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Moral development and moral action : a study of youthful offenders Moran, Thomas 1987

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Moral Development and Moral A c t i o n : A Study o f Youthful Offenders By THOMAS MORAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska, 1974 M.S., Oregon State U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1987 ( c ) Thomas Moran, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date N l o v K Z t o , \<ib"h DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT T h i s study was designed to explore p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between moral m a t u r i t y and moral a c t i o n by e v a l u a t i n g groups o f d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent youth, and examining t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n on m u l t i p l e measures o f moral m a t u r i t y and c r i m i n a l i t y . Subjects were 60 male a d j u d i c a t e d j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s between the ages o f 14 and 17, and 20 non-delinquent c o n t r o l s . A l l youth p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s e r i e s of s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s used as a way of a s s e s s i n g t h e i r a b i l i t i e s on Kohlberg's moral reasoning, T u r i e l ' s s o c i a l convention understanding, and Selman's s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g measures, and were administered Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy, and autonomy s c a l e s . The de l i n q u e n t youth were assigned immorality r a t i n g s and f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d a c c ording to l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s . Ratings f o r Hare's Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t were obtained from primary t h e r a p i s t s f o r the d e l i n q u e n t s and from school c o u n s e l o r s f o r the non-delinquent comparison group. The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d that as a group, d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s showed s u b s t a n t i a l developmental delays i n t h e i r performances on measures of moral reasoning, s o c i a l convention understanding, i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and i n d i c e s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n and autonomy. Hogan's empathy measure a l s o showed a t r e n d i n the same d i r e c t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f the d e l i n q u e n t youth were found to score at a p r e c o n v e n t i o n a l - c o n c r e t e reasoning l e v e l and showed a general l a c k o f s o c i a l - m o r a l c h a r a c t e r . T e s t s o f communality among the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures produced d i s t i n c t and i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t c o g n i t i v e reasoning ( i . e . , moral reasoning, i n t e r p e r s o n a l i i i awareness, and s o c i a l convention understanding) and moral c h a r a c t e r ( i . e . , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy, and autonomy) c l u s t e r s which lend support to the claims o f Brown, Harre', and Hogan re g a r d i n g the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f moral development. There was an expected i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between immorality and moral m a t u r i t y f o r the low and moderate s e r i o u s n e s s groups, and an i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n f o r the high group. T h i s l a t e r f i n d i n g was i n t e r p r e t e d as an a r t i f a c t o f the f a c t t h a t those d e l i n q u e n t s whose c r i m i n a l a c t s were judged most immoral were p a r t i c u l a r l y g u i l t y o f v a r i o u s sexual o f f e n s e s . The psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t c o n f i r m i t s u s e f u l n e s s with adolescent p o p u l a t i o n s . Three i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t f a c t o r s c a l e s emerged ( i . e . , m o t i v a t i o n a l d e f i c i t , l a c k o f ego s t r e n g t h , and b e h a v i o r a l d e v i a t i o n ) . While psychopathy was found to s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e with immorality r a t i n g s , an unexpected p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was a l s o found between psychopathy and moral reasoning f o r the sex o f f e n d e r group. Taken together, a l l o f these r e s u l t s were i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of Heider's theory o f the psychology o f a c t i o n , which views behavior, i n t h i s case moral behavior, as a combination o f "can" ( i . e . , moral reasoning competency) and " t r y " ( i . e . , moral c h a r a c t e r ) . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i DEDICATION v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT i x CHAPTER 1 1.1. Introdu c t i o n 1 1.1.1. A c r i t i q u e of previous research 2 1.1.2. A survey of a l t e r n a t i v e accounts o f moral maturity 5 1.1.3. General Hypotheses 9 CHAPTER 2 2.1. Theories o f Moral Maturity 12 2.1.1. Kohlberg: J u s t i c e p r i n c i p l e s and moral development 12 2.1.2. T u r i e l : S o c i a l convention understanding 15 2.1.3. Non-cognitive perspectives on moral maturity 17 2.1.4. Psychopathy 18 2.1.5. Selman: Stages of int e r p e r s o n a l awareness 21 2.2. Taxonomy of the Immorality o f Delinquent Acts 23 2.2.1. D i r e c t r a t i n g s o f the immorality o f delinquent acts 24 2.3. Summary of the Methodology 25 2.3.1. Subject s e l e c t i o n 25 2.3.2. Stimulus m a t e r i a l s 25 2.3.3. Procedure 26 2.3.4. Scoring and r e l i a b i l i t y 27 2.3.5. Summary of hypotheses 28 V CHAPTER 3 Results 29 3.1. Moral M a t u r i t y : A Comparison of Delinquents and Non-delinquents. 29 3.1.1. P r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s of moral maturity measures. 34 3.2. Comparisons w i t h i n the Delinquent Sample 38 3.2.1. Immorality r a t i n g s 39 3.2.2. Seriousness l e v e l r a t i n g s 40 3.2.3. I n t e r r e l a t i o n s between perceived immorality and seriousness 42 3.3. The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Moral Maturity and the Seriousness and Immorality of Delinquent Acts 46 3.3.1. C o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses r e l a t i n g immorality r a t i n g s to moral maturity measures 52 3.3.2. Special c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g the j u v e n i l e sex offenders 53 3.4. Psychopathy 61 3.4.1. P r i n c i p a l Components of the Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t 61 3.4.2. Psychopathy and moral maturity 63 3.4.3. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of psychopaths and non-psychopaths 66 CHAPTER 4 D i s c u s s i o n 70 4.1. Delinquents versus non-delinquents 71 4.2. R e l a t i o n s h i p between moral maturity measures and the seriousness and immorality of delinquent acts 74 4.3. L i m i t a t i o n s and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s 79 REFERENCES 83 v i APPENDICES A. Kohl berg's Moral Reasoning 88 B. T u r i e l ' s S o c i a l Convention Understanding 94 C. Hogan's Scales o f Moral Development 99 D. Selman's Interpersonal Awareness 101 E. Hare's Measure o f Psychopathy 105 F. Delinquency Rating Scale 107 G. Consent Forms 112 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: D i s c r i m i n a n t Function A n a l y s i s : C l a s s i f y i n g Delinquents and Non-delinquents 31 TABLE 2: A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e : Delinquents versus Non-delinquents ... 32 TABLE 3: F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f Moral M a t u r i t y Measures 35 TABLE 4: C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c e s of Moral M a t u r i t y Measures: Delinquents and Non-delinquents 37 TABLE 5: Mean Immorality Ratings 41 TABLE 6: C r o s s - C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Legal and Immorality Rating Systems 44 TABLE 7: D i s c r i m i n a n t Function A n a l y s i s : C l a s s i f y i n g Delinquents and Non-delinquents According to Immorality Ratings 48 TABLE 8: A n a l y s i s of Variance: Levels o f Immorality and Moral M a t u r i t y Measures 50 TABLE 9: Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the Perceived Immorality o f Delinquent Acts and Moral M a t u r i t y Measures 54 TABLE 10: A n a l y s i s of Co-Variance: J u v e n i l e Sex Offenders, Non-sex Offenders, and Non-delinquents by Moral M a t u r i t y 56 TABLE 11: Stage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Moral Reasoning, I n t e r p e r s o n a l Awareness, and S o c i a l Convention Understanding by Group 57 TABLE 12: C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c e s of Moral M a t u r i t y Measures: J u v e n i l e Sex Offenders and Delinquent Non-sex Offenders 59 TABLE 13: F a c t o r A n a l y s i s of Hare's Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t 62 TABLE 14: C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the Psychopathy F a c t o r S cales and Measures o f Moral M a t u r i t y 65 TABLE 15: D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analyses: C l a s s i f y i n g Psychopaths and Non-psychopaths 1 68 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e t o express my h e a r t - f e l t g r a t i t u d e to Michael Chandler, my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , f o r h i s s t e a d f a s t support, t h e o r e t i c a l and emperical c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and s e n s i t i v i t y during my graduate work at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the production o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed to Lawrence Walker and Robert Hare f o r t h e i r c o n t r u c t i v e suggestions t o e a r l i e r v e r s i o n s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n and f o r t h e i r a c t i v e r o l e s as t h e s i s committee members. I extend a s p e c i a l warm thanks t o Nancy Benson, who provided me un c o n d i t i o n a l support throughout the d i s s e r t a t i o n process, and without whose c a r i n g would have been d i f f i c u l t t o achieve. The cooperation o f O r i n B o l s t a d of the Morrison Center, P a t r i c i a Sawyer and B i l l Maddex o f the Gresham P u b l i c Schools, David Dougher of the C h i l d r e n ' s Farm Home, B i l l M o r r i s o f the Multnomah County J u v e n i l e Court, and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a f f s i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank those youth who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . I X DEDICATION to the memory of H i l d a MacLeod 1 CHAPTER 1 1.1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s study was to explore p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between the commission o f i l l e g a l and sometimes immoral a c t s on the p a r t o f young persons and t h e i r progress toward the achievement o f moral m a t u r i t y . T h i s work was p r e d i c a t e d on the broadly shared assumption t h a t e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t o the normative course o f moral development may have d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o our understanding of other l e s s t y p i c a l youth, d i s t i n q u i s h e d by having been a d j u d i c a t e d as d e l i n q u e n t . Over the past s e v e r a l decades numerous i n v e s t i g a t o r s (see B l a s i , 1980; Jennings, Kilkenny, and Kohlberg, 1983; and J u r k o v i c , 1980 f o r recent reviews) have sought to demonstrate such a r e l a t i o n between delinquency or c r i m i n a l i t y and d e v i a t i o n s i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f age-appropriate moral m a t u r i t y . The study r e p o r t e d here extends t h i s r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n by going beyond the more usual c a t e g o r i c comparison o f d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent samples t o a more d e t a i l e d examination o f the moral m a t u r i t y of j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms o f the degree to which t h e i r s e r i o u s i l l e g a l a cts a l s o r e p r e s e n t o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t commonly held standards of m o r a l i t y . The i n t u i t i o n which guided t h i s r e s e a r c h was t h a t the problematic r e l a t i o n s t h a t others ( i . e . , Jennings, K i l k e n y , and Kohlberg, 1983) have r e p o r t e d between measures o f moral m a t u r i t y and d e l i n q u e n t s t a t u s may have been a r e s u l t o f the f a c t t h a t not a l l a c t s which are i l l e g a l are a l s o n e c e s s a r i l y immoral. C l e a r r e l a t i o n s between delinquency and measures o f moral m a t u r i t y , i f they e x i s t , should be expected only to the degree t h a t the law v i o l a t i o n s under study d i r e c t l y c o n t r a d i c t some g e n e r a l l y recognized moral p r o h i b i t i o n . The c e n t r a l hypotheses, t e s t e d i n t h i s study were, then, t h a t : 1) measures o f moral m a t u r i t y would p r e d i c t to d e l i n q u e n t acts only i n so f a r as such 2 o f f e n s e s a l s o c o n s t i t u t e departures from recognized moral codes; and 2) t h a t the s e r i o u s n e s s of such moral l a p s e s would i n c r e a s e i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to the degree t h a t those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r them f a l l s h o rt of a c c e p t a b l e standards o f age-appropriate moral m a t u r i t y . 1.1.1. A c r i t i q u e o f previous r e s e a r c h While previous research has succeeded i n demonstrating some r e a l but modest r e l a t i o n between c r i m i n a l i t y and moral immaturity, these f i n d i n g s have been both more mixed and c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s impressive than the c l a r i t y o f the conceptual r e l a t i o n between these two c l a s s e s o f v a r i a b l e s would l e a d one to a n t i c i p a t e (Hudgins & P r e n t i c e , 1973; Fodor, 1972). Two p o s s i b l e reasons suggest themselves as ways o f understanding t h i s f a i l e d e x p e c t a t i o n . F i r s t , the c l e a r m a j o r i t y o f these previous s t u d i e s (Haviland, 1977; Fodor, 1972, 1973) have t r e a t e d j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s as a homogeneous group, and without regard to the c a s e - s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s o f t h e i r i l l e g a l a c t s . By batch p r o c e s s i n g d e l i n q u e n t s o f every s t r i p e such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have r i s k e d d i l u t i n g whatever r e l a t i o n might a c t u a l l y e x i s t between moral m a t u r i t y and s p e c i f i c o f f e n s e c a t e g o r i e s . As Quay and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (Quay, Peterson, & C o s a l v i c , 1960) and others ( i . e . , Hetherington, Stouwic, & Ridberg, 1971) have demonstrated, l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f t e n mask the enormous d i v e r s i t y which i s present i n a c t u a l d e l i n q u e n t a c t s , and obscures the f a c t t h a t while some young o f f e n d e r s have acted i n ways t h a t would l i k e l y be seen as c r i m i n a l i n any context, others appear to be g u i l t y o f l i t t l e more than becoming well s o c i a l i z e d i n t o a system o f t e m p o r a r a l l y s p e c i f i c s u b - c u l t u r a l values t h a t happens to be at v a r i a n c e with e x i s t i n g c o d i f i e d law. A few i n v e s t i g a t o r s have pursued a more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d research s t r a t e g y by f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d i n g t h e i r study p o p u l a t i o n s according to standard l e g a l o f f e n s e c a t e g o r i e s ( J u r k o v i c & P r e n t i c e , 1977; and Campagna & Harter, 1976) or i n terms o f 3 v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y d e s c r i p t o r s (Hawk & Peterson, 1974; Hetherington et a l . , 1971; Quay et a l . , 1959), but these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s continue to r e p r e s e n t the exception r a t h e r than the r u l e . Despite t h e i r more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c h a r a c t e r , s t u d i e s o f the s o r t j u s t o u t l i n e d n e v e r t h e l e s s s t i l l continue t o be i l l - s u i t e d i n b r i n g i n g to the s u r f a c e whatever r e l a t i o n s might p o t e n t i a l l y e x i s t between m o r a l i t y and c r i m i n a l i t y . T h i s i s t r u e f o r the important reason t h a t while c o d i f i e d laws have as one o f t h e i r purposes the defense o f p u b l i c m o r a l i t y , they o b v i o u s l y serve other and l e s s m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t purposes as w e l l . Many e x i s t i n g laws, which i f broken, would r e s u l t i n one's being l a b e l e d a j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t , have l i t t l e t o do with m o r a l i t y as g e n e r a l l y conceived, and, i n s t e a d , serve to help r e g u l a t e c i v i c l i f e , preserve convention, or f a c i l i t a t e the smooth working o f commercial and b u r e a u c r a t i c e n t e r p r i s e s . Consequently, many youth who are a d j u d i c a t e d as d e l i n q u e n t , have won t h i s s t a t u s as a consequence o f running a f o u l o f such s t a t u t o r y laws, and are not g u i l t y o f anything t h a t c o u l d be construed e a s i l y as a moral o f f e n s e , at l e a s t by those who do not a u t o m a t i c a l l y equate immorality with any law v i o l a t i o n . To mix such " s t a t u s " o f f e n d e r s i n with others whose i l l e g a l a cts represent more or l e s s b l a t a n t v i o l a t i o n s o f usual moral p r o h i b i t i o n , and to hope f o r any c l e a r r e l a t i o n to emerge with measures o f moral maturity, i s to be o p t i m i s t i c at best. From the p e r s p e c t i v e adopted here, any c o n c e p t u a l l y compelling r e l a t i o n between measured delays i n moral development and delinquency c o u l d only be expected i n those i n s t a n c e s i n which r e a l v i o l a t i o n s o f usual moral p r o h i b i t i o n are at stake. S i m i l a r l y , not every act t h a t can be r e l i a b l y counted as a c l e a r o f f e n s e a g a i n s t moral p r i n c i p l e i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y equal i n immorality to other o f f e n s e s t h a t a l s o unambiguously v i o l a t e other and perhaps more s e r i o u s moral p r o h i b i t i o n s . 4 For example, b a l d - f a c e d l i e s t h a t serve one's own i n t e r e s t s at the expense of innocent others t y p i c a l l y q u a l i f y as immoral a c t s by most e t h i c a l standards, but are r a r e l y seen to be as m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e as i s robbery or murder. Developing some m e t r i c which permitted the s c a l i n g o f d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s i n terms o f how much they are i n v i o l a t i o n o f usual moral standards, holds out the prospect o f a i d i n g i n the making o f such d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s , and, consequently, was one o f the procedural goals o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . A second p o t e n t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the modest c o r r e l a t i o n s which p r e v i o u s l y have been rep o r t e d between moral m a t u r i t y and j u v e n i l e c r i m i n a l i t y l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t the authors o f the few s t u d i e s which do explore t h i s r e l a t i o n have tended t o approach the tas k o f a s s e s s i n g moral m a t u r i t y i n ways which have been r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i r s p e c i a l a l l e g i a n c e s to one or another o f a set of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l accounts o f moral development. T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i s an understandable consequence o f the f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f such s t u d i e s are the outgrowth o f e f f o r t s to demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l r e l e v a n c e o f some p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l account o f moral development. From the more f u n c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e adopted i n t h i s present study, however, such narrowly t h e o r y - d r i v e n s t u d i e s were seen to be dangerously p a r o c h i a l . Real r e l a t i o n s between moral m a t u r i t y and c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f c r i m i n a l i t y might well e x i s t , but f a l l o u t s i d e o f the o r b i t o f any p a r t i c u l a r theory. For t h i s reason the present study attempted to be more e c l e c t i c and to draw upon a range o f a v a i l a b l e t h e o r i e s and measures o f moral development, each o f which appears t o hold out some separate promise o f informing our understanding o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between j u v e n i l e delinquency and moral m a t u r i t y . A b r i e f o u t l i n e o f those t h e o r i e s considered i s d e t a i l e d below. T h i s 5 survey begins with an account o f Kohlberg's theory o f moral reasoning, precedes to a d i s c u s s i o n of T u r i e l ' s model o f s o c i a l convention understanding and then turns to a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Hogan's theory o f moral c h a r a c t e r . F i n a l l y , the relevance o f Selman's theory o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and Hare's account o f psychopathy are d i s c u s s e d . 1.1.2. A survey of a l t e r n a t i v e accounts o f moral m a t u r i t y Unquestionably, the e l a b o r a t e account o f moral m a t u r i t y provided by Kohlberg (1969, 1976) and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (e.g., Colby, Kohlberg, Gibbs, & Lieberman, 1983) over the l a s t q u a r t e r o f a century must occupy some c e n t r a l p l a c e i n any proposed a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between lawlessness and moral m a t u r i t y . T h i s same c o n c l u s i o n i s endorsed by the work o f s e v e r a l other i n v e s t i g a t o r s who themselves have set out to study p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c r i m i n a l i t y and Kohlbergian measures o f moral m a t u r i t y (Campagna & Harter, 1975; J u r k o v i c & P r e n t i c e , 1977). The present r e s e a r c h e f f o r t undertook to p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e aspects o f c e r t a i n o f these e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , with the important p r o v i s i o n t h a t a t t e n t i o n should a l s o be d i r e c t e d t o the moral r e l e v a n c e o f the p a r t i c u l a r o f f e n s e s p e r p e t r a t e d . What i s p e r c e i v e d here as the short f a l l o f any study which r e l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y upon a Kohlbergian account o f the moral developmental process i s t h a t Kohlberg, or at l e a s t c e r t a i n of h i s i n t e r p r e t e r s , have tended to equate the whole o f m o r a l i t y with the c o g n i t i v e t a s k o f making judgments r e g a r d i n g the j u s t i c e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a l t e r n a t i v e courses m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t a c t i o n ( T u r i e l , 1983). While t h i s d e o n t i c approach (Walker, 1980) to matters o f moral reasoning may be a d e f e n s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e i n the p u r s u i t of e t h i c a l philosophy, as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory, i t i n t e n t i o n a l l y leaves out, among other t h i n g s , a range of t e l e o l o g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , r e f e r r e d to p e j o r a t i v e l y by Kohlberg (1971) as a "bag of v i r t u e s " , which are of major 6 t h e o r e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e to some ( i . e . , Harre', 1983), and may have c o n s i d e r a b l e p r a c t i c a l r elevance i n any attempt to understand j u v e n i l e delinquency. In response to the argument t h a t the moral judgment process i s only a p a r t o f the l a r g e r domain of moral development, other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have centered r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n upon those a l t e r n a t i v e developmental processes by means o f which young persons acquire an understanding o f what s o c i e t y holds out to be the r i g h t and wrong t h i n g to do ( T u r i e l , 1978, 1983). From the more problem-focussed p e r s p e c t i v e adopted i n t h i s study, any complete accounting o f the moral m a t u r i t y s t a t u s o f both d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent youth n e c e s s a r i l y must make r e f e r e n c e to t h i s range o f more t e l e o l o g i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s by attempting to assess the degree to which i n d i v i d u a l s understand such matters of s o c i a l convention. To t h i s end, an important goal o f t h i s proposed research was to b r i n g i n t o p l a y procedures which measure awareness and understanding o f what s o c i e t y holds out to be the " r i g h t " and "wrong" t h i n g s t o do. F i n a l l y , as Hogan (Hogan, 1982; Hogan & Busch, 1984) pointed out, moral m a t u r i t y e n t a i l s more than a grasp o f j u s t i c e p r i n c i p l e s (as emphasized by Kohl berg) or knowledge o f s o c i a l conventions (as s t r e s s e d by T u r i e l ) , and must be understood a l s o to hinge, i n important p a r t , upon one's a b i l i t y to b r i n g o n e s e l f to s a c r i f i c e apparent personal advantage i n the p u r s u i t o f what one knows or .judges to be the m o r a l l y r i g h t t h i n g to do. I t f o l l o w s , then, from Hogan's argument, t h a t any comprehensive assessment of moral m a t u r i t y must n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e some attempt to measure the c h a r a c t e r s t r e n g t h which i n d i v i d u a l s b r i n g to bear i n o b l i g a t i n g themselves to undertake what they take to be the r i g h t t h i n g to do. For these reasons the present study a l s o i n c l u d e d , among i t s l i s t o f measures o f moral m a t u r i t y , those p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s which Hogan (1982) 7 and others (e.g., Harre', 1983), have earmarked as being o f c e n t r a l importance to the achievement o f moral m a t u r i t y . In p a r t i a l summary, then, the primary purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was to e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n between s e v e r a l aspects o f the d e v e l o p i n g moral m a t u r i t y process and d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s o f v a r i o u s degrees o f immorality. I t was assumed here t h a t the problematic c h a r a c t e r o f much of the e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h concerned with these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a j o i n t by-product o f the f a c t s t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d : 1) to the f u l l range o f ways i n which v a r i o u s d e l i n q u e n t acts a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t v i o l a t i o n s of usual moral standards, and 2) to the f u l l scope o f the process o f moral development. The r e s e a r c h plan f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study was intended to serve as a p a r t i a l c o r r e c t i v e f o r these shortcomings and i n c l u d e d e f f o r t s : 1) to develop a typology f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the degree o f immorality o f v a r i o u s d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s ; 2) to extend the range o f measures o f moral m a t u r i t y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n to i n c l u d e the f u l l compliment o f v a r i a b l e s proposed by Kohlberg (1976), T u r i e l (1983) and Hogan (Hogan & Busch, 1984; Hogan, Johnson, & Emler, 1978); and 3) to reexamine the p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between m o r a l i t y and c r i m i n a l i t y i n l i g h t o f these more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Beyond t h i s l i s t o f primary v a r i a b l e s , t h i s study was f u r t h e r expanded to i n c l u d e two other s e t s of measures which hold out the promise o f deepening our understanding o f any r e l a t i o n t h a t might emerge between measures o f moral m a t u r i t y and types o f d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and psychopathy were i n c l u d e d f o r study. While other v a r i a b l e s and d i f f e r e n t measures might have been chosen, these p a r t i c u l a r a d d i t i o n s were seen to be e s p e c i a l l y j u s t i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t both have been r e g u l a r l y i m p l i c a t e d i n matters o f moral m a t u r i t y and have been shown to be a s s o c i a t e d with v a r i o u s 8 i n d i c e s o f a n t i s o c i a l behavior. In p a r t i c u l a r , numerous t h e o r i s t s (e.g., Selman, 1980, Walker, 1980) have argued t h a t s p e c i f i c l e v e l s o f p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g competence are p r e r e q u i s i t e to given l e v e l s o f moral m a t u r i t y . Others (Chandler, 1972; 1973; Chandler, Greenspan, & Barenboim, 1973, Gough, 1957, 1948; Selman, 1980) have presented evidence which d i r e c t l y l i n k s developmental delays i n such competencies to v a r i o u s measures o f a n t i s o c i a l behavior. In l i g h t o f these p r i o r f i n d i n g s , any attempt to d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e moral development and c r i m i n a l i t y without a l s o e x p l o r i n g the p o s s i b l e p a r t which p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g might p l a y i n t h i s r e l a t i o n would have been incomplete. The r e l a t i o n between psychopathy and c r i m i n a l i t y i s a l l but d e f i n i t i o n a l , and has been well documented i n a long s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s by C l e c k l y (1976), Hare (1980, 1983, 1985; Hare & McPherson, 1984), and others ( J u r k o v i c & P r e n t i c e , 1977). There are a l s o compelling t h e o r e t i c a l reasons to a n t i c i p a t e t h a t psychopathy, l i k e r o l e - t a k i n g , may p r o v i d e a conceptual b r i d g e l i n k i n g c r i m i n a l i t y and moral m a t u r i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , the work o f Hogan (1982) and T u r i e l (1983), which s t r e s s e s the r o l e o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the achievement o f moral m a t u r i t y , suggests such a bridge to the work o f Hare (1983) and o t h e r s , t h a t p o r t r a y s psychopathy as a p a r t i a l symptom o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n f a i l u r e s or a c o l l a p s e o f w i l l . On these grounds i t was seen to be e s s e n t i a l to i n c l u d e i n t h i s study a measure o f psychopathy as a means of e v a l u a t i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l p a r t i n e x p l a i n i n g any observed r e l a t i o n between m o r a l i t y and c r i m i n a l i t y . On the s t r e n g t h of the preceding arguments, methods f o r indexing both psychopathy and p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g competence were added to the l i s t o f measures to be employed i n t h i s study. A l t o g e t h e r , then, these seven moral m a t u r i t y d e s c r i p t o r s , i n c l u d i n g those o f Kohlberg, T u r i e l , and the t h r e e measures proposed by Hogan, along with Selman's measure of 9 i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, and Hare's Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t , t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e d the set o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s to be placed i n r e l a t i o n to the c r i t e r i o n measures o f delinquency s t a t u s . F i n a l l y , because s e v e r a l and perhaps a l l o f the measures a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d could or have al r e a d y been shown to covary with general i n t e l l i g e n c e , i t was decided to i n c l u d e a b r i e f IQ measure as a check on the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t other d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t might be observed c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d as an a r t i f a c t o f p o t e n t i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The S h i p l e y I n s t i t u t e of L i v i n g Scales was chosen f o r t h i s purpose. In b r i e f o u t l i n e then, t h i s study set out t o : 1) i d e n t i f y a d i v e r s e group o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s and an a p p r o p r i a t e l y matched sample o f non-delinquent c o n t r o l s ; 2) assess the l e v e l o f moral m a t u r i t y , i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, psychopathy, and i n t e l l i g e n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these s u b j e c t s ; 3) s c a l e the o f f e n s e s o f the d e l i n q u e n t group i n terms of the degree to which t h e i r i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s a l s o c o n s t i t u t e v i o l a t i o n s o f l e g a l and moral p r o h i b i t i o n s ; and 4) examine the r e l a t i o n s between these p r e d i c t i v e and c r i t e r i a l measures i n l i g h t o f the v a r i o u s hypotheses d e t a i l e d below. 