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UBC Theses and Dissertations

No compromise - no political trading : the Marxian socialist tradition in British Columbia Johnson, Ross Alfred 1975

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NO COMPROMISE - NO POLITICAL TRADING: The Marxian S o c i a l i s t T r a d i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia by ROSS ALFRED JOHNSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952 . A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of P o l i t i c a l Science We acciypt t h i s thetfis as conforming to the r e q u i r t \ IsfeaiC^rc/ THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March,., 1975 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements fo an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Po l i t i c a l Science The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date March, 1975 ABSTRACT At the turn of the century, socialist groups of several different hues were active in B r i t i s h Columbia. Out of this variegated skein emerged the Socialist Party of Canada., For almost two decades i t dominated l e f t -wing p o l i t i c s i n B.C., wielding extensive power i n the labour movement and leaving behind i t an ideological legacy which eventually f i l t e r e d into the fledgling CCF. This study documents the conditions \tfhich led to the SPC's ascendancy, discusses i t s relationship with the early labour movement and examines the extent of Marxist influence on later socialist developments i n the province. The dissertation employs an hi s t o r i c a l approach, supplementing library resources with correspondence and interviews with members of the old SPC. When reformist attempts of the late nineteenth century failed to improve conditions for the B.C. worker, labourism lost out to radicalism. The SPC was national in name only, for i t s doctrinaire Marxism evcked a significant response only in the unique p o l i t i c a l , industrial and social milieu of B r i t i s h Columbia. The rapid resource exploitation which gave rise to empires early i n the province's history created a clas s i c a l Marxist situation i n some areas. The absence of party alignments in the early years of socialist a c t i v i t y , plus a following of radical immigrants from Br i t a i n , the U.S., and eastern Canada afforded the Marxists a large audience to which they addressed themselves with tireless propaganda efforts. Many SPC members were active i n the labour movement as well, and were able to prevent the formation of a labour party for many years. When other parties f i n a l l y did form with labour support, they were much farther to the l e f t i i i than were e a r l i e r labour p a r t i e s . In l a r g e p a r t t h i s was due to the ambitious educat ion program which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the s o c i a l i s t movement from i t s i n c e p t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y became the M a r x i s t ' s c h i e f r a i s o n d ' e t r e . Candidates were run s o l e l y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes . Once e l e c t e d , however, SPC l e g i s l a t o r s found themselves i n a balance of power p o s i t i o n f o r a time and consequently t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e accomplishments were c o n s i d e r a b l e . The f a i l u r e to adapt to M a r x i s t theory to changing B . C . c i rcumstances u l t i m a t e l y cost the Par ty c r e d i b i l i t y . Unable to withstand i n t e r n a l pressures or to respond to the p o l i t i c a l chal lenges of World War I, i n f l a t i o n , c o n s c r i p t i o n , labour u n r e s t , and the Russian R e v o l u t i o n , the SPC was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d by other groups on the l e f t . However, the P a r t y ' s adherence to a one-plank no-compromise p l a t f o r m d i d preserve the M a r x i s t i d e a l i n the province f o r l a t e r s o c i a l i s t groups. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABBREVIATIONS v GENESIS - SOCIALIST PARTIES AND PRESS v l CHAPTER I. I n t r o d u c t i o n _ 1 I I . Roots and Beginnings 51 I I I . Changing P o l i t i c a l Alignments, 1900-1903 78 IV. Coming Together: Labourism to S o c i a l i s m 108 V. The S o c i a l i s t Party of B r i t i s h Columbia 150 VI. Years of Success and F r u s t r a t i o n 196 V I I . F i s s i o n and Decline of Revolutionary S o c i a l i s m 277 V I I I . New Alignments on the B. C. L e f t 324 IX. Conclusion 369 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 395 APPENDICES 1 P l a t f o r m and C o n s t i t u t i o n of the SLP 405 2 P l a t f o r m of the USLP 4 l 6 3 P l a t f o r m of the BCSP 422 4 P l a t f o r m of the SPBC 427 5 C o n s t i t u t i o n of the SPBC 429 6 C o n s t i t u t i o n of the SDPC 436 7 S o c i a l i s t Manifesto - Vancouver School E l e c t i o n s 444 8 Conditions f o r J o i n i n g the Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l 446 9 C o n s t i t u t i o n of the CLP 449 10 .Platform and Manifesto of the ILP 454 11 P l a t f o r m of the RSPC 458 12 Ontario SPC 460 13 SPC Members i n Union O f f i c e s and Other P a r t i e s 466 ABBREVIATIONS AFL American Federation of Labor ALU American Labor Union BCSP B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l i s t Party BCFL B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Labour CCC Cooperative Commonwealth Federation CLP Canadian Labour Party CSL Canadian S o c i a l i s t League DEC Dominion Executive Committee FLP . Federated Labour Party ILP Independent Labour Party IWW I n d u s t r i a l Workers of the World MMLPA Miners' and Mine Labourers' P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n NDP New Democratic Party OBU One B i g Union PEC P r o v i n c i a l Executive Committee PPP P r o v i n c i a l Progressive Party RSPC Revolutionary S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada SDPC S o c i a l Democratic Party of Canada SLP S o c i a l i s t Labor.Party SPA S o c i a l i s t Party of America SPBC S o c i a l i s t Party of B r i t i s h Columbia SPC S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada STLA S o c i a l i s t Trades and Labor A l l i a n c e TLC Trades and Labour Congress of Canada UBRE United Brotherhood of Railway Employees UMWA United Mine Workers of America USLP United S o c i a l i s t Labor Party VTLC Vancouver Trades and Labour C o u n c i l WFM Western Federation of Miners. V I GENESIS OF SOCIALIST PARTIES IN B. C 1898 S o c i a l i s t Labor C i t i z e n and Country Can. Cooperative Party(Vancouver' 1899 Vancouver S o c i a l i s t Club Nanaimo S o c i a l i s t Club ,9Q0 1901 1902 Commonwealth Colonies (Ruskin) S o c i a l Reform League(Toronto) Canadian S o c i a l i s t  Leagues(Oct.)Montreal and Toronto. Trade Union Support United S o c i a l i s t C h r i s t i a n Commonwealth of Canada(Langley) Canadian S o c i a l i s t League(B. C.) F i r s t J o i n t Convention of USLP and CSL i n B. C.(Oct 1 B. C. S o c i a l i s t Party (Nanaimo S o c i a l i s t Club d e c l i n e s to j o i n l Feb. Nanaimo Soc. Club imports Kingsley Revolutionary S o c i a l i s t Pa-rty of Canada(April) Pro v i n c i a l ' . Progressive  P a r t y ( A p r i l ) f i n i s h e d w i t h i n year S o c i a l i s t Party of B r i t i s h Columbia(Sept.) 1903 1904 S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada(Dec.) Ont. Soc. Pty.(Oct. 1901) Man. Soc. Pty.(Nov. 1 9 0 2 ) Fred'ericton Soc. League SPC v i i F i r s t i n mfej j o r s p l i t PC E. Burns suspended forms S o c i a l . .-.Demit P a r t y o f B. C . ( A p r i l ) • U k r a i n i a n S o c i a l :..Dem. P a r t y ( N o v . ) Myr S t e c h i n s o n M a n i t o b a S o c i a l •Democratic P a r t y  ( d i s s i d e n t SPC groups) • B e r l i n , Ont. L o c a l , et a l e x p e l l e d ( M a y ) Canadian S o c i a l i s t F e d e r a t i o n • — ^ R e s i g n a t i o n o f Hawthorn-t h w a i t e - s u b s e q u e n t e x p u l s i o n o f Nanaimo L o c a l ( A p r i l ) . N a n a i m o L o c a l t o SDP B. C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour endorses p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l i s m - g i v e s SPC page i n B..C. F e d e r a t i o n i s t F e d e r a t e d Labour  Party(some SPC men-remnants (5f SDP) l< t S o c i a l D e mocratic P a r t y of-'.Canada •Ladysmith, et a l l e a v e S P C - a f f i l i a t e w i t h SDP End o f SDP 1919 FLP SPC v i l l 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927  1928  1930  1933 FLP f e d e r a t e s w i t h CLP Workers' Party(Communist) formed i n Toronto(Dec.) SPG s p l i t over a f f i l -i a t i o n w i t h T h i r d I n t e r -n a t i o n a l - h a l f SPC t o Worker's P a r t y TLCC forms Canadian Labour  P a r t y t o a c t as f e d e r -a t i o n f o r P r o v i n c i a l Labour P a r t i e s CLP formed i n B, >l F i n a l i s s u e o f C l a r i o n (August)SPC f i n i s h e d F e d e r a t e d Labour P a r t y South Vancouver and New Westminster Labour P a r t i e s I Independent Labour P a r t y ( s t i l l aff:. .with CLP) 1 ILP breaks w i t h CLP Workers' P a r t y • f e d e r a t e s w i t h CLP Workers ' Party, becomes Communistt P a r t y End o f CLP F i r s t C onference o f Western Labour P a r t i e s ILP becomes I L P ( S o c i a l i s t ) t h e n S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f B. C X-S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f B. C. f e d e r a t e s w i t h C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ( C C F ) i x GENESIS OF SOCIALIST AND LABOUR PRESS IN B. C 1898 1900 1902 1903 1909 1911 1923 1924 1926 Lardeau E a g l e Canadian S o c i a l i s t Western S o c i a l i s t Western C l a r i o r i ' f -1918 (Red 1919 ( I n d F l a g ) c a t o r ) WestJern C l a r i o n C i t i z e n and Country Nanaimo C l a r i o n UBRE S t r i k e B u l l e t i n Western Wage 'Earner B. C. F e d e r a t i o n i s . t ILA S t r i k e B u l l e t i n B. C. Labour B u l l e t i n ( J a n . ) Labour S t a t e s m a n ( A p r i l ) 1925 Western C l a r i o n ceases p u b l i c a t i o n ( A u g . ) Canadian Farmer-Labour Advo c a t e Canadian Labour Advocate Ceases p u b l i c a t i o n X ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e h e l p o f my a d v i s o r s , A l a n C a i r n s and W a l t e r Young, who spent much time r e a d i n g m a n u s c r i p t d r a f t s . They gave me v a l u a b l e a d v i c e , encouragement and c r i t i c i s m . I a l s o r e c e i v e d sound a d v i c e from S t u a r t J a m i e s o n , Donald B l a k e and P a u l Tennant. Anne i f a n d l e , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s L i b r a r i a n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , gave u n s t i n t i n g l y o f h e r t i m e . Most p a r t i c u l a r l y I want t o thank my w i f e O l i v e : much o f h e r v a l u a b l e time has been spent i n h e l p i n g me and s u f f e r i n g s i l e n t l y while. I s t r u g g l e d ; she was always e n c o u r a g i n g . The weaknesses r e m a i n i n g i n s p i t e o f a l l t h i s a s s i s t a n c e a re my own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . R e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s and f o r t h e g a t h e r i n g o f m a t e r i a l f o r the Angus M a c l n n i s C o l l e c t i o n was a s s i s t e d by a g r a n t from the Boag F o u n d a t i o n . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The f i n a l i s s u e o f the Western C l a r i o n o f 1925 I s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n o s t a l g i a and r e g r e t . While the members o f Canada's l e a d i n g M a r x i s t p a r t y c o u l d l o o k back on a g e n e r a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y and l e a d e r s h i p , r e s u l t i n g at times i n s u c c e s s , they had t o f a c e the unhappy t r u t h t h a t t h e i r l o n g e d - f o r r e v o l u t i o n had not m a t e r i a l i z e d . As J a c k H a r r i n g t o n , a prominent p a r t i s a n , w r o t e , Prom the p r o p h e t i c p r e a c h i n g o f c a p i t a l ' s c o l l a p s e and e x h o r t i n g t o the r e v o l u t i o n we have passed t h r o u g h and beyond back t o a p e r i o d v o i d and empty o f any r e v o l u t i o n a r y o u t l o o k . 1 A f t e r more th a n twenty y e a r s o f p r o s e l y t i z i n g i n the i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s o f the West and the o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s o f Canada, the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada (SPC) was d i s b a n d i n g . F o r a good p o r t i o n o f the pa s t two decades, the p a r t y had been t h e dominant f o r c e o f Canada's L e f t , i t s p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s e s o u t s t r i p p i n g t h o s e o f b o t h l a b o u r and 2 the v a r i o u s brands o f n o n - M a r x i s t s o c i a l i s m . I n 1925 Western C l a r i o n , J u l y - A u g . , 1925 . O f f i c i a l organ o f the SPC, h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as the C l a r i o n . See Chapter V I , pp. 2 5 1 - 2 6 9 . 