UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of the Canadian functional principle Okagaki, Tomoko 1989

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ANALYSIS OF THE CANADIAN FUNCTIONAL PRINCIPLE BY OKAGAKI, TOMOKO B.A., Sophia U n i v e r s i t y , 1988 , THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P o l i t i c a l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1989 (c) Okagaki Toraoko, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The t h e s i s e x a m i n e s t h e o r i g i n and t h e n a t u r e o f C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e by t r a c i n g i t s d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c r i t i c a l y e a r s o f t h e g r a d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s d i p l o m a t i c i n d e p e n d e n c e and by a n a l y s i n g i t s s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s u g g e s t s t h a t a c o u n t r y s h o u l d be g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d w i l l t o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o a c e r t a i n s p h e r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e h a s b e e n p e r c e i v e d a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f an i d e a l i s t -i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t a s p e c t o f C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r w h i c h was b o r r o w e d f r o m D a v i d M i t r a n y ' s t h e o r y o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m , w i t h w h i c h i t i s o f t e n c o n f u s e d . T h i s t h e s i s a r g u e s t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e e merged as a r e s u l t o f t h e s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h C a n a d a was p l a c e d i n t h e e v o l v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m and t h a t i t must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a . R e f l e c t i n g t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1867, a n d an i n c r e a s i n g s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y , C a n a d a b e g a n t o demand a g r e a t e r r o l e i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e t h r o u g h numerous I m p e r i a l c o n f e r e n c e s . W h i l e C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a w h i c h was b e i n g f o r m e d i n t h e 1 9 2 0 s and t h e 1930s a s s e r t e d a c o u n t r y ' s r i g h t t o be g i v e n a r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e i n t h e s p h e r e where i t i s " c o n c e r n e d , " t h e g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l power i n t h e 1940s d e v e l o p e d t h e o r i g i n a l i d e a i n t o one b a s e d on " c a p a b i l i t y " a s t h e m a j o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r a c o u n t r y t o be e n t i t l e d a s p e c i a l r o l e . H e r e , C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a was d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p r i n c i p l e , j u s t i f y i n g C a n a d a ' s r i g h t t o c o n t r i b u t e t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s a s a raiddlepower. The s e c o n d p a r t c o m p a r e s C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a w i t h M i t r a n y ' s t h e o r y o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m . I n t h e c o u r s e o f a n a l y s i s i t w i l l become c l e a r t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i s b a s e d on q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k on i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s f r o m M i t r a n y ' s . C a n a d a was n o t i n t e r e s t e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n t h e t e c h n i c a l s p h e r e a s M i t r a n y was. M o r e o v e r , C a n a d a r e g a r d e d t h e s t a t e - s y s t e m a s a f a c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i f e , w h e r e a s M i t r a n y a i m e d a t w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t a s a f i n a l g o a l . The t h e s i s p r e s e n t s a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f one o f t h e c o r n e r s t o n e s o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . I t y i e l d s i n s i g h t i n t o a c o n t i n u i n g theme o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , i n w h i c h a b a l a n c e i s s o u g h t b e t w e e n t h e p u r s u i t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a n d t h e f u r t h e r i n g o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . I t a l s o h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o u r o f o t h e r s t a t e s i n t o d a y ' s w o r l d . C a n a d a h a s p r e s e n t e d one m o d e l o f d i p l o m a c y w h i c h a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g d o m e s t i c and e x t e r n a l e l e m e n t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Acknowledgments v Chapter 1: Introduct ion 1 Chapter 2: H i s t o r i c a l Survey the O r i g i n and the Evolut ion of the Funct ional P r i n c i p l e 6 Canada as a New Dominion of the B r i t i s h Empire: 1 867-1 91 1 9 The Era of Lor ing C h r i s t i e : The Formation of the Core Idea of the Funct ional P r i n c i p l e : 1911-1941 13 Development of the Funct ional Idea into a P r i n c i p l e : Discussions on the Jo in t War E f f o r t and on the United Nations 23 Chapter 3: Analys i s the Funct ional P r i n c i p l e and Functional ism 36 The Theory of Functional ism 37 The Relat ionship between the Funct ional P r i n c i p l e and Functional ism 40 Chapter 4: Conclusion 53 Notes 58 Bibl iography 67 V ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am g r a t e f u l t o many i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e h e l p e d me i n numerous ways i n w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I f i r s t w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t ( W o r l d U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e o f C a n a d a ) , w h i c h h a s f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h i s a c a d e m i c y e a r . I am d e e p l y i n d e b t e d t o P r o f e s s o r Don Mu n t o n , who t o o k an i n t e r e s t i n my work a nd g e n e r o u s l y g a v e h i s t i m e t o d i s c u s s t h e t h e s i s . P r o f e s s o r s K a l H o l s t i a n d Mark Z a c h e r r e a d t h e t h e s i s a n d gave me comments. I e x t e n d my t h a n k s t o o t h e r p r o f e s s o r s a n d f r i e n d s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t s a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t ( e s p e c i a l l y t o I s a b e l , K a t h y , and P e t u l a ) , a n d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who s u p p o r t e d me f r o m t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e P a c i f i c ( Mr.& M r s . B e p p u , H i d e t o s h i , p r o f e s s o r s a t S o p h i a U n i v e r s i t y ) . L a s t l y , I c a n n o t f o r g e t t o m e n t i o n my p a r e n t s , whose m o r a l s u p p o r t h a s b e e n i n v a l u a b l e t h r o u g h o u t my l i f e . 1 . CHAPTER 1 Introduct ion I think we must look at the future of our foreign po l i cy with hard rea l i sm, but without c y n i c i s m . . . We must have some conception of our ro le i n the world i f we are to be an independent state at a l l . This we cannot a v o i d . . . If our conception i s to be r e a l i s t i c , adapted to our s ize and the shape we are i n , i t seems to me that i t i s bound to be complex i n nature, s ens i t ive to equi l ibr ium and opportunity, and for the most part , d i s c r e e t . 1 The thes is examines the Canadian funct ional p r i n c i p l e , which i s frequently mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e as one of the cornerstones of Canadian foreign p o l i c y , but the o r i g i n and the nature of which are s t i l l vague. In the course of h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l analys i s of the funct ional p r i n c i p l e , I am concerned with the question of whether a nation establ i shes a c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e of foreign p o l i c y which defines i t s nat ional ro l e by autonomous, i d e a l i s t i c w i l l , or, ra ther , i t follows a path out of the s i t u a t i o n a l necessity of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . This question has also long been a topic of the o ld debate between r e a l i s t s and i d e a l i s t s i n the study of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , a debate which has not been s e t t l e d to t h i s day. The funct ional p r i n c i p l e i s widely thought to have been f i r s t p u b l i c l y advocated by Prime Minis ter Mackenzie King during the discuss ions on the new post-war i n t e r n a t i o n a l organizat ion , the United Nations. It suggests that i f a state has the c a p a b i l i t y and w i l l to contribute to a c e r t a i n sphere of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s or funct ion, the state ought to be 2. afforded r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and inf luence i n the decision-making on issues i n that p a r t i c u l a r sphere. Since t h i s implies that each country has i t s own funct ion to perform i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l soc ie ty , i t means that Canada has a r i g h t to be assured a spec ia l ro l e to play as a middlepower. Arguing for a larger share of Canadian r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , Mackenzie King advocated that i t should be proportionate to the s ta te ' s c a p a b i l i t y and wi l l ingness to make contr ibut ions to p a r t i c u l a r issues of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Scholars of Canadian fore ign p o l i c y have often perceived the funct ional p r i n c i p l e as a manifestation of Canada's in ternat iona l i sm during the 1940s, when i t discarded the i s o l a t i o n i s m of the inter-war per iod 2 and became a c t i v e l y involved i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . I t i s general ly and popularly assumed that there i s a d i r e c t l i n k between the funct ional p r i n c i p l e and David Mitrany's funct ional i sm, which proposes function-based cooperation i n the t echnica l sphere of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s that would lead to numerous i n t e r a c t i o n s among states and eventual ly to the decl ine of nat ional ism and to the i n t e g r a t i o n of the world. However, despite the frequent references to the funct ional p r i n c i p l e i n many wri t ings on Canadian fore ign p o l i c y , ambiguities and confusion s t i l l e x i s t 3 with regard to: 1) the t iming of i t s adoption and i t s development i n the course of the h i s tory of Canadian foreign p o l i c y ; 2) i t s r e l a t i o n to funct ional i sm, one of the main theories of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n studies of i n t e r n a t i o n a l 3. r e l a t i o n s . Therefore, t h i s essay examines the funct ional p r i n c i p l e with the fol lowing three purposes: 1) to trace the o r i g i n and the evolut ion of the funct ional p r i n c i p l e h i s t o r i c a l l y ; 2) to analyse and discuss the nature of the funct ional p r i n c i p l e by c l a r i f y i n g the ambiguities that ex is t between the funct ional p r i n c i p l e and Mitrany's funct ional ism; and 3) to draw impl icat ions for the continuing t r a d i t i o n of Canadian fore ign p o l i c y for general theories of external behavior that are appl icable to other states as w e l l . In the f i r s t chapter, the funct ional p r i n c i p l e i s h i s t o r i c a l l y analysed. Although i t i s be l ieved that the funct ional p r i n c i p l e or ig inated during the discuss ions on Canada's involvement i n the post-war i n t e r n a t i o n a l organizat ion , we can f ind the o r i g i n a l idea evolving as early as 1867, when Canada became the f i r s t Dominion of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. The funct ional idea was further developed during the Borden adminis trat ion as Canada experienced rap id external changes and became more aware of i t s i d e n t i t y . Lor ing Cheney C h r i s t i e , the Legal Advisor to the Department of External A f f a i r s who served under Borden, Meighen, and King, contributed great ly to the formation of the core idea of Canadian funct ional i sm, which was developed in to a p r i n c i p l e by Hume Wrong and was advocated by Mackenzie King i n the 1940s. The h i s t o r i c a l survey i s followed by an analys i s of the nature of the funct ional p r i n c i p l e . The second chapter 4 . w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g two q u e s t i o n s : f i r s t , what a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e ? S e c o n d l y , how c a n i t be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y , D a v i d M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m ? The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s a nd d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a n d M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m w i l l r e v e a l t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e f r e q u e n t c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n t h e two and i n s p i t e o f t h e g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t C a n a d a " b o r r o w e d " M i t r a n y ' s i d e a , t h e r e e x i s t s some f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two. A l t h o u g h t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a n d f u n c t i o n a l i s m s h a r e some s i m i l a r a s s u m p t i o n s a n d i d e a s f o r s o l v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s a n d a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s w e r e a w a r e o f M i t r a n y ' s i d e a s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d e v i d e n c e o f a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a p p e a r s e n d o g e n o u s l y C a n a d i a n , a n d must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m . The C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i s b e s t u n d e r s t o o d a s a p r o d u c t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s s t a t u s a n d r o l e i n t h e c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was g r a d u a l l y f o r m e d a s C a n a d a s o u g h t a n d d e v e l o p e d an i n c r e a s i n g s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y p a r a l l e l i n g i t s i n c r e a s e d autonomy i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f r o m B r i t a i n . The s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e power c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m r e q u i r e d C a n a d a t o f i n d a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e en h a n c e m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f 5 . p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s w i t h B r i t a i n a n d w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a s w e l l a s b e t w e e n t h e two, a l l t h r e e o f w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The wisdom o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e c a n be f o u n d i n b o t h a r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s power and a d e s i r e a n d s e a r c h f o r an e f f e c t i v e r o l e w h i l e a c c o m m o d a t i n g C a n a d a ' s i n t e r e s t w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r s t a t e s , w h i c h h a s b e e n t h e e s s e n c e o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . O f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r a g m a t i s m , f l e x i b i l i t y , m o d e r a t i o n , a nd p r u d e n c e , C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n e s s e n c e i s w e l l r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t o f J o h n H o l m e s , w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e n e e d f o r r e a l i s m w i t h o u t c y n i c i s m . A s s u m i n g t h a t "men r e v e a l t h e i r p o l i t i c s most c l e a r l y when t h e y a r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i r r e g i m e s , " 4 t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f C a n a d a ' s d e b u t i n w o r l d p o l i t i c s , s h o u l d y i e l d some i n s i g h t s i n t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g t r a d i t i o n o f i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 6 . CHAPTER 2 H i s t o r i c a l Survey the O r i g i n and the Evolut ion of the Funct ional P r i n c i p l e The most often c i t e d expression of the funct ional p r i n c i p l e by scholars of Canadian foreign p o l i c y i s the speech that then Prime Minis ter Mackenzie King made i n the House of Commons on July 9, 1943: On the one hand, authori ty i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s must not be concentrated exc lus ive ly i n the larges t powers. On the other, authori ty cannot be div ided equally among a l l the t h i r t y or more sovereign states that comprise the United Nations, or a l l e f f ec t ive authority w i l l d i s a p p e a r . . . [Effective] representat ion on [new i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ] should nei ther be r e s t r i c t e d to the larges t states nor necessar i ly extended to a l l s tates . Representation should be determined on a funct ional basis which w i l l admit to f u l l membership those countries large or smal l , which have the greatest contr ibut ion to make to the p a r t i c u l a r object i n quest ion. . . .Some compromise must be found between the t h e o r e t i c a l equal i ty of states and the p r a c t i c a l necessity of l i m i t i n g representat ion on in terna t iona l bodies to a workable number. That compromise can be discovered, e spec ia l l y i n economic matters, by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the funct ional p r i n c i p l e of r epresen ta t ion . 