UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

John Collier and the Protestant churches Stacey, Susan Carol LeCompte 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1974_A8 S79_3.pdf [ 7.53MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0099983.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0099983-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0099983-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0099983-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0099983-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0099983-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0099983-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0099983-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0099983.ris

Full Text

1  - i  r  JOHN COLLIER AND. THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES* by SUSAN LECOMPTE STAGEY B.A., Whitworth C o l l e g e (Spokane, Washington), 1971  A. THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS' i n the Department of History  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1973  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  granted by  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Department or  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  the Head of my  Columbia  s h a l l not be  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT In  1933  P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n Roosevelt appointed John  C o l l i e r to the post of U n i t e d S t a t e s Indian Commissioner. C o l l i e r had been a s o c i a l worker i n New nia  York C i t y and  Califor-  d u r i n g the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, but the e f f e c t s of the  i n d u s t r i a l mode o f l i f e  that he c o n s t a n t l y witnessed made him  extremely p e s s i m i s t i c about the a b i l i t y of the modern world to  f o s t e r and s u s t a i n any type of h e a l t h y s o c i a l system.  the e a r l y 1920's he was  In  the guest of the Taos Pueblos Indian  t r i b e f o r s e v e r a l months, and d u r i n g h i s stay with these n a t i v e Americans he was  deeply impressed by t h e i r genius a t main-  t a i n i n g , i n the face of n e a r l y overwhelming p r e s s u r e , a c u l t u r e whose primary f u n c t i o n was  the c r e a t i o n and sustenance  balanced i n d i v i d u a l and group p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  of w e l l -  Throughout the  1920's: he i n c e s s a n t l y b a t t l e d a g a i n s t any l e g i s l a t i o n , e x e c u t i v e order, or s o c i a l or economic p r e s s u r e that was what he saw on e a r t h .  endangering  to be one of the l a s t t r u l y humane c i v i l i z a t i o n s When he became Commissioner, he i n s t i t u t e d a program  designed to r e v i v e the t r i b a l s t r u c t u r e s , t h e i r power and s t a t u s systems,  t h e i r languages,  t h e i r r e l i g i o n s , and a l l other v i t a l  aspects of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e .  He backed  t h i s up with a compre-  hensive p l a n f o r economic, e d u c a t i o n a l , and h e a l t h improvement so that the n a t i v e s would be a b l e to s o l i d l y entrench thems e l v e s i n the type of l i f e One  group who  they d e s i r e d .  opposed t h i s p o l i c y of C o l l i e r ' s were  the P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s who  l a b o r e d among the a b o r i g i n e s .  From the e a r l i e s t days of t h e i r m i s s i o n s they had s e t  -ii-  themselves  -iii-  to  the task of " c i v i l i z i n g " the Indian and h e l p i n g him  to  a s s i m i l a t e i n t o the l a r g e r American s o c i e t y where he c o u l d more e a s i l y and more e f f e c t i v e l y f u n c t i o n as a C h r i s t i a n . They were t h e r e f o r e dismayed by C o l l i e r ' s attempt to promote s e g r e g a t i o n , i s o l a t i o n , and a r e t u r n to the o r i g i n a l s t y l e s , although of  life-  they d i d come to approve of the other  aspects  h i s work. T h i s t h e s i s examines C o l l i e r ' s philosophy and program  of  Indian a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through h i s own  w r i t i n g s and  through  executive r e p o r t s , explores the depth and importance of t h e i r Indian missions  to the P r o t e s t a n t churches,  and  then s e t s f o r t h  and analyzes the negative P r o t e s t a n t r e a c t i o n to C o l l i e r ' s Commissionership.  I t attempts to explore the nature of a  c o n f r o n t a t i o n between two powerful  f o r c e s i n American  life.  The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n that emerges from t h i s work is  that C o l l i e r ' s appointment marks the f i r s t r e a l break i n the  cooperation of church and s t a t e i n Indian a f f a i r s .  Collier  began a s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of the o f f i c e that has continued present day.  The m i s s i o n a r i e s r e c o g n i z e d the i m p l i c a t i o n of  t h i s s e c u l a r i z a t i o n f o r t h e i r own  f u t u r e and responded a c c o r d i n g l y .  Both-sides had r a l l i e d around i d e o l o g i c a l standards was  to the  (the  church  committed to i t s theology, C o l l i e r to h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l  b e l i e f s ) and n e i t h e r c o u l d nor would g i v e way.  Thus the mis-  s i o n a r i e s tended to work themselves out o f a major r o l e i n the management of Indian  affairs.  TABLE OF CONTENTS. INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I. II. III. IV. V.  THE ESSENTIAL JOHN COLLIER  k  THE INDIANS' CHAMPION  21  THE NEW DEAL FOR THE INDIANS  3^  INDIANS AND. MISSIONARIES.  50  THE MISSIONARY RESPONSE TO COLLIER  82  CONCLUSIONS'  118  BIBLIOGRAPHY  122  iv  INTRODUCTION This thesis explains and analyzes the reaction of the Protestant churches to the United States Indian policy which John C o l l i e r developed and vigorously promoted during his years as Indian Commissioner (1933 to 19^5)•  The time period  and the various topics involved i n this research offer many and a l l u r i n g temptations for digression, but three themes w i l l remain the center of attention.  The f i r s t i s C o l l i e r himself,  the second i s the background of church involvement i n Indian a f f a i r s , and the third i s the manner i n which the Protestant churches responded to C o l l i e r ' s vision of the native American's role i n American society. The f i r s t few chapters w i l l examine John C o l l i e r ' s l i f e and thought.  Involved i n social work throughout his career, i t  was C o l l i e r ' s passion for the Indians which propelled him into one of the highest bureaucratic positions i n Washington,  D.C.,  and which set him on the same stage as many of the great names; of our century.  He never considered himself primarily a public  man, however, and i t was always the inner, philosophic s e l f which he cultivated most c a r e f u l l y .  From this meditative pen-  chant and from his long and often frustrating t o i l i n community work he developed a world view i n which he saw a d i s t i n c t and c r i t i c a l place for the Indians.  F a i t h f u l to his v i s i o n , he was  impervious to the claims of land and money interests and to the theories of those who believed that there were other ways to order Indian a f f a i r s .  Almost f a n a t i c a l l y unwilling to com-  promise his b e l i e f s , i t was inevitable that he would meet s t i f f  -2opposition. The Protestant churches were one such opponent.  The  study of these churches i s not based on i n d i v i d u a l Protestants, whether prominent or not, and the b e l i e f s they may have held, although such individuals may be used to i l l u s t r a t e some part i c u l a r point.  It i s with the i n s t i t u t i o n a l church that the  next few chapters are concerned.  Furthermore this research  does not necessarily include each and every sect encompassed within the Protestant f a i t h as not a l l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y entangled i n Indian a f f a i r s .  It does include those prominent  r e l i g i o u s organizations whose credal statements place them within the Protestant pale and whose crusading i n s t i n c t s led them to the Indians.  These i n s t i t u t i o n s were busily engaged  i n philosophizing about, ministering to, and planning for the native population from the day the f i r s t European s e t t l e r climbed out of his ship.  From decade to decade and within  various groups the theories about what should be done with the aborigines d i f f e r e d , but the general concensus was that some sort of interference i n the Indian l i f e was necessary.  There  gradually developed a close working relationship between government and church i n matters of Indian policy to the point where the r e l i g i o u s partner could often choose those who were to function i n the c i v i l capacities. With the advent of C o l l i e r ' s program, however, the missionary was somewhat unceremoniously evicted from his: sphere of influence and self-determination for the Indian was the order of the day.  The l a s t chapter deals with the way i n which  the churches coped with t h i s s i t u a t i o n ; i t d e s c r i b e s t h e i r i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n , the process o f adjustment,  and the  final  resolution. T h i s t h e s i s i s not intended to be a biography o f C o l l i e r or how  a study of Indian p o l i c y .  I t i s r a t h e r an examination of  one o f the major i n s t i t u t i o n s o f American  l i f e met  a chal-  lenge on a s o c i a l i s s u e posed by a p o w e r f u l l y unorthodox in  an u n s e t t l e d and u n c e r t a i n time.  man  CHAPTER I THE ESSENTIAL JOHN COLLIER To write of a high government o f f i c i a l whose stated policy and driving ambition was the promotion of r a c i a l segregation would l i k e l y indicate a thesis on some personality out of the late nineteenth century, especially i f he were known to have been born and reared i n the deep South.  John C o l l i e r ,  however, was a man of the twentieth century, whose p o l i t i c a l contemporaries were not the fathers of Jim Crow:but those same men who shaped Franklin Roosevelt's. New Deal. was the Indian whom he wished to segregate.  Furthermore i t By pursuing such a  policy he hoped to shield them from the destructive elements of European culture, both to ensure the Indian the right to choose his own l i f e - s t y l e and to conserve for America a reservoir of alternative s o c i a l structures and philosophies from which to draw i f her own proved incapable of supplying the needs; of the rest of her peoples. It i s d i f f i c u l t to categorize C o l l i e r as a member of any particular s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l movement.  A' short narrative  of his family background and of his career would probably be more useful i n showing how he f i t t e d into the structure and temper of his times-. He was born into a large and prominent Georgia family— his father was a banker who served as mayor of Atlanta, as president of the Cotton States Exposition of 1895» and as a leading member of several major Southern organizations. C o l l i e r , however, l o s t both of his parents f a i r l y early i n  life.  After his mother's death i n l897» when he was thirteen,  he attended a convent school i n r u r a l Georgia.  When his  father died i n 1900, he returned to Atlanta to f i n i s h high school and then spent many months camping i n the Appalachians and l i v i n g with mountain people.  In 1902 he enrolled i n Colum-  bia University i n New York to study l i t e r a t u r e and biology. While i n New York C o l l i e r became involved with a s o c i a l set that included many of the prominent i n t e l l e c t u a l s of early twentieth century America, and i n such an environment he was exposed to many of the popular philosophical stances of the day.  During this same period he participated i n various human-  i t a r i a n projects, none of which met with any remarkable success.  In 1907 he attended the College de France i n order to  study under some of the most prominent psychologists of that period.  The next year he returned to the United States by way  of Boston where he was appalled by the lack of any kind of f a c i l i t i e s for dealing with the problems of the immigrants who were streaming into the country i n massive numbers.  From 1908  to 1920, therefore, his energies were devoted to community work i n New York C i t y .  2  Most of this time was spent i n association with The People's Institute,  an organization intended to function "as a  medium of adult education and a free forum for the discussion of weighty questions i n p o l i t i c s , l i t e r a t u r e , economics and sociology" and which hoped to reduce misunderstandings between people of d i f f e r i n g classes and p o l i t i c a l leanings.-*  Collier  joined the Institute as i t s c i v i c secretary and as editor of  -6its  newspaper, and while on the s t a f f d i d e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h  i n t o the commercial amusements a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c ,  the  c o n d i t i o n s of c h i l d l i f e i n the c i t y , and the t r a i n i n g of s o c i a l workers. f i e l d s and was  During t h i s time he wrote widely i n a l l these i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the establishment o f the National.  a l Board of Censorship A f t e r World War  for films. I many o f the programs i n which C o l l i e r  had p a r t i c i p a t e d faded away f o r l a c k of funds and ment.  He  encourage-  t h e r e f o r e accepted an o f f e r to become the d i r e c t o r of  a d u l t education f o r the State of C a l i f o r n i a .  His educational  theory and techniques d i d not meet w i t h o f f i c i a l a p p r o v a l , however, so i n November, 1920,  he r e s i g n e d h i s p o s i t i o n and  for  the w i l d e r n e s s of the Sonora Mountains of Mexico.  his  way  left  While  on  south, he r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s from a f r i e n d l i v i n g i n  Taos, New  Mexico, u r g i n g him to v i s i t her.  only a few days,  I n t e n d i n g to s t a y  the C o l l i e r s spent approximately  e i g h t months  there.^ C o l l i e r ' s f r i e n d was of  a New  Yorker who  the l e a d e r s of the Taos Pueblos, and i t was  band who  had married  one  she and her hus-  i n t r o d u c e d the f u t u r e I n d i a n Commissioner to these In-  dians and t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e .  To C o l l i e r , Taoe seemed l i k e a  world: The d i s c o v e r y t h a t came to me t h e r e , i n t h a t t i n y group o f a few hundred Indians, was of p e r s o n a l i t y forming i n s t i t u t i o n s ' even now unweakened, which had s u r v i v e d repeated and immense h i s t o r i c a l shocks, and which were going r i g h t on i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f s t a t e s of mind, a t t i t u d e s of mind, e a r t h - l o y a l t i e s and human l o y a l t i e s , amid a context of beauty which s u f f u s e d a l l the l i f e of the group. What I observed and experienced was a power of a r t — o f the l i f e making a r t — g r e a t e r i n k i n d than anything I had known i n my own world b e f o r e . "  new  -7He began to f e e l that a l l his previous endeavors, although they had f a i l e d to achieve their proposed aims, had prepared him to appreciate and understand the value of the Indian way of l i f e : , " . . . t h e y led me to say within myself, with absolute f i n a l i t y about the Indians:  This e f f o r t toward community must not f a i l ;  there can be no excuse or pardon i f i t  fails.  Although he returned to San Francisco during the 19211922 school year to teach s o c i a l science at San Francisco State Teachers College, and although he at that time intended to make C a l i f o r n i a his home, he devoted much time and thought to a study of the Indians.  He grew especially sensitive to the acts  of President Harding's Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. F a l l , concerning Indian land and resources.  When a friend  offered to arrange f i n a n c i a l support i f he would resign his teaching position and work f u l l - t i m e for Indian r i g h t s , he did so.^ John C o l l i e r cannot be adequately presented by outl i n i n g the particulars of his l i f e , however.  While i t i s a  perilous h i s t o r i c a l venture to try to fathom the depths of any personality, the fact that C o l l i e r l e f t behind so many i n t r o spective writings makes i t less presumptuous to try to determine the factors that motivated his actions.  Besides a rather  intensive autobiography which deals more with his b e l i e f s and feelings than with the events of his l i f e , he published several volumes of poetry and injected much of his personal philosophy into the books and magazine a r t i c l e s that he wrote throughout his career.  The following paragraphs do not presume to offer  -8an i n c i s i v e analysis of C o l l i e r ' s psyche, but rather present some of the dominant themes that he expressed i n his more philosophic and poetical writings.  This i s done i n the hope  of revealing the nature and intensity of the moral principles which controlled his actions. Orthodox.religion was not a p a r t i c u l a r l y element i n C o l l i e r ' s l i f e .  significant  He was reared i n the Methodist  church and spent two years of his adolescence at a Catholic boarding school, but he would not accept the Christian dogma: "Within Catholicism, I experienced nothing except wisdom and great human kindness.  I passed out from Catholicism with no  inward struggle, with no pain.  Removing myself from Catholi-  cism was removing myself from the absolutist God of any creed, any philosophy."9  Throughout his writings, he seems to regard  the church only i n i t s r o l e as a s o c i a l agency and secular power.  Its  s p i r i t u a l aspects seem to have held l i t t l e s i g n i f i -  cance for him.''"® C o l l i e r ' s panegyrics on nature could well lead some to believe that i t was the untainted wilderness which claimed his spiritual loyalties.  Indeed, he sounds l i k e a prophet of the  modern ecology passion: Ecologically understood, our planet i t s e l f , with i t s atmosphere, waters, and s o i l s , and a l l i t s animate l i f e , i s one single event. The event, i n i t s multitudes, complexities and interdependencies, i n i t s unexhausted potential and i t s inexhaustible ranges of l i b e r t y far exceeds the conceptual reach of any age prior to our own, and far exceeds our own age's conceptual and emotional reach, though i t does not exceed our own age's contraecological power to destroy. Throughout his l i f e story one constantly finds him headed o f f  -9for the solace of the wilds,  "From my eighteenth year,  I  would go on foot for months of each summer across the southern Appalachians...the glorious, v i r g i n forests s t i l l persisted  12 there from before the days of the red men, or any man." After his f a i l u r e i n an early humanitarian project "...what I did was to depart to the mountains, equipped with nothing but a piece of canvas, a waterbag, a frying pan, a hatchet, and a knife.  For about six months I l i v e d i n the wilderness of the  southern A p p a l a c h i a n s . . . " ^ People's Institute,  "I  After seven years of work at the  reviewed the gains and losses since  1908, and suddenly there s\*ept over me the longing, experienced again and again i n my l i f e , for wilderness...Thereupon, I surrendered a l l positions and work connections:, and with Lucy and our three sons...I departed to the North Carolina wilds. The year which ensued was f i l l e d with deep l i f e , immersion into the s i l e n t quietude of the w i l d e r n e s s . . . . " - ^ frustrations i n C a l i f o r n i a , "...I Mountains of Mexico. or longer.  And, after his;  departed for the Sonora  The family would camp there for a year  It was the desert we wanted—the non-human wilder-  ness. "^5  statements such as these have led one c r i t i c to say  that "If  t h i s i s not animism, i t borders intimately upon what  the philosophers describe as pantheism.  Consequently, i t  is  l o g i c a l for the one-time Indian Commissioner to deprecate Christian influences upon the aborigines and to exalt the primi t i v e , pagan elements i n their s o c i e t i e s . C o l l i e r , however, was by no means the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c type of back-to-nature man; he had an i n f l e x i b l e b e l i e f i n the  -10indispensible role of society i n human existence. exist.  "Societies  They create a people's temperament, the world-view and  the color and structure of personality among their members. They deep-dye the peoples...societies d i f f e r one from the other, they make the man.  To individuals they are nurture,  shaper, and fate.""*-''' He; asserted that u n t i l the present century "mankind l i v e d the determining part of i t s l i f e i n face-to-face, primary s o c i a l groups:  i n v i l l a g e communities: and federations of v i l -  lage communities," and that this manner of l i f e was marked by "cooperation and r e c i p r o c i t y , " by "the conserving and cherishing of earth and i t s f l o r a and creature l i f e , " and by the type of education which was "the art of informing, enriching, tempering, and s o c i a l i z i n g the personality, and of i n t e r n a l 18 i z i n g the moral imperatives."  In European culture, the l o c a l  community has dissolved and has not been replaced by any more inclusive world community.  He maintained that modern man i s  therefore a s o c i a l i s o l a t e who must cope with an exploitive system which undermines cultures and value systems, devours natural resources, and constantly gambles i n power c o n f l i c t s which often lead to wars.  C o l l i e r saw the only hope for peace-  f u l , creative, and s p i r i t u a l l y satisfying human existence i n the re-attainment of l o c a l communities where "the f a t e f u l years of personality formation and attitude formation" could be l i v e d 19 out.  His entire career i n s o c i a l work was dedicated to r e -  viving or reconstructing such s o c i a l structures. Thus devotion to "the non-human wilderness" and to  -11human s o c i e t y were both fundamental elements i n C o l l i e r ' s makeup, while r e l i g i o n had more or l e s s been e x o r c i s e d , but none of these f a c t o r s c o u l d be p o i n t e d to as the c o n t r o l l i n g ethic of h i s l i f e . of  what  C o l l i e r h i m s e l f , however, had an a n a l y s i s  was:  Always i t has appeared to me t h a t there e x i s t s f o r ever an i n f l o w and outflow between the human b e i n g and the human b e i n g i n groups, and between these and the world o f nature. T h i s consciousness o f the union of man w i t h man, and of the race o f man w i t h nature, w i t h each t h i n g and w i t h a l l t h i n g s and w i t h the e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s — t h i s c o n s c i o u s - . ness has been the l i v i n g c e n t e r o f my l i f e ' s p h i losophy.^ My own seventeenth-eighteenth year, succeeding upon the most l e t h a l shock I have ever experienced ^ i i s f a t h e r ' s s u i c i d e ^ , was i n i t s essence an emergence, by means o f , and out past and beyond, a l l o f e x p e r i ence t h a t I had ever known: out past and beyond my own s e l f , beyond v i s i b l e , a u d i b l e n a t u r e — a n emergence i n t o what seemed to myself to be a union with the s p i r i t of the whole. Whether v a l i d p e r c e p t i o n or i l l u s i o n , t h a t emergence proved to be my l i f e ' s d e t e r m i n a n t — t h e n ( n e a r l y s i x t y years ago) as now. Keeping one's mind and one's p r a c t i c a l l i f e openeyed to emergent wholes.. ..this has been, I venture, the c o n t r o l l i n g e t h i c , or i f one w i l l , the moral i m p e r a t i v e o f my own l i f e h i s t o r y . . . . A l l other undertakings ^except the American Indian e n t e r prise/^, as i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y embodied, have commanded me e n t i r e l y u n t i l s w i f t l y , and as a r u l e s i l e n t l y , I pass out from them. And I passed out from them i n no i n s t a n c e to grasp a s e c u r e r o p p o r t u n i t y , or any other measurable o p p o r t u n i t y , but i n s t e a d to r e t u r n to t h a t which, i n these paragraphs, I have c a l l e d the s p i r i t o f the w h o l e . ^ C o l l i e r was psychology,  widely read i n l i t e r a t u r e , s o c i o l o g y , and  but the w r i t i n g s which s t i r r e d him most profoundly  were those of the p h i l o s o p h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y N i e t z s c h e : yet  remains at the center of my  concept o f the  'beyond man'  w i t h i n l i v i n g man,  own  "Nietzs  t h i n k i n g being, w i t h h i s  as the y e t - u n r e a l i z e d p o t e n t i a l  present man;  and o f the e n t i r e t a s k o f l i f e  -12as the o r d e r i n g o f s o c i e t y and o f thought so as to invoke the beyond-man from present man."  22  Other t h i n k e r s to whom C o l l i e r  f e l t i n d e b t e d were L e s t e r Frank Ward, Freud, Jung, F. W. H. Myers, v a r i e d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s and g e s t a l t i s t s , Herbert Spencer, Walt Whitman, W i l l i a m M o r r i s , Robert Owen, Sidney and B e a t r i c e Webb, the European  Utopians, S h e l l e y , Byron, Words-  worth, F i o n a Macleod, W i l l i a m B u t l e r Yeats, and S i r Horace Plunkett. In  2 5  a d d i t i o n to these l i t e r a r y s t i m u l i , C o l l i e r ' s i n -  t e l l e c t was aroused by what he observed on h i s t r a v e l s . i n Europe,  While  C o l l i e r saw the e a r l y days o f many s o c i a l movements,  but those t h a t i n t r i g u e d him most were the c o o p e r a t i v e and l a b o r movements i n France, Belgium, England, and I r e l a n d .  Im-  pressed as he was by them, he c o u l d not wholeheartedly support them: From t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s , the v i s i o n o f even these movements was w a l l e d w i t h i n the concept t h a t enc l o s e d a l l n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p h i l o s o p h y — t h e concept o f the economic, the s e l f i s h , the i s o l a t e d c e n t e r o f man's m o t i v a t i o n . L i b e r a l s , s o c i a l i s t s , c o o p e r a t i v e commonwealth proponents, a l l b e l i e v e d i n the same nature o f man as d i d those who opposed t h e i r d o c t r i n e s o f human sameness, and a l l b e l i e v e d t h a t the narrow segment o f man they saw, o r thought they s a w — n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , western man—was u n i v e r s a l man. How out o f ages f a r gone i n p r e h i s t o r y .. .man i s something d e c i s i v e l y o t h e r than the i s o l a t e d , economic man, was b a r e l y , i f a t a l l , suspected by t h i n k e r s then...." ^" 2  Through the many years o f h i s community work C o l l i e r was s u s t a i n e d "by a b e l i e f which d i e d hard i n me:  the b e l i e f  that what I may c a l l the O c c i d e n t a l ethos and genius were the hope o f the world; that they might a l s o become the world's doom; and my unwearying  task was to make some d i f f e r e n c e i n  -13that O c c i d e n t a l ethos and g e n i u s .  X%C  ~  J  For t h i s reason he threw  h i m s e l f i n t o the work o f the People's I n s t i t u t e and was  partic-  u l a r l y e n e r g e t i c i n h i s attempts to reform the movie i n d u s t r y . He hoped t h a t t h i s a r t f o r m would become "the people's t h e a t r e " , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the u n i v e r s a l aims o f mankind, "the l o n g i n g to witness through t h i s powerful medium not the p e r v e r s i o n s o f modern man,  but the s t i r r i n g s i n h i s s o u l f o r beauty, harmony,  and above a l l , shared responses and shared e x p e r i e n c e s , making him come a l i v e to h i m s e l f and the world and people around In  him.  s h o r t . . . t h e f i l m i n d u s t r y c o u l d u n i t e us...as a v a s t com-  munity."  26  By the end o f h i s c a r e e r i n New  York, he was  extremely  d i s i l l u s i o n e d about the p o t e n t i a l o f the modern western world to p r o v i d e any type o f h e a l t h y s o c i a l environment Zeitgeist  Its  ( " i t s ethos, i t s s i c k s p i r i t , i t s a t o m i z i n g i n t e l l e c -  t u a l and moral aims- and purposes*') a p p a l l e d him. his  f o r man.  He d e s c r i b e d  m i l i e u as f o l l o w s : Our western world way o f l i f e ( s o c i o l o g i c a l l y , i t may be c a l l e d the g e s e l l s c h a f t mode o f l i f e — l i f e l i v e d s o l i t a r i l y by i n d i v i d u a l s who are d i v o r c e d from communion w i t h one another toward ends g r e a t e r than any o f them, as i n d i v i d u a l s ) , has us i n i t s g r i p . I t conquered the programs and purposes o f the People's; I n s t i t u t e , which was formed e x p r e s s l y to c o u n t e r a c t t h i s i s o l a t i n g o f the s e l f w i t h i n the crowd. The People's I n s t i t u t e was seeking to b r i n g to the common f o l k o f New York, as we. now i n r e t r o s p e c t r e a l i z e , what i s known as the gemeinschaft mode o f l i f e (the s u f f i c i n g brotherhood, w i t h i n innumerable l o c a l communities which are moved by shared p u r p o s e s ) , but t h a t e f f o r t , and, f o r the 'modern western w o r l d , that mode o f l i f e , faded before the s c o r c h i n g onset of the g e s e l l s c h a f t mode o f l i f e — b e f o r e the s h a t t e r i n g , a g g r e s s i v e - d r i v e toward c o m p e t i t i v e u t i l i t y . . . ..The g e s e l l s c h a f t mode o f l i f e i s a l o n e l y one: mechanisms and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r shared, s u s t a i n e d 1  -rep u b l i c greatness, which c o u l d u n i t e men, great and humble, w i t h i n common purposes and endeavors, e x i s t no l o n g e r . The r e c r e a t i o n o f such mechanisms i s our world's t a s k . Indeed, i t i s c r i t i c a l to our s u r v i v a l . . . . C a n such mechanisms f o r community e x i s tence be r e - c r e a t e d w i t h i n the socio-economic order which e n g u l f s us now, deeper and always deeper; e n g u l f s us i n i t s d e n i a l of a l l order except t h a t imposed by i n d u s t r i a l i s m and m i l i t a r i s m , i n t e r m i x e d with governmental a u t h o r i t y ? Much of my l i f e has been l i v e d i n the search o f the answer to t h i s question, t h i s challenge. '' 2  C o l l i e r ' s encounter with Indian s o c i e t y was for  h i s pessimism; there was,  for  the s a l v a t i o n o f Western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  a tonic  he b e l i e v e d , t h i s one l a s t hope He had p r e v i o u s l y  c o n s i d e r e d the Indians a l o n g - l o s t cause, but h i s  experience  with the Taos Pueblos changed h i s mind. Repeatedly, I had been s o l i c i t e d on b e h a l f of America's Indian peoples; but always I had r e s i s t e d and r e f u s e d . I t was too l a t e , I b e l i e v e d ; t h a t golden age was., done....For years I b e l i e v e d that the l o n g , remorseless course of events, the s o c i a l d e s t r u c t i o n p i l e d on b i o l o g i c a l d e s t r u c t i o n which the white man had wrought upon the I n d i a n s , must have k i l l e d , i n most Indians, t h a t most profound of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l p o s s e s s i o n s - - t h e one our s i c k world most needs. That p o s s e s s i o n i s a way of l i f e a t once simple, s i n c e i t i s d i s c i p l i n e d , and complex: i t i n v o l v e s world view and sentiment of s e l f ; i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d t r a d i t i o n and symboli n v e s t e d b e l i e f , which i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y r e a l i z e s man as a co-partner i n a l i v i n g u n i v e r s e — man and nature i n t i m a t e l y co-operant and mutually dependent. I t i s a way of l i f e which r e a l i z e s the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s o c i e t y as wholly r e c i p r o c a l and both of them as drawing value and power to the r a c i a l and cosmic f u t u r e , and p a s t and f u t u r e are not o n l y that which i n l i n e a r time-sequence has been or i s y e t to be, but are p r o p u l s i v e , e f f i c i e n t l i v i n g r e a l i t y here and now....through a l l the s l a u g h t e r o f American Indian b i o l o g i c a l s t o c k s , the s l a u g h t e r of t h e i r s o c i e t i e s and trampling upon t h e i r v a l u e s , strange as i t may seem, they have kept the f a i t h . The i n n e r c o r e - v a l u e , comp l e x and v a r i o u s , has not been k i l l e d . . . . C o u l d we make i t our own, there would be an e t e r n a l l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e e a r t h and a f o r e v e r l a s t i n g p e a c e . ° 2  -15These b e l i e f s i m p e l l e d C o l l i e r to throw a l l h i s e n e r g i e s i n t o I n d i a n work f o r the next t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . When he l e f t I n d i a n work i n 19^5, however, h i s departure was  t r u e t o h i s p a t t e r n o f r e t u r n i n g t o "the s p i r i t  whole."  o f the  "However, my r e a l l y c o n t r o l l i n g reason / f o r r e -  s i g n i n g the CommissionershipJ7 v i c e o r government service..  l a y o u t s i d e the I n d i a n SerThe I n d i a n New Deal had been  meant f o r p r a c t i c a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , but a l s o (and i n i d e n tical  terms) as a c o n t r i b u t i o n to problems and s i t u a t i o n s ,  world-wide—the  problems o f non-white, n o n - l i t e r a t e , and  v a r i o u s l y dependent peoples, w i t h more than a b i l l i o n o f population.  I wanted to be f r e e to g i v e myself e n t i r e l y to 29  t h i s world wide need."  y  E. Palmer P a t t e r s o n I I wrote an a r t i c l e i n which he compared Duncan Campbell  S c o t t and John C o l l i e r , both o f  whom were l e a d i n g I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ( S c o t t i n the Canad i a n government) and both o f whom were p o e t s .  Patterson  examines t h e i r u n o f f i c i a l , p o e t i c a l w r i t i n g s to see i f there are " c l u e s to the a t t i t u d e s toward  Indians which i n f l u e n c e d  them as they c a r r i e d out t h e i r d u t i e s . "  He a n a l y s e s C o l l i e r  as f o l l o w s : C o l l i e r , encountering beauty and order i n the peaceo r i e n t e d s o c i e t y o f the Pueblos, was p a r t o f a l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n , one which had experienced World War I and r e a d Spengler, Freud, and Mein Kampf, though i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l o r i g i n s a r e found i n the decade of the 1890's. That g e n e r a t i o n had deep doubts about the o l d c e r t a i n t i e s o f p r o g r e s s and Western s u p e r i o r i t y . Thus C o l l i e r i s a product o f the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f European s o c i a l thought whose g r e a t e s t t h i n k e r s . . . s h i f t e d the a x i s o f t h a t t r a d i t i o n /the n a t i o n a l i s t t r a d i t i o n / ' to make  -16room f o r the new d e f i n i t i o n o f man as something more ( o r l e s s ) than a l o g i c a l l y c a l c u l a t i n g a n i mal. ...As S c o t t expresses a p o s s i b l e r a t i o n a l e f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n , so C o l l i e r has formulated an i d e o l o g y f o r Indian resurgence. C o l l i e r , then, was a s e c u l a r i n t e l l e c t u a l who k e e n l y s e n s i t i v e to the human c o n d i t i o n .  was  He b e l i e v e d i n the  u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l o f each i n d i v i d u a l and was f i r m l y convinced  t h a t only  through s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  p o t e n t i a l s be r e c o g n i z e d ,  nurtured,  could  and f u l f i l l e d .  these His  career was an exhaustive crusade i n search o f c r e a t i v e , peopleo r i e n t e d community s t r u c t u r e s .  He had weighed r e l i g i o n and  found i t wanting.  had molded h i s i d e a l s but  Philosophers  could not s a t i s f y them.  He r e a l i z e d that the most i d e a l i s t i c  s o c i a l movements and the most i n t e n s i v e community work could never r e v e r s e  the v i c i o u s , p e r s o n a l i t y - d e s t r o y i n g trends o f  the modern, i n d u s t r i a l , Western world.  