2 however, i t was c l e a r t h a t the L e f t o f the f u t u r e b e l o n g e d t o o t h e r s . From a membership i n the t h o u s a n d s , the SPC had d w i n d l e d t o a s m a l l group o f p o l i t i c a l a s c e t i c s . Those o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s who sought a l e f t - w i n g a l t e r n a t i v e now marched ttro the beat o f a d i f f e r e n t drum. T h i s i s the s t o r y o f the M a r x i s t phase i n the h i s t o r y o f the L e f t i n B. C , an attempt t o u n r a v e l the t a n g l e d s k e i n o f s o c i a l i s t groups i n o r d e r t o h e l p e x p l a i n the i n f l u e n c e of M a r x i s t s o c i a l i s m on the p o l i t i c s o f the p r o v i n c e . I n No Power G r e a t e r P a u l P h i l l i p s d e s c r i b e s the growth o f the l a b o u r movement i n B. C. and makes r e f e r e n c e t o s o c i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e u n i o n s ; M a r t i n R o b i n i n R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s and Canadian Labour i n Canada d e a l s w i t h s o c i a l i s m and l a b o u r i n Canada; Ro n a l d Grantham i n Some  Asp e c t s o f the S o c i a l i s t Movement i n B. C , 1898-1933 p r o v i d e s some d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l . The purpose o f the p r e s e n t study i s t o do f o r s o c i a l i s m what P h i l l i p s has done f o r the l a b o u r movement, t o add t o the d e s c r i p t i v e work begun by Grantham and t o use t h i s m a t e r i a l t o s u p p o r t some e x p l a n a t o r y p r o p o s i t i o n s and r e f l e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s . To an i m p o r t a n t degree the d e s c r i p t i v e work i n t h i s a r e a has not y e t been done, and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e has not been an adequate b a s i s f o r e x p l a n a t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f u r t h e r s c h o l a r s h i p . F o r example, had the b a s i c s t o r y o f 3 the e a r l y s o c i a l i s t movement i n B.' C. been a v a i l a b l e t o W i l l i a m Rodney when he wrote h i s h i s t o r y o f the Communist P a r t y o f Canada, he would have a p p r e c i a t e d B r i t i s h Columbia's M a r x i s t e x p e r i e n c e and the o r i g i n o f the v a r i o u s s o c i a l i s t groups i n the p r o v i n c e and would, h o p e f u l l y , have a v o i d e d such erroneous s t a t e m e n t s as " B r i t i s h s o c i a l i s m and t r a d e u n i o n p r a c t i c e s were e p i t o m i z e d i n Canada by t h e S P C . . . " U n l i k e the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada does have an on-g o i n g s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n . With few e x c e p t i o n s , however, i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s t r a d i t i o n have been l i m i t e d t o the CCF/NDP. Perhaps s c h o l a r s have d i s m i s s e d the M a r x i s t s o c i a l i s t movement as an e c c e n t r i c or u n i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l c u l t whose members m i s t a k e n l y endeavoured t o a p p l y t h e i r outmoded d o c t r i n e s t o a new and d i f f e r e n t e r a . Whether "'William Rodney, S o l d i e r s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1968) , p. 8~i There are a number o f e r r o r s i n the f i r s t c h a p t e r , "Roots o f Canadian S o c i a l i s m , " which s e r v e t o g i v e a c o n f u s e d p i c t u r e o f the e x t e n t o f M a r x i s t i n f l u e n c e p r i o r t o the b e g i n n i n g s o f the Communist P a r t y o f Canada. 4 R o n a l d Grantham, Some As p e c t s o f the S o c i a l i s t  Movement i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1898-1933 (M. A. T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1 9 ^ 2 ) ; P a u l Fox " E a r l y S o c i a l i s m i n Canada" i n J . H. A i t c h i s o n , ed., The P o l i t i c a l P r o c e s s i n Canada ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ); M a r t i n R o b i n , R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s and Canadian Labour ( K i n g s t o n : I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C e n t r e , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 8 . ) p e r h a p s , because academic r e s o u r c e s have been 4 or not these e a r l y Marxists were out of tune w i t h t h e i r time, to ignore them i s to imply that they had no s i g n i f i -cant popular support, that t h e i r grievances against s o c i e t y were not r e l e v a n t , and that they had no l a s t i n g p o l i t i c a l importance. I t i s true that at no time i n i t s existence was the SPC a r e a l threat to the p o l i t i c a l s tatus quo. This i s not to say that i t s i n f l u e n c e was unimportant. Some of i t s members were e l e c t e d to the B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a l e g i s l a t u r e s and were instru m e n t a l i n having a s u b s t a n t i a l amount of l e g i s l a t i o n passed. Prom 1912 to 1915 s o c i a l i s t s were the only o p p o s i t i o n members of the B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e . In 1912 the party obtained the o f f i c i a l endorsation of the B. C. Federation of Labour, and at no time was i t without the support of a number of l o c a l labour c o u n c i l s . I t was a c t i v e i n free-speech and c i v i l - l i b e r t i e s b a t t l e s . Thus i t can be argued that i n these and other ways the party helped make the L e f t more v i s i b l e and the working c l a s s more i d e n t i f i a b l e to the r u l i n g e l i t e s . To appreciate i t s l i m i t e d , they have been spent i n other areas of study. In g e n e r a l , the L e f t i n Canada has been more f u l l y s t u d i e d than have e i t h e r the L i b e r a l s or Conservatives ^These matters are discussed i n l a t e r chapters. 5 c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e of Canada, to under-stand the complete s o c i a l i s t h e r i t a g e i n the dominion, and to discover some of the reasons f o r Marxism's f a i l u r e to win the support of the Canadian working c l a s s , i t i s essen-t i a l that the SPC and groups r e l a t e d to i t be st u d i e d . T h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e l a y not i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to gather a large f o l l o w i n g , but i n t h e i r Influence on the p o l i t i c s of the time and i n t h e i r r o l e as c a r r i e r s of ideas which i n -fluenced l a t e r important p o l i t i c a l developments i n Canada, 7 i n c l u d i n g the CCF. When K a r l Marx was w r i t i n g i n B r i t a i n , that country was at the ze n i t h of l i b e r a l l a i s s e z - f a i r e hegemony. I t , was an era of wonderment with new i n d u s t r i a l developments, and of un c e r t a i n t y and animosity at the r a p i d disappearance of many of the o l d ways. L i k e the l i b e r a l philosophers and economists of h i s age, Marx worshipped before the a l t a r of science and technology. At the same time, however, he f u l -minated against an a l i e n a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . What Marx The name and the philosophy of the S o c i a l i s t Party of Canada were taken up by another group i n Winnipeg i n 1930, and although t h i s group s t i l l e x i s t s , i t s member-ship has never r i s e n above a few dozen. The group i s not incl u d e d i n t h i s study. The Independent Labour Party ( S o c i a l i s t ) i n B. C. also took the name i n 1932 s h o r t l y before f e d e r a t i n g w i t h the CCP. 6 saw was t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t which o c c u r s d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n o f a s o c i e t y from i t s p r e i n d u s t r i a l t o i t s i n d u s t r i a l s t a g e . What he b e l i e v e d t o be t h e f i n a l s t a g e s o f c a p i t a l i s m was, i n f a c t , t h e demise o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e c a p i t a l i s m . By t h e time Das K a p i t a l was p u b l i s h e d , modern;, i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y -i n v o l v i n g l a b o u r u n i o n s , s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n and s o c i a l l e g i s -l a t i o n - w a s a l r e a d y on i t s way.. Marxism a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o t h e b r i e f p e r i o d d u r i n g which the S t a t e withdrew from i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t r a d e and commerce, and the w o r k e r s , u n o r g a n i z e d and h e l p l e s s , f a c e d i n d u s t r i a l i s t s who were buoyed up by ^ c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l p h i l o s o p h y and backed by t h e power o f t h e S t a t e . "Every s o c i e t y , " s u g g e s t s Adam Ulam, " r e a c h i n g f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n , has i t s ' M a r x i s t ' p e r i o d , when some o f the i d e a s o f Marx a r e r e l e v a n t t o i t s problems and are r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e v e r y -day s e n t i m e n t s o f the masses o f p e o p l e . . . " By t h e time o f Marx's d e a t h , however, B r i t a i n had passed t h i s p e r i o d . The e x t e n s i o n o f s o c i a l . d e m o c r a c y , t h e growth o f t r a d e u n i o n s , t h e development o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f commerce, the r i s e i n the o v e r - a l l s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g - a l l t h e s e had ta k e n the s p r i n g out o f t h e r a d i c a l p r o t e s t which had been Adam Ulam, The U n f i n i s h e d R e v o l u t i o n (New York, Random House, V i n t a g e Books, I960), p. 7-7 demonstrated i n pre-1850 B r i t a i n by the C h a r t i s t s and on the C o n t i n e n t by the 1848 u p r i s i n g s . When s o c i a l i s m f i n a l l y came t o B r i t a i n , i t was c l a s s c o n s c i o u s but not r e v o l u t i o n a r y . N e i t h e r was i t a n t i - i n d u s t r i a l . I t demanded o n l y a f a i r e r Q d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f r u i t s o f t e c h n o l o g y . A s i m i l a r development too k p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Because the " M a r x i s t s i t u a t i o n " 1 1 " ' e x i s t e d i n some areas o f the p r o v i n c e , many o f the i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h o s e a r e a s deemed Marx's i d e a s t o be r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r problems. I t was t h e c o n t i n u i n g e l e c t o r a l support from t h e s e a r e a s t h a t e n a b l e d the SPC t o grow beyond the d i s s i d e n t few f o r almost two decades. U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , the p a r t y l e a d e r s viewed t h i s 9 I b i d . , p a s s i m , argues t h a t Marxism has i n i t two elements: f i r s t , an a n t i - i n d u s t r i a l element which stems from the t r a n s i t i o n from an i n d e p e n d e n t , - u n r e g u l a t e d , p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y t o a dependent, r e g u l a t e d , i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ; t a n d second, f a i t h i n the power o f s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y t o change mankind. He argues f u r t h e r t h a t i t i s t h e f i r s t element which g i v e s Marxism i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y q u a l i t y and t h a t , once the t r a n s i t i o n from one s o c i e t y t o a n o t h e r has t a k e n p l a c e , the s t r e n g t h o f M a r x i s t s o c i a l i s m wanes and i s r e p l a c e d , i f at a l l , by a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f s o c i a l i s m . 10 i . e . The s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t i n g when c a p i t a l i s 8 support as the beginning of a c l a s s consciousness which would u l t i m a t e l y spread throughout the n a t i o n . With h i n d -s i g h t , of course, i t i s easy to see how mistaken they were, but to party t h e o r i s t s at the time the economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n seemed a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n that the time was f a s t approaching when the p r o l e t a r i a t would t u r n against the b o u r g e o i s i e . The comments of W. W. Lefeaux i n 1908 are t y p i c a l : " P e r s o n a l l y , " he s a i d , " I consider that the r e v o l u t i o n i s w e l l under weigh [ s i c ] . . .Why should we give t h i s present system more than ten years longer to l i v e ? " 1 1 Others were even more confident. To such observers i t appeared impossible that the c a p i t a l i s t s or t h e i r "executive committee", the.government, would discover that they could l i v e w ith unions, s t a t e r e g u l a t i o n , and a more equ i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the wealth As c o n d i t i o n s g r a d u a l l y began to change, the SPC continued to o f f e r an unchanging cure. They misread the s i g n i f i c a n c e concentrated i n the hands <3f a few who c o n t r o l large numbers of workers. In B. C. the s i t u a t i o n was created by the existence of a few wealthy entrepreneurs aggres-s i v e l y e x p l o i t i n g the province's n a t u r a l resources. See p. ".P. 1 1 C l a r i o n , J u l y 11, 1908. 9 o f the u n i o n s and t h e i r tendency t o produce b o u r g e o i s b e h a v i o u r i n the v e r y p e o p l e whom the p a r t y was endeavour-i n g t o "educate." They f a i l e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e c h a n g i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e towards u n i o n s and they u n d e r e s t i m a t e d the impact o f government l e g i s l a t i o n w hich was g r a d u a l l y a l l e v i a t i n g some o f the worst c o n d i t i o n s f o r the w o r k e r s . In s p i t e o f such s i g n p o s t s , the p a r t y c o n t i n u e d t o r e g a r d t h e s o c i e t y o f the t w e n t i e s as e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged from pre-war s o c i e t y o r from t h a t o f t h e t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , a l l o f which were seen as congruous w i t h Marx's m i d - n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i e t y . I n s h o r t , t hey f a i l e d t o g r a s p a c r u c i a l a s p e c t o f Marx's theory-^—that o f the dynamism of h i s t o r y — a n d t h e r e i n l a y a p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r t h e p a r t y ' s f a i l u r e t o a p p e a l t o a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g . Though M a r x i a n s o c i a l i s t s had been e x h o r t e d t o form the vanguard o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s and t o "have o v e r t h e g r e a t masses o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t the advantage o f c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g the. 12 l i n e o f march," the SPC f a i l e d u t t e r l y t o see t h a t the roadbed had s h i f t e d and t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s was t a k i n g a d i f f e r e n t r o u t e . I n consequence, t h e p a r t y f a i t h f u l ended up t a l k i n g o n l y to t h e m s e l v e s . 