5 Although t h i s speech of Mackenzie King i s considered to be the f i r s t pub l i c expression of the funct ional p r i n c i p l e , the funct iona l idea had already appeared i n pub l i c as early as 1921. The fundamental ideas of the p r i n c i p l e had or ig inated with the evolut ion of Canada's p o s i t i o n i n the changing i n t e r n a t i o n a l system of the 19th and ear ly 20th century. Since Confederation i n 1867, the c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p for Canada had been with B r i t a i n as a Dominion of the B r i t i s h 7 . E m p i r e , l a t e r t h e Commonwealth. The r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t s g i a n t n e i g h b o u r , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , l a t e r became i n c r e a s i n g l y v i t a l . The b a s i s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was f o r m e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e s e n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s . A c h i e v e m e n t and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , w h i c h h a s b e e n a c o n t i n u i n g theme o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , h a s t a k e n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1867 and 1945, C a n a d a ' s e x p r e s s i o n o f i t s i d e n t i t y d e m o n s t r a t e d e i t h e r one o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1) C a n a d a a s a n a t i o n w h i c h i n h e r i t e d t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n ; 2) C a n a d a a s a n a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a p a r t f r o m E u r o p e a n power p o l i t i c s ; and 3) C a n a d a as a n a t i o n r e s i s t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s c h a p t e r t r a c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and e v o l u t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . The h i s t o r y o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p e r i o d s : 1) 1867- 1 9 1 1 ; 2) 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 4 1 ; a n d 3) 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 5 . The f i r s t p e r i o d c o v e r s t h e e r a f r o m C o n f e d e r a t i o n u n t i l t h e end o f t h e L a u r i e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n t h i s p e r i o d C a n a d a s l o w l y s t a r t e d t o grow a s an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n . C a n a d a ' s i d e n t i t y a s a n a t i o n was c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o i t s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , a n d C a n a d a was n o t u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h B r i t a i n t a k i n g t h e l e a d i n c o n d u c t i n g e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e w h o l e E m p i r e . A l t h o u g h t h i s p e r i o d d o e s n o t d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n t h e l a t e r a d v o c a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d i n w h i c h C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a 8 . g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d . The s e c o n d p e r i o d d e a l s w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e B o r d e n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n t i l t h e d e a t h o f one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a , L o r i n g Cheney C h r i s t i e , t h e L e g a l A d v i s o r t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . As C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s became more c o m p l e x i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s h i f t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a l a n c e o f power and t h e c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c T r i a n g l e 6 , C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y C h r i s t i e , f e l t an i n c r e a s i n g n e e d f o r a s t r o n g e r s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and d i p l o m a t i c a utonomy. C h r i s t i e c a n be c a l l e d one o f t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s o f C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a , s e r v i n g t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s f o r n e a r l y t h i r t y y e a r s a n d d i r e c t i n g C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s . T h i s e r a h a s w i t n e s s e d s e v e r a l m a j o r a c h i e v e m e n t s i n i n c r e a s i n g C a n a d a ' s s t a t u s a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n . C a n a d i a n p o l i c y - m a k e r s made s t a t e m e n t s e x p r e s s i n g t h e i d e a s t h a t became t h e b a s i s f o r C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . Numerous d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e s t a t u s o f t h e D o m i n i o n s a t t h e I m p e r i a l C o n f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 2 0 s , and m o u n t i n g p r e s s u r e s f o r g r e a t e r autonomy c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e S t a t u t e o f W e s t m i n s t e r i n 1 9 3 1 . A l t h o u g h " i m p e r i a l " s e n t i m e n t was s t i l l s t r o n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s e r a , C a n a d a a f t e r W o r l d War I s t a r t e d t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f by n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t t o E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n l e s s a f f i n i t y t o i m p e r i a l t i e s . T h i s " i s o l a t i o n i s t " o r " q u a s i - i s o l a t i o n i s t " a t t i t u d e c o n t i n u e d u n t i l C a n a d a e n g a g e d i n t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War. 9. F i n a l l y , t h e t h i r d e r a d e a l s w i t h t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g t h e war when t h e a l l i e d p o w e r s were e n g a g e d i n d e s i g n i n g t h e p o s t - w a r w o r l d o r d e r , e s p e c i a l l y t h e new i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r t h e w a r . Many s c h o l a r s c h a r a c t e r i z e C a n a d i a n e x t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r i n t h i s e r a a s " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . " D e t e r m i n e d t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e new c o m i n g e r a and s e a r c h i n g f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e p o s t - w a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , C a n a d a d e v e l o p e d a " p r i n c i p l e " by c o m b i n i n g and c o n d e n s i n g c e r t a i n i d e a s o f C a n a d a ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y , t h e o r i g i n s o f w h i c h go b a c k t o t h e 1867 C o n f e d e r a t i o n . "The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , " a s i t came t o be c a l l e d , a d o p t e d more i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t , a c t i v i s t n u a n c e s d u r i n g t h e w a r . I t was a d v o c a t e d by M a c k e n z i e K i n g a n d t e s t e d d u r i n g t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e C h a r t e r o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e q u e s t i o n o f m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l and o f s p e c i a l a g e n c i e s . C a n a d a a s a new D o m i n i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e : 1867-1911 From t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e t o t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth, t o t h e Commonwealth o f N a t i o n s , and f i n a l l y t o t h e Commonwealth "Changes i n i t s name r e f l e c t e d c h a n g i n g g l o b a l r e a l i t i e s , " was t h e o b s e r v a t i o n made by a r e c e n t o v e r v i e w r e p o r t on t h e Commonwealth p u b l i s h e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s i n C a n a d a . 7 The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f names a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e n d o g e n o u s l y C a n a d i a n c o n d u c t o f d i p l o m a c y . 1 0 . W h i l e C a n a d a ' s t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s h a d b e e n d e f i n e d q u i t e e a r l y i n i t s h i s t o r y , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s o v e r e i g n t y was r a t h e r a s l o w p r o c e s s . 8 T h i s p r o c e s s f o r an autonomous g o v e r n m e n t was f a c i l i t a t e d by C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1867, a s C a n a d a became t h e f i r s t i n d e p e n d e n t D o m i n i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . W i t h t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , C a n a d a ( O n t a r i o and Q u e b e c ) , Nova S c o t i a , a n d New B r u n s w i c k j o i n e d i n f e d e r a l s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t . The B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t endow C a n a d a w i t h t h e r i g h t t o amend t h e A c t by i t s own l e g i s l a t u r e s , a n d t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t s t i l l r e t a i n e d t h e d i s a l l o w a n c e a n d r e s e r v a t i o n p o w e r s . Above a l l , i t d i d n o t make any r e f e r e n c e t o t h e new D o m i n i o n ' s r i g h t t o c o n d u c t i t s own e x t e r n a l p o l i c y n o r t o C a n a d a ' s s t a t u s i n e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s . A l l t h e d i p l o m a t i c p o w e r s were r e s e r v e d i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t . S i n c e d i p l o m a t i c autonomy i s one o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n , t h e D o m i n i o n o f C a n a d a r e m a i n e d i n s u b s t a n c e a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g c o l o n y o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . 9 A t t h i s s t a g e C a n a d a ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s u r g e n t a g o a l t o be a c h i e v e d a s i t l a t e r became. What c o n c e r n e d C a n a d a most i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e was " s u r v i v a l " a s a n a t i o n . S i n c e t h e A m e r i c a n C i v i l War o f 1860-65 h a d s t r a i n e d A n g l o -A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s a n d c a u s e d g r e a t f e a r i n C a n a d a t h a t i t m i g h t be a n n e x e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , C a n a d a ' s p r i m a r y t a s k was s e e n t o be t o m o d e r a t e and h a r m o n i z e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n 11 . B r i t a i n and the United States and remaining a state d i s t i n c t from the United S t a t e s . 1 0 Reliance on B r i t a i n i n the conduct of diplomacy was considered necessary for Canada to survive as a nation and even for the enhancement of Canada's nat iona l i n t e r e s t . Indeed, i n ear ly periods of Canadian foreign p o l i c y , "imperialism was one form of Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m . . . the imperia l system was the veh ic le through which [Canada] would a t t a i n nat ionhood." 1 1 The Treaty of Washington i n 1871, which removed the fear of war between B r i t a i n and the United States and between Canada and the United States, became the cornerstone of cooperative North A t l a n t i c r e l a t i o n s . With t h i s Treaty signed, Canada's s u r v i v a l as a nat ion was more or less a s s u r e d . 1 2 Canada's external r e l a t i o n s became more complex during the Laur ier admini s trat ion . Although the Treaty of Washington became the basis for peaceful North American r e l a t i o n s and assured Canada's s u r v i v a l as a d i s t i n c t nat ion , the simple geographical fact that Canada i s s i tuated next to a powerful, giant neighbour, nevertheless meant that frequent contacts with the United States remained a continuing threat to Canada's nat ional i d e n t i t y . This i n e v i t a b l e consequence of geographic proximity and l i n k s increased the need for Canada's autonomy i n order, f i r s t , to handle numerous complicated issues between Canada and the United States more e f f i c i e n t l y , 1 2 . and s e c o n d , t o p r e s e r v e C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . C a n a d a ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y f e l t n e e d f o r d i p l o m a t i c i n d e p e n d e n c e were r e f l e c t e d i n L a u r i e r ' s s t a t e m e n t i n t h e House o f Commons on O c t o b e r 23, 1893: I h a v e o f t e n r e g r e t t e d . . . t h a t we a r e l i v i n g b e s i d e a g r e a t n e i g h b o u r who, I b e l i e v e I c a n s a y w i t h o u t b e i n g deemed u n f r i e n d l y t o them, a r e v e r y g r a s p i n g i n t h e i r n a t i o n a l a c t s , and who a r e d e t e r m i n e d u p o n e v e r y o c c a s i o n t o g e t t h e b e s t i n any a g r e e m e n t w h i c h t h e y make. I h a v e o f t e n r e g r e t t e d a l s o t h a t w h i l e t h e y a r e a g r e a t a n d p o w e r f u l n a t i o n , we a r e o n l y a s m a l l c o l o n y , a g r o w i n g c o l o n y , b u t s t i l l a c o l o n y . . . The d i f f i c u l t y , a s I c o n c e i v e i t t o b e , i s t h a t s o l o n g a s C a n a d a r e m a i n s a d e p e n d e n c y o f t h e B r i t i s h C rown t h e p r e s e n t p o w e r s t h a t we h a v e a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f o u r r i g h t s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t we s h o u l d a s k t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t f o r more e x t e n s i v e p o w er, so t h a t i f e v e r we h a v e t o d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e a g a i n we s h a l l d e a l w i t h them i n o u r own way, i n o u r own f a s h i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b e s t l i g h t t h a t we h a v e . 1 3 T h r o u g h o u t t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , h o w e v e r , g r e a t e r d i p l o m a t i c i n d e p e n d e n c e h a s a l s o b e e n a means t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s p e a c e f u l l y w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s and h a s n o t b e e n e x e r c i s e d a t t h e e x p e n s e o f h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s . D i p l o m a t i c autonomy i n t h i s e r a was r e g a r d e d a s a means t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s p e a c e f u l l y b e t w e e n C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . L a u r i e r , who s p o k e f o r C a n a d a ' s i n c r e a s e d d e g r e e o f autonomy i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a l s o s t a t e d i n 1907: ... [We] c a n n e v e r c o n c e i v e o f war b e t w e e n u s , o r o f war b e t w e e n G r e a t B r i t a i n a nd t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . We mean t o s e t t l e a l l o u r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h a t n a t i o n by p e a c e f u l means, by d i p l o m a t i c a c t i o n , by n e g o t i a t i o n , b u t n e v e r by t h e a r b i t r a m e n t o f w a r . 1 4 1 3 . The E r a o f L o r i n g C h r i s t i e ; t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c o r e i d e a o f  t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e : 1911-1941 A t u r n i n g p o i n t came i n C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g B o r d e n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n t h e 1 9 1 0 s , C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s came t o r e g a r d C a n a d a ' s autonomy i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a s more and more i m p o r t a n t , a n d t h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e d i n t h e 1920s and t h e 1 9 3 0 s . A l t h o u g h B o r d e n , l i k e a l l t h e f o r m e r p r i m e m i n i s t e r s , was a n i m p e r i a l i s t 1 5 , he s p o k e more s t r o n g l y f o r C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t h a n o t h e r s . W h i l e L a u r i e r f a v o u r e d a more c e n t r a l i z e d a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d B r i t i s h E m p i r e , B o r d e n p r e f e r r e d t o s e e C a n a d a p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e w o r l d c o m m u n i t y , s t a n d i n g more on i t s own i n t h e c o n d u c t o f e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , he t h o u g h t t h a t i f C a n a d a were t o c o n t r i b u t e t o i t , i t s v o i c e  must be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n o f t h e E m p i r e . 1 6 H e r e , one c a n s e e t h e s e e d s o f t h e i d e a o f C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e b e g i n n i n g t o s p r o u t w h i c h w o u l d l a t e r a s s e r t C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t h e s p h e r e s where C a n a d a h a s a v i t a l c o n c e r n a nd c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e . The i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n t e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e B o r d e n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d C a n a d a ' s s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y a n d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d f o r n a t i o n a l a u t o n o m y . 1 7 I t i s a l s o w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t a s C a n a d a s o u g h t an i n c r e a s e d d e g r e e o f n a t i o n a l autonomy, t h e n e e d f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d . B o r d e n , who 1 4 . was a s t r o n g e r a d v o c a t e o f C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l autonomy t h a n any f o r m e r p r i m e m i n i s t e r , a l s o s u p p o r t e d what i s c a l l e d t h e " l i n c h - p i n " t h e o r y , t h e i d e a t h a t d e f i n e d C a n a d a ' s r o l e a s t h e k e y t o f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1911 B o r d e n s t a t e d t h a t " C a nada's v o i c e and i n f l u e n c e s h o u l d a l w a y s be f o r harmony and n o t f o r d i s c o r d b e t w e e n o u r E m p i r e a n d t h e g r e a t R e p u b l i c a n d I b e l i e v e t h a t s h e w i l l a l w a y s be a b o n d o f a b i d i n g f r i e n d s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m . " 1 8 I t was d u r i n g t h e B o r d e n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1909, s t a r t e d t o become an a c t i v e b u r e a u c r a c y . A t f i r s t t h e D e p a r t m e n t was s e e n a s a v e h i c l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s e x p e d i e n t l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y , r a t h e r t h a n an embodiment o f C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l w i l l t o p l a y a s p e c i a l and s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n w o r l d p o l i t i c s . 1 3 W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s A c t i n 1912, t h e p r o c e s s a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y m a k i n g i n C a n a d a was c h a n g e d . T h i s new A c t , w h i c h r e d u c e d t h e c o n t r o l o v e r f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e o f C a n a d a , a r o l e w h i c h u s e d t o be p e r f o r m e d by P r i m e M i n i s t e r s , a l l o w e d more room f o r t h e p e r s o n n e l o f t h e C a n a d i a n E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s D e p a r t m e n t t o c o n d u c t an a c t i v e f o r e i g n p o l i c y , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , who w o u l d h a v e c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h and a d i r e c t v o i c e t o t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r . 2 0 T h u s , t h e new A c t p r o v i d e d C a n a d a 15. w i t h g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n a s s e r t i n g i t s i n t e r e s t s e x t e r n a l l y and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s f r o m one o f c o l o n i a l s t a t e t o one o f i n c r e a s e d e x t e r n a l a utonomy. One o f t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 1 0 s , 1 9 2 0 s , a n d 1 9 3 0 s was L o r i n g Cheney C h r i s t i e , who was a p p o i n t e d by B o r d e n a s a L e g a l A d v i s o r t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x e r n a l A f f a i r s i n A p r i l o f 1913 - 2 1 C h r i s t i e , a w e l l -e d u c a t e d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y - m i n d e d o f f i c i a l , s o o n became a c o n f i d e n t i a l a s s i s t a n t o f B o r d e n i n e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s . 2 2 He w r o t e n u m e r o u s l e t t e r s , memoranda, and s p e e c h e s e l o q u e n t l y f o r t h e C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s t h a t he s e r v e d . E s p e c i a l l y u n d e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f A r t h u r M e i g h e n , who p r o v e d t o be p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s , t a k i n g l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , most o f t h e i m p o r t a n t f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was l e f t t o C h r i s t i e . 