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Who were the daughters of Allah? Randsalu, Donna 1988

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WHO WERE THE DAUGHTERS OF ALLAH? By DONNA RANDSALU B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,1982. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (RELIGIOUS STUDIES) We accept t h i s t h e s i s — a s conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 © Donna K r i s t i n Randsalu, 1988 V In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in part ial f u l f i lmen t o f t h e requ i remen ts fo r an a d v a n c e d deg ree at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f ree ly avai lable fo r re ference and s tudy . I f u r the r agree that permiss ion fo r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis fo r scholar ly pu rposes may be g r a n t e d b y the head o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r by his o r her representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on o f th is thesis f o r f inancia l ga in shall no t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n permiss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f £gLlfr/OU^ £TUO>eS> The Un ivers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver , Canada V 6 T 1Y3 Date Per- n} DE-6(3 /81) ABSTRACT Who were the Daughters of A l l a h , the three Arabian goddesses mentioned i n the Qur'an and venerated by the pagan Arabs p r i o r to the r i s e of Islam, and who s i n c e have vanished i n t o o b s c u r i t y ? Can we r e c o n s t r u c t i n f o r m a t i o n about these goddesses by r e f e r e n c e to e a r l i e r goddesses of the Near East? I t i s our i n t e n t i o n to e x p l o r e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s i n view of the l i n k s between the F e r t i l e Crescent and the Arabian P e n i n s u l a . Moving back i n time from the seventh c e n t u r y A.D. ( A r a b i a ) t h r o u g h t h e H e l l e n i s t i c P e r i o d ( S y r o / P h o e n i c i a 300 B.C.-A.D. 300 ) t o t h e end o f t h e s e c o n d m i l l e n n i u m , we s h a l l examine those goddesses whose a t t r i b u t e s most c l o s e l y resemble the Arabian goddesses. By n e c e s s i t y , we w i l l c o n f i n e o u r s e l v e s p r i m a r i l y t o the goddesses of a n c i e n t Canaan 1 ( A s t a r t e ) and S y r i a ( A t a r g a t i s ) , c o m p e l l i n g r e s e m b l a n c e s o f t h e s e g o d d e s s e s t o t h e A r a b i a n g o d d e s s e s o f the s e v e n t h c e n t u r y b e i n g the b a s i s f o r t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . T h i s e x p l o r a t i o n , then, takes p l a c e i n the F e r t i l e C r e s c e n t , that r e g i o n of the Near East "forming an a r c between the head of the P e r s i a n G u l f and the south-east corner of the Mediterranean x C a n a a n ( S y r i a , P h o e n i c i a , P a l e s t i n e ) i n e a r l y t i m e s e x t e n d e d from Hamath i n the n o r t h t o Gaza (Gen.10.19), and in c l u d e d lands east and west of the Jordan (Josh.11.3). i i i S e a " 2 . These l a n d s a r e a n a t u r a l p h y s i c a l e x t e n s i o n of the A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s n a t u r a l l y m i g r a t e d i n t o these r e g i o n s . As w e l l , there i s the l i n g u i s t i c , and,, t h e r e f o r e , c u l t u r a l , a f f i n i t y of the S e m i t i c peoples of the F e r t i l e C r escent w i t h those of the A r a b i a n P e n i n s u l a , so t h a t a s e a r c h f o r the h e r i t a g e of the A r a b i a n goddesses would be l i k e l y to begin here. 2 P h i l i p K. H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs; From the E a r l i e s t  Times to the P r e s e n t , 10th ed. (New York: S t . Ma r t i n' s P r e s s , 1979),11. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGMENT V INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1. AN EXAMINATION OF ARABIC SOURCES . . 3 The Qur'an: E t y m o l o g i c a l and I n t e r n a l Analyses CHAPTER 2. AN EXAMINATION OF OTHER ARABIC SOURCES . 15 Ibn a l - K a l b i E p i g r a p h i c A n a l y s i s CHAPTER 3. A GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY 25 The God Ath t a r i n the South A l - H i j a z CHAPTER 4. THE NABATAEANS 39 CHAPTER 5. PALMYRA, A CORNERSTONE 47 The C u l t of A l l a t A s s i m i l a t e d with Near Eastern D e i t i e s : A l l a t / A s t a r t e ; A l l a t and A t a r g a t i s ; Ishtar/Athena Manat and Al-Uzza at Palmyra i i i i v CHAPTER 6. THE PHOENICIAN/SYRIAN COUNTERPARTS . . . 62 ASTARTE ATARGATIS CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . 86 REFERENCE LIST . . . . . . . . . 106 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to thank P r o f e s s o r Hanna K a s s i s f o r h i s time and patience i n the completion of t h i s work. H i s steady support and encouragement throughout t r u l y i n f l u e n c e d t h i s endeavour. My s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n a l s o i s extended to P r o f e s s o r Anderson and P r o f e s s o r Mosca of the Department of R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s who, i n the c o u r s e o f my s t u d i e s , t a u g h t me the i n v a l u a b l e s k i l l o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g which has s i n c e g r e a t l y b e n e f i t e d my r e s e a r c h . I am indebted, as w e l l , to the capable a s s i s t a n t s at the A.M.S. Word P r o c e s s i n g Centre whose e x p e r t i s e was extremely h e l p f u l i n the f i n a l stages of completion. v INTRODUCTION The i n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine the problem of the i d e n t i t y of the Daughters o f A l l a h . Other than a b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o them i n the Qur'an, and s c a t t e r e d l i t e r a r y and e p i g r a p h i c a l remains, the pagan pas t has a l l but been e r a s e d . What l i t t l e s u r v i v e d the new r e l i g i o n of Muhammad i n the seventh c e n t u r y , was s u b j e c t t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e b i a s o f M u s l i m commentators who, w r i t i n g on the preceding e r a , r e f e r r e d to i t as the "age of barbarism', and whose recordings must, t h e r e f o r e , be viewed i n t h i s l i g h t . As a consequence of t h i s , and the s c a r c i t y of t a n g i b l e evidence, the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r e - I s l a m i c r e l i g i o n has been fraught with i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and l a c k i n g consensus. From t h e e a r l i e s t o f t i m e s , c o m m e r c i a l t r a d e r e l a t i o n s e x i s t e d between t h e a n c i e n t Arabs and t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s : the caravan highway, which o r i g i n a t e d i n South A r a b i a b r i n g i n g goods from I n d i a and the Far East, made i t s way along the west coast ( a l - H i j a z ) branching o f f at the northern t r a d i n g posts to Egypt, the Mediterranean p o r t s , and S y r i a and Bab y l o n i a . The r e s u l t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n of c u l t u r e s thus perpetuated the exchange of i d e a s , customs, and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s . C o n t r a r y t o i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t would appear t h a t the r e l i g i o n of the pagan Arabs was not an i s o l a t e d one, but, i n f a c t , a complexity of p r e v a i l i n g , thoughts. 1 2 C o n s i d e r i n g the c l o s e c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c t i e s of the pr e d o m i n a n t l y S e m i t i c Arabian P e n i n s u l a , we s h a l l examine South A r a b i a n and S y r o / P h o e n i c i a n m a t e r i a l t o d e t e r m i n e what l i g h t might be shed on t h i s problem. CHAPTER ONE AN EXAMINATION OF ARABIC SOURCES The Qur 1 an makes e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o the Daughters of A l l a h i n Sura 53.19-23: "Have you co n s i d e r e d E l - L a t and El-Uzza and Manat the t h i r d , the other? What, have you males, and He females? That were indeed an unjust d i v i s i o n . They are naught but names yo u r s e l v e s have named, and your f a t h e r s ' ; God has sent down no a u t h o r i t y touching them. They f o l l o w only surmise, and what the sou l s d e s i r e ... 1 , 1 Other than t h i s s i n g l e verse which names the goddesses, there i s no f u r t h e r h i n t as to who they were or the p o s i t i o n they occupied i n p r e - I s l a m i c r e l i g i o n . In order to i d e n t i f y these goddesses, then, i f i n f a c t t h i s can be done, we s h a l l pursue two modes of a n a l y s i s : the f i r s t w i l l be an e t y m o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s whereby some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the goddesses may be g l e a n e d from the source (root) of t h e i r names; the second, an i n t e r n a l a n a l y s i s , w i l l examine the w r i t i n g s of h i s t o r i a n s and s c h o l a r s on the Qur'an as they p e r t a i n to the Daughters of A l l a h . A c c o r d i n g to the t r a d i t i o n a l view 2, A l l a t i s d e r i v e d from 1 A r t h u r J . A r b e r r y , The Koran I n t e r p r e t e d , 2 v o l s , combined i n one, (New York: The Mac m i l l a n Company,19 55). References to the Qur'an have been taken from t h i s source throughout t h i s paper unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d . 2The t r a d i t i o n a l view i s presented i n A Concordance t o the  K o r a n , t r a n s , f r o m A r a b i c i n t o E n g l i s h by Hanna E. K a s s i s ( B e r k e l e y and Los Angeles and London: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1983). 4 the root L Y T. Besides Sura 53.19, there i s o n l y one other word used i n the Qur'an which d e r i v e s from t h i s root and t h a t i s the word V l a a t a ' meaning to d i m i n i s h , to w i t h h o l d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s meaning seems u n r e l a t e d to the meaning of A l l a t and o f f e r s nothing to the understanding of the name. While the t r a d i t i o n a l view may be the p r e v a i l i n g view, i t does l i t t l e to s o l v e our p r o b l e m , and t h e r e f o r e we, as o t h e r s b e f o r e us, s h a l l l o o k f u r t h e r f o r more e n l i g h t e n i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The g e n e r a l o p i n i o n among s c h o l a r s i s t h a t the name A l l a t d e r i v e s from a l -i l a h a t meaning "the goddess" 3. T h i s p r i m i t i v e form, as i t i s r e f e r r e d t o , was g r a d u a l l y c o n t r a c t e d i n t o " a l - I l a t " known as the m i d d l e s t a g e , and f i n a l l y i n t o " L a t " , the most r e c e n t form. H i t t i w r i t e s of her " a l - L a t (from a l - I l a h a h , the goddess) ..." 4 Another theory i s t h a t the name a l - L a t i s d e r i v e d from the r o o t L T T. A c c o r d i n g t o F a h d , "Arab l e x i c o g r a p h e r s a r e unanimous i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t a l - L a t i s d e r i v e d from the verb l a t t a , t o m i x , t o k n e a d , b a r l e y - m e a l ( s a w i k ) " 5 . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s b a s e d on the p r e s e n c e , i n t h e t e m p l e of J e r u s a l e m , o f an ' o b l a t i o n o f j e a l o u s y ' w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d the C a n a a n i t e / P h o e n i c i a n goddess A s h t o r e t h . T h i s ' o b l a t i o n of j e a l o u s y ' , which was made out o f b a r l e y - m e a l , determined the g u i l t or innocence of wives s u s p e c t e d by t h e i r 3F.V.Winnett, "The Daughters of A l l a h , " Muslim World vol.30 (1940):121. 4 H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs,99. 5The E n c y c l o p a e d i a of Islam: New E d i t i o n , 1986. ed., s.v. " a l - L a t " , by T.Fahd. 5 husbands of i n f i d e l i t y . In h i s account, K i t a b al-Asnam, Ibn a l -K a l b i r e f e r s t o a " c e r t a i n Jew" 6 i n a l - T a i f , who was a l a t t a l -Sawik, "kneader of barley-meal" 7, and who used to s i t b e s i d e the rock s y m b o l i z i n g A l l a t . The assumption has been made on the ba s i s of t h i s that A s t a r t e and A l l a t have common r o o t s ; t h a t i s , A l l a t was one of the i n c a r n a t i o n s of the S e m i t i c B a ' l a of which A s t a r t e was the most eminent, and t h a t the r i t u a l , t h a t was performed i n Jerusalem to determine i n f i d e l i t y , was performed i n a l - T a i f near the stone of A l l a t . The term A l l a t ( a l - L a t ) , then, i s merely an e p i t h e t of the p r i m i t i v e S e m i t i c Ba'la which i s i n keeping with the Sem i t i c t r a d i t i o n of the anonymity of d e i t i e s . F i n a l l y , there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the name A l l a t i s the feminine form of A l l a h , supreme god of p r e - I s l a m i c A r a b i a . The d e r i v a t i o n of her name from h i s suggests a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p , p o s s i b l y daughter or wife, j u s t as the Canaanite goddess E l a t was the w i f e o f her p r o g e n i t o r , E l . A b a s i c f e a t u r e o f a n c i e n t Semitic pantheons was the in t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s of i t s d e i t i e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d the element o f r e p r o d u c t i o n i n man and i n nature; A l l a h / A l l a t ( E l / E l a t ) , then, f o r m u l a t e d t h a t e s s e n t i a l male/female dichotomy from which a l l l i f e flowed. A g a i n s t t h i s background, A l l a t may have o r i g i n a t e d as the wi f e / d a u g h t e r of A l l a h , a r e l a t i o n s h i p which, i n A r a b i a , was s i n c e tempered by time i n t o an impersonal (or asexual) one. 6 I b n a l - K a l b i , K i t a b al-Asnam (The Book of I d o l s ) , t r a n s . N a b i h Amin F a r i s ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952),14. 7Fahd, " a l - L a t " . The name Uzza i s d e r i v e d from the r o o t ' Z Z . Words der i v e d from t h i s root a r e : 'azzaza;, the verb to s t r e n g t h e n , to r e i n f o r c e ; 'a'azza, the verb to render powerful, to e x a l t ; 'azza, the verb t o conquer, to overcome; ' a z i i z , the noun meaning g r e a t , s t r o n g , m i g h t . I n t h e Q u r ' a n , t h e word U z z a i s u s e d predominantly i n r e f e r e n c e to A l l a h , "the A l l m i g h t y " , "the A l l -Strong". The goddess a l - U z z a was undoubtedly the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a l l t h e s e t r a i t s ... Uzza, the Most Mighty. As the p l a n e t Venus, which she i s b e l i e v e d to have represented, her m i g h t i n e s s and s t r e n g t h would have been r e f l e c t e d i n the b r i l l i a n c e of the morning s t a r t h at f a r surpassed the r e s t . The name Manat may be d e r i v e d from two c o m p a t i b l e y e t d i s t i n c t r o o t s . The f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y i s the root form M N N 9, the verb 'manna', of which means to be g r a c i o u s t o , to show grace to , to f a v o r , to bestow, to g i v e l i b e r a l l y . The noun mannan (not found i n the Qur'an 1 0) means k i n d , benign, m u n i f i c e n t , generous, b e n e f a c t o r , t h e B e n e f a c t o r ; a l s o , manun has t h e m e a n i n g s indebted, o b l i g a t e d , o b l i g e d , g r a t e f u l , t h a n k f u l . From t h i s , i t can be t h e o r i z e d that Manat was seen, at l e a s t i n some as p e c t , to be a B e n e f a c t o r endowed w i t h p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s s u c h as g e n e r o s i t y , grace, munificence; On the other hand, such words as inde b t e d , o b l i g a t e d , o b l i g e d suggest a c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p 8 K a s s i s , A Concordance to the Koran. 9 K a s s i s , I b i d . 1 0 A 1 1 words not f o u n d i n t h e Qur' a n a r e t a k e n f r o m A D i c t i o n a r y of Modern W r i t t e n A r a b i c , ed. J . M i l t o n Cowan, 4th ed~. (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1979). between the goddess and her worshippers. Her b e n e f i c e n c e r e s t e d on the continued v e n e r a t i o n p a i d to her. Should t h i s f a i l , the c o n s e q u e n c e , j u d g i n g f r o m t h e d e r i v a t i v e words r e p r o a c h , diminished, f a i l i n g , would be some s o r t of chastisement ... from diminished g e n e r o s i t y to perhaps complete abandonment ( f a i l i n g ) . The r o o t form M N N a l s o has the d e r i v a t i v e word manun meaning F a t e , Time. I t i s from t h i s a s p e c t of the r o o t M N N that most s c h o l a r s a t t r i b u t e the o r i g i n s of the goddess Manat. Buhl says we can know her from her name "which may s a f e l y be c o n n e c t e d as a p l u r a l ( f o r manawat) w i t h the Aramaic menata, p l u r . menawata, p o r t i o n , l o t , Hebrew m a n a p l u r . manot and a l s o with the god of f a t e meni." 1 1 He g i v e s the A r a b i c c o u n t e r p a r t maniya ( p l u r . manaya) meaning "the a l l o t t e d , f a t e , e s p e c i a l l y of d e a t h . " 1 2 Winnett suggests that her name i s connected w i t h the root mana, "to determine, mete o u t " 1 3 . He a l s o draws a t t e n t i o n to the Hebrew god meni ( D e s t i n y ) , and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n I s a i a h 65.11 w i t h a god of F o r t u n e , c o n c l u d i n g from t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t h a t the two shared s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For Winnett too, then, Manat was the goddess of F o r t u n e . However, he d i s a g r e e s with Buhl's c o n c l u s i o n that the name Manat i s an Aramaic p l u r a l form and i n s t e a d argues that the A r a b i c form m n t (as opposed to the Aramaic m n w t) i s the o r i g i n a l one, hence "the goddess i s n T h e . E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f I s l a m , 1936ed.,s.v. "Manat," by Fr .BuhlT" 1 2 I b i d . 1 3Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h , " 119. 8 d e f i n i t e l y A r a b i c . " 1 4 Noldeke i n c l u d e s Manat under the root form M N N, s t a t i n g her o r i g i n to be a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the a b s t r a c t i d e a s , Fate or Time, from out of which she was r a i s e d " t o the d i g n i t y of a r e a l goddess." 1 5 Hommel w r i t e s simply of her, "the goddess of death Manat." 1 6 F i n a l l y , Grunebaum says " i n A r a b i c Manat i s the l i n g u i s t i c c o u n t e r p a r t of H e l l e n i s t i c Tyche, Dahr, f a t e f u l 'Time' who snatches men away and robs t h e i r e x i s t e n c e of purpose and v a l u e . " 1 7 The o t h e r r o o t form from which Manat may be d e r i v e d i s M N Y. 1 8 Words i n the Qur'an which come from t h i s root are mani, meaning a sperm-drop; umniyah, meaning a fancy, d e s i r e ; manna, to f i l l with f a n c i e s , to arouse or f i l l with ( f a l s e ) d e s i r e s ; amna, to cast f o r t h , to s p i l l . Some other word d e r i v a t i v e s of the root M N Y found o u t s i d e the Qur'an are munya, meaning wish, d e s i r e , o b j e c t of d e s i r e ; tamniya, e m i s s i o n , e j a c u l a t i o n of the sperm. B e c a u s e o f t h e u n m i s t a k a b l y s e x u a l n a t u r e o f t h e s e word d e r i v a t i v e s , i t can be reasonably argued that the goddess Manat, assuming t h a t her name o r i g i n a t e d from the r o o t M N Y, was a t some p o i n t revered as a goddess of s e x u a l i t y or f e r t i l i t y . The 1 4 I b i d . 1 5 E n c y c l o p a e d i a of R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1917 ed.,s.v. "Arabs ( A n c i e n t ) , " by Th. Noldeke. 1 6The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913 ed.,s.v." A r a b i a , " by F. Hommel. 1 7G.E.Von Grunebaum, C l a s s i c a l Islam; A H i s t o r y (600-1258), t r a n s . K a t h e r i n e Watson ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1970),24. 1 8 K a s s i s , A Concordance to the Koran. g r e a t e s t problem i s , of course, a l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on which to base any p o s i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s concerning her o r i g i n s . R e t u r n i n g to the Qur'an (Sura 53.19-21), more can be s a i d about the goddesses based on an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s v e r s e . Buhl a t t r i b u t e s the e x p r e s s i o n "Manat, the t h i r d , the o t h e r " 1 9 to s t y l e , i . e . , i t was used simply f o r the rhyme. He adds that the wording i m p l i e s the subordinate p o s i t i o n of Manat which c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the f a c t t h a t A l l a t and a l - U z z a sometimes appear alone; f o r example, one i n s c r i p t i o n reads, "By A l l a t and a l - U z z a and those who i n them b e l i e v e , and by A l l a h v e r i l y he i s g r e a t e r than b o t h . " 2 0 The d e s c r i p t i o n of Manat "the t h i r d , the o t h e r " i s commented on by S u y u t i 2 1 . He w r i t e s that "other" i s used p e j o r a t i v e l y ; t h e t h r e e g o d d e s s e s were m e r e l y s t a t u e s o f s t o n e , u sed by u n b e l i e v e r s f o r p u r p o s e s o f w o r s h i p , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y i n t e r c e d e d f o r them with God. The i m p l i c a t i o n of the v e r s e , he says, i s to r a i s e the q u e s t i o n "do these s t a t u e s have any power whatsoever such as God A l m i g h t y ? " when the u n b e l i e v e r s a l s o claimed that these goddesses were the Daughters of A l l a h i n s p i t e of t h e i r hatred f o r daughters. S u y u t i , then, i s q u e s t i o n i n g the l o g i c and c r e d i b i l i t y of the pagans, e x i s t i n g as they d i d i n a c u l t u r e t h a t h a t e d d a u g h t e r s , who c o u l d y e t a s c r i b e to them power. He i s r i d i c u l i n g the n o t i o n t h a t A l l a h would have chosen 1 9 B u h l , "Manat". 2 0 I b n a l - K a l b i , Book of I d o l s , 15. 2 1 T a f s i r a l - J a l a l a y n . 10 daughters r a t h e r than sons. T h i s h a t r e d f o r daughters, while i t might have been t r u e of the Arab i n h i s immediate f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , would not n e c e s s a r i l y extend to the realm of d e i t i e s . W.R. S m i t h 2 2 p o i n t s out t h a t o r i g i n a l l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t r i b e and i t s d e i t y was one of motherhood, not fatherhood i . e . , where the d e i t y r e p r e s e n t e d a p a r e n t - f i g u r e , a goddess not a god was the o b j e c t of worship. F u r t h e r , he says, "the emotional, s i d e of S e m i t i c heathenism was always very much connected with the worship of female d e i t i e s . " 2 3 H i t t i 2 4 s u p p o r t s t h i s argument a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t A r a b i a n goddesses p r e c e d e d the god as o b j e c t o f w o r s h i p due t o t h e o r i g i n a l m a t r i a r c h a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f a m i l y . I t would seem, then, that the pagan Arabs' a t t i t u d e towards daughters would not r e f l e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the goddesses known as the Daughters of A l l a h . In Watts o p i n i o n , the term 'Daughters' was not w i d e s p r e a d or much i n use and was most probably used by those who " i n s i s t e d on the s u p e r i o r i t y of the 'high god' 1 , 2 5. I t can even be questioned whether the Arabs knew these goddesses as 'Daughters', or i f t h a t i s a l a t e r term o f reference. Watt comments on the term 'daughters' i n h i s a r t i c l e : " W . R o b e r t s o n S m i t h , L e c t u r e s on t h e R e l i g i o n o f t h e  Semites, Burnett Lectures 1888-89, The Fundamental I n s t i t u t i o n s , F i r s t S e r i e s , new ed. (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1914),52. 2 3 I b i d . , 59. 2 4 H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs,100. 25W. Montgomery Watt, "P r e - I s l a m i c Arabian R e l i g i o n , " I s l a m i c Studies vol.15 (1976):78. "the numerous Q u r ' a n i c r e f e r e n c e s , e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t , t o 'daughters of God' are probably to be understood i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s b e l i e f i n a 'high god'" 2 6; " t h i s b e l i e f i n a 'high god'" r e f e r s t o h i s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h where he i s d i s c u s s i n g h i s t h e o r y t h a t the Arabs of Muhammad's time s t i l l r e t a i n e d the v e s t i g e s of a p o l y t h e i s t i c b e l i e f i n which A l l a h , the 'high god', remote and s u p e r i o r , i s n e v e r t h e l e s s one of many gods. So, w h i l e men prayed to A l l a h i n times of s t r e s s , they a l s o f r e q u e n t l y appealed to the other d e i t i e s to i n t e r c e d e f o r them. For example, Sura 39.3 r e a d s : "Those who take p a t r o n s apart from Him ( s a y ) , we worship them only so that they may b r i n g us to a near r e l a t i o n s h i p with God." I t i s i n t h i s r e l a t i o n to a 'high god', then, t h a t Watt says the term 'daughters' i s to be understood. By a v o i d i n g the 'emotional' aspect of the word, as w e l l , he i s p u t t i n g e m p h a s i s on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p h r a s e "Daughters of A l l a h " i s not to be understood i n terms of Greek mythology ( i . e . , i m p l y i n g s e x u a l i t y ) . The "Daughters" merely represented a p o s i t i o n subordinate to that of the High God A l l a h . In support of t h i s , Watt c i t e s Sura 6.100 "and they impute to Him sons and daughters without any knowledge." C l e a r l y the o b j e c t i o n to d a u g h t e r s i s not an o b j e c t i o n t o f e m a l e s as such, but t o anyone who i s a s s o c i a t e d with God. Relevant to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the goddesses and t h e i r worshippers i s the abrogated Qur'anic v e r s e Ibid.,77-78. o r i g i n a l l y sent down to Muhammad: "Have you c o n s i d e r e d E l - L a t and E l - U z z a and Manat the t h i r d , the other? V e r i l y t h e y a r e t h e most e x a l t e d f e m a l e s whose i n t e r c e s s i o n i s to be sought." 