12 Lewis S. F e u e r , ed., Marx and E n g e l s : B a s i c  W r i t i n g s on P o l i t i c s and P h i l o s o p h y (Garden C i t y , N.Z., Doubleday and Co., Anchor Books, 1959), P- 20 10 I n B r i t i s h Columbia the M a r x i s t s o c i a l i s t t r a n d i t i o n was r e p r e s e n t e d c h i e f l y by the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Canada. The p a r t y t a ught t h a t the type of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w hich p r e v a i l e d I d u r i n g any p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d was d e t e r m i n e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s o f t h e t i m e . 1 F u r t h e r the p a r t y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t , as t e c h n o l o g y caused t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o change, t h e type o f s o c i a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l s o c h a n g e d — t h r o u g h a d i a l e c t i c a l s t r u g g l e between the c l a s s r e p r e s e n t i n g the o l d s o c i a l o r d e r and the c l a s s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e new s o c i a l o r d e r . I n M a r x i a n a n a l y s i s the v i c t o r y always goes t o tho s e r e p r e s e n t i n g the new o r d e r , s i n c e the outcome i s determined by t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s (sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as t h e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s ) o f s o c i e t y . S i n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o M a r x i a n a n a l y s i s , t h i s phenom-enon can be v e r i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e e m p i r i c a l study o f h i s t o r y , Marxism i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l i s m o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s m , s i n c e t h e outcome i s always a com-p l e t e change i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . To the SPC " r e v o l u t i o n " meant p e a c e f u l r e v o l u t i o n 13 In s i m p l e terms " p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s " a re t h e means used t o c r e a t e w e a l t h , e.g. a s h o v e l , a f i e l d , a machine, e t c . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e u s e r t o h i s t o o l s r e f e r s t o ownership o r t h e l a c k o f i t . 11 although' Athe.. p.arty. d i d not d i s c o u n t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f some b l o o d s h e d when c a p i t a l i s m was i n i t s f i n a l t h r o e s . I t was the p a r t y ' s i n t e n t i o n t o work w i t h i n the Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f a b r i c and t o secu r e r e v o l u t i o n by t e a c h i n g the masses about M a r x i a n economics and c l a s s antagonism and by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The p r o t a g o n i s t s o f " s c i e n t i f i c " s o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h -C olumbia thus remained a t l e a s t p a r t l y t r u e t o t h e i r p a r -l i a m e n t a r y h e r i t a g e . The SPC r e p r e s e n t e d the n o n - r e v i s i o n i s t s c h o o l o f M a r x i s t s - t h e y were r e v o l u t i o n a r y r a t h e r t h a n e v o l u t i o n a r y 14 s o c i a l i s t s . They h e l d t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t system s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o p r o c e e d t o i t s u l t i m a t e demise as p r e d i c t e d by Marx and t h a t s o c i a l i s t s s h o u l d not meanwhile endeavour t o ease the p a i n o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s by w o r k i n g f o r a m e l i o r a t i v e measures. The p a r t y b e l i e v e d t h a t m i t i g a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n of the w o r k i n g man w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t system would merely s e r v e t o d e l a y the a r r i v a l o f the r e v o l u t i o n however p e a c e f u l they hoped i t would be. T h i s p o s i t i o n was c e n t r a l t o many o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d by the p a r t y . The c l a s s i c work o u t l i n i n g e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s m i s Eduard B e r n s t e i n , . E v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s m (New Zork, Schocken Books, 1 9 o i l 12 "No compromise-no p o l i t i c a l t r a d i n g " — t h i s was the watchword o f the SPC. But the w o r l d o f p o l i t i c s i n d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e s i s a w o r l d o f compromise; competing p a r t i e s g i v e up c e r t a i n o f t h e i r demands i n r e t u r n f o r governmental s u p p o r t f o r o t h e r o f t h e i r demands. The o n l y time t h e r e i s no need f o r compromise i s when one group f e e l s i t has s u f f i c i e n t power t o e n f o r c e i t s w i l l on t h e o t h e r groups w i t h o u t d i l u t i n g i t s power. S h a r i n g power u l t i m a t e l y means compromise, w h i l e e x c l u s i v e power makes compromise u n n e c e s s a r y . What i m p e l l e d t h e SPC i n B. C. to t h i n k i t c o u l d a f f o r d a "no compromise" s t a n c e was the b e l i e f t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s which u n d e r s c o r e d i t s M a r x i a n i d e o l o g y would u l t i m a t e l y l e a d i t t o the a t t a i n -ment of e x c l u s i v e power. With m i s s i o n a r y z e a l the M a r x i s t s 15 took s t r e n g t h from b e i n g p a r t o f a wo r l d - w i d e movement, and were a b l e t o c a r r y on no mfatfee's* how d i f f i c u l t the c i r -cumstances, knowing t h a t f i n a l l y they would be v i c t o r i o u s . S e e i n g themselves as p a r t o f a g l o b a l movement, they c o u l d f i n d encouragement i n s o c i a l i s t s u c c e s s e s i n Europe o r the 15 The sense o f w o r l d - w i d e k i n s h i p e n j o y e d by M a r x i s t s has g i v e n them a source o f s t r e n g t h not a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and i s one o f the i m p o r t a n t elements a c c o u n t i n g f o r the l o n g l i f e o f t h e s e groups even when c i r c u m s t a n c e s at home do not appear p r o p i t i o u s t o a M a r x i s t v i c t o r y . 13 United States even when faced with defeat themselves. E l e c t o r a l successes around the world, whether v i c t o r i e s or gains i n votes, were always reported i n the party organ, the C l a r i o n , and accompanied by p r e d i c t i o n s of world-wide v i c t o r y . Thus to the SPC there was no need to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the give and take of day-to-day p o l i t i c a l b a r g a i n i n g ; although t h i s stance might lose them b a t t l e s now, the war would be won i n the end. Unl i k e the L i b e r a l s and Conserva-t i v e s , t h e i r goal was not to win power now, but to win i t e v e n t u a l l y , wholly and f o r a l l time. These e a r l y Marxists d i d not express any i d e o l o g i -c a l l y i n n o v a t i v e ideas. In part t h i s may have been due to the f a c t that the SPC leaders were not middle-class i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r a i n e d i n a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g as were those who comprised the membership of the Fabian Society and l a t e r the League f o r S o c i a l Reconstruction. As f a r as can be determined, a l l of the SPC leaders came from humble beginnings: most had been able to l e a r n a trade and had v some degree of s c h o o l i n g , but none went as f a r as u n i v e r -s i t y . They were l a r g e l y self-educated—men with l i t t l e formal education or s o c i a l advantages, but wit h some e x t r a -ordinary t a l e n t s and a remarkable degree of devotion to the in c r e a t i o n o f the " j u s t s o c i e t y " as they saw i t . " 1 " " E. T. K i n g s l e y , f o r example, s u b s i d i z e d t h e C l a r i o n f o r y e a r s out o f e a r n i n g s from h i s p r i n t i n g b u s i n e s s ; he was a l s o an e x c e l l e n t speaker and a s k i l l f u l e d i t o r . Without him and a h a n d f u l o f o t h e r s l i k e him, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e SPC c o u l d have c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t ; c e r t a i n l y i t c o u l d not have e x e r c i s e d such a l o n g term i n f l u e n c e on the p o l i t i c s o f the L e f t i n B.o. C. had i t t o depend on the " o r d i n a r y w o r k i n g s l a v e " f o r p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p and f o r e d i t o r i a l 1 7 s k i l l s and f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g f o r t h e C l a r i o n . Parmeter P e t t i p i e c e was a n o t h e r s t a l w a r t l i k e K i n g s l e y : t r a i n e d as a p r i n t e r , he was a l s o a j o u r n a l i s t , 16 While SPC l e a d e r s showed l i t t l e i m a g i n a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i d e o l o g y , t h e y were c e r t a i n l y r e s o u r c e f u l i n o t h e r ways. K i n g s l e y had l o s t b o th l e g s w h i l e w o r k i n g f o r an American r a i l r o a d , but i n s p i t e o f t h i s h andicap he managed t o t r a v e l thousands o f m i l e s on s p e a k i n g a-nd o r g a n i z i n g t o u r s , sometimes under the most adver s e c o n d i t i o n s . D u r i n g t h e f r e e speech b a t t l e s , when the SPC was d e n i e d e q u a l r i g h t s w i t h the S a l v a t i o n Army t o speak on s t r e e t c o r n e r s , p a r t y members c o n s t r u c t e d a r a f t and a d d r e s s e d a crowd i n E n g l i s h Bay from t h i s vantage p o i n t . 17 See Appendix 13 which shows t h e c o n t i n u i n g i n f l u e n c e i n l e f t - w i n g B. C. p o l i t i c s o f some o f t h e main p o l i t i c a l a c t o r s from 1900 t o 1933-15 a good o r a t o r and an o u t s t a n d i n g o r g a n i z e r . A f t e r s e l l i n g h i s p r i n t i n g b u s i n e s s t o K i n g s l e y , he worked as an o r g a n i z e r or b u s i n e s s agent f o r a number o f u n i o n s , was at one time the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r f o r b o t h the B. C. and A l b e r t a s e c t i o n s o f the Canadian Trades and Labour Congress, and was e d i t o r o f the F e d e r a t i o n i s t from i t s i n c e p t i o n u n t i l 1919 when he went t o t h e P r o v i n c e as a p r i n t e r . H i s v a r i o u s j o b s enabled him t o t r a v e l around th e c o u n t r y , t a k i n g the SPC message t o workers wherever he went. There were o t h e r s t o o , who w i t h r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r made the SPC cause almost t h e i r f u l l - t i m e work. Apart from the g o v e r n i n g p a r t y , t h e SPC p r o b a b l y had more f u l l - t i m e p o l i t i c i a n s i n i t s r a n k s t h a n any o t h e r p o l i t i c a l group i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The p a r t y p r i d e d i t s e l f on b e i n g one o f t h e two t r u l y M a r x i s t p a r t i e s i n the w o r l d — t h e o t h e r b e i n g t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f Great B r i t a i n ( S P G B ) — a n d r e f u s e d t o j o i n the Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l because too many o f t h e p a r t i e s b e l o n g i n g t o i t were not pure M a r x i s t i n t h e i r i d e o l o g y . The w r i t i n g s o f t h e SPC l e a d e r s h i p a l l adhered 18 s l a v i s h l y t o what they knew o f Marx's t h i n k i n g . They 18 Much o f what Marx and E n g e l s wrote was not a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h at the time and c e r t a i n l y Marx's m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n p r i o r t o 1 8 4 8 , which has r e s u l t e d i n so much r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f some o f h i s i d e a s , was not a v a i l a b l e . 16 did not approve of Eduard Bernstein's e f f o r t s to guide the S o c i a l Democratic Party of Germany toward e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s m ; they disagreed with DeLeon's b e l i e f that Marxists must endeavour to take c o n t r o l of the work place simultaneously w i t h endeavouring to take p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l ; and they r e j e c t e d the s y n d i c a l i s m of the I n d u s t r i a l Workers of the World (IWW). Marx had p r e d i c t e d t h a t , as the c a p i t a l i s t system wore on, the number of p r o l e t a r i a t would increase while the bourgeoisie decreased u n t i l the point where the p r o l e t a r i a t could e a s i l y assume c o n t r o l of government and the economy. Since Marx assumed that t h i s process would happen f a i r l y q u i c k l y , , he made few suggestions concerning what the p r o l e t a r i a t should do while w a i t i n g f o r the c a p i t a l i s t system to break down. Because the process was not happening as q u i c k l y as p r e d i c t e d , people l i k e B e r n s t e i n and DeLeon t r i e d to give some supple-mentary guidance f o r a c t i o n during the w a i t i n g p e r i o d . The SPC l e a d e r s , however, made no such c o n t r i b u t i o n . Assuming that the Marxist plan was u n f o l d i n g as p r e d i c t e d , they were content to see t h e i r r o l e meantime as an edu c a t i o n a l one. What the SPC d i d not understand about Marx was that he was not d e s c r i b i n g a s p e c i f i c event of change w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t system, but was making a general 17 a n a l y s i s of how change would come about w i t h i n such a system. Both Marx and Engels acknowledged that there were unique economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n 19 s o c i e t i e s , and from t h i s acknowledgement i t f o l l o w s that Marxist p a r t i e s would have to develop approaches suitable to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . The SPC and i t s leaders froze Marxism i n nineteenth century England, f a i l i n g to see that c a p i t a l i s m i n Canada i n t h e i r time was not a carbon copy