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Waterfront development in the post-industrial city : a profile Mikicich, Stephen Nenad 1990

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WATERFRONT DEVELOPMENT IN THE POST-INDUSTRIAL CITY: A PROFILE By STEPHEN NENAD MIKICICH B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (PLANNING) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1990 © Stephen Nenad Miklcich, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. S c h o o l Department of C o m m u n i t y S R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 11 O c t o b e r 1 9 9 0  DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the significance of waterfront redevelopment in the post-industrial city. The context for this analysis is the advent of post-industrial society - as evidenced by the economic, social and physical restructuring of ci t i e s . My objectives in undertaking this research are to gain a better understanding of planning issues in waterfront redevelopment; to examine the use of waterfront redevelopment as a policy tool for achieving community objectives; and to ascertain the broader implications of waterfront redevelopment in post-industrial society. My research is based on an extensive literature review, several interviews, and more in-depth study of selected waterfront projects. The significance of urban waterfront redevelopment is studied from three different perspectives: (i) the physical restructuring of citi e s in the post-industrial period; ( i i ) the experiences of various waterfront communities; and ( i i i ) the case study of New Westminster, British Columbia. Waterfront redevelopment is significant in the post-industrial city as a public policy tool for achieving broader social and economic development objectives. Through the redevelopment of their waterfronts, communities have an opportunity to redress a range of social and economic issues. The social development potential is seldom realized, however, because redevelopment is primarily commercially-motivated. i i i In theory, the urban waterfront has been reclaimed for a l l residents of the post-industrial city. The notion of public access and the creation of public amenities are fundamental principles of waterfront development. In practice, however, the benefits of a revitalized waterfront are not shared equally. As the waterfront profiles demonstrate, the nature of the waterfront land-use mix is generally biased towards high-end commercial development and luxury hous ing. The nature and form of new waterfront developments raises questions about elitism and equity in the post-industrial city. If some level of economic integration is not achieved, the waterfront will not have been reclaimed for a l l residents of the post-industrial city, but, rather - for the post-industrial urban e l i t e . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i CONTENTS i v L I S T OF TABLES v i L I S T OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 THE POST-INDUSTRIAL CITY 6 1.1 The New Urban Economy 7 1.2 Urban S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e 11 1.3 L i v a b i l i t y : Reform I d e o l o g y t o Economic Development S t r a t e g y 16 1.4 The B u i l t E n v i r o n m e n t 23 2.0 THE REDEVELOPMENT OF URBAN WATERFRONTS 30 2.1 The E v o l u t i o n of t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n Urban W a t e r f r o n t 32 2.2 W a t e r f r o n t Development as a C a t a l y s t f o r E c o n o m i c Development 36 3.0 WATERFRONT PROFILES 4 3 3.1 " B a t t e r y Park C i t y , " New York C i t y 45 3.2 D o c k l a n d s R e d e v e l o p m e n t , London, E n g l a n d 61 3.3 C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t & R a i l w a y L a n d s , T o r o n t o 75 3.4 S m a l l e r W a t e r f r o n t Communities 91 i v 4.0 CASE STUDY: HISTORICAL AND POLICY BACKGROUND 4.1 D e s c r i p t i o n 99 4.2 H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i c y B a c k g r o u n d 101 4.3 R e n a i s s a n c e of t h e R o y a l C i t y 107 4.4 Summary 117 5.0 CASE STUDY: NEW WESTMINSTER'S DOWNTOWN REVITALIZATION STRATEGY 5.1 New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s Downtown R e v i t a l i z a t i o n S t r a t e g y (1977) 119 5.2 The Community P l a n f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r 121 5.3 An Improved Development A p p r o v a l P r o c e s s 124 5.4 F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y Development Company 126 5.5 E l e m e n t s o f t h e R e v i t a l i z a t i o n S t r a t e g y 134 5.5.1 I n s t i t u t i o n a l A n c h o r s 135 5.5.2 The R e v i t a l i z e d W a t e r f r o n t 136 5.5.3 C o l u m b i a S t r e e t U p g r a d i n g 138 5.6 Summary 141 6.0 CASE STUDY: AN EVALUATION OF "WESTMINSTER QUAY" 6.1 O v e r v i e w o f Development 142 6.2 The Image of t h e New W a t e r f r o n t 145 6.3 The W a t e r f r o n t C a t a l y s t 147 6.4 A C o m p a r i s o n w i t h O t h e r W a t e r f r o n t P r o j e c t s .... 149 6.5 N e g a t i v e Impacts o f W a t e r f r o n t R e v i t a l i z a t i o n .. 153 6.6 Summary 155 7.0 CONCLUSIONS 156 BIBLIOGRAPHY 159 v L I S T OF TABLES TABLE DESCRIPTION PAGE 1.1 - P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l F o r c e s F a v o u r i n g t h e R edevelopment of Urban I n d u s t r i a l w a t e r f r o n t s 27 1.2 - P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l F o r c e s F a v o u r i n g P a r t i c u l a r A t t r i b u t e s of New W a t e r f r o n t s .... 28 2.1 - Common O b j e c t i v e s o f W a t e r f r o n t R e development 41 3.1 - C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f W a t e r f r o n t P r o j e c t s 44 3.2 - C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f W a t e r f r o n t Development i n S m a l l e r Communities 98 5.1 - A R a n k i n g o f t h e " C a t a l y s t s " 141 v i L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE DESCRIPTION PAGE 3.1 - S i t e Map of B a t t e r y Park C i t y 46 3.2 - World F i n a n c i a l Center at B a t t e r y Park C i t y .. 53 3.3 - "The Urban Room" - p u b l i c a r t , B a t t e r y Park C i t y 56 3.4 - Waterfront Esplanade, B a t t e r y Park C i t y 56 3.5 - View of Canary Wharf 72 3.6 - S i t e Map of Harbourfront 82 3.7 - C o r r i g a n , The Toronto S t a r f 19 June 1990 84 3.8 - H i s t o r i c Cannery B u i l d i n g s , Steveston, B.C. .. 94 3.9 - "Main S t r e e t " R e v i t a l i z a t i o n , Cobourg, Ont. .. 95 4.1 - New Westminster i n the GVRD (Map) 100 4.2 - Map of Downtown New Westminster 100 4.3 - Downtown Plan Boundaries 114 4.4 - Proposed Development Contract and Approval Process 116 6.1 - The Inn at Westminster Quay 147 v i i v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis is dedicated to my parents - Peter and Nada Mikicich. The completion of this work is a testament to their undying love and support during seemingly endless months of research, writing and editing. For this, I am grateful. I would like to thank Professor Brahm Wiesman for his kindness, patience and wisdom in supervising my thesis research. His enthusiastic support provided a much-needed source of encouragement. I would also like to thank Dr. David Ley for his valuable input in the early stages of research, and for serving as a second reader on my oral examination committee. Finally, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation for providing me with financial assistance during the 1988-1989 academic year. 1 INTRODUCTION The dawning of the post-industrial age has been marked by an economic, social and physical restructuring of the industrial city. For planners and policy-makers, this has brought about new development opportunities in the core areas of c i t i e s . In particular, the confluence of changing technologies, socioeconomic shifts, and public policy decisions since the mid-1960's, has made large tracts of waterfront land available for redevelopment. This has presented planners in many communities with an opportunity to reclaim the urban waterfront for public use, to introduce a new set of urban land-uses, and to guide the revitalization of blighted areas adjacent to the waterfront. While some amount of waterfront redevelopment is ubiquitous across North America, and is well-advanced in many communities -there has been l i t t l e academic inquiry into the significance of waterfront redevelopment in the post-industrial city. A work such as this is timely because i t draws attention to the post-industrial waterfront, evaluates the significance of redevelopment activity, and, hopefully, generates interest in further study. My objectives in undertaking this research are: to gain a better understanding of the planning issues involved in waterfront redevelopment; to measure the significance of the waterfront in the context of urban restructuring; to examine the use of waterfront redevelopment as a policy tool for achieving community objectives; 2 and to ascertain the broader implications of waterfront redevelopment in post-industrial society. My research is based on a literature review on: (1) the post-industrial city, and (2) the general phenomenon of urban waterfront development. This has been supplemented by more in-depth study of selected waterfront projects, and interviews with planners and other professionals. My findings are presented in three sections: a general discussion on the post-industrial waterfront, profiles of selected waterfront projects, and a detailed case study of waterfront development in New Westminster, British Columbia. It is anticipated that a case study of the New Westminster experience will identify the common issues that are dealt with by a l l waterfront planners, regardless of location. The case study will also demonstrate the use of waterfront development as a policy instrument in achieving broader public objectives. Redevelopment of the New Westminster waterfront is an ideal case study because i t was envisioned as one of several catalysts for revitalizing the city's blighted downtown area, and transforming i t into a "Regional Town Centre.,,:L In Chapter One, the theory of post-industrial society, as advanced by Bell (1973), Perloff (1980), Ley (1980), Noyelle (1986), and others provides the appropriate context in which to analyze the 1The Greater Vancouver Regional District's (GVRD's) Livable Region Plan (1975) called for the development of Regional Town Centres, or "downtowns," in suburban municipalities. The intent of the Plan was to channel population and employment growth into designated Town Centres, to promote a balance of jobs to population in each part of the region. 3 redevelopment of urban waterfronts. The transition from industrial to post-industrial society is essentially an urban phenomenon. The physical manifestations of structural change are evident in the built-form of the post-industrial city - and, in particular, in the physical characteristics of the waterfront. The post-industrial city is characterized by a service-based economy, an occupational structure that favours professional and highly-skilled occupations, a new urban e l i t e , a restructuring of the traditional land-use pattern, and a new ideology of l i v a b i l i t y . The p o l i t i c a l response to the rapid social and economic changes of the 1960's and early 1970's was the development of a "Livable City." Livability, in the p o l i t i c a l sense, means the implementation of policies to preserve and enhance desirable aspects of city l i f e -such as the preservation of environmental quality and economic vi a b i l i t y , and the enhancement of l i f e s t y l e . Today, the notion of l i v a b i l i t y is a pervasive aspect of planning initiatives for the waterfront. This is evident in the requirements for public access to the waterfront, and the development of public amenities in the core areas of c i t i e s . The emphasis, however, is not so much on quality of l i f e as i t is on economic development. If ci t i e s are to survive in the post-industrial period, they must become more attractive to skilled workers, potential investors and new economic a c t i v i t i e s . In order to do this, c i t i e s are capitalizing on the amenity value of their waterfronts through significant public investment in new amenities, 4 infrastracture, and other catalysts for stimulating private investment. Chapter Two addresses the general phenomenon of waterfront redevelopment. It begins with a discussion on the historic role of urban waterfronts, and their continuous adaptation to meet the contemporary needs of urban society. The discussion focuses on the use of waterfront redevelopment as an economic development tool, and poses the following questions: How can citi e s of different size, and with different social and economic circumstances, capitalize on a revitalized waterfront? What is the motivation behind waterfront development projects in various-sized communities? Who ultimately benefits from waterfront revitalization, and at what social cost? These questions are addressed in Chapter Three, through profiles of selected waterfront projects in several communities. These include New York's "Battery Park City," London's "Docklands" developments, Toronto's "Harbourfront" and "Railway Lands," and a composite profile of smaller waterfront communities in Canada and the United States. Inherent in this profile method is a comparative analysis based on community size and location. The intent in this chapter is to develop an analytical framework for understanding the broader implications of waterfront redevelopment. By developing an understanding of common planning issues, opportunities and constraints for waterfront development, and by recognizing the unique circumstances of different communities, I will be able to judge the wisdom of planning decisions made at New Westminster. 5 The next three chapters are dedicated to a case study of waterfront development at "Westminster Quay." Chapter Four provides a brief history of the city of New Westminster, and outlines municipal and senior government policies that have impacted on the city's downtown and waterfront areas. It concludes with a discussion on the role of a revitalized waterfront in the renaissance of New Westminster. Chapter Five outlines the revitalization strategy for downtown New Westminster, and evaluates the significance of its various elements. The focus is on the redeveloped waterfront and the catalytic role i t was to play in the revitalization program. In Chapter Six, "Westminster Quay" is evaluated in light of existing development opportunities, and the expectations of planners, politicians and the public. Particular emphasis is placed on the waterfront's new image, and its effectiveness as an economic development tool. My conclusions about waterfront development and the catalytic role of waterfront projects are presented in Chapter Seven. Two underlying themes are the notion of communities in "transition," and the question of equity in the post-industrial city. 1.0 THE POST-INDUSTRIAL CITY In a paper entitled "Liberal Ideology and the Post-Industrial City," David Ley (1980) advances the post-industrial thesis in his examination of the Livable City ideology - which emerged in Vancouver in the late 1960's. Ley argues that "an understanding of the emerging urban landscape requires a prior grasp of wide-ranging processes of change in society i t s e l f . " 1 This idea is echoed in the writings of Hardwick (1974), Mills (1986), Law (1988) and Tweedale (1988). Following this premise - the theory of post-industrial society is presented, in this chapter, as an appropriate context for the analysis of the redevelopment of urban waterfronts. The discussion will focus on the characteristics of a post-industrial city, the expression of post-industrial values in the built-form of the city, and the policy implications of the shift to a service-based economy. Harvey S. Perloff (1980) states that the advent of the "services age" has placed ci t i e s and metropolitan regions in the forefront of a major national transformation. 2 For planners and policy-makers, the challenge in guiding the transformation of urban society is to anticipate and interpret structural change, and to respond with appropriate policy initiatives for restructuring the local economy, and accommodating new lif e s t y l e and land-use ^David Ley, "Liberal Ideology and the Postindustrial City," Annals of the Association of American Geographers,. 70 (1980), 240. 2Harvey S. Perloff, Planning the Post-Industrial City. (Washington, D.C: American Planning Association, 1980), p.15. 7 opportunities. The complexity of these tasks is apparent in the magnitude of the changes that are occurring. As Perloff argues, capturing the essence of a societal transformation in a label is not easy nor, in fact, is i t a simple task to distinguish the essence from the derived characteristics. This phenomenon involves the way people make a living and use technology, the way they live and relate to each other and - even more important for ci t i e s - where they live and work . 3 1.1 The New Urban Economy The term "post-industrial" was coined by Daniel Bell in 1959, in a series of seminars on sectoral change. According to Bell, a post-industrial society is based on services. Hence, i t is a game between persons. What counts is not raw muscle power, or energy, but information. The central person is the professional, for he is equipped, by his education and training, to provide the kinds of s k i l l which are increasingly demanded in the post-industrial society. If an industrial society is defined by the quantity of goods as marking a standard of living, the post-industrial society is defined by the quality of l i f e as measured by the services and amenities - health, education, recreation, and the arts - which are now deemed desirable and possible for everyone.* The emergence of a post-industrial society does not signify a decline in industry in terms of output or value-added. However, i t does point to a major transformation of the occupational structure. The introduction of new technologies to primary industries, such as agriculture and resource extraction, has made these activities less dependent on labour inputs. As Walter Hardwick (1984) argues, "the agriculture and extractive sectors have benefited tremendously from 3Harvey S. Perloff, 1980, p.15. ••Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1973), p.27. 8 the substitution of technology for labour and posted productivity gains exceeding most industrial and service sectors." 3 Similarly, technological advancement in manufacturing, transportation and shipping has led to a revolution in the way that goods are produced and distributed. As Thierry Noyelle (1986) suggests, the metaphor for the transformation under way is what is happening in, say, automobile manufacturing. Instead of putting large numbers of blue-collar workers on assembly lines or in the shops of part suppliers, we are now replacing them with robots, leading in turn to increasing demand for engineers employed in product design and development, for systems analysts and programmers to develop software to run computer-aided manufacturing technologies, or for technicians and other skilled workers to program and manage the robots. 8 The extractive and manufacturing sectors have been declining in relative importance, in terms of employment, since the early part of the 20th century. In contrast, service-based industries have grown steadily as major sources of new employment. In 1911, the ratio of production to service employment in British Columbia was 73 percent to 27 percent. By 1941, the ratio was 58/42 and, by 1981, i t f e l l to 31/69.7 Though the numbers vary between regions, the statistics for British Columbia are representative of Canada as a whole. In the United States, over 70 percent of nonagricultural jobs were 'Walter Hardwick, "Transformation of the West From Industrial to Post-Industrial Society," in A.W. Rasporovich, ed., The Making  of the Modern West: Western Canada Since 1945f (Calgary: The University of Calgary Press, 1984), p.89. "Thierry Noyelle, "Economic Transformation," The Annals of  the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and Social Sciences. 488 (November 1986), 9-17. "MSource: Statistics Canada, Census of Canada, 1911, 1941, 1981) 9 service-related by 1977, while less than 30 percent were goods-related - a reversal of the ratios in 1900.s Noyelle argues that the economic transformation of industrial society has been brought about by underlying structural changes -such as the rise of services, the advent of new technology, the emerging role of small firms, and the internationalization of the new economy. According to Noyelle, the rise of services reflects a "dual transformation" in what the economy produces and how i t produces: In terms of what the economy produces -that i s , in terms of final output - there has been increasing demand for final services by consumers throughout the postwar period - principally in areas of education, health, and public services. This has been the result of the relative drop in price of manufactured goods, the growing wealth of the nation, and, hence, increasing discretionary spending for things that earlier may not have been considered part of the necessities of l i f e . ...In terms of how the economy produces, the advent of services represents a fundamental transformation in the way final outputs - both goods and services - are produced. As such, i t is marked by the formidable growth of intermediate service inputs that are purchased by firms at intermediate stages of production. These ...include transportation, communication, wholesaling, finance, as well as professional services such as accounting, legal counselling, management consulting, or even advertising. 9 Noyelle points to the emergence of small firms as a major source of new employment in the post-industrial period. Whereas the previous economic era is characterized by the large firm, mass production and vertical integration - the new era is becoming known BDavid Ley, 1980, 241. 9Thierry Noyelle, November 1986, 10-11. 10 for specialization and flexible production (i.e., vertical disintegration). "Under vertical disintegration, firms tend to specialize in types and classes of production, rather than in the production of large quantities of specific outputs as in mass production. , , : L O Within the large firm, the majority of business transactions for intermediate goods and services take place internally - with few economic spinoffs for other businesses. The vertical disintegration of firms has led to the development of agglomeration economies.11 The more market-interdependent firms are becoming, the greater their need for proximity to one another. A case in point is the clustering of motion picture support services - e.g., talent agencies, recording studios, modeling and film schools, and post-production f a c i l i t i e s - in Vancouver's Yaletown d i s t r i c t . Another characteristic of the new economy is its "footlooseness." Industries are becoming more international in character but, as Noyelle argues - the relocation of economic activity is not only guided by a search for lower operating costs, but also for a skilled labour force. 1- 2 Using the example of the motion picture industry - American production companies came to British Columbia, in the early 1980's, to take advantage of a favourable monetary exchange rate. Since that time, British "Thierry Noyelle, November 1986, 13. ll-"Agglomeration economies" are a geographic clustering of interdependent business establishments. 1 2 I b i d . , November 1986, 13. 11 Columbia has developed a reputation for a r t i s t i c talent, highly-skilled technicians, scenic locations, and excellent production f a c i l i t i e s . Today, there are numerous motion picture support services located throughout the province. And, in addition to foreign film productions, British Columbia has been able to develop an indigenous film industry, based in the Lower Mainland. LsJ. Urban Social Structure The introduction of new technologies and their impact on the occupational structure have brought about several socio-cultural changes. The f i r s t , and perhaps most obvious, is the growth of higher education. Limited opportunities for manual and unskilled labour, and a corresponding increase in the demand for skilled technicians and professionals has led to a general upskilling of the workforce. Education and s k i l l development are considered prerequisites for an economic livelihood in post-industrial society. However, access to higher education has traditionally been limited to households with sufficient financial means. If the children of modest-income families are not provided with adequate financial assistance to cover the costs of education, they may be denied the requisite s k i l l s to compete in the post-industrial job market. For those people already in the workforce - employed as manual or unskilled workers - further education and job training will be required i f they are to remain competitive. However, as Noyelle argues, studies in the United States have shown that, for many older 12 employees, the transition to a post-industrial service job is not an easy one: Among older workers, retraining seems largely unsuccessful partly because of a lack of educational preparation - most older workers did not even graduate from high school - and partly for cultural reasons - the world of white-collar work is, culturally speaking, a world apart from that which they have known a l l their lives. Early retirement may often be the least painful way of dealing with many of them.1-3 These socio-economic trends are also reflected in Canadian immigration policies which are now biased in favour of highly-skilled or professional occupations, and wealthy entrepreneurs.3-4 There is no longer a demand for farmers and manual or unskilled labourers. Today, there is growing resentment against newcomers who possess the education, s k i l l s or financial means that are required in a post-industrial society - the attributes that many Canadians may be lacking. While there has always been inequality in Canadian society, the dawning of a new economic era has exacerbated class distinctions, and has given rise to a new urban e l i t e , dominated by highly-educated professionals. As David Ley points out, there is an important corollary to the numerical increase of senior white collar employees and professionals. These occupations enjoy the highest social prestige, whether the assessment is derived from the indicators of income and education or from perceived job rankings held by the public at large. ...We might expect, therefore, that these professional occupations will contain a Thierry Noyelle, November 1986, 17. "Based on Employment and Immigration Canada's point system for immigration application under the "Independent" category. 13 disproportionate share of a postindustrial state's tastemakers and opinion leaders. 1 9 The ascendancy of a new urban elite is evidenced by the economic and p o l i t i c a l clout of the young urban professional -better known by the popular acronym, "yuppy." Post-industrial urban culture is essentially a yuppy culture or, as David Ley terms, a "culture of consumption."16 As a group, yuppies place considerable importance on self-fulfillment, socio-economic status, and lifestyle opportunities. With a secure economic base, they represent the present day counterparts of Veblen's leisure class, displaying the canons of good taste, intent upon the aesthetic. Their lif e s t y l e is commonly consumption and status oriented in the pursuit of self-actualization, while their prestige is considerable and in many ways they are national opinion leaders. They are sensitive to amenity and social cachet in the places they adopt; an industrial landscape is anathema to them.17 Yuppies represent a powerful segment of the "baby boom" generation. Having grown up in a period of sustained economic growth and relative prosperity, they have had the advantages of higher education and new employment opportunities in professional, managerial, technical, and other service occupations. Given the economic clout of this segment of the population - i t is not surprising that the yuppy li f e s t y l e has had a considerable impact on the social and physical make-up of the post-industrial city. 1 BDavid Ley, 1980, 241. l sClass Notes, Geography 457, University of British Columbia, Spring 1985. 1 7David Ley, 1980, 243. 14 By comparison, earlier generations were deprived of higher education and economic opportunity as a consequence of war and depression. Later generations, on the other hand, are facing an uncertain future in an increasingly competitive society. Higher education has become a basic necessity but i t provides no guarantees of employment. Other demographic factors have also played a role in shaping the post-industrial city. These include an aging population, a higher incidence of single-parent families, postponement of marriage and child-bearing among young adults, and the emergence of alternative lifestyles - a l l of which have contributed to a growing number of smaller households. Coupled with the consumption-oriented post-industrial l i f e s t y l e , these demographic trends have generated new demand for alternative housing forms such as apartments and townhomes. Changes in the urban social structure are evident in cities across Canada, but - as Barton Reid (1988) points out - the social and economic forces that are shaping Canadian cities vary in nature, impact and magnitude, from one city to the next. Reid argues that the evolution of the new middle class is not automatic but (is) bound up in the particular time and place articulation of economic, social and p o l i t i c a l forces. ...When we talk about the new middle class we are talking about a complex social phenomena which does not therefore produce the same effects in every city. 1- 8 1 8Barton Reid, "The Story of a New Middle Class: The Birth and Evolution of a New Urban Middle Class in Canada," City Magazine, 10:1 (Spring 1988), 33. 15 The transition to a post-industrial city appears to be most advanced in Toronto and Vancouver - where the urban reform movement gained p o l i t i c a l control in the early 1970's. It is in these two cities that a powerful office economy has created a heated market for inner-city real estate. And, as a consequence of gentrification and redevelopment in inner-city neighbourhoods - there has been considerable displacement of lower-income households through a depletion of the existing stock of affordable housing. 1 9 Social and economic disparity in post-industrial society is perhaps most evident in the urban housing markets. In many Canadian cities - and, in particular, in the growth centres of Toronto and Vancouver - housing affordability has become a major issue facing planners and policy-makers. Of particular concern is the weakening of affordability for tenant households and first-time home buyers. 2 0 In general, there has been a lowering of expectations with respect to size, quality and location of housing units. Because of affordability problems, many potential first-time buyers are remaining in the rental market for an indefinite period of time -contributing to lower vacancy rates and upward pressure on rents. x'Barton Reid, Spring 1988, 33-34. 2°"First-time buyers" are a household group in which the household maintainer is aged 25-34 years. They are regarded by the housing industry as a group of "temporary renters" who will eventually enter the home-ownership market through the purchase of a starter home (source: CMHC, Vancouver CMA Affordability Study, December 1989). 16 Ir 3 L i vability: Reform Ideology to Economic Development Strategy The advent of post-industrial society marks a break with the past, in p o l i t i c a l as well as social and economic terms. The urban reform movement of the late 1960's and early 1970's was a reaction against decades of growth-oriented municipal policies that favoured business interests over those of inner-city residents. It raised public awareness about the physical environment of cities and the quality of urban l i f e . And, i t challenged the post-war emphasis on low-density suburban expansion, the massive redevelopment of city centres, and the proliferation of freeway proposals. It was during this period that the central city was rediscovered as a potentially dynamic living environment. What reformers saw as valuable in the older neighbourhoods was a diversity of people, lifestyles and land-uses, and a true sense of place. The central city provided greater opportunities for interpersonal contact and a variety of urban cultural experiences. The urban reform movement coincided with the enunciation of a "new liberalism" in Canada, and the emergence of a new urban e l i t e . 2 3 - The underlying theme or ideology behind the movement was an emphasis on l i v a b i l i t y . As David Ley (1980) argues, the emergence of a new professional, technical, and administrative el i t e has given expression to a heightened lif e s t y l e of consumption, and a concern with the aesthetic and the realms of human sensibility. A set of values aspiring to a higher quality of l i f e , a livable city, could not help but breed skepticism of traditional growth David Ley, 1980, 238. 17 boosterism, regarding i t at best as banal, at worst as destructive. 2 2 In the city of Vancouver, the notion of a livable city found p o l i t i c a l expression through the establishment of a reform-minded po l i t i c a l party - The Electors' Action Movement (TEAM) in 1968. In control of City Council from 1972 to 1976, TEAM'S primary objective was to develop a more humane and aesthetic city, with particular emphasis on the downtown core and inner-city neighbourhoods.23 Some of TEAM'S major initiatives include the development of a downtown pedestrian-transit mall along Granville Street, the preservation and beautification of Gastown, the restoration and adaptive re-use of the Orpheum Theatre and the old courthouse, the "downzoning" of residential areas to stop high-rise development, the implementation of a tree-planting and landscaping program, the addition of new park space, and improved public access to the waterfront. In short, public spaces were protected, animated and humanized; a more v i t a l and even festive ambience was sought and to some extent achieved, most notable in a series of successful annual spring and summer festivals in the parks, beaches, and bays around (the) central city, whose sponsors included the city's social planning department. ...The quality of urban experience, the satisfaction of the 'higher needs' of human sensibility, became a daily preoccupation of city h a l l . 2 * In the late 1960's, the pending expiration of many industrial leases pointed to the eventual redevelopment of the False Creek 2 2David Ley, 1980, 247. 2 3 I b i d . , 1980, 251. 2*Ibid., 1980, 251. 18 basin. While the NPA2S council pushed for continued industrial development, TEAM1s development policy (1968) suggested an innovative mix of residential, commercial, recreational and compatible industrial uses. Through redevelopment, False Creek would become a microcosm of the livable c i t y . 2 6 In designing the new False Creek community - architects, planners and politicians attempted to create diversity and v i t a l i t y through innovative physical design, and a policy of social mix. It was believed that an appropriate mix of residents of varying age, ethnicity, l i f e s t y l e and income would contribute to a livable community: Communities which offer l i t t l e social and physical diversity are unhealthy. People living in them have limited access to the wide range of values, habits and beliefs which are the essential ingredients of urban 1ivin g . 2 7 However, despite its emphasis on neighbourhood preservation, public amenities and social mix - the livable city ideology, as manifested in the development of False Creek, proved to be short-sighted and somewhat e l i t i s t . While False Creek was intended to house a diverse community of people, the unintended impacts of redevelopment have included the loss of affordable housing and the displacement of lower-income households in the adjacent 2 9The Non-Partisan Association (NPA) is a civ i c p o l i t i c a l party with traditional ties to the business community. 2 BDavid Ley, 1980, 253-254. 2 7Ruth Rodger, Creating a Livable Inner City Community - Vancouver's Experience,. Vancouver: Agency Press Limited, December 1976, p.8. 19 neighbourhood of Fairview Slopes. Caroline A. Mills (1986) argues that the transformation of Fairview Slopes is inextricably linked to the "changing positive and negative 'externalities' offered by the south shore of the Creek." 2 8 Physical changes in Fairview Slopes have been accompanied by a major turnover in the population and a displacement of lower income groups. ...A study of revitalization in Vancouver between 1971 and 1981, based on occupation and education measures, shows that the tract encompassing False Creek and Fairview Slopes experienced the greatest increase in social status. ...A shift in population characteristics ...between 1971 and 1981 is exemplified by the increase in the proportions with senior white-collar occupations. ...This profile f i t s the common image of gentrification as a process of class succession. 2 9 The False Creek example demonstrates that the more livable a place is - the more people will want to live there. And, unless there is sufficient public control over the local housing market -increased consumer demand will bring about higher prices for land and housing, and w i l l lead to further displacement of vulnerable household groups - which include young, elderly and disabled people, and a growing number of single-parent families. The erosion of social mix in gentrified neighbourhoods has resulted in greater homogeneity and, arguably - an erosion of l i v a b i l i t y . As David Ley argues, a livable city ideology and an ideology of equity are only coincidental in special cases where economic strength is assured, public intervention is active, and private interests are constrained. ...In free 2 aCaroline A. Mills, "Lifestyle and Landscape on the Fairview Slopes," City Magazine. 9:1 (Winter 1986/1987), p.20. 2 9 I b i d . , (Winter 1986/1987), 22-23. 20 market conditions an urban strategy favouring a high level of consumption with style w i l l only serve to attract the wealthy and penalize social groups with limited market power.30 In terms of public policy, " l i v a b i l i t y " is more than a quality of l i f e issue; i t also has significant consequences for urban economies. The enhancement of li f e s t y l e opportunities through the development of public amenities has enabled cit i e s to remain competitive in a post-industrial economy. By adopting an amenities strategy for economic development, cit i e s are hoping to attract new service industries, build a "replacement" economy, and resurrect a positive public image. The transition from industrial to post-industrial has not been an easy one; and, for many communities, the loss of a resource or manufacturing base has brought about economic and physical decline. In guiding the economic restructuring of c i t i e s , planners and policy-makers have had to undertake new and innovative development strategies. These include: the provision of economic and tax incentives for newly-locating firms, community image-building and promotion, public investment in education, amenities and "soft" infrastructure, and the formation of partnerships with the private and non-profit sectors to realize development objectives. In most cases, building a post-industrial service economy has necessitated a major program of physical and economic revitalization. Physical improvements include civ i c beautification programs, heritage conservation, urban redevelopment and 3°David Ley, 1980, p.257. 21 infrastructure repair. And, in addition to financial incentives, economic revitalization has focussed on aggressive marketing and promotional campaigns. The new economic era is characterized by vertical disintegration: the increasing importance of small firms, the rise of professional and skilled service occupations, and the footloose nature of capital. For many c i t i e s , i t is the mobility of capital that has led to the relocation of industry and disinvestment in the local economy. For other c i t i e s , however, the mobility of capital has been viewed as an economic development opportunity. Because a growing number of economic activities are no longer tied to a particular geographic location, capital investment will flow to those communities that offer the best combination of economic, cultural, environmental, and other incentives. McNulty et al (1985) suggest that today, to a much greater extent than in the past, jobs can follow people rather than the reverse. In the most rapidly growing sectors, in fact, the c r i t i c a l inputs are human intelligence and s k i l l in the form of technical innovators and entrepreneurs. As a result, businesses are more lik e l y to locate where these people want to live. The changes in the nation's economy, therefore, have made it much more important that c i t i e s link economic development and quality of l i f e . 3 1 The rationale behind an amenities strategy for economic development is that livable places are more likely to attract a skilled workforce. And, following this argument - an available 3 1Robert H. McNulty, Dorothy R. Jacobson and R. Leo Penne, The Economics of Amenity: Community Futures and Quality of Life. (Washington, D.C: Partners for Livable Places, 1985), p.13. 22 talent pool will help to stimulate capital investment. While economic conditions may vary between different communities, and while the definition of " l i v a b i l i t y " may also vary - there is evidence that cities across North America have recognized the economic potential of amenities as part of a comprehensive development strategy. From 1980 to 1984, Partners for Livable Places directed a program called "Economics of Amenity." The central purpose of this demonstration program was to evaluate the contributions that urban amenities can make to the v i t a l i t y of a community. Urban amenities were defined as including such things as cultural f a c i l i t i e s , urban parks and open spaces, natural and scenic resources, well-designed buildings, restored historic areas, and healthy civic i n s t i t u t i o n s . 