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Death of a community, rebirth of a homeland? : planning processes for a Kwakiutl Indian community Sheltinga, Janis Colette 1988

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DEATH OF A COMMUNITY, REBIRTH OF A HOMELAND? PLANNING PROCESSES  FOR A KWAKIUTL INDIAN COMMUNITY By  Janis Colette  Sheltinga  B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1979 B . S c . ( A g . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f G u e l p h , A THESIS SUBMITTED  1986  I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l  We a c c e p t  t h i s t h e s i s as  to the required  Planning)  conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October <§> J a n i s C o l e t t e  1988  Sheltinga,  1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Columbia,  I  agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or for  her  of  Graduate  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1Y3  financial  October 15,  Studies  Columbia  1988  further  purposes  gain  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  permission.  Department  I  requirements  It not  be is  that  the  Library  an  granted  by  allowed  advanced  shall  permission  understood be  for  the that  without  for head  make  it  extensive of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT During  the  1960s,  residents  of  isolated  communities, l o c a t e d near the n o r t h e r n Johnstone  Straight,  were  The  majority  t i p of Vancouver I s l a n d i n  (DIA) t o r e l o c a t e t o r e g i o n a l  of f a m i l i e s  the death impacts  of  relocation and  development  in  desirability  evaluates the  during  one  theory  continued  t h e 1960s,  n a t i v e and  Kwakiutl  alternatives  including  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  identifies  an  for  of  the  the  homelands.  regional planning  Canadian  the  Indian  of  theory growth  f o r two d e c a d e s a f t e r W o r l d War  t o guide  resulting  band,  assessment  approaches p o i n t s t o the p o p u l a r i t y  development theory  various  future,  review  development  This  on members o f  of r e i n h a b i t a t i o n of K w a k i u t l  literature  center  both  throughout  that contributed to  of the Johnstone S t r a i g h t communities;  Tanakteuk;  and  bands  province.  T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s  A  centers  the urban  from v a r i o u s K w a k i u t l  were, as a r e s u l t , a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o n o n - n a t i v e the  Indian  e n c o u r a g e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f  Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s centers.  Kwakiutl  Two.  planning  initiatives  i n t h e d e c l i n e of r u r a l  communities,  non-native.  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h K w a k i u t l band members a n d f o r m e r DIA p e r s o n n e l , and  an e x a m i n a t i o n  events  o f DIA d o c u m e n t s ,  l e a d i n g t o the r e l o c a t i o n  c o n t r i b u t e t o a p r o f i l e of  of K w a k i u t l bands i n t h e r e g i o n .  C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the proponents of  i i.  the growth c e n t e r  theory,  DIA  suspected  that  could  minimized  be  the costs  of p r o v i d i n g  i n urban c e n t e r s  economies of s c a l e not p o s s i b l e w i t h employment  opportunities  department  acted  crucial  on  into  traditional  modern  participants  lifestyles,  must  questionnaire the  According  significantly mainstream doctrine  communities,  proved  the  values  and  t h e r e l o c a t i o n of personnel  and  on  processes  are  lifestyles  of  development t o proceed.  of  Vancouver  to  support in  their  of t h e survey d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e  of the Tanakteuk  families  as a r e s u l t of being  society.  In  have  incorporated  retrospect,  growth  guide f o r the  W h i l e r e l o c a t i o n may have i n c r e a s e d  facilities,  to  assimilation  t o T a n a k t e u k Band members  t o be an i n a p p r o p r i a t e  process f o r natives.  of  without  t o the assumptions  c o m m u n i t y o f New  Results  conditions  Canadian  services  adopt  the  improved  The  provision  impacts of r e l o c a t i o n and t h e l e v e l  homeland.  socio-economic  to  the  a n d DIA p l a n n i n g  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  re-establishing  traditional  greater.  and promote t h e i r  i n modern s o c i e t y f o r t h e i r  investigate for  be  s u c h a move w o u l d e n c o u r a g e I n d i a n s  Canadian s o c i e t y .  Indians  achieving  affected.  which orthodox development theory based,  of  was f u r t h e r a d v o c a t e d by DIA  an a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n :  abandon  A  would  s e r v i c e s t o the Johnstone S t r a i g h t  t o urban c e n t e r s  facilities  s c a t t e r e d v i l l a g e s , and t h a t  by r e d u c i n g  directly  and  result,  e x a m i n a t i o n of documentation suggests that  Indians for  as a  industry  this belief  c o n s u l t i n g those Indians An  in  services  i t d i d not  iii  result  in  not into  center planning access increased  employment into  opportunities.  non-native  societies,  s u r v i v a l of the Tanakteuk. re-establishment identified rational term  by  of  a  Moreover,  relocation  threatened the  community  in  New  of  based  the  the  Band.  has  been  the  most  the long-  An  alternative  theory  on a s y n t h e s i s o f a  territorial  development  c a s e s t u d y of t h e Tanakteuk p r o v i d e s s t r o n g  Department  of  must  strengthen  Indian  •economies Indian  within  political  Indian be  Affairs.  An  justification  orthodox  r e p l a c e d by an a l t e r n a t i v e  society  through the  Indian c u l t u r a l institutions.  c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of  of  option.  t h e need f o r m a j o r c h a n g e s t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s u s e d  development  for  as  c u l t u r e and f u r t h e r  a p p r o a c h and s y s t e m s t h e o r y s u p p o r t s t h i s p l a n n i n g  of  cultural  Vancouver  f i v e Tanakteuk heads of h o u s e h o l d s  development  The  assimilation  Having e v a l u a t e d s e v e r a l o p t i o n s , the  means t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r  development  by p r o m o t i n g  approach that  development  aims of  by to to  Indian  frameworks under the c o n t r o l of P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s must  clientele.  i i i «-  account  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS  i i iv  . .  LIST OF TABLES  .  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  .  CHAPTER ONE Objectives Scope Background t o the Problem S t r u c t u r e & Methods  vi ii  '. .  CHAPTER TWO Part One: Kwakiutl S o c i e t y P r i o r t o Contact with Europeans O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic Production R e l a t i o n s h i p with P h y s i c a l Environment R e l a t i o n s with Other Communities P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development & Behaviour Part Two: I n c r e a s i n g I n t e r a c t i o n with Europeans O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic Production R e l a t i o n s h i p with P h y s i c a l Environment R e l a t i o n s with Other Communities P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development & Behaviour Part Three: Kwakiutl S o c i e t y i n the 1960s O r g a n i z a t i o n of Economic Production R e l a t i o n s h i p with. P h y s i c a l Environment R e l a t i o n s with Other Communities P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development & Behaviour Part Four: F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g to R e l o c a t i o n of Communities ... Kwakiutl Opinion Opinion of DIA Personnel H i s t o r i c a l Indicators Summary  15 17 18 18 20 21  ...  CHAPTER THREE E v o l u t i o n of Theories of Regional Development and Planning .... Theory of Underdevelopment  iv  1 2 3 4 12  22 -23 25 26 28 31 31 34 37 39 41 41 45 47 49 51 55 60  Page Internal Colonialism & Indians Canadian Values & Planning Processes D u r i n g t h e 1960s DIA's P o l i c i e s & Programs D u r i n g t h e 1960s Summary CHAPTER FOUR P r o f i l e of Canadian O f f - R e s e r v e P o p u l a t i o n T a n a k t e u k Band P r o f i l e The S u r v e y C i r c u m s t a n c e s of R e l o c a t i o n Immediate Impacts o f R e l o c a t i o n Current L i f e s t y l e s S u p p o r t f o r Community R e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t Comparison of Tanakteuk' Response to C l a s s i c Responses t o R e l o c a t i o n Summary  62 66 74 82 .......  CHAPTER F I V E C r i t i c a l Assumptions C r i t e r i a t o E v a l u a t e Development I n i t i a t i v e s C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o Orthodox Development Approaches An A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o Development E v a l u a t i o n o f Development S c e n a r i o s for the Tanakteuk R a t i o n a l e f o r R e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Community F o r m u l a t i o n o f Community Development S t r a t e g y Economic Development Human R e s o u r c e Development P h y s i c a l Development Why DIA S h o u l d S u p p o r t I n d i a n s ' R e q u e s t for Assistance DIA P o l i c y on "New" C o m m u n i t i e s I m p l i c a t i o n s of P o l i c y f o r the Tanakteuk and O t h e r Bands Summary CHAPTER SIX Summary  •  Conclusions REFERENCES  •  101 104  .... ....  ... ...  107 109 110 113 11.5 120 125 128 128 132 132 134 137 139 141  • .  1  4  2  143 148  .  L I S T OF INTERVIEWS  •  84 87 89 91 92 97 99 100  1 56 .....  170  APPENDIX  171  v  L I S T OF TABLES  Tables  Page  1. Survey R e s u l t s  93  vi  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figures 1.. Map  Page of K w a k i u t l  2. K w a k i u t l 3. Map  Territory  S e a s o n a l Economic A c t i v i t i e s  of Tanakteuk  Reserves  vii  5 33 130  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  To t h e e a g l e ... And t h o s e who do of l i k e k i n d . I would like to thank Dr. J u l i a Gardner for her generous contribution of t i m e , guidance, and u n w a v e r i n g e n t h u s i a s m for this project; and Mr. Peter Boothroyd f o r p r o v i d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e scholarly insights. I am g r a t e f u l t o Mr. Norman D a l e f o r s h a r i n g h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e K w a k i u t l T e r r i t o r y w i t h me. Of c o u r s e , t h i s t h e s i s would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t T a n a k t e u k ' s v i s i o n of a b e t t e r f u t u r e . I thank Anne G l e n d a l e C h i e f W i l l i a m G l e n d a l e f o r s h a r i n g t h e i r dreams w i t h me. And  t o my  p a r e n t s , many  thanks.  viii  the and  You w i l l need t o come c l o s e r for l i t t l e i s l e f t of t h i s t o n g u e and what I am s a y i n g i s important. I am t h e l a s t  one...  "Truganinny" by Wendy Rose in Harper's Anthology of 20th C e n t u r y N a t i v e American P o e t r y e d i t e d by D. N i a t u m  1988  CHAPTER ONE: The  standard  been  of l i v i n g  enhanced  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  living  in  closer  health  care,  of  has i n c r e a s e d ;  education,  and s o c i a l  living  Indians,  northern  to  b e n e f i t s from facilities  are  s e r v i c e s a r e more  improvements i n  have o c c u r r e d  at  the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g . D u r i n g services  twenty-five  i n need.  f o r some  standard  of housing  i n Canada h a s  last  proximity to infrastructural  a c c e s s i b l e t o those However,  f o r the Indian population  i n some m a t e r i a l ways o v e r t h e  years:  evident;  INTRODUCTION  several  remote  Kwakiutl  Indian  their  material  expense  of  their  t h e 1960s,  crucial  villages  i n the  reaches of Johnstone S t r a i g h t o f f Vancouver I s l a n d  w i t h d r a w n by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ,  resulting  were  i n the r e l o c a t i o n  of  f a m i l i e s t o u r b a n c e n t e r s where t h e i r m a t e r i a l n e e d s w o u l d be  met  at a fraction  with  the  communities, throughout  of the c o s t .  opportunity most  to  W h i l e some f a m i l i e s were continue  families dispersed  Vancouver  living  in  to non-native  I s l a n d and t h e lower  mainland  provided on-reserve  settlements of  British  Columbia. Objectives The  objectives  processes  this thesis are to  examine  the  planning  that c o n t r i b u t e d t o the death of the Johnstone S t r a i g h t  communities, one  of  Kwakiutl  t o i d e n t i f y t h e i m p a c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n on members o f Band,  namely t h e T a n a k t e u k , and t o e v a l u a t e 2  various  alternatives an  f o r I n d i a n development  assessment of the d e s i r a b i l i t y  homelands,  using  study.  lost  communities are explored.  planning Indian 1960s and  to  for Indians  relocate  process Affairs  to  u s e d by (DIA)  development  s o c i e t y at the  the  includes  of r e - i n h a b i t a t i o n of  Kwakiutl  re-establishment  a c r o s s Canada who  their  traditional  have  approaches  b a c k d r o p of  acceptable  in  of  expressed The  Department  i n remote n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s  a  the  homelands.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e  during  of the  planning  processes  mainstream  Canadian  time.  t h e p u r p o s e of t h i s t h e s i s , formulation  projects.  than  Vancouver as  I m p l i c a t i o n s a r e drawn f r o m  i s d i s c u s s e d a g a i n s t the  For  This  Development o p t i o n s o t h e r  Tanakteuk case study desire  future.  t h e T a n a k t e u k c o m m u n i t y of New  case  a  i n the  and  implementation  Development  and  of  policies,  i s t h e enhancement of t h e  community's s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , decision-making,  planning process  self-reliance,  a sense of purpose i n l i f e  i s defined programs  as and  individual's  or  participation  in  and  work  (wien,  1986). SCOPE Although  factors  that contributed  t o the d e c l i n e  I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s a c r o s s Canada t w e n t y y e a r s the  focus  Kwakiutl of  of  villages  Vancouver  be  similar,  to  several  s c a t t e r e d throughout the n o r t h e a s t e r n  portion  research  I s l a n d and  in this  thesis is  the adjacent 3  ago  may  of . remote  limited  mainland  (Figure  1).  In  particular, Band. are  discussion  i s centered  Each of t h e f i f t e e n K w a k i u t l o n e - - h a s i t s own name,  bands--of which t h e Tanakteuk  Their  suggested  s u r v i v e d and o t h e r s  that  d i d not.  the  c o m m u n i t y a t t h e t i m e when  forces  was g r e a t e s t ,  this  issue  BACKGROUND  carried  from  attempt t o  government  out of  in  is  responsible  It is  compare  f o r the  the  the Indian  economic  Act  (1985).  and s o c i a l  Until  assistance  o u t by one f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t  of  thesis,  health  and  u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t (1867) a n d  services t o other  the to  (although  1960s, t h e  Indians  the actual  i n contrast  t h e f e d e r a l body r e s p o n s i b l e  4  f o r Indian  was name  t o the  C a n a d i a n s by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  many g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s a n d l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . the  external  dispersed.  of t h e d e p a r t m e n t c h a n g e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e ) , provision  leadership  of the i n h a b i t a n t s of these s u r v i v i n g communities  of Indians  provision  been  TO THE PROBLEM  federal  set  villages  i s not c l o s e l y examined.  t o t h o s e members o f bands who have  welfare  Band  A l t h o u g h i t has  pressure  beyond t h e scope of t h e t h e s i s t o  q u a l i t y of l i f e  Indian  t h e k e y f a c t o r may be t h e q u a l i t y o f  within  The  have  of t h e Tanakteuk  i s made t o e x p l a i n why some i s o l a t e d  in the region  also  be  i n the t h e s i s .  No a t t e m p t  as  collective histories  drawn upon t o e n h a n c e t h e c a s e s t u d y  presented  Tanakteuk  b u t a s a g r o u p t h e y h a v e come t o  known a s t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l . been  on members o f t h e  of  Throughout affairs  is  FIGURE 1 . MAP OF KWAKIUTL T E R R 1 T U K *  5  referred  to  simplicity. shifted  as In  among  the  reality, several  acronyms, although Although  the  amendment s i n c e greatly  Department of  every  responsibility departments,  Affairs  (DIA) f o r  f o r Indian a f f a i r s often  under  has  different  t h i s p r a c t i c e ceased n e a r l y t h r e e decades ago.  Indian 1876,  Act  has  been  subject  to  review  a t t h e e n d o f t h e 1960s i t d i d n o t ,  from t h e o r i g i n a l  virtually  Indian  aspect  form  (Ponting,  of Indians'  1980).  lives.  and differ  The A c t t o u c h e s  I n t h e words  of  one  former A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r of DIA: The I n d i a n A c t i s a L a n d A c t . I t i s a M u n i c i p a l A c t , an E d u c a t i o n A c t a n d a S o c i e t i e s A c t . I t i s p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , but i t has very broad scope: t h e r e are p r o v i s i o n s about l i q u o r , a g r i c u l t u r e and mining as w e l l a s I n d i a n l a n d s , band m e m b e r s h i p a n d s o f o r t h . I t has e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e e m b o d i e d i n p e r h a p s two d o z e n d i f f e r e n t A c t s of any o f t h e p r o v i n c e s and o v e r r i d e s some f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n some r e s p e c t s . . . I t h a s t h e f o r c e o f t h e C r i m i n a l Code a n d t h e i m p a c t o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n on p e o p l e and c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t come w i t h i n i t s purview (Doerr, 1974:40). Until  the late  1960s,  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f e d e r a l government  s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s Agent,  who  was  development. from  time  protection  of  assimilation  responsible  Several  the  of  of  1986).  initial  Indians  contact  from  the  with evils  from a "backward"  and t h e a d o p t i o n  According  was t h e j o b o f t h e s e  f o r implementing  by t h e I n d i a n  policy  affecting  m a j o r m o t i f s h a v e c h a r a c t e r i z e d DIA p o l i c y  Indians  i n t o modern s o c i e t y , Ponting,  was c a r r i e d o u t on r e s e r v e s  Indians of  white  traditional  1969:  society, society  of C h r i s t i a n i t y . ( G i b b i n s &  t o Manuel and P o s l u n s  new w h i t e  until  (1974:54), " i t  c h i e f s t o d i s p l a c e our t r a d i t i o n a l 6  leaders...to  bring  o u r way o f l i f e  t h a t h a d been d e c r e e d the  policies  i n Ottawa." Because of h i s sweeping powers,  Agent i n e v i t a b l y generated  Indian c l i e n t e l e  into line with the  (Ponting,  a s t a t e of dependency  among h i s  1980).  C h a n g e s i n t h e I n d i a n A c t i n 1951 e s t a b l i s h e d Band C o u n c i l s an  attempt  to  better represent  inhabitants  i n a democratic  denied  right  the  Despite  these  to  changes,  vote  the interests  process.  (Indians,  i n federal  final  of  a l l reserve  however,  elections  in  were  until  1960).  the  Bands-  on t h e c o m m u n i t y — w e r e  subject  d e c i s i o n s taken  by  regardless  of t h e i s s u e or impact  to  by t h e I n d i a n A g e n t a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Crown.  approval Among  Canadians,  Indians  prior  to  recognize  Indians  group  ignorance  in  response there and  general  knowledge  of  the  conditions  1960 was l i m i t e d ;  most C a n a d i a n s  across the country  as  of t h e i r  cultural  t o v a r i o u s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  a  tended  homogeneous  diversity. events  about t h e i r  to  ethnic  However,  in  d u r i n g t h e 1960s,  was an i n c r e a s e i n t h e a w a r e n e s s o f " t h e I n d i a n  an a r o u s a l o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n  of  standard  problem", of  living.  I n d i a n s s u f f e r e d from p o v e r t y , underemployment, and unemployment; in  1965,  $300  f o r example, I n d i a n s had p e r c a p i t a g a i n f u l e a r n i n g s of  compared  marginal  t o t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e o f $1,400.  Natives  were  t o t h e many s e r v i c e s t h a t o t h e r C a n a d i a n r e c e i v e d ,  they  were o v e r - c o n s u m e r s o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , substandard  a n d t h e y were h o u s e d i n  d w e l l i n g s (Hawthorn e t a l . , 1967).  7  As  efforts  ethnic  diversity,  momentum  in  historical criticism variety the  i n Canadian s o c i e t y t o cope w i t h  t h e 1960s,  treatment  disparities  a collective  of Indians  f o r paternalism.  and  decision-making  communities government prospects  the  In response,  address  about  the  DIA e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h a t o reduce dependence  immediately  on  i n the  disparities  p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s the  officials coping  decade.  i n the  and n a t i v e Canadians,  At  the  same  to  time,  with the general  expansion of  with a small population  native  at  the  f o r n a t i v e and  DIA  however,  were g r o w i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y a l a r m e d  s t a t e . The c o s t s o f p r o v i d i n g a m e n i t i e s communities  gained  e m e r g e d , a n d DIA came u n d e r h e a v y  between n o n - n a t i v e  during  of  poverty  t o encourage Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n  to  of l i v i n g  emphasized  unity,  process.  pressure  standard  and  sense of g u i l t  of programs o s t e n s i b l y designed  government,  Under  regional  national  the  welfare  non-native  s c a t t e r e d over remote  areas  was h i g h . According "growth will  to popular  regional planning  theory  during  c e n t e r s " were t h e s o l u t i o n t o r e g i o n a l  be d i s c u s s e d  in detail  i n Chapter Three.  i n urban i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  t h e 1960s,  disparities, By  centers,  concentrating  the  population  and  s e r v i c e s c o u l d be o f f e r e d t o a l l C a n a d i a n s a t a f r a c t i o n  t h e c o s t , due t o e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e . M i g r a t i o n  infrastructure  of government s e r v i c e s . 8  of  from s m a l l , remote  c o m m u n i t i e s t o g r o w t h c e n t e r s was e n c o u r a g e d l a r g e l y withdrawal  as  through  the  DIA  representatives  the  recognized  c o n c e p t of growth c e n t e r s ,  development reserve  of I n d i a n s .  communities,  the advantages a s s o c i a t e d  with  as w e l l as i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  the  I f n a t i v e s were e n c o u r a g e d t o move where t h e v a l u e s  to urban c e n t e r s ,  of a t r a d i t i o n a l  society  the a s s i m i l a t i o n of  Indians  were  prevalent,  into  modern s o c i e t y w o u l d be h a s t e n e d ,  Indians  would r e s u l t . At the t i m e ,  linear  progression  o n e s b a s e d on mass c o n s u m e r i s m Critiques  on  colonialism  the  societies to  (Rostow, of  in  1969  unparalleled (Cardinal, policy,  perceived  resulted  in a  and  1977; M a n u e l  w h i c h was  and P o s l u n s ,  of  with remarkable  consequences  1974; W h i t e s i d e ,  w o u l d be d i s m a n t l e d ,  removed,  This  and a l l  legal  distinctions from  other  a l l o w i n g them t o p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y  Canadian s o c i e t y . Although  t h e W h i t e P a p e r was  never  in  implemented,  a s a c a t a l y s t f o r I n d i a n demands f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n  any d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Native  1973).  r e j e c t e d by a l l n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r o p o s e d  as the I n d i a n A c t t h a t s e t n a t i v e p e o p l e s a p a r t  served  Indian  organization  such  it  had  Indian  reserves  be  Neither  W h i t e P a p e r on  that  Canadians  internal  impacts.  level  i n Canadian h i s t o r y ,  as a  industrialized  underdevelopment  or environmental  of  1960).  r e l e a s e of the f e d e r a l government's  policy  was  had n o t y e t emerged i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  the concept of s o c i a l The  causes  and t h e " d e v e l o p m e n t "  development  from t r a d i t i o n a l  from  in  process.  organizations  became  9  increasingly  militant  about  aboriginal the  late  r i g h t s as 1960s and  embraces  not  linguistic  early  only  and  but  Calder  1970s.  land,  the  The  but  on  initiated  issue  matters.  In  during  of a b o r i g i n a l  rights  the  social,  1973,  Nishga  religious,  s i x Supreme  aboriginal  i t s application by  re-awakened  cultural,  e x i s t e n c e of  were d i v i d e d  case  in Indian heritage  political  j u s t i c e s a g r e e d on law,  pride  rights  i n law  Tribal  Court  i n Canadian  i n the  landmark  Council  (Weaver,  1981). The  entrenchment  Constitution that  Act  Special  Constitution  this belief.  Committee  Government, entrenchment  of  peoples.  1985,  Force  to  discussions  to c o n t r o l members  of  rights  House of 1983,  p r i n c i p l e of released  Proclamation the  Agreements" help  to  in  Commons  on  c a l l e d for  Canadians  of  and  develop  a b o u t s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and  native  the  Task "Living  future  claims  economically  t h e i r land  increased  the  r i g h t s of  i n the  the  w i t h d r a w a l of 10  services  Indians  1980s,  K w a k i u t l Bands f r o m c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h d e c l i n e d of  Self-  for  entitled that  the  communities..."  r e s o u r c e s on  because  1983  constitutional  p r e p a r e d by  which s t a t e d  restore  Canadian  Indian  self-government  a report  the  P e n n e r R e p o r t of  Comprehensive Claims P o l i c y  "must  aboriginal  Amendment  i n October  DIA  Lasting  negotiations  treaty  permanent p l a c e w i t h i n  In a d d i t i o n , the  the  Review  Treaties:  viable  of  released  In  and  (1982) r e f l e c t e d g r o w i n g a c c e p t a n c e by  The  reinforced  1960s  aboriginal  I n d i a n s o c c u p y a u n i q u e and  society.  As  of  expressed  many in  the  their  desire  to  Indians  r e - e s t a b l i s h communities on-reserve.  development  radically  different  characteristic  of  Indian society  and  systems t h e o r y  from  DIA  orthodox  policy.  approach  that  development  This alternative  proposes  within  Indian c u l t u r a l  frameworks  their  Indian communities  legitimacy response  from l o c a l  t o o v e r one h u n d r e d  Canada f o r a s s i s t a n c e  "new"  policy  communities,  directive  requests  in relocation  s u c h as New  i n December,  development  i n the e x i s t i n g of  alternative.  a  However,  relocation  the  e x i s t i n g community w i l l  responsibility It  i s within  Bands  establishment  DIA  released the  the  most  proposals  a  criteria  t h e h e a l t h and s a f e t y  l o c a t i o n must be e n d a n g e r e d , be  the  drawing  Indian  or the  immediate or f u t u r e requirement f o r f i n a n c i a l to  from  1987 w h i c h o u t l i n e d  c o m m u n i t y must  of  ( L o u b s e r , 1984).  Vancouver,  u n d e r w h i c h s u p p o r t w o u l d be e x t e n d e d : individuals  that  under  i n s t i t u t i o n s a n c h o r e d i n and  of  is  s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  economies  across  a  approaches  c o n t r o l of I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l  In  of  i n t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s w o u l d be b a s e d on a s y n t h e s i s o f  territorial  Indian  Development  of  and  the  cost-effective  which  include  resources  n o t be s u p p o r t e d .  DIA  an  relative takes  no  f o r t h e outcome o f p r e v i o u s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . the d e s c r i b e d c o n t e x t of h i s t o r i c a l  circumstance  and p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h e i s s u e of r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of Indian  communities  across  Canada i s d i s c u s s e d  drawing  implications  from the Tanakteuk  11  in  case study.  the  lost  thesis,  THESIS STRUCTURE AND METHODS C h a p t e r Two Kwakiutl  presents  life  literature  in  review  Bands, K w a k i u t l institutions, to  contact  contact during  remote  economic  activities,  non-natives;  1960s,  socioeconomic  Based  on  and  over t h r e e phases:  t h e 1960s;  of  and  a  Kwakiutl  relations  period  of  prior  increasing  village  life  l e a d i n g up t o t h e t i m e when s e r v i c e s t o t h e  structure been  social  during a  settlers until  were w i t h d r a w n .  (1984) h a v e  communities.  and c u l t u r e i s d i s c u s s e d  with white  communities  several  a n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n  a n d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h members o f s e v e r a l  with  the  a historical  The b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s  as d e s c r i b e d  used t o i l l u s t r a t e  by Weaver  of  community  and  the character  Cunningham  of  Kwakiutl  life. The  purposes  of i n c l u d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  conditions  i n C h a p t e r Two a r e t o p r o v i d e  historical  transformations  activities  and t h e s o c i a l  accompanied  them,  of  the  socio-economic  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Kwakiutl's  productive  of the economic  r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which  f o r comparison w i t h r e s u l t s of the survey  current c o n d i t i o n s i n Chapter Four; considering  of  and t o p r o v i d e  have of  a context f o r  development a l t e r n a t i v e s d e s c r i b e d  in  Chapter  Five. C h a p t e r Two  also includes a p r o f i l e  of s i g n i f i c a n t  sequence of  events and f a c t o r s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the d e c l i n e of communities i n the  region  population.  and t h e subsequent d i s p e r s a l and r e l o c a t i o n To g e n e r a t e t h e p r o f i l e , 12  of  the  s e v e r a l members o f K w a k i u t l  Bands  a n d DIA s t a f f  members were i n t e r v i e w e d ,  g a t h e r e d f r o m DIA a r c h i v e s a n d r e l e v a n t Chapter  Three  national  and  were  description The  based  regional  during  of the p o l i t i c a l  development  the  and s o c i a l  1960s,  and  set  which  planning  against  c l i m a t e of t h i s  a  period.  i n f l u e n c e t h a t p r o g r a m s e m e r g i n g o u t o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s h a d on  planning  for  traditional  remote  Indian  communities  approach t o development  Chapter Four profile  followed survey  is  examined.  review.  f o c u s e s on a c a s e s t u d y o f T a n a k t e u k Band members.  of Canadian Indians r e s i d i n g o f f - r e s e r v e by a p r o f i l e  of  DIA's  i s reviewed.  C h a p t e r T h r e e i s b a s e d on a l i t e r a t u r e  A  was  literature.  p r e s e n t s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s on  international  initiatives  and m a t e r i a l  o f t h e T a n a k t e u k Band.  Band members a r e e v a l u a t e d .  i s presented,  The r e s u l t s  The s u r v e y  of  attempts  a to  d e t e r m i n e Band members' p e r c e p t i o n a b o u t t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h l e d t o relocation; lives. members among  A  and profile  is  of c u r r e n t  also presented.  t h e impact of r e l o c a t i o n  on  socio-economic conditions In a d d i t i o n ,  the l e v e l  their  of  of  Band  support of  i s evaluated.  analysis  s o u r c e s , namely of  assess  Band members f o r t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e community  New V a n c o u v e r The  to  of s u r v e y r e s u l t s  i s s u p p l e m e n t e d by  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Band members, n a t i o n a l  additional statistics  socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s of o f f - r e s e r v e Canadian I n d i a n s ,  a  c o n s u l t a n t ' s s t u d y o f M a m a l e l e q a l a Qwe'Qwa'sot'enox Band members,  13  whose  situation  is  similar  to that  of  the  Tanakteuk's,  and  l i t e r a t u r e on t h e e f f e c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n . Chapter the  Five  is  p r e s c r i p t i v e i n nature.  alternative  orthodox development approach c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  presented—one  which  is  b a s e d on a  d e v e l o p m e n t and a s y s t e m s t h e o r y development  approaches  development o p t i o n s from  a  course  community  is  community  why  DIA  follows.  the  based  support  along  chapter,  alternatives community Chief  is  for  a  new  establishing  a  new  explored,  on t e r r i t o r i a l  and  a  The a u t h o r ' s  on s u p p o r t  community  development  the re-establishment  DIA's p o l i c y  and  of  Indian  bands  of  a  f o r "new"  across  community communities  Canada  t o t h a t of t h e T a n a k t e u k  Band.  the t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n  on  based  on a  s t r a t e g y i s a. r e s u l t  literature  review.  development The  as w e l l as  h e l d w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the K w a k i u t l D i s t r i c t T r i b a l C o u n c i l o f w h i c h t h e T a n a k t e u k Band  proposed the  interviews C o u n c i l , the  i s a member.  C h a p t e r S i x i n c l u d e s a summary o f t h e t h e s i s and 14  has whose  of a s e r i e s of m e e t i n g s w i t h  and C o u n c i l o f t h e T a n a k t e u k Band,  a  assessment of  w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s that t h i s p o l i c y  development  this  is  approach i s presented.  s i t u a t i o n s are s i m i l a r In  i n which funding  rationale for  strategy  discussed,  for  ranging  The  Scenarios  evaluate  f o r t h e T a n a k t e u k Band a r e d i s c u s s e d ,  Vancouver  Finally,  to  future  secured.  should  territorial  of  New  systems theory  of  Criteria  are also o f f e r e d .  to  o f DIA p o l i c y i s  synthesis  approach.  o f i n a c t i o n t o one  in  development  is  An  conclusions.  D e f i n i t i o n s belong not the d e f i n e d  to the  Toni from 1987  15  definers--  Morrison Beloved  CHAPTER TWO: THE HISTORICAL TRANSFORMATION OF KWAKIUTL MODES OF PRODUCTION AND INSTITUTIONS FROM PRE-EUROPEAN CONTACT UNTIL RELOCATION In order The  t o understand the present,  purpose of t h i s chapter  c u l t u r e as i t e x i s t e d p r i o r isolated chapter life  Indian  i s t o present  Kwakiutl  to  settlers  the h i s t o r i c a l activities  o f f north-eastern  transformations  and t h e s o c i a l  during  the  community  Cunningham titles  2)  factors isolated province  that  description interaction  of a people's p r o d u c t i v e  of with  1960s  is  prior  to  the  I n each of these  u t i l i z e d as a  and  other  contributed  reserves  which  have  relocation  of  remote  s e c t i o n s , the category by  framework,  Weaver  and  providing  the  n a m e l y : 1) o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c  communities;  behaviour  economic  s e c t i o n , a d e s c r i p t i o n of Kwakiutl  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the p h y s i c a l  with  development  A  r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s  t o each s u b - s e c t i o n ,  relations  s e c t i o n examines  socioeconomic s t r u c t u r e suggested  (1984)  production;  Europeans.  The  f o l l o w s . T h e s e two s e c t i o n s a t t e m p t t o d e m o n s t r a t e  communities i s presented. of  Vancouver I s l a n d .  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n c r e a s i n g  a c c o m p a n i e d them. I n t h e t h i r d life  Kwakiutl  t o t h e l o s s o f c o m m u n i t i e s on s e v e r a l  association with  society  to the past.  snapshots of  i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t  prior  white  reserves  we must l o o k  patterns.  and In  environment; 4)  the  to the r e l o c a t i o n  of  t o c e n t r a l i z e d urban c e n t e r s  a r e examined.  16  3)  psychological fourth  section,  families  from  throughout  the  Information  was  gathered  several  Bands  and  archival  documents.  