of nineteenth century E n g l i s h c a p i t a l i s m , and making no attempt to develop Marxist ideology to s u i t the economic s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia or Canada. I t Is true that c o n d i t i o n s i n the mining areas of the province were s i m i l a r to the c l a s s i c a l Marxist s i t u a t i o n , but the SPC d i d not make allowance f o r the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s consciousness of the unionized and non-unionized workers nor f o r the f a c t that i n most parts of Canada there were more p e t i t e bourgeoisie 20 than there were p r o l e t a r i a t . Marx himself c r i t i c i z e d the German Philosophers f o r using s o c i a l i s t and communist l i t e r a t u r e from France. He wrote, " {they forget] that when the w r i t i n g s immigrated from France i n t o Germany, French s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s had not immigrated along w i t h them. In contact with German s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h i s French l i t e r a t u r e l o s t a l l I t s immediate p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . . . " K a r l Marx and F r e d e r i c h Engels, "The Manifesto of the Communist Pa r t y , " Lewis Feuer, ed., Marx and Engels: Basic Writings on P o l i t i c s and Philosophy (Garden C i t y , N.?., Doubleday and Co., Anchor Books, 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 33-20 See Leo A Johnson, "The Development of Class i n 18 T h i s f a i l u r e t o grasp the uniqueness o f B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i e t y o f t e n i m p e l l e d t h e p a r t y t o propose M a r x i s t • s o l u t i o n s where a M a r x i s t s i t u a t i o n d i d not e x i s t — f o r example, w i t h t h e farmers i n t h e Okanagan a r e a . * The p a r t y had come i n t o b e i n g d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f the c e n t u r y , spawned by c e r t a i n f a c t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t made t h e p r o v i n c e u n i q u e l y s u i t a b l e i n Canada f o r the n u r t u r i n g o f s o c i a l i s m . The p e r i o d c o v e r i n g t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the b e g i n n i n g o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y was a p e r i o d o f r a d i c a l a g i t a t i o n i n b o t h Europe and N o r t h America. I n Europe the p e r i o d produced t h e g r e a t S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y of Germany, The S o c i a l Democratic P a r t y o f R u s s i a (formed i n 1898 w i t h L e n i n as one o f the top t h e o r e t i c i a n s ) and a host o f o t h e r s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s throughout the Canada i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , "Gary T e e p l e , ed., C a p i t a l i s m and t h e N a t i o n a l Q u e s t i o n i n Canada ( T o r o n t o , u n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 147- Johnson says t h i s phenomenon i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t s i n c e the main s t r u g g l e s i n Canada have been between t h e p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s and c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s . He s a y s , " t h a t so l o n g as t h i s s t r u g g l e h o l d s c e n t r e s t a g e and no g r e a t p o l i t i c a l o r economic e r r o r s are made by t h e c a p i t a l i s t p r o t a g o n i s t s , the growth of w o r k i n g c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i l l be s l o w - - p a r t i c u l a r l y when a m a j o r i t y o f s t r o n g l y u n i o n i z e d and h i g h l y p a i d workers en j o y a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g c o n d u c i v e t o p r o p e r t y ownership, a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f commodity consumption, and the a t t a i n m e n t o f o t h e r e x t e r n a l s o f p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s s t a t u s . " 19 C o n t i n e n t , The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e p a r t i e s o r t h e i r o f f -s p r i n g i s s t i l l f e l t i n t h e governments o f Europe. I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the p e r i o d produced the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f A m e r i c a , the muckrakers w i t h t h e i r t e l l i n g p o l e m i c s a g a i n s t t h e system, numerous s o c i a l i s t n o v e l i s t s i n c l u d i n g J a c k London and Upton S i n c l a i r , h e r e t i c academic a n a l y s i s by men such as T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n and C h a r l e s B e a r d — b u t no l a s t i n g s o c i a l i s t p r e s e n c e . But i n B r i t i s h Columbia the i n f l u e n c e o f the s o c i a l i s t movement appears t o have pene-t r a t e d t h e p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e o f t h e people f o r a time-. : U n t i l t h e l a s t decade th e p r o v i n c e s t i l l c o n t a i n e d the most r a d i c a l l a b o u r unions i n the c o u n t r y and t h e most 21 r a d i c a l b ranch o f the CCF-/NDP. Why s h o u l d t h i s be so? In t h e h i s t o r y o f i n d u s t r i a l man i t i s a t r u t h u n i v e r s a l l y acknowledged t h a t an a r e a p o s s e s s i n g abundant n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s must be e x p l o i t e d . Nowhere i s t h e t r u t h o f t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n more e v i d e n t t h a n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. P r o f e s s o r E. R. B l a c k d e s c r i b e s as "The P o l i t i c s o f E x p l o i t a t i o n " t h i s p r o v i n c i a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h economic 21 The p o l i t i c a l s t a n c e o f a number of Quebec t r a d e u n i o n s d u r i n g the l a s t few y e a r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they are now more r a d i c a l t h a n B. C. u n i o n s . 20 development and u t i l i z a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . " " Though B l a c k ' s a n a l y s i s concerns the p o l i t i c s o f p o s t - W o r l d War I I B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o c o i n a more s y n o p t i c term to d e s c r i b e the o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n o f a l l B.C. governments, s i n c e c o l o n i a l d a y s , w i t h r a p i d m a t e r i a l development, and the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between government and i n d u s t r y which p e r s i s t e d u n t i l the p r e s e n t government was e l e c t e d i n 1972. From the b e g i n n i n g o f s e t t l e m e n t by peopl e o f European s t o c k , B r i t i s h Columbia was not p r i m a r i l y a g a t h e r i n g o f p i o n e e r s i n the sense o f i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p y i n g p i e c e s o f l a n d t o carve out a f u t u r e f o r themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The geography, the n a t u r e o f the p r o v i n c e ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and the pre-eminence of. the Hudson's Bay Company p r e c l u d e d , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , the i n d i v i d u a l i t y p o s s i b l e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada. So l o n g as t h e t e r r i t o r y was c o n t r o l l e d by the Hudson's Bay Company, a l l economic a c t i v i t y came under the s u r v e i l l a n c e o f the Company. Almost a l l s u p p l i e s and pe o p l e came t o the a r e a 22 E.R. B l a c k , " B r i t i s h Columbia: The P o l i t i c s o f E x p l o i t a t i o n " , R. S h e a r e r , ed., E x p l o i t i n g our Economic  P o t e n t i a l ( T o r o n t o , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston o f Canada, L t d . , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 23 21 i n ships which docked.at V i c t o r i a , and t h i s made i t e a s i e r f o r the Company to enforce the monopoly i t had been granted i n p e r p e t u i t y by the B r i t i s h government i n 1 8 4 9 . That same year Vancouver I s l a n d gained the stat u s of a colony, and James Douglas, Chief Factor i n the West f o r the Hudson's Bay Company, was appointed Governor i n 1851 . He held both the p o s i t i o n of Chief Factor and that of Governor u n t i l 1 8 5 8 , when he was also appointed Governor of the mainland colony of B r i t i s h Columbia and f i n a l l y resigned h i s post with the Hudson's Bay Company. The experience of t h i s c o l o n i a l p e r i o d under a governor who was more an employee of the Hudson's Bay Company than a Crown a d m i n i s t r a t o r , and l a t e r under other governors who only r e l u c t a n t l y accepted the i n s t i t u t i o n of an executive c o u n c i l , combined wi t h the f a c t that Vancouver I s l a n d and l a t e r the lower mainland were the c h i e f p o i n t s of entry to and supply of the pr o v i n c e , set the scene f o r extensive governmental involvement i n dec i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the province's development. Douglas' i n i t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was to administer f o r the b e n e f i t of the Hudson's Bay Company. As Governor, he continued to act as though he were ad m i n i s t e r i n g a p r i v a t e 22 company.^ D u r i n g the whole o f the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , a l l i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s emanated from V i c t o r i a . A f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l was the n a t u r e o f i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l and p o s t - c o l o n i a l p e r i o d s . The f i r s t g r e a t i n f l u x o f p e o p l e came d u r i n g the g o l d r u s h which began i n 1858 and f i n a l l y p e t e r e d out i n the Yukon i n the l 8 9 0 ' s . P r o s p e c t o r s moved no r t h w a r d i n t h e i r s e a r c h o r r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r home-l a n d ; v e r y few remained t o s e t up permanent communities. With l i t t l e i n t e r e s t on the p a r t o f t h e s e ephemeral com-m u n i t i e s i n becoming i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , the job n a t u r a l l y f e l l t o V i c t o r i a . An even more i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o c o n t r o l by V i c t o r i a was the n a t u r e o f the province.'s w e a l t h — a f a c t o r which l e d t o V i c t o r i a ' s a l s o becoming the f i n a n c i a l c e n t e r o f the p r o v i n c e . S i n c e the p r o v i n c e ' s w e a l t h l a y i n h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s — f i s h , t i m b e r , m i n e r -a l s — a n d s i n c e the government c o n t r o l l e d t h e s e , t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n e x p l o i t i n g t h e s e r e s o u r c e s found i t p r o f i t -M a rgaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: a  H i s t o r y (Vancouver, M a c M i l l a n Company o f Canada, 1 9 5 8 ) , See the account i n Cha p t e r s 5 and 6 . 23 a b l e t o s e t t l e i n V i c t o r i a so as t o be i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h government d e c i s i o n s . T h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e d i n the p o s t - c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , when B r i t i s h Columbia came under the sway o f a few w e a l t h y e n t r e p r e n e u r s — m e r c h a n t s , l a n d -h o l d e r s , i n d u s t r i a l i s t s — w h o had by 1886 " p r o s p e r e d d u r i n g the days o f r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n , t a k e n up r e s i d e n c e i n 24 V i c t o r i a and t h e n c l o s e d r a n k s . " I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h i s g r owing e l i t e s h o u l d assume c o n t r o l o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and g o v e r n , not i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the p e o p l e o f the p r o v i n c e , but i n t h e i r own s e l f - i n t e r e s t . As p r o f e s s o r Ormsby pu t s i t , " i n a s m a l l community l i k e B r i t i s h C o lumbia, where b u s i n e s s men and l a r g e p r o p e r t y owners sat. i n the House and where eve r y prominent b u s i n e s s man was known t o the l e g i s l a t o r s , i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r a p r e m i e r , who h i m s e l f had e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t m e n t s , t o r e f u s e r e q u e s t s made by h i s p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t e s .:! An example o f t h i s e a r l y s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between ; . ; i;government and i n d u s t r y i s the case o f Robert Dunsmuir and h i s son James, whose i n f l u e n c e runs l i k e a 24 I b i d . , p. 304 2 5 I b i d . , p. 307 24 t h r e a d t h r o u g h the f a b r i c o f e a r l y B. C. h i s t o r y . Much o f t h e development o f u n i o n i s m and t h e growth o f s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y i n the p r o v i n c e o c c u r r e d i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f such i n t e r e s t s . Dunsmuir was B r i t i s h 2 6 Columbia's f i r s t g r e a t f i n a n c i a l baron. A miner when he a r r i v e d from S c o t l a n d i n 1851 t o work f o r the Hudson's Bay Company i n the Nanaimo mines, i t was not l o n g b e f o r e he t u r n e d h i s back on a w o r k i n g - c l a s s l i f e . I n 1855 the Company gave Dunsmuir t h e r i g h t t o o p e r a t e as an independent 2 7 c o a l p r o d u c e r on a thousand a c r e s ..of l a n d near Nanaimo. With h i s mine, p l u s the r i c h c o a l f i e l d s w hich he d i s c o v e r e d a t W e l l i n g t o n i n 1869 and t h e 1 , 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s o f l a n d ( i n c l u d i n g m i n e r a l r i g h t s ) which h i s company r e c e i v e d as a s u b s i d y f o r b u i l d i n g the Esquimalt-to-Nanaimo R a i l r o a d , 26 F o r d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s and o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o the Dunsmuirs see Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , pp. 215-365 p a s s i m ; H a r o l d G r i f f i n , B r i t i s h Columbia: The P e o p l e ' s E a r l y S t o r y (Vancouver, T r i b u n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1 9 5 8 ) ; P a u l P h i l l i p s , No Power G r e a t e r : A C e n t u r y  o f Labour i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver, B~! C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L abour, Boag F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 6 7 ) . 