2 3 C h r i s t i e s h a r e d s i m i l a r i d e a s on e x t e r n a l p o l i c y w i t h B o r d e n 2 4 ; he was b o t h a n a t i o n a l i s t a n d a n i m p e r i a l i s t . What c o n c e r n e d C h r i s t i e d u r i n g t h e B o r d e n e r a was, t h e r e f o r e , t h e e n h a n c e m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a s w e l l a s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f h a r m o n i o u s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e E m p i r e an d w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . F o r t h e e n h a n c e m e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , C h r i s t i e s t r o n g l y a r g u e d f o r C a n a d a ' s d o m e s t i c u n i t y and f o r autonomy i n f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g . He b e l i e v e d C a n a d a s h o u l d become an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n w i t h a s t a t u s e q u a l t o t h a t o f B r i t a i n o r any o t h e r 1 6 . s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n . I n a memorandum o f December, 1913, i n w h i c h he o u t l i n e d h i s b a s i c v i e w o f C a n a d a ' s p o s i t i o n i n w o r l d p o l i t i c s , he s u g g e s t e d t h a t " t h e C a n a d i a n p e o p l e must s o o n e r o r l a t e r assume a c o n t r o l o v e r f o r e i g n p o l i c y , t h a t i s , o v e r t h e i s s u e s o f p e a c e a nd war, no l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a n t h a t now e x e r c i s e d by t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t a i n o r by t h e U.S.A." 2 5 W i t h r e g a r d t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , C h r i s t i e c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p e a c e f u l , f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h B r i t a i n a n d w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s e c u r i t y o f C a n a d a . L i k e B o r d e n , he r e c o g n i z e d C a n a d a ' s p o s i t i o n a s an " i n t e r p r e t e r a n d r e c o n c i l e r " 2 6 b e t w e e n t h e B r i t a i n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The F i r s t W o r l d War h a d a s t r o n g i m p a c t on C a n a d a ' s o u t l o o k " on i t s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s . W h i l e i m p e r i a l i s m h a d b e e n synonymous w i t h C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , i m p e r i a l i s m i n c r e a s i n g l y became s e e n a s a n i m p e d i m e n t t o C a n a d a ' s c o n t r o l o v e r i t s own d i p l o m a c y . C a n a d i a n s s t a r t e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s m i n t h e f o r m o f d i s t r u s t t o w a r d E u r o p e a n power p o l i t i c s , i d e n t i f y i n g C a n a d a a s a n a t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a r a t h e r t h a n a n a t i o n b a s e d on t h e I m p e r i a l t i e s . C a n a d a l o s t n e a r l y one p e r c e n t o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e war. D e s p i t e t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e war e f f o r t s , i t s v o i c e was n o t r e f l e c t e d a s much a s C a n a d a w i s h e d d u r i n g t h e w a r - t i m e I m p e r i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . H a v i n g s u f f e r e d g r e a t l o s s e s b o t h i n t e r m s o f human a n d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , C a n a d a s t a r t e d t o show i n c r e a s i n g r e l u c t a n c e t o w a r d i n v o l v e m e n t i n E u r o p e a n a f f a i r s . 2 7 F u r t h e r e n c o u r a g e d by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " s p l e n d i d i s o l a t i o n " o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , d i s t r u s t t o w a r d E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s i n c r e a s e d C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m a nd l e s s e n e d i m p e r i a l s y m p a t h i e s . T h e r e w ere some d o m e s t i c f a c t o r s t h a t e n c o u r a g e d t h i s t e n d e n c y a s w e l l . F i r s t , I m p e r i a l t i e s meant a d u a l l o y a l t y t o C a n a d a and t o t h e E m p i r e ; t h e a n t i p a t h y o f Quebec t o w a r d t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e c a u s e d d i f f i c u l t i e s . The d e s i r e t o a v o i d a r e p e a t o f t h e C o n s c r i p t i o n c r i s i s d u r i n g W o r l d War I c r e a t e d a d d e d p r e s s u r e t o a v o i d f u r t h e r e n t a n g l e m e n t s i n E m p i r e c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h s p e a k i n g C a n a d i a n s , w h i c h h a d l o n g b e e n a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m . M o r e o v e r , when A r t h u r M e i g h e n t o o k o f f i c e on J u l y 10, 1920, C a n a d a was f a c e d w i t h n umerous d o m e s t i c p r o b l e m s . The u n p r o m i s i n g p r o s p e c t s o f M e i g h e n ' s U n i o n i s t p a r t y , t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e r a i l r o a d , a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s made C a n a d a c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e " c u l t i v a t i o n o f i t s . own g a r d e n . " 2 8 The e l e c t i o n o f 1921 r e f l e c t e d t h e a t t i t u d i n a l c h a n g e t o w a r d i s o l a t i o n i s m . A r t h u r M e i g h e n , who was a n a d v o c a t e o f t h e c o m p a t i b i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e and C a n a d a ' s c o m p l e t e n a t i o n a l a utonomy, l o s t t h e 1921 e l e c t i o n . M a c k e n z i e K i n g , a s t r o n g a d v o c a t e o f a C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s m w h i c h r e j e c t e d s t r o n g I m p e r i a l t i e s , t o o k o f f i c e . 2 9 C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s o f t h i s p e r i o d demanded t h e f u l l i n d e p e n d e n c e o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y f r o m B r i t a i n , i n c l u d i n g autonomy i n s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s . 1 8 . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f any m a j o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i s i s i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 2 0 s , t h e e x t e r n a l p r o b l e m t h a t r e m a i n e d t o be s o l v e d was t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s s t a t u s and r e l a t i o n s i n t h e new Commonwealth, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o w h e t h e r C a n a d a ' s m i l i t a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e Commonwealth s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d a f t e r t h e w a r . The 1 9 2 0 s saw a s e r i e s o f I m p e r i a l C o n f e r e n c e s where C a n a d i a n p o l i c y - m a k e r s a t t e m p t e d t o i n c r e a s e C a n a d a ' s autonomy i n i t s I m p e r i a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e s e e f f o r t s o f C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s w e r e e v e n t u a l l y t o l e a d t o t h e e n a c t m e n t o f t h e 1931 S t a t u t e o f W e s t m i n s t e r . The I m p e r i a l C o n f e r e n c e i n 1921 p r o v i d e d t h e f i r s t p u b l i c a p p e a r e n c e o f C a n a d a ' s " f u n c t i o n a l " i d e a 3 0 , a l t h o u g h i t was n o t u n t i l K i n g ' s e r a t h a t i t was e l e v a t e d t o a " p r i n c i p l e . " The f o u r i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t s t o be d i s c u s s e d a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e w e r e : 1) t h e r e n e w a l o f t h e A n g l o - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e ; 2) n a v a l p o l i c y ; 3) i m p e r i a l p o l i c y ; and 4) t h e a g e n d a f o r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e . 3 1 The q u e s t i o n o f t h e A n g l o - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e , w h i c h w o u l d e x p i r e on J u l y 13, 1 9 2 1 , was t h e most u r g e n t and i m p o r t a n t t o p i c on t h e a g e n d a . I t was a l s o on t h i s q u e s t i o n t h a t C a n a d a ' s " f u n c t i o n a l " i d e a was f i r s t a d v o c a t e d by P r i m e M i n i s t e r A r t h u r M e i g h e n , who was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by L o r i n g C h r i s t i e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o s s i b l e r e n e w a l o f t h e A l l i a n c e a s h a r m f u l t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n B r i t a i n a nd t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , C h r i s t i e h a d a r g u e d p r i o r t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e t h a t " t h e 1 9 . abandonment o f t h e a l l i a n c e was v i t a l t o t h e m a i n t e n a c e o f s o u n d A n g l o - A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s . " 3 2 M e i g h e n w r o t e t o L l o y d G e o r g e i n a message b a s e d on a C h r i s t i e ' s memoranda: We f e e l t h a t e v e r y p o s s i b l e e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o f i n d some a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y t o t h a t o f r e n e w a l . A d m i t t e d t h a t t h e A l l i a n c e h a s b e e n u s e f u l i n t h e p a s t , i t n e v e r t h e l e s s seems t r u e t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s h a v e b e e n s o a l t e r e d t h a t t h e o l d m o t i v e s no l o n g e r h o l d , w h i l e t h e o b j e c t i o n s h a v e g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . I t i s u n n e c e s s a r a y t o e l a b o r a t e t h o s e p o i n t s a t t h e moment, b u t I w o u l d e m p h a s i z e t h e n e e d o f p r o m o t i n g g o o d r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n v i e w o f h e r t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s abandonment o f a t t i t u d e o f i s o l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y , h e r t r a d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n C h i n a w h i c h i s a s g r e a t a s o u r s , a n d o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g p r o m i n e n c e o f t h e P a c i f i c a s a s c e n e o f a c t i o n , t h e r e i s d a n g e r t h a t a s p e c i a l c o n f i d e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p c o n c e r n i n g t h a t r e g i o n b e t w e e n o u r s e l v e s a nd J a p a n t o w h i c h s h e was n o t a p a r t y w o u l d come t o be r e g a r d e d a s a n u n f r i e n d l y e x c l u s i o n a nd a s a b a r r i e r t o an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o n c o r d . 3 3 B r i t a i n , h o w e v e r , was s t r o n g l y i n c l i n e d t o t h e r e n e w a l o f t h e A l l i a n c e . D i s t u r b e d by t h i s B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e , C h r i s t i e w r o t e i n a n o t h e r memorandum "... i n m a t t e r s o f h i g h  p o l i c y r e s p e c t i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a t h e v o i c e o f C a n a d a s h o u l d be  p r e d o m i n a n t a s f a r a s t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e i s c o n c e r n e d . " 3 4 C h r i s t i e ' s i d e a was c o n v e y e d i n a somewhat m o d e r a t e d way by M e i g h e n ' s s p e e c h a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e i n J u n e . D u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s on c o o r d i n a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l p o l i c y , M e i g h e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e D o m i n i o n s ' v i e w s must be r e f l e c t e d more i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o f t h e E m p i r e . He made t h r e e r e q u e s t s . F i r s t , r e g u l a r c o n s u l t a t i o n i n t h e m a t t e r o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y must be h e l d b e t w e e n B r i t a i n , t h e D o m i n i o n s , and I n d i a . S e c o n d , t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e D o m i n i o n and I n d i a n 20 . g o v e r n m e n t s must be t a k e n more i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e M i n i s t r y w h i c h a d v i s e d t h e K i n g . T h i r d and most i m p o r t a n t l y , t h a t " i n s p h e r e s i n w h i c h any D o m i n i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d t h e v i e w o f t h a t D o m i n i o n must be g i v e n a w e i g h t  c o m m e n s u r a t e w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d e c i s i o n t o t h a t  D o m i n i o n . " W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t h i r d p o i n t , M e i g h e n a d d e d t h a t " s p e a k i n g f o r C a n a d a , I make t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " 3 5 The t h i r d p o i n t was s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t n o t o n l y a r g u e d f o r C a n a d a ' s i n c r e a s e d d i p l o m a t i c autonomy i n g e n e r a l b u t a l s o a r g u e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r " s p h e r e s . " A t t h i s p o i n t t h a t meant on N o r t h A m e r i c a n i s s u e s , w h e re C a n a d a h a d a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a n d t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be g i v e n s p e c i a l w e i g h t i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s . T h i s was t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t t h e i d e a o f " i s s u e s e p a r a t i o n " a p p e a r e d , an i d e a w h i c h w o u l d l a t e r be a d v o c a t e d a s " f u n c t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n " i n t h e 1 9 4 0 s . A l o n g w i t h t h e i d e a o f i s s u e s e p a r a t i o n i s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o d i f f e r e n c e i n " w e i g h t " w i t h w h i c h a s t a t e ' s v o i c e i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n -m a k i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , s i n c e t h e v a r i o u s i s s u e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s c a n be p u t i n t o a h i e r a r c h y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a c h i s s u e t o t h e s t a t e , d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s assume a d i f f e r e n t power c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f " w e i g h t " i n d i f f e r e n t s p h e r e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s was a d d e d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g e q u a l i t y i n t h e s t a t u s o f t h e D o m i n i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e a t I m p e r i a l C o n f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h t h e 1 9 2 0 s . I t became a q u e s t i o n o f how t o " b a l a n c e " t h e e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s and t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e w e i g h t t h a t t h e v o i c e o f e a c h D o m i n i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t y p e o f i s s u e s t h a t w ere d e a l t w i t h . The q u e s t i o n on t h e " b a l a n c e " b e t w e e n e q u a l i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y was a l s o t o become a c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n San F r a n c i s c o . M e i g h e n ' s p o i n t s a t t h e I m p e r i a l C o n f e r e n c e i n 1921 w ere c a r r i e d on t o t h e I m p e r i a l C o n f e r e n c e i n 1926, w h i c h became a n o t h e r m a j o r s t e p f o r C a n a d a ' s d i p l o m a t i c i n d e p e n d e n c e . I m p e r i a l r e l a t i o n s w e r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e . A t t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e c o m m i t t e e on i n t e r - I m p e r i a l r e l a t i o n s , h e l d on O c t o b e r 27, L o r d B a l f o u r t a b l e d a r e p o r t , a n n o u n c i n g an a g r e e m e n t t o a w a r d t h e D o m i n i o n s s o v e r e i g n t y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , i n w h i c h " c o - e x i s t e n c e " and " u n i t y " o f a u t onomous D o m i n i o n s must be m a i n t a i n e d , B a l f o u r s t a t e d t h a t t h e e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s o f t h e D o m i n i o n s was t h e " e s s e n t i a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e I m p e r i a l f a b r i c . " 3 6 The D o m i n i o n s a r e a u t o n o m o u s c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , e q u a l i n s t a t u s and i n no way s u b o r d i n a t e t o one a n o t h e r i n any a s p e c t o f t h e i r d o m e s t i c o r e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , t h o u g h u n i t e d by a common a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e Crown a n d f r e e l y a s s o c i a t e d a s members o f t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth o f N a t i o n s . 3 7 However, he a l s o a d d e d t h a t : 22. th i s equal i ty of status i s combined at p r e s e n t . . . with di f ferences of funct ion . . . . T h e p r i n c i p l e s determining the general d i r e c t i o n of Foreign A f f a i r s may be, and ought to be, the product of c o n s u l t a t i o n . . . But there are always moments... when d e c i s i o n s . . . must be r a p i d , and when consul tat ions , i f they involve delay, are a danger rather than a s trength. I f t h i s be so, i t must be on one of the seven se l f -governing communities that the greatest weight of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must be thrown; and so long as the centre of d i f f i c u l t y i s E u r o p e , . . . i t seems impossible to ask. any other port ion of the Empire to perform the major duties which now devolve upon Great B r i t a i n . 3 8 By decis ions which "must be r a p i d , " Balfour meant the issue of war and peace. Although equal i ty of status among states i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth and f u l l diplomatic autonomy were assured by the Balfour Report, i t impl ied that only Great B r i t a i n should be responsible for secur i ty i s sues . Canadian o f f i c i a l s considered t h i s exclusion from consultat ions i n th i s v i t a l and most fundamental issue of i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s to be incons is tent with the t h e o r e t i c a l equal i ty of status that was to be e s t a b l i s h e d . 3 9 By the Statute of Westminster, which assured the r i g h t of the Dominion Parliament to exercise i t s power to make laws concerning diplomatic matters, Canada's de jure external sovereignty was f i n a l l y achieved. B r i t i s h Government no longer had the power to make laws for Canada; nor did i t any longer have the power of disallowance or re serva t ion . Despite the s ign i f i cance of the Statute of Westminster, however, arguments for de facto autonomy and increased share of voice i n the Commonwealth4 0 decision-making continued to ar i se throughout the 1930s. Lor ing C h r i s t i e , who had l e f t External A f f a i r s i n 1923 when h i s i m p e r i a l i s t views had c o n f l i c t e d with M a c k e n z i e K i n g ' s n a t i o n l i s m , r e t u r n e d i n 1935 t o s e r v e E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s a s a C o u n s e l l o r o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t . When he r e t u r n e d , he h a d d i s c a r d e d h i s i m p e r i a l i s t s y m p a t h i e s , b u t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s s h i f t i s s t i l l a m y s t e r y . 