UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Formal co-operation among public agencies : a study of Vancouver’s Police and Community Services Project Ferguson, Thomas F.B. 1979

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1979_A8 F47.pdf [ 5.33MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0100221.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0100221-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0100221-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0100221-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0100221-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0100221-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0100221-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0100221-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0100221.ris

Full Text

FORMAL CO-OPERATION AMONG PUBLIC AGENCIES: A STUDY OF VANCOUVER'S P O L I C E AND COMMUNITY SERVICES PROJECT by THOMAS F.B. FERGUSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f P o l i t i c a l  Science  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May,  1979  (S) Thomas F.B. F e r g u s o n , 1979  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l  fulfilment  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  of  the L i b r a r y I further for  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  agree that  this  written  thesis for  It  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  P o l i t i c a l Science  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  BP  75-5  1 I E  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that  not  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  i s understood  permission.  Department nf  DE-6  extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  the requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia,  available for  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  freely  of  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n examines a n attempt e s t a b l i s h a n d s u s t a i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p o l i c e , s e r v i c e , p a r o l e and p r o b a t i o n agencies and  r e l a t e d s o c i a l problems.  1974-  The s e t t i n g f o r t h i s a t t e m p t  The P r o j e c t , a s i t was c a l l e d ,  t o M a r c h 31, 1977.  social  i n p r e v e n t i o n of crime  t h e P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t i n V a n c o u v e r , Columbia.  to  I t was d e v e l o p e d  was  British  r a n from September i n the south-east  q u a d r a n t o f V a n c o u v e r with., t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e named agencies,  t h e B.C. P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n , a n d t h e B.C. J u s t i c e Dev-  elopment Commission. Examination  o f t h e P r o j e c t and events which l e d t o i t s  i n c e p t i o n i s undertaken  t o t e s t the hypothesis that sustained,  f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among p u b l i c a g e n c i e s hood o f b e n e f i t s t o each p a r t i c i p a n t . i n p a r t , from Antonio  Jorge's  r e q u i r e s the likeliHr  The h y p o t h e s i s i s d r a w n ,  Competition,  Co-operation,  Effic-  i e n c y , a n d S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d A n t h o n y Downs* I n s i d e Bureaucracy. motivated and  Both w r i t e r s maintain t h a t co-operation i s o f t e n  b y t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f rewards such as power, p r e s t i g e ,  additional resources.  t o be o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e  However, h e r e i n t h e m o t i v e i s shown i n f o r m a l as compared t o i n f o r m a l  c o - o p e r a t i o n due, i n p a r t , t o t h e l o n g e r term g r e a t e r degree o f involvement  commitment a n d  required of participants.  Formal c o - o p e r a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as a f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r  - i i i recognized  -  i n t e r a c t i o n i n w h i c h a g e n c i e s and  a g r e e t o combine t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s  i n an  their  organized  officials manner f o r  t h e p r o m o t i o n o f common ends o r o b j e c t i v e s i n s u c h a way  that  the g r e a t e r  greater  the  s u c c e s s o f one  success of the  other  p a r t y to the  i n t e r a c t i o n , the  party or p a r t i e s .  A l s o , the  interacti-  on i s u s u a l l y g o v e r n e d by f o r m a l  r u l e s and  i n y by  d e f i n i t i o n denotes the  goal  a higher  authority.  This  c o n s e n s u s w h i c h , i n t u r n , may  perceive  i s subject to  scrutneed f o r  signify that participants  a l i k e l i h o o d of b e n e f i t s .  Informal  co-operation  among p o l i c e , p r o b a t i o n (1963  s e r v i c e agencies p r i o r to the P r o j e c t  -  1974)  and  social  i s examined  t o show d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e b e l i e f among a l l a g e n c i e s t h a t co-operation  would improve the  police services.  On  the basis  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of agency  formal  and  of t h i s s h a r e d b e l i e f , the  Van-  couver P o l i c e Department developed support f o r the P r o j e c t encouraged p a r t i c i p a t i o n of s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . ated  by  t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p o l i c e and  c r i m e and  role definitions. was  s o c i a l p r o b l e m s and Reorganization  a l s o a response t o the  facilit-  most s o c i a l a g e n c i e s w e r e ,  i n 1974> d e c e n t r a l i z i n g s e r v i c e s t o i n c r e a s e treating  T h i s was  and  effectiveness  were s e e k i n g  of. s o c i a l s e r v i c e  s o c i a l p o l i c i e s o f a New  in  clearer agencies Democratic  P a r t y p r o v i n c i a l government. The ion.  P r o j e c t was  Representatives  fraught  with  d i f f i c u l t i e s from i t s i n c e p t -  o f a g e n c i e s who  w e r e e x p e c t e d t o manage  t h e P r o j e c t w e r e u n a b l e t o a g r e e on v i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s f o r Project.  As  the  the P r o j e c t l a c k e d a c l e a r sense of d i r e c t i o n , the  p o l i c e proposed experimentation  w i t h a team p o l i c i n g s y s t e m .  - iv ( t h a t i s , r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p o l i c e i n the P r o j e c t area i n t o s i x neighbourhood teams w i t h constables  assigned  b a s i s ) to f a c i l i t a t e c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c e and services.  on a permanent s o c i a l agency  A l l P r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s agreed to the experiment  i t provided  the P r o j e c t w i t h a concrete g o a l .  t r a t i o n on team p o l i c i n g f e d p e r c e p t i o n s  However, concen-  of s o c i a l agencies t h a t  the P r o j e c t was  a " p o l i c e p r o j e c t " r a t h e r than an  endeavour.  t h i s concentration  But  inter-agency  came about, i n p a r t , because  of l a c k of s t r o n g s o c i a l agency commitment t o the P r o j e c t . was  due  l a r g e l y t o the p r e o c c u p a t i o n  t h e i r own  as  This  of agencies w i t h changes i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from a change t o a S o c i a l  C r e d i t P a r t y p r o v i n c i a l government (December 1975) ative social policies.  with  conserv-  A l s o , the dominant r o l e of the p o l i c e i  i n the P r o j e c t appeared t o l e s s e n the l i k e l i h o o d of b e n e f i t s t o s o c i a l agencies and,  therefore, lessened t h e i r  These f a c t o r s are considered  commitment.  as major i n f l u e n c e s  the P r o j e c t ' s f a i l u r e t o s u s t a i n formal  determining  co-operation.  In c o n t r a s t , f i e l d teams of p o l i c e and  agency workers i n  the team p o l i c i n g experiment developed a consensus on how work t o g e t h e r , whenever p o s s i b l e , w h i l e f u n c t i o n a l autonomy.  Thus, they r e v e r t e d to i n f o r m a l  i o n i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . that informal co-operation co-operation,  r e s p e c t i n g each  may  other's  co-operat-  T h i s t h e s i s suggests,  be more e f f e c t i v e than  to  then,  formal  even though l i k e l i h o o d of b e n e f i t i s present,  in  improving c o - o r d i n a t i o n ( a l b e i t on a more l i m i t e d s c a l e ) among diverse public  agencies.  -  TABLE OF  V  -  CONTENTS  L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  v i  Preface Chapter I. II. III. IV. V. Chapter I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Chapter  I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Chapter I. II. III. IV. V.  v i i One:  Motives  f o rCo-operation  Among A g e n c i e s  Purpose o f This Study Setting I n f o r m a l and F o r m a l C o - o p e r a t i o n G o a l Consensus Summary Notes Two:  Prelude t o Formal Co-operation  Introduction Crime Problems and S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s in the Sixties D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of P o l i c e Services P r e s s u r e f o r P o l i c e Reform Decentralization of Social Services Summary Notes Three: The P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t : An A t t e m p t t o F o r m a l i z e I n t e r Agency R e l a t i o n s h i p s Introduction Formation of t h e P r o j e c t Project Objectives Problems W i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t The E f f e c t s o f P o l i t i c a l Change Team P o l i c i n g The L e g a c y o f t h e P r o j e c t Notes Four:  Observations  and Conclusions  Introduction Was a P r o j e c t N e c e s s a r y ? O b j e c t i v e s and P e r c e p t i o n s Distractions Tentative Conclusions Notes  Bibliography  1 1 4 6 12 15 17 22 22 24 29 31 33 37 39  41 41 42 47 52 58 6l 68 72 75 75 76 79 81 82 85 89  - v i -  L I S T OF MAP MAP  No. 1: No. 2:  DIAGRAM No. 1:  ILLUSTRATIONS  V a n c o u v e r , B.C. Police Districts N e i g h b o u r h o o d A r e a s , 1975  and 86  Vancouver P o l i c e Department, D i s t r i c t No. 3, D e p l o y m e n t o f P o l i c e Teams, 1976  87  P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s Structure  88  Project  - v i i-  PREFACE  The i d e a f o r t h i s t h e s i s d e v e l o p e d f r o m my  observations  d u r i n g a p e r i o d i n 1976 when I p r o v i d e d p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s a s a c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e P o l i c e a n d Community  Services  P r o j e c t i n Vancouver South.  particul-  During  that time,  I was  a r l y c o n c e r n e d t o f i n d a l a c k o f c o n s e n s u s among s t a f f members and  o t h e r persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t as t o t h e o v e r -  all  objectives of the Project.  to result and  T h i s l a c k of consensus appeared  i n a k i n d o f b u r e a u c r a t i c anomie w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t  a s e r i o u s breakdown i n i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l communications.  As t h e p e r s o n e x p e c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h some f o r m o f i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m t o p r o m o t e t h e P r o j e c t , I was d r a w n t o e x a m i n e a n d c o n s i d e r some o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h seemed t o impede t h e d e v e l opment  o f a c l e a r message a s t o w h a t t h e P r o j e c t was a b o u t .  I n t h e e n d , h o w e v e r , t h e o n l y c l e a r message t h a t I was a b l e t o d e v e l o p was a b o u t t e a m p o l i c i n g a n d n o t a b o u t co-operation  i n crime  inter-agency  prevention.  I t was f r o m my c o n c e r n w i t h t h e c o n f u s i o n  over o b j e c t i v e s  w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t , as compared t o t h e c o n f i d e n t a p p r o a c h o f the p o l i c e i n developing to analyze  a team p o l i c i n g system, t h a t I  t h e reasons f o r t h e breakdown o f f o r m a l  co-operation.  decided  inter-agency  While the notion that l i k e l i h o o d of benefits t o  p a r t i c i p a n t s seems a n o b v i o u s r e q u i r e m e n t f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e interaction,  i t seemed t o me t h a t , i n t h i s  i n s t a n c e , i t was a  - viii  -  c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n sustaining co-operation. thesis suggests, the lessening  Indeed, as t h i s  of likelihood of benefits  contr-  i b u t e d s t r o n g l y t o l a c k o f s o c i a l a g e n c y commitment t o t h e P r o j e c t and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e P r o j e c t ' s  failure.  Other f a c t o r s a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e P r o j e c t , b u t i t has been possible herein t o consider focussing has  them o n l y b r i e f l y .  I n fact, the  o f t h i s t h e s i s on t h e motive o f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s  made i t n e c e s s a r y t o o m i t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f m u n i -  c i p a l government and t h e p e r s o n a l  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  ambitions  of p e r s o n s d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e P r o j e c t . T h e s e f a c t o r s d e s e r v e f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e i r own r i g h t at another time.  I n d e e d , once enough p i e c e s  of the puzzle are  e x a m i n e d , i t may b e p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p f i r m e r t h e o r e t i c a l notions there  about f o r m a l  inter-agency  present,  a n d t h i s , t o some e x t e n t , i s  reason for-my c o n c e n t r a t i o n  o f b e n e f i t s ) w h i c h may l a t e r of  At  seems t o be no t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k t o g u i d e a n a l y s i s  of such a form of co-operation the  co-operation.  on a s i n g l e f a c t o r  (likelihood  contribute to the construction  theory. Finally,  contained  i t must b e n o t e d t h a t some o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  i n t h i s t h e s i s was g a i n e d f r o m p e r s o n s who w i s h t o  r e m a i n anonymous.  I have r e s p e c t e d  t h e i r wishes and I apprec-  i a t e t h a t t h e y were w i l l i n g t o i m p a r t i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h me t o u n d e r s t a n d some o f t h e t e n s i o n s Project.  helped  which existed i n the  My o n l y r e g r e t i s t h a t some i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  on p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t s h a d t o b e d e l e t e d b e c a u s e i t was n o t relevant  t o t h e approach taken i n t h i s t h e s i s .  - ix This study  c o u l d not have been c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t  c o - o p e r a t i o n and  a s s i s t a n c e o f members o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e  Department, t h e P o l i c e and  Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , a n d  Vancouver Resources Board. Tom  Herdman and  In particular,  the middle  I am  grateful  J a c k C r i c h f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t and  obtaining resource materials. c o n s t a b l e s and  the  l e t me  of the n i g h t , w h i l e they  to  help  I a l s o wish t o thank the  s o c i a l w o r k e r s who  the  in  police  'tag along', o f t e n i n  did their  jobs.  The  i n s i g h t s g a i n e d were i n v a l u a b l e . My  a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r S t e p h e n M i l n e , was  of great help  m a k i n g s e n s e o f a l a r g e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n . f o r h i s i n s i g h t s , guidance, suggestions  and  o f f e r e d b y P r o f e s s o r s A l a n C.  w e r e a l s o much a p p r e c i a t e d . G.  The  C a i r n s and  R.C.G., f o r h e l p i n g me  Keith  of i t s  friends,  t o k e e p my  and  J o h n Wood  T h a n k s must a l s o go t o D r .  S p e c i a l w o r d s o f t h a n k s go t o my  i a l l y L.D.W. a n d  grateful  criticisms  Banting f o r g u i d i n g t h i s study i n the e a r l y stages  development.  in  patience.  I am  in  espec-  objectives  sight. My  w i f e , L o u i s e , and  my  t h r e e sons;  Angus; have been enormously p a t i e n t . of thanks f o r t h e i r F i n a l l y , any  I owe  them a g r e a t  and debt  support.  errors, omissions,  f a c t i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e my hope t h e s t u d y may  Kevin, Stuart,  or m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y alone.  However, I  make a s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d u n d e r -  standing problems encountered i n i n t e r - a g e n c y  relations.  CHAPTER ONE MOTIVES FOR CO-OPERATION AMONG AGENCIES  I.  PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY This thesis w i l l  examine an a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l  c o - o p e r a t i o n among p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e , p a r o l e a n d p r o b a t i o n agencies i n a program t o prevent crime and r e l a t e d problems.  The p r o g r a m was c a l l e d t h e P o l i c e a n d Community  Services Project. district to  social  I t was c o n d u c t e d  i n t h e Vancouver  o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia  South  f r o m S e p t e m b e r 1974  M a r c h 31, 1977. The  i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e  p o l i c e t o o t h e r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s has r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n throughout  North America  over t h e past t e n years.  The p o l i c e ,  p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e s e r v i c e s , and v a r i o u s s o c i a l s e r v i c e  agen1  c i e s d e a l w i t h s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s a n d , o f t e n , t h e same p e r s o n s . R e c o g n i t i o n o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and f u n c t i o n a l o v e r l a p s has 2 f o s t e r e d attempts t o e s t a b l i s h formal co-operation  among t h e s e  agencies.  The b e l i e f h a s b e e n t h a t f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r -  ation w i l l  reduce unnecessary  o v e r l a p of s e r v i c e s and a s s i s t  a l l a g e n c i e s i n p r o v i d i n g more e f f e c t i v e a n d e f f i c i e n t  service.  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e above a g e n c i e s , a t t e m p t s t o c o - o p e r a t e  have  been m o t i v a t e d , i n p a r t , by t h e b e l i e f t h a t crime and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s l e a d i n g t o c r i m e c a n be p r e v e n t e d t h r o u g h a c o n c e r t e d  - 2 -  and  sustained  effort.  Co-operation  among p u b l i c a g e n c i e s  nor i s i t e a s i l y s u s t a i n e d .  i s not e a s i l y  developed,  Agencies are, t o varying  degrees,  i n c o n f l i c t w i t h each other i n p u r s u i t o f o r i n defence o f 3 resources  o r power.  Therefore,  t h e y may be r e l u c t a n t t o make  commitments t o f o r m a l , c o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h may l i m i t p u r s u i t of those that formal  interests.  However, i f i t a p p e a r s  co-operation w i l l produce b e n e f i t s f o r  likely  agencies,  t h e y may a g r e e t o s u s p e n d o r l e s s e n c o n f l i c t a n d e n t e r i n t o a co-operative interaction.  T h e y may a l s o a g r e e t o  co-operate  f o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s i f t h e r e a r e no c o s t s i n v o l v e d . e x a m p l e , t w o o r more a g e n c i e s  s e r v i n g t h e same c l i e n t s  f i n d i t p r a c t i c a l t o co-operate or c l i e n t  For may  i n exchange o f p o l i c y , s e r v i c e ,  information t o avoid d u p l i c a t i o n of s e r v i c e s .  a g e n c y may a l s o a g r e e t o c o - o p e r a t e  An  with others i fi ti s per-  c e i v e d t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n may b e a way o f r e a c h i n g a g o a l t o which t h e agency i s i d e o l o g i c a l l y committed.  F o r example, an  agency p r o v i d i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o j u v e n i l e s might  co-operate  w i t h t h e p o l i c e b e c a u s e i t was c o m m i t t e d t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t juvenile delinquency  i s a s o c i a l problem and not a crime  r e q u i r i n g a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e c r i m i n a l J u s t i c e system.  problem  The a g e n -  cy, t h e r e f o r e , would c o n s i d e r c o - o p e r a t i o n as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o divert j u v e n i l e offenders Finally, they share  agencies  i n t o t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e system.  may c o - o p e r a t e  because they b e l i e v e t h a t  a responsibility f o r solving or preventing  problems, s u c h as crime  or delinquency.  certain  This denotes, i n a  s e n s e , a d e g r e e o f g o a l c o n s e n s u s w h i c h may b e r e i n f o r c e d b y  - 3 the  f a c t t h a t t h e a g e n c i e s c o n c e r n e d s e r v e t h e same g o v e r n m e n t . The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , then, i s t o t e s t t h e  that sustained,  formal  co-operation  among p u b l i c  hypothesis  agencies  r e q u i r e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t s t o each p a r t i c i p a n t .  Anoth-  e r way o f s t a t i n g t h i s i s t h a t a g e n c i e s must b e l i e v e t h a t  formal  co-operation ple,  w i l l pay.^"  increased  B e n e f i t s t o a g e n c i e s may b e , f o r exam-  operational  e f f i c i e n c y , new  responsibilities  leading t o a c q u i s i t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l resources, to gain  an  opportunity  community o r p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t , o r a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o  s a t i s f y a n i d e o l o g i c a l commitment. Finally,  the f i e l d of study i n which t h i s t h e s i s l i e s i s  public administration.  This  f i e l d draws i t s c o n t e n t  many s o u r c e s s u c h a s p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y ,  economics,  from  sociology,  s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , a n d e x p e r i e n c e s i n management o f i n d u s t r y , business,  and government s e r v i c e s .  I n t h e main, however,  " [ p ] u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n encompasses a body o f knowledge p e r t aining t o the operational processes of the executive  functions  5  of  government." H e l e n C. H i l l i n g ,  i n p r o p o s i n g a framework f o r a  curriculum  i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , suggested that t h e curriculum be  conceptualized  could  as f o l l o w s :  (1) t h e o r i e s o f t h e s t a t e , (2) d i m e n s i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y , (3) t e c h n o l o g y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (4) i n n o v a t i o n s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and s y s t e m s f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (5) t h e o r i e s ' o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , (6) p r o b l e m s a n d methods ^ of r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s . While t h i s t h e s i s i s , p r i m a r i l y , concerned w i t h  innovations  i n a n d among i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d s y s t e m s f o r ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t  - 4 -  w i l l be apparent t h a t some o f t h e o t h e r a r e a s l i s t e d above 7  w i l l be touched upon.  II.  SETTING D u r i n g t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s , many major, urban p o l i c e  departments i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have  introduced  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , and o p e r a t i o n a l changes  intended  t o improve e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n crime and a wide range o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . changes have o c c u r r e d ,  These  p r i m a r i l y , i n response t o a major  change i n p o l i c i n g p h i l o s o p h y ,  t h a t i s , t h e p o l i c e have  s h i f t e d emphasis from d e t e c t i o n o f c r i m e , a p p r e h e n s i o n o f c r i m i n a l s , and r e a c t i o n t o r e q u e s t s  for police service to  Q  "crime p r e v e n t i o n " .  The new emphasis has been apparent i n  Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e t h e l a t e 1960s.  At that  time t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department (VPD) began a program o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n which l e d t o d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i t s p a t r o l f u n c t i o n s and t h e c r e a t i o n o f p a t r o l u n i t s p r i m a r i l y devoted t o crime p r e v e n t i o n . " ^ informal co-operation  The Department a l s o began t o i n c r e a s e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s o c i a l service"'""'" and  j u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s ( i . e . , p r o b a t i o n and p a r o l e s e r v i c e s ) . S h o r t t e r m p r o j e c t s were developed w i t h t h e s e a g e n c i e s i n attempts t o t r e a t s p e c i f i c s o c i a l problem s i t u a t i o n s ( e . g . , j u v e n i l e gang a c t i v i t y , neighbourhood c o n f l i c t s o f a r a c i s t nature,  and v a n d a l i z i n g o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ) .  was s t r o n g l y f e l t t h a t t h e s e problems c o u l d l e a d t o t h e  It  -  5  -  commission of major crimes i f t h e y were not By  1974,  resolved.  the Vancouver P o l i c e Department, p a r o l e ,  probation,  12  and  s o c i a l service agencies  decided to pursue a  and  long-term program of crime p r e v e n t i o n  s o c i a l p r o b l e m s s u c h as f a m i l y d i s p u t e s , mental health was  c r i s e s , and  d r u g and  to emphasize c o - o r d i n a t i o n  Project).  I t was  Project  juvenile  of  delinquency,  a l c o h o l abuse.  The  was  program  to  c a l l e d the P o l i c e  develop and  ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as  f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t e d by  opment F u n d o f t h e  treatment  of s e r v i c e s and 13  through a demonstration project Community S e r v i c e s  and  formal  the  the J u s t i c e Devel-  B r i t i s h Columbia Attorney  General's  Depart-  ment . The its  P r o j e c t was  c o n c l u s i o n , was  activities. and  I t was  t o l a s t two  years,  expected to provide  1975 an  t o 1977, evaluation  a l s o hoped t h a t the P r o j e c t would  t e s t a model f o r p o l i c e and  c o u l d be a p p l i e d - e l s e w h e r e .  The  agency c o - o p e r a t i o n P r o j e c t was  South or P o l i c e D i s t r i c t  36$  of the  i z e d by  was  3 (See  Map  No.  The  of i t s develop  conducted i n  1).  "The  157,735, r e p r e s e n t i n g  city's population."  at  which  s o u t h - e a s t q u a d r a n t o f V a n c o u v e r , an a r e a known a s  o f t h e a r e a i n 1971  and,  a r e a was  the  Vancouver population  approximately also  a h i g h number o f c a l l s f o r p o l i c e s e r v i c e and  charactera  high  1'5  crime r a t e . '  The  s t r u c t u r e of the P r o j e c t , w i t h a l i s t  participants i s provided discussed  i n D i a g r a m No.  i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Three.  1.  The  of  Project i s  - 6 -  III.  INFORMAL AND FORMAL CO-OPERATION Co-operation  of t h i s t h e s i s .  a n d how i t may b e s u s t a i n e d i s t h e c o n c e r n I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , important  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e t e r m c o - o p e r a t i o n i t must be n o t e d co-operation.  to  understand  i s used h e r e i n .  t h a t o u r main c o n c e r n w i l l be w i t h  formal  H o w e v e r , f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n may r e s u l t  p o s i t i v e experiences  i n informal co-operative  First,  from  interactions.  T h i s was t h e c a s e w i t h t h e P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s Project. I n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among a g e n c i e s  r e f e r s t o those  i n t e r - a g e n c y i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i c h t e n d t o be o f a n a d h o c nature, t h a t i s , they occur  on a n 'as r e q u i r e d ' b a s i s .  