27 The o n l y r e c o r d e d e x p l a n a t i o n which I have found f o r t h i s g i f t appears i n H a r o l d G r i f f i n , B r i t i s h  Columbia: The P e o p l e ' s E a r l y S t o r y , p. 46, which says Dunsmuir o b t a i n e d t h e g r a n t o f l a n d as a reward f o r not g o i n g on s t r i k e w i t h t h e Nanaimo miners o v e r wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s h o r t a g e o f miners due t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n C a l i f o r n i a , and t h e g r e a t need f o r c o a l , i t i s not an e n t i r e l y i m p l a u s i b l e s t o r y . 25 Dunsmuir g a i n e d a v i r t u a l c o a l monopoly on Vancouver I s l a n d . By the l8 : 80's h i s r a i l w a y , c o a l mines, l a n d h o l d i n g s and f l e e t o f s h i p s t o s e r v i c e h i s e m p i r e , com-b i n e d t o make Dunsmuir the f i r s t i n a l o n g l i n e o f i n d u s t r i a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A l t h o u g h h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the l e g i s l a t o r s were e x c e l l e n t , he moved t o f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n t h e s e t i e s by s t a n d i n g f o r the Nanaimo R i d i n g and b e i n g e l e c t e d i n 18.86 t o the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. I r o n i c a l l y , he d e f e a t e d a c a n d i d a t e from the Workingmen's P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h had been formed i n 1879 t o " d e v i s e means f o r the a m e l i o r a t i o n o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s o f t h i s P r o v i n c e i n 2 8 g e n e r a l . " A f u r t h e r i r o n y l a y i n the f a c t o f Dunsmuir's e l e c t i o n i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o a l m i n i n g a r e a , where he fought l a b o u r u n r e m i t t i n g l y and used O r i e n t a l s f o r s t r i k e -b r e a k i n g and as cheap l a b o u r . H i s son James a l s o e n t e r e d p o l i t i c s and was P r e m i e r from 1900 t o 1902 and L i e u t e n a n t Governor from 1906 t o 1909-The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l and the c l o s e g o v e r n -ment c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the b i g i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , o f w hich the Dunsmuirs are o n l y one example, c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e 28 P h i l l i p s , No Power G r e a t e r , p. 9 . 26 nourishment of r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s i n some areas o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. The combined power o f government and c o r p o r -a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t t o s u c c e s s f u l l y oppose. Dunsmuir's a n t i - l a b o u r s t a n c e r e s u l t e d i n b i t t e r , l e n g t h y and b l o o d y s t r i k e s i n the Dunsmuir o p e r a t i o n s i n 1877, l 8 8 l , 1883 and 29 I 0 8 7 , and many o t h e r s h o r t e r work stoppages. Twice the government sent i n the m i l i t i a . I n a d d i t i o n t o s t r u g g l e s o v e r wages, weight tamper-i n g ( t h e men were p a i d on a p i e c e - w o r k b a s i s ) , o v e r -c h a r g i n g at the company s t o r e , compulsory b u y i n g from the company s t o r e , e t c . , t h e r e were c o n t i n u a l s t r u g g l e s con-c e r n i n g s a f e t y c o n d i t i o n s . B r i t i s h Columbia had an 30 u n e n v i a b l e r e p u t a t i o n f o r m i n i n g d i s a s t e r s — s m a l l wonder when the s t a t i s t i c s f o r a c c i d e n t s i n B. C. are examined: 1879, e x p l o s i o n I n W e l l i n g t o n — e l e v e n men k i l l e d ; l 8 8 l , e x p l o s i o n i n W e l l i n g t o n — s i x t y - f i v e k i l l e d ; 1884, W e l l i n g -t o n e x p l o s i o n — t w e n t y - t h r e e k i l l e d ; 1887, e x p l o s i o n i n Nanaimo— 1 4 8 k i l l e d ; 1889, e x p l o s i o n i n W e l l i n g t o n — B e v e n t y - f i v e k i l l e d ; 190.9, e x p l o s i o n i n E x t e n s i o n — t h i r t y -two k i l l e d . These f i g u r e s are e s p e c i a l l y s h o c k i n g i n ^ I n c o n t r a s t , the.much' s m a l l e r B r i t i s h owned f i r m the Vancouver C o a l Company e n j o y e d i n d u s t r i a l peace from 1880 to 1901. F o r a s t o r y on t h i s r e p u t a t i o n see the C l a r i o n J a n . 12, 1970, p. 1. 27 l i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t at any p a r t i c u l a r t ime d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e were p r o b a b l y no more t h a n f o u r thousand / 31 men employed i n B r i t i s h Columbia's c o a l mines. F u r t h e r -more, a l t h o u g h t h e r e were o t h e r mines i n o p e r a t i o r i ^ i n the p r o v i n c e , a l l o f t h e s e a c c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d i n the Dunsmuir o p e r a t i o n s . D u r i n g h i s l e g i s l a t i v e c a r e e r James Dunsmuir c o n t r i b u t e d f u r t h e r t o the development o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s -ness i n the m i n i n g areas o f B r i t i s h Columbia. While Dunsmuir 32 was P r e m i e r , J . W. Hawthornthwaite . managed t o have an amendment t o the C o a l Mines Act p a s s e d , r e q u i r i n g competency c e r t i f i c a t i o n f o r miners w o r k i n g at the c o a l f a c e . The Dunsmuir government, however, f a i l e d t o e n f o r c e the l e g i s -l a t i o n . Such f l o u t i n g o f the law was not uncommon d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d o f B. C. h i s t o r y . D u r i n g McBride's f i r s t government ( 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 0 7 ) , P a r k e r W i l l i a m s , one o f the 33 S o c i a l i s t P a r t y M.L.A.s, i n t r o d u c e d an amendment t o the J P h i l l i p s , No Power G r e a t e r , p.9 . 32 E l e c t e d by a c c l a m a t i o n on a Labour t i c k e t i n a F e b r u a r y 190.0 b y - e l e c t i o n , he s u b s e q u e n t l y r a n on the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y t i c k e t and was a member o f the L e g i s l a t u r e from 1900 t o 1911 and from 1918 t o 1920. 3 3 Hawthornthwaite (Nanaimo), P a r k e r W i l l i a m s 28 C o a l Mines R e g u l a t i o n Act r e q u i r i n g the p o s t i n g i n c o n s picuous p l a c e s o f mine p l a n s , t o enable f a s t e r escape i n the event of emergency. A l t h o u g h the amend-ment was c a r r i e d , i t was s t i l l n e c e s s a r y to I n s t i t u t e l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s a g a i n s t the Dunsmuir i n t e r e s t s t o f o r c e them t o comply w i t h t h i s s e n s i b l e and h u m a n i t a r i a n 34 measure. Thus by the e a r l y 1 9 0 0 's i t was c l e a r t h a t the b a t t l e l i n e s were not o n l y formed but were a l s o more o r l e s s permanent. The p r e s ence as P r e m i e r o f a man whose mines had a s c a n d a l o u s s a f e t y r e c o r d , who had p i o n e e r e d the use o f s t r i k e - b r e a k e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e and had f l o u t e d the l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n of the l a n d , p r o v i d e d ample f u e l f o r the r a d i c a l f i r e s . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e a l s o was the n a t u r e o f B r i t i s h Columbia's r e s o u r c e s , which r e q u i r e d o n l y l a r g e amounts of c a p i t a l and l a b o u r t o ready the f i s h , f u r s , m i n e r a l s ( L a d y s m i t h ) , John M c l n n i s (Grand F o r k s ) . With W i l l i a m D a v i d s on ( S l o c a n ) who was e l e c t e d on an Independent Labour t i c k e t , they h e l d a b a l a n c e o f power which e n a b l e d them t o o b t a i n the s u p p o r t o f the McBride group f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . The l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y members i s d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter V I . • 34 C l a r i o n , J a n . 1 2 , 1 9 0 7 , p.4 . 29 and t i m b e r f o r . market. I n the p r o v i n c e ' s e a r l i e r h i s t o r y , f u r t r a p p i n g . , f i s h i n g and p l a c e r m i n i n g had been l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s , not r e q u i r i n g l a r g e amounts o f 35 c a p i t a l . As the r i v e r and stream beds became d e p l e t e d , p l a c e r s l u i c i n g gave way t o l o d e m i n i n g which r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t m e n t s i n e x p l o r a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e any p a y - o f f c o u l d be r e a l i z e d . Even p l a c e r m i n i n g grew more e x p e n s i v e when i t became n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t h y d r a u l i c f a c i l i t i e s f o r g o l d d e p o s i t e d below the r i v e r beds. The m i n i n g of copper, l e a d and z i n c i s _ h i g h l y c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e t o o . These m e t a l s , a l o n g w i t h h s i l v e r , were d i s c o v e r e d i n l a r g e amounts i n the Kootenay-Boundary a r e a , and b e g i n n i n g about 1890. t h i s r e g i o n soon became prominent as a p r o d u c e r o f w e a l t h f o r the p r o v i n c e . B r i t i s h 35 T h i s i s the o n l y p e r i o d when we f i n d any s i m i l a r i t y between the n a t u r e o f employment i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t h a t o f h e r s i s t e r w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s o f a l a t e r p e r i o d -- t h a t i s , t h e r e were l a r g e numbers o f independent e n t r e p r e n e u r s . 36 I n 1906, C D . Mason, C i t y S o l i c i t o r o f A t l i n , t o l d a r e p o r t e r o f the Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , " I n d i v i d u a l m i n i n g on t h e w e l l known Greeks, i s almost a t h i n g o f the p a s t and b i g h y d r a u l i c companies are a c q u i r i n g p l a c e r c l a i m s from the miners at good f i g u r e s . " Canadian Annual Review, 1906-- -30 Columbia became "a 'company p r o v i n c e ' d o t t e d by company-37 owned o r company-based towns." I n h i s c o n c i s e h i s t o r y o f m i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, A. F. F l u c k e d e s c r i b e s how q u i c k l y t h i s growth o c c u r r e d : When we l o o k at B r i t i s h Columbia d i r e c t o r i e s f o r 1891 we f i n d N e l s o n l i s t e d as h a v i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f 1 5 0 , p l u s two o r t h r e e hundred t r a n s i e n t m i n e r s . Names such , as G.randforks ,. . . Greenwood, P h o e n i x , .Rossland, New Denver, Sandon, S l o c a n , K a s l o and F e r n i e , a re not even l i s t e d . . . B y 1898 i t i s a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y ...Nelson has jumped t o a t h r i v i n g c i t y o f 5 , 0 0 0 , F e r n i e and G r a n d f o r k s have 1 ,500 e a c h , Greenwood has 2 , 0 0 0 , K a s l o 2 , 5 0 0 , R e v e l s t o k e 2 , 5 0 0 and R o s s l a n d i s b u r s t i n g w i t h 8 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . . . I n 1882 Kootenay had a m i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f e l e v e n p l a c e r m i n e r s ; by 1900 t h e r e were 32 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e s e t t l e d i n the area.3 8 The f i r s t miners and c a p i t a l came from the U n i t e d 39 S t a t e s , s i n c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from the so u t h was more 5'Thomas M i c h a e l S a n f o r d , The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n and S o c i a l C r e d i t  League i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 42. 3 8 A. F. F l u c k e "A H i s t o r y o f M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the E i g h t h LB.CG.^Natural  Resources Conference ( V i c t o r i a , 1955-) 39 T h i s American group o f im m i g r a n t s was a s i g n i f i -cant p a r t o f the B. C. p o p u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Kootenay-Boundary a r e a . E x c l u d i n g the n a t i v e - b o r n I n d i a n s and the A s i a t i c s , t he American-born made up 8-10% i n 1 9 0 1 . I n a b s o l u t e numbers the American-born i n B. C. 31 c o n v e n i e n t t h a n from the p r o v i n c e , where c o n n e c t i n g r a i l -ways and roads were not y e t b u i l t . G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , the Kootenay-Boundary a r e a i s an. e x t e n s i o n o f the mountain s t a t e s s o u t h o f the b o r d e r . At an e a r l i e r d a t e , miners had moved i n t o Montana, Nevada, C o l o r a d o and Idaho, and 40 i t was now l o g i c a l f o r them t o move n o r t h w a r d , b r i n g i n g w i t h them t e n y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e o f b l o o d y l a b o u r b a t t l e s o v e r the decade 1891-1901 i n c r e a s e d 1 0 , 5 9 7 , from 5 , 5 6 7 t o 1 7 , 1 6 4 , w h i l e d u r i n g the same p e r i o d the B r i t i s h - b o r n i n c r e a s e d l e s s , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y ( 1 0 , 5 2 7 , from 20 ,103.