There i s a wealth notably  the  potlatch 1880s. for of  DIA  interviews  personnel,  from  s t u d i e s of  reader  i s advised  literature,  first  Guests  Never  Leave  a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l on  Section  For  One:  Kwakiutl  the  h a b i t a t s in North  culture  was  created  Their  Prior  America,  with only  lives  as  were  so  Contact  lived  i n one  where an  the  with  elaborate  simplest  closely  environment  of  dependent  a s w e l l as t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n their  17  around  material  tools  d e t e r m i n e d t h e c y c l e of e c o n o m i c  patterns.  provides  of the r i c h e s t  nature  behaviour  in  Europeans  inseparable:  influenced  biography  (1969)  the  and  directly  described  with  region,  the  The  intertwined  activities  in  reports  Spradley  to  the-Kwakiutl  natural  the  topic.  Society  t h o u s a n d s of y e a r s  1984).  James S e w i d ,  H u n g r y by James  from  with  published  to c o n s u l t these  elder,  and  of  t h e K w a k i u t l , most  a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of e a r l y K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e . a prominent Kwakiutl  members  rituals associated  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Franz Boas,  The  with  o f d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l on  systematic  by  from  them  upon as  to  and be  production  of t h e p o p u l a t i o n  psychological  (Fagan,  in  the  development  and  Organization The was  most  o f Economic  important  resource  the abundant marine  herring,  life,  fish  food  and g a t h e r i n g  men  fished  The  roots,  the s p r i n g ,  and f i r ,  for  almost  up  to forty  houses; The  boxes  pattern  with  conceivable  people;  Traditional  trapping,  netting  preserving  and s t o r a g e  while  of food  l e a v i n g the  took winter  t h i c k f o r e s t s o f hemlock,  canoes capable  of c a r r y i n g  masks and t o t e m p o l e s ; m u l t i - f a m i l y  storage;  economic  yew,  a c c e s s i b l e m a t e r i a l t h a t was used  purpose:  religious  f o r food of  oolichan,  activities.  providing easily  every  times  seaweed and s h e l l f i s h ,  summer and f a l l ,  m o u n t a i n s were c o v e r e d  cedar  salmon,  m u s s e l s and seaweed.  The c o l l e c t i o n  free f o r other  i n pre-contact  Women were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  berries,  and h u n t e d .  during  largely  c o n s i s t i n g of  included spearing,  u s e o f hook and l i n e .  place  f o r the people  h a l i b u t , clams, crabs,  methods f o r g a t h e r i n g and  Production  1937).  and c l o t h i n g (Goldman,  production  of  Kwakiutl  life  was  d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e a s o n s . R e l a t i o n s h i p with Travel  between v i l l a g e s  difficult.  Some  houses  and  (INAC,  1986).  near fall.  the P h y s i c a l Environment  the best Several  of  the l a r g e r v i l l a g e s  a population Seasonal fishing families  was by w a t e r ,  since, l a n d t r a v e l had a s many  between two h u n d r e d and migration  to other  grounds o c c u r r e d  thirty  seven  hundred  settlements  located  i n the s p r i n g ,  o r g r o u p s from many d i f f e r e n t  18  as  was  summer and tribes  would  share these settlements.  Access t o f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , h u n t i n g and  trapping  plant  grounds,  historical  use,  relationships tribes  and allotted  (Speck,  by  village,  each  1987).  During  friendships to  religion  t o be  closest  and  neighboring  their  of s o c i a l  the winter,  (1961),  the  unified  people  culture  and spoke Kwakwala.  or  Tribal  Kwakiutl  a number  In each t r i b e ,  there  autonomous  group.  bands.  Obligations the  own among  economy,  (Hawthorn e t a l . , 1958).  society.  politically  According  E a c h t r i b e was r a n k e d i n was  patrilineal,  a  to  as  a  similar a  lineal  although  the  important. were s e v e r a l  from e i t h e r one's f a t h e r  ranked k i n s h i p groups c a l l e d  or mother.  r a n k e d t r i b e s a n d numayms,  also  r a n k e d . Those h o l d i n g  the  "chiefs",  those  of  Travel,  m e m b e r s h i p t o what was e s s e n t i a l l y an e x t e n d e d  hierarchically  of  t r i b e s may h a v e s h a r e d one  a l t h o u g h they ' shared  membership  m o t h e r ' s t r i b e was a l s o  was a c q u i r e d  family  never thought of themselves  "nation",  on  f o r extended periods  comprised Kwakiutl  Codere  "numayms";  based to  rank dominated t h e t w e n t y - f i v e  autonomous t r i b e s t h a t  hierarchy.  according  l i n k e d r e l a t i v e s permeated  and a r t of t h e v i l l a g e  Awareness  an  was  a n d m a r r i a g e s were e s s e n t i a l l y l i m i t e d t o one's  the  households  Although several  continued  sites  the chiefs  would gather a t a s i n g l e v i l l a g e  ceremonial a c t i v i t y .  and  gathering  the higher  holding  the  "commoners". The p o s i t i o n o f s l a v e 19  In a d d i t i o n  social positions  positions lower  family  i n each c l a n  positions  also existed within  were  to were were the  the s o c i a l  order, a position with neither  r i g h t s nor rank nor l e g a c y . S l a v e s  were p r o p e r t y t o be u s e d o r g i v e n away.  Most were t a k e n a s  i n r a i d s o r were t h e d e s c e n d a n t s o f s u c h c a p t i v e s R e l a t i o n s w i t h Other Trade  life.  Kwakiutl,  Vancouver  Island,  the and  Nuu-chah-nulth the  Nuxalk  c o a s t l i n e around B e l l a C o o l a ; coastal  roles  i n Northwest  F o r g e n e r a t i o n s , g o o d s were e x c h a n g e d  Southern  of the  people  who  region  Coast  between  west  coast  c e n t r e d on f o o d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n .  trade  may  stretching  Across greater  h a v e r e v o l v e d more a r o u n d m a t t e r s o f  of the  from o t h e r  eastwards to the Rockies a l s o e x i s t e d .  trade  the  inhabited  trade links with tribes  r e g i o n s as w e l l a s t h e i n t e r i o r  the Coast Mountains  1986).  Communities  and w a r f a r e p l a y e d f u n d a m e n t a l  Indian  (Kirk,  booty  from Local  distances,  prestige  (Kirk,  1986). Inevitably, Raids  between  Kwakiutl chief's  conflict  between t h e s e v a r i o u s groups  different  language groups,  t r i b e s were t r i g g e r e d  r e a l m , i n o r d e r t o s e i z e s l a v e s , t o g a i n new  l o s s o f a l o v e d one  usually Because to  as w e l l  one's  enslaved,  (Kirk,  of c h i e f  social position,  between  was  grief  Women a n d c h i l d r e n  were u s u a l l y  l a r g e l y determined  violence. 20  over were  killed. according  t h e a u t h o r i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p was  challenged through i n t e r - t r i b a l  a  prerogatives  or t o demonstrate  1986).  w h i l e t h e men  the p o s i t i o n  as  i n response to a t r e s p a s s i n t o  normally acquired through marriage, the  developed.  not  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development & B e h a v i o u r P a t t e r n s Secret  societies  Members  of  similar  ranks i n t h e i r  inherited, of  each  were  but  t h e most  important  religious  s o c i e t y were u s u a l l y o f t h e same r e s p e c t i v e numayms.  i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  The  sex  and  had  These p o s i t i o n s  were  whole s o c i a l  the K w a k i u t l changed from k i n s h i p groups  groups.  organization  to secret  societies  a t the time of the w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l s . No  priesthood directed  meetings  with s p i r i t s  Rituals reflected n a t u r a l and spiritual The social  involving  certain man".  the deep r e v e r e n c e f o r the i n t e r t w i n i n g of  shown by e v e r y r a n k  institution  status  however,  l e d t o power as a shaman o r " m e d i c i n e  s u p e r n a t u r a l r e a l m s , and  was  major  religious practices;  was  feasting,  singing,  m a i n t a i n i n g , and  w h i c h was  a  increasing  complex  ceremony  d a n c i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  gifts.  P o t l a t c h e s were o c c a s i o n s f o r w i t n e s s i n g t h e i n h e r i t a n c e o f , validated  claims  privileges  and p r o p e r t y ,  political  to,  certain  and  in society.  f o r assuming,  the p o t l a t c h ,  r e s p e c t f o r the p h y s i c a l  the  ranks  and  their  accompanying  a s w e l l as a t i m e t o s e t t l e  d i s p u t e s between d i f f e r e n t  numayms and  and  legal  and  tribes  (Speck,  r e s o u r c e s meant t h a t e c o n o m i c  pursuits  1987) . The did  abundance of n a t u r a l  not r e q u i r e a l l of the p e o p l e ' s t i m e  them t o d e v e l o p a c o m p l e x s o c i a l upon  their arrival  energy,  and c e r e m o n i a l l i f e .  on t h e n o r t h w e s t  21  and  c o a s t of N o r t h  enabling  Ironically, America,  it  was t h e s e  riches that f i r s t  impressed  the Europeans, r e s u l t i n g i n  c o n t a c t t h a t would a f f e c t K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y f o r e v e r .  Part  Two:  The  Increasing  first  Interaction  with  Europeans  d e s c r i p t i o n s of K w a k i u t l l i f e  were made when C a p t a i n  George  Vancouver e x p l o r e d t h e i r  10,700  Kwakiutl inhabited the region at t h i s  Contact  w i t h w h i t e s was m i n i m a l  territory  before  i n 1792. time  1849,  (Fisher,  1977).  other  settlers  increased  (Speck,  material  potlatch  and  1987).  wealth,  changed  which  Fort  i n the area  Trading  with  some  the  Rupert  i n 1870  whites  increased the  i t s function to  1964).  a t which time  Bay Company e s t a b l i s h e d a t r a d i n g p o s t a t s a l t r y was b u i l t  estimated  (Duff,  Hudson's  A fish  An  brought  size  degree  by  of  the  (Spradley,  1969) . Although of  n a t i v e people  total  they  population u n t i l  were  frequency 1986).  continued  losing  With  the  the middle  control  and i n t e n s i t y  In this  integral  of  of the n i n e t e e n t h  their  lands  and  of contact w i t h whites  transition  c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s e t t l e m e n t , from  t o dominate the r e g i o n i n terms  from  the  century,  lives  as  increased  f u r trade  t h e I n d i a n ' s r o l e h a d been  t o p e r i p h e r a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia's  the  (Kirk,  and  the  reduced  economy.  c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o n t i n e n t , few I n d i a n s i n r e g i o n were k i l l e d  own i n t e r t r i b a l  i n battles with non-natives.  w a r s were q u i t e a n o t h e r 22  matter;  The I n d i a n s '  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of  firearms  into  the  resulted  1860s.  diseases.  resulted  and say  and  of  venereal disease,  competition  abatement  from  measles, and  European influenza,  t h e e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l  i n a p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e to l e s s than  three thousand  behind.  f o r many h i g h - r a n k i n g p o s i t i o n s l e f t  vacant,  region.  Whole v i l l a g e s were o f t e n w i p e d o u t ,  and  During  economic d i s o r d e r (Fagan, broken  officials (Kirk,  souls  and  1 9 8 4 ) . To  minds  that  s e t about r e s h a p i n g  some e x t e n t  the  remote  into social i t was  missionaries  and  those  and  and  a society government  administering after  the  1880s  1986).  O r g a n i z a t i o n of E c o n o m i c Advances  in  over  salmon  fishing  the y e a r s .  s i m p l e methods. competitive  was  g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d the Until  done by  the  late  1920s,  gill-netting,  Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s ,  i n the market  the c a n n e r i e s  Production  technology  region  the  Indian society f e l l  to  forcing  c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s e v e r a l bands w i t h i n t h e this period,  by  in inheritance patterns,  n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e d e v a s t a t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s on  relocation  on  to die  smallpox,  ( D u f f , 1964). T h i s l e d t o c o n f u s i o n  left  of  rates without  I n d i a n s were more l i k e l y  Epidemics  tuberculosis,  1880  in high mortality  (Knight,  s c a t t e r e d along the  women and  older children  of  the  practically  a l l  using  isolated for  comparatively  I n d i a n s were  1978). W i t h o u t  o t h e r p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s , as w h i t e 23  economy  refrigeration,  f j o r d s were  canning, l a b o u r was  relatively  dependent  net-mending in short  and  supply.  The  canneries'  bargaining  power  efficiency  often  out  of p r o p o r t i o n t o  fishermen  their  skill  the  experienced  late  1920s  and  a number o f d r a s t i c  1930s, t h e  fishing  c h a n g e s . I t was  gasoline-powered  sail.  Few  Indians  mechanized  boats  commercial boats;  Indian Act,  making  it  c a p i t a l ) . Within  (Knight,  1978).  l a n d s and  labour  became declined.  permanently everyone  subsistence  during  to  and  purchase  (Under s e c t i o n 89  of  the  raise  outside  faced s t i f f  through  investment  competition  from  Furthermore,  as  i n c r e a s i n g l y mechanized,  t h e need f o r  Indian  displaced to  considerable from  the  fish,  as  number fishing well  as  of  Indians  industry, hunt,  as  the  were although  part  of  activities.  s t a t u s i n the  immediate  needed  same  industry.  I n d i a n s made u n p r e c e d e n t e d g a i n s and  to  region, Indians  A  continued  p r o p e l l e d by o a r  from l o s s of p o s s e s s i o n s  recent Japanese immigrants i n the canneries  At the  from t a x e s , l i e n s , mortgages or  very d i f f i c u l t  the  hardest  the m a j o r i t y worked under c o n t r a c t  Indians are excluded  c h a r g e s on t h e i r  debt,  d i s p l a c e d boats  c o u l d r a i s e the c a p i t a l  on c a n n e r y - o w n e d b o a t s  other  and  industry  among t h e  i n d u s t r i e s i n the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n .  time,  a  (Hawthorn et a l . , 1958).  During  hit  n e e d f o r f a m i l y l a b o u r gave I n d i a n  fishing  post-war  wartime,  years.  Japanese  i n numbers, per c a p i t a income,  i n d u s t r y d u r i n g W o r l d War. Two  and  the  Shortages  in labour  and  equipment  internment,  coupled  with  virtually  24  unlimited income. 1978).  demand and More  high p r i c e s , greatly increased  boats  became I n d i a n owned and  Unfortunately,  this  change r e q u i r i n g c a p i t a l  consolidation  further  industry. d i d not  Racist  the  f o r e s t r y gained  coast,  industry, seasonal canning  Indians  only  Continued  i n t e n s i v e investments  the  Indian  in  and  the  fishing  towards  natives  (Hawthorn et a l . , 1958).  i n c r e a s i n g importance i n the  played  occasionally  a r e l a t i v e l y minor w o r k i n g as c a s u a l  peak i n l o g g i n g c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e s e a s o n , and  (Knight,  last.  a t t i t u d e s of c a n n e r y o f f i c a l s  improve the s i t u a t i o n  Although of  disadvantaged  family's  operated  s i t u a t i o n d i d not  technological  the  the m a j o r i t y of I n d i a n s  employment a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  economy  role  in  the  labourers.  The  salmon  fishing  p r e f e r r e d the  and  type  of  latter.  R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the P h y s i c a l Environment As  the  number  of  white  settlers  n a t i v e s were f o r c e d t o f i t i n t o new traditional nothing  the  resources  I n d i a n c o u l d do  responsibility Imperial British new  The  for  government North  federal  relating  and  to  rights. (Fagan,  the  I t seemed 1984).  affairs  was of  ( s e c t i o n 91,  of B r i t i s h  In  increased,  e v e n compete f o r that  there  1860  legislative from  the  Canada.  In  1867  the  24)  gave  the  legislate  on  Lands Reserved f o r  Indians".  Columbia entered  Confederation  25  was  transferred  subsection  government the a u t h o r i t y t o and  region  p a t t e r n s and  the P r o v i n c e  America Act  to "Indians  province  Indian  in  matters  in  1871.  However, Indian was  unlike  other  t r i b e s under a Royal  opened  up  differed  involving  land.  title,  and  t o be  acres  was  of 320  acres  on  a  was  by  per  denied  part  tenure  a l l o t t e d per  i n 1763  r e s t o f Canada  on  matters  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f any  the  (Kirk,  f a m i l y of  canning  land  identity  (Fagan,  10,000 y e a r s  were no  acres  instead,  Indians  were  dependent  played their  20  allottment  a f i s h i n g p e o p l e not  in fact,  such land  an away  1984). C o n c e p t s of longer  valid.  In  commissions e s t a b l i s h e d  of a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e  operations  1880s, and  fishing  and  land rights  is  grounds  were i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e  Indians  region  were c o n c e r n e d t h a t  would i n e v i t a b l y  be  their  exploited  by  ( F i s h e r , 1977).  R e l a t i o n s w i t h Other In  settlers.  s o c i e t y that to take  them of t h e i r  issue  five;  i n c o m p a r i s o n t o an  for white  1986);  in Kwakiutl  1870s and  traditional whites  native  contentious.  C o m m e r c i a l and during  country British  s p i t e of v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t i n q u i r i e s and  still  as t h e  with  of  Indian  person allowed  the  treaties  w i t h a f e d e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t 80  d e r i v e d over  over the y e a r s ,  made  Indian p o l i c i e s  of the  t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o be  to deprive  land  the  determined s u f f i c i e n t ,  l a n d base  integral  province  disagreed  l a n d was  perceived  from those  The  w h i c h had  Proclamation  for settlement,  Columbia  of  provinces  1876  existing  Communities  a l l previous provinces  and  l e g i s l a t i o n dealing with Indians  in  t e r r i t o r i e s was  revised  26  c o n s o l i d a t e d and  the  as  the Indian  each  Act (Miller  region  transaction approval  acting  the  1 9 7 8 ) , w i t h an I n d i a n A g e n t i n  as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  between  of  et a l . ,  an  Indian  Agent.  He  and a had  of  the  non-native  an  a magistrate  of s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n Indian  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e r e  Any  required  the  extraordinary  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers t h a t a l l o w e d become an i n s t r u m e n t  Crown.  was l i t t l e  range  him t o  of also  s o c i e t y . As b o t h chance of appeal  f r o m an I n d i a n A g e n t ' s d e c i s i o n . In  t h e e a r l y 1880s,  the Indian  custom t h a t Agents as w e l l  as  m i s s i o n a r i e s were most a n x i o u s t o e r a d i c a t e was t h e p o t l a t c h . The m a j o r i t y o f government and r e l i g i o u s in comparison t o white c u l t u r e , and  barbaric, in  civilized  (Fisher,  Act  imposed  of  destroy this,  the  way o f t h e 1977).  Indians  two  inferior  Indians  q u i e t l y continued  Indian  Christian  attempt  to  that  of and  legislate  an 1884 amendment t o t h e I n d i a n  s i x months  society that  traditional  Renewed  to  i n the p o t l a t c h .  their  many  c u l t u r e was  becoming  In- t h e f i r s t  c u l t u r e out of e x i s t e n c e ,  participating part  indigenous  thought  a n d t h a t t h e p o t l a t c h was t h e most f o r m i d a b l e  obstacles  Indian  representatives  imprisonment  for  The p o t l a t c h was s u c h an  to eliminate  culture  1977).  began t o p r o t e s t v i g o r o u s l y ,  enforcement o f t h e law a g a i n s t  integral  i t would almost  (Fisher,  to p o t l a t c h . i n defiance  anyone  be  to  Recognizing while  others  of t h e law. native ceremonials  was  felt  i n 1 9 2 1 . C e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a were s e i z e d , a n d s o l d t o museums  and  private collectors.  Those who were c a u g h t p a r t i c i p a t i n g 27  in  p o t l a t c h e s were s e n t e n c e d t o j a i l the  terms:  the great  K w a k i u t l were d e g r a d e d t o f e e d i n g t h e p i g s  (Sewid-Smith, political further  Under a  o r g a n i z i n g was reducing  wasn't in the  1977).  until  any  1951  1927  in Oakalla  amendment t o t h e  prohibited (Miller  et a l . ,  t h a t p o t l a t c h i n g was  removed  as  Government  Behaviour  r e l e g a t e d a l l s o c i a l and  t o the m i s s i o n s , attempt  cultural  was  values  replacement traditional  living  In were  Act,  1978),  thus  an  It  offense  Patterns  which promulgated a completely  foreign culture.  made t o u n d e r s t a n d I n d i a n (Cardinal,  in different  i n the the  1969).  the o l d  v i l l a g e s continued  each o t h e r ,  but  system  advance I n d i a n  the  family--indeed,  the  1986). Modern, s i n g l e dwellings.  value  their  social  among  that taught  C h r i s t i a n values  i n the e a r l y years  with  kin  parents,  o r i e n t a t i o n of  officials  28  Kinsfolk  important.  in conjunction and  or  on  government  society;  placed  to recognize  same c o m m u n i t y became more  However,  beliefs  g r a d u a l l y exchanges  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d u c a t i o n  educational  (Kirk,  communal  o l d d a y s t h e band e l d e r s ,  children.  religious  E m p h a s i s was  even o u t l a w e d  replaced  to  Indian.  responsibilities  f a m i l y was  houses  of the  educational  of t h e numayms w i t h t h e n u c l e a r  obligations living  Indian  legislation.  T h e r e were s u b t l e r a t t e m p t s t o c h a n g e t h e v a l u e s  family  prison  o p p o s i t i o n t o the government's a c t i o n s .  P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t and  No  c h i e f t a i n s of  decided  a  was  education  the  formalized needed was  to  viewed,  as  i t still  1980; the  a s an e s s e n t i a l  Hawthorn e t a l . , Indians  handle in  is,  1958).  domesticated  the job i t s e l f ;  The  of convenience  first  schools,  without  and  policy  was t o l a s t  (Cardinal,  until  strict  the  the e a r l y  boarded at s c h o o l ,  were p u n i s h e d  com. Wasden,  f o r speaking  their  This  residential nomadic  sometimes t h e  the d i s c i p l i n e  adherence to r e g u l a r hours,  role  1950s.  religious  e x c l u s i v e u s e o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e were  Children  to  1969).  that allowed parents to continue t h e i r  The v i r t u e s o f a f a r m i n g c u l t u r e ,  labour,  necessary  t h e c h u r c h was a s s u r e d o f a d o m i n a n t  l i f e s t y l e s while children round.  the expenditure  s c h o o l s c r e a t e d by t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s were  a system  (Ponting,  The g o v e r n m e n t was happy t o have  t h e f o r m a t i o n of government  alliance  t o o l of a s s i m i l a t i o n  year  of manual  instruction emphasized.  n a t i v e language  (pers.  1988).  I n most c a s e s , c h i l d r e n a s y o u n g a s f i v e o r s i x were t a k e n their  p a r e n t s and p l a c e d i n r e s i d e n t i a l  fifteen,  spending  families  on t h e r e s e r v e .  the  child  only Christmas  f r o m h i s own  a result  way o f l i f e  late  1950s.  compulsory  r o l e of t h e c h u r c h By t h i s  time,  a c r o s s Canada.  and r e l i g i o n w i t h o u t  society  (Cardinal,  attendance  their  in  1969).  any As  of C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , t h e  i n Indian a f f a i r s  faded out i n the  at school f o r c h i l d r e n  The d e n o m i n a t i o n a l  29  were  schools served to a l i e n a t e  of the i n c r e a s e d s e c u l a r i z a t i o n  traditional  they  and summer h o l i d a y s w i t h  Residential  way p r e p a r i n g h i m f o r a d i f f e r e n t  schools u n t i l  from  residential  was  school  s y s t e m f o r I n d i a n s was established for  member o f t h e  academic y e a r ,  the to  s c h o o l s on most o f t h e  a t l e a s t one  the  i s o l a t i o n and accept  The  w h i l e the  making i t  necessary  f a m i l y to remain sedentary  during  r e s t of the  Due  family fished.  i n t h e more r e m o t e c o m m u n i t i e s ;  consequently,  used  was  o f t e n poor  to govern the  contact w i t h Europeans.  Although  ( C a r d i n a l . , 1969).  people  the  also  changed  highest could  in  difficult  as  the An  band  cases  another  was  or  w i t h by  l e a s i n g of t i m b e r amendment  to the  chosen,  be h e l d by a woman, by an  speak E n g l i s h , t o get a l o n g  man  i f t h e c h i e f was the  business  should  the  individual  considered  I n d i a n Agent  band m e e t i n g s were h e l d f o r o t h e r  to  (Sedley,  important  who be  1969).  matters,  such  rights. allowed  a  t o h a v e an e l e c t e d c o u n c i l i n s t e a d of a h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f  to  represent more  few  ranking position not  General  a  after  I n d i a n Agent u s u a l l y worked  w i t h t h e h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f of t h e v i l l a g e when d i s c u s s i n g matters,  to  were r e l u c t a n t  of e d u c a t i o n  methods  reserves,  f e d e r a l government  l a c k of a m e n i t i e s , many t e a c h e r s  postings  the q u a l i t y  abandoned. I n s t e a d , the  i n t h e e a r l y 1950s  them i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  democratic  eliminated  Indian Act  by  T h i s was  f e d e r a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ;  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  v i l l a g e meetings.  process.  viewed it  also  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o b t a i n i n g quorum  Different Kwakiutl villages gradually  as  at  adopted  t h i s method of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In had  l e s s than  one  altered  the  hundred y e a r s , face  of  t h e a d v e n t of w h i t e  Kwakiutl 30  society  almost  settlers beyond  recognition.  The  intensity  and magnitude  between  g e n e r a t i o n s a s w e l l a s amongst  located  in  remote  the  next  structure  in closer  section, in  the  the  change  the bands,  l o c a t i o n s being less  communities d w e l l i n g  of  differed  with  affected  villages  than  Indian  p r o x i m i t y to white settlements. In  outlines  of  community  more i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s d u r i n g  socioeconomic the  1960s  is  t h e f a c e o f s u b t l e a n d d i r e c t p r e s s u r e by w h i t e s o c i e t y  to  presented. Part  In  Three: Kwakiutl  Society  c h a n g e , what was K w a k i u t l New  Vancouver  i n the  society  1960s  like  d u r i n g t h e 1960s?  i n remote v i l l a g e s  Hawthorn  et  a l .  s t a t e d t h a t no c u s t o m a r y a c t i o n s , e l e m e n t s o f b e l i e f knowledge  or  techniques  have  generations  to the p e r i o d  alteration.  However,  economic a c t i v i t i e s , ceremonial l i f e , remarkably s i m i l a r lived  been  transmitted  (1958)  have  or a t t i t u d e , from  earlier  l e a d i n g up t o t h e 1960s w i t h o u t  Rohner  major  (1970) a r g u e s t h a t a l t h o u g h  r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s and b e l i e f s ,  their  such as  their  social  or  h o u s e s t y l e o r t h e f o o d t h e y consumed  was  to non-natives i n the r e g i o n , the K w a k i u t l  who  i n t h e s e i s o l a t e d c o m m u n i t i e s were  somehow  distinct  from  the g e n e r a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . O r g a n i z a t i o n of E c o n o m i c The  economic a c t i v i t y  Production of r e s i d e n t s i n remote  Indian  villages  v a r i e d w i t h t h e s e a s o n , a n d w i t h i n e a c h h o u s e h o u l d . An o u t l i n e o f 31  the  seasonal  F i g u r e 2.  economic  Fishing,  economy,  but  and s u b s i s t e n c e  C e r t a i n commercial  c h o r e s were a l l o t e d  least  and s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s  o p e r a t i o n s were  from  since this allowed f o rgreater  t h e n by l o c a l v i l l a g e r s ,  other  villages  technological increasing remain  or  advances  the  need  competitive;  whites  the  need  f o r the purchase Indian  of  1963  contributed  independence.  Continued  f o r labour, modern  boats  while  equipment  their  boats  A prolonged and  the  Alert  Bay,  fishermen  which  sent packers around  were  expected t o s e l l  company  f o r which  company  forcredit  processed  they worked,  fish  only  based daily;  t o the  s i n c e t h e y were d e p e n d e n t on t h e  and f o r a s t e a d y market.  i n Vancouver,  and  equipment.  t o each v i l l a g e  their  to  strike  F i s h were s o l d t o one o f t h e t h r e e f i s h - p a c k i n g c o m p a n i e s in  then  by " o u t s i d e r s "  1967).  owners l o s t  t o the l o s s of  crew  by f a m i l y ,  and f i n a l l y  (Wolcott,  reduced  many  first  e q u i p m e n t a s m o r t g a g e s p a y m e n t s were n o t met. in  gill  M o s t I n d i a n s p r e f e r r e d t o own o r a t  p o s i t i o n s on s e i n e b o a t s were f i l l e d  friends,-  common:  own g i l l - n e t t e r s r a t h e r t h a n s i g n on a s  members o f a s e i n e r ,  by  as  while the m a j o r i t y of domestic  fishing  purse s e i n i n g .  operate t h e i r  Crew  the cash  t o women.  types of commercial and  in  t h e r e were a l s o o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s s u c h  were c u s t o m a r i l y a s s i g n e d t o men,  netting  appears  clam d i g g i n g , and l o g g i n g dominated  social assistance.  Two  activities  there  32  were  no  Because  fish  were  longer  employment  Sources  N  D  J  F  M  A  M  (Length of A c t i v i t y  J  J  A  S  O  by M o n t h )  Salmon Fishing Clam Season Trolling Gill Netting Halibut Fishing Oolichan Processing Seaweed Collecting Duck Season Deer Season Trapping Unemployment Insurance Family Allowance  --  FIGURE 2. KWAKIUTL SEASONAL ECONOMIC A C T I V I T I E S ( A d a p t e d f r o m R o h n e r , 1967, page 29)  33  (EARLY  1960S)  opportunities Digging  the  1960s,  similar  provided  improvements  in  seasonal  the sector  T h r o u g h o u t t h e 1960s,  associated  although  with  technological  r e d u c e d t h e need f o r  f o r e s t s i n the region  local  labour.  were l o g g e d - o f f ,  t o c o m m u n i t i e s were  s t a p l e s were p u r c h a s e d f r o m s t o r e s , contributed  cash.  occurred.  A  limited  The  insurance  amount  shut,  and  further  family  benefits  made t o t h e I n d i a n  native  and  boats,  s o u r c e s o f income f o r many  allowance,  were  distribution  of w e l f a r e  otter  a r t work  relief,  and  also  hauling  of  1967). A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e l i e f  complaints  about  the  the  unemployment  A g e n t upon r e c o m m e n d a t i o n by t h e Band  there  Government  s a l e of  was s o l d  was an a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e o f i n c o m e .  (Wolcott,  frequently  Relationship with  subsistence  f o r mink  For those i n d i v i d u a l s with  administrative  were  but  economy; a n y s u r p l u s  of t r a p p i n g  and  w i t h i n the region  three  villagers  to the l o c a l  production  some i n c o m e .  materials The  increased  employment p o t e n t i a l f o r I n d i a n s .  activities  provided  grievances  work,  within close proximity  Most food  for  to  of t h e resource  fishing.  Logging  reducing  women i n t h e i n d u s t r y .  about t h e growing s c a r c i t y  commercial  camps  Indian  f o r c l a m s was a n o t h e r p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f i m m e d i a t e c a s h .  Complaints during  for local  were  Council;  fairness  of  p a y m e n t s among t h e r e c i p i e n t s .  the P h y s i c a l  conservation  Environment  p o l i c i e s and  34  regulations  introduced  during As  the  1960s had  a dramatic  i m p a c t on  e q u i p m e n t became more e f f i c i e n t ,  one  could  Japanese sport  and  The  1960s  boats  of  the  s t r u c t u r e of the  region  boats  the Davis  to  them l a p s e ;  difficult  for  because they  society, of  b o u g h t up  lifestyle  depleted  salmon resulted  in  in turn,  communities.)  licences,  back i n t o  the  consisted  altered.  tended it  the  was  industry  Canadian  Demand  increased level  i s l a n d s v a r i e d , as d i d v i l l a g e  size.  of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  (People  f o r extended periods  i n terms  The  with a population  seasonally.  pooled  the  declined  licences, natives the  and fewer  had  employment  outlying  during  stocks  t h a t European Canadians took f o r granted.  of  fifteen  of a b o u t one  frequently  to  twenty  hundred  that  migrated  between  t o p u r c h a s e and  maintain  residence.)  t h e i r money t o g e t h e r 35  *  t o get  for  r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p h y s i c a l environment  single-family units,  Residents  Indian  Canadian  capital.  a r r a n g e m e n t s and  community  fluctuated  set aside  as  by  in  scheme i n t r o d u c e d  (This,  remote r e s e r v e s  fishermen  of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e on  villages  reasons  where  fishing  became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o b r o a d e r  for amenities  Each  1982).  o n c e DIA  native  their  living  the  Plan  lacked  Indians  (Pearce,  region.  limitations  increase  industry,  t r a v e l l e d between the  Although  As  licencing  i n the  Offshore  were c i t e d as  P l a n , a new  isolating  fewer  let  were i m p o s e d .  as a means t o e f f e c t i v e l y manage  i n the  effect  stricter  f l e e t s a s w e l l as an  activities  Davis  rationalize  and  Russian  fishing  stocks. the  f i s h commercially  fishing  small d i e s e l  electric  was pumped f r o m no  f o r power  (Sedley,  v i l l a g e wells t o a large storage  dependable  supply u s u a l l y e x i s t e d .  indoor t o i l e t s . were  generators  H o u s e s were h e a t e d  non-existent  (Wolcott,  tank,  None o f t h e  by s t o v e s ,  1967).  1969). Water although  houses  had  but r e f r i g e r a t o r s  There  was  no  R.C.M.P.  d e t a c h m e n t l o c a t e d on any o f t h e i s l a n d s . They were g e n e r a l l y n o t called  in  except  f o r emergencies.  p a t i e n t s were t a k e n by f l o a t p l a n e As  children  t o the h o s p i t a l  generally similar  offering  education  were s e n t t o r e s i d e n t i a l  with v i s i t s  The  medical  o f 1962, a one o r two room s c h o o l h o u s e  of t h e v i l l a g e s ,  al.,  In  home f o r t h e h o l i d a y s . enrolled locally.  to  emergencies, i n A l e r t Bay.  was l o c a t e d i n e a c h  up t o t h e e i g h t h g r a d e .  Older  s c h o o l s l o c a t e d i n A l e r t Bay, Twenty t o f o r t y c h i l d r e n  The s c h o o l s f o l l o w e d a  that o f f e r r e d throughout  the province  were  curriculum (Hawthorn  e_t  1958). hiring  of  superintendent.  teachers  was t h r o u g h  p h y s i c a l p l a n t a t each day s c h o o l .  the  village  s c h o o l s was a c o n t i n u o u s  isolation.  According  was  i n the village  schools. organized schools,  provincial  However, t h e I n d i a n A g e n t was s t i l l  the  lower  a  Parents  and  (1967),  s c h o o l s than  were c r i t i c a l  activities although  t o Wolcott  i n charge of  Teacher r e c r u i t m e n t problem,  mostly  the quality  opportunity  supervision i n  to  provincial  the  t h e y d i d n o t comment on t h e a c a d e m i c  36  due  for  of e d u c a t i o n  that of other  of the lack of  constant  district  for  village program.  Because  of  this,  residential superior  school  (Wolcott,  Relations In  most  upon  villages,  and w i t h  business  purposes,  in  intricately  by  authoritative  and  partial with  f o r most  social  similar  isolated  which served  activity,  villagers  as a major l i n k w i t h  Act,  formal  the Indian  Agent.  of land,  by  the  However,  Indian  i n organizing  were  accorded  al.,  dealing  vested  with  that 1978), band  d e c i s i o n s were s u b j e c t t o  Agent.  Councillors  committees d e a l i n g  o r h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n i s s u e s . by  et  for  making recommendations f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or  employment i n band p r o j e c t s .  