had  i n t e r p r e t e d RCIUM's terms of  ex-  reference:  k2  tile a r e committed t o e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l t h e r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e i s brought b e f o r e us r e l a t i n g t o t h e • . . • terms o f r e f e r e n c e . That does n o t mean t h a t a l l o f t h e many i s s u e s a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e n u c l e a r f u e l c y c l e o r the use o f n u c l e a r energy a r e w i t h i n t h i s Commission's terms o f r e f e r e n c e . F o r example, i t seems c l e a r t o us t h a t t h e s a f e t y a s p e c t s o f segments o f t h e n u c l e a r f u e l c y c l e t h a t go beyond m i n i n g and m i l l i n g f o r uranium such as t h e s a f e t y o f n u c l e a r r e a c t o r s . . . . a r e n o t w i t h i n o u r terms o f r e f e r e n c e . Nor a r e we d i r e c t e d t o g i v e a d v i c e . . . . an t h e c o m p a r a t i v e b e n e f i t s o r h a z a r d s o f n u c l e a r energy compared w i t h d i f f e r e n t methods o f energy g e n e r a t i o n . But having s a i d t h a t , t h e words i n t h e O r d e r - i n C o u n c i l . . . . d i r e c t us t o examine t h e adequacy o f measures d e s i g n e d . . . . "For t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e environment and t h e p u b l i c " These a r e v e r y g e n e r a l words and we c e r t a i n l y have every i n t e n t i o n o f l i s t e n i n g t o any i s s u e s which any member o f t h e p u b l i c wishes t o p r e s e n t t o us b e a r i n g on t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i c w e l l - b e i n g and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n a r i s i n g o u t o f uranium e x p l o r a t i o n and m i n i n g . D e s p i t e t h e s e words, t h e Commissioners l i s t e n e d t o numerous b r i e f s d u r i n g the f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s  t h a t were o u t s i d e RCIUM*s terms o f  r e f e r e n c e , a t l e a s t as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e Commissioners.  They d i d not  point t h i s out during t h e course of the hearings, b u t , i n s t e a d ,  allowed  people t o b e l i e v e t h a t they had n o t narrowed t h e debate t o t h e e x t e n t i n d i c a t e d a t the inaugural meetings.  T h e i r r e a s o n f o r so d o i n g , as  e x p l a i n e d by D r . B a t e s (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) , was as f o l l o w s : .... hearing ence i f matters  Ule /"the C o m m i s s i o n e r s ^ had t o be p a t i e n t . . . . views and q u e s t i o n s o u t s i d e our terms o f r e f e r we were n o t t o r i s k l o s i n g important i n p u t on relevant.  Due t o t h e time s p e n t i n h e a r i n g : - t h e b r i e f s o f m i n i n g companies; - the complaints  o f confused p a r t i c i p a n t s ;  - b r i e f s t h a t were o u t s i d e t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e ,  1*3  l e s s time uias spent l e a r n i n g about l o c a l c o n c e r n s , and hence l o c a l t h a n might have been.  I n a d d i t i o n , because of RCIUM's f a i r l y  s c h e d u l e and f r e q u e n t u n d e r e s t i m a t e s  impacts,  tight  of t h e number o f l o c a l p e o p l e w i s h -  i n g t o p r e s e n t b r i e f s , i t was not uncommon f o r s e s s i o n s t o run l a t e i n t o , the n i g h t .  Hasty summaries of b r i e f s and condensed q u e s t i o n p e r i o d s r e -  sulted.'' Technical  Hearings  Are a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s r e p r e s e n t e d ? p a r t i c i p a n t s i s i n c l u d e d i n PR No.  The c u r r e n t l i s t o f major  5 ( s e e Appendix 1 ) .  Commission c o u n s e l ( M i n u t e s o f meeting  Mr. Anthony,  w i t h major p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1979b)  e x p l a i n e d t h a t a major p a r t i c i p a n t i s a group t h a t i s a c t i v e  throughout  the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s and r e c o g n i z e d as such e i t h e r by i t s e x p e r t i s e , f u n c t i o n , r e c e i p t of f u n d s , o r expressed i n t e n t i o n .  Fourteen o f t h e major  p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e p a r t i c i p a n t f u n d i n g (see Appendix 7 ) .  The g u i d e l i n e s  f o r f u n d i n g a r e as o u t l i n e d i n Appendix 8 ( P u b l i c N o t i c e , Vancouver E x p r e s s , 12 March 1979).  RCIUM seems t o have r e c o g n i z e d a l l major a f f e c t e d  interests  i n i t s s u p p o r t of major p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s .  Ms. S t a i r s (community r e l a t i o n s c o n s u l t a n t ) was expected t o go ahead of RCIUM t o h e l p s t r u c t u r e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s ( s e e Appendix 2 ) . However,, sheisp,ent%werytalitt,|a t i m e i i n n t h e communities ^ b e f o r e t h a ^ h e a r i n g s . Ms. S t a i r s * (1980, i n t e r v i e w ) e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s was as f o l l o w s : I was o n l y h i r e d a few weeks b e f o r e t h e h e a r i n g s s t a r t e d and t h e r e wasn't much t i m e . I had time t o go t o h a l f the p l a c e s two weeks b e f o r e and t o t h e r e s t of t h e p l a c e s one day b e f o r e . No one r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s r o l e / " s t r u c t u r i n g t h e community h e a r i n g s ^ was i m p o r t a n t u n t i l t h e h e a r i n g s were r i g h t upon u s . Had Ms. S t a i r s spent more time i n t h e communities b e f o r e t h e community h e a r i n g s , some of the above problems might have been a m e l i o r a t e d (see pp.6566 b e l o w ) .  Are p a r t i c i p a n t s a b l e t o summon a l l r e l e v a n t w i t n e s s e s ?  More than  h a l f o f t h e w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d between 25 September 1979 and 17 January 1980 have been RCIUM w i t n e s s e s (27 o u t o f a t o t a l o f 5 0 ) . Mr. Anthony's (1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s i s as f o l l o w s : In t h i s i n q u i r y we have a v e r y p o l a r i z e d , two-sided debate . . . . The Commission has t o c a l l most o f t h e w i t n e s s e s because t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s ' w i t n e s s e s a r e j u s t t h e r e t o prove one s i d e o f t h e d e b a t e . We/"the C o m m i s s i o n ^ h a v e t o c a l l w i t n e s s e s t h a t w i l l r e f l e c t both s i d e s o f the debate. On 7 August 1979, Mr. Anthony ( M i n u t e s o f meeting w i t h major p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1979b) i n f o r m e d major p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t : . . . . t h e Commission has agreed t o c o n s i d e r f i n a n c i n g w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d by o t h e r s . I t would s t i l l be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y arrangements f o r t h e w i t n e s s . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i l l be p r o v i d e d t o government o r o t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t l y funded o r g a n i z a t i o n s . D e c i s i o n s on f u n d i n g w i l l be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e Commissioners. As e x p l a i n e d by D r . B a t e s (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) , RCIUM agreed t o t h e above in order:  ". . . . t o save t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' money."  Dr. Bates  (1980c,  i n t e r v i e w ) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n used by t h e Commissioners i n d e c i s i o n s on f u n d i n g i s t h a t t h e w i t n e s s has " a d d i t i o n a l , u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l " t o p r e s e n t t o RCIUM.  A c c o r d i n g t o many major p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  RCIUM g e n e r a l l y pays o n l y f o r those w i t n e s s e s t h a t t h e Commissioners c o n s i d e r t o have a h i g h l e v e l o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e (Boyce 1979, i n t e r view; M i n u t e s o f f i r s t and second Kelowna meetings C l a r k 1980, i n t e r v i e w ) .  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1979;  Major p a r t i c i p a n t s pay f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g w i t n e s s e s  i f they w i s h t o hear from them s t i l l and i f they have s u f f i c i e n t  funds.  From time t o t i m e , however, RCIUM has funded w i t n e s s e s who a r e n o t t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s but have p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s o f r e l e v a n c e t o RCIUM; for  example, Mr. B. N e w e l l o f t h e P u l p , Paper and Woodworkers o f Canada  who has u n i o n e x p e r i e n c e ( C u l b e r t 19B0g, i n t e r v i e w ) .  45 To o b t a i n an i d e a o f major p a r t i c i p a n t s * a c t i v i t y i n summoning r e l e v a n t w i t n e s s e s , I q u e s t i o n e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f s i x major p a r t i c i pant groups ( s e e Appendix 9, column I ) . T h e i r responses are p r e s e n t e d i n column I I o f Appendix 9.  With t h e e x c e p t i o n of Rexspar's  witnesses,  almost a l l t h e w i t n e s s e s r e f e r r e d t o i n column I I of Appendix 9 a r e b e i n g p a i d f o r by RCIUM ( C u l b e r t 19BDi,  interview).  I n t o t a l , because o f the p o l a r i z e d n a t u r e o f t h e uranium i s s u e , RCIUM has d e c i d e d t o c a l l i n most o f t h e w i t n e s s e s .  RCIUM pays f o r  w i t n e s s e s i d e n t i f i e d by major p a r t i c i p a n t groups t h a t l a c k  independent  funds i f t h e Commissioners are s a t i s f i e d t h a t such w i t n e s s e s have u s e f u l , a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r RCIUM.  I s t h e r e o p p o r t u n i t y t o cross-examine  a l l w i t n e s s e s ? C e r t a i n l y , the  o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t s f o r major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o cross-examine c a l l e d by o t h e r s .  witnesses  Column I I I o f Appendix 9 d e s c r i b e s the way  s i x major p a r t i c i p a n t s make use of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y .  i n which  I t seems t h a t most  o f them use c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n t o b r i n g out t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l cases to determine  the c r e d i b i l i t y of w i t n e s s e s .  and  I n c o n t r a s t , Mr. Anthony  (1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) uses c r o s s e x a m i n a t i o n : - t o o b t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n from a w i t n e s s ; - t o t e s t the a c c u r a c y of e v i d e n c e ; - sometimes, to determine c o n f l i c t i n g evidence.  a witness* reaction t D  At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , Mr. Anthony t o l d  the  major p a r t i c i p a n t s not t o r e l y on t h e o r d e r of w i t n e s s e s b e i n g as i t i s l a i d out i n t h e t i m e - t a b l e ( M i n u t e s of meeting w i t h major p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1979a).  Thus the Commissioners had agreed t o t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s *  almost unanimous r e q u e s t t h a t t h e r e be no time l i m i t on c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f w i t n e s s e s ; hence, i n cases where t h e c r a s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o f  evidence  t a k e s l o n g e r than the t i m e p r o v i d e d f o r i n the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s  46 s c h e d u l e , t h e w i t n e s s e s n o t heard from a r e r e - s c h e d u l e d t o appear d u r i n g t h e " o v e r f l o w " h e a r i n g s i n February  19B0, and, i f n e c e s s a r y ,  precedence  i s g i v e n t o w i t n e s s e s who have t o t r a v e l g r e a t d i s t a n c e s t o appear b e f o r e RCIUM (Memorandum t o major p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1979). Pursuant  t o PR No. 1, B.6.2 ( s e e Appendix 1 ) , RCIUM may seek i n f o r m -  a t i o n from p a r t i e s w i t h o u t them a p p e a r i n g  at a hearing.  Hence, i t i s  p o s s i b l e t h a t some i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d by RCIUM from w i t n e s s e s who a r e not c r o s s - e x a m i n e d .  The reason f o r t h i s r u l i n g i s as f o l l o w s . I n  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a number o f m i n i n g uranium.  companies a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n mining  A few o f t h e s e companies have f a i r l y advanced p r o p o s a l s ; f o r  example, Norcen Energy Resources L i m i t e d .  These companies may g i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n t o RCIUM o n l y i f i t i s kept c o n f i d e n t i a l s i n c e o t h e r w i s e they might l o s e t h e i r c o m p e t i t i v e advantage.  The .problem!is, as e x p l a i n e d  by Mr. Anthony (19813d, i n t e r v i e w ) j t h a t : . . . . t h e Commission i s i n v o l v e d i n an on-going c o m p e t i t i v e f i e l d . Lde a r e l o o k i n g i n t o an i n d u s t r y , not j u s t one company . . . . The Commission regarded i t / t h e uranium i s s u e d as broader than j u s t one o r two companies and t r i e d t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l o t h e r companies t o o . Mr. P a t e r s o n , l e g a l c o u n s e l f o r CCU, does n o t r e g a r d t h e i s s u e as b e i n g v e r y much broader  than j u s t one company ( N o r c e n ) .  His opinion i s  t h a t RCIUM i s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e one proposed o p e r a t i n g uranium mine i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s a l r e a d y a c o n t r a c t s i g n e d f o r d e l i v e r y o f t h e m i n e r a l ( s e e p . 8 above and TP, 48, p . 8 4 2 3 ) .  Mr. Paterson  would l i k e RCIUM t o f o c u s i t s e n e r g i e s on Norcen's B l i z z a r d  property  and demand f u l l p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e o f a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s company.  However, RCIUM's r o l e i s t o recommend s t a n d a r d s f o r uranium  mining  t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia.  As D r . B a t e s ( T P , 2, p. 12) has  said:  "Our t a s k i s t o examine a l l o f t h e d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  kl  and c o n s i d e r t h e p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s r a i s e d by each so mining b e g i n s . "  t h a t the a c t u a l  I f RCIUM mere t o c o n c e n t r a t e s o l e l y on Moreen's p r o -  p o s a l , i t would run t h e r i s k o f b e i n g a b l e t o make o n l y s p e c i f i c recommendations and not g e n e r a l ones. O f t e n t h e Commissioners have t o l d major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o condense t h e i r c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n because time i s so s h o r t ( s e e , f o r example, TP, 56, p. 10D25 and 59, pp. 10689-90).  T h i s " h u r r y i n g " reduces  o p p o r t u n i t y t o cross-examine  I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e time  witnesses.  s h o r t a g e s a r e the r e s u l t o f the f o l l o w i n g  factors:  (a)  some of t h e w i t n e s s e s t a k e a l o n g time t o answer d u r i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n by major p a r t i c i p a n t s ;  (b)  t i m e i s wasted w i t h i r r e l e v a n t and/or r e p i t i t i o u s cross-examination;  (c)  t h e Commissioners are i n a h u r r y t o f i n i s h .  (a)  D e l a y s i n a n s w e r i n g . Ms. B o g g i l d , l e g a l c o u n s e l f o r LdCELA,  (Vancouver noted  the  C a b l e ID's " N u c l e a r C r o s s r o a d s " , 26 November 1979),has  that: There's been a l o t o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n by major p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e a g a i n s t uranium m i n i n g . But i t ' s t h e proponents who a r e t a k i n g up t h e t i m e — t h e y take a l o n g time t o answer.  I n s t a n c e s o f such answering d e l a y s a r e documented by Ms. i n her r e p o r t s on RCIUM t o AECL.  Konstantynowicz  F o r example:  I t was apparent . . . . t h a t the panel /from the Department o f Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources./was i l l - e q u i p p e d f o r most of the q u e s t i o n i n g . They h e s i t a t e d and paused i n answering q u e s t i o n s and q u i t e o f t e n gave c o n t r a d i c t o r y answers . . . many of the q u e s t i o n s were not c l e a r l y answered. ( R e p o r t No.  1, 11 October  1979).  Mr. Anthony's (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) o p i n i o n on the above i s t h a t t h e can be overcome by t h e way  problem  q u e s t i o n s a r e posed, by which he meant t h a t  kB sometimes w i t n e s s e s a r e asked q u e s t i o n s t h a t would be b e t t e r d i r e c t e d towards o t h e r w i t n e s s e s who  have the r e l e v a n t e x p e r t i s e .  I t i s t h e r o l e o f the Commissioner who i s a c t i n g as chairman a t a p a r t i c u l a r s e s s i o n ( n o t always Dr. B a t e s ) t o m a i n t a i n c a r e f u l over unnecessary r e p i t i t i o n o r i r r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n i n g .  control  However, as Ms.  R o u n t h w a i t e , l e g a l c o u n s e l f o r EAAUM (1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) ^ p o i n t e d o u t , the Commissioners do not do t h i s v e r y r i g o r o u s l y .  I t i s suggested t h a t t h i s  i s because the Commissioners p o s s e s s , between them, v e r y l i t t l e experience.  legal  Mr. Raudsepp does have a f a i r amount o f e x p e r i e n c e i n c h a i r -  i n g l e g a l p r o c e d u r e s ( s e e p. 9 a b o v e ) .  However, based on my own o b s e r v -  a t i o n s and c a l c u l a t i o n s , he p r e s i d e d o v e r the p r o c e e d i n g s on o n l y about 12 per c e n t o f the t o t a l number o f h e a r i n g days between 25 September 1979 and 16 January 1980 i n c l u s i v e , the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e s f o r Dr. B a t e s and Dr. Murray b e i n g &k and 2k r e s p e c t i v e l y .  On t h o s e o c c a s i o n s t h a t he  d i d p r e s i d e , Mr. Raudsepp imposed r i g o r o u s r u l e s o f r e l e v a n c y and proved h i m s e l f t o be t h e most w i l l i n g o f t h e Commissioners t o r u l e q u e s t i o n e r s out of o r d e r ( s e e , f o r example, TP, 23, pp. 2991, 3048-50 and 26, pp. 3636-7, 3780-1). (b)  Time wasted i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  On 13 December 1979,  Mr.  Anthony ( M i n u t e s of meeting w i t h major p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1979c) urged major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o adopt what he c a l l e d the "so what t e s t " t o c r o s s - e x a m i n ation.  T h i s t e s t , as e x p l a i n e d by T e r r a l (1980) i s :  .... a u s e f u l t e s t , a way o f keeping your eye on t h e t a r g e t and r e m i n d i n g y o u r s e l f what t h e basic issues are . . . . I t goes something l i k e t h i s : suppose you ask your q u e s t i o n , and suppose you g e t your answer. Suppose you get t h e answer you e x p e c t e d . So what? What does i t r e a l l y mean? What does i t m a t t e r ? And, as Mr. Anthony (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) added: your case o r advance t h e knowledge  "Does i t h e l p you make  o f t h e Commission  i n a meaningful  49 way?"  Mr. Anthony's c o n c e r n was t h a t a l o t o f t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s '  cross-examination  i s i r r e l e v a n t ; by which he meant t h a t i t i s n o t draw-  i n g out much a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Or. S w i t z e r o f Rexspar ( I 9 6 0 , i n t e r v i e w ) expressed  the o p i n i o n  t h a t RCIUM has i d e n t i f i e d too many major p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e i s wasted w i t h r e p i t i t i o u s  cross-examination.  B u t , as noted above, ( p . 4 8 ) , i t i s t h e chairman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o keep a check on unnecessary r e p i t i t i o n .  Based on my own o b s e r v a t i o n s and  calculations: - 50 t o 70 per c e n t o f t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e i n a t t e n d a n c e a t any g i v e n t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n ; - l e s s than h a l f o f t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s c r o s s examine any g i v e n w i t n e s s ( s e e Appendix 1 0 ) . Appendix 10 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e same few major p a r t i c i p a n t s (BCMA, BCCUCC, UBCIC, SKID, bJCELA and EAAUM) u n d e r t a k e t h e bulk o f t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . These p a r t i c i p a n t s each r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t concerns ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f UiCELA and EAAUM which cross-examined t h e same w i t n e s s  i n j u s t two  cases o u t o f t h e t e n exampled i n Appendix 10); hence i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e i s much o v e r l a p i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  Indeed, as Mr. C u l b e r t ,  RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r (1980h, i n t e r v i e w ) , r e m a r k e d ,  there i s only  about 15 t o 20 per c e n t o v e r l a p i n t h e q u e s t i o n s posed by major p a r t i c i p a n t s , and s i n c e t h e groups i n v o l v e d q u e s t i o n from d i f f e r e n t a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s sometimes brought o u t .  perspectives  B o t h Mr. Rogers o f  UBCIC (1980d, i n t e r v i e w ) and M r s . Boyce o f BCCUCC (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) a g r e e d , but p a i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e was more o v e r l a p a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  of  the tech-  n i c a l h e a r i n g s than t h e r e was l a t e r on. I t i s Mr. C u l b e r t ' s (1980h, i n t e r v i e w ) i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s c o o p e r a t e on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s and thereby a b l y reduce t h e l e n g t h o f RCIUM.  consider-  Some o f t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s were  50 meeting once a week a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s t o d i s c u s s s t r a t e g y and t o ensure t h a t a l l a n g l e s were being covered between them ( B o g g i l d 1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) .  These meetings broke down soon a f t e r they  s t a r t e d s i n c e they i n v o l v e d too much work and the groups found t o work a l o n e (Rogers  1980d, i n t e r v i e w ) .  i t easier  Some major p a r t i c i p a n t s con-  t i n u e t o meet on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o d i s c u s s g e n e r a l problems, such t h e areas t h a t need more a t t e n t i o n i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ( B o g g i l d  as 1980,  interview)• (c)  Hurrying to f i n i s h .  D e s p i t e Dr. B a t e s (1979, speech) h a v i n g  s a i d t h a t a government i s not p e r m i t t e d t o put a time l i m i t on a commissi o n of i n q u i r y , t h e Commissioners seem t o be i n a h u r r y t o f i n i s h . i s hard t o determine  e x a c t l y why  t h i s i s the c a s e .  It  T h e i r reasons f o r  t h e 27 June 1980 d e a d l i n e on t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , as i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t from the minutes of a meeting w i t h major c i p a n t s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a r e somewhat c o n f u s e d : L o i s Boyce ( U n i t e d Church) q u e s t i o n e d the • • • • d e a d l i n e a s k i n g why i t e x i s t e d and why c o u l d n ' t t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s not c o n t i n u e i n t h e F a l l ? .... .... Jim Murray suggested i t was nesses t o come i n t h e summer.  d i f f i c u l t t o get w i t -  L o i s Boyce asked a g a i n why h e a r i n g s c o u l d n o t c o n t i n u e i n t h e F a l l . I t appears t h a t t h e r e i s a predetermined mould r a t h e r than f i t t i n g t h e s c h e d u l e t o the j o b t h a t must be done. J i m Murray s a i d t h e Commissioners had not d i s c u s s e d i t i n d e t a i l but t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . C l i f f S t a i n s b y (EAAUM) asked why i t was not p o s s i b l e t o agree t o end the Commission when t h e job i s done. W a l t e r Raudsepp p o i n t e d out t h a t the Commissioners d i d have some o t h e r commitments and a number of f a c t o r s had to be c o n s i d e r d .  parti-  51 The f e e l i n g of s e v e r a l major p a r t i c i p a n t s i s t h a t t h e Commissioners* o t h e r commitments a r e sometimes t a k i n g p r i o r i t y .  T h i s i s not meant t o  be i n t e r p r e t e d as a c r i t i c i s m of the Commissioners.  Thus, i t has t o  be r e a l i z e d t h a t they have been drawn away from t h e i r normal commitments and t h a t RCIUM i s t a k i n g l o n g e r than o r i g i n a l l y was  expected.  Hence,  they are under a g r e a t d e a l of p r e s s u r e and seem t o have adopted a p e r s o n a l d e a d l i n e d a t e (Thompson 1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) . Concerning  Phases VI t o X, t e n major p a r t i c i p a n t groups a r e happy  w i t h t h e 27 June 1980 d e a d l i n e p r o v i d i n g a minimum o f 12 more h e a r i n g days are added t o the s c h e d u l e , t h e s e groups b e i n g :  UBCIC, BCCUCC, BCMA,  CCU,  and CCBIM.  JCUTH, UCELA, CCNR (Vancouver and Kelowna), YEA  Their  concern i s t h a t a t l e a s t 12 a d d i t i o n a l h e a r i n g days a r e r e q u i r e d i f a l l the witnesses scheduled  f o r Phases VI t o X are t o be accommodated ( M i n -  utes of meeting w i t h major p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1980). To summarize, most of the major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d use c r o s s examination  t o b r i n g out t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l cases and t o determine  c r e d i b i l i t y of witnesses. examination  the  I n c o n t r a s t , Commission c o u n s e l uses c r o s s -  t o draw out f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n from w i t n e s s e s .  RCIUM i s l o o k i n g i n t o an on-going  Because  c o m p e t i t i v e f i e l d , and because i t s  t a s k i s t o make g e n e r a l , as w e l l as s p e c i f i c , recommendations, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t RCIUM i s r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n f i d e n c e t h a t i s not  cross-examined. S i n c e RCIUM i s s h o r t of t i m e , t h e r e i s l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r o s s -  examine w i t n e s s e s than might o t h e r w i s e be t h e c a s e . time c o n s t r a i n t s seem t o be due t o t h e 27 June 1980 technical hearings.  I n l a r g e p a r t , the d e a d l i n e on  the  P r o b a b l y , t h i s d e a d l i n e w i l l p r e v e n t RCIUM from  hearing a l l witnesses.  I n p a r t , t h e time s h o r t a g e s are the r e s u l t of  52 inadequate c h a i r i n g o f t h e t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s ; t h e s h o r t a g e s appear t o be caused by o v e r l a p i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n Are a l l r e l e v a n t documents made a v a i l a b l e : 30 above, t h e RCIUM l i b r a r y c o n t a i n s l i s t s  do n o t  by major p a r t i c i p a n t s .  As d e s c r i b e d on pp. 251-  o f documents h e l d by t h e  B r i t i s h Columbia government, t h e f e d e r a l government, v a r i o u s b o a r d s and a g e n c i e s , major p a r t i c i p a n t s , and RCIUM, t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r b e f o r e RCIUM. marked:  These l i s t s ,  as Mr. Anthony (1979b, i n t e r v i e w ) r e -  ". . . . may have i n a d v e r t e n t l y been l e f t i n c o m p l e t e . "  blem f o r Mr. P a t e r s o n ,  The p r o -  l e g a l c o u n s e l f o r CCU (19B0, i n t e r v i e w ) , i s t h a t  he l a c k s t h e t i m e t o f i l e a l l r e l e v a n t documents w i t h RCIUM. o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s expressed  t h e same  Several  concern.  As o u t l i n e d i n PR No. 1, B.4.1 ( s e e Appendix 1 ) , each major p a r t i c i p a n t , whether p r e s e n t i n g e v i d e n c e h i m / h e r s e l f o r c a l l i n g e x p e r t w i t nesses on h i s / h e r b e h a l f , i s r e q u i r e d t o f i l e w i t h RCIUM a d e t a i l e d statement o f h i s / h e r evidence,  t o g e t h e r w i t h a l i s t o f any r e p o r t s ,  s t u d i e s o r o t h e r documents t o which t h e w i t n e s s may r e f e r , and b i o g r a p h i c a l n o t e s on t h e w i t n e s s  (PR No. 1, B.4.1).  This information i s d i s -  t r i b u t e d t o a l l major p a r t i c i p a n t s . Q u i t e p o s s i b l y , as i n t h e above case, t h e l i s t s  o f documents a r e n o t always c o m p l e t e .  Under t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t , t h e Commissioners have t h e power t o summon w i t n e s s e s documents ( s . 1 0 ) .  and t o c a l l f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f  As e x p l a i n e d by Mr. Anthony ( T P , 50, pp. 8B2B-29):  . . . . a subpoena . . . . i s a t o o l o f c o e r c i o n . . . . f o r c i n g a w i t n e s s t o a t t e n d b e f o r e t h e t r i b u n a l and r e q u i r i n g him, when he a t t e n d s t o b r i n g a l l r e l e v a n t documents w i t h him. I n o t h e r words, you f i n d o u t about t h e documents o n l y when t h e w i t n e s s a p p e a r s . Mr. Anthony (1979b, i n t e r v i e w ) m a i n t a i n s  that:  53 F o r c i n g someone t o appear i s not the b e s t may o f g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s i n c e a f o r c e d w i t n e s s w i l l not be p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h c o m i n g w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n . The subpoena i s o v e r r a t e d — i t i s j u s t t h e u l t i m a t e weapon. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have i t because i t means t h a t you can always t e l l r e l u c t a n t people t h a t they can be s u b p o e n a e d — t h e n they u s u a l l y c o o p e r a t e . Mr. Anthony (1979b, i n t e r v i e w ) has t o l d major p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t they must t r y t o o b t a i n documents t h e m s e l v e s . c o n t a c t him and he w i l l t r y . a subpoena.  I f they c a n n o t , they must  I f he f i n d s d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  RCIUM w i l l  issue  A Task F o r c e r e p r e s e n t i n g 21 funded RCIUM p a r t i c i p a n t s  (1979, l e t t e r ) expressed consuming i n p r a c t i c e and  the concern t h a t t h i s procedure i s too time the PR No.  1, B.7.1  ( s e e Appendix 1) s h o u l d  amended as f o l l o w s : Subpoenas s h o u l d be i s s u e d by the Commission upon a p p l i c a t i o n by any p a r t i c i p a n t p r o v i d e d such p a r t i c i p a n t has demonstrated t h a t the e v i d e n c e o f the w i t n e s s or t h e document i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e Terms o f R e f e r e n c e o f the Commission. T h i s means t h a t the Commission w i l l i s s u e a subpoena on r e q u e s t , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h normal c o u r t p r o c e d u r e ; r e l e v a n c y being the o n l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Mr. Anthony's (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) r e p l y t o the above was c o u r t a p a r t y can be punished by having  that while i n  c o s t s awarded a g a i n s t him f o r  abuse o f t h e subpoena power; t h e r e i s no such c o n t r o l i n i n q u i r i e s . B u t , Dr. Thompson, Commissioner o f the West Coast O i l P o r t s I n q u i r y (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) , a g r e e s w i t h t h e Task F o r c e ' s  request:  The Commission's r u l e £%%1.U goes too f a r . I t p u t s the onus on major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o demons t r a t e r e l e v a n c y o f a document o r w i t n e s s . This i s n ' t f a i r . The subpoena s h o u l d be i s s u e d r o u t i n e l y u n l e s s the Commission has a goad r e a s o n not to a l l o w t h i s — s u c h a r e f u s a l would have t o be argued and would r e q u i r e a r u l i n g . I n o t h e r words, RCIUM s h o u l d have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e the subpoena i f i t f e l t t h i s power was  b e i n g abused, but the onus s h o u l d then be  on  be  54 RCIUM t o j u s t i f y such a r e f u s a l .  T h i s o b v i a t e s Mr, Anthony's c o n c e r n  above. Some o f the major p a r t i c i p a n t s c l a i m t h a t Mr, Anthony i s g i v i n g v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e a d v i c e t o RCIUM c o n c e r n i n g t h e use o f i t s powers ( R o b e r t s 1979, i n t e r v i e w ; P a t e r s o n I 9 6 0 , i n t e r v i e w ) ,  Mr. P a t e r s o n (1980,  interview) believes that: The subpoena i s a normal way o f g e t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Mr. Anthony's approach i s c o o p e r a t i o n . But government departments a r e n ' t g o i n g t o look t h r o u g h a l l t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n j u s t because the Commission asks them t o . You have t o go i n and g e t i t , u s i n g t h e subpoena t o f i n d out what's a v a i l a b l e — a n d you c o n t i n u e t o use t h e subpoena power i f you don't get what you wanted t h e f i r s t time around. But,?as noted above ( p . 5 3 ) , Mr. Anthony does n o t adhere t o t h e use o f t h e subpoena power as a t o o l o f p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c o v e r y . PR Wo.  1, B.3.1, B.3.2  He c l a i m s t h a t  and B.4.1 ( s e e Appendix 1) a l l o w f o r t h e c o l l e c t -  i o n by RCIUM o f a l l r e l e v a n t documents  (Anthony 1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Dr.  Thompson (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) , h o w e v e r , acknowledges t h e use o f subpoena f o r d i s c o v e r y , a l t h o u g h he concedes t h a t : • . . . i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o get i n f o r m a t i o n i f you don't know what you're l o o k i n g f o r . . . . I f someone i s d e t e r m i n e d t o h i d e something and i f you don't know t h a t i t e x i s t s , i t ' s r e a l l y hard t o get i t . P e r h a p s , Mr. Anthony i s b e i n g w i s e i n not u s i n g t h e subpoena t o f i n d out what i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y since a f a v o u r i t e t a c t i c i s to respond t o a subpoena w i t h an a v a l a n c h e o f i r r e l e vant p a p e r . •n 30 October 1979, Mr. P a t e r s o n suggested t h a t RCIUM use i t s subpoena power t o f i n d out what documents a r e i n t h e hands o f r e l e v a n t government a g e n c i e s and m i n i n g companies (TP, 32, pp. 4896-8).  Mr.  Anthony's r e p l y t o Mr. P a t e r s o n was t h a t t h e subpoena had not been n e c e s s a r y t h u s f a r , b u t , s h o u l d major p a r t i c i p a n t s demand one, he would s u p p o r t them (TP, 32, pp. 4899-4901).  On 11 December 1979, Mr. P a t e r s o n  55 (TP,  48, p. 8414) made a r e q u e s t o f RCIUM, on t h e b e h a l f o f JCUTH, t h a t  a subpoena be i s s u e d t o Norcen t o compel i t t o produce c e r t a i n documents. And on 17 J a n u a r y 1980, ACA r e q u e s t e d t h e subpoena be i s s u e d t o d e v e l o p e r s of  a n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia molybdenum mine ( P l a c e r Development L i m i t e d )  to  appear a t t h e h e a r i n g s (TP, 58, p. 10297).  RCIUM t u r n e d down both  t h e s e r e q u e s t s s i n c e t h e companies agreed t o p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n voluntarily.  As M r s . Boyce o f BCCUCC (1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) remarked, a l t h o u g h  RCIUM has n o t i s s u e d a subpoena: or  " I t has n o t been d e n i e d any w i t n e s s e s  documents t h a t i t went a f t e r . " RCIUM's subpoena powers a r e l i m i t e d because RCIUM i s a p r o v i n c i a l  r a t h e r than a f e d e r a l i n q u i r y .  As Mr. Anthony ( 1 9 7 9 c , i n t e r v i e w ) e x p l a i n e d :  The Commission can subpoena a n y t h i n g o r anybody i n B . C . — t h a t ' s no p r o b l e m . But t h e r e a r e problems i f i t wants t o subpoena f r o m a n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n . I t would have t o go t o B.C. Supreme C o u r t which might i s s u e a c o u r t o r d e r . I t h e n ' t a k e t h i s t o . . , . , f o r example, _ the O n t a r i o C o u r t which may go a l o n g w i t h t h e o r d e r . Q u i t e p o s s i b l y , Mr. Anthony would not c o n s i d e r g o i n g t o such l e n g t h s t o o b t a i n an o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e w i t n e s s o r document, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e :  "The  e n t i r e Commission would have t o go t o Ottawa / o r wherever.7 t o hear t h e witness.  He c a n ' t be o r d e r e d t o come t o B.C."  (Anthony 1979c, i n t e r -  view). P u r s u a n t t o PR No. 1, B.G.3o(see Appendix 1 ) , RCIUM may certain p r i v i l e g e d information i n confidence. subjected to cross-examination. as  t h a t f o r PR No. 1, B.6.2  retain  Such i n f o r m a t i o n i s not  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s r u l i n g i s t h e same  ( s e e p*.46 a b o v e ) .  