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The physical limitations to vegetation establishment of some southern British Columbia mine waste materials Morton, James William 1976

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THE PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS TO VEGETATION ESTABLISHMENT OP SOME SOUTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA MINE WASTE MATERIALS by JAMES WILLIAM MORTON B.Sc, Carleton University, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Dept. of SOIL SCIENCE) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April , 1976. In p re sent ing t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion fo r ex ten s i ve copying o f t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r ep re sen ta t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t he s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n permi s s ion . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 I ABSTRACT Vegetation establishment on mine wastes is ultimately limited by the edaphic properties of the wastes. This thesis examines, charact-erizes and interprets the physical properties of some southern British Columbia mine wastes:- to elucidate the feasibility of various recla-mation procedures. Vaste areas, including both mill tailings, rock dumps and adjacent natural soils are characterized. The project primarily addresses three areas in British Columbia affected by sulfide mining activities; the Princeton area, the Highland Valley area and the Kimberley area. Waste materials examined were de-rived from the Similkameen, Copper Mountain, Lornex, Bethlehem and Sullivan mines. Minor examination of the now revegetated Jersey Mine tailings located near Salmo, B.C. was also included. Field work involved mapping waste materials and natural soils and then systematically sampling the various units delineated. Laboratory methods were employed to define and compare the properties of samples collected. Limited water storage capacity was found to be a major problem in waste rock dump material. Mill tailings were found to have acceptable available water storage capacities. Some mill tailings may have aeration porosity deficiencies when wet. Cation exchange capacities, while usually adequate in waste rock dump materials, are sometimes very low in mill tailings; a factor that will present serious f e r t i l i t y problems in revegetation. Some adjacent coarse coniferous forest soils were found to have similar properties to waste rock dump material while some adjacent grass dominated soils were found to have similar properties to the mine tailings. Waste rock dump material appears best suited to eventual revegetation by aborescent species, while mill tailings appear best suited to eventual revegetation by grass or forb species. Soil processes were found to be both active and rapid in both types of waste material. TABLE OF CONTENTS III Section Title Pages Introduction, Literature Review, Materials and Methods 1 - 16 Mine Waste Materials of the Princeton Area (Similkameen Mine and Copper Mountain Mine) 1 7 - 3 3 Mine Waste Materials of the Highland Valley-Area. (Bethlehem Mine and Lornex Mine) 54 - 49 Mine Waste Materials of the Kimberley Area (Sullivan Mine) 50 - 68 Jersey Mine Tailings (Salmo, B.C.) 69 - 72 6 7 Conclusions and Biscussion Bibliography Appendix 75 - 78 79 - 82 83 - 116 IV LIST OP TABLES Table T i t l e Page Description of Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dumps. Description of Copper Mountain Tailings. 21 II Particle Size Analysis - Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dumps.,: 22 III Particle Density and Bulk Density of Similkameen Mine, Bethlehem Mine, and Lornex Mine Waste Materials. IT Summary of the Physical Properties of the Similkameen Mine, Waste Rock Dumps, Copper Mountain Tailings and Adjacent Soil Sites. 29 30 V Description of Bethlehem Mine Waste Rock Dumps. Descritpion of Lornex Mine Waste Rock Dumps. 57 VI Particle Size Analysis - Lornex and Bethlehem Mine Waste Rock Dumps. 5^ VII Summary of Physical Properties of the Bethlehem Mine and Lornex Mine? Waste Rock Dumps and Tailings and Adjacent Soil Sites. 46 VIII Description of Sullivan Mine Iron Tailings IX Description of Sullivan Mine Siliceous Tailings -*5 X Particle Size Analysis - Sullivan Mine Tailings 62 LIST OP TABLES Ti t l e Bulk Density and Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements of Sullivan Mine Tailings Particle Density - Sullivan Mine Tailings. Summary of the Physical Properties of the Sullivan Mine Tailings Materials and Adjacent Soil Sites. Description of Jersey Mine Talings (Canex Mine) Physical Properties - Jersey Mine (Canex Mine). VI LIST OP FIGURES Figure T i t l e Page 1 Location of Study S i t e s 9 2 Water Retention Curve - Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dumps 24 3 Water Retention Curve - Copper Mountain T a i l i n g s . 25 4 Water Retention Curve - Bethlehem Mine Waste Rock Dumps. 41 5 Water Retention Curve - Lornex Mine Waste Rock Dumps. 42 6 Diagram of Undisturbed Non-Vegetated S u l l i v a n Mine Iron T a i l i n g s . 58 7 Diagram of S u l l i v a n Mine S i l i c e o u s T a i l i n g s . 59 8 Water Retention Curve - S u l l i v a n Mine Iron T a i l i n g s . 56 9 Water Retention Curve - S u l l i v a n Mine S i l i c e o u s T a i l i n g s . . 57 10 Water Retention Curve # Jersey Mine (Canex Mine) T a i l i n g s . 69 LIST OF PLATES T i t l e M i l l T a i l i n g s ( S u l l i v a n Mine) and Waste Rock Dump (Lornex Mine). Milkweed Invading Waste Rock Dump (Similkameen Mine) Sandy Loam Textured M i l l T a i l i n g s (Copper Mountain Mine). Sample S i t e s - Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dumps. Forbs Invading Waste Rock Dump (Bethlehem Mine). Sample P i t i n Waste Rock Dump (Bethlehem Mine). Sample S i t e s - Bethlehem Mine Waste Rock Dumps. Sample S i t e s - Lornex Mine Waste Rock Dumps. Sample S i t e s - S u l l i v a n Mine T a i l i n g s . H o r i z o n a t i o n i n I r o n T a i l i n g s ( S u l l i v a n Mine) Surface Crust on I r o n T a i l i n g s ( S u l l i v a n Mine). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. L.M.Lav.kulich, Professor, Department of Soil Science, for supervision and assist-ance . I must also express gratitude to Pat Dairon, Mark Walmsley and Debbie Nutchey. Many thank to Bernie Von Spindler and Drs. Bomke de Vries, Nagpal and Rowles for advice and help with the project. 1 INTRODUCTION The ultimate objective of this thesis is to outline and interpret the physical properties of mine wastes so as to make the designing of reclamation treatments more effective and realistic. The establishment of vegetation on metal mine tailings has been attempted for many years. Theeabject of i n i t i a l attempts was primarily to stabilize tailings areas to reduce wind erosion and to ensure that water erosion did not threaten the soundness of the tailings dams. Other methods of stabilization, such as the use of chemical polymers or covering materials such as gravel were tried with limited success, (Dean and Havens, 1972) . Stand establishment was realized on only a few areas with most attempts unsuccessful. In general tailings areas proved to be highly "unpalatable" to plant life> By the mid-sixties the mining industry had experienced many changes. High grade low waste underground mines began to be replaced by large, low grade high waste surface mines. Tailings ponds increased in size and large acreages of waste rock material began to accumulate. In British Columbia the need to revegetate mine wastes probably became, and s t i l l i s , more obvious than elsewhere. Traditionally mines were developed in the back country, but from the mid-sixties to the present time, mines have been largely developed in settled areas and are of the surface mine type rather than the smaller underground operations. Surface metal mining leaves three features on the landscape; the 2 tailings, the waste rock dumps and the pit. The pit is to a l l extent beyond the scope of revegetation. Its almost vertical walls and complete absence of fine material preclude establishment of significant plant l i f e . The waste rock dumps and the dried tailings areas, however, by the nature of their material, offer the biotic community a potential foot hold. 3 WASTE ROCK DUMPS Waste rock dumps consist of rock which is too low in grade to be sent to the mill, and overburden, often glacial t i l l , removed from the mining operation. Chemical problems are usually minor unless pyrite or other reduced sulfide content i s very high. The main problem is the large size of the fragments that do not go through the crusher. These fragments may be up to several decimeters or more in diameter. The current method for disposing of this material is to dump i t in depressions off the sides of h i l l s creating waste rock dumps. Resulting dumps may exceed 700 hectares (1500 acres) for an individual mine (Thirgood and Gilmore, 1971) • Some attempt at selective dumping is usually made with coarse material being dumped first followed by fine material or overburden. Traffic from the huge trucks, which may exceed 150 tons gross weight, compact and crush the surface layer on the dump increasing the amount of fine sized material. MILL TAILINGS Tailings are the fine textured by-products of the primary extraction of metaliferious minerals. Ore grade rock goes to the mill where i t is ground and subjected to the milling processes. Generally the lower grade the deposit, the finer the ore must be ground. Some present mines are grinding rock finer than - 400 mesh with the finer products of the grind-ing having particle sizes as low as 0.15 to 0.010 microns (Duncan, 1972). This ground rock is subjected to froth floatation processes and the 4 desired metallic material removed. The undesired silicate gangue minerals and undesired metallic minerals are then pumped as a slurry into the tailings pond. A number of methods are used to create the tailings pond (Klohn, 1972). In British Columbia, because of the topography, tailings ponds are often created by damming a valley and creating an artificial lake. These ponds may take on considerable size. The Lornex pond in the Highland Valley approaches 700 hectares (1500 acres) in size, (Thirgood, Gilmore, 1971)• At the end of the mining operation the water supply is cut off and the tailings pond is allowed to dry up. The end result is an artificial lacustrine-like deposit. The physical properties are usually more favourable to plant l i f e than in the waste rock dumps. Previous Research and Revegetation Attempts Although i t has been suggested that water stress may be the most growth limiting factor (McLennan, 1956) most works in revegetation research have been chemically or vegetatively biased. Good discussions of the chemical properties of mine waste materials are given by Nielson and Paterson (1972) and by Lakulich et al (1975)• Nielson and Paterson acknowledge the importance of physical properties to successful vegetation growth as does Gardiner (1974) of Mined-Land Reclamation-Cominco Ltd.. 5 Most plot type experiments have involved massive fertiliser applications, heavy liming and heavy seeding. These have had limited success but appear to be the most popular contemporary approach. (Gordon, 1969? Weston 1973; Young 1969). Some realization of the importance of retained water is evident by mulching experiments described by Young (1969) and Gordon (1969) at the Copper Cli f f and Hollinger Mine tailings areasin Ontario. The need for irrigation both for stand establishment and to control acidity through leaching techniques has initiated some research into physical properties by South African researchers James and Mrost (1965)» Van Lear (1971) of the United States Forest Service has shown that the texture of coal wastes are critical for the growth of K-31 Tall Fescue* He has shown that a relationship exists between toxicity for plants and textural class in potentially toxic material and that this determines the suocess or failure of stand establishment. Some usage of sewage sludge to provide erosion protection and improve moisture i n f i l -tration into the soil has been described by Capp and Gilmore (1973) and indicates an appreciation for the importance of physical parameters to successful revegetation. Water conservation in the form of snow retaining fences, jet netting and straw mulches have been used by Jacoby (1968) to help retain snow for subsequent water reserves. A good view point of the problem of moisture availability in mining revegetation attempts is given by May (1975)• He points out that at least half of western North America, receives less than 38cm. (15 inches) 6 of precipitation a year and that i n many regions at least 80% of this comes as snow. Losses from runoff and evaporation further reduce this amount. He feels the greatest problem i n revegetating these areas i s the limited moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y for plant growth. This limited moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y also restricts seed germination and seedling estab-lishment. 