1.1.3. General Hypotheses The c e n t r a l hypothesis t h a t guided t h i s study was t h a t young persons who commit ac t s t h a t are i n s e r i o u s v i o l a t i o n o f accepted moral standards w i l l tend to be those whose moral development i s a l s o delayed or a r r e s t e d r e l a t i v e to t h e i r non-delinquent or l e s s d e l i n q u e n t peers. Because a c t s thought to be immoral a l s o tend to be i l l e g a l , t h i s general hypothesis t r a n s l a t e s i n t o the j o i n t e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t : 1) as a group, a d j u d i c a t e d d e l i n q u e n t s w i l l demonstrate l e s s moral m a t u r i t y than t h e i r non-delinquent age mates; and 2) t h a t among d e l i n q u e n t s , those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the most m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e o f f e n s e s w i l l a l s o be those whose moral development 10 i s most i n a r r e a r s . Because moral m a t u r i t y l e v e l was indexed s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s study i n ways c o n s i s t e n t with the t h e o r i e s o f Kohlberg, T u r i e l , and Hogan, both of the hypotheses above were t e s t e d three times. Beyond these primary hypotheses, a secondary set o f e x p e c t a t i o n s were formulated having to do with the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f both i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and psychopathy. With r e f e r e n c e t o the f i r s t o f these measures i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t because advancement i n p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g competence i s w i d e l y held to be a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r progress toward moral m a t u r i t y , measures o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness would covary with moral competence and show an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n to c r i m i n a l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , i t was hypothesized t h a t psychopathy r a t i n g s would covary, not only with the degree o f immorality o f known d e l i n q u e n t a c t s , but a l s o with v a r i o u s i n d i c e s o f moral m a t u r i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness. These e x p e c t a t i o n s were grounded i n the common r o l e which s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s s a i d to p l a y i n each of these measures (Hare, 1985; T u r i e l , 1983). Having i n t r o d u c e d the study problem, o u t l i n e d the v a r i o u s independent and dependent v a r i a b l e s considered, and d e t a i l e d the nature o f t h e i r hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p , s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l matters remain. Important among these are the tasks o f d e s c r i b i n g i n d e t a i l the exact nature o f the assessment procedures employed and of f u r t h e r warranting the d e c i s i o n to i n c l u d e these r a t h e r than other a v a i l a b l e c o n s t r u c t s and procedures. Beyond these procedural j u s t i f i c a t i o n s , which w i l l make up the bulk o f the d e t a i l e d methods s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s , i t a l s o w i l l be necessary t o o u t l i n e p r e c i s e l y how the o f f e n s e s o f the d e l i n q u e n t sample were to be s c a l e d f o r l e v e l s o f immorality. The f o l l o w i n g methods s e c t i o n consequently ends with the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s e r i e s o f converging c l a s s i f i c a t o r y and judgment procedures by means o f which such rankings of o f f e n s e s was accomplished. 11 CHAPTER 2 2.1. Theory Based Measures o f Moral M a t u r i t y The d e s c r i p t i o n o f methods and procedures d e t a i l e d below goes beyond the scope o f the usual s k e l e t o n i z e d l i s t i n g common to j o u r n a l l e n g t h a r t i c l e s , and i n c l u d e s , i n a d d i t i o n , a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which l e d to the s e l e c t i o n o f the p a r t i c u l a r procedures adopted. A t t e n t i o n f i r s t w i l l be turned to the v a r i o u s ways i n which moral m a t u r i t y was assessed i n the context o f t h i s study. F o l l o w i n g these accounts o f the s p e c i f i c measures drawn from the work o f Kohlberg, T u r i e l , and Hogan, a t t e n t i o n w i l l be turned to the assessment o f p e r s p e c t i v e -t a k i n g competence and a r a t i o n a l e f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f Selman's (1980, 1981) t e s t of i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness as a measure o f the c o n s t r u c t w i l l be p r o v i d e d . Next, arguments are o f f e r e d to j u s t i f y the adopting of Hare's (1985) procedures as a means o f indexing psychopathy and the S h i p l e y I n s t i t u t e o f L i v i n g Scales as a means o f measuring general i n t e l l i g e n c e . The l a s t major s e c t i o n i n t h i s general l i s t i n g o f methods d e a l s with a d e s c r i p t i o n o f procedures used i n the s c a l i n g o f d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s . F i n a l l y , a summary w i l l be o f f e r e d i n the form o f a t r a d i t i o n a l methods s e c t i o n . Here, a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n and the p h r a s i n g o f the proposed assessment process i s presented, along with a d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g o f the hypotheses to be e v a l u a t e d . 2.1.1. Kohlberg: J u s t i c e p r i n c i p l e s and moral development Three decades of research by Kohlberg and h i s c o l l e a g u e s (Colby e t a l . 1983; Kohlberg, 1976) have served to make the study o f moral reasoning a l l but synonymous with the developmental study o f moral m a t u r i t y . Consequently, no study intended as a broad e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between moral development and delinquency could a f f o r d to ignore t h i s body o f important work. In a d d i t i o n to the theory's more general r e l e v a n c e to 12 the present r e s e a r c h problem, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s by Kohlberg (1969; 1976; Colby e t a l . 1983; Jennings & Kohlberg, 1983) and others ( J u r k o v i c & P r e n t i c e , 1977), which hinge upon t h i s theory, have been d i r e c t l y concerned with the r o l e which moral reasoning m a t u r i t y might p l a y i n the c a r e e r s o f y o u t h f u l and a d u l t o f f e n d e r s . Kohlberg's theory, which i s too well known to r e q u i r e d e t a i l e d treatment here, i s , i n the most general sense, a d e s c r i p t i v e account o f the ways i n which s t i l l deeper s t r u c t u r a l changes i n o v e r a l l c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g are r e f l e c t e d i n the modes o f conceptual r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t s engendered by the need to r e s o l v e competing human i n t e r e s t s . His account d e t a i l s a sequence o f s i x such stages and t h r e e general l e v e l s o f moral reasoning m a t u r i t y . The f i r s t or preconventional l e v e l , r e f e r e n c e s an e s s e n t i a l l y h e d o n i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n toward s o c i a l and moral i n t e r a c t i o n s and i s marked by a f a i l u r e t o adequately understand competing p o i n t s o f view. Conventional m o r a l i t y , the second l e v e l i n Kohlberg's h i e r a r c h y , c e n t e r s upon the c l a r i f i c a t i o n and endorsement o f r o u t i n e s o c i a l values ( i . e . , c o n f o r m i t y ) . F i n a l l y , p r i n c i p l e d reasoning, which tempers such conventional c o n s i d e r a t i o n s with an i n t e r e s t i n u n i v e r s a l j u s t i c e p r i n c i p l e s and transcends s o c i a l standards, r e p r e s e n t s the t h i r d and h i g h e s t of Kohlberg's moral l e v e l s . While the p r e c i s e r o l e o f moral reasoning m a t u r i t y i n determining the outcome o f concrete b e h a v i o r a l c h o i c e s i s not, and i n p r i n c i p l e c o u l d not be, e n t i r e l y s p e c i f i e d by Kohlberg's theory ( B l a s i , 1980; Colby et a l . , 1983; Kohlberg, 1976), there i s , w i t h i n t h i s account, the general e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t more m o r a l l y mature i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be l e s s l i k e l y t o behave i n ways which v i o l a t e " u n i v e r s a l " moral standards than w i l l l e s s m o r a l l y mature persons. On the s t r e n g t h o f such reasoning, s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have set out to determine whether, as the theory would 13 suggest, known c r i m i n a l s evidence lower l e v e l s o f moral reasoning m a t u r i t y than do matched groups o f n o n - c r i m i n a l s . Recent reviews o f t h i s s c a t t e r e d l i t e r a t u r e ( B l a s i , 1980; Jennings et a l . , 1983; J u r k o v i c , 1980) i n d i c a t e t h a t , even i n the absence o f any attempt to d i s c o u n t those cases i n which the o f f e n s e s i n q u e s t i o n had l i t t l e or nothing to do with v i o l a t i o n o f moral norms, t h e r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i s a s u r p r i s i n g l y strong r e l a t i o n between m o r a l i t y and delinquency. Across the 15 s t u d i e s reviewed by B l a s i (1980), f o r example, approximately 80% o f the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s s t u d i e d were shown to employ age i n a p p r o p r i a t e preconventional reasoning i n t h e i r responses to Kohlberg's moral dilemmas. Despite the wide v a r i a t i o n present i n the kinds o f d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n d e r s s t u d i e d , there appears to be, then, evidence o f an unexpectedly strong a s s o c i a t i o n between delinquency and moral immaturity. From the p e r s p e c t i v e adopted i n t h i s study, these e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s f a l l s h o r t o f f u l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g the extent to which moral reasoning m a t u r i t y might a c t u a l l y govern conduct i n m o r a l l y hazardous s i t u a t i o n s p r i m a r i l y because no e f f o r t s were made to order the samples o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s s t u d i e d i n terms o f the degree to which t h e i r i l l e g a l behavior a l s o r e p r e s e n t s e x p l i c i t v i o l a t i o n s o f moral standards. The present r e s e a r c h e f f o r t undertook to go beyond these e a r l i e r , more c a t e g o r i c e f f o r t s by not only determining the Kohlbergian stage of moral m a t u r i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f members of the d e l i n q u e n t study sample, but by a l s o s c a l i n g the degree to which t h e i r d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t v i o l a t i o n s of usual moral standards. Consequently, i t was hypothesized not only t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s would again be shown to be l e s s m o r a l l y mature than non-delinquent c o n t r o l s , but t h a t , among the d e l i n q u e n t sample, there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral m a t u r i t y l e v e l and any m e t r i c which ordered these d e l i n q u e n t 14 o f f e n s e s i n terms o f t h e i r moral r e p r e h e n s i b i l i t y . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was expected t h a t those d e l i n q u e n t i n d i v i d u a l s whose known o f f e n s e s were a l s o c l e a r l y "immoral" would evidence lower l e v e l s o f moral reasoning i n response to Kohlberg's standard moral dilemmas than would d e l i n q u e n t s whose crimes were l e s s at v a r i a n c e with usual moral norms. Form B o f Kohlberg's standard t e s t o f moral m a t u r i t y was u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s measurement purpose. Appendix A d e t a i l s the s p e c i f i c moral dilemmas employed, the order of t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n , and r e f e r e n c e s the stage mode on which the s c o r i n g procedures are based (Colby & Kohlberg 1987). 2.1.2. T u r i e l ' s theory o f s o c i a l knowledge development In c o n t r a s t to the work of Kohlberg (1976) and h i s co-workers (e.g., Colby et a l . , 1983), which has focused a t t e n t i o n almost e x c l u s i v e l y upon the study of the moral reasoning process, T u r i e l (1977, 1978, 1983) has maintained t h a t moral maturity, taken i n the broadest sense, a l s o r e q u i r e s the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a c l e a r knowledge o f those s p e c i f i c behaviors which one's s o c i e t y deems to be r i g h t or wrong. T u r i e l does not take i s s u e with the importance which Kohlberg attached to the changing ways i n which developing persons reason about moral matters. What he does i n s i s t upon, however, i s t h a t a c q u i r i n g such mature moral reasoning s t r a t e g i e s c o n s t i t u t e s only a part o f the developmental agenda f a c i n g c h i l d r e n . Of equal importance, he argues, i s the t a s k o f a c q u i r i n g s p e c i f i c knowledge r e g a r d i n g those s o c i a l conventions which set l i m i t s on how persons "ought" to behave i n any given s o c i a l context. I t i s T u r i e l ' s c o n t e n t i o n , now backed by a s e r i e s o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s ( G r e i g e r & T u r i e l , 1983; Nucci, 1981; T u r i e l & Smetana, 1984) t h a t , from a very young age, c h i l d r e n are able t o r e l i a b l y d i s t i n g u i s h matters of m o r a l i t y and c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y . He a l s o maintains t h a t the developmental course by means o f which young persons a c q u i r e a mature understanding o f these separate moral domains i s 15 demonstratably d i f f e r e n t from the development o f moral reasoning competencies, and r e q u i r e s separate measurement. To demonstrate t h i s p o i n t T u r i e l (1978, 1983) has developed a set o f procedures meant to index the more or l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d ways i n which s o c i a l conventions are commonly understood. On the b a s i s o f an a n a l y s i s o f responses to these measures he has d i s t i n g u i s h e d seven l e v e l s or steps d i v i d i n g the l e a s t and most mature comprehensions o f such conventional matters. T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i s understood to depend upon: 1) where the a u t h o r i t y which supports such conventions i s seen to r e s i d e ; and 2) how a r b i t r a r y such claims to a u t h o r i t y are judged to be. In sequence, young persons are d e s c r i b e d as l o c a t i n g such a u t h o r i t y i n e m p i r i c a l r e g u l a r i t i e s , r u l e systems, and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . At l e a s t at the e a r l i e r o f these l e v e l s such claims are understood by T u r i e l to e v e n t u a l l y c o l l a p s e i n the face of a growing sense t h a t the standards upon which they r e s t are u l t i m a t e l y a r b i t r a r y . With continued developmental progress these a c t s o f negation are understood by T u r i e l to sponsor the d i s c o v e r y o f new and b e t t e r r a t i o n a l i z e d reasons f o r behaving i n accordance with the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f one's own s o c i e t y . Because each o f T u r i e l ' s subsequent stages i s meant to warrant conformity to l e g i t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y on grounds t h a t are p r o g r e s s i v e l y more a b s t r a c t and consequently "moral" i n c h a r a c t e r , there i s reason to hypothesize an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n between h i s l e v e l s o f conventional understanding and the degree to which one's behavior i s at v a r i a n c e with usual moral standards. Some support f o r t h i s l a t e r hypotheses i s provided by a recent study by Geiger and T u r i e l (1983) i n which they demonstrated t h a t : 1) students who were d i s r u p t i v e i n the classroom were c l a s s i f i e d as occupying lower l e v e l s i n t h i s seven stage developmental sequence; and 2) low and unchanging scores were a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with c h r o n i c d i s r u p t i v e n e s s , as measured at the time of a one-16 year f o l l o w - u p . T u r i e l ' s procedures f o r measuring l e v e l s o f understanding o f s o c i a l convention make use of a s e r i e s of s t o r y problems and i n t e r v i e w probes which permit the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f respondents i n t o one o f h i s seven l e v e l s . Appendix B c o n t a i n s a set of s t o r y problems and i n t e r v i e w probes developed by T u r i e l , along with a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s o c i a l convention l e v e l s used i n a s s i g n i n g responses to s c o r i n g c a t e g o r i e s . 2.1.3. Non-cognitive p e r s p e c t i v e s on moral m a t u r i t y Outside the i n t i m a t e c i r c l e o f cognitive-developmental theory, numerous other i n v e s t i g a t o r s , whose work u s u a l l y has been rooted i n a t r a d i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y assessment, a l s o have s t r u g g l e d with the question o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between moral m a t u r i t y and c r i m i n a l i t y . In c o n t r a s t to t h e o r i s t s such as Kohlberg (1976) and T u r i e l (1983), who tend to see p r o s o c i a l behavior as contingent upon the developing c a p a c i t y to reason about the j u s t or conventional t h i n g to do, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h i s second and somewhat orthogonal t r a d i t i o n have l a i d s t r e s s upon the f a c t t h a t more i s i n v o l v e d i n behaving p r o s o c i a l l y than simply knowing what should be done. By t h i s account, at l e a s t h a l f of the moral b a t t l e i n v o l v e s having the s t r e n g t h of c h a r a c t e r , will-power, courage, or i n c l i n a t i o n to do what i s a l r e a d y acknowledged to be the r i g h t t h i n g . Among such t h e o r i s t s , Robert Hogan (Hogan & Busch, 1984) has been e s p e c i a l l y outspoken i n s t r e s s i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n between knowing and b r i n g i n g one's s e l f to do the r i g h t t h i n g , and has o f f e r e d a model meant to account f o r the development o f such a b i l i t i e s . Hogan's model proposes a t h r e e step developmental process which: 1) begins with the achievement o f e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n s k i l l ; 2) moves on, i n middle c h i l d h o o d , to the development o f empathic s e n s i t i v i t i e s ; 3) and ends i n adolescence with the accomplishment o f newly-won c a p a c i t i e s o f personal r e f l e c t i v e n e s s and 17 autonomy. He argues t h a t " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " i m p l i e s more than a simple c o g n i t i v e understanding o f what i s u s u a l l y judged t o be r i g h t and wrong, and s t r e s s e s , i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t w e l l - s o c i a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s are p e r s o n a l l y committed t o a c t u a l l y upholding such s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , "empathy", by Hogan's account, i m p l i e s more than simply knowing what others might f e e l , but a l s o i n c l u d e s a rea d i n e s s t o care about such f e e l i n g s and to take them i n t o account i n g u i d i n g one's own a c t i o n . C o n s i s t e n t with the p e r s o n a l i t y assessment t r a d i t i o n w i t h i n which h i s work has evolved, Hogan's assessment s t r a t e g y focuses upon the d i r e c t measurement o f these t r a i t s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy and autonomy, o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d by set s o f items drawn from the C a l i f o r n i a P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (CPI) and Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (MMPI). The p a r t i c u l a r CPI and MMPI items i s o l a t e d by Hogan f o r t h i s measurement purpose are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix C. By Hogan's account, low scores on such measures are i n d i c a t i v e o f poor s o c i a l i z a t i o n or l a c k o f empathy or autonomy and, consequently, are taken t o be i n d i c a t i v e o f moral immaturity. Drawing upon t h i s i n t e r p r e t i v e framework, i t was hypothesized t h a t : 1) d e l i n q u e n t s would prove t o be more mo r a l l y immature on Hogan's measures o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy, and autonomy, than would non-delinquent c o n t r o l s ; and 2) th a t among the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d , those whose crimes were r a t e d as more m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e would a l s o score more n e g a t i v e l y on Hogan's measures. 2.1.4. Psychopathy In a d d i t i o n t o the v a r i o u s s o c i a l i z a t i o n and empathic s e n s i t i v e problems j u s t mentioned, Hogan a l s o might have l i s t e d a v a r i e t y o f other c h a r a c t e r ! o g i c f a c t o r s g e n e r a l l y thought to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e v e n t i n g persons from a c t i n g on the b a s i s o f what they "know" to be r i g h t . 18 E s p e c i a l l y obvious i n any such l i s t o f p o t e n t i a l p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s would be a l l p r o p e n s i t i e s on the part o f s u b j e c t s to leap before they look, to act i m p u l s i v e l y , or to behave without s u f f i c i e n t care f o r the consequences of t h e i r a c t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , f a i l u r e i n the a b i l i t y to delay g r a t i f i c a t i o n , a l s o could serve e a s i l y to make non-operative whatever moral knowledge one might possess or be able to b r i n g to bear i n more r e f l e c t i v e moments. What seemed r e q u i r e d , then, i n order to f l e s h out the range o f p e r s o n a l i t y f e a t u r e s which might compliment and extend the l i s t o f measures purposed by Hogan, was some scheme f o r indexing the extent to which the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s research are i n c l i n e d to act i m p u l s i v e l y , to show l a c k o f f o r e s i g h t , or concern f o r the consequences o f t h e i r behavior. Taken as a group, t h i s symptom c l u s t e r can be seen to be e s s e n t i a l l y c o - e x t e n s i v e with what other i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Cleckey, 1976; Hare, 1985; Quay et a l . , 1960) have chosen to l a b e l as "psychopathy." While i t i s recognized t h a t the p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f psychopathy as a c l i n i c a l syndrome may go beyond those intended here, i t i s assumed, n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t t h i s dimension does r e f e r e n c e much o f what Hogan and others (Harre', 1983) regard as e s s e n t i a l i n s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s l a t i n g moral knowledge i n t o moral a c t i o n . On these grounds, i t was judged to be important to supplement the CPI and MMPI measures proposed by Hogan with another procedure capable of indexing the extent to which the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study share the r o s t e r o f t r a i t s or a t t r i b u t e s commonly a s s o c i a t e d with psychopathy. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f o r present purposes, the bulk of a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h concerned with the measurement o f psychopathy has focussed upon a d u l t samples. There are, i n f a c t , some (e.g., DSM-III-R, 1986) who maintain t h a t young adolescents l a c k a s u f f i c i e n t l y well-formed c h a r a c t e r to 19 j u s t i f y t h e i r being l a b e l e d as psychopaths at a l l . Such c l a i m s are based at l e a s t i n p a r t , on the f a c t t h a t some o f the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f psychopathy, e s p e c i a l l y those t h a t concern f a i l u r e s t o s u s t a i n human r e l a t i o n s and an i n a b i l i t y t o make long-ranged l i f e p l a n s , i n v o l v e matters which are not e s p e c i a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . Despite these r e a l concerns, many contemporary p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i s t s (e.g., Robins, 1966) presuppose t h a t psychopathy i n v o l v e s a t t r i b u t e s which are formed d u r i n g the e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n p e r i o d and, i n p r i n c i p l e , c o u l d be measured du r i n g adolescence. On these grounds i t was seen to be a reasonable undertaking t o determine the degree to which the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study share some o f the usual f e a t u r e s o f a d u l t psychopaths. Among the a v a i l a b l e measures f o r indexing psychopathy, the procedure which has the most complete r e s e a r c h h i s t o r y i s the r a t i n g s c a l e developed by Hare (Hare, 1985; Schroeder, Schroeder, & Hare, 1983). T h i s r e v i s e d 20-item Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t (PCL) procedure i s t y p i c a l l y f i l l e d out by persons who are f a m i l i a r with the t a r g e t i n d i v i d u a l s , and u s u a l l y i s completed f o l l o w i n g a d e t a i l e d c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w . In t h i s procedure, the degree of psychopathy i s measured as a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n of the number of hallmark behaviors t h a t are i d e n t i f i e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s u b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n . In the present study, a s l i g h t l y m o dified v e r s i o n o f t h i s procedure was employed. Hare's psychopathy r a t i n g s were secured from p r o f e s s i o n a l persons who served as t h e r a p i s t s f o r and who had f a m i l i a r i t y with the v a r i o u s members of the de l i n q u e n t sample. In the case o f the non-delinquents, s i m i l a r r a t i n g s were obtained from school c o u n s e l o r s or a d v i s o r s f a m i l i a r with each student who served as a c o n t r o l s u b j e c t . The m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o Hare's e x i s t i n g procedures c o n s i s t e d o f e l i m i n a t i n g t hree items which were e i t h e r c l e a r l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r persons of the age of t h i s study group ( i . e . , m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ) , or 20 redundant ( i . e . , j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y ) . The t h i r d item, " r e v o k a t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n a l r e l e a s e " was excluded from the present analyses because i t had l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e to the study p o p u l a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g l i s t o f the r a t i n g s c a l e items (Adolescent Behavior C h e c k l i s t ) i s c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix D. The hypotheses r e l a t e d to t h i s measure i n c l u d e d the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t youth who r e c e i v e higher r a t i n g s on the psychopathy c h e c k l i s t are a l s o more l i k e l y to o b t a i n lower moral m a t u r i t y s c o r e s . S i m i l a r l y , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the more mo r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e a d e l i n q u e n t ' s i l l e g a l a c t i o n , the more l i k e l y he would be to o b t a i n a higher psychopathy r a t i n g . F i n a l l y , i t was expected t h a t j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s would r e c e i v e higher psychopathy r a t i n g s than non-delinquent c o n t r o l s . 