i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e not governed by f o r m a l r u l e s o r and ity.  procedures,  a r e n o t u s u a l l y s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y b y some h i g h e r  author-  S u c h i n t e r a c t i o n s may r e q u i r e some d e g r e e o f g o a l  consensus and g o o d w i l l .  Informal co-operation also requires  t h a t some b e n e f i t s be g a i n e d The  Such  by t h e p a r t i e s t o c o - o p e r a t i o n .  b e n e f i t s may b e i n t h e f o r m o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e l f - i n t e r e s t s  of o f f i c i a l s .  However, t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s u c h i n t e r e s t s  may,  i n t u r n , s a t i s f y t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e agency i n which the o f f i c i a l  i s employed.  The i n d i v i d u a l may g a i n some  " p e r s o n a l rewards (such as f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h personal  others,  s i g n i f i c a n c e , and a degree o f s t a b i l i t y o f i n t e r -  personal relationships) that are absolutely essential t o the efficient  o p e r a t i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n . "  1  fi  In, many i n s t a n c e s ,  7 -  informal  co-operation  may make i t  e a s i e r f o r a n o f f i c i a l t o do h i s o r h e r j o b . under which o f f i c i a l s or  inappropriate  or t a s k s . formal  Formal  rules  a r e e x p e c t e d t o o p e r a t e may b e l i m i t i n g  when e n c o u n t e r i n g n o v e l  Indeed, a t times,  o r complex s i t u a t i o n s  i t may a p p e a r t h a t  there  i s no  r u l e t o g u i d e a n o f f i c i a l i n a s i t u a t i o n demanding 17  action.  Downs r e f e r s t o u s e o f i n f o r m a l  p r o c e d u r e s as a  means o f m e e t i n g a n a g e n c y ' s o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s prevention), ing  "by f i l l i n g  'gaps' i n t h e f o r m a l  (e.g.,  crime  r u l e s , or adapt-  those r u l e s t o f i t p e c u l i a r s i t u a t i o n s . " No s e t o f r u l e s c a n s p e c i f y i n a d v a n c e e v e r y s i t u a t i o n an o r g a n i z a t i o n e n c o u n t e r s . Hence members o f e v e r y b u r e a u a r e c a l l e d u p o n ; t o implement t h e f o r m a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n ways a b o v e a n d b e y o n d t h o s e s e t f o r t h i n f o r m a l r u l e s . When s u c h implementations are frequently required, o f f i c i a l s tend to r o u t i n i z e them s o a s t o e l i m i n a t e t h e c o s t o f t h i n k i n g o u t what t o do e a c h t i m e t h e same s i t u a t i o n recurs. Moreover, such u n w r i t t e n " r u l e s o f t h e r o a d " make e a c h o f f i c i a l ' s b e h a v i o r more p r e d i c t a b l e f o r o t h e r o f f i c i a l s who must i n t e r a c t w i t h h i m . T h u s , t h e n e e d t o e c o n o m i z e on t i m e b y e x t e n d i n g t h e f o r m a l r u l e s t o f i t one's p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t cause o f i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e .  Downs a l s o s t a t e s , among h i s many p r o p o s i t i o n s , "organizations uncertain  operating  that,  i n r a p i d l y changing and h i g h l y  environments tend t o r e l y  h e a v i l y on i n f o r m a l  struct-  19 ures and procedures." environment  Certainly this  describes  i n which t h e p o l i c e and s o c i a l  the general  service., a g e n c i e s  . 20 operate. It an  i s a l s o worth noting  that  informal  awareness o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t e d n e s s  co-operation  implies  and interdependence  - 8 of a g e n c i e s .  That i s , i n order  t o some e x t e n t , if  aware of the  t h o s e a g e n c i e s a r e t o be  t o c o - o p e r a t e , a g e n c i e s must  services provided  by o t h e r  be,  agencies  c a l l e d upon t o c o - o p e r a t e i n 21  completing a task or p r o v i d i n g a s o l u t i o n to a problem. Formal co-operation co-operation  can  be  Services  authority.  P r o j e c t was  co-operative w i t h the  For  r u l e s , and  f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d as an  M o r e o v e r , t h e P r o j e c t was  Co-ordinating i a l l y assigned  Committee (see  agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  ( d i s t r i b u t e d to the funding  T h u s , t h e P r o j e c t was  General's a Management offic-  to r u l e s ,  co-operation Finally,  regular progress  the  reports  a g e n c y , P r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s , and  (a p u b l i c document). an  funding  With regard  circumstances.  i n t e r e s t e d members o f t h e p u b l i c ) and  requirement, but  Community  composed o f  e v e n t u a l l y developed g u i d e l i n e s f o r 22  expected to provide  activities  1)  scrutiny  inter-agency  g o v e r n e d by  D i a g r a m No.  among a g e n c i e s u n d e r d e f i n e d P r o j e c t was  to  e x a m p l e , t h e P o l i c e and  endeavour by v i r t u e o f a c o n t r a c t  Department.  recognized,  i s subject  J u s t i c e Development Fund of the A t t o r n e y  ;the P r o j e c t  informal  i n that i t i s f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d or  i s u s u a l l y g o v e r n e d by f o r m a l 'vby&a h i g h e r  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  expectation subject  Not  a final o n l y was  e v a l u a t i o n of i t s this a  contractual  of p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies.  t o s c r u t i n y by a h i g h e r  - - t h e J u s t i c e D e v e l o p m e n t F u n d and  authority  the Attorney  General's  defined  formally  Department. Formal co-operation recognized  may  a l s o be  i n t e r a c t i o n i n w h i c h a g e n c i e s and  as a their  officials  - 9  combine t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s  -  i n an organized manner f o r the  promotion of common ends or o b j e c t i v e s , i n such a way  t h a t the  g r e a t e r the success of one p a r t y to the i n t e r a c t i o n , the g r e a t e r 23 the success of the other p a r t y of p a r t i e s .  This d e f i n i t i o n  draws a t t e n t i o n t o the importance of g o a l consensus and b e l i e f t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n must pay.  the  I t a l s o emphasizes t h a t  the b e n e f i t s must be shared among the p a r t i e s .  The  implication  i s t h a t a p a r t y ' s share s h o u l d be commensurate w i t h i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the  interaction.  In comparing formal and i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , i t can be seen t h a t the former r e q u i r e s a long-term o b j e c t i v e s and g a i n i n g b e n e f i t s . not r e q u i r e a long-term ions may  be l e s s .  I n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n does  commitment.  A l s o , the b e n e f i t expectat-  In f o r m a l arrangements t h e r e i s time to weigh  b e n e f i t s c a r e f u l l y and, become g r e a t e r .  o r i e n t a t i o n t o meeting  t h e r e f o r e , e x p e c t a t i o n s may  be or  I n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n seems to focus on  may person-  a l and more immediate, p r a c t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s of the officials  concerned,  whereas f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n may  be  ed w i t h broad o b j e c t i v e s or p o l i c i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . i s , then, g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d of c o n f l i c t i n f o r m a l  concernThere  co-operation.  A f i n a l p o i n t i s t h a t i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n accommodates g o a l d i v e r s i t y and r e s p e c t s the f u n c t i o n a l autonomy of p a r t i c ipant agencies.  In comparison, f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i s depend-  ent upon g o a l consensus. developed  A l s o , the scope of the o b j e c t i v e s  i n a formal s e t t i n g may  t h r e a t e n f u n c t i o n a l autonomy.  T h i s i s , then, i n d i c a t i v e of a need i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n t o s t r i k e a balance between g o a l consensus and g o a l d i v e r s i t y i f  - 10 i n t e r - a g e n c y c o n f l i c t i s to be r e s t r i c t e d and b e n e f i t s r e a l i z e d by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The b e n e f i t s to agencies p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the P r o j e c t were to be i n the form of more e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t use o f p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e , and j u s t i c e system ( p a r o l e and p r o b a t i o n ) agency resources i n p r e v e n t i n g crime and s o c i a l problems. the term ' s o c i a l c o n f l i c t ' may problems'.)  be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r ' s o c i a l  Another b e n e f i t was  and understanding improved r e l a t i o n s  (Hereafter,  to be b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n  of r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , l e a d i n g to ( g o o d w i l l ) among p o l i c e and agency members.  >.(Note t h a t the term 'agency' w i l l sometimes be used t o r e f e r to j u s t i c e system agencies  other than the p o l i c e , and  social  s e r v i c e agencies both i n the t e x t of t h i s t h e s i s and i n some of the m a t e r i a l s c i t e d . )  However, t h e r e were other agency-  s p e c i f i c g o a l s , such as g a i n i n g more funds and  employees.  The motive of s e l f - or a g e n c y - i n t e r e s t i s c o n s i d e r e d by Downs as a major f a c t o r i n c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n u d i r e c t e d toward change or i n n o v a t i o n . P r o j e c t was  In seeking change or i n n o v a t i o n (and  a d e v i c e f o r seeking change i n i n t e r - a g e n c y  the  relat-  i o n s , as w e l l as i n n o v a t i o n i n the form of s e r v i c e c o - o r d i n a t i o n ) , o f f i c i a l s l o o k f o r rewards such as "gains i n power, income, and p r e s t i g e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n the  resources  25 c o n t r o l l e d by a g i v e n o f f i c i a l or a g i v e n bureau." The p o s s i b i l i t y of expanding s e r v i c e s and, resources was,  consequently,  indeed, a p a r t of the p l a n f o r a l l agencies  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the P r o j e c t :  - 11 T a l k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , and c o - o p e r a t i o n was c e n t r a l t o t h e P r o j e c t a n d t h i s a p p e a r e d t o e n t a i l t w o a g e n d a s . The f i r s t was s i m p l y t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f some m e c h a n i s m t o i n c r e a s e t h e i n t e r f a c e between t h e p o l i c e and s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s . Beyond t h i s was t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h r o u g h c o - o r d i n a t e d ' p l a n n i n g and p e r h a p s s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s w o u l d p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l a n d more e f f e c t i v e , p r e v e n t a t i v e ^JQ service. Of  course a d d i t i o n a l services  ces  and, i f t h e added s e r v i c e s  the  power and t h e p r e s t i g e  usually require  more r e s o u r -  a r e m e a s u r e d t o be e f f e c t i v e ,  o f a g e n c i e s w o u l d be e n h a n c e d .  p o l i c e , however, appear t o have been l e s s i n t e r e s t e d resources. a b l e s i n 1971  w e r e t o b e a d d e d i n 1976  funds t o renovate b u i l d i n g s communication centre w i t h  sophisticated  a computer-based i n f o r m a t i o n i n making b e t t e r  t h e y had t o p r e v e n t crime and t o develop a b e t t e r image' i n t h e community.  const-  - - and had  and e s t a b l i s h a h i g h l y  They were, p r i m a r i l y , i n t e r e s t e d  system.  u s e o f what 'police  Gary P a r k i n s o n summarized t h e major  r e a s o n s f o r VPD i n t e r e s t i n F i g u r i n g the  i n new  They h a d a l r e a d y e x p a n d e d s t a f f - - 40 new a n d 120  The  P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s  I t Out: An E v a l u a t i o n  of  Project:  ... The i n t e r e s t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t i n a c o m m u n i t y p o l i c i n g p r o j e c t emerged f r o m t h r e e b r o a d p a t t e r n s which had been d e v e l o p i n g w i t h i n t h i s c i t y f o r a few y e a r s . F i r s t , a s a r e s u l t o f two o r t h r e e r a t h e r s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g p o l i c e and c i t i z e n s , t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t was c o m m i t t e d t o e s t a b l i s h i n g d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p o l i c e and t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h i s b e g a n some t i m e ago w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n of a few w a l k i n g b e a t s and s c h o o l l i a i s o n programs. S e c o n d , t h e d e p a r t m e n t w i s h e d t o become more e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r components o f t h e s e t o f s o c i a l services. As a r e s u l t o f an a n a l y s i s o f j u v e n i l e a r r e s t s i n t h e l a t e 1960s, t h e d e p a r t m e n t became v e r y much a w a r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i r ' c l i e n t s ' and t h e s e r v i c e p o t e n t i a l o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s . I t was a s h o r t s t e p f r o m t h i s t o s e e i n g how t h e e a r l y i n v o l vement o f c o m m u n i t y a g e n c i e s c o u l d r e s u l t i n c r i m e  - 12 p r e v e n t i o n . The n o t i o n of d i v e r s i o n [ i . e . , d i v e r t i n g o f f e n d e r s t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies i n s t e a d o f i n v o k i n g t h e f u l l c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e p r o c e s s ] was a l s o g i v e n s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s c o n t e x t . The department became i n v o l v e d i n programs of t h i s type through a s e r i e s o f [pre-1975] community p o l i c i n g p r o j e c t s . . . . . . A Common problem of the p r o j e c t approach t o community p o l i c i n g was the i s o l a t i o n of t h e policemen i n v o l v e d from t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , and f r e q u e n t l y a conf u s i o n about the policeman's r o l e . The t h i r d d e s i r e , then, was t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r the c r e a t i o n of community p o l i c i n g programs which would b u i l d i n support f o r the p o l i c e constables and produce c l a r i t y r a t h e r than c o n f u s i o n about p o l i c e r o l e s . ?  (Parkinson's  emphasis.)  F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s due t h e importance o f g o a l consensus i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n .  With r e f e r e n c e t o our  d e f i n i t i o n of f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r i n g m u t u a l l y agree'd upon o b j e c t i v e s , we w i l l examine i t s importance i n the next section. IV.  GOAL CONSENSUS The term 'goal consensus* i s used here t o denote  agreement  among members o f a g i v e n group on a g o a l o r s e t of g o a l s .  The  P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t developed on t h e assumpti o n t h a t t h e r e was consensus on t h e g o a l of e s t a b l i s h i n g  inter-  agency c o - o p e r a t i o n l e a d i n g t o c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c e and 2ct agency s e r v i c e s .  T h i s assumption developed from a p r i o r  assumption t h a t p o l i c e , p a r o l e , p r o b a t i o n , and s o c i a l  service  agencies share a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e v e n t i o n o f i c r i m e and social conflict.  While these assumptions were not n e c e s s a r i l y  29 correct,  the f a c t remains t h a t t h e p o l i c e and agencies made  commitments t o t h e P r o j e c t on t h e b a s i s o f these assumptions.  - 13 We  may,  t h e r e f o r e , assume t h a t t h e r e was  consensus on the  g o a l of e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n l e a d i n g to c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e r v i c e s .  The P r o j e c t , then, became the  f o r m a l s e t t i n g f o r i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and s e r v i c e co-ordination. The P r o j e c t was  not s u c c e s s f u l , however, i n s u s t a i n i n g  f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n and,  as the P r o j e c t ended,  the p o l i c e and agencies  r e t u r n e d to i n f o r m a l  Why,  g o a l consensus, was  to  then, i f t h e r e was s u s t a i n co-operation?  Co-operation,  Antonio  Jorge, i n  co-operation. i t not p o s s i b l e Competition,  E f f i c i e n c y , and S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ,  provides  a c l u e when he l i n k s g o a l consensus w i t h the n o t i o n t h a t i t must be apparent t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n p r o v i d e s b e n e f i t s .  30  I n a sense, then, the p e r c e p t i o n of g o a l consensus  (i.e.,  harmony of i n t e r e s t s ) holds out the promise of b e n e f i t ( i . e . , it  i s apparent t h a t i t pays) i n t h a t i t denotes a s h a r i n g of  i n t e r e s t i n c e r t a i n goals and agreement t o e f f e c t a purpose d e s c r i b e d by those g o a l s . conflict,  Moreover, g o a l consensus reduces  thus promoting c o - o r d i n a t i o n f a c i l i t a t i n g  f a c t i o n of g o a l s .  Downs has  expressed  the  satis-  t h i s as f o l l o w s :  "Within any o r g a n i z a t i o n g r e a t e r g o a l consensus reduces the  -  number and  14  -  i n t e n s i t y o f c o n f l i c t s among members, t h u s  improving  31  the  organization's Yet,  a t i o n may  overall  even w i t h g o a l not  continue  coordination."  consensus, co-operation  i f some p a r t i c i p a n t s do  and  not  co-ordin-  get  the 32  direct  c r e d i t they f e e l they deserve f o r t h e i r  William Clifford,  i n Planning  another d i f f i c u l t y , returns  the  Crime P r e v e n t i o n ,  s t r u c t u r e of agencies,  contribution. points but  he  to also  t o the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t promise of b e n e f i t i s a  motive f o r development of c o - o p e r a t i o n  and  co-ordination  strong of  activities: Too o f t e n , t h e v e r y s t r u c t u r e s o f a g o v e r n m e n t o r m i n i s t r y or a group of m i n i s t r i e s or departments i s s u c h t h a t on a d a y - t o - d a y b a s i s c o o r d i n a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to ensure, despite a great deal of g o o d w i l l , p e r s i s t e n t e x h o r t a t i o n , and a n y number o f r e g u l a r , meetings designed to coordinate. Human n a t u r e b e i n g w h a t i t i s , and t h e power s t r u c t u r e s o f o u r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e i n g what t h e y a r e , c o o r d i n a t i o n a p p e a r s t o come more e a s i l y w h e r e i t i s e i t h e r e n j o i n e d by a u t h o r i t y ( s o t h a t t h e r e i s a l o s s o f s t a t u s o r t h e l i k e l i h o o d of p e n a l i z a t i o n from a r e s i s t a n c e t o coo r d i n a t i o n ) o r w h e r e i t i s e v i n c e d by t h e p r o m i s e o f more f u n d s and more d e p a r t m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e t u r n f o r more c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n f o r d o v e t a i l i n g the m i n i s t r y ' s [ o r agency's] work w i t h t h a t of other m i n i s t r i e s or agencies. ^ I n t h e Vancouver s i t u a t i o n examined h e r e i n , f o r m a l operation was  was  pressure  not  f r o m t h e B.C.  develop formal Section It  enjoined  by  a higher  Attorney  co-operation.  This  a u t h o r i t y , but  cothere  G e n e r a l ' s Department i s discussed  to  further i n  IV. i s also important to recognize  co-ordination  c a n be  that  hampered as w e l l a s  co-operation  enjoined  by  and  higher  - 15 authorities.  F o r example, p o l i t i c a l  ment p o l i c y a n d t h e r e b y agency o r a g e n c i e s .  alter  the goals  These changes  away f r o m c o - o p e r a t i v e  leaders  endeavours  may c h a n g e  or structure  may t a k e  agency  govern-  of  an  attention  because the agency w i l l  preoccupied with reorganization.  Indeed,  of  may be o f A^ery l o w p r i o r i t y .  change,  On t h e  inter-agency  other  inter-agency in  hand,  it  is  conceivable that agencies  a change  p o l i c y changes.  i n government,  social policy affecting  social  commitment o f t h o s e a g e n c i e s  V.  might  use  I n the  case of  r e s u l t i n g i n a change  service agencies,  to the  roles  the in  lessened  the  Project.  SUMMARY This  chapter  has b e e n d e v o t e d t o  d i s c u s s i o n of motives  which influence attempts to  e s t a b l i s h and s u s t a i n  inter-agency  Primary interest  co-operation.  contention that sustained, l i k e l i h o o d of benefit  constituted their  formal  has b e e n i n  (i.e.,  that  i t pays)  to  each  a formally . and  combine t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n an o r g a n i z e d  t h e p r o m o t i o n o f common ends o r o b j e c t i v e s ,  that a l l benefit  the  participant.  or recognized i n t e r a c t i o n i n which agencies  officials  the  formal co-operation requires  F o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n has b e e n d e f i n e d a s  for  periods  c o - o p e r a t i o n a s a means o f r e d e f i n i n g t h e i r  l i g h t o f government  Project,  relations  during such  be  by each o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s .  d e n o t e s some d e g r e e o f g o a l c o n s e n s u s , common ends o r o b j e c t i v e s ;  i n s u c h a way  The d e f i n i t i o n  that i s , promotion of  co-ordination, that i s ,  o f a c t i v i t i e s i n a n o r g a n i z e d manner;  manner  combining  and l i k e l i h o o d o f  benefit.  - 16 Formal co-operation  i s a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the f a c t t h a t i t  i s g o v e r n e d by f o r m a l r u l e s a n d higher authority. t o be this  The  P o l i c e and  a  Community S e r v i c e P r o j e c t , seen t o f i t  definition. c o n s e n s u s has  f o r sustained, formal  it.  i s s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y by  e x a m i n e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , was  Goal  was  -  noted  co-operation.  o f g o a l s and  the l i k e l i h o o d of b e n e f i t . between g o a l consensus and s u r v i v a l of formal  I t was  consensus  expectations of benef^  a l s o s e e n a s a means o f i m p r o v i n g  t o the attainment  requisite  I n so d o i n g , g o a l  t o d e p e n d on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s '  I t was  necessary  b e e n s i n g l e d o u t as a k e y  co-ordination  the f u l f i l l m e n t  a l s o noted  that the  goal d i v e r s i t y i s important  of balance  to  the  co-operation.  Throughout t h i s  chapter, the hypothesis  that sustained,  f o r m a l co-operation r e q u i r e s the l i k e l i h o o d of b e n e f i t t o p a r t i c i p a n t s has t h a t i t may  been r e t u r n e d t o time  be t h e most i m p o r t a n t  formal co-operation. t h e P r o j e c t has  We  will  and  again.  determinant  I t appears  of s u s t a i n e d ,  return to t h i s hypothesis  been d e s c r i b e d .  First,  however, i t i s  t o examine a p e r i o d of i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n p r e c e d i n g development of the P r o j e c t . -ing chapter.  once important the  This i s t h e . s u b j e c t of the f o l l o w -  - 17 -  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER  ONE  F o r example, the person a policeman a r r e s t s today may, as the r e s u l t of a court d e c i s i o n or e x e r c i s e -of discret±on by a p r o s e c u t o r , end up on a s o c i a l worker's o r a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r ' s case l i s t . On the o t h e r hand, a s o c i a l worker may be unable t o r e s o l v e a v i o l e n t f a m i l y d i s p u t e and so (s)he c a l l s i n the p o l i c e t o invoke the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e process ( i . e . , t o a r r e s t and charge someone), or t o a c t as a c o n t r o l agent. Similarly, p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s use the p o l i c e t o c o n t r o l or apprehend probation v i o l a t o r s . I t a l s o must.be noted t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t o suggest t h a t lower socio-economic c l a s s e s tend t o be i n v o l v e d i n both the s o c i a l w e l f a r e system and c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system. See R. Quinney, C r i t i q u e of L e g a l Order (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 19747^ See Anthony Downs, I n s i d e Bureaucracy (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1967), pp» 6 l - 65, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s and behaviour. F o r a somewhat more p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n see: Antonio Jorge, Competition, Co-operation, E f f i c i e n c y , •^and S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ( R u t h e r f o r d , |_N.J.J: F a i r l e i g h D i c k i n s o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 $ ) , pp. 19 - 33* Jorge uses the terms 'conscious' and 'unconscious' c o - o p e r a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , forms s i m i l a r t o f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l co-operation. See Downs, p. 216. Downs expresses t h i s i n h i s Law of I n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t : "Every l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n p a r t i a l c o n f l i c t w i t h every o t h e r s o c i a l agent i t deals w i t h . " ^ T h i s hypothesis i s drawn, i n p a r t , from Jorge, p. 20. He s t a t e s t h a t , "... i f conscious c o o p e r a t i o n i s t o endure without l o v e o r r a d i c a l s a c r i f i c e as a m o t i v a t i n g power, i t must be apparent t h a t ' i t pays'." T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s a l s o supported by Downs when d i s c u s s i n g processes of change and the motive o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t . "We have seen t h a t s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s a powerful cause o f i n e r t i a , but i t can a l s o motivate change i f o f f i c i a l s r e c e i v e g r e a t e r rewards f o r a l t e r i n g the s t a t u s quo than p r e s e r v i n g i t . " Downs, p. 198.  - 18' Helen C. H i l l i n g , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Study, P r a c t i c e , P r o f e s s i o n , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, V o l . XXVI, No. 4 (December 1966), p. 320. ~~" 6  I b i d . , p.  324.  7 See Latheef N. Ahmed, " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n as Commensa l i s m : A D e f i n i t i o n , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, V o l . XXVI, No. 3 (September 1966), pp. 215 - 216. Ahmed suggests t h a t a l l b e h a v i o u r a l , s t r u c t u r a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s surrounding and w i t h i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t e r a c t i n a commensal manner. 8 S t u d i e s of c a l l s t o the p o l i c e f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n nonc r i m i n a l matters, t h a t i s , s o - c a l l e d ' s e r v i c e c a l l s ' which may i n v o l v e f a m i l y f i g h t s , complaints about n o i s y neighbours, h e a l t h emergencies, t r a f f i c a c c i d e n t s , and so on, show t h a t these c a l l s c o n s t i t u t e between f i f t y and e i g h t y per cent of a l l c a l l s to the p o l i c e . T h i s i s u s u a l l y seen as a r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t the p o l i c e department i s the o n l y r e c o g n i z e d twenty f o u r hour per day, p u b l i c s e r v i c e agency. See Herman G o l d s t e i n , P o l i c i n g A Free. S o c i e t y (Cambridge, [Mass.]: B a l l i n g e r P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977), pp. 24 - 29. A l s o see "Monograph 1: C i t i z e n . R e q u e s t s F o r S e r v i c e And Vancouver P o l i c e Department Response," The S o c i a l S e r v i c e Role of the P o l i c e : Domestic C r i s i s Intervention '^Vancouver: U n i t e d Way of Greater Vancouver, January 1976). 