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The effects of response delay on automatizing self-reports Stoffer, Elaine Susan 1992

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THE EFFECTS OF RESPONSE DELAY ON AUTOMATIZING SELF-REPORTS by ELAINE SUSAN STOFFER B.A., York University, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1992 <c> Elaine Susan Stoffer, 1992 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of Vancouver, Canada Date p ç f . 7 , / qq f f , DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t The development of automatic s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n was examined through studying the e f f e c t s of p r a c t i c i n g a r b i t r a r y s e l f - r e p o r t s on subsequent honest s e l f - r e p o r t s . In a r e p l i c a t i o n of Paulhus, Bruce and McKay (1990), subjects p r a c t i c e d s e l f - r e p o r t s under one of three f a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s (fake good, fake bad, honest) u n t i l they reached high l e v e l s of speed and accuracy. Subjects were then asked to respond honestly under two t e s t modes: (1) emphasize speed, and (2) emphasize accuracy. R e s u l t s r e p l i c a t e d the previous f i n d i n g s : Speed i n s t r u c t i o n s y i e l d e d more carry-over e r r o r s than d i d accuracy i n s t r u c t i o n s . As before, even the accuracy i n s t r u c t i o n s generated a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of carry-over e r r o r s i n the fake-good c o n d i t i o n . There was a l s o a "rebound e f f e c t " f o r fake-bad s u b j e c t s : That i s , p r a c t i c i n g negative responses tended t o reduce the subsequent p r o b a b i l i t y of c l a i m i n g them on the p o s t - t e s t . This study a l s o extended Paulhus et a l . by t e s t i n g the d u r a t i o n of the carry-over e f f e c t s . To do so, the delay between p r a c t i c e and t e s t i n g was v a r i e d (no delay, 10 minutes, 25 minutes). R e s u l t s showed no d i f f e r e n c e s among the three delay c o n d i t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the e f f e c t endures over time. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s f o r Automatic and C o n t r o l l e d S e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n theory are d iscussed. i i i Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of Figures v i Acknowledgements v i i In t r o d u c t i o n 1 ACSP theory 1 Relèvent Research 2 Current Research Program 3 Self-concept m a l l e a b i l i t y 5 I m p l i c a t i o n s 6 Duration of e f f e c t 6 Hypotheses 7 Hypothes i s 1 7 Hypothesis 2 8 Hypothesis 3 8 Hypothesis 4 8 Hypothe s i s 5 8 Hypothesis 6 8 Hypothesis 7 8 Method 9 Subjects 9 Design and Overview 10 Apparatus 11 M a t e r i a l s 11 T r a i t a d j e c t i v e s 11 A d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s 12 i v Music r a t i n g forms 13 Procedure 14 Results 17 Manipulation Check 17 Learning Curves 17 E r r o r Rates 18 P r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s 19 P r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s 21 Discussion 23 P o s i t i v e - N e g a t i v e Assymetry 25 Carry-over t o Honest S e l f : I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n 26 Duration of Carry-over 26 Rebound E f f e c t 27 Future D i r e c t i o n s 28 T e s t i n g the l i m i t s 28 Other improvements 30 The f i n a l goal 30 Footnotes 32 References 33 Figure Captions 44 Appendices 49 V L i s t of Tables 1. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on E r r o r Rates 39 2. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - C o n s i s t e n t E r r o r Rates 40 3. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t Errors....41 4. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s : D i s c l a i m i n g Negative f o r Honest and Fake-Bad S t r a t e g i e s 42 5. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s : D i s c l a i m i n g P o s i t i v e f o r Honest and Fake-Good S t r a t e g i e s 43 v i L i s t of Figures 1. Learning Curves By Strategy (Honest, Fake Good and Fake Bad) 45 2. P r a c t i c e - C o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s 46 3. P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s 47 4. P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s : Honest Strategy D i v i d e d i n t o P o s i t i v e and Negative D i s c l a i m i n g 48 v i i Acknowledgements This endeavor would not have been p o s s i b l e without the immeasurable support I r e c e i v e d from a number of people on a v a r i e t y of f r o n t s . I'd f i r s t l i k e t o thank my a d v i s o r , Del Paulhus. He guided my reasoning from i d e a l i s t i c s p e c u l a t i o n to concrete, t e s t a b l e t h e o r i e s , as w e l l as being there f o r me when i t r e a l l y counted. The i n s i g h t f u l comments from my other committee members, Da r r i n Lehman and Dan Perlman, were much appreciated. I'd al s o l i k e t o thank Nadine Bruce, Steve Moon, L o r a l i e E r i c k s o n , Gina K e l l y , J e n n i f e r P h i l l i p s , and K e l l y Stenson f o r t h e i r a i d i n t h i s research. On a personal note, there are a number of people at UBC who provided i n v a l u a b l e support: topping the l i s t , however are K r i s t a Trobst, David Mandel, and Paul T r a p n e l l . F i n a l l y , I'd l i k e t o thank three people who have a t many times had more f a i t h i n me than I have myself. Thank you Ted Wright, K i r k McKay, and Helmut S t o f f e r . 1 The E f f e c t s of Response Delay on Automatizing Self-Reports A major focus of theory and research w i t h i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l c o g n i t i o n has been on determining how people attempt t o c o n t r o l the impressions other people form of them. This t o p i c i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n (SP) or impression management (e.g., Jones 1964; Tedeschi, 1981; Schlenker, 1985). An important advance i n t h i s area has been the d i s c o v e r y t h a t SP processes are not always as d e l i b e r a t e or managed as t r a d i t i o n a l formulations have assumed. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t now appears t h a t p o s i t i v i s t i c s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s may r e s u l t from a s e l f -deceptive b i a s (Paulhus, 1984), h a b i t u a l r o l e responses (Schlenker, 1985), or r e f l e x i v e responses (Greenberg & P y s z c z y n s k i , 1985). ACSP Theory Stimulated by these advances, Paulhus ( i n press) has proposed an a t t e n t i o n a l model of s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n , Automatic and C o n t r o l l e d S e l f - P r e s e n t a t i o n (ACSP) theory: I t i n v o l v e s what c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s r e f e r t o as automatic and c o n t r o l l e d processes (Logan, 1978, 1980, 1989; Posner & Snyder, 1975; S h i f f r i n & Schneider, 1977). Automatic processes are w e l l - p r a c t i c e d forms t h a t operate without a t t e n t i o n a l resources. C o n t r o l l e d processes are s t r a t e g i c , d e l i b e r a t e mechanisms t h a t r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n t o proceed. According t o the ACSP theory, there i s a dynamic i n t e r p l a y 2 between automatic and c o n t r o l l e d aspects of s e l f -p r e s e n t a t i o n . Sometimes s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d : I t in v o l v e s d e l i b e r a t e and t a i l o r e d s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s . At other times, when i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e , s e l f -p r e s e n t a t i o n moves t o an automatic l e v e l . Here, s e l f -d e s c r i p t i o n s are presented without thought or memory search. According t o ACSP theory, automatically-generated s e l f -d e s c r i p t i o n s are h i g h l y p r a c t i c e d from years of r e p e t i t i o n . They a l s o tend t o be p o s i t i v e i n nature, presumably because we are encouraged from childhood, and through adulthood, t o say p o s i t i v e t h i n g s about ourselves ( H e i l b r u n , 1964). This p o s i t i v i t y b i a s may a l s o r e s u l t from the f a c t t h a t people r a r e l y r e c e i v e negative feedback from t h e i r peers (Tesser & Rosen, 1975). Relevant Research The f i r s t s t u d i e s t o t e s t aspects of the ACSP model were a s e r i e s of dual-task experiments conducted by Paulhus and h i s a s s o c i a t e s . In 1987, Paulhus and L e v i t t assessed the e f f e c t s of d i s t r a c t i o n on s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n by asking subjects t o make s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e judgements while being exposed t o a f f e c t - l a d e n s t i m u l i . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , s u b jects were asked t o respond "me" or "not me" t o t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s presented on a microcomputer. While each t r a i t a d j e c t i v e was presented, e i t h e r an innocuous or an a f f e c t -laden d i s t r a c t o r word appeared nearby. R e s u l t s showed t h a t endorsements of p o s i t i v e t r a i t s were increased by the a f f e c t - l a d e n d i s t r a c t o r s . I t may be t h a t a f f e c t - l a d e n 3 d i s t r a c t o r s "grabbed" a t t e n t i o n , f o r c i n g subjects t o perform the t r a i t - r a t i n g task i n automatic mode. An arousal ex p l a n a t i o n i s a l s o p l a u s i b l e . That i s , i t may be t h a t a f f e c t - l a d e n d i s t r a c t o r s t r i g g e r a f a s t - r i s i n g arousal t h a t i n c r e a s e s dominant ( i . e . , p o s i t i v e ) responding. To d i s t i n g u i s h between a t t e n t i o n a l and arousal explan a t i o n s , Paulhus, Graf and Van S e l s t (1989) conducted a conceptual r e p l i c a t i o n of the Paulhus and L e v i t t study. This experiment employed a d i g i t counting task t o provide an a f f e c t - f r e e a t t e n t i o n a l manipulation. The r e s u l t s d i r e c t l y p a r a l l e l e d those of Paulhus and L e v i t t (1987). They t h e r e f o r e provide strong support f o r an a t t e n t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of both s t u d i e s . Current Research Program Another assumption of the ACSP model i s tha t p o s i t i v i s t i c s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s become automatized over a l i f e t i m e of p r a c t i c e . The aforementioned research f i n d i n g s , however, provide only i n d i r e c t support f o r t h i s assumption i n t h a t they merely demonstrate the ex i s t e n c e of p o s i t i v e automatic s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n . Paulhus, Bruce and S t o f f e r (1990), (see a l s o S t o f f e r , Paulhus & Bruce, 1990) t h e r e f o r e argued t h a t the development of automatic s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n should be examined under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s . They noted t h a t through repeated expression, other c o g n i t i o n s such as person c a t e g o r i z a t i o n (e.g., Smith & Lerner, 1986) and p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s ( F a z i o , Sanbonmatsu, P o w e l l , & Kardes, 1986) have been g r a d u a l l y automatized i n the l a b o r a t o r y . A c c o r d i n g l y , 4 Paulhus et a l . (1990) decided t o use s i m i l a r procedures i n an attempt t o automatize v a r i o u s a r b i t r a r y s e l f - c o n c e p t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g procedure was employed i n two s t u d i e s . Subjects were f i r s t asked t o provide honest responses on a c h e c k l i s t asking whether or not each of a s e r i e s of t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s was s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e . They were then asked t o p r a c t i c e responding t o the same t r a i t s on a microcomputer using e i t h e r f a k i n g good, f a k i n g bad responses, o r , honest s t r a t e g i e s . Since i t has been found th a t automatism can be achieved w i t h i n only a few t r i a l s (Smith & Lerner, 1986), the number of p r a c t i c e t r i a l s was l i m i t e d t o ten. Afterwards, s u b j e c t s were asked t o "respond honestly" on both speed and accuracy t e s t s . These t e s t s permitted an e v a l u a t i o n of p o s s i b l e "carry-over" e f f e c t s from the p r a c t i c e . The speed t e s t ("Respond as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . " ) was given f i r s t . According t o ACSP theory, subjects should s h i f t t o the automatic mode of responding under such an a t t e n t i o n a l - l o a d c o n d i t i o n . Consistent w i t h t h i s reasoning, r e s u l t s showed t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l number of carry-over e r r o r s were obtained i n the d i r e c t i o n of the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s d u ring the speed t e s t as compared w i t h the accuracy t e s t . However, unexpected f i n d i n g s were a l s o obtained. The carry-over f o r f a k i n g good was found t o be g r e a t e r than f o r f a k i n g bad. I t appears t h a t p o s i t i v e t r a i t s are more r e a d i l y automatized than negative t r a i t s . In f a c t , s u b j e c t s i n the fake bad c o n d i t i o n were l a t e r found t o 5 d i s c l a i m many of the negative t r a i t s t h a t they had o r i g i n a l l y claimed. A l s o s u r p r i s i n g was the f i n d i n g t h a t carry-over e r r o r s occurred even when sub j e c t s were subsequently asked t o re p o r t t h e i r honest t r a i t s w i t h an emphasis on accuracy. We had no reason t o a n t i c i p a t e t h a t p r a c t i c e would a l t e r the honest s e l f , d e f i n e d here as the d e l i b e r a t e , considered assessment of the s e l f - c o n c e p t given under honest i n s t r u c t i o n s . Self-concept m a l l e a b i l i t y . In r e t r o s p e c t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the honest s e l f i s more malleable than many t h e o r i s t s have assumed. For example, i t may be the case t h a t the priming of t r a i t s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t the p r e - t e s t s e l f -d e s c r i p t i o n evokes s e l f - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t g u i d i n g the p r e - t e s t responses. This new informat i o n then o v e r r i d e s the p r e v i o u s l y a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , l e a d i n g t o a response change on the accuracy p o s t - t e s t . In f a c t , there i s already a previous body of work t h a t examines t h i s i s s u e from a s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e . For example, Gergen (1965) found t h a t s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n becomes i n t e r n a l i z e d when rewarded or v a l i d a t e d . However, research conducted by Fa z i o (1981) and h i s colleagues suggests t h a t reinforcement i s not necessary: Making s p e c i f i c s e l f - r e l e v e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s a l i e n t was adequate t o e f f e c t changes i n s e l f - r a t i n g s . The Fazio et a l . and the Paulhus e t . a l f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y alone can 6 serve as a potent agent i n e f f e c t i n g changes t o the " i n t e r n a l " s e l f - c o n c e p t . I m p l i c a t i o n s . I f p o s i t i v e carry-over e f f e c t s of f a k i n g good are discovered t o be robust there could be important c l i n i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . For example, i t might be p o s s i b l e t o produce p o s i t i v e a f f e c t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l changes i n people w i t h l a r g e l y negative s e l f - c o n c e p t s by having them automatize c e r t a i n p o s i t i v e s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s . This might be accomplished through a v a r i a n t of the c u r r e n t " t r a i t -c l a i m i n g " procedure. These ideas are not e n t i r e l y new. French p s y c h o l o g i s t Emile Coué (1917) used a technique e n t i t l e d "conscious autosuggestion", which e n t a i l e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e p e a t i n g p o s i t i v e s e l f - p r o p o s i t i o n s . The technique was s a i d t o e f f e c t changes t o the "unconscious" which would t r a n s l a t e t o changes i n one's "conscious" self-image. S i m i l a r techniques known as " s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n s " have resurfaced r e c e n t l y under the guise of so c a l l e d "new-age psychology" (Yogananda, 1958). Neither Coué's nor these more recent v e r s i o n s of autosuggestion, however, have been t e s t e d e m p i r i c a l l y . In summary, given the great p o t e n t i a l value of these techniques, i t i s c r u c i a l t o study t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g mechanisms i n a c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g . Duration of e f f e c t . Before c o n s i d e r i n g such a p p l i c a t i o n s , however, the carry-over e f f e c t must be shown to be enduring, not merely t r a n s i t o r y . I t may be the case t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the p r a c t i c e d t r a i t s r a p i d l y 7 decreases and t h a t these t r a i t s soon lo s e t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o o v e r r i d e the o r i g i n a l l y claimed t r a i t s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y e f f e c t s may be long l a s t i n g and they may lead to r e l a t i v e l y permanent changes i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t . In the Paulhus et a l . (1990) study the dependent measure was taken immediately a f t e r the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . Consequently, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether the f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t an e f f e c t of some permanence. The goal of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine the temporal s t a b i l i t y of the Paulhus e t a l . f i n d i n g s by conducting a r e p l i c a t i o n - a n d -extension of t h e i r study. An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r , t h e r e f o r e , i s i n c l u d e d i n the design: The dependent measure was taken e i t h e r immediately, a f t e r a 10 minute delay, or a f t e r a 25 minute delay. I f the e f f e c t has any temporal s t a b i l i t y , then the p a t t e r n of data obtained by Paulhus et a l . should be r e p l i c a t e d across the 3 l e v e l s of the delay f a c t o r . Hypotheses Based on the above l i t e r a t u r e review, s e v e r a l hypotheses were advanced. Hypothesis 1. The f i r s t hypothesis concerns the shape of the l e a r n i n g curves. For a l l three s t r a t e g i e s (fake-good, fake-bad, and honest), r e a c t i o n times during the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s should drop s u b s t a n t i a l l y over the f i r s t few t r i a l s , and then l e v e l o f f over the remainder of the t r i a l s . This hypothesis i s based on the Paulhus e t a l . (1990) r e s u l t s , as w e l l as from those of Smith and Lerner (1986). 