H i s v i s i o n o f the  reattainment o f the l o c a l community where the i n t i m a t e  relation-  s h i p between man, h i s f e l l o w s , and nature would n o u r i s h a l l aspects o f the l i v e s o f a l l men and promote peace and harmony, seemed a phantom u n t i l h i s contact with Indian  s o c i e t y con-  v i n c e d him t h a t i t was s t i l l p o s s i b l e to have t h a t mode o f l i f e i n t h i s world.  His work with the I n d i a n s was not the culmina-  t i o n o f h i s c a r e e r , however; i t was r a t h e r an i n t e r l u d e which he l e a r n e d and developed s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s ,  during  techniques,  and programs to c a r r y to those who needed them. As d i s i l l u s i o n e d as he was w i t h h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n , C o l l i e r never abandoned i t .  He worked through the b u r e a u c r a t i c  system he so b i t t e r l y c r i t i c i z e d i n an attempt to mend i t .  Des-  -17p i t e h i s f l i r t a t i o n s w i t h other l i f e - s t y l e s , his  own  he never  denied  c u l t u r e , but p e r s i s t e n t l y sought ways to modify  r e c o n s t r u c t i t to f i t h i s i d e a s of how f u n c t i o n and what i t should  accomplish.  a society  should  and  NOTES TO CHAPTER I John C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h : A' Memoir and Some Essays on L i f e and Thought (Denver: Sage Books, 1963), pp. 15-37; Current Biography: Who s News and Why, 19**1, ed. Maxine B l o c k (New York: The H. W. W i l s o n Company, 19*1-1), p. 159; "C. A. C o l l i e r I n j u r e d , " New York Times, September 28, 1900, p. 1. 1  2 C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , pp. 37-65* •^"Charles Sprague-Smith," The N a t i o n a l C y c l o p a e d i a o f American Biography (New York: James T. White and Company, 1935), XXIV, 1^8-149; John C o l l i e r , " C h a r l e s Sprague Smith," Survey, A p r i l 9, 1910, p. 80. ^ o r i n f o r m a t i o n on C o l l i e r ' s work a t the People's I n s t i t u t e see: C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , pp. 68-89. F o r h i s w r i t i n g s on amusements see: John C o l l i e r , " L i g h t on Moving P i c t u r e s , " Survey, October 1, 1910, p . 80; "'Movies' and the Law," Survey, January 20, 1912, pp. 1628-1629; " F i l m Shows and Lawmakers," Survey, February 8, 1913, pp. 6^3-644; "Moving P i c t u r e s , T h e i r F u n c t i o n and Proper R e g u l a t i o n , " Playground, October 1910, pp. 232-239; " N a t i o n a l Board o f Censorship o f Motion P i c t u r e s , " Playground, March 1912, pp. k02-k0k; "Should the Government Censor Motion P i c t u r e s ? " Playground, J u l y 1912, pp. 129-132; "Back o f Our F o o t l i g h t s : The H a l f - F o r g o t t e n S o c i a l F u n c t i o n s o f the Drama," Survey, June 5, 1915, PP* 213-217; "Before Our F o o t l i g h t s : The School-keeping o f the Motionp i c t u r e Showmen," Survey, J u l y 3, 1915, PP. 315-317. 320; "Cens o r s h i p i n A c t i o n , " Survey, August 7, 1915, pp. *f23-*f27; "The Learned Judges and the F i l m s , " Survey, September *f, 1915, PP* 513-516; "Censorship and the N a t i o n a l Board," Survey, October 2, 1915, pp. 9-14, 31-33; "Anthony C o m s t o c k — L i b e r a l , " Survey, November 6, 1915, pp. 127-130, 152-153; "The Theater o f Tomorrow," Survey, January 1, 1916, pp. 381-385, *fll;' "A F i l m L i b r a r y , " Survey, March *f, 1916, pp. 663-668; "For a New Drama," Survey, May 6, 1916, pp. 137-1*H; "The Stage, A. New World," Survey, June 3, 1916, pp. 251-260; " C a l i b a n o f the Yellow Sands," Survey, J u l y 1, 1916, pp. 3^3-350. For an example o f h i s r e s e a r c h i n t o c h i l d l i f e i n New York see: Edward J . Barrows and John C o l l i e r , The C i t y Where Crime i s P l a y . ^ C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , pp. 90-91, 115-118. 6  i b i d . , p. 126.  7 i b i d . , p . 123.  i b i d . , pp. 127-131.  -19^ i b i d . , p.  cas (New  24.  "^For example, John C o l l i e r , The Indians o f the AmeriYork: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc., 19^7), pp. 117-  llB", 147-148.  ''""'"John C o l l i e r , "Wilderness and Modern Man," i n Wildlands i n Our C i v i l i z a t i o n , ed. David Brower (San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a Club, 1964), p. 126.  12 C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , p. 1 3  ibid.,  p.  48.  ibid.,  p.  82.  l l f  27.  " ^ C o l l i e r , The I n d i a n s o f the Americas, p.  18.  ^ J o s e p h F. Thorning, review o f The Indians o f the Americas, by John C o l l i e r , i n The Americas, V ( A p r i l 19497, 1  4"977  17  C o l l i e r , The Indians o f the Americas, p.  23.  -j Q Books,  John C o l l i e r , On the Gleaming Way p. 159.  1949), 1 9  ibid.,  p.  161.  20  C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , p.  2 1  ibid.  22  , P P . 77-78.  ibid.  , p.  38.  23i b i d . ,, P P . 32, 37, 44, 64-65. 24i b i d . ,  , p.  64.  25i b i d .  , p.  68.  26 2  ibid.  ?ibid.  , p. 72. , P P . 93-94.  32.  (Denver:  Sage  -20-  28  C o l l i e r , The Indians o f the Americas, pp. 18, 21-23.  29 C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , pp.  305-306.  30 E. Palmer P a t t e r s o n I I , "The Poet and the Indian: Indian Themes i n the Poetry o f Duncan Campbell S c o t t and John C o l l i e r , " O n t a r i o H i s t o r y , LIX (June I967), 69-?8.  CHAPTER I I THE. INDIANS' CHAMPION John C o l l i e r ' s f u l l - t i m e involvement can Indians began i n 1922  w i t h the Ameri-  when he l e f t h i s t e a c h i n g post i n  San F r a n c i s c o and departed f o r the Southwest. a r r i v a l i n New  Soon a f t e r h i s  Mexico he l e a r n e d o f the Bursum B i l l ,  l a t i o n which would a l l o w c e r t a i n whites who Pueblo l a n d s to sue f o r t i t l e  legis-  had s e t t l e d  to those l a n d s . ^  on  Collier  appointed h i m s e l f to the task of i n f o r m i n g the Indians about the b i l l  and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r them.  As a r e s u l t o f h i s  b r i e f i n g the Pueblos o r g a n i z e d f o r the f i r s t (when they drove to  time s i n c e  the Spanish from t h e i r t e r r i t o r y ) and  c a r r y a p e r s o n a l p r o t e s t to Washington, D.C.  Indians, C o l l i e r , and a Santa Fe lawyer took o f f on t h i s m i s s i o n which was  1680 decided  Seventeen  ( F r a n c i s C.  Wilson)  p a i d f o r out of C o l l i e r ' s  pocket. Stopping f i r s t i n Chicago,  they found wealthy  s o r s and spoke a t s e v e r a l meetings.  I t was  spon-  here t h a t Harold  L. Ickes, F r a n k l i n R o o s e v e l t ' s S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r  and  C o l l i e r ' s s u p e r i o r while Commissioner of I n d i a n A f f a i r s ,  was  drawn i n t o the I n d i a n cause.^ at  They stopped f o r a s h o r t time  Washington and then went on to New  gained c o n s i d e r a b l e attention.**  York, where they again  They appeared  b e f o r e the  League f o r P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n whose founder, Robert E. E l y , was  soon to launch the American I n d i a n Defense A s s o c i a t i o n  (which l a t e r merged w i t h the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n on Indian A f f a i r s to become the A s s o c i a t i o n on American I n d i a n A f f a i r s ) . Furthermore,  i n New  York "...the C a t h o l i c s came i n w i t h us,  -22and from t h i s time on the Bureau of C a t h o l i c I n d i a n M i s s i o n s stood by us through  t h i c k and t h i n . "  6  £ number o f prominent  Jews a l s o came to the support o f the Indians a t t h i s  time.  Fred M. S t e i n f i g u r e d prominently i n the American Indian Defense A s s o c i a t i o n , and L o u i s M a r s h a l l , the lawyer, legal  constitutional  c o n t r i b u t e d s e v e r a l hundred thousand d o l l a r s worth of  services.  7  R e t u r n i n g to Washington, they p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the hearings b e f o r e the House Committee on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n January,  1923» and to the c h a g r i n o f the I n d i a n Bureau, the  Bursum B i l l was  killed.  newly formed AIDA was was  The Bureau l e v e l e d charges  that the  a S o v i e t t o o l and that Russian Communism  i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s on b e h a l f o f the I n d i a n s .  same year S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r A l b e r t B. F a l l and Bureau t r i e d to push through  the I n d i a n Omnibus b i l l ,  In the the  which  would have d e p r i v e d the Indians of many o f t h e i r l a n d and water r i g h t s , but the AIDA, working with Senator L a F o l l e t t e , defeated  Robert  it.**  For the r e s t of the decade C o l l i e r ' s l i f e was i n v o l v e d with the work of the AIDA. agency f o r opposing Robert E. E l y , who  Founded i n 1923  the Bursum B i l l ,  as an  i t owed i t s e x i s t e n c e to  had c a l l e d together a conference o f the  v a r i o u s I n d i a n w e l f a r e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n June o f 1923  to p l a n a  concerted s t r a t e g y f o r the next l e g i s l a t i v e s e s s i o n .  This  New  York meeting produced a s e t of p r i n c i p l e s which were to guide the p o l i c i e s o f the soon-to-be-formed AIDA. 1.  These i n c l u d e d :  To induce the Government to observe with r e s p e c t to the Indians i t s t r e a t y and c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i -  -23-  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  g a t i o n s with the same measure o f good f a i t h that would be expected o f a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l who had assumed s i m i l a r o b l i g a t i o n s . To induce the Government to f u l f i l l with r e s p e c t to those o f the Indians toward whom i t has assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f g u a r d i a n s h i p , the f u l l measure o f i t s f i d u c i a r y o b l i g a t i o n s , with the same s t r i c t observance o f the i n t e r e s t s o f the wards and the same r e c o g n i t i o n o f moral and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as would be expected o f a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l who had undertaken a s i m i l a r trusteeship. To induce the Government to safeguard f o r the Indians the same r i g h t s to l i f e , l i b e r t y and prop e r t y that are guaranteed to a l l other persons by the F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n and to accord to them the same measure o f r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t y w i t h i n the law, as i s secured to a l l other persons by t h a t i n s t r u ment. To induce the Government to adopt and f o s t e r such reasonable measures as w i l l enable the Indians to p r e s e r v e , f o r t h e i r own happiness, and f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n and enlightenment o f mankind, the d i s t i n c t i v e features of their ancient c i v i l i z a tion. To modify, i n so f a r as may prove necessary, the e x i s t i n g agencies o f contact and c o n t r o l i n such manner as to i n s u r e the c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l the humanitarian and c o n s t r u c t i v e s e r v i c e s o f the Government, i n the f u l f i l l m e n t o f the moral and f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f g u a r d i a n s h i p , and to s u b s t i t u t e f o r the present a u t o c r a t i c departmental c o n t r o l o f Indian l i f e a system o f benef i c i a n t s u p e r v i s i o n r e g u l a t e d by law, c o n s i s t e n t with the p r i n c i p l e s o f an e n l i g h t e n e d Democracy. To advocate l e g i s l a t i o n , where necessary, f o r the accomplishment o f these ends and to oppose i n Congress a l l a c t i o n i n c o n s i s t e n t with these p r i n c i p l e s and aims. To disseminate accurate i n f o r m a t i o n about Indian l i f e , customs and t r a d i t i o n s to the end that a c t i o n with r e s p e c t to them s h a l l be taken o n l y i n the l i g h t o f f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h a t an e n l i g h t e n e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n s h a l l help to formul a t e Governmental and other a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r welfare.9 C o l l i e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a c t u a l establishment  of  the o r g a n i z a t i o n and was i t s e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y from the  start.  Although i t soon had branches i n San F r a n c i s c o , Pasa-  dena, Santa Barbara, and Los Angeles, C o l l i e r chose to work  -24-  p r i m a r i l y i n Washington, where he maintained his: headquarters and a continuous lobby.  He a l s o e d i t e d the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  p u b l i c a t i o n , American I n d i a n L i f e . ® 1  In g e n e r a l , he and h i s  o r g a n i z a t i o n "were devoted to a p r e s e r v a t i o n o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e s and to the r e p e a l o f the a l l o t m e n t p o l i c y i n favour of the r e t e n t i o n or r e s t o r a t i o n of t i t l e t r i b e r a t h e r than i n the i n d i v i d u a l . "  to I n d i a n l a n d i n the 1 1  Most of the membership  c o n s i s t e d of " w r i t e r s , a r t i s t s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and  reformers  who  had been working i n Indian a f f a i r s on a l o c a l b a s i s , but  who  had not p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y on the n a t i o n a l I n d i a n  scene....These  men  and women possessed s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e  i n p u b l i c and academic c i r c l e s , and a l l were deeply to I n d i a n t r i b a l c u l t u r e s .  sympathetic  Impressed with the i n s i g h t s to be  gained by s o c i a l s c i e n c e , they were immediately  interested i n  a p p l y i n g the l e s s o n s o f ' i n d i r e c t r u l e ' emergent from  the  experience of c o l o n i a l powers and i n the problems o f developing a sense of community and neighborhood  i n a swiftly urbanizing  12 culture." In 1923  the Commissioner of Indian A f f a i r s i s s u e d a  "Dance Order" which i n s t r u c t e d the r e s e r v a t i o n superintendents to discourage any dances or p a r t s o f ceremonials t h a t they cons i d e r e d to be immoral, i n d e c e n t , or dangerous.  C o l l i e r and h i s  group immediately p r o t e s t e d that t h i s v i o l a t e d the Indians' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t to r e l i g i o u s freedom.  They f u r t h e r main-  t a i n e d that the ceremonials were i n f a c t b e a u t i f u l r e l i g i o u s 13 r i t u a l s and not a t a l l of an obscene c h a r a c t e r . Throughout 1923 and 1924 there a l s o raged a b a t t l e on  -25the peyote q u e s t i o n .  The peyote c u l t , which had o r i g i n a t e d  i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century among c e r t a i n P l a i n s t r i b e s who  had r e c e n t l y been s e t t l e d on r e s e r v a t i o n s , became a wide-  spread, Pan-Indian movement of the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h and was  century,  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the Native American Church i n  V a r i o u s groups pressed  1918.  f o r a n i t - p e y o t e l e g i s l a t i o n i n the  f e d e r a l Congress and a g a i n C o l l i e r l e d the f i g h t to p r o t e c t  Ik t h i s aspect of Indian r e l i g i o n . By the end of 1923  C o l l i e r had e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as  one  of the major f i g u r e s of the I n d i a n r i g h t s movement.  new  S e c r e t a r y of the I n t e r i o r , Herbert W.  v i t e d him  to be one  o f "The  Work, t h e r e f o r e i n -  Committee o f One  and o f f e r advice on I n d i a n p o l i c y .  Hundred" to  review  T h i s committee, c o n s i s t i n g  o f a number of prominent Americans (e.g., Bernard Gen.  The  John J . P e r s h i n g , W i l l i a m Jennings  Bryan),  M.  Baruch,  clergymen,  Indian defense l e a d e r s , and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , agreed  on the need  f o r a b e t t e r q u a l i t y of education and h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r Indians, on the d e s i r e to see "the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n a t i v e a r t s and  c r a f t s " encouraged, and on the d e c i s i o n to approve Indian  dances and ceremonials  as l o n g as they were not unlawful  a g a i n s t "the i n t e r e s t s o f m o r a l i t y " .  nor  They a l s o recommended  that the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l study peyote to see whether or not i t was  d e t r i m e n t a l to the h e a l t h or morals o f i t s u s e r s .  They a l s o a d v i s e d immediate and c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of former 15 S e c r e t a r y F a l l ' s l a n d p o l i c y i n r e l a t i o n to Indian h o l d i n g s . y  In 1926,  the Brookings  I n s t i t u t e began an i n t e n s i v e  study o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of I n d i a n A f f a i r s a t the request  of  -26the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r . when i t was  p u b l i s h e d i n 1928,  C a l l e d the Merriam Report i t helped subsequent Indian  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e i r reform programs.  C o l l i e r was  not  d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s r e p o r t , but  he  16 was  consulted extensively. During t h i s time C o l l i e r a l s o p u b l i s h e d dozens of  a r t i c l e s i n many o f the n a t i o n ' s magazines d e a l i n g with Indians o f the country and  their situation.  These  the  essays  d e s c r i b e d v a r i o u s t r i b e s and t h e i r p e c u l i a r c o n d i t i o n s , s t r i p p e d c e r t a i n c o n g r e s s i o n a l b i l l s d e a l i n g with matters of t h e i r l e g a l terminology,  or proposed  exhaustive  changes i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n concerns. emphasized one  Indian  All  or more o f s e v e r a l themes t h a t C o l l i e r wanted  17 to impress upon the p u b l i c ' s consciousness. One  such i s s u e was  the need f o r comprehensive  i n the f e d e r a l Indian s e r v i c e .  Collier relentlessly  the Indian Bureau of misemploying i t s unquestionable absolute r u l e over I n d i a n l i f e .  He claimed  stemmed from the Bureau's i n e f f i c i e n c y due nature,  reform accused and  nearly  that these abuses to i t s b u r e a u c r a t i c  from an absence o f c o o r d i n a t i o n between f e d e r a l , s t a t e ,  and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , and i t s power.  What was  from the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s j e a l o u s y o f  needed, i n C o l l i e r ' s o p i n i o n , was  p o l i t i c a l change i n the topmost o f f i c i a l s , S e r v i c e as i t then e x i s t e d , and which concentrated  an end  the establishment  a  to the  Indian  of a program  on a g r i c u l t u r a l development, h e a l t h s e r -  v i c e s , l o c a l s c h o o l s , c o n s e r v a t i o n , housing reform,  economic  c o u n s e l i n g ( e s p e c i a l l y f o r those t r i b e s whose l a n d was  rich in  -27o i l and other d e s i r a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ) , and  tribal self-  government. Another theme was sole i n t e r e s t  h i s d i s t a i n f o r l e g i s l a t o r s whose  i n I n d i a n a f f a i r s was  the t r a d i n g value of In-  d i a n lands i n t h e i r l o g r o l l i n g maneuvers. j e c t was  sub-  h i s h o s t i l i t y to white a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t Indian l a n d  and c u l t u r e and it.  S t i l l another  the n a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s which seemed to s a n c t i o n  Not a few o f h i s w r i t i n g s were d e d i c a t e d to  that Western c u l t u r e was  demonstrating  not the r e a l i z a t i o n o f Utopian dreams  and t h a t the I n d i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n i n many r e s p e c t s produced more well-balanced  personalities.  When Herbert Hoover took o f f i c e i n 1929> be C h a r l e s J . Rhodes and J . Henry Scattergood, men,  two  appointed  Quaker b u s i n e s s -  as I n d i a n Commissioner and A s s i s t a n t Commissioner, respec-  tively.  Although  the s p i r i t of the Indian S e r v i c e became more  r e c e p t i v e to reform measures under t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and although they took steps to humanize the h a n d l i n g of Indian affairs (especially children),  i n the matter o f the s c h o o l i n g of Indian  they d i d not push f o r l e g i s l a t i o n which would have  l e n t more power to t h e i r program. Indian department bureaucracy  They became bogged down i n  and entangled i n the  entrenched  methods of work and thought which governed the i n s t i t u t i o n , and i n the end t h e i r humanitarian domination  o f the o l d system.  a s p i r a t i o n s bowed to the  The AIDA had h e l d back any  c r i t i c i s m of Rhodes and Scattergood u n t i l the new t i o n c o u l d prove i t s e l f , but as i t became c l e a r  administra-  t h a t no sub-  s t a n t i a l reforms were to be made permanent, C o l l i e r again  -28c a l l e d p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to the p l i g h t of the I n d i a n s . In 1933  F r a n k l i n Delano Roosevelt was  inaugurated  p r e s i d e n t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Harold Ickes became h i s Secret a r y of the I n t e r i o r , and the two  of them were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the appointment o f C o l l i e r to the post of Commissioner o f Indian A f f a i r s . M.  The  s t o r y of h i s s e l e c t i o n i s r e l a t e d by Arthur  S c h l e s i n g e r , J r . , i n The Age  of R o o s e v e l t :  Once Joe Robinson was backing an u n s u i t a b l e candidate f o r the I n d i a n Commissionership. To s e t t l e the matter, Roosevelt asked Robinson and Ickes—who had h i s own more q u a l i f i e d c a n d i d a t e — o v e r to the White House f o r t e a . Then the P r e s i d e n t s e t Robinson t a l k i n g about h i s r e c e n t defense of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a g a i n s t Huey Long, s p u r r i n g him on by exclamations o f wonder and a d m i r a t i o n . As the apparently a i m l e s s t a l k continued, Ickes began to doubt whether Roosevelt would ever reach the p o i n t ; 'I f e l t t h a t , f o r some reason, the P r e s i d e n t had decided to put o f f the o p e r a t i o n . * F i n a l l y , as dinner was announced and the two men r o s e to l e a v e , Roosevelt s a i d , 'By the way, Joe, I would l i k e to t a l k with you about the I n d i a n Commissionership. You have a man from Arkansas....1 have had a l o t of p r o t e s t s about him from women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , I n d i a n r i g h t s a s s o c i a t i o n s and reformers g e n e r a l l y . Now, I don't suppose t h a t you and I want to go up a g a i n s t t h a t k i n d of o p p o s i t i o n . ' Caught o f f guard, Robinson mumbled a reply. 'Well, I thought t h a t you would f e e l that way about i t , ' the P r e s i d e n t s a i d s u a v e l y . *I have been under p r e s s u r e to name John C o l l i e r . And H a r o l d Ickes, here, does not want M e r i t t . He does not b e l i e v e that he can work with him. He wants C o l l i e r . S i n c e he i s to be r e s p o n s i b l e , I suppose t h a t the t h i n g to do i s to l e t him have the man he wants.' ° The  d e t a i l s of C o l l i e r ' s program d u r i n g h i s commis-  s i o n e r s h i p w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter, but a summary of h i s work i s not out of p l a c e here. achievement d u r i n g h i s term was Howard B i l l  C o l l i e r ' s major  the passage of the Wheeler-  (the Indian R e o r g a n i z a t i o n Act) i n 1934.  With the  help o f I n t e r i o r Department lawyers, C o l l i e r drew up the act which was  to be the l e g a l b a s i s o f h i s program and which  was  -29designed  to help Indians  e s t a b l i s h economic and p o l i t i c a l  home r u l e , to p r o t e c t them a g a i n s t white encroachment on t h e i r lands and c u l t u r e s , and to improve t h e i r opportunities.  Following t h i s milestone,  educational  C o l l i e r plunged  i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c u l t u r a l , and economic reforms. 19^0,  By  f o r example, h a l f o f the employees o f the Department  of Indian A f f a i r s were Indians.  He a l s o a b o l i s h e d the  boarding  I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from t h e i r  s c h o o l s which separated  f a m i l i e s and c u l t u r e s ; s t i m u l a t e d i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a n a r t , music, and f o l k l o r e by h e l p i n g to c r e a t e the Indian A r t s and C r a f t s Board; s e t up economic, c o n s e r v a t i o n a l , and a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g programs; and encouraged a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l research. During World War I I l a r g e r i s s u e s than the needs o f the Indians  f o r c e d themselves i n t o C o l l i e r ' s a t t e n t i o n .  Milton  Eisenhower, i n charge o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s e v e r a l o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps f o r Japanese-Americans, asked C o l l i e r and the Indian S e r v i c e t o take complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l a r g e s t o f these,  the one i n Poston, Colorado,  temporary home o f 18,000 people.  which was the  C o l l i e r d i d so on the c o n d i -  t i o n that they c o u l d r u n i t along the same p r i n c i p l e s that guided  them i n working with Indians, and t h i s was immediately  agreed t o .  Although the i n h a b i t a n t s were r e s t r i c t e d to the  premises, w i t h i n the camp they o r g a n i z e d  t h e i r own governmen-  t a l system, developed c o o p e r a t i v e s , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t educ a t i o n programs, farmed and landscaped  as they p l e a s e d , and  were encouraged to make c r i t i c i s m s o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the  -30camp.  Eisenhower t r a n s f e r r e d to other war work, however,  and h i s successors  d i d not a t a l l approve o f C o l l i e r ' s  approach to c o n c e n t r a t i o n  camp o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The Indian S e r -  20 v i c e , t h e r e f o r e , soon withdrew from the e n t e r p r i s e . In 19^5 C o l l i e r r e s i g n e d the Commissionership and helped  to e s t a b l i s h the I n s t i t u t e o f E t h n i c A f f a i r s ,  designed  to c o n t r i b u t e to the s o l u t i o n o f the problems o f the dependent peoples o f the world.  He was a l s o an a d v i s o r on t r u s t e e s h i p  matters to the United S t a t e s d e l e g a t i o n a t the f i r s t  session  21 o f the U n i t e d Nations General Assembly i n London i n 1946. From 19^7 to 1954 he was a p r o f e s s o r o f s o c i o l o g y and anthropology a t the C i t y C o l l e g e o f New York, and was p r o f e s s o r  22 emeritus from 1954 t o h i s death. producing  He continued  h i s writing,  A m e r i c a s C o l o n i a l Record (1946), The Indians 1  o f the  Americas (194?), P a t t e r n s and Ceremonials o f the Indians o f  the Southwest  (1949), On the Gleaming Way (194.9), and From  Every Z e n i t h (1963).  I n a d d i t i o n , he f r e q u e n t l y came to the  defense o f Indians when the work he had done seemed by l a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . - ^ 2  ?4 Mexico.  threatened  He d i e d i n 1968 a t Taos, New  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I  pp.  C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, 67th Congress, 2nd S e s s i o n ,  12323-12325.  C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , p . 132.  2  \ b i d . , p. 132. 4 For example, "Pueblos U n i t e i n P e t i t i o n , " New York Times, November 7, 1922?, p. 6; E l i z a b e t h Shepley Sergeant, "Big Powwow o f Puebloes," New York Times:, November 26, 1922, IV, p. 6; " C i t y Too Cramped f o r Pueblo I n d i a n s , " New York Times, January 15, 1923, P» 28; "Plea f o r Pueblo Indians; Town H a l l Audience Hears Bureau Denounced and R a i s e s $1,400," New York Times, January 25, 1923, p. 9. C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , pp. 131-133. ^ i b i d . , p . 133* ? i b i d . , p. 133. 8  i b i d . , pp. 133-135.  Q ^"Plan t o Safeguard Welfare o f I n d i a n s , " New York Times, June 24, 1923, p. 17. ^ C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , p . 135. ^"Lawrence E . L i n d l e y , "Lay O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " The North American I n d i a n Today, ed. C. T. Loran and T. F. M c l l w r a i t h (Toronto: The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1943), p . 125.  12 Hazel W. Hertzberg, The Search f o r an American I n d i a n I d e n t i t y (Syracuse: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 201. 1 5  i b i d . , pp. 201-202.  i b i d . , pp. 239-284; see a l s o J.. S. S l o t k i n , The Peyote R e l i g i o n : A Study i n Indian-White R e l a t i o n s (Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free P r e s s , 1956*7; Vincenzo P e t r u l l o , The D i a b o l i c Root: A Study o f Peyotism, The New I n d i a n R e l i g i o n , Among the Delawares ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1934); A l i c e M a r r i o t t and C a r o l K. R a c h l i n , Peyote (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1971).  -3215 •'Hertzberg, The Search f o r an American I n d i a n I d e n t i t y ,  pp. 202-204. •""•^The I n s t i t u t e f o r Government Research, The Problem o f Indian A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins P r e s s ,  1928), p. 77. 17  John C o l l i e r ,  "Red A t l a n t i s , " Survey, October 1,  1922, pp. 15-20, 63, 66; " P l u n d e r i n g the Pueblo I n d i a n s , " Suns e t , January 1923, pp. 21-25, 56; "Pueblos' L a s t Stand," Suns e t , February 1923, pp. 19-22, 65-66; "Our I n d i a n P o l i c y , " Sunset, March 1923, pp. 13-15, 89-93; "No T r e s p a s s i n g , " Sunset, May 1923, pp. 14-16, 58, 60; "American Congo," Survey, August 1, 1923, pp. 467-476; "America's Treatment o f her I n d i a n s , " Current H i s t o r y : A Monthly Magazine o f the New York Times, August 1923, pp. 771-781; "Pueblos' Land Problem," Sunset, November 1923, pp. 15, 101; "Fate o f the Navajos," Sunset, January 1, 1924, pp. 11-13, 60, 62, 73-74; "Navajos," Survey, January 1, 1924,  pp. 332-339, 363-365; "Room f o r the I n d i a n s I " Woman C i t i z e n ,  March 8, 1924, pp. 9-10; "Red S l a v e s o f Oklahoma," Sunset, March 1924, pp. 9-11, 94-100; "Accursed System," Sunset, June 1924, pp. 15-16, 80-82; " P e r s e c u t i n g the Pueblos," Sunset, J u l y 1924, pp. 50, 92-93; "Pueblo T i t l e s , " Survey, March 15, 1926, PP. 703-704; "Are We Making Red S l a v e s ? " Survey, January 1,  1927, pp. 453-455, 474.-475, 477, 480; "Vanquished Indians,"  Nation, January 11, 1928, pp. 38-41; "Hammering a t the P r i s o n Door," Survey, J u l y 1, 1928, pp. 389, 402-405; "Senators and I n d i a n s , " Survey, January 1, 1929, pp. 425-428, 457; "Indians, Inc.," Survey, February 1, 1930, pp. 519-523, 547-549; "Pueblo Lands," Survey, February 15, 1931, pp. 548-549; " I n d i a n Bureau's Record," N a t i o n , October 5, 1932, pp. 303-305.  18 C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , pp.  148-156.  19 A r t h u r M. S c h l e s i n g e r , J r . , The A^e o f R o o s e v e l t : The Coming o f the New Deal (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company,  1958), pp. 556-557. 20  C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , pp.  301-303.  21 i b i d . , pp. 315-316.  22 - •• Who' s Who i n America: Notable Men and Women (Chicago:  ' A Biographical Dictionary of The A. N. Marquis Company,  1958), XXX, 557. 23 For example, John C o l l i e r , "Back to Dishonor?" C h r i s t i a n Century, May 12, 1954, pp. 578-580; " L e t t e r to General Eisenhower," N a t i o n , January 10, 1953, pp. 29-30;  -33"Ex-Commissioner Scores Indian B i l l , " New York Times, September 26, 19^9, p. 28; " I n d i a n Takeaway: B e t r a y a l o f a T r u s t , " The Nation, October 2, 1954, pp. 290-291. "John C o l l i e r , Ex-Commissioner o f Indian A f f a i r s , Is Dead a t 84," New York Times, May 9, 1968, p . 4?.  CHAPTER I I I THE NEW DEAL FOR THE INDIANS The two p r e c e d i n g chapters have t r i e d to r e v e a l the background and nature o f the man who stepped i n t o the commiss i o n e r s h i p i n 1933.  Not r e l i g i o u s i n an orthodox  sense,  C o l l i e r was a s e c u l a r m i s s i o n a r y v/ith an e v a n g e l i c a l z e a l f o r r e p a i r i n g man's r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other men and w i t h the world i n which they abide.  T h i s chapter d e a l s w i t h the I n d i a n p o l i c y  which grew out o f t h i s i d e o l o g y . There was e n t h u s i a s t i c optimism Indian a f f a i r s as C o l l i e r took o f f i c e .  about the f u t u r e o f One newsmagazine noted:  There w i l l be r e j o i c i n g on the r e s e r v a t i o n s , a t l e a s t among the I n d i a n i n h a b i t a n t s , a t the news of John C o l l i e r ' s appointment as head o f the I n d i a n Bureau. We may now l o o k forward to t h a t sweeping reform i n the s e r v i c e which he has so l o n g demanded. I t w i l l not be an easy t a s k . Mr. C o l l i e r must contend with the entrenched and s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s t h a t have c o n t r o l l e d and e x p l o i t e d the bureau f o r so many years a t the expense o f the I n d i a n s . Moreover, he must f a c e the o p p o s i t i o n o f those who have been the o b j e c t s o f h i s own sharp and continuous attack....We know h i s courage and appare n t l y the P r e s i d e n t i s ready to s t r e n g t h e n h i s hand. F o r the f i r s t time i n many years the Indians have a r i g h t to expect j u s t i c e and sympathy from t h e i r guardians i n Washington. C o l l i e r ' s f i r s t major p r o j e c t upon assuming the post was h i s d r a f t i n g o f the Indian R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t , the l e g i s l a t i o n which was to p r o v i d e the l e g a l b a s i s f o r h i s programs. In his  s t r u c t u r i n g t h i s milestone o f I n d i a n p o l i c y , C o l l i e r and a i d e s were guided by c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s which he had formu-  l a t e d d u r i n g h i s many y e a r s o f s t u d y i n g and working f o r the n a t i v e peoples o f America. In  h i s w r i t i n g s C o l l i e r condenses these p r i n c i p l e s to  -35three p o i n t s :  "Economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the I n d i a n s ,  c i p a l l y on the l a n d . managing t h e i r own  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the I n d i a n t r i b e s f o r  affairs.  C i v i l and  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the Indians." plished  c u l t u r a l freedom and  Thxs program was  to be accom-  by r e c o g n i z i n g Indian s o c i e t i e s , by g i v i n g  s p o n s i b i l i t y and power, by a l l o w i n g them to use they saw  f i t , and by guaranteeing  Americans enjoy  them r e -  t h e i r l a n d as  them every freedom t h a t other  (e.g., freedom to o r g a n i z e , the r i g h t to r e l i -  gious l i b e r t y , e t c . ) . the I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s  Furthermore, the government was  to help  to take advantage o f t h i s program by  h e l p i n g them organize, by making c r e d i t a v a i l a b l e ,  by p r o v i d i n g  t e c h n o l o g i c a l , b u s i n e s s , and l e g a l education, by g i v i n g responsibility  prin-  them  f o r the n a t u r a l resources; on t h e i r l a n d s , by  p r o v i d i n g c a p i t a l goods, and by h e l p i n g them develop s i b l e democratic  systems.  respon-  F i n a l l y , r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d  Indian a f f a i r s by both a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and laymen was  of  to be  encouraged.^ The  Indian R e o r g a n i z a t i o n b i l l  (also  c a l l e d the Wheeler-  Howard b i l l ) took n e a r l y f i f t y pages to s e t f o r t h  specific  l e g i s l a t i o n to put these d i v e r s p r o p o s a l s i n t o e f f e c t . main f e a t u r e s were as f o l l o w s : 1.  Future l a n d a l l o t m e n t i s p r o h i b i t e d .  2. 3.  