The Task F o r c e o f funded  p a r t i c i p a n t s (1979, l e t t e r ) made t h e f o l l o w i n g comments about t h e r u l i n g on p r i v i l e g e : tile r e c o g n i z e t h a t a c l a i m o f p r i v i l e g e c o u l d be made d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e h e a r i n g s , tiie b e l i e v e t h a t the c r i t e r i a t o be a p p l i e d t o any such c l a i m s h o u l d be t h o s e a p p l i e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o u r t s and e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t a t u t e o r common l a w . We would ask t h a t you  56 announce y o u r : a d o p t i o n o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a w e l l the h e a r i n g s commence.  before  We f u r t h e r s u g g e s t t h a t you r u l e t h a t any a p p l i c a t i o n f o r p r i v i l e g e be made i n a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , on r e a s o n a b l e n o t i c e t o a l l major p a r t i c i p a n t s , s u b j e c t t o s u b m i s s i o n s by a l l major p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h a t t h e Commission announce i t s r u l i n g w i t h reasons a t a p u b l i c hearing. These stances  demands have been met by RCIUM i n t h e two p a r t i c u l a r i n -  t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f p r i v i l e g e came i n t o p l a y .  t h e s e i n s t a n c e s concerned D.G. L e i g h t o n  The f i r s t o f  and A s s o c i a t e s ' document on  young uranium d e p o s i t s ; t h e second concerned Norcen's c o n t r a c t w i t h Korea E l e c t r i c Company ( s e e p. 6 a b o v e ) .  Each company announced, i n t h e  h e a r i n g s , t h a t i t had t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b u t i n s i s t e d on i t s c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Hence, RCIUM r e t a i n e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n f i d e n c e requests  but, l a t e r , f o l l o w i n g  from major p a r t i c i p a n t s , r e l e a s e d D.G..Leighton's document and  Norcen's c o n t r a c t t o RCIUM, a l t h o u g h  some o f t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e .  c o n t r a c t were made a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o members o f RCIUM. i n t e r v i e w ) assured  Mr. Anthony (19S0d,  me t h a t t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f Norcen's c o n t r a c t i s  the o n l y i t e m h e l d i n c o n f i d e n c e  by RCIUM.  I n t o t a l , t h e l i s t s o f documents h e l d by major p a r t i c i p a n t s and RCIUM, and t h e l i s t s o f documents r e f e r r e d t o i n w i t n e s s e s ' dence, may n o t always be complete, p r o b a b l y  statements of e v i -  because o f time c o n s t r a i n t s .  Mr. Anthony's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e subpoena power i s t i m e consuming i n p r a c t i c e and p u t s t h e onus on major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o demonstrate of a w i t n e s s  o r document.  relevancy  A l t h o u g h Mr. Anthony does not adhere t o t h e  use o f subpoena f o r d i s c o v e r y , which i s perhaps j u s t i f i a b l e , RCIUM has not been d e n i e d  any w i t n e s s o r document t h a t i t has asked f o r .  It is  u n l i k e l y , however, t h a t RCIUM would t r y t o subpoena an o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e w i t n e s s o r document because o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and expense i n v o l v e d .  57  Because RCIUM i s i n v o l v e d i n an on-going to  c o m p e t i t i v e f i e l d , i t may  r e t a i n certain information i n confidence.  have  T h i s appears t o have o c c u r r e d  i n j u s t one minor i n s t a n c e . I s t h e r e o p p o r t u n i t y t o assemble and p r e s e n t competing evidence? number of major p a r t i c i p a n t groups a r e p e r f o r m i n g , o r have s t u d i e s f o r RCIUM. responses  completed,  I q u e s t i o n e d s i x groups about t h e i r s t u d i e s .  a r e o u t l i n e d i n Column IV o f Appendix 9.  A  Their  Apart from U B C I C s  study on t h e A t l i n a r e a , a l l t h e s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d a r e f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ; hence t h e r e i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o cross-examine  the a u t h o r s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s .  I s t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t time?  I n accordance w i t h PR Wo.  1, B.4.1  (see  Appendix 1 ) , each major p a r t i c i p a n t i s g i v e n two weeks i n which t o review and t o p r e p a r e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n on t h e evidence t o be p r e s e n t e d one phase.  i n any  On 13 November 1979, Mr. Anthony ( M i n u t e s of meeting w i t h  major p a r t i c i p a n t s , 1979c) informed major p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t each s t a t e ment of e v i d e n c e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e l i s t of r e p o r t s , s t u d i e s o r documents to which t h e w i t n e s s may  r e f e r o r upon which he/she may  r e l y and  the  b i o g r a p h i c a l note on t h e w i t n e s s , must be c i r c u l a t e d t h r e e weeks i n advance i n s t e a d of two.  T h i s , as Ms. B o g g i l d , l e g a l c o u n s e l f o r UCELA  (1980, interview);,remarked, puts a g r e a t d e a l c i p a n t s who  o f p r e s s u r e on major p a r t i -  a r e p r e s s e d f o r r e s o u r c e s , but as Mr. Hodge, RCIUM r e s e a r c h  c o o r d i n a t o r (1980d, i n t e r v i e w ) ; , e x p l a i n e d , a l l o w s more time f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of  cross-examination.  F r e q u e n t l y , the RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s f e e l p r e s s e d f o r time (Hodge 1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) .  T h i s i s because RCIUM has c a l l e d so many  w i t n e s s e s ( s e e p. kk above) and hence a g r e a t d e a l o f time i s spent i n h e l p i n g w i t n e s s e s p r e p a r e t e s t i m o n y ; r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e time i s l e f t  to  58 prepare c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ( C u l b e r t 1980d, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Due  to time  con-  s t r a i n t s , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n p r e p a r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s f o r Commission c o u n s e l v a r i e s .  As Mr. Hodge (1980b, i n t e r -  view) commented: Sometimes our c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n i s t e r r i b l e . Somet i m e s , g i v e n the t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , we do r a t h e r w e l l . There a r e o n l y two o r t h r e e s e t s o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n t h a t we f e l t s a t i s f i e d w i t h . The RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s ' work w i t h RCIUM w i t n e s s e s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e s t i m o n i e s , i n t h a t they r e v i e w t h e d r a f t s o f t h e s t a t e ments o f e v i d e n c e and then a d v i s e t h e w i t n e s s e s as t o what r e v i s i o n s , i f any, a r e r e q u i r e d .  RCIUM's t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s a l s o r e v i e w  briefs.  The o b j e c t i v e i s t o ensure t h a t the t e s t i m o n i e s address t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t RCIUM i s concerned  with.  However, as noted by Mr. Hodge (1980d,  interview): I n some c a s e s , d r a f t s a r e not s u b m i t t e d on time and t h e r e i s no t i m e t o work w i t h them. Sometimes they a r e s u b m i t t e d i n p l e n t y o f t i m e . Reviewing d r a f t s was m o d e r a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n Phases I to V I . I n Phase V I I (Worker and P u b l i c H e a l t h ) , however, t h e r e were d i f f i culties; - t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l was out o f depth f o r t h e r e s e a r c h coordinators; - most o f t h e m e d i c a l people come from f a r away and t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t time t o go over a l l t h e i r briefs. A l l major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d ( s e e column I of Appendix 9 ) , except D r . S w i t z e r  o f R e x s p a r , e x p e r i e n c e time c o n s t r a i n t s .  This i s  because t h e y r e v i e w , and perhaps p r e p a r e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n on, t h e s t a t e ments o f evidence of so many Commission w i t n e s s e s . interview) pointed out: cipants."  As Mr. P a t e r s o n (1980,  " T h i s puts a c o n s i d e r a b l e burden on major p a r t i -  T h i s burden i s such t h a t t h e thoroughness w i t h w h i c h major  p a r t i c i p a n t s r e v i e w e v i d e n c e i s not always what i t c o u l d be ( s e e column  59 V o f Appendix  9 ) . The time c o n s t r a i n t s do not seem t o heed major p a r t i -  c i p a n t s i n t h e e x t e n t t o which they work w i t h t h e i r own w i t n e s s e s i n p r e p a r i n g t e s t i m o n y ( s e e column VI o f Appendix 9 ) . Or, S w i t z e r ( I 9 6 0 , i n t e r v i e w ) i s n o t p r e s s e d f o r time  because:  - Rexspar's w i t n e s s e s a r e p e o p l e who a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h Rexspar's case and do not have t o be helped in preparing testimony; - v e r y few o f t h e o t h e r w i t n e s s e s a r e s a y i n g t h i n g s t h a t a r e c r i t i c a l t o Rexspar's p o s i t i o n (hence D r , S w i t z e r q u e s t i o n s v e r y few w i t n e s s e s ) . To summarize, t h e RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s a r e p r e s s e d f o r time because they have so many w i t n e s s e s t o p r e p a r e .  T h i s reduces t h e e f f e c t -  i v e n e s s o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n prepared f o r Commission c o u n s e l .  I n add-  i t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s do not always have s u f f i c i e n t time t o work w i t h RCIUM w i t n e s s e s ' d r a f t s t a t e m e n t s ; f o r example,because some d r a f t s are submitted l a t e .  A l l major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d , except  Dr. S w i t z e r , e x p e r i e n c e t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s because they have t o r e v i e w , and perhaps  prepare c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n o n ^ h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e v i d e n c e o f  a l l Commission w i t n e s s e s .  The r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c r o s s -  e x a m i n a t i o n by major p a r t i c i p a n t s i s r e d u c e d .  Are s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e ? ing  The P u b l i c N o t i c e appear-  i n t h e Vancouver E x p r e s s on 12 March 1979 ( s e e Appendix  8) announced  t h a t RCIUM had been p r o v i d e d w i t h l i m i t e d funds (875,000) t o a s s i s t i n t e r e s t groups i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f b r i e f s .  RCIUM d i v i d e d t h i s  round o f f u n d i n g between 18 groups ( s e e Appendix  first  7 ) . The money was  r e c e i v e d a t t h e end o f June 1979. At a community h e a r i n g i n June 1979, D r . B a t e s (TP, 9, pp. 1125-6) made t h e f o l l o w i n g announcement:  60 You may have heard t h a t we requested a d d i t i o n a l money t o h e l p p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h i s i n q u i r y and I uas v e r y g l a d • . . . t o l e a r n . • . . t h a t t h e C a b i n e t has v o t e d us an a d d i t i o n a l hundred and f i f t y thousand d o l l a r s . T h i s . . . . means t h a t t h e r e i s a s i z e a b l e sum o f money now a v a i l a b l e f o r us t o help o r g a n i z e . . . . groups . . . . p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e t o t h e Commission . . . . T h i s second a l l o t m e n t o f funds was d i v i d e d between 21 groups ( s e e Append i x 7 ) ; i t was not d i s t r i b u t e d u n t i l August 1979. In r e a c t i o n t o t h e delay i n the r e c e i p t of p a r t i c i p a n t funding, the Task F o r c e o f funded p a r t i c i p a n t s (1979, l e t t e r ) demanded t h a t : . . . . ^technical^7 h e a r i n g s . . . . not commence b e f o r e 90 days a f t e r a c t u a l r e c e i p t o f a d d i t i o n a l funds • . . . I n any event, t h e commencement d a t e of t h e . . . . t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i s n o t t o t a k e p l a c e u n t i l November 1 s t , 1979. Its  reason was t h a t a d d i t i o n a l time i s r e q u i r e d  for:  - cash outlays required f o r r e n t a l of premises, payment o f s t a f f , and p r e p a r a t i o n o f documents. - r e c e i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as t o which w i t n e s s e s w i l l be c a l l e d by t h e /Commission7 i n c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e t h a t w i l l be c a l l e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Thus, as n o t e d by S c h m i t t (1979, p. 3 ) , f o r major p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t independent f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , since:  lack  t i m e and money s h o r t a g e s i n t e r r e l a t e ,  "Only when t h e money has been a l l o c a t e d w i l l t h e concerned groups  be i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e a l i s t i c a l l y d e s i g n t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s and develop t h e i r submissions."  D r . B a t e s ' (1979a, l e t t e r ) response t o t h e demands  of t h e Task F o r c e was a s f o l l o w s : . . . . I do not t h i n k i t e n t i r e l y r e a s o n a b l e t h a t you s h o u l d r e q u i r e t h e r e be a c l e a r 90 days between the s t a r t o f t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s and t h e r e c e i p t j j f the a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s . . . . we / t h e Commissions a r e not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r sending o u t t h e a c t u a l cheques and t h e r e f o r e , we can not be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any d e l a y which o c c u r s between o u r recommendations being s e n t t o t h e Government and t h e a c t u a l money becoming a v a i l a b l e . As i s c l e a r from Appendix 7, none of t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s  received  the amount t h a t they r e q u e s t e d ; a t l e a s t , n o t i n t h e f i r s t a l l o t m e n t .  For  61 example, EAAUM r e q u e s t e d $32,900 per month p l u s i n i t i a l (see to  Appendix 1 1 ) .  f u n d i n g o f $5500  EAAUM has r e c e i v e d a t o t a l o f $45,000 f o r J u l y  January 1980 i n c l u s i v e .  1979  T h i s amount r e p r e s e n t s about $6,400 per  month, a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - f i f t h of t h e i n i t i a l  r e q u e s t . Mr. S t a i n s b y o f  EAAUM (1979, i n t e r v i e w ) made t h e p o i n t t h a t t h i s amount does not p e r m i t f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n RCIUM.  B u t , as Mr. Anthony  (1980c, i n t e r v i e w )  n o t e d , no p a r t i c i p a n t g r o u p , not even RCIUM, a p p l i e d f o r two f u l l  time  l a w y e r s , and RCIUM i s p a y i n g f o r t h e communication of i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e communities.  I n o t h e r words, EAAUM d e l i b e r a t e l y o v e r s t a t e d i t s budget.  However, j u d g i n g from t h e minutes o f t h e second Kelowna  participants'  meeting ( 1 9 7 9 ) , EAAUM s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e d , f o r example, t h a t t h e r e was too much work f o r one l a w y e r t o h a n d l e . On 30 October 1979, a l a r g e number of major p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e h e a r i n g s be expanded  t o a t o t a l o f 96 days (see p. 24 above)  and t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l government be asked f o r a d d i t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t f u n d i n g ( T P , 35, p. 5 5 6 9 ) . funds.  The Commissioners agreed t o seek  These, however, i f approved, would not be f o r new r e s e a r c h of  new p a r t i c i p a n t s (TP, 36, pp. 5791-2). the  additional  Wo word had been r e c e i v e d from  government r e g a r d i n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l funds by t h e end of January  1980.  Hence, a t t h i s t i m e , groups d i d not know how much money they would r e c e i v i n g i n t h e t h i r d a l l o t m e n t ( C h a r l t e n 1980,  be  interview).  As i s e v i d e n t from columns I I , IV and V of Appendix 9, a l l t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d , except D r . S w i t z e r ( R e x s p a r ) , Mr. (UBCIC), and Dr. Young (BCMA), complained of a s h o r t a g e of f u n d s .  Rogers This  l i m i t s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o b r i n g i n w i t n e s s e s of t h e i r c h o i c e ; t o perform independent s t u d i e s ; t o t h o r o u g h l y r e v i e w the e v i d e n c e j a n d t o p r e p a r e cross-examination.  62 Mining  companies, w h i l e n o t r e c e i v i n g p a r t i c i p a n t f u n d i n g , do have  the b e n e f i t o f S e c t i o n 2 D ( l ) ( c c ) o f t h e Income Tax A c t (R.S.B.C. 1961, c . l ) : 20.(1)  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g paragraphs 18(1) ( a ) , ( b ) and ( h ) , i n computing a t a x p a y e r ' s income f o r a t a x a t i o n year from a b u s i n e s s o r p r o p e r t y , t h e r e may be deducted such o f t h e f a l l o w i n g amounts as a r e w h o l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h a t s o u r c e o r such p a r t o f the f o l l o w i n g amounts as may r e a s o n a b l e be r e garded as a p p l i c a b l e t h e r e t o : . . . .  (cc)  an on any on  amount p a i d by t h e t a x p a y e r i n t h e y e a r as o f account o f expenses i n c u r r e d by him i n making representation r e l a t i n g to a business c a r r i e d by him,  (1)  t o t h e government o f a c o u n t r y , p r o v i n c e o r s t a t e o r t o a m u n i c i p a l o r p u b l i c body performing a f u n c t i o n o f government i n Canada ....  C l e a r l y , t h e companies' expenses i n r e l a t i o n s t o RCIUM a r e d e d u c t a b l e from t a x a b l e income s i n c e RCIUM i s a: f u n c t i o n o f government."  " p u b l i c body performing  (Schmitt 1979).  a  G i v e n t h a t Rexspar can expect  t o make about $200 m i l l i o n from development o f i t s B i r c h I s l a n d (UID  1 ) , and i n l i g h t o f t h e above t a x d e d u c t i o n ,  Switzer can j u s t i f y h i s complaints  deposit  I f a i l t o s e e how D r .  about a l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l  resources:  t h e p o t e n t i a l g a i n s f a r outweigh t h e c o s t s . N e i t h e r Mr. Rogers (UBCIC) n o r D r . Young (BCMA) mentioned money as a c o n s t r a i n t . and  However, both t h e UBCIC and BCMA a r e l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s  have o t h e r funds t o draw upon.  pointed  B u t as Mr. Rogers (1980c, i n t e r v i e w )  out:  Without p a r t i c i p a n t f u n d i n g we /UBCIC/ would n o t have been i n v o l v e d i n t h e I n q u i r y . I f e l t t h a t t h e money we r e c e i v e d was adequate except t h a t i t wouldn't have been s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e s e a r c h . However, t h e Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Development gave us f u n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r o u r A t l i n and P e n t i c t o n s t u d i e s . Dr. Young has o f f e r e d h i s s e r v i c e s f r e e o f charge t o BCMA f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of RCIUM (Kansky 1980,  interview).  63  In g e n e r a l ,  the amount of f u n d i n g a l l o c a t e d t o major p a r t i c i p a n t s  determines t h e i r access to t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e .  On  questioning s i x  major p a r t i c i p a n t s about p r o v i s i o n of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e paration  during pre-  o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , I o b t a i n e d the responses p r e s e n t e d i n  column V I I of Appendix  9.  P o s s i b l y , the c o m p l a i n t s of v a r i o u s major p a r t i c i p a n t s about f u n d i n g s h o r t a g e s a r i s e from the f o l l o w i n g (a)  The  Commission has  f u n d i n g too (Mr.  thinly.  Rogers, Ms.  factors:  spread the a v a i l a b l e government p a r t i c i p a n t  C e r t a i n l y , the funded major p a r t i c i p a n t s  Raunthwaite and Mrs.  Boyce; see  interviewed  column I of Appendix  m e r i t the funds they r e c e i v e s i n c e they r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t c o n c e r n s therefore  cross-examine from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  i n g to RCIUM's a c q u i s i t i o n of r e l e v a n t  information.  9)  and  t h i s sometimes addHowever, g i v e n  that  many of the o t h e r funded major p a r t i c i p a n t s have s i m i l a r c o n c e r n s t o those interviewed EAAUM, and may  ( f o r example, the i n t e r e s t s of Greenpeace p a r a l l e l those of the concerns of CCNR are s i m i l a r to t h o s e of BCCUCC), RCIUM  have done b e t t e r had  i t i n s i s t e d t h a t more of t h e i n t e r e s t groups  band t o g e t h e r (as d i d t h r e e e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups to form EAAUM). c o a l i t i o n t h u s formed would then have a s i z e a b l e a l l o w a n c e and a b l e to do more w i t h ments, and  The  so on, c o u l d  be used to b r i n g and  be  i n additional witnesses, hire  perform more s t u d i e s ) .  f u n d i n g i s Inadequate however i t i s d i s t r i b u t e d .  a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t f u n d i n g ($225,000) had  been d i v i d e d  i t i o n s , each c o a l i t i o n would have r e c e i v e d money was  would  i t (money saved on l e g a l f e e s , o f f i c e r e n t a l pay-  more t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e (b)  Each  s p l i t equally.  I f the  avail-  between f i v e c o a l -  $45,000, assuming t h a t  EAAUM, however, which r e c e i v e d  $45,000  the (see  Appendix 7 ) , f i n d s t h a t t h i s amount a l l o w s f o r i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n l y i n the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Phase (see  column V o f Appendix 9 ) .  To  have  64 p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l phases, and hence t o have q u e s t i o n e d a l l w i t n e s s e s from an e n v i r o n m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , would have r e q u i r e d a t l e a s t times as much f u n d i n g .  To have f a c i l i t a t e d  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  five  throughout  RCIUM of f i v e funded c o a l i t i o n s would have n e c e s s i t a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , $1,250,000.  But o n l y $225,000 was made a v a i l a b l e ( s e e Appendix 7 ) .  N e i t h e r the RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s nor Commission c o u n s e l have r e f e r r e d t o a s h o r t a g e of f u n d s , but then RCIUM has i t s own budget e s t i m ated a t $2 m i l l i o n (The Vancouver  Sun, 28 F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 ) .  In summary, the d e l a y s i n the r e c e i p t of p a r t i c i p a n t f u n d i n g i n c o n v e n i e n c e major p a r t i c i p a n t s , many o f whom c o m p l a i n about t h e i r monies being inadequate.  Lack o f funds l i m i t s the a b i l i t y of major  participants  t o b r i n g i n w i t n e s s e s o f t h e i r c h o i c e ; t o perform s t u d i e s ; t o t h o r o u g h l y r e v i e w e v i d e n c e and t o p r e p a r e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ; and to h i r e t e c h n i c a l assistance.  I t seems t h a t the f u n d i n g s h o r t a g e s f o r major  a r i s e from two f a c t o r s .  participants  F i r s t , t h e a v a i l a b l e funds a r e s p r e a d too t h i n l y ;  and second, the funds a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t anyway.  RCIUM s t a f f do not  appear  to be s h o r t o f f u n d s . Limiting Factors Community H e a r i n g s A l l t h e f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s t o l i m i t RCIUM's s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g about community impacts from people appear t o be of t h e lower o r d e r (see p. 32  local  above).  The most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r seems t o be t h e c h o i c e o f p u b l i c heari n g s over o t h e r mechanisms of p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t .  Essentially, repre-  s e n t a t i o n a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s tends t o be b i a s e d ( H e b e r l e i n 1976a).  Fur-  thermore, most people a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g do not p a r t i c i p a t e i f the p r o c e e d i n g s a r e too f o r m a l .  As H e b e r l e i n (1976b, p. IB) n o t e s :  " ...  •  65 t h e s t r u c t u r a l format o f communication which i s n e c e s s a r y a t l a r g e meetings i n h i b i t s information t r a n s f e r . "  P u b l i c h e a r i n g s , however, do s e r v e  t o t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n from a p r o j e c t proponent t o t h e p u b l i c , and, i n the case o f RCIUM, a l s o t o t h e Commissioners. I t appears t h a t t h e RCIUM Commissioners viewed t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s p r e d o m i n a n t l y as t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s s i n c e m i n i n g companies were g i v e n p r i o r i t y o v e r l o c a l p e o p l e .  I n a d d i t i o n , because D r . B a t e s c o n -  f u s e d some p a r t i c i p a n t s about t h e purpose o f t h e s e h e a r i n g s , much time was spent l i s t e n i n g t o p e o p l e ' s c o m p l a i n t s about n o t b e i n g a b l e t o p r e p a r e adequately.  F u r t h e r m o r e , numerous b r i e f s were heard t h a t were o u t s i d e  RCIUM's terms o f r e f e r e n c e .  O v e r a l l , l e s s was l e a r n t about l o c a l impacts  than might have been. Due t o t i m i n g i n c o n v e n i e n c e s , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s were u n d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Kootenays and the C h i l c o t i n .  In  a d d i t i o n , and p r o b a b l y because RCIUM had not a p p r e c i a t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such a h i g h l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e uranium i s s u e , t h e numbers o f w i t n e s s e s w i s h i n g t o appear a t many o f t h e h e a r i n g s were u n d e r e s t i m a t e d and t h e s c h e d u l e was t o o t i g h t . Had t h e Commissioners a p p r e c i a t e d t h e importance o f a community r e l a t i o n s c o n s u l t a n t sooner than they d i d , t h e above f a c t o r s might have been l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t . communities, c o u l d  Thus Ms. S t a i r s , had she had more time i n t h e  have:  - ensured, perhaps, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the hearings of more p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s ( p o s s i b l y , by c o n v i n c i n g p e o p l e t h a t t h e i r f e e l i n g s about uranium m i n i n g were i m p o r t a n t ) ; - e n s u r e d , perhaps, a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a t W i l l i a m s Lake, Vanderhoof and F o r t N e l s o n ; - g i v e n p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a c l e a r e r i d e a o f what t h e Commissioners wanted t o l e a r n from them; - e x p l a i n e d how t h e Commissioners had i n t e r p r e t e d terms o f r e f e r e n c e ;  their  66 - i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t i n each community p r i o r t o t h e drawing-up o f t h e h e a r i n g s s c h e d u l e . Technical  Hearings  Both h i g h e r and l o w e r o r d e r f a c t o r s o p e r a t e i n t h e t e c h n i c a l  hear-  i n g s t o l i m i t RCIUM's s u c c e s s i n s e c u r i n g a r e l e v a n t body o f a c c u r a t e information.  S i n c e RCIUM c a l l s most o f t h e w i t n e s s e s , both t h e RCIUM  r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s and many major p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e p r e s s e d f o r t i m e ; t h e former because they have t o p r e p a r e so many RCIUM w i t n e s s e s , and t h e l a t t e r because they have t o r e v i e w t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f e v i d e n c e o f a l l these w i t n e s s e s .  The o v e r a l l r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c r o s s -  examination i s reduced.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Commission r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s  a r e l e s s a b l e t o work w i t h w i t n e s s e s and ensure t h a t a l l w i t n e s s e s ' d r a f t s a r e s u b m i t t e d on t i m e . Mr. Anthony m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e uranium  i s s u e i s such  t h a t RCIUM has t o b r i n g i n most o f t h e w i t n e s s e s s i n c e i t s w i t n e s s e s w i l l r e f l e c t both s i d e s o f t h e debate ( s e e p. kk above). however, t h a t an e x p e r t on any a s p e c t o f uranium a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n on t h e uranium of  issue.  I t i s unlikely,  e x p l o i t a t i o n can t a k e  Hence, RCIUM's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i t s r o l e ( l o w e r o r d e r f a c t o r ) r a t h e r than t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e  (higher order factor) i s l i m i t i n g the effectiveness of cross-examination. The n a t u r e o f t h e uranium erent sense. field,  i s s u e i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r , but i n a d i f f -  Thus, because RCIUM i s l o o k i n g i n t o an on-going, c o m p e t i t i v e  t h e o n l y way t h a t i t can o b t a i n a f u l l body o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n  may be t o a c c e p t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n f i d e n c e .  Such i n f o r m -  a t i o n i s n o t t e s t e d by c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n and , t h e r e f o r e , may n o t be a c c u r ate.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e i s such t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s  c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n t o b r i n g o u t f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n from w i t n e s s e s t h a t might o t h e r w i s e be t h e c a s e .  Most major p a r t i c i p a n t s put a g r e a t d e a l o f  67  e f f o r t during cross-examination into establishing t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r  cases  and i n t o d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f w i t n e s s e s who do not s u p p o r t t h e i r cases.  There i s n o t h i n g unusual o r unexpected  about t h i s .  As  Dr. Thompson (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) p o i n t e d o u t : "The n a t i o n t h a t i n t e r v e n e r s w i l l be i m p a r t i a l s e a r c h e s f o r t r u t h i s u n r e a l i s t i c . " S i n c e t h e amount o f government f u n d i n g f o r major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n RCIUM i s so s m a l l ( h i g h e r o r d e r f a c t o r ) and because RCIUM has o v e r - f r a c t i o n a l i z e d i t ( l o w e r o r d e r f a c t o r ) , major p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r ability: - t o b r i n g i n w i t n e s s e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f RCIUM; - to hire technical expertise; - t o conduct  studies;  - t o t h o r o u g h l y r e v i e w evidence and prepare c r o s s examination. I n a d d i t i o n , d e l a y s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f funds ( h i g h e r o r d e r f a c t o r ) l i m i t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f funded groups* The Commissioners'  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n RCIUM.  subpoena powers a r e l i m i t e d because RCIUM was  e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t r a t h e r than under t h e f e d e r a l I n q u i r i e s A c t ( s e e p. 55 a b o v e ) .  Due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y  and expense i n v o l v e d ( h i g h e r o r d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r ) , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t RCIUM would go t o t h e t r o u b l e o f subpoenaing  an o u t - o f - p r o v i n c e w i t n e s s .  Mr. Anthony's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e subpoena power ( l o w e r o r d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r ) i s time-consuming i n p r a c t i c e and puts t h e onus on major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o demonstrate r e l e v a n c y o f a w i t n e s s o r document.  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, has proved t o be s u c c e s s f u l , and i s , perhaps, a w i s e one g i v e n t h a t i t i s v e r y hard t o g e t i n f o r m a t i o n from someone who has something  to hide.  The Commissioners'  o t h e r commitments may w e l l be d e t e r m i n i n g t h e  27 June 19S0 d e a d l i n e on t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s s c h e d u l e .  I t i s also  6a  p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e government has e s t a b l i s h e d an a r b i t r a r y r e p o r t i n g time-frame on RCIUM.  W h i l e t h e former f a c t o r i s p a r t l y h i g h e r  p a r t l y l o w e r o r d e r ( t h e Commissioners can o n l y be expected  order,  t o go so  f a r i n r e d u c i n g t h e i r o t h e r commitments), t h e second f a c t o r i s e n t i r e l y higher order i n nature. The f i n a l l i m i t i n g f a c t o r c o n c e r n s c h a i r m a n s h i p sessions.  of the t e c h n i c a l  I t appears t h a t t h e Commissioners do n o t c h a i r t h e p r o c e e d i n g s  r i g o r o u s l y enough.  As a r e s u l t , more i r r e l e v a n t and r e p i t i t i o u s q u e s t i o n -  i n g o c c u r s than would o t h e r w i s e be t h e c a s e .  I t i s suggested  e f f i c i e n t c h a i r i n g i s a lower o r d e r r a t h e r than a h i g h e r o r d e r  that i n factor,  g i v e n t h a t t h e Commissioners c o u l d do a b e t t e r j o b , perhaps by having Mr. Raudsepp c h a i r more f r e q u e n t l y o r by having p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s o f relevancy included i n the Preliminary Rulings. Commission Research q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed Research conducted o r a u t h o r i z e d by RCIUM may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r e l e v a n t body o f a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n .  This research,  i f i t i s o r i g i n a l , s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e a d v e r s a r y p r o c e s s . the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s must be addressed  Hence,  i n the evaluation of the r e -  search a c t i v i t i e s against c r i t e r i o n I : (a)  I s t h e r e s e a r c h r e l e v a n t t o RCIUM's terms o f reference?  (b)  I f i t i s o r i g i n a l research, i s i t subjected t o t h e a d v e r s a r y process?  I f t h e r e s p o n s e t o ( b ) above i s a f f i r m a t i v e , t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I w i l l i n d i c a t e how thorough i s t h e r e view o f RCIUM's r e s e a r c h  activities.  69 A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n I s t h e r e s e a r c h r e l e v a n t ? The f i v e RCIUM r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s ( s e e p. 25 above) mere d e c i d e d  upon by t h e Commissioners w h i l e they were  i n g t h e i s s u e s f o r t h e f i r s t time ( B a t e s 1979, i n t e r v i e w ) .  review-  They appear  t o r e f l e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e Commissioners, except perhaps, f o r t h e l a s t one ( s t u d y o f n a t u r a l r a d i o a c t i v i t y i n b i o l o g i c a l p a t h w a y s ) .  Be-  cause o f t h e i r v e r y g e n e r a l n a t u r e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t they would have c o n t r i b u t e d t o RCIUM's a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r e l e v a n t body o f i n f o r m a t i o n . As Dr. Thompson (1980a, i n t e r v i e w ) remarked, t h e i r t e r m i n a t i o n ( s e e p. 25 above) was q u i t e p r e d i c t a b l e : r : ' TAG's p r o j e c t f a i l e d . . . . so t o o d i d t h o s e o f WAG / N o r t h e r n Assessment Group^3 funded by J u s t i c e B e r g e r f o r t h e M a c k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y . NAG went o f f on i t s own t r i p . I t had no i d e a how t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t c o l l e c t e d would be used i n t h e I n q u i r y o r o f i t s r e l e v a n c e . A l o t o f time and money was wasted on t h i s . The more r e c e n t l y a u t h o r i z e d r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s a r e v e r y s p e c i f i c i n f o c u s ( s e e p. 2;5 a b o v e ) .  They were d e c i d e d  upon by t h e RCIUM  research  c o o r d i n a t o r s and t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Commissioners.  