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Musical composition, The silent dragons, with document Bashaw, Howard Eugene 1989

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MUSICAL COMPOSITION, THE SILENT DRAGONS, WITH DOCUMENT By HOWARD EUGENE BASHAW B.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 M.Mus., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS (Composition) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School  of  Music)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1989 @  Howard Eugene Bashaw, 1989  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  this  department  thesis for  or  publication  of  by  his  or  her  DE-6(3/81)  A  P  M  of  r  i  be  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  u  s  i  c  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  representatives.  l  1  1  1  9  8  9  that the  for  an  is  granted  advanced  Library shall make  agree that permission for  scholarly purposes may  permission.  Department  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  by the  understood  that  it  extensive  head  of  copying  my or  be allowed without my written  i i  ABSTRACT  The S i l e n t male c h o r u s .  Dragons is an 18-minute  The v o i c e part has no l i t e r a r y  uses phonemes f o r activity its  work  their  is o r g a n i z e d  many f o r m s , the  sonic  into  chamber ensemble and  or l i n g u i s t i c  and e x p r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r .  two e s s e n t i a l  textural  for  layer  registers  and i n t e r p r e t s  and the continuum of t e x t u r a l transitions  from one o v e r a l l  change in the t o t a l  transformation textural  Unlike texture,  c o n d i t i o n to  the drone l a s t s j u s t  length  central  segment.  Both t e x t u r e  ternary  form; the  ternary  ternary  form of the t e x t u r a l  one h a l f  and i s p o s i t i o n e d t e m p o r a l l y  c o m p o s i t i o n with primary  structure  of  and drone are  the c o m p o s i t i o n ' s  in the t e x t u r a l structured  in the c o m p o s i t i o n .  layer  layer.  In  this  sense,  and in  destination,  provide  an e v e n t ,  and are p e r c e i v e d as the  are,  in  the  the  and secondary forms of c o n t i n u i t y . interim  as a  similarly  form of the drone i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n  has a s t r a t e g i c  in nature  rhythm,  Both  proceed to and recede f r o m ; these d e s t i n a t i o n s  climatic  attack  the  another.  i m p r e s s i o n they make, t e x t u r e and d r o n e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  'must'  in which  sonorities.  overall  continuity  entire  in which one p e r c e i v e s  continuums a r i s e from the c o n s i s t e n t change in the successive textural  In  distinct  continuums; the continuum of c u m u l a t i v e rhythmic e f f e c t listener  and d r o n e .  the  c o m p o s i t i o n and i s p e r c e i v e d as the concurrence of two  but  Compositional  l a y e r s ; texture  p e r s i s t s throughout  content,  the  Each  that  activity  therefore,  two most s i g n i f i c a n t  events  i i i  Apart from s o n o r i t y , with r e f e r e n c e  t e x t u r e and drone are d i s t i n g u i s h e d  to t o n a l i t y ;  the  and i s p e r c e i v e d , by and l a r g e , d r o n e , however,- i s designed to heterophonic and l i n e a r  textural  is e s s e n t i a l l y  in terms of c o l o r and rhythm. induce a sense of t o n a l i t y  relationships  p i t c h emphasis and, u l t i m a t e l y ,  layer  pitch  primarily non-tonal The  by means of  that conduce to perceptions centricity.  Supervisor  of  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  I.  II.  INTRODUCTION  1  TEXTURE  3  i ii iii  v  3  spectrum  7  Progression  11  Continuity  14  16  ii iii iv v  Description  16  The ascent  16  The descent  17  Structure  19  Tonal d i s j u n c t i o n and l i n e a r  STRUCTURE AND COGNITION  i ii iii iv  V.  Textural  DRONE  i  IV.  3.  The rhythmic continuum  iv  III.  The two continuums  SCORE:  19  24  Three movements R e l a t i v e rhythmic  continuity  24 activity  24  Interim d e s t i n a t i o n s  26  Structural  complex  27  THE SILENT DRAGONS  29  1  I.  At a most fundamental  INTRODUCTION  level,  components: t e x t u r e and d r o n e . all  s o n o r i t i e s other  The S i l e n t Dragons has o n l y two b a s i c  Texture  than d r o n e .  C o n t r i b u t i n g member(s)  s o n o r i t i e s range from one instrument drone i s i d e n t i f i a b l e chant-like  ( r a r e ) to f u l l  in e q u a l l y p r e c i s e terms;  it  to  textural  ensemble.  The  i s the monodic  other  The  s e t t i n g s f u n c t i o n s as a c o n t r i b u t i n g member to  sonority.  Although t e x t u r e and drone remain c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t they f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r l y continuity.  for,  layer  provides the g r e a t e s t  in one form or another,  Textural  continuity  textural  transformation  in s o n o r i t y ,  in the c a p a c i t y of p r o v i d i n g long-range  The t e x t u r a l  continuity,  texture  degree of  i s always  present.  i s achieved through the process of continuous (explained  secondary form of c o n t i n u i t y , composition's o v e r - a l l  for  later). it  The drone r e p r e s e n t s a  lasts just  one h a l f  the  length and i s c l e a r l y perceived as t e m p o r a l l y  embedded in the t e x t u r a l  continuum.  The c o n t i n u i t i e s of both t e x t u r e and drone are s e c t i o n a l i z e d similar  as  s o n o r i t y produced by the male chorus (solo or u n i s o n ) .  v o i c e in a l l textural  is s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d  ways.  In both cases l a r g e - s c a l e c o n t r a s t  s e t t i n g c l e a r l y d e f i n e s three major i s ternary  in that the f i r s t  similarities  while  drone's ternary the t e x t u r e :  the c e n t r a l  structure  in the musical  s e c t i o n s ; the r e s u l t i n g  and t h i r d  sections contain  one o f f e r s  structure  perceptible  a distinct contrast.  i s contained w i t h i n the t e r n a r y  the d r o n e ' s f i r s t  in  The  structure  s e c t i o n begins approximately  of  two-thirds  2 o f the way through the f i r s t  s e c t i o n of t e x t u r e .  