3 2 Economic development programs in about forty different communities were studied. A l l of the case studies, with the exception of Vancouver, British Columbia, were drawn from the United States. Selected c i t i e s were seen as being "in transition" -i.e., faced with changes in their local economies, brought on by social trends and structural changes at the national level. Partners for Livable Places discovered that ci t i e s of different size, type and location had embarked on ambitious economic development programs. Although the cit i e s investigated varied in terms of demographic, social, economic and other characteristics -they shared a desire for economic growth that maintains and improves the quality of l i f e for city residents; and, accordingly - urban "Robert H. McNulty et a l , 1985, p.xi. amenities played a central role in their overall development strategies. 3 3 L t i . The B u i l t Environment The transition to a service-based urban economy is evident in the built environment of the post-industrial city. The emerging social order and value set of post-industrial society are expressed through architectural design and a succession of urban land-uses. In terms of the evolving land-use pattern, the most significant elements are the development of high-rise office buildings in the central business d i s t r i c t , the suburbanization of industry and transportation f a c i l i t i e s , the rezoning and redevelopment of former industrial lands, the introduction of new housing types, and the development of public amenities in the urban core. More recent trends include residential land-use intensification and the advent of mixed-use developments. The forces that have brought about these land-use changes vary in nature and magnitude, from one city to the next - but changes in urban land-use are dependent on a city's p o l i t i c a l climate and the structure of the local economy. In Vancouver, the redevelopment of False Creek - from a polluted industrial enclave to an attractive mixed-use development - is perhaps the most dramatic example of the evolving post-industrial landscape. Inherent in the built form of the post-industrial city are the "Robert H. McNulty et a l , 1985, p.18. 24 values of a "new middle class." 3* Barton Reid (1988) points to the emergence of an office and professional class during the post-war economic expansion of the 1950's. However, i t was not until the 1960's, with the rise of the counter culture, that the new middle class developed a cultural identity. The counter culture produced a profound change in this formerly quiescent class, creating an unprecedented space and time reorientation of middle class values. The valuation of social and physical space was inverted. The inner city now became the promised land while the suburbs became places of excile, a place for the uncouth, and i l l -cultured. Likewise, the same reverse polarization affected the social space of the city. Bohemian culture lost its marginality - integrated into the mainstream i t became the basis for marketing li f e s t y l e s . ...Not only were middle class attitudes to physical and social space turned around, so too was their orientation to time. While the 50's and 60's were oriented primarily toward the future, the counter culture rebelled against these ideas. People started once more to appreciate the past. ...This consciousness of the past led to radical re-articulation of attitudes which eventually formed the basis for a new urban culture of the middle classes we now know as Post-modernism.33 The Livable City ideology is rooted in the ideas advanced by the counter culture. The cultural imprint of the new middle class is evident in the return to an inner-city l i f e s t y l e , the emergence of new multi-family housing types, the new-found respect for heritage resources, and concern for the natural environment. The motivation behind the urban reform movement was the preservation and enhancement of li f e s t y l e opportunities in the inner-city. This brought about a major rethinking of federal urban 3*Barton Reid, Spring 1988, 31. 3 S I b i d . , Spring 1988, 31-32. 25 policy - which, to this point, had been based on a philosophy of urban renewal. Federal policy for the inner-city, in the early 1970's, had three primary objectives: l i v a b i l i t y , affordability, and the efficient use of public services. 3 6 Through the Residential Rehabilitation Assistance Program (RRAP) and the Neighbourhood Improvement Program (NIP), public funds were made availabe in Canada, for the physical upgrading of housing units and the enhancement of public property in designated inner-city neighbourhoods. While public investment in the inner-city did enhance l i v a b i l i t y - i t did so at the expense of affordability and efficiency objectives. Policies of neighbourhood preservation and amenity development have made inner-city neighbourhoods more livable and, hence, more desirable. Market forces have placed a high value on property in these neighbourhoods and - through a combination of gentrification and redevelopment - lower-income households have been displaced and excluded. In recent years, planners and policy-makers have come to realize the shortcomings of the preservation approach and, in particular, the emphasis on lower densities. L i v a b i l i t y remains a goal of planning initiatives for Canadian inner-cities; however, due to affordability considerations, and the demand for alternative housing forms - there is a growing acceptance of higher densities in the form of compatible i n f i l l development. As David Ley argues -3 SDavid Ley, "Gentrification: A Ten Year Overview," City Magazine. (Winter 1986/1987), 18-19. 26 i t is this impasse which has led to suggestions in the past few years for a new round of intensification in the inner city. However, if left to the private market, i t is most li k e l y (from past experience) that higher density redevelopment would seek out high amenity neighbourhoods, coinciding with those where gentrification has occurred and is occurring under the permitted uses of local area plans. Such intensification would be strongly resisted p o l i t i c a l l y and could not expect support from ward politicians. Second, under market conditions, i t is unlikely that the private sector would in any case be able to build affordable units on private land in the inner city. And, third, important gains in the creation of livable inner city environments would be severely compromised by a renewal of high density development.37 As Ley points out, residential land-use intensification does not, in i t s e l f , ensure affordability. This is especially true of i n f i l l developments in desirable residential areas, that are convenient to jobs, recreation and other amenities. There are, however, significant opportunities for housing and mixed-use development remaining in the inner-city areas of most Canadian c i t i e s . The relocation or phase-out of industry and transportation f a c i l i t i e s , and the obsolescence of traditional port functions have made large tracts of inner-city real estate prime for redevelopment. In particular, there are various forces active in the post-industrial city that point to the redevelopment of urban industrial waterfronts. The following is a brief summary: 3 7David Ley, Winter 1986/1987, 19. 27 TABLE 1,1 - POST-INDUSTRIAL FORCES FAVOURING THE REDEVELOPMENT OF URBAN INDUSTRIAL WATERFRONTS 1. Obsolescence of traditional port f a c i l i t i e s . 2. Suburbanization or phase-out of railways and industry. 3. Return to an inner-city l i f e s t y l e . 4. Environmental clean-up of urban waterways. 5. Public demands for an accessible waterfront and other urban amenities. 6. Objectives for improving the quality of urban l i f e - i.e., creating a "livable city." 7. Demand for core-area housing. 8. Shortages of development sites elsewhere in the urban core. 9. Recognition of the waterfront's potential as an economic development tool. In addition, there are other forces active in the post-industrial city that will influence the nature and form of new developments. These forces are largely the result of structural and demographic changes that have brought about new economic and lif e s t y l e opportunities. Inherent in these changes are opposing forces related to economic v i a b i l i t y and social equity. Table 1.2 provides a brief summary: 28 TABLE 1.2 - P O S T - I N D U S T R I A L FORCES FAVOURING P A R T I C U L A R A T T R I B U T E S OF NEW WATERFRONTS 1. C h a n g e s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e : P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s k i l l e d s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s have d i s p l a c e d b l u e - c o l l a r j o b s . 2 . An e x p a n d i n g s e r v i c e s e c t o r - h a s g e n e r a t e d new demand f o r o f f i c e and r e t a i l s p a c e i n t h e c o r e a r e a . 3. S t r o n g demand f o r c o r e - a r e a h o u s i n g - has p l a c e d upward p r e s s u r e on h o u s e p r i c e s a n d r e n t s , a n d has l e d t o more " u p s c a l e " d e v e l o p m e n t s . 4. D e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s - f a v o u r s m a l l e r h o u s e h o l d s a n d m u l t i -f a m i l y h o u s i n g t y p e s . P r o x i m i t y o f w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e s t o t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t a n d c o r e - a r e a a m e n i t i e s - has made them i d e a l c a n d i d a t e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 6 . C u l t u r e o f c o n s u m p t i o n : More l e i s u r e t i m e / h i g h e r d i s p o s a b l e i n c o m e s h a v e f u e l e d a demand f o r u r b a n a m e n i t i e s a n d e x p e r i e n t i a l s e r v i c e s . E c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f u r b a n a m e n i t i e s 8. Li v a b i l i t y objectives 9 . Affordability objectives 2 9 In the future, i t would appear that a significant portion of new housing demand could be served through the redevelopment of traditionally non-residential lands. These development sites are somewhat of a "last frontier" for addressing the issue of affordable housing in the Canadian inner-city. Planners and policy-makers must be sensitive to the long-term housing situation in their communities and, i f necessary, be willing to set aside some land for public housing. In planning for the redevelopment of waterfront sites -planners and policy-makers are faced with competing visions as to how the post-industrial landscape should evolve. Given the demand for l i v a b i l i t y and affordability, the realities of the market place, and conflicting p o l i t i c a l viewpoints - the actual form of new urban development may be guided more by compromise or election results, than by a bold, creative vision. In the case of waterfront development, this is extremely unfortunate because the true social and economic potential of the waterfront may never be realized. 2.0 THE REDEVELOPMENT OF URBAN WATERFRONTS 30 The relationship between a city and its waterfront is shaped over time by cultural, economic and p o l i t i c a l forces. This is a dynamic relationship in that the role of the urban waterfront is continually changing to meet the contemporary needs of urban society. In this, the post-industrial era, the urban waterfront is undergoing a major transformation - from a blighted industrial landscape to a compatible mix of new uses. In a recent book about waterfront development in the United States, L. Azeo Torre (1989) argues that a l l development is cyclical in nature. He claims that the reclamation of urban waterfronts for non-industrial uses is another stage in the revitalization of the nation's downtowns - a process that began in earnest in the early 1970's.3- It is for this reason that the redevelopment of urban waterfronts cannot be viewed in isolation but, rather - as part of a broader restructuring of the post-industrial city. To this perspective, I would add two other dimensions of waterfront change: the temporal and spatial. Since the urban waterfront is continually changing - there i s , in most c i t i e s , a long history of redevelopment. As Desfor, Goldrick and Merrens (1988) argue, in their analysis of the Toronto waterfront - the current phase of redevelopment "represents only the most recent ^L. Azeo Torre, Waterfront Development. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold), 1989, v i i . 31 manifestation of a constant and long-continued process of waterfront change."2 In spatial terms, the urban waterfront is an integral part of the urban region in which i t is located. Waterfront redevelopment cannot be understood in isolation from the city. Rather, " i t can best be comprehended as a function of structural economic changes and processes at work in the larger metropolitan area." 3 To provide an appropriate temporal and spatial context for understanding changes on the urban waterfront, this chapter begins with an historical look at the evolution of the urban waterfront in North America, and the characteristic succession of land uses over time. This is followed by a discussion on the late 20th century phenomenon of urban waterfront redevelopment. Selected cities and projects will be profiled in the following chapter to identify the range of opportunities for waterfront redevelopment, to examine the motivation for development in various-sized communities, and to compare economic development strategies. While relevant aspects of the development process will be discussed - the focus of this research is on the use of waterfront revitalization as a social and aGene Desfor, Michael Goldrick and Roy Merrens. "Redevelopment on the North American Water-frontier: The Case of Toronto." in Hoyle, B.S., D.A. Pinder and M.S. Husain, eds. Revitalizing the  Waterfront. London, England: Belhaven Press, 1988, p.94. 3Ibid., 1988, p.94. 32 economic development tool, and not on the development process per se." 2,1 The Evolution of the North American Urban Waterfront Most of North America was settled during the industrial period, and, from the start - the urban waterfront was viewed as an economic development opportunity. Though the physical development of port cities differs between river, lake and coastal ports, the actual pattern of land-use succession and intensification has been quite s imilar . The development of the urban-industrial waterfront in North America is perhaps typified by the Toronto experience. In Waterfront Precedents (1976), the City of Toronto's Central Waterfront Planning Committee employs a series of annotated sketches to depict the development of a typical North American port. 3 What is clearly evident from these diagrams is the gradual alienation of the city and its inhabitants from the water's edge. The development and expansion of traditional port f a c i l i t i e s , the encroachment of the railways, and the landf i l l i n g necessitated by both of these activities transformed the waterfronts of most ci t i e s into an industrial "no-man's land." Over time, public access to the waterfront became restricted and limited to port-related business. ••For a comprehensive study of the waterfront development process, see: Wrenn, Douglas. Urban Waterfront Development. Washington, D.C: Urban Land Institute, 1983. sSee: Central Waterfront Planning Committee, Waterfront  Precedents. City of Toronto, 1976, pp.3-5. 33 Given the increasing dominance of port and railway operations over the entire waterfront area, higher-order commercial activities such as offices and retailing lost their economic v i a b i l i t y . As these uses relocated, their sites were claimed by warehousing and other industrial and transportation ac t i v i t i e s . The industrial character of the North American urban waterfront was well entrenched by the early 1900's. By the 1960's, however - significant advancements in transportation and port technologies dramatically altered the nature of the shipping industry. Port functions were affected by changes in the transportation system; and general cargo-handling innovations altered the physical and organizational aspects of ports. Characterising the 1970's and 1980's has been the spectacular increase in the size and draught of ships, rendering many older ports unusable. During this period, furthermore, the methods of handling cargo have been drastically modified and new transportation concepts introduced. In particular, two interrelated concepts -containerization and intermodality - have greatly affected not only port operation and port structure, but also the traditional functions of ports. 6 In spatial terms, the advent of containerized cargo and intermodal transportation has made traditional port f a c i l i t i e s obsolete - both in terms of land-use and physical layout. Because of limited space for container storage, and t r a f f i c congestion in built-up areas, many traditional ports could not make the transition to a modern container port. As a consequence, there has been 8Yehuda Hayuth, "Changes on the Waterfront: A Model-Based Approach." in Hoyle, B.S., D.A. Pinder and M.S. Husain, eds., Revitalizing the Waterfront, (London: Belhaven Press, 1988), pp.52-54. 34 s u b s t a n t i a l r e l o c a t i o n of port f a c i l i t i e s away from c i t y c e n t r e s . As Yehuda Hayuth (1988) argues, the o b j e c t i v e of intermodal t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s to t r a n s f e r goods i n a continuous flow through the e n t i r e t r a n s p o r t c h a i n , from o r i g i n to f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n , i n the most c o s t -and t i m e - e f f e c t i v e way. This i s done by c a p i t a l i z i n g on the r e l a t i v e advantages of a d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o r t mode fo r v a r i o u s segments of the cargo movement. Close co-op e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n among s h i p p i n g l i n e s , ports and a l l l a n d - t r a n s p o r t a t i o n modes are e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e multimodal t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t i o n . 7 New port f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e not only s u f f i c i e n t land area but, a l s o , convenient access to r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s . T h i s has given r i s e to suburban c o n t a i n e r p o r t s and b u l k - l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n exurban l o c a t i o n s . A case i n p o i n t i s the development of a huge c o n t a i n e r complex at Port E l i z a b e t h , New J e r s e y - to r e p l a c e the d i l a p i d a t e d f i n g e r - p i e r s l i n i n g mid- and downtown Manhattan. In r i v e r c i t i e s , p ort f a c i l i t i e s have been r e l o c a t e d downstream of b u i l t - u p areas - where s u f f i c i e n t port land could e i t h e r be assembled, or c r e a t e d through r e c l a m a t i o n . The r e l o c a t i o n of port f a c i l i t i e s from London's Docklands to the new t e r m i n a l i n T i l b u r y , and the seaward expansion of new t e r m i n a l s i n the po r t s of Rotterdam and Antwerp are examples of major r i v e r - b a s e d p o r t s that have adopted t h i s s t r a t e g y . 8 In some c o a s t a l p o r t s , a d d i t i o n a l back-up land has been c r e a t e d by r e c l a i m i n g land from the sea. This has been done at v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s around the world - i n c l u d i n g H a i f a , I s r a e l ; Kobe, Japan; and S e a t t l e , Washington. 7Yehuda Hayuth, 1988, 53-54. e I b i d . , 1988, 55-56. 35 The economic v i a b i l i t y of a port is directly related to the volume of cargo and commercial passengers that i t can attract and accommodate. The relative advantage enjoyed by the port is also subject to change due to monetary exchange rates, trade and taxation policies, and a variety of other economic factors. If the port is able to remain competitive, shipping activity can be expected to increase, and port f a c i l i t i e s will be expanded accordingly. If, on the other hand, the port loses its competitive advantage, declining cargo and passenger volumes will lead to disinvestment in the port area. The economic dimension of port relocation was touched upon briefly in Chapter One - in the discussion on the post-industrial service economy and the emerging urban social structure. As a source of income-generation and employment opportunities, the port constitutes a major asset to the city and region in which i t is located. Though i t is beyond the scope of this thesis to measure the economic impact of a given port, i t is important to note that there are both direct and indirect impacts in terms of employment and income generation. Jobs directly-related to the functioning of the port have been lost primarily through relocation and mechanization of port a c t i v i t i e s , and the changing competitive positions between ports. Disinvestment in marginalized port areas is evidenced by physical and economic decline in areas adjacent to the waterfront. This is a scenario common to many waterfront cities - both large and small. However, the level of economic distress associated with port 36 decline has been more severe in smaller communities with a limited economic base. A case in point is the decline and eventual phase-out of port f a c i l i t i e s in New Westminster, British Columbia -through the 1960's and 1970*s. A weakening of the port's competitive position in the regional economy - due to limited opportunities for port expansion, and the development of modern f a c i l i t i e s elsewhere in the Greater Vancouver region - was a contributing factor to economic decline in downtown New Westminster. It is in smaller communities, such as New Westminster, that economic development strategies are being implemented to diversify the local economy, and to introduce new economic activities to replace those lost in declining sectors. However, while large metropolitan ci t i e s generally have a diverse economic base, and are somewhat more insulated from a severe economic downturn, their economies are also vulnerable to structural change. Therefore, a l l ci t i e s , regardless of size or location, must adapt to continuous social and economic change. 2 T1 Waterfront Development as a Catalyst for Economic Development The transition to a post-industrial service economy and the accompanying socio-economic shifts have brought renewed optimism for distressed waterfront communities. Planners and policy-makers have realized that the same forces that have brought about port decline and disinvestment can be harnessed to create a post-industrial replacement economy, and to revitalize both the waterfront and surrounding d i s t r i c t s . As John Tunbridge (1988) argues, 37 the withdrawal of port functions provides an exceptional opportunity to restore the historic links between the populace and the waterfront, to reclaim a heritage resource, and to exploit a prime reserve of inner-city redevelopment land. 9 Over the past twenty years, waterfront redevelopment has emerged as "one of the mutually supportive strands of inner-city r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . " 1 0 And, given the traditional pattern of land-uses in the inner-city - waterfront development has been closely associated with the reclamation of railway lands, and the preservation of historic d i s t r i c t s adjacent to the waterfront. The redevelopment of urban waterfronts has had far-reaching social and economic impacts beyond the immediate waterfront area. The politicization of waterfront development projects is indicative of the waterfront's potential as a powerful economic development tool. Conflicts are inherent in the redevelopment process due to competition between various business and social interest groups, the vocal concerns of local area residents, and the involvement of various levels of government. A l l of the parties affected by redevelopment have a vested interest in what is eventually built on the waterfront. Tunbridge has identified three primary sources of friction with respect to waterfront revitaiization: conflicts between government agencies; social versus commercial motivation; and conservation 9John Tunbridge, "Policy Convergence on the Waterfront? A Comparative Assessment of North American Revitalization Strategies," in Hoyle, B.S., D.A. Pinder and M.S. Husain, eds. Revitalizing the  Waterfront. London, England: Belhaven Press, 1988, p.68. 1 0 I b i d . , 1988, p.68. 38 versus redevelopment.1-3- As will become evident in the waterfront profiles that follow - these are common areas of conflict, regardless of community size or location. Redevelopment on the waterfront, and elsewhere in the inner-city, has been fueled by structural and demographic changes in urban society. But, as Tunbridge suggests - the "return to the waterfront" cannot be understood purely as a function of opportunity and latent demand. It has been facilitated, since the early 1970's - by international concern about the natural environment, and public commitment to a clean-up of urban waterways. Improvements have also been made with respect to atmospheric quality and the general urban environment - through pollution control measures, and the gradual replacement of "smokestack" industries by an expanding service sector. Service-based replacement economies have also generated demand for inner-city housing, commercial space, and public amenities - further stimulating clean-up and redevelopment of the water f r o n t . 1 8 Improvements to the waterfront environment have made redevelopment for other uses economically viable. Because of the improved image and desirability of waterfront sites, and the demographic characteristics of the post-industrial city, the urban waterfront has become a sought-after piece of downtown real estate. Today, there is evidence of considerable redevelopment activity on John Tunbridge, 1988, p.67. Ibid., 1988, pp.68-69. 39 waterfronts across North America. As Desfor, Goldrick and Merrens argue: By the mid-1980's, some degree of redevelopment was ubiquitious on North American urban waterfronts, and the process was well-advanced in many of them. The popular media were f u l l of news reports and feature stories about waterfront redevelopments in particular places, generally hailing them as renewal, revitalization, revival, or rejuvenation. 1 3 The heightened profile of the urban waterfront is largely due to its high amenity value. Because a waterfront address now carries a certain level of prestige, there is considerable competition between potential land-users. A redeveloped waterfront w i l l , by necessity, contain a mix of different land-uses. The nature of that mix will be determined by both the private land market and by public planning and development controls. Private investment in waterfront development has generally followed on the heels of public investment in transportation and infrastructure, amenities, community image-building, and economic incentives for the development industry. Because of the high construction costs and financial risks associated with waterfront development - the public sector has had to "prime the pump" by creating a secure investment climate. The common justification for public subsidization of private investment is that every dollar of public expenditure will generate a higher level of private investment. Iain Tweedale (1988) points to the "Atlantic Wharf" development in Cardiff, Wales - where a £9 million Urban Development Grant was made to a developer, whose cost "Gene Desfor, Michael Goldrick and Roy Merrens, 1988, p.92. 40 estimates suggest a "respectable ratio of £4 of private money forthcoming for every £1 of public money."14 However, Tweedale suggests that the real level of public-sector investment is much greater than the Urban Development Grant - pointing to public investment in hard infrastructure, public amenities and other catalysts for development. As Tweedale argues, "a reassessment of the ratio of private to public money, taking these costings into account, shows that the private sector is investing only £1 for every £2 of public money."18 The actual level of public investment in a waterfront redevelopment project will vary from one community and project to the next, as will the motivation behind redevelopment. In order to understand the real return on public investment, i t is important to compare the planning objectives behind a given project with the actual results of redevelopment. The degree of f i t between what is desired and what is achieved is a true measure of a project's success. Given the economic constraints behind waterfront redevelopment, and the complex institutional framework governing the waterfront -i t is not surprising that the public sector has played a major role in transforming the urban waterfront. That role has varied geographically, due to the involvement of different levels of 1 4 I a i n Tweedale, "Waterfront Redevelopment, Economic Restructuring and Social Impact," in Hoyle, B.S., D.A. Pinder and M.S. Husain, eds. Revitalizing the Waterfront. London, England: Belhaven Press, 1988, pp.192-193. l s I a i n Tweedale, 1988, pp.193-194. 41 government, a m u l t i t u d e o f p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , and t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c -p r i v a t e p a r t n e r s h i p s e n t e r e d i n t o by government. What i s common t o a l l p u b l i c l y - s p o n s o r e d w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t s , however, i s t h e use of p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t powers t o a c h i e v e b r o a d e r s o c i a l and economic o b j e c t i v e s . T hese i n c l u d e s u c h t h i n g s as b u s i n e s s and t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t , downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and j o b c r e a t i o n . T a b l e 2.1 p r o v i d e s a summary o f common p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 42 T A B L E 2.1 - COMMON O B J E C T I V E S OF WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENT 1. To exploit a prime reserve of inner-city redevelopment land. 2. To restore the historic links between the populace and the waterfront. 3. To enhance li f e s t y l e opportunities through the development of public amenities. 4. To capitalize on the waterfront's amenity value in attracting private investment. 5. To revitalize the waterfront and adjacent commercial d istr icts. 6. To create new opportunities for business development. 7. To satisfy the demand for core-area housing. 8. To maximize the return on public investment. 9. To address the issues of affordable and special-needs hous ing. 10. To improve the quality of the physical environment. 3.0 WATERFRONT PROFILES 43 By comparing and contrasting the experiences of various waterfront communities, and by examining selected waterfront projects, I hope to establish a set of c r i t e r i a for evaluating planning decisions made at "Westminster Quay." In this chapter, selected waterfront projects in several ci t i e s are profiled to illustrate how planners, policy-makers, and the private sector have responded to the development opportunities afforded by a waterfront location, and the challenges presented by redevelopment. The experiences of these communities in redeveloping their waterfronts are a valuable resource for other waterfront communities that are undergoing transition. Given the limitations of a Master's thesis, the profile method has been selected as an efficient means of conveying both general information about waterfront development, and the particular set of circumstances surrounding selected projects. The f i r s t three profiles are of waterfront development projects in major metropolitan c i t i e s : New York, London and Toronto. The fourth profile is a composite view of smaller waterfront communities in Canada and the United States. A comparative analysis, based on community size and location, is inherent in this approach. Through a literature review on waterfront development, I have assembled the following l i s t of salient characteristics that distinguish waterfront projects. This provides a framework for analyzing various aspects of selected projects, and a basis for 44 making comparisons between them. In the upcoming waterfront profiles, Table 3.1 serves as a check-list for summarizing the main points about each project. TABLE 3.1 - CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERFRONT PROJECTS 1. Preconditions for redevelopment - i.e., structural shifts in urban society, technological change, public policy initiatives, etc.. 2. Motivation for redevelopment - i.e., social or commercial motivation? 3. Role of the public sector 4. P o l i t i c a l aspects of redevelopment - i.e., the influence of changes in government, public policy, and the composition of development agencies. 5. Potential for conflict - i.e., between governments, development agencies and community organizations. 6. Development concent 7 . Land-use considerations 8. Social mix 9. Image of development 10. Market conditions - i.e., the importance of "timing" with respect to marketing development sites to prospective developers, and selling the finished product to end-users. 4 5 1U. "Battery park. CUY" - New XQCK CltY The d e v e l o p m e n t of B a t t e r y Park C i t y , on lo w e r M a n h a t t a n ' s Hudson R i v e r w a t e r f r o n t , has g a r n e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l p r e s s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The p r o j e c t has been h a i l e d as b o t h a " m i r a c l e on t h e H u d s o n " 1 and "a t r i u m p h of u r b a n d e s i g n . " 2 When I v i s i t e d B a t t e r y Park C i t y i n J u l y 1989, I was i m p r e s s e d by t h e p r o j e c t ' s u r b a n d e s i g n and s i t e p l a n n i n g e l e m e n t s , w h i c h draw t h e i r i n s p i r a t i o n from M a n h a t t a n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l u r b a n f a b r i c . The most i m p r e s s i v e a s p e c t of B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y i s , p e r h a p s , t h e w a t e r f r o n t e s p l a n a d e - a 1 . 2 - m i l e p e d e s t r i a n walkway a l o n g t h e Hudson R i v e r . D u r i n g my b r i e f v i s i t , I e n c o u n t e r e d h u n d r e d s o f New Y o r k e r s w a l k i n g , j o g g i n g , s i t t i n g , and even f i s h i n g a l o n g i t s l e n g t h . As an e l d e r l y woman p o i n t e d o ut t o me, t h i s i s one o f t h e few p l a c e s i n New York where one i s a b l e t o come i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w a t e r . T h i s i s q u i t e i r o n i c , g i v e n t h e 28 m i l e s of w a t e r f r o n t on the i s l a n d o f M a n h a t t a n , and t h e 578 m i l e s of w a t e r f r o n t i n New York C i t y . 3 W h i l e B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y has o n l y come t o f r u i t i o n i n t h e 1980's, i t s d e v e l o p m e n t h i s t o r y s p a n s some 25 y e a r s . As F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes (1986) s u g g e s t s , i n a w r i t t e n a c c o u n t o f t h e p r o j e c t ' s 1 R o n d e P a o l o , " M i r a c l e on t h e Hudson," R e p r i n t e d f r o m Promenade About New York,. A p r i l t h r u September 1989. 2 P a u l G o l d b e r g e r , " B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y i s a T r i u m p h o f Urban D e s i g n , " The New York T i m e s , 31 A u g u s t 1986, page unknown. 3 " A F e a r o f F i l l i n g ? " P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e f (June 1975):48-57. N O R T H R E S I D E N T I A L W O R L D F I N A N C I A L C E N T E R G A T E W A Y P L A Z A R E C T O R P L A C E R E S I D E N T I A L N E I G H B O R H O O D B A T T E R Y P L A C E R E S I D E N T I A L N E I G H B O R H O O D S O U T H G A R D E N S F i g u r e 3.1 - S i t e Map of B a t t e r y Park C i t y 47 d e v e l o p m e n t h i s t o r y - t h e i d e a of a Hudson R i v e r l a n d f i l l p r o j e c t goes back t o t h e e a r l y 1960's. New o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t and l a n d f i l l i n g i n lo w e r M a n h a t t a n a r o s e p r i m a r i l y from d e c l i n i n g p o r t a c t i v i t y on t h e M a n h a t t a n w a t e r f r o n t . As Hayes s u g g e s t s , t h e m a r i t i m e u s e s of t h e w a t e r f r o n t had d e c l i n e d t o a f r a c t i o n of t h e peak a c t i v i t y o f e a r l i e r y e a r s . The low e r M a n h a t t a n p i e r s were u n d e r u t i l i z e d . Many were d i l a p i d a t e d and r a p i d l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g . I t was, under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , n ot s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y "arose o f e l i m i n a t i n g low v a l u e m a r i t i m e u s e s o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t and c r e a t i n g , i n s t e a d , h i g h v a l u e l a n d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . * The Hudson R i v e r l a n d f i l l p r o j e c t was promoted by t h e C i t y of New Yo r k , t h e Downtown-Lower M a n h a t t a n A s s o c i a t i o n (DLMA), and t h e S t a t e of New Y o r k . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e DLMA was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s p e a r h e a d i n g t h e p r o j e c t a s a means o f r e v i t a l i z i n g l ower M a n h a t t a n . The A s s o c i a t i o n was o r g a n i z e d by D a v i d R o c k e f e l l e r i n t h e m i d - f i f t i e s t o advance t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and improvement o f lowe r M a n h a t t a n . R o c k e f e l l e r , as c h a i r m a n o f t h e C h a s e -M a n h a t t a n Bank, had i n a r e a l s e n s e i n i t i a t e d t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of lo w e r M a n h a t t a n w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of th e bank's new h e a d q u a r t e r s - . . . t h e f i r s t major new d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h a t a r e a s i n c e b e f o r e W o r l d War I I . * To f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n Lower M a n h a t t a n , t h e DLMA had recommended d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e W o r l d T r a d e C e n t e r by t h e P o r t A u t h o r i t y . The P o r t A u t h o r i t y ' s d e c i s i o n t o b u i l d t h e World T r a d e C e n t e r on West S t r e e t made r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e a d j a c e n t Hudson R i v e r p i e r a r e a e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , e x c a v a t i o n f o r t h e W o r l d T r a d e C e n t e r was s e e n a s an a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e o f f i l l m ater i a l . * F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y Development H i s t o r y :  W orking D r a f t . (New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes A s s o c i a t e s , J u l y 1 9 86), p . l . * I b i d . , J u l y 1986, p.3. 48 In A p r i l 1963, t h e New York C i t y Department o f M a r i n e and. A v i a t i o n p u t f o r w a r d a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r t h e l a n d f i l l s i t e . The f i r s t phase would i n v o l v e f i l l i n g t h e p i e r a r e a from t h e B a t t e r y t o Chambers S t r e e t , t o c r e a t e a s i t e of 65 a c r e s . The program c a l l e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of 4.5 m i l l i o n s q u a r e f e e t of o f f i c e s p a c e ( e i g h t b u i l d i n g s ) , 4500 r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s (18 b u i l d i n g s ) , a 40-s t o r e y h o t e l , and s i x l a t e r a l c o m m e r c i a l p i e r s l i p s . 6 The DLMA was s u p p o r t i v e of t h e p r o j e c t i n g e n e r a l , b u t was c r i t i c a l of t h e mixed-use n a t u r e of d e v e l o p m e n t . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was s t r o n g l y o pposed t o t h e i n c l u s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l p i e r s , and f e l t t h a t t h e r e was l i m i t e d demand f o r a d d i t i o n a l o f f i c e s p a c e . The DLMA p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e s i t e be d e v e l o p e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l u s e : An a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n n e a r t h e downtown community w i l l s t i m u l a t e more s h o p p i n g o u t l e t s , r e s t a u r a n t s , p l a c e s of e n t e r t a i n m e n t and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e , and i t would p r o v i d e a d v a n t a g e s f o r t h o s e who work i n t h e a r e a , t o o . 7 I n e s s e n c e , t h e DLMA p r o p o s a l was an eco n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y f o r e n h a n c i n g b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y i n lower M a n h a t t a n . The d e v e l o p m e n t of h o u s i n g and p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s on t h e Hudson R i v e r s i t e would make t h e e s t a b l i s h e d downtown b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t more a t t r a c t i v e , w i t h o u t i n t r o d u c i n g a c o m p e t i n g c o m m e r c i a l e l e m e n t . Though n o t h i n g c o n c r e t e came o f e i t h e r p r o p o s a l , t h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t g e n e r a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n th e i d e a o f a l a n d f i l l p r o j e c t . Two y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1965, t h e C i t y s F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.5. 7 I b i d . , J u l y 1986, p.6. 49 P l a n n i n g C ommission h i r e d a team of c o n s u l t a n t s t o b e g i n p r e p a r i n g a p l a n f o r Lower M a n h a t t a n . The Lower M a n h a t t a n P l a n (1966) went c o n s i d e r a b l y f u r t h e r t h a n t h e i n i t i a l Hudson R i v e r l a n d f i l l p r o p o s a l - c a l l i n g f o r s u b s t a n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on 200 a c r e s of f i l l , on b o t h t h e Hudson and E a s t R i v e r w a t e r f r o n t s . The c o n s u l t a n t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a r e a c o u l d a b s o r b a r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n e q u a l t o a b o u t o n e - s i x t h t h e number employed i n lower M a n h a t t a n , . . . T h i s would i n d i c a t e a r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f a b o u t 80,000 i n an a r e a which t h e n had, f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , no h o u s i n g . ...The p o p u l a t i o n would have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e l i v i n g i n midtown -h o u s e h o l d s c o n s i s t i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f c h i l d l e s s h u s band-w i f e f a m i l i e s and of u n r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . 8 When t h e P l a n was r e l e a s e d t o t h e p u b l i c i n t h e summer of 1966, i t r e c e i v e d b o t h c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m and t h e e d i t o r i a l b a c k i n g of t h e New York T i m e s . By t h e t i m e o f t h e P l a n ' s r e l e a s e , however, G o v e r n o r N e l s o n R o c k e f e l l e r had announced a c o m p e t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t v i s i o n . The S t a t e - s p o n s o r e d p l a n - " B a t t e r y P a r k C i t v f " New l i v i n g  s p a c e f o r New Y o r k : A p r o p o s a l f o r c r e a t i n g a s i t e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l  and b u s i n e s s f a c i l i t i e s i n Lower M a n h a t t a n , was made p u b l i c i n May 1966. I t c a l l e d f o r l a n d f i l l i n g o f t h e Hudson R i v e r s i t e , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t w o - l e v e l s y s t e m o f p l a t f o r m s , or podiums, on which t h e mixed-use p r o j e c t would be b u i l t . "A t w o - l e v e l d e s i g n would p l a c e i n d u s t r y , p a r k i n g and v e h i c u l a r c i r c u l a t i o n on t h e gr o u n d l e v e l and a l l o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s on a s e c o n d l e v e l p l a t f o r m . " 9 8 F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.8 9 I b i d . , J u l y 1986, p.12. 50 The C i t y vas opposed t o t h e Hudson R i v e r p r o p o s a l b e c a u s e i t meant t h e S t a t e t a k e o v e r of a C i t y p r o j e c t . P a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n was e x p r e s s e d a b o u t t h e p r o p o s e d l a n d - u s e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e s i t e , and t h e f i s c a l and e c o n o m i c i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e s i t e f o r s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g . In a d d i t i o n , t h e d e s i g n scheme was s e e n as i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e Lower M a n h a t t a n P l a n . N e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e C i t y and t h e S t a t e of New York c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e announcement o f a compromise p l a n i n 1968. The P l a n was f o r m a l i z e d i n 1969, w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f a M a s t e r L e a s e Agreement and M a s t e r Development P l a n . These would be a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y A u t h o r i t y , w hich was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1968 by s t a t u t e of t h e S t a t e of New Y o r k . As Hayes p o i n t s o u t , t h e A c t i n c l u d e d a l e g i s l a t i v e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e p r o j e c t a r e a was b l i g h t e d and 'no l o n g e r s u i t a b l e or u s e f u l f o r p i e r s or f o r f a c i l i t i e s a p p u r t e n a n t t o t h e l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g o f c o m m e r c i a l c a r g o . ' ...The A c t d e c l a r e d t h e need f o r t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a r e a as a 'mixed c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l community.' The need f o r b o t h m i d d l e and low income h o u s i n g was r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t o f p u r p o s e . 1 0 The e f f e c t o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e Hudson R i v e r w a t e r f r o n t r e t u r n i n g t o c o m m e r c i a l p o r t u s e . I n s t e a d , t h e l a n d f i l l s i t e was t o accommodate a mix of new u r b a n u s e s t h a t r e f l e c t e d t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e of l ower M a n h a t t a n . As p a r t o f i t s mandate, t h e B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y A u t h o r i t y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i t e e n g i n e e r i n g and p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c i n g , l a n d f i l l " F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.26. 51 and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as p r o j e c t m a r k e t i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t . M a r k e t i n g t h e s i t e was p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a l l e n g i n g g i v e n an o v e r s u p p l y o f o f f i c e s p a c e i n downtown M a n h a t t a n , and g e n e r a l u n c e r t a i n t i e s a b o u t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l m a r k e t . F o r c o n v e n t i o n a l or l u x u r y h o u s i n g , BPCA would have t o s e l l an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n i n a market w i t h l i m i t e d a b s o r p t i o n c a p a c i t y . S u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g , on t h e o t h e r hand, depended l a r g e l y on non-market f a c t o r s -t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y t h r o u g h t h e f e d e r a l , s t a t e or c i t y g overnment o f low i n t e r e s t f i n a n c i n g , r e a l p r o p e r t y t a x -a b a t e m e n t , and r e n t s u b s i d i e s . i : L The d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r a c t s t h a t seemed imminent a t t h e t i m e of t h e 1972 bond s a l e were n e v e r r e a l i z e d . And, t h o u g h s u b s e q u e n t m a r k e t i n g o f t h e s i t e was e x t e n s i v e - i t met w i t h o u t much s u c c e s s . B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y was p l a g u e d by p r o b l e m s - none t h e l e a s t o f which was t i m i n g . The g l u t o f c o m m e r c i a l o f f i c e s p a c e i n 1972 p e r s i s t e d t h r o u g h t h e 1974-1975 r e c e s s i o n , which was p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r e i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n New York a r e a . By 1979, c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y had o n l y begun t o r e c o v e r . Changes i n t h e M a s t e r L e a s e Agreement and M a s t e r P l a n had been made i n 1972, when t h e S t a t e e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n o v e r c o m p e t i t i o n from a C i t y - s p o n s o r e d l a n d f i l l p r o j e c t on t h e E a s t R i v e r . The n e t e f f e c t of t h e 1972 Amendments was t o d i s c a r d t h e 1969 p l a n and p r o c e d u r e s , and r e p l a c e them w i t h a l e s s demanding and more f l e x i b l e p l a n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e C i t y ' s r o l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g and a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s would be somewhat c u r t a i l e d by t h e S t a t e . As Hayes a r g u e s , t h e b a s i s f o r most o f t h e amendments i s q u i t e c l e a r : " F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.47. 52 The h i g h l y d e t a i l e d p l a n o f 1969 and t h e e x t e n s i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c i t y r e v i e w s and a p p r o v a l had become, i n the e y e s o f t h e A u t h o r i t y , a s i g n i f i c a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u r d e n and a s e r i o u s b a r r i e r t o e x p e d i t i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 2 The c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e B a t t e r y Park C i t y A u t h o r i t y underwent a major shake-up i n t h e l a t e 1970's - f o l l o w i n g t h e e l e c t i o n o f Hugh C a r e y as G o v e r n o r of New York i n J a n u a r y 1975. The new g o v e r n o r was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e A u t h o r i t y ' s m o r i b u n d d e v e l o p m e n t r e c o r d and i n i t i a t e d a c a l l f o r t h e r e v i e w o f BPCA o p e r a t i o n s i n 1978. T h i s l e d t o t h e r e s i g n a t i o n of BPCA C h a i r m a n C h a r l e s J . U r s t a d t , t h e e l e c t i o n of a new c h a i r m a n , and t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f c o n t r o l o v e r BPCA o p e r a t i o n s by t h e s t a t e Urban Development C o r p o r a t i o n . The new BPCA management c o n t r a c t e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f A l e x a n d e r Cooper A s s o c i a t e s t o r e v i e w t h e M a s t e r Development P l a n and t o p r o v i d e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e p r o j e c t ' s m a r k e t a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t i n g Cooper r e p o r t - B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y : D r a f t Summary R e p o r t  and 1979 M a s t e r P l a n - c a l l e d f o r major c h a n g e s i n b o t h t h e p l a n and t h e a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t . Some o f t h e p r o b l e m s i d e n t i f i e d by Cooper as impediments t o d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e d : market u n c e r t a i n t y , an e x c e s s i v e l y r i g i d l a r g e - s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t f o r m a t , o v e r l y -c o m p l i c a t e d c o n t r o l s , and w o r r i e s a b o u t BPCA's f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , Cooper p o i n t e d t o an o v e r a l l n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y - stemming from p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s , d e v e l o p m e n t d e l a y s , and u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e f u t u r e market f o r h o u s i n g and o f f i c e s p a c e i n Lower M a n h a t t a n . 1 3 " F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.56. 1 3 I b i d . , J u l y 1986, pp.65-66. Figure 3 . 2 - World F i n a n c i a l Center at B a t t e r y Park C i t y 54 The market p o t e n t i a l c o u l d n o t , i n C o o p e r ' s v i e w , be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t major changes i n t h e p l a n and i n c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e s . He recommended th e abandonment o f t h e 1969 m e g a s t r u c t u r e d e s i g n as f a r t o o e x p e n s i v e and c o m p l i c a t e d t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . ...Under t h e Cooper p r o p o s a l , t h e p r o j e c t a r e a would be t r e a t e d as an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e M a n h a t t a n s t r e e t s y s t e m w i t h c i r c u l a t i o n , b o t h p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r , p r i m a r i l y a t g r a d e l e v e l . 1 - * The Cooper R e p o r t a l s o recommended a s e r i e s of e c o n o m i c and t a x i n c e n t i v e s t o i n d u c e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e s i t e . The S t a t e ' s U r b a n Development C o r p o r a t i o n was empowered t o exempt i t s p r o j e c t s and t h o s e o f i t s s u b s i d i a r i e s from l o c a l z o n i n g c o n t r o l s , and c h o s e t o e x e r c i s e t h a t power w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l a r e a of t h e s i t e . U n h i n d e r e d by p l a n n i n g c o n s t r a i n t s and a d e t a i l e d a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s , t h e c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d t h u s p r o c e e d more q u i c k l y . R e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t would, however, r e m a i n s u b j e c t t o an amended M a s t e r Development P l a n . C o o p e r ' s recommendations f o r a l e s s complex and more f l e x i b l e d e s i g n c o n c e p t f o r B a t t e r y Park C i t y were a d o p t e d by t h e C i t y and S t a t e of New Y o r k , t h r o u g h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s . As Hayes a r g u e s , " t h e f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t s of t h e new a p p r o a c h were f e l t a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y . T o g e t h e r w i t h an i m p r o v i n g M a n h a t t a n r e a l e s t a t e m a r k e t , t h e y made . . . B a t t e r y Park C i t y a v i a b l e and m a r k e t a b l e s i t e i n 1 9 8 0 . " 1 B I n J u l y 1980, t h e B a t t e r y Park C i t y A u t h o r i t y p u t o u t a p r o p o s a l c a l l f o r t h e o f f i c e d e v e l o p m e n t . C o n d i t i o n a l a p p r o v a l was 1 4 F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.67. 1 9 I b i d . , J u l y 1986, p.72. 55 l a t e r awarded t o T o r o n t o - b a s e d O l y m p i a and York D e v e l o p m e n t s , which had p r o p o s e d t o u n d e r t a k e t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t - w o r t h an e s t i m a t e d $1 b i l l i o n . Under t h e agreement, t h e A u t h o r i t y was r e q u i r e d t o i n s t a l l u t i l i t i e s and o t h e r " h a r d " i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . T h i s work was c o n t r a c t e d t o O l y m p i a and York a t a maximum c o s t t o BPCA of $45 m i l l i o n . 1 5 The s p e c i f i c p l a n s f o r t h e s i t e were announced by O l y m p i a and York i n May 1981, w i t h t h e e s t i m a t e d c o m p l e t i o n d a t e s e t f o r 1987. O l y m p i a and York s e c u r e d t h e i r f i r s t l e a s e agreement w i t h C i t y I n v e s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i n November 1981, and g r o u n d - b r e a k i n g took p l a c e t h e f o l l o w i n g month. O t h e r a n c h o r t e n a n t s i n c l u d e A m e r i c a n E x p r e s s (March 1982) and M e r r i l l , L y n c h ( A u g u s t 1 9 8 4 ) . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f "Gateway P l a z a " - t h e f i r s t r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t , began i n June 1980. D e v e l o p e d p r i o r t o t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e Cooper p l a n , t h i s p r o j e c t i s t h e o n l y v e s t i g e of t h e 1960's s u p e r b l o c k c o n c e p t , as e n v i s i o n e d by G o v e r n o r R o c k e f e l l e r . I t i s a l s o t h e o n l y s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n B a t t e r y Park C i t y ; b ut even t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d "a n o t i n e x p e n s i v e m i d d l e income h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . " 1 , 7 The s e c o n d phase o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t - " R e c t o r P l a c e , " c o n s i s t s o f 2200 u n i t s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l l y - f i n a n c e d market h o u s i n g -b o t h condominium and r e n t a l . T h i s p r o j e c t was s e e n as a t e s t o f b o t h t h e C o o p e r P l a n and t h e g e n e r a l market f o r h o u s i n g i n B a t t e r y Park C i t y . " F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.74. 1 7 I b i d . , J u l y 1986, p.80. 57 A c o n t r o v e r s y stemming from t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a t B a t t e r y Park C i t y i s t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s t a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y an u p p e r - m i d d l e c l a s s p r o j e c t . P a u l G o l d b e r g e r , w r i t i n g i n t h e New York Times ( A u g u s t 31, 1986), a r g u e s t h a t s t a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i s w a r r a n t e d , " g i v e n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e government t o mandate u r b a n d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s o f a s o r t t h a t t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s not g o i n g t o i n i t i a t e on i t s o wn." 1 8 He p o i n t s t o a q u a l i t y u r b a n e n v r i o n m e n t and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s as a " c l e a r p u b l i c b e n e f i t . " G o l d b e r g e r a r g u e s f u r t h e r t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s of B a t t e r y Park C i t y w i l l e n s u r e f u n d i n g f o r s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g i n a r e a s o f t h e c i t y where i t i s most u r g e n t l y needed - t h r o u g h t h e i n n o v a t i v e H o u s i n g New York program: On May 23, 1985, Mayor Koch and G o v e r n o r Cuomo s i g n e d a memorandum o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a g r e e i n g t o a program p r o p o s e d by BPCA P r e s i d e n t Meyer F r u c h e r t o use e x c e s s f u t u r e A u t h o r i t y r e v e n u e s t o s u p p o r t t h e i s s u a n c e of bonds, t h e p r o c e e d s o f w h i c h would be u s e d t o p r o v i d e low and m i d d l e income h o u s i n g n o t i n B a t t e r y Park C i t y b ut i n o t h e r p a r t s of New York C i t y . 1 9 The s h i f t i n BPCA p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p u r e l y market h o u s i n g means t h a t B a t t e r y Park C i t y w i l l become an e n c l a v e f o r u p p e r - i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s . G r a n t e d , t h e r e a r e a wide a r r a y of p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s d i s p e r s e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o j e c t - s u c h as t h e w a t e r f r o n t e s p l a n a d e , p u b l i c p a r k s and open s p a c e , p u b l i c a r t , and e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, what i s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e s e a m e n i t i e s w i l l be e n j o y e d by a wide c r o s s -1 8 P a u l G o l d b e r g e r , " B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y i s a Triumph of Urban D e s i g n , " The New York T i m e s . 31 A u g u s t 1986, page unknown. " F r e d e r i c k O.R. Hayes, J u l y 1986, p.79. 58 section of the New York population? Those who will receive the greatest benefits from these amenities will undoubtedly be the residents of Battery Park City, office workers from the World Financial Center and, over time, a growing number of tourists. On the other hand, future revenues from Battery Park City can go a long way to alleviate the c r i t i c a l shortage of affordable housing in other New York neighbourhoods. According to the Battery Park City Authority -A 1986 law enabled the Housing New York Corporation to issue $400 million in bonds and notes, backed by ...Authority revenues, to finance the preservation, rehabilitation and construction of thousands of units of low and moderate income housing. Already 1,850 units are being renovated. More revenues are expected to yield another $600 million to provide affordable, subsidized housing in various neighbourhoods throughout New York City - without direct cost to State or City taxpayers. 2 0 Whether or not the amenities at Battery Park City are enjoyed by a wide spectrum of people i s , perhaps, not as important as meeting the housing needs of a greater number of low-income households. Whatever one's viewpoint with respect to the housing mix (or lack, thereof) at Battery Park City, there are some fundamental questions to consider: Do planners and policy-makers have a moral obligation to build socially-mixed communities? If one of the aims of urban redevelopment is to build livable places - should " l i v a b i l i t y " be achieved through exclusion or inclusion of economically disadvantaged 2°Battery Park City Authority, Battery Park City (promotional brochure), undated. 59 g r o u p s ? T h e s e a r e q u e s t i o n s p e r h a p s b e s t answered i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a ; b u t , t h e y w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y s u r f a c e i n t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s f o r u r b a n w a t e r f r o n t s . W h i l e t h e e v e n t s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y a r e u n i q u e t o lower M a n h a t t a n , t h e y a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n o t h e r w a t e r f r o n t c o m m u n i t i e s . Some of th e common p l a n n i n g i s s u e s , a d d r e s s e d i n t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t of u r b a n w a t e r f r o n t s and r e f l e c t e d i n B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y , a r e summarized below: Summary 1. D e c l i n i n g p o r t a c t i v i t y b r o u g h t a b o u t new o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l a n d f i l l i n g and u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i n lower M a n h a t t a n . 2. B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y was o r i g i n a l l y promoted as a v e h i c l e f o r e c o n o m i c r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n lo w e r M a n h a t t a n . 3 . V a r i o u s p u b l i c ( l o c a l and s t a t e ) and p r i v a t e d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . 4. A sh a k e - u p o f B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y A u t h o r i t y p e r s o n n e l l e d t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f a new d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , a new d e s i g n c o n c e p t , and a more f l e x i b l e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . 5. C o n f l i c t s a r o s e between l o c a l and s e n i o r g overnments w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o s e d l a n d - u s e mix, and p u b l i c j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r l a n d f i l l i n g and r e d e v e l o p m e n t . The d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t f o r B a t t e r y Park C i t y went t h r o u g h s e v e r a l i n c a r n a t i o n s o v e r i t s 2 5-year h i s t o r y -r e f l e c t i n g c h a n g e s i n l o c a l and s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s , and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e B a t t e r y Park C i t y A u t h o r i t y and o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s . The d e s i g n scheme e v o l v e d from a 1960's s u p e r s t r u c t u r e p l a n t o a more t r a d i t i o n a l , s t r e e t - l e v e l p l a n , r e f l e c t i n g t h e e x i s t i n g u r b a n f a b r i c o f New York C i t y . T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e u r b a n r e f o r m emphasis on l i v a b i l i t y , h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n and s y m p a t h e t i c , c o n t e x t u a l u r b a n d e s i g n . T h r o u g h t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s , t h e p r o p o s e d l a n d - u s e mix f o r B a t t e r y Park C i t y was n a r r o w e d t o r e f l e c t t h e e m e r g i n g p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l make-up o f l o w e r M a n h a t t a n . The o p p o r t u n i t y o f c r e a t i n g a s o c i a l l y - m i x e d community was g i v e n up t o f a c i l i t a t e m a r k e t i n g o f t h e s i t e t o p r e d o m i n a n t l y c h i l d l e s s , h i g h e r - i n c o m e , p r o f e s s i o n a l h o u s e h o l d s . However, e x c e s s r e v e n u e s from B a t t e r y Park C i t y a r e b e i n g used t o b u i l d and r e n o v a t e a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g u n i t s i n o t h e r New York n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . In t h i s way, t h e p r o j e c t i s f u l f i l l i n g a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s t a t e and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s . B a t t e r y P a r k C i t y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f "image" w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e m a r k e t i n g o f w a t e r f r o n t p r o j e c t s . U r b a n d e s i g n , s i t e p l a n n i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e t a i l s and 61 landscaping played an important role in creating a favourable public image. 10. "Timing" was a c r i t i c a l element in the marketing of Battery Park City. Despite substantial developer interest in the early 1970's, the project never got off the ground until the early 1980's - due to the onslaught of recession, and an oversupply of commercial office space in Manhattan. 3,1 Docklands Redevelopment - London. England Outside of North America, the redevelopment of urban waterfronts is most widespread in Great Britain - the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. As in North America, technological advancements and structural economic changes have brought about the obsolescence of manufacturing and port f a c i l i t i e s , and have led to physical decline in industrial, inner-city neighbourhoods in London, Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff and other c i t i e s . As Nicholas Falk (1985) suggests, the economic impact of manufacturing decline has been most severe in the major industrial centers: The long-term decline of British manufacturing industry, which some date back to 1880, has accelerated in the last couple of decades. A f a l l in manufacturing employment of 27 per cent in our major conurbations and 43 per cent in London over the period 1960-1978 has left a legacy of over three million unemployed and over 175 million square feet of empty industrial buildings. 2 1 2 1Nicholas Falk, "Our Industrial Heritage - A Resource for the Future?" The Planner, (October 1985), 13. 62 In t h e c a s e o f London, t h e r e has been an e x t r e m e l y r a p i d d e c l i n e i n t h e c i t y ' s d o c k l a n d s - from a p o s i t i o n of v i a b i l i t y i n t h e 1960's t o one of r e d u n d a n c y i n t h e 1970's. T h i s has l e d t o a c o n t r a c t i o n of t h e r e g i o n ' s e c o n o m i c b a s e , and a w e a k e n i n g of i t s d i v e r s e s o c i a l make-up. The number o f d o c k - r e l a t e d j o b s d r o p p e d from 22,000 i n 1969 t o 7,000 i n t h e l a t e 1970's, p r i o r t o t h e f i n a l s e r i e s o f dock c l o s u r e s . 2 2 A London D o c k l a n d s s t u d y team was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1971 t o c o n s i d e r a r a n g e o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t o p t i o n s and t o s t u d y t h e e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e d e v e l o p m e n t . In March 1973, f i v e of t h e 18 o p t i o n s p u t f o r w a r d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t -a p p o i n t e d s t u d y team were g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e B r i t i s h g o vernment. As S t e p h e n Page (1985) s u g g e s t s , " t h e u n i f y i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e schemes were t h e e m p h a s i s on l u x u r y homes, l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s , m a r i n a s , o f f i c e s and t o u r i s m . " 2 3 The i n t e n t of t h e s e p r o p o s a l s was t o g e n e r a t e i n t e r e s t i n D o c k l a n d s w i t h i n t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p m e n t community. However, t h e y a l s o r a i s e d o p p o s i t i o n from a r e a r e s i d e n t s , l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s and t h e L a b o u r - c o n t r o l l e d G r e a t e r London C o u n c i l (GLC) - on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e needs of t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n were n o t t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . The q u e s t i o n o v e r who w i l l b e n e f i t from t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f L o n d on's D o c k l a n d s - i . e . , p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s or l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ? -has been a t t h e c e n t e r o f c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p r o j e c t . " S t e p h e n Page, "From D i n g y Docks t o D e s i r a b l e D o c k l a n d s , " Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g , (November 1985), 327. 2 3 I b i d . , (November 1 9 8 5 ) , 327. 63 O p p o s i t i o n to the 1973 p r o p o s a l s , and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and unaccountable nature of the study team led to i t s replacement by the Docklands J o i n t Committee (1974) - a p u b l i c body composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from f i v e London boroughs, the Port of London A u t h o r i t y , and members r e p r e s e n t i n g the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n through the support of the Docklands Forum. In 1976, the Docklands J o i n t Committee (DJC) announced i t s S t r a t e g i c Plan f o r the redevelopment of the d e r e l i c t London Docklands. The primary i n t e n t of the Plan was to b r i n g about s o c i a l and economic s t a b i l i t y to Docklands through an i n f l u x of new p o p u l a t i o n , the c r e a t i o n of new jobs, and the p r o v i s i o n of a f f o r d a b l e housing. The aim was to accommodate economic growth while p r e s e r v i n g the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of l o c a l communities. T h i s meant a t t r a c t i n g new i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s , and m a i n t a i n i n g a housing tenure mix which emphasized p u b l i c housing. C r i t i c i s m s of slow progress were l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t the Docklands J o i n t Committee i n 1978, by the new C o n s e r v a t i v e - l e d GLC. In p a r t i c u l a r , the GLC pointed to the "severe problems of urban d e p r i v a t i o n " that had h a r d l y been touched u p o n . 2 4 The DJC was superseded by the London Docklands Development C o r p o r a t i o n (LDDC) i n January 1980. The LDDC was e s t a b l i s h e d as a s i n g l e purpose planning agency with j u r i s d i c t i o n over the e n t i r e Docklands area - which comprises some 5,500 acres along the Thames R i v e r , from London Bridge i n the west to Barking Creek, Beckton i n the e a s t . Sub-areas 2 4 S t e p h e n Page, (November 1985), 327. 64 w i t h i n t h e D o c k l a n d s i n c l u d e Wapping, t h e I s l e o f Dogs, t h e R o y a l Docks, S u r r e y Docks and t h e E n t e r p r i s e Z o n e . 2 3 The LDDC i s s i m i l a r t o a new town c o r p o r a t i o n i n i t s a b i l i t y t o buy and s e l l l a n d and p r o v i d e h a r d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and o t h e r s e r v i c e s . B u t , u n l i k e a new town c o r p o r a t i o n , t h e LDDC c o u l d n o t a c t as a l a n d d e v e l o p e r ; s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t was l e f t t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , w h i l e t h e LDDC p l a n n e d , promoted and m o n i t o r e d d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y . 2 6 The B r i t i s h Government p r o v i d e d LDDC w i t h an o p e r a t i o n a l b udget of £250 m i l l i o n t o p l a n t h e l o n g - t e r m f u t u r e o f t h e London D o c k l a n d s . By 1985, t h e C o r p o r a t i o n was f a c i n g m o u n t i n g o p p o s i t i o n and c o n f l i c t o v e r i t s r o l e i n r e d e v e l o p m e n t . Under t h e LDDC, p l a n n i n g f o r D o c k l a n d s r e d e v e l o p m e n t has been a c l o s e d p r o c e s s , w i t h few a t t e m p t s a t g a i n i n g t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The major c r i t i c i s m s l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e LDDC a r e i t s p r i m a r y emphasis on e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s b l a t a n t d i s r e g a r d f o r l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . The r e d e v e l o p m e n t of London's D o c k l a n d s has become a h i g h l y p o l i t i c i z e d i s s u e . P u b l i c and a c a d e m i c d e b a t e has l e d t o a p o l a r i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e DJC and t h e LDDC, and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s . In a 1986 a r t i c l e i n P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , , P a u l B u r t o n l o o k s back a t t h e t r a c k 2 S P a u l B u r t o n , "On t h e W a t e r f r o n t : C h a n g i n g A p p r o a c h e s t o P l a n n i n g i n London's D o c k l a n d s , " P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 64 (Autumn 1986), 349. 2 6 S t e p h e n Page, (November 1 9 8 5 ) , 327. 65 r e c o r d s of b o t h of t h e s e p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s , as w e l l as t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d them. As B u r t o n s u g g e s t s , t h e LDDC i s s e e n by many as an u n d e m o c r a t i c and s e c r e t i v e body, c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h s u b s i d i s i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s and d e v e l o p e r s and p a y i n g l i t t l e r e g a r d t o t h e needs o f e x i s i t n g r e s i d e n t s . The DJC on t h e o t h e r hand i s remembered as a p a r a g o n o f d e m o c r a c y t h a t p u t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f l o c a l p e o p l e f i r s t i n i t s s t r a t e g y f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 7 The DJC's London D o c k l a n d s S t r a t e g i c P l a n (1976) was t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r more d e t a i l e d l o c a l a r e a p l a n s p r o d u c e d by t h e f i v e London Boroughs of Newham, Southwark, Tower H a m l e t s , G r e e n w i c h and Lewisham. The o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e o f t h e P l a n was t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of r e d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by l a r g e t r a c t s o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d t o r e d r e s s a range o f s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e f i c i e n c i e s - w h i c h i n c l u d e d h i g h unemployment, poor h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s and a d i l a p i d a t e d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The P l a n c a l l e d f o r an a m b i t i o u s program o f p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t t o t a l l i n g o v e r £1 b i l l i o n by t h e y e a r 2000. I n v e s t m e n t was t a r g e t t e d i n t h e a r e a s of p u b l i c h o u s i n g (£286 m i l l i o n ) , an e x t e n s i o n of t h e F l e e t S t r e e t u n d e r g r o u n d t r a n s i t l i n e (£185 m i l l i o n ) , and e x t e n s i v e s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t (£345 m i l l i o n ) . 2 8 The DJC f e l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y s h o r t o f many o f i t s s t r a t e g i c g o a l s b e c a u s e o f l i m i t e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e c e n t r a l government - b o t h f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , many o f i t s a m b i t i o u s p l a n s were n e v e r r e a l i z e d . As B u r t o n a r g u e s -2 7 P a u l B u r t o n , (Autumn 1 9 8 6 ) , 349. 2 8 I b i d . , (Autumn 1986), 350. / 66 t h e F l e e t l i n e p r o p o s a l was d r o p p e d and o n l y o n e - t h i r d o£ t h e p l a n n e d number of c o u n c i l h o u s e s was b u i l t . The DJC a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l i n v e s t m e n t would r e s u l t i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f o v e r 10,000 new j o b s by 1982 - and, a l t h o u g h 800 were c r e a t e d , more t h a n 8,500 were l o s t i n t h e same p e r i o d due t o c l o s u r e s and r e l o c a t i o n s . 2 * B u r t o n a l s o r e c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e DJC as a model of d e m o c r a c y . W h i l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was a h i g h p r i o r i t y i n t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n - i n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s , t h e DJC l e a d e r s h i p c h o s e t o i n s u l a t e i t s e l f from l o c a l p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s t h r o u g h a r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and an i n t e r n a l r e v i e w of S t r a t e g i c P l a n o b j e c t i v e s . B u r t o n s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e and r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e s of l o c a l g r o u p s was m i n i m a l , " and t h a t p u b l i c i n p u t d i d n o t have a major i n f l u e n c e on g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s or p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s . 3 0 The g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1979 paved t h e way f o r an e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w of t h e DJC and i t s e v e n t u a l r e p l a c e m e n t by t h e LDDC. In September 1979, t h e new C o n s e r v a t i v e government announced l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would e n a b l e i t t o e s t a b l i s h u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s i n London and t h e M e r s e y s i d e ( M a n c h e s t e r ) . The e n a b l i n g a c t was p a s s e d i n 1980, b u t t h e LDDC was n o t c r e a t e d u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r - t o a l l o w f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p e t i t i o n s f r o m t h e GLC, t h e B oroughs o f Newham, Southwark and Tower H a m l e t s , and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r l o c a l g r o u p s . The f o c u s o f t h e p e t i t i o n e r s ' a r guments was t h e p r o p o s e d t r a n s f e r o f t h e power t o c o n t r o l d e v e l o p m e n t from t h e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d b o r o u g h c o u n c i l s t o a n o n - e l e c t e d 2 9 P a u l B u r t o n , (Autumn 1 9 8 6 ) , 350. 3 ° I b i d . , (Autumn 1986), 350. 67 body. The Government's r e s p o n s e was t h a t t h e DJC was t o o p a r o c h i a l and t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , M i c h a e l H e s e l t i n e , went so f a r as t o c a l l i t an e x e r c i s e i n 'pure p r e j u d i c e d s o c i a l i s m . ' In a more r e a s o n e d v e i n t h e Government r e c o g n i z e d t h a t no p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s r e g e n e r a t i o n c o u l d be made w i t h o u t th e i n j e c t i o n of s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f p u b l i c money, but c o n s i d e r e d t h e DJC and t h e b o r o u g h s t o be ' u n s u i t a b l e r e c i p i e n t s ' o f s u c h money. I t a r g u e d t h a t t h e LDDC would be a more s u i t a b l e r e c i p i e n t b e c a u s e i t would d i s p l a y a s i n g l e - m i n d e d a p p r o a c h t o r e g e n e r a t i o n and would i n v o l v e t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t . 3 X The S e l e c t Committee s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l o c a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n a d e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n and b e l i e v e d t h a t o p p o s i t i o n would d i e down o v e r t i m e , when i t was s e e n t h a t t h e LDDC was amenable t o l o c a l government and community i n v o l v e m e n t . The LDDC i n v i t e d t h e l e a d e r s o f t h r e e l o c a l b o r o u g h s t o s i t , i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l c a p a c i t i e s , on t h e LDDC B o a r d of D i r e c t o r s . The LDDC's mandate was t o b r i n g a b o u t l a s t i n g r e g e n e r a t i o n o f D o c k l a n d s t h r o u g h th e maximum l e v e l of p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t , a t t h e minimum l e v e l of p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e , and i n t h e s h o r t e s t amount of t i m e . The most p r e s s i n g o b j e c t i v e o f t h e LDDC's d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y was t o improve t h e image o f D o c k l a n d s , and c r e a t e a s e c u r e c l i m a t e f o r i n v e s t o r s . As B u r t o n a r g u e s -t h i s was t o be a c h i e v e d by a c q u i r i n g as much d e v e l o p m e n t l a n d as p o s s i b l e , r e c l a i m i n g i t and p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s where n e c e s s a r y and r e - s e l l i n g t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r f o r r a p i d r e d e v e l o p m e n t . A r e a d e v e l o p m e n t frameworks were p r o d u c e d t o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r e f e r r e d l a n d u s e s and t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y b u t t h e s e were t o r e t a i n an e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t o f f l e x i b i l i t y ; demand was n o t so s t r o n g t h a t p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p e r s c o u l d be t u r n e d away i f t h e y f a i l e d t o meet s t r i c t , f i x e d c r i t e r i a . 3 2 3 1 - P a u l B u r t o n , (Autumn 1986), 351. 3 2 I b i d . , (Autumn 1 9 8 6 ) , 352. 68 The b u l k o f a s s e m b l e d p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e D o c k l a n d s were d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The C o r p o r a t i o n ' s p r i m a r y aim w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g was t o promote t h e growth of owner-o c c u p a t i o n . I t p r o p o s e d a t e n u r e mix o f 80 p e r c e n t p r i v a t e h o u s i n g t o 20 p e r c e n t p u b l i c h o u s i n g - a r e v e r s a l o f t h e t e n u r e mix p r o p o s e d by t h e DJC i n 1976. As Page (1985) s u g g e s t s - " t h i s b e l i e s t h e LDDC p h i l o s o p h y t o upgrad e t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e a r e a t h r o u g h h o u s i n g r e d e v e l o p m e n t , by a t t r a c t i n g young p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s . " 3 3 As a c o n s e q u e n c e , much o f t h e new h o u s i n g i n London's D o c k l a n d s i s p r i c e d beyond t h e r e a c h of modest-income h o u s e h o l d s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l u x u r y h o u s i n g a m i d s t s c e n e s o f s e v e r e s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n has c r e a t e d f r i c t i o n between l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s and newcomers. The i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s i s e v i d e n t i n u r b a n g r a f i t t i and p o p u l a r s l o g a n s t h a t r e a d : " d o c k l a n d s needs j o b s n o t s n o b s ! " 3 * LDDC s u p p o r t e r s p o i n t t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f an E n t e r p r i s e Zone i n t h e I s l e o f Dogs, and o t h e r i n i t i a t i v e s f o r a t t r a c t i n g h i g h -t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r i e s , as l o n g - t e r m b e n e f i t s f o r t h e d o c k l a n d s r e g i o n . These a r e v i e w e d as a " p o s i t i v e s o c i a l and ec o n o m i c c o n t r i b u t i o n " t o w a r d r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 3 S The E n t e r p r i s e Zone was e s t a b l i s h e d i n A p r i l 1983 t o i n i t i a t e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n on t h e I s l e of Dogs - t h e most d i l a p i d a t e d a r e a o f D o c k l a n d s , c o v e r i n g some 480 " S t e p h e n Page, (November 1 9 8 5 ) , 328. 