The t r u s t p e r i o d i s everywhere extended. The a c q u i s i t i o n of l a n d f o r l a n d l e s s " Indians i s a u t h o r i z e d , with 12,000,000 a year a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r t h i s purpose. T r i b a l c o r p o r a t i o n s are a u t h o r i z e d and these may accept r e l i n q u i s h m e n t s o f the t i t l e to a l l o t t e d l a n d s i n exchange f o r cash or f o r shares i n the corporation. A. system o f f i n a n c i a l c r e d i t f o r Indians i s est a b l i s h e d and $10,000,000 i s a u t h o r i z e d as a  k.  5.  Its  -36-  6..  7. 8.  9.  10.  r e v o l v i n g fund f o r t h i s purpose. I n d i a n t r i b e s a r e p e r m i t t e d to organize:. When o r g a n i z e d , the E x e c u t i v e cannot r e s c i n d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the organized t r i b e s a r e g i v e n important powers, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n matters a f f e c t i n g t r i b a l funds and the expenditures o f the Indian S e r v i c e . Indians who may q u a l i f y f o r the jobs o f Indian S e r v i c e a r e exempted from c i v i l - s e r v i c e r e q u i r e ments. The t r a i n i n g o f Indians i n c o l l e g e s and trade: and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s f o r l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e i r people and f o r success i n the o u t s i d e world i s p r o v i d e d f o r , $250,000 a year being a u t h o r i z e d . The S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r i s a u t h o r i z e d and d i r e c t e d to apply the p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n to Indian f o r e s t s and range l a n d s , through comprehensive and e f f e c t i v e language. The undisposed-of s u r p l u s and ceded l a n d s , about 2,000,000 a c r e s , a r e r e s t o r e d to t r i b e ownership.7  A f t e r twenty-nine s e s s i o n s before the Committee on Indian A f f a i r s and much debate on the f l o o r , i t passed the Senate i n a m o d i f i e d form.  F o l l o w i n g a s i m i l a r l y stormy pro-  cess i n the House, an amended v e r s i o n was r e t u r n e d to the Senate and a conference  r e p o r t e v e n t u a l l y allowed  a r e v i s e d b i l l which was presented dent  Roosevelt. Collier,  the passage o f  to and approved by P r e s i -  0  t h e r e f o r e , had won approval o f the l e g a l  framework he had devised f o r h i s reform program, but s e v e r a l of the p r o v i s i o n s he c o n s i d e r e d v i t a l to i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s d i d not s u r v i v e the C o n g r e s s i o n a l g a u n t l e t .  He had hoped to s e t  up a s i m p l i f i e d system o f c i v i l and c r i m i n a l law enforcement which would be r e s p o n s i b l e to the t r i b e s and which would be answerable o n l y to the f e d e r a l c o u r t s .  Furthermore-, he wanted  the power to c o n s o l i d a t e the lands which had been a l l o t t e d and to r e t u r n them to the t r i b a l e s t a t e s .  Because o f h e i r s h i p  problems c r e a t e d by the allotment l e g i s l a t i o n and because many  of the a l l o t m e n t s had passed i n t o non-Indian difficult  hands, i t was  f o r the t r i b e s to make long-range p l a n s f o r t h e i r  land holdings.  1  Since the l a n d s the whites had taken over  were s c a t t e r e d among the Indian h o l d i n g s i n checkerboard f a s h i o n , i t was a l s o d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , to make: large-scale plans.  Congress, however, denied C o l l i e r the  7 power to implement these aspects o f h i s program.' One o f the s e c t i o n s ( s e c t i o n 10) o f the a c t s t i p u l a t e d that i t would apply only to those t r i b e s who  approved  g i t with a m a j o r i t y vote o f t h e i r members.  I n the f o l l o w i n g  year, 189 o f the 266 t r i b e s (132,000 o f 195,000 Indians) f o r whom i t was designed ( i t d i d not i n c l u d e the Indians o f Oklahoma o r Alaska) r a t i f i e d i t and thereby voted themselves the I n d i a n New D e a l . ^  into  The t r i b e s which accepted i t then drew  up t h e i r own c o n s t i t u t i o n s and by-laws,  determining what r i g h t s  the f e d e r a l government, the t r i b e s , and the i n d i v i d u a l had i n t r i b a l affairs. ® 1  A f t e r completing t h i s groundwork, C o l l i e r  a p p l i e d h i m s e l f to the task o f g e t t i n g the maximum ness from h i s b i l l i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e The problem  effective-  time.  o f Indian l a n d s was, o f course, always  foremost i n C o l l i e r ' s mind.  One o f h i s major aims was l a n d  a c q u i s i t i o n , f o r which the f e d e r a l government was to p r o v i d e  52,000,000 y e a r l y .  Between  1933 and 1937, approximately  3,600,000 a c r e s were added to the I n d i a n domain through r e s t o r a t i o n o f l a n d s to r e s e r v a t i o n s t a t u s which had been formerly opened to homestead e n t r y and through v a r i o u s l a n d purchase  11 funds.  A f t e r 1936, money became t i g h t e r and the Indian  -38Bureau never again r e c e i v e d i t s annual t h e l e s s , between 1937 acres.^  and 1940,  12 $2,000,000.  i t a c q u i r e d another 500,000  No p u b l i c funds were a v a i l a b l e f o r l a n d  d u r i n g the war  Never-  purchases;;  y e a r s , but money l e f t over from previous:  a p p r o p r i a t i o n s and some t r i b a l purchases: kept  the program  14 goxng. Close c o r o l l a r i e s of the l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n p r o j e c t were the c e s s a t i o n of a l l o t m e n t s and s a l e s of Indian p r o p e r t y , reinstatement  of government t r u s t e e s h i p , and  attempts to c o n s o l i d a t e Indian h o l d i n g s . and  the  A few  the  initial allotments  s a l e s were p e r m i t t e d upon s p e c i a l and urgent request  from  i n d i v i d u a l s , but f o r the most p a r t , the l o s s of l a n d from the t r i b a l e s t a t e s was process was  e f f e c t i v e l y stopped.  very slow, however, and very l i t t l e was  d u r i n g C o l l i e r ' s term. o f f , i t was  The c o n s o l i d a t i o n  Once the a l l o t m e n t mechanism was  and  the procedures  task were b e t t e r  and r e c o r d s necessary  work  was  was  for this  organized.^  Much o f the l a n d that the Indians l o s t between and 1933  turned  e a s i e r to r e s o l v e many of the l e g a l cases con-  c e r n i n g the ownership of Indian l a n d ; much probate executed  accomplished  t h e i r best farming and g r a z i n g acreage.  1887 The  p r o p e r t y they r e t a i n e d t h e r e f o r e needed a g r e a t d e a l o f care i f i t was  ever to be p r o d u c t i v e .  For t h i s reason,  i n s t i t u t e d an i n t e n s i v e c o n s e r v a t i o n program. the S o i l Conservation  Collier  Working with  S e r v i c e o f the Department o f A g r i -  c u l t u r e , the t r i b e s and  the Bureau of Indian A f f a i r s  developed  e n g i n e e r i n g works and r e v e g e t a t i o n , l a n d use, range c o n t r o l ,  -39and stock r e d u c t i o n p r o j e c t s .  In a d d i t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n  p r i n c i p l e s : were taught i n the I n d i a n s c h o o l s , b e g i n n i n g with  16 the e a r l i e s t grade l e v e l s . The  I n d i a n Emergency C o n s e r v a t i o n Work funds ( a f t e r  1937, the C i v i l i a n Conservation Corps, I n d i a n D i v i s i o n ) a l s o p r o v i d e d some measure o f l a n d improvement. phone l i n e s , horse  Working on t e l e -  t r a i l s , bridges, f i r e lanes, t r a i l s i d e  c l e a r i n g , i n s e c t and rodent c o n t r o l , f o r e s t f i r e  fighting,  fence b u i l d i n g , and other such t a s k s , the n a t i v e peoples l e a r n e d the s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s type o f work, and as most of  the I n d i a n D i v i s i o n were I n d i a n s , many o f them obtained  supervisory t r a i n i n g .  Since a c e r t a i n amount o f the emergency  money was earmarked f o r work on the r e s e r v a t i o n s , the value o f 17 the Indian h o l d i n g s was a l s o i n c r e a s e d . ' Some o f the remaining r e s e r v a t i o n l a n d was r i c h i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and these, t o o , needed c a r e f u l  cultivation.  F o r e s t r y programs and m i n e r a l development p l a n s were t h e r e f o r e drawn up to h e l p the n a t i v e s "use these n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n a way which w i l l preserve t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y and a t the same time f u r n i s h the maximum p o s s i b l e economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t to the Indians."  Through s t u d i e s , a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n mea-  sures, and b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g , the Bureau hoped to c r e a t e p r o f i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e s and to t r a i n the Indians to s u s t a i n  19 them. To embark on even a s m a l l - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l , lumber, mining, or other business endeavor, however, r e q u i r e s a cons i d e r a b l e amount o f c a p i t a l .  As Indians c o u l d not put up  -40government t r u s t lands as s e c u r i t y f o r loans and as few owned any  other  type o f acceptable  collateral,  no sources o f c r e d i t a v a i l a b l e to them.  there were v i r t u a l l y For t h i s reason, the  IRA. e s t a b l i s h e d a t e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r r e v o l v i n g c r e d i t fund f o r those t r i b e s t h a t accepted i t s p r o v i s i o n s .  The governing body  o f the t r i b e was made the agency r e s p o n s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l s or chartered r e c e i v e d these funds.  f o r d e c i d i n g which  c o r p o r a t i o n s w i t h i n i t s community  Loans to i n d i v i d u a l s were used b a s i c a l l y  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , loans to groups were g e n e r a l l y used f o r v a r i o u s b u s i n e s s or i n d u s t r i a l endeavors, and some loans were approved f o r e d u c a t i o n a l  and r e l i e f purposes.  Bureau  represen-  t a t i v e s p a r t i c i p a t e d by h e l p i n g t r i b e s to s e t up e v a l u a t i o n procedures and standards f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s : and by a s s i s t i n g the a p p l i c a n t s i n making r e a l i s t i c  judgments concerning  the amounts  20 they needed and c o u l d repay. Despite  these extensive  economic sphere o f t h e i r l i v e s , Indian p o p u l a t i o n  and much-needed reforms i n the the depression  years found the  even more enmeshed i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r l y  unfortunate f i n a n c i a l p l i g h t .  C o l l i e r , t h e r e f o r e , saw that as  much Indian l a b o r as p o s s i b l e was used i n the f e d e r a l p r o j e c t s r e l a t i n g to the r e s e r v a t i o n s . Various  c o n s t r u c t i o n programs p r o v i d e d  employment,  t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and needed f a c i l i t i e s f o r the n a t i v e population.  Funded l a r g e l y by the P u b l i c Works Program, houses,  h o s p i t a l s , farm b u i l d i n g s , s c h o o l s , and h e a t i n g ,  water, sewer, 21 and power systems were added to the Indian h o l d i n g s . Ex-22 t e n s i v e road systems were b u i l t on the r e s e r v a t i o n s . Irri-  -lig a t i o n p r o j e c t s employed Indian workmen and  taught them the  23 s k i l l s necessary  f o r m a i n t a i n i n g and managing them.  Besides the on-the-job  t r a i n i n g arrangements, C o l l i e r  encouraged the development of e x t e n s i o n programs and education.  industrial  A c c o r d i n g to h i s p l a n s , the community c e n t e r s or  v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the t r i b e would provide an f o r demonstrations  audience  of a g r i c u l t u r a l techniques, l i v e s t o c k shows,  c o n s t r u c t i o n procedures,  household  care, and so on.  He hoped  t h a t by g i v i n g such advice on the wise use of r e s o u r c e s , the  24 t r i b a l standards of l i v i n g would be  raised.  I n c r e a s i n g numbers of Indians were employed by  the  Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s o f p o s i t i o n s : l a r , i r r e g u l a r , and emergency l a b o r .  In 1934,  1,785  regu-  of the  5»325 r e g u l a r workers were n a t i v e s ; i n 1938, they h e l d one-half of these r e g u l a r j o b s .  By 1940,  the Bureau were I n d i a n .  over h a l f of a l l employees o f  In a d d i t i o n , the Indian Employment  D i v i s i o n of the Bureau found government jobs f o r Indians o u t s i d e  25 of the I n d i a n S e r v i c e . C o l l i e r ' s i n t e r e s t was His concern  not o n l y i n matters  pragmatic.  f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the Indian a r t i s a n l e d him  to e s t a b l i s h the I n d i a n A r t s and C r a f t s C o u n c i l s h o r t l y he took o f f i c e .  T h i s agency was  to p r o t e c t , encourage, and  f i n d markets f o r the a r t i s t i c products of the a b o r i g i n a l ture.  T h i s was  after  to be accomplished  cul-  by making raw m a t e r i a l s  a v a i l a b l e , by r e s e a r c h i n g methods to improve the q u a l i t y of the product, by o b t a i n i n g government trademarks of genuineness and q u a l i t y , by h e l p i n g the craftsmen  to o b t a i n l o a n s , by o r g a n i z i n g  -42and p u b l i c i z i n g e x h i b i t i o n s , by market r e s e a r c h ,  and by  c r e a t i n g new marketing agencies or encouraging o l d ones.  26  A l l i e d with the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n a t i v e a r t was the Bureau's encouragement  of anthropological research.  Many  s t u d i e s were made o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f c e r t a i n t r i b e s i n order t o a i d the Bureau i n c r e a t i n g programs  that  wouldn't i n t e r f e r e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l power or s t a t u s s t r u c t u r e s . Indian language, f o l k l o r e , and other  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  27 also scrutinized. ' The need f o r reform i n the Bureau was one o f C o l l i e r ' s f i e r c e s t b a t t l e c r i e s i n h i s pre-Commissioner days and the i n s t i t u t i o n o f that reform was one o f the hallmarks o f h i s twelve years i n o f f i c e . vice.  H i s b a s i c p l a n was to d e c e n t r a l i z e the Ser-  He i n v e s t e d as much a u t h o r i t y as p o s s i b l e i n the t r i b a l  governing bodies and i n the f i e l d personnel that worked with them.  Besides a v o i d i n g  the r e d tape that communicating with  Washington always i n v o l v e d , t h i s move r e s t o r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f sovereignty  to the c h i e f t a i n s i n the hope t h a t t h i s would  help  r e s t o r e the t r a d i t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e s o f the t r i b e s and would encourage i n i t i a t i v e a t the l o c a l l e v e l . t r a l i z i n g the Indian  Besides decen-  S e r v i c e , C o l l i e r wanted to end i t s auton-  omy over Indian a f f a i r s by i n v o l v i n g other  f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and  non-governmental agencies i n the programs he had d e v i s e d .  Fed-  e r a l departments that helped give shape to the Indian New Deal i n c l u d e d the C i v i l i a n Conservation S e r v i c e , the U.S. P u b l i c Health  Corps, the S o i l  Conservation  S e r v i c e , the Bureau o f Animal  Husbandry, the Bureau o f American Ethnology, the F e d e r a l Emer-  -43gency R e l i e f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Adjustment A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the Land Program.  By v i r t u e of the pro-  v i s i o n s of the Johnson-O'Malley Act of 1934, v i c e was  the I n d i a n Ser-  able to make c o n t r a c t s with the s t a t e s whereby the  l a t t e r would agree to provide some h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a l , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s to the r e s e r v a t i o n s .  In a d d i t i o n , the  General  F e d e r a t i o n of Women's Clubs, the American I n d i a n Defense A s s o c i a t i o n , the Indian R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n , and other agencies were g i v e n more freedom to pursue t h e i r  such  policies.  Besides f o r m u l a t i n g these major p l a n s on Bureau reform, r e v i s e d o f f i c e procedures  to make them more e f f i c i e n t ,  Collier insti-  t u t e d the c o d i f i c a t i o n o f data, s t a r t e d c o m p i l i n g more r e l i a b l e statistics,  encouraged i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , and developed  infor-  ?8 mation s e r v i c e s . H e a l t h care f o r the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n a l s o r e c e i v e d a great d e a l of C o l l i e r ' s a t t e n t i o n .  During h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  t u b e r c u l o s i s , trachoma, and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s were e s p e c i a l l y troublesome.  To combat these he r e c r u i t e d g r e a t numbers of  p e r s o n n e l , b u i l t h o s p i t a l s and c l i n i c s , sought i n c r e a s e d  new  cooper-  a t i o n with the f e d e r a l P u b l i c Health S e r v i c e and with s t a t e and l o c a l h e a l t h programs, commissioned surveys to determine the h e a l t h needs of I n d i a n s , p r o v i d e d as much d e n t a l s e r v i c e as p o s s i b l e , widened the v a c c i n a t i o n program, p r o v i d e d n u r s i n g t r a i n i n g f o r Indian g i r l s ,  encouraged r e s e a r c h i n t o the d i s e a s e s  p r e v a l e n t among the n a t i v e s , i n s t i t u t e d a b e t t e r r e c o r d s system, and s t a r t e d h e a l t h education p r o j e c t s .  As a reward f o r h i s  l a b o r s , he had the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s e e i n g the I n d i a n death r a t e  -kkdecrease  and the Indian p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e a t a r a t e f a s t e r  than that o f the r e s t o f the n a t i o n . The  2 9  education o f Indian c h i l d r e n was always a major  matter to C o l l i e r .  E a r l y i n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n he Bet f o r t h  the three major tasks he wanted to accomplish i n t h i s area: "(a) improving  e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s ; (b) r e d u c i n g and e l i m i n a t i n g  Indian boarding s c h o o l s and t r a n s f e r r i n g I n d i a n c h i l d r e n back to t h e i r own homes; ( c ) developing day schools t h a t w i l l work with a d u l t s as w e l l as c h i l d r e n and become r e a l c e n t e r s f o r Indian community life."^°  Many I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were t r a n s -  f e r r e d to p u b l i c s c h o o l s because o f agreements made with the s t a t e s by the Bureau.  In the s c h o o l s that the I n d i a n S e r v i c e  continued to r u n , there was i n c r e a s e d emphasis on becoming l i t e r a t e , b i - l i n g u a l , s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and f a m i l i a r with the ways o f the l a r g e r American s o c i e t y without being from t h e i r own homes and h e r i t a g e .  separated  S p e c i a l textbooks, more  r e l e v a n t to I n d i a n environment and o f t e n i n two languages, i n t r o d u c e d i n the primary grades. A r t was encouraged.  Health education was^ s t r e s s e d .  In the secondary  s c h o o l s v o c a t i o n a l and  a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g became the major f i e l d o f study, c i a l l y d u r i n g the war y e a r s .  were  espe-  S c h o l a r s h i p s and e d u c a t i o n a l  31 loans: became more p l e n t i f u l and a d u l t education more p o p u l a r . There was one c e r t a i n aspect o f Indian education that C o l l i e r was e s p e c i a l l y anxious  to reform.  I n the years during  which the m i s s i o n a r i e s dominated the r e s e r v a t i o n s c h o o l s , they o f t e n forbade n a t i v e r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n s and i n s i s t e d upon compulsory i n s t r u c t i o n i n the C h r i s t i a n  faith.  -45Therefore, i n January o f 1934,  C o l l i e r issued a circular i n  which he u n e q u i v o c a l l y d e c l a r e d a new  policy:  There are Government s c h o o l s i n t o which no t r a c e o f Indian symbolism or a r t or c r a f t e x p r e s s i o n has been p e r m i t t e d to e n t e r . There are l a r g e numbers of Indians who b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r n a t i v e r e l i g i o u s l i f e and Indian c u l t u r e are frowned upon by the Government, i f not a c t u a l l y banned. A c c o r d i n g l y — No i n t e r f e r e n c e with Indian r e l i g i o u s l i f e or e x p r e s s i o n w i l l h e r e a f t e r be t o l e r a t e d . The c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y of Indians i s i n a l l r e s p e c t s to be c o n s i d e r e d equal to that of any non-Indian group. The  new  r e g u l a t i o n s d i d not a c t u a l l y ban m i s s i o n a r i e s from  the r e s e r v a t i o n s , but r a t h e r r e q u i r e d t h a t , f o r boarding  school  students, s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s from the parents concerning gious education be r e c e i v e d before any  reli-  such t r a i n i n g began.  R e l i g i o u s e x e r c i s e s i n the day s c h o o l s c o u l d not be h e l d during r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours, but the f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be used f o r such a purpose a t other times.33 In one  of h i s y e a r l y r e p o r t s , C o l l i e r h i m s e l f gives; a  good summary o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s g o a l s : Indian S e r v i c e p o l i c i e s , funds, and personnel f o c u s i n the u l t i m a t e upon the f a m i l y , and community l i f e of the I n d i a n s . To improve t h e i r standards of l i v i n g , to combat s i c k n e s s and d i s e a s e , to p r o v i d e c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n , to i n c r e a s e the s o c i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s of home and community l i f e , these are the fundamental o b j e c t i v e s o f the Indian S e r v i c e . B a s i c , of course, i s the program o f economic r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p a r a l l e l i n g t h a t o f c o n s e r v i n g and making e f f i c i e n t use o f n a t u r a l resources. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to these are the commun i t y s e r v i c e s of h o s p i t a l s and n u r s i n g , education, development of a r t s and c r a f t s , and the enforcement of law and o r d e r . Noble as a l l these plans and p r o j e c t s were, and g e t i c as C o l l i e r was f e e b l e beginning  ener-  i n t h e i r p r o s e c u t i o n , they were only a  to what he wanted to accomplish.  The  war'  drained n e a r l y a l l the funds and much of the p e r s o n n e l of the  -46I n d i a n Bureau.  C e n t u r i e s o f well-earned d i s t r u s t o f European  aims made i t d i f f i c u l t another program.  to persuade  the n a t i v e s to t r y s t i l l  The f a c t t h a t many I n d i a n s , having no l a n d  and l i t t l e money, were l i t e r a l l y s t a r t i n g from n o t h i n g a t a time when many white Americans were i n desperate s t r a i t s was another o b s t a c l e .  But the s p i r i t  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was unmistakeable,  financial  o f the new  and i t was v i g o r o u s enough  to sound an alarm i n c e r t a i n camps.  NOTES TO CHAPTER I I I 1  The  Nation, A p r i l 26, 1933, p. 4-59.  2 C o l l i e r , From Every Z e n i t h , p. 173* ^ C o l l i e r , The Indians o f the Americas, pp. 261-264. The Dawes (General Allotment) Act o f 1887 was the l a s t major l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g with Indians before 1934. I t was i n tended t o encourage a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n t o white s o c i e t y . I t was thought that i f each Indian had h i s own p a r c e l o f l a n d , he would more q u i c k l y a c c l i m a t e h i m s e l f to the thought p a t t e r n s and l e g a l systems o f the European p o p u l a t i o n and shed h i s p r i m i t i v e ways. A c c o r d i n g l y , the a c t p r o v i d e d that the t r i b a l domains be d i v i d e d i n t o l o t s o f c e r t a i n s i z e s and a l l o t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l t r i b a l members; any e x t r a l a n d was to be opened to white settlement. A f t e r a c e r t a i n t r u s t p e r i o d , during which the government h e l d t i t l e to the lands while the Indian l e a r n e d to cope with h i s new r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he was g i v e n fee simple t i t l e to h i s p l o t . The r e s u l t o f the l e g i s l a t i o n was t h a t most o f the a l l o t m e n t s were purchased from the Indians by whites. In 188?, I n d i a n lands numbered 130,000,000 acres; i n 1933 they had o n l y 49,000,000 a c r e s l e f t . Collier's l e g i s l a t i o n put an end to the a l l o t m e n t program and r e i n s t a t e d government t r u s t .  5 C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, 73rd Congress, 2nd S e s s i o n ,  p. 11743. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, 73rd Congress, 2nd S e s s i o n , pp. 9071, 9221, 9222, 9607, 10583, 11122-11139, 11226-11229, 11634, 11724-11744, II83O-II83I, 12001-12004, 12073, 1216112165, 12256-12257, 12340, 12451.  7 C o l l i e r , The Indians o f the Americas, p. 265.  Q C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record, 73rd Congress, 2nd S e s s i o n ,  p. H725. ^John C o l l i e r , " O f f i c e o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , " Annual Report of the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30. 1940 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1940), p. 364. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as the Annual Report.)  10 Annual Report,  1938, p. 250.  11Annual Report, 1937, pp. 198, 204.  -4812  Annual Report. 1 9 4 1 , pp. 450-451.  "^Annual Report, 1 9 4 0 , p. 368. Annual Report, 1944, p . 239.  Annual Report, 1935, pp. 1 4 3 - 1 4 4 ; 1936, pp. l8?-l88; 1937, 1937 p. 210; 1938, p. 218; 1939, P P . 34-44; 1940, pp. 370375; 1941, pp. 426-428; 1944, pp. 2 4 0 - 2 4 2 .  3 Annual Report, 1934, p. 106.  A n n u a l Report, 1934, pp. 80-81; 1937, pp. 201-204; 1938, pp. 250-253; 1940, pp. 375-376; 1941, pp. 423-424. 2 0  " A n n u a l Report, 1934, pp. 117-118; 1935, p. 151; 1936, pp. 186-187; 1937, pp. 223-224; 1938, pp. 257-258; 1939, pp. 5 8 59. 2 1  22 Annual Report, 1934, pp. 108-109; 1935, pp. 1 4 8 - 1 4 9 ; 1936, pp. 201-202; 1937, 222-223; 1938, pp. 232-233; 1940, p . 390; 1944, p. 2 4 6 .  V n n u a l Report, 1934, pp. 111-114; 1935, pp. 124-128; 1936, pp. 179-184; 1937, P P . 211-215; 1938, pp. 225-227; 1942, 2  pp. 2 4 0 - 2 4 1 ;  1944,  p . 248.  5&nnual Report, 1934, pp. 114-115; 1935, pp. 122-124; 1936, P P>.. 204-205; • _w ^, 1937, p. 2 4 2 ; 1938, p. 257; 1940, pp. 389n . rm. 4"SQ-44o_ 392; 1941, pp. 439-^0 2  -4926 Annual Report, 1934, p. 119; 1936, p. 165; 1937, pp. 224-226; 1938, p . 233; 1939, pp. 44-46; 1940, pp. 394397; 1941, pp. 436-439; 1942, pp. 252-253; 1944, pp. 248249. 27 Annual Report, 1934, p. 119; 1935, p . 135; 1936, pp. 164-165. 28 Annual Report, 1934, pp. 118-120; 1935, pp. 119122; 1936, pp. 203-204; 1937, pp. 240-245; 1938, pp. 256257; 1939, pp. 61-64; 1940, pp. 392-393; 1941, pp. 440-442. 29 Annual Report, 1934, pp. 92-96; 1935, pp. 136140; 1936, pp. 174-179; 1937, pp. 233-239; 1938, pp. 238244; 1939, P P . 46-51; 1940, pp. 379-384; 194l, pp. 431434; 1942, p . 256; 1943, p . 282; 1944. pp. 249-250. 3 0  A n n u a l Report, 1934, p. 84.  A n n u a l Report, 1934, pp. 84-92; 1935, pp. 128-135; 1936, pp. 166-174; 1937, pp. 226-233; 1938, pp. 244-247; 1939, P P . 52-55; 1940, pp. 384-389; 1941, pp. 412-416; 1942, pp. 243-244; 1944, pp. 246-248. 3 1  5 Annual Report, 1934, p. 90. 2  3 3  i b i d . , pp. 90-91.  34 Annual Report, 1939, p . 46.  CHAPTER IV INDIANS AND  MISSIONARIES  Before d i s c u s s i n g the church r e a c t i o n to C o l l i e r ' s program, i t i s necessary r e l i g i o u s involvement The  to d e s c r i b e the range and v i g o r of the  i n the h i s t o r y of American I n d i a n a f f a i r s : .  f a c t that C o l l i e r ' s "New  D e a l " s t r u c k a s e n s i t i v e chord i n  P r o t e s t a n t c i r c l e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r work with the Indians to be a p r i n c i p a l aspect of t h e i r reason f o r existence.  T h i s chapter w i l l b r i e f l y e x p l a i n how  and why  the  P r o t e s t a n t s took t h e i r message to the n a t i v e s of the c o n t i n e n t and w i l l t r y to determine the importance of t h i s m i s s i o n to t h e i r view o f t h e i r own  s i g n i f i c a n c e and power as a s o c i a l  f o r c e i n America. A concern :  f o r the s o u l s of the savages was  evident i n  the very e a r l i e s t days of e x p l o r a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t .  The  Spanish and Portuguese sent not o n l y t h e i r e x p l o r e r s and w a r r i o r s to the Americas, but t h e i r p r i e s t s as w e l l . There was nothing which the Spanish government had more e a r n e s t l y at h e a r t than the c o n v e r s i o n of the Indians:. I t forms the constant burden o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s , and gave to the m i l i t a r y expeditions: i n t h i s western hemisphere somewhat the a i r of a c r u sade....Not to care f o r the s o u l o f h i s benighted enemy was to put h i s own ^ h e Spanish s o l d i e r * s / i n jeopardy....Whoever d i e d i n the f a i t h , however immoral had been h i s l i f e , might be s a i d to d i e i n the L o r d . Such was the creed of the C a s t i l i a n k n i g h t of t h a t d a y . 1  The E n g l i s h , although n e a r l y a century behind Spaniards i n t h e i r c o l o n i z a t i o n of the New  the  World, were no  less  greedy f o r the t r e a s u r e s that America h e l d , but a g a i n r e l i g i o n was  an important  f a c t o r i n t h e i r empire b u i l d i n g .  I t was  not  acceptable to them t h a t the n a t i v e s continue i n t h e i r pagan  -51s t a t e , but i t was even l e s s d e s i r a b l e that the C a t h o l i c s be the instruments o f t h e i r s a l v a t i o n . advantages  o f American  I n h i s d i s c o u r s e on the  c o l o n i e s f o r England, R i c h a r d Hakluyt  s t a r t s with a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : of  h i s nation: Seeing that the people o f that p a r t e o f America from 30. degrees i n F l o r i d a northewarde unto 63. degrees (which y s y e t i n no C h r i s t i a n p r i n c e s a c t u a l l p o s s e s s i o n ) are i d o l a t e r s . . . i t i s necessary f o r the s a l v a t i o n o f those poore people which have s i t t e n so l o n g i n darknes and i n the shadowe o f deathe, t h a t preachers should be sent unto them....Nowe- the Kinges and Queenes o f England have the name o f Defendours o f the F a i t h e . By which t i t l e I t h i n k e they are not onely chardged to mayneteyne and p a t r o n i z e the f a i t h e o f C h r i s t e , but a l s o to i n l a r g e and advaunce the same....Now the meanes to sende such as s h a l l labour e f f e c t u a l l y i n t h i s b u s i n e s s . y s , by p l a n t i n g one o r twoo; c o l o n i e s o f our n a t i o n upon t h a t fyrme, where they may remaine i n s a f e t i e , and f i r s t l e a r n e the language o f the people nere adjoyninge...and by l i t t l e and l i t t l e acquainte themselves w i t h t h e i r manner.... f o r preachers to come unto them r a s h l y w i t h oute some such p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r s a f e t i e , i t were nothing e l s but to ronne to t h e i r apparaunte and c e r t a i n e d e s t r u c t i o n , as y t happened unto those Spanishe f f r y e r s , t h a t , before any p l a n t i n g s . . . l a n d e d i n F f l o r i d a , where they were m i s e r a b l y massacred by the savages....And t h i s e n t e r p r i s e the p r i n c e s o f the r e l l i g i o n (amonge whom her M a j e s t i e y s p r i n c i p a l l ) oughte the r a t h e r to take i n hande, because the p a p i s t s confirme themselves and drawe other to t h e i r e s i d e , shewinge t h a t they are the t r u e C a t h o l i c k e church because they have bene the onely c o n v e r t e r s o f many m i l l i o n s o f i n f i d e l l s to C h r i s t i a n i t i e . In  the f i r s t  c h a r t e r o f the V i r g i n i a colony, the crown  commends the c o l o n i z e r s ' " d e s i r e s f o r the f u r t h e r a n c e o f so noble a work, which may, by the providence o f Almighty God, h e r e a f t e r tend* to the g l o r y o f h i s d i v i n e Majesty, i n propagating of  C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n to such people, as y e t l i v e i n darkness and  miserable ignorance o f the true knowledge and worship o f God, and may i n time b r i n g the i n f i d e l s and savages, l i v i n g i n those p a r t s ,  -52to  human c i v i l i t y ,  and to a s e t t l e d and q u i e t government...."3  Furthermore, the m i n i s t e r s o f the colony are i n s t r u c t e d " t h a t they, with a l l d i l i g e n c e , care, and r e s p e c t , doe p r o v i d e , that the true word, and s e r v i c e o f God and C h r i s t i a n f a i t h b e preached, p l a n t e d , and used, not o n l y w i t h i n every o f the s a i d s e v e r a l c o l o n i e s , and p l a n t a t i o n s , but a l s o e as much as they may amongst the salvage people which doe or s h a l l a d j o i n e unto them, or border upon them, a c c o r d i n g to the d o c t r i n e , r i g h t s , and r e l i g i o n now p r o f e s s e d and e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n our realme o f England."  The s e a l o f the Massachusetts Bay Colony p o r t r a y e d  an Indian with the words "Come over and help us", and i t s c h a r t e r r e q u i r e d t h a t the colony be managed so that "our s a i d  people,  i n h a b i t a n t s t h e r e , maie be soe r e l i g i o u s l y , p e a c e a b l i e , and civilly  governed, as t h e i r good l i f e and o r d e r l i e conversacon  maie wynn and i n c i t e the n a t i v e s o f the country  to the knowledg  and obedience o f the o n l i e true God and S a v i o r o f mankinde, and the C h r i s t i a n f a y t h , which, i n our r o y a l l i n t e n c o n and the advent u r e r s f r e e p r o f e s s i o n , i s the p r i n c i p a l l ende o f t h i s p l a n tacon."^  At a l a t e r date, Georgia's  missionary  z e a l o f t h e i r own, granted  founders,  although  without  f i v e hundred a c r e s to the  Moravians f o r an Indian m i s s i o n . Although  pecuniary motives cannot be d i s l o d g e d from  t h e i r l e a d i n g p l a c e i n the l i s t o f reasons z a t i o n o f America, the r e l i g i o u s impulse, to  f o r European c o l o n i i n c l u d i n g the d e s i r e  C h r i s t i a n i z e the n a t i v e s , cannot be dismissed as r e l a t i v e l y  insignificant.  As one author e x p l a i n s :  A c o n g e n i a l a l l i a n c e between r e l i g i o n and trade i n the  -53l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s profoundly i n f l u e n c e d the beginnings of what would one day become the B r i t i s h E m p i r e . . T h e f a c t i s t h a t l a t e E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean preachers, A n g l i c a n s and P u r i t a n s a l i k e , were k e e n l y aware o f the n e c e s s i t y o f checkmating Spain, and they waged an i n c e s s a n t campaign to arouse the E n g l i s h n a t i o n to awareness of the danger t h a t threatened i t . . . . England as a whole, however, was o n l y dimly conscious o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the Spanish empire, and many E n g l i s h men were ardent i s o l a t i o n i s t s . . . . T h e P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y , with t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l hatred o f C a t h o l i c Spain, s e t to work to shake England out o f i t s l e t h a r g y . They succeeded i n paving the way f o r empire.'' 7  The  d e s i r e f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l expansion,  t h e r e f o r e , found  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n the e x i s t e n c e of a host of pagans on the American shores.  Those benevolent Englishmen  of  the time whose concern f o r t h i n g s s p i r i t u a l i n c l u d e d the s a l v a t i o n of the Indians thus found that t h e i r i n t e r e s t s h a p p i l y c o i n c i d e d with those o f t h e i r s t a t e and  t h a t they were, i n f a c t ,  encouraged to commence t h e i r r e l i g i o u s ( e s p e c i a l l y e f f o r t s i n the New  missionary)  World.  