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Formal co-operation among public agencies : a study of Vancouver’s Police and Community Services Project Ferguson, Thomas F.B. 1979

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FORMAL CO-OPERATION AMONG PUBLIC AGENCIES: A STUDY OF VANCOUVER'S POLICE AND COMMUNITY SERVICES PROJECT by THOMAS F.B. FERGUSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1979 (S) Thomas F.B. F e r g u s o n , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f P o l i t i c a l Science The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D E - 6 B P 75-5 1 I E ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n examines an attempt t o e s t a b l i s h and s u s t a i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e , p a r o l e and p r o b a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n p r e v e n t i o n o f crime and r e l a t e d s o c i a l problems. The s e t t i n g f o r t h i s a t t empt was t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o lumbia. The P r o j e c t , as i t was c a l l e d , r a n from September 1974- t o March 31, 1977. I t was de v e l o p e d i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t quadrant o f Vancouver with., t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e above named a g e n c i e s , t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission, and t h e B.C. J u s t i c e Dev-elopment Commission. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t and events w h i c h l e d t o i t s i n c e p t i o n i s u n d e r t a k e n t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u s t a i n e d , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p u b l i c a g e n c i e s r e q u i r e s t h e l i k e l i H r hood o f b e n e f i t s t o each p a r t i c i p a n t . The h y p o t h e s i s i s drawn, i n p a r t , f rom A n t o n i o J o r g e ' s C o m p e t i t i o n , C o - o p e r a t i o n , E f f i c -i e n c y , and S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , and Anthony Downs* I n s i d e  B u r e a u c r a c y . B o t h w r i t e r s m a i n t a i n t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n i s o f t e n m o t i v a t e d by t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f rewards such as power, p r e s t i g e , and a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . However, h e r e i n t h e m o t i v e i s shown t o be o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i n f o r m a l as compared t o i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n due, i n p a r t , t o t h e l o n g e r term commitment and g r e a t e r degree o f i n v o l v e m e n t r e q u i r e d o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . F o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as a f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r - i i i -r e c o g n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n w h i c h a g e n c i e s and t h e i r o f f i c i a l s a g ree t o combine t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n an o r g a n i z e d manner f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n of common ends o r o b j e c t i v e s i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e g r e a t e r s u c c e s s o f one p a r t y t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e o t h e r p a r t y o r p a r t i e s . A l s o , t h e i n t e r a c t i -on i s u s u a l l y governed by f o r m a l r u l e s and i s s u b j e c t t o s c r u t -i n y by a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n denotes th e need f o r g o a l consensus w h i c h , i n t u r n , may s i g n i f y t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e a l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s . I n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p o l i c e , p r o b a t i o n and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s p r i o r t o t h e P r o j e c t (1963 - 1974) i s examined t o show development o f t h e b e l i e f among a l l a g e n c i e s t h a t f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n would improve t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f agency and p o l i c e s e r v i c e s . On t h e b a s i s of t h i s s h a r e d b e l i e f , t h e Van-couver P o l i c e Department d e v e l o p e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e P r o j e c t and encouraged p a r t i c i p a t i o n of s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . T h i s was f a c i l i t -a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p o l i c e and most s o c i a l a g e n c i e s were, i n 1974> d e c e n t r a l i z i n g s e r v i c e s t o i n c r e a s e e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t r e a t i n g c r i m e and s o c i a l problems and were s e e k i n g c l e a r e r r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s . R e o r g a n i z a t i o n of. s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s was a l s o a r e s p o n s e t o t h e s o c i a l p o l i c i e s o f a New Democratic P a r t y p r o v i n c i a l government. The P r o j e c t was f r a u g h t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s f r o m i t s i n c e p t -i o n . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a g e n c i e s who were e x p e c t e d t o manage t h e P r o j e c t were u n a b l e t o agree on v i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e P r o j e c t . As t h e P r o j e c t l a c k e d a c l e a r sense o f d i r e c t i o n , t h e p o l i c e p r o posed e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h a team p o l i c i n g system. - i v -(that i s , reorganization of the p o l i c e i n the Project area into s i x neighbourhood teams with constables assigned on a permanent basis) to f a c i l i t a t e co-ordination of p o l i c e and s o c i a l agency services. A l l Project participants agreed to the experiment as i t provided the Project with a concrete goal. However, concen-t r a t i o n on team p o l i c i n g fed perceptions of s o c i a l agencies that the Project was a "police project" rather than an inter-agency endeavour. But t h i s concentration came about, i n part, because of lack of strong s o c i a l agency commitment to the Project. This was due l a r g e l y to the preoccupation of agencies with changes i n t h e i r own organizations r e s u l t i n g from a change to a S o c i a l Credit Party p r o v i n c i a l government (December 1975) with conserv-ative s o c i a l p o l i c i e s . Also, the dominant r o l e of the p o l i c e i i n the Project appeared to lessen the l i k e l i h o o d of benefits to s o c i a l agencies and, therefore, lessened t h e i r commitment. These factors are considered as major influences determining the Project's f a i l u r e to sustain formal co-operation. In contrast, f i e l d teams of p o l i c e and agency workers i n the team p o l i c i n g experiment developed a consensus on how to work together, whenever possible, while respecting each other's fu n c t i o n a l autonomy. Thus, they reverted to informal co-operat-ion i n co-ordination of services. This thesis suggests, then, that informal co-operation may be more e f f e c t i v e than formal co-operation, even though l i k e l i h o o d of benefit i s present, i n improving co-ordination ( a l b e i t on a more l i m i t e d scale) among diverse public agencies. - V -TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i P r e f a c e v i i Chapter One: M o t i v e s f o r C o - o p e r a t i o n Among A g e n c i e s 1 I . Purpose o f T h i s Study 1 I I . S e t t i n g 4 I I I . I n f o r m a l and F o r m a l C o - o p e r a t i o n 6 I V . G o a l Consensus 1 2 V. Summary 15 Notes 17 Chap t e r Two: P r e l u d e t o F o r m a l C o - o p e r a t i o n 22 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 22 I I . Crime Problems and S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s i n t h e S i x t i e s 24 I I I . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of P o l i c e S e r v i c e s 29 I V . P r e s s u r e f o r P o l i c e Reform 3 1 V. D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s 3 3 V I . Summary 3 7 Notes 3 9 C h a p t e r Three: The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t : An Attempt t o F o r m a l i z e I n t e r -Agency R e l a t i o n s h i p s 4 1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 1 I I . F o r m a t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t 4 2 I I I . P r o j e c t O b j e c t i v e s 4 7 I V . Problems W i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t 5 2 V. The E f f e c t s of P o l i t i c a l Change 5 8 V I . Team P o l i c i n g 6 l V I I . The Legacy o f t h e P r o j e c t 6 8 Notes 72 Chapter F o u r : O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s 75 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 7 5 I I . Was a P r o j e c t N e c e s s a r y ? 76 I I I . O b j e c t i v e s and P e r c e p t i o n s 79 I V . D i s t r a c t i o n s 8 1 V. T e n t a t i v e C o n c l u s i o n s 8 2 Notes 8 5 B i b l i o g r a p h y 8 9 - v i -LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS MAP No. 1: Vancouver, B.C. P o l i c e D i s t r i c t s and Neighbourhood A r e a s , 1975 86 MAP No. 2: Vancouver P o l i c e Department, D i s t r i c t No. 3, Deployment o f P o l i c e Teams, 1976 87 DIAGRAM No. 1: P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t S t r u c t u r e 88 - v i i -PREFACE The i d e a f o r t h i s t h e s i s d e v e l o p e d from my o b s e r v a t i o n s d u r i n g a p e r i o d i n 1976 when I p r o v i d e d p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s as a c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t i n Vancouver South. D u r i n g t h a t t i m e , I was p a r t i c u l -a r l y concerned t o f i n d a l a c k o f consensus among s t a f f members and o t h e r p e r s o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t as t o t h e o v e r -a l l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t . T h i s l a c k of consensus appeared t o r e s u l t i n a k i n d o f b u r e a u c r a t i c anomie w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t and a s e r i o u s breakdown i n i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l communications. As the p e r s o n e x p e c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h some form o f i n f o r m a t i o n system t o promote t h e P r o j e c t , I was drawn t o examine and c o n s i d e r some of t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h seemed t o impede t h e d e v e l -opment o f a c l e a r message as t o what t h e P r o j e c t was about. I n t h e end, however, t h e o n l y c l e a r message t h a t I was a b l e t o develop was about team p o l i c i n g and not about i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n i n crime p r e v e n t i o n . I t was from my c o n c e r n w i t h t h e c o n f u s i o n over o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t , as compared t o t h e c o n f i d e n t approach o f t h e p o l i c e i n d e v e l o p i n g a team p o l i c i n g system, t h a t I d e c i d e d t o a n a l y z e t h e reas o n s f o r t h e breakdown of f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n . W h i l e t h e n o t i o n t h a t l i k e l i h o o d of b e n e f i t s t o p a r t i c i p a n t s seems an o b v i o u s r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n , i t seemed t o me t h a t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , i t was a - v i i i -c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n s u s t a i n i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n . Indeed, as t h i s t h e s i s s u g g e s t s , t h e l e s s e n i n g o f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s c o n t r -i b u t e d s t r o n g l y t o l a c k o f s o c i a l agency commitment t o t h e P r o j e c t and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e P r o j e c t ' s f a i l u r e . O ther f a c t o r s a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e P r o j e c t , but i t has been p o s s i b l e h e r e i n t o c o n s i d e r them o n l y b r i e f l y . I n f a c t , t h e f o c u s s i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s on t h e m o t i v e o f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s has made i t n e c e s s a r y t o omit d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r o l e o f muni-c i p a l government and t h e p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l a m b i t i o n s of p e r s o n s d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e P r o j e c t . These f a c t o r s d e s e r v e f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e i r own r i g h t a t a n o t h e r t i m e . Indeed, once enough p i e c e s o f t h e p u z z l e a r e examined, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o de v e l o p f i r m e r t h e o r e t i c a l n o t i o n s about f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n . A t p r e s e n t , t h e r e seems t o be no t h e o r e t i c a l framework t o g u i d e a n a l y s i s o f s u c h a form o f c o - o p e r a t i o n and t h i s , t o some e x t e n t , i s t h e r e a s o n for-my c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a s i n g l e f a c t o r ( l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s ) w h i c h may l a t e r c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e o r y . F i n a l l y , i t must be n o t e d t h a t some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s was g a i n e d f r o m p e r s o n s who w i s h t o remain anonymous. I have r e s p e c t e d t h e i r w i s h e s and I a p p r e c -i a t e t h a t t h e y were w i l l i n g t o i m p a r t i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h h e l p e d me t o u n d e r s t a n d some o f t h e t e n s i o n s w h i c h e x i s t e d i n t h e P r o j e c t . My o n l y r e g r e t i s t h a t some i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t s had t o be d e l e t e d because i t was not r e l e v a n t t o t h e approach t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s . - i x -T h i s s t u d y c o u l d not have been completed w i t h o u t t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e o f members o f t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department, t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , and t h e Vancouver Resources Board. I n p a r t i c u l a r , I am g r a t e f u l t o Tom Herdman and J a c k C r i c h f o r t h e i r encouragement and h e l p i n o b t a i n i n g r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k t h e p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s and s o c i a l w o r k ers who l e t me ' t a g a l o n g ' , o f t e n i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t , w h i l e t h e y d i d t h e i r j o b s . The i n s i g h t s g a i n e d were i n v a l u a b l e . My a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r Stephen M i l n e , was o f g r e a t h e l p i n making sense of a l a r g e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n . I am g r a t e f u l f o r h i s i n s i g h t s , g u i d a n c e , and p a t i e n c e . The c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s o f f e r e d by P r o f e s s o r s A l a n C. C a i r n s and John Wood were a l s o much a p p r e c i a t e d . Thanks must a l s o go t o Dr. K e i t h G. B a n t i n g f o r g u i d i n g t h i s s t u d y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f i t s development. S p e c i a l words o f t h a n k s go t o my f r i e n d s , espec-i a l l y L.D.W. and R.C.G., f o r h e l p i n g me t o keep my o b j e c t i v e s i n s i g h t . My w i f e , L o u i s e , and my t h r e e sons; K e v i n , S t u a r t , and Angus; have been enormously p a t i e n t . I owe them a g r e a t debt o f thanks f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t . F i n a l l y , any e r r o r s , o m i s s i o n s , o r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f f a c t i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l o n e . However, I hope t h e s t u d y may make a s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t oward under-s t a n d i n g problems e n c o u n t e r e d i n i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s . CHAPTER ONE MOTIVES FOR CO-OPERATION AMONG AGENCIES I . PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine an attempt t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e , p a r o l e and p r o b a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n a program t o p r e v e n t crime and r e l a t e d s o c i a l p r o blems. The program was c a l l e d t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t . I t was conducted i n t h e Vancouver South d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia from September 1974 t o March 31, 1977. The i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e p o l i c e t o o t h e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s has r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h America o v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s . The p o l i c e , p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e s e r v i c e s , and v a r i o u s s o c i a l s e r v i c e agen-1 c i e s d e a l w i t h s i m i l a r problems and, o f t e n , t h e same p e r s o n s . R e c o g n i t i o n of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and f u n c t i o n a l o v e r l a p s has 2 f o s t e r e d a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among t h e s e a g e n c i e s . The b e l i e f has been t h a t f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y co-oper-a t i o n w i l l r educe u n n e c e s s a r y o v e r l a p of s e r v i c e s and a s s i s t a l l a g e n c i e s i n p r o v i d i n g more e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e above a g e n c i e s , a t t e m p t s t o c o - o p e r a t e have been m o t i v a t e d , i n p a r t , by t h e b e l i e f t h a t crime and s o c i a l problems l e a d i n g t o crime can be p r e v e n t e d t h r o u g h a c o n c e r t e d - 2 -and s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t . C o - o p e r a t i o n among p u b l i c a g e n c i e s i s not e a s i l y d e v e l o p e d , n o r i s i t e a s i l y s u s t a i n e d . A g e n c i e s a r e , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , i n c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r i n p u r s u i t o f o r i n defence o f 3 r e s o u r c e s o r power. T h e r e f o r e , t h e y may be r e l u c t a n t t o make commitments t o f o r m a l , c o - o p e r a t i v e arrangements w h i c h may l i m i t p u r s u i t o f t h o s e i n t e r e s t s . However, i f i t appears l i k e l y t h a t f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l produce b e n e f i t s f o r a g e n c i e s , t h e y may agree t o suspend o r l e s s e n c o n f l i c t and e n t e r i n t o a c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . They may a l s o agree t o c o - o p e r a t e f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s i f t h e r e a r e no c o s t s i n v o l v e d . F o r example, two o r more a g e n c i e s s e r v i n g t h e same c l i e n t s may f i n d i t p r a c t i c a l t o c o - o p e r a t e i n exchange o f p o l i c y , s e r v i c e , or c l i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . An agency may a l s o agree t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r s i f i t i s p e r -c e i v e d t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n may be a way o f r e a c h i n g a g o a l t o wh i c h t h e agency i s i d e o l o g i c a l l y committed. F o r example, an agency p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o j u v e n i l e s might c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e p o l i c e because i t was committed t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y i s a s o c i a l p r o b lem and not a crime problem r e q u i r i n g a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e c r i m i n a l J u s t i c e system. The agen-cy, t h e r e f o r e , would c o n s i d e r c o - o p e r a t i o n as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i v e r t j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s i n t o t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e system. F i n a l l y , a g e n c i e s may c o - o p e r a t e because t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y s h a r e a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o l v i n g o r p r e v e n t i n g c e r t a i n p roblems, s u c h as crime o r d e l i n q u e n c y . T h i s d e n o t e s , i n a sense, a degree o f g o a l consensus w h i c h may be r e i n f o r c e d by - 3 -t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a g e n c i e s concerned s e r v e t h e same government. The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e n , i s t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u s t a i n e d , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p u b l i c a g e n c i e s r e q u i r e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s t o each p a r t i c i p a n t . A noth-e r way of s t a t i n g t h i s i s t h a t a g e n c i e s must b e l i e v e t h a t f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l pay.^" B e n e f i t s t o a g e n c i e s may be, f o r exam-p l e , i n c r e a s e d o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y , new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l e a d i n g t o a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , an o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n community o r p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t , o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s a t i s f y an i d e o l o g i c a l commitment. F i n a l l y , t h e f i e l d of s t u d y i n w h i c h t h i s t h e s i s l i e s i s p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s f i e l d draws i t s c o n t e n t from many s o u r c e s such as p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y , economics, s o c i o l o g y , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , and e x p e r i e n c e s i n management o f i n d u s t r y , b u s i n e s s , and government s e r v i c e s . I n t h e main, however, " [ p ] u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n encompasses a body o f knowledge p e r t -a i n i n g t o t h e o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s o f t h e e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n s 5 o f government." H e l e n C. H i l l i n g , i n p r o p o s i n g a framework f o r a c u r r i c u l u m i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as f o l l o w s : (1) t h e o r i e s o f t h e s t a t e , (2) dimensions of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y , (3) t e c h n o l o g y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (4) i n n o v a t i o n s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and systems f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (5) t h e o r i e s ' o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , (6) problems and methods ^ of r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s . W h i l e t h i s t h e s i s i s , p r i m a r i l y , concerned w i t h i n n o v a t i o n s i n and among i n s t i t u t i o n s and systems f o r ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t - 4 -w i l l be apparent t h a t some of the other areas l i s t e d above 7 w i l l be touched upon. I I . SETTING During the past ten years, many major, urban p o l i c e departments i n Canada and the United States have introduced o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and o p e r a t i o n a l changes intended to improve e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n de a l i n g w i t h increases i n crime and a wide range of s o c i a l s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . These changes have occurred, p r i m a r i l y , i n response t o a major change i n p o l i c i n g philosophy, t h a t i s , the p o l i c e have s h i f t e d emphasis from d e t e c t i o n of crime, apprehension of c r i m i n a l s , and r e a c t i o n to requests f o r p o l i c e s e r v i c e to Q "crime prev e n t i o n " . The new emphasis has been apparent i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e the l a t e 1960s. At t h a t time the Vancouver P o l i c e Department (VPD) began a program of r e o r g a n i z a t i o n which l e d to d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i t s p a t r o l f u n c t i o n s and the c r e a t i o n of p a t r o l u n i t s p r i m a r i l y devoted t o crime p r e v e n t i o n . " ^ The Department a l s o began to increase i n f o r m a l co-operation a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s o c i a l service"'""'" and j u s t i c e system agencies ( i . e . , probation and pa r o l e s e r v i c e s ) . Short term p r o j e c t s were developed w i t h these agencies i n attempts to t r e a t s p e c i f i c s o c i a l problem s i t u a t i o n s (e.g., j u v e n i l e gang a c t i v i t y , neighbourhood c o n f l i c t s of a r a c i s t nature, and v a n d a l i z i n g of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ) . I t was s t r o n g l y f e l t t h a t these problems could l e a d t o the - 5 -commission of major crimes i f t h e y were not r e s o l v e d . By 1974, t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department, p a r o l e , p r o b a t i o n , 12 and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s d e c i d e d t o p u r sue a f o r m a l and l o n g - t e r m program o f c rime p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f s o c i a l problems such as f a m i l y d i s p u t e s , j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , m e n t a l h e a l t h c r i s e s , and drug and a l c o h o l abuse. The program was t o emphasize c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and was t o d e v e l o p 13 t h r o u g h a d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t c a l l e d t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e P r o j e c t ) . I t was f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by t h e J u s t i c e D e v e l -opment Fund of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s D e p a r t -ment . The P r o j e c t was t o l a s t two y e a r s , 1975 t o 1977, and, a t i t s c o n c l u s i o n , was e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e an e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I t was a l s o hoped t h a t t h e P r o j e c t would develop and t e s t a model f o r p o l i c e and agency c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be a p p l i e d - e l s e w h e r e . The P r o j e c t was conducted i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t quadrant o f Vancouver, an a r e a known as Vancouver S o u t h or P o l i c e D i s t r i c t 3 (See Map No. 1 ) . "The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a i n 1971 was 157,735, r e p r e s e n t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 