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Death of a community, rebirth of a homeland? : planning processes for a Kwakiutl Indian community Sheltinga, Janis Colette 1988

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DEATH OF A COMMUNITY, REBIRTH OF A HOMELAND? PLANNING PROCESSES FOR A KWAKIUTL INDIAN COMMUNITY By J a n i s C o l e t t e S h e l t i n g a B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 B.Sc.(Ag.), The U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph, 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 <§> J a n i s C o l e t t e S h e l t i n g a , 1988 In p resen t ing this thesis in part ia l f u l f i lmen t o f t he requ i remen ts fo r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f reely avai lable fo r re ference and s t u d y . I f u r the r agree that permiss ion fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis fo r scholar ly p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y the h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y his o r her representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f th is thesis fo r f inanc ia l ga in shall n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f Graduate Studies The Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver , C a n a d a V 6 T 1Y3 October 15, 1988 ABSTRACT D u r i n g the 1960s, r e s i d e n t s of i s o l a t e d K w a k i u t l I n d i a n communities, l o c a t e d near the n o r t h e r n t i p of Vancouver I s l a n d i n Johnstone S t r a i g h t , were encouraged by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s (DIA) t o r e l o c a t e t o r e g i o n a l urban c e n t e r s . The m a j o r i t y of f a m i l i e s from v a r i o u s K w a k i u t l bands were, as a r e s u l t , a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o n o n - n a t i v e c e n t e r s throughout the p r o v i n c e . T h i s t h e s i s examines the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e a t h of the Johnstone S t r a i g h t communities; i d e n t i f i e s the impacts of r e l o c a t i o n on members of one K w a k i u t l band, the Tanakteuk; and e v a l u a t e s v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r I n d i a n development i n the f u t u r e , i n c l u d i n g an assessment of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e i n h a b i t a t i o n of K w a k i u t l homelands. A l i t e r a t u r e r e v iew of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and development approaches p o i n t s t o the p o p u l a r i t y of growth c e n t e r development t h e o r y f o r two decades a f t e r World War Two. T h i s t h e o r y c o n t i n u e d t o gu i d e Canadian p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s d u r i n g the 1960s, r e s u l t i n g i n the d e c l i n e of r u r a l communities, both n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h K w a k i u t l band members and former DIA p e r s o n n e l , and an e x a m i n a t i o n of DIA documents, c o n t r i b u t e t o a p r o f i l e of events l e a d i n g t o the r e l o c a t i o n of K w a k i u t l bands i n the r e g i o n . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the proponents of the growth c e n t e r t h e o r y , DIA i i . s u s p e c t e d t h a t the c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be m i n i m i z e d i n urban c e n t e r s as a r e s u l t , of a c h i e v i n g economies of s c a l e not p o s s i b l e w i t h s c a t t e r e d v i l l a g e s , and t h a t employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n i n d u s t r y would be g r e a t e r . The department a c t e d on t h i s b e l i e f by r e d u c i n g the p r o v i s i o n of c r u c i a l s e r v i c e s t o the Johnstone S t r a i g h t communities, w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t h o s e I n d i a n s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n of documentation s u g g e s t s t h a t the r e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n s t o urban c e n t e r s was f u r t h e r a dvocated by DIA p e r s o n n e l f o r an a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n : such a move would encourage I n d i a n s t o abandon t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s , and promote t h e i r a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o modern Canadian s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o the assumptions on which orthodox development t h e o r y and DIA p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a re based, I n d i a n s must adopt the v a l u e s and l i f e s t y l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n modern s o c i e t y f o r t h e i r development t o p r o c e e d . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o Tanakteuk Band members t o i n v e s t i g a t e the impacts of r e l o c a t i o n and the l e v e l of support f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the community of New Vancouver i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l homeland. R e s u l t s of the survey demonstrate t h a t the soc i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of the Tanakteuk f a m i l i e s have not s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved as a r e s u l t of b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y . In r e t r o s p e c t , growth c e n t e r d o c t r i n e p r o v e d t o be an i n a p p r o p r i a t e guide f o r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r n a t i v e s . W h i l e r e l o c a t i o n may have i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , i t d i d not r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d i i i employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Moreover, by promoting a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s , r e l o c a t i o n t h r e a t e n e d the c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l of the Tanakteuk. Having e v a l u a t e d s e v e r a l o p t i o n s , the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a community i n New Vancouver has been i d e n t i f i e d by f i v e Tanakteuk heads of households as the most r a t i o n a l means t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r c u l t u r e and f u r t h e r the l o n g -term development of the Band. An a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r y of development based on a s y n t h e s i s of a t e r r i t o r i a l development approach and systems t h e o r y s u p p o r t s t h i s p l a n n i n g o p t i o n . The case study of the Tanakteuk p r o v i d e s s t r o n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the need f o r major changes t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s used by the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . An orthodox approach t o development must be r e p l a c e d by an a l t e r n a t i v e t h a t aims t o s t r e n g t h e n I n d i a n s o c i e t y t h r o u g h the development of I n d i a n •economies w i t h i n I n d i a n c u l t u r a l frameworks under the c o n t r o l of I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s must account f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of c l i e n t e l e . i i i «-TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . iv LIST OF TABLES . v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . v i i i CHAPTER ONE 1 Objectives 2 Scope 3 Background to the Problem '. . 4 Structure & Methods 12 CHAPTER TWO 15 Part One: Kwakiutl Society Prior to Contact with Europeans 17 Organization of Economic Production 18 Relationship with Physical Environment 18 Relations with Other Communities 20 Psychological Development & Behaviour 21 Part Two: Increasing Interaction with Europeans 22 Organization of Economic Production -23 Relationship with Physical Environment 25 Relations with Other Communities 26 Psychological Development & Behaviour 28 Part Three: Kwakiutl Society in the 1960s 31 Organization of Economic Production 31 Relationship with. Physical Environment ... 34 Relations with Other Communities 37 Psychological Development & Behaviour 39 Part Four: Factors Contributing to Relocation of Communities ... 41 Kwakiutl Opinion 41 Opinion of DIA Personnel 45 H i s t o r i c a l Indicators 47 Summary 49 CHAPTER THREE 51 Evolution of Theories of Regional Development and Planning .... 55 Theory of Underdevelopment 60 i v Page I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m & Indians 62 Canadian Values & Planning Processes During the 1960s 66 DIA's P o l i c i e s & Programs During the 1960s 74 Summary 82 CHAPTER FOUR 84 P r o f i l e of Canadian Off-Reserve P o p u l a t i o n ....... 87 Tanakteuk Band P r o f i l e 89 The Survey 91 Circumstances of R e l o c a t i o n 92 Immediate Impacts of R e l o c a t i o n 97 Current L i f e s t y l e s 99 Support f o r Community Re-establishment 100 Comparison of Tanakteuk' Response to C l a s s i c Responses to R e l o c a t i o n 101 Summary 104 CHAPTER FIVE 107 C r i t i c a l Assumptions 109 C r i t e r i a to Evaluate Development I n i t i a t i v e s .... 110 C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d to Orthodox Development Approaches .... 113 An A l t e r n a t i v e Approach to Development 11.5 E v a l u a t i o n of Development Scenarios f o r the Tanakteuk 120 R a t i o n a l e f o r Re-establishment of a Community ... 125 Formulation of Community Development S t r a t e g y ... 128 Economic Development 128 Human Resource Development 132 P h y s i c a l Development 132 Why DIA Should Support Indians' Request fo r A s s i s t a n c e 134 DIA P o l i c y on "New" Communities 137 I m p l i c a t i o n s of P o l i c y f o r the Tanakteuk and Other Bands 139 Summary 141 CHAPTER SIX • • • • 1 4 2 Summary . 143 Conc l u s i o n s 148 REFERENCES . 1 56 LIST OF INTERVIEWS ..... 170 APPENDIX 171 v LIST OF TABLES Tables Page 1. Survey Results 93 v i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e s Page 1.. Map of K w a k i u t l T e r r i t o r y 5 2. K w a k i u t l S e a s o n a l Economic A c t i v i t i e s 33 3. Map of Tanakteuk Reserves 130 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To the eagle ... And those who do of l i k e k ind. I would l i k e to thank Dr. J u l i a Gardner f o r her generous c o n t r i b u t i o n of time, guidance, and unwavering enthusiasm f o r t h i s p r o j e c t ; and Mr. Peter Boothroyd f o r p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s c h o l a r l y i n s i g h t s . I am g r a t e f u l to Mr. Norman Dale f o r sharing h i s f a s c i n a t i o n with the Kwakiutl T e r r i t o r y with me. Of course, t h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e without the Tanakteuk's v i s i o n of a b e t t e r f u t u r e . I thank Anne Glendale and Chief W i l l i a m Glendale f o r s h a r i n g t h e i r dreams with me. And to my parents, many thanks. v i i i You w i l l need to come c l o s e r f o r l i t t l e i s l e f t of t h i s tongue and what I am saying i s important. I am the l a s t one... "Truganinny" by Wendy Rose in Harper's Anthology of 20th Century Native American Poetry e d i t e d by D. Niatum 1988 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION The s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g f o r the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada has been enhanced i n some m a t e r i a l ways over the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s : the a v a i l a b i l i t y of h o u s i n g has i n c r e a s e d ; b e n e f i t s from l i v i n g i n c l o s e r p r o x i m i t y t o i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e e v i d e n t ; h e a l t h c a r e , e d u c a t i o n , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a re more a c c e s s i b l e t o those i n need. However, f o r some I n d i a n s , improvements i n t h e i r m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g have o c c u r r e d a t the expense of t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g . D u r i n g the 1960s, c r u c i a l s e r v i c e s t o s e v e r a l remote K w a k i u t l I n d i a n v i l l a g e s i n the n o r t h e r n reaches of Johnstone S t r a i g h t o f f Vancouver I s l a n d were withdrawn by the f e d e r a l government, r e s u l t i n g i n the r e l o c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s t o urban c e n t e r s where t h e i r m a t e r i a l needs would be met a t a f r a c t i o n of the c o s t . W h i l e some f a m i l i e s were p r o v i d e d w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t i n u e l i v i n g i n o n - r e s e r v e communities, most f a m i l i e s d i s p e r s e d t o n o n - n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s t h roughout Vancouver I s l a n d and the lower m a i n l a n d of B r i t i s h C olumbia. O b j e c t i v e s The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s t h e s i s a re t o examine the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the death of the Johnstone S t r a i g h t communities, t o i d e n t i f y t h e impacts of r e l o c a t i o n on members of one K w a k i u t l Band, namely the Tanakteuk, and t o e v a l u a t e v a r i o u s 2 a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r I n d i a n development i n the f u t u r e . T h i s i n c l u d e s an assessment of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e - i n h a b i t a t i o n of K w a k i u t l homelands, u s i n g the Tanakteuk community of New Vancouver as a case s t u d y . Development o p t i o n s o t h e r than r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l o s t communities a r e e x p l o r e d . I m p l i c a t i o n s a r e drawn from the Tanakteuk case study f o r I n d i a n s a c r o s s Canada who have e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l homelands. The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s (DIA) i n remote n a t i v e communities d u r i n g the 1960s i s d i s c u s s e d a g a i n s t the backdrop of p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and development approaches a c c e p t a b l e i n mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y a t the t i m e . For the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s d e f i n e d as the f o r m u l a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p o l i c i e s , programs and p r o j e c t s . Development i s the enhancement of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s or community's s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and a sense of purpose i n l i f e and work (wien, 1986). SCOPE A l t h o u g h f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e of . remote I n d i a n communities a c r o s s Canada twenty y e a r s ago may be s i m i l a r , the f o c u s of r e s e a r c h i n t h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d t o s e v e r a l K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e s s c a t t e r e d throughout the n o r t h e a s t e r n p o r t i o n of Vancouver I s l a n d and the a d j a c e n t m a i n l a n d ( F i g u r e 1 ) . In 3 p a r t i c u l a r , d i s c u s s i o n i s c e n t e r e d on members of the Tanakteuk Band. Each of the f i f t e e n K w a k i u t l bands--of which the Tanakteuk ar e one--has i t s own name, but as a group they have come t o be known as the Southern K w a k i u t l . T h e i r c o l l e c t i v e h i s t o r i e s have been drawn upon t o enhance the case study of the Tanakteuk Band p r e s e n t e d i n the t h e s i s . No attempt i s made t o e x p l a i n why some i s o l a t e d I n d i a n v i l l a g e s i n t he r e g i o n s u r v i v e d and o t h e r s d i d n o t . A l t h o u g h i t has been suggested t h a t the key f a c t o r may be the q u a l i t y of l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the community a t the time when p r e s s u r e from e x t e r n a l f o r c e s was g r e a t e s t , t h i s i s s u e i s not c l o s e l y examined. I t i s a l s o beyond the scope of the t h e s i s t o attempt t o compare the q u a l i t y of l i f e of the i n h a b i t a n t s of these s u r v i v i n g communities t o those members of bands who have d i s p e r s e d . BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM The f e d e r a l government i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h e a l t h and w e l f a r e of I n d i a n s under the B r i t i s h N o r t h America Act (1867) and as s e t out i n the I n d i a n A c t (1985). U n t i l the 1960s, the p r o v i s i o n of economic and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o I n d i a n s was c a r r i e d out by one f e d e r a l department ( a l t h o u g h the a c t u a l name of the department changed from time t o t i m e ) , i n c o n t r a s t t o the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s t o o t h e r Canadians by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of many government departments and l e v e l s of government. Throughout the t h e s i s , the f e d e r a l body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r I n d i a n a f f a i r s i s 4 FIGURE 1 . MAP OF KWAKIUTL T E R R 1 T U K * 5 r e f e r r e d t o as the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s (DIA) f o r s i m p l i c i t y . In r e a l i t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n a f f a i r s has s h i f t e d among s e v e r a l departments, o f t e n under d i f f e r e n t acronyms, a l t h o u g h t h i s p r a c t i c e ceased n e a r l y t h r e e decades ago. A l t h o u g h the I n d i a n A c t has been s u b j e c t t o review and amendment s i n c e 1876, a t the end of the 1960s i t d i d n o t , d i f f e r g r e a t l y from the o r i g i n a l form ( P o n t i n g , 1980). The A c t touches v i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t of I n d i a n s ' l i v e s . In the words of one former A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of DIA: The I n d i a n Act i s a Land A c t . I t i s a M u n i c i p a l A c t , an E d u c a t i o n Act and a S o c i e t i e s A c t . I t i s p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , but i t has v e r y broad scope: t h e r e a r e p r o v i s i o n s about l i q u o r , a g r i c u l t u r e and m i n i n g as w e l l as I n d i a n l a n d s , band membership and so f o r t h . I t has elements t h a t a r e embodied i n perhaps two dozen d i f f e r e n t A c t s of any of the p r o v i n c e s and o v e r r i d e s some f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n some r e s p e c t s . . . I t has the f o r c e of the C r i m i n a l Code and the impact of a c o n s t i t u t i o n on people and communities t h a t come w i t h i n i t s purview (Doerr, 1974:40). U n t i l the l a t e 1960s, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f e d e r a l government s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s was c a r r i e d out on r e s e r v e s by the I n d i a n Agent, who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g development. S e v e r a l major m o t i f s have c h a r a c t e r i z e d DIA p o l i c y from the time of i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h I n d i a n s u n t i l 1969: p r o t e c t i o n of I n d i a n s from the e v i l s of w h i t e s o c i e t y , a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s from a "backward" t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i n t o modern s o c i e t y , and the a d o p t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y . ( G i b b i n s & P o n t i n g , 1986). A c c o r d i n g t o Manuel and P o s l u n s (1974:54), " i t was the j o b of these new w h i t e c h i e f s t o d i s p l a c e our t r a d i t i o n a l 6 l e a d e r s . . . t o b r i n g our way of l i f e i n t o l i n e w i t h the p o l i c i e s t h a t had been decreed i n Ottawa." Because of h i s sweeping powers, the Agent i n e v i t a b l y g e n e r a t e d a s t a t e of dependency among h i s I n d i a n c l i e n t e l e ( P o n t i n g , 1980). Changes i n the I n d i a n Act i n 1951 e s t a b l i s h e d Band C o u n c i l s i n an attempt t o b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s of a l l r e s e r v e i n h a b i t a n t s i n a d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s . ( I n d i a n s , however, were d e n i e d the r i g h t t o vo t e i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s u n t i l 1960). D e s p i t e t h e s e changes, f i n a l d e c i s i o n s taken by the B a n d s -r e g a r d l e s s of the i s s u e or impact on the community—were s u b j e c t t o a p p r o v a l by the I n d i a n Agent as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Crown. Among Canadians, g e n e r a l knowledge of the c o n d i t i o n s of I n d i a n s p r i o r t o 1960 was l i m i t e d ; most Canadians tended t o r e c o g n i z e I n d i a n s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y as a homogeneous e t h n i c group i n ig n o r a n c e of t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . However, i n response t o v a r i o u s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s d u r i n g the 1960s, t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e i n the awareness of "the I n d i a n problem", and an a r o u s a l of p u b l i c concern about t h e i r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . I n d i a n s s u f f e r e d from p o v e r t y , underemployment, and unemployment; i n 1965, f o r example, I n d i a n s had per c a p i t a g a i n f u l e a r n i n g s of $300 compared t o the n a t i o n a l average of $1,400. N a t i v e s were m a r g i n a l t o the many s e r v i c e s t h a t o t h e r Canadian r e c e i v e d , they were over-consumers of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , and they were housed i n su b s t a n d a r d d w e l l i n g s (Hawthorn et a l . , 1967). 7 As e f f o r t s i n Canadian s o c i e t y t o cope w i t h n a t i o n a l u n i t y , e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y , r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s and p o v e r t y g a i n e d momentum i n the 1960s, a c o l l e c t i v e sense of g u i l t about the h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t of I n d i a n s emerged, and DIA came under heavy c r i t i c i s m f o r p a t e r n a l i s m . In r e s p o n s e , DIA experimented w i t h a v a r i e t y of programs o s t e n s i b l y d e s i g n e d t o reduce dependence on the government, and t o encourage I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Under p r e s s u r e t o a d d r e s s i m m e d i a t e l y d i s p a r i t i e s i n the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g between n o n - n a t i v e and n a t i v e Canadians, DIA emphasized the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s t o n a t i v e communities d u r i n g the decade. At the same t i m e , however, government o f f i c i a l s were growing i n c r e a s i n g l y alarmed a t the p r o s p e c t s of c o p i n g w i t h the g e n e r a l e x p a n s i o n of the w e l f a r e s t a t e . The c o s t s of p r o v i d i n g a m e n i t i e s f o r n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e communities w i t h a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s c a t t e r e d over remote a r e a s was h i g h . A c c o r d i n g t o p o p u l a r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y d u r i n g the 1960s, "growth c e n t e r s " were the s o l u t i o n t o r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Three. By c o n c e n t r a t i n g the p o p u l a t i o n i n urban i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c e n t e r s , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e s c o u l d be o f f e r e d t o a l l Canadians a t a f r a c t i o n of the c o s t , due t o economies of s c a l e . M i g r a t i o n from s m a l l , remote communities t o growth c e n t e r s was encouraged l a r g e l y t h r o u g h the w i t h d r a w a l of government s e r v i c e s . 8 DIA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e c o g n i z e d the advantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the concept of growth c e n t e r s , as w e l l as i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the development of I n d i a n s . I f n a t i v e s were encouraged t o move from r e s e r v e communities, where the v a l u e s of a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y were p r e v a l e n t , t o urban c e n t e r s , the a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s i n t o modern s o c i e t y would be h a s t e n e d , and the "development" of I n d i a n s would r e s u l t . At the t i m e , development was p e r c e i v e d as a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n from t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s t o i n d u s t r i a l i z e d ones based on mass consumerism (Rostow, 1960). C r i t i q u e s on the causes of underdevelopment and i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m had not y e t emerged i n the l i t e r a t u r e . N e i t h e r had the concept of s o c i a l or e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s . The r e l e a s e of the f e d e r a l government's White Paper on I n d i a n p o l i c y i n 1969 r e s u l t e d i n a l e v e l of I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n u n p a r a l l e l e d i n Canadian h i s t o r y , w i t h remarkable consequences ( C a r d i n a l , 1977; Manuel and P o s l u n s , 1974; W h i t e s i d e , 1973). T h i s p o l i c y , which was r e j e c t e d by a l l n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , proposed t h a t r e s e r v e s would be d i s m a n t l e d , and a l l l e g a l d i s t i n c t i o n s such as the I n d i a n Act t h a t s e t n a t i v e p e o p l e s a p a r t from o t h e r Canadians be removed, a l l o w i n g them t o p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y i n Canadian s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h the White Paper was never implemented, i t s e r v e d as a c a t a l y s t f o r I n d i a n demands f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . N a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s became i n c r e a s i n g l y m i l i t a n t about 9 a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s as p r i d e i n I n d i a n h e r i t a g e re-awakened d u r i n g the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s. The i s s u e of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s embraces not o n l y l a n d , but c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , l i n g u i s t i c and p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s . In 1973, s i x Supreme Court j u s t i c e s agreed on the e x i s t e n c e of a b o r i g i n a l r i g h t s i n Canadian law, but were d i v i d e d on i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n law i n the landmark C a l d e r case i n i t i a t e d by the N i s h g a T r i b a l C o u n c i l (Weaver, 1981). The entrenchment of a b o r i g i n a l and t r e a t y r i g h t s i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n Act (1982) r e f l e c t e d growing a c c e p t a n c e by Canadians t h a t I n d i a n s occupy a unique and permanent p l a c e w i t h i n Canadian s o c i e t y . The C o n s t i t u t i o n Amendment P r o c l a m a t i o n of 1983 r e i n f o r c e d t h i s b e l i e f . In a d d i t i o n , the Penner Report of the S p e c i a l Committee of the House of Commons on I n d i a n S e l f -Government, r e l e a s e d i n October 1983, c a l l e d f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l entrenchment of the p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t f o r n a t i v e p e o p l e s . In 1985, DIA r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by the Task F o r c e t o Review Comprehensive C l a i m s P o l i c y e n t i t l e d " L i v i n g T r e a t i e s : L a s t i n g Agreements" which s t a t e d t h a t f u t u r e c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s "must h e l p t o r e s t o r e and d e v e l o p e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e a b o r i g i n a l communities..." As d i s c u s s i o n s about s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and the r i g h t s of I n d i a n s t o c o n t r o l r e s o u r c e s on t h e i r l a n d i n c r e a s e d i n the 1980s, many members of K w a k i u t l Bands from communities which d e c l i n e d i n the 1960s because of the w i t h d r a w a l of s e r v i c e s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r 10 d e s i r e t o r e - e s t a b l i s h communities o n - r e s e r v e . Development of I n d i a n s i n t h e s e communities would be based on a s y n t h e s i s of a t e r r i t o r i a l development and systems t h e o r y approach t h a t i s r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from orthodox development approaches c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of DIA p o l i c y . T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e proposes t h a t I n d i a n s o c i e t y s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d through the development of I n d i a n economies w i t h i n I n d i a n c u l t u r a l frameworks under the c o n t r o l of I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s anchored i n and drawing t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y from l o c a l I n d i a n communities ( L o u b s e r , 1984). In response t o over one hundred r e q u e s t s from I n d i a n Bands a c r o s s Canada f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n r e l o c a t i o n or the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "new" communities, such as New Vancouver, DIA r e l e a s e d a p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e i n December, 1987 which o u t l i n e d the c r i t e r i a under which support would be extended: the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n must be endangered, and the development of a community must be the most c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e . However, r e l o c a t i o n p r o p o s a l s which i n c l u d e an immediate or f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s r e l a t i v e t o the e x i s t i n g community w i l l not be s u p p o r t e d . DIA t a k e s no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the outcome of p r e v i o u s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . I t i s w i t h i n the d e s c r i b e d c o n t e x t of h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e and p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s t h a t the i s s u e of r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l o s t I n d i a n communities a c r o s s Canada i s d i s c u s s e d i n the t h e s i s , d r a wing i m p l i c a t i o n s from the Tanakteuk case s t u d y . 11 THESIS STRUCTURE AND METHODS Chapter Two p r e s e n t s a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n of K w a k i u t l l i f e i n s e v e r a l remote communities. Based on a l i t e r a t u r e r e view and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h members of s e v e r a l K w a k i u t l Bands, K w a k i u t l economic a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , and c u l t u r e i s d i s c u s s e d over t h r e e phases: p r i o r t o c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - n a t i v e s ; d u r i n g a p e r i o d of i n c r e a s i n g c o n t a c t w i t h w h i t e s e t t l e r s u n t i l the 1960s; and v i l l a g e l i f e d u r i n g the 1960s, l e a d i n g up t o the time when s e r v i c e s t o the communities were withdrawn. The broad c a t e g o r i e s of community socioeconomic s t r u c t u r e as d e s c r i b e d by Weaver and Cunningham (1984) have been used t o i l l u s t r a t e the c h a r a c t e r of K w a k i u t l l i f e . The purposes of i n c l u d i n g the d e s c r i p t i o n of soc i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n Chapter Two a r e t o p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of K w a k i u t l ' s p r o d u c t i v e economic a c t i v i t i e s and the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which have accompanied them, f o r comparison w i t h r e s u l t s of the survey of c u r r e n t c o n d i t i o n s i n Chapter Four; and t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the development a l t e r n a t i v e s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter F i v e . Chapter Two a l s o i n c l u d e s a p r o f i l e of s i g n i f i c a n t sequence of ev e n t s and f a c t o r s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the d e c l i n e of communities i n the r e g i o n and the subsequent d i s p e r s a l and r e l o c a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n . To generate the p r o f i l e , s e v e r a l members of K w a k i u t l 12 Bands and DIA s t a f f members were i n t e r v i e w e d , and m a t e r i a l was g a t h e r e d from DIA a r c h i v e s and r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . Chapter Three p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n c e p t s on which n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l development and p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s were based d u r i n g the 1960s, set a g a i n s t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c l i m a t e of t h i s p e r i o d . The i n f l u e n c e t h a t programs emerging out of t h e s e c o n c e p t s had on p l a n n i n g f o r remote I n d i a n communities i s examined. DIA's t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o development i s r e v i e w e d . Chapter Three i s based on a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . Chapter Four f o c u s e s on a case study of Tanakteuk Band members. A p r o f i l e of Canadian I n d i a n s r e s i d i n g o f f - r e s e r v e i s p r e s e n t e d , f o l l o w e d by a p r o f i l e of the Tanakteuk Band. The r e s u l t s of a survey of Band members are e v a l u a t e d . The survey a t t e m p t s t o determine Band members' p e r c e p t i o n about the f a c t o r s which l e d t o r e l o c a t i o n ; and t o a s s e s s the impact of r e l o c a t i o n on t h e i r l i v e s . A p r o f i l e of c u r r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s of Band members i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d . In a d d i t i o n , the l e v e l of s u p p o r t among Band members f o r the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the community of New Vancouver i s e v a l u a t e d . The a n a l y s i s of survey r e s u l t s i s supplemented by a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s , namely i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Band members, n a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s of s o c io-economic c o n d i t i o n s of o f f - r e s e r v e Canadian I n d i a n s , a c o n s u l t a n t ' s study of M a m a l e l e q a l a Qwe'Qwa'sot'enox Band members, 13 whose s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Tanakteuk's, and l i t e r a t u r e on the e f f e c t s of r e l o c a t i o n . Chapter F i v e i s p r e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e . An a l t e r n a t i v e t o the orthodox development approach c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of DIA p o l i c y i s p r e s e n t e d — o n e which i s based on a s y n t h e s i s of t e r r i t o r i a l development and a systems t h e o r y a pproach. C r i t e r i a t o e v a l u a t e development approaches a r e a l s o o f f e r e d . S c e n a r i o s of f u t u r e development o p t i o n s f o r the Tanakteuk Band are d i s c u s s e d , r a n g i n g from a c o u r s e of i n a c t i o n t o one i n which f u n d i n g f o r a new community i s s e c u r e d . The r a t i o n a l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a new community i n New Vancouver i s e x p l o r e d , and a community development s t r a t e g y based on t e r r i t o r i a l development and a systems t h e o r y approach i s p r e s e n t e d . The a u t h o r ' s assessment of why DIA s h o u l d s u p p o r t the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a community f o l l o w s . F i n a l l y , DIA's p o l i c y on support f o r "new" communities i s d i s c u s s e d , a l o n g w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s p o l i c y has f o r the development of I n d i a n bands a c r o s s Canada whose s i t u a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Tanakteuk Band. In t h i s c h a p t e r , the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n on development a l t e r n a t i v e s i s based on a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . The proposed community s t r a t e g y i s a. r e s u l t of a s e r i e s of meetings w i t h the C h i e f and C o u n c i l of the Tanakteuk Band, as w e l l as i n t e r v i e w s h e l d w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the K w a k i u t l D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l , the T r i b a l C o u n c i l of w h i c h the Tanakteuk Band i s a member. Chapter Six i n c l u d e s a summary of the t h e s i s and c o n c l u s i o n s . 14 D e f i n i t i o n s b e l o n g t o the d e f i n e r s - -not the d e f i n e d Toni M o r r i s o n from B e l o v e d 1987 15 CHAPTER TWO: THE HISTORICAL TRANSFORMATION OF KWAKIUTL MODES OF PRODUCTION AND INSTITUTIONS FROM PRE-EUROPEAN CONTACT UNTIL RELOCATION In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the p r e s e n t , we must lo o k t o the p a s t . The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t snapshots of K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e as i t e x i s t e d p r i o r t o the l o s s of communities on s e v e r a l i s o l a t e d I n d i a n r e s e r v e s o f f n o r t h - e a s t e r n Vancouver I s l a n d . The c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n examines l i f e p r i o r t o a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Europeans. A d e s c r i p t i o n of K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h w h i t e s e t t l e r s f o l l o w s . These two s e c t i o n s attempt t o demonstrate the h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of a p e o p l e ' s p r o d u c t i v e economic a c t i v i t i e s and the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which have accompanied them. In the t h i r d s e c t i o n , a d e s c r i p t i o n of K w a k i u t l l i f e d u r i n g the 1960s p r i o r t o the r e l o c a t i o n of remote communities i s p r e s e n t e d . In each of thes e s e c t i o n s , the c a t e g o r y of community socioeconomic s t r u c t u r e suggested by Weaver and Cunningham (1984) i s u t i l i z e d as a framework, p r o v i d i n g the t i t l e s t o each s u b - s e c t i o n , namely: 1) o r g a n i z a t i o n of economic p r o d u c t i o n ; 2) r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment; 3) r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r communities; and 4) p s y c h o l o g i c a l development and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . In the f o u r t h s e c t i o n , f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e l o c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s from i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s t o c e n t r a l i z e d urban c e n t e r s throughout the p r o v i n c e a r e examined. 16 I n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h members of s e v e r a l Bands and DIA p e r s o n n e l , from l i t e r a t u r e , and from a r c h i v a l documents. There i s a w e a l t h of d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l on the K w a k i u t l , most n o t a b l y the s y s t e m a t i c s t u d i e s of r i t u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p o t l a t c h by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t F r a n z Boas, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n the 1880s. The reader i s a d v i s e d t o c o n s u l t t h e s e r e p o r t s d i r e c t l y f o r a d e t a i l e d account of e a r l y K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e . The b i o g r a p h y of a prominent K w a k i u t l e l d e r , James Sewid, as d e s c r i b e d i n G u ests Never Leave Hungry by James S p r a d l e y (1969) p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l on the t o p i c . S e c t i o n One: Kwakiutl S o c i e t y P r i o r to Contact with Europeans For thousands of y e a r s t h e - K w a k i u t l l i v e d i n one of the r i c h e s t n a t u r a l h a b i t a t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , where an e l a b o r a t e m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e was c r e a t e d w i t h o n l y the s i m p l e s t of t o o l s (Fagan, 1984). T h e i r l i v e s were so c l o s e l y dependent upon and i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h the environment around them as t o be i n s e p a r a b l e : n a t u r e d e t e r m i n e d the c y c l e of economic p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the r e g i o n , and i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l development and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . 17 O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic Production The most important resource f o r the people i n pr e - c o n t a c t times was the abundant marine l i f e , c o n s i s t i n g of salmon, o o l i c h a n , h e r r i n g , h a l i b u t , clams, cra b s , mussels and seaweed. T r a d i t i o n a l methods f o r g a t h e r i n g f i s h i n c l u d e d s p e a r i n g , t r a p p i n g , n e t t i n g and use of hook and l i n e . Women were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e s e r v i n g food and g a t h e r i n g b e r r i e s , r o o t s , seaweed and s h e l l f i s h , while men f i s h e d and hunted. The c o l l e c t i o n and storage of food took place d u r i n g the s p r i n g , summer and f a l l , l e a v i n g the winter l a r g e l y f r e e f o r other a c t i v i t i e s . The mountains were covered with t h i c k f o r e s t s of hemlock, yew, cedar and f i r , p r o v i d i n g e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e m a t e r i a l that was used for almost every c o n c e i v a b l e purpose: canoes capable of c a r r y i n g up to f o r t y people; r e l i g i o u s masks and totem p o l e s ; m u l t i - f a m i l y houses; boxes f o r food storage; and c l o t h i n g (Goldman, 1 9 3 7 ) . The p a t t e r n of economic p r o d u c t i o n of Kwakiutl l i f e was determined by the seasons. R e l a t i o n s h i p with the P h y s i c a l Environment T r a v e l between v i l l a g e s was by water, since, land t r a v e l was d i f f i c u l t . Some of the l a r g e r v i l l a g e s had as many as t h i r t y houses and a p o p u l a t i o n between two hundred and seven hundred ( I N A C , 1 9 8 6 ) . Seasonal m i g r a t i o n to other settlements l o c a t e d near the best f i s h i n g grounds occurred i n the s p r i n g , summer and f a l l . S e v e r a l f a m i l i e s or groups from many d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s would 18 share these s e t t l e m e n t s . A c cess t o f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g grounds, and p l a n t g a t h e r i n g s i t e s was based on h i s t o r i c a l use, a l l o t t e d by the c h i e f s a c c o r d i n g t o f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Speck, 1987). D u r i n g the w i n t e r , a number of t r i b e s would g a t h e r a t a s i n g l e v i l l a g e f o r extended p e r i o d s of c e r e m o n i a l a c t i v i t y . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l t r i b e s may have shared one v i l l a g e , each c o n t i n u e d t o be an autonomous group. T r a v e l , f r i e n d s h i p s and m a r r i a g e s were e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d t o one's own and t o the c l o s e s t n e i g h b o r i n g bands. O b l i g a t i o n s among households and t h e i r l i n k e d r e l a t i v e s permeated the economy, r e l i g i o n and a r t of the v i l l a g e (Hawthorn et a l . , 1958). Awareness of s o c i a l rank dominated the t w e n t y - f i v e p o l i t i c a l l y autonomous t r i b e s t h a t c o m p r i s e d K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o Codere (1961), the K w a k i u t l never thought of themselves as a u n i f i e d p e o p l e or " n a t i o n " , a l t h o u g h they ' s h a r e d a s i m i l a r c u l t u r e and spoke Kwakwala. Each t r i b e was ranked i n a l i n e a l h i e r a r c h y . T r i b a l membership was p a t r i l i n e a l , a l t h o u g h the mother's t r i b e was a l s o i m p o r t a n t . In each t r i b e , t h e r e were s e v e r a l ranked k i n s h i p groups c a l l e d "numayms"; membership t o what was e s s e n t i a l l y an extended f a m i l y was a c q u i r e d from e i t h e r one's f a t h e r or mother. In a d d i t i o n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ranked t r i b e s and numayms, s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s were a l s o ranked. Those h o l d i n g the h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s i n each c l a n were the " c h i e f s " , those h o l d i n g the lower p o s i t i o n s were the "commoners". The p o s i t i o n of s l a v e a l s o e x i s t e d w i t h i n the s o c i a l 19 o r d e r , a p o s i t i o n w i t h n e i t h e r r i g h t s nor rank nor l e g a c y . S l a v e s were p r o p e r t y t o be used or g i v e n away. Most were taken as booty i n r a i d s or were the descendants of such c a p t i v e s ( K i r k , 1986). R e l a t i o n s w i t h Other Communities Trade and w a r f a r e p l a y e d fundamental r o l e s i n Northwest Coast I n d i a n l i f e . For g e n e r a t i o n s , goods were exchanged between the Southern K w a k i u t l , the Nuu-chah-nulth of the west c o a s t of Vancouver I s l a n d , and the Nuxalk people who i n h a b i t e d the c o a s t l i n e around B e l l a C o o l a ; t r a d e l i n k s w i t h t r i b e s from o t h e r c o a s t a l r e g i o n s as w e l l as the i n t e r i o r r e g i o n s t r e t c h i n g from the Coast Mountains eastwards t o the R o c k i e s a l s o e x i s t e d . L o c a l t r a d e c e n t r e d on food r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . A c r o s s g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s , t r a d e may have r e v o l v e d more around m a t t e r s of p r e s t i g e ( K i r k , 1986). I n e v i t a b l y , c o n f l i c t between t h e s e v a r i o u s groups d e v e l o p e d . R a i d s between d i f f e r e n t language groups, as w e l l as between K w a k i u t l t r i b e s were t r i g g e r e d i n response t o a t r e s p a s s i n t o a c h i e f ' s r e a l m , i n o r d e r t o s e i z e s l a v e s , t o g a i n new p r e r o g a t i v e s n o r m a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e , or t o demonstrate g r i e f over the l o s s of a l o v e d one ( K i r k , 1986). Women and c h i l d r e n were u s u a l l y e n s l a v e d , w h i l e the men were u s u a l l y k i l l e d . Because the p o s i t i o n of c h i e f was l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o one's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , the a u t h o r i t y of l e a d e r s h i p was not c h a l l e n g e d t h rough i n t e r - t r i b a l v i o l e n c e . 20 P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development & B e h a v i o u r P a t t e r n s S e c r e t s o c i e t i e s were the most i m p o r t a n t r e l i g i o u s groups. Members of each s o c i e t y were u s u a l l y of the same sex and had s i m i l a r r a nks i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e numayms. These p o s i t i o n s were i n h e r i t e d , but i n d i f f e r e n t ways. The whole s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the K w a k i u t l changed from k i n s h i p groups t o s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s a t the time of the w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l s . No p r i e s t h o o d d i r e c t e d r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s ; however, c e r t a i n meetings w i t h s p i r i t s l e d t o power as a shaman or "medicine man". R i t u a l s r e f l e c t e d the deep r e v e r e n c e f o r the i n t e r t w i n i n g of the n a t u r a l and s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l m s , and r e s p e c t f o r the p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l was shown by e v e r y rank i n s o c i e t y . The major i n s t i t u t i o n f o r assuming, m a i n t a i n i n g , and i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l s t a t u s was the p o t l a t c h , which was a complex ceremony i n v o l v i n g f e a s t i n g , s i n g i n g , d a n c i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n of g i f t s . P o t l a t c h e s were o c c a s i o n s f o r w i t n e s s i n g the i n h e r i t a n c e o f , and v a l i d a t e d c l a i m s t o , c e r t a i n ranks and t h e i r accompanying p r i v i l e g e s and p r o p e r t y , as w e l l as a time t o s e t t l e l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l d i s p u t e s between d i f f e r e n t numayms and t r i b e s (Speck, 1987) . The abundance of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s meant t h a t economic p u r s u i t s d i d not r e q u i r e a l l of the p e o p l e ' s time and energy, e n a b l i n g them t o d e v e l o p a complex s o c i a l and c e r e m o n i a l l i f e . I r o n i c a l l y , upon t h e i r a r r i v a l on the n o r t h w e s t c o a s t of N o r t h A m e r i c a , i t 21 was t h e s e r i c h e s t h a t f i r s t impressed the Europeans, r e s u l t i n g i n c o n t a c t t h a t would a f f e c t K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y f o r e v e r . Part Two: In c r e a s i n g I n t e r a c t i o n with Europeans The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s of K w a k i u t l l i f e were made when C a p t a i n George Vancouver e x p l o r e d t h e i r t e r r i t o r y i n 1792. An e s t i m a t e d 10,700 K w a k i u t l i n h a b i t e d the r e g i o n a t t h i s time ( D u f f , 1964). C o n t a c t w i t h w h i t e s was minimal b e f o r e 1849, a t which time the Hudson's Bay Company e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a d i n g p o s t a t F o r t Rupert ( F i s h e r , 1977). A f i s h s a l t r y was b u i l t i n the ar e a i n 1870 by o t h e r s e t t l e r s (Speck, 1987). T r a d i n g w i t h w h i t e s brought i n c r e a s e d m a t e r i a l w e a l t h , which i n c r e a s e d the s i z e of the p o t l a t c h and changed i t s f u n c t i o n t o some degree ( S p r a d l e y , 1969) . A l t h o u g h n a t i v e p e o p l e c o n t i n u e d t o dominate the r e g i o n i n terms of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n u n t i l the mi d d l e of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , they were l o s i n g c o n t r o l of t h e i r l a n d s and l i v e s as the fr e q u e n c y and i n t e n s i t y of c o n t a c t w i t h w h i t e s i n c r e a s e d ( K i r k , 1986). W i t h the t r a n s i t i o n from the f u r t r a d e and the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t , the I n d i a n ' s r o l e had been reduced from i n t e g r a l t o p e r i p h e r a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia's economy. In comparison w i t h o t h e r p a r t s of the c o n t i n e n t , few I n d i a n s i n t h i s r e g i o n were k i l l e d i n b a t t l e s w i t h n o n - n a t i v e s . The I n d i a n s ' own i n t e r t r i b a l wars were q u i t e another m a t t e r ; the i n t r o d u c t i o n 22 of f i r e a r m s r e s u l t e d i n h i g h m o r t a l i t y r a t e s w i t h o u t abatement i n t o the 1860s. I n d i a n s were more l i k e l y t o d i e from European d i s e a s e s . E p i d e m i c s of s m a l l p o x , m e a s les, i n f l u e n z a , t u b e r c u l o s i s , and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e , and the e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l r e s u l t e d i n a p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e t o l e s s than t h r e e thousand by 1880 ( D u f f , 1964). T h i s l e d t o c o n f u s i o n i n i n h e r i t a n c e p a t t e r n s , and c o m p e t i t i o n f o r many h i g h - r a n k i n g p o s i t i o n s l e f t v a c a n t , t o say n o t h i n g about the d e v a s t a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s on those l e f t b e h i n d . Whole v i l l a g e s were o f t e n wiped o u t , f o r c i n g the r e l o c a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s e v e r a l bands w i t h i n t h e remote r e g i o n . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , I n d i a n s o c i e t y f e l l i n t o s o c i a l and economic d i s o r d e r (Fagan, 1984). To some e x t e n t i t was a s o c i e t y of broken s o u l s and minds t h a t m i s s i o n a r i e s and government o f f i c i a l s s e t about r e s h a p i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g a f t e r the 1880s ( K i r k , 1986). O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic P r o d u c t i o n Advances i n t e c h n o l o g y g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d the economy of the r e g i o n over the y e a r s . U n t i l the l a t e 1920s, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l salmon f i s h i n g was done by g i l l - n e t t i n g , u s i n g c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e methods. Under the s e c o n d i t i o n s , I n d i a n s were r e l a t i v e l y c o m p e t i t i v e i n the market ( K n i g h t , 1978). Without r e f r i g e r a t i o n , the c a n n e r i e s s c a t t e r e d a l o n g the i s o l a t e d f j o r d s were dependent on the women and o l d e r c h i l d r e n f o r c a n n i n g , net-mending and o t h e r p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s , as w h i t e l a b o u r was i n s h o r t s u p p l y . 23 The c a n n e r i e s ' need f o r f a m i l y l a b o u r gave I n d i a n f i s h e r m e n a b a r g a i n i n g power o f t e n out of p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r s k i l l and e f f i c i e n c y (Hawthorn et a l . , 1958). D u r i n g the l a t e 1920s and 1930s, the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y e x p e r i e n c e d a number of d r a s t i c changes. I t was among the h a r d e s t h i t i n d u s t r i e s i n the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n . At the same t i m e , g a s o l i n e - p o w e r e d boats d i s p l a c e d boats p r o p e l l e d by oar and s a i l . Few I n d i a n s c o u l d r a i s e the c a p i t a l needed t o purchase mechanized commercial b o a t s ; the m a j o r i t y worked under c o n t r a c t on cannery-owned b o a t s ( K n i g h t , 1978). (Under s e c t i o n 89 of the I n d i a n A c t , I n d i a n s are e x c l u d e d from t a x e s , l i e n s , mortgages or o t h e r c harges on t h e i r l a n d s and from l o s s of p o s s e s s i o n s t h r o u g h d e b t , making i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o r a i s e o u t s i d e investment c a p i t a l ) . W i t h i n the r e g i o n , I n d i a n s f a c e d s t i f f c o m p e t i t i o n from r e c e n t Japanese immigrants i n the i n d u s t r y . F u r t h e r m o r e , as the c a n n e r i e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y mechanized, the need f o r I n d i a n l a b o u r d e c l i n e d . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number of I n d i a n s were permanently d i s p l a c e d from the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , a l t h o u g h everyone c o n t i n u e d t o f i s h , as w e l l as hunt, as p a r t of s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . I n d i a n s made unprecedented g a i n s i n numbers, per c a p i t a income, and s t a t u s i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y d u r i n g World War. Two and the immediate post-war y e a r s . S h o r t a g e s i n l a b o u r and equipment d u r i n g wartime, Japanese i n t e r n m e n t , c o u p l e d w i t h v i r t u a l l y 24 u n l i m i t e d demand and h i g h p r i c e s , g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d the f a m i l y ' s income. More boats became I n d i a n owned and o p e r a t e d ( K n i g h t , 1978). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s s i t u a t i o n d i d not l a s t . C o n t i n u e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l change r e q u i r i n g c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e i n v e s t m e n t s and c o n s o l i d a t i o n f u r t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e d the I n d i a n i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . R a c i s t a t t i t u d e s of cannery o f f i c a l s towards n a t i v e s d i d not improve the s i t u a t i o n (Hawthorn et a l . , 1958). A l t h o u g h f o r e s t r y g a i n e d i n c r e a s i n g importance i n the economy of the c o a s t , I n d i a n s p l a y e d a r e l a t i v e l y minor r o l e i n the i n d u s t r y , o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y w o r k i ng as c a s u a l l a b o u r e r s . The s e a s o n a l peak i n l o g g i n g c o i n c i d e d w i t h the salmon f i s h i n g and c a n n i n g season, and the m a j o r i t y of I n d i a n s p r e f e r r e d the type of employment a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l a t t e r . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the P h y s i c a l Environment As the number of w h i t e s e t t l e r s i n the r e g i o n i n c r e a s e d , n a t i v e s were f o r c e d t o f i t i n t o new p a t t e r n s and even compete f o r t r a d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s and r i g h t s . I t seemed t h a t t h e r e was n o t h i n g the I n d i a n c o u l d do (Fagan, 1984). In 1860 l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r I n d i a n a f f a i r s was t r a n s f e r r e d from the I m p e r i a l government t o the P r o v i n c e of Canada. In 1867 the B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t ( s e c t i o n 91, s u b s e c t i o n 24) gave the new f e d e r a l government the a u t h o r i t y t o l e g i s l a t e on m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o " I n d i a n s and Lands Reserved f o r I n d i a n s " . The p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia e n t e r e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871. 25 However, u n l i k e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s which had made t r e a t i e s w i t h I n d i a n t r i b e s under a R o y a l P r o c l a m a t i o n i n 1763 as the c o u n t r y was opened up f o r s e t t l e m e n t , the I n d i a n p o l i c i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia d i f f e r e d from those of the r e s t of Canada on m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g l a n d . The p r o v i n c e d e n i e d the e x i s t e n c e of any n a t i v e t i t l e , and d i s a g r e e d w i t h a f e d e r a l recommendation t h a t 80 a c r e s of l a n d was t o be a l l o t t e d per I n d i a n f a m i l y of f i v e ; i n s t e a d , 20 a c r e s was d e t e r m i n e d s u f f i c i e n t , i n comparison t o an a l l o t t m e n t of 320 a c r e s per person a l l o w e d f o r w h i t e s e t t l e r s . I n d i a n s were p e r c e i v e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s t o be a f i s h i n g p e o p l e not dependent on a l a n d base ( K i r k , 1986); i n f a c t , l a n d p l a y e d such an i n t e g r a l p a r t i n K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y t h a t t o t a k e t h e i r l a n d away was t o d e p r i v e them of t h e i r i d e n t i t y (Fagan, 1984). Concepts of l a n d t e n u r e d e r i v e d over 10,000 y e a r s were no l o n g e r v a l i d . In s p i t e of v a r i o u s government i n q u i r i e s and commissions e s t a b l i s h e d over the y e a r s , the i s s u e of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e and l a n d r i g h t s i s s t i l l c o n t e n t i o u s . Commercial and c a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were i n c r e a s i n g i n the r e g i o n d u r i n g the 1870s and 1880s, and I n d i a n s were concerned t h a t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g grounds would i n e v i t a b l y be e x p l o i t e d by w h i t e s ( F i s h e r , 1977). R e l a t i o n s w i t h Other Communities In 1876 a l l p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n s i n the e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c e s and t e r r i t o r i e s was c o n s o l i d a t e d and r e v i s e d 26 as the I n d i a n Act ( M i l l e r et a l . , 1978), w i t h an I n d i a n Agent i n each r e g i o n a c t i n g as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Crown. Any t r a n s a c t i o n between an I n d i a n and a n o n - n a t i v e r e q u i r e d the a p p r o v a l of the Agent. He had an e x t r a o r d i n a r y range of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers t h a t a l l o w e d him t o a l s o become an i n s t r u m e n t of s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n I n d i a n s o c i e t y . As both a m a g i s t r a t e and a d m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e r e was l i t t l e chance of a p p e a l from an I n d i a n Agent's d e c i s i o n . In the e a r l y 1880s, the I n d i a n custom t h a t Agents as w e l l as m i s s i o n a r i e s were most a n x i o u s t o e r a d i c a t e was the p o t l a t c h . The m a j o r i t y of government and r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s thought t h a t i n comparison t o w h i t e c u l t u r e , i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e was i n f e r i o r and b a r b a r i c , and t h a t the p o t l a t c h was the most f o r m i d a b l e of o b s t a c l e s i n the way of the I n d i a n s becoming C h r i s t i a n and c i v i l i z e d ( F i s h e r , 1977). In- the f i r s t attempt t o l e g i s l a t e I n d i a n c u l t u r e out of e x i s t e n c e , an 1884 amendment t o the I n d i a n  A c t imposed two t o s i x months imprisonment f o r anyone p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p o t l a t c h . The p o t l a t c h was such an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e i r s o c i e t y t h a t t o e l i m i n a t e i t would almost be t o d e s t r o y t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n c u l t u r e ( F i s h e r , 1977). R e c o g n i z i n g t h i s , many I n d i a n s began t o p r o t e s t v i g o r o u s l y , w h i l e o t h e r s q u i e t l y c o n t i n u e d t o p o t l a t c h . i n d e f i a n c e of the law. Renewed enforcement of the law a g a i n s t n a t i v e c e r e m o n i a l s was f e l t i n 1921. Ce r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a were s e i z e d , and s o l d t o museums and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s . Those who were caught p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n 27 p o t l a t c h e s were sentenced t o j a i l terms: the g r e a t c h i e f t a i n s of the K w a k i u t l were degraded t o f e e d i n g the p i g s i n O a k a l l a p r i s o n (Sewid-Smith, 1977). Under a 1927 amendment t o the I n d i a n A c t , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z i n g was p r o h i b i t e d ( M i l l e r et a l . , 1978), thus f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g any o p p o s i t i o n t o the government's a c t i o n s . I t wasn't u n t i l 1951 t h a t p o t l a t c h i n g was removed as an o f f e n s e i n the l e g i s l a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development and B e h a v i o u r P a t t e r n s There were s u b t l e r a t t e m p t s t o change the v a l u e s of the I n d i a n . Government r e l e g a t e d a l l s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o the m i s s i o n s , which promulgated a c o m p l e t e l y f o r e i g n c u l t u r e . No attempt was made t o u n d e r s t a n d I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s or c u l t u r a l v a l u e s ( C a r d i n a l , 1969). Emphasis was p l a c e d on the replacement of the numayms w i t h the n u c l e a r f a m i l y - - i n d e e d , the t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y was even outlawed ( K i r k , 1986). Modern, s i n g l e f a m i l y houses r e p l a c e d the o l d communal d w e l l i n g s . K i n s f o l k l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s c o n t i n u e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s t o each o t h e r , but g r a d u a l l y exchanges among k i n l i v i n g i n the same community became more i m p o r t a n t . In the o l d days the band e l d e r s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p a r e n t s , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d u c a t i o n and v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n . However, government o f f i c i a l s d e c i d e d a f o r m a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l system t h a t taught C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s was needed t o advance I n d i a n s o c i e t y ; i n the e a r l y y e a r s e d u c a t i o n was viewed, 28 as i t s t i l l i s , as an e s s e n t i a l t o o l of a s s i m i l a t i o n ( P o n t i n g , 1980; Hawthorn e t a l . , 1958). The government was happy t o have the I n d i a n s d o m e s t i c a t e d w i t h o u t the e x p e n d i t u r e n e c e s s a r y t o handle the j o b i t s e l f ; the c h u r c h was a s s u r e d of a dominant r o l e i n the f o r m a t i o n of government p o l i c y ( C a r d i n a l , 1969). T h i s a l l i a n c e of con v e n i e n c e was t o l a s t u n t i l the e a r l y 1950s. The f i r s t s c h o o l s c r e a t e d by the m i s s i o n a r i e s were r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s , a system t h a t a l l o w e d p a r e n t s t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r nomadic l i f e s t y l e s w h i l e c h i l d r e n boarded a t s c h o o l , sometimes the year round. The v i r t u e s of a f a r m i n g c u l t u r e , the d i s c i p l i n e of manual l a b o u r , s t r i c t adherence t o r e g u l a r h o u r s , r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n and the e x c l u s i v e use of the E n g l i s h language were emphasized. C h i l d r e n were p u n i s h e d f o r s p e a k i n g t h e i r n a t i v e language ( p e r s . com. Wasden, 1988). In most c a s e s , c h i l d r e n as young as f i v e or s i x were taken from t h e i r p a r e n t s and p l a c e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s u n t i l they were f i f t e e n , spending o n l y C h r i s t m a s and summer h o l i d a y s w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s on the r e s e r v e . R e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s s e r v e d t o a l i e n a t e the c h i l d from h i s own way of l i f e and r e l i g i o n w i t h o u t i n any way p r e p a r i n g him f o r a d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t y ( C a r d i n a l , 1969). As a r e s u l t of the i n c r e a s e d s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of Canadian s o c i e t y , the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of the c h u r c h i n I n d i a n a f f a i r s faded out i n the l a t e 1950s. By t h i s t i m e , a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l f o r c h i l d r e n was compulsory a c r o s s Canada. The d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l 29 system f o r I n d i a n s was abandoned. I n s t e a d , the f e d e r a l government e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s on most of the r e s e r v e s , making i t n e c e s s a r y f o r a t l e a s t one member of the f a m i l y t o remain s e d e n t a r y d u r i n g the academic y e a r , w h i l e the r e s t of the f a m i l y f i s h e d . Due t o the i s o l a t i o n and l a c k of a m e n i t i e s , many t e a c h e r s were r e l u c t a n t to a c c e p t p o s t i n g s i n the more remote communities; c o n s e q u e n t l y , the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n was o f t e n poor ( C a r d i n a l . , 1969). The methods used t o govern the people a l s o changed a f t e r c o n t a c t w i t h Europeans. A l t h o u g h the I n d i a n Agent u s u a l l y worked w i t h the h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f of the v i l l a g e when d i s c u s s i n g b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s , i n a few c a s e s a n o t h e r man was chosen, s h o u l d the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g p o s i t i o n be h e l d by a woman, by an i n d i v i d u a l who c o u l d not speak E n g l i s h , or i f the c h i e f was c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i f f i c u l t t o get a l o n g w i t h by the I n d i a n Agent ( S e d l e y , 1969). G e n e r a l band meetings were h e l d f o r o t h e r i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s , such as the l e a s i n g of t i m b e r r i g h t s . An amendment t o the I n d i a n Act i n the e a r l y 1950s a l l o w e d a band t o have an e l e c t e d c o u n c i l i n s t e a d of a h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f t o r e p r e s e n t them i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s was viewed as more d e m o c r a t i c by f e d e r a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ; i t a l s o e l i m i n a t e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o b t a i n i n g quorum at v i l l a g e m eetings. D i f f e r e n t K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e s g r a d u a l l y adopted t h i s method of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In l e s s than one hundred y e a r s , the advent of w h i t e s e t t l e r s had a l t e r e d the f a c e of K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y almost beyond 30 r e c o g n i t i o n . The i n t e n s i t y and magnitude of change d i f f e r e d between g e n e r a t i o n s as w e l l as amongst the bands, w i t h v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d i n remote l o c a t i o n s b e i n g l e s s a f f e c t e d than I n d i a n communities d w e l l i n g i n c l o s e r p r o x i m i t y t o w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t s . In the next s e c t i o n , the o u t l i n e s of community socioeconomic s t r u c t u r e i n the more i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s d u r i n g the 1960s i s p r e s e n t e d . Part Three: Kwakiutl S o c i e t y i n the 1960s In the f a c e of s u b t l e and d i r e c t p r e s s u r e by w h i t e s o c i e t y t o change, what was K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y l i k e i n remote v i l l a g e s such as New Vancouver d u r i n g the 1960s? Hawthorn e t a l . (1958) have s t a t e d t h a t no customary a c t i o n s , elements of b e l i e f or a t t i t u d e , knowledge or t e c h n i q u e s have been t r a n s m i t t e d from e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n s to the p e r i o d l e a d i n g up t o the 1960s w i t h o u t major a l t e r a t i o n . However, Rohner (1970) argues t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i r economic a c t i v i t i e s , r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s , s o c i a l or c e r e m o n i a l l i f e , t h e i r house s t y l e or the food they consumed was remar k a b l y s i m i l a r t o n o n - n a t i v e s i n the r e g i o n , the K w a k i u t l who l i v e d i n these i s o l a t e d communities were somehow d i s t i n c t from the g e n e r a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic P r o d u c t i o n The economic a c t i v i t y of r e s i d e n t s i n remote I n d i a n v i l l a g e s v a r i e d w i t h the season, and w i t h i n each househould. An o u t l i n e of 31 the s e a s o n a l economic and s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s appears i n F i g u r e 2. F i s h i n g , clam d i g g i n g , and l o g g i n g dominated the ca s h economy, but t h e r e were a l s o o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s such as s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . C e r t a i n commercial and s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s were c u s t o m a r i l y a s s i g n e d t o men, w h i l e the m a j o r i t y of domestic c h o r e s were a l l o t e d t o women. Two t y p e s of commercial f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s were common: g i l l n e t t i n g and purse s e i n i n g . Most I n d i a n s p r e f e r r e d t o own or a t l e a s t o p e r a t e t h e i r own g i l l - n e t t e r s r a t h e r than s i g n on as crew members of a s e i n e r , s i n c e t h i s a l l o w e d f o r g r e a t e r independence. Crew p o s i t i o n s on s e i n e boats were f i l l e d f i r s t by f a m i l y , then by f r i e n d s , - then by l o c a l v i l l a g e r s , and f i n a l l y by " o u t s i d e r s " from o t h e r v i l l a g e s or w h i t e s ( W o l c o t t , 1967). C o n t i n u e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances reduced the need f o r l a b o u r , w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g the need f o r the purchase of modern equipment t o remain c o m p e t i t i v e ; many I n d i a n owners l o s t t h e i r b o a t s and equipment as mortgages payments were not met. A p r o l o n g e d s t r i k e i n 1963 c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l o s s of boats and equipment. F i s h were s o l d t o one of the t h r e e f i s h - p a c k i n g companies based i n A l e r t Bay, which sent p a c k e r s around t o each v i l l a g e d a i l y ; the f i s h e r m e n were e x p e c t e d t o s e l l t h e i r f i s h o n l y t o the company f o r which they worked, s i n c e they were dependent on the company f o r c r e d i t and f o r a stea d y market. Because f i s h were p r o c e s s e d i n Vancouver, t h e r e were no l o n g e r employment 32 Sources N D J F M A M J J A S O (Length of A c t i v i t y by Month) Salmon F i s h i n g Clam Season T r o l l i n g G i l l N e t t i n g H a l i b u t F i s h i n g O o l i c h a n P r o c e s s i n g Seaweed C o l l e c t i n g Duck Season Deer Season T r a p p i n g Unemployment I n s u r a n c e F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e --FIGURE 2. KWAKIUTL SEASONAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES (EARLY 1960S) (Adapted from Rohner, 1967, page 29) 33 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l o c a l I n d i a n women i n the i n d u s t r y . D i g g i n g f o r clams was an o t h e r p r i m a r y s o u r c e of immediate c a s h . C o m p l a i n t s about the growing s c a r c i t y of the r e s o u r c e i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the 1960s, s i m i l a r t o g r i e v a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h commercial f i s h i n g . L o g g i n g p r o v i d e d s e a s o n a l work, a l t h o u g h t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements i n the s e c t o r reduced the need f o r l o c a l l a b o u r . Throughout the 1960s, f o r e s t s i n the r e g i o n were l o g g e d - o f f , and camps w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o communities were s h u t , f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g employment p o t e n t i a l f o r I n d i a n s . Most food s t a p l e s were p u r c h a s e d from s t o r e s , but s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l o c a l economy; any s u r p l u s was s o l d f o r c a s h . A l i m i t e d amount of t r a p p i n g f o r mink and o t t e r o c c u r r e d . The p r o d u c t i o n and s a l e of n a t i v e a r t work a l s o p r o v i d e d some income. For tho s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h b o a t s , h a u l i n g m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n the r e g i o n was an a d d i t i o n a l source of income. The t h r e e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s o u r c e s of income f o r many of the v i l l a g e r s were f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e , r e l i e f , and unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s ( W o l c o t t , 1967). A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e l i e f were made t o the I n d i a n Agent upon recommendation by the Band C o u n c i l ; f r e q u e n t l y t h e r e were c o m p l a i n t s about the f a i r n e s s of d i s t r i b u t i o n of w e l f a r e payments among the r e c i p i e n t s . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the P h y s i c a l Environment Government c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d 34 d u r i n g the 1960s had a d r a m a t i c impact on f i s h i n g i n the r e g i o n . As equipment became more e f f i c i e n t , s t r i c t e r l i m i t a t i o n s where one c o u l d f i s h c o m m e r c i a l l y were imposed. O f f s h o r e f i s h i n g by Japanese and R u s s i a n f l e e t s as w e l l as an i n c r e a s e i n Canadian s p o r t f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s were c i t e d as reasons f o r d e p l e t e d s t o c k s . The D a v i s P l a n , a new l i c e n c i n g scheme i n t r o d u c e d d u r i n g the 1960s as a means t o e f f e c t i v e l y manage salmon s t o c k s and r a t i o n a l i z e the s t r u c t u r e of the i n d u s t r y , r e s u l t e d i n fewer boats i n the r e g i o n ( P e a r c e , 1982). ( T h i s , i n t u r n , had the e f f e c t of i s o l a t i n g the remote r e s e r v e s as employment d e c l i n e d and fewer boats t r a v e l l e d between the o u t l y i n g communities.) A l t h o u g h the D a v i s P l a n s e t a s i d e I n d i a n l i c e n c e s , n a t i v e s tended t o l e t them l a p s e ; once DIA bought up the l i c e n c e s , i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n t o get back i n t o the i n d u s t r y because they l a c k e d c a p i t a l . As I n d i a n s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o broader Canadian s o c i e t y , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p h y s i c a l environment i n terms of l i v i n g arrangements and l i f e s t y l e a l t e r e d . Demand i n c r e a s e d f o r a m e n i t i e s t h a t European Canadians took f o r g r a n t e d . The l e v e l of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e on the i s l a n d s v a r i e d , as d i d v i l l a g e s i z e . Each community c o n s i s t e d of a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n t o twenty s i n g l e - f a m i l y u n i t s , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of about one hundred t h a t f l u c t u a t e d s e a s o n a l l y . (People f r e q u e n t l y m i g r a t e d between v i l l a g e s f o r extended p e r i o d s of r e s i d e n c e . ) R e s i d e n t s p o o l e d t h e i r money t o g e t h e r t o purchase and m a i n t a i n 35 * s m a l l d i e s e l e l e c t r i c g e n e r a t o r s f o r power ( S e d l e y , 1969). Water was pumped from v i l l a g e w e l l s t o a l a r g e s t o r a g e t a n k , a l t h o u g h no dependable s u p p l y u s u a l l y e x i s t e d . None of the houses had in d o o r t o i l e t s . Houses were heated by s t o v e s , but r e f r i g e r a t o r s were n o n - e x i s t e n t ( W o l c o t t , 1967). There was no R.C.M.P. detachment l o c a t e d on any of the i s l a n d s . They were g e n e r a l l y not c a l l e d i n except f o r emergencies. In m e d i c a l emergencies, p a t i e n t s were taken by f l o a t p l a n e t o the h o s p i t a l i n A l e r t Bay. As of 1962, a one or two room schoolhouse was l o c a t e d i n each of the v i l l a g e s , o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n up t o the e i g h t h grade. O l d e r c h i l d r e n were sent t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n A l e r t Bay, w i t h v i s i t s home f o r the h o l i d a y s . Twenty t o f o r t y c h i l d r e n were g e n e r a l l y e n r o l l e d l o c a l l y . The s c h o o l s f o l l o w e d a c u r r i c u l u m s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f f e r r e d throughout the p r o v i n c e (Hawthorn e_t a l . , 1958). The h i r i n g of t e a c h e r s was through a p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . However, the I n d i a n Agent was s t i l l i n charge of the p h y s i c a l p l a n t a t each day s c h o o l . Teacher r e c r u i t m e n t f o r the v i l l a g e s c h o o l s was a c o n t i n u o u s problem, m o s t l y due t o i s o l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o W o l c o t t (1967), the q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n was lower i n t h e v i l l a g e s c h o o l s than t h a t of o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s . P a r e n t s were c r i t i c a l of the l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s and c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n i n the v i l l a g e s c h o o l s , a l t h o u g h they d i d not comment on the academic program. 