-to' 30,630), Canada Year Book, 1 9 1 1 , pp. 14 - 1 5 ; 1 9 1 2 , p. 47-(The p e r c e n t f i g u r e s a re a p p r o x i m a t i o n s s i n c e i t i s d i f -f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e t he n a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s i n the Census data.) 40 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union o f Mine, M i l l and S m e l t e r Workers' R e c o r d s , U.B.C., Angus Maclnnes C o l l e c t i o n , Box 151 and 1 5 8 , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as Mine, M i l l R e c o r d s . A l l t h r o u g h t h e s e r e c o r d s t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f men h a v i n g worked on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e b o r d e r . The i n f l u e n c e o f Americans i s a l s o r e p o r t e d by H a r o l d K i n g s m i l l , A H i s t o r y o f R o s s l a n d and the T r a i l Creek  D i s t r i c t (Studen and P e r i n e , R o s s l a n d , n . d . ) , pp. 9-24, quoted i n I s o b e l Bescoby, Some S o c i a l A s p e c t s o f the American M i n i n g Advance i n t o C a r i b o o and Kootenay (U.B.C., M.A. T h e s i s , 1 9 3 5)• "The 51 l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s o f R o s s l a n d i n 1897 ( c o n s i s t i n g o f c l a i m owners, merchants, and p r o f e s s i o n a l men) gave t h e i r o r i g i n as O n t a r i o f i f t e e n , U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America £si£] t w e n t y - e i g h t , Europe and o t h e r Canadian p r o v i n c e s e i g h t . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l the Europeans had had e x p e r i e n c e i n American mines and many of the O n t a r i o men had p r e v i o u s l y p r o s p e c t e d i n C a l i f o r n i a , Montana, Idaho, o r Washington," p. 78 . Bescoby's work g i v e s a good p i c t u r e o f the i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f B r i t i s h and American t r a d i t i o n s and pe o p l e i n . t h e Kootenay m i n i n g a r e a . 32 and t h e i r u n i o n . I t has been s a i d t h a t "American c a p i t a l , American men, and American money made Kootenay i n the i l l f i r s t p l a c e . " P r o f e s s o r Ormsby notes t o o t h a t t h i s r e g i o n was p e o p l e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y by American c i t i z e n s . She comments t h a t Bryan's p r e s i d e n t i a l campaign o f 1896 aroused more i n t e r e s t t h e r e than d i d L a u r i e r ' s campaign 42 t h e same y e a r . With the development o f a g o v e r n m e n t - s u b s i d i z e d 43 r a i l r o a d i n t o the a r e a , Canadians and immigrant B r i t o n s a l s o f l o c k e d i n t o the r e g i o n . Imbued w i t h t h e v a l u e s o f u n i o n i s m , t h e s e immigrant tradesmen and miners brought t o Howay, F. W., Sage, W.N. and H. F. Angus, B r i t i s h  Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , ( T o r o n t o , Ryerson P r e s s , 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 2 9 8 . 42 Ormsby, p. 316 43 L i k e the American group, the B r i t i s h - b o r n were a s i g n i f i c a n t group i n e a r l y B. C. s o c i e t y . A g a i n e x c l u -d i n g the n a t i v e - b o r n I n d i a n s and the A s i a t i c s ( t h e s e were s p e c i a l groups which e x i s t e d on t h e f r i n g e s o f s o c i e t y ) , the B r i t i s h - b o r n made up about 20% o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n B. C. i n 1 8 8 1 ; about 30% i n 1 8 9 1 ; and i n t h e census o f 1 9 0 1 , about 20%. F o r Canada as a whole t h e comparable f i g u r e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12%, 12% and J% r e s p e c t i v e l y . Canada-; 'fear Book, 1911 , PP- 14 - 1 5 ; 1912, p. 47- (The per cent f i g u r e s are a p p r o x i m a t i o n s , s i n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i s o l a t e t h e n a t i v e - b o r n I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e Census d a t a . ) See Chapter V I I I , f o o t n o t e 3 f o r t a b l e g i v i n g t h e b i r t h - p l a c e i n p e r c e n t a g e s o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 2 1 . 33 B r i t i s h . Columbia the i d e a l s o f the F a b i a n s and the Marxism o f Hyndman's S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y . I n c o n t r a s t t o most o f the B r i t i s h who had e a r l i e r gone t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s and e a s t e r n Canada b e f o r e the advent o f the u n i o n and p o p u l i s t p o l i t i c a l movements, the B r i t i s h who l a t e r came t o B r i t i s h Columbia tended t o be e i t h e r c r a f t u n i o n -r i s t s from urban c e n t e r s o r miners from the r a d i c a l m i n i n g 44 areas o f S c o t l a n d and the n o r t h o f E n g l a n d . A l r e a d y c o n v i n c e d of the w o r t h o f u n i o n s , t h e s e men, i f they c o u l d not f i n d a u n i o n when they a r r i v e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , would soon s t a r t one. W a l l a c e L e f e a u x g r e a t l y p r a i s e d the B r i t i s h who moved i n t o t h e ' - p r o v i n c e , commenting t h a t unions seemed as i m p o r t a n t t o the tradesmen as d i d t h e i r 44 F o r example, J . G. ( G e o r d i e ) Morgan and John T. M o r t i m e r . Morgan was a Scot who had b e l o n g e d t o Hyndman's S o c i a l D emocratic F e d e r a t i o n b e f o r e coming t o Canada. He h e l p e d to o r g a n i z e the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f M a n i t o b a i n 1902 and s h o r t l y a f t e r moved t o Vancouver, where he was . a c t i v e i n the Plumber's U n i o n , h e l d v a r i o u s p o s t s i n the SPC and became a n o t e d t e a c h e r o f M a r x i a n economics, w i t h c l a s s e s as l a r g e as 150 . L e t t e r from Hugh F a l k n e r , Aug. 2 9 , 1 9 6 4 , i n p o s s e s s i o n o f the a u t h o r . M o r t i m e r , a l s o a S c o t , had been a member of the Canadian C o - O p e r a t i v e Commonwealth, Branch No. 10 at W i n n i p e g , i n 1 8 9 8 . He was an a c t i v e u n i o n i s t , a key o r g a n i z e r o f the movement which suc-c e e d e d d M g e t t i n g A. W. P u t t e e e l e c t e d t o the House o f Commons on November 7 , 1 9 0 0 . A f t e r moving t o Vancouver i n 1 9 0 2 , he h e l d a number o f key p o s t s i n the SPBC and the SPC. C l a r i o n , Dec. 1 2 , 1908. 34 t o o l s . ' J Augmenting the i n f l u x of Americans and B r i t i s h were many immigrants from c o n t i n e n t a l Europe who c a r r i e d with them s o c i a l i s t s threads from the larg e Marxist p a r t i e s i n t h e i r home countries to weave i n t o the rough f a b r i c of t h e i r new homeland. The e a r l y p l a c e r miners were self-employed, but the miners at the tu r n of the century worked f o r wages i n dangerous c o n d i t i o n s . Moreover, they were i s o l a t e d i n homogeneous communities deprived of the moderating i n f l u e n c e s of church and family i n e s t a b l i s h e d communities. A l l these were c o n d i t i o n s which tended t o develop group consciousness and impel workers to seek r a d i c a l s o l u t i o n s to t h e i r problems. There was al s o the a t t i t u d e toward employers which the American miners had developed i n b r u t a l b a t t l e s with mine owners south of the border. In the mountain 45 Wallace Lefeaux, i n t e r v i e w , J u l y , 1966. 46 C. Kerr and A. S i e g e l , "The i'lnter-Industry Prospensity to S t r i k e " , A. Kornhauser, R. Dubin and A. M. Ross, eds., I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t (New York, McGraw-H i l l , 1 9 5 4 . ) 35 s t a t e s trie. WFM had been, unable to use conventional b a r g a i n i n g procedures because they, .were never strong enough to stand up to the combined oppos.lt.ion'..-of Lthe 48 owners and government. As a r e s u l t , conventional trade union t a c t i c s were replaced by v i o l e n c e ..and, under the f i n f l u e n c e f i r s t of Bryan and then Debs, by p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . These t a c t i c s d i d not f i t w ith Gomper's American Federation of Labour (AFL) conservative unionism, and consequently the WFM l e f t the AFL i n 1898. They then formed the Western Labor Union, an i n d u s t r i a l union, and 47 Us e f u l studies of the WFM are: Melvyn Dubofsky, We S h a l l be A l l : A H i s t o r y of the I n d u s t r i a l Workers of  the World (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969); Vernon Jensen, Heritage of C o n f l i c t : A H i s t o r y of Labor R e l a t i o n s i n the  Nonferrous Metals Industry to 1930 ( I t h a c a , N. Y., C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1930); A l l e n D. Orr, The Western  Federation of Miners and the Royal Commission on I n d u s t r i a l  Disputes i n 1903 (M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1967); John H. M. L a s l e t t , ' " S y n d i c a l i s t S o c i a l i s m and the Western Federation of Miners", Labor and the L e f t : A Study of S o c i a l i s t s and  R a d i c a l Influences In the American Labor Movement, l 8 8 l - 1924, eds,, John H. M. L a s l e t t (New York, Bas i c Books, 1970). 48 L a s l e t t , " S y n d i c a l i s t S o c i a l i s m and the WFM," p. 242, says that at the height of i t s power, the WFM had no more than 10% of the mining i n d u s t r y organized. The s i t u a t i o n i n B. C. was d i f f e r e n t : at one point about 60 per cent of the i n d u s t r y was organized by the WFM. 36 i n 1902 c o n v e r t e d i t i n t o the American Labour Union (ALU) i n o r d e r t o c h a l l e n g e the AFL on a n a t i o n a l , r a t h e r t h a n merely a r e g i o n a l , b a s i s . Thus, when the American miners a r r i v e d i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, the c u l t u r a l baggage they c a r r i e d i n -49 e l u d e d not o n l y p o p u l i s m and r a d i c a l i s m , but a l s o a f a i t h i n i n d u s t r i a l u n i o n i s m and p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , and l i t t l e e x p e c t a t i o n of o b t a i n i n g f a i r t r e a t m e n t from t h e i r e mployers. G i v e n t h a t much o f the c a p i t a l and many o f the mine managers too came from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d many o f the same c o n f r o n t a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n the m e t a l m i n i n g a r e a o f B r i t i s h Columbia as those which had t a k e n p l a c e i n the Western U n i t e d S t a t e s . When the WFM f i r s t became e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t behaved i n much the same way as a 49 P o p u l i s m i s a p o l i t i c a l i d e a l h a v i n g emphasis on d i r e c t r u l e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p e o p l e . R a d i c a l i s m i s any k i n d of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n c a l l i n g f o r complete change o f some aspect o r a l l of s o c i e t y . 50 A number o f l i v e s were l o s t and much p r o p e r t y d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g t h e WFM's b a t t l e s w i t h the mine owners. See Chapter V, - . , 37 c o n v e n t i o n a l u n i o n - b a r g a i n i n g f o r b e t t e r wages and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , b a c k i n g c a n d i d a t e s who s u p p o r t e d 51 l a b o u r , o p e r a t i n g a m e d i c a l p l a n , and even s e t t i n g up-h o s p i t a l s . But the i n d u s t r i a l - f r o n t i e r m i l i e u of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, combined w i t h employers who r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e the l e g i t i m a c y o f u n i o n s , soon pushed the WFM toward p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . S i n c e t h e i r u n i o n i n the U n i t e d 53 S t a t e s was l e d by s o c i a l i s t s , J i t was l o g i c a l t h a t the miners i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d choose t o s u p p o r t the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y o f B. C. as the o n l y a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l 54 group which appeared t o sympathize w i t h t h e i r needs. 51 See Chapter I I I , pp. 93-94. 52 Mine, M i l l R e c o r d s , Box 1 5 7 , Angus M a c l n n i s C o l l e c t i o n , U.B.C. 53 See Chapter I V , p. 145. 54 These are the miners who comprised t h e membership o f the SPBC l o c a l s e s t a b l i s h e d by Cameron i n 1902. See Chapter I V , p;;, 119 f f . 38 I n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y changes s i m i l a r t o those which o c c u r r e d i n m i n i n g took p l a c e : ownership was c o n s o l i d a t e d , l e a d i n g t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f peop l e around major f i s h i n g g rounds, which i n t u r n f a c i l i t a t e d c l o s e r communication of p o l i t i c a l i d e a s and u n i o n organ-i z a t i o n . D u r i n g the p o s t - c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , f i s h i n g and f i s h p r o c e s s i n g had been c a r r i e d on p r i m a r i l y by i n d i v i d u -a l s o r s m a l l companies. Salmon s a l t i n g and c u r i n g began on the F r a s e r i n 1864 and salmon c a n n i n g i n 1870. I n 1882 t h e r e were t h i r t e e n c a n n e r i e s on the F r a s e r ; i n . 1895 t h e r e were t h i r t y - o n e on the F r a s e r and seventeen elsewhere I n the p r o v i n c e . D u r i n g the f i v e y e a r d e p r e s s i o n , 1 8 9 3 - 1 8 9 8 , the i n d u s t r y , geared as i t was t o the w o r l d market, was v u l n e r a b l e and b a n k r u p t c i e s were common. T h i s , c o u p l e d w i t h a l a b o u r s h o r t a g e due t o the A l a s k a and Yukon g o l d r u s h , encouraged g r e a t e r m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f c a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s and more e f f i c i e n t f i s h i n g methods, c a l l i n g f o r more c a p i t a l and amalgamation i n t o l a r g e r u n i t s . By the time the- de-p r e s s i o n ended, h a l f a dozen f i r m s p r o c e s s e d almost h a l f 55 the annual c a t c h . 55. J . J . D e u t s c h , e t a l , Economics o f P r i m a r y  P r o d u c t i o n i n - B r i t i s h C o lumbia, V o l . I l l , ( Vancouver, B.C. 1959) , pp, 1 8 - 2 0 . 