The d r o n e ' s  s e c t i o n ends approximately o n e - s i x t h of the way through the s e c t i o n of the t e x t u r e . second,  third  The p o i n t s of d i v i s i o n between the f i r s t  and second and t h i r d  drone; therefore,  third  the c e n t r a l  c o i n c i d e , remaining d i s t i n c t  s e c t i o n s are the  same f o r both t e x t u r e  s e c t i o n s of both t e x t u r e in  sonority.  and  arid drone  and  3  II.  TEXTURE  The two continuums  The t e x t u r a l  layer  i s a concurrence of two d i s t i n c t ,  dependent  continuums; the  (rhythmic  continuum),  continuum of c u m u l a t i v e  contributions  are c l e a r l y  distinct:  textural  transformation  tinuity.  The e s s e n t i a l  r e l a t i v e rates  continuum  Textural  ordered this  difference  continuum  the  provides  p r o g r e s s i o n , while that  between  the  of  basic con-  two continuums l i e s  r a t e of change in the  change in the  former  in  rhythmic  slower than the r a t e of change in the  transformation;  fact  con-  is perceived  as  latter.  that t e x t u r e  is everpresent  (as  the continuous process of change r e s u l t i n g  distinguishable textural textural  rhythmic  respective  spectrum  Due to the piece),  sense of  of change:  u n d e r l y i n g change in the  transformation.  p r o v i d e s the c o m p o s i t i o n with i t s  is s i g n i f i c a n t l y  tinuum of t e x t u r a l  the  inter-  effect  importance even though t h e i r  the composition with an o v e r a l l  their  rhythmic  and the continuum of t e x t u r a l  These continuums are of equal  yet  transformation. set of t e x t u r a l  process of change.  s u c c e s s i o n of  sonorities  The term t e x t u r a l  This term r e f e r s  of f u n c t i o n  the  in a s u c c e s s i o n of  to as the continuum of  spectrum i n d i c a t e s  sonorities distinguished  sonorities distinct  with no i m p l i c a t i o n  is referred  a dimension of  the  as the consequence of  to t e x t u r e o n l y as a  as a c o u s t i c phenomena; i t  or h i e r a r c h y .  In  summary,  i s a term textural  4  transformation  i s the means f o r  articulating  t e x t u r e as the  textural  spectrum. Example 1 i s an approximate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t e x t u r a l trum ( s e c t i o n s E, E l , E2, and G5 [ e x c e p t i n g  p e r c u s s i o n ] are  from the example; these s e c t i o n s are unique in the fully  discussed l a t e r ) .  families  of  instruments  degrees of t i m b r a l  are s p e c i f i c a l l y analogous to the  Put another way, r e l a t i v e  to each of these  i n t e n s i t i e s of p r o j e c t i o n  by analogous c o l o r c o d i n g :  The two b r i g h t e s t  deleted  spectrum and are  The c o l o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g the s i x  prominence p a r t i c u l a r  spec-  different relative families.  are d i s t i n g u i s h e d  families  of  instruments  are high p e r c u s s i o n and b r a s s ; these are r e p r e s e n t e d as orange and r e d , respectively.  Similarly,  low p e r c u s s i o n and p i a n o , being the  are r e p r e s e n t e d as blue and p u r p l e r e s p e c t i v e l y . chorus e x h i b i t  an i n t e n s i t y  intended to r e f l e c t rather  to  a c o u s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of  and are  repre-  This c o l o r coding i s not instruments  i n d i c a t e d i s t i n c t i o n s among t e x t u r a l  to t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n .  The s t r i n g s and  best d e s c r i b e d as m e d i a t e ,  sented as green and t u r q u o i s e r e s p e c t i v e l y .  darkest,  per s e , but  constituents  particular  example 1  TEXTURAL SPECTRUM  [18:00]  Time Frames | 8 5 " LA]  77"  [1]  95" [C]  140" [D]  [E]  160'  200" [G]  [F]  [H]  Porcussion - high ( i n d e f i n i t e p i t c h )  Pianos  Strings  Percussion - low  Brass  Chorus  (indefinite pitch)  [I]  6  C o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s made in r e f e r e n c e to  example  1: (1)  A - C4 and E3 - F 5 '  registration their  are  similar  and subdued c h a r a c t e r .  instrumentation,  D -  registration,  in t h e i r  instrumentation,  D5 and G2 -  diversity,  14'  are s i m i l a r  activity,  in  and a s s e r t i v e  character. (2)  In context of A - F 5 ' o n l y , D - D5' can be regarded as an  interpolation  of d i v e r s i t y and a c t i v i t y .  In context  E - F 5 ' can be regarded as an i n t e r p o l a t i o n  of D -  of u n i f o r m i t y  14'  only,  and  inactivity. (3)  A - D5' demonstrates the motion from s u b d u e d / i n a c t i v e to  diverse/active.  E - F5'  is e s s e n t i a l l y subdued and i n a c t i v e .  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s s e r t i v e and a c t i v e  (activity  the r a t e of change in both h o r i z o n t a l In  light  overall  In  and v e r t i c a l  of these o b s e r v a t i o n s , the t e x t u r a l  two p o s s i b i l i t i e s of (1)  structural  active, diverse).  this evolution results  in a t h r e e - p a r t  p o i n t of d i v i s i o n (E) o c c u r s a f t e r  the  i s p e r c e i v e d as an uniform)  sectionalization that, structure:  initial  the  to the  initiating  tial"  sense) c l e a r l y  The s e c t i o n preceding t h i s  to  textural  articulates first  turn,  textural  development  environment the f i r s t  in  in  first  development of  subsequent abandonment of t h i s  combined with a r e t u r n in a n o n - l i t e r a l  spectrum encourages  A regressive interruption  c o n s t i t u t e s the c o m p o s i t i o n ' s three-movement  the  to  dimensions).  (subdued, i n a c t i v e ,  exuberance ( a s s e r t i v e ,  d i v e r s i t y and a c t i v i t y ;  refer  14'  interpretation:  the broadest of p e r s p e c t i v e s , t e x t u r e  e v o l u t i o n from r e t i c e n c e  division.  and i n a c t i v i t y  G -  ("ini-  major  d i v i s i o n i s designated as  7 movement I.  The second point of d i v i s i o n (G) occurs with the resump-  t i o n of t e x t u r a l  diversity  clearly articulated  and a c t i v i t y ,  as the f i r s t .  i s d e s i g n a t e d as movement II, Were they immediately  and a t h i r d  The s e c t i o n f a l l i n g  and the l a s t  therefore,  is this  a d j a c e n t , movements I and III  movement (2)  would j o i n ,  evolution.  