7 Plate 1 M I L L T A I L I N G S ( S U L L I V A N M I N E ) W A S T E R 0 G K D U M P ( L 0 R N E X M I N E ) 8 Outline of Study As indicated earlier, the physical properties of mine wastes in relation to reclamation in areas of limited available precipitation are probably the most limiting to successful revegetation. This study attempts to characterize the various mine wastes encountered and to relate the mine wastes to the surrounding soils in the study area. Waste materials and adjacent natural soils were mapped in the field after preliminary orientation with existing air photographs and soil survey information. Sampling density of waste materials varied but attempted to ensure statistical significance of the results by including at least one heavily duplicated sample of each waste type. Mine waste rock dump material from the Similkameen Mine and iron tailings material of the Sullivan Mine were heavily sampled for greater statistical significance than other areas with the same waste types and were used as a basis of comparison with waste materials from other areas. One complete sample from each natural soil association mapped within the bounds the study area was collected. Laboratory studies were conducted to define the physical properties of each sample. Interpretations were made on the basis of previous agronomic research and correlations with the properties of adjacent natural soils. 9 Figure 1 1. PRINCETON - Similkameen Mine Copper Mountain Mine 2. HIGHLAND VALLEY - Lornex Mine Bethlehem Mine 3. KIMBERLEY - Sullivan Mine 4. SALMO - Jersey Mine(Canex Mine) 10 Mater ia l s from the Similkameen Mine, Copper Mountain Mine, Lornex Mine and the Bethlehem Mine are somewhat s im i l a r , being derived from low grade su l f ide containing igneous and volcanic rocks. Wastes from these areas are usual ly mi ld l y a l ka l i ne -a l ka l i ne i n reaot ion. Mater ia ls from the Su l l i van Mine are d i s t i n c t , being derived from massive su l f ide containing sedimentary rocks. Wastes from th i s mine are usual ly extremely ac id i n react ion. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sampling rat iona le and preparation Both waste areas and adjacent undisturbed s o i l s i te s were sampled f o r laboratory determinations. Natural s o i l s were sampled according to horizonation to a depth of 100 cm or occurance of rock. Ta i l i ng s mater ials that exh ib i ted apparent hor izonation were sampled s i m i l a r l y . Waste rock dumps were sampled to a depth of 50 cm with samples repres-enting the 0 to 15 cm and 15 cm to 50 cm material being taken. Deeper samples were not taken due to the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n digging deeper p i t s . Large samples of a l l mater ia l less than 100 cm were kept with v i sua l estimates made of greater than 100 cm mater ia l . Natural s i te s were characterized vegetat ively with the hope that t he i r phys ical properties would enable comparative predict ions about the s u i t a b i l i t y of various plant communities f o r the environment of the waste mater ia l s . Some s i te s were sampled i n much greater density than others with 11 the hope that statistical significance might outline subtle pedogenic processes such as illuviation. Where possible undisturbed core samples were taken. Samples were air dried and then carefully rolled with a wooden roller, avoiding the crushing of integral particles. These samples were then sieved through a 2mm sieve with the fine material and coarse fragments both weighed to determine percent fine material. Corrections were made, based on proportions of greater than 100 mm material estimated visually. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS The fine fraction of soil constitutes the most active fraction, both in terms of water and gaseous phenomena and nutritional balance. Particle size distributions were determined by the hydrometer method as outlined by Day(l956) with 30% HgO^  being used to destroy organic matter. A few Sullivan Mine iron tailings samples were treated with citrate dithionite as outlined by Harris and Lavkulich (1972), to remove amorphous iron oxides. Textural classification was made according to the 1950 U.S.D.A. textural classification system. WATER RETENTION The ability of soil to store water for subsequent plant use has long been of considerable interest to agronomists. If water becomes deficient 12 to the metabolism of the plant, dehydration of the protoplasm occurs and with i t retardation of enzymatic, photosynthetic and other l i f e processes of the plant. (Devlin, 1966) I t i s customary to designate the available water storage capacity (A.W.S.C.) as the amount of water the s o i l i s able to provide between Field Capacity Tension and Permanent Wilting Point Tension. Field Capacity Tension i s the tension at which the drainage rate from the rooting zone has dropped to a low value and Field Capacity then i s the water content of a s o i l at this tension. Permanent Wilting Point Tension i s the tension at the lower limit of the available water content range. At this tension, the plant i s unable to extract sufficient water for i t s l i f e processes and suffers irreversible wilting as a result. Permanent Wilting Point then i s the water content of a s o i l at this tension. In practice the 0 .1 and 0 . 3 bar water contents are the lab-oratory estimates of the Field Capacity ofcoarse and medium to fine textured soils and the 15.0 bar water content i s the laboratory estimate of the Permanent Wilting Point. Available Water Storage Capacities were determined for the less than 2 mm material and then corrected for the percent coarse fragments i n the s o i l . In practice, the 0 .1 and 0 . 3 bar water contents are the laboratory estimates of the f i e l d capacity of coarse and medium to fine textured 13 soils, and the 15 bar water content is the laboratory estimate of the Permanent Wilting Point. Water contents of waste materials were determined at tensions of 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, .3 and .15 bars using porous plate extractors as des-cribed in Baver et al (1972). Water contents of adjacent natural soils were determined at tensions of 0.1, 0.3, and 15 bars. Available Water Storage Capacity was then calculated from differ-ences between the laboratory estimate of the Field Capacity and the Permanent Wilting P>oint* corrected for coarse fragments. BULK DENSITY Bulk density as defined by Buckman and Brady (i960), is the weight of a unit volume of oven dry soil. This volume contains both solids and pores and i s a function of soil structure and particle density. Bulk densities of surface soils within the clay, clay loam and s i l t loam textural classes normally range from 1.00 to as high as 1.60 3 gm per cnr depending on their condition. Very compact subsoils may run as high as 2.00 gm per cm'. Bulk density in combination with particle density enables calculations of total porosity. Bulk densities were determined for surface layers of waste rock dumps by an in situ method. The method employed involved carefully 14 digging a pit and removing and weighing a l l material. The pit was then lined with a plastic bag and f i l l e d with water. The plastic bag and water were likewise removed and weighed. The ratio of the two weights constituted the bulk density. Bulk densities of the tailings and undisturbed control sites were obtained through conventional core sampling techniques. PARTICLE DENSITY Particle density as defined by Buchman and Brady (i960) is the weight of a unit volume of soil solids. In most soils particle densities range between 2.60 and 2.75 gm per cm'. Soils that contain unusual accumulations of heavier minerals may have particles densities in excess 3 of 2.75 grams per cm. Because waste materials are not true soils and unusual mineralogical associations occur, particle densities were determined. The pycnometer method as outlined by Black et al (1965) was used to determine these densities. TOTAL AND AERATION POROSITY Porosity consitutes the proportion of voids in a soil volume. These voids enable liquid and gaseous exchange phenomena to occur. Total porosity consists of water retention porosity and aeration porosity. Aeration porosity is the proportion of the soil volume f i l l e d with air at field capacity. : ^ „ Baver et al (1972) state the total 15 porosity of an average soil is about 50%. Sandy soils would be somewhat lower and clay or organic rich soils higher. Smaller pores are able to retain water against gravity, while larger pores are unable to retain this water and are drained and contribute to the aeration porosity. Aeration porosity must be sufficient to allow adequate diffusion of oxygen. This oxygen is necessary for the growth of plants, particularly roots, for nutrient and water absorption, the prevention of the accumu-lation of toxic inorganic compounds, and microbial soil l i f e (Devlin, 1966). Hanks and Thorp (1956) have shown aeration porosity to be partic-ularly critical to seedlings. They have shown that emergence of wheat declines as oxygen is restricted past certain limits and that the necessary aeration porosity for adequate oxygen diffusion corresponds with 16% aeration porosity for a silty loam and 25% for a fine sandy loam. Total porosity was calculated, as a volume fraction, from particle densities and bulk densities according to the equation Total Porosity - 1 - ^ D e n s i t y * Particle Density Aeration porosity was calculated by subtracting water porosity at field capacity from total porosity. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY Hydraulic conductivity describes the relative ease by which a soil 16 allows water to pass through a layer or profile and is defined in terms of the velocity of flow of water over the gross cross section per unit hydraulic gradient. Undisturbed core samples were used to determine hydraulic conductivities as described in Baver et al (1972). CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY Cation exchange capacity is a parameter used to quantify the exchangeable cations of a soil and i s usually expressed in m i l l i -equivalents per 100 gm of soil. Although normally thought of as a chemical parameter, its basic physical nature and effect on physical properties make i t of considerable interest in interpretations with other physical properties. Baver et al (1972) cite i t as having trem-endous impacts on viscosity, swelling and plasticity of a soil. G i l l and Reaves (1956) showed that soil-clod shrinkage more closely corres-ponds to cation exchange capacity than to specific area or plastic index. Cation exchange capacity was determined by the ammonium acetate method as outlined by Black in Black et al (19^5)• Sample L e t t e r Code P L B SE SS Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dump Lornex Mine Waste Rock Dump Bethlehem Mine Waste Rock Dump S u l l i v a n Mine Iron T a i l i n g s S u l l i v a n Mine S i l i c e o u s T a i l i n g s 17 P l a t e z M I L K W E E D I N V A D I N G W A S T E R O C K D U M P ( S I M I L K A M E E N M I N E ) V Y S A N D Y L O A M T E X T U R E D M I L L T A I L I N G S ( C O P P E R M O U N T A I N M I N E ) 18 SIMILKAMEEN AND COPPER MOUNTAIN MINES - PRINCETON, B.C. WASTE ROCK DUMPS AND TAILINGS The Similkameen Mine and adjacent Copper Mountain Mine are located 10 miles south of Prince-ton, B.C.. The Copper Mountain Mine i s no longer active but was extensively worked by underground and surface methods u n t i l 1957. The medium sized Similkameen open pit mine started i n the early 1970's. Daily m i l l production of the Similkameen Mine was about 15,000 tons at the time of f i e l d work. Waste dumps are located adjacent to the p i t and tailings are deposited i n the Smelter Lake Tailings Area on the opposite side of the Similkameen River. Tailings of the old Copper Mountain Mine are stored i n a now dry tailings area adjacent to Princeton ttownsite. GEOLOGY AND GE0M0RPH0L0GY Both mines are examples of volcanogenic type ore deposits with r mineralization occurring i n volcanic breccias and associated syenite plugs. Much of the mineralization occurs i n pyritic zones with the main metal recovered being copper. The bedrock geology of the area has been reported by Dolmage (1934) and Preto (1972). Glaciation has l e f t an unconsolidated mantle on the land with glac i a l t i l l , g l a c i a l - f l u v i a l and colluvial deposits being the most widespread. Smaller areas of lake sediment and bedrock are distributed 19 through the axea. S u r f i c i a l geology of the area i s described by Nasmith (1962). SOILS i Soils of the area are reported i n a preliminary reconnaisance s o i l survey by the Soils Division Canada Agriculture. (Provisional draft, 1974.) Soils of the area range from Dark Brown or Black Chernozems i n the valley bottom to Brunizolic and Luvisolic soils at higher elevations. Soil descriptions and natural vegetation l i s t s of adjacent soils are described i n tables A-2 to A-8.of the appendix. A summary of physical properties of the various soils i s given i n table £V. CLIMATE Climatic data for the area i s summarized i n table A-12 of the appendix. Mean annual precipitation for the area, as reported by Prince-ton airport (1965 and 1970) i s 36 cm. Precipitation i n the growing season, May to August, amounts to 10.5 cm. Winter snow amounts to 150cm. Average maximum temperature at Princeton for this period i s 33°C. It i s evident from this data that summer drought i s of major importance. DESCRIPTION OF SITES The sample sites of the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps are shown 20 in Plate 2. Sample sites of the adjacent soil and vegetation sites are shown in Figure A-1 of the appendix. Descriptions of the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps and Copper Mountain tailings are given in tables I. Descriptions of the adjacent soil sites and species list s are given in tables A-2 to A-8 of the appendix. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION It was i n i t i a l l y felt that insufficient water holding capacity would probably be the most important growth limiting physical property. To elucidate this fact available water storage capacities were determined as outlined in the materials and methods section of this report. Water retention data for the waste materials and natural soils are listed in tables A-9 and A-11 of the appendix. Mean water retention curves for the less than 2mm fraction of the waste materials are shown in figures 2 and 3 . 21 Table I DESCRIPTION OP SIMILKAMEEN MINE WASTE ROCK DUMPS 74-P-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11,12,13,14 LAYER CM A 0 - 1 5 Grayish brown (10YR 5/2 - 5/3) and light brownish gray (10 YR 6/2), very stoney, (less than 25% soil sized material) sandy loam, compacted, fragments angular B 15-45 Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2 - 5/3) and light brownish gray (10 YR 6/2), very stoney (less than 25% soil sized material) sandy loam, compacted, fragments angular D 45+ Same as B above but more rocky DESCRIPTION OP COPPER MOUNTAIN TAILINGS (Granby A, B, C) LAYER CM A 0-25 Dark grey (7.5 YR 4/0 and very uniform loamy sand B 25-50 Dark grey (7.5 YR 4/1) and very uniform sand C 50 - 100+ Dark grey (7.5 YR 4/1) and very uniform loamy sand - sandy loam Note: Surface completely unstable and prone to blowing. * soil sized refers to fine earth fraction or less than 2 mm fraction of the material. 22 Table II PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS - SIMILKAMEEN MINE WASTE ROCK DUMPS (by weight) Sample # < 2mm Sand S i l t V 0 C l a y Similkameen Waste rock dumps 0 - 15 cm P-1A 31 48 36 16 Loam P-1 A 21 63 24 13 Sandy Loam P -3A 22 60 28 12 Sandy Loam P-4A 15 53 33 14 Sandy Loam P-5A 22 68 27 5 Sandy Loam P-6A 19 66 23 11 Sandy Loam P-8A 26 60 28 12 Sandy Loam P-11A 12 72 22 6 Sandy Loam P-12A 13 77 16 7 Sandy Loam P -13A 14 72 18 10 Sandy Loam P-14A 10 58 28 14 Sandy Loam Mean waste rock - 0-15cm 19 63 26 11 Sandy Loam Similkameen waste rock dumps 15 - 45 cm P-1B 17 54 39 P-2B 18 61 26 P-3B 18 71 19 P-4B 14 66 24 P-5B 11 66 23 P-6B 15 42 29 P-7B 13 64 50 P-8B 17 60 24 P-11B 13 55 35 P-12B 12 58 28 P-13B 10 60 29 P-14B 10 65 24 Mean waste rock - 15-40 cm 14 60 28 7 Sandy Loam - Loam 13 Sandy Loam 10 Sandy Loam 10 Sandy Loam 11 Sandy Loam 29 Clay Loam - Loam 6 Sandy Loam 16 Sandy Loam 10 Sandy Loam 14 Sandy Loam 11 Sandy Loam 11 Sandy Loam 12 Sandy Loam Roadside Berm Sand P-1OA 77 84 8 P10B 73 80 12 Copper Mountain Tailings Layer A 100 81 14 Layer B 100 81 15 Layer C 100 78 17 8 Loamy Sand 8 Loamy sand-Sandy loam 5 Loamy sand 4 Loamy sand 5 Loamy sand - sandy loam 24 F i g u r e 2 0.4 0.3 0.2 WATER RETENTION CURVE Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dumps ( l e s s than 2 mm f r a c t i o n ) o a o 0. +» <u -P C o o d) +> 1 15 S o i l Water Tension (bars) 25 Figure 3 0.4' WATER RETENTION CURVE Copper Mountain Tailings 0.3 0.2 e o S o 0. -p o +> C o o <» -p 0) * X I 3 1 15 S o i l Water Tension (bars) The mean A.W.S.C. f o r the Similkameen waste rock m a t e r i a l , l e s s than 2 mm f r a c t i o n , was found to be 0.21 cm per cm . When co r r e c t e d f o r the n e a r l y 85% coarse fragments i n t h i s m a t e r i a l the whole s o i l A.W.S.C. drops to 0.03 cm per cm. Assuming a deep r o o t i n g p l a n t with a r o o t i n g depth of 100 cm, 3«4 cm of water is a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n t use at f i e l d c a p a c i t y . T h i s value i s extremely low and supports the i n i t i a l premise t h a t a v a i l a b l e water storage c a p a c i t y i s a major l i m i t a t i o n . P o t e n t i a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n demands f o r a somewhat s i m i l a r n o r t h -eastern C a l i f o r n i a n s i t e are described by G i a n e l l i et a l (1967). They repo r t 36.9 inches p o t e n t i a l maximum demand f o r a grass o r pasture crop f o r the growing season or 0.39 cm per day. I f one considers t h a t our s i t e s are somewhat n o r t h of t h i s area but a l s o t h a t o.39 cm per day represents an average over the growing season, approximately ten days supply of water i s a v a i l a b l e to s a t i s f y t h i s p o t e n t i a l maximum demand. The mean A.W.S.C. f o r the Copper Mountain t a i l i n g s was found to be 0.152 cm'/cm', assuming a deep r o o t i n g p l a n t with a r o o t i n g depth of 100cm, 15.2cm of water a v a i l a b l e f o r pl a n t base at f i e l d c a p a c i t y . A v a i l a b l e water storage capacity does not appear to be a growth limiting factor front cursory laboratory analysis, however, the unusually sharp retention curve suggests drought conditions develop quickly as this material i s drained at low water tensions. P o t e n t i a l reserves of a v a i l a b l e water f o r adjacent s o i l s are des-c r i b e d i n t a b l e IV. S i t e SM-7 c l a s s i f i e d as a Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l most c l o s e l y approximates the water storage c a p a c i t y of the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps and i s described i n t a b l e A-6 of the appendix. 27 This site supports a vegetation component of aborescent or subabor-escent species and pinegrass with a large portion of the understory con-sisting of needles on bare ground. Particle size distributions for the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps and Copper Mountain tails are given in table II. The mean texture for a l l Similkameen waste rock samples is a very rocky, sandy loam with only 16.4% of the material being less than 2 mm. The surface 15 cm of material is 4% higher in less than 2 mm sized material than deeper samples while the deeper than 15 cm material is 1.2% higher in clay sized material and 1.9% higher in s i l t sized material than the top 15 cm. This reciprocal relationship quite possibly indicates active and rapid pedogenic illuviation. The texture of the Copper Mountain tailings ranges from loamy sand to sandy loam. Combined s i l t and clay sized material increase with depth, again indicating active pedogenic illuviation. Bulk densities and particle densities for both waste types are given in tableIII. The mean bulk density of the Similkameen Mine waste 3 3 rock dumps is 1.9 gm per cm while i t is 1.45 gm per cm for the Copper Mountain tailings. The mean bulk density of the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps exceed Buckman and Brady's upper limit for similarly textured soils. 28 However, i t one considers the 85% coarse fragments with a rock density 3 of 2 .65 gm per cm this value does not necessarily indicate the compaction that one would at f i r s t expect and may not indicate undue impairment to root growth. Particle densities for both waste types are l i s t e d i n table III.. Particle densities are i n both oases similar to the 2 .65 gm per cnr normal for most s o i l s . Minimum aeration porosities of the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps and Copper Mountain t a i l s were found to be 21% and 30% respectively. In reference to Hank and Thorp (1956) aeration porosities for these mat-erials seem adequate. Cation exchange capacities for the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps and Copper Mountain Tailings are l i s t e d i n table IV. Attention i s drawn to the extremely high values of the Similkameen Mine 'Waste rock dump samples and extremely low values of the Copper Mountain tailings samples. Soil f e r t i l i t y problems w i l l be present i n reclamation attempts of the Copper Mountain tail i n g s . 29 Table III PARTICLE DENSITY AND BULK DENSITY OP SIMILKAMEEN MINE, BETHLEHEM MINE, AND LORNEX MINE WASTE MATERIALS Particle Density" Bulk Density Sample # ... gm/cm' gm/cm' Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dumps P-1 2.55 1.75 P-2 2.77 1.59 P-3 2.70 1.59 P-4 2.59 1.69 P-5 . . . . 1.73 P—6 . . . . 1.88 P-7 2.67 1.79 P-8 2.65 P-11 2.68 1.98 P-12 2.65 1.84 P-13 2.74 1.98 P-14 2.66 1.85 Mean 1.91 74-P-10 (Sand berm) 2.68 Bethlehem Mine Waste Rock Dumps B-1 2.63 1.79 B-2 2.67 1.60 B-3 2.88 2.05 B-4 2.79 1.26 B-5 2.74 1.77 Mean 1.79 LornexaMine Waste Rock Dumps L-1 2.65 1.98 L-2 2.73 1.54 L-3 2.70 1.75 Mean 1.76 Bethlehem tailings sand Lornexff* Temp, tailings 1 Lornex Temp, tailings 2 2.67 2.59 2.62 • • • • 1.32 1.39 SUMMARY OP PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OP THE SIMILKAMEEN MINE TABLE IV WASTE ROCK DUMPS, COPPER MOUNTAIN TAILINGS AND ADJACENT SOIL SITES Sample Classification or Type Layer or Profile % 2 mm (mean) Textural class (2 mmV (mean) A »W.S.C. cm/cm (mean) Bulk Density 0-15 cm g/cm3 (mean) Total Porosity 0-15 cm • (mean) Minimum aeration porosity 0-15 cm (mean) C.E.C. Meg/100 gm •<2mm fraction (mean) A.W.S.C. 100 cm s o i l cm water Similkameen mine waste rock dumps A 18.5 Sandy Loam .034 1.91 .28 .21 20.04 3.4 B 14.3 Sandy Loam • • • * • • • • • • 21.98 • • • Copper Mountain tailings A 100 Loamy Sand 1.68 1.46 .43 .30 2.16 15.2 B 100 Loamy Sand 1*36 • * • • • • • • « • 2.03 • • • C 100 Loamy Sand Sandy Loam .... • • • • • • • * • • 2.30 • • • SM-1 Degraded Dystric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.20 .550 .39 Appendix 5.2 SM-4 Degraded Dystric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.25 .53 .40 Appendix 5.1 SM-5 Orthic Grey Brown Luvisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.2? .53 .39 Appendix 6.0 SM-6 Degraded Eutric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.3" .49 .37 Appendix 14.2 SM-7 Degraded Dystric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.20 .55 •59 Appendix 3.6 SM-8 ' Degraded Dystric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.11 .58 .47 Appendix 9.4 SM-20 Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.00 .62 .49 Appendix 8.3 31 SUMMARY Similkameen Mine Waste Rock Dumps To summarize the physical properties of the Similkameen Mine waste rock dump material the fol l o w i n g points may be made. Less than 20 percent of the volume of the dump material i s l e s s than 2 mm i n p a r t i c l e s i z e and considered s o i l s i z e d . The s o i l - s i z e d material has a sandy loam t e x t u r a l c l a s s . The remainder of the volume of the dump material consists of coarse fragments. Av a i l a b l e water storage capacity i s low because of the high proportion of fragments and i s only 3.4 percent by volume. Bulk density i s high because of the high proportion of coarse fragments. P a r t i c l e density i s comparable to that of normal natural s o i l . Minimum aeration porosity i s adequate f o r seedling emergence. Cation exchange capacity i s good, suggesting that n u t r i e n t status w i l l improve as weathering progresses and that long term be n e f i t s may be r e a l i z e d from f e r t i l i z a t i o n . 