2 7 In l i g h t of t h i s statement, there i s l i t t l e doubt as to the importance of the goddesses i n the eyes of t h e i r patrons. The f a c t t h a t they were females i n no way d i m i n i s h e d the v e n e r a t i o n bestowed on them. L i k e w i s e , i n view of t h e i r near ac c e p t a n c e i n t o I s l a m , i t i s to be e x p e c t e d t h a t the subsequent a t t a c k a g a i n s t the Daughters would be e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g . A g a i n , the attack i s not so much d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t females, as to a s s o c i a t e s of God. Continuing on to l i n e s 22 and 23 of Sura 53, the goddesses aire r e f e r r e d to as 1 names 1 invented by man. Man f o l l o w s surmise and h i s s o u l ' s d e s i r e . I z u t s u comments on the A r a b i c word "zann" which i s used to t r a n s l a t e surmise and which he d e f i n e s as "a g r o u n d l e s s , unwarranted type of t h i n k i n g , u n c e r t a i n or d o u b t f u l knowledge, u n r e l i a b l e o p i n i o n , or mere c o n j e c t u r e . " 2 8 In the Qur'an, 'zann' ( i . e . , surmise) i s a negative value word used i n c o n t r a s t to ' i l m ' , i . e . , knowledge " e s t a b l i s h e d unshakably on the basis, of r e a l i t y . " 2 9 Those who worship the Daughters of A l l a h , 2 7 I b n a l - K a l b i , Book of I d o l s , 1 7 . 2 8 T o s h i h i k o I z u t s u , E t h i c o - R e l i g i o u s Concepts i n the Qur'an, M c G i l l I s l a m i c Studie~s~7 T~, e d . C h a r l e s J . Adams and J o h n A.Williams (Montreal: M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966),132. 2 9 I b i d . 13 t h e n , have l i t t l e on which to base t h e i r f a i t h ... i n f e r i o r t h i n k i n g urged on by t h e i r s o u l ' s d e s i r e . T h i s same i d e a i s repeated i n l i n e s 28 and 29 (Sura 53). The u n b e l i e v e r s g i v e the angels female names because "they have not any Knowledge", ( i l m ) ; they f o l l o w i n s t e a d surmise (zann), which can o n l y be understood as an a b s e n c e of r e a l knowledge, "and s u r m i s e a v a i l s naught aga i n s t t r u t h . " Other i m p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s to the Daughters a r e the many r e f e r e n c e s t o " a s s o c i a t e s " : "and y e t t h e y a s c r i b e t o God a s s o c i a t e s " , "when the i d o l a t e r s behold t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n " , "show me those you have j o i n e d to Him as a s s o c i a t e s " . 3 0 . A p p a r e n t l y , the Daughters of A l l a h were sometimes c a l l e d the 'companions' or even ' a s s o c i a t e s ' of God 3 1. The word ' s h i r k ' i s used to d e s c r i b e t h i s b e l i e f i n ' a s s o c i a t e s ' and i s a t t r i b u t e d to the workings of that mental process known as 'zann'. One who a s c r i b e s a s s o c i a t e s t o God ( m u s h r i k ) i s t h e r e f o r e o p e r a t i n g u n d e r s e r i o u s misconceptions and can never r e a l i z e the T r u t h . The very prevalence of verses d i s c l a i m i n g a s s o c i a t e s of God, however, speaks of the p e r s i s t e n c e with which the a n c i e n t Arabs c l u n g to t h e i r o l d ways. In a c o u n t r y where change comes so s l o w l y , t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l v a l u e s would be so deeply i n g r a i n e d i n t o the very s o u l s of the pagan Arabs that Muhammad's c a l l to " s u r r e n d e r " would be n a t u r a l l y r e s i s t e d . As the people o f Ad s a i d i n r e p l y to the "warners": "what, hast thou come to p e r v e r t 3 0Suras 13.33; 16.86; 34.27. 3 1 I z u t s u , Concepts i n the Qur'an,130. us from our. gods? • i 3 2 Sura 46.20. CHAPTER TWO AN EXAMINATION OF OTHER ARABIC SOURCES Ibn a l - K a l b i , a prominent s c h o l a r of the e i g h t h century, and who i s e s p e c i a l l y remembered f o r h i s r e c o r d i n g s of p r e - I s l a m i c paganism i n h i s book K i t a b al-Asnam (Book of I d o l s ) , i s the f i r s t o f our A r a b i c s o u r c e s . He r e c o r d s t h a t Manat was the most a n c i e n t of the t h r e e goddesses. Her s a n c t u a r y was l o c a t e d i n Qudayd on the caravan road between Medina and Mecca. Aside from the people of Mecca and Medina, she was most v e n e r a t e d by the members of the Aws and t h e K h a z r a j t r i b e s . He speaks of a pil g r i m a g e that the Aws and the Khazraj (as w e l l as other Arabs) went on where t h e y " o b s e r v e d the v i g i l a t a l l the a p p o i n t e d p l a c e s " 3 3 but d i d not shave t h e i r heads. When the p i l g r i m a g e had ended, they v i s i t e d Manat's s a n c t u a r y where they shaved t h e i r heads. T h i s l a s t a c t of v e n e r a t i o n marked the completion of the p i l g r i m a g e as w e l l as r e a f f i r m e d the h i g h r e g a r d i n which the goddess was h e l d . K a l b i a l s o mentions two swords which had been p r e s e n t e d t o Manat by the k i n g of Ghassan. Not o n l y i s t h i s f u r t h e r evidence of the p r e s t i g e of t h i s goddess, but, as w e l l , i s i n d i c a t i v e of the ex t e n s i v e nature of her worship. Manat was worshipped by the Arabs u n t i l her i d o l was destroyed by A l i on 3 3 I b n a l - K a l b i , Book of I d o l s , 12-13. 15 command of the Prophet. Concerning A l l a t , she a p p a r e n t l y 'stood' i n a l - T a i f where the banu-Attab i b n - M a l i k of the T h a q i f t r i b e watched over her. The Quraysh "as w e l l as a l l A r a b s " 3 4 worshipped her. When the Thaqif turned to Islam, the i d o l of A l l a t was destroyed and her temple burned t o the ground. K a l b i h i n t s at the r e s i s t a n c e of the T h a q i f towards the d e s t r u c t i o n o f A l l a t by a l l u d i n g t o a warning g i v e n t o the T h a q i f , "not to r e t u r n to her worship nor attempt to avenge her d e s t r u c t i o n . " 3 5 Al-Uzza i s d e s c r i b e d as the youngest or most recent of the t h r e e goddesses f o r the reason t h a t A l l a t and Manat-names of c h i l d r e n appeared before Uzza-names. Her i d o l was l o c a t e d i n a v a l l e y i n N a k h l a t , known as Hurad, on the road from Mecca to Iraq. A c c o r d i n g to K a l b i , Uzza was f i r s t brought here by Zalim ibn-As'ad although there i s no mention o f her o r i g i n a l l o c a t i o n . Zalim b u i l t a house f o r her where app a r e n t l y the people would come to r e c e i v e o r a c u l a r communications. Her custody was i n the hands of the banu-Shayban i b n - J a b i r ibn-Murrah ibn-Abs i b n - R i f a ah i b n - a l - H a r i t h ibn-Utbah ibn-Sulaym ibn-Manusr of the banu-Sulaym. A l t h o u g h the Quraysh worshipped A l l a t and Manat, they venerated a l - U z z a more than any other i d o l , o f f e r i n g g i f t s and s a c r i f i c e s f o r her f a v o r s . Muhammad h i m s e l f i s s a i d t o have s a c r i f i c e d a white sheep to al-Uzza as was the customary p r a c t i c e Ibid.,14. Ibid.,15. 17 of h i s pe o p l e . 3 6 Al-Ghabghab was another p l a c e of s a c r i f i c e a s s o c i a t e d with Uzza. One i n s c r i p t i o n reads: "We swore f i r s t by the House of God, And f a i l i n g t h a t , by the b a e t y l s which i n al-Ghabghab s t a n d . " 3 7 T h i s oath i s i n t e r e s t i n g not only f o r i t s mention of al-Ghabghab, but f o r the p o s i t i o n al-Ghabghab has i n respect to the 'House of God' ( A l l a h ) . I t i m p l i e s a s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A l l a h and Uzza which c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n the term 'daughter' of A l l a h ; as w e l l , i t i s an example of the r o l e o f i n t e r c e s s o r with which the goddesses are a t t r i b u t e d and which supposedly was one of t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n s i n Mecca. Because of the exemplary p o s i t i o n i n which a l - U z z a was h e l d , Muhammad d i s p a t c h e d h i s s e n i o r g e n e r a l , K h a l i d i b n - a l Walid to c u t down her s a c r e d t r e e s i n the v a l l e y of N a k l a h . In h i s account K a l b i d e s c r i b e s an episode wherein K h a l i d c o n f r o n t s a l -Uzza, "an A b y s s i n i a n woman w i t h d i s h e v e l l e d h a i r and her hands p l a c e d on her s h o u l d e r s , g n a s h i n g and g r a t i n g her t e e t h " ; he s l a y s her s a y i n g "0 a l - U z z a . May thou be blasphe m e d , not e x a l t e d . " 3 8 Epigraphy i s the second and p r o b a b l y most v a l u a b l e A r a b i c source of i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the three Ibid.,16-17. Ibid.,19. Ibid.,22. 18 A r a b i a n g o d d e s s e s . From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the i n s c r i p t i o n a l remains of a n c i e n t c e n t e r s , c e r t a i n assumptions can be made about the r e l i g i o n of the pagan Arabs, i n p a r t i c u l a r , of course, about the Daughters of A l l a h . I n the south, the d i s c o v e r y of Sabaean i n s c r i p t i o n s m e n t i o n i n g a l - U z z a and A l l a t i n d i c a t e t h e s e goddesses were known th e r e . However, judging from the r e l a t i v e l y l a t e d a t e s o f these i n s c r i p t i o n s , Winnett proposes that n e i t h e r goddess was indigenous to t h i s r e g i o n but had her o r i g i n s i n the n o r t h ( S i n a i and S y r i a r e s p e c t i v e l y ) 3 9 . Otherwise, he p o i n t s out, they would s u r e l y have been mentioned i n the e a r l y t e x t s . The Sabaean i n s c r i p t i o n s which he c i t e s d a t e mostly from the Hamdanid p e r i o d ( l a t e r than A.D. 250), although there were a few Minaean r e f e r e n c e s d a t i n g t o the f o u r t h c e n t u r y B.C. Because t h e s e M i n a e a n r e f e r e n c e s where f o u n d i n t r a d i n g c o l o n i e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the north, however, Winnett concludes that i t was from h e r e t h e South A r a b i a n s made i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h the goddesses. From the north then, Winnett argues, the c u l t s of the goddesses spread southward. T h i s theory runs c o n t r a r y to th a t of Cooke who s t a t e s , " h e r [ A l l a t 1 s ] worship extended northward (from T a ' i f ) to H e j r a , Hauran, as f a r as Palmyra . .." 4 0 I t would seem from t h i s t h a t Cooke b e l i e v e d that A l l a t , f o r one, o r i g i n a t e d i n the v i c i n i t y of Mecca, as i f K a l b i ' s account of her s a n c t u a r y there ( T a ' i f ) was to be understood as her home. H i t t i ,perhaps 3 9Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h , " 122. 4 0 G e o r g e A l b e r t C o o k e , A T e x t - B o o k o f N o r t h - S e m i t i c  I n s c r i p t i o n s :Maobite, Hebrew, P h o e n i c i a n , Aramaic, Nabataean",  Palmyrene, Jewish, (Oxford: The Clarendon P r e s s , 1903),222._ s u p p o r t s W i n n e t t ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t A l l a t came from the n o r t h (although not S y r i a ) f o r he d e s c r i b e s her as, "The North A r a b i a n a l - L a t , who f i g u r e s i n the Koran . .." 4 1 Whether the goddess Manat was known i n South A r a b i a i s not e a s i l y deduced from the i n s c r i p t i o n s . Winnett i n t i m a t e s t h a t Manat was w o r s h i p p e d i n S o u t h A r a b i a a l o n g s i d e o f Gadd, Fortune 4 2, thus implying that Manat was a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s god. I f Manat r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f D e s t i n y , F a t e , and accompanied Gadd, she might be understood i n some of the names such as GDN'M or N'MGD43, appealed to by South Arabian women i n times of c h i l d b i r t h and s i c k n e s s . T h i s t h e o r y , a c c o r d i n g l y , hinges on the assumption t h a t Manat was the Arabian v e r s i o n of the Near E a s t e r n Gadd or Tyche, a th e o r y which seems t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s e n s u s . The d i f f i c u l t y i n knowing the t r u e i d e n t i t y of Manat, i s t h a t , by and l a r g e , i n s c r i p t i o n s naming her do no more than t e s t i f y to her presence; they do not e l a b o r a t e as to the c a p a c i t y i n which she was worshipped. In N o r t h W e s t e r n A r a b i a , a t t h e a n c i e n t s i t e o f Dedan (modern a l - U l a ) , e p i g r a p h i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s have determined the exis t e n c e there of the Daughters of A l l a h . Dedan was o r i g i n a l l y an o u t p o s t e s t a b l i s h e d by the South A r a b i a n merchants i n the 4 1 H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs, 61. 4 2 J u s t as i n Canaan where Meni and Gad were a s s o c i a t e d , Manat may have l i k e w i s e been a s s o c i a t e d with Gad(d) i n A r a b i a . 4 3 F . V . W i n n e t t and W.L.Reed, A n c i e n t R e c o r d s from N o r t h  A r a b i a ( T o r o n t o a n d B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y o~E To r o n t o Press,1970),115. 20 i n t e r e s t of t h e i r trade venture, that became an important c e n t r e Of commercial c o n t a c t s . Winnett remarks on i t : "the l a r g e number of i n s c r i p t i o n s to be found i n and around the o a s i s t e s t i f i e s to the important r o l e which Dedan ( a l - U l a ) played i n the commercial and c u l t u r a l l i f e i n a n c i e n t A r a b i a . " 4 4 The Minaeans of South A r a b i a s e t t l e d here sometime around the seventh century B.C. f o r the p urpose o f p r o t e c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g the f r a n k i n c e n s e -b e a r i n g c a r a v a n s , p a s s i n g e n r o u t e f r o m a l - Y e m e n t o t h e Mediterranean p o r t s . Competing with the Minaeans f o r c o n t r o l of t h i s l u c r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e were the L i h y a n i t e s , a northern t r i b e from Agar (Hagar) on the Gulf of Aqaba. T h i s t r i b e succeeded i n ou s t i n g the Minaeans from Dedan, and maintained c o n t r o l here from 500 - 300 B.C. A l l t hree Daughters were a t t e s t e d to at Dedan a c c o r d i n g to Winnett. A l l a t i s invoked i n at l e a s t one i n s c r i p t i o n , and a p r i e s t of A l l a t appears i n one as w e l l : "This i s A l i m the p r i e s t of A l l a t . " 4 5 Manat i s mentioned a l s o i n i n s c r i p t i o n s and appears i n name f o r m a t i o n s . One such name f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d by Winnett to be the e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e to t h i s goddess. P o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s , he g i v e s the o r i g i n a l home of Manat to be i n the v i c i n i t y of Dedan 4 6. F i n a l l y , the goddess a l - U z z a , who u n t i l now had not been confirmed here, has been p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d on the : b a s i s of some d i s c o v e r y having to do w i t h the d e f i n i t e 4 4Ibid.,114. 4 5Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h , " 126;116. 4 6 I b i d . ,128. 21 a r t i c l e 'nan'. 4 7 H a v i n g uncovered a l - U z z a i n the L i h y a n i t e i n s c r i p t i o n s , W i nnett c h a l l e n g e s K a l b i ' s statement t h a t she was more r e c e n t than A l l a t and Manat. The South Arabians knew her as 'Uzzayan, the L i h y a n i t e s as han-'Uzza, and the Nabataeans as 'Uzzaya and a l - ' U z z a which a r g u e s the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f her p o s i t i o n i n A r a b i a . 4 8 On the b a s i s of t h e s e d i s c o v e r i e s , W i n n e t t seems j u s t i f i e d i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "the worship of A l l a h and h i s three daughters was f l o u r i s h i n g i n A r a b i a ... , l 4 9 One other f e a t u r e of the L i h y a n i t e i n s c r i p t i o n s a t Dedan i s the m e n t i o n t h e r e o f the C a n a a n i t e gods B a a l Samin and E l . Evidence of the god E l , f o r example, i s found i n the name of a king of Dedan, K a b i r ' e l , son of M a t i ' e l 5 0 . That they were known here i s but one of many i n s t a n c e s t h a t i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r a c t i v e presence i n A r a b i a , t h e i r s , as w e l l as other Canaanite d e i t i e s who were worshipped a l o n g s i d e of n a t i v e gods. The i m p o r t a t i o n and a d o p t i o n of t h e s e f o r e i g n d e i t i e s was u n d o u b t e d l y a by-p r o d u c t of the e x t e n s i v e t r a d i n g between those A r a b i a n c i t i e s s i t u a t e d on the caravan highways and the c i t i e s of the Near E a s t . We have a good a u t h o r i t y f o r the d i r e c t communication between Dedan and Tyre, f o r example, i n the B i b l e : "Dedan traded with you 4 / I b i d . ,116. 4 8 I b i d . ,116. 4 9 I b i d . , 1 1 6 . 5 0New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p a e d i a , 1967ed., s.v. " A r a b i a , " by J.Starcky. : : 22 [Tyre] i n s a d d l e c l o t h s f o r r i d i n g . A r a b i a and a l l the p r i n c e s of Kedar were your f a v o r e d d e a l e r s i n lambs, rams, and g o a t s ; i n these they t r a f f i c k e d with you." 5 1 The S i n a i t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s from the Northwestern c o r n e r of Arabia are v a l u a b l e f o r what they t e l l us about the c u l t of the p l a n e t V e n u s , p r e s u m a b l y t h e c u l t o f the goddess a l - U z z a . W i n n e t t , f o r one, b e l i e v e s t h e S i n a i t o be h e r p l a c e o f o r i g i n : " T h e form of her name, with the a r t i c l e a l , would suggest t h a t . " 5 2 He r e f e r s to Jerome's L i f e of St. H i l a r i o n i n which the l a t t e r mentions a c e l e b r a t i o n a t the temple o f Venus i n El u s a , and proposes that the name E l u s a i s a L a t i n t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the A r a b i c a l - U z z a ; t h i s b e i n g her home, then, the annual f e s t i v a l t here i n honor of Venus must have been i n honor of a l -Uzza. Winnett a l s o draws on Herodotus f o r c o r r o b o r a t i o n of h i s theory. In Book 1.105 Herodotus 5 3 s t a t e s that the o l d e s t c e n t r e of worship of the goddess Aphrodite ( i . e . , Astarte/Venus) was at Askal o n . I f the goddess worshipped here by the Arabs was a l -Uzza, i t f o l l o w s that the goddess to whom Herodotus r e f e r r e d when he s a i d t h a t t h e A r a b s o f S i n a i w o r s h i p p e d ' A l i l a t ("the goddess"), i s l i k e l i e r to have been al-Uzza than A l l a t . Two S i n a i t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s have been found that r e f e r t o a p r i e s t of: a l - U z z a , and another one that bears the t i t l e Abd a l -5 1 E z e k i e l 27.20. 5 2Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h , " 122. 5 3 H e r o d o t u s , The H i s t o r i e s , t r a n s . A u b r e y de S e t i n c o u r t , r e v i s e d w i t h an i n t r o d u c t i o n and n o t e s by A.R.Burn ( G r e a t B r i t a i n : R i c h a r d Clay (The Chaucer P r e s s ) , L t d . , 1981). Uzza, a name that p r i o r to Islam was "extremely common among the Arabs. " 5 4 There i s a l s o an account g i v e n by N i l u s that d e s c r i b e s s a c r i f i c e s by w i l d Arabs - t o the morning s t a r , not f a r from the d i s t r i c t where the i n s c r i p t i o n s were found. S t e p p i n g o u t s i d e o f A r a b i a p r o p e r , momentarily, t h e r e i s another r e g i o n where mention i s made of the Ar a b i a n goddesses. T h i s i s the r e g i o n s o u t h e a s t o f Damascus known as S a f a ; the S a f a i t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , a s t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o , d a t e approximately from the f i r s t century B.C. Because the S a f a i t e s were i n such c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the Greco-Romans, the d e i t i e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s were o f t e n H e l l e n i z e d . F o r e x a m p l e , A l l a t , t h e d e i t y most f r e q u e n t l y i n v o k e d , was a s s i m i l a t e d w i t h A s t a r t e , A p h r o d i t e and Athena. A c c o r d i n g t o Winnett, o n l y two goddesses were mentioned, A l l a t and Rudaw, Rudaw being "the Thamudic and S a f a i t i c e q u i v a l e n t of a l - U z z a . " 5 5 Manat may have been present here as w e l l as the Gadd of one of the t r i b e s . As was common among the S y r i a n t r i b e s , the t r i b e s of the S a f a i t e s had f o r t u n e - d e i t i e s , or tyches, who p r o t e c t e d them. Because Manat was a l r e a d y known i n t h i s c a p a c i t y i n A r a b i a , i t i s p o s s i b l e she was understood as being one of the Gadds (Tyche) h e r e ; as an example, t h e t r i b e Dayf i s r e p r e s e n t e d by Jadd (Gadd)-Dayf. The Gadd i s l e f t u n i d e n t i f i e d as was a common p r a c t i c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , while the name Manat i s recorded i n the Palmyrene, the S a f a i t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s do not mention her and 5 4Noldeke, "Arabs ( A n c i e n t ) " . 5 5Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h , " 123. 24 t h e r e f o r e her presence cannot be d e f i n i t e l y a s c e r t a i n e d . W h i l e the S a f a i t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s a r e i n c o n c l u s i v e , t h e i r v alue l i e s i n t h e i r t e s t i m o n i a l of the worship of the A r a b i a n g o d d e s s e s o u t s i d e o f A r a b i a , an o b s e r v a t i o n w h i c h O x t o b y recognized when he s a i d , "The S a f a i t i c pantheon i n c l u d e s d e i t i e s known from the Nabataean and Palmyrene t e x t s as w e l l as South Arabian, thus a t t e s t i n g a c e r t a i n u n i t y of c u l t u s i n A r a b i a and the S y r i a n d e s e r t . " 5 6 Other than what has been s a i d , there i s l i t t l e e l s e to be gained from the i n s c r i p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i t y or f u n c t i o n of the Daughters. However, the f a c t t h a t these A r a b i a n goddesses were so w i d e l y w o r s h i p p e d i s f u r t h e r evidence of t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y p r i o r to the r i s e of Islam. b e > W i l l a r d Gurdon Oxtoby, Some I n s c r i p t i o n s of the S a f a i t i c  Bedouin, American O r i e n t a l S e r i e s , v o l . 50., e d . E r n e s t Bender et a l . (New Haven, Con n e c t i c u t : American O r i e n t a l S o c i e t y , 1968),21. CHAPTER THREE A GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY I t i s p o s s i b l e that what we know about the Daughters of A l l a h m i g h t be s u p p l e m e n t e d by an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s both i n A r a b i a and i n the adjacent r e g i o n s . Because i t i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g assumption of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t A r a b i a n r e l i g i o u s l i f e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the r e l i g i o n s of the s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r i t o r i e s , t r a n s m i t t e d v i a the caravan t r a d e , i t f o l l o w s that the Daughters of A l l a h must have been i n f l u e n c e d by the d e i t i e s of those t e r r i t o r i e s . T h i s chapter w i l l h i g h l i g h t a few of those d e i t i e s , an understanding of whom might c o n t r i b u t e to our knowledge of the Arabian goddesses. B e g i n n i n g i n the s o u t h , most s c h o l a r s 5 7 agree t h a t the r e l i g i o n there was of an a s t r a l nature c o n s i s t i n g of the moon god (Wadd, S i n , ' A I M , Hawbas), h i s consort the sun goddess (Shams), and the god who r e p r e s e n t e d Venus ( A t h t a r ) . In regard to t h i s r e l i g i o u s system Jamme comments, "The a s t r a l c h a r a c t e r of the t h r e e main d i v i n i t i e s must be s e e n as c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e importance of the s t a r s to communities whose wealth depended to a 5 / H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the A r a b s , 60;Lewis B a y l e s P a t o n , " I s h t a r " i n E n c y c l o p a e d i a of R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1915ed; A. Jamme, " A r a b i a " i n New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p a e d i a , 1967ed. 25 l a r g e extent on the caravan t r a d e . " s s Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i s the god 'Athtar who would appear to be the male c o u n t e r p a r t i n the south of the goddess al-Uzza i n the north. His i d e n t i t y warrants a c l o s e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Paton, the name 'Athtar i s the South A r a b i a n form of the name t h a t appears as 'Ashtart ( A s t a r t e ) i n Canaan, Is h t a r i n Babylonia and A s s y r i a , 'Ashtar i n Moab, and 'Astar i n A b y s s i n i a : "The p h o n e t i c r e l a t i o n of these v a r i o u s forms shows that 'Athtar ( A s h t a r t , A s t a r t e ) was a p r i m i t i v e S e m i t i c d e i t y who must have been wo r s h i p p e d by the Aramaeans from the e a r l i e s t t i m e s . " 5 9 The f i r s t known mention of the name i s from the A n n a l s of A s h u r b a n i p a l i n t h e form ' A t a r - S a m a i n , " h e a v e n l y ' A t a r " . T e i x i d o r i d e n t i f i e s 'Atar-Samain ("morning s t a r of h e a v e n " ) 6 0 w i t h a d e i t y o f u n c e r t a i n gender whose c u l t was w i d e s p r e a d i n N o r t h A r a b i a , d e s p i t e i t s a b s e n c e i n t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s . Winckler, i n c o n c l u s i o n to h i s study of the Annals of A s h u r b a n i p a l , s t a t e s t h a t A t a r Samain, i n h i s o p i n i o n , was equated wi t h the A s s y r i a n goddess I s h t a r . 6 1 In agreement with t h i s i s S t a r c k y who says, "Atar-samain. . . i s the god 'Athtar of 5 8New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p a e d i a , 1 9 6 7 e d • , s . v . " A r a b i a " by A. Jamme; presumably, the caravans t r a v e l l e d by n i g h t and r e l i e d on the s t a r s and p l a n e t s to guide them. 5 9 E n c y c l o p a e . d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1918ed., s.v. " A t a r g a t i s , " by Lewis Bayles Paton. 6 0 J a v i e r T e i x i d o r , The Pagan God:Popular R e l i g i o n i n the  Greco-Roman Near E a s t ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977),68. 6 1Paton, " A t a r g a t i s " ; Paton i s c i t i n g Winckler ( A l t o r i e n t . F o r s c h . i 528). 27 U g a r i t ( 1 5 t h c e n t u r y ) and o f the s o u t h e r n A r a b s . But here [ A n n a l s o f E s a r h a d d o n , 680-669] i t i s a goddess, l i k e the Babylonian I s h t a r and the Phoenician A s t a r t e . . . 