36$ o f t h e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . " The a r e a was a l s o c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by a h i g h number o f c a l l s f o r p o l i c e s e r v i c e and a h i g h 1'5 c r i m e r a t e . ' The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e P r o j e c t , w i t h a l i s t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i s p r o v i d e d i n Diagram No. 1. The P r o j e c t i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h apter Three. - 6 -I I I . INFORMAL AND FORMAL CO-OPERATION C o - o p e r a t i o n and how i t may be s u s t a i n e d i s t h e c o n c e r n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e term c o - o p e r a t i o n i s used h e r e i n . F i r s t , i t must be no t e d t h a t o ur main c o n c e r n w i l l be w i t h f o r m a l  c o - o p e r a t i o n . However, f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n may r e s u l t f r o m p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s i n i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s was t h e case w i t h t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t . I n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among a g e n c i e s r e f e r s t o t h o s e i n t e r - a g e n c y i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i c h t e n d t o be o f an ad hoc n a t u r e , t h a t i s , t h e y o c c u r on an 'as r e q u i r e d ' b a s i s . Such i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e not governed by f o r m a l r u l e s o r p r o c e d u r e s , and a r e not u s u a l l y s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y by some h i g h e r a u t h o r -i t y . Such i n t e r a c t i o n s may r e q u i r e some degree o f g o a l consensus and g o o d w i l l . I n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t some b e n e f i t s be g a i n e d by t h e p a r t i e s t o c o - o p e r a t i o n . The b e n e f i t s may be i n t h e form o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e l f - i n t e r e s t s o f o f f i c i a l s . However, t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f such i n t e r e s t s may, i n t u r n , s a t i s f y t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e agency i n w h i c h t h e o f f i c i a l i s employed. The i n d i v i d u a l may g a i n some " p e r s o n a l rewards ( s u c h as f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , and a degree o f s t a b i l i t y o f i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) t h a t a r e a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o t h e 1 fi e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . " - 7 -In, many i n s t a n c e s , i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n may make i t e a s i e r f o r an o f f i c i a l t o do h i s or her j o b . Formal r u l e s under which o f f i c i a l s are expected to operate may be l i m i t i n g or i n a p p r o p r i a t e when encountering novel o r complex s i t u a t i o n s or t a s k s . Indeed, a t times, i t may appear t h a t t h e r e i s no fo r m a l r u l e t o guide an o f f i c i a l i n a s i t u a t i o n demanding 17 a c t i o n . Downs r e f e r s t o use of i n f o r m a l procedures as a means of meeting an agency's o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s (e.g., crime p r e v e n t i o n ) , "by f i l l i n g 'gaps' i n the formal r u l e s , or adapt-i n g those r u l e s t o f i t p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n s . " No set of r u l e s can s p e c i f y i n advance every s i t u a t i o n an o r g a n i z a t i o n encounters. Hence members of every bureau a r e c a l l e d upon;to implement the f o r m a l purposes of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n ways above and beyond those s e t f o r t h i n f o r m a l r u l e s . When such implem-e n t a t i o n s are f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d , o f f i c i a l s tend to r o u t i n i z e them so as t o e l i m i n a t e the cost of t h i n k -i n g out what t o do each time the same s i t u a t i o n r e c u r s . Moreover, such u n w r i t t e n " r u l e s of the road" make each o f f i c i a l ' s b e h a v i o r more p r e d i c t a b l e f o r other o f f i c i a l s who must i n t e r a c t w i t h him. Thus, the need to economize on time by extending the fo r m a l r u l e s t o f i t one's p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s an important cause of i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . Downs a l s o s t a t e s , among h i s many p r o p o s i t i o n s , t h a t , " o r g a n i z a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n r a p i d l y changing and h i g h l y u n c e r t a i n environments tend t o r e l y h e a v i l y on i n f o r m a l s t r u c t -19 ures and procedures." C e r t a i n l y t h i s d e s c r i b e s the g e n e r a l environment i n which the p o l i c e and s o c i a l service., agencies . 20 operate. I t i s a l s o worth n o t i n g t h a t i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i m p l i e s an awareness of the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t e d n e s s and interdependence - 8 -of a g e n c i e s . That i s , i n o r d e r t o c o - o p e r a t e , a g e n c i e s must be, t o some e x t e n t , aware o f t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by o t h e r a g e n c i e s i f t h o s e a g e n c i e s a r e t o be c a l l e d upon t o c o - o p e r a t e i n 21 c o m p l e t i n g a t a s k o r p r o v i d i n g a s o l u t i o n t o a p roblem. F o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r om i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h a t i t i s f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r r e c o g n i z e d , i s u s u a l l y governed by f o r m a l r u l e s , and i s s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y 'vby&a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y . F o r example, t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t was f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d as an i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavour by v i r t u e o f a c o n t r a c t f o r f u n d i n g w i t h t h e J u s t i c e Development Fund of t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department. Moreover, t h e P r o j e c t was governed by a Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee (s e e Diagram No. 1) composed of o f f i c -i a l l y a s s i g n e d agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . W i t h r e g a r d t o r u l e s , ;the P r o j e c t e v e n t u a l l y d e v e l o p e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n 22 among a g e n c i e s under d e f i n e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F i n a l l y , t h e P r o j e c t was e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e r e g u l a r p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s ( d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e f u n d i n g agency, P r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s , and i n t e r e s t e d members o f t h e p u b l i c ) and a f i n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f i t s a c t i v i t i e s ( a p u b l i c document). Not o n l y was t h i s a c o n t r a c t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t , but an e x p e c t a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s . Thus, t h e P r o j e c t was s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y by a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y - - t h e J u s t i c e Development Fund and t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department. F o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n may a l s o be d e f i n e d as a f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n w h i c h a g e n c i e s and t h e i r o f f i c i a l s - 9 -combine t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n an organized manner fo r the promotion of common ends or objectives, i n such a way that the greater the success of one party to the i n t e r a c t i o n , the greater 23 the success of the other party of p a r t i e s . This d e f i n i t i o n draws attention to the importance of goal consensus and the b e l i e f that co-operation must pay. I t also emphasizes that the benefits must be shared among the p a r t i e s . The implication i s that a party's share should be commensurate with i t s contribution to the i n t e r a c t i o n . In comparing formal and informal co-operation, i t can be seen that the former requires a long-term orientation to meeting objectives and gaining benefits. Informal co-operation does not require a long-term commitment. Also, the benefit expectat-ions may be l e s s . In formal arrangements there i s time to weigh benefits c a r e f u l l y and, therefore, expectations may be or may become greater. Informal co-operation seems to focus on person-a l and more immediate, p r a c t i c a l organizational benefits of the o f f i c i a l s concerned, whereas formal co-operation may be concern-ed with broad objectives or p o l i c i e s of organizations. There i s , then, greater l i k e l i h o o d of c o n f l i c t i n formal co-operation. A f i n a l point i s that informal co-operation accommodates goal d i v e r s i t y and respects the functional autonomy of p a r t i c -ipant agencies. In comparison, formal co-operation i s depend-ent upon goal consensus. Also, the scope of the objectives developed i n a formal setting may threaten functional autonomy. This i s , then, i n d i c a t i v e of a need i n formal i n t e r a c t i o n to s t r i k e a balance between goal consensus and goal d i v e r s i t y i f - 10 -inter-agency c o n f l i c t i s to be r e s t r i c t e d and benefits r e a l i z e d by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The benefits to agencies p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Project were to be i n the form of more e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t use of p o l i c e , s o c i a l service, and j u s t i c e system (parole and probation) agency resources i n preventing crime and s o c i a l problems. (Hereafter, the term ' s o c i a l c o n f l i c t ' may be substituted f o r ' s o c i a l problems'.) Another benefit was to be better d e f i n i t i o n and understanding of roles and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , leading to improved re l a t i o n s (goodwill) among pol i c e and agency members. >.(Note that the term 'agency' w i l l sometimes be used to r e f e r to j u s t i c e system agencies other than the p o l i c e , and s o c i a l service agencies both i n the text of t h i s thesis and i n some of the materials cited.) However, there were other agency-s p e c i f i c goals, such as gaining more funds and employees. The motive of s e l f - or agency-interest i s considered by Downs as a major factor i n co-operative interactionudirected toward change or innovation. In seeking change or innovation (and the Project was a device f o r seeking change i n inter-agency r e l a t -ions, as well as innovation i n the form of service co-ordinat-ion), o f f i c i a l s look f o r rewards such as "gains i n power, income, and prestige associated with increases i n the resources 25 controlled by a given o f f i c i a l or a given bureau." The p o s s i b i l i t y of expanding services and, consequently, resources was, indeed, a part of the plan f o r a l l agencies p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Project: - 11 -T a l k o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , and c o - o p e r a t i o n was c e n t r a l t o t h e P r o j e c t and t h i s appeared t o e n t a i l two agendas. The f i r s t was s i m p l y t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f some mechanism t o i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e p o l i c e and s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . Beyond t h i s was t h e assu m p t i o n t h a t t h r o u g h c o - o r d i n a t e d ' p l a n n i n g and perhaps s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s would p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l and more e f f e c t i v e , p r e v e n t a t i v e ^JQ s e r v i c e . Of c o u r s e a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e more r e s o u r -ces and, i f t h e added s e r v i c e s a r e measured t o be e f f e c t i v e , t h e power and t h e p r e s t i g e o f a g e n c i e s would be enhanced. The p o l i c e , however, appear t o have been l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n new r e s o u r c e s . They had a l r e a d y expanded s t a f f - - 40 new c o n s t -a b l e s i n 1971 and 120 were t o be added i n 1976 - - and had funds t o r e n o v a t e b u i l d i n g s and e s t a b l i s h a h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d communication c e n t r e w i t h a computer-based i n f o r m a t i o n system. They were, p r i m a r i l y , i n t e r e s t e d i n making b e t t e r use o f what t h e y had t o p r e v e n t crime and t o de v e l o p a b e t t e r ' p o l i c e image' i n t h e community. Gary P a r k i n s o n summarized t h e major rea s o n s f o r VPD i n t e r e s t i n F i g u r i n g I t Out: An E v a l u a t i o n of  th e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t : ... The i n t e r e s t o f t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department i n a community p o l i c i n g p r o j e c t emerged f r o m t h r e e b r o a d p a t t e r n s w h i c h had been d e v e l o p i n g w i t h i n t h i s c i t y f o r a few y e a r s . F i r s t , as a r e s u l t o f two or t h r e e r a t h e r s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g p o l i c e and c i t i z e n s , t h e p o l i c e department was committed t o e s t a b l i s h i n g d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p o l i c e and t h e community. T h i s began some t i m e ago w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n of a few w a l k i n g b e a t s and s c h o o l l i a i s o n programs. Second, t h e department w i s h e d t o become more e f f e c t i v e -l y i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r components o f t h e s e t of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . As a r e s u l t o f an a n a l y s i s o f j u v e n i l e a r r e s t s i n t h e l a t e 1960s, t h e department became v e r y much aware o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r ' c l i e n t s ' and t h e s e r v i c e p o t e n t i a l o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s . I t was a s h o r t s t e p f r o m t h i s t o s e e i n g how t h e e a r l y i n v o l -vement o f community a g e n c i e s c o u l d r e s u l t i n c r i m e - 12 -prevention. The notion of diversion [ i . e . , d iverting offenders to s o c i a l service agencies instead of invok-ing the f u l l criminal j u s t i c e process] was also given si g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s context. The department became involved i n programs of t h i s type through a series of [pre-1975] community p o l i c i n g projects. . . . . . A Common problem of the project approach to community p o l i c i n g was the i s o l a t i o n of the policemen involved from t h e i r colleagues, and frequently a con-fusion about the policeman's r o l e . The t h i r d desire, then, was to provide a framework f o r the creation of community p o l i c i n g programs which would b u i l d i n support f o r the po l i c e constables and produce c l a r i t y ? rather than confusion about po l i c e r o l e s . (Parkinson's emphasis.) F i n a l l y , consideration i s due the importance of goal consensus i n formal co-operation. With reference to our d e f i n i t i o n of formal co-operation requiring mutually agree'd upon objectives, we w i l l examine i t s importance i n the next section. IV. GOAL CONSENSUS The term 'goal consensus* i s used here to denote agreement among members of a given group on a goal or set of goals. The Police and Community Services Project developed on the assumpt-ion that there was consensus on the goal of establishing i n t e r -agency co-operation leading to co-ordination of police and 2ct agency services. This assumption developed from a p r i o r assumption that p o l i c e , parole, probation, and s o c i a l service agencies share a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r preventionof icrime and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . While these assumptions were not necessarily 29 correct, the f a c t remains that the police and agencies made commitments to the Project on the basis of these assumptions. - 13 -We may, therefore, assume that there was consensus on the goal of establishing inter-agency co-operation leading to co-ordination of services. The Project, then, became the formal s e t t i n g f o r inter-agency co-operation and service co-ordination. The Project was not successful, however, i n sustaining formal inter-agency co-operation and, as the Project ended, the p o l i c e and agencies returned to informal co-operation. Why, then, i f there was goal consensus, was i t not possible to sustain co-operation? Antonio Jorge, i n Competition,  Co-operation, E f f i c i e n c y , and S o c i a l Organization, provides a clue when he l i n k s goal consensus with the notion that i t must be apparent that co-operation provides benefits. In a sense, then, the perception of goal consensus ( i . e . , harmony of interests) holds out the promise of benefit ( i . e . , i t i s apparent that i t pays) i n that i t denotes a sharing of i n t e r e s t i n cer t a i n goals and agreement to e f f e c t a purpose described by those goals. Moreover, goal consensus reduces c o n f l i c t , thus promoting co-ordination f a c i l i t a t i n g the s a t i s -f a c t i o n of goals. Downs has expressed t h i s as follows: "Within any organization greater goal consensus reduces the 30 - 1 4 -number and i n t e n s i t y o f c o n f l i c t s among members, t h u s i m p r o v i n g 3 1 t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n . " Y e t , even w i t h g o a l consensus, c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n -a t i o n may n o t c o n t i n u e i f some p a r t i c i p a n t s do not g e t t h e 3 2 d i r e c t c r e d i t t h e y f e e l t h e y d e s e r v e f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n . W i l l i a m C l i f f o r d , i n P l a n n i n g Crime P r e v e n t i o n , p o i n t s t o a n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a g e n c i e s , but he a l s o r e t u r n s t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t p romise o f b e n e f i t i s a s t r o n g m o t i v e f o r development o f c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s : Too o f t e n , t h e v e r y s t r u c t u r e s o f a government o r m i n i s t r y o r a group of m i n i s t r i e s o r departments i s s u ch t h a t on a day-to-day b a s i s c o o r d i n a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o e n s u r e , d e s p i t e a g r e a t d e a l o f g o o d w i l l , p e r s i s t e n t e x h o r t a t i o n , and any number o f r e g u l a r , meetings d e s i g n e d t o c o o r d i n a t e . Human n a t u r e b e i n g what i t i s , and t h e power s t r u c t u r e s o f our s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e i n g what t h e y a r e , c o o r d i n a t i o n appears t o come more e a s i l y where i t i s e i t h e r e n j o i n e d by a u t h o r i t y (so t h a t t h e r e i s a l o s s o f s t a t u s o r t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f p e n a l i z a t i o n f r o m a r e s i s t a n c e t o co-o r d i n a t i o n ) or where i t i s e v i n c e d by t h e p r o m i s e of more funds and more d e p a r t m e n t a l development i n r e t u r n f o r more c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n f o r dove-t a i l i n g t h e m i n i s t r y ' s [ o r a g ency's] work w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s o r a g e n c i e s . ^ I n t h e Vancouver s i t u a t i o n examined h e r e i n , f o r m a l co-o p e r a t i o n was not e n j o i n e d by a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y , but t h e r e was p r e s s u r e f r om t h e B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department t o d e v e l o p f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n S e c t i o n I V . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n can be hampered as w e l l as e n j o i n e d by h i g h e r - 15 -a u t h o r i t i e s . F o r example , p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s may change g o v e r n -ment p o l i c y and t h e r e b y a l t e r t h e g o a l s o r s t r u c t u r e o f a n agency o r a g e n c i e s . These changes may t a k e agency a t t e n t i o n away f rom c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavours because t h e agency w i l l be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n d e e d , d u r i n g s u c h p e r i o d s o f change , i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s may be o f A^ery l o w p r i o r i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a g e n c i e s m i g h t use i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n as a means o f r e d e f i n i n g t h e i r r o l e s i n l i g h t o f government p o l i c y c h a n g e s . I n t h e case o f t h e P r o j e c t , a change i n gove rnmen t , r e s u l t i n g i n a change i n s o c i a l p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , l e s s e n e d t h e commitment o f t h o s e a g e n c i e s t o t h e P r o j e c t . V. SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has been d e v o t e d t o d i s c u s s i o n o f m o t i v e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h and s u s t a i n f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n . P r i m a r y i n t e r e s t has been i n t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s u s t a i n e d , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t ( i . e . , t h a t i t p a y s ) t o each p a r t i c i p a n t . F o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n has been d e f i n e d as a f o r m a l l y . c o n s t i t u t e d o r r e c o g n i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n w h i c h a g e n c i e s and t h e i r o f f i c i a l s combine t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n an o r g a n i z e d manner f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f common ends o r o b j e c t i v e s , i n s u c h a way t h a t a l l b e n e f i t by each o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s . The d e f i n i t i o n deno tes some degree o f g o a l c o n s e n s u s , t h a t i s , p r o m o t i o n o f common ends o r o b j e c t i v e s ; c o - o r d i n a t i o n , t h a t i s , c o m b i n i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a n o r g a n i z e d manner; and l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t . - 16 -F o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i s a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the f a c t t h a t i t i s governed by f o r m a l r u l e s and i s s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y by a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y . The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e P r o j e c t , t o be examined i n d e t a i l i n C hapter Three, was seen t o f i t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . G o a l consensus has been s i n g l e d out as a key r e q u i s i t e f o r s u s t a i n e d , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . I n so d o i n g , g o a l consensus was n o t e d t o depend on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f b e n e f ^ i t . I t was a l s o seen as a means o f i m p r o v i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f g o a l s and t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t . I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e b a l a n c e between g o a l consensus and g o a l d i v e r s i t y i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . Throughout t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u s t a i n e d , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t t o p a r t i c i p a n t s has been r e t u r n e d t o t i m e and a g a i n . I t appears t h a t i t may be t h e most i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of s u s t a i n e d , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . We w i l l r e t u r n t o t h i s h y p o t h e s i s once t h e P r o j e c t has been d e s c r i b e d . F i r s t , however, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine a p e r i o d o f i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n p r e c e d i n g t h e development o f t h e P r o j e c t . T h i s i s t h e . s u b j e c t o f t h e f o l l o w -- i n g c h a p t e r . - 17 -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER ONE For example, the person a policeman arrests today may, as the r e s u l t of a court decision or exercise -of discret±on by a prosecutor, end up on a s o c i a l worker's oraprobation o f f i c e r ' s case l i s t . On the other hand, a s o c i a l worker may be unable to resolve a violent family dispute and so (s)he c a l l s i n the po l i c e to invoke the criminal j u s t i c e process ( i . e . , to arrest and charge someone), or to act as a control agent. S i m i l a r l y , probation o f f i c e r s use the p o l i c e to control or apprehend probation v i o l a t o r s . I t also must.be noted that there i s considerable evidence to suggest that lower socio-economic classes tend to be involved i n both the s o c i a l welfare system and criminal j u s t i c e system. See R. Quinney, Critique of Legal Order (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 19747^ See Anthony Downs, Inside Bureaucracy (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1967), pp» 6 l - 65, f o r a discussion of informal structures and behaviour. For a somewhat more philosophical discussion of formal and informal co-operation see: Antonio Jorge, Competition, Co-operation, E f f i c i e n c y , •^and S o c i a l Organization (Rutherford, |_N.J.J: F a i r l e i g h Dickinson University Press, 197$), pp. 19 - 33* Jorge uses the terms 'conscious' and 'unconscious' co-operation to describe, respectively, forms s i m i l a r to formal and informal co-operation. See Downs, p. 216. Downs expresses t h i s i n his Law of Interorganizational C o n f l i c t : "Every large organization i s i n p a r t i a l c o n f l i c t with every other s o c i a l agent i t deals with." ^This hypothesis i s drawn, i n part, from Jorge, p. 20. He states that, "... i f conscious cooperation i s to endure without love or r a d i c a l s a c r i f i c e as a motivating power, i t must be apparent that ' i t pays'." This proposition i s also supported by Downs when discuss-ing processes of change and the motive of s e l f - i n t e r e s t . "We have seen that s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s a powerful cause of i n e r t i a , but i t can also motivate change i f o f f i c i a l s receive greater rewards f o r a l t e r i n g the status quo than preserving i t . " Downs, p. 198. - 18' -Helen C. H i l l i n g , "Public Administration: Study, Practice, Profession," Public Administration Review, V o l . XXVI, No. 4 (December 1966), p. 320. ~~" 6Ibid., p. 324. 