39 The enormity of such c o n s o l i d a t i o n s and the degree to which i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia was c a p i t a l -i n t e n s i v e can be seen i n Table 1 , which compares manu-f a c t u r i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia to that of Ontario and of Canada as a whole. I t can be seen that the amount of c a p i t a l per f i r m i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s almost twice that f o r Ontario and Canada i n 1 9 0 0 , over twice as much i n 1905 and almost three times as much i n 1910. In such circum-stances i t i s easy to see how B r i t i s h Columbia could come under the hegemony of a few wealthy entrepreneurs whose aggressiveness i n t a k i n g wealth from the province l a i d the foundations on which to b u i l d s o c i a l i s t c r i t i c i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Very e a r l y i n i t s development, then, although i t was s t i l l a f r o n t i e r i n the sense of having u n l i m i t e d horizons to d i s c o v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia became an i n d u s t r i -56 a l i z e d f r o n t i e r a h i g h l y organized, c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e and r a t i o n a l i z e d labour economy. This meant that the p o p u l a t i o n d i v i d e d i n t o the "we-they" adversary r e l a t i o n -ship of employer and employee much e a r l i e r i n i t s h i s t o r y than was the case with the other provinces of Canada — a 56 " I n d u s t r i a l i z e d " here r e f e r s to resource e x t r a c t i o n , not.to manufacturing. 40 TABLE 1 CAPITAL INVESTMENT COMPARISONS No. of Manufacturing T o t a l Amount of Average C a p i t a l Establishments* C a p i t a l Investment* Investment per Establishments** 1900 Canada Ontario B.C. Canada Ontario B.C. 14 ,650 6 , 5 4 3 392 15 ,796 7 ,996 459 446 ,916 ,487 214 ,972,275 22 , 9 0 1 , 8 9 2 1905 846 ,585 ,023 397,484 ,705 5 3 , 0 2 2 , 0 3 3 3 0 , 5 0 0 3 2 , 9 0 0 58,400 5 3 , 6 0 0 49 ,700 115,516 Canada Ontario B.C." 19 ,215 8 , 0 0 1 651 1910 1,247,583,609 595,394,608 123,027 ,521 64,900 74,400 189,000 * From the Canada Year Book, 1912 , p. 8 2 . Establishments of f i v e or more employees. **, I t i s p o s s i b l e these average f i g u r e s are s l i g h t l y exaggerated since new i n d u s t r i e s show a higher investment r a t e than do e s t a b l i s h e d ones. However, the f i g u r e s do show a high growth rate f o r Canada and Ontario too, so the average C a p i t a l Investment per Establishment i s probably not much d i s t o r t e d , i f at a l l . 41 f a c t w hich had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the type o f r a d i c a l i s m t h a t grew up i n B r i t i s h Columbia as compared t o the r e s t o f Canada. On the p r a i r i e s , f o r example, the "we-they" o f prime i m p o r t a n c e was the West v s . E a s t e r n f i n a n c i a l I n f l u -57 ences. The i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t the r e s t o f the c o u n t r y f i r s t e v o l v e d as a n a t i o n o f s m a l l l andowners, whereas B r i t i s h Columbia d i d n o t . While o t h e r Western p r o t e s t movements drew on " p r o g r e s s i v i s m " and F a b i a n S o c i a l i s m t i n g e d w i t h p o p u l i s m , i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, where "wage-slaves" abounded, the c l a s s a n a l y s i s o f Marx appeared t o be more r e l e v a n t . The g e o g r a p h i c a l i s o l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia's m i n i n g , f i s h i n g and lumber communities a l s o had a s i g n i f i -cant e f f e c t on p o l i t i c a l developments i n the p r o v i n c e and more s p e c i f i c a l l y on the development o f s o c i a l i s m . S i t u a t e d The p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t movements o f the West are w e l l documented: J.A. I r v i n g , The S o c i a l C r e d i t Movement i n A l b e r t a ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1959); S...M. L i p s p t , A g r a r i a n - Socia.lis.m,; ,The , C o o p e r a t i v e Common- weal th;.,. Feedera,tipn;,..,in -Saskat chew an (Berkhey:: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a 1 i f o r n i a ' P r e s s , ' 195 0 ) ; "C'. B.' Macp h e r s o n, Democracy i n Alberta';'_(TorontoV. JJnlvers'l'ty ' o f .'Toronto 'Press , 1953) ; W.L. Morton, The P r o g r e s s i v e .Part,y i n Canada' ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f To r o n t o P r e s s , .1,95.0) ;. ,P ..F." SharpV^TKerAg-rarian R e v o l t  i n Western Canada ( M i n n e a p o l i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota", P r e s s , 1948); W.D. Young, The Anatomy o f a P a r t y ( T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto PressT) 42 i n rugged mountainous t e r r a i n o r on remote ocean shores b e f o r e the advent o f r a d i o o r telephone,, the workers f e l t a c u t e l y i s o l a t e d . Coupled w i t h t h i s were the p e r v a d i n g economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f t h e B.C. economy t o world..business c y c l e f l u c t u a t i o n s , the p e r i o d s o f mass unemployment due t o the p r o v i n c e ' s extreme s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s , and the dominant power of one employer, a l l o f which c o n t r i -b u t e d t o w o r k e r s ' i n s e c u r i t y . Many men i n such communities 58 t u r n e d t o r e l i g i o n , a l c o h o l o r p r o s t i t u t e s . Others hungered f o r new i n s t i t u t i o n s w hich might p r o v i d e them w i t h a sense o f s e c u r i t y and new i d e a s which h e l d out some hope f o r the f u t u r e . L i t t l e wonder t h a t many embraced the u n i o n s , which p r o v i d e d the f o r m e r , and s o c i a l i s m , w hich p r o m i s e d the l a t t e r . . 59 P r o f e s s o r Frank U n d e r h i l l , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i s o l a t e the reasons f o r the l a c k o f a d i s t i n c t i v e Canadian 58 See James H. Gray, Red L i g h t s on the P r a i r i e s ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f Canada", 19 71) and Bc.oze ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n o f Canada, 1 9 7 2 ) . ' 59 Frank U n d e r h i l l , l e c t u r e i n Canadian H i s t o r y c o u r s e , U.B.C., J u l y , 1952. 43 r a d i c a l i d e o l o g y , p l a c e s much importance on the p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r a r i a n l i f e o f e a r l y Canada. Canadians, he s a y s , had no i d e a of the meaning o f " r i c h " and "poor" i n urban l i f e be-cause t h e i r l i f e was e s s e n t i a l l y r u r a l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , he a r g u e s , they were not i n t e r e s t e d i n economic democracy (economic e q u a l i t y ) , but o n l y i n p o l i t i c a l democracy. The unique case o f B r i t i s h Columbia makes I t d i f f i c u l t t o sub-s t a n t i a t e t h i s h y p o t h e s i s f o r Canada as a whole, f o r i n the s m a l l urban communities, o f B r i t i s h Columbia economic i s s u e s were an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the growth of more r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s t i d e a s than those i n the p r e -d o m i n a n t l y r u r a l areas o f Canada. The l a c k o f a br o a d f a m i l y farm base as a sou r c e of sustenance t o which workers c o u l d r e t u r n d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f unemployment a l s o encouraged u n i o n m i l i t a n c y and s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l i s m . I s o l a t i o n from the mainstream o f Canadian a f f a i r s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o B r i t i s h Columbia's uniqueness among the p r o v i n c e s . B e f o r e the c o m p l e t i o n o f the C.P.R., e n t r a n c e t o B r i t i s h Columbia was by sea and from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Most o f the e a r l y miners coming i n t o the Kootenay-Boundary a r e a were Americans. News a r r i v e d v i a American newspapers and t r a v e l l e r s coming through P a c i f i c Coast p o r t s such as San F r a n c i s c o . Many o f the e a r l y s e t t l e r s had c o n n e c t i o n s 44 w i t h the United States which gave them an i n t e r e s t i n American a f f a i r s , though they could not i n f l u e n c e them. The.Rocky Mountains e f f e c t i v e l y cut o f f t r a v e l from the r e s t of Canada, and even a f t e r completion of the C.P.R. the t r i p was arduous, expensive and time-consuming. News came from the East l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than from the South and, because the East was so remote, news from there seemed l e s s r e l e v a n t . Since B r i t i s h Columbians could not Influence events i n the United States and had l i t t l e d e s i r e to in f l u e n c e n a t i o n a l Canadian events i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s was paramount. I t i s noteworthy that i n i t s more than one hundred years of existence Canada has never had a p r i n c i p a l p o l i t i c a l leader or policy-maker from B r i t i s h Columbia. T y p i c a l l y , among B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l i s t s the i n f l u e n c e of American r a d i c a l s was much greater than any i n f l u e n c e coming from Eastern Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia's concerns w i t h Confederation were p r i m a r i l y m a t e r i a l ones. In 1 8 7 1 , as i n 1 9 7 1 , the "good l i f e " f o r B r i t i s h Columbia e s s e n t i a l l y meant m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g . The province's r e l a t i o n s with Ottawa have always been marked by f i n a n c i a l d isputes: f i r s t the trans-Canada railway and the naval dock at Esquimalt, then McBride's many v i s i t s to Ottawa to negotiate b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l terms f o r B r i t i s h 45 Columbia, l a t e r P a t t u l l o ' s . r e c a l c i t r a n c e r e g a r d i n g the R o w e l l - S i r o i s recommendations, and i n more r e c e n t t i m e s the S o c i a l C r e d i t government's c o n s t a n t a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t Ottawa was " d r a i n i n g the g o l d e n goblet, o f B r i t i s h Columbia." As Sage p o i n t s out,, a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d , f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s p l a y e d l i t t l e p a r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s . ^ U n l i k e the p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , where the farmers were a c u t e l y a f f e c t e d by Ottawa's t a r i f f p o l i c i e s , B r i t i s h Columbia's m i n e r s , f i s h e r m e n and lumber-j a c k s were l e s s a f f e c t e d by Ottawa's a c t i o n s than by the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s a i d e d and a b e t t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government i n t h e i r d r i v e f o r i n d u s t r i a l empire. P o l i t i c a l wars i n the p r o v i n c e were fought on B r i t i s h Columbia i s s u e s , w h i l e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y n a t i o n a l i s s u e s were more o f t e n t h r u s t i n t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . I n B r i t i s h Columbia the f e d e r a l system.of g o v e r n -ment a c t u a l l y h e l p e d the L e f t by p r o v i d i n g a d i s t i n c t p o l i t i -c a l a rena i n which s u p p o r t f o r the L e f t was r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g . I n the p r o v i n c e s where n a t i o n a l i s s u e s i m p i n ged on 60 . . n W a l t e r N. Sage, " F e d e r a l P a r t i e s and P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Groups i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 0 3 , " The B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 12 ( A p r i l , 1 9 4 8 ) , pp. 151-169- " " 46 p r o v i n c i a l . p o l i t i c s , however, f e d e r a l i s m tended t o have a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on the growth o f s o c i a l i s m , s i n c e r e g i o n a l views o f n a t i o n a l .issues f r e q u e n t l y c r o s s e d c l a s s l i n e s . The prominence of l o c a l i s s u e s , however, d i d mean t h a t the most a b l e men tended t o be i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , a f a c t which made i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r the 61 s o c i a l i s t s t o make p o l i t i c a l g a i n s . From 1903 t o 1915 , McBride was p r e m i e r o f the p r o v i n c e . He demonstrated g r e a t p o l i t i c a l a p t i t u d e , seeming t o know t o what e x t e n t he s h o u l d c o u r t l a b o u r , how v o c i f e r o u s l y h e . s h o u l d censure Ottawa, when t o s u p p o r t the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y ' s proposed b i l l s and when t o borrow t h e i r i d e a s . He c o n s t i t u t e d a f o r m i d a b l e opponent: w i t h men o f l e s s e r a b i l i t y i n p r o v i n -c i a l p o l i t i c s , the s o c i a l i s t s would undoubtedly have had g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e . 