A f t e r the i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t s , d i s r u p t i o n s , and r e settlements o f the v a r i o u s c o l o n i a l ventures, s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t groups o f churches were conspicuous i n America.  N e a r l y a l l were  imbued w i t h the d e s i r e to m i n i s t e r to the n a t i v e s and n e a r l y a l l experienced the f r u s t r a t i o n of these m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s . examples w i l l  Specific  illustrate.  In the southern c o l o n i e s ( V i r g i n i a from i t s beginnings; Maryland,  Georgia, the C a r o l i n e s , and New  a t i o n ) A n g l i c a n i s m was  York a f t e r the Restor-  the e s t a b l i s h e d church, and as such p l a y e d  a r o l e i n both the s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s matters o f the American o  settlements.  0  In the e a r l i e s t days o f these c o l o n i e s there  great enthusiasm  f o r winning Indian c o n v e r t s .  In 1613,  was  Alexander  -5kWhitaker wrote back to London: Let the miserable c o n d i t i o n o f these naked s l a v e s o f the d i v e l l move you to compassion toward them. They acknowledge t h a t there i s a g r e a t good God, but know him not, having the eyes o f t h e i r understanding as yet b l i n d e d : wherefore they serve the d i v e l l f o r f e a r e , a f t e r a most base manner....Wherefore my b r e t h e r n , put on the bowels o f compassion, and l e t the lamentable est a t e o f these m i s e r a b l e people enter i n your c o n s i d e r a t i o n : One God c r e a t e d us, they have reasonable s o u l e s and i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c u l t i e s as w e l l as wee....Awake you true hearted E n g l i s h men, you s e r v a n t s o f Jesus C h r i s t , remember t h a t the P l a n t a t i o n i s Gods, and the reward your C o u n t r i e s . Wherefore, aime not a t your present p r i v a t gaine, but l e t the g l o r y o f God, whose Kingdome you now p l a n t , & good o f your Countrey, whose wealth you seeke, so f a r r e p r e v a i l e with you, that you r e s p e c t not a p r e s e n t r e t u r n e o f gaine f o r t h i s yeare o r two: but t h a t you would more l i b e r a l l y s u p p l i e f o r a l i t t l e space, t h i s your C h r i s t i a n worke....° Indian t r o u b l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the massacre o f 1622, had a dampening e f f e c t on m i s s i o n a r y z e a l , however, t h a t l a s t e d  until  the end o f the century.""*® By 1700 many churchmen i n England  r e a l i z e d t h a t a sub-  s t a n t i a l m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t was necessary i f A n g l i c a n i s m was to be an e f f e c t i v e v o i c e i n c o l o n i a l l i f e . for in  Therefore the S o c i e t y  the Propagation o f the Gospel i n F o r e i g n P a r t s was e s t a b l i s h e d 1701 w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e r o y a l , p o l i t i c a l , and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  support.  I t s concern was to extend  the Church o f England  beyond  the B r i t i s h shores, and f o r the next e i g h t y years America was i t s prime target."'"''* I t s main tasks were:  " " . . . i n the f i r s t p l a c e , to  s e t t l e the s t a t e o f r e l i g i o n , as w e l l as may be, among our own people  there, which, by a l l accounts we have, very much wants t h e i r  pious care; and then to proceed, i n the best methods they can, toward the c o n v e r s i o n o f the n a t i v e s : . " made s u b s t a n t i a l i n r o a d s i n New England  12 T  n  e  s.P.G. m i s s i o n a r i e s  and the middle c o l o n i e s  -55d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h century; t h e i r e f f o r t s among the Indians, however, do not seem to have been crowned w i t h s u c c e s s . ^ 1  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the P u r i t a n s are probably the best-known o f the r e l i g i o u s groups i n the colonies..  Although  they were  anxious to make c o n v e r t s among the Indians:, they were o f t e n dep r i v e d o f s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e i r own i t was  not u n t i l about 1650  congregations,  t h a t any major work was  the n a t i v e s .  In Massachusetts,  s i o n a r i e s was  Thomas Mayhew, who,  and  done among  one o f the e a r l i e s t such miswith h i s father,  converted Ik  many of the n a t i v e s of Martha's V i n e y a r d to C h r i s t i a n i t y . major m i s s i o n a r y work among the Indians was however, who  came to New  gan h i s p a s t o r s h i p .  England i n 1631  The  t h a t o f John E l i o t ,  and soon afterwards  be-  During the l640's he l e a r n e d the I n d i a n  tongue and v i s i t e d v a r i o u s n a t i v e v i l l a g e s from time to time. In 16^7  he was  s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n f i d e n t of h i s mastery of the  language and of the p r o g r e s s of h i s converts to begin an ardent campaign to encourage t h i s aspect of the m i n i s t r y and to secure f i n a n c i a l support f o r i t .  Because o f E l i o t ' s e f f o r t s the  v e r s i o n of the Indians became a major P u r i t a n p r o j e c t , and  I65O to I665 the m i s s i o n a r y movement grew.  confrom  The " p r a y i n g towns",  c o n s i s t i n g of congregations of I n d i a n C h r i s t i a n s , were b u i l t , European t o o l s were d i s t r i b u t e d to the n a t i v e s , and e d u c a t i o n a l programs commenced.  "The  P r e s i d e n t and S o c i e t y f o r Propagation  o f the G o s p e l l i n New-England" p r o v i d e d g r e a t sums of money f o r teachers, books, and i n t e r p r e t e r s .  E l i o t produced  an Indian  t r a n s l a t i o n of the B i b l e and v a r i o u s other r e l i g i o u s , works were soon a v a i l a b l e i n the I n d i a n language.  The y e a r s 1665-1675 saw  -56the harvest o f t h i s g r e a t crusade; more m i s s i o n a r i e s extended the f i e l d o f o p e r a t i o n s , and plans were being made to provide higher education f o r the many n a t i v e s who were becoming  lit-  erate. ^ 1  The Plymouth P u r i t a n s were not so s u c c e s s f u l .  The I n -  dians l i v i n g around them were not as r e c e p t i v e to r e l i g i o u s : i d e a s , they d i d not have m i s s i o n a r i e s with a b i l i t i e s  comparable  to those o f E l i o t and Mayhew, and they d i d n ' t have as much money as the Massachusetts  Bay settlements to spend on e d u c a t i o n .  The  Connecticut P u r i t a n s were not much more f o r t u n a t e , as they were faced with the r e s i s t a n c e o f c e r t a i n key I n d i a n l e a d e r s , which e f f e c t i v e l y prevented  t h e i r r e a c h i n g the r e s t o f the t r i b e  members.^° King P h i l l i p ' s War England  Indian p o p u l a t i o n .  (I675-I676) s p e l l e d doom f o r the New Hundreds were k i l l e d ,  hunger o r i l l n e s s , or f o r c e d to migrate.  s t r u c k down by  F o l l o w i n g t h e i r defeat  the t r i b e s were r e s t r i c t e d to an e a r l y form o f r e s e r v a t i o n .  Eliot  continued h i s work among them, but as the years went on, the I n dians g r a d u a l l y disappeared  from the New England  only a few thousand were l e f t .  scene; by 1750  A f t e r E l i o t ' s death  missionary  17 work among them ceased u n t i l s h o r t l y b e f o r e the R e v o l u t i o n . Although  the P u r i t a n s cannot be accused  o f the r u t h l e s s  r a c i a l a t t i t u d e s which l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s used to j u s t i f y the e x p u l s i o n o f the n a t i v e s to the western l a n d s , they do stand g u i l t y o f some misjudgments about the a b o r i g i n e s . they underestimated  F i r s t of a l l ,  the r e l u c t a n c e o f the I n d i a n to g i v e up h i s  own r e l i g i o n f o r the European one.  Secondly,  they had extremely  -57high standards  f o r acceptance i n t o church membership.  They  i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e i r converts not only have a thorough knowledge of the S c r i p t u r e s and P u r i t a n theology and morals, but that they adopt concepts and l i f e - s t y l e s completely to t h e i r own  way  of l i f e .  quish t h e i r former l i v e s ; non-Indian.  I t was,  The  Indian converts had  to become C h r i s t i a n was  foreign to r e l i n -  to become  therefore,  . . . u n l i k e l y that n a t i v e s and New Englanders, separated by v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s , i n p o l i t i c a l , economic, r e l i g i o u s , and s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , could share the same corner o f the c o n t i n e n t without o c c a s i o n a l c l a s h e s of i n t e r e s t and arms. But what i s most s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t when t r o u b l e d times came, the d i v i s i o n of f o r c e s was not along p u r e l y e t h n i c l i n e s . Red man and white had enough i n common to p i c k t h e i r q u a r r e l s over issues: r a t h e r than over s k i n c o l o r . T h i s , i n i t s e l f , i s a s i g n t h a t the New England P u r i t a n s had t r e a t e d the Indians not as a race apart, but as f e l l o w s i n n e r s i n God's g r e a t u n i v e r s e . I t a l s o makes more poignant the u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e of the P u r i t a n s ' m i s s i o n to the wilderness.-1-° The  other major C a l v i n i s t body i n America was  Reformed Church which was York area by  the Dutch  t r a n s p l a n t e d from Europe to the  the Dutch West I n d i a Company and which was  New  never  very s t r o n g as a r e l i g i o u s f o r c e because i t s adherants had come to America f o r r i c h e s , not to escape r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n . the m i n i s t r y seemed concerned about the Indians—many i n d i c a t e t h a t the c o l o n i s t s were more l i k e l y  Only  sources  to t u r n heathen than  19 to convert  the heathen to t h e i r f a i t h .  Most of the  e f f o r t s were aimed at the Indian c h i l d r e n .  1628)  missionary  As one m i n i s t e r ( i n  put i t : : As to the n a t i v e s of t h i s country, I f i n d them e n t i r e l y savage and w i l d , s t r a n g e r s to a l l decency, yea, u n c i v i l and s t u p i d as garden p o l e s , p r o f i c i e n t i n a l l wickedness and g o d l e s s n e s s . . . . I t would be w e l l then to l e a v e the  -58parents as they are, and begin with the c h i l d r e n , who are s t i l l young. So be i t . But they ought to be separated from t h e i r p a r e n t s . . . i n order to p l a c e them under the i n s t r u c t i o n of some experienced and godly schoolmaster, where they may be i n s t r u c t e d not only to speak, read, and w r i t e i n our language, but a l s o e s p e c i a l l y i g the fundamentals of our C h r i s t i a n religion.... Several years l a t e r  (1654) m i s s i o n a r y success a p p a r e n t l y s t i l l  eluded them: ...you make mention i n your l e t t e r , t h a t you have gathered from our l e t t e r s , t h a t the knowledge o f the Gospel i s making g r e a t p r o g r e s s among the Indians here. Speaking with a l l deference, we do not know or t h i n k that we have f u r n i s h e d any such i n t e l l i g e n c e i n our l e t t e r s . We g r e a t l y wish, indeed, t h a t such were the s t a t e of t h i n g s among the I n d i a n s , but as y e t , there i s l i t t l e appearance of it....We do not indeed expect much f r u i t o f r e l i g i o n among these barbarous n a t i o n s , u n t i l they are brought under the government of Europeans, as these l a t t e r i n c r e a s e i n numbers. 21  The B a p t i s t s , the F r i e n d s , the P r e s b y t e r i a n s , the Lutherans, and v a r i o u s other s m a l l e r denominations  were a l s o  being t r a n s p l a n t e d to the American shores i n the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , but due to  to the p r e s s u r e s o f adapting to a new  environment and  due  the poverty of these p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n s , most d i d not  22 begin l a r g e - s c a l e Indian missions u n t i l a f t e r the R e v o l u t i o n . In  the course o f the v a s t German m i g r a t i o n to the Ameri-  can c o l o n i e s , one r e l i g i o u s s e c t , the Moravians, Georgia  took refuge i n  (1735) and l a t e r moved to P e n n s y l v a n i a (1740).  Their  c h i e f aim i n m i g r a t i n g , a p a r t from escaping p e r s e c u t i o n , was  to  do m i s s i o n a r y work among the German s e t t l e r s and the I n d i a n s . T h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s of Bethlehem and Nazareth f i f t y m i s s i o n a r i e s who  supported about  d i d e x t e n s i v e work among the S i x Nations  and i n the Susquehanna V a l l e y .  Between 1765  and 1770,  David  Zeisberger, t h e i r l e a d i n g missionary, e s t a b l i s h e d missions  -59( F r i e d e n s h u t t e n , Schonbrunn, Gnadenhutten, and o t h e r s ) on the Susquehanna, Alleghany, and Tuscarawas R i v e r s . the c o n v e r s i o n of l a r g e numbers of Indians who s e t t l e d i n t o a more a g r i c u l t u r a l l i f e - s t y l e . o f many, the Moravians  "conducted  2 3  These  facilitated  consequently In the o p i n i o n  the most e f f i c i e n t m i s s i o n a r y  work among the Indians of any of the e a r l y c o l o n i a l  churches."  For the most p a r t , then, the r e l i g i o u s bodies; o f c o l o n i a l America  c o u l d c l a i m few s p i r i t u a l v i c t o r i e s among the pagans o f  the c o n t i n e n t .  Many came to America with the hope and  sincere  i n t e n t i o n of winning these people to t h e i r f a i t h , but they d i d not have a s u f f i c i e n t l y e x t e n s i v e knowledge of the Indians to develop means o f approaching them s u c c e s s f u l l y . p l i s h e d was  What was; accom-  l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the l a b o r s o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n -  stead o f a c o n c e r t e d church e f f o r t .  At any r a t e , r e l i g i o n  at a low ebb through most of the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d ; funds  was:  and  c l e r g y were s c a r c e n e a r l y everywhere, and the c o l o n i s t s were g e n e r a l l y concerned with m a t e r i a l r a t h e r than s p i r i t u a l matters. The churches, t h e r e f o r e , had to spend most of t h e i r energy  keeping  t h e i r European charges w i t h i n some semblance of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  The  C a l v i n i s t churches h e l d to very s t r i c t standards f o r church membership, and t h i s meant that m i s s i o n a r y work n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l e d an e x t e n s i v e and c o s t l y e d u c a t i o n program.  Other denomi-  n a t i o n s were e i t h e r too r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d or too poor (or both) to i n i t i a t e any l a r g e missions work.  Finally,  the c o l o n i a l  p e r i o d saw a g r e a t d e a l o f warfare i n which the Indians took p a r t a g a i n s t the B r i t i s h c o l o n i s t s .  T h i s tended to make the Europeans  t h i n k of the I n d i a n as a treacherous and savage foe r a t h e r than  -60as a p o t e n t i a l C h r i s t i a n b r o t h e r and thus c r e a t e d a c l i m a t e of h o s t i l i t y t h a t made missionary work a l l the l e s s a p p e a l i n g . The n a t i o n ' s r e l i g i o u s scene experienced a vigorous: r e v i t a l i z i n g p r o c e s s , however, i n the phenomenon known as the Great Awakening, "the r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l that swept the American c o l o n i e s between 1739 important  by-product  paper was  the new  and 17^2. *' ^ 2  through  The most  of the r e v i v a l w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s  s o c i a l consciousness  which r e s u l t e d i n a renewed enthusiasm  and broad  humanitarianism  f o r Indian m i s s i o n s .  By the middle of the eighteenth century, however, a new m i s s i o n a r y impulse, coming d i r e c t l y out of the r e v i v a l , sent John Sargent to begin h i s m i s s i o n among the Stockbridge Indians i n Western Massachusetts, and l e d E l e a z a r Wheelock to open h i s s c h o o l f o r the t r a i n i n g o f m i s s i o n a r i e s and I n d i a n youth f o r m i s s i o n ary work among the Indians. The r e v i v a l a l s o was responsible f o r s t a r t i n g Presbyterian Indian missions. David B r a i n e r d , a convert of the r e v i v a l e x p e l l e d from Yale C o l l e g e because of h i s r e v i v a l i s m , t r a n s f e r r e d h i s church r e l a t i o n s h i p to the P r e s b y t e r i a n s and devoted the remainder of h i s short l i f e to work among the New J e r s e y and Pennsylvania I n d i a n s . H i s s a i n t l y c h a r a c t e r and l i f e o f devotion as r e v e a l e d i n h i s d i a r y e d i t e d by Jonathan Edwards was a tremendous s t i m u l u s i n promoting i n t e r e s t i n m i s s i o n s . Samuel K i r k l a n d ' s m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s among the Senecas and Oneidas i n c e n t r a l New York was a l s o a d i r e c t outreach of r e v i v a l i n f l u e n c e . " 2  These m i s s i o n s f l o u r i s h e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , but the R e v o l u t i o n neared  the American churches  as  fixed their attention  on other c r i s e s t h a t more deeply a f f e c t e d t h e i r white congregations.  Throughout the R e v o l u t i o n and i n the y e a r s  immediately  f o l l o w i n g i t , m i s s i o n a r y work among the a b o r i g i n e s was  nearly  non-existent. For approximately  f i f t e e n y e a r s a f t e r independence  secured American church work was war  and  at a v i r t u a l s t a n d s t i l l .  was The  the p h i l o s o p h i e s that accompanied i t l e d many to f r e e  -61themselves  from r e l i g i o u s bonds t h a t they had f e l t  to assume i n the more c o n v e n t i o n a l pre-war s o c i e t y .  compelled The  g e n e r a l d i s r u p t i o n caused by the h o s t i l i t i e s f o r c e d many o f the churches  to r e o r g a n i z e and r e b u i l d , an e f f o r t t h a t made  27 them n e g l e c t an a c t i v e preaching program f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . The Methodists, B a p t i s t s , and P r e s b y t e r i a n s emerged most r a p i d l y w i t h n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and spread i n t o the West as the massive post-war westward m i g r a t i o n s began.  Many  of the churches with c l o s e European t i e s ; remained on the seaboard and t r i e d to "Americanize" f i n a n c i a l sources:.  t h e i r c l e r g y , l i t e r a t u r e , and  A l l o f these denominations  eventually r e -  turned to a f a i r l y a g g r e s s i v e e v a n g e l i z i n g work as soon as they  28 were i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y s t r o n g enough. T h i s t a s k was f a c i l i t a t e d by the spread o f another great "awakening" i n the l a s t few years o f the 1700»s and i n the f i r s t decade o f the new century which f i l l e d members and renewed v i g o r .  the churches w i t h new  In the wake o f t h i s r e v i v a l there  was again aroused a p i e t i s t i c  f e r v o r to c a r r y the C h r i s t i a n  message to the heathen, and a g r e a t many m i s s i o n a r y  societies  were o r g a n i z e d which proclaimed t h i s as e i t h e r a primary or secondary  goal. ^ 2  These i n c l u d e d The S o c i e t y f o r Propagating  the Gospel among the Indians and Others i n North America (I787), the S o c i e t y o f the U n i t e d Brethern f o r Propagating the Gospel  Among the Heathen (1787); the New York (1796), the Northern  (1797), the Connecticut (1798), the Massachusetts (1799), and the Western (1802) M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t i e s ; the American Board o f Commissioners f o r F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s (1810), and the U n i t e d  -62Foreign Missionary  S o c i e t y (1817).  In the B a p t i s t c o n s t i t u t i o n  (1814) and the papers of the M i s s i o n a r y and B i b l e S o c i e t y of the Methodist  E p i s c o p a l Church i n America  (1820) s i m i l a r s e n t i -  ment i s expressed.?® The  s o c i e t i e s were hampered a t f i r s t by the l a c k of  money (which meant that they c o u l d support and  that these  few had  few  missionaries  to serve t r i b e s c l o s e to the s o c i e t y ' s  headquarters) and by the f a c t t h a t s t a t e and r e g i o n a l supremacy prevented  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of nationwide t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  communication systems which c o u l d widen the scope o f activity.  T h i s meant that the m i s s i o n a r y  missionary  work o f the p e r i o d  (1790-1812) was g e n e r a l l y the t o i l of a few i n d i v i d u a l s . . " A f t e r the War the country  of 1812  the t i d e of n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t swept  changed the "scope of m i s s i o n a r y  nominations o r g a n i z e d  operations.  De-  churchwide s o c i e t i e s which drew funds from  members i n a l l r e g i o n s .  Missionary  d i r e c t o r s envisioned stations  strung a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t , and an expanding economy and proved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n made these dreams p r a c t i c a l .  lived  year-round.  to  B e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f f e r e d access enabled  the m i s s i o n a r y  to serve  im-  More money  meant l a r g e r s t a t i o n s s t a f f e d by m i s s i o n a r i e s who  f u r t h e r away and  51  there  tribes  the cause of  32 Manifest  Destiny." In the years between 1789  and 1825  the f e d e r a l govern-  ment t r i e d h a n d l i n g Indian a f f a i r s with " p e a c e f u l p e r s u a s i o n negotiation."  and  The p o l i t i c a l sages o f the day b e l i e v e d that the  a b o r i g i n e s c o u l d and should conform to the ways o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n and a c c o r d i n g l y encouraged the establishment  of  -63s c h o o l s among the v a r i o u s t r i b e s .  T h i s encouragement was r e i n -  f o r c e d i n 1819 with an a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f $10,000 which the P r e s i ddnt was t o r e c e i v e each year to employ "capable persons o f good moral c h a r a c t e r " to teach the Indians a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s and to i n s t r u c t Indian c h i l d r e n i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l schoolroom a r t s . The p r e s i d e n t s g e n e r a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h i s money t o the m i s s i o n -  33 ary s o c i e t i e s , and by 1825 there were t h i r t y - e i g h t such s c h o o l s . Tribes. Choctaw  Mo. 11  E a s t and West Cherokee  9  Seneca  3  Chickasaw  2  Oneida  2  Osage Ottawa  2 2  Chippewa Creek Missouri Passamaquoddy  1 1 1 1  Potawatomie Tuscarora Wyandot  1 1 1  By Whom E s t a b l i s h e d American Board o f F o r e i g n Missions Seven by the Am. Bd. o f F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s ; two by B a p t i s t Gene r a l Convention Two by U n i t e d F o r e i g n M i s s i o n S o c i e t y ; one by B a p t i s t General Convention One by Cumberland M i s s i o n Board; one by Synod o f South C a r o l i n a and Georgia One by B a p t i s t General Convention; one by P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l Church United Foreign Mission Society One by B a p t i s t General Convention; one by Western M i s s i o n S o c i e t y United Foreign Mission Society B a p t i s t General Convention Jesuit S o c i e t y f o r Propagating the Gospel, etc. B a p t i s t General Convention United Foreign Mission Society Methodist E p i s c o p a l C h u r c h ^  These were the major m i s s i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the nineteenth century, and they expanded t h e i r work i n v a r i o u s parts: of  the country as the f r o n t i e r continued westward.  The American  Board o f Commissioners f o r F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s s t a r t e d as a broadly i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y i n 1810, but i t was soon dominated by the C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s and the New School P r e s b y t e r i a n s who  had moved away from the s t r i c t  (those  C a l v i n i s m o f the Westminster  -64Confession)•  Between the War  of 1812  and  the C i v i l War  i t sup-  p o r t e d more I n d i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s than any other s o c i e t y . U n i t e d F o r e i g n M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y , which was  founded i n 1817  which absorbed s e v e r a l of the C a l v i n i s t s o c i e t i e s that from the second Great Awakening (most n o t a b l y the New M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y ) , was  The and  sprang York  i n t u r n absorbed i n t o the ABCFM i n  The Old School P r e s b y t e r i a n s disapproved  1826.  of the a c t i v i t i e s of the  American Board and so made the Western M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y t h e i r agency among the I n d i a n s .  The Cumberland M i s s i o n Board was  the  m i s s i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Cumberland P r e s b y t e r i a n s , who broken away from the l a r g e r P r e s b y t e r i a n group i n one v i v a l schisms.  The S o c i e t y f o r Propagating  Indians and Others i n North America was Congregational  clergymen and laymen i n  the a i d of Harvard  C o l l e g e , supported  had  of the r e -  the Gospel among the  the c r e a t i o n o f twenty-one  I787.  T h i s s o c i e t y , with  the few non-Moravian m i s s i o n -  a r i e s s t i l l a t work among the Indians a t the end o f the R e v o l u t i o n . Thus most o f the m i s s i o n a r y that o f C a l v i n i s t  endeavor i n the  1812-1860 p e r i o d was  bodies.  The B a p t i s t s , however, were very e n e r g e t i c i n t h i s once they s t a r t e d . established i n  The  activity  B a p t i s t General M i s s i o n a r y Convention  was  l 8 l 4 , and they began e x t e n s i v e work among the  Southern Indians., most famous agents,  In the same year, Isaac McCoy, one o f began h i s m i s s i o n i n I n d i a n a .  their  In 1820,  the  E p i s c o p a l i a n s founded the Domestic and F o r e i g n M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y of  the P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l Church i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , which  worked p r i m a r i l y with the Oneidas i n Wisconsin. not have a s p e c i f i c m i s s i o n a r y  The F r i e n d s d i d  s o c i e t y , but i n t h e i r y e a r l y  -65meetings they a p p r o p r i a t e d support  f o r the v a r i o u s members of  35 t h e i r group engaged i n m i s s i o n work. The  government-aided m i s s i o n s c h o o l s were considered  s u c c e s s f u l by the l e g i s l a t o r s and the " c i v i l i z a t i o n " fund t h e r e f o r e renewed a n n u a l l y .  In the next few y e a r s , however,  f e d e r a l Indian p o l i c y moved i n a new might be regarded  was  direction:  "The  year  1825  as the year t e r m i n a t i n g the o l d f e d e r a l Indian  p o l i c y of p e a c e f u l p e r s u a s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n and beginning new  coercive p o l i c y . " ^ 3  the M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r and to f o l l o w them.  The  the  Indians were pushed to the west o f  the e a s t e r n m i s s i o n s had  Washington continued  to c l o s e down  to c o n t r i b u t e i t s y e a r l y  $10,000 p l u s other sums of money p r o v i d e d by t r e a t y s t i p u l a t i o n s for education.  P r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and m i s s i o n s o c i e t i e s donated  i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e amounts f o r the same purposes.  The  mission-  a r i e s r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r s c h o o l s and resumed a v i g o r o u s program with i m p r e s s i v e r e s u l t s . to  teaching  Many Indians sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n  them and many were turned away f o r l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s ,  despite  the i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f b u i l d i n g s , teachers, and m a t e r i a l s . o n l y d i d the m i s s i o n a r i e s have t h e i r former e a s t e r n to  tend t o , but t h e i r scope was  indigenous  to the West.  congregations  expanded to i n c l u d e the  The o f f i c i a l  fund was  Not  Indians  not i n c r e a s e d , but  the t r e a t y agreements were a l t e r e d to provide more money f o r schools. resources. and  In a d d i t i o n , some t r i b e s c o n t r i b u t e d from t h e i r In  own  18/34, there were s i x t y schools with 137 teachers  2,000 p u p i l s ; by 1848 " s i x t e e n manual l a b o r s c h o o l s , e i g h t y -  seven boarding and other schools were r e p o r t e d i n o p e r a t i o n , s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l manual l a b o r s c h o o l s under c o n t r a c t . " ? 3  and Mis-  -66-  s i o n a r i e s were sent to the P l a i n s t r i b e s and coast and  hopes were high  to the  Pacific  f o r the C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of the e n t i r e  continent.?^ The  l840's saw  the ebb  of t h i s great e v a n g e l i c a l movement  as "...the s l a v e r y i s s u e began to hamper m i s s i o n missionary  The  c u r r e n t as p a r t of the g r e a t n a t i o n a l t i d e broke upon  the rocks of s e c t i o n a l i s m . and  effort.  As denominations d i v i d e d i n t o  northern  southern churches, missions were p a r c e l e d out between the  tending  parties.  many m i s s i o n  F i n a l l y the t u r m o i l of the C i v i l War  s t a t i o n s to c l o s e t h e i r d o o r s . " ?  were s p l i t between the "Old" and  "New"  9  Schools,  The  con-  compelled  Presbyterians  w i t h the  pre-  dominantly Southern "Old" school withdrawing to form i t s own mission  society.  The E p i s c o p a l i a n s were d i v i d e d among the  and low  ( e v a n g e l i c a l ) churchmen.  high  Other churches^ s u f f e r e d s i m i l a r  schisms.  In a d d i t i o n to the breakdown o f the o l d denominations  there was  the emergence of new  s e c t s and v a r i e t i e s of r e l i g i o u s  experience, i n c l u d i n g Mormonism, M i l l e r i s m (the Seventh Day v e n t i s t s ) , s p i r i t u a l i s m , and  communistic experiments.  a l l t h i s hung the a b o l i t i o n i s s u e , which s p l i t were f a i r l y  evenly  civilize  the P r o t e s t a n t s  the American Indian.  over the other  f i r s t adherants, and  and  of 1812  and  undertook to both C h r i s t i a n i z e and Various  (Moravians favored  Congregationalists,  (namely, the  the Presbyterians).**®  In t h i s m i s s i o n i z i n g p e r i o d between the War the C i v i l War,  above  the churches that  d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the n a t i o n  B a p t i s t s , the Methodists, and  And  Ad-  denominations s t r e s s e d  Christianity first,  Presbyterians  were ardent  one  Quakers,  civilization-  the B a p t i s t s and Methodists v a r i e d ) , but none  denied t h a t both were necessary the a b o r i g i n e s . of  The  elements of t h e i r m i s s i o n to  c i v i l i z a t i o n they hoped to impart was  the n i n e t e e n t h century United S t a t e s ; they propagated  mic i n d i v i d u a l i s m , r e p u b l i c a n i s m and democracy, and of  the i n d i v i d u a l .  P r o t e s t a n t i s m , of course, was  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s whole system.**  1  the  that  econoliberty  seen to be  an  "Thus the m i s s i o n a r y h e l d  the b a s i c v a l u e s of h i s c u l t u r e i n common with other Americans. He dressed i n a c e r t a i n s t y l e , possessed in  but one w i f e , b e l i e v e d  a b s t r a c t j u s t i c e , ate c e r t a i n foods i n c e r t a i n ways, and  favored the s p e c i f i c economic and p o l i t i c a l system of h i s f e l l o w countrymen.  At the same time m i s s i o n a r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d a sub-  c u l t u r e w i t h i n American l i f e ,  f o r they emphasized theology  morals more than other people.  and  They adhered more v i g o r o u s l y to  the sexual code, were more honest  (or were supposed to be), pro-  pounded the t h e o l o g i c a l system more s e r i o u s l y , and were more concerned w i t h the minor taboos o f d r i n k and  the v e r b a l p r o h i b i t i o n s  a g a i n s t o b s e n i t y , p r o f a n i t y , and blasphemy."  c  The  Indians were  the most i n need of c i v i l i z i n g s a l v a t i o n because t h e i r  life  s t y l e s were the l e a s t attuned to t h i s u n i l i n e a r p r o g r e s s toward the g o a l s h e l d dear by Americans o f the day. personified:  they d i d not grasp "The  i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral  q u a l i t i e s t h a t Americans have deemed necessary in was  the U n i t e d S t a t e s . "  They were savagism  to  civilization  Since the m i s s i o n a r y ' s " s t o c k i n t r a d e "  moral e v a l u a t i o n i t was  he who  took i t upon h i m s e l f to b r i n g  the savages to the l e v e l of c u l t u r e deemed necessary  for p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n i n the. C h r i s t i a n world which the r e l i g i o u s of the were b u s i l y p l a n n i n g .  There was  day  a sense of urgency about t h i s  -68task, as w e l l , as t h i s was  a p e r i o d of m i l l e n i a l e x p e c t a t i o n —  they had to work q u i c k l y and w e l l l e s t  the Second Coming f i n d  43 them with work undone. As the century progressed, however, and s c h o o l s were e s t a b l i s h e d , churches b u i l t , and congregations enlarged, there was  never a l o n g - l a s t i n g , g e n e r a l f e e l i n g o f e l a t i o n about  work accomplished.  the  The ABCFM d i d c l o s e i t s m i s s i o n o p e r a t i o n s  among the Cherokees with the announcement that i t s presence was  no l o n g e r needed, but even there i t was  pressure t h a t f o r c e d the d e c i s i o n .  probably  financial  The churches g e n e r a l l y saw  t h e i r I n d i a n work as a f a i l u r e f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons. f i r s t p l a c e they expected immediate success that was i n such a c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n .  there  In the  impossible  Secondly, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of what  c o n s t i t u t e d success v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to those i n v o l v e d ; the d e f i n i t i o n depended on the c l a s s outlook, r e l i g i o u s perspectives:, and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the o b s e r v e r .  Those who  s t r e s s e d an  emotional r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l r e l i g i o n c o u l d see more encouraging r e s u l t s , f o r example, but a l l accounted success a f a i l u r e .  their  slow  Because the m i s s i o n a r i e s b e l i e v e d that  their  charges c o u l d not s u s t a i n t h e i r C h r i s t i a n s t a t u s without assuming the white c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  they f e l t compelled  to spend c o n s i d e r a b l e  time on the c i v i l i z i n g process, but the more time spent t e a c h i n g white man's ways meant l e s s time spent propagating the Gospel, vice versa.  Thus the m i s s i o n process was  and  inevitably snail-paced.  What i s more, the American c u l t u r e o f the time was  not  static:  "Even i f the Indians had achieved the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n the whites possessed a t the commencement of m i s s i o n i z a t i o n , the Indians  -69would s t i l l have been c o n s i d e r e d backward i n l i g h t of the subsequent change i n American c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Here success  45 turned b i t t e r because the g o a l had a c t u a l l y changed." Not o n l y the unreasonably  high standards of the mis-  s i o n a r i e s hindered t h e i r success, however;  very  c u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a l s o stood i n t h e i r way.  substantial When the mis-  s i o n a r y made converts he c r e a t e d a f a c t i o n i n the t r i b e thereby s e t up an o p p o s i t i o n to h i s f u r t h e r e f f o r t s .  