3 * " B r i t a i n ' s New Water C i t i e s , " Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g , (November 1 9 8 5 ) , 327. " S t e p h e n Page, (November 1985), 327. 6 9 a c r e s . The LDDC o f f e r e d t a x b r e a k s and o t h e r e c o n o m i c i n c e n t i v e s t o h i g h - t e c h n o l o g y f i r m s w i s h i n g t o l o c a t e i n t h e E n t e r p r i s e Zone. C r i t i c s , however, s u g g e s t t h a t much o f t h e new d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r i n g i n t h e E n t e r p r i s e Zone i s n o t t h e r e s u l t of new f i r m s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d b u t , r a t h e r , i s due t o t h e r e l o c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g f i r m s from o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y . 3 6 The e m p h a s i s on h i g h - t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r i e s p l a c e s l o c a l r e s i d e n t s a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e , i n t h a t w e l l - p a y i n g j o b s i n t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s r e q u i r e a h i g h l e v e l o f s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s . Unemployed f a c t o r y or dock w o r k e r s would most l i k e l y r e q u i r e j o b r e t r a i n i n g . And, i f s u c h programs were made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t many o f t h e s e p e o p l e would l a c k t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o e n a b l e them t o t a k e p a r t . As B u r t o n a r g u e s , t h e b u l k o f new j o b s i n h i g h - t e c h n o l o g y i n d u s t r i e s w i l l be t a k e n by p e o p l e l i v i n g o u t s i d e of the l o c a l a r e a : The DJC was a c c u s e d o f p a y i n g t o o much r e g a r d t o t h e needs and a s p i r a t i o n s o f l o c a l p e o p l e and t h e LDDC was e x p e c t e d t o be d i f f e r e n t . T h i s i t has been, e s p e c i a l l y i n l o o k i n g o u t s i d e D o c k l a n d s f o r new g r o u p s o f p e o p l e t o p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e of s o c i a l b a l a n c e i n t h e a r e a , who a l s o p o s s e s s t h e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d by t h e new c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e r n s . A l t h o u g h some p r o v i s i o n has been made f o r t r a i n i n g l o c a l p e o p l e t h e y have, by and l a r g e , been l o o k e d upon as a s o u r c e of s e m i - s k i l l e d and p a r t - t i m e l a b o u r . 3 7 New d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e R o y a l Docks, i n t h e e a s t e r n m o s t p o r t i o n o f D o c k l a n d s has a l s o p r o v e n c o n t r o v e r s i a l . The p r o p o s a l t o b u i l d a S T O L p o r t ( s h o r t t a k e - o f f and l a n d i n g a i r p o r t ) i n t h e K i n g George V 3 S S t e p h e n Page, "The London D o c k l a n d s : R e d e v e l o p m e n t Schemes i n t h e 1980's," G e o g r a p h y . 72 (1) 1987, 61. 3 7 P a u l B u r t o n , (Autumn 1 9 8 6 ) , 353. 70 dock g e n e r a t e d s t r o n g l o c a l o p p o s i t i o n i n 1984. C o n c e r n s were e x p r e s s e d a b o u t a i r c r a f t n o i s e l e v e l s and t h e s a f e t y h a z a r d s p o s e d by l o c a t i n g an a i r p o r t c l o s e t o r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . R e s i d e n t a p p e a l s were o v e r t u r n e d i n A p r i l 1985 and t h e p r o j e c t went ahea d . B u t , as Page (1985) a s k s - "why s h o u l d t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n have t o l i v e w i t h a p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d , d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e use of b u s i n e s s m e n ? " 3 8 Page a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e a l needs of c o m m u n i t i e s near t h e R o y a l Docks were g r o s s l y o v e r l o o k e d by t h e LDDC. The new S T O L p o r t has e n h a n c e d t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e E n t e r p r i s e Zone and p r o v i d e s a c o n v e n i e n t s e r v i c e t o t h e London b u s i n e s s community. However, i t p r o v i d e s few s o c i a l or e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . T h i s i s h i g h l y u n f o r t u n a t e , g i v e n a l o c a l unemployment r a t e r a n g i n g f r o m 20 t o 30 p e r c e n t i n 1 9 8 5 . 3 9 I n t e r m s of a t t r a c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , the London D o c k l a n d s i s a major m a r k e t i n g s u c c e s s . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t has been p o s s i b l e t o promote D o c k l a n d s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e s t r e n g t h o f p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c l e a n - u p , u r b a n a m e n i t i e s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i mprovements. K a r e n B r a d b u r y (1988) a r g u e s t h a t t h e s o u g h t - a f t e r e n v i r o n m e n t f o r h o u s i n g has been l a r g e l y c r e a t e d : by o p e n i n g up t h e w a t e r f r o n t , by r e - d i s c o v e r i n g w a ter where i t had p r e v i o u s l y been f i l l e d i n , by o f f e r i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and by m o l d i n g h i l l s where t h e l a n d had p r e v i o u s l y been f l a t . . . . F o r t h e U.K. e q u i v a l e n t of t h e Y u p p i e s (who m a r k e d l y r e s e m b l e t h e i r A m e r i c a n 3 a S t e p h e n Page, (November 1985), 328. 3 9 I b i d . , (November 1 9 8 5 ) , 328. 71 cousins), a townhouse in the Docklands is now the place to l i v e . 4 0 Of a l l the projects planned for, or under development, in the London Docklands - the largest and most impressive is Olympia and York's "Canary Wharf." Currently under construction in the Isle of Dogs' Enterprise Zone, Canary Wharf is being promoted as an alternative business location to established dis t r i c t s in the City and West End of London. At 12.5 million square feet, Canary Wharf is the world's largest single development. At 50 storeys, its centerpiece tower will be the tallest in the United Kingdom and surpassed in Europe by one planned for Frankfurt. ...At a cost of (US) $7.2 b i l l i o n , i t is a rarified financial stratosphere. Olympia and York's World Financial Center in Manhattan was merely eight million square feet, and built for a comparatively t r i f l i n g $1.5 b i l l i o n . 4 1 Canary Wharf will eventually form the commercial nucleus of the English equivalent to a "regional town centre." 4 2 Its relation to the City of London is comparable to that of Burnaby Metrotown and downtown Vancouver in terms of spatial separation, relative size and function, and the importance of rapid transit in fa c i l i t a t i n g high-density suburban development. If Canary Wharf is successful over the long term, i t could mean an eastward shift in London's business community. The f i r s t phase of Canary Wharf has attracted some major international tenants -4°Karen Bradbury, "The London Docklands: An Unplanned Development Success," Urban Land, (August 1988), 24. 4 1A1 Warson, "Canary Wharf: Olympia and York's Most Ambitious Project Now Rising on the Banks of the Thames," Canadian Building, (March 1989), 24. 4 2See Chapter IV. F i g u r e 3.5 View o f C a n a r y Wharf 73 i n c l u d i n g C r e d i t S u i s s e F i r s t B o s t o n , Morgan S t a n l e y and M e r r i l l L y n c h . Texaco has a l s o announced p l a n s t o c o n s o l i d a t e i t s London o f f i c e s and r e l o c a t e t o a new b u i l d i n g i n C a n a r y Wharf's phase two d e v e l o p m e n t i n 1 9 9 2 . 4 3 The f u t u r e s u c c e s s o f C a n a r y Wharf seems e n s u r e d , d e s p i t e a p r e s e n t g l u t of c o m m e r c i a l o f f i c e s p a c e i n London. The D o c k l a n d s L i g h t R a i l w a y , t h e London C i t y A i r p o r t , and o t h e r i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l improvements have made D o c k l a n d s an a c c e s s i b l e and c o n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A n o t h e r i n d i c a t o r o f s u c c e s s i s t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f Canada's O l y m p i a and York D e v e l o p m e n t s . W i t h an e n v i a b l e t r a c k r e c o r d of s u c c e s s i n major c o m m e r c i a l p r o j e c t s , O l y m p i a and York has g a i n e d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n f o r sound i n v e s t m e n t p r a c t i c e s . 0 & Y's i n t e r e s t i n C a n a r y Wharf i s a s i g n a l t o the g l o b a l b u s i n e s s community t h a t t h e r e i s a f u t u r e i n D o c k l a n d s d e v e l o p m e n t . Summary 1. T e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements and s t r u c t u r a l e c o n o m i c changes l e d t o r a p i d p h y s i c a l and e c o n o m i c d e c l i n e i n t h e London D o c k l a n d s . 2. The m o t i v a t i o n f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t was t w o f o l d : ( i ) t o expand t h e r e g i o n ' s e c o n o m i c base t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new economic a c t i v i t i e s ; and ( i i ) t o improve s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . 3. D o c k l a n d s r e d e v e l o p m e n t was i n i t i a t e d by t h e s e n i o r government t h r o u g h p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o p t i o n s . The 4 3 0 1 y m p i a & Y o r k , C a n a r y Wharf L i m i t e d , P r e s s R e l e a s e , 20 September 1989. 74 s u b s e q u e n t c r e a t i o n of p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s t o g u i d e t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s has been marked by i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t . The a c c o u n t a b i l i t y of government was put i n t o q u e s t i o n by t h e s e c r e t i v e o p e r a t i o n s of t h e LDDC, and p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d t o b r i n g a b o u t economic d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e expense of l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . C o n f l i c t a r o s e between t h e c e n t r a l and l o c a l g overnments w i t h r e s p e c t t o : t h e o v e r a l l l a n d - u s e mix, t h e r a t i o of p u b l i c - t o -p r i v a t e h o u s i n g u n i t s , a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e s f o r t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , and t h e t r a n s f e r o f p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s from e l e c t e d l o c a l c o u n c i l s t o a n o n - e l e c t e d body. A change i n t h e D o c k l a n d s d e v e l o p m e n t p h i l o s o p h y - from s o c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s t o an emphasis on economic d e v e l o p m e n t and s o c i a l " u p g r a d i n g " - was b r o u g h t on by a change i n t h e s e n i o r government. The l a n d - u s e mix f o r " C a n a r y Wharf" i n c l u d e s 929,000 m 2 o f o f f i c e s p a c e , p l u s a c o m p l e t e a r r a y o f s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s f o r an e x p e c t e d w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k f o r c e o f a b o u t 60,000 p e o p l e . The i n f l u x of w e a l t h y p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t o an e c o n o m i c a l l y -d e p r e s s e d , w o r k i n g - c l a s s a r e a o f London has i n t e n s i f i e d c l a s s c o n f l i c t , and has g i v e n r i s e t o r e s e n t m e n t a g a i n s t newcomers. New r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n v e r s i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e n u r e mix i n f a v o u r of o w n e r - o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s . The image of t h e D o c k l a n d s d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h a t of a new p o s t -i n d u s t r i a l L o n don. C a n a r y Wharf i s v i e w e d as a v i a b l e , 75 a l t e r n a t i v e b u s i n e s s l o c a t i o n , and D o c k l a n d s h o u s i n g u n i t s a r e among t h e most d e s i r a b l e i n London. 10. The LDDC has been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n m a r k e t i n g an " i n " r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n t o t h e e m e r g i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s , and an a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n f o r e x p a n d i n g s e r v i c e - b a s e d i n d u s t r i e s . l i l The C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t and R a i l w a y Lands - T o r o n t o . O n t a r i o T o r o n t o ' s w a t e r f r o n t has undergone s u c c e s s i v e waves of r e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . W i t h e a c h change, t h e w a t e r f r o n t was t r a n s f o r m e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m m e r c i a l e x p a n s i o n , and t o s t r e n g t h e n T o r o n t o ' s economic base i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g and t r a n s s h i p m e n t o f consumer g o o d s . S i n c e 1945, however, m a n u f a c t u r i n g and p o r t a c t i v i t i e s have been d e c l i n i n g r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s e c t o r s of t h e T o r o n t o economy. The most r e c e n t wave of w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t has been f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e p h a s e - o u t of i n d u s t r i a l and p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . The p o s t - W o r l d War I I y e a r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e r a p i d s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and employment, and t h e d e c l i n i n g i m p o r t a n c e of i n d u s t r y and a s s o c i a t e d r a i l and water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y . T hese d e v e l o p m e n t t r e n d s c h a l l e n g e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l dominance o f t h e c i t y o f T o r o n t o w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , and r a i s e d f e a r s a b o u t d r a m a t i c i n n e r - c i t y d e c l i n e - on a s c a l e c o m p a r a b l e t o major U.S. c i t i e s . To c o u n t e r t h e t h r e a t of p r o l o n g e d d e c l i n e , t h e C i t y embarked on a major p l a n n i n g program i n t h e mid-1960's, w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e a d o p t i o n o f a new O f f i c i a l P l a n i n 1969. As D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k 76 and M e r r e n s (1988) a r g u e - "the p l a n was e s s e n t i a l l y an a g g r e s s i v e e f f o r t t o promote more commecial d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y , a l o n g w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation f o r t h e a n t i c i p a t e d m i d d l e - and u p p e r - m i d d l e - c l a s s c o m m e r c i a l l a b o u r f o r c e . ' " * 4 The P l a n c a l l e d f o r m a s s i v e i n n e r - c i t y r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e form of h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l u s e s , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new e x p r e s s w a y s . P u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s " u r b a n r e n e w a l " f o r m a t l e d t o a v o t e r r e v o l t , and t h e e l e c t i o n of a r e f o r m - m i n d e d m a j o r i t y t o T o r o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l i n 1972. The u r b a n r e f o r m c o u n c i l s t r i v e d t o c r e a t e a l i v a b l e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h p o l i c i e s o f c o n t r o l l e d growth and p r e s e r v a t i o n . To t h i s end, i t a d o p t e d a new O f f i c i a l P l a n f o r t h e C e n t r a l A r e a i n 1978. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e new p l a n , c o m m e r c i a l e x p a n s i o n would be accommodated t h r o u g h i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a , and by r e d i r e c t i n g g r o w t h t o d e s i g n a t e d s u b u r b a n c e n t r e s . The aim o f t h e P l a n was t o l i m i t r e d e v e l o p m e n t and d e n s i f i c a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n e s t a b l i s h e d T o r o n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , and t o p r e s e r v e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s a d j a c e n t t o t h e C e n t r a l A r e a . E x p a n s i o n of c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y was s u p p o r t e d , b u t o n l y a t a l e v e l t h a t c o u l d be accommodated by t h e e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . 4 9 The 1978 C e n t r a l A r e a P l a n l a r g e l y i g n o r e d t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l of t h e w a t e r f r o n t and r a i l w a y l a n d s , l y i n g s o u t h of t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , by s i m p l y r e a f f i r m i n g t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l 4 4 D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, p.99. 4 S I b i d . , ( 1 9 8 8 ) , p.99. 77 d e s i g n a t i o n . In t h e meantime, s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s i n t h e l o c a l and r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i e s were g a i n i n g momentum: By 1981, t r a d e , f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , r e a l e s t a t e , and community, b u s i n e s s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s employed two-t h i r d s of t h e T o r o n t o Census M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a l a b o u r f o r c e . M a s s i v e r e l o c a t i o n o f c o r p o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s t o t h e c e n t r a l c i t y a r e a has c e n t r a l i z e d many of t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t c o n t r o l c o r p o r a t e o p e r a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . ...The o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e has a l s o s h i f t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y t o w a r d c l e r i c a l , m a n a g e r i a l , s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n i c a l , and s e r v i c e c a t e g o r i e s . * 6 The r a p i d r i s e o f s e r v i c e s and t h e c o n c u r r e n t d e c l i n e o f i n d u s t r y i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a c h a l l e n g e d t h e e x i s t i n g l a n d - u s e mix and, e s p e c i a l l y , t h e i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n a t i o n of p a r c e l s a d j a c e n t t o th e C e n t r a l A r e a . Because downtown r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s were p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t d e n s i f i c a t i o n and r e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e g r o w i n g demand f o r i n n e r - c i t y h o u s i n g had t o be s a t i s f i e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways: F i r s t l y , t h e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k i n p r o t e c t e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s has been u p g r a d e d t h r o u g h g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , has meant th e d e p l e t i o n o f t h e a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g s t o c k , and t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t of l o w e r - i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s . S e c o n d l y , new condominium a p a r t m e n t u n i t s have been c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a . And, t h i r d l y - new h o u s i n g and c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e a r e b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t and r a i l w a y l a n d s . As D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r i n s s u g g e s t , " t h e e s s e n t i a l l y u n s e a l e d , s o u t h e r n s i d e o f t h e C e n t r a l A r e a r e p r e s e n t e d a wide-open f r o n t i e r , p r o v i d i n g d e v e l o p e r s w i t h a g o l d e n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b u i l d f o r t h e e m e r g i n g h i g h - i n c o m e h o u s i n g m a r k e t . " * 7 S t r u c t u r a l and * s D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, pp.100-101. * 7 I b i d . , 1988, pp.101-102. 78 d e m o g r a p h i c c hanges o c c u r i n g i n t h e T o r o n t o r e g i o n made t h e d e c l i n i n g w a t e r f r o n t and r a i l w a y l a n d s prime f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . W h i l e s e v e r a l major i n s t i t u t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m e d i a t i n g w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h r e e o f them: t h e T o r o n t o Harbour Commission, t h e n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y s , and H a r b o u r f r o n t C o r p o r a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d most o f t h e l a n d a l o n g t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t . The f i r s t two were f a c e d w i t h t h e d e c l i n e s i d e o f s t r u c t u r a l change - t h a t i s , t h e o b s o l e s c e n c e o f t h e p o r t , r a i l w a y s and w a t e r f r o n t i n d u s t r i e s . The l a t t e r i n s t i t u t i o n was c r e a t e d by t h e f e d e r a l government i n 1972, t o e n s u r e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e w a t e r f r o n t from c o m m e r c i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n . The T o r o n t o e x p e r i e n c e i n w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t i s h i g h l i g h t e d by a s e r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t c a m p a i g n s , l e d by v a r i o u s p u b l i c - and p r i v a t e - s e c t o r a g e n c i e s . P r o m i n e n t i n t h i s e x p e r i e n c e a r e c o n f l i c t s between government a g e n c i e s , and s o c i a l v e r s u s c o m m e r c i a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l b r i e f l y o u t l i n e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e T o r o n t o H a rbour Commission, H a r b o u r f r o n t C o r p o r a t i o n and t h e n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y s i n t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f T o r o n t o ' s c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t . T o r o n t o H a rbour Commission S i n c e i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1911, t h e T o r o n t o H a rbour Commission has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o r t o p e r a t i o n s and l a n d d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e T o r o n t o w a t e r f r o n t . I t s r e v e n u e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been d e r i v e d from t h e l e a s e or s a l e o f w a t e r f r o n t l a n d s p r i m a r i l y f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s . By t h e mid-1960's, however, income d e r i v e d f r o m t h e 79 Commission's i n d u s t r i a l l a n d base was n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o c o v e r o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s , and a s i z a b l e d e b t began t o a c c u m u l a t e . The d e b t o r i g i n a t e d from a number of t h e Commission's c a p i t a l - i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s and i t was e n l a r g e d by d e c l i n i n g s h i p p i n g r e v e n u e and mo u n t i n g i n t e r e s t c h a r g e s . . . . P o r t t o n n a g e more t h a n h a l v e d between 1969 and 1974, d e s p i t e t h e Commission's l o n g - r a n g e c a p i t a l d e v e l o p m e n t programme i n t h e l a t e 1960's. F u r t h e r m o r e , i n d u s t r y m i g r a t e d t o new l o c a t i o n s or s i m p l y c l o s e d down, r e d u c i n g t h e v a l u e of t h e Commission's i n d u s t r i a l l a n d s . 4 8 F a c e d w i t h a d i f f i c u l t f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , t h e Harbour Commission had t o r e c o n s i d e r i t s d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y . I n s t e a d of a c o n t i n u e d e m p h a s i s on i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e Commission began t o promote c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on i t s l a n d h o l d i n g s a d j a c e n t t o t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . The f i r s t l a n d s a l e and r e d e v e l o p m e n t agreement was f i n a l i z e d i n 1964, a f t e r c o m p l i c a t e d n e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e Commission, t h e C i t y and a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r . S i n c e t h a t t i m e , t h e s i t e has been d e v e l o p e d w i t h a h o t e l and a number o f h i g h - r i s e r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s under t h e name "Harbour S q u a r e . " A d d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l t o w e r s a r e e i t h e r under d e v e l o p m e n t or i n t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . The most a m b i t i o u s o f t h e Harbour Commission's p r o j e c t s i s t h e World T r a d e C e n t r e , on wh i c h c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t e d i n 1988. When c o m p l e t e , t h e p r o j e c t w i l l c o n t a i n t h r e e 2 6 - s t o r e y o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , two r e s i d e n t i a l t o w e r s a t 25 and 32 s t o r e y s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and s e v e r a l l o w - r i s e c o n n e c t i n g b u i l d i n g s . O t h e r p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y under d e v e l o p m e n t a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n ends of t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t . 4 8 D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, p.103. 80 H a r b o u r f r o n t C o r p o r a t i o n The H a r b o u r f r o n t l a n d s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e w e s t e r l y p o r t i o n o f th e T o r o n t o B a y f r o n t , between S t a d i u m Road (on B a t h u r s t Quay) and York S t r e e t . 4 9 A l m o s t a l l of t h e p r o p e r t i e s i n t h i s d i s t r i c t ( a b o u t 33 h e c t a r e s ) were a c q u i r e d by t h e f e d e r a l government between 1972 and 1 9 7 5 . s o H a r b o u r f r o n t was c h a r g e d w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e s e l a n d s as an u r b a n park on b e h a l f o f t h e government. W h i l e c r i t i c s of t h e p r o j e c t v iewed t h e park as an e l e c t i o n g i f t from t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s , t h e government a r g u e d t h a t i t s m o t i v e was t o a v e r t t h e t h r e a t of h i g h - r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t , as s y m b o l i z e d by Harbour S q u a r e . The f i r s t s e v e r a l y e a r s o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s on t h e H a r b o u r f r o n t l a n d s were marked by i n d e c i s i o n and s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s between v a r i o u s l e v e l s of government. To e n a b l e H a r b o u r f r o n t t o o p e r a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y as a d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y , i t was made a f e d e r a l Crown C o r p o r a t i o n i n 1976. I n 1978, H a r b o u r f r o n t C o r p o r a t i o n made an a b o u t - f a c e from i t s i n i t i a l e m phasis on p u b l i c park s p a c e , and p u t f o r w a r d a new p l a n which c a l l e d f o r a mix o f r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s . S 1 The s u c c e s s o f H a r b o u r f r o n t 1 s 1978 Development Framework r e s t e d on t h e C o r p o r a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o become f i n a n c i a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . By t h e l a t e 1970's, t h e h i g h c o s t s o f s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t , 4 9 S e e F i g u r e 3.6. s ° C i t y o f T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g and Development Department, The  C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t : P r o p o s a l s , A p r i l 1982, p.31. B 1 D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, p.104. 81 i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and c u l t u r a l programs put t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of t h e p r o j e c t i n q u e s t i o n . C l e a r a n c e o f t h e s i t e ' s i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s and t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e wharves were e x p e c t e d t o be c o s t l y . More e x p e n s i v e , t h o u g h , was t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r o a d s , p i p e d s e r v i c e s , and o t h e r i n t r a s t r u c t u r e t o s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t e m p l a t e d i n t h e mixed-use p l a n . F u r t h e r m o r e , H a r b o u r f r o n t had c r e a t e d and was e x p e c t e d t o m a i n t a i n i t s e x t e n s i v e a r t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes, w h i c h by t h e n e n j o y e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c s u p p o r t . 8 2 By 1980, t h e C o r p o r a t i o n had p u t i n t o p l a c e a new s t r a t e g y f o r a c h i e v i n g s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . The new Development P l a n , w h i c h f o l l o w e d i n 1984, c a l l e d f o r 65,000 s q u a r e m e t e r s of r e s i d e n t i a l , o f f i c e and r e t a i l s p a c e - w i t h a b o u t 60 p e r c e n t of t h i s f l o o r s p a c e b e i n g a l l o c a t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The e c o n o m i c s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n e n s u r e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e t h e r e q u i r e d r e v e n u e , d e v e l o p m e n t would t a k e t h e form o f h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l schemes, l u x u r y condominium p r o j e c t s , and e x p e n s i v e c o m m e r c i a l and r e t a i l s p a c e . s 3 Most of H a r b o u r f r o n t ' s low and moderate c o s t h o u s i n g - some 500 u n i t s , or 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l component - was d e s i g n a t e d f o r t h e w e s t e r n m o s t p a r c e l s o f p r o p e r t y on B a t h u r s t Quay. However, i t was f e a r e d t h a t t h e p l a n n e d number of s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g u n i t s would n o t m a t e r i a l i z e w i t h o u t an i n c r e a s e i n f e d e r a l f u n d i n g . S 2 D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, p.105. " I b i d . , 1988, p.106. s " * A l y s e F r a m p t o n , " T o r o n t o ' s H a r b o u r f r o n t , " C a n a d i a n  G e o g r a p h i c . 104 (6) December 1 9 8 4 / J a n u a r y 1985, 69. 82 BA I Ml RSI Q l 'AY 1. Toronto Island Airport Ferry 2 W indward Co-op residences 3 CMyhome ras idencss 4 Arcadia Co-op rasideoces Cityhome rs t idencas Harboursidt Co-op r ts idences 5. W d e Norway Park 5 Canada Matting trios SPADINA Q U A Y t- Spedine Pier 2. Mar ina Quay W a t t 3 Spedina Gardens 4 King's Landing condamirmjrnt — B e c k e r » P in t ry — Eskimo Art Gallery — Island GaUary — Mary 's S i * ft Things 5 to L o w t f Spedina ofnce building, — Absolute Interiors ft Glass 8. The Francophone Centre MAPLE LEAF Q U A Y 1. Harbour Tarrece condornwwoms 2. Harbour Terrace restaurant 3. Harbourfront Corporation Hood Office 4 Ht rbourt fom Antique Market — Dinah's Oinofta i. M a p l e Leaf Quay apartments 8. Naubca i Centre 9 titfonnabon Kiosks • B t n k — C I B C - A B M J O H N Q U A Y 1. J o h n Quay Park 2. Met ro P o t k o Mar ina Headquerters J . Admwafcty P o r t condofltintums — The Oock ShopfM — The Nauoca) M i n d bookstoro — Ok) FVehefi Sports 4 H o n ! Admiral — Admiral 's Cornar Gift Shop — Commodore i Dining Aoorn — Commodore's Travel — Tha GaNav — Storfanej Photos 5- HarbourPoint c o o d o m M u m i — island R Q V M T S — Movio la Cats — Robbo Rno Foods — Sevrftss Cleaners ft Bouoqua — Sua EKan Leathers — T a t M a n o r s M t r n a b o n a i Ca r t — Toronto Apothecary 6 P i t r 4 Storohousa Restaurant 7. Tha Bmnacle I Waftymagoo't M e n n e b a r 5 T h o C h n o s o J u n k 1 0 Tha Amsterdam Br idge It M a r w i a t Y O R K QUAY 1. Shtpdack Stage 2 Wast Lawn 3 York Quay C t n t f t — Information Oask — Bounty — Tha B r e e i e w a y — Brigantme Room — Calabration Theatre — Community Gettery — Tha Craft Studio — Tha U n i t Cele - T h a l o t t — Tha Lookout — Photography Gattary — Studio Theatre — Water 's Edge Cafa — York Quay GaHary 4. Tha Pond/Winter l e t ftmk 5 The Power Plant Contemporary Art Gallory I du M A U M E R Thaatra C a m r * 7. Tent in the Square 8. t.^ 00 cat p a r i n g g j u y e 9. Bus Drop-ot l to Quean's Quay T t rmwal — Bank - CtBC — 100 shops and ranaurants — Premiere Oanca Th«arre (3rd floor) tl. Ship's Prow Figure 3.6 - Site Map of Harbourfront 83 By 1986, t h e r e was g r o w i n g p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e n a t u r e and form o f d e v e l o p m e n t t a k i n g p l a c e a t H a r b o u r f r o n t . "While t h e c h a i r p e r s o n of H a r b o u r f r o n t i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e r e was s t i l l t o o much g r e e n a t t h e s i t e , c r i t i c s d e p l o r e d what t h e y p e r c e i v e d t o be a q u a y s i d e c o n c r e t e c u r t a i n . " " D i a n a B i r c h a l l , an a r e a p l a n n e r w i t h t h e C i t y of T o r o n t o , i d e n t i f i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s as major s o u r c e s o f f r i c t i o n : t h e s c a l e and d e n s i t y o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e h e i g h t of b u i l d i n g s , t h e r a t i o o f market t o non-market h o u s i n g , and th e amount of l a n d d e d i c a t e d t o park s p a c e . s s In 1987, a m o r a t o r i u m was p l a c e d on f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a t H a r b o u r f r o n t , w h i l e s e v e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a l r e v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d . The C i t y o f T o r o n t o had no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r H a r b o u r f r o n t and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e p r o j e c t was n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e r e g u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . Some contempt f o r H a r b o u r f r o n t i s d e t e c t a b l e i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h C i t y p l a n n i n g s t a f f . B i r c h a l l , f o r example, a r g u e s t h a t t h e t r u e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t has n o t been a c h i e v e d -and she c i t e s t h e a b s e n c e of an o v e r a l l p l a n as t h e major r e a s o n . D evelopment a t H a r b o u r f r o n t was l o o s e l y g o v e r n e d by a f l e x i b l e D e velopment Framework, and a s e t o f p o l i c i e s f o r e a c h s u b - a r e a of t h e s i t e . As a r e s u l t , H a r b o u r f r o n t has l a r g e l y e v o l v e d on a quay-by-quay b a s i s . T h e r e were few d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s , and h e i g h t r e s t r i c t i o n s were imposed o n l y on c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s o f t h e s i t e . * y " D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, p.106. s s I n t e r v i e w w i t h D i a n a B i r c h a l l , A r e a P l a n n e r , W a t e r f r o n t and R a i l w a y Lands S e c t i o n , C i t y o f T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g and Development D e p a r t m e n t , 13 J u l y 1989. B 7 I b i d . , 13 J u l y 1989. 84 85 The b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s a t H a r b o u r f r o n t a p p e a r somewhat h a p h a z a r d i n t h e i r a r r a n g e m e n t and i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h one a n o t h e r i n terms of d e s i g n . In F e b r u a r y 1989, H a r b o u r f r o n t C o r p o r a t i o n e n t e r e d i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h e C i t y of T o r o n t o t o " r e s o l v e t h e numerous and v e x i n g i s s u e s " w h i c h had p l a g u e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . s a The r e s u l t i n g agreement between H a r b o u r f r o n t and t h e C i t y forms th e b a s i s of an o f f i c i a l p l a n f o r t h e H a r b o u r f r o n t l a n d s . However, as D i a n a B i r c h a l l a r g u e s - " t h i s i s a f t e r t h e f a c t . Much of t h e damage has a l r e a d y been done; and many d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s have been l o s t . " 3 9 D o u g l a s Wrenn ( 1 9 8 3 ) , on t h e o t h e r hand, p o i n t s t o Harbour f r o n t ' s f l e x i b l e Development Framework as one o f t h e p r o j e c t ' s c h i e f a d v a n t a g e s : The g u i d e l i n e s a r t i c u l a t e t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t program - m i x e d - u s e , p u b l i c a c c e s s , c u l t u r a l programming, f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , and so f o r t h - w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g t h e e x a c t s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n or d e v e l o p m e n t d e t a i l s . A p p r o v a l o f t h i s document a l l o w e d g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g and p r e d e v e l o p m e n t work t o move f o r w a r d w h i l e s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s were b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p a r c e l s w i t h i n H a r b o u r f r o n t were and u n d o u b t e d l y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be t a i l o r e d t o r e s p o n d t o c h a n g i n g needs and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 8 0 B a R i c h a r d E. S h i b l e y , Memorandum of Terms of an I n t e n d e d  Agreement Between t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o and H a r b o u r f r o n t C o r p o r a t i o n . 14 June 1989. " I n t e r v i e w w i t h D i a n a B i r c h a l l , 13 J u l y 1989. s o D o u g l a s Wrenn, Urban W a t e r f r o n t D e v e l o p m e n t . ( W a s h i n g t o n : Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 8 3 ) , pp.122-123. 86 Wrenn c i t e s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of T o r o n t o ' s s e a s o n a l c l i m a t i c e x t r e m e s as a c a s e i n p o i n t . The f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e Development Framework a l l o w e d f o r t h e s t r a t e g i c p l a c e m e n t and m o d i f i c a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s t o m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t t h e e f f e c t s o f c o l d , wind and r a i n . Wrenn d o w n p l a y s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f H a r b o u r f r o n t as a c a t a l y s t f o r downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n by p o i n t i n g t o T o r o n t o a s , a g r o w i n g , t h r i v i n g , m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t y w i t h a h e a l t h y downtown c o r e . He views th e p r o j e c t s i m p l y as an e f f o r t t o make b e t t e r use of an u n d e r u t i l i z e d s e c t i o n of u r b a n water f r o n t . s x On t h e c o n t r a r y , w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t i n T o r o n t o i s v e r y much a c a t a l y s t f o r ec o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a . W h i l e T o r o n t o i s , by no means, a c i t y i n d e c l i n e - t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of H a r b o u r f r o n t and t h e a d j a c e n t R a i l w a y Lands w i l l s t r e n g t h e n T o r o n t o ' s p o s i t i o n o f dominance i n t h e r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i e s , by a t t r a c t i n g a d d i t i o n a l c o m m e r c i a l and mixed-use d e v e l o p m e n t . C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c and C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s In most N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n C a n a d i a n c i t i e s , t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l w a t e r f r o n t s has i n v o l v e d some r e l o c a t i o n of r a i l w a y f a c i l i t i e s , and r e d e v e l o p m e n t of l a n d s f o r m e r l y o c c u p i e d by t h e r a i l w a y s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e s a d j a c e n t r a i l w a y l a n d s w i l l v a r y between c i t i e s due t o v a r i o u s f a c t o r s . I n T o r o n t o , t h e R a i l w a y Lands c o n s t i t u t e a m a s s i v e p a r c e l o f l a n d , s t r a t e g i c a l l y s i t u a t e d between t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t . s l D o u g l a s Wrenn, 1983, p.123. 87 R e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e R a i l w a y Lands w i l l have a g r e a t impact on t h e w a t e r f r o n t , and v i c e v e r s a . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e c i t y of T o r o n t o has m i s s e d out on a g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a n f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t of b o t h t h e w a t e r f r o n t and R a i l w a y L a n d s , and t o enhance e x i s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a . T h i s i s due, i n l a r g e p a r t , t o d i v i d e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t on t h e s e l a n d s , and c o n f l i c t s between v a r i o u s p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , a t a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f g overnment. Between them, Canada's two n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y c ompanies -C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c and C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l - c o n t r o l l e d a b o u t 80 h e c t a r e s of r a i l y a r d s l y i n g between t h e C e n t r a l A r e a and H a r b o u r f r o n t . B e c a u se t h e v a l u e of t h e s e l a n d s f o r r a i l p u r p o s e s had d e c l i n e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y , t h e r a i l w a y s were c o n s i d e r i n g a range of r e d e v e l o p m e n t o p t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . The f i r s t major r e d e v e l o p m e n t scheme f o r t h e R a i l w a y Lands was put f o r w a r d i n 1968. The g r a n d i o s e scheme, known as "Metro C e n t r e , " was t o r e p l a c e t h e e x i s t i n g m a r s h a l l i n g y a r d s w i t h a m i x t u r e of new u r b a n l a n d u s e s . M a j o r components o f t h e p r o j e c t i n c l u d e d a m u l t i -mode t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e r m i n a l , a c o m m e r c i a l p r e c i n c t t o accommodate 60,000 w o r k e r s , an a r e a d e v o t e d t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n d u s t r i e s , as w e l l as a l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l component. W h i l e t h e scheme r e c e i v e d C o u n c i l e n d o r s e m e n t i n 1971, i t d i d n o t s u r v i v e r i s i n g i n t e r e s t r a t e s , nor t h e u r b a n r e f o r m p o l i c i e s o f t h e mid-1970's, and was f i n a l l y abandoned i n 1 9 7 5 . 6 2 6 2 D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, p.107. 88 In t h e e a r l y 1980's, a s e c o n d p r o p o s a l was p u t f o r w a r d by t h e r a i l w a y c o m p a n i e s , w o r k i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h C i t y o f T o r o n t o p l a n n i n g s t a f f . At a p r i c e t a g of two b i l l i o n d o l l a r s , t h e p r o j e c t was t h e l a r g e s t r e d e v e l o p m e n t scheme e v e r p r o p o s e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a t t h a t t i m e . The p r o p o s e d d e v e l o p m e n t c o n f l i c t e d w i t h t h e d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p o l i c i e s o f t h e 1978 C e n t r a l A r e a P l a n . However, t h e p r o j e c t d i d n o t f a c e t h e same l e v e l of h o s t i l i t y as t h e e a r l i e r M e t r o C e n t r e p r o p o s a l . T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o p r o - d e v e l o p m e n t f o r c e s r e t u r n i n g t o C i t y C o u n c i l and t o t h e g r o w i n g c o m p l a c e n c y of t h e u r b a n r e f o r m g e n e r a t i o n . The r e f o r m e r s had f o u g h t s u c c e s s f u l l y t o p r o t e c t t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s from r e d e v e l o p m e n t and, s u b s e q u e n t l y , were n o t as a c t i v e i n c i v i c p o l i t i c s . As B a r t o n R e i d ( S p r i n g 1989) s u g g e s t s , t h e y have f o r g e d a p e c u l i a r bond w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t i n d u s t r y by c o m p r o m i s i n g t h e i r v i e w s on d e n s i t y - i n exchange f o r p u b l i c a m e n t i t i e s and g r e a t e r a e s t h e t i c c o n t r o l . I n t h e 1980's a c u r i o u s m u t a t i o n has a r i s e n between d e v e l o p e r s and r e f o r m e r s w h i c h has c l o u d e d t h e once c l e a r a n t i p a t h y between them. ...A new common gro u n d o f m u tual s e l f - i n t e r e s t has been c r e a t e d , where once o p p o s i n g p a r t i e s now dance a p e r v e r s e p o l i t i c a l d u e t i n t h e i r new r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c o r p o r a t e c i t y . ...Here t h e i m p l i c i t r u l e s a r e t h a t t h e m i d d l e c l a s s w i l l compromise on d e n s i t y r i g h t s i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l downtown so l o n g as t h e y r e c e i v e new a m e n i t i e s f o r t h e i r a c q u i e s c e n c e (and, o f c o u r s e , so l o n g as t h e s a n c t i t y o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a d j a c e n t t o t h e downtown i s r e c o g n i z e d as t h e i r own s p e c u l a t i v e p r e s e r v e ) . 6 3 The R a i l w a y L a nds p r o p o s a l d i d n o t have a r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n t o m o b i l i z e a g a i n s t t h e scheme. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e was S 3 B a r t o n R e i d , "The C o r p o r a t e C i t y R e v i s i t e d ( 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 9 0 ) , " C i t y M a g a z i n e , 10:4 ( S p r i n g 1 989), 17-18. 89 c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n b u i l d i n g a g a i n s t t h e p r o j e c t . In p a r t i c u l a r , c r i t i c s were c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e x c e s s i v e amount of c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e (1.4 m i l l i o n s q u a r e m e t e r s - e q u a l t o one h a l f of t h e e x i s t i n g c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e i n t h e C e n t r a l A r e a ) , and t h e i n s u f f i c i e n t amount of h o u s i n g . Of t h e h o u s i n g t h a t was p r o p o s e d , none would be a f f o r d a b l e t o moderate income g r o u p s . 6 4 S e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n , and h o p i n g t o a v o i d a r e p e a t of t h e M e t r o C e n t r e e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r a i l w a y companies s t r u c k a b a r g a i n w i t h t h e C i t y t o b a i l out t h e t r o u b l e d "Skydome" s t a d i u m p r o j e c t , i n exchange f o r e x p e d i t i o u s a p p r o v a l o f t h e e n t i r e R a i l w a y Lands d e v e l o p m e n t . As D e s f o r e t a l s u g g e s t , t h e s t r a t e g y was q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . " U n d o u b t e d l y , a f a v o u r a b l e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e i n t h e c i t y c o u n c i l , and a p u b l i c u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e R a i l w a y L a nds p r o p o s a l as a whole, i n c r e a s e d t h e odds o f t h e p r o p o s a l g a i n i n g p l a n n i n g a p p r o v a l . " 6 5 Summary 1. The c u r r e n t wave of r e d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y on t h e T o r o n t o w a t e r f r o n t was f a c i l i t a t e d by s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s i n t h e n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i e s . M a n u f a c t u r i n g , r a i l w a y and p o r t o p e r a t i o n s have d e c l i n e d r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy, and t h e s i t e s o c c u p i e d by t h e s e u s e s have been made a v a i l a b l e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . a 4 D e s f o r , G o l d r i c k and M e r r e n s , 1988, p.107. S 5 I b i d . , 1988, p.109. 2. The a d o p t i o n o f a new O f f i c i a l Community P l a n i n 1969 was t h e f i r s t i n a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s f o r r e s t o r i n g t h e c i t y o f T o r o n t o ' s d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n a l economy. 3. W h i l e s e v e r a l major i n s t i t u t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m e d i a t i n g w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h r e e of them: t h e T o r o n t o Harbour Commission, t h e n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y s , and H a r b o u r f r o n t C o r p o r a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d most o f t h e l a n d a l o n g t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t . 4. The p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s f o r b o t h H a r b o u r f r o n t and t h e R a i l w a y Lands i s e v i d e n t i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s e p r o j e c t s . The most b l a t a n t example o f p o l i t i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n i s C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l ' s use o f SkyDome as a b a r g a i n i n g t o o l t o g a i n e x p e d i t i o u s C i t y a p p r o v a l o f t h e e n t i r e unamended R a i l w a y Lands p r o p o s a l . 5. P r i n c i p a l a r e a s o f c o n f l i c t on t h e w a t e r f r o n t have i n c l u d e d : t h e s c a l e and d e n s i t y of d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e h e i g h t and m a s s i n g of b u i l d i n g s , t h e r a t i o o f m arket t o non-market h o u s i n g , and t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s i t e a r e a a l l o c a t e d f o r p u b l i c open s p a c e . 6. The o r i g i n a l c o n c e p t f o r H a r b o u r f r o n t was t h e c r e a t i o n of a major u r b a n p a r k . B e c a u se o f f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h i s was s u b s e q u e n t l y c hanged t o i n c l u d e a mix of r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s . 7. The 1984 Development P l a n f o r H a r b o u r f r o n t c a l l e d f o r 65,000 m 2 o f r e s i d e n t i a l , o f f i c e and r e t a i l s p a c e - w i t h a b o u t 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l f l o o r s p a c e a l l o c a t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l u s e . 91 8. Of t h e t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l component, 30 p e r c e n t (500 u n i t s ) v as d e s i g n a t e d as low- t o moderate-income h o u s i n g . In t h e o r y , t h e p r o j e c t i s " s o c i a l l y - m i x e d . " B u t , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t as a v h o l e , t h e non-market u n i t s have been c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t h e v e s t e r n end of t h e s i t e - d i r e c t l y a c r o s s from t h e I s l a n d s A i r p o r t . 9. The image of b o t h H a r b o u r f r o n t and t h e p r o p o s e d R a i l w a y Lands d e v e l o p m e n t i s one o f " u p s c a l e " r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l p r o j e c t s . G i v e n t h e a m e n i t y o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by t h e l a k e s h o r e , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f major a t t r a c t i o n s s u c h as t h e CN T o v e r and SkyDome - t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t i s q u i c k l y becoming a r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a y g r o u n d f o r t h e r e s i d e n t u r b a n e l i t e , and t h e g r o w i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . 10. The i m p o r t a n c e o f " t i m i n g " i n u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e r e c o r d o f r a i l w a y l a n d s r e d e v e l o p m e n t -i . e . , t h e i l l - f a t e d "Metro C e n t r e " p r o p o s a l , and t h e r e c e n t l y -a p p r o v e d R a i l w a y Lands p r o j e c t . The e a r l i e r p r o p o s a l vas hampered by h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s and p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n , and vas e v e n t u a l l y d e f e a t e d by a r e f o r m c o u n c i l . 1±± S m a l l e r W a t e r f r o n t Communities The r e d e v e l o p m e n t of u r b a n v a t e r f r o n t s a c r o s s N o r t h A m e r i c a i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l and ec o n o m i c r e s t r u c t u r i n g of c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l e r a . W h i l e some form o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s e v i d e n t i n b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e v a t e r f r o n t s o f s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t k i n d and s c a l e of 92 r e d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t y . As R o b e r t Goodwin (1987) p o i n t s o u t -l o c a l m a r k e t s r a r e l y m a t e r i a l i z e i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s f o r major h o t e l , r e t a i l and o f f i c e u s e s on t h e w a t e r f r o n t , i n p a r t b e c a u s e t h e i r e c o n o m i e s a r e b o t h s m a l l e r and s i m p l e r t h a n t h o s e of a m e t r o p o l i s . s s Goodwin a r g u e s f u r t h e r t h a t t h e economy of a s m a l l w a t e r f r o n t community may be d o m i n a t e d by a s i n g l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g or r e s o u r c e -b a s e d i n d u s t r y , and i s t h u s v u l n e r a b l e t o n a t i o n a l and g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s h i f t s . In a f i s h i n g or lumber town, f o r example - a poor salmon h a r v e s t or a slump i n demand f o r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s c o u l d d e v a s t a t e t h e l o c a l economy. 6 - 7 F o r p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e c h a l l e n g e i n b u i l d i n g a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l economy i s t o d i v e r s i f y t h e e c o n o m i c base w h i l e , a t t h e same t i m e , p r e s e r v i n g t h e u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r and d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t s of t h e community. To t h i s end, t o u r i s m p r o m o t i o n i s s e e n as a l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y b e c a u s e i t c a p i t a l i z e s on a community's e x i s t i n g a s s e t s : a w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n , a s t o c k o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s , s m a l l - t o w n c h a r a c t e r , and a r e p u t a t i o n f o r l i v a b i l i t y . I n S t e v e s t o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - t o u r i s m and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t have been promoted by b o t h t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s as an e c o n o m i c s u p p l e m e n t t o t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . Over t h e s s R o b e r t Goodwin, e d . , " W a t e r f r o n t R e v i t a l i z a t i o n f o r S m a l l e r C o m m u n i t i e s , " ( P r o c e e d i n g s of a c o n f e r e n c e h e l d a t Ocean S h o r e s , W a s h i n g t o n , A p r i l 23-24, 1987), ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1987), p . v i i . S 7 I b i d . , 1987, p . v i i . 93 y e a r s , most r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p l a n s f o r S t e v e s t o n ' s b u s i n e s s c e n t r e and w a t e r f r o n t have r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , and have i n c o r p o r a t e d c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g as b o t h a major economic a c t i v i t y and u r b a n d e s i g n theme. In t h e f u t u r e , however, i t a p p e a r s t h a t f i s h i n g may d e c l i n e i n i m p o r t a n c e , r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r economic a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o u r i s m . The e x i s t i n g image of S t e v e s t o n i s one o f m a r g i n a l e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y g e a r e d t o v e r y l o c a l and f i s h i n g n e e d s . ...The major changes w h i c h w i l l a l t e r S t e v e s t o n i n c l u d e a s h i f t i n t h e f i s h i n g f l e e t , and a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g p o p u l a t i o n base o f t o u r i s t and community r e s i d e n t i a l . . . . F a c e d w i t h t h e s e p r e s s u r e s , S t e v e s t o n seems t o have two o p t i o n s f o r f u t u r e image - a t o u r i s t town, or a f i s h i n g town. A c h o i c e between t h e s e i s e s s e n t i a l s i n c e t h e r e a r e d i f f e r i n g p h y s i c a l and p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s needed f o r d i r e c t i o n . 6 8 The " t o u r i s t town" o p t i o n would t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f new and e x i s t i n g a m e n i t y o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n S t e v e s t o n . T h e r e would be no commitment t o f i s h i n g e x c e p t t o use i t s h i s t o r i c r e f e r e n c e t o d e v e l o p a theme v i l l a g e , and t o t r e a t f i s h i n g on an e q u a l b a s i s w i t h t o u r i s m . In t h e i r wisdom, m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s , w o r k i n g i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e S t e v e s t o n community, have d i s m i s s e d t h e n o t i o n of a t o u r i s t town on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t would d e s t r o y not o n l y t h e t r u e c h a r a c t e r o f S t e v e s t o n , b u t a l s o , an h i s t o r i c and v i a b l e way of l i f e . The d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d f o r S t e v e s t o n r e c o g n i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y as b o t h an e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r y and a s o u r c e o f t o u r i s m r e v e n u e . W h i l e t o u r i s m i s b e i n g promoted as an e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y , t h e main a t t r a c t i o n f o r t o u r i s t s i s t h e " C o r p o r a t i o n of t h e T o w n s h i p o f Richmond, B.C., S t e v e s t o n A r e a  P l a n , Richmond, B.C., A p r i l 1985 (Amended t o June 1989), p.114. 94 f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y - i . e . , f i s h e r m e n , f i s h i n g b o a t s , f l o a t i n g f i s h m a r k e t s , h i s t o r i c c a n n e r y b u i l d i n g s a n d s e a f o o d r e s t a u r a n t s . S t r u c t u r a l a n d d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s h a v e m a d e t o u r i s m a m a j o r g r o w t h i n d u s t r y . A n d , w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f t o u r i s m , t h e r e h a s c o m e a h e i g h t e n e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . T h e w a t e r f r o n t s o f s m a l l e r r e s o u r c e o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s a r e l i t t e r e d w i t h a n a r r a y o f i n t e r e s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s s u c h a s d o c k s , w a r e h o u s e s , c a n n e r i e s , s a w m i l l s , a n d o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s o f u s e a n d r e p a i r . A n i n n o v a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s c h e m e c o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e m a n y o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s , t h r o u g h a d a p t i v e r e - u s e , t o a c c o m m o d a t e a v a r i e t y o f n e w a c t i v i t i e s i n a u n i q u e w a t e r f r o n t e n v i r o n m e n t . F i g u r e 3.8 - H i s t o r i c C a n n e r y B u i l d i n g s , S t e v e s t o n , B . C . . 95 I n b o t h C a n a d a a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r h a s p l a y e d a m a j o r r o l e i n t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s m a l l - t o w n w a t e r f r o n t s I n p a r t i c u l a r , p u b l i c f u n d s h a v e b e e n u s e d t o s u p p o r t d o w n t o w n r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n , p o r t r e d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r p r o g r a m s . T h e r o l e o f v a r i o u s p u b l i c a g e n c i e s -s u c h a s P a r k s C a n a d a , H e r i t a g e C a n a d a , a n d t h e i r U . S . e q u i v a l e n t s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e w o r t h y w i t h r e g a r d t o h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . F i g u r e 3.9 - "Main S t r e e t " R e v i t a l i z a t i o n , C o b o u r g , O n t a r i o . 96 B ecause o f t h e p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t t o t h e p h y s i c a l h e r i t a g e o f s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s , H e r i t a g e Canada c r e a t e d i t s own "Main S t r e e t " a s s i s t a n c e program, f o l l o w i n g t h e example of t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l T r u s t . T h i s e n c o u r a g e s s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s t o u t i l i z e t h e i r i n n a t e r e s o u r c e s and p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e so as t o c a p i t a l i z e most e f f e c t i v e l y upon t h e h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e , e m p h a s i z i n g p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , e c o n o m i c p r o m o t i o n and s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t . In Canada p a r t i c u l a r l y , many of t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s a r e w a t e r f r o n t c o m m u n i t i e s , and a b o o s t t o "Main S t r e e t " a c t i v i t y i s g e n e r a t i n g a p o s i t i v e s p i n o f f t o w a t e r f r o n t r e v i t a l i z a t i o n ( o r v i c e v e r s a ) . 6 9 In many s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e r e i s a s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between "Main S t r e e t " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t . " 7 0 The f e a s i b i l i t y o f w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s b o t h s u p p o r t e d and enhanced by c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y i n e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , a d j a c e n t t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t . And, w a t e r f r o n t r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s commonly a d v o c a t e d by t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s community as a means o f s t i m u l a t i n g t o u r i s m d e v e l o p m e n t , and e n h a n c i n g c o m m e r c i a l p r o s p e c t s i n t h e downtown. A c a s e i n p o i n t i s W i l m i n g t o n , N o r t h C a r o l i n a - where, s i n c e t h e 1960's, downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s have f o c u s s e d on w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t and h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . The s u c c e s s o f two m ixed-use d e v e l o p m e n t s a t o p p o s i t e ends o f t h e W i l m i n g t o n w a t e r f r o n t - i . e . , " C h a n d l e r ' s Wharf" and t h e " C o t t o n E x c h a n g e " -h i g h l i g h t e d t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t t o s u p p o r t a wide a r r a y of c o m m e r c i a l l a n d - u s e s , i n c l u d i n g a t t r a c t i o n s f o r t h e e m e r g i n g t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y . S 9 J o h n T u n b r i d g e , 1988, pp.84-85. • 7°Ibid., 1988, p.84. 97 The e x i s t i n g s t o c k of h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s i n downtown W i l m i n g t o n has p r o v i d e d an o b v i o u s theme f o r r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . In terms of p h y s i c a l improvements, t h e C i t y i s e n c o u r a g i n g m e r c h a n t s and p r o p e r t y owners t o r e n o v a t e t h e i r b u i l d i n g s , and i s p r e p a r i n g d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s f o r r e n o v a t i o n s . 7 1 The C i t y has a l s o j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o promote i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e downtown t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an economic d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y . Summary The w a t e r f r o n t s of s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t r a nge o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s from t h o s e a v a i l a b l e i n l a r g e r c i t i e s . W h i l e t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t may be s i m i l a r , t h e p r i m a r y d i f f e r e n c e i s i n terms o f s c a l e . S m a l l e r w a t e r f r o n t c o m m u n i t i e s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e same s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s t h a t a r e r e s h a p i n g m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n s . However, t h e r e i s a p e c u l i a r s e t of c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t i s u n i q u e t o t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . T a b l e 3.2 p r o v i d e s a l i s t of s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s : 7 1 G e r a l d i n e Bachman and Rober K n e c h t , " W a t e r f r o n t s : R e d i s c o v e r i n g a N e g l e c t e d A s s e t , " AIA J o u r n a l , ( F e b r u a r y 1979), 57. 98 TABLE 3.2 - CHARACTERISTICS OF WATERFRONT REDEVELOPMENT IN SMALLER COMMUNITIES 1. P r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t -S t a g n a t i o n or d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l e c o n o m i c base . 2^ A c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t -Redevelopment i s g e n e r a l l y i n i t i a t e d by l o c a l b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l o c a l c o u n c i l s , w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f s e n i o r government p r o g r a m s . 3^ M o t i v a t i o n f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t -To d i v e r s i f y and enhance t h e l o c a l economy. 4. C o n f l i c t p o t e n t i a l -The p r i m a r y s o u r c e of c o n f l i c t i s t h e n o t i o n of c o n s e r v a t i o n v e r s u s r e d e v e l o p m e n t - as i t a p p l i e s t o h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s and t h e i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r o f a community. 5^. Development c o n c e p t -P r e d o m i n a n t l y , t o u r i s t - o r i e n t e d c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s . T y p i c a l w a t e r f r o n t p r o j e c t s a r e a m e n i t y - o r i e n t e d , and a r e meant t o enhance t h e c o m m e r c i a l v i a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s . Image o f d e v e l o p m e n t -P r o j e c t s t y p i c a l l y c a p i t a l i z e on a community's " s m a l l - t o w n " c h a r a c t e r , l i v a b i l i t y , h e r i t a g e s t r e e t s c a p e s , and u n i q e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 4.0 CASE STUDY: HISTORICAL AND POLICY BACKGROUND T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e c a s e s t u d y . I t i n c l u d e s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n and h i s t o r y of t h e c i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , and o u t l i n e s t h e c i t y ' s p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c r o l e i n the d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n . T h i s h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s v a l u a b l e i n t h a t i t e s t a b l i s h e s an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t e x t f o r s t u d y i n g t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t . I t h e l p s t o b u i l d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s e x i s t i n g i n t h e downtown and w a t e r f r o n t a r e a s , p r i o r t o r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e 1980's. 4,1 D e s c r i p t i o n Founded i n 1859, New W e s t m i n s t e r i s t h e o l d e s t c i t y i n w e s t e r n Canada. The c i t y i s l o c a t e d on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r - a p p r o x i m a t e l y 19 k i l o m e t e r s s o u t h e a s t of downtown V a n c o u v e r . New W e s t m i n s t e r i s s i t u a t e d a t t h e g e o g r a p h i c c e n t e r of t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . I t i s a compact c i t y c o v e r i n g 1839 h e c t a r e s , or a b o u t 19 s q u a r e k i l o m e t e r s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f New W e s t m i n s t e r i s e x p e c t e d t o r e a c h 42,000 by t h e end of 1 9 9 0 . 1 New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s w a t e r f r o n t s t r e t c h e s a l o n g t h e n o r t h bank o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , between B u r n a b y and C o q u i t l a m , and a r o u n d t h e e a s t e r n t i p o f L u l u I s l a n d . The s u b j e c t of t h i s c a s e s t u d y i s t h e c e n t r a l w a t e r f r o n t a r e a , a d j a c e n t t o downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , and bounded by t h e r a i l w a y b r i d g e on t h e west, and E l l i o t S t r e e t on t h e ^-Source: C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . 100 east. This portion of the waterfront is the site of "Westminster Quay." N I W W l t T U I N S T I R Mawiu TOWN c u m m i Figure 4.2 - Map of Downtown New Westminster 101 4•2 H i s t o r i c a l and P o l i c y B a c k g r o u n d The C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r was i n c o r p o r a t e d on J u l y 1 7 t h , 1860, and, as t h e c a p i t a l of t h e new c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t s e r v e d as t h e m a i n l a n d ' s major s u p p l y c e n t r e . When t h e s e p a r a t e c o l o n i e s of V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were u n i t e d i n 1866, t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s were s u b s e q u e n t l y c o n s o l i d a t e d i n V i c t o r i a . The l o s s of t h e c a p i t a l c i t y f u n c t i o n meant t h a t New W e s t m i n s t e r would l o s e o ut on s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t - e.g., the e x p a n s i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of major p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . The a d v e n t o f t h e r a i l w a y s b r o u g h t renewed o p t i m i s m f o r p r o s p e r i t y i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . The p r o m i s e o f a t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y e n t i c e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o j o i n C a n a d i a n c o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871. A r a i l w a y , i t was a r g u e d , would be a major e n g i n e o f economic g r o w t h . I t would f a c i l i t a t e l a r g e - s c a l e e x t r a c t i o n o f w e s t e r n C a n a d i a n r e s o u r c e s and would open up e a s t e r n and E u r o p e a n m a r k e t s . As had been p r o m i s e d , s u r v e y work on t h e r a i l w a y s t a r t e d a t once b u t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e r o u t e p r o v e d t o be more d i f f i c u l t t h a n anyone had a n t i c i p a t e d . A p a r t from t h e h a z a r d s o f c r o s s i n g t h e u n e x p l o r e d m o u n t a i n s , t h e r e was i n t e n s e r i v a l r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as t o where t h e l i n e would go. . . . A f t e r a g r e a t d e a l of s q u a b b l i n g , a c h o i c e was made - t h e s o u t h e r l y F r a s e r R i v e r r o u t e would be a d o p t e d . 2 The f i r s t p a s s e n g e r t r a i n a r r i v e d from t h e e a s t a t P o r t Moody on J u l y 4 t h , 1886. P o r t Moody was t h e u n o f f i c i a l t e r m i n u s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y and, had i t r e m a i n e d t h e t e r m i n u s - New W e s t m i n s t e r m i g h t have d e v e l o p e d as t h e do m i n a n t b u s i n e s s c e n t r e i n 2 J a c k D a v i d S c o t t , Once i n t h e R o y a l C i t y , ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: W h i t e c a p Books, 1985), p.12. 102 t h e r e g i o n . However, t h e CPR was i n s e a r c h o f a deep s e a p o r t f o r i t s P a c i f i c s t e a m s h i p t r a d e and had e v e r y i n t e n t i o n o f e x t e n d i n g t h e l i n e t o C o a l H a r b o u r . The CPR m a i n l i n e was c o m p l e t e d i n May 1 8 8 7 . The CPR e x t e n d e d a 9 - m i l e b r a n c h l i n e from P o r t Moody t o New W e s t m i n s t e r , a l s o i n 1 8 8 7 . The G r e a t N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y ( f o r e r u n n e r of B u r l i n g t o n N o r t h e r n ) e n t e r e d t h e c i t y i n 1 8 9 1 , g i v i n g New W e s t m i n s t e r d i r e c t r a i l a c c e s s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . In 1892 , New W e s t m i n s t e r was l i n k e d t o V a n c o u v e r by an e l e c t r i c i n t e r u r b a n r a i l w a y s y s t e m . The c i t y ' s f i r s t p u b l i c market opened the same y e a r t o s e r v e as a m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e f o r F r a s e r V a l l e y p r o d u c e . By t h e t u r n of t h e c e n t u r y , New W e s t m i n s t e r was home t o b o t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l p e n i t e n t i a r y and i n s a n e a s y l u m . M a j o r p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , s u c h as t h e s e , were r e g a r d e d as s y m b o l s of d i s t i n c t i o n d u r i n g t h e V i c t o r i a n e r a . 3 They were a l s o a major s o u r c e of income f o r c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e y were l o c a t e d . The c i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r c o n t i n u e d t o grow as a c e n t r e of b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y and, by t h e 1890's, had e s t a b l i s h e d a f i r m i n d u s t r i a l b a s e . As S c o t t (1985) a r g u e s , New W e s t m i n s t e r was t h e n a t u r a l c e n t r e f o r t h e v a s t h i n t e r l a n d w h i c h l a y beyond i t . ...The two i n d u s t r i e s , s a w m i l l s and c a n n e r i e s , which were t h e making o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , began t o e v o l v e . I n t h e s e v e n t i e s , f o u r l a r g e m i l l s were b u i l t and t h e s a l m o n - p a c k i n g i n d u s t r y was c a r r i e d on by 13 c a n n e r i e s i n o p e r a t i o n on t h e r i v e r i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e c i t y . The r a i l w a y s a l s o h e l p e d , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d t r a d e a f t e r . The o p e n i n g o f t h e b r a n c h t o t h e main l i n e a t P o r t Moody e n a b l e d t r a d e , w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y gone t h e s e a r o u t e by way o f V i c t o r i a , t o move e a s t w a r d t h r o u g h t h e 3 E l e a n o r C a t h e r i n e S l e a t h , " H e r i t a g e P r e s e r v a t i o n : The Case of Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , " M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 4 , p. 2 7 . 103 p o r t . I t was a t i m e of g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y on t h e lower m a i n l a n d and New W e s t m i n s t e r had i t s s h a r e . 4 The y e a r s p r e c e d i n g World War I were a p e r i o d of c o n t i n u e d e c o n o m i c growth t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . New W e s t m i n s t e r was a home base f o r t h e g r o w t h i n d u s t r i e s o f f i s h p r o c e s s i n g and f o r e s t p r o d u c t s , and was t h e c o m m e r c i a l s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y . C o l u m b i a S t r e e t , t h e c i t y ' s p r i n c i p a l t h o r o u g h f a r e , e v o l v e d as a r e t a i l d i s t r i c t of r e g i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e . I t was a l s o i n t h i s p e r i o d t h a t p o r t f a c i l i t i e s were d e v e l o p e d t o h a n d l e t h e t r a n s s h i p m e n t o f g e n e r a l c a r g o . As S c o t t (1985) a r g u e s , i t was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r Harbour Commission, i n 1913, and t h e o p e n i n g of t h e Panama C a n a l t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h a t r a i s e d t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c i t y t o t h a t o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l f r e s h - w a t e r p o r t . * The c i t y and i t s p o r t f a i r e d r e l a t i v e l y w e l l d u r i n g t h e i n t e r w a r y e a r s t h o u g h , l i k e a l l B.C. c o m m u n i t i e s , a l w a y s s u b j e c t t o t h e p e r i o d i c boom and b u s t c y c l e s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a r e s o u r c e - b a s e d economy. C o l u m b i a S t r e e t d i d a booming b u s i n e s s t h r o u g h t h e 1940's and became known as t h e " G o l d e n M i l e . " 6 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n has a l w a y s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f New W e s t m i n s t e r . I t was t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r o a d s and r a i l w a y s t h a t made New W e s t m i n s t e r a c c e s s i b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The a d d i t i o n o f p o r t f a c i l i t i e s s t i m u l a t e d 4 J a c k D a v i d S c o t t , 1985, p.14. B I b i d . , 1985, p.16. 6 E l e a n o r C a t h e r i n e S l e a t h , 1984, p.27. 104 t h e g r o w t h o f w a r e h o u s i n g and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a d v e n t o f i n t e r u r b a n t r a m s e r v i c e s e n a b l e d t r a v e l between V a n c o u v e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y ( 1 9 1 0 ) . The o p e n i n g of t h e P a t u l l o B r i d g e i n 1937 expanded New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s market a r e a t o t h e s o u t h and s o u t h e a s t . T h i s b r i d g e r e p l a c e d an e a r l i e r l o w - l e v e l span (1904) as t h e p r i n c i p a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k t o S u r r e y . In t h e mid-1960's, p l a n n e r s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e c i t y ' s f u t u r e p r o s p e r i t y and i t s r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n would be d e t e r m i n e d by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p a t t e r n s o v e r t h e l o n g e r term." 7 T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r and i t s p r i n c i p a l t h o r o u g h f a r e - C o l u m b i a S t r e e t . The r e a l i g n m e n t of r e g i o n a l t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new highways and b r i d g e s gave s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s i m p r o v e d a c c e s s t o downtown V a n c o u v e r , and made h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t more f e a s i b l e i n p l a c e s l i k e Richmond, S u r r e y and C o q u i t l a m . To f a c i l i t a t e e a s i e r a c c e s s between downtown V a n c o u v e r and t h e g r o w i n g s u b u r b s , t h e t r a n s Canada highway and o t h e r r o u t e s o u t of V a n c o u v e r have t e n d e d t o b y p a s s c o n g e s t e d a r e a s l i k e C o l u m b i a S t r e e t . The r e s u l t i n g l o s s o f t h r o u g h - t r a f f i c has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t a g n a t i o n o f r e t a i l a c t i v i t y i n downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . R e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e o u t e r s u b u r b s has been a c c o m p a n i e d by a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s u b u r b a n s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y and c o m f o r t o f t h e s e c e n t r e s , a l o n g w i t h a b u n d a n t 7 C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., Urban  Renewal S t u d y , P a r t One: I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f G e n e r a l P r o b l e m s , December, 1965, p.45. 105 p a r k i n g and a s u p e r i o r v a r i e t y o f goods and s e r v i c e s , have added t o t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y - a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o l d e r r e t a i l d i s t r i c t s . W i t h i n t h e c i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e b u l k of new r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h r o u g h t h e 1960's and 1970's, was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e c i t y ' s uptown s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t , a t S i x t h S t r e e t and S i x t h Avenue. The d e v e l o p m e n t of t h i s s e c o n d "downtown" f u r t h e r d i m i n i s h e d t h e v i t a l i t y of C o l u m b i a S t r e e t and t h e whole w a t e r f r o n t a r e a . C o l u m b i a and F r o n t S t r e e t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r t u r n - o f -t h e - c e n t u r y c o m m e r c i a l b u i l d i n g s . These s t r u c t u r e s have been i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g h e r i t a g e m e r i t , b u t t h e i r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y p o o r . a P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s a r e a ' s d e c l i n e may be t h e age and poor c o n d i t i o n of b u i l d i n g s , l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t due t o t o p o g r a p h i c and s i t i n g c o n s t r a i n t s , and t h e a r e a ' s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e d e c l i n i n g p o r t . D e r e l i c t b u i l d i n g s , d o c k s and o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s a l o n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t , and t h e e v e r - p r e s e n t r a i l w a y have n o t c o n t r i b u t e d t o a p l e a s a n t s h o p p i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I n P a r t One o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s U r b a n Renewal  S t u d y ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p l a n n e r s a r g u e d t h a t p o r t a c t i v i t y i n New W e s t m i n s t e r s h o u l d c o n t i n u e i n t o t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e , g i v e n a h e a l t h y p r o v i n c i a l economy and i n c r e a s i n g t r a d e w i t h P a c i f i c Rim c o u n t r i e s . However, t h e y c a u t i o n e d t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p o r t e x p a n s i o n were s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d , due t o a s h o r t s u p p l y o f b ack-up l a n d . Q E l e a n o r S l e a t h , New W e s t m i n s t e r H e r i t a g e R e s o u r c e I n v e n t o r y  Volume 1: Downtown, C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., H e r i t a g e A d v i s o r y Committee, A u g u s t 1984. 