III. forming  Movement  in t h i s c o n t i n u i t y ,  and  it  that forms the b a s i s of the c o m p o s i t i o n ' s t h r e e -  structure. The t e x t u r a l  structured  sections:  i s movement I, parallel  f u n c t i o n s as an i n t e r r u p t i o n  interruption  between E and G  s e c t i o n as movement  a s i n g l e movement e x h i b i t i n g continuous t e x t u r a l II,  s e c t i o n is thus as  and the  spectrum can also be viewed as two a n a l o g o u s l y A - D5  and E to  14.  The f i r s t  s e c t i o n of  second includes both movements II  aspect of these two s e c t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s :  these  and III.  the f i r s t  The move-  ment's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c motion from s u b d u e d / i n a c t i v e to d i v e r s e / a c t i v e r e p l i c a t e d on a l a r g e r III.  level  in the c o n j u n c t i o n o f movements II  In other words, movements II  repetition,  in general  textural  and III  outline,  is  and  combine as an extended o f movement  I.  The rhythmic continuum  The p e r s i s t e n c e of the t e x t u r a l rhythmic  activity,  in an immediate  an a c t i v i t y  structured  p e r s p e c t i v e , adjacent  guished p r i m a r i l y  layer  results into  textural  two l e v e l s of f u n c t i o n : s o n o r i t i e s are d i s t i n -  by change in rhythmic d e t a i l ; w h i l e  p e r s p e c t i v e , one p e r c e i v e s , as cumulative rhythm, composed of  in continuous  a s u c c e s s i o n of t e x t u r a l  in a broader  activity  w i t h i n spans  s o n o r i t i e s p e r c e i v e d as s i m i l a r  in  8 r e s p e c t of  such a c t i v i t y .  Rhythmic change from one t e x t u r a l  to the next occurs w i t h i n the continuum of t e x t u r a l  transformation.  Change in the cumulative rhythm w i t h i n an ordered set of determines the continuum of rhythmic e f f e c t The continuum of rhythmic e f f e c t rhythmic terizes  activity;  m i n i m a l , medial  s o n o r i t i e s that demonstrate c l e a r rhythmic e f f e c t s . rhythmic rhythm)  A textural  structures.  Its  i s the o v e r a l l  by the ensemble of these net rhythmic e f f e c t the rhythm of  its  gradation  ing s i m i l a r principle,  its  similarity  of a c t i v i t y ,  individual  relative  Each of these c h a r a c -  of a s u c c e s s i o n of in t h e i r  textural  individual  net  individual  (ensemble rhythm, macro-  in r e l a t i v e  structures.  terms, produced  Put another way,  the  i n d i c a t e s the rhythm of a t e x t u r e per s e , and not  structural  components; i t  refers  is an e f f e c t  in c o n s t r u c t i o n .  to the l e v e l  of a c t i v i t y  in the rhythmic continuum; i t  rhythmic e f f e c t  it  and maximal.  s o n o r i t y i s a composite of  which i s in p e r c e p t i o n and not rhythmic e f f e c t  proper.  net rhythmic e f f e c t  level  textures  has three g r a d a t i o n s of  the cumulative rhythmic e f f e c t  sonority  the h i e r a r c h i c a l  The cumulative that d i s t i n g u i s h e s each  r e p r e s e n t s the composite  of a set of s u c c e s s i v e t e x t u r a l  net rhythmic e f f e c t .  the b a s i s of  s o n o r i t i e s demonstrat-  The cumulative rhythmic e f f e c t  e x t e n s i o n of the net  is,  rhythmic e f f e c t ,  in  for  r e p r e s e n t s the rhythm of each g r a d a t i o n per se and not the rhythm of i n d i v i d u a l members, which a r e . s u c c e s s i v e t e x t u r e s .  change occurs o n l y where there rhythmic e f f e c t  of  adjacent  Each of the three further  exists  sufficient  Gradation  contrast  in the  net  sonorities.  gradations  in the rhythmic continuum can be  d e s c r i b e d in terms of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  textural  sonorities:  9 Textural  (1) activity  sonorities exhibiting  can be r e f e r r e d  minimal  to as s u s t a i n e d t e x t u r e s .  are perceived as r e g i o n s of comparative components of s u s t a i n e d t e x t u r e s rhythmic ments.  structures  particular  The composite e f f e c t  i n t e n t of c o m p a r i t i v e (2) rhythmic  are,  The  independent  activity  designed to enhance r a t h e r  than c h a l l e n g e  to  structural  In t h i s  structures latter  and e x c i t e m e n t ;  maximal  particular  they  anxious t e x t u r e  to each of the  however,  the extent such that the composite e f f e c t  These are  As was the case in  components of  case,  of  as anxious t e x t u r e s .  antipodes to s u s t a i n e d t e x t u r e .  instruments.  the  stasis.  considerable a c t i v i t y  independent rhythmic  i s one of  t h a t p r o v i d e s c o l o r and  can be r e f e r r e d  the  instru-  structures  activity  tained t e x t u r e ,  independent  to each of the c o n t r i b u t i n g  s o n o r i t i e s belonging to the g r a d a t i o n  perceptual  structural  the most p a r t ,  Textural  sonorities exhibit  rhythmic  These s o n o r i t i e s  inactivity.  for  of these  r e s e r v e , but with an i n t e r n a l v i b r a n c y ; an a c t i v i t y  cumulative  activity  the  sus-  are  contributing  i s pronounced to  i s one best d e s c r i b e d as  hyper-rhythmic. Hyper-rhythm  i n d i c a t e s one s p e c i f i c t e x t u r a l  simultaneous rhythmic ity  components produce a composite rhythmic  that precludes any p e r c e p t i o n of  structure; tional  in e f f e c t ,  activity  means of rhythmic  an o r g a n i z i n g pulse or  the  complex-  metric  has pushed the t e x t u r e beyond conven-  reference.  the c o n d i t i o n of being ametric  i s not  It  should be n o t e d , however,  sufficient  rhythm, or by e x t e n s i o n , an anxious t e x t u r e . a sustained e f f e c t  c o n d i t i o n wherein  In  to determine this  is one that n e c e s s a r i l y negates  work,  that  hyper-  in  i n f e r e n c e of  fact, pulse  10 or meter, rhythmic  and s i n c e in the case o f s u s t a i n e d t e x t u r e s , activity  tained textures  i s e c l i p s e d by the sostenuto e f f e c t .  are  and then d e f e a t i n g contrast,  also a m e t r i c a l ,  the l i s t e n e r  prolonged e x p e c t a t i o n , comparison, r e l a x e d ,  in the  tension:  internal  In  short,  and without listener.  