instrumental  issues  were  a f t e r matters  o f band members ( M i l l e r  allottment  and  approval  the  authority  The C o u n c i l s  r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s t o l o o k  the  officially  communities,  E l e c t i o n s f o r a two-year term of o f f i c e  the w e l l being  membership,  welfare  was  b e t w e e n n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s was  administered  including  facilities  society.  Band C o u n c i l s .  final  linked  s e c t i o n 73-78 o f t h e I n d i a n  affected  the  n o n - n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . F o r most s h o p p i n g a n d  t o A l e r t Bay,  interaction  that  Communities  and  of Canadian  believed  i t s better  t h e s e v i l l a g e s were o n l y  dependent  Under  villagers  1967).  some ways,  rest  the  i n A l e r t Bay w i t h  w i t h Other  travelled  of  the  Band C o u n c i l  was  the  with  The o n l y band  were  also  educational/ fund  trust  operated account,  c a p i t a l a n d r e v e n u e s e c t i o n s ; c o u n c i l l o r s h a d no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e  37  a c t u a l day-by-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n regulated  by t h e I n d i a n  Because  the  decisions, at  initiate  Council  conscious  or  unfamiliar et  exclusively  instituted  remote  local  Council,  discretion  or  monitor  school,  1958).  reserves by  was  the  action  Thus,  in  the  government  of  Band or  Council  facilities  their  1960s  self-  powers  community  to a proposal  were  almost The  overwhelmingly  put forward  by  after discussion  was p e r h a p s m o d i f i e d forward,  on  planning  representatives.  p r o c e s s was  into consideration  from a  to reflect  however,  the  the  decisions  o f t h e c o m m u n i t y were i m p l e m e n t e d s o l e l y a t  of the I n d i a n  Agent, with  no e f f o r t made t o m o d i f y  f u t u r e e v e n t s o n c e a d e c i s i o n h a d been t a k e n .  the j u r i s d i c t i o n  vitality  to  did  the extent  From t h i s p o i n t  the welfare  the  the  Rarely to obtain  with  and t h e p l a n  community's i n p u t .  outside  present  response  A g e n t was t a k e n  regarding  o f t h e a g e n c y was g e n e r a l l y  and n a t u r e of t h e p l a n n i n g  "top-down":  Band  Council  al.,  on  Indian  required  s i n c e many o f t h e c o u n c i l l o r s were  activities  structure  record  i n order  Agent,  (Hawthorn  was  meetings.  discussion  from the I n d i a n  council  Agent  a representative  a  w h i c h was  Agent.  Indian  a l l Band  of t h e band's budget,  o f Band C o u n c i l s  Issues  w h i c h may have a f f e c t e d  of t h e community, such as t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e day the  exclusive  responsibility  of  the  government  representative. Villagers system,  frequently  claiming  voiced  dissatisfaction  with  the  council  i n t e r f e r e n c e ; o r t h e y became a n g r y when demands 38  based  on  1969;  Wolcott,  had  f a m i l y t i e s went u n f u l f i l l e d  a clear  largely  1967). N e i t h e r  introduced  by  non-natives  generally  from  DIA r e g a r d i n g  Band  Council  participation  in  r e s e r v e s d u r i n g t h e 1960s i s t h u s  and  individual. by of  as  the  primary  villagers  (Rohner,  r a n k i n g o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s occasions  activities,  the  practice  drinking,  traditional of  modification, Many  although  group  giving  potlatch away  the  the  for  the  largely majority  group,  certain  l e a d e r s h i p , and an i n f o r m a l  sporting  religious  i t was s t i l l  of t h e I n d i a n s  Within  s t a t u s w i t h i n t h e community  included  on  Patterns  reference  for their  g a t h e r i n g s w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d of  decision-making  o f a c c e p t a n a c e by t h e  1970).  i n d i v i d u a l s were r e c o g n i z e d  events,  a c t i v i t i e s and  evolved.  formal formal  band social  by some a s t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y (Wolcott,  gifts  had  an i m p o r t a n t  1967).  Although  undergone p a r t of these  form the  considerable occasions.  i n t h e r e g i o n had a d o p t e d t h e A n g l i c a n 39  the  Indian  S o c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l was g o v e r n e d  the r e c o g n i t i o n or w i t h d r a w a l  Social  to which  increased  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d between v i l l a g e s , remained  instruction  questionable.  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Development and B e h a v i o u r  village  for  was  a l . , 1958).  or  The e x t e n t  a c t e d as a v e h i c l e planning  et  training  the c o u n c i l system.  community  Sedley,  f o r a system t h a t  (Hawthorn  received l i t t l e  system  1967;  the v i l l a g e r s nor the c o u n c i l l o r s  image o f a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o u r  Councillors  Close  (Rohner,  or  Pentecostal occasions  faith.  F o r some,  (Rohner,  c h u r c h s e r v i c e s were s i m p l y  social  1 9 7 0 ) . The v i l l a g e s were i n f r e q u e n t l y  visited  by c l e r g y , a n d no p e r m a n e n t c h u r c h e x i s t e d on any o f t h e i s l a n d s . Drinking sexes as  was  t h e most p o p u l a r a n d f r e q u e n t p a s t - t i m e o f  (Rohner,  a  1970).  I n e v i t a b l y , s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r was  r e s u l t of the r e d u c t i o n  rarely  occured  of i n h i b i t o r y  between v i l l a g e r s u n l e s s  affected  mechanisms.  within  the  both  Fights  context  of  goods  and  drinking. Rohner services divided  (1970) in  suggests  Kwakiutl  comprised the m a j o r i t y ;  formal  on  this  restricted. tended for  and t h e f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d  daily activities,  and o f t e n  1960s  can  class,  a  be  which  c l a s s , which  in  leaving  Families  little  position  These  social  f a m i l i e s h a d t h e most  was of  40  to  between class  of  necessity,  to  other  families  was  material  wealth,  and  which often  the v i l l a g e .  shared  i n the f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d  r e l a t i o n s with  f o r the f u t u r e ,  thought given  w e a l t h was  themselves i n these patterns;  position,  to plan  with  Surplus material  of t h e community.  d i d not i n v o l v e reach  the e a r l y  the s u b s i s t i n g - o r i e n t e d  acculturated,  range p l a n n i n g .  members  of  a u t h o r i t y . Those i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e former c l a s s t e n d e d t o  concentrate long  more  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  v i l l a g e s during  i n t o two c l a s s e s :  conspicuously  that  included  strategies  PART FOUR: FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO RELOCATION OF COMMUNITIES Except remote  for natural diasters, communities  stable, the  the generations  had  i n f l u e n c e d o f c o u r s e by a d a p t a t i o n s  late  1960s,  plummeted  from  individuals loss  over  t h e l i f e c y c l e of K w a k i u t l s  however, over  one  population  been  in  relatively  t o w h i t e s o c i e t y . By  within  hundred i n h a b i t a n t s  some to  villages  one  or  two  (DIAND, 1 9 7 2 ) . F o r some o f t h e i s o l a t e d r e s e r v e s , t h e  o f i n h a b i t a n t s was g r a d u a l ,  v i l l a g e s were d e s e r t e d  almost  spanning twenty  years;  other  overnight.  These c o m m u n i t i e s c e a s e d t o e x i s t f o r a v a r i e t y o f economic and social  reasons. This  s e c t i o n examines f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o  the  d e c l i n e of v i l l a g e s  the  decline  of  New  i n the region,  Vancouver,  Tanakteuk. I t i s d i v i d e d regional Band  comprise  the  To  i s presented;  t h e second p a r t ;  offers explanations area i s contained  Kwakiutl  parts:  interviews  homeland  initially  with  of  the  a p r o f i l e of  three  and d o c u m e n t a t i o n from  Tanakteuk DIA  DIA  staff  archives  about t h e r e l o c a t i o n of communities  i n the t h i r d  repetition,  contributed  subsequent single  traditional  on  in  section.  Opinion  avoid  that  emphasis p l a c e d  e v e n t s g e n e r a t e d from i n t e r v i e w s m o s t l y w i t h  members  that  into three  with  r e c o l l e c t i o n s from i n t e r v i e w e e s  t o t h e d e c l i n e of i s o l a t e d communities and  d i s p e r s a l of the population  profile.  of events  S i x members o f t h e 41  h a s been c o m p i l e d Tanakteuk  Band,  the  into  a  randomly  selected to  f r o m t h e Band m e m b e r s h i p l i s t ,  were c o n t a c t e d  and agreed  an i n t e r v i e w ; two T s a w a t a i n e u k Band members f r o m t h e community  of  K i n g c o m e I n l e t who h a v e been a c t i v e i n r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c s  community development f o r over f i f t y This  is  similar  largely to  dispersal (1987),  years  the Tanakteuk's s t o r y ,  that of the  from V i l l a g e a consultant  Mameleleqala  interviewed.  although  i t  Qwe'Qwa'Sot'Enox'  very  Band's  1945 o n w a r d ,  Mr.  community. Murray Todd,  the  Indian  i n t h e r e g i o n t o move t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l  Reserve l o c a t e d a t A l e r t Bay.  L a n d h a d been s e t a s i d e by  t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h f o r any " p r o g r e s s i v e " B.C. to  is  h i r e d by DIA t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y  Agent, encouraged Indians School  were a l s o  I s l a n d , a s d o c u m e n t e d i n a r e p o r t by Geach  of t h e M a m e l e l e q a l a r e - i n h a b i t i n g t h e i r From a p p r o x i m a t e l y  and  I n d i a n who w a n t e d  t r a n s f e r t h e r e , p r o v i d i n g t h a t c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s were met: t o  have been a p u p i l o f t h e A n g l i c a n the church, clean l i f e In had  t h e I n d i a n A g e n t e n c o u r a g e d some o f t h e r e s i d e n t s who  aside  60 a c r e s Small  School  R e s e r v e t o amalgamate w i t h t h e  Band on t h e b a s i s o f p r o m i s e s o f a  system and roads; set  1969).  moved t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l  Nimpkish  t o h a v e been m a r r i e d i n  t o have no u s e f o r t h e p o t l a t c h , a n d t o t r y t o l i v e a (Sedley,  1950,  School,  351 a c r e s  strictly  new  school,  of the I n d u s t r i a l School  f o r u s e by t h e N i m p k i s h ,  while  water  R e s e r v e were the  remaining  were r e t a i n e d f o r t h e u s e o f a l l B a n d s . c o m m u n i t i e s s u c h a s t h e one i n New V a n c o u v e r were  42  poorly  serviced the or  i n comparison to other,  initial installation additions  government become  School  w h a r v e s and  b e c a u s e of Reserve,  families year.  from  a  of  the  described leave  by  the  community,  and  l i s t was  had  medical services,  and  f a m i l i e s able own  often  Rohner  belonged to  (1970),  village.  and  was  Consequently,  l i n k s with  the  s u p p l i e s and  reserves. Industrial  only  Alert  a  few  Bay  each  severely  limited,  t o move,  despite  communities.  the m a j o r i t y  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the  the  established;  r e l o c a t i o n o f h o u s e s was number of  as  it  of v i l l a g e r s  c o m m u n i t y who  a l a r g e r b o a t . I n most c a s e s , t h i s was  who  occurred  sentiment that  demand f o r p l o t s on  services within their  d e p e n d e n t upon an  Band,  communities  after  improvements  p l a n t s among s c a t t e r e d  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o A l e r t Bay,  enough t o own  further  o u t l y i n g v i l l a g e s c o u l d move t o  restricting  a reduction  high  waiting  Funding f o r the  further  teachers  electric  the  no  e x p r e s s e d the  too c o s t l y to provide  However,  the  facilities,  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e of the  representatives  to maintain  For  to  of  more c e n t r a l i z e d v i l l a g e s ;  was  wealthy  the  chief  "future-oriented  typically when t h e  were  among t h e  of  class" first  c h i e f moved f r o m  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s  to the  were  s e v e r e d . I n a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l h e a d s of h o u s e h o l d s l o s t  their  as  relocated.  seiners . Not  everyone  content  with  amenities. the  when  the  chief/boat  wanted t o l e a v e their  Yet,  communities  traditional  as more and to obtain  their  isolated  lifestyles  more p e o p l e f e l t better 43  owner  education,  village,  enhanced forced  jobs  being  by  modern  into  leaving  medical  services,  housing  and  employment  quality  of s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s the  opportunities,  rationalized  by  depopulation  and  fewer c h o i c e s  about s t a y i n g  reduction  I n New V a n c o u v e r , the  decision  academic  to  year  Indian  the  was f u r t h e r  Agent.  of s e r v i c e s ,  was  that  in a  people had  with  vacant the teaching  taken  by  the  fewer  of and  Council,  position  f o r the  ' superintendent,  a s o f A u g u s t 3 1 , 1969. of t h e  i t was t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e n s u r e t h a t i n school;  cycle  t h e Band  regional  were t o l d by t h e t e a c h e r on b e h a l f  enrolled  and  i n remote c o m m u n i t i e s .  e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s i n g the elementary school Parents  i n the  re-inforced  Caught  without consultation leave  reduction  Indian  Agent  children  i f t h e c h i l d r e n were t r u a n t ,  were  they could  be  t a k e n f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d made w a r d s o f t h e Crown. Most  of t h e parents  i n i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s s u c h a s New V a n c o u v e r  d i d n o t want t o s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s , of  their  perception  that  increased  the  Education  i n t h e v i l l a g e s was p r o v i d e d  after  potential  g r o w i n g up  f o rchildren to  w h i c h c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d  Families  with  most  separated  of t h e i r c h i l d r e n  up t o t h e  away  frustrated  by t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f v i s i t i n g  factor  that  contributed  At  least  assistance  i n New or  social  from  a t no t i m e  counselling  44  offered  trouble".  sixth  i n larger from  their  was by  grade, centers.  home  became  offspring,  to d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with v i l l a g e  Vancouver,  families  "get i n t o  i n schools  because  any any  a  life. financial government  representative  regarding  the  relocation  c o m m u n i t y a s a w h o l e . No c o m p e n s a t i o n property the  left  behind,  In  1971,  families  C o u n c i l passed a  w h i c h named a p o r t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l s i t e  plan  management c o m m i t t e e  f o r h o u s i n g members o f b a n d s p r e v i o u s l y  up  from  by t h e N i m p k i s h t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r  remote  villages  to Whe-la-la-u,  Bay.  resolution Whe-la-la-u,  and a g r e e d on a  i s l a n d s . H o w e v e r , d u r i n g t h e 1970s a n d e a r l y set  services.  v i l l a g e s c o n t i n u e d t o move t o A l e r t  the North Island D i s t r i c t  a  the  was o f f e r e d t o f a m i l i e s f o r  of t h e w i t h d r a w a l of government  f r o m remote  established  or  a l t h o u g h i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o r e n t o r s e l l  d w e l l i n g s because  Families  of  subdivision  located  in  outlying  1980s b l o c k a d e s were relocation  asserting  that  of  homes  the  land  belonged s o l e l y  t o t h e N i m p k i s h . I n 1974, 40 a c r e s o f W h e - l a - l a - u  were  by t h e N i m p k i s h a n d an a d d i t i o n a l  turned  acquired over  to  them  i n 1981.  r e s e r v e s such as the Tanakteuk Alert  Bay,  disrepair  yet their  so  as  Members o f  felt  traditional  acres  Bands  from  were remote"  t h a t t h e y were n o t welcome i n v i l l a g e s had f a l l e n  t o no l o n g e r be  ownership of the I n d u s t r i a l  11  habitable.  School Reserve  The  is still  into  question  such of  i n dispute.  O p i n i o n s o f DIA P e r s o n n e l Interviews  were  conducted  with  d e p a r t m e n t a l p o l i c y and a c t i v i t i e s Bands  from  remote  communities.  Geach  (1987) w i t h a t h i r d  two  DIA  staff  concerning  relevant t o the d i s p e r s i o n E x c e r p t s f r o m an  interview  of by  s t a f f member o f DIA i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d .  45  According  t o Bobby J o s e p h  Campbell River been  a  District  Office during  t a c i t p o l i c y w i t h i n DIA  reserves  to  social  the  reason given  services  and  became  aware  parents  importance  of  of  health  within  DIA  areas,  however,  was  white  like  to  underscored  employment  education,  Indians.  Indeed,  they  of  were  as  education anxious  t h e s e s e r v i c e s . The  us,  Joseph,  offical i n the  opportunities  It  was  to survive  difficult  remote  improved  to  r i d of  the  goal  programs,  in  rationale these  Indians,  wouldn't of  the  live  from  total  be  to any  cultural  although  p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e to h i s region  Indian and  implicit  t o get  this  was  knowledge.  were i n c r e a s i n g l y i s o l a t e d ,  d e c l i n e d as a r e s u l t o f  l i c e n c i n g scheme i n t r o d u c e d  1960s.  transport  from  to provide  benefits  a l l DIA  always  reserves.  e v e r y o n e e l s e so t h a t we  In a d d i t i o n , reserves  the  the  had  the  accessible  "to c i v i l i z e  n e v e r d o c u m e n t e d i n an  the  was  care,  According  assimilation  Plan,  1960s, t h e r e  f o r the w i t h d r a w a l of government s e r v i c e s  different".  and  the  e m p l o y e e of  t o encourage Bands  housing for  communities which provided  us  1 9 8 8 ) , an  r e l o c a t e t o more c e n t r a l and  Officially,  make  ( p e r s . com.  i n the  for families  i n remote c o m m u n i t i e s  fishing without  (pers.  the  Davis  sector  in  their  own  com.  Joseph,  1988) . I n an Capital explicit Indians  i n t e r v i e w w i t h Geach ( 1 9 8 7 ) , Programs  of  DIA,  s t a t e d t h a t he  departmental p o l i c y that from  Alex McConnell, D i r e c t o r was  encouraged the  unaware  relocation  r e m o t e c o m m u n i t i e s t o more c e n t r a l and 46  of  of any of  accessible  reserves.  However,  he  indicated  opportunities  i n the  the  a t t r a c t i o n of  growing  settlement  were  decisions A  to  Cunningham,  reserves  of  of  Bands  I n d u s t r i a l School  that  contributed  no  remote  Reserve Band  with  ( p e r s . com.  1988).  communities  information found  relevant  t o the  and  as  a  members'  DIA,  Alain  to  the  centralized  (1985) s u g g e s t s t h a t not  documentation.  Two  letters  rationale  r e l o c a t i o n of v a r i o u s  for by A.E. and  f r o m one  Fry,  D i s t r i c t and  f o r DIA  h a v e been i m p o r t a n t do  provide  D i s t r i c t Supervisor  (DIAND, 1971)  personnel, enough  to of  f o r the N o r t h  i s presented  issue  warrant  These l e t t e r s  Director.  from  Regional the  some e v i d e n c e  bands.  a d d r e s s e d t o the R e g i o n a l letter  Band's d i s p e r s i o n  i n a r e v i e w o f DIA  may  excerpt  isolation,  e x p l i c i t p o l i c y to encourage  relocation  District,  employment  Indicators  Shkilnyk  written  to  16 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e  from  V a n c o u v e r was  Files.  i n c r e a s i n g sense of  the  also stated that  Very l i t t l e New  factors  p l a n n e r of  existed  Historical  an  limited  relocate.  regional  relocation  area,  that  A  DIA's were Island  relevant  below:  "Reviewing b r i e f l y the reasons f o r the r e l o c a t i o n they a r e : 1) C h a n g e s i n t h e e c o n o m i c p a t t e r n and t h e c o n s e q u e n t c h a n g e i n the p a t t e r n of e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s i n the N o r t h I s l a n d a r e a h a v e d e p r i v e d f o u r v i l l a g e s i n t h e mouth o f t h e K n i g h t ' s I n l e t t o t h e e a s t of A l e r t Bay of e m p l o y m e n t , s c h o o l s , c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s t o s t o r e s and o t h e r n o r m a l s e r v i c e s and any d e p e n d a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n method t o e s s e n t i a l medical s e r v i c e . 47  2) U n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y i l l o g i c a l f o r t h e s e Bands t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s p r o g r a m s f o r I n d i a n p e o p l e i n t h e i r own v i l l a g e s on t h e i r own r e s e r v e s . T h e i r e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g i s i n a d e q u a t e and s e r v i c e s a r e p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . Many p e o p l e no l o n g e r h a v e any p l a c e t o s t a y and a r e s c a t t e r e d a b o u t t h e a r e a i n t h e most u n c e r t a i n of l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . 3) A l e r t Bay i s t h e c e n t e r of t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l l i f e of t h e a r e a . F i s h i n g employment i s b a s e d t h e r e , men h i r e o u t f r o m t h e r e i n t o l o g g i n g , t h e r e i s some s e r v i c e employment i n t h e town i t s e l f and t h e r e a r e s c h o o l s , s t o r e s and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . F a m i l i e s l i v i n g t h e r e can, f o r example, send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l e a c h day w h e r e a s f r o m t h e no l o n g e r v i a b l e v i l l a g e s t h e c h i l d r e n have t o be s e n t t o an I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e s i d e n c e a t enormous s o c i a l and financial cost. 4) T h e r e i s l a n d i n A l e r t Bay s e t a s i d e f o r t h e use of a l l Bands i n common and t h e D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l h a s d i r e c t e d t h a t t h i s must be u s e d f o r a h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e b e n e f i t of t h e s e p e o p l e whose own v i l l a g e s a r e no l o n g e r a p o s s i b l e place to l i v e . " In  another  letter  reserve housing p r o b l e m of require  a  from F r y t o the  i s recognized  relocation reserve  a s an  Regional  inappropriate solution  f o r some I n d i a n s , as  Director,  off-  to  the  s i n c e some " c o n t i n u e  to  a p h y s i c a l base f o r  their  life  style"  (DIAND, 1 9 6 9 ) . Like Smith had  the Tanakteuk,  the Quawshelah people  I n l e t a l s o i n h a b i t e d a remote r e s e r v e  similar  s o c i a l and  was  relocated  to  The  following  reasons  housing existing  economic p r o b l e m s . In  a location  just north  (Tsulquate i n the 1964,  of  c o n d i t i o n s ; r e m o t e n e s s f r o m s u p p l i e s ; no water  distribution;  48  no  school  region, this  Port  f o r r e l o c a t i o n were g i v e n  Band) o f and  community  Hardy, by  DIA:  B.C. poor  water supply;  no  facilities;  no  electricity. to  I n 1962, t h e Q u a w s h e l a h p e o p l e  relocate.  residents remained the  It  were  is  reported  informed  i n Smith's I n l e t  Department  (Geach,  by  had v o t e d  that prior government  to  unanimously  the  they  t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e no h e l p a t a l l  from  The p o s i t i o n o f  that  the  i f  1987).  agents  voting  DIA  regarding  a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e t o T a n a k t e u k Band members may be s i m i l a r . A  federal  opportunity services  for  letter  designed  in  1965  assistance  and  to  offer  social  Indians  counselling  t o employment c e n t e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e were  f o r the s e l e c t i o n of c a n d i d a t e s  additional  files.  was  financial  in relocation  no c r i t e r i a were  program  f o r t h i s program, nor  r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s program l o c a t e d i n  District  A.C. R o a c h , t h e K w a k i u t l I n d i a n A g e n t i n 1965, s t a t e d i n a to  relocation  t h e R e g i o n a l Manager t h a t , h a s been i n s t i t u t e d  "No  organized  plan  i n t h i s Agency under t h e  of r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e " ( C a n a d a ,  for  program  1965).  SUMMARY  In t h i s c h a p t e r , a h i s t o r i c a l pre-European categories Weaver  and  depopulation  contact u n t i l of  a n a l y s i s of K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y from  t h e 1960s was  community s o c i o e c o n o m i c  Cunningham  (1984).  presented, structure  Key e v e n t s  o f some o f t h e s e v i l l a g e s  using  the  suggested  contributing  by  to the  i n favour of settlement i n  more a c c e s s i b l e , c e n t r a l i z e d c o m m u n i t i e s was d i s c u s s e d . Almost e x c l u s i v e l y and w i t h o u t 49  consultation,  changes i n  modes  of  economic  indirectly who  hold  production  and i n s t i t u t i o n s  h a v e been f o r c i b l y  i m p o s e d on I n d i a n s o c i e t y by t h e n o n - n a t i v e political  benefitted  from  amenities,  damage  and  the  economic  adoption  power.  of  While  centralized  or  majority  Indians  have  services  and  t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l  collective  may be i r r e p a r a b l e . Through  understanding  the  economic  historical activities  transformations  people's  productive  and  realistic  e v a l u a t i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y c a n be made.  K w a k i u t l s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e were a s d e v e l o p e d own s t a n d a r d s  a s was E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y .  50  of  institutions,  according  a a  Clearly to their  Whether t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s were t o p r o v i d e us w i t h s e r v i c e s or t o a s s i m i l a t e u s , i t doesn't matter. The r e s u l t s were t h e same: t h e y t o o k away o u r s o u l . Bobby J o s e p h . May, 1988  CHAPTER THREE: THE EVOLUTION OF GROWTH POLE DOCTRINE, I T S RELATIONSHIP TO CANADIAN PLANNING I N I T I A T I V E S I N THE 1960S, AND I T S IMPACT ON DIA P O L I C I E S AND PROGRAMS  Over  the past t h i r t y  policies reduce  years,  of t h e Canadian and American governments unemployment,  accelerate  regional disparities, mitigate and  national  examine  of  unity.  economic  and p l a n n i n g  a s New V a n c o u v e r ;  Indian  Affairs'  assimilation emphasized  concept  regional  I sard,  f o r remote  a n d 2) t o examine  1)  part  of t h e p r o c e s s  of  of  the e a r l y  development,  the  centers  to  Perroux  of i n d u s t r y  emerging out  Indian  communities,  while  s c a l e not p o s s i b l e  the  society  was  modernization,  with  affected  Band. international War  Two  1978; H a n s e n , 1 9 7 4 ) . The w o r k s o f others  and s e r v i c e s  minimizing  of  i n which  Canadian  characterized  and  stimulation  1950s  programs  t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e from a f t e r World  1970s (Weaver,  Friedmann,  in  growth  the  how t h e D e p a r t m e n t  Indians i n t o mainstream  planning  centralization result  are:  orthodox approach t o development,  of as  that  I n d i a n s s u c h a s members o f t h e T a n a k t e u k  until  eliminate  i n i t i a t i v e s were b a s e d d u r i n g  t h e s e c o n c e p t s h a d on p l a n n i n g  The  to  social justice  The p u r p o s e s o f t h i s c h a p t e r  1960s, a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e i n f l u e n c e  such  have aimed  growth,  p o v e r t y and promote  planning  t h e c o n c e p t s on w h i c h n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l  development and  r e g i o n a l and development  of  scattered, 52  i n urban  regional  costs  proposed  that  centers  economic  the would  growth  a t t r i b u t e d t o economies  small  and of  communities. During the  1960s,  government  theory  were  initiatives  implemented  based i n  throughout  polarized  a l l regions  i n c l u d i n g a r e a s w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of I n d i a n I t wasn't out  of  until  of  i n the l a t e  suggested:  unequal  o f F r a n k , S u n k e l a n d C o r a g g i o emerged  1960s t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s  the "underdevelopment"  Indian  was  development. analyzed  The  development dependency  factors  s i t u a t i o n of t h e N o r t h  in this context,  b a s e d on  rather American  accusations  p a t e r n a l i s m and  of  greed  land.  Much  of the l i t e r a t u r e  policy has  emphasizes  been  1969;  s o l e l y motivated  Manuel  &  Posluns,  & Ponting,  define  "Indianness",  Canadian  political  outlook  Canadian  Indian  intervention in Indian  affairs  by p a t e r n a l i s m o r 1974;  Ponting,  assimilation  racism  1980;  that  (Cardinal,  Weaver,  of I n d i a n s  into  1981;  judged  of economic  f o r the group--an  many o f i t s p r o g r a m s  efficiency  d e s c r i b e d above,  (Matthews,  the r e l o c a t i o n  53  of  living  financial  important  and  factor for a  solely  1977).  that  mainstream  s u p p o s e d l y improve the s t a n d a r d  w h i l e e l i m i n a t i n g f u r t h e r government  responsibility  government  of  1 9 8 6 ) . By e l i m i n a t i n g c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s  s o c i e t y would  natives  criteria  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  t h a t government  Gibbins  of  to  polarized  and c o n t i n u e d  i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m f u e l e d by n o n - n a t i v e s ' for  Canada,  communities.  T h i r d World n a t i o n s r e s u l t e d from s t r u c t u r a l  than  of  a growing disenchantment w i t h the concepts of  development were  the works  development  upon  the  B a s e d on  the  of I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n  the  late  1960s was j u s t i f i e d  representatives assimilation  that  by i m p l i c i t  beliefs  among  t h e " d e v e l o p m e n t " of I n d i a n s  from a t r a d i t i o n a l  culture  into  government  required  modern,  their  non-native  society. But  this  policies racist  assumption  and  paternalistic  various  Canadian  psyche during  by  communities  most e f f i c i e n t  from  strategies  in  North  Indian  theory  of was  facilities  Indians.  in this  with  t h e s i s that  the r e l o c a t i o n  widely  the l a t e  accepted and  of  1960s planning  programs  whose  assimilation. in this  chapter  are:  and p l a n n i n g ;  of underdevelopment;  American  centralization  a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and  development  the underdevelopment  enjoyed  i n c l u d i n g DIA, a s t h e  policies  regional  of l i v i n g  development  combination  t o be d i s c u s s e d  of  the  of  Issues  perpetration  i n t h e p u b l i c ' s demand  the implementation  were c u l t u r a l  about  i n f l u e n c e d the  s u c h a s New V a n c o u v e r d u r i n g  objectives  by  events that  representatives,  i t i s argued  been m o t i v a t e d  assimilation;  in polarized  including  the  cultural  At the time,  way o f p r o v i d i n g  communities  resulted  ideas  Undoubtedly,  t o t h e same s t a n d a r d  outlined  a l l Canadians,  Therefore,  and s o c i a l  Canadians.  as  for  t h e 1960s r e s u l t e d  a c c e p t e d among government  Indian  simplistic.  desires  political  I n d i a n s have a c c e s s non-native  for  too  and p r o g r a m s of DIA have h i s t o r i c a l l y  however,  that  is  the e v o l u t i o n theories  of  about the  internal colonialism--a  portion  c r i t i q u e — a p p l i e d t o the s i t u a t i o n of the and members o f t h e  54  Tanakteuk;  and  the  political  and  s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f Canada d u r i n g t h e  i n f l u e n c e d government of  DIA  policy  i n i t i a t i v e s and programs.  a n d p r o g r a m s and t h e i r  1960s  The  which  development  implications  for  remote  I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e 1960s a r e t h e n d e s c r i b e d . The E v o l u t i o n o f T h e o r i e s o f R e g i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t Although traced turn  the  l i n e a g e of r e g i o n a l development t h i n k i n g  of the c e n t u r y ,  explicit  theories  I t was  purporting giving  i n t h e d e c a d e s f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War  to  explain  birth  development p l a n n i n g synthesis  contemporary r e g i o n a l d o c t r i n e dates  (Weaver,  to  the  regional  1 9 5 5 ) . Out o f t h i s  i n growth p o l e t h e o r y and p o l a r i z e d North  science  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were D o u g l a s s N o r t h  (1950,  (1955) p r o p o s e d t h a t  of  with  economic  and  spatial this  (1955), Walter  and i n E u r o p e ,  literature  the  II that  1 9 7 8 ) . The m a i n a r c h i t e c t s o f  (1956) and John Friedmann ( 1 9 5 5 ) ;  Perroux  location  be  back  c o n c e r n f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t was c o m b i n e d  activities,  Isard  can  t o t h e w o r k s o f P e t e r K r o p o t k i n and P a t r i c k Geddes a t  o n l y 30 y e a r s . an  & Planning  Francois  emerged an  interest  development.  r e g i o n a l economic growth o c c u r r e d i n  r e s p o n s e t o e x o g e n o u s demand f o r r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o e x p o r t base t h e o r y , increasing  t h e c o n c e p t s o f r e g i o n a l c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y and  regional  inter-dependency pointed to  p r o c e s s of f u n c t i o n a l Thirty  years l a t e r ,  decreasing  i n t e g r a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l  i n c r e a s i n g the t e r r i t o r i a l  the f r i c t i o n  a space  division  continuing economy. of  labor,  o f d i s t a n c e and a u g m e n t i n g t h e l e v e l 55  of  inter-regional l o c a l economic Isard  trade  g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t  should  be c o n s i d e r e d  production  factors  mechanisms  would  profit-maximizing predominantly  1955  of  labor,  locations.  should  to  implying  As r u r a l  established  between  of  industries  s t a r t i n g a process  and  the  the  and  primary  location  would  be  degree  of  capital. concern  spatial  increased,  urban  of  economic  must become  migration  within  market optimal,  of  centers  e v o l u t i o n i n the f i e l d  with Francois Perroux.  that  would  attract  other  of s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g economic  between  growth  expansion of i n t e r r e l a t e d  of  began  r a d i a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e economy distinguishes  high  resources  that  t o urban  capital; in their  a  of  the  became  important.  idea of growth p o l e s  policies  to  with • other  economy  that regional planning  As p a r t o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l  defined  an  implying  optimize  planning.  increasingly  groups  Such  suggested  be  and  activities  i n the l o c a t i o n of people,  activities,  the  keys  1978).  importance  resources  a r r a n g e economic  Friedmann  planners  links  (Weaver,  of equal  urban-centered,  polarization  systems  u s u a l l y . s a i d t o be t h e  (1956) a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o s t o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e f r i c t i o n  distance  In  are s t i l l  (Perroux, poles,  economic  sectors,  i n terms of g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . r e l y on t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  56  Poles  were  industries,  growth which would  1950). defined  planning,  Darwent  (1969)  i n terms  and g r o w t h  of  the  centers,  Because growth  of s e c t o r a l a c t i v i t i e s  center within  very s p e c i f i c  geographic places,  Hansen  (1974) i n s i s t s  t e r m s c a n be u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , a s u t i l i z e d should  be  center In  (Hansen,  simply  having  Myrdal expressed concern that  started  in  certain  favored  t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s of c i r c u l a r ,  designation.  