They s e r v e t o g e t answers t o p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s t h a t RCIUM  has i d e n t i f i e d as being r e l e v a n t t o i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e  (Culbert  1980h, i n t e r v i e w ) . Is the research subjected  t o t h e adversary  process?  The a u t h o r -  ized research s t u d i e s , a t l e a s t those t h a t are o r i g i n a l , are f o r presentation at a t e c h n i c a l hearing  ( C u l b e r t 1980e, i n t e r v i e w ) .  The o p p o r t u n i t y  e x i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , t o cross-examine t h e a u t h o r s o f each commissioned research p r o j e c t . Limiting  Factors  L i m i t i n g f a c t o r s h e r e appear t o be t h e Commissioners' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how TAG's r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s would have been r e l e v a n t t o RCIUM's  70 terms o f r e f e r e n c e and t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e RCIUM r e s e a r c h  coordinators  and t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s t o i d e n t i f y q u e s t i o n s t h a t RCIUM r e q u i r e s answering.  W h i l e t h e former f a c t o r i s e n t i r e l y second o r d e r i n n a t u r e , t h e  l a t t e r f a c t o r i s p a r t l y f i r s t o r d e r , p a r t l y second o r d e r .  Thus, even  i f RCIUM had a c c e s s t o i n f i n i t e funds such t h a t i t c o u l d a f f o r d t o h i r e a l l t h e e x p e r t i s e t h a t i t needed, t h e r e q u i r e d e x p e r t i s e may n o t always, be a v a i l a b l e a t t h e r i g h t t i m e .  RCIUM does not have i n f i n i t e funds b u t ,  perhaps, c o u l d have p u t more money i n t o h i r i n g r e l e v a n t e x p e r t i s e .  Visits Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed The acquaint having  Commissioners undertook v i s i t s t o uranium mines i n o r d e r t o themselves w i t h contemporary problems ( s e e p. 26 a b o v e ) .  seen a uranium mine b e f o r e , i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t they  Not should  w i s h t o v i s i t one o r two; t h i s , no doubt, would save them some embarrassment a t a l a t e r s t a g e .  Indeed, as Commissioner o f t h e West C o a s t O i l P o r t  q u i r y (WCOPI), D r . Thompson t o u r e d s e v e r a l l a r g e o i l t a n k e r s holding p u b l i c hearing.  before  H i s r a t i o n a l e f o r so doing was t h a t he might  b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d and i n t e r p r e t t h e testimony  he was l a t e r t o hear (Thomp-  son 1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) . As d e s c r i b e d below ( s e e pp. 7 2 - 3 ) , i t seems t h a t t h e Commissioners c o l l e c t e d some r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r uranium mine v i s i t s .  Since  they were s e l e c t e d because o f t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , they a r e s u r e l y q u i t e competent t o assess t h e a c c u r a c y o f such i n f o r m a t i o n , and q u i t e a b l y , t h e r e f o r e , can make use o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n drawing  justifi-  conclusions.  Hence, t h e o n l y q u e s t i o n t o be a d d r e s s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e uranium mine v i s i t s a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I i s :  "How much r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n d i d  the Commissioners c o l l e c t from t h e i r v i s i t s t o uranium mines?"  71 The Commissioners v i s i t e d uranium d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n o r d e r t o l e a r n t h e e x a c t n a t u r e of t h e s e d e p o s i t s and t o form an o p i n i o n on t h e v a l i d i t y o f p u b l i c i n p u t about hazards ( s e e ;p«. 26 atyove).  How-  e v e r , t h e y made more use o f t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f uranium d e p o s i t s than i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e above.  Thus, on 15 August 1979, t h e Commissioners  released t h e i r Interim Report.  The recommendations i n t h i s r e p o r t a r e  based on: i)  ii.  t h e uranium d e p o s i t s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s , as i s evidenced by t h e opening s e n t e n c e s o f paragraphs 1, 10 and 12 of t h e Report ( s e e Appendix 5 ) . p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o RCIUM ( p a r a g r a p h 3U o f t h e R e p o r t ) , t h i s d a t a h a v i n g been used by RCIUM f o r : . . . . a s t u d y o f i t s / u r a n i u m e x p l o r a t i o n s ' - ^ impact on t h e environment, and o f p o s s i b l e h e a l t h h a z a r d s t o e x p l o r a t i o n crews and t o t h e p u b l i c . (paragraph 3 ) ; and • . . . a p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n o f , the r i s k s t o t h e p u b l i c w h i c h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s _uranium e x p l o r a t i o n / might c a u s e . (paragraph 1 ) ;  iii.  the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to mineral exploration i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( s e c t i o n V I I o f t h e R e p o r t ) .  I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e Report i s a c c u r a t e and r e l e v a n t w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e responses t o t h e following  questions:  (a)  How r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made by t h e Commissioners d u r i n g t h e i r v i s i t s t o uranium d e p o s i t s ?  (b)  What p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Commissi o n e r s , how a c c u r a t e was i t , and how a c c u r a t e was t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r i s k s t o t h e p u b l i c o f uranium exploration?  (c)  How a c c u r a t e was t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t legislation?  Application of C r i t e r i o n How much i n f o r m a t i o n was s e c u r e d from t h e uranium mine v i s i t s ?  It  i s hard t o determine how much r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h e Commissioners secured from t h e i r v i s i t s t o uranium mines s i n c e t h e r e a r e no p u b l i c r e p o r t s on t h e s e v i s i t s ( t h e Commissioners' memoranda on t h e s e v i s i t s a r e kept as c o n f i d e n t i a l RCIUM documents), and t h e Commissioners r a r e l y r e f e r to the v i s i t s i n the hearings. I n t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ' T r a n s c r i p t s , I found o n l y two r e f e r ences t o t h e uranium mine v i s i t s , each o f which was a mere p a s s i n g comment by D r . B a t e s ( s e e TP, 29, p. 4313 and 32, p. 4983). his  i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks a t t h e community  Generally, i n  h e a r i n g s , D r . B a t e s mentioned  t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e v i s i t s were made, and sometimes, b r i e f l y a l l u d e d t o t h e i r purpose.  F o r example, a t t h e Kamloops h e a r i n g , D r . B a t e s ( T P , 8A,  p. 811) e x p l a i n e d why t h e Commissioners had v i s i t e d S a l t Lake C i t y : There a r e many abandoned t a i l i n g s ' s i t e s i n Utah and Wyoming, but t h e p a r t i c u l a r one i n S a l t Lake C i t y happens t o be o f i n t e r e s t and i m p o r t a n c e because i t ' s i n t h e m i d d l e o f a b u i l t - u p a r e a , and t h e r e f o r e we wanted t o go and l o o k a t t h a t very c l o s e l y and d i s c u s s w i t h p e o p l e what t h e y p l a n t o do about i t . At t h e Kelowna h e a r i n g , D r . B a t e s ( T P , 3, p. 4) d i s c u s s e d t h e v i s i t s t o the Sherwood  and M i d n i t e Mines i n Washington S t a t e :  They're t h e c l o s e s t uranium mines t o us . . . • and have s p e c i a l t h i n g s t o teach u s , not o n l y because i n a g e o l o g i c a l sense t h e d e p o s i t s t h e y ' r e w o r k i n g a r e almost t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . but a l s o because one o f them jTMidnite^? was e s t a b l i s h e d on an I n d i a n t r i b a l r e s e r v e , and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e I n d i a n community i n t o t h e q u i t e major o p e r a t i o n t h e r e was a m a t t e r o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s Commission. I n v a r i o u s speeches and i n t e r v i e w s , D r . B a t e s has been more s p e c i f i c about t h e t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e Commissioners o b t a i n e d from t h e i r v i s i t s t o uranium mines.  F o r example, i n a speech g i v e n l a s t f a l l , D r .  B a t e s (1979, speech) d e s c r i b e d how t h e Commissioners, w h i l e v i s i t i n g t h e  73 M i d n i t e M i n e , met w i t h I n d i a n c o u n c i l t h e r e t o d i s c u s s t h e i m p a c t s o f uranium m i n i n g on I n d i a n communities; and, i n a r e c e n t t e l e v i s i o n  inter-  v i e w , D r . B a t e s (Vancouver Channel 8's "Jack Webster Show", 24 January 1980) d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y t h e French uranium i n d u s t r y ' s worker p r o t e c t i o n service.  C l e a r l y , t h e Commissioners c o l l e c t e d some r e l e v a n t  information  d u r i n g t h e i r uranium mine v i s i t s .  How r e p r e s e n t a t i v e were t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made, d u r i n g t h e uranium deposits' v i s i t s ?  On 4 October 1979, a map was made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l  major p a r t i c i p a n t s and o t h e r s who were i n t e r e s t e d . map, a c c o r d i n g t o Mr. Anthony ( T P , 26, p. 3697):  The purpose o f t h e ". . . . i s t o p r e s e n t  as comprehensive as p o s s i b l e a p i c t u r e o f uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia."  A l t h o u g h t h e map i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t number  of uranium d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia not v i s i t e d by RCIUM, many o f t h e s e are  not r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g p o t e n t i a l commercial v a l u e a t t h i s t i m e and  are  u n l i k e l y t o be o f much i n t e r e s t t o t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y .  the  d e p o s i t s i n t h e N o r t h Okanagan and near Summerland a r e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e  However,  i n t e r e s t t o t h e i n d u s t r y ; RCIUM has planned v i s i t s t o communities near t h e s e l o c a t i o n s i n t h e f a l l o f 1980 and, no doubt, w i l l v i s i t t h e s e dep o s i t s a t t h a t time ( C u l b e r t 1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) . O v e r a l l , RCIUM has v i s i t e d , o r w i l l v i s i t i n t h e near f u t u r e , most of  t h e c o m m e r c i a l l y v i a b l e uranium d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  I f the  p r i c e o f uranium o x i d e c o n t i n u e s t o r i s e , however, some o f t h e d e p o s i t s not  v i s i t e d may w e l l a t t a i n  significance.  What p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Commissioners, how a c c u r a t e was i t , and how a c c u r a t e was t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r i s k s ?  The  p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a , a p a r t from a t a b l e o f r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s a t r o c k s u r f a c e s and m a t e r i a l a d j a c e n t t o d r i l l h o l e s ( s e e Appendix 5 o f t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t ) ,  7k  are n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t .  Hence t h e p u b l i c has no means  of e i t h e r a s s e s s i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e d a t a o r o f d e t e r m i n i n g the Commissioners' recommendations a r e i n i t s i n t e r e s t .  whether  Mr. C u l b e r t  (1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) i s wondering why t h e Commissioners made recommenda t i o n s concerning  uranium e x p l o r a t i o n b e f o r e t h e E x p l o r a t i o n Phase o f  the t e c h n i c a l hearings. J u d g i n g from t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s made by Or. Murray (TP, 25, pp. 3325-6) d u r i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e Commissioners  had a c c e s s t o a l l t h e d a t a r e q u i r e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e r i s k s t h a t  they d i s c u s s i n t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t : I t i s very c l e a r t o us i n t h e Commission t h a t we must have r e l e v a n t d a t a . . . . on a number o f a s p e c t s of e x p l o r a t i o n and e s s e n t i a l l y we a r e unanimously agreed t h a t we need t o have d a t a on radon gas s u r v e y s b e f o r e and a f t e r d r i l l i n g p r o g r e s s e s . We need t o have data on uranium and radium conc e n t r a t i o n i n s u r f a c e w a t e r s , groundwaters, seeps and hot s p r i n g s both b e f o r e and a f t e r e x p l o r a t i o n . We need d a t a on gamma r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s a t e x p l o r a t i o n d r i l l s i t e s and c l a i m b l o c k s b e f o r e and a f t e r e x p l o r a t i o n . We need . . . . d a t a on radon i n working l e v e l months i n a l l p l a c e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n . We need i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s o n a l d o s i m e t r y and we a l s o need g e n e r a l g e o c h e m i s t r y background d a t a . S i n c e D r . B a t e s p o s s e s s e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge o f o c c u p a t i o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l h e a l t h h a z a r d s , he i s presumable q u i t e competent t o handle d a t a t h a t a r e used i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f h e a l t h r i s k s and t h e like.  The f a c t t h a t he was t h e Chairman and a u t h o r o f t h e S c i e n c e  C o u n c i l o f Canada r e p o r t e n t i t l e d : of Long-Term Hazards t o Human H e a l t h p l a c e ( O c t o b e r 1977)  P o l i c i e s and P o i s o n s :  The Containment  i n t h e Environment and i n t h e Work-  and a u t h o r o r c o - a u t h o r o f 151 o t h e r such  s c i e n t i f i c r e p o r t s g i v e s support t o t h i s c l a i m .  published  The unknown f a c t o r , how-  e v e r , i s t h e s u b j e c t i v e element i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c  75 i n f o r m a t i o n ( s e e p. 15 a b o v e ) . (1)  T h i s , together with the f a c t s t h a t :  t h e p u b l i c was not c o n s u l t e d about t h e r i s k assessment; and ( 2 ) t h e  Commissioners p r o b a b l y l a c k e d a l l t h e r e l e v a n t d a t a , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e recommendations  i n t h e Report a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the p u b l i c  interest.  How a c c u r a t e was t h e Commissioners' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n ? As Mr. Anthony (1980a, i n t e r v i e w ) e x p l a i n t e d : The Commissioners heard numerous s u b m i s s i o n s from many v a r i e d s o u r c e s i n t h e community h e a r i n g s as t o what i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes were f e l t t o be n e c e s s a r y . They then examined t h e e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t o s e e what t y p e s of changes were f e a s i b l e . But as he went on t o s a y :  " A l t h o u g h I a d v i s e d them as t o what t h e l e g i s -  l a t i o n s a y s o r doesn't s a y , t h e Commissioners d i d n ' t always f o l l o w my advice."  Perhaps we s h o u l d not be t o o c o n f i d e n t about t h e Commissioners'  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n g i v e n t h a t none o f them a r e l a w y e r s . However, l e g a l a d v i c e was a v a i l a b l e t o them whether they chose t o f o l l o w i t or h a t .  Limiting  Factors  The Commissioners based t h e i r I n t e r i m Report on what appears t o have been an u n t e s t e d body o f i n c o m p l e t e d a t a .  T h i s has l e d many p e o p l e  to wonder why t h e Report was produced b e f o r e t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s commenced.  Perhaps t h e Commissioners were r e s p o n d i n g t o p u b l i c p r e s s u r e ;  perhaps they f e l t t h a t they s h o u l d p u b l i s h a r e p o r t t o prove t h a t they had a c c o m p l i s h e d s o m e t h i n g .  B u t whatever t h e r e a s o n , we must q u e s t i o n  t h e i r understanding of the p u b l i c i n q u i r y process (lower order  limiting  f a c t o r ) s i n c e t h e i r recommendations were not t h e p r o d u c t o f a f u l l review process.  public  76 L i b r a r y Network Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed The  RCIUM l i b r a r y c o n t a i n s a l a r g e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t  the  Commissioners w i l l make use of when they come t o w r i t e t h e i r f i n a l ( B a t e s 1980a, i n t e r v i e w ) .  report  Q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n of  the  Library material against c r i t e r i o n I are: (a)  I s the i n f o r m a t i o n  (b)  I s i t complete?  relevant?  and f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been s p e c i a l l y g e n e r a t e d f o r RCIUM: (c)  Is i t accurate?  To the e x t e n t t h a t s p e c i a l l y generated i n f o r m a t i o n i s drawn upon by w i t nesses i n t h e i r t e s t i m o n i e s a t the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i s d i r e c t e d at a witness  i n cross-examination,  the o p p o r t u n i t y  t o determine  i t s a c c u r a c y does e x i s t . A p p l i c a t i o n of I s the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t ?  Criterion  Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e L i b r a r y  i s h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o RCIUM*s terms of r e f e r e n c e . l i s t s L i b r a r y items 261  t o 269 ( r e c e i v e d i n May  ( r e c e i v e d i n November and December, 1979) a l s o supports Miss McCall*s  Appendix 12, which  1979)  and 1410  i l l u s t r a t e s this point  (1980a, i n t e r v i e w ) comment t h a t :  has gone by, t h e l i t e r a t u r e has become more and more focused have become more and more c l e a r l y  I s the i n f o r m a t i o n complete?  1416 and  "As  time  as the  issues  defined."  There i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the L i b r a r y i s c o m p l e t e . p a r t i e s have r e q u e s t e d ,  to  We  the  cannot assume t h a t i n t e r e s t e d  between them, a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  I n add-  i t i o n , some of the l i s t s prepared by governments, b o a r d s , a g e n c i e s  and  77 major p a r t i c i p a n t s , as r e q u i r e d by PR No. 1),  are i n c o m p l e t e (see p-.»52 a b o v e ) .  1, 8.3.1. and B.3.2„(see Appendix  Furthermore, edited  videocassettes  have been p r e p a r e d o n l y f o r the f i r s t t _ o phases o f t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s (see p. 31 above).  F i n a l l y , the Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  29 above) has not been r e t u r n e d Is  the i n f o r m a t i o n  RCIUM.  The  accurate?  As noted above ( p . 7 6 ) , i t i s necessary t h a t has been s p e c i a l l y generated  e x p l o r a t i o n r e p o r t s , f o r the most p a r t , and  t o the Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e k October 1979,  p.  by a l l m i n i n g companies.  t o ask t h i s q u e s t i o n o n l y o f i n f o r m a t i o n for  (see  the responses  c o n s t i t u t e such i n f o r m a t i o n .  On  d u r i n g t h e E x p l o r a t i o n Phase of t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ,  m i n i n g companies (who  had  been i d e n t i f i e d by RCIUM as p a r t i c i p a t i n g  26  or  h a v i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia) were i n attendance f o r questioning ploration reports. t h e r e was  on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , as d e s c r i b e d  i t was  not s u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o hear from the r e s t .  s i m i l a r questions  I t became apparent  t h a t a number of major p a r t i c i -  f o r each company.  Hence, i n o r d e r t o save t i m e ,  agreed t h a t RCIUM would c o l l e c t t h e s e " o v e r l a p " q u e s t i o n s  and send a s t a n d a r d  l i s t of r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s  c o n s t i t u t e s t h e Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n  I n the " o v e r f l o w "  hearings,  3795-6) e x p l a i n e d ,  This l i s t  RCIUM p l a n s t o hear from c e r t a i n of As Mr.  i f major p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l t h a t the  o f a company i s n e c e s s i t a t e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e RCIUM w i l l  c o n s i d e r the r e c a l l i n g of t h e company; and  Commissioners:  of  Questionnaire.  m i n i n g companies t h a t have responded t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (TP, 26, pp.  together  t o the v a r i o u s m i n i n g com-  p a n i e s i n v o l v e d i n uranium e x p l o r a t i o n (TP, 26, pp. 3580-2). questions  ex-  Only n i n e of t h e s e 26 companies were c r o s s - e x a m i n e d ;  d u r i n g the a c t u a l p r o c e e d i n g s on t h i s day, pants had  in their  the  Anthony return  responses,  as he a d v i s e d  the  78 I t ' s up t o you . . . . t o d e c i d e whether t h e w i t n e s s e s s h o u l d be r e t u r n e d , once you know t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e v i d e n c e we're /Commission c o u n s e l and major p a r t i c i p a n t s / s e e k i n g and we can demonstrate t o you t h a t i t would s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e Commission t o have t h e w i t n e s s r e t u r n . There w i l l be o p p o r t u n i t y ,  t h e r e f o r e , t o cross-examine a few m i n i n g com-  p a n i e s on t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses and f u r t h e r on t h e i r e x p l o r a t i o n reports.  B u t due t o t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t many companies'  w i l l be r e c a l l e d ( S c h m i t t  1980, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Mr. Rogers o f UBCIC (TP, 26,  p. 3594) e x p r e s s e d h i s doubts about t h i s p r o c e s s and wondered whether: . • • .we A h e  Commission and major p a r t i c i p a n t s - ? haven't somehow moved  away from t h e p h i l o s o p h y had  o f what a P u b l i c I n q u i r y i s . . • . "  s t a t e d a t an e a r l i e r s e s s i o n  a  Mr. Anthony  that:  I t ' s one t h i n g t o r e c e i v e a r e p o r t , but t h e r e ' s a n o t h e r t h i n g t o be a b l e t o q u e s t i o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e p o r t and how t h a t r e p o r t was prepared and do t h e o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n p e r m i t s us t o do. O v e r a l l , i t seems t h a t t h e r e w i l l be very l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y examine m i n i n g companies on t h e uranium e x p l o r a t i o n Limiting  to cross-  activities.  Factors  Two l o w e r o r d e r f a c t o r s seem t o l i m i t RCIUM's a b i l i t y t o ensure a c c u r a c y and r e l e v a n c y  o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e RCIUM l i b r a r y .  First,  RCIUM's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s r o l e ( i t has t o b r i n g i n most o f t h e w i t n e s s e s , see p. 66 above) i s such t h a t members o f RCIUM and many major p a r t i c i p a n t s are pressed f o r time.  As a r e s u l t ^ n o t a l l r e l e v a n t documents  a r e f i l e d w i t h RCIUM and Mr. C u l b e r t has o n l y p r e p a r e d two e d i t e d cassettes.  video-  Second, t h e Commissioners' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n q u i r y p r o c e s s  can be q u e s t i o n e d g i v e n t h a t t h e e x p l o r a t i o n r e p o r t s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses o f many m i n i n g companies a r e n o t being sary  process.  subjected  t o the adver-  79 Summation The  f i v e RCIUM r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s mere a waste o f time and money,  and d i d l i t t l e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r e l e v a n t body o f information.  The more r e c e n t l y a u t h o r i z e d r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s a r e o f much  more r e l e v a n c e  t o RCIUM's terms o f r e f e r e n c e and a r e f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a t  a t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g where they a r e s u b j e c t e d t o  cross-examination.  W h i l e t h e r e i s a l a r g e volume o f r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n t h e RCIUM l i b r a r y , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s not n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l e t e , and t h a t which was s p e c i a l l y generated f o r RCIUM i s h a r d l y s u b j e c t e d The  Commissioners o b t a i n e d  v i s i t s t o uranium mines.  to  cross-examination.  some r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e i r  I t i s l i k e l y that t h i s information i s accurate,  g i v e n t h e h i g h degree o f e x p e r t i s e possessed by t h e Commissioners.  The  recommendations i n t h e I n t e r i m R e p o r t , which were p a r t l y based on t h e Commissioners' o b s e r v a t i o n s  o f uranium d e p o s i t s , were n o t t h e p r o d u c t o f  a f u l l p u b l i c r e v i e w p r o c e s s and a r e t h e r e f o r e The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of cross-examination  questionable.  i n the t e c h n i c a l hearings i s  l e s s than i t might be f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s ; (1)  RCIUM has brought i n most o f t h e w i t n e s s e s , and hence many p a r t i e s a r e pressed f o r t i m e ;  (2)  many o f t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e underfunded.  ( 1 ) above a l s o reduces t h e RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s ' a b i l i t y RCIUM w i t n e s s e s  and t o ensure t h a t a l l d r a f t s a r e s u b m i t t e d  t o work w i t h  on t i m e .  (2)  above a l s o l i m i t s t h e a b i l i t y o f major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o b r i n g i n w i t n e s s e s independently  o f RCIUM; t o h i r e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e ; and t o p e r f o r m s t u d i e s .  I t seems t h a t t h e t i m e s h o r t a g e s f a c e d by RCIUM a r e due, i n l a r g e p a r t , t o t h e 27 June 1980 d e a d l i n e on t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s .  The time  c o n s t r a i n t means t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s t i m e t o cross-examine w i t n e s s e s  than  80 might o t h e r w i s e  be t h e c a s e , and t h a t n o t a l l w i t n e s s e s may be h e a r d .  a d d i t i o n , t h e d e a d l i n e imposed on t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s time pressures staff.  In  increases the  F e l t by many o f t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s and by t h e RCIUM  The t i m e s h o r t a g e s a r e p a r t l y due t o some r e p i t i t i o u s and i r r e -  levant cross-examination  t h a t c o u l d be reduced i f t h e s e s s i o n s were c h a i r e d  more r i g o r o u s l y . The  n a t u r e o f t h e uranium i s s u e i s such t h a t c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n  by  major p a r t i c i p a n t s t o b r i n g o u t f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s a t t h e expense of cross-examination cases.  t o d e t e r m i n e c r e d i b i l i t y and t o b r i n g out p a r t i c u l a r  F u r t h e r m o r e , because o f t h e c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e uranium  m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , RCIUM may be r e c e i v i n g some i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n f i d e n c e . Such i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t t e s t e d i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  F i n a l l y , t h e Commiss-  i o n e r s ' subpoena powers a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r c e f u l and may l i m i t , f o r e , RCIUM's access t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r e l e v a n t  there-  information.  C o n c e r n i n g t h e community h e a r i n g s , RCIUM l e a r n e d l e s s about l o c a l impacts t h a n i t might have done. of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s  T h i s i s l a r g e l y due t o RCIUM's c h o i c e  t o l e a r n about l o c a l c o n c e r n s ; i t i s a l s o due t o t h e  Commissioners' l a t e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e . o f a community r e l a t ions  consultant.  81  CHAPTER V CRITERION I I : INFORM THE PUBLIC OF COMMISSION FINDINGS Introduction As o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I (see p. 18 above), the second c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t RCIUM communicate the i n f o r m a t i o n i t r e c e i v e s t D t h e p u b l i c i n a manner t h a t i s c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o a l l B r i t i s h Columbians. words, f o r t h i s c r i t e r i o n t o be f u l l y met,  RCIUM must t h o r o u g h l y  In  other educate  t h e p u b l i c about a l l a s p e c t s of the uranium i s s u e t h a t are w i t h i n i t s terms of  reference.  I t can be argued t h a t i t i s not a commission's r o l e t o communicate t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i t r e c e i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c ; t h a t , i n s t e a d , i t i s the r o l e o f the media t o p e r f o r m such a f u n c t i o n .  However, i t i s a w e l l under-  stood p r i n c i p l e t h a t the media are event o r i e n t e d and  t h a t they a r e i n -  e f f e c t i v e a t s u s t a i n i n g i n t e r e s t i n a l o n g and drawn-out i s s u e (Thompson 1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) .  This i s i l l u s t r a t e d  below.  W h i l e v e r y few news r e p o r t e r s a t t e n d e d the f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s ( s e e F i g u r e 5 b e l o w ) , a t t e n d a n c e a t the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i s even l o w e r .  As T e r r a l (1980) n o t e s : FIGURE 5 MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE  L o c a t i o n of H e a r i n g Rock Creek Grandforks Castlegar W i l l i a m s Lake Vanderhoof Atlin  COMMUNITY HEARINGS Number of R e p o r t e r s 1 2 k 2 3 1  82 The p r e s s t a b l e i s almost i n v a r i a b l y empty. T h i s has l e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t o n a t i o n a l coverage f o r . . . . //BCMA's_7 b r i e f on uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . The s t o r y quoted t h e b r i e f e x t e n s i v e l y as i f i t had i n f a c t been p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Commission. B u t t h e t r u t h i s t h a t t h e b r i e f uias never h e a r d . M i s r e p o r t i n g o f t h e above t y p e has a l s o been r e f e r r e d t o d u r i n g t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ( s e e f o r example, TP, 48. pp. 7497-9 and 58, pp. 10302-3). S i n c e t h e media cannot be r e l i e d upon t o c o v e r RCIUM p r o c e e d i n g s i n a r e l i a b l e manner, i t becomes t h e r o l e o f RCIUM t o communicate t h e i n f o r m a t i o n that i t receives t o the p u b l i c .  Furthermore, i t i s the r o l e of  RCIUM t o communicate t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a c o m p r e h e n s i b l e form i n o r d e r t h a t p e o p l e can have i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n s on t h e uranium i s s u e . f a c t , t h e Commissioners cation.  I n p o i n t of  do p e r c e i v e RCIUM's r o l e t o be p a r t l y one o f edu-  As Or. B a t e s (1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) commented:  . . . . d e f i n i t e l y i t ' s t h e Commission's r o l e t o educate t h e p u b l i c ; t h e /"RCIUM/ p r o c e s s i s more imp o r t a n t than t h e outcome. RCIUM's a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o c r i t e r i o n I I a r e : - public sessions; - Library  network;  - publicity. Public Sessions Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed Those i n a t t e n d a n c e a t a p u b l i c s e s s i o n may d e r i v e some e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t from t h e p r o c e e d i n g s .  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e p e o p l e may t e l l o t h e r s  about what they have l e a r n e d .  A f i n a l p o i n t i s t h a t those who r e a d t h e  T r a n s c r i p t s o f P r o c e e d i n g s may l e a r n about t h e uranium i s s u e .  Questions  t o be a d d r e s s e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c s e s s i o n s a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I I a r e as f o l l o w s :  (a)  Houi many p e o p l e a t t e n d t h e p u b l i c s e s s i o n s ?  (b)  What i s t h e e d u c a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e s e s e s s i o n s ?  (c)  To what e x t e n t da those i n attendance a t t h e s e s s i o n s t e l l o t h e r s about what they have l e a r n e d ?  (d)  How many p e o p l e read t h e T r a n s c r i p t s ?  (e)  What i s t h e e d u c a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e T r a n s c r i p t s ? Application of C r i t e r i o n  How many people a t t e n d t h e p u b l i c s e s s i o n s ?  The audiences a t t h e  f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s were g e n e r a l l y q u i t e l a r g e ( s e e F i g u r e 6, p. 84 b e l o w ) .  Thus a s i g n i g i c a n t number o f people would have l e a r n e d  about t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f m i n i n g companies t h a t p r e s e n t e d b r i e f s a t these s e s s i o n s ; t h i s , i n d e e d , i s what t h e Commissioners had i n t e n d e d ( s e e p. 35  above). I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e community h e a r i n g s , t h e a u d i e n c e s a t t h e t e c h -  n i c a l hearings a r e very s m a l l .  On average o n l y about 15 people a t t e n d  any g i v e n s e s s i o n and hence I f e e l t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t o t h e s people i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  T h i s , however, i g n o r e s t h e a t t e n d a n c e o f  major p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s who b e n e f i t from t h e "major p r o c e s s o f mutual e d u c a t i o n " t h a t D r . B a t e s e n v i s a g e s t h e s e s e s s i o n s as b e i n g ( s e e p. 22 above), and those who view t h e t e l e v i s e d p r o c e e d i n g s o r v i d e o c a s s e t t e s of these s e s s i o n s .  84  FIGURE 6 ATTENDANCE AT COMMUNITY HEARINGS Location of Hearing  Date  Time o f day o f session  Approximate Number o f P e o p l e i n Audience  Kelouina  5 5 6 7  June June June June  morning evening morning morning  Clearwater  8 June 9 June  evening morning  Kamloops  11 June 11 June  morning evening  Rock Creek  18 June 19 June  evening morning  150 50  ! |  Grand F o r k s  20 June 21 June  evening morning  250 30  '  21 June 22 June  evening morning  100 35  '  morning evening  25  ;  27 June  evening  80  Fort Nelson  3 July  evening  6  Atlin  4 July  evening  100  Castlegar W i l l i a m s Lake J Vanderhoof  26 June 26 June  j  75 150 70 25 1 200 30 30» 50  What i s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f t h e p u b l i c s e s s i o n s ?  j  The i n f o r m a t i o n  p r e s e n t e d by t h e mining companies d u r i n g t h e f i r s t round community  hearings  was not t e s t e d by c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n and may n o t , t h e r e f o r e , have been comp l e t e and t o t a l l y a c c u r a t e .  Hence, i t ' s e d u c a t i v e v a l u e i s d i s p u t a b l e .  The community h e a r i n g s , however, were o b v i o u s l y n o t t h e ones i n which t o t e g t , through c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e v a l i d i t y o f e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s would have h i n d e r e d RCIUM's s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g about l o c a l  concerns.  85 The Commissioners were not i n t e n t upon i n f o r m i n g o r e d u c a t i n g people a t t e n d i n g the community h e a r i n g s themselves; there to r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n . at  the  r a t h e r they mere  As Dr. B a t e s (TP, 1 7 , p. 2300) remarked  the F o r t N e l s o n community h e a r i n g : .... as a Commission uie spend n i n e t y - n i n e p e r c e n t o f the t i m e l i s t e n i n g and one p e r c e n t r i g h t a t t h e end saying what we t h i n k . So t h a t i t ' s a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t f o r us to come and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n .... F o r major p a r t i c i p a n t s , the e d u c a t i v e v a l u e o f the t e c h n i c a l  ings i s p o t e n t i a l l y very high. for  Those who may  To t h e e x t e n t t h a t c r i t e r i o n I i s met  these s e s s i o n s , the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d  t h i s , i n t u r n , determing  i s a c c u r a t e and r e l e v a n t ;  i t s e d u c a t i v e v a l u e t o major p a r t i c i p a n t s .  watch the t e l e v i s e d p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l  be educated  hear-  about t h e uranium i s s u e .  