1 , 6 2 There i s c o n f u s i o n as to the gender of 'Atar {'Athtar). In South A r a b i a and Moab i t i s m a s c u l i n e ; i n Canaan, B a b y l o n i a , A s s y r i a , P h o e n i c i a , and p o s s i b l y North A r a b i a i t i s f e m i n i n e . Judging from i t s e a r l i e s t use, t h i s d e i t y was p o s s i b l y both male and f e m a l e , androgynous. For example, a l t h o u g h I s h t a r was a renowned goddess, Queen of the gods, t h e r e are Akkadian t e x t s that i n f e r she was androgynous. The Ras Shamra t e x t s of U g a r i t record two p e r s o n a l names of ' A t t a r : ' t t r ab, "A t t a r i s f a t h e r " , and ' t t r urn, " A t t a r i s m o t h e r " . 6 3 A l s o , i n South A r a b i a a Sabaean i n s c r i p t i o n r e f e r s to 'Athtar as "the m i s t r e s s , mother-' A t h t a r " 6 4 , and d e s c r i b e s him (her?) as the g i v e r of c h i l d r e n . One reasonable hypothesis concerning t h i s c o n f u s i o n i s t h a t , because o f the type o f w o r s h i p s u r r o u n d i n g the p l a n e t Venus, i . e . , i t s d u a l a s p e c t of morning and evening s t a r , the a n c i e n t Arabs c o n c e i v a b l y represented t h i s dual nature i n the form of an androgynous d e i t y . Thus the morning s t a r represented the god, the evening s t a r the goddess, or v i c e - v e r s a . In South A r a b i a the b^New C a t h o l i c Encyclopaedia,1967ed.,s.v. " A r a b i a , " by J . Starcky. 6 3 M i t c h e l l J . Dahood, "Ancient S e m i t i c D e i t i e s i n S y r i a and P a l e s t i n e , " S t u d i S e m i t i c a (Rome),l (1958):87. 6 4 E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1918ed., s.v. "Ashtaft ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e , " by Lewis Bayles Paton. 28 morning s t a r was male, 'Atar Sarigan, "the E a s t e r n ' A t t a r " 6 5 , and was r e p r e s e n t e d as a w a r r i o r god; the evening s t a r , w h i l e not s p e c i f i c a l l y known to be female, was the d e i t y of f e r t i l i t y , of l i f e - g i v i n g water, 6 6 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the female d e i t i e s of the n o r t h such as A t a r g a t i s and A s t a r t e . In any c a s e , t h i s d u a l nature of the Venus d e i t y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n r e f e r e n c e to the goddess a l - U z z a i n chapter f i v e . Whether as a male or female, the p r i m i t i v e S e m i t i c d e i t y 'Athtar seems to have been r e p r e s e n t e d throughout a n c i e n t Near Eastern c i v i l i z a t i o n s . . . i n Canaan, P h o e n i c i a , A s s y r i a / B a b y l o n i a , and i n South A r a b i a . In the U g a r i t i c t e x t s he p l a y s a r a t h e r i n s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e as the son of Asherah. Upon the d e f e a t of B a a l , god of the sky, Asherah appoints her son 'Athtar to take h i s p l a c e . However, 'Athtar was too s m a l l f o r the throne, h i s f e e t d i d n o t r e a c h t h e f o o t s t o o l nor h i s h e a d t h e t o p . A l b r i g h t 6 7 i n t e r p r e t s the r e j e c t i o n of 'Athtar from Baal's throne as an i n d i c a t i o n of the r i v a l r y between the c u l t s of B a a l and 'Athtar i n Canaan from the very e a r l i e s t of times, even before the middle of the second millennium. H o s t i l i t y between the two gods would suggest 'Athtar was once a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to the c u l t o f B a a l and t h a t he once h e l d a p o s i t i o n of some s t r e n g t h i n H. J . W. Dr.i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s a t E d e s s a , ( L e i d e n : E . J . B r i l l , 1980),151. 66Ibid. 6 7 F . W . A l b r i g h t , Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan:A H i s t o r i c a l  A n a l y s i s of Two C o n t r a s t i n g F a i t h s , the Jordan L e c t u r e s , 1965 (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1968),232. Canaan. Caquot and Sznycer suggest that the inadequacy of 'Athtar as opposed to Baal i n the myth was a s i g n t h a t , i n the eyes of the N o r t h e r n Semites, 'Athtar was a " f a l l e n god". 6 8 They mention v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s t h a t c a s t him as a p r i m i t i v e but great god of heaven, god of the d e s e r t , or an a s t r a l god who subsequently f e l l i n t o d e c l i n e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no reasons are o f f e r e d f o r the f a l l of 'Athtar i n Canaan. P o s s i b l y the f a i l u r e of 'Athtar to r e p l a c e Baal was a l l e g o r i c a l f o r the inadequacy of a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n as opposed to n a t u r a l r a i n f a l l . 6 9 The root ' t r from which the name 'Athtar i s d e r i v e d i s connected i n A r a b i c with a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n , hence, 'Athtar's inherent disadvantage i n the f a c e of Baal who was the Lord of the Sky and the r a i n s . Smith, on the other hand, endeavours to show that the words ba' 1 and ' a t h a r i , " b e l o n g i n g t o ' A t h t a r " 7 0 , a r e synonymous f o r l a n d t h a t i s n a t u r a l l y f e r t i l e , i . e . , underground water as opposed to l a n d dependent on r a i n or a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n . He w r i t e s : "The best A r a b i a n a u t h o r i t i e s say e x p r e s s l y that ba'1 palm t r e e s are such as d r i n k by t h e i r r o o t s , w i t h o u t a r t i f i c i a l i r r i g a t i o n and without r a i n . . . " 7 1 In A r a b i a , then, both Baal and 'Athtar were 6 8 A n d r e Caquot and M a u r i c e S z n y c e r , Ugar i t i c R e l i g i o n , Iconography of R e l i g i o n s , XV,8 (Leiden: E . J . B r i l l , 1980),15. 6 9 E n c y c l o p a e d i a J u d a i c a , 1971ed. s.v. "Baal Worship," by Marvin Pope. 7 0Smith, R e l i g i o n of the Semites,98-99. 7 1 I b i d . 9 9 ; H i t t i , as w e l l d e s c r i b e s the d e i t y B a x l as "the s p i r i t of s p r i n g s and underground water..." H i s t o r y of the Arabs, 97. 30 gods of underground i r r i g a t i o n . Smith then poses the q u e s t i o n : which i s the r e a l B a a l ? Was he o r i g i n a l l y an A r a b i a n god of s u b t e r r a n e a n water who l a t e r became the god of r a i n ; or d i d he e n t e r A r a b i a as the l o r d of r a i n and was adapted to s u i t i t s s p e c i a l c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s ? Wellhausen and Noldeke h o l d that B a a l - worship was indigenous to A r a b i a , " o l d e r than the S e m i t i c d i s p e r s i o n , and to belong to an age when a l l the Semites were s t i l l nomadic." 7 2 Smith 7 3, on the c o n t r a r y , b e l i e v e s Baal i s not indigenous t o A r a b i a but entered that country with the date-palm. But even so, he admits i t s very u n l i k e l y Baal entered as a god o f t h e r a i n s who changed t o a god of u n d e r g r o u n d s p r i n g s . Rather, because the date-palm r e l i e s on subterranean water and not on r a i n f a l l f o r utmost p r o d u c t i v i t y , B a a l was r e g a r d e d o r i g i n a l l y as the god o f underground water s u p p l y . S e m i t i c a g r i c u l t u r e ( i . e . , the date-palm p r i m a r i l y ) , he says, e x i s t e d at o a s i s and s p r i n g s and not i n p l a c e s of abundant or dependable r a i n f a l l . Whatever the case may be, i t i s c l e a r l y apparent t h a t the gods Baal and 'Athtar were f e r t i l i t y gods worshipped a l o n g s i d e of each other throughout the a n c i e n t Near East from South A r a b i a to the land of Canaan. For unknown reasons, but which very p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l changes, 'Athtar's p o s i t i o n d i m i n i s h e d i n Canaan t o be s u p e r c e d e d a l t o g e t h e r by B a a l . ' A t h t a r was 7 2 S m i t h , R e l i g i o n o f the S e m i t e s , 1 0 0 ; Smith i s c i t i n g J.Wellhausen and Th.Noldeke. 7 3 I b i d . l 0 1 . 31 subsequently important only i n South A r a b i a and then predominantly as an a s t r a l god, Venus. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , A s t a r t e , h i s female c o u n t e r p a r t i n Canaan, although i n i t i a l l y c o l o u r l e s s and u n i m p ortant i n the U g a r i t i c myths, went on to become the Semitic goddess of f e r t i l i t y and s e x u a l i t y , par e x c e l l e n c e . T h i s goddess w i l l be d e a l t with i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n chapter s i x ; i t i s enough here t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the connection between the two. There a r e f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s i n South A r a b i a of f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e o r, r a t h e r , of the commonality of r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n the a n c i e n t Near E a s t , i n the p r e s e n c e o f the C a n a a n i t e mother-goddess Asherah. According to Hommel74, i n South A r a b i a , l i k e i n Canaan, Asherah was a great mother-goddess, mother and consort of the moon god. C o n s i d e r i n g that the moon god was the head of the a s t r a l t r i a d , her r e l a t i o n s h i p with him p a r a l l e l s t h a t with E l , the a n c e s t r a l d e i t y i n Canaan. Hommel f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e s Asherah with H a t "as a component p a r t i n names of persons, a l s o i n the shortened form L a t . " 7 5 T h i s i s not the f i r s t time A l l a t was s a i d to represent the mother-goddess, as w i l l become e v i d e n t , so her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Asherah i s not unreasonable. The r o l e of the mother-goddess must have been an i m p o r t a n t one, not o n l y i n Canaanite r e l i g i o n , but i n the r e l i g i o n s of a l l p r i m i t i v e Semites where the female d e i t y r e f l e c t e d the m a t r i a r c h a l type of s o c i e t y , as Smith and ot h e r s have p o i n t e d out. 74Hommel, " A r a b i a , " . 7 5 I b i d . 32 The p r o s p e r i t y of South A r a b i a was h e a v i l y dependent on the caravan trade o r i g i n a t i n g i n the Yemen and moving northwards to the Mediterranean world. When, however, the Romans i n t e r v e n e d on t h i s monopoly by sending t h e i r own s h i p s to I n d i a f o r purposes of t r a d e , the economy o f the south went i n t o d e c l i n e c a u s i n g the i m p o r t a n t c u l t u r a l c e n t e r s to s h i f t f rom the Yemen t o t h e H i j a z . 7 6 The c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e H i j a z now a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n of the o u t s i d e world, and, e x p e r i e n c i n g an i n f l u x of f o r e i g n e r s , took on a cosmopolitan c h a r a c t e r : " A l - H i j a z , through i t s somewhat c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n , i t s a c c e s s a b i l i t y and i t s l o c a t i o n on the main caravan route running n o r t h and south, o f f e r e d an u n e x c e l l e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b o t h r e l i g i o u s and c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y . " 7 7 In the southern H i j a z there were two c i t i e s of note, Mecca and a l - T a i f , as w e l l as the nearby c u l t c e n t e r s of Naklah and Qudayd. These important r e l i g i o u s s i t e s have been p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n c o n n e c t i o n with the Daughters of A l l a h i n chapter one and t h e r e f o r e need not be i n c l u d e d here. I t might be worth mentioning at t h i s time, however, that the economic boom of t h i s a rea together with i t s expanding urban p o p u l a t i o n may have been / b T h i s d e c l i n e i n South Arabian trade was not a sudden one but "age-long", brought on by many f a c t o r s , Roman i n t e r v e n t i o n being one; H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs,65. O'Leary, d i s c u s s i n g t h i s p o i n t , o b s e r v e s , "When the Red Sea s h i p p i n g d e c l i n e d , the H i j a z route r e v i v e d and then Mecca and Y a t h r i b (Medina) began to r i s e i n t o importance." De Lacy O'Leary, A r a b i a Before Muhammad, r e p r i n t e d from t h e 1927ed.,London (New York,N.Y.: AMS P r e s s Inc.,1973),105. 7 7 H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs, 102. 33 r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of permanent s a n c t u a r i e s f o r the goddesses A l l a t , a l - U z z a , and Manat, so t h a t the H i j a z became i d e n t i f i e d as t h e i r home. T h i s assumption, which seems i m p l i c i t i n K a l b i ' s book, might be m i s l e a d i n g , as Winnett a r g u e s . 7 8 In n o r t h e r n H i j a z was the important s e t t l e m e n t of Teima (Tayma). Here, c a r a v a n s from the s o u t h e n r o u t e t o Egypt or A s s y r i a would s t o p , i n order to take advantage of i t s b o u n t i f u l s p r i n g and t o renew n e c e s s a r y p r o v i s i o n s . Teima, t o which O ' L e a r y r e f e r s as " t h e g r e a t d i s t r i b u t i n g c e n t r e f o r a l l A r a b i a " 7 9 was a p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e commercial c e n t r e h a v i n g connections with Egypt and P a l e s t i n e v i a Aqaba ( E l a t h ) and S i n a i , w i t h B a b y l o n i a v i a H a ' i l , and with S y r i a v i a P e t r a . One would e x p e c t t o f i n d i n s u c h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d i n g c e n t r e , a heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n , the d i f f e r i n g elements of which being r e p r e s e n t e d by c o r r e s p o n d i n g d e i t i e s . From i n s c r i p t i o n s d i s c o v e r e d on J a b a l Ghunaym (ten miles southeast of Teima) d a t i n g about the s i x t h century B.C. 8 0, i t i s apparent t h a t the Canaanite g o d d e s s A s h e r a h was e s p e c i a l l y r e v e r e d i n t h i s a r e a . One i n s c r i p t i o n t h a t names her reads: " . . i n the 22nd y e a r . . . i n Tema, Salm of Mahran and S h i n g a l a and A s h i r a , the gods of Tema..." 8 1 Cooke t h i n k s the god Salm i s Aramaic or N o r t h S e m i t i c , "not 'Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h " . 'O'Leary, A r a b i a Before Muhammad,105. 'winnett, Ancient Records from North Arabia,29. Cooke, Text-Book of North-Semitic I n s c r i p t i o n s , 1 9 6 . 34 n a t i v e t o A r a b i a " 8 2 ; and Asherah i s c e r t a i n l y not n a t i v e which means t h a t none of "the gods of Tema" were Arabian but, r a t h e r , of f o r e i g n import. T h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the community, however, i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the c l o s e t i e s between Teima and the e a s t e r n Mediterranean r e g i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due to the extreme s c a r c i t y of e p i g r a p h i c a l or l i t e r a r y evidence, the c a p a c i t y i n which the goddess Asherah was worshipped remains unknown. N e v e r t h e l e s s , because she was widely venerated as a m o t h e r - g o d d e s s / f e r t i l i t y goddess i n U g a r i t , i n Canaan and South A r a b i a , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to suppose t h a t here, at Teima, she served i n the same c a p a c i t y . I f she was thus worshipped i n n o r t h e r n A r a b i a , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t A l l a t , so w e l l - k n o w n i n the north, assumed these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l , i f she were not o r i g i n a l l y regarded i n t h i s manner. I f A l l a t was w o r s h i p p e d a t Teima, f o r w h i c h , c u r i o u s l y , t h e r e i s y e t no e v i d e n c e , 8 3 her c u l t would very l i k e l y have i n c o r p o r a t e d these more prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Asherah's. There are i n d i c a t i o n s from Teima t h a t the r e l i g i o n i n the north was of an a s t r a l nature as i n the'south. The Babylonians and A s s y r i a n s , who are known from the A s s y r i a n annals t o have i n f i l t r a t e d A r a b i a on many o c c a s i o n s , c o u l d have passed on t h e i r 8 2 I b i d . 8 3 T h e r e i s a s t o n e p l a q u e f o u n d on J a b a l Ghunaym t h a t d e p i c t s a goddess with p r o t r u d i n g b r e a s t s seated on a c h a i r whose l e g s r e s e m b l e the c l a w s of a l i o n . W i n n e t t c o n s i d e r s t h i s goddess might be A l l a t , being "one of the most popular goddesses i n a n c i e n t N o r t h A r a b i a " , or A sherah who was known at Teima. Winnett, Ancie n t Records from North A r a b i a , 170. a s t r a l r e l i g i o n t o t h e A r a b i a n s as some s c h o l a r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d . 8 4 B a b y l o n i a , and " c o l o n i e s of B a b y l o n i a n s " 8 5 s e t t l e d i n Teima f o r ten y e a r s d u r i n g which time B a b y l o n i a n i n f l u e n c e must have been exerted on the indigenous p o p u l a t i o n . A sun god was worshipped here, judging from the evidence of the famous Teima Stone, and p o s s i b l y a moon god. There i s an i n s c r i p t i o n t h a t mentions ' A t h t a r , the Venus god of South A r a b i a : "By B i •Athtar the son of J i l f . . . " 8 6 According to Winnett, " B i 'Athtar o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y as a n. p r . i n Sabaean...; i t can o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as 'son of ' A t h t a r ' " . 8 7 From t h i s , i t would appear that 'Athtar was brought here by the t r i b e s m i g r a t i n g from the south and was, subsequently, worshipped at Teima as Venus. I t has been mentioned e a r l i e r ( A s s y r i a n Annals) t h a t the god/goddess Atar-samain was known i n North A r a b i a , perhaps w e l l -known as T e i x i d o r s u g g e s t s : "Atarsamain's c u l t was widespread among the t r i b e s of North A r a b i a . . . " 8 8 There have been p r o p o s a l s t h a t A t a r - s a m a i n was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A l l a t . We know from the A s s y r i a n Annals that Atar-samain was recognized as an important A r a b i a n d e i t y : " I r e p a i r e d t h e damages o f t h e images o f 8 4De Lacy O'Leary, A r a b i a Before Muhammad,193; G i o r g i o L e v i D e l i a V i d a , " P r e - I s l a m i c A r a b i a , " i n The Arab H e r i t a g e , ed. Nabih Amin F a r i s (New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l Inc., 1963),52. 8 5 T e i x i d o r , The Pagan God, 71. 8 6 F . V . Wi nne 11, S t u d y o f t h e L i h y a n i t e and T h a m u d i c  I n s c r i p t i o n s (Toronto and B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1937),23. 8 7 I b i d . 8 8 T e i x i d o r , Pagan God, 68. 3 6 Atarsamain, D a i / Nuhai, R u l d a i u , A b i r i l l u (and o f ) Atarquruma r the gods of the A r a b s . " 8 9 I t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e that A l l a t ( a l - i l a t , the goddess) was an e p i t h e t of Atar-samain and i n time came to r e p r e s e n t an i n d i v i d u a l d e i t y . T h i s would account f o r the absence o f A t a r - s a m a i n i n the i n s c r i p t i o n s of the n o r t h . Paton i s one who b e l i e v e s Atar-samain was d i s g u i s e d under the names of her e p i t h e t s : "In North A r a b i a the o r i g i n a l name of the goddess was di s p l a c e d , by t i t l e s such as a l - L a t , 'the goddess', or al-Uzza, 'the s t r o n g ' . . . " 9 0 , and he r e f e r s to Wellhausen who has made s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l s . The i d e a t h a t an i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s amongst these d e i t i e s , not only i n A r a b i a but throughout the ancient Near East, has c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t . I t s p o t e n t i a l as a means of i d e n t i f y i n g the Daughters of A l l a h w i l l be examined i n the C o n c l u s i o n . A f i n a l and b r i e f mention must be made of the a n c i e n t s i t e of E l a t h (modern Aqaba) l o c a t e d at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba. E l a t h was another s t r a t e g i c p o i n t along the caravan highway from where mer c h a n d i s e was t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o P a l e s t i n e , Egypt, and S y r i a . While E l a t h was undoubtedly an important trade c e n t r e , t h e r e i s no i n f o r m a t i o n concerning i t s r e l i g i o u s l i f e . However, i t s very name i s s u g g e s t i v e as f a r as our t o p i c i s concerned. E l a t h i s the a n c i e n t name of the Canaanite mother-goddess, be f o r e the name Asherah was used. Her name i s the feminine form of E l , s y I b i d . ,66. 9 0 E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1915ed. s . v . "I s h t a r , " by l e w i s Bayles Paton. the a n c i e n t S e m i t i c d e i t y . 9 1 In Canaanite mythology they were the o r i g i n a l d i v i n e couple. There i s s p e c u l a t i o n that A l l a h , the Arabian god, was "the d i r e c t c o n t i n u a t o r of the common Sem i t i c d e i t y E l . . . " 9 2 I f A l l a h i n A r a b i a i s synonymous w i t h E l i n P a l e s t i n e , then A l l a t c o u l d reasonably be the c o u n t e r p a r t of E l a t h . There i s a Nabataean i n s c r i p t i o n from the Hauran which O'Leary t r a n s l a t e s as, " p r i e s t of E l l a t h " 9 3 , and Cooke as " p r i e s t of A l l a t h " 9 4 . Can one i n f e r from t h i s t h a t these two names are p r o t o - S e m i t i c cognates and, t h e r e f o r e , can be used int e r c h a n g e a b l y ? Another i n s c r i p t i o n from S a r d i n i a i s t r a n s l a t e d by Cooke, "to b u i l d t h i s sanctuary to the l a d y E l a t h . 9 5 " I n h i s commentary, however, he o f f e r s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e names " H a t " and " A l l a t " . Assuming the Canaanite background of the trade c e n t r e E l a t h , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to imagine that the Arabian i n h a b i t a n t s t h e r e came to worship t h e i r n a t i v e A l l a t i n p l a c e of E l a t h ( t h e i r names being n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l ) , t r a n s f e r r i n g not onl y the name but the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l . G i v e n the commonality of c u l t u r e s and 9 1 D e l l a V i d a i n t e r p r e t s E l as "the gen e r a l word f o r 'god' or x t h e d i v i n e ' " ; t h i s d e i t y would c o r r e s p o n d t o Kronos of Greek mythology. " P r e - I s l a m i c A r a b i a " i n The Arab H e r i t a g e , by G i o r g i o L e v i D e l i a V i d a , ed. Nabih Amin F a r i s , 52. 9 2 I b i d . 9 30'Leary, A r a b i a Before Muhammad,194. 9 4Cooke, Text-Book of North-Semitic I n s c r i p t i o n s , 2 5 2 . 9 5 I b i d . l 5 8 . 38 language, 9 6 the a s s i m i l a t i o n seems n a t u r a l enough. As the most revered goddess of the n o r t h , A l l a t , then, was most l i k e l y worshipped at E l a t h (hence, the subsequent c o n f u s i o n of the names), and i n the c a p a c i t y , among o t h e r s , of mother-goddess. The c o n t r i b u t i o n of C a n a a n i t e r e l i g i o n , n o t o n l y i n E l a t h but through most of A r a b i a , i s an important f a c t o r i n the i d e n t i t y o f t h e D a u g h t e r s of A l l a h , as i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e i n f l u e n c e of Babylonia and S y r i a . The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be summarized i n the c o n c l u s i o n . y°"...the A s s y r o - B a b y l o n i a n , Aramaic, Hebrew, P h o e n i c i a n , South A r a b i c , E t h i o p i c , and A r a b i c languages should be viewed as d i a l e c t s d e v e l o p i n g out of one common tongue..." H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs,13. CHAPTER FOUR THE NABATAEANS There i s a s e c t i o n of North A r a b i a that deserves independent a t t e n t i o n . T h i s i s the kingdom of the Nabataeans, a p o w e r f u l North Arabian t r i b e and possessors of a vast kingdom. They were the successors of the Edomites, i n the r e g i o n from the Dead Sea t o t h e G u l f o f A q a b a , and t h e M o a b i t e s and Ammonites i n T r a n s j o r d a n . T h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s i n c l u d e d P e t r a , B o s t r a , Gerash and, f o r a w h i l e , Damascus; i n a d d i t i o n , t h i s v a s t kingdom extended f a r to the south, from where they are thought t o have o r i g i n a t e d . P e t r a , t h e i r c a p i t a l c i t y , was an important t r a d i n g centre on the caravan highway from South A r a b i a . I t p r o v i d e d a v i t a l s e r v i c e to the t r a d e r s enroute from the south, s u p p l y i n g them with f r e s h r e l a y s of camels as w e l l as p r e c i o u s water. The Nabataean s t a t e f l o u r i s h e d u n t i l the f i r s t century A.D. when the t r a d e r o u t e , so v i t a l t o the p r o s p e r i t y of the a r e a , s h i f t e d eastward thereby p a s s i n g P e t r a i n favor of a new s i t e , Palmyra. By the b e g i n n i n g o f the f i r s t c e n t u r y , A r a b i a P e t r a e , as the Nabataean kingdom was known, was i n a s t a t e of c o l l a p s e and alrea d y under the f o o t of the encroaching Roman Empire. From the i n s c r i p t i o n s , i t i s apparent that the Nabataeans, though of Arab race, used the Aramaic s c r i p t of t h e i r neighbours 39 40 t o t h e n o r t h . Such f a m i l i a r i t y between the A r a b s and t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of surrounding t e r r i t o r i e s c o u l d only have a r i s e n out of long c o n t a c t , commercial and p o l i t i c a l . Being the middlemen, so to speak, of an e n t e r p r i s e as c r u c i a l as the caravan t r a d e f o r more than f o u r c e n t u r i e s , the Nabataeans would have been w e l l imbued with the c u l t u r e s of both the Arabian t r a d e r s to the south and the H e l l e n i z e d E a s t e r n e r s w i t h whom they were i n b u s i n e s s . While t h e i r r e l i g i o n was predominantly A r a b i a n i n c h a r a c t e r , not too u n l i k e the r e l i g i o n of South A r a b i a , there was at the same time an u n m i s t a k a b l e H e l l e n i s t i c i n f l u e n c e . For example, on c o i n s f r o m P e t r a , A l l a t - M a n a t u i s r e p r e s e n t e d as t h e C i t y -goddess, Tyche, a very popular Greek goddess of the H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d 9 7 . A l l a t was t h e c h i e f f e m a l e d e i t y o f t h e N a b a t a e a n s . According t o H i t t i 9 8 , P e t r a had a k i n d of Ka'ba i n which Dushara (dhu-Shara, Lord of Shara) was worshipped i n the form of a b l a c k r e c t a n g u l a r stone, with h i s c o n s o r t A l l a t . A l l a t was p o s s i b l y worshipped here as a v i r g i n mother (northern i n f l u e n c e ) , or as a mother o f t h e gods, i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e mother o f D u s h a r a . Smith, 9 9who s u p p o r t s t h i s i d e a , says t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f the goddess-mother i s the o l d e s t form of S e m i t i c c u l t r e l i g i o n where polyandry and female k i n s h i p were predominant; he r e f e r s t o the 9 7George F r a n c i s H i l l , Catalogue of the Greek Coins i n the  B r i t i s h Museum, e d . A r n a l d o F o r n i , V . 