8 Hypothesis 2. Also from Paulhus e t a l . (1990), fake-bad responses should be the most d i f f i c u l t t o automatize, as should be i l l u s t r a t e d by slower r e a c t i o n times f o r t h a t group during the p r a c t i c e l e a r n i n g t r i a l s . Hypothesis 3. The ACSP model, as w e l l as the r e s u l t s from Paulhus e t a l . (1990), lead t o the hypothesis t h a t more p r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t , or carry-over e r r o r s , should occur during speed t e s t mode than i n the accuracy t e s t mode. In sh o r t , ACSP p r e d i c t s t h a t the automatized s e l f should surface under high a t t e n t i o n a l load. Hypothesis 4. Subjects i n the fake-good s t r a t e g y should show more carry-over than s u b j e c t s i n the fake-bad and honest s t r a t e g i e s . This hypothesis i s based on the previous Paulhus et a l . (1990) f i n d i n g s . Hypothesis 5. A l s o based on the Paulhus et a l . (1990) f i n d i n g s , s u bjects i n the fake-bad s t r a t e g y should e x h i b i t the "rebound" e f f e c t of d i s c l a i m i n g negative t r a i t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , r e s u l t s should show more " p r a c t i c e -i n c o n s i s t e n t " e r r o r s on i n i t i a l negative claims f o r fake-bad subjects than those i n each of the other two s t r a t e g i e s . Hypothesis 6. Subjects i n the fake-good s t r a t e g y should show carry-over i n the accuracy t e s t mode. This hypothesis i s a l s o based on the Paulhus e t a l . (1990) f i n d i n g s . As noted i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, however, the work of Emile Coué (1917) would a l s o p r e d i c t t h i s f i n d i n g . Hypothesis 7. The f i n a l hypothesis i s based s o l e l y on Coué (1917). The p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s obtained i n the accuracy 9 c o n d i t i o n should endure over time; the r e p e t i t i o n of p o s i t i v e self-statements should make them c h r o n i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e , which should then lead t o l a s t i n g changes i n the self-image. Method Subjects F o r t y - f o u r undergraduate students from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s experiment. A l l subjects were r e c r u i t e d from a su b j e c t pool of f i r s t and second year psychology students who r e c e i v e course c r e d i t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n experiments. Design and Overview The experimental design i n c l u d e d four independent v a r i a b l e s : s t r a t e g y (fake good, fake bad, and honest), delay (no delay, short delay, and long d e l a y ) , and t e s t mode (speed and accuracy) and e r r o r type ( p r a c t i c e c o n s i s t e n t and p r a c t i c e i n c o n s i s t e n t ) . The f i r s t two v a r i a b l e s were manipulated between s u b j e c t s , whereas the l a t t e r two v a r i a b l e s were manipulated w i t h i n s u b j e c t s . The study had four phases: p r e - t e s t , p r a c t i c e , delay and p o s t - t e s t . During the p r e - t e s t phase, subjects were re q u i r e d t o check o f f whether each of a s e r i e s of a d j e c t i v e s presented on a l i s t was s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e . During the p r a c t i c e phase, the same t r a i t s were presented one a t a time on a microcomputer. Subjects were randomly assigned t o p r a c t i c e the t r a i t s under one of the three impression-management c o n d i t i o n s . 10 On completion of the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s , s ubjects were randomly assigned t o e i t h e r proceed immediately from p r a c t i c e t o p o s t - t e s t , or t o complete a f i l l e r task (the delay) before proceeding t o the p o s t - t e s t . F i n a l l y , f o r the p o s t - t e s t , s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o again i n d i c a t e whether each t r a i t was s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e ( i . e . , as i n the p r e t e s t ) . This task was a l s o c a r r i e d out on the computer, and included two t r i a l s . On the f i r s t t e s t t r i a l , s u b j e c t s responded wit h an emphasis on speed. On the second t r i a l , they responded wi t h an emphasis on accuracy. 1 The dependent measure of i n t e r e s t was the p r o p o r t i o n of carry-over e r r o r s from p r e - t e s t t o p o s t - t e s t . A c a r r y -over e r r o r was counted i f the subject changed a response from p r e - t e s t t o p o s t - t e s t i n the d i r e c t i o n of p r a c t i c e . For i n s t a n c e , a fake-good su b j e c t may have responded "not me" t o the t r a i t " p a t i e n t " on the p r e - t e s t and then during p r a c t i c e , repeated t h a t he/she was " p a t i e n t " . I f the subject claimed to be " p a t i e n t " on the p o s t - t e s t , a p r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r was counted. 2 In c o n t r a s t , a p r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r would i n v o l v e responding "me" t o the t r a i t " c r u e l " on the p r e - t e s t , f a k i n g bad by r e p e a t i n g "me" t o " c r u e l " , and subsequently responding "not me" on the p o s t - t e s t . Apparatus An IBM compatible computer was used t o present the t r a i t s d uring p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . Subjects responded on a keyboard l a b e l e d "me" and "not me". T r a i t p r e s e n t a t i o n was 11 c o n t r o l l e d through a program developed using the Micro Experimental Lab (MEL) package. The program c o n t r o l l e d t r a i t randomization f o r each t r i a l , and o n - l i n e r e c o r d i n g of such v a r i a b l e s as response accuracy, response s e l e c t i o n , and r e a c t i o n time. M a t e r i a l s T r a i t a d j e c t i v e s . The 12 t r a i t s used i n the three a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s and on the computer were chosen from l i s t s t h a t had been r a t e d f o r s o c i a l - d e s i r a b i l i t y (Anderson, 1968; K i r b y & Gardner, 1972). T r a i t d e s i r a b i l i t y and c l a i m r a t e tend t o be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d . Therefore, t r a i t s w i t h moderate c l a i m r a t e s were chosen to ensure t h a t subjects would not always c l a i m p o s i t i v e t r a i t s , or conversely, deny a l l negative t r a i t s . This was done t o maximize the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c i n g i n the fake-good c o n d i t i o n . That i s , i f c l a i m r a t e s were too high f o r p o s i t i v e t r a i t s , (and too low f o r negative t r a i t s ) , then s e l f - r a t i n g s would not d i f f e r s u f f i c i e n t l y from the fake-good c o n d i t i o n t o a l l o w f o r p o s s i b l e carry-over e r r o r s . In a d d i t i o n t o t r a i t norms f o r d e s i r a b i l i t y , a w i t h i n -s u b j e c t s t r a i t valence measure was a l s o included i n the form of the fake-good a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t . That i s , by completing t h i s c h e c k l i s t , each subject provided h i s or her own r a t i n g of each t r a i t ' s valence. This ensured t h a t s u b j e c t s ' own r a t i n g s were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h norms on p o s i t i v e 12 and negative t r a i t s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a dichotomous valence r a t i n g f o r the n e u t r a l t r a i t s . A d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s . Subjects completed three a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s experimental paradigm (see Appendix A). Each l i s t contained the i d e n t i c a l 12 t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s , f o r which subjects were required t o respond "me" or "not me". For the f i r s t l i s t , s u b jects were t o l d t o i n d i c a t e whether or not the t r a i t s were s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e . This f i r s t c h e c k l i s t served as the p r e t e s t w i t h which subsequent t e s t t r i a l s were to be compared t o measure carry-over e r r o r s due to p r a c t i c e . In a d d i t i o n , the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i n t h i s l i s t was entered i n t o the computer and functioned as a key during the p r a c t i c e rounds f o r those s u b j e c t s assigned t o the "honest" c o n d i t i o n . That i s , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n allowed the computer program to i d e n t i f y i n c o r r e c t responses. For the second l i s t , s u b jects were t o l d t o "fake good". That i s , they were to respond t o the t r a i t s as an " i d e a l " person would. The inf o r m a t i o n gathered i n t h i s l i s t f u nctioned as a key during the p r a c t i c e rounds f o r those subjects assigned t o the fake-good c o n d i t i o n . For the t h i r d l i s t , s u b j e c t s were t o l d t o "fake bad". That i s , they were to respond as i f they were t r y i n g t o create a negative impression. The i n f o r m a t i o n gathered here was used as a key f o r those s u b j e c t s assigned t o the fake-bad c o n d i t i o n . 