7 See Latheef N. Ahmed, "Public Administration as Commens-alism: A D e f i n i t i o n , " Public Administration Review, Vol. XXVI, No. 3 (September 1966), pp. 215 - 216. Ahmed suggests that a l l behavioural, s t r u c t u r a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l factors surrounding and within public administration a c t i v i t i e s i n t e r -act i n a commensal manner. 8 Studies of c a l l s to the p o l i c e f o r assistance i n non-criminal matters, that i s , so-called 'service c a l l s ' which may involve family f i g h t s , complaints about noisy neighbours, health emergencies, t r a f f i c accidents, and so on, show that these c a l l s constitute between f i f t y and eighty per cent of a l l c a l l s to the p o l i c e . This i s usually seen as a r e s u l t of the f a c t that the p o l i c e department i s the only recognized twenty four hour per day, public service agency. See Herman Goldstein, P o l i c i n g A Free. Society (Cambridge, [Mass.]: Bal l i n g e r Publishing Co., 1977), pp. 24 - 29. Also see "Monograph 1: Citizen.Requests For Service And Vancouver Polic e Department Response," The S o c i a l Service  Role of the P o l i c e : Domestic C r i s i s Intervention'^Vancouver: United Way of Greater Vancouver, January 1976). 9 The term "crime prevention" i s often used to describe actions taken by the police (sometimes i n co-operation with other agencies or the public) to reduce the incidence of p a r t i c u l a r crimes such as burglary, rape, s h o p l i f t i n g , etc., or to reduce crime i n a p a r t i c u l a r area such as a manufacturing d i s t r i c t or a complex of apartment buildings. In t h i s thesis the term i s used to describe attempts to bring about a reduct-ion i n a l l forms of crime. Herein, I have adopted the d e f i n -i t i o n of crime prevention developed by the Ontario Task Force On P o l i c i n g (1974). I t i s the d e f i n i t i o n which was used by the Vancouver Polic e and Community Services Project discussed i n Chapter Three: There i s a need fo r more emphasis on crime prevent-ion - a role which tends to be neglected because of the demands f o r responsive service and the incident orientation of most o f f i c e r s . Crime prevention includes a range of a c t i v i t i e s . Some are aimed at a l l e v i a t i n g s o c i a l conditions which are c l o s e l y associated with crime. Others have to do with improvements i n the detection and apprehension of , criminals - with steps f o r reintegrating offenders , into communities... S t i l l others, such as 'hardening of the s i t e ' , emphasize methods to make criminal - 19 " a c t i v i t y more d i f f i c u l t . Crime prevention implies a longer-term orientation f o r the p o l i c e . Cited i n Gary Parkinson, Figuring I t Out; An Evaluation  of the Police and Community Services Project (Vancouver; B.C. Justice Development Commission, March 1977), p. 36. 10 In 1971, Vancouver was divided into four p o l i c e d i s t r i c t s . The P a trol D i v i s i o n which previously had been only responsible f o r responding to c a l l s f o r service now became responsible f o r prevention a c t i v i t i e s such as community relations programs, rel a t i o n s with s o c i a l service agencies, police-school l i a i s o n , s urveillance, property and person checks, and foot p a t r o l s . 11 U n t i l 1973, the C i t y of Vancouver was responsible f o r the administration of s o c i a l welfare services and public health. Also, private agencies such as the Children's Aid Society and Catholic Family Services held mandates to deal with juvenile and family problems. In 1973 these services were taken over by the Human Resources Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Government and administered under the Community Resources Board Act through l o c a l l y elected boards and appointed o f f i c i a l s . Further d e t a i l i s provided i n Chapter Two. 12 A l i s t of these agencies i s given i n Diagram No. 1. However, i t should be noted that the Vancouver South Community Resources Board provided services to f a m i l i e s , juveniles, and pensioners. These services were of a diverse nature. Further information on statutory and non-statutory services of CRBs appears i n Chapter Two. 13 The term "demonstration project" i s important to note because i t was used i n many Project documents to express the intention that the Project would provide a model that could be applied when the Project ended. I t was expected by some (notably the p o l i c e , the B.C. Police Commission, and the Project Director) that there would simply be a t r a n s i t i o n from the Project to an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d set of inter-agency r e l a t i o n s , perhaps i n the form of an inter-agency council. ^^Parkinson, p. 1+6, 1 5 I b i d „ p. 50. l 6 Downs, p. 65. Rewards i n terms of interpersonal r e l a t -ionships f o r a detached s o c i a l worker or policemen who work alone f o r long periods:of time may be important i n maintaining morale. good example of t h i s i s a d o m e s t i c d i s p u t e where a p o l i c e m a n o f t e n cannot, under t h e law, do a n y t h i n g u n l e s s one o f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e d i s p u t e l o d g e s a c o m p l a i n t . He may s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d seek c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h a s o c i a l w o r k e r , but he cannot compel them:to do s o . However, t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n comes from a p o l i c e m a n g i v e s i t w e i g h t . "^Downs, p. 63 • " ^ I b i d . , p. 266. I n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s and p r o c e d u r e s i n t h i s case r e f e r t o a c t i v i t i e s not governed by f o r m a l r u l e s , b u t w h i c h a r e p e r s i s t e n t . Because t h e b e h a v i o u r i s p e r s i s t e n t i t t e n d s t o become a c c e p t e d as a s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r example, f o r many y e a r s t h e Vancouver p o l i c e have r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e many s o c i a l p r oblems, s u c h as f a m i l y f i g h t s , m e n t a l h e a l t h breakdowns, and a l c o h o l i s m , f o r w h i c h t h e y have n e i t h e r t h e t r a i n i n g , t i m e , o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under t h e l a w t o d e a l w i t h . Because t h e y a r e c a l l e d upon f i r s t t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e problems, t h e y have t r i e d t o d e v i s e i n f o r m a l means t o d i v e r t s uch cases t o a g e n c i e s b e s t equipped and t r a i n e d t o d e a l w i t h them. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t h e y have asked a g e n c i e s t o p r o v i d e a " p o l i c e l i a i s o n s o c i a l w o r k e r " . Now, w h i l e t h e r e have been p o l i c e l i a i s o n s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o r k i n g w i t h i n p o l i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r a number o f y e a r s , i t has been t h e r e s u l t o f an i n f o r m a l arrangement, b u t one w h i c h has p e r s i s t e d , i s r e c o g n i z e d , but not f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d . A l s o , p o l i c e m e n i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e c i t y may g e t t o know p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e same a r e a and e s t a b l i s h p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a l l o w f o r some exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n on p o t e n t i a l o f f e n d e r s and c r i m i n -a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r e a . Then, when a problem a r i s e s , t h e y can q u i c k l y r e f e r t h e problem t o t h e p e r s o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e agency b e s t equipped, b e s t t r a i n e d , and l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r v i c e s t o h a n d l e t h e s i t u a t i o n . 20 The p o l i c e and s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e t i o n because o f t h e d i v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e y t y p i c a l l y must o p e r a t e . 21 F o r example, a p o l i c e m a n , when i n t e r v e n i n g i n a f a m i l y d i s p u t e w h i c h does not r e q u i r e f o r m a l p o l i c e a c t i o n ( i . e . , a r r e s t ) , may c a l l upon a s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency s p e c i a l i z i n g i n f a m i l y problems f o r a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s b o t h an awareness o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p o l i c e r u l e s do not c o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n . F o r t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency, s u c h i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c e a s s i s t s i n i d e n t -i f y i n g a p r oblem s i t u a t i o n w h i c h o t h e r w i s e might not r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p o l i c e and a g e n c i e s d e v e l o p e d a b o o k l e t d e s c r i b i n g problem s i t u a t i o n s and t h e agency most - 21 -capable of d e a l i n g w i t h them. While there were many problems i n v o l v e d i n developing such g u i d e l i n e s , there was nevertheless a c l e a r attempt to e s t a b l i s h some formal r u l e s . 23 This d e f i n i t i o n i s derived, i n p a r t , from the D i c t i o n a r y  of Sociology, Ed., Henry.Pratt F a i r c h i l d (Totowa, [N.J.J: L i t t l e f i e l d , Adams & Co., 1970), p. 68. 2 ^ F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a t i n g agency, J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n , was concerned w i t h expanding i t s r o l e . I t had, i n f a c t , a s h r i n k i n g c l i e n t e l e . The f o l l o w i n g excerpt from a c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h a member of the P r o j e c t emphasizes the p o i n t : J u v e n i l e Probation wanted to f o s t e r a b e t t e r image. The p o l i c e were r e s o l v i n g most problems w i t h juven-i l e s themselves or p u t t i n g them through the c o u r t s . JP was running out of c l i e n t s . They were no' help t o the k i d s anyway. So, w i t h a b e t t e r image, they thought the p o l i c e would k i c k more k i d s i n t o the system.... [ J u v e n i l e Probation's P r o j e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ] wanted P r o j e c t support f o r J u v e n i l e Probation's demands f o r more s t a f f . 2 5Downs, p. 198. ^ P a r k i n s o n , p. 40. 2 7 I b i d . , pp. 32 - 33. 28 See Parkinson, p. 46. P r o j e c t documents r e f e r r e d to a l l agencies ( i n c l u d i n g the p o l i c e ) having a mandate to prevent crime and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . I n f a c t , they do not. I t must be assumed t h a t what was meant was that agencies share a moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - - and so does the general p u b l i c . However, agencies other than the p o l i c e have no formal or l e g a l respon-s i b i l i t y f o r preventing crime and, i n f a c t , they may be q u i t e w i l l i n g to leave crime problems to the p o l i c e , i n much the same way t h a t the p o l i c e are w i l l i n g t o leave s o c i a l w e l f a r e problems to s o c i a l workers. 29 / See W i l l i a m C l i f f o r d , Planning Crime Prevention (Lexing-ton, [Mass.]: D.C. Heath & Co., 1976), p. 23, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the u n w i l l i n g n e s s of agencies and the p u b l i c to become i n v o l v e d i n crime prevention. 30 Jorge, p. 20. 31 Downs, p. 223. 3 2 C l i f f o r d , p. 92. 3 3 I b i d . - 22 -CHAPTER TWO PRELUDE TO FORMAL CO-OPERATION I . INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e c o n d i t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h l e d t o an attempt t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l c o -o p e r a t i o n among t h e p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s i n Vancouver. A p e r i o d o f i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , 1963 t o 1974, drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s i n p r e v e n t i n g crime and r e l a t e d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . W h i l e i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o acco u n t f o r each and e v e r y f a c t o r w h i c h l e d t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e need t o c o - o p e r a t e , t h e r e a r e some w h i c h s t a n d o u t . C l e a r l y t h e p o l i c e were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d crime but had n e i t h e r t h e r e s o u r c e s nor a l l t h e e x p e r t i s e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t i t s i n c r e a s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , w h i l e h a v i n g t h e e x p e r t i s e t o t r e a t s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , were not c o - o r d i n a t i n g s e r v i c e s so as t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e . A l s o , t h e y r e q u i r e d some means o f i d e n t i f y i n g a r e a s (and p e r s o n s ) i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d p r o v i d e h e l p . Meanwhile, p e o p l e i n need o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d h e l p i n i d e n t i f y i n g and g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o them. - 23 -What w i l l be described here i s a period of 'finding out'. The p o l i c e found out that they could not deal successfully with crime increases, r i o t s , and juvenile delinquency without attack-ing these problems at t h e i r source. S o c i a l service agencies found out that the pol i c e were dealing with problems which the agencies and the pol i c e thought were better handled by s o c i a l workers. Social service agencies, then, saw a need to develop closer l i a i s o n with the pol i c e i f they, the agencies, were to have these problems directed to them. Thus i t evolved that the pol i c e helped to i d e n t i f y many s o c i a l problems and then referred them to s o c i a l agencies. In so doing, informal mechanisms dev-eloped f o r r e f e r r a l of problems to appropriate agencies, and t h i s l e d to co-operation i n development of solutions. This chapter provides, i n eff e c t , a b r i e f h i s t o r y of s o c i a l conditions and crime problems which required informal co-operation f o r t h e i r treatment. This w i l l be followed by some examples of co-operative ventures. I t w i l l be evident that while policemen and s o c i a l workers have d i f f e r e n t world views ( i n f a c t , on a l i b e r a l to conservative spectrum they would be considered to be at opposite ends) they agreed to co-operate so as to increase the effectiveness and e f f i c i e n c y of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l services. F i n a l l y , I w i l l r e l a t e some of the professional and p o l i t i c a l i n i t i a t i v e s and pressures which ca l l e d f o r formal co-operation among a l l agencies i n crime and s o c i a l problem prevention and treatment. - 2k -I I . CRIME PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL PRESSURES IN THE SIXTIES Over t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , t h e Canadian c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system has been s u b j e c t e d t o growing demands f o r more e f f e c t i v e means t o d e a l w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n crime and r e l a t e d s o c i a l p r o b -lems. Many s o c i a l f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e i i n c r e a s e s : l i b e r a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l norms and v a l u e s , a f f l u e n c e and consumerism, d e t e r i o r a t i o n of p r i m a r y s o c i a l networks ( e . g . , t h e f a m i l y and neighbourhood f r i e n d s ) , absence o f community s p i r i t , and mass media emphasis on v i o l e n c e and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . Crime i n c r e a s e s c o u p l e d w i t h concerns o v e r t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f s o c i a l l i f e have l e d p e o p l e t o demand some means o f r e d u c i n g i n s e c u r i t y . Thus, p r e s s u r e has mounted f o r t h e p o l i c e , s o c i e t y ' s most e v i d e n t p r o blem s o l v i n g agency, t o respond t o t h o s e demands. Herman G o l d s t e i n comments i n P o l i c i n g A F r e e S o c i e t y : Each o f t h e major problems f o r w h i c h t h e p o l i c e have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e has i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y y i n t h i s p a s t decade. The i n c i d e n c e o f v i o l e n t crime has r i s e n s h a r p l y and c o n t i n u e s t o c l i m b . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e f e a r o f c r i m e has r e s u l t e d i n mounting p r e s s u r e on t h e p o l i c e t o p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y -o f t e n a t t h e c o s t o f d e a l i n g more d i r e c t l y w i t h ^ t h e crime problem. G o l d s t e i n , w r i t i n g f r o m an American p e r s p e c t i v e , a l s o n o t e s t h e e f f e c t s o f l a r g e - s c a l e d i s o r d e r s , s uch as r i o t s , i n t h e s i x t i e s . - 25 -The most immediate challenge, f o r the p o l i c e , was to bring the r i o t s under control. . . A d d i t i o n a l l y , because the r i o t s were a form of protest against a whole range of problems and i n j u s t i c e s that plague our society, the p o l i c e were pressured into examining aspects of t h e i r own operations that may have contributed to the widespread discontent of ^ minority groups i n urban areas. The p o l i c e i n Vancouver faced s i m i l a r , but not as severe problems i n the 1 9 6 0 s and the early 1 9 7 0 s . Increases i n crimes against property and, notably, burglary and vandalism of private homes also fed public fears. The 1 9 7 0 Annual  Report of the Vancouver Polic e Department (VPD) notes, "[c]onsistent with the pattern of the past several years, to a very large extent young people are continuing to be responsible f o r the majority of crimes i n t h i s category [crimes against property]." Concomitant with the increase i n crimes against property, fraudulent use of credit cards and misrepresentations i n obtain-ing welfare benefits increased. I mention these s p e c i f i c a l l y because they are crimes which, at base, probably r e s u l t from s o c i a l conditions. Public disorders also are usually the results of s o c i a l problems. The Annual Report of the VPD i n 1 9 7 0 gives some idea of the i n t e n s i t y of the s o c i a l malaise of the period: Protest parades, a c t i v i t i e s of dissident groups, and st r e e t disturbances placed heavy demands on available manpower. Four of the more notable incidents were the Siege of the Public Safety B u i l d -ing i n May; the Liberation of Stanley Park i n June; the English Bay disturbance during the Sea F e s t i v a l i n July; and the Jericho Hostel e v i c t i o n [of so-c a l l e d Hippies] i n October. Despite the offensive - 26 -a t t i t u d e and conduct o f many.of t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d , and t h e i r o b v i o u s attempt t o c r e a t e a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c e , members o f t h e F o r c e conducted t h e m s e l v e s i n a h i g h l y commendable p r o f e s s i o n a l manner and i n so d o i n g earned t h e , r e s p e c t o f t h e community. However, one e f f e c t o f t h e s e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s was t h a t t h e p o l i c e f e l t p r e s s e d t o f i n d ways o f r e a c h i n g and e d u c a t i n g o r c o n v e r t i n g a n t i - p o l i c e g r o u p s , even though i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e s e groups were r e a c t i n g t o s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o v e r w h i c h t h e p o l i c e had no c o n t r o l . The i m p r e s s i o n s h o u l d not be g a i n e d t h a t r i o t s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d t o produce change. I t was a l s o e v i d e n t t o t h e p o l i c e and t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s i n l e s s t u multuous t i m e s t h a t changes were r e q u i r e d . A good example of t h i s had t o do w i t h j u v e n i l e c rime and d e l i n q u e n c y . These problems were o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o VPD and, i n 1963, a Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad (YPS) was formed. I n a d d i t i o n t o a h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f crimes such as t h e f t , b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , and s h o p l i f t i n g , t h i s p e r i o d was marked by j u v e n i l e gang a c t i v i t y w h i c h o f t e n l e d t o v a n d a l i s m o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . I t was e v i d e n t t o t h e p o l i c e t h a t t h e y d i d not have t h e n e c e s s a r y r e s o u r c e s t o d i r e c t j u v e n i l e s t o l e s s d e s t r u c t -i v e p u r s u i t s , and t o c o u n s e l them, w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s . So t h e p o l i c e began w o r k i n g out i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t -i v e p r o j e c t s w i t h s c h o o l s , community r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s , - 27 -s o c i a l agencies (e.g., Children's Aid Society), and juvenile probation services. The 1 9 6 6 report of the Squad describes p o l i c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community centre dances and sports a c t i v i t i e s , in-school a c t i v i t i e s , and even beach p a r t i e s . Members of the YPS also gave talks (lectures) to school classes, parent-teacher groups, and service groups (Lions, Kiwanis, etc.) to increase community awareness of juvenile problems and to explain the r o l e of the p o l i c e i n the commun-i t y . In 1 9 6 6 , informal inter-agency co-operation seemed to be taking a step forward: There has been noted improvement on a l l fronts i n regard to o u r ' l i a i s o n with the outside prof-essional agencies. We are not experiencing previous d i f f i c u l t i e s we had i n communicating with these people. They are now phoning us with r e g u l a r i t y and advising us with completeness on t h e i r plans of attack with any s p e c i f i c problems we have sent to them. The change of attitude of the school authorities has been most encouraging and b e n e f i c i a l to both sides. For t h e i r part, s o c i a l service agencies reacted to the p o l i c e i n i t i a t i v e s by deploying workers to problem areas but, l i k e the p o l i c e , on an 'as required* basis. O r i g i n a l l y the Y.P.S. was formed to cope with youth problems i n the Fraserview area and part of the role at that time was very near to that of a detached [ s o c i a l ] worker. I t was because of t h i s project and the involvement of the Y.P.S. that the s o c i a l work agencies i n the area came to r e a l i z e the serious need f o r detached workers and subsequently placed detached workers i n these 6 problem areas. In reviewing i n t e r n a l p o l i c e documents on juvenile crime - 28 -and delinquency prevention up to 1975, i t i s apparent that juvenile problems did not decrease and, therefore, the need f o r informal mechanisms fo r co-operation among the p o l i c e , s o c i a l service agencies, schools, and juvenile probation service remained and became accepted p r a c t i c e . But another important understanding developed during t h i s period. I t was that crime and delinquency had to be dealt with comprehensively on a l o c a l basis. The co-operative projects which had developed i n t h i s early period were, to some extent, neighbourhood-specific. That i s , resources were deployed to 'trouble spots' and when the problem or problems appeared to be resolved, the resources were withdrawn. This meant that the p o l i c e and the agency workers gained only a l i m i t e d understanding of the area's problems. I t was r e a l i z e d , then, that a f u l l e r understanding was required i f long-term solutions were to be developed. The p o l i c e also came to r e a l i z e that, i n addition to understanding the obvious nature of the crime and delinquency problems, they had to examine resources available within the community f o r solving such problems, and the prevalent a t t i t -udes and s o c i a l values of the community. An example of an application of t h i s approach was the formation of an East Indian Squad to deal with c o n f l i c t s and vigilanteism i n Vancouver's large East Indian community. The men of the East Indian Squad were able to explain to that community how s o c i a l c o n f l i c t and crime problems are handled i n Canada. In t h i s manner, the c u l t u r a l gap was, i n part, closed. - 29 -I I I . DECENTRALIZATION OF POLICE SERVICES W i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t community-by-community r e s p o n s e s were needed, t h e p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s began t o d e c e n t r a l i z e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . F o r example, s t u d i e s were under-t a k e n by VPD's P l a n n i n g and R e s e a r c h U n i t (formed i n 1969) t o examine a l l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e , " w i t h a v i e w t o impr -7 o v i n g e f f i c i e n c y . " These s t u d i e s l o o k e d a t deployment patter-... r n s , use o f manpower, manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s , and t h e a d m i n i s t -r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e department. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , t h e department was r e o r g a n i z e d i n 1971 and manpower was i n c r e a s e d by 40 c o n s t a b l e s . C e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s such as communications and r e c o r d - k e e p i n g were improved t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e development o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d p a t r o l system w h i c h was t o have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n , as w e l l as f o r s e r v -i c i n g c o m p l a i n t s . On J a n u a r y 17, 1971, Community P o l i c i n g was i n t r o -duced. The P a t r o l D i v i s i o n was r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h emphasis p l a c e d on a community approach t o p a t r o l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The c i t y was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s t r i c t s w i t h an O f f i c e r [ I n s p e c t o r ] p l a c e d i n charge o f each D i s t r i c t w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a 24-hour b a s i s f o r t h e deployment and e f f i c i e n t use o f manpower a s s i g n e d t o him. The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o i n v o l v e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f two b a s i c p a t r o l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - - g s e r v i c i n g o f c o m p l a i n t s and crime p r e v e n t i o n . The c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n u n i t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o d u t i e s i n s u r v e i l l a n c e and p r o p e r t y and p e r s o n c h e c k s , were a l s o used as f o o t p a t r o l s i n a r e a s w i t h a l o t o f s t r e e t a c t i v i t y . - 30 -What was innovative i n t h i s reorganization was that the p o l i c e were then able to learn about s p e c i f i c problems i n t h e i r D i s t r i c t s i n depth and, thus, develop solutions that took into account the nature of the D i s t r i c t . They were also able to establish firmer, long-term relationships with l o c a l agencies and community organizations. Thus, the p o l i c e became part of the " l o c a l scene" and t h e i r image as nondescript blue figures i n passing p a t r o l cars began to fade. Another change occurred i n 1 9 7 2 . I t can be seen to r e s u l t from e a r l i e r experiences of the p o l i c e i n informal co-operation. The Youth Preventive Squad became the School Liai s o n O f f i c e r program and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were placed i n many of Vancouver's high schools (secondary schools) on a f u l l - t i m e basis. These School L i a i s o n O f f i c e r s (SLOs) were also responsible f o r l i a i s o n with s a t e l l i t e elementary schools of the high schools. SLOs do not " p o l i c e " the schools, but are a v a i l a b l e to the school and the community as a resource. An i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e r deals with a school population which can vary from 4,200 to 5,500 students. The SL0 i s provided with o f f i c e space i n the school to which he or she i s assigned and i s a v a i l a b l e on a regularebasis f o r consultation q with parents, students, and, yes, teachers. The program which i s s t i l l i n existence as part of VPD's team p o l i c i n g system has been so successful that doctors, school counsellors, and s o c i a l workers have referred parents and students to SLOs for assistance. Thus, these o f f i c e r s act as resources or catalysts f o r informal resolution of school and family problems. - 31 -I V . PRESSURE FOR POLICE REFORM W h i l e t h e p o l i c e were t a k i n g s t e p s t o d e c e n t r a l i z e s e r v i c e s and t o work i n f o r m a l l y w i t h s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , a d d i t -i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s f o r r e f o r m were mounting. I n June 1972, a group of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m p o l i c e f o r c e s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h Columbia, and some members o f t h e B.C. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department, s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l government w h i c h i n d i c a t e d some o f t h e changes r e q u i r e d i n B.C.'s p o l i c i n g s ystems. The r e p o r t recommended, " t h a t a P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e Commission be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e t o promote the p r e v e n t i o n of crime and t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f p o l i c e s e r v i c e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . " " ^ The r e p o r t was prompted by t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n crime i n B...C, e s p e c i a l l y i n d r u g - r e l a t e d o f f e n c e s and c r i m e s committed 11 by j u v e n i l e s . I t was a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t B.C. d i d not have enough p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s t o p r o v i d e adequate p o l i c e s e r v i c e . The number o f cases h a n d l e d p e r c o n s t a b l e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n i n any o t h e r p r o v i n c e o f Canada. No a c t i o n was t a k e n on t h e r e p o r t i n 1972. I n November 1973, t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l of t h e newly e l e c t e d New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (NDP) government i n i t i a t e d d i s c u s s i o n s on p o l i c e problems w i t h p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . The A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l a l s o i n v i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p r o f e s s i o n -a l and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o j o i n i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s : - 32 -There was s u b s t a n t i a l agreement w i t h i n t h e group as t o t h e main i s s u e s t h a t must be d e a l t w i t h i n o r d e r t o improve t h e l e v e l o f p o l i c e s e r v i c e i n t h e p r o v i n c e . These i s s u e s were: p o l i c e r o l e , s t a n d a r d s , r e c r u i t m e n t , t r a i n i n g , community r e l a t -i o n s , and abuse of a u t h o r i t y . On t h e i s s u e o f p o l i c e r o l e , i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t had expanded i n t o t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e a r e a w i t h o u t g u i d e l i n e s o r s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g o f o f f i c e r s . W h i l e i t was c l e a r t h a t p o l i c e m e n s h o u l d not become s o c i a l workers,&and t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s s h o u l d not become p o l i c e m e n , t h e p o l i c e had become t h e r e c o g n i z e d 2 4-hour p e r day agency c a l l e d upon t o i n t e r v e n e i n a wide v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . I t was a g r e e d t h a t i f t h e p o l i c e were t o c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r v e n e i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , t h e y s h o u l d d e v e l o p f o r m a l and s u s t a i n e d l i a i s o n w i t h t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e system, r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n t h e hand-l i n g o f d o m e s t i c d i s p u t e s , and d e v e l o p f i r m g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s . The d e c i s i o n s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s make w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s c r e t i o n not t o i n v o k e t h e c r i m i n a l p r o c e s s , l e v e l s o f enforcement p r i o r i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n k i n d s o f o f f e n c e s , d i v e r s i o n t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e networks and i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n a t t h e community l e v e l have i m p o r t a n t consequences a t each subsequent s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e s s . B e i n g p a r t o f a l a r g e r system, p o l i c e p o l i c y must be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system as a whole and t h i s r e q u i r e s more -e f f e c t i v e l i a i s o n t h r o u g h t h e s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n - , and j o i n t p l a n n i n g . The group i n i t i a l l y c a l l e d t o g e t h e r by t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l was expanded and a s k ed t o d r a f t a s t a t u t e w h i c h would c o n t a i n t h e i r recommendations. T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d and t h e - 33 -d r a f t was c i r c u l a t e d t o i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , i n c l u d i n g p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s and o f f i c e r s o f v a r i o u s r a n k . Some changes were s u g g e s t e d by t h o s e p a r t i e s and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e p r o p o s e d l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l a c c e p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e . I n March 1974, t h e new P o l i c e A c t p a s s e d t h i r d r e a d i n g i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t about t h e P o l i c e A c t o f 1974 i s t h a t i t f o r m a l l y opened t h e door t o i n n o v a t i v e approaches t o p o l i c i n g and i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n . To f a c i l i t a t e i n n o v -a t i o n , i t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission and p r o v i d e d i t w i t h a mandate t o s e t up and promote programs t o b r i n g about p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e system, and community c o - o p e r a t i o n . I t was t h i s Commission and t h e J u s t i c e Development Commission ( e s t a b l i s h e d under t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of J u s t i c e A c t p a s s e d i n A p r i l 1974) t h a t were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g and p r o v -i d i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t w h i c h was e x p e c t e d t o demonstrate i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n i n c r ime p r e v e n t i o n . V. DECENTRALIZATION OF SOCIAL SERVICES S o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s had a l s o been moving toward d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i n t h e l a t e s i x t i e s . L i k e t h e p o l i c e , t h e s e a g e n c i e s had been d e a l i n g w i t h p r o blem a r e a s o f t h e c i t y i n an ad hoc manner. F o r example, i n 1970, t h e Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department a s s i g n e d s e v e r a l w o r kers t o c i t y p a r k s t h a t were b e i n g v a n d a l i z e d by j u v e n i l e s . They - 3 4 -d i d so i n response t o a p o l i c e request f o r a s s i s t a n c e . But, r e a l i z i n g t h a t such "band-aid" approaches were not producing long-term r e s u l t s , the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, w i t h other a g e n c i e s , began to p l a n f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s on a permanent b a s i s . To t h i s end a S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o - o r d i n a t o r was appointed i n 1969. A 1969 p o l i c e document notes: The plans of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o - o r d i n a t o r are t o d e c e n t r a l i z e agencies and work as a team w i t h a member from each agency, i n a s p e c i f i c area w i t h a c o - o r d i n a t o r as chairman. There are t h r e e such groups a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d and . . . t h i s team approach w i l l g i v e the p o l i c e much needed backing. As the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department moved t o d e c e n t r a l i z e and c o - o r d i n a t e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i t maintained a very c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p o l i c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of j u v e n i l e problems. At one p o i n t the c l o s e n e s s was e x h i b i t e d i n an attempt t o d e v i s e a f o r m a l means f o r s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s . The r a t i o n a l e behind the move was t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g would p r o v i d e the means to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of problem treatment and crime p r e v e n t i o n methods. But the p l a n r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l agencies i n p o s s e s s i o n of i n f o r m -a t i o n on j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s , t h e i r f r i e n d s , and t h e i r f a m i l i e s would have t o submit the i n f o r m a t i o n to a c e n t r a l i n f o r m a t i o n bank. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was t o i n c l u d e the o f f e n d e r ' s s c h o o l r e c o r d . Two recommendations toward t h i s end were submitted t o Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n October 1972. They were co n t a i n e d i n a J u v e n i l e Crime Survey, and c a l l e d f o r : 1. I n t e g r a t i o n of a l l i n f o r m a t i o n on known of f e n d e r s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s . 2. Adoption of an i n t e g r a t e d , combined approach by a l l agencies working i n the f i e l d of Delinquency P r e v e n t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of -, ? Off e n d e r s . 5 These recommendations were accepted i n p r i n c i p l e by the C i t y C o u n c i l and sent to the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r f u r t h e r study. The p r o v i n c i a l government appeared t o heed the p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o the recommendations, which was t h a t the p r o p o s a l s r e p r e s e n t e d an attempt by t h e p p o l i c e t o g a i n the r i g h t t o keep d o s s i e r s on c h i l d r e n . The pr o p o s a l s were s h e l v e d . Another reason f o r the recommendations going i n t o limbo was t h a t the NDP government, e l e c t e d i n 1972, had plans t o wrest c o n t r o l of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s from m u n i c i p a l governments. I n 1973, "the government i n s t i t u t e d the Community Resources Boards (CRB) system - - a d e c e n t r a l i z e d and i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e system. These Boards were to be ad m i n i s t e r e d by persons e l e c t e d from the communities they served, as w e l l as by appointed members of l o c a l government and l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The e l e c t e d Boards were a l s o t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p o l i c y p l a n n i n g f o r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and t o s e t l o c a l s e r v i c e p r i o r i t i e s . U l t i m a t e l y , however, the Boards were r e s p o n s i b l e t o the prov-i n c i a l Department of Human Resources."^ The Resources Board i n the Vancouver South area, i n which - 36 -t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t would l a t e r - o p e r a t e , d e v e l o p e d t w e l v e teams o f s o c i a l w o r k ers and f i n a n c i a l a i d w o r k e r s . These teams o p e r a t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e autonomy i n d e l i v e r y o f a wide range o f s t a t u t o r y and n o n - s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s f o r m a l l y p r o v i d e d by a v a r i e t y o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . S t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s come under " t h e P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n ' s A c t , F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s A c t , J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s ' A c t , and t h e S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t . N o n - s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e f a m i l y c r i s i s c o u n s e l l i n g , s e r v i c e s t o y o u t h , t h e handicapped and t h e e l d e r l y ; drug and a l c o h o l c o u n s e l l i n g ; and o t h e r 17 programs d e c i d e d upon by t h e teams." I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e , A d u l t P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e s completed d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n e a r l y 1975 w i t h t h e s e t t i n g up o f f o u r community o f f i c e s , p l u s one c o u r t team. J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n d i d not d e c e n t r a l i z e u n t i l l a t e 1976, as a r e s u l t o f t h e P r o j e c t d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e a l s o d e c e n t r a l i z e d and p r o v i d e d t h r e e Community 18 Care Teams i n t h e Vancouver S o u t h a r e a . The p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g s o c i a l s e r v -i c e s d i d not r e q u i r e t h e g o o d w i l l o r w i l l i n g n e s s t o accommodate o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s was, i n e f f e c t , c o - o p e r a t i o n ' by e d i c t and was f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t most o f t h e a g e n c i e s and p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by t h e s e t t i n g up of t h e CRBs were i n v o l v e d i n d o i n g s i m i l a r t a s k s . W h i l e - 37 -i t i s a l s o apparent t h a t people doing s i m i l a r t asks may be 19 i n c ompetition, i t appears t h a t s o c i a l workers tend t o share a common i d e o l o g y which may moderate co m p e t i t i o n and promote 20 c o - o p e r a t i o n , at l e a s t on broad s o c i a l g o a l s . T h i s was not the case i n the attempt to develop c o - o p e r a t i o n between the p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies i n the P r o j e c t . VI. SUMMARY F a c i n g i n c r e a s e s i n crime, j u v e n i l e delinquency, and l a r g e - s c a l e d i s o r d e r s i n the 1960s, the p o l i c e began t o s e a r c h f o r ways of s o l v i n g these problems through c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h other community a g e n c i e s . They a l s o began to emphasize crime p r e v e n t i o n . One s t r a t e g y was to deploy policemen t o work as l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s w i t h s c h o o l s , s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies, and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i d e n t i f y i n g and heading o f f problems i n s p e c i f i c neighbourhoods. In f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s between the p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies began to produce r e s u l t s , but o f t e n of a s h o r t - t e r m nature. T h e r e f o r e , the agencies and the p o l i c e began to d e c e n t r a l i z e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s on a permanent b a s i s so t h a t they c o u l d develop a b e t t e r understanding of communities w i t h p r o b l -ems and become b e t t e r known to the communities they s e r v e d . As d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n p r o c e s s -es seemed to be e f f e c t i v e , t h e r e was a s t r o n g move by the p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies toward f o r m a l i z i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n a t i o n . Furthermore, the NDP government's program of d e c e n t r a l i z i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g - 38 -s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , e x e m p l i f i e d by the Community Resources Boards  A c t ( B i l l 84), 1974, was developing an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework which would f a c i l i t a t e s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n a t the neighbourhood l e v e l . With the i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s through establishment of Community Resources Boards, the p o l i c e , p a r o l e , and p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e s moved toward c o - o r d i n a t i o n of t h e i r s e r v i c e s w i t h the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . T h i s l e d to the development of the P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t i n Vancouver South. The P r o j e c t i s the s u b j e c t of the next chapter. - 39 -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER TWO ^ G o l d s t e i n , p. 3-2 I b i d . A n n ual R e p o r t , 1970 (Vancouver P o l i c e D epartment), p. 1. 4 I b i d . , p. 2. 5 "Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1966" (Vancouver P o l i c e Department, Mimeo*}, p. 2. L'Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad, Annual R e p o r t , 1967" (Vancouver P o l i c e Department, Mimeo), p. 2. 7 A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1970, p. 3. 8 Annual R e p o r t , 1971 (Vancouver P o l i c e D epartment), pp. 1 - 2. 9 Thomas F.B. F e r g u s o n , "A Team Approach t o P r e v e n t i o n of J u v e n i l e Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y , " Canadian P o l i c e C h i e f , V o l . 65, No. 3 (Ottawa: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of C h i e f s o f P o l i c e , J u l y 1976), p. 18. 10 . x p B u l l e t i n No. 1 ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e Commission, September 1974), p. 1. 11 There was an i n c r e a s e common t o a l l p a r t s o f Canada, ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t i n 1974) but B.C. e x p e r i e n c e d a g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n d r u g - r e l a t e d o f f e n c e s and j u v e n i l e c r i m e . A s t u d y o f crime p a t t e r n s i n B.C.'s Lower M a i n l a n d (Vancouver, West Vancouver, N o r t h Vancouver, New W e s t m i n s t e r , and S u r r e y ) i s s u e d i n 1976 seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a r e a i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f urban and semi-urban a r e a s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e . However, as t h e s t u d y o f f e r e d no s t a t i s t i c a l comparison w i t h a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e Lower M a i n l a n d t h i s can o n l y be an a s s u m p t i o n . See: N e v i l l e A v i s o n , P a t t e r n s o f Crime i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d ( V i c t o r i a : B.C. P o l i c e Commission, 1976), Mimeo. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t most a n a l y s t s a g r e e t h a t c rime s t a t i s t i c s a r e u s u a l l y so i n c o m p l e t e and m i s l e a d i n g as t o be l e s s t h a n u s e f u l . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s see: James Q. W i l s o n , T h i n k i n g About Crime (New York: B a s i c Books, 1975), p. 96. - 40 -1 2 B u l l e t i n No. 1, p. 1. 13 ^ I b i d . , p. 2. "^"Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1969" (VPD), p. 2. 1 5 " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1972" (VPD), p. 3. l6 F o r d e t a i l s see Vaughan Lyon, "The Community Resources Boards o f B r i t i s h Columbia: A P r e l i m i n a r y E v a l u a t i o n . 1 1 A Paper P r e p a r e d f o r t h e An n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Quebec, May 30, 1976. 17 P a r k i n s o n , p. 51. 18 Community Care Teams a r e composed o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e s , and so on. 19 F o r an e a r l y s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f c o - o p e r a t i v e and c o m p e t i t i v e b e h a v i o u r among groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s d o i n g t h e same t a s k s ee: P e t e r M. B l a u , " C o - o p e r a t i o n and C o m p e t i t i o n I n A B u r e a u c r a c y , " The American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , Volume L I X (May 1954), pp. 530 - 535. '. [ 20 P a r k i n s o n a t t e m p t e d t o a s s e s s t h i s i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f the P r o j e c t f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f s o c i a l workers. 1, p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e m s e l v e s and p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s h e l d by p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . He a l s o l o o k e d a t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h o s e h e l d by s o c i a l w o r k e r s . The a n a l y s i s t e n d e d t o c o n f i r m s t e r e o t y p e s o f b o t h s o c i a l w o r k ers and p o l i c e m e n . S o c i a l workers saw t h e m s e l v e s as h e l p i n g , warm, e x p r e s s i v e , competent, and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s . The p o l i c e saw s o c i a l w o r k e r s as s o f t - h e a d e d , u n r e a l i s t i c , o p t i m i s t i c , o p i n i o n a t e d , and i n c o m p e t e n t . N e i t h e r group saw t h e o t h e r as open-minded o r w e l l - r o u n d e d . F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g b u t s t a t i s t i c a l l y l i m i t e d e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n see P a r k i n s o n , pp. 204 - 220. - 41 -CHAPTER THREE THE POLICE AND COMMUNITY SERVICES PROJECT: AN ATTEMPT TO FORMALIZE INTER-AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS I . INTRODUCTION The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d i n l a t e 1974 i n P o l i c e D i s t r i c t No. 3, the south-east quadrant of Vancouver. I t was expected t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p o l i c e , p a r o l e , p r o b a t i o n , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies l e a d i n g to c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i n p r e v e n t i o n of crime and s o c i a l problems r e l a t e d t o crime. T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of how the P r o j e c t was developed, how i t was s t r u c t u r e d , and some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i t encountered i n attempting t o d e f i n e and reach i t s o b j e c t i v e s . The P r o j e c t ' s o b j e c t i v e s a r e of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . During the P r o j e c t emphasis s h i f t e d from the major o b j e c t i v e of e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n -a t i o n d i r e c t e d toward crime p r e v e n t i o n t o promoting agency  c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the p o l i c e i n development of a new p o l i c i n g system. While the i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e encompassed r e d e f i n i t i o n of the p o l i c e r o l e , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s h i f t i s t h a t the former o b j e c t i v e i m p l i e d a s h a r i n g of l i k e l y b e n e f i t s by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s , whereas the l a t t e r may be seen t o imply t h a t b e n e f i t s were more l i k e l y t o be gained by one agency, the p o l i c e . - 42 -T h i s chapter a l s o d i s c u s s e s impediments t o development of. f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n which r e l a t e t o changes i n the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r agencies, and to management and communication d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n the P r o j e c t i t s e l f . Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n t o the i n f l u e n c e of a change i n p r o v i n c i a l government upon the degree of comm-itment o f community s e r v i c e agencies and the p o l i c e t o the P r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , t h e r e w i l l be a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the e v a l u a t i o n of the P r o j e c t and the team p o l i c i n g program which came to dominate i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I I . FORMATION OF THE PROJECT The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t developed out of a widespread i n t e r e s t i n r e d e f i n i n g the r o l e of the p o l i c e i n the community and i n v o l v i n g other community agencies i n p r e v e n t i o n of crime. Throughout North America s i n c e 1968, p o l i c e departments have been experimenting w i t h v a r i o u s forms 1 oof community or neighbourhood p o l i c i n g . However, few of these experiments or programs have p l a c e d emphasis on d e v e l -opment of fo r m a l c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e system ( p a r o l e , p r o b a t i o n ) a g e n c i e s . I n " g e n e r a l , however, community p o l i c i n g programs have s e t out, "to estab -l i s h new and more h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the community, and t o a c t as c a t a l y s t s t o i n v o l v e other p r o f e s s i o n a l s and c i t i z e n s i n s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i n g s which have been 2 seen as problems f o r the p o l i c e a l o n e . " I t was from these n o t i o n s t h a t t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t d e v e l -oped i n Vancouver. The b a s i c i d e a f o r t h e P r o j e c t was d e v e l o p e d i n 1974 by S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Tom Herdman of t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department and Mr. John E k s t e d t , A c t i n g Deputy M i n i s t e r o f C o r r e c t i o n , of t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department of B r i t i s h Columbia w h i l e 3 t h e y were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s t u d y o f d i v e r s i o n programs -^ f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. A g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l f o r a p r o j e c t was t h e n d e v e l o p e d by S ergeant J . Swann o f t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department and Mr. J . J e s s u p of t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department o f the C i t y of Vancouver. W h i l e i t would appear t h a t t h e development o f t h e i d e a f o r a p r o j e c t was a j o i n t u n d e r t a k i n g , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e impetus was p r o v i d e d by t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department.^" A p r o p o s a l , "The Optimum O r g a n i z a t i o n of P o l i c e and Other S o c i a l S e r v i c e s i n a Community S e t t i n g , " was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e J u s t i c e Development Commission of B.C. and, i n May 1974, i t was a c c e p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e . "The P r o j e c t was a c c e p t e d and f i n a n c e d on t h e b a s i s o f K e r y g e n e r a l g o a l s , and i t was r e c o g -n i z e d t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s and t h e f i n a l shape of t h e P r o j e c t would o n l y emerge under t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e p a r t i c -5 i p a t i n g g r o u p s . " W i t h t h i s mandate t o p r o c e e d , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Herdman s e t out t o i n v o l v e s o c i a l s e r v i c e , p a r o l e and p r o b a t -i o n a g e n c i e s i n t h e P r o j e c t . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g here t h e p e r s p e c t i v e t h e p r o p o s a l t o o k : - 44 -The r e p o r t b e g i n s by r e f e r r i n g back t o t h e e a r l i e r community p o l i c i n g e f f o r t s [ r e f e r r e d t o i n C h apter Two] and s u g g e s t s t h a t , 1 1. . . i n a t t e m p t s t o draw a l l a g e n c i e s t o g e t h e r f o r a combined a s s a u l t on t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l p r oblems, i t p r o v e d most d i f f i c u l t t o i n s t i t u t e a c o n c e r t e d a p p r o a c h " . I t t h e n goes on t o t a l k about the c r e a t i o n of Community Resources -Boards - t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of b a s i c s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of t h e s e t o neighbourhood a r e a s - and s u g g e s t s t h a t , "the f a c t t h a t t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s have now been r e s t r u c t u r e d i n t o a f o r m t h a t makes them r e s p o n s i v e t o change, s u g g e s t s t h a t an i n - d e p t h r e v i e w o f a v i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i c e and Community Resources Boards would produce good r e s u l t s " . The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e s w i t h a recomm-e n d a t i o n t o s e t up an e x p e r i m e n t a l a r e a where a g e n c i e s would work t o g e t h e r t o i d e n t i f y p roblems, e v a l u a t e r e s o u r c e s , and d e v e l o p m e t h o d o l o g i e s t o a p p l y r e s - ^ o u r c e s t o p roblems. By November 1 9 7 4 , a P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r was s e l e c t e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a g e n c i e s t h a t had a greed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e P r o j e c t . • The P r o j e c t r e c e i v e d temporary f u n d i n g f r o m t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department, " u n t i l August 1975 when a f o r m a l c o n t r a c t was s i g n e d between t h e J u s t i c e Development Fund of t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department and t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r . " The P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r had been employed by t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department o f t h e C i t y o f N o r t h Vancouver and a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n l i a i s o n w i t h t h e R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e detachment c o n t r a c t e d t o p o l i c e t h a t community. The A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , a p o l i c e s e r g e a n t , was seconded t o t h e P r o j e c t by t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department i n September 1 9 7 4 , two months b e f o r e t h e D i r e c t o r was a p p o i n t e d . S t a f f funded by t h e P r o j e c t budget i n c l u d e d a D i r e c t o r , two r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s , and two s e c r e t a r -i a l p o s i t i o n s . A p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r and a c o - o r d i n a t o r o f d i v e r s i o n were employed f o r a - 45 -s h o r t t i m e . A l l o t h e r " s t a f f " were seconded on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s and t h e s e secondments i n v o l v e d a t l e a s t e i g h t o t h e r p e r s o n s . Mos t o f t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s a c t e d i n a l i a i s o n c a p a c i t y . Seconded s t a f f i n c l u d e d a member o f t h e S o u t h V a n c o u v e r Community R e s o u r c e s a r e a , a member o f t h e C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t -ment , a member o f t h e A d u l t P r o b a t i o n s t a f f , a p e r s o n f rom t h e J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n s t a f f , and a s e c o n d member o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , g ( O t h e r p o l i c e members were added as r e q u i r e d ) . The P r o j e c t was t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a Management C o -o r d i n a t i n g Commit tee ( M . C . C . ) composed o f s e n i o r members o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s . The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e P a t r o l D i v i s i o n , VPD, was e l e c t e d Commit tee C h a i r m a n . T h i s was t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t who h e l p e d t o i n i t i a t e t h e P r o j e c t . V o t i n g members o f t h e M . C . C . i n c l u d e d t h e S e n i o r S o c i a l P l a n n e r o f t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Depa r tmen t , C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ; t h e J u s t -i c e C o u n c i l C o - o r d i n a t o r f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n ; t h e R e g i o n -a l D i r e c t o r , Community S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o r r e c t i o n s ( p r o b a t i o n ) B r a n c h ; t h e R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r F a m i l y and J u v e n i l e R e g i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o r r e c t -i o n s B r a n c h ; and t h e Manager o f t h e V a n c o u v e r S o u t h Community R e s o u r c e s A r e a . ( I n A u g u s t 1976, t h e D i r e c t o r o f P a t i e n t S e r v i c e s , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e was added t o t h e C o m m i t t e e . ) T h e r e were two n o n - v o t i n g members: A Commiss-i o n e r o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n , and t h e I n s p e c t o r i n cha rge o f D i s t r i c t N o . 3, V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t -9 ment . Thd r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Commit tee t o t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , and t h e P r o j e c t - 46 -s t a f f i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Diagram No. 1. Note t h a t t h e diagram shows t h a t t h e f u n d i n g c o n t r a c t was w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r and A s s i s -t a n t D i r e c t o r and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e budget was not a d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e M.C.C. T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n S e c t i o n I I I . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r had, i n f a c t , no a u t h o r i t y o v e r seconded s t a f f . The l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y o f seconded s t a f f t o t h e i r agenc-i e s remained i n t a c t . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e f u l l - t i m e p o l i c e department secondments and a 4/5 t i m e Community Resources Board secondment, " o t h e r a g e n c i e s had r e a l l y o n l y g i v e n a commitment 10 t o have t h e i r s t a f f s e r v e i n a l i a i s o n c a p a c i t y . " However, t h e i n t e n t i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e P r o j e c t p r o p o s a l was t h a t s econd-ed s t a f f o f a g e n c i e s would be a c t i v e members o f t h e P r o j e c t and c o n s t i t u t e a r e s e a r c h team w i t h t h e P r o j e c t ' s f u l l - t i m e s t a f f . The i d e a was not s t r o n g l y p u r s u e d due t o l a c k of agency commit-ment, i n d i c a t i n g an e a r l y l a c k o f agreement o v e r a u t h o r i t y and autonomy w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t s t r u c t u r e . I t was hoped, however, t h a t agency commitment would l a t e r be s t r e n g t h e n e d once t h e program o f t h e P r o j e c t was d e f i n e d . I n s t e a d , t h e seconded s t a f f and o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s s e r v e d on v a r i o u s committees, sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as ' t a s k f o r c e s ' . The t a s k f o r c e s o r committees were e x p e c t e d t o "develop terms o f r e f e r e n c e , s t r a t e g i e s and make recommendations f o r new p r o c e d u r e s , approaches and programs i n i n t e r - a g e n c y h a n d l i n g o f F a m i l y D i s p u t e s , J u v e n i l e s , A d u l t D i v e r s i o n and Emergency 11 Support S e r v i c e s Needs o f P o l i c e . " I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e committ-ees p r o v e d t o be i n e f f e c t i v e . P a r t o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r - 47 -t h i s l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t commit tee members, o t h e r t h a n f u l l -t i m e P r o j e c t s t a f f , had,..no autonomy f r o m p a r e n t a g e n c i e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e y were r e l u c t a n t t o be c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r own s e r v i c e s ( i n d i c a t i n g l o y a l t y t o t h e i r p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) and t h o s e o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s . A l s o , t h e y were o f t e n u n w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r d e f i n i t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own o f p r o b l e m s t h e y were a t t e m p t -i n g t o s o l v e . T h e r e f o r e , i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n a t t h e commi t t ee l e v e l was l a c k i n g and l i t t l e was a c c o m p l i s h e d t o s a t -12 i s f y t h e r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t . I n t h e n e x t s e c -t i o n we w i l l examine t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t and t h e a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n a t t h e M a n -agement C o - o r d i n a t i n g Commit tee l e v e l . I I I . PROJECT OBJECTIVES The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t s h i f t e d as c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n and s u r r o u n d i n g t h e P r o j e c t c h a n g -e d . I t i s no t u n u s u a l , however , f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r e d e f i n e o b j e c t i v e s i f t h e y a r e s e e n t o be u n a t t a i n a b l e o r i n a p p r o p r i -a t e . P a r k i n s o n comments: ' O b j e c t i v e s ' a r e o f t e n e l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s . They s e l d o m appea r t o be s i m p l y g u i d e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , bu t a r e o f t e n a way f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c l a r i f y where i t i s , and what i t i s d o i n g . S i n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y r e s p o n d t o e x t e r n a l and i n t e r -n a l p r e s s u r e s and make ' p r o g r e s s ' by c a p i t a l i z i n g on a c c i d e n t s o r o p p o r t u n i t y , ' o b j e c t i v e s ' t a k e on many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , o r g e t r e s t a t e d . T h i s was t h e case -, ~ w i t h t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t . The i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e s were b r o a d , l o o s e s t a t e m e n t s o f d i r e c t i o n s t h e P r o j e c t s h o u l d t a k e . T h e r e was some emphasis on t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . - 48 -(1) t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t i n t h e communi ty ; (2) t o i d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g p o l i c e and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t i n r e d u c t i o n o f p r o b l e m s ; (3) t o d e v e l o p a s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y mode l d e s i g n e d t o improve c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n p r e v e n t i n g c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y ; ( 4 ) t o d e v e l o p a r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y t o a s s e s s and e v a l u a t e p o t e n t i a l changes i n o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e l i v e r y o r l i n e o p e r a t i o n s ; ( 5 ) t o d e v e l o p ^pe r fo rmance c r i t e r i a and s t a n d a r d s f o r p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ; (6) t o examine i n n o v a t i v e s o c i a l , j u s t i c e , and p o l i c i n g c o n c e p t s and where f e a s i b l e a s s i s t i n t e s t i n g and measurement o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s ; (7) t o examine e x i s t i n g and a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c e r e s o u r c e s t r a t e g i e s , team o r community p o l i c i n g c o n c e p t s w h i c h w i l l a s s i s t i n t h e deve lopment o f one o r more models o f p o l i c i n g t h r o u g h an exam-i n a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c e and t h e r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s . The above o b j e c t i v e s were d e v e l o p e d when t h e r e was e x p e c t -a t i o n o f s t r o n g commitment f rom a g e n c i e s t h a t had a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e P r o j e c t . They a l s o r e f l e c t a b e l i e f t h a t t h e P r o j e c t w o u l d have a s t r o n g r e s e a r c h o r i e n t a t i o n ( e . g . , a n a l y s i s o f s e r v i c e s y s t e m s , use o f manpower, community a t t i t u d e s , c r i m e and s o c i a l p r o b l e m t r e n d s , a l t e r n a t e s t o t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s y s t e m , and so on) and w o u l d o p e r a t e i n a s m a l l e r a r e a t h a n P o l i c e D i s t r i c t No . 3, t h u s mak ing r e s e a r c h e a s i e r . As n o t e d i n S e c t i o n I I , t h e l a c k o f s t r o n g agency commitment t o a r e s e a r -ch p rogram meant t h a t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , a b o v e , c o u l d n o t be p u r s u e d i n f u l l . The Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Commi t t ee , w o r k i n g f r o m t h e above b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s , t h e n s e t ou t t o d e v e l o p g o a l s t h a t - 49 -w o u l d s a t i s f y , i n a more s p e c i f i c manner , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s . The hope was t h a t i f t h e a g e n c i e s s u b m i t t e d s t a t e -ments o f g o a l s t h e y were i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a c h i n g , t h e n a c o n s e n -sus m i g h t d e v e l o p and g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e P r o j e c t w o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d . A p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y g o a l s t a t e m e n t s were submi t -t e d . They r e f l e c t e d , " a number o f d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and 15 p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e P r o j e c t . " Some c a l l e d f o r t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , w h i l e o t h e r s saw t h e P r o j e c t e x a m i n i n g dep loyment o f p e r s o n n e l o r a s s e s s i n g p o l i c e t r a i n i n g me thods . T h e r e was a l s o an e x p r e s s i o n o f a d e s i r e t o d e v e l o p , "communi ty p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l o c a l a r e a c o n t r o l i n e s t a b l i s h -i n g p r i o r i t i e s and a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s o f d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s 16 b o t h f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and f o r p o l i c i n g . " Out o f t h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f d e s i r e d g o a l s , t h e M . C . C . appea red t o r e a c h a consensus on f i v e o b j e c t i v e s : To b r i n g t o g e t h e r c i t i z e n s , p o l i c e and community s e r v i c e s i n : ( i ) d e v e l o p i n g a comprehens ive r ange o f community a l t e r n a t i v e s t o meet i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y o r community p r o b l e m s and f a c i l i t a t i n g a c o - o r d i n -a t e d r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s ; ( i i : ) . d e v e l o p i n g methods t o r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s be tween o f f e n d e r s and v i c t i m s on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s whenever c o n c i l i a t i o n o r m e d i a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e ; ( : ( . . i i i ) p r o m o t i n g t h e deve lopment o f d i v e r s i o n a r y programs t h r o u g h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n -a t i o n o f a l l t h e a g e n c i e s and t h e community t o d i v e r t p e r s o n s f r o m t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e p r o c e s s i n t o communi ty -based p r o g r a m s ; ( i v ) s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c i n g t h e d e l i n q u e n c y , d o m e s t i c c o n f l i c t and t h e i n c i d e n c e o f c r i m e i n t h e communi ty ; (v) d e v e l o p i n g p a t t e r n s o f community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l o c a l a r e a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s s i s t i n g i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s and a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s -, y i n d e l i v e r i n g b o t h community and p o l i c e s e r v i c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t even though t h e P r o j e c t was p o l i c e - i n i t i a t e d , t h e o b j e c t i v e s emphasized t h e r o l e s o f s o c i a l (community) a g e n c i e s and t h e c o m m u n i t y - a t - l a r g e i n t h e P r o j e c t . However, t h e o b j e c t i v e s were s t i l l b r o a d and somewhat vague. " I t became c l e a r t o some p e o p l e t h a t t h i s b r o a d p r o p o s a l [ t h e o b j e c t i v e s ] c o u l d not be i n i t i a t e d w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a l r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c t i v e s t a f f p e r s o n s , and a 1$ l e n g t h y p e r i o d o f e d u c a t i o n , i n v o l v e m e n t and d i s c u s s i o n . " As t h e P r o j e c t was t o l a s t o n l y two y e a r s ( A p r i l 1 , 1975 t o March 3 1 , 1977 under t h e terms o f t h e c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e J u s t i c e Development F u n d ) , and no s u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s s was b e i n g made by F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 5 , i n e i t h e r d e f i n i n g f i r m o b j e c t i v e s o r programs, t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department d e c i d e d t o d e v e l o p a p r o p o s a l f o r a 'team p o l i c i n g program' w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t . The p r o p o s a l p u t f o r w a r d a p l a n f o r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c e i n D i s t r i c t No. 3 i n t o s i x neighbourhood a r e a teams w i t h 24 hour r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l p o l i c i n g s e r v i c e s . T h i s was i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s ystem i n use w h i c h d e p l o y e d p o l i c e m e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e d i s t r i c t on e i g h t hour s h i f t s . The s e l e c t e d a r e a s c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h o s e i n w h i c h teams o f Community Resources Board s o c i a l w o r k e r s o p e r a t e d . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t by r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e p o l i c e component i n t h i s f a s h i o n t h e meeting of t h e P r o j e c t ' s o b j e c t i v e s might be f a c i l i t a t e d . The team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l i s d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r - 51 -d e t a i l i n S e c t i o n V I . By A p r i l 1975, w i t h t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l , t h e P r o j e c t t u r n e d t o w a r d b e i n g a " p o l i c e p r o j e c t " and t h e e a r l i e r , f i v e b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s became two more s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s : (1) t o s u p p l y a b e t t e r f o r m o f d e l i v e r i n g p o l i c e s e r v i c e s t o a communi ty . The c r i t e r i a a r e l o w e r e d c r i m i n a l o c c u r r e n c e s , i m p r o v e d p o l i c e -community r e l a t i o n s , i n c r e a s e d community s a t i s -f a c t i o n , i n c r e a s e d [ p o l i c e ] member j o b s a t i s -f a c t i o n , and e l i m i n a t i o n o f " e l i t i s t " t y p e a s s i g n m e n t s . (2) t o ensu re a s t r u c t u r e d l i a i s o n be tween p o l i c e and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . T h i s w o u l d i n v o l v e a r e c o g n i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f [ p o l i c e ] members o f t h e need f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s when t h e y e n c o u n t e r s i t u a t i o n s where t h e need i s d e m o n s t r a t e d . The c r i t e r i a w o u l d be g r e a t e r community r e s o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s b y u t i l i z a t i o n o f r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n exchanges and a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n e f f o r t s be tween p o l i c e and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s ^ t o a l l e v i a t e community p r o b l e m s . T h u s , t h e e a r l i e r o b j e c t i v e s were p a r e d down t o t w o : team p o l i c i n g and a m o d i f i e d f o r m o f i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . However , t h e s o l e o b j e c t i v e o f d e v e l o p i n g a team p o l i c i n g s y s t e m e v e n t u a l l y came t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e P r o j e c t . As f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c e teams i n t h e d i s t r i c t , t h e y were l e f t w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . The teams had t o e s t a b l i s h l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s and 20 d e v e l o p r e f e r r a l sys tems and p r o g r a m s . P a r k i n s o n r e m a r k s t h a t , " [ w ] h i l e t h i s began t o o c c u r i n p r a c t i c e , t h e teams t h e m -s e l v e s were n e v e r a s s i s t e d i n s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , t h e y were n o t i n f o r m e d o f t h e change i n e x p e c t a t i o n s [ i . e . , t h e y were t o - 52 -o p e r a t i o n a l i z e o b j e c t i v e s ] , and t h e y were no t g i v e n a s s i s t a n c e b y t h e P r o j e c t i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e a r e a s . What Team P o l i c i n g meant r e m a i n e d ambiguous and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f agency i n v o l v e -21 ment were u n c l e a r . " L a c k o f P r o j e c t a s s i s t a n c e was , xn p a r t , due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , a p o l i c e s e r g -e a n t , and t h e r e was a l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n be tween t h e p o l i c e component and t h e P r o j e c t ' s c i v i l i a n s t a f f . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e s h i f t i n t h e P r o j e c t ' s o b j e c t i v e s t o " team p o l i c i n g " appear t o l i e i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e P r o j e c t , t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g a i n i n g f i r m commitments f rom s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e s y s t e m a g e n c i e s , and t h e l a c k o f a c l e a r n o t i o n o f what t h e P r o j e c t was t o d o . Hence , t h e r e was a w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e t t l e f o r s o m e t h i n g c o n c r e t e . I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e c o n f u s i o n o v e r o b j e c t i v e s has been d e s c r i b e d , bu t t h e c o n f u s i o n i s o n l y symptoma t i c o f deepe r p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t , and p r e s s u r e s e x t e r n a l t o t h e P r o j e c t . We t u r n now t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . I V . PROBLEMS WITHIN THE PROJECT A ma jo r d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e P r o j e c t appea r s t o have been i n i d e n t i f y i n g a r o l e f o r t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e . T h i s a l s o had t h e e f f e c t o f l e a v i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e . . . , M . C . C . t o t h e P r o j e c t s t a f f u n c l e a r . P a r k i n s o n ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e m i n u t e s o f t h e M . C . C . m e e t i n g s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e Commit tee was u n c e r t a i n as t o whe the r o r n o t i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n -i s t e r i n g t h e P r o j e c t , d e v e l o p i n g p o l i c y , o r a c t i n g as a - 53 -p r e s s u r e group above t h e P r o j e c t . One s e n i o r P r o j e c t s t a f f member commented on t h e s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : The Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Commit tee n e v e r g o t i t t o g e t h e r . They t h o u g h t t h e y were s o m e t h i n g l i k e a b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . They d i d n ' t t r u s t one a n o t h e r r i g h t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g . You s e e , t h e s t a f f was i n i t i a l l y e n v i s a g e d as a r e s e a r c h team and t h e M . C . C . e x p e c t e d t o d i r e c t t h e s t a f f t o do c e r t a i n t h i n g s , ? ? bu t t h a t d i d n ' t happen . However , t h e M . C . C . d i d s t a r t ou t w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n o f i t s r o l e and a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s : The Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Commit tee d e t e r m i n e s t h e P r o j e c t p a r a m e t e r s , o b j e c t i v e s and s t u d y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a n d . p r i o r i t i e s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c i e s and depa r tmen t s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e Management C o - o r d -i n a t i n g Commi t t ee , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o l i c e Commiss ion and t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and P r o j e c t S t a f f . I t i s no t i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Commit tee w i l l assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l i n e o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e P r o j e c t d i s t r i c t o f e i t h e r t h e P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , Community C o r r e c t i o n s ? ^ o r t h e Depar tment o f Human R e s o u r c e s . The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e M . C . C . i n c l u d e d t h e h i r i n g o f and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r , t h e a p p r o v a l o f j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r P r o j e c t s t a f f , a p p r o v a l o f ma jo r u n d e r t a k i n g s ( p r o p o s a l s , r e p o r t s , p r o g r a m s ) , and a p p r o v a l o f recommendat ions t o a g e n c i e s and depa r tmen t s c o - o p e r a t i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t . The p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e P r o j e c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s was , t h e r e -f o r e , c o n s i d e r a b l e . However , t h e M . C . C . ' s p o s i t i o n was weakened by a number o f i n c i d e n t s : Because o f a p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h w h i c h l e d t h e D i r e c t o r t o o f f e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n a f t e r t h e f i r s t t h r e e weeks , t h e D i r e c t o r became v e r y c a u t i o u s o f t h e Commi t t ee , - 54 -f r e q u e n t l y s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s , and s u b s e q u e n t l y he u s e d them p r i m a r i l y as t h e r e c e i v e r s ? , o f i n f o r m a t i o n . A n o t h e r i n c i d e n t had t o do w i t h t h e f o r m a l budge t a r r a n g e -ments o f t h e P r o j e c t . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t f o r funds was be tween t h e J u s t i c e Development Fund and t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r . The f a c t t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r were s i g n a t o r s (a demand o f t h e JDF) meant , i n ' e f f e c t , t h a t t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e budge t a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e M . C . C . was d e n i e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e b u d g e t . "Some members [ o f t h e M . C . C ] f e l t t h e i r r o l e became redundan t a t t h i s p o i n t and t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r u s e d t h e c o n t r a c t t o i s o l a t e them f rom a management 25 f u n c t i o n . " Y e t a n o t h e r i n c i d e n t was t h e deve lopment o f t h e ' t e a m p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l ' by t h e P r o j e c t ' s A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r . When i t was c o m p l e t e d , t h e p r o p o s a l was f i r s t s e n t t o t h e E x e c u t i v e o f t h e P o l i c e Depar tment and t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e B o a r d f o r a p p r o v a l b e f o r e i t was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e M . C . C . Due t o t h i s p r o c e d u r e , t h e n o n - p o l i c e members o f t h e M . C . C . came t o l o o k upon t h e p r o p o s a l as a ' p o l i c e document ' r a t h e r t h a n as a ' P r o j e c t d o c u m e n t ' . The M . C . C . d i d no t o b j e c t t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o p o s a l because i t o f f e r e d a c o n c r e t e p rog ram w h i c h t h e P r o j e c t c o u l d u n d e r t a k e , and one w h i c h s e t ou t o b j e c t i v e s comp-l e m e n t a r y t o t h e P r o j e c t ' s b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s . S o , d e s p i t e c o n c e -r n o v e r t h e manner i n w h i c h i t was d e v e l o p e d , t h e p l a n f o r a 26 Team P o l i c i n g P rog ram was a c c e p t e d . By so d o i n g , t h e M . C . C . p r o v i d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p o l i c e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e - 55 -d i r e c t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t f r o m t h a t t i m e on. The a p parent i n a b i l i t y o f t h e M.C.C. t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e P r o j e c t was a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e D i r e c t o r and t h e s t a f f m a n i p u l a t e d meetings o f t h e Committee. Many i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s were r a i s e d by some members o f t h e committee but t y p i c a l l y t h e r e was never any r e s o l -u t i o n . E i t h e r t h e i s s u e was not a c t e d upon by t h e s t a f f o r t h e Committee was not a b l e t o r e s o l v e i t , and i t was not r e - i n t r o d u c e d . S t a f f approached Comm-i t t e e m eetings as something t o 'get t h r o u g h ' , and f r e q u e n t l y t r i e d t o manage t h e d i s c u s s i o n so t h a t l i t t l e happened. The D i r e c t o r had a c o n t r o l l i n g p o s i t i o n on t h i s Committee s i n c e he p r e p a r e d t h e ? 7 agenda and t o o k t h e m i n u t e s . The weakness o f t h e M.C.C. may have been due t o a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were not f r e e f r o m t h e p r i o r i t i e s and problems o f t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s appears t o have prompted t h e f e e l i n g of some members t h a t s i t t i n g on t h e M.C.C. s i m p l y amounted t o a " d i s p l a y o f commit- ; ment." T h i s had t h e e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g exchange o f i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on a g e n c i e s ' p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h would have p r o v e n i n v a l u a b l e i n p l a n n i n g f o r i n t e r - a g e n c y s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n -a t i o n . T h i s s t a n d s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i n t e r e s t e x h i b i t e d by a g e n c i e s p r i o r t o t h e P r o j e c t when t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e s e a r c h f o r a r e a s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and forms o f s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n a t i o n . A second impediment t o f u l l commitment was m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o v e r t h e n a t u r e and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t . I f i t i s c o n s i d -e r e d t h a t each agency b r i n g s i t s own w o r l d v i e w i n t o a new c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , t h e n t h e l i k e l i h o o d i s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f o b j e c t i v e s . A c l e a r example o f t h i s was t h e development of f i f t y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r P r o j e c t g o a l s - 5 6 -( d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n I I I ) by p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s . Commitment may a l s o have been weakened because o f t h e o b v i -o u s l y s t r o n g r o l e o f t h e p o l i c e . They had i n i t i a t e d t h e P r o j e c t and s econded a s e r g e a n t t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , whereas t h e D i r e c t o r was a c i v i l i a n , s o c i a l p l a n n e r ( f o r m e r l y w i t h t h e C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) h i r e d by t h e M . C . C . f o r t h e t e r m o f t h e P r o j e c t . A l s o , t h e p o l i c e e v e n t u a l l y s e t t h e d i r e c t -i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t by way o f t h e team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l f o r t h e P r o j e c t was d e v e l o p e d by t h e p o l i c e i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Depar tment o f V a n c o u v e r . A l s o , t h e s o l i c i t i n g o f a g e n -c y p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d by t h e p o l i c e . I t i s u n d e r s t a n d -a b l e t h e n t h a t a t t h e o u t s e t t h e a g e n c i e s l o o k e d upon t h e P r o j e -c t as a " p o l i c e p r o j e c t " . T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t a p o l i c e o f f i c e r was e l e c t e d C h a i r m a n o f t h e M . C . C . and t h a t agency members d e c l i n e d n o m i n a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t a p o l i c e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t was Cha i rman was r a i s e d as an i s s u e by some agency members: The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t was a l o g i c a l c h o i c e , bu t w h i l e eve ryone r e s p e c t e d h i s a b i l i t i e s , t h e r e was a s h a r e d f e e l i n g t h a t t h e P r o j e c t may have t a k e n a d i f f e r e n t shape i f one o f t h e agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had t a k e n t h e p o s i t i o n . I t was f e l t e s p e c i a l l y t h a t t h i s w o u l d have p romoted t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l o t h e r a g e n c i e s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e C h a i r m a n h i m s e l f a g r e e d w i t h t h i s v i e w bu t a change o f C h a i r m a n was no t ?Q a c c o m p l i s h e d . However , a change i n C h a i r m a n , management s t r u c t u r e , o r s t a f f ( e . g . , t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ) m i g h t n o t have i n c r e a s e d commitment and c o - o p e r a t i o n i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l - 57 -a g e n c i e s were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h changes o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( f o r d e t a i l s see S e c t i o n V) and t h e y a p p e a r e d t o be u n w i l l i n g t o t a k e advan tage o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p l a y a s t r o n g r o l e i n t h e P r o j e c t by s e c o n d i n g f u l l - t i m e s t a f f and by c h a i r i n g t h e M . C . C . The s t r o n g commitment o f t h e p o l i c e a l s o f e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was i n c o n t r o l o f t h e P r o j e c t and n o t t h e f r e e l a n c e , c i v i l i a n d i r e c t o r . There may have been some b a s i s f o r t h i s b e l i e f i n t h a t t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was s e c o n d -ed t o t h e P r o j e c t two months b e f o r e t h e D i r e c t o r was h i r e d . M o r e o v e r , t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , who was n o t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e M . C . C . as was t h e D i r e c t o r , was a c o - s i g n e r o f t h e c o n t r -a c t w i t h t h e J u s t i c e Deve lopment F u n d . T h e r e f o r e , he seemed t o b e , a t l e a s t , on an e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e D i r e c t o r . I t was a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was c l o s e l y a l l i e d -an w i t h t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , C h a i r m a n o f t h e M . C . C . My o b s e r v -a t i o n s o v e r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s , 1976 t o 1975, l e a d me t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i t was a s u b o r d i n a t e - s u p e r i o r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i -o n s h i p . As s u c h , however , i t may have been advan tageous t o t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r was a c i v i l i a n w i t h o u t a l l e g i a n c e s t o any a g e n c y . A f i n a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t -o r ' s r o l e was t h a t he p r e p a r e d t h e team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d a new d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e P r o j e c t . He a l s o p l a y e d a ma jo r p a r t i n p u t t i n g t h e team s y s t e m i n t o o p e r a t i o n , whereas t h e D i r e c t o r had l i m i t e d i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e p o l i c e component u n t i l l a t e i n t h e P r o j e c t . Th i s " may a l s o have been due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r was a c i v i l i a n . - 58 -I n summary, i f i t c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e M . C . C . was c h a i r e d by a p o l i c e o f f i c e r , t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was a p o l i c e s e r g e a -n t and a p p e a r e d t o e x e r c i s e a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o l o v e r ' t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e P r o j e c t , and t h e P r o j e c t came t o a c t on a team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l p r e p a r e d and a p p r o v e d by t h e p o l i c e b e f o -r e b e i n g s u b m i t t e d t o t h e P r o j e c t , t h e n i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o q u a r r e l w i t h t h e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t t h e P r o j e c t was a " p o l i c e 31 p r o j e c t " . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n a l o n e m i g h t have l e s s e n e d t h e commitment o f a g e n c i e s t o t h e P r o j e c t , b u t t h e r e were e x t e r n a l , p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s w h i c h were a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l . V . THE EFFECTS OF POLITICAL CHANGE When t h e P r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e s y s t e m a g e n c i e s were u n d e r g o i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e s . F o r example , t h e Human R e s o u r c e s D e p a r t m e n t , d u r i n g t h e f i r s t phase o f t h e P r o j e c t , was c o m p l e t i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and g r a p p l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f s e t t i n g up r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Commun-i t y R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s . I n 1975, many a r e a R e s o u r c e s Boa rds l a c k -ed managers , and so t h e r e was no one t o d e s i g n a t e s t a f f t o a s s i -s t i n t h e P r o j e c t . M e n t a l H e a l t h teams were a l s o b e i n g e s t a b l -i s h e d and t h e B . C . C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h ( p r o v i n c i a l p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e ) had s p l i t i t s Community S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n i n t o two s e c t -i o n s - - A d u l t P r o b a t i o n and J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n - - and t h e s e s e c t i o n s were d e c e n t r a l i z i n g w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t a r e a . The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s was t h e r e s u l t o f a p o l i c y o f t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (NDP) government t o e s t a b l i s h d e l i v e r y o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a t . t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d l e v e l - 59 -a n d , i n t h e case o f t h e Community R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s , t o promote community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e t t i n g o f s o c i a l p o l i c y . The f a c t t h a t t h e CRBs were a t t e m p t i n g t o cope w i t h a new o r g a n i z -a t i o n a l s e t t i n g and were enmeshed i n a * p o l i t i c a l ' r o l e , t h a t i s , a t t e m p t i n g t o s a t i s f y t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s community p a r t i c i p -a t i o n p o l i c y and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s i t had c r e a t e d i n t h e commun-i t y , makes i t u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t a major c o n c e r n o f t h e CRBs was w i t h p u t t i n g t h e i r own house i n o r d e r . When t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y was e l e c t e d i n December 1975, t h e a g e n c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s , f a c e d a new s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The e l e c t e d Community R e s o u r c e s Boa rds were d i s b a n d e d i n F e b r u a r y 1976, and t h e managers o f most R e s o u r c e s Boards were changed . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e was c o n c e r n o v e r budge t c u t s w h i c h were e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t i n s t a f f r e d u c t i o n s . I n a l l , t h e r e was a h i g h degree o f u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h i n a l l a g e n c i e s , and w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t i t s e l f . I t was no t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e P r o j e c t w o u l d o b t a i n t h e funds n e c e s s a r y t o c o v e r expenses f o r t h e A p r i l 1, 1976 t o M a r c h 31, 1977 p e r i o d . I n t h e end t h e P r o j e c t ' s budge t was r e v i s e d and i t c u r t a i l e d i t s p l a n n e d p u b l i c i n f o r m -a t i o n p r o g r a m . T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h what was happen ing t o t h e p u b l i c and i n t e r n a l i n f o r m a t i o n programs o f most a g e n c i e s 32 i n v o l v e d i n t h e P r o j e c t . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e p o l i c e were a n x i o u s abou t t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e change i n g o v e r n m e n t . My i n t e r v i e w s •: w i t h p o l i c e members t o w a r d t h e end o f t h e P r o j e c t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e d a change i n a t t i t u d e among P r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s a f t e r t h e government changed i n 1975. P r i o r t o t h i s , t h e f e e l -i n g o f t h e p o l i c e was t h a t t h e NDP government was s u p p o r t i v e o f - 60 -p o l i c e i n i t i a t i v e s t o promote b e t t e r p o l i c e - c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s and t o improve s e r v i c e . The f e e l i n g a l s o e x i s t e d t h a t t h e NDP M i n i s t e r s were a p p r o a c h a b l e and would l i s t e n t o p o l i c e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Moreover, t h e l e g i s l a t i v e s t e p s t a k e n by t h e NDP ( t h e B.C. P o l i c e A c t , 1974; t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of J u s t i c e A c t , 1974; and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission and t h e B.C. P o l i c e C o l l e g e ) were c o n s i d e r e d by my r e s p o n d e n t s t o be l o n g overdue, p o s i t i v e a c t i o n s . One s e n i o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r e x p r e s s e d h i s concerns as f o l l o w s : Policeman:" The NDP was s t a r t i n g i n t o an e n t i r e l y new s i t u a t i o n , w i t h l o t s o f f l u r r y and commotion, and because of t h i s - i n d i c a t i n g a l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l - t h e y were doomed t o f a i l u r e . I don't d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e i r b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y , but t h e i r methods. I n t h i s sense the' Socreds [ S o c i a l C r e d i t ] a r e more r e s p o n -s i b l e - c o n s c i o u s o f budget and c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The p r o b lem i s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o [gain.] a c c e s s [ t o ] them! I n t e r v i e w e r : How does t h i s a f f e c t t h e p o l i c e ? P o l i c e m a n : I t w i l l a f f e c t t h e r e s o u r c e s a t our d i s p o s -a l ^ F o r example, a l t h o u g h we have l e s s c rime on a s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s , does t h i s mean t h a t we s h o u l d s a c r i -f i c e r e s o u r c e s j u s t because we seem t o be more e f f e c t -i v e , o r a r e our r e s o u r c e s g o i n g t o keep on i m p r o v i n g ? I f we reduce a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , where i s t h e p r e v e n t -i v e a c t i o n ? [Team p o l i c i n g i s a p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n p r o -gram.] . . . There has been a p u l l i n g back due t o d i f f -i c u l t i e s i n g a i n i n g a c c e s s [ t o t h e government] - t o knowing what i s r e a l l y g o i n g on. I sense w i t h i n our own department t h a t we a r e drawing back. I t ' s more ~~ s a t i s f y i n g when t h e r e i s hope of achievement. The f e e l i n g t h a t achievement of g o a l s was l e s s l i k e l y b ec-ause of t h e u n c e r t a i n t y c r e a t e d by t h e change o f government and l i k e l y p o l i c y changes o f t h e new government may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e commitment o f b o t h t h e a g e n c i e s and t h e p o l i c e . I t can be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p o l i c e commitment t o t h e P r o j e c t p e r se - 61 -l e s s e n e d as VPD began t o c o n c e n t r a t e more on t h e development of team p o l i c i n g and l e s s on t h e development of i n t e r - a g e n c y co-o p e r a t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e n , t o t u r n t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l and program i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . V I . TEAM POLICING F r u s t r a t i o n o v er t h e P r o j e c t ' s s l o w r a t e o f p r o g r e s s i n d e f i n i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s and program f o s t e r e d t h e development o f a team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l . The p r o p o s a l was p r e p a r e d by t h e A s s -i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f t h e P r o j e c t i n h i s r o l e as a p o l i c e m a n and under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f VPD's P a t r o l D i v -i s i o n ( t h e Chairman of t h e M . C . C ) . The p r o p o s a l , f i r s t p r e s e n -t e d i n A p r i l 1975 and l a t e r r e v i s e d , was e n t i t l e d : P r o p o s e d  Team P o l i c i n g Concept: Vancouver P o l i c e Department. I t p r o v i d e d a r a t i o n a l e f o r development of a team p o l i c i n g experiment w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t : The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t i s charged w i t h c r e a t i n g a system o f d e l i v e r i n g p o l i c e and o t h e r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e community i n t h e most e f f i c i e n t manner p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t p o l i c i n g system i s not a s a t i s f a c t o r y v e h i c l e t o d e l i v e r t h e d e s i r e d s e r v i c e . I t l a c k s d i r e c t i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h an "~, e f f e c t i v e l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . . P a r k i n s o n s u g g e s t s a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r p r o p o s i n g a team p o l i c i n g e x p e r i m e n t : I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s r e l e v a n t t h a t t h e [ p o l i c e ] D e p a r t -ment had j u s t been g r a n t e d a v e r y l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n manpower and was committed t o u s i n g t h a t s t r e n g t h t o do something d i f f e r e n t . The C h i e f C o n s t a b l e s a i d , "At t h e t i m e an i n c r e a s e was g r a n t e d by C o u n c i l t h e y made i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t o me t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e was , r not g r a n t e d on t h e b a s i s o f 'more of t h e same'." - 62 -The p r o p o s a l d e s c r i b e d what was meant by 'team p o l i c i n g ' , i t s o b j e c t i v e s , and how i t was t o be implemented. Team p o l i c i n g was d e f i n e d a s , " t h e assignment o f a team o f p o l i c e members under a team l e a d e r t o a s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a f o r w h i c h t h e team bears 24 hour r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l c r i m e and r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . I t i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e team concept t h a t as many p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s as p o s s i b l e be d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o t h e team a r e a . " ^ The use o f t h e word 'team' was not meant t o i m p l y t h a t an e n t i r e group of p o l i c e m e n would work t o g e t h e r a t t h e same ti m e and i n t h e same a r e a . However, t h e term 'team p o l i c i n g ' was o r i g i n a l l y used t o d e s c r i b e s u c h an approach. The term Team P o l i c i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n Aberdeen, S c o t l a n d t o d e s c r i b e a new program begun i n res p o n s e t o t h e low morale o f s i n g l e o f f i c e r s p a t r o l l i n g q u i e t s t r e e t s . W i t h t h e c r e a t i o n of teams o f f i v e t o t e n men, t h e monotony and 0 7 i s o l a t i o n o f t h e p a t r o l m a n was r e l i e v e d . A n other t y p e o f program, a l s o d e v e l o p e d i n Great B r i t a i n , i n v o l v e d a s s i g n i n g a group of p a t r o l m e n t o a s p e c i f i c a r e a . I t was c a l l e d t h e U n i t Beat System and i t made i t p o s s i b l e f o r p o l i c e m e n , " t o sh a r e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e a r e a and, t h u s , 38 so i t i s argued, make b e t t e r use o f t h e i r l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . " The p o l i c e m e n i n t h i s system d i d not work as a 'team' i n t h e sense o f a l l b e i n g on p a t r o l a t t h e same t i m e . I t was t h i s U n i t Beat System t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e model f o r team p o l i c i n g systems d e v e l o p e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . The name was p r o v i d e d by Aberdeen. - 63 -The f i r s t w e l l known team p o l i c i n g system was developed . 