4 1 He s h a r e d i s o l a t i o n i s t s e n t i m e n t s w i t h O . D . S k e l t o n , t h e i n f l u e n t i a l U n d e r s e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , a n d P r i m e M i n i s t e r M a c k e n z i e K i n g . He s t r o n g l y a r g u e d f o r C a n a d a ' s i n d e p e n d e n t , r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e i n t h e w o r l d e v e n i n t h e s p h e r e o f war and p e a c e . 4 2 The e r a f r o m B o r d e n t o M a c k e n z i e K i n g saw t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t i d e a a b o u t C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 4 3 C a n a d a , w h i c h u s e d t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f by s t r o n g i m p e r i a l t i e s , s t a r t e d t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f by t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h o s e t i e s . C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a was b o r n o u t o f t h i s p r o c e s s . W h i l e a r g u i n g f o r more v o i c e i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e Commonwealth, C a n a d a p r o p o s e d a s p h e r e ( o r f u n c t i o n ) -b a s e d c o n c e p t o f o n e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F u n c t i o n a l I d e a i n t o a P r i n c i p l e :  D i s c u s s i o n s on t h e J o i n t War E f f o r t a nd on t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s I t i s w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d t h a t a f t e r C a n a d a e n t e r e d W o r l d War I I , i t was c o m m i t t e d t o a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n w o r l d p o l i t i c s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s h i f t i n C a n a d i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s f r o m t h e i n t e r - w a r " i s o l a t i o n i s m " t o 24 . " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m " i s o f t e n c o n t r a s t e d i n an e x a g g e r a t e d way, t h e c h a n g e s i m p l y r e f l e c t e d t h e c h a n g e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . C a n a d a ' s i n w a r d - l o o k i n g a t t i t u d e and a v o i d a n c e o f c o m m i t m e n t s i n w o r l d a f f a i r s owed much t o t h e a b s e n c e o f m a j o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e v e n t s i n t h e i n t e r - w a r p e r i o d . M o r e o v e r , C a n a d i a n " i s o l a t i o n i s m " was n o t " i s o l a t i o n i s m " i n t h e s e n s e o f one o f t h e g e n e r a l f o r e i g n p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n s 4 4 , a w i t h d r a w a l f r o m a l l o r most o f e x t e r n a l i n v o l v e m e n t s . C a n a d a n e v e r a d o p t e d a p o l i c y t o c l o s e t h e n a t i o n e n t i r e l y f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . C a n a d a ' s " i s o l a t i o n i s m " s i m p l y meant an a v o i d a n c e o f c o m m i t m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y t o w a r d E u r o p e a n a f f a i r s , i n w h i c h B r i t a i n was a p a r t , a n d t h e r e f o r e , meant an a n t i p a t h y t o w a r d i m p e r i a l p o l i c i e s . C a n a d i a n " i s o l a t i o n i s m , " i f t h i s i s t h e r i g h t w o r d t o u s e , was one e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f an e m e r g i n g n a t i o n . A f t e r C a n a d a a c h i e v e d f u l l , de j u r e i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m B r i t a i n i n 1931, i t s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth, became c o m p l e x a n d i m p o r t a n t . C a n a d a ' s a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , w h i c h came t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , " r e f e l c t e d t h i s r e a l i t y a s w e l l a s C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o i n c r e a s e i t s v o i c e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s w h i c h a c c o r d s w i t h i t s n a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y . I t was u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t C a n a d a e m b a r k e d on t h e s e a r c h f o r i t s n a t i o n a l r o l e i n t h e w h o l e gamut o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n i t s d i p l o m a t i c h i s t o r y . Some C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s s u c h a s Hume Wrong and L e s t e r P e a r s o n w e re i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s b e c o m i n g a n x i o u s t o l e a v e b e h i n d t h e i n t e r - w a r " i s o l a t i o n i s m " a s w e l l a s t h e c o l o n i a l m e n t a l i t y , w h i c h C a n a d a s t i l l d i d n o t seem e n t i r e l y t o h a v e o v e r c o m e . They h o p e d t o h a v e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , r e c o g n i z e C a n a d a a s an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n whose f o r e i g n p o l i c y was no l o n g e r d e f i n e d by t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h . 4 5 I n c o n t r a s t , o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e " o l d p r a c t i t i o n e r s " 4 6 who h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d i n e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s i n t h e 1 9 2 0 s and 1 9 3 0 s , s u c h a s O.D. S k e l t o n a n d L o r i n g C h r i s t i e , w e r e o b s e r v i n g t h e m a t t e r more c o o l y . I n 1941 t h e r e was a m a j o r c h a n g e i n t h e p l a y e r s o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y : two m a j o r f i g u r e s d i e d ; S k e l t o n , on J a n u a r y 28, and C h r i s t i e , on A p r i l 8. T h i s was what C P . S t a c y c a l l s " t h e end o f a n e r a . " 4 7 A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f t h e s e two i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s , i s o l a t i o n i s t a t t i t u d e s w e r e more o p e n l y c r i t i c i z e d by t h o s e o f f i c i a l s who w e r e p r e s s i n g f o r g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t a n d a l a r g e r s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s f o r C a n a d a . A r o u n d t h i s t i m e , M a c k e n z i e K i n g a l s o l a r g e l y d i s c a r d e d h i s " i s o l a t i o n i s t " l e a n i n g s . C a n a d a ' s " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , " w h i c h was l a t e r d e v e l o p e d a n d d e m o n s t r a t e d by s u c h o f f i c i a l s a s L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t and L e s t e r P e a r s o n d u r i n g t h e i n t e n s i f i e d C o l d War, was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r s o l v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s . As a r e s u l t o f s e a r c h i n g f o r a s p e c i a l r o l e , C a n a d a came t o d e f i n e i t s e l f a s a " m i d d l e p o w e r 4 8 , " a c o n c e p t w h i c h was merged i n p a r t i n t o C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a . The p r o d u c t was t h e " f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . " The i d e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d i n f l u e n c e d e p e n d i n g on a p a r t i c u l a r s p h e r e o f w o r l d p o l i t i c s was i n t r o d u c e d by C h r i s t i e a n d p u b l i c l y s t a t e d by M e i g h e n . I f t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l i d e a owes i t s f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t s t o L o r i n g C h r i s t i e , t h e n , i t was Hume Wrong who d e v e l o p e d t h e i d e a i n t o a " p r i n c i p l e . " I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o assume t h a t he c o i n e d t h e t e r m " f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . " 4 9 I n t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e war e f f o r t among A l l i e d p o w e r s a n d i n t h e d e s i g n i n g o f t h e new p o s t - w a r w o r l d o r d e r , C a n a d a was f a c e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s g a i n i n g r e c o g n i t i o n a s a n i m p o r t a n t a n d i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n . C a n a d a ' s g r e a t c o n c e r n w i t h i t s i d e n t i t y a n d s t a t u s among t h e A l l i e d p o w e r s c a n be f o u n d a b u n d a n t l y i n t h e memoranda a nd l e t t e r s o f i t s o f f i c i a l s d u r i n g t h e w a r . 5 0 Hume Wrong, A s s i s t a n t U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , was a p r i n c i p a l a d v o c a t e o f g r e a t e r C a n a d i a n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , a n d h i s s u p p o r t l e d t o t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l i d e a . Wrong was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n t h a t C a n a d a o c c u p i e d among t h e A l l i e d p o w e r s 5 1 C a n a d a was u n i q u e i n t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c y was d e f i n e d by i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B r i t a i n a n d w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C a n a d a , t h o u g h o n l y an e m e r g i n g power, was n e v e r t h e l e s s m a k i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e A l l i e d war e f f o r t . R e a l i s t i c a l l y a s s e s s i n g C a n a d a ' s c a p a b i l i t y a n d b a l a n c i n g i t s own i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h e demands o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B r i t a i n a nd t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Wrong o u t l i n e d i n a memorandum o f J a n u a r y 20, 1942, s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e ways f o r C a n a d a t o s e e k r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on v a r i o u s war b o a r d s s u c h a s t h e J o i n t S h i p p i n g B o a r d , t h e Raw M a t e r i a l s C o m m i t t e , t h e J o i n t A l l o c a t i o n b o a r d s , and t h e J o i n t P l a n n i n g B o a r d : How f a r . . . i s C a n a d a e n t i t l e d t o go i n p r e s s i n g a c l a i m t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n t e r - A l l i e d b o d i e s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e war e f f o r t ? . . . The p r i n c i p l e , I t h i n k , i s t h a t e a c h member o f t h e g r a n d a l l i a n c e s h o u l d h a v e a v o i c e i n t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e war p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l war e f f o r t . A s u b s i d i a r y p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d be g r e a t e s t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h o s e m a t t e r s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e most d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d . 5 2 M e i g h e n ' s s t a t e m e n t a t t h e I m p e r i a l C o n f e r e n c e i n 1921 h a d c o n s i d e r e d t h e " c o n c e r n s " o f t h e s t a t e i n p a r t i c u l a r s p h e r e s o f w o r l d p o l i t i c s a s t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e s t a t e t o assume a g r e a t e r r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Wrong a d d e d t h e c r i t e r i a o f t h e " c a p a b i l i t y " o f a s t a t e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y t o t h e C h r i s t i e - M e i g h e n n o t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l i d e a and e l e v a t e d i t t o t h e m a j o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a , by t h i s t i m e , came t o be b a s e d on b o t h " c a p a b i l i t y " a n d " c o n c e r n s , " w i t h t h e f o r m e r o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e . The i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f " c a p a b i l i t y " was i n p a r t t h e r e s u l t o f a n i n c r e a s e i n C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l p o w e r . s 3 S i n c e t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e war was q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t b u t i t t e n d e d t o be o v e r l o o k e d i n t h e m a k i n g o f 28 . k e y d e c i s i o n s , C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s n a t u r a l l y t h o u g h t t h a t i t d e s e r v e d a b i g g e r s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n v a r i o u s war b o a r d s f o r j o i n t c o o p e r a t i o n t h a n i t h a d h a d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y b e f o r e t h e w a r . The i n c r e a s e i n n a t i o n a l power a l s o p r o m o t e d t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s t o become more i n v o l v e d i n w o r l d p o l i t i c s . I t a l s o i n c r e a s e d t h e p r e s s u r e p l a c e d on C a n a d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o s a t i s f y P a r l i a m e n t and t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e i r w a r t i m e s a c r i f i c e s c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d by t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e c o u n t r y was b e i n g a l l o w e d i t s f a i r s h a r e i n d i r e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e new w o r l d o r d e r . 5 * I t was i n t h i s c o n t e x t o f k e e n a w a r e n e s s o f i t s n a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y t h a t C a n a d a d e v e l o p e d t h e c o n c e p t o f " m i d d l e p o w e r . " The c o n c e p t o f " m i d d l e p o w e r " h a d b e e n g r a d u a l l y f o r m i n g i n t h e m i n d s o f C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s s i n c e t h e t i m e C a n a d a was s e e k i n g due r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on war b o a r d s 5 5 , and d e v e l o p e d r a p i d l y d u r i n g d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e p o s t - w a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y on t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e l i e f a n d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A g e n c y ( U N R R A ) . The c o n c e p t a s s i g n e d t o C a n a d a a s p e c i a l p l a c e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y , a p l a c e f o r t h o s e n e i t h e r g r e a t p o w e r s n o r s m a l l p o w e r s , " t h e r e b y f i n e - t u n i n g t h e t a x o n o m y " 5 6 and m a k i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y more f a i r . As t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r p u t i t , The U n i t e d N a t i o n s c a n n o t i n o u r v i e w be m e r e l y d i v i d e d i n t o one g r o u p o f g r e a t p o w e r s e x e r c i s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on b e h a l f o f them a l l f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d m i l i t a r y s e t t l e m e n t , and a n o t h e r g r o u p composed o f a l l t h e r e s t who a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , no m a t t e r how g r e a t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n may be n o r how p r o f o u n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e q u e s t i o n s t o be s e t t l e e n d s . 5 7 S u c h a s y s t e m w o u l d be a d e n i a l o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e . I t w o u l d a l s o be u n r e a l , f o r i t i s n o t a l w a y s t h e l a r g e s t p o w e r s t h a t h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make t o t h e work o f t h e s e b o d i e s , o r t h e g r e a t e s t s t a k e i n t h e i r s u c c e s s . I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o u n t r i e s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d on a f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s w h e n e v e r f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a c a n be a p p l i e d . s 8 T h u s , by t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f " c a p a b i l i t y , " w h i c h d e f i n e d C a n a d a ' s s t a t u s a s a " m i d d l e p o w e r , " t h e f u n c t i o n a l i d e a became a p r i n c i p l e o f " g r a d a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y . " 5 9 B a c h member o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n must be e n t i t l e d t o some a u t h o r i t a t i v e c o n t r o l i n s p h e r e s i n w h i c h t h e s t a t e h a s c a p a b i l i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e . 6 0 Wrong c h o s e t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e among o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i d e a s o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y a s t h e most s u i t a b l e one f o r C a n a d a t o p u r s u e . 6 1 C a n a d a e m p h a s i z e d t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d i n f l u e n c e . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was a d v o c a t e d i n o r d e r : 1) t o e n s u r e a p l a c e f o r n o n - g r e a t p o w e r s , C a n a d a i n c l u d e d , a s a g a i n s t g r e a t p o w e r s , an d 2) t o d i s t i n g u i s h C a n a d a f r o m o t h e r s m a l l e r s t a t e s a s a m i d d l e p o w e r e n t i t l e d t o a b i g g e r r o l e t h a n o t h e r s m a l l e r s t a t e s . I t was n o t w i t h o u t s t r u g g l e s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t C a n a d a t r i e d t o f i n d i t s p l a c e . I n f a c t , t h e d i l e m m a t h a t C a n a d a h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y f a c e d s i n c e 1867 l o o m e d l a r g e r a s C a n a d a e n g a g e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e War B o a r d and on t h e p o s t - w a r w o r l d o r d e r t h a t i s , t h e d i l e m m a b e t w e e n i t s d e s i r e t o be r e c o g n i z e d a s a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h a t u n f a v o r a b l e r e a l i t y o f w o r l d p o l i t i c s , t h a t i n f l u e n c e i s c o n c e n t r a t e d among t h e g r e a t p o w e r s . C a n a d a a r g u e d t h a t b e c a u s e o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f m u n i t i o n s , i t d e s e r v e d m e m b e r s h i p on t h e War B o a r d s , and t h a t , a s a l a r g e p r o d u c e r o f f o o d , i t d e s e r v e d a s e a t on UNRRA. 