9 The term "crime p r e v e n t i o n " i s o f t e n used to d e s c r i b e a c t i o n s taken by the p o l i c e (sometimes i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h other agencies or the p u b l i c ) t o reduce the i n c i d e n c e of p a r t i c u l a r crimes such as b u r g l a r y , rape, s h o p l i f t i n g , e t c . , or to reduce crime i n a p a r t i c u l a r area such as a manufacturing d i s t r i c t or a complex of apartment b u i l d i n g s . In t h i s t h e s i s the term i s used t o d e s c r i b e attempts to b r i n g about a r e d u c t i o n i n a l l forms of crime. Herein, I have adopted the d e f i n i t i o n of crime p r e v e n t i o n developed by the O n t a r i o Task F o r c e On P o l i c i n g (1974). I t i s the d e f i n i t i o n which was used by the Vancouver P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three: There i s a need f o r more emphasis on crime p r e v e n t i o n - a r o l e which tends to be n e g l e c t e d because of the demands f o r r e s p o n s i v e s e r v i c e and the i n c i d e n t o r i e n t a t i o n of most o f f i c e r s . Crime p r e v e n t i o n i n c l u d e s a range of a c t i v i t i e s . Some are aimed at a l l e v i a t i n g s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h crime. Others have to do w i t h improvements i n the d e t e c t i o n and apprehension of , c r i m i n a l s - w i t h steps f o r r e i n t e g r a t i n g o f f e n d e r s , i n t o communities... S t i l l others, such as 'hardening of the s i t e ' , emphasize methods t o make c r i m i n a l  - 19  "  a c t i v i t y more d i f f i c u l t . Crime p r e v e n t i o n a longer-term o r i e n t a t i o n f o r the p o l i c e .  implies  C i t e d i n Gary Parkinson, F i g u r i n g I t Out; An E v a l u a t i o n of the P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t (Vancouver; B.C. J u s t i c e Development Commission, March 1977), p. 36. 10  In 1971, Vancouver was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r p o l i c e d i s t r i c t s . The P a t r o l D i v i s i o n which p r e v i o u s l y had been o n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r responding t o c a l l s f o r s e r v i c e now became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s such as community r e l a t i o n s programs, r e l a t i o n s w i t h s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies, p o l i c e - s c h o o l l i a i s o n , s u r v e i l l a n c e , p r o p e r t y and person checks, and f o o t p a t r o l s . 11  U n t i l 1973, the C i t y of Vancouver was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and p u b l i c health. A l s o , p r i v a t e agencies such as the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y and C a t h o l i c F a m i l y S e r v i c e s h e l d mandates t o d e a l w i t h j u v e n i l e and f a m i l y problems. I n 1973 these s e r v i c e s were taken over by the Human Resources Department of the P r o v i n c i a l Government and a d m i n i s t e r e d under the Community Resources Board Act through l o c a l l y e l e c t e d boards and appointed o f f i c i a l s . F u r t h e r d e t a i l i s p r o v i d e d i n Chapter Two. 12  A l i s t of these agencies i s g i v e n i n Diagram No. 1. However, i t should be noted t h a t the Vancouver South Community Resources Board p r o v i d e d s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s , j u v e n i l e s , and p e n s i o n e r s . These s e r v i c e s were of a d i v e r s e n a t u r e . Further i n f o r m a t i o n on s t a t u t o r y and n o n - s t a t u t o r y s e r v i c e s of CRBs appears i n Chapter Two. 13 The term "demonstration p r o j e c t " i s important to note because i t was used i n many P r o j e c t documents to express the i n t e n t i o n t h a t the P r o j e c t would p r o v i d e a model t h a t could be a p p l i e d when the P r o j e c t ended. I t was expected by some ( n o t a b l y the p o l i c e , the B.C. P o l i c e Commission, and the P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r ) t h a t t h e r e would simply be a t r a n s i t i o n from the P r o j e c t t o an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s e t o f i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s , perhaps i n the form of an i n t e r - a g e n c y c o u n c i l . ^^Parkinson, p. 1 5  I b i d „ p.  1+6,  50.  l6  Downs, p. 65. Rewards i n terms of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a detached s o c i a l worker or policemen who work alone f o r l o n g p e r i o d s : o f time may be important i n m a i n t a i n i n g morale.  good example o f t h i s i s a d o m e s t i c d i s p u t e where a p o l i c e m a n o f t e n c a n n o t , u n d e r t h e l a w , do a n y t h i n g u n l e s s one o f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e d i s p u t e l o d g e s a c o m p l a i n t . He may s t r o n g l y suggest t h a t the persons i n v o l v e d seek c o u n s e l l i n g w i t h a s o c i a l w o r k e r , b u t he c a n n o t c o m p e l t h e m : t o do s o . H o w e v e r , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n comes f r o m a p o l i c e m a n gives i t weight. "^Downs, p . 63 • " ^ I b i d . , p . 266. I n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s and procedures i n t h i s case r e f e r t o a c t i v i t i e s not governed by f o r m a l r u l e s , but which are p e r s i s t e n t . Because the b e h a v i o u r i s p e r s i s t e n t i t t e n d s t o become a c c e p t e d a s a s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t o f a n organization. F o r e x a m p l e , f o r many y e a r s t h e V a n c o u v e r p o l i c e h a v e r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e a r e many s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , s u c h as f a m i l y f i g h t s , m e n t a l h e a l t h breakdowns, and a l c o h o l i s m , f o r w h i c h t h e y have n e i t h e r t h e t r a i n i n g , t i m e , o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under the law t o d e a l w i t h . Because t h e y a r e c a l l e d upon f i r s t t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s , t h e y have t r i e d t o d e v i s e i n f o r m a l means t o d i v e r t s u c h c a s e s t o a g e n c i e s b e s t e q u i p p e d a n d t r a i n e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e m . To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t h e y h a v e asked agencies t o provide a " p o l i c e l i a i s o n s o c i a l worker". Now, w h i l e t h e r e h a v e b e e n p o l i c e l i a i s o n s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o r k i n g w i t h i n p o l i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r a number o f y e a r s , i t has b e e n t h e r e s u l t o f a n i n f o r m a l a r r a n g e m e n t , b u t one w h i c h has p e r s i s t e d , i s r e c o g n i z e d , b u t n o t f o r m a l l y s a n c t i o n e d . A l s o , p o l i c e m e n i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f t h e c i t y may g e t t o know p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e same a r e a and e s t a b l i s h p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a l l o w f o r some e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on p o t e n t i a l o f f e n d e r s a n d c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e a r e a . T h e n , when a p r o b l e m a r i s e s , t h e y can q u i c k l y r e f e r t h e problem t o t h e p e r s o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e agency b e s t equipped, b e s t t r a i n e d , and l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r v i c e s t o handle the s i t u a t i o n .  20 The p o l i c e a n d s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e t i o n because of t h e d i v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e y t y p i c a l l y must o p e r a t e .  21  F o r e x a m p l e , a p o l i c e m a n , when i n t e r v e n i n g i n a f a m i l y d i s p u t e w h i c h does n o t r e q u i r e f o r m a l p o l i c e a c t i o n ( i . e . , a r r e s t ) , may c a l l u p o n a s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c y s p e c i a l i z i n g i n f a m i l y problems f o r a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s b o t h an awareness o f a l t e r n a t i v e s and a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p o l i c e r u l e s do n o t c o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n . F o r the s o c i a l s e r v i c e agency, such i n f o r m a l co-operation w i t h the p o l i c e a s s i s t s i n i d e n t i f y i n g a problem s i t u a t i o n which o t h e r w i s e might not r e c e i v e attention. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p o l i c e and a g e n c i e s d e v e l o p e d a b o o k l e t d e s c r i b i n g p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s a n d t h e a g e n c y most  - 21 c a p a b l e of d e a l i n g w i t h them. W h i l e t h e r e were many problems i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g such g u i d e l i n e s , t h e r e was nevertheless a c l e a r attempt t o e s t a b l i s h some f o r m a l r u l e s . 23 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s d e r i v e d , i n p a r t , from t h e D i c t i o n a r y of S o c i o l o g y , Ed., H e n r y . P r a t t F a i r c h i l d (Totowa, [ N . J . J : L i t t l e f i e l d , Adams & Co., 1970), p. 68. ^ F o r example, one p a r t i c i p a t i n g agency, J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n , was concerned w i t h expanding i t s r o l e . I t had, i n f a c t , a s h r i n k i n g c l i e n t e l e . The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from a c o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h a member of the P r o j e c t emphasizes the p o i n t : 2  J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n wanted t o f o s t e r a b e t t e r image. The p o l i c e were r e s o l v i n g most problems w i t h j u v e n i l e s t h e m s e l v e s or p u t t i n g them t h r o u g h t h e c o u r t s . JP was r u n n i n g out o f c l i e n t s . They were no' h e l p t o t h e k i d s anyway. So, w i t h a b e t t e r image, t h e y t h o u g h t t h e p o l i c e would k i c k more k i d s i n t o the system.... [ J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n ' s P r o j e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ] wanted P r o j e c t s u p p o r t f o r J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n ' s demands f o r more s t a f f . 25  Downs, p.  ^Parkinson,  198. p.  40.  I b i d . , pp. 32 - 33. 28 See P a r k i n s o n , p. 46. P r o j e c t documents r e f e r r e d t o a l l a g e n c i e s ( i n c l u d i n g the p o l i c e ) h a v i n g a mandate t o p r e v e n t crime and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . I n f a c t , t h e y do n o t . I t must be assumed t h a t what was meant was t h a t a g e n c i e s share a m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - - and so does t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . However, a g e n c i e s o t h e r t h a n the p o l i c e have no f o r m a l or l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e v e n t i n g crime and, i n f a c t , t h e y may be q u i t e w i l l i n g t o l e a v e crime problems t o t h e p o l i c e , i n much t h e same way t h a t the p o l i c e a r e w i l l i n g t o l e a v e s o c i a l w e l f a r e problems t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s . 2 7  /  29  See W i l l i a m C l i f f o r d , P l a n n i n g Crime P r e v e n t i o n ( L e x i n g t o n , [ M a s s . ] : D.C. Heath & Co., 1976), p. 23, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e u n w i l l i n g n e s s of a g e n c i e s and the p u b l i c t o become i n v o l v e d i n crime p r e v e n t i o n . 30 J o r g e , p. 20. 31 Downs, p.  223.  3 2  C l i f f o r d , p.  3 3  Ibid.  92.  - 22 -  CHAPTER  TWO  PRELUDE TO FORMAL CO-OPERATION  I.  INTRODUCTION The  purpose  of this  chapter i s t o d e s c r i b e c o n d i t i o n s and  experiences which l e d t o an attempt  to establish formal co-  o p e r a t i o n among t h e p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e a n d j u s t i c e agencies i n Vancouver. 1963  t o 1974,  system  A period of informal co-operation,  drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e  a g e n c i e s i n p r e v e n t i n g crime and r e l a t e d s o c i a l  of these  problems.  W h i l e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o account f o r each and e v e r y f a c t o r w h i c h l e d t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e need t o c o - o p e r a t e , t h e r e a r e some w h i c h s t a n d o u t .  C l e a r l y t h e p o l i c e were  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d crime b u t had n e i t h e r t h e r e s o u r c e s nor a l l t h e e x p e r t i s e necessary t o prevent i t s i n c r e a s e . t h e o t h e r hand, s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , w h i l e h a v i n g t h e e x p e r t i s e t o t r e a t s o c i a l problems,  were n o t c o - o r d i n a t i n g  s e r v i c e s s o as t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e . r e q u i r e d some means o f i d e n t i f y i n g a r e a s which they could provide help.  A l s o , they  (and persons) i n  Meanwhile, p e o p l e i n need  o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d h e l p i n i d e n t i f y i n g and g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o them.  On  - 23 What w i l l be d e s c r i b e d here i s a p e r i o d of ' f i n d i n g out'. The p o l i c e found out t h a t they c o u l d not d e a l s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h crime i n c r e a s e s , r i o t s , and j u v e n i l e delinquency without a t t a c k i n g these problems a t t h e i r source.  S o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies  found out t h a t the p o l i c e were d e a l i n g w i t h problems which t h e agencies and the p o l i c e thought were b e t t e r handled by s o c i a l workers.  S o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , then, saw a need t o develop  c l o s e r l i a i s o n w i t h the p o l i c e i f they, t h e agencies, were t o have these problems d i r e c t e d t o them.  Thus i t evolved t h a t the  p o l i c e helped t o i d e n t i f y many s o c i a l problems and then them t o s o c i a l a g e n c i e s .  referred  I n so doing, i n f o r m a l mechanisms dev-  eloped f o r r e f e r r a l o f problems t o a p p r o p r i a t e agencies, and t h i s l e d t o c o - o p e r a t i o n i n development o f s o l u t i o n s . T h i s chapter p r o v i d e s , i n e f f e c t , a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and crime problems which r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r treatment.  T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by  some examples o f c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s .  I t w i l l be evident  t h a t w h i l e policemen and s o c i a l workers have d i f f e r e n t w o r l d views ( i n f a c t , on a l i b e r a l t o c o n s e r v a t i v e spectrum  they  would be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t o p p o s i t e ends) they agreed t o co-operate so as t o i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s .  F i n a l l y , I w i l l r e l a t e some o f  the p r o f e s s i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l i n i t i a t i v e s and p r e s s u r e s which c a l l e d f o r f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n among a l l agencies i n crime and s o c i a l problem p r e v e n t i o n and treatment.  -  II.  2k  -  CRIME PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL PRESSURES I N THE S I X T I E S Over t h e p a s t  ten years,  system has been s u b j e c t e d  t o g r o w i n g demands f o r more e f f e c t i v e  means t o d e a l w i t h i n c r e a s e s lems.  t h e Canadian c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e  i n crime and r e l a t e d s o c i a l  prob-  Many s o c i a l f a c t o r s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e i i n c r e a s e s :  l i b e r a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l norms a n d v a l u e s ,  a f f l u e n c e and  consumerism, d e t e r i o r a t i o n of p r i m a r y s o c i a l networks  (e.g.,  t h e f a m i l y and n e i g h b o u r h o o d f r i e n d s ) , absence o f community spirit,  a n d mass m e d i a e m p h a s i s on v i o l e n c e a n d s o c i a l  Crime i n c r e a s e s complexity  w i t h concerns over the i n c r e a s i n g  of social l i f e  of reducing police,  coupled  insecurity.  h a v e l e d p e o p l e t o demand some means Thus, p r e s s u r e  s o c i e t y ' s most e v i d e n t  r e s p o n d t o t h o s e demands. P o l i c i n g A Free  conflict.  has mounted f o r t h e  problem s o l v i n g agency, t o  Herman G o l d s t e i n comments i n  Society:  Each o f t h e major problems f o r w h i c h t h e p o l i c e have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e has i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y y i n t h i s past decade. The i n c i d e n c e o f v i o l e n t crime has r i s e n s h a r p l y and continues t o climb. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g increase i n t h e f e a r o f c r i m e has r e s u l t e d i n m o u n t i n g p r e s s u r e on t h e p o l i c e t o p r o v i d e s e c u r i t y o f t e n a t t h e c o s t o f d e a l i n g more d i r e c t l y w i t h ^ the crime problem. G o l d s t e i n , w r i t i n g from an American p e r s p e c t i v e ,  also  n o t e s t h e e f f e c t s o f l a r g e - s c a l e d i s o r d e r s , s u c h as r i o t s , in the s i x t i e s .  - 25 The most immediate c h a l l e n g e , f o r the p o l i c e , was t o b r i n g the r i o t s under c o n t r o l . . . A d d i t i o n a l l y , because the r i o t s were a form of p r o t e s t a g a i n s t a whole range of problems and i n j u s t i c e s t h a t plague our s o c i e t y , the p o l i c e were p r e s s u r e d i n t o examining aspects of t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s t h a t may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the widespread d i s c o n t e n t of ^ m i n o r i t y groups i n urban a r e a s . The p o l i c e i n Vancouver f a c e d s i m i l a r , but not as problems i n the 1 9 6 0 s and the e a r l y 1 9 7 0 s . crimes a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y and,  Increases i n  n o t a b l y , b u r g l a r y and  of p r i v a t e homes a l s o f e d p u b l i c f e a r s .  The  severe  1970  Report of the Vancouver P o l i c e Department (VPD)  vandalism Annual  notes,  " [ c ] o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p a t t e r n of the past s e v e r a l y e a r s , t o a v e r y l a r g e extent young people are c o n t i n u i n g t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m a j o r i t y of crimes  i n t h i s category  [crimes a g a i n s t  property]." Concomitant w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n crimes a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y , f r a u d u l e n t use of c r e d i t cards and m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ing welfare benefits increased.  I mention these  i n obtain-  specifically  because they are crimes which, a t base, p r o b a b l y r e s u l t from social conditions.  P u b l i c d i s o r d e r s a l s o are u s u a l l y the  r e s u l t s o f s o c i a l problems. 1970  The Annual Report of the VPD  g i v e s some i d e a of the i n t e n s i t y of the s o c i a l  in  malaise  of the p e r i o d : P r o t e s t parades, a c t i v i t i e s of d i s s i d e n t groups, and s t r e e t d i s t u r b a n c e s p l a c e d heavy demands on a v a i l a b l e manpower. Four of the more n o t a b l e i n c i d e n t s were the Siege of the P u b l i c S a f e t y B u i l d i n g i n May; the L i b e r a t i o n of S t a n l e y Park i n June; the E n g l i s h Bay d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g the Sea F e s t i v a l i n J u l y ; and the J e r i c h o H o s t e l e v i c t i o n [of soc a l l e d H i p p i e s ] i n October. Despite the o f f e n s i v e  - 26 -  a t t i t u d e a n d c o n d u c t o f many.of t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d , and t h e i r obvious attempt t o c r e a t e a c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c e , members o f t h e F o r c e c o n d u c t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n a h i g h l y commendable p r o f e s s i o n a l manner a n d i n s o d o i n g e a r n e d t h e , r e s p e c t o f t h e community. However,  one e f f e c t o f t h e s e c o n f r o n t a t i o n s was  p o l i c e f e l t pressed  t o f i n d ways o f r e a c h i n g  and  that the  educating  o r c o n v e r t i n g a n t i - p o l i c e g r o u p s , e v e n t h o u g h i t was t h e s e groups were r e a c t i n g t o s o c i a l  clear that  conditions over which the  p o l i c e h a d no c o n t r o l . The i m p r e s s i o n  should  n o t be g a i n e d  that r i o t s  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d t o produce change. evident  and  I t was  also  t o t h e p o l i c e and t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies i n l e s s  t u m u l t u o u s t i m e s t h a t changes were r e q u i r e d . o f t h i s h a d t o do w i t h  A good example  j u v e n i l e c r i m e and d e l i n q u e n c y .  These  p r o b l e m s w e r e o f p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o VPD a n d , i n 1963, Youth Preventive high incidence and  S q u a d ( Y P S ) was f o r m e d .  In addition to a  o f c r i m e s s u c h as t h e f t , b r e a k i n g  and  entering,  s h o p l i f t i n g , t h i s p e r i o d was m a r k e d b y j u v e n i l e g a n g  a c t i v i t y which often l e d to vandalism property. the  a  I t was  evident  necessary resources  t o t h e p o l i c e t h a t t h e y d i d n o t have  to direct juveniles to less destruct-  i v e p u r s u i t s , and t o c o u n s e l agencies.  o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  them, w i t h o u t  the help  So t h e p o l i c e b e g a n w o r k i n g o u t i n f o r m a l  ive projects with schools,  community r e c r e a t i o n  of  other  co-operat-  centres,  -  s o c i a l agencies  27  -  (e.g., C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y ) , and  probation services.  The 1 9 6 6  juvenile  r e p o r t of the Squad d e s c r i b e s  p o l i c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community centre dances and s p o r t s activities,  in-school a c t i v i t i e s ,  Members of the YPS  and even beach p a r t i e s .  a l s o gave t a l k s ( l e c t u r e s ) t o s c h o o l  c l a s s e s , p a r e n t - t e a c h e r groups, and s e r v i c e groups ( L i o n s , Kiwanis,  e t c . ) t o i n c r e a s e community awareness of j u v e n i l e  problems and t o e x p l a i n the r o l e of the p o l i c e i n the community. In 1 9 6 6 , t a k i n g a step  i n f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n seemed to be forward:  There has been noted improvement on a l l f r o n t s i n r e g a r d to o u r ' l i a i s o n w i t h the o u t s i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l a g e n c i e s . We are not e x p e r i e n c i n g p r e v i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s we had i n communicating w i t h these people. They are now phoning us w i t h r e g u l a r i t y and a d v i s i n g us w i t h completeness on t h e i r plans of a t t a c k w i t h any s p e c i f i c problems we have sent t o them. The change of a t t i t u d e of the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s has been most encouraging and b e n e f i c i a l t o both s i d e s . F o r t h e i r p a r t , s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies r e a c t e d to the police initiatives  by d e p l o y i n g workers to problem areas  l i k e the p o l i c e , on an  but,  'as r e q u i r e d * b a s i s .  O r i g i n a l l y the Y.P.S. was formed t o cope w i t h youth problems i n the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a and p a r t of the r o l e a t t h a t time was v e r y near to t h a t of a detached [ s o c i a l ] worker. I t was because of t h i s p r o j e c t and the involvement of the Y.P.S. t h a t the s o c i a l work agencies i n the area came to r e a l i z e the s e r i o u s need f o r detached workers and subsequently p l a c e d detached workers i n these 6 problem a r e a s . I n reviewing i n t e r n a l p o l i c e documents on j u v e n i l e  crime  -  28  -  and delinquency p r e v e n t i o n up t o 1 9 7 5 , i t i s apparent  that  j u v e n i l e problems d i d not decrease and, t h e r e f o r e , the need f o r i n f o r m a l mechanisms f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n among the p o l i c e ,  social  s e r v i c e agencies, s c h o o l s , and j u v e n i l e p r o b a t i o n s e r v i c e remained  and became accepted p r a c t i c e .  But another  understanding developed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .  I t was  that  and delinquency had t o be d e a l t w i t h comprehensively basis.  The  important crime  on a l o c a l  c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s which had developed i n t h i s  e a r l y p e r i o d were, t o some extent, n e i g h b o u r h o o d - s p e c i f i c . is,  That  resources were deployed t o ' t r o u b l e s p o t s ' and when the  problem  or problems appeared  withdrawn.  t o be r e s o l v e d , the resources were  T h i s meant t h a t the p o l i c e and the agency workers  gained o n l y a l i m i t e d understanding of the area's I t was  problems.  r e a l i z e d , then, t h a t a f u l l e r understanding was r e q u i r e d  i f long-term s o l u t i o n s were t o be  developed.  The p o l i c e a l s o came t o r e a l i z e t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o understanding the obvious nature of the crime and problems,  delinquency  they had to examine r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the  community f o r s o l v i n g such problems,  and the p r e v a l e n t a t t i t -  udes and s o c i a l v a l u e s of the community. a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s approach was  An example of an  the f o r m a t i o n of an East  I n d i a n Squad t o d e a l w i t h c o n f l i c t s and v i g i l a n t e i s m i n Vancouver's l a r g e East I n d i a n community.  The men  of the  E a s t I n d i a n Squad were a b l e t o e x p l a i n t o t h a t community s o c i a l c o n f l i c t and crime problems are handled i n Canada. t h i s manner, the c u l t u r a l gap was,  i n part, closed.  how In  -  III.  29  -  DECENTRALIZATION OF P O L I C E SERVICES W i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t community-by-community r e s p o n s e s  were needed, t h e p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s decentralize t h e i r operations. t a k e n b y VPD's P l a n n i n g  began t o  F o r example, s t u d i e s were under-  and R e s e a r c h U n i t  ( f o r m e d i n 1969) t o  examine a l l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c e f o r c e , " w i t h a v i e w t o i m p r 7  oving  efficiency."  T h e s e s t u d i e s l o o k e d a t d e p l o y m e n t patter-...  r n s , u s e o f manpower, manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s , r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of t h e department.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e  s t u d i e s , t h e d e p a r t m e n t was r e o r g a n i z e d was i n c r e a s e d b y 40 c o n s t a b l e s . communications and record-keeping  and t h e a d m i n i s t -  i n 1971 a n d manpower  C e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s such as were improved t o f a c i l i t a t e  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d p a t r o l s y s t e m w h i c h was t o have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r crime icing  p r e v e n t i o n , as w e l l as f o r s e r v -  complaints. On J a n u a r y 17, 1971, Community P o l i c i n g was i n t r o duced. The P a t r o l D i v i s i o n was r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h emphasis p l a c e d on a community a p p r o a c h t o p a t r o l responsibilities. The c i t y was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r d i s t r i c t s w i t h an O f f i c e r [ I n s p e c t o r ] p l a c e d i n charge o f e a c h D i s t r i c t w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a 2 4 - h o u r b a s i s f o r t h e d e p l o y m e n t a n d e f f i c i e n t u s e o f manpower a s s i g n e d t o h i m . The r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o i n v o l v e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f two b a s i c p a t r o l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - g s e r v i c i n g o f c o m p l a i n t s and crime p r e v e n t i o n . The  crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t s ,  i n addition to duties i n  s u r v e i l l a n c e and p r o p e r t y and person checks,  were a l s o used  as f o o t p a t r o l s i n a r e a s w i t h a l o t o f s t r e e t a c t i v i t y .  -  What was  30  -  i n n o v a t i v e i n t h i s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was  t h a t the  p o l i c e were then a b l e t o l e a r n about s p e c i f i c problems i n t h e i r D i s t r i c t s i n depth and, account  thus, develop  the nature of the D i s t r i c t .  e s t a b l i s h f i r m e r , long-term and  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  s o l u t i o n s t h a t took i n t o They were a l s o a b l e t o  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with l o c a l  agencies  Thus, the p o l i c e became p a r t of  the " l o c a l scene" and t h e i r image as n o n d e s c r i p t b l u e f i g u r e s i n p a s s i n g p a t r o l cars began to f a d e . Another change o c c u r r e d i n 1 9 7 2 . from e a r l i e r experiences  I t can be seen to r e s u l t  of the p o l i c e i n i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n .  The Youth P r e v e n t i v e Squad became the School L i a i s o n  Officer  program and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were p l a c e d i n many of Vancouver's high schools  (secondary  School L i a i s o n O f f i c e r s  s c h o o l s ) on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s .  These  (SLOs) were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  l i a i s o n w i t h s a t e l l i t e elementary s c h o o l s of the h i g h s c h o o l s . SLOs do not " p o l i c e " the s c h o o l s , but are a v a i l a b l e t o the s c h o o l and the community as a r e s o u r c e . An i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e r deals w i t h a s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n which can vary from 4,200 to 5,500 students. The SL0 i s p r o v i d e d w i t h o f f i c e space i n the s c h o o l t o which he or she i s a s s i g n e d and i s a v a i l a b l e on a r e g u l a r e b a s i s f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n q w i t h p a r e n t s , s t u d e n t s , and, yes, t e a c h e r s . The program which i s s t i l l  i n e x i s t e n c e as p a r t of VPD's  team p o l i c i n g system has been so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t d o c t o r s , s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s , and s o c i a l workers have r e f e r r e d parents students  to SLOs f o r a s s i s t a n c e .  and  Thus, these o f f i c e r s a c t as  r e s o u r c e s or c a t a l y s t s f o r i n f o r m a l r e s o l u t i o n of s c h o o l f a m i l y problems.  and  -  IV.  PRESSURE FOR  31  -  POLICE REFORM  W h i l e the p o l i c e were t a k i n g s t e p s t o services  and  t o work i n f o r m a l l y w i t h  i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l and mounting. forces B.C.  decentralize  s o c i a l agencies,  addit-  p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s f o r r e f o r m were  I n J u n e 1972,  a group of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and  from p o l i c e  some members o f  A t t o r n e y General's Department, s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h i n d i c a t e d some o f t h e required  i n B.C.'s p o l i c i n g s y s t e m s .  The  " t h a t a P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n be province  t o promote the p r e v e n t i o n  of p o l i c e s e r v i c e s The  i n the  r e p o r t was  report  to  the  changes recommended,  established  o f c r i m e and  the  in  the  the e f f i c i e n c y  province.""^  prompted by  the  B...C, e s p e c i a l l y i n d r u g - r e l a t e d  rapid increase  offences  and  i n crime i n  crimes  committed  11  by  juveniles.  I t was  a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t B.C.  enough p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s The  number o f c a s e s h a n d l e d p e r  higher  t h a n i n any  t a k e n on  the  report  in  Democratic P a r t y  have  adequate p o l i c e s e r v i c e .  constable  other province  I n November 1973, New  to provide  d i d not  was  of Canada.  significantly No  action  was  1972. the A t t o r n e y General of the  (NDP)  government i n i t i a t e d  newly  elected  discussions  on  p o l i c e problems w i t h p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s throughout the  province.  The  profession-  Attorney General also i n v i t e d representatives  a l and  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s  to j o i n i n the  of  discussions:  -  32  -  T h e r e was s u b s t a n t i a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h i n t h e g r o u p as t o t h e m a i n i s s u e s t h a t m u s t be d e a l t w i t h i n order t o improve the l e v e l of p o l i c e s e r v i c e i n the province. These i s s u e s were: p o l i c e r o l e , s t a n d a r d s , r e c r u i t m e n t , t r a i n i n g , community r e l a t i o n s , and a b u s e o f a u t h o r i t y . On had  t h e i s s u e o f p o l i c e r o l e , i t was  recognized  expanded i n t o t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e a r e a w i t h o u t  or s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g of o f f i c e r s . policemen should  W h i l e i t was  that i t  guidelines  clear that  n o t become s o c i a l w o r k e r s , & a n d t h a t  workers should  n o t become p o l i c e m e n , t h e p o l i c e had  the recognized  24-hour per  day  become  agency c a l l e d upon t o  i n a wide v a r i e t y of s o c i a l c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . t h a t i f the p o l i c e were t o c o n t i n u e s i t u a t i o n s , they should  social  I t was  to intervene i n  develop formal  and  intervene  sustained  agreed  these liaison  w i t h the s o c i a l s e r v i c e system, r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n the ling the  o f d o m e s t i c d i s p u t e s , and  hand-  develop f i r m g u i d e l i n e s f o r  exercise of d i s c r e t i o n i n such  situations.  The d e c i s i o n s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s make w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s c r e t i o n not t o invoke the c r i m i n a l p r o c e s s , l e v e l s of enforcement p r i o r i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n kinds of offences, d i v e r s i o n to s o c i a l s e r v i c e n e t w o r k s and i n f o r m a l m e d i a t i o n a t t h e community l e v e l have i m p o r t a n t consequences a t each subsequent stage of the process. Being p a r t of a l a r g e r system, p o l i c e p o l i c y must be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s y s t e m as a w h o l e a n d t h i s r e q u i r e s more e f f e c t i v e l i a i s o n through the s h a r i n g of information-, and j o i n t p l a n n i n g . The General  group i n i t i a l l y was  expanded and  called together  by t h e  Attorney  asked to d r a f t a s t a t u t e which would  c o n t a i n t h e i r recommendations.  T h i s was  a c c o m p l i s h e d and  the  - 33 d r a f t was  circulated to interested parties,  c o n s t a b l e s and suggested  -  o f f i c e r s of v a r i o u s rank.  by t h o s e p a r t i e s and  t h e new  Some c h a n g e s w e r e  incorporated i n the  l e g i s l a t i o n which the Attorney General I n M a r c h 1974,  including police  accepted  proposed  in principle.  P o l i c e Act passed t h i r d reading i n the  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  What i s s i g n i f i c a n t a b o u t t h e P o l i c e A c t o f 1974 it  f o r m a l l y opened t h e door t o i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s t o  p o l i c i n g and  inter-agency co-operation.  a t i o n , i t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e B.C. i t w i t h a m a n d a t e t o s e t up  I t was  t h i s C o m m i s s i o n and  To  facilitate  P o l i c e Commission and  and  provided  community  co-operation.  t h e J u s t i c e Development Commission  ( e s t a b l i s h e d under the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of J u s t i c e Act in April  1974)  i d i n g support w h i c h was i n crime  t h a t were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g f o r t h e P o l i c e and  expected  innov-  promote programs t o b r i n g  about p o l i c e , s o c i a l s e r v i c e system, and  V.  i s that  passed and  prov-  Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t  t o demonstrate inter-agency  co-operation  prevention.  DECENTRALIZATION OF SOCIAL S E R V I C E S S o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies  had  a l s o been moving toward  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s i n the l a t e s i x t i e s . p o l i c e , these agencies of the  had  c i t y i n a n a d hoc  been d e a l i n g w i t h problem  manner.  For  the  areas  e x a m p l e , i n 1970,  Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department a s s i g n e d to c i t y parks  Like  the  s e v e r a l workers  t h a t w e r e b e i n g v a n d a l i z e d by j u v e n i l e s .  They  did  so  i n response  34  to a police  -  request  realizing  t h a t such  long-term  results,  agencies,  began t o p l a n f o r d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  a permanent b a s i s . was  appointed  "band-aid"  for assistance.  a p p r o a c h e s were n o t  But,  producing  the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, w i t h  To  this  i n 1969.  A  end  1969  a Social police  other  of s e r v i c e s  Service  document  on  Co-ordinator  notes:  The p l a n s o f t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e C o - o r d i n a t o r a r e t o d e c e n t r a l i z e a g e n c i e s and work a s a team w i t h a member f r o m e a c h a g e n c y , i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a w i t h a c o - o r d i n a t o r as c h a i r m a n . There are t h r e e such g r o u p s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d and . . . t h i s team a p p r o a c h w i l l g i v e t h e p o l i c e much n e e d e d b a c k i n g . As and  the  Social Planning  co-ordinate s o c i a l  relationship with j u v e n i l e problems. i n an on  D e p a r t m e n t moved t o d e c e n t r a l i z e  s e r v i c e s i t maintained  the p o l i c e , At  one  a very  e s p e c i a l l y i n the area  point the  c l o s e n e s s was  a t t e m p t t o d e v i s e a f o r m a l means f o r s h a r i n g  juvenile  offenders.  The  r a t i o n a l e behind  close of  exhibited information  t h e move was  that  i n f o r m a t i o n s h a r i n g w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e means t o e v a l u a t e  the  effectiveness  methods.  But  of problem treatment  and  crime  the plan r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l agencies  ation  on  juvenile  bank. record.  to include the  recommendations toward t h i s  t o Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l by t h e O c t o b e r 1972.  and  their  information to a c e n t r a l  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was Two  i n possession  offenders, t h e i r friends,  w o u l d have t o s u b m i t t h e  prevention  inform-  families  information  offender's  end were  of  school  submitted  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department  T h e y were c o n t a i n e d  i n a J u v e n i l e Crime  in  Survey,  and  called  for: 1.  I n t e g r a t i o n o f a l l i n f o r m a t i o n on known o f f e n d e r s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s .  2.  A d o p t i o n o f an i n t e g r a t e d , combined a p p r o a c h by a l l a g e n c i e s working i n t h e f i e l d o f D e l i n q u e n c y P r e v e n t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f -, ? Offenders. 5  T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were a c c e p t e d i n p r i n c i p l e b y t h e City  Council  study.  and sent  t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l government f o r f u r t h e r  The p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a p p e a r e d t o h e e d t h e p u b l i c  reaction  t o t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , w h i c h was t h a t  represented dossiers  an attempt by t h e p p o l i c e  on c h i l d r e n .  to gain  The p r o p o s a l s  were  the  t h e r i g h t t o keep  shelved.  A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e recommendations g o i n g was t h a t wrest  governments.  integrated  social  of s o c i a l  (CRB) s y s t e m - - a  service  from t h e communities t h e y s e r v e d , members o f l o c a l  services  decentralized  as w e l l  government and l o c a l  by persons  Ultimately, incial  s e r v i c e s and t o s e t l o c a l  elected  as by a p p o i n t e d  institutions.  e l e c t e d B o a r d s were a l s o t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p o l i c y welfare  from  system.  T h e s e B o a r d s were t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d  for  limbo  I n 1973, "the g o v e r n m e n t i n s t i t u t e d t h e  Community R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s and  into  t h e NDP g o v e r n m e n t , e l e c t e d i n 1972, h a d p l a n s t o  control of the administration  municipal  proposals  service  The planning  priorities.  however, t h e B o a r d s were r e s p o n s i b l e  t o the prov-  D e p a r t m e n t o f Human R e s o u r c e s . " ^  The  Resources Board i n t h e Vancouver South area,  i n which  - 36 the  P o l i c e and  -  Community S e r v i c e s  P r o j e c t would  d e v e l o p e d t w e l v e t e a m s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s and workers.  These teams o p e r a t e d w i t h  Statutory Act, the  by  services  Family Relations  Act,  Social Assistance  Act.  autonomy i n  private  P r o t e c t i o n of  Juvenile  the  e l d e r l y ; d r u g and  services  agencies.  Children's  Delinquents'  Act,  Non-statutory services  f a m i l y c r i s i s c o u n s e l l i n g , s e r v i c e s to youth, the and  aid  non-statutory  a v a r i e t y o f p u b l i c and  come u n d e r " t h e  financial  considerable  d e l i v e r y o f a w i d e r a n g e o f s t a t u t o r y and formally provided  later-operate,  and  include handicapped  a l c o h o l c o u n s e l l i n g ; and  other  17 programs d e c i d e d upon by t h e I n a d d i t i o n to the Adult 1975  Probation w i t h the  court  team.  l a t e 1976,  s e t t i n g up  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l  of f o u r  Juvenile Probation  During t h i s period,  Service  service,  completed d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n e a r l y community o f f i c e s , p l u s d i d not  as a r e s u l t o f the P r o j e c t  chapter. Health  Services  teams."  the  also decentralized  decentralize  discussed  one  until  i n the  next  Greater Vancouver Mental and  provided  three  Community  18 C a r e Teams The  i n the Vancouver South  p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i n g and  i c e s d i d not  require  often associated effect,  with  the g o o d w i l l co-operative  c o - o p e r a t i o n ' by  t h a t most o f t h e up  area.  of the  e d i c t and  a g e n c i e s and  CRBs w e r e i n v o l v e d  co-ordinating  social  or w i l l i n g n e s s to interaction. was  facilitated  serv-  accommodate  T h i s was, by  the  in fact  p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by t h e  setting  i n doing s i m i l a r tasks.  While  - 37 it  i s a l s o apparent  in  competition,  that people  doing  s i m i l a r t a s k s may  be  19 a  i t appears t h a t s o c i a l workers tend t o  common i d e o l o g y w h i c h may  moderate c o m p e t i t i o n  and  share  promote  20 co-operation, at l e a s t the  case  i n the attempt  p o l i c e and VI.  social  on b r o a d  social goals.  to develop  s e r v i c e agencies  c o - o p e r a t i o n between  large-scale  i n c r e a s e s i n crime, d i s o r d e r s i n the  f o r ways o f s o l v i n g t h e s e other  liaison  One  juvenile  s t r a t e g y was  to deploy  began t o produce r e s u l t s ,  nature.  Therefore,  decentralize their could develop  crime  t o work  s e r v i c e agencies,  operations  but  and  and  heading  as  and  o f f problems  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and effective,  s e r v i c e agencies  c o - o p e r a t i o n and  social service  o f t e n of a  short-term  the p o l i c e began t o  on a permanent b a s i s s o t h a t  a b e t t e r understanding  es seemed t o be  NDP  the agencies  become b e t t e r known t o t h e  social  with  emphasize  policemen  r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p o l i c e and  agencies  As  search  neighbourhoods.  Informal  and  and  co-operation  They a l s o began t o  o f f i c e r s with schools, s o c i a l  specific  delinquency,  1960s, t h e p o l i c e b e g a n t o  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i d e n t i f y i n g  and  the  i n the P r o j e c t .  problems through  community a g e n c i e s .  prevention.  ems  not  SUMMARY Facing  in  T h i s was  o f communities w i t h p r o b l -  communities t h e y  inter-agency  t h e r e was  they  served.  co-operation  a s t r o n g move b y  processthe  police  toward f o r m a l i z i n g i n t e r - a g e n c y  service co-ordination.  Furthermore,  government's program of d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  and  the  integrating  - 38 social Act  services,  (Bill  8 4 ) , 1974, was  which would co-operation of s o c i a l  exemplified  facilitate  service  This  through establishment  next  co-ordination  i n Vancouver  chapter.  and p r o b a t i o n  of t h e i r  l e d t o t h e development  Project  co-ordination  a t the neighbourhood l e v e l .  services  Boards  d e v e l o p i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework  Boards, t h e p o l i c e , p a r o l e , toward  b y t h e Community R e s o u r c e s  South.  and  inter-agency  With the i n t e g r a t i o n o f Community services  Resources  moved  services with the s o c i a l  o f t h e P o l i c e a n d Community The P r o j e c t  i s the subject  services. Services of the  -  39  -  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER  TWO  ^ G o l d s t e i n , p . 3Ibid.  2  A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1970 4  I b i d . , p.  ( V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t ) , p.  1.  2.  5  " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e S q u a d , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1966" P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , Mimeo*}, p . 2.  (Vancouver  L'Youth P r e v e n t i v e S q u a d , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1967" P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , M i m e o ) , p . 2.  (Vancouver  7  A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1970,  p.  3.  8 A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1971 p p . 1 - 2.  (Vancouver P o l i c e  Department),  9  Thomas F.B. F e r g u s o n , "A Team A p p r o a c h t o P r e v e n t i o n o f J u v e n i l e C r i m e and D e l i n q u e n c y , " C a n a d i a n P o l i c e C h i e f , V o l . 65, No. 3 ( O t t a w a : C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i e f s o f P o l i c e , J u l y 1976), p. 18. 10  . x p B u l l e t i n No. 1 ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o m m i s s i o n , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 1.  Police  11  T h e r e was a n i n c r e a s e common t o a l l p a r t s o f C a n a d a , ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t i n 1974) b u t B.C. e x p e r i e n c e d a g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n d r u g - r e l a t e d o f f e n c e s and j u v e n i l e c r i m e . A s t u d y o f c r i m e p a t t e r n s i n B.C.'s L o w e r M a i n l a n d ( V a n c o u v e r , West V a n c o u v e r , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r , a n d S u r r e y ) i s s u e d i n 1976 seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a r e a i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f u r b a n and s e m i - u r b a n a r e a s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e . However, a s t h e s t u d y o f f e r e d no s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d t h i s c a n o n l y be a n a s s u m p t i o n . See: N e v i l l e A v i s o n , P a t t e r n s o f C r i m e i n t h e L o w e r M a i n l a n d ( V i c t o r i a : B.C. P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n , 1 9 7 6 ) , Mimeo. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t m o s t a n a l y s t s a g r e e t h a t c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s a r e u s u a l l y so i n c o m p l e t e a n d m i s l e a d i n g as t o be less than useful. For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s see: James Q. W i l s o n , T h i n k i n g A b o u t C r i m e (New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1975), p . 96.  - 40 1 2  B u l l e t i n No. 1, p . 1.  13 ^ I b i d . , p.  2.  " ^ " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e S q u a d , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1969" p.  2. 1 5  p.  (VPD),  "Youth  P r e v e n t i v e S q u a d , A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1972"  (VPD),  3. l6  F o r d e t a i l s s e e V a u g h a n L y o n , "The Community R e s o u r c e s Boards o f B r i t i s h Columbia: A P r e l i m i n a r y E v a l u a t i o n . A Paper Prepared f o r t h e Annual Meeting o f t h e Canadian P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Quebec, May 30, 1976. 17 1 1  P a r k i n s o n , p.  51.  18 Community C a r e Teams a r e composed o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s , s o c i a l workers, psychologists, occupational t h e r a p i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e s , and so on. 19 For an e a r l y s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f c o - o p e r a t i v e and c o m p e t i t i v e b e h a v i o u r among g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s d o i n g t h e same t a s k s e e : P e t e r M. B l a u , " C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d C o m p e t i t i o n I n A B u r e a u c r a c y , " The A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , Volume  L I X (May 1954), pp. 530 - 535. 20  '.  [  Parkinson attempted t o assess t h i s i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e P r o j e c t f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f s o c i a l workers. , p e r c e p t i o n s of themselves and p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l workers h e l d by p o l i c e officers. He a l s o l o o k e d a t p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of themselves and t h o s e h e l d by s o c i a l w o r k e r s . The a n a l y s i s tended t o c o n f i r m s t e r e o t y p e s o f both s o c i a l workers and p o l i c e m e n . S o c i a l w o r k e r s saw t h e m s e l v e s a s h e l p i n g , warm, e x p r e s s i v e , c o m p e t e n t , a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s . The p o l i c e saw s o c i a l w o r k e r s a s s o f t - h e a d e d , u n r e a l i s t i c , o p t i m i s t i c , o p i n i o n a t e d , and incompetent. N e i t h e r g r o u p saw t h e o t h e r as open-minded o r w e l l - r o u n d e d . F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g b u t s t a t i s t i c a l l y l i m i t e d e x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n see P a r k i n s o n , p p . 204 220. 1  - 41 -  CHAPTER THREE  THE  POLICE AND COMMUNITY SERVICES PROJECT:  AN ATTEMPT TO FORMALIZE INTER-AGENCY RELATIONSHIPS  I.  INTRODUCTION The  in  P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s  l a t e 1974 i n P o l i c e D i s t r i c t  of Vancouver.  and a  and s o c i a l  of services  i n prevention This  a n d some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t o define  Project's  During the Project  objectives  system.  of crime  chapter  provides  how i t was  i t encountered i n  are of p a r t i c u l a r interest.  emphasis s h i f t e d f r o m t h e m a j o r co-operation  d i r e c t e d toward crime p r e v e n t i o n  co-operation  agencies  and r e a c h i t s o b j e c t i v e s .  establishing inter-agency  ation  objective  and s e r v i c e  t o promoting  While the i n i t i a l  former o b j e c t i v e  agency  objective  encompassed r e d e f i n i t i o n  implied  a sharing  of l i k e l y  i s that the  benefits  p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h e r e a s t h e l a t t e r may be s e e n t o i m p l y  police.  co-ordin-  w i t h t h e p o l i c e i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new p o l i c i n g  of t h e p o l i c e r o l e , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s h i f t  benefits  quadrant  co-operation  service  d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e P r o j e c t was d e v e l o p e d ,  The  initiated  No. 3, t h e s o u t h - e a s t  s o c i a l problems r e l a t e d t o crime.  attempting  of  probation,  to co-ordination  structured,  was  I t was e x p e c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h f o r m a l  among p o l i c e , p a r o l e , leading  Project  were more l i k e l y  by a l l that  t o be g a i n e d b y one a g e n c y , t h e  - 42 This  chapter  a l s o d i s c u s s e s impediments t o development  of. f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y in  the i n t e r n a l  c o - o p e r a t i o n w h i c h r e l a t e t o changes  organization of p a r t i c u l a r  management a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s itself. of  and t o  within the Project  Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a l s o g i v e n t o t h e i n f l u e n c e  a change  itment  agencies,  i n p r o v i n c i a l government  o f community  Project.  Finally,  evaluation  s e r v i c e agencies there w i l l  upon t h e d e g r e e o f command t h e p o l i c e t o t h e  be a b r i e f  discussion of the  o f t h e P r o j e c t and t h e team p o l i c i n g  program which  came t o d o m i n a t e i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  II.  FORMATION OF THE PROJECT The P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t d e v e l o p e d o u t  of  a widespread i n t e r e s t  in  t h e community  prevention police  i n redefining the role  and i n v o l v i n g  of crime.  other  community  Throughout North  of the police agencies i n  A m e r i c a s i n c e 1968,  d e p a r t m e n t s have b e e n e x p e r i m e n t i n g  with various  forms  1 oof  community  these  o r neighbourhood p o l i c i n g .  e x p e r i m e n t s o r programs  opment o f f o r m a l and j u s t i c e however, lish  have p l a c e d emphasis  co-operative relationships with  system ( p a r o l e , probation)  community  p o l i c i n g programs  new a n d more h e l p f u l  and t o a c t as c a t a l y s t s citizens  However, f e w o f  agencies.  on d e v e l -  social service In"general,  have s e t o u t , " t o e s t a b -  relationships with  the  community,  t o i n v o l v e o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s and  i n sharing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r t h i n g s w h i c h have  been  2 s e e n as p r o b l e m s f o r t h e p o l i c e a l o n e . "  I t was f r o m  these  notions  t h a t t h e P o l i c e and  Community S e r v i c e s  Project  devel-  oped i n V a n c o u v e r . The  b a s i c i d e a f o r the  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t Tom and  Mr.  of t h e  d e v e l o p e d i n 1974  by  Herdman o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t  John E k s t e d t , Attorney  P r o j e c t was  A c t i n g Deputy M i n i s t e r of  Correction,  General's Department of B r i t i s h Columbia  while 3  t h e y were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s t u d y o f d i v e r s i o n programs ^ f o r -  the p r o v i n c i a l government. was  A general  proposal  t h e n d e v e l o p e d b y S e r g e a n t J . Swann o f t h e  P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t and Department of the t h a t the  Mr.  