2.1.5. Selman's stages of i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness Beyond the index of psychopathy j u s t d i s c u s s e d and the l i s t o f f i r s t o r der measures d i r e c t l y concerned with moral m a t u r i t y , t h e r e are a v a r i e t y of other second order v a r i a b l e s t h a t might be expected to mediate any observed r e l a t i o n between moral m a t u r i t y and delinquency. The dimension of p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g i s an e s p e c i a l l y obvious candidate i n t h i s l i s t , i n t h a t i t has been held out by Kohlberg (1976), Selman (1980), and others (Chandler, 1972, 1973) as c o n s t i t u t i n g a necessary but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r moral m a t u r i t y , and has been l i n k e d d i r e c t l y to delinquency and other forms o f a n t i s o c i a l behavior (Chandler, 1972, 1973; Gough, 1948). On these grounds a d e c i s i o n was reached to i n c l u d e Selman's measure o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness i n t h i s study as an index to p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g competence. Of the many a v a i l a b l e models o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, t h a t put forward by Selman (1980, 1981) provides the g r e a t e s t range and most d e t a i l e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s and, consequently, was judged to be best s u i t e d 21 the purpose o f t h i s study. In p a r t i c u l a r , Selman's developmental model i n c l u d e s s e v e r a l stages o f p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g r e l e v a n t to the adolescent p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n , Selman's (1980, 1981) model has conceptual r o o t s t h a t reach i n t o the e a r l y accounts o f i d e n t i t y development proposed by James (1898), Baldwin (1906) and others (Mead, 1934), has a r i c h h i s t o r y o f use with t r o u b l e d youth (Selman, 1980, 1981), and has been e x p l i c i t l y r e l a t e d to Kohlberg's stages o f moral development (Chandler, 1972, 1973; Selman, 1980, 1981; Walker, 1980). T h i s model d e f i n e s r o l e t a k i n g as "the a b i l i t y t o understand the s e l f and the other as s u b j e c t , to r e a c t to others l i k e the s e l f , and to r e a c t to the s e l f ' s behavior from the other's p o i n t o f view" (Selman & Byrne, 1974, p. 803). Selman p o r t r a y s s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g as a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t f o r which measures of i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness serve to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the "developing conception o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n between the s e l f and other" (Selman, 1979). On these grounds Selman d e p i c t s the development of s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g competence as a p r o g r e s s i o n through f i v e stages o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l understanding, c u t t i n g across f o u r s o c i a l domains: the i n d i v i d u a l , f r i e n d s h i p , peer group, and p a r e n t - c h i l d (Selman, 1980). Among the s e v e r a l procedures proposed by Selman, h i s " f r i e n d s h i p s t o r y " was chosen f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study because o f i t s s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e to concerns common i n t h i s age group. A d e t a i l e d l i s t i n g o f Selman's stages and domains i s presented i n Appendix E, along with the p a r t i c u l a r s t o r y dilemma and q u e s t i o n probes used i n t h i s study. Hypotheses concerning the development o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to moral m a t u r i t y were as f o l l o w s : 1) non-delinquents would show higher l e v e l s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness than d e l i n q u e n t s (Chandler, 1972, 1973); 2) among the d e l i n q u e n t s those whose o f f e n s e s were r a t e d as being l e s s immoral would show higher i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness; 3) 22 t h e r e should be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and a l l d i r e c t measures o f moral m a t u r i t y ( i . e . , Kohlberg, 1976; T u r i e l , 1983; Hogan, 1980; Walker, 1980); and 4) t h e r e should be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and psychopathy r a t i n g s (Gough, 1948; Hare, 1985). 2.2. Taxonomies o f the Seriousness and Immorality o f Various Delinquent Offenses T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s how the i l l e g a l a c t s committed by the d e l i n q u e n t members of t h i s study were r a t e d as being more or l e s s s e r i o u s v i o l a t i o n s o f moral p r o h i b i t i o n s . Several p o t e n t i a l schemes f o r developing such a response measure were a v a i l a b l e , a l l o f which f a l l i n t o one or another o f two general c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t concerns the d i f f e r e n t ways i n which e x i s t i n g l e g a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s of d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t i e s might be taken as proxy i n d i c a t o r s o f immorality. The second concerns a l t e r n a t i v e schemes f o r r a t i n g v a r i o u s i l l e g a l or a n t i s o c i a l a c t s i n terms o f the degree to which they v i o l a t e e x i s t i n g moral standards. In the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , a case can be made f o r u t i l i z i n g e x i s t i n g l e g a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between what are commonly regarded as more or l e s s s e r i o u s d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s , and employing these standards as a rough index of the degree to which the behaviours i n question c o n s t i t u t e v i o l a t i o n s o f conventional moral standards. For example, crimes a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y , ( i . e . , b u r g l a r y ) , are t y p i c a l l y regarded as l e s s s e r i o u s than are crimes a g a i n s t persons, and both of these broad o f f e n s e c a t e g o r i e s are w i d e l y viewed as i n v o l v i n g a c t s t h a t are more s e r i o u s than " s t a t u s " o f f e n s e s such as truancy or underage d r i n k i n g , t h a t become d e l i n q u e n c i e s only because of the tender age o f those t h a t commit them. Numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (e.g., Thornton & Reid, 1982) have made use o f l e g a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i n developing an index of the " s e r i o u s n e s s " o f the 23 d e l i n q u e n c i e s they have s t u d i e d . A s i m i l a r course was f o l l o w e d i n t h i s study and the most s e r i o u s o f f e n s e s of a l l o f the d e l i n q u e n t members o f the study sample were c a t e g o r i z e d as e i t h e r : 1) s t a t u s ; 2) p r o p e r t y ; or 3) person crimes. The obvious problem with the use of the above o f f e n s e c a t e g o r i e s as proxy i n d i c a t o r s o f immorality i s t h a t there are numerous ac t s t h a t are commonly regarded as immoral but only sometimes i l l e g a l ( i . e . , l y i n g ) and o t h e r s , t h a t while i l l e g a l , are r a r e l y seen as immoral ( i . e . , school r e f u s a l ) . What was seen to be r e q u i r e d i n s t e a d o f or i n a d d i t i o n to any such imperfect category scheme was some more d i r e c t and continuous measure i n d i c a t i v e of the l e v e l o f immorality r e f l e c t e d i n the d e l i n q u e n c i e s o f which the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study had been c o n v i c t e d . 2.2.1. D i r e c t r a t i n g s of the immorality o f v a r i o u s d e l i n q u e n t a c t s Over and above the three l e v e l s e r i o u s n e s s index d e t a i l e d iri the preceeding s e c t i o n , an e f f o r t was made to o b t a i n expert r a t i n g s o f the moral s e r i o u s n e s s o f the d e l i n q u e n t behaviors o f the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study. These e f f o r t s proceeded i n two s t e p s . F i r s t , a review o f the records o f the Oregon J u v e n i l e J u s t i c e System was undertaken, and a l i s t was drawn up o f the most common crimes c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s from which the present sample was drawn. T h i s l i s t was then c u l l e d f o r redundencies i n an attempt to produce a complete but d i s t i n c t l i s t o f demonstrably d i f f e r e n t d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s . T h i s process r e s u l t e d i n a l i s t o f 50 crimes h i g h l y s i m i l a r to those i d e n t i f i e d by other i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( R o s s i , Waite, Bose, & Berk, 1974; S e l l i n & Wolfgang, 1964; Wadsworth, 1979; and Walker, 1978). T h i s l i s t was then submitted to a panel o f 102 t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and student teachers (71% were female). These persons were asked to r a t e a l l 50 o f f e n s e s along a dimension r e f l e c t i n g what they judged to be the degree of immorality 24 expressed by each. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s process y i e l d e d a g l o s s a r y o f j u v e n i l e crimes and a s s o c i a t e d r a t i n g s t h a t was used as a r e f e r e n c e source f o r indexing the degree o f p e r c e i v e d immorality o f the most s e r i o u s i l l e g a l a c t s committed by each member of the d e l i n q u e n t sample. While other methods o f delinquency c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were co n s i d e r e d (e.g., composit p r o f i l e s ) , i t was decided t h a t the most s e r i o u s o f f e n s e provided the most r e l i a b l e and consequently the most adequate index o f these youth's c r i m i n a l behavior. A copy o f t h i s Delinquency Rating S c a l e , along with an a s s o c i a t e d l i s t o f the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r each o f the 50 d e l i n q u e n t acts r a t e d , i s presented i n Appendix F. In summary, then, the crimes o f the d e l i n q u e n t sample were c l a s s i f i e d t w i c e : f i r s t , a c c ording t o whether they c o n s t i t u t e d s t a t u s crimes (category 1), crimes a g a i n s t property (category 2), or persons (category 3) and second, i n terms o f the degree to which they represented o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t p u b l i c m o r a l i t y as determined by a panel o f judges. 2.3. Summary o f Methods 2.3.1. Subjects S e l e c t i o n Subjects f o r t h i s study were 60 male j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r s between the ages o f 14 and 17 and 20 non-delinquent c o n t r o l s . The d e l i n q u e n t sample c o n s i s t e d o f youth who had been a d j u d i c a t e d as d e l i n i q u e n t and who were c u r r e n t l y under the s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l o f the j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e system o f the s t a t e o f Oregon. In p a r t i c u l a r , c o o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d with the j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e component o f the Morrison Center f o r Youth and Family S e r v i c e s , an agency s e r v i n g a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f a d j u d i c a t e d y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s i n the g r e a t e r P o r t l a n d area, and a subset o f those d e l i n q u e n t s i n v o l v e d i n i t s o u t p a t i e n t and day treatment programs were s o l i c i t e d f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n i n the study. P r o f e s s i o n a l , p a r e n t a l , and youth consent was a l s o obtained as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r 25 i n c l u s i o n f o r t e s t i n g . These consent forms are i n c l u d e d as Appendix G. Three p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s (one d e l i n q u e n t and two non-delinquents) were not t e s t e d because o f parental r e f u s a l to provide consent. Members o f the c o n t r o l sample were youth drawn from a working c l a s s neighborhood high school who had no p r i o r r e c ord o f j u v e n i l e o f f e n s e s and who were s e l e c t e d to match as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e members o f the d e l i n q u e n t group i n terms o f age, race, socio-economic l e v e l ( G o t t f r i e d , 1985; H o l l i n g s h e a d , 1975), and e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . 2.3.2. Stimulus M a t e r i a l s The v a r i o u s t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s used i n a s s e s s i n g moral m a t u r i t y , i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, and psychopathy can be found i n Appendices A through E (A=Kohlberg; B=Turiel, C=Hogan; D=Hare; and E=Selman). Moral reasoning m a t u r i t y was evaluated by employing the three Form B dilemmas from Kohlberg's procedure. T h i s choice was based on the f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n o t h er o f the a l t e r n a t i v e forms developed by Kohlberg i n c l u d e items d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to c r i m i n a l acts and thus might have produced spurious r e s u l t s when employed with a d e l i n q u e n t sample. Each moral dilemma presented was f o l l o w e d by an abridged v e r s i o n o f Kohlberg's standard set o f i n t e r v i e w probes. The omitted items were among those i n d i c a t e d as a c c e p t a b l e d e l e t i o n s by Colby and Kohlberg (1987). Each s u b j e c t ' s knowledge and understanding o f conventional s o c i e t a l v alues was evaluated using a s e r i e s o f s t o r y problems developed by T u r i e l (1978). The v a r i a b l e s o f r u l e atunement, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and i d e n t i t y s t r e s s e d i n Hogan's account of moral m a t u r i t y were indexed by the s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy, and conformity s c a l e s of the C a l i f o r n i a P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory (CPI; Gough, 1953; Hogan, 1970, 1969; Hogan & Busch, 1984). The m o d i f i e d index o f psychopathy developed by Hare (1985) was employed to evaluate the degree to which s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d psychopathic 26 behaviors or d i s p o s i t i o n s . F i n a l l y , Selman's (1980) f r i e n d s h i p s t o r y was used to assess l e v e l o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness. A d d i t i o n a l l y , The S h i p l e y I n s t i t u t e o f L i v i n g S c a l e (Zachary, 1986) was i n c l u d e d as an estimate of i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s procedure was f o l l o w e d because s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s (e.g., Rutter, 1984) have suggested t h a t there i s a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i e t a l misconduct and i n t e l l i g e n c e . The S h i p l e y has been found to h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e with the Weschler A d u l t I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale (WAIS; r = .79 t o .90; B a r t z & Loy, 1970). 2.3.3. Procedure Two separate t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s were scheduled f o r each s u b j e c t , one f o r the v a r i o u s i n t e r v i e w s and one f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e completion. A l l adolescents were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y with h a l f given the paper-and-pencil and h a l f the three i n t e r v i e w measures f i r s t . Items from Hogan's three s c a l e s were randomly ordered. The i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l c o n s i s t e d o f f i r s t Kohlberg's moral reasoning, then Selman's i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, and f i n a l l y T u r i e l ' s s o c i a l convention understanding measures administered i n t h a t order. The i n t e r v i e w s and t e s t i n g s e s s i o n both l a s t e d from one and o n e - h a l f to two and one-half hours. Responses to Kohlberg's and Selman's dilemmas and T u r i e l ' s v i g n e t t e s were tape-recorded to expediate the t e s t i n g procedure and to allow f o r l a t e r t r a n s c r i p t i o n and subsequent s c o r i n g . Primary t h e r a p i s t s or school counselors completed the r a t i n g s on each s u b j e c t ' s l e v e l o f psychopathy. 2.3.4. S c o r i n g and R e l i a b i l i t y A second r a t e r scored a subsample. of 16 cases f o r the Kohlberg, T u r i e l , and Selman procedures to determine the l e v e l o f i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Global stage scores were computed on the b a s i s o f the dominant stage o f reasoning f o r the chosen i s s u e i n the Kohlberg moral 27 reasoning measure, and across a l l three o f T u r i e l ' s v i g n e t t e s , and Selman's s i x f r i e n d s h i p t o p i c s . Weighted average stage s c o r e s , which r e p r e s e n t the product o f the sum o f d i f f e r e n t i a l weights assigned to the r e s p e c t i v e stages, were computed f o r these measures a l l o w i n g f o r parametric s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . On the Kohlberg measure there was 92% agreement w i t h i n o n e - t h i r d o f a stage on the assignment o f moral reasoning major-minor stage s c o r e s . S i m i l a r l y , the i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness i n t e r v i e w was scored w i t h i n a t h i r d o f a stage 93% o f the time. T u r i e l ' s measure o f s o c i a l convention understanding was l e s s p r e c i s e with only 67% of the i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l s scored w i t h i n a t h i r d o f a l e v e l . Given the f a c t t h a t t h i s s c o r i n g scheme i n v o l v e s seven l e v e l s , however, l i t t l e i n t e r p r e t i v e r e l e v a n c e i s attached to w i t h i n stage d i f f e r e n c e s . Thus, the f a c t t h a t 100% o f the p r o t o c o l s were scored w i t h i n t w o - t h i r d s o f a l e v e l suggests t h a t the r e s u l t o f t h i s measure could be scored with s u f f i c i e n t p r e c i s i o n f o r the purpose o f t h i s study. Due to the absence o f a second judge with the r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n , i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t was not assessed i n t h i s study, but has been found to range between .80 and .85 i n s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (Hart, 1987). 2.3.5. Summary o f Hypotheses In view o f the f a c t t h a t seven d i f f e r e n t i n d i c e s o f s o c i a l and moral m a t u r i t y and two separate c r i t e r i o n measures are employed, i t w i l l prove h e l p f u l to l i s t i n summary form the v a r i o u s hypotheses e v a l u a t e d . For the s i x primary measures o f moral m a t u r i t y ( i . e . , Kohlberg's moral reasoning dilemmas, T u r i e l ' s s o c i a l convention v i g n e t t e s , Selman's i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness s t o r y , and Hogan's measures o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy, and autonomy) i t was hypothesized 1) t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s would evidence l e s s moral m a t u r i t y than non-delinquents; 2) t h a t , among the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s , those whose of f e n s e s were more s e r i o u s or immoral would show 28 lower l e v e l s of moral maturity than those whose crimes were l e s s s e r i o u s or l e s s immoral. Because numerous items from Hare's Psychopath C h e c k l i s t are d i r e c t l y concerned with the commission of c r i m i n a l a c t s , no hypotheses regarding a n t i c i p a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between delinquent and non-delinquent subjects was a p p r o p r i a t e . I t was hypothesized, however, that higher psychopathy r a t i n g s would be assigned to those whose d e l i n q u e n c i e s were more s e r i o u s or more immoral, and that these r a t i n g s would be n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with a l l s i x primary measures of moral maturity. Previous research and theory support a v a r i e t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s regarding p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the various moral maturity measures o u t l i n e d above. While no s p e c i f i c hypotheses were formulated in advance, several analyses were conducted i n an e f f o r t to explore these p o s s i b l e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t was f e l t to be of i n t e r e s t to determine the extent to which the s i x primary measures formed a s i n g l e u n i f i e d p i c t u r e of moral maturity and to i d e n t i f y the extent to which these measures d i s c r i m i n a t e d non-delinquents from more or l e s s s e r i o u s delinquent groups. To t h i s end, a s e r i e s of e x p l o r a t o r y f a c t o r and d i s c r i m i n a n t analyses were undertaken. 29 CHAPTER 3 Re s u l t s T h i s study was i n i t i a t e d i n an e f f o r t to examine p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between delinquency and moral m a t u r i t y from two viewing d i s t a n c e s : f i r s t , by c o n t r a s t i n g d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquents i n terms o f a m a n i f o l d o f measures o f moral development; and second, through a more f i n e g r a i n e d a n a l y s i s o f the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s alone. The r e s u l t s presented below f o l l o w t h i s same order, and begin with an account o f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinqent samples on the s i x dependent measures of moral development. The subsequent s e c t i o n r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s between v a r i o u s subgroups of the d e l i n q u e n t sample c o n t r a s t e d i n terms o f the degree o f s e r i o u s n e s s or immorality o f t h e i r most s e r i o u s o f f e n s e s . F i n a l l y , because the psychopathy measure employed can be viewed a l t e r n a t i v e l y as e i t h e r an a d d i t i o n a l dependent v a r i a b l e or as a f u r t h e r method o f c l a s s i f y i n g the d e l i n q u e n t p o p u l a t i o n , r e s u l t s generated through the use o f the Pschopathy C h e c k l i s t are presented s e p a r a t e l y i n a t h i r d and f i n a l s e c t i o n . 3.1. Moral m a t u r i t y : A comparison o f d e l i n q u e n t  and non-delinquent s u b j e c t s P r e l i m i n a r y analyses of the demographic v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent s u b j e c t s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n socio-economic s t a t u s (F(2,77) = 2.833, p=.07). Lower i n t e l l e c t u a l scores were observed (F(2,77) = 4.725, D<.01) f o r the d e l i n q u e n t sample on the S h i p l e y I n s t i t u t e o f L i v i n g S c a l e s , (non-delinquent M = 104, SD = 9.07, d e l i n q u e n t s M = 96, SD = 8.87), however, and consequently t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t estimate (IQest) was i n c l u d e d as a c o v a r i a t e i n a l l subsequent a n a l y s e s . There were too few r a c i a l m i n o r i t y s u b j e c t s ( i . e . , n=4 f o r non-delinquents, n=6 f o r d e l i n q u e n t s ) to analyze p o t e n t i a l race 30 d i f f e r e n c e s . To determine the o v e r a l l a b i l i t y of these s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures to d i s c r i m i n a t e the study sample i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent s t a t u s e s , and to assess the r e l a t i v e degree to which each o f these measures c o n t r i b u t e to such group assignment, a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s was performed. The r e s u l t s o f the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s , based upon a d i r e c t method o f v a r i a b l e e n t r y , i n d i c a t e an o v e r a l l main e f f e c t , F(1,78) = 14.700, p. < .001. The t e s t f o r homogeneity was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f t h i s a n a l y s i s had been met. The d e r i v e d c a n o n i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t generated by the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t 89% of the s u b j e c t s c o u l d be c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r d e l i n q u e n t or non-delinquent on the b a s i s o f t h e i r performance on these v a r i o u s t e s t s of moral m a t u r i t y . As can be seen i n Table 1, which d e t a i l s these r e s u l t s , o n l y Kohlberg's moral reasoning measure and Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e made s i g n i f i c a n t independent c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s o v e r a l l p r e d i c t i o n formula. The set o f within-group c o r r e l a t i o n s with t h i s s t a n d a r d i z e d f u n c t i o n do i n d i c a t e , however, moderate to high r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f i v e of these s i x measures. The empathy v a r i a b l e was the only exception to t h i s general p a t t e r n . Given the o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the m u l t i v a r i a t e F - t e s t i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , u n i v a r i a t e analyses o f v a r i a n c e c o u l d be and were computed on each o f the moral ma t u r i t y measures. As hypothesized, these i n i t i a l f i n d i n g s , d e t a i l e d i n Table 2, show t h a t across a l l v a r i a b l e s , with the s i n g l e exception of Hogan's measure o f empathy (which i n d i c a t e d o n l y a t r e n d toward s i g n i f i c a n c e ) , the non-delinquent sample evidenced s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher l e v e l s o f moral ma t u r i t y than d i d the d e l i n q u e n t s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , these r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t d e l i n q u e n t s were l e s s a b l e : 1) 31 TABLE 1 D i s c r i m i n a n t Function A n a l y s i s : C l a s s i f y i n g Delinquents and Non-delinquents Pooled Standardized Canonical within-group C o e f f i c i e n t s V a r i a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n .79 S o c i a l i z a t i o n .79 .62 Moral Reasoning .57 .11 Autonomy .43 .00 S o c i a l Convention .36 -.05 In t e r p e r s o n a l Awareness .35 -.05 Empathy .28 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary Table P r e d i c t e d Group Delinquent Non-delinquent Actual Group n Delinquent 60 54 6 (90%) (10%) Non-delinquent 20 3 17 (15%) (85%) 32 TABLE 2 ( A n a l y s i s o f Co-Variance: Delinquents versus Non-delinquents by Moral M a t u r i t y Del inauent Control s F (n=60) (n=20) Moral Reasoning Int e r p e r s o n a l Awareness S o c i a l Convention Understanding Empathy S o c i a l i z a t i o n Autonomy M=246 M=290 19.292 SD=29.9 SD=35.4 p<.001 M=251 M=287 4.854 SD=43.1 SD=42.3 p<.03 M=339 M=414 8.049 SD=88.6 SD=74.2 p<.006 M=32 M=36 2.791 SD=5.0 SD=5.5 p<.10 M=31 M=51 44.663 SD=9.9 SD=12.7 p<.001 M=28 M=50 9.252 SD=11.0 SD=9.6 p<.003 33 to reason through matters i n v o l v i n g competing moral i s s u e s ; 2) to understand usual standards o f s o c i a l convention; 3) to take the viewpoints of o t h e r s ; and were 4) l e s s autonomous; and 5) l e s s s o c i a l i z e d than t h e i r non-delinquent peers. Although s t r a i g h t forward and consequently presented i n minimal d e t a i l , these i n i t i a l r e s u l t s lend d i r e c t support to f i v e o f the hypotheses summarized i n the s e c t i o n 2.3.5. In b r i e f these r e s u l t s show t h a t , on the average, the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s occupied d i f f e r e n t stages or l e v e l s of moral m a t u r i t y than non-delinquents, with the d e l i n q u e n t s l a g g i n g behind t h e i r non-delinquent c o u n t e r p a r t s by approximately one-half of a f u l l stage i n moral reasoning, o n e - t h i r d o f a stage i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and t w o - t h i r d s o f a l e v e l i n s o c i a l convention understanding. These r e s u l t s imply t h a t , as a group, the non-delinquents responded to Kohlberg's measure i n ways t h a t d e f i n e d r i g h t and wrong p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f general s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ; valued t r u s t , l o y a l t y and m u t u a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and gave as reasons f o r doing what i s r i g h t , a d e s i r e to maintain r u l e s and r e s p e c t a u t h o r i t y . These non-delinquents were a l s o more l i k e l y to d e s c r i b e s o c i a l conventions as open to n e g o t i a t e d change, and gave s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g responses t h a t suggested that f r i e n d s h i p was understood to be c o n t i n g e n t upon mutual intimacy and support. By c o n t r a s t , the d e l i n q u e n t group more o f t e n tended to see r i g h t and wrong i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r own c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s , and to i n t e r p r e t e d any a c t i o n t h a t served t h e i r own needs as a u t o m a t i c a l l y s e l f - j u s t i f y i n g . S i m i l a r l y , these d e l i n q u e n t youth t y p i c a l l y understood s o c i a l conventions i n more f i x e d and c o n c r e t e terms and viewed f r i e n d s h i p as a l e s s a b i d i n g , f a i r w e a t h e r arrangement of convenience. Taken alone or together, these f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the d e l i n q u e n t sample i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y delayed i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o reason about r i g h t and wrong, to take the p o i n t s o f view o f o t h e r s , or to 34 understand s o c i e t a l conventions. The same p i c t u r e i s r e p l i c a t e d with regard to the components o f the second more t r a i t - l i k e measures o f moral m a t u r i t y indexed by Hogan's p e r s o n a l o g i c s c a l e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the t y p i c a l d e l i n q u e n t youth scored two standard d e v i a t i o n s below the mean o f the present non-delinquent s u b j e c t s and o f Gough's (1957) s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample on both the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and autonomy s c a l e s . According to Gough, young persons who score i n t h i s extreme range on these v a r i a b l e s are t y p i c a l l y under-motivated, l a c k a sense of personal independence, s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e l f - i n s i g h t . 