106 Much o f t h e p o t e n t i a l d o c kage a r e a o f t h e C i t y i s a l r e a d y i n use or c o n t e m p l a t e d f o r e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t and t h u s c a r e f u l s t u d y w i l l be needed t o a s s e s s t h e f u t u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d d i t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 9 By t h e 1970's, t h e move t o w a r d s l a r g e r s h i p s and c o n t a i n e r i z e d c a r g o had r e n d e r e d t h e c i t y ' s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s o b s o l e t e . The volume of c a r g o h a n d l e d by t h e p o r t d e c l i n e d as newer c o n t a i n e r and b u l k -l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s were d e v e l o p e d i n B u r r a r d I n l e t , R o b e r t s ' Bank, and t h e S u r r e y s i d e o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . As W a l t e r Hardwick (1974) a r g u e s , t h e t r e n d t o w a r d lumber b u l k c a r r i e r s has n e c e s s i t a t e d new c e n t r a l i z e d p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . ...The l a r g e r s h i p s c r e a t e p r o b l e m s f o r t r a d i t i o n a l p o r t s b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d d r a f t , beam, and t u r n i n g r a d i i . T h i s was n o t e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago a t F r a s e r M i l l s , u p r i v e r f r o m New W e s t m i n s t e r , a m i l l from which a l l e x p o r t s were l o a d e d a t m i l l s i d e . E ven w i t h improvements t o t h e F r a s e r , more and more lumber has been s h i p p e d t o V a n c o u v e r Harbour Lynn T e r m i n a l s by scow f o r l o a d i n g . ...Recent announcement of new f a c i l i t i e s i n V a n c o u v e r Harbour g i v e s c r e d e n c e t o R o b i n s o n ' s c l a i m i n 1970 t h a t New W e s t m i n s t e r would s u f f e r r e l a t i v e l y . x o The l o n g - t e r m f u t u r e of t h e w a t e r f r o n t p o i n t e d t o a r e l o c a t i o n or p h a s e - o u t o f p o r t a c t i v i t i e s , and e v e n t u a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t f o r o t h e r u s e s . F o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , t h e p o r t would r e m a i n i n o p e r a t i o n w h i l e c i v i c a t t e n t i o n became f o c u s s e d on u r b a n r e n e w a l programs f o r t h e downtown and o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y . " C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., December 1965, p.44. 1 0 W a l t e r H a r d w i c k , V a n c o u v e r , (Don M i l l s : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n Canada, L t d . , 1 974), pp.160-161. 107 4.3 R e n a i s s a n c e o f t h e " R o y a l C i t y " Amendments t o t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t i n 1964 made f e d e r a l f u n d s a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i n c e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i s h i n g t o u n d e r t a k e c o m p r e h e n s i v e u r b a n r e n e w a l and h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s . The C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r made an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e and i n i t i a t e d an Urban Renewal S t u d y i n 1965. The s t u d y showed t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e were numerous p r o b l e m s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e y were n o t c o n c e n t r a t e d i n any one a r e a . I n s t e a d , t h e r e was w i d e s p r e a d e v i d e n c e of p h y s i c a l and e c o n o m i c d e c l i n e . I n s e l e c t i n g a p i l o t u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a , p l a n n e r s i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m a r e a s w i t h i n t h e c i t y and r a n k e d them i n terms o f " p r i o r i t y n e e d . " The West End S o u t h a r e a o f t h e c i t y , west of downtown and u p h i l l f r o m w a t e r f r o n t i n d u s t r i e s , was g i v e n h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y . . . . T h i s a r e a , bounded g e n e r a l l y by S i x t h Avenue on t h e n o r t h , T w e n t i e t h S t r e e t on t h e west, E i g h t h S t r e e t on t h e e a s t and R i v e r D r i v e , S t e w a r d s o n Way and C o l u m b i a S t r e e t on t h e s o u t h , c o n t a i n s a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f d i l a p i d a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s , b o a r d i n g h o u s e s and t e n e m e n t s , mixed r a n d o m l y w i t h i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s ; a l l p r i m e t a r g e t s f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t m e a s u r e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e p r i v a t e r e n e w a l has o c c u r r e d below S i x t h Avenue between E i g h t h and T w e l f t h S t r e e t s . T h i s a c t i v i t y , m a i n l y new a p a r t m e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i l l be s t i m u l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f p u b l i c r e n e w a l . Good q u a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d by r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . I t i s recommended t h a t t h i s a r e a be g i v e n h i g h p r i o r i t y f o r u r b a n r e n e w a l a c t i o n . 1 : L The C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s P l a n n i n g Department p r e p a r e d an u r b a n r e n e w a l scheme f o r A r e a 4 (West End South) i n 1968. The p l a n was n o t i m p l e m e n t e d , however, b e c a u s e a f e d e r a l government f r e e z e on ^ C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., Urban  Renewal S t u d y , P a r t T h r e e : The Urb a n Renewal Program, November 1966, p.26. 108 u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s went i n t o e f f e c t a c r o s s Canada, t h a t same y e a r . 1 2 The u r b a n r e f o r m movement had s h a t t e r e d p u b l i c f a i t h i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f u r b a n r e n e w a l , and t h e program was e v e n t u a l l y h a l t e d . In s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s , f e d e r a l u r b a n p o l i c y s h i f t e d t o w a r d s n e i g h b o u r h o o d improvement and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , as v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o u r b a n r e n e w a l . Beyond an emphasis on p h y s i c a l improvements, and d e s p i t e p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y - u r b a n r e n e w a l i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e i t u s h e r e d i n an e r a o f m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g . The u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o c e s s r e q u i r e d t h e f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t t o s e c u r e and a d m i n i s t e r f e d e r a l f u n d i n g , and t o c a r r y out t h e r e n e w a l program. In a d d i t i o n , f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h a t an u r b a n r e n e w a l scheme be d e v e l o p e d i n a c c o r d a n c e or i n harmony w i t h an o f f i c i a l community p l a n . 1 3 P l a n n e r s a r g u e d t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f a community p l a n had c o n t r i b u t e d t o New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s d e c l i n e : The C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , now o v e r 100 y e a r s o l d , d i d not j u s t happen. E a c h b u i l d i n g or o t h e r s t r u c t u r e , e a c h p u b l i c improvement t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y , e x i s t s t o - d a y as t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a s p e c i f i c p l a n or d e c i s i o n made by an i n d i v i d u a l or by a g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus i t may be s a i d t h a t New W e s t m i n s t e r i s n o t an u n p l a n n e d c i t y . I t i s , however, a c i t y w i t h o u t a p l a n and most of t h e t h o u s a n d s o f i n d i v i d u a l p l a n s and d e c i s i o n s made by r e s i d e n t s and b u s i n e s s m e n d u r i n g t h e c i t y ' s d e v e l o p m e n t were made w i t h o u t t h e g u i d a n c e and d i r e c t i o n o f o v e r a l l 1 2 C h u c k D a v i s , The V a n c o u v e r Book f ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: J . J . D o u g l a s L t d . , 1976), p.107. 1 3 C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., November 1966, p.18. 109 d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s and p r o g r a m s ; t h a t i s , w i t h o u t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e community p l a n . 1 * The s t a r t o f m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of a community p l a n mark t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r , f o r i t i s i n t h i s f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d of t h e mid-1960's t h a t t h e groundwork f o r f u t u r e p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s was l a i d . The u r b a n r e n e w a l p r o c e s s f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n on t h e c i t y ' s p r o b l e m s and p r o v i d e d a v e h i c l e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g s t a g e s . The C i t y f o r m a l i z e d i t s p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i n 1965, t h r o u g h the a p p o i n t m e n t of a C i t y P l a n n e r and t h e g r a d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . W h i l e e a r l y p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y f o c u s s e d on u r b a n r e n e w a l , and was l i m i t e d t o an i n v e n t o r y of p h y s i c a l and e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e c i t y , i t was a p p a r e n t from t h e s t a r t t h a t t h e c i t y had t o be v i e w e d i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . . . . I t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o f o r e c a s t t h e C i t y ' s f u t u r e r o l e i n t h e e x p a n d i n g r e g i o n b e c a u s e of t h e m u l t i t u d e of f o r c e s and f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d , many of which a r e beyond the C i t y ' s c o n t r o l . I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t i f t h e c i t i z e n s o f New W e s t m i n s t e r w i s h t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r community much of t h e c h o i c e i s t h e i r s a l o n e . E i t h e r t h e C i t y s l i p s back i n t o t h e r o l e o f a V a l l e y Town, w i t h r e d u c e d f u n c t i o n i n t h e u r b a n a r e a , or t h e c i t i z e n s , t h r o u g h t h e i r e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , s t r i v e t o r e t a i n f o r t h e C i t y i t s p r e s e n t r o l e as t h e major s u b - c e n t r e of t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n . But i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n i t s p r e s e n t r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n t h e R e g i o n t h e C i t y w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o " r u n . " To " s t a n d s t i l l " w i l l be t o f a l l b e h i n d . 1 3 " C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., Urban  Renewal S t u d y , P a r t Two: S e l e c t i o n o f Urban Renewal A r e a s , May 1966, p.11. l s I b i d . , December 1965, p. 59. 110 D u r i n g t h e l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's, p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y -makers began t o a d d r e s s more complex r e g i o n a l i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and u r b a n s p r a w l . The u r b a n r e f o r m movement had b r o u g h t a b o u t a q u e s t i o n i n g of d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s t h a t a d v o c a t e d g r o w t h a t any c o s t . E f f o r t s were made t o c o n t r o l r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , and t h e n o t i o n of l i v a b i l i t y became a p e r v a s i v e a s p e c t o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s . The L i v a b l e R e g i o n P l a n (1975) i s p e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y document i n t h e h i s t o r y of G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . The L i v a b l e R e g i o n s t r a t e g y c a l l e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e s , or "downtowns," i n s u b u r b a n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t was f e l t t h a t n o d a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i g h - d e n s i t y o f f i c e , r e t a i l and r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s , as w e l l as c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , would p r o v i d e n o t o n l y a p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f o c u s f o r s u b u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s b u t , a l s o - a major s o u r c e o f new employment. F o r t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r - o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n of i t s downtown and w a t e r f r o n t a r e a s as a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e , i n 1975, p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y impetus f o r a program of r e v i t a i i z a t i o n . The C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e GVRD s t u d i e d s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s i n t h e c i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P o s s i b l e s i t e s f o r t h e R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e i n c l u d e d downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e uptown s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t a t S i x t h S t r e e t and S i x t h Avenue, and t h e B.C. P e n i t e n t i a r y g r o u n d s . Of t h e s e , t h e downtown was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e f i n e s t l o c a t i o n , g i v e n an e x i s t i n g i n v e n t o r y o f c o m m e r c i a l f l o o r s p a c e , and I l l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s i g n i f i c a n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t . As a r g u e d i n t h e GVRD's 1975 P o l i c y R e p o r t on R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e s -the a r e a t o t h e n o r t h - w e s t o f t h e downtown i s a d e c l i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l - c o m m e r c i a l a r e a w i t h good p o t e n t i a l t r a n s i t a c c e s s and c l o s e enough t o t h e downtown c o r e and t h e w a t e r f r o n t t o r e v i t a l i z e b o t h i f d e v e l o p e d as a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . 1 - 6 In June 1976, a J o i n t Review Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r e p a r e an " A c t i o n Program" f o r b u i l d i n g t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . The Committee was made up of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e GVRD, and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BCDC). The Committee's A c t i o n Program  R e p o r t was p r e s e n t e d t o C i t y C o u n c i l and t h e GVRD Board f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n September 1977. The R e p o r t p u t s f o r w a r d a s e t o f b a s i c p o l i c i e s f o r t h e Downtown and recommends t h a t t h e s e be a d o p t e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . Some o f t h e k e y p o l i c i e s of t h e Downtown P l a n a r e as f o l l o w s : 1 7 R e v i t a l i z a t i o n of C o l u m b i a S t r e e t as a p r i n c i p a l s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t ; P r o v i d i n g a c o n n e c t i o n between uptown and downtown; Making downtown a p l a c e f o r p e o p l e ; I n t e g r a t i n g h o u s i n g i n t o t h e downtown; I m p r o v i n g a c c e s s t o t h e downtown; and O p e n i n g up t h e downtown t o t h e r i v e r . 1 6 J . D o u g l a s S p a e t h , R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e s : A P o l i c y R e p o r t , ( V a n c o u v e r : G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , November 1975), p.28. 1 7 J o i n t Review Committee, A R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e f o r New  W e s t m i n s t e r : A c t i o n Program R e p o r t . (New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C.: GVRD and C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , September 1 9 7 7 ) , pp.4-7. 112 The most s i g n i f i c a n t of t h e s e b a s i c p o l i c i e s - f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n - i s t h e n o t i o n o f o p e n i n g up downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r t o t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s w a t e r f r o n t i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e A c t i o n P rogram R e p o r t as a "major o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c a c t i o n . " 3 - 8 I t i s a r g u e d i n t h e R e p o r t t h a t a r e v i t a l i z e d w a t e r f r o n t , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , w i l l p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y impetus t o b e g i n d e v e l o p m e n t of a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e : T h e r e i s an e x c i t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r t o make i t s w a t e r f r o n t t h e f o c u s of a number of u r b a n a c t i v i t i e s . T h e r e c a n be r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h v i e w s , a c c e s s t o w a t e r f r o n t , b o a t moorage and r e t a i l d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e wharf edge t o form a w a t e r f r o n t p e d e s t r i a n s t r e e t . Water o r i e n t e d r e c r e a t i o n , r e t a i l , s u c h as b o a t s a l e s , an i n - t h e - w a t e r b o a t show, b o a t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and a m a r i n a a r e p o s s i b l e . T h e r e a r e a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r o f f i c e s on t h e w a t e r f r o n t . These r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s c a n be i n t e g r a t e d t o c r e a t e an e x c i t i n g new u r b a n water f r o n t . * • * T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e R e p o r t as a key d e t e r m i n a n t o f t h e c i t y ' s f u t u r e : " I f Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r i s g o i n g t o be a major b u s i n e s s and c i v i c c e n t r e f o r c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e e a s t e r n p a r t of t h e R e g i o n , i t must be more a c c e s s i b l e . " 2 0 Improved p u b l i c t r a n s i t , major s t r e e t improvements, b e t t e r p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l p a r k i n g and improved s i g n a g e a r e recommended a c t i o n s . P a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s i s g i v e n t o a l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t r o u t e -between Downtown V a n c o u v e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r , S u r r e y and t h e 1 8 J o i n t Review Committee, September 1977, p.10. 1 9 I b i d . , September 1977, p.10. 2 ° I b i d . , September 1977, p.11. 113 N o r t h e a s t S e c t o r - as a s t i m u l u s t o d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r t h e l o n g e r t e r m . The R e p o r t a l s o s t r e s s e s t h a t , i f t h e R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e i s t o be an " i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e , " t h e p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n a m e n i t i e s w i l l be e s s e n t i a l . These i n c l u d e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n p a r k s i n the Downtown and a new w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n f o r t h e f a r m e r s ' market. Downtown needs p a r k - l i k e p l a c e s t o s i t , s t r o l l and e n j o y t h e s c e n e r y . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p l a c e s where p a r k s c an be c r e a t e d by c l o s i n g or l a n d s c a p i n g s t r e e t s . ...A t r e e -p l a n t i n g program w i l l h e l p t o " g r e e n " t h e Downtown and make i t a more a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e f o r p e o p l e . ...A new c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n f o r t h e f a r m e r s ' m arket, r e s t a u r a n t s and shops . . . w i l l p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g and s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d o p e n i n g t o t h e water f r o n t . 2 1 The J o i n t Review Committee i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e e l e m e n t s of t h e A c t i o n Program as b e i n g e s s e n t i a l f o r Town C e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t : an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r ; an improved d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s ; and a " v e h i c l e " f o r s t i m u l a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . The f i r s t of t h e s e e l e m e n t s , The Community P l a n f o r  Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , was a d o p t e d by C i t y C o u n c i l i n 1978. The b o u n d a r i e s of t h e P l a n a r e a a r e R o y a l Avenue between F o u r t h and T w e l f t h S t r e e t s , s o u t h t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t ; and C a r n a r v o n S t r e e t , between F o u r t h S t r e e t and A l b e r t C r e s c e n t , s o u t h t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t ( s e e F i g u r e 4.3). The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Downtown P l a n encompass t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . To b u i l d on t h e c i t y ' s e x i s t i n g p o t e n t i a l , t h e P l a n i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e t o a c t as " c a t a l y s t s " i n t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . The most 2 a - J o i n t Review Committee, September 1977, p.13. Figure 4.3 - Downtown Plan Boundaries 115 s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e c a t a l y s t s a r e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l " a n c h o r s , " d e v e l o p m e n t of a r a p i d t r a n s i t s y s t e m , and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of t h e w a t e r f r o n t . The d e v e l o p m e n t of new h o u s i n g , p a r k s and p u b l i c open s p a c e , c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , h o t e l s and c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e a r e a l l i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s of a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . The A c t i o n Program f o r New W e s t m i n s t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b u l k of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w i l l t a k e p l a c e on or a d j a c e n t t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t . The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t i s s e e n as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o showcase t h e c i t y ' s p o t e n t i a l as a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . W h i l e an o f f i c a l community p l a n would s e r v e as a g u i d e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , i t would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . In o r d e r t o a t t r a c t d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e Downtown, t h e C i t y had t o e l i m i n a t e u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . As t h e J o i n t Review Committee a r g u e s : A f t e r a d e v e l o p e r a p p l i e s t o t h e C i t y f o r a p p r o v a l t o b u i l d i n t h e Downtown, t h e r e i s a p e r i o d of u n c e r t a i n t y when t h e d e v e l o p e r s p e n d s t i m e and money h o l d i n g t h e l a n d and d e s i g n i n g h i s b u i l d i n g w i t h o u t knowing whether t h e C i t y w i l l g r a n t a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t . New W e s t m i n s t e r w i l l a t t r a c t more p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t t o t h e Downtown i f t h e C i t y m i n i m i z e s u n c e r t a i n t y by p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o a prompt and e s t a b l i s h e d s c h e d u l e . 2 2 The s e c o n d e l e m e n t o f t h e A c t i o n Program i s a p r o p o s e d t e n - s t e p d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s , b a s e d on a b i n d i n g agreement between d e v e l o p e r s and t h e C i t y . The agreement would c o v e r t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s of a g i v e n p r o j e c t - e . g . , p r o p o s e d u s e , z o n i n g , h e i g h t , m a s s i n g , d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , e t c . - as w e l l as t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t " J o i n t Review Committee, September 1977, p.8. 116 the C i t y would provide. By the f i f t h step in the process, after a r e l a t i v e l y short period of time, the developer would know whether or not he could proceed with the project (see Figure 4.4). D E V E L O P E R C I T Y P R O V I D E S D E V E L O P E R M A K E S INITIAL P R E P A R E S P R E L I M I N A R Y I N F O R M A T I O N U S E A N D A P P L I C A T I O N P A C K A G E A R C H I T E C T U R A L 1 2 P R O G R A M 3 D E V E L O P E R ' S A R C H I T E C T P R E P A R E S P R E L I M I N A R Y D E S I G N 6 7 R E V I E W O F P R E L I M I N A R Y D E S I G N B Y C I T Y D E P A R T M E N T S R E J E C T A P P R O V E I N T E R I M D E V E L O P M E N T A G R E E M E N T B E T W E E N C I T Y & D E V E L O P E R 5 ! : R E V I E W O F D E V E L O P M E N T P R O G R A M B Y D E P A R T M E N T S 4 R E J E C T A P P R O V E D E V E L O P M E N T C O N T R A C T B E T W E E N D E V E L O P E R & C I T Y 8 F I N A L A P P R O V A L D E V E L O P E R ' S A R C H I T E C T C O M P L E T E S F I N A L D E S I G N D R A W I N G S 7 F I N A L C H E C K F O R C O N F O R M I T Y B Y C I T Y D E P A R T M E N T S 10 Figure 4.4 - Proposed Development Contract & Approval P r o c e s s 2 3 " J o i n t Review Committee, A Regional Town Centre for New Westminster: Action Program Report, New Westminster, B.C.: GVRD and Cit y of New Westminster, September 1977, pp.8-9. 117 The t h i r d and f i n a l e l e m e n t of t h e A c t i o n Program i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t company t o implement t h e Downtown P l a n and t o o v e r s e e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y D evelopment Company L i m i t e d (FCC) was formed i n 1977, as a c o o p e r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e o f t h e C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n . The c h i e f r o l e of F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y was t o r e d i r e c t and package a c o m b i n a t i o n of p u b l i c p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g p l a n n e d w i t h a m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i n g p r ogram, and t o o f f e r l a n d s a s s e m b l e d from t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s t h r o u g h s y n d i c a t i o n t o d e v e l o p e r s on a t t r a c t i v e l e a s e t e r m s . 2 4 The u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r was t o be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f e c o n o m i c " c a t a l y s t s . " A p r o g r a m o f p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e Downtown was us e d t o a t t r a c t p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n v e s t m e n t . F o r example, FCC p l a y e d a r o l e i n e n c o u r a g i n g D o u g l a s C o l l e g e t o l o c a t e i t s new campus a t E i g h t h S t r e e t and R o y a l Avenue. I t was a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f i n a l i z i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of new Law C o u r t s a t L o m e and C a r n a r v o n S t r e e t s . 4 .4 Summary T r a n s p o r t a t i o n has a l w a y s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The r e a l i g n m e n t o f r e g i o n a l t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s i n t h e 1950's and 2 4 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n , The F i r s t C a p i t a l  C i t y D e v e l o p m e n t Company L i m i t e d ( P r o p o s a l ) , 1976. 118 1960's weakened downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n a l economy. Downtown d e c l i n e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h New W e s t m i n s t e r i s e f f e c t i v e l y a s u b u r b of V a n c o u v e r - i t i s an o l d u r b a n community, and b e a r s many s i m i l a r i t i e s t o d e c l i n i n g i n n e r - c i t y d i s t r i c t s . The d e v e l o p m e n t of a s e c o n d "downtown" a t S i x t h S t r e e t and S i x t h Avenue u n d e r m i n e d t h e c o m m e r c i a l v i a b i l i t y of C o l u m b i a S t r e e t . Impending p o r t c l o s u r e - due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a nge, and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of new f a c i l i t i e s e l s e w h e r e i n t h e r e g i o n - became e v i d e n t by t h e 1970's. The u r b a n r e n e w a l a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s was s i g n i f i c a n t i n New W e s t m i n s t e r b e c a u s e i t h e l p e d t o i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m a r e a s i n t h e c i t y , and i t r e q u i r e d t h e f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . The d e s i g n a t i o n o f downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r as a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e f o c u s s e d a t t e n t i o n on t h e downtown and w a t e r f r o n t , and was t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p t o w a r d s t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of b o t h a r e a s . The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l examine v a r i o u s components of t h e C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y : t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e Downtown P l a n , t h e r o l e o f FCC and o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s , and t h e use o f p u b l i c " c a t a l y s t s " i n a t t r a c t i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . The f o c u s w i l l be on t h e r e d e v e l o p e d w a t e r f r o n t , and t h e c a t a l y t i c r o l e i t was t o p l a y i n t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . n<5 5.0 CASE STUDY: NEW WESTMINSTER'S DOWNTOWN REVITALIZATION STRATEGY As was d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e w a t e r f r o n t p r o f i l e s i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n w a t e r f r o n t s i s a p o w e r f u l p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t f o r a c h i e v i n g b r o a d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s . In t h e c a s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e w a t e r f r o n t was p a r t of a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t r a t e g y f o r r e v i t a l i z i n g t h e downtown and s t i m u l a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o f a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . The p u r p o s e of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y , and t o e v a l u a t e i t s v a r i o u s components. I t o u t l i n e s Community P l a n o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e downtown, and a n a l y z e s t h e r o l e o f F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y Development Company i n s t i m u l a t i n g r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 5.1 New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s Downtown R e v i t a l i z a t i o n S t r a t e g y (1977) In A p r i l 1978, t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BCDC) announced t h a t i t had a c q u i r e d an o p t i o n t o p u r c h a s e 30 a c r e s o f w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y i n New W e s t m i n s t e r from P a c i f i c C o a s t T e r m i n a l s (PCT) L t d . . The t e r m s o f t h e o p t i o n agreement i n c l u d e d a p u r c h a s e p r i c e o f $4.75 m i l l i o n , and were c o n d i t i o n a l on BCDC b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l i n g e t t i n g t h e p r o p e r t y r e z o n e d from i n d u s t r i a l t o r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . 1 R e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e PCT p r o p e r t y was t o be p a r t o f a l a r g e r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n scheme f o r downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . A r e d e v e l o p e d ^-Mark W i l s o n , " W a t e r f r o n t t o Get a F a c e l i f t i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , " The P r o v i n c e , 7 A p r i l 1978, p . D l . 120 w a t e r f r o n t - i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t i n a new c o u r t h o u s e , a new campus f o r D o u g l a s C o l l e g e , and p h y s i c a l u p g r a d i n g o f C o l u m b i a S t r e e t - would p l a y a c a t a l y t i c r o l e i n s t i m u l a t i n g a p r i v a t e - s e c t o r r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y f o r t h e downtown a r e a was b a s e d on the GVRD's A c t i o n Program f o r d e v e l o p i n g a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . The s t r a t e g y was t o use p u b l i c f u n d s t o c r e a t e a s e c u r e c l i m a t e f o r p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t , and t o i n v e s t i n a s e r i e s of " c a t a l y s t s " f o r eco n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e downtown. A c c o r d i n g t o FCC l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r ogram was t o be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , w i t h p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e b e i n g d e f r a y e d by p r o f i t s from l a n d s a l e s t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r : (The program) h i n g e s on a r e v o l u t i o n a r y scheme t o pay f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t by c o n v e r t i n g u n d e r u t i l i z e d l a n d t o h i g h e r u s e s , r e s e l l i n g l a n d p a r c e l s t o p r i v a t e - s e c t o r d e v e l o p e r s , and u s i n g t h e s e s a l e s r e v e n u e s t o d e f r a y a l l o f t h e c o s t s i n c u r r e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o g r a m . 2 As s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r - t h e A c t i o n P r ogram R e p o r t (1977) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . These a r e : an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n f o r downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , an i m p r o v e d d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s , and a " v e h i c l e " f o r s t i m u l a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . These a r e d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l b elow. 2 F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y D e velopment Company, Answers About New  W e s t m i n s t e r ' s Downtown and W a t e r f r o n t R e d e v e l o p m e n t Program, New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., 1982, p.3. 121 5-2 The Community P l a n f o r D o v n t o v n New W e s t m i n s t e r The Community P l a n f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r was a d o p t e d by C i t y C o u n c i l i n 1978. The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h e P l a n was t o e s t a b l i s h t h e b r o a d s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l g o a l s t o w a r d s which t h e C i t y ' s d e v e l o p m e n t and r e d e v e l o p m e n t would be d i r e c t e d . S i n c e t h e P l a n ' s a d o p t i o n , t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y i n b o t h t h e downtown and w a t e r f r o n t a r e a s , and i n o t h e r p a r t s of t h e c i t y . M a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s , s u c h as S k y T r a i n and t h e A l e x F r a s e r B r i d g e - b o t h of w h i c h opened i n 1986 -have d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n a l economy t h r o u g h i m p roved a c c e s s i b i l i t y . I n 1986, t h e Downtown P l a n underwent a p u b l i c r e v i e w p r o c e s s w hich c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e a d o p t i o n of a r e v i s e d P l a n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . The 1987 P l a n i s b a s i c a l l y a r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t i n 1978, but was d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e b e n e f i t o f h i n d s i g h t and a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c i n p u t . The 1987 P l a n i s r e f l e c t i v e o f t h e p r o g r e s s made d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s e i g h t y e a r s , and i s somewhat more a r t i c u l a t e i n i t s p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s . The P l a n ' s " s o c i a l " o b j e c t i v e s a r e aimed a t making t h e downtown more amenable t o a r a n g e o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s . These o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e : i m a g e - b u i l d i n g and p r o m o t i o n o f t h e downtown as an i m p o r t a n t c o m m e r c i a l and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e ; i m p r o v i n g t h e p e d e s t r i a n e n v i r o n m e n t , and e n s u r i n g t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t i s m a i n t a i n e d a t a human s c a l e ; p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t ; and u t i l i z i n g t h e downtown's l o c a t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l and h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s t o s t i m u l a t e d e v e l o p m e n t of a r e g i o n a l town c e n t r e . 122 The P l a n ' s e c o n o m i c o b j e c t i v e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e C i t y ' s t a x base by making downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r a more a t t r a c t i v e l o c a t i o n f o r c o m m e r c i a l i n v e s t m e n t . One n o t a b l e o b j e c t i v e i s t o f i n d " v i a b l e and p o s i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e u s e s f o r t h e C i t y ' s p o r t and w a t e r f r o n t . " 3 What i s s i g n i f i c a n t a b o u t t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s the r e c o g n i t i o n of d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by d e c l i n i n g p o r t a c t i v i t y , and t h e c o n n e c t i o n made between w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t and downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r o b j e c t i v e i s t o promote " e c o n o m i c a l use and a d a p t i v e r e u s e of t h e b u i l d i n g s of h e r i t a g e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e p l a n a r e a t o s t i m u l a t e t o u r i s m . " 4 T h i s was a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e 1987 P l a n , f o l l o w i n g an e x t e n s i v e i n v e n t o r y o f t h e C i t y ' s h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s i n t h e mid-1980's. I t r e c o g n i z e s t h e b u i l t h e r i t a g e of downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r as a ready-made r e v i t a l i z a t i o n theme, and a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e of t o u r i s m r e v e n u e . The P l a n ' s e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s do n o t p e r t a i n t o t h e " n a t u r a l " e n v i r o n m e n t b u t , r a t h e r , t o t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t of downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . These o b j e c t i v e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h l a n d - u s e , p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r c i r c u l a t i o n , p a r k i n g , and h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n , as w e l l as r e d u c i n g t h e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s o f t h e r a i l w a y , i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s , and w o r k i n g w i t h t h e a r e a ' s C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , Community P l a n f o r  Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . 1978 and 1987. 4 I b i d . , 1987, p.5. 123 g e o g r a p h i c a l a t t r i b u t e s - s u c h as t o p o g r a p h y , v i e w s and s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e - t o enhance t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . In summary, t h e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y and somewhat i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from one a n o t h e r . The 1987 p l a n u p d a t e c o u l d have gone f u r t h e r i n s t r e a m l i n i n g t h i s l i s t o f o b j e c t i v e s t o c r e a t e a more a r t i c u l a t e s t a t e m e n t of p u r p o s e . But, as s t a t e d i n t h e 1978 P l a n -t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e i s t o b r i n g t o f r u i t i o n as many of t h e p r o p o s a l s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s of t h e Community P l a n as e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s from t i m e t o t i m e r e n d e r p o s s i b l e and des i r a b l e . s M a j o r e l e m e n t s of t h e Downtown P l a n i n c l u d e : t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of " i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n c h o r s " i n t h e c o r e a r e a , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new h o u s i n g i n t h e downtown and w a t e r f r o n t , new c o m m e r c i a l and h o t e l c o n s t r u c t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , and improvements t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n c h o r s -i . e . , a new downtown campus f o r D o u g l a s C o l l e g e and a new Law C o u r t s b u i l d i n g - and new h o u s i n g and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s would draw more p e o p l e i n t o t h e downtown, p r o v i d i n g an expanded market a r e a f o r downtown b u s i n e s s e s , and a s t r o n g e r t a x base f o r t h e C i t y . The d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s f o r downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r i n c l u d e : t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f v i e w s from, o f , and w i t h i n t h e downtown; m a i n t e n a n c e o f a human s c a l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t ; an emphasis on l a n d s c a p i n g ; a p p r o p r i a t e t r e a t m e n t of r o o f t o p s t o enhance v i e w s from u p h i l l a r e a s ; l i m i t s on s i t e c o v e r a g e t o e n s u r e l i g h t , a i r and p r i v a c y ; d e n s i t y c o n t r o l s t o r e g u l a t e a c t i v i t y l e v e l s and b u l k o f b u i l d i n g s ; C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , 1978, p.9. 