32 Pedogenic i l l u v i a t i o n , evident by increased clay and s i l t content with depth, i s ongoing and indicative of active s o i l processes. Comparisons with surrounding natural soils show that coarse textured coniferous forest soils have physical properties similar to the waste dump materials. These sites typically have sparse understories dominated by woody species and a very low density of herbaceous species. Copper Mountain tailings To sumar^ize the physical properties of the Copper Mountain tailings the following points may be made. A l l the material i s soil-sized and with a sandy loam - loamy sand textural class. A v a i l a b l e water storage c a p a c i t y i s favourable being approximately 15 percent by volume. R e t e n t i o n curves suggest t h i s m a t e r i a l q u i c k l y d r i e s as water i s drained a t low water t e n s i o n s . Bulk density i s not excessive and particle density i s similar to that of the normal soils found i n the area. Minimum aeration porosity i s approximately JO percent by volume and 0 i s ample for seedling emergence. Cation exchange capacity i s very low suggesting leaching losses w i l l 33 reduce both the beneficial effect of weathering on nutrient status and possible long term benefits gained through heavy fertilization. Some means of improving cation exchange capacity either through cultivation of a green manure crop or additions of organic matter should be considered to alleviate this condition. SECTION 2 Mine Wastes of the P r i n c e t o n Area. (Similkameen Mine and Copper Mountain Mine) 34 P l a t e 4 F 0 R B S I N V A D I N G W A S T E R 0 C K D U M P ( B E T H L E H E M M I N E ) S A M P L E P I T I N W A S T E R O C K D U M P ( B E T H L E H E M M I N E ) 35 LORNEX AND BETHLEHEM MINES - HIGHLAND VALLEY, B.C. WASTE ROCK DUMPS AND TAILINGS  INTRODUCTION The Highland Valley i s located north of Merrit and south of Kamloops B.C.. The region has been mined with varying intensities since the beginning of the century. Until the early 1970's mining was restricted to small underground operations but large scale open pit mining commenced at that time. At the time of field work, the Lornex Mine processed 38 , 0 00 tons of f;' ore a day and the Bethlehem Mine about 16,000 tons per day. A third Valley Copper Mine seemsimminent. ' GEOLOGY AND GE0M0RPH0L0GY These mines represent porphory copper operations with the main metals recoveredbeing copper and molybdenum. The ore occurs as dissem-inated sulfides in granodiorite and quartz diorite intrusions. Sericite, chlorite, clay minerals and epidote occur as common alteration minerals with a significant proportion of pyrite occurring as an accessory min-eral. The bedrock geology has been documented by White et al (1957)» Carr (i960) and Cockfield (1961). The area was glaciated in Pleistocene times and glacial overburden covers most of the land. Gfacial t i l l , glacial-fluvial sediments and 36 colluvial material predominate. Smaller areas of lacustrine and organic material occur close to the mines. Surficial geology of the area has been described by Tipper (1971)• SOILS Soils of the area are reported i n a preliminary reconnaissance s o i l survey by the Soils Division British Columbia Department of Agriculture. (Provisional draft, 1974)• -Brunisolic and Luvisolic soils predominate with some Regosols occuring close to the mines. Soil descriptions and natural vegetation of selected adjacent soils are described i n tables A-14 to A-20 of the appendix. A summary of physical properties of the various soils i s given i n table VII. CLIMATE Climatic data for the area i s summarized i n table A-12 of the appendix. Annual precipitation for the area as reported by the Lornex Weather Station (1971) i s 29.5 c m- Precipitation for the growing season, May to August, i s 6.5 cm. Winter snow i s about 15.*8 cm. Average maximum temperatures for summer are 28°G." Temperatures near or below freezing are possible i n any month of the year. As i s the case at Princeton, moisture relationships become c r i t i c a l to vegetation e s tabli shment. 37 Table 5 DESCRIPTION OP BETHLEHEM MINE WASTE ROCK DUMPS 74-B-1, 2, 3, 4, 5 LAYER Cm A 0 - 1 5 Light gray (10YR 6/1 - 6/2) very stony (less than 25% soil sized material) sandy loam, compacted,,fragments angular 15-45 Light gray (10 YR 6/1 - 6/2) very strong (less than 25% soil sized material) sandy loam, compacted, fragments / angular DESCRIPTION OP LORNEX MINE WASTE ROCK DUMPS 74-L-1, 2, 3 LAYER Cm A 0-15 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), very stony (less than 25% soil sized material)*sandy loam, compacted, fragments angular B 15-45 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), very stony (less than 25% soil sized material) sandy loam, compacted, fragments angular C 45 - 75+ Same as B above * soil sized refers to fine earth fraction or less than 2 mm fraction of the material. 40 DESCRIPTION OF SITES The sample sites of the Bethlehem Mine and Lornex Mine are shown in Plates 4 and 5» respectively. The sample sites at adjacent soil and vegetation listings are shown in Figure A-13 of the appendix. Descriptions of the waste rock dumps are given in table V.. Descriptions of the adjacent soil sites and species lists are given in tables A-14 to A-20 of the appendix. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As in the case of the Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps, water stress was suspected of being the most probable growth limiting factor. Available water storage capacities were determined as outlined in the material and methods section of this report. Water retention data for the waste materials and natural soils are listed in tables A-21 and A-23 of the appendix. Mean water retention curves for the less than 2 mm fraction of the waste materials are shown in figures 4 and 5« The mean A.W.S.C. for the Bethlehem and Lornex Mine waste rock dump 3 3 materials, less than 2 mm fraction, i s 0.20 and 0.19 cm per cm , respectively. When corrected for the high proportion of coarse frag-ments in the material the whole soil A.W.S.C. drops to 0.08 cm' and 3 3 0.05 cm s, per cm for the Bethlehem Mine and Lornex Mine waste rock dumps respectively. Mean A.W.S.C. for the Lornex temporary tailings 41 Figure 4 0.4 WATER RETENTION CURVE Bethlehem Mine Waste Rock Dumps ( l e s s than 2 mm f r a c t i o n ) I 0.3 t 0.2 £ o S o 0. +> o -p o u <u +> * • T 3 —I 15 S o i l Water Tension (bars) 42 Figure 5 0.4. 0.3, 0.2 £ o £ o 0. I •p a> -p o o u -p WATER RETENTION CURVE Lornex Mine Waste Rock Dump ( l e s s than 2 mm f r a c t i o n ) 15 3 S o i l Water Tension (bars) 43 pond is 0.19 cm per cm. Assuming a deep rooting plant with a rooting depth of 100 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm of water is available for plant use in the dumps of the Bethlehem Mine and Lornex Mine, respectively and 19 om is available in the temporary tailings. If one considers a maximum evapotranspiration demand of 0.39 cm per day (see Similkameen Mine waste rock dumps), 10 to 15 days of maximum demand water storage is available in. the waste rock dumps and 49 days in the temporary tailings;to a depth of 100cm. Reserves of available water for adjacent soils are listed in table VIL Natural sites, HV-2 and HV-11 were found to have water retention capacities of the same order as those of the waste rock dumps. (Tables A-15 and A-20 of the appendix.) Both these soils were classified as Degraded Brunisols with sparce under'Stories dominated by woody species. Site HV-10 (Table A-19 of the appendix), classified as an Orthic Sombric Brunisol, has similar water retention values to the Lornex tailings. Its vegetation is dominated by graminoids with a thicker ground cover than HV-2 or HV-11. Particle size distributions for wate materials of both the Belth-lehem and Lornex mines are given in tableVI.. Waste rock dumps of both mines generally have less than 25% soil size material with the fine fraction having a sandy loam texture. Percentage of combined s i l t and 44 clay sized material i s equal at both depths i n the Lornex dumps but i s 2.5% higher i n the deeper layers of the Bethlehem dumps. Pedogenie i l l u v i a t i o n i s considered an active process. Bulk densities and particle densities for a l l of the waste materials of the two mines are given i n table III. The mean bulk density 3 of the Bethlehem Mine dumps i s 1.8 gm per cm and of the Lornex dumps 3 i s 1.7 gm per cm . Mean bulk density of the Lornex temporary tailings 3 i s 1.57 gm per cm . Particle densities of the various waste materials are l i s t e d i n tablelLTand are i n a l l cases similar to values attributed to normal s o i l s . Minimum aeration porosities for the Bethlehem Mine waste rock dumps, Lornex mine waste rock dumps and Lornex tailings were-found to be 24%, 25% and 9% respectively. In reference to Hank and Thorp (1956) aeration porosities of the waste rock dumps seem adequate while those of the t a i l i n g may present d i f f i c u l t i e s i n seedling establish-ment. Cation exchange capacities of the various waste types are l i s t e d i n table VII. Attention i s drawn to the relatively low values for the tailings material but acceptable values for the waste rock dump fine material. 45 Table YI PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS - LORNEX AND BETHLEHEM MINE WASTE ROCK DUMPS (by weight) Sample # % 2mm % Sand % Silt % Clay Textural Class L-1A 29 L-2A 35 L-3A 24 Mean waste rock 0-15cm 29 60 63 54 59 28 24 30 28 12 Sandy Loam 13 Sandy Loam 16 Sandy Loams-loam 13 Sandy Loam L-1B L-2B L-3B Mean waste rock 15-40cm 18 22 27 23 60 61 57 59 32 30 27 30 8 9 16 11 Sandy Loam Sandy Loam Sandy Loam-Sandy clay loam Sandy loam L-1C 16 73 20 7 Sandy Loam-Loamy sand B-1A 18 69 28 12 Sandy Loam B-2A 32 64 26 10 Sandy Loam B-3A 20 65 26 9 Sandy Loam &*4A 41 57 27 14 Sandy Loam B-5A 21 61 28 11 Sandy Loam Mean waste rock 0-15cm 26 62 27 11 Sandy Loam B-1B 13 B-2B 15 B-3B 15 B-4B 18 B-5B 14 Mean waste rock 15-40 cm 15 60 59 55 65 57 59 50 28 30 23 31 27 10 Sandy Loam 13 Sandy Loam 15 Sandy Loam-Loam 12 Sandy Loam 12 Sandy Loam 12 Sandy Loam Lornex Tailings 1 100 Lornex Tailings 2 100 Bethlehem Sand Tailings 100 62 25 90 31 60 7 7 15 3 Sandy Loam Silt Loam Sand SUMMARY OF PHYSICAL PR0PERTIE8 OF THE BETHLEHEM MINE AND LORNEX MINE WASTE ROCK DUMPS AND TAILINGS AND ADJACENT SOIL:'SITES Table VIII Sample Classification or Type Luyer or Profile % 2 mm (mean) Textural class (2 mm) (mean) A.W.S.C. (cm/cm mean) Bulk Density 0-15 cm g/cm3 (mean) Total Porosity 0-15 cm (mean) Minimum C.E.C. aeration Meg/100 gm porosity <2mm fraction 0-15 cm (mean) (mean) A.W.S.C. 100 cm soil cm water Bethlehem mine waste rock dumps A 26.5 Sandy loam .039 1.79 0.52 .24 14.72 3.90 B 14.9 Sandy Loam • • • • • • • • • • • • 15.57 • • • • Lornex mine waste rock dumps A 29.4 Sandy Loam 0.050 1.76 0.34 .25 6.61 5.oo B 23.0 Sandy Loam • • • • • • • * • • • -8.51 • • * • Lornex tailings A 100.0 Loam 0.194 1.37 0.48 .09 4.70 • -Bethlehem tailings sand A '. 100.0 Sand 0.075 • • • • • • • 5.60 HV-1 Degraded Dystric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 0.91 0.66 .53 6.1 HV-2 Orthic Eutric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.53 0.42 • • • Appendix 3.4 HV-3 Orthic Regosol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 0.94 • • • • • • • • Appendix ie.4 HV-4 Degraded Dystric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendis 1.13 0.57 • * • • Appendix « • • HV-5 Orthic Grey Luvisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.24 0.53 .27 Appendix 13.6 HV-10 Orthic Sombric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.03 0.61 .26 Appendix 8.9 HV-11 Degraded Dystric Brunisol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.15 0.57 • 52 Appendix 3.0 47 SUMMARY Lornex and Bethlehem Waste Rock Dumps To summarize the physical properties of the Lomex and Bethlehem waste rock dump materials, the following points may be made. Less than 25 percent of the volume of the dumps i s less than 2 mm in particle sige and considered soil-sized. The soil-sized fraction has a sandy loam textural class. The remainder of the volume of the dump material i s occupied by coarse fragments. Available water storage capacity is low because of the high proportion of coarse fragments and i s only 4-5 percent by volume for the two mines. Bulk density i s high because of the high proportion of coarse fragments. Minimum aeration porosity i s adequate for seedling emergence. Cation exchange capacity i s good, suggesting that nutrient status w i l l improve as weathering progresses and that long term benefits may be gained through f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Pedogenic i l l u v i a t i o n , evident by increased clay and s i l t content with depth, i s ongoing and indicative of active s o i l processes. 48 Comparisons with surrounding natural soils show that coarse textured coniferous forest soils have physical properties similar to the waste dumps. These sites support Douglas F i r and Lodgepole Pine forests with sparsely distributed shrubs on a bare needle covered forest floor. Density of grasses and forbs i s low. Lornex Temporary Tailings To summarize the physical properties of the Lornex temporary tailings the following points may be made. The tailings are completely soil-sized with a loam textural class. Available water storage capacity i s excellent being 19 percent by volume. Bulk density i s not excessive. Minimum aeration porosity i s low, less than 10 percent by volume. Previous agronomic research has shown such a low level may inhibit seedling emergence from thoroughly wetted sites (Hanks and Thorpe, 1956). Later spring seeding- should be considered i n view of this fact. Cation exchange capacity i s very low suggesting leaching may prevent nutritional status from improving with time and reducing long-term benefits from f e r t i l i z a t i o n . Repeated light f e r t i l i z a t i o n s may be required to attain stand establishment. Farming a green manure crop or adding 49 organic matter may improve t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Comparison w i t h l o c a l n a t u r a l s o i l s p o i n t s out that f i n e .textured g r a s s l a n d s o i l s have p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s most l i k e the t a i l i n g s . C u l t i v a t i o n o f a grass stand i s the obvious path to r e c l a m a t i o n of t h i s m a t e r i a l . 