b r o a d c a s t s a r e shown d u r i n g working  hearings  However, s i n c e the t e l e v i s i o n  hours ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f  on S a t u r d a y s ) , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t many people v i e w them.  those  In addition,  because t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i s h i g h l y e s o t e r i c and t e c h n i c a l , i t i s of l i t t l e  e d u c a t i v e v a l u e t o most l a y p e o p l e .  no more comprehensible  The v i d e o c a s s e t t e s a r e  than the t e l e v i s e d p r o c e e d i n g s ; f u r t h e r m o r e ,  p r o v i d e a v e r y slow means of c o l l a t i n g evidence ( a s o f the end o f o n l y the f i r s t two had been produced; see p. 31 In  they  January,  above).  t o t a l , the e d u c a t i v e v a l u e o f the f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s  was  very low.  for  major p a r t i c i p a n t s , but i s low f o r those who  proceedings  That o f t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i s p o t e n t i a l l y v e r y high view the t e l e v i s e d  o r e d i t e d v i d e o c a s s e t t e s of these s e s s i o n s . 1  To what e x t e n t do major p a r t i c i p a n t s educate o t h e r s ? (1980  interview)  Dr. B a t e s ,  m a i n t a i n s t h a t RCIUM a l o n e i s f u l f i l l i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  1 The e x t e n t t o which RCIUM educates o t h e r s i s t h e theme o f t h i s c h a p t e r . T h i s a s i d e , o n l y major p a r t i c i p a n t s are d i s c u s s e d here s i n c e o n l y they d e r i v e s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l b e n e f i t from the p u b l i c s e s s i o n s .  86 r o l e and hence he has n o t : . . . . given out ^ p a r t i c i p a n t funds/ s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r e d u c a t i o n . . . . / a l t h o u g h some/ groups have used some money f o r t h i s ; f o r example, t h e U n i t e d Church's w i t nesses have been used on TV f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . However, some money has been a l l o c a t e d t o major p a r t i c i p a n t s , a t l e a s t i n t h e f i r s t round o f f u n d i n g , f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n ( s e e Appendix 13). A number o f major p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e p u t t i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f energy into public education.  Appendix 13 d i s c u s s e s t h e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n  a c t i v i t i e s o f a sample o f major p a r t i c i p a n t s .  In a d d i t i o n to the a c t i v -  i t i e s l i s t e d i n Appendix 13, members o f a l l these groups took p a r t i n an "Open Forum on Uranium M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia" d u r i n g SFU's " N u c l e a r Awareness Week" (9-13 October 1979). A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e e x i s t s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n among major p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e use o f p a r t i c i p a n t funds f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . Whether they use these funds f o r t h i s o r n o t , a l l groups i n t e r v i e w e d put considerable e f f o r t i n t o educating the p u b l i c .  Ms. White (1980, i n t e r v i e w )  e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e opponents o f uranium mining f e e l o b l i g e d t o educate t h e public:  ". • . . because t h e Commission i s doing t h i s so i n a d e q u a t e l y . "  This s t i l l  remains t o be seen. L  1  How many people read t h e T r a n s c r i p t s ?  Appendix 6 l i s t s t h e l i b r a r i e s  which h o l d t h e T r a n s c r i p t s . Major p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e f u r n i s h e d w i t h f r e e copies. p. 89  Based on M i s s M c C a l l ' s Commission l i b r a r y use s t a t i s t i c s ( s e e b e l o w ) , i t i s e x c e e d i n g l y u n l i k e l y t h a t many l a y people read t h e  Transcripts.  W i t n e s s e s , major p a r t i c i p a n t s and members o f RCIUM, however,  make c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f them. What i s t h e e d u c a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e T r a n s c r i p t s ?  The e d u c a t i v e v a l u e  of the T r a n s c r i p t s i s a f u n c t i o n o f : 1 Only t h e T r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s a r e r e l e v a n t here s i n c e only these sessions are of educative v a l u e .  87 - t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i s r e l e v a n t and a c c u r a t e ( c r i t e r i o n I ; see Chapter I V ) ; - t h e comprehensibleness Concerning  of t h i s information.  the l a t t e r p o i n t , i t i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t f o r the l a y -  person t o understand much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a t t h e t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s because i t i s so e s o t e r i c and t e c h n i c a l .  A d d i t i o n a l problems  with the T r a n s c r i p t s a r e : - they a r e not p e r f e c t l y i n t e l l i g i b l e i n a l l p l a c e s ; - they a r e not c o m p l e t e l y a c c u r a t e — f r e q u e n t l y Mr. C u l b e r t (1980, i n t e r v i e w ) f i n d s e r r o r s i n t h e T r a n s c r i p t s of the t e c h n i c a l hearings, e s p e c i a l l y where t e s t i m o n y i s v e r y t e c h n i c a l i n n a t u r e . Limiting Factors The e d u c a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g T r a n s c r i p t s , e d i t e d v i d e o c a s s e t t e s and t e l e v i s e d p r o c e e d i n g s a r e l i m i t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g - RCIUM's s u c c e s s i n meeting  factors:  criterion I;  - t h e somewhat b o r i n g , e s o t e r i c and t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ; - t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e i t t a k e s t o produce e d i t e d v i d e o cassettes; - t h e broadcasting of the t e l e v i s e d proceedings d o m i n a n t l y on week days. The second  pre-  f a c t o r above i s o f t h e h i g h e r o r d e r ( s e e p. 32 a b o v e ) .  RCIUM's  terms o f r e f e r e n c e and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e uranium i s s u e a r e such t h a t t h e Commissioners have t o hear a g r e a t d e a l o f h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l and e s o t e r i c e v i d e n c e , much o f which i s e x c e e d i n g l y d u l l .  The t e c h n i c a l i t i e s , i n t u r n ,  p r e s e n t problems f o r t h e T r a n s c r i p t r e p o r t e r s , none o f whom a r e e x p e r t s on any a s p e c t o f uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n . i n t h e i r r e p o r t i n g i s understandable.  Hence, o c c a s i o n a l i n a c c u r a c i e s  88 Mr. C u l b e r t does n o t have s u f f i c i e n t time t o prepare e d i t e d v i d e o c a s s e t t e s ; t h i s i s a r e s u l t o f RCIUM's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s r o l e ( l o w e r o r d e r f a c t o r ; see p. 66 above).  The f a c t t h a t t h e p r o c e e d i n g s  t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s a r e shown on t e l e v i s i o n p r e d o m i n a n t l y  during  of the working  hours i s presumably a h i g h e r o r d e r f a c t o r ; t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r evening and weekend v i e w i n g t i m e .  This aside, bothitne  e d i t e d v i d e a c a s s e t t e s and t h e t e l e v i s e d p r o c e e d i n g s  are of l i m i t e d  educat-  i v e v a l u e because o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e uranium i s s u e and RCIUM's terms of reference (higher order f a c t o r s ) . The  t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s a r e p r i m a r i l y o f e d u c a t i v e v a l u e t o major  p a r t i c i p a n t s , many o f whom t a k e i t upon themselves I f i n d e e d , RCIUM i s d o i n g an inadequate  t o educate t h e p u b l i c .  job of educating the p u b l i c , the  major p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e i v e d o b l i g a t i o n t o do t h i s themselves  i s real-  i s t i c , and r e d u c t i o n o f t h e c o n f u s i o n (second o r d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r ) s u r r o u n d i n g such a c t i v i t i e s would be b e n e f i c i a l . Library  Network  Q u e s t i o n s t o be Answered B a s i c a l l y , a l i b r a r y i s a r e s o u r c e f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about a g i v e n s u b j e c t .  Questions p e r t a i n i n g  i n obtainto the eval-  u a t i o n o f t h e l i b r a r y network a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I I , t h e r e f o r e , a r e : (a)  How many i n t e r e s t e d l i b r a r y network?  i n d i v i d u a l s make use o f t h e  (b)  What i s t h e e d u c a t i v e v a l u e o f t h e m a t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t e d throughout t h e network? Application of C r i t e r i o n  How much use i s made o f t h e l i b r a r y network by i n t e r e s t e d A c c o r d i n g t o M i s s M c C a l l , t h e RCIUM l i b r a r i a n (1980c,  individuals?  interview):  89 About 30-40 p e o p l e use the Commission l i b r a r y each week. A p p r o x i m a t e l y , 75 per c e n t of t h e s e p e o p l e are major p a r t i c i p a n t s , w i t n e s s e s o r members of TAG; 15 per c e n t are s t u d e n t s ; and 10 per c e n t a r e r e p o r t e r s ( o r o t h e r s ) . On a v e r a g e , I answer 7-10 l e t t e r r e q u e s t s per week. These i n c l u d e r e q u e s t s f o r documents, out of town l o a n s , g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n packages, and so on. Most of these r e q u e s t s come from B r i t i s h Columbians who l i v e o u t s i d e of the lower m a i n l a n d a r e a . I n addi t i o n , I handle about 45-60 t e l e p h o n e r e f e r e n c e c a l l s each week. Over h a l f of t h e s e c a l l s come from the Vancouver a r e a . Q u e s t i o n s range from the v e r y s p e c i f i c t o the v e r y g e n e r a l ( f o r example, "When i s the L i b r a r y open?") A l s o , t h e r e a r e about 5-8 new s u b s c r i p t i o n s per week t o the A c c e s s i o n s L i s t s . These o r i g i n a l l y came from B r i t i s h Columbia e n t i r e l y , but i n c r e a s i n g l y are now coming from the r e s t of Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and sometimes from Europe. I do not have l i b r a r y use  s t a t i s t i c s f o r the d e p o s i t o r y  libraries.  I n t o t a l , M i s s M c C a l l f e e l s t h a t the L i b r a r y i s very  accessible:  " I t i s used h e a v i l y f o r such a s m a l l l i b r a r y , " and:  "People can  phone i n c o l l e c t w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (1980d and  c respectively,  interviews). involved  However, some of the major L i b r a r y u s e r s ( t h o s e  directly  i n RCIUM) l a c k the time t o r e a d as much L i b r a r y m a t e r i a l  they would l i k e t o .  For  example, Ms. out t h a t :  i n the L i b r a r y v e r y much.  I'd l i k e t o , but I don't have t i m e . "  " I don't use  Hodge, RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r  the books and  (1980c, i n t e r v i e w ) ,  t o L i b r a r y m a t e r i a l as much as p o s s i b l e when he i s p r e p a r i n g ination,  he noted t h a t :  as I'd l i k e t o . " ". . . .  as  L e x i e r , RCIUM r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r .  (1980, i n t e r v i e w ) , p o i n t e d  w h i l e Mr.  even  articles And refers  cross-exam-  "There's never enough t i m e t o do t h i s as much  Dr. B a t e s (1980b, i n t e r v i e w )  i s reading L i b r a r y  material:  a l l the t i m e . "  I n summary, most use v o l v e d i n RCIUM.  i s made of the L i b r a r y by those d i r e c t l y  Because of time c o n s t r a i n t s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t  people read as much L i b r a r y m a t e r i a l as they would l i k e t o .  inthese  90 What i s t h e e d u c a t i v e t h e l i b r a r y network?  v a l u e o f t h e m a t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t e d throughout  The e d u c a t i v e  value of the T r a n s c r i p t s ,  c a s s e t t e s and UID a r e commented on elsewhere i n t h i s c h a p t e r . question remaining, therefore, i s :  videoThe  "What i s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f  t h e books, j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , p e r i o d i c a l s , m i c r o f i c h e s , e x p l o r a t i o n and Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e library?  responses t h a t a r e i n t h e RCIUM  G i v e n t h a t t h e main r e a d e r s o f t h i s m a t e r i a l a r e t h o s e d i r e c t l y  i n v o l v e d i n RCIUM, t h e e d u c a t i v e questions  reports  value  i s determined by t h e answers t o t h e  pertaining to the evaluation,of  the L i b r a r y material  c r i t e r i o n I ( s e e pp. 76-8 above); c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y  against  o f t h e m a t e r i a l by  t h e s e u s e r s i s assumed.  Limiting The  f a c t o r s operating  Factors  t o l i m i t RCIUM's s u c c e s s i n e d u c a t i n g t h e  p u b l i c about t h e uranium i s s u e through t h e l i b r a r y network appear t o i n c l u d e t h o s e l i m i t i n g RCIUM's a b i l i t y t o ensure a c c u r a c y and r e l e v a n c y L  of t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e RCIUM "'Library ( s e e p. 78 a b o v e ) .  In addition,  RCIUM's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s r o l e ( s e c o n d o r d e r f a c t o r ) i s such t h a t many o f t h o s e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n RCIUM a r e p r e s s e d f o r time and hence a r e unable t o do as much r e a d i n g  o f L i b r a r y m a t e r i a l as they would w i s h .  Publicity Q u e s t i o n s t o be Addressed RCIUM's p u b l i c i t y mechanisms ( d e s c r i b e d on p p . 30-31 above) a r e : - public notices; - library  network f a c t  sheets;  - t e l e v i s e d proceedings of the t e c h n i c a l -  videocassettes;  hearings;  - v a r i o u s i n t e r v i e w s and speeches; - news r e l e a s e s ; - UID. Only t h e l a s t two o f t h e above w a r r a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I I since these represent  RCIUM's a t t e m p t s t o communicate i t s f i n d i n g s t o  the p u b l i c i n a c o m p r e h e n s i b l e manner.  Questions p e r t a i n i n g t o the  e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e mechanisms a g a i n s t c r i t e r i o n I I a r e : (a)  What p u b l i c s do they reach?  (b)  What i s t h e i r e d u c a t i v e  value?  A p p l i c a t i o n of C r i t e r i o n  What p u b l i c s a r e reached by t h e v a r i o u s mechanisms?  The news r e -  l e a s e s a r e s e n t t o a l l major newspapers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a r e used by many p r e s s r e p o r t e r s :  ". • • . as t h e k e r n e l o f t h e i r r e p o r t s . "  ( G r a n t 1980, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Presumably, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e news r e -  l e a s e s i s absorbed by a l a r g e number o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s . UID  i s read by members o f t h e p u b l i c who a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d  i n RCIUM.  A t l e a s t 1500 people a r e on t h e UID m a i l i n g l i s t .  Perhaps ,  t h e r e would be a l o n g e r m a i l i n g l i s t i f RCIUM a d v e r t i s e d UID more w i d e l y t h a n i t does.  To my knowledge, D r . B a t e s has r e f e r r e d t o UID o n l y  twice  d u r i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ( s e e TP, 19, p. 2459 and 44, p. 7499).  In  a d d i t i o n , D r . B a t e s r e f e r r e d t o UID d u r i n g h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Webster on Vancouver Cable 8's "Jack Webster Show" (24 J a n u a r y 1980) and i n h i s speech a t SFU ( 1 9 7 9 ) .  However, he d i d not e x p l a i n how members o f t h e p u b l i c  c o u l d o b t a i n c o p i e s o f UID except when asked about t h i s i n a "phoned-in" question  t o t h e t e l e v i s i o n show.  t h a t i f RCIUM had a d v e r t i s e d UID: extremely upset."  D r . B a t e s (1980d, i n t e r v i e w )  explained  ". . . . t h e government may have been  s i n c e , as he went on t o e x p l a i n :  92 You must be v e r y sure t h a t you're not u s i n g p u b l i c money t o p u b l i c i z e t h e p r o c e e d i n g s f o r p o l i t i c a l purposes . . . . A l l i n q u i r i e s have been accused o f t h i s * I n t o t a l , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e neuis r e l e a s e s reach t h e a t t e n t i o n of a l a r g e number o f B r i t i s h Columbians. UID,  l a r g e l y because RCIUM i s doing  What i s t h e e d u c a t i v e  The same can not be s a i d o f  an inadequate j o b o f a d v e r t i s i n g i t .  v a l u e o f t h e v a r i o u s mechanisms?  Mr. Grant  (1980, i n t e r v i e w ) , RCIUM's news r e l e a s e o f f i c e r , has made t h e f o l l o w i n g comments about h i s work: I t ' s hard t o make good news o u t o f t h i s i n q u i r y every d a y . Some o f my r e l e a s e s a r e not as newsworthy as I would have l i k e d b u t I have t o r e p o r t what happened each day. Sometimes, I f e e l t h a t I have m i s s e d some o f the f i n e p o i n t s because i t ' s hard t o f o l l o w a l l t h e a r g u ments and t h e t e c h n i c a l language. The  r e a s o n why Mr. G r a n t ' s r e l e a s e s a r e sometimes d u l l i s t h a t they  are attempting  t o convey t o t h e p u b l i c t h e f a c t t h a t RCIUM i s a d d r e s s i n g ,  i n d e t a i l , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s needed t o answer t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s . They a r e n o t e d i t o r i a l i z i n g , f o r example, on t h e answer t o what i s an acceptable without  r i s k as many p r e s s r e p o r t e r s do ( s e e TP, 44, pp. 7497-9),  f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i n g what t h e r i s k i s and how a c c u r a t e l y i t can be  determined.  I n a d d i t i o n , Mr. G r a n t ' s r e l e a s e s a r e a l i t t l e  "dry"  since:  - they r a r e l y acknowledge t h e p r e s e n c e o f uranium m i n i n g opponents; - they f o c u s on t h e c o n t e n t s o f w i t n e s s e s ' b r i e f s and have l i t t l e t o say about t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n t h a t ensues. I n t o t a l , w h i l e Mr. G r a n t i s r e a s s u r i n g t h e proponents o f uranium mining t h a t t h e i r s i d e o f t h e argument i s b e i n g  attended  t o , t h e opponents, i n  a l l l i k e l i h o o d , a r e wondering whether anyone i s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r c u l a r concerns a t the t e c h n i c a l hearings.  parti-  G i v e n t h a t many news r e p o r t e r s  t a k e advantage o f Mr. G r a n t ' s r e l e a s e ( s e e p. 91 a b o v e ) , t h i s i s not a satisfactory  situation.  93 UIO p r o v i d e s an e a s i l y comprehensible adopted a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s .  record of the proceedings  I t describes the cross-examination  by a l l p a r t i e s as w e l l as t h e w i t n e s s e s s t a t e m e n t s o f e v i d e n c e . To summarize, o n l y UID i s o f s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i v e v a l u e t o B r i t i s h Columbians.  Limiting Factors  The news r e l e a s e s have a low e d u c a t i v e v a l u e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g reasons: - Mr. Grant misses some o f t h e " f i n e p o i n t s " ; - they a r e o n e - s i d e d ( f o c u s on t h e proponents'  arguments);  - they say l i t t l e about c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . It  i s suggested t h a t RCIUM's terms o f r e f e r e n c e and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  uranium i s s u e ( b o t h h i g h e r o r d e r f a c t o r s ) a r e such t h a t t h e r e l e v a n t e v i dence i s h i g h l y e s o t e r i c and t e c h n i c a l , and thereby l i m i t Mr. G r a n t ' s a b i l i t y t o r e p o r t f u l l y the proceedings of the t e c h n i c a l hearings.  In addition,  Mr. Grant f a c e s t h e d i l e m n a t h a t h i s news r e l e a s e s w i l l be u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f newspaper e d i t o r s u n l e s s they c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l c a t c h t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n ; he would be w a s t i n g h i s t i m e , t h e r e f o r e , i f he attempted t o w r i t e v e r y d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t t h e technical sessions. RCIUM does an i n a d e q u a t e j o b o f a d v e r t i s i n g UID. ale  Dr. Bates' r a t i o n -  f o r t h i s ( s e e pp. 91r2 a b o v e ) i s u n a c c e p t a b l e ; t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o i n t i n  u s i n g p u b l i c money t o produce a d i g e s t i f i t i s t h e n not a d v e r t i s e d . I n t o t a l , i t i s suggested t h a t a lower o r d e r f a c t o r l i m i t s RCIUM's s u c c e s s in  e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c ; namely t h e Commissioners'  they s h o u l d attempt t o do t h i s .  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how  Summation RCIUM i s doing a v e r y poor j o b o f e d u c a t i n g B r i t i s h Columbians about i t s f i n d i n g s .  The p r o c e e d i n g s a t t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s a r e o n l y  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y summarized and p r e s e n t e d i n l a y p e r s o n terms by Mr. Shaw i n UID.  UID i s i n a d e q u a t e l y a d v e r t i s e d by RCIUM and i s read p r o b a b l y by  no more t h a n 2000 i n t e r e s t e d  individuals.  G i v e n t h e above, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t major p a r t i c i p a n t s put so much e f f o r t i n t o p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n .  I t mould be p r e f e r a b l e , however,  i f RCIUM bore t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y more f u l l y s i n c e i t i s not a d v o c a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e and i s i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t o i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c about a l l a s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g a l l s i d e s o f t h e argument, o f t h e uranium i s s u e .  95  CHAPTER VI RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Introduction  As d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I ( s e e pp. 2-3 above), t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n a commission o f i n q u i r y may r e s u l t i n e l e c t e d  represent-  a t i v e s r e f l e c t i n g more a c c u r a t e l y t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s f o r m u l a t i o n o f government p o l i c i e s .  i n the  Concerning RCIUM and p r o v i n c i a l gov-  ernment p o l i c y on uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h i s m i l l o c c u r i f f o u r broad c r i t e r i a a r e met.  These c r i t e r i a  ( d e s c r i b e d on p. IB above) stem from a p a r t i c i p a t o r y model o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government; they r e f l e c t , a l s o , t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f RCIUM's terms o f reference. Because o f t h e t i m e frame f o r my t h e s i s r e s e a r c h , I was u n a b l e t o a p p l y two o f t h e f o u r c r i t e r i a .  Hence, I e v a l u a t e d  t h e RCIUM p r o c e s s  o n l y i n terms o f i t s s u c c e s s i n : (1)  s e c u r i n g a r e l e v a n t body o f a c c u r a t e  (2)  informing the p u b l i c of i t s f i n d i n g s .  i n f o r m a t i o n ; and  F o r t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f RCIUM, I was a b l e t o i d e n t i f y a number o f major accomplishments and weaknesses. The  remainder o f t h i s c h a p t e r  i s divided i n t o three s e c t i o n s .  In  t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n , I d i s c u s s t h e accomplishments o f RCIUM; as much can be l e a r n e d from these as can be l e a r n e d from RCIUM weaknesses. second s e c t i o n , I d i s c u s s major weaknesses i n t h e RCIUM p r o c e s s ,  In the focusing  on those t h a t a r i s e from l o w e r o r d e r l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s s i n c e f o r t h e s e  96 t h e r e ^ S r e magor o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r improvement. as t o how t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s might be remedied.  Recommendations a r e made Rather than make s p e c i f i c  recommendations, a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o RCIUM, I make g e n e r a l recommendations t h a t s h o u l d be o f use t o f u t u r e commissions o f i n q u i r y .  The f i n a l s e c t i o n  p r e s e n t s some b r i e f c o n c l u d i n g remarks.  Commission Accomplishments  RCIUM s h o u l d be commended f o r i t s use o f a d i v e r s e range o f a c t i v i t i e s to f u l f i l  i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e .  Thus i t i s h o l d i n g community and  t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ; a u t h o r i z i n g r e s e a r c h ; v i s i t i n g uranium mines and d e p o s i t s ; m a i n t a i n i n g a l i b r a r y network; and p u b l i c i z i n g i t s p r o c e e d i n g s . C e r t a i n l y , t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s were a p o s i t i v e  ele-  ment i n t h e t o t a l RCIUM p r o c e s s s i n c e they made i t p o s s i b l e f o r many i n t e r e s t e d groups and l o c a l people t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  However, as p o i n t e d  out i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , t h e s e h e a r i n g s were n o t as e f f e c t i v e as t h e y might have been i n s e c u r i n g community  involvement.  RCIUM seems t o have r e c o g n i z e d a l l major a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i n i t s support of f u l l - t i m e p a r t i c i p a n t s a t the t e c h n i c a l hearings.  In addition,  RCIUM's r e q u e s t s f o r a d d i t i o n a l government funds enable t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n RCIUM o f groups t h a t l a c k independent f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . RCIUM i s r e c e i v i n g evidence from a l a r g e number o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d witnesses.  I t s expansion o f t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s , a t which t h e r e i s  t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o cross-examine t h i s evidence.  witnesses, recognizes the complexity of  Although Commission c o u n s e l has n a r r o w l y i n t e r p r e t e d  RCIUM's subpoena power, RCIUM has n o t been denied any w i t n e s s o r document t h a t i t has gone a f t e r .  N e i t h e r has i t s h e l t e r e d v e r y much i n f o r m a t i o n  from p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e , d e s p i t e t h e c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e of t h e i n d u s t r y t h a t RCIUM i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g .  97 Some major p a r t i c i p a n t s groups a r e p e r f o r m i n g s t u d i e s , w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h those a u t h o r i z e d by RCIUM, a r e almost a l l f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a t a t e c h nical hearing.  Hence, t h e r e i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o cross-examine  o f most o f t h e s t u d i e s .  the authors  I n a d d i t i o n , RCIUM i s c o l l e c t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t  amount o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t s Library and from i t s v i s i t s t o uranium mines and d e p o s i t s . O v e r a l l , RCIUM i s g a t h e r i n g and t e s t i n g a l a r g e body o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , i t w i l l be a b l e t o a d v i s e t h e p r o v i n c i a l government on e x p e r t s o l u t i o n s t o t h e uranium British  issue i n  Columbia.  The Commissioners do p e r c e i v e RCIUM's r o l e t o be p a r t l y one o f educ a t i o n , and, f o r t h i s r e a s o n , have e s t a b l i s h e d a l i b r a r y network and publ i c i z e d t h e i r proceedings.  However, as t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s u g g e s t s ,  t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s have n o t been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . Commission Weaknesses:  Proposed  Remedies  S e c u r i n g a R e l e v a n t Body o f A c c u r a t e I n f o r m a t i o n Community H e a r i n g s As a mechanism o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , community h e a r i n g s o f t h e type conducted  by RCIUM have s e v e r a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s .  F o r example, because o f  t h e i r f o r m a l n a t u r e , many people a r e i n h i b i t e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g .  Fur-  thermore, t h o s e who do p a r t i c i p a t e p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t o n l y v e r y narrow bands on t h e spectrum o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s .  A d d i t i o n a l problems w i t h RCIUM's  community h e a r i n g s were as f o l l o w s : - some p a r t i c i p a n t s were confused about t h e purpose o f t h e s e h e a r i n g s and what was r e q u i r e d o f them; - summer time h e a r i n g s were i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r v a r i o u s agricultural interests; - m i n i n g companies were g i v e n p r i o r i t y over l o c a l p e o p l e ; f o r example, companies p r e s e n t e d t h e i r b r i e f s f i r s t .  98 O v e r a l l , l e s s was l e a r n e d  about l o c a l impacts t h a n might have been.  At t h e commencement o f a commission o f i n q u i r y , t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s seem t o be r e q u i r e d : (1)  The p u b l i c s h o u l d be i n f o r m e d o f t h e commission's existence.  (2)  The p u b l i c s h o u l d be a l e r t e d t o t h e i s s u e s t h a t t h e commission i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e and a d v i s e upon. I n the case o f RCIUM, B r i t i s h Columbians s h o u l d be i n formed about t h e uranium e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f m i n i n g companies i n t h e i r p r o v i n c e .  (3)  The p u b l i c s h o u l d be c o n s u l t e d procedures f o r :  about  - c o l l e c t i n g and t e s t i n g r e l e v a n t - communicating i n f o r m a t i o n  appropriate  information;  to the p u b l i c ;  - e l i c i t i n g informed p u b l i c views. I n o t h e r words, members o f t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be asked t o comment on such things as: - how t o ensure t h e f u l l e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p u b l i c as p o s s i b l e ; - how t o i n t e r p r e t t h e terms o f - how much f u n d i n g i s r e q u i r e d  of the  reference;  f o r i n t e r e s t e d groups;  - what r u l e s o f p r o c e d u r e a r e r e q u i r e d . Overall, the preliminary  s t a g e s o f an i n q u i r y s h o u l d be concerned w i t h  l a y i n g t h e groundwork f o r a f a i r p u b l i c p r o c e s s . The f o l l o w i n g approach i s s u g g e s t e d as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h a t adopted by RCIUM i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e s .  F i r s t , RCIUM would h o l d one o r  more workshops a t which t e n t a t i v e r u l e s o f p r o c e d u r e would be d r a f t e d . About 15 p e o p l e , both r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  o f i n t e r e s t e d groups and i n d i v i d u a l s  from a r e a s l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d by uranium m i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia would be i n v i t e d t o each workshop.  The s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s e meetings  would s e r v e t o promote an u n i n h i b i t e d exchange o f i d e a s .  99  F o l l o w i n g the workshops, a f i r s t round o f community h e a r i n g s would be h e l d t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia.  At t h e s e s e s s i o n s , t h e p u b l i c ' s  response t o suggested r u l e s of p r o c e d u r e would be e l i c i t e d .  RCIUM com-  munity r e l a t i o n s ' c o n s u l t a n t s would ensure t h a t community p e o p l e knew about t h e community h e a r i n g s and what t y p e o f p u b l i c involvement was required.  A l s o a t the f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s , m i n i n g company r e -  p r e s e n t a t i v e s would p r e s e n t b r i e f s u b m i s s i o n s , i n l a y p e r s o n ' s t e r m s , on t h e i r uranium e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o d a t e .  L a s t l y , based on t h e p r o -  c e e d i n g s a t t h e community h e a r i n g s , a f i n a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f the r u l e s of p r o c e d u r e ( P r e l i m i n a r y R u l i n g s ) would be produced.  These r u l e s would  be w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t l o c a l p e o p l e can p r o v i d e RCIUM w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  Hence i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r RCIUM t o  conduct a second round o f community h e a r i n g s t o t a p t h i s r e s e r v o i r o f e x p e r i e n t i a l knowledge.  Perhaps t h e s e community h e a r i n g s c o u l d be h e l d  c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s . RCIUM c o u l d break o f f i t s t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s from t i m e t o time t o conduct a number o f second round community h e a r i n g s ; a t t h e s e h e a r i n g s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be c o l l e c t e d , and, i n a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c v i e w s on the i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g p r e sented a t t h e t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s c o u l d be e l i c i t e d .  I n o r d e r t o ensure a  wide range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t h e second round community h e a r i n g s , communi t y r e l a t i o n s ' consultants could v i s i t  t h e communities ahead o f RCIUM, en-  c o u r a g i n g p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e and e n s u r i n g t h a t p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s u n d e r s t o o d what i s r e q u i r e d o f them. Technical Hearings A b a s i c d e f i c i e n c y i n RCIUM's t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i s a l a c k of adequate f u n d i n g f o r many major p a r t i c i p a n t s . the  a b i l i t y of groups.  Funding c o n s t r a i n t s  limit  100  - t o b r i n g i n w i t n e s s e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f RCIUM; - to hire technical expertise; - t o conduct s t u d i e s ; - to thoroughly The  r e v i e w evidence and p r e p a r e  cross-examination.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a commission o f i n q u i r y  by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups t h a t l a c k independent f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e be enhanced by encouraging t h e f o r m a t i o n  could  o f c o a l i t i o n s s i n c e l e s s money  would then be r e q u i r e d f o r h i r i n g l e g a l a s s i s t a n c e , r e n t i n g o f f i c e space, p h o t o c o p y i n g documents, and so o n .  I n t h e case o f RCIUM, t h e r e i s a f a i r l y  d i v e r s e range o f i n t e r e s t s ; hence, a t l e a s t f i v e c o a l i t i o n s c o u l d have emerged r e p r e s e n t i n g  the f o l l o w i n g concerns:  - w e l l - b e i n g o f r e s i d e n t s i n communities c l o s e t o proposed uranium mines; - well-being of n a t i v e Indian populations proposed uranium mines; - h e a l t h o f miners and t h e g e n e r a l  l i v i n g close to  public;  - ethics; - environmental p r o t e c t i o n . M i n i n g i n t e r e s t s would s u p p o r t t h e m s e l v e s . Because RCIUM i s c a l l i n g most o f t h e w i t n e s s e s , research  coordinators  both t h e RCIUM  and most major p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e pressed f o r t i m e  w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n reduced.  is  The 27 June 19BQ d e a d l i n e on t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s a g g r a v a t e s  t h i s problem, w i t h t h e consequence t h a t t h e r e may n o t be s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r cross-examination  of a l l witnesses,  i n c l u d i n g many m i n i n g companies  on t h e i r uranium e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s suggested t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b l i t y o f b r i n g i n g i n w i t n e s s e s should and  f a l l more o r l e s s e q u a l l y on t h e s t a f f o f a commission o f i n q u i r y  i t s full-time inquiry participants.  I n a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s should  101 DE funded t o c a l l w i t n e s s e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e commission. nized  Having r e c o g -  p a r t i c i p a n t g r o u p s , i t i s o n l y f a i r t h a t a commission f u l l y  groups w i t h t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  trust  O t h e r w i s e , t h e commission o f i n q u i r y  p r o c e s s i s not as p u b l i c as i t s h o u l d be.  