124 a p p r o p r i a t e s i g n a g e f o r d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r a r e a s ; and r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e c i t y ' s h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s as a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g an image or theme f o r t h e downtown. 5.3 An Improved Development A p p r o v a l P r o c e s s Under the New W e s t m i n s t e r R e d e v e l o p m e n t A c t ( 1 9 7 9 ) , F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y Development Company (FCC) was g i v e n b r o a d and u n i q u e d e v e l o p m e n t powers o v e r p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e Downtown P l a n a r e a -i n c l u d i n g t h e power t o e x p r o p r i a t e . The A c t p l a c e d l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e C i t y ' s d i s c r e t i o n a r y c o n t r o l o v e r d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l s . Under a m a n d a t o r y d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s y s t e m , t h e C i t y was r e q u i r e d t o g r a n t d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s i f p r o j e c t s " c o m p l i e d f a c t u a l l y w i t h s p e c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e downtown." 6 The Downtown P l a n a r e a was t r e a t e d as a s p e c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t d i s t r i c t , i n t h a t n e i t h e r t h e C i t y ' s A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g C ommission nor the Development P e r m i t Committee had j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e downtown. I n s t e a d , d e v e l o p m e n t was r e g u l a t e d by a three-member Development A p p r o v a l Group - c o m p r i s e d o f one a p p o i n t e e e a c h from t h e C i t y and FCC, and a j o i n t l y - a p p o i n t e d c h a i r m a n . T h i s body would examine d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s and a d v i s e t h e C i t y on whether t h e y c o m p l i e d w i t h p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s and a r e a d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e p r o c e d u r a l c h a n g e s was t o e l i m i n a t e some of t h e " r e d t a p e " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l s , and t o r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f C i t y s t a f f t u r n i n g p r o p o s a l s down on s I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, A d v i s o r , Community B u s i n e s s I n i t i a t i v e P rogram, F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s D e velopment Bank, N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 17 A u g u s t 1990. 125 s u b j e c t i v e i s s u e s . 7 In a d d i t i o n , FCC a c t e d as a l i a i s o n between d e v e l o p e r s and C i t y s t a f f by g u i d i n g d e v e l o p e r s t h r o u g h t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s , s t e p by s t e p . When a s k e d i f t h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s were s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t r a c t i n g d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t , B a r r y Goodwin, f o r m e r FCC P r o j e c t Manager, s a y s t h a t " t h e p r o o f o f t h e p u d d i n g i s i n t h e e a t i n g - o b v i o u s l y t h e t h i n g w o r k e d ! " 8 The s t r e a m l i n e d p r o c e s s d i d h e l p i n b u i l d i n g a more s e c u r e i n v e s t m e n t c l i m a t e b u t , as Goodwin would a g r e e - t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p rogram r e q u i r e d more p o w e r f u l c a t a l y s t s t o g e t i t under way. Ken Cameron, for m e r New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n e r , a r g u e s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i n New W e s t m i n s t e r was n o t one o f e x c e s s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t r o l s b u t , r a t h e r , t h e a b s e n c e o f a m arket f o r downtown d e v e l o p m e n t . Cameron a t t r i b u t e s t h i s t o a c o m p l a c e n t C i t y C o u n c i l , and a l o c a l b u s i n e s s community n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n s e l f - p r o m o t i o n . 9 Over the y e a r s , l o c a l b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s had become c o m p l a c e n t a b o u t t h e C i t y ' s e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n and d i d n o t see t h e need t o a c t i v e l y promote new d e v e l o p m e n t . The c i t y ' s economy r e m a i n e d s t a b l e t h r o u g h t h e mid-1960's, b u t s i g n s o f e c o n o m i c d e c l i n e were a l r e a d y e v i d e n t . Imminent p o r t c l o s u r e , c o n t r a c t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , and t h e d i m i n i s h e d 7 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. a I b i d . , 17 A u g u s t 1990. i n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken Cameron, D i r e c t o r , Development S e r v i c e s , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , B u r naby, B.C., 14 A u g u s t 1990. 126 market a r e a f o r downtown b u s i n e s s e s n e c e s s i t a t e d some form of a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n t o h a l t a downward economic s p i r a l . Ken Cameron saw h i s r o l e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r as t h a t of a p r o m o t e r ; he had t o " l e t p e o p l e know t h a t New W e s t m i n s t e r was open f o r b u s i n e s s . " 1 - 0 In a s p e e c h t o t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r Chamber of Commerce, Cameron s t r e s s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of community image-b u i l d i n g and p r o m o t i o n t o e n s u r e f u t u r e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . As he r e i t e r a t e s , i n an A u g u s t 1990 i n t e r v i e w : " T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g wrong w i t h New W e s t m i n s t e r t h a t more p e o p l e l i v i n g , w o r k i n g , s h o p p i n g and i n v e s t i n g h e r e won't f i x ! " 1 1 He p o i n t s t o t h e a d o p t i o n of an o f f i c i a l community p l a n f o r downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , and t h e c r e a t i o n of F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y Development Company as two major s t e p s t o w a r d s t h i s end. 5,4 The F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t v D e velopment Company The F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y Development Company (FCC) was c o o p e r a t i v e l y formed i n 1977 by t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n (BCDC). The FCC B o a r d of D i r e c t o r s was made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from BCDC, t h e C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , C i t y - a p p o i n t e d members of t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s community, and o f f i c e r s o f t h e company. FCC's l i f e - s p a n was t i e d t o t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f i t s mandate; once t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p rogram had been r e a l i z e d , FCC would be d i s s o l v e d . 1 0 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken Cameron, 14 A u g u s t 1990. i a - I b i d . , 14 A u g u s t 1990. 127 As b o t h Ken Cameron and B a r r y Goodwin a r g u e - t h e c r e a t i o n o f FCC was a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government t o a p p e a s e t h e C i t y a f t e r i t s l o s s of t h e p r o p o s e d I C B C 1 2 h e a d q u a r t e r s t o L o n s d a l e Quay, i n t h e C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . FCC's s o l e p u r p o s e was t o implement th e C i t y ' s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p rogram - i . e . , " t o r e d e v e l o p New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s downtown c o r e and w a t e r f r o n t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s O f f i c i a l Community P l a n . " 1 3 FCC had, what B a r r y Goodwin c a l l s , a " d o u b l e mandate." F i r s t l y , FCC was t o d e v e l o p t h e w a t e r f r o n t as a r e a l e s t a t e p r o j e c t . As c h i e f d e v e l o p e r , i t would o v e r s e e t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l components would be b u i l t by p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s . S e c o n d l y , FCC was t o " f a c i l i t a t e a c t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . " 1 * A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t e r m s of t h e P r o v i n c i a l e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , and FCC's Agreement w i t h t h e C i t y - FCC was g i v e n t h e mandate t o a s s e m b l e l a n d i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d Downtown P l a n a r e a ; t o s e r v i c e , s u b d i v i d e and market t h a t l a n d ; t o c o o r d i n a t e r e d e v e l o p m e n t ; and t o c o n s t r u c t k e y p u b l i c i mprovements. I t was i n i t i a l l y i n t e n d e d t h a t FCC a s s e m b l e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e downtown a r e a , and s e l l them t o d e v e l o p e r s i n s y n d i c a t e d p a r c e l s . The p r o c e e d s o f t h e s e l a n d s a l e s would be s p l i t up amongst t h e owners. As i t t u r n e d o u t , t h e n o t i o n of s y n d i c a t i o n n e v e r worked o u t , and FCC d i d n o t a c q u i r e any c o m m e r c i a l p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e " I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( I C B C ) . 1 3 F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y D evelopment Company, 1982, p.13. " I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. 128 downtown. FCC p u r c h a s e d t h e w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y o f P a c i f i c C o a s t T e r m i n a l s ( P C T ) , t o o k p o s s e s s i o n o f p u b l i c l y - o w n e d w a t e r f r o n t p a r c e l s , and c o m p l e t e d t h e C i t y ' s a s s e m b l y of p r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e new D o u g l a s C o l l e g e campus. T h r o u g h o u t t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , FCC p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e i n a t t r a c t i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . T h i s was n o t an e a s y t a s k , g i v e n t h e poor image and l i m i t e d g r o w t h p o t e n t i a l of t h e c i t y ' s c o r e a r e a . An i m p o r t a n t e a r l y s t e p i n the complex r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r ogram was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p u b l i c l y -f i n a n c e d " c a t a l y s t s . " FCC e n c o u r a g e d s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s t o s u p p o r t Town C e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t by c o n c e n t r a t i n g p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t i n downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . FCC worked w i t h D o u g l a s C o l l e g e and t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c o l l e g e t o b u i l d i t s new campus a t E i g h t h S t r e e t and R o y a l Avenue. The $39 m i l l i o n campus would draw up t o 3,800 f u l l - and p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s and a s t a f f of 335 t o t h e downtown a r e a . T h i s new e d u c a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c i l i t y w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l e f f e c t s on t h e community. I t s s t u d e n t s and s t a f f w i l l enhance b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e downtown and i t w i l l g i v e New W e s t m i n s t e r one o f t h e most e x t e n s i v e and f l e x i b l e community e d u c a t i o n / r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i n Canada - r u n n i n g c o n t i n u o u s e d u c a t i o n programs f o r 4,000 n o n - c r e d i t s t u d e n t s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e C o l l e g e ' s c r e d i t c o m p l e m e n t . 1 5 The o b s o l e s c e n c e o f t h e c i t y ' s h i s t o r i c C o u r t House p r o v i d e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a n o t h e r " i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n c h o r . " FCC worked w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l government i n f i n a l i z i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new $17 m i l l i o n Law C o u r t s b u i l d i n g a t L o m e 1 B F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y D evelopment Company, 1982, pp.5 and 7. 129 and C a r n a r v o n S t r e e t s . And, a d j a c e n t t o t h e Law C o u r t s - FCC and t h e C i t y b u i l t an a t t r a c t i v e u r b a n p l a z a , w h i c h was named B e g b i e Square i n honour of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s f i r s t C h i e f J u s t i c e , S i r Matthew B e g b i e . 1 6 P u b l i c improvements p r o p o s e d by t h e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n i n c l u d e d r e t u r n i n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t t o p u b l i c use t h r o u g h th e c r e a t i o n of a l a n d s c a p e d e s p l a n a d e and s e v e r a l a c c e s s p o i n t s o v e r t h e r a i l w a y t r a c k s . FCC was g i v e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t i n t o a mix of r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s . In f u l f i l l i n g i t s mandate, FCC was h i t w i t h two s e t b a c k s i n t h e e a r l y 1980's. The f i r s t of t h e s e , t h e " K i n g Neptune c r i s i s , " a r o s e o u t o f a d i s p u t e between FCC and r e s t a u r a n t e u r D e n i s Almas r e g a r d i n g t h e f a t e o f t h e landmark K i n g Neptune r e s t a u r a n t . The r e s t a u r a n t ' s 1 5 - y e a r l e a s e on a prime w a t e r f r o n t s i t e was due t o e x p i r e , and FCC was n o t g o i n g t o renew t h e l e a s e b e c a u s e i t wanted t o b e g i n s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h i s k e y p a r c e l . FCC had i n v i t e d t h e K i n g Neptune t o j o i n i n t h e new c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t as an a n c h o r t e n a n t . However, Almas would be r e q u i r e d t o c l o s e and r e l o c a t e t h e r e s t a u r a n t f o r a p e r i o d of two y e a r s , t o a l l o w f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n . He was n o t w i l l i n g t o r e l o c a t e , and i n s i s t e d t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t t a k e p l a c e a r o u n d t h e K i n g Neptune. T h i s was u n a c c e p t a b l e t o FCC, so Almas a g r e e d t o move p r o v i d e d t h a t FCC a s s i s t him i n f i n d i n g a new s i t e . FCC a r c h i t e c t s and p l a n n e r s " C h u c k D a v i s , e d . , The V a n c o u v e r Book. ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: J . J . D o u g l a s , 1976), p.251. 130 u n d e r t o o k f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s which y i e l d e d two o p t i o n s - n e i t h e r o f w h i c h was a c c e p t a b l e t o A l m a s . 1 7 A c c o r d i n g t o B a r r y Goodwin, Almas u t i l i z e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c s u p p o r t t o wage a media b a t t l e a g a i n s t FCC. G i v e n t h e h i s t o r y o f f a l s e s t a r t s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n , Almas a r g u e d t h a t he would h a t e t o move o n l y t o f i n d t h a t t h e s i t e l a y dormant f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . The r e s t a u r a n t was r e l o c a t e d i n F e b r u a r y 1982 t o a s t o r a g e s i t e on t h e V a n c o u v e r w a t e r f r o n t . As i t t u r n e d o u t , the r e s t a u r a n t c o u l d have r e m a i n e d on t h e s i t e f o r a n o t h e r y e a r or two, b e c a u s e r e d e v e l o p m e n t was d e l a y e d by t h e o n s l a u g h t o f r e c e s s i o n . However, t h e b i t t e r n e s s o f t h e d i s p u t e l e d t o a breakdown o f t r u s t between b o t h p a r t i e s , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a s h o r t - t e r m l e a s e was out o f t h e q u e s t i o n . 1 3 The K i n g Neptune a f f a i r was a " c r i s i s " f o r FCC b e c a u s e i t came a t a v e r y bad moment. FCC had s t a r t e d o ut as a p u b l i c - m i n d e d d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y , w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c i n p u t . However, as t h e d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t became f i n a l i z e d , FCC began t o n e g l e c t i t s r o l e a s a " b r i d g i n g " a g e n c y between t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . 1 9 As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e r e was g r o w i n g m i s t r u s t o f FCC w i t h i n t h e community. The c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e K i n g Neptune r e s t a u r a n t f u r t h e r damaged FCC's image and c r e d i b i l i t y as a d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y . 1 7 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. 1 B I b i d . , 17 A u g u s t 1990. 1 9 I b i d . , 17 A u g u s t 1990. 131 The e c o n o m i c r e c e s s i o n o f 1982 was a major s e t b a c k f o r FCC, and i t s a m b i t i o u s p l a n s f o r t h e w a t e r f r o n t . A l l of F C C 1 s d e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s were t o be r e c o v e r e d t h r o u g h p r o f i t s from l a n d s a l e s , and, were i t n o t f o r t h e r e c e s s i o n , t h e scheme m i g h t have worked. P l u m m e t t i n g l a n d v a l u e s and g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t on b o r r o w e d money, d u r i n g two y e a r s of i n a c t i v i t y , p u t i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e o b j e c t i v e of f i n a n c i a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . The f i r s t s i g n of d i f f i c u l t y was t h e c o l l a p s e d s a l e of a l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e t o a now b a n k r u p t d e v e l o p e r . In r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i f f i c u l t e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n , FCC had t o r e v i s e i t s d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y . F i r s t l y , FCC b r o k e up t h e w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y i n t o a s e r i e s of s m a l l e r d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e s t o a t t r a c t a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f d e v e l o p e r s . S e c o n d l y , FCC i n v e s t e d h e a v i l y i n h a r d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , s u c h as e x t e n s i v e s o i l s p r e p a r a t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s e i s m i c p u r p o s e s ) , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an o v e r p a s s t o p r o v i d e p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s o v e r t h e r a i l w a y t r a c k s . T h i r d l y , FCC d e v i s e d an i n n v o v a t i v e m a r k e t i n g scheme t o i n i t i a t e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e r e s i d e n t i a l component. Knowing t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r e s t i n condominium s i t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , FCC p u t o u t an i n v i t a t i o n a l p r o p o s a l c a l l f o r a t w o - s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t p a c k a g e . The package c o n t a i n e d a condominium s i t e and a n o n - p r o f i t co-op s i t e . The a p p e a l t o d e v e l o p e r s was t h a t a C M H C-insured c o - o p was a g u a r a n t e e d s a l e , and t h i s would d e f r a y any r i s k i n v o l v e d i n t h e market 132 p r o j e c t . 2 0 The s u c c e s s f u l b i d d e r on t h e s e two s i t e s was B u r n a b y ' s Bosa B r o s . L t d . . A s e c o n d d e v e l o p m e n t p a c k a g e , w i t h b o t h a market and non-market component, was put t o g e t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y west of t h e Bosa p r o j e c t . The r e m a i n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s were made a v a i l a b l e on t h e open market, w i t h o u t d e v e l o p e r i n c e n t i v e s . When t h e f i r s t u n i t s came on th e market i n J a n u a r y 1986, t h e y s o l d out v e r y q u i c k l y . T h i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e market v a l u e o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t and paved t h e way f o r r a p i d d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r c e l s . However, i t was d i f f i c u l t t o market t h e c o m m e r c i a l component of the w a t e r f r o n t t o p r o s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p e r s , due t o t h e poor image of downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r and, l a t e r , due t o t h e r e c e s s i o n . The d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t c a l l e d f o r a mix o f o f f i c e , h o t e l and r e t a i l u s e s t o be d e v e l o p e d n e a r t h e f o o t o f E i g h t h S t r e e t . As t h e c o n c e p t e v o l v e d f u r t h e r , t h e r e t a i l p o r t i o n became t h e p u b l i c m a r k e t . W i t h no d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e p u b l i c m a r k e t , FCC t o o k t h e i n i t i a t i v e and h i r e d an a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m t o u n d e r t a k e c o n c e p t u a l d e s i g n work. T h i s d e m o n s t r a t e d FCC's commitment t o t h e p r o j e c t , and h e l p e d t o r e d u c e u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t on the w a t e r f r o n t . Midway t h r o u g h t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s , L a i n g P r o p e r t i e s b o u ght a h a l f i n t e r e s t i n t h e p u b l i c market p r o j e c t , as w e l l as an o p t i o n t o buy o u t FCC a t a l a t e r d a t e . W e s t m i n s t e r Quay P u b l i c M a r k e t opened i n 1986, w i t h 6,500 s q u a r e m e t e r s of r e t a i l , r e s t a u r a n t and market s p a c e . L a i n g P r o p e r t i e s a l s o p u r c h a s e d an " I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. 133 a d j a c e n t s i t e , t o t h e e a s t o f E i g h t h S t r e e t , f o r f u t u r e market e x p a n s i o n . 2 1 The market d e v e l o p m e n t marks a t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r W e s t m i n s t e r Quay b e c a u s e i t s c o m p l e t i o n was t h e s t a r t of a t r u e mixed-use d e v e l o p m e n t . The market i s a l s o s e e n as a c a t a l y s t i n s t i m u l a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e r e m a i n i n g c o m m e r c i a l s i t e s . The Westwater Group has f o l l o w e d on t h e h e e l s of FCC and L a i n g P r o p e r t i e s by c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e 126-room Inn a t W e s t m i n s t e r Quay, and t h e f i r s t phase (5,575 m 2 ) of t h e F i r s t C a p i t a l P l a c e o f f i c e c omplex. Two h i g h - r i s e o f f i c e t o w e r s a r e t o be added a t a l a t e r d a t e , f o r a t o t a l o f f i c e component of a b o u t 28,000 m 2. When a s k e d t o r a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of FCC as a d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y , B a r r y Goodwin gave i t h i g h marks b e c a u s e , i n h i s o p i n i o n , i t a c c o m p l i s h e d what i t s e t o u t t o do. "Not o n l y a r e t h e b u i l d i n g s i n p l a c e , b u t W e s t m i n s t e r Quay i s a p r e t t y good p l a c e t o l i v e . . . . T here i s a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c a m e n i t y . One o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s of t h e w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t was t o r e - o p e n t h e w a t e r f r o n t t o t h e p u b l i c , and t h i s has been done i n an e x c e l l e n t w a y . " 2 2 Goodwin a t t r i b u t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p r oved image of downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r t o t h e r e v i t a l i z e d w a t e r f r o n t and t h e r o l e of FCC as c h i e f d e v e l o p e r . Ken Cameron s e e s t h e p r i n c i p a l b e n e f i t o f FCC as g i v i n g p o l i t i c i a n s a p l a t f o r m f o r making announcements. FCC gave P r o v i n c i a l Government o f f i c i a l s a r e a s o n t o come t o New W e s t m i n s t e r , " I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. 2 2 I b i d . , 17 A u g u s t 1990. 134 and i t r a i s e d t h e p r o f i l e of t h e c i t y i n t h e e y e s o f s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s . 2 3 5.5 E l e m e n t s o f t h e R e v i t a l i z a t i o n S t r a t e g y - The " C a t a l y s t s " In t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e p r i n c i p a l e l e m e n t s of New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y - i . e . , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n c h o r s , t h e r e v i t a l i z e d w a t e r f r o n t , S k y T r a i n , and an u p g r a d e d C o l u m b i a S t r e e t - a r e e v a l u a t e d i n terms of t h e i r r o l e i n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . I n h e r e n t i n t h i s a p p r o a c h i s a c r i t i q u e of t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y . A q u a n t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h e s e " c a t a l y s t s " i s hampered by t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d a t a . W h i l e e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s t u d i e s o f e a c h p r o j e c t would a s s i s t i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e C i t y ' s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y , t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a t h a t c o u l d be u s e d t o compare t h e i m p a c t of one c a t a l y s t o v e r a n o t h e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , as New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y p l a n n i n g s t a f f p o i n t o u t , t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c a g e n c i e s t h a t have i n v e s t e d i n t h e downtown - s u c h as BC T r a n s i t , D o u g l a s C o l l e g e and FCC - would p r o b a b l y a t t r i b u t e much of t h e s u c c e s s of t h e program t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t s . I t may a l s o be p r e m a t u r e , a t t h i s p o i n t , t o u n d e r t a k e s u c h a s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e C i t y has o n l y r e c e n t l y i n i t i a t e d t h e f i n a l phase o f downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n - i . e . , t h e p h y s i c a l u p g r a d i n g o f C o l u m b i a S t r e e t . I t i s , however, p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e c a t a l y s t s i n q u a l i t a t i v e t e r m s ; and, i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t h e i r e c o n o m i c impact c a n be drawn from t h e d a t a t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e . " I n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken Cameron, 14 A u g u s t 1990. 135 As a r e s e a r c h e r , one of my o b j e c t i v e s was t o rank t h e v a r i o u s c a t a l y s t s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r o v e r a l l i m p a c t on downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . B ecause of d a t a l i m i t a t i o n s , and t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s of t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y , t h e c a t a l y s t s a r e l o o s e l y e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r p e r c i e v e d e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and s y m b o l i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s . 5.5.1 I n s t i t u t i o n a l A n c h o r s The " i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n c h o r s " were i n t e n d e d t o be a c a t a l y s t of a c t i v i t y i n t h e downtown, and a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government's commitment t o New W e s t m i n s t e r . W h i l e t h e t r u e e c o n o m i c i m p a c t o f D o u g l a s C o l l e g e i s n o t known, p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s do n o t make many p u r c h a s e s i n t h e d o w n t o w n . 2 4 D o u g l a s C o l l e g e - l i k e o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s - has i n t e r n a l i z e d many of i t s s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , s u c h t h a t b o o k s , s c h o o l s u p p l i e s , f o o d , c l o t h i n g and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s may be p u r c h a s e d on campus. In a d d i t i o n , t h e c o l l e g e i s s u p p l i e d w i t h v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s by major c o n t r a c t o r s from o u t s i d e t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y . 2 3 W h i l e D o u g l a s C o l l e g e has y e t t o p r o v e i t s e l f as an e c o n o m i c c a t a l y s t f o r t h e downtown, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t as a s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l . D o u g l a s C o l l e g e o f f e r s u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r and d i p l o m a p r o g r a m s , and a b r o a d r a n g e of c r e d i t and n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s . In t h i s c a p a c i t y , t h e c o l l e g e i s a " b r i d g i n g " i n s t i t u t i o n between t h e " I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. " I n t e r v i e w w i t h S t e v e S c h e v i n g , P l a n n e r , C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , 22 A u g u s t 1990. 1 3 6 l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m and t h e two l o c a l u n i v e r s i t i e s . And, f o r t h e w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r j o b r e t r a i n i n g w i t h i n t h e community. The Law C o u r t s and Land R e g i s t r y a r e i m p o r t a n t e m p l o y e r s and p r o c u r e r s o f s e r v i c e s - e.g., l e g a l , s e c r e t e r i a l , t r a n s l a t i o n s e r v i c e s , e t c . . T o g e t h e r w i t h D o u g l a s C o l l e g e , t h e Law C o u r t s complex i s an i m p o r t a n t g e n e r a t o r of a c t i v i t y i n downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . In s y m b o l i c t e r m s , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n c h o r s g i v e t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r a h i g h p r o f i l e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . And, t h e a t t r a c t i v e b u i l d i n g s , l a n d s c a p i n g , and open s p a c e a r e an i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c a m e n i t y i n t h e downtown. S i n c e t h e downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p rogram i s s t i l l o n g o i n g , i t w i l l p r o b a b l y be some t i m e b e f o r e t h e t r u e e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s c a n be measured. P e r h a p s t h e s t u d e n t s , f a c u l t y , s t a f f and o t h e r u s e r s o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l s p end more t i m e and money on C o l u m b i a S t r e e t once t h e p h y s i c a l u p g r a d i n g and b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s a r e c o m p l e t e d . In t h e c a s e of downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e market a r e a has been r e s t o r e d , b u t t h e q u a l i t y of t h e p r o d u c t has y e t t o i m p r o v e . 5,5.2 The R e v i t a l i z e d W a t e r f r o n t The d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t f o r t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t was m o d e l l e d upon s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s i n B o s t o n , B a l t i m o r e and o t h e r c i t i e s . R e d e v e l o p m e n t f o r h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s was a d v a n c e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n 137 (BCDC) as a c a t a l y s t f o r a c h i e v i n g b r o a d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s f o r downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . T h e r e i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t was an i m p o r t a n t c a t a l y s t i n t h e o v e r a l l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y . T h e r e i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t , however, as t o w h i c h was more s i g n i f i c a n t - t h e w a t e r f r o n t or S k y T r a i n ? B a r r y Goodwin s e e s t h e w a t e r f r o n t and S k y T r a i n as a "combined c a t a l y s t " i n t h a t , t o g e t h e r , t h e y have p l a y e d a p o w e r f u l c a t a l y t i c r o l e . I f o n l y one o f t h e two p r o j e c t s had been f e a s i b l e , Goodwin b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e w a t e r f r o n t would have b r o u g h t more b e n e f i t t o t h e c i t y . The r e v i t a l i z e d w a t e r f r o n t p r o v i d e s a major p u b l i c a m e n i t y , and i s a " n i c e p l a c e t o l i v e and work." With S k y T r a i n a l o n e , p e o p l e c o u l d move t h r o u g h t h e c i t y b ut would have l i t t l e r e a s o n t o v e n t u r e i n t o t h e d o w n t o w n . 2 6 Ken Cameron p o i n t s t o t h e r e d i s c o v e r y of t h e w a t e r f r o n t as a u n i q u e a m e n i t y f o r t h e c i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r - i . e . , an a t t r a c t i v e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t , u n l i k e any o t h e r i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . Cameron s t a t e s t h a t t h e Downtown P l a n and t h e o v e r a l l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y have t a k e n f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t ' s a m e n i t y v a l u e . However, he c o n s i d e r s t h e w a t e r f r o n t t o be a " s e c o n d a r y " c a t a l y s t b e c a u s e i t p r o v i d e d FCC w i t h a means of s u p p o r t i n g and m a r k e t i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by S k y T r a i n - i . e . , t h e " p r i n c i p a l " c a t a l y s t , from th e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e m a r k e t p l a c e . 2 7 A c c o r d i n g t o Graham F a r s t a d , New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y P l a n n e r -" t h e new w a t e r f r o n t s a y s t h a t New W e s t m i n s t e r i s a r e d e v e l o p i n g 2 6 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. 3 7 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken Cameron, 14 A u g u s t 1990. 138 community, r a t h e r t h a n a community i n d e c l i n e . " 2 8 F a r s t a d c r e d i t s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government, t h r o u g h t h e F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y D evelopment Company (FCC) - and n o t t h e w a t e r f r o n t , per se - as t h e major c a t a l y s t a f t e r S k y T r a i n . He s e e s FCC's r o l e on t h e w a t e r f r o n t as b e i n g more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n e i t h e r D o u g l a s C o l l e g e or t h e Law C o u r t s i n s t i m u l a t i n g d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e downtown. 5.5.3 C o l u m b i a S t r e e t U p g r a d i n g W h i l e t h e p h y s i c a l and c o m m e r c i a l u p g r a d i n g of C o l u m b i a S t r e e t has o n l y r e c e n t l y been i n i t i a t e d - i t i s w o r t h y o f d i s c u s s i o n , a t t h i s p o i n t , b e c a u s e many of t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s have a l r e a d y shown p r o m i s i n g r e s u l t s . I t had l o n g been a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g had t o be done a b o u t C o l u m b i a S t r e e t i f t h e downtown was e v e r t o make a comeback. However, t h e r e were many o b s t a c l e s t o u p g r a d i n g t h e s t r e e t - t h e l a r g e s t b e i n g what Ken Cameron c a l l s , " n i t t y g r i t t y p r o b l e m s of o w n e r s h i p , p u b l i c a t t i t u d e and i m a g e . " 2 9 The f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n was t o change t h e c o m p l a c e n t a t t i t u d e s o f p o l i t i c i a n s , p r o p e r t y owners and b u s i n e s s p e o p l e . C r i t i c a l i n t h i s e n d e a v o u r was t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f key i n d i v i d u a l s who l o b b i e d p o l i t i c i a n s , and made p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o p r o p e r t y owners, m e r c h a n t s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a b o u t t h e need f o r r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . The n e x t s t e p was t o improve t h e p u b l i c image of " I n t e r v i e w w i t h Graham F a r s t a d , C i t y P l a n n e r , C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , 22 A u g u s t 1990. " I n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken Cameron, 14 A u g u s t 1990. 139 t h e downtown - b o t h w i t h i n t h e c i t y and t h r o u g h o u t t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . S e v e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s were i n v o l v e d i n p r o m o t i n g th e downtown i n t h e e a r l y - and mid-1980's. P r o m i n e n t among t h e s e a r e t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r E c o n o m i c Development A s s o c i a t i o n (NWEDA) and the Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r A s s o c i a t i o n (DNWA). The DNWA r e t a i n e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f U r b a n i c s C o n s u l t a n t s t o p r e p a r e a d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y f o r downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e DNWA were t o improve t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t of the downtown, and t o e n c o u r a g e a b e t t e r r e t a i l mix - w i t h an emphasis on u n i q u e n e s s , v a r i e t y and q u a l i t y . 3 0 The s t r a t e g y p r o p o s e d by U r b a n i c s i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h t o downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s s t r e e t b e a u t i f i c a t i o n , h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n , and c o l l e c t i v e m a r k e t i n g and management t e c h n i q u e s . E a c h component of t h i s s t r a t e g y i s s u p p o r t e d by P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and some form of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e ( f i n a n c i a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ) . The p h y s i c a l u p g r a d i n g of C o l u m b i a S t r e e t , between F o u r t h and E i g h t h S t r e e t s , was c o m p l e t e d i n June 1990. Roadwork improvements were j o i n t l y - f u n d e d by t h e C i t y and P r o v i n c e , on a 50/50 b a s i s . Under t h e Downtown R e v i t a l i z a t i o n Program (DRP), t h e c o s t s o f " b e a u t i f i c a t i o n " - i . e . , d e c o r a t i v e s t r e e t lamps, s i d e w a l k p a v e r s , s t r e e t b a n n e r s , f u r n i t u r e and l a n d s c a p i n g - a r e s h a r e d by t h e C i t y ( P r o v i n c e ) and p r o p e r t y owners, on a 50/50 b a s i s . 3 ° U r b a n i c s C o n s u l t a n t s L t d . , Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r R e t a i l  Development S t r a t e g y , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C.: Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r A s s o c i a t i o n , March 1989, pp.16-19. 140 T h r o u g h a H e r i t a g e A r e a R e v i t a l i z a t i o n P r ogram (HARP) d e s i g n a t i o n , owners of h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s w i l l be a b l e t o u n d e r t a k e f a c a d e improvements and have a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r c o s t s r e i m b u r s e d by t h e P r o v i n c e - p r o v i d e d t h a t r e n o v a t i o n s a r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a p p r o v e d d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s . The C i t y i s a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e HARP program i n downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , and w i l l d i s b u r s e up t o $300,000 i n P r o v i n c i a l f u n d s o v e r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s (1990-1992) . I n December 1989, C i t y C o u n c i l a p p r o v e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a B u s i n e s s Improvement A r e a (BIA) i n t h e downtown. Under t h e BIA program, downtown b u s i n e s s and p r o p e r t y owners c a n o r g a n i z e and f i n a n c e e f f e c t i v e m a r k e t i n g , p r o m o t i o n a l and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r o g r a m s . The BIA i s f u n d e d t h r o u g h a s p e c i a l l e v y on c o m m e r c i a l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n t h e BIA b o u n d a r i e s . T h i s t a x i s c o l l e c t e d by t h e C i t y and i s p r o v i d e d a n n u a l l y t o t h e BIA B o a r d o f Management, w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r s t h e v a r i o u s BIA p r o j e c t s . M a j o r p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of a c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e i n v e n t o r y , a d a t a base on downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , and a p r o m o t i o n a l v i d e o w h i c h w i l l h i g h l i g h t t h e w a t e r f r o n t , S k y T r a i n and o t h e r a m e n i t i e s i n t h e d o w n t o w n . 