50 Plate 8 H O R I Z O N A T I O N I N I R O N T A I L I N G S ( S U L L I V A N M I N E ) S U R F A C E C R U S T O N I R O N T A I L I N G S ( S U L L I V A N M I N E ) 51 SULLIVAN MINE: - KIMBERLEY. B.C. IRON AND SILICA TAILINGS  INTRODUCTION The Sullivan Mine i s located on the edge of the town of Kimberley, Bri t i s h Columbia. It i s the largest lead-zinc mine and largest under-ground mine i n the province. As a lead-zinc producer i t i s one of the largest i n the world. Operation of the mine started i n the late nineteenth century and present m i l l production i s near 6,000 tons of ore a day. Much of the coarse waste material i s used as ba c k f i l l i n the mining operation and as railway ballast. Extensive concentrator m i l l tailings have accumu-lated. GEOLOGY AND GE0M0RPH0L0GY The ore body occurs as a layered sulfide deposit i n sedimentary rocks. It i s believed by Freeze (1966) to be of hydrothermal origin. The main products of the mining operation are lead, zinc, silver and iron sinter. iPyrite and other sulfides constitute a major proportion of the waste material. Pleistocene glaciation has modified the landscape. Unconsolidated glacial overburden was l e f t on most of the area. Glacial t i l l , g l a c i a l -52 fluvial material and colluvial material predominate. Outcroppings of bedrock and areas of lacustrine sediment also occur. Minor recent alluvial sediments are found adjacent to the St. Mary's River. Surficial geology of the area i s described by Fulton (1968) and Clague (1974). SOILS Soils of the area are described in a preliminary soil reconnaisance survey by the Soils Division, British Columbia Department of Agriculture. (Provisional draft, 1974•) Podzolic and Brunisolic soils predominate. Soil descriptions, natural vegetation and physical properties of selected adjacent soils are described in tables A-25 to A-31 of the appendix and tableXlllof the text. CLIMATE Climatic data for the area is summarized in table A-12. Mean annual precipitation as reported in 1965 and 1970 is 38 cm. Precipitation over the growing season, May to August, is 14 cm. Winter snow is 153 cm. Average maximum temperatures for this period are 28°C. Kimberley receives a much more favourable distribution of growing season precip-itation than does the Highland Valley or Princeton areas. DESCRIPTION OF SITES , The sample sites of the Sullivan Mine tailings are shown in Plate 7. 53 Sample s i t e s of adjacent s o i l and vegetation s i t e s are shown i n Figure A-24 of the appendix. T y p i c a l descriptions of the S u l l i v a n i r o n and s i l i c a t a i l i n g s are given i n tables XIII & XI. Diagrams of t a i l i n g s materials are given i n Figures 6 and 7. Descriptions of adjacent s o i l s i t e s and vegetation l i s t s are given i n tables A-25 to A-31 of the appendix. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS I t was d i f f i c u l t to predict c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r these materials by v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Water r e t e n t i o n data determined by laboratory a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that water r e t e n t i o n was not a growth l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . Water re t e n t i o n data i s given i n tables A-32 and A-34 of the appendix while curves are given i n Figure 8 and 9 of the tex t . The mean A.W.S.C. 3 3 f o r the i r o n t a i l i n g s i s 0.23 cm per cm and f o r the s i l i c a t a i l i n g s 3 3 i s o.19 cm per cm . Mean A.W.S.C. f o r s i l t loam s o i l s i s l i s t e d as 0.20 cnr per cnr i n the B r i t i s h Columbia I r r i g a t i o n Guide (Calver et a l ) . Available water storage capacity i s evidently not a problem. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r these materials are pos s i b l y not as meaningful as f o r other areas because of the severe surface i r o n Cementation that i s often present. Distributions f o r the deeper and us u a l l y non-cemented material are probably more diagnostic. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r the i r o n and s i l i c a t a i l i n g s are given i n table XJ-. Both t a i l i n g s types tend to have s i l t loam textures 54 Table VIII DESCRIPTION OP SULLIVAN MINE IRON TAILINGS Cms LAYER 0-15 A Strong brown ( 7 . 5 YR 5 / 8 ) , loam - clay-loam, very strongly cemented, f u l l of small round gas holes, possibly a r e l i c of gaseous release before cementation. 15-58 B Light olive gray (5 YR 6 / 2 ) , with some strong brown ( 7 . 5 YR 5 / 8 ) , s i l t loam, sticky when wet. 58-51 C Strong brown ( 7 . 5 YR 5 / 8 ) , interfingered with some f l i g h t olive grey (5 YR 6/2) and some black (5 YR 2/1) material, s i l t loam, developing into an iron pan (irortein) 51-70 D Black ( 7 . 5 YR 2 / 0 ) , loam - s i l t loam, induration. 70-90 E Black ( 7 . 5 YR 2 / 0 ) , banded with olive (5 YR 4/4)» loam, below water table and completely saturated. 55 Table IX DESCRIPTION OP SULLIVAN MINE SILICEOUS TAILINGS Cms LAYER 0-20 A Dark grey (7.5 YR 4/0), sandy loam-loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s . 20-25 B S i l t , induratedi : 1 much l i k e an " o r t s t e i n " i n t e r f i n g e r e d with s i l t y m a t e r i a l . 25-46 C Brown (7.5 YR 4/4), sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s . 46+ D Dark brown (7.5 YR 3/2), s i l t loam, somewhat indurated. i T 6 S o i l Water Tension (bars) 58 Figure 9 0.4' 0.3 0.2 WATER RETENTION CURVE S u l l i v a n Mine S i l i c e o u s T a i l i n g s 6 o \ 6 o • f 0.1 -p o -p c o o <u -p cd 3 : T 3 15 S o i l Water Tension (bars) UNDISTURBED NON-VEGETATED SULLIVAN MINE IRON TAILINGS 7 4 - S F - l 0 cm '25 cm -50 cm -75 cm o ° " 0 0 • o o o . OA* O O 0 o 0 „ hard c r u s t 74-SF-2 o ° * e t . B O fi 74-SF-4 lAAAA/VAAA/vVVVM/V Water table S i l t y c l a y l i k e m aterial i n t e r f i n g e r i n g o r predomi nant ron cemented o r t s t e i n unreduced iron t a i l i n g s 3 (D CT SULLIVAN MINE SILICEOUS TAILINGS 74-SF- l cm gray non-cemented mate r i a l •25 cm I i3 o r t s t e i n w i th s i I t y c l a y l i k e mate r i a l fa- red r u s t i n g non-cemented mate r i a l 50 cm indurated mate r i a l 61 The silica tailings are higher in sand-sized material and lower in clay-sized material than are the iron tailings. Severely cemented samples were found to retain their cementation despite immersions of up to two months in water. Pre-treatment of a few samples with citrate dithionite solution resulted in dramatic increases in clay sized material* This increase in clay sized material indicates that untreated particles are actually cemented aggregates of smaller particles. Unlike the other areas studied, which were fairly uniform through-out their profile, the Sullivan sites were found to be differentiated into layers much like classic horizonation in natural soils. The hard cemented surface layer is sometimes absent and in such places would render the tailings more amenable to seeding and other cultural practices. (See figure 6 . ) The iron tailings formed from the 1948 " s p i l l " on the bank of the St. Mary's River were found to lack cementation in the surface iron oxide layer. It is not known whether this can be attributed to 26 years of weathering or the periodic flooding to which this area is prone or to other conditions that might have prevailed at this site. Bulk densities are listed in tableXI;. Mean bulk densities of the top 15 cm of the iron tailings was found to be 1.15 gms per cm , and of 62 the top 15 cm of the silica tailings to be 1.36 gms per cm7. Particle density determinations are listed in tableXIII. Mean 3 particle densities for both materials are 2.80 gms per cm . Particle density Is somewhat lower than originally anticipated for such a minerological assembleage and possibly reflects the intense oxidation and resulting amorphous crystalline structure of the partioles. Minimum aeration porosity of the silica tailings is 21% and of the iron tailings i s 22%. In reference to Hank and Thorp (1956) aeration porosities for these materials appear, adequate. Cation exchange capacity i s moderate for both tailings types, 8.8; me./i00gm. for the iron tailings and 6.4 me./100gm. for the siliceous tailings. Considering the high proportions of iron, aluminium and amorphous crystalline material and the extreme acidity of the tailings, f e r t i l i t y problems will almost invariably be very real. Hydraulic conductivities for these materials are listed in table XI. Iron cementation appears to be a critical factor influencing this property. Mean hydraulic conductivities for the s i l i c a tailings were found to be 60 cm per day and for the iron tailings to be 14 cms per day. Attention i s drawn to the tremendous variability in hydraulic conduct-ivity depending on the degree of cementation. Mean values indicate the fate of water ponded on the tailings surface. Schwals et al C1971) l i s t hydraulic conductivity ranges for representative loams as 12-49 cm per day and for clay loams as 3-12 cm per day. 63 Table X PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS - SULLIVAN MINE TAILINGS (by weight) Sample # % 2 mm % Sand % S i l t % Clay Textural Class SS-1A 100 49 46 5 Sandy Loam SS-1B 100 7 84 9 S i l t SS-1C 100 59 37 6 Sandy Loam SS-1D 100 27 59 14 S i l t Loam Mean s i l i c a tailings 100 35 56 9 S i l t Loam SF-3A 100 29 SF-1B 100 18 SF-1C 100 30 SF-1D 100 44 SF-1E 100 45 SF-2A 100 46 SF-2B 100 35 SF-3A 100 29 SF-5B 100 47 SF-5C 100 21 SF-5D 100 18 SF-4A 100 23 SF-4B 100 20 SF-4C 100 5 SF-4D 100 62 SF-4E 100 10 Mean Iron Tailings 100 30 45 26 Loam-clay loam 68 14 S i l t Loam 57 13 S i l t Loan 51 5 Loam-silt loam 47 8 Loam 44 10 Loam 52 15 S i l t Loam 51 20 S i l t Loam-loam 39 14 Loam 62 17 S i l t Loam 64 18 S i l t Loam 47 50 Clay loam-silty clay loam 60 20 S i l t Loam 76 17 S i l t Loam 31 7 Sandy Loam 77 15 S i l t Loam 55 15 S i l t Loam 64 Table XI BULK DENSITY AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS BY CORE SAMPLE METHODS OP SULLIVAN MINE TAILINGS Hydraulic Conductivity Bulk Densi Sample Location Sample Type cm/day (gm/cm) Sullivan S i l i c a Tailings SS-1 non cemented 113 1.41 " non cemented 74 1.33 " partially cemented 48 1.62 " strongly cemented 3 1.10 MEAN 60 1.36 Sullivan Iron Tailings SF-1A crusted surface ... 1.17 " crusted surface 4 1.24 w crusted surface ... 1.33 SP-4A s i l t y surface 28 1.03 " s i l t y surface 14 1.07 s i l t y surface i10 1.07 MEAN 14 1.15 65 Table XII PARTICLE DENSITY - SULLIVAN MINE TAILINGS Sample Location Sample # Particle Density gm/cm^  Siliceous tailings area SS-A SS-B SS-C SS-D 2 .90 2.72 2.78 2.82 Iron Tailings area tt ti tt ti it II n II II II tt it ti II it ti SF-1A SF-1B SF-1C SF-1D SF-1E SF-2A SP-2B SP-2D SF-3A SP-3B SP-3C SP-3D SF-3E SF-4A SF-4B SF-4C SF-4D SF4E 2.75 2.84 2.67 3.17 3.03 2.67 2.60 2.91 2.59 3.16 2.75 2.71 5.14 2.55 2.75 2.67 2.66 2.81 Mean Iron Tailings 2.80 Mean S i l i c a Tailings 2.80 SUMMARY OP THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OP THE SULLIVAN MINE TAILINGS MATERIALS AND ADJACENT SOIL SITES T a b l e x m Sample Classification or Type Layer or Profile % 2 mm (mean) Textural class (2 mm) (mean) A.W.S.C. cm/cm '(mean) Bulk Density 0 - 15 cm g/cm3 (mean) Total Porosity 0-15 cm (mean) '.: Minimum aeration porosity 0-15 cm (mean) C.E.C. Meg/lOOgm <2mm fraction (mean) A.W.S.C. 100 cm soil cm water Sullivan iron tailings Mean 100 s i l t loam .227 1.13 .59 .22 8.8 22.7 Sullivan s i l i c a tailings Mean 100 s i l t loam .187 1.36 .51 .21 6.4 18.7 ON SV-1 Orthic humo-ferric podzol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.37 .46 • • • Appendix 12.2 (/ SV-2 Orthic Humo-ferric podzol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.24 .53 • • * Appendix 2.5 SV-3 Orthic humo-ferric podzol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 0.98 .63 .43 Appendix 8.7 SV-4 Sombric eutric brunisol ' Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.35 .49 .25 Appendix 8.9 SV-5 Orthic humo-ferric podzol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.26 .52 .29 Appendix 13.9 SV-6 Orthic humo-ferric podzol Appendix Appendix Apper.dix Appendix 1.26 .52 ... Appendix 15.1 SV-7 Orthic humo-ferric podzol Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1.26 .52 33 Appendix 7.3 67 SUMMARY Sullivan Mine Iron and Siliceous Tailings To summarize the physical properties of the Sullivan Mine tailings the following points may be made. A l l the material i s s o i l sized i.e.