F i n a l l y , a commission o f i n q u i r y  p r o c e s s cannot f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a r b i t r a r y d e a d l i n e s i f i t i s t o r e c e i v e and cross-examine a l l r e l e v a n t  information.  C e r t a i n l y , i n t h e case o f RCIUM,  the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ' s c h e d u l e s h o u l d be extended by a t l e a s t 12 days so t h a t a l l w i t n e s s e s can be h e a r d .  Informing the P u b l i c  RCIUM's p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e not s u c c e s s f u l .  While the  t e l e v i s e d p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s and t h e e d i t e d cassettes UID  have l i t t l e e d u c a t i v e v a l u e , RCIUM's news r e l e a s e s  reaches o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbians.  RCIUM l i b r a r y i s used by v e r y few members o f t h e p u b l i c .  video-  a r e d u l l and  In addition, the : L a c k i n g a thorough  p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n j o b , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t RCIUM w i l l be a b l e t o e l i c i t i n formed p u b l i c views on t h e uranium i s s u e and t r a n s m i t t h e s e t o t h e f i n a l decision  makers.  When f a c e d w i t h an i s s u e as c o n t r o v e r s i a l as t h e f u t u r e o f uranium m i n i n g , a commission o f i n q u i r y must r e c o g n i z e t h e importance o f p e r f o r m i n g a thorough p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n j o b and s h o u l d a l l o c a t e a s i z a b l e f r a c t i o n of i t s budget t o t h i s a c t i v i t y . ely  difficult  W h i l e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t i s extrem-  t o g a i n news coverage i n a f r e e media s i t u a t i o n , a c o n s c i e n -  t i o u s e f f o r t s h o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s be made t o u t i l i z e t h e media more e f f e c t ively.  F o r example, t h e f o l l o w i n g c o u l d m e r i t more a t t e n t i o n :  - r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s o f summaries of t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d at each t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n ; - p e r i o d i c , t e l e v i s e d d i s c u s s i o n s between i n q u i r y s t a f f and p a r t i c i p a n t s about t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t t h e t e c h n i c a l sessions,  102 both a t c o n v e n i e n t times t o members o f t h e p u b l i c .  Perhaps, i n t h e case  of RCIUM, t h e neuis r e l e a s e o f f i c e r c o u l d have been made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r r a n g i n g t h e above, r a t h e r than i s s u i n g b l a n d p r e s s r e l e a s e s . C o n c l u d i n g Remarks  W i t h o u t doubt, RCIUM has had some major achievements and, as a r e s u l t , b j i l l be a b l e t o s u p p l y t h e p r o v i n c i a l government u i i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e volume o f informed a d v i c e on uranium mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  However, p r e -  v i o u s s e c t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r have i d e n t i f i e d a number o f l o s t ities.  F i r s t , t h e r e were shortcomings  i n the general public's  opportunability  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e f i r s t round community h e a r i n g s ; second, t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n t e r e s t groups i n t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i s reduced  because o f f u n d i n g and t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s , and l a c k o f a b i l i t y  t o b r i n g i n w i t n e s s e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f RCIUM. shortcomings  F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e major  i n t h e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f RCIUM.  As B e r g e r (1977, p. 224) n o t e s : . . . . commissions o f i n q u i r y have became an i m p o r t a n t means f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e m o c r a t i c d e c i s i o n making as w e l l as an i n s t r u m e n t t o s u p p l y i n f o r m e d a d v i c e t o government . . . . Hence, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e way i n which commissions o f i n q u i r y a r e conducted  and whether o r not they have f u l f i l l e d t h e above f u n c t i o n s .  I t i s hoped t h a t f u t u r e commissions o f i n q u i r y w i l l p r o f i t from t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s and w i l l g i v e s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e recommendations c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n ; h e r e , i t i s s u g g e s t e d , i s an o p p o r t u n i t y to learn.  103  LITERATURE CITED A c c e s s i o n s L i s t s 1 t o 13. to 12 February I 9 6 0 .  Uranium I n f o r m a t i o n Centre,RCIUM.  1 A p r i l 1979  Anthony, R u s s e l l J . S e n i o r Commission c o u n s e l t o RCIUM. I n t e r v i e w s , 22 June 1979a; 5 J u l y 1979b; 21 J a n u a r y 1980a; 29 February 1980b; 19 March 1980c; 23 March 1980d. Anthony, R u s s e l l J . L e t t e r o f 25 A p r i l 1979 t o WCELA, 2 pp. B a t e s , David V. Chairman o f RCIUM. I n t e r v i e w s , 11 June 1979; Ik January 1980a; 12 February 1980b; 20 A p r i l 1980c; 25 A p r i l 1980d. B a t e s , David V. L e t t e r s o f 25 J u l y 1979a and Ik August 1979b t o t h e Task F o r c e o f funded p a r t i c i p a n t s (k pp. and 2 pp. r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . B a t e s , David V.  Speech a t SFU's " N u c l e a r Awareness Week", 10 O c t o b e r 1979.  Bemister, W i l l i a m .  T r a n s c r i p t r e p o r t f o r RCIUM.  I n t e r v i e w , 27 June 1980.  B e r g e r , T.R. N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r , N o r t h e r n Homeland: The Report o f t h e M a c k e n z i e V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y , V o l . 2. Ottawa: M i n i s t r y o f Supply and S e r v i c e s . 1977. Boggild, K r i s s .  L e g a l c o u n s e l f o r WCELA.  I n t e r v i e w , 25 January 1980.  Boyce, L o i s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r BCCUCC i n RCIUM. I n t e r v i e w s , 16 J u l y 1979; 15 January 1980a; 1 March 1980b; 8 A p r i l 1980c. B u r c h , J.R. and W i l l i a m , R. "Who P a r t i c i p a t e s - A S o c i o l o g i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f N a t u r a l Resource D e c i s i o n s . " N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l 16 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : pp. kl-5k. CBC.  "Evening News."  9 June 1979.  C a r t w r i g h t , T . J . R o y a l Commissions and Departmental Committees i n B r i t a i n . London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975. Chapman, R i c h a r d A. ( e d . ) . The Role o f Commissions i n P o l i c y - M a k i n q . London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1973. Charlten, Lorae. 1980. Clark, Bert.  S e n i o r A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r RCIUM.  Member o f CCNR ( V a n c o u v e r ) .  I n t e r v i e w , 12 March  I n t e r v i e w , 17 March 1980.  104 Commission  photograph c o l l e c t i o n .  Commission  s t a f f timetable.  RCIUM.  RCIUM.  A p r i l - M a y , 1979.  June-July,1979.  Connor, Desmond M. "Design and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Programs." A paper p r e p a r e d f o r t h e N a t i o n a l Workshop on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Environmental Decision-Making held i n B a n f f , A l b e r t a . A p r i l 17-20, 1979. (Mimeographed). C u l b e r t , Robert R. R e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r f o r RCIUM. I n t e r v i e w s , 14 January 1980a; 28 January 1980b; 5 F e b r u a r y 1980c; 29 F e b r u a r y 1980d; 3 March 1980e; 11 March 1980f; 21 March 1980g; 8 A p r i l 1980h; 6 May 1980i. Detomasi, D.D. of NIP."  "The E v a l u a t i o n of P u b l i c P r o j e c t s : The CMHC E v a l u a t i o n P l a n Canada 19/1 (March 1979): 56-73.  D i o n , Leon. " P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s . " 75 ( 1 9 6 8 ) : 432-48.  Queen's Q u a r t e r l y  E b b i n , Steven and Hasper, R a p h a e l . C i t i z e n Groups and the N u c l e a r Power C o n t r o v e r s y : Uses of S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n o l o g i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT P r e s s . 1974. Emond, D. P a u l . " P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e Environment: A S t r a t e g y f o r D e m o c r a t i z i n g Canada's E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Laws." Osgoode H a l l Law J o u r n a l 13 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 784-837. EMR  Report EP-79-3. Demand.  1979 Assessment  of Canadian Uranium Supply and  Fox, I r v i n g . " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Arrangements f o r D e a l i n g w i t h the E n v i r o n mental E f f e c t s of Energy P r o d u c t i o n and Use." Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the C o n f e r e n c e on Energy and t h e Environment, P u e r t o R i c o , March 1972. (Mimeographed). Fox, I r v i n g K. " I n s t i t u t i o n s f o r Water Management i n a Changing N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l 16 ( D c t o b e r 1976): 743-59.  World."  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February 1980.  Energy F i l e 1, No. I n t e r v i e w , 27  People and P l a n n i n g . R e p o r t o f t h e Committee on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g . London: HMS0, 1969. P u b l i c N o t i c e s : RCIUM. Vancouver E x p r e s s , 16 February 1979; 12 March 1979 and 7 May 1979.  107 R i t c h i e , Ronald S. "Sources of P o l i c y A d v i c e : R o y a l Commissions, Task F o r c e s , A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s and t h e Research I n s t i t u t e " , i n Bureauc r a c y i n Canadian Government, E d i t e d by W.D. Kernaghan, Methuen Pub, Co., 1973. R o b b i n s , R i c h a r d L. " O r g a n i z i n g f o r Involvement: C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Groups i n G r e a t Lake D e c i s i o n s " , i n Involvement and Environment, i b i d , v o l . 2, pp. 23-B. R o b e r t s , Kim.  D i r e c t o r of WCELA.  I n t e r v i e w , 23 June  1979.  Rogers, J o h n . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of UBCIC. I n t e r v i e w s , 22 January 26 F e b r u a r y 1980b; 14 March 1980c; 8 A p r i l 1980d. Rounthwaite, Ann. L e g a l c o u n s e l f o r EAAUM. k A p r i l 1980b. R.S.B.C.  Income Tax A c t , 1961, c l .  R.C.B.C.  P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s A c t , I960, c.315.  R.S.C.  I n q u i r i e s A c t , 1971.  1980a;  I n t e r v i e w s , 26 F e b r u a r y 1980a;  c.1-13.  S t . P i e r r e , P a u l R o b e r t . P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an I n t e r - A g e n c y Committee: The A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g Committee i n Vancouver. M.A. T h e s i s . UBC, 1977. S a d l e r , B a r r y . " B a s i c I s s u e s i n P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n : A Background P e r s p e c t i v e " , i n Involvement and Environment, i b i d . , v o l . 1, pp. 1-12. S a l t e r , L i o r a . " P u b l i c P r o c e s s and t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t . " B r i t i s h Columbia. 1979. (Mimeographed).  SFU,  Vancouver,  S c h m i t t , Doug. "The B.C. Uranium I n q u i r y . " Paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e E n v i r onmental C o n t r o l Technology Seminar, March 1979. (Mimeographed). S c h m i t t , R o l f . A s s i s t a n t t o Dr. S i n c l a i r , I n t e r v i e w , 10 A p r i l 1980.  t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r f o r RCIUM.  S e w e l l , W.R. D e r r i c k . " I n t e g r a t i n g P u b l i c Views i n P l a n n i n g and P o l i c y M a k i n g " , i n P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s i n Resource Management, S e l e c t e d P r o c e e d i n g s o f a Symposium on t h e R o l e of P e r c e p t i o n s and A t t i t u d e s i n D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n Resources Management, i b i d . , pp. 125-32. S e w e l l , W.R. D e r r i c k . " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Towards an E v a l u a t i o n o f Canadian E x p e r i e n c e " , i n Involvement and Environment, i b i d . ' , v o l . 2 pp. 205-24. S e w e l l , W.R. D e r r i c k and P h i l l i p s , Susan D. "Models f o r the E v a l u a t i o n of P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Programmes." N a t u r a l Resources J o u r n a l 19 ( A p r i l 1979): 337-58. S i n c l a i r , M a r g a r e t . "A Review of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t Commission's P u b l i c H e a r i n g s on t h e Great L a k e s : 1972-74," i n Involvement and Environment, i b i d . , v o l . 2, pp. 321-29.  108 Smith, Judy.  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of JCUTH.  Stainsby, C l i f f . J u l y 1979.  I n t e r v i e w , 15 January 1980.  Member of EAAUM and D i r e c t o r of SPEC.  S t a i r s , S o n i a . Community r e l a t i o n s c o n s u l t a n t f o r RCIUM. 6 June 1979a; k O c t o b e r 1979b; 17 March 1980. Suchman, E.A. 1967.  E v a l u a t i v e Research.  New Y o r k :  I n t e r v i e w , 16 Interviews,  R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n ,  Swainson, N e i l A. " D e f i n i n g t h e Problem", i n Managing t h e Water E n v i r o n ment, pp. 1-30. E d i t e d by N e i l A. 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(1977) Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , UBC.  Westcoast 1, No. 1  Thompson, A.R. "A D i s c i p l i n e d Framework f o r P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Second B a n f f C o n f e r e n c e on P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n , 1979. (Mimeographed). Thompson, Andrew R. " P u b l i c Involvement i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact A s s e s s ment." Paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e second E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Assessment C o n f e r e n c e , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, November 1979b. (Mimeographed). Thompson, Andrew R. D i r e c t o r of Westwater R e s e a r c h , UBC and Chairman o f WC0PI. I n t e r v i e w s , 7 February 1980a; 19 F e b r u a r y 1980b; 7 March 1980c. T r a n s c r i p t s o f P r o c e e d i n g s : RCIUM. R e p o r t i n g L t d . , 1979-80.  Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a :  Allwest  109 Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , RCIUM, October 1979. Uranium I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e F a c t Sheet, RCIUM, 1980. UID 1 (17 September 1979); 10 (5-15 February 1980). Sham. Vancouver C a b l e 10. ember 1979. Vancouver C a b l e 8.  "Nuclear Crossroads." "Jack Webster Show."  Vancouver Co-Op R a d i o . Weinberg, A l v i n M. 2-9-22.  E d i t e d by Robert  24 September 1979; 26 Nov24 January 1980.  " L e g a l S e r v i c e s Commission."  " S c i e n c e and T r a n s - S c i e n c e . "  26 A p r i l 1979.  M i n e r v a 10 ( 1 9 7 2 ) ;  Weiss, C a r o l H. E v a l u a t i o n Research: Methods o f A s s e s s i n g Program E f f e c t i v e n e s s . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1972. WCELA. S u b m i s s i o n t o t h e I n a u g u r a l P u b l i c Meeting o f RCIUM, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. 6 March 1979. (Mimeographed). White,"Del. O f f i c e C o o r d i n a t o r o f EAAUM.  I n t e r v i e w , 10 January 1980.  W i l l i a m s , Roger and B a t e s , D a v i d . " T e c h n i c a l D e c i s i o n s and P u b l i c A c c o u n t a b i l i t y . " Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 19 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 60432. Young, E r i c .  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f BCMA.  I n t e r v i e w , 26 February 1980.  Z e n t n e r , R.D. " P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s on E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l l u t i o n . " 6 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 13-15.  Ecolibrium  110  APPENDIX 1 Preliminary rulings  Ill Province of British Columbia  R O Y A L COMMISSION OF INQUIRY H E A L T H A N D ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING  ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE  TO T H E SECRETARY  COMMISSIONERS: D A V I D V . B A T E S , M . O . ( C A N T A B ) , F . R . C P . , F . R . C P . (C>. F. A . C P . . F . R . S . I C J A M E S W . M U R R A Y . PH.D.. F.G.S.E.. F.G.S.A.. F.G.S. V A L T E R R A U D S E P P , P.ENG.  EXECUTIVE  SECRETARY:  B R I G . - G E N . E . D. D A N B Y  COMMISSION RUSSELL  CHAIRMAN  May Ik, 1979  (RETIRED)  COUNSEL: J. ANTHONY,  B . A . , L L . B . . U L . M.  PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. 1  RULES OF PROCEDURE  In f u l f i l l i n g i t s Terms o f Reference as o u t l i n e d i n Order i n C o u n c i l No. 170 d a t e d January 1 8 t h , 1979, t h e R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y I n t o Uranium M i n i n g w i l l h o l d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  To ensure maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e Commission  w i l l g a t h e r e v i d e n c e and r e c e i v e p u b l i c comments r e g a r d i n g t h e m a t t e r s d e s c r i b e d i n i t s Terms o f Reference by h o l d i n g p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , c o n s i s t i n g o f f o r m a l h e a r i n g s and l o c a l h e a r i n g s , and by r e c e i v i n g written  briefs.  112  A.  PROCEDURE FOR LOCAL HEARINGS 1.  The Commission w i l l , through t h e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , a d v i s e t h e v a r i o u s communities l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d by proposed uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , mining o r m i l l i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e l o c a t i o n s and t i m e s f o r l o c a l hearings.  The d a t e s , l o c a t i o n and t i m e o f t h e commun-  i t y p u b l i c h e a r i n g s m i l l be a d v e r t i s e d through t h e l o c a l media w e l l i n advance o f t h e h e a r i n g s .  2.  A p a r t from r u l e s o f decorum and c o u r t e s y t h e r e w i l l be no formal r u l e s governing  the l o c a l hearings.  Those who have  something t o s a y w i l l be asked t o come f o r w a r d and be sworn and then can g i v e t h e i r e v i d e n c e i n whatever way they a r e most c o m f o r t a b l e .  S e v e r a l persons may make t h e i r  a t i o n i n a group r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l l y  present-  i f they so w i s h .  I n d i v i d u a l s p r e s e n t i n g d e t a i l e d o r t e c h n i c a l evidence a r e encouraged t o f i l e t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h t h e Commission in  3.  advance.  The Commission members w i l l be e n t i t l e d t o ask q u e s t i o n s o f persons making p r e s e n t a t i o n s b u t no one e l s e w i l l be accorded this privilege.  I f someone w i s h e s a m a t t e r c l a r i f i e d he  may r e q u e s t t h e Commission t o seek such c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e person making t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o r r e q u e s t t h e a t t e n d ance o f such w i t n e s s a t t h e f o r m a l h e a r i n g s where t h e e v i dence can be t e s t e d under c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  113 B.  PROCEDURE FOR FORMAL HEARINGS 1.  Participants 1.1  Any person who a d v i s e s t h e Commission i n w r i t i n g o f h i s i n t e n t i o n t o appear and g i v e e v i d e n c e a t any f o r m a l h e a r i n g o r who a c t u a l l y appears, g i v e s h i s name and address t o t h e Commission and s t a t e s  his intention to  g i v e e v i d e n c e w i l l be deemed a p a r t i c i p a n t .  1.2  The E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y s h a l l m a i n t a i n a l i s t o f p a r t i cipants  and t h e l i s t s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c i n -  s p e c t i o n a t t h e Commission's o f f i c e .  1.3  The Commission s h a l l , from time t o t i m e , i d e n t i f y  cer-  t a i n p a r t i e s as "major p a r t i c i p a n t s " i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e sense t h a t they e i t h e r have i n d i c a t e d  an i n t e n t i o n  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s on a more o r l e s s regular  b a s i s o r have been i d e n t i f i e d as p o s s e s s i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t and r e l e v a n c e t o t h e work o f t h e Commission.  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e s e major  p a r t i c i p a n t s s h a l l be governed by f u r t h e r  procedural  r u l e s o f t h e Commission. 2.  P h a s i n g o f Formal H e a r i n g s 2.1  The f o r m a l h e a r i n g s s h a l l be d i v i d e d phases:  into the following  114  Phase I :  Overview  T h i s phase w i l l c o n s i s t o f evidence c a l l e d by Commission C o u n s e l designed  t o d e a l g e n e r a l l y w i t h the occurrence  and g e o c h e m i s t r y of uranium and t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n ment o f i d e n t i f i e d uranium d e p o s i t s i n B.C.; d e s c r i b e e x p l o r a t i o n , m i n i n g , m i l l i n g , t r a n s p o r t , and d i s p o s a l techniques  and o u t l i n e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n and a u t h o r i t y  of monitoring  The  and r e g u l a t i n g b o d i e s .  purpose o f t h i s Overview i s t o p r e s e n t  information  of a background and i n t r o d u c t o r y n a t u r e and i s designed p r i m a r i l y as a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n s e s s i o n . reason c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ,  For that  except f o r q u e s t i o n s by t h e  Commissioners t h e m s e l v e s , w i l l not be a l l o w e d . r a i s e d i n t h e Overview w i l l be r e v i e w e d  A l l issues  at the appropriate  time d u r i n g t h e subsequent f o r m a l h e a r i n g s of t h e Commission and, a t t h a t t i m e , f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e and w i l l be a l l o w e d .  cross-examination  A copy o f t h e w i t n e s s e s '  statements  s h a l l be c i r c u l a t e d f o r comment b e f o r e t h e w i t n e s s e s appear.  T h i s phase o f t h e I n q u i r y w i l l be h e l d i n  Vancouver•  Phase I I ;  Project Descriptions  I n c l u d e d w i l l be a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e geology and p h y s i c a l environment a t s p e c i f i c s i t e s ; a d e s c r i p t i o n  115 of the p r e s e n t and  proposed p r o j e c t development  i n c l u d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s proposed and  plans,  engineering  and  an e x a m i n a t i o n of  alternatives.  Phase I I I :  Impact of Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n , M i n i n g and M i l l i n g on the P h y s i c a l and L i v i n g Environment  T h i s phase w i l l examine the impact on the environment of each of the major a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d mining - e x p l o r a t i o n , mining, m i l l i n g , t a i l i n g s and  wate d i s p o s a l and  with  uranium  processing,  transportation; identify  the i m p a c t s on t h e atmosphere, b i o s p h e r e , h y d r o s p h e r e and  terrasphere,  i n b o t h the s h o r t and  long  term;  review the techniques a v a i l a b l e f o r environmental prot e c t i o n , conservation  and  reclamation  and  adequacy of e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g and Phase IV:  examine the regulation.  Impact of Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n , M i n i n g and M i l l i n g on the Human Environment  T h i s phase w i l l examine t h e p o t e n t i a l impact on i n d i v i d u a l s and  s o c i e t y a t l a r g e of the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of  uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , m i n i n g and m i l l i n g .  This  will  i n c l u d e an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of h a z a r d s t o w o r k e r s ,  the  e f f e c t s on the p u b l i c a t l a r g e p a r t i c u l a r l y the comm u n i t i e s a d j a c e n t t o uranium s i t e s , an a n a l y s i s of  the  116 proposed m o n i t o r i n g and p r o t e c t i v e measures r e s p e c t i n g the  human environment and t h e s o c i a l and economic  impact o f proposed uranium m i n i n g .  2.2  The d i v i s i o n o f t h e f o r m a l h e a r i n g s i n t o phases i s for  purposes o f c o n v e n i e n c e o n l y .  Commission C o u n s e l  m i l l i n v i t e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o c o n s u l t w i t h him from time to  time t o determine whether t h e r e s h o u l d be any f u r t h e r  d i v i s i o n s o f t h e h e a r i n g s w i t h i n each phase, whether a d d i t i o n a l phases a r e r e q u i r e d o r o t h e r w i s e d e t e r m i n e the  most e f f i c i e n t and f a i r e s t way t o have a l l t h e  r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e t h e Commission.  2.3  The Commission w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e p l a c e and d a t e f o r the  commencement o f h e a r i n g s f o r each o f t h e phases  as soon as i t i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o do s o . A f t e r t h e d a t e and p l a c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r phase a r e d e t e r m i n e d the  E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y w i l l send t o each p a r t i c i p a n t  a notice of hearing.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e E x e c u t i v e Sec-  r e t a r y w i l l , through t h e news media, a d v i s e t h e p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y o f t h e commencement d a t e o f each phase, t h e p l a c e o f h e a r i n g and t h e m a t t e r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g such phase. 3.  P r o d u e t l o n a d f Studies.^' 'Repgrts;Jand-uOther; Docum'entsr T  3.1  Commission C o u n s e l w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e q u e s t i n g t h a t r e p o r t s and documents o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e Commission  117  i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o r power o f t h e government o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e F e d e r a l Government and v a r i o u s boards and a g e n c i e s , both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l , a r e made available.  To t h a t end, Commission Counsel w i l l com-  municate w i t h these v a r i o u s governments and boards and a r r a n g e f o r them t o p r o v i d e t h e Commission w i t h t h e documents and r e p o r t s r e q u i r e d .  3.2  A l l o f t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e Commission Counsel s h a l l , no l a t e r than June 15, 1979, f i l e w i t h t h e Commission and c i r c u l a t e t o t h e o t h e r major  partici-  pants a l i s t o f t h e r e p o r t s , s t u d i e s and o t h e r documents w i t h i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n o r power which a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r b e f o r e t h e Commission, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e f o r which p r i v i l e g e may be proposed to be c l a i m e d . 3.3  Supplementary  l i s t s a r e t o be f i l e d  from t i m e t o t i m e  as f u r t h e r r e p o r t s , s t u d i e s o r o t h e r documents come to t h e a t t e n t i o n o f major 3.4  participants.  Each l i s t o f r e p o r t s s h a l l t o t h e e x t e n t p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f y t h e s t u d y , r e p o r t o r document by s t a t i n g , (a)  t h e name o f t h e person o r persons who made o r c o m p i l e d i t ;  (b)  The d a t e i t was made o r c o m p i l e d ;  (c)  A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s u b j e c t matter w i t h which i t i s concerned;  118 (d)  Whether t h e s t u d y , r e p o r t  o r document i s  a v a i l a b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and, i f i t i s , t h e name and address o f t h e p u b l i sher or d i s t r i b u t o r ; The l i s t s h a l l a l s o c o n t a i n  t h e name, address and  phone number o f t h e p e r s o n t o be c o n t a c t e d t o r e v i e w the documents l i s t e d .  3.5  The l i s t o f documents s h a l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r i n s p e c t i o n by any p a r t i c i p a n t and, upon n o t i c e t o Commiss i o n C o u n s e l and t o t h e major p a r t i c i p a n t f i l i n g t h e l i s t , any p a r t i c i p a n t may demand p r o d u c t i o n o f any document on t h e l i s t f o r r e v i e w .  3,6.- Upon.reasonable? n o t i c e , b e i n g ~ g i v e h > t o t h e Commission and  t o Commission C o u n s e l , any p a r t i c i p a n t may b r i n g  b e f o r e t h e Commission an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r p r o d u c t i o n of any l i s t e d document i f p r o d u c t i o n has been r e f u s e d or f o r a f u r t h e r o r b e t t e r l i s t o f documents.  A par-  t i c i p a n t may, i n a d d i t i o n , r e q u e s t p r o d u c t i o n o f any reports,  s t u d y o r document r e l e v a n t  to the subjet  m a t t e r b e f o r e t h e Commission known t o them and i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o r power o f any of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . 3.7  I f any d i s p u t e a r i s e s as t o any c l a i m o f p r i v i l e g e o r c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y made r e s p e c t i n g  a document, such d i s -  pute s h a l l be r e f e r r e d t o t h e Commission f o r a r u l i n g .  119 3,8  For purposes of R u l e 3 o n l y ( P r o d u c t i o n of S t u d i e s , R e p o r t s and Other Documents) the f o l l o w i n g  shall  be r e g a r d e d as major p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u i r e d t o f i l e a l i s t of  documents:  (1)  Commission C o u n s e l , on b e h a l f o f the Commission s t a f f and Government Departments and A g e n c i e s ;  (2)  A l l i a n c e A g a i n s t Uranium M i n i n g  (3)  The A t l i n C o u n c i l  (4)  Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club (Grand F o r k s )  (5)  B r i t i s h Columbia & Yukon Chamber o f Mines  (6)  Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r N u c l e a r R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  (7)  C a n a d i a n K e l v i n Resources L i m i t e d  (8)  Committee f o r a C l e a n K e t t l e V a l l e y  (9)  C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar M i n e r a l s & C h e m i c a l s L t d .  (Kelowna)  (10)  E a B Explorations L t d .  (11)  The Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n ( V a n c o u v e r )  (12)  Greenpeace (Okanagan) F o u n d a t i o n  (13)  I n d i g e n o u s P e o p l e s o f the Western  (14)  The Kootenay N u c l e a r Study Group  (15)  The M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h  (16)  Noranda E x p l o r a t i o n Company L i m i t e d  (17)  Norcen Energy Resources L i m i t e d  (18)  P l a c e r Development L t d .  (19)  PNC  (20)  S h e l l Canada Resources L i m i t e d  (21)  South Okanagan E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o a l i t i o n  (22)  Union o f B.C.  (23)  The U n i t e d Church o f Canada - The B r i t i s h Conference  (24)  U n i t e d Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers' Union  (25)  West Coast E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law Research F o u n d a t i o n  (26)  Yellowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n - Clearwater  (27)  Y e l l o w h e a d E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n - Kamloops  (28)  Chinook C o n s t r u c t i o n & E n g i n e e r i n g L t d . '  (29)  Stampede I n t e r n a t i o n a l Resources L t d .  (30)  S o l a r A l t e r n a t i v e s t o N u c l e a r Energy  Hemisphere Columbia  E x p l o r a t i o n (Canada) Co. L t d .  Indian Chiefs Columbia  120  t  *  m  N o t i c e of E v i d e n c e t o be P r e s e n t e d 4.1  Every p a r t i c i p a n t b e f o r e g i v i n g e v i d e n c e o r c a l l i n g w i t n e s s e s on i t s b e h a l f a t the f o r m a l h e a r i n g s s h a l l f i l e w i t h t h e Commission (5 c o p i e s ) and  circulate  to  the major p a r t i c i p a n t s and Commission C o u n s e l ,  at  l e a s t two weeks b e f o r e g i v i n g o r c a l l i n g  such  e v i d e n c e , a t e x t or f u l l s y n o p s i s o f t h a t e v i d e n c e , a t e x t or f u l l synopsis of that evidence together w i t h a l i s t o f any r e p o r t s , s t u d i e s o r o t h e r documents t o which t h e w i t n e s s may may  4.2  r e f e r o r upon which  he  r e l y and a b i o g r a p h i c a l note on t h e w i t n e s s .  Where a w i t n e s s i s c a l l e d by subpoena the p a r t i c i p a n t r e q u e s t i n g t h e subpoena s h a l l comply w i t h R u l e  4.1  as much as p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t i n g t h e i s s u e t h e w i t n e s s i s expected t o address and h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 4.3  I f a p a r t i c i p a n t cannot comply w i t h t h e two rule that w i l l of  week  not n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u d e t h e t a k i n g  e v i d e n c e of t h e w i t n e s s i n q u e s t i o n but i t may  mean t h e w i t n e s s w i l l  have t o be r e c a l l e d l a t e r f o r  cross-examination.  5.  Examination of 5.1  Witnesses  The p a r t i c i p a n t c a l l i n g a w i t n e s s s h a l l be p e r m i t t e d to  examine him f i r s t .  cross-examined  The w i t n e s s s h a l l then  be  by Commission C o u n s e l and by t h e  other p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The  participant calling  w i t n e s s s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o  re-examine.  the  121 5.2  The o r d e r f o r p r e s e n t i n g evidence and  cross-exam-  i n i n g m i l l be determined by t h e Commission from time t o t i m e as the n a t u r e of the e v i d e n c e r e q u i r e s . G e n e r a l l y , Commission Counsel m i l l l e a d o f f t h e c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n to be f o l l o w e d by Counsel f o r o t h e r major p a r t i c i p a n t s  and f i n a l l y by any o t h e r  participant.  5.3  W i t n e s s e s may  g i v e e v i d e n c e i n d i v i d u a l l y o r as  p a r t o f a group o r p a n e l t e s t i f y i n g c o n c u r r e n t l y . I n t h e Commission's d i s c r e t i o n , any w i t n e s s o r w i t n e s s e s may  6«  be c a l l e d more than  once.  Documentary E v i d e n c e 6.1  Any s t u d y , r e p o r t o r o t h e r document r e l i e d upon i n the e v i d e n c e of any w i t n e s s s h a l l be f i l e d as an e x h i b i t a t t h e h e a r i n g u n l e s s the Commission o t h e r wise d i r e c t s .  6.2  Where a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e Commission may t i o n from p a r t i e s , whether they a r e  seek i n f o r m a participants  or n o t , by having Commission Counsel communicate w i t h them.  The q u e s t i o n s posed and t h e answers  r e c e i v e d s h a l l then form p a r t o f t h e evidence b e f o r e the Commission.  The Commission may,  in i t s discretion,  r e q u i r e t h a t the person p r o v i d i n g such answers appear a t a h e a r i n g t o v e r i f y h i s e v i d e n c e and cross-examined.  be  122 6.3  Where a p a r t i c i p a n t c l a i m s t h a t a s t u d y , or o t h e r document, o r any  report  p a r t t h e r e o f , i s of a  c o n f i d e n t i a l o r p r i v i l e g e d n a t u r e , the p a r t i c i p a n t s h a l l produce such s t u d y , r e p o r t o r o t h e r document f o r i n s p e c t i o n by the Commission and without  d i s c l o s i n g the c o n t e n t s  the Commission,  thereof, s h a l l rule  upon the c l a i m .  6.4  The  Commission may,  i n t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n and  t h i n k i t j u s t and n e c e s s a r y f o r c a r r y i n g out  i f they their  Terms of R e f e r e n c e , c o n s i d e r as p a r t of the e v i d e n c e b e f o r e them any  s t u d y , r e p o r t o r document or any  t h e r e o f though i t may  part  be r u l e d to be c o n f i d e n t i a l  or p r i v i l e g e d . 7.  A p p l i c a t i o n s t o the Commission 7.1  Subpoenas may  be i s s u e d by the Commission, a t i t s  d i s c r e t i o n , upon a p p l i c a t i o n by any  p a r t i c i p a n t pro-  v i d e d such p a r t i c i p a n t has demonstrated he has  attempted  t o o b t a i n the a t t e n d a n c e of the w i t n e s s or the documentary e v i d e n c e w i t h o u t  success,  t h a t a subpoena i s  n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n t h e w i t n e s s or document, and the w i t n e s s  that  or document i s n e c e s s a r y and r e l e v a n t t o  the Terms of Reference of the Commission.  7.2  N o t i c e of an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a subpoena to o b t a i n the a t t e n d a n c e of a p a r t i c i p a n t or an employee of or c o n s u l t a n t to a p a r t i c i p a n t or f o r of a document i n the p o s s e s s i o n  production  or power of a p a r -  t i c i p a n t s h a l l be g i v e n t o t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t .  123 7.3  An a p p l i c a t i o n may  be made by a p a r t i c i p a n t to  Commission f o r any  r e l i e f whatsoever p r o v i d e d i t i s  made upon r e a s o n a b l e n o t i c e to m i s s i o n C o u n s e l and any  8.  