J . Jessup of the  C i t y of Vancouver.  development of the  undertaking,  for a  Vancouver  Social  Planning  W h i l e i t would appear  i d e a f o r a p r o j e c t was  i t i s c l e a r that the  project  i m p e t u s was  a  joint  provided  by  t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e Department.^" A proposal, Social Services  "The  Optimum O r g a n i z a t i o n  i n a Community S e t t i n g , " was  J u s t i c e D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i s s i o n o f B.C. was  accepted i n p r i n c i p l e .  financed  on t h e  nized that the  o f P o l i c e and  "The  P r o j e c t was  basis of Kery general specific  and,  d e t a i l s and  P r o j e c t w o u l d o n l y emerge u n d e r t h e  goals,  Other  submitted to i n May  1974,  accepted and  i t  and  i t was  the f i n a l shape of d i r e c t i o n of the  the  recogthe  partic-  5  i p a t i n g groups." Herdman s e t o u t  W i t h t h i s mandate t o p r o c e e d ,  t o i n v o l v e s o c i a l s e r v i c e , p a r o l e and  i o n agencies i n the It took:  Superintendent probat-  Project.  i s worth noting  here the p e r s p e c t i v e  the  proposal  -  44  -  The r e p o r t b e g i n s b y r e f e r r i n g b a c k t o t h e e a r l i e r community p o l i c i n g e f f o r t s [ r e f e r r e d t o i n C h a p t e r Two] and s u g g e s t s t h a t , . . . i n a t t e m p t s t o d r a w a l l a g e n c i e s t o g e t h e r f o r a c o m b i n e d a s s a u l t on t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , i t p r o v e d most d i f f i c u l t to i n s t i t u t e a concerted approach". I t t h e n g o e s on t o t a l k a b o u t t h e c r e a t i o n o f Community R e s o u r c e s -Boards - t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f b a s i c s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e a s - and s u g g e s t s t h a t , " t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s h a v e now b e e n r e s t r u c t u r e d i n t o a f o r m t h a t makes them r e s p o n s i v e t o c h a n g e , s u g g e s t s t h a t an i n - d e p t h r e v i e w of a v i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i c e and Community R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s w o u l d p r o d u c e g o o d r e s u l t s " . The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e s w i t h a recomme n d a t i o n t o s e t up a n e x p e r i m e n t a l a r e a w h e r e a g e n c i e s would work t o g e t h e r t o i d e n t i f y problems, e v a l u a t e r e s o u r c e s , and d e v e l o p m e t h o d o l o g i e s t o a p p l y r e s - ^ ources to problems. 11  By  November 1974,  a P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r was  representativesof  a g e n c i e s t h a t had  t h e P r o j e c t . • The  Project received  selected  agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n temporary funding  from  t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s D e p a r t m e n t , " u n t i l A u g u s t 1975 formal  c o n t r a c t was  Fund of the D i r e c t o r and  signed  between the  Assistant Director." the  S o c i a l Planning  o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r and  The  the  was  community.  The  seconded to the  Department of the  a c t i v e l y involved  i n S e p t e m b e r 1974,  two  to  had  City  i n liaison with  Assistant Director, a police P r o j e c t by  Project  Project Director  R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e detachment c o n t r a c t e d that  when a  J u s t i c e Development  A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s D e p a r t m e n t and  b e e n e m p l o y e d by  by  the  police  sergeant,  the Vancouver P o l i c e Department  months b e f o r e t h e D i r e c t o r was  appointed.  S t a f f f u n d e d by t h e P r o j e c t b u d g e t i n c l u d e d a D i r e c t o r , two r e s e a r c h o f f i c e r s , and two s e c r e t a r i a l p o s i t i o n s . A p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r and a c o - o r d i n a t o r of d i v e r s i o n were employed f o r a  - 45 short time. A l l o t h e r " s t a f f " were seconded on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s from p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s and t h e s e secondments i n v o l v e d a t l e a s t e i g h t o t h e r persons. Most o f t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s a c t e d i n a liaison capacity. Seconded s t a f f i n c l u d e d a member o f t h e S o u t h V a n c o u v e r Community R e s o u r c e s a r e a , a member o f t h e C i t y S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , a member o f t h e A d u l t P r o b a t i o n s t a f f , a person from the J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n s t a f f , and a s e c o n d member o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , g ( O t h e r p o l i c e members w e r e a d d e d as r e q u i r e d ) . The P r o j e c t ordinating  Committee  participating Division,  was t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d (M.C.C.)  agencies.  Committee Chairman.  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t who h e l p e d t o  the  M.C.C.  composed o f s e n i o r  initiate  i n c l u d e d the  S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department,  ice Council Co-ordinator for al Director, Corrections  the  Community S e r v i c e s (probation)  Area.  Services,  Greater  the  Committee.)  ioner  of the  Project.  the  Voting  Senior S o c i a l Planner the  Division  of  Just-  Vancouver Region; the  Region-  of the P r o v i n c i a l  Regional Director of  Region of the  i o n s B r a n c h ; and t h e M a n a g e r o f t h e Resources  Patrol  T h i s was  C i t y of Vancouver;  Branch; the  V a n c o u v e r F a m i l y and J u v e n i l e  the  Co-  members o f  The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e  V P D , was e l e c t e d  members o f t h e  b y a Management  the  Provincial Correct-  V a n c o u v e r S o u t h Community  ( I n A u g u s t 1976, t h e  D i r e c t o r of  Patient  V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e was a d d e d  to  T h e r e w e r e two n o n - v o t i n g members: A C o m m i s s -  British  Columbia P o l i c e Commission, and  the  I n s p e c t o r i n c h a r g e o f D i s t r i c t N o . 3, V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e  Depart-  9 ment. Thd r e l a t i o n s h i p o f to the  Project  t h e Management  D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t  Co-ordinating  Director,  Committee  and t h e  Project  - 46 s t a f f i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n D i a g r a m No. 1. shows t h a t t h e f u n d i n g  Note t h a t t h e d i a g r a m  c o n t r a c t was w i t h  t h e D i r e c t o r and A s s i s -  t a n t D i r e c t o r and, t h e r e f o r e ,  t h e b u d g e t was n o t a d i r e c t  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e M.C.C.  This  Section and  III.  i s discussed  further i n  I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t t h e P r o j e c t  Director  A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r h a d , i n f a c t , no a u t h o r i t y o v e r s e c o n d e d  staff.  The l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y o f s e c o n d e d s t a f f t o t h e i r a g e n c -  i e s remained i n t a c t .  With the exception  d e p a r t m e n t s e c o n d m e n t s a n d a 4/5  of the f u l l - t i m e p o l i c e  t i m e Community R e s o u r c e s  secondment, " o t h e r a g e n c i e s had r e a l l y o n l y g i v e n  Board  a commitment  10 t o have t h e i r s t a f f s e r v e i n a l i a i s o n the  capacity."  i n t e n t i o n expressed i n the P r o j e c t proposal  However,  was t h a t  second-  ed s t a f f o f a g e n c i e s w o u l d b e a c t i v e members o f t h e P r o j e c t a n d constitute a research The  team w i t h  the Project's  full-time staff.  i d e a was n o t s t r o n g l y p u r s u e d due t o l a c k o f a g e n c y c o m m i t -  ment, i n d i c a t i n g a n e a r l y l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t o v e r a u t h o r i t y a n d autonomy w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t s t r u c t u r e .  I t was h o p e d , h o w e v e r ,  t h a t a g e n c y commitment w o u l d l a t e r be s t r e n g t h e n e d o n c e t h e p r o g r a m o f t h e P r o j e c t was d e f i n e d . and  other representatives  various The  Instead,  t h e seconded  o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s s e r v e d on  committees, sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as 'task task forces  terms o f r e f e r e n c e ,  forces'.  o r committees were e x p e c t e d t o "develop s t r a t e g i e s a n d make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r new  p r o c e d u r e s , approaches and programs i n i n t e r - a g e n c y Family Disputes,  staff  Juveniles, Adult  Diversion  handling  of  and Emergency  11 Support Services ees  Needs o f P o l i c e . "  p r o v e d t o be i n e f f e c t i v e .  Part  I n general,  these  committ-  of the explanation f o r  - 47 this  l i e s i n the  time Project result,  staff,  that  c o m m i t t e e members,  other  t o be c r i t i c a l  of t h e i r  l o y a l t y to t h e i r parent organizations)  agencies.  definitions  Also,  other  i n g to s o l v e .  than  full-  had,..no a u t o n o m y f r o m p a r e n t a g e n c i e s .  t h e y were r e l u c t a n t  (indicating other  fact  own s e r v i c e s and t h o s e o f  t h e y were o f t e n u n w i l l i n g t o  than t h e i r  Therefore,  consider  own o f p r o b l e m s t h e y w e r e  inter-agency  As a  co-operation at  attemptthe  c o m m i t t e e l e v e l was l a c k i n g a n d l i t t l e was a c c o m p l i s h e d t o  sat-  12 isfy  the  research  t i o n we w i l l the  objectives  examine t h e  attempts to  of the P r o j e c t .  overall objectives  develop inter-agency  agement C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e III.  next  of the P r o j e c t  co-operation at  the  secand  Man-  level.  PROJECT OBJECTIVES The o b j e c t i v e s  o f t h e P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s  shifted  as  ed.  i s not u n u s u a l ,  It  objectives ate.  I n the  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n and s u r r o u n d i n g t h e P r o j e c t  i f they are  however,  for organizations  s e e n t o be u n a t t a i n a b l e  to  Project chang-  redefine  or i n a p p r o p r i -  P a r k i n s o n comments: ' O b j e c t i v e s ' are often e l u s i v e statements. They s e l d o m a p p e a r t o be s i m p l y g u i d e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , b u t a r e o f t e n a way f o r a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c l a r i f y where i t i s , and what i t i s d o i n g . Since o r g a n i z a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y respond t o e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s a n d make ' p r o g r e s s ' b y c a p i t a l i z i n g on a c c i d e n t s o r o p p o r t u n i t y , ' o b j e c t i v e s ' t a k e on many i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , or get r e s t a t e d . T h i s was t h e c a s e -, ~ w i t h t h e P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t . The i n i t i a l  o b j e c t i v e s were b r o a d ,  d i r e c t i o n s the P r o j e c t the  should take.  loose statements of  T h e r e was some e m p h a s i s  c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c e and s o c i a l  services.  on  -  48 -  (1) t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a l e n t i n t h e community; (2) t o i d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g p o l i c e and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e to a s s i s t i n r e d u c t i o n of problems; (3) t o d e v e l o p a s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y m o d e l d e s i g n e d improve c o - o r d i n a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n p r e v e n t i n g crime and d e l i n q u e n c y ; (4)  to  t o develop a r e s e a r c h methodology t o a s s e s s and e v a l u a t e p o t e n t i a l changes i n o r g a n i z a t i o n , delivery or l i n e operations;  (5) t o develop ^performance c r i t e r i a and f o r p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s ;  standards  (6) t o e x a m i n e i n n o v a t i v e s o c i a l , j u s t i c e , a n d p o l i c i n g concepts and where f e a s i b l e a s s i s t t e s t i n g a n d measurement o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s ;  in  (7) t o examine e x i s t i n g and a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c e r e s o u r c e s t r a t e g i e s , team o r community p o l i c i n g concepts which w i l l a s s i s t i n the development of one o r more m o d e l s o f p o l i c i n g t h r o u g h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p o l i c e and t h e resources required to provide a l t e r n a t i v e models. The  a b o v e o b j e c t i v e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d when t h e r e was  a t i o n o f s t r o n g commitment f r o m a g e n c i e s participate  i n the P r o j e c t .  expect-  t h a t had a g r e e d  They a l s o r e f l e c t  a belief  to that  P r o j e c t w o u l d have a s t r o n g r e s e a r c h  orientation (e.g.,  of  community a t t i t u d e s ,  s e r v i c e systems,  u s e o f manpower,  and s o c i a l p r o b l e m t r e n d s , system,  to the  Section II,  N o . 3, t h u s m a k i n g r e s e a r c h  pursued i n  easier.  analysis  above,  crime  justice than  As n o t e d  t h e l a c k o f s t r o n g a g e n c y commitment t o a  ch p r o g r a m meant t h a t t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s ,  The  criminal  a n d so on) a n d w o u l d o p e r a t e i n a s m a l l e r a r e a  Police District in  alternates  could not  researbe  full.  Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e , w o r k i n g f r o m  above b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s ,  then set  out t o develop g o a l s  the  that  the  - 49 would s a t i s f y , agencies.  i n a more s p e c i f i c m a n n e r ,  The hope was t h a t i f t h e  ments o f g o a l s t h e y were i n t e r e s t e d  the  agencies  participating submitted  i n reaching,  state-  then a  consen-  sus might develop and g r e a t e r involvement i n the P r o j e c t  would  be e n c o u r a g e d .  submit-  ted.  Approximately f i f t y  They r e f l e c t e d ,  g o a l s t a t e m e n t s were  " a number o f d i f f e r e n t  expectations  and  15 perceptions  of the  Project."  Some c a l l e d f o r t h e  of p o l i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , examining deployment methods.  w h i l e o t h e r s saw t h e  of personnel  or assessing  area  Project  police training  T h e r e was a l s o a n e x p r e s s i o n o f a d e s i r e  "community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l o c a l  integration  control i n  i n g p r i o r i t i e s and a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s o f d e l i v e r i n g  to  develop,  establishservices  16 both f o r s o c i a l collection  s e r v i c e s and f o r p o l i c i n g . "  of desired goals,  the M.C.C.  Out o f  appeared  to  this  reach  a consensus on f i v e o b j e c t i v e s : To b r i n g t o g e t h e r c i t i z e n s , p o l i c e a n d c o m m u n i t y services i n : ( i ) d e v e l o p i n g a comprehensive range o f community a l t e r n a t i v e s t o meet i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y o r community problems and f a c i l i t a t i n g a c o - o r d i n ated response to these problems; ( i i : ) . d e v e l o p i n g methods t o r e s o l v e d i s p u t e s between o f f e n d e r s a n d v i c t i m s on a n i n f o r m a l b a s i s whenever c o n c i l i a t i o n or m e d i a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e ; (:(..iii) p r o m o t i n g t h e development o f d i v e r s i o n a r y programs t h r o u g h the c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e a g e n c i e s and t h e community t o d i v e r t persons from the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e process i n t o community-based programs; (iv)  s u b s t a n t i a l l y reducing the delinquency, domestic c o n f l i c t and t h e i n c i d e n c e o f c r i m e i n t h e community;  (v) d e v e l o p i n g p a t t e r n s o f community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l o c a l a r e a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s s i s t i n g i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t i e s and a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s -, y i n d e l i v e r i n g b o t h c o m m u n i t y and p o l i c e s e r v i c e s . It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that  p o l i c e - i n i t i a t e d , the  o b j e c t i v e s emphasized the  (community) a g e n c i e s and However, t h e  even though the P r o j e c t  the  r o l e s of  community-at-large i n the  o b j e c t i v e s were s t i l l  b r o a d and  social  Project.  somewhat v a g u e .  " I t became c l e a r t o some p e o p l e t h a t t h i s b r o a d p r o p o s a l o b j e c t i v e s ] c o u l d n o t be a v a i l a b i l i t y , the  was  [the  i n i t i a t e d without substantial  resource  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c t i v e s t a f f p e r s o n s , and  a  1$ lengthy  p e r i o d of education,  As  t h e P r o j e c t was  t o March 31,  1977  i n v o l v e m e n t and  t o l a s t o n l y two  under the  terms of the  J u s t i c e D e v e l o p m e n t F u n d ) , and made by F e b r u a r y 1975,  being  no  discussion."  y e a r s ( A p r i l 1,  1975  contract with  the  s u b s t a n t i a l progress  was  i n either defining firm  objectives  or programs, the Vancouver P o l i c e Department d e c i d e d t o a proposal The  for a  proposal  in District  'team p o l i c i n g p r o g r a m ' w i t h i n t h e  put No.  forward a plan f o r reorganization  s y s t e m i n use  entire district The  on  T h i s was  of the  in  eight hour  police 24  hour  contrast  which deployed policemen throughout  the  shifts.  s e l e c t e d areas c l o s e l y corresponded to those i n which  t e a m s o f Community R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s o c i a l w o r k e r s I t was  Project.  3 i n t o s i x n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e a teams w i t h  responsibility for a l l policing services. to the  develop  b e l i e v e d t h a t by  operated.  r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e p o l i c e component i n  t h i s f a s h i o n the meeting of the P r o j e c t ' s o b j e c t i v e s might facilitated.  The  team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l  i s discussed  in  be  greater  - 51 detail i n Section V I . By A p r i l proposal, and t h e  1975, w i t h t h e  o f the team  policing  the P r o j e c t turned toward being a " p o l i c e  project"  earlier,  acceptance  f i v e b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s became two more  specific  objectives: (1) t o s u p p l y a b e t t e r f o r m o f d e l i v e r i n g p o l i c e s e r v i c e s t o a c o m m u n i t y . The c r i t e r i a a r e lowered c r i m i n a l occurrences, improved p o l i c e community r e l a t i o n s , i n c r e a s e d community s a t i s f a c t i o n , i n c r e a s e d [ p o l i c e ] member j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , and e l i m i n a t i o n of " e l i t i s t " t y p e assignments. (2) t o e n s u r e a s t r u c t u r e d l i a i s o n between p o l i c e and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . This would i n v o l v e a r e c o g n i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f [ p o l i c e ] members o f t h e n e e d f o r s u c h s e r v i c e s when t h e y e n c o u n t e r s i t u a t i o n s where t h e need i s d e m o n s t r a t e d . The c r i t e r i a w o u l d be g r e a t e r c o m m u n i t y r e s o l u t i o n of problems by u t i l i z a t i o n of r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n exchanges and a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n e f f o r t s between p o l i c e and o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s ^ t o a l l e v i a t e community p r o b l e m s . Thus,  the  e a r l i e r o b j e c t i v e s w e r e p a r e d down t o  team p o l i c i n g and a m o d i f i e d form o f i n t e r - a g e n c y and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  co-operation  However, the s o l e o b j e c t i v e o f d e v e l o p i n g a  t e a m p o l i c i n g s y s t e m e v e n t u a l l y came t o c o n s t i t u t e As f o r t h e left  i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c e teams i n t h e  the  Project.  d i s t r i c t , t h e y were  with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g these  The t e a m s h a d t o  two:  objectives.  e s t a b l i s h l i a i s o n with other agencies  and  20  develop r e f e r r a l systems and programs. that,  P a r k i n s o n remarks  " [ w ] h i l e t h i s b e g a n t o o c c u r i n p r a c t i c e , t h e teams t h e m -  s e l v e s were never a s s i s t e d i n s e t t i n g informed of the  change i n e x p e c t a t i o n s  o b j e c t i v e s , t h e y were [i.e.,  t h e y were  to  not  - 52 operationalize objectives], by t h e P r o j e c t  i n either  and t h e y were not g i v e n  of these areas.  meant r e m a i n e d a m b i g u o u s a n d t h e  assistance  What Team P o l i c i n g  expectations  o f agency  involve-  21 ment w e r e u n c l e a r . " due t o t h e f a c t was u n d e r t h e eant,  Lack of P r o j e c t a s s i s t a n c e  t h a t the team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l  implementation  c o n t r o l of the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , a p o l i c e  and t h e P r o j e c t ' s  The r e a s o n s f o r t h e "team p o l i c i n g "  civilian  shift  appear t o l i e i n the  system agencies,  w h a t t h e P r o j e c t was t o d o .  structure  objectives of the  s e c t i o n the  but  the  service  confusion  confusion i s  symptomatic of deeper problems w i t h i n the P r o j e c t ,  internal  Project,  l a c k of a c l e a r n o t i o n of  In this  has b e e n d e s c r i b e d ,  e x t e r n a l to the P r o j e c t .  to  H e n c e , t h e r e was a w i l l i n g n e s s t o  s e t t l e f o r something concrete. over o b j e c t i v e s  police  commitments f r o m s o c i a l  and the  serg-  staff.  i n the P r o j e c t ' s  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n gaining firm  and j u s t i c e  IV.  xn p a r t ,  a n d t h e r e was a l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e  component  the  was,  only  and p r e s s u r e s  We t u r n now t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f  the  difficulties.  PROBLEMS WITHIN THE PROJECT A major  identifying  difficulty  effect  to the P r o j e c t  the minutes  appears t o have been  in  a r o l e f o r t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e .  T h i s a l s o had t h e M.C.C.  of the P r o j e c t  of l e a v i n g the  staff  unclear.  of the M . C . C . meetings  was u n c e r t a i n a s t o w h e t h e r i s t e r i n g the P r o j e c t ,  or not  relationship  of the  ...,  Parkinson's analysis of  indicates  that the  Committee  i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  developing p o l i c y ,  o r a c t i n g as  a  admin-  -  p r e s s u r e group above the member commented on t h e  -  53  Project.  One s e n i o r P r o j e c t  s i t u a t i o n as  staff  follows:  The Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e n e v e r g o t i t together. They t h o u g h t t h e y were something l i k e a board of d i r e c t o r s . T h e y d i d n ' t t r u s t one a n o t h e r r i g h t from the b e g i n n i n g . Y o u s e e , t h e s t a f f was i n i t i a l l y e n v i s a g e d as a r e s e a r c h team and t h e M . C . C . e x p e c t e d t o d i r e c t t h e s t a f f t o do c e r t a i n t h i n g s , but t h a t d i d n ' t happen. ?  However, t h e M . C . C . its  r o l e and a l i s t  did start  of s p e c i f i c  out w i t h a d e f i n i t i o n o f  functions:  The Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e d e t e r m i n e s the P r o j e c t p a r a m e t e r s , o b j e c t i v e s and s t u d y implementation procedures a n d . p r i o r i t i e s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c i e s and d e p a r t m e n t s r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee, the B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e Commission and t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and P r o j e c t Staff. I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e w i l l assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for l i n e operations i n the P r o j e c t d i s t r i c t of e i t h e r t h e P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , Community C o r r e c t i o n s o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Human R e s o u r c e s . The f u n c t i o n s  of the M . C . C .  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the P r o j e c t descriptions  for Project  staff,  included the  a p p r o v a l o f major  reports,  to agencies  and departments c o - o p e r a t i n g  fore, by  c o n t r o l over the  considerable.  a number o f  h i r i n g of  D i r e c t o r , the approval of  (proposals,  potential for  programs),  ?  and a p p r o v a l o f  Project's  ?  ^  and job  undertakings recommendations  i n the P r o j e c t . a c t i v i t i e s was,  H o w e v e r , t h e M . C . C . ' s p o s i t i o n was  The thereweakened  incidents:  Because of a p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h w h i c h l e d the D i r e c t o r to o f f e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n a f t e r the f i r s t t h r e e weeks, t h e D i r e c t o r became v e r y c a u t i o u s o f t h e C o m m i t t e e ,  - 54 frequently suspicious of t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s , s u b s e q u e n t l y he u s e d them p r i m a r i l y as t h e of i n f o r m a t i o n . A n o t h e r i n c i d e n t h a d t o do w i t h t h e ments for  of the P r o j e c t .  It will  f u n d s was b e t w e e n t h e  Project  f o r m a l budget  be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e  The f a c t  D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r were s i g n a t o r s in' e f f e c t ,  and,  denied c o n t r o l over the  budget.  felt  consequently,  D i r e c t o r used the  the  that  the  ( a demand o f for  the M . C . C .  "Some members  t h e i r r o l e became r e d u n d a n t  ,  contract  t h a t t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e  a d m i n i s t e r i n g the budget  ?  arrange-  J u s t i c e Development Fund and  D i r e c t o r and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r .  t h e JDF) meant,  and receivers  was  [of the  M.C.C]  a t t h i s p o i n t and t h a t  c o n t r a c t t o i s o l a t e them f r o m a  the  management  25 function." Yet  another  i n c i d e n t was t h e  development o f the  'team  p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l ' by the P r o j e c t ' s A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r . it  was c o m p l e t e d , t h e p r o p o s a l was f i r s t  of  the P o l i c e Department and the Vancouver P o l i c e Board  approval before procedure,  the  i t was p r e s e n t e d  'Project of  document'.  The M . C . C .  could undertake,  it  rather  for this  came t o  look  t h a n as  a  d i d not o b j e c t to the  content  o f f e r e d a concrete program which  a n d one w h i c h s e t  lementary to the P r o j e c t ' s rn  Due t o  n o n - p o l i c e members o f t h e M . C . C .  the p r o p o s a l because  Project  sent to the Executive  to the M.C.C.  u p o n t h e p r o p o s a l as a ' p o l i c e d o c u m e n t '  When  out  broad o b j e c t i v e s .  objectives So, despite  the  compconce-  o v e r t h e manner i n w h i c h i t was d e v e l o p e d , t h e p l a n f o r a  26 Team P o l i c i n g P r o g r a m was a c c e p t e d . provided the  By so d o i n g , t h e  opportunity f o r the p o l i c e to  determine  the  M.C.C.  -  55 -  d i r e c t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t from t h a t time on. The  a p p a r e n t i n a b i l i t y o f t h e M.C.C. t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e  P r o j e c t was a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d b y t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e D i r e c t o r and  t h e s t a f f m a n i p u l a t e d meetings o f t h e Committee. Many i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s w e r e r a i s e d b y some members o f t h e c o m m i t t e e b u t t y p i c a l l y t h e r e was n e v e r a n y r e s o l ution. E i t h e r t h e i s s u e was n o t a c t e d u p o n b y t h e s t a f f o r t h e C o m m i t t e e was n o t a b l e t o r e s o l v e i t , a n d i t was n o t r e - i n t r o d u c e d . S t a f f a p p r o a c h e d Commi t t e e meetings as something t o 'get t h r o u g h ' , and f r e q u e n t l y t r i e d t o manage t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o t h a t l i t t l e h a p p e n e d . The D i r e c t o r h a d a c o n t r o l l i n g p o s i t i o n on t h i s C o m m i t t e e s i n c e he p r e p a r e d t h e agenda and t o o k t h e m i n u t e s . ?  The  7  w e a k n e s s o f t h e M.C.C. may h a v e b e e n due t o a number  of reasons.  F i r s t , t h e agency r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  were n o t f r e e  f r o m t h e p r i o r i t i e s a n d p r o b l e m s o f t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s . This  a p p e a r s t o h a v e p r o m p t e d t h e f e e l i n g o f some members  sitting  o n t h e M.C.C. s i m p l y  ment."  This  information  This  exchange o f i m p o r t a n t  f o r inter-agency  service  areas o f interdependence and forms o f s e r v i c e A second impediment t o f u l l  each agency b r i n g s  co-operative various  activity,  search  co-ordination.  commitment was m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  over t h e nature and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t . ered that  co-ordin-  stands i n contrast t o t h e i n t e r e s t e x h i b i t e d by  a g e n c i e s p r i o r t o t h e P r o j e c t when t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e for  ;  p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h w o u l d have  proven invaluable i nplanning ation.  amounted t o a " d i s p l a y o f commit-  had t h e e f f e c t o f reducing  on a g e n c i e s '  that  i t s own w o r l d  I f i ti s consid-  v i e w i n t o a new  t h e n t h e l i k e l i h o o d i s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be  interpretations of objectives.  A c l e a r example o f t h i s  was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f i f t y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r P r o j e c t  goals  -  (described i n Section III)  56  -  by p a r t i c i p a t i n g  agencies.  Commitment may a l s o h a v e b e e n w e a k e n e d b e c a u s e o f t h e ously strong  r o l e of the p o l i c e .  They had i n i t i a t e d the  obvi-  Project  and seconded a s e r g e a n t t o the p o s i t i o n of A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , whereas  t h e D i r e c t o r was a c i v i l i a n ,  w i t h the  of the P r o j e c t  will  (formerly  C i t y o f N o r t h Vancouver) h i r e d by t h e M . C . C . f o r  term of the P r o j e c t . ion  s o c i a l planner  Also,  the p o l i c e e v e n t u a l l y set  b y way o f t h e  be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e  o r i g i n a l proposal f o r the  of Vancouver.  Also,  the  the  outset the  c t as a " p o l i c e p r o j e c t " .  agencies  It  is  It  Project Social  soliciting  c y p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d b y t h e p o l i c e . able then that at  direct-  team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l .  was d e v e l o p e d b y t h e p o l i c e i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e P l a n n i n g Department  the  the  of  understand-  l o o k e d upon t h e  T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e  a p o l i c e o f f i c e r was e l e c t e d C h a i r m a n o f t h e M . C . C .  fact and  Projethat  that  a g e n c y members  declined nomination.  Superintendent  was C h a i r m a n was r a i s e d a s a n i s s u e b y some  agency  The f a c t  agen-  that a police  members: The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t was a l o g i c a l c h o i c e , b u t w h i l e e v e r y o n e r e s p e c t e d h i s a b i l i t i e s , t h e r e was a s h a r e d f e e l i n g t h a t t h e P r o j e c t may h a v e t a k e n a d i f f e r e n t s h a p e i f one o f t h e a g e n c y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s h a d t a k e n the p o s i t i o n . I t was f e l t e s p e c i a l l y t h a t t h i s w o u l d have promoted t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l o t h e r agencies. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the Chairman h i m s e l f agreed w i t h t h i s v i e w b u t a change o f C h a i r m a n was n o t Q accomplished. ?  H o w e v e r , a change i n C h a i r m a n , management staff  (e.g.,  the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ) might not  commitment a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n i f i t  is  structure, have  or  increased  considered that the  social  -  agencies own  57 -  were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h changes  organizations  (for details  t o be u n w i l l i n g t o t a k e  see S e c t i o n V) and t h e y  advantage of o p p o r t u n i t i e s  strong r o l e i n the Project c h a i r i n g the  occurring within  their appeared  to play a  by seconding f u l l - t i m e s t a f f  and by  M.C.C.  The s t r o n g  commitment o f t h e p o l i c e a l s o f e d t h e  belief  t h a t t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was i n c o n t r o l o f t h e P r o j e c t not the f r e e l a n c e , basis  for this belief  ed t o t h e P r o j e c t Moreover, of  civilian  T h e r e may h a v e b e e n  i n t h a t t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was  two months b e f o r e  t h e D i r e c t o r was  some  second-  hired.  t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , who was n o t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the M . C . C .  act w i t h the to be,  director.  and  at  as was t h e D i r e c t o r , was a c o - s i g n e r o f t h e J u s t i c e Development F u n d .  least,  Therefore,  on a n e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h t h e  he  contr-  seemed  Director.  It  was  a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was c l o s e l y a l l i e d -an  w i t h the ations  Superintendent,  Chairman of the M . C . C .  o v e r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s ,  1976 t o 1975, l e a d me t o  c o n c l u d e t h a t i t was a s u b o r d i n a t e - s u p e r i o r onship.  As s u c h ,  however,  Assistant Director i f i t  or's  professional  i t may h a v e b e e n a d v a n t a g e o u s  is  c i v i l i a n without allegiances A final  My o b s e r v -  t o any  r o l e was t h a t he p r e p a r e d  strength the  o f the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t -  team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l  fact  involvement w i t h the p o l i c e  i n the P r o j e c t .  t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r was a  whereas component  T h i s " may a l s o h a v e b e e n due t o civilian.  which  He a l s o p l a y e d a  major p a r t i n p u t t i n g t h e team s y s t e m i n t o o p e r a t i o n ,  late  the  agency.  d e t e r m i n e d a new d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e P r o j e c t .  until  to  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e D i r e c t o r was a  i n d i c a t i o n of the  t h e D i r e c t o r had l i m i t e d  relati-  the  - 58 I n summary,  i f it  by a p o l i c e o f f i c e r , nt  and a p p e a r e d  activities  to  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e M . C . C . was  t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r was a p o l i c e  sergea-  e x e r c i s e a great deal of c o n t r o l over'  of the P r o j e c t ,  and the P r o j e c t  team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l p r e p a r e d re being submitted to the q u a r r e l w i t h the  chaired  and approved by t h e  Project,  perception  came t o a c t  then i t  is  the  on a  police  difficult  befo-  to  t h a t t h e P r o j e c t was a " p o l i c e  31 project".  T h i s p e r c e p t i o n a l o n e m i g h t have l e s s e n e d  commitment political V.  of agencies factors  w h i c h were a l s o  but  t h e r e were  external,  influential.  THE EFFECTS OF P O L I T I C A L CHANGE When t h e  P r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e a n d  system agencies example,  the  ed managers, i n the  during the  was c o m p l e t i n g d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  g r a p p l i n g w i t h the i t y Resources  justice  were u n d e r g o i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes.  Human R e s o u r c e s D e p a r t m e n t ,  of the P r o j e c t ,  st  to the P r o j e c t ,  the  problem of s e t t i n g  Boards.  Project.  first  phase  of s e r v i c e s  up r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  I n 1975, many a r e a R e s o u r c e s  a n d s o t h e r e was no one t o  For  Commun-  Boards  designate s t a f f  M e n t a l H e a l t h teams w e r e a l s o b e i n g  to  had s p l i t i t s  lackassi-  establ-  i s h e d and t h e B . C . C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h ( p r o v i n c i a l p r o b a t i o n parole)  and  Community S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n i n t o two  and sect-  i o n s - - A d u l t P r o b a t i o n and J u v e n i l e P r o b a t i o n - - and t h e s e sections  were d e c e n t r a l i z i n g w i t h i n t h e  The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  a p o l i c y of the  establish  Project  of p r o v i n c i a l agencies  New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y  delivery of s o c i a l services  area. was t h e  (NDP) g o v e r n m e n t  result to  a t . t h e neighbourhood  level  -  and,  i n the  case o f the  59 -  Community R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s , t o  community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e fact  t h a t the  setting  CRBs w e r e a t t e m p t i n g  *political'  attempting to s a t i s f y the government's  a t i o n p o l i c y and t h e ity,  expectations  makes i t u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  it  When t h e S o c i a l the agencies,  The  role,  that  community p a r t i c i p -  h a d c r e a t e d i n t h e commun-  t h a t a major c o n c e r n o f the  was w i t h p u t t i n g t h e i r own h o u s e i n  of  of s o c i a l p o l i c y .  t o cope w i t h a new o r g a n i z -  a t i o n a l s e t t i n g a n d w e r e enmeshed i n a is,  promote  CRBs  order.  C r e d i t P a r t y was e l e c t e d i n December 1975,  e s p e c i a l l y t h e R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s , f a c e d a new s e t  circumstances.  The e l e c t e d Community R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s w e r e  d i s b a n d e d i n F e b r u a r y 1976, a n d t h e m a n a g e r s Boards were changed.  Resources  M o r e o v e r , t h e r e was c o n c e r n o v e r  cuts w h i c h were expected t o r e s u l t t h e r e was a h i g h d e g r e e  in staff  budget  reductions.  In a l l ,  of uncertainty within a l l agencies,  w i t h i n the P r o j e c t i t s e l f .  I t was n o t  would o b t a i n the funds n e c e s s a r y t o 1, 1976 t o M a r c h 31, 1977 p e r i o d . b u d g e t was r e v i s e d a n d i t a t i o n program.  o f most  c e r t a i n that the  cover expenses I n the  end t h e  and  Project  f o r the  April  Project's  c u r t a i l e d i t s planned public  inform-  T h i s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h w h a t was h a p p e n i n g  t h e p u b l i c a n d i n t e r n a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o g r a m s o f most  to  agencies  32 involved i n the It  Project.  i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e p o l i c e were a n x i o u s  about the  effects  of the  change i n g o v e r n m e n t .  w i t h p o l i c e members t o w a r d t h e  end o f t h e P r o j e c t i n d i c a t e d t h a t  t h e y p e r c e i v e d a change i n a t t i t u d e after ing  among P r o j e c t  t h e g o v e r n m e n t c h a n g e d i n 1975.  o f t h e p o l i c e was t h a t t h e  My i n t e r v i e w s •:  participants  P r i o r to t h i s ,  the  feel-  NDP g o v e r n m e n t was s u p p o r t i v e o f  police initiatives  60  -  t o promote b e t t e r p o l i c e - c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s  and  t o improve s e r v i c e .  NDP  M i n i s t e r s w e r e a p p r o a c h a b l e and  representatives. NDP  ( t h e B.C.  Act, and  1974; the  t o be  long  the  f e e l i n g also existed that  Moreover, the  P o l i c e Act,  and  B.C.  The  1974;  establishment  P o l i c e College)  would l i s t e n to p o l i c e  l e g i s l a t i v e steps  t a k e n by  the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e B.C.  One  the  of J u s t i c e  P o l i c e Commission  were c o n s i d e r e d  overdue, p o s i t i v e a c t i o n s .  e x p r e s s e d h i s c o n c e r n s as  the  by my  respondents  senior police  officer  follows:  P o l i c e m a n : " The NDP was s t a r t i n g i n t o an e n t i r e l y new s i t u a t i o n , w i t h l o t s o f f l u r r y and c o m m o t i o n , and because of t h i s - i n d i c a t i n g a l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l - t h e y w e r e doomed t o f a i l u r e . I don't d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e i r b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y , but t h e i r methods. In t h i s s e n s e the' S o c r e d s [ S o c i a l C r e d i t ] a r e more r e s p o n s i b l e - c o n s c i o u s o f b u d g e t and c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The p r o b l e m i s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o [gain.] a c c e s s [ t o ] them! Interviewer:  How  does t h i s a f f e c t t h e  police?  Policeman: I t w i l l a f f e c t the r e s o u r c e s a t our d i s p o s al^ F o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h we h a v e l e s s c r i m e on a s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s , does t h i s mean t h a t we s h o u l d s a c r i f i c e r e s o u r c e s j u s t b e c a u s e we seem t o be more e f f e c t i v e , o r a r e o u r r e s o u r c e s g o i n g t o k e e p on i m p r o v i n g ? I f we r e d u c e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , w h e r e i s t h e p r e v e n t ive action? [Team p o l i c i n g i s a p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n p r o g r a m . ] . . . T h e r e has b e e n a p u l l i n g b a c k due t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n g a i n i n g access [ t o the government] - t o k n o w i n g w h a t i s r e a l l y g o i n g on. I sense w i t h i n our own d e p a r t m e n t t h a t we a r e d r a w i n g b a c k . I t ' s more ~~ s a t i s f y i n g when t h e r e i s hope o f a c h i e v e m e n t . The  f e e l i n g t h a t achievement of goals  ause of the u n c e r t a i n t y  created  l i k e l y p o l i c y changes o f t h e the  commitment o f b o t h t h e  new  by  the  was  change o f government  g o v e r n m e n t may  a g e n c i e s and  less likely  have  the p o l i c e .  becand  influenced I t can  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p o l i c e commitment t o t h e P r o j e c t p e r  se  be  - 61 lessened  a s VPD  began t o c o n c e n t r a t e  team p o l i c i n g and operation.  l e s s on t h e  I t i s important,  development  development of i n t e r - a g e n c y t h e n , t o t u r n t o an  of the team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l VI.  more on t h e  and  program i n the  of  co-  examination next s e c t i o n .  TEAM P O L I C I N G F r u s t r a t i o n over the P r o j e c t ' s slow r a t e of progress  d e f i n i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s and a team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l .  program f o s t e r e d the The  proposal  was  ision  d i r e c t i o n of the  and  a policeman  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f VPD's P a t r o l  (the Chairman of the M . C . C ) .  t e d i n A p r i l 1975  development  p r e p a r e d by t h e  i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of t h e P r o j e c t i n h i s r o l e as under the  in  Assand  Div-  The  proposal,  first  l a t e r r e v i s e d , was  entitled:  Proposed  Team P o l i c i n g C o n c e p t : V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t .  It  of  presen-  provided  a r a t i o n a l e f o r development of a team p o l i c i n g e x p e r i m e n t w i t h i n the  Project: The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t i s c h a r g e d w i t h c r e a t i n g a s y s t e m o f d e l i v e r i n g p o l i c e and other s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e community i n t h e most e f f i c i e n t manner p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t p o l i c i n g s y s t e m i s n o t a s a t i s f a c t o r y v e h i c l e to d e l i v e r the desired s e r v i c e . I t l a c k s d i r e c t i o n and f l e x i b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h an "~, e f f e c t i v e l i a i s o n with other s o c i a l agencies. . Parkinson  policing  s u g g e s t s a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r p r o p o s i n g a team  experiment: I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s r e l e v a n t that the [ p o l i c e ] Department had j u s t b e e n g r a n t e d a v e r y l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n manpower and was c o m m i t t e d t o u s i n g t h a t s t r e n g t h t o do s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t . The C h i e f C o n s t a b l e s a i d , " A t t h e t i m e a n i n c r e a s e was g r a n t e d by C o u n c i l t h e y made i t p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t o me t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e was ,r n o t g r a n t e d on t h e b a s i s o f 'more o f t h e same'."  - 62 The p r o p o s a l d e s c r i b e d w h a t was meant b y 'team its  o b j e c t i v e s , a n d how i t was t o b e i m p l e m e n t e d .  was d e f i n e d a s , " t h e a s s i g n m e n t  policing', Team p o l i c i n g  o f a t e a m o f p o l i c e members  under a team l e a d e r t o a s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a r e a f o r w h i c h t h e t e a m b e a r s 24 h o u r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l c r i m e a n d r e l a t e d problems.  I t i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e team c o n c e p t t h a t as  many p o l i c e f u n c t i o n s a s p o s s i b l e b e d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o t h e team a r e a . " ^  The u s e o f t h e w o r d  i m p l y t h a t an e n t i r e group  'team' was n o t meant t o  o f p o l i c e m e n would work t o g e t h e r  a t t h e same t i m e a n d i n t h e same a r e a .  However, t h e t e r m  'team p o l i c i n g ' was o r i g i n a l l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e s u c h a n approach. The t e r m Team P o l i c i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n A b e r d e e n , S c o t l a n d t o d e s c r i b e a new p r o g r a m b e g u n i n response t o t h e low morale of s i n g l e o f f i c e r s p a t r o l l i n g quiet streets. With the creation o f teams o f f i v e t o t e n men, t h e m o n o t o n y a n d 0 7 i s o l a t i o n o f t h e p a t r o l m a n was r e l i e v e d . Another t y p e o f program, i n v o l v e d a s s i g n i n g a group  a l s o developed i n Great  of patrolmen t o a s p e c i f i c  I t was c a l l e d t h e U n i t B e a t S y s t e m  Britain, area.  a n d i t made i t p o s s i b l e  f o r p o l i c e m e n , " t o share i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e a r e a and, t h u s , 38 s o i t i s a r g u e d , make b e t t e r u s e o f t h e i r l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . " The p o l i c e m e n i n t h i s s y s t e m d i d n o t w o r k a s a 'team' i n t h e s e n s e o f a l l b e i n g on p a t r o l a t t h e same t i m e . U n i t Beat System systems  t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e model f o r team  developed i n North America.  Aberdeen.  I t was t h i s policing  The name was p r o v i d e d b y  - 63 The  f i r s t well  known team p o l i c i n g s y s t e m was d e v e l o p e d  . in  S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k ,  the  terms  policing  i n 1968.  'community p o l i c i n g '  were sometimes u s e d . systems  were c o n s i d e r e d  39 However, i n o t h e r  cities  o r ' n e i g h b o u r h o o d team p o l i c i n g '  W h a t e v e r t h e name, N o r t h A m e r i c a n  exhibited  some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  team which  i n the d e s i g n o f a system f o r Vancouver:  (1) G e o g r a p h i c s t a b i l i t y o f p a t r o l , i . e . . r e l a t i v e l y permanent a s s i g n m e n t o f personnel t o a neighbourhood. ( 2 ) Maximum  i n t e r a c t i o n among Team members.  ( 3 ) Maximum c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t h e community.  among Team members  ( 4 ) U n i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n . [ A l l team members s u p e r v i s e d b y one p e r s o n , t h e team l e a d e r . ] (5) L o w e r - l e v e l f l e x i b i l i t y i n p o l i c y - m a k i n g , i . e . t h e Team i s a b l e t o c a r r y o u t i t s own operational decisions. (6) U n i f i e d d e l i v e r y o f s e r v i c e s , i . e . t h e Team has c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d e l i v e r y o f a l l p o l i c e s e r v i c e s i n t h e neighbourhood. ( 7 ) Combined i n v e s t i g a t i v e  and p a t r o l  functions.  ( 8 ) F o r m a l Team c o n f e r e n c e s . ( 9 ) F o r m a l Community c o n f e r e n c e s . (10) Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c e w o r k . (11) Systematicerei.§rra3ilto  s o c i a l agencies.  The VPD team p o l i c i n g p r o p o s a l p o i n t e d s y s t e m h a d combined had (6),  embodied  all.of  t h e s e f e a t u r e s and t h a t  ( 1 1 ) , systematicrr§ferral  unified delivery  out t h a t  of services.  ^  no one  v e r y few  t o s o c i a l agencies, or  " I f we a r e s u c c e s s f u l i n  - 64 the goals will it  of our  [team p o l i c i n g ] P r o j e c t , t h e f i n a l  be u n i q u e t h r o u g h o u t  w o u l d be  unique,  these  e r y o f s e r v i c e s and were i n l i n e w i t h  the  America."^  Whether o r  characteristics, referral  to s o c i a l  o b j e c t i v e s of the P o l i c e could j u s t i f y  unified  the P r o j e c t ' s  Team P o l i c i n g P r o g r a m b e g a n on  manpower complement ranging  January  o f 157  to neighbourhood areas  corresponded  to areas  Board s o c i a l workers. a sergeant,  the a s s i s t a n t  The  members was  Community acceptance  1,  e n s u r e 24  the  s e r v e d by  ( s e e Map  District  No.  two  teams were closely  Resources supervised a corporal,  t h r e e , e e i g h t hour  and  added  shifts.  operations  the I n s p e c t o r i n charge  of  3.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p o l i c e members, two officers,  s i x teams  by  r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i s t r i c t ' s  sergeant,  District's  2) w h i c h  wassassisted  as  L a t e r , a s e c o n d c o r p o r a l was  hour s u p e r v i s i o n over  a staff  No.  The  E a c h team o f c o n s t a b l e s was  team l e a d e r .  officer,  The  teams o f Community  team l e a d e r , who  team l e a d e r was  1976,  divided into  i n s i z e f r o m 19 t o 30 p o l i c e members.  assigned  to  deliv-  agencies,  and  component o f t h e P r o j e c t i n V a n c o u v e r S o u t h .  by  not  proposal.  The a  two  systematic  S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t and of the  North  product  Family  Community M e n t a l  and  Juvenile Probation  H e a l t h w o r k e r s , and  B o a r d s o c i a l w o r k e r s were a s s i g n e d representatives.  I t s h o u l d be  two  Adult  officers,  Community  t o e a c h team as  noted  team.  In f a c t ,  two  Resources liaison  i n passing that Project  documents d e s c r i b e d a l l o f t h e a b o v e a g e n c y and n e l as members o f one  Probation  t h i s was  police not t h e  personcase.  - 65 D u r i n g t h e P r o j e c t , t h e p o l i c e t e a m members a n d t h e a g e n c y l i a i s o n members met f o r t e a m m e e t i n g s e v e r y s i x w e e k s . At t h e s e meetings t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o d i s c u s s ing  and s o c i a l problems i n t h e i r a r e a and develop  t o s o l v i n g them.  police  polic-  approaches  However, a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s  encountered which l i m i t e d f u l l and  current  were  communication between agency  personnel.  When t h e s y s t e m was f i r s t i n s t i t u t e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s b e g a n to express concern over being team'.  They f e l t  considered  part  of a 'police  t h a t t h e p o l i c e were c o n f u s e d about t h e  r o l e s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e workers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the experiment.  The c o n f u s i o n  w a s , i n p a r t , due t o l a c k o f g u i d a n c e f r o m  t h e P r o j e c t w h i c h , as n o t e d i n S e c t i o n the  I I I , had l e f t  i n d i v i d u a l teams t o work o u t p o l i c e - a g e n c y  Parkinson  i t up t o  relationships.  r e c o r d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g comments o f a g e n c y w o r k e r s : R: . . . one o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t g o t u s o f f on t h e w r o n g f o o t r i g h t away was t h e p o l i c e ' s a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e Team i n c l u d e d a l l s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . . . . We're a V.R.B. Team a n d t h e y ' r e t h e c o - o p e r a t e w i t h them I t h i n k t h a t ' s where  [Vancouver Resources Board] p o l i c e Team, a n d w e ' l l b u t w e ' r e n o t t h e same Team. t h e r o l e c o n f u s i o n comes i n .  A second person s a i d : R: I f e e l p a r t o f a c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s t e a m , a l o n g w i t h t h e V.R.B. a n d p o l i c e , b u t n o t p a r t o f t h e p o l i c e t e a m . I t h i n k t h a t i f my c l i e n t e l e saw i t a s a p o l i c e s e r v i c e t e a m I d o n ' t know how • t h a t w o u l d a f f e c t them. Initially, notion  h o w e v e r , t h e P r o j e c t seemed t o p r o m o t e t h e  t h a t p o l i c e and s o c i a l agency p e r s o n n e l were p a r t o f  ?  - 66  the  same t e a m .  In fact, at f i r s t ,  uded t h e s o c i a l agency p e o p l e . more c o n c e r n e d w i t h dominated. usually to  team t r a i n i n g meetings  B u t t h e m e e t i n g s became more a n d  T h i s may h a v e b e e n due t o t h e f a c t t h a t  s e t t h e agenda and had c l e a r l y d e f i n e d  discuss.  incl-  p o l i c e p r o b l e m s a n d , t h u s , came t o be p o l i c e  meetings dealt w i t h  the police  crime problems  There were a t t e m p t s t o develop l i a i s o n  t o p r e p a r e agendas so t h a t the  -  committees  concerns o f both  p o l i c e and t h e a g e n c i e s , but t h e committees were s h o r t - l i v e d .  Finally,  t h e Team M e e t i n g s became P o l i c e Team M e e t i n g s  with  a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d a s r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s when required. Toward t h e end o f t h e P r o j e c t ,  however, a consensus  ed among p o l i c e a n d a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l a s t o how t h e y c o u l d together a t the l i n e  emergwork  level.  