3 1 The s h a r i n g o f o f f i c e s p a c e between t h e s t a f f of t h e BIA, HARP and T o u r i s m Development programs w i l l e n s u r e a w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d r e v i t a l i z a t i o n e f f o r t . G i v e n t h e p r o v e n s u c c e s s o f BIA programs i n O n t a r i o and o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada - t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r BIA, i n 3 1 I n t e r v i e w w i t h N e t t i e Tam, C o o r d i n a t o r , Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r B u s i n e s s Improvement S o c i e t y , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., 22 A u g u s t 1990. 141 c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h HARP and DRP p r o j e c t s , has a tremendous p o t e n t i a l f o r r e v i t a l i z i n g t h e downtown a r e a . 5,6 Summary Based on d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h i n t e r v i e w e e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t i s an a t t e m p t a t r a n k i n g t h e v a r i o u s " c a t a l y s t s " i n terms of t h e i r o v e r a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d s downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . They a r e r a n k e d n u m e r i c a l l y , f r o m most t o l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t . Those c a t a l y s t s i n d i c a t e d by a l e t t e r of t h e a l p h a b e t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be c o n t r i b u t i n g e l e m e n t s , w i t h o u t which t h e p r i n c i p a l c a t a l y s t s would n o t be p o s s i b l e . TABES 5 f l - A RANKING OF THE "CATALYSTS" 1. S k y T r a i n 2. The R e v i t a l i z e d W a t e r f r o n t a. F i r s t C a p i t a l C i t y Development Company (FCC) b. The Community P l a n f o r Downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r c . The M a n d a t o r y Development P e r m i t System 3. C o l u m b i a S t r e e t U p g r a d i n g 3 2 a . B u s i n e s s Improvement A r e a (BIA) b. Downtown R e v i t a l i z a t i o n P r ogram (DRP) c. H e r i t a g e A r e a R e v i t a l i z a t i o n P r o g r a m (HARP) 4. D o u g l a s C o l l e g e 5. The Law C o u r t s Complex 3 2 E x p e c t e d r a n k i n g when r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e . 1+2. 6.0 CASE STUDY: AN EVALUATION OF "WESTMINSTER QUAY" The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e v a l u a t e " W e s t m i n s t e r Quay" i n l i g h t of e x i s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s of p l a n n e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I t b e g i n s w i t h an o v e r v i e w of what has m a t e r i a l i z e d on t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t s i n c e t h e mid-1980's. The "new" w a t e r f r o n t i s a s s e s s e d i n terms of image and d e s i g n , i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e x i s t i n g u r b a n f a b r i c , and the f u l f i l l m e n t of p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s a s s e s s m e n t i s b a s e d , i n p a r t , on a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s . L<± O v e r v i e w o f Development The d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t was r e a l i z e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Development C o r p o r a t i o n , which put f o r w a r d t h e i d e a of r e d e v e l o p i n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t f o r a mix of r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d - u s e s , and u s i n g t h e r e d e v e l o p e d w a t e r f r o n t as a c a t a l y s t f o r downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . T h i s was n o t a new c o n c e p t ; i t was m o d e l l e d upon s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r p r o j e c t i s u n i q u e i n terms o f p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s , and t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government. At t h e l o c a l l e v e l , i t was p a r t of a s t r a t e g y t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e downtown c o r e ; a t t h e r e g i o n a l l e v e l , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e ; and, a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l - i t p r o v i d e d t h e government w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o showcase P r o v i n c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t 143 p o l i c i e s , and d e m o n s t r a t e i t s commitment t o t h e p e o p l e of New W e s t m i n s t e r . The major i s s u e s a d d r e s s e d i n p l a n n i n g f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e : o p e n i n g up t h e w a t e r f r o n t f o r p u b l i c u s e , and c r e a t i n g a major p u b l i c a m e n i t y ; e n c o u r a g i n g a wide r a n g e o f c o m p l e m e n t a r y l a n d - u s e s and a c t i v i t i e s ; r e d u c i n g t h e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s of t h e r a i l w a y ; and i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y of t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . The f i r s t phase o f " W e s t m i n s t e r Quay" i s n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n on an 18.2 h e c t a r e s i t e , s i t u a t e d between E i g h t h S t r e e t and t h e L u l u I s l a n d R a i l w a y B r i d g e . When c o m p l e t e d , t h e p r o j e c t w i l l i n c l u d e 1,200 r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s , a 126-room h o t e l , 6,500 m 2 o f r e t a i l s p a c e , 2,800 m 2 of o f f i c e s p a c e , a 1.8 km p e d e s t r i a n e s p l a n a d e , and 6.5 h e c t a r e s of p u b l i c open s p a c e (36 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l s i t e a r e a ) . The s e c o n d phase o f d e v e l o p m e n t a t W e s t m i n s t e r Quay i s t a k i n g p l a c e on t h e e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of t h e s i t e , between E i g h t h and E l l i o t S t r e e t s . T h i s p r o j e c t i s known as " W e s t m i n s t e r P i e r , " and w i l l be b u i l t i n f o u r s t a g e s , b e g i n n i n g i n t h e F a l l of 1990, by T o r o n t o -b a s e d Graywood D e v e l o p m e n t s L t d . . The d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l c a l l s f o r e i g h t 1 1 0 - u n i t r e s i d e n t i a l t o w e r s - f o r a t o t a l 880 condominium a p a r t m e n t s . B e c a u s e o f t h e n a r r o w n e s s of t h e W e s t m i n s t e r P i e r s i t e , and i t s p r o x i m i t y t o t r u c k and r a i l w a y t r a f f i c , t h e u n s i g h t l y F r o n t S t r e e t p a r k a d e , and d e r e l i c t F r o n t S t r e e t b u i l d i n g s - t h e p r o j e c t has been d e s i g n e d t o make t h e most o f t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s . F i r s t l y , s i n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y l i e s b e n e a t h t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , t h e p e d e s t r i a n e s p l a n a d e and o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s w i l l be b u i l t on 144 p i l i n g s and w i l l e x t e n d out o v e r t h e w a t e r . S e c o n d l y , t h e b u i l d i n g s w i l l be b u i l t above a m u l t i - l e v e l p a r k i n g g a r a g e , s u c h t h a t g r o u n d f l o o r u n i t s w i l l r i s e a b o u t f i v e - s t o r e y s above F r o n t S t r e e t . And, t h i r d l y - t h e p r o j e c t w i l l be s e r v e d by an e l e v a t e d roadway, and w i l l be c o n n e c t e d t o C o l u m b i a S t r e e t by a l e v e l o v e r p a s s . A l l u n i t s w i l l be o r i e n t e d t o a r i v e r a n d / o r m o u n t a i n v i e w , and a r e p r i c e d $200,000 and u p . 1 To t h e west o f W e s t m i n s t e r Quay, t h e M o l n a r Group i s d e v e l o p i n g "The R e n a i s s a n c e " and o t h e r p r o j e c t s a t " W e s t m i n s t e r Quay I I . " T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l add a f u r t h e r 1400 condominium a p a r t m e n t s and townhomes t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t - f o r a g r a n d t o t a l of a b o u t 3500 u n i t s . P l a n s f o r t h e s i t e i n c l u d e a o n e - k i l o m e t e r e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n e s p l a n a d e , and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of l a g o o n s and waterways t o enhance t h e p u b l i c open s p a c e s , and t o p r o v i d e i n t e r n a l u n i t s w i t h a w a t e r f r o n t o u t l o o k . W h i l e t h e M o l n a r p r o j e c t i s b a s e d on a V e n e t i a n theme, and i s q u i t e d i s t i n c t , i t s h o u l d be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e a r l i e r p r o j e c t s . The 1989 amendments t o t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r R e d e v e l o p m e n t A c t expanded th e Downtown P l a n b o u n d a r i e s t o i n c l u d e t h e M o l n a r s i t e . In t h i s way, t h e p r o j e c t i s g o v e r n e d by t h e same d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s as w e l l a s t h e m a n d a t o r y d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t p r o c e s s . ^-Source: Graywood D e v e l o p m e n t s ' p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e f o r " W e s t m i n s t e r P i e r . " 145 <L±2. The Image o f t h e New W a t e r f r o n t P r i o r t o r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e w a t e r f r o n t , New W e s t m i n s t e r had a v e r y n e g a t i v e image. I t was s e e n as " t h e a r m p i t of t h e Lower M a i n l a n d ; ...a t e r r i b l e p l a c e t h a t was g o i n g n o w h e r e . " 2 The new w a t e r f r o n t has t u r n e d t h i s image a r o u n d t o one of p r o g r e s s and p r o s p e r i t y - an image t h a t has s p i l l e d o v e r i n t o o t h e r p a r t s of t h e c i t y . T h r o u g h r e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e w a t e r f r o n t has b r o u g h t new e n t h u s i a s m t o t h e R o y a l C i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t has h i g h l i g h t e d t h e u n i q u e p u b l i c a m e n i t y a f f o r d e d by t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , and o t h e r f e a t u r e s of t h e c i t y t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o a l i v a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t - s u c h as a h i g h l e v e l o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s . Though t h e w a t e r f r o n t has i m p roved t h e image of t h e c i t y as a whole, i t r e m a i n s somewhat s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e c i t y . The w a t e r f r o n t i s p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e downtown by a s t r e t c h of r a i l w a y t r a c k s and a b u s y a r t e r i a l roadway. W h i l e e a c h phase o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t has i n c l u d e d p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r o v e r p a s s e s t o c o n n e c t t h e w a t e r f r o n t w i t h t h e c i t y , t h e s e have n o t been a s t r o n g enough l i n k . The w a t e r f r o n t r e m a i n s an " i s l a n d " o f l u x u r y c o n dominiums, a d j a c e n t t o t h e as y e t u n i m p r o v e d downtown. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n i s p e r h a p s due t o t h i s p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r , b u t a l s o t o t h e n a t u r e o f d e v e l o p m e n t t a k i n g p l a c e on t h e w a t e r f r o n t . The h o u s i n g and c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s have c a t e r e d t o a p o p u l a t i o n segment t h a t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e downtown a r e a . Whereas t h e c i t y has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a w o r k i n g -i n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. 146 c l a s s community, the w a t e r f r o n t i s home t o a l a r g e l y a f f l u e n t p o p u l a t i o n of young p r o f e s s i o n a l s and " e m p t y - n e s t e r s . " T h e r e i s l i t t l e a s s o c i a t i o n between downtown and w a t e r f r o n t r e s i d e n t s . And, a t p r e s e n t , t h e r e a r e few b u s i n e s s e s on C o l u m b i a S t r e e t t h a t c a t e r t o t h i s new m a r k e t . In terms of p h y s i c a l d e s i g n , t h e r e a r e few s t y l i s t i c c o n n e c t i o n s between the w a t e r f r o n t and t h e downtown. T h i s i s due t o a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f p l a n n e r s , d e s i g n e r s and p o l i c y -makers n o t t o draw upon the h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e downtown, b u t , r a t h e r - t o b u i l d a new w a t e r f r o n t i n s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e h e r i t a g e s t r e e t s c a p e . 3 In p a r t , t h i s was p e r h a p s i n t e n d e d t o shed t h e downtown's d e c l i n i n g image, and t o c o n v e y a f e e l i n g o f l i v a b i l i t y and p r o g r e s s . D e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s were p u t i n p l a c e t o e n s u r e t h e p r o t e c t i o n of v i e w s from u p h i l l l o c a t i o n s , t o m a i n t a i n a human s c a l e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , and t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e a m e n i t y o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by a s o u t h e r n - e x p o s e d w a t e r f r o n t l o c a t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e g u i d e l i n e s have p r e s e r v e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e o f s c a l e i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , w i t h o u t r e p l i c a t i n g t h e l o c a l h i s t o r y . O v e r a l l , t h e b u i l d i n g s on t h e w a t e r f r o n t a p p e a r somewhat g e n e r i c . The p u b l i c m a r k e t , f o r example, i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n s t y l e t o t h e " H a r b o u r p l a c e " p a v i l i o n s i n B a l t i m o r e , and t o f e s t i v a l m a r k e t p l a c e s i n o t h e r c i t i e s . I t seems t h a t a r c h i t e c t s and d e v e l o p e r s have g e n e r a l l y a d o p t e d p r o v e n and m a r k e t a b l e d e s i g n s f o r t h e i r w a t e r f r o n t p r o j e c t s . Some n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s a r e : the 3 I n t e r v i e w w i t h B a r r y Goodwin, 17 A u g u s t 1990. 147 c u r v i l i n e a r , g l a s s - c l a d t o w e r s of W e s t m i n s t e r P i e r ; the Inn a t W e s t m i n s t e r Quay, which j u t s out i n t o t h e r i v e r l i k e an o c e a n - l i n e r and t h e M o l n a r Group's r e c r e a t i o n of V e n i c e , a t W e s t m i n s t e r Quay II F i g u r e 6.1 - The Inn a t W e s t m i n s t e r Quay LL2 The W a t e r f r o n t C a t a l y s t I t a p p e a r s t h a t m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r the New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t have l a r g e l y been a c h i e v e d . The w a t e r f r o n t has been opened up f o r p u b l i c u s e , and i s an a t t r a c t i v e and d e s i r a b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e d e v e l o p e d 148 w a t e r f r o n t has p r o v e n t o be a s t r o n g c a t a l y s t f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e c i t y ' s u n p r e c e d e n t e d d e v e l o p m e n t boom. As of June 1990, t h e r e were 48 r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and mixed-use p r o j e c t s under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c i t y , or i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s - w i t h a combined v a l u e o f over $1 b i l l i o n . 4 W e s t m i n s t e r Quay has p l a y e d a c a t a l y t i c r o l e i n c h a n g i n g t h e c i t y ' s n e g a t i v e image, s h o w c a s i n g i t s d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l , and s t i m u l a t i n g d e v e l o p e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e downtown. However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o q u a n t i f y t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r c a t a l y s t s . B a r r y Goodwin was q u i t e c o r r e c t when he c a l l e d t h e w a t e r f r o n t and S k y T r a i n a "combined c a t a l y s t , " b e c a u s e , as o t h e r s w i l l a g r e e - t h e Downtown P l a n has c a p i t a l i z e d on b o t h t h e a m e n i t y v a l u e of t h e w a t e r f r o n t , and i m p roved a c c e s s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h S k y T r a i n , i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e C i t y ' s downtown r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p rogram. The s u c c e s s of W e s t m i n s t e r Quay as an e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l i s e v i d e n t i n t h e s p i n o f f d e v e l o p m e n t s o c c u r i n g on t h e w a t e r f r o n t -i . e . , the M o l n a r Group's " W e s t m i n s t e r Quay I I , " and M a c M i l l a n B l o e d e l ' s and Bosa B r o s ' " P o r t R o y a l " p r o p o s a l f o r t h e Queensborough w a t e r f r o n t . P o r t R o y a l i s c u r r e n t l y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . The p r o p o s a l c a l l s f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t of a b o u t 1170 u n i t s - c o m p r i s e d of 200 s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d h o u s e s , and 970 a p a r t m e n t u n i t s i n b o t h h i g h - r i s e and l o w - r i s e s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s p r o j e c t was made f e a s i b l e by major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements -s u c h as t h e A l e x F r a s e r B r i d g e and highway s y s t e m , and S k y T r a i n -4 S o u r c e : C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , June 1990. 149 and by t h e p r o v e n m a r k e t a b i l i t y of w a t e r f r o n t h o u s i n g i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . 6.4 A C o m p a r i s o n W i t h O t h e r W a t e r f r o n t P r o j e c t s The c i t i e s and p r o j e c t s p r o f i l e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e were s e l e c t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. The r a n g e of d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o c o m m u n i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t s i z e and l o c a t i o n ; 2. The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s f o r w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t ; 3. The use o f w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t as a c a t a l y s t f o r b r o a d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s ; and 4. The p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f w a t e r f r o n t p r o j e c t s due t o c o n f l i c t s between v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s , g o v e r n m e n t s and community g r o u p s . Common t o most w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s a r e : d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d by d e c l i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l and p o r t f a c i l i t i e s ; p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e s f o r b u i l d i n g a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e economy; and t h e n o t i o n o f r e c l a i m i n g t h e w a t e r f r o n t f o r p u b l i c u s e . G i v e n t h i s common s t a r t i n g p o i n t , and t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f landmark p r o j e c t s i n B o s t o n , B a l t i m o r e and o t h e r c i t i e s - i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t s have t a k e n on a s i m i l a r and somewhat g e n e r i c a p p e a r a n c e - b o t h i n terms of l a n d - u s e and d e s i g n . Where p r o j e c t s o b v i o u s l y d i f f e r i s i n terms of s c a l e . The p r o f i l e s showed a wide r a n g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t 150 o p p o r t u n i t i e s - from a r e v i t a l i z e d f i s h i n g v i l l a g e i n S t e v e s t o n , B.C., t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new c i t y i n t h e London D o c k l a n d s . New W e s t m i n s t e r i s an i n t e r e s t i n g c a s e s t u d y b e c a u s e i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c i t y , b e a r i n g many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e s o u r c e towns i n t h e B.C. I n t e r i o r - i . e . , a l i m i t e d e c onomic b a s e , a c l o s e - k n i t b l u e - c o l l a r community, a "Main S t r e e t " c o m m e r c i a l c o r e , e t c . . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a - and, as a s u b u r b of V a n c o u v e r , i t s h a r e s some of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l a r g e c i t y - i . e . , a d e c i d e d l y u r b a n c h a r a c t e r , r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e n s i t i e s , and a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f s e r v i c e s and p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s . In e v a l u a t i n g t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t , i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o r e c a l l t h e w a t e r f r o n t p r o f i l e s t o see i f W e s t m i n s t e r Quay i s t y p i c a l o f c o n t e m p o r a r y w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t s : W e s t m i n s t e r Quay i s s i m i l a r t o B a t t e r y Park C i t y i n terms o f i t s r i v e r l o c a t i o n , p u b l i c e s p l a n a d e , l a n d - u s e mix, and u p s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t s . O t h e r common e l e m e n t s a r e t h e use o f w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e v i a b i l i t y of t h e downtown a r e a , and the r o l e of a p u b l i c d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c y i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o j e c t . W e s t m i n s t e r Quay and t h e London D o c k l a n d s d e v e l o p m e n t were b o t h i n t e n d e d t o stem e c o n o m i c d e c l i n e , and t o " u p g r a d e " t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e n v i r o n s t h r o u g h an i n f l u x of a f f l u e n t h o u s e h o l d s . I n t h e London D o c k l a n d s , r e d e v e l o p m e n t has l e d t o g e n t r i f i c a t i o n i n a d j a c e n t b o r o u g h s , and has i n t e n s i f i e d c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s between o l d and new r e s i d e n t s . W h i l e t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n between income g r o u p s i s n o t as p r o n o u n c e d i n New 151 W e s t m i n s t e r - t h e r e has been some d i s p l a c e m e n t o f v u l n e r a b l e h o u s e h o l d s due t o r e d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y . F o r t h e most p a r t , however, new d e v e l o p m e n t i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i s t a k i n g p l a c e on u n d e r u t i l i z e d c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t i e s , and t h e r e have been few r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s l o s t t h r o u g h d e m o l i t i o n . 5 However, as th e V a n c o u v e r example d e m o n s t r a t e s - f u r t h e r d i s p l a c e m e n t c a n be e x p e c t e d t h r o u g h g e n t r i f i c a t i o n o f u p h i l l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The London D o c k l a n d s p r o v i d e a n o t h e r p a r a l l e l w i t h New W e s t m i n s t e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o r a p i d t r a n s i t and i t s c a t a l y t i c r o l e i n s t i m u l a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o u t s i d e of t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n c o r e . The D o c k l a n d s p o p u l a t i o n i s s e r v e d by t h e D o c k l a n d s L i g h t R a i l w a y , which p r o v i d e s d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e C i t y of London. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s an e x t e n s i v e commuter f e r r y s y s t e m i n o p e r a t i o n a l o n g t h e Thames R i v e r . The T o r o n t o and New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t s a r e s i m i l a r i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r i o r t o r e d e v e l o p m e n t . Both w a t e r f r o n t s were e f f e c t i v e l y s e v e r e d from t h e i r downtowns by a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r - i . e . , a r t e r i a l r o a d s and r a i l w a y s . The d e c l i n e o f p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and r e l a t e d i n d u s t r y , and t h e a d v e n t of s u b u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t weakened t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t h e downtown w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r r e g i o n . In b o t h c a s e s , t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t was t o r e v e r s e t h e c y c l e o f e c o n o m i c d e c l i n e , and t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c o m m e r c i a l base i n t h e downtown. s I n t e r v i e w w i t h Graham F a r s t a d , C i t y P l a n n e r , C i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., 22 A u g u s t 1990. 152 The two c i t i e s d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h . In T o r o n t o , t h e r e was l i t t l e i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l c o o p e r a t i o n and no c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g f o r " H a r b o u r f r o n t . " As a r e s u l t , t h e p r o j e c t has e v o l v e d on a q u a y - b y - q u a y b a s i s , w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t of an o v e r a l l p l a n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e C i t y , h a v i n g no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r H a r b o u r f r o n t , m i s s e d out on a g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a n f o r i n t e g r a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e combined w a t e r f r o n t and r a i l w a y l a n d s . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f W e s t m i n s t e r Quay, on t h e o t h e r hand, was p a r t o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n t o r e v i t a l i z e downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r , and t o s u p p o r t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . I t was not an i s o l a t e d p r o j e c t b u t , r a t h e r - one of s e v e r a l c a t a l y s t s f o r a c h i e v i n g b r o a d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e c i t y . Based on t h i s c o m p a r i s o n , i t would a p p e a r t h a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t . An a r e a p l a n f o r t h e w a t e r f r o n t s h o u l d o u t l i n e community o b j e c t i v e s f o r w a t e r f r o n t l a n d - u s e s , i n t h e c o n t e x t of b r o a d e r o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e c i t y as a whole. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o view t h e w a t e r f r o n t as p a r t o f a l a r g e r u r b a n a r e a , i n o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on i t s a m e n i t y v a l u e f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s , where t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t as an e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l i s h e i g h t e n e d by a d e c l i n i n g e c o n o m i c b a s e , and l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . E c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s have u t i l i z e d t h e w a t e r f r o n t ' s a m e n i t y v a l u e i n s t i m u l a t i n g new a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as t o u r i s m . The b i g g e s t c h a l l e n g e 153 i n t h i s r e g a r d i s b a l a n c i n g much-needed e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of d e s i r a b l e a s p e c t s of community l i f e - i . e . , c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , l i v a b i l i t y and c h a r a c t e r . 6•5 N e g a t i v e Impacts o f W a t e r f r o n t R e v i t a l i z a t i o n G i v e n t h e s u c c e s s f u l m a r k e t i n g o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r w a t e r f r o n t as a d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e any n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s t h e p r o j e c t may have had on t h e c i t y as a w hole. Two o b v i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e : r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r e s s u r e s on h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s , and t h e d e p l e t i o n of t h e a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g s t o c k . I n g u i d i n g t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f i t s downtown - t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r w i l l have t o s t r i k e a b a l a n c e between r e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e s t o r a t i o n . One of t h e c i t y ' s g r e a t e s t a s s e t s i s i t s i m p r e s s i v e s t o c k o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . The c i t y ' s h e r i t a g e c h a r a c t e r i s p e r h a p s most e v i d e n t a l o n g C o l u m b i a S t r e e t - w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g u p g r a d e d t h r o u g h s t r e e t b e a u t i f i c a t i o n , b u s i n e s s d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s , and f a c a d e i m p r o v e m e n t s . G i v e n an a l l o w a b l e f l o o r - s p a c e r a t i o ( f s r ) o f 5.2, under t h e p r e s e n t z o n i n g , i t would a p p e a r t h a t f u t u r e " u p g r a d i n g " w i l l t a k e t h e f o r m o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t . 6 W h i l e i t may be p r o f i t a b l e t o r e s t o r e l a r g e r b u i l d i n g s , more modest s t r u c t u r e s w i l l l i k e l y be d e m o l i s h e d as t h e i r s i t e s a r e p u t t o more i n t e n s i v e u s e . I t i s q u i t e f e a s i b l e t h a t C o l u m b i a S t r e e t w i l l l o s e i t s h i s t o r i c c h a r a c t e r i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e - e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t boom c o n t i n u e s . i n t e r v i e w w i t h Graham F a r s t a d , 22 A u g u s t 1990. 154 New W e s t m i n s t e r has l o n g been one o f t h e most a f f o r d a b l e a r e a s i n t h e i n n e r m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . The c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t boom has put upward p r e s s u r e on l a n d and h o u s i n g p r i c e s , and has c o n t r i b u t e d t o a v e r y low r e n t a l v a c a n c y r a t e . 7 At t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e , i t may be a d v i s a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e some s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l t o e n s u r e f u t u r e a f f o r d a b i l i t y - i . e . , by r e q u i r i n g d e v e l o p e r s of major p r o j e c t s t o s e t a s i d e a p r o p o r t i o n of a l l o w a b l e u n i t s f o r s o c i a l h o u s i n g , as i s done i n T o r o n t o and V a n c o u v e r . However, t h e r e does n o t a p p e a r t o be any p o l i t i c a l w i l l t o w a r d s t h i s end i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . T h e r e i s a w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f t h a t "New W e s t m i n s t e r i s c a r r y i n g i t s f a i r s h a r e o f t h e r e g i o n a l s o c i a l h o u s i n g b u r d e n . " 3 And, g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t a f f o r d a b i l i t y has n o t r e a l l y been a p r o b l e m up u n t i l now, some p e o p l e would a r g u e t h a t t h e r e i s t o o much s o c i a l h o u s i n g i n t h e c i t y - b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e 9 - and t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g s t o c k needs t o be u p g r a d e d t h r o u g h more u p s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t . E c o n o m i c i n t e g r a t i o n , or " s o c i a l mix," was n e v e r an o b j e c t i v e of p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n downtown New W e s t m i n s t e r . I n s t e a d , a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t was made t o " u p g r a d e " t h e downtown p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l u x u r y a p a r t m e n t and townhouse u n i t s . The f i r s t phase of W e s t m i n s t e r Quay doe s i n c l u d e two h o u s i n g c o -7 W h i l e a v e r a g e a p a r t m e n t r e n t s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r r e m a i n e d below t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a v e r a g e i n A p r i l 1990 - New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s a p a r t m e n t v a c a n c y r a t e s t o o d a t 0.1 p e r c e n t , compared t o 0.9 p e r c e n t f o r t h e CMA. (Source: CMHC's R e n t a l M a r k e t Survey. A p r i l 1 9 9 0). 3 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Ken Cameron, 14 A u g u s t 1990. 9 " P r i v a t e " s o c i a l h o u s i n g r e f e r s t o s i n g l e - r o o m o c c u p a n c y h o t e l s , and o t h e r p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d l o w - r e n t accommodation. 155 o p e r a t i v e s , b u t , as s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e - t h e non-market component was used as an i n c e n t i v e f o r d e v e l o p e r s ; t h e co-op p r o j e c t s were a g u a r a n t e e d s a l e and c o u l d o f f s e t some o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s a l e o f market u n i t s . S u b s e q u e n t p r o j e c t s i n W e s t m i n s t e r Quay II a r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more u p s c a l e , and a r e b e i n g t a r g e t t e d t o t h e " e m p t y - n e s t e r " m a r k e t . 6_j_6_ Summary W e s t m i n s t e r Quay has h e l p e d t o b u i l d a p o s i t i v e image f o r t h e c i t y of New W e s t m i n s t e r , and has a t t r a c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . O v e r a l l , t h e s e p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o u t w e i g h t h e p o t e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s o f w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t . The l a t t e r a r e a l s o more d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n b e c a u s e of l i m i t e d d a t a on d i s p l a c e m e n t , and t h e s u b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . R e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e w a t e r f r o n t has p r o v i d e d t h e c i t y w i t h a major p u b l i c a m e n i t y , and has r a i s e d t h e l i v a b i l i t y l e v e l t h r o u g h an improved q u a l i t y of l i f e , and g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I5& 7.0 CONCLUSIONS An u n d e r l y i n g theme of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e n o t i o n of " t r a n s i t i o n . " The a d v e n t o f t h e s e r v i c e s age has f o r c e d u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n t o a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n as t h e y undergo e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g . T hese c h a n g e s a r e n e c e s s a r y i f c o m m u n i t i e s a r e t o a d a p t and s u r v i v e i n t h e p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l e r a . The r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l w a t e r f r o n t s i s p e r h a p s t h e most d r a m a t i c e v i d e n c e of p h y s i c a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g i n t h e p o s t -i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . I t has been b r o u g h t a b o u t by a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s : t h e o b s o l e s c e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , t h e c l e a n - u p o f u r b a n waterways, a r e t u r n t o i n n e r - c i t y l i v i n g , and p u b l i c demands f o r an a c c e s s i b l e w a t e r f r o n t and a q u a l i t y u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t . W a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l c i t y as a p u b l i c p o l i c y t o o l f o r a c h i e v i n g b r o a d e r s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s . A s o c i a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t stems from t h e w a t e r f r o n t ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r accommodating new u r b a n l a n d - u s e s , a m e n i t i e s and community s e r v i c e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t of u r b a n w a t e r f r o n t s has p r o v i d e d new o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g i n t h e c o r e a r e a s of c i t i e s . As p a r t o f an a m e n i t i e s s t r a t e g y f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , w a t e r f r o n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s promoted as a " c a t a l y s t " f o r e c o n o m i c r e s t r u c t u r i n g . By c a p i t a l i z i n g on t h e a m e n i t y v a l u e o f t h e i r 157 w a t e r f r o n t s , c i t i e s a r e h o p i n g t o become more a t t r a c t i v e t o a s k i l l e d w o r k f o r c e , p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s , and new e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s . The n a t u r e and form of w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i s shaped by s t r u c t u r a l and d e m o g r a p h i c f o r c e s , g e n e r a l e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , p u b l i c p l a n n i n g and l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l s , and t h e m o t i v a t i o n b e h i n d r e d e v e l o p m e n t . The p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e w a t e r f r o n t ' s p o t e n t i a l as a p o w e r f u l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t t o o l . C o n f l i c t s a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s due t o c o m p e t i t i o n between v a r i o u s b u s i n e s s and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , t h e v o c a l c o n c e r n s o f l o c a l a r e a r e s i d e n t s , and t h e i n v o l v e m e n t of v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v ernment. In t h e o r y , t h e u r b a n w a t e r f r o n t has been r e c l a i m e d f o r a l l r e s i d e n t s o f t h e p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . The n o t i o n of p u b l i c a c c e s s and t h e c r e a t i o n o f p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f w a t e r f r o n t d e v e l o p m e n t . In p r a c t i c e , however, t h e b e n e f i t s o f a r e v i t a l i z e d w a t e r f r o n t a r e n o t s h a r e d e q u a l l y . As t h e w a t e r f r o n t p r o f i l e s have shown, t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w a t e r f r o n t l a n d - u s e mix i s g e n e r a l l y b i a s e d t o w a r d s h i g h - e n d c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and l u x u r y hous i n g . T h r o u g h t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e i r w a t e r f r o n t s , c o m m u n i t i e s have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e d r e s s a r a n g e of s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c i s s u e s . The s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l i s s e l d o m r e a l i z e d , however, b e c a u s e r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r i m a r i l y c o m m e r c i a l l y - m o t i v a t e d . The n a t u r e o f r e d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y t a k i n g p l a c e on t h e u r b a n w a t e r f r o n t r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e l i t i s m and e q u i t y i n t h e p o s t -i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . The e d u c a t i o n and s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p o s t -158 i n d u s t r i a l j o b market form t h e b a s i s f o r c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n u r b a n s o c i e t y . As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f i n e q u a l i t y i n a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n and e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t y , many i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e f f e c t i v e l y b a r r e d from e n j o y i n g t h e l i f e s t y l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s of t h e " l i v a b l e " p o s t -i n d u s t r i a l c i t y . W i t h c o n t i n u e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement - p e o p l e and c a p i t a l w i l l be even more m o b i l e i n t h e f u t u r e t h a n t h e y a r e t o d a y , and w i l l seek out t h o s e l o c a t i o n s t h a t o f f e r t h e b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n of e conomic and l i f e s t y l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . W i t h g r e a t e r amounts of l e i s u r e t i m e -made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d a u t o m a t i o n and improved t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s - t h e r e w i l l be g r e a t e r demands f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s . As s u c h , t h e w a t e r f r o n t a m e n i t y w i l l i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e , and c o m p e t i t i o n between p o t e n t i a l l a n d - u s e r s w i l l l e a d t o more u p s c a l e d e v e l o p m e n t . 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