39 i n Syracuse, New York, i n 1968. However, i n other c i t i e s the terms 'community p o l i c i n g ' or 'neighbourhood team p o l i c i n g ' were sometimes used. Whatever the name, North American team p o l i c i n g systems e x h i b i t e d some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were c o n s i d e r e d i n the de s i g n of a system f o r Vancouver: (1) Geographic s t a b i l i t y of p a t r o l , i . e . . r e l a t i v e l y permanent assignment of per s o n n e l t o a neighbourhood. (2) Maximum i n t e r a c t i o n among Team members. (3) Maximum communication among Team members and the community. (4) U n i t y of s u p e r v i s i o n . [ A l l team members super-v i s e d by one person, the team l e a d e r . ] (5) L o w e r - l e v e l f l e x i b i l i t y i n policy-making, i . e . the Team i s a b l e t o c a r r y out i t s own o p e r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . (6) U n i f i e d d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s , i . e . the Team has c o n t r o l over the d e l i v e r y of a l l p o l i c e s e r v i c e s i n the neighbourhood. (7) Combined i n v e s t i g a t i v e and p a t r o l f u n c t i o n s . (8) Formal Team conf e r e n c e s . (9) Formal Community conferences. (10) Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c e work. (11) Systematicerei.§rra3ilto s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . ^ The VPD team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l p o i n t e d out t h a t no one system had combined a l l . o f these f e a t u r e s and t h a t v ery few had embodied (11), systematicrr§ferral t o s o c i a l agencies, or (6 ) , u n i f i e d d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s . " I f we are s u c c e s s f u l i n - 64 -the g o a l s of our [team p o l i c i n g ] P r o j e c t , the f i n a l product w i l l be unique throughout North A m e r i c a . " ^ Whether or not i t would be unique, these two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , u n i f i e d d e l i v -ery of s e r v i c e s and s y s t e m a t i c r e f e r r a l t o s o c i a l agencies, were i n l i n e w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of the P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t and c o u l d j u s t i f y the P r o j e c t ' s acceptance of the p r o p o s a l . The Team P o l i c i n g Program began on January 1, 1976, as a component of the P r o j e c t i n Vancouver South. The D i s t r i c t ' s manpower complement of 157 members was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x teams ranging i n s i z e from 19 t o 30 p o l i c e members. The teams were as s i g n e d to neighbourhood areas (see Map No. 2) which c l o s e l y corresponded t o areas served by teams of Community Resources Board s o c i a l workers. Each team of c o n s t a b l e s was s u p e r v i s e d by a sergeant, the team l e a d e r , who w a s s a s s i s t e d by a c o r p o r a l , the a s s i s t a n t team l e a d e r . L a t e r , a second c o r p o r a l was added to ensure 24 hour s u p e r v i s i o n over t h r e e , e e i g h t hour s h i f t s . The team l e a d e r was r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i s t r i c t ' s o p e r a t i o n s o f f i c e r , a s t a f f sergeant, and the I n s p e c t o r i n charge of D i s t r i c t No. 3. I n a d d i t i o n t o the p o l i c e members, two A d u l t P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , two F a m i l y and J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , two Community Mental Health workers, and two Community Resources Board s o c i a l workers were a s s i g n e d to each team as l i a i s o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t should be noted i n p a s s i n g t h a t P r o j e c t documents d e s c r i b e d a l l of the above agency and p o l i c e p erson-n e l as members of one team. In f a c t , t h i s was not the case. - 65 -D u r i n g t h e P r o j e c t , t h e p o l i c e team members and t h e agency l i a i s o n members met f o r team meetings e v e r y s i x weeks. A t t h e s e meetings t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o d i s c u s s c u r r e n t p o l i c -i n g and s o c i a l problems i n t h e i r a r e a and de v e l o p approaches t o s o l v i n g them. However, a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s were en c o u n t e r e d w h i c h l i m i t e d f u l l communication between agency and p o l i c e p e r s o n n e l . When t h e system was f i r s t i n s t i t u t e d s o c i a l w o r k ers began t o e x p r e s s c o n c e r n o v e r b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f a ' p o l i c e team'. They f e l t t h a t t h e p o l i c e were c o n f u s e d about t h e r o l e s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e w o r kers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e exp e r i m -e n t . The c o n f u s i o n was, i n p a r t , due t o l a c k o f g u i d a n c e from t h e P r o j e c t w h i c h , as n o t e d i n S e c t i o n I I I , had l e f t i t up t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l teams t o work out p o l i c e - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P a r k i n s o n r e c o r d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g comments o f agency w o r k e r s : R: . . . one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t got us o f f on t h e wrong f o o t r i g h t away was t h e p o l i c e ' s assumpt-i o n t h a t t h e Team i n c l u d e d a l l s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . . . . We're a V.R.B. [Vancouver Resources Board] Team and t h e y ' r e t h e p o l i c e Team, and w e ' l l c o - o p e r a t e w i t h them but we're not t h e same Team. I t h i n k t h a t ' s where t h e r o l e c o n f u s i o n comes i n . A second p e r s o n s a i d : R: I f e e l p a r t o f a community s e r v i c e s team, a l o n g w i t h t h e V.R.B. and p o l i c e , but not p a r t o f t h e p o l i c e team. I t h i n k t h a t i f my c l i e n t e l e saw i t as a p o l i c e s e r v i c e team I don't know how • ? t h a t would a f f e c t them. I n i t i a l l y , however, t h e P r o j e c t seemed t o promote t h e n o t i o n t h a t p o l i c e and s o c i a l agency p e r s o n n e l were p a r t o f - 66 -t h e same team. I n f a c t , a t f i r s t , team t r a i n i n g meetings i n c l -uded t h e s o c i a l agency p e o p l e . But t h e meetings became more and more concerned w i t h p o l i c e problems and, t h u s , came t o be p o l i c e dominated. T h i s may have been due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p o l i c e u s u a l l y s e t t h e agenda and had c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c r ime problems t o d i s c u s s . There were a t t e m p t s t o develop l i a i s o n committees t o p r e p a r e agendas so t h a t meetings d e a l t w i t h concerns o f b o t h t h e p o l i c e and t h e a g e n c i e s , but t h e committees were s h o r t - l i v e d . F i n a l l y , t h e Team M e e t i n g s became P o l i c e Team M e e t i n g s w i t h agency p e r s o n n e l i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d as r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s when r e q u i r e d . Toward t h e end o f t h e P r o j e c t , however, a consensus emerg-ed among p o l i c e and agency p e r s o n n e l as t o how t h e y c o u l d work t o g e t h e r a t t h e l i n e l e v e l . T h i s consensus c e n t r e s on t h e f o l l o w i n g : (1) t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n of t h e p o l i c e i s t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c e work; (2) i n d o i n g t h a t work, each p o l i c e team s h o u l d employ management by o b j e c t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t o r y man-agement s t y l e s ; (3) t h e p o l i c e teams must u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e a g e n c i e s and have open l i n e s o f comm-u n i c a t i o n w i t h them; (4) wherever p o s s i b l e t h e p o l i c e s h o u l d r e f e r problems t o t h e a g e n c i e s and i n v o l v e them i n s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s t o ongoing problems; (5) where a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e a g e n c i e s s h o u l d keep t h e p o l i c e i n f o r -med o f community problems and i n c l u d e them i n r e s o l - • ~ u t i o n s o f t h o s e problems whenever p o s s i b l e . T h i s consensus p r o v i d e d a f a r more d e f i n i t e , i f l e s s a m b i t -i o u s , s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s and o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s t h a n t h o s e d e v e l o p e d by t h e P r o j e c t . I t p r o v i d e d a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r o l e s o f a g e n c i e s and t h e p o l i c e , and r e s p e c t e d t h e f u n c t i o n a l autonomy o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . When t h e P r o j e c t ended on March 31, 1977, t h i s r e v e r s i o n t o i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n remained i n - 67 -e f f e c t . I t c o n t i n u e d t o be f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t -ment.-Vs i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a team p o l i c i n g system t h r o u g h o u t Vancouver i n 1977 - 78. One s e n i o r p o l i c e m a n summed up t h e p o l i c e p o i n t o f v i e w i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h i s w r i t e r a t t h e end o f t h e P r o j e c t : The r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e a g e n c i e s - - t h e y ' r e d e v e l o p i n g now a t t h e l i n e l e v e l [team l e v e l ] and we're w o r k i n g our problems o u t . I don't t h i n k we're ever g o i n g t o be s h a r i n g t h e same bed, but a t t h e same t i m e we're g e t t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e commun-i t y t o g e t h e r and we're g o i n g t o be a b l e t o , maybe not work i n t h e t o t a l team concept t h a t we o r i g i n a l l y e n v i s a g e d because i t j u s t doesn't seem t o work t h a t w e l l . But I t h i n k t h a t we're g o i n g t o be a b l e t o ,, know what t o expect o f each o t h e r — t h e l i m i t a t i o n s . W i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t , however, t h e consequences o f t h e d e v e l -opment o f t h e team p o l i c i n g system w i t h l i t t l e P r o j e c t g u i d a n c e and i n v o l v e m e n t l e f t t h e D i r e c t o r i n an awkward p o s i t i o n . " B e i n g a c i v i l i a n he was e n t i r e l y o u t s i d e o f t h e a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p o l i c e component and h i s mandate was u n c l e a r . H i s c o n t r -i b u t i o n had t o t a k e t h e f o r m of o f f e r i n g a d v i c e , b r i n g i n g p e o p l e t o g e t h e r , and k e e p i n g management i n f o r m e d . T h i s meant t h a t t h e p o l i c e component and, t h u s , team p o l i c i n g were i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e P r o j e c t . E v i d e n c e o f t h i s i s t h a t , except f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d i n June 1976, P r o j e c t s t a f f d i d not meet w i t h t h e team p o l i c i n g component o f t h e P r o j e c t . "With t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e D i r e c t o r , P r o j e c t s t a f f were f r e q u e n t l y not aware of what was happening w i t h t h e p o l i c e e x p e r i m e n t , and d i d not have an e f f e c t i v e c h a n n e l t o communicate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e p o l i c e l e a d e r s . " T h e r e f o r e , t h e s u c c e s s t h e teams had i n d e v e l o p i n g a consensus and a w o r k i n g - 6 8 -arrangement was, v i r t u a l l y , t h e i r s a l o n e . Moreover, s u c c e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g a team p o l i c i n g system was due, p r i m a r i l y , t o p o l i c e e f f o r t s . VII. THE LEGACY OF THE PROJECT The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t ended on March 31, 1977. We a r e l e f t , t h e r e f o r e , t o c o n s i d e r what t h e P r o j e c t produced. F i r s t , i t s h o u l d be e v i d e n t t h a t t h e P r o j e c t was not s u c c e s s f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s . However, i t d i d b r i n g t o g e t h e r p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s and s o c i a l agency workers a t t h e l i n e (team) l e v e l . T h i s c o n t a c t and t h e d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h ensued l e d t o development o f a consensus on how a g e n c i e s and t h e p o l i c e can work t o g e t h e r i n an i n f o r m a l manner and r e s p e c t each o t h e r ' s r o l e s . To t h e b e s t o f my knowledge, t h e p o l i c e and s o c i a l agen-c i e s c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r a c t i n t h e manner p r e s c r i b e d by t h e con-s e n s u s . W l i l l e t h e i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o t h e P r o j e c t , i t i s now based on g r e a t e r aware-ness o f p o l i c e and agency r o l e s . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n awareness among p o l i c e and agency w o r k e r s may, t h e n , be c o n s i d e r e d as a l e g a c y o f t h e P r o j e c t . A second c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e P r o j e c t p r o v i d e d an opp-o r t u n i t y f o r s i g n i f i c a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change (team p o l i c i n g ) i n t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department. However, a l t h o u g h i t might be s u g g e s t e d t h a t a team p o l i c i n g system was a l e g a c y o f t h e P r o j e c t , t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t team p o l i c i n g was a p o l i c e - c o n t r o l l e d development w i t h l i t t l e - 69 -c o n c r e t e a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e P r o j e c t . Indeed, some members o f t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e P r o j e c t was not e s s e n t i a l f o r development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of T • kl team p o l i c x n g . When t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t was d e v e l -oped, i t was e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e a n o t h e r l e g a c y i n t h e f o r m of an e l a b o r a t e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e programs i t u n d e r t o o k . However, t h e s t u d i e s o u t l i n e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e P r o j e c t were, f o r t h e most p a r t , n o t u n d e r t a k e n . I n s t e a d , two minor r e s e a r c h p a pers on c r i m e t r e n d s and community a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d th e p o l i c e were h a s t i l y p u t t o g e t h e r i n t h e l a s t few months o f t h e P r o j e c t . B o t h s t u d i e s s u f f e r e d f r om l a c k o f an adequate r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and l i m i t e d d a t a . T h i s was not t h e f a u l t o f t h e a u t h o r of t h e s t u d i e s as t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e he was h i r e d . I t appears t h a t t h e major r e a s o n f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s t u d i e s was p r e s s u r e f r om t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission. The Commission t h r e -a t e n e d t o w i t h d r a w i t s s u p p o r t f o r t h e P r o j e c t i f t h e s t u d i e s 1.8 were not u n d e r t a k e n . A p p a r e n t l y t h e Commission was concerned t h a t n o t h i n g a t a l l would come of t h e P r o j e c t . A l e n g t h y e v a l u a t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t was produced by t h e P r o j e c t ' s s e n i o r r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r , Dr. P a r k i n s o n . T h i s document w h i c h was h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f t h e P r o j e c t ' s a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n has been r e f e r r e d t o e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I t i s t h e o n l y a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d o f t h e P r o j e c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s a s i d e f r o m my own notes and r e c o l l -e c t i o n s o f t h e P r o j e c t when I p r o v i d e d p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n s e r -v i c e s t o i t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d i n 1976. - 70 -P a r k i n s o n ' s t i t l e f o r h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s F i g u r i n g I t Out, and t h i s r e f l e c t s h i s o p i n i o n t h a t most o f t h e P r o j e c t ' s e n e r g i e s were expended i n t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out how t o implem-ent change i n e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a g e n c i e s and t h e p o l i c e . A l t h o u g h ' f i g u r i n g i t o u t ' was a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t e p , t h e P r o j e c t d i d not g e t f a r beyond t h a t f i r s t s t e p . Thus, when t h e P r o j e c t ended i n March 1977, no s i g n i f i c a n t , c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s c o u l d be d i r e c t l y c r e d i t e d t o i t . However, t h e s i g n i f -i c a n c e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o f i g u r e i t out s h o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d . A t l e a s t s e n i o r p o l i c e and agency o f f i c i a l s became aware o f t h e need t o c l a r i f y i n t e r - a g e n c y needs and t o promote open d i s c u s s -i o n o f t h o s e needs. And i f t h e P r o j e c t had c o n t i n u e d f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some f o r m of f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n c o u l d have d e v e l o p e d . I n t h i s r e g a r d i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o n o t e t h a t t h e l i n e teams o f p o l i c e m e n and s o c i a l agency w o r k e r s d i d f i g u r e out how t h e y c o u l d b e s t co-o p e r a t e , a t l e a s t i n f o r m a l l y . The r e s u l t s u g g e s t s t h a t c l o s e and p e r s i s t e n t c o n t a c t s uch as t h a t a t t h e w o r k i n g ( l i n e ) l e v e l p roduces t h e i n t e n s i t y o f communication r e q u i r e d t o f i g u r e i t o u t . A l t h o u g h not a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e P r o j e c t , i t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department produced an e v a l u a t -i o n o f t h e Team P o l i c i n g Component o f t h e P r o j e c t i n 1976. I t was p r e p a r e d by I n s p e c t o r E. L i s t e r , t h e o f f i c e r i n charge o f D i s t r i c t No. 3» L i s t e r p roduced a d e t a i l e d t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a comprehensive s e t of recommendations on how t o implement team p o l i c i n g i n t h e t h r e e o t h e r Vancouver p o l i c e - 71 -d i s t r i c t s , w i t h no a d d i t i o n a l manpower and a t r e l a t i v e l y l ow 4 9 ; c o s t . VPD a c t e d on t h e recommendations and t h e department was o f f i c i a l l y committed t o a team p o l i c i n g system i n 1 9 7 7 . The system was implemented t h r o u g h o u t t h e C i t y o f Vancouver i n 1 9 7 8 . C l e a r l y , however, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r shows t h a t t h e Vancouver team p o l i c i n g system was a r e s u l t o f p o l i c e i n i t i a t i v e s and not a r e s u l t o f t h e P r o j e c t . Indeed, i t can be s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t l e f t t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department w i t h no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o s e t i t s own d i r e c t i o n s and r e s p o n d t o i t s own c o n c e r n s . Even i f t h e P r o j e c t had c o n t i n u e d and had been s u c c e s s f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e team p o l i c i n g system would have t a k e n t h e same fo r m . I t can be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h -o r i t y s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p o l i c e department and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e o f t h e p o l i c e m a n w h i c h o f t e n r e q u i r e s s e c r e c y , would l i m i t t h e degree t o w h i c h s o c i a l w o r k e r s and p o l i c e m e n c o u l d be c o n s t -a n t c o - w o r k e r s , t h a t i s , p a r t o f t h e same team. However, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t communication on s o c i a l problems r e l a t e d t o crime would have been i n c r e a s e d and perhaps f o r m a l i z e d . - 72 -FOOTNOTES CHAPTER THREE The f i r s t w e l l known program was de v e l o p e d i n S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k , i n 1 9 6 8 . Other n o t e w o r t h y programs were l a t e r d e v e l o p e d i n Los A n g e l e s , Dayton ( O h i o ) , New York C i t y and Ro c h e s t e r (New Y o r k ) . See D.K. Wasson, Community-based P r e v e n t i v e P o l i c i n g :  A Review ( T o r o n t o : John D. C r a w f o r d & Co., 1 9 7 5 ) . 2 P a r k i n s o n , p. 31* 3 D i v e r s i o n i s a term used t o d e s c r i b e programs o r a c t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c e o r o t h e r j u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s w h i c h d i v e r t o f f e n d e r s out o f t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system. I t a l s o d e s c r i b e s t h e use o f s a n c t i o n s o t h e r t h a n imprisonment. I n sum, i t i m p l i e s r e s t r a i n t i n t h e use o f t h e c r i m i n a l l a w . F o r a f u l l d e f i n i t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of d i v e r s i o n see: Law Reform Commission o f Canada, "Working Paper No. 7 : D i v e r s i o n " (Ottawa, 1 9 7 5 ) . S?he S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was an agency i n s e a r c h of a r o l e because t h e p r o v i n c i a l government had t a k e n o ver i t s l i n e s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f th e CRBs. I t wanted a r o l e as ' e x p e r t a d v i s e r * and t h e P o l i c e Department, as a c i t y agency, was an obvio u s c l i e n t . The development o f t h e p r o p o s a l , t h e n , may be l o o k e d upon as a c l i e n t - a d v i s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department d i d b r i n g a s t r o n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s a l . 5 P a r k i n s o n , pp. 33 - 3 4 . I b i d . , pp. 126 - 1 2 7 . 7 I b i d . , p. 5 4 * P a r k i n s o n n otes on p. 72 t h a t t h e s i g n i n g arrangement was r e q u i r e d by t h e J u s t i c e Development Fund as a m a t t e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n v e n i e n c e . The budget was $ 5 8 , 8 1 9 f o r August 1 , 1975 t o March 3 1 , 1976 and $119 , 9 1 9 f o r t h e p e r i o d A p r i l 1 , 1976 t o March 31, 1 9 7 7 . F u r n i t u r e and o f f i c e space were p r o v i d e d by th e P u b l i c Works Department o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. I b i d . , pp. 5 4 - 5 5 . - 73 -g The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , " P r o g r e s s Report No. 1" (Vancouver, December 1975), p. i . " ^ P a r k i n s o n , p. 64. 11 " P r o g r e s s Report No. 1," p. 9. 12 See P a r k i n s o n , p. 78. 13 I b i d . , p. 56. " ^ T b i d . , pp. 56 and 58. "'"''ibid., p. 6l. " ^ I b i d . , p. 60. 17 " P r o g r e s s Report No. 1," pp. 7 - 8. 18 P a r k i n s o n , pp. 6l - 62. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 62. 20 W i t h agency c o - o p e r a t i o n , t h e teams d i d de v e l o p a p o c k e t s i z e g u i d e i n d i c a t i n g w h i c h agency was b e s t equipped and t r a i n e d t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c problem s i t u a t i o n s . 21 P a r k i n s o n , pp. 63 - 64« 22 C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , c i v i l i a n s t a f f member of P r o j e c t , 977. 23 P a r k i n s o n , p. 70. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 71. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 72. I b i d . 2 7 I b i d . , p. 73. I b i d . , p. 88. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 69. I b i d . , p. 65. 31 D By t h e f a l l o f 1976, a t t h e o p e r a t i o n s l e v e l o f t h e P r o j e c t was f o c u s s e d on t h e needs o f t h e p o l i c e . F o r d e t a i l s s ee: P a r k i n s o n , p. $6. - 74 -32 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d d u r i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e r s i n j u s t i c e system and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . They were concerned about l o s i n g t h e i r j o b s . I n some cases t h e i r f e a r s were w e l l founded. F o r example, t h e e n t i r e i n f o r m a t i o n - p u b l i c a t i o n s s e c t i o n o f t h e J u s t i c e D e v e l -opment Commission was e l i m i n a t e d i n 1976. 33 C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p o l i c e o f f i c e r , A p r i l 1977. J . L . C r i c h , V. Andersen, and R. Z i l b e r m a n , "Proposed Team P o l i c i n g Concept: Vancouver P o l i c e Department" (Vancouver, Mimeo., 1975), p. 1. ^ P a r k i n s o n , pp. 127 - 128. I n 1975, Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l a u t h o r i z e d t h e h i r i n g of 120 new members f o r 197o. S i x t y - f i v e o f t h e s e were a s s i g n e d t o D i s t r i c t No. 3» The t o t a l complement f o r t h e c i t y was t h e n 955 members. 3 ^ C r i c h e t a l . , p. 3« 37 •^'Parkinson, p. 122. 3 8 I b i d . , p. 123. 3 9 I b i d . ^ I b i d . A l s o see C r i c h e t a l . , p. 13. ^ C r i c h et a l . , p. 13. P a r k i n s o n , p. 132. 4 3 I b i d . , p. 136. ^ C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p o l i c e s e r g e a n t , March 1977. ^ P a r k i n s o n , p. 66. ^ I b i d . , pp. 66 - 67. 