13 Music r a t i n g forms. In l i n e w i t h the cover s t o r y , which i d e n t i f i e d the study as being concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and p e r s o n a l i t y , subjects were re q u i r e d t o complete two music r a t i n g forms. In a c t u a l i t y , both forms simply functioned as f i l l e r t asks w i t h i n the experiment. The f i r s t form l i s t e d 36 songs, and t h e i r corresponding performers (see Appendix B). Subjects were t o l d t o r a t e the q u a l i t y of the music and l y r i c s f o r each song on a 7-point L i k e r t r a t i n g s c a l e ranging from "poor" t o " e x c e l l e n t " . Subjects performed t h i s task a f t e r completing the three a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s . The s o l e purpose of the task was t o occupy the subject while the experimenter entered i n t o the computer the i n f o r m a t i o n from the c h e c k l i s t s t h a t served as a key dur i n g p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . S i m i l a r l y , the second music r a t i n g form was i n c l u d e d t o provide an a c t i v i t y t o f u n c t i o n as a delay between the p r a c t i c e and t e s t phases of the experiment. This form r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s t o r a t e , on a 7-point L i k e r t s c a l e ranging from "poor" t o " e x c e l l e n t " , the q u a l i t y of the music and l y r i c s of songs they l i s t e n e d t o on a c a s s e t t e recorder (see Appendix C). Subjects r a t e d e i t h e r two or s i x songs, depending on the delay c o n d i t i o n t o which they had been assigned. Subjects i n the no-delay c o n d i t i o n d i d not perform t h i s task. 14 Procedure Subjects p a r t i c i p a t e d one at a time. On e n t e r i n g the l a b o r a t o r y , the subject was greeted by the experimenter and seated at a t a b l e . The experimenter s t a t e d t h a t the experiment was concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between music and p e r s o n a l i t y . The subject then read a d e s c r i p t i o n of the procedure t o be fol l o w e d i n the experiment and gave h i s or her consent t o be a p a r t i c i p a n t . Next, subjects were handed the three a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s . For the f i r s t l i s t , the subject was asked t o r a t e each t r a i t as e i t h e r s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e or non s e l f -d e s c r i p t i v e ("me" or "not me"). For the second l i s t , s u b j e c t s were t o l d t o "fake good". S p e c i f i c a l l y , they were i n s t r u c t e d t o "answer as i f you were t r y i n g t o look as p o s i t i v e as p o s s i b l e t o an experimenter l i k e me". F i n a l l y , f o r the t h i r d l i s t , s u b j e c t s were t o l d t o "fake bad"; t h a t i s , they were t o l d t o "answer as i f you were t r y i n g t o appear as negative as p o s s i b l e t o an experimenter l i k e me". On completion of the a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s , the experimenter c o l l e c t e d the l i s t s and gave the subject the f i r s t music r a t i n g form t o complete. Next, she/he was asked t o s i t down a t the microcomputer. The subject was informed t h a t the same 12 t r a i t s t h a t appeared on the a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t s would appear one by one, i n random order, on the computer screen. Each s u b j e c t was t o l d t o repeat f o r the f o l l o w i n g t r i a l ( i . e . , 12 t r a i t p r e s e n t a t i o n s ) , the answers t h a t he/she had given on the 15 c h e c k l i s t of the assigned s t r a t e g y c o n d i t i o n , and t o continue t o do so f o r the subsequent ten t r i a l s . Further i n s t r u c t i o n s i n c l u d e d p r e s s i n g a keypad l a b e l e d "me" and "not me" t o respond t o the t r a i t a d j e c t i v e s . Subjects were a l s o informed t h a t i f he/she d i d not respond as i n the assigned a d j e c t i v e c h e c k l i s t , a tone would sound and the t r a i t would be repeated at the end of the t r i a l . F i n a l l y , the s u b j e c t was t o l d t o be accurate, but t o t r y and to increase h i s or her speed, somewhat, from t r i a l t o t r i a l . On completion of the v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , the subject was d i r e c t e d t o begin the computer p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . At t h i s p o i n t , the i n s t r u c t i o n s were repeated on a s e r i e s of user-paced computer screens. Next, s u b j e c t s i n i t i a t e d t r i a l s by p r e s s i n g the space bar. A f t e r doing so, a message appeared on the screen i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the f i r s t t r a i t of the t r i a l would appear i n f i v e seconds, i n the centre of the screen. On p r e s s i n g e i t h e r the "me" or "not me" key, the t r a i t disappeared, and a new t r a i t appeared i n 500 m i l l i s e c o n d s . At the end of each t r i a l , a b r i e f i n s t r u c t i o n screen appeared. To begin the next t r i a l , the screen i n s t r u c t e d s u b j e c t s t o press the space bar. A f t e r doing so, the next t r i a l proceeded i n the same manner as the previous t r i a l . T his sequence of events continued over the ten p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . On completion, the screen i n s t r u c t e d the subject t o ask the experimenter f o r f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . At t h i s p o i n t , subjects i n the no-delay c o n d i t i o n remained at the computer and proceeded d i r e c t l y t o the t e s t 16 phase. Subjects i n the two delay c o n d i t i o n s , however, were l e d t o a t a b l e and given a set of headphones. They were then t o l d t o perform the second music r a t i n g task. When done, the d e l a y - c o n d i t i o n s u b j e c t s returned t o the computer f o r the t e s t phase. For P a r t 1 of the t e s t phase, s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o fo r g e t a l l t h e i r previous p r a c t i c i n g , and t o repo r t t h e i r "honest" t r a i t s . As w e l l , they were i n s t r u c t e d t o answer as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , and were informed t h a t the tone would not sound f o r e r r o r s . Subjects then began the speed t r i a l , which was the same as the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s i n terms of t r a i t p r e s e n t a t i o n . On completion of the t r i a l , the screen i n s t r u c t e d s u b j e c t s t o ask the experimenter f o r f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . For P a r t 2 of the t e s t phase, s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o rep o r t t h e i r honest t r a i t s again. This time, however, they were t o l d t h a t accuracy was more important than speed, and t h a t they could take as much time as they wanted t o complete the task. Otherwise, Pa r t 2 was i d e n t i c a l t o Part 1 of the t e s t phase. On completion of the t e s t phase, s u b j e c t s were d e b r i e f e d , and thanked f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . R e s u l t s Manipulation Check To determine whether or not su b j e c t s adequately followed the speed and accuracy i n s t r u c t i o n s , a t - t e s t was performed t o compare the o v e r a l l speed mean (M=946.95) versus the 17 o v e r a l l accuracy mean (M=1287.42). The d i f f e r e n c e between the two means was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , t(43)=-4.75, p_<.001, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s u b j e c t s were indeed f o l l o w i n g these i n s t r u c t i o n s . Learning Curves Hypothesis 1, concerning the shape of the p r a c t i c e l e a r n i n g curves, was supported by the r e s u l t s . A t - t e s t comparing r e a c t i o n times over the f i r s t three p r a c t i c e t r i a l s w i t h those of the f o l l o w i n g three p r a c t i c e t r i a l s r evealed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , t(43)=7.38, p_<.001. Reaction times during the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s dropped from the f i r s t few t r i a l s t o the next three t r i a l s . I n s e r t Figure 1 about here Hypothesis 2 was a l s o supported. A one-way ANOVA comparing r e a c t i o n times f o r the three s t r a t e g i e s revealed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , F(2,41)=5.52, p<.01. Fake-bad r e a c t i o n times were s i g n i f i c a n t l y slower than those of the other two s t r a t e g i e s , as i s evident from a Newnam-Keuls m u l t i p l e comparisons procedure. This t e s t revealed t h a t the mean r e a c t i o n time f o r the fake-bad s t r a t e g y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p_<.05) from t h a t of each of the other two s t r a t e g i e s . This r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t fake-bad responses were the most d i f f i c u l t t o automatize. 