<2mm. However, the top 15 cm. of the iron tailings can become so severely cemented that i f crusted i t cannot be considered s o i l sized, rather i t becomes a continuous crust broken irregularly from heaving.. Tailings material below the crust i n the iron tailings and a l l of the siliceous tailings have a s i l t loam textural class. Shallow iron pans occur i n some areas of both tailings types. Available water storage for non-cemented tailings material i s excellent ranging from 19 to 23 percent by volume for the two types. Bulk densities are not excessive for either tailings types. 3 Particle densities are 2.80 gm. per cm for both tailings types, slightly heavier than normal natural s o i l s . Minimum aeration porosity i s ample for seedling emergence. The cation exchange capacity of the iron tailings i s about6-9me per 1 68 gm. It i s conjectural whether or not these values are adequate for nutritional requirements i n view of the extremely acidic conditions and high concentrations of iron and amorphous minerals that exist. The main limiting physical property i s the severely crusted surface of the iron tailings and presence of shallow cemented iron pans, partic-ularly i n the siliceous t a i l i n g s . Revegetation of severely cemented regions of the tailings may necessitate additions of s o i l material above the crust to obtain satis-factory physical conditions for the establishment of vegetation. 69 JERSEY MINE (CANEX MINE) fi. SALMO B.C. TAILINGS INTRODUCTION AND DISCUSSION The Jersey Mine (Canex Mine) i s located a few miles south-west of Salmo, British Columbia on the southern Trans-Canada Highway. The mine i s no longer operational but was mined by underground methods i n past years. The mine i s described by Green (1954). Mineralization occurred as sphalerite and galena i n a dolomitic limestone body. M i l l tailings were deposited i n a tailings area adjacent to the mine and were drained and "dried up" at the end of mining. They were then successfully revegetated with grasses over a period of a few years (Weston, 1973). Although not a centre of research i n the scope of this project, samples of the tailings materials were collected. Descriptions and physical properties of these materials are given i n tables XIV and XV. The water retention curve for these materials i s given i n figure 10. It i s noted that water storage capacity i s adequate for vegetation requirements and that vegetation was eventually established despite exchange capacities, that are extremely low. 70 Figure 10 0.4« 0.3< 0 ,2 £ o £ o 0. I -p c: -p c o o -P a WATER RETENTION CURVE Jersey Mine (Canex Mine) Tailings 0 I T " 3 S o i l Water T e n s i o n ( b a r s ) 71 Table XIV DESCRIPTION OF JERSEY MINE TAILINGS (CANEX MINE) (Salmo, B.C.) LAYER CMS A1 0-13 Dark brown (7.5 YR 3/2), sandy loam, structureless, abundant fine distinct roots (natural soils-addition) B11 13-30 Dark grey (7.5 YR 4/0), sandy loam, structureless, many fine distinct roots C11 30 - 46+ Very dark grey (7.5 YR 3/0) with strong brown (7.5 YR 5/6) mottles, s i l t loam, structureless, few fine distinct roots 72 Table XV PHYSICAL PROPERTIES - JERSEY MINE (CANEX MINE) PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS % 2 mm % Sand % S i l t % Clay Textural Class A 63 65 31 4 Sandy Loam B 100 68 27 5 Sandy Loam C 100 11 74 15 S i l t Loam Note A i s assumed to include s o i l material spread on surface at time of revegetation. WATER RETENTION DATA -/10 bar gm/gm -1/3 bar gm/gm -9/10 bar gm/gm -3 bar gm/gm -15 bar A. gm/gm gm W.S.C. i/gm A.W.S.C. 2 2 cm / cnr A .276 .212 .120 .068 .053 .159 .147 B .159 • 132 .034 .014 .010 .149 .219 C .305 .263 .101 .127 .055 .208 .306 Mean bulk density gm/cm (0 - 15 cm) 1 1.47 Mean Total Porosity (0 - 15 cm) 0.45 Mean Minimum Aeration Porosity (0 - 15 cm) 0.19 A 10.53 Mean C.E.C. Meg./100 gm B 0.98 2< mm ffacition C 1.35 A.W.S.C. cm water (100 cm soil) 26.3 75 CONCLUSIONS Waste Rock Dumps To summarize the physical properties of waste rock dumps the following points may he made. Less than 25 percent of the volume of the dumps is less than 2mm and considered soil-sized material. The soil-sized material has a sandy loam textural class. The remainder of the volume of the dump is occupied by coarse fragments. Available water storage capacities are low because of the high proportion of coarse fragments and are only 5-5 percent by volume. Bulk densities are high because of the high proportion of coarse fragments. Particle densities are comparable to those of normal natural soils. Minimum aeration porosities are ample for seedling emergence. Cation exchange capacities are generally favourable suggesting that nutrient status will improve as weathering progresses and that long-term benefits may be realized from fertilization. Pedogenic illuviation, evident by increased clay and s i l t content 74 with depth, i s ongoing and indicative of active s o i l processes. Comparisons with local natural soils show that coarse textured coniferous forest soils have physical properties most like the waste dumps. These sites typically support Douglas F i r and Lodgepole Pine forests with understories consisting of sparsely distributed low or medium height shrubs growing on bare needle-covered forest floors. This comp-arison suggests that eventual revegetation w i l l be by aborescent species and not herbaceous species. Grass growth although d i f f i c u l t may be beneficial i n achieving immediate aesthetic improvement, surface s t a b i l i s -ation and s o i l improvement u n t i l more 'edaphic aborescent species are established. 75 CONCLUSIONS M i l l Tailings To summarize the physical properties of the mill tailings the following points may be made. A l l of the material i s finer than 2 mm and i s considered s o i l -sized. Textural classes for m i l l tailings are variable amongst mines. Available water storage capacities are generally good to excellent being 15-25 percent by volume and comparable to irrigated agricultural s o i l s , (Calvert et_ a l ) . Bulk densities are generally acceptable for vegetation establishment. Particle densities of most tailings are comparable to those of normal soils excepting some highly metaliferous tailings which are heavier. Minimum aeration porosities are usually adequate for seedling emer-gence. An exception on some finer textured tailings that show low aeration porosity values when thoroughly wet. Cation exchange capacities of non iron sulfide-rich tailings are generally low, being less than 5 me/100 gm, tailings. Both the Copper Mountain tailings and the Lornex temporary tailings may require repeated 76 f e r t i l i z a t i o n to compensate for this fact. The cation exchange capacities of the Sullivan Mine iron and siliceous t a i l i n g (iron sulfide rich) range from 6-9 me/100 gm tailings. It i s conjectural whether or not they are adequate for nutritional requirements i n view of the extremely acidic conditions and high concentrations of iron and amorphous minerals that exist. Cultivation of an annual green manure crop or additions of organic matter w i l l help improve this property. Pedogenic horizonation i s sometimes obvious as i s the case in the Sullivan Mine tailings. Comparisons with local natural soils show that grassland soils with high water storage capacities most closely approximate the properties of the tailings materials. This comparison suggests that eventual revegetation w i l l be by grasses or forbs and that cultivation to establish this type of vegetation may be successful. 77 DISCUSSION A hypothetical reclamation project for a dry climate mine might, on the basis of the physical properties of the waste materials, devise a reclamation scheme as follows. The waste rock dumps would be i n i t i a l l y seeded with grass attempting to get immediate aesthetic improvement, surface stabilization and s o i l improvement. The dumps could be seeded at a light rate i n the f a l l to ensure that melt water moisture did not escape the germinating seeds i n the spring. The surface of the dumps should be mechanically scarified, the seed broadcast and then packed i n an attempt to get better seed-soil contact for germination. F e r t i l i z e r should be applied i n the f a l l or winter but not summer to ensure that osmotic stresses were not added to drought stresses. Massive applications should be avoided for the same reason. More edaphic '.drought tolerant shrubs would be planted i n accord-ance with their ultimate greater s u i t a b i l i t y to the dump environment. The tailings would be cultivated i n the same fashion as an arable s o i l . Irrigation should be considered for stand establishment, i f water i s available. Seeding should be done with conventional agricultural implements i n the spring, to ensure that germination was not inhibited by low aeration porosity resulting from early season wet conditions, For tailings with low aeration porosities, special tolerant species such as .Timothy could be considered. An i n i t i a l annual crop would be sown to be 78 turned under to improve cation exchange capacity and as a s o i l conditioner. Organic additives might be added for the same reason. 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Stabilizing Mine Dumps with Vegetation. Endeavour., Vol. 25: 154-157. 33* James, A.L., Mrost, M., 1965. Control of Acidity at Tailings Dams and Dumps as precursors to Stabilization by Vegetation. Journal of South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, (1965) p. 485-495. 3$. Klohn, E.J., 1972. Design and Construction of Tailings Dams. Can. Inst, of Mining and Met., Vol. LXXV: 50-66. 35. Lavkulich, L.M., Bomke, A.A., Morton, J.W., Dairon, P.A., Walmsley, M.E., and Rowles, C.A., 1975. Pedological Inventory of Three Sulfide Mine Areas i n S. British Columbia. Department of Soil Sciences, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. 36. McLennan, 1956. A Study of Copper Mountain Tailings. B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Soil Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 37. May, M., 1975. Moisture relationships and Treatments i n Revegetating Strip Mines i n the Arid West. J. Range Management, 28: 334-335. 38. Murray, D.R. & Coates, D.F., 1973. Information for potential Con-tractors - Revegetation Project, 1974 - 1977. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Mines Branch, Ottawa. Internal Report 73/153. 39. Nasmith, H., 1962. Late Glacial History and Surficial Deposits of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, B.C. Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. 40. Nielson, R.P. & Peterson, H.B., 1972. Treatment of Mine Tailings to Promote Vegetative Stablization. Agricultural Experimental Station, Utah State University, UTAH|; Bull. 485. 41. Peterson, E.B., Metter, H., 1970. A Background for Disturbed Land Reclamation and Research i n the Rocky Mountain Region of Alberta. Canadian Forestry Service.! Forest Research Laboratory, Edmonton, Report A-X-34. 42. Peterson, J.R., Oschwind, J., 1973• Amelioration of Coal Mine Spoils with Digested Sewage Sludge. Research and Applied Technology Symposium on Mine-Land Reclamation, National Coal Association. 43. Preto, V.A., 1972. Geology of Copper Mountain. B.C. Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. B u l l . 59. 82 44. Schwab, G.O., Frevert, R.K., Barnes, K.K., Edminster, T.W., 1957. Elementary S o i l And Water Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 4 5 . S o i l Survey Staff, Soil Survey Manual, 1956. U.S.D.A. Handbook 18, Washington, D.C. 46. Tipper, H.W., 1974. Glacial Geomorphology and Pleistocene History of Central B r i t i s h Columbia., Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. Bull. 96. 47. Thirgood, J.J., Gilmore, W.P., 1971. Land Reclamation at the Lornex Mining Project. The Western Miner, 46<, 44» 8' 48-54« 48. Van Lear, D.H., 1971. Effects of Soil Texture on Growth of K-J1 T a l l Fescue. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Upper Darby, Pa., Research Note NE-I4L 49. White, W.H., Thomson, R.M., and McTaggart, K.C., 1957. The Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Highland Valley, B.C.. Trans. Can. Inst, of Mining Met., 60:275-289. 50. Weston, S., 1975. Report on Developments and Progress i n Reclaiming Waste Dumps and Tailings Ponds. The Western Miner, , 49, 8: 48^ 54. 51. Young, C.A., 1969. The Use of Vegetation to Stabilize Mine Tailings at Copper C l i f f . Proceedings of the f i r s t annual meeting of the Can. Mineral Resources Ass., Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Jan. 21-25, 1969. 