6 2 C a n a d a f a i l e d , h o w e v e r , i n g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n e i t h e r on m a j o r war b o a r d s o r on UNRRA. T h r o u g h o u t t h e t u r b u l e n t y e a r s o f d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e s e m e m b e r s h i p s , C a n a d a was f a c e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e o l d " b i g power c o m p l e x " o f w o r l d p o l i t i c s , w h i c h made u n l i k e l y a c c e p t a n c e o f a new d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s o f t h e s o r t C a n a d a h a d i n m i n d . The a t m o s p h e r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s was n e g a t i v e a b o u t r e c o g n i z i n g C a n a d a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d i t s c l a i m s f o r g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s o f t e n c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e y w e r e " o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e a s an e n t i t y ; o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y , i n ' t h e D o m i n i o n s ' c o l l e c t i v e l y ; o r , . . . a s p a r t o f t h e ' N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e a ' . " 6 3 _ The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was t r i e d a n d t e s t e d a g a i n d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r . When d i s c u s s i o n s on a new w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n b e g a n among t h e g r e a t p o w e r s , C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d t o p l a c e t h e i r c o u n t r y i n a r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e k e y i n s t r u m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i o n a n d f o r t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f 31 . d i f f e r e n c e s a nd t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f common p u r p o s e s among s t a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l i s s u e s , s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s r e m a i n e d t h e i r p r i m a r y c o n c e r n . Above a l l , C a n a d a was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s e t - u p o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l a nd w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n o f a p l a c e f o r i t s e l f . T h e s e p r e o c c u p a t i o n s l e d t o C a n a d a ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n d r a f t i n g t h e C h a r t e r on s u c h w e l l - k n o w n q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l a s t h e v e t o , t h e n o n - p e r m a n e n t m e m b e r s h i p q u e s t i o n , a nd r e g i o n a l i s m . The Moscow D e c l a r a t i o n h a d b e e n i s s u e d on November 1, 1943, s u p p o r t i n g a g e n e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s h a d s u b s e q u e n t l y s t a r t e d s o r t i n g o u t p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e new i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . S i n c e one o f t h e m a j o r C a n a d i a n c o n c e r n s was r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , C a n a d a h a d e x c h a n g e d i t s v i e w s w i t h B r i t a i n , a s s e r t i n g p r i o r t o t h e D u m b a r t o n Oaks C o n f e r e n c e i n 1944 i t s r i g h t t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l . 6 * The D u m b a r t o n Oaks d r a f t p r o p o s a l , h o w e v e r , was a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t f o r C a n a d a , s i n c e t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n was d e f i n e d a s more r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d i n t h e s c o p e g i v e n t o s m a l l e r p o w e r s t h a n C a n a d a h a d e x p e c t e d . 6 s A t t h i s s t a g e , n e i t h e r B r i t a i n n o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g a v e C a n a d a any s u p p o r t f o r t h e i d e a t h a t C a n a d a s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d a s a n o n - p e r m a n e n t member o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l . They were more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r o l e o f a n d r e l a t i o n s among g r e a t p o w e r s t h e m s e l v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y how t o d e a l w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . 6 6 By t h e e f f o r t s o f a b l e C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s a t t h e San F r a n c i s c o C o n f e r e n c e i n 1945, t h e d r a f t C h a r t e r was amended more i n f a v o u r o f C a n a d a t h a n i t h a d b e e n b e f o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e b a s i s r e m a i n e d what t h e g r e a t p o w e r s w i s h e d i t t o b e . What c o n c e r n e d C a n a d a most was t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n "power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " C a n a d a r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e g r e a t p o w e r s s h o u l d h a v e t h e k e y r o l e i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f p e a c e and s e c u r i t y . However, w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e i r s p e c i a l r o l e s , C a n a d a was a g a i n s t a S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l p o s s e s s i n g g r e a t a u t h o r i t y t o e n f o r c e s e t t l e m e n t s o f d i s p u t e s and e s p e c i a l l y t o r e q u i r e a l l member s t a t e s t o a s s i s t i n e n f o r c e m e n t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , C a n a d a was n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e g r e a t p o w e r s ' r i g h t o f t h e v e t o . C a n a d a b e l i e v e d s m a l l e r c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d n o t f e e l t h a t d e c i s i o n s w o u l d be made a r b i t r a r i l y by g r e a t p o w e r s ; t h e s m a l l e r c o u n t r i e s w h i c h made c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o w o r l d s e c u r i t y a n d p r o s p e r i t y s h o u l d be e n t i t l e d a t l e a s t t o a r g u e t h e i r c a s e s . A t t h e same t i m e C a n a d a e x p e c t e d t o be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t h a n o t h e r l e s s e r p o w e r s t o p r e v e n t t h e d o m i n a t i o n by t h e g r e a t p o w e r s . 6 7 C a n a d a ' s o b j e c t i o n t o t h e v e t o f a i l e d , b e c a u s e a s t r o n g , p o l i c e - l i k e f u n c t i o n was e x p e c t e d f o r t h e S e c u r i t y r o l e o f t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n . 6 8 On t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e g i o n a l i s m , C a n a d i a n p o l i c y -m a k e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t r e g i o n a l i s m w o u l d y i e l d a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g r e a t p o w e r s t o d o m i n a t e t h e w o r l d , e a c h r u l i n g i t s own p a r t i c u l a r s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e . 6 9 They were p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p l a y i n g t o o d o m i n a n t a r o l e i n t h e W e s t e r n H e m i s p h e r e . R e g i o n a l i s m was a l s o t h o u g h t t o be d a n g e r o u s b e c a u s e d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s m i g h t f o r m a l l i a n c e s a g a i n s t o t h e r s . 7 0 The p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e g i o n -b a s e d c o o p e r a t i o n and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power was n o n e t h e l e s s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n many A r t i c l e s o f t h e C h a r t e r , d e s p i t e C a n a d a ' s o b j e c t i o n . P e r h a p s where C a n a d a was most s u c c e s s f u l was on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f n o n - p e r m a n e n t members o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , w h i c h i s r e f l e c t e d i n A r t i c l e 2 3 . 7 1 Known a s t h e " C a n a d i a n c l a u s e , " A r t i c l e 23 p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l w o u l d be c o n s i s t o f e l e v e n members o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g s i x n o n - p e r m a n e n t members w h i c h a r e e l e c t e d by t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y e v e r y two y e a r s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e n o n - p e r m a n e n t m e m b e r s h i p , i t s t a t e d t h a t : due r e g a r d [ i s ] s p e c i a l l y p a i d , i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t o t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Members o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e a nd s e c u r i t y a n d t o t h e o t h e r p u r p o s e s o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d a l s o t o e q u i t a b l e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . 7 2 I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e A r t i c l e s t a t e s t h a t n o n - p e r m a n e n t members w i l l be e l e c t e d b a s e d on b o t h 1) t h e member's c a p a b i l i t y a n d 2) g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . H e r e , t h e i d e a c o n t a i n e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e w h i c h r e c o g n i z e d t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f a c o u n t r y t o make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e a n d war a s t h e m a j o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e C h a r t e r . However, a l t h o u g h C a n a d a h a d i n s i s t e d t h a t " g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n " s h o u l d be s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e " d e g r e e o f c o n t r i b u t i o n " o f a c o u n t r y , 7 3 t h e s e two q u a l i f i c a t i o n s e n d e d up b e i n g g i v e n e q u a l w e i g h t . C a n a d a , i n f a c t , f a i l e d t o o b t a i n a s e a t a s a n o n - p e r m a n e n t member o f t h e C o u n c i l due t o t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . M o r e o v e r , l o o k i n g b a c k on more t h a n f o r t y y e a r s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s ' e x p e r i e n c e , t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n h a s more o f t e n b e e n i n p r a c t i c e t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e n o n - p e r m a n e n t m e m b e r s h i p t h a n " c a p a b i l i t y . " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o j u d g e how s u c c e s s f u l t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was i n t h e a s s e r t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s r i g h t t o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . When we l o o k a t what came o u t e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e C h a r t e r , C a n a d a ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n must be e v a l u a t e d a s m i n o r . I t was r a t h e r i n t h e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e C h a r t e r was f o r m u l a t e d t h a t C a n a d a d e m o n s t r a t e d i t s t r a d i t i o n a l " q u i e t l y c o n s t r u c t i v e " d i p l o m a t i c s t y l e a nd d e v e l o p e d a g o o d r e p u t a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s . W h i l e r e g a r d i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f g r e a t p o w e r s and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o p e r r o l e a s a s i n e q u a non o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , a l e s s o n l e a r n e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e L e a g u e 7 4 , C a n a d a c o o p e r a t e d w i t h o t h e r m i d d l e and s m a l l p o w e r s i n e n h a n c i n g t h e i r r o l e a nd p r e v e n t i n g d o m i n a n c e by t h e g r e a t p o w e r s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , C a n a d a h a d a g o o d s e n s e o f t h e n e e d f o r b a l a n c e b e t w e e n c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a nd d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h i s t h e e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and s t a b i l i t y o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n . 35 . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , h o w e v e r , f a i l e d t o o b t a i n f o r C a n a d a t h e s t a t u s w h i c h C a n a d a d e s i r e d and d e s e r v e d t o h a v e . P r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s i n San F r a n c i s c o , t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , a l o n g w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f " m i d d l e p o w e r , " p r o v i d e d C a n a d a w i t h a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a s s e r t i n g an i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . N o n e t h e l e s s , a s s e r t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e g a v e way t o r e a l i s m i n t h e c o u r s e o f d i s c u s s i o n s i n San F r a n c i s c o , s i n c e C a n a d a h a d t o a d j u s t i t s i d e a l s t o t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , " o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e C a n a d i a n p o l i c i e s i n t h i s e r a , t e n d s t o c o n n o t e an i d e a l i s t i c p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n , C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , f o r t h e most p a r t , d e m o n s t r a t e d a t San F r a n c i s c o a r e a l i s t i c s i d e o f m o d e r a t i o n , p r u d e n c e , a n d d i s c r e t i o n . What came o u t a s a C h a r t e r was t h e p r o d u c t o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n b e t w e e n C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a n d t h a t o f o t h e r s . CHAPTER 3 A n a l y s i s The F u n c t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e and F u n c t i o n a l i s m The l a s t c h a p t e r h i s t o r i c a l l y t r a c e d t h e o r i g i n and e v o l u t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l a n a l y z e and d i s c u s s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e more c o n c r e t e l y , c o n t r a s t i n g i t t o M i t r a n y ' s t h e o r y . S i n c e t h e s e two a r e o f t e n c o n f u s e d , I w i l l c l a r i f y t h e a m b i g u i t i e s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e and M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m i n t h e a t t e m p t t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . My c e n t r a l a r g u m e n t i s t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m , a n d t h a t i t r e f l e c t e d C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o m a i n t a i n i t s i d e n t i t y a n d t o i n c r e a s e i t s s t a t u s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . The C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y c a n be b e s t u n d e r s t o o d a s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n b e t w e e n C a n a d a ' s i n t e r e s t a n d t h e s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y w h i c h r e q u i r e C a n a d a t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s . D a v i d M i t r a n y d e v e l o p e d t h e f u n c t i o n a l t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n h i s 1943 W o r k i n g P e a c e S y s t e m . I n many w r i t i n g s on C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , i t h a s b e e n n o t e d t h a t C a n a d a b o r r o w e d M i t r a n y ' s i d e a s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e e k i n g i t s i d e n t i t y a n d i t s r o l e i n t h e w o r l d . 7 5 The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e and f u n c t i o n a l i s m , h o w e v e r , must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s two s e p a r a t e i d e a s s t e m m i n g f r o m d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s a n d d i r e c t e d a t d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s . The c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n f u s i o n b e t w e e n t h e two i d e a s w i l l be h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . Two q u e s t i o n s a r e t o be a s k e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . 1 ) What a r e t h e k e y p r e m i s e s o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m a s a t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s ? 2 ) What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f a n y , b e t w e e n t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a n d M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m ? The T h e o r y o f F u n c t i o n a l i s m The o r i g i n o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o l o n g b e f o r e t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War, t o t h e f u n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 7 6 I t i s , a c c o r d i n g t o A n g l i n , a n o t i o n " a s o l d a s power p o l i t i c s i t s e l f . " 7 7 However, i t was a f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War t h a t i t a p p e a r e d a s a new a p p r o a c h t o w a r d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . F u n c t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d by M i t r a n y , p o s e s s e v e r a l p r e m i s e s a b o u t t h e c a u s e s o f w a r . The f i r s t p r e m i s e c o n c e r n s t h e m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f m a n k i n d , a n d p o s i t s t h a t s i n c e war i s a d i s e a s e c a u s e d by t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f m a n k i n d . C o o p e r a t i o n i n e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l s p h e r e s i s t h u s a n i m p o r t a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t a n d f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f w a r . 7 8 M i t r a n y ' s i d e a s on p e a c e were i n f l u e n c e d by among o t h e r s t h e M a r x i a n e m p h a s i s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f 38 . m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f m a n k i n d . 7 9 S e c o n d , M i t r a n y a t t r i b u t e s t h e c a u s e s o f war t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y o f t h e s t a t e s s y s t e m . 8 0 The s t a t e i s i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o v i n g t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n d e a l i n g e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s , w h i c h o n l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d t h e i r s p e c i a l a g e n c i e s c a n s o l v e . I n i s C l a u d e s u m m a r i z e s M i t r a n y ' s i d e a on t h e s t a t e - s y s t e m a s f o l l o w s : The s t a t e s y s t e m i m p o s e s an a r b i t r a r y a n d r i g i d p a t t e r n o f v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s u p o n g l o b a l s o c i e t y , d i s r u p t i n g t h e o r g a n i c u n i t y o f t h e w h o l e , a n d c a r v i n g t h e w o r l d i n t o s e g m e n t s whose s e p a r a t e n e s s i s j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d by • s o v e r e i g n t i e s w h i c h a r e n e i t h e r a b l e t o s o l v e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m s n o r w i l l i n g t o p e r m i t them t o be s o l v e d by o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s . 8 1 T h e r e f o r e , more a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be g i v e n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r s p e c i a l a g e n c i e s t o d e a l w i t h e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s a r e no l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f s o l v i n g i n t o d a y ' s w o r l d . By o f f e r i n g a f o r u m f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n on t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w o u l d be a b l e e v e n t u a l l y t o t a k e o v e r t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t n a t i o n s t a t e s u s e d t o p e r f o r m . 8 2 T h i r d , M i t r a n y a t t r i b u t e s t h e c a u s e s o f war t o t h e " s u b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f m a n k i n d . " 8 3 I n o t h e r w o r d s , M i t r a n y s h a r e s t h e i d e a c o n t a i n e d i n t h e UNESCO C h a r t e r : war i s c r e a t e d i n t h e m i n d s o f men, i n t h e i r h a b i t s o f t h o u g h t , a t t i t u d e s , e m o t i o n s , e t c . W h i l e t h e s t a t e s y s t e m i n h i b i t s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e b e h a v i o r among s t a t e s by f o s t e r i n g p a t r i o t i s m and e n c o u r a g i n g c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s , 39 . f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p h a b i t s o f c o o p e r a t i o n , s i n c e t h e y e n c o u r a g e p u r s u i t o f c o m m o n a l i t y o f i n t e r e s t s i n e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l s p h e r e s . 