36 Because of t h i s , most of the v i l l a g e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l i n A l e r t Bay w i t h i t s b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s was s u p e r i o r ( W o l c o t t , 1967). R e l a t i o n s w i t h Other Communities In some ways, th e s e v i l l a g e s were o n l y p a r t i a l communities, dependent upon and i n t r i c a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h s i m i l a r i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s , and w i t h n o n - n a t i v e communities. For most shopping and b u s i n e s s p u r p o s e s , and f o r most s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , v i l l a g e r s t r a v e l l e d t o A l e r t Bay, which s e r v e d as a major l i n k w i t h the r e s t of Canadian s o c i e t y . Under s e c t i o n 73-78 of the I n d i a n A c t , f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e communities was v e s t e d i n Band C o u n c i l s . E l e c t i o n s f o r a two-year term of o f f i c e were a d m i n i s t e r e d by the I n d i a n Agent. The C o u n c i l s were a c c o r d e d a u t h o r i t a t i v e r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s t o l o o k a f t e r m a t t e r s t h a t a f f e c t e d the w e l l b e i n g of band members ( M i l l e r e t a l . , 1978), i n c l u d i n g the a l l o t t m e n t of l a n d , i s s u e s d e a l i n g w i t h band membership, and making recommendations f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or employment i n band p r o j e c t s . However, d e c i s i o n s were s u b j e c t t o f i n a l a p p r o v a l by the I n d i a n Agent. C o u n c i l l o r s were a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n o r g a n i z i n g committees d e a l i n g w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l / w e l f a r e or h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n i s s u e s . The o n l y fund o p e r a t e d o f f i c i a l l y by the Band C o u n c i l was the band t r u s t a c c o u n t , c a p i t a l and revenue s e c t i o n s ; c o u n c i l l o r s had no c o n t r o l over the 37 a c t u a l day-by-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the band's budget, which was r e g u l a t e d by the I n d i a n Agent. Because the I n d i a n Agent was r e q u i r e d t o r e c o r d C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the agency was g e n e r a l l y p r e s e n t a t a l l Band C o u n c i l m e e t ings. R a r e l y d i d the Band C o u n c i l i n i t i a t e a d i s c u s s i o n i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a c t i o n or f a c i l i t i e s from the I n d i a n Agent, s i n c e many of the c o u n c i l l o r s were s e l f -c o n s c i o u s or u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the e x t e n t of t h e i r powers on c o u n c i l (Hawthorn e t a l . , 1958). Thus, community p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s on remote r e s e r v e s i n the 1960s were almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n s t i t u t e d by government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The s t r u c t u r e and n a t u r e of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y "top-down": l o c a l response t o a p r o p o s a l put f o r w a r d by the I n d i a n Agent was taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n from a Band C o u n c i l , and the p l a n was perhaps m o d i f i e d t o r e f l e c t the community's i n p u t . From t h i s p o i n t f o r w a r d , however, d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the w e l f a r e of the community were implemented s o l e l y a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the I n d i a n Agent, w i t h no e f f o r t made t o modify or m o n i t o r f u t u r e e v e n t s once a d e c i s i o n had been t a k e n . I s s u e s o u t s i d e the j u r i s d i c t i o n of Band C o u n c i l s which may have a f f e c t e d the v i t a l i t y of the community, such as the c o n t i n u a n c e of the day s c h o o l , was the e x c l u s i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . V i l l a g e r s f r e q u e n t l y v o i c e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c o u n c i l system, c l a i m i n g i n t e r f e r e n c e ; or they became angry when demands 38 based on f a m i l y t i e s went u n f u l f i l l e d (Rohner, 1967; S e d l e y , 1969; W o l c o t t , 1967). N e i t h e r the v i l l a g e r s nor the c o u n c i l l o r s had a c l e a r image of a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r f o r a system t h a t was l a r g e l y i n t r o d u c e d by n o n - n a t i v e s (Hawthorn e t a l . , 1958). C o u n c i l l o r s g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e t r a i n i n g or i n s t r u c t i o n from DIA r e g a r d i n g the c o u n c i l system. The e x t e n t t o which the Band C o u n c i l system a c t e d as a v e h i c l e f o r i n c r e a s e d I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on r e s e r v e s d u r i n g the 1960s i s thus q u e s t i o n a b l e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development and Beh a v i o u r P a t t e r n s C l o s e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d between v i l l a g e s , a l t h o u g h the v i l l a g e remained as the p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e group f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . S o c i a l c o n t r o l of the i n d i v i d u a l was governed l a r g e l y by the r e c o g n i t i o n or w i t h d r a w a l of acceptanace by the m a j o r i t y of v i l l a g e r s (Rohner, 1970). W i t h i n the group, c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s were r e c o g n i z e d f o r t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p , and an i n f o r m a l r a n k i n g of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t a t u s w i t h i n the community e v o l v e d . S o c i a l o c c a s i o n s i n c l u d e d s p o r t i n g e v e n t s , f o r m a l band a c t i v i t i e s , d r i n k i n g , r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and f o r m a l s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s which were c o n s i d e r e d by some as the contemporary form of the t r a d i t i o n a l p o t l a t c h ( W o l c o t t , 1967). A l t h o u g h the p r a c t i c e of g i v i n g away g i f t s had undergone c o n s i d e r a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n , i t was s t i l l an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of t h e s e o c c a s i o n s . Many of the I n d i a n s i n the r e g i o n had adopted the A n g l i c a n or 39 P e n t e c o s t a l f a i t h . For some, c h u r c h s e r v i c e s were s i m p l y s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s (Rohner, 1970). The v i l l a g e s were i n f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t e d by c l e r g y , and no permanent c h u r c h e x i s t e d on any of the i s l a n d s . D r i n k i n g was the most p o p u l a r and f r e q u e n t p a s t - t i m e of both sexes (Rohner, 1970). I n e v i t a b l y , s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r was a f f e c t e d as a r e s u l t of the r e d u c t i o n of i n h i b i t o r y mechanisms. F i g h t s r a r e l y o c c u r e d between v i l l a g e r s u n l e s s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of d r i n k i n g . Rohner (1970) s u g g e s t s t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods and s e r v i c e s i n K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e s d u r i n g the e a r l y 1960s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s : the s u b s i s t i n g - o r i e n t e d c l a s s , which comprised the m a j o r i t y ; and the f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d c l a s s , which was c o n s p i c u o u s l y more a c c u l t u r a t e d , and o f t e n i n a p o s i t i o n of f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y . Those i n d i v i d u a l s i n the former c l a s s tended t o c o n c e n t r a t e on d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h l i t t l e thought g i v e n t o l o n g range p l a n n i n g . S u r p l u s m a t e r i a l w e a l t h was shared between members of the community. F a m i l i e s i n the f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d c l a s s d i d not i n v o l v e themselves i n these p a t t e r n s ; of n e c e s s i t y , t o r e a c h t h i s p o s i t i o n , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r f a m i l i e s was r e s t r i c t e d . These f a m i l i e s had the most m a t e r i a l w e a l t h , and tended t o p l a n f o r the f u t u r e , which o f t e n i n c l u d e d s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a v i n g the v i l l a g e . 40 PART FOUR: FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO RELOCATION OF COMMUNITIES Except f o r n a t u r a l d i a s t e r s , t h e l i f e c y c l e of K w a k i u t l s i n remote communities over the g e n e r a t i o n s had been r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , i n f l u e n c e d of c o u r s e by a d a p t a t i o n s t o w h i t e s o c i e t y . By the l a t e 1960s, however, p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n some v i l l a g e s plummeted from over one hundred i n h a b i t a n t s t o one or two i n d i v i d u a l s (DIAND, 1972). For some of the i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s , the l o s s of i n h a b i t a n t s was g r a d u a l , spanning twenty y e a r s ; o t h e r v i l l a g e s were d e s e r t e d almost o v e r n i g h t . These communities ceased t o e x i s t f o r a v a r i e t y of economic and s o c i a l r e a s o n s . T h i s s e c t i o n examines f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e of v i l l a g e s i n the r e g i o n , w i t h emphasis p l a c e d on the d e c l i n e of New Vancouver, t r a d i t i o n a l homeland of the Tanakteuk. I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : i n i t i a l l y a p r o f i l e of r e g i o n a l e v e nts g e n e r a t e d from i n t e r v i e w s m o s t l y w i t h Tanakteuk Band members i s p r e s e n t e d ; i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h r e e DIA s t a f f c o mprise the second p a r t ; and documentation from DIA a r c h i v e s t h a t o f f e r s e x p l a n a t i o n s about the r e l o c a t i o n of communities i n the a r e a i s c o n t a i n e d i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n . K w a k i u t l O p i n i o n To a v o i d r e p e t i t i o n , r e c o l l e c t i o n s from i n t e r v i e w e e s of e v e n t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e of i s o l a t e d communities and the subsequent d i s p e r s a l of the p o p u l a t i o n has been c o m p i l e d i n t o a s i n g l e p r o f i l e . S i x members of the Tanakteuk Band, randomly 41 s e l e c t e d from the Band membership l i s t , were c o n t a c t e d and agreed to an i n t e r v i e w ; two Tsawataineuk Band members from the community of Kingcome I n l e t who have been a c t i v e i n r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c s and community development f o r over f i f t y y e a r s were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s i s l a r g e l y the Tanakteuk's s t o r y , a l t h o u g h i t i s ve r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the M a m e l e l e q a l a Qwe'Qwa'Sot'Enox' Band's d i s p e r s a l from V i l l a g e I s l a n d , as documented i n a r e p o r t by Geach (1987), a c o n s u l t a n t h i r e d by DIA t o i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y of the Mame l e l e q a l a r e - i n h a b i t i n g t h e i r community. From a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1945 onward, Mr. Murray Todd, the I n d i a n Agent, encouraged I n d i a n s i n the r e g i o n t o move t o the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l Reserve l o c a t e d a t A l e r t Bay. Land had been s e t a s i d e by the A n g l i c a n Church f o r any " p r o g r e s s i v e " B.C. I n d i a n who wanted t o t r a n s f e r t h e r e , p r o v i d i n g t h a t c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s were met: t o have been a p u p i l of the A n g l i c a n S c h o o l , t o have been m a r r i e d i n the c h u r c h , t o have no use f o r the p o t l a t c h , and t o t r y t o l i v e a c l e a n l i f e ( S e d l e y , 1969). In 1950, the I n d i a n Agent encouraged some of the r e s i d e n t s who had moved t o the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l Reserve t o amalgamate w i t h the Nim p k i s h Band on the b a s i s of promise s of a new s c h o o l , water system and roads ; 351 a c r e s of the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l Reserve were s e t a s i d e s t r i c t l y f o r use by the N i m p k i s h , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g 60 a c r e s were r e t a i n e d f o r the use of a l l Bands. S m a l l communities such as the one i n New Vancouver were p o o r l y 42 s e r v i c e d i n comparison t o o t h e r , more c e n t r a l i z e d v i l l a g e s ; a f t e r the i n i t i a l i n s t a l l a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s , no f u r t h e r improvements or a d d i t i o n s t o i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the communities o c c u r r e d as government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e x p r e s s e d the s e n t i m e n t t h a t i t had become too c o s t l y t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s and m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , and t o m a i n t a i n wharves and e l e c t r i c p l a n t s among s c a t t e r e d r e s e r v e s . However, because of the h i g h demand f o r p l o t s on the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l R e s e r v e , a w a i t i n g l i s t was e s t a b l i s h e d ; o n l y a few f a m i l i e s from o u t l y i n g v i l l a g e s c o u l d move t o A l e r t Bay each y e a r . Funding f o r the r e l o c a t i o n of houses was s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d , f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i n g the number of f a m i l i e s a b l e t o move, d e s p i t e a r e d u c t i o n of s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e i r own communities. For t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o A l e r t Bay, the m a j o r i t y of v i l l a g e r s were dependent upon an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the community who was w e a l t h y enough t o own a l a r g e r b o at. In most c a s e s , t h i s was the c h i e f of the Band, who o f t e n belonged t o the " f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d c l a s s " d e s c r i b e d by Rohner (1970), and was t y p i c a l l y among the f i r s t t o l e a v e the v i l l a g e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , when the c h i e f moved from the community, l i n k s w i t h s u p p l i e s and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s were s e v e r e d . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l heads of households l o s t t h e i r j o b s as s e i n e r s . when the c h i e f / b o a t owner r e l o c a t e d . Not everyone wanted t o l e a v e t h e i r i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e , b e i n g c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s enhanced by modern a m e n i t i e s . Y e t , as more and more p e o p l e f e l t f o r c e d i n t o l e a v i n g the communities t o o b t a i n b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s , 4 3 h o u s i n g and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the r e d u c t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s was f u r t h e r r e - i n f o r c e d and r a t i o n a l i z e d by the I n d i a n Agent. Caught i n a c y c l e of d e p o p u l a t i o n and r e d u c t i o n of s e r v i c e s , p e o p l e had fewer and fewer c h o i c e s about s t a y i n g i n remote communities. In New Vancouver, w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Band C o u n c i l , the d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e vacant the t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n f o r the academic year was taken by the r e g i o n a l ' s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s i n g the ele m e n t a r y s c h o o l as of August 31, 1969. P a r e n t s were t o l d by the t e a c h e r on b e h a l f of the I n d i a n Agent t h a t i t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o ensure t h a t c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l ; i f the c h i l d r e n were t r u a n t , they c o u l d be taken from t h e i r p a r e n t s and made wards of the Crown. Most of the p a r e n t s i n i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s such as New Vancouver d i d not want t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s , because of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n t h a t growing up s e p a r a t e d from f a m i l i e s i n c r e a s e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r c h i l d r e n t o "get i n t o t r o u b l e " . E d u c a t i o n i n the v i l l a g e s was p r o v i d e d up t o the s i x t h grade, a f t e r which c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l s i n l a r g e r c e n t e r s . F a m i l i e s w i t h most of t h e i r c h i l d r e n away from home became f r u s t r a t e d by the i n c o n v e n i e n c e of v i s i t i n g t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , a f a c t o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h v i l l a g e l i f e . At l e a s t i n New Vancouver, a t no time was any f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or s o c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g o f f e r e d by any government 44 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e g a r d i n g the r e l o c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s or the community as a whole. No compensation was o f f e r e d t o f a m i l i e s f o r p r o p e r t y l e f t b e h i n d , a l t h o u g h i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o r e n t or s e l l the d w e l l i n g s because of the w i t h d r a w a l of government s e r v i c e s . F a m i l i e s from remote v i l l a g e s c o n t i n u e d t o move t o A l e r t Bay. In 1971, the N o r t h I s l a n d D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l passed a r e s o l u t i o n which named a p o r t i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l s i t e W h e - l a - l a - u , e s t a b l i s h e d a management committee and agreed on a s u b d i v i s i o n p l a n f o r h o u s i n g members of bands p r e v i o u s l y l o c a t e d i n o u t l y i n g i s l a n d s . However, d u r i n g the 1970s and e a r l y 1980s b l o c k a d e s were s e t up by the Nimpkish t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r r e l o c a t i o n of homes from remote v i l l a g e s t o W h e - l a - l a - u , a s s e r t i n g t h a t the l a n d belonged s o l e l y t o the N i m p k i s h . In 1974, 40 a c r e s of Whe - l a - l a - u were a c q u i r e d by the N i m p k i s h and an a d d i t i o n a l 11 a c r e s were t u r n e d over t o them i n 1981. Members of Bands from remote" r e s e r v e s such as the Tanakteuk f e l t t h a t they were not welcome i n A l e r t Bay, y e t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s had f a l l e n i n t o such d i s r e p a i r so as t o no l o n g e r be h a b i t a b l e . The q u e s t i o n of ownership of the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l Reserve i s s t i l l i n d i s p u t e . O p i n i o n s of DIA P e r s o n n e l I n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h two DIA s t a f f c o n c e r n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a l p o l i c y and a c t i v i t i e s r e l e v a n t t o the d i s p e r s i o n of Bands from remote communities. E x c e r p t s from an i n t e r v i e w by Geach (1987) w i t h a t h i r d s t a f f member of DIA i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d . 45 A c c o r d i n g t o Bobby Joseph ( p e r s . com. 1988), an employee of the Campbell R i v e r D i s t r i c t O f f i c e d u r i n g the 1960s, t h e r e had always been a t a c i t p o l i c y w i t h i n DIA t o encourage Bands from remote r e s e r v e s t o r e l o c a t e t o more c e n t r a l and a c c e s s i b l e r e s e r v e s . O f f i c i a l l y , the reason g i v e n was t o p r o v i d e improved e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and h o u s i n g f o r I n d i a n s . Indeed, as I n d i a n p a r e n t s became aware of the b e n e f i t s of e d u c a t i o n and the importance of h e a l t h c a r e , they were a n x i o u s t o l i v e i n communities which p r o v i d e d t h e s e s e r v i c e s . The i m p l i c i t r a t i o n a l e w i t h i n DIA f o r the w i t h d r a w a l of government s e r v i c e s from these a r e a s , however, was " t o c i v i l i z e us, t o get r i d of I n d i a n s , t o make us w h i t e l i k e everyone e l s e so t h a t we wouldn't be any d i f f e r e n t " . A c c o r d i n g t o J o s e p h , the g o a l of t o t a l c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n u n d e r s c o r e d a l l DIA programs, a l t h o u g h t h i s was never documented i n an o f f i c a l p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e t o h i s knowledge. In a d d i t i o n , r e s e r v e s i n the r e g i o n were i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t e d , and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s d e c l i n e d as a r e s u l t of the D a v i s P l a n , the l i c e n c i n g scheme i n t r o d u c e d i n the f i s h i n g s e c t o r i n the 1960s. I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h o u t t h e i r own t r a n s p o r t t o s u r v i v e i n remote communities ( p e r s . com. J o s e p h , 1988) . In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Geach (1987), A l e x M c C o n n e l l , D i r e c t o r of C a p i t a l Programs of DIA, s t a t e d t h a t he was unaware of any e x p l i c i t d e p a r t m e n t a l p o l i c y t h a t encouraged the r e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n s from remote communities t o more c e n t r a l and a c c e s s i b l e 46 r e s e r v e s . However, he i n d i c a t e d t h a t l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the a r e a , an i n c r e a s i n g sense of i s o l a t i o n , and the growing a t t r a c t i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l Reserve as a s e t t l e m e n t were f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o Band members' d e c i s i o n s t o r e l o c a t e . A r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r of 16 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h DIA, A l a i n Cunningham, a l s o s t a t e d t h a t no e x p l i c i t p o l i c y t o encourage the r e l o c a t i o n of Bands from remote communities t o c e n t r a l i z e d r e s e r v e s e x i s t e d ( p e r s . com. 1988). H i s t o r i c a l I n d i c a t o r s Very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o the Band's d i s p e r s i o n from New Vancouver was found i n a r e view of DIA D i s t r i c t and R e g i o n a l F i l e s . S h k i l n y k (1985) s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r DIA p e r s o n n e l , the i s s u e of r e l o c a t i o n may not have been i m p o r t a n t enough t o warrant d o c u m e n t a t i o n . Two l e t t e r s do p r o v i d e some e v i d e n c e of DIA's r a t i o n a l e f o r r e l o c a t i o n of v a r i o u s bands. These l e t t e r s were w r i t t e n by A.E. F r y , D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r f o r the N o r t h I s l a n d D i s t r i c t , and a d d r e s s e d t o the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r . A r e l e v a n t e x c e r p t from one l e t t e r (DIAND, 1971) i s p r e s e n t e d below: "Reviewing b r i e f l y the reasons f o r the r e l o c a t i o n they a r e : 1) Changes i n the economic p a t t e r n and the consequent change i n the p a t t e r n of e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s i n the N o r t h I s l a n d a r e a have d e p r i v e d f o u r v i l l a g e s i n the mouth of the K n i g h t ' s I n l e t t o the e a s t of A l e r t Bay of employment, s c h o o l s , c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s t o s t o r e s and o t h e r normal s e r v i c e s and any dependable t r a n s p o r t a t i o n method t o e s s e n t i a l m e d i c a l s e r v i c e . 47 2) Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i l l o g i c a l f o r t h e s e Bands t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Department's programs f o r I n d i a n people i n t h e i r own v i l l a g e s on t h e i r own r e s e r v e s . T h e i r e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g i s inadequate and s e r v i c e s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . Many peopl e no l o n g e r have any p l a c e t o s t a y and a r e s c a t t e r e d about the a r e a i n the most u n c e r t a i n of l i v i n g arrangements. 3) A l e r t Bay i s the c e n t e r of the economic and s o c i a l l i f e of the a r e a . F i s h i n g employment i s based t h e r e , men h i r e out from t h e r e i n t o l o g g i n g , t h e r e i s some s e r v i c e employment i n the town i t s e l f and t h e r e a r e s c h o o l s , s t o r e s and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . F a m i l i e s l i v i n g t h e r e can, f o r example, send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o the p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l each day whereas from the no l o n g e r v i a b l e v i l l a g e s the c h i l d r e n have t o be sent t o an I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e s i d e n c e a t enormous s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l c o s t . 4) There i s l a n d i n A l e r t Bay s e t a s i d e f o r the use of a l l Bands i n common and the D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l has d i r e c t e d t h a t t h i s must be used f o r a h o u s i n g development f o r the b e n e f i t of t h e s e p e o p l e whose own v i l l a g e s are no l o n g e r a p o s s i b l e p l a c e t o l i v e . " In a n o t her l e t t e r from F r y t o the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r , o f f -r e s e r v e h o u s i n g i s r e c o g n i z e d as an i n a p p r o p r i a t e s o l u t i o n t o the problem of r e l o c a t i o n f o r some I n d i a n s , s i n c e some " c o n t i n u e t o r e q u i r e a r e s e r v e as a p h y s i c a l base f o r t h e i r l i f e s t y l e " (DIAND, 1969). L i k e the Tanakteuk, the Quawshelah people ( T s u l q u a t e Band) of Smith I n l e t a l s o i n h a b i t e d a remote r e s e r v e i n the r e g i o n , and had s i m i l a r s o c i a l and economic problems. In 1964, t h i s community was r e l o c a t e d t o a l o c a t i o n j u s t n o r t h of P o r t Hardy, B.C. The f o l l o w i n g reasons f o r r e l o c a t i o n were g i v e n by DIA: poor h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; remoteness from s u p p l i e s ; no water s u p p l y ; no e x i s t i n g water d i s t r i b u t i o n ; no s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s ; no 48 e l e c t r i c i t y . In 1962, the Quawshelah peop l e had v o t e d unanimously t o r e l o c a t e . I t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t p r i o r t o the v o t i n g the r e s i d e n t s were in f o r m e d by government agents t h a t i f they remained i n Smith's I n l e t they would r e c e i v e no h e l p a t a l l from the Department (Geach, 1987). The p o s i t i o n of DIA r e g a r d i n g a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e t o Tanakteuk Band members may be s i m i l a r . A f e d e r a l program was d e s i g n e d i n 1965 t o o f f e r I n d i a n s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and s o c i a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s i n r e l o c a t i o n t o employment c e n t e r s . However, t h e r e were no c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h i s program, nor were a d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s program l o c a t e d i n D i s t r i c t f i l e s . A.C. Roach, the K w a k i u t l I n d i a n Agent i n 1965, s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r t o the R e g i o n a l Manager t h a t , "No o r g a n i z e d p l a n f o r r e l o c a t i o n has been i n s t i t u t e d i n t h i s Agency under the program of r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e " ( C a n a d a , 1965). SUMMARY In t h i s c h a p t e r , a h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s of K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y from pre-European c o n t a c t u n t i l the 1960s was p r e s e n t e d , u s i n g the c a t e g o r i e s of community socioeconomic s t r u c t u r e suggested by Weaver and Cunningham (1984). Key ev e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the d e p o p u l a t i o n of some of the s e v i l l a g e s i n f a v o u r of s e t t l e m e n t i n more a c c e s s i b l e , c e n t r a l i z e d communities was d i s c u s s e d . Almost e x c l u s i v e l y and w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n , changes i n modes 49 of economic p r o d u c t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s have been f o r c i b l y or i n d i r e c t l y imposed on I n d i a n s o c i e t y by the n o n - n a t i v e m a j o r i t y who h o l d p o l i t i c a l and economic power. W h i l e I n d i a n s have b e n e f i t t e d from the a d o p t i o n of c e n t r a l i z e d s e r v i c e s and a m e n i t i e s , damage t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o l l e c t i v e may be i r r e p a r a b l e . Through u n d e r s t a n d i n g the h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of a p e o p l e ' s p r o d u c t i v e economic a c t i v i t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , a r e a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n of contemporary s o c i e t y can be made. C l e a r l y K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e were as devel o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s as was European s o c i e t y . 50 Whether t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s were t o p r o v i d e us w i t h s e r v i c e s or t o a s s i m i l a t e us, i t doesn't m a t t e r . The r e s u l t s were the same: they took away our s o u l . Bobby Joseph. May, 1988 CHAPTER THREE: THE EVOLUTION OF GROWTH POLE DOCTRINE, ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CANADIAN PLANNING INITIATIVES IN THE 1960S, AND ITS IMPACT ON DIA POLICIES AND PROGRAMS Over the p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s , r e g i o n a l and development p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s of the Canadian and American governments have aimed t o reduce unemployment, a c c e l e r a t e economic growth, e l i m i n a t e r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s , m i t i g a t e p o v e r t y and promote s o c i a l j u s t i c e and n a t i o n a l u n i t y . The purposes of t h i s c h a p t e r a r e : 1) t o examine the c o n c e p t s on which n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l development and p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s were based d u r i n g the 1950s and 1960s, and determine the i n f l u e n c e t h a t programs emerging out of these c o n c e p t s had on p l a n n i n g f o r remote I n d i a n communities, such as New Vancouver; and 2) t o examine how the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s ' o rthodox approach t o development, i n which the a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y was emphasized as p a r t of the p r o c e s s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n , a f f e c t e d I n d i a n s such as members of t h e Tanakteuk Band. The concept of growth c e n t e r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e from a f t e r World War Two u n t i l the e a r l y 1970s (Weaver, 1978; Hansen, 1974). The works of I s a r d , Friedmann, Perroux and o t h e r s proposed t h a t the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y and s e r v i c e s i n urban c e n t e r s would r e s u l t i n the s t i m u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l economic growth and development, w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g c o s t s a t t r i b u t e d t o economies of s c a l e not p o s s i b l e w i t h s c a t t e r e d , s m a l l communities. D u r i n g the 52 1960s, government i n i t i a t i v e s based i n p o l a r i z e d development t h e o r y were implemented throughout a l l r e g i o n s of Canada, i n c l u d i n g a r e a s w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of I n d i a n c ommunities. I t wasn't u n t i l the works of Frank, S u n k e l and C o r a g g i o emerged out of a growing disenchantment w i t h the c o n c e p t s of p o l a r i z e d development i n the l a t e 1960s t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s t o development were s u g g e s t e d : the "underdevelopment" and c o n t i n u e d dependency of T h i r d World n a t i o n s r e s u l t e d from s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s r a t h e r than unequal development. The s i t u a t i o n of the N o r t h American I n d i a n was a n a l y z e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t , based on a c c u s a t i o n s of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m f u e l e d by n o n - n a t i v e s ' p a t e r n a l i s m and greed f o r l a n d . Much of the l i t e r a t u r e on the development of Canadian I n d i a n p o l i c y emphasizes t h a t government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n I n d i a n a f f a i r s has been s o l e l y m o t i v a t e d by p a t e r n a l i s m or r a c i s m ( C a r d i n a l , 1969; Manuel & P o s l u n s , 1974; P o n t i n g , 1980; Weaver, 1981; G i b b i n s & P o n t i n g , 1986). By e l i m i n a t i n g c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s t h a t d e f i n e " I n d i a n n e s s " , a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y would supposedly improve the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g of n a t i v e s w h i l e e l i m i n a t i n g f u r t h e r government f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the group--an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r a government t h a t judged many of i t s programs s o l e l y upon the c r i t e r i a of economic e f f i c i e n c y (Matthews, 1977). Based on the o u t l o o k d e s c r i b e d above, the r e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n communities i n 53 the l a t e 1960s was j u s t i f i e d by i m p l i c i t b e l i e f s among government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s that the "development" of Indians r e q u i r e d t h e i r a s s i m i l a t i o n from a t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e i n t o modern, non-native s o c i e t y . But t h i s assumption i s too s i m p l i s t i c . Undoubtedly, the p o l i c i e s and programs of DIA have h i s t o r i c a l l y been motivated by r a c i s t and p a t e r n a l i s t i c d e s i r e s f o r c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n ; however, v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l events that i n f l u e n c e d the Canadian psyche d u r i n g the 1960s r e s u l t e d i n the p u b l i c ' s demand that Indians have access to the same standard of l i v i n g enjoyed by non-native Canadians. At the time, the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of communities as o u t l i n e d i n p o l a r i z e d development theory was accepted among government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g DIA, as the most e f f i c i e n t way of p r o v i d i n g access to s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l Canadians, i n c l u d i n g Indians. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s argued i n t h i s t h e s i s that the r e l o c a t i o n of Indian communities such as New Vancouver duri n g the l a t e 1960s r e s u l t e d from the implementation of widely accepted p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n combination with p o l i c i e s and programs whose o b j e c t i v e s were c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . Issues to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter a r e : the e v o l u t i o n of ideas about r e g i o n a l development and pla n n i n g ; t h e o r i e s about the p e r p e t r a t i o n of underdevelopment; i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m - - a p o r t i o n of the underdevelopment c r i t i q u e — a p p l i e d to the s i t u a t i o n of the North American Indian and members of the Tanakteuk; and the 54 p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c l i m a t e of Canada d u r i n g the 1960s which i n f l u e n c e d government i n i t i a t i v e s and programs. The development of DIA p o l i c y and programs and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r remote I n d i a n communities i n the 1960s a r e then d e s c r i b e d . The E v o l u t i o n of T h e o r i e s of R e g i o n a l Development & P l a n n i n g A l t h o u g h the l i n e a g e of r e g i o n a l development t h i n k i n g can be t r a c e d t o the works of P e t e r K r o p o t k i n and P a t r i c k Geddes a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , contemporary r e g i o n a l d o c t r i n e d a t e s back o n l y 30 y e a r s . I t was i n the decades f o l l o w i n g World War I I t h a t an e x p l i c i t c oncern f o r economic development was combined w i t h t h e o r i e s p u r p o r t i n g t o e x p l a i n the l o c a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s , g i v i n g b i r t h t o r e g i o n a l s c i e n c e and s p a t i a l development p l a n n i n g (Weaver, 1978). The main a r c h i t e c t s of t h i s s y n t h e s i s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s were Douglass N o r t h (1955), W a l t e r I s a r d (1956) and John Friedmann (1955); and i n Europe, F r a n c o i s P e r r o u x (1950, 1955). Out of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e emerged an i n t e r e s t i n growth p o l e t h e o r y and p o l a r i z e d development. N o r t h (1955) proposed t h a t r e g i o n a l economic growth o c c u r r e d i n response t o exogenous demand f o r r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o e x p o r t base t h e o r y , the c o n c e p t s of r e g i o n a l c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y and i n c r e a s i n g r e g i o n a l i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c y p o i n t e d t o a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s of f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l space economy. T h i r t y y e a r s l a t e r , i n c r e a s i n g the t e r r i t o r i a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o r , d e c r e a s i n g the f r i c t i o n of d i s t a n c e and augmenting the l e v e l of 55 i n t e r - r e g i o n a l t r a d e a r e s t i l l u s u a l l y . s a i d t o be the keys t o l o c a l economic growth and development (Weaver, 1978). I s a r d (1956) argued t h a t the c o s t of overcoming the f r i c t i o n of d i s t a n c e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d of e q u a l importance w i t h • o t h e r p r o d u c t i o n f a c t o r s of l a b o r , r e s o u r c e s and c a p i t a l ; market mechanisms would a r r a n g e economic a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r o p t i m a l , p r o f i t - m a x i m i z i n g l o c a t i o n s . Such an economy would be p r e d o m i n a n t l y u r b a n - c e n t e r e d , i m p l y i n g a h i g h degree of p o l a r i z a t i o n i n the l o c a t i o n of p e o p l e , r e s o u r c e s and c a p i t a l . In 1955 Friedmann suggested t h a t the p r i m a r y c o n c e r n of p l a n n e r s s h o u l d be t o o p t i m i z e the l o c a t i o n of economic a c t i v i t i e s , i m p l y i n g t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g must become s p a t i a l systems p l a n n i n g . As r u r a l t o urban m i g r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , the l i n k s e s t a b l i s h e d between and w i t h i n urban c e n t e r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t . As p a r t of the c o n c e p t u a l e v o l u t i o n i n the f i e l d of p l a n n i n g , the i d e a of growth p o l e s began w i t h F r a n c o i s P e r r o u x . P o l e s were groups of i n d u s t r i e s t h a t would a t t r a c t o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , s t a r t i n g a p r o c e s s of s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g economic growth which would r a d i a t e t hroughout the economy ( P e r r o u x , 1950). Darwent (1969) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between growth p o l e s , d e f i n e d i n terms of the e x p a n s i o n of i n t e r r e l a t e d economic s e c t o r s , and growth c e n t e r s , d e f i n e d i n terms of g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . Because growth c e n t e r p o l i c i e s r e l y on the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s e c t o r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n 56 v e r y s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c p l a c e s , Hansen (1974) i n s i s t s t h a t the terms can be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , as u t i l i z e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t growth c e n t e r s a r e not s i m p l y urban c e n t e r s t h a t a r e growing r a p i d l y (Hansen, 1974). R a t h e r , a growth c e n t e r i s an o b j e c t of p u b l i c p o l i c y and government d e s i g n a t i o n . In 1957 M y r d a l e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t economic development, h a v i n g s t a r t e d i n c e r t a i n f a v o r e d l o c a t i o n s , would c o n t i n u e t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s of c i r c u l a r , c u m u l a t i v e c a u s a t i o n . Growth would be t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h a network of spread and backwash e f f e c t s . He warned t h a t c o n s c i o u s p o l i c y i n t e r v e n t i o n would be r e q u i r e d t o p r e v e n t the c u m u l a t i v e advantages e x p e r i e n c e d i n the i n i t i a l growth a r e a s from c a u s i n g backwash e f f e c t s t o p r e v a i l i n most o t h e r p l a c e s . In 1958 Hirschman proposed a concept s i m i l a r t o M y r d a l ' s , a l t h o u g h he spoke of " t r i c k l e - d o w n " and " p o l a r i z a t i o n " . Hirschman m a i n t a i n e d t h a t , w h i l e development might p o l a r i z e around i n i t i a l growth c e n t e r s because economies of s c a l e c o u l d be r a t i o n a l i z e d and the e f f e c t s of d i s t a n c e m i n i m i z e d , e v e n t u a l l y t r i c k l e - d o w n e f f e c t s would predominate i n the s e a r c h f o r r e s o u r c e s and new markets. I n i t i a l l y t h e r e would be an i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r - r e g i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y of growth, but out of the i m p e r a t i v e s of c a p i t a l i s t g e o g r a p h i c a l e x p a n s i o n , subsequent growth c e n t e r s would emerge. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the growth p o l e n o t i o n from an a b s t r a c t concept a p p l i c a b l e t o g e o g r a p h i c space can be a t t r i b u t e d t o 57 B o u d e v i l l e (1966) and Friedmann (1966). The d o c t r i n e can be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : d i s p a r i t i e s i n w e l f a r e between d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s can be overcome by e x t e n d i n g the p o l a r i z e d development p r o c e s s i n t o d e p r e s s e d a r e a s , t h r o u g h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of growth c e n t e r s which l i n k such a r e a s t o the economic growth impulses g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n the broader urban system. At f i r s t , most a n a l y s t s a greed t h a t e v e n t u a l l y an e q u a l i z a t i o n of r e g i o n a l incomes would be a c h i e v e d ( B o r t s & S t e i n , 1962; W i l l i a m s o n 1965). However, P e r l o f f et a l . (1960) argued t h a t some a r e a s , changing over time i n response t o changes i n the s t r u c t u r e of the n a t i o n a l economy, would become i n c r e a s i n g l y w e a l t h y , w h i l e o t h e r a r e a s would e x p e r i e n c e an a b s o l u t e d e c l i n e i n t h e i r volume of economic a c t i v i t i e s . A f t e r e x t e n s i v e work i n the T h i r d W o r l d , Friedmann r e -emphasized t h i s l e s s o p t i m i s t i c view. He c o n c l u d e d i n A G e n e r a l  Theory of P o l a r i z e d Development (1972, o r i g i n a l 1967) t h a t p o l a r i z e d development was a p r e d o m i n a n t l y p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , w i t h a dominant c o r e a r e a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x p l o i t i n g i t s s u r r o u n d i n g p e r i p h e r y t h rough a monopoly of i n f o r m a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l power. E x p l a n a t i o n s o f , and p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r growth and development i n s p a t i a l terms must co v e r many non-economic v a r i a b l e s t o be s u c c e s s f u l (Darwent, 1969). Friedmann argued t h a t e v e n t u a l l y a c r i s i s of t r a n s i t i o n would o c c u r , l e a d i n g e i t h e r t o a d i f f u s i o n of p o l i t i c a l power and economic o p p o r t u n i t y , or e n d i n g i n 58 c o n t i n u e d e x p l o i t a t i o n and p o s s i b l e p o l i t i c a l r e v o l u t i o n . T h i s was o n l y the b e g i n n i n g of a growing c r i t i q u e of the growth p o l e t h e o r y based on o b s e r v a t i o n s of unequal development. Orthodox t h e o r i e s of development i n the works of N o r t h , I s s a r d , M y r d a l , Hirschman, Friedmann and P e r r o u x share Rostow's assumptions (1960) t h a t modern s e c t o r s of the economy a r e the e n g i n e s of growth, and t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l change a c t s as the s t i m u l u s f o r p r o g r e s s . The i n j e c t i o n of c a p i t a l f o r economic development, c o u p l e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g h a s t e n s a t r a d i t i o n a l , "backwards" s o c i e t y t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s t a g e s of growth, c u l m i n a t i n g i n a modern, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y based on mass-consumption. Rostow (1960) presumes i n h i s s t a g e s of growth t h e o r y t h a t the c o n c e p t s of development and m o d e r n i z a t i o n are i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . The l a c k of development i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s has been a t t r i b u t e d t o the c h a r a c t e r or v a l u e s of a c u l t u r e ( H a l l o w e l l , 1955; Barnouw, 1950; S p i n d l e r , 1955; McGregor, 1946). Development i s s a i d t o be promoted as t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s a r e weakened, through e d u c a t i o n or p h y s i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o modern (urban) r e g i o n s . T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , such as I n d i a n c u l t u r e s , w i t h v a l u e s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the modern economy w i l l become e c o n o m i c a l l y redundant, and w i l l e x p e r i e n c e p o v e r t y and unemployment. Orthodox development t h e o r i e s f a v o u r economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o such an e x t e n t t h a t the s o c i a l v i t a l i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i s c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d (Matthews, 1977). 59 As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter Two, on the b a s i s of European s t a n d a r d s , n o n - n a t i v e s p e r c e i v e d I n d i a n communities such as New Vancouver t o be l a c k i n g i n c a p i t a l , r e s o u r c e s , t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s . The v a l u e of s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s was i g n o r e d when c a l c u l a t i n g economic v i t a l i t y . S o c i a l v i t a l i t y was r e c o g n i z e d , but was viewed as an impediment t o development. Attempts t o e r a d i c a t e the p o t l a t c h , and t o educate I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s demonstrate the eagerness of n o n - n a t i v e s t o hast e n the development of n a t i v e s from a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y t o a modern one by d e s t r o y i n g the v a l u e system and c u l t u r e of I n d i a n s . As I n d i a n s were reduced t o m i n o r i t y s t a t u s i n Canadian s o c i e t y , i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t (or u n d e s i r a b l e f o r some n a t i v e s ) f o r I n d i a n communities t o r e s i s t i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o t h e modern economy. The Theory of Underdevelopment In 1967, Frank p u b l i s h e d a c r i t i q u e of orthodox t h e o r i e s of development t h a t c h a l l e n g e d the assumptions on which the t h e o r y of r e g i o n a l growth was based. He argued t h a t economic development must be examined i n terms of the g l o b a l economic system t o u n d e r s t a n d underdevelopment. F o r e i g n e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and f o r e i g n i n d u s t r i a l i nvestment r e s u l t e d i n dependency, a l i e n a t i o n , s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and s u p p r e s s i o n . C e r t a i n a r e a s would have t o e x p l o i t the p o t e n t i a l s u r p l u s of o t h e r a r e a s i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p . 60 S u n k e l (1973) made a comprehensive a p p l i c a t i o n of dependency t h e o r y t o s p a t i a l development, and c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who do not s e r v e the needs of t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d from the modern s e c t o r of the economy. The m a r g i n a l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n becomes l a n d l e s s r u r a l p e a s a n t s who move i n t o urban a r e a s where they can b a r e l y s u r v i v e . The n e o - M a r x i s t c r i t i q u e was a p p l i e d t o growth c e n t e r t h e o r y by C o r a g g i o (1975), who c o n c l u d e d t h a t growth c e n t e r p o l i c i e s not o n l y c o u l d do l i t t l e t o spr e a d economic growth and development, they a c t u a l l y t h w a r t e d i t by i m p l a n t i n g new p o i n t s of c a p i t a l e x p r o p r i a t i o n and dominance i n the dependent space economy. Growth c e n t e r s merely extended the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of underdevelopment. Weaver (1978) summarizes underdevelopment t h e o r y i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: f u n c t i o n a l economic power, removed from the c o n t r o l of t e r r i t o r i a l a u t h o r i t y , e x a c e r b a t e s the s o c i a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l i n e q u i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n p o l a r i z e d development. The h y p o t h e s i z e d s p r e a d e f f e c t s of economic growth s u f f e r f a t a l l e a k a g e s as economic m u l t i p l i e r s a r e c a p t u r e d by d i s t a n t i n d u s t r i e s and f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Labour, c a p i t a l , and r e s o u r c e s of poor r e g i o n s a r e e x p l o i t e d by unequal terms ••of exchange. I n c r e a s i n g dependency on o u t s i d e economic i n t e r e s t s r e s u l t s . S m a l l s c a l e l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n and t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e d e s t r o y e d as a r e s u l t of c o m p e t i t i o n and 61 u n c o n t r o l l e d u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l development. Only those i n d i v i d u a l s who ser v e the o u t s i d e economic i n t e r e s t s t hemselves b e n e f i t , w h i l e t h o s e who do not a r e m a r g i n a l i z e d from the p r o c e s s of development. In dependency t h e o r y , underdevelopment i s the outcome of an e x p l o i t a t i v e , d e p e n d e n c y - c r e a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between " c o r e " and " p e r i p h e r y " economic s e c t o r s . The p e r i p h e r a l s o c i e t y remains underdeveloped as the r e s u l t of a complex of p o l i t i c a l and economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s t r u c t u r e s upon which i t has become dependent, and which a r e c o n t r o l l e d by and s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s of the c o r e s o c i e t y . The e a r l y 1970s saw an e x p l o s i o n of l i t e r a t u r e on the t h e o r i e s of underdevelopment and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n (Amin, 1974; S t u c k e y , 1975). Some i n v e s t i g a t e d the economic h e r i t a g e of c o l o n i a l i s m and n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m (Rodney, 1972; B r e t t , 1973; L e y s , 1974) and the r o l e of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n underdevelopment (De Souza & P o r t e r , 1974; S o j a & Weaver, 1976). H e c h t e r (1975) suggested t h a t the economy of B r i t a i n was s u s t a i n e d by c o r e / p e r i p h e r y e x p l o i t a t i o n . Other s t u d i e s a l o n g t h i s theme q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d ( S e c c h i , 1977; Lee, 1977; Tarrow, 1977; Seers et a l . , 1978; Tarrow e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) , f u e l e d by the resu r g e n c e of c u l t u r a l r e g i o n a l i s m i n many a r e a s of the w o r l d (Weaver, 1978). I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and N o r t h American I n d i a n s The t h e o r y of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m has been used as a t o o l i n 62 the a n a l y s i s of dependency and underdevelopment among Canadian and American I n d i a n s f o r over t h i r t y y e a r s . P r i o r t o F r a n k ' s t h e o r y on underdevelopment i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , Cohen ( i 9 6 0 ) suggested t h a t the p o l i c i e s of the American f e d e r a l government have been g u i d e d by the d e s i r e of w h i t e s t o g a i n a monopoly over I n d i a n r e s o u r c e s , and t h a t p o l i c i e s were p r e d i c a t e d upon a l o n g -run g o a l of m i n i m i z i n g the c o s t of t h e i r c o n t r o l . Hagen (1962) added t h a t c o l o n i a l i s t p r a c t i c e s of the American Bureau of I n d i a n A f f a i r s was the p r i n c i p a l source of I n d i a n p o v e r t y . Thomas (1966) argued t h a t the c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between American I n d i a n s and the government undermined t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the h i g h degree of s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n promoted by confinement t o r e s e r v e s , r e s u l t e d i n I n d i a n underdevelopment and an i n t e r n a l e l i t e of m a r g i n a l I n d i a n s . P a t t e r s o n • (1971) d e s c r i b e s the p a r a l l e l e x p e r i e n c e s of n a t i v e N o r t h Americans and. o t h e r c o l o n i z e d p e o p l e as i n c l u d i n g t h e i r r e l o c a t i o n t o r e s e r v e s and t h e i r l o s s of l a n d , the use of m i l i t a r y f o r c e , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e s , g e n o c i d a l w a r f a r e , and the r i s e of messianism as a r e a c t i o n t o c o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n . Jorgenson (1971) uses F r a n k ' s m e t r o p o l i s -s a t e l l i t e framework t o a t t a c k a c c u l t u r a t i o n t h e o r i e s of I n d i a n underdevelopment by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t the i n t e g r a t i o n of I n d i a n s as s a t e l l i t e s of the w h i t e American m e t r o p o l i s g e n e r a t e s the c o n d i t i o n s which a l l o w an economic s u r p l u s i n the form of l a n d and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t o be d r a i n e d o f f f o r the b e n e f i t of 63 w h i t e s . P r e s e n t I n d i a n u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t . i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of c o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n which has used p o l i t i c a l power t o m a i n t a i n an e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( J o r g e n s o n , 1971). Other r e s e a r c h e r s have adapted the c o l o n i a l i s m model t o the I n d i a n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( R u f f i n g , 1979; Anders, 1979 & 1980) and Canada ( P u x l e y , 1977; M a r u l e , 1978; K e l l o u g h , 1980; F r i d e r e s , 1983). Dependency t h e o r y and the c o l o n i a l i s m model i n Canada have been i l l u s t r a t e d u s i n g examples of the e f f e c t s on n a t i v e communities of renewable and non-renewable r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n c o n t r o l l e d by e l i t e s of the modern economic s e c t o r . The r o l e of t r a d i n g companies i n Canada i s one of the f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of dependency t h e o r y a t work (Wien, 1986). Recent examples c o n c e n t r a t e on o i l and gas e x p l o r a t i o n by m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s i n the A r c t i c ( W a t k i n s , 1977). Both Wien (1986) and P o n t i n g (1986) argue t h a t the Canadian g o v e r n m e n t — t h a t i s , DIA--have p l a y e d the most prominent r o l e i n the underdevelopment of I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s , l a r g e l y t h r o u g h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p o l i c i e s and programs, i n c l u d i n g w e l f a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o dependency t h e o r i e s and c o l o n i a l i s m models, the t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r of n a t i v e s o c i e t y i s n e g l e c t e d or a c t i v e l y undermined i n terms of r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n as the modern s e c t o r d e v e l o p s (Asch, 1977). The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of p e r i p h e r a l n a t i v e s o c i e t i e s i s a f f e c t e d , due t o e x t e r n a l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h dependency. The use of c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e t e c h n o l o g y and 64 i n s t i t u t i o n s which support i t i s c r e a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by non-n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s e x t r a n e o u s t o the l o c a l e of the I n d i a n community. Most I n d i a n s cannot b e n e f i t from employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s c r e a t e d by modern development because they l a c k the n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s and e d u c a t i o n . L o c a l development i s s u p p r e s s e d as any economic s u r p l u s e s a r e d r a i n e d away. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the I n d i a n community ends up i n a worse predicament than b e f o r e the o n s l a u g h t of m o d e r n i z a t i o n due t o two f a c t o r s : a l l i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s a r e c o n t r o l l e d e x t e r n a l l y ; and the o b j e c t i v e s of the modern s e c t o r are based on e x t e r n a l p r i o r i t i e s , and a r e not d e s i g n e d t o s a t i s f y l o c a l needs. The t h e o r y of i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m can be i l l u s t r a t e d u s i n g the s i t u a t i o n of the Tanakteuk Band. Resources from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d base were s o l d t o m u l t i n a t i o n a l s i n the f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s , such as M a c M i l l a n B l o d e l and B.C.Packers, at p r i c e s c o n t r o l l e d by the m u l t i n a t i o n a l s . Band members became i n d e b t e d t o t h e s e companies f o r the purchase of s u p p l i e s and equipment t o remain c o m p e t i t i v e i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a d v a n c i n g market. Long term l e a s e s f o r r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t s on r e s e r v e l a n d were a r r a n g e d by I n d i a n Agents who used t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power t o m a i n t a i n an e x p l o i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . F u n c t i o n a l economic power was e s s e n t i a l l y removed from the c o n t r o l of t e r r i t o r i a l I n d i a n a u t h o r i t y , s i n c e d e c i s i o n s were s u b j e c t t o f i n a l a p p r o v a l by DIA. S u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s such as f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g were c o n t r o l l e d by the i m p o s i t i o n of government r e g u l a t i o n s and 65 l i c e n s i n g schemes, and trapping was ruined by large scale mining and logging a c t i v i t i e s within the region. As t r a d i t i o n a l means of economic production were altered by the modern sector, inhabitants of New Vancouver became increasingly dependent upon external injections of c a p i t a l , such as welfare payments. Psychologically, the isolated community came to depend upon the provision of external agencies for services. As economic productivity was eroded by a decreasing land base, and their position in non-native society was marginalized, Tanakteuk Band members moved to urban centers such as Alert Bay. T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l relationships weakened, and many Band members f e l t alienated from their culture. With no real p o l i t i c a l or economic power, Indians as a group experienced poverty and levels of unemployment that were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than non-native Canadians. Attention now turns to an examination of factors in Canada during the 1960s which f a c i l i t a t e d the implementation of government programs designed to address poverty and unemployment. Canadian Values and Planning Processes During the 1960s The implementation of p o l i c i e s and substantive theories in regional/development planning are based on ideological assumptions that, together with the socio-economic, p o l i t i c a l and s p a t i a l organization of a country, change the contents of planning and determine i t s outcome (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979). To 66 u n d e r s t a n d p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s implemented by the Canadian f e d e r a l government d u r i n g the 1 9 6 0 s - - i n i t i a t i v e s i n c r e a s i n g l y based on the concept of growth c e n t e r d o c t r i n e — o n e must r e a l i z e t h a t the p e r i o d was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n c e r n s about n a t i o n a l u n i t y , r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t i e s , e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y , and the e l i m i n a t i o n of p o v e r t y . The 1950s and e a r l y 1960s were a p e r i o d of i n t e n s i v e u r b a n i z a t i o n i n Canada. A g r a d u a l but n o t i c e a b l e s h i f t i n v a l u e s towards an urban focus r e s u l t e d (Robinson, 1981), p r e c e e d i n g l e g i s l a t i v e changes ( P h i d d , 1974). The p a s s i n g of the A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l Development A c t (ARDA) as p a r t of a r e g i o n a l development s t r a t e g y i n 1961 i l l u s t r a t e d the government's p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h r u r a l p o v e r t y and unemployment, as w e l l as e f f i c i e n t l a n d use. The c r e a t i o n of the A t l a n t i c Development' Board (ADB) i n 1962 r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t comprehensive s t r a t e g y t o a r r e s t . r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s i n Canada, an i s s u e t h a t was. t o dominate f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s t hroughout the 1960s ( P h i d d , 1974). The 1963 e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an Area Development Agency (ADA) a l l i e d t o the Department of I n d u s t r y r e f l e c t e d the government's i n t e n t i o n t o speed up economic development and i n d u s t r i a l adjustment by p r o v i d i n g t a x c o n c e s s i o n s t o i n d u s t r i a l f i r m s l o c a t e d i n a r e a s of h i g h unemployment. The s h i f t towards promoting economic growth i n urban r a t h e r than r u r a l r e g i o n s had begun. In 1965 i t was 67 complemented by the c r e a t i o n of m o b i l i t y t r a i n i n g programs d e s i g n e d t o encourage l a b o u r t o r e s i d e i n urban c e n t e r s (Weaver & Gunton, 1982). U n t i l t h i s time r e g i o n a l development p o l i c i e s had f o l l o w e d an ad hoc approach ( F r a n c i s , 1974). The Economic C o u n c i l of Canada was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the mid 1960s as p a r t of a comprehensive system of p l a n n i n g . I t emphasized improved a d m i n i s t r a t i v e co-o r d i n a t i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments and s t r o n g e r emphasis i n r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s on a g r o w t h - o r i e n t e d approach t o p r o v i d e g r e a t e r s p i l l - o v e r e f f e c t s from the more p r o s p e r o u s a r e a s t o the more d e p r e s s e d ones ( P h i d d , 1974). The P r i v y C o u n c i l of Canada d e c l a r e d war on p o v e r t y i n 1965, h e i g h t e n i n g the p u b l i c ' s demand t h a t something be done i m m e d i a t e l y t o address the i s s u e of p o v e r t y i n Canadian s o c i e t y ( L o t z , 1977). For most Ca n a d i a n s , p o v e r t y was not s i m p l y d e t e r m i n e d by l e v e l s of income, but i n c l u d e d the q u a l i t y of a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s , such as h o u s i n g , s c h o o l s , m e d i c a l and s o c i a l programs, as w e l l as the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a s p i r a t i o n s (Harp, 1971). These demands f o r s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y had e v o l v e d out of c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the growth of the w e l f a r e s t a t e . A c c o r d i n g t o Anderson & Boothroyd (1984), the b a s i s of the w e l f a r e s t a t e i s the c l a s s i c a l approach t o development, which r e c o g n i z e s the importance of c o m p e t i t i o n and the market p l a c e i n a l l o c a t i n g w e a l t h , c o u p l e d w i t h s u b s i d i z a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n , r e s i d u a l w e l f a r e , K e y n e s i a n economics, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l w e l f a r e , 68 t o o f f s e t the u n f a i r n e s s and i n e f f i c i e n c y of the market p l a c e . These elements were p r e s e n t i n every f e d e r a l p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e of the l a t e 1960s. I n i t i a l l y , Canadians e x p e c t e d the government t o p r o v i d e an adequate " s a f e t y n e t " t o the d i s a d v a n t a g e d i n d i v i d u a l or r e g i o n t h r o u g h r e s i d u a l w e l f a r e programs, such as s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e payments. Government-sponsored a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d a c h i e v e two g o a l s a t once when K e y n e s i a n i s m was combined w i t h r e s i d u a l w e l f a r e t h e o r y : n a t i o n a l economic f i n e - t u n i n g , and l o c a l s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n (Anderson & Boothroyd, 1984). G r a d u a l l y , Canadians ex p e c t e d the government t o p r o v i d e u n i v e r s a l l y a v a s t a r r a y of s e r v i c e s t o meet a v a s t range of assumed needs. Canadians began t o p e r c e i v e government as a c o n s t r u c t i v e , r a t h e r than a mere r e g u l a t o r y , agent ( G e r t l e r , L o r d & S t e w a r t , 1975), r e s u l t i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l w e l f a r e programs, such as me d i c a r e , o l d age p e n s i o n s , and p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l w e l f a r e , which sees development as an ongoing s o c i a l a c t i v i t y r e q u i r i n g ongoing s t a t e a c t i o n and s u p p o r t , l e g i t i m i z e s government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s o c i e t y (Anderson & B o o t h r o y d , 1984). The w e l f a r e s t a t e reached i t s z e n i t h i n Canada i n the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s. Canadians' p e r c e p t i o n s about the a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e of government and the w e l f a r e s t a t e i n the l a t e 1960s paved the way f o r the ac c e p t a n c e of government p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s . In 1966, as p a r t of the f e d e r a l government's a t t a c k on r e g i o n a l 69 d i s p a r i t y , the Fund f o r R e g i o n a l Economic Development Act (FRED) was passed t o c o n c e n t r a t e on r u r a l p o v e r t y and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Programs f i n a n c e d by FRED were c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms of t o t a l and i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l and economic p l a n n i n g ( P o e t s c h k e , 1971). A r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d i n 1967 by the Economic C o u n c i l of Canada f o r e c a s t the end of f e d e r a l r e g i o n a l development s t r a t e g i e s t h a t emphasized r u r a l i n i t i a t i v e s as e x e m p l i f i e d by ARDA and FRED. I t s a u t h o r s were c r i t i c a l of e a r l i e r programs d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e r u r a l economic growth, and i n s i s t e d t h a t " l a b o u r f o r c e a d j u s t m e n t s " which encouraged t h e movement of p o p u l a t i o n out of a r e a s of underdevelopment were needed ( B u c k l e y & T i h a n y i , 1967). R e g i o n a l development p o l i c i e s were e v a l u a t e d s t r i c t l y on the b a s i s of economic c r i t e r i a , and i f the a u t h o r s showed c o n c e r n about the s o c i a l consequences of t h e i r proposed "adjustment", i t was tempered by t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t economic g a i n s would compensate f o r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l o s s (Matthews, 1978). In 1968, r e g i o n a l development i n Canada moved from the economic t o the p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . P i e r r e E l l i o t t Trudeau promised i f e l e c t e d Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada, he would attempt t o r e c t i f y r e g i o n a l economic d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i n t e r e s t s of n a t i o n a l u n i t y . The Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n (DREE) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1969; i t s programs c o n c e n t r a t e d on i n d u s t r i a l i n c e n t i v e s , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a s s i s t a n c e and s o c i a l adjustment i n " s p e c i a l a r e a s " t o improve Canadians' s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g 70 (Phidd,1974) . I n d u s t r i a l i n c e n t i v e s were b e l i e v e d t o be the key t o s o l v i n g the problem of r e g i o n a l underdevelopment. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was equated w i t h the p r o c e s s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n , which was e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s m a l l e r economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l u n i t s i n t o l a r g e r ones i n the i n t e r e s t s of a more r a t i o n a l and e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s (Glenday, Guindon & Turowetz, 1978). Once s u b s t a n t i a l improvements were made t o i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n a s e l e c t e d r e g i o n , i n d u s t r y was supposed t o be a t t r a c t e d t o t h e s e urban c e n t e r s because of i n c e n t i v e s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a r e d u c t i o n of p o v e r t y would r e s u l t (Matthews 1978). From 1969 onwards, government spending was c o n c e n t r a t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y on urban development i n i t i a t i v e s . S e r v i c e s i n remote communities were reduced, and no new i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e of urban growth c e n t e r s were encouraged. As p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d , the concept of growth c e n t e r s was p o p u l a r i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y d u r i n g the e a r l y 1960s. Rather than a d o p t i n g a r e g i o n a l development approach from a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian e x p e r i e n c e , such as H a r o l d I n n i s ' s s t a p l e s t h e o r y ( l 9 3 0 ) - - i n which economic a c t i v i t y i s c o n c e n t r a t e d around the p r o d u c t i o n of a p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e commodity f o r e x p o r t — t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l paradigm of p o l a r i z e d development was adopted. F r a n k ' s c r i t i c i s m s about p o l a r i z e d development and the t h e o r y of 71 underdevelopment (1967) were i g n o r e d by Canadian p l a n n e r s , or they were not y e t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o our n a t i o n a l psyche. With l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d t o d e v e l o p i n g j o b s i n r u r a l a r e a s , workers from t h e s e r e g i o n s had l i t t l e c h o i c e but t o move to urban c e n t e r s ( I v e r s o n & Matthews, 1968). Proposed i n d u s t r i a l developments i n urban a r e a s r e c e i v e d w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c i t y d u r i n g the l a t e 1960s, a t t r a c t i n g many migrant workers who b e n e f i t t e d from h i g h p a y i n g , temporary c o n s t r u c t i o n j o b s on p u b l i c work p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d t o improve i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r i n d u s t r i e s . The r e s u l t was a massive r u r a l d e p o p u l a t i o n , f u r t h e r r a t i o n a l i z i n g the w i t h d r a w a l of s e r v i c e s from s m a l l e r communities. Government c i t e d the c o s t of m a i n t a i n i n g and p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s t o o n l y a h a n d f u l of peopl e s c a t t e r e d over a l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a (Wadel, 1969), and p o i n t e d out t h a t c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was more e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t . As urban c e n t e r s were f l o o d e d w i t h m i g r a n t w o r k e r s , a l a b o u r s u r p l u s o f t e n r e s u l t e d ; the r u r a l poor s i m p l y became the urban poor (Harp, 1971). M o b i l i t y d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y reduce d i s p a r i t i e s i n income f o r i n d i v i d u a l s or a r e a s . The emphasis on development i n urban growth c e n t e r s and the consequent d e p o p u l a t i o n of r u r a l communities i n the l a t e 1960s a f f e c t e d a l l r e g i o n s of Canada. But i t was more apparent i n s e v e r e l y e c o n o m i c a l l y - d i s a d v a n t a g e d r e g i o n s , such as the M a r i t i m e s , f a r m i n g communities throughout Western Canada, and c o a s t a l r e g i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia. Remote f i s h i n g communities, 72 or o u t p o r t s , i n Newfoundland were a l s o t a r g e t t e d f o r development o r i e n t e d around growth p o l e d o c t r i n e . R e s i d e n t s of o u t p o r t s were o f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s t o r e l o c a t e t o d e s i g n a t e d growth c e n t e r s under a f i v e - y e a r j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e s e t t l e m e n t program, which began i n 1965. I t was renewed f o r an a d d i t i o n a l f i v e y e a r s i n 1970. From 1969 onwards, the r e s e t t l e m e n t program was a d m i n i s t e r e d by DREE. Under the i n i t i a l program, a t o t a l of 119 o u t p o r t s were ev a c u a t e d (Copes & S t e e d , 1973). The second phase of the program saw o n l y a t r i c k l e of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e t t l e m e n t , f u e l e d by a n t i - u r b a n s e n t i m e n t s t h a t had r e c e i v e d wide c u r r e n c y throughout N o r t h A m e r i c a . E v e n t u a l l y , the l i s t of communities t a r g e t t e d f o r e v a c u a t i o n was c a n c e l l e d , and the r e s e t t l e m e n t scheme was abandoned (Copes & S t e e d , 1973). D u r i n g the l a t e 1960s remote and r u r a l communities throughout Canada e x p e r i e n c e d the w i t h d r a w a l of government-funded s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s as a r e s u l t of e f f o r t s t o c e n t r a l i z e the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o urban l o c a t i o n s d e s i g n a t e d as growth c e n t e r s f o r i n d u s t r y . T h i s i n c l u d e d n o n - n a t i v e as w e l l as I n d i a n communities. The reader i s reminded of the reasons g i v e n by DIA f o r the r e s e t t l e m e n t of the Tanakteuk from New Vancouver t o urban c e n t e r s such as A l e r t Bay, as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter Two: f o r improved a c c e s s t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s which were p r o v i d e d w i t h g r e a t e r economic e f f i c i e n c y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 73 economies of s c a l e and the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p h y s i c a l and human r e s o u r c e s . DIA's r e s e t t l e m e n t of remote I n d i a n communities was a p e r f e c t l y r a t i o n a l a c t , g i v e n the ac c e p t a n c e of growth p o l e d o c t r i n e t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a t the t i m e . However, the r e s e t t l e m e n t of n a t i v e communities was a l s o encouraged t o speed up the p r o c e s s of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y . A t t e n t i o n now t u r n s t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of DIA p o l i c i e s and programs, as w e l l as s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s i n Canadian s o c i e t y d u r i n g the 1960s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . DIA's P o l i c i e s & Programs D u r i n g the 1960s Among Canadians, g e n e r a l knowledge of the c o n d i t i o n s of I n d i a n s p r i o r t o 1960 was l i m i t e d ; most Canadians tended t o r e c o g n i z e n a t i v e s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y as a homogeneous e t h n i c group, i n ig n o r a n c e of t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y . Canadians were a l s o l a r g e l y i g n o r a n t of DIA's p o l i c i e s and programs (Weaver, 1981). However, a J o i n t Committee of the Senate and House of Commons was a p p o i n t e d t o examine I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1959, r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e i n the awareness of "the I n d i a n problem", as w e l l as the a r o u s a l of moderate p u b l i c c o n c e r n . The r e p o r t recommended t h a t DIA speed up the p r o c e s s of i n t e g r a t i n g I n d i a n s i n t o the wider Canadian s o c i e t y (Canada, 1961). The i s s u e of e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y i n Canadian s o c i e t y was 74 h e i g h t e n e d by d i s c u s s i o n s about Quebec's demand f o r g r e a t e r autonomy w i t h i n C o n f e d e r a t i o n d u r i n g the 1960s; t h i s i n c r e a s e d Canadians' awareness of I n d i a n s as a s p e c i a l m i n o r i t y . As e f f o r t s t o stamp out p o v e r t y r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r media a t t e n t i o n i n 1965, I n d i a n s became more v i s i b l e t o the p u b l i c and were p l a c e d a l l too o b v i o u s l y among the most d i s a d v a n t a g e d m i n o r i t i e s i n s o c i e t y ( H a r d i n g , 1965; Borovoy, 1966). The r e l e a s e of the Hawthorn Report (1967), a study of the c o n d i t i o n s of I