3.1.1. P r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s o f moral m a t u r i t y measures In an attempt to examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s among these s i x measures o f moral m a t u r i t y , a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was conducted. Here, as elsewhere, the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent samples were combined whenever a reasonable c l a i m could be made t h a t these two groups c o n s t i t u t e d a continuum running from no delinquency involvement through s e r i o u s delinquency involvement. R e s u l t s from the orthogonal (varimax) r o t a t i o n o f t h i s matrix (unforced number o f f a c t o r s ) , i n d i c a t e a two-factor s o l u t i o n , accounting f o r a t o t a l 67% o f the v a r i a n c e (see Table 3 ) . The f i r s t f a c t o r suggests a c o g n i t i v e reasoning dimension c o n s i s t i n g of the weighted average scores from Kohlberg's moral reasoning measure, T u r i e l ' s measure of s o c i a l convention understanding and Selman's i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness t a s k . Hogan's t h r e e p e r s o n a l o g i c s c a l e s (empathy, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and autonomy) a l l c o n t r i b u t e d to the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the second f a c t o r , l a b e l e d here as moral c h a r a c t e r . A very s i m i l a r f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e was found when only the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s ' responses were analysed, with a s i m i l a r t w o - f a ctor s o l u t i o n accounting f o r only a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r p o r t i o n of v a r i a n c e ( i . e . , 60%). 35 TABLE 3 Fac t o r A n a l y s i s of Moral M a t u r i t y Measures C o g n i t i v e Moral Reasoning C h a r a c t e r Fa c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 Moral Reasoning .830 .087 Inte r p e r s o n a l Awareness .850 .236 S o c i a l Convention .718 .326 Autonomy .138 .860 Empathy .194 .769 S o c i a l i z a t i o n .234 .670 Eigen Values 2.924 1.065 Cumulative Variance 49% 67% 36 While the sample s i z e o f the non-delinquent group d i d not a l l o w f o r a comparible f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , a f u r t h e r assessment o f the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f these f a c t o r s by groups, computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent samples, c o n t r i b u t e s to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a s i m i l a r f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e may hold f o r the non-delinquents as w e l l . The Cronbach alphas o f these d e r i v e d f a c t o r s c a l e s were, i n f a c t , higher f o r the non-delinquent ( i . e . , c o g n i t i v e reasoning = .74, moral c h a r a c t e r = .60) than the d e l i n q u e n t sample ( i . e . , c o g n i t i v e reasoning = .55, moral c h a r a c t e r = .51). The c o r r e l a t i o n matrix upon which the p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was based i s presented as a means o f f u r t h e r unpacking and c l a r i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s observed between the v a r i o u s moral m a t u r i t y measures. As can be seen from an i n s p e c t i o n of t h i s matrix, d e t a i l e d i n Table 4, s e v e r a l c l u s t e r s o f r e l a t e d and u n r e l a t e d measures can be i d e n t i f i e d . F i r s t , as a l r e a d y confirmed by the p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s , scores from the s c a l e s t h a t make up both the c o g n i t i v e reasoning and moral c h a r a c t e r f a c t o r s show c l o s e agreement, but there was s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c a l e s s i t u a t e d w i t h i n one or the other o f these two d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . Because these r e s u l t s argue a g a i n s t any easy assumption t h a t moral m a t u r i t y i s a monolith, f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be focussed upon the apparent independence o f these two c l a s s e s of measures i n the subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n . In summary, the r e s u l t s reported above provide strong support f o r the key hypothesis r e g a r d i n g a n t i c i p a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent samples. The s i n g l e exception to t h i s general p a t t e r n was Hogan's empathy s c a l e . Otherwise the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s evidence s t a t i s t i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a b l e delays across a l l o f the remaining moral m a t u r i t y measures. O v e r a l l , these r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t 37 TABLE 4 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c e s o f Moral M a t u r i t y Measures: Delinquents and Non-delinquents+ Moral Reasoning (MR) In t e r p e r s o n a l Awareness (IA) S o c i a l Convention (SConv) Empathy (Emp) S o c i a l i z a t i o n (Soc) Autonomy (Aut) MR IA SConv Emp Soc Aut Delinquents (n=60) .50*** .40*** .17 \ ,54 ** \ .35 ** ,15 \ \ .67 .31 -.10 ,26 \ *** 51** \ .32 ** \ ,20 .45' \ .00 .00 ,13 17 16 .06 17 \ \ .38" ,25 .04 .39" ,24 \ ,55 ,22" \ \ .27 .53 \ ** Non-delinquents (n=20) + Note t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix f o r the d e l i n q u e n t sample i s i n the upper t r i a n g l e and i n the lower t r i a n g l e f o r the non-delinquents. A l l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s are r e p o r t e d as o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s . * p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<.001 38 with f i n d i n g s s e p a r a t e l y r e p o r t e d by other i n v e s t i g a t o r s (see S e c t i o n 1.1), i n d i c a t i n g s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s between one or another o f these s i x measures o f moral m a t u r i t y and the presence or absence o f delinquency. S p e c i f i c a l l y , here and elsewhere, measures t h a t most c l e a r l y have as t h e i r purpose the assessment o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t o judge and reason about m o r a l l y hazardous s i t u a t i o n s , to grasp s o c i e t a l standards r e g a r d i n g the appropriateness o f m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t behaviors, to be p e r s p e c t i v a l and autonomous, and to endorse s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e behaviors a l l count as s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r i m i n a t o r s of delinquency i n t h i s study. 3.2. Comparisons Within the Delinquent Sample As o u t l i n e d i n s e c t i o n 2.2.1, the great bulk of p r e v i o u s developmental r e s e a r c h i n t o p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between moral m a t u r i t y and c r i m i n a l i t y has r e s t r i c t e d a t t e n t i o n to the question of whether samples o f d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent youth d i f f e r i n t h e i r l e v e l s o f moral development. A major goal o f the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to go beyond t h i s " e i t h e r - o r " o r i e n t a t i o n i n an e f f o r t to determine whether moral m a t u r i t y scores are a l s o capable o f f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g more from l e s s immoral d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n d e r s . Once t h i s prospect i s r a i s e d i t becomes immediately apparent t h a t there i s no one r o u t i n i z e d , unequivocal or s e l f - e v i d e n t way i n which known d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n d e r s might be shown t o d i v i d e themselves i n terms of the depth or degree of t h e i r immorality or the s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r c r i m i n a l involvement. As noted e a r l i e r , two such measures were adopted i n t h i s study. The f i r s t i n v o l v e d a d i r e c t attempt to r a t e each o f the s u b j e c t s i n terms o f the l e v e l of immorality judged to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i r most s e r i o u s d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e , and the second c o n s i s t e d o f l o c a t i n g the most s e r i o u s o f f e n s e o f each of the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s w i t h i n a more conventional t h r e e - f o l d category system o f s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person crimes. By t h i s l a t t e r standard, d i r e c t a s s a u l t upon persons are seen as 39 a l t o g e t h e r worse than c r i m i n a l a c t s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s , and a c t s t h a t are i l l e g a l o n ly because o f the y o u t h f u l s t a t u s o f the o f f e n d e r s who commit them were judged to be l e s s s e r i o u s s t i l l . T h i s measure, r e f e r e d to here as an index o f " s e r i o u s n e s s " , was expected to covary with, but not be e n t i r e l y redundant with more d i r e c t immorality r a t i n g s . In subsequent paragraphs, data r e s u l t i n g from the a p p l i c a t i o n to these two standards o f measurement are d e s c r i b e d . While these measurement d e t a i l s might have made up a p a r t of the e a r l i e r methods s e c t i o n , i t was f e l t t h a t the n o v e l t y o f the procedures u t i l i z e d to o b t a i n these immorality r a t i n g s warranted the f i n d i n g s based on t h i s method being i n c l u d e d i n the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n . Following t h i s summary, the s i x measures of moral m a t u r i t y p r e v i o u s l y employed i n the comparison o f the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent s u b j e c t s were again evaluated i n terms o f t h e i r a b i l i t y , s i n g u l a r l y or i n combination, to p r e d i c t both o f these outcome measures. 3.2.1. Immoralitv r a t i n g s The p r i n c i p a l hypothesis under study here was t h a t s u b j e c t s who showed de l a y s i n the achievement o f age a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s o f moral m a t u r i t y not only would be more l i k e l y to be d e l i n q u e n t , but t h a t the l e v e l s o f the p e r c e i v e d immorality o f t h e i r o f f e n s e s would a l s o vary i n v e r s e l y with t h e i r l e v e l o f moral development. In order to t e s t t h i s hypothesis a panel o f 102 judges, chosen from the ranks o f p r i n c i p a l s , school t e a c h e r s , and student teachers i n the g r e a t e r P o r t l a n d area, were presented s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f those 50 crimes most commonly committed by y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s . Judges were asked to r a t e these o f f e n s e s from zero to f i v e on a s c a l e intended to express the degree to which each was understood to stand i n v i o l a t i o n of usual standards o f m o r a l i t y . By and l a r g e these 40 judges were i n c l o s e agreement (Cronbach alpha = .96) r e g a r d i n g the degree to which each o f these d e l i n q u e n t a c t s c o n t r a d i c t e d usual moral standards. A l i s t i n g o f these t a r g e t crimes, t h e i r mean immorality r a t i n g , and the v a r i a t i o n o f these judgments are l i s t e d i n Appendix F. Using these r a t i n g s as a standard, the most s e r i o u s crimes o f which each o f the de l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s had been c o n v i c t e d was assigned an immorality r a t i n g by matching t h a t o f f e n s e with i t s c l o s e s t c o u n t e r p a r t from the g l o s s a r y o f d e l i n q u e n c i e s and a s s o c i a t e d immorality r a t i n g s compiled by the procedures d e s c r i b e d above. Table 5 d e p i c t s the range and fr e q u e n c i e s o f o f f e n s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the present study sample, along with b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g the general types o f d e l i n q u e n t acts r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f these d i f f e r e n t immorality r a t i n g s . As can be seen from an i n s p e c t i o n o f t h i s t a b l e , the del i n q u e n t acts o f which the present study sample had been c o n v i c t e d , v a r i e d widely i n the degree t o which they were seen t o be immoral, with v a r i o u s s t a t u s v i o l a t i o n s being regarded as the l e a s t immoral, and crimes i n v o l v i n g sexual v i o l e n c e r e c e i v i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y high immorality r a t i n g s . These immorality r a t i n g s , along with the second and more conventional m e t r i c o f " s e r i o u s n e s s " , t o be d e s c r i b e d below, were employed s e p a r a t e l y i n a l l subsequent a n a l y s e s . 3.2.2. Seriousness l e v e l r a t i n g s The most s e r i o u s o f f e n s e o f each d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t was a l s o c l a s s i f i e d as a s t a t u s o f f e n s e (category 1), a crime a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y (category 2), or a crime a g a i n s t persons (category 3 ) . While assigment o f p a r t i c u l a r d e l i n q u e n c i e s to l e v e l s w i t h i n t h i s category system was p r i m a r i l y c l e r i c a l , a spot check i n v o l v i n g 20% o f the d e l i n q u e n t sample demonstrated t h a t t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o u l d be made with e s s e n t i a l l y p e r f e c t accuracy. Table 6 d i s p l a y s the frequency with which the o f f e n s e s o f the s u b j e c t s o f the present sample f e l l i n t o each o f these c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE 5 Mean Immorality Ratings Offense n Mean Ratinq Standard D e v i a t i o n Rape 10 4.94 .10 M o l e s t a t i o n 8 4.81 .10 Armed Robery 5 4.44 .26 Bur g l a r y 14 3.85 .30 S h o p l i f t / V a n d a l ism 17 3.60 .22 Status 6 2.03 .75 A l l Offenses 60 3.96 .87 42 As can be seen from an i n s p e c t i o n o f t h i s t a b l e , e a r l i e r e f f o r t s to s e l e c t s u b j e c t s i n such a way as to cover the f u l l spectrum o f p o s s i b l e o f f e n s e c a t e g o r i e s was reasonably s u c c e s s f u l , although few s u b j e c t s were a v a i l a b l e who had committed only s t a t u s o f f e n s e s . F o r t y - f i v e percent o f the sample f e l l i n t o each o f the property and person c a t e g o r i e s , and o n l y 10% i n t o the s t a t u s o f f e n s e category. P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , i t should be noted t h a t t h i s method o f c l a s s i f y i n g d e l i n q u e n c i e s (and perhaps the immorality r a t i n g s d e t a i l e d above) y i e l d e d d i s t r i b u t i o n s t h a t do not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t the base-rate o f such crimes i n the p o p u l a t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n t s as a whole. In f a c t the a c t u a l p r o p o r t i o n o f s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person o f f e n s e s committed by a d j u d i c a t e d d e l i n q u e n t s i n the g r e a t e r P o r t l a n d area d u r i n g the 1983 calander year (the l a s t year f o r which such s t a t i s t i c s were a v a i l a b l e ) are 30%, 62%, and 8% r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r comparison f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the immorality r a t i n g s . Given these sampling c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , the actual a b i l i t y to p r e d i c t e i t h e r the s e r i o u s n e s s or immorality o f other d e l i n q u e n t a c t s on the b a s i s o f the moral m a t u r i t y measures u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study may not be the same as , r e p o r t e d f o r the present sample. 3.2.3. I n t e r r e l a t i o n s between pe r c e i v e d immorality and s e r i o u s n e s s In the process o f developing the two methods o f c a t e g o r i z i n g the d e l i n q u e n t sample o u t l i n e d above i t was recognized t h a t the panel of judges who c a r r i e d out the t a s k o f g e n e r a t i n g the immorality r a t i n g s were l i k e l y to employ standards t h a t p a r a l l e l e d , to some degree, those a l r e a d y contained w i t h i n the more customary l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s o f s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person crimes. T h i s f o l l o w s from the f a c t t h a t our e x i s t i n g j u d i c i a l system i s , to a c e r t a i n degree, s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y intended as a t e c h n i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f the moral standards o f the s o c i e t y t h a t i t s e r v e s . Consequently a high l e v e l o f o v e r l a p between these two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 43 systems was not unexpected. S t i l l , i t was not s e l f - e v i d e n t l y the case t h a t any c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f crimes i n t o the usual c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person crimes would n e c e s s a r i l y m i r r o r group judgments as to the l e v e l o f p e r c e i v e d immorality i m p l i e d by i n such o f f e n s e s . In an e f f o r t to determine the degree to which these two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems a c t u a l l y o v e r l a p , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the more continuous immorality r a t i n g s were d i v i d e d i n t o rough t h i r d s and r e c a s t i n t o high, medium, and low l e v e l s . These c a t e g o r i c scores were then c r o s s - c l a s s i f i e d with the s e r i o u s n e s s dimension o f s t a t u s , property, and person crimes (see Table 6 ) . As can be seen from an i n s p e c t i o n of t h i s t a b l e , the dimensions o f s e r i o u s n e s s and p e r c e i v e d immorality are l a r g e l y o v e r l a p p i n g , with the bulk (82%) o f the person o f f e n s e s a l s o being judged to be the most immoral, and a l l o f the s t a t u s o f f e n s e s being c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a c t s o f low immorality. Cohen's Kappa (Cohen, 1960), a measure o f agreement between such c l a s s i f i c a t o r y systems, was c a l c u l a t e d on these data and y i e l d e d a concordance index o f .62, d e s c r i b e d by Cohen as "moderate". On the b a s i s o f these f i n d i n g s , i t appeared l i k e l y t h a t any tendency present i n the data f o r the v a r i o u s measures of moral m a t u r i t y to p r e d i c t the immorality o f d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s a l s o would apply i n some degree to the more conventional l e g a l i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s o f s e r i o u s n e s s . Subsequent analyses l a r g e l y confirmed t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n (see s e c t i o n 3.3.1). At the same time, however, the l a c k o f a complete o v e r l a p between these two measures, and t h e i r d i f f e r e n t conceptual r o o t s , recommended t h e i r j o i n t use. In a d d i t i o n , the continuous c h a r a c t e r of the immorality r a t i n g s made i t p o s s i b l e to undertake c e r t a i n more powerful parametric a n a l y s e s , f u r t h e r recommending the i n c l u s i o n of both of these outcome measures. Before proceding f u r t h e r with an a n a l y s i s o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between the s u b j e c t s ' moral m a t u r i t y scores and the l e v e l o f p e r c e v i e d 44 Table 6 C r o s s - C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Legal and Immorality Rating Systems Immorality Level Legal C a t e g o r i e s Low Moderate High Status 6 100% Property 10 37% 17 63% Person 1 4% 4 15% 22 82% Row T o t a l s 6 10% 27 45% 27 45% Column T o t a l s 17 28% 21 35% 22 37% 45 immorality o f t h e i r d e l i n q u e n t a c t s , an attempt was made to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y survey e x a c t l y what s o r t s o f behaviors had been l a b e l e d most and l e a s t immoral i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample. To t h i s end, the low, medium, and high l e v e l s o f p e r c e i v e d immorality generated f o r the preceding comparison with s e r i o u s n e s s were again considered and the s p e c i f i c d e l i n q u e n c i e s t h a t f e l l i n t o these c a t e g o r i e s were l i s t e d and s c r u t i n i z e d f o r p o s s i b l e common content. The u n a n t i c i p a t e d r e s u l t o f t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s was to draw to the s u r f a c e the f a c t t h a t 18 o f the 22 s u b j e c t s c a t e g o r i z e d as having committed h i g h l y immoral d e l i n q u e n c i e s had a l l been c o n v i c t e d of sexual crimes o f some d e s c r i p t i o n . Otherwise put, t h i s f i n d i n g r e p r e s e n t s the c o n j o i n t f a c t s t h a t , 1) the panel of judges who had c o n t r i b u t e d the immorality r a t i n g s c o n s i s t e n t l y saw sexual crimes along with other a s s a u l t i v e but non-sexual o f f e n s e s , as being h i g h l y m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e ; and 2) w i t h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample, the frequency o f such sexual crimes was much higher than t h a t o f a l l other e q u a l l y m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e but non-sexual o f f e n s e s . The upshot o f these f a c t s was t h a t i n t h i s sample, to be c a t e g o r i z e d as having p e r p e t r a t e d a delinquency high i n p e r c e i v e d immorality was a l l but co-extensive with having p e r p e t r a t e d a sexual crime. There i s no formal reason t h a t t h i s should have been the case i n t h a t the sample o f s u b j e c t s i n the high immorality group might j u s t as well have been c o n v i c t e d o f murder, arson, or a v a r i e t y o f other heinous but non-sexual o f f e n s e s . That t h i s was not so may r e f l e c t the r e a l but undocumented base r a t e s o f such sexual o f f e n s e s w i t h i n the general d e l i n q u e n t p o p u l a t i o n or, l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g l y , might be an a r t i f a c t o f unknown and n o n - g e n e r a l i z a b l e sampling b i a s e s unique to the p o p u l a t i o n under treatment at the Morrison Center from which the s u b j e c t s were drawn. In e i t h e r case, i t became apparent t h a t , i n t h i s sample, to be judged to have committed a h i g h l y immoral delinquency was tantamount to 46 being known to have committed a sexual o f f e n s e o f almost any d e s c r i p t i o n . V i o l e n t rapes and a p p a r e n t l y n o n - a s s a u l t i v e sexual a c t s , f o r example, commonly r e c e i v e d the same high immorality r a t i n g . For t h i s reason, the s e r i o u s prospect was r a i s e d t h a t what was o r i g i n a l l y intended as a s c o r i n g category r e s e r v e d f o r s e r i o u s l y immoral o f f e n s e s o f a wide v a r i e t y o f s o r t s had i n a d v e r t e n t l y become a proxy i n d i c a t o r o f sexual d e l i n q u e n c i e s i n t h i s study. On t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , and i n an e f f o r t to a v o i d c o n f u s i n g the general meaning o f immorality with matters s p e c i f i c to sexual o f f e n d e r s , i t was judged to be a p p r o p r i a t e to t e s t c e r t a i n o f the o r i g i n a l hypotheses, not only with the e n t i r e d e l i n q u e n t sample as o r i g i n a l l y planned, but a l s o to repeat c e r t a i n o f these analyses with the subsample of sexual o f f e n d e r s removed. The e f f e c t s o f t h i s post-hoc d e c i s i o n to sometimes t a b l e those s u b j e c t s who had s e x u a l l y offended was seen as c o n s e r v a t i v e , i n t h a t i t not only reduced the s i z e o f the study group, but a l s o r e s t r i c t e d the range o f the immorality r a t i n g s . Any r e l a t i o n between moral m a t u r i t y scores and immorality r a t i n g s t h a t might emerge w i t h i n t h i s r e s t r i c t e d i n t e r p r e t i v e context was consequently a n t i c i p a t e d to be both v a l i d and p o t e n t i a l l y more i n t e r p r e t a b l e . 3.3. The R e l a t i o n s h i p between Moral M a t u r i t y and  the Seriousness and Immorality o f Delinquent A c t s The p l a c e o f the non-delinquent c o n t r o l group i n any examination o f the r e l a t i o n between moral m a t u r i t y and the s e r i o u s n e s s or immorality o f d e l i n q u e n t a c t s i s open to m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . On the one hand they c o u l d be viewed as i r r e l e v a n t to any such a n a l y s i s because, having committed no known o f f e n s e , they l i t e r a l l y f a l l o f f of any continuous measure o f the s e r i o u s n e s s or immorality of d e l i n q u e n t a c t s , and t h e i r law a b i d i n g behavior c o u l d be viewed as having no p l a c e i n any category scheme i n v o l v i n g immoral or s t a t u s , property, and person crimes. From another 47 p e r s p e c t i v e , however, these same c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s m e a n i n g f u l l y anchor the dimensions o f s e r i o u s n e s s and immorality and t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n r e l e v a n t comparisons can be regarded as c r u c i a l . To t h i s end c e r t a i n comparisons were made e i t h e r i n c l u d i n g or e x c l u d i n g the non-delinquent s u b j e c t s . The f i r s t q u estion to be addressed i n t h i s s e c t i o n was a determination of the degree to which the dimensions o f p e r c e i v e d immorality and s e r i o u s n e s s vary i n some meaningful manner across the s i x measures o f moral m a t u r i t y . As an i n i t i a l means o f c o n s i d e r i n g such p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s , d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n analyses were computed using both immorality and s e r i o u s n e s s r a t i n g s as outcome measures. Table 7 d i s p l a y s the summary c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s o f these a c t u a l and the p r e d i c t e d group memberships f o r the immorality l e v e l s , i n c l u d i n g the non-delinquents as a z e r o - o r d e r immorality group. R e s u l t s from the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e an o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the f o u r immorality l e v e l s , F(3, 76) = 4.669, p_ < .001, with 65% of the e n t i r e sample being s u c c e s s f u l l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e immorality l e v e l s . T h i s r e s u l t c o u l d be viewed as somewhat i n f l a t e d , however, i n l i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f those c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d belonged to the non-delinquent group. Here again, as was the case i n e a r l i e r r e s u l t s based upon d i r e c t comparisons between d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent s u b j e c t s , Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e and Kohlberg's moral reasoning measure were the only v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n equation. As b e f o r e , a l l moral m a t u r i t y measures, with the s i n g l e exception o f empathy, c o r r e l a t e d e i t h e r moderately or h i g h l y with the s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n , again suggesting t h a t other o f the c o g n i t i v e and c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c measures c o u l d have played a s i m i l a r r o l e i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . 48 TABLE 7 D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analyses: C l a s s i f y i n g Delinquents and Non-delinquents According to Immorality Ratings Pooled Standardized Canonical within-group C o e f f i c i e n t s V a r i a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n .796 S o c i a l i z a t i o n .82 .532 Moral Reasoning .56 .101 Autonomy .42 .049 S o c i a l Convention .39 -.013 Interpersonal Awareness .36 -.045 Empathy .28 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary Table P r e d i c t e d Group Control Low Moderate High Actual Group n Control 20 17 1 1 1 (85%) (5%) (5%) (5%) Low 17 3 8 3 3 (18%) (47%) (18%) (18%) Moderate 21 0 4 12 5 (0%) (19%) (57%) (24%) High 20 2 1 4 15 (9%) (5%) (18%) (68%) 49 A p a r a l l e l d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s intended to determine the e f f i c i e n c y with which the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures c o u l d be employed to p r e d i c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l s u b j e c t s i n t o the l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s o f no o f f e n s e , s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person o f f e n s e s was a l s o planned. The t e s t o f homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e (Box's M = 87.166, F = 1.815, p_ < .001) f o r t h i s a n t i c i p a t e d a n a l y s i s was s i g n i f i c a n t , however, r e n d e r i n g the r e s u l t s u n i n t e r p r e t a b l e . In an attempt to reduce t h i s h e t e r o g e n e i t y the non-delinquent s u b j e c t s were dropped i n a second a n a l y s i s , but again a s i m i l a r r e s u l t was obtained (Box's M = 60.533, F = 2.524, p_ < .001). F i n a l l y , i t was reasoned t h a t the p o s s i b l e source o f t h i s h e t e r o g e n e i t y might be due e i t h e r to the small sample s i z e of the s t a t u s o f f e n d e r group, or the minor nature o f t h e i r d e l i n q u e n t s t a t u s . The r e s u l t s o f a f i n a l d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s t h a t excluded these s i x s t a t u s o f f e n d e r s but i n c l u d e d the non-delinquents d i d produce a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t o f homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a b l e based on the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n t i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e , F(6, 70) = 3.298, p_ < .001, and shows t h a t o v e r a l l , 72% o f the s u b j e c t s c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l l y p l a c e d i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f f e n s e c a t e g o r i e s . Because the number o f l e v e l s o f s e r i o u s n e s s i s d i f f e r e n t , however, these r e s u l t s are d i f f i c u l t t o compare to the counterpart a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g immorality r a t i n g s . I f the immorality r a t i n g l e v e l s are s i m i l a r l y reduced to two l e v e l s , however, a c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t there i s a 93% o v e r l a p between these two m e t r i c s and consequently suggests t h a t they are h i g h l y redundant. R e s u l t s o f an a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e e x p l o r i n g the r e l a t i o n between the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures and the f o u r l e v e l s o f immorality assigned to d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent s u b j e c t s are presented i n Table 8. T e s t s f o r homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t across a l l measures o f 50 TABLE 8 A n a l y s i s o f Var i a n c e : Levels o f Immorality and Moral M a t u r i t y Measures Immorality Level Non- Low Moderate High F Delinquent R a t i o Notes (ND) (L) (M) (H) (n=20) (n=17) (n=21) (n=22) Moral M=290 M=239 M=241 M=255 10.866 ND>L,M,H Reasoning SD=35.4 SD=36.6 SD=29.6 SD=22.6 p<.001 Inter p e r s o n a l M=287 M=255 M=237 M=260 4.702 ND>M Awareness SD=42.4 SD=38.2 SD=51.4 SD=36.2 p<.005 S o c i a l M=414 M=345 M=298 M=374 7.317 ND>M Convention SD=74.2 SD=96.9 SD=75.2 SD=80.8 p<.001 H>M Empathy M=36 M=32 M=31 M=33 2.809 ND>M SD=5.5 SD=5.6 SD=3.6 SD=5.8 p<.05 S o c i a l i z a t i o n M=51 M=35 M=29 M=28 20.802 ND>L,M,H SD=12.7 SD=7.7 SD=10.9 SD=13.5 p<.001 Autonomy M=50 M=39 M=38 M=38 5.318 ND>L,M,H SD=9.6 SD=7.7 SD=10.9 SD=13.5 p<.002 51 moral m a t u r i t y . Once again main e f f e c t s were found f o r f i v e o f the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures a f t e r per comparison e r r o r r a t e was adjusted to p < .008. Tukey's post hoc analyses were used to f u r t h e r assess p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. For three o f these measures ( i . e . , moral reasoning, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and autonomy) the non-delinquents were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more m o r a l l y mature than were the d e l i n q e n t s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r immorality l e v e l s . On these measures no other d i f f e r e n c e s between the d e l i n q u e n t groups were observed. For the remaining three v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, s o c i a l convention understanding, and empathy) the planned comparisons r e v e a l e d a p a t t e r n o f both a n t i c i p a t e d and u n a n t i c i p a t e d r e s u l t s . In every case where the non-delinquents were c o n t r a s t e d s e p a r a t e l y with each o f the other groups only those d e l i n q u e n t s i n the "moderate" l e v e l of immorality proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the non-delinquent s u b j e c t s . While the f a c t t h a t the non-delinquents were s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the "low" immorality group was not e s p e c i a l l y s u r p r i s i n g , the o p p o s i t e r e s u l t had been expected with the "high" immorality s u b j e c t s . A f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f these counter-i n t u i t i v e f i n d i n g s i s taken up i n f u r t h e r analyses i n which those d e l i n q u e n t s whose of f e n s e s were sexual i n nature are examined s e p a r a t e l y . Among the remaining comparisons the only a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g to emerge was t h a t , again s u r p r i s i n g l y , the high immorality group r e c e i v e d b e t t e r s o c i a l convention scores than d i d the moderate immorality group. The i n t e r p r e t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s presented by t h i s unexpected f i n d i n g are a l s o f u r t h e r addressed i n s e c t i o n 3.3.2, where other comparisons i n v o l v i n g the sex o f f e n d e r group are taken up. The r e s u l t s of p a r a l l e l analyses of v a r i a n c e , t h i s time concerned the r e l a t i o n between the s e r i o u s n e s s measure ( i . e . , no o f f e n s e , s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person) and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s i x moral m a t u r i t y 52 measures, showed a l l t e s t s o f homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e as n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . Since the r e s u l t s show c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p with those presented i n Table 7, they are not presented i n a separate t a b l e . Although there were again main e f f e c t s f o r the same f i v e moral m a t u r i t y measures a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s emerged than was r e p o r t e d with the immorality measures. Only on Kohlberg's measure o f moral reasoning d i d the non-delinquents do b e t t e r than a l l c l a s s e s o f s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person o f f e n d e r s c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . Once again, i n every other case the non-delinquents were i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the s t a t u s o f f e n d e r s , but evidenced g r e a t e r moral m a t u r i t y than the property o f f e n d e r s . The non-delinquents out-performed the person o f f e n d e r s only on the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and autonomy s c a l e s . As before, the non-delinquents and the most s e r i o u s d e l i n q u e n t s were not d i f f e r e n t on the i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness task, s o c i a l convention understanding, or empathy s c a l e . Among the remaining comparisons c o n t r a s t i n g the s e r i o u s n e s s c a t e g o r i e s , the o n l y a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g to emerge was t h a t the s t a t u s o f f e n d e r s obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher s o c i a l i z a t i o n scores than e i t h e r the property or person o f f e n d e r s . 3.3.1. C o r r e l a t i o n a l analyses r e l a t i n g immorality r a t i n g s to moral  m a t u r i t y measures In the d i s c r i m i n a n t analyses d e s c r i b e d i n the previous s e c t i o n , i t was necessary to f o r c e the continuous immorality r a t i n g s i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i c l e v e l s r e p r e s e n t i n g low, moderate, and high degrees o f p e r c e i v e d immorality. What was l o s t i n t h i s process was the o p p o r t u n i t y to c a p i t a l i z e upon the continuous c h a r a c t e r of these r a t i n g s . Consequently, i n a f u r t h e r attempt to e v a l u t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the r a t e d immorality o f d e l i n q u e n t a c t s and moral maturity, c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between these measures w i t h i n the d e l i n q u e n t sample. The r e s u l t s 53 o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures, only Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with p e r c e i v e d immorality, r(60) = -.46, p<.01. I f the d e l i n q u e n t s are f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o those who were and were not c o n v i c t e d o f sexual o f f e n s e s , however, d i f f e r e n t and i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s emerge. An examination o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s presented i n Table 9 shows t h a t among the non-sexual o f f e n d e r group a l l three o f Hogan's p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s were i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the immorality r a t i n g s . That i s , s u b j e c t s who were the l e a s t empathic, well s o c i a l i z e d and the l e a s t autonomous tended to commit a c t s t h a t were r a t e d as most immoral. S u r p r i s i n g l y , however, w i t h i n the sex o f f e n d e r group, there was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between both Kohlberg's measure of moral reasoning and Selman's measure of i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, Hogan's measure o f autonomy, and r a t e d l e v e l s of immorality. I f per comparison e r r o r r a t e s are c a l c u l a t e d f o r both o f these s e t s o f s i x comparisons, with a r e s u l t i n g alpha l e v e l o f .008, only the negative c o r r e l a t i o n between s o c i a l i z a t i o n and immorality r a t i n g s f o r the non s e x - o f f e n d e r group i s s i g n i f i c a n t . I f a l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e approach i s taken to these data and c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t reach the .05 l e v e l are i n t e r p r e t e d , then these r e s u l t s suggest t h a t while members o f the non-sex o f f e n d e r group l a c k the empathy, s o c i a l i z a t i o n s k i l l s and autonomy to put t h e i r l i m i t e d moral reasoning competences i n t o p r a c t i c e , very d i f f e r e n t processes are at work with the sexual o f f e n d e r s who, p a r a d o x i c a l l y show a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between moral reasoning, i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and autonomy, and the p e r c e i v e d immorality of t h e i r a c t s . 3.3.2. S p e c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n I n v o l v i n g the J u v e n i l e Sex Offenders Based on the analyses j u s t r e p o r t e d showing d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f r e s u l t s f o r sex o f f e n d e r and non-sex o f f e n d e r s and given the f a c t t h a t sex 54 TABLE 9 Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n s Between the Immorality o f Delinquent Acts and Moral M a t u r i t y Measures A l l Sex Non-Sex Delinquents Offenders Offenders (n=60) (n=18) (n=42) Moral Reasoning .15 .46* .01 Inte r p e r s o n a l Awareness .06 .50* -.11 S o c i a l Convention .13 -.02 -.25 Empathy .03 .19 -.29* S o c i a l i z a t i o n -.46** .09 -.63*** Autonomy -.09 .48* -.29* O n e - t a i l e d t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e ; * p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<.001 55 o f f e n s e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y assigned very high immorality r a t i n g s , a reworking o f many o f the e a r l i e r analyses seemed c a l l e d f o r . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t seemed a p p r o p r i a t e to re-examine a l l those hypotheses concerning a n t i c i p a t e d r e l a t i o n s between immorality and s e r i o u s n e s s r a t i n g s and the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures. Under t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i t was hoped t h a t the o r i g i n a l l y hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s between immorality and the s i x measures o f moral m a t u r i t y would be even more s t r o n g l y supported. The r e s u l t s of a M u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n c l u d i n g these s i x measures o f moral m a t u r i t y y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t , F (6,71) = 3.640, p_ < .003, warranting the computation o f i n d i v i d u a l F - t e s t s o f the v a r i a b l e s . Table 10 presents the r e s u l t s o f ANOVA's, with IQ estimate as a c o v a r i a t e , c o n t r a s t i n g sex o f f e n d e r s , non-sex o f f e n d e r d e l i n q u e n t s and non-delinquents across these s i x measures. T h i s approach proved only reasonably p r o d u c t i v e . B a r t l e t ' s t e s t o f homogeniety was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t across a l l measures o f moral m a t u r i t y and the Tukey ranges t e s t was used to evaluate d i f f e r e n c e s between these three groups. Even a d j u s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l to account f o r per comparison e r r o r r a t e (p<.008), a l l f i v e o f the moral m a t u r i t y measures, with the usual exception o f the empathy s c a l e , once again proved to s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e the non-delinquent and d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s where o f f e n s e s were non-sexual. Tukey post hoc comparisons i n d i c a t e t h a t there were no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the sex o f f e n d e r s and the non-delinquent samples on i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, understanding of s o c i a l convention, or empathy. Table 11 p o r t r a y s a more d e t a i l e d breakdown f o r the performances f o r the c o g n i t i v e reasoning measures across the three groups. T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t while the sex o f f e n d e r s were o n e - t h i r d o f a stage behind the non-delinquents, the d e l i n q u e n t s whose o f f e n s e s were non-sexual i n nature 56 TABLE 10 A n a l y s i s o f Co-Variance: J u v e n i l e Sex Offend e r s , Non-Sex Offenders, and Non-delinquents by Moral M a t u r i t y Sex Non-sex Non-Offenders Offenders Delinquents (n-18) (SO) (n-42) (NS01 (n-20) INDJ. F - r a t i o s Notes Moral M=255 M=242 M=290 15.696 ND>S0,NS0 Reasoning SD=21.97 SD=32.24 SD=35.36 p<.001 Inter p e r s o n a l M=261 M=246 M=287 6.099 ND>NS0 Awareness SD=38.67 SD=44.60 SD=42.37 p<.005 S o c i a l Convention M=392 SD=72.65 M=317 SD=85.83 M=414 SD=74.22 11.972 p<.001 ND>NS0 S0>NS0 Empathy M=31 SD=5.65 M=31 SD=4.58 M=36 SD=5.48 5.537 p<.01 ND>NS0 S o c i a l i z a t i o n M=29 M=31 M=51 27.796 ND>S0,NS0 SD=9.57 SD=10.1 SD=12.7 p<.001 Autonomy M=40 SD=13.8 M=38 SD=9.8 M=50 SD=9.6 8.127 p<.001 ND>S0,NS0 57 TABLE 11 Stage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Moral Reasoning, Interpersonal Awareness, and S o c i a l Convention Understanding by Group Moral Reasoning Global Stage Score 2(1) 2 2(3) 2/3 3(2) 3 3(4) Non-Delinquents 0 1 5% 1 5% 3 15% 1 5% 12 60% 2 10% Non-Sex Offenders 3 7% 8 19% 8 19% 11 26% 6 14% 5 12% 1 2% Sex Offenders 0 1 6% 7 39% 2 11% 4 22% 4 22% 0 Interpersonal Awareness Global Stage Score 1 1(2) 2(1) 2 2(3) 3(2) 3 3(4) Non-Delinquents 0 0 0 2 10% 1 5% 2 10% 12 60% 3 15% Non-Sex Offenders 1 2% 1 2% 0 6 14% 9 21% 14 33% 11 26% 0 Sex Offenders 0 0 0 4 22% 4 22% 2 11% 8 44% 0 S o c i a l Convention Understanding Level 1 2 3 4 5 6 Non-Delinquents 0 0 4 20% 9 45% 7 35% 0 Non-Sex Offenders 1 2% 8 19% 18 42% 13 31% 2 5% 0 Sex Offenders 0 0 5 28% 10 56% 2 11% 1 6% 58 were on e - h a l f a stage below. S i m i l a r l y , on the i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness t a s k , sex o f f e n d e r s scored one-quarter o f a stage below the non-d e l i n q u e n t s while the d e l i n q u e n t s other than sexual o f f e n d e r s scored t w o - f i f t h s o f a stage lower. F i n a l l y , with regards t o s o c i a l convention l e v e l , the sex o f f e n d e r s were approximately equal to the non-delinquents whereas the the remaining group of d e l i n q u e n t s scored a f u l l stage below the non d e l i n q u e n t s . C o n s i s t a n t with previous i n v e s t i g a t o r s (e.g., Walker, 1980) t h a t s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, was found to be a necessary but not s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n f o r moral reasoning f o r the non-delinquents. T h i s r e l a t i o n , however, d i d not hold t r u e f o r the d e l i n q u e n t sample, who scored 25% higher stage attainment i n the moral m a t u r i t y task than i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness. In an attempt to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y these r e s u l t s and to e v a l u a t e the c o n s i s t e n c y across measures w i t h i n each group, Cronbach alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed on the d e r i v e d f a c t o r s c a l e s of the moral m a t u r i t y measures (see Table 3 ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t members o f the sex o f f e n d e r group showed poor i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r both the c o g n i t i v e reasoning f a c t o r (alpha=.32) and Hogan's moral p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r (alpha=.42) i n d i c a t i n g u n r e l i a b l e measurement. The non-sex o f f e n d e r d e l i n q u e n t s , however, generated higher alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s (alpha=.58 and .57 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t , i n c o n t r a s t to the sexual o f f e n d e r group, members o f the non-sex o f f e n d e r sample were reasonably c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r response p a t t e r n s across a l l the moral m a t u r i t y measures. These f i n d i n g are l e n t a d d i t i o n a l meaning when a more d e t a i l e d i n s p e c t i o n o f the i n t e r - v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n matrix i s c a r r i e d out. The c o r r e l a t i o n matrix, presented as Table 12, shows t h a t on the c o g n i t i v e reasoning measures the non-sex o f f e n d e r s have a p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s 59 TABLE 12 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i c e s o f Moral M a t u r i t y Measures: J u v e n i l e Sex Offenders and Delinquent Non-Sex Offenders+ MR IA SConv Emp Soc Aut Delinquent (Non-sex offenders)(n=42) Moral Reasoning (MR) In t e r p e r s o n a l Awareness (IA) S o c i a l Convention (SConv) Empathy (Emp) S o c i a l i z a t i o n (Soc) Autonomy (Aut) \ .46 *** 40** \ ,58 ** 19 .23 .40 ** \ \ ,24 .04 ,21 \ \ ,11 ,07 ,27" \ ,20 \ -.03 .06 ,21 ,27" \ \ 10 .16 .07 \ \ \ 11 .03 19 .48 *** ,33 ** ,28 .09 .12 .67*** .05 J u v e n i l e Sex Offenders (n=18) + Note t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix f o r the n o n - j u v e n i l e sex o f f e n d e r s i s i n the upper t r i a n g l e and the i n the lower t r i a n g l e f o r the j u v e n i l e sex o f f e n d e r s . A l l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s are o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s . * p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<.001 60 s i m i l a r to those o f the non-delinquent sample (see Table 4 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s among the c o g n i t i v e reasoning measures and among Hogan's moral c h a r a c t e r s c a l e s , but not between these two moral m a t u r i t y domains. The r e s u l t s f o r the sex o f f e n d e r group were c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t . Only two r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s i g n i f i c a n t , t h a t between moral reasoning and i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness and between empathy and autonomy. In summary, the r e s u l t s reported i n t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e mixed support f o r the s e r i e s of hypotheses t h a t p r e d i c t e d t h a t the s i x measures of moral m a t u r i t y would d i s c r i m i n a t e among more or l e s s immoral and s e r i o u s o f f e n d e r s . C o n s i s t e n t with these e x p e c t a t i o n s , non-delinquents d i d prove to be more empathic, b e t t e r able to take the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f others and more competent i n understanding s o c i a l conventions than d e l i n q u e n t s at every l e v e l o f immorality and s e r i o u s n e s s . Contrary to e x p e c t a t i o n , however, the measures o f moral reasoning, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and autonomy d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e these groups i n any s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d way. Here the usual p a t t e r n was t h a t the non-delinquents: 1) were not m e a n i n g f u l l y d i f f e r e n t from the s t a t u s o f f e n d e r or low immorality groups; 2) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the property o f f e n d e r and moderate immorality groups, but, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , 3) were i n d i s t i n q u i s h a b l e from the most immoral, person o f f e n d e r d e l i n q u e n t groups. A p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a s t u n a n t i c i p a t e d f i n d i n g i s to be found i n the f a c t t h a t those d e l i n q u e n t s who had offended a g a i n s t persons and who were r a t e d as most immoral proved, i n 18 cases out o f 20, to have been c o n v i c t e d o f a sexual crime. When, t h i s sexual o f f e n d e r group was t e m p o r a r i l y removed from the sample some a d d i t i o n a l support f o r a subset o f the o r i g i n a l hypotheses was obtained, along with a s e r i e s o f p o t e n t i a l l y i n f o r m a t i v e f i n d i n g s about the sexual o f f e n d e r group i t s e l f . These i n t e r p r e t i v e matters are taken up 61 i n d e t a i l i n the d i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n . 3.4. Psychopathy The concept o f psychopathy, as a r t i c u l a t e d by C l e c k l y (1976) and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by Hare (1980), has become a l l but synonymous with s e r i o u s and c h r o n i c d i s r e g a r d f o r s o c i e t a l values and, consequently, o f f e r s the prospect o f an a l t e r n a t i v e approach i n d i m e n s i o n a l i z i n g d e l i n q u e n t conduct. On the s t r e n g t h o f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , a l l o f the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study were r a t e d using Hare's Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t (PCL) with the i n t e n t i o n o f t r e a t i n g these r a t i n g s as an outcome measure to which the v a r i o u s i n d i c e s o f moral m a t u r i t y might be r e l a t e d . Because at the time t h a t t h i s research was formulated the PCL has not p r e v i o u s l y been employed with a d o l e s c e n t s , an e v a l u t i o n o f i t s psychometric p r o p e r t i e s as they s p e c i f i c a l l y p e r t a i n to t h i s sample were c a r r i e d out. These f i n d i n g s are presented f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by r e s u l t s which o u t l i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral m a t u r i t y and psychopathy. 3.4.1. P r i n c i p a l components s t r u c t u r e o f the Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t A p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was undertaken to assess the degree to which the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r the r a t i n g s assigned to t h i s sample reproduced item c o n s t e l l a t i o n s s i m i l a r to those found by Hare and Harper (1987). The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , presented i n Table 13, suggest the presence o f three orthogonal f a c t o r s . A t o t a l o f 63% o f the v a r i a n c e was accounted f o r i n t h i s a n a l y s i s and item communalities ranging from .43 (bored) to .76 ( i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) . The items i n the f i r s t f a c t o r d e p i c t v a r i o u s aspects o f m o t i v a t i o n a l d i s p o s i t i o n , where a l a c k o f w i l l i n g n e s s to accept personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's behavior and a p e r c e p t i o n of one's l i f e as b o r i n g , e t c . appear to c o n t r i b u t e to a p r o p e n s i t y to act i n a n t i s o c i a l ways. The second f a c t o r , l a b e l e d moral  sentiment, c o n t a i n s a group o f items i n d i c a t i v e o f an emotional 62 TABLE 13 F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f Hare's Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t M o t i v a t i o n a l Moral Behavioral D e f i c i t Sentiment Deviance Communalitv F a c t o r 1 F a c t o r 2 F a c t o r 3 I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .763 Lack o f r e a l i s t i c g o a ls .655 No r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a c t i o n s .638 I m p u l s i v i t y .678 Poor Behavioral c o n t r o l s .690 Proneness to boredom .437 .853 .780 .712 .705 .699 .600 .189 .214 .294 .162 .212 .393 .437 .235 Lack remorse or g u i l t .728 C a l l o u s , l a c k o f empathy .725 Grandiose s e l f worth .684 Shallow a f f e c t .624 G l i b , s u p e r f i c i a l charm .574 .236 .362 .215 .803 .799 .705 .695 .655 .274 .175 .424 .313 Promiscuous sex behavior .650 P a t h o l o g i c a l l y i n g .640 Conning, m a n i p u l a t i v e .665 C r i m i n a l v e r s a t i l i t y .577 E a r l y behavior problems .498 P a r a s i t i c l i f e s t y l e .528 Eigen values Cumulative Variance .388 .265 .514 .357 .417 7.749 46% .152 .265 .473 .368 .365 1.792 56% .792 .647 .609 .548 .485 .470 1.213 63% 63 shallowness and a general d i s r e g a r d f o r the f e e l i n g s , p e r s p e c t i v e s , or f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s . The t h i r d f a c t o r focuses on a n t i s o c i a l behaviors and d e s c r i b e s young persons whose behaviors tend to be c r i m i n a l and e x p l o i t i v e . These f i n d i n g s , although m a r g i n a l l y d i f f e r e n t than those presented by Hare and Harper, are not at s e r i o u s v a r i a n c e with them. Hare and Harper i d e n t i f i e d a 2 - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n with an o b l i q u e r o t a t i o n , made up o f a p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r ("Poverty o f a f f e c t and verbal d u p l i c i t y " ) and a b e h a v i o r a l ("Chronic a n t i s o c i a l behavior") f a c t o r . E s s e n t i a l l y , the m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r obtained i n the present study i s made up o f items t h a t were spread across both o f Hare and Harper's f a c t o r s . One t e c h n i c a l reason f o r these minor d i f f e r e n c e s may be t h a t the analyses i n t h i s study were conducted on a 17-item v e r s i o n o f Hare's o r i g i n a l 22-item s c a l e . To f u r t h e r e v a l u a t e these d e r i v e d f a c t o r s , Cronbach alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed to determine i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y among the items forming each of the s u b - s c a l e s as well as the o v e r a l l 17-item s c a l e . The alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the m o t i v a t i o n a l , moral sentiment, and b e h a v i o r a l s c a l e s were .88, .85, and .84, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t o t a l PCL s c a l e alpha was .92. These Cronbach alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s are q u i t e high, i n d i c a t i n g both i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y between items w i t h i n the o v e r a l l PCL s c a l e , and w i t h i n the items o f the three d e r i v e d s u b s c a l e s . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the t h r e e subscales were moderate, ranging from r=.52 (m o t i v a t i o n with moral sentiment) to .68 (moral sentiment with b e h a v i o r ) . 