2 9 ( B o l o g n a , I t a l y , 1 9 6 5 ) , x x x v i i . 9 8 H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs,72. "S m i t h , R e l i g i o n of the Semites,56-58. 41 Babylonian I s h t a r as an example of t h i s type. Noldeke, as w e l l , w r i t e s t h a t on a Nabataean i n s c r i p t i o n A l l a t i s c a l l e d "the mother of the gods" 1 0 0 W i n n e t t 1 0 1 does not deny the e x i s t e n c e of a vi r g i n - m o t h e r at P e t r a , but says her name was Kaaba, not A l l a t . In h i s o p i n i o n , Smith has i n c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d the two goddesses as one: "Smith was unduly i n f l u e n c e d by the supposed r e f e r e n c e to A l l a t as 'the mother of the gods', f o r which t r a n s l a t i o n there i s no b a s i s i n the o r i g i n a l . " 1 0 2 In s i m i l a r manner he d i s m i s s e s the r e a d i n g " A l l a t t h e mother of the gods" i n r e f e r e n c e t o an i n s c r i p t i o n from Hebran, c h a r g i n g such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s "without any f o u n d a t i o n " . 1 0 3 F u r t h e r Nabataean e p i g r a p h i c a l evidence f o r A l l a t comes from a l - O l a , al-Hegr, and from Gebel-Ramm (east of the t i p of the G u l f of Aqaba) where a temple was b u i l t i n her honour. In the Hauran too, a t Bosra and Salhad, temples were b u i l t f o r her. From the temple a t Salhad, there i s an i n s c r i p t i o n which reads: "To A l l a t t h e i r goddess, who i s i n Salhad, and whose ( c u l t ) Rawahu son of Qasiu, the gr e a t grandfather of the Rawahu above-(mentioned) had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e . . . . " 1 0 4 T e i x i d o r b e l i e v e s t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n to 1 0 0Noldeke, "Arabs ( A n c i e n t ) " . 1 0 1Winnett, "Daughters of«Allah" . 1 0 2 I b i d . , 123. - 1 0 3 I b i d . ,118. 1 0 4 J a v i e r T e i x i d o r , The P a n t h e o n o f P a l m y r a ( L e i d e n : E. J.Brill',1979) ,55. be important on two accounts: f i r s t , i t e s t a b l i s h e s the time the c u l t was founded which he e s t i m a t e s to be the year A.D.56, and which would correspond to the time when the Nabataeans occupied t h i s r e g i o n ; s e c o n d l y , he s a y s the w o r d i n g " t o A l l a t t h e i r goddess who i s i n Salhad" i n d i c a t e s that the goddess was imported i n t o t h i s t e r r i t o r y f r o m s o m e w h e r e " f a r a f i e l d " . 1 0 5 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , T e i x i d o r does not v e n t u r e to s u g g e s t what her o r i g i n s might be except to say i n a l a t e r c ontext, " t h i s female d e i t y of Arab o r i g i n . " 1 0 6 So, the A r a b i a n A l l a t , i t would seem, was c a r r i e d o u t s i d e of A r a b i a to be worshipped i n neighbouring r e g i o n s . Whether her o r i g i n s were Arabi a n , S y r i a n (Winnett), or o t h e r , e v i d e n c e o f her w o r s h i p i n a l l p a r t s of the A r a b i a n p e n i n s u l a suggests an obvious p o p u l a r i t y . Noldeke and Wellhausen share the o p i n i o n that the Nabataeans worshipped A l l a t as the sun-goddess. The sun, Noldeke w r i t e s , i s feminine i n A r a b i c (shams) hence the s u i t a b i l i t y of A l l a t 'the g o d d e s s ' . 1 0 7 In r e g a r d t o H e r o d o t u s ' r e f e r e n c e t o A l l a t as U r a n i a , Noldeke s t a t e s t h a t one can i n f e r o n l y t h a t she was c e l e s t i a l ; " to r e g a r d i t as a d e f i n i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would be i l l e g i t i m a t e . " 1 0 8 R y c k m a n says both t h a t A l l a t was known to the Arabs as the sun-goddess and that H a t (the o l d e r form of Lat) 1 0 5 I b i d . ,56. 1 0 6 I b i d . ,57. 1 0 7Noldeke, "Arabs ( A n c i e n t ) " . 1 0 8 I b i d . was known as the goddess Venus to the Arabs of the no r t h . 9 In c o n t r a d i c t i o n to these v i e w p o i n t s , Winnett r e i t e r a t e s , "The a d v o c a t e s o f the sun-goddess t h e o r y have p r o b a b l y been i n f l u e n c e d by the f a c t that the word f o r sun i n A r a b i c , shams, i s f e m i n i n e . 1 , 1 1 0 In s p i t e of the feminine gender of the word, he p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n N o r t h A r a b i a t h e sun was r e g a r d e d as masculine. He r e f e r s to a S a f a i t i c i n s c r i p t i o n i n which A l l a t and Shams are d i s t i n g u i s h e d , concluding that A l l a t c o u l d not then be the sun. As w e l l , he argues that the Nabataean sun d e i t y was the male god, Dushara, and i n Palmyra the sun d e i t y was l i k e w i s e masculine; based on t h i s , Winnett f i n d s i t " u n l i k e l y " that A l l a t would be the sun-goddess. His own theory i s th a t A l l a t was i n f a c t the moon-goddess. F i r s t , he reasons, the moon was regarded as f e m i n i n e ( i n the S i n a i ) , not m a s c u l i n e as popul a r o p i n i o n contends, and t h e r e f o r e presumes a feminine d e i t y . In support of t h i s , he c l a i m s t h e moon a p p e a r s as a g o d d e s s on c o i n s . S e c o n d l y , f r o m e x c a v a t i o n f i n d i n g s , what were thought t o be A s t a r t e f i g u r i n e s a r e r e i n t e r p r e t e d as images o f t h e moon-goddess: "There was no reason f o r p r o v i d i n g Astarte-Venus with h o r n s , but e v e r y r e a s o n f o r d e p i c t i n g the moon-goddess w i t h them." 1 1 1 In a d d i t i o n , while the sun and Venus aire worshipped by the Arabs, there i s a g l a r i n g absence of a corresponding worship 1 0 9 G . R y c k m a n s , L e s R e l i g i o n s A r a b e s P r e i s l a m i q u e s , B i b l i o t h e q u e Du Museon, 2nd ed.,v.26 ( L o u v a i n : P u b l i c a t i o n s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s and Bureaux du Museon, 1951),15. 1 1 0 W i n n e tt, "Daughters of A l l a h , "124. m I b i d . ,125. of the moon. In South A r a b i a , i t i s w e l l known that the Arabs t h e r e w o r s h i p p e d t h e moon ( A l m a q a h , Wadd, Amm, S i n ) ; subsequently, unless A l l a t i s the goddess of the moon, there i s no evidence that the moon was worshipped by the Arabs of the north. Winnett a l s o draws a t t e n t i o n to an i n s c r i p t i o n w r i t t e n by a p r i e s t of A l l a t . Above the name of A l l a t has been s c r a t c h e d the name of the Minaean moon-god, Wadd, suggesting by a s s o c i a t i o n that A l l a t , i n the nor t h , was synonymous with the Minaean god i n the s o u t h . T h i s would have been done f o r the b e n e f i t o f the Minaean t r a d e r s ( p r o b a b l y a t a l - U l a ) i n the hopes o f drawing t h e i r patronage to t h i s goddess who was the e q u i v a l e n t of Wadd. And f i n a l l y , Winnett p o i n t s to the d i s c o v e r y of b a e t y l s of A l l a t , from a l - H e g r a and Gebel-Ramm, w i t h horns p r o t r u d i n g from the stone block. The r e s u l t i n g c r e s c e n t shape i s i n d i c a t i v e of the moon f o r which the goddess stood. The goddess a l - U z z a was s i m i l a r l y v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h the Nabataeans as the i n s c r i p t i o n s t e s t i f y . There are d e d i c a t i o n s to her a t Gebel-Ramm, P e t r a , and Bosra. In f a c t , Winnett argues that a t Pe t r a a l - U z z a , and not A l l a t , was the c h i e f female d e i t y . She r e s i d e d t h e r e , a c c o r d i n g t o him, i n the company of a male d e i t y whose t i t l e was " L o r d of t h e house" (mar b a i t a ) . 1 1 2 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Winnett mentions t h a t t h i s t i t l e was s i m i l a r to one a p p l i e d to Baal Shamin, the Canaanite god, and to A l l a h (Sura 106.3). The a s s o c i a t i o n of al-U z z a or A l l a t with a male d e i t y "Lord of the house", (Dushara or A l l a h ) , could e a s i l y produce the 1 1 2Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h , " 119. a p p e l l a t i o n 'Daughter', j u s t as i n Canaan, A s t a r t e , who r e s i d e d w i t h B a a l S h a m i n " L o r d o f t h e h o u s e " , was c a l l e d h i s ' s i s t e r / w i f e ' . C o n s i d e r i n g the f a m i l i a r i t y between the c u l t u r e s , as w e l l as the f l u i d i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the d e i t i e s , i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n a l , f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s that bound the Canaanite gods together were passed over i n t o A r a b i a n r e l i g i o u s l i f e , so t h a t the Arabian pantheon assumed i t s own f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . In t h i s way, A l l a h ( o r Dushara) p e r s o n i f i e d the f a t h e r f i g u r e and head of the c l a n , and A l l a t , a l - U z z a , and Manat h i s daughters/wives. With the emphasis i n . a n c i e n t s o c i e t i e s on the p r o c r e a t i o n and s u r v i v a l of the f a m i l y , the heavenly model would se r v e to safeguard that need. Th i s p o s s i b i l i t y as to the o r i g i n of. the 'Daughters' w i l l be one of the t h e o r i e s taken up i n the C o n c l u s i o n . Along w i t h A l l a t and a l - U z z a , Manat was worshipped by the Nabataeans. T e i x i d o r , who d e s c r i b e s Manat as " popular" among the Nabataeans, d e p i c t s her as a goddess "who a p p r o p r i a t e s g i f t s to her worshippers and p r e s i d e s over chance and l u c k . " 1 1 3 From h i s examination of Nabataean i n s c r i p t i o n s , Winnett concludes t h a t the worship of Manat was r e s t r i c t e d to the H i j a z , that she was i n f a c t too l o c a l a goddess to have had any appeal o u t s i d e of t h i s r e g i o n . 1 1 4 In a l l of the i n s c r i p t i o n s , he adds, Manat was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Dushara ( h e n c e , the term " D a u g h t e r s " ? ) Y e t Noldeke s t a t e s t h a t the number of names compounded w i t h Manat 1 1 3 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra, 17. 1 1 4 W i n n e t t , "Daughters of A l l a h , "119. 4 6 "proves" the widespread d i s t r i b u t i o n of her c u l t i n A r a b i a . 1 1 5 Such ambiguity i s o n l y to be expected g i v e n the a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o n d i t i o n of the data. F r om S o u t h A r a b i a , t h e n , t o t h e f r i n g e s o f A r a b i a n s e t t l e m e n t s i n the n o r t h , we f i n d t r a c e s of the Daughters of A l l a h . T h e i r importance to the pagan Arabs seems i n d i s p u t a b l e , p a r t l y , on account of the e x t e n t of t h e i r worship, and p a r t l y from the f a c t t h a t the migrant Arabs t r a n s p o r t e d t h e i r worship from one s i t e to another rather than adopt f o r e i g n d e i t i e s . 5Noldeke, "Arabs ( A n c i e n t ) " . 47 CHAPTER FIVE PALMYRA, A CORNERSTONE F o l l o w i n g the d e c l i n e of P e t r a i n the f i r s t century. A.D., the c i t y o f Palmyra came i n t o prominence such t h a t i t was t o become one of the r i c h e s t t r a d i n g c e n t e r s of the a n c i e n t Near East. I t was s i t u a t e d i n an o a s i s i n the S y r i a n d e s e r t where the east-to-west caravan trade route, o r i g i n a t i n g i n China, c r o s s e d the south-to-north route, o r i g i n a t i n g i n South A r a b i a . I t s very s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n p l u s an abundant s u p p l y o f water a s s u r e d Palmyra's p r o s p e r i t y from the Greco-Roman p e r i o d t o the end of the t h i r d century A.D. E x i s t i n g as i t d i d i n the very hub-of the H e l l e n i s t i c world, i t was exposed t o a l l the colour and d i v e r s i t y of the n e i g h b o u r i n g l a n d s ; b e s i d e s having Roman o v e r l o r d s , the P a l m y r e n e s were d i f f u s e d w i t h G r e e k , P a r t h i a n , and S y r o -Phoenician i n f l u e n c e s . As always, the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be gleaned from Palmyra i s based m a i n l y on i n s c r i p t i o n s found on a l t a r s , s t e l a e and tesserae,, and on c o i n s . E p i g r a p h i c a l s o u r c e s a re h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g the names of gods and goddesses, a l t h o u g h , sometimes t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be p r e c a r i o u s judging from the number of d e s c r i p t i o n s l i k e "most l i k e l y represented" or "she i s probably the goddess", which i n d i c a t e the l a r g e l y c o n j e c t u r a l nature of 48 many of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to T e i x i d o r , 1 1 6 Arab t r i b e s s e t t l e d i n Palmyra i n the second c e n t u r y B.C. An i n s c r i p t i o n dated A.D.115 r e c o r d s that ' A t a i the E l d e r brought A l l a t , "Lady of the Temple" 1 1 7, to the Arab q u a r t e r sometime i n the f i r s t century B.C. The temple of A l l a t was thought to be the c u l t i c c e n t r e of the Arabs a t Palmyra p r o v i d i n g r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l u n i t y . I t s care was i n the hands o f the Bene M a a z i n and Bene N u r b e l t r i b e s , whose ancestor Yedi Ebel had o r i g i n a l l y a c q u i r e d the l a n d . At Palmyra, A l l a t was known under the e p i t h e t s b l t y , "my Lady" and b ' l t k , (of P h o e n i c i a n o r i g i n ) "Your Lady". 1 1 8 On some t e s s e r a e t h e s e e p i t h e t s a r e accompanied by a s t a r , p r o b a b l y V e n u s , o r by a s t a r and c r e s c e n t . T h e s e new s y m b o l s i n connection with the c u l t of A l l a t are i n d i c a t i o n s of the ongoing merger between th e A r a b gods and the gods from s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s . In A r a b i a , thus f a r , there i s nothing s u b s t a n t i a l to l i n k A l l a t with the morning s t a r ; e i t h e r the goddess a l - U z z a i n North A r a b i a or the god 'Athtar i n South A r a b i a was known i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . 1 1 9 The s t a r and c r e s c e n t on her t e s s e r a e suggest an l l b T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra, 53-54 . 1 1 7 I b i d . ,53. 1 1 8 I b i d . , 5 7 . 1 1 9Dussaud, Smith, B a r t o n , and Ryckmans i d e n t i f y A l l a t as "Venus-al Uzza under another name." According to them, both A l l a t and a l - U z z a a r e e p i t h e t s o f t h e p l a n e t Venus t h a t a r o s e s e p a r a t e l y i n d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s . (Winnett, "The Daughters of A l l a h " , 1 2 4 ) . Uzza may reasonably be an e p i t h e t of Venus, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r on, but A l l a t i s l e s s c l e a r . 49 added d i m e n s i o n t o the c u l t of A l l a t at. Palmyra. D r i j v e r s , w r i t i n g on t h e r e l i g i o n o f P a l m y r a , d e s c r i b e s i t a s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y a s t r a l one headed by B e l , the " c o s m o c r a t o r " ; Y a r h i b o l , a sun god; A g l i b o l , a moon god; Baalshamin, a sky god; and. A l l a t / A s t a r t e , female companion of . B e l . 1 2 0 . A l l a t , b e i n g among the f i v e l e a d i n g d e i t i e s , would l o g i c a l l y have an a s t r a l i d e n t i t y . But not i n a s o l a r c a p a c i t y , as some have her i n North A r a b i a , f o r i n Palmyra she appears on tesserae d i s t i n c t from the s o l a r gods Shamash, Y a r h i b o l , and M a l a k b e l . R a t h e r , t h e appearance of the s t a r ( t h e morning s t a r ) i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h A l l a t s u g g e s t s h e r a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h t h e G r e e k g o d d e s s , Aphrodite, and the Babylonian goddess, I s h t a r , both well-known i n the a n c i e n t Near East as goddesses of the morning s t a r . The c r e s c e n t on A l l a t ' s t e s s e r a e c o u l d s i g n i f y her c e l e s t i a l nature, as H i l l suggests i n h i s a r t i c l e on Phoen i c i a n s h r i n e s . 1 2 1 I t c o u l d a l s o s i g n i f y a l u n a r a s s o c i a t i o n as Winnett proposed e a r l i e r . There i s some p o s s i b i l i t y that A s t a r t e was regarded as a moon-goddess by the P h o e n i c i a n s . Cooke c a u t i o u s l y s t a t e s : "Ashtarte was not p r o p e r l y a moon-goddess, any more than I s h t a r ; but i n some p l a c e s she appears i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r . " 1 2 2 As w e l l , 1 2 0H.J.W.Drijvers, The R e l i g i o n of Palmyra, Iconography of R e l i g i o n s , XV,15 (Leiden: E . J . B r i l l , 1976),9-10. 1 2 1George F r a n c i s H i l l , "Some G r a e c o - P h o e n i c i a n S h r i n e s , " J o u r n a l of H e l l e n i c S t u d i e s v o l . x x x i (1911):56-64. 1 2 2Cooke, Text-Book of North-Semitic I n s c r i p t i o n s , 2 8 . 50 Lu c i a n remarks, "I t h i n k t h a t A s t a r t e i s S e l e n e " 1 2 3 , the Greek moon-goddess. I f t h i s were the case, A l l a t may have assumed t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . D r i j v e r s , on the other hand, s t a t e s that A g l i b o l was the moon-god a t P a l m y r a , " t h e o n l y known moon-god from Palmyra." 1 2 4 I t would appear, then, that the new iconography a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the A r a b i a n g o d d e s s , A l l a t , came as t h e r e s u l t o f the changes she underwent i n accordance with the composite nature of Palmyra. As i f to underscore the extent of t h i s change, T e i x i d o r observes: "In c o n t r a s t , the Arabian t r a i t s of the Nabataean c u l t s remained p r a c t i c a l l y u n a l t e r e d f o r c e n t u r i e s . " 1 2 5 A t P a l m y r a , A l l a t i s o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d by t h e S y r o -P h o e n i c i a n god B a a l Shamin; i n f a c t , the c u l t s of both d e i t i e s were i n the hands of the Bene Maazin t r i b e . 1 2 6 The f a c t t h a t the temple of Baal Shamin was b u i l t on land owned by the Bene Maazin suggests again that a c l o s e l i n k e x i s t e d i n Palmyra between the Arab gods and the gods of the n e i g h b o u r i n g t e r r i t o r i e s . B a a l Shamin was known p r i m a r i l y as the god of the sky (of l i g h t e n i n g and t h u n d e r ) , and regarded by the a g r i c u l t u r a l communities of S y r i a and P h o e n i c i a as the g i v e r of l i f e - s u p p o r t i n g r a i n s , i . e . , 1 2 3 L u c i a n , De Pea S y r i a (The S y r i a n G o d d e s s ) , T e x t and T r a n s l a t i o n s 9:Graeco-Roman R e l i g i o n S e r i e s , I , ed. H a r o l d W . A t t r i d g e and Robert Oden (Missoula,Montana: S c h o l a r s P r e s s , 1976),4. 1 2 4 D r i j v e r s , R e l i g i o n of Palmyra,10. 1 2 5 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra, 56. 126The.. Bene Maazin was the t r i b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g the c u l t of A l l a t to Palmyra. 51 t h e god o f f e r t i l i t y . He i s sometimes d e p i c t e d h o l d i n g a t h u n d e r b o l t i n one hand, symbol of r a i n ; ears of c o r n i n the o t h e r , symbol of f e r t i l i t y . I t i s probable that A l l a t , who so o f t e n a p p e a r e d i n h i s company on r e l i e f s and i n s c r i p t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those from h i s temple, was regarded i n some measure as a g o d d e s s o f f e r t i l i t y . C o n s i d e r i n g the i m p o r t a n c e o f f e r t i l i t y c u l t s i n the a n c i e n t Near E a s t , i t i s indeed l i k e l y t h a t A l l a t ' s exposure t o them at Palmyra would r e s u l t i n these changes i n , or r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f , her i d e n t i t y . D r i j v e r s surmises that the p a i r i n g of A l l a t and Baal Shamin at Palmyra i s due t o the " c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e two d e i t i e s and t h e i r s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c a t t l e b r e e d i n g d e s e r t p e o p l e s o f Arab s t o c k . " 1 2 7 I t would a p p e a r t h a t B a a l and A l l a t f o r m e d a p a r t n e r s h i p r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f e r t i l i t y and r e p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e the p r o s p e r i t y of the tribesmen. On some o f t h e t e s s e r a e f o u n d i n t h e t e m p l e o f t h e Ba b y l o n i a n god, B e l , A l l a t was c a l l e d A s t a r t e , the goddess of the S y r o - P h o e n i c i a n s . 1 2 8 As A s t a r t e , she i s o f t e n i n the company of Bel l e a d i n g some to assume that she was h i s female p a r t n e r . 1 2 9 On the t e s s e r a e , she i s d e p i c t e d s t a n d i n g dressed i n a long t u n i c and a p o l o s , c a r r y i n g a s c e p t r e . Sometimes she stands alone on the obverse of a t e s s e r a e , with B e l and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , Y a r h i b o l 1 2 7 D r i j v e r s , R e l i g i o n of Palmyra, 16. 1 2 8 N o t o n l y i s t h i s evidence of the Ba b y l o n i a n and S y r o -P h o e n i c i a n i n f l u e n c e i n Palmyra, but, as w e l l , A l l a t ' s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these c u l t s . 1 2 9 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra,8. and A g l i b o l , on the r e v e r s e ; sometimes, she i s with a group of d e i t i e s s t anding i n a l i n e . On one of these, she i s s p e c i f i c a l l y named l e a v i n g no doubt as to her i d e n t i t y ; other times, she i s referred , to as b l t y , "My Lady". A s t a r t e 'may be' the goddess represented on the c e i l i n g of Bel's temple i n the company of Y a r h i b o l and A g l i b o l . T h i s i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n based on the b e l i e f t h a t A s t a r t e / A l l a t was the l e a d i n g female d e i t y at Palmyra and, t h e r e f o r e , the most l i k e l y to be r e p r e s e n t e d . 1 3 0 Although A s t a r t e i s the form of A l l a t most d o c u m e n t e d a t P a l m y r a , l i t t l e c a n be s a i d a b o u t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or deeds because " t h e r e i s no P h o e n i c i a n or Palmyrene l i t e r a t u r e to d e s c r i b e them." 1 3 1 Along with A s t a r t e , A l l a t became i d e n t i f i e d with A t a r g a t i s , the S y r i a n goddess; with I s h t a r , the Babylonian goddess; and w i t h A p h r o d i t e and Athena, Greek goddesses. There i s no data as to when A t a r g a t i s might have entered the r e l i g i o u s scene of Palmyra, but because her temple was one of the four major s a n c t u a r i e s , i t was p r o b a b l y a t an e a r l y p e r i o d . In s p i t e of a p a u c i t y of p h y s i c a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n from Palmyra, t h e r e a r e u n m i s t a k a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s of her p r e s e n c e t h e r e . For example, on c e r t a i n t e s s e r a e d e p i c t i n g A l l a t , the. iconography i s such that T e i x i d o r r e f e r s t o i t a s " b o r r o w i n g s f r o m t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f A t a r g a t i s . " 1 3 2 These items i n c l u d e a l i o n and a b i r d , both w e l l -1 3 0 D r i j v e r s , R e l i g i o n of Palmyra, 11. 1 3 1 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra,60. 1 3 2 I b i d . , 5 7 . 53 known symbols of the S y r i a n goddess. Then, there i s a r e f e r e n c e from a t e x t , found i n the temple of Baal Shamin, that mentions a temple of A t a r g a t i s at Palmyra. Although i t s l o c a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a matter of c o n j e c t u r e , R o s t o v t z e f f , 1 3 3 i n h i s a r t i c l e "Hadad and A t a r g a t i s a t Palmyra", s u g g e s t s a p o s s i b l e s i t e based on the d i s c o v e r y o f the end of a f i s h w h ich was i n s c r i b e d i n t h e foundations of a temple. The f i s h , being a sacred symbol of the goddess A t a r g a t i s , would l i k e l y appear on any temple belonging to h e r . H o w e v e r , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t e m p l e o f A t a r g a t i s , independent of the temple of A l l a t , would seem to i n d i c a t e t hat the goddesses were worshipped s e p a r a t e l y , u n l i k e A s t a r t e / A l l a t who were a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o one goddess. The f a c t that A l l a t " o f t e n i s represented with a l l the d i s t i n c t i v e i c o n o g r a p h i c a l t r a i t s of A t a r g a t i s " 1 3 4 , would indeed be the r e s u l t of "borrowings", then, f o r i n Palmyra, the A r a b i a n goddess no doubt amalgamated the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o t h e r g o d d e s s e s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e demands of t h i s heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n . One other ' a l l u s i o n ' t o A t a r g a t i s m i g h t be h i d d e n i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C. i n s c r i p t i o n found i n the temenos of the temple of A l l a t which says, " A l l a t who i s A r t e m i s " . 1 3 5 T e i x i d o r surmises that Artemis " p r o b a b l y " r e f e r s t o t h e goddess A t a r g a t i s , who was c a l l e d Artemis at H i e r a p o l i s by L u c i a n . 1 3 3 M . R o s t o v t z e f f , "Hadad and A t a r g a t i s a t Palmyra," The  J o u r n a l of the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e of America v o l . x x x v i i (1933). 1 3 4 D r i j v e r s , The C u l t s and B e l i e f s at Edessa, 104. 1 3 5 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra,62. 