8 4 An i n c r e a s e d number o f s u p r a - n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d s h i f t t h e l o y a l t i e s o f p e o p l e f r o m t h e i r n a t i o n - s t a t e s t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and e v e n t u a l l y t o a w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t . T h e s e p r e m i s e s on t h e c a u s e s o f war l e a d t o two b a s i c h y p o t h e s e s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n : " s e p a r a b i l i t y " a n d " t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . " 8 5 The s e p a r a b i l i t y h y p o t h e s i s s e p a r a t e s power f r o m w e l f a r e , a n d t h e p o l i t i c a l ( i . e . , t h e t a s k s o f p o l i t i c i a n s ) f r o m t h e t e c h n i c a l ( i . e . , t h e t a s k s o f e x p e r t s ) . S i n c e war c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e e c o n o m i c an d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f m a n k i n d , f u n c t i o n a l i s m i s c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h w e l f a r e , j u s t i c e , a nd q u a l i t y o f l i f e r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e d i r e c t p r e v e n t i o n o f war by p r o t e c t i n g s t a t e s ' s e c u r i t y . 8 6 The t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y h y p o t h e s i s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o r o l l a r y o f t h e s e p a r a b i l i t y h y p o t h e s i s . M i t r a n y s e e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i v e p e a c e i n " n a t i o n a l c o a c t i v i t y " r a t h e r t h a n " n a t i o n a l c o e x i s t e n c e . " 8 7 He s u g g e s t s t h a t l e s s o n s t h a t h a v e b e e n l e a r n e d a t t h e e c o n o m i c and t e c h n i c a l l e v e l s o f c o a c t i v i t y a r e f u n g i b l e t o p o l i t i c a l l e v e l s b e c a u s e " f u n d a m e n t a l l o y a l t i e s w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y s h a r e d by t h e s t a t e and t h e a g e n c i e s o f t h e w o r l d c o m m u n i t y . " 8 8 The l o g i c a l s t e p s o f f u n g i b i l i t y a r e : f i r s t , d e v e l o p i n g a c o m m o n a l i t y o f 40. t e c h n i c a l p u r p o s e s among s t a t e s ; s e c o n d , e s t a b l i s h i n g f u n c t i o n a l a g e n c i e s a nd t h e i r c o o r d i n a t i o n ; t h i r d , o r g a n i z i n g u n i v e r s a l p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s ; and u l t i m a t e l y , a s t h e end p r o d u c t , a w o r l d f e d e r a t i o n . 8 9 The R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u n c t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e a n d  F u n c t i o n a l i s m The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a n d f u n c t i o n a l i s m a s a t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s n o t a s c l e a r a s i t i s w i d e l y p e r c e i v e d t o b e , a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l c o m m o n a l i t i e s e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e t w o . M i t r a n y e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n i v e r s a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h ere e a c h a n d e v e r y c o u n t r y c a n p l a y a r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e . C a n a d a a l s o c o n s i d e r e d them a s c r u c i a l i n i t s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . M o r e o v e r , M i t r a n y a d v o c a t e d f u n c t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n b a s e d on h i s d i s t r u s t o f r e g i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . 9 0 S i m i l a r l y , i n d e s i g n i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , C a n a d a p r e f e r r e d " u n i v e r s a l i s m " t o " r e g i o n a l i s m . " I t i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t o assume, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a n d f u n c t i o n a l i s m w e r e what C a n a d a " h a p p e n e d " t o s h a r e w i t h M i t r a n y ' s t h e o r y r a t h e r t h a n what C a n a d a d i r e c t l y b o r r o w e d f r o m M i t r a n y ' s t h e o r y . C a n a d a ' s m o t i v a t i o n s a n d o b j e c t i v e s w e r e b a s e d on i t s s e l f - i n t e r e s t a s a n e m e r g i n g n a t i o n . C a n a d a ' s s u p p o r t f o r u n i v e r s a l i s m , f o r e x a m p l e , a r o s e f r o m i t s 41 . o b j e c t i o n t o r e g i o n a l i s m . C a n a d a f e a r e d t h a t i f r e g i o n a l i s m became a p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n o f i t s i n t e r e s t w o u l d be hampered by B r i t a i n , w h i c h w o u l d e x e r c i s e i t s i n f l u e n c e a s t h e m o t h e r c o u n t r y o f t h e Commonwealth, o r by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s a r e g i o n a l l e a d e r i n t h e W e s t e r n H e m i s p h e r e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e C a n a d i a n b e l i e f i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d C a n a d a ' s d e s i r e t o e n h a n c e i t s s t a t u s i n t h e w o r l d by u t i l i z i n g t h e i r f o r u m . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e how much C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d by M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y were a t l e a s t a w a r e o f i t , a n d t h a t b e c a u s e o f some s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e and M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m h a p p e n e d t o s h a r e , t h e two i d e a s w e r e m e r g e d . D i s c u s s i n g what he s e e s a s t h e f u s i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a n d f u n c t i o n a l i s m , A n t h o n y M i l l e r s u g g e s t s t h a t " i n 1945, two f u n c t i o n a l i s t t r a d i t i o n s , [ w h i c h were] a n a l y t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t , c o e x i s t e d i n C a n a d a . They s u b s e q u e n t l y m e r g e d . . . " 9 1 T h o s e two f u n c t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s w e r e : " f u n c t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " w h i c h c o n n o t e s C a n a d a ' s i n t e r e s t t o p l a y a b i g g e r r o l e i n t h e w o r l d i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r s ; a n d " f u n c t i o n a l i s m , " w h i c h i s b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d by M i t r a n y a n d shows t h e c o o p e r a t i v e , d i s i n t e r e s t e d n a t u r e o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . 9 2 As e a r l y a s 1916, L e o n a r d W o o l f h a d a r g u e d f o r u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by n o t i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e U n i v e r s a l P o s t a l U n i o n as an e x a m p l e . 9 3 M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m f i r s t a p p e a r e d i n 1933 w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f P r o g r e s s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t . 9 4 H i s s e c o n d book, A W o r k i n g P e a c e S y s t e m , was p u b l i s h e d i n 1 943 . 9 5 Hume Wrong, a m a j o r e x p o n e n t o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i n t h e 1 9 4 0 s , m e n t i o n s M i t r a n y ' s t h e o r y i n t h e memorandum o f November 3, 1 9 4 3 : Two m e a n i n g s c a n be g i v e n t o f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The m e a n i n g o f t h e t e r m a s u s e d h i t h e r t o by us h a s b e e n t h a t e f f e c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y i n a g i v e n m a t t e r o u g h t t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n b o d i e s i n w h i c h t h e c o u n t r i e s m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . . . T h e r e i s a n o t h e r m e a n i n g g i v e n t o t h e t e r m , u s e d e s p e c i a l l y by P r o f e s s o r M i t r a n y i n a s t u d y r e c e n t l y i s s u e d by Chatham House. He a r g u e s t h a t t h e w o r l d s h o u l d be b o u n d t o g e t h e r by a l a r g e number o f d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o r g a n i z e d t o d e a l s e p a r a t e l y w i t h t h e many f u n c t i o n s r e q u i r i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The two m e a n i n g s o v e r l a p and a r e n o t e s s e n t i a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t b u t t h e v a r i a t i o n i n u s e o f t h e t e r m s h o u l d be b o r n e i n m i n d . 9 6 M i t r a n y ' s i d e a s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n a p p e a r e d a b o u t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l theme o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y was d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p r i n c i p l e , a d o p t i n g more a c t i v i s t a nd i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t n u a n c e s . However, t h i s h i g h l y v o l u n t a r y , i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t f e a t u r e o f C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a was i n p a r t t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e r a , when a c t i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m was i n c r e a s i n g l y a c c e p t e d a s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y . A t t h a t p o i n t , C a n a d a was d e t e r m i n e d t o b r e a k w i t h t h e " l o w d i s h o n e s t d e c a d e " 9 7 a n d was t o become t h e f o u r t h l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l power i n t h e f r e e w o r l d w i t h t h e f o u r t h l a r g e s t n a v a l and a i r f o r c e . 9 8 We h a v e s e e n i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y t h a t e v e n t h e i d e a w h i c h t o o k a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a s " t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e " i n t h e 1940s was n o t a l t o g e t h e r i d e a l i s t i c . T h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s c u s s i o n s on a new p o s t - w a r w o r l d o r d e r , t h e c o n t i n u i n g theme was t o make more c o n s i s t e n t t h e s t a t e ' s c a p a b i l i t y a nd i t s d e s e r v e d s t a t u s . I n t h i s s e n s e , i f we u s e M i l l e r ' s t e r m s , " f u n c t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " r e f l e c t s t h e m a j o r theme o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y much more a c c u r a t e l y t h a n d i s i n t e r e s t e d " f u n c t i o n a l i s m . " A l t h o u g h C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y showed more i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t a t t i t u d e s i n t h e 1940s t h a n a t any o t h e r t i m e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m a l o n e i s i n c a p a b l e o f e x p l a i n i n g C a n a d a ' s c o n t i n u i n g e x t e r n a l b e h a v i o r . T h o s e who o b s e r v e t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e e x c l u s i v e l y i n l i g h t o f i t s i d e a l i s t i c a s p e c t t e n d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t i d e a s u r v i v e d o n l y i n a b r i e f p e r i o d o f t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , a nd d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m C a n a d i a n t h i n k i n g a f t e r t h e 1 9 4 0 s . 9 9 T h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a , h o w e v e r , h a s p o s s e s s e d a d i s t i n c t e l e m e n t o f r e a l i s m . W h i l e d o m i n a n t C a n a d i a n i d e a s a b o u t f o r e i g n p o l i c y h a v e c h a n g e d f r o m i m p e r i a l i s m t o i s o l a t i o n i s m , a nd f r o m i s o l a t i o n i s m t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e d o m i n a n t theme h a s r e m a i n e d t h e same: t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t b a l a n c e d by a r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s t a t e ' s own p o w e r , w h i c h h a s e n a b l e d t h e p r i n c i p l e t o r e m a i n a f l e x i b l e c o n c e p t t h a t c o n t i n u e s t o be p a r t o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y a n d i n f l u e n c e t h e m i n d s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i c y - m a k e r s . F u r t h e r , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t some E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s were aware o f M i t r a n y ' s t h e o r y o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a s i s shown i n t h e memorandum o f Wrong, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h e c o r e p a r t o f D a v i d M i t r a n y ' s c o n c e p t and saw i t a s t h e i r m a j o r g o a l . R a t h e r t h e y d e v o l o p e d some i d e a s r e l a t e d t o M i t r a n y ' s t h a t w o u l d r a t i o n a l i z e t h e enhancement o f C a n a d a ' s s t a t u s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . What a p p e a l e d t o C a n a d a most i n M i t r a n y ' s i d e a was p r o b a b l y t h e i m p l i e d s y m p a t h y w i t h s m a l l e r s t a t e s t h a t s u c h a c t i o n w o u l d b u i l d a b e t t e r w o r l d . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e i n e v i t a b l e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d a u t h o r i t y o f g r e a t p o w e r s , M i t r a n y a r g u e d t h a t a u t h o r i t y must be u s e d f o r t h e common g o o d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , s o t h a t u l t i m a t e l y t h e s m a l l e r a n d w e a k e r s t a t e s w i l l b e n e f i t . 1 0 0 W h i l e c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s m a l l e r s t a t e s , h o w e v e r , C a n a d a d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t s e l f f r o m s m a l l p o w e r s a nd d e v e l o p e d a c o n c e p t t h a t w o u l d b e t t e r m a x i m i z e i t s i n t e r e s t : t h a t o f m i d d l e p o w e r . The f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a n d f u n c t i o n a l i s m a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n t h r e e p o i n t s : The f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e c o n c e p t o f " h i e r a r c h i c a l f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . " A l t h o u g h C a n a d a s h a r e d t h e i d e a o f i s s u e - o r i e n t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y w i t h M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m , t h e n o t i o n o f h i e r a r c h y o f power d i s t r i b u t i o n was a d d e d a nd s t r e s s e d i n t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . W h i l e t h e n a t u r e o f M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m was b a s e d on h o r i z o n t a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s , C a n a d a e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n n a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , d i f f e r e n t h i e r a r c h i e s must be f o r m e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t y on e a c h i s s u e i n o r d e r f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o o p e r a t e e f f e c t i v e l y . M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m was f u n c t i o n a l i n t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y e c o n o m i c a nd s o c i a l , c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r f u n c t i o n s by i n c r e a s i n g common i n t e r e s t s among s t a t e s a n d by s h i f t i n g l o y a l t i e s t o w a r d a w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was f u n c t i o n a l i n t h a t power h i e r a r c h y d i f f e r e d f r o m f u n c t i o n t o f u n c t i o n . A l t h o u g h e g a l i t a r i a n c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e f o r u m o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s d e s i r a b l e f o r a c h i e v i n g a p e a c e f u l a n d j u s t w o r l d o r d e r , a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i s r e q u i r e d i f s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t o h a v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e b e h a v i o r o f s t a t e s . E x c e s s i v e s t r e s s on t h e e q u a l i t y o f s t a t u s among s t a t e s i s t o o r i g i d t o d e a l w i t h d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s , w h e r e e f f i c i e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s o f t e n r e q u i r e d . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e r e d u c e d t h e d i l e m m a b e t w e e n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ( o r e q u a l i z a t i o n ) a n d c e n t r a l i z a t i o n by i n c o r p o r a t i n g a c o n c e p t o f h i e r a r c h y o f a u t h o r i t y i n t o t h e i d e a s o f h o r i z o n t a l f u n c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . D o u g l a s A n g l i n , c a l l i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e " t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t C a n a d i a n c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " 1 0 1 , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e c a n be d i s t i l l e d i n t o two c o r e i d e a s : 1 ) " t h e G r e a t P o w e r s a r e e n t i t l e d t o t a k e t h e l e a d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , b u t n o t t o d o m i n a t e them."; 2) " c o n t r o l s h o u l d be s h a r e d w i t h s u c h o t h e r p o w e r s b u t o n l y s u c h o t h e r p o w e r s a s a r e a b l e and w i l l i n g t o make a d e f i n i t e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i n v i e w . " 1 0 2 C a n a d a s h a r e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f s m a l l e r s t a t e s , w h i c h f e a r e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e i n g e x c l u s i v e l y c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e g r e a t p o w e r s . I t a l s o a r g u e d , a s o t h e r s m a l l e r s t a t e s d i d , t h a t e a c h c o u n t r y s h o u l d be a b l e t o p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s c a p a b i l i t y and r e s o u r c e s . W h i l e b e i n g s y m p a t h e t i c t o s m a l l e r p o w e r s , C a n a d a was n o t w i l l i n g t o be p u t i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f s m a l l s t a t e s . I n C a n a d i a n t h i n k i n g , t h e h i e r a r c h y o f a u t h o r i t y h a d t o be g r a d u a l and s t a t e s s h o u l d n o t be c a t e g o r i z e d o n l y i n t o " b i g p o w e r s " and " s m a l l p o w e r s . " C a n a d a ' s power was n o t e nough t o be c a l l e d a g r e a t p o w e r . C a n a d a f o u n d a p l a c e f o r i t s e l f i n t h e c o n c e p t o f " m i d d l e p o w e r , " w h i c h was t h e p r o d u c t o f a r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f i t s c a p a c i t y and o f i t s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . Many C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s h a v e r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f i t s p o w e r . L e s t e r P e a r s o n , who i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e e p i t o m e o f C a n a d i a n " i n t e r n t i o n a l i s m , " was a r e a l i s t i n t h i s s e n s e . S c e p t i c a l a b o u t t h e e g a l i t a r i a n s t a t u s o f c o u n t r i e s and r e c o g n i z i n g t h e c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e g r a d a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y , he s t a t e d : A l o t o f n o n s e n s e i s b e i n g t a l k e d nowadays a b o u t s o v e r e i g n e q u a l i t y . I t i s one o f t h o s e p h r a s e s , t h e f a c i l e a nd u n t h i n k i n g a c c e p t a n c e and u s e o f w h i c h c a n be a l m o s t a s g r e a t a h a n d i c a p t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n a s t h e a r b i t r a r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n t h e h a n d s o f a few s t a t e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e r e s t . 