economic  locations,  development,  would  continue  c u m u l a t i v e c a u s a t i o n . Growth  be t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h a n e t w o r k o f s p r e a d and b a c k w a s h He w a r n e d t h a t c o n s c i o u s p o l i c y prevent  the  growth  areas  other In  cumulative  would  effects.  i n t e r v e n t i o n w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o  advantages experienced i n  the  from c a u s i n g backwash e f f e c t s t o p r e v a i l  initial in  most  places. 1958  Hirschman proposed  although  he  Hirschman  maintained  spoke  around i n i t i a l rationalized  resources  of  a concept  "trickle-down"  that,  while  and  effects  would  new  markets.  i m p e r a t i v e s of c a p i t a l i s t  growth c e n t e r s would  concept  and  predominate Initially  in  Myrdal's,  might  polarize  of s c a l e c o u l d  minimized, the  there  be  eventually  search would  be  for an  i n e q u a l i t y of growth, but out of  geographical expansion,  subsequent  emerge.  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the growth p o l e n o t i o n applicable  to  "polarization".  development  and t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s t a n c e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r - r e g i o n a l  The  similar  growth c e n t e r s because economies  trickle-down  the  urban  1974). R a t h e r , a growth  i s an o b j e c t o f p u b l i c p o l i c y and g o v e r n m e n t 1957  the  in this thesis. It  emphasized t h a t growth c e n t e r s a r e not  centers that are growing r a p i d l y  that  to  g e o g r a p h i c space can 57  f r o m an be  abstract  attributed  to  Boudeville  (1966)  described regions  and Friedmann  as f o l l o w s : can  (1966).  disparities  be overcome  The  doctrine  i n w e l f a r e between  by e x t e n d i n g t h e p o l a r i z e d  can  be  different development  process i n t o depressed a r e a s , through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of growth centers  which  generated  link  within  analysts  such a r e a s t o the economic  the  agreed  broader  that  urban  e v e n t u a l l y an  system.  Perloff  et a l .  economy,  would  impulses  first, of  most  regional  1962; W i l l i a m s o n  (1960) a r g u e d t h a t  over time i n response t o changes  At  equalization  i n c o m e s w o u l d be a c h i e v e d ( B o r t s & S t e i n , However,  growth  1965).  some a r e a s , c h a n g i n g  i n the s t r u c t u r e of t h e n a t i o n a l  become i n c r e a s i n g l y w e a l t h y ,  w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e an a b s o l u t e d e c l i n e  in their  while other volume  of  areas  economic  activities. After  extensive  emphasized t h i s Theory  of  work  Polarized  dominant  the  less optimistic  p o l a r i z e d development a  in  Third  view.  Development was  crisis of  original  core area s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x p l o i t i n g  terms  must  (Darwent,  1969).  power  and  that  process,  its  non-economic  with  surrounding power.  f o r g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t variables  to  in be  Friedmann argued t h a t e v e n t u a l l y a  of t r a n s i t i o n would o c c u r ,  political  1967)  o f i n f o r m a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l  c o v e r many  re-  He c o n c l u d e d i n A G e n e r a l  (1972,  E x p l a n a t i o n s o f , and p r e s c r i p t i o n s  successful  Friedmann  a predominantly p o l i t i c a l  p e r i p h e r y t h r o u g h a monopoly  spatial  World,  economic  58  leading either opportunity,  to a or  diffusion ending  in  continued  e x p l o i t a t i o n and  T h i s was pole  possible political  o n l y the beginning  theory  based  on  of a growing  observations  revolution.  critique  of  unequal  Orthodox t h e o r i e s of development i n the works of Myrdal,  Hirschman,  assumptions  (1960)  engines  growth,  of  stimulus  for  North,  Perroux  share  The  with  injection  of c a p i t a l  education society  and  Rostow's  Rostow  for  training  through  are  the  as  the  economic hastens  various  c u l m i n a t i n g i n a modern, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  that  Issard,  t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l change a c t s  "backwards"  mass-consumption. theory  and  coupled  traditional,  and  stages  of d e v e l o p m e n t and  of  a of  s o c i e t y based  (1960) presumes i n h i s s t a g e s  the concepts  growth  development.  t h a t modern s e c t o r s o f t h e economy  progress.  development,  growth,  Friedmann  of t h e  on  growth  modernization  are  interchangeable. The  lack  of  attributed 1955; is  to  development i n t r a d i t i o n a l  the c h a r a c t e r or v a l u e s of a c u l t u r e  Barnouw, 1950;  S p i n d l e r , 1955;  or  Traditional  physical integration societies,  inappropriate economically  such  as  for participation redundant,  Indian  will  Orthodox  development  considerations  to  an  traditional  societies  (urban)  cultures,  through regions.  with  values  i n t h e modern economy w i l l  and  extent  i s completely 59  been  (Hallowell,  t i e s a r e weakened,  i n t o modern  unemployment.  such  has  McGregor, 1946). Development  s a i d t o be p r o m o t e d a s t r a d i t i o n a l  education  societies  experience theories  poverty favour  that the s o c i a l ignored  become  economic  vitality  (Matthews,  and  1977).  of  As  illustrated  standards,  to The  calculating but  was  C h a p t e r Two,  non-natives  Vancouver skills.  in  perceived  be l a c k i n g i n value  basis  vitality.  of  Indian communities resources,  o f s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s was  economic  Social v i t a l i t y  s u c h a s New  training  and  ignored  when  was  recognized, to  children  in  s c h o o l s demonstrate t h e eagerness of n o n - n a t i v e s  to  potlatch,  hasten t h e development  and  to  European  Attempts  the  residential  the  capital,  v i e w e d a s an i m p e d i m e n t  eradicate  on  to  development.  educate  Indian  of n a t i v e s from a t r a d i t i o n a l  modern one by d e s t r o y i n g t h e v a l u e  society to a  system and c u l t u r e of I n d i a n s .  As I n d i a n s were r e d u c e d t o m i n o r i t y s t a t u s i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , it  became  increasingly  difficult  (or  n a t i v e s ) f o r Indian communities t o r e s i s t modern  undesirable  for  some  incorporation into  the  economy.  The T h e o r y o f U n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t In  1967,  development  Frank  published a critique  that challenged  of orthodox t h e o r i e s  t h e a s s u m p t i o n s on w h i c h t h e  o f r e g i o n a l g r o w t h was b a s e d . He a r g u e d t h a t e c o n o m i c must  be  examined  in  terms of t h e g l o b a l  understand  underdevelopment.  resources  and  dependency, Certain other  foreign  alienation,  areas  Foreign  industrial  exploitation investment  s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and  would have t o e x p l o i t  areas i n order  economic  to develop. 60  the  potential  of  theory  development system of  to  natural  resulted  in  suppression. surplus  of  Sunkel  (1973)  made a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f  t h e o r y t o s p a t i a l development, and c o n c l u d e d t h a t  dependency  i n d i v i d u a l s who  do n o t s e r v e t h e n e e d s o f t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d from  t h e modern  population  sector  becomes  of  economy.  The  marginalized  l a n d l e s s r u r a l p e a s a n t s who move i n t o  a r e a s where t h e y c a n b a r e l y The  the  urban  survive.  n e o - M a r x i s t c r i t i q u e was a p p l i e d t o g r o w t h c e n t e r t h e o r y by  Coraggio  (1975),  who c o n c l u d e d t h a t g r o w t h c e n t e r p o l i c i e s  only  c o u l d do l i t t l e  they  actually  growth and  development,  t h w a r t e d i t by i m p l a n t i n g new p o i n t s  expropriation Growth  t o s p r e a d economic  and  centers  dominance merely  i n the  extended  dependent the  not  of  capital  space  spatial  economy.  pattern  of  underdevelopment. Weaver following control  (1978)  summarizes  terms:  f u n c t i o n a l economic  of  territorial  geographical  inequities  hypothesized  spread  leakages industries  as  and of  exchange.  Increasing Small  relationships  inherent  poor  o f economic are  institutions.  dependency  as  61  the  from  the  social  and  development.  The  growth captured Labour,  suffer by  fatal distant  capital,  and  unequal  t e r m s ••of  on o u t s i d e e c o n o m i c  interests  l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n and  destroyed  in  removed  in polarized  r e g i o n s a r e e x p l o i t e d by  scale are  power,  theory  exacerbates the  multipliers  financial  resources  results.  authority,  effects  economic  underdevelopment  a result  traditional of  social  competition  and  uncontrolled who  serve  while  u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l development. Only those i n d i v i d u a l s the outside  those  who  economic  interests  do n o t a r e m a r g i n a l i z e d  themselves from  the  benefit,  process  of  development. In  dependency t h e o r y ,  u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e outcome  of  an  e x p l o i t a t i v e , d e p e n d e n c y - c r e a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between " c o r e " and "periphery"  economic  underdeveloped economic  as  sectors.  the  relationships  The p e r i p h e r a l  r e s u l t of a  complex  society of  remains  political  a n d s t r u c t u r e s upon w h i c h i t h a s  and  become  d e p e n d e n t , a n d w h i c h a r e c o n t r o l l e d by a n d s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the  core  The of  society.  early  1970s saw an e x p l o s i o n  o f l i t e r a t u r e on t h e  underdevelopment and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n  (Amin,  1 9 7 5 ) . Some i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e c o n o m i c h e r i t a g e neo-colonialism role  of  1974;  urbanization  Soja  economy Other Lee,  (Rodney,  & Weaver,  of B r i t a i n studies along  1972;  1976).  Hechter  was s u s t a i n e d this  (De  1974) a n d t h e  Souza  (Weaver,  theme q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d  regionalism  theory  Porter, the  exploitation. (Secchi,  1977;  al.,1978),  i n many a r e a s o f  1978).  I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and N o r t h American The  &  (1975) s u g g e s t e d t h a t  1977; T a r r o w , 1977; S e e r s e t a l . , 1978; T a r r o w e t  world  Stuckey,  of c o l o n i a l i s m and  by c o r e / p e r i p h e r y  f u e l e d by t h e r e s u r g e n c e o f c u l t u r a l the  1974;  B r e t t , 1973; L e y s ,  i n underdevelopment  theories  Indians  o f i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m h a s been u s e d a s a t o o l  62  in  the  a n a l y s i s of dependency and underdevelopment  and  American  theory  on  Indians  underdevelopment  suggested  that  run  added t h a t c o l o n i a l i s t  the  isolation  source  the c o l o n i a l  and  undermined  • (1971) d e s c r i b e s  relocation  to  and. o t h e r reserves  military  force,  genocidal  warfare,  the  traditional  conditions  and  their  and  natural  Thomas  of  (1966) Indians social  of  social  resulted i n Indian  of m a r g i n a l  Indians.  experiences  l o s s of  introduction  of  native  including  land,  the  contagious  their use  (1971) u s e s F r a n k ' s  metropolis  a l l o w an e c o n o m i c s u r p l u s  resources  t o be d r a i n e d 63  off  Indian Indians  generates  i n t h e form of f o r the  to  metropolis-  t h a t t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of  American  of  diseases,  t o a t t a c k a c c u l t u r a t i o n t h e o r i e s of  of the white  which  (1962)  native  c o l o n i z e d people as  Jorgenson  framework  satellites  Hagen  w i t h the high degree  the p a r a l l e l  u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t by d e m o n s t r a t i n g as  over  and t h e r i s e of m e s s i a n i s m as a r e a c t i o n  c o l o n i a l domination. satellite  government  r e l a t i o n s h i p between A m e r i c a n  i n conjunction  Americans  (i960)  t o g a i n a monopoly  p r o m o t e d by c o n f i n e m e n t t o r e s e r v e s ,  Patterson  Cohen  of Indian poverty.  u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d an i n t e r n a l e l i t e  North  America,  Frank's  p r a c t i c e s of the American Bureau of I n d i a n  government  structures,  to  the cost of t h e i r c o n t r o l .  A f f a i r s was t h e p r i n c i p a l  and  Prior  Canadian  a n d t h a t p o l i c i e s were p r e d i c a t e d upon a l o n g -  g o a l of m i n i m i z i n g  that  Latin  by t h e d e s i r e o f w h i t e s  resources,  argued  in  years.  t h e p o l i c i e s of t h e American f e d e r a l  h a v e been g u i d e d Indian  f o r over t h i r t y  among  benefit  the land of  whites.  Present  Indian  underdevelopment.is a d i r e c t  c o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n w h i c h has u s e d p o l i t i c a l exploitative Other Indian  relationship  researchers  (Puxley,  of  power t o m a i n t a i n an  ( J o r g e n s o n , 1971).  have a d a p t e d the c o l o n i a l i s m model  i n the United States  and Canada  result  (Ruffing,  1979; A n d e r s ,  1977; M a r u l e , 1978; K e l l o u g h ,  to  1979  1980;  &  the 1980)  Frideres,  1 9 8 3 ) . D e p e n d e n c y t h e o r y and t h e c o l o n i a l i s m m o d e l i n Canada have been  illustrated  communities  of  using  t r a d i n g companies  on  corporations Ponting have  the  effects  o f t h e modern e c o n o m i c  i n Canada i s one  theory  concentrate  of  r e n e w a b l e and n o n - r e n e w a b l e  c o n t r o l l e d by e l i t e s  dependency  examples  at  work  o i l and  gas  i n the A r c t i c  resource sector.  of t h e f i r s t  (Wien,  extraction  The  t h e most p r o m i n e n t  Indian s o c i e t i e s , and p r o g r a m s , According traditional undermined develops  t o dependency sector  by  multinational  1977). B o t h Wien  (1986)  dependency.  distribution.  of n a t i v e s o c i e t y  affected, The  use  social  due of  of  policies  i s neglected  models, or  s t r u c t u r e of p e r i p h e r a l  to external capital  64  ties  intensive  the  actively  i n t e r m s o f r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n a s t h e modern  is  and  i s , DIA--  i n the underdevelopment  t h e o r i e s and c o l o n i a l i s m  1 9 7 7 ) . The  of  examples  t h r o u g h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  including welfare  (Asch,  societies  largely  role  role  Recent  (1986) a r g u e t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t — t h a t  played  native  d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of  1986).  exploration  (Watkins,  on  associated technology  sector native with and  institutions native  which support  interests  community.  extraneous  Most  Indians  opportunities created necessary s k i l l s as  any  and  to  the  cannot  education.  c o m m u n i t y e n d s up  are  situation  of  of  b a s e d on local  away.  t o two  factors: and  the  these  i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i s m can  term  be  maintain  an  B l o d e l and  controlled  Indian  A g e n t s who  since decisions activities by  B.C.Packers,  d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s on used t h e i r  exploitative relationship.  Subsistence  the  traditional  f o r e s t r y and  p u r c h a s e o f s u p p l i e s and  e s s e n t i a l l y removed f r o m t h e  authority,  not  i l l u s t r a t e d using  i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advancing  for resource  were a r r a n g e d by  was  f o r the  competitive leases  are  fishing  at  prices  t h e m u l t i n a t i o n a l s . Band members became i n d e b t e d  companies  remain  and  the  needs.  s u c h as M a c M i l l a n by  important  o b j e c t i v e s of  t h e T a n a k t e u k Band. R e s o u r c e s f r o m t h e i r  industries,  the  suppressed  a l l  external p r i o r i t i e s ,  l a n d b a s e were s o l d t o m u l t i n a t i o n a l s i n t h e  controlled  employment  the  controlled externally;  theory  from  Indian  i n a worse predicament than b e f o r e  are  The  benefit  the  the  decisions  designed to s a t i s f y  of  non-  Consequently,  m o d e r n i z a t i o n due  are  locale  drained  of  sector  c o n t r o l l e d by  L o c a l development i s  onslaught  modern  and  by modern d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a u s e t h e y l a c k  economic s u r p l u s e s  Indian  i t i s created  the  were s u b j e c t such  imposition  as of  65  Long  reserve  land  power  fishing government  approval  and  to  e c o n o m i c power  territorial  to f i n a l  to  market.  political  Functional  c o n t r o l of  equipment  to  Indian by  hunting  regulations  DIA. were and  l i c e n s i n g schemes,  and t r a p p i n g was  r u i n e d by l a r g e s c a l e mining  and l o g g i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n . As t r a d i t i o n a l means of economic  production  inhabitants external  of New  were  provision  of  productivity  of  capital,  external was  agencies  members  moved  a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r  weakened,  poverty  to  which  facilitated  upon  payments.  services.  many  the  economic  base,  marginalized,  and  As  and  their  Tanakteuk  Bay. Band  Band  Traditional members  and  levels  of  Indians as a  unemployment  felt  Canadians.  the  implementation  of  group  that  were  Attention  an examination of f a c t o r s i n Canada d u r i n g  the  government  now 1960s  programs  unemployment.  Values and Planning Processes During the 1960s  implementation  regional/development assumptions spatial  sector,  welfare  or economic power,  designed to address poverty and  The  for  higher than non-native  turns  Canadian  modern  culture.  no r e a l p o l i t i c a l  significantly  as  to urban c e n t e r s such as A l e r t  relationships  experienced  such  eroded by a d e c r e a s i n g land  i n non-native s o c i e t y was  With  the  the i s o l a t e d community came to depend upon  position  social  by  Vancouver became i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent  injections  Psychologically,  altered  of  p o l i c i e s and s u b s t a n t i v e  planning  are  based  on  theories  ideological  t h a t , together with the socio-economic, p o l i t i c a l  organization  p l a n n i n g and determine  of  a  country,  change  i t s outcome (Friedmann 66  the  in  contents  & Weaver, 1979).  and of To  understand federal based  planning  initiatives  government  during  the  unity,  period  The  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  towards  and  early  i n Canada.  1960s  changes  Agricultural  and  regional  A gradual  Rural  development  creation  the f i r s t  disparities  in  strategy  Department up  providing  urban  realize national  with  rural  of I n d u s t r y economic  and t h e  than  intensive  shift  i n values preceeding  passing as  of  part  the of  illustrated and  a the  unemployment,  use. Development' B o a r d (ADB)  1960s  (Phidd, Agency  and  in  1962  to arrest . regional dominate 1974).  federal  The  1963  (ADA) a l l i e d t o  r e f l e c t e d the government's  development  The  1961 poverty  tax concessions to i n d u s t r i a l  unemployment.  The  an i s s u e t h a t was. t o  the  of  1981),  A c t (ARDA)  in  o f an A r e a D e v e l o p m e n t  rather  must  diversity,  period  comprehensive s t r a t e g y  Canada,  throughout  a  1974).  of the A t l a n t i c  represented  establishment  increasingly  about  but n o t i c e a b l e  Development  as w e l l as e f f i c i e n t l a n d  politics  ethnic  (Robinson,  (Phidd,  government's p r e - o c c u p a t i o n  high  concerns  were  an u r b a n f o c u s r e s u l t e d  legislative  speed  by  Canadian  poverty.  1950s  urbanization  the  doctrine—one  r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t i e s ,  e l i m i n a t i o n of  by  1960s--initiatives  on t h e c o n c e p t o f g r o w t h c e n t e r  that  The  the  implemented  industrial firms  the  intention  to  adjustment  by  located  i n a r e a s of  s h i f t towards p r o m o t i n g economic growth i n  rural  regions  67  had  begun.  In  1965  i t  was  complemented  by  the  creation  d e s i g n e d t o encourage Gunton,  mobility  labour to reside  training  this  time r e g i o n a l development  a d hoc a p p r o a c h  (Francis,  established  system  of  in  emphasis  approach  to  The  i n u r b a n c e n t e r s (Weaver &  federal in  p o l i c i e s had Economic  1960s a s p a r t  I t emphasized  between  stronger  1974).  the mid  planning.  ordination  and  greater  of  a  provincial  comprehensive  spill-over  the  immediately (Lotz,  a  effects  available  by  1971).  For  as  well  These  most  levels  services,  programs,  demand  that  Canadians,  of income,  and  growth-oriented from  the  more  1974).  on p o v e r t y  in  1965,  something  be  done  t o address the i s s u e of p o v e r t y i n Canadian  1977).  determined  public's  co-  governments  on  P r i v y C o u n c i l o f Canada d e c l a r e d war  heightening  an  improved a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  regional policies  provide  followed  C o u n c i l o f Canada  p r o s p e r o u s a r e a s t o t h e more d e p r e s s e d ones ( P h i d d , The  programs  1982).  Until  was  of  poverty  was  but i n c l u d e d the  society  not  simply  quality  of  s u c h a s h o u s i n g , s c h o o l s , m e d i c a l and  social  as  (Harp,  demands  the s a t i s f a c t i o n  of  aspirations  f o r s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y had e v o l v e d  out  of  c o n d i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the growth of the w e l f a r e s t a t e . According welfare  to  state  Anderson  & Boothroyd  i s the c l a s s i c a l  (1984),  approach to  the b a s i s development,  r e c o g n i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o m p e t i t i o n and t h e m a r k e t allocating  wealth,  coupled  with  subsidization,  r e s i d u a l w e l f a r e , Keynesian economics, 68  and  of  the which  place  in  regulation,  institutional  welfare,  to  offset  t h e u n f a i r n e s s and i n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e m a r k e t  T h e s e e l e m e n t s were p r e s e n t of t h e l a t e  federal planning  Canadians  expected  t h e government t o  "safety net" t o the disadvantaged  through  initiative  1960s.  Initially, adequate  i n every  residual  w e l f a r e programs,  provide  individual  such as  social  or  once  when  theory:  Keynesianism  national  was c o m b i n e d w i t h  economic  fine-tuning,  region  two g o a l s  residual and  welfare  local  (Anderson & Boothroyd,  expected  government t o p r o v i d e u n i v e r s a l l y a v a s t a r r a y  s e r v i c e s t o meet a v a s t to  perceive  regulatory, institutional pensions,  1984). G r a d u a l l y ,  social  rehabilitation the  r a n g e o f assumed n e e d s .  government a s a c o n s t r u c t i v e , agent  (Gertler,  welfare  Lord  programs,  and p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n .  such  and  society  (Anderson & Boothroyd,  its  zenith  support,  in  Canada  the  welfare  medicare,  government  1984).  the  late  state i n the l a t e  a c c e p t a n c e of government p l a n n i n g In  a  mere  old  r e q u i r i n g ongoing  age sees  state  intervention in  The w e l f a r e  state  reached  1960s  early  1970s.  Canadians' p e r c e p t i o n s about the a p p r o p r i a t e and  began  I n s t i t u t i o n a l w e l f a r e , which  legitimizes  in  Canadians  of  1975), r e s u l t i n g i n  as  d e v e l o p m e n t a s an o n g o i n g s o c i a l a c t i v i t y action  Canadians  r a t h e r than  & Stewart,  an  assistance  payments. Government-sponsored a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d a c h i e v e at  place.  and role  of  1960s p a v e d t h e way  government f o r the  initiatives.  1966, a s p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t a c k on r e g i o n a l  69  disparity, was  t h e Fund f o r R e g i o n a l E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t A c t  passed  to  concentrate  opportunities. terms  of  total  (Poetschke, A  Programs  on  rural  poverty  and  (FRED)  employment  f i n a n c e d by FRED were c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n  and i n t e g r a t e d  social  and  economic  planning  1971).  report  published  i n 1967 by t h e E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f  Canada  f o r e c a s t t h e end o f f e d e r a l r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s emphasized r u r a l authors  were  rural  i n i t i a t i v e s a s e x e m p l i f i e d by ARDA and FRED. I t s  critical  economic  adjustments"  of e a r l i e r programs d e s i g n e d  growth,  and  insisted  basis  development  of  t e m p e r e d by t h e i r  for  social  elected  belief  and c u l t u r a l  political  loss  arena.  Prime M i n i s t e r  Department  of  incentives,  infrastructure areas"  1969;  to  of  1967). on  the  concern  proposed "adjustment", i t compensate  i n Canada moved f r o m t h e e c o n o m i c  Pierre E l l i o t t  Trudeau  promised  he w o u l d a t t e m p t  to  Economic  Expansion  i t s programs c o n c e n t r a t e d a s s i s t a n c e and s o c i a l  improve  Canadians' 70  on  unity.  (DREE)  was  industrial  adjustment  standard  if  rectify  i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of n a t i o n a l  Regional  in  "special  force  (Matthews, 1978).  of Canada,  established  strictly  t h a t economic g a i n s would  r e g i o n a l economic d i f f e r e n c e s The  "labour  a n d i f t h e a u t h o r s showed  1968, r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t the  achieve  (Buckley & Tihanyi,  were e v a l u a t e d  consequences of t h e i r  was  to  policies  economic c r i t e r i a ,  about the s o c i a l  In  that  to  w h i c h e n c o u r a g e d t h e movement o f p o p u l a t i o n o u t  a r e a s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t were n e e d e d Regional  that  of  in  living  (Phidd,1974) . Industrial  incentives  were b e l i e v e d t o be t h e key t o  the problem of r e g i o n a l underdevelopment.  Industrialization  equated w i t h the p r o c e s s of m o d e r n i z a t i o n , a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s m a l l e r economic, into  larger  efficient 1978).  ones  was  supposed  result  improvements  t o be a t t r a c t e d and  (Matthews  a  in a  essentially  and s o c i a l  more  were made t o selected  was  units  rational  and  & Turowetz,  infrastructure  region,  t o these urban c e n t e r s  industry  because  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and a r e d u c t i o n o f p o v e r t y 1978).  concentrated  initiatives.  political,  i n t e r e s t s of  services available  incentives,  w h i c h was  of r e s o u r c e s ( G l e n d a y , Guindon  Once s u b s t a n t i a l  social  new  the  distribution  and  was  in  solving  From 1969 o n w a r d s ,  almost  Services  exclusively  on  government urban  of  would  spending  development  i n remote c o m m u n i t i e s were r e d u c e d , and  no  i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e o f u r b a n g r o w t h c e n t e r s were  encouraged. As  previously  outlined,  the  c o n c e p t of growth  centers  popular  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y d u r i n g the e a r l y  Rather  than  distinctly theory the  adopting Canadian  experience,  ( l 9 3 0 ) - - i n which economic  production  international Frank's  a r e g i o n a l development  approach  of p o l a r i z e d  development  c r i t i c i s m s about p o l a r i z e d development  71  from  a  staples  i s concentrated  of a p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e commodity f o r paradigm  1960s.  s u c h as H a r o l d I n n i s ' s  activity  was  around  export—the  was  adopted.  and t h e t h e o r y of  underdevelopment  (1967) were i g n o r e d by  t h e y were n o t y e t i n c o r p o r a t e d With  little  areas, to  from t h e s e r e g i o n s had l i t t l e  urban c e n t e r s  the  late  from  (Iverson & Matthews,  the  infrastructure  was a m a s s i v e r u r a l d e p o p u l a t i o n ,  w i t h d r a w a l of s e r v i c e s  cited  the  services  cost  to  only  geographical  j o b s on  and  flooded  resulted; 1971). for  the  with  (Wadel,  rural  migrant  benefitted public  further  providing  1969),  workers,  and  a  The  Government  facilities over  pointed  labour  and  a  large  out  that  As u r b a n  centers  surplus  often  poor  (Harp,  p o o r s i m p l y became t h e u r b a n  M o b i l i t y d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y  work  rationalizing  a handful of people scattered  area  during  for industries.  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was more e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t . were  industrial  from s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s .  of m a i n t a i n i n g  rural  c h o i c e b u t t o move  1968). Proposed  temporary c o n s t r u c t i o n  p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d t o improve result  in  a t t r a c t i n g many m i g r a n t w o r k e r s who  paying,  or  psyche.  i n urban a r e a s r e c e i v e d widespread p u b l i c i t y  1960s,  high  i n t o our n a t i o n a l  planners,  attention being paid to developing jobs  workers  developments  Canadian  reduce d i s p a r i t i e s  i n income  i n d i v i d u a l s or areas. The  emphasis  consequent affected  i n urban growth c e n t e r s  d e p o p u l a t i o n of r u r a l communities a l l r e g i o n s of Canada.  severely  B u t i t was  economically-disadvantaged  Maritimes, coastal  on d e v e l o p m e n t  farming  i n the more  regions,  72  late  the 1960s  apparent such  communities throughout Western  r e g i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia.  and  Remote f i s h i n g  as  Canada,  in the and  communities,  or o u t p o r t s ,  i n N e w f o u n d l a n d were a l s o t a r g e t t e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t  o r i e n t e d around growth p o l e d o c t r i n e . offered  financial  centers  under a f i v e - y e a r j o i n t  program,  which  f i v e years was  Under  i n 1970.  the  evacuated saw  initial  America.  abandoned During Canada  facilities  reader  resettlement such access  as  is  resettlement  of  119  t h a t had  list  and  the  resettlement  scheme  was  1973).  the withdrawal  of g o v e r n m e n t - f u n d e d  result  of  included non-native r e m i n d e d of t h e  A l e r t Bay,  by  of communities t a r g e t t e d f o r  r u r a l communities  a  program  throughout  1960s r e m o t e and  as  were  fueled  r e c e i v e d wide c u r r e n c y  efforts  to  throughout  centralize  Indian  reasons given  the  by  Two:  t o employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s e r v i c e s and  for  communities. DIA  Vancouver to urban  as o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r  services  as g r o w t h c e n t e r s  as w e l l a s  of t h e T a n a k t e u k f r o m New  provided  program  outports  second phase of the  i n t o urban l o c a t i o n s d e s i g n a t e d  industry. This  growth  additional  of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e t t l e m e n t ,  experienced  population  a total  1 9 7 3 ) . The  cancelled,  late  the  were  resettlement  r e n e w e d f o r an  onwards,  program,  (Copes & S t e e d , the  designated  federal-provincial I t was  E v e n t u a l l y , the  was  of o u t p o r t s  DREE.  sentiments  evacuation  were  by  only a t r i c k l e  North  The  From 1969  (Copes & S t e e d ,  anti-urban  and  i n c e n t i v e s to relocate to  began i n 1965.  administered  Residents  for  for  the  centers improved  facilities  which  w i t h g r e a t e r economic e f f i c i e n c y a s s o c i a t e d  with  73  economies  of s c a l e and t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  resources.  D I A ' s r e s e t t l e m e n t o f remote  perfectly  rational  doctrine  that  of p h y s i c a l and  I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s was a  a c t , given the acceptance  prevailed  human  of  growth  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l  pole  regional  p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a t t h e t i m e . However, encouraged  the  resettlement  of  native  communities  t o s p e e d up t h e p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l  Indians i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y . an  political  i n f l u e n c e d t h e Department  of Indian  DIA's P o l i c i e s  D u r i n g t h e 1960s  Among C a n a d i a n s , g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e prior  to  natives  1960 was l i m i t e d ;  across  ignorance largely  of  a p p o i n t e d t o examine  that  DIA  of  programs  recognize group, were  (Weaver,  i n 1959,  in also  1981).  resulting in  of "the I n d i a n problem",  public  (Canada,  ethnic  ethnic  Canadians  concern.  The r e p o r t  s p e e d up t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i n g  issue  that  o f t h e S e n a t e a n d House o f Commons was  i n t h e awareness  wider Canadian s o c i e t y The  diversity.  Indian administration  a r o u s a l of moderate  social  1960s  most C a n a d i a n s t e n d e d t o  cultural  However, a J o i n t Committee  the  as w e l l as  of t h e c o n d i t i o n s of I n d i a n s  t h e c o u n t r y a s a homogeneous their  of  Affairs.  i g n o r a n t of DIA's p o l i c i e s and  an i n c r e a s e  assimilation  events i n Canadian s o c i e t y d u r i n g the  & Programs  also  A t t e n t i o n now t u r n s t o  e x a m i n a t i o n o f DIA p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m s ,  and  was  as w e l l as recommended  Indians  into  the  1961).  diversity  74  in  Canadian  society  was  heightened  by  autonomy  discussions  within Confederation  C a n a d i a n s ' a w a r e n e s s of to  stamp o u t  Indians  poverty  among  the  (Harding,  1965;  Borovoy,  (1967),  Indians  suffered  t o t h e p u b l i c and  1966).  The  towards during  and  in natives.  from  The  extreme  to  historical  was  e n h a n c e d by  and  by  nations. lent  programs  1960s.  the The  The  What,  of  report  poverty,  the  the c i v i l  then,  were D I A ' s p o l i c i e s and  Act--compared  relatively  and  directed criticism  of the  Indian  Indian  cause  States,  Third  to  programs d u r i n g legislative 4,000  s t a t u t o r y enactments i n the U n i t e d the  that  World Canada  1983).  over  years  government  a c t i v i s m on c a m p u s e s i n  the  l946)--makes  Canada,  Canadians.  decolonizing  The  unsystematized  Hawthorn  in  came u n d e r i n t e n s e  t h a t caused such n a t i o n a l outrage? Indian  society  movements i n t h e U n i t e d  y o u t h movement and  1965,  underemployment  federal  emerging n a t i o n a l i s m of  (Tanner,  in  demonstrated  P u b l i c sympathy f o r t h e  rights  efforts  in  Indians  p u b l i c a t t r i b u t e d the p l i g h t  paternalism.  f u r t h e r support  increased  were p l a c e d a l l t o o  minorities  of t h e c o n d i t i o n s of  the development of I n d i a n s the  this  greater  r e l e a s e of the  unemployment i n c o m p a r i s o n t o n o n - n a t i v e Policies  1960s;  for  as a s p e c i a l m i n o r i t y . As  most d i s a d v a n t a g e d  a study  fueled interest  the  demand  r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r media a t t e n t i o n  became more v i s i b l e  Report  during  Indians  obviously  also  about Quebec's  e v o l u t i o n of  Indian policy  easy to t r a c e .  the  dominance separate  States  over  one  of and  (Harper, hundred  S e v e r a l major p o l i c y m o t i f s 75  1960s  have  been  identified  by  Gibbins &  Ponting  Indians  from the e v i l s of white  adoption  of C h r i s t i a n i t y .  Until  t h e 1970s,  central p i l l a r .  of these  (1986):  society,  protection  assimilation,  three motifs,  they  I n d i a n s needed t o shed t h e i r  treatment  (Miller  interests their would The  were  to  be p r o t e c t e d by  language and customs  at heart.  Ignorant  speed the a d o p t i o n process  and  w h i t e s had t h e i r  best  ways,  o f a s s i m i l a t i o n was e n c o u r a g e d and  settlement.  European  Subsequently, migrate  society,  Indians' views  through  Ironically,  the process  where t h e y c o u l d  souls.  education,  the c r e a t i o n  of  of  natives  assimilation.  