and  In a d d i t i o n ,  Indians were l o a t h to g i v e up t h e i r accustomed l i f e - s t y l e s , even i f they had, i t was was  and  no guarantee that the white p o p u l a t i o n  w i l l i n g to accept them:  "By  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t the  a b o r i g i n e upon the b a s i s o f a b e l i e f o f white c u l t u r a l  superiority,  Americans f o r c e d the Indian to remain savage and guaranteed  the  46 f a i l u r e o f the m i s s i o n a r y program." As the churches  h i t the s k i d s i n the l 8 4 0 ' s so d i d t h e i r  m i s s i o n a r y program which was  a discouragement to them d e s p i t e  s e v e r a l decades of f e r v e n t and devoted  effort.  i n s i s t e n t mood of manifest d e s t i n y took another  Meanwhile the tack i n the  handling of Indian a f f a i r s : In the £ 4 0 ' s , Americans d i s c o v e r e d that the West, to which they had consigned the Indian, i t s e l f needed the c r e a t i v e hand of c i v i l i z a t i o n . The n o t i o n o f removal, of pushing the I n d i a n to the Great P l a i n s , somewhere west o f the M i s s i s s i p p i , no l o n g e r seemed p r a c t i c a b l e ; for then he would stand between Americans and Santa Fe, Oregon, and C a l i f o r n i a . He had to be d e a l t with; h i s newly a c q u i r e d lands had to be taken over; and s t i l l he had to be brought to c i v i l i z a t i o n , or d i e . What e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t e d was the r e s e r v a t i o n system, whereby Indians were segregated and gathered together on s p e c i f i c p i e c e s of l a n d assigned to s p e c i f i c t r i b e s . These were to be savage i s l a n d s i n the midst o f c i v i l i z e d seas. The good hope was t h a t once they were on t h e i r i s l a n d s , , Indians would be a t l o n g l a s t l i a b l e to proper c i v i l i z i n g . '  -70During R e c o n s t r u c t i o n many of the Indian wars (the Sioux i n the l860's, l870's, and 1890's, the Cheyenne and  Ara-  pahoes i n the l860's, the Modocs and Nez Perces i n the l870*s,48 to  name a few)  broke out due to the i n c e s s a n t p r e s s u r e o f white  settlement i n the West, and many of the m i s s i o n a r i e s there had to  flee.  The humanitarian  movement of the day  something be done to a i d the I n d i a n s .  demanded t h a t  During P r e s i d e n t  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the "Peace P o l i c y " was  inaugurated.  I t p r o v i d e d two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f o r immediate r e l i e f a Board of Indian Commissioners to administer i t .  Grant's  and set up  T h i s board,  which had the power to i n s p e c t and advise the Indian O f f i c e ,  was  i n sympathy with the m i s s i o n a r i e s and a c t e d as an i n t e r m e d i a r y between them and the government. agencies were apportioned  At t h i s time the r e s e r v a t i o n  to v a r i o u s church bodies f o r r e l i g i o u s  i n s t r u c t i o n and Indian agents were chosen l a r g e l y from l i s t s o f  49 nominees submitted by the  churches.  G e n e r a l l y speaking, however, a f t e r the C i v i l War  the  campaign f o r the w e l f a r e of the Indians f e l l i n t o the hands o f the humanitarians, reduced  " f o r American censure i n the past century  the Indian to a s t a t e so p i t i f u l as to be comprehended  only by p h i l a n t h r o p y and humanitarianism."-^ who  had  took up the cause were those who  And most of those  had been i n v o l v e d i n the  a n t i s l a v e r y movement. Some concentrated on I n d i a n - r i g h t s work, while others became i n v o l v e d i n a multitude of reform causes. The p o l i t i c a l sympathies of n e a r l y a l l were with the Republ i c a n s . .. .Most of them l i v e d i n Massachusetts, Penns y l v a n i a , and New York, but a few had migrated to the Far West, where f i r s t h a n d o b s e r v a t i o n had converted them to work f o r Indian r i g h t s . Among them were congressmen, teachers, m i n i s t e r s , businessmen, Indian agents, F e d e r a l  -71Government o f f i c i a l s , farmers, j o u r n a l i s t s and w r i t e r s , and s e v e r a l who c o u l d be c a l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l r e f o r m e r s . Nearly a l l were m i d d l e - c l a s s i d e a l i s t s who b e l i e v e d i n the b a s i c r i g h t of a l l men to freedom from o p p r e s s i o n and who f e l t an o b l i g a t i o n to b r i n g t h i s b e l i e f to r e a l i t y . . . . I d e a s of p r o g r e s s i v e t r a n s i t i o n and change d i d guide t h e i r thoughts and a c t i o n s on most s i g n i f i cant s o c i a l i s s u e s , but they were not r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s : or t r u l y Utopian t h i n k e r s . They had no d e s i r e to overt u r n the b a s i c s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , or economic s t r u c t u r e of the n a t i o n , and most of them were too experienced and too r e a l i s t i c to expect s o c i a l perfection....The r e f o r m e r s appealed to two a u t h o r i t i e s to j u s t i f y t h e i r demands f o r change. One was r e l i g i o u s , documented by the New Testament; the other was p o l i t i c a l , documented by the D e c l a r a t i o n o f Independence and the B i l l o f Rights. The p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y was the l e g a l framework, and the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e d the b a s i c foundation f o r the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e o f human r i g h t s — the p e r v a d i n g power o f love and the brotherhood of mankind. P r a c t i c a l and r a t i o n a l on one hand, m y s t i c a l and p i e t i s t i c on the other, they assumed t h a t what they were doing was r i g h t and j u s t . Wendell P h i l l i p s c a l l e d i t a 'working reform C h r i s t i a n i t y * that he b e l i e v e d would regenerate the w o r l d . 5 1 These reformers were no  devotees of m a t e r i a l i s m ,  d i d b e l i e v e that i f the Indians could own  and  but  cultivate their  p l o t s of l a n d they would more e a s i l y l e a r n the ways of and sorbed i n t o the l a r g e r American s o c i e t y .  They t h e r e f o r e  be  campaigned f o r i t through to i t s a d o p t i o n .  though i t d i d not  c o n t a i n a l l the p r o v i s i o n s they had  d i d embody the m a j o r i t y  ally satisfied the I n d i a n .  of t h e i r demands, and  that they had  Thereafter  ab-  Al-  hoped f o r ,  they were gener-  s u b s t a n t i a l l y improved the l o t o f  those who  of the great reformers were by by age)  own  supported  the Dawes Act and  it  they  remained i n the movement (many  t h i s time dead or  incapacitated  tended to concentrate t h e i r e f f o r t s on watchdog a c t i v i t i e s —  recommending the h i r i n g or removal of c e r t a i n agents, a t t e n t i o n to c o r r u p t i o n , and d e a l i n g with s p e c i f i c t r i b e s .  calling  a d v i s i n g the government i n matters 52  -72As the reformers were t a k i n g over the cause o f Indian a f f a i r s , the churches  turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to s e v e r a l new  f a c t s o f American l i f e .  These i n c l u d e d the g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n  the wealth o f the n a t i o n , the r i s e o f emotional r e l i g i o n s as many o f the lower  c l a s s e s were f o r c e d out o f the i n c r e a s i n g l y  a f f l u e n t m i d d l e - c l a s s s e c t s , and the problems posed by a militant laboring class. more o f the church's American War.  F o r e i g n m i s s i o n s commanded more and  a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the Spanish-  The home missionary work that continued was  centered i n Oklahoma and i n the v a r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n s where the r e l i g i o u s workers maintained  the s c h o o l s and c l i n i c s they had  e s t a b l i s h e d years b e f o r e , but there was no g r e a t f e e l i n g o f accomplishment concerning the work being done.53 The 1920's produced a decided d e c l i n e i n m i s s i o n a r y interest.  In f o r e i g n m i s s i o n f i e l d s the "heathen" were not so  sure t h a t they wanted Western r e l i g i o n . m i s s i o n a r y presence  unacceptable  N a t i o n a l i s m made  i n many p a r t s o f the world.  a n t i - ( a n y ) r e l i g i o n movement made the church's difficult.  An  task even more  The home missions to the Indians were not i n much  5k better condition.  The Board o f Indian Commissioners f i n a n c e d  an e x t e n s i v e study o f the matter and p u b l i s h e d i t s c o n c l u s i o n s i n a b u l l e t i n e n t i t l e d " C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s among the American I n d i a n s " . Some o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s f o l l o w : T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s c e r t a i n f a c t s about the h i s t o r y , p r o g r e s s , present d i s t r i b u t i o n , and needs of the C h r i s t i a n missions among the American I n d i a n s . . . . The m i s s i o n s maintained on I n d i a n r e s e r v a t i o n s by the P r o t e s t a n t and C a t h o l i c churches have long been regarded as c o o p e r a t i n g u n i t s w i t h the board and the Bureau o f Indian A f f a i r s i n the F e d e r a l  -73Government's e f f o r t to a i d and q u a l i f y Indians to take t h e i r p l a c e s as s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , independent men and women i n the g e n e r a l c i t i z e n r y o f the N a t i o n . ...The F e d e r a l o f f i c e r s have r e c o g n i z e d the m i s s i o n a r i e s as i n f l u e n t i a l members o f the a u t h o r i z e d personnel on the r e s e r v a t i o n s . The Government as the guardian and t r u s t e e of some 240,000 Indians d e s i r e s and welcomes the c o o p e r a t i o n of the m i s s i o n boards i n a l l endeavors to promote the w e l f a r e of the I n d i a n s . The members of the Board of I n d i a n Commissioners are c o n s t r a i n e d to f e e l that the members o f the C h r i s t i a n churches are not s u f f i c i e n t l y informed on matters concerning our American Indians, and because o f t h i s there seems to be a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the Indian mission a c t i v i t i e s . Information i s the mother o f i n t e r e s t and i n t e r e s t i s the mother o f g e n e r o s i t y . The reader of t h i s b u l l e t i n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y o f t h a t p a r t of i t which c o n t a i n s testimony and recommendations o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s themselves, w i l l probably agree that there i s room f o r g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n the I n d i a n m i s s i o n f i e l d , f o r l a r g e r a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r Indian m i s s i o n work, f o r more a p p r e c i a t i o n of the m a n i f o l d problems faced by I n d i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s , and a s t r o n g e r r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r value as a C h r i s t i a n i z i n g and c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e among the I n d i a n p e o p l e . ...The Board of Indian Commissioners b e l i e v e that C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g and the u p b u i l d i n g of C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r are fundamental n e c e s s i t i e s , i n any p l a n o f a c t i o n designed 'to hasten the progress and development of the I n d i a n wards o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e i r a b s o r p t i o n i n t o a c t i v e and s e r v i c e a b l e c i t i z e n ship.' I t i s hoped that the f a c t s here presented w i l l quicken i n t e r e s t and_stimulate g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y i n t h i s important work.- -' 7  As the country moved i n t o the great d e p r e s s i o n m i s s i o n a r y work s u f f e r e d even more.  They were a l l o t t e d even s m a l l e r budgets  as c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the church g r e a t l y d e c l i n e d . the day tended  The youth  of  to a v o i d missionary d u t i e s to work i n s t e a d f o r  more s e c u l a r i d e a l s .  The  great r e v i v a l s of the past had u s u a l l y  spawned m i s s i o n a r i e s i n v a s t numbers, but these o l d awakenings  56 were not p a r t o f the contemporary e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  style.  Alarmed by t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , the various" m i s s i o n boards commissioned a study of the matter. i n q u i r y was  The r e s u l t o f t h i s  a book by W i l l i a m E. Hocking, R e t h i n k i n g M i s s i o n s  -74(1932).  I t recommended that missions; be continued and  strengthened,  but with changed methods and m o d i f i e d  motives.  I t a l s o r e f l e c t e d a growing i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t missionary e f f o r t be u n i f i e d  to a much g r e a t e r degree.  "Though  s h a r p l y r e s e n t e d by many m i s s i o n a r i e s , the r e p o r t as a whole:was  w e l l r e c e i v e d by the e x e c u t i v e s o f the m i s s i o n a r y boards  r e p r e s e n t e d on the commission, and steps were soon being  taken  57 to put many o f the recommendations i n t o o p e r a t i o n . " - " This b r i e f history  o f m i s s i o n a r y work with the North  American Indians serves to p o i n t out s e v e r a l aspects o f t h i s activity.  One such f a c t i s t h a t the churches  the handmaiden o f the government.  have o f t e n been  When the B r i t i s h wanted to  b u i l d an empire, the m i s s i o n a r i e s were encouraged to go spread the r e l i g i o n o f Englishmen to the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the North American c o n t i n e n t .  When the i n t e r e s t s  p o i n t e d to westward expansion,  churches  o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e i r m i s s i o n a r i e s  were helped to s e t up s c h o o l s and chapels to prepare  the Indians  f o r the onslaught o f the white c u l t u r e i t was hoped they would l e a r n to a p p r e c i a t e and adopt.  When the c o r r u p t i o n o f the I n -  dian department became i n t o l e r a b l e , the r e l i g i o u s  the government turned to  f o r advice on who to appoint, responded to t h e i r  p r e s s u r e i n p a s s i n g new Indian l e g i s l a t i o n , and gave over v a r i o u s r e s e r v a t i o n s to the denominations f o r r e l i g i o u s Secondly,  instruction.  a g r a d u a l progress from the r e l i g i o u s to the  s e c u l a r can be seen i n Indian r e l a t i o n s .  The seventeenth and  eighteenth century m i s s i o n a r i e s r e l i e d f o r the most p a r t on t h e i r own funds and i n i t i a t i v e  to f u l f i l l  t h e i r task.  E l i o t , Mayhew,  -75and the r e s t took up the e v a n g e l i z a t i o n o f the I n d i a n by t h e i r own choice and worked l a r g e l y a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own means and methods.  In the n i n e t e e n t h century the church became a p a r t -  ner o f the government i n the h a n d l i n g o f I n d i a n a f f a i r s .  In the  e a r l y p a r t o f the century t h i s i n v o l v e d a c c e p t i n g f e d e r a l money f o r s c h o o l s f o r the " c i v i l i z i n g " p r o c e s s . one  In the l a t t e r  half,  element o f the church continued t h i s a c c u l t u r a t i o n task with  the r e s e r v a t i o n s c h o o l s and churches p r o v i d e d f o r i n Grant's Peace P o l i c y while a more secular-minded  group o f "working r e -  form" C h r i s t i a n s took over the I n d i a n r i g h t s movement. l a t t e r group was p a r t o f the reform stream imbibed  The  from which C o l l i e r  many o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i e s even though they tended  to fade  away when they f e l t t h a t they had done t h e i r best i n p r e s s i n g through  the Dawes*: B i l l .  In the twentieth century the Indian  reform movement passed i n t o b a s i c a l l y s e c u l a r hands, c u l m i n a t i n g with C o l l i e r ' s program which was not a t a l l enamored o f the i d e a o f p r e s s i n g the Indians i n t o an American P r o t e s t a n t mold.  another  T h i s i n c e s s a n t design o f c i v i l i z i n g the Indians was  still  element o f the American m i s s i o n a r y movement.  having  d e f i n e d savagism as that which d i d not correspond  After  to the American  l i f e - s t y l e o f the time, the American p e o p l * s e t out to r i d t h e i r n a t i o n o f a l l t h a t was f o r e i g n i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Benton put i t :  As Thomas Hart  " C i v i l i z a t i o n , or e x t i n c t i o n , has been the f a t e  of a l l people who have found themselves i n the t r a c k o f the advancing Whites, and c i v i l i z a t i o n , always the p r e f e r e n c e o f the Whites, has been pressed as an o b j e c t , while e x t i n c t i o n has f o l l o w e d as a consequence o f r e s i s t a n c e .  The B l a c k and the Red  Races have o f t e n f e l t t h e i r a m e l i o r a t i n g the e a r l y P u r i t a n s , who  influence.From  wanted to conform the Indians  h a b i t s of good C a l v i n i s t s , to the twentieth Indian Commissioners who and  to the  century Board of  b e l i e v e d that " C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g  the u p b u i l d i n g of C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r " were n e c e s s i t i e s i f  the American Indians were to become " a c t i v e and c i t i z e n s , there was  never a thought that the Indians  come C h r i s t i a n s without adopting style.  serviceable" could  be-  a European C h r i s t i a n l i f e -  T h i s l e a d s to the i n e v i t a b l e q u e s t i o n :  how  d i d the  P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s of the 1930's respond to John C o l l i e r ' s plans to p r o t e c t and preserve  Indian l i f e  and  culture?  NOTES TO CHAPTER IV W i l l i a m H. P r e s c o t t , H i s t o r y o f the Conquest o f Mexico, new and r e v i s e d e d i t i o n (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, L t d . , 1886), pp. 127-128; see a l s o : F r a n c i s Augustus MacNutt, Fernando C o r t e z and the Conquest o f Mexico (New York and London: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 190977 PP« 100-103; Woodbury Lowery, The Spanish Settlements W i t h i n the Present L i m i t s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1513-156i~TNew York and London: G.P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker P r e s s , 1911). PP« 38l400; Henry Raup Wagner, w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f Helen Rand P a r i s h , The L i f e and W r i t i n g s o f Bartolome de l a s Casas (Albuquerque: The U n i v e r s i t y o f New Mexico P r e s s , 1967); Herbert E. B o l t o n , Coronado: Knight o f Pueblos and P l a i n s (New York: W h i t t l e s e y House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c . , 1949), pp. 335-342; P h i l i p Ainsworth Means, F a l l o f the Inca Empire (New York: Gordian P r e s s , Inc., 1964), pp. 165-170.  2 R i c h a r d Hakluyt, "A p a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e concerning... the Westerne d i s c o u e r i e s l a t e l y attempted," i n Documentary H i s t o r y o f the State o f Maine, ed. C h a r l e s Deane, v o l . I I (Cambridge: P r e s s o f John Wilson and Son, I887), pp. 7-H.  3 " L e t t e r s P a t e n t . . . f o r two s e v e r a l C o l o n i e s and P l a n t a t i o n s , to be made i n V i r g i n i a . . . D a t e d A p r i l 10, 1606," i n The Genesis o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , ed. Alexander Brown, v o l . I (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1890), p . 53. L " A r t i c l e s , I n s t r u c t i o n s and Orders made...for the good Order and Government o f the two s e v e r a l C o l o n i e s and P l a n t a t i o n s to be made by our l o v i n g s u b j e c t s , i n the Country commonly c a l l e d V i r g i n i a and America..." i n Brown, op. c i t . , v o l . I ,  pp. 67-68. 5  "The Charter o f the Colony o f the Massachusetts Bay i n New England, 1628-29," i n Records o f the Governor and Company o f the Massachusetts Bay i n New England, ed. N a t h a n i e l B. S h u r t l e f f , v o l . I (Boston: The P r e s s o f W i l l i a m White,  1853), p. 17. 6  Edmund De Schweinitz, The L i f e and Times o f David Z e i s b e r g e r , The Western Pioneer and A p o s t l e to the Indians ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . B. L i p p i n c o t t and Company, I87O), pp. 15-16.  7 L o u i s B. Wright, R e l i g i o n and Empire: The A l l i a n c e between P i e t y and Commerce i n E n g l i s h Expansion, 1558-l625 (New York: Octagon Books, Inc., 1965), pp. v, v i .  g W i l l i a m Warren Sweet, R e l i g i o n i n C o l o n i a l America (New York: Cooper Square P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1965), pp. 28-72;  -78F. E . Mayer, The R e l i g i o u s Bodies o f America ( S a i n t L o u i s , Missouri: Concordia P u b l i s h i n g House, 196l), p . 268; Frank S. Mead, Handbook o f Denominations i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f i f t h e d i t i o n (New York: Abingdon Press, 1970), p . 180. A l e x a n d e r Whitaker, "Good Newes from V i r g i n i a , " i n American C h r i s t i a n i t y : An H i s t o r i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Documents, by H. S h e l t o n Smith, Robert T. Handy, and L e f f e r t s A* L o e t s c h e r , v o l . I (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, I960), pp. 46, 48. 9  S m i t h , Handy, and L o e t s c h e r , op. c i t . , p . 46.  1 0  """•""Sweet, R e l i g i o n i n C o l o n i a l America, pp.  57-59.  E r n e s t Hawkins:, H i s t o r i c a l N o t i c e s o f the M i s s i o n s o f Church o f England i n the North American C o l o n i e s P r e v i o u s to Independence o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( L o n d o n : B . F e l l o w e s , 1 2  the the  TB45),,p. 19. i b i d . , pp. 263-269.  1 5  L l o y d C. M. Hare, Thomas May hew, P a t r i a r c h to the Indians (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1932), pp. 86-112. l l f  ^ A l d e n T. Vaughan, New England F r o n t i e r : P u r i t a n s and Indians 1620-1675 (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1965), pp. 241-30O. l 6  i b i d . , pp. 298-303.  1 7  i b i d . , pp. 309-322.  -I  o  i b i d . , p. 338. 19  S w e e t , R e l i g i o n i n C o l o n i a l America, pp. 192-203.  20 L e t t e r from Rev. Jonas M i c h a e l i u s to Rev. A d r i a n Smoutius, i n E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Records, S t a t e o f New York, ed.Hugh H a s t i n g s , v o l . I (Albany: James B. Lyon, 1901), pp. 56-6O. L e t t e r from Revs. Megapolensis and D r i s i u s to the C l a s s i s o f Amsterdam, i n E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Records, S t a t e o f New 2 1  York, v o l . I , pp. 326-327. 22  S w e e t , R e l i g i o n i n C o l o n i a l America, pp. 120-166, 210-  270; Frank S. Mead, Handbook o f Denominations, pp. 31-33, 108-109,  -79127; Rayner Wickersham Kelsey, F r i e n d s and the Indians, 16551917 ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The A s s o c i a t e d E x e c u t i v e Committee o f F r i e n d s on Indian A f f a i r s , 1917). PP* 14-15. 23  W i l l i a m Warren Sweet, The Story o f R e l i g i o n i n America Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1950), pp. 107-109.  (New York: 24  Mead, Handbook o f Denominations, pp. 154-155* 25 The Great Awakening, e d i t e d by Alan Heimert and Perry M i l l e r ( I n d i a n a p o l i s and New York: The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, Inc., 1967), p . x i i i .  26  Sweet, R e l i g i o n i n C o l o n i a l America, p. 317* 27  Sweet, The S t o r y o f R e l i g i o n i n America, pp. 189, 223. 2 8  i b i d . , pp. 193-222.  2 9  i b i d . , pp. 223-231.  ®Robert Berkhofer, J r . , S a l v a t i o n and the Savage ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Kentucky Press, 1965). p. 3* 3  3 1  ibid.,  p. 1.  i b i d . , p. 2. G e o r g e Dewey Harmon, S i x t y Years o f Indian A f f a i r s : P o l i t i c a l , Economic, and D i p l o m a t i c , 1?89-1%50 (Chapel H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1941), pp. I6O-I63. 33  3 2 f  3 5  i b i d . , pp. 163-164.  B e r k h o f e r , pp. 162-178.  •^Harmon, p. 167. 5 7  i b i d . , pp. 351-360.  38 (New York:  Sweet, R e l i g i o n i n the Development o f American C u l t u r e C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1952), pp. 242-247.  39 ^Berkhofer,  p. 2.  -80^ S w e e t , The S t o r y o f R e l i g i o n i n America, pp. 258-284.  4l  Berkhofer,  i  op. c i t . , pp. 4-15.  42 i b i d . , p. 9. ^ibid.,  pp. 11-13.  44  i b i d . , pp. 152-158. ^ibid.,  p . I58.  ^ i b i d . , p . 159. 47 Roy Harvey Pearce, The Savages o f America, r e v i s e d e d i t i o n ( B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins Press, 1965), p . 239^ i b i d . , p . 241. 49 Robert Winston Mardock, The Reformers and the American Indian (Columbia, M i s s o u r i : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1971), pp. 47-128; Kelsey, F r i e n d s and the I n d i a n s , pp. 162-170; W i l l i a m T. Hagan, American Indians (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1961), pp. 110-112. 5®Pearce, 0£. c i t . , p . 241. -^•Mardock, op., c i t . , pp. 1-2. 5 2  i b i d . , pp. 198-228.  ^?Sweet, The S t o r y o f R e l i g i o n i n America, pp. 345-363, 406-407; Walter Rauschenbusch, "A Theology f o r the S o c i a l G o s p e l , " i n Loren B a r i t z , Sources o f the American Mind, v o l . I I (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966), pp. 47-68.  54 Sweet, The S t o r y o f R e l i g i o n i n America, pp. 415-417. 55 U.S. Department o f the I n t e r i o r , Report o f the Board of Indian Commissioners to the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the Year Ended June 30, 1927"TWashington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1927), pp. 40-41.  56  Sweet, The S t o r y o f R e l i g i o n i n America, p . 4l6.  -81-  57.  i b i d . , p. 417.  58^Pearce, op_. ext., p. 240. T  CHAPTER V THE MISSIONARY RESPONSE TO COLLIER In s e a r c h i n g the church p u b l i c a t i o n s , and  especially  those of the m i s s i o n a r y s o c i e t i e s , f o r r e a c t i o n to the Indian R e o r g a n i z a t i o n Act and i t s consequences, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g at first  to d i s c o v e r that i t wasn't greeted with pages of immediate  and i n d i g n a n t condemnation.  At f i r s t r e a d i n g i t seems a f r i n g e  i s s u e ; many other t o p i c s seem to have captured more e c c l e s i a s tical •  a t t e n t i o n a t t h a t time.  As W i l l i a m R. Hutchison put i t :  To the h i s t o r i a n s of American r e l i g i o u s thought few events or c l u s t e r s of events have seemed so p i v o t a l as the P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i c a l "bouleversement" of the years around 1930. I n t e r p r e t e r s have, l a i d great s t r e s s upon America's awakening, a t t h a t moment o f deep c u l t u r a l c r i s i s , to European t h e o l o g i e s o f d i v i n e transcendence. They have remarked the sudden s t i r r i n g s of new l i f e i n American semin a r i e s a f t e r 1930, the p u b l i c a t i o n of c e r t a i n manif e s t o e s which preached a need f o r r e a l i s m about human p r o s p e c t s , and the meteoric r i s e of R e i n h o l d Niebuhr as prime c r i t i c of p r o g r e s s i v e optimism. Other h i s t o r i a n s of our c u l t u r e have been debating whether an 'end of American innocence' i s most r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e j u s t a f t e r V e r s a i l l e s , j u s t bef o r e Sarajevo, or perhaps as f a r back as the l890's. The t h e o l o g i a n s and church historians:, however, have remained n e a r l y unanimous i n p l a c i n g t h e i r t h e o l o g i c a l watershed at the t u r n i n t o the Depression decade.  In the l i g h t o f these l a r g e r developments, however, the pronouncements on the I n d i a n New examples of how  b r i e f l y examine what was thought  o f the One  Deal assume s i g n i f i c a n c e as  P r o t e s t a n t i s m was  twentieth century America.  church  adapting to the r e a l i t i e s of  I t i s t h e r e f o r e necessary  to  predominant i n American P r o t e s t a n t  time.  o f these new  trends i n d i c a t i v e o f the new  order  of  r e l i g i o u s matters i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was  the  of  P r o t e s t a n t i s m with Americanism.  concepts were-  These two  disassociation  -83equated i n the minds o f many Americans by the end o f the n i n e teenth c e n t u r y .  " I t i s a commonplace that toward the end o f  the n i n e t e e n t h century P r o t e s t a n t i s m l a r g e l y dominated the American c u l t u r e , s e t t i n g the p r e v a i l i n g mores and the moral standards by which p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c , i n d i v i d u a l and group, conduct  was judged.  I f a c u l t u r e i s the t a n g i b l e form o f a  r e l i g i o n , i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s that r e l i g i o n was P r o t e s t a n t i s m . As H. P a u l Douglas put i t ,  'despite m u l t i p l y i n g s e c t a r i a n  d i f f e r e n c e s , P r o t e s t a n t i s m ' s prevalence  tended  P r o t e s t a n t c u l t u r a l t y p e . . . . I t was a triumph on the communal l e v e l . ' "  to c r e a t e a  of r e l i g i o n  still  In other words, "...the bulk o f  American P r o t e s t a n t i s m achieved d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a working i d e o l o g i c a l harmony with the modes o f the modern i n d u s t r i a l i z e d civilization,  the f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e system, and the burgeoning  imperialism."^ During the e a r l y p a r t o f the twentieth century, however, while P r o t e s t a n t i s m was being c h a l l e n g e d by the l a b o r problems of the day, by the new P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i e s ( t o be d i s c u s s e d i n f o l l o w i n g pages), and by the competition o f popular s e c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the C a t h o l i c s and Jews o f the country were making s u b s t a n t i a l g a i n s i n both numbers and i n the s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n American s o c i e t y .  The g r e a t I r i s h immigration o f  the p e r i o d p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n t h i s p r o c e s s : Due to t h i s predominant I r i s h i n f l u e n c e , C a t h o l i c i s m i n America soon a c q u i r e d a s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r which... i n d u b i t a b l y helped i t s u r v i v e and adapt i t s e l f to American r e a l i t y . In the f i r s t p l a c e , the C a t h o l i c i s m the I r i s h brought with them seemed l e s s f o r e i g n to American e y e s . . . . I t was E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , ' p u r i t a n i c a l ' , democratic, popular, and a c t i v i s t i c . . . . B u t perhaps the  -84most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f I r i s h Catholicism...was the f u s i o n of r e l i g i o n and n a t i o n a l i s m i n the I r i s h mind. In the c e n t u r i e s of s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t an a l i e n and P r o t e s t a n t master, n a t i o n a l l o y a l t y came to take on an i n t e n s e r e l i g i o u s : c o l o r i n g . . . . T o be a C a t h o l i c was to be a true Irishman; to be an Irishman was to be a true C a t h o l i c . . . t h e I r i s h n e w c o m e r — a f t e r some h e s i t a t i o n — a d o p t e d t h i s country as h i s own, and t r a n s f e r r e d h i s deeply emotional n a t i o n a l i s m to h i s adopted l a n d . His Americanism took on the same r e l i gious- f e r v o r and soon came to be i d e n t i f i e d with h i s C a t h o l i c i s m . . . . I n any case, i t was under I r i s h hegemony, and l a r g e l y through the advantages which t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e background gave to the I r i s h c l e r g y , t h a t the C a t h o l i c Church i n America was c o n s o l i d a t e d i n t o an American r e l i g i o u s community. The  church t h a t the I r i s h molded a c c o r d i n g  h e r i t a g e absorbed and Slavic  C a t h o l i c s who  to t h e i r  religious  "Americanized" the German, I t a l i a n , a l s o poured i n t o the country  and  at t h i s time.  In becoming a major p a r t o f American r e l i g i o u s l i f e , C a t h o l i c s had liarities.  to a d j u s t somewhat to the American s o c i a l pecu-  T h i s adjustment i n v o l v e d becoming a c t i v i s t and  forming t h e i r b e l i e f s on the r e l a t i o n of church and  The most important element of  adjustment, however, was  f o r the Church, which b e l i e v e d  present  this itself  t r u e and u n i v e r s a l church, to r e g a r d i t s e l f  part of a r e l i g i o u s p l u r a l i t y : century  "By  the second quarter o f  the American C a t h o l i c , l i k e every other  can, was: t h i n k i n g of h i s church as one  of the three  o f democracy,' s i d e by s i d e with the other two;  con-  s t a t e to  the American t r a d i t i o n .  to be the one  the  as the  Ameri-  'religions  he c o u l d hardly  imagine an America without P r o t e s t a n t s and J e w s — e v e n though he might be deeply  s u s p i c i o u s of P r o t e s t a n t s and not  altogether  f r e e of anti-Semitism."5 The Jews o f the United S t a t e s underwent a s i m i l a r cess.  The  pro-  i n f l u x : of East European Jews: i n the l a t e l800's-  -85f o r c e d American Judaism to r e o r g a n i z e i t s e l f to accomodate them.  As the second and t h i r d generations o f these immigrants  improved t h e i r s o c i a l and economic standings they shed t h e i r sense o f c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s .  They saw themselves as  "Americans d i f f e r i n g from other Americans i n l i t t l e but r e l i gion."^  The t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n f e l t so s e c u r e l y American that  they began to r e t u r n to and r e a s s e r t the r e l i g i o n that t h e i r parents had tended  to downplay, and there developed  a consider-  7 able s c h o l a r s h i p i n and c e l e b r a t i o n o f American Judaism. By the end o f the f i r s t  t h i r d o f the t w e n t i e t h century,  t h e r e f o r e , America was no longer a p r i m a r i l y P r o t e s t a n t n a t i o n . Immigration  and c r e a t i v e f o r c e s w i t h i n C a t h o l i c i s m and Judaism  had made f o r a c o n d i t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s p l u r a l i s m r a t h e r than an o f f i c i a l or u n o f f i c i a l " s t a t e church".  T h i s , then, was one  change t h a t P r o t e s t a n t s o f the time were w i t n e s s i n g i n t h e i r world. While these r e l i g i o n s were coming to the f o r e , P r o t estantism was undergoing saw  theological d i f f i c u l t i e s .  This period  the d e c l i n e o f l i b e r a l i s m i n i t s b a t t l e s with the conserva-  t i v e s ( f u n d a m e n t a l i s t s ) and r a d i c a l s (modernists) i n the church, and  the emergence o f neo-orthodoxy as the predominant t h e o l o g i c a l  statement  o f American P r o t e s t a n t i s m .  The  t h e o l o g i c a l l i b e r a l s tended  reason and p l a y down d i v i n e r e v e l a t i o n .  to emphasize human They were o p t i m i s t i c  about progress and saw man as i n h e r e n t l y good.,  "The growing  p o p u l a r i t y o f the l i b e r a l theology i n the e a r l y decades o f the present century was i n some measure r e l a t e d to the c l o s e n e s s o f  -86the churches to the c u l t u r e . a s s o c i a t e d with  The i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v o l u t i o n  the impact o f s c i e n t i f i c and  t h i n k i n g had a f f e c t e d the prosperous and  historical  educated middle  upper c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the North, i n the l a t e r century.  and  nineteenth  Many o f these people had been r e a r e d i n predominantly  r e v i v a l i s t i c , Bible-centered, conservative Not a few  found that t h e i r f a i t h was  a c i d s of modernity.  In the c r i s i s ,  Protestantism....  