4 7 I b i d . , p. 114. i d ^ The M i n u t e s o f t h e M.C.C. f o r March 19, 1976, show t h a t t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission t o o k t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t e v a l u a t i o n was t h e whole r e a s o n f o r t h e P r o j e c t and i t would not s u p p o r t t h e P r o j e c t f o r a f u r t h e r y e a r i f i t d i d not h i r e a r e s e a r c h e r t o complete r e p o r t s on c rime t r e n d s and a t t i t u d e s o f c i t i z e n s t o w ard t h e p o l i c e . Moreover, t h e Commission wanted a document t h a t would p r o v i d e a team p o l i c i n g model i t c o u l d recommend t o o t h e r p o l i c e f o r c e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . 49 E.W. L i s t e r , "Team P o l i c i n g E x p e r i m e n t , F i n a l E v a l u a t i o n R e p o r t : P o l i c e Component" (Vancouver P o l i c e Department, Mimeo., December 1976), p. 58. - 75 -CHAPTER FOUR OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS I . INTRODUCTION The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u s t a i n e d , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p u b l i c a g e n c i e s r e q u i r e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s t o each p a r t i c i p a n t . To do so we have examined t h e P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t w h i c h was t o de v e l o p and f o r m a l i z e i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n p r e v e n t i o n of c r i m e and r e l a t e d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . The f i r s t t a s k i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o det e r m i n e i f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t e x i s t e d f o r t h e P r o j e c t ' s p a r t i c i p a n t s - -t h e p o l i c e , p a r o l e , p r o b a t i o n , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . The b e n e f i t s c o n s i d e r e d h e r e a r e i n c r e a s e d o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n -cy, new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s , t h e g a i n o f community and/or p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t , and o p p o r t u n i t y t o s a t i s f y an i d e o -l o g i c a l commitment. The second t a s k w i l l be t o de t e r m i n e i f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t was i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e P r o j e c t ' s attempt t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n . However, because t h e P r o j e c t f a i l e d t o s u s t a i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o dete r m i n e i f t h e absence o r l e s s e n i n g o f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a i l u r e . To d e t e r m i n e i f l i k e l i h o o d q f b e n e f i t t o p a r t i c i p a n t s e x i s t e d we may ask i f t h e P r o j e c t was, i n f a c t , n e c e s s a r y t o - 76 -t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i i i i t and, i f so, f o r a c h i e v i n g what o b j e c t i v e s ? T h i s q u e s t i o n was not d e a l t w i t h by t h e P r o j e c t o r i t s i n i t i a t o r s . However, I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s a fun d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n w h i c h must be a d d r e s s e d h e r e . I I . WAS A PROJECT NECESSARY? The p o l i c e had d e f i n i t e i d e a s about what t h e y wanted out of t h e P r o j e c t . Other a g e n c i e s were f a r l e s s c e r t a i n . The p o l i c e b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d not p r o v i d e an adequate crime p r e v e n t i o n program, as w e l l as c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h e t a s k o f c o n t r o l l i n g c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y , w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y - a t - l a r g e . What t h e y d e s i r e d f r o m t h e P r o j e c t was f o u r f o l d . F i r s t , t h e y wanted r e l i a b l e and c o n s i s t e n t means t o d i v e r t j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s , f a m i l y d i s p u t e s and minor crime problems (misdemeanours) t o s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . The p o l i c e f e l t t h a t t h e y were not t r a i n e d t o d e a l a d e q u a t e l y w i t h such problems and t h a t i n v o k i n g t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d no l o n g - t e r m s o l u t i o n s i n such c a s e s . Moreover, because t h e p o l i c e f e l t i l l a t ease i n s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , t h e l i k e l i h o o d e x i s t -ed t h a t t h e y would be c r i t i c i z e d f o r m i s h a n d l i n g such s i t u a t i - v 1 ons. T h i s l e a d s us t o t h e second d e s i r e o f t h e p o l i c e t o improve t h e image o f t h e p o l i c e i n t h e community. A n t i - p o l i c e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n t h e 1960s prompted concerns o v e r t h e image o f t h e p o l i c e i n t h e community as a r e p r e s s i v e f o r c e . I t was f e l t t h a t i f t h e p o l i c e department was i d e n t i -f i e d as an agency w h i c h c o - o p e r a t e s w i t h o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s - 77 -and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t s image would be enhanced. The P r o j e c t was seen as a means o f d o i n g s o . The C h i e f C o n s t a b l e of t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department v e r i f i e d t h i s on May 13, 1975, when he s t a t e d t h e Department's b e l i e f t h a t c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s were e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g : . . . improved p o l i c e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e community and community a t t i t u d e s towards t h e p o l i c e ; . . . t h e opening and m a i n t a i n i n g o f f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e c h a n n e l s o f communication between a l l ^ segments o f t h e p u b l i c and a l l p o l i c e m e n . The t h i r d d e s i r e was f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s o r l a c k o f a c t i o n . T h i s r e l a t e s t o t h e f i r s t d e s i r e , above, f o r r e l i a b l e d i v e r s i o n systems. I t was prompted by t h e b e l i e f o f t h e p o l i c e t h a t s o c i a l a g e n c i e s cannot p r o v i d e t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y s a y t h e y do. The f o l l o w i n g comment from a s e n i o r p o l i c e m a n i s t y p i c a l : I t ' s n o t j u s t a l a c k o f t r u s t . I t ' s a l a c k of b e l i e f t h a t t h e y [ s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s ] a r e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g t h e j o b t h e y c l a i m t h e y can do. . . . I f t h e y ' r e so i n c l i n e d , t h e y can l o s e a case and s h r u g t h e i r s h o u l d e r s and walk away. We ca n ' t a f f o r d t o do t h a t . T h e r e f o r e , i t appeared t o t h e p o l i c e t h a t making t h e a g e n c i e s a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n a f o r m a l , c o - o p e r -a t i v e endeavour, l i k e t h e P r o j e c t , might make s o c i a l s e r v i c e s more r e s p o n s i v e t o p o l i c e needs. The f o u r t h need o f t h e p o l i c e was t o de t e r m i n e what t o do w i t h 120 new members. Faced w i t h C i t y C o u n c i l ' s demand f o r i n n o v a t i v e use o f t h e new members, t h e p o l i c e saw a p r o j e c t as - 78 -an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v i s e a program t o accommodate the demand. However, t h e Department was not c e r t a i n , i n i t i a l l y , as t o what k i n d o f program s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e r e was no d e f i n i t e e x p r e s s i o n o f need on t h e p a r t o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s t o f o r m a l i z e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c e . C o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e P r o j e c t was s een more as a way o f i n c r e a s i n g c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p o l i c e and l e a r n i n g more about t h e r o l e o f t h e p o l i c e . However, one Resources Board C o - o r d i n a t o r , " c l a i m e d t h a t he had been a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e [ i n t h e P r o j e c t ] by t h e p o l i c e and t h a t d e t e r m i n e d h i s o r i e n t -a t i o n . " ^ I n some c a s e s , s o c i a l w o r k ers i n v o l v e d i n t h e P r o j e c t a t t h e team l e v e l (and t h i s was a l s o a p p arent a t t h e M.C.C. l e v e l ) saw t h e P r o j e c t as a way t o humanize and l i b e r a l i z e t h e p o l i c e f o r c e . F o r example, some tho u g h t t h a t t h e p o l i c e would b e g i n t o t r e a t p e o p l e i n a d i f f e r e n t way, and t h a t t h e y would b e g i n t o b r e a k down t h e m i l i t a r y - l i k e a u t h o r -i t y s t r u c t u r e . Some s o c i a l w o r k ers t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y r c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e f o r m of t h e p o l i c e f o r c e . J u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s , however, f e l t t h e need t o work more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e p o l i c e t o improve e f f i c i e n c y because, " t h e i r c l i e n t s a r e ' c r e a t e d ' by t h e p o l i c e , and t h e p o l i c e can p r o v i d e i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e 'adjustment' of t h e i r c l i e n t s . " ^ I t may be drawn f r o m t h e above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e p o l i c e and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s ( e x c l u d i n g t h e c o r r e c t i o n a g e n c i e s , i . e . , p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e ) were i n t e r e s t e d i n r e f o r m i n g each o t h e r . - 79 -But t h i s does not appear t o have been a w e l l d e f i n e d o r p r e s s i n g need. However, i t does i n d i c a t e t h a t everyone (and here t h e c o r r e c t i o n a g e n c i e s can be i n c l u d e d ) s h a r e d i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g systems o f p o l i c e s e r v i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y were i n a d e q u a t e and t h e r e was a need t o do something about them. "The i n i t i a l a s s u m p t i o n appeared t o be t h a t i f a l l t h e agency p e o p l e were brought t o g e t h e r [ w i t h t h e p o l i c e ] , 7 something would happen." There was, t h e n , a l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t , but e x a c t l y what k i n d of b e n e f i t was unknown, a t l e a s t t o t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . But t h e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s t o t h e p o l i c e , n o t e d above, were q u i t e c l e a r . I I I . OBJECTIVES AND PERCEPTIONS When t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s and t h e p o l i c e a g r e e d t o c o - o p e r -a t e i n t h e P r o j e c t , t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee a t t e m p t e d t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on a r e a s where c o - o p e r a t i o n might be b e n e f i c i a l o r p r o d u c t i v e . However, because o f t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f members, t h e o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g e x e r c i s e p r o v e d t o be f r u s t r a t i n g and u n p r o d u c t i v e . The s e t s o f o b j e c t i v e s d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e A p r i l 1975, were f a r t o o b r o a d t o a c t upon g i v e n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e P r o j e c t and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . At t h i s p o i n t t h e p o l i c e a g a i n t o o k t h e i n i t i a t i v e and f o c u s -sed a t t e n t i o n on t h e development o f team p o l i c i n g , a system t h a t would complement changes w h i c h had been made i n t h e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y systems o f t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s . A g a i n t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t was r a i s e d and a g e n c i e s - 80 -committed p e r s o n n e l t o work w i t h t h e p o l i c e a t t h e l i n e l e v e l ( i . e . , a t t h e neighbourhood team l e v e l ) . However, i t appears t h a t t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e p o l i c e were p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g i n c o n t r o l o f t h e team p o l i c i n g experiment began t o weaken t h e commitment o f l i n e l e v e l , agency p e r s o n n e l . Q u i t e s i m p l y , t h e s e agency w o r k e r s d i d not want t o be i d e n t i f i e d as members of a ' p o l i c e ' team, t h a t i s , " n e g a t i v e b e n e f i t s " were apparent t o them. Meanwhile, t h e P r o j e c t was-doing l i t t l e t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t -ance t o t h e teams of p o l i c e and agency w o r k e r s , and t h i s r e i n f o r c e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e team experiment b e i n g p o l i c e -d i r e c t e d . A l s o , t h e r e was l i t t l e o f consequence o c c u r r i n g a t t h e M.C.C. l e v e l t h a t would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e P r o j e c t was c o n t i n u i n g t o f u n c t i o n as an i n t e r - a g e n c y p r o j e c t . I n f a c t , as t h e P r o j e c t s t a r t e d i t s f i n a l y e a r , i t was concerned w i t h development o f r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s t o s a t i s f y a demand o f t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o pass on t o o t h e r p o l i c e departments. L e f t on t h e i r own, t h e p o l i c e and agency teams r e a c h e d a consensus on how t o work t o g e t h e r 'whenever p o s s i b l e ' . But i n r e v e r t i n g t o i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , t h e p o l i c e and agency members made a commitment t o improve knowledge o f each o t h e r ' s r o l e s and t o r e s p e c t each o t h e r ' s f u n c t i o n a l autonomy. I t was contended i n C h a p t e r One t h a t t h e b a l a n c e between g o a l d i v e r s i t y and g o a l consensus d e t e r m i n e s a c t u a l g o a l 8 consensus. I t appears t h a t t h i s b a l a n c e was r e a c h e d a t t h e team o r l i n e l e v e l . Consensus was r e a c h e d on b r o a d a r e a s s u c h - B i -as i m p r o v i n g awareness o f r o l e s . F u n c t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y and autonomy were t o be r e s p e c t e d and m a i n t a i n e d . I V . DISTRACTIONS The i n f l u e n c e o f p o l i t i c a l change was d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y i n C h a p t e r T hree. On t h e b a s i s o f t h a t d i s c u s s i o n i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s were d i s t r a c t e d by changes w i t h i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s made i n o r d e r t o accommodate new government p o l i c i e s . However, t h e p o l i c e were, i n p r a c t i c a l t e rms, u n a f f e c t e d . I t can o n l y be s u r m i s e d t h a t i f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t had been c l e a r and had a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t t o them, t h e a g e n c i e s might have committed them-s e l v e s t o t h e P r o j e c t as a means of r e d u c i n g t h e u n c e r t a i n t y t h e y were e x p e r i e n c i n g . I n o t h e r words, t h e y c o u l d have used t h e P r o j e c t , as t h e p o l i c e d i d , t o d e f i n e r o l e s and o b j e c t i v e s w h i c h would accommodate new government p o l i c i e s . As t h e c o n s e r -v a t i v e S o c i a l C r e d i t government was l e s s s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s t h a n t o t h e p o l i c e , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s c o u l d have used t h e P r o j e c t t o d e v e l o p ( o r t o appear t o d e v e l o p ) a more c o n s e r v a t i v e approach t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e system by s t r e s s i n g t h e econ-omic b e n e f i t s ( i . e . , e f f i c i e n c y ) t o be d e r i v e d f r o m i n t e r -agency c o - o p e r a t i o n and s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n a t i o n . The p o l i c e do not appear t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by p o l i t i c a l change, a l t h o u g h t h e y w o r r i e d about what the u n c e r t -a i n t y c r e a t e d would mean i n terms of i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l - 82 -d i s c o n t e n t . The comment o f a p o l i c e member o f t h e P r o j e c t t y p i f i e s t h e p o l i c e a t t i t u d e t oward p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e , as w e l l as p r e s s u r e from s e n i o r a g e n c i e s : I don't t h i n k t h a t t h e B.C. P o l i c e Commission o r th e p r o v i n c i a l government i s g o i n g t o have any-p a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e on t h e development o f comm-u n i t y and team p o l i c i n g , c e r t a i n l y n o t i n t h e Q sense o f t h e Vancouver P o l i c e F o r c e a t l e a s t . The o t h e r ' d i s t r a c t i o n ' w h i c h r e q u i r e s b r i e f mention was t h e r o l e o f t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and P r o j e c t s t a f f i n impeding t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee. Through t a i l o r i n g of meetings and c o n t r o l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e M.C.C. may have been d e n i e d ( b u t I t h i n k o n l y i n s m a l l measure) t h e t o o l s and t i m e t o d e v e l o p a m e a n i n g f u l consensus on o b j e c t i v e s . I t can be su g g e s t e d t h a t , c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e M.C.C.'s c o n f u s i o n o v e r o b j e c t i v e s , t h e s t a f f u n c o n s c i o u s l y d e v i s e d a s t r a t e g y t o do n o t h i n g more t h a n 'get t h r o u g h * t h e P r o j e c t . A l s o , as c i v i l i a n s o u t s i d e t h e p o l i c e a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e and u n a l i g n e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , t h e y may have had d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e communication w i t h b o t h t h e p o l i c e and t h e a g e n c i e s . Whatever t h e r e a s o n s , t h e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c i v i l i a n s t a f f made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , a p o l i c e m a n , t o 10 work out new o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e P r o j e c t and t o t a k e c o n t r o l by way o f d i r e c t i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l . V. TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS The l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t can t a k e many f o r m s . I t has been - 83 -shown t h a t t h e p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s p e r c e i v e d f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , as e s s e n t i a l and p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n were based on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . Y et t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s denote a b e l i e f i n t h e l i k e l i h o o d of b e n e f i t , no m a t t e r how vague. However, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e b e l i e f s , t h e a g e n c i e s and t h e p o l i c e were u n a b l e t o work out f o r m a l , c o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e -ments. T h e r e f o r e , t h e p o l i c e , w i t h t h e c l e a r e s t n o t i o n of what t h e y w i s h e d t o a c h i e v e , t o o k over t h e P r o j e c t . The s o c i a l a g e n c i e s d i d not have a c l e a r n o t i o n o f what t h e y w i s h e d t o a c h i e v e . As a g e n c i e s w i t h d i v e r s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and l e s s d e f i n e d a u t h o r i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s t h a n t h e p o l -i c e , t h e y may have l a c k e d s t r o n g g o a l consensus w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r own sphere o f a c t i v i t y . The p o l i c e , on t h e o t h e r hand, have a d e f i n i t e a u t h o r i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e and a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l a w enforcement and crime p r e v e n t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , when t h e p o l i c e t o o k over t h e P r o j e c t , i t became apparent t o t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s i n p a r t i c u l -a r t h a t t h e y s t o o d l i t t l e chance o f g a i n i n g and a g r e a t chance of b e i n g used by t h e p o l i c e i n s a t i s f a c t i o n o f 'team p o l i c i n g ' o b j e c t i v e s . Thus, w i t h t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t , t h e attempt t o f o r m a l i z e i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n c o l l a p s e d . I t i s not c l e a r , however, t h a t f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r -a t i o n w ould have d e v e l o p e d i f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t had r e m a i n -ed o r had been i n c r e a s e d . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e we have no way o f - 84 -a s s e s s i n g t h i s because t h e P r o j e c t f a i l e d . I n f a c t , i t i s not c l e a r t h a t f o r m a l i t y i n i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n was r e q u i r e d i n t h i s case because no one a d d r e s s e d t h e q u e s t i o n of what t h e r o l e o f f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d be. I n t h e P r o j e c t t h e y s i m p l y w a i t e d f o r some r e v e l a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, i n f o r m a l i t y i n i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s does work, as demonstrated by t h e neighbourhood p o l i c e and community s e r v i c e teams. But because t h e s e teams had l i t t l e c h o i c e but t o attempt t o work out some c o - o p e r a t i v e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , i . e . , t h e y were i n s t r u c t e d t o t r y t o c o - o p e r a t e by a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y ( t h e p o l i c e and p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s d e s i g n a t e d p e r s o n n e l f o r each team), we a r e l e d t o ask i f t h e P r o j e c t would have succeeded i f f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n had been e n j o i n e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government? The q u e s t i o n can o n l y be o f f e r e d h e r e . A n o t h e r P r o j e c t w i t h c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s imposed by s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government might o f f e r an answer. However, i n t h e meantime, i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h were showing r e s u l t s b e f o r e t h e P r o j e c t s t a r t e d and a r e showing r e s u l t s now o f f e r an e f f e c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n . FOOTNOTES CHAPTER FOUR The p o l i c e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y by t h e p r e s s , t h e government, and t h e p u b l i c moreso t h a n o t h e r a g e n c i e s . A p o l i c e s e r g e a n t commented t h a t : Day by day we're open t o exposure i n t h e p r e s s . Our f a i l i n g s a r e w r i t t e n up. F o r i n s t a n c e , what does a s o c i a l w o r k e r have t o produce i n a y e a r ? Do t h e y have, a t t h e end o f a y e a r , an a n n u a l r e p o r t s a y i n g what k i n d o f d e c r e a s e s t h e y ' v e made i n s o c i a l work r e c i p i e n t s . . . or how many f a m i l i e s t h e y ' v e saved o r how many t h e y h a v e n ' t ? They d o n J t have t h e s e k i n d s o f pr o b l e m s . C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , March 1 9 7 7 . 2 " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t No. 1 , " p. i i . 3 C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p o l i c e s e r g e a n t , March 1 9 7 7 . I 5, ^"Parkinson, p. 85 I b i d . , pp. 198 - 1 9 9 . 6 I b i d . , p. 2 1 8 . 7 I b i d . , p. 1 9 5 . See Downs, p. 2 2 4 * 9 C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p o l i c e s e r g e a n t , March 1 9 7 7 . " ^ T h i s assessment i s based on my c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r i n 1 9 7 6 . He e x p r e s s e d deep c o n c e r n o v e r l a c k o f a c t i o n i n t h e P r o j e c t . A t t h e t i m e he a l s o e x p r e s s e d t h e n o t i o n t h a t p o l i c e m e n t y p i c a l l y t r y t o f i l l p e r c e i v e d vacuums, t h a t i s , t h e y w i l l t a k e a c t i o n on a problem i f i t appears t h a t no one e l s e i s t r y i n g t o come up w i t h a s o l u t i o n , CO. VANCOUVER POLICE DEPARTMENT,. DISTRICT No. 3, DEPLOYMENT OF POLICE TEAMS, 1976. Each Team had one s e r g e a n t and one c o r p o r a l . P o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s f o r each team were as f o l l o w s : TEAM 31: TEAM 32: TEAM 33: TEAM 34: TEAM 35: TEAM 36: - 88 -DIAGRAM No. 1: P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t S t r u c t u r e . P r o j e c t S t a f f 2 c l e r i c a l 2 r e s e a r c h 1. Vancouver P o l i c e Department 2. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 3 . Community S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , P r o v i n c i a l C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h 4 . 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" The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , one f u l l page each Tuesday, March 7 t o June 20, 1978. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. "The P u b l i c L i b r a r y i n t h e W i r e d C i t y . " U n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Canadian E d u c a t i o n a l Communications C o n f e r e n c e , Edmonton, A l b e r t a , J u l y 1971. T o r o n t o : T o r o n t o P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , 1971. Fe r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. "The R o l e o f P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s i n D i s s e m i n a t i o n of I n f o r m a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n of E l e c t r -o n i c and Micro-Image E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s . " U n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e p a r e d f o r T o r o n t o P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s and p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Canadian C o u n c i l f o r R e s e a r c h i n E d u c a t i o n , Ottawa, November 1970. 

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