I n d i a n s were e n c o u r a g e d t o l e a v e t h e i r t o urban c e n t e r s ,  on  Christianity  o f I n d i a n s t o them i s o l a t e d  slowing  that  legislation  of European v a l u e s w h i l e s a v i n g  r e s e r v e s and the confinement  and  of white  until  own w e l f a r e were n o t t o be g i v e n much w e i g h t .  enfranchisement,  from  special  e t a l . , 1978). A f t e r a l l ,  and t h e  a s s i m i l a t i o n was t h e  t o become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t members o f modern s o c i e t y ; time,  of  communities  experience  the  b e n e f i t s of modernization. The  federal  administration  government's  program  to  modernize  the  o f I n d i a n a f f a i r s a f t e r W o r l d War Two i n c l u d e d  tripartite  policy:  facilities;  2)  to  1)  to  expand  and  improve  introduce to reserves the types  a  educational of  welfare  s e r v i c e s a n d s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m s t h a t h a d been e x t e n d e d t o other Canadians a f t e r  1945; a n d 3) t o i m p l e m e n t a s y s t e m o f l o c a l  76  self-government subject 1960s  to  (Tanner,  frequent  1 9 8 3 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e I n d i a n A c t h a d been  amendment s i n c e  i t d i d not d i f f e r  1980).  Neither  assumptions  which  reflected  was  subtlety,  r a c i s m became l e s s a c c e p t a b l e As  governing  the Act  expressed with greater  path  during  irreversible,  and f o u r t h ,  Indians  In  to  reduce  encouragement programs provinces,  when  rests  a r e on a p a t h f r o m a  and b e n e f i c i a l ;  this  the t r a n s i t i o n  to a  by p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s  and  on t h e b a s i s o f e q u a l i t y  with  t h e main b a r r i e r s t o d e v e l o p m e n t  i n c r e a s i n g awareness  other are the  ( S h k i l n y k , 1985).  This  dependence  of l o c a l  initiatives  included  the  transfer  and  criticism  on  government  legislation  of  federal  services  f o r an I n d i a n C l a i m s C o m m i s s i o n ,  the These  to  the  experimental  on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  77  the  through  i n Indian communities.  the c r e a t i o n of Indian a d v i s o r y boards, research  by  a v a r i e t y d f p r o g r a m s f r o m 1963-  Indian  r e l o c a t i o n programs, draft  objectives  an o r t h o d o x o r i e n t a t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t .  response  to  now  the  C a n a d i a n p u b l i c , DIA i m p l e m e n t e d 67  were  s e c o n d , movement a l o n g  a t t i t u d e s and c u l t u r e of t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e is clearly  The  third,  services to Indians  Canadians;  affairs.  t h e 1960s.  government s t r a t e g y i s t o a s s i s t  modern s o c i e t y p r i m a r i l y  the  (Ponting,  i n i t s p o l i c y , DIA's approach t o development  i s inevitable,  social  of  form  however,  a s were p o l i c y  s o c i e t y t o a modern o n e ;  appropriate  Indian  based,  on t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s : f i r s t , traditional  a t t h e end  g r e a t l y from t h e o r i g i n a l  did policy  on  1876,  justice,  and community  development  programs.  programs f a i l e d The 1963  attempt failed  federal  It  of  the  to transfer federal services to the provinces  in  (Weaver,  i s g e n e r a l l y agreed that a l l  1981).  b e c a u s e most p r o v i n c e s  responsibility  under  the  argued that Indians BNA  A c t . In  were  1965,  Indian  a d v i s o r y b o a r d s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t n a t i o n a l a n d r e g i o n a l ostensibly  to allow  decision-making to  feel  and  f o r Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n  process.  Gradually,  t h a t t h e p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d  i n the  Indian  Indian  t h e B o a r d s a s a s a t i s f a c t o r y method o f o f f e r i n g and in  p r o g r a m s (Weaver,  government's  participation  leaders input  rejected  into  1 9 8 1 ) . The a d v i s o r y b o a r d s were  policy  terminated  1967. In  1966,  from  remote  settlements their  an  experimental  reserves  educational  their  p r o g r a m began t o r e l o c a t e  where unemployment  was  with job o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Although  the d i f f i c u l t to  levels,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s came  t o circumvent  c o n s u l t a t i o n a t t h e community l e v e l ;  a  skills,  (LLoyd,  t h e program f a i l e d  o f t h e p r o b l e m i n 1964.  immediate  program  improved  t o h e l p them a n d most  make  returned  revisions.  in jail,  DIA began a  The r e p o r t d i d n o t r e s u l t Another program c e n t e r e d  i s s u e of l a n d c l a i m s and t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s . provide  larger  1 9 6 7 ) . The p r o g r a m was n o t c o n t i n u e d .  C o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l a r g e number o f I n d i a n s study  to  some a d u l t s  adjustments t o o f f - r e s e r v e l i f e ,  reserves  high  families  I n 1963,  i n any on  a b i l l to  an a d v i s o r y m e c h a n i s m t o s e t t l e c l a i m s was i n t r o d u c e d  78  the  in  t h e House o f Commons, and c i r c u l a t e d Canada.  The  aboriginal  Government's  title,  failure  an I n d i a n C l a i m s C o m m i s s i o n of g r e a t e s t  was  programs i n t r o d u c e d  objectives  of  idealistic Indian  reducing and  (Lotz,  1977).  were  to  communities  DIA  The  the f a i l u r e  Under r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d  later,  programs.  and  pursued  government  reserves,  making  s u p p o r t t h a n a t any o t h e r These which invited  programs  perceived  their  of  w o r k e r s were  to  encourage  the  people  unexpected:  administer  employer  1970.  work  a  decade  on most  Indian  on  government  1981).  r e f l e c t e d DIA's assumptions about Indians  n o r were t h e y c o n s u l t e d  79  government  r e c r e a t i o n , and  t i m e i n h i s t o r y (Weaver,  programs.  bureaucracy  self-determination.  more d e p e n d e n t  until  authority  withdrawn.  I n d i a n bands c o u l d  r e s u l t s were  participate in,  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  with  self-  with  traditions  characterized i t s policies to  promoting  workers. I n e v i t a b l y clashes  had become t h e m a j o r Indian  the  by  by DIA,  The  community  Under t h e p r o g r a m ,  c e r t a i n programs such as s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , opportunity  of  extended the concept of l o c a l  in i t s efforts  and  vigour  Agents  t r i u m p h e d : community development In the mid-1960s,  of  issue  i n Indian communities,  i n 1964.  confidence  as  concept  to deal with the  d e p e n d e n c y on DIA  arose,  the  across  never e s t a b l i s h e d .  community development  Agents  challenged  anger  s i g n i f i c a n c e was  development  determination  to recognize  a s w e l l as i t s i n a b i l i t y  of c o s t of c o m p e n s a t i o n , c r e a t e d  Perhaps  to Indian communities  development were  not  about  the  In  1969  policy  t h e f e d e r a l government  direction,  Indian Policy mirrored  A  (DIAND,  the  individuals,  and  the  legislatively  1986).  treaties  control Paper the  collective  bases  of  receive  Indians  be of  were  to  incurred  respected,  by  the  t o . the  implemented 1981).  The  Indians incentives  i n t h e White  from  reserves  to  attempted urban  and  that  the White  accumulated  from  1986). were  immediately  relocation  by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t f r o m which  limited  I n d i a n s . ' The  Paper and  through  very  r i g h t s was e x p r e s s e d ,  diastrous termination  program,  same  Paper r e c o g n i z e d  a  paid scant a t t e n t i o n t o the l i a b i l i t i e s  outlined  being  the  government  although  o f ' I n d i a n l a n d s be t r a n s f e r r e d t o  proposals  be  d e l i v e r e d t h r o u g h t h e same c h a n n e l s  In a d d i t i o n , the White  treaty  of  the  discrimination  set  apart,  on  survival  Rather than  must  compared  rights  ethnic  i n e q u a l i t i e s of t h e past ( P o n t i n g & G i b b i n s , The  the  I n d i a n A c t was t o be r e p e a l e d .  obligations  interpretation  to protect  The p o l i c y c h a n g e p r o p o s e d t h a t  constitutional  and g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . lawful  Canada  in  r e f e r r e d t o as the White Paper. I t crusade  s e r v i c e s as other Canadians,  that  o f t h e Government o f  de-emphasizing  (Gibbins & Ponting,  removed;  1969),  government's while  legislative  Statement  p r o p o s e d a r a d i c a l change  1945-60  policy (Weaver,  to  relocate  unemployed  areas,  offered  financial  t o n a t i v e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d .  I t s o b j e c t i v e s were  to  s p e e d t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n a n d t h u s t e r m i n a t e t h e need f o r  80  reserves of  and  federal authority.  l e a d e r s h i p on  traded  reserves,  r u r a l poverty  economically,  Eventually,  governed  by  assimilation  of  interpreted  1986).  The  process  out  policy-making Indians  across  Canada,  the  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  charged  that  extermination  The was  t h e new  process  it  years  (Tyler,  epitomized  DIA  of c o n s u l t a t i o n  the government r e l e a s e d a  report  input.  called  Natives  were  outraged.  f o r a r e c o g n i t i o n of  a thinly disguised  assimilation  for their  may  total  input  p o l i c y was  (Cardinal,  a t t e m p t by  the  the  Indians  program  1969).  of  Native  g o v e r n m e n t t o deny  welfare.  e v e n t u a l l y r e t r a c t e d i n 1971.  at l e a s t o f f i c i a l l y  the  Indian c u l t u r e to Canadian l i f e ,  through  W h i t e P a p e r was  although  being  their  Indians'  l e a d e r s v i e w e d t h e p o l i c y as an responsibility  t h e p o l i c y as  o s t e n s i b l y to r e c e i v e  t h o u g h t h e W h i t e P a p e r had  unique  suffered their  to f a c i l i t a t e  A f t e r two  Indian Act,  ignored  simply  i n t o mainstream American s o c i e t y  over the c e n t u r y .  loss  Many l o s t  of which the White Paper e v o l v e d  about changes t o the which t o t a l l y  Indians Indians  psychologically.  natives  Indians  Fixico,  Even  and  Urbanized  u l t e r i o r motives designed  1973;  with  w h i l e most A m e r i c a n  f o r urban slums.  socially,  culture.  R e l o c a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the  placed  well continue  (Gibbins & Ponting,  a s i d e as an e x p l i c i t  Assimilation policy  as a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and  1986).  81  goal,  cultural  Summary During based  t h e 1960s f e d e r a l p l a n n i n g on  the  international criticism Canada  concept  regional  growth  planning  of t h i s approach.  were c e n t r a l i z e d  r e g i o n a l economic of  of  development  resulted  communities. mainstream planning  The  doctrine  theory,  despite  were  popular  in  increasing  i n t o urban "growth c e n t e r s "  to  and t o take advantage  s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s .  political,  economic  society  initiatives policy  pole  Canada  of  promote economies  This approach t o  i n t h e c l o s u r e o f many n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e  Canadian  affecting  in  Remote a n d r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s a c r o s s  development,  s c a l e when p r o v i d i n g  initiatives  at  the  for regional  and programs  and  social  time  climate  influenced  development,  within  as  t h e Department  of  federal well  of  as  Indian  Affairs. The  emphasis  initiatives for  population where  growth p o l e d o c t r i n e  communities. a  reduction  was  Communities  i n services  encouraged  opportunities  Indians speed  there  was  society.  Vancouver  facilities, growth  greater  an a d d i t i o n a l m o t i v e  government  approaches  and  and  the  centers services  costs. behind  t o r e l o c a t e t o urban  t h e process of a s s i m i l a t i o n Federal  planning  New  i n urban  f o r employment were  such as the Tanakteuk up  Canadian  like  and  to resettle  c o u l d be p r o v i d e d a t r e d u c e d However,  in  d u r i n g t h e 1960s e x t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t  native  experienced  on  policy 82  into towards  encouraging centers:  mainstream Indians  to  Canadian has  been  characterized their with  by  orthodox development approaches,  u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t may internal  be a t t r i b u t e d t o  colonialism.  83  factors  even  though  associated  Good i n t e n t i o n s d o n ' t mean a t h i n g  84  ....  CHAPTER FOUR: AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF RELOCATION FROM NEW VANCOUVER TO URBAN CENTERS, & AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF NATIVE SUPPORT FOR THE RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF A TANAKTEUK COMMUNITY  In  the  previous  development  policy  access to s e r v i c e s , to  chapter,  i t was  demonstrated  d u r i n g the 1960s aimed t o  improve  To  answer  Tanakteuk  Band  attempts  to:  t h i s question,  members  In the  relocation  the r e s u l t s of  are e v a l u a t e d  a  case  of  survey  of  (Appendix 1). The  1) determine Band members' p e r c e p t i o n s  which l e d to r e l o c a t i o n ; on t h e i r l i v e s .  among  Band  members  survey  about  the  and 2) to assess the impact of  In a d d i t i o n ,  Chief and C o u n c i l of the Band, support  Indians'  Indians, were these o b j e c t i v e s achieved?  help  factors  DIA  f a c i l i t i e s and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and  speed the process of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n .  Kwakiutl  that  at the request of  the  the survey e v a l u a t e s the l e v e l of f o r the  re-establishment  of  a  Tanakteuk community i n New Vancouver i n the near f u t u r e . The  analysis  interviews economic a  with  Band members,  conditions  consultant's  members  i s supplemented by  who,  community  national  of  the  Mamaleleqala  Tanakteuk,  of V i l l a g e I s l a n d ,  sources,  statistics  of Canadian Indians  study like  additional  residing  of  namely socio-  off-reserve,  Qwe'Qwa'sot'enox  were r e l o c a t e d  and l i t e r a t u r e on the  from  Band their  effects  of  relocation. The  chapter  i s d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s : 85  a general p r o f i l e of  Canadian  Indians  profile  of  survey  results,  Tanakteuk  relocation  on  lifestyles,  off-reserve  New  a  the  summary o f  an a s s e s s m e n t  made.  to a discussion Although  there  of survey  inhabitants the  dam  of  their  in  several  Two and T h r e e ,  b e l o n g i n g s and s c a t t e r e d  of  current  p o i n t s must be  Indian  communities  t o make way f o r a  i s not  the  New V a n c o u v e r and o t h e r K w a k i u t l  Chapters  to  Vancouver.  r e g i o n . I n s t e a d , and f a r l e s s d r a m a t i c ,  described  impacts  members'  in entirety, such  discusses  among Band members f o r  i n New  example,  part  contributing  Band  a r e many examples o f  for  f o l l o w e d by a  immediate  results,  a c r o s s Canada w h i c h were r e l o c a t e d hydro-electric  third  of support  r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a community  Prior  The  circumstances  Vancouver,  families,  and  i s presented,  Band members.  including  from  relocation  the  residing  case  communities  as a r e s u l t  families  t o communities  with in  of trends  quietly across  packed  Vancouver  Island. Unlike returning  members  t o communities  unsatisfactory, this  of o t h e r  the  alternative.  deteriorated  to  I n d i a n bands who have t h e  on-reserve  Kwakiutl  Houses the  bands such  and  point  s h o u l d an u r b a n  of  lifestyle  be  as the Tanakteuk  infrastructure  where  option  on-reserve  dwellings  are  no  lack have longer  habitable. Because these K w a k i u t l are  not  entitled  I n d i a n s do n o t r e s i d e  t o b e n e f i t s which are  86  on  derived  reserve, from  they  reserve  status,  such  as  administration  of  infrastructure exemption  receipt  of  capital  subsidies,  from  and  social  opportunity  property  tax.  e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e and Indian  Band s u p p o r t  programs,  for  of  from the This  the  1966  British  l e v e l of  and  t o any  to  status  Population  between  42,000 t o a l m o s t  30%  of  (Siggner,  Columbia  population 25  1986).  has  living  the  the  total  highest  off-reserve.  years  and  legislation Indians  living  Depending  on  conditions  centers  individual's life Levels  of  Indian Act  demographic, and  expected to increase urban  young  continue The  to  (Bill  social,  of  (Nagler,  educational  occur  native  working-age  group  show  C-31)  the  on  migration  greatest  June,  the  t o be  housing,  several  Indian  its  times  1985  proportion  evaluated. and  to urban  (DIAND, 1 9 8 0 ) . M i g r a t i o n b e t w e e n  can  1981.  provinces,  e f f e c t s of the  off-reserve,  steadily  status  proportion  on-and o f f - r e s e r v e have y e t  b o t h on-  grown  100,000 p e r s o n s i n Canadian  The  44 y e a r s  t o amend t h e  has  In comparison to other  tendency' to r e s i d e o f f - r e s e r v e .  appear  and  entitled  benefits similar  Canadian Off-Reserve  represents  population  and  housing  however,  In Canada, the o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n  is  for  living off-reserve.  Profile  of  funds  self-government,  They a r e ,  medical  program  economic centers reserves  throughout  an  1975). attainment  t o be w e l l b e l o w t h o s e  among  off-reserve  of the average C a n a d i a n ,  87  Indians but  are  higher  than  reserve  t h a t of o n - r e s e r v e  Indians  have  Indians.  post-secondary  c o m p a r i s o n t o 13% of o n - r e s e r v e Unemployment four  times  of  r e g a r d l e s s of t h e attributed  to  than  Indians  (Siggner,  that  of  of  the  in  training,  employment  in  of  off-  B.C.,  in  1986).  is consistently non-Indian  s t a t e o f t h e n a t i o n a l economy.  lack  discrimination  education  off-reserve Indians  higher  Twenty p e r c e n t  physical (DIAND,  three  to  population,  This i s usually disability,  1980).  and  On-reserve  unemployment r a t e s r a n g e f r o m 35 t o 75 p e r c e n t , u s u a l l y d e p e n d i n g upon  the  proximity  of  reserves  urban  centers,  seasonal  "non-wage" ( t r a d i t i o n a l )  pursuits.  f a c t o r s , and  the d e f i n i t i o n  On-reserve,  t h e m a j o r i t y of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e s u l t  federal the  or band-sponsored government  unemployment  higher  than  respectively Low  of  to  rate i n r u r a l / r e s e r v e areas  i n urban non-reserve (Siggner,  unemployment  Indians  depended s o l e l y individuals  are  rates. on  areas,  at  is  Officially, only  18 and  slightly  16  percent  1986).  a v e r a g e i n c o m e s and  off-reserve  initiatives.  h i g h l e v e l s of w e l f a r e d e p e n d e n c y a  direct  According  reflection  to Stanbury,  social assistance;  l i v e d below the p o v e r t y  of  their  i n 1975  t w o - t h i r d s of f a m i l i e s line.  I t i s not  housing.  In  rented  accommodation,  natives  (DIAND,  1980).  1980,  83%  nationally  Perhaps as a r e f l e c t i o n of poor 88  30% and  surprising  of o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s  i n c o m p a r i s o n t o 30%  for high  about  t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of I n d i a n s o f f - r e s e r v e l i v e standard  from  i n subin  B.C.  for  non-  housing  conditions  and o v e r c r o w d i n g ,  were t h r e e natives  and a h a l f times as l i k e l y  (Stanbury,  Conditions education, modestly  Indians l i v i n g  for  Indians  living  income  for benefits associated  and  with  (DIAND,  the  terms  Band  members  young: 72  on-reserve status.  on o f f - r e s e r v e  1980).  It  Unfortunately, populations  are  o f DIA u n d e r t h e Indians.  T a n a k t e u k Band m e m b e r s h i p t o t a l l e d  17 a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e b e i n g p r o c e s s e d . (60%) a r e female.  The  population  124, Bill  Sixty-eight  is  relatively  f i f t y - o n e Band members ( 4 1 % ) a r e 18 y e a r s o r y o u n g e r ; a n d  Band members ( 5 8 % ) a r e b e t w e e n  Band member Ninety throughout  19 y e a r s a n d 65 y e a r s .  i s o v e r t h e age o f 65 (INAC,  percent urban  o f Band members centers  remaining  on  off-reserve,  Vancouver I s l a n d  The  10%  reside  reserves,  or at Whe-la-la-u, the parcel  f o r I n d i a n s who r e l o c a t e d 89  O n l y one  1988).  live  Mainland.  aside  only  Profile  e n d o f 1987,  another  of  be  i n c l u d i n g one d o z e n Band members r e - i n s t a t e d a s a r e s u l t o f C-31;  non-  Indians are i n e l i g i b l e  because i t i s beyond t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n  Band  in  housing appear t o  off-reserve  Act to maintain s t a t i s t i c s  Tanakteuk  At  off-reserve  c o m p a r i s o n s between on- and o f f - r e s e r v e  difficult Indian  t o be h o s p i t a l i z e d a s  than f o r I n d i a n s o n - r e s e r v e  must a l s o be k e p t i n m i n d t h a t  direct  i n B.C.  1975).  employment, better  off-reserve  on  other  of land  and  scattered the  Indian  Lower bands'  i n A l e r t Bay s e t  from s p e c i a l a c c e s s  communities  d u r i n g t h e 1960s. The Band o f f i c e Due  i s l o c a t e d i n Campbell R i v e r .  t o t h e Band's d i s p e r s i o n a n d i n c o m p l e t e  w h e r e a b o u t s o f many Band members i s unknown. the  difficulty  of  o f p r e s e n t i n g an a c c u r a t e  the Tanakteuk.  similar  A survey  socio-economic  (Geach,  or over  19  40  and  standard, a  attended The and  years  of  training  and  and s k i l l s  Many  accounting,  Those b e t w e e n  formal  educational  Tanakteuk  Band  members  male  Several  bookkeeping  Bay r e f l e c t t h e i r  base of t h e a r e a .  Band  members  have  female  The f i s h i n g a n d and  worked  Band members h a v e  and s e c r e t a r i a l  work.  whom a r e m a r r i e d  are  single  to non-natives.  in  traditional  for training  T a n a k t e u k Band members a r e p r i m a r i l y  of  have  o f T a n a k t e u k Band members who l i v e  skill  in  f i s h i n g d u r i n g t h e summer months a n d l o g g i n g  off-season.  female  higher  i n d u s t r i e s h a v e been i m p o r t a n t  industries,  trends. Individuals  institutions.  with the resource  acquisition.  In  a  around Campbell R i v e r and A l e r t  forestry  and i n t e r v i e w s  p a r t i a l l y completed high s c h o o l . Only  Mamaleleqala  post-secondary  relationship  the  have a c h i e v e d  profile  circumstances  have h a d l i t t l e ' f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n .  w i t h most h a v i n g  handful  in  1987),  w i t h T a n a k t e u k Band members, p o i n t t o c e r t a i n  the  This contributes to  o f a n I n d i a n band  t o t h a t of t h e Tanakteuk  40 y e a r s  Band r e c o r d s ,  both  during  training  in  The m a j o r i t y  of  homemakers,  A few o f t h e y o u n g e r  several women  m o t h e r s d e p e n d e n t on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  general,  the Campbell River-based  90  T a n a k t e u k Band  members  have  a  more  s t a b l e employment h i s t o r y  than  either  the  Port  McNeill-Alert  Bay g r o u p o r t h e V a n c o u v e r g r o u p .  The m a j o r i t y o f  Band  living  are  members  i n the Campbell R i v e r area  which accounts f o r t h e i r McNeill  s t a b l e incomes. Those i n P o r t  a n d A l e r t Bay r e l y more on s e a s o n a l  benefits  are  r a t e i n the Campbell R i v e r area  t h a t o f t h e A l e r t Bay With  one n o t a b l e a very  Unemployment of  work.  i s much l o w e r  The than  area.  exception,  Band members b a s e d  p o o r employment h i s t o r y .  t h a t o f most C a n a d i a n n a t i v e s l i v i n g The  work.  o f t e n c o l l e c t e d i n between p e r i o d s  unemployment  have  relatively  fishermen,  Their  in  situation  i n urban  Vancouver parallels  centers.  Survey  In c o n j u n c t i o n Band,  a  with the Chief  survey  determine: decision  1) to  was  and Band Manager  designed  by t h e a u t h o r  the circumstances leave  New  of t h e Tanakteuk  in  four  parts  to  which c o n t r i b u t e d t o a f a m i l y ' s  Vancouver i n  the  late  1960s;  2)  the  i m m e d i a t e i m p a c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n on t h e l i v e s o f Band members;  3)  what  of  Band  support  members  today;  f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a community a t  questionnaire membership l i s t explanatory Manager.  l i v e s are l i k e  was s e n t  and 4) t h e New  Vancouver.  The  t o t h e 26 h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s on t h e Band  whose c u r r e n t a d d r e s s e s a r e known,  letter  level  signed  by Ann G l e n d a l e ,  provided.  91  w i t h an  a C o u n c i l l o r a n d Band  R e p l i e s were t o be r e t u r n e d w i t h i n a month  a d d r e s s e d , stamped e n v e l o p e  along  i n the s e l f -  Responses  were  received  f r o m s i x of t h e  A f t e r an ample amount o f t i m e had who  had  person no  not  unknown.  at  Table  o t h e r seven and  the o p i n i o n s of  representing  participate  The  the g i v e n address,  In t o t a l ,  gathered,  questionnaires.  13 h e a d s of  households  r e p l i e d t o t h e m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e were c o n t a c t e d i n  o r by t e l e p h o n e .  longer  passed,  26  a  73%  heads of households  were  their  were  whereabouts  19 h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s  response  r a t e of t h o s e  i n t h e s u r v e y . A summary of s u r v e y  were  asked  r e s u l t s appears  Thirteen  Contributing to Relocation  of  the  19 i n d i v i d u a l s c o n t a c t e d  closure;  they  no c h o i c e b u t t o l e a v e i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n  Ten  elementary  s c h o o l i n New  leave  was  of the  13 r e s p o n d e n t s Vancouver  t a k e n by t h e i r p a r e n t s .  responded  two  less  of the  i n 1969, The  isolated  the  r e g i o n were s e v e r e d .  One  reasons.  92  in to  in  New  13  Vancouver;  deceased. i n order  f a c i l i t i e s . In a s i m i l a r  t h a t they or t h e i r  l i n k s b e t w e e n New  an  so t h e d e c i s i o n  s t a t e d that they l e f t  s e r v i c e s and  i n d i v i d u a l s responded  transportation in  from  school  r e m a i n i n g t h r e e of the  i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were p a r e n t s  19 r e s p o n d e n t s  the  were c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d  most of t h e o t h e r a d u l t s , a t t h e t i m e a r e Three  of  their  from  education.  Vancouver because  that  departed had  New  stated  families  be  in  1 .  Circumstances  who  to  families  V a n c o u v e r and respondent  other  left  left  to  vein, when  communities  for  personal  TABLE 1: SURVEY RESULTS Note: U n l e s s otherwise noted, Circumstances  Contributing  Main reason for another  to  the  sample  f o r l e a v i n g New V a n c o u v e r settlement: School/no choice To be l e s s i s o l a t e d Due t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Other  Yes No Too Impacts of  contact  young o r  family  uncertain  Relocation  What was t h e most d i f f i c u l t a b o u t moving?  thing  F i n d i n g a job F i n d i n g a house Nothing Other Lonliness/ M e e t i n g new p e o p l e D i d moving from New p h y s i c a l or mental  Vancouver problems?  result in  Yes . How  often  19.  Relocation  D i d government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r i o r to leaving?  Immediate  size is  d i d you  N  see  o friends & relatives? Frequently Few t i m e a  93  year  TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) I f s c h o o l i n g i n New V a n c o u v e r was a v a i l a b l e , would y o u r f a m i l y have moved anyways? Yes NO Don't know Was  i t easy  to f i n d  work a f t e r Yes No Too  Was  relocating?  young  more o r l e s s money s p e n t on  food each  week?  More Less D i d your belonged  f a m i l y f e e l as i f t h e y i n t h e new community? Yes No No o p i n i o n  Current  Lifestyles  Where you  live  now,  do  you  Own Rent D i d n ' t say A d d r e s s unknown ( A d d i t i o n a l 7 r e s p o n s e s added t o t h e sample 19, f o r a t o t a l o f 26 r e s p o n d e n t s . ) A r e t h e r e members o f y o u r h o u s e h o l d c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s or a c t i v i t i e s t o promote I n d i a n c u l t u r e ? Yes No  94  size  TABLE 1 Do or  p e o p l e i n y o u r house u n d e r s t a n d Kwakwala?  (CONTINUED)  speak  Yes No Has y o u r f a m i l y e v e r wanted t o move back t o New V a n c o u v e r and l i v e as b e f o r e ? Yes No No o p i n i o n Support  f o r Community  Re-establishment  I f t h e r e was an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n New V a n c o u v e r , would you want t o l i v e t h e r e ? Yes No Maybe I f t h e r e wasn't an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n New V a n c o u v e r , would you want t o l i v e t h e r e ? Yes No Maybe Would you l i k e t o be more i n v o l v e d p l a n n i n g of a new community?  i n the  Yes No Maybe Do you t h i n k enough a b o u t  t h a t t h e government a s k s you what you want f o r t h e f u t u r e ? Yes NO No o p i n i o n  95  It  is  interesting  to  n o t e t h a t no one  primary reason e i t h e r they o r t h e i r to  f i n d work.  indicated  family l e f t  but  members  The r e s u l t s may have been d i f f e r e n t i f t h o s e  families could  a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e f a m i l y w o u l d have l e f t had continued  school  the  19 Band members who r e s p o n d e d r e p l i e d t h a t  either  they  reply to this When  of t h e three  that  i n the  about t h e school  consulted  closure,  most  t h e y were t o o y o u n g a t t h e t i m e t o  know.  r e s p o n d e n t s who were a d u l t s stated that  The s p o u s e o f t h e C h i e f h a d been n o t i f i e d  a g r e e t h a t no a s s i s t a n c e  government, a  them.  Band C o u n c i l  members  that  h a d r e m a i n e d o p e n . One r e s p o n d e n t d i d n o t  government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  contact  have  Eleven respondents b e l i e v e d  o f whom was on Band C o u n c i l ,  not  would  of  question.  respondents stated that  one  they  seven  a s k e d w h e t h e r members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y h a d been  a  Two  New V a n c o u v e r i f  o r t h e i r p a r e n t s would have chosen t o s t a y  community i f t h e s c h o o l  Several  available,  t o o p e r a t e i n t h e community,  r e l o c a t e d elsewhere regardless.  who  not b e n e f i t .  the  by  survey.  s t a t e d t h a t employment i n t h e a r e a was  without access to i t , t h e i r  When  the  New V a n c o u v e r was  were a d u l t s a t t h e t i m e h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e Band  that  n o r was t h e r e  of the  i n 1969,  including  the Indian  Agent d i d  a t t h e time  insisted  decision.  A l l Band  t o r e l o c a t e was o f f e r e d by t h e  compensation f o r property  abandoned as  r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n . When  a s k e d t o s u g g e s t what t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d  96  have  done  to  help  families  relocate  recommendations  from  were r e p e a t e d l y  s h o u l d h a v e been f o r t h c o m i n g ; and  appropriate  adjusting  to  Band  a  new  relocate.  offered:  financial  assistance  c u l t u r e and  members  participate  Vancouver,  the  lifestyle  the  in  the  decision  Only  two  individuals  to stay  of t h e  continued to l i v e other  five  Alert  Bay,  the  the  stated  e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members. family  several Eleven with  i n 1969,  to  see  times a of  remarks  was  to  or  to  not  the  way.  one  i n New  Vancouver.  family  with  Vancouver, Thus,  Fort  children  Members o f  the  location  question  friends frequently,  or  of  whether  r e l o c a t i o n , most r e s p o n d e d t h a t  f a m i l y and  the  R u p e r t , Nanaimo,  d e p e n d i n g on  i n r e p l y to the  no  After  at  they least  year.  the  meeting  it  in  been  opportunity  i s l a n d for several years.  t i e s were a f f e c t e d by  continued  have  Vancouver  that  f a m i l i e s moved t o C a m p b e l l R i v e r , V i c t o r i a and  help  Relocation  school  on  should  i n New  to r e l o c a t i o n , s i x f a m i l i e s l i v e d  closure  employment  r e s p o n s e s were p r e f a c e d w i t h  s h o u l d have been g i v e n  I m m e d i a t e I m p a c t s of  Prior  compensation  in obtaining  g o v e r n m e n t ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a s s i s t i n any The  several  a c c o m m o d a t i o n s h o u l d have been p r o v i d e d ;  a v a i l a b l e . Almost a l l of that  New  19  respondents i d e n t i f i e d  people  environment  as  the  relocation.  Most of  and  adjusting  greatest the  to  difficulty  a  problems  associated  mostly  non-native  resulting  from  r e s p o n d e n t s were c h i l d r e n a t t h e  97  time  the of  the  move,  than  a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y were e n r o l l e d  the  one l e f t  identified  b e h i n d i n New  problems  i n a much l a r g e r  Vancouver.  school  Three  respondents  w i t h f i n d i n g work a s t h e m a j o r  difficulty.  One r e s p o n d e n t d i d n o t r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n .  Four  respondents  s t a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t f a c e any d i f f i c u l t i e s . Twelve  of  Vancouver of  the  19 r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d  as r e s u l t i n g  their  families,  aware  of  move  i n p h y s i c a l or mental problems in  r e l o c a t i o n d i d not a f f e c t was  the  comparison  t o seven  who  from  New  f o r members  replied  that  t h e i r p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l h e a l t h . No one  any s u i c i d e s t h a t c o u l d be  directly  related  to  relocation. Nine  o f t h e 19 r e s p o n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t f e e l a s i f  they belonged opinion,  in their  and four  new c o m m u n i t y .  individuals  felt  S i x p e o p l e d i d n o t have an  as i f they belonged  in  their  new s u r r o u n d i n g s . In  response  moving that  f r o m New V a n c o u v e r " , they  replied  were  that  Vancouver, in  t o t h e q u e s t i o n "Was  enrolled  eight  i n school at the  t h e y o b t a i n e d employment soon  w h i l e e i g h t people responded  of  time.  i n finding  after  the eight  stated people  leaving  t h a t they had  New  difficulty  school c h i l d r e n a t the at  the  work.  of the respondents s t a t e d that t h e i r  money on f o o d e a c h week a f t e r  after  Three  t h e 11 i n d i v i d u a l s who were e m p l o y a b l e  t i m e , had d i f f i c u l t y All  work  e i g h t o f t h e 19 r e s p o n d e n t s  f i n d i n g a j o b . Not i n c l u d i n g  time,  i t easy t o f i n d  l e a v i n g New 98  families  Vancouver.  spent  more  Current Most  Lifestyles of  currently  the  19 r e s p o n d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y l i k e d where  live,  o f 20 y e a r s ,  a l t h o u g h a few m e n t i o n e d  they s t i l l  f a m i l y and  friends  Seven  the  of  19  that d e s p i t e the p a s s i n g  miss the c l o s e t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d  i n New  participants the seven are  respondents  on-reserve,  own  homes  r e s p o n d e n t s who  individuals  unknown  were  estimated,  no  then,  do n o t own  their  Seventeen  speak  members  of  organizations cannot  be  yes,  Whe-la-la-u;  own  living  I t i s assumed  the  that  whereabouts  homes,  since  address.  17 o f t h e 26 h e a d s o f  the  It  is  households  not  involved  t o promote I n d i a n c u l t u r e ,  S l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f  or u n d e r s t a n d Kwakwala, households.  of  at  respondents are  or a c t i v i t i e s  the  their  two  most l i k e l y  Participation  Band members whose  of the  any  while  two  respondents the  rates  whereabouts  in  younger  in are  Indian unknown  determined.  Vancouver six  not  longer  19  the  When a s k e d w h e t h e r New  in  rent  homes.  