54 Evidence f o r the presence of A t a r g a t i s at Palmyra of a more s u b s t a n t i a l nature i n c l u d e s one i n s c r i p t i o n from the year A.D.140 t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions her: ". . . t o Malakbel, and to the Gad T a i m i and t o A t a r g a t i s , the a n c e s t r a l d e i t i e s . " 1 3 6 As w e l l , there i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of A t a r g a t i s on a beam from the temple of B e l . 1 3 7 The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d e p i c t s a f i g h t between a god (Bel?) and a monster around which v a r i o u s d e i t i e s have gathered as witnesses or p a r t i c i p a n t s . A t a r g a t i s , d r e ssed l i k e a w a r r i o r and armed w i t h a bow, i s i d e n t i f i e d by the f i s h at her s i d e . R o s t o v t z e f f 1 3 8 l i s t s s e v e r a l examples o f t e s s e r a e which he presumes r e p r e s e n t A t a r g a t i s , most l i k e l y on a c c o u n t o f the accompanying iconography. While not a l l h i s presumptions may be a c c u r a t e , t h e r e i s one t e s s e r a e t h a t very l i k e l y d e p i c t s t h i s goddess: i t i s the f i g u r e o f a seated woman wearing a k a l a t h o s and l e a n i n g on a s c e p t r e ; i n f r o n t of her, a f i s h stands on i t s t a i l . The presence of the f i s h i s a strong i n d i c a t i o n t h at t h i s goddess i s indeed A t a r g a t i s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s t h e e v i d e n c e o f c o i n s from P a l m y r a , a l t h o u g h , as Warwick Wroth puts i t , they a r e "badly p r e s e r v e d " and " p o o r l y e x e c u t e d " . 1 3 9 T h e r e a r e two c o i n s t h a t Wroth " t e n t a t i v e l y " a s s i g n s t o A t a r g a t i s : one having no d e s c r i p t i o n 1 3 6 I b i d . , 9 0 . 1 3 7 I b i d . , 7 6 ; a n a c c o u n t o f t h i s scene i s a l s o g i v e n by D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s , 1 0 4 . 1 3 8 R o s t o v t z e f f , "Hadad and A t a r g a t i s at Palmyra," 59. 1 3 9 W a r w i c k Wroth, C a t a l o g u e o f the Greek C o i n s i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum,ed. Arnaldo Forni,v.20 ( B o l o g n a , I t a l y , 1 9 6 4 ) , l v i i , 55 other than "female bust", the other d e p i c t i n g a female seated on a l i o n . Wroth's h e s i t a t i o n , which i s warranted, i s apparent i n the q u e s t i o n - mark that f o l l o w s A t a r g a t i s ' name. The l a c k of any i n s c r i p t i o n on the c o i n s or i c o n o g r a p h y o t h e r t han one l i o n f o r c e s the c o n c l u s i o n that Wroth had other u n s p e c i f i e d evidence on which to base h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . D r i j v e r s p r o p o s e s t h a t , j u d g i n g from her w a r r i o r d r e s s , A t a r g a t i s might be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a w a r r i o r goddess f u n c t i o n i n g as a t u t e l a r y d e i t y , i . e . , the Tyche of Palmyra. 1 4 0 He r e f e r s to the Temple of Nebo wherein there i s a s t e l a e d e p i c t i n g a seated female whose f o o t r e s t s on a swimming f i g u r e , r e m i n i s c e n t of the Tyche of A n t i o c h e . 1 4 1 A l s o , from the Temple of the Gadde (or T y c h a i ) a t the Palmyrene c o l o n y o f Dura-Europas, t h e r e i s a r e l i e f which d e p i c t s A t a r g a t i s as the Tyche of Palmyra. On t h i s r e l i e f , A t a r g a t i s wears a mural crown and i s accompanied by a l i o n . D r i j v e r s c i t e s other t e s s e r a e which , l i k e R o s t o v t z e f f , he f e e l s must r e p r e s e n t the goddess A t a r g a t i s , a l t h o u g h he admits only one e x p r e s s l y names the goddess. He concludes: "The mainly i c o n o g r a p h i c a l e v i d e n c e from Palmyra r e g a r d i n g the Dea S y r i a s t r e s s e s her p r o t e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r which f i n d s i t s s t r o n g e s t and f u l l e s t e x p r e s s i o n i n her f u n c t i o n i n g as Tyche of the c i t y . " 1 4 2 Mention has a l r e a d y been made of the B a b y l o n i a n goddess, 1 4 0 D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s , 1 0 5 . 1 4 1 T e i x i d o r says t h i s goddess i s A s t a r t e , i n d i c a t i n g the c o m p l e x i t y o f i d e n t i f y i n g g o d d e s s e s by i c o n o g r a p h y alone.(Pantheon of Palmyra,60) 1 4 2 D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s , 1 0 7 . I s h t a r , i n connection with the c u l t of the morning s t a r , Venus. In Babylonia, I s h t a r was a b a t t l e - l o v i n g goddess of war commonly d e p i c t e d i n w a r r i o r d r e s s , b r a n d i s h i n g a f i e r y sword. I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t A l l a t became i d e n t i f i e d w i t h I s h t a r from t h e t e s s e r a e t h a t d e p i c t her i n w a r r i o r garb. For example, on a t e s s e r a that names A l l a t , she i s wearing a helmet and c a r r y i n g a la n c e i n one hand, a s h i e l d i n the o t h e r ; on two r e l i e f s from K h i r b e t Wadi Swane, she a g a i n appears i n a helmet c a r r y i n g a sword and s p e a r . 1 4 3 T e i x i d o r maintains that at Palmyra, I s h t a r was the goddess, par e x c e l l e n c e , and t h a t the d e r i v a t i v e ' s t r f o l l o w i n g the name A l l a t / A s t a r t e was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s goddess was the supreme goddess of heaven. 1 4 4 Another goddess of o u t s t a n d i n g m a r t i a l c h a r a c t e r with whom A l l a t became i d e n t i f i e d was the Greek goddess A t h e n a . T e i x i d o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s A l l a t , as Athena, from A l l a t as a "seated S y r i a n A t a r g a t i s " , or A l l a t as a "standing A s t a r t e " . 1 4 5 He says that by the second century A.D., A l l a t had assumed the t r a i t s of Athena, s t a n d i n g "with helmet, a e g i s . . . spear i n the r i g h t hand and t h e l e f t r e s t i n g on a c i r c u l a r s h i e l d . " 1 4 6 G r e e k i n s c r i p t i o n s found i n the Hauran equating A l l a t with Athena bear t h i s out. A l s o , a Greek i n s c r i p t i o n , i n the temple of A l l a t a t Palmyra, c a l l s A l l a t by the name Athena. D r i j v e r s notes the 1 4 3 D r i j v e r s , R e l i g i o n of Palmyra,20. 1 4 4 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra,60. 1 4 5 I b i d . , 6 1 . 1 4 6 I b i d . e q u a t i o n of the goddesses i n h i s comment, " A l l a t h i s the Arab goddess of war, u s u a l l y represented with helmet and s h i e l d l i k e A thena." 1 4 7 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that A l l a t i s r e f e r r e d to as "the Arab goddess of war", f o r , o u t s i d e the Palmyrene, her m a r t i a l a s p e c t i s v i r t u a l l y u n d o c u m e n t e d . I n T e i x i d o r ' s w o r d s , " P r e s u m a b l y A t h e n a ' s c u l t meant o n l y t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f an i c o n o g r a p h y t h a t was i n vogue and not a t r u e change i n the t r a d i t i o n a l worship of the Arab goddess." 1 4 8 Even i f an argument could be made that A l l a t was t r a d i t i o n a l l y known as a goddess of war, i t does not seem supportable that t h a t d e f i n i t i o n anywhere approaches the same t i t l e i n regard, to the goddesses Athena or I s h t a r . As f o r the goddess Manat i n Palmyra, i n s c r i p t i o n s d a t i n g from the f i r s t c e n t u r y B.C. mention her i n connection w i t h the supreme god B e l . Her c u l t was sep a r a t e from t h a t of A l l a t ' s , p o s s i b l y because t h e i r c u l t c e n t e r s were i n d i f f e r e n t areas of the c i t y . 1 4 9 According to T e i x i d o r , "the two goddesses must have come t o the o a s i s s e p a r a t e l y , each one as the F o r t u n e of a d i f f e r e n t Arab group, thus i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s may o c c a s i o n a l l y be concealed under the g e n e r i c t i t l e of the Gad 1 4 7 D r i j v e r s , R e l i g i o n o f P a l m y r a , 20.^ Whether A l l a t i n warrior dress could be d i s t i n g u i s h e d between x A l l a t as I s h t a r ' or ' A l l a t as Athena' i s d o u b t f u l ; these two goddesses would be too similar- to d i f f e r e n t i a t e u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y named. 1 4 8 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra,62. 1 4 9 M a n a t 1 s temple was l o c a t e d atop the J e b e l Muntar., the high a r e a of the c i t y ; i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e i n the f i r s t century A.D. 58 or F o r t u n e . 1 5 0 There i s too l i t t l e evidence on which to draw any c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the f u n c t i o n of the A r a b i a n goddess Manat at Palmyra. As y e t , there has been no r e f e r e n c e made to Manat i n connection with the Daughters of A l l a h here. In r e g a r d to the goddess a l - U z z a , T e i x i d o r doubts t h a t she was known at Palmyra because her worship was too recent f o r the A r a b P a l m y r e n e s t o have known h e r . 1 5 1 The A r a b t r i b e s i n Palmyra, he s p e c u l a t e s , separated from other Arab t r i b e s b e f o r e her worship was p r e v a l e n t i n North A r a b i a . T h i s remark i s based oh Ibn a l - K a l b i ' s t h e o r y t h a t a l - U z z a was t h e l a t e s t , o r youngest, of the Daughters of A l l a h . As was shown i n c h a p t e r two, t h i s p o i n t of al-Uzza's 'youth' i s u n s e t t l e d . A name that i s f r e q u e n t l y mentioned at Palmyra i s the name of the god A z i z o s . T h i s name i s d e r i v e d from the cognate root 'Z Z as i s a l - U z z a , and means 'the strong one'. 1 5 2 T e i x i d o r d e s c r i b e s A z i z o s as being "most probably a male p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of V e n u s . . . " 1 5 3 y e t never s u g g e s t s t h a t he might be somehow connected w i t h the goddess a l - U z z a , d e s p i t e the s i m i l a r i t y of names and c u l t s . D r i j v e r s d i s c u s s e s at some l e n g t h the god A z i z o s and h i s companions Arsu and Monimos, Arsu being the name of the god who accompanied A z i z o s i n the Palmyrene r e g i o n , Monimos i n t h e 1 5 0 T e i x i d o r , Pantheon of Palmyra, 17. 1 5 1 I b i d . , 1 7 1 5 2 I b i d . ,68-69. 1 5 3 I b i d . ,69. northern regions of the S y r i a n d e s e r t . 1 5 4 Dussaud has suggested that A z i z o s and Monimos are hypostases of the South A r a b i a n god 'Athtar, i . e . , they are twin gods who represent the two a s p e c t s of the p l a n e t Venus, the morning and evening s t a r . 1 5 5 There i s evidence that i n South A r a b i a 'Athtar was sometimes r e f e r r e d to as ' A t t a r a z i z a n , "the s t r o n g ' A t t a r " 1 5 6 s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h i s argument. Perhaps the e p i t h e t ' a z i z a n ' came to be used i n p l a c e of t h e p r o p e r name o f t h e god ' A t h t a r as seems t o o c c u r i n a n c i e n t r e l i g i o n s . A l - U z z a , the goddess, or A z i z o s , the god, could have o r i g i n a t e d as r e f e r e n c e s to the p l a n e t Venus which was o r i g i n a l l y c a l l e d 'Athtar. D r i j v e r s , while a d m i t t i n g to the l i k e l i h o o d of some r e l a t i o n between a l - U z z a and A z i z o s , says a t f i r s t c a u t i o u s l y , " I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s t a t e t h a t the c u l t of a l - U z z a and of A z i z o s and Monimos i s a t t e s t e d a t some time i n the same a r e a , i . e . , the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e S y r i a n and M e s o p o t a m i a n d e s e r t . " 1 5 7 However, l a t e r on i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , he becomes more a g g r e s s i v e : "He [ A z i z o s ] i s the m a sculine form of the d e i t y whose feminine a s p e c t was a l - U z z a , who r e p r e s e n t s the m a r t i a l a s p e c t of the A r a b i c Venus s t a r . " 1 5 8 So, t h e r e i s consensus that A z i z o s and 1 5 4 D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s , 150-151. 1 5 5 I b i d . ,150. 1 5 6Ibid.,151-152; words from the root *Z Z, l i k e a z i z a n , are used i n t h i s manner i n the Qur'an to r e f e r to A l l a h , "the A l l -Strong". 157 Ibid.,152. 1 5 8 I b i d . ,161.. 60 a l - U z z a were two a s p e c t s of the same d e i t y , and that both were known to have been worshipped i n the northern regions of S y r i a . D r i j v e r s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l - U z z a as the " m a r t i a l a s p e c t " of Venus i s based on h i s theory that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the: c u l t of the sun and the c u l t of Venus (morning s t a r ) , wherein t h e l a t t e r s e r v e d as p r o t e c t o r and e s c o r t o f t h e s u n . 1 5 9 A c c o r d i n g l y , the goddess a l - U z z a was seen as a w a r r i o r goddess whose f u n c t i o n was to l e a d and p r o t e c t caravans and t r a v e l l e r s a c r o s s the d e s e r t , j u s t as she guided the sun a c r o s s the sky. T h i s p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n the number of times a l -Uzza i s invoked i n t a k i n g oaths. LaGrange, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Palmyrenes", mentions the f a c t that the god A z i z u was worshipped at Palmyra, as the p l a n e t Vehus; i n t h i s c o n t e x t , he remarks " A z i z u i s elsewhere the morning s t a r , who afterwards became al - U z z a , the female d i v i n i t y known i n the Q u r ' a n . " 1 6 0 LaGrange's a s s u m p t i o n t h a t A z i z o s p r e c e d e d the goddess a l - U z z a seems q u e s t i o n a b l e i f they were i n f a c t two aspects of the same d e i t y , the planet. Venus. T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , a s i d e f r o m g e n d e r , were p r o b a b l y g e o g r a p h i c a l r a t h e r t h a n c h r o n o l o g i c a l . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s , however, the placement of A z i z o s ( a n d t h e r e f o r e , most l i k e l y , a l - U z z a ) a t P a l m y r a undermines T e i x i d o r ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l - U z z a was unknown at 1 5 9 I t maY be r e c a l l e d from c h a p t e r t h r e e t h a t the South A r a b i a n god A t h t a r , as the morning s t a r Venus, was seen as a w a r r i o r god; as w e l l , he was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the c u l t of the sun. 1 6 0 E n c y c l o p a e d i a of R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1917ed., s.v. "Palmyrenes," by M.J.LaGrange. 61 Palmyra. Even though her name was not recorded, her c u l t seems to have been known i n t h i s r e g i o n . As w e l l , i f a p r i m i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between A z i z o s i n the north and 'Athtar i n the south e x i s t e d , the c u l t of A z i z o s / U z z a more than l i k e l y was known to t h e A r a b t r i b e s o f the n o r t h f a r e a r l i e r t h a n Ibn a l - K a l b i suggested, thus c o r r o b o r a t i n g Winnett's argument concerning the goddess a l - U z z a . Perhaps, then, i t would be more a c c u r a t e to say t h a t the c u l t of the Venus s t a r was present a t Palmyra i n the form of the male god A z i z o s who was the complement of the female goddess a l -Uzza. Her r o l e a t Palmyra i s as yet undiscovered. As w e l l , i t has yet to be d i s c o v e r e d whether the goddesses a l - U z z a , Manat, and A l l a t were known at Palmyra as the Daughters of A l l a h . CHAPTER SIX THE PHOENICIAN/SYRIAN COUNTERPARTS Perhaps the s i n g l e m o s t important chapter i n terms of our problem, the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of Palmyra has advanced our p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s c o v e r i n g the i d e n t i t y of the Daughters of A l l a h , as opposed to merely the e x i s t e n c e of the Daughters, through the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the a n c i e n t Near E a s t . In l i g h t of the communication t h a t A r a b i a m a i n t a i n e d with a n c i e n t Canaan and S y r i a , A l l a t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with A s t a r t e and A t a r g a t i s a t P a l m y r a s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e A r a b i a n g o d d e s s s h a r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p o s s i b l y unknown to us from A r a b i a n s o u r c e s , w i t h those f o r e i g n goddesses. T h i s chapter w i l l examine f i r s t A s t a r t e , then, A t a r g a t i s to d i s c o v e r t h e i r most prominent t r a i t s , the assumption being t h a t these t r a i t s comprised the common bond b e t w e e n t h e A r a b i a n g o d d e s s ( e s ) a n d h e r N e a r E a s t e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s . What can be s a i d about A s t a r t e and A t a r g a t i s , t h e n , c o u l d , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , be a p p l i e d t o the A r a b i a n goddesses, at l e a s t to the extent to which they were a s s i m i l a t e d at Palmyra. A s t a r t e was t h e p r i n c i p l e goddess of t h e P h o e n i c i a n s , 62 "Greatest A s t a r t e " 1 6 1 as P h i l o r e f e r r e d t o her. Aside from the P h o e n i c i a n s , s h e was w i d e l y v e n e r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n p r i m a r i l y as a goddess of s e x u a l i t y and f e r t i l i t y , and to a c e r t a i n degree as a goddess of war. There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t she was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the p l a n e t Venus, although t h i s i s not c o n c l u s i v e as w i l l be shown f u r t h e r on. The main s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the goddess A s t a r t e are P h i l o of Byblos, the B i b l e , numismatics, i n s c r i p t i o n a l evidence, and secondary l i t e r a r y sources. When sp e a k i n g of A s t a r t e , i t i s a common occurrence among s c h o l a r s to interchange her name with t h a t of the goddess I s h t a r . The p r e s u m p t i o n i s , of c o u r s e , t h a t A s t a r t e i s the n o r t h e r n counterpart of the Babylonian I s h t a r and that many of the t r a i t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h a t goddess can be used t o d e s c r i b e A s t a r t e . 1 6 2 Because t h e r e i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e known about A s t a r t e , I s h t a r p r o v i d e s a v i a b l e means of studying her. Where t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a i n r e l a t i o n t o A s t a r t e , t h e n , re f e r e n c e w i l l be made to I s h t a r . T h a t A s t a r t e was, above a l l e l s e , a goddess of s e x u a l 1 0 1 H a r o l d W. A t t r i d g e and R o b e r t A.Oden,Jr., P h i l o o f  B y b l o s : T h e P h o e n i c i a n H i s t o r y , T h e C a t h o l i c B i b l i c a l Q u a r t e r l y : M o n o g r a p h S e r i e s ; 9 (Washington,D.C.: The C a t h o l i c B i b l i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of America, 1981),31._ 1 6 2 " T h e r e c a n be no doubt t h a t t h e p r o t o t y p e o f t h e P h o e n i c i a n A s t a r t e was the A s s y r i a n I s h t a r ; to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree the c h a r a c t e r of the goddesses was a l i k e , and both f i l l e d the most prominent p l a c e i n the worship of the two ra c e s . " Cooke, Text-Book of N o r t h - S e m i t i c I n s c r i p t i o n s , 2 7 ; "the p r o t o t y p e of A s t a r t e was I s h t a r . . . " A D i c t i o n a r y o f the B i b l e , ed. James Hastings,1906ed., s.v. "Ashtoreth," by S.R.Driver. 63 p a s s i o n and f e r t i l i t y remains unchallenged. P h i l o t e l l s us that her two c h i l d r e n were named " D e s i r e " and "Love", 1 6 3 a p p r o p r i a t e c a l l i n g s f o r the o f f s p r i n g of a goddess of l o v e . One of her e p i t h e t s was Kadesh, "temple h a r l o t " 1 6 4 , and the p r a c t i c e of s a c r e d p r o s t i t u t i o n i n her s e r v i c e i s w e l l documented. The B i b l e 1 6 5 r e f e r s t o temple h a r l o t s and the immoral a c t s t h e y committed i n the s e r v i c e of A s t a r t e . 1 6 6 The p r o h i b i t i o n of such behaviour i s made abundantly c l e a r by the author of Deuteronomy: "There s h a l l be no c u l t p r o s t i t u t e of the Daughters o f . I s r a e l , n e i t h e r s h a l l there be a c u l t p r o s t i t u t e of the sons of I s r a e l . You s h a l l not b r i n g the h i r e of a h a r l o t , or the wage of a dog, i n t o the house of the Lord your God i n payment f o r any vow; f o r both of these are an abomination to the Lord your God." 1 6 7 The perv a s i v e n e s s of t h i s theme i n the B i b l e i s a good i n d i c a t i o n of the t e n a c i t y w i t h which the people c l u n g to o l d t r a d i t i o n s , as w e l l as an i n d i c a t i o n of the o v e r r i d i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the goddess l b J A t t r i d g e and Oden, P h i l o of Byblos,24. 1 6 4 K a d e s h (Qadhesh,Qudshu) r e f e r s to s a c r e d p r o s t i t u t i o n which was an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f C a n a a n i t e worship; Qadhesh i s d e r i v e d from a word meaning " t o be h o l y " , which speaks of the s a n c t i t y w i t h which t h i s p r a c t i c e was r e g a r d e d . Deut.23.17, Harper Study B i b l e , R.S.V. 1981ed. 1 6 51 Kings 14.24 R.S.V.; Hosea 4.13-14 R.S.V. 1 6 6 P a t o n argues t h a t w h i l e temple h a r l o t s are mentioned, they are never a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y with the c u l t of A s t a r t e ; however, i f they belonged to her i n the c o l o n i e s , they d o u b t l e s s belonged to her i n the homeland, P h o e n i c i a . "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . Deut.23.17-18,R.S.V. A s t a r t e , "the abomination of the S i d o n i a n s " 1 6 8 . L u c i a n 1 6 9 g i v e s an eye-witness account of the p r a c t i c e of c u l t p r o s t i t u t i o n at the temple of Aphrodite ( A s t a r t e ) i n Byblos. He says t h a t y e a r l y the p e o p l e mourned the d e a t h o f the god A d o n i s , and t o commemorate h i s s u f f e r i n g the women r i t u a l l y s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r v i r t u e or t h e i r h a i r ; the o f f e r i n g of the h a i r was conceived to be a r i t e of f e r t i l i t y , probably, because i t was an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of a woman's s e x u a l i t y . H e r o d o t u s 1 7 0 d e s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r custom i n B a b y l o n i a . A c c o r d i n g t o him, every n a t i v e woman, once i n her l i f e , had to s i t i n the temple of the goddess of f e r t i l i t y 1 7 1 u n t i l some s t r a n g e r 'bought' her. T h i s o b l i g a t o r y a ct of p r o s t i t u t i o n was no l e s s than a duty t o be f u l f i l l e d i n honour of the goddess. Sacred p r o s t i t u t i o n at the temple of A s t a r t e i s a l s o s a i d t o have o c c u r r e d a t H i e r a p o l i s (modern Baalbek) and Aphaka, b o t h i n L e b a n o n 1 7 2 . There, as w e l l , women were o b l i g a t e d by duty to o f f e r t hemselves to s t r a n g e r s . Emperor C o n s t a n t i n e found the r i t e s s o l i c e n t i o u s and o f f e n s i v e , he a b o l i s h e d them and 1 6 8 l l K i n g s 23.13,R.S.V. According to Herbert G.May, the term S i d o n i a n s r e f e r s not merely to the people of Sidon, but to the Phoe n i c i a n s . Oxford B i b l e A t l a s , 2nd ed. (London and New York and Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1974),140. 1 6 9 L u c i a n , De Pea S y r i a , 6 . 1 7 0Herodotus, The H i s t o r i e s , 1.199. 1 7 1Herodotus c a l l s her Aphrodite, the n a t i v e s M y l i t t a , which i s no doubt a name of I s h t a r . 1 7 2 E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f R e l i g i o n and E t h i c s , 1914ed., s.v. " H i e r o d o u l o i , " by George A.Barton. 65 d e s t r o y e d the temples. T h i s p r a c t i c e was l i k e l y c a r r i e d on i n E g y p t , t o o , i f t h e " Q u d s h u - A s t a r t e - A n a t h " r e l i e f 1 7 3 i s any i n d i c a t i o n . On i t i s d e p i c t e d a nude goddess h o l d i n g a l o t u s flower and a serpent i n her hands, and under which i s i n s c r i b e d "Qudshu-Astarte-Anath". The appearance of c u l t p r o s t i t u t i o n over such a widespread area caused Barton to comment, "As h i e r o d o u l o i i n some form are t r a c e a b l e i n so many p a r t s o f the heathen S e m i t i c world, i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t i t was a p r i m i t i v e S e m i t i c i n s t i t u t i o n , which s u r v i v e d i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the Semitic n a t i o n s . " 1 7 4 I f A s t a r t e was a p r i m i t i v e S e m i t i c d e i t y , i t i s a l s o probable that she was o r i g i n a l l y , i n some fo r m ( I s h t a r , A t a r g a t i s , ' A t h t a r e t c . ) , w o r s h i p p e d i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f f e r t i l i t y goddess. In a n c i e n t Canaan, as was mentioned i n chapter three, she i s known from the U g a r i t i c t e x t s as the conso r t of Baa l , the f e r t i l i t y god. I f her e a r l i e s t known r o l e was as the consort of the god of f e r t i l i t y , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t she had her r o o t s i n the a n c i e n t S e m i t i c f e r t i l i t y c u l t s . That A s t a r t e was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A p h r o d i t e 1 7 5 , the Greek goddess of l o v e , by the Phoenicians and Greeks a l i k e , i s f u r t h e r evidence of her sexual nature. The resemblance of Aph r o d i t e to 1 7 3E.S.Edwards, "A r e l i e f of Qudshu-Astarte-Anath i n the Winchester C o l l e g e C o l l e c t i o n , " J o u r n a l of Near E a s t e r n S t u d i e s v.14-15, (1955-6). 1 7 4 I b i d . ,675. 1 7 5 " t h e Phoenicians say that A s t a r t e i s Ap h r o d i t e " ; P h i l o of  Byblos,32. 66 A s t a r t e i s no c o i n c i d e n c e , according to D r i v e r s : "...nothing i s more c e r t a i n : than that her [Aphrodite's] a t t r i b u t e s were l a r g e l y moulded upon those of A s h t a r t , and that many elements i n her c u l t were of P h o e n i c i a n o r i g i n . " 1 7 6 These sentiments are echoed by S mith. 1 7 7 A c c o r d i n g l y , the e r o t i c s e x u a l i t y of Aphrodite was i n l a r g e measure a r e f l e c t i o n of her prototype A s t a r t e . O t h e r e v i d e n c e of h e r s e x u a l i t y comes from t e r r a - c o t t a f i g u r i n e s from P a l e s t i n e t h a t d e p i c t her u s u a l l y as a naked goddess s t a n d i n g f u l l f a c e on a l i o n ; 1 7 8 s h e holds a serpent i n her hand, an a n c i e n t symbol of f e r t i l i t y . 