the  the Commission, Com-  the major p a r t i c i p a n t s as w e l l  o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t may  be  as  affected.  Changes i n These Rules 8.1  The  Commission r e t a i n s t h e power t o add  t o , a l t e r or  modify t h e s e r u l e s , t o suspend the o p e r a t i o n of o r p a r t of them o r to r e q u i r e  any  participant  any not  a l r e a d y bound by them t o comply i n whole o r i n p a r t , as w e l l as the power t o exempt any  p a r t i c i p a n t from  complying w i t h t h e s e r u l e s i n whole or i n p a r t ,  as  the j u s t i c e of the s i t u a t i o n demands. C.  RULES RELATING TO 1.  The  WRITTEN BRIEFS  Commission s h a l l a t any  t i m e accept w r i t t e n b r i e f s from  anyone, whether a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p r o c e e d i n g s or n o t . p o s s i b l e , the b r i e f s h o u l d be t y p e w r i t t e n  and  If  f i v e copies  provided. 2.  The  Commission may  senting  r e q u e s t t h a t the p e r s o n or group p r e -  a w r i t t e n b r i e f a t t e n d b e f o r e i t so t h a t the  r a i s e d i n the w r i t t e n b r i e f may hearing.  be e x p l o r e d b e f o r e a  issues public  124 Province of British Columbia  R O Y A L COMMISSION OF INQUIRY H E A L T H A N D ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING  ADORESS ALL C O R R E S P O N D E N C E  TO T H E SECRETARY  COMMISSIONERS: D A V I D V . B A T E S , M-D.fCANTABl. F.R.C.P.. J A M E S W . M U R R A Y , P H . D . . F . G . S . E , , F.G.S V A L T E R R A U D S E P P , p,ENG.  EXECUTIVE  SECRETARY:  B R I G . - G E N . E. D. D A N B Y  COMMISSION RUSSELL  . CHAIRMAN  July 24, 1979  (RETIRED!  COUNSEL: J. ANTHONY,  B.A., L L . B . . L L . M .  PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. 2 - TECHNICAL HEARINGS  The following Rulings are supplementary to the Preliminary Rulings No. 1 - Rules of Procedure, issued on May 14th, 1979.  1.  Where the words "formal hearings" were used they s h a l l be  replaced by the words "technical hearings".  This does not denote any  change i n the nature of the hearings.  2.  Pursuant to Technical Hearing Rule No. 1.3 the following  are hereby declared as major participants for the Technical Hearings. From this date these organizations w i l l be regarded as major p a r t i c ipants and, as such, are e n t i t l e d to receive the f i l e d statements of evidence circulated pursuant to Rule No. 4.1 and otherwise be bound by the Procedural Rules as they apply to major p a r t i c i p a n t s .  125 MAJOR PARTICIPANTS LIST (1)  B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f Mines 84D West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6C ICS 681-5328  (2)  B r i t i s h Columbia C o n f e r e n c e , U n i t e d Church o f Canada 2D0 - 1955 West 4 t h Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V6J 1M7 Att:  M i c h a e l L e w i s , Chairman Uranium Working Group  (3)  B.C. Department o f Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources c/o Mr. George Cumming, Q.C. Cumming, R i c h a r d s , U n d e r h i l l , F r a s e r , S k i l l i n g s B a r r i s t e r s and S o l i c i t o r s S u i t e 600 - 900 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1G1 682-3664  (4)  B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of Labour & U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s o f America 3110 Boundary Road Burnaby, B.C. V5M 4A2 Attn:  430-1421 Mr. D a v i d R i c e  (5)  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l , M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Workers (CAIMAW) c/o Sun, P a t e r s o n & B r a i l B a r r i s t e r s and S o l i c i t o r s 305 Dominion B u i l d i n g 207 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 669-7311 A t t n : Mr. C r a i g P a t e r s o n  (6)  Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r N u c l e a r R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Kelowna Branch P.O. Box 1093 Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 7P8  (7)  764-4949  A t t n : Mr. John M e o l a e r t , Chairman C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar M i n e r a l s and Chemicals L t d . P.O. Box 11575 650 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4N7 669-2226 Attn:  Mr. Bruce S w i t z e r  (8)  E n v i r o n m e n t a l A l l i a n c e A g a i n s t Uranium M i n i n g #405 - 2D7 W. H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 688-8361 Attn:  (9)  (10)  J o i n t Committee - Uranium T e c h n i c a l H e a r i n g s c/o Andrew O r k i n Box 30 Rock C r e e k , B.C. VOH 1Y0 446-2392 Kootenay N u c l e a r Study Group Box 205 N e l s o n , B.C. V1L 5P9  (11)  D.M.M. G o l d i e ,  Q.C.  P l a c e r Development L i m i t e d 700 - 1030 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3A8 682-7082 Attn:  (14)  M i l l e r H. Mason, C o u n s e l  Norcen Energy Resources c/o R u s s e l l & DuMoulin B a r r i s t e r s and S o l i c i t o r s 17th F l o o r - 1075 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3G2 688-3411 Attn:  (13)  354-4195 & 359-7618  A t t n : Mr. B r i a n C a r p e n d a l e M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia 480 - 1066 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t P.O. Box 12540 Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3X1 681-8429 Attn:  (12)  Mr. D a v i d G a r r i c k  Mr. I a n M a r s h a l l , L e g a l C o u n s e l  PNC E x p l o r a t i o n (Canada) Co. L t d . 3060 - 650 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Box 11571, Vancouver C e n t r e Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4N8 681-6151  127 (15)  Union of B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s 3rd F l o o r - 440 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1L1 684-0231 Attn:  (16)  Vellowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Box 23 C l e a r w a t e r , B.C. VQE IND 674-3330 Attn:  (17)  Rosalee T i z y a , A d m i n i s t r a t o r  Ms. C o l l e e n F o s t e r , S e c r e t a r y  Commission Counsel 1900 - 1D3D West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3E9 689-1811 Attn:  Mr. R u s s e l l J . Anthony  P a r t i c i p a n t s e a r l i e r named as major p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r purposes o f  filing  a l i s t of documents are no l o n g e r r e g a r d e d as major p a r t i c i p a n t s but are  r e q u i r e d , i n any e v e n t , t o  f i l e supplementary  l i s t s of documents  as f u r t h e r documents come i n t o t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n . 3.  P r o c e d u r a l R u l e No. 2.1 o u t l i n i n g the phases of the Tech-  n i c a l H e a r i n g s i s hereby d e l e t e d and t h e f o l l o w i n g phases a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . A l s o , p u r s u a n t t o P r o c e d u r a l Rule No. 2.3 the d a t e s and times f o r h e a r i n g e v i d e n c e a t each phase w i l l PHASE I -  be as s e t out  Overview  September 25th - 2 8 t h ,  1979  PHASE I I - E x p l o r a t i o n October 2nd - 5 t h , 1979 PHASE I I I - M i n i n g October 16th - 1 9 t h ,  1979  below.  128 PHASE IV - M i l l i n g and Chemical  Extraction  October 3Dth - November 2nd, 1979 PHASE V - Waste November 1 3 t h - 1 6 t h , 20th - 2 3 r d , 1979 PHASE VI - E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact December 4 t h - 7 t h , 1 1 t h - 1 4 t h , 1979 PHASE V I I - P u b l i c and Worker H e a l t h P r o t e c t i o n J a n u a r y 8 t h - 1 1 t h , 1980 PHASE V I I I - S o c i a l Impact January 22nd - 2 5 t h , 1980 PHASE IX - E t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s January 22nd - 2 5 t h , 1980 PHASE X - J u r i s d i c t i o n , R e g u l a t i o n and Enforcement F e b r u a r y 5 t h - 8 t h , 1980 Phases I t h r o u g h IX m i l l be h e l d i n Vancouver, B.C., a t t h e D e v o n s h i r e H o t e l , 849 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t .  Phase X m i l l be h e l d i n V i c t o r i a , B.C..  a t t h e Empress H o t e l , 721 Government S t r e e t .  A l l s e s s i o n s m i l l commence  a t 9:00 a.m. and conclude a t 4:00 p.m. each day. P a r t i c i p a n t s may c a l l e v i d e n c e and cross-examine w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d by o t h e r s i n a l l o f t h e t e n Phases.  129 Province of British Columbia  R O Y A L COMMISSION OF INQUIRY H E A L T H AND E N V I R O N M E N T A L PROTECTION URANIUM MINING  ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE  TO T H E SECRETARY  COMMISSIONERS: D A V I D V. B A T E S . M.D.IC ANTAB1. F . R . C . P . . F.R.C.P.ICt. F . A . C . P . . F . R . S . l C l . C H A I R M A N JAMES  W. MURRAY,  VALTER  EXECUTIVE  PH.D.. F.G.S.E., F.G.5.A..  RAUDSEPP,  SECRETARY:  BRIG.-GEN. E. •. D A N B Y  COMMISSION RUSSELL  F.G.S.  P.ENG.  September 11, 1979  (RETIRED)  COUNSEL: J. ANTHONY.  B.A..L L . B . . L L . M .  PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. 3 - TECHNICAL HEARINGS  The f o l l o w i n g R u l i n g s a r e amendments t o P r e l i m i n a r y R u l i n g s No. 2, i s s u e d on J u l y 2k, 1979.  1.  P u r s u a n t t o T e c h n i c a l H e a r i n g Rule No. 1.3 t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e  changes t o t h e l i s t o f major p a r t i c i p a n t s : Added t o Major P a r t i c i p a n t s B.C. M e d i c a l  Association  West Coast E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law  Removed as M a j o r P a r t i c i p a n t s P l a c e r Development L i m i t e d  Province of British Columbia  R O Y A L COMMISSION OF INQUIRY H E A L T H AND ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION  URANIUM MINING ADDRESS A L L CORRESPONDENCE TO T H E SECRETARY  COMMISSIONERS: D A V I D V. B A T E S . M . D . ( C A N T A B ) . F . R . C . P . . F . n . c . P . ( C > . F . J A M E S W. M U R R A Y , PH.D., F.G.S.E.. F.G.S.A., F.G.S. VALTER RAUDSEPP, P.ENG.  EXECUTIVE  SECRETARY:  BRIG.-GEN.  COMMISSION RUSSELL  CHAIRMAN  E. D. D A N B Y  October 10,  (RETIRED)  COUNSEL: J . A N T H O N Y , B . A . , LL.B., L L . M .  PRELIMINARY RULINGS NO. k - TECHNICAL HEARINGS  The f o l l o w i n g R u l i n g s a r e amendments t o P r e l i m i n a r y issued  1.  R u l i n g s No. 3,  on September 11, 1979.  P u r s u a n t t o T e c h n i c a l Hearing R u l e No. 1.3 t h e f a l l o w i n g a r e  changes t o t h e l i s t o f major p a r t i c i p a n t s :  Added t o Major P a r t i c i p a n t s B.C.  M i n i s t r y o f t h e Environment  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n  C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian Unions (CCU) i s t o be r e c o g nized  as a M a j o r P a r t i c i p a n t i n p l a c e o f Canadian  Association (CAIMAW).  o f I n d u s t r i a l , M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d  Workers  131 R O Y A L COMMISSION OF INQUIRY  Province of British Columbia  H E A L T H A N D ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION URANIUM MINING  ADDRESS ALL CORRESPONDENCE TO THE SECRETARY  COMMISSIONERS: D A V I D V . B A T E S . M.O.ICANTABI, F.R.C.P.. f . R . C P . I C ) , F.A.C.P.. F.R.S.lCl. CHAIRMAN JAMES  W. MURRAY,  VALTER  EXECUTIVE  PH.D.. F.G.S.E., F.G,S.A., F.G.S.  RAUDSEPP,  P.ENG.  COMMISSION RUSSELL  November 21, 1979  SECRETARY:  B R I G . - G E N . E. D. D A N B Y  (RETIRED)  COUNSEL: J. ANTHONY,  B.A., LL.B., L L . M .  PROCEDURAL RULINGS NO. 5 - TECHNICAL HEARINGS The f o l l o w i n g R u l i n g s  are further to Preliminary  Rulings  No. 1 t o 4  f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a l R u l e s o f Procedure i s s u e d May 1 4 t h , 1979. (1)  Pursuant t o T e c h n i c a l Ecological Association  (2)  Pursuant t o T e c h n i c a l  H e a r i n g Rule No. 1.3 t h e Yellowhead (Kamloops) i s added as a Major P a r t i c i p a n t . H e a r i n g Rule No. 1.3 t h e C o a l i t i o n o f Con-  cerned C i t i z e n s o f t h e Bulkley-Nechako i s added as a Major P a r t i c i p a n t . A t t a c h e d i s an updated and r e v i s e d L i s t o f M a j o r P a r t i c i p a n t s . (3)  Technical  Hearing R u l e No. 2.1 s e t t i n g out t h e phases o f t h e  Technical  Hearings i s deleted  phasing i s s u b s t i t u t e d  i n i t s e n t i r e t y and the f o l l o w i n g  therefor:  Phase I  - Overview  Phase I I  -  Phase I I I  - Mining  Phase IV  - M i l l i n g and C h e m i c a l  Phase V  - Waste  Phase VI  - E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact  Phase V I I  - P u b l i c and Worker H e a l t h  Phase V I I I  - S o c i a l Impact  Phase IX  - E t h i c a l Questions  Phase X  - J u r i s d i c t i o n , R e g u l a t i o n and Enforcement  Exploration Extraction  Disposal  TECHNICAL HEARINGS MAJOR PARTICIPANTS LIST (1)  A t l i n Community A s s o c i a t i o n Box 125 A t l i n , B.C. VOW 1A0 Attn:  (2)  Ms. Ann W r i g h t  B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Chamber o f Mines 840 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1C8 Attn:  651-7648  681-5328  Mr. F.G. H i g g s  (3)  B r i t i s h Columbia C o n f e r e n c e , The U n i t e d Church o f Canada c/o M r s . L o i s Boyce, S e c r e t a r y 277-4527 Uranium Working Group 8971 Heather S t r e e t Richmond, B.C. V6Y 2R7  (4)  B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour & U n i t e d S t e e l u o r k e r s o f America 3110 Boundary Road 430-1421 Burnaby, B.C. V5M 4A2 Attn:  (5)  Mr. David R i c e  B.C. M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Academy o f M e d i c i n e B u i l d i n g 1807 West 10th Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V6J 2A9 Attn:  736-5551  D r . E r i c Young  (6)  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources c/o Mr. George Cumming, Q.C. 682-3664 Cumming, R i c h a r d s , U n d e r h i l l , F r a s e r , S k i l l i n g s B a r r i s t e r s and S o l i c i t o r s S u i t e 600 - 900 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6C 1G1  (7)  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Environment P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch 1106 Cook S t r e e t V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8V 1X4 Attn:  Mr. Joe N e g r a e f f Mr. K e l v i n H i c k e  387-5321  133 (8)  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h 828 West 1 0 t h Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V5Z 1L8 Attn:  (9)  D r . Wayne Greene  Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r N u c l e a r R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Kelowna Branch P.O. Box 1093 Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 7P8 Attn:  874-2331  764-4949  Mr. John M o e l a e r t  <  (10)  C o a l i t i o n o f Concerned C i t i z e n s o f t h e B u l k l e y - N e c h a k o Box 61 567-9451 1636 Columbia S t r e e t Vanderhoof, B.C. VOJ 3A0 Attn:  (11)  C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian Unions (CCU) c/o Sun, P a t e r s o n a B r a i l 1400 Dominion B u i l d i n g 207 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1K5 Attn:  (12)  (14)  (15)  Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n c/o E n v i r o n m e n t a l A l l i a n c e A g a i n s t Uranium M i n i n g S u i t e 405 - 207 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7  (16)  688-8361  688-8361  Mr. Ralph T o r r i e  Kootenay N u c l e a r Study Group #2 - 2828 West 6 t h Avenue Vancouver, B.C. V5M 1R8 Attn:  688-8361  Mr. P e t e r Chataway  J o i n t Committee - Uranium T e c h n i c a l H e a r i n g s S u i t e 405 - 207 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 Attn:  669-2226  Mr. Bruce S w i t z e r  E n v i r o n m e n t a l A l l i a n c e A g a i n s t Uranium M i n i n g EAAUM c/o Ms. D e l White S u i t e 405 - 207 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7  Attn:  669-7311  Mr. C r a i g P a t e r s o n  C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar M i n e r a l s & C h e m i c a l s L t d . P.O. Box 11575 650 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 4N7 Attn:  (13)  Mr. Bruce Kanary  Mr. J i m T e r r a l  731-3287  134 (17)  M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia 480 - 1066 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t P.O. Box 12540 Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3X1 Attn:  (18)  (19)  (21)  John B.L.  Mr.  John B.L.  Rosalee T i z y a ,  Kim  Yellowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n c/o Dr. Robert MacKenzie B r o o k f i e l d Medical Centre C l e a r w a t e r , B.C. V0E 1N0  (24)  Y e l l o w h e a d E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (Kamloops) c/o Mr. L. I s e r t R.R. #3 4868 Spurraway Road Kamloops, B.C. V2C 5K1 Commission Counsel 1900 - 1030 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3E9 Attn:  Mr.  684-0231  684-7378  Roberts  (23)  (25)  763-6011  Administrator  West Coast E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law A s s o c i a t i o n #1012 - 207 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1H7 Mr.  688-3411  Robertson  Union of B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s 3rd F l o o r - 440 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6B 1L1  Attn:  688-3411  Robertson  South E a s t Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t c/o R o b i n Luxmoore C i t y H a l l - E n g i n e e r i n g Department 1435 Water S t r e e t Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 1J4  Attn: (22)  Mr.  PiMC E x p l o r a t i o n (Canada) Co. L t d . c/o R u s s e l l & DuMoulin B a r r i s t e r s and S o l i c i t o r s 17th F l o o r - 1075 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3G2 Attn:  (20)  Mr. M i l l e r H. Mason, C o u n s e l  Moreen Energy Resources c/o R u s s e l l & DuMoulin B a r r i s t e r s and S o l i c i t o r s 17th F l o o r - 1075 West G e o r g i a S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6E 3G2 Attn:  681-8429  R u s s e l l J . Anthony  (Clearwater)  578-7537  689-1811  135 ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING R e v i s e d Schedule o f H e a r i n g s As o f November 13, 1979 D e v o n s h i r e H o t e l , Vancouver 1979 Nov. 13-16; 20-23:  Phase V:  Dec. 4-7;  Phase V I : E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact: Groundw a t e r , S u r f a c e Water, B i o l o g i c a l Pathways.  11-14:  Waste Management  1980 Jan. Jan.  8-11; 15-16: 29 - Feb. 1  Phase V I I : P u b l i c and Worker H e a l t h  Feb. 5-8; 12-15:  C o n t i n u a t i o n o f Phases: I I - E x p l o r a t i o n ; I l l - M i n i n g ; I V - M i l l i n g ; V-Waste Management  Mar. 4-7; 11-14; 25-28; Apr. 1-3:  Phase V I : E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact: B i o l o g i c a l Pathways, Atmosphere, Decommissioning, R e c l a m a t i o n , Long Term C o n t r o l , Emergency Measures  Apr. May  15-18; 22-25; 27-30:  Phase V I I : P u b l i c and Worker H e a l t h  Jun.  3-6:  Phase V I I I :  Social  Impact  Jun..l?i.20:i:  Phase I X :  J u n * 24-27:  Phase X: J u r i s d i c t i o n , R e g u l a t i o n and Enforcement  E t h i c a l Questions  Community h e a r i n g s w i l l be r e s c h e d u l e d t o September and O c t o b e r , 1980.  APPENDIX 2 The  Commission s t a f f and  advisors:  r o l e s and  their  responsibilities  137 FIGURE 1 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COMMISSIONERS, COMMISSION STAFF AND THEIR ADVISORS  Commissioners  Commission counsel  Administrative staff: Executive s e c r e t a r y , Administrative assistant, Senior administrator, C l e r i c a l workers  Technical s t a f f : Research c o o r d i n a t o r s Librarian, Transcript indexers Technical advisors  -)  Commission c o u n s e l 1.  S e n i o r Commission c o u n s e l : (a)  Mr. R u s s e l l Anthony, whose r o l e i t i s :  t o a d v i s e RCIUM on p r o c e d u r a l m a t t e r s and any o t h e r  issues"j  "legal  ;£b) t o s e t up and s t r u c t u r e t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i n con-  j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Commissioners; ( c ) t o meet w i t h RCIUM p a r t i c i p a n t s t o s c h e d u l e w i t n e s s e s f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s ; ( d ) t o work w i t h the T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Group t o i d e n t i f y problems and RCIUM w i t n e s s e s ; ( e ) t o arrange t o have RCIUM w i t n e s s e s a t t e n d ; ( f ) t o a t t e n d t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s t o cross-examine  w i t n e s s e s ; and ( g ) t o h e l p w r i t e and  r e v i e w t h e f i n a l r e p o r t (Anthony 1979a, i n t e r v i e w ) . p r e s e n t e d a p u b l i c i n t e r e s t group (Canadian  Mr. Anthony r e -  A r c t i c Resources Committee)  b e f o r e t h e Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y , appeared f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h i n t h e R e v e l s t o k e h e a r i n g s , and was Commission c o u n s e l f o r t h e West Coast O i l P o r t s I n q u i r y . 2.  A s s o c i a t e Commission c o u n s e l : to a s s i s t Mr. Anthony.  Mr. Gary L e t c h e r , whose r o l e i t i s  Mr. L e t c h e r a t t e n d s c e r t a i n phases o f t h e  t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s i n t h e p l a c e o f Mr. Anthony.  136  Technical 1.  staff  Research c o o r d i n a t o r s : (a)  uihose r o l e i t i s t o a s s i s t RCIUM i n :  the s t r u c t u r i n g of the t e c h n i c a l hearings; (b) the d e f i n i t i o n  o f t h e t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t must be addressed by RCIUM; ( c ) t h e t e s t i n g of the evidence i n the t e c h n i c a l hearings; (d) the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , h i r i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f RCIUM w i t n e s s e s ; ( e ) t h e w r i t i n g .of t h e f i n a l report.  The t h r e e r e s e a r c h c o o r d i n a t o r s a r e :  (1)  Mr. R.A. Hodge who has a background i n e n g i n e e r i n g geology and groundwater;  (2)  Mr. R. C u l b e r t who has a background i n c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g and works f o r a c o n s u l t i n g f i r m ( T a l i s m a n P r o j e c t s ) i n Vancouver;  (3)  Ms. J . L e x i e r who has a background i n geol o g i c a l engineering.  2.  Librarian:  3.  Transcript indexers:  Technical The  Miss K e l t i e M c C a l l . Ms. M a r i l y n Kansky and Ms. K a r i n H a n s t a n t y n o w i c z .  Advisors  r o l e of the t e c h n i c a l advisors i s to give t e c h n i c a l advice t o the  research coordinators.  The s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and backgrounds o f  t h e 11 t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s a r e as f o l l o w s : Dr. B. M o r r i s o n : Dr. M o r r i s o n i s a cancer r e s e a r c h . i n the F a c u l t y of  low l e v e l r a d i a t i o n exposure. s t a t i s t i c i a n w i t h a background i n She i s a m e d i c a l d o c t o r and works M e d i c i n e a t UBC.  Mr. Frank E v e r a r d : m i l l i n g o f uranium. Mr. E v e r a r d has a background i n m i l l i n g and m e t a l l u r g y and has h i s own c o n s u l t i n g f i r m i n T o r o n t o . Dr. P e r v e z Umar: m i n i n g o f uranium. Dr. Umar i s a mining e n g i n e e r and has h i s own c o n s u l t i n g f i r m i n Toronto. Dr. L l o y d S k a r s g a r d : e f f e c t s on h e a l t h o f uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n . D r . S k a r s g a r d has a m e d i c a l background. Dr. J . M i l l e r : e f f e c t s on h e a l t h o f uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n . D r . M i l l e r has a background i n m e d i c a l g e n e t i c s .  139 Mr. C O . Brawner: uranium mine waste d i s p o s a l . Mr. Brawner e s t a b l i s h e d Golder A s s o c i a t e s , a geochemical engineering f i r m , and r e c e n t l y e n t e r e d the M i n i n g E n g i n e e r i n g Department a t UBC. Dr. UI.K. F l e t c h e r : geochemistry of uranium. Dr. F l e t c h e r i s a geochemist i n the Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s a t UBC. Dr. Ul.H. Matthews: p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s and impact o f uranium on the n a t u r a l environment. Dr. Matthews has a background i n e n g i n e e r i n g g e o l o g y , ground-water and e n v i r o n mental s t u d i e s ; he works i n the Department of G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s a t UBC. Dr. A . J . S i n c l a i r : geology and m i n e r a l o g y of uranium d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Dr. S i n c l a i r i s a g e o l o g i c a l engineer : w i t h a background i n m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s and g e o s t a t i s t i c s . He works i n the Department o f G e o l o g i c a l S c i e n c e s a t UBC. Mr. C T . H a t f i e l d and Mr. J . V i l l a m e r e o f H a t f i e l d C o n s u l t a n t s L i m i t e d . T h i s company, which s p e c i a l i z e s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p o l l u t i o n management, a s s i s t s i n the c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n of v a r i o u s w i t n e s s e s i n Phases I-VI of the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s . Dr. A r t h u r S c o t t : r a d i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n . Dr. S c o t t has a background i n n u c l e a r p h y s i c s and has h i s own c o n s u l t i n g f i r m i n Toronto. I n a d d i t i o n , RCIUM has a community r e l a t i o n s ' c o n s u l t a n t , Ms. Stairs. view).  Ms.  Stairs i s :  Sonia  " h a l f s t a f f , h a l f a d v i s o r " (Hodge 19B0d, i n t e r -  W h i l e her r o l e i n t h e community h e a r i n g s i s t o i n t e r v e n e between  t h e community p a r t i c i p a n t s and RCIUM, and t o thereby keep the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n f o r m e d o f RCIUM's a c t i v i t i e s ( S t a i r s 1979a, i n t e r v i e w ) , her r o l e i n the t e c h n i c a l hearings i s :  ( a ) to a s s i s t community p a r t i c i p a n t s through o r i e n -  t a t i o n to both the procedure and the i n f o r m a t i o n ; ( b ) to a d v i s e , t o some e x t e n t , on the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e and u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the communities ( S t a i r s 1979b, i n t e r v i e w ) . Ms.  S t a i r s , as a member of the  S e c r e t a r i a t of the Canadian C o u n c i l of Resources and Environment M i n i s t e r s , undertook t h e c o n c e p t u a l d e s i g n and i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g o f the Man s o u r c e C o n f e r e n c e Program.  and  Re-  She a l s o h e l p e d s e t up t h e Community R e l a t i o n s  Department and the i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l work groups o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y .  IkO  Administrative staff 1.  Executive secretary:  B r i g a d i e r G e n e r a l E.D. Danby ( r e t i r e d ) , whose  role i t i s : (a)  t o a c t as t h e Commissioner o f B a t h s ;  (b)  t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e e x h i b i t s ;  (c)  t o c o n t a c t p a r t i c i p a n t s , c e r t a i n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and e x p e r t w i t n e s s e s t o a r r a n g e f o r t h e i r appearance a t a s u i t a b l e t i m e and p l a c e ; and  (d)  t o supervise the a c t i v i t i e s of the r e s t of the s t a f f .  I n D r . B a t e s ' words:  " B r i g a d i e r G e n e r a l Danby . . . .  i s responsible  f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e work D f t h e Commnssion so t h a t i t i s done e f f i c i e n t l y and done w e l l . "  ( T P , 1, p. 5 ) . B r i g a d i e r G e n e r a l Danby has been r e -  sponsible f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  numerous commissions and i n q u i r i e s ,  i n c l u d i n g t h e R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y on P r o p e r t y Assessment and Taxation. 2.  Administrative assistant:  Mr. John E r b , whose r o l e i t i s t o a s s i s t  G e n e r a l Danby d u r i n g t h e p u b l i c s e s s i o n s .  I n G e n e r a l Danby's absence,  Mr. Erb a c t s as t h e Commissioner o f Oaths. 3.  Senior a d m i n i s t r a t o r :  M r s . L o r a e C h a r l t e n , an a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  personnel  manageress and c o o r d i n a t o r o f i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i n t h e RCIUM o f f i c e . <+.  C l e r i c a l workers.  APPENDIX 3 L i s t of w i t n e s s e s : community h e a r i n g s  142 Kelowna - June 5 and  6  Presentations  Witnesses  P l a c e r Development L t d . PNC  E x p l o r a t i o n (Canada) Co.  Mr. D. Ltd.  Howard  Mr. UJ. Bulmer, Mr. B. J e n k i n s , Mr. M. S u g i n o h a r a  Norcen Energy Resources L t d .  Mr. Ui.A. L o u c k s , Mr. D.A. Sawyer, Mr. J . N e v i l l e , Mr. P.G. S a g e r t  Vernon Branch of SPEC verbal presentation  Ms.  South Okanagan E n v i r o n m e n t a l Coalition  Mr. J . B e a t t i e , Mr. J . L e w i s , Mr. J.W. Warnock, Mr. C. Johnson  L. W a r r i n g t o n  Greenpeace (Okanagan) F o u n d a t i o n verbal presentation  Mr. P. Chataway  B r i t i s h Columbia C o n f e r e n c e The U n i t e d Church of Canada  Dr. T.R.  Anderson  I n t e r - C h u r c h Committee A n g l i c a n Church  Mrs. D.  Burnstill  South and E a s t Kelowna Okanagan M i s s i o n L o c a l of the B.C. F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n  Mr. M.  Irwin  South E a s t Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n District  Mr. R. Luxmoore  Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r N u c l e a r Responsibility - verbal presentation  Mr.  S t . P a u l ' s U n i t e d Church - Kelowna cerbal presentation  Mr. J . Oakes  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Machineists - verbal presentation  Mr. A.E.  Personal  Rev.  S.W.  Kelowna C h a p t e r of R e g i s t e r e d Nurses A s s o c . of B.C. verbal presentation  Mrs.  C.  J . Moelaert  Beaulier Rowles Fletcher  143 South Okanagan Similkameen Union Board of H e a l t h  Dr. D.A. C l a r k e Ms. E. C l a r k e  Canadian P u b l i c H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n  Mr. W.  McGrath  Personal  Mr. W.  Gilmour  Holy S p i r i t P a r i s h  Rev. J . Smith  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Hostess S e r v i c e verbal presentation  Mrs. J.R.  S i e r r a Club o f Western Canada Okanagan Group  Ms. K. Madsen  Union o f B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s verbal presentation  M i s s L. B a s i l , Mr. J . Rogers  Verbal presentation  Mr. W.A.  Summerland U n i t e d Church - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by B r i g . Gen. E.D. Danby  Ms. L.  Reinertson  Kelowna B u s i n e s s and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Club - read i n t o the r e c o r d by B r i g . Gen. E.D. Danby  Ms. M.  Fedison  Personal  Mr. F. Snouisell  P e r s o n a l - r e a d i n t o t h e r e c o r d by B r i g . Gen. E.D. Danby  Mr. D.  Cursons  Verbal presentation  Mr. A.  Proudfoot  C l e a r w a t e r - June B and  Donati  Gray  9  C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar M i n e r a l s & Chemicals L t d .  Mr. B. S w i t z e r , Mr. J . M i t c h e l l Mr. J . K e r r  B.C.  Dr. R.F.  Woollard  Personal  Dr. R.F.  Woollard  Upper N o r t h Thompson Livestock Association  Mr. W.H.  Sedgewick  B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour and U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s of America  Mr. K. Graham, Mr. E. S t e e l e  Yellowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n - Clearwater  Dr. R.E.  Medical Association  MacKenzie  N o r t h Thompson Chapter o f R e g i s t e r e d Nurses A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C.  Ms. H. MacKenzie  C l e a r w a t e r Secondary S c h o o l Students' C o u n c i l - v e r b a l presentation  Ms. G. Watson  Verbal presentation  Mr. L.W.  Verbal presentation  Mr. G. B r i g g s  Verbal presentation  S i s t e r Regina Jacek  Personal  Mrs. J . N i s t o r  Verbal presentation  Mr. UJ. MacLennan  Verbal presentation  Ms. H. MacLennan  Verbal presentation  Mr. K.D. S i m m e r l i n g  Verbal presentation  Dr. R.E. MacKenzie  P e r s o n a l - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by B r i g . Gen. E.D. Danby  Mr. and M r s . Voysey  P e r s o n a l - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by B r i g . Gen. E.D. Danby  Mr. D. Boudreau  Personal  Dr. C. Lam  Verbal presentation  Mr. G. B l i d o o k  Verbal presentation  Mr. L. B i s h o p  Personal  Mr. R. J a c k s o n  Sakals  Kamloops - June 11 Presentations  Witnesses  C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar M i n e r a l s & Chemicals L t d .  Mr. B. S w i t z e r , Mr. Mr. J . K e r r  Yellowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c . Kamloops  Mr. L. I s e r t , Mr. J,  N o r t h Shuswap E n v i r o n m e n t a l Committee  Mr. D. C h a r l t o n  Canadian Union o f P u b l i c Employees, L o c a l 90D  Mr. B. Ferguson Ms. M. B e n t l e y  B e a v e r d e l l Concerned C i t i z e n s  Mr. C. H o l l y  Committee f o r a C l e a n K e t t l e V a l l e y  Mr. li). P o o l e  D i o c e s e of Kootenay, A n g l i c a n Church  Rev. T. Mumford  Personal  Mr. R. R e x i n  Verbal presentation  Mr. A . J . D r k i n  Verbal presentation  Mr. F. Cromwell  H y d r o l o g i c a l Map - Norcen P r o p e r t y  Mr. J . N e v i l l e Mr. D.A. Sawyer  B r i t i s h Columbia C o n f e r e n c e U n i t e d Church of Canada  Dr. E.G.  Verbal presentation  Dr. C. L e v i t t  Personal  Ms. S. S t a i r s d e m o n s  Verbal presentation  Mrs. N. McGarvie  Personal  Mr. G. Dihm  Verbal presentation  Ms. L. T a y l o r  Rock Creek Women's I n s t i t u t e verbal presentation  Ms. M. Cannon  Miller  Grand F o r k s - June 2D and 21 Presentations  Witnesses  Chinook C o n s t r u c t i o n & E n g i n e e r i n g Limited  Mr. T. Schorn  Radiation Protection Service, M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h , Government o f B.C..  Dr. W.  Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club  Dr. L. O l s e n  Personal  Mr. B. Bloom  Committee f o r a C l e a n K e t t l e V a l l e y verbal presentation  Mr. D. White  Verbal presentation  Mr. J . K e l l y  Greene  146  P e r s o n a l - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by B r i g . Gen. E.D. Danby  Ms. C. F o s t e r  Mount P a u l U n i t e d Church  Rev. P. R o l s t o n  Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l  District  Mr. K. S i m m e r l i n g  Verbal presentation  Ms. J . Lee  Kamloops M e d i c a l S o c i e t y verbal presentation  Dr. C L . Webster  H o s p i t a l Employees U n i o n , L o c a l ISO  Mr. H.A. Theobald  Personal  Mr. L.P. Jensen  Personal  Mr. J.R. K e r r  Personal  Mr. L. I s e r t  B.C. Honey P r o d u c e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n verbal presentation  Mr. A.E. Hooper  Personal  Mr. P. J o n e s  Personal  Mr. P. Bamford  PROBE - BRITISH COLUMBIA  Mr. D. E l l s a y  C i t y o f Kamloops - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by D r . D.V. B a t e s  Mayor R.M. L a t t a  P e r s o n a l - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by B r i g . Gen. E.D. Danby  Ms. B.M.A. W h e a t c r o f t  Kamloops and D i s t r i c t Labour C o u n c i l verbal presentation  Mr. D. MacPherson  P e r s o n a l - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by Mr. K.M. W y l l i e  Mrs. J . J e n s e n  Rock Creek - June 18 and 19 Presentations  Witnesses  PNC E x p l o r a t i o n (Canada) Co. L t d ,  Mr. W. Bulmer  Norcen Energy Resources L t d .  Mr. J . N e v i l l e Mr. D.A. Sawyer  K e t t l e R i v e r Stockmen's A s s n .  Mr. W.H. P r i c e , Mr. J . Eek'; M r s . D. Bubar  Personal  Mr. D. P l a n e d i n  Boundary Environment and Outdoor C l u b  Mr. P. T c h i r  USCC Union o f Youth (Union o f S p i r i t u a l of C h r i s t )  Ms. L . P l o t n i k o f f Communities  Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n  Mr. N. Reynolds  Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n  Mr. S. B a s t i e n  Union o f S p i r i t u a l of C h r i s t  Mr. 111. K o o t n e k o f f  Communities  Personal  Mr. J . C a r s o n  Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n  Mr. K. G a r r i s o n  L a d i e s O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e USCC verbal presentation  Mrs. M. F o f o n o f f  Union o f S p i r i t u a l Communities o f C h r i s t Committee f o r J u s t i c e and Human R i g h t s - v e r b a l presentation  Mrs. I . M a l l o f f  Personal - read i n t o the record by Mr. R. Anthony  Dr. R. Walton  P e r s o n a l - read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by Mr. R. Anthony  Mr. D. Campbell  Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club - v e r b a l presentation  Dr. E. R i c e  C a s t l e g a r - June 21 and 22 Presentations  Witnesses  Stampede I n t e r n a t i o n a l Co.  Mr. E. Amendolagine  Kootenay P r e s b y t e r y o f t h e U n i t e d Church o f Canada  Rev. C. MacGuire  Religious Society of Friends Argenta  Mr. N. P o l s t e r  Personal  Mr. R. B r i s c o , MP Nelson/West Arm  for  Verbal presentation  Mr. E. Clough  Personal  Ms. C. G a s k i n  S l o c a n V a l l e y Resource S o c i e t y  Mrs. S. Lamare  G e n e l l e Concerned C i t i z e n s  Mr. T. MacKenzie  Verbal presentation  Mr. H. McGregor  Verbal presentation  Ms. D. Moore  T r i n i t y U n i t e d Church Women of C r e s t o n  Mrs. L.B.  Personal  Mr. 3. T e r r a l  Personal  Mr. D.  Personal  Mr. B. Carpendale  Personal  Ms. Joan Renold  P e r s o n a l - r e a d i n t o the r e c o r d by Mr. R. Banner  Mr. Ul. Schwartz  Personal  Ms. Penny Bonnett Ms. B.N. D a n i e l  Verbal presentation  Rev. T.  Verbal presentation  Mr.  Personal  Mr. D.  Pierce  Personal  Mr. G.  Rutley  Personal  Mr. Ul. Niemann  Personal  Mr. R. Banner  C i t y of C a s t l e g a r  Alderman B. G o d d e r i s  Personal  Mr. R.  Verbal presentation  Mr. K. Tucker  Beduz  Jack  Bristow  E. T a y l o r  Ploss  W i l l i a m s Lake - June 26 Witnesses  Presentations  Alderman M.M.  