T h i s c o n s e n s u s c e n t r e s on t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( 1 ) t h e primary function of the p o l i c e i s t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c e work; (2) i n d o i n g t h a t work, each p o l i c e team s h o u l d e m p l o y management b y o b j e c t i v e a n d p a r t i c i p a t o r y management s t y l e s ; ( 3 ) t h e p o l i c e teams must u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e a g e n c i e s a n d h a v e o p e n l i n e s o f commu n i c a t i o n w i t h them; ( 4 ) w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e t h e p o l i c e s h o u l d r e f e r problems t o t h e a g e n c i e s and i n v o l v e them i n s e e k i n g s o l u t i o n s t o o n g o i n g p r o b l e m s ; (5) where a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e a g e n c i e s s h o u l d keep t h e p o l i c e i n f o r med o f c o m m u n i t y p r o b l e m s a n d i n c l u d e t h e m i n r e s o l - • ~ u t i o n s o f t h o s e problems whenever p o s s i b l e . T h i s c o n s e n s u s p r o v i d e d a f a r more d e f i n i t e , i f l e s s ious,  set of objectives  ambit-  and o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s than those  developed by t h e P r o j e c t .  I t provided a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the  r o l e s o f agencies and t h e p o l i c e , and r e s p e c t e d t h e f u n c t i o n a l autonomy o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . 31,  1977, t h i s r e v e r s i o n  When t h e P r o j e c t  t o informal  ended on M a r c h  co-operation remained i n  - 67 effect.  I t continued  -  t o be f a c i l i t a t e d b y t h e p o l i c e  depart-  ment.-Vs i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a t e a m p o l i c i n g s y s t e m t h r o u g h o u t V a n c o u v e r i n 1977  -  78.  One s e n i o r p o l i c e m a n summed up t h e  p o l i c e p o i n t o f view i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h i s w r i t e r a t t h e end  of the Project: The r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e a g e n c i e s - - t h e y ' r e d e v e l o p i n g now a t t h e l i n e l e v e l [ t e a m l e v e l ] a n d we're w o r k i n g o u r problems o u t . I don't t h i n k we're e v e r g o i n g t o be s h a r i n g t h e same b e d , b u t a t t h e same t i m e w e ' r e g e t t i n g t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e communi t y t o g e t h e r a n d w e ' r e g o i n g t o be a b l e t o , maybe n o t w o r k i n t h e t o t a l t e a m c o n c e p t t h a t we o r i g i n a l l y e n v i s a g e d b e c a u s e i t j u s t d o e s n ' t seem t o w o r k t h a t well. B u t I t h i n k t h a t w e ' r e g o i n g t o be a b l e t o ,, know what t o e x p e c t o f e a c h o t h e r — t h e l i m i t a t i o n s . Within  t h e P r o j e c t , however, t h e consequences o f t h e d e v e l -  opment o f t h e t e a m p o l i c i n g s y s t e m w i t h l i t t l e and  Project  guidance  i n v o l v e m e n t l e f t t h e D i r e c t o r i n a n awkward p o s i t i o n . " B e i n g  a c i v i l i a n he was  entirely outside  of the authority  structure  o f t h e p o l i c e component a n d h i s mandate was u n c l e a r . i b u t i o n had t o t a k e t h e f o r m o f o f f e r i n g a d v i c e , together,  bringing  a n d k e e p i n g management i n f o r m e d . T h i s  t h e p o l i c e component a n d , t h u s , from the P r o j e c t .  meant  people that  team p o l i c i n g were i s o l a t e d  Evidence of t h i s  p e r i o d i n J u n e 1976,  His contr-  i s t h a t , except f o r a b r i e f  P r o j e c t s t a f f d i d n o t meet w i t h t h e t e a m  p o l i c i n g component o f t h e P r o j e c t . "With t h e exception  of the D i r e c t o r , P r o j e c t s t a f f  were  f r e q u e n t l y n o t a w a r e o f w h a t was h a p p e n i n g w i t h t h e p o l i c e e x p e r i m e n t , and d i d n o t have an e f f e c t i v e c h a n n e l t o communicate their activities  to the p o l i c e leaders."  s u c c e s s t h e teams h a d i n d e v e l o p i n g  Therefore,  the  a consensus and a working  -  a r r a n g e m e n t was, v i r t u a l l y ,  -  68  theirs alone.  Moreover, success i n  d e v e l o p i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g a t e a m p o l i c i n g s y s t e m was primarily, to police VII.  THE  due,  efforts.  LEGACY OF THE  PROJECT  The P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t ended on 31,  1977.  We  produced.  are l e f t ,  First,  t h e r e f o r e , t o c o n s i d e r what t h e P r o j e c t  i t s h o u l d be e v i d e n t t h a t t h e P r o j e c t was  not s u c c e s s f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s .  co-operation  However, i t d i d b r i n g t o g e t h e r  p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e s and s o c i a l agency w o r k e r s a t t h e l i n e level.  (team)  T h i s c o n t a c t and t h e d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h ensued l e d t o  d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o n s e n s u s o n how  agencies  and t h e p o l i c e  w o r k t o g e t h e r i n a n i n f o r m a l manner and r e s p e c t e a c h roles.  March  can  other's  To t h e b e s t o f my k n o w l e d g e , t h e p o l i c e a n d s o c i a l  agen-  c i e s c o n t i n u e t o i n t e r a c t i n t h e manner p r e s c r i b e d b y t h e c o n sensus. Wlille the i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t which o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o t h e P r o j e c t , i t i s now b a s e d on g r e a t e r ness o f p o l i c e and agency r o l e s .  aware-  T h i s i n c r e a s e i n awareness  among p o l i c e a n d a g e n c y w o r k e r s may,  t h e n , be c o n s i d e r e d a s a  legacy of the P r o j e c t . A second c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e P r o j e c t p r o v i d e d an o r t u n i t y f o r s i g n i f i c a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change i n t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Department.  t e a m p o l i c i n g was  (team p o l i c i n g )  However, a l t h o u g h i t m i g h t  be s u g g e s t e d t h a t a team p o l i c i n g s y s t e m was P r o j e c t , the evidence presented  opp-  i n this  a legacy of the  chapter i n d i c a t e s that  a p o l i c e - c o n t r o l l e d development w i t h  little  - 69 concrete  a s s i s t a n c e from the P r o j e c t .  o f t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g P r o j e c t was  not  I n d e e d , some members  Committee c o n c l u d e d t h a t  e s s e n t i a l f o r d e v e l o p m e n t and  the  implementation  of  t e a m p o Tl i c x• n g . kl When t h e P o l i c e and  Community S e r v i c e s  o p e d , i t was  expected to provide  an  evaluation  the  elaborate studies  p a p e r s on  another legacy  undertaken.  crime trends  were h a s t i l y put  and  together  l i m i t e d data.  s t u d i e s as t h e  Instead,  two  minor  i n the  T h i s was  not  l a s t few  B.C.  research  months o f t h e  police  Project.  adequate r e s e a r c h  design  the f a u l t of the author of  d a t a were c o l l e c t e d b e f o r e  from the  of  However,  community a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d the  he was  appears t h a t the major reason f o r production pressure  i n the form  of the P r o j e c t were, f o r  B o t h s t u d i e s s u f f e r e d f r o m l a c k of an and  devel-  of the programs i t u n d e r t o o k .  o u t l i n e d at the beginning  t h e most p a r t , n o t  P r o j e c t was  P o l i c e Commission.  hired.  of the  The  the  It  studies  was  Commission t h r e -  atened t o withdraw i t s support f o r the P r o j e c t i f the 1.8  studies  were not  concerned  undertaken.  that nothing  Apparently  the  a t a l l w o u l d come o f t h e  A lengthy  evaluation  C o m m i s s i o n was Project.  o f t h e P r o j e c t was  Project's senior research  officer,  w h i c h was  of the P r o j e c t ' s attempts to  highly c r i t i c a l  inter-agency  co-operation  extensively i n this  and  chapter.  Dr.  p r o d u c e d by  Parkinson.  co-ordination I t i s the  o f t h e P r o j e c t when I p r o v i d e d  vices to i t f o r a short period i n  1976.  own  document develop  been r e f e r r e d  only available  o f t h e P r o j e c t ' s a c t i v i t i e s a s i d e f r o m my ections  has  This  the  to  record  n o t e s and  public information  recollser-  -  70  -  Parkinson's t i t l e f o r his evaluation and  this reflects his opinion  energies ent  t h a t most o f t h e  Project's  were expended i n t r y i n g t o f i g u r e out  Although  ' f i g u r i n g i t out'  the P r o j e c t d i d not  get  results icance  c o u l d be  how  to  implem-  of attempting  of those needs.  And  l o n g e r p e r i o d of time,  n e e d s and  not  be  signif-  overlooked.  t o promote open  i f t h e P r o j e c t had  continued  c o u l d have developed.  operate, at l e a s t informally.  The  how  for a formal  In this  regard  they could best  and  co-  r e s u l t suggests that  s u c h as t h a t a t t h e w o r k i n g  the  discuss-  l i n e teams o f p o l i c e m e n  s o c i a l agency w o r k e r s d i d f i g u r e out  produces the  concrete  i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some f o r m o f  co-operation  p e r s i s t e n t contact  T h u s , when  However, t h e  should  step,  a g e n c y o f f i c i a l s became a w a r e o f  i s i n s t r u c t i v e to note t h a t the  and  step.  significant,  t o f i g u r e i t out  need t o c l a r i f y i n t e r - a g e n c y  inter-agency  no  the  a necessary f i r s t  directly credited to i t .  l e a s t s e n i o r p o l i c e and  ion  was  f a r beyond t h a t f i r s t  t h e P r o j e c t e n d e d i n M a r c h 1977,  it  Out,  c h a n g e i n e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a g e n c i e s and  police.  At  i s Figuring I t  close  (line)  level  i n t e n s i t y of communication r e q u i r e d t o f i g u r e i t  out. A l t h o u g h not  a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e P r o j e c t , i t must  n o t e d t h a t t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e Department p r o d u c e d an  be  evaluat-  ion  o f t h e Team P o l i c i n g Component o f t h e P r o j e c t i n 1976.  It  was  p r e p a r e d by I n s p e c t o r  of  District  No.  3»  which contained  E.  Lister,  the  o f f i c e r i n charge  L i s t e r produced a d e t a i l e d t e c h n i c a l  evaluation  a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on how  implement team p o l i c i n g i n t h e t h r e e  other Vancouver p o l i c e  to  districts,  71  -  w i t h no a d d i t i o n a l manpower a n d a t r e l a t i v e l y l o w  49 ; cost.  VPD a c t e d  on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  and t h e department 1977.  was o f f i c i a l l y c o m m i t t e d t o a t e a m p o l i c i n g s y s t e m i n The in  s y s t e m was i m p l e m e n t e d 1978.  chapter  throughout t h e C i t y o f Vancouver  C l e a r l y , however, t h e i n f o r m a t i o n shows t h a t t h e V a n c o u v e r  contained  i n this  t e a m p o l i c i n g s y s t e m was a  r e s u l t of p o l i c e i n i t i a t i v e s and not a r e s u l t o f t h e P r o j e c t . I n d e e d , i t c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t c o n f u s i o n w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t l e f t t h e Vancouver  and u n c e r t a i n t y  P o l i c e Department  with  no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o s e t i t s own d i r e c t i o n s a n d r e s p o n d t o i t s own c o n c e r n s .  Even i f t h e P r o j e c t had continued  successful i n developing  formal  inter-agency  and had been  co-operation, i t  seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e t e a m p o l i c i n g s y s t e m w o u l d h a v e t a k e n t h e same f o r m .  I t c a n be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  o r i t y s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p o l i c e department  and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  r o l e o f t h e policeman which often requires secrecy,  would  the  d e g r e e t o w h i c h s o c i a l w o r k e r s a n d p o l i c e m e n c o u l d be  ant  c o - w o r k e r s , t h a t i s , p a r t o f t h e same t e a m .  likely  t h a t communication  on s o c i a l p r o b l e m s  would have been i n c r e a s e d and perhaps  auth-  limit const-  However, i t i s  r e l a t e d t o crime  formalized.  - 72 -  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER THREE  The f i r s t w e l l known p r o g r a m was d e v e l o p e d i n S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k , i n 1 9 6 8 . O t h e r n o t e w o r t h y p r o g r a m s w e r e l a t e r d e v e l o p e d i n L o s A n g e l e s , D a y t o n ( O h i o ) , New Y o r k C i t y a n d R o c h e s t e r (New Y o r k ) . See D.K. W a s s o n , C o m m u n i t y - b a s e d P r e v e n t i v e P o l i c i n g : A R e v i e w ( T o r o n t o : J o h n D. C r a w f o r d & Co., 1 9 7 5 ) . 2 P a r k i n s o n , p . 31* 3 D i v e r s i o n i s a t e r m used t o d e s c r i b e programs o r a c t i o n s of t h e p o l i c e o r other j u s t i c e system agencies which d i v e r t offenders out o f t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system. I t a l s o describes t h e use o f sanctions other than imprisonment. I n sum, i t i m p l i e s r e s t r a i n t i n t h e u s e o f t h e c r i m i n a l l a w . For a f u l l d e f i n i t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of d i v e r s i o n see: Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n o f C a n a d a , " W o r k i n g P a p e r No. 7 : D i v e r s i o n " (Ottawa, 1975).  S?he S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t was a n a g e n c y i n s e a r c h of a r o l e because t h e p r o v i n c i a l government had t a k e n o v e r i t s l i n e s e r v i c e s w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e CRBs. I t wanted a r o l e as 'expert a d v i s e r * and t h e P o l i c e Department, a s a c i t y a g e n c y , was a n o b v i o u s c l i e n t . The development o f t h e p r o p o s a l , t h e n , may b e l o o k e d upon a s a c l i e n t - a d v i s e r relationship. However, t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t d i d bring a strong s o c i a l service orientation t o the proposal. 5  P a r k i n s o n , p p . 33 - 3 4 . I b i d . , p p . 126 7  127.  I b i d . , p . 5 4 * P a r k i n s o n n o t e s o n p . 72 t h a t t h e s i g n i n g a r r a n g e m e n t was r e q u i r e d b y t h e J u s t i c e D e v e l o p m e n t F u n d a s a m a t t e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n v e n i e n c e . T h e b u d g e t was $ 5 8 , 8 1 9 f o r A u g u s t 1 , 1975 t o M a r c h 3 1 , 1976 a n d $ 1 1 9 , 9 1 9 f o r t h e p e r i o d A p r i l 1 , 1976 t o M a r c h 3 1 , 1 9 7 7 . F u r n i t u r e and o f f i c e s p a c e w e r e p r o v i d e d b y t h e P u b l i c Works D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. I b i d . , pp. 5 4 - 5 5 .  - 73 g  The P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t No. 1" ( V a n c o u v e r , December 1975), p . i . " ^ P a r k i n s o n , p.  64.  11 "Progress  R e p o r t No. 1,"  p.  9.  12  See P a r k i n s o n , p . 7 8 .  13 Ibid.,  p.  56.  " ^ T b i d . , p p . 56 "'"''ibid., p .  6l.  "^Ibid., 17  60.  p.  "Progress  and  58.  R e p o r t No. 1,"  p p . 7 - 8.  18 P a r k i n s o n , p p . 6l 1 9  Ibid.,  p.  62.  62.  20 W i t h a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n , t h e teams d i d d e v e l o p a p o c k e t s i z e g u i d e i n d i c a t i n g w h i c h a g e n c y was b e s t e q u i p p e d a n d t r a i n e d to deal w i t h s p e c i f i c problem s i t u a t i o n s .  211977.  23 P a r k i n s o n , p p . 63 P a r k i n s o n , p. 70.  64«  22 2 4  2 5  ICboin df .i d, e npt.i a l71.i n t e r v i e w , c i v i l i a n s t a f f member o f P r o j e c t , Ibid.,  p. 7 2 .  Ibid. 2 7  Ibid., Ibid.,  2 9  p.  p. 8 8 .  Ibid.,  p.  Ibid.,  p.  31  73. 69. 65.  f a l l of 1976, By t h e a t t h e o p e r a t i o n s l e v e l o f t h e P r o j e c t was f o c u s s e d o n t h e needs o f t h e p o l i c e . F o r d e t a i l s s e e : P a r k i n s o n , p . $6. D  - 74 32  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d d u r i n g c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e r s i n j u s t i c e s y s t e m and s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies. They were c o n c e r n e d about l o s i n g t h e i r j o b s . In some c a s e s t h e i r f e a r s w e r e w e l l f o u n d e d . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e e n t i r e i n f o r m a t i o n - p u b l i c a t i o n s s e c t i o n of the J u s t i c e Development C o m m i s s i o n was e l i m i n a t e d i n 1976. 33 Confidential interview, police officer, A p r i l 1977. J . L . C r i c h , V. A n d e r s e n , and R. Z i l b e r m a n , " P r o p o s e d Team P o l i c i n g C o n c e p t : V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t " ( V a n c o u v e r , Mimeo., 1975), p. 1. ^ P a r k i n s o n , pp. 127 - 128. I n 1975, Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l a u t h o r i z e d t h e h i r i n g o f 120 new members f o r 197o. S i x t y - f i v e o f t h e s e w e r e a s s i g n e d t o D i s t r i c t No. 3» The t o t a l complement f o r t h e c i t y was t h e n 955 members. 3  ^ C r i c h e t a l . , p.  3«  37 •^'Parkinson, 3 8  I b i d . , p.  3 9  Ibid.  p.  122.  123.  ^Ibid.  A l s o see  ^Crich  e t a l . , p.  Parkinson, 4 3  Ibid.,  p.  p.  C r i c h e t a l . , p.  13.  13. 132.  136.  ^ C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p o l i c e sergeant, March ^Parkinson,  p.  ^Ibid.,  66  4 7  Ibid.,  pp. p.  1977.  66. -  67.  114.  id  ^ The M i n u t e s o f t h e M.C.C. f o r M a r c h 19, 1976, show t h a t t h e B.C. P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n t o o k t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t e v a l u a t i o n was t h e w h o l e r e a s o n f o r t h e P r o j e c t and i t w o u l d n o t s u p p o r t t h e P r o j e c t f o r a f u r t h e r year i f i t d i d not h i r e a r e s e a r c h e r t o c o m p l e t e r e p o r t s on c r i m e t r e n d s and a t t i t u d e s o f c i t i z e n s t o w a r d t h e p o l i c e . M o r e o v e r , t h e C o m m i s s i o n w a n t e d a document t h a t would p r o v i d e a team p o l i c i n g model i t c o u l d recommend t o other p o l i c e f o r c e s i n the Province.  49  E.W. L i s t e r , "Team P o l i c i n g E x p e r i m e n t , F i n a l E v a l u a t i o n R e p o r t : P o l i c e Component" ( V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , Mimeo., December 1976), p. 58.  - 75 -  CHAPTER FOUR OBSERVATIONS AND  I.  INTRODUCTION The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o t e s t t h e hypothesis  sustained, the  CONCLUSIONS  formal  likelihood  co-operation  among p u b l i c a g e n c i e s  o f b e n e f i t s t o each p a r t i c i p a n t .  service co-ordination  i n prevention task  i n this  requires  To do s o we  h a v e e x a m i n e d t h e P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s was t o d e v e l o p a n d f o r m a l i z e i n t e r - a g e n c y  that  Project  co-operation  which and  o f crime and r e l a t e d  social  problems.  The f i r s t  likelihood  of benefit existed f o rthe Project's p a r t i c i p a n t s - -  the p o l i c e , parole, probation, The  benefits considered  c y , new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and/or p o l i t i c a l  and s o c i a l s e r v i c e  here a r e increased and r e s o u r c e s ,  efficien-  o f community  t o s a t i s f y an i d e o -  The s e c o n d t a s k w i l l b e t o d e t e r m i n e i f  o f b e n e f i t was i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e P r o j e c t ' s  to e s t a b l i s h formal  co-operation.  f a i l e d t o sustain formal  co-operation,  to the p a r t i c i p a n t s contributed determine i f l i k e l i h o o d  attempt  However, b e c a u s e t h e P r o j e c t  determine i f t h e absence o r l e s s e n i n g  To  agencies.  operational  the gain  s u p p o r t , and o p p o r t u n i t y  l o g i c a l commitment. likelihood  chapter i s t o determine i f  i t will  be n e c e s s a r y t o  of l i k e l i h o o d  of benefit  to the f a i l u r e . qf benefit t o participants  e x i s t e d we may a s k i f t h e P r o j e c t w a s , i n f a c t ,  necessary t o  - 76 t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i i i i t and, i f so, f o r a c h i e v i n g what o b j e c t i v e s ?  T h i s q u e s t i o n was n o t d e a l t w i t h b y t h e  Project or i t s i n i t i a t o r s . fundamental II.  WAS  However, I b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s a  q u e s t i o n w h i c h must be a d d r e s s e d  here.  A PROJECT NECESSARY?  The p o l i c e h a d d e f i n i t e i d e a s a b o u t w h a t t h e y w a n t e d o u t of  the Project.  Other a g e n c i e s were f a r l e s s c e r t a i n .  The  p o l i c e b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d not p r o v i d e an adequate  crime  p r e v e n t i o n program, as w e l l as c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h e t a s k o f c o n t r o l l i n g crime and d e l i n q u e n c y , w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f s o c i a l agencies and t h e support of the community-at-large. What t h e y d e s i r e d f r o m t h e P r o j e c t was First,  fourfold.  t h e y w a n t e d r e l i a b l e a n d c o n s i s t e n t means t o d i v e r t  j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s , f a m i l y d i s p u t e s and minor (misdemeanours) t o s o c i a l a g e n c i e s .  crime  problems  The p o l i c e f e l t t h a t  were not t r a i n e d t o d e a l a d e q u a t e l y w i t h such problems  they  and t h a t  i n v o k i n g t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d no l o n g - t e r m s o l u t i o n s i n such cases. i l l  a t ease i n s o c i a l  ed t h a t t h e y w o u l d  Moreover,  because t h e p o l i c e  felt  conflict situations, the likelihood  be c r i t i c i z e d  f o rmishandling such  exist-  situati-v  1 ons. to  T h i s l e a d s us t o t h e s e c o n d  improve  desire of the police  t h e image o f t h e p o l i c e i n t h e community.  A n t i - p o l i c e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n t h e 1960s p r o m p t e d  concerns  o v e r t h e image o f t h e p o l i c e i n t h e community as a r e p r e s s i v e force.  I t was f e l t t h a t i f t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t  f i e d as an agency which  was  co-operates w i t h other s o c i a l  identiagencies  - 77 and  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  i t s i m a g e w o u l d be e n h a n c e d .  P r o j e c t was s e e n a s a means o f d o i n g s o .  The C h i e f  Constable  o f t h e V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t v e r i f i e d t h i s on May 1975,  when he s t a t e d t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s b e l i e f t h a t  The  13,  co-operative  p r o j e c t s were e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g : . . . improved p o l i c e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e community and community a t t i t u d e s towards t h e p o l i c e ; . . . t h e opening and m a i n t a i n i n g o f f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e channels o f communication between a l l segments o f t h e p u b l i c and a l l p o l i c e m e n . The  third  their actions  ^  d e s i r e was f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f a g e n c i e s f o r or lack of action.  This r e l a t e s t o the f i r s t  d e s i r e , above, f o r r e l i a b l e d i v e r s i o n systems.  I t was p r o m p t e d  by t h e b e l i e f o f t h e p o l i c e t h a t s o c i a l a g e n c i e s c a n n o t t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y s a y t h e y do. senior policeman  provide  The f o l l o w i n g comment f r o m a  i s typical:  I t ' s not j u s t a lack of t r u s t . I t ' s a lack of b e l i e f t h a t t h e y [ s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e system a g e n c i e s ] a r e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g t h e j o b t h e y c l a i m t h e y c a n do. . . . I f t h e y ' r e so i n c l i n e d , t h e y can l o s e a case and s h r u g t h e i r s h o u l d e r s a n d w a l k away. We c a n ' t a f f o r d t o do t h a t . T h e r e f o r e , i t appeared  t o t h e p o l i c e t h a t making t h e  agencies accountable f o r t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s  i n a formal,  a t i v e e n d e a v o u r , l i k e t h e P r o j e c t , m i g h t make s o c i a l  co-operservices  more r e s p o n s i v e t o p o l i c e n e e d s . The with  f o u r t h n e e d o f t h e p o l i c e was t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t t o do  120 new members.  innovative  Faced w i t h  C i t y Council's  demand f o r  u s e o f t h e new members, t h e p o l i c e saw a p r o j e c t a s  - 78 an the as  excellent opportunity demand.  to devise  a p r o g r a m t o accommodate  However, t h e D e p a r t m e n t was  t o what k i n d o f p r o g r a m s h o u l d I n c o n t r a s t , t h e r e was  no  be  not  certain,  initially,  developed.  d e f i n i t e expression  of need  on  the p a r t of s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies to f o r m a l i z e  co-operation  w i t h the p o l i c e .  s e e n more  a way  C o - o p e r a t i o n i n t h e P r o j e c t was  of i n c r e a s i n g contact  about the  w i t h t h e p o l i c e and  r o l e of the p o l i c e .  Co-ordinator,  "claimed  [ i n t h e P r o j e c t ] by  However, one  t h a t he  had  t h e p o l i c e and  as  l e a r n i n g more  Resources  Board  been asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e that  determined h i s o r i e n t -  ation."^ I n some c a s e s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e P r o j e c t the  team l e v e l  (and  t h i s was  saw  t h e P r o j e c t as a way  at  a l s o a p p a r e n t a t t h e M.C.C. l e v e l )  t o h u m a n i z e and  l i b e r a l i z e the  police  force. F o r e x a m p l e , some t h o u g h t t h a t t h e p o l i c e w o u l d b e g i n t o t r e a t p e o p l e i n a d i f f e r e n t way, and t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e g i n t o b r e a k down t h e m i l i t a r y - l i k e a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e . Some s o c i a l w o r k e r s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y r could c o n t r i b u t e t o the reform of the p o l i c e f o r c e . J u s t i c e system agencies,  however, f e l t  t h e need t o work  more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e p o l i c e t o i m p r o v e e f f i c i e n c y b e c a u s e , " t h e i r c l i e n t s are provide  'created'  by t h e p o l i c e , and  important information  on t h e  the p o l i c e  'adjustment' of  can  their  clients."^ I t may and  be  drawn f r o m t h e  s o c i a l agencies (excluding  probation  and  parole)  above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t the the  c o r r e c t i o n agencies,  were i n t e r e s t e d i n r e f o r m i n g  each  police i.e., other.  - 79 But  t h i s does n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n a w e l l d e f i n e d  need.  However, i t d o e s i n d i c a t e t h a t  c o r r e c t i o n a g e n c i e s c a n be i n c l u d e d ) the  or pressing  everyone (and here t h e shared i n t h e b e l i e f that  e x i s t i n g systems o f p o l i c e s e r v i c e and s o c i a l  service  d e l i v e r y w e r e i n a d e q u a t e a n d t h e r e was a n e e d t o do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t them.  "The i n i t i a l a s s u m p t i o n a p p e a r e d t o b e t h a t  i fa l l  the agency p e o p l e were brought t o g e t h e r [ w i t h t h e p o l i c e ] , 7  something would happen."  There was, t h e n , a l i k e l i h o o d o f  b e n e f i t , b u t e x a c t l y what k i n d  o f b e n e f i t was unknown, a t l e a s t  to the s o c i a l service agencies.  But the p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s t o  the p o l i c e , noted above, were q u i t e III.  clear.  OBJECTIVES AND PERCEPTIONS When t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s a n d t h e p o l i c e a g r e e d t o c o - o p e r -  ate  i n t h e P r o j e c t , t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g  Committee  a t t e m p t e d t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on a r e a s where c o - o p e r a t i o n be  b e n e f i c i a l or productive.  perceptions  However, b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r y i n g  o f members, t h e o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g e x e r c i s e  t o be f r u s t r a t i n g and u n p r o d u c t i v e . d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e A p r i l 1975, given At  the length  this point  might  The s e t s  proved  of objectives  were f a r t o o b r o a d t o a c t upon  of the Project  and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e .  