people are involved. not  do  four  S i x respondents  were s e n t s u r v e y s b u t whose  that at least own  of  organization  do  mostly  off-reserve;  d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n .  currently  between  Vancouver.  i n d i v i d u a l s r e n t accommodation o f f - r e s e r v e . accommodations  they  and  their  f a m i l y has e v e r w a n t e d t o move back  l i v e as b e f o r e ,  s a i d no,  and  t e n o f t h e 19 r e s p o n d e n t s  t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s had no  99  opinion.  to  said When  a s k e d t o i d e n t i f y what i t i s t h a t New  Vancouver,  community family;  several  and  i s missed about t h e i r  responses  were  "oneness" w i t h the  land,  given: culture,  t h e p e a c e a n d q u i e t t h a t was r e c a l l e d ;  well-being  and  healthiness  the  associated  lives  in  sense  of  friends  and  and t h e sense of  with  a  subsistence  lifestyle. S u p p o r t f o r Community The  current  support  Chief  among  community  of  accompanying definite  Re-establishment and C o u n c i l  Tanakteuk New the  Band members f o r  Vancouver. survey,  Band  In  requested  of  explanation  asked  specific  for a  with  h o u s e h o l d s were u n c e r t a i n .  could  be  proposed a t t h i s  time,  there?",  employment assistance  100  f i v e heads of seven  B e c a u s e no s p e c i f i c  plans  rate  of  uncertainty  I n r e p l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n of  w o u l d be i n t e r e s t i n l i v i n g  WASN'T an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l  school  and t h e other  the high  among r e s p o n d e n t s i s t o be e x p e c t e d .  or  from t h e government.  seven r e p l i e d no,  of  are  plans  " I f t h e r e WAS an e l e m e n t a r y  heads  there  the  letter  At t h i s time,  w o u l d y o u want t o l i v e  replied yes,  there  re-establishing  members were n o t  t r a i n i n g and f u n d i n g  i n t h e community,  whether  of  f o r e s t r y and t o u r i s m ,  response t o the question  households  level  n o t be p r o p o s e d , e x c e p t t o s t a t e t h a t  w o u l d be b a s e d on f i s h i n g , initial  the  the  but t o i n d i c a t e whether they  i n the p o s s i b i l i t y .  strategies could  for  In  c o m m i t t m e n t t o move,  interested  wish to evaluate  i n New  on t h e i s l a n d ,  Vancouver  if  f o u r heads  of  households r e p l i e d yes, Nine  of  planning  t e n r e p l i e d n o , a n d f i v e were  t h e 19 r e s p o n d e n t s w o u l d l i k e  t o be i n v o l v e d  i n the  o f a new c o m m u n i t y ; s e v e n were n o t i n t e r e s t e d , a n d t h r e e  were u n c e r t a i n . listed  a  I n d i v i d u a l s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g  variety  of s k i l l s  needed t o b u i l d  community as a v i a b l e economic u n i t : house-building,  plumbing,  keeping, accounting,  logging,  of T a n a k t e u k s ' R e s p o n s e s  book-  fishing.  t w e l v e heads of h o u s e h o l d s t o answer.  to C l a s s i c  r e l o c a t i o n on  Responses  non-native  i n d i v i d u a l s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e been w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d  (Buffington  1974;  forced  equipment,  and  et a l . ,  of  heavy  the  "Does t h e g o v e r n m e n t a s k y o u enough  r e p l i e d n o , one s a i d y e s , a n d s i x d e c l i n e d  impacts  maintain  electrical wiring,  and commercial  a b o u t what y o u want f o r t h e f u t u r e ? " ,  Comparison  and  operating  installing  In response t o t h e q u e s t i o n  The  uncertain.  Johnson & Burdge,  native  1974;  Burdge & L u d t k e ,  Napier,  1973; W i l s o n ,  1973; C o l o n y ,  Wadel,  1969; I v e r s o n  & M a t t h e w s , 1968; T h u r s z ,  Fried,  disruption  patterns;  changes in  of in  relocatees.  social  housing  l o c a t i o n causing  s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s ;  suffer  1972; F e l l m a n & B r a n d t , 1970; 1966; Kemp, 1965;  1 9 6 3 ) . Some o f t h e e f f e c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  stress;  changes  1973;  In general,  the greatest  ties  and  conditions,  established tenure  changes i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y  social  and to  costs; jobs,  and changes in. t h e economic s i t u a t i o n of t h e p o o r a n d members o f m i n o r i t y  hardship  i n relocation (Finsterbusch,  101  groups 1980).  For  T a n a k t e u k Band members, t h e e f f e c t s o f r e l o c a t i o n f r o m  community studies  o f New V a n c o u v e r a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d listed  eventual for  Certain  l o s t homes.  relocated,  the  have a c h o i c e  and o t h e r s  majority  o f Band members f e l t  about l e a v i n g behind t h e i r  forcibly  their  Band  with  from  w h i c h t h e y were c u l t u r a l l y  related  an  members  to the forced  increase  other  new  relocation.  i n t o an and  The  of  Although the survey  was a d i r e c t i n c r e a s e  the  majority  communities,  i n p h y s c i a l and mental problems  and  According  were t h r u s t  and,  family  i s unable  i n a l c o h o l i s m or  (Shkilnyk,  interviews  s t u d i e s o f n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s have  1985;  Dickman,.  1969;  disruption i n family t i e s ,  be. more o f a f u n c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l l y  i n many c o m m u n i t i e s . 102  documented  L a i , 1969; L a n d a ,  w i t h Band members, most i n d i c a t e d t h a t  experience a traumatic may  of  o f s u i c i d e among T a n a k t e u k Band members r e s u l t i n g f r o m  relocation,  In  stress  unprepared f o r ,  unwelcome i n t h e i r  t o determine whether there  this  Vancouver,  relocating.  Band members, t h e m a j o r i t y  members f e l t  incidences  forcibly  perceptions  s h o c k o f a d j u s t m e n t t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y was g r e a t . of  grieve  as i f they d i d not  from p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a d r a m a t i c change i n s o c i a l p a t t e r n s  environment  not  the  relocated are v a l i d .  T a n a k t e u k Band members s u f f e r e d  to interviews  to  homes i n New  therefore,  i n the  with  continue  A l t h o u g h t h e c o m m u n i t y was  demonstrated i n the survey;  being  i n d i v i d u a l s a r e happy  outcomes of r e l o c a t i o n ,  their  as  above.  the  1969).  they d i d not  although  having extended  this family  Band  members  services impacts laden  have with  v a l u e judgements. to  restricted  participate  to  been p o s i t i v e i s d e b a t a b l e ,  Access  severely  that  urban  traditional  i n urban c e n t e r s ,  an  relocation,  activities  n o r was i t a s  half  of  economic  while  activity  others s t i l l  wages  Previously  i t was s t a t e d  off-reserve  obtained  Indians  members  benefitted  that  require  was  easy  to  environment.  As  those  surveyed  that  pursued  to  unemployment b e n e f i t s  to  labour  as  t h e unemployment r a t e does not  differ  loggers.  f o r on- and  significantly.  to state with c e r t a i n t y that from  improved  access  to  Tanakteuk employment  i n other  studies  on t h e e f f e c t s  of  relocation,  p e o p l e who a r e f o r c i b l y moved may e x p e r i e n c e c h a n g e s i n conditions.  Several  off-reserve  social, assistance,  their  Off-reserve  diets  as  as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n .  described  reserve.  was  prior  through seasonal  currently  i tisdifficult  opportunities  on  is  facilities  Many Band members a r e c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d  supplement  As  nearly  the  i t was n o t e a s y f o r them t o f i n d work upon r e l o c a t i n g  fishermen,  Band  subsistence  jobs,  argument  Access t o s e r v i c e s and  opportunities,  centers.  Therefore,  to  Whether  and t h e  i n c u l t u r a l events i n a non-native  employment  stated  changes i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y  and a c t i v i t i e s a s a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n .  improved.  for  experienced  with  economic  T a n a k t e u k Band members must r e l y  s i m i l a r to Indians c u r r e n t l y  Band members c a n no l o n g e r food from t r a d i t i o n a l  103  living  on-  e a s i l y supplement  activities,  and  thus  expenditures Perhaps  one  Tanakteuk housing,  on  food have i n c r e a s e d . o f t h e most n o t i c e a b l e r e s u l t s f r o m r e l o c a t i o n  Band  members  t e n u r e and  has  been i n c h a n g e s  c o s t s of accommodation. At  h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s c u r r e n t l y do n o t own to r e l o c a t i o n owned t h e i r band  f r o m New  homes.  r e s e r v e today  Vancouver,  Granted,  membership,  and  for  q u a l i t y accommodation.  are  not  reserve  t h e r e has  it  Indians  However,  own  been an  and  homes;  26  prior  households  increase in  total  Indians  on-  long waiting  lists  off-reserve status  Indians  b e n e f i t s extended  to  In c o m b i n a t i o n  d e n i a l of o t h e r  r i g h t s extended to on-reserve  exemption  and  band s u p p o r t  situation  of  Tanakteuk  programs,  has  f r o m New  seem  not  on-  with  I n d i a n s such  i t would  members  improved as a r e s u l t of r e l o c a t i o n  in  17 of t h e  t h a t most  the I n d i a n A c t .  Band  least  their  i s recognized  t o t h e same h o u s i n g under  conditions  a l l of the heads of  face serious overcrowding,  entitled  in  for  as  that  a tax the  significantly  Vancouver  Summary  In  t h i s chapter,  heads  the  o f h o u s e h o l d s on  evaluated to determine support  for  Vancouver.  the  Responses  sent  t o t h e 26  t h e T a n a k t e u k Band m e m b e r s h i p the  impacts  o f r e l o c a t i o n , and  re-establishment  r e p r e s e n t i n g a response The  r e s u l t s of a survey  were  obtained  r a t e of  e v a l u a t i o n of t h e s u r v e y  of  the  list to  community  f r o m 19 o f 26  known were  evaluate of  New  individuals,  73%. r e s u l t s w o u l d be  104  strengthened  if  all  Band members p a r t i c i p a t e d .  dispersion the  and poor r e c o r d s ,  majority  adults  at  of  However> this  because of t h e  i s not f e a s i b l e .  r e s p o n d e n t s were c h i l d r e n i n  t h e t i m e o f t h e r e l o c a t i o n a r e now  difficult  to  Band's  In additon,  1969,  and  deceased.  d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t s n o s t a l g i a h a s  many It is  had  on  the  r e f l e c t i o n s o f Band members' r e s p o n s e s . Notwithstanding interviews  these caveats,  with  Band  economic  conditions  evaluate  whether  initiatives improve  Indians'  members,  Indians,  o b j e c t i v e s of  by  survey  and s t a t i s t i c s  of o f f - r e s e r v e  the  taken  b a s e d on t h e  DIA d u r i n g  the  socio-  i t i s possible  planning  t h e 1960s  access to services,  on  results,  and  were  to  development  achieved:  f a c i l i t i e s and  to  employment  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and t o speed t h e p r o c e s s of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . Undoubtedly greater  Indians  access  such as Tanakteuk  to  urban  centers.  Indian  organizations  s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s from  Judging  Only  activities  employment  opportunities  identified  that  New  relocating  to  participation in  and the d e c l i n i n g a b i l i t y t o  cultural  m i n o r i t y - of Tanakteuk  from  in  received  a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o non-  facilitated.  traditional  centers  the decline  languages,  s o c i e t y h a s been a  from  and a c t i v i t i e s ,  communicate i n n a t i v e native  Band members h a v e  Band, members  t o d a y ( p e r s . com. G l e n d a l e , were e n h a n c e d  Vancouver  they faced  is  not  difficulty  new l o c a t i o n s , a n d i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e 105  participate  1988). Whether  by r e l o c a t i n g certain.  in  Band  i n f i n d i n g jobs  to  urban  members in  t o demonstrate c l e a r l y  their that  the  socio-economic  superior Vancouver  to  o f Band members 20 y e a r s l a t e r  what i t w o u l d have b e e n had t h e  continued  dramatically  condition  to  exist.  community  The q u a l i t y o f  life  of has  is New been  a l t e r e d , but whether i t has improved i s d e b a t a b l e .  1 06  "You d o n ' t s o l v e a c o m m u n i t y p r o b l e m by e l i m i n a t i n g t h e c o m m u n i t y . " A. McDonough on t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f A f r i c v i l l e , a community of b l a c k Nova S c o t i a n s i n The G l o b e & M a i l J u l y 2, 1988  1 07  CHAPTER F I V E : DEVELOPMENT AND POLICY APPROACHES I N THE 1980S In  introducing  this chapter,  "You c a n ' t go home a g a i n " ; conflict  between  Kwakiutl  who  traditional  two a d a g e s come t o m i n d ,  a n d "Home i s where t h e h e a r t  t h e s e two s t a t e m e n t s  have  been  homelands,  relocated  i fthis  i s apparent.  from  communities  i s where t h e i r  hearts  namely i s . " The  For  many  in  their  a r e , then  t h e y must go home a g a i n . The  objectives  alternatives the  of  official  communities the  of  community  examine  chapter are:  f o r Indian development,  desirability  Tanakteuk  this  of  policy  a s a mechanism  evaluate  homelands,  o f New V a n c o u v e r a s a DIA  to  some  i n c l u d i n g an a s s e s s m e n t  re-inhabitation  on  the  case  using  study;  of the  2)  re-establishment  f o r development;  a n d 3) t o  to of  consider  i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t DIA p o l i c y h a s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e  T a n a k t e u k Band, a n d o t h e r This  chapter  certain  of  initiatives.  I n d i a n bands  i s organized  critical  discussion  assumptions  criteria These  i n the future.  i n t o two p a r t s . are  identified,  criteria  are  applied  literature In  the  scenarios  of  part, by  a  development  the  orthodox  A description  i s widely accepted i n  ensues.  second that  to  followed  o f DIA p o l i c y .  an a l t e r n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t h a t  the  In the f i r s t  to evaluate the success  development approach c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  1)  part  of  the  chapter,  various  development  an I n d i a n band w i t h o u t a c o m m u n i t y — s u c h 108  as t h e  Tanakteuk—may according  wish  to  consider are  t o the c r i t e r i a  the r a t i o n a l e u s i n g New  outlined.  presented  and  evaluated  D i s c u s s i o n then  focuses  f o r s u p p o r t i n g the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of  V a n c o u v e r as an e x a m p l e . A f t e r  this,  communities,  the f o r m u l a t i o n of  a community development s t r a t e g y f o r the Tanakteuk i s and  the  a r g u m e n t i s made f o r DIA  Department's  current  establishment  of  implications  policy  "new"  of t h i s p o l i c y  The  assumptions. are  Canada. alike  Indian  Initiatives appreciate  invaluable  to  citizens and  recognition  of  not  the  and  as w e l l  and  must  other  strengthen  enjoy  historical  sufficient  that  As C a n a d a ' s special  self-determination.  provincial  ethnic  be t a k e n by n a t i v e s  and  should  several  as  first  retribution  for  governments  must  which  as  take  is  selfformal  non-natives  hundred years these  in  inhabitants,  the by  is  non-natives  such  Finally,  t h e p a s t one  109  and  rights,  it  minorities  culture,  a t r o c i t i e s committed over  critical  i n h e r e n t v a l u e s on w h i c h  f r o m t h a t of  Indian people  constitute  Federal  re-  presented,  i s u n d e r l a i d by  c u l t u r e and  a l l Canadians.  government  against  the  s i t u a t i o n s , are d i s c u s s e d .  in t h i s chapter  distinct  to  Indian  then  for  The  Assumptions  discussion  based  community.  on e x t e n d i n g s u p p o r t is  suggested,  f o r the Tanakteuk Band,  o t h e r I n d i a n bands i n s i m i l a r  Critical  support of a  communities  on  does  wrongdoings. additional  measures  of  f i n a n c i a l compensation  for stolen  c o n t i n u e support f o r m e a n i n g f u l development  Criteria  t o E v a l u a t e Development  Early  development  growth;  i t was  income  would,  associated inequitable Anzalone, economic of  underdevelopment  distribution 1981;  assumptions the  Sameter,  reliance,  participation  (Wien,  1986).  The  of  such  income  1984).  as  and  services  life  in  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and essence  development  may  development  f a v o u r e d by many i n t e r n a t i o n a l  nations,  Canadian  is  the & that  based.  development  a  of  self-  sense  While  the  be u n i v e r s a l ,  underlying  the "basic  f o r Canadian  underdeveloped  characteristic  to  i n the  influenced  by  industrialized  n a t i v e s wish t o a c h i e v e a s t a n d a r d of 110  for  approach  organizations  of  World  principles  needs"  Indians:  of  development  f r o m t h e p r o b l e m s o f many T h i r d  peoples.  expectations  and  for self-determination,  indigenous  consumption  problems  However, t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  a n d work a s b e i n g t h e  inappropriate  capita  (Allen  many d e f i n i t i o n s o f  i n desire  i s quite different  is  per  poverty  s i t u a t i o n o f n a t i v e p e o p l e i n Canada a s a n  society  1980s  in  economic  as expected l e d t o the q u e s t i o n i n g  past twenty years,  the increases  in  on  on w h i c h t h i s c o n c e p t o f d e v e l o p m e n t  recognize  purpose  focused p r i m a r i l y  lead t o the s o l u t i o n of other  growth has n o t worked  Within  initiatives.  assumed t h a t a n a t i o n a l g r o w t h  with  and  Initiatives  strategies  i n time,  resources,  living  which i s a t l e a s t c o n v e r g e n t w i t h our n a t i o n a l To the  e v a l u a t e the s u c c e s s of development following  under l o c a l priorities economy; control  criteria  (that  must be met:  initiatives  development  i s , Indian) c o n t r o l ;  and needs;  norms.  must  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s must b u i l d an  1986;  Wien,  Canada, proceed  p r o j e c t s must meet  a n d i n i t i a t i v e s must e m p h a s i z e c o l l e c t i v e (Whittington,  in  local  integrated  o w n e r s h i p and  1986; F r i d e r e s ,  1983; U s h e r ,  1978; S t a n l e y ,  1978; B e r g e r , 1977; W a t k i n s , 1 9 7 7 ) . An e m p h a s i s on  the  small-scale,  use  of  production  capital-intensive  forms  criterion.  development  c o n t r o l l e d by I n d i a n s  schemes f o r I n d i a n s must be i n i t i a t e d (Usher,  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t multinational  1978;  Frideres,  corporations  w o u l d n o t be i n v o l v e d ;  But c o n t r o l o v e r t h e development p r o c e s s ,  control  the  in  some  industries  capital  otherwise.  the  l a n d and r e s o u r c e s would  p a c e and. p u r p o s e o f  with their  and  and  dictate and c l e a r  Indians  activity.  to This  t o d e v e l o p backward  f o r w a r d l i n k a g e s w i t h a v i e w t o b u i l d i n g a more  economy,  A  would  enable  developmental  w o u l d e n a b l e them t o c a p t u r e r e s o u r c e r e n t s , and  does  resource e x t r a c t i o n would cease or that  requirements  of  and  1983). T h i s  technology  ownership  of  w h i c h m i n i m i z e i m p a c t s on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t may a l s o be  i n c l u d e d as a Economic  less  diversified  t o pursue development p a t t e r n s t h a t a r e c o n s i s t e n t  c u l t u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i o r i t i e s  (Wien, 1986).  m a j o r o b j e c t i v e o f d e v e l o p m e n t must be t o s a t i s f y  111  the  needs  and  priorities  (Weaver,  of  1978).  considerations generation  of  economic  development  development  i n the s k i l l s  schemes;  integrated  in  activities  Wien  need  development respects:  and v a r i o u s  t o be i n t e g r a t e d ,  w o u l d a l s o enhance over-dependence  for  so t h a t  the  are:  the  the t r a i n i n g  and  plans  also  rather  to  inequalities  (Ponting,  the  t h a n one a t t h e  s e c t o r a l development complementarities  1986;  strategies  result.  This  economy, e l i m i n a t i n g  formation  (Wien,  1986).  economic  Mackie,  1986).  individual occupational  the  must r e j e c t t h e i d e a leaves  traditional  d i c t a t e s of w o r l d market p r i c e s  approach that y i e l d s b e n e f i t s leads  be  for  a  e m p h a s i z e c o l l e c t i v e o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l a r e  ownership, or competitive  and  to  •  that  essential  services;  need  and  s i n g l e commodity. Initiatives  important  natives  modern  the s e c u r i t y of the l o c a l  on  the  necessary to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  n e e d t o be d e v e l o p e d t o g e t h e r ,  expense of the o t h e r ;  (1986),  needs  economy.  (1986),  a t l e a s t two  outside  the p r o v i s i o n of l o c a l  and t h e s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l to  to  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ;  of n a t i v e s  According  opposed  According to Whittington  of n a t i v e  development economic  l o c a l p e o p l e as  Individual  m o b i l i t y , i s an  f o r t h e few a t t h e e x p e n s e o f many, of  elite  Frideres  families  and  (1983) a r g u e s t h a t  extreme natives  of i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p because structure  that  i s dominated  by  this  non-native  society intact. Native  development  initiatives 112  should  emphasize  small-scale,  labour-intensive  p r o j e c t s and f o r m s o f p r o d u c t i o n  designed  to u t i l i z e  local  conserve  resources that are scarce.  natives  want  a  because  such  development  resources that are p l e n t i f u l ,  addition,  Berger  h e a l t h y economy b a s e d is  perhaps s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r environment  on  which  large-scale  social  fabric  traditional  i n d u s t r i a l development,  i n the  and  policy  feasible  Indians;  fiscal  sectoral  in nature,  1982).  A  established this  approaches  personnel  economically  $345  community ( A u g u s t 24,  resources  are  and the  based.  In  c o u l d a c t as a b u f f e r impacts  with i t s s i t e - s p e c i f i c , boom-and-bust  to of  non-  cycle,  1988),  decide  which  N a t i v e Economic  development.  1986).  projects  are  input  from  projects  are  (Lithman,  Development  Fund  i n 1983;  was  however,  entrepreneurship,  not  ( A c c o r d i n g t o The G l o b e &  Mail  l e s s than h a l f 113  DIA  orientation  native self-sufficiency individual  of  (Wien,  with l i t t l e  r e s t s w i t h DIA p e r s o n n e l ;  and e x p o r t - b a s e d i n  emphasizes  economic  d i s c u s s e d above  i n the community,  million  Approaches  which form the b a s i s  largely  control  t o promote  program  that  maintaining,  activities  i t s typical  n o t meet t h e c r i t e r i a  Department  to  north.  development  do  and  states  renewable to  1978)  and n o t d e s t r o y i n g  C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o Orthodox Development Orthodox  (1977)  f r o m t h e n e g a t i v e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c  r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e economy, especially  on  more s u i t e d  renewable r e s o u r c e development  protect natives  (Usher,  of the funds a l l o c a t e d t o the  five-year program  program  i s due t o e x p i r e  Lithman  (1982)  development  of  suggests of  have been  that  i n March  argues  that  DIA p e r s o n n e l  than promoting development mode  DIA i s more  little  position  August  1988.  The  concerned  with  the  than  with  i t s clientele.  t o do w i t h  this  an i n t e r n a l  system measures s u c c e s s  within  the f e d e r a l  i n Indian  adds  t o the development  that  their  the a c t i o n s  adherence  communities,  and t h i s  development criteria,  to  communities.  euro-Canadian contributes  Neither  of  w h i c h may c o n t r i b u t e  (INAC,  to  Almost  of welfare,  remedial  going  development  1987).  provision  values,  not  factors,  i s the  Lithman protect  to  Indian  o f DIA o r t h o d o x  such  t o the o v e r a l l  by  economic  as  skills  development  of  or communities.  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e DIA budget approach  communities.  t o the f a i l u r e  other  based  r e s p o n s i b l e or  P r o j e c t s a r e judged s o l e l y  regardless  individuals  specific  their  bureaucracy rather  o f DIA p e r s o n n e l a r e d e s i g n e d t o  approaches.  acquisition,  of  He  system  t h e rewards of  o f DIA o p e r a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o make p e r s o n n e l  committed  are  of  have e s t a b l i s h e d  f o r Indian communities;  on a d v a n c i n g one's  as  1989.)  i t s own agenda  rewards which has very  work  released  i n nature,  has been  a l l of  reveals  that  t o supply  the  budget  the  goods is  and  t o developmental or p r e v e n t a t i v e  114  services  devoted  h o u s i n g , and e d u c a t i o n . These and t h e p r o p o r t i o n  Department's  expenditures  of t h e f e d e r a l  activities  to the  budget  i s estimated to  be o n l y s i x t o f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t approach little  satisfies  (DIAND,  t h e b a s i c needs  1980).  o f most  Clearly,  Indians,  t o address the broader issues a s s o c i a t e d with  The  results  dependency, fabric  of  and  this the  type  of anomie,  "development"  disintegration  of Indian communities  effects  of  but  1985).  such as a l c o h o l i s m ,  does  development.  are  despair,  of t h e s o c i a l and  (Shkilnyk,  DIA's  cultural  P o v e r t y and  the  c h i l d abuse and s u i c i d e  a r e p e r p e t u a t e d . As p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r , t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c profile  of on- and o f f - r e s e r v e I n d i a n s ,  non-native Canadians, i l l u s t r a t e s In  general,  orthodox  the f a i l u r e  development  i n e q u i t i e s and c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n external government resources  financial must  be  broken,  narrowly  n a t i v e communities  (Wien,  result  on t h e  appropriation  appeared  Boothroyd,  t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l development  (Sinclair, to  must a l s o  Two  federal Indian Because  institutions change.  A  i s no l o n g e r a c c e p t a b l e  to  1 9 8 5 ) . What t h e n i s t h e s o l u t i o n ?  Development  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e over t h e p a s t decade  1984).  of  stop.  A c o n s e n s u s a b o u t an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h t o I n d i a n has  class  1 9 8 6 ) . The p a t t e r n o f  s e c t o r s must  top-down a p p r o a c h  An A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h  in  a n d t h e e n d s a n d means o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e  s u p p o r t i n g dependent focused,  theories  and t h e  by t h e p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e  not merely economic,  presently  of p a s t approaches.  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l dependency  the n a t u r e of dependency, are  i n comparison t o t h a t of  examples  115  of  t h i s new  development (Anderson  thinking  are  & A  Strategy  for  published DIA  the Socio-Economic Development  jointly  i n 1977,  Own,  in  recommendations government,  for  for  B r o t h e r h o o d (NIB)  complemented  by  from government. facilitate  To Have What i s  the implementation  of  implementation the l a t t e r  planning  development,  not  recommendations  strategies in  discussed  states  interests outside  needs  interests,  development  Indian  of the community,  planning  or  must be p l a c e d  orientation  as  The  control  restructured its  community. development  Brotherhood's report  focus  on  rather  The  serving  than  the  those  Enhanced  of  local of  greater  on d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o j e c t s w h i c h  support  to  the  predominant  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e NIB  s h o u l d be t o c o o r d i n a t e 116  stresses  NIB  that  opposed  report  to up,  are the predominant o b j e c t i v e s  of e x i s t i n g programs.  r o l e o f DIA  money,  control  or those of the i n d i v i d u a l .  NIB s t r a t e g y .  self-sufficiency  should  self-  bottom  socio-economic  i n the N a t i o n a l  and l o c a l p l a n n i n g  proposed  emphasis  that  and  initiative  the  is  DIA w o u l d be  initiate  Indian  Indian  1977 a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e made i n t h e B e a v e r r e p o r t .  report  the  for  policy  adequate  orientation  t h i s approach,  One's  community-based  top-down d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f Under  and  support structures  p r o c e e d i n g s , w h i c h become a f u n c t i o n o f t h e The  of  presumes  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  The  People,  two m a j o r  development;  plans.  Indian  The B e a v e r r e p o r t ' s  the  assistance,  implement  to  1979.  were  and  and  technical  Indian  and t h e J a c k B e a v e r r e p o r t ,  published  planning  by t h e N a t i o n a l  of  development  welfare report,  initiatives  in  Indian communities. Anderson  outlined  & in  development  Boothroyd the  have  Beaver r e p o r t as a  and  increasing  (1984)  a  the  systems  described synthesis  approach.  independence  This  of  the of  territorial  approach  bands  approach  involves  economically,  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y a s a p p r o p r i a t e , w h i l e a l s o advantage society,  of  and  participating  fully  in  the  larger  taking  national  u n d e r g u i d e l i n e s b a s e d a s much on t h e b a n d s ' own  a s on s o c i e t y ' s t e r m s . A s y n t h e s i s o f t e r r i t o r i a l systems  approaches  a t t e m p t s t o combine  terms  development  the advantages of  and  both,  w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s of each. Territorial  development  f o c u s e d on i n t e r n a l v a r i e t y Weaver use  of  cultural  which  t h a n community  He  identifies  refers to  attempting  to  culture,  of  the  region's  needs  internally,  that and  development of  or economic r e a s o n s .  117  and  substantive  export to those which enjoy a favored  f o r whatever p o l i t i c a l  own  political  development as s e l e c t i v e c l o s u r e ,  meet t h e  the  i n development  major  r e g i o n a l a d v a n t a g e , w h i c h means l i m i t i n g for  their  economic, s o c i a l  must be i n t e g r a t e d two  economy  specialization.  development  r e s o u r c e s . The p o l i t i c a l ,  components of t e r r i t o r i a l  resources  diversified  a r e d e f i n e d by r e g i o n a l  a s p e c t s o f a community  initiatives.  strategic  a  an a r e a ' s r e s o u r c e s by i t s r e s i d e n t s t o meet  power and e c o n o m i c  position  rather  (1978) s t a t e s t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l  needs—needs  is,  emphasizes  bargaining  Under  the  territorial  communities, structure.  rather Indian  independence—at society. and  initiatives The  than the s t a t e , development  the  band  A t t h e community  direction  development  of  approach,  are the dominant  should  involve  change,  and  political  increasing  or r e g i o n a l l e v e l — f r o m level,  regional  Indian  the  larger  bands w o u l d c o n t r o l t h e evaluate  economic  pace  development  a c c o r d i n g t o i m p a c t s on c u l t u r e and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t .  territorial  development a p p r o a c h views I n d i a n c u l t u r e as  an  asset. In the  c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the t e r r i t o r i a l  development  approach,  political,  economic,  systems a p p r o a c h s t r e s s e s t h e need f o r  social  and c u l t u r a l  social  system,  world of  i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e community  having recognized that s o c i e t i e s  a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y and i n e x t r i c a b l y  the systems approach i n s i s t  the to  approach,  Indian  participate  communities  in a highly  (Holling, should  integrated,  and h o m o g e n i z i n g w o r l d economy, the  production  Under  the  strengthened,  interdependent,  where e a c h r e g i o n  systems  (Cunningham, approach,  a l t h o u g h bands  order to protect  s u c h an  to  fully  hierarchial  specializes in  f o r which i t  has  a  1984). band  government  s h o u l d n o t be f u l l y  t h e r i g h t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The 118  and  adaptive  Under  encouraged  o f t h o s e goods and s e r v i c e s  comparative advantage  inevitable,  1978).  be  our  Supporters  i d e a l b e c a u s e i t i s more  and t h u s more s t a b l e  larger  throughout  intertwined.  that progress i s  development of c o m p l e x i t y change,  i n t o the  should  autonomous, state plays  be in an  equally  i m p o r t a n t r o l e a s d o e s t h e community  Change  in  Indian  geographical  mobility  n e c e s s a r i l y be Both  culture  the  to  i s judged  as  o r band  inevitably  a non-native environment  territorial  satisfy  chapter.  Both  the  development approach criteria  discussed  share fundamental areas  perhaps f o r d i f f e r i n g  reasons.  of  and  insufficient,  systems  market  forces  of w e l f a r e  cannot  territorial  Both  and  approaches  organizations smaller  And b o t h a p p r o a c h e s see t h e need f o r a  state  solve a l l  i s e s s e n t i a l l y an i n t e g r a t e d p r o c e s s ,  i n strengthening  this  A c c o r d i n g t o Anderson & Boothroyd  a r e s t r e n g t h e n e d by d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  of  the  although  economies  state.  not  agreement,  development  the  should  in  problems,  believe  and  previously  ( 1 9 8 4 ) , b o t h a p p r o a c h e s a g r e e t h a t mere r e v i s i o n are  good,  avoided.  approach  programs  government.  than  restructuring  DIA. Under a s y n t h e s i s o f a p p r o a c h e s , DIA w o u l d a c t a s a  facilitator The  and a s an i n t e r f a c e between  bands and t h e  government.  s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h w o u l d be t a k e n t o d e v e l o p i n g t h e c o n t r a c t u a l  and  organizational  government, would  be  and  relationships  the c u l t u r a l  strengthened  between  and s o c i a l  internally  by  territorial  bands  fabric using  development approach (Anderson & Boothroyd, the  development  and  of the  the  community  the  territorial  1984).  By c o m b i n i n g  development approach w i t h the systems approach i n  Indian development, i t i s recognized that  119  l o c a l change  s h o u l d not  be h e l d up p e n d i n g n a t i o n a l c h a n g e , a t t h e same t i m e t h a t made  locally  Because  may  the  facilitate  change  i n t e r n a l market  i n l a r g e r systems  on r e s e r v e s may  s u s t a i n v i a b l e i n d u s t r i e s , n a t i v e development competitive order  to  markets  with sell  their  (Ruffing,  development favours to  industries  or  1979),  i n both  diversification  of  and t h e l a t t e r  E v a l u a t i o n of Development of  development  the  Scenarios  alternatives  scenarios  for  t h e T a n a k t e u k Band,  the  Kwakiutl are  development. Band  and  introduced evaluate  District  territorial  myself,  a  economy so  to  favours  pay  n e e d s and  (a t r i b a l  criteria  for discussion,  for  a  members  goals.  what  types  an o n - r e s e r v e  of  community  council  of  which  five options  for  their  t h e C h i e f and C o u n c i l o f t h e  p r o p o s e d by  Wien  et  al  s c e n a r i o s f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of 120  of the  and t h e C h i e f and C o u n c i l a g r e e d  the f i v e development  as  The C h i e f and t h e two C o u n c i l l o r s  m e e t i n g between the  former  approach  available,  members) have c o n s i d e r e d In  The  in conjunction with representatives Council  in  f o r the Tanakteuk  do bands w i t h o u t  t o d a y c o n s i d e r as a p p r o p r i a t e ?  Tanakteuk  suits their  to  internal  I t i s u l t i m a t e l y up t o community  to determine which approach best  light  and  the  competitively-priced exports  b r o a d range of i m p o r t s .  