52. Bethlehem Mining Ltd., Cominco Mining Ltd., Lornex Mining Ltd., Similkameen Mining Ltd., 1974. Ashcroft, B.C., T r a i l , B.C., Logan Lake, B.C., Princeton, B.C.. (Personal communication) 83 a SECTION 8 Appendix P r i n c e t o n Area S o i l Highland V a l l e y Area S o i l s Kimberley Area S o i l 83 b Figure A-1 Princeton / N meters SIMILKAMEEN MINE DUMPS  COPPER MT. MINE DUMPS  ANO ADJACENT SAMPLED SOILS TOWN AREA WASTE MATERIAL PIT SOIL ASSOCIATION BOUNDARY (approx.) SAMPLE SITES 84 Table A-2 SM-1 Classification Location Elevation Slope and Aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Degraded Dystric Brunisol SE Copper Mountain Mine 1530 m 20% E Glacial t i l l - colluvial material Steep land Moderately well HORIZON LPH Ae Bm BC Cm 3 - 0 0 - 5 5-25 25 - 60 60+ Light^yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4), sandy loam, structureless, many fine distinct roots Brown (10 YR 5/3)» sandy loam, structureless, many fine distinct roots Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4), s i l t loam, structureless, few fine distinct roots Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4), sand structure-less DOMINANT VEGETATION Douglas f i r Buffalo berry Engleman spruce Red twin, berry Lodgepole Pine Rose Grouseberry Pinegrass Peathermoss Blackmountain huckleberry False-box 85 Table A-3 SM 4 Classification Location Elevation Slope and Aspect Parent Material Landfbrm Drainage Class Degraded Dystric Brunisol Top of Copper Mountain Mine Adjacent to waste dump 1300 m 10 20% N Glacial t i l l and rock Cooluvial slope and rock Well drained HORIZON Cm LFH 2-0 Ae 0-5 Light yellowish grey (10 YR 6/2), s i l t loam structureless, many fine distinct roots BM 5-23 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), gravelly s i l t loam, structureless, many fine distinct roots BC 25 - 50 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), gravelly s i l t loam, structureless, few fine roots C 50-65 Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4), gravelly sandy loam, structureless R 65+ DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Willow Bearberry Pinegrass Juniper Twinflower Sedge Grouseberry False-box Buffalo berry 86 Table A-4 SM 5 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent Material Landform Drainage class Orthic Grey Brown Luvisol North of junction of Wolf Creek and Lost Horse Gulch 1100 m 0 - 5% N Galcial t i l l Drurrilinized slope Moderately well drained HORIZON Cm LPH 2-0 Ae 0-8 Pinkish grey (7.5 YR 6/2), loam, structureless many fine distinct roots B+ 8 -32 Brown (10 YR 4/3), sandy loam, weak subangular, blocky, few distinct roots C 3 2 5 0 Dark brown (10 YR 3/3), gravelly sandy loam, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Willow Trembling Aspen Buffalo berry Douglas Fir Rose Bearberry Pinegrass Timber milk Canada bluegrass vetch Pussy_toes Downy brome 87 Table A-5 SM 6 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Degraded Eutric Brunisol Near Old Princeton Power House 870 m 40 - 50% W Glacial t i l l and colluvial T i l l slope Well HORIZON LFH Ae BM Cm 2 - 0 0 - 5 5 - 25 25+ Greyish brown (10YR 5/2), loam, structureless, many fine distinct roots Brown (10 YR 5/3)» loam, structureless, few fine distinct roots Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4)t sandy loam, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Douglas f i r Saskatoon berry Creeping mahonia Spirea Idaho fescue Arnica Bluebunch wheatgrass Aster Canada wild-rye Annual bluegrass 88 Table A-6 SM 7 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Degraded Dystric Brunisol A knoll within the Similkameen Mining operation 1170 m 0-5% Glacial t i l l and rock Rock knob Moderately well HORIXON Cm LFH 2-0 Ae 0-2 Greyish brown (10 YR 5/2), sandy loam, structureless, many fine distinct roots Bhm 2-5 Greyish brown (10 YR 5/2), loam, weak subangular blocky, few find distinct roots BC 5-30 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), weak subangular blocky, few find distinct roots C 30-42 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), loamy sand, structureless R 42+ DOMINANT VEGETATION Douglas F i r Rose False-box Pinegrass Lodgepole Pine Buffalo berry Bearberryj Western wheatgrass Sedge 89 Table A-7 SM 8 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Degraded Dystric Brunisol Kennedy Lake Road 1170 5 - 10% S Colluvium and glacial t i l l T i l l slope Moderately well HORIZON LFH Ae Bm BC Cm 3 - 0 0-2 2-25 25 - 58 58+ Light brownish grey (10 YR 6/2), sandy loam, structureless, abundant fine distinct roots Brown (10 YR 5/3), gravelly sandy loam, weak subangular blocky, many fine distinct roots Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), gravelly sandy loam, structureless, few find distinct roots Brown (10 YR 4/3), gravelly sandy loam, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Engleman Spruce Rose Douglas Fir Lodgepole Pine Flasebox Twinflower Pinegrass 90 Table A-8 SM 20 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class HORIZON Cm Ah 0-20 B+ 20-55 Cca 55+ Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem N.E. Princeton townsite adjacent Granby tailings 780 m 2-5% N.W. Galcial t i l l Hummock t i l l plain Well drained Very dark greyish brown (10 YR 3/2), gravelly silty clay loam, medium granular - medium blocky, abundant fine distinct rooting Brown (10 YR 5/3)» gravelly silty clay loam, medium granular - medium blocky, many fine distinct roots Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), gravelly s i l t loam, structureless. DOMINANT VEGETATION Lower grassland 91 Table A-9 WATER RETENTION DATA  SIMLKAMEEN AND COPPER MOUNTAIN TAILINGS  WASTE ROCK DUMPS (FINE FRACTION) -1/10 bar -1/3 bar -9/10 bar -3 bar -15 bar A.W.S.C. Sample gm.gm gm/gm gm/gm gm/gm gm/ gm gm/gm Similkameen mine waste rock dumps P-1 A .281 .216 .176 .127 .112 .169 P-2A .171 .130 .112 .083 .076 .095 P-3A .176 .140 .110 .085 .072 .104 P-4A .174 .136 .108 .083 .074 .100 P-5A .174 .131 .108 .082 .068 .106 P-6A .147 .136 .107 .084 .068 .079 P-7B .178 .154 .119 .087 .081 .097 P-8A .173 .152 .111 .081 .077 .096 P-11A .174 .155 .121 .081 .072 .102 P-12A .201 .157 .110 .088 .075 .126 P-13A .212 .156 .115 .094 .080 .132 P-14A .205 .144 .121 .094 .090 .115 Sand Berm P-1 OA .100 .074 .050 .039 .038 .062 Copper Mountain Tailings Layer A .143 .084 .038 .028 .027 .116 Layer B .115 .065 .032 .024 .022 .093 Layer C .160 .123 .043 .031 .027 .133 92 Table A-10 PRINCETON AREA SOIL SITES PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS Sample # Horizon % . 2 mm % Sand % S i l t I Clay Textural Class SM-1 Ae 74 69 28 3 Sandy loam Bm 59 71 27 2 Sandy loam BC -- — — -C 37 93 4 3 loam SM-4 Ae 71 41 51 8 S i l t loam BM 35 45 52 3 S i l t loam BC 37 50 48 2 S i l t loam C 68 57 35 8 Sandy loam SM-5 Ae 57 50 38 12 Loam Bt 73 52 41 7 Sandy loam C 37 71 23 6 Sandy loam SM-6 Ae 77 51 39 10 Loam BM 65 50 41 8 Loam C 78 56 34 10 Sandy loam SM-7 Ae mm — _ — mm mm Bhm 88 54 37 9 Sandy loam BC 76 48 40 12 Loam C 52 56 29 15 Sandy loam SM-8 Ae 69 55 36 9 Sandy loam BM 54 61 25 14 Sandy loam BC 67 64 28 8 Sandy loam C 66 59 29 12 Sandy loam SM-20 Ah 54 -58 26 16 Sandy loam Bt 51 53 30 17 Sandy loam Cca 66 70 25 5 Sandy loam 93 PRINCETON AREA SOIL SITES WATER RETENTION DATA AND CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITIES Table A-11 nple and rizon -1/10 bar gm/gm -1/3 bar gm/gm - 15 bar gm/gm A.W.S.C. gm/gm A.W.S.C. gm/gm corrected f o r fragments A.W.S.C. cm/cm C .E ,C. 2mm f r a c t i o Meg/100 gm -1: Ae .332 .234 .140 .192 .142 .170 15.5 Bm .232 .164 .055 .177 .104 .125 . 7.4 BC .114 .096 .039 .075 .037 .044 C .045 .037 .030 .015 .005 .007 4.9 -4: Ae .392 .085 .307 .218 .273 13.6 Bm .296 .072 .224 .078 .098 13.8 BC .172 .060 .112 .041 .051 C .117 .071 .046 .031 .039 10.8 -5: Ae • • .200 .066 .134 .076 .096 10.7 Bt .272 .185 .084 .188 .137 .174 14.3 C .206 .138 .085 .121 .044 .056 19.1 -6: Ae .253 .089 .164 .126 .169 Bm .158 .106 .052 .034 .046 C .222 .137 .063 .159 .124 .166 -7: Ae .343 .256 .079 .264 .232 .278 Bhm .200 .158 .060 .140 .106 .127 BC .176 .146 .073 .103 .053 .064 C .108 .031 .025 .083 .042 .053 -8: Ae .217 .164 .059 .158 .109 .121 10.7 Bm .177 .135 .069 .108 .058 .064 11.5 BC .225 .155 .062 .163 .109.- .121 C .222 .162 .076 .146 .096 .106 13.1 -20: Ah .244 .159 .084 - .160 .086 .086 16.1 Bt .223 .140 .081 .142 .072 .072 12.6 Cca .222 .159 .063 .159 .105 .105 10.8 SELECTED CLIMATIC DATA* Jan. Feb. March A p r i l May June Jul y Aug. P r e c i p i t a t i o n (mm) Princeton 464 350 183 147 254 305 264 251 Highland Va l l e y 259 38 132 206 196 213 10 142 Kimberley 412 292 221 183 320 523 218 330 Mean Temperature (°C) Princeton -7.8 -3.3 -0.5 6.7 11.1 .4.4 17.8 16.6 Highland Va l l e y 07.8 -1.1 -0.5 2.8 7.2 13.9 15.5 15.0 Kimberley -6.5 -4.9 -1.7 5.5 10.5 14.4 17.8 16.6 Monthley Extremes (°c) Princeton Max 5.5 8.3 15.5 23.8 27.2 31.1 36.6 36.6 Min -22.2 -15.0 -16.1 -5.5 -4.4 1.6 2.8 0.5 Highland Max 5.0 9.4 7.2 12.2 21.6 28.9 30.0 31.6 Va l l e y Min -27.2 -15.0 -18.9 -8.9 -3.9 -1.1 0.5 2.8 Kimberley Max 3.3 11.7 10.0 18.9 23.3 28.3 30.0 32.2 Min -17.2 -18.9 -21.1 -3.9 -3.3 mm 6.1 0.5 * Taken from Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, Report f or 1965 and 1970. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Mean Winter Snow 206 267 417 493 3,602 14,986 419 79 635 610 2,939 15,773 252 274 348 424 3,797 15,290 12.8 6.7 -1.1 -5.2 5.5 8.9 3.9 -3.3 -7.8 3.9 11.7 5.5 2.2 -6.7 5.0 26.1 21.6 13.9 5.0 — -5.0 -5.0 -10.5 -23.9 — — 25.0 23.9 12.8 4.4 — — -5.0 -10.0 -27.2 -22.8 — — 22.2 20.5 12.8 6.7 -- — -5.0 -2.2 -13.9 -18.9 ... 96 Table A-14 HV 1 Classification Location Elevation Slope and Aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Degraded Dystric Brunisol Vest of Bethlehem Mine 1400 m 3 - % S Glacial f l u v i a l outwash Outwash fan Moderately well drained HORIZON LPH Ae Cm 5 - 0 0-3 Bm1 3-10 Bm2 10 - 80 80+ Light grey (10 YR 6/1) gravelly s i l t loam, structureless, abundant fine distinct roots Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), gravelly s i l t loam, very weak subangular blocky, abundant fine distinct roots Light brownish grey (10 YR 6/2), gravelly sandy loam, structureless, few fine distinct roots Dark yellowish brown (10 YR 4/4)» gravelly sandy loam, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Willow Douglas F i r Buffalo berry Trembling Aspen Rose Bearberry Twinflower Timber milk vetch Pinegrass 97 Table A-15 HV 2 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Orthic Eutric Brunisol North of Witches Brook 1300 m 10 - 15% S Colluvium Colluvial slope Moderately well drained HORIZON Cm Ah 0-3 BC 3-10 10 - 20 20+ Dark greyish brown (10 YR 4/2), loam, very weak subangular blocky, many common fine roots Greyish brown (10 YR 5/2), gravelly s i l t loam, very weak subangular blocky, few distinct fine roots Light brownish grey (10 YR 6/2), gravelly loamy sand, structureless Greyish brown (10 YR 5/2), gravelly loamy sand, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Douglas Pir Rose Ponderosa Pine Juniper Lodgepole Pine Bearberry Pussytoes Pinegrass Bluebunch wheatgrass 98 Table A-HT 3 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Orthic Regosol Floodplain at Witches Brook 1280 m • • Alluvium Floodplain Poorly drained HORIZON Cm H 12-0 C1 C2 0-38 38+ Very dark brown (10 YR), structureless, many fine distinct roots Yellowish, brown (10 YR 5/6), mottled, sandy loam, structureless, few coarse banded H layers Greyish brown (10 YR 5/2), mottled, sandy loam, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Bog birch Avens Annual bluegrass Willow Chickweed Strawberry White clover 99 Table A-17 HV 4 Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage Class Degraded Dystric Brunisol Knoll protruding into Witches Brook 1300 m 5% W Outwash Kame Moderately well drained HORIZON Cm LFH 2 - 0 Ae 0 - 1 Bm BC 10 10 - 32 32+ Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2), gravelly sandy loam, structureless, abundant fine distinct roots Brown (10 YR 5/3), gravelly loamy sand, structureless, abundant fine distinct roots Light brownish gray (10 YR 6/2), gravelly loamy sand, structureless, many fine distinct roots Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/4), gravelly sand, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Engleman Spruce Buffalo berry Juniper Bearberry Twinflower Timber milk vetch Pinegrass HV 5 1 0 0 Table A-C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Location E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage c l a s s Orthic Gray L u v i s o l Near O.K. Mine 1900 m 3 - 6 % W G l a c i a l t i l l T i l l slope Moderately w e l l drained HORIZON LF Ae Bt Cgj Cm 8 - 0 0 - 5 5 - 3 5 35+ Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2), g r a v e l l y s i l t loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , many coarse d i s t i n c t roots Grayish brown (10 YR 5/2), g r a v e l l y c l a y loam, weak subangular blocky, few coarse d i s t i n c t roots Brown (10 YR 4/3), g r a v e l l y c l a y loam, str u c t u r e l e s s DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Engl etna n Spruce Willow Alder Rose Twinflower Lupine Pinegrass HV 10 101 Table A-Classification Location Elevation Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage class Orthic Sombric Brunisol Lacustrine plain adjacent Witches Brook 1250 m Lacustrine sediments Lacustrine plain Moderately well HORIZON Cm Ah 0 - 1 2 Ahe Bm BCgj Cgj 12 - 25 25 - 30 30 - 42 42+ Dark grayish brown (10 YR 5/2), s i l t y loam, weak subangular blocky, many fine distinct roots Light brownish gray (10 YR 6/2), s i l t y