Personal P e r s o n a l - read i n t o the by Mr. G. L e t c h e r  record  Mr. E. Sager  P e r s o n a l - read i n t o the by Mr. G. L e t c h e r  record  Mr. G.  Hallaur  Eichel  Verbal presentation  Mr. R. Woods  T r o o p e r s of W i l l i a m s Lake verbal presentation  Mr. D.  Diether  T r o o p e r s of W i l l i a m s Lake verbal presentation  Ms. L.  Enquist  Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n verbal presentation  Mr. R.  Marining  Personal  Rev.  Verbal  Mr. G.  presentation  P.  Davis Rainey  Vanderhoof - June 27 Witnesses  Presentations B.C. C o u n c i l , C o n f e d e r a t i o n Canadian Unions  of  Verbal presentation Smithers Conservative  Centre  Vanderhoof E n v i r o n m e n t a l  Society  Mr. G.  Schlesinger  Mr. A.  Patrick  Ms.  Price  L.  Mr. B. Kanary  CAIMAW, L o c a l 10 verbal presentation  Mr. J . B e l l  Nechako V a l l e y R e g i o n a l Cattlemen's A s s o c i a t i o n  Mr. D. Weaver  S t u a r t Trembleur I n d i a n Band  Mr. C. Gregg  F o r t Nelson - J u l y 3 No  formal  presentations  Atlin - July k Presentations  Witnesses  Serapheim E n g i n e e r i n g verbal presentation  Mr. T. L y l e  P l a c e r Development verbal presentation  Mr. S. Tennant  Verbal  Mr. J . W a l l a c e  presentation  D.G. L e i g h t o n & A s s o c i a t e s verbal presentation  Mr. D.  Department o f Energy, Mines & Resources Government of Canada verbal presentation  Mr. B. B a l l a n t y n e  B.C. Energy C o a l i t i o n  Mr. D. Dobyns  A t l i n Community A s s o c i a t i o n  Mr. W. Merry  B.C. C o n f e r e n c e , U n i t e d o f Canada  Mrs. L.  Church  Culbert  Boyce  A t l i n Community A s s o c i a t i o n verbal presentation  Ms. A. W r i g h t  Verbal presentation  Mr. J . Davidson  Verbal  presentation  Mr. L. V e r l i n d e n  Verbal  presentation  Mrs. J . S p i r a  Personal - read i n t o the record by Mr. Ul. S p i r a  Mr. A. P a s s e r e l l , for A t l i n  Verbal presentation  Mr. B. Johnson  Personal - read i n t o the record by Ms. M. R i p p l e  Mr. J . F u l t o n , MP f o r Skeena  A t l i n D i s t r i c t Board of Trade read i n t o t h e r e c o r d by Mr. Anthony  Mr. H. Loken  Personal - read i n t o the record by Mr. Anthony  Mr. R. Yorke-Hardy  MLA  APPENDIX 4 V i s i t s t o uranium mines and d e p o s i t s  152 A.  V / i s i t s t D Uranium Mines  1-11 APRIL, LIMOGES, FRANCE Beny open p i t mine Fanay underground mine Health protection laboratory F i l l e d i n , r e v e g e t a t e d p i t mine Bessines m i l l B e s s i n e s t a i l i n g s pond w i t h s u r f a c e l e a c h i n g p i p e s Dr.  Chameaud's e x p e r i m e n t s on r a t s exposed t o radon gas 8-9 MAY, ELLIOT LAKE, ONTARIO  Q u i r k e Lake barium t r e a t m e n t p l a n t Quirke t a i l i n g s  disposal  Q u i r k e s i t e , r e v e g e t a t i o n experiment Q u i r k e Lake t a i l i n g s - d r y and wind blown Q u i r k e Lake t a i l i n g s dam w i t h experiment water t r e a t m e n t p l a n t Nordic t a i l i n g s , giving  acid  Q u i r k e Lake s e t t l i n g ponds below t a i l i n g s Ik MAY, MIDNITE MINE, WASHINGTON M i d n i t e mine open p i t Newly c o n s t r u c t e d pond t o c o n t a i n seepage from p i t Seepage w a t e r s from open p i t T a i l i n g s pond w i t h saw m i l l waste b e i n g used t o c o v e r  tailings  Dyke a t open p i t M i l l t a i l i n g s wind blown m a t e r i a l Open p i t o f f i c e  buildings  Seepage from p i t :  r a d i o a c t i v e calcium sulphate ( ? ) white p r e c i p i t a t e  153 15 MAY,  SHERWOOD MIME, WASHINGTON  Sherwood mine open p i t Sherwood mine m i l l R e s e r v o i r below open p i t B e r n s t o p r e v e n t water washing down t o t h e r e s e r v o i r Ore b i n Barium s u l p h a t e (BaSO^) s e t t l i n g pond f o r h e a t i n g  effluent  T a i l i n g s pond Seepage from BaSO^ t r e a t m e n t pond g o i n g underground Seepage from BaSO^ p r e c i p i t a t i o n pond re-emerging i n g u l l y above main highway  17 MAY,  SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH  V i t r o p l a n t , S a l t Lake C i t y t a i l i n g s p i l e S a l t Lake C i t y V i t r o s i t e Farming a d j a c e n t t o V i t r o s i t e Vitro plant, partly  revegetated  B. V i s i t s t o Uranium D e p o s i t s k June - B l i z z a r d , Fuko, L a s s i e L a k e , Donen and H y d r a u l i c Lake d e p o s i t s i n t h e e a s t Okanagan of c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia B June - B i r c h I s l a n d d e p o s i t on t h e s o u t h s l o p e o f t h e N o r t h Thompson V a l l e y , 100 km. n o r t h of Kamloops 19 June - B e a v e r d e l l d e p o s i t , s o u t h - e a s t o f Kelowna 20 June - Boundary d e p o s i t , near Grand F o r k s 21 June - C h i n a Creek d e p o s i t , near C a s t l e g a r 27 June - Nechako R i v e r d e p o s i t , near Vanderhoof 5 J u l y - S u r p r i s e Lake and Ruby Creek d e p o s i t s ,  n o r t h e a s t of A t l i n  (Commission s t a f f t i m e t a b l e , J u n e - J u l y 1979).  APPENDIX 5 F i r s t I n t e r i m Report on Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n  155 ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FIRST INTERIM REPORT ON URANIUM EXPLORATION August 15, 1979. I.  INTRODUCTION  1. The Commissioners have now v i s i t e d t h e major s i t e s o f uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and have completed a p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r i s k s t o t h e environment and t o t h e p u b l i c which t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s might cause. We have come t o the p o s i t i o n t h a t the p r e s e n t methods o f c o n t r o l of e x p l o r a t i o n f a r uranium a r e n o t y e t adequate t o ensure p r o p e r p r o t e c t i o n Df t h e p u b l i c and t h e environment, having a t t h i s time i n mind t h e e x i s t i n g r a d i a t i o n s t a n d a r d s s e t by t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 2. The purpose o f t h i s FIRST INTERIM REPORT i s t o d e t a i l t h i s e v a l u a t i o n and t o recommend changes i n t h e e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and e n f o r c e ment p r o c e d u r e s . We w i s h t o s t r e s s t h a t our p r e s e n t c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations a r e o n l y p r e l i m i n a r y , and may.be m o d i f i e d o r expanded a f t e r we have heard t h e evidence p r e s e n t e d t o us a t t h e H e a r i n g s due t o be h e l d i n t h e F a l l o f 1979 and S p r i n g o f I960. II.  QUESTION OF A TOTAL MORATORIUM ON EXPLORATION  3. To d a t e , our c o n s i d e r a t i o n Df uranium e x p l o r a t i o n has been l i m i t e d to a s t u d y o f i t s impact on t h e environment, and o f p o s s i b l e h e a l t h hazards t o e x p l o r a t i o n crews and t o t h e p u b l i c . 4. The P u b l i c H e a r i n g s we have conducted so f a r have i n d i c a t e d t o us t h a t some members o f t h e p u b l i c b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e a r e e t h i c a l grounds which a r e s t r o n g l y h e l d , f o r a t o t a l p r o h i b i t i o n o f uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . We have planned s p e c i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s e a r l y i n 1980 and w i s h t o make i t c l e a r t h a t t h e recommendations i n t h i s Report are those which we f e e l t o be n e c e s s a r y a t t h i s p o i n t o f t i m e , viewed from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f p u b l i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n . We a r e not yet prepared t o i n d i c a t e our p o s i t i o n on t h e e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s which a r e i n v o l v e d , though we a n t i c i p a t e making a comment on t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s we have been asked t o c o n s i d e r when our F i n a l Report i s s u b m i t t e d . 5. I t may be argued by some t h a t o u r u n w i l l i n g n e s s a t t h i s p o i n t t o recommend a t o t a l ban on e x p l o r a t i o n f o r uranium r e p r e s e n t s a t a c i t consent t o t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f any o r e f o u n d , and i t s l a t e r u t i l i z a t i o n f o r n u c l e a r energy; t h i s does n o t f o l l o w . III.  ADDITIONAL REASONS FOR INTERIM REPORT  6. The Atomic Energy C o n t r o l Board o f Canada has r e c e n t l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e i t w i l l not be l i c e n s i n g uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , u n l e s s t h i s i n v o l v e s removal o f more than t e n k i l o g r a m s o f uranium o r t h o r i u m from  156 any one d e p o s i t i n any one c a l e n d a r y e a r . (See Appendix I ) . I n our view t h i s makes i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o accept t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o l i c e n s e uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , and i t i s now e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government should move e x p e d i t i o u s l y t o control this a c t i v i t y . 7. A f u r t h e r reason f o r s u b m i t t i n g t h i s I n t e r i m Report i s t h a t we have been made aware i n p u b l i c t e s t i m o n y o f some h a r d s h i p , f o r example, e x t r a c o s t s t o i n d i v i d u a l p r o s p e c t o r s , c u r r e n t l y being caused by unc e r t a i n t y c o n c e r n i n g f u t u r e p o l i c y i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n r e l a t i o n t o uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . IV.  SPECIAL HAZARDS FROM URANIUM EXPLORATION ACTIVITY  8. I t has become c l e a r t o us t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l R e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g e x p l o r a t i o n were o r i g i n a l l y d r a f t e d w i t h a view t o g e n e r a l c o a l and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n and were not concerned w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e s p e c i a l hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . 9. Uranium e x p l o r a t i o n r a i s e s ' p a r t i c u l a r problems from t h r e e p o i n t s of view. F i r s t l y , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f water by m a t e r i a l r e l e a s e d as a r e s u l t o f e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y ; s e c o n d l y , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of radon gas and i t s d a u g h t e r s being e m i t t e d from exposed r a d i o a c t i v e s o u r c e s ; and t h i r d l y , t h e importance o f some s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n methods needed f o r employees. 10. An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e main s i t e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n f o r uranium i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e v e a l s t h a t t h e p o s s i b l e hazards o c c a s i o n e d by t h i s a c t i v i t y vary g r e a t l y i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , p a r t l y because t h e n a t u r a l l e v e l s o f r a d i o a c t i v i t y a r e d i f f e r e n t , but more p a r t i c u l a r l y because t h e l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s are f a r from u n i f o r m . We wish t o s t r e s s t h a t some of t h e p u b l i c f e a r s expressed t o us i n t e s t i m o n y i n r e l a t i o n s t o t h e p o s s i b l e hazards r e s u l t i n g from d r i l l i n g f o r uranium do not, i n our o p i n i o n , c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t r i s k . Some members of t h e p u b l i c have been l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t a s i n g l e d r i l l h o l e some m i l e s from t h e nearest h a b i t a t i o n c o u l d p r e s e n t a hazard by v i r t u e of t h e l e a k a g e i n t o t h e general- atmosphere o f gas c o n t a i n i n g radon and i t s d a u g h t e r s . Such a p o s s i b i l i t y i s unsupported by d a t a , and t h e p h y s i c s of gas d i s p e r s i o n and d i l u t i o n make i t e x c e e d i n g l y u n l i k e l y t h a t any enhanced r i s k c o u l d r e s u l t from such l i m i t e d e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y . However, a more e x t e n s i v e program i n c l u d i n g l a r g e numbers of d r i l l holes i n a known r a d i o a c t i v e d e p o s i t , c o u l d pose a h a z a r d t o nearby h a b i t a t i o n u n l e s s t h e s e h o l e s were promptly c l o s e d . 11. A p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d , i n our o p i n i o n , i s t h a t d r i l l h o l e s w i l l d i s r u p t t h e p a t t e r n o f groundwater f l o w c a u s i n g a c o m p o s i t i o n a l change i n the water and l e a d i n g t o c o n t a m i n a t i o n of a water supply p r e v i o u s l y unaffected. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s e d uranium c o n t e n t , o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s such as radium 226 o r t o x i c heavy metals a s s o c i a t e d w i t h uranium d e p o s i t s , makes t h e problem p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t . The contaminated water might be used f o r p u b l i c d r i n k i n g purposes, or i r r i g a t i o n , or f o r t h e watering o f l i v e s t o c k .  157 V.  PRESENT SITUATION  12. hie have noted examples where the hazards of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n are i l l u s t r a t e d . At the B/D d e p o s i t of C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar Mines ( B i r c h I s l a n d ) , broken r a d i o a c t i v e rock i s d i s t r i b u t e d downwards i n t o Foghorn C r e e k . At C h i n a Creek near C a s t l e g a r , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t a m i n a t i o n of the creek which s u p p l i e s the water to the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n of G e n e l l e from e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y on both s i d e s of the c r e e k . S o u t h e a s t of Kelowna i n the H y d r a u l i c Lake area the problem i s t h a t of p o s s i b l e f u t u r e waterborne r a d i o n u c l i d e or uranium a f f e c t i n g the S o u t h e a s t Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t . Another problem e x i s t s at Eneas Creek west of Summerland, where uranium i n the creek water at the p r e s e n t t i m e appears t o be n a t u r a l l y i n excess of t h e proposed p u b l i c d r i n k i n g water s t a n d a r d (20 ppb u r a n i u m ) . A r e c e n t i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of e x p l o r a t i o n and d r i l l i n g i n t h i s a r e a might have the e f f e c t of f u r t h e r i n c r e a s i n g the uranium c o n t e n t i n t h i s and o t h e r c r e e k s . VI.  PROBLEM OF COMMUNICATION  13. I t has been brought t o our a t t e n t i o n at a number of the P u b l i c H e a r i n g s we have so f a r conducted, t h a t t h e r e have been d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h communication between a l l l e v e l s i n v o l v e d i n uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . Not o n l y has the p u b l i c found i t d i f f i c u l t to get i n f o r m a t i o n t o which one would have supposed i t was c l e a r l y e n t i t l e d , such as e x p l o r a t i o n programmes, s a f e t y measures, e t c . , but the e x t e n t of i n f o r m a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d t o l o c a l h e a l t h o f f i c e r s seems to have been e x c e e d i n g l y v a r i a b l e ; the communication between m i n i n g i n s p e c t o r s and h e a l t h o f f i c e r s and t h e p u b l i c seems t o have been d e f i c i e n t ; the communication between the e x p l o r a t i o n companies and the p u b l i c has been v a r i a b l e and i n some i n s t a n c e s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; and the Atomic Energy C o n t r o l B o a r d , which has been i s s u i n g l i c e n s e s f o r uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , seems to have been too d i s t a n t from the problems i n the a r e a to have p r o v i d e d an e f f e c t i v e s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n . 14. The p u b l i c t e s t i m o n y t h a t we have heard has p r o v i d e d us w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of e v i d e n c e of t h e f r u s t r a t i o n encountered by concerned members of the p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c i a n s ^ m i n i s t e r s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of c a t t l e m e n , f r u i t growers or o t h e r food p r o d u c e r s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t an improvement of t h i s a s p e c t of the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n should be a p r i o r i t y . VII.  PRESENT LEGISLATION  15. The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s so r e c e n t t h a t proper i n f o r m a t i o n c h a n n e l s have not y e t been d e v e l o p e d , and the e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s c o v e r i n g e x p l o r a t i o n have not been amended to take s p e c i f i c account o f the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h uranium e x p l o r a t i o n .  158  16. UJe note t h a t i n the p r e s e n t Mines R e g u l a t i o n A c t , the d e f i n i t i o n of "mine" i n S e c t i o n 2 means "any underground, o p e n - p i t , or q u a r r y w o r k i n g , o r o t h e r w o r k i n g of the ground, f o r the purpose o f p r o s p e c t i n g , m i n i n g , opening up, d e v e l o p i n g , or p r o v i n g any>mineral or m i n e r a l - b e a r i n g substance . • . ." L a t e r i n S e c t i o n 11, s u b s e c t i o n 18, t h e r e o c c u r s the paragraph " N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s s e c t i o n i n r e s p e c t of a l l p l a c e r mining o p e r a t i o n s o t h e r than h y d r a u l i c m o n i t o r i n g , and i n r e s p e c t of a l l mines i n the e x p l o r a t i o n s t a g e , the C h i e f I n s p e c t o r has the same power and a u t h o r i t y t h a t i s g r a n t e d t o any person, except the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , under t h i s s e c t i o n , where the employment of m e c h a n i c a l equipment i s l i k e l y t o d i s t u r b the s u r f a c e of the l a n d i n c l e a r i n g , s t r i p p i n g , t r e n c h i n g , or such o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s as t h e C h i e f I n s p e c t o r may c o n s i d e r l i k e l y t o cause s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t u r b a n c e D f the s u r f a c e o f t h e l a n d , and he may approve programmes f o r r e c l a m a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n of the l a n d s u r f a c e and i s s u e p e r m i t s r e q u i r e d under t h i s s e c t i o n , s u b j e c t t o such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as he may p r e s c r i b e . " 17. UJe i n t e r p r e t t h e s e s e c t i o n s as c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e C h i e f I n s p e c t o r of Mines has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y over e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . I t seems c l e a r t h a t he has power t o r e q u i r e a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o e x p l o r a t i o n , or a c t i o n s which should be taken i n advance of e x p l o r a t i o n ; but i t appears to us t h a t up to t h i s p o i n t i n time these powers have not been w i d e l y used. For example, they would i n our view have empowered the C h i e f I n s p e c t o r t o d e s i g n a t e what b a s e l i n e s t u d i e s o f water o r a i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d be made on a g i v e n s i t e b e f o r e any e x p l o r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g d e t a i l e d d r i l l i n g or t r e n c h i n g on a l a r g e s c a l e had been p e r m i t t e d . UJe have not found e v i d e n c e t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n has been used f o r t h i s purpose, though i n our view i n some i n s t a n c e s i t c l e a r l y should have been. 18. The wording of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act seems to us t o b r i n g c o n t a m i n a t i o n of water w i t h uranium or w i t h r a d i o n u c l i d e s , and a i r w i t h radon d a u g h t e r s c l e a r l y w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of " p o l l u t i o n " . However we have not found e v i d e n c e t h a t the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch t o t h i s p o i n t has been i n v o l v e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n or survey of problems t h a t might be caused by c u r r e n t uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . The l i c e n s e s p r e v i o u s l y i s s u e d by the Atomic Energy C o n t r o l Board r e q u i r e d the e x p l o r a t i o n company t o s t a t e what h e a l t h and s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s i t had made i n r e l a t i o n to i t s a c t i v i t i e s , arid what p r e c a u t i o n s i t was t a k i n g t o p r o t e c t the environment. The u n d e r t a k i n g s w h i c h were g i v e n t o the Atomic Energy C o n t r o l Board by i n d i v i d u a l companies under t h i s s e c t i o n do not appear t o have been g e n e r a l l y known by the D i s t r i c t M i n i n g I n s p e c t o r s , a l t h o u g h these i n d i v i d u a l s have presumably been r e s p o n s i b l e f a r checking whether or not t h e s e commitments were being discharged. VIII.  TYPES OF EXPLORATION  19. M i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n v o l v e s t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s designed t o l o c a t e m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s and e v a l u a t e t h e i r economic p o t e n t i a l . I n o r d e r to d e s c r i b e what s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n t o c o n t r o l uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , i t i s h e l p f u l t o view t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n an o r d e r l y framework. C o n s e q u e n t l y , we have adopted the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e f o r those a c t i v i t i e s which f o l l o w the i n c e p t i o n and d e s i g n of an e x p l o r a t i o n program.  159 LEVEL DIME - REGIONAL EXPLORATION 20. T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e c o m p i l a t i o n and assesment o f e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f e x p l o r a t i o n d a t a o f a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e n a t u r e i n c l u d ing : (a) (b) (c) (d)  A i r b o r n e and ground g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y s G e o l o g i c a l mapping Sediment, s o i l and mater sampling Radon d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  LEVEL TUP - DETAILED GROUND EXPLORATION 21. E x p l o r a t i o n procedures a t t h i s l e v e l a r e designed t o thoroughly e v a l u a t e l o c a l areas o f i n t e r e s t . Common a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e : (a) (b) (c)  D e t a i l e d ground g e o p h y s i c a l and g e o c h e m i c a l s u r v e y s o f t e n r e q u i r i n g l i n e c u t t i n g i n forested areas. Road b u i l d i n g , t r e n c h i n g ( i n c l u d i n g b l a s t i n g ) and s t r i p p i n g . Diamond and/or p e r c u s s i o n d r i l l i n g .  LEVEL THREE - DETAILED SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION 22. D e t a i l e d s u b s u r f a c e e x p l o r a t i o n p r o v i d e s a thorough i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l p r o d u c t i o n . In practice i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n where L e v e l Two ends and L e v e l Three begins. A c t i v i t i e s a t t h i s l e v e l i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (a) (b)  S y s t e m a t i c d r i l l i n g and sampling E x c a v a t i o n o f l a r g e s u r f a c e p i t s and/or d r i v i n g e x p l o r a t o r y a d i t s and s h a f t s .  23. Ground a c q u i s i t i o n by c l a i m s t a k i n g o r purchase n o r m a l l y w i t h t h e o n s e t o f L e v e l Two. IX.  coincides  GUIDELINES FDR URANIUM EXPLORATION  24. E x p l o r a t i o n s u r v e y s and a n c i l l a r y p h y s i c a l work can be c l a s s i f i e d as d i s r u p t i v e o r n o n - d i s r u p t i v e o f t h e p h y s i c a l environment. There should n o r m a l l y be l i t t l e o r no s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e l a n d s u r f a c e up t o and i n c l u d i n g L e v e l Two a c t i v i t y ( a ) . Ue a r e t h e r e f o r e most concerned w i t h t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r r i n g i n L e v e l s Two and Three t h a t can r e s u l t i n p h y s i c a l and/or c h e m i c a l c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n ment. The g e n e r a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these a c t i v i t i e s a r e common t o e x p l o r a t i o n f o r a l l n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s , b u t i n t h e case o f uranium t h e r e i s t h e added p o s s i b i l i t y o f problems a r i s i n g from uranium and t h e r a d i o a c t i v i t y o f i t s decay p r o d u c t s . 25. I n s o f a r as s p e c i a l hazards a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , we wish t o suggest t h a t the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s be used t o supplement the p r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , some o f which are c o n t a i n e d i n " G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o a l and M i n e r a l E x p l o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , 1978).  160 ROAD BUILDING 26. Removal o f cover m a t e r i a l d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f access r o a d s t o uranium e x p l o r a t i o n s i t e s may r e s u l t i n exposure of r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , such roads should be s u r v e y e d r a d i o m e t r i c a l l y and r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d t o the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r as soon as i s f e a s i b l e . Where p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous r a d i o a c t i v i t y i s r e c o g n i z e d , the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r may r e q u i r e b u r i a l , r e d e s i g n or r e l o c a t i o n . STRIPPING, TRENCHING AND  TEST PITTING ( i n c l u d i n g B l a s t i n g )  27. S t r i p p i n g , t r e n c h i n g and t e s t p i t t i n g l e a d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y of exposing h i g h grade uranium c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , i n c r e a s i n g the r a t e of radon e m i s s i o n , producing d e b r i s p i l e s s u b j e c t to new c o n d i t i o n s of e r o s i o n , and a l t e r i n g the s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e regime. A l l t h e s e problems can be avoided o r minimized by s t r i c t adherence to the G u i d e l i n e s f o r C l e a r i n g , S t r i p p i n g and T r e n c h i n g and o t h e r r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s on R e c l a m a t i o n and R e v e g e t a t i o n i n " G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o a l and M i n e r a l E x p l o r a t i o n " (B.C. M i n i s t r y of Mines and Petroleum R e s o u r c e s , 1978) uiith the added p r o v i s i o n s t h a t excavated overburden s h o u l d be s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o l e v e l of r a d i o a c t i v i t y . I n b a c k f i l l i n g the most r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s h o u l d then be r e p l a c e d f i r s t . F o l l o w i n g r e c l a m a t i o n , a s c i n t i l l o m e t e r s u r v e y should be u n d e r t a k e n t o ensure t h a t r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s do not s i g n i f i c a n t l y exceed those p r e s e n t p r i o r t o the d i s t u r b a n c e . DRILLING 28. Water f l o w i n g i n d r i l l h o l e s may l e a d to c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y uncontaminated s u r f a c e or groundwaters. T h e r e f o r e , a l l d r i l l h o l e s not approved by the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r f o r m o n i t o r i n g purposes must be f i l l e d t o depth w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e s e a l i n g m a t e r i a l . The s e a l i n g procedure must be a c c e p t a b l e t o the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r . A d d i t i o n a l c o n t a m i n a t i o n may a r i s e from d r i l l i n g muds, s l u d g e and unused c u t t i n g s . To m i n i m i z e the d i s p e r s a l of these m a t e r i a l s a sump tank i n an exc a v a t i o n s h a l l be used f o r t h e i r c o n t a i n m e n t . On c o m p l e t i o n o f d r i l l i n g , such m a t e r i a l s s h a l l be covered by overburden t o a depth of a t l e a s t one meter or more as d i r e c t e d by the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r . An e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o reuse d r i l l i n g mud from one d r i l l s i t e to a n o t h e r . 29. On the c o m p l e t i o n of d r i l l i n g , the s i t e s h o u l d be r e c l a i m e d as s p e c i f i e d i n " G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o a l and M i n e r a l E x p l o r a t i o n " (B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , 1978) and checked by a f i n a l s c i n t i l l o m e t e r survey t o v e r i f y t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n l e v e l s of r a d i o a c t i v i t y have o c c u r r e d . 30. Upon c o m p l e t i o n of a d r i l l h o l e , t h e l o c a t i o n , d a t e , and name of the e x p l o r a t i o n company must be posted at the d r i l l h o l e s i t e i n a permanent manner analogous t o a c l a i m p o s t .  161 31. I n cases o f d e t a i l e d d r i l l i n g programs c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o L e v e l Three - " D e t a i l e d S u b s u r f a c e E x p l o r a t i o n " a m o n i t o r i n g program s h a l l be i n s t i t u t e d as f o l l o w s : (a)  (b) (c)  Samples o f s u r f a c e w a t e r s a r e t o be taken b e f o r e and d u r i n g d e t a i l e d s u b s u r f a c e e x p l o r a t i o n . These must be a n a l y z e d f o r uranium and o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s as r e q u i r e d by t h e I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r . Groundwater should be a n a l y z e d f o r uranium and o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n t s and f l o w system c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A i r samples should be t a k e n f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f radon concentrations.  ADITS AMD SHAFTS 32. A d i t s and S h a f t s a r e n o r m a l l y d r i v e n as a means of d i r e c t i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f bulk s a m p l i n g o f m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s . I n our o p i n i o n , t h e hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c o r r e s p o n d more c l o s e l y t o those encountered i n underground m i n i n g 0;f uranium than i n s u r f a c e exp l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s c u r r e n t l y taking place i n B r i t i s h Columbia. For t h i s r e a s o n , we recommend a moratorium on t h e d r i v i n g o f e x p l o r a t o r y a d i t s and s h a f t s a t s i t e s o f uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s moratorium should be c o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g moratorium on uranium m i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. SAMPLE AMD CORE STORAGE 33. Many o f t h e e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y g i v e r i s e t o a v a r i e t y o f samples i n c l u d i n g d r i l l c o r e , r e q u i r i n g s t o r a g e p r i o r t o e x a m i n a t i o n and/or a n a l y s i s . Much of t h e more h i g h l y r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l encountered i n an e x p l o r a t i o n program w i l l be r e p r e s e n t e d i n such samples. I t f o l l o w s t h a t sample s t o r a g e must be undertaken i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n , e i t h e r on s i t e o r a t some o t h e r s i t e agreed t o by the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r , b u t i n premises t o which o n l y a u t h o r i z e d p e r s o n n e l have a c c e s s . These p r e m i s e s should be c l e a r l y p o s t e d , w e l l v e n t i l a t e d t o a v o i d a c c u m u l a t i o n o f radon d a u g h t e r s , and m o n i t o r e d f o r l e v e l s o f radon and gamma r a d i a t i o n . A d e t a i l e d r e c o r d o f samples s h i p p e d must be m a i n t a i n e d . X.  RECOMMEMDATIOMS  34. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o t h e Commission, we recommend: R-l.  That t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d i n s t i t u t e a l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r uranium e x p l o r a t i o n .  R-2.  That t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d p r o h i b i t t h e d r i v i n g of e x p l o r a t o r y a d i t s and s h a f t s a t s i t e s o f uranium exploration.  R.3  That s t r i c t g u i d e l i n e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t r o l of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n be i n t r o d u c e d as p a r t o f t h e l i c e n s i n g process.  162 R-4.  That c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n t o t r a n s f e r r i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s u r v e i l l a n c e of e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia from the D i s t r i c t Mines I n s p e c t o r t o the D i s t r i c t G e o l o g i s t . The D i s t r i c t G e o l o g i s t s h o u l d be g i v e n such s t a f f as i s r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y out the s u r v e i l l a n c e program i n h i s r e g i o n , h a v i n g regard t o t h e e x t e n t of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n w i t h i n i t , and he should a l s o be r e q u i r e d t o be t h e main and p u b l i c i z e d s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n i n the l o c a l i t y on a l l m a t t e r s concerned w i t h uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n should i n c l u d e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n on e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , on t h e l e v e l of r a d i o a c t i v i t y around i n d i v i d u a l d r i l l s i t e s , and on t h e s t a t u s of r e c l a m a t i o n on e x p l o r a t i o n s i t e s . I n oarpiview, t h e D i s t r i c t G e o l o g i s t i s w e l l equipped t o s u p e r v i s e l o c a l s u r f a c e e x p l o r a t i o n a c t i v i t y . He has d e t a i l e d knowl e d g e of the geology of the r e g i o n , he i s very i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e s u l t s o f d r i l l i n g programs, he has means of a c c e s s t o any l o c a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n , and he i s equipped t o make the measurements of s u r f a c e r a d i o a c t i v i t y which would be r e q u i r e d . L i a i s o n between the D i s t r i c t Mines I n s p e c t o r and the D i s t r i c t G e o l o g i s t s h o u l d be s i m p l e s i n c e i n g e n e r a l they occupy a d j a c e n t o f f i c e s .  R-5.  That d o s i m e t e r s should be worn by e x p l o r a t i o n s t a f f f o r at l e a s t a month DO any s p e c i f i c d r i l l i n g p r o j e c t , but a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r t h e wearing of d o s i m e t e r s c o u l d be d i s c o n t i n u e d . W i t h most s u r f a c e work t h e r e seems t o be l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s of r a d i a t i o n exposure e i t h e r from gamma s o u r c e s o r i n h a l a t i o n of radon gas and i t s d a u g h t e r s would be l i k e l y .  R-6.  That i n f o r m a t i o n on l e v e l s of r a d i o a c t i v i t y r e c o r d e d a t d r i l l s i t e s or from s u r f a c e rock or c o r e s t o r a g e a r e a s s h o u l d be r o u t i n e l y s e n t by the D i s t r i c t G e o l o g i s t t o the l o c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r and the R e g i o n a l Manager of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B r a n c h , so t h a t both of t h o s e o f f i c i a l s and the p u b l i c are f u l l y i n f o r m e d of the p r e s e n t s t a t u s of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t .  R-7.  That where r a d i o a c t i v e c o r e s are being s t o r e d on the s i t e , unr e s t r i c t e d p u b l i c access t o these s h o u l d not be p o s s i b l e , and t h a t t h e r e be proper p r o t e c t i o n f o r members of the d r i l l i n g crew who would have access to the s t o r a g e a r e a . T h i s a r e a must be w e l l v e n t i l a t e d and measurements of radon gas c o n c e n t r a t i o n s h o u l d be made p e r i o d i c a l l y i f workers are to be employed i n t h e immediate l o c a t i o n of such c o r e samples. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n s u r i n g worker p r o t e c t i o n on the s i t e s h o u l d be shared w i t h t h e l o c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch a f t e r n o t i f i c a t i o n by the I n s p e c t i n g O f f i c e r t h a t r a d i o a c t i v e c o r e s were p r e s e n t i n the a r e a .  163 R-B.  