n d i a n s i n Canada, a l s o f u e l e d i n t e r e s t i n n a t i v e s . The r e p o r t demonstrated t h a t I n d i a n s s u f f e r e d from extreme p o v e r t y , underemployment and unemployment i n comparison t o n o n - n a t i v e C anadians. P o l i c i e s and programs of the f e d e r a l government d i r e c t e d towards the development of I n d i a n s came under i n t e n s e c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g the 1960s. The p u b l i c a t t r i b u t e d the p l i g h t of the I n d i a n t o h i s t o r i c a l p a t e r n a l i s m . P u b l i c sympathy f o r the I n d i a n cause was enhanced by the c i v i l r i g h t s movements i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and by the emerging n a t i o n a l i s m of d e c o l o n i z i n g T h i r d World n a t i o n s . The y outh movement and a c t i v i s m on campuses i n Canada l e n t f u r t h e r support (Tanner, 1983). What, t h e n , were DIA's p o l i c i e s and programs d u r i n g the 1960s t h a t caused such n a t i o n a l o u t r a g e ? The l e g i s l a t i v e dominance of the I n d i a n Act--compared t o over 4,000 s e p a r a t e and u n s y s t e m a t i z e d s t a t u t o r y enactments i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Harper, l946)--makes the e v o l u t i o n of I n d i a n p o l i c y over one hundred y e a r s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o t r a c e . S e v e r a l major p o l i c y m o t i f s have 75 been i d e n t i f i e d by G i b b i n s & P o n t i n g (1986): p r o t e c t i o n of I n d i a n s from the e v i l s of w h i t e s o c i e t y , a s s i m i l a t i o n , and the a d o p t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y . U n t i l t he 1970s, of t h e s e t h r e e m o t i f s , a s s i m i l a t i o n was the c e n t r a l p i l l a r . I n d i a n s needed t o shed t h e i r language and customs t o become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t members of modern s o c i e t y ; u n t i l t h a t t i m e , they were t o be p r o t e c t e d by s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n and tre a t m e n t ( M i l l e r et a l . , 1978). A f t e r a l l , w h i t e s had t h e i r best i n t e r e s t s a t h e a r t . I g n o r a n t of w h i t e ways, I n d i a n s ' views on t h e i r own w e l f a r e were not t o be g i v e n much w e i g h t . C h r i s t i a n i t y would speed the a d o p t i o n of European v a l u e s w h i l e s a v i n g s o u l s . The p r o c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n was encouraged t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t , and s e t t l e m e n t . I r o n i c a l l y , the c r e a t i o n of r e s e r v e s and the confinement of I n d i a n s t o them i s o l a t e d n a t i v e s from European s o c i e t y , s l o w i n g the p r o c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t l y , I n d i a n s were encouraged t o l e a v e t h e i r communities and m i g r a t e t o urban c e n t e r s , where they c o u l d e x p e r i e n c e the b e n e f i t s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n . The f e d e r a l government's program t o modernize the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of I n d i a n a f f a i r s a f t e r World War Two i n c l u d e d a t r i p a r t i t e p o l i c y : 1) t o expand and improve e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; 2) t o i n t r o d u c e t o r e s e r v e s the t y p e s of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e programs t h a t had been extended t o o t h e r Canadians a f t e r 1945; and 3) t o implement a system of l o c a l 76 s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t (Tanner, 1983). A l t h o u g h the I n d i a n Act had been s u b j e c t t o f r e q u e n t amendment s i n c e 1876, a t the end of the 1960s i t d i d not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from the o r i g i n a l form ( P o n t i n g , 1980). N e i t h e r d i d p o l i c y g o v e r n i n g I n d i a n a f f a i r s . The assumptions on which the Act was based, however, were now e x p r e s s e d w i t h g r e a t e r s u b t l e t y , as were p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s when r a c i s m became l e s s a c c e p t a b l e d u r i n g the 1960s. As r e f l e c t e d i n i t s p o l i c y , DIA's approach t o development r e s t s on the f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s : f i r s t , I n d i a n s a r e on a p a t h from a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y t o a modern one; second, movement a l o n g t h i s p a t h i s i n e v i t a b l e , i r r e v e r s i b l e , and b e n e f i c i a l ; t h i r d , the a p p r o p r i a t e government s t r a t e g y i s t o a s s i s t the t r a n s i t i o n t o a modern s o c i e t y p r i m a r i l y by p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l improvements and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o I n d i a n s on the b a s i s of e q u a l i t y w i t h o t h e r C a n adians; and f o u r t h , the main b a r r i e r s t o development a re the a t t i t u d e s and c u l t u r e of the I n d i a n p e o p l e ( S h k i l n y k , 1985). T h i s i s c l e a r l y an orthodox o r i e n t a t i o n t o development. In response t o i n c r e a s i n g awareness and c r i t i c i s m by the Canadian p u b l i c , DIA implemented a v a r i e t y df programs from 1963-67 t o reduce I n d i a n dependence on government through the encouragement of l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e s i n I n d i a n communities. These programs i n c l u d e d the t r a n s f e r of f e d e r a l s e r v i c e s t o the p r o v i n c e s , the c r e a t i o n of I n d i a n a d v i s o r y b o a r d s , e x p e r i m e n t a l r e l o c a t i o n programs, r e s e a r c h on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e , d r a f t l e g i s l a t i o n f o r an I n d i a n C l a i m s Commission, and community 77 development programs. I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t a l l of the programs f a i l e d (Weaver, 1981). The attempt t o t r a n s f e r f e d e r a l s e r v i c e s t o the p r o v i n c e s i n 1963 f a i l e d because most p r o v i n c e s argued t h a t I n d i a n s were a f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under the BNA A c t . In 1965, I n d i a n a d v i s o r y boards were e s t a b l i s h e d a t n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l s , o s t e n s i b l y t o a l l o w f o r I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the government's d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . G r a d u a l l y , I n d i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s came to f e e l t h a t the program was d e s i g n e d t o c i r c u m v e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n a t the community l e v e l ; I n d i a n l e a d e r s r e j e c t e d the Boards as a s a t i s f a c t o r y method of o f f e r i n g i n p u t i n t o p o l i c y and programs (Weaver, 1981). The a d v i s o r y boards were t e r m i n a t e d i n 1967. In 1966, an e x p e r i m e n t a l program began t o r e l o c a t e f a m i l i e s from remote r e s e r v e s where unemployment was h i g h t o l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A l t h o u g h some a d u l t s improved t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l s k i l l s , the program f a i l e d t o h e l p them make the d i f f i c u l t a d j u s t m e n t s t o o f f - r e s e r v e l i f e , and most r e t u r n e d to t h e i r r e s e r v e s (LLoyd, 1967). The program was not c o n t i n u e d . Concerned w i t h the l a r g e number of I n d i a n s i n j a i l , DIA began a study of the problem i n 1964. The r e p o r t d i d not r e s u l t i n any immediate program r e v i s i o n s . Another program c e n t e r e d on t h e i s s u e of l a n d c l a i m s and t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s . In 1963, a b i l l t o p r o v i d e an a d v i s o r y mechanism t o s e t t l e c l a i m s was i n t r o d u c e d i n 78 the House of Commons, and c i r c u l a t e d t o I n d i a n communities a c r o s s Canada. The Government's f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e the concept of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e , as w e l l as i t s i n a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h the i s s u e of c o s t of compensation, c r e a t e d anger i n I n d i a n communities, and an I n d i a n C l a i m s Commission was never e s t a b l i s h e d . Perhaps of g r e a t e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e was the f a i l u r e of community development programs i n t r o d u c e d i n 1964. Under the program, the o b j e c t i v e s of r e d u c i n g dependency on DIA and promoting s e l f -d e t e r m i n a t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e were pursued w i t h v i g o u r by i d e a l i s t i c community development w o r k e r s . I n e v i t a b l y c l a s h e s w i t h I n d i a n Agents a r o s e , as Agents p e r c e i v e d t h e i r a u t h o r i t y c h a l l e n g e d ( L o t z , 1977). The t r a d i t i o n s of the b u r e a u c r a c y t r i u m p h e d : community development workers were withdrawn. In the mid-1960s, DIA extended the concept of l o c a l government t o communities i n i t s e f f o r t s t o encourage s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Under r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d by DIA, I n d i a n bands c o u l d a d m i n i s t e r c e r t a i n programs such as s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , r e c r e a t i o n , and work o p p o r t u n i t y programs. The r e s u l t s were unexpected: a decade l a t e r , government had become the major employer on most I n d i a n r e s e r v e s , making I n d i a n p e o p l e more dependent on government su p p o r t than a t any o t h e r time i n h i s t o r y (Weaver, 1981). These programs r e f l e c t e d DIA's assumptions about development which c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t s p o l i c i e s u n t i l 1970. I n d i a n s were not i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n , nor were they c o n s u l t e d about the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of programs. 79 In 1969 the f e d e r a l government proposed a r a d i c a l change i n p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n , A Statement of the Government of Canada on  I n d i a n P o l i c y (DIAND, 1969), r e f e r r e d t o as the White Paper. I t m i r r o r e d the government's c r u s a d e t o p r o t e c t the r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s , w h i l e de-emphasizing c o l l e c t i v e e t h n i c s u r v i v a l ( G i b b i n s & P o n t i n g , 1986). The p o l i c y change proposed t h a t the l e g i s l a t i v e and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l bases of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n be removed; the I n d i a n A c t was t o be r e p e a l e d . Rather than b e i n g l e g i s l a t i v e l y s e t a p a r t , I n d i a n s were t o r e c e i v e the same s e r v i c e s as o t h e r Canadians, d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h the same c h a n n e l s and government a g e n c i e s . In a d d i t i o n , the White Paper r e c o g n i z e d t h a t l a w f u l o b l i g a t i o n s i n c u r r e d by the government through t r e a t i e s must be r e s p e c t e d , a l t h o u g h a v e r y l i m i t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t r e a t y r i g h t s was e x p r e s s e d , and t h a t the c o n t r o l of ' I n d i a n l a n d s be t r a n s f e r r e d t o I n d i a n s . ' The White Paper p a i d s cant a t t e n t i o n t o the l i a b i l i t i e s a c cumulated from the i n e q u a l i t i e s of the pa s t ( P o n t i n g & G i b b i n s , 1986). The p r o p o s a l s o u t l i n e d i n the White Paper were i m m e d i a t e l y compared t o . the d i a s t r o u s t e r m i n a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y implemented by the U n i t e d S t a t e s government from 1945-60 (Weaver, 1981). The program, which attempted t o r e l o c a t e unemployed I n d i a n s from r e s e r v e s t o urban a r e a s , o f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s t o n a t i v e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d . I t s o b j e c t i v e s were t o speed the p r o c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n and thus t e r m i n a t e the need f o r 80 r e s e r v e s and f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y . R e l o c a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s of l e a d e r s h i p on r e s e r v e s , w h i l e most American I n d i a n s s i m p l y t r a d e d r u r a l p o v e r t y f o r urban slums. U r b a n i z e d I n d i a n s s u f f e r e d e c o n o m i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . Many l o s t t h e i r c u l t u r e . E v e n t u a l l y , n a t i v e s i n t e r p r e t e d the p o l i c y as b e i n g governed by u l t e r i o r m o t i v e s d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e the t o t a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s i n t o mainstream American s o c i e t y ( T y l e r , 1973; F i x i c o , 1986). The p r o c e s s out of which the White Paper e v o l v e d e p i t o m i z e d DIA p o l i c y - m a k i n g over the c e n t u r y . A f t e r two y e a r s of c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h I n d i a n s a c r o s s Canada, o s t e n s i b l y t o r e c e i v e t h e i r i n p u t about changes t o the I n d i a n A c t , the government r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t which t o t a l l y i g n o r e d the I n d i a n s ' i n p u t . N a t i v e s were o u t r a g e d . Even though the White Paper had c a l l e d f o r a r e c o g n i t i o n of the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of I n d i a n c u l t u r e t o Canadian l i f e , I n d i a n s c harged t h a t the new p o l i c y was a t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d program of e x t e r m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h a s s i m i l a t i o n ( C a r d i n a l , 1969). N a t i v e l e a d e r s viewed the p o l i c y as an attempt by the government t o deny r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r w e l f a r e . The White Paper was e v e n t u a l l y r e t r a c t e d i n 1971. A s s i m i l a t i o n was a t l e a s t o f f i c i a l l y p l a c e d a s i d e as an e x p l i c i t p o l i c y g o a l , a l t h o u g h i t may w e l l c o n t i n u e as a socio-economic and c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s ( G i b b i n s & P o n t i n g , 1986). 81 Summary D u r i n g the 1960s f e d e r a l p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s i n Canada were based on the concept of growth p o l e d o c t r i n e p o p u l a r i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y , d e s p i t e i n c r e a s i n g c r i t i c i s m of t h i s approach. Remote and r u r a l communities a c r o s s Canada were c e n t r a l i z e d i n t o urban "growth c e n t e r s " t o promote r e g i o n a l economic development, and t o take advantage of economies of s c a l e when p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s approach t o development r e s u l t e d i n the c l o s u r e of many n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e communities. The p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l c l i m a t e of mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y a t the time i n f l u e n c e d f e d e r a l p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s f o r r e g i o n a l development, as w e l l as a f f e c t i n g p o l i c y and programs w i t h i n the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The emphasis on growth p o l e d o c t r i n e i n Canadian p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s d u r i n g the 1960s extended t o development approaches f o r n a t i v e communities. Communities l i k e New Vancouver e x p e r i e n c e d a r e d u c t i o n i n s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , and the p o p u l a t i o n was encouraged t o r e s e t t l e i n urban growth c e n t e r s where o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment were g r e a t e r and s e r v i c e s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d a t reduced c o s t s . However, t h e r e was an a d d i t i o n a l motive b e h i n d e n c o u r a g i n g I n d i a n s such as the Tanakteuk t o r e l o c a t e t o urban c e n t e r s : t o speed up t h e p r o c e s s of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y . F e d e r a l government p o l i c y towards I n d i a n s has been 82 c h a r a c t e r i z e d by orthodox development approaches, even though t h e i r underdevelopment may be a t t r i b u t e d t o f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m . 83 Good i n t e n t i o n s don't mean a t h i n g .... 84 CHAPTER FOUR: AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF RELOCATION FROM NEW VANCOUVER TO URBAN CENTERS, & AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF NATIVE SUPPORT FOR THE RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF A TANAKTEUK COMMUNITY In the previous chapter, i t was demonstrated that DIA development policy during the 1960s aimed to improve Indians' access to services, f a c i l i t i e s and employment opportunities, and to speed the process of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . In the case of Kwakiutl Indians, were these objectives achieved? To help answer th i s question, the results of a survey of Tanakteuk Band members are evaluated (Appendix 1). The survey attempts to: 1) determine Band members' perceptions about the factors which led to relocation; and 2) to assess the impact of relocation on their l i v e s . In addition, at the request of the Chief and Council of the Band, the survey evaluates the l e v e l of support among Band members for the re-establishment of a Tanakteuk community in New Vancouver in the near future. The analysis i s supplemented by additional sources, namely interviews with Band members, national s t a t i s t i c s of socio-economic conditions of Canadian Indians residing off-reserve, a consultant's study of Mamaleleqala Qwe'Qwa'sot'enox Band members who, l i k e the Tanakteuk, were relocated from their community of V i l l a g e Island, and l i t e r a t u r e on the eff e c t s of relocation. The chapter i s divided into three parts: a general p r o f i l e of 85 Canadian Indians r e s i d i n g o f f - r e s e r v e i s presented, followed by a p r o f i l e of Tanakteuk Band members. The t h i r d p a r t d i s c u s s e s survey r e s u l t s , i n c l u d i n g circumstances c o n t r i b u t i n g to r e l o c a t i o n from New Vancouver, the immediate impacts of r e l o c a t i o n on f a m i l i e s , a summary of Band members' c u r r e n t l i f e s t y l e s , and an assessment of support among Band members f o r the re-establishment of a community i n New Vancouver. P r i o r to a d i s c u s s i o n of survey r e s u l t s , s e v e r a l p o i n t s must be made. Although there are many examples of Indian communities a c r o s s Canada which were r e l o c a t e d i n e n t i r e t y , to make way f o r a h y d r o - e l e c t r i c dam f o r example, such i s not the case with i n h a b i t a n t s of New Vancouver and other Kwakiutl communities i n the r e g i o n . Instead, and f a r l e s s dramatic, as a r e s u l t of trends d e s c r i b e d i n Chapters Two and Three, f a m i l i e s q u i e t l y packed t h e i r belongings and s c a t t e r e d to communities ac r o s s Vancouver I s l a n d . U n l i k e members of other Indian bands who have the op t i o n of r e t u r n i n g to communities on-reserve should an urban l i f e s t y l e be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , the Kwakiutl bands such as the Tanakteuk lack t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e . Houses and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e on-reserve have d e t e r i o r a t e d to the p o i n t where d w e l l i n g s are no longer h a b i t a b l e . Because these Kwakiutl Indians do not r e s i d e on r e s e r v e , they are not e n t i t l e d to b e n e f i t s which are d e r i v e d from reserve 8 6 s t a t u s , such as r e c e i p t of Band support program funds f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of c a p i t a l and s o c i a l programs, h o u s i n g and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s u b s i d i e s , o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , and exemption from p r o p e r t y t a x . They a r e , however, e n t i t l e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e and m e d i c a l b e n e f i t s s i m i l a r t o any s t a t u s I n d i a n l i v i n g o f f - r e s e r v e . P r o f i l e of the Canadian Off-Reserve P o p u l a t i o n In Canada, the o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n has grown s t e a d i l y from the 1966 l e v e l of 42,000 t o almost 100,000 persons i n 1981. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s 30% of the t o t a l Canadian s t a t u s I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n ( S i g g n e r , 1986). In comparison t o o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia has the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of i t s n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g o f f - r e s e r v e . The young working-age group between 25 y e a r s and 44 y e a r s c o n t i n u e t o show the g r e a t e s t tendency' t o r e s i d e o f f - r e s e r v e . The e f f e c t s of the June, 1985 l e g i s l a t i o n t o amend the I n d i a n A c t ( B i l l C-31) on the p r o p o r t i o n of I n d i a n s l i v i n g on-and o f f - r e s e r v e have y e t t o be e v a l u a t e d . Depending on demographic, s o c i a l , h o u s i n g , and economic c o n d i t i o n s both on- and o f f - r e s e r v e , m i g r a t i o n t o urban c e n t e r s i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e (DIAND, 1980). M i g r a t i o n between r e s e r v e s and urban c e n t e r s can occur s e v e r a l times t hroughout an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e ( N a g l e r , 1975). L e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t among o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s appear t o be w e l l below those of the average Canadian, but are 87 h i g h e r than t h a t of o n - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s . Twenty p e r c e n t of o f f -r e s e r v e I n d i a n s have p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n B.C., i n comparison t o 13% of o n - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s ( S i g g n e r , 1986). Unemployment of o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s i s c o n s i s t e n t l y t h r e e t o f o u r times h i g h e r than t h a t of the n o n - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of the s t a t e of the n a t i o n a l economy. T h i s i s u s u a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o l a c k of t r a i n i n g , p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n employment (DIAND, 1980). On-reserve unemployment r a t e s range from 35 t o 75 p e r c e n t , u s u a l l y depending upon the p r o x i m i t y of r e s e r v e s t o urban c e n t e r s , s e a s o n a l f a c t o r s , and the d e f i n i t i o n of "non-wage" ( t r a d i t i o n a l ) p u r s u i t s . O n - r e s e r v e , the m a j o r i t y of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e s u l t from f e d e r a l or band-sponsored government i n i t i a t i v e s . O f f i c i a l l y , the unemployment r a t e i n r u r a l / r e s e r v e a r e a s i s o n l y s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than i n urban non - r e s e r v e a r e a s , a t 18 and 16 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ( S i g g n e r , 1986). Low average incomes and h i g h l e v e l s of w e l f a r e dependency f o r o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s a r e a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r h i g h unemployment r a t e s . A c c o r d i n g t o S t a n b u r y , i n 1975 about 30% depended s o l e l y on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; t w o - t h i r d s of f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s l i v e d below the p o v e r t y l i n e . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of I n d i a n s o f f - r e s e r v e l i v e i n sub-s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g . In 1980, 83% of o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s i n B.C. r e n t e d accommodation, i n comparison t o 30% n a t i o n a l l y f o r non-n a t i v e s (DIAND, 1980). Perhaps as a r e f l e c t i o n of poor h o u s i n g 88 c o n d i t i o n s and o v e r c r o w d i n g , I n d i a n s l i v i n g o f f - r e s e r v e i n B.C. were t h r e e and a h a l f t i m e s as l i k e l y t o be h o s p i t a l i z e d as non-n a t i v e s ( S t a n b u r y , 1975). C o n d i t i o n s f o r I n d i a n s l i v i n g o f f - r e s e r v e i n terms of e d u c a t i o n , employment, income and h o u s i n g appear t o be o n l y m o d e s t l y b e t t e r than f o r I n d i a n s o n - r e s e r v e (DIAND, 1980). I t must a l s o be kept i n mind t h a t o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s a r e i n e l i g i b l e f o r b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n - r e s e r v e s t a t u s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , d i r e c t comparisons between on- and o f f - r e s e r v e p o p u l a t i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t because i t i s beyond the j u r i s d i c t i o n of DIA under the I n d i a n A c t t o m a i n t a i n s t a t i s t i c s on o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s . Tanakteuk Band P r o f i l e At the end of 1987, Tanakteuk Band membership t o t a l l e d 124, i n c l u d i n g one dozen Band members r e - i n s t a t e d as a r e s u l t of B i l l C-31; a n o t h e r 17 a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e b e i n g p r o c e s s e d . S i x t y - e i g h t Band members (60%) a r e female. The p o p u l a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y young: f i f t y - o n e Band members (41%) a r e 18 y e a r s or younger; and 72 Band members (58%) a r e between 19 y e a r s and 65 y e a r s . Only one Band member i s over the age of 65 (INAC, 1988). N i n e t y p e r c e n t of Band members l i v e o f f - r e s e r v e , s c a t t e r e d t h roughout urban c e n t e r s on Vancouver I s l a n d and the Lower M a i n l a n d . The r e m a i n i n g 10% r e s i d e on o t h e r I n d i a n bands' r e s e r v e s , or a t W h e - l a - l a - u , the p a r c e l of l a n d i n A l e r t Bay s e t a s i d e f o r I n d i a n s who r e l o c a t e d from s p e c i a l a c c e s s communities 89 d u r i n g the 1960s. The Band o f f i c e i s l o c a t e d i n Campbell R i v e r . Due t o the Band's d i s p e r s i o n and in c o m p l e t e Band r e c o r d s , the whereabouts of many Band members i s unknown. T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the d i f f i c u l t y of p r e s e n t i n g an a c c u r a t e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o f i l e of the Tanakteuk. A survey of an I n d i a n band i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the Tanakteuk (Geach, 1987), and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Tanakteuk Band members, p o i n t t o c e r t a i n t r e n d s . I n d i v i d u a l s 40 y e a r s or over have had l i t t l e ' f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . Those between 19 and 40 y e a r s have a c h i e v e d a h i g h e r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d , w i t h most h a v i n g p a r t i a l l y completed h i g h s c h o o l . Only a h a n d f u l of Mam a l e l e q a l a and Tanakteuk Band members have a t t e n d e d p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . The t r a i n i n g and s k i l l s of Tanakteuk Band members who l i v e i n and around Campbell R i v e r and A l e r t Bay r e f l e c t t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e s o u r c e base of the a r e a . The f i s h i n g and f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r i e s have been i m p o r t a n t f o r t r a i n i n g and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . Many male Band members have worked i n both i n d u s t r i e s , f i s h i n g d u r i n g the summer months and l o g g i n g d u r i n g the o f f - s e a s o n . S e v e r a l female Band members have t r a i n i n g i n a c c o u n t i n g , bookkeeping and s e c r e t a r i a l work. The m a j o r i t y of female Tanakteuk Band members a r e p r i m a r i l y homemakers, s e v e r a l of whom a r e m a r r i e d t o n o n - n a t i v e s . A few of the younger women are s i n g l e mothers dependent on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . In g e n e r a l , the Campbell R i v e r - b a s e d Tanakteuk Band members 90 have a more s t a b l e employment h i s t o r y than e i t h e r the P o r t M c N e i l l - A l e r t Bay group or the Vancouver group. The m a j o r i t y of Band members l i v i n g i n the Campbell R i v e r a r e a a re f i s h e r m e n , which a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e incomes. Those i n P o r t M c N e i l l and A l e r t Bay r e l y more on s e a s o n a l work. Unemployment b e n e f i t s a r e o f t e n c o l l e c t e d i n between p e r i o d s of work. The unemployment r a t e i n the Campbell R i v e r a r e a i s much lower than t h a t of the A l e r t Bay a r e a . W i t h one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n , Band members based i n Vancouver have a v e r y poor employment h i s t o r y . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l s t h a t of most Canadian n a t i v e s l i v i n g i n urban c e n t e r s . The Survey In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the C h i e f and Band Manager of the Tanakteuk Band, a survey was d e s i g n e d by the auth o r i n f o u r p a r t s t o d e t e r m i n e : 1) the c i r c u m s t a n c e s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o a f a m i l y ' s d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e New Vancouver i n the l a t e 1960s; 2) the immediate impacts of r e l o c a t i o n on the l i v e s of Band members; 3) what Band members l i v e s a re l i k e t o d a y ; and 4) the l e v e l of support f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a community a t New Vancouver. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent t o the 26 heads of households on the Band membership l i s t whose c u r r e n t a d d r e s s e s a r e known, a l o n g w i t h an e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r s i g n e d by Ann G l e n d a l e , a C o u n c i l l o r and Band Manager. R e p l i e s were t o be r e t u r n e d w i t h i n a month i n the s e l f -a d d r e s s e d , stamped envelope p r o v i d e d . 91 Responses were r e c e i v e d from s i x of the 26 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A f t e r an ample amount of time had passed, 13 heads of households who had not r e p l i e d t o the m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c o n t a c t e d i n p e r s o n or by t e l e p h o n e . The o t h e r seven heads of households were no l o n g e r a t the g i v e n a d d r e s s , and t h e i r whereabouts were unknown. In t o t a l , the o p i n i o n s of 19 heads of households were g a t h e r e d , r e p r e s e n t i n g a 73% response r a t e of those asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s u r v e y . A summary of survey r e s u l t s appears i n T a b l e 1 . C i r c u m s t a n c e s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o R e l o c a t i o n T h i r t e e n of the 19 i n d i v i d u a l s c o n t a c t e d s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s d e p a r t e d from New Vancouver because of the s c h o o l c l o s u r e ; they had no c h o i c e but t o l e a v e i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n an e d u c a t i o n . Ten of the 13 r e s p o n d e n t s were c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n New Vancouver i n 1969, so the d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e was taken by t h e i r p a r e n t s . The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e of the 13 who responded i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were p a r e n t s i n New Vancouver; most of the o t h e r a d u l t s , a t the time are deceased. Three of the 19 respondents s t a t e d t h a t they l e f t i n o r d e r t o be l e s s i s o l a t e d from s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . In a s i m i l a r v e i n , two i n d i v i d u a l s responded t h a t they or t h e i r f a m i l i e s l e f t when t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s between New Vancouver and o t h e r communities i n the r e g i o n were s e v e r e d . One respondent l e f t f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . 92 TABLE 1: SURVEY RESULTS Note: Unless otherwise noted, the sample s i z e i s 19. Circumstances C o n t r i b u t i n g to R e l o c a t i o n Main reason f o r l e a v i n g New Vancouver f o r another settlement: School/no c h o i c e To be l e s s i s o l a t e d Due to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Other Did government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s contact f a m i l y p r i o r to l e a v i n g ? Yes No Too young or u n c e r t a i n Immediate Impacts of R e l o c a t i o n What was the most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g about moving? F i n d i n g a job F i n d i n g a house Nothing Other L o n l i n e s s / Meeting new people Did moving from New Vancouver r e s u l t i n p h y s i c a l or mental problems? Yes . N o How o f t e n d i d you see f r i e n d s & r e l a t i v e s ? F r e q u e n t l y Few time a year 93 TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) I f s c h o o l i n g i n New Vancouver was a v a i l a b l e , would your f a m i l y have moved anyways? Yes NO Don't know Was i t easy to f i n d work a f t e r r e l o c a t i n g ? Yes No Too young Was more or l e s s money spent on food each week? More Less Did your f a m i l y f e e l as i f they belonged i n the new community? Yes No No o p i n i o n Current L i f e s t y l e s Where you l i v e now, do you Own Rent Didn't say Address unknown ( A d d i t i o n a l 7 responses added to the sample s i z e 19, f o r a t o t a l of 26 respondents.) Are there members of your household c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s or a c t i v i t i e s to promote Indian c u l t u r e ? Yes No 94 TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) Do people i n your house speak or understand Kwakwala? Yes No Has your fam i l y ever wanted to move back to New Vancouver and l i v e as before? Yes No No o p i n i o n Support f o r Community Re-establishment I f there was an elementary school i n New Vancouver, would you want to l i v e there? Yes No Maybe If there wasn't an elementary school i n New Vancouver, would you want to l i v e there? Yes No Maybe Would you l i k e to be more i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g of a new community? Yes No Maybe Do you think that the government asks you enough about what you want f o r the fu t u r e ? Yes NO No o p i n i o n 95 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t no one i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p r i m a r y reason e i t h e r they or t h e i r f a m i l y l e f t New Vancouver was t o f i n d work. The r e s u l t s may have been d i f f e r e n t i f those who were a d u l t s a t the time had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s u r v e y . S e v e r a l Band members s t a t e d t h a t employment i n the ar e a was a v a i l a b l e , but w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o i t , t h e i r f a m i l i e s c o u l d not b e n e f i t . When asked whether the f a m i l y would have l e f t New Vancouver i f the s c h o o l had c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e i n the community, seven of the 19 Band members who responded r e p l i e d t h a t they would have r e l o c a t e d e lsewhere r e g a r d l e s s . E l e v e n r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t e i t h e r t hey or t h e i r p a r e n t s would have chosen t o s t a y i n the community i f the s c h o o l had remained open. One respondent d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . When asked whether members of the community had been c o n s u l t e d by a government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e about the s c h o o l c l o s u r e , most respondents s t a t e d t h a t they were too young a t the time t o know. Two of the t h r e e respondents who were a d u l t s i n 1969, i n c l u d i n g one of whom was on Band C o u n c i l , s t a t e d t h a t the I n d i a n Agent d i d not c o n t a c t them. The spouse of the C h i e f a t the time i n s i s t e d t h a t Band C o u n c i l had been n o t i f i e d of the d e c i s i o n . A l l Band members agree t h a t no a s s i s t a n c e t o r e l o c a t e was o f f e r e d by the government, nor was t h e r e compensation f o r p r o p e r t y abandoned as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n . When asked t o suggest what the government c o u l d have done t o 96 h e l p f a m i l i e s r e l o c a t e from New Vancouver, s e v e r a l recommendations were r e p e a t e d l y o f f e r e d : f i n a n c i a l compensation s h o u l d have been f o r t h c o m i n g ; a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g employment and a p p r o p r i a t e accommodation s h o u l d have been p r o v i d e d ; h e l p i n a d j u s t i n g t o a new c u l t u r e and l i f e s t y l e s h o u l d have been a v a i l a b l e . Almost a l l of the r e s p o n s e s were p r e f a c e d w i t h remarks t h a t Band members s h o u l d have been g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n t o s t a y i n New Vancouver or t o r e l o c a t e . Only two i n d i v i d u a l s s t a t e d t h a t i t was not the government's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a s s i s t i n any way. The Immediate Impacts of R e l o c a t i o n P r i o r t o r e l o c a t i o n , s i x f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n New Vancouver. A f t e r the c l o s u r e of the s c h o o l i n 1969, one f a m i l y w i t h no c h i l d r e n c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e on the i s l a n d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Members of the o t h e r f i v e f a m i l i e s moved t o Campbell R i v e r , F o r t R u p e r t , Nanaimo, A l e r t Bay, V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, depending on the l o c a t i o n of extended f a m i l y members. Thus, i n r e p l y t o the q u e s t i o n whether f a m i l y t i e s were a f f e c t e d by r e l o c a t i o n , most responded t h a t they c o n t i n u e d t o see f a m i l y and f r i e n d s f r e q u e n t l y , or a t l e a s t s e v e r a l times a y e a r . E l e v e n of the 19 respondents i d e n t i f i e d problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h meeting people and a d j u s t i n g t o a m o s t l y n o n - n a t i v e environment as t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y r e s u l t i n g from the r e l o c a t i o n . Most of the r e s p o n d e n t s were c h i l d r e n a t the time of 97 the move, and c o n s e q u e n t l y were e n r o l l e d i n a much l a r g e r s c h o o l than the one l e f t b e h i n d i n New Vancouver. Three respondents i d e n t i f i e d problems w i t h f i n d i n g work as the major d i f f i c u l t y . One respondent d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . Four respondents s t a t e d t h a t they d i d not f a c e any d i f f i c u l t i e s . Twelve of the 19 re s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d the move from New Vancouver as r e s u l t i n g i n p h y s i c a l or mental problems f o r members of t h e i r f a m i l i e s , i n comparison t o seven who r e p l i e d t h a t r e l o c a t i o n d i d not a f f e c t t h e i r p h y s i c a l or mental h e a l t h . No one was aware of any s u i c i d e s t h a t c o u l d be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o r e l o c a t i o n . Nine of the 19 respondents s t a t e d t h a t they d i d not f e e l as i f they belonged i n t h e i r new community. S i x people d i d not have an o p i n i o n , and f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s f e l t as i f they belonged i n t h e i r new s u r r o u n d i n g s . In response t o the q u e s t i o n "Was i t easy t o f i n d work a f t e r moving from New Vancouver", e i g h t of the 19 respondents s t a t e d t h a t t hey were e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l a t the t i m e . Three people r e p l i e d t h a t they o b t a i n e d employment soon a f t e r l e a v i n g New Vancouver, w h i l e e i g h t p e o p l e responded t h a t they had d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a j o b . Not i n c l u d i n g the e i g h t s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a t the t i m e , e i g h t of the 11 i n d i v i d u a l s who were employable a t the t i m e , had d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g work. A l l of the respondents s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r f a m i l i e s spent more money on food each week a f t e r l e a v i n g New Vancouver. 