being eaten away by they found the new  the  patterns  o  of l i b e r a l theology  a way  A f t e r World War the goodness o f man and  and  of s a v i n g  faith."  I , however, p h i l o s o p h i e s emphasizing the s p i r i t of progress  lost their  the c o n s e r v a t i v e s s t r o v e to take c o n t r o l o f the denomina-  tions.  They sought to have the churches accept  "the i n e r r a n t and v e r b a l l y i n s p i r e d Word of God." and  flavor  f i g u r e h e a d was  the B i b l e as Their leader  W i l l i a m Jennings Bryan, but a f t e r h i s death  f o l l o w i n g the Scopes t r i a l ,  the movement l o s t i t s momentum and  s p l i t into several factions.  S e v e r a l l i b e r a l l e a d e r s who  were  d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r former stance moved beyond l i b e r a l i s m to what was  c a l l e d modernism.  They d e f i n e d i t as "the use  the methods of modern s c i e n c e to f i n d , s t a t e , and use nent and  of  the perma-  c e n t r a l v a l u e s o f i n h e r i t e d orthodoxy i n meeting the  needs of a modern w o r l d . "  9  Some r e t a i n e d a C h r i s t i a n p o s i t i o n ,  while others became t h e i s t i c r a t h e r than C h r i s t i a n and  still  others became b a s i c a l l y humanists-. In g e n e r a l , r e l i g i o n became u n a t t r a c t i v e to many; P r o t e s t a n t i s m was depression and  i n a s p i r i t u a l depression.  When the economic  the r e p o r t s o f the r i s e of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m  and  -87barbarism i n the world o f the 1930's appeared, l i b e r a l i s m disintegrated.  Moving i n to take i t s p l a c e , however, was  a new t h e o l o g i c a l c u r r e n t from Europe, neo-orthodoxy  (also  c a l l e d d i a l e c t i c a l theology or theology o f c r i s i s ) .  The major  American v o i c e i n t h i s movement was R e i n h o l d Niebuhr, with h i s f o l l o w e r s preached that s t r e s s e d the primacy  a r e t u r n to an e a r l i e r  of f a i t h ,  and he  theology  the c e n t r a l i t y o f the  B i b l e , the s i n f u l n e s s o f man, and the transcendence  o f God. I t  was a more r e a l i s t i c theology t h a t d e c r i e d f a i t h i n man's i n nate goodness and i n h i s a b i l i t y and r e j e c t e d p o l i t i c a l and economic systems that presupposed a b l y c o n t r o l man's own d e s t i n y .  a human a b i l i t y to reasonThe i n t e l l e c t u a l and t h e o l o g i c a l  toughness o f t h i s new s c h o o l gave American P r o t e s t a n t i s m a new and s o l i d core around which to organize and so helped the church r e b u i l d i n the 1 9 3 0 ' s .  10  Another g r e a t source o f s t r e s s i n the P r o t e s t a n t i s m o f the time was the ecumenical movement.  Although  the f i r s t  twenty  years o f the century had witnessed i n c r e a s e d c o o p e r a t i o n between the denominations  i n the m i s s i o n and S o c i a l Gospel programs, i n  the campaign f o r the p r o h i b i t i o n o f a l c o h o l , and i n v a r i o u s other causes, i t wasn't u n t i l the 1920*s and 1930's t h a t there  developed  a great push toward ecumenicity, o r oneness i n the f a i t h .  There  o c c u r r e d a growth o f the community church movement ( i . e . , churches  local  t h a t i n c l u d e d a l l denominations) and a s e r i e s o f mergers  that encouraged church union p r o p o n e n t s .  11  C l o s e r t i e s were  a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d between the v a r i o u s agencies o f the churches-— e s p e c i a l l y the missions boards.  S e v e r a l o f the m i s s i o n a r y  -88j o u r n a l s a l s o combined t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s a t t h i s  time.  F o r e i g n m i s s i o n s had been a f a v o r i t e cause of the church s i n c e about 1900.  Great congresses o f m i s s i o n s  boards  d e c l a r e d the need f o r the C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of the world, v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e c r u i t e d students to h e l p " e v a n g e l i z e the world i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n " , and the T.M.C.A., the Laymen's M i s s i o n a r y Movement, the Men  and R e l i g i o n Forward Movement, and other such  12 crusades engendered f u r t h e r enthusiasm A f t e r World War the l a c k o f new  f o r the  cause.  I and the d e c l i n e of m i s s i o n a r y g i v i n g ,  r e c r u i t s , and the appearance o f o p p o s i t i o n to  m i s s i o n a r y presence i n many p l a c e s , the m i s s i o n boards  commis-  sioned the study of the s i t u a t i o n r e f e r r e d to i n the l a s t chapter.  During much of the 1930*s the boards were busy  the response  to t h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f m i s s i o n work from  measuring field  workers and o t h e r s while t r y i n g to r e b u i l d the program. Thus, as the 1930's u n f o l d e d with a l l t h e i r economic and p o l i t i c a l c o n v o l u t i o n s , the P r o t e s t a n t churches of were w r e s t l i n g with t h e i r own  i n t e r n a l problems.  America  They were ad-  j u s t i n g to being one of three major r e l i g i o u s communities r a t h e r than "a r e l i g i o u s movement sweeping the c o n t i n e n t or as a n a t i o n a l church r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the p e o p l e . "  1 3  They  were a l s o t r y i n g to c l o s e ranks with the ecumenical movement, to f i n d a s t a b l e theology, and to r e p a i r t h e i r f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s program. While a l l these tempests raged i n the P r o t e s t a n t world, C o l l i e r i n t r o d u c e d h i s programs and the m i s s i o n a r i e s ; of the day responded.  His i d e a s were not new  to them.  They had c l a s h e d  -89with C o l l i e r and  the AIDA over many i s s u e s i n the  previous  decade—most s i g n i f i c a n t l y over the Indian Department  order  d i s c o u r a g i n g t r i b a l dances ("There seems l i t t l e q u e s t i o n the Dance Order was s i o n a r i e s and /the  i s s u e d i n response to pressure  that  from mis-  Indian R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n ^ " ) * * ' and over the 1  15 peyote q u e s t i o n .  T h e i r a u t h o r i t y i n Indian matters had been  challenged;  the v a l i d i t y of t h e i r moral judgments had been  called into  question.  When C o l l i e r and  the ideas.he  espoused were given  o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t gave him  the In-  dian Commissionership, the i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n s o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s were somewhat h o s t i l e  and were expressed  cated annoyance with those who  i n a tone that i n d i -  thought t h a t a r a d i c a l new  scheme  f o r o p e r a t i n g Indian a f f a i r s would produce more s u b s t a n t i a l progress  than the t r a d i t i o n a l approaches.  In 1933  George  Hinman of the American M i s s i o n a r y A s s o c i a t i o n summed up prevailing  the  views o f h i s f e l l o w workers on the American Indian  missions: i n a book t h a t he p u b l i s h e d that y e a r .  His thoughts  on the C o l l i e r s c h o o l of Indian management f o l l o w : From among them / t o u r i s t s , a r t i s t s , etcJ7 has a r i s e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e group of s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s who o b j e c t to any i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the r e l i g i o n of the I n d i a n , who i d e a l i z e the sun worship o f the Pueblos and even apolog i z e f o r the use o f p h a l l i c symbols i n the r e l i g i o u s processions. To them the missionary i s a nuisance. They maintain t h a t the Indian must be allowed to p r a c t i c e r e l i g i o n i n h i s own way. Some o f them c l a i m the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l guarantees f o r freedom of worship to p r o t e c t the o l d t r i b a l ceremonies, o v e r l o o k i n g the f a c t t h a t much of the motive f o r keeping them up i s now l a r g e l y commercial, to s a t i s f y the c u r i o s i t y of t o u r i s t s l o o k i n g f o r a show.... Many of the younger Indians have l o s t acquaintances with or i n t e r e s t i n the r i t e s of the o l d r e l i g i o n , and some of the s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s are u r g i n g t h a t  -90they be taught these t h i n g s i n the government boarding s c h o o l s . There was a p r o p o s a l made i n a conference of I n d i a n S e r v i c e teachers that Indian medicine men should be brought i n t o the s c h o o l s to g i v e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n to the I n d i a n c h i l d r e n j u s t as the Roman C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s do....Some a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s dream o f the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f an unmodif i e d I n d i a n c u l t u r e e x i s t i n g i n the midst o f our American c i v i l i z a t i o n as a s o r t o f p i c t u r e g a l l e r y f o r beauty l o v e r s , l i k e the unchanging g l o r i e s o f the mount a i n s and canyons o f the I n d i a n country. Mary A u s t i n , h i g h p r i e s t e s s o f the o l d I n d i a n c u l t u r e o f the Southwest, f i n d s the m i s s i o n a r i e s abs o l u t e l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e , and a d v o c a t e d . . . ' l e t t i n g the s o - c a l l e d C h r i s t i a n i z e d Indians alone, and t r u s t i n g time and l o c a l i n f l u e n c e to r e s t o r e them to t h e i r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e . ' She t h i n k s 'the s o - c a l l e d C h r i s t i a n i z e d Indians become, as a r u l e , untrustworthy, and l o s e the n a t u r a l i n t e g r i t y o f Indian c h a r a c t e r as w e l l as the d i g n i t y o f Indian c u l t u r e . * But she o v e r l o o k s the f a c t that the ' l o c a l i n f l u e n c e ' i s changing r a p i d l y . The Coolidge dam and the Hoover dam...will continue to modify the l o c a l i n f l u e n c e s , so that the o l d d e s e r t c u l t u r e w i l l not much longer correspond to the e n v i r o n ment. ... In s p i t e o f p r o t e s t s the a s s i m i l a t i n g , power o f our American c i v i l i z a t i o n i s s t e a d i l y modifying the h a b i t s of a l l the Indians, and i n e v i t a b l y f i t t i n g them i n t o the molds o f our C h r i s t i a n s o c i a l standards. An appeal f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the o l d I n d i a n c u l t u r e c o u l d not w e l l d i s c r i m i n a t e between the p i c t u r e s q u e c o l o r f u l f e a t u r e s o f a p u b l i c d i s p l a y f o r t o u r i s t s and the brut a l i t i e s and o b s c e n i t i e s o f the sun dance and the i n i t i a t i o n s . Those white persons who want to preserve the best of the o l d I n d i a n c u l t u r e can h a r d l y s e t themselves up as judges o f what i s b e s t . That should be l e f t t o the judgment o f educated and t h i n k i n g Indians who have had a chance to know both the o l d and the new. Hinman went on to summarize some o f the progress that had been made i n r e c o n c i l i n g Indians t o C h r i s t i a n  life-styles  and then a r r i v e d a t h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f what the f u t u r e program of m i s s i o n work should be.  He saw the b a s i c mistake  of earlier  p o l i c y as the process o f s u b j u g a t i n g r a t h e r than a s s i m i l a t i n g the I n d i a n .  As a consequence the present-day  m i s s i o n a r y had to  work with those n a t i v e s handicapped by the "psychology  o f the  defeated", and they t h e r e f o r e had to p a t i e n t l y and l a b o r i o u s l y  -91win back the confidence o f the Indians before they c o u l d expect them to be open to t h e i r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n .  Con-  sequently he saw the campaign f o r the economic and s o c i a l a m e l i o r a t i o n o f the n a t i v e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s as the top p r i o r i t y for  the contemporary m i s s i o n a r y . One cannot study P r o t e s t a n t Indian missions without being convinced that the Indian's r e l i g i o u s p r o g r e s s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y dependent on h i s economic s t a t u s . The S a l v a t i o n Army's formula, 'soup, soap and s a l v a t i o n ' , a p p l i e s i n I n d i a n m i s s i o n s ; but the stages cannot f o l l o w as r a p i d l y as they do i n some rescue work i n c i t i e s . . . . T h e Indian can no l o n g e r take f o r granted the o l d economic l i f e o f h i s a n c e s t o r s ; he can no longer m a i n t a i n h i m s e l f as they d i d i n the hunting or p a s t o r a l stage. He f i n d s h i m s e l f an a l i e n i n the new economic order o f the white man. M a t e r i a l a i d g i v e n by the government has done l i t t l e to s o l v e h i s problem o f l i f e - a d j u s t m e n t — w h i c h i s l e a r n i n g to work s u c c e s s f u l l y under the c o n d i t i o n s o f American country and v i l l a g e l i f e , as h i s white neighbors a r e doing. Bewildered by the complexity o f modern i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s , e n f e e b l e d by i n a c t i o n and p a t e r n a l i s m d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n a l stage from the o l d to the new, embittered by the i n j u s t i c e and misunderstanding o f the white man, he f a c e s the task o f ' g e t t i n g a j o b ' i n the common l i f e o f h i s f e l l o w Americans with unu s u a l handicaps.  He a s s e r t e d that the m i s s i o n a r i e s must r e a l i z e t h a t one o f the most important  aspects o f t h e i r m i n i s t r y was to help the Indian  make the c u l t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n from nomadic to i n d u s t r i a l  life  and to teach the s k i l l s necessary t o make such an adjustment. Hinman a l s o saw the need o f b r i n g i n g c e r t a i n h a b i t s under the d i s c i p l i n e o f s t a t e and l o c a l l e g a l "The  Indian i s now l a r g e l y without  social standards.  the support o f the o l d  s a n c t i o n s , and not y e t brought under the i n f l u e n c e o f the new, the law and order o f the American community. of  T h i s i s a problem  r e l i g i o u s work, not merely a q u e s t i o n o f l e g a l  jurisdiction."  He a l s o f e l t t h a t having to l e a r n and adhere to the s t r i c t u r e s  -92of European j u s t i c e would hasten the end of the white and for  Indian  communities and  Indians to b u i l d the economic and  of the  segregation  thereby make i t e a s i e r  s o c i a l l i v e s they d e s i r e d .  F i n a l l y , Hinman wanted to phase out missionary t u r n over the l e a d e r s h i p o f the Indian who  were supported by t h e i r own  as the Indians had  work and  churches to n a t i v e  congregations.  s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g and  leaders  U n t i l such time  self-propagating  Chrisno  t i a n churches, he f e l t  t h a t the missionary  work was  unfulfilled.  At about the same time that Hinman's work appeared, another prominent churchman p u b l i s h e d  a book t h a t d e a l t somewhat  more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y w i t h the problems o f m i s s i o n s . Speer's The  Robert E.  F i n a l i t y o f Jesus C h r i s t i n v e s t i g a t e d the  of C h r i s t i a n i t y to n o n - C h r i s t i a n  religions.  more o b j e c t i v e view of the v i r t u e s and  While t a k i n g a  v i c e s of the l a t t e r ,  developed s u b s t a n t i a l arguments e x p l a i n i n g why acceptable to C h r i s t i a n i t y and how d e a l w i t h them.  relation  he  they were not  C h r i s t i a n churches  should  I t h i n k t h a t i t i s necessary t h a t we should make some d i s t i n c t i o n s t h a t are too o f t e n overlooked, with a good d e a l of r e s u l t a n t c o n f u s i o n . First between r e l i g i o n and r a c e . Each r a c e , i t i s h e l d , develops i t s own r e l i g i o n , the r e l i g i o n best s u i t e d to i t s own c h a r a c t e r and needs....It may be t h a t i t s r e l i g i o n has now become, as a d e p o s i t o r y and p r o j e c t i o n of the r a c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e , a moulding e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e i n the p e r p e t u a t i o n of the race and i t s r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r , but even so i t was and i s i t s e l f an e f f e c t and not a cause of t h | ^ r a c i a l temper and p e r s o n a l i t y and e x p e r i e n c e . He maintained, however, t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y could not be as a race r e l i g i o n .  "The  classed  simple f a i t h t h a t Jesus C h r i s t , the  21 Son  of God,  i s Lord i s not a r a c i a l or Western f a i t h . "  more, he a t t a c k e d  one  of the missionary  assumptions of the  Furthernine-  -93teenth century: A second d i s t i n c t i o n which must be made i s between r e l i g i o n and c u l t u r e or c i v i l i z a t i o n . The mistake i s c o n s t a n t l y made of c o n c e i v i n g the miss i o n a r y e n t e r p r i s e as an interchange o f c u l t u r e s , and i t s problems as the problems of c o n t a c t s with non-Christian r e l i g i o n s . C u l t u r e and r e l i g i o n are not i d e n t i c a l terms. No c a r e f u l and t r u e d e f i n i t i o n of e i t h e r w i l l a l l o w t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , unl e s s ' r e l i g i o n ' i s used to cover e v e r y t h i n g and so l o s e s a l l d e f i n i t i o n whatsoever. In  addition: A t h i r d d i s t i n c t i o n must be drawn between r e l i g i o n s and t h e i r a d h e r e n t s . . . . T h i s . . . d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l save us from the e r r o r o f condoning or overl o o k i n g the e v i l and f a l s e h o o d i n the n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s out of c h a r i t y and tenderness toward the s i n c e r i t y and f a i t h of those who b e l i e v e i n thesefaiths. 2  5  He went on to c l a i m t h a t whatever good and beauty may  be  found  in  these r e l i g i o n s does not make them a c c e p t a b l e to C h r i s t i a n s ;  if  they are not i n accordance  with the C h r i s t i a n dogma, then  the C h r i s t i a n world i s duty-bound to present i t s ov/n f a i t h to them.  They (the C h r i s t i a n s ) may  not i g n o r e , p r e s e r v e or  perpetuate, nor merge w i t h them and remain t r u l y C h r i s t i a n . is  It  necessary to do away with the n o n - C h r i s t i a n content of the  r e l i g i o n and r e f i l l  i t with the g o s p e l message.  These two w r i t e r s r e f l e c t e d the b a s i c a t t i t u d e s of the P r o t e s t a n t church to I n d i a n m i s s i o n s a t the o u t s e t of C o l l i e r ' s administration.  Speer,  the t h e o l o g i a n , re-emphasizes the p o i n t  that C h r i s t i a n s are those with a f a i t h and a very d e f i n i t e s e t of  b e l i e f s to perpetuate.  To compromise or d e v i a t e from  b e l i e f s i s to abandon C h r i s t i a n i t y .  these  What i s more, the C h r i s t i a n  must seek out the heathen to present t h i s f a i t h to them; to be n e g l i g e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s to be a poor C h r i s t i a n .  The  -94churchman i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s a l v a t i o n of a l l h i s f e l l o w men.  Hinman, the author with the more i n t i m a t e knowledge o f  t h i s one m i s s i o n f i e l d ,  emphasizes t h a t the church  sympathize with the " s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s " who the I n d i a n c u l t u r e . was  He maintained  cannot  s t r i v e to preserve  that the o l d Indian order  a l r e a d y gone, t h a t the content had vanished, l e a v i n g only  empty forms and meaningless r i t u a l s . that the best I n d i a n p o l i c y was  He t h e r e f o r e s t r e s s e d  t h a t which hastened  l a t i o n of the n a t i v e i n t o white American l i f e ,  the a s s i m i -  and he b e l i e v e d  that the m i s s i o n a r y had a v i t a l p a r t i n that p r o c e s s . These were r e a c t i o n s to the g e n e r a l new trend i n I n d i a n a f f a i r s o f which C o l l i e r was  humanitarian  a part.  With the  announcement o f the p r o v i s i o n s of the I n d i a n R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t , C o l l i e r ' s p e r s o n a l program f o r r e s e r v a t i o n management, the alarm i n the m i s s i o n a r y ranks was  soon expressed  i n print.  G.  E. E. L i n d q u i s t , m i s s i o n a r y a t l a r g e f o r the S o c i e t y f o r Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians, wrote: Any p o l i c y , t h e r e f o r e , which d i r e c t l y or by i m p l i c a t i o n , c o n s t i t u t e s a l i m i t a t i o n of m i s s i o n a r y coo p e r a t i o n ^/with the Indian S e r v i c e ^ and tends to n u l l i f y the c o n s t r u c t i v e e f f o r t s o f the p a s t , as w e l l as having f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on the f u t u r e , i s a matter of deep concern to those i n t e r e s t e d i n the task of e l e v a t i n g and improving the c o n d i t i o n of the American I n d i a n s . That such a l i m i t a t i o n i s i n p r o s p e c t i s the c o n v i c t i o n o f m i s s i o n a r y workers, both I n d i a n and white, i f the r e c e n t l y announced p l a n s o f Hon. John C o l l i e r , the present Commissioner of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , are put i n t o o p e r a t i o n . ^ 2  Two  aspects of these p l a n s p a r t i c u l a r l y worried L i n d q u i s t : The u n d e r l y i n g assumption of the C o l l i e r p r o p o s a l i s that the 'Indian's master problem i s land'....Those i n t e r e s t e d i n m i s s i o n a r y work among the Indians f e e l t h a t while the p o s s e s s i o n of l a n d i s important i t i s  -95by no means 'the Indian's master problem'. Land i t s e l f i s o n l y p o t e n t i a l wealth; the mere f a c t o f p o s s e s s i o n w i l l not f e e d o r c l o t h e anyone....Unless there i s s t i m u l a t e d from w i t h i n a d e s i r e to be and to do, a l l the l a n d with i t s wealth o f untapped r e sources, w i l l a v a i l the Indian but l i t t l e . 'Too o f t e n we s t r i v e , ' as one worker has put i t , 'to conserve the Indian's p r o p e r t y a t the expense o f h i s manhood, h i s ambition, h i s f i n e r v a l u e s . He w i l l develop r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o n l y by having r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to bear.' But the f e a t u r e o f the Government p r o p o s a l s that causes the deepest concern to m i s s i o n a r y workers, and that i s apt to have the most b a n e f u l e f f e c t on the f u t u r e o f the Indian, i s the r e v i v a l o f t r i b a l i s m and the s e g r e g a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n 'the back t o the r e s e r v a t i o n * movement. Many f e e l a l s o that the encouragement o f the dance ceremonials i n the Commissioner's order o f January 3» 1934...is one of the f i r s t steps i n the attempt to r e v i v e 'the c u l t of the p r i m i t i v e ' . T h i s order d i r e c t s the s u p e r i n t e n dents to i n f o r m the Indians 'that n a t i v e r e l i g i o u s l i f e and Indian c u l t u r e * i s not to be frowned upon by Government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; and, t h a t 'no i n t e r f e r e n c e with Indian r e l i g i o u s l i f e or ceremonial e x p r e s s i o n w i l l h e r e a f t e r be t o l e r a t e d . ' 2 0  L i n d q u i s t d e s c r i b e s the missionary preserve  task as one o f t r y i n g " t o  the best o f the past, and to f i l l  i t with new meaning."  He p o i n t e d out that while the m i s s i o n a r i e s had cooperated  with  the e t h n o l o g i s t s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n the o r i g i n a l Indian c u l t u r e , they a s s e r t e d always t h a t "the I n d i a n must be saved by a process o f C h r i s t i a n a s s i m i l a t i o n to American l i f e , gation."  not by a c a r e f u l l y guarded and s u b s i d i z e d segre-  They opposed anything that encouraged s e p a r a t i o n and  racial discrimination.  The church, he claimed,  c o n s i d e r s the  Indian's " e s s e n t i a l humanity and that the Church o f C h r i s t owes him more because he i s a human being than because he i s 27 an  Indian." In March o f 1934,  both C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t mis-  s i o n a r i e s a t the P l a i n s Indian Congress i n Rapid  C i t y , South  -96Dakota, i s s u e d the f o l l o w i n g statement concerning  their  f e e l i n g s about the l e g i s l a t i o n C o l l i e r was p r o p o s i n g : We are i n favor o f : 1. The encouragement o f s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , 2. The Indian making h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l i f e o f community and n a t i o n . 3. The Indian s h a r i n g i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the p r i v i l e g e s o f government and c i t i zenship. 4. 'No s p e c i a l advantages, no s p e c i a l d i s a d vantages' f o r the I n d i a n . 5. The f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s o f the WheelerHoward b i l l : A'. The e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the t r a i n i n g o f Indian young people for p o s i t i o n s i n the Indian s e r v i c e . B. The p r o v i d i n g o f l a n d f o r young I n dians who are l o o k i n g forward to the establishment o f homes and were born too l a t e to a c q u i r e l a n d r i g h t s . C. The e f f o r t to untangle the problems i n connection with h e i r s h i p l a n d s . D. I n c r e a s i n g self-government i n those d i s t i n c t l y Indian i n t e r e s t s i n which the Indians share e x c l u s i v e l y as members o f an I n d i a n t r i b e or group. We are opposed to the f o l l o w i n g : 1. I t perpetuates s e g r e g a t i o n . I n more p r o g r e s s i v e communities where the Indians share i n the g e n e r a l s o c i a l and economic l i f e o f the community, i t means: even going back to s e g r e g a t i o n . T r i b a l i s m means exemptions and exemptions l e a d to race prejudice. 2. I t perpetuates freedom from t a x a t i o n i n stead o f l o o k i n g forward to the time when the I n d i a n c o n t r i b u t e s h i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share to the cost o f government* 3» The Indian Court a l s o promotes segregation.. The Court may mean prompter j u s t i c e , but i t perpetuates the present i n t o l e r a b l e s i t u a t i o n where Indians escape punishment of crimes because they do not come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f s t a t e laws and o n l y very few Indian crimes a r e punishable under F e d e r a l S t a t u t e . k. While seemingly g r a n t i n g the Indian new l i b e r t i e s we a r e o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the b i l l means a great i n c r e a s e i n s u p e r v i s i o n and delay i n a c t i o n on the p a r t o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r and the Commiss i o n e r o f Indian A f f a i r s : . ?  5.  6.  The c o n v i c t i o n back of the b i l l t h a t the l a n d a l l o t m e n t system i s a t the bottom o f the Indian's poverty. P o s s e s s i o n of l a n d as such does not mean s a l v a t i o n f o r any people. The i m p l i c a t i o n that p h y s i c a l v a l u e s are supreme and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s are nonexistent. °  Both L i n d q u i s t ' s and the Rapid C i t y statements score the b a s i c r e l i g i o u s o b j e c t i o n s to C o l l i e r ' s  under-  philosophy.  They d e c l a r e d that no l a n d p o l i c y c o u l d succeed i n improving the I n d i a n c o n d i t i o n i f the Indians themselves were not prepared to make the best of i t .  Only when the n a t i v e s became  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r l a n d s would t h i s happen, and i t was through m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s that they were l e a r n i n g the v a l u e s that prepared  spiritual  them to assume t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  a l s o discouraged anything that stood i n the way  They  of the a c c u l -  t u r a t i o n process f o r which they had so d i l i g e n t l y worked.  The  bulk of t h e i r work i n the n i n e t e e n t h century had i n v o l v e d " c i v i l i z i n g " the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . r e d man  They looked to the day when  and white could l i v e together as C h r i s t i a n b r o t h e r s , and  thus they were most d i s t r e s s e d by those p a r t s o f the Indian R e o r g a n i z a t i o n Act which seemed to f o s t e r s e g r e g a t i o n and emphas i z e t h a t which was  uniquely Indian.  And again, they could not  approve anything t h a t impeded t h e i r task of c o n v e r t i n g s o u l s to Christianity. Another w r i t e r took a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t tack i n uph o l d i n g the m i s s i o n a r y p o s i t i o n .  E l a i n e Goodale Eastman opposed  C o l l i e r ' s p l a n s as r e a c t i o n a r y and as d e t r i m e n t a l to the Indian well-being.  While a d m i t t i n g t h a t " a l l pagan worship i s n a t u r a l l y  frowned upon by C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s , " she saw  the crux of the  -98i s s u e not i n the q u e s t i o n of whether or not the n a t i v e r e l i gions, were harmonious with missionary dogma or even w i t h the o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e , but whether or not they were s u i t e d f o r the twentieth century Indians who  had a l r e a d y been i n t e n s i v e l y  ex-  29 posed to European c u l t u r e . C o l l i e r was  "no  She  concluded by c l a i m i n g that  true f r i e n d to our I n d i a n s .  We  have spent  and are spending m i l l i o n s a n n u a l l y i n a n a t i o n a l e f f o r t to b u i l d them u p — n o t as e x o t i c t r i b e s with p r i m i t i v e conceptions of  l i f e and conduct, but as competent i n d i v i d u a l s , and  as  an a c c e p t a b l e element i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . . . . I s there not something  h o p e l e s s l y incongruous about r h a p s o d i z i n g —  and p u b l i c a l l y u p h o l d i n g — t h e i r communal, dramatic prayer f o r r a i n , while a t the same time t e a c h i n g s c i e n t i f i c f o r e s t r y e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , and i n v e s t i n g hundreds of thousands of  and  of dollars  the tax-payers' money i n a l o c a l , up-to-date water supply?" ® 3  That same year Mrs. Eastman p u b l i s h e d another ("Does Uncle Sam  article  F o s t e r Paganism?") which evoked a response  from C o l l i e r i n the same p u b l i c a t i o n .  She was  o b j e c t i n g to  the Commissioner's c i r c u l a r i n s t r u c t i n g h i s superintendents not to i n t e r f e r e with I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s l i f e pression.  She  or ceremonial ex-  f e a r e d t h a t t h i s encouragement might f o s t e r the  r e v i v a l of such r i t u a l s as the Sun Dance t o r t u r e , some o f the death ceremonies, such p r a c t i c e s .  the ghost dance, the peyote c u l t s , and other She argued that although these r i t e s may  have  had meaning i n the a n c i e n t i s o l a t e d c u l t u r e s o f the pre-Columb i a n I n d i a n , they c o u l d not s p i r i t u a l l y s a t i s f y the more w o r l d l y 31 n a t i v e of the present day. "The r e a l danger l i e s i n promoting  -99c o n f u s i o n worse confounded among the young and the s u g g e s t i b l e , or where i s o l a t e d groups are s t i l l i n the e a r l i e r stages o f the i n e v i t a b l e t r a n s i t i o n , d i f f i c u l t enough a t best....The t i n e d end o f these observances,  predes-  i n many cases now reached, i s  complete degradation, as p a i d e x h i b i t i o n s f o r the amusement o f the crowd.  Yet some such pseudo-native  i n s t i t u t i o n as the  'Peyote church', o r a new 'Messiah c r a z e ' i n v e n t e d by s e l f seeking f a k i r s , may serve to drug the Indian masses i n t o f o r g e t f u l n e s s o f the f a c t t h a t the present I n d i a n p o l i c y tends not to  the promised f u l l enfranchisement,  but r a t h e r to a p e r p e t u a l  "52 t w i l i g h t o f i n s i n c e r e p r a i s e and a c t u a l i n f e r i o r i t y . " ^ C o l l i e r r e p l i e d by f i r s t m i s s i o n a r y presence his in  s t a t i n g h i s p o l i c y on the  i n Indian lands.  He claimed that he and  department i n s i s t e d upon the f u l l e s t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  liberty  a l l matters a f f e c t i n g r e l i g i o n conscience, and c u l t u r e f o r  a l l Indians.  He s t a t e d , furthermore,  that any denomination  or m i s s i o n a r y , i n c l u d i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f n a t i v e Indian r e l i g i o n s , c o u l d use I n d i a n s e r v i c e b u i l d i n g s to h o l d c l a s s e s i n r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n on the c o n d i t i o n that the p u p i l s , i f under eighteen y e a r s o f age, be present with p a r e n t a l It  consent.  forbade any form o f c o e r c i o n i n the p r o p a g a t i o n o f r e l i g i o n ,  which, C o l l i e r claimed, was the p r e v a l e n t m i s s i o n a r y before h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  He r e f u t e d Mrs. Eastman's  policy charges  that I n d i a n r e l i g i o n s were "pagan" o r " a t h e i s t i c " , c l a i m i n g t h a t they c o n t a i n an emotional or m y s t i c a l b e l i e f or experience of  union with a p u r p o s e f u l being g r e a t e r than o n e s e l f , that  there i s a moral a f f i r m a t i o n o f a c c e p t i n g the w i l l o f t h i s  -  -100-  l a r g e r b e i n g and u n i t i n g one's p e r s o n a l f o r c e s with larger w i l l ,  t h a t there i s a code o f conduct,  and i n v o l v e d with the conscience, and  this  f e l t as moral  that there are  discip-  l i n e s aimed toward the p u r i f i c a t i o n or enlargement o f c o n s c i o u s ness and  toward communion with the l a r g e r power.  He  took  e x c e p t i o n to her c l a i m s t h a t the Ghost Dance and Peyote c u l t were i n h e r e n t l y harmful, and he denied that there was  any  s o r t of c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f the Indians going on as a r e s u l t 33 of  h i s program.*^ Mrs. Eastman took i s s u e with h i s a r t i c l e i n a subsequent  l e t t e r to the e d i t o r , but she c o u l d do l i t t l e more than  accuse  C o l l i e r of a v o i d i n g the question of whether the government  was  f o s t e r i n g a pagan r e n a i s s a n c e by e x t o l l i n g the v i r t u e s o f Indian r e l i g i o n s .  She a g a i n p o i n t e d out that whatever r e l i g i o u s  fragments of the a n c i e n t Indian c u l t u r e s remained had 34 s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the I n d i a n of the  day.  T h i s exchange i l l u s t r a t e s a fundamental and  inevitable  source o f c o n f l i c t between the churchmen and C o l l i e r . churches  were bound to a set of b e l i e f s and  involvement to  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  little  The  to a p a t t e r n of  Four ( i . e . , t e a c h i n g the n a t i v e s  adapt to the c u l t u r e and l i f e - s t y l e of European P r o t e s t a n t i s m ) .  They c o u l d not move with the t i d e s o f the popular p h i l o s o p h i e s of  the day because they were f i r m l y anchored to a d e f i n i t e  t h e o l o g i c a l system.  U n t i l the C o l l i e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n they d i d  not need to worry about these s h i f t i n g c u r r e n t s as the Government had always proceeded on the assumption that i t was d e s i r a b l e that the Indians c u l t i v a t e a C h r i s t i a n l i f e - s t y l e .  With the  -101advent of the Indian New  Deal, however, they not only  had  to j u s t i f y t h e i r presence on the r e s e r v a t i o n s i n terms o f the progress  they had made, but they had to a l s o j u s t i f y  the propagation  of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f a i t h .  m i s s i o n a r i e s c a l l e d "pagan" was to C o l l i e r .  