loam, weak subangular blocky, many fine distinct roots Dark yellowish brown (lo YR 4/4), s i l t y loam, blocky, few fine distinct roots Light gray (10 YR 6/1), loam, structureless Light gray (10 YR 6/1), loam, structureless b l u e g r a s s w h e a t g r a s s s e d g e w h i t e c l o v e r d a n d e l i o n p a s t u r e sage c i n q u e f o i l 102 Table A-20 HV 11 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L o c a t i o n E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent m a t e r i a l Landform Drainage c l a s s Degraded D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l Sand cut on O.K. mine road 1500 m 10 - 20% N G l a c i a l f l u v i a l outwash Outwash D e l t a W ell drained HORIZON Cm LF 1 - 0 Ae 0 - 3 Bm 3 - 3 2 32+ L i g h t brownish gray (10 YR 6/2), g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , many f i n e d i s t i n c t roots Brown (7.5 YR 5/4), g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s many f i n e d i s t i n c t r oots Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4), g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Engelmann Spruce Gooseberry Black twiiu.berry - A r n i c a Twinflower Feather moss 103 Table A-21 WATER RETENTION DATA BETHLEHEM AND LORNEX MINE DUMPS AND TAILINGS (Pine Fraction) Sample -1/10 bar gm/gm -1/3 bar gm/gm -9/10 bar gm/gm -3 bar gm/gm -15 bar gm/gm A.W.! gm/gi B-1A .178 .167 .112 .084 .066 .112 B-2A .170 .146 .103 .114 .061 .100 B-3A .189 .163 .112 .082 .078 .111 B-4A .171 .165 .139 .078 .063 .107 B-5A .174 .158 .102 .072 .054 .120 L-1A .167 .154 .108 .081 .059 .108 L-1C .152 .144 .086 .064 .057 .095 L-2A .188 .164 .115 .081 .O64 .124 L-3A .167 .159 .113 .078 ..'057 .110 Lornex Tailings 1 .223 .178 .159 .057 .052 .171 Lornex Tailings 2 .352 .326 .231 .134 .098 .218 Bethlehem Talings Sand .074 .074 .027 .021 .019 .055 104 Table A-22 HIGHLAND VALLEY AREA SOILS PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS Sample # Horizon % 2 mm % Sand % S i l t % Clay Textural Class HV-1 Ae 68 73 22 5 Sandy loam Bm1 68 69 27 4 Sandy loam Bm2 34 73 15 12 Sandy loam C 53 72 15 13 Sandy loam HV-2 Ah 95 78 19 3 Loamy sand Bm 90 • • • • • • BC 90 • • • • • • C 95 80 17 3 Loamy sand HV-3 H 100 • * • • • • C1 100 74 18 8 Sandy loam HV-4 Ae 75 66 27 7 Sandy loam Bm 65 • • * • • • BC 61 73 21 6 Sandy loam C 55 71 18 11 Sandy loam HV-5 Ae 75 • • • • • • Bt 77 57 35 8 Sandy loam Cgj 74 46 32 22 Loam HV-10 Ah 100 • • • • • • Ahe 100 46 43 11 Loam - Bm 100 45 44 11 Loam BCgj 100 66 16 18 Sandy loam Cgj 100 45 37 18 Loam HV-11 Ae 58 22 63 15 S i l t loam Bm 30 71 15 15 Sandy loam C 32 75 10 15 Sandy loam 105 HIGHLAND VALLEY AREA SOIL SITES WATER RETENTION DATA AND CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITIES Table A-23 ample and srizon -1/10 bar gm/gm -1/3 bar gm/gm -15 bar gm/gm A 0W • S • C • gm/gm A.W.S.C. gm/gm corrected for fragments A.W.S.C. cm/ cm C .E .C. 2mm fractic Meg/100 gm IV-1: Ae .234 .143 .072 .162 .110 .100 Bm .215 .141 .067 .148 .101 .092 C .111 .092 .039 .072 .038 .035 [V-2: Ah .239 .148 .076 .163 .155 .237 15.8 C .116 .062 .032 .084 .080 .122 5.5 V-3 : H 1.018 .685 .333 .330 .310 114.5 Cl .154 .116 .060 .094 .094 .147 8.2 V-5: Bt .267 .128 .098 .169 .130 .161 13.9 Cgj .247 .183 .116 .131 .097 .120 32.8 V10: Ahe _ _ — .343 .210 .133 .133 .137 Bm .386 .229 .157 .147 .162 27.2 Cgj .123 .067 .056 .056 .058 9.2 V l l : Bm .156 .107 .066 .090 .027 .031 13.9 C .115 .081 .055 .060 .019 .022 10.6 ST 1 107 Table A-25 Classification Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol Location N.E. Sullivan H i l l Elevation 1430 m Slope and aspect 3 - 5% S Parent material T i l l and residual rock Landfbrm T i l l slope Drainage class Moderately well HORIZON CM LFH 1-0 Ae 0-8 Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), gravelly s i l t loam, platey structure, many fine distinct roots Bf 8-25 B r o w n i s h ; y e l l o w (10 YR 6/6), gravelly s i l t loam, weak subangular blocks, few fine distinct roots BC 25 - 40 Light yellowish brown (10 YR 6/4), gravelly s i l t loam, very weak subangular blocks, few fine distinct roots C 40+ Light brownish grey (10 YR 6/2), gravelly s i l t loam, structureless DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Sitka alder Buffalo berry Juniper Grouseberry Pinegrass Twinflower SV 2 108 Table A-26 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Location E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent material Landform Drainage c l a s s HORIZON CM LFH 2-0 Ae 0 - 8 Bf 8 - 1 8 BC 18 - 30 C 30+ Orthic Humo-ferric Podzol S,W. of S u l l i v a n H i l l 1500 m 5 - 8 % N.W. G l a c i o - f l u v i a l outwash Hummocky outwash Well drained Light brownish (10 YR 6/2), sandy loam, st r u c t u r e l e s s , many coarse d i s t i n c t roots. Yellowish brown (10 YR 5/6), very weak sub-angular blocks, few f i n e d i s t i n c t roots Light brownish grey (10 YR 6/2), sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , few f i n e roots Greyish brown (10 YR 5/2), loamy sand, str u c t u r e l e s s DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine S i t k a Alder Western Larch Red twinberry Grouseberry Pinegrass 109 Table A-27 SV 3 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L o c a t i o n E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent m a t e r i a l Landform Drainage c l a s s Note O r t h i c Humo-ferric Podzol Adjacent to S i l i c e o u s t a i l i n g s 1130 m 0 - 2% T i l l T i l l p l a i n Moderately w e l l A f f e c t e d by dust from s i l i c a t a i l i n g s HORIZON Cm LFH 3 - 0 Bf 0 - 2 0 BC 20 - 32. 32+ Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/6), s i l t loam, very weak s t r u c t u r a l b l o c k s , many f i n e d i s t i n c t roots Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4), s i l t loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), s i l t loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s DOMINANT VEGETATION Ponderose Pine T a l l mahonia Bearberry Pinegrass Douglas F i r Western Larch 110 Table A-28 SV 4 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L o c a t i o n E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent m a t e r i a l Landform Drainage c l a s s Sombric E u t r i c B r u n i s o l South of t a i l i n g area 1100m 0 G l a c i o - f l u v i a l outwash Outwash p l a i n Well drained HORIZON Cm Ah 0 - 2 0 Very dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 3/2), g r a v e l l y loam, weak crumbs, abundant f i n e d i s t i n c t r oots Bm 20 - 40 Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4), g r a v e l l y sandy loam, very f i n e medium subangular b l o c k s , many f i n e d i s t i n c t f o o t s C 40+ L i g h t brownish gray (10 YR 6/2), g r a v e l l y loamy sand, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , few f i n e r o o t s DOMINANT VEGETATION Ponderosa Pine Fleabane Bearberry Pens temon Idaho fescue Columbia needlegrass Annual bluegrass 111 Table A-29 SV 5 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L o c a t i o n E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent m a t e r i a l Landform Drainage c l a s s O r t h i c Humo-ferric Podzol South of i r o n t a i l i n g s 1130 M 0 - 2 S G l a c i a l - f l u v i a l outwash and a e o l i a n Outwash p l a i n Well drained HORIZON Cm LFH 2 - 0 B f l 0 - 1 0 Bf2 BC 10 - 30 30 - 50 50+ Ye l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/6), g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , many f i n e d i s t i n c t roots Brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6), g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , few f i n e d i s t i n c t r o o t s Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4), very g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , few f i n e d i s t i n c t roots Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), very g r a v e l l y sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s DOMINANT VEGETATION Western Larch B u f f a l o b e r r y Lodgepole Pine Bearberry A r n i c a S p i r e a Pinegrass Idaho fescue SV 6 112 Table A-30 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L o c a t i o n E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent M a t e r i a l Landform Drainage c l a s s O r t h i c Humo-Perric Podzol North of Kimberley o f f o l d Cherry Creek r a i l w a y 1270 m 5% S T i l l T i l l slope Moderately w e l l HORIZON Cm LFH 7 - 0 Ae 0 - 1 Bf BC 1 - 2 0 20 - 35 35+ Dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 4/2), g r a v e l l y s i l t loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , many d i s t i n c t roots Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/6), g r a v e l l y s i l t loam, weak subangular b l o c k s , many d i s t i n c t roots Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4), g r a v e l l y sandy loam - loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , few roo t s Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), g r a v e l l y sandy loam -s i l t loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Engleman Spruce Western Larch Saskatoon.berry B u f f a l o b e r r y Rose Bearberry Pinegrass Twinflower Quack-grass H e a r t - l e a f a r n i c a SV 7 113 Table A-31 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L o c a t i o n E l e v a t i o n Slope and aspect Parent m a t e r i a l Landform Drainage c l a s s O r t h i c Humo-ferric Podzol South of Kimberley - Windermere Highway 1230 m 3 - 5 % S G l a c i a l - f l u v i a l outwash Outwash p l a i n (hummocky) Well drained HORIZON Cm LFH 3 - 0 Ahe 0 - 1 Bf C l C2 16 16 - 32 32+ Abundant coarse r o o t s Pale brown (10 YR 6/3), sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s , many coarse discontinuous roots Brownish yellow (10 YR 6/6), sandy loam, very weak subangular b l o c k s , many coarse discontinuous r o o t s L i g h t gray (10 YR 7/1), g r a v e l l y loamy sand -sandy loam, s t r u c t u r e l e s s Very pale brown (10 YR 8/4), very g r a v e l l y loamy sand, s t r u c t u r e l e s s DOMINANT VEGETATION Lodgepole Pine Western Larch Willow B u f f a l o b e r r y Juniper Rose Sp i r e a Vetch Bearberry Western wheatgrass Annual bluegrass Pinegrass Columbia needle grass 114 WATER RETENTION DATA - SULLIVAN MINE TAILINGS Table A-32 -1/10 bar -1/3 bar -9/10 bar - 3 bar - 15 bar A.W.S Sample gm/ gm gm/gm gm/gm gm/ gm gm/ gm gm/gi •SF-1A .332 .218 .166 .189 .143 SF-1B — .397 .237 .212 .157 .240 •SF-1C — .316 .235 .131 .128 .188 •SF-1D — .321 .173 .158 .108 .213 SF-1E ' — .276 .251 .247 .123 .153 i SF-3A — .291 .215 .208 .078 .212 SF-3B — .275 .148 .112 .051 .224 ' "SF-3C — .347 .206 .143 .067 .280 •SF-3D — .392 .321 .220 .133 .259 •SF-4A — .383 .169 .202 .196 .187 •SF-4B — .242 .206 .114 .129 .113 -SF-4C — .371 .222 .172 .132 .239 •SF-4D — .223 .162 .121 .105 .118 SF-4E .292 .223 .147 .099 .193 ' SS-IA .301 .152 .056 .042 .031 .121 / VSS - lB .456 .293 .223 .143 .119 .174 7'."SS-1C .327 .197 .134 .109 .095 .102 SS-1D .390 .243 .206 .102 .090 .153 115 Table A-33 KIMBERLEY AREA SOIL SITES PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS Sample # Horizon % 2 mm % Sand 7o S i l t 7. Clay T e x t u r a l Class SV-1 Ae 90 24 67 9 S i l t loam Bf no 62 35 58 7 S i l t loam C 71 20 66 14 S i l t loam SV-2 Ae 62 62 36 2 Sandy loan Bf 39 72 22 7 Sandy loam BC •k- — — — C 27 85 9 6 Loamy sand SV-3 Bf 62 25 65 10 S i l t loam BC 64 28 66 6 S i l t loam C 49 35 54 11 S i l t loam SV-4 Ah 57 52 37 11 Loam Bin 36 66 27 7 Sandy loam C 41 77 20 3 Loamy sand SV-5 B f l 91 73 22 5 Sandy loam Bf 2 75 69 25 6 Sandy loam BC C 95 73 22 5 Sandy loam SV-6 Ae at mm mm mm mm mm mm — Bf 88 43 51 6 Loam BC 47 48 44 8 Loam C 49 43 48 9 Loam SV-7 Ahe mm mm _ _ _ _ _ — Bf 69 66 32 2 Sandy loam C l 85 78 18 4 Loamy sand C2 37 84 11 5 Loamy sand 116 Table A-34 KIMBERLEY AREA SOIL SITES  WATER RETENTION DATA AND CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITIES Sample and -1/10 bar - I/3 bar -15 bar A.W.S.C. A.W.S.C. A.W.S.C. C.E.C. horixon gm/gm gm/gm gm/gm gm/gm gm/gm cm/cm 2mm corrected fraction for Meg/lOOgm fragments SV-1: Ae * • • .311 .070 .241 .217 .297 13.0 Bf • • • .296 .063 .233 .144 .197 9.8 BC • • • .191 .043 .148 .096 .132 • • • • C • • • .124 .048 .076 .054 .074 3.2 SV-2: Bf .115 .084 .080 .035 .014 .016 31.8 C .065 .056 .023 .042 .015 .017 •6.7 SV-3: Bf • • • .324 .079 .245 .152 .149 • • • BC • • • .206 .064 .142 .091 .089 • • • C • • * .078 .O64 .014 .007 .007 • • • SV-4: Ah • • • .314 .132 .182 .104 .140 26.1 Bm .196 .130 .044 .152 .054 .073 4.9 C .172 .107 .031 .141 .058 .078 2.8 SV-5:Bf1 .201 .127 .043 .158 .144 .181 • • • BC .231 .183 .063 .168 .126 .159 • • • C .135 .085 .038 .197 .092 .116 • • • SV-6: Bf • • • .156 .110 .046 .041 .051 17.1 BC .264 .185 .052 .212 .106 .133 • • • C .293 .136 .038 .255 .124 .155 2.0 SV-7: Bf .216 .185 .069 .147 .101 .126 • • • C1 .114 .185 .035 .079 .067 .084 • • • C2 .150 .070 .027 .123 .046 .058 • • • 

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