98 C u r r e n t L i f e s t y l e s Most of the 19 respondents s t a t e d t h a t they l i k e d where they c u r r e n t l y l i v e , a l t h o u g h a few mentioned t h a t d e s p i t e the p a s s i n g of 20 y e a r s , they s t i l l miss the c l o s e t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d between f a m i l y and f r i e n d s i n New Vancouver. Seven of the 19 respondents own homes o f f - r e s e r v e ; f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s r e n t accommodation o f f - r e s e r v e . S i x r e s p o n d e n t s r e n t accommodations o n - r e s e r v e , m o s t l y i n W h e - l a - l a - u ; two p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t the seven respondents who were sent s u r v e y s but whose whereabouts a r e c u r r e n t l y unknown do not own t h e i r homes, s i n c e the i n d i v i d u a l s were no l o n g e r l i v i n g a t the a d d r e s s . I t i s e s t i m a t e d , t h e n , t h a t a t l e a s t 17 of the 26 heads of households do not own t h e i r own homes. Seventeen of the 19 respondents are not i n v o l v e d i n any o r g a n i z a t i o n or a c t i v i t i e s t o promote I n d i a n c u l t u r e , w h i l e two p e o p l e a r e i n v o l v e d . S l i g h t l y more than h a l f of the r e s p o n d e n t s do not speak or u n d e r s t a n d Kwakwala, most l i k e l y the younger members of the h o u s e h o l d s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s of Band members whose whereabouts are unknown cannot be d e t e r m i n e d . When asked whether t h e i r f a m i l y has ever wanted t o move back t o New Vancouver and l i v e as b e f o r e , t e n of the 19 r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d y e s , s i x s a i d no, and t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s had no o p i n i o n . When 99 asked t o i d e n t i f y what i t i s t h a t i s missed about t h e i r l i v e s i n New Vancouver, s e v e r a l r esponses were g i v e n : the sense of community and "oneness" w i t h the l a n d , c u l t u r e , f r i e n d s and f a m i l y ; the peace and q u i e t t h a t was r e c a l l e d ; and the sense of w e l l - b e i n g and h e a l t h i n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s u b s i s t e n c e l i f e s t y l e . Support f o r Community R e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t The c u r r e n t C h i e f and C o u n c i l w i s h t o e v a l u a t e the l e v e l of support among Tanakteuk Band members f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the community of New Vancouver. In the l e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n accompanying the s u r v e y , Band members were not asked f o r a d e f i n i t e committment t o move, but t o i n d i c a t e whether they a re i n t e r e s t e d i n the p o s s i b i l i t y . At t h i s t i m e , s p e c i f i c p l a n s or s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d not be proposed, except t o s t a t e t h a t employment would be based on f i s h i n g , f o r e s t r y and t o u r i s m , w i t h a s s i s t a n c e f o r i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and f u n d i n g r e q u e s t e d from the government. In response t o the q u e s t i o n " I f t h e r e WAS an ele m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n the community, would you want t o l i v e t h e r e ? " , f i v e heads of households r e p l i e d y e s , seven r e p l i e d no, and the o t h e r seven heads of households were u n c e r t a i n . Because no s p e c i f i c p l a n s c o u l d be proposed a t t h i s t i m e , the h i g h r a t e of u n c e r t a i n t y among respond e n t s i s t o be e x p e c t e d . In r e p l y t o the q u e s t i o n of whether t h e r e would be i n t e r e s t i n l i v i n g i n New Vancouver i f t h e r e WASN'T an el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l on the i s l a n d , f o u r heads of 100 h o u s e h o l d s r e p l i e d y e s , t en r e p l i e d no, and f i v e were u n c e r t a i n . Nine of the 19 respondents would l i k e t o be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g of a new community; seven were not i n t e r e s t e d , and t h r e e were u n c e r t a i n . I n d i v i d u a l s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g l i s t e d a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s needed t o b u i l d and m a i n t a i n the community as a v i a b l e economic u n i t : o p e r a t i n g heavy equipment, h o u s e - b u i l d i n g , plumbing, i n s t a l l i n g e l e c t r i c a l w i r i n g , book-k e e p i n g , a c c o u n t i n g , l o g g i n g , and commercial f i s h i n g . In response t o the q u e s t i o n "Does the government ask you enough about what you want f o r the f u t u r e ? " , t w e l v e heads of households r e p l i e d no, one s a i d y e s , and s i x d e c l i n e d t o answer. Comparison of Tanakteuks' Responses to C l a s s i c Responses The impacts of f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n on n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s and communities have been well-documented ( B u f f i n g t o n e t a l . , 1974; Johnson & Burdge, 1974; Burdge & L u d t k e , 1973; N a p i e r , 1973; W i l s o n , 1973; C o l o n y , 1972; F e l l m a n & B r a n d t , 1970; Wadel, 1969; I v e r s o n & Matthews, 1968; T h u r s z , 1966; Kemp, 1965; F r i e d , 1963). Some of the e f f e c t s of r e l o c a t i o n a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s ; d i s r u p t i o n of s o c i a l t i e s and e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l p a t t e r n s ; changes i n h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t e n u r e and c o s t s ; changes i n l o c a t i o n c a u s i n g changes i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o j o b s , s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s ; and changes i n . the economic s i t u a t i o n of r e l o c a t e e s . In g e n e r a l , the poor and members of m i n o r i t y groups s u f f e r the g r e a t e s t h a r d s h i p i n r e l o c a t i o n ( F i n s t e r b u s c h , 1980). 101 For Tanakteuk Band members, the e f f e c t s of r e l o c a t i o n from the community of New Vancouver a r e s i m i l a r t o those d e s c r i b e d i n the s t u d i e s l i s t e d above. C e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s a r e happy w i t h the e v e n t u a l outcomes of r e l o c a t i o n , and o t h e r s c o n t i n u e t o g r i e v e f o r t h e i r l o s t homes. A l t h o u g h the community was not f o r c i b l y r e l o c a t e d , the m a j o r i t y of Band members f e l t as i f t h e y d i d not have a c h o i c e about l e a v i n g b e h i n d t h e i r homes i n New Vancouver, as demonstrated i n the su r v e y ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of b e i n g f o r c i b l y r e l o c a t e d a r e v a l i d . Tanakteuk Band members s u f f e r e d from p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and a d r a m a t i c change i n s o c i a l p a t t e r n s from r e l o c a t i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Band members, the m a j o r i t y were t h r u s t i n t o an environment which they were c u l t u r a l l y unprepared f o r , and the shock of adjustment t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y was g r e a t . The m a j o r i t y of Band members f e l t unwelcome i n t h e i r new communities, and, r e l a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n p h y s c i a l and mental problems of f a m i l y members t o the f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the survey i s unable t o d etermine whether t h e r e was a d i r e c t i n c r e a s e i n a l c o h o l i s m or i n c i d e n c e s of s u i c i d e among Tanakteuk Band members r e s u l t i n g from r e l o c a t i o n , o t h e r s t u d i e s of n a t i v e communities have documented t h i s ( S h k i l n y k , 1985; Dickman,. 1969; L a i , 1969; Landa, 1969). In i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Band members, most i n d i c a t e d t h a t t hey d i d not e x p e r i e n c e a t r a u m a t i c d i s r u p t i o n i n f a m i l y t i e s , a l t h o u g h t h i s may be. more of a f u n c t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l l y h a v i n g extended f a m i l y i n many communities. 102 Band members e x p e r i e n c e d changes i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o j o b s , s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n . Whether the impacts have been p o s i t i v e i s d e b a t a b l e , and the argument i s l a d e n w i t h v a l u e judgements. Access t o s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s improved. Access t o t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s was s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d i n urban c e n t e r s , nor was i t as easy t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l e v e n t s i n a n o n - n a t i v e environment. As f o r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , n e a r l y h a l f of those surveyed s t a t e d t h a t i t was not easy f o r them t o f i n d work upon r e l o c a t i n g t o urban c e n t e r s . Many Band members are c u r r e n t l y employed as f i s h e r m e n , an economic a c t i v i t y t h a t was pursued p r i o r t o r e l o c a t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s s t i l l r e q u i r e unemployment b e n e f i t s t o supplement wages o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h s e a s o n a l l a b o u r as l o g g e r s . P r e v i o u s l y i t was s t a t e d t h a t the unemployment r a t e f o r on- and o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s c u r r e n t l y does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t Tanakteuk Band members b e n e f i t t e d from improved a c c e s s t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n . As d e s c r i b e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t s of r e l o c a t i o n , p e o p l e who a r e f o r c i b l y moved may e x p e r i e n c e changes i n economic c o n d i t i o n s . S e v e r a l o f f - r e s e r v e Tanakteuk Band members must r e l y on s o c i a l , a s s i s t a n c e , s i m i l a r t o I n d i a n s c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g on-r e s e r v e . O f f - r e s e r v e Band members can no l o n g e r e a s i l y supplement t h e i r d i e t s w i t h food from t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and thus 103 e x p e n d i t u r e s on food have i n c r e a s e d . Perhaps one of the most n o t i c e a b l e r e s u l t s from r e l o c a t i o n f o r Tanakteuk Band members has been i n changes i n c o n d i t i o n s i n h o u s i n g , t e n u r e and c o s t s of accommodation. At l e a s t 17 of the 26 heads of households c u r r e n t l y do not own t h e i r own homes; p r i o r t o r e l o c a t i o n from New Vancouver, a l l of the heads of households owned t h e i r homes. G r a n t e d , t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l band membership, and i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t most I n d i a n s on-r e s e r v e today f a c e s e r i o u s o v e r c r o w d i n g , and l o n g w a i t i n g l i s t s f o r q u a l i t y accommodation. However, o f f - r e s e r v e s t a t u s I n d i a n s a r e not e n t i t l e d t o the same h o u s i n g b e n e f i t s extended t o on-r e s e r v e I n d i a n s under the I n d i a n A c t . In c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a d e n i a l of o t h e r r i g h t s extended t o o n - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s such as t a x exemption and band s u p p o r t programs, i t would seem t h a t the s i t u a t i o n of Tanakteuk Band members has not s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n from New Vancouver Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r , the r e s u l t s of a survey sent t o the 26 known heads of households on the Tanakteuk Band membership l i s t were e v a l u a t e d t o determine the impacts of r e l o c a t i o n , and t o e v a l u a t e support f o r the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the community of New Vancouver. Responses were o b t a i n e d from 19 of 26 i n d i v i d u a l s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a response r a t e of 73%. The e v a l u a t i o n of the survey r e s u l t s would be s t r e n g t h e n e d i f 104 a l l Band members p a r t i c i p a t e d . However> because of the Band's d i s p e r s i o n and poor r e c o r d s , t h i s i s not f e a s i b l e . In a d d i t o n , the m a j o r i t y of respondents were c h i l d r e n i n 1969, and many a d u l t s a t the time of the r e l o c a t i o n a r e now deceased. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine what e f f e c t s n o s t a l g i a has had on the r e f l e c t i o n s of Band members' r e s p o n s e s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s e c a v e a t s , based on the survey r e s u l t s , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Band members, and s t a t i s t i c s on the s o c i o -economic c o n d i t i o n s of o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e whether the o b j e c t i v e s of p l a n n i n g and development i n i t i a t i v e s taken by DIA d u r i n g the 1960s were a c h i e v e d : t o improve I n d i a n s ' a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s , f a c i l i t i e s and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and t o speed the p r o c e s s of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . Undoubtedly I n d i a n s such as Tanakteuk Band members have r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s from r e l o c a t i n g t o urban c e n t e r s . J u d g i n g from the d e c l i n e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s , and the d e c l i n i n g a b i l i t y t o communicate i n n a t i v e l a nguages, c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o non-n a t i v e s o c i e t y has been f a c i l i t a t e d . Only a m i n o r i t y - of Tanakteuk Band, members p a r t i c i p a t e i n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s today ( p e r s . com. G l e n d a l e , 1988). Whether employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s were enhanced by r e l o c a t i n g t o urban c e n t e r s from New Vancouver i s not c e r t a i n . Band members i d e n t i f i e d t h a t they f a c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g j o b s i n t h e i r new l o c a t i o n s , and i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o demonstrate c l e a r l y t h a t 105 the s o cio-economic c o n d i t i o n of Band members 20 y e a r s l a t e r i s s u p e r i o r t o what i t would have been had the community of New Vancouver c o n t i n u e d t o e x i s t . The q u a l i t y of l i f e has been d r a m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d , but whether i t has improved i s d e b a t a b l e . 1 06 "You don't s o l v e a community problem by e l i m i n a t i n g the community." A. McDonough on the r e l o c a t i o n of A f r i c v i l l e , a community of b l a c k Nova S c o t i a n s i n The Globe & M a i l J u l y 2, 1988 1 07 CHAPTER FIVE: DEVELOPMENT AND POLICY APPROACHES IN THE 1980S In i n t r o d u c i n g t h i s c h a p t e r , two adages come t o mind, namely "You c a n ' t go home a g a i n " ; and "Home i s where the h e a r t i s . " The c o n f l i c t between t h e s e two st a t e m e n t s i s a p p a r e n t . For many K w a k i u t l who have been r e l o c a t e d from communities i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l homelands, i f t h i s i s where t h e i r h e a r t s a r e , then they must go home a g a i n . The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s c h a p t e r a r e : 1) t o e v a l u a t e some a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r I n d i a n development, i n c l u d i n g an assessment of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e - i n h a b i t a t i o n of homelands, u s i n g the Tanakteuk community of New Vancouver as a case s t u d y ; 2) t o examine o f f i c i a l DIA p o l i c y on the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communities as a mechanism f o r development; and 3) t o c o n s i d e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t DIA p o l i c y has f o r the development of the Tanakteuk Band, and o t h e r I n d i a n bands i n the f u t u r e . T h i s c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o two p a r t s . In the f i r s t p a r t , c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l a s sumptions a r e i d e n t i f i e d , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of c r i t e r i a t o e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s of development i n i t i a t i v e s . These c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d t o the orthodox development approach c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of DIA p o l i c y . A d e s c r i p t i o n of an a l t e r n a t i v e development approach t h a t i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e ensues. In t he second p a r t of the c h a p t e r , v a r i o u s development s c e n a r i o s t h a t an I n d i a n band w i t h o u t a c o m m u n i t y — s u c h as the 108 Tanakteuk—may w i s h t o c o n s i d e r a r e p r e s e n t e d and e v a l u a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d . D i s c u s s i o n then f o c u s e s on the r a t i o n a l e f o r s u p p o r t i n g the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communities, u s i n g New Vancouver as an example. A f t e r t h i s , the f o r m u l a t i o n of a community development s t r a t e g y f o r the Tanakteuk i s s u g g e s t e d , and the argument i s made f o r DIA support of a community. The Department's c u r r e n t p o l i c y on e x t e n d i n g s u p p o r t f o r the r e -e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "new" communities i s then p r e s e n t e d , and i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s p o l i c y f o r the Tanakteuk Band, as w e l l as o t h e r I n d i a n bands i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s , are d i s c u s s e d . C r i t i c a l Assumptions The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s u n d e r l a i d by s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s . I n d i a n c u l t u r e and i n h e r e n t v a l u e s on which i t i s based a r e d i s t i n c t from t h a t of o t h e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s i n Canada. I n i t i a t i v e s must be taken by n a t i v e s and n o n - n a t i v e s a l i k e t o a p p r e c i a t e and s t r e n g t h e n t h a t c u l t u r e , which i s i n v a l u a b l e t o a l l Canadians. As Canada's f i r s t i n h a b i t a n t s , I n d i a n c i t i z e n s s h o u l d e n j o y s p e c i a l r i g h t s , such as s e l f -government and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l a t r o c i t i e s committed by n o n - n a t i v e s a g a i n s t the I n d i a n p e o p l e over the p a s t one hundred y e a r s does not c o n s t i t u t e s u f f i c i e n t r e t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e s e wrongdoings. F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments must ta k e a d d i t i o n a l 109 measures of f i n a n c i a l compensation f o r s t o l e n r e s o u r c e s , and c o n t i n u e support f o r m e a n i n g f u l development i n i t i a t i v e s . C r i t e r i a t o E v a l u a t e Development I n i t i a t i v e s E a r l y development s t r a t e g i e s f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on economic growth; i t was assumed t h a t a n a t i o n a l growth i n per c a p i t a income would, i n t i m e , l e a d t o the s o l u t i o n of o t h e r problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h underdevelopment such as p o v e r t y and the i n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income and s e r v i c e s ( A l l e n & A n z a l o n e , 1981; Sameter, 1984). However, the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t economic growth has not worked as e x p e c t e d l e d t o the q u e s t i o n i n g of assumptions on which t h i s concept of development i s based. W i t h i n the pa s t twenty y e a r s , many d e f i n i t i o n s of development r e c o g n i z e the i n c r e a s e s i n d e s i r e f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s e l f -r e l i a n c e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and a sense of purpose i n l i f e and work as b e i n g the essence of development (Wien, 1986). The s i t u a t i o n of n a t i v e people i n Canada as an underdeveloped s o c i e t y i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the problems of many T h i r d World i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s . W h i l e the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r development may be u n i v e r s a l , the " b a s i c needs" approach t o development f a v o u r e d by many i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the 1980s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r Canadian I n d i a n s : i n f l u e n c e d by consumption e x p e c t a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s , Canadian n a t i v e s w i s h t o a c h i e v e a s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g 110 which i s a t l e a s t c o n v e r g e n t w i t h our n a t i o n a l norms. To e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s of development i n i t i a t i v e s i n Canada, the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a must be met: development must proceed under l o c a l ( t h a t i s , I n d i a n ) c o n t r o l ; p r o j e c t s must meet l o c a l p r i o r i t i e s and needs; development p l a n s must b u i l d an i n t e g r a t e d economy; and i n i t i a t i v e s must emphasize c o l l e c t i v e ownership and c o n t r o l ( W h i t t i n g t o n , 1986; Wien, 1986; F r i d e r e s , 1983; Usher, 1978; S t a n l e y , 1978; B e r g e r , 1977; W a t k i n s , 1977). An emphasis on the use of s m a l l - s c a l e , l e s s c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e forms of p r o d u c t i o n which m i n i m i z e impacts on the environment may a l s o be i n c l u d e d as a c r i t e r i o n . Economic development schemes f o r I n d i a n s must be i n i t i a t e d and c o n t r o l l e d by I n d i a n s (Usher, 1978; F r i d e r e s , 1983). T h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n would cease or t h a t m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s would not be i n v o l v e d ; c a p i t a l and t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e m e n t s i n some i n d u s t r i e s would d i c t a t e o t h e r w i s e . But c o n t r o l over the development p r o c e s s , and c l e a r o w nership of the l a n d and r e s o u r c e s would enable I n d i a n s t o c o n t r o l the pace and. purpose of d e v e l o p m e n t a l a c t i v i t y . T h i s would enable them t o c a p t u r e r e s o u r c e r e n t s , t o d e v e l o p backward and f o r w a r d l i n k a g e s w i t h a view t o b u i l d i n g a more d i v e r s i f i e d economy, and t o pursue development p a t t e r n s t h a t a re c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r c u l t u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i o r i t i e s (Wien, 1986). A major o b j e c t i v e of development must be t o s a t i s f y the needs 111 and p r i o r i t i e s of l o c a l p eople as opposed t o o u t s i d e needs (Weaver, 1978). A c c o r d i n g t o W h i t t i n g t o n (1986), the i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of economic development f o r n a t i v e s a r e : the g e n e r a t i o n of n a t i v e employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; the t r a i n i n g and development of n a t i v e s i n the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n economic development schemes; the p r o v i s i o n of l o c a l s e r v i c e s ; and the s t i m u l a t i o n of the l o c a l economy. A c c o r d i n g t o Wien (1986), development p l a n s need t o be i n t e g r a t e d i n a t l e a s t two r e s p e c t s : modern and t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s need t o be d e v e l o p e d t o g e t h e r , r a t h e r than one a t the expense of the o t h e r ; and v a r i o u s s e c t o r a l development s t r a t e g i e s need t o be i n t e g r a t e d , so t h a t c o m p l e m e n t a r i t i e s r e s u l t . T h i s would a l s o enhance the s e c u r i t y of the l o c a l economy, e l i m i n a t i n g over-dependence on the d i c t a t e s of w o r l d market p r i c e s f o r a s i n g l e commodity. • I n i t i a t i v e s t h a t emphasize c o l l e c t i v e o wnership and c o n t r o l a r e a l s o e s s e n t i a l ( P o n t i n g , 1986; M a c k i e , 1986). I n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p , or c o m p e t i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , i s an approach t h a t y i e l d s b e n e f i t s f o r the few a t the expense of many, and l e a d s t o the f o r m a t i o n of e l i t e f a m i l i e s and extreme i n e q u a l i t i e s (Wien, 1986). F r i d e r e s (1983) argues t h a t n a t i v e s must r e j e c t the i d e a of i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p because t h i s l e a v e s the economic s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s dominated by n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y i n t a c t . N a t i v e development i n i t i a t i v e s s h o u l d emphasize s m a l l - s c a l e , 112 l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e p r o j e c t s and forms of p r o d u c t i o n (Usher, 1978) d e s i g n e d t o u t i l i z e l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e p l e n t i f u l , and t o c o n s e r v e r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e s c a r c e . Berger (1977) s t a t e s t h a t n a t i v e s want a h e a l t h y economy based on renewable r e s o u r c e s because such development i s more s u i t e d t o m a i n t a i n i n g , and perhaps s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r s o c i a l f a b r i c and not d e s t r o y i n g the environment on which t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e based. In a d d i t i o n , renewable r e s o u r c e development c o u l d a c t as a b u f f e r t o p r o t e c t n a t i v e s from the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l and economic impacts of l a r g e - s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l development, w i t h i t s s i t e - s p e c i f i c , non-renewable r e s o u r c e economy, and i t s t y p i c a l boom-and-bust c y c l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n the n o r t h . C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o Orthodox Development Approaches Orthodox development approaches which form the b a s i s of DIA p o l i c y do not meet the c r i t e r i a d i s c u s s e d above (Wien, 1986). Department p e r s o n n e l l a r g e l y d e c i d e which p r o j e c t s a r e e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e i n the community, w i t h l i t t l e i n p u t from I n d i a n s ; f i s c a l c o n t r o l r e s t s w i t h DIA p e r s o n n e l ; p r o j e c t s are s e c t o r a l i n n a t u r e , and e x p o r t - b a s e d i n o r i e n t a t i o n ( L i t h m a n , 1982). A $345 m i l l i o n N a t i v e Economic Development Fund was e s t a b l i s h e d t o promote n a t i v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n 1983; however, t h i s program emphasizes i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , not community economic development. ( A c c o r d i n g t o The Globe & M a i l (August 24, 1988), l e s s than h a l f of the funds a l l o c a t e d t o the 113 f i v e - y e a r program have been r e l e a s e d as of August 1988. The program i s due to e x p i r e i n March 1989.) Lithman (1982) argues that DIA i s more concerned with the development of i t s own agenda than with i t s c l i e n t e l e . He suggests that DIA personnel have e s t a b l i s h e d an i n t e r n a l system of rewards which has very l i t t l e to do with the rewards of t h e i r work f o r Indian communities; t h i s system measures success based on advancing one's p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the f e d e r a l bureaucracy r a t h e r than promoting development i n Indian communities. N e i t h e r i s the mode of DIA o p e r a t i o n s designed to make personnel r e s p o n s i b l e or committed to the development of s p e c i f i c communities. Lithman adds that the a c t i o n s of DIA personnel are designed to p r o t e c t t h e i r adherence to euro-Canadian values, not to Indian communities, and t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s to the f a i l u r e of DIA orthodox development approaches. P r o j e c t s are judged s o l e l y by economic c r i t e r i a , r e g a r d l e s s of other f a c t o r s , such as s k i l l s a c q u i s i t i o n , which may c o n t r i b u t e to the o v e r a l l development of i n d i v i d u a l s or communities. An examination of the DIA budget r e v e a l s that the Department's approach to development has been to supply goods and s e r v i c e s (INAC, 1987). Almost a l l of the budget i s devoted to the p r o v i s i o n of wel f a r e , housing, and education. These expenditures are remedial i n nature, and the p r o p o r t i o n of the f e d e r a l budget going to developmental or p r e v e n t a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i s estimated to 114 be o n l y s i x t o f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t (DIAND, 1980). C l e a r l y , DIA's approach s a t i s f i e s the b a s i c needs of most I n d i a n s , but does l i t t l e t o a d d r e s s the broader i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h development. The r e s u l t s of t h i s type of "development" a r e d e s p a i r , dependency, and the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a b r i c of I n d i a n communities ( S h k i l n y k , 1985). P o v e r t y and the e f f e c t s of anomie, such as a l c o h o l i s m , c h i l d abuse and s u i c i d e a r e p e r p e t u a t e d . As p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter Four, the soc i o - e c o n o m i c p r o f i l e of on- and o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s , i n comparison t o t h a t of n o n - n a t i v e Canadians, i l l u s t r a t e s the f a i l u r e of p a s t approaches. In g e n e r a l , orthodox development t h e o r i e s r e s u l t i n c l a s s i n e q u i t i e s and c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n (Wien, 1986). The p a t t e r n of e x t e r n a l f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l dependency on the f e d e r a l government must be br o k e n , and the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of I n d i a n r e s o u r c e s by the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s must s t o p . Because the n a t u r e of dependency, and the ends and means of s e l f - r e l i a n c e a re not merely economic, the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s p r e s e n t l y s u p p o r t i n g dependent development must a l s o change. A n a r r o w l y f o c u s e d , top-down approach i s no l o n g e r a c c e p t a b l e t o n a t i v e communities ( S i n c l a i r , 1985). What then i s the s o l u t i o n ? An A l t e r n a t i v e Approach t o Development A consensus about an a l t e r n a t i v e approach t o I n d i a n development has appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e over the p a s t decade (Anderson & Boot h r o y d , 1984). Two examples of t h i s new t h i n k i n g a re A 115 S t r a t e g y f o r the Socio-Economic Development of I n d i a n P e o p l e , p u b l i s h e d j o i n t l y by the N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d (NIB) and DIA i n 1977, and the Jack Beaver r e p o r t , To Have What i s One's  Own, p u b l i s h e d i n 1979. The Beaver r e p o r t ' s two major p o l i c y recommendations were f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of I n d i a n s e l f -government, and f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of community-based p l a n n i n g and development; the l a t t e r presumes adequate money, t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e s t o implement p l a n s . The p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n i s bottom up, complemented by top-down d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of p l a n n i n g c o n t r o l from government. Under t h i s a p proach, DIA would be r e s t r u c t u r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e development, not i n i t i a t e or c o n t r o l i t s p r o c e e d i n g s , which become a f u n c t i o n of the community. The recommendations f o r I n d i a n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c development s t r a t e g i e s d i s c u s s e d i n the N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d ' s r e p o r t i n 1977 a r e s i m i l a r t o those made i n the Beaver r e p o r t . The NIB r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t development s h o u l d f o c u s on s e r v i n g the i n t e r e s t s and needs of the community, r a t h e r than those of o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s , or those of the i n d i v i d u a l . Enhanced l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and l o c a l p l a n n i n g a r e the predominant o b j e c t i v e s of the proposed NIB s t r a t e g y . The r e p o r t s t r e s s e s t h a t g r e a t e r emphasis must be p l a c e d on d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o j e c t s which s u p p o r t s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y as opposed t o the predominant w e l f a r e o r i e n t a t i o n of e x i s t i n g programs. A c c o r d i n g t o the NIB r e p o r t , the r o l e of DIA s h o u l d be t o c o o r d i n a t e development i n i t i a t i v e s 116 i n I n d i a n communities. Anderson & Boothroyd (1984) have d e s c r i b e d the approach o u t l i n e d i n the Beaver r e p o r t as a s y n t h e s i s of t e r r i t o r i a l development and a systems approach. T h i s approach i n v o l v e s i n c r e a s i n g the independence of bands e c o n o m i c a l l y , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y as a p p r o p r i a t e , w h i l e a l s o t a k i n g advantage of and p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n the l a r g e r n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y , under g u i d e l i n e s based as much on the bands' own terms as on s o c i e t y ' s terms. A s y n t h e s i s of t e r r i t o r i a l development and systems approaches a t t e m p t s t o combine the advantages of b o t h , w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s of each. T e r r i t o r i a l development emphasizes a d i v e r s i f i e d economy f o c u s e d on i n t e r n a l v a r i e t y r a t h e r than community s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Weaver (1978) s t a t e s t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l development r e f e r s t o the use of an a r e a ' s r e s o u r c e s by i t s r e s i d e n t s t o meet t h e i r own n e e d s — n e e d s which are d e f i n e d by r e g i o n a l c u l t u r e , p o l i t i c a l power and economic r e s o u r c e s . The p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s of a community must be i n t e g r a t e d i n development i n i t i a t i v e s . He i d e n t i f i e s two of the major s u b s t a n t i v e components of t e r r i t o r i a l development as s e l e c t i v e c l o s u r e , t h a t i s , a t t e m p t i n g t o meet the r e g i o n ' s needs i n t e r n a l l y , and s t r a t e g i c r e g i o n a l advantage, which means l i m i t i n g development of r e s o u r c e s f o r e x p o r t t o those which e n j o y a f a v o r e d b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n f o r whatever p o l i t i c a l or economic r e a s o n s . 