He had h i s own  not n e c e s s a r i l y n o n - r e l i g i o u s  view as to what c o n s t i t u t e d a  v a l i d r e l i g i o u s dogma, and as l o n g as any corresponded  to t h a t view he was  s t i t u t i o n a l grounds.  What the  ready  s e t of b e l i e f s  to defend i t on con-  The m i s s i o n a r i e s saw  t h i s as a s a n c t i o n  f o r a l l manner of barbarous p r a c t i c e s and as an o b s t a c l e to the accomplishment o f t h e i r g o a l s ; hence the c o n f l i c t between them. In 1935  another  l e t t e r to the e d i t o r of The  Christian  Century c a l l e d f o r the removal of C o l l i e r from h i s o f f i c e  and  the r e p e a l or r a d i c a l amendment of the Wheeler-Howard Act  on  the grounds t h a t the Commissioner had o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l unders t a n d i n g of the Indians: and was  advocating p o l i c i e s which would  s e t back the work of Indian a f f a i r s by f i f t y y e a r s .  The e d i t o r s  p r i n t e d the l e t t e r as a matter of news, but commented t h a t they c o u l d not "but r e g a r d the evidence  o f i n c r e a s i n g misunder-  s t a n d i n g and h o s t i l i t y between P r o t e s t a n t f o r c e s working among the Indians and as unfortunate  the present a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Indian and  affairs  tending r a p i d l y toward a d e p l o r a b l e  and  35 unnecessary break."  y  Other m i s s i o n a r i e s were p u b l i s h i n g a r t i c l e s t h a t year on the need f o r C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n and education i n Indian 36 country  and C o l l i e r was  busy defending  h i s p o l i c y of  encouraging  -102the n a t i v e r e l i g i o n s - , although somewhat more d i p l o m a t i c a l l y than i n h i s e a r l i e r  retorts:  There are important Indian groups who have no r e l i gion but t h e i r n a t i v e one. To crush i t i s only to make them godless human beings. The n a t i v e r e l i g i o n s , shaped by human experience under supreme t e n s i o n s a c r o s s many ages of t r i b a l l i f e , c o n t a i n p r i c e l e s s elements of beauty, of d i s c i p l i n e , o f c h a r i t y , and of r e s i g n a t i o n , which can be a p p r e c i a t e d even though these r e l i g i o n s may be viewed as nothing except i n s t i t u t i o n s s e c u l a r , s o c i a l , e a r t h l y . To t e a r them apart i s to t e a r apart the Indians' very protoplasm. Time and change are doing the work a l l too f a s t , without adding to t h e i r i n f l u e n c e a l a w l e s s onslaught by the Government of the United S t a t e s . The C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n has become n a t i v e to a m a j o r i t y o f the Indians no l e s s than the pre-Columbian r e l i g i o n s . It has e n t i r e l y supplanted the pre-Columbian r e l i g i o n i n some p l a c e s . The two systems, more or l e s 6 i n t e r a c t i n g , e x i s t s i d e by s i d e i n many t r i b e s . The o f f i c i a l , p o l i c y toward the C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r y work has never been more h o s p i t a b l e or more p r a c t i c a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e than i t i s r i g h t now. To stop the i n t e r f e r e n c e o f the Government with n a t i v e r e l i g i o n s has been, I e a r n e s t l y b e l i e v e , to help the r e a l cause of the m i s s i o n a r i e s . The m i s s i o n a r i e s , by and l a r g e , have been generous i n r e c o g n i z i n g these f a c t s . I have dwelt on the s u b j e c t f o r no reason except the f a c t that some m i s s i o n a r i e s , who are not the most o f the m i s s i o n a r i e s , have c r i t i c i z e d b i t t e r l y the new p o l i c y of tolerance. ' 3  7  He a l s o i n v i t e d e v a l u a t i o n by the m i s s i o n a r i e s on p o i n t s o f h i s program and that might be  asked f o r suggestions  specific  on other  policies  instituted.  For the next two  years  (1936  p o l i c i e s were implemented missionary the churches adopted a "wait and  and 1937)  as  Collier's  c r i t i c i s m d i e d down and  see" a t t i t u d e .  Mrs.  Eastman,  however, responded to C o l l i e r ' s i n v i t a t i o n to c r i t i c i z e  his  administration.  of  Again i t was  the u n d e r l y i n g philosophy  r e c o g n i z i n g and p r e s e r v i n g the Indian objected.  She  c u l t u r e to which  a s s e r t e d t h a t the m i s s i o n a r i e s d i d not  she campaign  -103a g a i n s t the n a t i v e ways because they were n a t i v e but because the i n e v i t a b l e end of the warring  and b u f f a l o hunting  culture  and i t s replacement by an a g r i c u l t u r a l or i n d u s t r i a l mode o f l i f e made them meaningless and moral and achieve  c i v i c progress  they t h e r e f o r e hindered  necessary i f the Indians  any k i n d of s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n  European c u l t u r e .  were to  to the dominant  C e r t a i n c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s t h a t had  rooted out i n c l u d e d f a i t h i n and  the  to be  dependence upon medicine  men,  r i t e s i n v o l v i n g p u b l i c t o r t u r e and m u t i l a t i o n , b e l i e f i n w i t c h c r a f t and  ghosts,  the h a b i t o f g i v i n g away r a t h e r than  accumulating wealth, the Peyote c u l t , r e l i g i o u s taboos a g a i n s t many common foods, polygamy, and p e t t y warfare.  She  claimed  the t r a d i t i o n of  that those who  incessant  advocated r e t a i n i n g  the "best" of Indian c u l t u r e were judging by standards a l i e n to those of the n a t i v e s and  thus favored the r e t e n t i o n of  u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and unimportant f e a t u r e s of a b o r i g i n a l l i f e . She went on to maintain  that the r e s t o r a t i o n of the  o f the Indian c u l t u r e would i n v o l v e r e c o g n i z i n g the  integrity leadership  of powerful t r i b a l l e a d e r s such as Geronimo, S i t t i n g B u l l , K i c k i n g Bear, and a l l o w i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r t r i b a l  and  feuds  as w e l l as a deep-seated and p o s s i b l y b e l l i c o s e h o s t i l i t y the white Americans l i v i n g near them. On.the other hand, our present-day Indian l e a d e r s have been t r a i n e d by C h r i s t i a n men and women to l e a d away from, not back t o , the p r i m i t i v e . Most o f them are o f mixed a n c e s t r y , and the same i s true o f an estimated two-thirds o f the Indian populat i o n , s o - c a l l e d . Intermarriage, says the Dutch s c i e n t i s t , S c h r i e k e , i n h i s book, ' A l i e n Americans', i s 'America's g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n ' to the s o l u t i o n of the Indian problem. The i n e v i t a b l e t r a n s i t i o n i s now f a r advanced. S u r e l y the f u t u r e o f  to  -104-  these a s p i r i n g contemporary Americans cannot, to any s i g n i f i c a n t extent, l i e along a b o r i g i n a l f o l k ways? I f not, the 'missionary motive' i s s t i l l v a l i d , and C h r i s t not only o f f e r s an advance on any and a l l n a t i v e r e l i g i o n s but a new conception of God and the way of l i f e f o r man. As C o l l i e r began implementing h i s p l a n s , t h e r e f o r e , the m i s s i o n a r i e s were s t e a d f a s t l y opposed to those which i n any  way  encouraged the renewal o f n a t i v e l i f e - s t y l e s or p h i l o s o p h i e s . Even a f t e r t h e i r "wait and see" p e r i o d , they c o u l d not  find  anything o f value i n t h i s aspect o f C o l l i e r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In 1938,  a t a Conference of F r i e n d s of the Indians,  d e l e g a t e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g two  the  s e c u l a r Indian a s s o c i a t i o n s and  Indian m i s s i o n workers o f twenty-eight d r a f t e d a r e p o r t c i t i n g "lawlessness,  Protestant  churches,  drinking, vice,  illegal  marriages i n Indian communities" and blamed t h i s on the "handsoff  p o l i c y " of the Government.  encouraging  They d i d not approve of C o l l i e r ' s  the a b o r i g i n e s to " t u r n back to t h e i r s o - c a l l e d  a n c i e n t c u l t u r e s , and to r e v i v e pagan p r a c t i c e s and of  the pre-Columbian e r a " as t h i s "appears to the  ceremonials  Christian  f o r c e s of America to be a d e n i a l of the r i g h t of the to  Indians  enter i n t o an a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r C h r i s t i a n h e r i t a g e , 40  i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r s t a t u s as American Although still  citizens."  C o l l i e r ' s plans f o r c u l t u r a l resurgence  t o t a l l y unacceptable  i n missionary  s i d e s had mellowed somewhat.  eyes, by 1939  were both  I f s t i l l not i n t o t a l agreement,  each at l e a s t had begun to a p p r e c i a t e the e f f o r t s o f the o t h e r . In A p r i l of 1939  an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "A B e t t e r Day  I n d i a n s " appeared i n one  of the m i s s i o n a r y  f o r the  journals.  p o r t e d on the government's progress i n the Indian New  I t reDeal,  -105and although i t o f f e r e d no e v a l u a t i o n a t l e a s t the t i t l e 4l implied approval* That same year, Rev. G. A. Watermulder, a m i s s i o n a r y f o r the Reformed Church, whichves t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e i n the f i e l d o f Indian a f f a i r s , o f f e r e d t h i s statement  of h i s  view o f the s t a t e o f the matter: ...we have not adequately understood the I n d i a n s . We, Europeans, have t r i e d to make them EuropeanAmericans. Yet the Indian type persists....We have o f t e n f a i l e d to understand t h e i r b a s i c a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e . We have so o f t e n approached our I n d i a n problem as we would the problem o f our own r a c e . . . . We have been f o r c i n g him to change h i s e n t i r e course o f l i f e . As t h i s can come only by a slow process through many years under f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , our approaches:to t h i s d i f f i c u l t problem o f t e n r e v e a l our l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the task....We have no m i s s i o n boards that prepare t h e i r m i s s i o n a r i e s f o r Indian service....We bel i e v e however t h a t a new day has begun to dawn. Both the Church and the government are f a c i n g the problems w i t h deeper and c l e a r e r understanding. Any temporary resurgence o f paganism, or humanist i c p h i l o s o p h i e s , w i l l not u l t i m a t e l y p r e v a i l . . . . I f we are t r u e to our m i s s i o n , and i n the name o f C h r i s t approach our problem, the American I n d i a n w i l l be s e t f r e e . Rudolf H e r t z , the Superintendent o f C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Indian M i s s i o n s , a l s o saw something  o f value i n the govern-  ment program, although he was not about  to wholeheartedly  approve i t : At the b e s t , o f course, t h i s i s a time o f s t r a i n and s t r e s s . The government can f u r n i s h the means and the men to c a r r y through such an e x t e n s i v e p l a n . But the I n d i a n needs more than money and a d v i s o r s . He needs s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as m a t e r i a l v i s i o n . He needs moral stamina. He needs the w i l l to do the work. A l l these come from God, not from the government, and God's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on e a r t h have bef o r e them a b i g t a s k indeed to help the I n d i a n to continue i n constant touch with Him that s u p p l i e t h a l l our needs....^3  -106Thomas A l f r e d T r i p p reviewed one p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n operated under the reformed p o l i c y o f the new  govern-  ment, and he found the r e s u l t s encouraging.  He concluded:  the task i s to enter v i g o r o u s l y upon the new  phase which i s to  meet the I n d i a n on h i s own ture."^  "Now  doorstep w i t h the C h r i s t i a n c u l -  Mark A. Dawber, another  church worker, submitted  an  a r t i c l e summarizing and approving the p r o g r e s s o f the IRA's 45 s o c i a l and economic a s p e c t s . ^ Watermulder seemed to a p p r e c i a t e the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach t h a t C o l l i e r i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Indian a f f a i r s when he commented f a v o r a b l y on the "deeper and c l e a r e r  understanding"  that church and s t a t e were developing concerning n a t i v e c u l t u r e . He approved  of these methods, however, not because they would  enable a p r i m i t i v e l i f e - s t y l e  to r e c o g n i z e and m a i n t a i n i t s  h e r i t a g e , but r a t h e r because they would help the m i s s i o n a r y to f a b r i c a t e a more e f f e c t i v e program f o r r e a c h i n g the s o u l s he wanted to C h r i s t i a n i z e . study would i n i t i a l l y  He b e l i e v e d that while t h i s type of  make many e n t h u s i a s t i c about the pros-  p e c t s o f r e v i t a l i z i n g t h i s a n c i e n t American c u l t u r e ,  the  perserverance o f the church would s u r v i v e l o n g a f t e r  this  humanistic ardor subsided, and t h a t the m i s s i o n a r y cause would be a l l the s t r o n g e r f o r i t . Hertz and T r i p p r e c o g n i z e d the value of the g r e a t amounts of money and manpower t h a t C o l l i e r was for  h i s programs i n the f i r s t  few y e a r s o f h i s  a b l e to command Commissionership.  They were encouraged by the s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l up-grading Indian l i f e produced  of  by t h i s program, but n e i t h e r c o u l d agree  -107t h a t C o l l i e r ' s long-range hopes f o r an improved standard  of  l i v i n g could ever m a t e r i a l i z e without the Indians being  im-  bued with the s p i r i t of C h r i s t i a n i t y . There s t i l l remained some h i g h l y c r i t i c a l voices- i n the missionary  ranks, however, and  contention  the government's support of t r i b a l i s m :  was  again  the major bone o f  While the o p p o s i t i o n o f the Indian Bureau to C h r i s t i a n missionary work i s not q u i t e so pronounced as i t was two or three y e a r s ago, s t i l l , the encouragement o f the 'ancient Indian t r a d i t i o n s ' i s f e a t u r e d , and the r e v i v a l o f o l d pagan r i t e s and ceremonies i s applauded at Washington. The Bureau e s t a b l i s h e d expensive and well-equipped h o s p i t a l s w i t h h i g h l y t r a i n e d s t a f f s ; and y e t at the same time encourages the submission o f p a t i e n t s to n a t i v e h e a l e r s whose s t o c k - i n - t r a d e i s a p r i m i t i v e and s u p e r s t i t i o u s 'magic' t h a t d e f i e s a l l modern r u l e s of h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n . " * " Missionary of the a n c i e n t  L i n d q u i s t was  still  decrying  the r e t e n t i o n  c u l t u r e s , t h i s time as a response to an ethno-  l o g i c a l study of the Pueblos by Dr. E l s i e Clews Parsons, which concluded that P r o t e s t a n t f a c t o r i n Pueblo l i f e .  C h r i s t i a n i t y was  Lindquist  a disintegrating  protested:  T r i b a l i s m , i n h e r e n t i n the Pueblo r e l i g i o n , has been weighed i n the balances and found wanting. I t cannot meet the t e s t s of the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d i n which the Indian now f i n d s h i m s e l f . I t i s because o f our c o n v i c t i o n of the d i v i n e r e s o u r c e s o f the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , a f a i t h which r i s e s above t r i b a l i s m and n a t i o n a l i s m , i t s adequacies to meet the need of a l l men and of a l l r a c e s , that the messengers of C h r i s t seek to preach the Gospel and seek to propagate the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h among  S t i l l another c r i t i c i s m was paternalism W.  i n both governmental and  t h a t there was ecclesiastical  A. P e t z o l d t , of the Crow B a p t i s t M i s s i o n ,  both agencies'  policies:  too much circles.  disapproved of  -108Our country has been i n f e c t e d by the h y s t e r i a of government sweeping over the world....Our country w i l l come out of i t s hocus-pocus Promised Land spree i n time....Too l o n g has the white man c a r r i e d the r e d man's burden. U n t i l r e c e n t years the Indian .has s c a r c e l y been asked what c o n t r i b u t i o n s he had to make to the betterment of h i s own c o n d i t i o n . . . . I n a l l h i s t o r y no r a c i a l group has been experimented with as much as the Indian....In these l a t t e r days enough i s b e i n g done f o r him....Not enough has been done by_ the I n d i a n f o r himself....The I n d i a n problem i s no nearer s o l u t i o n today than i t was ten y e a r s ago....The Indian problem w i l l o n l y be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s o l v e d by the Indians themselves and not by a benevolent bureaucracy a t Washington. The Indian must be helped l e s s and p e r m i t t e d to help h i m s e l f more. The f u t u r e w i l l r e c o r d the evanescence of the Indian O f f i c e a t Washington and the dawning of a b e t t e r day f o r the I n d i a n . Indianism w i l l give way to Americanism. The Indians of the o l d ways and days i s p a s s i n g out o f the p i c t u r e . . . . E d u c a t i o n and the r e v i v i n g o f the o l d customs are adverse to each o t h e r . They are beginning to see the f a l l a c y of t h i s Washingt o n i z e d p o l i c y and are g e t t i n g away from i t s blighting influence. The Indians of the f u t u r e w i l l seek s e l f support as a g o a l i n t h e i r churches....The Indians w i l l p r o v i d e t h e i r own C h r i s t i a n l e a d e r s h i p . A l l any m i s s i o n a r y can do i s to i n t r o duce a t r i b e to Jesus Chris.t... .The Indian churches w i l l g r a d u a l l y merge with the white churches. ° L i n d q u i s t agreed about the need f o r the development s o l e l y Indian  churches:  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the most s u c c e s s f u l missions are those i n which Indians have a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the e v a n g e l i z a t i o n of t h e i r own people.... While the primary o b j e d t i v e o f a l l I n d i a n m i s s i o n work i s to make known C h r i s t and His Gospel, to do t h i s most e f f e c t i v e l y the u l t i m a t e aim i s to develop and use I n d i a n l e a d e r s h i p . . . t h e white m i s s i o n a r y should work h i m s e l f out of a job....Great p r e s s u r e i s b e i n g brought to bear on I n d i a n youth to enter other s e c u l a r c a l l i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y from Governmental agencies and notably so i n r e c e n t y e a r s . Progress i n r a i s i n g up q u a l i f i e d I n d i a n C h r i s t i a n l e a d e r s w i l l continue to be slow u n l e s s m i s s i o n a r i e s with g r e a t e r earnestness continue to r e c r u i t , t r a i n and r e l e a s e an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e number of  -109I n d i a n workers f o r the e v a n g e l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r own p e o p l e . 9  C o l l i e r ' s encouragement o f t r i b a l i s m s t i l l perturbed the m i s s i o n a r i e s , although they were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c e p t i v e to other a s p e c t s of h i s work. appeared  They p o i n t e d out what  to them to be r i d i c u l o u s c o n t r a s t s between the en-  couragement of both the p r i m i t i v e and the ultra-modern areas of I n d i a n l i f e ,  and they proudly defended  the progress they  had made i n b r e a k i n g down the t r i b a l t i e s that the I n d i a n Serv i c e was  t r y i n g to strengthen.  p l a c e d on the importance  More and more emphasis  was  of phasing out the s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n  g i v e n the n a t i v e s by both governmental The theme of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o European  and church agencies'. (and h o p e f u l l y  C h r i s t i a n ) s o c i e t y became more i n s i s t e n t . With the advent of World War both the church and s t a t e was  I I , the a t t e n t i o n o f  d i v e r t e d from Indian a f f a i r s to  other concerns r e q u i r i n g both money and manpower.  The Indians  themselves tended to l e a v e the r e s e r v a t i o n s i n f a i r l y  large  numbers e i t h e r to serve i n the m i l i t a r y or to work i n defense industries.  During t h i s time, however, the Board o f Home  M i s s i o n s was  e x t e n s i v e l y r e o r g a n i z e d and the s u p e r v i s i o n o f  i t s Indian churches was to another department r a c i a l backgrounds.  t r a n s f e r r e d from the m i s s i o n a r y d i v i s i o n  whose concern was with churches o f d i v e r s e I n c r e a s i n g emphasis was put on b u i l d i n g  up I n d i a n communities economically and s o c i a l l y , with the church as the g u i d i n g f o r c e and center o f the community.  Thomas  A. T r i p p , the e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y o f the Board, e x p l a i n e d t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s as f o l l o w s :  -110As i n the past, the Indians w i l l be given every p o s s i b l e encouragement to improve t h e i r economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n , working p r i m a r i l y through t h e i r churches. I f r e l i g i o n i s to be an e f f e c t i v e f o r c e f o r b e t t e r home and community l i f e , the Indian churches must f i r s t be strengthened as r e l i gious i n s t i t u t i o n s . They should grow i n numbers. They should have the best p o s s i b l e t e a c h i n g and preaching that they may know the purposes of the C h r i s t i a n church.^ Our major aim today i s to encourage the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e degree of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n the Indian churches. T h i s o b j e c t i v e r e q u i r e s , of course, that the churches must p a r t i c i p a t e to the f u l l e s t degree i n t h e i r own support. Since t h i s aim has been put before them, s e v e r a l Indian churches have begun d e f i n i t e e f f o r t s l o o k i n g t o ward s e l f - s u p p o r t , and they are showing c r e d i t able i n i t i a t i v e . Probably the most b a s i c problem of the Indian i s economic. Poverty abounds due to poor l a n d and inadequate s k i l l s . This means t h a t the r e l i g i o u s program must seek the economic improvement o f the people. Toward t h i s end i t i s assumed t h a t the l o c a l church i s b a s i c . In these Indian communities the church i s p r a c t i c a l l y the only neighborhood o r g a n i z a t i o n . Prop e r l y u t i l i z e d i t can become an instrument o f s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and i n s p i r a t i o n to economic improvement. I t i s a p o s s i b l e r a l l y i n g p o i n t f o r community a c t i o n and f o r p e r s o n a l i t y development. Thus, the emphasis upon e f f e c t i v e p a r i s h work i s the focus of our Indian m i s s i o n s , not only f o r the s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s _ b u t f o r economic and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l * Statements such as these sound very much l i k e the type of program C o l l i e r advocated a decade b e f o r e ,  but w i t h one  very  basic difference. C o l l i e r ' s hope f o r the Indian  f u t u r e was  v i s i o n i n which he hoped to improve the standard for  a l l Indians,  while h e l p i n g to r e p a i r and  a complex of  living  revitalize  the  numerous s o c i a l systems that c h a r a c t e r i z e d each o f the many t r i b e s under h i s s u p e r v i s i o n .  He wanted to r e c r e a t e  the  In-  dian c u l t u r e of the past i n a l l i t s i n t e g r i t y ; he wanted to  -Ill-  r e s t o r e the language, the a r t s , the power s t r u c t u r e s , moral codes, the r i t u a l s , the r e l i g i o n s , and had  given meaning to these a n c i e n t  had  so moved him  on h i s f i r s t v i s i t  accomplish t h i s i n such a way the frenzy of a twentieth devouring even i t s own  a l l else that  s o c i e t i e s and  a b l e d them to mold the i n d i v i d u a l and  the  had  social spirits  to Taos.  enthat  He wanted to  that i t could not be l o s t i n  century  heritage.  i n d u s t r i a l i s m that He  was  sought, t h e r e f o r e ,  i s o l a t e the t r i b e s l o n g enough f o r them to strengthen  to  their  c u l t u r e s to the p o i n t where they c o u l d s u r v i v e renewed i n vasions  of t h e i r way  of l i f e .  Meanwhile, he was  them with the h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a l , and  providing  other m a t e r i a l  facili-  t i e s to l e a r n the nature of the i n t r u d e r s . The missionaries  Protestant  church, however, and  to the Indians,  different light.  which they f e l t  viewed C o l l i e r ' s p l a n s i n a  They didn't p e r c e i v e  p l a n ; i n s t e a d they r e c o g n i z e d  especially i t s  only two  to be c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  couragement of m a t e r i a l , s o c i a l , and  the one  great master-  major a s p e c t s o f i t They welcomed the  health progress,  en-  and  they  noted the support of t r i b a l i s m , s e g r e g a t i o n ,  and  The  they themselves  former they c o u l d understand and  accept;  isolation.  had worked f o r decades to b r i n g about these same ends. encountered the Indian as a poor, i g n o r a n t , and  everything  i n t h e i r background and  the sooner they managed to c i v i l i z e ,  and  education  of C o l l i e r ' s New  heathen savage, t o l d them t h a t  educate, and C h r i s t i a n i z e  the n a t i v e s , the b e t t e r Indian l i v e s would be. that t h i s aspect  They  They thus found  Deal c o i n c i d e d n i c e l y with  -112-  t h e i r own  aims and p r e j u d i c e s and  so they c o u l d accord  t h e i r s u p p o r t — e s p e c i a l l y when they r e c o g n i z e d how h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d implement these g o a l s . p a r t of h i s p l a n , the support They d i d not see how  him  effectively  The  other  of t r i b a l i s m , a p p a l l e d them.  i t could p o s s i b l y complement a p l a n f o r  m a t e r i a l a m e l i o r a t i o n ; i n f a c t , they could only agree that i t would do nothing but hinder such a p l a n .  They f e a r e d that  C o l l i e r ' s program would encourage paganism and s o c i a l m i s e r i e s that accompanied i t ,  and  the myriad  they f e a r e d the s e t -  back o f t h e i r d i l i g e n t and earnest l a b o r s .  They c o u l d  nothing but o b j e c t to any p o l i c y t h a t threatened  do  such a pros-  pect. Therefore,  a t the beginning  of h i s administration,  C o l l i e r dismayed the m i s s i o n a r i e s , whose eyes were clouded  by  v i s i o n s of the r e t u r n of the Ghost Dance, the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f the Peyote c u l t , and the a b o r i g i n e s .  the suppression  of C h r i s t i a n contact  As the years went by, however, they were  m o l l i f i e d by the g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n and other aspects of C o l l i e r ' s program. i s o l a t i o n i s m were s t i l l  support  the Second World War,  vented any  accorded  s t r o n g l y expressed,  they found grounds  knowing t h a t the demands of the war  contact between the two  -  By the time of  they were f a i r l y comfortable  d r a s t i c new  to  While t h e i r f e a r s about  f o r c o o p e r a t i o n with the Indian Commissioner.  program, and,  with  with h i s effort  pre-  p l a n s and knowing that the i n c r e a s e d c u l t u r e s caused by the war  the a s s i m i l a t i o n program that they themselves had  would  hasten  s e t out  many years b e f o r e , they c o u l d take a more r e l a x e d a t t i t u d e  so  -113toward the I n d i a n S e r v i c e . In g e n e r a l , then, the economic and  the church i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p r e c i a t e d  s o c i a l aspects of C o l l i e r ' s program  g r a d u a l l y made h i s p o l i c y on these matters t h e i r own,  and but  they  s t e a d f a s t l y r e f u s e d to accept h i s i d e a s about the r e c o g n i t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of Indian c u l t u r e .  NOTES. TO CHAPTER V W i l l i a m R. Hutchison, " L i b e r a l P r o t e s t a n t i s m and the •End of Innocence'" i n American C i v i l i z a t i o n : : Readings i n the C u l t u r a l and I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , ed. Eugene C. Drozdowski (Glenview, I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , Foresman and Company, 1972), pp. 290-291.  2 Sidney E . Mead, The L i v e l y Experiment: The Shaping of C h r i s t i a n i t y i n America (New York: Harper and Eow, 1963), p. 134". 3  i b i d . , p.  154.  4 W i l l Herberg, P r o t e s t a n t - C a t h o l i c - J e w : An Essay i n American R e l i g i o u s S o c i o l o g y , r e v , ed. (New York: Anchor Books, I960), pp. 145-147. 5  i b i d . , pp. 149-152.. i b i d . , p.  7  182.  i b i d . , pp. 172-198.  8 Robert T. Handy, "The American Scene," i n Twentieth Century C h r i s t i a n i t y , ed. Stephen N e i l l , r e v . ed. (New York:: Dolphin Books, Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1963), pp. 182-  183.  9  i b i d . , pp. 193-194.  i b i d . , pp. 197-195; a l s o , J e r a l d C. Brauer, P r o t e s tantism i n America, r e v . ed. ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Westminster P r e s s , 196*5), Pp. 268-270; Loren B a r i t z , Sources o f the American Mind, v o l . I I (New York:: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966),  pp. 3lS 317. ::  11 Handy, 0£. c i t . , pp. 199-200.  12 1 3  i b i d . , p.  185.  i b i d . , p.  202.  14 Hazel W. Hertzberg, The Search f o r an American Indian I d e n t i t y : Modern Pan-Indian Movements: (Syracuse: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 197D, p. 201.  -115i b i d . , p.  1 5  275.  16 George Warren Hinman, The American I n d i a n and C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s (New York: Fleming H. R e v e l l Company, 1953),  pp. 159-160. 17  i b i d . , pp. 165, i b i d . , p.  l 8  I67.  169.  i b i d . , pp.. 170-176.  1 9  20 Robert E. Speer, The F i n a l i t y o f Jesus C h r i s t Fleming H. R e v e l l Company, 193377 p. 280.  Jersey:  2 1  i b i d . , pp. 280-281.  2 2  i b i d . , p.  2 3  i b i d . , pp. 283-284.  2  (New  283.  \ b i d . , pp. 348-377.  25 ^G. E . E. L i n d q u i s t , "The Government's New I n d i a n Policy: Proposed R e v i v a l of T r i b a l i s m , Seen from the M i s s i o n a r y Angle," The M i s s i o n a r y Review o f the World: An Interdenominat i o n a l Review o f World-Wide C h r i s t i a n Progress, A p r i l 1934, p. 182. 2 6  i b i d . , pp. 182-183.  2 7  i b i d . , p.  184.  28 "Statement Unanimously Adopted by M i s s i o n a r i e s , Both C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t , a t P l a i n s I n d i a n Congress Held a t Rapid C i t y , South Dakota, March 2 to 5» with S p e c i a l Reference to HR 2902 and S 2755." The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, A p r i l 1934, p. 184.  29 E l a i n e Goodale Eastman, "Are American Pagans Persecuted?" The M i s s i o n a r y Herald a t Home and Abroad, November 1934, pp. 4"6*l-462. 3  °ibid., pp. 462-463.  -116-  31 Paganism?" 1017. 3 2  E l a i n e Goodale Eastman, "Does Uncle Sam F o s t e r The C h r i s t i a n Century, August 22, 1934, pp. 1016-  ibid.,  pp. 1017-1018.  33 John C o l l i e r , "A Reply to Mrs. Eastman," C h r i s t i a n Century, August 22, 1934, pp. 1018-1020.  The  34  The  E l a i n e Goodale Eastman, "Uncle Sam and Paganism," C h r i s t i a n Century, August 22, 1934, p. 1073.  35 "Indians A t t a c k Commissioner," The C h r i s t i a n Cent u r y , June 5, 1935, p. 767. 36  For Stronghold of i n the U n i t e d May 1935, pp.  example, Rev. C. C. Brooks, "America's 'Last Paganism', The Navajo I n d i a n s — T h e L a r g e s t T r i b e S t a t e s , " The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, 226-232.  37  -"John C o l l i e r , "New Deal f o r the American I n d i a n s , " The M i s s i o n a r y Herald, November 1935, pp. 4 8 4 , 494. 38 E l a i n e Goodale Eastman, "The American Indian and His R e l i g i o n : N a t i v e B e l i e f s and Customs and the C h r i s t i a n Miss i o n a r y Motive," The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, March 1937, pp. 128-130. 3 9  ibid.,  pp.  130-131.  40 "Indians' F r i e n d s , " Time, May  2,  1938,  p.  49.  41  "A B e t t e r Day Herald, A p r i l 1939, pp.  f o r the I n d i a n s , " The 152-153.  Missionary  42  Rev. G. A. Watermulder, "The Church and the The M i s s i o n a r y Review o f the World, November 1939, P»  Indians," 507.  43 Rudolf Hertz, "Outlook f o r the Dakota I n d i a n , " M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, November 1939, p. 505.  The  44 Thomas A l f r e d T r i p p , " A f t e r Santee—What?" M i s s i o n a r y Herald, February 1939, p. 55.  The  ^ M a r k A. Dawber, "Thanksgiving and the American Ind i a n , " The M i s s i o n a r y Herald, November 1939, p. 100.  -11746 F l o r a Warren Seymour, "A Desert Domain—Among the I n d i a n s , " The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, October  pp. 449-450.  1939,  47 G. E. E. L i n d q u i s t , "The Pueblo Indian R e l i g i o n , " The M i s s i o n a r y Review o f the World, December 1939, p. 554.  48 W. A. P e t z o l d t , "The Next Steps," The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, November 1939, PP- 505-506.  49 G. E. E.. L i n d q u i s t , "What American Indians Are Doing to E v a n g e l i z e T h e i r Own People," The M i s s i o n a r y Review  o f the World, June 1939,  pp. 299-301.  50 Thomas A l f r e d T r i p p , "The R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Our I n d i a n Work," The M i s s i o n a r y H e r a l d , December 1942, p. 21. 51 Thomas A l f r e d T r i p p , "Should They Be Uncle Sam's S t e p c h i l d r e n Any Longer?" The M i s s i o n a r y H e r a l d , September  1944, pp. 25-26.  CONCLUSIONS. In a n a l y z i n g the m a t e r i a l presented chapters,  two  i n the  c o n c l u s i o n s come to the f o r e f r o n t .  preceeding Both d e a l  with the church's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the F e d e r a l government. In the f i r s t p l a c e , the d i s c o r d between C o l l i e r the P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s was tween church and United S t a t e s .  and  the f i r s t r e a l d i v i s i o n  be-  s t a t e i n the h i s t o r y of I n d i a n a f f a i r s i n the During  the many decades that both were i n t i -  mately concerned with Indians, l i t t l e c o n f l i c t over p o l i c y occurred.  When the government sought to expand i n t o the  had  conti-  nent, the m i s s i o n a r i e s proved eager f o r the chance to c a r r y t h e i r Gospel to the remotest t r i b e s .  When the government  wanted to c i v i l i z e the n a t i v e s to make them more p a s s i v e , i t found i t s agents i n the m i s s i o n a r i e s who  wished to mold the  Indians i n t o r e p l i c a s o f white American C h r i s t i a n s .  I f the  aims of the fcro p a r t i e s were not a l i k e , at l e a s t the churches could use to  their  t h e i r own  means and thereby  hope to win  converts  fold. When John C o l l i e r entered the arena o f Indian  affairs,  however, with h i s program of economic, s o c i a l , medical,  and  e d u c a t i o n a l improvement and c u l t u r a l r e v i v a l f o r the natives-, the m i s s i o n a r i e s could o n l y respond n e g a t i v e l y . in  trade was  the propagation  Their  stock  o f the C h r i s t i a n g o s p e l .  Any  economic, " c i v i l i z i n g " , or p o l i t i c a l scheme that might f u r t h e r that end  could meet with t h e i r a p p r o v a l , but a p o l i c y  r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n on the r e s e r v a t i o n s and  that  that  en-  couraged the development of the "paganism" a g a i n s t which they  -119had b a t t l e d f o r c e n t u r i e s was  n o t h i n g but an abomination  to  them. Thus the P r o t e s t a n t churches  found themselves up  a g a i n s t a thoroughly s e c u l a r Indian Commissioner f o r the f i r s t time, and were f o r c e d to defend  the c o n t i n u i n g v a l i d i t y  of t h e i r h i s t o r i c m i s s i o n to the Indian people.  