In  external  of a community's  for imports;  small  society  the systems approach i s emphasized.  r e d u c e t h e need  well.  i n i t i a t i v e s must be  r e g a r d l e s s of whether  internal diversification  as  be t o o  l o c a t e d i n the l a r g e r  products  changes  were to this  thesis. Indian  The r e s u l t s bands  evaluate options It  the  a situation  options  must  be  Vancouver  impossible  and  proposed  who  i n the thesis.  have i n d i c a t e d t h e i r  as i d e n t i f i e d  Council  options,  favored  one  considering  five  heads to  two s i t a s members  of New of  A l t h o u g h i t w o u l d h a v e been i d e a l t o  by a l l Band members t o j o i n t l y  this  was  financially  under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  in  may  alternative  to  (Of t h e  i n Chapter Four,  h o u s e h o l d s who were c o n t a c t e d  identified  1  desire to relocate  Chapter Four.  and  evaluate  logistically  However, t h e f i v e o p t i o n s f o r  d e v e l o p m e n t were i n f o r m a l l y d i s c u s s e d of  Tanakteuk s  o r may c o n s i d e r  that the Chief  h o l d a workshop attended five  the  below. Other  here.  t h e T a n a k t e u k Band C o u n c i l . )  the  to  of community r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t - - p r i o r  criteria  households  noted  similar  differently,  t o those presented  option--that the  in  of the d i s c u s s i o n a r e presented  by m y s e l f w i t h t h e 13 h e a d s  by t e l e p h o n e o r i n  Further  research  person,  in this  area  as is  essential. Perhaps  the  simplest  option  maintenance of t h e s t a t u s quo, not the  t o pursue s p e c i f i c Band  scattered  would  throughout  that  development  continue the  considered is,  by  off-reserve  province.  This  in  option  Band members.  The C h i e f  and C o u n c i l  121  is  choose  The m a j o r i t y  acceptance of t h e absence of a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y - c o h e s i v e of  Band  Band members may  initiatives.  to live  the  of  communities implies  an  community  rejected this option f o r  Band d e v e l o p m e n t , sufficiency addition,  or  upon.  resources.  center—rather  reject this  that the Chief  a community  is  in a location in closer proximity  to  Qwe  S o t Enox Band  (Geach,  three  of  option  for  urban c e n t e r s  result in a  would  the  and C o u n c i l  the  Land  have  t h e Band d o e s n o t h a v e . felt  band whose t h e 1960s.  to  reject be  purchased,  To s e c u r e  financing,  under the c u r r e n t  Indian  1 22  goods  and  may  Act, only  i s exempt f r o m t a x a t i o n ; s p e c i a l t a x s t a t u s of cheaper  and this  t h a t t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e Band  In a d d i t i o n ,  production  This  by t h e C h i e f  development.  on-reserve land  urban  geographically-cohesive  p r o m p t i n g them t o  be c o m p r o m i s e d .  an  Mamaleleqala  during  t h e T a n a k t e u k Band,  capital  in  of t h e  d i s a d v a n t a g e s were i d e n t i f i e d  requiring Chief  may  and C o u n c i l  1987), another K w a k i u t l  members were r e l o c a t e d t o v a r i o u s  Council  improve  and C o u n c i l h a v e c o n s i d e r e d  i s f a v o u r e d by t h e C h i e f  community,  option  t h a n on one o f t h e r e m o t e T a n a k t e u k r e s e r v e s .  option  a  situation.  option  this  rely  support f o r r e l o c a t i n g to  c o n v e n i e n c e s — p e r h a p s on a p a r c e l o f l a n d n e a r  While  In  t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f an  i t does not a c t i v e l y attempt t o  socio-economic  re-establishing  result  collective  self-  i n C h a p t e r F o u r , t h e f i v e Tanakteuk heads of  since  The s e c o n d o p t i o n  Qwa  t o promote n a t i v e  i n t h e i r h o m e l a n d w o u l d most l i k e l y  current  modern  fails  over  who h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h e i r  unacceptable,  their  control  option  As i d e n t i f i e d  community  i t does n o t h i n g  economy f o r Band members t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n , o r  households  as  Band  this  integrated  since  services  could on-  reserve,  p r o v i d i n g a comparative advantage f o r exports  development  initiatives.  enhancement  of n a t i v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y  the  band c o n s i d e r  to  have  Council agree  a reserve;  Indeed,  the Chief  Council  third  and C o u n c i l  the  Chief  and  representatives  would process.  r e j e c t e d t h i s o p t i o n as c u l t u r a l l y  option  traditional  by t h e C h i e f  band  i n the  and region  a l l o w i n g T a n a k t e u k band members t o  take advantage of b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d of the I n d i a n  for  homelands.  f o r development c o n s i d e r e d  was a m a l g a m a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r I n d i a n  17  i t could t r y  b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t s a t i s f y Band members' q u e s t  w i t h an o n - r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t y ,  section  however,  Should  i t w o u l d be a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g  re-establishing a link with their The  and l o c a l c o n t r o l .  p e s s i m i s t i c t h a t government  t o do s o .  undesirable  i n turn, could contribute to the  the purchase of o f f - r e s e r v e l a n d ,  the land declared were  Finally,  This,  f r o m band  Act,  from o n - r e s e r v e s t a t u s .  i f a majority  of Tanakteuk  Under Band  members v o t e d t o j o i n a n o t h e r b a n d , a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e s e c o n d band was a g r e e a b l e t o a m a l g a m a t i o n , exist. Band,  T a n a k t e u k Band members w o u l d become members o f t h e and  Tanakteuk r e s o u r c e s  band members r e s u l t i n g  The result  already  faces  (Community  Bay i s r u l e d o u t , h o w e v e r ,  serious  Chief  and C o u n c i l  in  the e x t i n c t i o n  other  would belong t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e of  from amalgamation.  at Whe-la-la-u i n A l e r t reserve  t h e T a n a k t e u k Band w o u l d c e a s e t o  development because  this  overcrowding).  rejected t h i s option  because  o f t h e T a n a k t e u k Band  123  as  i t would a  distinct  entity,  an  action  collective  resources.  unacceptable members,  that  and  do  raid  prior  The  establishing  This and  and  in  with non-natives,  been p a s t  considered  summer r e s i d e n c e s  by  s u c h as  f o r the  control  and  p r o m o t e an  concentrating represent  It  hardship  is band  Council  Vancouver,  modern  services limited  for and  native i t could  economy.  interrupted.  It also  communities, location.  for individuals  who  a l s o imposes c e r t a i n h a r d s h i p s 1 24  and year.  i s a c o m p r o m i s e , s i n c e any  i n two  was  economic b e n e f i t s  I t would a l l o w  f u n d s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t i n one  financial  impoverished.  and  providing  i d e n t i t y , and  seasonally  members t o i n v e s t c a p i t a l  it  remainder of the  as w e l l as  status.  this option  c o m m u n i t y w o u l d be  and  to j o i n a  the c o l l e c t i v e o w n e r s h i p of r e s o u r c e s ,  though,  option  non-native  bounty,  i n New  i n t e g r a t e d ( i f somewhat s e a s o n a l )  At b e s t ,  of  K w a k i u t l bands would  a d v a n t a g e of  schools,  with on-reserve  Band  needs  that this  the C h i e f  on-reserve  w o u l d a l l o w t h e Band t o t a k e facilities  and  of  rivalries.  v a r i o u s urban c e n t e r s  associated  Band  identity  Council felt  their  considered  cultural assimilation into  advantages f o r promoting c u l t u r a l  of  the c u l t u r a l  c o m m u n i t i e s f o r s l a v e s and  option  over  t h i s o p t i o n was  t h a t members o f t h e T a n a k t e u k w o u l d w i s h  fourth  living  Chief  as was  w i t h w h i c h t h e r e has The  control  to address the p r i o r i t i e s  to contact  each o t h e r ' s  unlikely  In a d d i t i o n ,  nothing  as u n p a l a t a b l e  society;  t o enhance  s i n c e i t would d e s t r o y  the Tanakteuk Band. was  fails  sense  requires  rather  than  This  could  are  already  associated  with  seasonal As  r e l o c a t i o n every  previously  Tanakteuk  year.  mentioned,  favor  the  Vancouver.  This  was  considered.  It i s discussed  Rationale  f o r the  B a s e d on who  the  Chief  re-establishment the  fifth  option  in detail  correspondence with  are  what t h e y b e l i e v e t o be lifestyle;  recognize  value  pressures  They  are  their  lives  bitter i n the  These  are  New  f o r development which  was  below.  In lived  that  the  households  re-establishment  their  and  their  r i g h t as  that  Indians  their  to  and  about the past,  no  d i g n i t y as  i n and  i n d i v i d u a l s and  the  traditional  and  t h e s e p e o p l e want t o go a r o u n d New  as a Band i s t o  prove  the  their families. the  lifestyle  t o a way  of  land. Their  Vancouver f o r thousands  125  over regain  wish to return  home.  society.  to  unhappy w i t h  t i e s with  because  had  b e s t way  l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e m s e l v e s and  of urban c e n t e r s ,  respects  short,  believe that  a  longer  culture  l a c k of c o n t r o l t h e y have  and  support pursue  children  native heritage  of  objectives.  t h e y have been d e n i e d  h e a d s of h o u s e h o l d s a r e  characteristic life  of  c a p a b l e of  five  the  in  t h a t promote a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o n o n - n a t i v e  t h e i r p r i d e and they  community  f i v e T a n a k t e u k h e a d s of  angry t h a t  traditional  of  a  Vancouver would a c c o m p l i s h s e v e r a l  individuals  the  of  R e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a Community  a c o m m u n i t y i n New  for  Council  of  have i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e ,  These  and  ancestors of  years,  have and  despite want  t h e changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ,  t o s h a r e a community l i f e s t y l e  ancestors.  This  Although  i s impossible  only  b a s e d on t h e v a l u e s  t o do u n d e r c u r r e n t  f i v e heads of h o u s e h o l d s have  committment  t o r e l o c a t e t o New V a n c o u v e r  these  individuals  hope  catalyst  Council  of  opinions lifestyle.  individuals  Band members w i l l  w i t h t h i s way o f l i f e Relocation Band  members  to  on  the  their  collective  needs. for  It  of  as  a  come t o a p p r e c i a t e  improve  and  once  the  Chief  and be  differing  traditional  but b e l i e v e  the values  the  social  increase  and  that  associated  cultural  the p o t e n t i a l  resources,  i n the future,  living  Tanakteuk  i d e n t i t y and  f o r Band  while meeting t h e i r importance,  of  psychological  w o u l d a l l o w Band members t o g a i n  self-government  a  t h a t y o u n g e r Band members may n o t  i n a remote community,  Perhaps of g r e a t e s t  current  The  a community c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y  community w i t h i n t h e i r The  serve  time,  as they mature.  would  pride,  sufficiency.  will  members,  adoption  c o n d i t i o n s of f a m i l i e s , b u i l d cohesiveness, community  this  Band member, a n d r e s p e c t  They a l s o r e c o g n i z e  s a t i s f i e d with l i f e  these  expressed  t h a t r e l o c a t i o n t o New V a n c o u v e r w o u l d n o t  i n t e r e s t s of every of  Band  at  a c o m m u n i t y h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d .  recognize  the best  be  initiative  f o r the r e l o c a t i o n of other  viability  in  that t h e i r  of t h e i r  circumstances.  firmly  their  they  self-  control priorities  t o support  the  over and  argument  t h e Band w o u l d n e e d a s t r o n g  homelands. c o n d i t i o n s o f many I n d i a n s 1 26  who  live  in  Vancouver housing,  a n d W h e - l a - l a - u a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p o o r , often  with  community i d e n t i t y  uncertain  (Geach,  in Chapter Four, a t l e a s t own  their  own homes.  the  relocation  tenure  1987).  and  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f b l o c k a d e s t o reserves to  Whe-la-la-u  benefits  a  new  community  would  living  on-reserve,  associated have  ties  access  belonged.  building  development  for  they  benefits  and  are  By  would  currently  initiatives.  native  identity within a  c o n t e x t , s l o w i n g down t h e p r o c e s s o f c u l t u r a l  1 27  and  secure tenure arrangements.  as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y ;  opportunity to regain their  Band  tangible  D e v e l o p m e n t o f a new c o m m u n i t y w o u l d p r o v i d e Band members an  own  job opportunities  f e d e r a l programs t o which  d e n i e d , such as economic  in their  provide  Band members w o u l d be e l i g i b l e  with residency, to  and  likely  t o many Band members by c r e a t i n g  p r o v i d i n g a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g under  who  u n e m p l o y e d , o r on w e l f a r e .  to strengthening cultural  cohesiveness,  by  Band members  f e e l as i f they t r u l y  Many Band members a r e u n d e r e m p l o y e d ,  prevent  1980s i s e v i d e n c e o f  i n t h e community t h a t Tanakteuk  c o m m u n i t y , Band members w o u l d  addition  of  by t h e s u r v e y  r e s i d e t h e r e must f a c e d a i l y . As a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s  In  sense  17 o f t h e 26 h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s do n o t  o f homes f r o m r e m o t e  hostility  little  As d e m o n s t r a t e d  t h e N i m p k i s h Band d u r i n g t h e 1970s a n d e a r l y the  overcrowded  with  familiar  assimilation.  Formulation  o f a Community D e v e l o p m e n t  If  Indian  taking  a  bands  to  was  Band  with  modifications,  the  members  strategy  resources,  Chief  may  and  t h e community  may be a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r other  acknowledges  wish  with  and  of  the  need  communities,  educational  silviculture,  in  was  options  Band.  With  to  bands. match  people and  with  training  e c o n o m i c modes o f p r o d u c t i o n , r e - e s t a b l i s h  other  Initiatives  environment, and  responsibilities  mariculture,  re-define i t s  re-assert  traditional  t h a t have been  altered  New V a n c o u v e r .  forestry  management  and  and r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m would form t h e b a s i s of  economic development.  A d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i n i t i a t i v e s  on w h i c h d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d be b a s e d f o l l o w s , o f e c o n o m i c , human r e s o u r c e s  As  It  s t r a t e g y presented here  t h e 20 y e a r s s i n c e t h e T a n a k t e u k l e f t  Economic  strategy  I t a l s o attempts to recapture  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the p h y s i c a l  community  by  systems  consider.  and t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e s k i l l s  traditional  during  to  Council  the  t h e Band's  social  and  development  coastal Kwakiutl  w i t h i n Band m e m b e r s h i p .  relations  development  development  available  its  communities  a f t e r an i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t d e v e l o p m e n t  held  The  territorial  What f o l l o w s i s a community  Tanakteuk  formulated  of  their  what i n i t i a t i v e s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e community  function?  that  were t o r e - e s t a b l i s h  synthesis  approaches,  Strategy  under t h e  headings  and p h y s i c a l development.  Development:  illustrated  i n Figure  3,  s i x o f t h e Band's 128  seven  reserves  are very With  isolated,  the  of  fragmented,  163.5 that  boat  size.  at  not  Dead  time  1983).  and  Vancouver  in detail,  the timber  (pers. The  com.  spruce,  and  Under  adjacent  mature,  western  the  1988).  is  New  either  40 h e c t a r e s Alert  in  Bay  is  resources  definite  and  resource  hemlock  varies not  cedar,  also  shore  pine,  ( F o r e s t r y Handbook f o r  B.C.,  government's  Small  r e s e r v e s . R e f o r e s t a t i o n and  f u n d i n g and  between  sufficiently  t h e Band c o u l d compete f o r c u t t i n g  if  logged  Site productivity  are western  provincial  to their  Inlet  The  of  marine  on-reserve  immature,  Glendale,  also offer prospects  Knight's  size.  access  from  there i s  currently  activities suitable  in  and  A l l o f t h e r e s e r v e s h a v e been  main s p e c i e s found  E n t e r p r i s e Program, areas  New  small  community  although  which  hour.  three forestry c l a s s e s :  Sitka  the  T h i s reserve i s almost  on t h e r e s e r v e s .  time,  varies.  P o i n t where  to  been d e v e l o p e d  restocked  are  a c u r r e n t i n v e n t o r y of f o r e s t r y and  potential a t one  one  Tsawwati,  reserves  l o c a t e d i s l e s s remote,  Travelling  Although  the  in  (.DIAND, 1 9 8 3 ) .  e a c h i s u n d e r 50 h e c t a r e s  or f l o a t p l a n e .  approximately  has  hectares, is,  situated  V a n c o u v e r was by  Inlet  e x c e p t i o n of t h e r e s e r v e l o c a t e d  consists  reserve  scattered along Knight's  Business rights  silvicultural  f o r employment o f Band  c o n t r a c t s c o u l d be  members,  arranged.  i s world-renowned f o r i t s r i c h p r o d u c t i v i t y  supporting marine l i f e ,  where  shrimp,  129  on  abalone,  clams,  for  crabs,  Number/Name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  # o  Tsawwati Keogh Kwatse Freda Point Sim Creek Ahnuhati New V a n c o u v e r ( a . k . a . Dead P o i n t )  Hectares 163.5 43.8 20.6 2.2 46.5 2.1 39.3  FIGURE 3. MAP OF TANAKTUEK RESERVES  130  [  N  scallops,  oysters,  commercially, The  West  high  along  Coast  problems  geoducks  salmon,  fishing  industry  including harvesting  integration  s h o r e of  the  reserves,  Japanese  market.  c l a m s and  oysters  The  Band's  potential. for  sports  and could  be  The  one  possess the  skills  a of  small the  t r a i n i n g i n the  Band  could  District  not  Dale,  s i t e of New  subsistence  members'income, r e d u c i n g  the  suitable salmon.  and  or  b o a t and  fishing  1985),  gear  Band members operation,  marina,  rental  could  be  already although  required.  and  of  destination  camp  be  the  tourism  of Mount W a d d i n g t o n ,  Vancouver to s e r v i c e the  off-  1988).  i n demand as a  f o r t h i s t y p e of  store,  affect  marketing  recreation  guides,  resort  also b u i l d a small  addition,  vertical  (seaweed) f o r  h o s p i t a l i t y i n d u s t r y may  p l y Johnstone S t r a i t during In  and  and  of  stocks,  r e a r i n g of  ( p e r s . com.  Band's r e s e r v e s .  necessary  pen  processing  Inlet i s already  some  near the  number  declining  raising nori  f o r accommodation,  on  station  of  have e x c e l l e n t  f i s h i n g (Regional  established  a  S i t e s immediately  specifically  i s another option  if  by  centralization  harvesting,  reserves  met  rockfish.  e s p e c i a l l y i n Knight's I n l e t , are  possibility  Knight's  requests  h a l i b u t and  i s plagued  of a q u a c u l t u r e p r o j e c t s .  i s a l s o the  harvested  1 9 8 2 ) ; h o w e v e r , t h e s e p r o b l e m s do  f o r a q u a c u l t u r e development, There  cod,  are  over c a p a c i t y ,  structures,  (Pearce,  viability  other species  with  cost/price  the  and  The  marine p e t r o l  sailboats  that  supplement  Band  summer m o n t h s .  activities d e p e n d e n c e on 131  would  external  markets.  Human  Resource  As d i s c u s s e d in  several  Development:  i n C h a p t e r F o u r , many Band members have  of  initiatives,  the areas although  Administrative  skills  skills  mariculture  operations.  administered  by Canada  Forest  Community  Band's  human  grew, the  Physical  Access  to  job  choice  is  site  households  the  who  Agreement  supply.  development  skills  strategy.  and  assist  As  the  in  the the  community  and t r a i n i n g w o u l d be r e q u i r e d  t o match  members.  f o r community  Inlet  Vancouver.  have  indicated  had up t o t h e l a t e  a wharf, Septic  electric  reserves,  the  d e v e l o p m e n t among t h e Band's  a t New  At the  very  a desire  to  1960s, t h a t  least,  the  relocate  and p i p e d  five  to  facilities  i s ,u t i l i t y  power g e n e r a t i o n ,  lands  New that  services water  t a n k s f o r sewage d i s p o s a l w o u l d be n e e d e d . A band  o f f i c e w o u l d a l s o be r e q u i r e d . in  programs  program,  would  w o u l d want t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s and  community  including  and f o r  Development:  logical  Vancouver  required.  development  Because of t h e remoteness of the K n i g h t ' s  the  be  Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n C o m m i s s i o n , t h e  resource  n e e d s o f Band  would  development  be l a c k i n g , and no one h a s e x p e r i e n c e i n  Human R e s o u r c e S t r a t e g y  additional  economic  upgrading  Resource Development  Indian  for  n e e d e d t o manage a s m a l l c o m m u n i t y  b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s may  Federal  suggested  experience  The u s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e community  w o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d .  w o u l d be s i n g l e f a m i l y wooden d w e l l i n g s , 1 32  technology  on a minimum o f  Houses quarter-  acre  lots.  Local materials  w o u l d be u s e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e .  The  community would expand a s r e q u i r e d . As  identified  within New once and  i n Chapter Four,  t h e c o m m u n i t y was t h e c r i t i c a l  Vancouver i n the l a t e again growth  of  the  indicated  regardless  of  therefore,  a  considering  school that  recreational  perhaps  serve  feasibility  The of  there  watertower  school  may n o t be r e q u i r e d  facilities  could  in  i n Port  in  would  use be  20 y e a r s  community; However,  18 y e a r s o f I t would  required.  An  community  hall.  McNeill.  as of  in  New  (1986).  replacement  the  dock  and  approximately  Costs f o r the construction  was n o t i n c l u d e d .  Band members have i n d i c a t e d t h a t planning,  estimate  also could  r e p a i r s or t o t a l such  age,  and  Priestman & Associates  ago,  of  Vancouver  the  community,  may  heads  s t u d y o f r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e community  of h o u s e s a n d a s c h o o l  the  Four  c h u r c h and  be p r o v i d e d  of  survival  immediately.  f o r the  $500,000 f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e was g i v e n .  in  i n the  may be n e e d e d i n t h e f u t u r e .  concluded that extensive  facilities  criteria community.  was a  was c o n d u c t e d by K e r ,  report  decline  t h e i r d e s i r e t o r e l o c a t e t o New  as a h e a l t h c l i n i c ,  Secondary education  education  of a school  4 1 % o f Band members a r e u n d e r  provide  Vancouver  the operation  re-established  whether  elementary school  A  1960s;  factor i n the  p r o v e t o be t h e d e t e r m i n i n g  households  an  the lack of access t o  design,  t h e y w o u l d want t o be  and c o n s t r u c t i o n  133  of  the  involved  community.  S e v e r a l Band members h a v e e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , contribute  their  labour  p h y s i c a l development  to reduce the  of the  overall  and  costs  members time  attempt  Canadian  society  consumer  goods  as  that  proposed  necessary  technology,  as  of  well  assistance  DIA  adequate  community's  on  development,  administrative  support  f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  Why  Should Support I n d i a n s ' Request  produce. reflects  by  modern  environment  and  between  it,  would  the  strategies. by  providing  structures,  initial  i n f u t u r e economic  Band  capital.  and The  ventures.  for Assistance  on t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e v e n t s a s d e s c r i b e d i n  C h a p t e r s Two should  liasion  not c o n t r o l  sector could participate  Based  for  other.  private DIA  broader  f r o m a number o f f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s  assistance, funding  not  economy  the  same  demand  complemented  dependence  Band  the  into  a g e n c i e s when i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e s e  would f a c i l i t a t e  technical  the  DIA w o u l d be t h e p r i n c i p l e  and o t h e r government  while at  integration  production as  i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e on e a c h  needed,  the  Tanakteuk  such a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d of  the  development  e x t e r n a l markets to s a t i s f y  basis modes  Although  immediate r e s o u r c e s ;  and  traditional  be  meet t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f  by u s i n g t h e i r  recognizing  The  to  of  community.  The p r o p o s e d e c o n o m i c , human r e s o u r c e and p h y s i c a l strategies  could  and T h r e e ,  what f o l l o w s  i s an argument  of  s u p p o r t the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of communities such  134  why  DIA  as  New  Vancouver  as a mechanism f o r t h e development  relocated  previously.  A violation from t h e i r Columbia  o f t r u s t by DIA r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f I n d i a n s  t r a d i t i o n a l homeland c a n n o t be c l e a r l y  t o communities throughout  identified.  abbrogated i t s moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  o f b a n d s w h i c h were  natives  when  communities  i t withdrew  without  represented  However,  t h e Department  t o a c t i n the best crucial  consultation  a fundamental v i o l a t i o n  with  demonstrated  native  culture,  advantage resulted A  of  gross and  remote  them.  action  This  of n a t i v e c o l l e c t i v e  insensitivity  by  s u g g e s t s t h a t crown  t h e i g n o r a n c e and t i m i d i t y  decision  to  support  It  bureaucracy  to  Indians  Indians'  request  took  which  had  for assistance  t h e i r communities would a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y  intensive lobbying,  responsibility million  in  wrongfully September  compensation  interned 23,  The  during  errors,  to  Japanese  to  Canadians  W o r l d War Two  (The  a c t i o n s t a k e n by g o v e r n m e n t and n a t i v e Canadians  pay  $300  who  were  &  Mail,  Globe  l e a d e r s , t h e two e t h n i c  e x p e r i e n c e s (The G l o b e & M a i l ,  135  the  has a c c e p t e d i t s  and a g r e e d  1988). A c c o r d i n g t o n a t i v e  Canadians  rectify  to  A l b e i t a f t e r many y e a r s  t h e C a n a d i a n government  f o r previous  groups share s i m i l a r  Japanese  i s based.  representatives of  p a s t m i s t a k e s of t h e f e d e r a l government.  1988).  the  rights  f r o m one h u n d r e d y e a r s o f o p p r e s s i o n .  rebuild  and  interests  s e r v i c e s from  and d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s on w h i c h C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y also  British  September  representatives resulted  from  28,  against racial  discrimination. Members  of  cultural  both  and  relocation. interned  And,  until  could  the  to leave  a p r o j e c t t h a t has  would only  s e r v e the  i t must be  recognized  such  as  reserve the  the  Tanakteuk,  as  an  timber,  but  w i t h an  estimated  One  no  g u a r a n t e e s of  For  bands w i t h  o i l and to Indian  extracted  was argue  the  and  of  for  extracted," that  f u t u r e development  minerals,  relocated.  or  people.  However, community  1987).  136  on-  without the  can  an  by  on-reserve  financial  of  two  been s a v e d  from I n d i a n s '  value  as  funding  rewards  land,  such  adequately  the  i t w o u l d amount t o m i l l i o n s o f be  with  1987). A f t e r has  of  that  similar population  have n e v e r been  i f the  t h i s money s h o u l d  (Speck,  not  property  on-reserve  t o $6 m i l l i o n  extracted  communities;  to  were  success,  (Geach,'  argue that  resources gas,  year  Tanakteuk being also  forced  compensation  on-reserve population,  $3 m i l l i o n  could  returned  Indians  of  f o o l i s h t o spend thousands  t h a t b a n d s w i t h o u t an  years.  a c c r u e d from s e l l i n g as  of  government  i n t e r e s t s of a h a n d f u l  f o r 20  a r e s u l t of  community.  result  b e h i n d when t h e y were  amount t o $150,000 t o $300,000 p e r  DIA  a  Tanakteuk have f o r e g o n e b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d  status  decades,  the  fates. social,  members o f b o t h g r o u p s  i t w o u l d be  d o l l a r s on  as  about' t h e i r financial,  announcement  c o m p e n s a t i o n by  argue that  severe  upheaval  Canadians,  financial  consulted  suffered  psychological  t h e y were f o r c e d  One  g r o u p was  groups  Japanese  offered that  Neither  resources dollars.  d i r e c t e d towards  their  Having to  d i s c u s s e d why I b e l i e v e DIA h a s a m o r a l  support  Indians'  homelands, issue  I  will  t o "new" c o m m u n i t i e s .  revitalized  response  Affairs under The given  to p e r s i s t e n t requests  against  have e x i s t e d f o r  by o v e r  100  projects, continue  circumstances:  as  a  of e x i s t i n g  emphasizing  communities,  Minister  r e s e r v e s w o u l d be of  promised  in  flooding  due  would Indian  residents  when a s s e s s i n g s u p p o r t the government's  for  is  various  determination  to  communities.  t h e D e p a r t m e n t d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n two s e t s o f 1)  where  the  c o m m u n i t y h a s no  choice  a n d 2) where members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y w i s h  result  of  a  supported).  c o s t - e f f e c t i v e development of r e s e r v e  In i t s p o l i c y ,  relocate;  was r e l e a s e d by t h e  highest p r i o r i t y  the  across  which each request  s t a t e s t h a t t h e h e a l t h and s a f e t y  while  bands  1987. (The p o l i c y a l s o d i s c u s s e s c o n d i t i o n s  which expansion  the  argue  Communities  i n December,  policy  would  the  1988).  p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e d e s c r i b i n g the c r i t e r i a evaluated  regarding  Indians  Canada f o r f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e t o r e l o c a t e I n d i a n  be  their  a b a n d o n d e d f o r two d e c a d e s , d e s e r v e t o be  ( p e r s . com. G l e n d a l e ,  P o l i c y On "New"  In  reinhabit  c o m m u n i t i e s a r e n o t new; r a t h e r , t h e y  c e n t u r i e s , and a l t h o u g h  DIA  for assistance to  now e x a m i n e c u r r e n t DIA p o l i c y  of r e l o c a t i o n  that these  request  responsibility  of the to  personal  circumstances.  former c a s e — s u c h a  hydro-electric 137  as a  Full  but  to relocate  assistance  community  project—while  to  faced very  is with  little  encouragement find to  i s g i v e n t o communities such as the Tanakteuk  themselves i n the l a t t e r an  Indian  who  s i t u a t i o n . The p o l i c y a s i t a p p l i e s  band's r e q u e s t f o r f i n a n c i a l  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o m m u n i t y s u c h a s New  support of  Vancouver  the  i s as  re-  follows:  The d e p a r t m e n t may r e l o c a t e e x i s t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s o r e s t a b l i s h new r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s , i f : (a) t h e n o r m a l p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e e x i s t i n g r e s e r v e l o c a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d due t o t o p o g r a p h i c or s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , o r due t o o t h e r e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h and s a f e t y , and (b) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e . c o m m u n i t y a t a new s i t e i s t h e most c o s t - e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e . The  policy  include  goes  an  on t o n o t e t h a t  immediate  resources r e l a t i v e  of  earlier $600  draft  required  to  proposals  requirement  for  of the p o l i c y  estimated that costs in  for i n i t i a l  capital,  p l u s $45  requests for relocation  context  o f t h e need t o p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l p r o g r a m s ,  in  development." Department  to  assistance  and s t a t e d t h a t  facilities  the  areas draft  of report  self-government suggests  that  c a n n o t assume t h e i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l  138  services  and t h e new and  $50 be  across  " t h e i s s u e must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n  to e x i s t i n g communities,  The  not  excess  i n o n - g o i n g o p e r a t i o n s and m a i n t e n a n c e w o u l d  satisfy  initiatives  financial  r e s e r v e or community, w i l l  Canada;  capital  which  1987).  t o $700 m i l l i o n  m i l l i o n annually  future  to the e x i s t i n g  be s u p p o r t e d " (INAC, An  or  "Relocation  reserve  the and  priority economic  because  the  responsibility  associated defined." the so  with This  criteria as  relocation,  implies that during  under w h i c h r e q u e s t s  to d e l i b e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t  w o u l d be e l i g i b l e The  that  for financial  the  policy  this  w o u l d be f u n d e d be  t h e number o f  establishment relocated likely  o f New  in  communities  that that the  Vancouver.  with  assistance Neither  Despite  meet  development  effective  f r o m DIA  would other  the c r i t e r i a .  may  in  the  long  term,  be  argued  homelands  basis  financial  i n e x c e s s o f what t h e  is currently providing A c t , DIA  i s obligated to provide  Tanakteuk reserve  w o u l d be r e q u i r e d .  which  have  very  the m a j o r i t y  could  request  to reinhabit Indian resources  Today,  little  for  bands  like  the Tanakteuk,  of  t o bands  costfor  reserve  Indian  such as t h e in off-  i n t e r e s t s of communities  even t h o u g h t h e p o l i c y  139  that  Department  under the  c o m m u n i t i e s . C l e a r l y , i t i s i n .the f i n a n c i a l  not t o support the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  extent  be d e n i e d on t h e  o f members r e s i d i n g  DIA  to prove  be t h e most the  be  mental  t o an  assistance that  bands  processes  are endangered  o f o n - r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s may  alternative  Indian  the r e c o g n i t i o n of  While i t  the  f o r the r e -  r e l o c a t i o n , i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t  t h e h e a l t h and s a f e t y o f I n d i a n s would  that  & O t h e r Bands  t h e p a s t a s a r e s u l t o f DIA p l a n n i n g  trauma a s s o c i a t e d  established  i t i s highly u n l i k e l y that  financial  to receive assistance.  process,  assistance.  policy directive,  Tanakteuk would r e c e i v e  "carefully  the p o l i c y formation  I m p l i c a t i o n s of the P o l i c y f o r the Tanakteuk  Under  be  may  not  reflect By  the best  stating  considered  i n t e r e s t s of DIA's  that  funding  constituency.  requests  w i t h i n the context  for  relocation  of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s t o  communities, t h e Department i s i m p l i c i t l y e n c o u r a g i n g between  Indian  Indian  Bands.  communities  proposals  be  described whereby  This  will  funded.  policy  be  In  a  for  support  of  relocated  receive  strategy  bands  from  Furthermore,  other each  i s pitted against  that t h e i r  need, i s t h e g r e a t e s t .  Department  communities.  priority It  is  a  Government  But  others,  c l a i m s t o support  In a speech given 1988,  Bill  are  existing relocation  cynically  be  the s i t u a t i o n by  Indian  band  not  requests  cornerstone The  1983  our  chance of success what i f t h e r e  or  relocation  i n attempts to  demonstrate  the  development  of  by t h e M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n "Nothing  policy  and  S p e c i a l Commons R e p o r t  i n Canada c o n c l u d e d  to  requesting  McKnight s a i d ,  of  likely  communities  f o r me o r my D e p a r t m e n t t h a n c o m m u n i t y  attention".  