3.4.2. Psychopathy and moral m a t u r i t y Because so many items on the PCL concern the presence or absence of a c r i m i n a l h i s t o r y , i t was e s s e n t i a l l y t r u e by d e f i n i t i o n t h a t the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent s u b j e c t s would d i f f e r on t h i s measure. T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n was c l e a r l y confirmed, with the non-delinquents r e c e i v i n g a mean psychopathy r a t i n g o f 3 (SD = 4.8) and the d e l i n q u e n t s r e c e i v i n g an 64 average r a t i n g o f 26 (SD = 11.4). Because o f het e r o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e , ( B a r t l e t - B o x F = 15.123, p_ < .001), no v a l i d t e s t s o f t h i s obvious d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be conducted. As p r e d i c t e d , however, there was a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r (60) = .41, p_ < .001) between psychopathy and immorality r a t i n g s . In view o f these and e a r l i e r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g a str o n g r e l a t i o n between immorality r a t i n g s and the commission o f sexual crimes, a f u r t h e r attempt was a l s o made to determine whether there was a l s o a r e l a t i o n between psychopathy and the presence or absence o f such sexual o f f e n s e s . In f a c t only s i x o f the s u b j e c t s c a t e g o r i z e d as psychopathic had a l s o s e x u a l l y offended and an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t sex o f f e n d e r and non-sex o f f e n d e r s d i d not o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t psychopathy scores, F ( l , 5 8 ) = 2.887, p_ = .09. When a t t e n t i o n was turned to the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between the t o t a l Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t scores and the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures, only Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n measure was shown to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d (see Table 14). When s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were computed s e p a r a t e l y f o r the sex o f f e n d e r and non-sex o f f e n d e r groups the only new f i n d i n g was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between psychopathy and autonomy f o r the sex o f f e n d e r s u b j e c t s . The p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between psychopathy and s o c i a l i z a t i o n a l s o p e r s i s t e d f o r the non-sex o f f e n d e r d e l i n q u e n t s , but not f o r the sex o f f e n d e r group. T h i s and other n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t may be an a r t i f a c t , however, o f the reduced range o f immorality r a t i n g s among the sex o f f e n d e r group. Given the general absence o f low r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the o v e r a l l index o f psychopathy and the moral m a t u r i t y measures, a d d i t i o n a l Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed between each o f the three d e r i v e d f a c t o r s c a l e s o f psychopathy and the moral m a t u r i t y measures (See Table 14). For TABLE 14 65 C o r r e l a t i o n s between the Psychopathy F a c t o r Scales and Measures o f Moral M a t u r i t y F a c t o r S c a l e s Psychopathy M o t i v a t i o n a l Moral Behavioral C h e c k l i s t D e f i c i t Sentiment Deviance A l l Delinquents (n=60) Moral Reasoning -.04 -.25* .08 .08 Inte r p e r s o n a l Awareness -.03 -.16 .00 .08 S o c i a l Convention .11 -.03 .17 .15 Empathy .01 -.14 .08 .08 S o c i a l i z a t i o n -.47*** -.37** -.38*** _ ^ 47*** Autonomy .07 -.02 .05 .14 Non-Sex Offenders (n=42) Moral Reasoning -.15 -.30* -.12 .03 Inte r p e r s o n a l Awareness -.16 -.22 -.20 .00 S o c i a l Convention -.02 -.09 -.02 .07 Empathy -.20 -.23 -.14 -.14 S o c i a l i z a t i o n -.46*** -.33* _ ^ 47*** -.43** Autonomy -.08 -.07 -.12 -.03 Sex Offenders (n=18) Moral Reasoning .25 .00 .56** .08 In t e r p e r s o n a l Awareness .29 .11 .45* .17 S o c i a l Convention .23 .22 .32 .05 Empathy .34 .12 .29 .39 S o c i a l i z a t i o n -.47* -.56** -.03 -.53** Autonomy .39* .11 .37 .46* O n e - t a i l e d t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e ; * p<.05; ** p<.01; *** p<. 001 66 reasons s i m i l a r to those o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r , these c o r r e l a t i o n s are a l s o r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r a l l d e l i n q u e n t s combined, non-sex o f f e n d e r d e l i n q u e n t s , and sex o f f e n d e r s . These r e s u l t s show t h a t Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e continued to show a moderately high c o r r e l a t i o n with a l l t h r e e psychopathy f a c t o r s c a l e s w i t h i n most o f these comparison groups. The s i n g l e exception to t h i s occured with the sex o f f e n d e r group where moral sentiment f a c t o r scores d i d not c o r r e l a t e with s o c i a l i z a t i o n . A new f i n d i n g to emerge i n t h i s more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s was t h a t with the sex o f f e n d e r group an unexpected p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was observed between the moral sentiment f a c t o r and both moral reasoning and i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness. In other words, among the sex o f f e n d e r group the b e t t e r t h e i r reasoning about moral dilemmas and the g r e a t e r t h e i r a b i l i t y t o take the p e r s p e c t i v e o f o t h e r s , the l e s s l i k e l y they are to show remorse, g u i l t , empathy, and the other d e s c r i p t o r s t h a t make up what has been l a b e l e d here the moral sentiment s c a l e . Although t h i s r e s u l t appears counter-i n t u i t i v e , i t c o u l d be seen as c o n s i s t e n t with the view t h a t what psychopathic i n d i v i d u a l s l a c k are not so much s o c i a l c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , but an i n t e r e s t i n a p p l y i n g these a b i l i t i e s f o r a l t r u i s t i c or p r o s o c i a l ends. The only other s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n observed was an o v e r a l l negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral reasoning and the f i r s t f a c t o r s c a l e , l a b e l e d m o t i v a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t across the d e l i n q u e n t p o p u l a t i o n , or as a whole, those i n d i v i d u a l s who were r a t e d more h i g h l y on items a s s o c i a t e d with poor m o t i v a t i o n ( i . e . , proneness to boredom, i r r e s p o n s i b l e , e t c . ) c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y achieved lower moral reasoning s c o r e s . 3.4.3. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f psychopaths and non-psychopaths I f the standard s c o r i n g convention recommended by Hare i s adopted, 16 youth from the sample o f 60 d e l i n q u e n t s would be c l a s s i f i e d as 67 psychopathic. Using t h i s as a grouping f a c t o r , f u r t h e r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were sought between t h i s dependent measure and the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s , F (6, 72) = 5.832, p. < .001. Table 15 h i g h l i g h t s the r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s which i n d i c a t e s t h a t 70% o f the cases can be s u c c e s s f u l l y c l a s s i f i e d as psychopathic or non-psychopathic based on the d i r e c t method approach t h a t i n c l u d e s a l l v a r i a b l e s i n t o the formula. The a b i l i t y t o c l a s s i f y these youth was l a r g e l y determined, however, by Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n and autonomy s c a l e s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the s t a n d a r d i z e d f u n c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t a high autonomy l o a d i n g combined with negative s o c i a l i z a t i o n produce the l a r g e s t weights. Although much sm a l l e r i n magnitude, the moral reasoning measure a l s o makes some c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s o v e r a l l formula. S i m i l a r l y the pooled within-group c o r r e l a t i o n s show t h a t only Hogan's three p e r s o n o l o g i c or moral c h a r a c t e r s c a l e s r e l a t e d to the s t a n d a r d i z e d f u n c t i o n , while the three c o g n i t i v e reasoning measures showed c o r r e l a t i o n s c l o s e to zero. In summary, the Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t when a p p l i e d to t h i s sample of y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s showed strong psychometric p r o p e r t i e s , d i v i d e d i n t o three e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e c l i n i c a l s c a l e s ( i . e . , m o t i v a t i o n , moral sentiment, and b e h a v i o r ) , and y i e l d e d high i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t a n c i e s f o r the complete c h e c k l i s t and f o r the separate f a c t o r e d s c a l e s . The r e s u l t s presented i n t h i s s e c t i o n do not lend support to f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by some i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( i . e . , J u r k o v i c , 1980) suggesting t h a t psychopaths are delayed i n t h e i r moral reasoning competence compared to non-psychopathic d e l i n q u e n t s . The only s i n g l e moral ma t u r i t y measure s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with psychopathy was Hogan's index o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Here, those s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d high psychopathy r a t i n g s were a l s o shown to be TABLE 15 D i s c r i m i n a n t Function Analyses: C l a s s i f y i n g Psychopaths and Non-psychopaths Standardized Canonical C o e f f i c i e n t s V a r i a b l e Pooled within-group C o r r e l a t i o n .89 -.77 .00 .13 .15 -.33 Autonomy .64 S o c i a l i z a t i o n -.50 Empathy .33 S o c i a l Convention .08 Interpersonal Awareness .07 Moral Reasoning -.05 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary Table P r e d i c t e d Group Non-psychopaths Psychopaths Actual Group n Non-psychopaths 44 31 13 (71%) (30%) Psychopaths 16 5 11 (31%) (69%) 70% o f case were c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f i e d 69 more p o o r l y s o c i a l i z e d . More d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f a c t o r s c a l e s r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r non-sex o f f e n d e r d e l i n q u e n t s , low l e v e l s o f moral reasoning were a s s o c i a t e d with low l e v e l s o f m o t i v a t i o n . Two o f Hogan's moral c h a r a c t e r v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , autonomy and s o c i a l i z a t i o n ) served as the c h i e f p r e d i c t o r s i n c l a s s i f y i n g d e l i n q u e n t s i n t o the psychopathic and non-psychopathic groups while the three c o g n i t i v e reasoning v a r i a b l e s appeared to have l i t t l e p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y . 70 CHAPTER 4 D i s c u s s i o n The goal o f t h i s study was to explore p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between moral m a t u r i t y and moral a c t i o n by comparing v a r i o u s i n d i c a t o r s o f moral development d e s c r i p t i v e o f young persons p o s i t i o n e d along dimensions o f i n c r e a s i n g lawlessness and p e r c e i v e d immorality. The c o a r s e s t cut through these data y i e l d e d r e s u l t s t h a t m i r r o r s c a t t e r e d f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by other i n v e s t i g a t o r s demonstrating d i f f e r e n c e s between d e l i n q u e n t and non-d e l i n q u e n t s on one or another measure o f moral m a t u r i t y . The present f i n d i n g s d i f f e r e d from p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s gleaned from e a r l i e r u n i v a r i a t e s t u d i e s p a r t i a l l y as a consequence of the f a c t t h a t a broader m a n i f o l d o f moral m a t u r i t y measures was c o n s i d e r e d . The general p i c t u r e t h a t emerged was t h a t , by almost every standard o f measurement evaluated, the non-delinquent s u b j e c t s showed more evidence o f moral m a t u r i t y than d i d t h e i r d e l i n q u e n t c o u n t e r p a r t s . Here, the n o v e l t y o f the present r e s u l t s l i e , not so much i n once again demonstrating the i n d i v i d u a l e f f i c a c y o f c e r t a i n o f these separate p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , but i n the aggregate p i c t u r e t h a t emerged from t h e i r simultaneous c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Subsequent to these " e i t h e r - o r " comparisons, a f u r t h e r s e r i e s of analyses was undertaken i n an e f f o r t to determine the extent to which these same i n d i c a t o r s o f moral m a t u r i t y were p r e d i c t i v e o f the degree to which p a r t i c u l a r adolescents had s t r a y e d from usual moral or l e g a l standards. Here, the u n a n t i c i p a t e d f a c t t h a t almost a l l of the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s whose o f f e n s e s were r a t e d as most m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e a l s o proved to have been c o n v i c t e d o f sexual crimes i n t r u d e d i n t o the 71 p r e v i o u s l y planned comparisons, and f o r c e d c e r t a i n m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the a n t i c i p a t e d data a n a l y s i s s t r a t e g y . Despite t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y , two major c l a s s e s o f f i n d i n g s s t i l l emerged. F i r s t , as a n t i c i p a t e d , a l l but one of the moral m a t u r i t y measures d i d prove to p r e d i c t t o the degree o f se r i o u s n e s s and immorality, as well as the simple presence o r absence o f de l i n q u e n t a c t s . Further, other o f these r e s u l t s went some d i s t a n c e toward e s t a b l i s h i n g t h a t adolescents c o n v i c t e d o f sexual o f f e n s e s possess a unique, but s t i l l i n t e r p r e t a b l e , p a t t e r n o f moral development d i f f i c u l t i e s . F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s are seen to make some c o n t r i b u t i o n to f u r t h e r i n g our understanding o f the s t r u c t u r e and pl a c e o f psychopathy i n i n t e r p r e t i n g j u v e n i l e delinquency. In the pages t h a t f o l l o w each o f these matters are taken up i n f u r t h e r d e t a i l and e f f o r t s are made to d i s c u s s t h e i r p o t e n t i a l r e l e v a n c e , both as a means o f b e t t e r understanding d e l i n q u e n t behavior and as a t o o l i n d e c i p h e r i n g the t h e o r e t i c p l a c e o f moral development i n accounting f o r a n t i s o c i a l behavior. Following a f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f these matters, a t t e n t i o n i s turned t o a f i n a l d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f the p e r c e i v e d l i m i t a t i o n s o f the present study and an e x p l o r a t i o n o f the rele v a n c e o f these f i n d i n g s as a guide to f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 4.1. Delinquents versus Non-Delinquents: A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i c  f i n d i n g s and t h e i r relevance f o r the moral developmental process As d e t a i l e d i n s e c t i o n 1.1.1, previous research i n t o the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f measures o f moral m a t u r i t y to an understanding o f de l i n q u e n t behavior has tended to be u n i v a r i a t e i n i t s c o n c e p t i o n , s e p a r a t e l y t r a c i n g out the p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t i v e or t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t o r s o f moral m a t u r i t y . What i s o b v i o u s l y l o s t i n a l l such s i n g l e focus i n q u i r i e s i s a broader conception o f the i n t e r a c t i o n and r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the se v e r a l d i f f e r e n t dimensions t h a t together 72 c o n s t i t u t e the present f u l l e r manifold of moral maturity i n d i c a t o r s . The multidimensional approach to the measurement of moral maturity adopted i n t h i s study provides a p a r t i a l c o r r e c t i v e to such more narrowly conceived e f f o r t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s p l a i n from an examination of the r e s u l t s of t h i s study that the d e f i c i t s i n moral development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the present delinquent sample tend to be broadly based and evident i n e s s e n t i a l l y a l l of the dimensions of measurement considered. That i s , whether one considers knowledge of s o c i a l convention, i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness, moral reasoning maturity, s o c i a l i z a t i o n or i n d i c e s of autonomy, the delinquent subjects of t h i s study were found to be c o n s i s t e n t l y i n developmental a r r e a r s . These d i f f e r e n c e s were a l l found to p e r s i s t , even when the IQ d i f f e r e n t i a l that a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d these groups was s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . Only the empathy measure f a i l e d to s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e the delinquent and non-delinquent groups, but even t h i s v a r i a b l e showed a trend toward s i g n i f i c a n c e , suggesting what amounts to an across-the-board d e f i c i t i n moral maturity f o r the delinquent s u b j e c t s . When e f f o r t s were made to explore the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s among these separate moral maturity measures, the p i c t u r e that emerged, from both the d i s c r i m i n a n t and p r i n c i p a l components analyses, was that two independent c l u s t e r s o f measures d i f f e r e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e these s u b j e c t s . In the f i r s t i nstance, a l l of the more c o g n i t i v e l y o r i e n t e d measures ( i . e . , Kohlberg's moral reasoning measure, T u r i e l ' s measure of conventional s o c i a l knowledge, and Selman's i n t e r p e r s o n a l awareness) t i g h t l y c o - v a r i e d . These same r e l a t i o n s appear to hold whether one considers a l l subjects simultaneously, or examines the delinquent and non-delinquent groups s e p a r a t e l y . Results based upon t h i s c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n comparison to t h e i r non-delinquent age mates, the delinquent 73 s u b j e c t s s u f f e r e d a g e n e r a l i z e d i n a b i l i t y t o reason about matters r e l e v a n t to the making o f moral d e c i s i o n s . The second f a c t o r , comprised o f Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy and autonomy measures, p o i n t s to a separate f a i l i n g on the p a r t o f the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s to achieve what Hogan and others have d e s c r i b e d as a robust "moral c h a r a c t e r . " That i s , as a group, the d e l i n q u e n t s u b j e c t s f e l l d e c i d e d l y below p u b l i s h e d normative standards and the present non-delinquent comparison group i n t h e i r concerns f o r the f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s , t h e i r commitment to commonly shared s o c i a l v a l u e s , and t h e i r sense o f s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and personal autonomy. The t i g h t c l u s t e r i n g of these two separate s e t s o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s was evidenced not only by t h e i r high l o a d i n g s on the separate f a c t o r s to which they r e l a t e , but a l s o i n t h e i r e s s e n t i a l i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y as d i s c r i m i n a t o r s o f the d e l i n q u e n t and non-delinquent subgroups. A l l o f these f i n d i n g s speak a g a i n s t the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t moral m a t u r i t y i s best viewed as being o f a s i n g l e p i e c e and are understood i n s t e a d to be more c o n s i s t e n t with the c l a i m o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s such as B l a s i (1983, 1980), Brown (1965), Hogan (1982), J u r k o v i c (1980), and others who argue f o r the multidimensional nature o f moral development and the n e c e s s i t y o f adopting m u l t i v a r i a t e approaches to i t s assessment. One important note o f c a u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , however, before too much conf i d e n c e i s placed i n the two-factor s o l u t i o n t h a t emerged from these data. In a d d i t i o n to whatever a c t u a l communalities might hold between the t h r e e c o g n i t i v e and the three p e r s o n a l i t y measures s t u d i e d , i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t Kohlberg's, T u r i e l ' s , and Selman's c o g n i t i v e measures a l l r e l y upon d e t a i l e d c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w procedures, while Hogan's measures o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , empathy and autonomy are a l l based upon paper-and-pencil s c a l e s composed of simple t r u e - f a l s e statements. As was made c l e a r i n the c l a s s i c paper by Campbell and F i s k e (1959), under such measurement 74 c o n d i t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r the appearance o f separate f a c t o r s or c l u s t e r s o f s c a l e s sometimes can be t r a c e d t o the presence o f common method v a r i a n c e r a t h e r than any t r u e r e l a t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t t r a i t s or a b i l i t i e s under study. A f u l l t e s t o f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y would r e q u i r e access t o c u r r e n t l y u n a v a i l a b l e measures which used i n t e r v i e w techniques f o r a s s e s s i n g Hogan's p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t v a r i a b l e s and paper and p e n c i l t e s t s f o r indexing the more c o g n i t i v e dimensions o f moral m a t u r i t y . Unless or u n t i l such measures are a v a i l a b l e , any attempt t o i n t e r p r e t the r e l a t i o n s o f the s i x measures employed i n t h i s study must be viewed with extreme c a u t i o n . 4.2. R e l a t i o n s h i p between the moral m a t u r i t y measures and  the s e r i o u s n e s s and immorality o f del i n q u e n t a c t s A second major goal o f t h i s study was to attempt t o determine the extent to which the measures al r e a d y shown to d i s c r i m i n a t e d e l i n q u e n t from non-delinquent s u b j e c t s could a l s o serve t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e those d e l i n q u e n t s who had committed more and l e s s s e r i o u s o f f e n s e s . T h i s i n q u i r y was undertaken i n two d i s t i n c t but r e l a t e d ways, r e l y i n g i n one case upon conventional d i s t i n c t i o n s between s t a t u s , p r o p e r t y , and person o f f e n d e r s and i n the other by undertaking t o develop a d i r e c t index o f the pe r c e i v e d immorality o f v a r i o u s d e l i n q u e n t o f f e n s e s . While s u c c e s s f u l o v e r a l l , these e f f o r t s proved t o be l e s s s t r a i g h t forward than a n t i c i p a t e d f o r two d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f reasons. F i r s t , while a l a r g e panel o f judges a p p a r e n t l y understood the task o f r a t i n g d e l i n q u e n c i e s i n terms o f t h e i r l e v e l o f p e r c e i v e d immorality, and were able t o make such judgments i n h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t ways, they tended, i n the end, to use only a p o r t i o n o f the f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e provided, ranking most o f the o f f e n s e s i n quest i o n as q u i t e high on the dimension o f immorality. The v a r i a n c e o f these judgments would have been incr e a s e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y i f a f o r c e d 75 d i s t r i b u t i o n had been imposed on the r a t e r s . For the present e x p l o r a t o r y purpose, however, i t was f e l t more a p p r o p r i a t e to permit the judges to employ the s c a l e as they saw f i t and to allow the immorality r a t i n g assigned to each o f these o f f e n s e s to f i n d i t s own p l a c e w i t h i n the f i v e -p o i n t s c a l e . The consequence o f t h i s d e c i s i o n was to f o r c e the search f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s to operate w i t h i n a dense and t i g h t l y packed s e t o f r a t i n g s o f o f f e n s e c a t e g o r i e s only m i n i m a l l y separated from one another. The f a c t t h a t strong c o v a r i a t i o n s were s t i l l observed between t h i s immorality measure and f i v e o f the s i x moral m a t u r i t y measures suggests t h a t the small d i f f e r e n c e i n immorality t h a t d i v i d e these v a r i o u s o f f e n s e s are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e a l . At the same time, however, the present f i n d i n g s might have proved even more compelling e i t h e r i f t h e r e had been more v a r i a b i l i t y i n the immorality r a t i n g s , or i f a f u l l e r compliment o f more and l e s s immoral a c t s had been i n c l u d e d . Secondly, as was a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n s e c t i o n 3.3.2, the present subset o f d e l i n q u e n t youth whose o f f e n s e s were r a t e d as most immoral proved to be made up almost e x c l u s i v e l y of young persons whose crimes were sexual i n nature. While c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s t a t i s t i c s do not make i t p o s s i b l e to determine the exact base r a t e o f such sexual o f f e n s e s i n the p o p u l a t i o n of d e l i n q u e n t s from which t h i s sample was drawn, i t i s l i k e l y the case t h a t such o f f e n s e s do not t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t h i r d o f any randomly s e l e c t e d group o f young o f f e n d e r s . The most l i k e l y reason f o r t h e i r o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the present sample i s t h a t the Morrison Center, under whose auspices these s u b j e c t s were secured, i s mandated to provide p s y c h o l o g i c a l treatment to those d e l i n q u e n t youth judged most l i k e l y to p r o f i t from t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Youthful o f f e n d e r s whose crimes are seen to be r i c h i n psychodynamic i m p l i c a t i o n s are consequently l i k e l y t o be e n r o l l e d i n t h i s 76 program. Sexual crimes e s p e c i a l l y f i t t h i s b i l l o f p a r t i c u l a r s , l e a d i n g to what i s assumed to be an o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f such o f f e n d e r s i n the present sample. Had i t proved to be the case t h a t t h i s s p e c i a l group o f d e l i n q u e n t s , whose crimes ranged from n o n - v i o l e n t sexual a c t s to f o r c i b l e rape, were bro a d l y d i s t r i b u t e d across the range o f immorality r a t i n g s , then the impact o f t h i s l i k e l y sampling b i a s might have proved to be minimal. As i t was, however, t h i s group was u n i f o r m l y r a t e d as having committed e s p e c i a l l y "immoral" o f f e n s e s . The e f f e c t o f t h i s r a t i n g p r a c t i c e was to r e s e r v e the upper end o f the immorality r a t i n g s c a l e f o r t h i s sex o f f e n d e r group, producing what co u l d have proven to be a s e r i o u s confound. In the end, the e a r l y d i s c o v e r y of t h i s sampling anomaly, and the subsequent d e c i s i o n o f s e p a r a t i n g out the sex o f f e n d e r group f o r independent analyses, made i t p o s s i b l e to both t e s t c e r t a i n of the o r i g i n a l hypothses i n a s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d form and, s e r e n d i p t i o u s l y , to g a i n some i n s i g h t s i n t o t h i s s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f sexual o f f e n d e r s . Two general c l a s s e s o f f i n d i n g s emerged from these a n a l y s e s : 1) as hypothesized, d e l i n q u e n t s whose o f f e n s e s were not o f a sexual nature showed d e l a y s on most measures of moral development, and these moral m a t u r i t y problems proved to be r e l a t e d to the p e r c e i v e d immorality o f t h e i r o f f e n s e s ; whereas 2) the sex o f f e n d e r group evidenced no such delays on the c o g n i t i v e measures o f moral reasoning but, l i k e t h e i r o t her d e l i n q u e n t c o u n t e r p a r t s d i d show s p e c i a l impairments on measures of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . These and other o f the present f i n d i n g s can be l e n t a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t i v e meaning by s e t t i n g the c o g n i t i v e and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t o rough correspondence to Heider's (1958) c l a s s i c accounts o f "can" and " t r y . " According to Heider, every a c t i o n (and here the focus 77 i s upon m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t a c t i o n ) can be understood as the m u l t i p l i c a t i v e product o f the c a p a c i t y or a b i l i t y to perform t h a t act (can) and the w i l l i n g n e s s or preparedness to set such c a p a c i t i e s i n t o motion ( t r y ) . In t h i s study, i t w i l l be argued, the c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r ( d e f i n e d by Kohlberg's, T u r i e l ' s , and Selman's measures) can be taken as a rough moral proxy f o r Heider's c a p a c i t y dimension, and the p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r ( d e f i n e d by Hogan's th r e e p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s ) can be viewed as an i n d i c a t o r o f " t r y " . Under t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , and c o n s i s t e n t