1 7 9 Another type from T a a n a c h shows her i n a t a l l h e a d d r e s s w e a r i n g a n e c k l a c e , a n k l e t s , and g i r d l e w i t h her hands at her b r e a s t s , emphasizing her s e x u a l i t y . Hundreds of p l a q u e s from Gezer were f o u n d d e p i c t i n g a nude goddess "who i s doubtless A s t a r t e " . 1 8 0 Not o n l y i s her s e x u a l i t y c o n f i r m e d b u t , as w e l l , her preeminence i s e s t a b l i s h e d by the f a c t t h a t no other images were found at these l e v e l s . F i g u r i n e s found i n the c o l o n i e s l i k e w i s e d e p i c t her 1 7 6 D r i v e r s , "Ashtoreth" . 1 7 7 S m i t h , R e l i g i o n of the Semites, "The Cyprian A phrodite i s the S e m i t i c A s t a r t e and her r i t u a l i s throughout marked with a S e m i t i c s t a m p . " 470; s e e a s w e l l , M i c h a e l C.As t o u r , H e l l e n o s e m i t i c a : A n E t h n i c and C u l t u r a l Study i n West S e m i t i c  Impact on Mycenaean Greece, w i t h a forward by Cyprus H.Gordon (Leiden: E . J . B r i l l , 1965). 1 7 8 P a t o n , "Canaanites". 1 7 9The snake y e a r l y sloughs o f f i t s s k i n r e p l a c i n g the o l d one w i t h a new one, and i t t h e r e f o r e became a symbol o f the renewal of l i f e , r e b i r t h i n nature. 1 8 0 P a t o n , "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . . 6 7 naked, sometimes with her hands h o l d i n g her b r e a s t s , sometimes h o l d i n g a dove to her b r e a s t , the dove being sacred to her. One f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of her r o l e as f e r t i l i t y goddess i s t o be found i n the use of her name,asterot ( p l u r a l form of A s t a r t e ) , as a common noun t o s i g n i f y " i n c r e a s e o f t h e f l o c k " . 1 8 1 The m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f the h e r d s was n a t u r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the goddess of f e r t i l i t y . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h e r r o l e as f e r t i l i t y g o d d e s s was A s t a r t e ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as m o t h e r - g o d d e s s . As goddess of f e r t i l i t y , A s t a r t e was the e n t i c e r , or promoter, of f e r t i l i t y i n a l l forms of l i f e ; as goddess of maternity, she nurtured the new l i f e she had i n s p i r e d . T h i s n o t i o n o f the m o t h e r - g o d d e s s , p r o t e c t r e s s and p r o v i d e r , was very l i k e l y one of her o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n s as t h e head o f t h e t r i b e i n e a r l y m a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t i e s . In such s o c i e t i e s the female d e i t y p e r s o n i f i e d the g u a r d i a n m o t h e r - f i g u r e , the p a r e n t . From S i d o n t h e r e i s an i n s c r i p t i o n which Oden t r a n s l a t e s as " A s t a r t e i s ( D i v i n e - ) M o t h e r . 1 , 1 8 2 While a c k n o w l e d g i n g Cooke's t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n as "hand-maid of A s t a r t e " , Oden c l a i m s h i s own i s c o r r e c t l y supported by Donner and R o l l i g . T e i x i d o r , l i k e Oden, d e s c r i b e s A s t a r t e as "the n a t u r a l mother of a l l t h i n g s . " 1 8 3 1 8 1 E n c y c l o p a e d i a J u d a i c a , 1971ed., s.v. " A s h t o r e t h , " by T i k v a S.Frymer. 1 8 2 R o b e r t A.Oden,Jr, S t u d i e s i n L u c i a n ' s De S y r i a Pea, Harvard S e m i t i c Monographs,no.15, ed.Frank Moore Cross ( M i s s o u l a , Montana: S c h o l a r s Press, 1977),77. 1 8 3 T e i x i d o r , The Pagan God,36. 68 There i s a d d i t i o n a l evidence from the c o l o n i e s that A s t a r t e was c o n c e i v e d as M o t h e r - g o d d e s s : i n C a r t h a g e a p r o p e r name t r a n s l a t e s " A s h t a r t i s a mother", and at Paphos the goddess i s c a l l e d " m o t h e r " . 1 8 4 As w e l l , t h e r e a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f A s t a r t e as a m o t h e r - f i g u r e about which Fahd comments "The so-c a l l e d ' A s t a r t e P l a q u e s ' , c l a y f i g u r i n e s of a mother-goddess g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f e r t i l i t y c u l t s , may be another r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the g o d d e s s . " 1 8 5 F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s P h i l o ' s testimony that A s t a r t e h e r s e l f was the mother of two sons. I f t h e s e s o u r c e s a r e i n a d e q u a t e i n showing t h a t A s t a r t e f u n c t i o n e d as a mother-goddess, t h e r e i s ample evidence t o be found i n B a b y l o n i a n m y t h o l o g y i n r e g a r d t o her ' p r o t o t y p e ' I s h t a r . In r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s I s h t a r i s d e p i c t e d h o l d i n g a n u r s i n g c h i l d i n her arm. Her t i t l e s i n c l u d e "mother of the gods" and " c r e a t r e s s o f m a n k i n d " , and one o f h e r names, M y l i t t a , ( M u ' a l l i d t u ) ,means 'she who causes to b e a r ' . 1 8 6 In the myths ( f o r example, the D e l u g e ) , she p e r s o n i f i e s the compassionate mother who mourns the death of her c h i l d r e n , or who comforts them through t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e s . While A s t a r t e was e s p e c i a l l y r e v e r e d as a goddess of l o v e and f e r t i l i t y , she was a l s o known, to some extent, as a goddess of war. T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c might again be a r e l i c of the e a r l y days when S e m i t i c women took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n 1 8 4 P a t o n , "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . 1 8 5Frymer, "Ashtoreth". 1 8 6 P a t o n , " I s h t a r " . of the t r i b e . The e a r l i e s t known l i t e r a r y evidence of A s t a r t e , the U g a r i t i c t e x t s of Ras Shamra, p o r t r a y s her i n such a minor r o l e t h a t her i d e n t i t y i s o b s c u r e . 1 8 7 Nowhere r e a l l y i n these t e x t s i s she p o r t r a y e d as a w a r r i o r goddess un l e s s she i s to be r e a d i n t o the c h a r a c t e r of her ' s i s t e r ' Anat. The c l o s e s t she comes to a f i g h t seems to be when she i s named i n an oath along with the god Horon: "May Horon break. 0 my son, may Horon break thy head, A s t a r t e name of Baal thy p a t e . " 1 8 8 Her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n -as a w a r r i o r goddess seems u n l i k e l y to have o r i g i n a t e d i n her homeland, Canaan/Phoenicia; i t was more l i k e l y a f o r e i g n development at a l a t e r time. There i s evidence from the c o l o n i e s around the M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n (at C y t h e r a , C o r i n t h , and Sparta) that w a r r i o r goddesses, c a l l e d A s t a r t e and A p h r o d i t e , were d e p i c t e d w i t h h elmet and s h i e l d . 1 8 9 These r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are undoubtedly from a much l a t e r p e r i o d . i n Egypt, A s t a r t e was a l s o w e l l known as a w a r r i o r goddess where she was commonly d e p i c t e d on h o r s e b a c k armed w i t h a s h i e l d . 1 9 0 But whether t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n arose independently i n Egypt, or was the r e s u l t of her c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with Anat, who was the Canaanite w a r r i o r , par e x c e l l e n c e , i s unknown. Her i a / A s t a r t e ' s r o l e i s so i n s i g n i f i c a n t that s c h o l a r ' s r e f e r to her as N t h e a l t e r ego' of Anat; Frymer,"Ashtoreth". 1 8 8 D a h o o d , " A n c i e n t S e m i t i c D e i t i e s i n S y r i a a n d P a l e s t i n e " , 8 3 . 1 8 9 D r i v e r , " A s h t o r e t h " ; P a t o n , " A s h t a r t ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . 1 9 0Oden,Jr., Studies i n Lucian's De Pea Syria,75-76. 70 o r i g i n a l ' n o n - w a r r i o r ' s t a t u s seems t o be i m p l i e d i n t h e statement, "The Canaanite A s t a r t e was regarded by the E g y p t i a n s as a war goddess." 1 9 1 However, i t i s a usual occurrence to read d e s c r i p t i o n s o f A s t a r t e such as " T h i s w a r l i k e c h a r a c t e r of A s t a r t e . . . " or "These two goddesses [ A s t a r t e and Anat] are a l s o c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d i n C a n a a n i t e myth, i n w h i c h b o t h a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as goddesses of war." 1 9 2 The s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t A s t a r t e was a war-goddess i s g r e a t l y enhanced i f one p r e s c r i b e s to the b e l i e f t h a t the B a b y l o n i a n I s h t a r a c c u r a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e s the P h o e n i c i a n A s t a r t e i n t h i s a s p e c t . The number of times that I s h t a r was applauded f o r her b l o o d - t h i r s t y behaviour i n b a t t l e i s s u f f i c i e n t proof that she was v e n e r a t e d as a w a r r i o r g o d d e s s . 1 9 3 However, the l a c k o f comparable s o u r c e s from the n o r t h i n r e g a r d t o the goddess A s t a r t e suggests t h a t , at l e a s t i n S y r i a and P h o e n i c i a , she was not the vanguard of the armies, but i n h e r i t e d t h i s t r a i t o n l y when she was a s s i m i l a t e d with other goddesses i n f o r e i g n l o c a l e s . There are d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n whether A s t a r t e p e r s o n i f i e d the planet Venus. The evidence i n support of t h i s theory o f t e n hinges on her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with I s h t a r whose a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h i s p l a n e t i s undisputed. A t y p i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of A s t a r t e i s : 1 9 1 P a t o n , "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . 1 9 2Edwards, "Qudshu-Astarte-Anat, " 51. 1 9 3 A r v i d S . K a p e l r u d goes i n t o c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l i n d e s c r i b i n g I s h t a r ' s w a r r i o r prowess i n The V i o l e n t Goddess:Anat  i n the Ras Shamra T e x t s , (Oslo,Norway: U n i v e r s i t e t s f o r l a g e t , 1969),18-19. 71 "Like her Akkadian counterpart I s t a r , she i s an a s t r a l d e i t y and i s a s s o c i a t e d with the evening s t a r . " 1 9 4 I t c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y argued t h a t A s t a r t e must r e p r e s e n t Venus, b e i n g the female c o u n t e r p a r t of the Venus god A t h t a r . A l b r i g h t makes j u s t t h i s p o i n t i n h i s statement, " A s t a r t e was goddess of the evening s t a r , and o r i g i n a l l y she must have been i d e n t i c a l w i t h a male f i g u r e , A t h t a r , god of the morning s t a r , known to us from South A r a b i a . " 1 9 5 I f A t h t a r was the p r i m i t i v e Semitic Venus d e i t y , then there i s merit to the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t A s t a r t e , l i k e I s h t a r , was a p r i m i t i v e Venus d e i t y . The dilemma i s , as i n many aspects of t h i s study, that the s c a r c i t y of source m a t e r i a l t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y p e r t a i n s to A s t a r t e , h i n d e r s a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s of her. So o f t e n , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s i g n e d to her are the r e s u l t s of comparative a n a l y s i s with other d e i t i e s . On t e s s e r a e from P h o e n i c i a , t h e r e i s o f t e n a s t a r and a c r e s c e n t that accompany her. Because the s t a r i n p a r t i c u l a r i s s u c h a c o n s i s t e n t p a r t o f S e m i t i c r e l i g i o n and i s s u c h a r e c u r r i n g p a r t of A s t a r t e ' s iconography, there i s good reason to suppose t h a t her worship i n c l u d e d the Venus s t a r . H i l l , however, i n t e r p r e t s the s t a r i n a more g e n e r a l i z e d manner: "The s t a r marks the d e i t y as c e l e s t i a l . " 1 9 6 That many s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e her to have been regarded as a 1 9 4Frymer, "Ashtoreth". 1 9 5 W i l l i a m Foxwell A l b r i g h t , Archaeology and the R e l i g i o n of  I s r a e l , t h e Ayer L e c t u r e o f th~e C o l g a t e - R o c h e s t e r D i v i n i t y School,1941,4thed. (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1956),74. 1 9 6 H i l l , "Some Graeco-Phoenician S h r i n e s , " 60. Venus d e i t y i s e v i d e n t from such statements: " I t i s t r u e that A s t a r t e was worshipped, i n t e r a l i a , as the planet Venus...", "Her c u l t i s b e t t e r i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t o f the s t a r V e n u s . " 1 9 7 E v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y i s l e s s documented but s i g n i f i c a n t n e v e r t h e l e s s . P a t o n , f o r one, a r g u e s : " I n B a b y l o n i a she [ A s t a r t e - I s h t a r ] i s i d e n t i f i e d with the p l a n e t Venus ( a l s o with S i r i u s and V i r g o ) , but t h i s goddess does not appear elsewhere, e x c e p t i n l a t e w r i t e r s who have been i n f l u e n c e d by B a b y l o n i a n t h e o l o g y . " 1 9 8 He then l i s t s a number of authors i n c l u d i n g P h i l o , who have, i n h i s o p i n i o n , a t t r i b u t e d the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h Venus t o A s t a r t e - I s h t a r i n p l a c e s o t h e r t h a n B a b y l o n i a . T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s l i n e of t h i n k i n g , i n the northern r e g i o n s of S y r o / P h o e n i c i a , A s t a r t e was unknown i n t h i s c a p a c i t y u n t i l the time of such w r i t i n g s . Along with Paton's views, there i s an argument from s i l e n c e , i . e . , there i s no mention i n the Ras Shamra t e x t s of A s t a r t e i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the worship of the p l a n e t Venus. In view of the f a c t t h a t so many o f t h e d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Canaanite goddesses are r e v e a l e d (as p e r t a i n to f e r t i l i t y , war, m a t e r n i t y e t c . ) , these t e x t s , u n l i k e the B a b y l o n i a n t e x t s , are remarkably s i l e n t about the e x i s t e n c e , or i d e n t i t y o f , a Venus s t a r d e i t y . T h i s absence c o u l d suggest t h a t , i n a n c i e n t Canaan, A s t a r t e was not revered i n t h i s aspect, but, as her c u l t grew i n i m p o r t a n c e , she took on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o t h e r l e a d i n g 1 9 7 A s t o u r , Hellenosemitica,124; T e i x i d o r , The Pagan God,37. 1 9 8 P a t o n , "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . 73 goddesses i n the Near Ea s t . A n o t h e r t y p e o f argument from s i l e n c e can be f o u n d i n d e s c r i p t i o n s about the goddess A s t a r t e which a r e comprehensive and w e l l documented, y e t which omit any d i s c u s s i o n of her i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the p l a n e t Venus. A good example i s Cooke 1 9 9 whose summary of the goddess i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o . Asid e from her more dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , he i n c l u d e s a r e f e r e n c e t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t she was a moon-goddess, w h i c h i s based on r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t e v i d e n c e , y e t d o e s n o t i d e n t i f y h e r s p e c i f i c a l l y with Venus. Likewise, A l b r i g h t 2 0 0 , w h o i s w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t of the C a n a a n i t e pantheon, v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e s the well-known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A s t a r t e and says n o t h i n g about Venus. W h i l e t h e q u e s t i o n of her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h Venus i s undecided, t h e r e seems to be a consensus t h a t she was, a t the l e a s t , an a s t r a l d e i t y . The B i b l e f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e s her as th e 'Queen o f Heaven' 2 0 1, a t i t l e s u p p o r t e d by P h i l o 2 0 2 who informs us that Ouranos (Heaven) was her f a t h e r and/or husband. 1 9 9Cooke, Text-Book of North-Semitic I n s c r i p t i o n s , 2 7 . Cooke does m e n t i o n Venus as a t i t l e 6T A p h r o d i t e , and i d e n t i f i e s A s t a r t e w i t h A p h r o d i t e , but does not d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e t h i s f e a t u r e to A s t a r t e . 2 0 0 W i l l i a m F o x w e l l A l b r i g h t , From t h e S t o n e Age To  C h r i s t i a n i t y ; Monotheism and the H i s t o r i c a l P r o c e s s , 2nd. ecT. w i t h a new i n t r o d u c t i o n ( B a l t i m o r e : The John Hopkins P r e s s , 1967),233-234. 2 0 1 J e r . 7 . 1 8 ; J e r . 4 4 . 1 7 R.S.V. T h i s term i s sometimes a t t r i b u t e d to I s h t a r . 2 0 2 A t t r i d g e and Oden, P h i l o of Byblos,22. 74 We have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d H i l l who i d e n t i f i e s A s t a r t e as a c e l e s t i a l goddess as e v i d e n c e d by the s t a r and c r e s c e n t t h a t appear w i t h her on the c o i n s of P h o e n i c i a . On t h i s r a t h e r ambiguous n o t e , we l e a v e the d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r e d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the goddess A s t a r t e . As i n d i c a t e d at the beginning of t h i s chapter, the worship of t h i s P h o e n i c i a n goddess was widespread. Her p r i n c i p l e c i t y was S i d o n where, i n f a c t , Solomon i s reputed to have b u i l t a temple f o r her. The importance of her c u l t t h e r e i s e v i d e n t from the S i d o n i a n c o i n s on which she f i g u r e d so prominently. Byblos ( a n c i e n t G e b a l ) was a n o t h e r e s p e c i a l l y s a c r e d c e n t r e where A s t a r t e was known s i m p l y as B a ' a l a t h , ' m i s t r e s s ' . 2 0 3 Her presence on the c o i n s i s again a testimony of her p o p u l a r i t y . A s t a r t e was a l s o the m i s t r e s s of Tyre, Aradus, A s c a l o n and of the colony c i t i e s such as Cyprus, Eryx ( S i c i l y ) and Carthage. P h i l o mentions an i n t e r e s t i n g i n c i d e n t i n r e l a t i o n to T y r e . He says t h a t A s t a r t e found a s t a r which f e l l from the sky, "She took i t up and c o n s e c r a t e d i t t o T y r e , the h o l y i s l a n d . " 2 0 4 The s u g g e s t i o n has been made t h a t t h e s t a r t h a t f e l l was A t t a r ( A t h t a r ) , the South A r a b i a n god, who was f o r c e d t o l e a v e the ' h e a v e n l y r e a l m ' i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s f a i l u r e t o r e p l a c e B a a l . 2 0 5 A t h t a r ' s f a l l from grace, which was noted i n chapter three, and h i s subsequent c o n s e c r a t i o n by h i s female c o u n t e r p a r t , 2 0 3 P a t o n , "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . 2 0 4 A t t r i d g e and Oden, P h i l o of Byblos,31,32. 2 0 5 I b i d . ,88,f .n.96. 75 seemingly r e s t o r e s the bond between Canaan and South A r a b i a . The symbols most o f t e n a t t a c h e d to the c u l t of A s t a r t e were the l i o n , her most s a c r e d a n i m a l ; the c r e s c e n t and s t a r , which mark her c e l e s t i a l c h a r a c t e r ; and p o s s i b l y horns. Of the l a t t e r , P h i l o wrote: " A s t a r t e p l a c e d upon her own head a b u l l ' s head as an emblem of k i n g s h i p . 1 , 2 0 6 The b u l l i s the sacred animal of Baa l i n P h o e n i c i a . Because A s t a r t e f i g u r e d more prominently i n the a n c i e n t f e r t i l i t y c u l t s than B a a l , her wearing the b u l l ' s horns would symbolize, as P h i l o i n t i m a t e d , her supremacy over a l l other d e i t i e s . A horned A s t a r t e might a l s o symbolize her f e r t i l i t y a spect as "the i n c r e a s e of the f l o c k s " , i n t h i s case the horns r e p r e s e n t i n g the sheep and cows of the herds. The horns a d o r n i n g A s t a r t e ' s head may have p o s s i b l y been i n t e r p r e t e d as the cr e s c e n t moon, thus l e a d i n g some to i d e n t i f y her w i t h the moon. L u c i a n , i n speaking of A s t a r t e ' s temple i n Sidon, says, "I t h i n k t h a t A s t a r t e i s S e l e n e . " 2 0 7 Cooke drew a t t e n t i o n t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f her being a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the moon when he remarked, " . . . i n some p l a c e s she [ A s t a r t e ] appears i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r . " 2 0 8 However, he a l s o p o i n t s out that A s t a r t e took on t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e E g y p t i a n g o d d e s s e s I s i s and H a t h o r , i . e . , t h e s o l a r d i s c between two cow h o r n s . These symbols, p o s s i b l y , were mistaken f o r the f u l l and c r e s c e n t moon. There, i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t A s t a r t e was i d e n t i f i e d as a 2 0 6 P h i l o of Byblos,31. 2 0 7 L u c i a n , De Pea S y r i a , 4. 2 0 8Cooke, Text-Book of North-Semitic I n s c r i p t i o n s , 2 7 . 76 moon-goddess as the r e s u l t of her a s s o c i a t i o n i n Palmyra w i t h A l l a t , i f , A l l a t was t h e A r a b i a n moon-goddess ( W i n n e t t ) . T e i x i d o r , however, aware of such p o s s i b i l i t i e s , s t a t e s f i r m l y : "She [ A s t a r t e ] was n e v e r a Moon-goddess, even though l a t e s y n c r e t i s t i c ideas presented her as s u c h . " 2 0 9 B e s i d e s t h e s e more p r o m i n e n t s y m b o l s , A l l a t was a l s o i d e n t i f i e d by the dove, " p r o b a b l y on a c c o u n t o f i t s e r o t i c temperament" 2 1 0; sometimes, by oxen, cones, and the cypress t r e e . In regard t o i c o n o g r a p h i e s , however, i t was c l e a r from Palmyra how 'contaminated' they became from exposure to f o r e i g n c u l t s , so that the o r i g i n a l i d e n t i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r goddess was e a s i l y confused. For example, A l l a t , who was d e p i c t e d on t e s s e r a e from Palmyra with a l i o n and a b i r d , unless s p e c i f i c a l l y named, c o u l d not be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the goddesses A s t a r t e or A t a r g a t i s , who have these same i d e n t i f y i n g symbols. While t h i s problem of i c o n o g r a p h i e s does hinder accurate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a goddess, i t , a t the same time, s e r v e s t o show the b a s i c homogeneity o f Near E a s t e r n c u l t s ; t h a t i s , the c l o s e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f t h e d e i t i e s i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y of human needs that these d e i t i e s f u l f i l l e d . A t a r g a t i s , the second major goddess f a m i l i a r t o us from Palmyra, f u n c t i o n e d i n S y r i a much as A s t a r t e d i d i n P h o e n i c i a . She i s known mainly from a t r e a t i s e by L u c i a n of Samosata ( c i r c a A.D.200), e n t i t l e d De Pea S y r i a , which i s an eye-witness account 2 0 9 T e i x i d o r , The Pagan God, 36. 2 1 0 P a t o n , " I s h t a r " o f the c u l t o f the goddess a t H i e r a p o l i s . A l t h o u g h , i n h i s t r e a t i s e , L u c i a n never r e f e r s to t h i s goddess as A t a r g a t i s , but as H e r a , 2 1 1 t h e r e are s u f f i c i e n t reasons f o r b e l i e v i n g i n her S y r i a n i d e n t i t y : the t i t l e of Lucian's work, De Pea S y r i a i s the t i t l e by which A t a r g a t i s was commonly known; a l s o , L u c i a n informs us that the people at H i e r a p o l i s s a i d the temple of the goddess was b u i l t by Semiramis f o r her mother Perceto ( the Greek form o f A t a r g a t i s ) ; a t P e l o s , where she was worsh i p p e d , her p r i e s t s c a l l e d t h e m s e l v e s H i e r a p o l i t a n s , a f t e r the name of her c u l t c e n t r e . A s i d e from t h i s t r e a t i s e , t here i s the evidence of c o i n s and i n s c r i p t i o n s , as w e l l as a few s c a t t e r e d w r i t i n g s o f c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s which mention A t a r g a t i s . However, l e f t t o t h e s e l a t t e r , our knowledge o f t h e S y r i a n goddess would be comparatively nonexistent. A t a r g a t i s ' primary f u n c t i o n was f e r t i l i t y as symbolized by f i s h 2 1 2 and w a t e r . Both elements r e p r e s e n t her l i f e - g i v i n g q u a l i t i e s and a r e to be found i n the v i c i n i t y of the temples where she was v e n e r a t e d : "No s a n c t u a r y of he r s was co m p l e t e without having attached to i t a sacred pond, i n which untouchable Z l i " l n i d e n t i f y i n g the S y r i a n goddess w i t h a Greek d e i t y , L u c i a n i s o n l y f o l l o w i n g the convention of other Greek v i s i t o r s to the Near East...Hera i s p l a i n l y not the n a t i v e name of the goddess o f H i e r a p o l i s . " Oden,Jr., S t u d i e s i n L u c i a n s De Pea  Syria,48. 2 1 2 I n t h e c i t i e s where she was w o r s h i p p e d , she was re p r e s e n t e d u s u a l l y (although not at H i e r a p o l i s ) as half-woman, h a l f - f i s h . 78 f i s h swam about... 1 - 3 So much of Lucian's account of the c u l t at H i e r a p o l i s has to do with water (even the ancient name of the c i t y i t s e l f , Mabbug, has the meaning ' s p r i n g ' ) , t h a t one cannot but assume that the r o o t s of the goddess, A t a r g a t i s , o r i g i n a t e d i n the m y s t e r i o u s powers of water. L u c i a n r e l a t e s that when a chasm was formed i n the e a r t h and swallowed up the water f o l l o w i n g the gr e a t f l o o d , a temple was b u i l t over i t and d e d i c a t e d to A t a r g a t i s . 