61 The most a b l e s o c i a l i s t s were a l r e a d y -. c o n c e n t r a t e d p r o v i n c i a l l y b e c a u s e , due t o the l a r g e f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , they c o u l d not get e l e c t e d n a t i o n a l l y . Thus, had Canadian n a t i o n a l i s s u e s a t t r a c t e d the b e s t C o n s e r v a t i v e s and L i b e r a l s , the s o c i a l i s t s would have e n j o y e d a weaker o p p o s i t i o n i n B. nC. The SPC always r a n c a n d i d a t e s i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s and "the C l a r i o n o f t e n c overed n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e v e n t s , but i n day-to-day p o l i t i c a l w a r f a r e the p a r t y was e s s e n t i a l l y a B.C. p a r t y . Under a f e d e r a l system, however, " s o c i a l i s m i n one p r o v i n c e " ( p a r t i c u l a r l y s o c i a l i s m o f the SPC v a r i e t y ) would not have been p o s s i b l e . T h i s problem i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n Chapter IX. 47 The slow p r o c e s s o f t r a n s p l a n t i n g f e d e r a l p a r t i e s t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o 6 2 h e l p e d the s o c i a l i s t s t o r e c r u i t a p o l i t i c a l f o l l o w i n g . A l t h o u g h p o l i t i c a l campaigns were fought on a group b a s i s from the time B r i t i s h Columbia e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n , p a r t y p o l i t i c s w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e i n the l e g i s l a t u r e d i d not take h o l d u n t i l R i c h a r d McBride formed the f i r s t a l l - C o n s e r v a t i v e government i n 1903- P r i o r t o t h i s time the two o p p o s i n g groups v y i n g f o r p o l i t i c a l power a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i n c l u d e d b o t h L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s . S i n c e the workers were not m o b i l i z e d i n t o the o l d l i n e p a r t i e s p r i o r t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the s o c i a l i s t s had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o w i n t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e — an o p p o r t u n i t y which was not a v a i l a b l e t o . s o c i a l i s t s i n the M a r i t i m e s , Quebec "and O n t a r i o . I n the s e areas the two o l d - l i n e p a r t i e s were a p p e a l i n g f o r v o t e s b e f o r e i n d u s t r i -a l i z a t i o n and b e f o r e workers became much aware o f M a r x i a n s o c i a l i s m . B r i t i s h C o lumbia, however, was moving i n t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n at the v e r y time the s o c i a l i s t s were 62 F o r a r e v i e w of B.C. p o l i t i c s d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d see W a l t e r N. Sage, " F e d e r a l P a r t i e s and P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Groups i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 0 3 " ; E d i t h D o b i e , "Some As p e c t s o f P a r t y H i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia, 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 0 3 , " P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review ( J u n e , 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. ' 2 3 5 - 2 5 1 ; E.;B. M e r c e r , P o l i t i c a l Groups i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. 1 8 8 3 - 1 8 9 8 ,(M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C., 1 9 3 7 ) . 48 a p p e a r i n g on the scene and j u s t when p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s a l o n g f e d e r a l p a r t y l i n e s were b e g i n n i n g . As a r e s u l t ^ s o c i a l i s t s d i d not f i n d t h a t t h e i r o n l y s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t was among C o n s e r v a t i v e o r L i b e r a l c o n v e r t s ; t hey c o u l d a p p e a l t o workers who were not y e t committed. The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s phenomenon and o f the s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n C h a p t e r I X . I t i s a g a i n s t t h i s b a c kground, t h e n , t h a t the growth and i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia must be v i e w e d , f o r i t was these s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , unique i n Canada, which n u r t u r e d a more r a d i c a l b r a n d of s o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a n i n the r e s t o f the c o u n t r y : the n a t u r e and abundance o f the p r o v i n c e ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s l e a d i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l and the r a p i d growth o f company towns; e a r l y c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c o n t r o l by V i c t o r i a c o u p l e d w i t h a s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between government and i n d u s t r y ; a p a r t i c u l a r type o f immigrant b r i n g i n g p o p u l i s t and r a d i c a l i d e a l s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and u n i o n i s m , F a b i a n and M a r x i s t i d e a l s from B r i t a i n and o t h e r p a r t s o f Europe. Augmented by the l a c k o f an a g r a r i a n b a s e , the p r o v i n c e ' s g e o g r a p h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l i s o l a t i o n from the Canadian 49 mainstream, the b e l a t e d establishment of f e d e r a l p a r t i e s on the p r o v i n c i a l scene and dynamic s o c i a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p i n the p r o v i n c e , the stage was set f o r a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of s o c i a l i s t " drama than that which appeared on other p r o v i n c i a l scenes. By no means, of course, i s i t intended to imply that t h e S e n t i r e province was a hotbed of s o c i a l i s t support. Most of the workers' votes during t h i s p e r i o d s t i l l went to the Conservatives and L i b e r a l s . In the m u l t i p l e r i d i n g of the C i t y of Vancouver the s o c i a l i s t candidates always shared the bottom of the p o l l w i t h any labour or independent candidates who ran, although i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s of 1 9 0 3 , 1 9 0 7 , 1909 and 1912 the s o c i a l i s t s ' percentage of votes cast i n the r i d i n g s outside Vancouver and V i c t o r i a 6 3 was approximately 8 , 21^ 25 and 25 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . Only i n the c o a l mining communities of Vancouver I s l a n d and the metal mining communities of the Kootenay area d i d the workers support the s o c i a l i s t cause to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree. But there was s u f f i c i e n t support i n these areas to s u s t a i n the SPC over a number of years and to b u t t r e s s i t s members'pbelief that B r i t i s h Columbia was on i t s way to a Marxist s a l v a t i o n . 6 3 S e e Chapter V I , pp. 252-269 50 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the e a r l y s o c i a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia l a y not i n t h e i r numbers, t h e i r e l e c t o r a l s uccess nor t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e accomplishments ( a l t h o u g h the l a t t e r were c o n s i d e r a b l e , c o n s i d e r i n g the number o f 6 4 members a c t u a l l y e l e c t e d ) , but i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the u n i o n s , and i n the number of SPC members who c a r r i e d the s o c i a l i s t i d e a l i n t o o t h e r p o l i t i c a l endeavours a f t e r the demise o f the p a r t y . These c o n t r i b u t i o n s are r e f e r r e d t o t h roughout t h i s s tudy and d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . 64 Chapter V I , pp. 269-276 51 CHAPTER I I ROOTS AND BEGINNINGS Economic development i n B r i t i s h Columbia q u i c k l y a c c e l e r a t e d f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n i n 1885 o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y , which connected t h e P a c i f i c Coast w i t h C e n t r a l Canada and t h e r e b y p r o v i d e d the communication c h a i n n e c e s s a r y t o f u r n i s h money, l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l s , markets and the f l o w o f i d e a s . The i n i t i a l boom, however, was s h o r t -l i v e d . The American f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s o f the l 8 9 0's r e v e r -b e r a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, r e s u l t i n g i n an i n d u s t r i a l slump which l a s t e d from 1893 t o 1898. Unemployment grew, soup k i t c h e n s were s e t up i n Vancouver c h u r c h e s , and t h e p r o v i n c e endured f i v e b l e a k y e a r s o f hard t i m e s . 1 I t was d u r i n g t h i s l a s t decade o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the boom p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e f i v e - y e a r slump t h a t s o c i a l i s t i d e a s which had t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l r o o t s i n Europe came t o B r i t i s h Columbia v i a E a s t e r n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Up t h e P a c i f i c Coast came men such as E. T. K i n g s l e y from C a l i f o r n i a ; a c r o s s the b o r d e r from t h e mountain Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: a H i s t o r y , p. 313 . But the v a l u e o f m i n e r a l output d u r i n g t h e slump h e l d i t s own and t h e n i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y . I n 1894 i t was about $ 4 . 2 m i l l i o n , but t h i s had grown t o $ 2 0 . 1 m i l l i o n by 1 9 0 1 . Annual Report o f the M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , 1 9 2 3 , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a ; 1 9 2 4 ) , p. A7. s t a t e s came members o f the Western F e d e r a t i o n o f M i ners (WFM), b r i n g i n g w i t h them a r a d i c a l p h i l o s o p h y d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g a s e r i e s o f p r o l o n g e d and v i c i o u s b a t t l e s w i t h management and government. From o v e r the R o c k i e s came men and. such news-papers as the C i t i z e n and C o u n t r y , b r i n g i n g news o f C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l i s m , Henry George's S i n g l e Tax, the C o o p e r a t i v e Common-w e a l t h o f L o u i s G r o n l u n d , and t h a t embodiment of d i s s e n s i o n , D a n i e l DeLeon's S o c i a l i s t Labour P a r t y . T h i s c h a p t e r uncovers the i n t e l l e c t u a l r o o t s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia s o c i a l i s m and t r a c e s the h i s t o r y o f the f i r s t a c t i v e groups. C l e a r l y , no e x a c t p o i n t i n time can b e . s a i d t o mark the a r r i v a l o f s o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia as i t s i n f l u e n c e s were borne by immigrants from o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada, from Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . From the b e g i n n i n g , the s o c i a l i s t movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia embraced a v a r i e t y o f d o c t r i n e s , p a r t i e s and movements. I t would be a s i m p l e m a t t e r t o a s c r i b e l a b e l s and a s s i g n o r i g i n s on the b a s i s o f the type o f s o c i a l i s m — F a b i a n , C h r i s t i a n and Reform s o c i a l i s t would be l i s t e d as coming from E a s t e r n Canada and Great B r i t a i n , f o r the most p a r t , w h i l e the r a d i c a l M a r x i s t o r i e n t a t i o n would be c r e d i t e d t o Germany v i a the United. S t a t e s — b u t t h i s would be a f a l s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n c e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s m i n B r i t i s h Columbia f r e q u e n t l y 53 spoke w i t h a B r i t i s h a c c e n t . U n t i l 1903 t h e r e were no p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s r e p r e s e n t -i n g d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i e s as such i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g -i s l a t u r e . 2 R a t h e r i t was a case o f p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s m : each p o l i t i c a l g r o u p i n g , w h i c h sometimes i n v o l v e d d i f f e r e n t c o a l i t i o n s o f t h e same group o f men, 3 b i d f o r power on t h e b a s i s t h a t i t c o u l d do t h e same t h i n g s as the o t h e r s , o n l y b e t t e r . As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I , t h e group o f men g o v e r n i n g t h e p r o v i n c e were c h i e f l y merchants and e n t r e p r e n e u r s ; w o r k i n g c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were not i n c l u d e d . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h e n , t h a t even b e f o r e the advent o f a s o c i a l i s t p a r t y I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e workers sought a c c e s s t o the l e g i s l a t u r e i n o r d e r t o . p r o t e c t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . I t i s d u r i n g t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d t h a t we see the o r i g i n s o f a ~ m i l i t a n t l a b o u r movement, w h i c h t h r o u g h o u t i t s . h i s t o r y has g i v e n v a r y i n g degrees o f s u p p o r t t o the s o c i a l i s t movement i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I n 1886 t h e Workingmen.'s P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n r a n c a n d i d a t e s i n V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo on a p l a t f o r m w h i c h s p e l l e d out t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e and c a l l e d . f o r r e g u l a t i o n s 2VJ. N. Sage,. " F e d e r a l P a r t i e s and. P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Groups i n B. C . 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 0 3 ", B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 1 2 , ( A p r i l , 1 9 4 8 ) . P. 1 5 1 . F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s p o i n t see C h a p t e r I I I . ,, 3 I b i d , p. 1 5 2 . 54 i n mine s a f e t y , a g e n e r a l n i n e ^ h o u r day, amendments t o the workmen*s l i e n law, t a x a t i o n o f l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s i n o r d e r t o r e s e r v e p u b l i c l a n d s f o r s e t t l e r s , and the e x c l u s i o n o f cheap O r i e n t a l l a b o u r , F our y e a r s l a t e r the M i n e r ' s and Mine L a b o u r e r ' s P r o t e c t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n succeeded i n h a v i n g the f i r s t l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d t o the l e g i s l a t u r e 4 --Thomas F o r r e s t e r and Thomas K e i t h . The A s s o c i a t i o n had been formed i n Nanaimo i n 1887 t o promote the e i g h t - h o u r day f o r underground w o r k e r s , u n i o n r e c o g n i t i o n , and the l i m i t a -t i o n o f Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n . I n the 1890 e l e c t i o n they added Henry George's S i n g l e Tax t o t h e i r p l a t f o r m . I n every p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n c e t h a t d a t e , t h e r e has been someone e l e c t e d t o the l e g i s l a t u r e on e i t h e r a Labour o r S o c i a l i s t 5 t i c k e t . Thus when s o c i a l i s m came t o B r i t i s h C o lumbia, b r i