That t h e r e be a p u b l i c warning d i s p l a y e d a t p l a c e s where o u t c r o p s of rock are s p e c i a l l y r a d i o a c t i v e . During the c o u r s e of our v i s i t s t o the main s i t e s of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, we have had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e readi n g s of r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s a t rock s u r f a c e s ( t a b u l a t e d i n Append i x I I ) . I n two i n s t a n c e s the r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s seemed t o us t o be high enough t o r e q u i r e some s p e c i a l a c t i o n . ( a ) The r a d i a t i o n count a t the s u r f a c e of the Fuko d e p o s i t , i n the upper K e t t l e R i v e r watershed, which i s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t to a p u b l i c r o a d , i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 microrems per hour or about 500 times the average n a t u r a l background. I t would seem t o us t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s exposed rock s h o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e a p u b l i c warning n o t i c e which would i n d i c a t e the n a t u r e of the d e p o s i t , w i t h p o s s i b l y the f o l l o w i n g wording: DANGER HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE ROCK IN THIS AREA  We suggest t h a t t h i s n o t i c e c o u l d be p a s t e d on the a u t h o r i t y of the l o c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r . (b) S i m i l a r h i g h count r a t e s were noted a t the rock f a c e of t h e B/D d e p o s i t above B i r c h I s l a n d on the C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar c l a i m s . T h i s i s a l s o a d j a c e n t to a l o g g i n g road t o which the p u b l i c has u n r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s , and a s i m i l a r n o t i c e should be posted i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The o t h e r d a t a i n Appendix I I i n d i c a t e t h a t some m a t e r i a l a d j a c e n t t o d r i l l h o l e s has a count r a t e of up t o 200 and 500 microrems per hour. At t h e s e s i t e s the s p e c i a l p r e c a u t i o n s we have i n d i c a t e d i n S e c t i o n IX would e l i m i n a t e any s i g n i f i c a n t h a z a r d . R-9.  We recommend the development of a p r o v i n c e - w i d e r a d i a t i o n o b s e r v a t i o n network. T h i s i s n e c e s s i t a t e d by the c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n n a t u r a l r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s . Lde a n t i c i p a t e making a more d e t a i l e d recommendation on t h i s m a t t e r i n our F i n a l Report. XI.  CONCLUSIONS  35. A f t e r v i s i t i n g the e x i s t i n g s i t e s of uranium e x p l o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, we have c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i s s t i l l u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . We c o n c l u d e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y needed f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n to be r e c t i f i e d , but have recommended a change i n i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h the i n v o l v e ment i n the l o c a l i t y of the l o c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the p r o t e c t i o n of water r e s o u r c e s or t h e p r o t e c t i o n of p u b l i c h e a l t h . We b e l i e v e at t h i s time t h a t t h e s e recommendations, i f implemented, would e l i m i n a t e the possi b i l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c hazard from uranium e x p l o r a t i o n . We a l s o recommend t h a t the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d i n i t i a t e a l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r uranium e x p l o r a t i o n , and p r o h i b i t the d r i v i n g o f a d i t s and s h a f t s i n e x p l o r a t i o n areas a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . ?  164 36. UJe w i s h t o emphasize a g a i n t h a t t h i s I n t e r i m Report on Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n does not p r e c l u d e our making o t h e r o r more d e t a i l e d recommendations on these m a t t e r s i n our F i n a l R e p o r t . The s e r i e s of T e c h n i c a l H e a r i n g s s c h e d u l e d t o s t a r t i n September 1979, may l e a d us t o modify these recommendations, but we wish t o b r i n g them t o the a t t e n t i o n of the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia at t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a g e of f o r m u l a t i o n .  Appendix I I I n t e r i m Report on Uranium E x p l o r a t i o n dated August 15, 1979  (Readings o f R a d i a t i o n L e v e l s a t Rock S u r f a c e s and M a t e r i a l Adjacent t o D r i l l H o l e s  SITE  DATE  LOCATION DETAIL  SCINTILLOMETER MICROREM/HOUR  SOUND/MINUTE  MANNING PARK  A l p i n e Meadows  2-3  c 90  3 June  VANCOUVER  P o i n t Grey  2-3  c 90 - 100  4 June  BLIZZARD (Norcen)  Top o f B a s a l t dome Stream N.W. edge Cores  2-3  Core Storage Road g r a v e l on way t o FUKO Central surface Above D e p o s i t  6 20 - 25 800 - 1000 15 - 20  BIRCH ISLAND ( C o n s o l i d a t e d Rexspar)  B Zone - g e n e r a l over d r i l l h o l e 30 y a r d s up h i l l Road t o A s i t e A Zone - g e n e r a l over d r i l l h o l e B-D Zone rock f a c e Rock i n t o Foghorn Creek Abandoned core hut  100 120 25 18 25 20 1000 200 40 - 80  18 June  PENTICTON ( P a c i f i c Petroleum)  Apex Road (Potassium r a d i o a c t i v i t y ) Outcrops F a r l e i g h Lake Pink c o u t c r o p on bank  40 25 25 40  20 June  GRAND FORKS BOUNDARY SHOWING (Chinook C o n s t r u c t i o n )  Showing No. 2 B o r e h o l d PH78C25 Country rock KIWI d r i l l s i t e cuttings  12 200 35 10 25  23 June  4 June  DONEN (PNC) FUKU OUTCROP  8 June  ^ : ?Bo  - 15 - 500 - 15 - 32  icn  1  N a t u r a l outcrop Road t o c a b i n Snowball Creek Inside o l d cabin Sample bags G r a n i t e outcrop  ID 6 2 - 10 16 - 18 2-3  20 June  WILLIAMS LAKE  A l e x i s Creek  21 June  GENELLE  China Creek Hilltop d r i l l & blast  (Stampede I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) 27 June  5 July  VANDERHOOF  site  Nechako R i v e r Kenney Dam Road S i t e EN1 (E & B Co.) Cuttings Perimeter D r i l l cores S i t e EN2 S i t e 2 cores KLUSKUS Log Road S i r e E l ( S h e l l Co.) Core remains on s i t e Cemetery S u r p r i s e Lake ( l o w e r end) Road by S u r p r i s e Lake Ruby Creek G r a n i t e bed Molybdenum d r i l l cores & boxes  ATLIN  20 - 25  6 5 10 - 11 l e s s than 5 2-3 2-3 2-3 2-3 15 - 17 15-25 5-10  NOTE: These measurements  o f r a d i o a c t i v i t y were made by t h e use of a s c i n t i l l o m e t e r  (Ludlum Measurements I n c . ,  Sweetwater, Texas, Model 19 micro/R meter) which was k i n d l y l e n t t o t h e R o y a l Commission f o r t h i s p e r i o d o f i t s work by D r . Wayne Greene, C h i e f R a d i a t i o n P r o t e c t i o n D i v i s i o n , Department o f H e a l t h , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t o whom we a r e g r e a t l y  indebted.  APPENDIX 6 Depository  libraries  168  A.  L i b r a r i e s H o l d i n g T r a n s c r i p t s , Statements of A c c e s s i o n L i s t s and  the I n t e r i m  Report  Evidence, v  Abbotsford P u b l i c L i b r a r y A t l i n Community L i b r a r y Campbell R i v e r L i b r a r y Castlegar Public Library F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e - L e a r n i n g Resources C e n t r e , C h i l l i w a c k Clearwater L i b r a r y Cranbrook P u b l i c L i b r a r y Dawson Creek P u b l i c L i b r a r y F o r t Nelson P u b l i c L i b r a r y Grand F o r k s P u b l i c L i b r a r y Greenwood P u b l i c L i b r a r y Cariboo-Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y , Kamloops Kelowna B r a n c h of the Okanagan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Vancouver I s l a n d R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y , Nanaimo New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y P r i n c e George P u b l i c L i b r a r y P r i n c e Rupert P u b l i c L i b r a r y Quesnel L i b r a r y Revelstoke L i b r a r y The L i b r a r y , N o r t h West C o l l e g e , T e r r a c e R o y a l Commission on Uranium M i n i n g , 3724 W. Broadway, Vancouver The L i b r a r y , B.C.I.T., 3700 W i l l i n g d o n Ave., Burnaby S p e c i a l S c i e n c e s D i v i s i o n - D o c u m e n t s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , Burnaby The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 2075 Westbrook P l a c e , Vancouver Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , 750 B u r r a r d S t r e e t , Vancouver Vanderhoof P u b l i c L i b r a r y B.  L i b r a r i e s Holding Edited  Videocassettes  F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e , L e a r n i n g Resources C e n t r e , A b b o t s f o r d S e l k i r k College, Library, Castlegar E a s t Kootenay C o l l e g e , L i b r a r y , Cranbrook N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e , L i b r a r y , Dawson"-Creek Cariboo C o l l e g e . Library,,Kamloops Okanagan C o l l e g e , L i b r a r y , Kelowna M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e , L i b r a r y , Nanaimo C o l l e g e of New C a l e d o n i a , L i b r a r y , P r i n c e George N o r t h West C o l l e g e , L i b r a r y , T e r r a c e B.C.I.T. L i b r a r y , Burnaby R o y a l Commission on Uranium M i n i n g , 3724 West Broadway, Vancouver, Camosun C o l l e g e , L i b r a r y , V i c t o r i a  B.C.  169  APPENDIX 7 P a r t i c i p a n t funding  NAME  1  INITIAL REQUEST  FIRST ALLOTMENT  EAAUM (B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of N a t u r a l i s t s , SPEC, Western Canada Chapter o f t h e S i e r r a Club)  $34,0D0/mo  130,000  ACA  $ 2,050  $ 2,000  B e a v e r d e l l Community Club  NEW REQUEST  ADDITIONAL ALLOTMENTS  TOTAL  $15,000  $45,000  119,025  $ 6,000  $ 8,000  Funds t o sent t o r e p resentatives  $ 3,700  $ 3,700  BCCUCC  $ 5,600/mo. +11,500  $ 2,000  $ 6,000  $ 8,000  B r i t i s h Columbia & Yukon Chamber of Mines  118,275  $ 2,000  $ 2,000  $ 4,000  Boundary Environment and Outdoor Club  $ 1,625  S 1,600  $ 1,800  $ 3,400  CCNR - Kelowna  119,000  S 3,000  $ 4,000  $ 7,000  $ 1,870  CCNR - Vancouver  $ 5,560/mo. x 6 months =33,900  $ 4,000  $ 4,000  Canadian P u b l i c H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n  1 2,500  $ 2,500  $ 2,500  C o n s u l t L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e l e g e n d .  o  INITIAL REQUEST  NAME  FIRST ALLOTMENT  NEW REQUEST  CCCBN  $ 8,000  Committee f o r a C l e a n K e t t l e V a l l e y Greater V i c t o r i a  $56,050  $ 3,000  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Centre  $ 2,000  Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n (Okanagan)  $25,200  $ 3,000  Greenpeace F o u n d a t i o n  $10,968 (6 mos.)  $ 2,000  $63,750  $  (Vancouver)  Indigenous P e o p l e s o f t h e Western Hemisphere  ADDITIONAL ALLOTMENTS  TOTAL  $ 6,000  $ 6,000  $ 2,000  $ 5,000  $ 2,D00  $ 2,000 $ 3,000  $ 6,000  NIL  500  $ 2,000 $  500  OCUTH r e p r e s e n t i n g I n t e r e s t Groups i n Kelowna, B e a v e r d e l l , C h r i s t i a n V a l l e y , W e s t b r i d g e , B r i d e s v i l l e , Rock Creek, Midway, Greenwood, Grand F o r k s  $42,000  $25,000  $25,000  Kamloops Honey P r o d u c e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n  $  $  $  KNSG  $ 3,525/mo.  $ 4,000  500  $ 4,450 (for additional project) -  -  500  $20,D00  500  $24,000  INITIAL REQUEST  NAME  FIRST ALLOTMENT  N o r t h Shuswap E n v i r o n m e n t a l Committee  S o l a r A l t e r n a t i v e s t o N u c l e a r Energy  NEW REQUEST unspecified  $ 5,500  ADDITIONAL ALLOTMENTS ($ 3,700 h e l d i n reserve)  $ 1,000  SKIP  TOTAL  $ 1,000 unspecified  $ 3,700  $ 3,700  -  South Okanagan E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o a l i t i o n ,  $ 5,500/mo.  UBCIC  $96,815  $ 9,500  $ 8,000  $ 2,000  WCELA  $ 9,780  $ 1,500  $ 3,500  $ 5,000  YEA  $ 8,000  $ 2,200  $ 5,800  $ 8,0D0  $71,500 3,500  $129,300 20,700  $200,800 24,200  $75,000  $150,000  $225,000  U n i t e d Fishermen & A l l i e d Workers'  Union  TOTAL Reserve  ($ 2,000 withdrawn) $10,000  $19,500 $ 2,000  173 NOT ELIGIBLE FOR FUNDING  NAME B.C. Energy Patrick  Coalition  Britten  REQUESTED Unspecified $  500  Douglas C.5. C a l d w e l l  S 4,250  B r i a n Carpendale  $ 5,210  Consumers' A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada (B.C. Advocacy)  $ 6,900  F i r s t B a p t i s t Church  S  F u s i o n Energy F o u n d a t i o n  $ 4,000  Mike G i l f i l l a r  S 4,450 (2 mos.)  Kelowna  $ 1,000  Scott  Prospectors  Lawrance  750  Unspecified  The P u l p , Paper and Woodworkers of Canada, Workers' Compensation Board R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s - Gary 0. N e w e l l  S 3,150  South nkanagan 8 Sjmilkameen Union Board of H e a l t h  $10,000  174  APPENDIX 8 Public Notice: Funding  Participant  Province of British Columbia  PUBLIC NOTICE ROYAL COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO URANIUM MINING PARTICIPANT FUNDING The Commission has been provided with limited funds for interested groups within the Province of British Columbia to assist them in preparing their briefs for presentation at a Public Hearing.  GUIDELINES The guidelines for funding of participants before the Commission are as follows: (a) There should be a clearly ascertainable interest that ought to be represented at the Inquiry. (b) It should be established that "separate and adequate representation of that interest will make a necessary and substantial contribution to the Inquiry. (c) Those seeking funds should have an established record of concern for, and should have demonstrated their own commitment to, the interest they seek to represent. (d) It should be shown that those seeking funds do not have sufficient financial resources to enable them adequately to represent that interest, and will require funds to do so. (e) Those seeking funds should have a clear proposal as to the use they intend to make of the funds, and should be sufficiently well organized to account for the funds. in order to avoid duplication, various groups of similar interests are encouraged to jointly prepare a brief for presentation.  APPLICATION FOR FUNDS Application for funding should be made in writing to the Executive Secretary at the address beiow, and should provide the following information: (a) A statement of how the applicant satisfies the guidelines for funding. (b) A description, including a detailed budget, of the purposes for which the funds are required, how the funds will be disbursed and how they will be accounted for. (c) A statement of the extent to which the applicant will contribute funds and personnel to participate in the Inquiry. (d) The name, address, telephone number and position of the individual within the group who will be responsible for administering the funds. The deadline for submitting an application will be Monday, April 30, 197S. On behalf of the Commission; Brig. Gen. E D . Danby (retired) Executive Secretary Royal Commission of Inquiry  Health and Environmental  Protection — Uranium Mining  APPENDIX 9 R e s u l t s of i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s i x major p a r t i c i p a n t s  COLUMN NUMBER I  II  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w e d , name erf group and d e s c r i p t i o n of groups' primary concern  Witness  identified  Mr. Roger (laid graduate) of the Union o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n C h i e f s (UBC1C) uhoae prime conc e r n i s the Indian s i t u a t i o n (1980b, i n t e r v i e w ) .  C a l l i n g i n witnesses f o r the S o c i a l Impact 8 J u r i s d i c t i o n Phases. We would r a t h e r do t h i s than leave i t t o the Commission t o b r i n g i n and fund these w i t nesses.  Dr. Young (medical d o c t o r ) of the I d e n t i f i e d on our own B r i t i s h Columbia M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t - i n i t i a t i v e : i o n (BCMA)-whose prime concern - one witness f o r the 0v. view Phase; i s p u b l i c h e a l t h (1980, i n t e r v i e w ) - one witness f o r the Waste Management Phase; - f i v e witnesses f o r the P u b l i c & worker Health Phase; - one witness f o r the Environmental Impact Phase.  ————— 1 See pp. 180-1  Ill Use o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n  IV  i|  Studies  Thoroughly cross-examine evidence t h a t i a : - important & r e l e v a n t to t h e I n d i a n s i t u a t i o n s ; - contentious; - vulnerable; - h u r t f u l t o our case. B a s i c a l l y , use cross-exami n a t i o n t o b r i n g out our case, but, sometimes, t o determine a w i t n e s s ' c r e d ability.  We are f i n d i n g out which I n d i a n bands would be a f f e c t e d by uranium mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia and p r e p a r i n g two s t u d i e s : - a land use and occupancy study i n the A t l i n area ( f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n a t the second round o f community hearings); - a development c o n f l i c t study i n the Okanagan (for presentation i n Phase W i l l ) .  Only cross-examine evidence that: - i s incorrect; - could be seen from o t h e r p o i n t s o f view - could a l t e r t h e f i n a l outcome o f RCIUM. Use c r o s s examination: - to assess whether a w i t ness i s competent; - to d i s c r e d i t a w i t n e s s i f he/she i s b i a s i n g the evidence; - to show t h a t t h e evidence i s not u n i v e r s a l l y agreed upon; - t o p o i n t out t h e e x i s t e n c e of new evidence; - t o b r i n g i n t o focus r e levant points.  BCMA i s doing a study on b a s e l i n e epidemiology and a comparison o f occupationa L h e a l t h i n Canada and t h e United S t a t e s .  -0 f o r columns V, VI and V I I .  -J  I  II  Ill  IV  Dr. Suiitzer, environmental coord i n a t o r of Consolidated Rexspar M i n e r a l s and Chemicals L t d . (Rexspar)-whose prime concern i s acceptance of a s p e c i f i c uranium mine proposal (I960, interview).  I d e n t i f i e d as many witnesses as we can a f f o r d . Rexspar i s a s m a l l company and cannot a f f o r d numerous c o n s u l t a n t s and lawyers from o t h e r companies.  Prepare a thorough c r o s s examination of evidence that: - can help along our f i n a l cause; - may not be a c c u r a t e ( i s the w i t n e s s c r e d i b l e ? )  Have done a l o t of p r e l i m i n a r y work on our uranium mine proposal.  Ms. Rounthwaite ( l a w y e r ) , l e g a l counsel f o r the Environmental A l l i a n c e Against Uranium Mining (EAAUM). EAAUM i s a c o a l i t i o n between the F e d e r a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l i s t s , The S i e r r a Club of Western Canada, and the Canadian S c i e n t i f i c P r o t e c t i o n and Environmental C o n t r o l S o c i e t y (19B0a, i n t e r v i e w ) .  I d e n t i f i e d s i x witnesses f o r the Environmental Impact Phase whose t e s t i m o n i e s cover ground not covered by Commission w i t n e s s e s ; f o r example, r a d i o - e c o l o g y .  Prepare a thorough c r o s s examination of w i t n e s s e s appearing i n the E n v i r o n mental Impact Phase. I f something important has not been covered by a w i t n e s s but he/she i s competent i n t h i s a r e a , w i l l q u e s t i o n him/her about i t .  EAAUM i s p r e s e n t i n g a major submission f o r Phase VI (March) on the p o t e n t i a l environmental impacts of uranium mining i n B r i t i s h Columbia. EAAUM has commissioned Aspect C o n s u l t a n t s to do a study of the e n v i r onmental i m p l i c a t i o n s of uranium d e r i v e d r a d i o nuclides i n b i o l o g i c a l systems w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to B r i t i s h Columbia.  Mr. Paterson ( l a w y e r ) , l e g a l c o u n s e l , p r i m a r i l y , f o r the Confederation of Canadian Unions (CCU), whose prime concern l a the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of workers, but a l s o f o r the Kootenay Nuclear Study Groups,(KNSG) and the Y e l lowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n (YEA), and from time to time, f o r the A t l i n Community A s s o c i a t i o n (ACA) (1980, i n t e r v i e w ) .  CCU, YEA & KNSG do not have the money to c a l l many w i t nesses themselves. Hence, we lobby the Commission to b r i n g i n witnesses of our c h o i c e ; t h i s has been succ e s s f u l . The CCU has i d e n t i f i e d four witnesses f o r the P u b l i c & Worker Health Phaae.  Given the nature of the CCU's concerns, focus cross-examination on evidence to do w i t h : - worker and p u b l i c health; - the r e l a t i o n s h i p between government and industry; - government a d m i n i s t r a tion. Use c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n : - to b r i n g out a d d i t i o n a l paints; - t o emphasize important information;  P r e s e n t i n g a major b r i e f i n Phase X on j u r i s d i c t i o n and enforcement. Updating two items i n the Commission L i b r a r y (see numbers 262 and 263 i n Appendix 12). We would have done more but our funds are l i m i t e c  CD  I CCU,  IV  -  to t e s t the c r e d i b i l i t y of the w i t n e s s ; - to determine the p h i l o s opy of the w i t n e s s . O v e r a l l , t r y to get p o i n t s in the t r a n s c r i p t s t h a t can be used to make our f i n a l case.  KIM5G, YEA ( c o n t ' d )  M r s . Boyce of the B r i t i s h Columbia Conference o f the U n i t e d Church of Canada (8CCUCC) (I960, i n t e r v i e w ) .  Ill  II  C a l l i n g s i x witnesses f o r the E t h i c s Phase. We would l i k e to hear from a resource economist still.  Prepare q u e s t i o n s on the evidence. Use c r o s s - e x amination: - to t r y to s e n s i t i z e witnesses t o moral questions; - to get p o i n t s i n the t r a n s c r i p t s t h a t can be used i n the E t h i c s Phase; - to make w i t n e s s e s aware of the t e c h n i c a l u n c e r tainties in their evidence and t h e value judgements they a r e making t h a t a r e based on theBe u n c e r t a i n t i e s .  Make summaries of those statements of evidence t h a t are s i g n i f i c a n t , f o c u s i n g on the moral and e t h i c a l p o i n t s . Pass these onto a " r e f e r e n c e group" of t h e o l o g i a n s and ethicists. M r . Evans, outreach educator f o r BCCUCC, w i l l prepare a b r i e f f o r Phase IX based  on the summaries.  COLUMN NUMBER I Representative  \l Extent of review  UII  UI Technical  tilork with w i t n e s s e s  assistance  Mr. Rogers (UBCIC)  Review each b r i e f before and a f t e r i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n at the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s . Time i s a constraint.  D e f i n i t e l y work a l o n g a i d e our w i t n e s s e s .  U s u a l l y , have no t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . For the S o c i a l Impact Phase, however, w i l l r e c e i v e help from o t h e r people i n UBCIC.  D r . Young (BCMA)  Review each b r i e f . More time i s needed (suggests an e x t r a week o f f between each p h a s e ) .  Work with our w i t n e s s much as p o s s i b l e .  Usually,  Dr. Switzer (Rexspar)  Thoroughly review a l l evidence t h a t has a b a a i s i n f a c t ; look up the s c i e n t i f i c r e f e r e n c e too. A b s o l u t e l y no time c o n straints. However, we have l i m i t e d f u n d s ; hence I do not have the statements of e v i dence reviewed by o u t s i d e experts.  E d i t ( g r a m m a t i c a l l y ) our own w i t n e s s e s ' s t a t e m e n t s ; that i s a l l .  Rely s o l e l y on my own e x p e r i e n c e . ( D r . S w i t z e r has a P h . d . i n Zoology and has worked a l o n g a i d e the beat lawyers i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) .  Want our witnesses to p r e sent p a r t s of our caae so we send them a l i s t of quest i o n s t h a t we want a d d r e s s e d . A l s o we suggest to our w i t - , nesses what they should c o n c e n t r a t e on i n t h e i r v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s at the h e a r ings.  Tony Pearce of Aspects C o n s u l t a n t s helps prepare c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  Ms. Rounthwaite EAAUM p a r t i c i p a t e s only i n the Environmental Impact Phase and (EAAUM) p a r t s of o t h e r phases t h a t d e a l with environmental c o n cerns. Not s u f f i c i e n t time or money to attend a l l p h a s e s . L i s t e n to evidence as i t i s presented. Make notes on statements t h a t I can make use of i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n .  as  have no t e c h n i c a l  asaistance.  CD  o  I Mr.  Paterson  (ecu,  KNSG, YEA)  M r s . Boyce (BCCUCC)  r  V  VI  VII  Cannot do as thorough a r e view of the evidence as the government agencies and the mining companies can s i n c e our f i n a n c i a l resources and my time are l i m i t e d .  Work with our witnesses to a considerable extent; that i s they send ua t h e i r evidence and we c r i t i q u e i t and send i t back, and so on u n t i l we are happy. A l s o we send the witnesses copies of the r e l e v a n t t r a n s c r i p t s and s t a t e ments of e v i d e n c e .  Have two s c i e n t i f i c working w i t h me.  Review each b r i e f , concent r a t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , on the e t h i c a l and moral components. Not enough time to read the r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d , except f o r those on ethics. I f the Church d i d not help us out f i n a n c i a l l y there would be no one monot o r i n g the h e a r i n g s .  •ther people i n my group w i l l work with the w i t n e s s e s ; f o r example, D r . Anderson and M r . Evans.  Receive no t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e no funds f o r t h i s . Some of the t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s beyond my u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  reaearchers  182  APPENDIX 10 C r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n of t e n w i t n e s s e s by major p a r t i c i p a n t s  R-  ID 3 — CD CD 10  —  CD  B cr  X  X  X  ^J  X  -o  X"  3! •  o) X rt  cn  3  • rt • 3C0 E CD  X  X  X  X X  X  Witness  1  BCMA  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  BCCUCC  X  X  X  UBCIC  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  SKID  X X  X  X  X  X  WCELA  X  EAAUM KNSG  X  X  X  f  Phase Number  X  cn  ui  P»  i-J H rt •  1  rt-  3 O C 3 .1 -<  ~—-— v-t  Provincial De partment of EMPR, Mine & Inspection & Engineering Branch  3 -» ra a e  Earl J. Klohn  O  3 H*  Dr. D'Appolonia  O  m •  Dr. Al Henry Dr. John Cherry  C CD  Dr. Donald Langmulr  3  (0 X  tH  Dr. Frank Patton  • 3  Dr. John Nelson  !-•  1  c  «=  III  rt  a CO  »—i  III Norcen panel  1 a  CCC/BN  X  3  B C_l 13  70  X  X  X  X  X  ACA  X  NOR CEN  X  JCUTH  X  GREENPEACE  X  X  ,  X  TJ B Z —1  cn  MABC  BCM EMPR  X  1—  1  X  X  BCF LUSA PNC CCNR KELOWNA  X  o  n  REXSPAR  X  I-*  CD  -t t-H  t-H  X  h« -  T J B 70  t-»  o  •J  cn  ^1  01  T o t a l no. o f major p a r t i c i pants c r o s s examing  184  APPENDIX 11 P r e l i m i n a r y budget e s t i m a t e :  EAAUM  185 Senior L e g a l Counsel:  $75/hr. 8 h r s . / d a y ,  29 days/month  f12000/month  J u n i o r L e g a l Counsel:  $5D/hr. 8 h r s . / d a y ,  20 days/month  $ 8000/month  Co-ordinator: Researchers  S 1500/month  (2)  $1200/month each  $ 2400/month  Secretary:  $ 1000/month  O f f i c e and Overhead:  $ 2000/month  Communication w i t h C o n s t i t u e n c y : (a)  IMewletter:  (b)  Meetings,  Twice/month, 15000 c o p i e s t r a v e l f o r 10 p e o p l e :  Documents and Research Reproduction Total:  Twice/month  $ 2000/month $ 4000/month  Materials:  o f Documents:  $32,900/month p l u s i n i t i a l f u n d i n g o f $5500 f o r documents, r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s and reproduction thereof.  $ 3000  186  APPENDIX 12 Items i n the Commission l i b r a r y  187  Sample o f items r e c e i v e d between 23 May and 30 May, 1979 261  Sweet, Ul. " U n r e s o l v e d : t h e f r o n t end o f n u c l e a r waste d i s p o s a l . " The B u l l e t i n o f t h e Atomic S c i e n t i s t s . May 1979. pp. 44-48. 5 p.  262  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l M e c h a n i c a l and A l l i e d Workers. Correspondence on m i n i n g s a f e t y , 1978-1979. CAIMAUJ. 1979. v a r i o u s p a g i n g s .  263  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f I n d u s t r i a l Mechanican and A l l i e d Workers. Proposed amendments t o t h e Mines R e g u l a t i o n s A c t ; s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e m i n i s t r y o f mines and petroleum r e s o u r c e s o f t h e Province;-,of B r i t i s h Columbia. CAIMAW. J a n . 1978. 264 p.  264  Band, P., e t a l . P o t e n t i a t i o n o f c i g a r e t t e smoking and r a d i a t i o n : e v i d e n c e from a sputum c y t o l o g y survey among uranium miners and c o n t r o l s . 1977? 22 p.  265  B o u l t o n , J . , ed. Management o f r a d i o a c t i v e f u e l wastes: the Canadian d i s p o s a l program. AECL-6134. O c t . 1978. 135 p.  266  O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o - o p e r a t i o n and Development; Committee f o r S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n o l o g i c a l P o l i c y . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n making r e l a t e d t o s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y : a b a s i s f o r t h e forum d i s c u s s i o n h e l d on October 10, 1978. S e p t . 1978. 139 p.  267  U.S. Dep't. o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e . A r e v i e w of t h e use o f i o n i z i n g r a d i a t i o n f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t of b e n i g n d i s e a s e s : v o l . 1; a r e p o r t . HEW P u b l i c a t i o n (FDA) 78-8043. S e p t . 1977. 53 p.  268  R o t b l a t , J . "The r i s k s f o r r a d i a t i o n workers." The B u l l e t i n o f t h e Atomic S c i e n t i s t s . S e p t . 1978. pp. 41-46. 6 p.  269  Morton, J.D. S u r f a c e d i s p o s a l o f uranium t a i l i n g s and mine waste: a geotechnologi viewpoint: presented to t h e Canadian I n s t i t u t e o f Mines and M e t a l l u r g y ; 8 1 s t A.G.M.-Montreal, A p r i l 1979. 10 p.  Sample o f items r e c e i v e d between 2 November and 27 December 1979 1410  R u s s e l l , R.S., e t a l . " N a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g r a d i o a c t i v e s u b s t a n c e s : t h e uranium and t h o r i u m s e r i e s . " RadioA c t i v i t y and Human D i e t , Chap. 17, 1966. pp. 365-379. 8 p.  188  1411  Tanner, kJ.U. " N a t u r a l r a d i a t i o n e f f e c t s of v e r t e b r a t e a n i m a l s i n h a b i t i n g the uranium a r e a s o f S o u t h e a s t e r n Utah." R a d i o e c o l o g y , 1963. pp. 325-326. 2 p.  1412  Dobson, R.L. " B i n u c l e a t e s lymphocytes and l o w - l e v e l r a d i a t i o n exposure." Immediate and l o w - l e v e l r a d i a t i o n e x p o s u r e , 1960. pp. 247-251. 5 p.  1413  D e l a r u e , N.C., et a l . " M u l t i p l e f l u o r o s c o p y o f t h e c h e s t : c a r c i n o g e n i c i t y f o r the female b r e a s t and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r b r e a s t cancer s c r e e n i n g programs." Canadian M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , vo. 112, June 21, 1975, pp. 1405-1413. 7 p. Myrden, J.A. et a l . " B r e a s t cancer f o l l o w i n g m u l t i p l e f l u o r o s c o p i e s d u r i n g a r t i f i c i a l pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary t u b e r c u l o s i s . " Canadian M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , v o l . 100, June 14, 1969. pp. 1032-1034. 3 P.  1414  1415  Cohen, B.H., et a l . in Baltimore." v o l . 171, 1970.  "The e p i d e m i o l o g i c a l study of mongolism A n n a l s of the N.Y. Academy of S c i e n c e , pp. 320-327. 8 p.  1416  Lyon, J . L . , et a l . " C h i l d h o o d l e u k e m i a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a l l o u t from n u c l e a r t e s t i n g . " The New England J o u r n a l of M e d i c i n e , v o l . 300, no. 8, Feb. 22, 1979. pp. 398402. 6 p. ( A c c e s s i o n s L i s t s 1 and 4, Uranium I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e , 1979).  APPENDIX  13  P u b l i c education  by  s i x major p a r t i c i p a n t s  190  Major p a r t i c i p a n t  P u b l i c education  activities  EAAUM (White interview)  1980,  EAAUM was g i v e n money f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n the f i r s t round of f u n d i n g ; t h i s w i l l not happen i n the second round of f u n d i n g . The EAAUM o f f i c e i t s e l f s e r v e s an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n .  KNSG ( T e r r a l interview)  1980  I /YerralJ a t t e n d the t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s . R i c h ard Banner w r i t e s p r e s s r e l e a s e s and produces the KNSG N e w s l e t t e r i n the i n t e r i o r ( N e l s o n ) . Both of us r e c e i v e p a r t i c i p a n t f u n d i n g . The Commission knows t h a t t h e KNSG uses some funds for p u b l i c education.  JCUTH ( S m i t h interview)  1980,  We d i d n ' t put down p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n when we app l i e d f o r t h e second round of f u n d i n g because we knew t h e Commission would i g n o r e t h a t . We f a c e a r e a l d i l e m n a — s h o u l d we i n t e r v e n e i n the I n q u i r y o r educate the p u b l i c ? We d e c i d e d t o i n t e r v e n e b u t , i n so d o i n g , we perform some p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n s i n c e we communicate what happens at t h e t e c h n i c a l h e a r i n g s back t o the com- • munities.  WCELA ( B o g g i l d interview)  1980,  WCELA i s d o i n g same p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , f o r example, I've been on r a d i o and TV, and so has Kim R o b e r t s . The a s s o c i a t i o n has a l s o done some workshops on n u c l e a r i s s u e s . We haven't used p a r t i c i p a n t funds f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n .  BCCUCC (Boyce 1980a i n t e r v i e w ; " The Trumpet 1 November 1979).  The U n i t e d C h u r c h . h i r e d Mr. M o e l a e r t t o educa t e p r i m a r i l y members of t h e Church, but a l s o i n t e r e s t e d members of t h e p u b l i c about the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n uranium e x p l o i t a t i o n . We d i d n ' t use p a r t i c i p a n t funds t o h i r e him; i n d e e d , t h e Commission p r o b a b l y wouldn't have g i v e n us money t o have Mr. M o e l a e r t t o u r i n g around the p r o v i n c e . The U n i t e d Church produces a weekly half-hour t e l e v i s i o n s e r i e s c a l l e d "Nuclear Crossroads." I t i s s c h e d u l e d on Vancouver C a b l e v i s i o n ( C a b l e 10) Mondays at 8:00 p.m. and repeated Sundays a t 1:30 p.m. Western C a b l e v i s i o n ( S u r r e y , e t c . ) c a r r i e s t h e s e r i e s on Wednesdays a t 6:30 p.m. and V i c t o r i a C a b l e v i s i o n p l a n s t o run t h e s e r i e s on i t s mid-band ( E - 1 8 ) . In t h i s program, Mrs. Boyce ( h o s t e s s ) t a k e s a l o o k a t t h e RCIUM h e a r i n g s , i n t e r v i e w i n g a d i f f e r e n t a c t o r (Commissioner, major p a r t i c i p a n t , w i t n e s s , e t c . ) each week.  BCUIC (Rogers interview)  I t i s BCUIC's p o l i c y p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . We n e w s l e t t e r s , and so funds f o r a l l t h i s . t h i s i s how we use a  1980a  t o use a l o t of money f o r h o l d workshops, i s s u e on, and use p a r t i c i p a n t The Commission knows t h a t l o t o f our f u n d s .  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACA AECL BCCUCC BCMA BCFLUSA BCMEMPR CBC CCNR CCCBN CCU EAAUM EMR JCUTH KNSG MABG MVP I OECD PCAB PNG PR RCIUM RSBC RSC  sec  SPEC SFU SKID TAG TP • UBCIC UBC UID: UJCELA U1COPI  YEA  A t l i n Community A s s o c i a t i o n Atomic Energy C o n t r o l L i m i t e d B r i t i s h Columbia Conference o f t h e U n i t e d Church of Canada B r i t i s h Columbia M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour and U n i t e d S t e e l w o r k e r s o f America B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n Canadian C o a l i t i o n o f N u c l e a r R e s p o n s i b i l i t y C o a l i t i o n o f Concerned C i t i z e n s o f t h e B u l k l e y Nechako C o n f e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian Unions E n v i r o n m e n t a l A l l i a n c e A g a i n s t Uranium M i n i n g Department o f Energy, Mines and Resources J o i n t Committee - Uranium T e c h n i c a l Hearings Kootenay N u c l e a r Study Group M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia Mackenzie V a l l e y P i p e l i n e I n q u i r y O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o o p e r a t i o n and Development P e s t i c i d e s C o n t r o l Appear Board Power N u c l e a r C o r p o r a t i o n o f Japan Preliminary Rulings R o y a l Commission o f I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g R o y a l S t a t u t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia R o y a l S t a t u t e o f Canada S c i e n c e C o u n c i l o f Canada S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l Society Simon E r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y S o u t h e a s t Kelowna I r r i g a t i o n D i s t r i c t T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y Group T r a n s c r i p t s of Proceedings Union o f B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n C h i e f s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Uranium I n q u i r y D i g e s t West C o a s t E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law A s s o c i a t i o n West Coast O i l P o r t s I n q u i r y Yellowhead E c o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n  

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