hierarchical  results  of rhythmic  Textural  s o n o r i t i e s b e l o n g i n g to the g r a d a t i o n of  activity  can be r e f e r r e d  to as s u s t a i n e d - a n x i o u s  and rhythmic  of  the f u s i o n of  activity  s u s t a i n e d and rhythmic t e x t u r e s .  that  Two forms of  s o n o r i t y earn the d e s i g n a t i o n s u s t a i n e d a n x i o u s :  (a)  t h a t demonstrate  sufficient  challenge t h e i r the  degrees of rhythmic own net  sustained e f f e c t  t h r e a t of an i n s i s t e n t  implications); transformed  and (b)  by temporal  excitement  in rhythmic  a t i o n ; the  initial  virtue  of  its  origin either effect  rhythmic  prolongation textures  effect  (the  profile,  anxious t e x t u r e s  texture  (the  initial  in s u s t a i n e d or one and the  sustained represents textural textures  to  is subjected  whose perceptual effect  in  hierarchy.  sustained  perhaps with  to  hierarchical effect of  is  activity  and  i s d i m i n i s h e d when s u b j e c t e d to p r o l o n g -  assumes an u n d e r l y i n g  very p e r s i s t e n c e ) .  is largely  articulation  are,  textures.  r e g i o n s between  a level  in  medial  These s o n o r i t i e s occur o n l y as t r a n s i t i o n a l They present  and  Sustained textures  as they c a r r y no i m p l i c a t i o n  textures.  inducing  when c o n f r o n t e d with  of such o r g a n i z a t i o n  and hence, t e n s i o n .  sus-  By  activity  s t r i v e s to e s t a b l i s h c o n t e x t u a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n ; the c o n s i s t e n t d e n i a l  rhythmic  ipso f a c t o ,  i n a d d i t i o n to p r e s e n t i n g  c r e a t e r e g i o n s of r e l a t i v e  hyper-rhythm,  (3)  but  any d e s i r e to hear meter  anxious t e x t u r e s ,  excitement,  the  Whether  sostenuto p r o f i l e  s u s t a i n e d - a n x i o u s t e x t u r e has  in anxious t e x t u r e , same.  by  its  phenomenological  11  Progression  As mentioned, tions  s u s t a i n e d and anxious t e x t u r e s  in the rhythmic  continuum, while  are always t r a n s i t i o n a l these c o u n t e r a c t i v e tained)  between  textures  the  the two.  (sustained  are opposed g r a d a -  sustained-anxious A n t i c i p a t e d motion  textures between  to a n x i o u s , or anxious to  i s the b a s i s from which p r o g r e s s i o n is d e r i v e d :  sus-  r e g i o n s of  s u s t a i n e d t e x t u r e are expected to move to regions of anxious  texture,  and, c o n v e r s e l y , r e g i o n s of anxious t e x t u r e are expected to move to r e g i o n s of  sustained texture.  This motion  r e p r e s e n t s the motion from r e l a x a t i o n ation.  i s expected because  to t e n s i o n ,  it  and t e n s i o n to  P r o g r e s s i o n i s achieved with the r e a l i z a t i o n  of t h i s  relax-  expected  motion. The s u c c e s s i o n of g r a d a t i o n s tegically  o r g a n i z e d to  counteractive  textures,  both i n t e r e s t i n g ization:  sustained-anxious  relative  effect  part a l t e r n a t i o n  and (2)  continuum i s  c o n s i s t e n t motion  to f o r m a l i z e  providing a visual  (colors  representation  g r a d a t i o n ; green =  orange = t r a n s i t i o n a l ) .  the rhythmic  in a s t r u c t u r e  Example 2 c l demonstrates t h i s  and anxious in red  of each rhythmic  stra-  between  t h i s motion  s u s t a i n e d t e x t u r e are represented  in orange,  red = a c t i v e / t e n s e , in the example,  facilitate  and p e r c e p t i b l e .  r e g i o n s of  with the hope of  (1)  in the rhythmic  organ-  in g r e e n , are used here  analagous to  the  inactive/relaxed,  As i s immediately  obvious  continuum i s organized simply as a f i v e -  between c o u n t e r a c t i v e  textures,  and each of  these  1 Examples 2 and 4 present the t e x t u r a l spectrum in r e g i s t r a l compression. This compacted v e r s i o n , included f o r guide r e f e r e n c e , to be understood as an abbreviated form of Example 1.  is  12 textures of t h i s  i s separated by a t r a n s i t i o n a l structure  i s the  relaxed-tense-relaxed.  large In  texture.  s c a l e p r o g r e s s i o n of  clearly  indicates this  underlying  s u s t a i n e d - a n x i o u s and anxious t e x t u r e s respectively.  organization  double-arch  structure.  s t r u c t u r e where s u s t a i n e d ,  are represented  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d o u b l e - a r c h  in the l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n of s t r u c t u r a l  effect  relaxed-tense-  a l e s s obvious p e r s p e c t i v e , the  of the rhythmic continuum produces a symmetrical Example 2e  The perceptual  complex.  as A, B and C  is further  explained  RELATIVE RHYTHMIC ACTIVITY  1) Rhythmic Continuum ( c ) A  I - I jj i  (  1234  !  1234  1234  [A]  | 77" [B]  95' [C]  160"  140'  r  *t  = inactive = active = fusion  C B  1  1  1  1  i  1  1  1  1  L  160'  [E]  [D]  example 2  1 2 3 4 5 ( 1 2 3 4 5 —1  85"  A  =  1 2 3 4 5  1 2 3 A  2) Drone (d)  .:' = i n a c t i v e "*l a c t i v e U = fusion  [F]  :  * "' •  Pianos Perc-low Chorus Strings Perc-high Brass  1  A  MVT I-  MVT I I  A  C  a) b) c) d) e)  = = = = =  Time Frames T e x t u r a l Spectrum Rhythmic Continuum Drone Double-Arch  14  Continuity  As mentioned above, b a s i c c o n t i n u i t y f o r in the t e x t u r a l  dimension.  This c o n t i n u i t y can be e x p l i c i t l y  as the continuum of t e x t u r a l  transformation,  continuous s u c c e s s i o n of changing t e x t u r a l formation  is e s p e c i a l l y important  of a t e x t u r a l  layer:  texture  is ultimately interest  one of  it  tively brief  sonorities.  when viewed  In other  words, t e x t u r e  a e s t h e t i c judgement,  to temporal  Texture  however, must e x h i b i t  persistence.  appearing f o r  d u r a t i o n of t e x t u r e  trans-  to the  length  Texture  The reason f o r  greatest  change of  at a r a t e rough-  appearing f o r  A textural  time,  layer  In s h o r t ,  rela-  indeed,  long periods of  all.  this  perceptual  s i g n i f i c a n t change ( o r ,  relatively  to  "must" undergo  s i n c e in order for  some form of v a r i a t i o n .  always present must e x h i b i t  Textural  in r e l a t i o n  i s allowed to p e r s i s t .  