t h e p o l i c e again took t h e i n i t i a t i v e and focus-  s e d a t t e n t i o n on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e a m p o l i c i n g , a s y s t e m t h a t w o u l d complement c h a n g e s w h i c h h a d b e e n made i n t h e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y systems o f t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e system agencies. A g a i n t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t was r a i s e d a n d a g e n c i e s  - 80  -  committed p e r s o n n e l t o work w i t h t h e p o l i c e a t t h e l i n e (i.e.,  a t t h e neighbourhood team l e v e l ) .  level  However, i t a p p e a r s  t h a t t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e p o l i c e were p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g i n c o n t r o l o f t h e team p o l i c i n g e x p e r i m e n t began t o weaken t h e commitment o f l i n e l e v e l , a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l .  Quite simply,  t h e s e a g e n c y w o r k e r s d i d n o t w a n t t o be i d e n t i f i e d a s members of  a ' p o l i c e ' team, t h a t i s , " n e g a t i v e b e n e f i t s " were a p p a r e n t  to  them. Meanwhile,  the P r o j e c t was-doing  little  to provide assist-  ance t o t h e teams o f p o l i c e and agency w o r k e r s , and  this  r e i n f o r c e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e team e x p e r i m e n t b e i n g p o l i c e directed. the  A l s o , t h e r e was  little  o f consequence  occurring  M.C.C. l e v e l t h a t w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e P r o j e c t  c o n t i n u i n g t o f u n c t i o n as an i n t e r - a g e n c y p r o j e c t . as t h e P r o j e c t s t a r t e d i t s f i n a l y e a r , i t was development B.C.  In fact,  concerned w i t h  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o p a s s on t o o t h e r  departments.  L e f t on t h e i r own, a consensus in  was  o f r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s t o s a t i s f y a demand o f t h e  P o l i c e Commission  police  at  on how  t h e p o l i c e a n d a g e n c y teams r e a c h e d  t o w o r k t o g e t h e r 'whenever p o s s i b l e ' .  r e v e r t i n g t o i n f o r m a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , the p o l i c e and  members made a commitment t o i m p r o v e k n o w l e d g e r o l e s and t o r e s p e c t each o t h e r ' s f u n c t i o n a l I t was  c o n t e n d e d i n C h a p t e r One  g o a l d i v e r s i t y and g o a l c o n s e n s u s  But  agency  o f each o t h e r ' s  autonomy.  t h a t the b a l a n c e between  determines a c t u a l  goal  8 consensus.  I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s b a l a n c e was  team o r l i n e l e v e l .  Consensus  was  reached a t the  r e a c h e d on b r o a d a r e a s s u c h  - B i -  as  i m p r o v i n g awareness of r o l e s .  a u t o n o m y w e r e t o be IV.  and  diversity  and  maintained.  DISTRACTIONS The  i n f l u e n c e of p o l i t i c a l  i n Chapter Three.  On  apparent t h a t the  order  change was  t o accommodate new  can  P r o j e c t had  o n l y be  b e e n c l e a r and  had  t h e y were e x p e r i e n c i n g .  agencies made  However,  the  unaffected. o b j e c t i v e s of  a l s o i n d i c a t e d the  the  likelihood  a g e n c i e s m i g h t have committed them-  t o t h e P r o j e c t as a means o f r e d u c i n g  t h e P r o j e c t , as  briefly  organizations  government p o l i c i e s .  surmised t h a t i f the  o f b e n e f i t t o them, t h e selves  j u s t i c e system  c h a n g e s w i t h i n t h e i r own  p o l i c e were, i n p r a c t i c a l terms, It  discussed  the b a s i s of t h a t d i s c u s s i o n i t i s  s o c i a l s e r v i c e and  were d i s t r a c t e d by in  respected  Functional  the  uncertainty  I n o t h e r words, t h e y c o u l d have u s e d  t h e p o l i c e d i d , t o d e f i n e r o l e s and  w h i c h w o u l d accommodate new  government p o l i c i e s .  v a t i v e S o c i a l C r e d i t g o v e r n m e n t was  objectives  As  the  conser-  l e s s sympathetic to  the  s o c i a l agencies than to the p o l i c e , i t i s suggested t h a t  the  s o c i a l a g e n c i e s c o u l d have used t h e P r o j e c t t o d e v e l o p (  or  t o a p p e a r t o d e v e l o p ) a more c o n s e r v a t i v e operation  of the  omic b e n e f i t s  political ainty  the  s o c i a l s e r v i c e s y s t e m by s t r e s s i n g t h e  (i.e.,  agency co-operation The  approach to  p o l i c e do  e f f i c i e n c y ) t o be and  not  service  derived from  econ-  inter-  co-ordination.  appear t o have been i n f l u e n c e d  change, a l t h o u g h t h e y w o r r i e d  about what the  c r e a t e d w o u l d mean i n t e r m s o f i n c r e a s i n g  social  by uncert-  - 82 discontent.  The comment o f a p o l i c e member o f t h e P r o j e c t  t y p i f i e s t h e p o l i c e a t t i t u d e toward p o l i t i c a l pressure, as p r e s s u r e f r o m s e n i o r  as w e l l  agencies:  I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h e B.C. P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t i s g o i n g t o h a v e anyp a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f commu n i t y and team p o l i c i n g , c e r t a i n l y n o t i n t h e Q sense o f t h e Vancouver P o l i c e Force a t l e a s t . The the  other  ' d i s t r a c t i o n ' which requires  r o l e o f t h e P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r and P r o j e c t  t h e Management C o - o r d i n a t i n g  Committee.  meetings and c o n t r o l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ,  b r i e f m e n t i o n was s t a f f i n impeding  Through t a i l o r i n g of  t h e M.C.C. may h a v e b e e n  d e n i e d ( b u t I t h i n k o n l y i n s m a l l measure) t h e t o o l s and time t o develop a m e a n i n g f u l consensus on o b j e c t i v e s . suggested t h a t ,  confronted  I t c a n be  w i t h t h e M.C.C.'s c o n f u s i o n  objectives, the s t a f f unconsciously  devised  'get through* t h e P r o j e c t .  a strategy  nothing  more t h a n  Also,  outside  t h e p o l i c e a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e and u n a l i g n e d  over t o do  as c i v i l i a n s with the  s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , t h e y may h a v e h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v e l o p i n g effective  communication w i t h both t h e p o l i c e and t h e a g e n c i e s .  Whatever t h e reasons, t h e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c i v i l i a n  staff  made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , a p o l i c e m a n , t o 10 w o r k o u t new o b j e c t i v e s  f o r t h e P r o j e c t and t o take  control  by way o f d i r e c t i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e t e a m p o l i c i n g proposal. V.  TENTATIVE CONCLUSIONS The  l i k e l i h o o d of benefit  c a n t a k e many f o r m s .  I t has been  -  83  -  shown t h a t t h e p o l i c e a n d s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s  perceived  f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y c o - o p e r a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , as e s s e n t i a l and  potentially interesting.  These d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n  were based on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l perspectives. likelihood  Yet these p e r c e p t i o n s denote a b e l i e f i n t h e  o f b e n e f i t , no m a t t e r  how v a g u e .  However, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e b e l i e f s , t h e a g e n c i e s t h e p o l i c e were unable ments.  arrange-  T h e r e f o r e , t h e p o l i c e , w i t h t h e c l e a r e s t n o t i o n o f what  they wished agencies  t o work o u t f o r m a l , c o - o p e r a t i v e  and  t o achieve, took  over t h e P r o j e c t .  The  social  d i d n o t have a c l e a r n o t i o n o f what t h e y w i s h e d  achieve.  to  As a g e n c i e s w i t h d i v e r s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and l e s s  d e f i n e d a u t h o r i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e s t h a n t h e p o l i c e , t h e y may h a v e l a c k e d s t r o n g g o a l c o n s e n s u s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r own s p h e r e o f a c t i v i t y .  The p o l i c e ,  on t h e o t h e r  hand,  have a d e f i n i t e a u t h o r i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e and a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l a w enforcement and crime prevention. it  T h e r e f o r e , when t h e p o l i c e t o o k  became a p p a r e n t  over t h e P r o j e c t ,  t o the s o c i a l s e r v i c e agencies  ar that they stood l i t t l e  i n particul-  chance o f g a i n i n g and a g r e a t  o f b e i n g u s e d b y t h e p o l i c e i n s a t i s f a c t i o n o f 'team objectives.  Thus, w i t h t h e disappearance  b e n e f i t , t h e attempt  chance  policing'  of l i k e l i h o o d of  to formalize inter-agency  co-operation  collapsed. I t i s n o t c l e a r , however, t h a t f o r m a l i n t e r - a g e n c y  co-oper-  a t i o n w o u l d have d e v e l o p e d  i f l i k e l i h o o d o f b e n e f i t had  remain-  ed o r h a d b e e n i n c r e a s e d .  I n t h i s i n s t a n c e we h a v e no way o f  -  84  -  a s s e s s i n g t h i s because t h e P r o j e c t f a i l e d . clear that f o r m a l i t y i n inter-agency in this  simply waited  i t i snot  c o - o p e r a t i o n was r e q u i r e d  c a s e b e c a u s e no one a d d r e s s e d  r o l e o f f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d be.  In fact,  t h e q u e s t i o n o f what t h e I n the P r o j e c t they  f o r some r e v e l a t i o n .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n f o r m a l i t y i n i n t e r - a g e n c y  relations  does work, as d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d p o l i c e and community s e r v i c e teams.  But because these  teams h a d l i t t l e  c h o i c e b u t t o a t t e m p t t o w o r k o u t some c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i . e . , t h e y were i n s t r u c t e d t o t r y t o  working co-operate  by a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y ( t h e p o l i c e and p a r t i c i p a t i n g designated  personnel  f o r e a c h t e a m ) , we a r e l e d t o a s k i f t h e  P r o j e c t w o u l d have succeeded i f f o r m a l e n j o i n e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government? be  o f f e r e d here.  by s e n i o r l e v e l s  agencies  c o - o p e r a t i o n had been The q u e s t i o n c a n o n l y  Another P r o j e c t w i t h c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s imposed o f government might o f f e r an answer.  However,  i n t h e meantime, i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h were showing  results  b e f o r e t h e P r o j e c t s t a r t e d a n d a r e s h o w i n g r e s u l t s now  offer  an  e f f e c t i v e approach t o inter-agency  co-operation.  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER FOUR  The p o l i c e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o s c r u t i n y b y t h e p r e s s , t h e government, and t h e p u b l i c moreso t h a n o t h e r a g e n c i e s . A p o l i c e s e r g e a n t commented t h a t : Day b y d a y w e ' r e o p e n t o e x p o s u r e i n t h e p r e s s . Our f a i l i n g s a r e w r i t t e n u p . F o r i n s t a n c e , w h a t does a s o c i a l w o r k e r have t o produce i n a y e a r ? Do t h e y h a v e , a t t h e e n d o f a y e a r , a n a n n u a l r e p o r t s a y i n g w h a t k i n d o f d e c r e a s e s t h e y ' v e made i n s o c i a l w o r k r e c i p i e n t s . . . o r how many f a m i l i e s t h e y ' v e s a v e d o r how many t h e y h a v e n ' t ? They d o n J t h a v e t h e s e k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s . C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , March  1977.  2 " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t No. 1 , " p . i i . 3C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p o l i c e s e r g e a n t , M a r c h  1977.  ^ "I P a r k i n s o n , p . 85 5, Ibid.,  p p . 198 -  6  Ibid.,  p. 218.  7  Ibid.,  p. 195.  199.  See Downs, p . 2 2 4 * 9 C o n f i d e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w , p o l i c e sergeant, March  1977.  " ^ T h i s a s s e s s m e n t i s b a s e d o n my c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h t h e A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r i n 1976. He e x p r e s s e d deep c o n c e r n o v e r l a c k o f a c t i o n i n t h e P r o j e c t . A t t h e t i m e he a l s o e x p r e s s e d the notion that policemen t y p i c a l l y t r y t o f i l l perceived v a c u u m s , t h a t i s , t h e y w i l l t a k e a c t i o n on a p r o b l e m i f i t a p p e a r s t h a t no one e l s e i s t r y i n g t o come up w i t h a s o l u t i o n ,  CO.  VANCOUVER P O L I C E DEPARTMENT,. D I S T R I C T No. 3, DEPLOYMENT OF P O L I C E TEAMS, 1976.  E a c h Team h a d o n e s e r g e a n t a n d one c o r p o r a l . P o l i c e constables f o r each team were as f o l l o w s : T E A M 31: TEAM 32: TEAM 33: TEAM 34: TEAM 35: TEAM 36:  -  DIAGRAM No.  1:  -  P o l i c e and Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t S t r u c t u r e .  Project  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. {S. 7. 8.  88  Staff  2  clerical  2  research  9.  Vancouver P o l i c e Department S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y of Vancouver Community S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , P r o v i n c i a l C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h J u v e n i l e & Family Branch, P r o v i n c i a l C o r r e c t i o n s Branch J u s t i c e Development Commission, J u s t i c e C o u n c i l s B.C. P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e ( a d d e d i n 1976) Management a r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r R e s o u r c e s B o a r d ( s e c o n d member a d d e d i n S e p t e m b e r , 1976) National Parole Service  * **  L i a i s o n . Minimal contact with Project' A f u l l - t i m e secondment. / / Means n o n - v o t i n g  member.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Ahmed, L a t h e e f N. " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n as Commensalism: A Definition." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, V o l . XXVI, No. 3. S e p t e m b e r 1966, p p . 215 - 216. Allmand, Warren. "Peace and S e c u r i t y : P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e N o t e s . O t t a w a : D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , F e b r u a r y 24, 1976.  Avison, Neville. P a t t e r n s o f Crime i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . V i c t o r i a : B.C. P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n , 1976. Bent, A l a n Edward. The P o l i t i c s o f Law E n f o r c e m e n t . L e x i n g t o n , [ M a s s . J : D.C. H e a t h a n d Co., 1974* B l a u , P e t e r M. " C o - o p e r a t i o n And C o m p e t i t i o n I n A B u r e a u c r a c y The A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . L I X . May 1954, P P . 530 - 535. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P o l i c e A c t . C h a p t e r 64, 1974. [ C o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o n v e n i e n c e o n l y , A u g u s t 1,  1975•]  B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i c e Commission. " B u l l e t i n No. V i c t o r i a : Department o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ,  1." September,  1974.  . " B u l l e t i n No. 3." V i S t o r i a : M i n i s t r y of the Attorney G e n e r a l , S e p t e m b e r 1976. Clifford, William. P l a n n i n g Crime P r e v e n t i o n . [ M a s s . ] : D.C. H e a t h a n d Co., 1976.  Lexington,  C r i c h , J . et a l . " P r o p o s e d Team P o l i c i n g C o n c e p t : V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e Department." Vancouver P o l i c e Department, 4th R e v i s i o n , J u l y 31, 1975. (Mimeo.) Crime and C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e : I s s u e s i n P u b l i c P o l i c y E d s . , J o h n A. G a r d i n e r a n d M i c h a e l . A . M u l k e y . L e x i n g t o n , [ M a s s . ] : D.C. H e a t h a n d Co., 1975. Crime and J u s t i c e i n S o c i e t y . Ed., R i c h a r d B o s t o n : L i t t l e , B r o w n a n d Co., 1972.  Quinney.  Analysis.  - 90  -  Criminal Justice Research. Ed. Emilio Viano. L e x i n g t o n , L M a s s . J : D . C . Heath and C o . , Downs, A n t h o n y . Inside Bureaucracy. B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown and C o . ,  1975.  1967.  Eimicke, W i l l i a m B . P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n a Democratic C o n t e x t : T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e ! Sage P r o f e s s i o n a l P a p e r s i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d P o l i c y S t u d i e s , V o l . 2, S e r i e s n o . 03 - 016, B e v e r l e y H i l l s a n d L o n d o n : S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1974* F e r g u s o n , Thomas F . B . "A Team A p p r o a c h t o P r e v e n t i o n o f J u v e n i l e Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y . " Canadian P o l i c e Chief, V o l . 65, N o . 3« Ottawa: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of C h i e f s of P o l i c e , J u l y 1976. G o e t z , L o t h a r M . C i t i z e n A t t i t u d e s Toward t h e Vancouver. V i c t o r i a : J u s t i c e Development  Police in Commission,  . Team P o l i c i n g a n d C r i m e T r e n d s i n V a n c o u v e r . J u s t i c e Development Commission, 1977. G o l d s t e i n , Herman. P o l i c i n g a Free Society. Ballinger Publishing Co., 1977.  Victoria:  Cambridge,  G r o s m a n , B r i a n A . P o l i c e Command: D e c i s i o n a n d Toronto: Macmillan C o . , 1975.  1977.  [Mass]:  Discretion.  Hagan, JQhn. "The S o c i a l and L e g a l C o n s t r u c t i o n o f C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e : A Study of the Pre-sentencing Process." S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , V o l . 22, N o . 5, J u n e 1975. H i l l i n g , Helen C. "Public Administration: Study, P r a c t i c e , Profession." P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review, V o l . XXVI, N o . 4, December 1 9 6 6 , p p . 320 325. Hogarth, John. "Community R e s p o n s i b i l i t y A M a j o r F a c t o r R e d u c i n g C r i m e . " L i a i s o n , V o l . 2, N o . 4« Ottawa: M i n i s t r y o f t h e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l , May 1976.  in  I s s u e s i n C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e : P l a n n i n g and E v a l u a t i o n . E d s . , Marc R i e d e l and Duncan C h a p p e l l . New Y o r k : P r a e g e r Publishers, 1976. Jorge, Antonio. C o m p e t i t i o n , C o - o p e r a t i o n , E f f i c i e n c y , and Social Organization. Rutherford, [ N . J . ] : F a i r l e i g h Dickinson University Press, 197$. J u s t i c e '75 R e v i e w . General, 1975. Kirkham, George. Enforcement  Victoria:  Department of the  "A P r o f e s s o r ' s S t r e e t L e s s o n s . " Bulletin. W a s h i n g t o n : M a r c h 1974,  Attorney F B I Law p p . 15-  20.  -  91  -  Koenig, Daniel J . B r i t i s h Columbians' A t t i t u d e s and Experi e n c e s R e l e v a n t t o t h e P o l i c e , Law a n d C r i m e . Victoria: J u s t i c e Development Commission, 1974. K o v e r m a n , R o b e r t B. "Team P o l i c i n g : An A l t e r n a t i v e t o T r a d i t i o n a l Law E n f o r c e m e n t T e c h n i q u e s . " J o u r n a l o f P o l i c e S c i e n c e a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , V o l . 2 , No. 1 , 1 9 7 4 • Law  R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n o f C a n a d a . S t u d i e s On D i v e r s i o n : E a s t Y o r k Community Law R e f o r m P r o j e c t . Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1 9 7 5 .  L i s t e r , E.W. "Team P o l i c i n g E x p e r i m e n t , F i n a l E v a l u a t i o n R e p o r t : P o l i c e Component." V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t , December 1 9 7 6 . (Mimeo.) Lyon, Vaughan. "The Community R e s o u r c e s B o a r d s o f B r i t i s h Columbia: A P r e l i m i n a r y E v a l u a t i o n . " Paper prepared f o r t h e Annual Meeting o f t h e Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Q u e b e c C i t y , May 3 0 , 1 9 7 6 . M i l l e t , J o h n D. Organization f o r the Public Service. P r i n c e t o n , [ N . J . J : D. V a n N e s t r a n d Co., 1 9 6 6 . Parkinson, Gary. F i g u r i n g I t O u t : An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t . Victoria: Justice Development Commission, 1977. Peace and S e c u r i t y : P r o t e c t i o n A g a i n s t V i o l e n t Crime: E x p l a n a t o r y Not e s . O t t a w a : D e p a r t m e n t s o f J u s t i c e a n d t h e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l o f Canada, 1 9 7 6 . P o l i c e a n d Community S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t . V a n c o u v e r , December 1 9 7 5 . .  " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t No. 2 . "  " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t No.  Vancouver, A p r i l  1."  1976.  Project Star. The I m p a c t o f S o c i a l T r e n d s o n C r i m e a n d C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e . C i n c i n n a t i : Anderson-Davis, 1976. Q u i n n e y , R. C r i t i q u e o f L e g a l O r d e r . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown a n d Co., 1 9 7 4 . Ruchelman, L e o n a r d . P o l i c e P o l i t i c s : A Comparative Study o f Three C i t i e s . Cambridge, [Mass.J: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1974. Self.f P e t e r . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e T h e o r i e s a n d P o l i t i c s : An I n q u i r y i n t o t h e S t r u c t u r e and P r o c e s s e s o f Modern Government. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1973•  S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l o f Canada. "The R o l e o f t h e P o l i c e m a n . " P r o c e e d i n g s o f C o n f e r e n c e 'A' on t h e P o l i c e F u n c t i o n i n Our C h a n g i n g S o c i e t y . Ottawa: M i n i s t r y o f t h e S o l i c i t o r General, 1972. —. "The S e l e c t i o n a n d T r a i n i n g P r o c e e d i n g s o f C o n f e r e n c e ' B',  of the Policeman." 1972.  "Research, and Communication." Conference  f  C»,  Proceedings o f  1973.  S p i e r s , Maurice. Techniques and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . London: M a r t i n R o b e r t s o n - F o n t a n a / C o l l i n s , 1975. Thompson, V i c t o r A.  Bureaucracy and I n n o v a t i o n .  University,[Ala.J:  University  o f Alabama P r e s s ,  1969.  T o d o r , W i l l i a m D. A S u r v e y o f M u n i c i p a l P o l i c e Management i n B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : B.C. P o l i c e C o m m i s s i o n ,  1975.  U n i t e d Way o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . "Monograph 1: C i t i z e n Requests f o r S e r v i c e and Vancouver P o l i c e Department Response." The S o c i a l S e r v i c e R o l e o f t h e P o l i c e : Domestic C r i s i s Intervention"! Vancouver, January 1976. Vancouver P o l i c e Department. . Annual Report,  Annual Report,  1970.  1971.  . A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1972. . A n n u a l Report, 1973.  •  . Annual Report,  1974.  . Annual Report,  1975.  . " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad,  Annual Report,  . " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad,  Annual Report,  . " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad,  Annual Report,  .  " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad,  Annual Report,  . " Y o u t h P r e v e n t i v e Squad,  Annual Report,  1966." (Mimeo.) 1967." (Mimeo.) 1969." (Mimeo.) 1970." (Mimeo.) 1972." (Mimeo.)  Wamsley, G a r y L . a n d M a y e r N. Z a l d . T h e P o l i t i c a l Economy o f P u b l i c O r g a n i z a t i o n s : A C r i t i q u e and Approach t o the Study of P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . L e x i n g t o n , L M a s s . J : D.C. H e a t h and Co.,  1973.  - 9 3 W a s s o n , D.K. Toronto: Who  Community-Based P r e v e n t i v e P o l i c i n g : A J o h n D. C r a w f o r d and Co., 1975.  Review.  R u l e s The P o l i c e ? Ed., L e o n a r d Ruchelman. New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 •  W h i t e , M i c h a e l J . Management S c i e n c e i n F e d e r a l A g e n c i e s : The A d o p t i o n and D i f f u s i o n of a S o c i o - T e c h n i c a l Innovation"! L e x i n g t o n , |_Mass. J : D.C. H e a t h and Co., 1975. W i l s o n , James Q. T h i n k i n g About Crime. New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1975.  PUBLICATIONS: F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. " A c t i v i s m I n The A r t s , " i n P r o f e s s i o n a l R e a d i n g , L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , V o l . 96, No. 2, J a n u a r y 15, 1971. New Y o r k : R.R. B o w k e r , p . 174. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. "A Team A p p r o a c h t o P r e v e n t i o n o f J u v e n i l e Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y . " Canadian P o l i c e C h i e f , V o l . 65, No. 3, J u l y 197o. Ottawa: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i e f s o f P o l i c e , p p . 17 - 18 a n d 3 0 . F e r g u s o n , Thomas. D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 1, N o s . 1-3 and V o l . 2, No. 1. D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n P l a n n i n g Group, M i n i s t r y o f Education, B r i t i s h Columbia. B u r n a b y : P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l M e d i a C e n t r e , 1977 - 78. F e r g u s o n , Thomas. D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 2, No. 2. V i c t o r i a : I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s , B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Education, A p r i l 1978. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. L e a d i n g W e s t : S t o r i e s o f t h e N o r t h West M o u n t e d P o l i c e . T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e : " G u i d e s a n d Guardians." Burnaby: P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media Centre, 1976. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. L e a d i n g W e s t : S t o r i e s o f t h e N o r t h West M o u n t e d P o l i c e . T e a c h e r s ' G u i d e : " E v e r y m a n ' s Law." Burnaby: P r o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Media Centre, 1976. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. " L i b r a r i e s - A New V i e w V i a T e l e v i s i o n . " M e t a n e w s , V o l . " 3, No. 9. Toronto: M e t r o p o l i t a n Educati o n a l T e l e v i s i o n , May 1970. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. P l a n n i n g Y o u r F u t u r e . C o u r s e w o r k b o o k f o r c a r e e r p l a n n i n g course p r o v i d e d by newspaper. V a n c o u v e r : B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1978. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. " P l a n n i n g Y o u r F u t u r e . " The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , one f u l l p a g e e a c h T u e s d a y , M a r c h 7 t o J u n e  20, 1978.  F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. "The P u b l i c L i b r a r y i n t h e W i r e d C i t y . " Unpublished paper presented t o t h e Canadian E d u c a t i o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e , Edmonton, A l b e r t a , J u l y 1971. Toronto: Toronto P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , 1971. F e r g u s o n , Thomas F.B. "The R o l e o f P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s i n D i s s e m i n a t i o n of I n f o r m a t i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E l e c t r o n i c and Micro-Image E d u c a t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s . " Unpublished paper p r e p a r e d f o r Toronto P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s and p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Canadian C o u n c i l f o r Research i n E d u c a t i o n , Ottawa, November 1970.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0100221/manifest

Comment

Related Items