with present f i n d i n g s , the non-delinquent s u b j e c t s have both the c a p a c i t y and the w i l l i n g n e s s to proceed m o r a l l y , and thus remain on the r i g h t s i d e o f the law. By c o n t r a s t , g a r d e n - v a r i e t y d e l i n q u e n t s -- t h a t i s , those whose o f f e n s e s are non-sexual i n nature -- were found to show d e f i c i t s i n both o f these c o n s t i t u e n t components o f m o r a l l y r e l e v a n t a c t i o n , by l a c k i n g both the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and the s t r e n g t h o f moral c h a r a c t e r to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o l l o w s o c i a l l y p r o s c r i b e d courses o f a c t i o n . Those d e l i n q u e n t s whose of f e n s e s were sexual i n nature, however, appeared to have no d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f o t h e r s , i n r e c o g n i z i n g s o c i a l conventions, or i n reasoning i n an age a p p r o p r i a t e f a s h i o n about moral matters, but d i d appear to l a c k those commitments to " t r y " to behave w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f ususal moral p e r s c r i p t i o n s . In s h o r t , non-delinquents can and t r y to behave m o r a l l y , sexual o f f e n d e r s can do so but seem not to t r y , and other d e l i n q u e n t s appear to f a i l by both measures. Roger Brown (1965) a l l u d e s to a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n i n h i s account o f moral sentiment as opposed to moral knowledge. Romm Harre' (1983) a l s o has o f f e r e d a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the j o i n t workings o f "can" and " t r y " by r e p o r t i n g upon the f o r m u l a t i o n o f moral a c t i o n s i n s o c i e t i e s which he c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a b i d i n g by "honor m o r a l i t i e s " . By t h i s account, c e r t a i n s o c i e t i e s leave l i t t l e room f o r 78 debate about what one should and should not do, and a l l o f the v a r i a n c e i n m o r a l l y hazardous s i t u a t i o n s i s consequently taken up by the q u e s t i o n o f whether one i s s u f f i c i e n t l y committed to such commonly understood v a l u e s , to g i v e them one's best " t r y " . Under the present i n t e r p r e t a t i o n something l i k e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between the non-delinquent and sex o f f e n d e r groups. Both seem to have l i t t l e doubt about what others expect o f them. Where they p a r t company i s along t h a t dimension o f " t r y " indexed by the s o c i a l commitments and sense o f personal autonomy t h a t Hogan d e s c r i b e s as moral c h a r a c t e r . As i s p o i n t e d out below, t h i s same p a t t e r n o f adequate s o c i a l knowledge and an absense o f m o t i v a t i o n to apply i t may a l s o help to e x p l a i n the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r of those d e l i n q u e n t s high i n psychopathy. To the extent t h a t such an i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s i s i s supported by the present or f u t u r e data, d i f f e r e n t e t i o l o g i e s and d i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f treatment programs ( i . e . , Arbuthnot & Gordon, 1986; Gibbs, A r n o l d , Chessman, & Ahlborn, 1984) may suggest themselves as a p p r o p r i a t e to d e l i n q u e n t s c o n v i c t e d o f sexual and non-sexual crimes. For the more t y p i c a l d e l i n q u e n t there would appear to be developmental room f o r f u r t h e r growth along the dimensions indexed by both the c o g n i t i v e and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study. By c o n t r a s t , o f those d e l i n q u e n t s who s e x u a l l y offended, many would appear to have l i t t l e t o l e a r n about the c o g n i t i v e dimension o f moral reasoning. Here, " t r y i n g " to put i n t o p r a c t i c e what i s a l r e a d y known would seem to be the problem t h a t needs f u r t h e r work. The preceding conceptual account a l s o has apparent r e l e v a n c e to t h a t aspect o f the present data set t h a t a p p l i e s to the Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t (PCL). The p a t t e r n o f obtained r e l a t i o n between t h i s measure and the remaining s e t o f moral m a t u r i t y i n d i c a t o r s suggest t h a t , l i k e the sexual 79 o f f e n d e r group, those r a t e d high on psychopathy a l s o showed developmental d e l a y s on Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e , the p r i n c i p a l c o n t r i b u t o r to the " t r y " as opposed to the "can" f a c t o r d e t a i l e d above. Despite t h i s s i m i l a r i t y to the sex o f f e n d e r s , there was l i t t l e a c t u a l o v e r l a p i n the membership o f these groups. Only s i x o f the psychopathic s u b j e c t s had committed sexual crimes and i n general the sex-offenders obtained n e i t h e r higher nor lower psychopathy scores than d i d other d e l i n q u e n t s . What i s i m p l i e d i n t h i s p a t t e r n i n g o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i s t h a t being c o g n i t i v e l y capable o f f u n c t i o n i n g i n m o r a l l y mature ways (can), but p o o r l y prepared c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c a l l y to apply t h a t knowledge ( t r y ) , has more than one p o s s i b l e consequence, and i s e q u a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f the otherwise u n r e l a t e d psychopathic and sex o f f e n d e r group. What i s not apparent from the data c u r r e n t l y i n hand i s how these two groups d i f f e r i n other aspects o f t h e i r c u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c i a l development, or t h e i r f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s . 4.3. L i m i t a t i o n s and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s While the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n has touched upon c e r t a i n o f the procedural l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study, along with suggestions as to how these shortcomings might be c o r r e c t e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , these c a u t i o n s and f u t u r e prospects need to be drawn together and l i s t e d out as a guard a g a i n s t any p o t e n t i a l misreading o f what has been and what s t i l l needs to be accomplished. The f i r s t s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s study arose as a f u n c t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t the d e l i n q u e n t sample proved to c o n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y few s u b j e c t s who had committed s e r i o u s crimes a g a i n s t persons t h a t were other than sexual i n nature. The p o t e n t i a l relevance of t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y was f u r t h e r compounded by the f a c t t h a t the sex o f f e n d e r group proved to be unique i n ways other than the r a t e d s e r i o u s n e s s or immorality of t h e i r crimes, 80 r e q u i r i n g t h a t they be i s o l a t e d and t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n c e r t a i n o f the a n a l y s e s . One consequence o f the separate treatment o f t h i s sex o f f e n d e r group was to c u r t a i l the range o f the s e r i o u s n e s s and immorality r a t i n g s . Despite t h i s f a c t , most o f the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s between these i n d i c e s o f moral m a t u r i t y and the c r i t e r i a l measures were supported. I t seems reasonable to assume, however, t h a t these r e l a t i o n s would have gained i n s t r e n g t h and c l a r i t y had a l a r g e r sample o f d e l i n q u e n t s been i n c l u d e d whose o f f e n s e s were judged to be immoral without a l s o being sexual i n nature. A f u r t h e r t e s t o f t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c o n s t i t u t e s one c l e a r d i r e c t i o n f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . A second aspect o f the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d here t h a t r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n i s the two-factor s o l u t i o n t h a t emerged from the p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s o f the s i x moral m a t r u i t y measures. The i n t e r p r e t i v e problem a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s r e s u l t c e n t e r s on the p o t e n t i a l confound produced by the f a c t t h a t the v a r i o u s s c a l e s t h a t compose the c o g n i t i v e and c h a r a c t e r o l o g i c f a c t o r s t h a t emerged were not o n l y c o n c e p t u a l l y but m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d . What i s not known i s whether a s i m i l a r f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e would r e s u l t i f whatever method v a r i a n c e t h a t was present c o u l d be d i s a s s o c i a t e d from the c o n s t r u c t s o f i n t e r e s t . Accomplishing t h i s purpose would r e q u i r e the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f pencil-and-paper measures o f c o g n i t i v e reasoning competencies and s t r u c t u r e d c l i n i c a l i n t e r v i e w methods capable o f q u a l i t a t i v e l y a s s e s s i n g moral c h a r a c t e r . Although there have been attempts to develop more o b j e c t i v e measures Kohlberg' stages o f moral reasoning ( i . e . , Rest, 1979; Gibbs & Widaman, 1982), these procedures have evidenced only moderate concurrent v a l i d i t y . No s i m i l a r attempts have been made to develop paper-and-pencil measures o f s o c i a l r o l e - t a k i n g or s o c i a l convention understanding, or to produce i n t e r v i e w measures o f a s s e s s i n g moral c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s o f i n t e r e s to Hogan. In the absence of 81 such assessment t o o l s the p o s s i b i l i t y remains t h a t the c l e a r breakdown of moral m a t u r i t y i n t o the dimensions o f "can" and " t r y " observed i n t h i s study may prove to be an a r t i f a c t o f measurement c o n s t r a i n t s . T h i r d , i t i s important to work to f u r t h e r extend the e f f o r t s i n i t i a t e d i n t h i s study to develop procedures f o r e v a l u a t i n g the immorality o f v a r i o u s d e l i n q u e n c i e s and, i f p o s s i b l e , to draw out the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t d i v i d e such r a t i n g s from any simpler measure o f s e r i o u s n e s s . In the c u r r e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the data showed t h a t the immorality r a t i n g s obtained were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with s e r i o u s n e s s . While i t may prove to be the case t h a t conventional l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s o f s e r i o u s n e s s are " n a t u r a l l y t i e d " to p e r c e p t i o n s of the immorality o f such crimes, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the apparent redundancy of these measures i s an a r t i f a c t o f c e r t a i n measurement r e s t r i c t i o n s i n t h i s study. A l t e r n a t i v e designs engineered to t e s t t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c o u l d e a s i l y be implemented. The use of Q-sort or p a i r e d comparison s t r a t e g i e s , f o r example, would n e c e s s a r i l y extend the v a r i a b i l i t y o f obtained immorality r a t i n g s , i n c r e a s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s m e t r i c might depart from simpler s e r i o u s n e s s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , without i n t e n d i n g to f a u l t the r a t e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study, i t may have been the case t h a t the teachers and c o u n s e l o r s who provided the immorality r a t i n g s were p o o r l y prepared to maintain a c l e a r conceptual d i s t i n c t i o n between how i l l e g a l and how immoral any p a r t i c u l a r d e l i n q u e n t act might be. Some other panel o f "experts" b e t t e r schooled i n what c o n s t i t u t e s c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n s o f immorality, might succeed where others have f a i l e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g these c o n c e p t u a l l y separate but p r a c t i c a l l y r e l a t e d matters. In any case, the i n i t i a l promise shown by these f i r s t e f f o r t s to array d e l i n q u e n c i s along a dimension o f immorality suggests the m e r i t s o f devoting a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s to f u r t h e r developing such measures. 82 F i n a l l y , the data produced by Hare's Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t was i n t e r p r e t i v e l y r i c h , but somewhat at v a r i a n c e with the f i n d i n g s o f other s t u d i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r the Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t was found to be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to Hogan's s o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e and n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with general immorality r a t i n g s . The p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s computed on these data d i d , however, y i e l d a t h r e e - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n , d i f f e r e n t than t h a t r e p o r t e d by Hare and Harper (1987). Two f a c t s may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s . F i r s t , i n s p i t e o f the c l e a r c l i n i c a l i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y o f the d e r i v e d f a c t o r s c a l e s and t h e i r high i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the present sample s i z e , the p o t e n t i a l h e t e r o g e n e i t y of the d e l i n q u e n t sample, and p o t e n t i a l r a t i n g b i a s by the t h e r a p i s t s may have r e s u l t e d i n a f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e unique to t h i s sample. Forth (1987), f o r example, was unable to o b t a i n the i d e n t i c a l f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e with another s l i g h t l y l a r g e r sample o f i n c a r c e r a t e d youth. Future r e s e a r c h which employed l a r g e r sample s i z e s and had a broader compliment o f d e l i n q u e n t subtypes would be r e q u i r e d to f u l l y t e s t the s t a b i l i t y o f the present f i n d i n g s . A l l o f the above l i m i t a t i o n s a s i d e , the r e s u l t s o f the present study are seen to go some important d i s t a n c e toward demonstrating t h a t knowledge r e g a r d i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s progress toward moral m a t u r i t y i s a powerful p r e d i c t o r , not only o f the prospect o f d e l i n q u e n t behaviors, but a l s o o f the degree to which such d e l i n q u e n c i e s depart from commonly accepted standards o f m o r a l i t y . 83 References American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n . (1986). D i a g n o s t i c and s t a t i s t i c a l  manual 111-R. Washington D.C.: American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n . Arbuthnot, J . , & Gordon, D. A. (1986). Behavioral and c o g n i t i v e e f f e c t s of a moral reasoning developmental i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r h i g h - r i s k behavior-d i s o r d e r e d a d o l e s c e n t s . Journal o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology. 54> 208-216. 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Moral development theory and p r a c t i c e f o r y o u t h f u l and a d u l t o f f e n d e r s . In W. S. Laufer & J . M. Day ( E d s . ) , P e r s o n a l i t y theory, moral development, and c r i m i n a l  behavior. Toronto: Lexington Books. 86 Jennings, W. S., & Kohlberg, L. (1983). E f f e c t s o f a j u s t community programme an the moral development o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s . Journal of  Moral Education. 12, 33-50. J u r k o v i c , G. J . (1980). The j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t as moral p h i l o s o p h e r : A s t r u c t u r a l - d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 88, 709-727. J u r k o v i c , G. J . , & P r e n t i c e , N. M. (1977). R e l a t i o n o f moral and c o g n i t i v e development to dimensions o f j u v e n i l e delinquency. Journal o f Abnormal  Psychology. 86, 414-420. Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The c o g n i t i v e developmental approach to s o c i a l i z a t i o n . In D. A. G o s l i n (Ed.) Handbook o f  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , theory, and r e s e a r c h . Chicago: Rand McNally. Kohlberg, L. (1971). From i s to ought: How to commit the n a t u r a l i s t i c f a l l a c y and get away with i t i n the study o f moral development. In T. Mischel (Ed.), Psychology and g e n e t i c epistomology. New York: Academic Press. Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and m o r a l i z a t i o n : The cognitive-developmental approach. In T. Lickona (Ed.) Moral development  and behavior: Theory, r e s e a r c h , and s o c i a l i s s u e s . New York: H o l t , Rinehart, & Winston. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, s e l f , and s o c i e t y . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press. Nucci, L. (1981). Conceptions o f personal i s s u e s : A domain d i s t i n c t from moral and s o c i e t a l concepts. C h i l d Development. 52, 114-121. Quay, H. C , Peterson, D. R., & C o n s a l v i , C. (1960). The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of three p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n j u v e n i l e delinquency. Journal o f  C o n s u l t i n g Psychology. 24, 555. Rest, J . (1979). Development i n j u d g i n g moral i s s u e s . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota Press. Robbins, L. N. (1966). Deviant c h i l d r e n grown UP. B a l t i m o r e : W i l l i a m s and W i l k i n s . R o s s i , P. H., Waite, E., Bose, C. E., & Berk, R. E. (1975). The s e r i o u s n e s s o f crimes: Normative s t r u c t u r e s and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 39, 224-237. Rut t e r , M. (1984). J u v e n i l e delinquency: Trends and p e r s p e c t i v e s . New York: G u i l f o r d . Schroeder, M. L., Schroeder, K. G., & Hare, R. D. (1983). G e n e r a l i z -a b i l i t y o f c h e c k l i s t f o r assessment o f psychopathy. Journal o f  C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology. 51, 511-516. S e l l i n , J . T., & Wolfgang, M. E. (1964). The measurement o f delinquency. New York: Wiley. 87 Selman, R. (1979). A s s e s s i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l understanding: An i n t e r v i e w and  s c o r i n g manual. Harvard-Judge Baker S o c i a l Reasoning P r o j e c t , Boston. Unpublished manuscript. Selman, R. (1980). The growth o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l understanding:  Developmental and c l i n i c a l a n a l y s i s . New York:Academic Press. Selman, R. (1981). The development o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l competence: The r o l e o f understanding i n conduct. Developmental Review. 1, 401-422. Selman, R. & Byrne, D. (1974). A s t r u c t u r a l - d e v e l o p m e n t a l a n a l y s i s o f l e v e l s o f r o l e - t a k i n g i n middle c h i l d h o o d . C h i l d Development, 45, 803-806. Selman, R., L a v i n , D., & B r i o n - M e i s e l s , S. (1984). Troubled c h i l d r e n ' s use o f s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n . In F. S e r a f i c a (Ed.), S o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e development  i n c o n t e x t . New York: G u i l f o r d Press. Thornton, D., & Reid, R. L. (1982). Moral reasoning and type o f c r i m i n a l o f f e n s e . B r i t i s h Journal of S o c i a l Psychology. 21, 231-238. T u r i e l , E. (1977). C o n f l i c t and t r a n s i t i o n i n adolescent moral development I I : The r e s o l u t i o n o f d i s e q u i l i b r i u m through s t r u c t u r a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . C h i l d Development. 48, 634-637. T u r i e l , E. (1978). The development o f concepts o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e : S o c i a l c o n c e n t i o n . In J . G l i c k & A. Clarke-Stewart (Eds.), The development of  s o c i a l understanding. New York: Gardner Press. T u r i e l , E. (1983). The development o f s o c i a l knowledge. New York: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press. T u r i e l , E., & Smetana, J . G. (1984). S o c i a l Knowledge and a c t i o n : The c o o r d i n a t i o n o f domains. In W. M. K u r t i n e s s & J . L. Gewirtz (Eds.), M o r a l i t y , moral behavior, and moral development. New York: Wiley. Wadsworth, M. (1979). Roots o f delinquency: Infancy, adolescence and  crime. Walker, L. J . (1980). C o g n i t i v e and p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r moral development. C h i l d Development, 51, 131-139. Walker, M. A. (1978). Measuring the s e r i o u s n e s s o f crimes. B r i t i s h Journal  o f Criminology. 18, 346-364. Zachary, R. A. (1986). S h i p l e y I n s t i t u t e o f L i v i n g S c a l e : Revised manual. Los Angeles: Western P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s . Appendix A Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning . Stages o f Moral Development B. H y p o t h e t i c a l Dilemmas and Question Probes C. S c o r i n g Sheet Kohlberg's Stages o f Moral Development 89 Level I Preconventional Stage 1: "Heteronomous M o r a l i t y " What i s Right: To avoid breaking the r u l e s backed by punishment, obedience f o r i t s own sake, and a v o i d i n g p h y s i c a l damage to persons and p r o p e r t y . Reasons f o r doing r i g h t : Avoidance o f punishment, and the s u p e r i o r power o f a u t h o r i t i e s . Stage 2: " I n d i v i d u a l i s m , Instrumental Purpose, and Exchange" What i s Right: Following r u l e s only when i t i s to someone's immediate i n t e r e s t ; a c t i n g to meet one's own i n t e r e s t s and needs and l e t t i n g o t h ers do the same. Right i s a l s o what's f a i r , what's an equal exchange, a d e a l , an agreement. Reasons f o r doing r i g h t : To serve one's own needs or i n t e r e s t s i n a world where you have to recognize t h a t other people t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , too. Level II Conventional Stage 3: "Mutual Interpersonal E x p e c t a t i o n s , R e l a t i o n s h i p s , and In t e r p e r s o n a l Conformity" What i s Right: L i v i n g up to what i s expected by people c l o s e to you or what people g e n e r a l l y expect of people i n your r o l e as son, brot h e r , f r i e n d , e t c . "Being good" i s important and means having good motives, showing concern about o t h e r s . I t a l s o means keeping mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as t r u s t , l o y a l t y , r e s p e c t and g r a t i t u d e . Reasons f o r doing r i g h t : The need to be a good person i n your own eyes and those o f o t h e r s . Your c a r i n g f o r o t h e r s . B e l i e f i n the Golden Rule. D e s i r e to maintain r u l e s and a u t h o r i t y which support s t e r e o t y p i c a l good behavior. Stage 4: " S o c i a l Systems and Conscience" What i s r i g h t : F u l f i l l i n g the a c t u a l d u t i e s to which you have agreed. Laws are to be upheld except i n extreme cases where they c o n f l i c t with other f i x e d s o c i a l d u t i e s . Right i s a l s o c o n t r i b u t i n g to s o c i e t y , the group, or i n s t i t u t i o n . Reasons f o r doing r i g h t : To keep the i n s t i t u t i o n going as a whole, to avoi d the breakdown i n the system " i f everyone d i d i t , " or the imperative of conscience to meet one's d e f i n e d o b l i g a t i o n s . 90 Level III Postconventional or P r i n c i p l e d Stage 5: " S o c i e t a l C o ntract or U t i l i t y and I n d i v i d u a l R i g h t s " What i s Right: Being aware t h a t people hold a v a r i e t y o f values and op i n i o n s , t h a t most values and r u l e s are r e l a t i v e t o your group. These r e l a t i v e r u l e s should u s u a l l y be upheld, however, i n the i n t e r e s t o f i m p a r t i a l i t y and because they are the s o c i a l c o n t r a c t . Some n o n r e l a t i v e values and r i g h t s l i k e l i f e and l i b e r t y , however, must be upheld i n any s o c i e t y and r e g a r d l e s s o f m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . Reasons f o r doing r i g h t : A sense o f o b l i g a t i o n t o law because o f one's s o c i a l c o n t r a c t t o make and abide by laws f o r the w e l f a r e o f a l l and f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f a l l people's r i g h t s . A f e e l i n g o f c o n t r a c t u a l commitment, f r e e l y entered upon, to f a m i l y , f r i e n d s h i p , t r u s t , and work o b l i g a t i o n s . Concern t h a t laws and d u t i e s be based on r a t i o n a l c a l c u l a t i o n o f o v e r a l l u t i l i t y , "the g r e a t e s t good f o r the g r e a t e s t number." Stage 6: "U n i v e r s a l E t h i c a l P r i n c i p l e s " What i s Right: Following s e l f - c h o s e n e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . P a r t i c u l a r laws or s o c i a l agreements are u s u a l l y v a l i d because they r e s t on such p r i n c i p l e s . When laws v i o l a t e these p r i n c i p l e s , one act s i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e . P r i n c i p l e s are u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s o f j u s t i c e : the e q u a l i t y o f human r i g h t s and re s p e c t f o r the d i g n i t y o f human beings as i n d i v i d u a l persons. Reasons f o r doing r i g h t : The b e l i e f as a r a t i o n a l person i n the v a l i d i t y o f u n i v e r s a l moral p r i n c i p l e s , and a sense of personal commitment to them. Note. From Kohlberg, 1976, pp.34-35. HYPOTHETICAL DILEMMAS FORM B 91 There was a woman who had very bad cancer, and there was no treatment known to medicine t h a t would save her. Her doctor, Dr. J e f f e r s o n , knew t h a t she had only about 6 months to l i v e . She was i n t e r r i b l e p a i n , but she was so weak t h a t an overdose o f a p a i n - k i l l e r would make her d i e sooner. She was almost c r a z y with p a i n , and i n her calm p e r i o d s she would ask Dr. J e f f e r s o n t o g i v e her enough o f the drug t o k i l l her. She s a i d she c o u l d n ' t stand the pain and was going t o d i e i n a few moths anyway. Although he knows t h a t m e r c y - k i l l i n g i s a g a i n s t the law, the d o c t o r t h i n k s about g r a n t i n g her request. 1. What do you t h i n k i s the problem i n t h i s s t o r y ? 2. Should Dr. J e f f e r s o n g i v e r her the drug t h a t would make her d i e ? Why or why not? 3. Should the woman have the r i g h t t o make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n ? Why or why not? 4. Is there any way a person has a duty or an o b l i g a t i o n t o l i v e when he or she does not want t o , when the person wants to commit s u i c i d e ? Why or why not? 5. I t i s a g a i n s t the law f o r the doc t o r to g i v e the woman the drug. Does t h a t make i t m o r a l l y wrong? Why or why not? 6. In g e n e r a l , should people t r y t o do e v e r y t h i n g they can to obey the law? Why or why not? How does t h i s apply t o what Dr. J e f f e r s o n should do? 92 Mr. J e f f e r s o n d i d perform the m e r c y - k i l l i n g by g i v i n g the woman the drug. Passing by at the time was another doctor, Dr. Togers, who knew the s i t u a t i o n Dr. J e f f e r s o n was i n . Dr. Rogers thought o f t r y i n g t o stop Dr. J e f f e r s o n , but the drug was already administered. 1. What do you t h i n k the problem i s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? 2. Should Dr. Rogers r e p o r t Dr. J e f f e r s o n ? Why or why not? 3. The d o c t o r does r e p o r t Dr. J e f f e r s o n . Dr. J e f f e r s o n i s brought to co u r t and a j u r y f i n d s Dr. J e f f e r s o n g u i l t y . I t i s up to the judge to determine the sentence. Should the judge g i v e Dr. J e f f e r s o n some punishment or should he suspend the sentence and l e t Dr. J e f f e r s o n go f r e e ? Why or why not? 4. T h i n k i n g i n terms of s o c i e t y , should people who break the law be punished? Why or why not? How does t h i s apply to how the judge should decide? 5. The j u r y found Dr. J e f f e r s o n l e g a l l y g u i l t y o f murder. Would i t be wrong or r i g h t f o r the judge to g i v e him the death sentence? Why or why not? 6. Is i t ever r i g h t t o g i v e the death sentence? Why or why not? What are the c o n d i t i o n s when the death sentence should be given ( i f ever) i n your o p i n i o n ? Why are these c o n d i t i o n s important? 7. Dr. J e f f e r s o n was doing what h i s conscience t o l d him when he gave the woman the drug. Should a lawbreaker be punished i f he i s a c t i n g out of conscience? Why or why not? 93 Judy was a 12-year-old g i r l . Her mother promised her t h a t she co u l d go to a s p e c i a l rock c o n c e r t coming to t h e i r town i f she earned the money to by a t i c k e d t o the c o n c e r t . She managed to save up the $15 the t i c k e t c o s t , pl u s another $3. But then her mother changed her mind and t o l d Judy t h a t she had to spend her money on new c l o t h e s f o r s c h o o l . Judy was d i s a p p o i n t e d and decided to go to the con c e r t anyway. She bought a t i c k e t and t o l d her mother t h a t she was spending the day with a f r i e n d . A week passed without her mother f i n d i n g out. Judy then t o l d her o l d e r s i s t e r , L ouise, t h a t she had gone to the concert and l i e d to her mother about i t . 1. What do you t h i n k i s the problem i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? 