p e r i o d s need not e x h i b i t  any at a l l ) .  relative  and i s p e r c e i v e d as the  to remain c o n s t a n t , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n must occur  l y proportional  defined  can be prolonged o n l y when subjected  the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . continuous change where  the composition i n h e r e s  that  is  the  determines the degree to which change  "must" o c c u r . Since t e x t u r e Dragons, quency.  it  extends throughout the 18 or so minutes of Si l e n t  must be transformed  The work's r a p i d i t y  c a l c u l a t e d to compensate for overall  effect  in s o n o r i t y with c o n s i d e r a b l e  of t e x t u r a l  transformation  i s not  only  t h i s d u r a t i o n , but to also induce an  of continuous change:  although t e x t u r e  is constructed,  and immediately p e r c e i v e d , as compact r e g i o n s of d i s t i n c t assumes as a complete e n t i t y  fre-  the cumulative e f f e c t  sonority,  of constant  it  15 metamorphosis and i s to be appreciated t e n t momentum.  as a sonic d e p i c t i o n of  insis-  16 III.  DRONE  Description  The secondary form of c o n t i n u i t y line  in The S i l e n t  d r o n e , expressed e x c l u s i v e l y in the c h o r u s .  the drone i s a t h r e e - p a r t melodic primarily one-half  by semitone.  the c o m p o s i t i o n ' s o v e r a l l  i s extremely overall  The ascent  abrupt,  length  (25  seemingly d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n the  following  The o v e r a l l  shape of  arch whose ascent and descent i s prolonged and takes length.  one t h i r t y - f i f t h  The c o m p o s i t i o n a l  durations  of ascent  strategy  is  approximately  In c o m p a r i s o n , i t s  occupying approximately  seconds).  Dragons i s the bass  descent of  behind  and descent  the these  is  explained  first  occurs  discussion.  The ascent  The d r o n e ' s ascent  is divided  into  two s e c t i o n s ; the  i n time frames D - D5 and c o n s i s t s of the second occurs in time frames -  D.  In  the f i r s t  each chromatic setting  here  immediately the  ascent F - G#;  E - F5 and presents the continued  section, textural  is triggered  in the d r o n e ' s monodic s e t t i n g .  The t e x t u a l  syllabic.  The o r i g i n a l  i s then e m b e l l i s h e d octave of the drone  i s used o c c a s i o n a l l y in the remaining measure of r e g i s t r a l  continuity  by  The second s e c t i o n (E - F 5 ' )  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the octave t r a n s p o s i t i o n where i t  the  ascent A  transformation  is e s s e n t i a l l y  s o l o tenor  melisma.  rise  initial  of the drone  in the form of (that of the  without d e t r a c t i n g  from the  into  an extended  first  v o i c e s to d i s c r e e t l y  is  section)  provide a tenor  solo.  17 The apex of the drone's arch (F5) i s the terminating point of the extended melisma, and i t  i s treated as a c l i m a c t i c event.  The descent The t h i r d part of the drone is i t s descent (G2) from D to F#. This region i s most s i g n i f i c a n t t i o n , for i t  in the l a r g e - s c a l e plan of the composi-  is here that the predominant c o n t i n u i t y established by the  drone in E - F5 i s r a p i d l y absorbed by the textural  dimension.  s e t t i n g of the drone's descent i s , t h e r e f o r e , t r a n s i t i o n a l  The  in f u n c t i o n :  i t s abrupt descent i s combined with a simultaneous increase in surrounding textural  d i v e r s i t y and i n t e n s i t y (G - G 2 ' ) .  Upon completion  of descent, the drone i s abruptly abandoned and new textures are immediately introduced (G3). The t r a n s i t i o n a l  setting of the drone's descent is s p e c i f i c a l l y  designed to simultaneously r e a l i z e four compositional  objectives:  (1) To s h i f t the perception of texture from the r o l e of accompaniment (mvt II in p a r t i c u l a r )  to the r o l e of predominance:  the textures  accompanying the drone's ascent are perceived as dependent to the extent that transformation occurs, by and l a r g e , with each r i s e in the drone.  The descent and subsequent elimination of the drone functions  s p e c i f i c a l l y to enable the textural  dimension to (a) assume complete  independence, and (b) to subsequently assert i t s e l f  as the primary  thrust of the o v e r a l l composition. (2) To provide a sense of completion to the drone in that descent w i l l be perceived as representing a return to i t s  its  originating  18 context:  a l i n e that  simply ascends and terminates  does not  provide  the same sense of completion as one that both ascends and descends prior  to t e r m i n a t i o n .  positional  The l a t t e r  p r i n c i p l e of departure  drone immediately likely result  after  and r e t u r n .  in the e x p e c t a t i o n of a l a t e r  Dragons would e x p l i c i t l y mately s u r r e n d e r i n g i t s of the t e x t u r a l  The abandonment of  A return  return of t h i s  thereby nature  c o n t r a d i c t the b a s i c i n t r i g u e  providing in The S i l e n t  of drone  s u b o r d i n a t e the  s i g n i f i c a n c e acquired in  The process of p r o l o n g a t i o n a t t r i b u t e s  immediately r e t r a c t e d  by (a)  the  the  distinctive  This importance  the extreme c o n t r a s t manifested  interim  destination.  In  in the r a p i d i t y  the course of  becomes e c l i p s e d by environmental  texture.  exposure and the aforementioned r a p i d i t y  of d e s c e n t .  (a)  its  The r e s u l t i n g r e t r e a t  the  This enhancement i s by way of two f a c t o r s :  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  apex,  abruptness in c o n t r a s t between the r e g i o n s of growth v i d e s immediate  to  in.  i s thereby enhanced as the  The compressed s e t t i n g of the descent and t e r m i n a t i o n  c h a l l e n g e to the p r e v a i l i n g  signi-  d e s c e n t , the drone  of descent c o n t r i b u t e  process of d e - e m p h a s i s , and the d r o n e ' s apex point of maximum emphasis.  is  sudden abandonment of p r o l o n g a t i o n ,  (4) To r e i n f o r c e the p e r c e p t i o n of the d r o n e ' s apex as the ficant  ulti-  e x i s t e n c e to the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g predominance  importance to both s e c t i o n s of the d r o n e ' s a s c e n t .  