18 E r r o r Rates The dependent measure f o r the analyses was the change i n t r a i t r a t i n g s from p r e - t e s t t o p o s t - t e s t . Two types of e r r o r s were p o s s i b l e : p r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t and p r a c t i c e -i n c o n s i s t e n t . P r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t or, "carry-over" e r r o r s c o n s i s t e d of responses which changed from p r e - t e s t t o post-t e s t i n the d i r e c t i o n of p r a c t i c e . A l l other e r r o r s were p r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t . For each e r r o r type, a p r o p o r t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d which represented the r a t i o of e r r o r s t o the t o t a l number of p o s s i b l e e r r o r s f o r the r e s p e c t i v e e r r o r types. For example, a carry-over e r r o r could only occur f o r those t r a i t s where the sub j e c t was p r a c t i c i n g a response t h a t countered the i n i t i a l p r e - t e s t c l a i m . A mixed 3 x 3 x 2 x 3 ANOVA wi t h two between-groups and two within-group v a r i a b l e s was conducted on these scores. The two between f a c t o r s were s t r a t e g y (honest, fake good, fake bad) and delay (no delay, s h o r t delay, and long d e l a y ) . The two w i t h i n f a c t o r s were t e s t mode (speed vs. accuracy) and e r r o r type ( p r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t , p r a c t i c e i n c o n s i s t e n t ) . I n s e r t Table 1 about here The r e s u l t s of the ANOVA are presented i n Table 1. Main e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r e r r o r type, F ( l , 22)=4.26, p_=.05, and t e s t mode, F( 1, 22 )=17 .14 , p_<.001. A s i g n i f i c a n t two-factor i n t e r a c t i o n was obtained f o r Strategy X E r r o r Type, F ( l , 22)=25.5, £<.001. A s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e e - f a c t o r 19 i n t e r a c t i o n was obtained f o r Strategy X E r r o r Type X Test Mode, F(1,22)=4.67, p<.05. No s i g n i f i c a n t main or i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s were found f o r delay. I n s e r t Table 2 about here P r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s . To c l a r i f y the nature of the f i n d i n g s , we performed separate ANOVAs f o r the two e r r o r types. Note t h a t there was no opportunity f o r p r a c t i c e -c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s i n the honest s t r a t e g y : Thus the experimental design was a 2 ( s t r a t e g y : fake-good vs. fake bad) X 3 (delay) X 2 ( t e s t mode) mixed ANOVA. Main e f f e c t s were obtained f o r s t r a t e g y , F( 1,22)=15.05, p_=.001, and t e s t mode, F( 1,22) =15.67, p_=.001. In a d d i t i o n , the Strategy X Test mode i n t e r a c t i o n was m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( l , 22)=3.89, p_=.06. I n s e r t Figure 2 about here The means f o r each l e v e l of delay (no delay, short delay, and long delay) f o r p r a c t i c e - c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s were: M=.35, M=.20, and M=.36 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Because none of the delay e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t , the data presented i n Figure 2 are c o l l a p s e d over t h i s f a c t o r . The main e f f e c t f o r t e s t mode d e r i v e d from a higher o v e r a l l mean i n the speed c o n d i t i o n (M=.36) than i n the accuracy c o n d i t i o n (M=.26). Thus, Hypothesis 3, t h a t 20 automatized s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n should surface r e l a t i v e l y more freq u e n t l y under a t t e n t i o n a l l o a d , i s supported. The observed main e f f e c t f o r s t r a t e g y i n d i c a t e d t h a t carry-over e r r o r s were higher i n the fake-good c o n d i t i o n (M=.50) than i n the fake-bad c o n d i t i o n (M=.09). This f i n d i n g supports Hypothesis 4, and r e p l i c a t e s the Paulhus et a l . (1990) f i n d i n g s . These e f f e c t s were q u a l i f i e d , however, by a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t Strategy X Test Mode i n t e r a c t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g form. The d i f f e r e n c e i n mean e r r o r r a t e s between the fake-good/speed c o n d i t i o n (M = .58) and the fake-bad/speed c o n d i t i o n (M = .12) was g r e a t e r than the d i f f e r e n c e between the fake-good/accuracy c o n d i t i o n (M = .45) and the fake-bad/accuracy c o n d i t i o n (M = .08). Er r o r s i n the fake-good/accuracy c o n d i t i o n remained elevated, however, which supports Hypothesis 6. The mean of t h i s group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 0, t(13) = 6.33, E < .001. Again, the Paulhus e t a l . (1990) f i n d i n g of carry-over t o the honest s e l f i s r e p l i c a t e d . Combining the above r e s u l t w i t h the absence of delay provides support f o r Hypothesis 7, i n t h a t the elevated e r r o r s i n the accuracy c o n d i t i o n endure over time. This r e s u l t provides f u r t h e r support f o r Coué's (1917) work. I n s e r t Table 3 about here 21 P r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s . The experimental design f o r the p r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s was a 3 (s t r a t e g y ) X 3 (delay) X 2 ( t e s t mode) mixed design. The means f o r each l e v e l of delay (no delay, short delay, and long delay) f o r p r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s were: M=.12, M=.18, and M=.08 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Because none of the delay e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t , the data presented i n Figure 3 are c o l l a p s e d over t h i s f a c t o r . Only a main e f f e c t f o r s t r a t e g y was obtained, F ( l , 23) =10.56, p_ < 001. In t h i s case, the o v e r a l l e r r o r r a t e was higher f o r the fake-bad c o n d i t i o n (M=.30) than f o r the honest (M=.06) or fake-good (M=.02) c o n d i t i o n s . This f i n d i n g r e p l i c a t e s Paulhus et a l . (1990), p r o v i d i n g support f o r Hypothesis 5. I n s e r t Figure 3 about here To f u r t h e r examine the rebound e f f e c t , fake-bad p r a c t i c e -c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s were compared w i t h the comparable honest d i s c l a i m i n g - n e g a t i v e e r r o r s . Note t h a t only s u b j e c t s i n the honest and fake-good s t r a t e g i e s had the opportunity t o p r a c t i c e negative t r a i t s and then subsequently d i s c l a i m them ( i . e . , the rebound e f f e c t ) . A l l p r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s i n the fake-bad s t r a t e g y c o n s i s t e d of these " d i s c l a i m i n g - n e g a t i v e " e r r o r s . P r a c t i c e - i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s i n the honest s t r a t e g y , however, c o n s i s t e d of both d i s c l a i m i n g - n e g a t i v e and " d i s c l a i m i n g - p o s i t i v e " . Thus, 22 e r r o r s i n the honest s t r a t e g y were d i v i d e d i n t o the two e r r o r types f o r the f o l l o w i n g analyses. The experimental design was a 2 ( s t r a t e g y : honest vs. fake bad) X 2 ( t e s t mode) mixed ANOVA. A main e f f e c t was obtained f o r t e s t mode F (1,27)=9.34, p=.01. E r r o r r a t e s were higher f o r the speed t r i a l (M = .27) than f o r the accuracy t r i a l (M = .16). The main e f f e c t f o r s t r a t e g y was marg i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , F (1,27)=3.73, E< - 1 0- Thus, the I n s e r t Table 4 about here rebound e f f e c t was stronger f o r the fake-bad s t r a t e g y (M = .30) than f o r the honest s t r a t e g y (M = .13). This r e s u l t provides f u r t h e r support f o r Hypothesis 5 concerning the r e p l i c a t i o n of the rebound e f f e c t . The p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s , which i n c l u d e s t h a t of the subsequent ANOVA f o r comparison, i s d epicted i n Figure 4. I n s e r t Figure 4 About Here Note t h a t only s u b j e c t s i n the fake-good and honest s t r a t e g i e s had the opportunity t o p r a c t i c e p o s i t i v e t r a i t s and then subsequently d i s c l a i m them. Thus, an a d d i t i o n a l 2 (s t r a t e g y : honest vs. fake good) X 2 ( t e s t mode) mixed ANOVA was performed on the d i s c l a i m i n g - p o s i t i v e scores f o r these two groups. The only e f f e c t t h a t 23 I n s e r t Table 5 about here approached s i g n i f i c a n c e was a marginal i n t e r a c t i o n f o r Strategy X Test Mode, F(l,28)=3.38, p<.10. Whereas the mean-error r a t e dropped o f f s l i g h t l y from speed (M = .07) t o accuracy (M =.01) i n the honest s t r a t e g y , e r r o r s were v i r t u a l l y non-existent f o r fake good i n both the speed (M = .02) and accuracy (M = .02) t e s t modes. Disc u s s i o n The present r e s u l t s c l o s e l y r e p l i c a t e d those of two previous s t u d i e s (Paulhus et a l . , 1990, Studies 1 and 2). Subjects who were asked t o make honest s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s a f t e r p r a c t i c i n g a r b i t r a r y s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s were more l i k e l y t o make carry-over e r r o r s when t e s t e d under a speed, r a t h e r than an accuracy t e s t i n g mode. These carry-over e r r o r s were a l s o more apparent i n the fake-good c o n d i t i o n than i n the fake-bad c o n d i t i o n . In f a c t , fake-bad i n s t r u c t i o n s l e d t o the "rebound e f f e c t " , where sub j e c t s u l t i m a t e l y renounced negative t r a i t s t h a t they had p r a c t i c e d . The present study a l s o went f u r t h e r t o show t h a t a l l these e f f e c t s r e p l i c a t e d across two l e v e l s of t e s t delay. The r e s u l t s support two b a s i c elements of ACSP theory. F i r s t , the carry-over observed from p r a c t i c e t r i a l s t o honest t e s t t r i a l s demonstrates t h a t t r a i t s can become automatized w i t h p r a c t i c e : Moreover, t h i s carry-over was 24 more apparent under high a t t e n t i o n a l l o a d . This p a t t e r n again supports our use of the term "automatic s e l f " t o describe the s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n emerging under a t t e n t i o n a l load. Apparently, r e p e t i t i o n increased the a v a i l a b i l i t y of p r a c t i c e d t r a i t s . The l e s s e r degree of carry-over i n the accuracy c o n d i t i o n suggests the a b i l i t y of subjects t o overcome sheer a v a i l a b i l i t y and search more deeply f o r s e l f -d e s c r i p t i o n s . Other s t u d i e s have demonstrated t h a t people can o v e r - r i d e h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e c o g n i t i o n s — b u t only i n co n d i t i o n s of low c o g n i t i v e load (Devine, 1989; Paulhus, M a r t i n , & Murphy, 1991). Consider an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s speed vs. accuracy e f f e c t . Given the previous s t u d i e s showing a p o s i t i v i t y e f f e c t f o r high a t t e n t i o n a l l o a d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t our t e s t mode d i f f e r e n c e s are not due s p e c i f i c a l l y t o automatization. Indeed, the gre a t e r c a r r y - o v e r of p o s i t i v e than negative responses seems t o amount t o a p o s i t i v i t y e f f e c t . To r e f u t e t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e , the reader i s i n v i t e d t o compare the stro n g r e s u l t s i n t h i s study (£ = 15.67 f o r t e s t mode) t o the weak e f f e c t of Paulhus and L e v i t t (1987) where F = 4.14 f o r t e s t mode. An e f f e c t s i z e s i m i l a r t o the l a t t e r was found i n Paulhus et a l . (1989). C l e a r l y , the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s i n the cu r r e n t study had the e f f e c t of magnifying the t y p i c a l p o s i t i v i t y e f f e c t . 