1 0 3 I n sum, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , f u n c t i o n s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by d i f f e r e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s o f s t a t e s . T h e r e a r e c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s f o r w h i c h g r e a t p o w e r s must be r e s p o n s i b l e , t h e r e a r e f u n c t i o n s t h a t s m a l l p o w e r s c a n p e r f o r m , and t h e r e a r e f u n c t i o n s f o r m i d d l e p o w e r s a s w e l l . S e c o n d , s e c u r i t y i s s u e s c o n t i n u e d t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m a d v o c a t e d f o c u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e e c o n o m i c and t e c h n i c a l s p h e r e s . S i n c e h i s i d e a was b a s e d on d i s t r u s t o f t h e s t a t e s y s t e m , M i t r a n y d i s r e g a r d e d any p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o o p e r a t i o n e m e r g i n g f r o m p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e s u n l e s s n umerous n e t w o r k s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e e c o n o m i c and t e c h n i c a l s p h e r e s s o t h a t i t w o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o p o l i t i c a l o n e . C a n a d a d i d v o i c e i t s i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o - o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p o s t - w a r p l a n n i n g p e r i o d , e s p e c i a l l y i n s u p p o r t i n g s t r e n g t h e n e d r o l e s f o r t h e E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l C o u n c i l o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , M a c k e n z i e K i n g n o t e d t h a t " [ t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e ] c a n be g i v e n w i d e a p p l i c a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c and t e c h n i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " 1 0 4 P r i o r 48 . t o t h e San F r a n c i s c o c o n f e r e n c e i n 1944, he s t a t e d : [ R e a l ] s e c u r i t y r e q u i r e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n i n niany f i e l d s i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e , i n t r a d e , i n t e c h n i c a l p r o g r e s s , i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and i n e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 0 5 However, as C a n a d a e n g a g e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e p o s t - w a r w o r l d o r d e r , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l m a t t e r s was somewhat s e c o n d a r y w h i l e s e c u r i t y i s s u e s l o o m e d l a r g e a s a b a s i s f o r a l l s p h e r e s o f w o r l d o r d e r . W i t h o u t an a t m o s p h e r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n w o u l d be i n e f f e c t i v e . M o r e o v e r , a l t h o u g h C a n a d a r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s s y s t e m i n m a k i n g a more e n d u r i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p e a c e i n t h e l o n g t e r m 1 0 6 , t h e s h o r t t e r m m a i n t e n a n c e o f p e a c e s t i l l r e q u i r e d c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d s e c u r i t y s p h e r e s . I n d r a f t i n g t h e C h a r t e r , C a n a d a c o n c e n t r a t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n on s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y on t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l , s i n c e i t became o b v i o u s t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l a g e n c i e s w o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d i n c l u d e d i n t h e C h a r t e r . The c o n c e p t o f " m i d d l e p o w e r " was d e v e l o p e d a b o u t t h i s t i m e w i t h p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n a b o u t C a n a d a ' s s t a t u s i n s e c u r i t y m a t t e r s . T h u s , d e s p i t e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n , [ t h e ] C a n a d i a n d e l e g a t i o n was r e l u c t a n t t o a b a n d o n e n t i r e l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e s t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l power and s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s was p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e p r i n c i p a l a s p i r a t i o n o f t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n r e m a i n e d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f p o l i t i c o - s e c u r i t y , r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n a l t a s k s , and f o r t h e s e t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t i e s was s t i l l t h e u l t i m a t e p r e r e q u i s i t e . As i t h a p p e n e d , C a n a d a ' s m i l i t a r y a s s e t s i n 1945, a s m e a s u r e d by t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e w a r , w e r e v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l , and h e n c e were n o t a c u r r e n c y t o be l i g h t l y d e v a l u e d . 1 0 7 T h u s , t h e r e a s o n i n g o f C h r i s t i e t h r o u g h o u t 1920s and 1930s r e m a i n e d e f f e c t i v e i n C a n a d i a n t h i n k i n g : C a n a d a must engage i n t h e most c r u c i a l a s p e c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s ; t h e p r o b l e m o f war and p e a c e , i f i t was t o assume s o v e r e i g n t y a s an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n . 1 0 8 T h i r d , t h e r e i s an a b s e n c e o f t h e " t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y " h y p o t h e s i s . M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m a i m e d a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e o f t h e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d i n t h e t e c h n i c a l f i e l d i n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l , w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h e t r a n s f e r o f s o v e r e i g n t y t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s t h a t w o u l d p o s s e s s a u tonomous t a s k s t o p e r f o r m t h e f u n c t i o n s t h a t h a d b e e n p e r f o r m e d by n a t i o n s t a t e s . 1 0 9 C a l l i n g t h i s c e n t u r y a " h i s t o r i c a l t u r n i n g p o i n t , " he s t a t e d : what f o r o u r p u r p o s e i s d e c i s i v e i s h i s t o r i c a l l y a l s o w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t . . . [Now] t h e w h o l e o f o u r w o r l d i s e n f o l d e d i n t h e new t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . . . The i n v e n t i o n s and d i s c o v e r i e s h a v e r e n d e r e d t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s o f what p o l i t i c s i s a b o u t a l m o s t a s o b s o l e t e a s a s t r o l o g y and a l c h e m y . . . 1 1 0 I n c o n t r a s t , t h e i d e a o f any t y p e o f w o r l d f e d e r a t i o n i s a b s e n t f r o m C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , w h i c h was b o r n o u t o f t h e s t r u g g l e s t o a c h i e v e de j u r e and de f a c t o i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s i n t h e w o r l d a s an e m e r g i n g n a t i o n . S i n c e how t o r e m a i n an i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n , w h e t h e r f r o m B r i t a i n o r f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , r e m a i n e d t h e f o r e m o s t 50. c o n c e r n o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y , t h e c o r e e l e m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n p a r a m o u n t and i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o r i n t e g r a t i o n . Hume Wrong, w h i l e he was s o r t i n g o u t t h e b e s t p o l i c y t o t a k e f o r C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , was c l e a r a b o u t t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f any t y p e o f s u p r a - n a t i o n a l c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t . F o r C a n a d a , t h e s t a t e -s y s t e m was a " f a c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i f e " w h i c h was n o t e a s y t o o v e r c o m e . A f t e r o u t l i n i n g s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c i e s f o r C a n a d a i n t h e memorandum o f J a n u a r y 20, 1942, he w r o t e : T h e r e i s , o f c o u r s e , no s u c h t h i n g a s a "Supreme" C o u n c i l , s i n c e i t s s u p r e m e c y w o u l d i n v o l v e t h e s u r r e n d e r o f s o v e r e i g n t y by t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g S t a t e s . 1 1 1 S p e c i a l A g e n c i e s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s w o u l d n o t l e a d t o a w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t b u t w o u l d s u b s t i t u t e f o r i t . C a n a d a a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e , e v e n i f i t w e r e d e s i r a b l e , t o c e n t r a l i z e a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r one u n i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s h e w a r m l y a p p r o v e d o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . 1 1 2 The U n i t e d N a t i o n s was f o r C a n a d a a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e w o r l d s o c i e t y , w h i c h was c omposed o f i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n s p u r s u i n g t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s w h i l e f i n d i n g a minimum g r o u n d o f c o o p e r a t i o n . I t was a f o r u m i n w h i c h i t c o u l d e n h a n c e i t s i n t e r e s t s , a s w e l l a s a f o r u m f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n among s t a t e s . 1 1 3 C a n a d a t r i e d t o u t i l i z e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o a d j u s t i t s i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r s , t h e b e s t e x a m p l e o f w h i c h i s t h e d r a f t i n g o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r . 51 . The e n h a ncement o f C a n a d a ' s i n t e r e s t h a d t o be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t s a c r i f i c i n g c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s . C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s i n t h e 1910s a n d 1920s t r i e d t o s t r e n g t h e n C a n a d a ' s autonomy a s an i n d e p e n d e n t D o m i n i o n w i t h i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h . 1 1 4 S i m i l a r l y , t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , a s i t was d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e 1 930s and 1 9 4 0 s , was i n t e n d e d t o s t r e n g t h e n C a n a d a ' s p o s i t i o n a s a m i d d l e p o w e r w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The c e n t r a l theme o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y was t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e e n h a n c e m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , t h a t i s , t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e , and t h e n e e d f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n . W h a t e v e r c h a n g e s d i f f e r e n t e x t e r n a l c o n t e x t s may b r i n g , C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y c a n be s e e n a s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h i s a c c o m m o d a t i o n . S i n c e t h i s b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e e n h a ncement o f i t s i n t e r e s t a nd t h e n e e d f o r c o o p e r a t i o n d i f f e r e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e became a f l e x i b l e c o n c e p t . . D e p e n d i n g on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , t h e p r i n c i p l e l e d C a n a d a t o show e i t h e r more r e l u c t a n c e o r more w i l l i n g n e s s t o become i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 1 1 5 I t c o u l d j u s t i f y w i t h d r a w a l f r o m i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , a s i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s , when i s o l a t i o n i s m was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i s m a n d when i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n was m a i n t a i n e d w i t h a minimum d e g r e e . O r , i t c o u l d s u p p o r t a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s a s i n t h e 1 9 4 0 s , when " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r p e a c e [was] t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y . " ' 1 S The wisdom o f t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e c a n be c a l l e d s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , t h a t i s , t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e a l l o w s t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s p u r s u i t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e s p i r i t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . I n t h e C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e , t h e e n h a n c e m e n t o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . CHAPTER 4 C o n c l u s i o n T h i s e s s a y h a s e x a m i n e d t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e d e a l i n g w i t h i t s d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1867. We h a v e s e e n t h a t t h e g e n e s i s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l i d e a p a r a l l e l e d C a n a d a ' s g r a d u a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f e x t e r n a l autonomy a s a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f a c h i e v i n g d i p l o m a t i c i n d e p e n d e n c e , C a n a d a h a s i d e n t i f i e d i t s e l f i n s e v e r a l ways i n t e r m s o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h B r i t a i n a nd w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d a f t e r C o n f e d e r a t i o n , C a n a d a d e p e n d e d on B r i t a i n i n h a n d l i n g d i p l o m a t i c m a t t e r s . C a n a d a d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t s e l f f r o m i t s n e i g h b o u r , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h h a d become i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m B r i t a i n by r e v o l u t i o n , by i d e n t i f y i n g i t s e l f i n t e r m s o f t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n . The p r e f e r e n c e f o r " i m p e r i a l i s m " was t r a n s f o r m e d a f t e r W o r l d War I i n t o one f o r a c e r t a i n " i s o l a t i o n i s m " a s C a n a d a came t o p e r c e i v e t h e I m p e r i a l t i e s a s an i m p e d i m e n t i n a c h i e v i n g i t s c o m p l e t e e x t e r n a l s o v e r e i g n t y . N o n - i n v o l v e m e n t i n E u r o p e a n p o l i t i c s i n t h e " i s o l a t i o n i s t " p e r i o d was a g a i n one e x p r e s s i o n o f C a n a d i a n i d e n t i t y . I t was i n t h i s p e r i o d o f t h e 1 920s and 1 9 30s t h a t C a n a d a d e v e l o p e d t h e i d e a o f a f u n c t i o n - b a s e d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , w h i c h a t t h i s p o i n t meant i m p e r i a l r e l a t i o n s . 54 . By t h e 1 9 4 0 s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n c r e a s e o f C a n a d a ' s o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l power and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f i t s e x t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e I m p e r i a l f r a m e w o r k , C a n a d a b e g a n t o demand a more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . A l t h o u g h i n t h e 1920s and t h e 1930s C a n a d a h a d a d v o c a t e d t h e f u n c t i o n a l i d e a b a s e d on a c o u n t r y ' s c o n c e r n i n a p a r t i c u l a r s p h e r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , i n c r e a s e i n n a t i o n a l power e n a b l e d C a n a d a t o a s s e r t i t s r i g h t t o be g i v e n a r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e i n a s p h e r e n o t o n l y w here i t i s c o n c e r n e d b u t a l s o w h ere i t h a s t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s . M e r g e d w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f " m i d d l e p o w e r , " t h e f u n c t i o n a l i d e a was e l e v a t e d i n t o a p r i n c i p l e i n t h e 1 9 4 0 s . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , w h i c h t h u s emerged o u t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n w h i c h C a n a d a was p l a c e d , i s b a s e d on a d i f f e r e n t image o f t h e w o r l d and a i m s a t d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s f r o m t h o s e o f M i t r a n y ' s f u n c t i o n a l i s m . The f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s c a n be f o u n d i n t h a t C a n a d a d i d n o t f o c u s e x c l u s i v e l y on what M i t r a n y c a l l s t h e " t e c h n i c a l " s p h e r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . F o r C a n a d a t h e " p o l i t i c a l " s p h e r e , w here M i t r a n y d i d n o t s e e a p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o o p e r a t i o n among s t a t e s , was t h e s p h e r e where i t f o c u s e d i t s a t t e n t i o n w h i l e f i n d i n g room f o r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n . C a n a d a c o n t i n u e d t o show i t s c o n c e r n w i t h s e c u r i t y i s s u e s , d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m o f war and p e a c e . T h e r e f o r e , C a n a d a a s s e r t e d t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i n s e c u r i t y i s s u e s t o a s s u r e C a n a d a ' s s p e c i a l r o l e a s a m i d d l e power. F u r t h e r , s i n c e t h e s t a t e s y s t e m was f o r C a n a d a a f a c t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i f e , t h e n o t i o n o f w o r l d i n t e g r a t i o n , w h i c h M i t r a n y r e g a r d e d a s t h e end p r o d u c t o f f u n c t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n , was a b s e n t f r o m C a n a d i a n t h i n k i n g . A n a l y s e d t h i s way, we c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e d o e s n o t s h a r e t h e k e y a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t D a v i d M i t r a n y p o s e d on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o s e e k a nd p r e s e r v e i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e a nd m a i n t a i n i t s i d e n t i t y r a t h e r t h a n o f a d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m w h i c h a i m s a t w o r l d g o v e r n m e n t by v o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n among s t a t e s . One t h i n g t h a t must be n o t e d a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t a l t h o u g h i t was a r e f l e c t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s i n t e r e s t , i t d i d n o t l e a d t o r a d i c a l d i p l o m a t i c c o n d u c t t o c h a n g e t h e e x i s t i n g power d i s t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h i s common t o e m e r g i n g p o w e r s . C a n a d i a n d i p l o m a c y h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s i n b a l a n c i n g i t s i n t e r e s t by r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f i t s power a n d o f t h e s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m . As c o n d e n s e d i n L e s t e r P e a r s o n ' s famous w o r d s " n a t i o n a l i s m a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m a r e two s i d e s o f t h e same c o i n , " 1 1 7 t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t w i t h t h e f u r t h e r i n g o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n h a s b e e n m a i n t a i n e d i n C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r . A l t h o u g h C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y h a s o f t e n b e e n a n a l y s e d a s a s e r i e s o f i n d e p e n d e n t e r a s i n w h i c h a 56 . p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c i a n o f f e r e d a v i e w on C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r o l e , b a l a n c i n g n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e n e e d f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i s one o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t h a s r e m a i n e d . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t o d a y ' s w o r l d , where i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s c a n a f f o r d o n l y p e a c e f u l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . When one a s k s what a l l o w e d C a n a d a s u c h f l e x i b i l i t y a n d p r a g m a t i s m i n b a l a n c i n g i t s i n t e r e s t w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r s i n t h e g l o b a l c o m m u n i t y , p e r h a p s one must t o u c h on C a n a d a ' s d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s a n d i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n d i p l o m a t i c s t y l e , a theme w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s . D i s c u s s i n g t h e " P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e o f C a n a d i a n F o r e i g n P o l i c y 1 1 8 , " D e n i s S t a i r s h a s s t a t e d t h a t : t h e c o n d u c t o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y c a n s o m e t i m e s u s e f u l l y be v i e w e d n o t m e r e l y a s t h e e x p r e s s i o n a b r o a d o f p e r c e i v e d i n t e r e s t s o f s t a t e , b u t a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r . . . [Some] o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d p r a c t i c e s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s a t home may a l s o be e v i d e n t i n o u r b e h a v i o r a b r o a d . 1 1 9 The most d e c i s i v e d o m e s t i c f a c t o r t h a t h a s i n f l u e n c e d C a n a d a ' s d i p l o m a t i c s t y l e i s t h e p l u r a l i s m o f t h e s o c i e t y , w h i c h i s more p e a c e f u l l y m a i n t a i n e d i n C a n a d a t h a n most o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . B e i n g t h e most d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d ' 2 0 , C a n a d a i s t h e c o u n t r y c l o s e s t t o p e a c e f u l i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y i n a m i n i a t u r e . From d o m e s t i c e x p e r i e n c e , i n w h i c h t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f d i s t i n c t p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y h a d t o be c o m p a t i b l e , C a n a d i a n l e a d e r s u n d e r s t o o d w e l l t h e n e e d t o b a l a n c e p o l i t i c a l d i v e r s i t y w i t h a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f 57 . c o o p e r a t i v e c o n s e n s u s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y . P r a g m a t i s m , r a t h e r t h a n r e l i a n c e on d o g m a t i c i d e o l o g y , m o d e r a t i o n and c o m p r o m i s e , t h e " r e s p e c t f o r d i v e r s i t y and f o r i t s power as t h e e n g i n e o f p o l i t i c s , " and t h e a v o i d a n c e o f e x t r e m e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C a n a d i a n d i p l o m a t i c s t y l e were l e a r n e d f r o m t h e d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s a s w e l l a s t h e s y s t e m i c n e c e s s i t i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . ' 2 1 E n s u r i n g i t s i n d e p e n d e n c e and m a i n t e n a n c e o f i t s i d e n t i t y , t h e theme b e h i n d C a n a d a ' s f u n c t i o n a l i d e a , r e m a i n e d a f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War a s w e l l . The q u e s t i o n s o f C a n a d a ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e and i d e n t i t y a f t e r 1945 h a v e b e e n r e v o l v i n g a r o u n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a s " i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e " b e t w e e n t h e two c o u n t r i e s h a s d e e p e n e d . J u s t a s t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y o f C a n a d a ' s e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n i t s s t r o n g e r s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y and demand f o r autonomy i n i t s p r e - w a r h i s t o r y , d e e p e n i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v e o f t e n l e d C a n a d a t o a d v o c a t e p o l i c i e s w h i c h w o u l d a r t i c u l a t e C a n a d a ' s p o s i t i o n . "The T h i r d O p t i o n " 1 2 2 i n T r u d e a u ' s e r a e n c o u r a g e d C a n a d a t o p u r s u e a p o l i c y t o l i v e " d i s t i n c t f r o m b u t i n harmony w i t h " 1 2 3 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The r e c e n t F r e e T r a d e i s s u e h a s become a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r C a n a d a t o q u e s t i o n i t s i d e n t i t y . The e x a m i n a t i o n i n t o t h e C a n a d i a n f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e t h u s shows t h a t i t s n a t u r e i s b a s e d on one o f t h e c o n t i n u i n g a s p e c t s o f C a n a d i a n f o r e i g n p o l i c y : m a i n t e n a n c e o f n a t i o n a l autonomy. N O T E S 1 J o h n W. H o l m e s , The B e t t e r P a r t o f V a l o u r : E s s a y s on  C a n a d i a n D i p l o m a c y . 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T o r o n t o : McGraw H i l l R y e r s o n L t d . , 1980. 6-7. * D e n i s S t a i r s , "The P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e o f C a n a d i a n F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . V o l . 1 5 . 1982. 671 . 5 C a n a d a : House o f Common D e b a t e s . J u l y 9, 1 9 4 3 . P.4558. 6 J o h n B . B r e b n e r , N o r t h A t l a n t i c T r i a n g l e : t h e I n t e r p l a y o f  C a n a d a , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and G r e a t B r i t a i n . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1945. 7 " O v e r v i e w : C a n a d a a n d t h e Commonwealth," ( C a n a d i a n F o r e i g n P o l i c y S e r i e s ) . 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T o k y o : C h u o k o r o n -s h a . 1989. 1 3 8 - 4 0 . 59. 1 1 C a r l B e r g e r , The S e n s e o f P o w er: S t u d i e s i n t h e I d e a s o f  C a n a d i a n I m p e r i a l i s m , 1 8 67-1914. 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See, S t a c e y , o p . c i t . , 1 977. 303. 2 7 See E a y r s , o p . c i t . , 1960. 2 8 S t a c e y , o p . c i t . , 1977, 318-9. 2 9 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , C h a r l e s P. S t a c e y , C a n a d a a nd t h e Age o f  C o n f l i c t : A h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n E x t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s . V o l . 2 . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 8 1. 3. 3 0 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , A n t h o n y M i l l e r , " F u n c t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e i n C a n a d a ' s E x t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l . V o l . 3 5 . ( S p r i n g , 1980) 3 1 S t a c e y , op. c i t . , 1 977. 334. 3 2 A.R.M. l o w e r , e d . , " L o r i n g C h r i s t i e a n d t h e G e n e s i s o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n C o n f e r e n c e o f 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 2 2 , " CHR, M a r c h , 1966; c i t e d i n B o t h w e l l , o p . c i t . , 1 9 72. 298. 3 3 L.C. 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" S e e , I n g l i s , o p . c i t . , 1 9 7 1 . 1 1 4 -61 . 4 0 The S t a t u t e o f W e s t m i n s t e r f o r m a l l y e n d e d t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e . 4 1 See, f o r e x a m p l e , B o t h w e l l , o p . c i t . , 1972. 4 2 P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a , L o r i n g C h r i s t i e P a p e r s , "The C a n a d i a n D i l e m m a , " December, 1938. V o l . 2 6 , f i l e 107, 59-60; c i t e d i n M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1980. 313. 4 3 K i m R i c h a r d N o s s a l , o p . c i t . , 1985. 44. 4 4 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f i s o l a t i o n i s m a s a g e n e r a l f o r e i g n -p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n , s e e K a l J . H o l s t i , I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c s : a F r a m e w o r k f o r A n a l y s i s . 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V o l . 9 (1 942-1 9 4 3 ) . O t t a w a : D e p a r t m e n t o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , 1 980. 5 2 H i l l i k e r , o p . c i t . , 1980. 1 0 6 - 9 . 5 3 C a n a d a was t o emerge a s t h e f o u r t h l a r g e s t power i n t h e w o r l d a f t e r t h e w a r . S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , B. C l a x t o n , "The P l a c e o f C a n a d a i n t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s S y s t e m , " The C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l  o f E c o n o m i c a n d P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . V o l . 1 0 . (November, 1944) S i I n c r e a s e d d o m e s t i c p r e s s u r e i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e l e t t e r s and memorandums o f C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s . S ee, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e memorandum o f F e b r u a r y 3, 1943, f r o m R o b e r t s o n t o K i n g . H i l l i k e r , o p . c i t . , 1980. 77; s e e a l s o t h e l e t t e r o f F e b r u a r y 8, 1943, f r o m K i n g t o M i n i s t e r o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I b i d . , 778 . 5 5 As e a r l y a s December, 1941, U n d e r - S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Norman R o b e r t s o n , w r o t e i n c o m m e n t i n g on t h e p r o p o s e d j o i n t d e c l a r a t i o n o f A l l i e d p o w e r s d u r i n g t h e war: "The s e g r e g a t i o n o f G r e a t a nd S m a l l P o w e r s i n t h e p r e a m b l e i n n o v e l and open t o some o b j e c t i o n . " H i l l i k e r , o p . c i t . , 1980. 100. 5 6 S t a i r s , o p . c i t . , 1 9 82. 673. 5 7 H i l l i k e r , o p . c i t . , 1980. 776. 5 8 I b i d . , 7 7 8 - 9 . ( K i n g t o M i n i s t e r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) 5 9 The w o r d " g r a d a t i o n " i s u s e d by A n g l i n , H o l m e s , a nd S t a i r s as w e l l . 6 0 A n g l i n , o p . c i t . , 1956. i i i . s ' M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1 980. 314. 6 2 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , S t a c e y , o p . c i t . , 1 9 8 1 . 332. 6 3 L e s t e r P e a r s o n ' s memorandum o f J u l y 23, 1942, on C o m b i n e d War B o a r d . H i l l i k e r , o p . c i t . , 1 980. 19 0 - 3 . 6 A See, f o r e x a m p l e , E a y r s , o p . c i t . , 1972. 164- 5 . 6 5 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , H o l m e s , o p . c i t . , 1979. 2 3 0 - 1 . 6 6 I b i d . , 230-1 . S 7 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , E a y r s , o p . c i t . , 1972. 153-4. 6 8 I t was t h e l e s s o n l e a r n e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s , w h i c h f a i l e d b e c a u s e o f i t s e m p h a s i s on m e d i a t o r y f u n c t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n on p o l i c e - l i k e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l . 6 9 See, f o r e x a m p l e , E a y r s , o p . c i t . , 1972. 140. 7 0 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , H o l m e s , o p . c i t . , 1979. 251-2. 7 1 C o n c e r n i n g t h e n o n - p e r m e n a n t m e m b e r s h i p , C a n a d a c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e v i s i o n s o f o t h e r a r t i c l e s a s w e l l : A r t i c l e 32, w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h a t a p a r t y t o a d i s p u t e w h i c h was n o t a member o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l s h o u l d be i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s ; a n d A r t i c l e 44, w h i c h a s s u r e d t h e r i g h t o f any member o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e S e c u r i t y C o u n c i l c o n c e r n i n g t h e employment o f c o n t i n g e n t s o f t h e member's armed f o r c e s . 7 2 D a v i d C. C o y l e , The U n i t e d N a t i o n s and How I t Works. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. 225. 7 3 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , E a y r s , o p . c i t . , 1972. 140 7 4 The n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s s a i d t o be one o f t h e m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s . 7 5 F o r e x a m p l e , B o t h w e l l , Drummond, and E n g l i s h m e n t i o n t h a t when t h e w o r l d was a b o u t t o c r e a t e a new b e t t e r o r d e r a f t e r t h e w ar, " e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f f i c i a l s dug i n t o t h e t h e o r y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s a n d came up w i t h a c o n c e p t t h a t f i t t e d , o r a p p e a r e d t o f i t , t h e C a n a d i a n c a s e , " w h i c h was f u n c t i o n a l i s m . M i l l e r n o t e s t h a t " f r o m t h e s p e e c h e s o f p o l i t i c i a n s d u r i n g t h e war, i t becomes c l e a r t h a t C a n a d a d e r i v e d f r o m f u n c t i o n a l i s m s e v e r a l i d e a s t h a t s u i t i t s i d e a l s o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y a n d i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e w o r l d . " See R. B o t h w e l l , I . Drummond, & J . E n g l i s h , C a n a d a s i n c e 1 9 4 5 : Power,  P o l i t i c s , a n d P r o v i n c i a l i s m . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 981 . 1 04; M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1 970. 78. ( f o o t n o t e 48) 7 6 See, f o r e x a m p l e , I n i s C l a u d e , " F u n c t i o n a l A p p r o a c h t o P e a c e , " i n S w o r d s i n t o P l o w s h a r e s . New Y o r k : Random House I n c . , 1 9 5 6 . 3 4 4 . 7 7 A n g l i n , o p . c i t . , 1956. 2 6 1 . 7 8 C l a u d e , o p . c i t . , 1956. 345-7. 7 9 I b i d . , 347. 8 0 I b i d . , 348. 8 1 I b i d . , 3 4 7 - 8. 8 2 D a v i d M i t r a n y , A W o r k i n g P e a c e S y s t e m . C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e B o o k s , 1 9 6 6 . 1 1 . C l a u d e , o p . c i t . , 1956. 348. 8 4 I b i d . , 348. 3 5 See, f o r e x a m p l e , C l a u d e , o p . c i t . , 1956. 3 5 0 - 1 ; E r n s t H aas, B e y o n d t h e N a t i o n S t a t e : F u n c t i o n a l i s m a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n . S t a n f o r d , CA: S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. 19-22; and M i t r a n y , o p . c i t . , 1966. Haas u s e s t h e w o r d " s p i l l -o v e r " i n s t e a d o f " t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y . " 8 6 See, f o r e x a m p l e , C l a u d e , op. c i t . , 1956. 345-8. 8 7 I b i d . , 346. 8 8 I b i d . , 348. 8 9 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1970. 7-8. 9 0 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1980, 319. 9 1 I b i d . , 3 2 1 . 9 2 I b i d . , 321 . 9 3 L e o n a r d S. W o o l f , I n t e r n a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t . L o n d o n : F a b i a n S o c i e t y , 1916. 9 4 D a v i d M i t r a n y , The P r o g r e s s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 933. 9 5 D a v i d M i t r a n y , A W o r k i n g P e a c e S y s t e m : An Argument f o r t h e  F u n c t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . L o n d o n : R o y a l I n s t i t u t e f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 43. 9 6 H i l l i k e r , o p . c i t . , 1 980. 8 2 7 - 3 ; a l s o c i t e d i n M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1 980. 318. 9 7 E a y r s , o p . c i t . , 1 960. 59-8 0 . 9 8 C l a x t o n , o p . c i t . , 1944. 9 9 F o r e x a m p l e , M i l l e r s t a t e s t h a t " a f t e r 1947 t h e r e was no m e n t i o n o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m by p o l i c y - m a k e r s . . . The C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t d r o p p e d i t s p u b l i c a d v o c a c y o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m . " M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1970. 88. 1 0 0 M i t r a n y s u g g e s t s t h a t by h a r n e s s i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y t o a "common t a s k , f o r common e n d s , a nd i n a m e a s u r e u n d e r common c o n t r o l , " " l e s s p o w e r f u l a n d l e s s w e a l t h y p e o p l e s w o u l d a t l e a s t g e t some o f t h e r e a l i t y o f e q u a l i t y f o r l i m i t a t i o n i n e x e c u t i v e c o n t r o l . " M i t r a n y , o p . c i t . , 1966. 35-6, 79. 65. 1 0 1 A n g l i n , o p . c i t . , 1956. 260; a l s o q u o t e d i n M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1 980 . 31 1 . 1 0 2 A n g l i n , o p . c i t . , 1956. 262. 1 0 3 Documents o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e on  I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , San F r a n c i s c o , 1 945. V o l . 1 . 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(Memorandum o f J a n u a r y , 20, 1942, f r o m Wrong t o R o b e r t s o n ) 1 1 2 A n g l i n , o p . c i t . , 1 956. i v . 1 1 3 F o r e x a m p l e , S t a i r s s u g g e s t s t h a t " i t r e q u i r e s no g r e a t i n t e l l i g e n c e t o p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e was i n t h e C a n a d i a n i n t e r e s t . " S e e , S t a i r s , o p . c i t . , 1982. 672. 1 1 4 See, f o r e x a m p l e , A n g l i n , o p . c i t . , 1956. 547-8. 1 , 5 A s i m i l a r p o i n t i s made by M i l l e r . M i l l e r , o p . c i t . , 1980. 313 . 1 1 6 L e s t e r B. P e a r s o n , M i k e : The M e m o i r s o f t h e R i g h t  H o n o u r a b l e L e s t e r B. P e a r s o n . V o l . 1 (1 887-1 948) . 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