and (b)  the  environment.  To a b r u p t l y  drone's ascent.  b a s i c com-  i t s c l i m a c t i c apex would, t h e r e f o r e , most  some c o n c l u s i v e form of d e s c e n t .  (3)  i n s t a n c e e x e m p l i f i e s the  s u b o r d i n a t i o n of the l a t t e r  to the  precludes any  and (b)  the  and d e c l i n e p r o -  former.  19  Structure  In  its entirety,  The f i r s t  (D - D5')  similarities: a similarity of a c t i v i t y either  (2)  and t h i r d The t e x t  structure.  s e c t i o n s demonstrate two basic  in e i t h e r  in obvious c o n t r a s t .  case i s predominant  (1)  (G2)  in simple t e r n a r y  case i s set  in a s y l l a b i c manner;  that remains p e r c e p t i b l e even though the r e s p e c t i v e are  attention. ways:  (1)  the drone manifests  (2)  and t h e r e f o r e  The c o n t r a s t i n g c e n t r a l  The t e x t u r a l remains the  rates  environment  primary focus of  s e c t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d in f o u r  the obvious r e d u c t i o n in t e x t u r a l  intensity  and d i v e r s i t y ,  the sudden emergence of the drone f u n c t i o n i n g as the dominant  of c o n t i n u i t y ,  (3)  the m e l i s m a t i c s e t t i n g of the t e x t ,  emergence, unique in the work, of tonal Of these four d i s t i n c t i o n s , the  in  last  and (4)  form  the  f u n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  is most important  and r e q u i r e s  elaboration.  Tonal d i s j u n c t i o n and l i n e a r  The l i n e a r  continuity  c o n t i n u i t y (G-sharp - A) b r i d g i n g the f i r s t  s e c t i o n s (D5 to E3) of the d r o n e ' s ascent i s E - E2; a r e g i o n of tonal  departure  from the non-tonal  perceived as a r e g i s t r a l / 1 i n e a r in  Furthermore, tonal  by the  region  s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t that f u n c t i o n s c o n t e x t u a l l y nature  although the chromatic r i s e (F - G#)  that this r i s e ,  interrupted  and second  itself,  first  continuity,  it  ascent  is  can s c a r c e l y be argued  i s not even remotely  environment.  movement:  in the d r o n e ' s i n i t i a l  c a r r i e s an i m p l i c a t i o n of  involvement  accompanying t e x t u r a l  of the  as a  The unexpected  tonality. suggested in  i n s e r t i o n and  the  20  treatment of B-natural and invokes t o n a l i t y  at E p l a c e s an unprecedented emphasis on p i t c h  as a l a r g e r  perspective.  Three d i s t i n c t  t i o n s combine to produce t h i s emphasis and are d e t a i l e d (1)  The sudden s i x - o c t a v e r e p l i c a t i o n  p e l l i n g form of emphasis, f o r octave r e p l i c a t i o n  exists  six-octave replication (2)  prior  is a forceful  at  diversity  by sheer weight  construct  to the extent  The a r r i v a l  of B-natural  d r o n e ' s chromatic a s c e n t ,  in any  such that  In  addition  distinguished  in  at to its  at E i n t e r r u p t s  motion to A - n a t u r a l  attention  sense,  substructure for  its  tonal  is understood as  quences.  First,  In  a larger to  linear  embellish-  p e r s p e c t i v e , the r e g i o n E - E2 is  suspension of rhythmic  is r e t a i n e d  intensity  t e x t u r e occurs  further  and d i v e r s i t y .  in c o n j u n c t i o n with A character-  in E3 and perseveres as the c o m p o s i t i o n a l  the remainder  i s maintained  the  the onset of E2.  Octave r e p l i c a t i o n tenor  is c o n -  in E2 i s delayed both by  the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the d r o n e ' s chromatic ascent ( E 3 ) . of E - E2'  at E  the c o n t i n u i t y of  through E - E2, and the  The expected resumption of rhythmic  istic  a  pitch.  and, in an immediate  the s u s t a i n i n g of B-natural ment of B-natural  activity  thereby f u n c t i o n s as an upper neighbour  A - n a t u r a l ; the eventual  alone,  context.  an unannounced s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r the expected A - n a t u r a l . sense, the B-natural  E i s a com-  i s maximized because no  to E and (b)  l a r g e l y to the treatment of (3)  contrast  as f o l l o w s :  The sudden and unprecedented absence of rhythmic  minimizes t e x t u r a l fined  (a)  of B - n a t u r a l  condi-  of the d r o n e ' s  ascent:  w i t h i n Piano I and between Piano I and the  with several  interesting  the octaves generate  a tonal  solo  and e x p r e s s i v e conseunderpinning t h a t ,  in an  immediate context centricity Piano II,  p r o v i d e s an anchoring t o n a l i t y ,  lending  to the melodic/harmonic v a r i a n c e e x h i b i t e d and i t  sion in D (VI  forms the b a s i s of the  - V - natural  apex of the d r o n e ' s a s c e n t .  VII  -  I)  large  perceptible  in s o l o tenor  s c a l e harmonic p r o g r e s -  t h a t t o n i c i z e s D at  the  Second, the octave r e p l i c a t i o n  climactic in Piano I  at E3 - F 5 f u n c t i o n s h e t e r o p h o n i c a l l y with r e s p e c t to the t e n o r : two parts  are  reduced to  in a s o r t of c o u n t e r p o i n t  i t s b a s i c elements,  ly,  Piano I r e l a t e s  E3,  it  largely  primarily,  i s absorbed into  which,  simplifies at t i m e s ,  the t e x t u r a l  and  if  the  to p a r a l l e l to t e x t u r e .  environment  tenor's  the  line  octaves.  Final-  For example,  and is  is  at  perceived  as a b a s s - r e g i s t e r p r e s e n c e .  The harmonic wash in Piano II superficial  ( E 3 - E 5 ) can only be d e s c r i b e d as  changes in harmonic c o l o r - -  remains f i r m l y  rooted  in the tonal  o f change in piano II  with the change of  The r a t e  successive  In a broad s e n s e , the harmonic wash might  thought of as an i n t e n s i f i e d lishment of the t e n o r ;  centricity  underpinning of piano I.  is coincidental  phrases in the melisma.  changes whose  counteractivity  the tonal  in the harmonic/rhythmic m o b i l i t y  to the m e l i s m a t i c  be  embel-  underpinning of piano I i s e m b e l l i s h e d of piano  Example 3 summarizes the f o l l o w i n g  II.  aspects of the d r o n e ' s  structure: (1) structure (2)  The d r o n e ' s t e r n a r y identified The tonal  the c e n t r a l  structure  as c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the  as movements in the e a r l i e r  underpinning o f ,  B section.  