2 1 4 Her temple, i t would seem, was e r e c t e d a t that time both to honour the goddess, as w e l l as to ensure her permanent p r e s e n c e a t H i e r a p o l i s . Apparently, the receding of the waters of the g r e a t d i s a s t e r was a t t r i b u t e d to the a c t i o n s of the goddess, i . e . , d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e a r i t u a l was e s t a b l i s h e d "as a memorial both of the d i s a s t e r and of the d i v i n e f a v o r . " Another w a t e r - r e l a t e d r i t u a l was known as the Descent to the Lake i n w h i c h t h e s a c r e d o b j e c t s f r o m t h e t e m p l e went i n p r o c e s s i o n to the l a k e . 2 1 5 A t a r g a t i s headed the p r o c e s s i o n " f o r the sake of the f i s h " who would d i e should Hadad see them f i r s t . Lucian. does not e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s custom but i t l i k e l y was a f e r t i l i t y r i t e of some k i n d , i f o n l y because the ^ 1 J N e l s o n G l u e c k , D e i t i e s and D o l p h i n s ; T h e S t o r y of the  Nabataeans (New York: F a r r a r , S t r a u s and G i r o u x , 1965),391. On t h i s s u b j e c t Smith d i s c u s s e s the very e a r l y f a s c i n a t i o n a n c i e n t Near E a s t e r n e r s had f o r s a c r e d w a t e r s , and i n r e g a r d to f i s h s a y s , " t h e d i v i n e l i f e of the waters r e s i d e s i n the s a c r e d f i s h that i n h a b i t them." R e l i g i o n of the Semites,174. 2 1 4Lucian,De Pea S y r i a , 13. 2 1 5 I b i d . ,47. 79 f i s h are f i g u r e d so prominently. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h i s v i s i t a t i o n was a r i t u a l i n memory of the goddess 1 e a r l i e r metamorphosis i n t o a f i s h a f t e r which a l l f i s h were sacred to her. A t a r g a t i s ' s p e c i a l a f f i n i t y t o water i s but one o f many i n s t a n c e s i n the a n c i e n t Near East where d e i t i e s were i d e n t i f i e d with the l i f e - g i v i n g powers of water. I t was thought t h a t s a c r e d w a t e r s were i n s t i n c t w i t h the energy of the d e i t y , t h a t the waters were a c t u a l l y charged with a d i v i n e power 2 1 6. T h i s being the case, the p o s s e s s i o n of sacred water would render i t s owner some o f the v i t a l i z i n g i n s t i n c t s of the gods. T h i s might have been the purpose behind the p i l g r i m a g e to the sea to which L u c i a n r e f e r s . 2 1 7 What he says i s t h a t the p i l g r i m s returned from the sea w i t h a s e a l e d v e s s e l of water. These v e s s e l s were r i t u a l l y opened and the water c a r r i e d i n s i d e A t a r g a t i s ' temple. Once i n s i d e , the sacred water was used f o r l i b a t i o n s , and a s a c r i f i c e was performed to the goddess. T h i s was doubtless another r i t e of f e r t i l i t y whereby the v i t a l i z i n g power of the d e i t y , i n h e r e n t i n the water, was poured over the devotee i n the hopes of c a p t u r i n g i t s l i f e - g i v i n g q u a l i t i e s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the d e i t y with the f e r t i l i z i n g powers of water was touched upon i n chapter three i n r e f e r e n c e to the South Arabian god, A t h t a r . I f i t can be accepted that one of the •^ S r n i t h g i v e s examples of s a c r e d s p r i n g s or w e l l s from South A r a b i a to S y r i a i n order to demonstrate that the worship of w a t e r , a n d t h e d e i t i e s t h e r e i n , was a common S e m i t i c p r a c t i c e . R e l i g i o n of the Semites,167-169. 2 1 7 L u c i a n , De Pea S y r i a , 48 80 components of A t a r g a t i s (Atar Ate) i s the goddess A s t a r t e 2 1 8 , then the r e l a t i o n s h i p between A t a r g a t i s , A t h t a r / A s t a r t e and water becomes e v i d e n t . J u s t l i k e A t h t a r , A t a r g a t i s i s thought to have o r i g i n a l l y been a d e i t y of underground s p r i n g s whose c r e a t i v e f o r c e i n s p i r e d a l l s e e d l i n g s to f r u i t i o n . P l u t a r c h d e s c r i b e d her as "the d i v i n i t y who out of moisture produces the seeds of a l l t h i n g s . " 2 1 9 Paton c o n s i d e r s her as the l o c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the p r i m i t i v e S e m i t i c d e i t y I s t a r - A t h t a r . 2 2 0 White, r e v i e w i n g the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f her c u l t , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e r e l a t i n g to f i s h and sacred ponds, concludes "she i s p r o b a b l y a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the f e r t i l i z i n g power of water." 2 2 1 I t has been the i n t e n t i o n i n the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n t o draw a t t e n t i o n to the p r i m i t i v e S e m i t i c worship of a d e i t y whose name (some v e r s i o n of A t h t a r ) r e f e r r e d to the n a t u r a l means by which water s u s t a i n e d l i f e . Paton o f f e r s such terms as "to be watered", "the s e l f - w a t e r i n g , i . e . , the s p r i n g " to t r a n s l a t e t h i s name. 2 2 2 Throughout the a n c i e n t Near East, as has been e v i d e n t , t h i s d e i t y s u r f a c e s r e p e a t e d l y i n d i f f e r e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s but with s u f f i c i e n t o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to demonstrate a g a i n the u n d e r l y i n g homogeneity of that area. Oden,Jr. Studi e s i n Lucian's De S y r i a Pea,60-64. 219 Paton, "Ashtart (Ashtoreth), Astarte II c i t i n g Plutarch. 220 Paton, " A t a r g a t i s . II 221 ^XA P i c t i o n a r y of the B i b l e , ed. James H a s t i n g s , 1906ed. A t a r g a t i s , " by H.A.White. s. v. II 222 Paton, "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e n 81 One o t h e r a s p e c t of her c u l t , "connected w i t h S y r i a n and Mesopotamian g o d d e s s e s o f f e r t i l i t y " , 2 2 3 w a s the p r a c t i c e o f c a s t r a t i o n . Devotees, apparently seeking the u l t i m a t e union with the goddess, emasculated themselves i n her honour. That t h i s a c t was regarded as a r i t e of f e r t i l i t y i s unquestioned i n s p i t e of i t s seeming s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t i o n . By way of e x p l a n a t i o n , A l b r i g h t o f f e r s t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t c a s t r a t i o n can be l i k e n e d w i t h f e c u n d i t y i n t h e same way th a t v i r g i n i t y was with f e r t i l i t y i n an c i e n t Near E a s t e r n c u l t s . 2 2 4 In any case, l i c e n t i o u s a c t s were c a r r i e d out between the G a l l i , emasculated p r i e s t s , and the women devotees under the auspices of encouraging the benef i c e n c e of the goddess, A t a r g a t i s . Lucian r e l a t e s t h a t "women d e s i r e the G a l l i and the G a l l i go mad f o r a woman. Yet, no one i s j e a l o u s . . . " 2 2 5 These r i t e s , d e s c r i b e d by L u c i a n as b e i n g ' q u i t e h o l y ' , were l i k e l y o f a n a t u r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f A s t a r t e ( c u l t p r o s t i t u t i o n ) , which were condemned by the Emperor C o n s t a n t i n e . Evidence of a d i f f e r e n t s o r t i n c l u d e s t e r r a c o t t a f i g u r i n e s , found i n H i e r a p o l i s and no r t h e r n S y r i a , which d e p i c t A t a r g a t i s nude and p r e s s i n g her b r e a s t s ; 2 2 6 as w e l l , there e x i s t s a bronze o f f e r t o r y - b o x , used by the p r i e s t s of A t a r g a t i s , i n the form of a bre a s t with a s l i t that allowed f o r donations. On the co i n s from 2 2 3 D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s a t Edessa,78. 2 2 4 A l b r i g h t , From the Stone Age to C h r i s t i a n i t y , 2 3 4 2 2 5 L u c i a n , De Pea Syria,22 2 2 6 D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s a t Edessa,91. 82 H i e r a p o l i s , ' A t a r g a t i s i s represented h o l d i n g ears of corn i n her hand, symbol of f e r t i l i t y . F i n a l l y , her consort Baal Hadad, the S y r i a n god of f e r t i l i t y , was f r e q u e n t l y d e p i c t e d with her on coins or on r e l i e f s . For a l l h i s importance, however, her r o l e as goddess of f e r t i l i t y g r e a t l y exceeded, h i s as i s i n d i c a t e d by the prevalence of f i g u r i n e s r e p r e s e n t i n g A t a r g a t i s , where none e x i s t with Hadad. As e a r l y as the f o u r t h century B.C., A t a r g a t i s had overtaken Hadad as the dominant p a r t n e r . Although A t a r g a t i s was worshipped p r i m a r i l y as a goddess of f e r t i l i t y , she a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a t y p e o f w a r r i o r g o d d e s s . However, u n l i k e the b a t t l e - l o v i n g w a r r i o r goddesses I s h t a r and Athena, A t a r g a t i s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as l e s s of a " w a r r i o r " i n that sense and more of a p r o t e c t r e s s ; i n t h i s r e s p e c t she guarded the c i t y and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s from e x t e r n a l danger. The mural c rown w h i c h s h e wore i s s y m b l e m a t i c o f h e r p r o t e c t i v e f u n c t i o n . 2 2 8 Coins of A t a r g a t i s commonly d e p i c t her wearing the t u r r e t e d crown and h o l d i n g a sheaf of g r a i n or an ear of c o r n , e x e m p l i f y i n g her d u a l c a p a c i t y as p r o t e c t r e s s and p r o v i d e r ; as w e l l , she i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d with a s c e p t r e i n her hand i n d i c a t i v e of her a b i l i t y to defend. Lucian's d e s c r i p t i o n of the goddess at H i e r a p o l i s mentions the s c e p t r e i n her hand, and may p o s s i b l y be the reason f o r h i s comparison of her with Athena: "On the whole she i s c e r t a i n l y Hera [ A t a r g a t i s ] , but she a l s o has 2 2 7 I b i d . ,90. 2 2 8Tyche was the name of the. goddess who wore the t u r r e t e d crown as the defender of the c i t y ; A t a r g a t i s has assumed t h i s f u n c t i o n at H i e r a p o l i s . 83 something of Athena... " ^ y T h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o the goddess A t a r g a t i s . Some mention was made t h a t she was a mother-goddess, w i t h a c l o s e resemblance to Asherah of the Ras Shamra t e x t s , but u n f o r t u n a t e l y not enough i s known to say much more at t h i s p o i n t . The S y r i a n goddess was worshipped over a f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e a r e a , j u d g i n g from the d i s t r i b u t i o n of her c u l t c e n t e r s , which i n c l u d e d A s c a l o n (the centre of her c u l t i n P a l e s t i n e ) , Karnaim, Edessa, Dura-Europas, and De l o s . L u c i a n t e l l s us t h a t p e o p l e came from "the whole of S y r i a and Arabia...and from beyond the E u p h r a t e s . . . " 2 3 0 to worship the goddess at H i e r a p o l i s . He a l s o r e c o r d s t h a t t h e temple of t h e goddess was t h e h o l i e s t and w e a l t h i e s t of a l l the temples he knew about, " f o r many t r e a s u r e s come to them from A r a b i a , P h o e n i c i a and Babylonia and s t i l l more from Cappadocia. " 2 3 1 Her t y p i c a l iconography c o n s i s t e d mainly of f i s h , doves and l i o n s . There i s a b a s - r e l i e f from Northern Mesopotamia d e p i c t i n g A t a r g a t i s s i t t i n g on a throne decorated with f i s h , on each s i d e of which are two l i o n s , and on top are doves; 2 3 2the presence of the f i s h i s t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r f o r t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . O t h e r w i s e , the goddess might as e a s i l y be A s t a r t e . On c o i n s 2 2 9 L u c i a n , De Pea Syria,32. 2 3 0 I b i d . , 1 3 . 2 3 1 I b i d . , 1 0 2 3 2 D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s from Edessa,92. 84 A t a r g a t i s Is r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h one or two of these symbols as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n marks, unless she i s s p e c i f i c a l l y named. Having examined these two goddesses, A s t a r t e and A t a r g a t i s , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s i n a n c i e n t Near E a s t e r n r e l i g i o n , we can r e t u r n t o our main t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n , and apply t h i s newly ac q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n to the s o l u t i o n of the problem. 85 CONCLUSIONS T h i s l a s t s e c t i o n w i l l consider the data, accumulated i n the previous s e c t i o n s , i n an attempt to s a t i s f y our i n i t i a l i n q u i r y , namely, who were the D a u g h t e r s o f A l l a h ? In p u r s u i n g t h i s problem, we e x p l o r e d many avenues i n order that our r e s u l t s might i n c l u d e a l l r e l e v a n t sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . Beginning w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a passage from the Qur'an, t h a t r e f e r r e d to these goddesses, we endeavoured to determine t h e i r o r i g i n s from the cognate root of t h e i r names. In s p i t e of the ambiguity that any such i n v e s t i g a t i o n c a r r i e s with i t , much u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d . The summation of these goddesses, as g i v e n by Ibn a l - K a l b i , as w e l l as the c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the commentators on the Qur'an, p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r i n s i g h t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the l i m i t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of the former and the i n e v i t a b l e b i a s of the l a t t e r . Leaving a s i d e our l i t e r a r y sources, we then turned to the more c o n s t r u c t i v e evidence found i n the e p i g r a p h i c a l remains of t r a d i n g c e n t e r s s i t u a t e d on t h e a n c i e n t c a r a v a n h i g h w a y s . A c c e p t i n g the premise t h a t e a r l y t r a c e s of the r e l i g i o n of the pagan Arabs would be found i n e s t a b l i s h e d urban c e n t e r s , and not i n the r u r a l wastelands, our a t t e n t i o n was focused p r i m a r i l y on t h o s e . In a d d i t i o n , b e c a u s e the r e l i g i o n s of the a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s were v i e w e d as h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on t h e r e l i g i o n of A r a b i a , those c e n t e r s along the caravan route most 87 s u s c e p t i b l e to f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e were s e l e c t e d . From t h i s g e o g r a p h i c a l s u r v e y , i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t Canaanite r e l i g i o n was s i n g u l a r l y manifest throughout the A r a b i a n p e n i n s u l a ; from the south, where the god 'Athtar was preeminent, to the n o r t h , a t Teima, E l a t h and P e t r a , the d e i t i e s from the Canaanite pantheon were c o n s p i c u o u s . Other f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s were noted such as the unmistakable s i g n s of Babylonian presence i n A r a b i a , f o r example, at T e i m a 2 3 3 where the Babylonian k i n g , Nabonidus, s e t t l e d . Then, i n the n o r t h , the A r a b i a n o u t p o s t s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e were seen to have been h e a v i l y pervaded with the H e l l e n i s m of the Greco-Roman world. The Nabataean kingdom, which at one time reached Damascus, was so thoroughly a c q u a i n t e d with i t s northern neighbours that i t used the Aramaic s c r i p t i n l i e u o f the A r a b i c s c r i p t , as the i n s c r i p t i o n s showed; t h e i r c h i e f male d e i t y , Dushara, became i d e n t i f i e d with the Greek god Dionysus, and A l l a t with Aphrodite and Tyche. The heterogeneous q u a l i t y of the t r a d i n g p o s t s , i n which so many di v e r g e n t r e l i g i o n s r e s i d e d i n harmony, i s b e l i e v e d to have i n f l u e n c e d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e D a u g h t e r s o f A l l a h were worshipped. Palmyra, i n p a r t i c u l a r , was a c o r n e r s t o n e i n our i n v e s t i g a t i o n because at t h i s m e t r o p o l i s , o u t s i d e A r a b i a proper, A l l a t ( the A r a b i a n goddess most documented t h e r e ) , 'underwent changes'; 2 3 4 c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the l e a d i n g goddesses of the Near 2 3 3 " T h e i n f l u e n c e of B a b y l o n i a upon Tema, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s , was c e r t a i n l y s t r o n g . " Cooke,Text-Book Of  North-Semitic I n s c r i p t i o n s , 1 9 8 . 88 E a s t , she became r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h them. The Arabs a t P a l m y r a , we assume, r e c o g n i z e d q u a l i t i e s i n t h e s e f o r e i g n goddesses t h a t were c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r own. A s t a r t e , f o r example, was promptly a s s i m i l a t e d with A l l a t presumably because the Arabs saw i n the Phoenician goddess c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to t h e i r own goddess. Thus, i t f o l l o w s that an understanding of th e g o d d e s s A s t a r t e , i . e . , t h e t r a i t s f o r w h i c h she was w o r s h i p p e d , c o u l d g i v e us a b e t t e r i n s i g h t i n t o the goddess A l l a t , i n p a r t i c u l a r the c a p a c i t y i n which she was worshipped. From an examination of A s t a r t e , as w e l l as the goddess A t a r g a t i s , we hoped t o uncover a common ground from which t o c o n s t r u c t a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the Daughters of A l l a h . What remains i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of our r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l toward p l a u s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s as to the i d e n t i t y of the Daughters of A l l a h . On the b a s i s of our re s e a r c h , i t became apparent t h a t some f e a t u r e s o f r e l i g i o u s l i f e p r e d o m i n a t e d b o t h i n A r a b i a i t s e l f and i n the a d j a c e n t r e g i o n s . R e s t r i c t i n g o u r s e l v e s t o these common f e a t u r e s , we s h a l l see to what extent they can be a p p l i e d to the A r a b i a n goddesses as a means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The ones, then, that w i l l occupy our a t t e n t i o n a r e , the r o l e of goddesses i n r e l i g i o u s l i f e ; the r o l e of f e r t i l i t y goddesses, of which the mother-goddess i s an a s p e c t ; and f i n a l l y , the a s t r a l a s p e c t o f r e l i g i o u s l i f e . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s f o r e i g n element i s , of course, the e q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t A r a b i a n element which uniquely i n f l u e n c e d the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the Daughters. As f a r as p o s s i b l e , we s h a l l attempt to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the 89 two. I t has been observed that i n a n c i e n t Near E a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s , the importance of goddesses exceeded that of gods. A s i d e from A l l a h , the Daughters of A l l a h at the time of the Prophet appear to have been the most venerated d e i t i e s i n A r a b i a . While o t h e r s a r e m e n t i o n e d , s u c h as Wadd, Suwa, Y a g h u t h , none were as prominent nor i n f l u e n t i a l as the Daughters. 2 3 5 That t h i s was the case i s evident from the ensuing a t t a c k on the Daughters upon the advent of Islam. A l l a h ' s c h i e f r i v a l s were not other gods, but goddesses. And the i n f l u e n c e these goddesses e x e r t e d was not r e s t r i c t e d t o the v i c i n i t y of Mecca, as we have seen; r a t h e r , they were r e v e r e d throughout the p e n i n s u l a . T h i s phenomenon appears, as w e l l , i n P h o e n i c i a , S y r i a , and Babylonia where the goddesses A s t a r t e , A t a r g a t i s , and I s h t a r f a r surpassed the male gods i n importance. T h i s worship of goddesses i n p r e f e r e n c e to gods over so widespread an area of the Semitic world agrees w i t h Smith's theory regarding the o r i g i n a l m a t r i a r c h a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . 2 3 6 Where women f u n c t i o n e d as l e a d e r s , female d e i t i e s l i k e w i s e assumed l e a d e r s h i p r e i g n i n g over men and over a l l other g o d s . When t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y c h a n g e d t o a p a t r i a r c h a t e , the male d e i t y assumed supremacy over the t r i b e and over a l l the gods.. In A r a b i a , A l l a h was a senior god, o r , 'high 2 3 5 K a l b i s t a t e s that none of the f i v e i d o l s mentioned i n the Qur'an (71.22-23) were h e l d i n the same r e g a r d "or a n y t h i n g approaching i t " as the Daughters.Ibn a l - K a l b i , Book of I d o l s , 2 3 . 2 3 6 H i t t i , H i s t o r y o f t h e A r a b s , 2 6 , and P a t o n , " A s h t a r t ( A s h t o r e t h ) , As t a r t e." b o t h c o n c u r on t h i s i d e a o f e a r l y s o c i e t i e s . 90 g o d 1 as. Watt r e f e r s t o him, l o n g b e f o r e the a r r i v a l o f the Pr o p h e t . H i s ascendent p o s i t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d 'in the r o l e o f ' i n t e r c e s s o r s ' the Daughters performed on h i s b e h a l f . However, i n s p i t e of h i s s u p e r i o r s t a t u s , h i s p o s i t i o n seems to have been t i t u l a r much l i k e E l i n Canaanite mythology. In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e i t was the goddesses to whom the Arabs addressed themselves. What compelling f a c t o r s , then, maintained the preeminence of the goddesses i n the Near East, i n s p i t e of the subordinate r o l e women moved i n t o ? Smith has suggested that i t has to do with the " e m o t i o n a l s i d e o f S e m i t i c h e a t h e n i s m " 2 3 7 t h a t a r o s e out of a s s o c i a t i o n s with maternity, as w e l l as, a s s o c i a t i o n s of a more se n s u a l k i n d . In other words, f e r t i l i t y c u l t s ( with a l l t h a t that i m p l i e s ) occupied so fundamental a p a r t of an c i e n t r e l i g i o n t h a t t h e f e m a l e d e i t i e s , who were c e n t r a l t o t h e s e c u l t s , remained i n d i s p e n s a b l e as long as they f u l f i l l e d t h i s b a s i c need i n the l i v e s of the anc i e n t Semites. The overwhelming r e l i a n c e o f man on f e r t i l i t y i n n a t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e on f e r t i l i t y goddesses who were seen as the source of f e r t i l i t y i n n a t u r e , would have g i v e n the goddesses an importance not shared by the gods. The f e r t i l i t y g o d d e s s e s o f the Near E a s t , whom we have e x a m i n e d , need no f u r t h e r d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o c o n f i r m t h e i r importance i n t h i s r e s p e c t . What i s l e s s c l e a r i s whether or not the Daughters of A l l a h f u n c t i o n e d i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . Beginning with Manat, there i s the evidence from the e t y m o l o g i c a l study of 2 3 7 S m i t h , R e l i g i o n of the Semites, 59. her name. I f Manat d e r i v e d from the cognate root M N Y, there i s good reason to b e l i e v e that she was at one time worshipped as a goddess of f e r t i l i t y . Watt has suggested that i n s p i t e of the r e s e m b l a n c e o f h e r name t o ' f a t e s ' , Manat was p r o b a b l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l d e i t y . 2 3 8 He bases t h i s on two premises: the f i r s t having to do with a rock at the c e n t r e of her s h r i n e on which he does not e l a b o r a t e ; the second, on account of the "Manat-names", fo r example, Zayd-Manat "the i n c r e a s e (given by) Manat". 2 3 9 Her worship, he argues, was r e l e v a n t to an a g r i c u l t u r a l community, but, when the Arabs became i n s t e a d desert d w e l l e r s , she ceased to have meaning f o r them. Manat's a s s o c i a t i o n with the god Dushara might a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t she was a f e r t i l i t y goddess i f he, as the sun, was a f e r t i l i t y god. Of the g oddess a l - U z z a , t h e r e i s m o s t l y c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence to i n d i c a t e that she was a goddess of f e r t i l i t y . Ephrem Syrus, a C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r , r e f e r r e d to a l - U z z a as an a d u l t e r e s s a t whose f e s t i v a l s v i r g i n s p r o s t i t u t e d t h e m s e l v e s ; 2 4 0 S y r u s compares her to I s h t a r , infamous f o r her w i l d o r g i a s t i c worship. Barton, too, mentions " P a t r i s t i c r e f e r e n c e s " 2 4 1 t h a t a l l u d e to an impure worship of Arabian goddesses. While the goddess a l - U z z a i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y named i n these " P a t r i s t i c r e f e r e n c e s " , the authors would l i k e l y have had knowledge about the p r a c t i c e s of 2 3 8Watt, " P r e - I s l a m i c A r a b i a n R e l i g i o n , " 78. 2 3 9 I b i d . . 2 4 0Winnett, "Daughters of A l l a h , " c i t i n g Ephrem Syrus,128. 2 4 1 B a r t o n , " H i e r o d o u l o i " . 92 the Arabs of the n o r t h (as opposed to the south) where i n f a c t a l - U z z a may have o r i g i n a t e d . Hence, a l - U z z a who was i n the v i c i n i t y where such c u l t p r a c t i c e s were renowned, may have been one of those goddesses of impure worship so o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with goddesses of f e r t i l i t y . Al-Uzza's a s s o c i a t i o n with the sacred s p r i n g Zamzam i s a l s o s u g g e s t i v e of her having had her r o o t s i n the f e r t i l i t y c u l t s . Much has been s p e c u l a t e d on i n p r e v i o u s chapters concerning the r o l e of sacred water i n connection with goddesses of f e r t i l i t y . A t a r g a t i s was i d e n t i f i e d by her s a c r e d f i s h and ponds, and her c u l t p r a c t i c e s l a r g e l y r e v o l v e d around water; ' A t h t a r / A s t a r t e , i s l i n k e d t o s u b t e r r a n e a n i r r i g a t i o n and i s t h o u g h t t o have o r i g i n a t e d as a s p i r i t of s p r i n g s . The importance of water t o d e s e r t d w e l l e r s cannot be overestimated: "To the s p r i n g man and beast owe: t h e i r l i v e s i n the a r i d d e s e r t . " 2 4 2 Water as the abode of the d e i t y was t h e r e f o r e the very essence of " d i v i n e l i f e and energy". 