117 Under the t e r r i t o r i a l development a p p r o a c h , r e g i o n a l communities, r a t h e r than the s t a t e , a re the dominant p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . I n d i a n development s h o u l d i n v o l v e i n c r e a s i n g I n d i a n i n d e p e n d e n c e — a t the band or r e g i o n a l l e v e l — f r o m the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . At the community l e v e l , bands would c o n t r o l the pace and d i r e c t i o n of change, and e v a l u a t e economic development i n i t i a t i v e s a c c o r d i n g t o impacts on c u l t u r e and the environment. The t e r r i t o r i a l development approach views I n d i a n c u l t u r e as an a s s e t . In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the t e r r i t o r i a l development approach, the systems approach s t r e s s e s the need f o r p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the community i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i a l system, h a v i n g r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s o c i e t i e s throughout our w o r l d a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y and i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d . S u p p o r t e r s of the systems approach i n s i s t t h a t p r o g r e s s i s i n e v i t a b l e , and the development of c o m p l e x i t y i d e a l because i t i s more a d a p t i v e to change, and t h u s more s t a b l e ( H o l l i n g , 1978). Under such an approach, I n d i a n communities s h o u l d be encouraged t o f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n a h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d , i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , h i e r a r c h i a l and homogenizing w o r l d economy, where each r e g i o n s p e c i a l i z e s i n the p r o d u c t i o n of those goods and s e r v i c e s f o r which i t has a c o m p a r a t i v e advantage (Cunningham, 1984). Under the systems approach, band government s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d , a l t h o u g h bands s h o u l d not be f u l l y autonomous, i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t the r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l . The s t a t e p l a y s an 118 e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e as does the community or band government. Change i n I n d i a n c u l t u r e i s judged as i n e v i t a b l y good, and g e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y t o a n o n - n a t i v e environment s h o u l d not n e c e s s a r i l y be a v o i d e d . Both the t e r r i t o r i a l development approach and the systems approach s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i a d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Both share fundamental a r e a s of agreement, a l t h o u g h perhaps f o r d i f f e r i n g r e a s o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Anderson & Boothroyd (1984), both approaches agree t h a t mere r e v i s i o n of w e l f a r e s t a t e programs a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t , market f o r c e s cannot s o l v e a l l problems, development i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s , and economies are s t r e n g t h e n e d by d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . Both approaches b e l i e v e i n s t r e n g t h e n i n g t e r r i t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s m a l l e r than the s t a t e . And both approaches see the need f o r a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of DIA. Under a s y n t h e s i s of approaches, DIA would a c t as a development f a c i l i t a t o r and as an i n t e r f a c e between bands and the government. The systems approach would be taken t o d e v e l o p i n g the c o n t r a c t u a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between bands and the government, and the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l f a b r i c of the community would be s t r e n g t h e n e d i n t e r n a l l y by u s i n g the t e r r i t o r i a l development approach (Anderson & B o o t h r o y d , 1984). By combining the t e r r i t o r i a l development approach w i t h the systems approach i n I n d i a n development, i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t l o c a l change s h o u l d not 119 be h e l d up pending n a t i o n a l change, a t the same time t h a t changes made l o c a l l y may f a c i l i t a t e change i n l a r g e r systems as w e l l . Because the i n t e r n a l market on r e s e r v e s may be t o o s m a l l t o s u s t a i n v i a b l e i n d u s t r i e s , n a t i v e development i n i t i a t i v e s must be c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e d i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i n o r d e r t o s e l l t h e i r p r o d u c t s i n both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l markets ( R u f f i n g , 1979), r e g a r d l e s s of whether the t e r r i t o r i a l development or the systems approach i s emphasized. The former f a v o u r s i n t e r n a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of a community's economy so as t o reduce the need f o r i m p o r t s ; and the l a t t e r approach f a v o u r s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of c o m p e t i t i v e l y - p r i c e d e x p o r t s t o pay f o r a broad range of i m p o r t s . I t i s u l t i m a t e l y up t o community members t o d e t e r m i n e which approach b e s t s u i t s t h e i r needs and g o a l s . E v a l u a t i o n of Development S c e n a r i o s f o r the Tanakteuk In l i g h t of the a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e , what t y p e s of development s c e n a r i o s do bands w i t h o u t an o n - r e s e r v e community today c o n s i d e r as a p p r o p r i a t e ? The C h i e f and the two C o u n c i l l o r s f o r the Tanakteuk Band, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the K w a k i u t l D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l (a t r i b a l c o u n c i l of which the Tanakteuk are members) have c o n s i d e r e d f i v e o p t i o n s f o r t h e i r development. In a meeting between the C h i e f and C o u n c i l of the Band and m y s e l f , the c r i t e r i a proposed by Wien et a l were i n t r o d u c e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n , and the C h i e f and C o u n c i l agreed t o e v a l u a t e the f i v e development s c e n a r i o s f o r the purposes of t h i s 120 t h e s i s . The r e s u l t s of the d i s c u s s i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d below. Other I n d i a n bands i n a s i t u a t i o n s i m i l a r t o the T a n a k t e u k 1 s may e v a l u a t e the o p t i o n s d i f f e r e n t l y , or may c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e o p t i o n s t o those p r e s e n t e d h e r e . I t must be noted t h a t the C h i e f and C o u n c i l f a v o r e d one o p t i o n - - t h a t of community r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t - - p r i o r t o c o n s i d e r i n g the c r i t e r i a proposed i n the t h e s i s . (Of the f i v e heads of households who have i n d i c a t e d t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e t o New Vancouver as i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter Four, two s i t as members of the Tanakteuk Band C o u n c i l . ) A l t h o u g h i t would have been i d e a l t o h o l d a workshop a t t e n d e d by a l l Band members t o j o i n t l y e v a l u a t e the f i v e o p t i o n s , t h i s was f i n a n c i a l l y and l o g i s t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . However, the f i v e o p t i o n s f o r development were i n f o r m a l l y d i s c u s s e d by mysel f w i t h the 13 heads of households who were c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e or i n p e r s o n , as i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter Four. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s e s s e n t i a l . Perhaps the s i m p l e s t o p t i o n c o n s i d e r e d by the Band i s maintenance of the s t a t u s quo, t h a t i s , Band members may choose not t o pursue s p e c i f i c development i n i t i a t i v e s . The m a j o r i t y of the Band would c o n t i n u e t o l i v e o f f - r e s e r v e i n communities s c a t t e r e d throughout the p r o v i n c e . T h i s o p t i o n i m p l i e s an acceptance of the absence of a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y - c o h e s i v e community of Band members. The C h i e f and C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d t h i s o p t i o n f o r 121 Band development, s i n c e i t does n o t h i n g t o promote n a t i v e s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y or Band c o n t r o l over c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s o p t i o n f a i l s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the b u i l d i n g of an i n t e g r a t e d economy f o r Band members t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n , or r e l y upon. As i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter Four, the f i v e Tanakteuk heads of hou s e h o l d s who have i n d i c a t e d t h e i r support f o r r e l o c a t i n g t o a community i n t h e i r homeland would most l i k e l y r e j e c t t h i s o p t i o n as u n a c c e p t a b l e , s i n c e i t does not a c t i v e l y attempt t o improve t h e i r c u r r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n . The second o p t i o n t h a t the C h i e f and C o u n c i l have c o n s i d e r e d i s r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a community i n a l o c a t i o n i n c l o s e r p r o x i m i t y t o modern c o n v e n i e n c e s — p e r h a p s on a p a r c e l of l a n d near an urban c e n t e r — r a t h e r than on one of the remote Tanakteuk r e s e r v e s . T h i s o p t i o n i s f a v o u r e d by the C h i e f and C o u n c i l of the M a m a l e l e q a l a Qwe Qwa Sot Enox Band (Geach, 1987), another K w a k i u t l band whose members were r e l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s urban c e n t e r s d u r i n g the 1960s. W h i l e t h i s o p t i o n may r e s u l t i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y - c o h e s i v e community, t h r e e d i s a d v a n t a g e s were i d e n t i f i e d by the C h i e f and C o u n c i l of the Tanakteuk Band, prompting them t o r e j e c t t h i s o p t i o n f o r development. Land would have t o be p u r c h a s e d , r e q u i r i n g c a p i t a l the Band does not have. To se c u r e f i n a n c i n g , the C h i e f and C o u n c i l f e l t t h a t the independence of the Band may be compromised. In a d d i t i o n , under the c u r r e n t I n d i a n A c t , o n l y o n - r e s e r v e l a n d i s exempt from t a x a t i o n ; s p e c i a l t a x s t a t u s c o u l d r e s u l t i n the p r o d u c t i o n of cheaper goods and s e r v i c e s on-1 22 r e s e r v e , p r o v i d i n g a c o m p a r a t i v e advantage f o r e x p o r t s from band development i n i t i a t i v e s . T h i s , i n t u r n , c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o the enhancement of n a t i v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and l o c a l c o n t r o l . S hould the band c o n s i d e r the purchase of o f f - r e s e r v e l a n d , i t c o u l d t r y t o have the l a n d d e c l a r e d a r e s e r v e ; however, the C h i e f and C o u n c i l were p e s s i m i s t i c t h a t government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would agree t o do so. Indeed, i t would be a time-consuming p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , the C h i e f and C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d t h i s o p t i o n as c u l t u r a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e because i t does not s a t i s f y Band members' quest f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i n k w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l homelands. The t h i r d o p t i o n f o r development c o n s i d e r e d by the C h i e f and C o u n c i l was amalgamation w i t h a n o ther I n d i a n band i n the r e g i o n w i t h an o n - r e s e r v e community, a l l o w i n g Tanakteuk band members t o tak e advantage of b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d from o n - r e s e r v e s t a t u s . Under s e c t i o n 17 of the I n d i a n A c t , i f a m a j o r i t y of Tanakteuk Band members v o t e d t o j o i n a n o t h e r band, assuming t h a t the second band was a g r e e a b l e t o amalgamation, the Tanakteuk Band would cease t o e x i s t . Tanakteuk Band members would become members of the o t h e r Band, and Tanakteuk r e s o u r c e s would b e l o n g t o the c o l l e c t i v e of band members r e s u l t i n g from amalgamation. (Community development at W h e - l a - l a - u i n A l e r t Bay i s r u l e d o u t , however, because t h i s r e s e r v e a l r e a d y f a c e s s e r i o u s o v e r c r o w d i n g ) . The C h i e f and C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d t h i s o p t i o n because i t would r e s u l t i n the e x t i n c t i o n of the Tanakteuk Band as a d i s t i n c t 123 e n t i t y , an a c t i o n t h a t f a i l s t o enhance c o n t r o l over t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s o p t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d u n a c c e p t a b l e s i n c e i t would d e s t r o y the c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y of Band members, and do n o t h i n g t o a d d r e s s the p r i o r i t i e s and needs of the Tanakteuk Band. The C h i e f and C o u n c i l f e l t t h a t t h i s o p t i o n was as u n p a l a t a b l e as was c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y ; p r i o r t o c o n t a c t w i t h n o n - n a t i v e s , K w a k i u t l bands would r a i d each o t h e r ' s communities f o r s l a v e s and bounty, and i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t members of the Tanakteuk would w i s h t o j o i n a band w i t h which t h e r e has been p a s t r i v a l r i e s . The f o u r t h o p t i o n c o n s i d e r e d by the C h i e f and C o u n c i l was e s t a b l i s h i n g summer r e s i d e n c e s o n - r e s e r v e i n New Vancouver, and l i v i n g i n v a r i o u s urban c e n t e r s f o r the remainder of the y e a r . T h i s would a l l o w the Band t o take advantage of modern s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s such as s c h o o l s , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g l i m i t e d advantages f o r p romoting c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , and economic b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n - r e s e r v e s t a t u s . I t would a l l o w f o r n a t i v e c o n t r o l and the c o l l e c t i v e o wnership of r e s o u r c e s , and i t c o u l d promote an i n t e g r a t e d ( i f somewhat s e a s o n a l ) economy. At b e s t , though, t h i s o p t i o n i s a compromise, s i n c e any sense of community would be s e a s o n a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d . I t a l s o r e q u i r e s Band members t o i n v e s t c a p i t a l i n two communities, r a t h e r than c o n c e n t r a t i n g funds f o r development i n one l o c a t i o n . T h i s c o u l d r e p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l h a r d s h i p f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who are a l r e a d y i m p o v e r i s h e d . I t a l s o imposes c e r t a i n h a r d s h i p s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 1 24 s e a s o n a l r e l o c a t i o n e v e r y y e a r . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the C h i e f and C o u n c i l of the Tanakteuk f a v o r the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a community i n New Vancouver. T h i s was the f i f t h o p t i o n f o r development which was c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l below. R a t i o n a l e f o r the R e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a Community Based on c orrespondence w i t h f i v e Tanakteuk heads of households who have i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e , the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a community i n New Vancouver would a c c o m p l i s h s e v e r a l o b j e c t i v e s . These i n d i v i d u a l s a r e angry t h a t they have been d e n i e d support f o r what they b e l i e v e t o be t h e i r r i g h t as I n d i a n s t o pursue a t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e ; and t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e of t h e i r n a t i v e h e r i t a g e and c u l t u r e because of p r e s s u r e s t h a t promote a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y . They a r e b i t t e r about the l a c k of c o n t r o l they have had over t h e i r l i v e s i n the p a s t , and b e l i e v e t h a t the b e s t way t o r e g a i n t h e i r p r i d e and d i g n i t y as i n d i v i d u a l s and as a Band i s t o prove they a r e c a p a b l e of l o o k i n g a f t e r themselves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . These f i v e heads of households a r e unhappy w i t h the l i f e s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of urban c e n t e r s , and wish t o r e t u r n to a way of l i f e t h a t r e s p e c t s t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s w i t h the l a n d . In s h o r t , t h e s e p e o p l e want t o go home. T h e i r a n c e s t o r s have l i v e d i n and around New Vancouver f o r thousands of y e a r s , and 125 d e s p i t e the changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , they want t o share a community l i f e s t y l e based on the v a l u e s of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s . T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e t o do under c u r r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A l t h o u g h o n l y f i v e heads of households have f i r m l y e x p r e s s e d t h e i r committment t o r e l o c a t e t o New Vancouver a t t h i s t i m e , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s hope t h a t t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e w i l l s e r v e as a c a t a l y s t f o r the r e l o c a t i o n of o t h e r Band members, once the v i a b i l i t y of a community has been e s t a b l i s h e d . The C h i e f and C o u n c i l r e c o g n i z e t h a t r e l o c a t i o n t o New Vancouver would not be i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of every Band member, and r e s p e c t d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s on the a d o p t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e . They a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h a t younger Band members may not be s a t i s f i e d w i t h l i f e i n a remote community, but b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e Band members w i l l come t o a p p r e c i a t e the v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s way of l i f e as they mature. R e l o c a t i o n t o a community c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of Tanakteuk Band members would improve the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of f a m i l i e s , b u i l d c o h e s i v e n e s s , c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and community p r i d e , and i n c r e a s e the p o t e n t i a l f o r Band s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y . I t would a l l o w Band members t o g a i n c o n t r o l over t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , w h i l e meeting t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s and needs. Perhaps of g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e , t o support the argument f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i n the f u t u r e , the Band would need a s t r o n g community w i t h i n t h e i r homelands. The c u r r e n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of many I n d i a n s who l i v e i n 1 26 Vancouver and Whe - l a - l a - u a re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by poor, overcrowded h o u s i n g , o f t e n w i t h u n c e r t a i n t e n u r e and l i t t l e sense of community i d e n t i t y (Geach, 1987). As demonstrated by the survey i n Chapter Four, a t l e a s t 17 of the 26 heads of households do not own t h e i r own homes. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of b l o c k a d e s t o p r e v e n t the r e l o c a t i o n of homes from remote r e s e r v e s t o Whe-la-la-u by the N i m p k i s h Band d u r i n g the 1970s and e a r l y 1980s i s e v i d e n c e of the h o s t i l i t y i n the community t h a t Tanakteuk Band members who r e s i d e t h e r e must f a c e d a i l y . As a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r own community, Band members would f e e l as i f they t r u l y b e l o n g e d . Many Band members a r e underemployed, unemployed, or on w e l f a r e . In a d d i t i o n t o s t r e n g t h e n i n g c u l t u r a l t i e s and b u i l d i n g Band c o h e s i v e n e s s , a new community would l i k e l y p r o v i d e t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s t o many Band members by c r e a t i n g j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p r o v i d i n g a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g under s e c u r e t e n u r e arrangements. By l i v i n g o n - r e s e r v e , Band members would be e l i g i b l e f o r b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s i d e n c y , as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y ; and would have a c c e s s t o f e d e r a l programs t o which they a r e c u r r e n t l y d e n i e d , such as economic development i n i t i a t i v e s . Development of a new community would p r o v i d e Band members w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e g a i n t h e i r n a t i v e i d e n t i t y w i t h i n a f a m i l i a r c o n t e x t , s l o w i n g down the p r o c e s s of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . 1 27 F o r m u l a t i o n of a Community Development S t r a t e g y I f I n d i a n bands were t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e i r communities by t a k i n g a s y n t h e s i s of t e r r i t o r i a l development and systems approaches, what i n i t i a t i v e s would be r e q u i r e d f o r the community t o f u n c t i o n ? What f o l l o w s i s a community development s t r a t e g y t h a t Tanakteuk Band members may wi s h t o c o n s i d e r . I t was f o r m u l a t e d a f t e r an i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n about development o p t i o n s was h e l d w i t h the C h i e f and C o u n c i l of the Band. With m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the community development s t r a t e g y p r e s e n t e d here may be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r c o a s t a l K w a k i u t l bands. The s t r a t e g y acknowledges the need t o match p e o p l e w i t h r e s o u r c e s , and t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n Band membership. I t a l s o a t t e m p t s t o r e c a p t u r e the Band's t r a d i t i o n a l economic modes of p r o d u c t i o n , r e - e s t a b l i s h i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment, r e - d e f i n e i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r communities, and r e - a s s e r t t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t have been a l t e r e d d u r i n g the 20 y e a r s s i n c e the Tanakteuk l e f t New Vancouver. I n i t i a t i v e s i n m a r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y management and s i l v i c u l t u r e , and r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m would form the b a s i s of community economic development. A d i s c u s s i o n of the i n i t i a t i v e s on which development would be based f o l l o w s , under the headings of economic, human r e s o u r c e s and p h y s i c a l development. Economic Development: As i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3, s i x of the Band's seven r e s e r v e s 128 a r e v e r y i s o l a t e d , s c a t t e r e d a l o n g K n i g h t ' s I n l e t (.DIAND, 1983). With the e x c e p t i o n of the r e s e r v e l o c a t e d i n Tsawwati, which c o n s i s t s of 163.5 h e c t a r e s , the r e s e r v e s a r e s m a l l and fragmented, t h a t i s , each i s under 50 h e c t a r e s i n s i z e . The r e s e r v e s i t u a t e d a t Dead P o i n t where the community of New Vancouver was l o c a t e d i s l e s s remote, a l t h o u g h a c c e s s i s e i t h e r by boat or f l o a t p l a n e . T h i s r e s e r v e i s almost 40 h e c t a r e s i n s i z e . T r a v e l l i n g time t o New Vancouver from A l e r t Bay i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour. A l t h o u g h a c u r r e n t i n v e n t o r y of f o r e s t r y and marine r e s o u r c e s has not been d e v e l o p e d i n d e t a i l , t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l on the r e s e r v e s . A l l of the r e s e r v e s have been lo g g e d a t one t i m e , and the t i m b e r c u r r e n t l y o n - r e s e r v e v a r i e s between t h r e e f o r e s t r y c l a s s e s : mature, immature, and not s u f f i c i e n t l y r e s t o c k e d ( p e r s . com. G l e n d a l e , 1988). S i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y a l s o v a r i e s . The main s p e c i e s found a r e western c e d a r , shore p i n e , S i t k a s p r u c e , and western hemlock ( F o r e s t r y Handbook f o r B.C., 1983). Under the p r o v i n c i a l government's S m a l l B u s i n e s s E n t e r p r i s e Program, the Band c o u l d compete f o r c u t t i n g r i g h t s on a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o t h e i r r e s e r v e s . R e f o r e s t a t i o n and s i l v i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a l s o o f f e r p r o s p e c t s f o r employment of Band members, i f s u i t a b l e f u n d i n g and c o n t r a c t s c o u l d be a r r a n g e d . K n i g h t ' s I n l e t i s world-renowned f o r i t s r i c h p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r s u p p o r t i n g marine l i f e , where shrimp, a b a l o n e , clams, c r a b s , 129 Number/Name # o 1. Tsawwati 2. Keogh 3. Kwatse 4. Freda P o i n t 5. Sim Creek 6. A h n u h a t i 7. New Vancouver ( a . k . a . Dead P o i n t ) FIGURE 3. MAP OF TANAKTUEK RESERVES 130 H e c t a r e s 163.5 43.8 20.6 2.2 46.5 2.1 39.3 [ N s c a l l o p s , o y s t e r s , geoducks and o t h e r s p e c i e s a r e h a r v e s t e d c o m m e r c i a l l y , a l o n g w i t h salmon, cod, h a l i b u t and r o c k f i s h . The West Coast f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y i s p l a g u e d by a number of problems i n c l u d i n g h a r v e s t i n g over c a p a c i t y , d e c l i n i n g s t o c k s , h i g h c o s t / p r i c e s t r u c t u r e s , c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n ( P e a r c e , 1982); however, these problems do not a f f e c t the v i a b i l i t y of a q u a c u l t u r e p r o j e c t s . S i t e s i m m e d i a t e l y o f f -shore of the r e s e r v e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n K n i g h t ' s I n l e t , a r e s u i t a b l e f o r a q u a c u l t u r e development, s p e c i f i c a l l y pen r e a r i n g of salmon. There i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y of r a i s i n g n o r i (seaweed) f o r the Japanese market. The h a r v e s t i n g , p r o c e s s i n g and m a r k e t i n g of clams and o y s t e r s i s a n o ther o p t i o n ( p e r s . com. D a l e , 1988). The Band's r e s e r v e s have e x c e l l e n t r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l . K n i g h t ' s I n l e t i s a l r e a d y i n demand as a d e s t i n a t i o n f o r s p o r t s f i s h i n g ( R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of Mount Waddington, 1985), and r e q u e s t s f o r accommodation, g u i d e s , boat and gear r e n t a l c o u l d be met i f a s m a l l r e s o r t or f i s h i n g camp c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d on one of the Band's r e s e r v e s . Band members a l r e a d y p o s s e s s the s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s type of o p e r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h some t r a i n i n g i n the h o s p i t a l i t y i n d u s t r y may be r e q u i r e d . The Band c o u l d a l s o b u i l d a s m a l l s t o r e , m a r i n a , and marine p e t r o l s t a t i o n near the s i t e of New Vancouver t o s e r v i c e s a i l b o a t s t h a t p l y Johnstone S t r a i t d u r i n g the summer months. In a d d i t i o n , s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s would supplement Band members'income, r e d u c i n g the dependence on e x t e r n a l markets. 131 Human Resource Development: As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Four, many Band members have e x p e r i e n c e i n s e v e r a l of the a r e a s suggested f o r economic development i n i t i a t i v e s , a l t h o u g h s k i l l s u p g r a d i n g would be r e q u i r e d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s k i l l s needed t o manage a s m a l l community and f o r b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s may be l a c k i n g , and no one has e x p e r i e n c e i n m a r i c u l t u r e o p e r a t i o n s . A c cess t o j o b development programs a d m i n i s t e r e d by Canada Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n Commission, the F e d e r a l F o r e s t Resource Development Agreement program, and the I n d i a n Community Human Resource S t r a t e g y would a s s i s t i n the Band's human r e s o u r c e development s t r a t e g y . As the community grew, a d d i t i o n a l s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g would be r e q u i r e d t o match the needs of Band members. P h y s i c a l Development: Because of the remoteness of the K n i g h t ' s I n l e t r e s e r v e s , the l o g i c a l c h o i c e f o r community development among the Band's l a n d s i s the s i t e a t New Vancouver. At the v e r y l e a s t , the f i v e h o u seholds who have i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e t o New Vancouver would want the l e v e l of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s t h a t the community had up t o the l a t e 1960s, t h a t i s , u t i l i t y s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g a wharf, e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n , and p i p e d water s u p p l y . S e p t i c t a n k s f o r sewage d i s p o s a l would be needed. A band o f f i c e would a l s o be r e q u i r e d . The use of a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y i n the development of the community would be encouraged. Houses would be s i n g l e f a m i l y wooden d w e l l i n g s , on a minimum of q u a r t e r -1 32 a c r e l o t s . L o c a l m a t e r i a l s would be used wherever p o s s i b l e . The community would expand as r e q u i r e d . As i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter F o u r , the l a c k of a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the community was the c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the d e c l i n e of New Vancouver i n the l a t e 1960s; the o p e r a t i o n of a s c h o o l may once a g a i n prove t o be the d e t e r m i n i n g c r i t e r i a i n the s u r v i v a l and growth of the r e - e s t a b l i s h e d community. Four heads of households i n d i c a t e d t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e t o New Vancouver r e g a r d l e s s of whether t h e r e was a s c h o o l i n the community; t h e r e f o r e , a s c h o o l may not be r e q u i r e d i m m e d i a t e l y . However, c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t 41% of Band members a r e under 18 y e a r s of age, an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l may be needed i n the f u t u r e . I t would a l s o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the community, and c o u l d perhaps s e r v e as a h e a l t h c l i n i c , c h u r c h and community h a l l . Secondary e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n P o r t M c N e i l l . A f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the community i n New Vancouver was conducted by K e r , P r i e s t m a n & A s s o c i a t e s (1986). The r e p o r t c o n c l u d e d t h a t e x t e n s i v e r e p a i r s or t o t a l replacement of f a c i l i t i e s i n use 20 y e a r s ago, such as the dock and watertower would be r e q u i r e d . An e s t i m a t e of a p p r o x i m a t e l y $500,000 f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was g i v e n . C o s t s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses and a s c h o o l was not i n c l u d e d . Band members have i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would want t o be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and c o n s t r u c t i o n of the community. 133 S e v e r a l Band members have e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , and c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r l a b o u r t o reduce the o v e r a l l c o s t s of the p h y s i c a l development of the community. The proposed economic, human r e s o u r c e and p h y s i c a l development s t r a t e g i e s attempt t o meet the b a s i c needs of Tanakteuk Band members by u s i n g t h e i r immediate r e s o u r c e s ; w h i l e a t the same time r e c o g n i z i n g as n e c e s s a r y the i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o broader Canadian s o c i e t y and e x t e r n a l markets t o s a t i s f y demand f o r consumer goods t h a t such a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d not produce. The proposed b a s i s of the community's economy r e f l e c t s t r a d i t i o n a l modes of p r o d u c t i o n complemented by modern t e c h n o l o g y , as w e l l as dependence on the environment and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e on each o t h e r . A l t h o u g h a s s i s t a n c e from a number of f e d e r a l departments would be needed, DIA would be the p r i n c i p l e l i a s i o n between the Band and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s when implementing t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s . DIA would f a c i l i t a t e development, not c o n t r o l i t , by p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p port s t r u c t u r e s , and adequate f u n d i n g f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and i n i t i a l c a p i t a l . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n f u t u r e economic v e n t u r e s . Why DIA S h o u l d Support I n d i a n s ' Request f o r A s s i s t a n c e Based on the a u t h o r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e v e n t s as d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r s Two and Three, what f o l l o w s i s an argument of why DIA s h o u l d s u p p o r t the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communities such as New 134 Vancouver as a mechanism f o r the development of bands which were r e l o c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y . A v i o l a t i o n of t r u s t by DIA r e g a r d i n g the d i s p e r s i o n of I n d i a n s from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l homeland t o communities throughout B r i t i s h Columbia cannot be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d . However, the Department a b b r o g a t e d i t s moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a c t i n the best i n t e r e s t s of n a t i v e s when i t withdrew c r u c i a l s e r v i c e s from remote communities w i t h o u t c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h them. T h i s a c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d a fundamental v i o l a t i o n of n a t i v e c o l l e c t i v e r i g h t s and d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s on which Canadian s o c i e t y i s based. I t a l s o demonstrated g r o s s i n s e n s i t i v i t y by the b u r e a u c r a c y t o n a t i v e c u l t u r e , and su g g e s t s t h a t crown r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s took advantage of the i g n o r a n c e and t i m i d i t y of I n d i a n s which had r e s u l t e d from one hundred y e a r s of o p p r e s s i o n . A d e c i s i o n t o support I n d i a n s ' r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o r e b u i l d t h e i r communities would a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e c t i f y the p a s t m i s t a k e s of the f e d e r a l government. A l b e i t a f t e r many y e a r s and i n t e n s i v e l o b b y i n g , the Canadian government has a c c e p t e d i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e v i o u s e r r o r s , and agreed t o pay $300 m i l l i o n i n compensation t o Japanese Canadians who were w r o n g f u l l y i n t e r n e d d u r i n g World War Two (The Globe & M a i l , September 23, 1988). A c c o r d i n g t o n a t i v e l e a d e r s , the two e t h n i c groups share s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s (The Globe & M a i l , September 28, 1988). The a c t i o n s taken by government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a g a i n s t Japanese Canadians and n a t i v e Canadians r e s u l t e d from r a c i a l 135 d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . N e i t h e r group was c o n s u l t e d about' t h e i r f a t e s . Members of both groups s u f f e r e d s e v e r e f i n a n c i a l , s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l upheaval as a r e s u l t of f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n . And, u n t i l the announcement of compensation t o i n t e r n e d Japanese Canadians, members of both groups were not o f f e r e d f i n a n c i a l compensation by the government f o r p r o p e r t y t h a t they were f o r c e d t o l e a v e b e h i n d when they were r e l o c a t e d . One c o u l d argue t h a t i t would be f o o l i s h t o spend thousands of d o l l a r s on a p r o j e c t t h a t has no g u a r a n t e e s of s u c c e s s , or t h a t would o n l y s e r v e the i n t e r e s t s of a h a n d f u l of p e o p l e . However, i t must be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t bands w i t h o u t an o n - r e s e r v e community such as the Tanakteuk have foregone b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h on-r e s e r v e s t a t u s f o r 20 y e a r s . For bands w i t h s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n as the Tanakteuk, but w i t h an o n - r e s e r v e p o p u l a t i o n , f u n d i n g can amount t o $150,000 t o $300,000 per year (Geach,' 1987). A f t e r two decades, an e s t i m a t e d $3 m i l l i o n t o $6 m i l l i o n has been saved by DIA as a r e s u l t of the Tanakteuk b e i n g w i t h o u t an o n - r e s e r v e community. One c o u l d a l s o argue t h a t the f i n a n c i a l rewards a c c r u e d from s e l l i n g r e s o u r c e s e x t r a c t e d from I n d i a n s ' l a n d , such as t i m b e r , o i l and gas, and m i n e r a l s , have never been a d e q u a t e l y r e t u r n e d t o I n d i a n communities; i f the v a l u e of the r e s o u r c e s e x t r a c t e d was e x t r a c t e d , " i t would amount t o m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s . I n d i a n s argue t h a t t h i s money s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d towards t h e i r f u t u r e development (Speck, 1987). 