d i s c u s s i o n of  and subsequent t o n i c i z a t i o n  ternary texture. within,  22 (3) relation  All  p i t c h e s of the B s e c t i o n in h i e r a r c h i c a l  to the  anchoring t o n a l i t y ;  bracketed  c o l l e c t i o n s of p i t c h e s used in the m e l i s m a t i c tenor  3c).  (Ex.  3a),  pitches  representation indicate  the  embellishment of the  and in the harmonic wash generated  by piano II  in  (Ex.  solo  24  IV.  STRUCTURE AND COGNITION  Three movements  The three movement s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d in the d i s c u s s i o n of texture  i s , as was the case for  structure.  The f i r s t  and t h i r d movements bear the f o l l o w i n g  ities:  the predominance of t e x t u r e ,  ronment,  (1) (3)  similar  treatment  between the r e l a t i v e  rhythmic  cussed l a t e r ) .  The c e n t r a l  the f o l l o w i n g :  (1)  the treatment  In  activity  s h o r t , the f i r s t and the  R e l a t i v e rhythm and  of t e x t u r e  ternary similar-  harmonic e n v i -  similar  contrast  and drone (as  dis-  c o n t r a s t i n g movement i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  the predominance of d r o n e , (2)  of d r o n e , (3)  t i o n to t e x t u r e ,  non-tonal  of d r o n e , and (4)  obvious c o n t r a s t  i m p l i c a t i o n of t o n a l i t y ,  in the c o n t r a s t between the r e l a t i v e drone.  (2)  drone, simple  earlier  rhythmic  and (4)  activity  a reversal  of t e x t u r e  and t h i r d movements are p e r c e i v e d in  second in r e l a t i o n  and rela-  to d r o n e .  activity  Each of the c o m p o s i t i o n ' s movements presents obvious c o n t r a s t the r e l a t i v e  in  rhythmic  activity  of t e x t u r e  and d r o n e .  In the  in  first  movement, where t e x t u r e  and drone are s i m u l t a n e o u s , t e x t u r e  and drone i s  The second movement r e v e r s e s these r o l e s with  inactive.  the drone a c t i v e and the  accompanying t e x t u r a l  a c t i v e than the drone in a s t r i c t l y a c t i v i t y of texture s e t t i n g that  literal  layer,  sense,  is  active  although more  inactive  (the  here is a p e r c e p t i o n induced by the c o n t r a s t  immediately subordinates t e x t u r e  to  (1)  the a c o u s t i c  inin  25  presence of the d r o n e , and (2) lished  in the f i r s t  the r o l e of  the prominence of the t e x t u r e as e s t a b -  movement).  inactivity  The t h i r d movement r e t u r n s  and t e x t u r e to the r o l e of  With r e s p e c t to opposing r o l e s of r e l a t i v e ity,  the d r o n e ' s b r i e f  realizing (1)  to c o n t r i b u t e  of a c t i v i t y  activity  activity  and  t h i r d movement i s c r u c i a l  to the  sense of completion manifest  the r a p i d i t y  in  established, respectively,  To ensure the p e r c e p t i o n of r e t u r n  achieved simply through d i r e c t  adorned descent in the t h i r d perceptible  in the f i r s t  to r e l a t i v e  contrast.  in-  two move-  inactivity  This i n c r e a s e , however,  p e r c e i v e d as s u c h , but r a t h e r  the r e t u r n  to r e l a t i v e  inactivity:  to the m e l i s m a t i c embellishment  in the t h i r d ;  it  straightforward  The d r o n e ' s entrance  as ( c o n v e r s e l y )  The high l e v e l in the  and un-  representing  second movement  strength  i s not  of. a c t i v i t y  and c o m p a r i t i v e l y  i s , s p e c i f i c a l l y , the  induces the p e r c e p t i o n of  the  can o n l y be d e s c r i b e d as demonstrating  i n c r e a s e in a c t i v i t y .  c o n t r a s t s with the  a percep-  In comparison to  movement, the d r o n e ' s d i r e c t  explicitly  particu-  blatantly  i n a c t i v e descent  of t h i s c o n t r a s t  that  return. and departure  t r e a t e d as i n a c t i v e r e l a t i v e described,  the  2d).  sustained s e t t i n g of the f i r s t  lar  in  of the d r o n e ' s descent r e p r e s e n t s a  d e s p i t e the comparative abruptness of the d r o n e ' s descent - tion  inactiv-  s u g g e s t i n g a c o n c l u d i n g f u s i o n of the r e l a t i v e  and a c t i v i t y  ments ( E x . (2)  activity.  two c o m p o s i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s :  descent of the d r o n e : level  appearance in the  the drone t o  are,  as mentioned,  to surrounding t e x t u r e .  these events s t r a t e g i c a l l y occur  in context  events  More p r e c i s e l y of  rhythmically  26  intense textures therefore,  (regions  partially  of maximal  hidden  Consequently, (respectively) realizes (1)  (A)  particular  and departure  in r e l a t i o n  to  continuum].  the c o n d i t i o n s h i d d e n - e x p o s e d - h i d d e n .  This formula  objectives:  O v e r a l l , the drone is perceived as a subordinate e n t i t y the t e x t u r a l  dimension; the d r o n e ' s emergence,  and subsequent submersion occur  in  flourishing  in an o p p o r t u n i y granted by a l u l l  harbouring f o r c e s of the t e x t u r a l (2)  [Example 2e  (B)  to the rhythmic  and a r e ,  in the course of the three movements the drone assumes  two compositional  context'of  the  activity),  in the c o m p o s i t i o n a l f a b r i c  demonstrates the d r o n e ' s entrance the double arch s t r u c t u r e  rhythmic  in  layer.  In a broad p e r s p e c t i v e , the d r o n e ' s hidden regions f u n c t i o n as  transitions  in the t r a n s f e r  of predominant  continuity;  i n s t a n c e , drone absorbs c o n t i n u i t y of t e x t u r e , mentioned e a r l i e r ) ,  i n the  and in the second (as  t e x t u r e absorbs c o n t i n u i t y of drone.  and 2d c l e a r l y demonstrate  the r e l a t i v e  first  rhythmic  Examples 2c  activity  of  texture  and drone.  Interim d e s t i n a t i o n s  The c o n t i n u i t y to  of t e x t u r e and drone i s ,  a s p e c i f i c interim  setting,  and are  destination.  all  aspects c o n t r i b u t i n g  sion).  These d e s t i n a t i o n s  intended p e r c e p t u a l l y  "must" p r o c e e d , and from which i t  in e i t h e r  oriented  are c l i m a c t i c  as i n s t a n c e s to which motion  "must" recede (motion  to the o v e r a l l  case,  here  includes  sense of momentum or p r o p u l -  in  27  The sense of climax  is c l e a r l y  be no doubt when f a c t o r s of reached maxima.  