2 4 3 The goddess, then, who p r e s i d e d over a sa c r e d s p r i n g or w e l l , l i k e Zamzam, possessed the means to c r e a t e and s u s t a i n l i f e where otherwise death e x i s t e d a l l around. In l i g h t of t h i s , a l - U z z a ' s p a r t i c u l a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h i s s a c r e d s p r i n g , which to the p r e s e n t day i s c o n s i d e r e d h o l y , may be reason f o r t h i n k i n g she f u n c t i o n e d at some time as goddess of f e r t i l i t y . That A l l a t f u n c t i o n e d as a goddess of f e r t i l i t y i s h i g h l y probable, i n s p i t e of the absence of concrete evidence, g i v e n the 2 4 2 P a t o n , "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . 2 4 3 S m i t h , R e l i g i o n of the Semites, 173. 93 background o f the a n c i e n t Near E a s t . I f the emphasis i n the r e l i g i o n s o f the s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r i t o r i e s ( C a n a a n / P h o e n i c i a , S y r i a , B a b y l o n i a ) on f e r t i l i t y c u l t s was so pronounced, i t i s only reasonable that p r i m i t i v e Arabian r e l i g i o n would have had a s i m i l a r emphasis. One of the popular t h e o r i e s concerning a n c i e n t A r a b i a i s that many thousands of years ago i t was an a r a b l e l a n d where a g r i c u l t u r e p r o v i d e d a v i a b l e means of l i v l i h o o d f o r i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . 2 4 4 As i n P h o e n i c i a or S y r i a , then, the d e i t i e s most h i g h l y v e n e r a t e d would have been t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f e c u n d i t y of the land. Watt, an advocate of t h i s theory, w r i t e s , "The t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l about a l l these d e i t i e s [ A r a b i a n ] s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y had o r i g i n a l l y been a g r i c u l t u r a l d e i t i e s comparable t o the B a a l s and A s t a r t e s of S y r i a n r e l i g i o n . . . " 2 4 5 T h e r e i s an i n s c r i p t i o n b e a r i n g the p r o p e r name Z a i d A l l a t " i n c r e a s e (bestowed) by A l l a t " , 2 4 6 " i n c r e a s e " g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r i n g to crops or c a t t l e or some f e r t i l i t y - r e l a t e d commodity. E s p e c i a l l y i n the n o r t h where she i s g e n e r a l l y thought t o have r e p r e s e n t e d the sun, A l l a t l i k e l y was w o r s h i p p e d as a f e r t i l i t y goddess. In an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y such as i n the northern a r e a s , 2 4 7 the sun was regarded as one of the e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s necessary f o r the germination of the s e e d l i n g s i n t o a 2 4 4 H i t t i , H i s t o r y of the Arabs, 14. 2 4 5Watt, " P r e - I s l a m i c A r a b i a n R e l i g i o n , " 78. 2 4 6Noldeke, "Arabs ( A n c i e n t ) " 2 4 7 "The S i n a i h a s a l m o s t a l w a y s b e e n p a r t l y u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n . " Starcky, " A r a b i a " . f r u i t f u l h a r v e s t . A l l a t , as goddess of the sun, t h e r e f o r e , would have been recognized as the agent r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f e r t i l i t y of the f i e l d s and i n turn f o r the l i f e of the i n h a b i t a n t s . That A l l a t was known a t Palmyra as a goddess of f e r t i l i t y i s e v i d e n t from her a s s i m i l a t i o n w i t h A s t a r t e , as w e l l as her r e l a t i o n s h i p with B a a l , god of f e r t i l i t y . T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n S y r i a may have been the more e a s i l y made i f she were a l r e a d y r e g a r d e d i n t h i s manner i n n o r t h e r n A r a b i a . The A r a b s o f Palmyra, who i n i t i a l l y brought her t h e r e i n the f i r s t c e n t u r y B.C., presumably from A r a b i a , probably knew her as a goddess of f e r t i l i t y and consequently had no d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s o c i a t i n g her with the Phoenician goddess of f e r t i l i t y . A common r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of S e m i t i c f e r t i l i t y goddesses was that of mother-goddess, i . e . , the one aspect seemed to imply the o t h e r . The goddesses A s t a r t e and I s h t a r , f o r example, were worshipped as mother-goddesses; the Canaanite goddess, Asherah, who was venerated throughout A r a b i a , was e s p e c i a l l y known i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . By a s s o c i a t i o n , the Daughters of A l l a h c o u l d have assumed t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c where they came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h A s h e r a h , f o r example, a t E l a t h , Teima, or i n South A r a b i a . According to Barton, "among the pre-Muhammadan Arabs the worship of t h e mother-goddess was p r a c t i s e d ; i n some p l a c e s she was c a l l e d A l - L a t , i n others A l - U z z a . " 2 4 8 A s i d e from f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e the mother-goddess i n A r a b i a a r o s e as a n a t u r a l r e f l e c t i o n of the human 2 4 8 B a r t o n , " H i e r o d o u l o i " . c o n d i t i o n . J u s t as matters of f e r t i l i t y ( i . e . , r e p r o d u c t i o n i n nature) were the domain of the woman ('mother e a r t h ' ) , so the concerns of domestic welfare were as w e l l . In South A r a b i a the g r e a t m o t h e r - g o d d e s s , A s h e r a h , a l s o c a l l e d H a r i m t u by t h e Sabaeans, "was a l s o i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y u n i v e r s a l l y known as H a t . . . " 2 4 9 That the Arabians had t h e i r own mother-goddess, by w h a t e v e r a p p e l l a t i o n , i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h a n c i e n t S e m i t i c t r a d i t i o n . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that 'Athtar, the South A r a b i a n Venus d e i t y , was r e f e r r e d to as "the m i s t r e s s mother-'Athtar" and the " g i v e r o f c h i l d r e n " . 2 5 0 Despite the problem of gender, t h i s t i t l e i m p l i e s that the p r i m i t i v e 'Athtar f u n c t i o n e d as a mother-goddess. Assuming the goddesses A l l a t , a l - U z z a , and Manat were at one time known as f e r t i l i t y goddesses, they too were pro b a b l y worshipped i n the c a p a c i t y of mother-goddess. The a s t r a l n ature of r e l i g i o n i n the a n c i e n t Near East i s our o t h e r a r e a of common emphasis. The term ' a s t r a l ' i s o f t e n used i n d e s c r i b i n g Near E a s t e r n r e l i g i o u s systems, f o r example, the a s t r a l t r i a d s of South A r a b i a and Babylonia (sun-moon-Venus). W h i l e t h e s e s y s t e m s seem t o be u n i q u e f e a t u r e s o f S e m i t i c r e l i g i o n , our focus s h a l l be on a more s p e c i f i c usage of a s t r a l , i . e . , as i t p e r t a i n s to the p l a n e t Venus. From Babylonia to the P h o e n i c i a n c o a s t , from South A r a b i a to the S i n a i , t h e r e i s a marked prominence that almost appears as a S e m i t i c p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to the worship of the Venus s t a r . 2 4 9Hommel, "Arabi a " . 2 5 0 P a t o n , "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . Outside of A r a b i a we have seen I s h t a r i n B a b y l o n i a , A s t a r t e (Aphrodite) i n P h o e n i c i a , and A l l a t / A s t a r t e i n Palmyra a s s o c i a t e d with the Venus s t a r . Most conspicuous i n A r a b i a i n t h i s c a p a c i t y were the d e i t i e s a l - U z z a and A t h t a r . U n t i l now, i t has been assumed t h a t a t Palmyra A l l a t ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Venus s t a r was the r e s u l t of her a s s i m i l a t i o n there with A s t a r t e . I f , however, t h i s a s t r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was t h e r e to b e g i n w i t h , i . e . , n a t i v e t o h e r , A l l a t t o o might have been worshipped i n Arabia i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . I f t h i s were the case, i t c o u l d account f o r the g r e a t e r honours bestowed upon A l l a t and a l - U z z a as opposed to Manat, "the t h i r d , the o t h e r . " 2 5 1 R e f e r r i n g back t o c h a p t e r t h r e e , we a l l u d e d t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the goddesses a l - U z z a and A l l a t were e p i t h e t s ('the strong one' and 'the goddess') of the Venus d e i t y , A t h t a r , before they assumed i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t i e s . I f A l l a t was an e a r l y e p i t h e t of A t h t a r , the Venus s t a r would have been a v i s i b l e p a r t of her iconography, f a m i l i a r to the Arabs of the n o r t h , and thus would account f o r the s t a r on her t e s s e r a e a t Palmyra. To b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h i s t h e o r y , we s h o u l d f i r s t determine her i n i t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n with the southern god A t h t a r . As s t a t e d , A t h t a r i s thought to have o r i g i n a l l y f u n c t i o n e d as a f e r t i l i t y d e i t y , numen of the s p r i n g , i n keeping w i t h an a g r i c u l t u r a l community. With c l i m a t i c changes, however, the f e r t i l e f a r m l a n d s became d e s e r t w a s t e l a n d s , and the a n c i e n t Semites were f o r c e d to seek out t h e i r e x i s t e n c e elsewhere. With 2 5 1Qur'an 53.20. t h e i r d i s p e r s a l i n t o o u t r e a c h i n g areas, the d e i t y A t h t a r , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g some of h i s / h e r i d e n t i f y i n g q u a l i t i e s , n a t u r a l l y a d o p t e d new c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as r e q u i r e d by t h e c h a n g i n g s i t u a t i o n . Thus i t happened t h a t i n B a b y l o n i a , f o r example, Athtar ( I s h t a r ) , along with f e r t i l i t y , became i d e n t i f i e d s t r o n g l y with the p l a n e t Venus; i n P h o e n i c i a , A t h t a r / A s t a r t e may or may not have assumed t h i s i d e n t i t y , depending on d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that i n the n o r t h , A s t a r t e , u n l i k e I s h t a r , was not i d e n t i f i e d w i t h Venus; t h i s p l a n e t may have had l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the a n c i e n t s e t t l e r s whose needs were of a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . Only at some l a t e r time was t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t r i b u t e d to her, more, perhaps, as a symbol of her u n i v e r s a l i t y than as an immediate n e c e s s i t y . In A r a b i a , i . e . , South A r a b i a , Athtar became known i n the c a p a c i t y of the Venus d e i t y almost to the e x c l u s i o n of e v e r y t h i n g e l s e ; a r e s i d u a l t r a c e of h i s o l d days of f e r t i l i t y god c o u l d be found i n h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e v e n i n g s t a r , whereby he was the d e i t y o f l i f e - g i v i n g water (chapter t h r e e ) . Knowing t h i s d i v i n i t y A t h t a r to f i g u r e so p r o m i n e n t l y i n Near E a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s , her ( h i s ) absence i n northern A r a b i a i s e s p e c i a l l y p u z z l i n g c o n s i d e r i n g the importance of A t h t a r i n the south, and c o n s i d e r i n g the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the south w i t h the north v i a the caravan highway. We have seen evidence t h a t A t a r (Atar-Samain) was known i n the n o r t h ; i n f a c t , a l i s t of gods 9 8 worshipped by the Arabs at Adumantu (Duma) i s headed by A t a r . 2 5 2 I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , q u i t e d i f f i c u l t to imagine t h a t Atar-Samain d i s a p p e a r e d i n the n o r t h , e x c l u s i v e l y . Rather, there are many who m a i n t a i n t h a t A t a r - S a m a i n , V e n u s , was c a l l e d by t h e a p p e l l a t i o n s a l - I l a t , the goddess, and a l - U z z a , the Strong One. Starcky, one of the p r o t a g o n i s t s of t h i s theory, w r i t e s , "Venus, seems a l s o to have been d e s i g n a t e d by the a p p e l l a t i o n a l - I l a t , the Goddess...an a p p e l l a t i o n that was a f t e r w a r d widely accepted"; f u r t h e r on he s t a t e s that the L i h y a n i t e s venerated H a t (Venus) and " t h i s goddess f i r s t appeared under the name of Uzza, the very s t r o n g one." 2 5 3 S i m i l a r l y , Paton comments " In North A r a b i a the o r i g i n a l name of the goddess [ A s h t a r / A t h t a r ] was d i s p l a c e d by t i t l e s s u c h as a l - L a t , 'the g o d d e s s ' , o r a l - U z z a , ' t h e s t r o n g ' " . 2 5 4 He goes on to say that t h i s d e i t y , r e c o g n i z e d as the p l a n e t Venus, was c a l l e d al-Najm, 'the s t a r ' , par e x c e l l e n c e , and i s the goddess r e f e r r e d to i n the Qur'an: "By the s t a r when i t s e t t e t h . " 2 5 5 Consequently, a l - U z z a , the goddess supposedly to whom the Qur'an r e f e r s i n connection with 'the s t a r ' , i s r e a l l y a t i t l e of the anonymous As h t a r . Because the goddesses a l - U z z a and A l l a t were so adored i n the n o r t h , t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e t h e r e c o u l d have stemmed from an 2 5 2 S t a r c k y , " A r a b i a " . An i n s c r i p t i o n records that the k i n g of Duma invoked ^Atar-Sam'. 2 5 3 I b i d . 2 5 4 P a t o n , "Ishtar",. 2 5 5 S u r a 53.1 99 o r i g i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the i l l u s t r i o u s A s h t a r / A t h t a r . T h i s l a t t e r was most l i k e l y feminine as was I s h t a r and A s t a r t e , hence the feminine gender of a l - U z z a and A l l a t , her e p i t h e t s . 2 5 6 T h i s would e x p l a i n how the goddesses a l - U z z a and A l l a t were females yet the god whom they represented ( i n the south), was male. T h i s very a t t r a c t i v e theory e x p l a i n s the strong presence of a female Venus d e i t y i n North A r a b i a , v i z . a l - U z z a ; i n a d d i t i o n , i t c o r r e s p o n d s with Winnett's p r o p o s a l t h a t a l - U z z a and A l l a t o r i g i n a t e d i n the north, although not e s p e c i a l l y S i n a i or S y r i a ; f i n a l l y , i t p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r A l l a t ' s ready a s s i m i l a t i o n at Palmyra with A s t a r t e . One o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s t h e o r y i s t h a t i t g i v e s a new meaning or i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the w a r r i o r a s p e c t a t t r i b u t e d t o the g o d d e s s e s we have examined. As n o t e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e , A t h t a r ( A s h t a r ) , as t h e m o r n i n g s t a r , was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a w a r r i o r d e i t y ; i n c h a p t e r f i v e , D r i j v e r s r e f e r r e d t o a l - U z z a as "the m a r t i a l aspect of the A r a b i c Venus S t a r " 2 5 7 ; A l l a t , at Palmyra, was d e p i c t e d i n wa r r i o r garb. The goddesses A s t a r t e , A t a r g a t i s and I s h t a r , without much q u e s t i o n , were venerated, i n some r e s p e c t , as w a r r i o r goddesses. I f these d e i t i e s had connections with the p l a n e t Venus, whether a n c i e n t or recent, t h e i r function, as w a r r i o r s c o u l d be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of " b "This i s the gender i n a l l the Sem i t i c languages except South A r a b i c and Moabite, and t h e r e f o r e i s pr o b a b l y p r i m i t i v e . I t c o r r e s p o n d s with e a r l y S e m i t i c s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " Paton, "Ashtart ( A s h t o r e t h ) , A s t a r t e " . 2 5 7 D r i j v e r s , C u l t s and B e l i e f s a t Edessa, i 5 2 . 100 t h a t c o n n e c t i o n . In S e m i t i c a s t r a l t r i a d s , where Venus and the sun were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , i t was thought t h a t the r o l e of the Venus s t a r was to accompany the sun acr o s s the heavens s e r v i n g as m i l i t a r y e s c o r t and d i v i n e p r o t e c t o r ; hence the " m a r t i a l aspect" of Venus. Conceivably, t h i s d i v i n e prototype assumed the human f i g u r e o f the armed w a r r i o r i n e a r t h l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , then, of al-Uzza or A l l a t as w a r r i o r goddesses co u l d have a r i s e n from t h i s analogy. Whether the goddess Manat was i n any way a s s o c i a t e d with the p r i m i t i v e Ashtar remains unexplored judging from the s i l e n c e i n regard to her. There are q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e reasons f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t her p o s i t i o n i n the t r i a d , (Daughters), was as a n c i e n t as t h a t o f A l l a t and a l - U z z a , p o s s i b l y even stemming from an o r i g i n a l connection w i t h A s h t a r . One c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t , as a f e r t i l i t y d e i t y , she may have been w o r s h i p p e d a l o n g s i d e o f A s h t a r , or as some s p e c i a l aspect of that f e r t i l i t y d e i t y . We have p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e t h a t i n d i c a t e s she may have been an a g r i c u l t u r a l , and, t h e r e f o r e , a f e r t i l i t y d e i t y . Manat, then, l i k e t h e g o d d e s s e s A l l a t and a l - U z z a was an e a r l y S e m i t i c f e r t i l i t y d e i t y i n a s s o c i a t i o n with, or a r i s i n g out, of the c u l t of A s h tar. A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t Manat e v o l v e d o u t o f her o r i g i n a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the element ' f a t e ' , which was one a s p e c t of the mother-goddess A s h t a r . A c c o r d i n g t o a t h e o r y 101 p r o p o s e d by Langdon 2 5 8, f a t e was an i n t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a n c i e n t S e m i t i c mother-goddesses. The t i t l e minu, menu, " f a t e " , was used to address I s h t a r : "Goddess of the f a t e of r e f u s a l " and "Goddess of the f a t e of c o n s e n t " . 2 5 9 The Babylonian Menu appears as Meni i n Canaanite mythology i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the mother-g o d d e s s A s t a r t e . H i s c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t " t h i s m y t h o l o g y c o n c e r n i n g the B a b y l o n i a n mother-goddess and F o r t u n a , Tyche, Fate, i s common to the S e m i t i c r e l i g i o n s of a l l Western A s i a . " 2 6 0 The A r a b i a n goddess o f f a t e , t h e n , Manat, was o r i g i n a l l y an aspect of the p r i m i t i v e mother-goddess Ashtar; evidence of t h i s e a r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p between Fate and the mother-goddess can be f o u n d i n N o r t h A r a b i a where t h e m o t h e r - g o d d e s s A l l a t i s h a b i t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d as Tyche. Subsequently, Manat came to represent an i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i t y , her o r i g i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Ashtar having faded i n t o n o n e x i s t e n c e . 2 6 1 There i s one other simpler, but e q u a l l y p r o v o c a t i v e , theory, c o n c e r n i n g the i d e n t i t y of the Daughters of A l l a h , whose tenets have formed a steady undercurrent f o r t h i s t h e s i s . That theory i s t h a t , f o l l o w i n g a n c i e n t Near E a s t e r n t r a d i t i o n , t h e A r a b i a n goddesses evolved from t h e i r a n c e s t r a l Canaanite p r e d e c e s s o r s . A " BS.Langdon, "The Semitic Goddess of Fate, Fortuna-Tyche," Royal. A s i a t i c S o c i e t y , (Jan., 1930):21-29. 2 5 9 I b i d . , 2 6 . 2 5 0 I b i d . e p i t h e t s tend u s u a l l y to become proper names, t r u e p e r s o n a l i t y of the d e i t y . " T e i x i d o r , Pagan 2 6 1 " D i v i n e d i s g u i s i n g the God,37. 102 constant element of a n c i e n t pagan r e l i g i o n was the d i v i n e f a m i l y (husband/wife dichotomy) whose purpose was the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of sons and daughters; a f t e r a l l , f e r t i l i t y i n nature was the b a s i s f o r a l l r e l i g i o n . In the Canaanite pantheon, E l , the a n c e s t r a l d e i t y , with h i s w i f e E l a t (Asherah), were the o r i g i n a t o r s of a l l l i f e , and together produced a l a r g e f a m i l y of gods and goddesses. Taking i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the e l a s t i c i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t allows wives to become daughters and f a t h e r s , husbands e t c . , can we not p r o j e c t a p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n i n A r a b i a ? In r e f e r e n c e to a past argument, we proposed that the Arabian A l l a h was a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n of E l , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , A l l a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n of E l a t . Where E l a t f u n c t i o n e d as the wife of the 'high god' i n Canaan, i n the A r a b i a n pantheon she moved i n t o the p o s i t i o n o f d a u g h t e r ( A l l a t ) . C o n s i s t e n c y was never a p r o b l e m i n a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g y . A l l a h , l i k e E l , o c c u p i e d an a s c e n d e n t p o s i t i o n i n the b a c k g r o u n d , h i s i m p o r t a n c e b e i n g overshadowed by h i s wives/daughters. A l l a t , Manat, and a l - U z z a , as h i s d a u g h t e r s , were the most f a v o u r e d d e i t i e s , j u s t as A s t a r t e , Anat, and Elat/Asherah were i n Canaan, as long as pagan r e l i g i o n was based on f e r t i l i t y c u l t s . When n e c e s s a r y , the daughters acted as i n t e r c e s s o r s to the supreme d e i t y , A l l a h ( E l ) , when h i s a t t e n t i o n was r e q u i r e d . The Daughters of A l l a h , then, were t h e A r a b i a n p a r a l l e l o f t h e i r C a n a a n i t e p r e c u r s o r s f u n c t i o n i n g i n much the same c a p a c i t y as the p r i n c i p l e goddesses of the a n c i e n t Near East. T h e i r p o s i t i o n i n p r e - I s l a m i c A r a b i a n r e l i g i o n , c o n t i n u i n g the p a r a l l e l , was u n r i v a l l e d i n s p i t e of the 103 nominal 'high god' A l l a h , u n t i l the demise of paganism. In favour of t h i s theory, we have shown with c o n s i s t e n c y the p r e v a l e n c e of C a n a a n i t e r e l i g i o n t h r o u g h o u t A r a b i a : i n South A r a b i a where the worship of Asherah was prominent; i n most of the major t r a d i n g c e n t e r s ( " E l a t h " ) , where Canaanite d e i t i e s were worshipped a l o n g s i d e of indigenous ones; i n Palmyra where the t e m p l e o f B a a l was e r e c t e d on l a n d owned by A r a b t r i b e s s u g g e s t i n g a l o n g s t a n d i n g a f f i n i t y . I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the degree to which Canaanite r e l i g i o n was not only a c t i v e i n A r a b i a , but, as w e l l , r e p l e t e with d e i t i e s of c o n s i d e r a b l e resemblance to A r a b i a n d e i t i e s ( A l l a h / E l , A l l a t / E l a t , A t h t a r / B a ' a l ) , t h e r e i s much to recommend t h i s p r o p o s a l . Undoubtedly, the s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s t h e o r y i s e x t r e m e l y a p p e a l i n g . In such an u n c o n t r i v e d manner i t i d e n t i f i e s the Daughters i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , p e r f e c t l y s u i t e d t o S e m i t i c t r a d i t i o n and i n harmony w i t h the r e l i g i o u s h i s t o r y of the Near East. In summary, the Daughters of A l l a h would appear to have been worshipped i n A r a b i a from a very e a r l y date. They f a r exceeded i n importance a l l male d e i t i e s b e f o r e the r i s e of Islam, when A l l a h r e p l a c e d them. T h e i r o r i g i n s , v e r y l i k e l y , were as a g r i c u l t u r a l ( i . e . , f e r t i l i t y ) d e i t i e s but ceased from t h i s i n the face of major changes i n c l i m a t e t h a t s h i f t e d the emphasis i n worship from f e r t i l i t y to a s t r a l . R e l y i n g on A r a b i a n sources e x c l u s i v e l y , our c o n c l u s i o n s as t o t h e D a u g h t e r ' s i d e n t i t y would be c o n s i d e r a b l y c u r t a i l e d . Other than t h e i r names, we are g i v e n v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n 104 about t h e i r worship. There are some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t A l l a t was a sun goddess, p o s s i b l y a f e r t i l i t y / m o t h e r goddess; the frequency, however, of the i n s c r i p t i o n s naming her i n d i c a t e s her p o p u l a r i t y , a n d , t h e r e f o r e , h e r i m p o r t a n c e . A l - U z z a , f r o m her name e s p e c i a l l y , we assume was v e n e r a t e d as a Venus d e i t y and was popular mostly i n the no r t h . Manat i s very obscure. A s i d e from word d e r i v a t i v e s of her name, we have few c l u e s as to who she was. Palmyra, from where the e n t i r e a n c i e n t Near East opened up to us, was p i v o t a l to our r e s e a r c h . Unknown dimensions of the go d d e s s e s were d i s c o v e r e d h e r e . A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h A s t a r t e , A t a r g a t i s , I s h t a r l e d us to b e l i e v e t h a t the A r a b i a n goddesses were p a r t of a common Sem i t i c h e r i t a g e . The r e s u l t was that by i n c o r p o r a t i n g what we knew of the goddesses from A r a b i a n sources with what we knew of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the adj a c e n t r e g i o n s , new p o s s i b i l i t i e s emerged; that i s , where predominant f e a t u r e s of r e l i g i o u s l i f e were evident i n Canaan, Phoenicia/Canaan, S y r i a , and B a b y l o n i a , s i m i l a r f e a t u r e s were l i k e l y to have been known i n A r a b i a . On the assumption that a commonality of worship, based on a commonality of human needs, e x i s t e d i n the a n c i e n t Near E a s t , we p o s t u l a t e d v a r i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s f o r the A r a b i a n goddesses. 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