136 Having d i s c u s s e d why I b e l i e v e DIA has a moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t I n d i a n s ' r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o r e i n h a b i t t h e i r homelands, I w i l l now examine c u r r e n t DIA p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the i s s u e of r e l o c a t i o n t o "new" communities. I n d i a n s would argue t h a t t h e s e communities a r e not new; r a t h e r , they have e x i s t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s , and a l t h o u g h abandonded f o r two decades, deserve t o be r e v i t a l i z e d ( p e r s . com. G l e n d a l e , 1988). DIA P o l i c y On "New" Communities In response t o p e r s i s t e n t r e q u e s t s by over 100 bands a c r o s s Canada f o r f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o r e l o c a t e I n d i a n c ommunities, a p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e d e s c r i b i n g the c r i t e r i a which each r e q u e s t would be e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t was r e l e a s e d by the M i n i s t e r of I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n December, 1987. (The p o l i c y a l s o d i s c u s s e s c o n d i t i o n s under which expansion of e x i s t i n g r e s e r v e s would be s u p p o r t e d ) . The p o l i c y s t a t e s t h a t the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of r e s i d e n t s i s g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y when a s s e s s i n g s u p p o r t f o r v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s , w h i l e e m p h a s i z i n g the government's d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o c o n t i n u e the c o s t - e f f e c t i v e development of r e s e r v e communities. In i t s p o l i c y , the Department d i s t i n g u i s h e s between two s e t s of c i r c u m s t a n c e s : 1) where the community has no c h o i c e but t o r e l o c a t e ; and 2) where members of the community w i s h t o r e l o c a t e as a r e s u l t of p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F u l l a s s i s t a n c e i s promised i n the former c a s e — s u c h as a community f a c e d w i t h f l o o d i n g due t o a h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t — w h i l e v e r y l i t t l e 137 encouragement i s g i v e n t o communities such as the Tanakteuk who f i n d t hemselves i n the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n . The p o l i c y as i t a p p l i e s t o an I n d i a n band's r e q u e s t f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p port of the r e -e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a community such as New Vancouver i s as f o l l o w s : The department may r e l o c a t e e x i s t i n g communities or e s t a b l i s h new r e s e r v e c ommunities, i f : (a) the normal p h y s i c a l development a t the e x i s t i n g r e s e r v e l o c a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d due t o t o p o g r a p h i c or s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , or due t o o t h e r e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h and s a f e t y , and (b) the development of the.community a t a new r e s e r v e s i t e i s the most c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e . The p o l i c y goes on t o note t h a t " R e l o c a t i o n p r o p o s a l s which i n c l u d e an immediate or f u t u r e requirement f o r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s r e l a t i v e t o the e x i s t i n g r e s e r v e or community, w i l l not be s u p p o r t e d " (INAC, 1987). An e a r l i e r d r a f t of the p o l i c y e s t i m a t e d t h a t c o s t s i n e x c e s s of $600 t o $700 m i l l i o n f o r i n i t i a l c a p i t a l , p l u s $45 t o $50 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y i n on-going o p e r a t i o n s and maintenance would be r e q u i r e d t o s a t i s f y r e q u e s t s f o r r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e a c r o s s Canada; and s t a t e d t h a t "the i s s u e must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the need t o p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l programs, s e r v i c e s and c a p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s t o e x i s t i n g communities, and the new p r i o r i t y i n i t i a t i v e s i n the a r e a s of s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and economic development." The d r a f t r e p o r t s u g gests t h a t because the Department cannot assume the i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 138 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e l o c a t i o n , t h a t the p o l i c y be " c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d . " T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t d u r i n g the p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s , the c r i t e r i a under which r e q u e s t s would be funded be e s t a b l i s h e d so as t o d e l i b e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t the number of communities t h a t would be e l i g i b l e f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The I m p l i c a t i o n s of the P o l i c y f o r the Tanakteuk & Other Bands Under t h i s p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t the Tanakteuk would r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from DIA f o r the r e -e s t a b l i s h m e n t of New Vancouver. N e i t h e r would o t h e r I n d i a n bands r e l o c a t e d i n the p a s t as a r e s u l t of DIA p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s be l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e . D e s p i t e the r e c o g n i t i o n of mental trauma a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e l o c a t i o n , i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o prove t h a t the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of I n d i a n s are endangered t o an e x t e n t t h a t would meet the c r i t e r i a . W h i l e i t may be argued t h a t the development of o n - r e s e r v e communities may be the most c o s t -e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e i n the l o n g term, the r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o r e i n h a b i t I n d i a n homelands c o u l d be d e n i e d on the b a s i s t h a t f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n e x c e s s of what the Department i s c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d i n g would be r e q u i r e d . Today, under the I n d i a n  A c t , DIA i s o b l i g a t e d t o p r o v i d e v e r y l i t t l e t o bands such as the Tanakteuk which have the m a j o r i t y of members r e s i d i n g i n o f f -r e s e r v e communities. C l e a r l y , i t i s i n .the f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s of DIA not t o support the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s e r v e communities f o r bands l i k e the Tanakteuk, even though the p o l i c y may not 139 r e f l e c t the be s t i n t e r e s t s of DIA's c o n s t i t u e n c y . By s t a t i n g t h a t f u n d i n g r e q u e s t s f o r r e l o c a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o e x i s t i n g c ommunities, the Department i s i m p l i c i t l y e n c o u r a g i n g c o m p e t i t i o n between I n d i a n Bands. T h i s p o l i c y i m p l i e s t h a t e x i s t i n g I n d i a n communities w i l l be d i s a d v a n t a g e d s h o u l d r e l o c a t i o n p r o p o s a l s be funded. In a s t r a t e g y t h a t may c y n i c a l l y be d e s c r i b e d as " d i v i d e and conquer", DIA has c r e a t e d the s i t u a t i o n whereby e x i s t i n g I n d i a n communities f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by r e q u e s t s f o r s u pport f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h e d communities. C o n s e q u e n t l y , members of r e l o c a t e d bands such as the Tanakteuk a r e not l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e encouragement from o t h e r I n d i a n communities or o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , each band r e q u e s t i n g r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t o t h e r s , i n a t t e m p t s t o demonstrate t h a t t h e i r need, i s the g r e a t e s t . The Department c l a i m s t o su p p o r t the development of I n d i a n communities. In a speech g i v e n by the M i n i s t e r of I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n August 1988, B i l l McKnight s a i d , "Nothing has a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y f o r me or my Department than community s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . I t i s a c o r n e r s t o n e of our p o l i c y and the f o c u s of our a t t e n t i o n " . The 1983 S p e c i a l Commons Report on I n d i a n S e l f -Government i n Canada c o n c l u d e d t h a t development e f f o r t s have the best chance of suc c e s s when c a r r i e d out a t the community l e v e l . But what i f t h e r e i s no community? 140 Summary In t h i s c h a p t e r c r i t e r i a were p r e s e n t e d a g a i n s t which the s u c c e s s of v a r i o u s development approaches were d i s c u s s e d and e v a l u a t e d . I t was suggested t h a t the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communities such as New Vancouver was i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of I n d i a n bands, and the p o t e n t i a l f o r s u c c e s s was demonstrated. An argument of why DIA s h o u l d s u p p o r t I n d i a n ' s r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e was then p r e s e n t e d . F i n a l l y , DIA's r e l o c a t i o n p o l i c y was examined, and i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t r e q u e s t s f o r f u n d i n g f o r bands i n s i t u a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o the Tanakteuk's would not l i k e l y r e c e i v e s u p p o r t . I t was suggested t h a t the c r i t e r i a under which f u n d i n g r e q u e s t s would be g r a n t e d were d e s i g n e d t o d i s c o u r a g e the r e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n s because of i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l burdens on the f e d e r a l government. In a d d i t i o n , i t was suggested t h a t the p o l i c y encouraged c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s between e x i s t i n g I n d i a n communities and bands such as the Tanakteuk. 141 "We the l e a v e s are r u s t l e d by the wind, we f e a r n o t . These t h i n g s do not f r i g h t e n us; they f r i g h t e n you." Spoken i n 1796 by an I n d i a n as he saw the d e f o r e s t a t i o n and d e s p o i l a t i o n wrought by Europeans. CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Development i s a p r o c e s s of e v o l u t i o n . Each new t h e o r y of development seems t o e v o l v e out of the l e s s o n s l e a r n e d from the p r e v i o u s one. The d e f i n i t i o n s of development have changed d r a m a t i c a l l y over the p a s t one hundred y e a r s . So, t o o , have the l i f e s t y l e s of the K w a k i u t l s i n c e the a r r i v a l of European s e t t l e r s . T h i s c h a p t e r b r i e f l y summarizes the t h e s i s , and p r e s e n t s some c o n c l u s i o n s about development and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r I n d i a n communities i n Canada, based on the e x p e r i e n c e s of the K w a k i u t l . Summary T h i s t h e s i s began by d e m o n s t r a t i n g the h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of the K w a k i u t l ' s economic a c t i v i t i e s and the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which accompanied them over the pa s t one hundred y e a r s . P r i o r t o European c o n t a c t , K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a complex s o c i a l and c e r e m o n i a l l i f e . D r amatic changes i n I n d i a n s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n of economic p r o d u c t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p h y s i c a l environment, r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r I n d i a n communities, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s have o c c u r r e d s i n c e European s e t t l e m e n t i n the r e g i o n . As demonstrated i n Chapter Two, by the 1960s, I n d i a n s o c i e t y on the west c o a s t had been c o m p l e t e l y m a r g i n a l i z e d from mainstream 1 43 Canadian s o c i e t y , t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s f a c i l i t a t e d by the a u t h o r i t y of the I n d i a n A c t . DIA p o l i c y emphasized the p r o t e c t i o n , a s s i m i l a t i o n and C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of I n d i a n s . On the b a s i s of an o r thodox approach t o development, i t was b e l i e v e d I n d i a n s must abandon t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and adopt those of modern s o c i e t y i n o r d e r t o p r o g r e s s . Because n o n - n a t i v e s assumed they knew what was best f o r the development of n a t i v e s , I n d i a n s were e x c l u d e d from the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s a t t i t u d e of c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y , K w a k i u t l bands were not c o n s u l t e d about the c l o s u r e of s c h o o l s i n t h e i r communities d u r i n g the 1960s. Government s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s were g r a d u a l l y withdrawn from i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s i n the r e g i o n because DIA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d e c i d e d t h a t i t was too c o s t l y t o m a i n t a i n a. g e o g r a p h i c a l l y - s c a t t e r e d p o p u l a t i o n . R e s i d e n t s of remote K w a k i u t l communities such as New Vancouver were encouraged t o r e l o c a t e t o urban c e n t e r s , where economies of s c a l e would reduce c o s t s w h i l e the p h y s i c a l needs of I n d i a n s c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n modern, n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y would h a s t e n the a s s i m i l a t i o n - - a n d the development--of Canada's I n d i a n s . The emphasis on c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n growth c e n t e r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s d u r i n g the 1960s. V a r i o u s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e v e n t s i n f l u e n c e d the Canadian p u b l i c ' s a c c e p t a n c e of t h e s e d i r e c t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g . As d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Three, urban growth c e n t e r s 144 were p r e s e n t e d as s o l u t i o n s f o r the problem of r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t i e s a c r o s s Canada d u r i n g t h i s decade. I t was not u n t i l t h e t h e o r y of underdevelopment and i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m was proposed t h a t the v a l i d i t y of growth c e n t e r s as a development approach was q u e s t i o n e d . A n a l y s i s of a survey of Tanakteuk Band members as p a r t of a case study i n Chapter Four demonstrated t h a t w h i l e a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r Band members improved as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n from t h e i r remote community t o urban c e n t e r s , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n o b t a i n i n g employment. The unemployment r a t e f o r on- and o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s i n Canada does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Today, the economic a c t i v i t i e s i n which Band members are engaged a r e s i m i l a r t o tho s e pursued p r i o r t o r e l o c a t i o n . However, the soc i o - e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n of most Band members has changed i n o t h e r ways. N i n e t y p e r c e n t of Tanakteuk Band members ar e no l o n g e r e n t i t l e d t o b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n - r e s e r v e s t a t u s . F a m i l i e s spend more on food i n urban c e n t e r s , as a r e s u l t of no l o n g e r b e i n g a b l e t o supplement t h e i r d i e t s w i t h s u b s i s t e n c e f o o d . And the m a j o r i t y of Band members have e x p e r i e n c e d d r a m a t i c changes i n c o n d i t i o n s i n h o u s i n g , t e n u r e and c o s t of accommodation. Tanakteuk Band members s u f f e r e d from p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and a change i n s o c i a l p a t t e r n s as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n . The shock of 145 adjustment t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y was g r e a t ; Band members have i d e n t i f i e d an i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l and mental problems of f a m i l y members as a r e s u l t of the move. Impacts on c u l t u r e have a l s o been n o t e d : o n l y a m i n o r i t y of Band members p a r t i c i p a t e i n t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t oday. The move from a n a t i v e community t o a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - n a t i v e urban environment has f a c i l i t a t e d the c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n 'of the Tanakteuk. In Chapter F i v e , the need f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o orthodox development approaches was i d e n t i f i e d , and c r i t e r i a t o e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s of development i n i t i a t i v e s were p r e s e n t e d : development must be c o n t r o l l e d by n a t i v e s ; i t must meet l o c a l p r i o r i t i e s and needs; development p l a n s s h o u l d b u i l d an i n t e g r a t e d economy; and development p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be based on c o l l e c t i v e ownership and c o n t r o l of r e s o u r c e s . The importance of s m a l l - s c a l e , l e s s c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e i n i t i a t i v e s based on the development of renewable r e s o u r c e s was a l s o p o i n t e d o u t . An a l t e r n a t i v e development approach was s u g g e s t e d , one based on a s y n t h e s i s of a t e r r i t o r i a l development and a systems approach. T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e meets the c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d i n the t h e s i s . The C h i e f and C o u n c i l of the Tanakteuk Band used the c r i t e r i a t o e v a l u a t e f i v e o p t i o n s f o r development under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , namely m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo, p u r c h a s i n g l a n d o f f - r e s e r v e near an urban c e n t e r , amalgamation w i t h another band i n the r e g i o n , e s t a b l i s h i n g summer r e s i d e n c e s o n - r e s e r v e , and r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a permanent community a t the s i t e of the o l d v i l l a g e . 146 Of th e s e o p t i o n s , the r e i n h a b i t a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l homelands was f a v o r e d . The C h i e f and C o u n c i l b e l i e v e t h a t r e l o c a t i o n t o a community c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of Tanakteuk Band members would improve t h e i r s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , b u i l d community c o h e s i v e n e s s , s t r e n g t h e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f y and community p r i d e , and i n c r e a s e the p o t e n t i a l f o r Band s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y . F i v e heads of Tanakteuk households e x p r e s s e d t h e i r commitment t o r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the community of New Vancouver, 1 as d e s c r i b e d i n the su r v e y i n Chapter Four. These i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e i r e n thusiasm f o r t h i s development i n i t i a t i v e w i l l a c t as a c a t a l y s t f o r the committment of o t h e r s t o r e l o c a t e . A community development s t r a t e g y can be deve l o p e d which i n c o r p o r a t e s the p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d i n a model f o r I n d i a n development based on a s y n t h e s i s of a t e r r i t o r i a l development and a systems approach. Employment i n the community would be based on m a r i c u l t u r e and f i s h i n g , f o r e s t r y and t o u r i s m , w i t h a s s i s t a n c e f o r i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g and f u n d i n g r e q u e s t e d from the government. The proposed s t r a t e g y f o r development r e f l e c t s t r a d i t i o n a l modes of p r o d u c t i o n and community o r g a n i z a t i o n , complemented by modern t e c h n o l o g y . F i n a l l y , DIA's p o l i c y on s u p p o r t i n g the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "new" I n d i a n communities was examined. I t was suggested t h a t DIA has a moral o b l i g a t i o n t o support I n d i a n s ' r e q u e s t f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o r e i n h a b i t t h e i r communities abandoned as a r e s u l t of p l a n n i n g 147 p r o c e s s e s adopted by DIA d u r i n g the 1960s. However, because of p o l i c y c r i t e r i a , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t s u p p o r t f o r the r e -e s t a b l i s h m e n t of I n d i a n communities such as New Vancouver w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g . C o n c l u s i o n s The s i t u a t i o n of the Tanakteuk Band i s not unique. There a re hundreds of r e l o c a t e d communities a c r o s s Canada (INAC, 1987). Some, such as Gr a s s y Narrows i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o ( S h k i l n y k , 1985), and Duck Lake i n n o r t h e r n Manitoba ( L a i , 1969) were r e l o c a t e d f o r improved a c c e s s t o s u p p l i e s and s e r v i c e s , and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Other communities, such as Whitedog i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o ( S h k i l n y k , 1985), and Chemuhowan i n n o r t h e r n Manitoba (Landa, 1969) were r e l o c a t e d because of f l o o d i n g due t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of dams f o r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c m e g a - p r o j e c t s . S e v e r a l I n d i a n communites i n B r i t i s h Columbia a re s c h e d u l e d f o r r e l o c a t i o n i n the near f u t u r e . I n h a b i t a n t s of the community of I n g e n i k a w i l l be f o r c e d t o move as a r e s u l t of a pa s t hydro-e l e c t r i c p r o j e c t . And the community of Prophet R i v e r w i l l r e l o c a t e because of h e a l t h problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h poor s a n i t a t i o n i n t h e i r p r e s e n t environment. The K l u s k u s I n d i a n Band i n the C a r i b o u - C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n of the p r o v i n c e wants t o r e l o c a t e t o the s i t e of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l community. Members of s e v e r a l o t h e r I n d i a n communities share the d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e t o the s i t e s of t h e i r p r e v i o u s v i l l a g e s because Band members a r e unhappy 148 w i t h c u r r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e s u l t i n g from f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n i n the p a s t . W i t h i n K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y a l o n e , i n a d d i t i o n t o the Tanakteuk, some members of the Mamaleleqala-Qwe'qua'sot'enox, the T l a t l i s k w a l a ( N u w i t t i ) , and the T l o w i t s i s - M u m t a g i l a Bands have e x p r e s s e d i n t e n t i o n s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h communities i n t h e i r homelands. On the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s of the case study of the Tanakteuk Band, what c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn about orthodox development approaches used by DIA i n the p a s t ? About the r e l o c a t i o n of communities? What can we l e a r n about the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n I n d i a n communities? What changes s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o DIA p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g development approaches and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? The assumptions on which orthodox development approaches a r e ba s e d - - t h a t the c u l t u r e and v a l u e s of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s a r e impediments t o m o d e r n i z a t i o n , and thus o b s t a c l e s t o development--a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n the 1980s. Indeed, they have never been s u c c e s s f u l , as w i t n e s s e d by the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of s t a t u s I n d i a n s , both on- and o f f - r e s e r v e , who have been m a r g i n a l i z e d from mainstream s o c i e t y , as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Four. A r a d i c a l new approach t o development i s needed, one i n which the v a l u e s and c u l t u r e s of I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s , as w e l l as those of o t h e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , a r e r e s p e c t e d . Development must aim t o i n c r e a s e a community's c o n t r o l over i t s c o l l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s , w h i l e s a t i s f y i n g l o c a l p r i o r i t i e s and needs. Success s h o u l d not 1 49 be measured s o l e l y by economic c r i t e r i a ; the s o c i a l v i t a l i t y of a community s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d . Development i n i t i a t i v e s s h o u l d aim t o s t r e n g t h e n the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l f a b r i c of a community. A s y n t h e s i s of a t e r r i t o r i a l development and a systems approach t o development as i d e n t i f i e d by Anderson & Boothroyd (1984) i s one a l t e r n a t i v e t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Such an approach t o development would s t r e n g t h e n the r o l e p l a y e d by band governments i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The case study of the Tanakteuk has shown t h a t , a l t h o u g h I n d i a n s have been r e l o c a t e d as p a r t of the development p r o c e s s from communities where t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s predominated i n t o modern communities, the socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s of f a m i l i e s have not improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t of a d o p t i n g non-n a t i v e v a l u e s . R e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n s t o urban c e n t e r s does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r them, a l t h o u g h i t does r e s u l t i n improved a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . R e l o c a t i o n from a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n a t i v e environment t o non-n a t i v e urban c e n t e r s promotes the c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y . However, an i n c r e a s e i n the c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of I n d i a n s c e r t a i n l y cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n d i c a t o r of s u c c e s s i n development i n i t i a t i v e s — r a t h e r , i t would seem t h a t a v a l u a b l e a t t r i b u t e has been l o s t . I t i s d o u b t f u l whether the r e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n s from remote 150 communities t o urban c e n t e r s d u r i n g the l a t e 1960s would have o c c u r e d i f an e v a l u a t i o n of the s o c i a l v i t a l i t y of the community, and an a p p r e c i a t i o n of I n d i a n c u l t u r e — o r any e t h n i c c u l t u r e o t h e r than one w i t h a European o r i e n t a t i o n — h a d been c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r development i n i t i a t i v e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must be t a i l o r e d t o s u i t the needs of i n d i v i d u a l communities and r e g i o n s , t a k i n g i n t o account c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of the c l i e n t e l e . P l a n n i n g assumptions which may a p p l y mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s p e c i a l m i n o r i t y groups, such as I n d i a n s . For communities f a c i n g f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n i n the f u t u r e , i t i s up t o p l a n n e r s and p o l i c y a n a l y s t s as p a r t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o c o n s i d e r the impacts on the economic, s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a community r e s u l t i n g from r e l o c a t i o n ; and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h community members, t o t a k e s t e p s t o m i n i m i z e any n e g a t i v e impacts t h a t may r e s u l t . A p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s h o u l d not be e v a l u a t e d s o l e l y by economic c r i t e r i a ; the l e s s t a n g i b l e f a c t o r s such as community c o h e s i o n and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h of i n d i v i d u a l s must be c o n s i d e r e d as w e l l . Perhaps one of the most i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t can be drawn from the case study of the Tanakteuk Band and from s t u d i e s of o t h e r K w a k i u t l communities i s the need t o r e c o g n i z e the r i g h t of community members t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t w i l l have impacts on t h e i r community. R e s i d e n t s of New Vancouver were 151 t o l d of the d e c i s i o n taken by the I n d i a n Agent t o c l o s e the community s c h o o l ; f o r twenty y e a r s , members of the Band have f e l t resentment and anger about the l a c k of c o n t r o l they have had over t h e i r l i v e s . I f Band members had been a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e as e q u a l s i n p r o p o s i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the s c h o o l c l o s u r e i n 1969, perhaps the outcome would have been d i f f e r e n t , or a t l e a s t the f e e l i n g s of b i t t e r n e s s and h o s t i l i t y d i r e c t e d towards n o n - n a t i v e s and government b u r e a u c r a t s by some Band members would be somewhat a l l e v i a t e d . People must be a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i f they a r e t o r e s p e c t i t s outcome. Communities such as New Vancouver were r e l o c a t e d d u r i n g the 1960s as p a r t of a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s based on growth p o l e d o c t r i n e . W ith the b e n e f i t s of h i n d s i g h t , one can c o n c l u d e t h a t "the g e n e r a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n of growth c e n t e r p o l i c i e s f o r a l l n a t u r e of r e g i o n a l i l l s was one of the most u n r e a l i s t i c a s p e c t s of the l a s t decades of r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s " (Weaver, 1978). I n s t e a d of r e l o c a t i n g community members t o an environment where a c c e s s t o a m e n i t i e s and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s may be g r e a t e r , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d f o c u s on p r o v i d i n g employment and an a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of s e r v i c e w i t h i n the community, u s i n g l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t a re a v a i l a b l e . A l t e r n a t i v e s t o community r e l o c a t i o n must be t h o r o u g h l y c o n s i d e r e d / F i n a l l y , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used by the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s must r e f l e c t the changes t h a t have come t o be w i d e l y 152 a c c e p t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i n p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e over the p a s t 20 y e a r s . T h i s i n c l u d e s an approach t o development t h a t emphasizes community-based p l a n n i n g and development i n i t i a t i v e s c o n t r o l l e d by I n d i a n s . The orthodox approach t o development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of DIA p o l i c y must be r e p l a c e d by an a l t e r n a t i v e ; perhaps a s y n t h e s i s of a t e r r i t o r i a l development and a systems approach would best s u i t the needs and i n t e r e s t s of DIA's c l i e n t e l e . S h o u l d t h i s approach t o development be adopted, a major r e - s t r u c t u r i n g of DIA would be r e q u i r e d . The r o l e of DIA would be t o c o o r d i n a t e and f a c i l i t a t e development i n i t i a t i v e s by p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s a r y t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e t o communities and I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . J u d g i n g by the December 1987 p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e which i d e n t i f i e s the c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which DIA w i l l s upport the r e -e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "new" communities, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t Bands such as the Tanakteuk who have l o s t t h e i r o n - r e s e r v e communities as a r e s u l t of p r e v i o u s DIA p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s w i l l r e c e i v e s u p port f o r the r e i n h a b i t a t i o n of t h e i r homelands. W h i l e the development of I n d i a n communities may be the most c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n t i n u e d w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e i n the l o n g - t e r m , the f e d e r a l government does not c o n s i d e r the l o n g - t e r m b e n e f i t s of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a community under an a l t e r n a t i v e development approach when a p p l y i n g the p o l i c y c r i t e r i a . One can c o n c l u d e t h a t the DIA p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e on support f o r the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t 1 53 of "new" n a t i v e communities i s an impediment to the development of Indian bands which were r e l o c a t e d i n the p a s t . In summary, the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h i s study: 1) Orthodox development approaches are i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the development of Canadian Indians. Orthodox development approaches promote c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , c l a s s i n e q u i t i e s and continued dependency. 2) Growth pole d o c t r i n e i n p a r t i c u l a r may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s o l v i n g problems a s s o c i a t e d with r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s i n v o l v i n g Indian communities. 3) R e l o c a t i o n of Indians to urban c e n t e r s improves access to s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , but does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e employment. R e l o c a t i o n a l s o promotes c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of n a t i v e s i n t o non-native s o c i e t y . 4) A r a d i c a l new approach to development i s needed, one which attempts to strengthen Indian s o c i e t y through the development of Indian economies w i t h i n Indian c u l t u r a l frameworks under the c o n t r o l of Indian p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s anchored i n and drawing t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y from l o c a l Indian communities. 5) Planning processes must account f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of c l i e n t e l e , and respect these d i f f e r e n c e s . The pla n n i n g process should be t a i l o r e d to meet the s p e c i f i c needs of the region or community. 6) The s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic impacts of r e l o c a t i o n on a community must be c o n s i d e r e d as part of the decision-making process, and steps must be taken to minimize i d e n t i f i e d impacts. A l t e r n a t i v e s to r e l o c a t i o n should be thoroughly e v a l u a t e d . 7) I f people are not allowed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s that a f f e c t e i t h e r t h e i r f a t e , or the f a t e of t h e i r community, the consequences can be f e e l i n g s of anger, f r u s t r a t i o n , h o s t i l i t y and s u s p i c i o n that complicate f u t u r e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . 1 54 8) The planning processes which characterize DIA ini t iat ives must more fully reflect new ideas and practices that have evolved over the past twenty years with regard to Indian development. 9) The cr i t er ia outlined in DIA's policy directive on the re-establishment of Indian communities are impediments to the development of Bands without on-reserve communities. People w i l l not always allow themselves to be isolated from the planning process by those with power to affect change. 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R e b u i l d i n g the Economic Base of I n d i a n Communities: The Micmac i n Nova S c o t i a . M o n t r e a l : The I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c P o l i c y . 1 68 W i l l i a m s o n , J.G. 1965. " R e g i o n a l I n e q u a l i t y and the P r o c e s s of N a t i o n a l Development: A D e s c r i p t i o n of P a t t e r n s . " Economic  Development and C u l t u r a l Change. 13. 3-45. W i l s o n , J.W. 1973. People i n the Way. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s . W o l c o t t , H a r r y . 1967. A K w a k i u t l V i l l a g e and S c h o o l . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, I n c . 169 LIST OF INTERVIEWS Cunningham, A l a i n . A p r i l 15, 1988. Former R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r w i t h the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1971 u n t i l 1987. Vancouver, B.C. D a l e , Norman. S e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s from J a n u a r y , 1988 t o May, 1988. A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r the K w a k i u t l T e r r i t o r i a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, and A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n the S c h o o l of Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t U.B.C. from 1983-86. Campbell R i v e r , B.C. Dawson, F l o r a . J a n uary 24, 1988. Former e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r a c t i v e i n community and r e g i o n a l development i n i t i a t i v e s f o r Tsawataineuk Band. Kingcome I n l e t , B.C. Dawson, Edward. F e b r u a r y 18, 1988. Former e l e c t e d C h i e f of the Tsawataineuk Band of Kingcome I n l e t . Campbell R i v e r , B.C. Duncan, R o b e r t . May 2, 1988. Former Tanakteuk Band member, now a member of Campbell R i v e r Band. Campbell R i v e r , B.C. Duncan, V i o l e t . May 2, 1988. Spouse of e l e c t e d C h i e f of the Tanakteuk Band d u r i n g the 1960s. Campbell R i v e r , B.C. G l e n d a l e , Ann. S e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s from J a n u a r y 12, 1988 u n t i l May 3, 1988. Band Manager and member of C o u n c i l f o r the Tanakteuk Band. Campbell R i v e r , B.C. G l e n d a l e , W i l l i a m McKenzie. S e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s from January 12, 1988 u n t i l May 3, 1988. H e r e d i t a r y C h i e f of the Tanakteuk Band. Campbell R i v e r , B.C. G l e n d a l e , I s a a c . May 3, 1988. Tanakteuk Band member. A l e r t Bay, B.C. Jaco b s o n , L u c i e . May 3, 1988. Tanakteuk Band member. A l e r t Bay, B.C. Joseph, Bobby. May 3, 1988. Former D i s t r i c t Manager of Campbell R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s ; c u r r e n t A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the Musgamaw T r i b a l C o u n c i l ; Tsawataineuk Band member. A l e r t Bay, B.C. Speck, W e d l i d i . J a nuary 14, 1988. Former A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the K w a k i u t l D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l ; N i m p k i s h Band member. P o r t Hardy, B.C. 170 APPENDIX 1. TANAKTEUK BAND SURVEY The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s ask about the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d i n your f a m i l y ' s d e p a r t u r e from the community of New Vancouver on Harbledown I s l a n d many y e a r s ago. P l e a s e answer them as w e l l as you can. 1) What year d i d your f a m i l y move from t h e community of New Vancouver? 2) Where d i d your f a m i l y f i r s t move t o when they l e f t ? 3) P l e a s e check o f f the MAIN reason why your f a m i l y d e c i d e d t o move t o another s e t t l e m e n t i n s t e a d of s t a y i n g i n New Vancouver? t o f i n d work f o r s c h o o l f o r m e d i c a l c a r e t o be near f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s government t o l d us t o move t o be l e s s i s o l a t e d had no c h o i c e because o t h e r s l e f t o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 4) D i d anyone from the government t a l k t o members of the f a m i l y about moving b e f o r e l e a v i n g ? Yes No ______ Don ' t know I f " y e s " , who was the person and what d i d they say? 171 5) What was the most d i f f i c u l t t h i n g about moving? (Check one) f i n d i n g a j o b f i n d i n g a house meeting new p e o p l e o t h e r ( s p e c i f y __) 6) Do you t h i n k t h a t moving from New Vancouver r e s u l t e d i n any p h y s i c a l or mental problems f o r members of your f a m i l y ? Yes No 7) A f t e r moving from New Vancouver, how o f t e n d i d you see your f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s ? (Check one). Never A few ti m e s a year F r e q u e n t l y As o f t e n as b e f o r e 8) I f the government had c o n t i n u e d t o pay f o r an ele m e n t a r y t e a c h e r on the i s l a n d , would your f a m i l y have moved anyways? Yes No 9) A f t e r moving from New Vancouver, was i t easy t o f i n d work? Yes No 10) A f t e r moving, do you t h i n k t h a t your f a m i l y spent more or l e s s money on f o o d each week? 11) A f t e r your f a m i l y moved, d i d they f e e l as i f they belonged i n the new community? Yes No . No o p i n i o n 1 72 12) Has your f a m i l y ever wanted t o move back t o New Vancouver and l i v e as b e f o r e ? Yes No No o p i n i o n 13) Now t h a t your f a m i l y no l o n g e r l i v e s i n New Vancouver, i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t i s m i s s e d , or i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g about the l i f e b e f o r e the move t h a t you would l i k e t o have back? Yes No No o p i n i o n I f " y e s " , p l e a s e comment. 14) I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g you f e e l the Government c o u l d have done t o h e l p your f a m i l y when they moved from New Vancouver? P l e a s e comment. 15) Do you l i k e where you l i v e now? P l e a s e comment. 16) Do you ' own or r e n t where you l i v e now? 17a) Are t h e r e members of your h o u s e h o l d c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n any o r g a n i z a t i o n s or a c t i v i t i e s t o promote I n d i a n c u l t u r e ? Yes No 17b) How many people i n your h o u s e h o l d can speak Kwakwala? 173 18) Your C h i e f and C o u n c i l a r e p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g moving back t o the s i t e of New Vancouver on Harbledown I s l a n d . I f t h e r e WAS an elementary s c h o o l i n the community, would you want t o l i v e t h e r e ? Yes No No o p i n i o n 19) I f t h e r e WASN'T an elementary s c h o o l on the i s l a n d , would you want t o l i v e t h e r e ? Yes No No o p i n i o n 20) Would you l i k e t o be more i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g of a new community? Yes No No o p i n i o n 21) Do you t h i n k t h a t the government asks you enough about what you want f o r the f u t u r e ? Yes No . No o p i n i o n 22) P l e a s e check o f f whether any members of your household have ever done the f o l l o w i n g j o b s ? b u i l t a house c u t or l o g g e d t i m b e r r e p a i r e d & s e r v i c e d e n g i n e s i n s t a l l e d w i r i n g i n a b u i l d i n g i n s t a l l e d plumbing i n a house o p e r a t e d heavy equipment d i d book-keeping or a c c o u n t i n g d i d s e c r e t a r i a l work f i s h - f a r m i n g or o y s t e r - g r o w i n g ._ f i s h e d c o m m e r c i a l l y 1 74 

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