best  may  DIA h a s c r e a t e d  such as the Tanakteuk  encouragement  August  that  Indian communities f e e l threatened  assistance  in  existing  competition  should  that  be  f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h e d c o m m u n i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , members  organizations.  The  implies  disadvantaged  as " d i v i d e and conquer", existing  must  has  a  Indian Affairs higher  self-government.  the on  focus Indian  of  our Self-  t h a t development e f f o r t s have t h e  when c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e c o m m u n i t y  i s no c o m m u n i t y ?  140  level.  Summary In  this  success  chapter  of  criteria  were p r e s e n t e d  various  development approaches  evaluated.  It  suggested  communities  such  I n d i a n bands, argument  of  and  the p o t e n t i a l DIA  and  in situations  receive support.  that  should  i t was  which  the  discussed  and  re-establishment  of  were  i n the best  f o r s u c c e s s was support Finally,  observed  similar  I t was  the  V a n c o u v e r was  then p r e s e n t e d .  examined,  bands  a s New  why  a s s i s t a n c e was was  was  against  demonstrated.  Indian's  request  DIA's r e l o c a t i o n  the  would not  t h a t the c r i t e r i a  of I n d i a n s b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l  f e d e r a l government.  policy existing  encouraged  In a d d i t i o n ,  competition  Indian communities  and  for  i t was  policy  likely  under  which  scarce  burdens  suggested resources  b a n d s s u c h as t h e  141  An for  f u n d i n g r e q u e s t s w o u l d be g r a n t e d were d e s i g n e d t o d i s c o u r a g e relocation  of  that requests for funding for  to the Tanakteuk's  suggested  interests  the on  t h a t the between  Tanakteuk.  "We t h e l e a v e s a r e r u s t l e d by t h e w i n d , we f e a r n o t . T h e s e t h i n g s do n o t f r i g h t e n us; they f r i g h t e n you." S p o k e n i n 1796 by an I n d i a n a s he saw t h e d e f o r e s t a t i o n and d e s p o i l a t i o n w r o u g h t by Europeans.  CHAPTER S I X : SUMMARY AND Development development previous  is a  process  seems t o e v o l v e  one.  The  lifestyles  of  the  of e v o l u t i o n .  E a c h new  out of t h e l e s s o n s  definitions  d r a m a t i c a l l y over the past  CONCLUSIONS  of  Kwakiutl  learned  development  one h u n d r e d y e a r s . since  the  theory from  have  So,  of the  changed  t o o , have t h e  arrival  of  European  settlers. This  chapter  briefly  summarizes t h e t h e s i s ,  c o n c l u s i o n s about development and t h e p l a n n i n g  and p r e s e n t s process  c o m m u n i t i e s i n C a n a d a , b a s e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e s  some  f o r Indian  of the K w a k i u t l .  Summary This  thesis  began  transformations social past  of  by  demonstrating  the Kwakiutl's  the  historical  economic a c t i v i t i e s  and  the  r e l a t i o n s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d them o v e r t h e one  society life.  hundred y e a r s . was  relations behaviour  to  European  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o m p l e x  Dramatic  production,  Prior  changes  the  in  Indians'  relationship  with other  Indian  with  social  the  Kwakiutl  and  organization  communities,  p a t t e r n s have o c c u r r e d  contact,  physical  ceremonial  of  economic  environment,  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  s i n c e European s e t t l e m e n t  and  i n the  region. As d e m o n s t r a t e d i n C h a p t e r Two, by t h e 1960s, I n d i a n the  west c o a s t  had been c o m p l e t e l y  1 43  marginalized  from  s o c i e t y on mainstream  Canadian s o c i e t y , of  the  Indian  Act.  a s s i m i l a t i o n and orthodox  society  in order  traditional  what was  As  policy of  approach to development, their  excluded  DIA  Christianization  abandon  knew  through a process  best  by  emphasized  the  Indians. i t was  values  to progress.  facilitated  and  not  consulted  communities during were  gradually  because  DIA  maintain  the  reduce  1960s.  to urban c e n t e r s ,  addressed. hasten  the  the  Participation  modern  assumed  they  Indians  superiority,  were  Kwakiutl  that  assimilation--and  in  i t was  the  the  region  costly  to  Residents  of  V a n c o u v e r were e n c o u r a g e d  where e c o n o m i e s of  modern,  their  facilities  too  population.  p h y s i c a l needs in  in  G o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e s and  withdrawn from i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s  while  must  of  about the c l o s u r e of s c h o o l s  a. g e o g r a p h i c a l l y - s c a t t e r e d  costs  an  process.  representatives decided  relocate  those  Because non-natives  r e m o t e K w a k i u t l c o m m u n i t i e s s u c h a s New to  the b a s i s of  f o r the development of n a t i v e s ,  from the p l a n n i n g  were  protection,  believed Indians  adopt  a r e s u l t o f t h i s a t t i t u d e of c u l t u r a l  bands  On  the a u t h o r i t y  of  scale  Indians  non-native  would  could  society  development--of  be  would  Canada's  Indians. The  emphasis  on c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  o f s e r v i c e s and  g r o w t h c e n t e r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l and during  influenced  t h e C a n a d i a n p u b l i c ' s a c c e p t a n c e of t h e s e As  1960s. V a r i o u s  national  initiatives  in planning.  the  facilities  described  s o c i a l and  political  planning events  directions  i n Chapter Three, urban growth 144  in  centers  were  presented as s o l u t i o n s  f o r t h e problem of r e g i o n a l economic  disparities  a c r o s s Canada d u r i n g t h i s d e c a d e .  the  of  theory  proposed  that  underdevelopment and  I t was n o t  internal  until  colonialism  t h e v a l i d i t y of growth c e n t e r s as  a  was  development  a p p r o a c h was q u e s t i o n e d . Analysis case  study  of  a s u r v e y o f T a n a k t e u k Band members a s p a r t  i n Chapter Four demonstrated t h a t  s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s relocation was  no  from t h e i r significant  unemployment not  a  access  to  f o r Band members i m p r o v e d a s a r e s u l t  of  remote community t o u r b a n  improvement  in  obtaining  r a t e f o r o n - and o f f - r e s e r v e  differ significantly.  Today,  centers,  there  employment.  Indians  t h e economic  w h i c h Band members a r e e n g a g e d a r e s i m i l a r to  while  of  The  i n Canada d o e s activities  t o those pursued  in  prior  relocation. However,  the socio-economic s i t u a t i o n  o f most Band members h a s  changed  i n o t h e r ways.  N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f T a n a k t e u k Band members  are  longer e n t i t l e d  to benefits associated  no  with  on-reserve  s t a t u s . F a m i l i e s s p e n d more on f o o d i n u r b a n c e n t e r s , a s a of  no  longer  subsistence  being  food.  And  able the  to  supplement  majority  of  e x p e r i e n c e d dramatic changes i n c o n d i t i o n s  their Band  diets members  result with have  i n h o u s i n g , tenure and  c o s t of accommodation. T a n a k t e u k Band members s u f f e r e d  from p s y c h o l o g i c a l  change i n s o c i a l p a t t e r n s as a r e s u l t  145  of r e l o c a t i o n .  s t r e s s and a The s h o c k o f  adjustment  t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y was  identified  an i n c r e a s e  members been  traditional a  only  a  Band  members  i n p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l p r o b l e m s o f  a s a r e s u l t o f t h e move.  noted:  great;  I m p a c t s on c u l t u r e  m i n o r i t y o f Band  members  have family  have  also  participate  in  a c t i v i t i e s t o d a y . The move f r o m a n a t i v e community  to  p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - n a t i v e urban environment has f a c i l i t a t e d the  cultural In  a s s i m i l a t i o n 'of t h e T a n a k t e u k .  Chapter  development the  Five,  need  a p p r o a c h e s was  success  of  development  must  priorities  and  for  alternatives  identified,  development  needs;  initiatives  development  were  less  orthodox  presented:  i t must meet  plans  should  capital-intensive  d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s was  build  The  evaluate five  permanent  amalgamation  thesis. criteria  a n o t h e r band  summer r e s i d e n c e s o n - r e s e r v e ,  community  in  to  an  region,  and r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a  a t the s i t e of the o l d v i l l a g e . 146  the  The  namely  p u r c h a s i n g land o f f - r e s e r v e near with  the  approach.  o p t i o n s f o r development under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  center,  establishing  i n the  o f t h e T a n a k t e u k Band u s e d t h e  m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s quo, urban  on  s u g g e s t e d , one b a s e d on  T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e meets t h e c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d Council  on  also pointed out.  a s y n t h e s i s o f a t e r r i t o r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and a s y s t e m s  and  an  importance of  i n i t i a t i v e s based  An a l t e r n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h was  Chief  local  and d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be b a s e d  o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f r e s o u r c e s .  small-scale,  to  and c r i t e r i a t o e v a l u a t e  be c o n t r o l l e d by n a t i v e s ;  i n t e g r a t e d economy; collective  the  Of t h e s e o p t i o n s , was f a v o r e d . community improve  the r e i n h a b i t a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l  The C h i e f  consisting their  community community  and C o u n c i l  and  cohesiveness,  sufficiency.  relocation to  p r i m a r i l y o f T a n a k t e u k Band members  social  pride,  believe that  homelands  and  psychological strengthen  increase  would  conditions,  cultural  build  identify  the p o t e n t i a l  and  f o r Band  self-  F i v e heads of Tanakteuk h o u s e h o l d s e x p r e s s e d  their  commitment t o r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c o m m u n i t y o f New V a n c o u v e r , described  i n the survey i n Chapter Four.  confident  that their  will A  enthusiasm f o r t h i s development  incorporates  development the  strategy  principles  d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d on a s y n t h e s i s a s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h . Employment mariculture  and f i s h i n g ,  for  initial  The  proposed strategy  be  as  in a  initiative to relocate.  developed model  of a t e r r i t o r i a l  which  for  Indian  development and  i n t h e community w o u l d be b a s e d on  f o r e s t r y and t o u r i s m ,  t r a i n i n g and f u n d i n g  of p r o d u c t i o n  can  outlined  1  These i n d i v i d u a l s a r e  a c t as a c a t a l y s t f o r t h e committment of o t h e r s community  a  requested  with  assistance  from the  government.  f o r development r e f l e c t s  and community o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  traditional  modes  c o m p l e m e n t e d by modern  technology. Finally, "new" I n d i a n  DIA's  policy  on s u p p o r t i n g  c o m m u n i t i e s was e x a m i n e d .  the re-establishment  I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t DIA  has a moral o b l i g a t i o n t o support I n d i a n s '  request  for assistance  t o r e i n h a b i t t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s abandoned as a r e s u l t of  147  of  planning  p r o c e s s e s a d o p t e d by DIA d u r i n g t h e 1960s. policy  criteria,  i t i s unlikely  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of I n d i a n communities  that  However, support  because  of  f o r the r e -  s u c h a s New V a n c o u v e r  will  be  forthcoming.  Conclusions The  s i t u a t i o n of the Tanakteuk  hundreds Some,  of r e l o c a t e d communities a c r o s s  such  1985),  as  and  relocated  Grassy  Duck  Lake  Narrows  f o r improved a c c e s s t o  Northern Manitoba  Ontario (Landa,  1987).  (Shkilnyk,  ( L a i , 1969)  supplies  and  are  services,  were and  Other communities, such as Whitedog i n  (Shkilnyk,  1985),  a n d Chemuhowan i n n o r t h e r n  1969) were r e l o c a t e d b e c a u s e  o f f l o o d i n g due t o  I n d i a n communites i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e s c h e d u l e d f o r  relocation  i n the near f u t u r e . be  I n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e community  Ingenika  will  electric  project.  relocate  because  sanitation  i n t h e i r present environment.  to  (INAC,  Ontario  Manitoba  There  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f dams f o r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c m e g a - p r o j e c t s . Several  in  Canada  i n Northern  i n northern  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  the  Band i s n o t u n i q u e .  f o r c e d t o move a s a r e s u l t And  the  of  health  the C a r i b o u - C h i l c o t i n the s i t e  other  of t h e i r  Indian  s i t e s of t h e i r  community problems  of  of a  Prophet  associated  t r a d i t i o n a l community.  because  148  River  will  with  poor Band  to relocate  Members o f  share the d e s i r e t o  previous villages  hydro-  The K l u s k u s I n d i a n  r e g i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e wants  communities  past  of  relocate  several t o the  Band members a r e unhappy  with the  current past.  some  Tlatliskwala  have  from f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n  Within Kwakiutl t e r r i t o r y alone,  Tanakteuk, the  circumstances resulting  expressed  members o f  the  (Nuwitti),  and t h e  in  i n addition to the  Mamaleleqala-Qwe'qua'sot'enox, Tlowitsis-Mumtagila  i n t e n t i o n s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h communities  Bands  in  their  homelands. On  t h e b a s i s of t h e r e s u l t s of t h e case study of the Tanakteuk  Band,  what  approaches  c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn a b o u t o r t h o d o x used  communities?  by DIA i n t h e p a s t ?  What  Indian communities? policy The  the  What c h a n g e s  process  s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d  of in  i n t o DIA  approaches and t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ?  a s s u m p t i o n s on w h i c h o r t h o d o x d e v e l o p m e n t  impediments  relocation  we l e a r n a b o u t t h e p l a n n i n g  r e g a r d i n g development  based--that  are  can  About  development  approaches  are  societies  are  t h e c u l t u r e and v a l u e s of t r a d i t i o n a l  t o m o d e r n i z a t i o n , and thus o b s t a c l e s t o development--  inappropriate  i n t h e 1980s.  Indeed,  t h e y have never  been  s u c c e s s f u l , a s w i t n e s s e d by t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f s t a t u s Indians,  both  from mainstream A  radical  on- and o f f - r e s e r v e ,  who h a v e been  s o c i e t y , as d e s c r i b e d  i n Chapter Four.  new a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t  the v a l u e s and c u l t u r e s of I n d i a n other ethnic m i n o r i t i e s , increase  a  while s a t i s f y i n g  societies,  are respected.  community's c o n t r o l local priorities  i s needed,  marginalized  one i n w h i c h  as w e l l as t h o s e of  Development  must a i m t o  over i t s c o l l e c t i v e  resources,  and needs.  1 49  Success should  not  be m e a s u r e d community aim  s o l e l y by e c o n o m i c c r i t e r i a ; s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d .  the s o c i a l v i t a l i t y  Development  initiatives  t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l f a b r i c o f a  A  s y n t h e s i s of a t e r r i t o r i a l  to  would  d e v e l o p m e n t and a s y s t e m s  The  (1984)  Indians  the  r o l e p l a y e d by band  governments  in  study  of t h e Tanakteuk  has  shown  have been r e l o c a t e d a s p a r t o f t h e  that,  have  communities, not  native  development  the  socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s of  improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t  values.  necessarily them,  the  although process  c o m m u n i t i e s where t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s p r e d o m i n a t e d  modern  is  process.  case  from  approach  t o be c o n s i d e r e d . S u c h an a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t  strengthen  planning  should  community.  d e v e l o p m e n t a s i d e n t i f i e d by A n d e r s o n & B o o t h r o y d  one a l t e r n a t i v e  of a  of  into  families  adopting  non-  R e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n s t o urban c e n t e r s does  result  although  in  i n c r e a s e d employment  i t does r e s u l t  opportunities  i n improved access to s e r v i c e s  not for and  facilities. Relocation  from  a predominantly native  native  urban  Indians  i n t o mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y .  the  centers  cultural  interpreted  assimilation as  an  initiatives—rather, been It  promotes  of  indicator  the  cultural  Indians of  environment  to  non-  assimilation  of  However, an i n c r e a s e i n certainly  success  in  cannot  be  development  i t w o u l d seem t h a t a v a l u a b l e a t t r i b u t e  has  lost. i s d o u b t f u l whether the r e l o c a t i o n 150  of I n d i a n s  from  remote  communities occured and  i f an  an  other  to  urban c e n t e r s  e v a l u a t i o n of the  t h a n one  suggests  culture—or  planning  c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of  up  and  process to consider and  political  and  in  the c l i e n t e l e .  initiative less  any  other  the  considered  Planning be  This  to s u i t  the  i n t o account  assumptions which inappropriate  for  Indians.  i m p a c t s on  the  future,  of  the  it  is  planning  economic, s o c i a l ,  w i t h c o m m u n i t y members,  negative  should  not  tangible  P e r h a p s one  culture  cultural  s t r u c t u r e of a c o m m u n i t y r e s u l t i n g f r o m r e l o c a t i o n ;  impacts be  that  evaluated  factors  p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h of  from  taking  p o l i c y a n a l y s t s as p a r t  the  conjunction  minimize  the  been  tailored  regions,  m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y may  planners  have  community,  ethnic  communities f a c i n g f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n i n the  to  would  of t h e  any  p r o c e s s must be  s p e c i a l m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , s u c h as For  1960s  p r o c e s s f o r development i n i t i a t i v e s .  i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t i e s and  apply  late  w i t h a European o r i e n t a t i o n — h a d  t h a t the p l a n n i n g  n e e d s of  the  social vitality  a p p r e c i a t i o n of I n d i a n  a s p a r t of t h e  may  during  such  Kwakiutl  may  A  conclusions  T a n a k t e u k Band and  communities i s the  t h e i r community.  151  planning criteria;  as  t h a t can from  need t o r e c o g n i z e  Residents  and well.  be  drawn  studies the  of  right  process that  o f New  to  cohesion  i n d i v i d u a l s must be c o n s i d e r e d  of t h e  steps  economic  community  c o m m u n i t y members t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p l a n n i n g h a v e i m p a c t s on  take  result.  s o l e l y by as  of t h e most i m p o r t a n t  case study  to  of  will  V a n c o u v e r were  told  of  the  community  d e c i s i o n taken  school;  by t h e I n d i a n A g e n t  f o r twenty y e a r s ,  to  close  members o f t h e Band  felt  resentment and anger about t h e l a c k of c o n t r o l they  over  their  as  lives.  equals  closure  i n 1969,  or  least  at  I f Band members h a d been a l l o w e d  i n proposing  have h a d  to participate  p e r h a p s t h e outcome w o u l d have been  t h e f e e l i n g s of b i t t e r n e s s and  non-natives  members  w o u l d be somewhat a l l e v i a t e d .  its  have  and e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the s c h o o l  towards  participate  the  and  hostility  government b u r e a u c r a t s  i n the decision-making  People  process  different,  by  directed some  Band  must be a l l o w e d t o  i f they  are t o respect  outcome.  Communities 1960s  as  part  doctrine. "the  such of  a s New V a n c o u v e r were r e l o c a t e d a  planning process  With t h e b e n e f i t s of h i n d s i g h t ,  generalized prescription  nature  based  of r e g i o n a l i l l s  on  during  the  growth  pole  one c a n c o n c l u d e  of growth center p o l i c i e s  for  was one o f t h e most u n r e a l i s t i c  o f t h e l a s t d e c a d e s o f r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s " (Weaver,  that a l l  aspects  1978).  Instead  of r e l o c a t i n g c o m m u n i t y members t o an e n v i r o n m e n t where a c c e s s t o amenities  and  planning  employment  process  appropriate resources  level that  should  opportunities  f o c u s on p r o v i d i n g  Affairs  are  available.  reflect  greater,  employment  Alternatives  and  using to  the an  local  community  considered/  the planning process  must  be  of s e r v i c e w i t h i n t h e community,  r e l o c a t i o n must be t h o r o u g h l y Finally,  may  u s e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n  t h e c h a n g e s t h a t have come 152  to  be  widely  a c c e p t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e and i n p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e 20  years.  This  includes  emphasizes  community-based  controlled  by  a  approach  approach  to  development  p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t  I n d i a n s . The  characteristic perhaps  an  orthodox  approach  to  best  Should  suit  t h e needs  and  t h i s approach t o development  would  be t o c o o r d i n a t e and f a c i l i t a t e d e v e l o p m e n t  providing  o f DIA w o u l d be r e q u i r e d .  be  re-structuring  the necessary t e c h n i c a l  circumstances  establishment  as  of  DIA's  adopted,  The  expertise to  systems  a  r o l e of  DIA  initiatives  by  communities  and  organizations.  J u d g i n g by t h e December  such  alternative;  interests  major  the  development  o f DIA p o l i c y must be r e p l a c e d by an  would  that  initiatives  s y n t h e s i s o f a t e r r i t o r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and a  clientele.  Indian  over the past  under  o f "new"  result  support  for  development alternative federal  DIA  will  processes  of t h e i r  o f I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s may  that  be t h e most  reBands  u n d e r an  alternative  when a p p l y i n g t h e p o l i c y c r i t e r i a .  One  t h a t t h e DIA p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e on s u p p o r t f o r t h e  1 53  receive  While  the  cost-effective  i n the long-term, the  does not c o n s i d e r t h e l o n g - t e r m community  will  homelands.  to continued welfare assistance  a  the  have l o s t t h e i r o n - r e s e r v e c o m m u n i t i e s  the r e i n h a b i t a t i o n  government  identifies  support  i t is unlikely  o f p r e v i o u s DIA p l a n n i n g  re-establishing approach  which  communities,  a s t h e T a n a k t e u k who a  1987 p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e w h i c h  benefits  of  development can  conclude  re-establishment  of  "new"  of  Indian In  this  n a t i v e communities bands  summary,  i s an  impediment  to the  development  w h i c h were r e l o c a t e d i n t h e p a s t . the  following  conclusions  c a n be drawn  from  study: 1) O r t h o d o x d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h e s a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the development of Canadian I n d i a n s . Orthodox development a p p r o a c h e s promote c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , c l a s s i n e q u i t i e s and c o n t i n u e d d e p e n d e n c y . 2) Growth p o l e d o c t r i n e i n p a r t i c u l a r may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s o l v i n g problems a s s o c i a t e d with r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s i n v o l v i n g Indian communities. 3) R e l o c a t i o n of I n d i a n s t o u r b a n c e n t e r s i m p r o v e s a c c e s s t o s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , b u t does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e employment. R e l o c a t i o n a l s o p r o m o t e s c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of n a t i v e s i n t o n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y . 4) A r a d i c a l new a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t i s n e e d e d , one which attempts t o s t r e n g t h e n I n d i a n s o c i e t y through the d e v e l o p m e n t of I n d i a n e c o n o m i e s w i t h i n I n d i a n c u l t u r a l frameworks under t h e c o n t r o l o f I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n c h o r e d i n and d r a w i n g t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y from l o c a l I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . 5) P l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s must a c c o u n t f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s of c l i e n t e l e , and r e s p e c t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be t a i l o r e d t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c needs o f t h e r e g i o n or community. 6) The s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic i m p a c t s of r e l o c a t i o n on a community must be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , and s t e p s must be t a k e n t o minimize i d e n t i f i e d impacts. A l t e r n a t i v e s to r e l o c a t i o n s h o u l d be t h o r o u g h l y e v a l u a t e d . 7) I f p e o p l e a r e not a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t e i t h e r t h e i r f a t e , or the f a t e of t h e i r community, t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s c a n be f e e l i n g s of a n g e r , f r u s t r a t i o n , h o s t i l i t y and s u s p i c i o n t h a t c o m p l i c a t e future planning processes.  1 54  8) The planning processes which characterize DIA i n i t i a t i v e s must more f u l l y r e f l e c t new ideas and practices that have evolved over the past twenty years with regard to Indian development. 9) The c r i t e r i a outlined in DIA's policy d i r e c t i v e on the re-establishment of Indian communities are impediments to the development of Bands without on-reserve communities. People planning  w i l l not always allow themselves to be isolated from process by those with power to affect change.  Canadian  Indians are no longer content simply to contemplate a dream someday  they w i l l control the development of human and  These facts and this past seems a true nightmare of h i s t o r y .  1 55  that  physical  resources that are r i g h t f u l l y t h e i r s .  But i t is easy enough to awake.  the  REFERENCES A l l e n , D w i g h t , a n d S t e p h e n A n z a l o n e . 1981. " B a s i c N e e d s : New A p p r o a c h t o D e v e l o p m e n t - B u t New A p p r o a c h t o E d u c a t i o n ? " I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n . 2 7 : 3 . 209-226. A m i n , S. 1974. A c c u m u l a t i o n on a W o r l d S c a l e : A C r i t i q u e o f t h e T h e o r y o f U n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : M o n t h l y R e v i e w Press. A n d e r s , G.L. 1980. " T h e o r i e s o f U n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e A m e r i c a n I n d i a n . " J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c I s s u e s . 14:3. 681-699. •-.  1979. 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H i s t o r i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f A b o r i g i n a l P o l i t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada: D o c u m e n t a t i o n . Ottawa: National Indian Brotherhood. W h i t t i n g t o n , M.S. 1986. N a t i v e E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n s : P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c Change i n C a n a d a ' s N o r t h . Ottawa: Canadian A r c t i c Resources Committee. W i e n , F r e d . 1986. R e b u i l d i n g t h e E c o n o m i c Base o f I n d i a n C o m m u n i t i e s : The Micmac i n Nova S c o t i a . M o n t r e a l : The I n s t i t u t e f o r R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c P o l i c y .  1 68  W i l l i a m s o n , J.G. 1965. " R e g i o n a l I n e q u a l i t y a n d t h e P r o c e s s o f N a t i o n a l Development: A D e s c r i p t i o n of P a t t e r n s . " Economic D e v e l o p m e n t and C u l t u r a l C h a n g e . 13. 3-45. W i l s o n , J.W. Toronto  1973. P e o p l e Press.  i n t h e Way.  Toronto:  U n i v e r s i t y of  W o l c o t t , H a r r y . 1967. A K w a k i u t l V i l l a g e a n d S c h o o l . New H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c .  169  York:  L I S T OF INTERVIEWS C u n n i n g h a m , A l a i n . A p r i l 15, 1988. F o r m e r R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1971 u n t i l 1987. V a n c o u v e r , B.C. D a l e , Norman. S e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s f r o m J a n u a r y , 1988 t o May, 1988. A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r t h e K w a k i u t l T e r r i t o r i a l F i s h e r i e s Commission, and A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r i n t h e School of Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a t U.B.C. f r o m 1983-86. C a m p b e l l R i v e r , B.C. Dawson, F l o r a . J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1988. F o r m e r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r a c t i v e i n community and r e g i o n a l development i n i t i a t i v e s f o r T s a w a t a i n e u k Band. K i n g c o m e I n l e t , B.C. Dawson, E d w a r d . F e b r u a r y 18, 1988. F o r m e r e l e c t e d C h i e f o f t h e T s a w a t a i n e u k Band o f K i n g c o m e I n l e t . C a m p b e l l R i v e r , B.C. D u n c a n , R o b e r t . May 2, 1988. F o r m e r T a n a k t e u k Band member, now a member o f C a m p b e l l R i v e r Band. C a m p b e l l R i v e r , B.C. D u n c a n , V i o l e t . May 2, 1988. S p o u s e o f e l e c t e d C h i e f o f t h e T a n a k t e u k Band d u r i n g t h e 1960s. C a m p b e l l R i v e r , B.C. G l e n d a l e , Ann. S e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s f r o m J a n u a r y 12, 1988 u n t i l May 3, 1988. Band Manager a n d member o f C o u n c i l f o r t h e T a n a k t e u k Band. C a m p b e l l R i v e r , B.C. G l e n d a l e , W i l l i a m M c K e n z i e . S e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s f r o m J a n u a r y 12, 1988 u n t i l May 3, 1988. H e r e d i t a r y C h i e f o f t h e T a n a k t e u k B a n d . C a m p b e l l R i v e r , B.C. G l e n d a l e , I s a a c . May 3, 1988. T a n a k t e u k Band member. A l e r t B a y , B.C. Jacobson, B.C.  Lucie.  May 3, 1988. T a n a k t e u k Band member. A l e r t B a y ,  J o s e p h , Bobby. May 3, 1988. F o r m e r D i s t r i c t Manager o f C a m p b e l l R i v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s ; c u r r e n t A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e Musgamaw T r i b a l C o u n c i l ; T s a w a t a i n e u k Band member. A l e r t B a y , B.C. S p e c k , W e d l i d i . J a n u a r y 14, 1988. F o r m e r A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e K w a k i u t l D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l ; N i m p k i s h Band member. P o r t H a r d y , B.C.  170  APPENDIX 1. TANAKTEUK BAND SURVEY The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s ask about t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d i n your f a m i l y ' s d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y o f New V a n c o u v e r on Harbledown I s l a n d many y e a r s a g o . P l e a s e a n s w e r them a s w e l l a s you c a n . 1)  What y e a r d i d your New V a n c o u v e r ?  2)  Where d i d y o u r  family  family  first  move  from  the  move t o when t h e y  community  of  left?  3) P l e a s e c h e c k o f f t h e MAIN r e a s o n why y o u r f a m i l y decided t o move t o a n o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t i n s t e a d o f s t a y i n g i n New V a n c o u v e r ? to f i n d for  work  school  for medical t o be n e a r  care f r i e n d s or r e l a t i v e s  government t o l d t o be l e s s had  (specify  4) D i d a n y o n e f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t t a l k about moving b e f o r e l e a v i n g ? Yes " y e s " , who was t h e p e r s o n  isolated  no c h o i c e b e c a u s e o t h e r s  other  If  us t o move  No  )  t o members o f t h e f a m i l y ______ Don ' t know  a n d what d i d t h e y  171  left  say?  5)  What was t h e most d i f f i c u l t  t h i n g about moving?  (Check one)  finding a job f i n d i n g a house m e e t i n g new p e o p l e other  (specify  __)  6) Do y o u t h i n k t h a t m o v i n g f r o m New V a n c o u v e r r e s u l t e d i n p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l p r o b l e m s f o r members o f y o u r f a m i l y ? Yes 7)  any  No  A f t e r m o v i n g f r o m New V a n c o u v e r , how o f t e n f r i e n d s a n d r e l a t i v e s ? (Check o n e ) .  d i d you see  your  Never A few t i m e s a y e a r Frequently As o f t e n 8)  I f t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d c o n t i n u e d t o p a y f o r an elementary t e a c h e r on t h e i s l a n d , w o u l d y o u r f a m i l y h a v e moved a n y w a y s ? Yes  9)  No  A f t e r m o v i n g f r o m New V a n c o u v e r , Yes  10)  11)  as b e f o r e  A f t e r m o v i n g , do more o r  work?  No you t h i n k that your f a m i l y spent l e s s money on f o o d e a c h week?  A f t e r y o u r f a m i l y moved, i n t h e new c o m m u n i t y ? Yes  was i t e a s y t o f i n d  d i d they f e e l as i f they belonged No  1 72  .  No  opinion  12) Has y o u r f a m i l y e v e r l i v e as before?  w a n t e d t o move b a c k t o New V a n c o u v e r a n d  Yes 13)  No  Now t h a t y o u r f a m i l y no l o n g e r l i v e s i n New Vancouver, i s there anything that i s missed, or i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g about t h e l i f e b e f o r e t h e move t h a t y o u w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e b a c k ? Yes  If  No o p i n i o n  "yes",  No  No o p i n i o n  p l e a s e comment.  14)  I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g y o u f e e l t h e Government c o u l d h a v e done t o h e l p y o u r f a m i l y when t h e y moved f r o m New V a n c o u v e r ? P l e a s e comment.  15)  Do y o u l i k e where y o u l i v e  16) Do y o u 17a)  '  own o r  now? P l e a s e comment.  r e n t where y o u l i v e  A r e t h e r e members o f y o u r h o u s e h o l d c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n any o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r a c t i v i t i e s t o p r o m o t e I n d i a n c u l t u r e ? Yes  17b)  now?  How many p e o p l e  i n your  No household  173  can speak Kwakwala?  18) Y o u r C h i e f and C o u n c i l a r e p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g m o v i n g b a c k t o t h e s i t e o f New V a n c o u v e r on H a r b l e d o w n I s l a n d . I f t h e r e WAS an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , w o u l d y o u want to l i v e there? Yes  No  No  19) I f t h e r e WASN'T an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l y o u want t o l i v e t h e r e ? Yes  opinion  on t h e i s l a n d ,  No  No  opinion  20) Would y o u l i k e t o be more i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g new c o m m u n i t y ? Yes  No  No  21) Do y o u t h i n k t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t you want f o r t h e f u t u r e ? Yes  a s k s y o u enough  No  .  No  would  of a opinion  a b o u t what opinion  22) P l e a s e c h e c k o f f w h e t h e r any members o f y o u r h o u s e h o l d h a v e e v e r done t h e f o l l o w i n g j o b s ? built  a  house  cut or logged  timber  repaired & serviced engines installed wiring in a  building  i n s t a l l e d plumbing i n a o p e r a t e d heavy  ._  equipment  did  book-keeping or  did  secretarial  f i s h - f a r m i n g or fished  accounting  work oyster-growing  commercially  1 74  house  

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