achieved at each d e s t i n a t i o n ; t h e r e  increase p a r t i c u l a r  The i n t e r i m  d e s t i n a t i o n of drone i s  o c c u r r i n g at  F5.  climax  i n d e e d , the obvious climax  (and,  occurring  The i n t e r i m  i n H3 -  Structural  the d r o n e , and (4) i n Example 4,  two  interim  d i m e n s i o n , (3)  (2)  composition)  the t h r e e  spectrum per s e . and f a l l i n g  (instances  that  s u s t a i n e d by the r e c o g n i t i o n of the  interest four  indicate  i s not  i s shown fluctua(blue), are  i s to be generated  and while  intended to generate  indithe  and  substructures  Dragons, unavoidably suggests programmatic or it  form of  and drone  predominance)  disparate  the  movement  This complex c o n s t i t u t e s  u n f o l d i n g as u n i f i e d macro s t r u c t u r e ;  associations,  (1)  The complex  lines  of maximal  high p o i n t of each l i n e . of the work:  structural  the embedded t e r n a r y  predominance of t e x t u r e (red)  destinations  as the  the t i t l e ,  in The  extra-musical  specific expectations,  but to encourage any such a s s o c i a t i o n s as may a r i s e 1i s t e n e r .  textural  s u b s t r u c t u r e s (Example 4 ) :  in which the r i s i n g  basic objective  Silent  of the e n t i r e  destinations,  the t e x t u r a l  in the r e l a t i v e  and i n t e r i m  their  i s the  Dragons i s best d e s c r i b e d as a  including four disparate  d i v i s i o n of the t e x t u r a l  cated  of t e x t u r e  apex  complex  p o s i t i o n i n g of the  tions  destination  its climactic  have  I.  The form of The S i l e n t complex  to each c o n t i n u i t y  can  in the  individual  a ) Interim Destinations  STRUCTURAL COMPLEX  b" ) Time Frames  c ) Textural Spectrum  Drone ' Textural MVT. I —  A—  (c.7:00) TEXTURE  Embedded Ternary  MVT.III  MVT.II — B (c.5:00) DRONE (melismatic) B-  A' (c.6:00) TEXTURE  -A'— Drone; Climactic Apex  Textural Climax  Pianos Perc-low Chorus Strings Perc-high Brass  example 4  THL SlLiNJ MAQONS  Music and t e x t composed by HOWARD BASHAW  I)  INSTRUMENTATION  k PERCUSSION  1)  F i n g e r Cymbals Gongs (2) Tarn Tarn Timbales Wind Chime  3)  Suspended Cymbal Temple B l o c k s Wind Chime Wood B l o c k  2)  Bongos I n v e r t e d Cymbal on Timpani Wind Chime  4)  Bass Drum Congas Suspended Cymbal Wind Chime  2 PIANOS 8 VOICE MALE CHORUS  (amplified)  10 STRINGS  6 Violins  6 BRASS CONDUCTOR  II)  STAGING  4 Violas,  2 Tenor Trombones,  4 Tenors (1 4 Basses (1  2 Bass Trombones,  solo) solo)  2 Tubas  Ill)  NOTATION  i  1)  no tempo or cancel previous tempo  6)  2) I j _ J \ , ' I0 ~  independent tempo: performer ad lib  7)  extreme upper (or lower) register - approx. 1 octave  8)  taper - out (rit/dim) performer ad lib  9)  accel./cresc. poco a performer ad lib  J3  3) J = X  dependent tempo: 'conducted  -{CNDCT In-i repeat composed unit improvise on composed unit  PIANO: black and white key cluster  10) Time Frame System  ©  ® a) rehearsal numbers b) designated succession of cues c) approx.timein seconds between frames  IV)  TEXT The t e x t f o r The S i l e n t Dragons was composed f o r a c o u s t i c e f f e c t a l o n e . No meaning i s otherwise i n t e n d e d . Any resemblance to e x i s t i n g language(s) i s purely c o i n c i d e n t a l . PRONOUNCIATION  Text  Sounds  Text  Sounds  ai ba ban bin boh da dae. din do doi han hin hoh  aye  Lin Lum moe. mon mud na ni noe. pen pon  Lynn loom mow  e  ^ krwun kin hon. Lan  -. been bow  doe -heen day  hoe high  -  keen  fiae.  AO Aey. tae. . tai tin tney  -  mood nah knee know  -  poe ray  -  say tay tie  tray yea  V) NOTES TO THE CONDUCTOR The S i l e n t Dragons i s scored i n a f l e x i b l e time-frame system. T h i s system i s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to (1) p r o v i d e the conductor maximal o p p o r t u n i t y to e x e r c i s e p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and (2) c o o r d i n a t e simultaneous tempi i n a l o g i c a l system p e r m i t t i n g easy and d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n between conductor and p e r f o r m e r . The score p r o v i d e s immediate access f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n ( i n performance) o f the f o l l o w i n g : (1) the r a t e o f s u c c e s s i v e e n t r i e s , (2) the d u r a t i o n between s u c c e s s i v e time frames, (3) dynamic c o n t r o l on both m i c r o and macro l e v e l s , and (4) phrase shaping r e l a t i v e to v a r i a n c e i n tempi and c u m u l a t i v e dynamics.  The c o n d u c t o r ' s p r i m a r y concerns are to cue e n t r i e s and shape p h r a s e s . I n d i v i d u a l performers are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g independent tempi and f o r t e r m i n a t i n g passages i n the p r e s c r i b e d manner.  32  3  42  45  46  47  c*1  7lf1p'  TO / n rn AT* ffl f •?•  1  * (^pad. cvt A " . * Alt  3 Tv/M_.  '•-rp J > r n J~H .p.j  mp  :  PP  49  AF7££  TArl TAD  - Tfc)JO(t«, Ukj/«fii.E ajpat. cut Han  oii-  TO CO'UClOt  PWO  Sao  f.J0rTg  we  TVT»VI  I-  • ty\ -fcNDCTJ—•  ID  51  TAfl  C  A U V»E  I  " '  M  T,r?P 4l*  * _____. in/TeA JOCT  AOtt  PfJOI  4>  t if ? T i" 1 f 1- 7 I" 7 _jrl  PC*  HAiJ  J—[CNDCT]—•  f 1- \ t 1 M  0r(  4J «o" puc j>o:Ar-  1201  fi  53  54  8e«,'M AO U 6  EAcU VOWEL  OvfiA^t  - J I - M 'not'  tfv^^ft  fif-AM  PflgErf  55  p p pfe m*h *  T  1  jfpij!.'  57  65  TAXI  &0CX<>  -nD§>  2H  2  ' f t H J l  -Ere)  T  4=»  1  }  T  4  ^ js  5/  3 >  r  5/—3j  p—5/  3  T i r 'n 'r ^ r k  3  3 >  si  *pr— 5.* = »p  i v^-i  t f c f BlkJ «>• MOM M E THSX&iJ SO Ho*l a*£ T6E< &K| «C<rtM-0lE  E - n^>  • — - — 6 / — = r~ *H r ^ ^ f^ H 4  4  H  i -•  r~  4 / _  4  ^ f  p  . f  — [ i r H 4  V-^ I  *IO-H)*  t  5/—rj  .  -4-»-— ,  1  1 , \r—y, nn pn  It"  15B  -t—o  *  *>  —  - —~  ft  Hi  > STWtJfc,- Z^)>  >  Til 1  I—  I —  J —  B  5T?f  n  -  I -•  u -•  5  s  T  ~  3-  L  3J—&MOCT)—  0  r  ^ u r  3  73 t»* Wc ti fib two Centos ,nWK>, C lfr  f "  78  "VrxC  -<llOC\K « V / V i _ , M i |  •Hn -w-i  =554  ^ W W  LL^  =^ Wol-  [ i  L_k.  ft ±33 —rfc • ! r r •  -f  B  -•  ID - •  14 I -•  /*  » V  •it  =4¥=  4** JLl  I  ACT_£  iMv rt>r*\_r n_Y  L  y  j  -  80  31  81  82  APeP. PEA.'  WSJ  

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