Collier  marked the beginning o f a s e r i e s of Indian a d m i n i s t r a t o r s p r e f e r r e d to use the methods of the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t ,  who  the  e t h n o l o g i s t , the l i n g u s t , the economist, e t c . i n s t e a d of the man  of God  to do h i s work.  I t was  the s t a r t of a s e c u l a r i z a -  t i o n of Indian a f f a i r s and the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n good  conscience  could not approve. The 1930's saw  second major p o i n t that can be made i s t h a t the government and  s o p h i c a l tangents.  the church go o f f on o p p o s i t e p h i l o -  While the bulk of P r o t e s t a n t s were s c u r r y i n g  to the neo-orthodox standard and shedding s t a r k e r view o f man was  t h e i r humanism f o r a  and h i s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . , the I n d i a n S e r v i c e  r e d i s c o v e r i n g the v i r t u e s and v i t a l i t y o f the Indian  style.  C o l l i e r ' s d i s c o v e r y of the n a t i v e s o c i e t y had  life-  ended  h i s pessimism about the human f u t u r e and h i s program was i n tended  to leave the Indians to t h e i r own  thereby l e t them develop  c u l t u r a l d e v i c e s and  the best o f a l l p o s s i b l e worlds f o r  themselves. The  churches,  a more r e a l i s t i c  however, took what they c o n s i d e r e d to be  stance.  The a n c i e n t c u l t u r e s c o u l d never be  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e v i v e d because the environment t h a t had duced them was  changed or changing.  The presence  pro-  o f whites i n  -120-  settlements a l l over the country, the encroachment of a g r i c u l t u r a l developments, the c o n s t r u c t i o n of dams and  irrigation  p r o j e c t s , and the c o n t a c t s that had a l r e a d y been made between n a t i v e s and white p r e c l u d e d any r e t u r n to what had been. Indians c o u l d not support had with the hunts,  themselves the way  The  t h e i r ancestors;  they c o u l d not prove t h e i r manhood with  the i n t e r t r i b a l wars of former days, and they c o u l d not roam the P l a i n s i n the nomadic ways of t h e i r f a t h e r s .  As  their  r e l i g i o n s were expressions and c e l e b r a t i o n s o f these types; of a c t i v i t y , they became meaningless when the l i v e s of theIndians were changed.  The m i s s i o n a r i e s , t h e r e f o r e , claimed  t h a t any r e v i v a l of the r e l i g i o n s or ceremonies would do nothing but make the Indians i n t o l i v i n g museum p i e c e s . t h e i r eyes the only s o l u t i o n was s t a r t e d and f a r gone:: white American s o c i e t y .  In  to continue the work a l r e a d y  the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the Indians i n t o For t h i s reason they supported  the  economic and s o c i a l aspects of C o l l i e r ' s p l a n , but r e j e c t e d anything t h a t h i n t e d a t s e g r e g a t i o n or i s o l a t i o n . In summary, the c o n f l i c t between John C o l l i e r and  the  P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s demonstrates two  aspects of the  church-  s t a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p of the time.  that the s t a t e  was  One  was  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y s e c u l a r i n i t s o r i e n t a t i o n while church h e l d f i r m to i t s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l b e l i e f s . t h a t the government of the day was while the churches  the  The other  moving towards humanism  were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y more c r i t i c a l  of man's a b i l i t y to handle h i s own  world s u c c e s s f u l l y .  One  focus of t h i s s t r u g g l e between two powerful i n s t i t u t i o n s i n  was  -121American l i f e was the area o f Indian a f f a i r s , and d u r i n g the 1930»s and 1940's there was no s i g n o f e i t h e r s i d e compromising i t s guiding e t h i c s .  LITERATURE CITED I.  Government P u b l i c a t i o n s  C o l l i e r , John. Annual Fiscal States  "Report of the Commissioner o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the:. Year Ending June 50, 1933'. Washington: United Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1933.  C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30. 1934. Washington:- U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1934. C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1935. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1935« C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1936. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1936. C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30* 1937. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1937. C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual. Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 50. 1958. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1938. C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1939. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1939* C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1940. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1940. C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1941. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1941. C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual. Report of the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1942. Washington: U n i t e d StatesGovernment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1942.  -123C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f Indian A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1945. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1943. C o l l i e r , John. " O f f i c e o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . " Annual Report o f the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r f o r the F i s c a l Year Ending June 30, 1944. Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1944. C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record.  6 7 t h Congress, 2nd S e s s i o n , pp. 1 2 3 2 3 -  12325.  73rd Congress, 2 n d S e s s i o n , pp. 9 0 7 1 , 9 6 0 7 , 1 0 5 8 3 , 11122-11139, 11226-11229, 1 1 6 3 4 , 1 1 7 2 4 - 1 1 7 4 4 , I I 8 3 0 - I I 8 3 I , 12001-12004, 1 2 0 7 3 , 12161-12165, 1 2 2 5 6 - 1 2 2 5 7 , 1 2 3 4 0 , 1 2 4 5 1 .  C o n g r e s s i o n a l Record.  9221, 9222,  The I n s t i t u t e f o r Government Research. The Problem-of I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : Report o f a Survey Made at- the Request o f Honorable Herbert Work, S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r , and Submitted to Him, February 2 1 , 1 9 2 8 . B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins Press, 1 9 2 8 . Report o f the Board o f I n d i a n Commissioners to the S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r , 1 9 3 0 . Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 0 .  II.  Books and A r t i c l e s by C o l l i e r A*.  Books  C o l l i e r , John. From Every Z e n i t h : A Memoir and Some Essays on L i f e and Thought. Denver: Sage Books, 1963. C o l l i e r , John. The Indians o f the Americas. Norton and Company, Inc., 1947.  New York:  W. W.  C o l l i e r , John. On the Gleaming Way: -Nava.jos,. E a s t e r n Pueblos, Zunis, Hopis, Apaches, and T h e i r Land; And T h e i r Meanings to the World. Denver: Sage Books, 1963. C o l l i e r , John and Moskowitz, I r a . P a t t e r n s and Ceremonials o f the Indians o f the "Southwest". New York: E . P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1949. B.  Articles  C o l l i e r , John. "The Accursed System: Why L i n c o l n ' s Denunciation of the Indian S e r v i c e i s True to T h i s Day." Sunset, June 1924, pp. 15-16, 80-82.  -124C o l l i e r , John.  "American Congo."  pp. 467-476.  The Survey, August 1, 1923,  C o l l i e r , John. "America's Treatment o f Her I n d i a n s . " Current History; A Monthly Magazine o f the New York Times, August 1923, pp. 77I-70I. C o l l i e r , John.  "Anthony  C o m s t o c k — L i b e r a l . " The Survey,  C o l l i e r , John.  "Are We Making Red S l a v e s ? "  November 6, 1915, pp. 127-130, 152-153.  The Survey, January  1, 1927, pp. 453-455, 474-475, 477, 4"So. C o l l i e r , John. "Back o f Our Footlights': S o c i a l F u n c t i o n s o f the Drama."  1915, pp. 213-217.  C o l l i e r , John.  "Back to Dishonor?"  The H a l f - F o r g o t t e n The Survey, June 5,  C h r i s t i a n Century, May 12,  1954, pp. 578-580.  C o l l i e r , John. "Before Our F o o t l i g h t s : The School-keeping of the Motion P i c t u r e Showmen." The Survey, J u l y 3,  1915, pp. 315-317, 320. C o l l i e r , John.  "The Beleaguered I n d i a n . "  The N a t i o n , September  17, 1949, pp. 276-277. C o l l i e r , John.  " C a l i b a n o f the Yellow Sands."  June 3, 1916, pp. 251-260.  The Survey,  C o l l i e r , John. "Censorship and the N a t i o n a l Board." October 2, 1915, pp. 9-14, 31-33. C o l l i e r , John.  "Censorship i n A c t i o n . "  The Survey,  The Survey, August 7,  1915, PP. 423-427. C o l l i e r , John.  "Charles Sprague Smith."  1910, p. 80.  The Survey, A p r i l  9,  C o l l i e r , John. "Democracy Every Day." Addresses and Proceedings of the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  191QTPP. 53-54.  C o l l i e r , John. "The Fate o f the Navajos: What W i l l O i l Money Do to the G r e a t e s t o f Indian T r i b e s ? " Sunset, January 1924,  pp. 11-13, 60, 62, 73, 74.  C o l l i e r , John.  "A F i l m L i b r a r y . "  C o l l i e r , John.  " F i l m Shows and Lawmakers."  pp. 663-668.  The Survey, March 4,  1916,  The Survey, February  8, 1913, PP. 643-644. C o l l i e r , John.  "For a New Drama."  137-141.  The Survey, May 6, 1916, pp.  -125C o l l i e r , John. "Hammering a t the P r i s o n Door." J u l y 1, 1928, pp. 389, 402-405. C o l l i e r , John. "The I n d i a n Bureau's Record." October 5, 1932, pp. 303-305. C o l l i e r , John.  The Survey, The N a t i o n ,  "Indians I n c . " The Survey, February 1, 1930,  pp. 519-523, 547-549. C o l l i e r , John. "Indian Takeaway: B e t r a y a l o f a T r u s t . " N a t i o n , October 2, 1954, pp. 290-291. C o l l i e r , John.  "Keystone o f the Arch." 1911, p. 1200.  C o l l i e r , John.  The  The Survey, November 18,  "The Learned Judges and the F i l m s . "  The Survey,  September 4, 1915, pp. 513-516. C o l l i e r , John. " L e t t e r to General Eisenhower." January 10, 1953, pp. 29-30. C o l l i e r , John.  " L i g h t on Moving P i c t u r e s . "  C o l l i e r , John.  "'Movies' and the Law."  1910, p. 80.  The Nation,  The Survey, October 1,  The Survey, January 20,  1912, pp. 1628-1629. C o l l i e r , John. "Moving P i c t u r e s , T h e i r F u n c t i o n and Proper R e g u l a t i o n . " Playground, October 1910, pp. 232-239. C o l l i e r , John.  " N a t i o n a l Board o f Censorship o f Motion P i c t u r e s . "  Playground, March 1912, pp. 402-404. C o l l i e r , John.  "Navajos."  The Survey, January 1, 1924, pp. 332-  339, 363-365. C o l l i e r , John.  "New Deal f o r the American I n d i a n s . "  The  M i s s i o n a r y Herald, November 1935, PP. 483-484, 494. C o l l i e r , John. "No T r e s p a s s i n g : The I n d i a n Bureau Proposes to E j e c t A l l I n v e s t i g a t o r s from the R e s e r v a t i o n s I t R u l e s . " Sunset, May 1923, pp. 14-15, 58-60. C o l l i e r , John. "Our Indian P o l i c y : Why Not T r e a t the Red Man as Wisely, as Generously as We Have T r e a t e d the F i l i p i n o . " Sunset, March 1923, pp. 13-15, 89-93. C o l l i e r , John.  " P e r s e c u t i n g the Pueblos."  Sunset, J u l y  1924,  pp. 50, 92-93. C o l l i e r , John.  " P l u n d e r i n g the Pueblo I n d i a n s . "  Sunset, January  1923, pp. 21-25, 56. C o l l i e r , John.  "Pueblo Lands."  pp. 548-549.  The Survey, February 15, 1931,  -126C o l l i e r , John. "Pueblos' Land Problem." pp. 1 5 , 1 0 1 . C o l l i e r , John. "Pueblos' Last Stand." pp. 19-22, 65-66. C o l l i e r , John. "Pueblo T i t l e s . " pp. 703-704. C o l l i e r , John. "Red A t l a n t i s . " pp. 15-20, 6 3 , 6 6 .  Sunset, November 1923, Sunset, February 1923,  The Survey, March 1 5 , 1926, The Survey, October 1, 1922,  C o l l i e r , John. "Red S l a v e s of Oklahoma." pp. 9 - H , 94-100.  Sunset, March 1924,  C o l l i e r , John. "A Reply to Mrs. Eastman." August 22, 1934, pp. 1018-1020.  The C h r i s t i a n Century,  C o l l i e r , John. "Room f o r the I n d i a n s ! " 1924, pp. 9-10.  Woman C i t i z e n , March 8,  C o l l i e r , John. "Senators and I n d i a n s . " 1929, pp. 425-428, 457.  The Survey, January 1,  C o l l i e r , John. "Should the Government Censor Motion P i c t u r e s ? " Playground, J u l y 1912, pp. 1 2 9 - 1 3 2 . C o l l i e r , John. "The Stage, A New World." 1916, pp. 251-260. C o l l i e r , John. "The Theater o f Tomorrow." 1916, pp. 381-385, 411. C o l l i e r , John. "The Vanquished I n d i a n . " 1928, pp. 38-41.  The Survey, June 3, The Survey, January 1, The N a t i o n , January 1 1 ,  C o l l i e r , John. "Wilderness and Modern Man." W i l d l a n d s i n Our Civilization. E d i t e d by David Brower. San F r a n c i s c o : S i e r r a Club, 1964. C o l l i e r , John and Haas, Theodore H. "The U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i a n . " Understanding M i n o r i t y Groups. E d i t e d Joseph B.. G i t t l e r . New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1956. III.  Books and A r t i c l e s by M i s s i o n a r i e s A.  Books  Hinman, George Warren. The American I n d i a n and C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s . New York: Fleming H. R e v e l l Company, 1933*  -127L i n d q u i s t , G. E. E. The Red Man i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; An Intimate Study of the S o c i a l , Economic, and R e l i g i o u s M f e of the American I n d i a n . New York: George H. Dean Company, 1923. Speer, Robert E. The F i n a l i t y of Jesus C h r i s t . Fleming H. R e v e l l Company, 1933. B. "A B e t t e r Day  New  Jersey:  Articles f o r the I n d i a n s . "  The M i s s i o n a r y Herald,  April  1939, PP. 152-153. Brooks, G. C. "Amerida's 'Last Stronghold of Paganism,* The Navajo I n d i a n s — T h e L a r g e s t T r i b e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . " The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, March 1935, PP«  22o"-232.  Dawber, Mark A. "Thanksgiving and the American I n d i a n . " M i s s i o n a r y Herald, November 1939, p. 100.  The  Eastman, E l a i n e Goodale. "The American Indian and His R e l i g i o n : Native B e l i e f s and Customs and the C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n a r y Motive." The M i s s i o n a r y Review o f the World, March  1937, PP- 123-130.  Eastman, E l a i n e Goodale. "Are American Pagans Persecuted?" The M i s s i o n a r y Herald, November 1934, pp. 461-463. Eastman, E l a i n e Goodale. "Does Uncle Sam F o s t e r Paganism?" C h r i s t i a n Century, August 22, 1934, pp. 1016-1018. Eastman, E l a i n e Goodale. "Uncle Sam and Paganism." Century, August 22, 1934, p. 1073.  The  The  Christian  Hertz, R u d o l f . "Outlook f o r the Dakota I n d i a n . " The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, November 1939, pp. 504-505. "Indians A t t a c k Commissioner." 1935, p. 767.  The C h r i s t i a n Century,  June 5,  L i n d q u i s t , G. E. E. "The Government's New Indian Policy:. Proposed R e v i v a l of T r i b a l i s m , Seen from the M i s s i o n a r y Angle." The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, A p r i l 1934,  pp. 182-lBTfT  L i n d q u i s t , G. E. E. "The Pueblo Indian R e l i g i o n . " The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, December 1939, pp.  3W.  553-  L i n d q u i s t , G. E. E. "What American Indians Are Doing to Evang e l i z e T h e i r Own People." The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the  World, June 1939,  pp. 299-301.  -128P e t z o l d t , W.  A.  "The  Next Steps."  the World, November 1939,  The M i s s i o n a r y Review of  PP« 305-506.  Seymour, F l o r a Warren. "A Desert Domain—Among the I n d i a n s . " The M i s s i o n a r y Review o f the World, October 1939,  pp. 448-450.  "Statement Unanimously Adopted by M i s s i o n a r i e s , Both C a t h o l i c and P r o t e s t a n t , a t P l a i n s I n d i a n Congress Held a t Rapid C i t y , South Dakota, March 2 to 5, with S p e c i a l Reference to HR 2902 and S 2755." The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, A p r i l 1934, p. 184. T r i p p , Thomas A l f r e d . " A f t e r Santee—What?" H e r a l d , February 1939, pp. 54-55*  The  Missionary  T r i p p , Thomas A l f r e d . "The R e o r g a n i z a t i o n of Our Indian Work." The M i s s i o n a r y Herald, December 1942, pp. 20-21. T r i p p , Thomas A l f r e d . Any Longer?"  pp. 23-26.  "Should They Be Uncle Sam's S t e p c h i l d r e n The M i s s i o n a r y Herald, September 1944,  Watermulder, G. A. "The Church and the I n d i a n s . " The M i s s i o n a r y Review of the World, November 1939, pp. 506-507. IV.  Other Books A.  Primary  Adams, E v e l y n C. American Indian E d u c a t i o n : Government Schools and Economic P r o g r e s s . Morningside Heights, New York: King's Crown P r e s s , 1946. American C i v i l i z a t i o n : Readings i n the C u l t u r a l and I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . E d i t e d by Eugene C. Drozdowski. Glenview, I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , Foresman and Company, 1972. B a r i t z , Loren. Sources o f the American Mind: A C o l l e c t i o n of Documents and Texts i n American I n t e l l e c t u a l H i s t o r y . Volume I I . London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Beaver, Robert P i e r c e . Church, S t a t e , -and the American Indians: Two and a H a l f C e n t u r i e s of Partnership, i n M i s s i o n s Between P r o t e s t a n t Churches and Government. S t . L o u i s , Missouri: Concordia P u b l i s h i n g House, 1966. Berkhofer, Robert F., J r . S a l v a t i o n a n d the Savage.: An A n a l y s i s of P r o t e s t a n t M i s s i o n s and American I n d i a n Response:, 1787-1862. The U n i v e r s i t y of Kentucky P r e s s , 1965.  -129B o l t o n , Herbert E. Coronado: Knight o f Pueblos and P l a i n s . New York: W h i t t l e s e y House, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 19^9. Brauer, J e r a l d C. P r o t e s t a n t i s m i n America: A Narrative History. Revised e d i t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : The Westminster P r e s s ,  1965.  Busk, Henry W i l l i a m . A Sketch of the O r i g i n and the Recent H i s t o r y o f the New England Company by the S e n i o r Member of the Company. London: Spottiswoode and Company,  TB"8¥7~  "The Charter o f the Colony o f the Massachusetts Bay i n New Engl a n d . 1628-29." Records of the Governor and Company o f the Massachusetts Bay i n New England. E d i t e d by N a t h a n i e l B. S h u r t l e f f . Volume I . Boston: The Press of W i l l i a m White, P r i n t e r to the Commonwealth, 1853. Clebsch, W i l l i a m A. From Sacred to Profane America: of R e l i g i o n i n American H i s t o r y . New York: Row, 19b8.  The Role Harper and  DeSchweinitz, Edmund. The L i f e and Times o f David Z e i s b e r g e r , The Western Pioneer and A p o s t l e o f the I n d i a n s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : J.B. L i p p i n c o t t and Company, 1870. E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Records, State o f New York. E d i t e d by Hugh H a s t i n g s . Albany: James B. Lyon, S t a t e P r i n t e r ,  1901.  Eggleston, Edward. The Beginnings of a N a t i o n : A H i s t o r y of the Source and R i s e o f the E a r l i e s t E n g l i s h Settlements i n America With S p e c i a l Reference to the L i f e and Character of the P e o p l e . New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1900. F r i t z , Henry E. The Movement f o r I n d i a n A s s i m i l a t i o n , I86O-I89O. P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1963. Gaustad, Edwin S c o t t . A R e l i g i o u s H i s t o r y o f America. Harper and Row, 1966.  New  York:  The Genesis o f the U n i t e d States;, A N a r r a t i v e o f the Movement i n England, 1605-1616, Which R e s u l t e d i n the P l a n t a t i o n o f North America by Englishmen, D i s c l o s i n g the Contest between England and Spain f o r the P o s s e s s i o n o f the S o i l Now Occupied by the U n i t e d .States o f America; Set f o r t h through a S e r i e s o f H i s t o r i c a l M a n u s c r i p t s Now F i r s t P r i n t e d , . Together.- with a Reissue o f Rare Contemporaneous T r a c t s , Accompanied by B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Memoranda, Notes, and B r i e f B i o g r a p h i e s . C o l l e c t e d , arranged, and e d i t e d by Alexander Brown. Two volumes. London: W i l l i a m Heinemann, I89O. Gray, Elma E. Wilderness C h r i s t i a n s : The Moravian M i s s i o n to the Delaware I n d i a n s . Toronto: The Macmillan Company,  1956.  -130-  The Great Awakening: Documents I l l u s t r a t i n g the C r i s i s and I t s Consequences. E d i t e d by A l a n Heimert and Perry Miller. I n d i a n a p o l i s and New York: The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, Inc., 1967. Hagan, W i l l i a m T. American I n d i a n s . o f Chicago Press, 1961.  Chicago:  The U n i v e r s i t y  Hakluyt, R i c h a r d . "A P a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e concerning the great n e c e s s i t i e and manifolde commodyties t h a t are l i k e to growe to t h i s Realme of Englande by the Westerne d i s c o u e r i e s l a t e l y attempted." Documentary H i s t o r y o f the S t a t e of Maine. E d i t e d by Charles Deane. Volume II. Cambridge: Press of John Wilson and Son, 1887. Handy, Robert T. A C h r i s t i a n America: P r o t e s t a n t Hopes and H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t i e s . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. Hare, L l o y d C. M. Thomas Mayhew, P a t r i a r c h to the Indians (15931682): The L i f e a i the W o r s h i p f u l Governor and C h i e f M a g i s t r a t e of the I s l a n d of Martha's Vineyard; P r o p r i e t a r y o f Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket and the E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s , and Lord o f the Manor of T i s b u r y i n North America. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1932. Harmon, George Dewey. S i x t y Years of I n d i a n A f f a i r s : Political, Economic, and D i p l o m a t i c , I789-I85O. Chapel H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 19^1. Hawkins, E r n e s t . H i s t o r i c a l N o t i c e s of the M i s s i o n s of the Church of England i n the North American C o l o n i e s Previous to the Independence of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , C h i e f l y from the Manuscript Documents of the S o c i e t y f o r the Propagation of the Gospel i n F o r e i g n P a r t s . London: B. F e l l o w s , l845« Herberg, W i l l . Protestant-Catholic-Jew: An Essay" i n American R e l i g i o u s S o c i o l o g y . Revised e d i t i o n . Garden C i t y , New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company, Inc., I960. Hertzberg, Hazel W. The Search f o r an American Indian I d e n t i t y : Modern Pan-Indian Movements. Syracuse: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. Kellaway, W i l l i a m . The Net/ England Company 1649-1776: M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y to the American I n d i a n s . New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., I960. Kelsey, Rayner Wickersham. F r i e n d s and the Indians, 1653-1917* Philadelphia: The A s s o c i a t e d E x e c u t i v e Committee o f F r i e n d s on Indian A f f a i r s , 1917.  -131V L i t t e l l , F r a n k l i n Hamlin. From State Church to P l u r a l i s m : P r o t e s t a n t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R e l i g i o n i n American H i s t o r y . Garden C i t y , New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1962.  A  (  Lowery, Woodbury. The Spanish Settlements W i t h i n the Present L i m i t s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1313-1561. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocker P r e s s , 1911. MacNutt, F r a n c i s Augustus. Fernando C o r t e z and the Conquest of Mexico. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons,  1909. Mardock, Robert Winston. The Reformers and the American Indian. Columbia, M i s s o u r i : U n i v e r s i t y of M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1971. ti  M a r r i o t t , A l i c e and R a c h l i n , C a r o l K. Y. C r o w e l l Company, 1971.  Peyote.  New  York:  Thomas  Mayer, F. E. The R e l i g i o u s Bodies of America. Fourth e d i t i o n . Saint Louis, Missouri: Concordia P u b l i s h i n g House, I96I. Mead, Frank S. Handbook o f Denominations i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . F i f t h e d i t i o n . N a s h v i l l e , Tennessee: Abingdon P r e s s ,  1970.  Mead, Sidney, The L i v e l y Experiment: The Shaping o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n America. New York: Harper and Row, 1963. Means, P h i l i p Ainsworth. F a l l o f the Inca Empire. Gordian P r e s s , Inc., 196%. Meyer, Donald B.  New  York:  The P r o t e s t a n t Search f o r P o l i t i c a l Realism,  1919-1941. Berkeley and Los Angeles:: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , i960.  M i l l e r , Robert Moats:. American P r o t e s t a n t i s m and S o c i a l Issues., 1919-1939. Chapel H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1958. The North American Indian Today. E d i t e d by C. T. Loran and T. F. M c l l w r a i t h . Toronto:: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s ,  1943. P a t t e r n s o f F a i t h i n America Today. E d i t e d by F. E r n e s t Johnson. New York: C o l l i e r Books, 1962. Pearce, Roy Harvey. The Savages o f America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea o f C i v i l i z a t i o n . Revised e d i t i o n . B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1965. P e t r u l l o , V i n c e n z o . The D i a b o l i c Root: A Study o f Peyotism, The New Indian R e l i g i o n , ilmong the Delawares. Philadelphia: U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a Press,1934.  -132Pond, S. W., J r . Two Volunteer M i s s i o n a r i e s Among the Dakotas or The Story of the Labors of Samuel W. and Gideon H. Pond. Boston and Chicago: Congregational SundaySchool and P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y , 1893* P r e s c o t t , W i l l i a m H. H i s t o r y of the Cogjquest of Mexico. New and r e v i s e d e d i t i o n . London: George A l l e n and Unwin, L t d . , 1886. Prucha,  F r a n c i s P a u l . American I n d i a n P o l i c y i n the Formative Years: The I n d i a n Trade and I n t e r c o u r s e A c t s , 17901834. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19627  The R e l i g i o n of the R e p u b l i c . E d i t e d by Elwyn A. Smith. d e l p h i a : F o r t r e s s Press, 1971.  Phila-  S c h l e s i n g e r , Arthur M., J r . The Age of Roosevelt: The Coming of the New D e a l . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company,  1958T"  Schmeckebier, Laurence F. The O f f i c e of I n d i a n A f f a i r s : Its H i s t o r y , A c t i v i t i e s and O r g a n i z a t i o n . B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1927. S c h u l t z , George A. An Indian Canaan: Isaac McCoy and the V i s i o n of an Indian S t a t e . Norman, Oklahoma: U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma P r e s s , 1972. The  Shaping of American R e l i g i o n . E d i t e d by James Ward Smith and A. L e l a n d Jamison. Two volumes. P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 196l.  S l o t k i n , J . S. The Peyote R e l i g i o n : A Study i n Indian-White R e l a t i o n s . Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free P r e s s , 1956. Smith, H. Shelton, Handy, Robert T., and L o e t s c h e r , L e f f e r t s A. American C h r i s t i a n i t y : An H i s t o r i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n with R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Documents. Two volumes. New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1963. Sweet, W i l l i a m Warren. R e l i g i o n i n C o l o n i a l America. Cooper Square P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 1965*  New  York:  Sweet, W i l l i a m Warren. R e l i g i o n i n the Development of American C u l t u r e , 1765-1840. New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons,  1952.  Sweet, W i l l i a m Warren. R e l i g i o n on the American F r o n t i e r : The B a p t i s t s 1783-1830; A C o l l e c t i o n of Source M a t e r i a l . New York: Henry H o l t and Company, 1931. Sweet, W i l l i a m Warren. R e v i v a l i s m i n America: Its Origins, Growth and D e c l i n e . New York: C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons,  1944.  -133Sweet, W i l l i a m Warren. The Story o f R e l i g i o n i n America. York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1950.  New  The Theology o f the C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n . E d i t e d by G e r a l d H. Anderson. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c . \  1961.  Twentieth Century C h r i s t i a n i t y : A Survey o f Modern R e l i g i o u s Trends by Leading Churchmen. E d i t e d by Stephen N e i l l . Revised e d i t i o n . Garden C i t y , New York: D o l p h i n Books, Doubleday and Company, Inc., 19°3. Vaughan, Alden T.  New  England F r o n t i e r : P u r i t a n s and Indians, L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1965*  1620-1675. Boston:  Wagner, Henry Raup. The L i f e and W r i t i n g s o f Bartolome de l a s Casas. Albuquerque: The U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico P r e s s ,  19677  Wright, L o u i s B. R e l i g i o n and Empire: The A l l i a n c e between P i e t y and Commerce i n E n g l i s h Expansion, 1558-1625. New York: Octagon Books, Inc., 1965. B.  Secondary  A l l e y , Robert S. So Help Me God: R e l i g i o n and the P r e s i d e n c y , Wilson to Nixon. Richmond, V i r g i n i a : John Knox P r e s s ,  1972.  A n t i e a u , Chester James, Downey, A r t h u r T., and Roberts, Edward C. Freedom from F e d e r a l E s t a b l i s h m e n t : Formation and E a r l y H i s t o r y o f the F i r s t Amendment R e l i g i o n C l a u s e s . M i l waukee: The Bruce P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1964. B a l t z e l l , E . Digby. The P r o t e s t a n t E s t a b l i s h m e n t : A r i s t o c r a c y and Caste i n America. New York: Random House, 1964. B r i l l , E a r l H. The C r e a t i v e Edge o f American P r o t e s t a n t i s m . New York: The Seabury P r e s s , Inc., 1966. Burnette, Robert. The T o r t u r e d Americans. New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc.,  Englewood 1971.  Cliffs,  C u l t u r e and Commitment, 1929-1945. E d i t e d by Warren Susman. New York: George B r a z i l l e r , Inc., 1973* D e l o r i a , Vine J r . Of Utmost Good F a i t h . Arrow Books, 1971.  San F r a n c i s c o :  Straight  E l l i s , John T r a c y . American C a t h o l i c i s m . Garden C i t y , New York: Image Books, A D i v i s i o n of Doubleday and Company, Inc.,  1965.  -134Fey, Harold E. and McNickle, D'Arcy. Indians and Other Americans: Two Ways of L i f e Meet. R e v i s e d e d i t i o n . New York: Harper and Row, 1970. Josephy, A l v i n M. J r . Freedom. New  Red Power: The American Indians* F i g h t f o r York: American H e r i t a g e Press, 1971.  L e v i t a n , Sar A. and H e t r i c k , Barbara. B i g B r o t h e r ' s Indian Program—With R e s e r v a t i o n s . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971• May,  Henry F. The End o f American Innocence: A Study o f the F i r s t Years of Our Own Time, 1912-1917. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1959.  May,  Henry F. P r o t e s t a n t Churches and I n d u s t r i a l America. New York: Harper and Row, 1967*  Meyer, W i l l i a m . N a t i v e Americans: The New I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e . New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. Miyakawa, T. S c o t t . P r o t e s t a n t s and P i o n e e r s : Individualism and Conformity on the American F r o n t i e r . Chicago and London: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1964. Nash, R o d e r i c k . The Nervous G e n e r a t i o n : American Thought, 1950. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, 1970.  1917-  Niebuhr, H. R i c h a r d . The Purpose o f the Church and I t s M i n i s t r y : R e f l e c t i o n s on the Aims o f T h e o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1956. Niebuhr, H. R i c h a r d , W i l l i a m s , D a n i e l Day, and Gustafson, James M. The Advancement of T h e o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n . New York& Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1957* Schusky, E r n e s t L. The R i g h t to be I n d i a n . Board o f N a t i o n a l M i s s i o n s o f the United P r e s b y t e r i a n Church i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the I n s t i t u t e of I n d i a n S t u d i e s , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of South Dakota, I965. Sperry, W i l l a r d L. R e l i g i o n i n America. Company, 1946.  V.  New  York:  The Macmillan  Other A r t i c l e s ; A.  Primary  " C i t y Too Cramped f o r Pueblo I n d i a n s . " 1923, p. 28. "Ex-Commissioner Scores Indian B i l l . " 1949, p. 28.  New  New  York Times, January 15»  York Times, September  26,  -135"Indians' F r i e n d s . "  Time, May 2, 1938, p . 49.  "John C o l l i e r ' s Record."  322.  McNickle, D'Arcy.  The Nation, March 24, 1945, pp. 321-  "John C o l l i e r ' s V i s i o n . "  1968, pp. 718-719.  The Nation , June. 3,  The Nation, A p r i l 26, 1933, p. 459. P a t t e r s o n , E . Palmer I I . "The Poet and the Indian: Indian Themes. i n the Poetry o f Duncan Campbell S c o t t and John C o l l i e r . " Ontario H i s t o r y , June 1967, pp. 69-78. "People i n the Limelight!:. C o l l i e r and Brophy." March 5, 1945, p . 319. "Plan to Safeguard Welfare of I n d i a n s . " 1923, p. 17.  The New Republic,  New York Times, June 24,  " P l e a f o r Pueblo Indians: Town H a l l Audience Hears: Bureau Denounced and R a i s e s $1,400." New York Times, January 25, 1923, p. 9. "Pueblos Unite i n P e t i t i o n . " p. 6.  New York Times, November 7, 1922,  Sergeant, E l i z a b e t h Shepley. " B i g Powwow o f Pueblos." Times., November 26, 1922, IV, p. 6.  New York  Swing, Raymond Gram. "The F i g h t on the New Indian P o l i c y . " Nation, A p r i l 24, 1935, pp. 479-480.  The  Thorning, Joseph F. Review of Indians o f the Americas by John Collier. The Americas: A* Q u a r t e r l y Review o f I n t e r American C u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , A p r i l 1949, pp. 497-498. Time, February 19, 1945, pp. 18-19. Time, June 24, 1940, p. 15. B.  Secondary  A t k i n s , Gaius Glenn. "The Crusading Church a t Home and Abroad." Church H i s t o r y , September 1932, pp. 131-149. "C. A. C o l l i e r I n j u r e d . "  New York Times, September  28, 1900, p. 1.  Gaddis, M e r r i l l E . " R e l i g i o u s Ideas and A t t i t u d e s i n the E a r l y F r o n t i e r . " Church H i s t o r y , 1933, pp. 152-170. "John C o l l i e r , Ex-Commissioner o f Indian A f f a i r s , I s Dead a t 84." New York Times, May 9, 1968, p . 47.  -136Leonard, R i c h a r d D. "The P r e s b y t e r i a n and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l Conv e n t i o n o f Wisconsin, 1840-1850." Church H i s t o r y ,  1938, 346-363.  Oliphant, J . O l i n . "The American M i s s i o n a r y S p i r i t , 18281835." Church H i s t o r y , 1938, pp. 125-137. Schneider, Herbert W.  "Post-War P r o t e s t a n t i s m . "  Church H i s t o r y ,  1935, PP. 87-102. VI.  M i s c e l l a n e o u s Works o f Reference  " C o l l i e r , John." Current Biography: Who' s News and Why, 19_4l. E d i t e d by Maxine B l o c k . New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 194l. The N a t i o n a l C y c l o p a e d i a o f American Biography, Being the H i s t o r y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s as I l l u s t r a t e d i n the L i v e s o f the Founders, B u i l d e r s , and Defenders o f the R e p u b l i c , and o f the Men and Women Who a r e Doing the Work and Moulding the Thought o f the Present Time.- E d i t e d by D i s t i n g u i s h e d Biographers, S e l e c t e d from Each S t a t e ; R e v i s e d and Approved by the Most Eminent H i s t o r i a n s , S c h o l a r s , and Statesmen of the Day. Volume XXIV. New York: James T. White and Company, 1935. Who's Who i n America: A B i o g r a p h i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f Notable L i v i n g Men and Women. Volume 30. Chicago: The A. N. Marquis  Company ,1958".  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0099983/manifest

Comment

Related Items