25 Nonetheless, t o examine d i r e c t l y whether the p r a c t i c e t r i a l s might be producing such unintended e f f e c t s , an appropriate c o n d i t i o n should be i n c l u d e d i n the design of a futur e study: For example, subjects would make t h e i r post-t e s t judgments a f t e r delay, but without p r a c t i c e . P o s i t i v e - N e g a t i v e Asymmetry The f a c t t h a t p o s i t i v e t r a i t s were more e a s i l y automatized than negative ones i s an i n t r i g u i n g f i n d i n g . This asymmetry may simply r e f l e c t the well-known p o s i t i v i s t i c b i a s i n s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s (Greenwald, 1980; Paulhus, 1986; Taylor & Brown, 1988). P a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t are s t u d i e s showing t h a t p o s i t i v e t r a i t s are e a s i l y processed and e a s i l y r e c a l l e d whereas negative t r a i t s are poorly processed and d i f f i c u l t t o r e c a l l (e.g., Kuiper, O l i n g e r , MacDonald, & Shaw, 1985). Several known mechanisms provide p o s s i b l e explanations f o r the gr e a t e r a s s i m i l a t i o n of p o s i t i v e than negative t r a i t s . Perhaps i n h i b i t o r y r e a c t i o n s accompanying the s e l f -a s c r i p t i o n of negative t r a i t s prevents t h e i r a s s i m i l a t i o n ( T a y l o r , 1991). Although more a c c e s s i b l e a f t e r r e p e t i t i o n , they may not reach the f i n a l stages of i n c o r p o r a t i o n . A l s o negative events grab a t t e n t i o n more than do p o s i t i v e events ( P r a t t o & John, i n p r e s s ) : Some time ago, Coué had warned about the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of drawing a t t e n t i o n t o the r e p e t i t i o n s — p a r t i c u l a r l y those t h a t have negative i m p l i c a t i o n s . These mechanisms warrant f u r t h e r study as 26 p o s s i b l e explanations why the automatization process seemed to be n u l l i f i e d when sub j e c t s faked bad. Carry-over t o Honest S e l f : I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n The p r a c t i c e t r i a l s a l s o e f f e c t a carry-over t o the honest s e l f — t h a t i s , the d e l i b e r a t e , r e f l e c t i v e s e l f d e s c r i p t i o n given by sub j e c t s i n the accuracy c o n d i t i o n . Thus, i t appears t h a t a r b i t r a r y s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s can be, not only automatized, but i n t e r n a l i z e d through r e p e t i t i o n . Although we had found a s i m i l a r carry-over i n our f i r s t study, the import of t h i s f i n d i n g motivated us t o twice reconfirm i t . T his f i n d i n g supports the arguments of Emile Coué (1917) who touted the b e n e f i t s of re p e a t i n g p o s i t i v e a f f i r m a t i o n s long before i t became fas h i o n a b l e i n the New Age r e p e r t o i r e of t h e r a p e u t i c techniques. He argued t h a t permanent e f f e c t s could be e f f e c t e d by mere r e p e t i t i o n . Duration of carry-over Most important f o r t h i s t h e s i s , the p o s i t i v e carry-over e f f e c t was found t o endure even when the temporal i n t e r v a l between the p r a c t i c e phase and the p o s t - t e s t measure was extended t o 25 minutes. The d u r a t i o n of carry-over f o r the automatic s e l f was p r e d i c t a b l e from the t h e o r y — i n d e e d the source of the automatic s e l f i s h e l d t o be a l i f e t i m e of p r a c t i c e . The enduring nature of carry-over t o the honest s e l f , however, r e q u i r e s a l t e r a t i o n of ACSP theory. The o r i g i n a l model p r e d i c t e d l i t t l e change between the p r e - t e s t and the p o s t - t e s t honest s e l v e s because su b j e c t s should, on both 27 occasions, undertake c o n t r o l l e d searches t h a t should tap s i m i l a r i n formation. What appears to be happening, however, i s t h a t the p r a c t i c i n g of new t r a i t s evokes novel information t h a t i s then used t o determine the t r u e s e l f . Moreover, t h i s new i n f o r m a t i o n seems t o become i n t e r n a l i z e d (at l e a s t f o r 25 minutes). The r e s u l t appears t o be a seemingly enduring change i n the honest s e l f - c o n c e p t . One might counter t h a t , given t h a t the accuracy t e s t was always preceded by a speed t e s t , the e f f e c t may be t e m p o r a r i l y primed. In other words, no matter how long the delay, i f s u b j e c t s must respond t o the speed c o n d i t i o n , then a subsequent accuracy t e s t w i l l show apparent i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n . Other s t u d i e s from our l a b o r a t o r y , however, have demonstrated t h a t the same p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s appears i n a between su b j e c t s design (Paulhus & McKay, 1992) . Rebound e f f e c t Most i n t r i g u i n g was our f i n d i n g t h a t the p r a c t i c i n g of a l r e a d y - h e l d negative t r a i t s l e d s u b j e c t s t o subsequently renounce them. This s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t remains wide open f o r s p e c u l a t i o n . Perhaps an undermining process operates when sub j e c t s perceive t h a t they are being r e q u i r e d t o describe themselves w i t h negative t r a i t s . Note, however, t h a t no such undermining appeared f o r p o s i t i v e t r a i t s . F i n a l l y , T a y l o r ' s (1991) m o b i l i z a t i o n - m i n i m i z a t i o n hypothesis suggests t h a t the negative a f f e c t accumulating from repeatedly c l a i m i n g negative t r a i t s would make them seem too 28 negative t o c l a i m afterward. In any case, the o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n of ACSP theory must now be q u a l i f i e d to incorporate the rebound e f f e c t . Note t h a t the r e s u l t s have i n t e r e s t i n g t h e r a p e u t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . Although c o u n t e r - i n t u i t i v e , i t may a c t u a l l y be b e n e f i c i a l f o r depressed or anxious c l i e n t s t o repeatedly avow the negative t r a i t s t h a t are most bothering them. Future D i r e c t i o n s T e s t i n g the L i m i t s . Given t h a t no d i s s i p a t i o n of the a u t o m a t i c i t y e f f e c t s was observed across a 25 minute delay, one wonders how long t h i s change might l a s t . I t may p e r s i s t f o r days, weeks, or longer. On the other hand, longer durations may only be p o s s i b l e i f the amount of p r a c t i c e were increased. This increase could take the form of more p r a c t i c e t r i a l s , or i n the number of days over which p r a c t i c e t r i a l s occurred. I t i s a l s o important t o determine the parameters of s e l f -concept m a l l e a b i l i t y . For i n s t a n c e , some t r a i t s may be more malleable than others. To pursue t h i s q u e s t i o n , Paulhus and McKay have r e c e n t l y completed a study t h a t examines the m a l l e a b i l i t y of 63 t r a i t s chosen from a l l f i v e of the B i g F i v e domains. P r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s suggest t h a t t r a i t s r e l a t e d t o Neuroticism show the g r e a t e s t change wi t h c o g n i t i v e load. As w e l l , only l i s t s of u n r e l a t e d t r a i t s have as yet been automatized using the Paulhus paradigm. I t would be i n f o r m a t i v e t o see i f an e n t i r e c l u s t e r of t r a i t s 29 r e p r e s e n t i n g some cohesive s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n could be automatized t o subsequently induce changes i n s e l f - r a t i n g s on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r dimension. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was r e c e n t l y conducted by Paulhus, McKay, E r i c k s o n , K e l l y , P h i l l i p s & Stenson (1992) t h a t addressed t h i s i s s u e . In t h a t study, s u b j e c t s automatized i n t r o v e r s i o n and e x t r a v e r s i o n i n the l a b o r a t o r y using the r e p e t i t i o n paradigm. F o l l o w i n g the p o s t - t e s t , s u b j e c t s i n t e r a c t e d w i t h a confederate. Several measures of e x t r a v e r s i o n were then taken, i n c l u d i n g l a t e n c y t o i n i t i a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n , s e a t i n g d i s t a n c e from the confederate, and changes i n scores on the NEO-FFI. R e s u l t s showed t h a t mere r e p e t i t i o n of these t r a i t c o n s t r u c t s leads t o p r e - t e s t p o s t - t e s t changes i n scores on the NEO-FFI. Un f o r t u n a t e l y , no changes were observed w i t h these b e h a v i o r a l measures. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a d i f f e r e n t a rray of b e h a v i o r a l measures, perhaps combined wi t h extended p r a c t i c e t r i a l s would y i e l d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . Research on t h i s important question should continue. F i n a l l y , the i s s u e of s e l f - c o n c e p t m a l l e a b i l i t y could be examined f u r t h e r by i n c l u d i n g r e l e v a n t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e measures i n the c u r r e n t design. One measure t h a t merits i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s s e l f - c o n c e p t c l a r i t y (Campbell, T r a p n e l l , Katz, & Lavalee, 1992). Persons high i n c l a r i t y demonstrate higher consistency i n s e l f - r a t i n g s . Presumably, automatization e f f e c t s would be stronger f o r subjects low, r a t h e r than h i g h , on t h i s dimension. 30 Other improvements. I t might be i n f o r m a t i v e as w e l l t o see the e f f e c t s of encouraging s u b j e c t s t o giv e considerable thought t o t h e i r p r e - t e s t t r a i t judgments. In a d d i t i o n , the t r a i t c h e c k - l i s t s could be administered on more than one occasion so t h a t the b a s e l i n e r e l i a b i l i t y of these judgments could be assessed. I t might a l s o be u s e f u l t o employ continuous, r a t h e r than dichotomous, p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t measures so t h a t more s u b t l e changes i n t r a i t judgments could be detected. Although the u t i l i t y of post-experimental i n t e r v i e w s has been challenged by some (e.g., N i s b e t t & Wilson, 1977), i t may be u s e f u l t o query subjects i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n who have changed t h e i r responses. These s u b j e c t s may be able t o provide some i n s i g h t s i n t o the processes mediating the above e f f e c t s . For example, i t would be f a s c i n a t i n g t o ask subjects why they had renounced negative t r a i t s a f t e r p r a c t i c i n g them. The f i n a l g o a l . U l t i m a t e l y , the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r our a u t o m a t i c i t y f i n d i n g s l i e s i n t h e i r t h e r a p e u t i c b e n e f i t s f o r n e u r o t i c s and dépressives. Presumably, these i n d i v i d u a l s have automatized negative s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s over a t l e a s t a p o r t i o n of t h e i r l i v e s . According t o the ACSP model, then, they should manifest a n e g a t i v i t y , r a t h e r than a p o s i t i v i t y b i a s under a t t e n t i o n a l - l o a d c o n d i t i o n s (see a l s o Bargh & Tota, 1988). But, as Coué (1917) suggested many years ago, i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r such i n d i v i d u a l s t o improve t h e i r s e l f - c o n c e p t s 31 by repeatedly c l a i m i n g p o s i t i v e s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s . Although our r e s u l t s support h i s case, our f i n d i n g s suggest th a t r e p e t i t i o n of t h e i r negative t r a i t s may be a l s o be b e n e f i c i a l . Footnotes The order of the two t e s t mode measures, speed and accuracy, was not counterbalanced i n t h i s study. I t could be argued, then, t h a t the r e s u l t s i n the accuracy c o n d i t i o n r e f l e c t an order e f f e c t . However, subsequent research d i d employ a counterbalanced design i n d i c a t e s t h a t accuracy scores do not vary due t o order (Paulhus & McKay, 1992). I t i s important t o note t h a t c a r r y - o v e r e r r o r s were not p o s s i b l e i n the honest impression-management c o n d i t i o n because s u b j e c t s i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n d i d not p r a c t i c e i n c o n s i s t e n t t r a i t s . This c o n d i t i o n was i n c l u d e d merely t o provide a base-rate f o r non carry-over e r r o r s . References Anderson, N.H. (1968). L i k a b l e n e s s r a t i n g s of 555 p e r s o n a l i t y - t r a i t words. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 9, 272-279. Bargh, J.A., & Tota, M.E. (1988). Context-dependent automatic processing i n depression: A c c e s s i b i l i t y of negative c o n s t r u c t s w i t h regard t o s e l f but not others. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 54, 925-939. Baumeister, R.F., Hutton, D.G., & T i c e , D.M. (1989). C o g n i t i v e processes during d e l i b e r a t e s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n : How s e l f - p r e s e n t e r s a l t e r and m i s i n t e r p r e t the behavior of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n p a r t n e r s . J o u r n a l of Experimental S o c i a l Psychology, 25, 59-78. Campbell, J.D., T r a p n e l l , P.D., L a v a l l e , L. & Katz, I . (1992). P e r s o n a l i t y and self-knowledge: Development and v a l i d a t i o n of the s e l f - c o n c e p t c l a r i t y s c a l e . Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Coué, E. (1917). Self-mastery through conscious autosuggestion. London: A l l e n & Unwin. Devine, P.G. (1989). Stereotypes and p r e j u d i c e : Their automatic and c o n t r o l l e d components. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 56, 5-18. F a z i o , R. H., E f f r e i n , E.A., & Falender, V.J. (1981) S e l f -perceptions f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 41, 232-242. F a z i o , R.H., Sanbonmatsu, D.M., Powell, M.C., & Kardes, F.R. (1986). On the automatic a c t i v a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 50, 229-238. Gergen, K.J. (1967). I n t e r a c t i o n goals and p e r s o n a l i s t i c feedback as f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s e l f . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 1, 413-424. Greenberg, J . , & Py s z c z y n s k i , T. (1985). Compensatory s e l f -i n f l a t i o n : A response t o the t h r e a t t o s e l f - r e g a r d of f a i l u r e . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 49, 273-280. Greenwald, A.G. (1980). The t o t a l i t a r i a n ego: F a b r i c a t i o n and r e v i s i o n of personal h i s t o r y . American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 35, 603-618. H e i l b r u n , A.B. (1964). S o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory, s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , and the MMPI. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 61, 377-387. Jones, E.E. (1964). I n g r a t i a t i o n : A s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s . New York: I r v i n g t o n . Kuiper, N.A., O l i n g e r , L . J , MacDonald, M.R., & Shaw, B.F. (1985). In J . Suis & A.G. Greenwald (Eds.), P s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on the s e l f ( V o l . 2, pp. 191-217). H i l l s d a l e , NJ: Erlbaum. K i r b y , D.M., & Gardner, R.C. (1972). E t h n i c stereotypes: Norms on 208 words t y p i c a l l y used i n t h e i r assessment. Canadian J o u r n a l of Psychology, 26, 140-154. 35 Logan, G.D. (1978). A t t e n t i o n i n c h a r a c t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Evidence f o r the a u t o m a t i c i t y of component stages. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 107. 32-63. Logan, G. D. (1980). A t t e n t i o n and a u t o m a t i c i t y i n Stroop and priming t a s k s : Theory and data. C o g n i t i v e Psychology. 12, 523-553. Logan, G.D. (1989). Toward an instance theory of automatization. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 95, 492-527. N i s b e t t , R.E., & Wilson, T.D. (1977). T e l l i n g more than we can know: Verbal r e p o r t s on mental processes. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 84, 231-259. Paulhus, D.L. (1984). Two component models of s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e responding. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 46, 598-609. Paulhus, D.L. (1986). S e l f - d e c e p t i o n and impression management i n t e s t responses. In A. A n g l e i t n e r & J.S. Wiggins (Eds.), P e r s o n a l i t y assessment v i a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . New York: S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g . Paulhus, D.L. ( i n p r e s s ) . Bypassing the w i l l : The automatization of a f f i r m a t i o n s . In D. Wegner & J . Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of Mental C o n t r o l . Englewood C l i f f s , NJ: P r e n t i c e H a l l . Paulhus, D.L., Bruce, N., & S t o f f e r , E. S. (1990). Automatizing s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s . Paper presented at the American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n annual convention, Boston. 36 Paulhus, D.L., & L e v i t t , K. (1987). D e s i r a b l e responding t r i g g e r e d by a f f e c t : Automatic Egotism? Journ a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 52, 245-259. Paulhus, D.L., & Murphy, G. (1987). D i s r u p t i o n of impression management. Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Paulhus, D.L., Graf, P., & Van S e l s t , M. (1989). A t t e n t i o n a l load increases p o s i t i v i t y of s e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n . S o c i a l C o g n i t i o n , 7, 389-400. Paulhus, D.L., M a r t i n , C.L., & Murphy, G. (1992). Some e f f e c t s of aro u s a l on se x - s t e r e o t y p i n g . P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology B u l l e t i n , 18, 325-330. Paulhus, D.L., & S t o f f e r , E.S. (1992). Optimal t r a i t study. Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Paulhus, D.L., S t o f f e r , E.S., E r i c k s o n , L., K e l l y , G., P h i l l i p s , J . , & Stenson, K. (1992). A behavioural study of automatizing s e l f - r e p o r t s . Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Posner, M. I . , & Snyder, C. R. R. (1975). A t t e n t i o n and c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l . In R. L. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and c o g n i t i o n : The Loyola symposium (pp. 55-85). H i l l s d a l e , NJ: Erlbaum. Peeters, G. & C z a p i n s k i , J . (1990). P o s i t i v e - n e g a t i v e asymmetry i n e v a l u a t i o n s : The d i s t i n c t i o n between a f f e c t i v e and i n f o r m a t i o n a l n e g a t i v i t y e f f e c t s . European Review of S o c i a l Psychology, 1, 33-60. 37 P r a t t o , F., & John, O.P. ( i n p r e s s ) . Automatic v i g i l a n c e : The a t t e n t i o n - g r a b b i n g power of negative i n f o r m a t i o n . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology. Ross, L., Lepper, M. R., & Hubbard, M. (1975). Perseverance i n s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n and s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n : Biased a t t r i b u t i o n processes i n the d e b r i e f i n g paradigm. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 32., 880-892. Schlenker, B.R.(1985). I d e n t i t y and s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In B.R. Schlenker (Ed.), The s e l f and s o c i a l l i f e (pp. 65-99). New York: McGraw-Hill. S h r i f f r i n , R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). C o n t r o l l e d and automatic human inf o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g : I I . Perceptual l e a r n i n g , automatic attending and a general theory. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 84, 127-190. Smith, E.R., & Lerner, M. (1986). Development of automatism of s o c i a l judgments. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l Psychology, 50, 246-259. S t o f f e r , E.S., Paulhus, D.L., & Bruce, M.N. (1990). Automatization of s e l f - r e p o r t s . Paper presented at the Canadian P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n annual convention, Ottawa. T a y l o r , S.E. (1991). Asymmetrical e f f e c t s of p o s i t i v e and negative events: The m o b i l i z a t i o n - m i n i m i z a t i o n hypothesis. P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 110, 67-85. 38 T a y l o r , S.E., & Brown, J.D. (1988). I l l u s i o n and w e l l - b e i n g : A s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on mental h e a l t h . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 103, 193-210. Tedeschi, J.T. (1981). Impression management theory and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l research. New York: Academic Press. Tesser, A., & Rosen, S. (1975). The r e l u c t a n c e t o t r a n s m i t bad news. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances i n experimental s o c i a l psychology CVol.8. 193-232). New York: Academic Press. Yogananda, P. (1958). S c i e n t i f i c h e a l i n g a f f i r m a t i o n s . Los Angeles: S e l f - R e a l i z a t i o n F e l l o w s h i p . Table 1. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on E r r o r Rates 39 Source of V a r i a t i o n SS DF MS F S i g of F Within C e l l s 2.62 22 .12 Constant 4.84 1 4.84 40 .58 .00** Delay .07 2 .04 .30 .74 Strategy .16 1 .16 1 .32 . 26 D X S .22 2 .11 .93 .40 Within C e l l s 2.49 22 .11 E r r o r Type .48 1 .48 4. .26 .05 D X E .06 2 .03 .25 .78 S X E 2.89 1 2.89 25, .50 . 00** D X S X E .02 2 .01 .08 .92 Within C e l l s .14 22 .01 Test mode .11 1 .11 17, .14 . 00** D X T .02 2 .01 1, .68 .21 S X T .00 1 .00 .11 .74 D X S X T .01 2 .00 .77 .47 Within C e l l s .23 22 .01 E X T .03 1 .03 2, .63 .11 D X E X T .02 2 .01 .80 .46 S X E X T .05 1 .05 4, .67 .04* D X S X E X T .04 2 .02 1, .68 .20 * P < .05, ** p < .001. 40 Table 2. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - C o n s i s t e n t E r r o r Rates Source of V a r i a t i o n SS DF MS F S i g of F Within C e l l s 3.21 22 .15 Constant 4.19 1 4.19 28.71 .00** Delay .06 2 .03 .21 .81 Strategy 2 . 20 1 2.20 15.05 .00** D X S .16 2 .08 .53 .59 Within C e l l s .17 22 .01 Test Mode .12 1 .12 15.67 . 00** D X T .02 2 .01 1.20 .32 S X T .03 1 .03 3.89 .06* D X S X T .04 2 .02 2.47 .10 * p_ < .10, * p_ < .001. 41 Table 3. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s Source of V a r i a t i o n SS DF MS F S i g of F Within C e l l s 1.91 23 .08 Constant 1.14 1 1.14 13.73 .00* Delay .07 2 .03 .40 .67 Strategy .88 1 .88 10.56 .00* D X S .09 2 .04 .51 .60 Within C e l l s .20 23 .01 Test Mode .01 1 .01 1.55 .22 D X T .02 2 .01 1.10 .34 S X T .02 1 .02 2.32 .14 D X S X T .01 2 .00 .34 .71 * p_ < .001. 42 Table 4. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s : D i s c l a i m i n g Negative f o r Honest and Fake-Bad S t r a t e g i e s Source of V a r i a t i o n SS DF MS F S i g of F Within C e l l s 2.81 27 . 10 Constant 2.70 1 2.70 25.89 .00*** Strategy .39 1 .39 3.73 .06* Within C e l l s .46 27 .02 Test Mode .16 1 .16 9. 34 .01** S X T .01 1 .01 .30 .59 * p_ < .10; ** E = .01; *** p. < .001. Table 5. Mixed-Effects ANOVA on P r a c t i c e - I n c o n s i s t e n t E r r o r s : D i s c l a i m i n g P o s i t i v e f o r Honest and Fake-Good S t r a t e g i e s Source of V a r i a t i o n SS DF MS F S i g of F Within C e l l s .16 28 .01 Constant .05 1 .05 9.89 .00* Strategy .00 1 .00 .69 .42 Within C e l l s .12 28 .00 Test Mode .01 1 .01 2 .65 .12 S X T .02 1 .02 3.38 .08 * p_ < .01. 44 Figure Captions 1. Reaction times as a f u n c t i o n of p r a c t i c e t r i a l and f a k i n g s t r a t e g y . 2. P r a c t i c e c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s as a f u n c t i o n of t e s t mode and f a k i n g s t r a t e g y . 3. P r a c t i c e i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s as a f u n c t i o n of t e s t mode and f a k i n g s t r a t e g y . 4. P r a c t i c e i n c o n s i s t e n t e r r o r s a f t e r s e p a r a t i n g p o s i t i v e and negative d i s c l a i m i n g . 45 46 47 49 Appendix A 50 TRAIT QUESTIONNAIRE: FAKE GOOD For each of the f o l l o w i n g t r a i t s , please respond "ME" or "NOT ME", while f a k i n g good. NOT ME ME 1. t o l e r a n t 2. greedy 3. q u i e t 4. generous 5. boring 6. s e c r e t i v e 7. p a t i e n t 8. i n s u l t i n g 9. conventional 10. r e l i a b l e 11. conceited 12. extravagant 51 TRAIT QUESTIONNAIRE: FAKE BAD For each of the f o l l o w i n g t r a i t s , please respond "ME" or "NOT ME", while f a k i n g bad. NOT ME ME 1. t o l e r a n t 2. greedy 3. q u i e t 4. generous 5. boring 6. s e c r e t i v e 7. p a t i e n t 8. i n s u l t i n g 9. conventional 10. r e l i a b l e 11. conceited 12. extravagant 52 TRAIT QUESTIONNAIRE: HONEST For each of the f o l l o w i n g t r a i t s , please respond "ME" or "NOT ME", w h i l e answering honestly. NOT ME ME 1. t o l e r a n t 2. greedy 3. q u i e t 4. generous 5. b o r i n g 6. s e c r e t i v e 7. p a t i e n t 8. i n s u l t i n g 9. conventional 10. r e l i a b l e 11. c o n c e i t e d 12. extravagant 53 Appendix B 54 Music Ratings Rate the f o l l o w i n g songs i n terms of music q u a l i t y and l y r i c s ( i . e . , the words). Use f o l l o w i n g r a t i n g s c a l e f o r music and l y r i c s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Poor Moderate E x c e l l e n t I f you are not f a m i l i a r enough w i t h the song, check Don't Know I t T i t l e Performer Music L y r i c s Don't know i t Fast Car Tracy Chapman S t i l l Be Loving You P r a i r i e Oyster B i l l y Jean Michael Jackson Your Song E l t o n John Need You Tonite INXS Running Up That H i l l Kate Bush Whoever's i n N.E. Reba M c l n t i r e Have You Seen Her M.C. Hammer I c e b l i n k Cocteau Twins Crazy f o r You Madonna Rockin i n Free World N e i l Young Stairway t o Heaven Led Zeppelin People are People Dépêche Mode Lady i n Red C h r i s DeBerg Fi v e and Dime Nancy G r i f f i t h In Your Eyes Peter G a b r i e l Hotel C a l i f o r n i a The Eagles Teddy Bear E l v i s P r e s l e y Born i n USA B. Springsteen Junk How Soon Is Now Famous Blue Raincoat Saving A l l My Love My Way Troy Grape Vine F i l l t h e i r Shoes When Doves Cry Lets Go t o Bed Blue Sky Mine Been Caught S t e a l i n ' Add i t Up My I s l a n d Too Please Please Me 59th St Bridge Ice, Ice, Baby k.d. lang The Smiths J e n n i f e r Warnes Whitney Houston Frank S i n a t r a Sinead O'Connor Marvin Gaye George Jones P r i n c e The Cure Midnight O i l Jane's A d d i c t i o n V i o l e n t Femmes R i t a McNeil Beatles Simon/Garfunkel V a n i l l a Ice 56 Appendix C 57 Cassette Tape Rating Form A f t e r each song on the c a s s e t t e , r a t e i t i n terms of music q u a l i t y and l y r i c s ( i . e . , the words). Don't stop the tape. Use f o l l o w i n g r a t i n g s c a l e f o r music and l y r i c s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Poor Moderate E x c e l l e n t Number Music L y r i c s 2. 4 . 5. 6. 

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