2. Should Louise, the o l d e r s i s t e r , t e l l t h e i r mother t h a t Judy had l i e d about the money or should she keep q u i e t ? Why or why not? 3. In wondering whether to t e l l , Louise t h i n k s o f the f a c t t h a t Judy i s her s i s t e r . Should t h a t make a d i f f e r e n c e i n Louise's d e c i s i o n ? 4. Is the f a c t t h a t Judy earned the money h e r s e l f important i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? Why or why not? 5. The mother promised Judy t h a t she co u l d go to the c o n c e r t i f she earned the money. Is the f a c t t h a t the mother promised important i n the the s i t u a t i o n ? Why or why not? 6. Why i n general should a promise be kept? 7. What do you t h i n k i s the most important t h i n g a mother should be concerned about i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o her daughter? Why i s t h a t the most important thing? 8. What do you t h i n k i s the most important t h i n g a daughter should be concerned about i n her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o her mother? Why i s t h a t the most important t h i n g ? Appendix B T u r i e l ' s S o c i a l Convention Understanding A. Levels o f S o c i a l Convention B. V i g n e t t e s 95 TURIEL'S DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS OF SOCIAL CONVENTION Approximate Level Age 1. Convention as d e s c r i p t i v e o f s o c i a l u n i f o r m i t y . 6-7 Convention viewed as d e s c r i p t i v e o f u n i f o r m i t i e s i n behavior. Convention i s not conceived as p a r t o f s t r u c t u r e o f f u n c t i o n as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Convention u n i f o r m i t i e s are d e s c r i p t i v e o f what i s assumed to e x i s t . Convention maintained to avoid v i o l a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l u n i f o r m i t i e s . 2. Negation o f convention as d e s c r i p t i v e s o c i a l u n i f o r m i t y 8-9 Em p i r i c a l u n i f o r m i t y not a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g conventions. Conventional a c t s regarded as a r b i t r a r y . Convention i s not conceived as p a r t o f s t r u c t u r e or f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . 3. Convention as a f f i r m a t i o n of r u l e system: e a r l y c oncrete  conception o f s o c i a l system. Convention seen as a r b i t r a r y and changeable. Adherence convention based on concrete r u l e s and a u t h o r i t a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s . Conception of conventional a c t s not co o r d i n a t e d with conception of r u l e . 4. Negation of convention as p a r t of r u l e system. 12-13 Convention now seen as a r b i t r a r y and changeable r e g a r d l e s s o f r u l e . E v a l u a t i o n of r u l e p e r t a i n i n g to conventional a c t i s c o o r d i n a t e d with e v a l u a t i o n o f the a c t . Conventions are "nothing but" s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . 5. Convention as mediated by s o c i a l system. 14-16 The emergence o f systematic concepts o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Convention as normative r e g u l a t i o n i n system with u n i f o r m i t y , f i x e d r o l e s and s t a t i c h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 6. Negation o f convention as s o c i e t a l standards. 17-18 Convention regarded as c o d i f i e d s o c i e t a l standards. U n i f o r m i t y i n convention i s not considered to serve the f u n c t i o n o f m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l system. Conventions are "nothing but" s o c i e t a l standards t h a t e x i s t through h a b i t u a l use. 7. Conventions are c o o r d i n a t i o n o f s o c i e t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . .19-25 Conventions as u n i f o r m i t i e s t h a t are f u n c t i o n a l i n c o o r d i n a t i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . Shared knowledge, i n the form o f conventions, among members of s o c i a l groups f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r a c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of the system. 10-11 to Source: T u r i e l (1978). STORY A 96 Peter has been brought up i n a f a m i l y i n which a l l the members c a l l each other by t h e i r f i r s t names. In h i s f a m i l y , i t had been a c c e p t a b l e f o r the c h i l d r e n t o address t h e i r parents by t h e i r f i r s t names, r a t h e r t h a t by t h e i r t i t l e s o f Mother and Father. Upon h i s a r r i v a l i n s c h o o l , he d i s c o v e r s t h a t people address teachers by t h e i r t i t l e s or Mr. and Mrs. He decides t h a t he w i l l c a l l teachers by t h e i r f i r s t names anyway. But the teac h e r s i n the school f e e l s t r o n g l y about being addressed f o r m a l l y and b e l i e v e t h a t the r u l e s should be s t r i c t l y e nforced. The p r i n c i p a l t e l l s Peter t h a t he must stop c a l l i n g teachers by t h e i r f i r s t names. Peter r e f u s e s t o do so. 1. Do you t h i n k Peter was r i g h t or wrong to continue c a l l i n g h i s teachers by t h e i r f i r s t names? Why? l a . Who should g i v e i n Peter or the teachers? Why? l b . Is i t important to show r e s p e c t t o teachers? Why? 2. Why are people c a l l e d by t i t l e s ? Do you t h i n k i t matters whether people are c a l l e d by t h e i r t i t l e s ? 3. Why do r u l e s about t i t l e s e x i s t i n schools? 4. Which do you t h i n k i s b e t t e r ? Which do you p r e f e r ? To c a l l people by t h e i r f i r s t names or by t i t l e s ? 5. Is swearing the same or d i f f e r e n t as c a l l i n g a teacher by h i s f i r s t name? 6. Is breaking a r u l e about che a t i n g the same or d i f f e r e n t as breaking a school r u l e about using t i t l e s to address teachers? How and why? STORY B 97 Joe was a s e n i o r i n high school who was i n the process o f d e c i d i n g what he wanted to do a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . In s p i t e o f h i s p a r e n t s ' and r e l a t i v e s ' o b j e c t i o n s , he f e l t he would most enjoy t a k i n g care o f new born i n f a n t s i n a h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g . Joe enjoyed c a r i n g f o r babies, and f e l t t h a t t h i s j o b would pr o v i d e him with the g r e a t e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . His f a t h e r o b j e c t e d very s t r o n g l y , saying t h a t t h i s was a c a r e e r f o r a woman and t h a t Hoe would be laughed at by everyone i f he became an i n f a n t nurse. So h i s f a t h e r d i d not want him to do t h i s . N evertheless, Joe went ahead and e n r o l l e d i n a course t h a t would t r a i n him to become an i n f a n t nurse. 1. Do you t h i n k Joe was r i g h t or wrong i n t a k i n g the j o b as an i n f a n t nurse? Why? 2. Why do you t h i n k h i s parents see t h a t j ob as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women only? 3. Does h i s f a t h e r have the r i g h t to t e l l Hoe t h a t he can't go i n t o a c a r e e r as an i n f a n t nurse? Why? 4. Is there any d i f f e r e n c e between breaking a custom l i k e going i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l l y female j ob and breaking a r u l e the p r o h i b i t s s t e a l i n g ? 5. Does f o l l o w i n g the ca r e e r as an i n f a n t nurse have anything t o do with being a good or bad son? Why? STORY C 98 Bob and Ken were two lawyers who had been i n business t o g e t h e r f o r f i v e y e a r s . They had been classmates i n c o l l e g e , and had remained good f r i e n d s ever s i n c e . Recently, however, Ken had decided t h a t he wanted to wear casual c l o t h e s t o the o f f i c e , and he made up h i s mind t h a t he would do i t . Bob decided t o t a l k t o him about t h i s because he thought i t was wrong to d ress i n s p o r t s c l o t h e s while being a member o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l f i r m . Bob f e l t very s t r o n g l y t h a t Ken should always wear a s u i t and t i e t o the o f f i c e , even i f he p r e f e r r e d the more casual s t y l e o f d r e s s . Ken i n s i s t e d t h a t he shouldn't have to wear anything he d i d n ' t want t o . So t h i s disagreement l e d t o a very d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e they had to remain i n business t o g e t h e r i n s p i t e o f t h e i r strong disagreement about dress i n i n the o f f i c e . 1. Do you t h i n k Ken was r i g h t or wrong i n h i s d e c i s i o n t o continue wearing s p o r t s c l o t h e s to the o f f i c e ? Why? 2. Was i t r i g h t or wrong f o r Bob to expect Ken to dress i n a p a r t i c u l a r way? Why? 3. Is i t r i g h t or wrong f o r people i n general t o expect others t o dress i n a p a r t i c u l a r way? Why? 4. What i f i t ' s an o f f i c e r u l e to wear a s u i t and t i e t o the o f f i c e ? Was Ken r i g h t or wrong i n breaking the r u l e ? Is i t the same or d i f f e r e n t as breaking a custom? 5. Bob argued t h a t a lawyer has c e r t a i n o b l i g a t i o n to h i s c l i e n t s , - one i s t h a t the lawyer be honest and f a i r i n h i s d e a l i n g s with the c l i e n t , and the other i s t h a t the lawyer should act p r o f e s s i o n a l l y by wearing a s u i t and t i e to the o f f i c e . Do you see these two o b l i g a t i o n s as e q u a l l y important? Why? 6. Do you t h i n k a person c o u l d be a good lawyer, even i f he doesn't f o l l o w the custom o f d r e s s i n g i n what most people regard as r i g h t f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l ? Why? 99 Appendix C Hogan's Scales o f Moral Development Examples o f Items C o n s t i t u t i n g the S o c i a l i z a t i o n , Empathy, and Autonomy S c a l e s > 100 Examples o f Hogan's moral m a t u r i t y s c a l e s S o c i a l i z a t i o n 1. I t h i n k I am s t r i c t e r about r i g h t and wrong than most people. 2. I am somewhat a f r a i d o f the dark. 3. My home l i f e was always happy. 4. My parents o f t e n disapproved o f my f r i e n d s . 5. I o f t e n t h i n k about how I look and what impression I am making upon o t h e r s . Empathy 1. I t bothers me when something unexpected i n t e r r u p t s my d a i l y r o u t i n e . 2. I don't r e a l l y care whether people l i k e me or d i s l i k e me. 3. I have a n a t u r a l t a l e n t to i n f l u e n c e people. 4. Often I can't understand why I have been so c r o s s or grouchy. 5. I l i k e t o be with a crowd p l a y jokes on one another. Autonomy 1. I l i k e t o plan out my a c t i v i t i e s i n advance. 2. I always t r y t o do at l e a s t a l i t t l e b e t t e r than what i s expected o f me. 3. I o f t e n get d i s g u s t e d with myself. 4. I don't seem to care what happens to me. 5. I t h i n k I would l i k e t o be a school teacher. D e r i v a t i o n o f s c a l e s . The s o c i a l i z a t i o n and autonomy s c a l e s were taken from the CPI and the empathy s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 31 items from the CPI, 25 items from the MMPI, and 6 a d d i t i o n a l items adopted from I n s t i t u t e o f P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment and Research (IPAR). Appendix D Selman's S o c i a l P e r s p e c t i v e Taking A. Stages of Interpersonal Awareness B. F r i e n d s h i p S t o r y and Question Probes D. S c o r i n g Sheet 102 STAGES OF INTERPERSONAL AWARENESS Conceptions o f Close Dyadic F r i e n d s h i p s Stage 0 - Momentary p h y s i c a l i s t i c playmates. Dyadic f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t i o n s are based on t h i n k i n g which focuses upon p r o p i n q u i t y and p r o x i m i t y ( i . e . , p h y s i c a l i s t i c parameters) to the i n c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s . A c l o s e f r i e n d i s someone who l i v e s c l o s e by and with whom the s e l f happens to be p l a y i n g with at the moment. F r i e n d s h i p i s more a c c u r a t e l y playmateship. Issues such as j e a l o u s y or the i n t r u s i o n o f a t h i r d p a r t y i n t o a p l a y s i t u a t i o n are c o n s t r u c t e d by the c h i l d at Stage 0 as s p e c i f i c f i g h t s over s p e c i f i c t oys or space r a t h e r than as f i g h t s which i n v o l v e personal f e e l i n g s . Stage 1 - One-way a s s i s t a n c e . F r i e n d s h i p conceptions at Stage 1 are i n way i n the sense t h a t a f r i e n d i s seen as important because he or she performs s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s which the s e l f wants doe or accomplished. In other words, one person's a t t i t u d e i s u n r e f l e c t i v e l y s et up as a standard, and the f r i e n d s ' a c t i o n s must match the standard thus formulated. A c l o s e f r i e n d i s someone with more than Stage 0 demographic c r e d e n t i a l s (e.g., l i v e s c l o s e b y). A c l o s e f r i e n d i s someone who one knows b e t t e r than other f r i e n d s , i n terms o f one-way knowledge o f other's l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . Stage 2 - Fairweather c o o p e r a t i o n . The advance o f Stage 2 f r i e n d s h i p s over the previous stages i s based on the new awareness o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s as r e c i p r o c a l . The two-way nature o f f r i e n d s h i p s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by concerns f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g and approximating through adjustment by both s e l f and other, the s p e c i f i c l i k e s and d i s l i k e s o f s e l f and other, r a t h e r than matching one person's a c t i o n s to the other's f i x e d standard o f e x p e c t a t i o n . The l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s l e v e l i s the d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f these r e c i p r o c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . F r i e n d s h i p at Stage 2 i s f a i r w e a t h e r -- s p e c i f i c arguments are seen as s e v e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p although a t t i t u d e s at the moment d e f i n e s the r e l a t i o n . No u n d e r l y i n g c o n t i n u i t y e x i s t s which maintains the r e l a t i o n and allows f o r a conception o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p d u r i ng the p e r i o d of c o n f l i c t or adjustment. Stage 3 - Intimate and mutually shared r e l a t i o n s h i p s . At Stage 3 there i s the awareness of both a c o n t i n u i t y or r e l a t i o n and a f f e c t i v e bonding between c l o s e f r i e n d s . The importance o f f r i e n d s h i p does not r e s t o nly upon the f a c t t h a t the s e l f i s bored or l o n e l y as at previous stages; at stage 3, f r i e n d s h i p s are seen as a b a s i c means o f developing mutual intimacy and mutual support. Friends share personal problems; the occurrence o f c o n f l i c t s between f r i e n d s does not mean the suspension o f the r e l a t i o n i t s e l f , because the u n d e r l y i n g c o n t i n u i t y between the p a r t n e r s transcends s p e c i f i c and minor f o u l weather i n c i d e n t s . The l i m i t a t i o n o f Stage 3 a r i s e from the overemphasis o f the two person c l i q u e , and the possessiveness t h a t a r i s e out o f the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t c l o s e r e l a t i o n s are d i f f i c u l t to form and to maintain i n t h a t thy take constant e f f o r t . 103 Stage 4 - Autonomous interdependent f r i e n d s h i p s . The interdependence which c h a r a c t e r i z e s Stage 4 i s a sense t h a t a f r i e n d s h i p continues to grow and be transformed through each p a r t n e r ' s a b i l i t y t o s y n t h e s i z e f e e l i n g s o f independence and dependence. Independence means t h a t each person accepts the other's need to e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s with others and to grow through such experiences. Dependence r e f l e c t s the awareness t h a t f r i e n d s must r e l y on each other f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l support, and to g i v e a sense of s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with other as a s i g n i f i c a n t person whose r e l a t i o n to the s e l f i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t from l e s s meaningful r e l a t i o n s . Source: Selman (1979). 104 FRIEND DILEMMA Charlene and Joanne have been good f r i e n d s s i n c e they were f i v e . Now they were i n high school and Joanne was t r y i n g out f o r the school p l a y . As usual she was nervous about how she had done, but Charlene was there to t e l l her she was very good and to g i v e her moral support. S t i l l Joanne was worried t h a t a newcomer i n school would get the p a r t . The new g i r l , T i n a , came over t o c o n g r a t u l a t e Joanne on her performance and then asked i f she co u l d j o i n the g i r l s f o r a snack. Right away Charlene and T i n a seemed to h i t i t o f f very w e l l . They t a l k e d about where T i n a was from and the kinds o f t h i n g s she co u l d do i n her new s c h o o l . Joanne on the other hand, d i d n ' t seem to l i k e T i n a very w e l l . She thought T i n a was a l i t t l e push, and maybe she was a b i t j e a l o u s over a l l the a t t e n t i o n Charlene was g i v i n g T i n a . When T i n a l e f t the other two alone, Joanne and Charlene arranged t o get together on Saturday, because Joanne had a problem t h a t she would l i k e to t a l k over with Charlene. But l a t e r t h a t day T i n a c a l l e d Charlene and asked her to go to see a play on Saturday. Charlene had a dilemma. She would have jumped at the chance to go with T i n a , but she had al r e a d y promised to see Joanne. Joanne might have understood and been happy t h a t Charlene had the chance to go, or she might f e e l l i k e she was l o s i n g her best f r i e n d when she r e a l l y needed her. 1. What do you t h i n k the problem i s i n t h i s s t o r y ? 2. What do you t h i n k Charlene w i l l do, choose to be with her o l d f r i e n d Joanne or go with the new g i r l Tina? Why? 3. Which do you t h i n k i s more important, t o be with an o l d f r i e n d or make a new f r i e n d ? Why? 4. Do you have a best f r i e n d ? What kind o f f r i e n d s h i p do you have with t h a t person? What makes t h a t person your best f r i e n d ? 5. Why are f r i e n d s important? What kind o f person makes a good f r i e n d ? 6. What's the d i f f e r e n c e between the kind o f f r i e n d s h i p Joanne and Charlene have and Charlene and Ti n a ' s f r i e n d s h i p ? 7. Which i s b e t t e r t o have or be with, one c l o s e f r i e n d or a group o f r e g u l a r f r i e n d s ? Why? 8. Is i t important t o do th i n g s f o r each other f o r a good f r i e n d s h i p ? Why? 9. Do you t h i n k t r u s t i s important f o r a good f r i e n d s h i p ? Why? 10. How do you t h i n k Joanne f e e l s about the new f r i e n d s h i p ? 11. What does i t mean to be j e a l o u s i n a f r i e n d s h i p ? What does j e a l o u s y do t o a f r i e n d s h i p ? 12. Can people be f r i e n d s even i f they are having arguments? Why? 13. How should arguments be s e t t l e s between good f r i e n d s ? 14. What makes f r i e n d s h i p s breakup? Appendix E Hare's Measure o f Psychopathy Psychopathy C h e c k l i s t (PCL) Revised f o r Adolescents 106 ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST O=does not occur, not a problem; l=occurs i n f r e q u e n t l y , s l i g h t problem 2=occurs sometimes or o c c a s i o n a l l y , moderate problem 3=occurs f r e q u e n t l y , s e r i o u s problem 0 1 2 3 1. G l i b n e s s , s u p e r f i c i a l charm 0 1 2 3 2. Grandiose sense o f s e l f - w o r t h 0 1 2 3 3. Need f o r s t i m u l a t i o n , proneness to boredom 0 1 2 3 4. P a t h o l o g i c a l l y i n g 0 1 2 3 5. Conning, mani p u l a t i v e 0 1 2 3 6. Lack of remorse or g u i l t 0 1 2 3 7. Shallow a f f e c t 0 1 2 3 8. C a l l o u s , l a c k o f empathy 0 1 2 3 9. P a r a s i t i c l i f e s t y l e 0 1 2 3 10. Poor beh a v i o r a l c o n t r o l s 0 1 2 3 11. Promiscuous sexual behavior 0 1 2 3 12. E a r l y b e h a v i o r a l problems 0 1 2 3 13. Lack o f r e a l i s t i c , long-term goals 0 1 2 3 14. I m p u l s i v i t y 0 1 2 3 15. I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 0 1 2 3 16. F a i l u r e to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r own a c t i o n s 0 1 2 3 17. Revocation o f c o n d i t i o n a l r e l e a s e 0 1 2 3 18. C r i m i n a l v e r s a t i l i t y 107 Appendix F Delinquency Rating S c a l e A. Delinquency Rating S c a l e B. Item Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s JUVENILE DELINQUENCY RATING SCALE 108 Male Female Occupation Age The purpose o f t h i s study i s to o b t a i n r a t i n g s by i n d i v i d u a l s about the r e l a t i v e s e r i o u s n e s s o f c e r t a i n d e l i n q u e n t a c t s committed by j u v e n i l e s ( i n d i v i d u a l s 18 years and younger). The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f crimes are arranged i n random order. For each crime, please i n d i c a t e how s e r i o u s i t i s t o you. The se r i o u s n e s s o f each d e l i n q u e n t a c t i s to be judged a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e from 0 to 5: 0 1 2 3 4 5 NOT EXTREMELY IMMORAL IMMORAL 1. Bu r g l a r y o f a home, s t e a l i n g a st e r e o and c o l o r TV. 2. S e l l i n g marijuana t o high school peers. 3. F o n d l i n g g e n i t a l s o f c h i l d . 4. Forgery o f a st r a n g e r ' s check. 5. T h e f t o f a car f o r j o y - r i d i n g . 6. Repeated running away from home. 7. Planned k i l l i n g o f a parent. 8. Defacing a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g with p a i n t . ' 9. S h o p l i f t i n g c l o t h e s over $100 i n value. 10. F o r c i b l e rape o f a s t r a n g e r i n a park. 11. S e t t i n g f i r e i n a waste basket i n an occupied s c h o o l . 12. Beating up a st r a n g e r i n a f i s t f i g h t . 13. D r i v i n g parents c a r without a l i c e n s e or per m i s s i o n . 14. Attempted rape (no use o f a weapon). 15. Making obscene phone c a l l s . 16. Possession o f cocaine 17. Harassment of a mentally r e t a r d e d neighbor. 18. Break-in and entry o f s t o r e , s t e a l i n g s e v e r a l s t e r e o s . 19. Repeated truancy from s c h o o l . 21. L o i t e r i n g 22. Behaving beyond parental c o n t r o l / r e f u s a l to obey parents. 23. Engaging i n p r o s t i t u t i o n . 24. Armed hold-up o f a convenience s t o r e . 25. Being drunk i n a p u b l i c p l a c e . 26. Impulsive k i l l i n g o f an acquaintance over an argument. 27. Using LSD. 28. S t e a l i n g a b i l l f o l d from a s t r a n g e r at k n i f e - p o i n t . 29. S e t t i n g f i r e t o a garage not attached to a house. 30. Being out past curfew. 31. B r i b e s younger n i e c e to g i v e him o r a l sex. 32. I l l e g a l p ossession o f a f i r e a r m . 33. F o r c i b l e rape a f t e r breaking i n t o a home. 34. Mugging and s t e a l i n g a purse with $200 i n i t . 35. Minor i n possession o f a l c o h o l i c beverages. 36. D i s o r d e r l y conduct. 37. B u r g l a r y o f a house t a k i n g $50 i n cash. 38. A s s a u l t with a k n i f e . 39. Demolishing a statue i n a c i t y park. 40. Using s t o l e n c r e d i t c a r d s . 41. S h o p l i f t i n g $30 worth o f c a s s e t t e tapes. 42. Exposes g e n i t a l s to a c h i l d i n a park. 43. I n t i m i d a t i o n o f a neighbor. 44. T r e s p a s s i n g i n a r a i l r o a d y a r d . 45. R e s i s t i n g a r r e s t by a p o l i c e o f f i c e r . 46. Breaking i n t o a school causing over $10,000 worth of damage 47. Spray-paining a swastika on a Jewish temple door. 48. T o r t u r i n g animals. 49. Making rude and obscene comments to s t r a n g e r s on the s t r e e t 110 Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f Immorality Ratings Mean Stnd. Dev. 10. F o r c i b l e rape o f a st r a n g e r i n a park. 4.98 .14 20. B a b y s i t t i n g , f o r c i n g boy to have anal sex. 4.91 .29 33. F o r c i b l e rape a f t e r breaking i n t o a home. 4.91 .38 7. Planned k i l l i n g o f a parent. 4.89 .42 31. Bri b e s younger niece to g i v e him o r a l sex. 4.85 .38 26. Impulsive k i l l i n g acquaintance argument. 4.75 .61 14. Attempted rape (no use o f a weapon). 4.70 .56 3. Fondling g e n i t a l s o f c h i l d . 4.69 .77 48. T o r t u r i n g animals. 4.67 .63 38. A s s a u l t with a k n i f e . 4.55 .57 28. S t e a l i n g b i l l f o l d s t r a n g e r k n i f e - p o i n t . 4.46 .67 42. Exposes g e n i t a l s t o a c h i l d i n a park. 4.46 .66 24. Armed hold-up o f a convenience s t o r e . 4.37 .73 34. Mugging and s t e a l i n g purse with $200. 4.24 .79 46. Breaking i n t o a school $10,000 damage. 4.18 .79 17. Harassment o f a mentally r e t a r d e d neighbor. 4.06 .91 47. Spray-paining a swastika Jewish temple door. 4.04 .93 29. Set f i r e garage not attached t o a house. 3.99 .97 12. Beating up a s t r a n g e r i n a f i s t f i g h t . 3.96 1.04 18. Break-in s t o r e , s t e a l i n g s e v e r a l s t e r e o s . 3.94 .90 11. S e t t i n g f i r e waste basket occupied s c h o o l . 3.86 1.06 1. B u r g l a r y home, s t e a l i n g a stereo/TV. 3.83 .85 40. Using s t o l e n c r e d i t c a r d s . 3.80 .87 23. Engaging i n p r o s t i t u t i o n . 3.73 1.25 4. Forgery o f a st r a n g e r ' s check. 3.70 .87 I l l Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f Immorality Ratings Continued Mean Stnd. Dev. 50. S t e a l i n g a s t e r e o from a parked c a r . 3.70 .91 37. B u r g l a r y o f a house t a k i n g $50 i n cash. 3.68 .97 2. S e l l i n g marijuana t o high school peers. 3.67 1.23 5. T h e f t o f a c a r f o r j o y - r i d i n g . 3.63 .98 39. Demolishing a statue i n a c i t y park. 3.56 1.00 41. S h o p l i f t i n g $30 worth o f c a s s e t t e tapes. 3.49 .94 9. S h o p l i f t i n g c l o t h e s over $100 i n value. 3.46 .94 43. I n t i m i d a t i o n o f a neighbor. 3.43 1.08 49. Making rude and obscene comments s t r a n g e r s . 3.40 .91 32. I l l e g a l p ossession o f a f i r e a r m . 3.21 1.32 16. Possession o f cocaine 3.20 1.41 27. Using LSD. 3.18 1.49 15. Making obscene phone c a l l s . 3.14 1.05 45. R e s i s t i n g a r r e s t by a p o l i c e o f f i c e r . 3.06 1.17 8. Defacing a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g with p a i n t . 2.87 1.12 13. D r i v i n g parents c ar no l i c e n s e / p e r m i s s i o n . 2.43 1.06 22. Behaving beyond parental c o n t r o l . 2.42 1.18 35. Minor i n poss e s s i o n a l c o h o l i c beverages. 2.37 1.20 25. Being drunk i n a p u b l i c p l a c e . 2.32 1.25 36. D i s o r d e r l y conduct. 2.22 1.17 19. Repeated truancy from s c h o o l . 2.10 1.19 6. Repeated running away from home. 2.07 1.35 44. T r e s p a s s i n g i n a r a i l r o a d y a r d . 1.71 1.19 30. Being out past curfew. 1.38 1.12 21. L o i t e r i n g 1.12 1.07 APPENDIX G Consent Forms A. Parental B. P r o f e s s i o n a l C. Youth 115 To be read to the youth: The s t a f f here as well as your parent(s) have given t h e i r permission f o r you to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study but i t i s important t h a t you y o u r s e l f decide whether you want to p a r t i c i p a t e . I f you decide to be p a r t of t h i s study, you may s t i l l withdraw your consent at any time. That means t h a t i f you d e c i d e , f o r any reason, t h a t you do not want to continue you can stop without any problem at a l l . Let me d e s c r i b e to you what t h i s study i n v o l v e s . We are i n t e r e s t e d i n the d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t young people t h i n k about c e r t a i n s o c i a l i s s u e s and problems. In order to f i n d t h i s out, we are i n t e r v i e w i n g people i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r about one hour. In t h i s i n t e r v i e w , we would be asking you to l i s t e n t o a s e r i e s o f short s t o r i e s about people who have d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s to make and then to g i v e us your thoughts about these s t o r i e s by answering a s e r i e s o f questions about them. We a l s o have a q u e s t i o n n a i r e on a t t i t u d e s and values we would l i k e you to read and mark down whether they are t r u e or f a l s e f o r you. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers to any o f these questions - we are simply i n t e r e s t e d i n what you t h i n k about these items. As we s a i d , these i n t e r v i e w s w i l l take about an hour. To help us i n g e t t i n g a l l o f your comments down, we would l i k e to tape r e c o r d the whole i n t e r v i e w . When we are f i n i s h e d we w i l l type up your answers and erase the tape. Your name w i l l not appear anywhere on the typed r e c o r d , so a l l comments w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l - n e i t h e r your parents, or the s t a f f here w i l l see your answers. There are no t r i c k questions i n t h i s study so i f something does not make sense or i s not c l e a r , or i f you would r a t h e r not answer t h a t q u e s t i o n , j u s t say so. When we are f i n i s h e d I w i l l be prepared to answer any questions you may have about t h i s study or about any o f the questions you have answered. I f you are w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study please read and s i g n t h i s consent form below. I have heard the summary d e s c r i p t i o n o f the adolescent development study and I understand the nature and extent o f my p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I am aware t h a t my p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s t r i c t l y v o l u n t a r y and t h a t I may withdraw from the study at any time. In view of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , I agree ( ) do not agree ( ) to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study. Name ( P r i n t ) : S i g n a t u r e : Date: 

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